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Notices qfthe Press. 

Monthly Review. 

** This is a work remarkable for its compre- 
hensiveness and condensation — we must add 
for its philosophic solidity. At a first glance 
one might take it merely for a compendious 
chronology, but it is no such thing ; for while 
tte) author gives us the shortest possible account 
ofmany great events, such as battles, and ex- 
traordinary national vicissitudes, it is the 
causes and the results, political and social — 
the development and influence of civilization 

<^ This standard work forms the first number 
of another enterprising sneculation to supply 
the classes below the wealthy, and indeed the 
mass of the people, with solid literature at 
a low price, and m a compact form. The dis- 
tinguishing feature of the * Popular Library 
of Modem Authors,* is, however, to publish 
copyright editians, at a price but little if at 
all exceeding the more elegant reprints of old 
writers, so as to furnish the people with works 
before the gloss of novelty is worn off, or any 
of their matter is superseded or become ob- 
solete. An excellent plan, if it be carried out 
with spirit and discrimination; the first re- 
gard being had to the nature of the book and 
its probate demand, instead of the copyrights 
the publisher may have in his possession. 

" This proper judgment has been exercised 
in the choice of the first number ; for Koch's 
Revoluiions q/* Europe is not only a valuable 
work in itself, but one whose absence cannot 
r^ily be supplied; presenting, in a brief 
space, a compendious narrative of the events of 
European history fh>m the fifth century, as 
well as an investigation of the causes which 
produced them, and of the results to which 
Uiey gave rise. The manner of Koch is not, 
indeed, very animated, nor is his style distin- 
guished for grace or strength ; but history and 
its cognate studies was the employment of the 
Professor's life: he ia therefore thoroughly 
master of his subject ; his scholastic educa- 

— the rise and competitions of the several or- 
ders, religious, feudal, municipal, and com- 
mercial, which he delights to seek out, to 
describe, and to illustrate. All this be does 
like a master,— minute details and general 
principles being perfectly familiar to him. 
There is no attempt to shine, or to utter bril- 
liant things ; it is self-possession that distin- 
guishos the author ; compression and weight, 
Sie book." 

tion, and the practice of teaching, gave him 
the method and the clearness of arrangement 
whidi characterize the scholar ; the length of 
time indirectly or directly occupied upon the 
work, enabled him to reject subordinate mat- 
ters ; and his diction is lucid and often weighty 
from the massiness of the ideas. 

" The mode of execution varies, of course, 
with the nature of tl^e materials and the taste 
of the author ; but the general character of 
the work is rather to point out the effects cs{ 
events than to narr&te particular actions. A 
battle, a siege, and similar deeds, are ofteiA 
compressed in a sentence, with the brevity o> 
a chronological table ; but the rise of munici 
palities. for example, the liberation of tlu 
serfs, the great inventions of linen, paper 
printing, gunpowder, &c.. are narrated ai 
comparative length. Again, the origin anc' 
especially the results of the Crusades are 
dwelt upion ; but the exploits of the Crusaders 
are dismissed briefly. Although neither th^ 
merit of Koch nor the value of his work is tc 
be judged of piecemeal — for which exhibitior 
the Revolutions qf Europe is not at al 
adapted — ^we will take an extract as a spt^ 
cimen of his exhaustive manner, and the in 
formation he crowds into a small space. An 
we select the invention of gunpowder and tb 
raariner*8 compass, because they are inix>ortat 
discoveries, whose origin is yery much misa^ 
prehended in common compilations.** 





•«• -• • • • « 




With its Causes from the earliest Period, and its Consequences to the present Tihe< 
Translated from the last Paris Edition. 

"A writer equally admirable for eloquaooe and rewaroh."— IfoeteiJotA. 


With the History of his Struggle for the Independence of ScoUand. By John D. Carrick, Esq- 

New Edition. 

'*Tlie beft biitmy with which wo are aoqoaluted of thoie important events, which, under the aospioei of thai houii- 
patrigC, led to the le-establishmeat of Scottish iadependenee.' ''—JBdiMimrgh Lktrary JounuU. 


Being a Complete Acc^ij^t.of the Sufferings and Progress of ProtestSintism in France from the Before^' 
tion to the^^^jebt time. A New Edition with numerous Additions and Corrections. 


*« One ofthe ^ost iiftvoiting and valuable contributions to modern history.**— Omara»aii'« 

•;••/* bT-Pt;-<r-l^* mary queen of scots. 

.;•*.•*•.*• ;*••/•* V'fl^ Henry Glassford Bell, Esq. New Edition. 

*- The materill Oas^been collected with much industry, and arranged with great spirit.**— Xi/erary (kuelte. 

London : Printed by Wm. Cmwxs and Soxs, Stamfinrd-street. 
















•• • •*• • • • • 
•••. • •-•• > • ••• • 



The Vibw of thb Rbvolutions of Europe, by M. Koch, has been long known and highly 
esteemed on the Continent, as a work of incontestable merit, and entitled to hold the first 
rank among productions of its kind. It occupied the labours and researches of thirty years 
of the authoi^s life ; and had the benefit of receiving, at different intervals, several additions 
and improvements from his own hand. As a concise, luminous, and accurate summary of 
general history, it stands unrivalled. The principal events and vicissitudes of more Uian 
fourteen hundred years are here condensed within an incredibly small space ; bringing, as 
it were, under one view, the successive changes and destinies of Europe, from the fall of the 
Roman Empire, in the fifth century, to the restoration of the Bourbons in France. The 
countries which the different nations from time to time have occupied, — their laws and 
institutions— their progress from barbarism to refinement — the revival of arts and sciences — 
tlie origin of inventions and discoveries — and the wonderful revolutions, both moral and poli- 
tical, to which they gave birth, — are here detailed at once with brevity and perspicuity. The 
author has restricted himself as it were to the pure elements or essence of useful knowledge, 
discarding from his narrative every thing that did not minister to solid instruction. His 
book has been compared to a sort of chart or genealogical tree of history, where only the 
grand and prominent events have been recorded, striptof all their secondary and subordinate 
circumstances, which often distract the attention without adding in the least to the interest 
or elucidation of the subject. His researches have thrown a new light on some of the 
diflSculties and obscurities of the Middle Ages, particularly with regard to Chronology and 
Geography. His veracity and precision are unimpeachable; and, though his style has been 
thought inelegant, his candour, judgment, and erudition have never been called in question. 
Men of all parties and of opposite opinions, both in politics and religion, have united their 
suffrages in his praise. M. Fontanes, Grand Master of the University of Paris ; M. Levesque, 
Vice-President of the Class of Ancient History and Literature, and M. Dacier, Perpetual 
Secretary of the Third Class, in the Institute ; M. Fourcroy, Director-General of Public 
Instruction at Paris; M. Frederic Buchholz, of Berlin, who translated the Tableau into 
German ; and many others, have spoken of this book in terms of the highest commendation, 
and obtained it a place in most of the Universities, Schools, and Libraries on the Continent. 

The Revolutions, although an excellent digest of the history and policy of Europe, 
claims no higher merit than that of an elementary work. It was originally designed for the 
young entering on their political studies, and is an outline that must be filled up by sub- 
sequent reading, and from collateral sources. With regard to the present English edition, 
the Translator has only to say, that he has endeavoured to give a faithful transcript of his 
author, and as literal as the idiom of the two languages would admit. He has been more 
studious of fidelity to his original than elegance of style or novelty of expression. He has 
prefixed a short sketch of the author's life, abridged from two of his biographers, MM. 
Schcell and Weiss. 

The first Eight Periods bring down the History of Europe to the French Revolution, which 
is all that our author undertook, or rather lived to accomplish. The period from that event 
to the restoration of tlie Bourbons in 1815, has been continued by M. Schoell,* the editor 
of Koch's Works, and author of the History of the Treaties of Peace, &c. As the conti- 
nuation, however, differs a little in some points from the views of the original, and is not 
so full on others as might be wished, the Translator has introduced such additions and 
amendments as seemed necessary to complete what was deficient, according as nearly as 

♦ M. School has also interspersed a few explanatory paragraphs, which, in the present volume, the 
reader will find included within brackets [ ]. 


possible with the spirit and design of the author himself. These alterations, as well as thf 
authorities on which they have been made, will be found carefully marked. 


Christopher Wil^.iam Koch, equally distinguished as a lawyer and a learned historian, was 
born on the 9th of May, 1737, at Bouxwiller, a small town in the seigniory of Lichtenber^, 
in Alsace, which then belonged to the Prince of Hesse-Darmstadt. His father, who was a 
member of the Chamber of Finance under that prince, sent him to an excellent school io 
his native place, where he received the rudiments of his education. At the age of thirteeiL 
he went to the Protestant University of Strasburg, where he prosecuted his studies undrr 
the celebrated Schcepilin. Law was the profession to which he was destined ; but he showe: 
an early predilection for the study of history, and the sciences connected with it, such a 
Diplomatics, or the art of deciphering and verifying ancient writs and chartularies, Genf.: 
logy. Chronology, &c. Schcepflin was not slow to appreciate the rising merit of liis pupil 
and wished to make him the companion of his labours. He admitted him to his friendship, 
and became the means of establishing him as his successor in that famous political academy, 
which his reputation had formed at Strasburg. by attracting to that city the youth of th* 
first families, and from all parts of Europe. Koch devoted much of his time to the Ctnc 
Law, and soon gave a proof of the progress he had made in that branch of study, by tb 
Academical Dissertation which he published in 1761, under the title of Commentatio dt 
ColkUione dignitatum et beneflciorum ecclesiaxticorum in imperio Romano-Gemumico. T\i:- 
treatise was a prelude to his Commentary on the Pragmatic Sanction, which he published 
in 1789— a work which excited an extraordinary sensation in Catholic Germany, and pro 
cured the author the favourable notice of such prelates as were most eminent for leamiof 
and piety. 

After taking his academic degree, Koch repaired to Paris in 1762, where he staid a year: 
honoiured with the society of the most distinguished literati in the capital, and frequenting 
the royal library, wholly occupied in those researches which prepared him for the learns 
labours in which he afterwards engaged. On his return to StrasbiU'g, he wrote the cos- 
tinuation of the Historia Zaringo-BadenHs, of which the first volume only was drawn up I; 
Schcepflin. All the others were enth-ely the work of Koch, though they bear the name . 
the master who had charged him with the execution of this task. Schoepflin bequeathed : 
the city of Strasburg, in 1766, his valuable library and his cabinet of antiques, on conditiin; 
that Koch should be appointed keeper ; which he was, in effect, on the death of the testatu: 
in 1771. He obtained, at the same time, the title of professor, which authorized him 
deliver lectures ; for the chair of Schcepflin passed, according to the statutes of the Universin. 
to another professor,— a man of merit, but incapable of supplying his place as an instructs 
of youth in the study of the political sciences. The pupils of SchoBpflin were thus transfem^: 
to Koch, who became the head of that diplomatic school, which, for sixty years* gave to the 
public so great a number of ministers and statesmen. 

In 1779 the government of Hanover ofered him the chair of public German Law in tb* 
University of Gottingen, which he declined. Next year the Emperor Joseph II., who knc« 
well how to distinguish merit, complimented him with the dignity of Knight of the Empire, 
an intermediate title between that of baron and the sunple rank of noblesse. About xht 
same period|he obtained the chair of Public Law at Strasburg, which he held until tlo: 
university was suppressed at the French revolution. Towards the end of 1789, the Prc- 
testants of Alsace sent him as their envoy to Paris, to solicit from the King and the Constitu- 
tional Assembly the maintenance of their civil and religious rights, according to the faith i( 
former treaties. He succeeded in obtaining for them the decree of the 17th of August, 1791; 


which sanctioned these rights, and declared that the ecclesiastical benefices of the Protestants 
were not included amon^ those which the decree of the Ist of November, preceding, had 
planed at the disposal of the nation. The former decree was moreover extended and 
explained by an act, bearing date December 1, 1790. Both of these were approved and 
ratified by the king. 

Meantime, the terrors and turbulence of the revolution had dispersed from Strasburg 
that brilliant assemblage of youth, which the reputation of the professors, and the natural 
beauties of the place, had attracted from all quarters. These disastrous events interrupted 
the career of Koch, at a time when he was capable of rendering the most important services 
to his country. From that moment he devoted himself to public affairs. Being appointed a 
member of the first Legislative Assembly, he opposed the faction which convulsed the nation, 
and ultimately subverted the throne. When president of the committee of that assembly, 
he exerted himself for the maintenance of peace ; and in a report which he made in 1792, he 
foretold the calamities which would overwhelm France, if war should be declared against 
Austria. The republican faction, by their clamours, silenced the remonstrances of Koch, 
when, on the 20th of April, he spoke in opposition to a measure which proved so fatal to 
France. An official letter which he addressed, 10th of August, to the constituted authorities 
of the Lower Rhine, sufficiently expressed the horror with which that day's proceedings had 
inspired him* He procured, moreover, the concurrence of his fellow-citizens in a resistance, 
which he had then some reason to hope would be made a common cause by the other pro- 
vinces. This letter drew down upon him the persecution of the ruling party. He was im- 
mured in a prison, where he languished for eleven months, and from which he had no pro- 
spect of escape, except to mount the scaffold. The revolution of the 9th Thermidor restored 
him to liberty, when he was appointed, by the voice of his fellow-citizens, to the Directory 
of their provincial department. He endeavoured by all means in his power to defeat the 
measiu-es that were taken to injure his constituents ; and had influence enough, it is said, 
to prevent the sale of the funds belonging to manufactories and hospitals. He then resiuned 
with pleasure those functions which he had unwillingly accepted ; in 1795, he recommenced 
his professorship of public law, and returned with new zeal to his literary labours, which had 
been too long interrupted. Six years he spent in these useful occupations ; from which, how- 
ever, he was once more detached by a decree of the senate, which nominated him a member 
of the Tribunal. This nomination Koch accepted, in the hope of being useful to his Protestant 
countrymen, and to the city of Strasburg, in obtaining the re-establishment of the reformed 
religion, and its restoration in the university. He did, in effect, exert himself much in 
behalf of religion, according to the confession of Augsburg, as well as of the Protestant 
Academy at Strasburg, which was suppressed at this period. 

The Tribunal having been suppressed, Koch declined all places of trust or honour which 
were ofiBpred him ; and only requested permission to retire, that he might have a short interval 
for himself between business and the grave. A pension of 3000 francs was granted him, 
without any solicitation on his part. In 1808, he returned to Strasburg, where he con- 
tinued to devote himself to letters, and in administering to the public good. About the end of 
1810, the Grand-master of the University of France conferred on him the title of Honorary 
Rector of the Academy of Strasburg. His health, which had been prolonged by a life of 
great temperance and regularity and the peace which results from a good conscience, became 
disordered in 1812, when he fell into a state of languor, which terminated his life on the 25th 
of October 1813. His colleagues, the professors of Strasburg, erected to his memory a 
monument of white marble in the church of St. Thomas, near those of Schcepflin and 
Oberlin, which was executed by M. Ohnmacht, an eminent sculptor in Strasburg. One of 
his biographers has pronounced the following eulogium on Koch : — ** A noble regard for 
justice and truth, a penetration beyond common, a diligence unrivalled in historical 
researches, a remarkable talent in arranging and illustrating his subject, an incorruptible 
integrity of principle, and unclouded serenity of mind, with a zealous desire of rendering 
his researches, his information, and activity useful to his species — these were the prominent 
features of the mind and character of this amiable man." In addition to this, it has been 
remarked, that although professor Koch had not the art of a graceful or even a fluent elocu- 


tion, no man ever possessed in a higher degree the talents and qualifications of a pubiie 
instructor. like Socrates, he had a manner peculiar to himself. He was not so much i 
teacher of sciences, as of the means of acquiring them. He could inspire his scholars with i 
taste for labour, and knew how to call forth their several powers and dispositions. Thoogii 
a man of the most domestic habits, and a lover of children* Koch never married. 

Two lives of this celebrated professor have been written by foreigners. The one n by M. 
Schweighseuser, junior, a professor at Strasbourg ; and the other is prefixed to the nev 
edition of the Histoire des TraitSs de Paix, by M . Schoell, the editor and continuator d 
several of our author s works. This latter biographer has accompanied his sketch with i 
descriptive catalogue of all Koch's works, the principal of which are the following:-! 
TabUi Ginialogtque* des MaUons Souveraines du Midi et de VOueit de V Europe, Z Sanctk 
Pragmatica Germanorum iUuetraia, 3. Abrigi de PHUtaire des TraitSe de Pdx entre k 
Puissances de FEurope. A new edition of this work appeared in 1818, enlarged and codq- 
nued by M. Schoell down to the Congress of Vienna and the Treaty of Paris^ 1815. 4. Talk 
des Traitis entre la France et les Puissances Etrangeres, depuis la Paix de Westphaiie, ^ 
5. Tableau des Rivolutions de I' Europe, 4y. 6. Tables Ginialogiques des Matstms Smt 
raines de fEst et du Nord de V Europe, This work was published, after the author's death, bj 
M. Schoell. Besides these, Koch left various manuscripts, containing memoirs of his or. 
life, and several valuable papers on the ancient ecclesiastical history and literature of bi 
native province. 



The work here presented to the public is a summary of the Revolutions, both general aixi 
particular, which have happened in Europe since the extinction of the Roman Empire in tk 
fifth century. As an elementary book, it will be found useful to those who wish to have a conciic 
and general view of the successive revolutions that have changed the aspect of states d 
kingdoms, and given birth to the existing policy and established order of society in moden 

Without some preliminary acquaintance with the annals of these revolutions, we ^ 
neither study the history of our own country to advantage, nor appreciate the influent 
which the different states, formed from the wreck of the ancient Roman Empire, reciprf; 
cally exercised on each other. Allied as it were by the geographical position of their te^i 
tories, by a conformity in their religion, language, and manners, these states, in course ^ 
time, contracted new attachments in the ties of mutual interests, which the progress ^ 
civilisation, commerce, and industry, tended more and more to cement and confirm. M^- 
of them, whom fortune had elevated to the summit of power and prosperity, carried tbei^ 
laws, their arts, and institutions, both civil and military, far beyond the limits of their o«^ 
dominions. The extensive sway which the Romish hierarchy held for nearly a thousaa^ 
years over the gieater part of the European kingdoms, is well known to every reader * 

This continuity of intercourse and relationship among the powers of Europe became tbj 
means of forming them into a kind of republican system ; it gave birth to national law ^ 
conventional rights, founded on the agreement of treaties, and the usages of common ^^'^ 
tice. A laudable emulation sprang up among contemporary states. Their jealousies, ^ 
even their competitions and divisions, contributed to the progress of civilisation, and tb^ 
attainment of that high state of perfection to which all human sciences and institutions ba^ 
been carried by the nations of modem Europe. 

It is these political connexions, this reciprocal influence of kingdoms and their revolt 
tions, and especially the varieties of system which Europe has experienced in the lapse of ^ 


many ages, that require to be developed in a general view, such as that which professes to 
be the object of the present Work. 

The author has here remodelled his "View of the Revolutions of the" Middle Ages" 
(published in 1790), and extended or abridged the different periods according to circum- 
stances. In continuing this work down to the present time, he has deemed it necessary to 
conclude at the French Revolution ; as the numerous results of that great event are too 
much involved in uncertainty to be clearly or impartially exhibited by contemporary 

The Work is divided into eight Periods of time,t according with the principal revolutions 
which have changed, in succession, the political state of Europe. At the head of each period 
is placed either the designation of its particular revolution, or that of the power or empire 
which held the ascendancy at the time. In limiting his treatise solely to the revolutions of 
Europe, the writer has not touched upon those of Asia and the East, except in so far as they 
have had an immediate influence on the destinies of Europe. Conscious also that the dis- 
tinguishing characteristic of an historian is veracity, and tiiat the testimony of a writer who 
has not himself been an eyewitness of the events he records cannot be relied on with implicit 
confidence, the author has imposed on himself the invariable rule of citing, with scrupulous 
care, the principal authorities and vouchers, of each period and country, that have guided 
him, during his researches, in selecting and examining his materials by the torch of patient 
criticism. Without this labour and precaution, the Work would have been of no avail aa an 
elementary help to those who were desirous of acquiring a more minute and solid knowledge 
of history. 

* In the edition of 1823, from which the present translation is made, thei Tableau has been conti- 
nued by the Editor, M. Schoell, down to the 20th Noyember 1815.-— T. 
t Nine in the last editions, Including the continuation. 





TKAXiLATOft*! Fftxr ACS • iii 

Ijnaw M.KooH iv 


iKTBODUcnoM :— U«e of hittonr, 1. Archives and reooids, 
9. Geomphy. 9. Genealoijii't, 9. Chronology, a Age 
of the World. 4. The Mouic or Sacred history. 4. JaHan 
year, 4. Gregorian calendar, 4. Rerormed year or 
calendar. 4. Old and new style, 4. Birth of our Savfonr 
and ChrlsUan era. 5. Enochs or eras in ancient and 
modern computation of time, 5. Hegira or flight of 
ICahomet, 6. Vnlgar or Dbnysian era, 6. Era need 
in Spanish and Portuguese records. 9. Julian period, 
aceording to Scaliger. 6. Cycle of the snn, 6. Lnnar 
cycle. 6. Cycle uf indictions, 6. Historr. how divided 
and classliled, 6. Universal hutory, 7- The middle a^es, 
7. The ancient historians, 7. Astronomical science origi- 
nated in Chaldea,?' Phonicians the flrst navigators, 7> 
Early history of Europe unkoowo. ?• Early monarchies, 

7. Vestiges of the Egyptian civilisation and power, 7. 
Antiquities of the sUtes of Assyria and Babylon, 7. Tra- 
ditions thereof unsupported by Herodotus. 7. The only 
certain account cX the conquests of Shalmaneser and 
Nebuchadnezzar to be found in the Scriptures, 7. Per- 
sian monarchy founded by Cyras, 7. Petty kingdoms 
of Greece, 8. Powerful republics of Athens and Lacedas- 
mon, 8. Military prowess, bve of liberty, learning, art 
and sciences of the Greeks, 8. Philip. Ring of Macedon, 

8. Conquests of Alexander the Great, 8. Kingdoms 
established at his death. 8. Egynt and Syria, 8. Kings 
of Rome, 8. History of the xepublic of Rome, 8. Roman 
historians. 8. The Carthaginian power. 8. The Punic 
wars, or contest of Rome and Carthage, 8. Destruction of 
Carthage, 9. No vestiges, monuments, or public records, 
of that maritime city, now exUnt, 9. Pompey. Cmar, 
and Crasstts, 9. Destructive ambition of Julius Csesar, 9. 
Fall of the Commonwealth of Rome, 9. Death of Catsar. 

9. Triumvirate of Octavianus, Antouy, and I^pidus. 9. 
Death of Marc Antony, in Egypt, 9. Roman Empire 
foundeil by Augustus or Octavianus, 9. Extent and popu- 
lation of the Roman Empire, 9. Conouests ofTnuan,9. 
The Roman Senate loses all real authority under Tibe- 
rius, Caligula, Nero, and Domitian, 9. Reigns of the 
emperors Titua, and tlie Antooines, 9. ConsUntine the 
Great establishes the Christian religion, 10. He transfers 
the seat of em(dre to Byzantium, thereafter named Con- 
stanlioople. 10. Division of the Roman Empire by the 
will of Theodosius the Great, 10. Honorius Emperor of 
the West or Rome, 10. Areadius Emperor of the East or 
Constantinople, known as the Greek Empire, 10. Origin 
of the papal power at Rome, 10. Mahomet founds a new 
religion and an empire. 10. Kingdoms of the Franks and 
northern barbarians, 10. The Normans, Russians, and 
Hungarians, &c., establish monarchies, 10. Germany 
becomes a paramount state and sovereignty, 10. Rise of 
the Hoiueof Capet, 10. Norman conquests. 10. Domi- 
nation of the Popes, 10. Restoration of Roman juris- 
prudence, 10. Italian republics, 10. Mogul Empire in 
the East. 10. Magna Charta and Englitii Liberty, 10. 
The Inquisition, 10. The Turks under Mahomet II. con- 

Saer the Greek or liower Empire, 10. Fall of Constan- 
nople, 10. Restoration of learning in the West, 10. Re- 
newal of commerce, 10. Revival of the belUi lettrei, 10. 
The reformation. 10. Discovery of America, 10. Reli- 
gions wars, 10. Political system of Europe. 10. Federal 
svstem, 10. Peace of Utrecht. 10. Libertine and im- 
pious philosophy. 10. Revolutionary epoch, 10. 

From th$ /neajfen qf tkt Romam Emgkre U tke fTest ^ 
the Bflridrtoa*. to tho Hme of Ckarlemagme. Att 

A.D. '*** 

800 BarlMrian nations invading the Western Empire 

of Rome, enumerated 11 

300—375 The Goths embrace Christianity 1 

300—400 ConfederacyoT the Franks 

300 Confederacy of the Alemannl k 

900 The Saxons and Angles }• 

375 The Huns invade Earope 

419 AtaulphusKingoftheVUlgoths i- 

418 Conquests of the Bnrgundians -- 

ConquesU of the Alemannl and Suevl h 

430 Clodjon founds the kingdom of the Pnnka at 

Cambrai •••••*, .****. * 

451 Attila defeated by iEtius, in which obstinate battle 

Theodoric King of the Visigoths, the ally of the 

Romans, is slain V""- 

486 Ctovis defeaU Syagrius and the Romana at 

Soiseons •...-... 

496 Clovis defeats the Alemanm at Tolblac near 

Cologne - " 

496 Heembraces Christianity 

607 He defeaU the Visigoths at Vouillfe. . ............ 

534 The descendanU of Clovis conquer the kingdum 

of Burgundy 

409 The Vandals conquer Spain .................... 

415—584 The Visigoths establish their dominion in 

Spain and in Africa j 

497 Genseric the Vandal subdnee the Romans in Africa 
455 The Vandals pillage Rome .... ... ........ • • ;— • 

534 Belisarius overturns the Vandal kingdom In Africa 

410 The Romans retire fhim Britain 

450—827 The heptarchy of the Anglo-Saxons 

897 Eicbert crowned King of England 

476 Augustulus, the last Roman emperor, is dethroned 

by Odoacer « • • » • • • • • « • • • 

489 Odoacer put to death at Ravenna by Theodoric 

the Ostrogoth 

547 Todla takes Rome 

569 DeathofTotiU •• j* 

553 Narses defeata Teias the last king of the Ostrogoths 

568 The Lombards invade Italy 

579 Pavia taken by king Alboinus 

572 On the state of Germany . . 
400—600 The Slavl establish 

themselves along the 


Fiefs of Germany 

Customs of the Germans 

Laws of the Germans 

1 nfluence of the Christian religion 

The Latbi language used by the dergy 

languages that are derived ftom it 

678 Pepin d'Heristal. Kingdoms of Austrasia and 

Neustria ; 

733 Charles Martel defeata the Saracen invaders^ 

under Abdalrahman of Cordova 17, 

736 The Iconoclasts. Religious dissensions of the 

Eastern or Greek empire v :*" '^ f" 

730 Roman republic tomporarfly revived in the ponti- 
ficate of Greirory II 

751 Astolphus the Lombard king seizes Ravenna 

Ravenna ceded by king Pepin to the Roman ponUiT 

699 The hegira of Mahomet • 

713 The Saracens conquer Spain ................... 

739 Alphonso I. establishes the kingdom of Oviedo or 
Asturias (subsequently of I^son) 


L.1>. VAM 

800—900 DiTUioo of the caliphata of the SiMceni ... 19 

Litentare and icienoe of the Arabiaat 19, 90 

Commerce of AnbU and India 90 


Fnm CharUmagM to Otko the OreaL A.D. 800—969. 

708 Aocenion of Charles the Great or Charlemagne. . 90 

800 Fall of the Lombard kii^om 90 

Fall of the new Roman repablie, and of the exar- 
chate of Ravenna 90 

800 Charlec the Great crowned emperor of the Romans 

bvPopeLeoIII 91 

800—900 State of learoing. Foondatbn of schools.... 91 

8S7 Egbert King of GnsUnd 99 

814 Successors of ChanemaKne 99 

843 Louis the Bavarian, King of Germany 99 

84.^ Treaty of Verdun 92 

844—877 Reign of Charles the Bald. King of France . . 92 
The romance idiom was the origin of the French 

language ••«......•.■...>.......•■.••• 92 

888 Emphe of the West is separated into the King- 
doms of France, Germany, Lorraine, Burgundy. 

Navarre.and of Italy 22 

888 — ^999 Reign of Charles the Simple 23 

Affairs of Germany and of the duchy of Lorraine . . 93 

879 Hoson founder of the Kingdom of Burgundy 93 

930 Rodolph King of Burgundy 93 

838 Kingdom of Navarre 23 

Feodal institutions of the Franks and Germans . . 23 

Power of military chieb, and of the nobles 24 

Terrilorial partitions 94 

803 Irruption of th« Normans 94 

Their superstitions 95 

Their piracies and sea-kings 95 

Their conquests 95 

Their invasion of Ireland 95 

874 Normans found a republic in Iceland 95 

913 Rollo.or Robert, Duke of Normandy 95 

89S Hungarian conquests 96 

Danish invasions of England S6 

873 Reign of Alf^d the Great 96 

Norman navigators, and maritime discoveries .... 96 


From 00u> th$ Oreat to Oregory the OrtaL A.D. 969-1074. 

843 — ^963 Civil institutions of the German monarchy . . 97 

919 Henrv I. surnamed the Fowler '... 97 

964 Otho I. Emperor of Germany, conquers Italy 97 

996 Anarchy in Italy. John XII. Pope 38 

963—1508 The elective kings of Germanv constituted 
emperors by the ceremony of a triple coronation 

at Rome 98 

Margmviates of Brandenburg. Misnia and Lusatia 99 

State of the church in Germany 39 

1033 Kingdom of Burgundy, or Aries, united to the Ger- 
man crown, by the Franconian dynasty 39 

Power of the Counts of Provence, Champagne, 
Savoy, the Dauphin and other herediury feuda- 
tories 89 

Conrad, Duke of Zahrlngen, R^ent of Burgundy • 39 
.100—1191 The Dukes of Tahringen govern Switser^ 

Und 39 

.043 Treaty between tite Emperor Henry III., and 

Samuel Aba King of Hungury 89 

Extent of Henry lll.'s dominions, or German 

Empire 29 

i046 Paramonnt authority of the German emperors. ... 39 

Temporal system of the popes 90 

Decline of the empemr's authority 80 

,050— i 100 Fiefs of the empire become he^^ditary 30 

Imperial and prefeetorial cities 30 

Bishops acquire temporal power in Germany 90 

Decline of the imperial authority under the sae- 

cessors of Otho the Great SI 

.097 Ommiade dynasty in Spain overthrown 31 

The Caliph Haidiem , of Cordova, dethroned 81 

Rise of petty Mahometan kingdoms on the ruins 

of the caliphate of the Wf St 31 

The Spanish princes obtain kingdoms on the de- 
cline of the Moorish power 31 

035—1519 Sancho the Great. King of Navarre ; his de- 

BcendanU ending with Jean d' Albret 31 


1474 Ferdinand of Arragon and Isabella of Castille 
unite their kingdoms in one monarchy, and ex- 

pel the Moors ftom Spain 31 

967 Hugh Capet establishes a new dynasty in Prance. 31 

1017 Canute the Great, Danish monarch of England. . . 32 

1066 William the Conqueror defeats Harold II 39 

1033—1080 Taucred, and his sons Robert and Roger, 

(Normans) conquer a part of Italy, and fiicily . 89 

1000—1014 The North of Europe receives Christianity. Si 
1098—1035 Sweyn IL King of Norway, and Hardica- 

nute Ring of Denmark 38 

Religion, customs, and government of Bohemia . . 3S 

ThePiasts, a Polish dynasty 34 

906—988 Christianity introduced into Poland and 

Russia 84 

988 Vladimir the Great espouses the Greek Prinoess 

Anne Romanowna 34 

City of Kifjw. capital of the Russian Grand Dukes 34 

1015 Jaroslaus. Russian lawgiver : 84 

1031 Henry I. of Franoe espouses Anne daughter of 

Jaroslaus 34 

Christianity introduced into H ungary 34 « 

973 Stephen I., king, lawgiver, and apostle of the Hun- 
garians 34 

Political institutions and territorial divisions of 

Hungary 84 

Superstition of the Bysantine Greeks 34 

1000 Sects and schisms of the Greek church 34 

Schism and breach between the churclies of Con- 

stantinople and Rome 84 

Huns, Avars, and other barbarians, also the Per- 
sians and Russians, harass the Eastern Empire 35 
est— 71S Arabs conquer Sicily, and besiege Constan- 
tinople 35 

The Lombards, Normans, Arabs, and Turks seise 

on its provinces 35 

070—774 Lombard kingdom of Ital^ 35 

The Greek fire or Feu Gregeois 35 

7M Leo the Isaurian, Emperor of Constantinople.... 35 

70S— 1000 The Se\juk Turks conquer Asia Minor 35 

1000 Norman conquests in luly 35 

900 The Turks, of Scythian origin, obtain authority in 

the Caliphate of Bagdad 35 

Institution of Emirs of Se\}uckians and Arabians. . 35 
tts Rapdi, Emir-al-Omrah, or commander of com- 
manders 39 

915 The Bowides or Great Emirs 35 

Downfal of the Arabian caliphate 35 

1038—1037 Togrulbeg Emir-al-Omrah 35 

1071 Alp-Arslao takes the Greek Emperor Romanus 

prisoner 35 

Turkish conquests in the East 35 

1079 Malek Shak, Seljuckian Sultan 35 

Is named Commander of the Faithful 86 

1092 Death of Malek and partition of his dominions into 

the states of Iran. Kerman, and Boum 36 

1159 Caliphs of Bagdad restored 86 


Prom Pope Oregory VIL to Bottifaee VIII, A.D. 1074 
to 13ii0. 

107»— 1300 Snpremaev of the Roman pontifls 86 

low Pope Nicholas II. Ibrms an alliance with Robert 

UuiscHxd the Norman 36 

1061 Influence of Cardinal Uildebrand in the election 

of Pope Alexander II 36 

logr* Hildebrand obtains the tiara under the appellation 

of Gregory VII 36 

1000— 1100 Rome subfect to the German potentate 36 

1979 Investiture of the ring and crosier 36 

1074 Gregory VII. forbids the exercise of the secular 

right of faivesiiture 37 

He proclaims himself independent of temporal 

authority 37 

1074 He renews the law of clerical celibacy 37 

The False Decretals forged by Isidore 37 

1079 Gregory VII. exacts canonical obedience, fealty 

and nomage to Rome 37 

Roval rights of St. Peter 37 

Riffht to convoke general Councils 37 

Piivileijes and power of legates 38 

Gregory supreme head of Ae churoh. oonstitntes 

himself the arbiter of temporal princes 38 

1076 He summons the emperor Hen^ IV. to appear 

at Rome 88 





1076 That emperor and the German bishops pronounoe 

the depotiition of the pope, at Worms 88 

Oreffory Vll. excommunicates and deposes Henry 

IV .V. 38 

He absolves tbe emperor after a penance 88 

1080 New papal sentence fulminated against Henry IV. 38 
GreKorv VII.'s address to Philip I. of France .... 39 
1076— 1080 He claims a jurisdiction orer Solomon 
King of Hungary, Sueno of Denmark and other 

princes 39 

His scheme of an universal domination 39 

1086-1088 His successors Victor III. and Urban II. 

maintain the obiect of a papal supremacy 39 

Contest between the emperors of Germany and the 

popes 99 

Rise of the G nelph, or imperial, and the Ohibelline, 

or papal, factions 89 

1129 Bmperor Heniy V. cedes the right of investiture 

to Calixtns If., at Worms 40 

Decay ofthe German Empire 40 

1196 Innocent III. assumes the temporal government 

oftheeltyof Rome 40 

The ecelesiastioal states 40 

Patrimony of the Countess MatQda ceded by Fre- 
deric II. to Pope Honorins III 40 

Mnltiplication of relisious orders 40 

The Benedictine Order 40 

817 Rule of St Benedict prescribed at the Council of 

Aix-la-Chapelle 40 

1000—1100 Tbe Cartbnsiaus and the Order of St. An- 
thony 40 

1198 Innocent III. esUblisbos tbe Mendicant Orders. . 40 
1971 Gregory X., at the Council of Lyons, reduces the 

Fnars to ftmr orders 40 

The Monks employed as legates and as missioa- 

aries 40 

1196—1916 Character and ambition of Innocent III. . . 41 
He appoints lesates k latere to preside over the 

collation to all ecclesiastical preferments 41 

Provisional mandates, and reversions to benefices. 41 

1265 Reservations instituted by Clement IV 41 

The Crusades or Holy Wars 41 

1075 Pilgrims to Jerusalem oppressed by the Seljuckian 

Turks 42 

1075 Council of Clermont convoked 43 

1096 Urban 1 1, preaches the first crusade in the assem- 
bly at Clermont 48 

Peter the Hermit excites the Christian princes and 
barons to take the cross 49 

1096 Godfrey of Bouillon and Baldwin lead the crusaders 

through Hungary and Bulgaria 49 

Hugh of Vermanduis, Robert of Normandy. Ste- 
phen of Blois, and Robert Count of Flanders, 

proceed through Italy 4S 

Raymond Count of Toulouse, and other crusaders, 
take the route of Dalmatia 49 

1097 They Uke Nice in Asia Minor, and defeat the 

Turks in Bithynia 49 

1098 Crusaders take Antioch 49 

1099 They take Jerusalem from the Caliph of Egypt. . . 48 
109'j — 1197 Kingdom of Jerusalem established under 

Godfrey of Bouillon 49 

1099-1144 CounU of Bdessa 49 

1 1 00—1 188 Princes of AnUoch and Counts of Tripoli ... 49 
1968—1989 The Mamelukes reconquer those domi- 
nions 48 

1 191 Richard Coaur de lAon conquers Cyprus 43 

1 191—1487 Guy de Lusignan ana his descendants. Kings 

of Cyprus 43 

1147 The Bmperor Conrad III. and Louis VII. under- 
take a second crusade 43 

1189 Saladin and the Saracens take Jerusalem 43 

1189 The Bmperor Frederic Barborossa. Philip Augus- 
tus, and Richard Coenr de Lion, join in the third 

crusade 43 

1909 Innocent III. instigates to a Iburth crusade 43 

1303 Conquest of Constantinople by the Latins 43 

1917 Andrew, King of Hungary, in obedience to the de- 
crees of the Councu of Lateran, leads a fifth 

crusade 43 

1998 The Emperor Frederic II. regains Jerusalemia the 

sixth crusade : 43 

1944 The Charixmian Tnrks pillage and burn the Holy 

City :..... : 43 

1949 Louis IX. conducts the seventh crusade to the 

Nile, and takes Damietta 43 

1950 He is defeated and taken prisoner at Mansoura. . . 43 
1991 The Mamelukes take Tyre and Ptolemais 43 

The aggrandisement of papal power a resnlt of th* 

Eastern crusades • 

Crusades directed asainst the Moor^ th« Saaraai- 

ans, and other inndels i 

Also arainst Christian piiaces who disavowed 

papal supremacv 4 

And against the Waldenses. Allngenaea, and Has- 

sites ^ 

Gbusequenoes ofthe crusades ou the political coof- 

tion of Germany, Italy, Hungary, and England. « 
Tliey increased the power of the French mooarcli«. « 
And were the origin of armorial bearings and he- 
raldry , • • 

Surnames brought into modem nse. . • . * 

Origin of jousts and tournaments. ^ 

1100 Institntton of the Religious Military Orders 1 

Order of St. John of Jerusalem *\ 

The Knights HosplUllers ^ 

1810 They esUbllsh themselves in Cypima, and conqwr 


1530 Emperor Charles V. granU Malta to the KnigLit 

of St. John, or Rnignts of Malta. 

1119 Order of KnighU Templars 

1190—1192 The Teutonic KnighU of St. Mary of Jera 


1309 Their history, and conquest of Pnassia 

1&98 Albert de Brandenbevg, Grand Master of the T«s- 

tonic Order 

1900—1300 Various milltaxr and religious onlersin in; 

tation of the precedfns 

Institutions of chivalry m the fendal agea • 

Learning fostered by the caliphs 

Magnificence and literature of Constantinople 

Commerce of Venice, Genoa, and Pisa 

1941 Commerce of Hamburg and Lubec 

Origin of the Hansoatic League. , 

1900^1300 State of European society 

The peasantry serfii, and not possessing tbe righn 

of citizens 

Communes or free oorporatiuns 

Italian republics of Naples, Genoa, Venice, Fhu. 

and Amalfi 

1108 Louis le Gros grants constitutional eharters to di- 
vers cities 

1190 Barons emancipate the aerft for a pecuniary eoa 


Increase of municipalities 

1993 The citixens obliged to military service in Ptmace 

under Louis VI 1 1 

1106 Municipal charters in Germany, under the Emp^ 

ror Henry V 

The principle of the wealth of nations recognised . 
1965 The Commons called to Parliament under Hean 

in. of England '. 

1803 Philip le Bel convokes the States of Prance 

1998—1303 Dispute of Philip with Boniface VIII 

1349 Edward III. calls two Houses of Parliament,— tb 

barons, and knights ofthe shires and burge«ae$. 

1309 Fir>t German Diet held at Spire, under the Kmft- 

ror Henry VII 

1344 Diet of Frankfort 

Corporate liodies and municipalities 

Enfranchisement of serfs progressive ............ 

Feuds of Uie Italian republics 

1180—1315 Louis Vll. and Louis X. grant fkeedom lo 

the French peasantry 

Enfranchisement takes place in Germany ( 

Henry U., Duke of Brabant, grants fteertom to t^ 

cultivators ofthe soil , 

Roman jurisprudence extended throughout th« 

kingdoms of the West , 

Principles of civilisation, liberty and good goverir 

ment , 

Code of Justinian tausht at Bologna 

The Canon Law established by the Roman pontiffs. 

1145 Eugenius HI. encourages Gratian in the oomptla- 

tion of canons, known as tbe Decretals of the 


1159 He gives the Decretals his sanction 

Tribonian's Institutes of Justinian* or code of the 

Roman law 

1985 Gregory IK. publishes another ooUection of Decrr- 

jresory 1 

These strengthen the papal authority II.., 

And have a salutary influence on society 

The Peace or Truce of God, explained 

The Judgments of God and Ordeals abolished •. .. 
The feudal law reduced to order and system 



Profenionofthekwftadied 48 

VniTenitin founded ia Earope 48 

1lhetoric«l •ladies, and Kienoei 48 

1 153 Degrees conferred on students of the Canon law . . 48 
1158 Habita of llie Em|>eror Frederic Barbarossa confer 

privileges on universities 48 

Extinction of the House of Hohenstaufen 49 

1950 The Grand Interregnum, a period of anarchy in 

Oennany 49 

1253 The Hanseatic LMgue 49 

1273 Bodolph of Hapsburg, Emperor of Oermany 49 

1180 The Goelphs deprived of the duchies of Bavaria 

and Saxony 49 

Proscription of Heniy the Lion 49 

Qty of Ratisbon declared immediate, or holding of 

the crown 49 

1180 Bernard, son of the margrave of Brandenburg, In- 
vested with the duchy of Saxony 49 

Saabia and Franconia 49 

1946 Succession of the duchy of Austria 50 

1256 Richard of Cornwall, emperor 50 

V25\ Ottucar II. King of Bohemia 50 

1258 Is slain by the Emperor Rodolph at the battle of 

Marehfield 50 

1106—1138 Italian republics reoognise the German em- 
peror as their supreme head, but claim sovereign 

power for themselves 60 

1158 Frederic Barbarossa claims the kingdom of lUly . 50 

1168 He rases the dty of Milan 50 

llfi? League of the cities of Lombardy 50 

1918 Frederlo II. renews the war in Italy 50 

1226 Be is opposed by Gregory IX. and the League of 

Lombanly 60 

Factions of the Guelphs and Uhibellines in Italy . 60 

The lulian municipalities lose their liberty 60 

The institution of Podesta in several Italian states. 60 
llie Podestas, or captains, arrogate sovereign power 

over their cities 51 

Commerce of Venice and Genoa 51 

en Doge of Venice. Institution of that magistrate 51 

Historv of Venice 51 

Hereditary aristocracy of that republic 51 

HUtory of Genoa 51 

Account of the republic of Pisa 59 

Norman chiefs acquire a portion of ItiUy 58 

1197 Roger, sovereign of Sicily ..., , 52 

1130 Anae^etnell., anti-pope 52 

1166 William IL, King of Naples and SicUy 58 

Account of the House of Hohenstaufen 62 

1 189 Marriage of the Emperor Heury IV. with Constance 

of N aples 58 

1189 The usurper Tancred 58 

1958 If aittfroi usurps the kingdom of the Two Sicilies. . 53 
1966 Clement IV. Invests Charles uf AiOoii with the 

kingdom of Naples 1^ 

1266 Mainlxol slain in the battle of Bene ventum 68 

1968 Conradin heir to the crown of Naples, and Frederic 

of Austria, beheaded 68 

Michael Paleologus expels the Latins from Con- 
stantinople 58 

1989 The Sicilian Vespers, massacre of the French .... 58 

1S88 Peter III. of Arragon crowned in Sicily 53 

Conquests of Moorish kingdoms in Spain by the 

Kings of Arragon and Castile 53 

1234 Count of Champagne acquires the kingdom of Na- 

varre in right of Blanche, daughter of Sancho VI. 53 
1974 Philip I. of France acquires Navarre and Cham- 
pagne by his marriage with Joan, daughter of 

Henry I.ofNavarro 53 

1336 Joan, daughter of Louis le Hutin, transfers the 
kingdom of Navarre to the Count of EvreuXtre- 
liuouishing Champagne and Brio to Philip of 

1338 Philip of Valois succeeds Charles the Fair on the 

French throne 63 

1137 Raymond, Count of Bareekina, becomes King of 

Arragon, by his marriage with Petronilla 63 

1904 His grandson, Pedro II., does homage to Innocent 

III. .7 53 

1930 James I. of Arragon conquers the Balearic Islands 

andthe kingdom of Vale ntia 63 

1376 Dispute of Pope Martin IV. with Pedtu III. of Ar- 
ragon 63 

10H5 Alphonso VI. of Castile (i.e. Alphonso I.) con- 
quers the kingdom of Toledo 53 

Ahoubeker, Commander of the Faithftal, expels the 

Zeirides firom Africa 63 

1069 His son Yousuff builds the city of Morocco 53 


1180 Abdalmoumen fbnnds the dynasty of the Almo- 

hades, and overthrows the Almoravidtfs 53 

Naser- Mohammed attempta the conquest of Spain. 63 

1818 Tlte Moors defeated near V beda in Spain 54 

1836—1968 Moorish kingdoms of Cordova. SevUle, and 

Murcia, conquPTHl by Ferdinand I II 64 

1948 Mahomet, King of Granada 54 

1186 Spanish Order of Alcantara 54 

1158 Order of Calatrava instituted 64 

1161 Order of St. James of Compostella 64 

1090 Henry of Burguody created Count of Portugal. ... 64 
1139 His son. Aljilionso I. of Portugal, routs the Moors 

in the plaius of Ourique 64 

Innocent IV. deposes Saucho 1 1 . of Portugal .... 64 

1849 Alphonso IIL conquers Algarve ttam the Blaho- 

metaus 64 

Powerful vassals of the Kings of France enume- 
rated 54 

Rivalry between France and England 64 

1087 War betwixt William the Conqueror and Philip I. 54 
Louis VII. divorces his queen, Eleanor of Poitou. 54 

1158 Her marriage with Heory U. of England 64 

1108—1983 Reign of Philip II. Augustus, King of 

France 66 

Louis VII., Philip Augustus, and Louis IX., seve- 
rally took the cross and proceeded to the Holy 

Land 66 

1808 Innocent III. persuades Louis VUl. to a crusade 
against the Albigenses, under the Counta of 
Toulouse and Carcassonne 55 

1886 Death of Loub VIII 65 

1989 Louis IX. acquires Languedoc by the treaty of 

Paris :... 65 

County of Toulouse, countv of Venaiesin* and pos- 
sessions of the CounU of Carcassonne 56 

Establishment of the tribunal of the Inquisition. . 66 

1980 Order of St. Dominic founded 65 

1167 Death of the Empress Matilda 55 

1167 Henry II. of England inherita Normandy, Gaa- 

oony, Ouienne. Aiuou, Touraine, and Maine. ... 65 

1178 His conquest uf Ireland 66 

1175 Roderick, King of Connaught, submits 66 

1199 Usuroation of King John 65 

1910—1913 John of England deposed by Innocent III. 65 
1215 John signs Magna Charta at Runuymede near 

Windsor 65 

1216—19/9 Reign of Henry III. of England 56 

1878 Edward! 56 

1888 He conquers Wales, Llewellyn being slain near 

the Menai. and Prince David executed 56 

1157 Valderoar I., King of Denmark, undertakes a 

crusade against the pagan nations of the North ... 56 
1183 Canute vl., of Denmark, reduces Pomeraola, 

Mecklenburg, and Schwerin 66 

1808 ConquesU of Valdemar 1 1 . of Denmark 66 

1987 He is defeated in Holstein 66 

1080-1133 Anarchy in Sweden 66 

1157 St. Eric the apostle and conqueror of Finland .... 67 

Charles I. King of Sweden and Gothland 67 

1850 Birger. King of Sweden, spreads the Christian re- 

ligion in the north of Europe 67 

Prussians unknown before the close of the tenth 

centtu7 57 

St. Adelbert suffers martyrdom in Prussia 57 

1815 The Abbot of Oliva appointed the Ont bishop in 

Prussia, bv Innocent III 67 

1218 Honorius 111. publishes a crusade against the 

pagans of Prussia 57 

1926 Conrad. Duke of Masovia, grants to the Teutonic 

Knights the conquesU they might make in 

Prussia 67 

1856 They biUld the city of Koningsberg 57 

1280 They found Marienburg, their capital 67 

1983 The Teutonic Knighu enlarge their conquesta.. . 5/ 

1100—1200 Commerce of the Baltic 57 

1198 Mainard, Bishop of Livonia 6/ 

1904 He institutes the Order of Knights of Christ, or 

Sword-bearers 67 

1837 Union of these with the Teutonic Knights . 67 

History of the Moguls 58 

1806 Conquesta of Zinghls Khan 58 

1887 Hisdeath 68 

His son Octal Khan conquers the north of China. 58 

1837 Batou conquers Kipzac and enters Russia 68 

The Mogul Tartars overrun Poland, Hungary, and 60 

Mora^a 58 

1878 Cublai,or Yuen Chi tsou, conquers the south of 

China 58 




▲J>. fka% 

1 978 TarUrUn khaot of Persia, ZagataU and Klniae ... 68 
1S94 Fall of the Mogul power in Cblao, and death of 

Cablal 58 

The Grand ur Golden Horde, or Horde of Kipsac, 

a terror to the Ruasian princes 66 

14S1 Aehmet Khan, the last chief of the Horde of 

Kipsae 68 

Detcmdants of Vladimir the Great share the Rna- 

•tan territories 60 

1157 The Grand-Doke Andrew I ^ 

Grand-dadiy of Kiow derastated by the Lithua- 
nians and Poles 50 

1923 Toushi, son of Zinghis Khan, defeats the princes 

of Kiow 09 

\337 His ion Baton takes Moscow 59 

The Mogul Tartars conquer the Grand-duchy of 

Vlademir, and devastate Rassia 69 

1941 Alexander NewskidefeaU the KnlshU of LJTonia. 49 
1361 On bis death he was declared a saint in the Rus- 
sian calendar 60 

The PiastdynastT in Poland 59 

1138 Dissensions on the partition of that kingdom by 

BohsslansII 50 

1930 Conrad, son of Casimir the Just, establishes the 

Teutonic Knights in Culm 59 

Laws of the Hungarians 59 

1077—1095 ConouesU of Ladtslaus I. King of Hungary 60 
1102 Coloman, King of Hungary, conquers Croatia and 

Dalmatia 60 

1131 BeU II., King of Hungary 60 

Appanages of the younger sons of the kings 

weaken thatkingdom 60 

1204 Andrew II., King of Hungary 60 

1917 He undertakes a crusade to the Holy Land 60 

1932 The Golden Bull, or Constitution of Hungar v 60 

Andrew II. confers privileges on the Saxons settled 

in Transylvania 60 

1335 BeU IV., King of Hungary 60 

1341 The Bioguls under Balou and Gayouk conquer 

thatkingdom 60 

1S44 On the death of Oktai Khan, his son Gayouk 

with the Moguls return towards China 60 

Decline of the Greek or Eastern Empire 60 

1195 The Emperor Isaac Angelus dethroned by Alexins 

nL.!7. rr. 60 

1S03 The Crusaders replace Isaac on the throne of Con- 

stantinople 60 

Alexins, named Mounoufle, usurps the throne ... 61 
1204 The Crusaders again take ConstanUoople, and 
place Baldwin, Count of Flanders, on the 
throne, the first Latin emperor of C<mstanti- 

nople 61 

Venetian acquisitions In the Levant 61 

Boniface, Marqub of Montferrat, acquires the so- 
vereignly of Candia, the ancient Crete 61 

1807 Boniface transfers Candia to the Venetians 61 

1906 Theodore Lascaris crowned emperor at Nice in 

Bithynia.. 61 

1S05 Alexius and David Comnenns found an empire in 

Pontns, of which Trebiiond is tite capital 61 

Miehad Angelus Comnenns, emperor at Duiasio, 
over Epims, Acarnania. iBtolia. and Thessaly . . 61 
1961 Baldwin II., the last Latin emperor, flies from Con- 
stantinople 61 

1961 Michael Paleologus, Greek emperor at Constanti- 
nople, with assisunee of the Genoese 61 

Atabeks, of Iran, reign in Syria 61 

1099 Fatimite Caliphs of Egypt dispossessed of Jern. 

salem by the Crusaders 61 

1168 Noureddln sends Saladin to Egypt against the 

Crusaders 61 

1171 Saladin, or Salah-ed-deen, sultan on the death of 

theAtabek Noureddin 61 

His conquests in MesopoUmia, Armenia and 

AiablT ,V. 61 

1187 He defeau the Christian princes at Hittin near 

Tiberias 61 

He takes Guy de Lusignan, King of Jerusalem. 

Snbaequenthistory ef the Saracens 61 

The Miamelnke slaves acquire power. 61 

The Ayoubite dynasty ; reign of the Sultan Saleh. 62 

1250 Sultan Touran Shuh assasrtnated 69 

Ibeg, the Mameluke, SulUn of Egypt 69 

1910 Hie Mamelukes take Damascus and Aleppo firom 

tiie Moguls 69 

1968 They conquer Antiooh 469 

1989 And possess tiiemsehres of Tripoli 69 

1989 Ptolemais taken by aisanU 

Tyre sarrendered to the Mamelukes 

1991 Tne Franks entirely expelled fkom Syria . 


From Popt Ami/oce VIII. to Me taJdmg •/ dmita^ 
UkgTwks. A.D. 1300-1453. 

1303 Usurpatkms of Bonibee VII L over Utt senb: 

princes of Europe •< 

History of the popes considered to be the best i» 

tory of Europe 

Aggrandisement of papal dominioo 

1305 Clement V. pope 

1309 Translation of the popes to Avigoon 

1367 Gregory XI. again removes the see to Bom« 

1347 Rienti, tribune of Rome, rastotes for a time i> 

form of a commonwealth 

The Ecclesiastical States a prey to the ItaLu 


1499 Pontiflcata of Alexander VI 

1509 Julius II. restores the papal infloence...*. 

1378 Urban VI. elected at Rome by the Italisa ttc* 

siastlcs •" 

1378 Clement VII., the pope at Avignon, choseo byffi 

French cardinals ;" 

1889 Bonifoce IX. at Rome. 1394, Benedict lUI.t: 

Avignon •j 

U09 Deposition of the rival popes by the Cooocl i 

Pisa, and election of Alexander V •- 

Schism, of the see of SL Peter, consequent on ii» 

co-existence of three popes 

1410 John XXIII. elected at Pisa 

14U The Emperor Sigismund convokes a genenlo»a^ 

cU at Constance ;' 

Schism in the pontificate terminated by t-» I 

council ; 

John Hnss. the Reformer of BohemU. buni ^ , 


Jerome of Prague burnt ; I 

1417 Olho de Colonna elected pope, who assuoa t^' 

name of Martin V , 

His scheme ofchurdi roform ., 1 

1431 Council of Basil assembled • J ' 

1437 Eugenius IV. transfers the council to Femn a» | 

to Florence •••* W. 

1439 The prelates at Basil elect Amadens Vlli.o^'*.^ 
of Saxony, as pope under the name or re^ 

SchimWiumerimtiiVhe mignUion'oir Frij» ^^ 

1438 The Pragmatic Sanction promulgated byChs»> 

VII., King of France 

The liberties of the Galilean church '•"'^\ 

1448 Nicholas V. concludes a concordat wltii tbe 0* ^ 

mans | 

1516 Leo X.'s concordat with France * - '^^ 

General councils considered superior in aiitK«K | 

to the Roman poatiiT ; \ 

Rise of the Reftjrmatbn, or reformed religion .•<- 
John of Paru defends Philip the Fair agau>«t » | 

arrogance of Boniface VllI \""ud 

Dante AUghieri maintains tiie cause of IiO>u*"| 

Bavaria against the power of Rome ' '' 

WUliam Ockham. Peter d*Ailly, and other ear? | 

controversial writers ••'^l , 

Philosophy of Aristotle occasions a eontWi^ 

among schoolmen i 

l»4 DeaUi of Roger Bacon • 

1391 OfthepoetDanto | 

1374 Of Petrarch I 

1375 Of Boccado, author of the Decameron ...••.••■ * ;' | 
History of Inventions .— Pftper :— Pointing » <«»• 1 

1436Priuthkg I 

1460 C<n>per-plato engraving j 

1300—14(00 Application of gunpowder in warferr ■ | 

1467 Mortars and bombs J 

Gannons and musketi [ 

The mariner^s compass [ 

Italian and Hanseatic commerce 

The Lombard merchants t 

Genoese trade in the Black Sea ]| 

Venetian commerce with India I 

Maritime power of the Hanse Towns '•'"' 

1350—1450 Enumeration of towns forming the »** i 

seatic League • I 

Causes of iU decline ' 


AJ>. rAOK 

1350—1450 Aitinn* of FUnden and Bnlwiii mny the 

woollen doth maonhetare into England 09 

1306—1438 Prineet of Luxembarg elected to the empire 

of Germany 69 

1438 Honae of Hapsbnrg elected to the Empire 69 

1338 Diet of Frankfort 69 

General union of the eleetoza of the German 

Empire 69 

1356 The 6olden Boll authorised by Charlea IV. of 

Germany 69 

1439 Decreea of the Conncil of BaaU adopted 69 

1447 Conourdata with Nicholaa V 69 

131 2 City of Lyons tranaferred to PhQip the Fair 69 

1349 H ambert 1 1 ., of Danphiny. bequeath* his territory 

to the French monarch 69 

1481 Charlet of Anjou bequeathe Prorenee to the crown 

of France 69 

1348 Arignon aold by Joanna I. of Naplea to Clement 

VI. ....•■ •. ..«•• ■••.••■••••■.• *•••••••••••• 69 

Ills Dnkea of Zabringen extinct 69 

Cantons of Switzerland, under the Imperial go- 

▼ernment , 69 

IIM Albert I. of Austria 70 

1308- 1315 ReTolution in Switierland. 70 

I315~ 1355 Federal League of the cities of Switzerland 70 
1415 The Swiss deprive Frederic of Austria of his patri- 
monial domlniona 70 

1363 Dukes of Burgundy 70 

1306 Weneeslaoa V.. of Bohemia. aasaMinatcd 70 

1309 Henry VII., of Luxemburg, emperor, seixes on 

Bohemia 70 

1418 War of the Hussites 70 

Crusade against Ziska, or John de Txocsnora .... 70 
1389 House of Wittclsback possesses the PalaUnate 

and Bavaria 71 

The Aacanian princes lose Saxony 71 

1373 Frederic of H oheutollem acquires Saxony 71 

1300 Anarchy in Italy 71 

1309 Reiffnofthe Emperor Henry VII 71 

1336 House of Este govern Modena and Reggio 71 

1530 House of Gomaga, dukes of Mnntoa 71 

1395 John Galeae, of the House of Visoonti. duke of 

Milan 71 

1447 House of Sforxa acquire Milan 71 

1300—1400 Florence. Venice, and Genoa maintain re- 
publican institutions 71 

iiM The Gonfaloniere of Justice established in Flo- 
rence 71 

1406 The Florentines overpower the republic of Pisa. . . 71 

1530 Usurpation of the Medici in Florence 71 

1376 Wars of Genoa and Venice 7I 

Peter Doria takes the port of Chioggia from the 

Venetians 71 

1380 The Venetians expel the Genoese from Chioirgia. . 71 
U64 Genoa becomes a dependency of the duchy of 

Milan 79 

1528 Genoa recovers its indepcDdenoe 73 

1388 The Venetians seise on Treviso 79 

1420 They deprive Sigismund, King of Hungary, of 

Dalmatia 79 

1404—1454 Their dominions in luly 79 

138S Joanna 1.. of Naples, adopts Charles of Durasso, 

who puts her to deaih 79 

14S3 Joanna IL.daughterof Charles of Durasxo, adopts 

Louis of Anjou 79 

1445 R me of Anjou expelled Arom Naples by Alphonso 

V. of Arragon 73 

1340 Alphonso XU of Castile, defeats the Moors at 

Tariffa 79 

1381 John I., of Castile, espouses Beatrix of Portugal, 

and lays siege to Lislxtn 73 

1385 John the Bastard, King of Portugal. defeaU the 

Castilians 73 

1328 Accession of the House of Valois to the throne of 

France 73 

1338 Contest of Edward III. with Philip VI 73 

The Salic Law 73 

1388 Insanity of Charles VI. of France IB 

14 19 J ean sans Peur, Duke of Burgundy,aasassinated . . "JB 
1415 Henry V. victorious at Aginoourt 73 

1420 H is marriage with Catherine of France 73 

14M Death of Henry V 73 

14S9 Henry VL crowned at Westminster as King of 

England and France "JS 

Contest of Charlea Vll.wiib the English under 

the Dnke of Bedford 

Joan of Arc, the Maid of Orleans 

1499 Coronation of Charles VII. at Rbeims 74 

A.]>. rAOK 
1445 A standing army fomed by Charlet re- 
press his ambitions vassals 74 

Civil wari of the Houses of York and Lancaster. . 74 

1461 Reign of Edward IV. 74 

im Candidates for the crown of Scotland 74 

1306 Robert Bruce. King of Scothind 74 

1379 Robert II., king. EsUblishment of the Stnarto 

on the throne of Scotland 74 

1387 Margaret of Norway 74 

1397 Vnwn of Calmer. Sweden. Norway, and Den- 
mark governed bv Margaret 7^ 

1419 Eric VIL sole monarch 75 

1441 Christopher III. tueoeeds to that Union of Northern 

kingooms 75 

1448 Charles VIII. Canntson. King of Sweden 75 

1450 Christian I., King of Denmark and Norway 75 

1457 Charles VIII. dethroned 76 

1464 His restoration 

1459 Christian I. acquirea Holstein and Sleswie 

History of the Grand-dukes of Russia 

Grand-dukes of Lithuania 75 

Grand-dukes of Wolodimir 76 

1380 Victory of Demetrius Iwanovitach. snmamed 

Donski. or conqueror of the Don 76 

1311—1343 The Teutonic Knighu of Marienbuig ae- 

quire Dantzic 76 

Their wars against the pagan Lithuaniana 76 

1454 Theirwars with the kings of Poland 76 

1466 PeaeeofThom 76 

Teutonic KnighU established in Koningsberg. ... 76 

1S90 UladislausIV.,Kingof Polsnd 76 

1340 Casimlr the Great's conquest of Red Russia 76 

ir70 Piast dynasty extinct 77 

1370 Lonis, King of Hungary, acquires the crown of 

PoUod 77 

1386 UUdisIaus Jagello. of Lithuania, King of Poland. 77 

1404 General Diet of Polish nobles T? 

1310 Charles Robert of Anjou, King of Hungnry 77 

1349 Louis I., of Hungary, acquires great territorial ao- 

cesstons 77 

1386 His daughter Mary marries Sigismund of Luxem- 
burg, who unites Hungary to the German 

Empire 77 

141 1 Calamitous reign of the Emperor Sigismund TJ 

1438 His son Albert. Emperor and King of Hunnry . . 77 
1444 Uladislansof Pbland, King of Hungary, slain at 

Vana by the Turks 77 

1466 John Hunniades defeaU Mahomet II. at Belgrade 77 

1300 Origin of the Ottoman Turks 78 

1397 Osman. or Ottoman, takes Bursa in Bithynia 78 

The Janissaries established by Orchan 78 

1358 Sultan Sollman takes Gallipoli in the Thraeian 

Chereonesus 78 

1360 Amurath I. conquers Thrace 78 

He is slain by the Servians at Cassova 78 

1396 Bajaset 1. defeats Sigismund of Hungary at Ni- 

copoli 78 

1369 Timour. or Tamerlane, eatablishes his authority in 

Samaroand as his capital 78 

He conquers Kipsac. Persia, and India 78 

1400 He defeats Bajazet I. in the battle of Angora ^8 

1405 He marehes towards China, and dies 79 

1500 The Mogul Empire in Hindostan esUbiished by 

Babour, or Baba 78 

1491 Amurath II. conquers the Morea. or Peloponnesus 78 
Scanderbeg and John Hunniades oppose Amurath 

Il.atCroja 78 

1453 Mahomet 1 1, takes ConstanUnonle 79 

1466 David Comnenus, Emperor of Trebizond, slain by 

th e Turks 79 

1464 Pins II. dies while preparing a crusade against the 

power of Mahomet 1 1 79 


F)nm the UMm of Co»sta»tim9ple By the Twht to the Peace 
ofWettphaUa, AJ). 1459-1648. 

1460 Revival of learning in Enrope 79 

Italian school of painting 79 

Metaphysical and philosophical pnrsniU 79 

Maritime discoveries 80 

1499 Christopher Columbus sails to the Bahama Islands 80 

1494 He discovers the Continent of America 80 

1497 Amerigo Vesputlo. a Flerentine, gives hb name to 

SottthAmeriea 80 

Spanbh conquests in America 80 



Ferdinand the Catholic recelTes a grant fhmi Ales* 

ander VI. of the American ierritoriet 8*^ 

The Portuguese discoveries In the East 80 

15S1 Cortes subdues the empire of Mexico 80 

Death of Montezuma and Ouatimoxin 80 

1633 Pizarro malcea eonouest of Peru , 80 

Atabalipa. Inca of rem. slain 80 

The Spaniards import negroes to work in the 

miuea of South America 80 

They establish the Inquisition in those countries. 81 
1600 Cabral takes possession of Braxil for the King of 

Portugal 81 

1684—1616 Virginia colonized by Sir Walter Baleigh. . 81 

1603 Reign of James I., King of Great Britain 81 

16S9 West India Islands settled by the English 81 

1665 Admimls Penn and Venables take Jamaiea firom 

the Spaniards 81 

1584—1604 French establish themsel^a in Canada in 

the reigns of Francis I. and Henry IV 81 

1608 City of Quebec founded 81 

1635 French settle in Martinique and Guadaloupe. .... 81 

1630— 172s Their colony In SUDomingo 81 

Barthelemi Diaz, a Portuguese admiral, doublet 

the Gape of Good Hope 81 

1498 Vaseo di Gama reaches Calicut, by that nmte. in 

the reign of Emanuel 81 

150i) Francis Almeida defeats the Egyptian and Indian 

fleets 81 

1511 Alfonxo Albuquerque conquers Goa 81 

1647 Silveira defeats the fleet of Soliman the Great at 

Dlu 81 

Mercantile establishments of the PortugneM in 

India 81 

Change in the commerce with India once carried 

on by the Venetians 8S 

The Portuguese and Dutch engross the trade by 

the route ofthe Cape , 8S 

Enslish. French, and Danish commerce with|Ame- 

rlca and India 82 

1517^1543 Portngueee commerce with China and Japan 8S 
1519 Magellan's voyage by the route of Cape Horn, and 

the Straits of Maj^ellan 88 

Establishment of horse-potts in Europe, for letters 83 

1500 Abuses of the clergy of Rome 8S 

Causes of the Reformation 82 

1518 Sale of indulgences by Leo X 89 

Martin Luther bums the bull issued by I«o X. 

against him, at Witlemberg 83 

Zuingle preaches the Reformation at Zurich 83 

1539-1538 Doctrines of John Calvin 88 

1589 Protui of the Lutherans and Calrinists against 

the Decrees of the Diet of Spire 83 

1630 The Confession of Fliith presented to the Diet of 

Attftsburg and the EmpiTor Charles V 83 

UniversiUes and schools founded in the Protestant 

States 83 

Wart ensne throughout central Europe in conse- 
quence of the Reformation 88 

1545 Paul III. convokes the Councfl of Trent 84 

1547 He transfers this assembly to Bologna 84 

1551 Jnllus in. re-astembles the CoundU at Trent .... 84 
Maurice, Elector of Saxony, takes Augsburg and 

marches against the emperor 84 

1560 Pius IV. renews the Council of Trent 84 

Ita decisions mainlafai the cause of Rome against 

the Protentant L<*agne 84 

1534 Isnatius Lovola founds the order of Jesuits 84 

Their vow of obedienre to Rome 84 

Tlieir missions to China, Japan, and the Indies. . 84 

Balance of power, devised in Italy 84 

l^n Maximilian, of Auatrta. by his marriage with Mary 
of BurRundy, acquires the r,ow Countries, in- 

eluding Franche-Comte. Flanders, and Artois . . 85 
1506 Charles V., Emperor of G*-rmany, called Charles I. 

of Spain. Inherits the Low Countries 85 

Extant of hb empire 85 

I667 He eedet his patrimonial dominions in Austria and 

Germany to his brolher Ferdinand 1 85 

1596 Louis. Kin« of Hungary and Bohemia, is slain at 

the battle of Mohacs by the Turks 85 

His kingdoms devolve on Ferdinand I. of Austria 85 
1700 The House of the Emperor Charles V. becomes 

extinct on tlie demise of Charles 1 1, of Spain ... 85 
1740 The male line of Ferdinand I., of Austria, ends in 

CharlesVI 85 

1580 PhiliD If. inherita Portugal in right of his mother 

Isabella, daughter of Emannel 85 

1580^ Death of Henry the Cardinal, King of Portugal . . 85 

1544—1551 Francis I.. King of France, and his as 
Hennr II. oppose the l^irther aKfrandiiemeat e 

the House of Austria 

Henri Quatre, Louis X 1 1 1., Richeli<m. and Mazuii 
jotn the Protestant League afralnst Austria 

1618 Thirty years* war commenced 

1619 Reign ofthe Emperor Ferdinand IL 

1648 Peace of WestohaUa ; 

1659 Treaty of the VjteaMn 

1493 Reign of the Emperor Maximilian I 

Anarchy ofthe German Empire , 

1496 The Mn>otnal public peace, pnblislied by the Dte( 

of Worms 

The Imperial Chamber ooustitated 

1519 Institution of the Anlie Conneil, by the Dirt id 


1519 The Imperial Capitulations, a ^arantee of Get 

man liberties 

1581 The war of Smalcalde 

PitMcription of Luther by Charles V 

Charles V. condemns the Confession of Augsbore. 
1530 TJnfon of Smalealde, or league of Protestant priBen 

in Germany 

The HoW I^airiQ of Catholic princea 

The Tttiics invade Hungary, which occasfeoj tb? 

tmoe or accommod ation of Nuremberg 

1544 Peace signed at Cressy with Francis I 

1546 Proscription of the Protestant Kleetor John Fk- 

deric of Saxony, and the Landgrv^e of Hess^.- 

1547 Capture of those princes by Charles V 

1548 Maurice created Elector of Saxony • • 

The Interim designed fi»r the extirpation of w 

reformed relii?ion 

Maurice, of Saxony, espouses the Protestant casfe. 

and nearly surprises Charles V. at luspnick..- 

1538 Treaty of Passau secures toleration to the rnv 


1555 Diet of A ujrsbnrg concludes a paciScation ] 

The Ecclesiastical Reserve explained •- ' 

1608 Henry IV., of France, nromotes a new union ofw 

Protestant princes of Oermanr 

1609 Holy Lengne renewed at Wurteburg 

1610 Murder of Henry IV. by Ravaillac 

1618 Thirty years' war narrated 

1680 BatUeofPraffue 

16S6 Tilly defeats Christian IV., of Denmark, at Lntit& 

Gnstavns Adolphus, of Sweden, puta himself at tlsj ^ 
head of the Protestant Leacne 

1631 He gains the battle of Leipsic . 

1632 Is slain at Lntsen. where his arms were vidoiw* ^ 

1634 The Swedes defeated at Nordlingen 

1635 Treaty of Prague between John George of Stf«J 

and the Emperor 

Louis XIII. declares war agsiust Spain 

Banier and T^rstenston, Swedish generals, eos- 

tinuethe war in Germany 

Turenne and D'Bnghien distinguished in tbii cx«- ^ 

test against the emperor. ' 

1648 Peace of Mnnster 

The religions paciflcatton confirmed 

France acquires Mett, Toul, Verdun, and Al««/ 

The Low Countries inherited by Philip 1 1, of Spa 

1556—1699 Origin of the republic ofthe United Pr»j 

vioces '•' 

1559 The Inqnisitton established hi the Low Coaslw* . 

by Philip II .--' 

Confederacy of the nobles at Breda, called tw | 
Compromise \ 

They are denominated Goeux or Beggars . . • • -j 
William of Orange, Li.ttlsof Nastan. and the chitf J 

nobility fmigrate • - -^ 

1567 D"ke of Alva sent Into Flanders— execute* IS."' 

persons, together with the Counte Egmont«»| 

The Beggiirs of the Woods 

The Maritime Begi^rs ••••'; 

1568 The Prince of Orange places himself at their lir» 
1572 He takes the Brill by surprise. • • • • • • ' 

The republic founded by the Assembly of Do" •■• 

1576 The Paciflcation of Ghent signed • V ' 

Queen Elizabeth countenances the new repoi'itc-- 
Alexander Parnese, a Spanish governor, «»»*'| 

Maestricht by assault *:;,'.' 

1579 The Prince of Orange, bv the Union of I wj^ 
establishes the Seven United Provinces of 1*' 

land, fee. -J-:!'' 

1584 William, Prince of Orange, assassinated atD«ln- 
Maurice of Orange, stadtholder 




S85 The Prfaioa of Purina (Alexander Famese) takes 

Antwerp 90 

602 Dutch East India Gnrnpany estabU«hed 90 

509 Truce of Twelve yeart between the United Pro- 

▼incraand Spain ** • 90 

Kenewal of the war 90 

A lliance of France and the States-General 90 

648 Ind«>p^ndenee of the United Pravineea, aeknow- 

ledfced bY Spain 91 

Closing of the Scheldt mine the commerce of 

Antwerp 91 

Retroapect of the affairs of Swltserland 9l 

477 Duke of Burfrundy slain at Nancy by the Swiss . . 91 

496 Maximilian I. attacks the Swiss Cantons 91 

499 Peace cooclnded at Basil 91 

1501 — 1503 Basle, or Basil, Sohaffbanaen, and Appensel. 
admitted as Cantons of the Helvetic Con- 
federacy 91 

1515 The French expelled from Milan, which rererts to 

Maximilian Sfbnta 91 

The Swiss gain the battle of Novara. but are de- 
feated at Marignano 91 

1516 TreatY of Friborg between Switserland and 

France 99 

159 1 Treaty of allianee with Franels I. at Lucerne 99 

1531 The Catholic Cantons make war on the Pro- 

testantaorZuriob, Berne, fee. 93 

1534 Geneva the seat of Calvinism 99 

1536 Duke ofSavoy blockades Geneva 9S 

The Bernese assiftt the Genevans 9S 

1564 Peace with the Duke of Savoy 9S 

The Emperors of Germany cnstomarily crowned as 
Kings of Italy at Milan, and emperors at Rome 99 

1508 Maximilian I. unable to repair to Rome, is content 

with the style of Emperor Elect 9S 

1530 Coronatkin of Charles V. at Bok>gna by Pope 

Cli'mentVlI 92 

Expeditions by Charles VIII.. Lonis XII., and 
Francis I., into Italy, frustrated by the Spa. 
niards 99 

1544 The Spanish power dominant in Italy 92 

1597 Clement VII. besieged in Rome by the Impe- 
rialists 99 

1530 House of Medici re-established at Fkirenee 92 

1537 Alexander de* Medici assassinated by Lorenio de* 

Medici 98 

1537 Cosmo de* Medici, duke of Florence and Sienna . . 93 

1 569 He becomes Grand-Duke of Tuscany 93 

1576 Francis de' Medici, Gnnd-Dnke, holding of the 

Empire , 93 

1564 Maximilian II. emperor 93 

Houses of ViseoDti, Sfoma, and Famese 93 

1547 Peter Louis Famese. son of Pope Paul III., assas- 
sinated 93 

1310—1523 Kniehts of St. John ooenpy Rhodes 93 

15S3 They surrender Rhodes to Soliman the Great after 

six months* siege 98 

1530 They receive a grant ol Malta from the Emperor 

Charles V 93 

1597 The French, assisted by Andrew Doria, repossess 

themselves of Genoa 94 

Doria next espooses the cause of Charles V 94 

The French besiege Naples, but are frustrated by 

this Genoese admiral 94 

15S8 Andrew Doria. offered the sovereignty of Genoa 

by Charles v., stipulates for the liberty of that 

city, and expels the French garrison 94 

Doge, and aristocracy of Genoa 94 

1484 The Venetians increase their eontinental territory 94 
1503 On the death of Pope Alexander VI., they seise on 

Rimini and Faensa 94 

James, Ring of Cyprus, espouse^ Catherine Cor- 

nam, a Venetian lady 94 

1475 Shortly after his death the Venetians seize on 

Cyprus 94 

Injury to Venetian commerce, by the discoverv of 

the passage to India round the Cape of Grood 

Hope 94 

Lisbon becomes the emporium for East Indian 

produce , 95 

1508 Alliance against Venice concluded at Cambrai by 

I.ottis XII. and other potentates 95 

1509 Luuis XII. defbats the Venetians at Agnadello . . 95 
The Ottomans deprive them of some possessions in 

the Mediterranean 96 

1540 The Venetians lose Malvasia and Napoli di Ro- 

magna in theMorea 95 

1570 Saltan SeHrn II. oonquert Cyprus 95 

A.n. PAOK 

1571 Don Joan of Austria destroys the Turkish fleet at 

Lepanto 96 

1973 Venetians cede Cyprus to the Turks 95 

Decline of the republic of Venice 95 

Maximilian of Austria espouses Mary of Burgundy, 
and thereby acquires Flanders 95 

1477 Louis XI. seis4>s on the duchy of Burgundy} the 

oocasion of the wart with Austria 96 

He seises on Provence, and claims Milan and 
Naples 95 

1494 His sou Charies VIII. occupies Naples 96 

1^5 He defeats the Italian confederates at Foronnovo, 

andqiiits Italy 95 

1498—1515 Expeditions of Louis XII. against Milan 

and Naples 96 

1650 Henry II. of France Joins the Protestant League, 

and Maurice Elector of Saxony 96 

1579 Charity IX. massacres the Hugonota or Calviuista 

of Prance. 96 

1576 Edict of padflcation by Henry III., of France, 

whohadbeen Kingof Pohind 96 

1589 House of Valois ends with Henry III., murdered 

by Jaques Client 96 

Accession of Henry IV., and the House of 

Bourbon , 97 

1596 He publishes the Edict of Nantes for the religious 

liberty ofhis suhjecta 97 

He encourages the mannfectures of France ....... 97 

1610 Is assassinated by RavaiUac 97 

Minority ofhis son Louis XIlI..aad administration 

ofCardinallUeheliea 97 

10S8 Reduction of La Rochelle, the fortress of the Cal- 

vinist party 97 

Richelieu maintains the Dnke of Nevers in the 

duchy of Mantua 97 

1631 Peace concluded at Ratisbon and Querasqne 97 

1648 MinoritY of Lonis XIV.. and regency of Anne of 

Austria the queen-mother 97 

Administration of Cardinal Masarln 97 

1648 By the peace of Munster, Louis XIV. acquires 

Alsace. &c • 97 

By the peace of the Pyrenees he acquires Rous- 

sillon and some cities of Flanders and Luxem- 
burg 97 

1474 Reign of Ferdinand the Catholie and Isabella of 

Castile 97 

1476 Alphonso V., of Portugal, defeated at Tore by Fer- 
dinand the Catholic 97 

1478 Ferdinand and Isabella establish the Inquisition 

in Spain 97 

Ferdinand oonquers the Moorish kingdom of 

Grenada 97 

He banishes the JewsfromSpain 97 

Emigration of the Moors W 

Alexander III. confers on Ferdinand the tifle of 

Catholic King 96 

Ferdinand conquers the Spanish province of Na- 
varre 98 

1510 Julius II. forms the Holy League against Louis 

XII. in Italy 96 

1516 Charles I., Kingof Spain, grandson of Ferdinand 

theCatholie 98 

1519 He is elected emperor under the titleof Charles V. 

1567 Philip II., King of Spain • 98 

1569 He makes peace at Chiteau Cambresis with 

France 98 

His despotism gives occasion for establishing the 

Dutehrepubllo 98 

1588 The Invincible Armada defeated by Elisabeth's 

admirals 98 

Decline of the Spanish power 96 

1610 Reign of Philip III., who expels the Moors from 

Spain 98 

1495 Reiirn of Emanuel the Fortunate. King of Purtugal 98 

15il— 1557 Greatness of Portugal under John III 98 

1578 King Sebastian of Portugal slain in the kingdom 

of Fez, and Maiey Mahomet, King of Morocco, 
drowned 99 

Decline of the Portuguese power 99 

1560 Death of Henry the Cardinal, when the Duke of 

Alva conquers Portugal for Philip II. of Spain . 99 

The Duteh purchase in Lisbon the prixluctions of 
India 99 

Philip II. prevents the Dutch merchants from re- 
sorting to Portugal 99 

1595 Cornelius Hontmau and MoUnaar sail to India. . . 99 

They defeat the Portuguese at sea near Bantam in 
Java « 99 



▲.D. VAOX 

They coDqaer tlie Holooeat and mgnn the ipiee 

ttade 99 

Om aud Din alone remain to the Pbrtagueae 99 

1640 ReTolt of the Catalans 99 

1640 Hio Doke of Bngansa leiEea on Lisbon, and it 

crowned kinft by the title of John IV 99 

1485 The Home of York ends, by the death of Richard 

III. In the battle of Boaworth 100 

1486 Henry VII.. of the House of Tudor, espouses Eli- 

zabeth, daughter of Edward IV 100 

jlgricalture and commerce reTive on this happy 

conclusion of the wars of the Two Boses 100 

1309 Keign of Henry VIII 100 

15SI The pope grants him the title of Defender of the 

Faith 100 

1539 Henry VIIL divoiees bis queen, Catherine of Ar- 

ragon 100 

Clement VII. having maintained her cause, gives 

rise to the separation of the English church from 

Rome 100 

1531 Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury, on the death 

of Cardinal Wolsey 100 

1534 Henry VIII. declares himself supreme head of the 

church.. •••• «•••> ......•.••• 100 

Court of High Commission esUblished 100 

1536—1530 Suppression and confiscation of monasteries 

in England 100 

The Six Articles of religion in the reign of Henry 

VIII 100 

1549 He takes the title of Ring of Ireland 100 

1547 Reign of Edward VI. Calvinism established in 

England 100 

1563 Mary I.« Queen of England, persecutes the Pro- 

testants 100 

She restores the Catholic religion 100 

1554 Her marriage with PhiUp II 100 

Cranmer* Latimer, and Ridley, burnt 100 

1566 Reign of Queen Elizabeth 100 

Elizabeth establishes the Protestant faith 100 

Distinction of the English or High Church, and 

the Calvmistic or Presbyterian 100 

Mary of Lorraine, widow of James V.. is Regent of 

Scotland 100 

The Congregation, or Presbyterian church of Soot- 

laodTT! 101 

1S60 Elisabeth's general expels the French troops ftom 

Scotland by the capitulation signed at Leith. ... 101 
1560 Mary. Queen of Scots, and her husband Frauds 1 1., 

renounce her etaim to the English ciown 101 

1560 Death of Frauds I U King of France 101 

Death of Damley, second husband of Mary of 

Seota 101 

1568 The Scottish queen flies into England 101 

1567 Mary is beheaded by Elizabeth's order, on a suspi- 

cion of conspiracies 101 

1567 Minority ofJames VI.. King of Scotland lOi 

1596 RebeUion of H nj^ O' Neal. Earl of Tyrone 101 

Robert Deverenx. Earl of Essex, having failed to 
suppress It. Charles. Lord Mountjoy. reduces 
Ireland 101 

Queen Elizabeth patronises commerce and navigm- 
tioQ 101 

She enooorages the Flemish mannlkcturers in Eng- 
land 101 

1555 Richard Chancelhn's voyage to Archangel 101 

Charter granted by John Basilovitz U. to the Eng- 
lish company trading to Russia 101 

1577—1580 Sir Francis Drake's voyage round the world 101 
1600 English East India Company instituted 101 

1564 Sir Walter Raleigh attempta to colonize Virginia. . 101 

1568 Maritime greatness of England. The Spanish ar- 

mada destroyed .....•■.....•.•.•.••....••..• 102 
1603 Accession of James I. (James V I. of Scotland), and 

thcHooseof Sinart 109 

1685 Reign of Charles 1 109 

He levies impositions without a parliament 109 

He endeavours to estaUish epiaeopscy in Scotland 109 
1638 The Covenant taken by the Presbyterians of Scot- 
land 109 

1640 The Long Parliament-Strailatd beheaded 109 

1641 The c&vtt war in England 109 

1649 Dr. Und. Arehbisbop of Canterbury, beheaded .. 109 
1644 The Parliamentarians defeat Charles I. near York. 109 
1646 He flies to SeoUand, and U sold by the Scottish 

army to the parliament 103 

The Puritans overpowered by the Independenta • . 109 

1649 Charles L beheaded at WhilehaU 109 

Oliver Cromwell. Pioteelor 109 

A.D. rAOB 

RevolnttonsinthcNorthofEnrape 109 

Union of Calmer dissolved 109 

1471^1590 StenoSture.Suanto Sture, and Steno Stove 

the young, govern Sweden ! 109 

1497 John. King of Denmark 109 

1513—1590 Victory of Christian IL of Denmark over 

Steno Sture the young, atBogesund 109 

1580 Christianll. crowned at Stockholm lOS 

He massacres the Swedish nobles 109 

1591 Gustavus Vasa deliven Sweden ftom the Danes.. 103 

1593 Is crowned King of Sweden 103 

15S7 Frederic I. of Denmark embraces the Refonnation 

ofreligbn 103 

1534 Christian III. abolishes the Catholic worship and 

episcopacy, in Denmark and Norway 103 

House of Oldenburg 103 

1644 Treaty of Partitbn among the branches of this 

family 103 

The Dukes of Holstein-Gotlorp 103 

1588 Reign ofChristian IV. in Denmark 103 

1616 The Danish East India Company institated 103 

Danish colony inTranquebar 103 

University of Copenhagen, and other Danish coir 

legea 103 

Reformation of religion in Sweden 104 

1540 The Hereditary Union passed at Orebro 104 

1604 Charles IX.. King of Sweden lOi 

1611 Gustavus Adolphus the Great, King of Sweden, 
commands the Protestant eonfederates in Ger- 
many 104 

1631 He defeats llUy at Leipsie 104 

1639 Is slain when gaining the victory of Lutten 104 

1633 Christina. Queen of Sweden 104 

1466 Albert of Brandenburg, Grand-Master of the Tea. 

tonic Order 103 

1519 His contest with the Poles 105 

Doctrines of Luther disseminated in Prussia 105 

1595 Duchy of Prussia made hereditary in tlie House of 

Brandenburg, by the treaty of Cracow • 105 

1595 Walter de Cronenberg establishes the Teutonic 

Knighta in Franconia 105 

1597 Walter de Plattenberg. Grand-Master of the Teu- 
tonic Order, made a prince of the Empire by 
Charles V 105 

1535 Joachim II . Elector of Brandenburg 105 

1640 Frederic WiUiam the Great, Elector of Branden- 

burg and Duke of Prussia 105 

1688 His son. Frederic I., King of Prussia 105 

Lutherauiam introduced into Livonia 106 

1561 Goithard Kettler, Grand-Master of the Knighta 
Sword-bearers, cedes Livonia to Stgismund Au- 
gustus, King of Poland 106 

Kettler is created Duke of Courland 106 

Suppression of the Knighta of Livonia, and of the 

Archbishops of Riga and their sulfragans 106 

1561—1582 The city of Revel, and Esthonia, claim the 
protection of Kric XIV, King of Sweden, against 

the Russians 106 

Contest between Poland and Sweden 106 

1660 Terminated bythe Peace of Oliva 106 

1481 Achmet, Khan of Kipzae, resisted in Russia by John 

BaaibviuIII 106 

1481—1559 The Nogai Tartan assist the Czan in the 

destruction of the Grand Horde of Kipzae 106 

1559 John Basikmta IV. takes Casan and Astracan ... 106 

The Strelitses, or standing army, instituted 107 

Discovery of Siberia 107 

1648 Reformed religion embraced in Poland by Sigis- 

mundll 107 

1573 Henry UL of Vakris. King of Poland 107 

1618 Uladtslaus of Poland marches to Moscow 10^ 

1458 MaUhias Corvinus. King of Hungary, son of John 

Hunniades 106 

1485 He takea Vienna ftom the Emperor Frederic III. . 106 
1490 Death of Matthias at Vienna 106 

1596 Louis, King of Hungary, slain at Mohacz by Soli- 

man I.theGreat 106 

1596 Ferdinand of Austria claims the crown of Hun- 

nury, which is given faj the Hui^prians to John 

de Zapolya. Count of Zips and Transvlvanta. ... 106 
1599 Soliman I. aids John de Zapolya. and lays siege to 

Vienna 106 

1641 Soliman invades Hungary and takes Bnda 106 

1569 Truce between FerdiiuuM and Soliman •.. 106 

Proteatanta of Hungary and Transylvania pene» 
cuted .v.... 108 

Bethlem Gabor.and George Rs^oUi, Protestant 
princeeofTransylvanU.. • 108 



606 Rodolph II. of Austria agraet to a nllfffcrna padfl- 

cation at Vienna 108 

619 Ferdinandl I. emperor. 108 

637 Ferdinand III. emperor , 108 

645 Pacification signed at Linto 108 

564 The Hnaaitet, or refoimera, of Bohemia tolerated 

byMazimUlanll 108 

609 Diet of Pragne, when Rodolph II. grants them 

toleration 108 

.618 The Letters of Majesty confirmed by Ring Mat- 
thias 109 

The Bohemian crown elective 109 

1618 The Thirty Yean^ War, a consequence of religions 

dinsenelons ..•..•.••....«••.«•.*•..••.•.•••• 109 

1690 Battle of Prague 109 

Fallofthe ^lector PaUtine 109 

S«vprities <rf Ferdinand 1 1, of Austria 109 

John George. Elector of Saxony 109 

1484 Bnjatet 1 1, conquers BesaarabU 1U9 

1514 Sefim I. defeaU the Shah Ismafl. Sophi of Per- 
sia 109 

1517 H«f defieats the SnlUn of Egypt, oTerthrows the 

Mamelukes, and takes Cairo 109 

15S0— 1534 Solimnn I. the Great conquers Rhodes, H un- 

gary. and Bagdad 109 

1566 Death of Sultan Soliman. and decline of the Otto- 
man power 109 

1570 Selimfl.tekes Cyprus 110 

15il His fleet destroyed at l.epanto 110 


From the Piaee of fFeitphalia to that of Utrecht. A.D. 

Revolution in the political syatem of Europe 1 10 

Formidable ponder of Prance 110 

Abasementofthe House of Austria 110 

1643-1715 Louis XIV. patronises learning and the arts. 110 

Administration of Colbert 110 

His queen. Maria Theresa, daughter of Philip IV. 
of Spain 110 

1667 Louis X IV., in her right, conquers Flanders HI 

1668 Triple Alliance signed at the Hague Ill 

167S He attacks the Seven United Provinces, and ove^ 

runs Holland ; Ill 

England and Sweden make an alliance wjth Louis HI 
Amsterdam defended by cutting the dykes and in- 
undating the country Ill 

1674 Charles II. of England makes peace with Holland 111 

Louis XIV. conquers Franche Gomte Ill 

Conde gains the victory of^nef HI 

Tnreune conquers Alsace HI 

1675 Death of Torenna in the campaign agunst Monte- 

cuculi Ill 

The Swedes rooted at Fehrbellin by Frederic WiU 

li Am of Brandenburg Ill 

1678 P<*aceof Nimeguen Ill 

Truubles of the re-unions 119 

16SI M. de Louvois Ukes Strasburg 113 

ICbi Truce of twenty years signed at Rafcisbon 1 12 

Lods XIV. persecutes the Calyinists 119 

The Dragonnades 113 

1685 Revocation of the edicts of Nantes and of Nismes. 119 
The French Protestants carry their industry aud 

manufactures into foreign lands 113 

16/5 Louis's disputes with Clement IX. and Innocent 

XI. astotheRepa/« 119 

Liberties of the Galliean church 113 

165S Leopold L emperor 113 

16U8 Louu XIV. breaks the truce, and publishes a ma- 
nifesto axalnst Leopold I 113 

1665 James U. King of England 113 

1688 The English Revolutfon 113 

1689 William and Mary crowned..: 113 

Alliance against Louis XIV 113 

1690 Marshal do Luxemburg gains the victory of 

Fleums 113 

Marshal Catinai defeats the Duke of Savoy at 
Stafaida 113 

1697 Peace of Ryswick 113 

1700 Death of Charles IL of Spain 114 

1698 Treaty of Partition 114 

Claim of the Archduke Charles 114 

Charlea II. names Philip of Anjon, second son of 

the Dauphin, to soeeeed him 114 

1701 PhUipV.prodaimad at Madrid 115 

a.i». PAei 

1709 William III., and his successor Queen Anne, the 
Dutch, Prussia, pMtngal. aud the Emperor, unite 

against Louis XIV. and Philip V 115 

1704 Marlborough and Prince Eugene defeat Marahal 

Tallardat Blenheim 115 

1706 Battle of Ramillies won by Marlborough 115 

Prince Eugene defeats Marshal de Marsin at Turin 115 

170s BattieofOndenarde 115 

1709 Marlborough defeats ViUars at Malplaquet 1 15 

1711 Death of th« Emperor Joseph 1 115 

Tlie archduke becomes Charles V I . of Germany. . 115 
The Tories supplant the Whig ministry in Eng- 
land 115 

Preliminaries of peace signed in Lcndon 1 16 

1719 Villars defeats the Earl of Albemarle at Denain . . 116 

1713 Peace of Utrecht 116 

1714 Peace between the emperor and France signed at 

Baden 116 

1715 Death of Louis XIV 116 

Dispute between the Molinists and the Jansenists. 1 16 
The BuU Uuigrnitus 116 

1658 SUte of Germany under Leopold 1 117 

The Electors of the Empire 117 

House of WitteUbach 117 

1693 Ernest Angtutus of Bmnswiek-Lunenburg, first 

Elector of H anover 117 

The King of Bohemia obtains a voice in the Elec- 
toral College 117 

The Imperial Capitulations changed into a perpe- 
tual Capitulation 117 

Kingdoms of Saxony and Pryssia established II7 

1701 Installation of FNideric I. King of Prussia 118 

The ElecUess Sophia of Hanover, daughter of Eli- 
zabeth and the Elector Palatine, and grand- 
daughter of James I. of England 1 18 

1714 Her son. George, Elector of Hanover, ascends the 

throne of England US 

History of the ducal House of Savoy 118 

1713 The Cortes of Spain regulate the C(u(Uitm Succes- 
sion to be in the male line of Philip V 119 

1661 War of Aluhonso VI. of Portugal against Spain. . . 1 19 

He cedes Tangiers to the English 119 

He cedes the island of Bombay also to the English 119 
1663—1665 Victories of Count Schomberg and the PUr- 

tugueso 119 

1667 Alphoiiso VI. dethroned, and Pedro II. appointed 

regent 120 

1668 Spain reoognises the independence of Portugal ... 190 
1706 Pedro II. joins the alliance against Philip V. of 

Spain 180 

The Portuguese and Eniflish proclaim the Arch- 
duke Charles at Madrid 190 

1715 Treaty of Utrecht between Spain and Portugal... ISO 
Cessions to Portugal in South America 190 

1649 The Commonwealth of England 190 

1651 Cromwell passes the Navigation Act 130 

1655^1658 He acquires Dunkirk and Jamaica ISO 

1659 Richard Cromwell resigns the protectorate 120 

1660 General Mnnk restores Charies II 130 

Origin of Whig and Tory factions 131 

1685 Reign of James II. of England 121 

The bishops commiUed to the Tower 191 

1688 Birth of the Pretender Ul 

William Prince of Orange lands in Torbay 191 

1689 James II. defeated at the Boyne by William HI.. 131 
The Declaration of Rights 131 

170 1 Succession of the House of Hanover enacted 131 

1689 Reign of William and Mary 131 

1709 Accession of Queen Anne 121 

1/14 ReipuofGeorgel 131 

1667 I>« Ruvter and Van Trorop sail up the Thames to 

Chatham 199 

Treaty of Breda 1 99 

1674 Treaty of Westminster 132 

1650 Death of William I i. Prince of Orange 193 

John de Witt enacts the Perpetual Edict 192 

1679 Ix>uis XIV. invades Holland 199 

John and Cornelius de Witt assassinated at the 

Hague 129 

I673 WiUiam 1 1 1, of Orange, sUdtholder 129 

1715 The Barrier Treaty 139 

1056 War of religion in SwitaerUnd between Zurieh and 

Berne in the Prot'-sUnt cause, and St. Gall, &c., 

on the Catholic side 193 

1654 Charles X. succeeds Christbia of Sweden 193 

1658 He besieges Copenhagen 193 

The Dutch fieet defeats the Swedes and rolieves 

Copenhagen.. 193 



1660 Minority of Chairle* XI. of Sweden 1S.1 

Pence concluded atCopenhageo \'13 

Peace of Oliva 1S3 

1680 BeToltttion in Sweden effected by Charles XI. 

aiPKinit the arietocraoy 194 

1693 Despotic power entrnsted by the Swedleb Diet to 

CherlesXI 1S4 

1697 AcceMionorCharleaXII 124 

1688 Peter the Great 124 

1700 Charles XII. f^ins the battle of Narva 184 

1701—1703 He defeats Angustus of Saxony, King of Pb- 

laud 194 

1704 Stanislaus Leczinski. King of Poland 184 

Charles XII. marches towards Moaeow, but di- 

Terges to the Ukraine 185 

Haseppa. Retman of the Cossacs, toins him 186 

1708 Peter tne Great defeats General Lewenhaapt at 

Desna 185 

1709 Defeat of Charles XII. at Pultowa 185 

1718 Charles XII. killed at the siege of Fredericshall. 

in Norway 185 

1719 Treaty of Stockholm between Sweden and George 

1. of England 195 

1781 Peace of Nystadt between Peter I. and Frederic I. 

Kingof Sweden 185 

Sweden thereby acquired Finland, and Peter I. 
acquired Livonia, Bstbonie, Ingria. and Carslia. 186 
1660 Frederic III. of Denmark ccmvokes the States-Ge- 
neral 196 

The Royal Law beoomes the constitnticm of Den- 
mark 186 

1675 Christian V. declares war against Sweden 186 

1677 Naval successes of the Danes l^ 

1679 P<>aee signed at Lnnden 197 

1648 RHgn of John Casimir. King of Poland 127 

The /4&er«m TeCo explained 197 

1647 War of the Cossnes and the Poles 187 

1645 Reign of Alexis Micbaelovitz in Russia 187 

1667 Treaty of Andrussov between Russia and Poland. 187 
1673 John Sobieski defeaU the Turks at Chocxim 187 

John Sobieski was then elected K ing of Pbland ... 187 
1699 PeuoeofCarluwits 198 

1676 Reign of Feodor Alexlevits in Russia 198 

1686 Peace of Moscow oonduded by the Princess Sophia 

of Russia 198 

1688 Peter the Great deposes his sister SophU 198 

He establishes the marine of Russia 198 

1698 He travels to Holland and to England to study 

ship-building and naval science 128 

He puts the Strelitxes to death 199 

He disciplines the Russian soldiery 199 

1703 Peter I. foands the northern capital of SLPetersburg 199 

He constructe the port of Kronsehlot 199 

1709 He vanquishes Charles XII. at Pultowa 129 

1718 Peter puts his son Alexis to death 189 

1795 Catherine I. ascends the throne on the death of the 

Emperor Pet««r 1 199 

1664 The Turks invade Hungary and Germany, and are 

defeated by Montecuculf 199 

Tmee of twenty years concluded at Temeswar .... 199 
1671 Hungarian nobles beheaded, and the ProtesUnte 

persecuted 130 

1677 Count Tekeli, leader of the Hungarian malcon- 

tonte 130 

1683 Kara Mustapha lays siege to Vienna 180 

John Sobieski, King of Poland, saves the city of 
Vienna 130 

1668 Charles of Lorraine, Louis of Baden, and Prince 

Eugene, defeat the Turks and teke Buda 130 

1687 The Imperialists defeat the Turks at Mohaez 130 

Mahomet I V. causes Kara Mustapha to be strangled, 

and is himself deposed by the Janissaries 130 

Leopold I. assembles the states at Preshurg, which 
crown his son, Joseph I., as hereditary King of 
HunK^ry 130 

1689 Louis of Baden gains the victories of Nissa and 

WIddin 130 

Mustepha Knpruli retekes Nissa, Widdin. and 

Belgrade 130 

1691 Is defeated by Louis of Baden at Salankemen, and 

slain 130 

1697 Prinee Eugene defeats Mustapha II. near the river 

Teiss 130 

1699 Peace of Carlowits 131 

1703 Francis Ragocci. prinee of Transylvania, leader of 

the HttuKarian insurrection 131 

1645 Sulten Ibrahim attempts to take Candia, or Crete, 

lh>m the Venetians 131 

A.D. PAes 

1648 Mahomet IV. Sultan 131 

1669 Achmet Knpruli, after a lung siege, takes the citv 

ofCandia 131 


JV»» the Peace 0/ Utrecht to the P^rendk ReeelmHom. A.D. 

iroo--1800 Progress of the sciences and of litem tm. . • lai 

The modem philosophy l£ 

Hobbes. Bolingbioke, Shaftesbury, and TIndal. .. IS 

Volteire, D' A lembert. Diderot, and Helvvtiua m 

Deism and infidelity IS 

The BooDomiste 1^ 

Franda Quesnsy, and Victor de RiqnettI, Mazqius 

of Mirabean 133 

The President de Montesquieu publishes hb Eeyrit 

deiLois 13? 

The Contrat Social of Jean-Jacques Ronsaeau. ... 133 

The Illuminati in Germany Vm 

Balance of power in Europe 134 

Preponderance of Bnglana • I3i 

State of Russia and of Prussia l^ 

The mercantile system of Europe 13. 

Colonies of the European powers • ]3S 

Public funds and Ainded debt 11' 

TIte sinking ftind instituted by Mr. Pitt !£ 

1715 Minority of Louis XV. The regent Duke of Or- 
leans IS 

Philip v.. and administration of Cardinal Albeixni 

in Spain U-^ 

I7I8 The Spaniards conqner Sardinia and Sidly 1 v 

The Quadruple Alliance siirned at London 135 

Articles of this treaty specified yj 

1790 Philip V. exiles Alberonl u 

1791 Peace ofParis US 

Renunciation of Italy and the NetkerlauuU bv 

PhilipV ,, l» 

The Companv of Ostend ]> 

Question of the reverskm of Tuscany, Pannn, and 

Plaeentia \dt^ 

1795 Treaty of Vienna between the Emperor Charlee VI. 

and Philip V ijf 

The alliance of Hanover t>etween Prance, Englaad, 

and Prussia 13 

1797 Death of Catherine I. of Russia ^x 

1799 Cardinal Fleury engaiies England, Spain, and 
France io guwantee Parma and Tuscany to Don 

Carlos ir 

1731 Charles VI.. on the death of Anthony Fatmesr. 

takes possession of the duchv of Parma ir 

TreaW of Vienna, suppressing the Ostend Company, 
and granting Tuscany, Parma, and Plaeentia to 
Don Carlos ix 

1715 War between the Turks and Venetians fbr the poe- 

session of the Morea \^ 

The Emperor Charles VI., Philip V., and the pope 
siile with the Venetians \T. 

1716 Prince Eugene gains the battle of Ptoterwaradin 

and tekes Temeswar iT 

1717 He routs the Turks at Belgrade 1.- 

1718 Peace of Passarowits i> 

1 /99 Diet of Presburg confirms the succession to frmales 

accordfugtothe A ustrinn Pragmatic Sanction .. l.¥ 

1719 Ulrica Kleonora elected Queen of Sweden \3t 

The Royal AuKrnnee, limiting the authority of the 

crown in Sweden j^ 

1790 Frederic I. of Hease Cassel. King of Sweden . . . . U 

1733 Stanislaus Leesinski restored to the throne of Po- 

land i3j 

1730 Death of Peter II. of Russia, and accession of the 

Empress AniM ijf 

Augustus HI., supported by the Emnreaa Anne 

and the Polish nobles, proclaimed king ij| 

Field- Marshal Munich besieees King Stanitiatis 

in Dantzic \^^ 

1783 Louis XV. seizes on Lorraine ....** \^ 

1734 Marshal Berwick slain at Phillpsburg I ' 1 « 

1738 Pc^ee of Vienna ' 135 

1739 The Turks, directed by the Count de BonnevaV. 

defeat the Austrians and lay siege to Belgrade ' 14 

1739 Muoich defeate the Turks at Chocsim " * ] n 

Peace signed at Belgrade [[ i^ 

1740 Maria Theresa. Queen of Hungary [\' j^i 

1749 The Elector of Bavaria elected emperor by the title 

of Charles VIL....... ni 



A.u. rkot 

1740 Fnderiell.KiiiKofPrQttia.liiVadMSUatia 141 

1741 H0 gains tbn victory of Mulwiti 141 

1743 Peace of Berlin, by which be acquired SUeaia and 

OlaU : 141 

Affaira of Sardinia 141 

J787— 1760 G«)rge H.King of Bnf land 141 

1/43 English ▼ictoiy at Dettiogen 141 

Suecattes of Maria Thereuu 141 

1744 Louis XV. invades the Austrian Netherlands 141 

Treaty of onion with Charles VII. signed at Franli- 

Ibrt: 141 

Frederic II. invades Bohemia 141 

1743 Death of the Emperor Charles VII 14S 

Frederic 1 1 . defeaU the troops of Augustas I II. and 

Maria Theresa, at HohenMedberg 14S 

He takes Dresden 14S 

Peace concluded at Dresden 149 

Luais XV. and Marshal Saxe defeat the Duke of 

Cumberland at Fontenoi 149 

French oonqoesU in Flanders 142 

Prince Charles Stuart lands in Scotland and ad- 
vances to Derby 149 

1746 Duke of Cumberland defeats him at Culloden 149 

1746 Ferdinand VI. King of Spain 142 

1746 Prince Doria expels the Austiians firom <3«Doa. . . . 149 
Blockade of Genoa 149 

1747 Louis XV. conquers Dutch Flanders 143 

Siege of Mantrieht 143 

1748 Peace of Aix-laChapelle 143 

Contract of the Assiento 144 

1740 Minoritv of Ivan and r«feney of Anne of Medilen- 

burg in Russia • 144 

Biron created Duke of Courtand 144 

Facttons of the Hats and the Caps In Sweden 144 

1741 Elizabeth proclaimed Empress of Russia 144 

1743 Adolphus Frederic* bishop of Labee, elected King 

ofSweden lU 

Peace of Abo 144 

1750 Joseph I. King of Portugal 145 

The Jesuits institute a republic in Paraguay 146 

War between Portugal and Spain ..* 145 

1755 Lisbon destroyed bv an earthquake 145 

1758 King Joseph wounaed, and in oonsequenoe sone of 

the Portuguese nobles are executed 145 

The Jesuits banished fh>m Portugal 145 

1769 The Jesuits expelled flnom Fiance and Spain 145 

Their goods confiscated 145 

1773 Clement X IV. suppresses their order 146 

1754 Contest of England and France respecting the de- 
marcation between Virginia and Canada, ftc. . . 146 
The Engliah capture French merchant vessels off 
Newfoundland and on the hi);h seas 146 

1756 Treaty of Westminster between England and Frede- 

ric Il.of Prussia 146 

Frederic II. invades Saxony 146 

17!P7 League against Frederic 1 1 146 

1756 The French, under the Duke of Richelieu, conquer 

Minorca 146 

They occupv Hanover, Brunswick, and Hesse 146 

1797-1761 The 'English lake Chandemagore, Pondi- 

cherry, and Mahe 14? 

1759 General Wolfis slain at Quebec, when Canada fklls 

into the hands of the English 147 

Ouadaloupe, Martinique, Tobago. Dominica, and 
rariotts West India colonies, taken by the Eng- 
lish 147 

1756—1763 Events of the Seven Years' War 147 

1760 George III. King of England 14? 

1761 The Pamilif Compact concluded at Paris by the 

Duke of Chobeul 147 

Peter [II. Emperor of Russia 147 

1769 He concludes peaee with Frederic II 147 

Peter III. dethroned. Catherine II. Empress of 

Russia 147 

1763 A general pacifleatk» signed at Fontainebleau and 

Paris 147 

Articles of the peace of Paris, specifying cessions 

or rPstitBtions 147 

Commerce of England with all parts of the world . . 148 
Consequences of the peace in the policy of Conti. 

neutal Europe 148 

Decline of the Mogul Empire in India 148 

Sourajah Dowlah, Sonbab of Bengal 148 

His (iefeaU in action by Lord Clive 148 

1765 Deathof JafllerAHKhan 148 

Shah Allum cedes Bengal, Bahar. and Orissa to 

the English 148 

Contest with Hyder AH. Bijah of Mysoie.. 148 

A.n. PAAS 

1799 Death of Tlppoo SaJb, and capture of Seringapatam 148 
Sneeewsion to the crowns of Spain and of the Two 

Sicilies 148 

Convention concluded at Paris on this subject .... 149 

Aggrandisemrnt of the Russian power 1 49 

House of Holstein-Oottorp 149 

1765 Catherine II. concludes a treaty with Denmark at 

Copenhagen , 450 

Duchv of Holstein-Oldenburg 150 

1765 Joseph II. Emperor of Germany 150 

1799 The Corsicans rise against their Genoese rulers. . . 150 
The Emperor Charles VI. succours the Genoese in 

Corsica 150 

1734 Giafferi, general of the Corsicans 159 

1736 Theodore. Baron Neuhoff, elected by the Corsicans 

for their king 150 

1738 The French land in Corsica \f^ 

1755 Pascal Paoli, general of the Corsicans 151 

1757 Reign of Sultan Mustapha 1 11 151 

1 ,68 The Genoese cede Corsica to Louis XV 151 

The French conquer that island 151 

1764 Catherine II . places Stanblaus Poniatowski 00 the 

throne of Poland 151 

The Dissklents. or Protestants of Poland 151 

1768 Treaty of Wmrsaw 159 

Polish confederacy 169 

War between Russia and Turkey 159 

Catherine overruns Moldavia and Wallachia 159 

1770 Romanxow defeaU the Turks at the rivers Pruth 

andKnkuli 159 

Count Panin carries Bender by assault 159 

1770 The Russians bum the Turkish fleet in the bay of 

Chisme 153 

1779 Prince Dolgorucki conquers the Crimea 153 

1771 The plague at Moscow 153 

The courts of Vienna and Berlin oppose the am- 
bitious projects of Catherine 11 153 

Congress at Bucharest 153 

1774 Achmet IV.. sultan 153 

He concludes peace with Romansow at Kninargi 

nearSitistria 153 

The Tartars of the Crimea and Cuban declared 

independent of the Porte 153 

1778 Catherine acquires Aioff and Kinbum by this 

treaty, and founds the city of Cherson 154 

Part of Moldavia, and Itukowina, ceded to Austria. 154 
Russian establishments on the shores of the Black 

Sea 154 

Prince Henry of Prussia proposes to partition 

Poland 164 

1779 Convention signed by Russia. Austria, and Prussia 

at St. Petersburg ibr partition of a certain part 

ofPblaud 154 

Shares confirmed to those powers by the republic 

of Warsaw 154 

ThBUhenm Tcto ratified 155 

1771 Oustavus III., King ofSweden 155 

Captain Helllchins conspires against the authority 

ofthe states of Sweden 155 

Oustavus III. carries the revolution of Stockholm 

into effect 156 

New constitutions of the Swedish monarchy 156 

A partial revolution takes place at Copenhagen , . 156 

The Zaparog Cossacs 156 

Succession to the Electorate of Bavaria contested 

on the demise of MaximUian 157 

1778 Convention signed at Vienna on this question .... 167 
Frederic II. takes the field on this occasion, and 

invades Bohemia, but is fbiled by Marshal 
Laudohn 158 

1779 Congress held at Teschen in Silesia secures his 
dominions to the Elector Palatine, Charles 



Pacification of Germany 158 

1785 TlieGermanie Confedention 169 

Revolt ofthe English colonies of North America. 

1765 The Stamp Act passed and rescinded 

1767 Duties on tea, ftc. in North America 

Administration of Lord North. 


1774 Embargo on the port of Boston 

1/74 Congress at Philadelphia 160 

1776 Declamtion of independence 

Command oonferred on George Washington 
1776 He surprises the Hessians at Trenton . 


1777 Bnrguyne capitulates at Saratoga 160 

1778 Treaty of Paris between Prance and the United 

States of North America 160 

1778 Action between Keppel and Count d'OrrilUers. . . 161 


A.D. TA9X 

1780 War between Enxland and the Dutch repubUe. . . 161 
178S Lord Rodney defeaU Count de Graue 161 

The French take Dominica, Tobago* and other 
ialanda 161 

They alio poasess themseWea of Senegal 161 

The Spaniards take Pensaoola and Western Flo- 
rida V. 161 

178(^1782 Siege of Gibraltar 161 

Fort Mahon and Fort St Philip taken by the 
French and Spaniards 161 

The French take Trincomalee 161 

1781 Lord Comwallis capitalates to Washington, La 

Fayette, and Rochambeau 161 

1783 Peace concluded at Paris and Versailles 161 

Independence of the United States acknowledged 

byEncland 161 

The cessions and restitutkms nKtwd on 163 

Armed neutrality of the northern powers 16S 

1780 Manifesto of Catherine II 16S 

The Baltic declared by Denmark to be a shut sea 169 
European states which joined the armed neutrality 16S 
1778 Catherine U. places Sachem Gueray on the throne 

of the Crimea 168 

178S Dispute with Turkey respecting the Khan of the 

Crimea 163 

1788 The Empress Catherine seizes on the Crimea aod 

Cuban 163 

Governments of the Taurida and Caucasus 163 

The Dutch blockade the Scheldt 168 

1785 The Emperor Joseph II. consents, by the treaty of 

Fontainebleau. to the closing of the Scheldt .... 164 

Discontents in the United Provinces \6i 

Louis, Duke of Brunswick, governor of the Stadt- 

holder, driven fh>m Holland 164 

Parties, named the PatnotM, and the Free Bodiet. . 164 

1785 Insurrection at the Hague 164 

William v.. Prince of Orange, the stadtholder, re- 
tires to Guelders 164 

1787 Frederic William II.. King of Prussia, sends an 

array into Holland for protection of his sister the 
Princess of Omnge 164 

1788 The stadtholdership declared hereditary in the 

House of Orange 165 

Factions in the Belgic provinces, and insurrection 

in Brabant 165 

1''89 The aUtes of Brabant dechire their independence 165 

1790 The sovereign eongresa of the Belgic statea 165 

Reign of the Emperor Leopold II 165 

The Belgic provinces submit to Leopold 166 

1787 Catherine ll. accompanied by the Emperor Jo- 

seph II., of Germany, in a journey to visit the 
Crimea 166 Boulgakoff, Russian ambassador, committed 
to the Castle of the Seven Towers 166 

Prince Potemkin marches against the Turks 166 

1789 Marshal Laudohn, with an Imperial army, invests 

Belgrade 166 

1789 Gustavus III. invades Finland, and threatens 

Croostadt 166 

The Danes lay siege to Gottenburg 166 

Gustavus III. defeats the Russian fleet under the 

Prince of Nassau-Seigen 166 

1790 Peace concluded lietween Sweden and Russia .... 167 

1788 Prince Potemkin takes Oczakoff by assault 167 

1789 SuwArow and the Prince of Colwnrg defeat the 

Turks at Focksani. and likewise on the Rymna. 167 

Bender surrendered to the Russians 167 

Marshal Snwarow lakes Ismail by assault 167 

Frederic William II., in alliance with England, 
sends an army against Catherine II. and 
Leopold II 167 

1791 Leopold II. makes peace with the Porte at Ssis- 

towa in Bulgaria, and restores Belgrade 167 

The Empress of Russia continues the war 167 

1792 Peace signed at Jassy between Selim HI. and the 

Empress Catherine 167 

Catherine 11. founds the city and port of Odessa 
on the coast of the Black Sea 167 




From the Commeneement of the French RetdMtiM to the 
Downfal of Buonaparte. A.D. 1789—1815. 

1789 The French Revolution 168 

Primary causes conducing to this important event. 169 
Retrospect of the reign of Louis XV 169 

RelgnofLoniaXVI 169 

Administrations of the Count de Mnoropas, of 

Turgot, and of Malesherbea 169 

I7n French linances exhausted at the eloae of the 

American war .••••• lO 

1717 M.deCalonne. minister of finance. 173 

Assembly of the NoUbles I7B 

Loans, and deficit of the revenue ITl 

1788 Cardinal de Brienne's administratk>n IP* 

M. Necker's several administrations \y 

Double representatkm of the Tiers Etat j:i 

1789 The SUtas General meet at Versailles i:.> 

Louis XVI. opens the Assembly in person 17? 

Costume of the nobles, the clergy, and the depotsea 17« 

The National Assembly constituted 17* 

The Count de Mirabeau l^v 

The Duke of Orleans employs his reeooreee to 

agitate the public, and promote inaorrectioos. . . 179 
Marquis de la Fayette, commandant of a national 

guard 179 

1789 Destruction of the Bastille ly 

Declaration of the RighU of Man i;: 

The ancient provinces divided into eighty-tluee 

departments ir. 

Emigration of the wealthy claaa, and the nobility . . 171 

Louis XVI . flies, and is arrested at Vareones I'l 

The Orleans party 17! 

The Moderate party preponderant IJi 

1791 Tlie Constituent Assembly, succeeded by thm Le> 

gislative Assembly in 

Leopold II. addresses the aovereigns of Europe in 

the cause of Louis XVI 171 

Alliance of Prussia and Austria 17: 

The Legislative Assembly composed of inexpe- 
rienced deputies I7L 

Popular society denominated the Jacob&na. ...... I': 

179s Administration of Dumouries, Roland, and other 

republicans I'l 

Insurrection of the Fauxbourgs 17: 

The Sections of Paris i;- 

Attack on the Tuileries and massacre of the Swiss 

Guards I7i 

The National Convention 17j 

Louis XVI. and the royal fan^y Imprisoned in the 

Temple I73 

1791 The Duke of Brunswick and General Clair&it 

take Verdun and Longwy i;* 

1799 The Republic oae and <a<<teuJb/e 17 

1793 Trial and execution of Louis XVI 17> 

Proscription of the Girondists 17.> 

Discredit of the assignata, or paper-money . . 
The Queen, Marie Antoinette, executed. . . . . 

The Duke of Orleans guillotmed 

The whole kingdom visited with remorseless 

tious of men, and of women 

Era of the Republic adopted 

The Christian religion abolished , 

Royalist insurrection in Brittany 

1793 Battle of Sanmur '. 

1/98 Toulon admits some English auxOiariea. bat is 

Ukenby assault I7l 

Buonaparte distlngnishes himself under General 

Carieauxiu this siege 174 

Lyons taken by the republicans and partly de- 
stroyed 17^ 

1799 General Custine takes Mayence 174 

Dumouries gains a victory at Jemappe, and oott> 

quers Belgium 1"* 

1793 Vicissitudes of the campaign in Flanders 175 

The Duke of York defeated at Hondsoote i;:- 

General Pichegru obliges the Austriabs under 

Wurmser to repass the Rhine I'l 

The Committee of Public Safety, presided bv 
Robespierre '.175 

1794 Robespirrre and many of the Mountain fiction 

guillotined \^i 

Jourdan defeaU the Duke of Cobourg at Fleurns . 1T5 
Dugommier and Porignon defeat the armies of 
Spain 17s 

1795 General Pichegru conquers the United Provinces . 175 

HVilliam V., stadtholder, retires to England );« 

Monsieur takes the title of LonUXVlILon the 

death of the Dauphin I7t 

Insurrection of the Chouans in Brittany and Nor- 
mandy , 171 

RoyalisU landing at Qniberon defeated by General 

Uoehe i7« 

1795 The Executive Directory 17C 








1796 Koyalisto of Li Vendee ovBipowered 177 

1795 The Grand* Dake of Tnseany, and Frederic Wil* 
liam II. of PniHUt make peace with the French 
republic 177 

Generals Jonrdan and Piehegra crois the Rhine, 
but are not ■uc c ee»fal 177 

General Seherer defeats General de Vine at Lotaqo 
In the Genoete territory 177 

Charles IV.. of Spain, cedes the Spanish part of 
St. Domingo to the French, by the treaty of 
Basle...... :... 177 

1795 Lord Bridport defeau a French fleet off L*Orieut. 177 

1796 Buonaparte's Tietorioas career in Italy, where he 

defeaU Generals Beaolieu and Colli 177 

He giants a truce to the King of Sardinia and the 

Duke of Parma 177 

Buonaparte and Augerean foree the bridge of Lodi 177 

He enters Milan 177 

Ferdinand IV., of Naples, and the republic of 

Genoa, conclude peace with France 178 

Buonaparte defeats AWinxl at Areola I78 

1796 The Archduke Charles defeato General Jourdan, 

and oblii^es him to reerosB the Rhine 178 

Celebrated retreat of General Moreau 178 

Lord Nelson evacuates Corsica 178 

1796 Neffociations of Lord Malmesbuy at Lille prove 

abortive 178 

French armament nnderGeneral Hoche unsuccess- 
ful in an invasion of Ireland 178 

1797 Marshal Wannser surrenders Mantua 178 

Buonaparte signs preliminaries at Leoben with 

Francis 1 1., Emperor of Germany I78 

Genoese territories constituted into a Ligurian re- 
public 178 

Peace concluded at Campo Formio 179 

Articles of this treaty 179 

NegoeiaaonsatRastadt 179 

The Cisalpine republic 179 

Tumults at Rome , 179 

1796 General Berthier establishes a republic at 

Rome 179 

The Helvetic republic subservient to France 179 

1799 Death ofPius VI, St Valence 179 

1798 The Toulon fleet under Admiral Brueys, with 

Buonaparte and a French army, sail and take 
Malta 180 

Bnooanarte lands his troops in Egvnt 180 

Lord Nelson, after an indefiitigable nursnit, de- 
stroys or takes the Toulon fleet in the Nile, or 
BayofAbonklr 180 

Charles Emanuel IV.. King of Sardinia, concludes 
a convention at Milan with the French re- 
public 180 

The second coalition against France 180 

1796 Paul, Emperor of Russia 180 

1798 Treaties of alliance enumerated 180 

Disorder of the French finances 180 

Military conscription in France 180 

Ferdinand IV.. of the Two Sicilies, attacks the 

French in Rome 180 

General Champlonnet takes Naples, and esta- 
blishes a Parthenopean republic 180 

Charles Emanuel IV. retires to Sardinia 181 

1799 Congress of Rastadt dissolved 181 

War tMtween Francis IL and the French 181 

The Archduke Charles defimto Jonrdan at 

Stockach 181 

Suwarow, generalissimo of the allies in Italy, dio- 

fbata Moieau at Cassano .•...••>■•... .....,•■ 181 

General Maedonald effecto a Junction with Moreau 181 
1799 Sttwaxow delbaU Joubert at Novi, who is slain in 

theaetkm 181 

The Archduke Charles attacks Massena in Swit- 

serland, and marches towards the Rhine 181 

Suwarow crosses the Alps. 181 

The Tnridsh and Rnssian fleeto take Corftt and 

other islands 188 

1799 The DnkeofYoikcoDdaeto an expedition to the 

Holder 18S 

He returns home, according to a capitulation with 

General Bmne 189 

The English take Surinam ftom the Dutch 18S 

1799 Buonaparte, having conquered Bgypt,is obliged to 

raise the siege of Acre 18S 

A Turkish army landed at Aboukir, and was 

totally routed by Buonaparte 183 

He lands at Fr^ns hi Provence 189 

Disoontenta against the Directory 18fl 

A.D. PA«E 

1799 Coonti de Frott^, d'Antichamp, and de Bonnnont, 

head an insurrection of the Chouans 18S 

The Directory overthrown by Buonaparte and his 

brother Lucien 189 

A now oonstituti<Mi promulgated 182 

Buonaparte, Cambaeeres, and Le Brun, consuls of 

the republic 183 

PaciflcaUon of the West of France 183 

Mr. Pitt's subsidies to the continental allies of 

England 183 

1800 In Italy. General Melas defeats Massena at Voltri 183 
Buonauarte crosses the Alps, and takes Milan . . . 188 

1800 He defeate Melns in the battle of Marengo, where 

General Desaix is slain 183 

General Moreau defeate General Kray. and enters 

Munich 183 

Francis II. refuses to ratify the preliminaries 

signed at Paris 183 

Armistice and truces agreed on in Germany and 

Italy 183 

1800 Peace of Lnneville 183 

The English compel General Vaubois to surrender 

Malta 183 

Convention of El- Arish 183 

1801 General Kleber assassinated in Egypt 183 

1801 Sir Ralph Abercromby lands at Aboukir and de- 
feate General Menou at Rahmanieh near Alex- 
andria 188 

Death of Abercromby 184 

The French capitulate to General Hutchinson at 

Alexandria 184 

1801 Alexander. Emperor of Russia 184 

1803 Peace of Amiens 184 

Stipulation fur surrendering Malta to the Knighte 

of St. John 184 

The principle of free commerce nut alluded to in 

the Treaty 185 

Retrospect of the affairs of Spain 18.5 

1788 Character of Charles IV 185 

Don Manuel Godoy, Prince of the Peace 185 

1797 Sir John Jervis defeats Admiral Cordova off Cape 

St. Vincent 185 

1798 The English take Trinidad and Minorca 185 

1800 Spain surrendered Louisiana and eventually Parma 

to the French, by Uie treaty of St Ildefonso. ... 185 
The Grand-Duchy of Tuscany promised, in conae- 
quence, to the Infant of Parma 186 

1801 Treaty of Madrid signed by Lucien Buonaparte.. 186 
17BS Administration of the Right Hon. WiUiam Pitt... 196 

Eloquence of Mr. Edmund Burke 186 

Suspension of the Habeas Corpus Act 186 

1793 Alien Bill 186 

1796 A French fleet sails to Bantry Bay 186 

England subsidises the continental powers, and 
excites the coalitions against the French republic 186 

1796 Insurrection in Ireland 186 

1800 The Union between Great Britain and Ireland ... 186 

Right of search 186 

Armed Neutrality 186 

1801 Sir Hyde Parker and Lord Nelson attack the 

Danish fleet at Copenhagen. 186 

Hanover occupied by the King of Prussia 186 

1795 The Batavian Republic estabfished 187 

1797 Admiral Lord Duncan defeats De Winter in the 

action off Camperdown. 187 

Treaties of peace and alliance 187 

1798 Overthrow of the Helvetic confederacy 487 

1803 State of Italy at the peace of Amiens 187 

177S Victor Amadeus III.. King of Sardinia 187 

1796 Charles Emanuel IV 187 

1797 The Cisalpine republic 187 

Republic of Genoa democratic. 188 

1801 Prince of Parma proclaimed King of Etmria 188 

1791 Pius VI., protesto against the French unlthig 

Avignon to the Venaissin 188 

1796 He equips an army under General Colli 188 

1797 Peace of Tolentino widt Pius VI 188 

1798 General Duphdt killed in an insurrection at Rome 188 
A republic proclaimed in Rome 188 

1799 Pius VI. made prisoner, and dies at Valence 188 

Pictures and statues ramoved from Rome, tec, to 

the Louvre 188 

Admiral La Touche obliges Ferdinand IV. to re- 
cogniie the French republic 188 

1800 Republic of the Seven Islands, or Ionian Islands . 188 

1795 Neutrality of the North of Germany recognized by 

the Convention of Basil 188 

1796 Frederic WUliam II. of Prussia remains neutral. . 188 



1/96 Doctrines of the French revolution invade the 

German people * ISd 

1788 ConftfderatiuQ of Warsaw 189 

1791 King StauisIauB Augustus sanctions a new oonsti- 

tutioD in Poland 189 

Thattlirone declared hereditary in the House of 

Saxony 189 

Absurdity of the Liberum Veto 189 

1795 Catherine II. sends an army into Poland. 189 

The Poles take up arms 189 

1793 Convention of St Petersburg, between Russia 

and Prussia 190 

New dismemberment of Poland 190 

Extent of the portion seized by Catherine II 190 

Prussian acquisitions 190 

Treaty between Russia and Poland as then con- 
stituted 190 

1794 Secret association of Warsaw elects Thaddeus 

Kosciussko general of the insurrection 190 

Revolt of the City of Warsaw 190 

1794 Suwarow defeats Kosciuszko at Matchwits 191 

He carrfes Praga, the great suburb of Warsaw, by 

assault 191 

King Stanislaus Augustus retires to Grodno, where 

he abdicates 191 

Final partition of Poland 193 

1796 Death of Catherine 1 1 192 

1801 Murderof the Emperor Paul 19S 

The Emperor Alexander of Russia abandons the 
claim for a free trade by neutral vessels ....... 192 

179s Assassination of Gnstavus III. of Sweden 193 

1766 Reign of Christian V 1 1, in Denmark 198 

PERIOD IX. conHnved, 

The military preponderance of France under ihe sway 0/ 

Napoieon Buont^rte. A.D. 1802—1810. 

1802 Buonaparte declared, at Lyons, President of the 

Italian or Cisalpine res«A.'ic 193 

I80t French concordat with Pope Pius VII 194 

Restoration of the Catholic Bishops 194 

Institution of the Legion of Honour 194 

1808 General Le Clerc's expedition to St. Domiogo.. 194 
Buonaparte chosen Consul for ten years, and also 

for life 194 

General Ney enters Switxerland 195' 

1803 New cuubtitution of Switzerland, or the Act of 

Mediatu>n 195 

The Recess of the Deputation of Ratisbon 195 

Declaration of war between England and the 

French republic 195 

Presidency of Mr. Jefferson io the United States. . 195 
Those States purchase Louisiana of the French. . . 195 
Affairs of the Batavian republic 195 

1804 Charles IV. of Simin unwillingly joins in the war 
ajiainst England 196 

1803—1804 The Army of England collected near Bou- 

logoe for the threatenMl invasion * 196 

Dcmerara and Essequibo taken by the English 

from Holland 196 

England conquers various islands and colonies 

from her enemies 196 

1804 Conspiracy of General Pichegru 196 

Expatriation of the celebrated General Moreau, 

who visits America , 196 

1804 Military execution of the Duke d'£nghien, son 

of the Duke de Bourlwn 196 

1804 Napoleon Buonaparte, Emperor of the French ... 197 
I'ius VII. assists at his coronation in N6tre Dame 19? 
Alexander of Russia demands that Napoleon should 

evacuate Hanover, and indemnify Sardinia.... 197 
Coalition of Russia, Prussia, and Austria against 

the French Emperor 197 

The English Uke Surinam ld7 

French spoliations of the Italian states 197 

Mr. Pitt again appointed Prime Minister 197 

Various treaties which led to the coalition against 

France 198 

Camp of Boulogne broken up, and an Invasion of 

England averted 198 

1805 Tlie Archduke Charles commands in Italy, and the 

Archduke John in the Tyrol 198 

Electors of Bavaria, Wurtemberg aud Baden, quit 

the cause of the allies 196 

1805 Defeat of General Mack, who capitulates in Ulm 

to Napoleon ...198 

The French emperor enters Vienna 199 

A.D. '^ 

1805 BatUeofAustarlita., ^^ 

Peace of Preaburg • ** 

Part of Italy. Venice, Dalmatia, and Albania ceded 

to Napoleon..... ^^ 

Austria cedes the Tyrol to the Elector of Bawaria l^ 
The Emperor Alesander repairs to Berlin 1S9 

1806 By a treaty signed at Vienna, Frwleric WiUian 

III. of Prussia acquires possessk>D of Hanover 15;- 

1805 Sir Robert Calder's success off Cape Finiisterre. . . W 
Battle of Trafalgar, and death of Admiral haxd 

Nelson «&• 

Ferdinand IV. embarks for Sicily » 

1806 Joseph Buonaparte created King of Naplos ». 

Eugene Beauharnais, Viceroy of Italy, and declared 

next in succession to that throne SC». 

Arrangement of several Italian duchies ^< 

M urat created Grand-Duke of Berg and Clemm . . . 2«* 

Bernadolte made Prince ot Pontecoivo H' 

Bertliier created Prince of Neuchitel *.^ 

The French enter Frankfort and levy aoontribotioB !x^ 
Violation of the existing treaties ^'' 

1805 Death of Mr. Pitt, also of Mr. Fox in 1806. who 

had Joined Lord Urenville's administration .. .. S» 

1806 Lord Lauderdale negociates for peace but rotnms 

without success ^'- 

Treaty signed at Paris between tha Bmperan 

Alexander and Naptdecn 2^ 

The Confederation of the Rhine l^ 

Maximilian Joseph, King of Bavaria :?-. 

Kingdom of Wurteml)erg esUblished ^ 

Declaration of the Emperor Francis 1 1., who reaiin>s 

the empire, and becomes Francis I. of Auatxia. . $< 

Louis Buonaparte, King of Holland ±- 

Frederic vv illiam III. sends his ultimatum to Paris fe. 
1806 Prince Hohenlobe touUy defeated by Napoleon at 

Jena 3^' 

Duke of Brunswick, defeated bv Marshal Davonst 

at Auerstadt, dies of his wounds 9@. 

General Blucher surrenders at Lubec %r. 

Capitulation of Magdeburg a@: 

Frederic Augustus, King of Saxony Set 

General Bennigsen with the Russian army anives 

in Prussia S£c 

1806 Battle of Pultusk V.- 

The £ nglish claim a right of blockade S& 

Napoleon publishes the Berlin Decree, forbidding 

English merehandise on the continent. 20: 

1807 Battle of Prussian Eylau 26: 

Negociations for peace, infruetuoos 31^ 

Convention of Bartenstein preparatory of a new 

coalition 9i 

1307 Siege of Dantxic 2tV 

1807 Battle of Friedland Ll^^ 

N apoleon enters Koningsberg ^- 

1807 Armistice concluded at Tilsit between France. 

Russia, and Prussia Ui 

Interview of the Emperors Alexander and Napo- 
leon, on a raft in the Niemeu.... SC 

Spoliation of part of the Prussian dominions !^' 

CoDvention of Koningsberg iiv 

Wars uf GusUvus Adolphus IV. of Sweden iu;^ 

The King of Saxony put in pos s ession of the Duchy 

of Warsaw 2W 

Jerome Buonaparte. King of Westphalia* has 
Brunswick and Hesse, part of Hanover, £cc.. 
given him for his kingdom 314 

1806 Affairs of Spain 2N 

Convention of Fontainebleau lii*^ 

1807 Marshal J unot enters Spain :li4 

Being joined by a Spanish fbree he takes Lisbon. 3(H 
John Prince, Regent of Portugal, with his fiMniiy 

sail to Rio Janeiro 9H 

Confiscation of English merehandise in the Han- 

seatic cities %* 

* English Orders in Council, regulaUng a bloekade 

of Mtile ports SM 

The decree of Milan 9I& 

1808 Napoleon establishes the Continental System, 

against British trade 809 

Pius VII. refuses to accede to it ^'5 

General MioUis thereupon enters Rome »c 

Napoleon creates a new French nobility iH 

1808 lusurrectkin in Madrid against Godoy ^ 

Abdication of Charles IV Si^S 

Ferdinand VIL King of Spain Si^ 

The French under Marat enter Madrid SOi 

Charles IV. cedes his dominioni to Napoleon, at 

Bayonne St>3 



A.D. PAtfl 

1808 FeidtDandVII.,meiiac«cl with death. Is obliged to 
ooniant to that arraoKemeJit. and is oonflned at 

Valencay 805 

Massacre by Murat in Madrid 805 

Joseph Bnonaparte, King of Spain 805 

Murat. or Joachim, Ring of Naples 806 

Orneral insurrection of Spain and Portugal 805 

1808 Interview of Alexander and Napoleon at Erfurt .. 205 

Convention of Berlin 206 

Francis, Emperor of Austria, calls out the Land- 

wehr or muitia of his dominions 206 

Francis appeals to the German States ; when Ba* 
▼aria. Saxony and Wurtemberg declare war 

against him * • .* . 806 

Amount and chiefi of the Austrian forces 206 

1809 Tlie Bmperor Francis invades Bavaria 806 

Napoleon beaU General Hiller at Abensberg 806 

1809 He defeata the Archduke Charles at Eckmuhl and 

atRatisboQ 806 

Napoleon enters Vienna in triumph 806 

1809 Battles of EbersdorlT, and of Asperne or Essllngen 806 
Napoleon in danger in the Isle of Lobau on the 

Danube, of being cut off from all supplies 806 

Campaign of the Archduke John In Italy 806 

Beaunarnab effects a junction with Napoleon .... 806 
The Archduke Ferdinand takes Warsaw and 

attacks Prussian Poland 806 

1809 Battle of Waftram 806 

Insurrection of the Tyrol headed by Hoffer 806 

Expedition of the Duke of Brunswick Oels 806 

An armistice concluded at Znaym 806 

1809 The Earl of Chatham and Sir Bkhard Strahan 

taketheisUndofWalcheren 806 

They toke Flushing 806 

The English armament ftnstrated as to Antwerp 

by Marshal Bernadotto 30? 

1h09 Peace of Schonbrunn between the emperors 

Francis and Napoleon. 207 

The lUyriau provinces not united with the French 

Empire 207 

Nspoleon seizes on the Ecclesiastical Stotes 807 

PopePittsVn. deposed by Napoleon 807 

Naval victories of the Enallsh 807 

Colonies of Cayenne and French Guiana, taken . . . 207 
The Spaniards expel the French from St. Domingo 807 
1S09 — 1810 Napoleon divorces the empress Josephine, 

and espouses Maria Louisa of Austria 207 

1810 Abdication of Louis Buonaparte 807 

Napoleon annexes Holland to the French Emnire 807 
Guadaloupe, the Mauritius and Island of Bourbon 

taken by the English 208 

The Continental System. Decree or tariff of 

Trianon ., 208 

1808 Insurrection at Oporto ,. 808 

Sir Arthur Wellesley defeats Junot at Vimiera. ... 208 
Hnssian fleet in the Tagus surrendered to Sir 

Charles Cotton 208 

Marshal Junot*s army, by capitolation at Cintra, 

conveyed in English vessels to France 808 

lb09 Marshal Soult takes Oporto after a resistance by 

the Portuguese 808 

Sir Arthur Wellesley lands at Lisbon, when Soult 

retires into Gallicia , 808 

1806 General Beresfbrd and Sir Home Popham take 

Buenos Ayres 909 

1807 General AuchmUty takes Monto Video 909 

General Whitelocke defeated in an attempt to re- 
take Buenos Ayres. 909 

The Junta of Seville declares for King Ferdinand 

VII 909 

1B08 General Dupont surrenders at Baylen 209 

18U9 Death of Sir John Moore at Coranna 8(l9 

Defence of Saragossa by Palafox... 809 

Lord Wellington defeata Jourdan and Victor at 

Talavera 810 

1810 Soult overruns Andalusia. Siei^eof Cadis 810 

1810 Junot takes Ciudad Rodrigo and Almeida. ....... 210 

Wellington maintains hit post of Torres Vedras 

against Marshal Massena at Santarem 810 

English commerce. Empire of the Sea. Conquest 

of French, Spanish and Dutch colonies 810 

1806 Abolition of the Slave-trade by Kngland 810 

Coudition of Holland 810 

Affairs of SwiUerland, and of Italy, reviewed .... 211 

Pulitieal condition of Germany 211 

1806 Abdication of the imperial crown by Francis, 

Emperor of Austria , 918 

Confbdemtion of the Rhine 818 

A.n. VMM 

1806 State and extent of the Austrian domintone on the 

Pesce of Luneville 818 

ResulU of the Pi*ace of Schanbruun, 213 

Acquisitions of Prussia 813 

The occupation of Hanoyer causes a war between 

England and Prussia 813 

Destitution of Prustia. snd enlightened administra- 
tion of Frederic William III 813 

Designs of Napoleon on Denmark 814 

1807 Lords Cathrart and Gambier bombard Copenha* 

Ken, and secure the Danish fleet 214 

1806 Christian VII. succeeded by Frederic VL. King 

of Denmark 814 

1807 The Empt-ror Alexander declares war against the 

English 814 

1808 He conquers Finland ftrom the Swedes 914 

Sir John Moore arrives with English succours at 

Oottingen, bnt ii ill-received by Gustavus IV.. . . 215 

1809 Gustavus Adolphus IV.. deposed 215 

The Duke of Sudermania proclaimed as King 

Charles XIII 815 

Peace of Fredericsham between Russia and Sweden 915 

1810 Marshal Bernadotte. elected Prince Royal ( after- 

wards crowned as King Charles John, of Sweden) 916 
Muniflceut foundations, and national undertakings 

of the Emperor Alexander, in Russia 216 

Swedish and English war, unimportant.. 816 

Affairs of Persia and the Porte 216 

Alexander annexes Georgia to his empire . • 816 

1813 His war with PersU 216 

His war with Turkey 816 

Alt Pacha of Joannina 816 

1789 Condition of Turkey under Selim III 816 

1807 Sir John Duckworth forces the passage of the 

Dardanelles 816 

Admiral Siniavin defeata the Turkish fleet at 

Lemnos 817 

SeUm III., establishes the Nizami gedid, troops in 
European uniforms, and disciplined 917 

1807 Abdication of Solim III 817 

Mustapha IV., Sultan 917 

1808 Mustapha IV. and Selim III. are alike vktims 

in an insurrection, 817 

Mahmoud II.. Sultan 817 

1809—1810 The Russian generals take Ismail, and 

SUistria 818 

General Kamenskoi deleats MuckUr Pacha. ..... 218 

Strong Turkish position at Shnmla 818 

1810 The Russians take Rudschuk. Guirdesov and 

Widdin , 218 

PERIOD lX,»eo$iehaed. 

The Deelime and Dowufal of the Bnpire of BuoMparte. 
A.D. 1810--1815. 

1811 Napoleon's iniknt son receives the title of King of 

Rome 818 

Pius VII. refuses to confirm the nomination of tite 

French prelates 818 

1811 A council assembled at Paris, for this object. faUs 818 
1811 Retreat of Massena, pursued by Lord Wellington, 

through Portugal 818 

1811 Badajos invested by Wellington, who retreats into 

Portugal 819 

Marshal Suchet storms Tarraxona, and defeata the 

Spanish General Blake at Murviedro 819 

1818 Wellington takes Ciudad Rodrigo. and again retires 819 

1812 He defeats Marmont at Salamanca 819 

Alliance of Russia and Sweden against Napoleon, 

and design on Norway 819 

Napoleon's alliance with Frederic William III... 819 
The Emperor Francis unites with Napoleon against 

Russia, but is not much in earnest 819 

E numeration of Napoleon's forces 880 

Napoleon nasses the river Niemen 880 

1818 BatUe of Mohiloff 890 

Napoleon takes Smolensko 830 

Napoleon defeats Prince Kutusoff at the Moskwa. 280 

1813 He enters Moscow. September 14 2S0 

Conflagration ot that city 920 

Disastrous retreat of the French from Russia. .... 920 
Kutusoff, who had*hitherto retreated, now pursues 

and harssses the French army 280 

Passajte of the Beresina on the retreat, with severe 
kMS 881 


A.D. PAai 

1812 Naboleon returns to Paris, leaving his army ander 

tne conduct of his marshals S8l 

General Yorlce and the Prnssian troops capitulate 

to the Rnisians 391 

1818 Pius VII. at Fontaineblean signs a concordat .... 991 

1813 Treaty of Kalisch. between Alexander and Fre- 

deric William III 991 

KntusoflTs proclamation from Kalisch for the Dis- 
solution of the Rhenish Confederation 991 

1813 Ring Murat rethes to Napks 999 

Forces of the belligerents preparatory to the 

campaign ofl8l3 999 

Napoleon takes the command in person ii2 

Battleof Gross-Genchen or Lutsen. 992 

Battleof Bautsen 999 

1813 CouTention signed at Dresden, under the media- 
tion of the Emperor Francis 922 

Francis declares war against the French 993 

Treaties signed antecedent to the sixth coalition 

of the allied sovereigns 993 

Armies of the Allies enumerated 9'i3 

Strength of Napoleon's army 993 

Battle of Grosa-Beeren 294 

1813 Battle of Dresden iH 

Fall of General Moreau 994 

Vandammei defeated in the Battle of Culm, sur- 
renders to Barclay de Tolly and Marshal Millo- 

radowich 994 

Ney routed by Bernadotte 994 

1813 Battle of Lei'psic gained by Blucher, Bennigsen 

and the Prince Royal of Sweden 294 

Flight of Napoleon to Mayencc 924 

King of Bayaria Joins the allies 224 

Marshal Davoust attacked in Hamburg by the 

Prince Royal 295 

1814 Frederic VI. of Denmark Joins the allies 995 

Peace at length concluded between Denmark and 

England 995 

1813 Wellington defeats Marshal Jonrdan at Vittoria .. 295 
The electors of Hanover and Hesse recover those 

dominions, and other political arrangements take 

place throughout Germany 995 

Forces of the contending parties, before the cam- 
paign of 1814 995 

1813— 1814 The allies enter Frauce 995 

1814 Napoleon defeated by Blucher at Rothidre 295 

Blucher. surrounded by Grouchy, loses 6000 men 

atEtoges 995 

Events and vicissitudes of the war in France 995 

1814 Napoleon defeated at Laon 995 

Congress of Chfttillon for a peace 996 

The Quadruple Alliance signed at Chaumont, 

March 1 926 

Marmont and Mortier driven fhxn Montmartre and 

Belleville 996 

1814 The allied sovereigns enter Paris 996 

Count d* Artois, Lieutenant-General of the kingdom 998 
1814 Napoleon abdicates in Ikvour of the King of Rome 926 
The sovereignty of Elba secured to him, to which 

island he is conducted by commissioners 996 

Wellington defeaU Suult at Orthes 996 

The Battle of Toulouse 997 

Conduct of Joachim Murat. King of Naples, in 

Italy, at this crisis of poUtical affairs 99? 

1814 Eugene Beauharnais' action with Field Marshal 

VeUegard 997 


1814 He retires to Germany 927 

Reign of Louis XVIII. King of France 987 

He grants a Charter to his people ^7 

1814 Cessions and restitntions of colonies, on the ood« 

elusion of a general peace at Paris 22? 

1814 The Emperor of Russia, King of Prussia, Prince 
Mettemich, Prince Blucher, Platoff. and other 
generals, visit the Prince Regent in London. ... 927 

Articles of the Peace of Paris 9SS 

King of Sazouy loses a portion of his dominions. . 928 
Treaty for the abolition of negro slavery 92S 

1814 Buonnparte lands in Provence 989 

His adventures and successful march on Paris .. . 989 

Louis XVIII. retires to Ghent 9:29 

The Additional Act to the Constitution of the 

Empire 929 

1815 The Champ de Mai, held at Paris 929 

The allies prepare to (Ulfll the treaty of Chaumont 889 

Murat declares for Buonaparte 9:f9 

He is defeated at Tolentiuo 929 

1815 Ferdinand IV. restored in Naples 929 

The Act of the Germanic Confederation 229 

The Act of Congress signed 929 

The armies of tlie allieji approach France 230 

Numerical strength ol Buonaparte's army 230 

June. He crosses the Sambre, ana defeats Blucher at 

Ligny, who retires in good order 2M 

The Duke of Wellington defeato Buonaparte at 

Waterloo 230 

Prince Blucher and Bulow assist in that final 

victory 230 

Buonaparte flies to Paris 230 

His abdication 230 

He surrenders to Captain Maitland, R.N. 230 

Isbanbhed to St. Helena, where he dies 5th May, 

1891 230 

Wellington and Blucher march in triumph to Paria 230 

* Capitulation of that capital 230 

Louis XVIII. is restored to the throne of France. 230 
Military execution of Marshal Ney and Colonel 

Labedoyire 231 

Indemnity paid by France 231 

Agreement entered into for the abolitioa of the 

slave trade 231 

1815 The Holy Alliance signed at Vienna 231 

The Cortes of Spain 831 

Retrospect of the political affairs of Europe 232 

1810 Mental affliction of George III 239 

1811 George, Prince Regent 832 

1812 War between the United States and England .... 233 
Cape of Good Hope, Essequibo, Berbice, and 

Demerara ceded to England 833 

Recupitnkttion of treaties, &e 234 

The Ionian Islands placed under the pmteotwn of 

Great BriUin 834 

1815 Military execution of Murat on landing iu the 

kingdom of Naples 834 

Settlement of the states of Germany 835 

1814 Norway acquired by Sweden 835 

War between Russia and Turkey favourable to the 

former power 836 

Russian sucquisitions iu the Turkish provinces, in 

those of Persia, and in Poland 236 

SUto of the Ottoman Empire 836 





History has Tery properly been considered as tliat 
particular branch of philosophy, which teaches, by 
examples, how men ought to conduct themselves 
in all situations of life, both public and priyate. 
Such is the infirmity and incapacity of the hmnan 
mind, that abstract or general ideas make no last- 
ing impression on it; and often appear to us doubt- 
ful or obscure, — at least if they be not illustrated 
and confirmed by experience and observation. 

It is from history alone, which superadds to our 
own experience that of other men and of other 
times, that we learn to conquer the prejudices which 
we have imbibed from education, and which our 
own experience, often as contracted as our educa- 
tion, tends in general rather to strengthen than to 
subdue or destroy. ** Not to know (says Cicero) 
what happened before we were bom, is to remain 
always a child ; for what were the life of man, did 
we not combine present events with the recollec- 
tions of past ages V 

There are certain principles or rules of conduct 
tliat hold true in all cases ; because they accord and 
consist with the invariable nature of things. To 
collect and digest these, belongs to the student of 
hifitory, who may, in this way, easily form to him- 
self a system, botli of morals and of politics, foimded 
on the combined judgment of all ages, and con- 
firmed by universal experience. Moreover, the 
advantages that we reap from the study of history 
are preferable to those we acquire by our own ex- 
perience ; for not only does the knowledge we de- 
rive from this kind of study embrace a greater 
number of objects, but it is purchased at the ex- 
pense of others, while the attainments we make 
from personal experience oflen cost us extremely 

" We may learn wisdom, (says Polybius) either 
from our own misfortunes, or the misfortimes of 
others. The knowledge (adds that celebrated 
historian) which we acquire at our own expense 
is undoubtedly the most efficacious ; but that which 
we learn from the misfortunes of others is the 
safest, in as much as we receive instruction with- 
out pain, or danger to ourselves." This know- 
ledge has also the advantage of being in general 
more accurate, and more complete than that which 
we derive from individual experience. To history 
alone it belongs to judge with impartiality of pub- 
lic characters and political measures, which are 
often either misunderstood or not properly appre- 
ciated by their contemporaries ; and while men 

individually, and from their own observation, can 
see great events as it were but in part, history 
embraces the whole in aU its various details. Thus, 
for example, we can see but imperfectly all the 
bearings of that mighty revolution which is now 
(1793) passing before our eyes ; and it will re- 
main for posterity to perceive all its influence and 
effects, and to judge of its different actors without 
feelings of irritation or party spirit. 

It is a fact universally admitted, that all ranks 
and professions of men find in history appropriate 
instruction, and rules of conduct suited to their 
respective conditions. In occupying the mind 
agreeably with such a vast diversity of subjects, it 
serves to form the judgment, to inspire us with the 
ambition of glory, and the love of virtue. Those 
especially who devote themselves to the study of 
politics, or who are destined to the management of 
public affairs, will discover in history the structure 
and constitution of governments, their faults, and 
their advantages, their strength and their weak- 
ness ; they will find there the origin and progress 
of empires, the principles that have raised them to 
greatness, and the causes which have prepared 
their fall. The philosopher, and the man of letters, 
will there trace the progress of the human mind, 
the errors and illusions that have led it astray ; tlie 
connexion of causes and effects ; the origin of arts 
and sciences, their changes, and their influence on 
society ; as well as the innumerable evils that 
have sprung from ignorance, superstition, and ty- 

History, in short, avails more than all precepts 
to cure us of those mistakes originating in self- 
love, and national partiality. He who knows no 
other country than his own, easily persuades him- 
self that the government, manners, and opinions 
of the little comer of the earth which he inhabits, 
are the only ones consistent with reason and pro- 
priety. Self-love, so natiu^ to man, cherishes this 
prejudice, and makes him disdain all otlier nations. 
It is only by an extensive acquaintance with his- 
tory, and by familiarizing ourselves with the insti- 
tutions, customs, and habits of different ages, and 
of different countries, that we learn to esteem 
wisdom and virtue, and to acknowledge talents 
wherever they exist. Besides, vrhen we observe, 
that, though revolutions are continually changing 
the face of kingdoms, nothing essentially new ever 
happens in the world, we cease to be longer the 
slaves of that extravagant admiration, and that 

Use of History. 
2 l*ublic Records. 



credulous astonishment which is generally the 
characteristic of ignorance, or the mark of a feeble 

The most important attribute of history is truth, 
and in order to find this out, it is necessary to ex- 
amine the materials which serve as the elements and 
eyidences of history, by the test of sound criti- 
cism. These materials are of two kinds : I. Pub' 
lie Acts arid Records, such as medals, inscriptions, 
treaties, charters, official papers ; and in general, 
all writings drawn up or published by the esta- 
blished authorities. II. Private writers, viz. au- 
thors of histories, of chronicles, memoirs, letters, 
&c. These writers are either contemporary, or 
such as lire remote from the times of which they 

Public acts and official records are the strong- 
est evidences we can possibly have of historical 
truth ; but as, in different ages, there have been fa- 
bricators of pretended acts and writings, it becomes 
necessary, before making use of any public docu- 
ment, to be assured that it Is neither spurious nor 
fabified. The art of judging of ancient charters 
or diplomas, and discriminating the true from the 
false, is called Diplomatics ;^ in the same way as 
we give the name of Numismatics to the art of 
distinguishing real medals from counterfeit. Both 
of these sciences are necessary ingredients in the 
criticism of history. 

It will not be out of place to subjoin here some 
rules that may serve as guides in the proper selec- 
tion of historical documents. 1. The authority of 
any chartulary or public act is preferable to that 
of a private writer, even though he were contem- 
porary. These public registers it is always neces- 
sary to consult if possible, before having recourse 
to the authority of private vrriters ; and a history 
that is not supported by such public vouchers must 
in consequence be very imperfect. 2. When pub- 
lic acts are found to accord witli the testimony of 
contemporary authors, there results a complete and 
decisive proof, the most satisfactory that can be de- 
sired, for establishing the truth of historical fects. 
3. The testimony of a contemporary author ought 
generally to be preferred to that of an historian, 
who has written long after the period in which the 
events have happened. 4. Whenever contem- 
porary vrriters arc defective, great caution must be 
used with regard to the statements of more modem 
historians, whose narratives are often very inac- 
curate, or altogether fabulous. 5. The unanimous 
silence of contemporary authors on any memorable 
event is of itself a strong presimiption for suspect- 
ing, or even for entirely rejecting, the testimony of 
very recent writers. 6. Historians who narrate 
events that have happened anterior to the times in 
which they lived, do not, properly speaking, de- 
serve credit, except in so far as they make us 
acquainted with the sources whence they have 
drawn their information. 7. In order to judge 
of the respective merits of historians, and tlie pre- 
ference we ought to give some beyond others, it is 
necessary to examine the spirit and character of 
each, as well as the circumstances in which they 
are placed at the time of writing. Hence it 
follows — That we ought to distrust an historian 
who is deficient in critical discernment, who is fond 
of ikbles, or who scruples not, in order to please 
and amuse his readers, to alter or disguise the 
truth : That as impartiality is an essential quality 

in an historian, we must always be on our gu^4 
against writers who allow their minds to be varp?: 
aside by the prejudices of their nation, their paitv. 
or their profession ; for, in order to be imparl.; 
the historian must form his judgment on art:o> 
themselves, vrithout regard to the actors: Tb^ 
historians who have had a personal concern in tW 
transactions, or been eye-witnesses of the nv'> 
thev describe, or who, writing by the permisflontt 
authority of government, have had free acce>« t.- 
national archives and public libraries, ought al^}* 
to be preferred to those who have not enjoyed t 
same advantages : That among modem historiuh 
he who has written last often deserves more ens- 
fidence than those who have handled the sar 
subject before him ; inasmuch as he has bad it:: 
his power to obtain more exact information. ! 
avoid all party spirit, and rectify the errors of 'u 

There are several auxiliary sciences which n? 
be said to constitute the very foundation of H- 
tory; and among these, geography, geneal ..■ 
and chronology, hold the first rank. In tniih.: 
fact can be fully established, nor can any namtr 
possess interest^ unless the circumstances reht: 
to the times and places in which the events b- 
happened, as well as to the persons who have k 
concerned in tliem, be previously made known, s: 
distinctly explained. It is obvious, thereforeti^ 
geography, genealogy, and chronologj-. otl- s 
faithful interpreters and inseparable compamo£»> 

Geography may be divided hito the mathcra:.^' 
cal, the physical, and the political ; according' * 
the different objects which it embraces. Matt- 
matical geography regards the earth, considerix^ - 
a measurable body. Physical geography hasfi'r" 
object to examine the natural or physical strut tc 
of the eartli ; whUe political geography Ulitlrii'' 
the different divisions of the earth which men b- 
invented, such as kingdoms, states, and pro^ia^^ 
This science is also divided, relatively to the tils'* 
of which it treats, into ancient, middle-age, - 
modem geography. Ancient geography is *-; 
which explains the primitive state of the wp'- 
and its political divisions prior to the 8ubTei*ii>3 
the Roman Empire in the west. By the p^-^- 
phy of the middle ages, is understood that -^.b 
acquaints us with the political state of the mti ' 
who figured in history from the fifth century to t* 
end of the fifteenth, or the beginning of Uic ^^' 
teenth. Modem geography represents to u?' ^' 
state of the world and its political divisions, fr*''^ 
the sixteenth century to the present time. 

Antiquity has handed down to us the xrorl' 
several very eminent geographers, the most <^'^ 
brated of whom are Strabo, Ptolemy, Pompc^* 
Mela, Pausaniaa, and Stephanus of Byian^'^' 
Among the modems who have laboured in ^" 
department of geography, those more particuU' 
deserving of notice, are Cuvier, Cellarius, Bi^ 
D'Anville, Gosselin, Mannert, and Ukert. 

The geography of the middle ages is but li^ 
known ; and remains yet a sort of desert whicb v 
mands cultivation. There does not exist a ^^• 
geographical work which gives a correct rcpff^^ 
tation of that new order of things, which the G^^" 
, man nations introduced into Europe after t-' 
downfall of the Koman Empire in the fifth ceutur; 
The literati of France and German? have thn^* 

(Vlebrated ueographen. 


DiflSculties of Cliro- 
noIo{{y. ■ 

some rays of light on certain parts of these obscure 
reg^ions ; but no nation in Europe can yet boast of 
having thoroughly explored them. 

Of modem authors, too, the most conspicuous as 
the restorer of geographical science, is Sebastian 
Munster, a German, who published a voluminous 
work on cosmography, towards the middle of the 
sixteenth century. The Flemings and the Dutch 
have been among the eariiest cultivators of geo- 
graphy since the revival of letters. Ortelius, 
Gerard Mercator, Yarenius, Janson, Bleau, and 
Fischer, are well known by the maps and learned 
works which they have produced. 

Among the number of celebrated French geo- 
graphers are to be reckoned Sanson, Delisle, 
Cassini, IVAnville ; and more recently Zannoni, 
Bauche, Mentelle, Barbi6 du Bocage, Malte- 
Brun, &c. Delisle is the first who submitted 
geography to the touchstone of astronomical ob- 
servation. Busching, a German, wrote a work on 
geography, which has been translated into several 
languages, and has received various additions and 
improvements, especially in the hands of the 
French translators. M. Bitter, a professor at 
Berlin, published a work in which he gives a new 
and scientific form to geography. 

It was during the latter half of the eighteenth 
century that the attention of the learned was 
turned more particularly towards geography, when 
a series of the most elegant maps appeared in all 
the principal states of Europe. The wars that 
sprung from the revolution encouraged several 
engineers and geographers, both foreigners and 
Frenchmen, to publish those masterpieces of their 
art, the charts and plans of the coimtries that had 
served as the theatre of hostilities. 

Connected with geography is the science of 
Statistics, or the study of the constitution and po- 
litical economy of states. Two Italians, Sansovino 
and Botero, about the end of the sixteenth cen- 
tur}', were the first that attempted to treat this as 
a particular science, separate and distinct from 
geography. The Germans foUowed nearly in the 
footsteps of the Italian writers ; they introduced 
statistics into their Universities as a branch of 
study, and gave it also the name by which it is 
still knoAvn.* It was chiefly, however, during the 
course of the eighteenth century that the govem- 
raents of Eiurope encouraged the study of this new 
science, which borrows its illustratioiis from his- 
tory, and constitutes at present an essential branch 
of national polity. 

Genealogy, or the science which treats of the 
origin and descent of illustrious families, is not 
less important to the knowledge of history than 
geography. It teaches us to know and distinguish 
the principal characters that have acted a conspi- 
cuous part on tlie theatre of the world ; and by 
giving us clear and explicit ideas of the ties of re- 
lationship that subsist among sovereigns, it enables 
US to investigate the rights of succession, and the 
respective claims of rival princes. 

The study of Genealogy is full of difficulties, 
on account of the uncertainty and fabulous ob- 
scurity in which the origin of almost every great 
family is enveloped. Vanity, aided by flattery, 
has given birth to a thousand legendary wonders, 
that fidl to pieces at the touch of sound criticism. 
It is by the light of this science that we learn to 
I distinguish certainties from probabilities, and pro- 

babilities firom £&bles and conjectures. Few fa- 
milies who have occupied the thrones of former 
dynasties, or who now hold pre-eminent rank in 
Europe, can trace their genealogy beyond the 
twelilh century. The House of Capet is the only 
one that can boast of a pedigree that reaches back 
to the middle of the ninth century. The origin 
of the royal families of Savoy, Lorrain, Bruns- 
wick, England, and Baden, belongs to the eleventh 
century ; all the others are of a date posterior to 

A single fact in diplomatics has proved suffi- 
cient to discredit a multitude of errors and fables, 
that tradition had engraited on the legends of the 
dark ages. From the examinations that have 
been made of ancient charters and records, there 
is abundant evidence that, prior to the twelfth 
century, among fiimilies even the most illustrious, 
the distinction of surnames was unknown. The 
greatest noblemen, and the presumption is much 
stronger that common gentlemen, never used any 
other signature than their baptismal name; to which 
they sometimes annexed that of the dignity or or- 
der with which they were invested. There was 
therefore little chance of disttnguisliing families 
from each other, and still less of distinguishing in- 
dividuals of one and the same family. It was only 
towards the end of the eleventh century, and 
during the era of the crusades, that the use of 
&mily names was gradually introduced ; and that 
they began, in their public transactions, to super- 
add to Uieir baptismal and honorary names, that of 
the country or territory they possessed, or the 
castle where they had their residence ; and it must 
have required nearly two hmidred years before 
this practice became general in Europe. 

The Germans were the first, after the Reforma- 
tion, who combined the study of genealogy with 
that of history. Among their most distinguished 
genealogists may be mentioned Reinerus Rcin- 
eccius, Jerome Henninges, EUas Reusnerus, Ni- 
colas Rittershusiers, James- WilUam Imhof, and 
the two Gebhards of Luneburg, father and son. 
The work of Henninges is much sought after, on 
account of its rarity ; but the genealogical labours 
of the two Gebhards are particulary remarkable 
for the profound and accurate criticism they dis- 
play. The principal writers on this subject among 
the French are, D'Horier, Godefroy, Andrew 
Duchesne, St. Martha, Father Anselme, Chazot 
de Nantigny, and M. de St. Allais. 

Chronology, or the science of computing time, 
represents facts or events in the order in which 
they have occurred. The historian ought by no 
means to neglect to ascertain, as nearly as possible, 
the exact and precise date of events ; since, w^ith- 
out this knowledge, he will be perpetually liable 
to commit anachronisms, to confound things with 
persons, and often to mistake effects for causes, or 
causes for effects. 

This study is not without its difficulties, which 
are as perplexing as they ar«! singularly various, 
both in kind and degree. These embarrassments 
relate chiefiy, 1. To the age of the world; 2. 
The different forms of the year ; 3. The number 
of years that elapsed from the creation to the birth 
of Christ ; 4. The variety of epochs or periods of 
reckoning time. 

Many of the ancient philosophers maintained 
that the world was eternal. Ocellus Lucanua, a 







JalisB Ya 

Greek philoflopher of the Pythagorean sect, at- 
tempted to prore this hypothesis, in a treatise en- 
titled De Univerao, which the Marquis D*Argens 
and the Abb6 Batteux have translated into French. 
Aristotle followed in the footsteps of Ocellus. His 
opinion as to the eternity of the imiyerse is de- 
tailed at length in his commentaries on Physics. 

Some modem philosophers, as Buffon, Hamil- 
ton, Dolomieu, Saussure, Faujas de St. Fond, &c. 
hare assigned to our ^obe an existence long an- 
terior to the ages when history commences. Their 
reasoning they support by the conformation of the 
globe itself^ as well as the time that must h&Te ne- 
cessarily elapsed before the earth, in the progres- 
siTe operations of nature, could be rendered a 
suitable habitation for man. 

The most ancient account that we have of the 
origin of the world, and of the human race is de- 
rived from Moses. This leader and lawgiver of 
the Jewish nation lived about 1500 years before 
Christ; and nearly 1000 before Herodotus, the 
most ancient profime author whose works have 
been handed down to our times. According to 
Moses and the Jewish annals, the history of the 
human race does not yet comprehend a period of 
six thousand years. This account seems to be in 
opposition to that of several ancient nations, such 
as the Egyptians, Indians, Chaldeans, Thibetians, 
and Chinese, who carry back their chronology to a 
very remote date, and far beyond what Moses has 
assigned to the human race. But it is sufficient 
at present to remark, that this high antiquity, 
which vanity has led these nations to adopt as a 
reality, is either altogether imaginary, or purely 
mythological, founded on a symbolical theology, 
wnose mysteries and allegories have been but little 
understood. This primeval epoch is usually filled 
with gods and demigods, who are alleged to have 
reigned over these nations for so many myriads of 

Traditions so fabulous and chimerical will never 
destroy the authenticity of Moses, who indepen- 
dently of his nativity, and the remote age in which 
he lived, merits implicit credit from the simplicity 
of his narrative, and from the circumstance, that 
there has never yet been discovered on the sur&ce 
or in the internal structure of the earth, any or- 
ganic evidence or work of human art, that can 
lead us to believe that the history of the world, 
or more properly speaking, of the htunan race, is 
antecedent to the age which the Jewish legislator 
has assigned it. 

With regard to the division of time, a consider- 
able period must, no doubt, have elapsed before 
men began to reckon by years, calculated accord- 
ing to astronomical observations. Two sorts or 
forms of computation have been successively in 
use among different nations. Some have employed 
solar years, calculated by the annual course of the 
sun ; others have made use of lunar years, calcu- 
lated by the periodical revolutions of the moon. 
All Chnstian nations of the present day adopt the 
solar year ; while the lunar calculation is that fol- 
lowed by the Mahometans. The solar year con- 
sists of 365 days, 5 hours, 48', 45'', SO'" ; the lunar 
year, of 364 days, 3 hours, 49^, 38", 12"'. 

The invention, or more properly speaking, the 
calculation of the solar year, is due to the ancient 
Egyptians, who, by the position of their country, 
as well as by the periodical overflowings and eb- 

bings of the Nile, had eariy and obTicras iodn^^ 
ments for making astronomical observ&tiona. 'i i 
solar year has undergone, in process of time, m 
rious corrections and denominations. The ir^v 
remarkable of these are indicated by the dietii>' 
tions, still in use, of the Julian, the Gregoixi:. 
and the Reformed year. 

Julius Cesar introduced into the Roman empir 
the solar or Egyptian year, which took, frcnn h s. 
the name of the Julian year. This he substitc:-. 
instead of the lunar year, which the Romans Ix. 
used before his time. It was distimguiahed. •.- 
account of a slight variation in the reckomng, i^. 
the common and bissextile or leap year. T.> 
common Julian year consisted of 365 day9 ; tt 
the bissextile, which returned every four yean, • ' 
366 davs. This computation was &ulty, inasmo-: 
as it allowed 365 days, and 6 entire hours, for C' 
annual revolution of the sun; bein^ an exii^ 
every year, of 11', 14", 30"', beyond the true tir. 
This, in a long course of ages, had amounted * 
several days ; and began, at length, to derange U 
order of the seasons. 

Pope Gregory XIII.,' wishing to correct rr, 
error, employed an able mathematician, nas" 
Louis Lilio, to reform the Julian yetu* aocorda 
to the true annual course of the sun. A new r. 
lendar was drawn up, which was called after tb 
name of that pontiff, the Gregorian calendar ; tz 
as, in consequence of the incorrectness of v 
Julian era, the civil year had gained ten dxytk, tt 
same Pope ordered, by a bull published in' 15^ 
that these should be expunged frx>m the calendr 
so that, instead of the 5th of October 1582, thv< 
should reckon it the 15th. 

The Catholic States adopted this new caleno.: 
without the least difficulty; but the Prote«tar5 
in the Empire, and the rest of Europe, as also ti 
Russians and the Greeks, adhered to the Joii'.. 
year ; and hence the* distinction between the ci. 
and new style, to which it is necessary to pay «: 
tention in all public acts and writings since d" 
year 1582 of the Christian era. The diffrrrc* 
between the old and new style, which, until 16&K>- 
was only ten days, and eleven from the commenc.- 
ment of 1700, must be reckoned twelve 6xy- 
during the present century of ItMK); so thattk 
Ist of January of the old year, answers to the ISii 
of the new. 

The Reformed pear or Calendar, as it is calle^i. 
is distinct from the Gregorian, and applies to tSe 
calculation of the year, which was made by a fr> 
fessor at Jena, named Weigel. It differs from ib? 
Gregorian year, as to the method of calculatirj 
the time of Easter, and the other moveable imb 
of the Christian churches. The Protestanu vi 
Germany, Holland, Denmark and SwitxerUai. 
adopted this new calendar in 1700. Their ex- 
ample was followed in 1752 by Great Britain ; u^ 
in 1753, by Sweden; but since the year 1776,6; 
Protestants of Germany, Switseriand and HoUini 
abandoned the reformed calendar, and adopted ti^ 
Gregorian; and there is, properly speaking, r>' 
nation in Europe at this day, except One Rus9iv> 
and the Greeks, which makes use of the Julisa 
calendar, or old style.* 

But it is not merely the variations that have pif- ' 
vailed as to the form and computation of the yes:, 
that have perplexed the science of duonolofr; 
the different methods of commencing it have a^ 

Coaunenoemcnt of Yew. 
Old and New Style. 
Modern ChroDoloipsta. 


TheChrbtfam Enu 
Scriptuml Dates. 
Mundane £ra. 

been the source of much confusion. The Romans, 
from the time of Julius Caesar, began the year 
on the first of January. The ancient Greeks at 
iirst reckoned from the winter solstice, and after- 
wards from midsummer; the Syro-Macedonians 
or Seleucidie, conunenced from the autumnal equi- 
nox. The sacred year of the Jews began with 
the first new moon after the yemal equinox, that 
is, in the month of March ; and their civil year 
began with the new moon immediately following 
the autumnal equinox, that is, in the month of 

The same diyersity of practice which we observe 
among the ancients existed also in the middle 
ages. The Franks, under the Meroringian kings, 
began the year with the month of March. The 
Popes began it sometimes at Christmas, or the 
25th of December; sometimes on the Ist of 
January ; and sometimes on the 2dth of March, 
called indiscriminately the day of the Annuncia- 
tion, or Incarnation. Under the Carlovingian 
princes, two methods of beginning the year were 
generally prevalent in France, — ^the one fixed its 
commencement at Christmas, or the 25th of De- 
cember, and the other at Easter ; that is, at the 
day on which that moveable feast happened to 
fall. This latter custom prevailed also under the 
Capetian kings, and it was not suppressed until 
near the middle of the sixteenth century. Charles 
IX., by an edict published in 1564, ordered, that 
in France the year should henceforth commence 
on the Ist of January. Previously to this edict, 
it sometimes happened, from the variable date of 
Easter, that the same month was found to occur 
twice in one and the same year. For example, 
the year 1358 having begun on the 1st of April, 
on which Easter day happened to fall, did not ter- 
minate until the 20th of April following, that is, 
on the eve preceding Easter. There were conse- 
quently in this year nearly two complete months 
of April. Since the reign of Charles IX., it has 
continued the invariable practice in France to be- 
gin the year on the 1st of January. 

In England the year used to commence on the 
25 th of March, and the old style was there ob- 
served until 1753; when, by virtue of an act of 
Parliament, passed in 1752, the beginning of the 
year vras transferred to the Ist of January. It 
was decreed also, at the same time, that, in order 
to accommodate the English chronology to the 
new style, the 3d of September 1752 should be 
reckoned the 14th of the same month. 

It is easy to conceive the perplexity and con- 
fusion that must have been introduced into chro- 
nology, as much by the difference of styles as by 
the different methods of commencing the year. 
Nothing is more probable, than that we should 
here find mistakes and contradictions which, in 
reality, have no existence ; and the more so, as the 
writers or recorders of public acts, who employ 
these different styles, or date the beginning of the 
year variously, never give us any intimation on the 
subject ; and all reckon promiscuously from the 
year of Christ's nativity, without informing us 
whether they follow the old or the new style — 
whether they commence the year in the month 
of January or March, at Easter or at Christmas. 

Modem chronologists have found much embar- 
rassment in calculating the number of years that 
elapsed between the creation and the birth of 

Christ. Father Petau, one of the most learned 
men in this science, admits that this point of chro- 
nology is to be established rather by probable con- 
jectures than solid arguments. There have even 
been reckoned, according to Fabricius, about a 
hundred and forty different opinions respecting the 
epoch of Christ's nativity. Some fix this era in 
the year of the world 3616, while others carry it 
back to the year 6484. This great discordance of 
opinions arises from the contradictions foimd to 
exist between the three principal texts of the Old 
Testament. The Hebrew text, for instance, to 
which most chronologists give the preference, fixes 
the deluge in the year of the world 1656 ; while, 
according to the Samaritan text, it happened in 
1307 ; and, according to the Septuagint, in 2242. 
The system at present most accredited is that of 
Archbishop Usher, an Irish prelate, who, founding 
his calculation on the Hebrew text, fixes the date 
of Christ's nativity in the year of the world 4000. 

A variety of epochs prevailed at different times ; 
as most nations, both ancient and modem, who 
had governments and laws of their own, adopted 
chronological eras that were peculiar to them- 
selves. The ancient Greeks had their Olympiads, 
and the Syro-Macedonians the era of the Seleu- 
cide. The Romans calculated by consulships, 
which became the era of their public acts ; and 
besides these, their historians used to reckon from 
the foundation of the city, which goes back 752 
years before Christ, or 3249 after the creation. 
The era of Dioclesian, introduced in honour of 
that emperor, and sometimes also called the era 
of the mart}TS, began in the year 284 after Christ, 
and was for a long time used in the West. But, 
without stopping here to enumerate the different 
eras of antiquity, we shall rather restrict ourselves 
at present to the pointing out of those that belong 
more properly to modem history, vis. 1. The era 
of the modem Greeks. 2. Of the modem Jevrs. 
3. Of the Spaniards. 4. The Hegira, or Maho- 
metan era. 5. The Dionysian, or Christian era. 

The era of the modem Greeks is known by the 
name of the Mundane era of Constantinople. It 
begins 5508 years before the birth of Christ. The 
first year of the incarnation thus falls in the year 
of the world 5509 ; and, consequently, the year 
1823 of the Christian era answers to the year 7331 
of the Mimdane era of Constantinople. Under 
this system, two kinds of years are in use, the civil 
and the ecclesiastical. The former commences 
with the month of September, the other has begun 
sometimes on the 21st of March, and sometimes 
on the 1st of April. This era is followed, even at 
this day, by the Greek church. T^e Russians, 
who adopted it from the Greeks, along with the 
Christian religion, made use of it even in their 
civil acts, until the reign of Peter the Great. 
That emperor, in 1700, abolished the Mundane 
era of Constantinople, and substituted in its place 
the Christian era, and the Julian calendar or old 

The modem Jews have likewise a mundane 
era; as they reckon from the creation of the 
world. It commences on the 7th of October of 
the Julian year, and reckons 3761 years before 
Christ. The year 3762 of the world is the first of 
the Christian era, accQrding to the Jews ; and the 
year 1823 answers to the year 55S3 of their mun- 
dane era. 



Yalgu Era. 
Julum Period. 


Solar and Lonar Cydia. 
Cycle of Indirtioiiis. 

In Spain, the era began with the year of Borne 
714, 38 years before the birth of Christ ; being the 
time when the triumyirate was renewed between 
Cssar Octavianns, Mark Antony, and Lepidus. 
The Spaniards, wishing to giye Octavianus some 
testimony of their satisfaction on being compre- 
hended within his province, began a new era with 
this event,^ which prevaile'd not only in Spain and 
Portugal, but also in Africa, and those parts of 
France which were subject to the dominion of the 
Yisigoihs. It is of great importance to know 
that the Spaniards and Portuguese constantly em- 
ployed this era in their annals and public acts, so 
late as the 14th and 15th centuries, when they 
substituted the Christian era in its place. 

The era which the Mussulman nations follow is 
that of Mahomet, called the Hegira, or the Flight 
of the Prophet. It began on the 16th of July 
622 A. C, and is composed of lunar years. In 
order to find out in what year of the rulgar era any 
given year of the Hegira falls, it is necessary first 
to reduce the lunar into solar years, and then add 
the number 622. For example, the year 1238 of 
the Hegira answers to the year 1823 of the vulgar, 
or Christian era. It began on the 18th of Sep- 
tember 1822, and ended on the 7th of the follow- 
ing September. 

Dionysius, or Denys the Little, a Roman Abb6, 
who lived in the time of the Emperor Justinian, 
about the year of Christ 530, was the author of 
the vulgar era, which aflter\^'ards received a more 
perfect form from the hands of the venerable Bede, 
an English monk, about the year 720. Before 
that time, the Latins, or Christians of the West, 
employed the era of the Consuls, or that of Dio- 
desiau. Denys the Little, imagining it would be 
more convenient for the Christians to reckon their 
time from the birth of Christ, applied himself with 
great industry to calculate the number of years 
ihat had elapsed from the Incarnation to his own 
times. Modem chronologists have remarked, that 
both Denys and Bede were mistaken in their cal- 
culations ; but a difference of opinion prevails on 
this subject, as may be seen in the learned work 
of Fabricius. There are some of these chronolo- 
gists who date the birth of Christ thirty-four years 
earlier, while others find a difference of but one 
year, or at most four, between the true epoch of 
the nativity, and that adopted by Denys. This 
disagreement of the modem chronologists has given 
rise to the distinction between the true era of the 
birth of Christ, and the Vulgar or Dionynan era, 
which the general usage has now consecrated and 

In France, this era was not introduced until the 
eighth century. We find it employed, for the first 
time, in the acts of the Councils of Germany, 
Liptines, and Soissons, held in the years 742-3-4, 
under Pepin, sumamed the Short. The Kings of 
France never used it in their public acts, until the 
end of the ninth century; and the Popes only 
since the eleventh. 

In order to compare the different eras, and to 
facilitate the process of reducing the years of one 
into those of another, a scheme has been proposed 
called the Julian period. The invention of this is 
due to Joseph Scali^er, a professor at Leyden, and 
well known by his chronological works. He gave 
it the name of Julian^ because the Julian year 
sen-ed as the basis of it. It is composed of the 

several products of the cycles of the aun, the zboc>^ 
and the indictions multiplied by each other. 

The cycle of the tun is a period, or revolat:i i 
of twenty-eight solar years ; at the end. of wh: \ 
the same order of years returns, by a kind of cir< 
cle or cycle. Its use is to indicate the days 'S 
which each year commences, and the I>oziiiiU'i. 
Letters. These are the first seven lettera of ik 
alphabet, a, b, c, d, e, p, o, which are emplovrc 
to indicate tlie seven days of the week* more par- 
ticularly the Sabbath (cfiea />omtmca). At ti- 
end of twenty -eight years, of which this cycW c 
composed, there returns a new order or serii'? ' 
years, so similar to the preceding, that the Dc>:si- 
nical letters again answer exactly to the sul-' 

The cycle of the moon comprises nineteen Im^ 
years, twelve of which are called common, and ti- 
remaining seven intercalary ; these yield a {mMi^- 
of 6930 days 18 hours, according to the calculate :. 
of the ancients ;* and are equal to nineteen Juiiaii t 
solar years. By means of this cycle alwaya re^L: 
ring, the new moons fall again on the same Ji,'' 
and the same hours on which they had happtrs^ 
nineteen years before ; so that, for all the lt* 
moons, the cycle which is to come is entirel\ ti 
milar to the preceding. The cipher which inc.- 
cates the year of the cycle is called the gxd^i 
numbert because they used to write it in chancier 
of gold in the ancient calendars, where it was em- 
ployed to mark the times of the new moons. 

The cycle qf indictions is a cycle which reccr 
every fifteen years ; and which, like those alrean 
mentioned, was frequently employed in charttr 
and public records. The origin of these indietiDi- 
is generally referred to a contribution or ceas sf- 
pointed, for fifteen years, by the Romans, and ai^t^ 
wards renewed for the same period. They bepi 
in the reign of Constantino the Great* that is, abo. 
the year of Christ 313, and are distinguished u-h 
three kinds; 1. that of Constantinople, whL' 
was employed by the Greek Emperors, and V 
gan on the Ist of September ; 2. that wbiri 
was termed the Imperial, or Ccesarean indictkc 
the use of which was limited to the West, a^ 
which began on the 25th of Septemher; S2i;i 
3. the Roman or Pontifical indiction, which the 
Popes employed in their bulls. This last foe^ 
on the 2dth of December, or the Ist of Janoirr 
according as the one or the other of these day 
was reckoned by the Romans the first of the nr^ 

The cycle of the sun, comprising twenty-cit-k 
years, and that of the moon nineteen, when mulii- 
plied together, give a product of 532, which is calk'- 
the Paschal cycle, because it serves to ascertais ik 
feast of Easter. The product of 532, multiplied b; 
15, the cycle of indictions, amounts to the numbfi 
7980, which constitutes the Julian period. Wilk- 
in the compass of this period may be placed, ss i^ 
were, under one view, these different eras aii«i 
epochs, in order to compare and reconcile tbes: 
with each other ; adopting, as their common tens. 
the nativity of Christ, fixed to the year 4714 of the 
Julian period. 

History has been divided, according to the dif- 
ferent subjects of which it treats, into Civil, £c<.k< 
siastical. Literary, and Philosophical Hi)<tDn 
Civil and political history is occupied entirely witi; 
events that relate to mankind, as distributed iaU-> 

Eccleaiastieal Hiatory. 
UniTersal Uiatory. 
The Middle A^ev. 


Aiicieut HIcftoriaui. 
Eitrljr MoDarchiei. 
Orecian States. 

societies, and united together by gOTernxnenti, 
lawB, and manners. Ecclesiastical history is con- 
fined to those events that properly belong to re- 
ligion. Literary history treats more particularly 
of the origin, progress, and yicissitudes of the arts 
and sciences. Lastly, philosophical history, which 
is but a branch or sub-division of literary history, 
illustrates the different systems of philosophy that 
have flourished in the world, both in ancient and 
modem times. 

Another division of histor}', according to its ex- 
tent, is that of Universal, General, and Particular 
History. Universal history gives a kind of outline 
or summary of the events of all the nations that 
have figured on the earth, from the remotest ages 
to the present time. 

By general history, is understood that which 
treats of the revolutions that have happened in 
the world, whether of great states or confederate 
powers, or of several nations combined together, 
by various and complicated interests. Thus, there 
may be a general history of France, or of Great 
Britain, a general history of the United Provinces, 
a general history of £iu*ope, &c. Particular his- 
tory embraces, in detail, the events of a particular 
people, or province, or city, or illustrious indi- 

Finally, in regard to the time of which it treats, 
history is distinguished into Ancient and Modem, 
and that of the Middle Ages. Ancient history is 
that of the nations who nourished from the time 
of the creation to the fifth century ; while the his- 
tory of the middle ages has, for its object, the re- 
volutions that took place from the fifth to the end 
of the fifteenth centiuy. What is now termed 
modem history, is that which retraces the events 
of the last three centuries. 

This division, which applies more particularly 
to the history of Europe, is founded on the great 
revolutions which this part of the world experi- 
enced in the fifth and fifteenth centuries. The 
revolution of the fifth century ended in the sub- 
version of the Roman empire in the West, and 
gave birth to the principal states in modem Eu- 
rope ; while that of the fiifteenth century, which 
dates its commencement from the destruction of 
the Eastern empire, brought along with it the re- 
vival of literature and the fine arts, and the reno- 
vation of civil society in Europe. 

Although ancient history does not enter into the 
plan of the following work, nevertheless it appear- 
ed necessary to give here a brief sketch of it to 
the reader, with the view of connecting the order 
of time, and the chain of the great events that 
have occurred from the remotest ages to the pre- 
sent day. We have divided it into three periods, 
the first of which embraces 3000, the second 1000, 
and the third 500 years. 

The first period, which comprises thirty centu- 
ries, is almost wholly fabulous. The notices of it 
that have been transmitted to us are very imperfect. 
The order of time cannot be established on any 
solid foundation. Even the authenticity of the 
famous Parian marbles has been called in ques- 
tion as spurious ; and there is no other chronology 
that can guide our steps through this dark labyrinth 
of profane history. The only literary monuments 
that are left us of these remote and obscure ages, 
are the books of Moses and the Jews. Herodotus, 
the earliest pro&ne historian, wrote more than 

a thousand years after Moses, and about 450 be- 
fore Christ. He had been preceded several cen- 
turies by Sanchoniathon the Phccnician ; but the 
work of this latter historian is lost, and there exist 
only a few scattered fragments of it in Porphyry 
and Eusebius. 

It appears, therefore, that of the 4500 years that 
fall within the compass of ancient history, the first 
thirty centuries may, without inconvenience, be 
retrenched. Amidst the darkness of those ages, 
we discover nothing but the germs of societies, 
governments, sciences, and arts. The Egyptians, 
the Israelites, the Phoenicians, the Assyrians, the 
Babylonians, or Chaldeans, made then the most 
conspicuous figure among tlie nations of Asia and 

The Egyptians and Chaldeans were the first 
who cultivated astronomy. Egypt was long the 
nursery of arts and sciences. The Phcenicians, 
without any other guide than the stars, boldly 
traversed unknown seas, and gave a vast extent of 
intercourse to their commerce and navigation. 
They founded many celebrated colonies, such as 
Carthage in Africa, and Malaga, and Cadiz on the 
shores of Spain. 

The history of Europe, which is utterly un- 
known during the first two thousand years, begins 
to exhibit in the third millenary a few slight no- 
tices of ancient Greece. A multitude of petty 
states had then taken root; most of which, as 
Argos, Athens, and Thebes, had been founded by 
colonies from Egypt. The Greeks, in imitation of 
the Phoenicians, applied themselves to arts, navi- 
gation, and commerce. They established nume- 
rous colonies, not only on the coasts of Asia 
Minor, but on those of Italy and Sicily. That in 
Lower Italy, or Calabria, was known by the name 
of Magna Grecia. 

It was during the second period of ancient his- 
tory, or in the fourth millenary, that great and 
powerful monarchies arose ; which contributed to 
the progress of arts and civilisation, and the per- 
fection of society. These are commonly reckoned 
five, viz., the Egyptian, the Assyrian, the Persian, 
the Macedonian, and the Roman; all of which 
successively estabHsbed themselves on the ruins of 
each other. 

The history of the first two monarchies is en- 
veloped in mystery and doubt. Of the ancient 
Egyptians, nothing now remains but their pyrar 
mids, their temples, and obelisks, — monuments 
which can only attest the power and grandeur of 
the ancient sovereigns of Egypt. 

As to the Assyrian antiquities, the contradio- 
tions that we find between the narratives of Hero- 
dotus and Ctesias, cannot fail to make us reject, 
as fabulous, the details of the latter, respecting the 
magnificence of Ninus, Semiramis, and Sarda- 
napalus, the supposed monarchs of Assyria and 
Babylon. Nothing certain is known of this em- 
pire, or the conquests of these kings, beyond what 
we find recorded in the annals of the Jews. Shal- 
maneser, King of Assyfia, subdued the kingdom 
of Samaria or Israel, about the year of the world 
3270 ; and Nebuchadnezzar, one of his successors, 
conquered that of Judah and Jerusalem, about the 
year 3403. 

The Persian monarchy was founded by Cyrus, 
who put an end to the dominion of the Assyrians 
and Babylonians, by taking the city of Babylon, 


P(>Tsiaii Empire. 
Conquests of Alezandpr. 
Greece Subdued. 


Kings of Borne. 
Republic of " 

about the year of the world 3463. The Persian 
empire, when at its greatest height, under Darius 
Hystaspes, comprehended all that part of Asia 
which stretches from the Indus to the Caspian 
Sea, and from the £uxine to the shores of the 
Mediterranean. EgjT)t in Africa, and Thrace in 
Europe, were subject to its laws. After a dura- 
tion of nearly two centuries, it was finally de- 
stroyed by the Macedonians in the year 3672. 

Greece, which was at first divided into several 
petty kingdoms, changed its condition towards the 
commencement of the fourth millenary ; when its 
principal cities, till then governed by kings, formed 
themselves into detached republics. An enthu- 
siasm for liberty spread over all Greece, and in- 
spired every bosom with the love of glory. Mili- 
tary bravery, as well as arts, and talents of all 
kinds, were fostered and encouraged by public 
games, the principal of which were the Olympic. 
Two cities, Athens and Lacedemou, fixed upon 
themselves for a time the eyes of all Greece. So- 
lon was the legislator of the former, and Lycurgus 
of the latter. To these two republics all the rest 
succumbed, either as allies, or by right of conquest. 
Athens has rendered herself immortal by the vic- 
tories which she gained over the Persians, at the 
famous battles of Marathon, Salamis, and Flatea ; 
fought A. M. 3512, 3522, and 3523. 

The ascendancy which these victories procured 
the Athenians over the rest of the Greek states, 
excited the jealousy of the Laccdsmouians, and 
became the principal cause of the famous civil war 
which arose in 3572, between these two republics, 
and which is known by the name of the Pelopon- 
nesian war. This was followed by various other 
civil wars ; and these disasters contributed greatly 
to exhaust the Greeks, and to break that union 
which had been the true source of their prosperity 
and their glory. Philip, King of Macedon, had 
the address to turn these unhappy divisions to his 
own advantage, and soon made himself master of 
all Greece. The battle of Chajronea, which he 
gained over the Athenians about the year of the 
world 3646, completed the conquest of that coun- 

Alexander the Great, son of Philip, afterwards 
attacked the Persian empire, which he utterly 
overthrew, in consequence of the three victories 
which he gained over Darius Codomannus, the last 
of the Persian kings, at the passage of the Granicus 
in 3668, at Issus in 3669, and near Arbela in 

The monarchy founded by Alexander fell to pieces 
after his death. From its wreck were formed, 
among others, by three of his generals, the three 
kingdoms of Macedon, Syria, and Egypt ; all of 
which were conquered in succession by the Ro- 
mans, A. K. 3835, 3936, and 3972. Greece itself 
had been reduced to a Roman province, after the 
famous sack of Corinth, and the destruction of the 
Achsean league, a. m. 3856, or 144 years before 

The empire of the Greeks was succeeded by 
that of the Romans, which is distinguished from 
all its predecessors, not more by its extent and 
duration, than by the wisdom vrith which it was 
administered, and the fine monuments of all kinds 
which it has transmitted to posterity. The great- 
ness of this empire was not, however, the achieve- 
ment of a single conqueror, but the work of ages. 

Its prosperity must be chiefly ascribed to the pri- 
mitive constitution of the RepubUc, which iuspbrc 
the Romans vrith the love of liberty, and the spir-- 
of patriotism, — ^^vhich animated them to glory ari 
perseverance, and taught them to despise dangrr^ 
and death. Their religion, likewise, served as i 
powerful engine to restrain and direct the multi- 
tude, according to the views and designs of tbr 

The earlier part of the Roman history may b* 
divided into three periods. The first of the^e rr- 
presents Rome under the government of luns*. 
from the time of its foundation, about the year v 
the world 3249, to the expulsion of Tarquin tfe- 
Proud, and the establishment of the Bepublic. j 
3493. The second extends from the establishzD"! 
of the Republic, in the year of Rome 245, to lb- 
first Punic Mar, in the year of the City 490, is?; 
of the world 3738. The third commences ni;^- 
the first Punic war, and terminates at the \ntt 
of Actium, which put an end to the Repubik^ 
government, and re-established monarchy und-j 
Augustus, in the year of Rome 723. 

During the first of these periods, the Roma- 
had to sustain incessant wars with their neigfabocr 
the petty states of Italy. They subdued the wb" 
of that peninsula in course of the second perii^. 
and it was not till the third, that they carnt. 
their arms beyond their own coimtry, to conqi^r 
the greater portion of the then known "world. Tt- 
first two periods of the Roman history are full > 
obscure and imcertain traditions. In those reirp* 
ages, the Romans paid no attention to the stuc 
of letters. Immersed entirely in the busine5« ' 
war, they had no other historical records than ib- 
annals of their pontiffs, which perished in the ssn 
of Rome, at the time of its invasion by the Gauk 
in the year of the City 365. 

The most ancient of their historians was Fabh- 
Pictor, who wrote his Annals in the sixth ccjitm^ 
after the foundation of Rome, or about the time 'i' 
the second Punic war. These Annals, in whif!- 
Fabius had consulted both tradition and foreign 
authors, are lost ; and we possess no informark i 
on these two periods of Roman histor^\ exoep" 
what has been left us by Dionysius of Halici:- 
nassus, and Titus Livius, who both wrote in die 
reign of Augustus, and whose narratives oites 
resemble a romance rather than a true history. 

The cultivation of letters and arts among the 
Romans did not, properly speaking, commeQCf 
until the third period ; and after they had had in- 
tercourse with civUized nations, as the Carthagh 
nians and Greeks. It was not until 484 y&p- 
after the building of the city that they struck 'the:; 
first silver coinage ; and ten years afterwards, tbf} 
equipped their first fleet against the Cartha^nias<^ 
It is at this period, also, that truth begins to davr 
upon their history, and to occupy the place id 
fiible and tradition. Besides their native histo- 
rians, Titus Livius, Florus, and Velleins Paterra- 
lus, several Greek authors, as Polybius, Plutarrk 
Appian of Alexandria, Dion Cassius, &c. hstf 
furnished useful memorials on this period. Th( 
history of Polybius, especially, is a work of tb-. 
highest merit. The statesman will there find les- 
sons on politics and government, and the soldier 
instructions in the art of war. 

A long series of foreign wars put the Romans 
in possession of the Isles of the MediterranetA. 


Carthage Founded. 
Punic Wa». 
Roman Triumvirates. 


Roman Empire. 
Titiu^Tnijan, and 
the Aiitonines. 

Spain, Northern Africa, Egypt, Gaul, Illyria, Ma- 
cedonia, Greece, Thrace, and all Asia, ae far as 
the Euphrates. The destruction of the powerful 
repuhlic of Carthage was the grand cast of the die 
that decided the empire of the world in fiiTour of 
the Romans. 

Carthage was a colony which the ancient Phe- 
nicians had founded on the coast of Africa, near 
the modem city of Tunis, in the year of the world 
3119, and 130 before the foimding of Rome. In 
imitation of their mother country, the Carthagi- 
nians rendered themselves femous by their mer- 
chandise and their marine. The extent to which 
they carried their commerce, and the force neces- 
sary- for its protection, rendered their arms eyery- 
where rictorious. They gradually extended tlieir 
conquests along the shores of Africa, in Spain, and 
the islands of the Mediterranean. 

The attempts which they had made to get pos- 
session of Sicily was the occasion of embroiling 
them in a war with the Romans. For nearly two 
hundred years, Rome and Carthage disputed be- 
tween them the empire of the world ; and it was 
not until these two mighty riTals had, more than 
once, made each other tremble for their independ- 
ence, that the Carthaginians yielded to the yoke 
of the conqueror. Their capital, after a siege 
w^hich lasted nearly three years, was completely 
laid in ruins by the fiimous Scipio JBmilianus, the 
scholar of Polybius. No monument of the Car- 
thaginians now remains to point out the ancient 
splendour of that republic. Their national ar- 
chives, and all the literary treasures they contained, 
perished with the city, or were destroyed by the 
Romans. The destruction of Carthage happened 
in the year of Rome 608, and of the world 3866, 
the same year that witnessed the sack of Corinth. 

The fall of Carthac^e, and more especially the 
conquest of Greece, Egypt, and the Asiatic king- 
doms, occasioned a wonderful revolution in the 
manners and government of the Romans, The 
riches of the East, the arts and institutions of the 
vanquished nations, brought them acquainted with 
luxuries they had never known, which soon proved 
the fatal harbingers of vice. Their patriotism and 
love of liberty insensibly declined, and became 
extinct : powerful and ambitious citizens fomented 
insurrections and civil wars, which ended in the 
subversion of the republican government, and the 
establishment of monarchy. 

Two triumvirates appeared in succession. The 
first consisted of Fompey, Ceesar, and Crassus, 
and was dissolved in consequence of the civil war 
that arose among the triumvirs. Ctesar, having 
conquered Fompey at the battle of Fharsalia, in 
the year of Rome 706, became master of the em- 
pire^ under the title of perpetual dictator. This 
new elevation of fortune he did not long enjoy ; 
he was assassinated in the senate by a band of con- 
spirators, at the head of whom was Brutus, in the 
year of Rome 710, and 42 before the birth of 

A second triumvirate vnis formed between Mark 
Antony, Cssar Octavianus, and Lepidus. Many 
thousands of illustrious Romans, and among others 
Cicero, were at this time proscribed, and put to 
death by order of the triumvirs. Jealousy hai-ing 
at length disunited these new tyrants, Octavianus 
stript Lepidus of his power, and defeated Mark 
Antony in the famous naval battle which took 

place near the promontory of Actium, in the year 
of Rome 723. Antony having been assassinated 
in £g>'pt, immediately after his defeat, Ca.'8ar Oc- 
tavianus became sole master of the empire, which 
he afterwards ruled with sovereign authority under 
the name of Augustus. 

At this time the Roman empire comprehended 
the finest countries of Europe and Asia, with 
Egypt and all the northern part of Africa. It 
was bounded on the west by the Rhine and the 
Danube, and on the east by the Euphrates. The 
successors of Augustus added the greater part of 
Britain to the empire. Trajan carried his victori- 
ous arms beyond the Danube ; he conquered the 
Dacians, who inhabited those countries known at 
present under the name of Hungary, Transylvania, 
Moldavia, Walachia, and Bessarabia. In the East 
this prince extended the limits of the empire be- 
yond the Euphrates, having subdued Mesopotamia, 
Assyria, Armenia, Colchis and Iberia (or Geor- 
gia) ; but the conquests of Trajan were aban- 
doned by his successors, and the empire again 
shrunk within the bounds prescribed by Augustus. 

This empire, which extended from north to 
south nearly six hundred leagues, and more than 
a thousand from east to west, viz. from the 24*^ to 
the 56** of latitude, comprised a total of 180,000 
square leagues. The population, during its most 
flourishing state, may be estimated at about 
120,000,000,— a population which equals that of 
modem Europe, with the exception of Great Bri- 
tain, Denmark, Sweden, Russia, and Turkey. 

The government which had been introduced 
was an absolute monarchy, only clothed with the 
forms of the ancient republic. Under the popular 
titles of consul, tribune of the people, general, 
grand pontiff, censor, &c., the prince united in 
himself all the various attributes of supreme power. 
The senate indeed enjoyed extensive prerogatives ; 
the legislative power, which had been reserved at 
first for the people, was afterwards transferred to 
this body ; but as the military were wholly sub- 
ordinate to the prince, and as he had also at liis 
command a numerous guard, it is easy to perceive 
that the authority of the senate was but precari- 
ous, and by no means a counterpoise to that of the 

A government so constructed could not insure 
the welfiEu:e and happiness of the people, except 
under princes as humane as Titus, as just and en- 
lightened as Trajan and the Antonines ; or so long 
as the forms introduced by Augustus should be 
respected. It could not fail to degenerate into ar- 
bitrary power, under tyrants such as Tiberius, 
Caligula, Nero, and Domitian ; and the senate 
must then have been but a servile instrument in 
the hands of the prince, employed by him to faci- 
litate the means of satiating his passions and his 

The maxims of absolute power soon became the 
fashionable and favourite doctrine. Civilians be- 
gan to teach publicly that all the authority of the 
senate and the people was transferred to the 
prince ; that he was superior to the laws ; that his 
power extended to the lives and fortunes of the 
citizens ; and that he might dispose of the state 
as his own patrimony. These encroachments of 
despotism, joined to the instability of the imperial 
throne, the decay of military discipline, the un- 
bridled licence of the troops, the employing whole 

10 Christianity EataUiahed. 
Arcadius. Ilonoriiu. 


The Nina Periods 
treated of in thb 

corps of barbarians in their wars, must all be reck- 
oned among the number of causes that hastened 
the downfall of the Roman empire. 

Constantine the Great was the first of the em- 
perors that embraced Christianity, and made it 
the established religion of the state in 324. He 
quitted tlie city of Rome, the ancient residence 
of the Csesars, and fixed his capital at Byzantium, 
in 330, which took from him the name of Con- 
stantinople. Anxious to provide for the security 
of his new capital, he stationed the fiower of his 
legions in the East, dismantled the frontiers on the 
Ilhine and the Danube, and dispersed into the 
provinces and towns the troops who had hereto- 
fore encamped on the borders of these great rivers. 
In this way he secured the peace and tranquillity 
of the interior, and infused, for a time, a new vi- 
gour into the government; but he committed a 
great mistake in giving the first example of mak- 
ing a formal division of the state between his sons, 
without regard to the principle of unity and indi- 
visibility which his predecessors had held sacred. 
It is true, this separation was not of long continu- 
ance ; but it was renewed afterwards by Theodo- 
sius the Great, who finally divided the empire be- 
t\veen his two sons in the year 395 ; Arcadius 
had the eastern, and Honorius the western part of 
the empire. This latter comprehended Italy, 
Gaul, Britain, Spain, Northern Africa, Rhetia, 
Yindelicia, Noricum, Faiinonia, and Illyria. It 
was during the reign of Honorius, and under the 
administration of his minister Stilico, that the 
memorable invasion of the barbarians happened, 
which was followed shortly after by the destruc- 
tion of the Western Empire. 

It is with this great event, which gave birth to 
a variety of new states and kingdoms, that the fol- 
lowing History of the Revolutions of Europe com- 
mences. It is divided into nine sections or pe- 
riods of time, according to the successive changes 
which the political system of Europe experienced 
from the fifth to the nineteenth century. 

In ihejirstf which extends to the year 800, the 
barbarians, who invaded the Western Empire, 
formed new states in Spain, Gaul, and Italy ; and 
produced a complete revolution in the govern- 
ment, laws, manners, letters, and arts of Europe. 
It was during tliis period that the Franks gained 
the ascendancy over th e other European nations ; 
that the Popes laid the groimdwork of their secu- 
lar power ; that Mahomet founded a new religion 
in Asia, and an empire which extended through 
Africa into Spain. 

In the second period, which extends from 800 
to 962, a vast empire waa erected, and again dis- 
membered, after enjoying a short-lived splendour. 
From its wreck were formed new kingdoms, which 
have served as the basis for several states of mo- 
dem times. Others were established by the Nor- 
mans, Russians, and Hungarians. 

In the third period, which terminates with the 
year 1072, Germany became the preponderating 
power, and began to decline, through the abuse of 
the feudal system. The House of Capet mounted 
the throne of France ; and the Normans arhieved 
the conquest of England. The Northern nations, 
converted to Christianity, began to make some 

figure in history : the monarchy of Russia becaxxtt 
great and powerful ; while the Greek empire, ar 
that of the Romans, fell into decay. 

During the fourth period, which ends -with t^- 
year 1300, the Roman Pontifik acquired an in.- 
mense sway. This is also the epoch of the Cra- 
sades, which had a powerful influence on ib 
social and political state of the European nation 
The darkness of the middle ages began grad\:iLi 
to disappear ; tlie establishment of commnnibes 
and the enfranchisement of the serfe, gave bir:: 
to new ideas of liberty. The Roman jim*pr- 
dence was restored firom the neglect and obli^..: 
into which it bad fallen, and taught in the unive;- 
sities : Italy vraa covered with a multitude of ^ 
publics, and the kingdoms of the Two Sicilies, &ii 
of Portugal were founded: The inquisition vi: 
established in France, and Magna Charta, in £i^ 
land : The Moguls in the East raised, by thrj 
conquests, a powerful and extensive empire. 

The J^fth period, which ends at the takine < 
Constantinople by the Turks in 1453, witness, 
the decline of the Pontifical jurisdiction : Learoj^ 
and science made some progress, and -various jl- 
portant discoveries prepared the ym.y for ft- 
greater improvements : Commerce began to fio.- 
rish, and extend its intercourse more i^idely : t'& 
Eiuropean states assumed their present form ; wkir 
the Turks, an Asiatic race, established their &.- 
minion in Europe. 

The sixth period, from 1453 to 1648, is 6 
epoch of the revival of the belles lettrea, and the fise 
arts ; and of the discovery of America : It is aW 
that of the Reformation of religion acoompli^h-. 
in Germany ; the influence of which has extcndii! 
over all the countries in the world. It ^wa« hi<^ 
wise during this period that Europe waa desolate 
by religious wars, which eventually must hi"^ 
plunged it again into a state of barbarism. Tb 
peace of Westphalia became the basis of the p<kt- 
tical system of Europe. 

In the seventh period, from 1648 to 1713, ib^ 
federal system was turned against France* whose 
power threatened to overturn the political balann 
of Europe. The peace of Utrecht set bounds ts? 
the ambition of its aspiring monarcbe, while th3: 
of Oliva adjusted the contending claims of ik 

The European states, delivered from the terrcT 
of imiversal dominion, began to think the e^- 
blishment of it an impossibility ; and losing cos- 
ceit of the system of political equipoise, they sub- 
stituted in its place maxims of injustice sac 

The eighth period, which comes down to l?^*- 
is an epoch of weakness and corruption, duiin; 
which the doctrines of a libertine and impious phi- 
losophy led the way to the downflEdl of thrones ui 
the subversion of social order. 

[The consequences of this new philosophy brios 
us to the ninth period, during which Europe vis 
almost entirely revolutionized. The present his- 
tory terminates with the year 1815, which foio 
a natural division in this revolutionary epoch ; the 
final results of which can be known only to pes- 
terity.] I 

Invasion of the Eoman 
Empire by Northern 

PERIOD I. A.D. 406-«00. 

The Vandab. 

The Qoths. IX 

The Frankfl. 



The Roman empire had, for many yean, been 
fpradually tending towards its downniU. Its ener- 
^es were exhausted; and it required no great 
efforts to lay prostrate that gigantic power which 
had ah-eady lost its strengUi and activity. The 
vices of the goTemment, the relaxation of disci- 
pline, the animosities of faction, and the miseries 
of the people, all announced the approaching ruin 
of the empire. Divided by mutual jealousies, 
enervated by luxury, and oppressed by despotism, 
the Romans were in no condition to withstand the 
numerous swarms of barbarians from the North, 
who, unacquainted witli luxury, and despising 
danger and death, had learned to conquer in the 
ranks of the Imperial armies. 

Several of the Emperors, guided by a short- 
sighted policy, had received into their pay entire 
battalions of foreigners ; and, to recompense their 
services, had assigned them settlements in the 
frontier provinces of the empire. Thus the Franks 
obtained, by way of compensation, territories in 
Belgic Gaul ; while simihur grants were made in 
Pannouia and in Thrace to the Yandals, Alans, 
Goths, and other barbarians. This liberality of 
the Romans, which was a true mark of weakness, 
together with the vast numbers of these troops 
which they employed in their vrars, at length ac- 
customed the barbarians to regard the empire as 
their prey. Towards the close of the year 400, 
the Yandals, the Suevi, and the Alans, sounded 
the tocsin of that fi&mous invasion which accele- 
rated the dovimfall of the Western empire. The 
example of these nations was soon followed by the 
Visigoths, the Burgundians, the Alemanns,* the 
Franks, the Huns, the Angles, the Saxons, the 
Heruls, the Ostrogoths, and the Lombards. All 
these nations, with the exception of the Huns, 
were of German origin. 

The Vandals, it appears, were originally set- 
tled in that part of northern Germany which lies 
between the Elbe and the Vistula. They formed 
a branch of the ancient Suevi, as did also the Bur- 
gundians and the Lombards. After the third cen- 
tury, and under the reign of the Emperor Probus, 
we Hnd them, with the Burgundians, engaged in 
warring against the Romans on the Rhine. In 
the time of Aurelian (272) they established them- 
selves in the Western part of Dada, that is, in 
Transylvania, and a part of modem Hungary. 
Oppressed in these districts by the Goths, they 
obtained from Constantine the Great settlements 
in Pannonia» on condition of rendering military 
service to the Romans. They remained in Pan- 
nonia until the commencement of the fifth century, 
when they set out on their emigration towards 
Gaul. It was on this occasion that they associated 
themselves vrith the Alans, a people originally 
from Mount Caucasus and ancient Scythia; a 
branch of which, settled in Sarmatia near the 
source of the Bor^'sthenes or Dnieper, had ad- 
vanced as far as the Danube, and there made a 

formidable stand against the Romans. In their 
passage through Germany, the Vandab and the 
Alans joined a body of the Suevi, who also in- 
habited the banks of the Danube, eastward of the 
powerful nation of the Alemanns. United in this 
rude confederac}', they entered Gaul, plundering 
and destroying wherever they went. Mayence, 
Worms, Spire, Strasbourg, and many flourishing 
cities of Gaul, were pillaged by these barbarians. 

The Goths," the most powerful of these de- 
structive nations, began to rise into notice in the 
third centur}', after the time of the Emperor 
Caracalla. They then inhabited the country 
between the Vistula, the Dniester, the Borys- 
thenes, and the Tanais or Don. It ia not certain 
whether they were originally from these regions, 
or whether, in more remote times, they inhabited 
Scandinavia, from which, according to Jomandes, 
a Gothic author, they emigrated at an early period. 
It is however certain that fiiey were of German ex- 
traction ; and that, in the third and fourth centuries, 
they made the Caesars tremble on their thrones. 
The Emperor Aurelian was compelled (274) to 
abandon the province of Dacia to their dominion. 

This nation, the first of the German tribes that 
embraced the Christian religion,' was divided, in 
their ancient settlements beyond the Danube, into 
two principal branches. They who inhabited the 
districts towards the east and the Euxine Sea, 
between the Dniester, the Borysthene8,and the 
Tanais, were called Ostrogoths ; the Visigoths were 
the branch which extended westward, and occupied 
ancient Dacia, and the regions situated between 
the Dniester, the Danube, and the Vistula. At- 
tacked in these vast coimtries by the Huns (375), 
some were subjugated, and others compelled to 
abandon their habitations. A part of tiie Visi- 
goths then fixed their abode in Thrace, in Moesia, 
and the frontiers of Dacia, with consent of the 
emperors; who granted also to the Ostrogoths 
settlements in Pannonia. At length the Visigoths, 
after having twice ravaged Italy, sacked and plun- 
dered Rome, ended their conquests by establishing 
themselves in Gaul and in Spain. One branch of 
these Goths appears to have been the Thuringians, 
whom we find in the fifth century established in 
the heart of Germany, where they erected a very 
powerful kingdom. 

The Franks were probably a confederacy which 
the German tribes, situated between the Rhine, 
the Maine, the Weser, and the Elbe, had formed 
among themselves, in order to maintain their 
liberty and independence against the Romans. 
Tacitus, who wrote about the commencement of 
the second century, did not know them under this 
new name, which occurs for the first time in the 
historians of the third century. Among the Ger- 
man tribes who composed this association we jiud 
the Chauci, the Sicambri, the Chamavi, the Che- 
ruBci, the Bructeri, the Catti, the Ampsivarii, the 
Ripuarii, the Salii, &c.^ These tribes, tliough com- 

The Oermaos. 
12 The Alemanni. 
The Huiui. 



Suevi invaicLe Gud. 

bined for the purposes of common defence, under 
the general name of Franks, preserved, neverthe- 
less, each their laws and form of government, as 
well as their particular chiefs, and the names of 
their aboriginal tribes. In the fourth, and towards 
the beginning of the fifth century, the whole 
country lying within the Rhine, the Weser, the 
Maine, and tlie Elbe, was called Franem. 

Another confederation of the German tribes was 
that of the Alemanns ; unknown also to Tacitus. 
It took its origin about the commencement of the 
third century. Their territories extended between 
the Danube, the Rhine, the Necker, the Maine, 
and the Lahn. On the east, in a part of Franconia 
and modem Suabia, they had for their neighbours 
and allies the Suevi, who, after having long formed 
a distinct nation, were at length blended with the 
Alemanns, and gave their country the name of 
Suabia. The Alemanns rendered themselves formi- 
dable to the Romans, by their frequent inroads into 
Gaul and Italy, in the third and fourth centuries. 

The Saxons, unknown also to Tacitus, began 
to make a figure in history about the second cen- 
tury, when we find them settled beyond the Elbe, 
in modem Holstein, having for their neighbours 
the Angles, or English, inhabiting Sleswick Pro- 
per. These nations were early distinguished as 
pirates and freebooters; and, while the Franks 
and the Alemanns spread themselves over the 
interior of Gaul, the Saxons infested the coasts, 
and even extended their incursions into Britain. 
The Franks having penetrated into Gaul with 
their main forces, the Saxons passed the Elbe, and 
in course of time occupied, or united in alliance 
with them, the greater part of ancient France, 
which took firom them the name of Saxony. There 
they subdivided themselves into three principal 
branches, — ^the OstpkaUana to the east, the West' 
phalians to the west, and the Angriana or Angri- 
varianSf whose territories lay between the other 
two, along the Weser, and as far as the confines of 

The Huns, the most fierce and sanguinary of 
all the nations which overran tlie Roman empire in 
the fifth century, came from the remote districts of 
northern Asia, which were altogether unknown to 
tlie ancient Greeks and Romans. From the de- 
scriptions which the historians of the fifth and 
sixth centuries have given us of them, we are led 
to believe that they were Kalmucks or Monguls 
originally. The fame of their arms had begun to 
spread over Europe so early as tiie year 375 of the 
Christian era. Having subdued the Alans, and 
crossed the Tanais, they subverted the powerful 
monarchy of the Goths, and gave the first impulse 
to the great revolution of the fifth century, which 
changed the face of all Europe. The Eastern 
empire first felt the fury of these barbarians, who 
carried fire and sword wherever they went, ren- 
dered the emperors their tributaries, and then 
precipitated themselves on the West under the 
conduct of the famous Attila.^ 

Several of the nations we have now enumerated 
divided among themselves the territories of Gaul. 
This province, one of the richest and most im- 
portant in the Western empire, was repeatedly 
overrun and devastated by the barbarous hordes of 
the fifth century. The Visigoths were the first 
that formed settlements in it. On their arrival, 
under the conmiand of King Atulf, or Adolphus 

(412), they took possession of the whole coontr 
lying within the Loire, the Rhine, the Xhnvir^ 
the Mediterranean, and the Alps. Toulousie b^ 
came their capital and the residence of their hixis^ 

The Buroundians, a people, it would appei-; 
originally from the countries situated between tr*; 
Oder and the Vistula, followed nearly in the trari: 
of the Visigoths ; as we find them, about the jer 
413, established on the Upper Rhine and in Si«^- 
lerland. After the dissolution of the empire tbei 
succeeded in establishing themselTes in tho«e parci 
of Gaul known by the names of the Sequasoa 
Lyonnois, Viennois, and Narbonnois, vix. in tbciv 
districts which formed, in course of time* the t«- 
Burgundies, the provinces of Lyonnois, Dauphicv. 
and Provence on this side of the Durance, SsTr* 
the Pays de Vaud, the Valais, and Switxerlasc.' 
These countries then assumed the name of tb* 
Kingdom of the Burgundians. 

The Alemanni and the Subti became flouri^ 
ing nations un the banks of the Upper Rhine asr 
the Danube. They invaded those countries i: 
Gaul, or the Germania Prima of the Romazb 
knovm since under the names of Alsace, the Fi- 
latinate, Mayence, &c. ; and extended their ft.:- 
quests also over a considerable part of Rhetia u.*. 

At length the Franks, having been repulsed i: 
dififerent rencounters by the Romans, again paseL 
the Rhine (430), under the conduct of Ciodici. 
their chief; made themselves masters of the gre«!i^ 
part of Belgic Gaul, took possession of Touros;- 
Cambray, and Amiens ; and thus laid the foss< 
dation of the new kingdom of France in Gaol. Tii' 
Romans, however, still maintained their authonn 
in the Interior of that province, and the brar 
^tius, their general, made head against all tho$r 
hordes of barbarians who disputed with him i^ 
dominion of Gaul. 

It was at this crisis that the Huns made tfa^ 
appearance on the theatre of war. The fierr. 
Attila, a man of great military talents, after haris 
overthrown various states, conquered Panmsia 
and different provinces of the Eastern empire oi 
the right bank of the Danube, undertook hb 
famous expedition into Gaul. Marching alon^? tbr 
Danube from Pannonia, at the head of an innu- 
merable army,' he passed the Rhine near th; 
Lake of Constance, pillaged and ravaged seven! 
places, and spread the terror of his arms over >1 
Graul. The Franks and the Visigoths united tbei: 
forces with those of the Roman general, to amst 
the progress of the barbarian. A bloody and o^ 
stinate encounter took place (461) on the plaia^ 
of Chalons*sur-Mame, or Mery-sur-Seine, accott!- 
ing to others, Thierry King of the Visigoikfc 
and more than a hundred and sixty thousand men. 
perished on the field of battle. Night separates 
the combatants ; and Attila, who found his troof 
too much exhausted to renew the combat, lesohK 
to retreat. The follovring year he made a desc«£' 
on Italy, and committed great devastations. Tt^ 
proved his last expedition ; for he died sodded; 
on his return, and the monarchy of the Huns ei- 
pired with him. 

The defeat of the Huns did not re-establish tb 
shattered and ruinous affiEurs of the Romans ia 
Gaul. The Salian Franks,' under their kia^ 
Meroveus and Childeric I., the successors cj , 
Clodion, extended their conquests more and more; 


Vandals and Vui- 
goths in Spain. 

PERIOD I. A.D. 406—800. 


He pillages Rome. 

The Britons. 


till at length Clovis, eon of Childeric I., put an 
end to the dominion of the Romans in that coun- 
try, by the yictory which he gained in 486, at 
Soissons, OTer Syagrius, the last of the Roman 
generals, who died of a broken heart in conse- 
quence of this defeat. The Alemanns afterwards 
having disputed with him the empire of the Gauls, 
he routed them completely (496) at the famous 
battle of Tolbiac or Zulpich ;* seized their estates, 
and soon after embraced Christianity. Embold- 
ened by his new creed, and backed by the orthodox 
bishops, he attacked the Yisigoths, who were of 
the heretical sect of Anus, defeated and killed 
their king, Alaric II., in the plains of Yougl^, near 
Poitiers (507), i^d stripped them of all their pos- 
sessions between the Loire and the Pyrenees.'^ 
Gaul became thus, by degrees, the undisputed 
possession of the Franks. The descendants of 
CloTis added to their conquests the kingdom of the 
Burgundians (534), which they totally overthrew. 

These same princes increased their possessions 
in the interior of Germany, by the destruction of 
the powerful kingdom of the Thuringians (531), 
comprising those vast countries between the Werra, 
the Aller, the Elbe, the Saal, the Mulda, and the 
Danube ; and which are now known under the 
names of Saxony, Thuringia, Franconia, the Upper 
Palatinate,* * &c. This kingdom they divided with 
their allies the Saxons, who obtained the northern 
part of it, situated between the Unstrut and the Saal. 

While the Yisigoths, the Burgundians, the 
Franks, and the Alemanns, were disputing with 
each other the conquest of Gaul, the Yandals, the 
Suevi, and the Alans, turned their ambitious views 
towards Spain. After having settled some years 
in Gaul, these tribes passed the Pyrenees (409) 
to establish themselves in the most fertile re- 
gions of Spain. The Yandals seized Boetica, and 
a part of Gallicia; the Suevi seized the rest of 
Gallicia; while the Alans took possession of 
Lusitania and the province of Carthagena. The 
Alans afterwards submitted to the sway of Gon- 
deric. King of the Yandals (420), while the Suevi 
preserved their native princes, who reigned in 
Gallicia and Lusitania ; this latter province having 
been abandoned by the Yandals (427) when they 
passed into Africa. 

MeanwhUe new conquerors began to make their 
appearance in Spain. The Yisigoths, pressed by 
the Romans in Gaul, took the resolution of carry- 
ing their arms beyond the Pyrenees. Under the 
conduct of their King, Adolphus, they made them- 
selves masters of the city of Barcelona (in 415). 
Euric, one of the successors of this prince, took 
from the Romans (472) all that yet remained of 
their possessions in Spain ; and Leovigild, another 
of their kings, completed the conquest of all that 
country (584), by reducing the kingdom of the 
Suevi. The monarchy of Uie YisigoSis, which in 
its flourishing state comprised, besides the conti- 
nent of Spain, Septimania or Languedoc in Gaul, 
and Mauritania Tingitana in Africa, maintained 
its existence until the commencement of the 
eighth century ; when, as we shall afterwards see, 
it was finally overthrown by the Arabs. 

Northern Africa, one of the finest possessions of 
the Romans, was wrested from them by the Yan- 
dals. Count Boniface, who had the government 
of that country, having been falsely accused at the 
court of the Emperor Yalentinian III., and be- 

lieving himself ruined in the esteem of that prince, 
invited the Yandals over to Africa ; proposing to 
them the surrender of the provinces intrusted to 
his command. Genseric was at that time king of 
the Yandals. The preponderance which the Yisi- 
goths had acquired in Spain induced that prince 
to accept the offer of the Roman General ; he em- 
barked at the port of Andalusia (427), and passed 
with the Yandals and the Alans into Africa. 
Meantime Boniface, having made up matters 
amicably with the Imperial court, wished to retract 
the engagements which he had made with the 
Yandals. Genseric nevertheless persisted in his 
enterprise. He carried on a long and obstinate 
war with the Romans ; the result of which turned 
to the advantage of the barbarians. Genseric con- 
quered in succession all that part of Africa per- 
taining to the Western empire, from the Straits of 
Cadiz as far as Cyrenaica, which was dependent 
on the empire of the East. He subdued likewise 
the Balearic Isles, vrith Sardinia, Corsica, and a 
part of Sicily. 

The writers of that age who speak of this in- 
vasion agree in painting, in the most lively colours, 
the horrors with which it was accompanied. It 
appears that Genseric, whose whole subjects, in- 
cluding old men and slaves, did not exceed eighty 
thousand persons, being resolved to maintain his 
authority by terror, caused, for this purpose, a 
general massacre to be made of the ancient in- 
habitants of Africa. To these political severities 
were added others on the score of religion ; being 
devoted with all his subjects to the Arian heresy, 
he as well as his successors became the constant 
and implacable persecutors of the orthodox 

This prince signalized himself by his maritime 
exploits, and by the piracies which he committed 
on the coasts of Italy and the whole Roman 
empire. Encouraged, as is supposed, by the 
Empress Eudoxia, who wished to avenge the death 
of her husband Yalentinian III., he undertook an 
expedition into Italy (455), in which he made 
himself master of Rome. This city was pillaged 
during fifteen days by the Yandals, spoiled of all 
its riches and its finest monuments. Innumerable 
statues, ornaments of temples, and the gUded 
cupola of the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, were 
removed in order to be transported to Africa ; 
together with many thousands of illustrious cap- 
tives. A vessel laden with the most precious monu- 
ments of Rome perished in the passage. 

The dominion of the Yandals in Africa lasted 
about a hundred years. Their kingdom was de- 
stroyed by the Emperor Justinian, who reunited 
Africa to the empire of the East. Gilimer, the last 
king of the Yandals, was conquered by Belisarius 
(534), and conducted by him in triumph to Con- 

Britain, inaccessible by its situation to most of 
the invaders that overran the Western empire, was 
infested in the fifth century by the northern in- 
habitants of that island — the free Britons, known 
by the name of Caledonians or Picts, and Scots. 
The Romans having withdrawn their legions from 
the island (410), to employ them in Gaul, the 
Britons, abandoned to their own strength, thought 
proper to elect a king of their own nation, named 
Yortigem ; but, finding themselves still too weak 
to resist the incursions of the Picts and Scots, 


Tlitt Heptarchy. 
King Ei^bcrt. 



Justinian and Beliaari - 

Lombards conqnpT Its'; 

who, breaking oTcr the wall of Scverus, pillaged 
and laid waste the Roman province, they took 
the imprudent resolution of calling in to their 
succour the Angles, Saxons, and Jutlandere, who 
were already distinguished for their maritime in- 
cursions. A body of these Anglo-Saxons arrived 
in Britain (450) in the first year of the reign of 
the Emperor Marcian, under the command of 
Hengist and Ilorsa. From being friends and 
allies, they soon became enemies of the Britons ; 
and ended by establishing their own dominion in 
the island. The native islanders, after a protracted 
struggle, were driven into the province of Wales, 
where they succeeded in maintaining their inde- 
pendence against their new conquerors. A nmn- 
ber of these fugitive Britons, to escape from the 
yoke of the invaders, took refuge in Gaul. There 
they were received by the Franks into Armorica 
and part of Lyonnois, to which they gave the 
name of Brittany. 

The Anglo-Saxons founded successively seven 
petty kingdoms in Britain, viz., Kent, Sussex, 
Wessex, Essex, Northimiberland, East Anglia, 
and Mercia. Each of tliese kingdoms had se- 
verally their own kings ; but they were all united 
in a political association, known by the name of 
the Heptarchy. One of the seven kings was the 
common chief of the confederacy ; and there was 
a general convention of the whole, called ivittena- 
gemot, or the assembly of the wise men. Each 
kingdom was likewise governed by its own laws, 
and had its separate assemblies, whose power 
limited the royal authority. This federal system 
continued till the ninth century, when Ej^bert the 
Great succeeded in abolishing the Heptarchy (827), 
and raised himself to be king over all England. 

In the midst of this general overthrow there 
were still to be seen in Italy the phantoms of the 
Roman emperors, feebly supporting a dignity which 
had long since lost its splendour. This fine 
coiuitry had been desolated by the Visifroths, the 
Huns, and the Yaudals, in succession, without be- 
coming the fixed residence of any one of these 
nations. The conquest of that ancient seat of the 
first empire in the world was reserved for the 
Heruls and the Rugians. For a long time these 
German nations, who arc generally supposed to 
have emigrated from the coasts of the Baltic Sea, 
had been approaching towards the Danube. They 
served as auxiliaries to the Romans in Itiily, after 
the example of various other tribes of their coun- 
trymen. Being resolved to usurp the dominion of 
that countrj-, they chose for their king Odoaccr, 
under whose conduct they seized Ravenna and 
Rome, dethroned Romulus Momyllus Augustulus, 
the last of the Roman emperors (476), and put an 
entire end to the empire of the West. 

The Heruls did not enjoy these conquests more 
than seventeen years, when they were deprived of 
them in their turn by the Ostrogoths. This 
nation then occupied those extensive countries on 
the right bank of the Danube, in Pannonia, 
Illyria, and Thrace, within the limits of the 
Eastern empire. They had rendered themselves 
formidable to the Romans in that quarter by their 
frequent incursions into the very heart of the 
empire. The Emperor Zeno, in order to withdraw 
these dangerous neighboiuv from his frontiers, 
encouraged their king, Theodoric, as is alleged, to 
undertake the conquest of Italy firom the Heruls. 

This prince immediately penetrated into the coun- 
try: he defeated the Heruls in seyeral aetior«; 
and at length forced Odoacer to shut himself up x!- 
the city of Ravenna (480), where, after a sie^ oi 
three years, he fell into the hands of the ct^i^- 
queror, who deprived him at once of his thmc: 
and his life. 

Theodoric deserves not to be confounded w-.ifc 
the other barbarous kings of the fifth centurr. 
Educated at the court of Constantinople, -vrhere b« 
passed the years of his youth, he had leamcHl : 
establish his authority by the equity of his lav>s. 
and the wisdom of his administrations. He ruJf-J 
an empire which, besides Italy, embraced a grei* 
part of Pannonia, Rhetia, Noricitti, and lUyria. 

This monarchy, formidable as it was, did s ' 
exist beyond the space of sixty years : after a ssb- 
guinary warfare of eighteen years, it was total^ 
subverted by the Greeks. The Emperor Justiniti 
employed his generals, Belisarius '* and N arses, r 
recovering Italy and Sicily from the hands of t^ - 
Goths. This nation defended their posses! c:.' 
with determined obstinacy. Encouraged by Totii:. 
one of their last kings, they maintained a jn- 
traeted struggle against the Greeks, and with r>^. 
siderable success. It was during this war that xt' 
city of Rome was pillaged afresh, and at lezuT^ 
(547) dismantled by Uie Goths. TotUa^ susstair- ■: 
a complete defeat at the foot of the Apennine« c 
Umbria (552), and died of the wound(s which t» 
had received in the action. His successor Te..- 
was by no means so fortunate in military afilau^ 
In a bloody battle which he fought with Nars*^ 
in Campania (553), he was vanquished and sl:u 
His dominions passed into the hands of (>- 
Greeks, with the exception of that part of Rhf! . 
and Noricum which the Alcmanns occupied, an 
which, during the war between the Greeks and th 
Goths, had become the possession of the Franks. ' 

A new revolution happened in Italy (568). H 
the invasion of the Lombards. This people, wb 
originally inhabited the northern part of Oermssj 
on the Elbe, and formed a branch of the gn:: 
nation of tlie Suevi, had at length fixed themselvr* 
in Pannonia (527), after several times cfaanini^' 
their abode. They then joined with the ATa^^ e= 
Asiatic people, against the Gepidie, who possej«i> \ 
a formidable dominion in ancient Dacia, on tl 
left bank of the Danube. This state was c<k>3 
overturned by the combined forces of the !▼• 
nations, and the whole territories of the Gepids 
passed (5M5) under the dominion of the Avan. 
The Lombards also abandoned to them their pos- 
sessions in Pannonia, and went in quei^ of ne^ 
settlements into Italy. It was in the spring of 5^ 
that they began their route, under the conduct of 
their King Alboin, who, without coming to regain 
combat with the Greeks, took from thenif In su^ 
cession, a great number of cities and province*. 
Pavia, which the Goths had fortified with cair. 
was the only town that opposed him with vi- 
gorous resistance ; and it did not surrender ti£ 
after a siege of three years, in 572. The Lombard 
kings made this town the capital of their nc« 
dominions, which, besides Upper Italy, knovrx 
more especially by the name of Lombardy, com- 
prehended also a considerable part of the middle 
and lower districts, which the Lombards graduallT 
wrested from the Greeks. 

The revolution, of which we have just now 

Germanic Natiotis. 
Sluvi, or Slavonians. 
The Venedi. 

PERIOD I. A.D. 406—800. 

German Institutions. 
Feudal Syatem of 
the Germans. 


piven a eummary Tiew, changed the face of all 
Europe ; but it had a more particular influence on 
the fiite of ancient Germany. The Germanic 
tribes, whose former boundaries were the Rhine 
and the Danube, now extended their territories 
beyond these rivers. The primitire names of those 
nations, recorded by Tacitus, fell into oblivion, 
and were replaced by those of five or six grand 
confederations, viz., the Franks, Saxons, Frisians, 
Alemanns, Suabians, and Bavarians^*, which em- 
braced all the regions afterwards comprehended 
under the name of Germany. 

The Alemanns, and their neighbours the Sua- 
bians, occupied, along with the Bavarians, the 
greater part of what is called Upper Germany, on 
both sides of the Danube as far as the Alps. The 
Franks, masters of a powerful monarchy In Gaul, 
preserved, under their immediate dominion beyond 
the Rhine, a part of ancient France, together with 
the territories of which they had deprived the 
Alemanns*' and the Thuringians. In short, in all 
Liower Germany, no other names were to be found 
than those of the Thuringians, Saxons, and 
Frisians ; and as to the eastern part, situated 
beyond the Saal and the Elbe, as it had been 
deserted of inhabitants by the frequent emigrations 
of the German tribes, and by the total destruction 
of the kingdom of the Thuringians, it was seized 
in turn by the Slavi, or Slavonians, a race dis- 
tinguished from the Germans by their language 
and their manners. 

This nation, different colonies of which still 
occupy a great part of Europe, did not begin to 
figure in history imtll the fourth century of the 
Christian era. Jomandes, a Gothic writer of the 
sixth century, is the first author who mentions 
them. He calls them Slavi, or Slavini ; and dis- 
tinguishes them Into three principal branches, the 
Venedi, the Slavi, and the Antes, whose numerous 
tribes occupied the vast countries on the north of 
the Euxine Sea, between the Vistula, the Niester, 
the Nieper, &c. It was after the commencement 
of the sixth century that these nations emigrated 
from their ancient habitations, and spread them- 
selves over the cast and south of Europe. On the 
one side they extended their colonies as far as the 
Elbe and the Saal ; on the other they crossed the 
Danube, and penetrated into Noricum, Pannonia, 
and lUyria ; occupying all those countries known 
at this day under the names of Himgary, Scla- 
vouia, Servia, Bosnia, Croatia, Dahnatia, Camiola, 
Carinthia, Stiria, and the march of the Venedi. 
The history of the sixth century presents nothing 
more memorable than the bloody wars which the 
emperors of the East had to maintain against the 
Slavians of the Danube. 

Those colonies of them who first distinguished 
themselves on the Elbe, the Havel, the Oder, and 
in the countries situated to the north of the 
Danube, were the Czechi, or Slavi of Bohemia; 
the Sorabians inhabiting both sides of the Elbe, 
between the Saal and the Oder, in the countries 
now known under the names of Misnia, Saxony, 
Anhalt, and Lower Lusace ; the Wilzians, or 
Welatabes, and the Abotrit^s, spread over Bran- 
denburg, Fomerania, and Mecklenburg proper; 
and, lastly, the Moravi, or Moravians, settled in 
Moravia, and in a part of modem Hunganr. We 
find, in the seventh century, a chief named Samo, 
who ruled over many of these nations. He fought 

successfully against the armies of King Dagobert. 
It is supposed that this man was a Frank mer- 
chant, whom several of these Slavian tribes had 
elected as their chief. 

There is one thing which, at this period, ought 
above all to fix our attention, and that is the in- 
fluence which the revolution of the fifth century 
had on the governments, laws, manners, sciences, 
and arts of Europe. The German tribes, in esta- 
blishing themselves in the provinces of the Western 
empire, introduced along with them the political 
institutions by which they had been governed in 
their native country. The governments of ancient 
Germany were a kind of military' democracies, 
imder generals or chiefs, with the prerogatives of 
kings. All matters of importance were decided 
in their general assemblies, composed of freemen, 
having the privilege of carrj'iug arms and going 
to war.*' The succession to the throne was not 
hereditary ; and, though it became so in fact in 
most of the new German states, still, on the ac- 
cession of their princes, they were attentive to pre- 
serve the ancient forms, which evinced the primi- 
tive right of election that the nation had reserved 
to itself. 

The political division into cantons {gaw), long 
used in ancient Germany, was introduced into 
all the new conquests of the German tribes, to 
facilitate the administration of justice. At the 
head of every canton was a justiciary ofiicer, called 
GraVf in Latin Comes, who held his court in the 
open air, assisted by a certain niunber of assessora 
or sherifia. This new division caused a total 
change in the geography of Europe. The ancient 
names of the comitries were everywhere replaced 
by new onft ; and the alterations which the no- 
menclature of these divisions underwent in course 
of time created no small embarrassment in the 
study of the history and geography of the middle 

Among the freemen who composed the armies 
of the German nations we find the grandees and 
nobles, who were distinguished by the number of 
men-at-arms, or freemen, whom they carried in 
their train. '^ They all followed the king, or com- 
mon chief, of the expedition, not as mercenaries or 
regular soldiers, but as volunteers who had come, 
of their own accord, to accompany him. The 
booty and the conquests which they made in war 
they regarded as a common property, to which 
they had all an equal right. The kings, chiefs, and 
grandees, in the division of their territories, received 
larger portions than the other military and free- 
men, on accoimt of the greater efforts they had 
made, and the greater number of warriors who had 
followed them to the field. These lands were 
given them as property in every respect free ; and, 
although an obligation was implied of their con- 
curring in defence of the common cause, yet it was 
rather a sort of consequence of the territorial grant, 
and not imposed upon them as a clause or essen- 
tial condition of the tenure. 

It is therefore wrong to regai-d this division of 
lands as ha\ing given rise to fiefs. War was the 
favourite occupation, the only honourable rank, 
and the inalienable prerogative of a German. They 
were soldiers, not of necessity' or constraint, but of 
their own free will, and because they despised 
every other employment, and every other mode of 
life. Despotism was, therefore, never to be ap- 

Customs of the 
16 Germans. 

Fiefs, or Beneficos. 


Daeb and Judgeaob 

of God. 
State of LitRatnre. 

prehended in a govemmeiit like this, where the 
great body of the nation were in arms, sat in their 
general assemblies, and marched to the field of war. 
Their kings, however, soon invented an expedient 
calculated to shackle the national liberty, and to 
augment their o-n-n influence in the public assem- 
blies, by the number of retainers which they found 
means to support. This expedient, founded on the 
primitiye manners of the Germans, was the institu- 
tion of fiefs. 

It was long a custom among the ancient Ger- 
mans, that their chiefs should have, in peace as 
well as in war, a numerous suite of the bravest 
youths attached to their person. Besides provi- 
sions, they supplied them with horses and arms, 
and shared with them the spoil which they took 
in war. This practice subsisted even after the 
Germans had established themselves in the pro- 
vinces of the Western empire. The kings, and, 
after their example, the nobles, continued to enter- 
tain a vast number of companions and followers ; 
and, the better to secure their allegiance, they 
granted them, instead of horses and arms, the 
enjoyment of certain portions of land, which they 
dismembered from their own territories. 

These grants, kno^ni at first by the name of be- 
nejices, and afterwards oifiefsy subjected those who 
received them to personal services, and allegiance 
to the superiors of whom they held them. As 
they were bestowed on the individual possessor, 
-and on the express condition of personal service, 
it is obvious that originally fiefs or benefices were 
not hereditary, and that they returned to the su- 
perior when the reason for which they had been 
given no longer existed. 

The laws and jurisprudence of the Riynans were 
in full practice through all the provinces of the 
Western empire when the German nations esta- 
blished themselves there. Far from superseding 
or abolishing them, the invaders permitted the 
ancient inhabitants, and such of their new subjects 
as desired it, to live conformably to these laws, 
and to retain them in tlieir courts of justice. Ne- 
vertheless, without adopting this system of juris- 
prudence, which accorded neither with the rude- 
ness of their manners, nor the imperfection of their 
ideas, they took great care, after their settlement 
in the Roman provinces, to have their ancient cus- 
toms, to which they were so peculiarly attached, 
digested and reduced to writing. 

The Codes of the Salian and Ripuarian Franks, 
those of the Visigoths, the Burgundians, the Ba- 
varians, the Anglo-Saxons, the Frisians, the Ale- 
manns, and the Lombards, were collected into one 
body, and liberty given to every citizen to be go- 
verned according to that code of laws which he 
himself might choose. All these laws wore the 
impress of the military' spirit of the Germans, as 
well as of their attachment to that personal liberty 
and independence which is the true characte- 
ristic of human nature in its primitive state. Ac- 
cording to these la^vs, ever)' person was judged by 
hii peers ; and the right of vengeance was reserved 
to the individuals, or the whole family, of those 
who had received injuries. Feuds, which thus be- 
came hereditary, were not however irreconcilable. 
Compromise was allowed for all private delin- 
quencies, which could be expiated, by paying to 
the injured party a specified sum, or a certain 
number of cattle. Murder itself might be expiated 

in this manner ; and every port of the body badi 
tax or equivalent, which was more or less Bexm. 
according to the different rank or condition of tb 

Every freeman was exempt from corponl p^ 
uishment ; and, in doubtful cases, the law obu^i 
the judge to refer the parties to sin^e comb*. 
enjoining them to decide their quarrel sword £ 
hand. Hence, we have the origin of the Jffe>- 
menta of God, as well as of Challenges and Du^'^ 
These customs of the German nations, and thor 
singular resolution in persisting in them, could i^ : 
but interrupt the good order of society, encounf 
barbarism, and stamp the same character of r^- 
ness on all their conquests. New wants sjm^ 
from new enjoymentB ; while opulence, snd i^ 
contagion of example, taught them to contn* 
vices of which they had been ignorant, and whirt 
tliey did not redeem by new Tirtues. Murfrs. 
oppressions, and robberies, multiplied every diy 
the sword was made the standard of honour, ' 
rule of justice and injustice ; cruelty and pert, 
became everywhere the reigning character of ^ 
court, the nobility, and the people. 

Literature, with the arts and sciences, felt ^' 
all the baneful effects of this revolution. la ^ 
than a century after the first invasion of the bar- 
barians there scarcely remained a single trare^ 
the literature and fhie arts of the Romans. Lc^' 
iug, it is true, had for a long time been graduL. 
falling into decay, and a corrupt taste had bc^ 
to appear among the Romans in works of ge^- 
and imagination ; but no comparison can be rs^ 
between the state of literature, such as itw^- 
the West anterior to the revolution of the t" 
century, and that which we find there after ^ 
conquests of the German nations. 

These barbarians, addicted solely to war »' 
the chase, despised the arts and sciences. ^''■ 
der their destructive hands, the finest monuntfi^' 
of the Romans were levelled to the ground ; th^' 
libraries were reduced to ashes ; their scboob ^ 
seminaries of instruction annihilated. The fr?-^ 
rays of learning that remained to the vanquist'^ 
were unable to enlighten or ci\'ilize those eneit^ 
to knowledge and mental cultivation. The ^- 
ences, unpatronised and unprotected by tbi* 
ferocious conquerors, soon fell into total conteaft^ 

Jt is to the Christian religion alone, which ^^ 
embraced, in succession, by the barbarous destr);' 
ers of the empire, that we owe the preservation f^ 
the mutilated and venerable remains which *f 
possess of Greek and Roman literature." T'' 
clergy, being the authorized teachers of r€li?»* 
and the only interpreters of the sacred writift^ 
were obliged by their office to have some tinctt^ 
of letters. They thus became, over all the E*^ 
tlie sole depositaries of learning ; and for 1 1^^ 
series of ages tliere were none in any other vs^ 
or profession of life that occupied themseKes^-^ 
science, or had the slightest acquaintance ^^■ 
wiUi the art of writing. These advantages, wfcjf* 
the clergy enjoyed, contributed in no small def^ 
to augment their credit and their influence. ^^' 
where they were intrusted with the mauagwa** 
of state affairs ; and the offices of chancellor, id|^^" 
ters, public notaries, and in general all situiti'J^** 
where knowledge of the art of writing was iB*^ 
pensable, were reserved for them ; and in this ^! 
their very name (clericus) became as it were ^ 



PERIOD I. A.D. 40&-800. 

Pepin d'Heriftal. 
Charles Martel. 
Pepin le Bref . 


synonym for a man of letten, or any penon 
capable of handling the pen. The bishops, more- 
over, held the first rank in all political assemblies, 
and in war marched to the field in person, at the 
head of their yassab. 

Another circumstance that contributed to raise 
the credit and the power of the clergy was, that 
the Latin language continued to be employed in 
the Roman provinces which had been subjected 
to the dominion of the German nations. Every 
thing was ^Titten exclusively in the Roman tongue, 
which became the language of the church, and of 
all public acts ; and it was long before the German 
dialects, which had become universally prevalent, 
could be reduced to writing. The corrupt pronun- 
ciation of the Latin, and its mixture with foreign 
idioms and constructions, gave birth, in course of 
time, to new languages, wMch still retain evidence 
of their Roman origin, such as the Italian, Spanish, 
Portuguese, Frendi and English languages. In 
the fiAh and following centuries, the Teutonic 
language, or that spoken by the conquerors of 
Ga.ul, was called lingua Francica : this was dis- 
tinguished from the lingua Romana^ or the lan- 
guage spoken by the people ; and which aftei^ 
wards gave rise to the modem French. It appears, 
tlierefore, from what we have just stated, that the 
incursion of the German tribes into the provinces 
of the West was the true source of aU the bar- 
barity, ignorance, and superstition, in which that 
part of Europe was so long and so imiversally 

There would have been, therefore, every reason 
to deplore a revolution, not less sanguinary in 
itself Uian disastrous in its consequences, if^ on the 
one hand, it had not been the instrument of de- 
livering Europe from the terrible despotism of the 
Romans ; and, on the other, if we did not fmd, in 
the rude institutions of the German conquerors, 
some germs of liberty, which, sooner or later, were 
sure to lead the nations of Europe to wiser laws, 
and better organized governments. 

Among the states which rose on the ruins of the 
Roman empire, that of the Franks acquired the 
preponderance ; and, for several ages, it sustained 
the character of being the most powerful kingdom 
in Europe. This monarchy, founded by Clovis, 
and extended still more by his successors, em- 
braced the whole of Gaul except Languedoc, which 
belonged to the Visigoths.** The greater part of 
Germany also was subject to it, with the exception 
of Saxony, and the territories of the Slavi. After 
it had fallen into decay, by the partitions and civil 
wars of the descendants of Clovis, it rose afain, 
solely however by the wisdom and ability of the 
mayors of the palace, who restored it once more 
to its original splendour. 

These mayors, from being originally merely 
grand-masters of the court, rose by degrees to be 
prime ministers, governors of the state, and ulti- 
mately to be kings. The founder of their great- 
ness was Pepin d'Heristal, a cadet of the dynasty 
of the Carlovingians, which succeeded that of the 
Merovingians, tovrards the middle of the eighth 
century. Under the Merovingian princes, the 
sovereignty was divided between two principal 
kingdoms, viz. that of Austrasia, which compre- 
hended Eastern France, being all that part of 
Gaul situated between tbe Meuse, the Scheld, and 
the Rhine; as well as the German provinces 

beyond the Rhine, which also made a part of that 
monarchy. The whole of Western Gaul, lying 
between the Scheld, the Meuse and the Loire, was 
called Neustria. Burgundy, Aquitain, and Pro- 
vence, were considered as dependencies of this 
latter kingdom. 

Dagobert II., King of Austrasia, having been 
assassinated (in 678), the King of Neustria, 
Thierry III., would in all probability have re- 
united the two monarchies ; but the Austrasians, 
who dreaded and detested Ebroin, Mayor of Neus- 
tria, elected a mayor of their own, under the 
nominal authority of Thierry. This gave rise to a 
sort of civil war between the Austrasians and the 
Neustrians, headed by Pepin d'Heristal, Mayor of 
Austrasia, and Bertaire, Mayor of Neustria, who 
succeeded Ebroin. The battle which Pepin 
gained at Testry, near St. Quentin (687), decided 
the fate of the empire ; Bertaire was slain, and 
Thierry III. fell into the power of the conqueror. 
Pepin afterwards confirmed to Thierry the honours 
of royalty, and contented himself vrith the dignity 
of Mayor, and the title of Duke and Prince of the 
Franks ; but regarding the throne as his own by 
right of conquest, he vested in himself the sove- 
reign authority, and granted to the Merovingian 
Prince nothing more than the mere externals of 
majesty, and the simple title of king. Such was 
the revolution that transferred the supreme autho- 
rity of the Franks to a new dynasty, viz. that of 
the Carlovingians, who, with great moderation, 
still preserved, during a period of sixty-five years, 
the royal dignity to the Merovingian princes, 
whom they had stripped of all their power." ^ 

Pepin d'Heristal being dead (714), the partisans 
of the ancient dynasty made a hut effort to liberate 
the Merovingian kings from that dependence under 
which Pepin had held them so long. This prince, 
in transferring the sovereign authority to his grand- 
son Theodwald, only six years of age, had devolved 
on his vridow, whose name was Plectru4e, the 
r^^ency and guardianship of the young mayor. 

A government so extraordinary emboldened the 
fiictious to attempt a revolution. The regent, as 
well as her grandson, were divested of the sove- 
reignty, and the Neustrian grandees chose a 
mayor of their ovim party named Rainfroy ; but 
their triumph was only of short duration. Charles 
Martel, natural son of Pepin as is supposed, hav- 
ing escaped from the prison where he had been 
detained by the regent, passed into Austrasia, and 
then caused himself to be proclaimed duke, after 
the example of his father. He engaged in a vrar 
against Chilperic II. and his mayor Rainfroy ; 
three successive victories which he gained, viz. at 
Stavelo, Vinci near Cambray, and Soissons, in 
716 — 17 — 18, made him once more master of the 
throne and the sovereign authority. The duke of 
Aquitain having delivered up King Chilperic to 
him, he confirmed anew the title of roj-alty to that 
prince; and shortly after raised his glory to its 
highest pitch, by the brilliant victories which he 
gained over the Arabs (733 — 737), in the plains of 
Poitiers and Narbonne. 

Pepin le Bref (or the Short), son and successor 
of Charles Martel, finding his authority established 
both vrithin and without his dominions, judged 
this a favourable opportunitv for reuniting the title 
of royalty to the power of the sovereign. He 
managed to have himself elected King in the Ge- 



Lumfaard Sjo^l 

Koors BZTOLrnoira. 

men] AjHeioblT of die Fnmkt, mhith ww roDT^med 
in tbe Champ-de-Man. in the n^^i^boiniKxtd of 
fkyiMOxii. Childwic III- the l«rt of the Merr<-«iD- 
gua kliiji:^. was there depc^ed (751 ), azid ■hut xxp 
ifi a conieiit- Pepin^ with the iuteaticn of rwa- 
dehji^ hie perbuu lacred ai>d uu violabie^ had re- 
eour»4; to the ceremooT of ooroution ; and he vms. 
the firiEt kiof who caoaed himiMflf to be aolemnlT 
coiiMwrat*^! aod erowned in tbe eathednl of Sk>ii?- 
•tfjnik, h} ftt- Bom&re, firat arrhbi<hop of Majenre.** 
I'be example of Pepin waa followed aoon after by 
several princes and aorereiinia of Europe. The 
laift conquest he added to hi« dominion waa the 
prc>Tinre of Languedoc, which he took (759) from 
the Arabs. 

The origin of the aemlar power of the Roman 
pontlfls commences with the reign of Pepin. This 
ereut, which had so pecnliar an influence on the 
religion and government of the European nations, 
requires to be detailed at some length. 

At the period of which we write, there existed 
a violent controversy between the churches in the 
Hast, and those in the West, respecting the wor- 
ship of Images. The Em])eror Leo, the Isaurian, 
had declared himself against this worship, and had 
proscribed it by an imperial edict (726). He and 
his successors persisted in destroying these objects 
of idolatry', as well as in persecuting those who 
avowed themselves devotees to this heresy. This 
extravagant zeal, which the Roman pontiffi blamed 
as excessive, excited the indignation of the people 
against the Grecian Emperors.** In Italy, there 
were frequent rebellions against die imperial offi- 
cers that were charged with the execution of their 
orders. The Romans especially took occasion, 
from this, to expel the duke or governor, who re- 
sided in their city on the part of the emperor ; 
and they formally erected themselves into a re- 
public (730), under the pontificate of Gregory II., 
by usurping all the rights of sovereignty, and, at 
the sa«e time, reviving the ancient names of the 
senate and the Roman people. The Pope was 
recognised as chief or head of this new republic, 
and had the general direction of all afl^urs, both at 
home and abroad* The territory of this republic, 
formed of the duchy of Rome, extended, from 
north to south, from Viterbo as for aa Tcrraclna ; 
and from east to west, from Nam! to the mouth of 
the Tiber. Buch was the weakness of the Eastern 
empire, that all the eiTorts of the emperors to re- 
duce the Romans to subjection proved unavailing. 
The Greek viceroy— the Duke of Naples, who had 
marched to besiege Rome, was killed in battle, 
together with his son ; and the exarch himself 
was compelled to make peace with the republi- 

This state of distress to which the Grecian em- 
pire was reduced afforded the Lombards an op- 
portunity of extending their possessions in Italy. 
Aistolphus their king attacked the city of Ravenna 
(751), where the exarchs or governors-general of 
the (t recks had fixed their residence ; and soon 
made himself master of it, as well as the province 
of the exarchate,** and the Pentapolis. The exarch 
Eutychius was obliged to fly, and took shelter in 

This surrender of the capital of Grecian Italy 
emboldened the Lombard king to extend his 
views still farther : he demanded the submission of 
the city and duchy of Rome, which he considered 

I as a dependcocT of tbe exardnle. Pope Stepisf: 
! n.hecaatealanMd^aiidbegantDaoiiritsBtlliifi^ 
! with the Greek empire, wboae distant powwsefs:'' 
' to him leas fcrmidahle than tfwt of the Lomhr^ 
hif XH'ighboon; bm. being doaely pressed bv A> 
' tolpfaus, and fe<«^i"g that he had no suctoor :< 
I expect froaa CoostaniiDOple, he detenninvd * 
, apply for praiectioiL to the Fnnka and their lis 
I Pepin. 

I The Franki, ai tfiat time, held the fiift m^ 
! among the nafiims of Europe; their ex{it* 
I againiat the Ai^hiaw had gained them a hii: ^ 
I piutation for valour oier all the West. Suy- 
repaired in peraon to France, and in an intm.-* 
which he had with Pepin, he found means i^ = 
terest that prince in his cauae. Pepin did o<; ' 
regard himadf as seenrely establiahed on 1 1^"' 
which he had ao recently usurped from the M " 
vinirian princes ; more especially as there Ftii! i 
isted a son of Childeric III., named Thierrr..: 
a formidable rivalry in the puiseant duke« of Ai,: 
tain, who were cadets of the same fiunilj- H 
had no other right to the crown than that of •^-- 
tion ; and this title, insteud of descending t- ' 
sons, might periiaps serve as a pretext k -' 
priving them of the sovereignty. Anxioas to -r 
der the crown hereditary, he induced the ?^f 
renew the ceremony of his coronation is ^ 
Church of St. Denis ; and at the same tiiB' ' 
conseciate his two sons, Chariee and Csdots 
The Pope did more ; he disengaged the King*^- 
the oath which he had taken to Childeric* 
bound all the nobility of the Franks, that«^ 
present on the occasion, in the name of J'^- 
Christ and St. Peter, to preserre the royal # 
in the right of Pepin and his descendants ; ^ 
lastly, that he might the more eflfectutlly *^^ 
the attachment of Pepin and his sons, and ftv' 
for himself the title of being their protector.^ 
publicly conferred on them the honour of ^•' 
patricians of Rome. 

So great condescension on the part of the ?f 
could not but excite the gratitude of Pepin- = 
not onlv promised him succoiu* against the I^ 
bards, he engaged to recover the exarchate ^ 
their hands, and make a present of it to the fi''' 
See ; he even made him a grant of it b? wtic:* 
tion, which he signed at the Castle of ChieH-^- 
rOise, and which he likewise caused to be ^K^f 
by the princes bis sons.** It was in fuifilffl**'. 
these stipulations that Pepin undertook (75^ 
two successive expeditions into Italy. He ^''' 
pelled Aistolphus to acknowledge lam^ - 
vassal, and deliver up to him the exarchitf *^ 
the Pentapolis, of which he immediately ^' 
Holiness in possession. This donation of Pl^ 
served to confirm and to extend the seculw p^' 
of the Popes, vriilch had already been sugirf;-' 
by various grants of a similar kind. The ortf-' 
document of this singular contract no W^ 
exists ; but the names of the places are pn^ 
which were ceded to the pontifical hierarchr. ^ 
In the conclusion of this period, it may be?^' 
per to take some notice of the A tabs, coraa^- 
called Saracens,*^ and of thefar irruption into t^ 
rope. Mahomet, an Arab of noble birth, *^ 
native of Mecca, had constituted himself « T 
phet, a legislator, and a conqueror, about thf ;^ 
ginning of' the seventh ^ntury of the Chri<^* 
era. He had heen expelled horn Mecct (^ 

W«Ud iiiTi4« Eorope. 
TkfieeaBqiieM Spain. 

PERIOD L A.D< 40ft--800. 

Ahdnlnihmaii of Cqrdowu 
Ali, Fatimitfi CaOiphs. 
HarouD Alnachid. 


on account of his predictions^ but afterwmids n- 
tumed at the head of an army ; and haying made 
himaeif master of the dty, he suooeeded, by de- 
greet, in subjecting to his yoke the numerous 
tribes of Arabia. His successon, known by the 
luime of Caliphs, or vicars spiritual and temporal 
of the prophet, followed the same triumphant 
career. They propagated their religion whereyer 
they extended Uieir empire, and overran with their 
conquests the vast regions both of Asia and Africa. 
Syria, Palestine, E^t, Barca, Tripoli, and the 
whole northern coasts of Africa, were won from 
the Greek empire by the Caliphs; who at the 
same time (651) overthrew the powerful monarchy 
of the Persians ; conquered Charasm, Transoxiana, 
and the Indies, and founded an empire more ex- 
tensive than that of the Romans had been. The 
capital of the Caliphs, which had originally been 
at Medina, and afterwards at Cu£a, was transferred 
(661) by the Caliph Moavia I. to Damascus in 
Syria ; and by the Caliph Almansor, to Bagdad in 
Irak-Arabia, (766) which was founded by that 

It was under the CaUphate of Walid (711), that 
-iie Arabs first invaded Europe, and attacked the 
monarchy of the Visigoths in Spain* This mo- 
narchy had afready sunk under the lieebleuess of 
its kings, and the despotic prerogatives which the 
grandees, and especially the bishops, had arrogated 
to themselves. These latter dispcMed of the throne 
at their pleasure, having declared it to be elective* 
They decided with supreme authority in the coun- 
cils of the nation, and in all affkirs of state. Musa 
at that time commanded in northern Africa, in 
name of the Caliph Walid. By the authority of 
that sovereign, he sent into Spain one of his gene* 
rals, named Taric, or Tarec-Abensara, who, having 
made a descent on the coasts of Andalusia, took 
his station on the hill which the ancients called 
Calpe, and which has since been known by the 
name of Gibraltar (Gibel-Taric), or the hill of 
Taric, in commemoration of the Arabian general. 

It was in the neighbourhood of the city Xeres 
de la Frontera, in Andalusia, that Taric encoun- 
tered the army of the Visigoths, commanded by 
their king Roderic. The battle was decisive, as 
the Visigoths sustained a total defeat. Roderic 
perished in the flight; and Musa, the Arabian 
governor, having arrived to second the effijrts of 
Taric, the conquest of all Spain followed as a 
consequence of this victory.*' Septimania, or 
Languedoc, which then made a part of the Visi- 
gothic monarchy, passed at the same time under 
the dominion of the Arabs. 

These fierce invaders did not limit their con- 
quests in Europe to Spain and Languedoc; the 
Balearic Isles, Sardinia, Corsica, part of Apulia 
and Calabria, feU likewise under their dominion t 
they infeeted the sea with their fieets, and more 
than once carried terror and desolation to the 
very gates of Rome. It i» probable even that all 
Europe would have submitted to their yoke, if 
Charles Martel had not arrested the career of their 
victories. He defeated their numerous and war- 
like armies in the bloody battles which were fought 
near Poitiers and Narbonne (732-737), and at 
length compelled them to shut themselves up vrith- 
in the province of Languedoc. 

The unity of the empire and the religion of 
Mahom«t did not long remain undivided. The 

first dynasty of the Caliphs, that of the Qmmiades, 
was subverted ; and all the princes of that family 
massacred by the Abassides (740), who seised 
the caliphate.** A solitary descendant of the Qm- 
miades, named Abdalrahman, grandson of the fif- 
teenth Caliph Haschem, was saved in Spain, and 
fixed his residence at Cordova; and being ac- 
knowledged as Caliph by the Mussulmans there, 
he detached that province from the great empire 
ofthe Arabians (756). 

This revolution, and the oonfiision irith which 
it was accompanied, gave fresh courage to the 
smaU number of Visigoths, who, to escape the 
Mahometan yoke, had retired to the mountains of 
Asturias. Issuing from their retreats, they retali- 
ated on the Infidels; and towards the middle of 
the eighth century, Uiey laid the foundation of a 
new Christian state, called afterwards the kingdom 
of Oviedo or Leon. Alphonso I., sumamed the 
Catholic, must be regarded as the first founder of 
this new monarchy.^ 

The Franks, likewise, took advantage of these 
events to expel the Arabs from Languedoc. Pepin 
took possession of the cities of Nismes, Mague- 
lonne, Agde, and Besiers (752), which were deli-^ 
vered up to him by a noble Goth, named Osmond. 
The reduction of Narbonne was by no means so 
easy a task. For seven years he continued to 
blockade it ; and it was not until 759 that he be- 
came master of the city, and the whole of Lan- 

The loss of Spain, on the part of the Abassides, 
was soon after followed by that of Northern Africa. 
Ibrahim-Ben* Aglab, having been sent thither as 
governor by the Caliph of Bagdad, Haroun 
Alrashid (800), he found means to constitute 
himself sovereign prince over the countries then 
properly termed Africa; of which Tripoli, Cairoan, 
Tunis, and Algiers, formed a pvt. He was the 
founder of the dynasty of the Aglabites ;*^ while 
another usurper, named Edris, having conquered 
Numidia and Mauritania, called by the Arabs 
Moffrebf founded that of the Edrissites. These 
two dynasties were overturned (about 008) by 
Aboul Cassem Mohammed, son of Obeidallah, 
who claimed to be descended from All, by Fatima 
dau^ter of the prophet; he sul^jected the whole 
of Northern Africa to his yoke, and took the titles 
of MaMatU and Caliph. From him were descended 
the Caliphs, called Fatimites, who extended their 
conquests to Egypt, and laid there the foundation 
of Kaherah, or Grand Cairo (968), where they 
established the seat of their caliphate, which, in 
the twelfth century, vyas destroyed by the Ayou- 

The irruption of the Arabs into Spain, disastrous 
as it vras, did not fidl to produce effects beneficial 
to Europe, which owes its civilisation partly to 
this circumstance* The Abassidian Caliphs, as- 
piring to be the protectors of letters and arts, 
began to found schools, and to encourage transla- 
tions of the most eminent Greek authors into the 
Arabic language. Their example was followed by 
the Caliphs of Cordova, and even by the Fatimites, 
who held the sovereignty of Egypt and Northern 
Africa. In this manner a taste for learning was 
communicated to all the Mahometan states. From 
Bagdad it passed to Cairo ; and from the banks of 
the Euphrates and the Nile, it spread itself as fkr 
as theTaguB. Mathematios,** Astronomy, Che- 


AmbUn Leuning. 
20 Schools of Cordova. 



xnistry^ Medicine, Botany, and Materia Medica, 
were the sciences which the Arahlans affected 
chiefly to cultivate. They excelled also in poetry, 
and in the art of embodying the fictions of imagi- 
nation in the most agreeable narratiTes. Rhases, 
Averroes, Avicenna, are among the number of 
their celebrated philosophers and physicians. 
Elmacin, Abulfeda, Abulpharagius, and Bohadin, 
as historians, have become famous to all posterity. 
Thus Spain, under the Mahometans, by culti- 
vating many sciences little known to the rest of 
Europe, became the seminary of the Christians in 
the West, who resorted thither in crowds, to pro- 
secute in the schools of Cordova the study of 

learning and the libenl arts,** The nee of ta 
numerical characters, the manufacture of papei 
cotton, and gunpowder, were derived to as fraa 
the Arabians, and especially from the Ajrmbbns u 
Spain. Agriculture, manufiicturea, mnd naTigatkq 
are all equally indebted to the Ar&bianft. Tbri 

Sve a new impulse to the commerce of th« Indie«; 
>m the Persian Gulf they extended their tn:- 
along the shores of the Mediterruiewi* and to t^^ 
borders of the Black Sea. Their <»xpets, 2^ 
embroideries in gold and silver, their doihs ;: 
silk, and their manufactures in steel and ]exihr 
inaintained for years a celebrity and a perfectU 
unknown to the other nations of £uiope. 



The reign of Charles the Great forms a remark- 
able epoch in the history of Europe. That prince, 
who succeeded his father Pepin (768), eclipsed 
all his predecessors, by the superiority of his ge- 
nius, as well as by the wisdom and vigour of his 
administration. Under him the monarchy of the 
Franks was raised to the highest pinnacle of glory. 
He would have been an accomplished prince, and 
worthy of being commemorated as the benefactor 
of mankind, had he known how to restrain his 
immoderate thirst for conquest. 

He carried his victorious arms into the centre 
of Germany ; and subdued the warlike nation of 
the Saxons, whose territories extended from the 
Lower Rhine, to the Elbe and the Baltic sea. 
After a sanguinary war of thirty-three years, he 
compelled them to receive his yoke, and to embrace 
Christianity, by the peace which he concluded with 
them (803) at Salts on the Saal. The bishoprics 
of Munster, Osnaburg, Minden, Paderbom, Yer- 
den, Bremen, Hildesheim, and Halberstadt, owe 
their origin to this prince. Several of the Sla- 
vonian nations, the Abotrites (789), the Wilxians 
rd05), the Sorabians (806), the Bohemians (811), 
«c., acknowledged themselves his tributaries ; and 
by a treaty of peace which he concluded with 
Hemming, King of Jutland, he fixed the river 
Eyder, as the northern limit of his empire against 
the Danes. Besides these, the powerful monarchy 
of the Avars,' which comprehended all the coun- 
tries knovm in modem times by the names of 
Austria, Hungary, Transylvania, Sclavonia, Dal- 
matia, and Croatia, was completely subverted by 
him (791) ; and he likewise despoiled the Arabians 
of all that part of Spain which is situated between 
the Pyrenees and the Ebro (796), as also of Cor- 
sica, Sardinia, and the Balearic Isles. In Spain 
he established military commanders, under the 
title of Marffravea. 

Of these conquests, the one that deserves the 
most particular attention is that of Italy, and the 
kingdom of the Lombards. At the solicitation of 
Pope Adrian I., Charles undertook an expedition 
against the last of the Lombard kings. He be- 
sieged that prince in his capital at Pavia ; and 
having made him prisoner, after a long siege, he 

shut him up in confinement for the rest d i* 
days, and incorporated his dominiona witb '- 
monarchy of the Franks. The Dukes of Ba>- 
vento, who, as vaasals of the Lombard kings, t^ 
occupied the greater part of Lower Italy, ivvri: 
the same time compelled to acknowledge the te-r 
reignty of the conquerors, who allowed tliea t 
exercise their hereditary rights, on conditica ' 
their paying an annual tribute. The only {^ 
in this part of Italy that remained i]nsab<faK- 
were the maritime towns, of which the Gitit 
still found means to maintain the 

In order to secure the conquest of this cokt 
as well as to protect it against the incarsioB 
the Arabians, Charles established sereral maitstf 
and military stations, such as the marches cf F:: 
uli, Tarento, Turin, Liguria, Teti, &c. The d«R 
fidl of the Lombards put an end to the republkv 
government of the Romans. During the blocki^ 
of Pavia, Charles having gone to Rome to be pr 
sent at the feast of Easter (774), was receH 
there with all the honours due to an Sxaidi tc 
Patrician; and there is incontestable proof tbi 
he afterwards received, under that title, the ti^ 
of sovereignty over Borne and the Eodesiastici 

The Patrician dignity, instituted by Cobiob- 
tine the Great, ranked, in the Greek enapire, net 
after that of emperor. It was of sudi consklfit- 
tion, that even barbarian kings, the destroyen ^ 
the ancient Roman empire in the West, beov 
candidates for this honour at the Court of C«- 
stantinople. The exarchs of RaTenna were ^eah 
rally invested with it, and exercised under tb;* 
title, rather than that of exarch or gOTenior, t^ 
authority which they enjoyed at Rome. P«p 
Stephen II. had, twenty years before, confest^ 
the patriciate on Pepin and his sons ; altbooe^ 
these princes appear never to have exercised ^ 
right, regarding it merely as an honorary title, ^ 
long at least as the kingdom of the Lombards*^ 
parated them firom Rome and the States ^t* 
Church. Charles no sooner saw himself master >'< 
that kingdom, than he affected to add to his titk* 
of King of the Franks and Lombards that of IV , 
tridan of the Romans ; and began to exerdaeon? ' 

Bomaii Empiraof 
the Weat Tevived 

PEBIOD II. A.D. 800—962. 

Schools eitabliahed. 
Alcuin. 21 

SeUvoniaxi iiations. 

Rome and the EcclesUstieal Statei those rights of 
supremacy which the Greek emperors and exarchs 
had enjoyed before him. 

This prince returned to Borne towards the end 
of the year 800, in order to inquire into a con- 
spiracy which some of the Roman nobility had 
concerted against the life of Pope Leo III. The 
whole afiair having been discussed in his presence, 
and the innocence of the Pope clearly established, 
Charles went to assist at the solemn mass which 
was celebrated in St. Peter's Church on Christmas 
day (800.) The Pope, anxious to show him some 
public testimony of his gratitude, chose the mo- 
ment when the prince was on his knees at the 
foot of the grand altar, to put the imperial crown 
on his head, and caused him to be proclaimed to 
the people Emperor of the Romans. 

From this affair must be dated the reriyal of the 
Roman Empire in the West, — a title which had 
been extinct for three hundred years. The em- 
perors of the East who, during uiat interval, had 
continued exclusively in the enjoyment of that 
title, appeared to have some reason for opposing 
an innovation which might eventually become pre- 
judicial to them. The contest which arose on this 
subject between the two emperors, was at length 
(803) terminated by treaty. The Greek emperors 
recognised the new dignity of Charles (812) ; and 
on tiiese conditions they were allowed to retain 
those possessions, which they still held by a feeble 
tenure in Italy. 

In thus maintaining the imperial dignity against 
the Greek emperors, Charles added nothing to his 
real power ; he acquired from it no new right over 
the dismembered provinces of the Western em- 
pire, the state of which had, for a long time past, 
been fixed- by specific regulations. He did not 
even augment his authority over Rome, where he 
continued to exercise the same rights of superiority 
under the title of emperor, which he had formerly 
done under that of patrician. 

This prince, whose genius soared beyond his 
age, did not figure merely as a warrior and a con- 
queror ; he vras also a legislator, and a xealous pa- 
tron of letters. By the laws which he published 
under the title of CapUuiarieSt he reformed seve- 
ral abuses, and introduced new ideas of order and 
justice. Commissioners, nominated by himself, 
were charged to travel through the provinces, to 
superintend the execution of the laws, listen to the 
complaints of tiie people, and render justice to 
each without distinction and without partiality. 
He conceived likewise the idea of establishing a 
uniformity of weights and measures throughout 
the empire. Some of the laws of that great man, 
however, indicate a disposition tinctured with the 
barbarism and superstition of his age. The Judg^ 
ments of God are expressly held by him to be 
legal tests of right and wrong, and the greater part 
of crimes expiable by money. By a general law, 
which he passed in 779, introducing the payment 
of ecclesiastical tithes, and Jkich he extended to 
the vanquished Saxons (791), he alienated the 
affections of that people ; and the code which he 
dictated on this occasion, is remarkable for its 
atrocity; which their repeated revolts, and fre- 
quent returns to paganism, cannot justify. 

As to his patronage and love of letters, this is at- 
tested by the numerous schools which he founded, 
and the encouragements he held out to them ; as 

well as the attention he showed in inviting to his 
court, the most celebrated learned men from every 
country in Europe. He formed them into a kind 
of academy, or literary society, of which he was 
himself a member. When at an advanced age, he 
received instruction in rhetoric, logic, and astro- 
nomy, from the fiunous Alcuin, an Englishman, to 
whom he was much attached. He endeavoured 
also to improve his vernacular tongue, which 
was the Teutonic, or lingua Franeica, by draw- 
ing up a grammar of that language, giving German 
names to the months and Uie winds, which had 
not yet received them ; and in making a collection 
of the military songs of the ancient Germans. He 
extended an equal protection to the arts, more es- 
pecially architecttire, a taste for which he had im- 
bibed in Italy and Rome. Writers of those times 
speak with admiration of the palaces and edifices 
constructed by his orders, at Ingelhiem, near 
Mentz, at Nimeguen, on the left bank of the 
Waal, and at Aix-la-Chapelle. These buildings 
were adorned with numerous paintings, as well as 
marble and mosaic work, which he had brought 
from Rome and Ravenna. 

• The empire of Charlemagne, which may bear a 
comparison as to its extent with the ancient Em- 
pire of the West, embraced the principal part of 
Europe. All Gaul, Germany, and Spain as fiur 
as the Ebro, Italy to Benevento, several islands in 
the Mediterranean, with a considerable part of 
Pannonia, composed this vast empire, which, from 
west to east, extended from the Ebro to the Elbe 
and the Raab ; and from south to north, from the 
duchy of Benevento and the Adriatic Sea to the 
River Eyder, which formed the boundary' between 
Germany and Denmark. 

In defining the Ihnits of the empire of Charle- 
magne, care must be taken not to confound the 
provinces and states incorporated with the empire 
with those that were merely tributary. The for- 
mer were governed by officers who might be re- 
called at the will of the prince ; while the latter 
were free states, whose only tenure on the empire 
was by alliance, and the contributions they en- 
gaged to pay. Such was the policy of this prince, 
that, besides the marches or military stations which 
he had established on the frontiers of Germany, 
Spain, and Italy, he chose to retain, on different 
points of his dominions, nations who, under the 
name of tributaries, enjoyed the protection of the 
Franks, and might act as a guard or barrier against 
the barbarous tribes of the east and north, who had 
long been in the habit of making incursions into 
the western and southern countries of Europe. 

Thus the dukes of Benevento in Italy, who were 
simply vassals and tributaries of the empire, sup- 
plied, as it were, a rampart or bulwark against the 
Greeks and Arabians; while the Sclavonian na- 
tions of Germany, Pannonia, Dalmatia, and Cro- 
atia, though feudatories or vassals of France, were 
governed, nevertheless, by their own laws, and in 
general did not even profess the Christian religion. 

From this brief sketch of the reign of Charle- 
magne, it is easy to perceive that there was then 
no single power in Europe formidable enough to 
enter into competition with the empire of the 
Franks. The monarchies of the north, Denmark, 
Norway, and Sweden, and those of Poland and 
Russia, were not then in existence; or had not 
emerged from the thick darkness that still covered 

Effbctt. King of 
32 England. 

LoaU le Debonnaire. 


those parts of continental Europe. England then 
presented a heptarchy of seyen confederate gorem- 
ments, the union of which was far from heing well 
consolidated. The kings of this confederacy were 
incessantly engaged in war with each other ; and 
it was not until several years aiter Charlemagne, 
that Eghert the Great, king of Weasex, preymUing 
in the contest, constituted himself king of all Eng- 
land in 827. 

The Mahometan part of Spain, after it was 
separated from the great empire of the Caliphs, 
was engaged in perpetual warfare with the East 
The Ommiades, sovereigns of Cordova, hi from 
provoking their western neighhours, whose valour 
they had already experienced, showed themselves, 
on the contrary, attentive to preserve peace and 
good understanding with them. The Greek em- 
perors, who were continually quarrelling with the 
Arabs and Bulgarians, and agitated by Actions 
and intestine commotions, could no longer be an 
object of suspicion or rivalry to the monarchy of 
the Franks. 

Thus did the empire of Charlemagne eigoy the 
glory of being the ascendant power in Europe; 
but it did not long sustain its original splendour. 
It would have required a man of extraordinary 
talents to manage the reins of a government so ex- 
tensive and so complicated. Louis-le-Debonnaira, 
or the Gentle, the son and successor of Charles, 
did not possess a single qualification proper to 
govern the vast dominions which lus father had 
bequeathed to him. As impolitic as he was weak 
and superstitious, he had not the art of making 
himself either loved or feared by his subjects. By 
the imprudent partition of his dominions between 
his sons, which he made even in his lifetime, he 
planted with his own hand those seeds of discord 
in his family which accelerated the downfall of the 
empire. The civil wars which had commenced in 
his reign continued after his death. Louis, sur- 
named the German, and Charles the Bald, com- 
bined against their elder brother Lothaire, and 
defeated him at the famous battle of Fontenay in 
Burgundy (841), where all the flower of the 
ancient nobility perished. Louis and Charles, 
victorious in this engagement, obliged their brother 
to take refuge in Italy. They next marched to 
Strasbourg, where thev renewed their allianoe 
(842), and confirmed it by oath at the head of 
their troops.' 

These princes were on the point of dividing the 
whole monarchy between them, when, by the in- 
terference of the nobility, they became reconciled 
to their elder brother, and concluded a treaty with 
him at Yerdun (843^, which finallv completed the 
division of the empire. By this formal distribu- 
tion, Lothaire retained the imperial dignity, with 
the kingdom of Italy, and the provinces situated 
between tlie Bhone, the Saone, the Meuse, the 
Scheld, the Rhine, and the Alps. Louis had all 
Germany beyond the Rhine, and on this side of 
the river, the cantons of Mayence, Spire, and 
Worms ; and, lastly, all that part of Gaul which 
extends from the Scheld, the Meuse, the Saone, 
and the Rhone, to the Pyrenees, fell to the lot of 
Charles, whose division also comprehended the 
March of Spain, consisting of the province of 
Barcelona, and the territories which Charlemagne 
had conquered beyond the Pyrenees. 

It is with this treaty, properly speakingi that 

modem France oommenQea, which !• bat a 4^ 
partment of the ancient empire of tfae Frmnki, tr 
monarchy of Charlemagne. For & loo^ tiat r 
retained the boundaries whidi the co mfef emce a! 
Verdun had assigned it; and vrhftlerrer it un 
poasesMs beyond these limits, was the moqwaitix 
of conquests which it has made wince the few- 
teenth century. Charles the Bald wma in hr 
then the first King of France, and it is froic ts 
that the series of her kings oommeneea. It w* 
moreover, under thii prince that the gov er niagj 
of the Neuttrians, or Western Franks, aasmswi . 
new aspect. Before hii time it was entirely :f * 
Prankish or German constitution; the na^k? 
and customs of the conquerors of Gaol er^ym^ 
predominated ; their language (the Insane /Vaan 
was that of the court and the govemiiteiit. i: < 
after the dismemberment of whi^ we have spekn { 
the Gauls imported it into Neustxim* or Wctfcr 
France ; the customs and popular laagoaipr v 
adopted by the court, and had no email Infiaen* 
on the government. This language* which vi 
then known by the name of the tomtom or k* 
mofice, polished by the refinements of the epcr- 
assumed by degrees a new and purer fbrm, uisl: 
course of time, became the parent of the noda 
French. It was, therefore, at this period, vis^ -r 
reign of Charles the Bald, that the Weatem Fnu 
began, properly speaking, to be a distinct vttss^ 
and exchanged their more ancient app^latioB y 
that of Fremskt the name by which they are c 

At this same period Germany was, for the fc^ i 
time, embodied into a monarchy, having its <»*. 
particular kings. Louis the German was the ip- 
monarch of Germany, as Charles the Bald wu 
France. The kingdom of Louis for a losig to 
was called Eastern France, to distiagoish it fir.: 
the western kingdom of that name, which beacr 
forth exclusively retained the name of France. 

The empire of Charlemagne, which the tmr 
of Verdun had divided, was for a short space > 
united (884) under Charles, sumamed tiie Fti 
younger son of Louis the Gennsn, and Kisf >* 
Germany ; but that prince, too feeble to tapK 
BO great a weight, was deposed by his Gcebsi 
Bubjecti (887), and their example was vpet^. 
followed by the French and the Italians. X^- 
vast empire of the Franks was thus dismembst^ 
for ever (888), and besides the kingdoBi » 
France, Germanv, and Italy, it gave birtii to thm 
new states — the kingdoms of Lorraine, Brngm^y 
and Navarre. 

The kingdom of Lorraine took its name fits 
Lothaire II., younger son of the Emperor LoCbar 
I., who, in Uie division which he made of b 
estates among his sons (856), gave to this Loii^ 
the provinces situated between the Rhine, thf 
Meuse, and the Scheld, known ainoe under ta 
name of Lorraine, Alsace, Treves, Cologne, Jviki^ 
Liege, and the Low Countries. At the death ^ 
Lo^aire II., who lUt no male or legitimate hci:^ 
his kingdom was divided by the treaty of Proca^ 
(870) into two equal portions, one of whickw 
assigned to Louis the German, and the other u 
Charles the Bald.* By a subsequent treaty, eoe- 
cluded (879) between the sons of Louis, suraaao^ 
the Stammerer, King of Franee, and Louit tk 
Toung, King of Germany, the French dirisioa iX 
Lorraine was ceded to this latter prince, who th» 

Kingdom of BvgnAj. 
Rodolph, lung. 

PEEJOD II. A.D. 800-062. 

Kingdom of Nairmire. 
Counte of Barcelona. 23 
Feudal lyatem. 

united the whole of that kingdom. Amulph, 
King of Gennany, and successor of Charles, he- 
stowed the kingdom of Lorraine on Swentibald, 
his natural son, who, after a reign of five yean, 
waa deposed by Iiouis, snmamed the Infant, son 
and successor of Amulph. liOuis dying without 
issue (912), Charles the Simple, King of France, 
took adjantage of the commotions in Germany to 
put himself in possession of that kingdom, which 
wae at length finally reunited to the Germanic 
crown by Henry, sumamed the Fowler. 

Two new kingdoms appeared under the name 
of Burgundy, vis., Provence, or Cisjurane Bur- 
gundy, and Traosjurane Burgundy. The founder 
of the former was a nobleman named Boson, whose 
sister Charles the Bald had espoused. Elevated 
by the king, his brother-in-law, to the highest 
dignities in the state, he was created, in succession. 
Count of Vienna, Duke of Provence, Duke of 
Italy, and Prime Minister, and even obtained in 
marriage the Princess Irmengarde, daughter of 
Louis IL, Emperor and King of Italy. Instigated 
by this princess, he did not scruple to raise his 
ambitious views to the throne. The death of 
Louis the Stammerer, and the troubles that en- 
sued, afforded him an opportunity of attaching to 
his interest most o{ the bishops in those countries 
intrusted to his government. In an assembly 
which he held at Mantaille in Dauphin^ (B79), he 
engaged them by oath to confer on him the royal 
dignity. The schedule of this election, with the 
signatures of the bishops affixed, informs us dis- 
tinctly of the extent of this new kingdom, which 
comprehended Franche-Comt6, Ma^on, Chalons- 
siur-Saone, Lyons, Yienne and its dependencies, 
Agde, Viviers, Use^, with their dependencies in 
Languedoc, Provence; and a part of Savoy. Bo- 
son caused himself to be anointed king at Lyons, 
by the archbishop of that city. He maintained 
possession of his usurped dominions, in spite of 
the combined efforts which were made by the kings 
of France and Germany to reduce him to subjec- 

The example of Boson vras fi)llowed soon after 
by Rodolph, governor of Transjurane Burgundy, 
and related by the female aide to the Carlovin- 
gians. He waa proclaimed king, and crowned at 
St. Maurice in the Valais ; and his new kingdom, 
situated between Mount Jura and the Penine 
Alps, contained Switzerland, as fiur as the River 
Bcuss, the Yalais, and a part of Savoy. The death 
of Boson happening about this time, furnished 
Bodolph with a favourable opportunity of ex- 
tending his firontiersi and seizing a part of the 
country of Burgundy. 

These two kingdoms were afterwards (930) 
united into one. Hugo, king of Italy, exercised 
at that time the guardianship of the young Con- 
stantine, his relation, the son of Louis, and grand- 
son of Boson. The Italians, discontented under 
the government of Hugo, and having devolved 
their crown on Bodolph II., king of Tran^urane 
Burgundy, Hugo, in order to maintain himself on 
the throne of Italy, and exclude Rodolph, ceded 
to him the district of Provence, and the kingdom 
of his royal ward. Thus united in the person of 
Rodolph, these two kingdoms passed to his de- 
scendants, viz. Conrad, his son, and Rodolph III., 
his grandson. These princes are styled, in their 
titles, sometimes Xmg$ of Burgundy; sometimes 

Kinffs qf Fieime or Aries; sometimes Kings of 
Provence and AUemania, They lost, in course of 
time, their possessions beyond the Rhone and the 
Saone ; and in the time of Rodolph III., this 
kingdom had for its boundaries the Rhine, the 
Rhone, the Saone, the Reuss, and the Alps. 

Navarre, the kingdom next to be mentioned, 
known among the ancients under the name of 
VasGoniat was one of the provinces beyond the 
Pyrenees which Charlemagne had conquered from 
the Arabs. Among the counts or wardens of the 
Marches (called by the Germans Margraves) 
which he established, the most remarkable were 
those of Barcelona in Catalonia, Jaccain Arragon, 
and Pampeluna in Navarre. All these Spanish 
Marches were comprised within Western France, 
and within the division which fell to the share of 
Charles the Bald, on the dismemberment of that 
monarchy among the sons of Louis the Gentle. 
The extreme imbecility of that prince, and the 
calamities of his reign« were the causes why the 
Navarrese revolted from France, and erected them- 
selves into a free and independent state. It ap- 
pears also, that they were implicated in the defec- 
tion of Aquitain (853), when it threw off the voke 
of Charles the Bald. Don Garcias, son of the 
Count Don Garcias, and grandson of Don Sancho, 
is generally reckoned the first of their monarchs, 
that usurped the title of King qf Pampeluna (858). 
He and his successors in the kingdom of Navarre 
possessed, at the same time, the province of Jacca 
in Arragon. The Counts of Barcelona were the 
only Spanish dependencies that, for many cen- 
turies, continued to acknowledge the sovereignty 
of the Kings of France. 

On this part of our subject, it only remains for 
us to point out the causes that conspired to acce- 
lerate the downfall of the empire of the Franks. 
Among these we may reckon the inconveniences 
of the feudal system, — a system as unfitted for the 
purposes of internal administration, as it was in- 
compatible with the maxims that ought to rule 
a great empire. The abuse of fie& was carried 
so for by the Franks, that almost all property had 
become feudal ; and not only grants of land, and 
portions of large estates, but governments, duke- 
doms, and counties, were conferred and held under 
the title of fiefs. The consequence of this was, 
that the great, by the allurements of fiefs or bene- 
fices, became devoted followers of the kings, while 
the body of the nation sold themselves as retainers 
of the great. Whoever refused this vassalage was 
despised, and had neither favour nor honour to 
expect.^ By this practice, the liberty of the subject 
was abridged without augmenting the royal au&o- 
rity. The nobles soon became so powerful, by the 
liberality of their kings, and the number of their 
vassals they found means to procure, that they had 
at length the presumption to dictate laws to the 
sovereign himself. By degrees, the obligations 
which Uiey owed to the state were forgotten, and 
those only recognised which the feudal contract 
imposed. This new bond of alliance was not long 
in opening a door to licentiousness, as, by a natural 
consequence, it was imagined, that the feudal 
superior might be changed, whenever there was a 
possibility of charging him with a violation of his 
engagements, or of that reciprocal fidelity which 
he owed to his vassals. 
A system like this, not only overturned public 

The new Empirs 
24 fepanted. 

Power of Nofalee. 


order, by planting the germs of corruption in 
erery part of the internal adminiatration ; it was 
still more defective with regard to the external 
operations of goyermnent, and directly at Tariance 
with all plans of aggrandisement or of conquest. 
As war was carri^ on by means of slaves or 
Tsssab only, it is easy to perceive that such armies 
not being kept constantly on foot, were with diffi- 
culty put in motion ; that they could neither pre- 
vent intestine rebellion, nor be a protection agaJmst 
hostile invasion; and that conquests- made by 
means of such troops must be lost with the same 
facility that they are won. A permanent military, 
fortresses and garrisons, such as we find in modem 
tactics, were altogether unknown among the 
Franks. These politic institutions, indispensable 
in great empires, were totally repugnant to the 
genius of the German nations. They did not even 
know what is meant by finances, or regular sys- 
tems of taxation. Their kings had no other 'pe- 
cuniary resource than the simple revenues of their 
demesnes, which served for the maintenance of 
their court. Gratuitous donations, the perquisites 
of bed and lodging, fines, the tierce of which be- 
longed to the king, rights of custom and toll, 
added but little to their wealth, and could not be 
reckoned among the number of state resources. 
None but tributaries, or conquered nations, were 
subjected to the payment of certain imposts or 
assessments ; from these the Franks were ex- 
empted ; they would have even regarded it as an 
insult and a blow struck at their national liberty, 
had they been burdened vrith a single imposition. 

It is obvious, that a government like this, so 
disjointed and incoherent in all its parts, in spite 
of the advantages which accrued to it from nour- 
ishing a spirit of liberty, and opposing a sort of 
barrier against despotism, was nevertheless hi 
from being suitable to an empire of such prodi- 
gious extent as that of the Fnmks. Charlemagne 
had tried to infuse a new '%'igour into the state 
by the wise laws which he published, and the 
military stations which he planted on the frontiers 
of his empire. Raised, by the innate force of his 
genius, above the prejudices of the age in which he 
Uved, that prince had formed a system capable of 
giving unity and consistency to the state, had it 
been of longer duration. But this system fell to 
pieces and vanished, when no longer animated and 
put in execution by its author. Disorder and 
anarchy speedily puralyzed every branch of the 
government, and ultimately brought on the dis- 
memberment of the empire. 

Another cause which accelerated the fall of this 
vast empire, was the territorial divisions, practised 
by the kings, both of the Merovingian and the 
Carlovingian race. Charlemagne and Louis the 
Gentle, when they ordered the empire to be 
divided among their sons, never imagined this 
partition would terminate in a formal dismember- 
ment of the monarchy. Their intention was rather 
to preserve union and amity, by means of certain 
rights of superiority, which they granted to their 
eldest sons, whom they had invested with the 
Imperial dignity. But this subordination of the 
younger to their elder brothers was not of long 
continuance ; and these divisions, besides natu- 
rally weakening the state, became a source of 
perpetual discord, and reduced the Carlovingian 
princes to the necessity of courting the grandees 

on every emergency, and gainm^ their intercA 
by new gifts, or by concessions whidi w«nt to ms 
the foxmdation of the throne. 

This exorbitant power of the nobles moat aic 
be reckoned among the number of eames thii 
hastened the decline of the empire. Dukes tat 
Counts, besides being intrusted with the }TM>f 
and police of their respective govemments. qb- 
cised, at the same time, a military power, sad 
collected the revenues of the Exeheqaer. S^. 
many and so different jurisdlctioiia, united in ce? 
and the same power, could not but become dc- 
gerous to the royal author!^ ; while it fiwilftatrt 
to the nobles the means of fortifyixig tfaemselTa a 
their governments, and breaking, by degrees, d» 
unity of the state. Chaiiemagne had felt this s- 
convenienoe ; and he thought to remedy the e^i 
bv successively aboUshing the gr^t duchies, ui 
dividing them into several counties. XJn&ttt- 
nately this policy was not followed out by kr 
successors, who returned to the ancient practice r 
creating dukes ; and besides, being edncaied m 
nurtur^ in superstition by the priests* they pc 
themselves wholly under dependence to h»bef 
and ecclesiastics, who thus disposed of the state i 
their pleasure. The consequence waa, that goter- 
ments, at first alterable only by the will of t^ 
King, passed eventually to Uie children, or bfln> | 
of those who were merely administratora, or tape- 
intendants, of them. 

Charles the Bald, first King of France, bad tb* 
weakness to constitute this dangerona prints^* 
into a standing law, in the parliament wliirfc y 
held at Chiersi (877), towards the dose of b 
reign. He even extended this principle geneisl} 
to all fiefs ; to those that held immediately of t^ 
crown, as well as to those which held of laic, sr 
ecclesiastical superiors. 

This new and exorbitant power of the no&b. 
joined to the injudicious partitions already oki- 
tioned, tended to sow fresh discord among t^' 
difiereut members of the state, by exciting a nsa- 
titude of civil wars and domestic feuds, which, ^ 
a necessary consequence, brought the whole bodr- 
politic into a state of decay and dissolution. 1> 
history of the successors of Charlemagne pmpa^ 
a sad picture, humiliating and distreaaing to bt- 
manity. Every page of it is filled with insuntr* 
tions, devastations, and carnage: princes* ^mar 
from the same blood, armed against each otfarr. 
breathing unnatiutd vengeance, and bent ea 
mutual destruction: the royal authority insohei 
and despised by the nobles, who were perpetmLi 
at war with each other, either to decide tbr^' 
private quarrels, or aggrandize themselves at the 
expense of their neighbours; and, finally, tb* 
citizens exposed to all kinds of oppression, reducf^ 
to misery and servitude, without the hope or 
possibility of redress from the government. Sorh 
was the melancholy situation of the States tfait 
composed the Empire of Chariemagne, when Xh- 
irruption of new barbarians, the Normans from th' 
extremities of the North, and the Hungarians froo 
the back settlements of Asia, exposed it afresh ta 
the terrible scourge of foreign invasion. 

The Normans, of German origin, and inhabitiac 
ancient Scandinavia, that is to say, Sweden, Dfo* 
mark, and modem Norway, began, towards tbt 
end of the eighth century, to cover the sea wirk 
their ships, and to infest successively all the mi- 

Norman Sea«kingik 

PEBIOD II. A.D. 800—962. 


Ireland invaded. 

Dalui Bollo, or Hobert. 


ritime coasts of Europe. During the space of two 
liundred years, they continued their incursions 
and devastations, wiUi a fierceness and perseTerance 
that surpasses all imagination. This phenomenon, 
liowerer, is easily explained, if we attend to the 
state of harbarism in which the inhabitants of 
Scandinavia, in general, were at that time plung^ed. 
Despising agriculture and the arts, they found 
tfaemselves unable to draw from fisliing and the 
chace the necessary means even for their scanty 
subsistence. The comfortable circumstances of 
their neighbours, who cultivated their lands, ex- 
cited their cupidity, and invited them to acquire 
by force, piracy, or plunder, what they had not 
sufficient diill to procure by their own industry. 
They were, moreover, animated by a sort of reli- 
gious &naticism, which inspired them with courage 
for the most perilous enterprise. This reckless 
superstition they drew frvm uie doctrines of Odin, 
who was the god of their armies, the rewarder of 
valour ajid intrepidity in war, receiving into his 
paradise of ValkaUa the brave who fell beneath 
the swords of the enemy ; while, on the other 
hand, the abode of the vnetched, called by them 
Helvete, was prepared for those who, abandoned 
to ease and effeminacy, preferred a life of tranquil- 
lity to the glory of arms, and the perils of warlike 

This doctrine, generally diffused over all the 
north, inspired the Scandinavian youth with an 
intrepid and ferocious courage, which made them 
brave all dangers, and consider the sanguinary 
death of warriors as the surest path to immortality. 
Often did it happen that the sons of kings, even 
those who were already destined as successors to 
their father's throne, volunteered as chiefs of 
pirates and brigands, under the name of Sea 
KrngSf solely for the purpose of obtaining a name, 
and signalixing themselves by their maritime ex- 

These piracies of the Normans, which at first 
were limited to the seas and countries bordering 
on Scandinavia, soon extended over all the western 
and southern coasts of Europe. Germany, the 
kingdoms of Lorraine, France, England, Scotland, 
Ireland, Spain, the Balearic Isles, Italy, Greece, 
and even the shores of Africa, were exposed in 
their turn to the insults and the ravages of these 

France more especially suffered from their in- 
cursions, under the feeble reigns of Charles the 
Bald, and Charles the Fat. Not content with 
the havoc which they made on the coasts, they 
ascended the Seine, the Loire, the Garonne, and 
the Rhone, carrying fire and sword to the very 
centre of the kingdom. Nantes, Angers, Tours, 
Blots, Orleans, Mons, Poitiers, Bourdeaux, Rouen, 
Paris, Sens, Laon, Soissons, and various other 
cities, experienced the fury of these invaders. 
Paris was three times sacked and pillaged by them. 
Robert the Strong, a scion of the royal House of 
Capet, whom Charles the Bald had created (861) 
Duke or Governor of Neustria, was killed in battle 
(866) while combating with success against the 
Normans. At length, the terror which they had 
spread everywhere was such, that the French, who 
trembled at the very name of the Normans, had 
no longer courage to encounter them in arms; 
and in order to rid themselves of such formidable 
enemies, they consented to purchase their retreat 

by a sum of money ; a wretched and feeble re- 
medy, which only aggravated the evil, by inciting 
the invaders, by the hope of gain, to return to the 

It is not however at all astonishing, tHat France 
should have been exposed so long to these incur- 
sions, since, besides the inefficient state of that 
monarchy, she had no vessels of her own to pro- 
tect her coasts. The nobles, occupied solely with 
the care of augmenting or confirming their grow- 
ing power, offered but a feeble opposition to the 
Normans, whose presence in the kingdom caused 
a diversion fiivourable to their views. Some of 
them even had no hesitation in joining the bar- 
barians, when they happened to be in disgrace, or 
when they thought they had reason to complain of 
the government. 

It was in consequence of these numerous expe- 
ditions over all the seas of Europe, that the mo- 
narchies of the North were formed, and that the 
Normans succeeded also in founding several other 
states. It is to them that the powerful monarchy 
of the Russians owes its origin ; Ruric the Norman 
is allowed to have been its founder, towards the 
middle of the ninth century.^ He and the grand 
dukes, his successors, extended their conquests 
from the Baltic and the White Sea, to the 
Euxine ; and during the tenth century they made 
the emperors of de East to tremble on their 
thrones. In their native style of piratical warfare, 
they embarked on the Dnieper or Borysthenes, 
infested vrith their fleets the coasts of the Black 
Sea, carried terror and dismay to the gates of 
Constantinople, and obliged the Greek emperors 
to pay them large sums to redeem their capital 
fit>m pillage. 

Ireland vras more than once on the point of 
being subdued by the Normans, during liiese pi- 
ratical excursions. Their first invasion of ^is 
island is stated to have been in the year 795. 
Great ravages were committed by the barbarians, 
who conquered or founded the cities of Waterford, 
Dublin, and Limerick, which they formed into 
separate petty kingdoms. Christianity was intro- 
duced among them towards the middle of the 
tenth century ; and it was not till the twelfth, the 
time of its invasion by the English, that they 
(succeeded in expelling them from the island, when 
they were dispossessed of the cities of Waterford 
and Dublin (1170) by Henry II. of England. 

Orkney, the Hebrides, the Shetland and Faroe 
Islands, and the Isle of Man, were also discovered 
and peopled by the Normans.' Another colony 
of these Normans peopled Iceland, where they 
founded a republic (874), which preserved its 
independence till nearly- the middle of the thir- 
teenth century, when Uiat island was conquered 
by the Kings of Norway.* Normandy, in France, 
also received its name from this people. Charles 
the Simple, wishing to put a check on their con- 
tinual incursions, concluded, at St. Clair-sur-Epte 
(912), a treaty with Rollo or Rolf, chief of the 
Normans, bv which he abandoned to them all 
that part of Neustria which reaches firom the 
rivers Andelle and Aure to the ocean. To this he 
added a part of Yexin, situated between the 
rivers Andelle and Epte ; as also the territory of Bre- 
tRgn«?. Rollo embraced Christianity, and received 
the baptismal name of Robert. He submitted to 
become a vassal of the crown of France, under the 


HungMian inroadt. 
Henry I. of OennwiT, 
Otho the Graftt. 


State of l«WBfav.l 
in Rnghnd. 

title of Duke of Normandy ; and obtained in mar- 
riage the princetB Gisele, daughter of Charles the 
Simple. In the following century, we shall meet 
with these Normans of France as the conquerors of 
£ngland, «nd the founders of the kingdom of the 
two SiciUes. 

The Hungarians, a people of Turkish or Finnish 
origin, emigrated, as is generally supposed, from 
Baschiria, a country lying to the north of the 
Caspian Sea, between the Wolga, the Kama, and 
Mount Ural, near the source of the Tobol and the 
Jaik, or modem Ural. The Orientals designate 
them by the generic name of Turks, while they 
denominate themselves Magiara, from the name of 
one of their tribes. After baring been long de- 
pendent on the ChaxaiB,^^ a Turkish tribe to the 
north of the Falus Mieotis, they retired towards 
the Danube, to avoid the oppressions of the 
Fatsinacites ;** and established themselves (d87) in 
ancient Dacia, under the auspices of a chief named 
Arpad, from whom the ancient sovereigns of 
Hungary derive their origin. Amulph, King of 
Germany, employed these Hungarians (802) 
against the Slavo-Morarians, who possessed a 
flourishing state on the banks of the Danube, the 
Morau and the Elbe.^* While engaged in this 
expedition, they were attacked again in their 
Dacian possessions by the Fatzinacites, who suc- 
ceeded at length in expeUing them from these 
territories.*' Taking advantage afterwards of the 
death of Swiatopolk, king of the Moravians, and 
the troubles consequent on that event, they dis- 
severed from Moravia all the country which ex- 
tends from the frontiers of Moldaria, Wallachia, 
and Transylvania, to the Danube and the Morau. 
They conquered, about the same time, Fannonia, 
with a part of Noricum, which they had wrested 
from the Germans ; and thus laid the foundation 
of a new state, known since by the name of Hun- 

No sooner had the Hungarians established 
themselves in Fannonia, than they commenced 
their Incursions into the principal states of Europe. 
Germany, Italy, and Gaul, agitated by faction and 
anarchy, and even the Grecian empire in the East, 
became, all in their turn, the bloody scene of their 
ravages and devastations. Germany, in particular, 
for a long time felt the effects of their fiiry. Ail 
its provinces in succession were laid waste by 
these barbarians, and compelled to pay them 
tribute, Henry I., King of Germany, and his 
son Otho the Great, at length succeeded in ar- 
resting their destructive career, and delivered 
Europe from this new yoke which threatened its 

It was in consequence of these incursions of 
the Hungarians and Normans, to which maybe 
added those of the Arabs and Slavonians^ that the 

kingdoms which sprang from the empire of tk 
Franks lost once more the advantages 'wbl^ iki 
political institutions of Chariemagne had proeofd 
them. Learning, which that prince had ciscas- 
raged, fell into a state of absolute languor ; an ce^ 
was put both to civil and literary improiTement, k 
the destruction of convents, schools, and libiariei; 
the polity and internal security of the sdaOes wtre 
destroyed, and commerce reduced to nolhitf 
England was the only exception, wfaidi then fa- 
Joyed a transient glory under the memoraUc reifB 
of Alfred the Great, who succeeded Bthelred k 
872. That prince, grandson of kinf^ Egbea 
expelled the Normans from the island (S87), w 
restored peace and tranquillity to his iritigAaa. 
After the example of Charlemagne* he cnltifate^ 
and protected learning and the arte, by restoraz 
the convents and schools which the barbaiiaos hk* 
destroyed ; inviting philosophers and artists to t« 
court, and civilising his subjects by Iit««iy s- 
stitutions and wise regulations.^^ It is to be »- 
gretted, that a reign so glorious was so ma 
followed by new misfortunes. After the NonBs& 
the Danes reappeared in England, and OTenprei^ 
it once more vrith turbulence and desolation. 

During these unenlightened and calanitrs 
times, we find the art of navigation making ctm- 
siderable progress. The Normans, traTeisinc &( 
seas perpetually with their fleets, learned ts eta- 
struct their vessels with greater perfection, to k> 
come better skilled in wind and weather, and v 
use their oars and sails with more address. It 
was, moreover, in consequence of these inTasteo- 
that more correct information was obtained r- 
garding Scandinavia, and the remote refrioos ii 
the North. Two Normans, WoUstane and Other, 
the one from Jutland, and the other from Nonni. 
undertook separate voyages, in course of the nisu 
century, principally with the view of '"•King wt- 
ritime discoveries. Wolfstane proceeded to vbj* 
that part of Frussia, or the Eatoma of the andm^ 
which was renovnied for its produce of yelfe* 
amber. Other did not confine his adTentorot 
the coasts of the Baltic ; setting out from the port 
of Heligoland, his native country, he douhlr'' 
Cape North, and advanced as far as Biarmis, n 
the mouth of the Dwina, in the province of Xr^- 
angel. Both he and Woi&tane communicated dr 
details of their voyages to Alfred the Great, wb 
made use of them in his Anglo-Saxon translatks 

Besides Iceland and the Northern Isles, of wfaiH> 
we have abeady spoken, we find, in the teu^ 
century, some of the fugitive Normans peopiiK 
Greenland; and others forming settlements i? 
Finland, which some suppose to be tbe tsUnd fi 
Nevrfbundland, in North America.*^ 

Kiocdom of Gcrmaav. 
Henry I., or the Fowler. 
Otho the Greftt. 

FEEIOD III. A.D. 9e3-.1074. 

Canute the 
Great, King 87 
of Denmark. 



While most of the states that sprang from the 
dismembered empire of the Franks continued to 
be the prey of disorder and anarchy, the kingdom 
of Germany assumed a new form, and for several 
ages maintained^the character of being the ruling 
power in Europe. It was erected into a monarchy 
at the peace of Verdun (843), and had for its first 
king Louis the German, second son of Louis the 
Gentle. At that time it compxised, besides the 
three cantons of Spire, Worms, and Mayence, on 
this side the Rhine, all the countries and proTinees 
beyond that river, which had belonged to the 
empire of the Franks, from the Eyder and the 
Baltic, to the Alps and the confines of Fannonia. 
Several of the Slavian tribes, also, were its tri- 

From the first formation of this kingdom, the 
royal authority was limited ; and Louis the 
German, in an assembly held at Marsne (861), 
had formally engaged to maintain the 9tate9 m their 
righu and privileyeBi to follow their counsel and 
advice ; and to consider them aa his true ooUeagues 
and coadjutors in all the t^airs qf govemmenit. 
The states, however, soon found means to vest in 
themselves the right of choosing their kings. The 
first Carlovingian moiuirchs of Germany were he- 
reditary. Louis the German even divided his 
kingdom among his three sons, vii., Carlomaa, 
Louis the Toung, and Charles the Fat; but 
Charles having been deposed in an assembly held 
at Frankfort (887), the states of Germany elected 
in his place Amulph, a natural son of Carloman. 
This prince added to his crown both Italy and the 
Imperial dignity. 

The custom of election has continued in Ger- 
many down to modem times, Louis TEnfimt, or 
the Infant, son of Amulph, succeeded to the 
throne by election ; and that prince having died 
very young (911), the states bestowed the crown 
on a French nobleman, named Conrad, who vras 
duke or governor of France on the Rhine, and 
related by the female side to the Carlovingian line. 
Conrad mounted the throne, to the exclusion of 
Charles the Simple, King of France, the only 
male and legitimate heir of the Carlovingian line. 
This latter prince, however, fbund means to seize 
the kingdom of Lorraine, which Louis the Toung 
had annexed to the crown of Germany. On the 
death of Conrad I. (919), the choice of the states 
fell on Henry I., sumamed the Fowler, a scion of 
the Saxon dynasty of the kings and emperon of 

It was to the valour and the wisdom of Henry 
I., and po his institutions, civil and military, that 
Germany was indebted for its renewed grandeur. 
That monarch, taking advantage of the intestine 
troubles which had arisen in France under Chariee 
the Simple, recovered possession of the kingdom 
of Lorraine, the nobility of which made their sub- 
mission to him in the yean 923 and 925. By 
this union he extended the limits of Germany 
towards the west, as far as the Meuse and the 
Scheld. The kings of Germany afterwards divided 
the territory of Lorraine into two governments or 

duchies, called Upper and Lower Lorraine. The 
former, situated on the Moselle, was called the 
duchy of the Moselle ; the other, bounded by the 
Rhine, the Meuse, and the Scheld, was known by 
the name of Lothiera or Brabant. These two 
duchies comprised all the provinces of the king- 
dom of Lorraine, except those which the emperon 
Judged proper to exempt firom the authority and 
jurisdiction of the dukes. The duchy or the 
Moselle, alone, finally retained the name of Lor- 
raine ; and passed (1048) to Gerard of Alsace, 
descended from the dukes of that name, who, in 
the eighteenth century, succeeded to the Imperial 
throne. As to the duchy of Lower Lorraine, the 
Emperor Henry V. conferred it on Godfrey, Count 
of Louvain (1106), whose male descendants kept 
possession of it, under the title of Dukes of 
Brabant, till 1355, when it passed by female 
succession to the Dukes of Burgundy, who found 
means also to acquire, by degrees, the greater part 
of Lower Lorraine, commonly called the Low 

Henry I., a prince of extraordinary genius, 
proved himself the tme restorer of the German 
kingdom. The Slavonian tribes who inhabited 
the banks of the Saal, and the country between 
the Elbe and the Baltic, committed incessant 
ravages on the frontier provinces of the kingdom. 
With these he waged a successful war, and re- 
duced them once more to the condition of tribu- 
taries. But his policy was turned chiefly against 
the Hungarians, who, since the reign of Louis II., 
had repeatedly renewed their incunions, and 
threatened to subject all Germanv to their yoke. 
Desirous to repress effectually that ferocious nation, 
he took the opporttmity of a nine yean' trace, 
which he had obtained with them, to construct 
new towns, and fortify places of strength. He 
instructed his troops in a new kind of tacties, 
accustomed them to military evolutions, and, above 
all, he formed and equipped a cavalry sufficient to 
cope with those of the Hungarians, who par- 
ticularly excelled in the art of managing hones. 
These depredaton having returned with fresh 
forces at the expiry of the trace, he completely 
defeated them in two bloody battles, which he 
fought with them (933) near Sondenhausen and 
Mereaburg ; and thus exonerated Germany from 
the tribute which it had formerly paid them.^ 

This victorious prince extended lus conquests 
beyond the Eyder, the ancient frontier of Den- 
mark. After a prosperous war vrith the Danes 
(931), he founded the margravate of Sleswick, 
which the Emperor Conrad II. afterwards ceded 
back (1033) to Canute the Great, King of Den- 

Otho the Great, son and successor of Henry I., 
added the kingdom of Italy to the conquests of 
his fiither, and procured also the Imperial dignity 
for himself, and his successon in Germany. Italy 
had become a distinct kingdom since the revolu- 
tion, which happened (888) at the death of the 
Emperor Charles the Fat. Ten princes in suc- 
cession occupied the throne during the space of 

Emperor of GSermany. 
28 John XI. oad XII. Popes. 
Berenger. Hugo. 



serenty-three years. Several of these princes, 
such as Guy, Lambert, Amulf, Louis of Bur- 
gundy, and Berenger I., were inyested, at the 
same time, with the Imperial dignity. Berenger 

I. having been assassinated (924), this latter dig- 
nity ceased entirely, and the ci^ of Rome was 
even dismembered from the kingdom of Italy. 

The sovereignty of that city was seised by the 
famous Marozia, widow of a nobleman named 
Alberic. She raised her son to the pontificate by 
the title of John XI. ; and the better to establish 
her dominion, she espoused Hugo King of Italy 
(032), who became, in consequence of this mar- 
riage, master of Rome. But Alberic, another son 
of Marozia, soon stirred up the people against 
this aspiring princess and her husband Hugo. 
Having driven Hugo from the throne, and shut up 
his mother in prison, he assumed to himself the 
sovereign authority, under the title of Patrician 
of the Romans, At his death (954), he trans- 
mitted the sovereignty to his son Octavian, who, 
though only nineteen years of age, caused Idmself 
to be elected pope, by the title of John XII. 

This epoch was one most disastrous for Italy. 
The weakness of the government excited factions 
among the nobility, gave birth to anarchy, and 
fresh opportunity for the depredations of the Hun- 
garians and Arabs, who, at this period, were the 
scourge of Italy, which they ravaged with impu- 
nity. Pavia, the capital of the kingdom, was 
taken, and burnt by the Hungarians. These 
troubles increased on the accession of Berenger 

II. (950). grandson of Berenger I. Tlfnt prince 
associated his son Adelbert with him in the royal 
dignity ; and the public voice accused them of 
having caused the death of King Lothaire, son and 
successor of Hugo. 

Lothaire left a young widow, named Adelaide, 
daughter of Rodolph II., King of Burgundy and 
Italy. To avoid the importunities of Berenger 
II., who wished to compel her to marry his son 
Adelbert, this princess called in the King of 
Germany to her aid. Otho complied with the 
solicitations of the distressed queen ; and, on this 
occasion, undertook his first expedition into Italy 
(951). The city of Pavia, and several other places, 
having &llen into his hands, he made himself be 
proclaimed King of Italy, and married the young 
queen, his prot^g6e. Berenger and his son, being 
driven for shelter to their strongholds, had recourse 
to negociation. They succeeded in obtaining for 
themselves a confirmation of the roval title of 
Italy, on condition of doing homage for it to the 
King of Germany ; and for this purpose, they 
repaired in person to the diet assembled at Augs- 
burg (952), where they took the oath of vassalage 
under the hands of Otho, who solemnly invested 
them with the royalty of Italy ; reserving to him- 
self the towns and marches of Aquileia and Verona, 
the command of which he bestowed on hit brother 
the Duke of Bavaria. 

In examining more nearly all that passed in this 
affair, it appears that it was not without the 
regret, and even contrary to the wish of Adelaide, 
that Otho agreed to enter into terms of accommo- 
dation with Berenger, and to ratify the compact 
which Conrad, Duke of Lorraine, and son-in-law 
of the Emperor, had made with that prince. 
Afterwards, however, he lent- a favourable car to 
the complaints which Pope John XII., and tome 

Italian noblemen had addressed to bim 
Berenger and his son ; and took oocuioii, on tbs* 
account, to conduct a new army into Itidy (961). 
Berenger, too feeble to oppose him, retired & 
second time within his fortifications. Othomarded 
from Pavia to Milan, and there made himself be 
crowned King of Italy ; from then<se he p—cd t? 
Rome, about the commencement of the foUovie; 
year. Pope John XII., who had himself invitBd 
him, and again implored his protection agaiaii 
Berenger, gave him, at first, a #ery hrilliaiit rr- 
ception ; and revived the Imperial dignity in hs 
favour, which had been dormant for thirty-eisfe 

It was on the 2d of February, 962, that ik 
Pope consecrated and crowned him Smperor ; bit 
he had soon cause to repent of this procecdiBff 
Otho, immediately after his coronation at Bobss, 
undertook the siege of St. Leon, a fortress a 
Umbria, where Berenger and his Queen had takei 
refuge. • While engaged in the siege, he l ecdf M 
frequent intimations from Rome, of tfie miscondaa 
and immoralities of the Pope. The remonatzaseo 
which he thought it his duty to make on iti< 
subject, ofi^ended the young Pontiff, who resohvi 
in consequence, to oreak off union with ts? 
Emperor. Hurried on by the impetuosity of B 
character, he entered into a negociation vidi 
Adelbert ; and even persuaded him to come t: 
Rome, in order to concert with him measures «e 
defence. On the first news of this event, O^ 
put himself at the head of a large deta)chment, vist 
which he marched directly to Rome. The Pope, ' 
however, did not think it advisable to wait b ' 
approach, but fled with the King, his new afir. , 
Otho, on arriving at the capital, exacted a soksa 
oath from the clergy and the people, that heci^ ! 
forth they would elect no pope without his couxsti. 
and that of the Emperor and his successors.* Hit- > 
ing then assembled a council, he caused Pope Joiis ' 
XII. to be deposed ; and Leo YIII. was elected k 1 
his place. This latter Pontiff was maintained it : 
the papacy, in spite of all the efforts which te 
adversary made to regain it. ' Berenger 11^ alb? > 
having sustained a long siege at St. Leon, feO i; 
length (964) into the hands of the conqueror, wk i 
sent him into exile at Bamberg, and compelled ha ' 
son, Adelbert, to take refuge in the court of Con- 
stantinople. I 

All Italy, to the extent of the ancient kingdns ' 
of the Lombards, fell under the dominion of ^ 
Germans; only a few maritime towns in Low . 
Italy, with the greater part of Apulia and Ci- ' 
labria, still remained in the power of the Greeks. 
This kingdom, together with the Imperial dignity, ' 
Otho transmitted to his successors on the throcr , 
of Germany. From this time the Germans heid « 
to be an inviolable principle, that as the Impeiial 
dignity was strictly united with the royalty of ' 
Italy, kings elected by the German nation shooli ' 
at the same time, in virtue of that election, beeoot 
Kings of Italy and Emperors. The practice of tlti> 
triple coronation, viz., of Germany, Italy, sad 
Rome, continued for many centuries; and from 
Otho the Great, till Maximilian I. (1508), no \m 
of Germany took the title of Emperor, until after 
he had been formally crowned by the Pope. 

The kings and emperors of the house of 
Saxony did not terminate their conquests with tlw 
dominions of Lorraine and Italy. Towards the e»t 

P^WDeoBan or Salio 

PERIOD III. A.D. 963—1074. 

Kingdom of Biu^undy. 
Dakes of Zahringen. 29 


and the north, they extended them beyond the 
Saal and the Elbe. All the SlaTonian tribes be- 
tween the Havel and the Oder ; the Abotrites, the 
Rhedarians, the Wilaiana, the SlaToniant on the 
Havel, the Sorabians, the Daleminciana, the Luai- 
tsiana, the Milsians, and various others ; the dukes 
also of Bohemia and Poland, although they often 
took up aims in defence of their liberty and inde- 
pendence, were all reduced to subjection, and again 
compelled to pay tribute. In order to secure their 
submission, the Saxon kings introduced German 
colonies into the conquered countries ; and founded 
there several margravates, such as that of the North, 
on this side of the Elbe, afterwards called Bran- 
denburg ; and in the East, those of Misnia and 
Lusatia. Otho the Great adopted measures for 
promulgating Christianity among them. The bi- 
shopric of Oldenburg in Wagria, of Havelburg, 
Brandenburg, Meissen, Merseburg, Zeits ; those 
of Posnania or Posen, in Poland, of Prague in 
Bohemia ; and lastly, the metropolis of Magdeberg, 
all owe their origin to this monarch. His grand- 
son, the Emperor Otho III., founded (in 1000) 
the Archbishopric of Gnesna, in Poland, to which 
he subjected the bishoprics of Colberg, Cracow, 
and Breslau, reserving Posen to the metropolitan 
See of Magdebux^f. 

The Saxon dynasty became extinct (1024) with 
the emperor Henry II. It was succeeded by that 
of Franconia, eonmtonly called the Saiic. Conrad 
II., the first emperor of this house, united to the 
German crown the kingdom of Bux^gundy ; or, as 
it is sometimes called, the kingdom of Aries. 
This monarchy, situate between the Bhine, the 
Reuss, Mount Jura, the Saone, the Rhone, and 
the Alps, had been divided among a certain num- 
ber of counts, or governors of provinces, who, in 
consequence of the weakness of their last kings, 
Conrad and Rodolph III., had converted their 
temporary Jurisdictions into hereditary and patri- 
monial offices, after the example of the French 
nobility, who had already usurped the same power. 
The principal and most puissant of these Bux^gun- 
dian nobles, were the counts of Provence, Yienne, 
(afterwards called Dauphins of Yienne), Savoy, 
Burgundy, and Montbelliard ; the Archbishop of 
Lyons, Besangon, and Aries, and the Bishop of 
Basle, ftc. The contempt in which these power- 
ful vassals held the rcgral authority, induced Ro- 
dolph to apply for protection to his kinsmen the 
Emperors Henry II. and Conrad II., and to ac- 
knowledge them, by several treaties, his heirs and 
successors to the crown. It was in virtue of these 
treaties, that Conrad II. took possession of the 
kingdom of Burgundy (1032) on the death of 
Rodolph III. He maintained his rights by force 
of arms against Eudes, Count of Champagne, 
who claimed to be the legitimate successor, as 
being nephew to the last king. 

This reunion was but a feeble addition to the 
power of the German emperors. The bishops, 
counts, and great vassals of the kingdom they had 
newly acquired, still retained the authority which 
they had usurped in their several departments; 
and nothing was left to the emperors, but the 
exercise of their feudal and proprietory rights, 
together with the slender remains of the demesne 
lands belonging to the last kings. It is even pro- 
bable, that the high rank which the Burgundian 
nobles enjoyed excited the ambition of &ose in 

Germany, and emboldened them to usurp the 
same prerogatives. 

The Emperors Conrad II. (1033) and Henry 
III. (1038), were both crowned Kings of Bur- 
gundy. The Eipperor Lothaire conferred the 
viceroyaltv or regency on Conrad Duke of Zah- 
ringen, who then took the title of Governor or 
Regent of Burgundy. Berthold lY., son of Con- 
rad, resigned (1156), in fevour of the Emperor 
Frederic I., his rights of viceroyalty over that part 
of the kingdom situate beyond Mount Jura. Swit- 
zerland, at that time, was subject to the Dukes of 
Zahringen, who, in order to retain it in vassalage 
to their government, fortified Morges, Mouden, 
Tverdun, and Berthoud; and built the cities of 
Fribourg and Berne. On the extinction of the 
Zahringian dukes (1191), Switserland became an 
immediate province of ibe empire. It was after- 
wards (1218) formed into a republic; and the 
other parts of the kingdom of Burgundy or Aries 
were gradually united to France, as we shall see 
in course of our narrative. 

The Hungarians, since their first invasion under 
Louis TEnfent, had wrested from the German 
crowa all its possessions in Pannonia, with a part 
of ancient Noricum ; and the boundaries of Ger- 
many had been contracted within the river Ens in 
Bavaria. Their growing preponderance after- 
wards enabled the Germans to recover from the 
Hungarians a part of their conquests. They suc- 
ceeded in expelling them, not only from Noricum, 
but even from that part of Upper Pannonia which 
lies between Mount Cetius, or Kahlenberg as it is 
caUed, and the river Leita. Henry III. secured 
the possession of these territories by the treaty of 
peace which he concluded (1043) with Samuel, 
sumamed Aba, King of Hungary. This part of 
Hungary was annexed to the Eastern Margravate, 
or Austria, which then began to assume nearly its 
present form. 

Such then vras the progressive aggrandisement 
of the German empire, from the reign of Henry I. 
to the year 1043. Under its most flourishing 
state, that is, under the Emperor Henry III., it 
embraced nearly two-thirds of the monarchy of 
Chariemagne. All Germany between the Rhine, 
the Eyder, the Oder, the Leita, and the Alps ; all 
Italy, as fiur as the confines of Uie Greeks in Apu- 
lia and Calabria; Gaul, from the Rhine to the 
Scheldt, the Meuse, and the Rhone, acknowledged 
the supremacy of the emperors. The Dukes of 
Bohemia and roland were their tributaries ; a de- 
pendence which continued until the commotions 
which agitated Germany put an end to it in the 
thirteenth century. 

Germany, at this period, ranked as the ruling 
power in Europe ; and this preponderance was 
not owing so much to the extent of her posses- 
sions, as to the vigour of her government, which 
still maintained a kind of system of political unity. 
The emperors may be regarded as true monarchs, 
dispensing, at their pleasure, all dignities, civil 
and ecclesiastical — ^possessing very large domains 
in all parts of the empire — and exercising, indi- 
vidually, various branches of the sovereign power ; 
—only, in affairs of great importance, asking the 
advice or consent of the grandees. This great- 
ness of the German emperors gave rise to a sys- 
tem of polity which the Popes took great care to 
support with all their credit and authority. Ac- 


Seliim at Borne. 
Benrr IIL and lY. 

State of Italy. 



cording to this vyttem, the whole of Chriitendom 
composed, as it were, a single and indiTidual te* 
public, of which the Pope was the spiritual head, 
and the Emperor the secular. The duty of the 
latter, as heiul and patron of the Church, was to 
take cognizance that nothing should be done con- 
trary to the general wel&re of Christlmnity. It 
was his part to protect the Catholic Church, to be 
the guardian of its preservation, to convocate its 
general councils, and exercise such rights as the 
nature of his office and the interests of Christianity 
seemed to demand. 

It was in yirtue of this ideal system that the 
emperors enjoyed a precedency oYer other mo- 
narchs» with the exclusiye right of electing kings ; 
and that they had bestowed on them the title of 
masten of the world, and sovereign of sorereigns. 
A more important prerogatire was that which they 
possessed in the election of the Popes. From 
Otho the Great to Henry lY., all the Boman 
pontiffii were chosen, or at least confirmed, by the 
emperors. Henry III. deposed three schismatical 
popes (1046), and substituted in their place a 
German, who took the name of Clement II. The 
same emperor afterwards nominated various other 
popes of his own nation. 

However vast and formidable the power of these 
monarchs seemed to be, it was nevertheless &r 
from being a solid and durable fabric ; and it was 
easy to foresee that, in a short time, it would 
crumble and disappear. Various causes conspired 
to accelerate its downfall ; the first and principal of 
which necessarily sprang from the constitution of 
the empire, which was faulty in itself, and incom- 
patible with any scheme of aggrandisement or 
conquest. A great empire, to prolong its dura- 
bility, requires a perfect unity of power, which 
can act with despatch, and communicate with &ci- 
lity from one extremity to the other; an armed 
force constantly on foot, and capable of maintain- 
ing the public tranquillity ; frontien well defended 
against hostile invasion ; and revenues propor- 
tioned to the exigencies of the state. All these 
characteristics of political greatness were want- 
ing in the German empire. 

That empire was elective ; the states co-operated 
jointly with the emperors in the exercise of the 
legislative power. There were neither permanent 
armies, nor fortresses, nor taxation, nor any regu- 
lar system of finance. The government was with- 
out vigour, incapable of protecting or punishing, 
or even keeping in subjection, its remote provinces, 
consisting of nations who diffSered in language, 
manners, and legislation* One insurrection, though 
quelled, was only the forerunner of othen ; and 
the conquered nations shook off the yoke wiUi the 
same facility as they received it. The perpetual 
wan of the emperors in Italy, from the first con- 
quest of that country by Otho the Great, prove, 
in a manner most evident, the strange imbecility 
of the ffovemment. At every change of reign, and 
every little revolution which happened in Ger- 
many, the Italians rose In arms, and put the em- 
perors again to the necessity of reconquering that 
kingdom ; which undoubtedly it was their Interest 
to faAve abandoned entirely, rather than to layish 
for so many centuries their treasures and the blood 
of their people to no purpose. The climate of 
Italy was also disastrous to the Imperial armies ; 
and many successions of noble German families 
found there a foreign grave. 

An inevitable oonseqiience of this Titiated eoa- 
stitution, was the decUne of the royal aotfaority. 
and the gradual increase of the power oi tfac no- 
bility. It is important, howeyer, to routk, thai 
in Germany the progrees of the feudal sjvtaB bad 
been much lets rapid than in France. Thte daks, 
counts, and margrayes, that iSy the go t etu ors W 
provinces, and wudens of the marchea, cantinQed 
for long to be regarded merdy as imperial oficertr 
without any pretensions to eomider their govea- 
ments as hereditary, or exercise the lighti oi sove- 
reignty. Even flefr remained for manj ages a 
their primitive state, withont being pcrpeCuaied ia 
the fkmilies of those to whom they had been oi- 
ginally granted. 

A total change, however, took place tovsei 
the end of the eleventh century. The dekcs sad 
counts, become formidable by the extent of ther 
power and their vast possessions, by dcgteea, coa- 
stituted themselves hereditary ofBcera ; and inrf 
content with the appropriation of their dudues sac 
counties, they took advantage of the weakncai fi 
the emperon, and their quarrels with the pope, 
to extort from them new privilegea* or usiiip t&f 
prerogatives of royalty, fbrmerly r e e cr i ed far tkt , 
emperon alone. The aristocracy, or landed pro- 
prietors, followed the example of the dnkes aal | 
counts, and after the eleventh ce&turyr they t> . 
began to play the part of sovereigns, atyiii)^ tibes- 
selves, in their public acts, Bp the Grwx qf <M- 
At length fiefs became also hereditary. Coani 
II. was the first emperor that permitted the tnv- > 
mission of fieft to sons and grandsona ; the wx- . 
cession of collateral branches was aubeequauh < 
introduced. The system of hereditary feudaiia ' 
became thus firmly established in Germa&y, stt. i 
by a natural consequence, it brought on the ^ 
struction of the imperial authority, and the ruia it ' 
the empire. 

Nothing, however, was more inJmiotM to ^ I 
authority than the extravagant power of the den^i i 
whom the emperors of the Saxon line had loaded ' 
with honours and benefactions, either from a sal i 
for religion, or with the intention of using them a* 
a counterpoise to the ambition of the dukes sad | 
secular nobility. It vras chiefly to Otho the Grfsl , 
that the bishops of Germany were indebted fa 
their temporal power. That prince bestowed sb 
them large grants of land«from the imperial do- 
mains ; he gave them tovms, countiea, and entiR 
dukedoms, with the prerogatives of royalty, sod 
as Justiciary powen, the right of coining mooer, 
of levying tolls and other public rerenuea, Ac- 
These rights and privileges he granted them as- 
dcr the feudal law, and on condition of rendering 
him military servitude. Nevertheless, as the dis- 
posal of ecclesiastical dignities belonged then to 
tlie crown, and fiefs had not, in general, becoeie 
hereditary, the Emperor still retained possession of 
those which he conferred on the deigy : these ke 
bestowed on whomsoever he judged proper, usiof 
them, however, always in conformity with his own 
views and interesti. 

The same policy that induced Otho to transfer 
to the bishops a large portion of his d^noaias, 
led him also to intrust them with the gorenimeat 
of cities. At that time, there vras a dlatinctiQa 
of towns into ro^ and pr^f9ctonal. The laltef 
vrere dependent on the dukes, vriiUe the fonBer» 
sttbjeot immediately to the king, gave riet to whsi 

Ore^oiy VII. « Pops. 
Ommiade Cftllphs. 
Sancho. king of NaTure. 

FEBIOD III. A.D. 962—1074. 

Huffh Capet, 
Founder of a 
French Dynasty. 


has since been called imperiai cities. It was in 
these royal cities that the Gennan kings were in 
the practice of establishing counts and burgomas- 
ters or magistrates, to exercise in tiieir name the 
rights of Justice, civil and criminal, the levying 
of money, customs, &c. as well as other pre- 
rogatives usually reserved to the king. Otho 
conferred the counties, or govemonhlps of cities 
where a bishop resided, on Sie bishops themselves, 
who, in process of time, made use of this new 
power to subject these cities to their own autho- 
rity, and render them mediate and episcopal, in- 
stead of being immediate and roffol as they were 

The successors of Otho, as impolitic as himself, 
imitated his example. In consequence of this, the 
possessions of the crown were, by degrees, reduced 
to nothing, and the authority of the emperors de- 
clined with the diminution of their wealth. The 
bishops, at first devoted to the emperors, both 
from necessity and gratitude, no sooner perceived 
their own strength, than they were tempted to 
make use of it, and to join the secular princes, in 
order to sap the imperial authority, as well as to 
consolidate their own power. To these several 
causes of the downfall of the empire must be added 
the new power of the Roman pontiffs, the origin 
of ^vvhich is ascribed to Pope Gregory VII. In 
the following Period, this matter will be treated 
more in detail ; meantime, we shall proceed to 
give a succinct view of the other states that figured 
during this epoch on the theatre of Europe. 

The dynasty of the Ommiades in Spain, founded 
about the middle of the eighth century, was over- 
turned in the eleventh. An insurrection having 
happened at Cordova against the Caliph Haschem, 
that prince was dethroned (1005), and the caliph- 
ate ended in 1027. The governors of cities and 
provinces, and the principal nobility of the Arabs, 
formed themselves into independent sovereigns, 
under the title of kings ; and as many petty Ma- 
hometan States rose in Spain as there had been 
principal cities. The most considerable of these 
were the kingdoms of Cordova, Seville, Toledo, 
Lisbon, Saragossa, Tortosa, Valencia, Murcia, &c. 
This partition of the caliphate of Cordova enabled 
the princes of Christendom to aggrandise their 
own power at the expense of the Mahometans. 
Besides the kingdoms of Leon and Navarre, there 
existed in Spain, at the commencement of the 
eleventh century, the countv of Castille, which 
iiad been dismembered from tne kingdom of Leon, 
and the county of Barcelona, which acknowledged 
the sovereignty of the Kings of France. 

Sancho the Great, King of Navarre, had the for- 
tune to unite in his own family all these different 
sovereignties, with the exception of Barcelona; 
and as this occurred nearly at the same time with 
the destruction of the caliphate of Cordova, it 
would have been easy for the Christians to obtain 
a complete ascendency over the Mahometans, if 
they had kept their forces united. But the Kins 
of Navarre fell into the same mistake that had 
been so fatal to the Mahometans ; he divided his 
dominions among his sons (1035). Don Garcias, 
the eldest, had Navarre, and was the ancestor of a 
long line of Navarrese kings ; the last of whom, 
John d'Albret, was deposed (1512) by Ferdinand 
the Catholic. From Ferdinand, the yovaager son, 
King of Leon and GastiUei were descended all the 

sovereigns of Castille and Leon down to Queen 
Isabella, who transferred these kingdoms (1474), 
by marriage, to Ferdinand the Catholic. Lastly, 
Don Ramira, natural son of Sancho, was the stem 
from whom sprung aU the kings of Arragon, down 
to Ferdinand, who, by his marriage with IsabeUa, 
happened to unite all the different Christian States 
in Spain ; and put an end also to the dominion of 
the Arabs and Moors in that peninsula. 

In France the royal authority declined more and 
more, from the rapid progress which the feudal 
system made in that kingdom, after the feeble 
reign of Charies the Bald. The Dukes and the 
Coxmts, usurping the rights of royalty, made war 
on each other, and raised on every occasion the 
standard of revolt. The kings, in order to gain 
over some, and maintain others in their allegiance, 
were obliged to give up to them in succession 
every branch of the royal revenue ; so that the last 
Carlovingian princes were reduced to such a state 
of distress, that, far from being able to counter- 
balance the power of the nobUity, they had hardly 
left wherewithal to furnish a scanty subsistence 
for their cotut. A change of dynasty became 
then indispensable ; and the throne, it was evident, 
must fall to the share of the most powerful and 
daring of its vassals. This event, which had long 
been foreseen, happened on the death of Louis 
v., sumamed the Slothful (987), the last of the 
Carlovingians, who died childless at the age of 

Hugh Capet, great-grandson of Robert the 
Strong, possessed at that time the central parts of 
the kin^om. He was Count of Paris, Duke of 
France and Neustria ; and his brother Henry was 
master of the duchy of Burgundy. It was not 
difficult for Hugh to form a party; and under 
their auspices he got himself proclaimed king at 
Noyon, and crowned at Rheims. Charles Duke 
of Lorrain, paternal uncle of the last king, and 
sole legitimate heir to the Carlovingian line,' ad- 
vanced his claims to the crown : he seized by force 
of arms on Laon and Rheims ; but being betrayed 
by the Bishop of Laon, and delivered up to his 
rival, he was confined in a prison at Orleans, where 
he ended his days (991). 

Hugh, on mounting the throne, restored to the 
possession of the crown the lands and dominions 
which had belonged to it between the Loire, the 
Seine, and the Meuse. His power gave a new 
lustre to the royal dignity, which he found means 
Ho render hereditarv- in his family ; while at the 
same time he permitted the grandees to transmit 
to their descendants, male and female, the duchies 
and counties which they held of the crown, re- 
serving to it merely the feudal superiority. Thus 
the feudal government was firmly established in 
France, by the hereditary tenure of the great fieft ; 
and that kingdom was In consequence divided 
among a certain number of powernil vassals, who 
rendered fealty and homage to their kings, and 
marched at their command on military expeditions ; 
but who nevertheless were nearly absolute masters 
in their own dominions, end often dictated the 
law to the sovereign himself. Hugh was the pro- 
genitor of the Capetian dynasty of French kings, 
so called firom his own surname of Capet. 

England, during the feeble reigns of the Anglo- 
Saxon princes, successors to Alfred the Great, had 
sunk under the dominion of priests and monks* 

Danes, Kino of England. 
32 Harold IL . Saxon King. 
William the Conqueror. 



The consequence was, the utter ruin of its finances, 
and its naval and military power. This exposed 
the kingdom afresh to the attacks of the Danes 
(991), who imposed on the Englbh a trihute or 
tax, known by the name of Danegelt. Under the 
command of their kings Sueno or Sweyn I., and 
Canute the Great, they at length droye the Anglo- 
Saxon kings from their thrones, and made them- 
selves masters of all England (1017). But the 
dominion of the Danes was only of short continu- 
ance. The English shook off their yoke, and 
conferred their crown on Edward the Confessor 
(1042), a prince of the royal blood of their ancient 
kings. On the death of Edward, Harold, Earl of 
Kent, was acknowledged King of England (1066) ; 
but he met with a formidable competitor in the 
person of William Duke of Normandy. 

This prince had no other right to the crown 
than that founded on a verbal promise of Edward 
the Confessor, and confirmed by an oath which 
Harold had given him while Earl of Kent. Wil- 
liam binded in Engbind (October 14th, 1066^, at 
the head of a considerable army, and having o£^rcd 
battle to Harold, near Hastings in Sussex, he 
gained a complete victory. Harold was killed in 
the action, and the conquest of all England was 
the reward of the victor. To secure himself in 
his new dominions, William constructed a vast 
number of castles and fortresses throughout all 
parts of the kingdom, which he took care to fill 
with Norman garrisons. The lands and places 
of trust, of which he had deprived the English, 
were distributed among the Normans, and other 
foreigners who were attached to his fortunes. He 
introduced the feudal law, and rendered fie& 
hereditary; he ordered the English to be dis- 
armed, and forbade them to have light in their 
houses after eight o'clock in the evening. He 
even attempted to abolish the language of the 
country, by establishing numerous schools for 
teaching the Norman-French ; by publishing the 
laws, and ordering the pleadings in the courts of 
justice to be msxle in that language ; hence it 
happened that the ancient British, combined with 
the Norman, formed a new sort of language, which 
still exists in the modem English. William thus 
became the common ancestor of the kings of Eng- 
land, whose right to the crown is derived from him, 
and founded on the Conquest. 

About the time that William conquered Eng- 
land, another colony of the same Normans founded 
the kingdom of the Two Sicilies. The several, 
provinces of which this kingdom v^as composed 
were, about the beginning of the eleventh century, 
divided among the Germans, Greeks, and Ara- 
bians,^ who were Incessantly waging war with 
each other. A band of nearly a himdred Nor- 
mans, equally covetous of war and glory, landed 
in that country (1016), and tendered their services 
to the Lombard princes, vassals of the German 
empire. The bravery which they displayed on 
various occasions made these princes desirous of 
retaining them in their pay, to serve as guardians 
of their frontiers against the Greeks, and Arabians. 
The Greek princes very soon were no less eager 
to gain their services ; and the Duke of Naples, 
with the view of attaching them to his interest, 
ceded to them a large territory, where they built 
the city of Aversa, three leagues from Capua. The 
Emperor Conrad II. erected it into a county 

(1038), the investiture of which he gnnted u 
Rainidph, one of their chie&. 

At this same period the sons of Tancred «»- 
ducted a new colony from Normandy into Lov«t 
Italy. Their arrival is generally xvfexred to tfe 
year 1033 ; and tradition has assigned to Tancred 
a descent from Bollo or Robert I. Duke of No- 
mandy. These new adventurers undertook th.- 
conquest of Apulia (1041), which they fome^ 
into a county, the investiture of which they ob- 
tained from Henry III. Robert Guiacard, csi* 
of the sons of Tancred, afterwards (I047) coe- 
pleted the conquest of that province ; he added !: 
it that of Calabria, of which he had also deprhvv 
the Greeks (1059), and assumed the title of JMi 
of Apulia and CaUbria. 

To secure himself in his new conquests, ts vr. 
as in those which he yet meditated firom the tr 
empires, Robert concluded a treaty the same jai 
with Pope Nicholas II., by which uiat Pontiff e«- 
firmed him in the possession of the dudiies ^ 
Apulia and Calabria ; granting him not only ik 
investiture of these, but promising him also thti 
of Sicily, whenever he should expel the Greet- 
and Arabians from it. Robert, in his torn, v 
knowledged himself a vassal of the Pope, and o- 
gaged to pay him an annual tribute of tvehe 
pence, money of Pavia, for every pair of oxen ii 
the two duchies.^ Immediately after this trean. 
Robert called in the assistance of his brotl^ 
Roger, to rescue Sicily from the hands of ;2» 
Greeks and Arabs.* No sooner had he aeees- 
plished this object, than he conquered in swco- 
sion the principalities of Bari, Salerno, Aaa^ 
Sorrento, and Benevento ; this latter cil^ he m- 
rendered to the Pope. 

Such is the origin of the duchies of Apulia tai 
Calabria ; which, after a lapse of some years, vov 
formed into a kingdom under the name of tk 
Two Sicilies. 

As to the kingdoms of the North, the li|^ af 
history scarcely began to dawn there until tb; 
introduction of Christianity, which happened alw«i 
the end of the tenth or beginning of &e elerestib 
century .7 The promulgation of ti^e Gospel opcs^ 
a way into the North for the diffusion of are 
and letters. The Scandinavian states, Denraari ; 
Sweden, and Norway, which before that wae 
were parcelled out among independent dii^ ' 
began then to form plans of civil govexnnkent, sad 
to combine into settled monarcUes. Their itev 
religion, however, did not inspire these naiissa \ 
with its meek and peaceable virtues, nor ovcTcosse 
their invincible propensity to wars and rapiae. { 
Their heroism was a wild and savage braTvz}, 
which emboldened them to face all dangers, to 
undertake desperate adventures, and to achkrc | 
sudden conquests, which were lost and won -mxh 
the same rapidity. \ 

Harold, sumamed Blaatand, or Blue teeth, vas { 
the first sole monarch of the Danes, who with lu» ' 
son Sweyn received baptism, after heing vsa- { 
quished by Otho the Great (965). Sweyn ivJapMd 
to paganism ; but his son Canute the Great, oa 
his accession to the throne (1014), made Chrsti- 
anity the established religion of his kingdom. He 
sent for monks fit>m other countries, founded 
churches, and divided the kingdom into diooes«. 
Ambitious to distinguish himself as a conqueror, 
he afterwards subdued England and Norwaj 


Odin worshipped. 
Sweyn dethrauw Ifafnas. 
Sclavooiana chriatiamzed. 

PERIOD 111. A.D. 962—1074. 

Kingttil the Yenedi. 
Boledfls. K. of BohemU. 
Miecxislaiu,Duke of Poland. 


(1028). To these he added a part of Scotland 
and Sweden; and conferred in his own lifetime 
on one of his sons, named Sweyn, the kingdom 
of Norway, and on the other, named Uardicanute, 
that of Denmark. These acquisitions, howeyer, 
were merely temporary. Sweyn was driven from 
Norway (1035); while England and Scotland 
also shook off the Damsh yoke (1042), on the 
death of Hardicanute ; and Magnus, King of Nor- 
way, even made himself master of Denmark, which 
did not recover its entire independence until the 
death of that prince (1047). 

The ancient dynasty of Kings who occupied the 
throne of Denmark from the most remote ages 
is known hy the name of Skioldungs, hecause, 
according to a &bulous tradition, they were de- 
scended from Skioldt a pretended son of the 
famous Odin, who, from being the conqueror, was 
exalted into the deity of the North. The kings 
who reigned after Sweyn II. were called P.9t '• 
thidest from that monarch, who was the son vf 
Ulf a Damsh nobleman, and BstrUh^ sister to 
Canute the Great. It was this Sweyn that raised 
the standard of revolt against Magnus, King of 
Norway (1044), and kept possession of ^e throne 
until his death. 

In Sweden, the kings of the reigning fiunily, 
descended, as is alleged, from Regner Lodbrok, 
took the title of Kings of Upsal, the place of their 
residence. Glaus Skotkonung changed this title 
into that of King of Sweden. He was the first 
monarch of his nation that embraced Christianity, 
and exerted himself to propagate it in his king- 
dom. Sigefroy, Archbishop of York, who was 
sent into Sweden by Ethelred, King of England, 
baptized Olaus and his whole fiunily (1001). The 
conversion of the Swedes would have been more 
expeditious, had not the seal of Olaus been re- 
strained by the Swedish Diet, who decided for full 
liberty of conscience. Hence the strange mixture, 
both of doctrine and worship, that long prevailed 
in Sweden, where Jesus Christ was pro&nely as- 
sociated with Odin, and the Pagan goddess Freya 
confounded with the Yiigin. Anund Jacques, 
son of Olaus, contributed much to the progress of 
Christianity ; and his zeal procured him the title 
of Mo8t Christian King, 

In Norway, Olaus I., sumamed Tryggtteaon^ 
towards the end of the tenth century, constituted 
himself the apostle and missionary of his people, 
and imdertook to convert them to Christianity by 
torture and punishment. Iceland and Greenland^ 
were likewise converted by his efforts, and after- 
wards became his tributaries (1029). One of his 
successors, Olaus II., called the Fat, and also the 
Saint, succeeded in extirpating paganism from 
Norway (1020) ; but he used the cloak of religion 
to establish his own authority, by destroying seve- 
ral petty kings, who before this time possessed 
each their own dominions. 

Christianity was likewise instrumental in throw- 
ing some rays of light on the history of the Scla- 
vonian nations, by imparting to them the know- 
ledge of letters, and raising them in the scale of 
importance among the civilked nations of Europe. 
The Sclavonians, who were settled north of the 
Elbe, had been subdued by the Gcirmans, and com- 
pelled to embrace Christianity. The haughtiness 
and rigour of Thierry, Margrave of the North, in- 
duced them to shake off the yoke, and to concert 

a general insurrection, which broke out in the 
reign of Otho II. (982). The episcopal palaces, 
churches and convents, were destroyed ; and the 
people returned once more to the superstitions of 
paganism. Those tribes that inhabited Branden- 
burg, part of Pomerania and Mecklenburg, known 
formerly under the name of Wilzians and We- 
latabes, formed themselves into a republican or 
federal body, and took the name of Luitijrians. 
The Abotrites, on the contrary, the Polabes, and 
the Wagrians,* were decidedly for a monarchical 
government, the capital of which was fixed at 
Mecklenburg. Some of the princes or sovereigns 
of these latter people were styled Kings qf the 
Fenedi* The result of this general revolt was a 
series of long and bloody wars between the 
Germans and Sclavonians. The latter defended 
their civil and religious liberties with a remark- 
able courage and perseverance ; and it was not till 
after the twelfth century that they were subdued 
and reduced to Christianity by the continued 
efforts of the Dukes of Saxony, and the Mar- 
graves of the North, and by means of the crusades 
and colonies which the Germans despatched into 
their country. *• 

The first duke of Bohemia that received bap- 
tism from the hands, as is supposed, of Metho- 
dius, bishop of Moravia (894), was Borzivoy. 
His successors, however, returned to idolatry; 
and it was not till near the end of the tenth 
century, properly speaking, and in the reign of 
Boleslaus II., sumamed the Pious, that Christi- 
anity became the established religion of Bohemia 
(999). These dukes were vassals and the tribu- 
taries of the German empire; and their tribute 
consisted of 500 silver marks, and 120 oxen. 
They exercised, however, all the rights of sove- 
reignty over the people ; their reign was a system 
of terror, and they seldom took the opinion or 
advice of their nobles and grandees. The suc- 
cession was hereditary in the reigning dynasty; 
and the system of partition was in use, otherwise 
the order of succession would have been fixed and 
permanent. Over a number of these partitionary 
princes, one was vested vrith certain rights of 
superiority, under the title of Grand Prince, 
according to a custom found very prevalent among 
the half-civilized nations of the north and east of 
Europe.*^ The greater proportion of the inhabi- 
tants, the labouring classes, artisans, and domes- 
tics, were serfs, and oppressed by the tyrannical 
yoke of their masters. The public sale of men 
was even practised in Bohemia; the tithe, or 
tenth part of which, belonged to the sovereign. 
The descendants of Borzivoy possessed the throne 
of Bohemia until 1306, when the male line became 

The Poles were a nation whose name does not 
occur in history before the middle of the tenth 
century ; and we owe to Christianity the first in- 
timations that we have regarding this people. 
Mieczislaus I., the first duke or prince of the 
Poles of whom we possess any authentic accounts, 
embraced Christianity (966), at the soliciUtion of 
his spouse Dambrowka, sister of Boleslaus II., 
duke of Bohemia. Shortly after, the first bishopric 
in Poland, that of Posen, was foimded by Otho 
the Great. Christianity did not, however, tame 
the ferocious habits of the Poles, who remained 
for a long time without the least progress in men- 



BuMian dominion. • 
Ylodimir the Great. 
Grand Dukes of Riow. 


Chriatianlty i 

Schim or Greek cimrch. 

tal cultivation.^* Their gorenunenti as wretched 
as that of Bohemia, subjected the great body of 
the nation to the most debasing servitude. The 
ancient sovereigns of Poland were hereditary. 
They ruled most despotically, and with a rod of 
iron; and, although they acknowledged them- 
selves vassals and tributaries of the German em- 
perors, they repeatedly broke out into open re- 
bellion, asserted their absolute independence, and 
waged a successful war against tiieir masters. 
Boleslaus, son of Mieczislaus I., took advantage 
of the troubles which rose in Germany on the 
death of Otho III., to jKMsess himself of the 
Marches of Lusatia and Budissin, or Bautten, 
which the emperor Henry II. afterwards granted 
him as fiefs. This same prince, in despite of the 
Germans, on the death of Henry II. (1025), as- 
sumed the royal dignity. Mieczislaus II., son 
of Boleslaus, after having cruelly ravaged the 
country situate between the Oder, the Elbe, and 
the Baal, was compelled to abdicate the throne, 
and also to restore those provinces which his father 
had wrested from the Empire. The male descend- 
ants of Mieczislaus I. reigned in Poland until the 
death of Casimir the Great (1370). This dynasty 
of kings is known by the name of the Piasts, or 
Piasses, so called from one Plast, alleged to have 
been its founder. 

Silesia, which was then a province of Poland, 
received the light of the Gospel when it fint 
visited that kingdom ; and had for its apostle, 
as is supposed, a Romish priest named Geofiry, 
who is reckoned the first bishop of Smogra (966). 
In Russia, Vladimir the Great, great-grandson 
of Ruric, was the fint grand duke that embraced 
Christianity (988). He was baptized at Cherson 
in Taurida, on the occasion of his marriage with 
Anne Romanowna, sister of Basil II. and Constan- 
tino YIIL, Emperors of Constantinople. It yn» 
this prince that introduced the Greek ritual into 
Russia, and founded several schools and convents. 
The alphabet of the Greeks was imported into 
Russia along with their religion ; and from the 
reign of Vladimir, that nation, more powerful and 
united than most of the other European states, 
carried on a lucrative commerce with the Greek 
empire, of which it became at length a formidable 

At the death of that prince ^1015), Russia 
comprehended those vast regions vniich, from east 
to west, extend frt>m the Icy Sea and the mouth 
of the Dwina, to the Niemen, the Dniester, and 
the Bug; and southward of this last river, to the 
Carpathian Moimtains, and the confines of Hun- 
gary and Moldavia. The city of Kiow, on the 
Dnieper, was the capital of the empire, and the 
residence of the Grand Dukes. This period also 
gave rise to those imfortunate territorial partitions 
which, by dividing the Russian monarchy, exposed 
it to the insults and ravages of the neighbouring 
nations. Jaroslaus, one of the sons of Vladimir, 
made himself famous as a legislator, and supplied 
the Novogorodians with laws to regulate their 
courts of justice. No less the friend and protector 
of letters, he employed himself in translating Greek 
books into the Sclavonian language. He rounded 
a public school at Novogorod, in which three 
hundred children were educated at his sole ex- 
pense. His daughter Anne married Henry I., 
King of France ; and this princess was the com- 

mon mother of all the kings and princes of tbe C»- 
petian dynasty. 

Hungary was divided, in the tenth ee mmi . 
among several petty princes, iHio acknowiedged t 
common chief, styled the Grand Prinee, wtH^r 
limited authority was reduced to a simple pn-esu- 
nence in rank and dignity. Each of uiese ptmset 
assembled armies, and made predatory excurscsi 
plundering and ravaging the neighbouring coon- 
tries at their pleasure. The East and Wn: 
suffered long under the scourge of these stiodoo 
pillagers. Christianity, which was introdocr: 
among them about the end of the tenth ceatET, 
was alone capable of softening the manners., sa^ 
tempering the ferocity of this nation. Pereznv. 
bishop of Passau, encouraged br Otho the Gmi 
and patronised by the Grand Prince Oeisa, *ci . 
the first missionaries into Hungary (973). >~ 
Adelbert, bishop of Prague, haid the honour * 
baptise the son of Geisa, called Waie (9^^^ 
who received then the baptismal name oi Step^- 
This latter prince, having succeeded his &tbr 
(907), changed entirely the aspect of Husiri^'^ 
He assumed the royal dignity, with the con$«iF 
Pope Sylvester II., who sent him on this occei > 
the Angelic Crown^* as it is called ; the sae* 
according to tradition, which the Hmifariaiif »■ 
to this day in the coronation of their lingi. 1' 
once the apostle and the lawg^iver of hia cooDtr; 
Stephen I. combined politics with justice, vs&. 
employed both severity and clemencr in refmiLk: 
his subjects. He founded several hishopricf. n- 
tirpated idolatry, banished anarchy, and gxrr t' 
the authority of the sovereign a vigoar and e§- 
ciency which it never before possessed. To kn 
likewise is generally ascribed the political dirisd&> 
of Hungary Into counties, as also the institiai> ^^ 
of palaUnes, and mat officers of the crown, fi- 
conquered Transylvania, about 1002 — 3, acrotdci^ 
to the opinion of most modem Hungarian autbcf^ 
and formed it into a distinct government, the ete^ 
of which, ealled VaivodeBf held immediately <A fee 

The history of the Greek empire presents, i' . 
this time, nothing but a tissue of comiptiaa. Ii- 
naticism and perfidy. The throne, as insecure li 
that of the Western empire had been, was fifiad , 
alternately by a succession of usuipera ; moit ef 
whom rose from the lowest conditions of li^, a&i 
owed their elevation solely to the perpetratioa ^ 
crime and parricide. A superstition gross ins* 
nature bound as with a spell the minds of tbc 
Greeks, and paralysed their courage. It «» 
carefully cherished by the monks, who had hwA 
means to possess themselves of the govemicfl;. 
by procuring the exclusion of the secuUr Avtr^ 
from the episcopate ; and directing the attentii-r 
of princes to those theological controversies, oftfs 
exceedingly frivolous, which were produced in' 
reproduced almost without intermission.'* Heatf 
originated those internal commotions and dtstrv- 
tions, those schisms and sects, which more tlit£ 
once divided the empire, and shook the throne ii- 

These theological disputes, the rivalry bettnA 
the two patriarchs of Rome and Constantinople,-' 
and the contests respecting the Bulgarian contrits, 
led to an irreparable schism between the churrbr^ 
of the East and the West. This controvem n^* 
most keenly agitated under the pontificate of'juha 

Paellne of Gonstaatiiiaple. 
Lombard Kings of Itely. 

PERIOD III. A.D. 962—1074. 





YIII., and when the celebrated Photins was pa- 
triarch of Constantinople ; and in spite of the 
efforts whieh sereral of the Greek emperors and 
patriarchs afterwards made to effect a union Tvith 
the Romish see, the animosity of both only grew 
more implacablci and ended at last in a final rup- 
ture between the two churches. A gOTemment so 
weiik and so capricious as that of Constantinople, 
could not but be perpetually exposed to the in- 
roads of foreign enemies. The Huns, Ostrogoths, 
Avars, Bulgarians, Russians, Hungarians, Chasars, 
and Patxinacites, harassed the empire on the side 
of the Danube ; while the Persians*' were inces- 
santly exhausting its strength in the East, and on 
the side of the Euphrates. All these nations, 
howeyer, were content with merely desolating the 
frontiers of the empire, and imposing frequent con- 
tributions on the Greeks. It was a task reserved 
for the Lombards, the Arabs, the Normans, and 
the Turks, to detach from it whole provinces, and 
by degrees to hasten its down&ll. 

The Lombards were the first that conquered 
from the Greeks the greater part of Italy. Pales- 
tine, Syria, and the whole possessions of the Em- 
pire in Greater Asia, as well as Egypt, Northern 
Africa, and the Isle of Cyprus, were seized in the 
sere-nth century by the Arabs, who made them- 
selves masters of Sicily, and three times laid siege 
to Constantinople (669, 717, 719). They would 
have even succeeded in taking this Eastern capital, 
and annihilating the Greek empire, had not the 
courage of Leo the Isaurian, and the surprising 
effects of the Gregeois, or Greek Pire,*^ rendered 
their efforts useless. At length, in the eleventh 
ccnturjr', the Normans conquered all that remained 
to the Greeks in luly ; while the Scljuk Turks, 
who must not be confounded with the Ottoman 
Turks, deprived them of the greater part of Asia 

Turk is the generic appellation for all the Tar- 
tar nations,*' mentioned bv the ancients under the 
name of Scythians. Their original country was 
in those vast regions situate to the north of Mount 
Caucasus, and eastward of the Caspian Sea, be- 
yond the Jihon, or Oxus of the ancients, especially 
in Charasm, Transoxiana, Turkestan, ftc. About 
the eighth century, the Arabs had passed the Oxus, 
and rendered the Turks of Charasm and Transoxi- 
ana their tributaries. They instructed them in the 
religion and laws of Mahomet ; but, by a transi- 
tion rather extraordinary, it afterwards happened, 
that the vanquished imposed the yoke on their 
new masters. 

The empire of the Arabs, already enfeebled by 
the territorial losses which have been mentioned, 
declined more and more, from about the middle 
of the ninth century. The Caliphs of Bagdad had 
committed the mistake of trusting their persons to 
a mllitaiy guard of foreigners," vis. the Turks, 
who, taking advantage of the efFeminacy of these 
princes, soon arrogated to themselves the whole 
authority, and abused it so far, as to leave the 
Caliphs entirely dependent on their will, and to 
vest in themselves the hereditary succession of 
the government. Thus, in the very centre of the 
caliphate of Bagdad, there rose a multitude of 
new sovereignties or dynasties, the heads of which, 
under the title of Emir or Commander, exercised 
the supreme power ; leaving nothing more to the 
Caliph than a pre-eminence of dignity, and that 

rather of a spiritual than a temporal nature. Be- 
sides the external marks of homage and respect 
which were paid him, his name continued to be 
proclaimed m the mosques, and inscribed on the 
coined money. By him were granted all letters- 
patent of investiture, robes, swords, and standards, 
accompanied with high-sounding titles ; which did 
not, however, prevent these usurpers from mal- 
treating their ancient masters, insulting their per- 
son, or even attempting their lives, whenever it 
mi^t serve to promote their interest. 

A general revolution broke out under the ca- 
liph Rahdi. That prince, wishing to arrest the 
progress of usurpation, thought of creating a new 
minister, whom he invested with the title of Emir^ 
al-OmrOf or Commander of Commanders ; and 
conferred on him powers much more ample than 
those of his vizier. This minister, whom he se- 
lected from the Emirs, officiated even in the grand 
mosque of Bagdad, instead of the caliph ; and his 
name was pronounced with equal honours in the 
divine service throughout the empire. This de- 
vice, which the caliph employed to re-establish his 
authority, only tended to accelerate its destruc- 
tion. The Bowides, the most powerful dynasty 
among the Emirs, arrogated to themselves the dig- 
nity of Chief Commander (949), and seized both 
the city and the sovereignty of Bagdad. The Ca- 
liph, stript of all temporal power, was then only 
grand Iman, or sovereign-pontiff of the Mussul- 
man religion, under the protection of the Bowidian 
prince, who kept him as his prisoner at Bagdad. 

Such was the sad situation of the Arabian em- 
pire, fallen from its ancient glory, when a nume- 
rous Turkish tribe, from the centre of Turkestan, 
appeared on the stage, overthrew the dominions of 
the Bowides ; and, after imposinK new fetters on 
the caliphs, laid the foundation of a powerful em- 
pire, known by the name of the Seljukides. This 
roving tribe, which took its name from Seljuk a 
Mussulman Turk, after having wandered for some 
time with their flocks in Transoxiana, passed the 
Jihon to seek pasturage in the province of Chora- 
san. Reinforced by new Turkish colonies from 
Transoxiana, this coalition became in a little time 
so powerful, that Togrul Beg, grandson of Seljuk, 
had the boldness to make himself be proclaimed 
Sultan in the city of Niesabur,*^ the capital of Cho- 
rasan, and formally announced himself as a con- 
queror (1038). This prince, and the sultans, his 
successors, subdued by degrees most of the pro- 
vinces in Asia, which formed the caliphate of 
Baffdad.'* They annihilated the power of the Bo- 
wides, reduced the Caliphs to the condition of 
dependents, and at lengUi attacked also the pos- 
sessions of the Greek empire. 

Alp-Arslan, the nephew and immediate suc- 
cessor of Togrul Beg, gained a signal victory in 
Armenia, over the Emperor Romanus Diogenes 
ri071), who was there taken prisoner. The con- 
fusion which this event caused in the Greek em- 
pire was favourable to the Turks, who seized not 
only what remained to the Greeks in Syria, but 
also several provinces in Asia Minor, such as Ci- 
licia, Isauria, Pamphylia, Lycia, Pisidia, Lyca- 
onia, Cappadocia, Galatia, Pontus, and Bithynia. 

The empire of the Seljukides was in its most 
flourishing state under the sultan Malek Shah, 
the son and successor of Alp-Arslan. The caliph 
Cayem, in confirming to this prince the title of 

n 2 

Seljuekian Dynasty. 
30 Powor of Roman Pon- 


Bone snl^ect to Kbbc» 

'of Oerniaiiy. 
HUdebmnd. CbidisaL 

Sultan and Chief Commander, added alto that of 
Commander of the Fattf^ful, which before that time 
had neyer been conferred but on the caliphs alone. 
On tiie death of Malek (1092), the ditputea that 
rose among his sons occasioned a civil war, and 
the partition of the empire. These vast territories 
were divided among three principal dynasties de- 
scended from Selji:3c, those of Iran, Xerman, and 
Roum or Rome. This latter branch, which ascribes 
its origin to Soliman, great grandson of Seljuk, 
obtained the provinces of Asia Minor, which the 
Seljukides had conquered from the Greeks. The 
princes of this dynasty are known in the history of 
the Crusades by the name of Sultans of Iconium 
or Cogni, a city of Lycaonia, where the sultans 

established their residence after being depsivcd Vj 
the crusaders of the city of Nice in Bithynia. 
The most powerful of the three dynasties waa'thi: 
of the Seljukides of Iran, whose sway extcBdef 
over the greater part of Upper Asia. It soos. 
however, fell from its grandeur, and its state 
were divided into a numl^r of petty so^ereigntirs. 
over which the Emirs or governors of cities tad 
provinces usurped the supreme pow^.** These 
divisions prepared the way for the oonqncsls of 
the crusaders in Syria and Palestine ; and ^• 
nished also to the Caliphs of Bagdad the mea^ 
of shaking off the yoke of the Seljuiudcs (l\SZ\. 
and recovering the sovereignty of Irak-Ar^ua, & 


A NEW and powerful monarchy rose on the .ruins 
of the German empire, that of the Roman Pon- 
tifEs ; which monopolized both spiritual and tem- 
poral dominion, and extended its influence over all 
the kingdoms of Christendom. This supremacy, 
whose artful and complicated mechanism is still 
an object of astonishment to the most subtle poli- 
ticians, was the work of Pope Gregory Vll, a 
man bom for great undertakings, as remarkable 
for his genius, which raised him above his times, 
as for the austerity of his manners and the bound- 
less reach of his ambition. Indignant at the de- 
pravity of the age, which was immersed in igno- 
rance and vice, and at the gross immorality which 
pervaded all classes of society, both laymen and 
ecclesiastics, Gregory resolved to become the re- 
former of morals, and the restorer of religion. To 
succeed in this project, it was necessary to replace 
the government of kings, which had totally lost its 
power and efficiency, by a new authority, whose 
salutary restraints, imposed alike on the high and 
the low, might restore vigour to the laws, put a 
stop to licentiousness, and impose a reverence on 
all by the sanctity of its origin. This authority 
was the spiritual supremacy of the Pope, of which 
Gregory was at once the creator and inventor. 

This extraordinary person, who was the son of 
a carpenter at Saona in Tuscany, named Boni- 
sone, or, according to others, descended of a Ro- 
man fiunily, had paved the way to his future great- 
ness imder the preceding pontiffs, whose counsels 
he had directed under the title of Cardinal Hilde- 
brand. While Cardinal, he engaged Pope Nicolas 
II. to enter into a treaty with Robert Guiscard 
(1059), for procuring that brave Norman as an ally 
and a vassal of the Holy See. Taking advantage, 
likewise, of the minority of Henry IV., he caused, 
this same year, in a council held at Rome, the 
famous decree to be passed, which, by reserving 
the election of the pontiffs principally to the car- 
dinals, converted the elective privileges which the 
emperors formerly enjoyed in virtue of their crown 
rights, into a personid favour granted by the Pope, 
and emanating from the court of Rome. 

On the death of Pope Nicolas 11., Cardinal Hi:- 
debrand procured the election of Alexander lU 
without waiting for the order or concorreBce ef 
the Imperial court ; and he succeeded in maintiti' 
ing him in the apostolical chair against Pope H«- 
norius II., whom the reigning empress had d» 
tined for that honour. At length, being naei 
himself tq the pontifical throne, scarcely hsd k 
obtained the Imperial confirmation, when he ptf 
in execution the project which he had so l<Mig bea 
concerting and preparing, vis. the erecting «£ i 
spiritual despotism,* extending to priests as«^ 
as kings ; midung the supreme pontiff the artekr 
in all afikirs, both civil and ecclesiastieal— tkr . 
bestower of fiivours, and the dispenser of cnms. 
The basis of this dominion was, that the Vior oc 
Jesus Christ ought to be superior to ail husHi 
power. The better to attain his object, he be^ 
by withdrawing himself and his deigy from tk t 
authority of the secular princes. 

At that time the city of Rome, and the ifhsk 
ecclesiastical states, as well as the greater part of 
Italy, were subject to the kings of Germany, ir^ ' 
in virtue of their being kings of Italy and BoiBia 
emperors, nominated or confirmed the popes, aad ! 
installed the prefects of Rome, who there reoeiie' 
the power of the sword in their name. Tbcf 
sent also every year commissioners to Home, t(» 
levy the money due to the royal treasury. 'ni€ 
popes used to date their acts from the yean «i 
the emperor's reign, and to stamp their coin vit^ 
his name ; and all the higher clergy were virtmlly 
bound and subject to the secular power, by ^ , 
solemn investiture of the ring and the cttMser. 
This investiture gave to the emperors and the ocber 
sovereigns the right of nominating and confimu&s 
bishops, and even of deposing them if they nv 
cause. It gave them, moreover, the right of coc- 
ferring, at their pleasure, those fiefs and royal pr«> i 
rogatives which the munificence of princes btd ■ 
vested in the Church. The emperors, in puttisj 
bishops and prelates in possession of these fiek 
used the symbols of the ring and the croisin-, ! 
which were badges of honour belonging to bishopc ' 

Hlldetmnd. Fope, 
by flie naiM of 
Gregory VII. 

PERIOD IV. A.D. 1074—1300. 

Tlie FUm Decretali. 
General Couucils. 37 

Gregory VII'i power. 

and abbdte. They made them, at the same time, 
take the oath of fidelity and allegiance ; and this 
was the origin of their dependence, and their obli- 
gation to furnish their princes with troops, and to 
perform military senice. 

Gregory YII. prohibited, under pain of excom- 
munication, all soyereigns to exercise the rights of 
investiture, by a formal decree which he published 
in a council assembled at Rome in 1074. There 
was more than the simple ceremony of the ring 
and the crosier implied in this interdict. He 
aimed at depriving princes of the right of nomi- 
nating, confirming, or deposing prelates, as well 
as of receiving their fealty and homage, and exact- 
ing military service. He thus broke all those ties 
by which Uie bishops were held in allegiance and 
subordination to princes; making them, in this 
respect, entirely independent. In suppressing 
investitures, the pontiff had yet a more important 
object in view. It was his policy to withdraw 
both himself and his successors, as well as the 
whole ecclesiastical state, firom the power of the 
German kings ; especially by abolishing the right 
which these princes had so long exercised of no- 
minating and confirming the Popes. He saw, in 
fact^ that if he could succeed in rendering the 
clergy independent of the secular power, it would 
follow, by a natural consequence, that the Pope, 
as being supreme head of the clergy, would no 
longer be dependent on the emperors ; while the 
emperor, excluded from the nomination and in- 
vestiture of bishops, would have still less right to 
interfere in the election of ponti£b. 

Thu affair, eqiudly interesting to all sovereigns, 
was of the utmost importance to the kings of 
Germany, who had committed the unfortunate 
error of putting the greater part of their domains 
into the hands of ecclesiastics ; so that to divest 
those princes of the right to dispose of ecclesias- 
tical fiefr, was in fitct to deprive them of nearly 
the half of their empire. The bishops, vainly 
flattering themselves with the prospect of an ima- 
ginary liberty, forgot the valuable gifts with which 
the emperors bad loaded them, and enlisted under 
the banners of the Pope. They turned against 
the secular princes those arms which the latter bad 
imprudently trusted in their hands. 

There yet subsisted another bond of union 
which connected the clergy with the civil and 
political orders of society, and gave them an inte- 
rest in the protection of the secular authority, and 
that was, the marriages of the priests ; a custom 
in use at that time over a great part of the West, 
as it still is in the Greek and Eastern Churches. 
It is true, that the law of celibacy, already recom- 
mended strongly by St. Augustine, had been 
adopted by the Romish church, which neglected 
no means of introducing it by degrees into all the 
churches of the Catholic communion. It had met 
with better success in Italy and the south of 
Europe than in the northern countries ; and the 
priests continued to marry, not only in Germany, 
England, and the kingdoms of the North, but 
even in France, Spain, and Italy, notwithstanding 
the law of celibacy, which had been sanctioned in 
vain by a multitude of councils. 

Gregory YII., perceiving that, to render the 
clergy completely dependent on the Pope, it would 
be necessary to break this powerful connexion, 
renewed the law of celibac)^ in a council held at 

Rome (1074) ; enjoining the married priests either 
to quit their wives, or renounce the sacerdotal 
order. The whole clergy murmured against the 
unfeeling rigour of this decree, which even excited 
tumult and insurrection in several countries of 
Germany ; and it required all the firmnesss of Gre- 
gory and his successors to abolish clerical mar- 
riages, and establish the law of celibacy through- 
out the Western churches.* In thus dissolving 
the secular ties of the clergy, it was far from the 
intention of Gregory YII. to render them inde- 
pendent. His designs were more politic, and 
more suitable to his ambition. He wished to 
make the clergy entirely subservient to his own 
elevation, and even to employ them as an instru- 
ment to humble and subdue the power of the 

The path had already been opened up to him 
by the False DecretalSt as they were called, forged 
about the beginning of the ninth century, by the 
famous impostor Isidore, who, with the view of 
diminishing the authority of the metropolitans, 
advanced in these letters, which he attributed to 
the early bishops of Rome, a principle whose 
main object was to extend the rights of the Romish 
See, and to vest in the popes a jurisdiction till 
then unknown in the church. Several Popes be- 
fore Gregory YII. had already availed themselves 
of these False Decretals ;' and they had even 
been admitted as true into different collections of 
canons. Gregory did not content himself with 
rigidly enforcing the principles of the impostor 
Isidore. He went even farther ; he pretended to 
unite, in himself, the plenary exercise both of the 
ecclesiastical and episcopal power ; leaving nothing 
to the archbishops and bishops but the simple title 
of his lieutenants or vicars. He completely un- 
dermined the jurisdiction of the metropolitans and 
bishops, by authorising in all cases an appeal to 
the Court of Rome ; reserving to himself exclu- 
sively the cognisance of all causes termed major — 
including more especially the privilege of judging 
and deposing of bishops. This latter privilege 
had always been vested in the provincial councils, 
who exercised it imder the authority, and with 
the consent of the secular powers. Gregory abo- 
lished this usage; and claimed for himself the 
power of judging the bishops, either in person or 
by his legates, to the exclusion of the Synodal 
Assemblies. He made himself master of"^ these 
assemblies, and even arrogated the exclusive right 
of convocating General Councils. 

This pontiff, in a council which beheld at Rome 
(1079), at length prescribed a new oath, which 
the bishops were obliged to take ; the main object 
of which was not merely canonical obedience, 
but even fealty and homage, such as the prelates, 
as lieges, vowed to their sovereigns ; and which 
the pontiff claimed for himself alone, bearing that 
they should aid and defend, against the whole 
world, his new supremacy, and what he called the 
rcyal rights of St. Peter. Although various so- 
vereigns maintained possession of the homage they 
received from their bishops, the oath imposed by 
Gregory nevertheless retained its full force ; it was 
even augmented by his successors, and extended 
to all bishops without distinction, in spite of its 
inconsistency with that which the bishops swore to 
their princes. 

Another very effectual meant which Gregoxy 

Gregory VII. excom- 
3g manicatMthe Em- 

peror Hmxy IV. 


VII. made use of to confinn his new authority, 
was to send, more frequently than his predecessors 
had done, legates into the diflferent states and 
kingdoms of Christendom. He made them a kind 
of govemors of provinces, and invested them with 
the most ample powers. These legates soon ob- 
tained a knowledge of all the affairs of the pro* 
Tinces delegated to their care; which greatly 
impaired the authority of the metropolitans and 
proTincial councils, as well as the jurisdiction of 
the bishops. A clause was also inserted, in the 
form of the oath imposed on the bishops, which 
obliged them to furnish maintenance and support 
forUiese legates; a practice which subsequently 
gave place to frequent exactions and impositions 
on their part. 

While occupied with the means of extending 
his power over the clergy, Gregory did not let 
slip any opportunity of making encroachments on 
the authority of princes and sovereigns, which ha 
represented as subordinate to that of the Church 
and the Pope, As supreme head of the Church, 
he claimed a right of inspecting over all kings and 
their governments. He deemed himself authorised 
to address admonitions to them, as to the method 
of ruling their kingdoms ; and to demand of them 
an account of their conduct. By and by, he 
presumed to listen to the complaints of subjects 
against their princes, and claimed the right of 
being a judge or arbiter between them. In this 
capacity he acted towards Henry lY., emperor of 
Germany, who enjoyed the rights of sovereignty 
over Rome and the Pope. He summoned him to 
Borne (1076), for the purpose of answering before 
the synod to the principal accusations which the 
nobles of Saxony, engaged in disputes with that 
prince, had referred to tbe Pope. The emperor, 
burning with indignation, and hurried on by 
the impetuosity of youth, instantly convoked an 
assembly of bishops at Worms, and there caused 
the pontiff to be deposed. No sooner was this 
sentence conveyed to Borne, and read in presence 
of the Pope in a council which he had assembled, 
than Gregory ventured on a step till then quite 
unheard of. He immediately thundered a sentence 
of excommunication and deposition against the 
Emperor, which was addressed to St. Peter, and 
couched in the following terms : — 

** In the name of Almighty God, I suspend and 
interdict from governing the kingdom of Germany 
and Italy, Henry, son of the Emperor Henry, who, 
with a haughtiness unexampled, has dared to reM 
against thy church. I absolve all Christians what- 
ever from the oath which they have taken, or shall 
hereafter take, to him ; and henceforth none shall 
be permitted to do him homage or serrice as king ; 
for be who would disobey the authority of thy 
Church, deserves to lose the dignity with which 
he is invested. And seeing this prince has refused 
to submit as a Christian, and has not returned to 
the Lord whom he hath forsaken, holding com- 
munion with the excommunicated, and despising 
the adrice which I tendered him for the safety of 
his soul, I load him vrith curses in thy name, to 
the end that people may know, even by experi- 
ence, that thou art Peter, and that on this rock 
the Son of the living God has built his church ; 
and that the gates of hell shall never prevail 
against it." 

This measure, which seemed at first to have 

been merely the effect of the pontilTs 
soon discovered of what importance it 
him to persevere, and what advantage he 
derive from it. In humbling the £iiiperor, ^ 
most powerful monarch in Europe* he might haft 
that all the other sovereigns would bend before 
him. Ho omitted nothing, therefore, tbet raigkt 
serve to justify his conduct, and endeavoured to 
prove, by sophistries, tiiat if he bad auihcHi^ to 
excommunicate the Emperor, he mi^t Ukevw 
deprive him of his dignity ; and that tbe right to 
release subjects from their oath of aUei^iaiice vas 
an emanation and a natural oonseqaenoe of the 
power of the Keys. The same equivocal inlei^ 
pretation he afterwards made use of in a aeniewne 
which he published against the same prince (1080), 
and which he addressed to the Apcwtles St. Pets 
and St. Paul, in these terras ; « Tou» &then sad 
princes of the apostles, hereby make known to the 
whole world, that if you can bind and unbiDd a 
heaven, you can much more, on earth, take froiB 
all men empires, kingdoms, prindpaUtiaa, dachkt, 
marquisates, counties, and possessiona, of whatso- 
ever nature they may be. You haTa often ^ 
prived the unworthy of patriarcbatea, priasadcsi 
archbishoprics, and bishoprics, to give them ts 
persons truly religious. Henoe, if yon prsririf 
over spiritual affairs, does not your juriadictisa 
extend a fortiori to temporal and secular digniiiest 
and if you judge the angels who rule over prineef 
and potentates, even the haughtiest, will yoa ^c 
also judge their sUvesI Let then the kings sa^ 
princes of the earth learn how great and iireaistiUe 
is your power! Let them tremble to contemn ^ 
commands of your church t And do yoo, bkasri 
Peter, and blessed Paul, exercise, frmn liiis tsse 
forward, your judgment on Henry, that ihm whofe 
earth may know that he has been humbled, not bf 
any human contingencies, but solely by jom 
power." Until that time, the emperors had exer- 
cised the right of confirming the Popes, and evea 
of deposing them, should there be oecasion ; km, 
by a strange reverse of prerogativea, the nopei 
now arrogated to themselves die confimatioii sf 
the emperors, and even usurped the ri^t of de- 
throning them. 

However irreguUr this step of the pontifiTBiiglit 
be, it did not fidl to produce the intended effiKt. 
In an assembly of the Imperial Btatea, held si 
Tribur (1076), the Emperor could only obttia 
their consent to postpone their proceeding to a 
new election, and that on the express cooditka of 
his submitting himself to the judgment of the 
Pope, and being absolved immediately from the 
excommunication he had incurred. In eosne- 
quence of this decision of the Statea, Henry crossed 
the Alps in the middle of winter, to obtain reooa- 
ciliation with the Pope, who then resided with the 
fiimous Countess Matilda, at her Castle of Canoass, 
in the Modenese territory. Absolution was not 
granted him, however, except under oonditioBf 
the most humiliating. He was compelled to do 
penance in anouter court of the castle, in a wooUea 
shirt and barefooted, for three successive da^ and 
afterwards to sign whatever terms the pontiff 
chose to prescribe. This extraordinary spectacle 
must have spread consternation among the sove- 
reigns of Europe, and made them tremble at the 
censures of the Church. 

After this, Gregory YII. exerted his 


Vll.'s am- 
of tomporal 

FBBIOD IV. A.D. 1074r-1800. 

Kings mniidered M 
vunlB of Bomo. 

influence to engage ell soyeieigns, without dii- 
tinction, to eduiowledge themBelvei his yanalB 
and tributaries. " Let not the Emperor imagine>" 
says he, in a letter which he wrote to the German 
nation, ** that the church is subject to him as a 
slave, but let him know that she is set oyer him as 
a soyereign." From that time the pontiff regarded 
the empire as a fief of his church ; and afterwards 
when setting up a rival emperor to Henry lY., 
in the person of Hermann of Luxemburg, he 
exacted from him a formal oath of vassalage. 
Gregory pursued the same conduct in regard to 
the other sovereigns of Europe. Boleslaus II., 
King of Poland, having killed Stamslaus Bishop 
of Cracow, who had ventured to excommunicate 
him, the pontiff took occasion from this to depose 
that prince ; releasing all his subjects from their 
oaths of fidelity, and even prohibiting the Polish 
bishops henceforth to crown any king without the 
express consent of the Pope. 

This aspiring pontiff stuck at nothing ; he re- 
garded nothing, provided he could obtain his 
object. However contrary the customs of former 
times were to his pretensions, he quoted them as 
examples of authority, and with a boldness capable 
of imposing anything on weak and ignorant minds. 
It was thus that, in order to oblige the French 
nation to pay him the tax of one penny each 
house, he alleged the example of Charlemagne, 
and pretended that that prince had not merely 
paid this tribute, but even granted Saxony as a 
fief to St. Peter ; as he had conquered it with the 
assistance of that apostle. In writing to Philip I. 
of France, he expressed himself in these terms : 
** Strive to please St. Peter, who has thy kingdom 
as wrell as thy soul in his power ; and who can 
bind thee, and absolve in heaven as well as on 
earth." And in a letter which he addressed to 
the Prinees of Spain, he attempted to persuade 
them, that the kingdom of Spain, being originally 
the property of the Holy See, thev could not ex* 
onerate themselves from paying hun a tax on all 
the lands they had conquered from the Infidels. 

He affirmed to Solomon, King of Hungary, 
that Stephen I., on receiving his crown at the 
hands of Pope Silvester II., had surrendered his 
kingdom as free property to the Holy See ; and 
that, in virtue of this donation, his kingdom was 
to be considered as a part of the domain of the 
church. He wrote in exactly the same style to 
Geysa his immediate successor. In one of his 
letters to Sueno, King of Denmark, he enjoins him 
to deliver up his kingdom to the power of the 
Romish See. He refused (1076) to grant the royal 
dignity to Demetrius Swinimir, Duke of Croatia 
and Dalmatla, except on the express condition 
that he should do him homage for hii kingdom, 
and engage to pay the Pope an annual tribute of 
two hundred golden pieces of Bysantium. This 
pontiff had the art of disguising his ambition so 
dexterously, under the mask of justice and piety, 
that he prevailed with various other sovereigns to 
acknowledge themselves his vassals. Bertrand, 
Count of Provence, transferred to him his fealty 
and homage, to the prejudice of those feudal obli- 
gations he owed to the Empire. Several prinees 
of Italy and Germany, influenced by artifice or in- 
timidation, abandoned the emperor, and put them- 
selves under submission to the Pope. His efforts 
were not equally successful with William the Con- 

' qneror, King of England, whom he had politely 
invited, by letter, to do him homage for his king- 
dom, after the manner of his royal predecessors. 
That prince, too wise to be duped by papal impo- 
sition, replied, that he was not in a humour to 
perform homage which he had never promised, and 
which he was not aware had ever been performed 
by any of his predecessors. 

The successors of Gregory VII. followed in the 
path he had opened up, giving their utmost sup- 
port to all his maxims and pretensions. In con- 
sequence, a very great number of the princes of 
Christendom, some intimidated by the thunders 
of ecclesiastical anathemas, others with a view to 
secure for themselves the protection of the Holy 
See, acknowledged these usurped powers of the 
Popes. The Kings of Portugal, Arragon, England, 
Scotland, Sardinia, the two Sicilies, and several 
others, became, in course of time, vassals and tri- 
butaries to the Papal See; and there is not a 
doubt that the universal monarchy, the scheme of 
which Gregory VII. had conceived, would have 
been completely established, if some of his suc- 
cessors had been endowed with his vast ambition, 
and his superior genius. 

In every other respect, circumstances were such 
as to hasten and fiiclUtate the progress of this new 
pontifical supremacy. It had commenced in a 
barbarous age, when the whole of the Western 
world was covered with the darkness of ignorance ; 
and when mankind knew neither the just rights of 
sovereignty, nor the bounds which reason and 
equity should have set to the authority of the 
priesUiood. The court of Rome was then the 
only school where politics were studied, and the 
Popes the only monarchs that put them in prac- 
tice. An extravagant superstition, the inseparable 
companion of ignorance, held all Europe in subjec- 
tion ; the Popes were reverenced with a veneration 
resembling that which belongs only to the Deity ; 
and the whole world trembled at the utterance of 
the single word Excommunication, Kings were 
not sufficiently powerful to oppose any successful 
resistance to the encroachments of Rome ; their 
authority was curtailed and counteracted by that 
of their vassals, who seised with eagerness every 
occasion which the Popes offered them to aggran- 
dize their own prerogatives at the expense of the 
sovereign authority. 

The Emperor of Germany, who was alone able 
to countervail this new spiritual tyranny, was at 
open war with his grand vassals, whose usurpa- 
tions he was anxious to repress ; while they, dis- 
respecting the majesty of the throne, and consult- 
ing only their own animosity against the emperor, 
blindly seconded the pretensions of the pontiff. 
The emperor, however, did all in his power to 
oppose a barrier to this torrent of ecclesiastical 
despotism ; but the insolence of Gregory became 
so extravagant, that, not content to attack him 
with spiritual weapons, he set up rival emperors, 
and excited intestine wars against him ; and his 
successors even went so &r as to arm the sons 
against their own father. Such was the origin of 
the contests which arose between the Empire and 
the Papacy, under the reign of Heniy IV., and 
which agitated both Germany and Italy for a 
period of several centuries. They gave birth, 
ahK), to the two factions of the Guelphs and the 
GhibelUnes, the former Imperial, and the other 

CoDoardat of Worms. 
40 Decay of the Genimn 


The Ecciaria«lieal i 
The McttdBeant onk 
Pope Inaoeent III. 

Papal, who for a long coune of time tore each 
other to pieces with inconceiTable fury. 

Henry Y., ton and succeisor of Henry lY., 
terminated the grand dispute about the investitures 
of the ring and the crosier. By the Concordat, 
which he concluded at Worms (1122) with Pope 
Calixtus II., he renounced the ceremony of the 
ring and the cross ; and granting to the churches 
free liberty of election, he reserred nothing to 
himself, except the priTilege of sending commis- 
sioners to the elections, and giving to the newly 
elected prelates, after consecration, the investiture 
of the regalian rights, by means of the sceptre, in- 
stead of the ring and crosier. The ties of vassal- 
age which connected the bishops with the empe- 
rors, were still preserved by this transaction, con- 
trary to the intentions of Gregory YII. ; but the 
emperors being obliged to approve of the persons 
whom the Church should hereafter present, lost 
their chief influence in the elections, and were no 
longer entitled, as formerly, to grant or refuse in- 

These broils with the court of Bome, the check 
which they gave to the Imperial authority, joined 
to the increasing abuses of the feudal system, 
afforded the princes and states of the Empire the 
means of usurping the heritable succession of their 
duchies, counties, and fiefs; and of laying the 
foundations of a new power, which they aftei^ 
wards exercised under the name of territorial 
superiority. Frederic II., compelled by the pres- 
sure of events, was the first emperor that sanc- 
tioned the territorial rights of the states by char- 
ters, which he delivered to several princes, secular 
and ecclesiastic, in the years 1220 and 1232. The 
Imperial dignity thus lost its splendour with the 
power of the emperors ; and tiie constitution of 
the Empire was totally changed. That vast mo- 
narchy degenerated by degrees into a kind of fe- 
deral system; and the Emperor, in course of time, 
became only the common chief, and superior over 
the numerous vassals of which that association 
was composed. The extraordinary efforts made 
by the Emperors Frederic I. and II. of the house 
of Hohenstaufen,^ to re-establish the tottering 
throne of the empire, ended in nothing ; and that 
house, one of the most powerful in Europe, vnw 
deprived of all its crowns, and persecuted even to 
the scaffold. 

The empire thus fell into gradual decay, while 
the pontifical power, rising on its ruins, gained, 
day by dav, new accessions of strength. The suc- 
cessors of Gregory YII. omitted nothing that 
policy could suggest to them, in order to humble 
more and more the dignity of the Emperors, and 
to bring them into a state of absolute dependence, 
by arrogating to themselves the express right of 
confirming, and even of deposing, them;^ and 
compelling them to acknowledge their feudal su- 
periority. Being thus no longer obliged to submit 
their election to the arbitration of the Imperial 
court, the ambitious pontiffii soon aspired to abso- 
lute sovereignty. 

The custom of dating their acts, and coining 
their money with the stamp and name of the em- 
peror, disappeared after the time of Gregory YII. ; 
and the authority which the emperors had exer- 
cised at Rome ceased entirely with the loss of the 
prefecture or government of that city; which Pope 
Innocent III. took into his own hands (1198), 

obliging the prefect of Rome to swear the wni 
oath of homage to the Apostolic 8ee, wfaidi thst 
magistrate owed to the Emperor, from wbooi k 
received the prefecture. Hence it ha^ppencd, th^ 
the chiefe of the Empire, obliged to compraniv 
with a power which they had learned to droi 
had no longer any difficul^^ in reoo^iunng the 
entire independence of the Popea ; even fnaalii 
renouncing the rights of high soTereignty whki 
their predecessors had enjoyed, not only ever 
Rome, but over the Ecclesiastical States. Tk 
domains of the church were likewise considcnbh 
increased by the acquisitions which Innocent 111 
made of the March of Ancona, and the dorfaT a' 
Spoleto; as well as by the personal propertjcr 
Patrimony qf the Counten MatUda.^ which tk 
Emperor Frederic II. ceded to Honoiios III 
(1220), and which his successors in the Aposrob : 
chair formed into the province known by the vaat 
of the PatrimoHff qf 8U Peter. 

One of the grand means which the Popes cb- 
ployed for the advancement of their new astbe* 
rity, was the multiplication of Religions Oidev ' 
and the way in which they took care to masap . 
these corporations. Before the time of GngBr 
YII., the only order knovm in the West was tk: 
of the Benedictines, divided into seyeral femiba 
or congregations. The rule of St. Benedict, psr- 
scribed at the Council of Aix-la-Ch&pelle (817) to 
all monks within the empire of the Franks, ^n 
the only one allowed by the Romish Church ; jas 
as that of St. Basil was, and still is, the only oe* 
practised in the East by the Greek church. Tk 
first of these newly invented orders was that of , 
Gnunmont in Limosin (1073), authorised by Pofie i 
Gregory YII. This vnw followed, in the ssae ■ 
century, by the order of Chartreux, and that of s^ i 
Antony .7 The Mendicant orders took their im . 
under Innocent III., near the end of the tweUkL I 
and befpinning of the thirteenth century. Thdr . 
number increased in a short time so prodigioari>. I 
that, in 1274, they could reckon twentT-tfanc 
orders. The complaints which were raised as 
this subject from all parts of Christendom, oblis^ 
Pope Gregory to reduce them, at the Council of 
Lyons, to four orders, vis., the Hermits of St 
William or Augustines, Carmelites, the Minor or I 
Franciscan friars, and the Preaching or Doiaimru • 
friars. The Popes, perceiving that they mif^ 
convert the monastic orders, and m<»e psitin»- | 
larly the mendicants, into a powerful engine fcr ! 
strengthening their own authority, and keeping . 
the secular clergy in subjection, granted by degrets < 
to these fraternities, immunities and exempdons ■ 
tending to withdraw them from the jurisdiction of 
the bishops, and to emancipate them from even | 
other authority, except that of their Heads, aad , 
the Popes. They even conferred on them varioiB 
privileges, such as those of preaching, confcssioc, I 
and instructing the young, — as bein^ the mos 
likely means to augment their credit snd their iB> 
fiuence. The consequence was, that the monb . 
were frequently employed by the Popes in quality 
of legates and missionaries ; they vrere feared and ' 
respected by sovereigns, singularly revered by thr 
people, and let slip no occasion of exalting & 
power to which alone they owed their promotion 
their respectability, and all the advantages they 

Of all the successors of Gregory YII., he a*b« 

Collation to chiinsh b«- 
nefioes awumed by 
the popes. 

PEBIOD IV. A.D. 1074-1300. 

Berenionarv nominatlfm 

to bishopncs. 
Pint Cruande. 


resembled him moflt in the superiority of his 
genius, and the extent of his knowledge, was 
Innocent III., who was of the family of the 
Counts of Segni, and elevated to the pontificate 
at the age of 37. He was as ambitious as that 
pontiff, and equally fertile in resources; and he 
eren surpassed him in the boldness of his plans, 
and the success of his enterprises. Innocent an- 
nounced himself as the successor of St. Peter, set 
up by God to ffovem not only the Church, but the 
whole world. It was this Pope who first made 
use of the famous comparison about the sun and 
the moon : As God (says he) has placed tivo great 
luminaries in the firmament, the one to rule the 
day, and the other to give Ught by night, so has he 
established two grand powers, the pofU^fical aiui 
the royal ; and as the moon receives her light from 
the sun, so does royalty borrow its splendour from 
the Papal authority. 

Not content to exercise the legiBlatiye power as 
he pleased, by means of the numerous decretals 
which he dispersed over all Christendom, this 
pontiff was the first that arrogated to himself the 
prerogative of dispensing with Uie laws themselves, 
in Tirtue of what he termed the plenitude of his 
power. It is to him also that the origin of the 
Inquisition is ascribed, that terrible tribunal which 
afterwards became the firmest prop of sacerdotal 
despotism ; but what is of more importance to 
remark, is, that he laid the foundations of that 
exorbitant power, which his successors have since 
exercised in collating or presenting to ecclesiastical 
dignities and benefices. 

The secular princes having been deprived of 
their rights of nomination and confirmation, by 
the decrees of Gregory VII. and his successors, 
the privilege of electing bishops was restored to 
the clergy and congregation of each church, and 
to the dbapters of convents ; the confirmation of 
the elected prelates belonged to their immediate 
superiors ; and collation to the other ecclesiastical 
benefices was reserved for the bishops and ordi- 
naries. All these regulations were changed to- 
veards the end of the twelfth century. The canons 
of cathedral churches, authorized by the Court of 
Rome, claimed to themselves the right of election, 
to the exclusion of the clergy and the people ; 
while the Popes, gradually interfering with elec- 
tions and collations, found means to usurp the 
nomination and collation to almost all ecclesiastical 
benefices. The principle of these usurpations was 
founded on the false decretals; according to which 
all ecclesiastical jurisdiction emanates firom the 
court of Rome, as a river flows from its source. 
It is from the Pope that archbishops and bishops 
hold that portion of authority with which they are 
endowed ; and of which he does not divest him- 
self, by the act of communicating it to them ; but 
is rather the more entitled to co-operate with them 
in the exercise of that jurisdiction as often as he 
may judge proper. 

This principle of a conjunct authority, furnished 
a very plausible pretext for the Popes to interfere 
in collation to benefices. This collation, according 
to the canon law, being essential to the jurisdiction 
of bishops, it seemed natural that the Pope, who 
concurred in the jurisdiction, should also concur 
in the privileges derived from it, namely, induc- 
tion or collation to benefices. From the right of 
concurrence, therefore, Innocent III. proceeded 

to that of prevention, being the first pontiff that 
made use of it. He exercised that right, especially 
with regard to benefices which had newly become 
vacant by the death of their incumbents, when at 
the court of Rome ; in which cases it was easy to 
anticipate or get the start of the bishops. In the 
same manner, this right vras exercised in remote 
dioceses, by means of legates a latere, which he 
dispersed over the different provinces of Christen- 

From the right of prevention were derived the 
provisional mandates, and the Gr6ces Eapeetathes 
(reversionary grants or Bulls), letters granting 
promise of church livings before they became 
vacant. The Popes not having legates every- 
where, and wishing, besides, to treat the bbhops 
with some respect, began by addressing to them 
letters of recommendation in Beivour of those per- 
sons for whom they were anxious to procure 
benefices. These letters becoming too frequent 
and importimate, the bishops ventured to refuse 
their compliance ; on which the Popes began to 
change their recommendations into orders or 
mandates ; and appointed commissioners to en- 
force their execution by means of ecclesiastical 
censures. These mandates were succeeded by the 
Grdces Bxpectatives, which, properly speaking, 
were nothing eke than mandates issued for bene- 
fices, whose titulars or incumbents were yet alive. 
Lastly appeared the Reservations, which were 
distinguished into general and special. The first 
general reservation was that of benefices becoming 
vacant by the incumbents dying at the court of 
Rome. This was introduced by Pope Clement 
IV. in 1265, in order to exclude for ever the 
bishops firom the right of concurrence and preven- 
tion in benefices of that kind. 

This first reservation was the forerunner of 
several others, such as the reservation of all ca- 
thedral churches, abbeys, and priories ; as also of 
the highest dignities in cathedral and collegiate 
churches; and of all collective benefices, becom- 
ing vacant during eight months in the year, called 
the Pope^s months, so that only four months re- 
mained for the ordinary collators ; and these, too, 
encroached upon by mandates, expectatives, and 
reservations. The Popes having thus seized the 
domination to episcopal dignities, it followed, by 
a simple and natural process, that tbe confirmation 
of all prelates, without distinction, vras in like 
manner reserved for them. It would have even 
been reckoned a breach of decorum to address an 
archbishop, demanding from him the confirmation 
of a bishop nominated by the Pope ; so that this 
point of common right, which vested the confirm- 
ation of every prelate in his immediate superior, 
was also annihilated; and the Romish See was at 
length acknowledged over the whole Western 
world, as the only source of all jurisdiction, and 
all ecclesiastical power. 

An extraordinary event, the ofispring of that 
superstitious age, served still more to increase the 
power of the Popes ; and that was the Crusades, 
which the nations of Europe undertook, at their 
request and by their orders, for the conquest of 
Palestine or the Holy Land. These expeditions, 
known by the name of Holy Wars, because re- 
ligion was made the pretext or occasion of them, 
require a somewhat particular detail, not merely of 
the circumstances that accompanied them, but also 

PUgriniages to J«- 
42 nualem. 

Cnuade preachad. 


Godft«y of Boomoi. 
CartuR of Ntoe. 
Tucing d iensaim. 

of the changes which they introduced into the mo- 
ral and political condition of society. Pilgrimages 
to Jerusalem, which were in use from the earliest 
ages of Christianity, had become Tery frequent 
about the beginning of the elerenth century. The 
opinion which then yery generally prevailed, that 
the end of the world was at hand, induced Tast 
numbers of Christians to sell their possessions in 
Europe, in order that they might set out for the 
Holy Land, there to await the coming of the Lord. 
Bo long as the Arabs were masters of Palestine, 
they protected these pilgrimages, from which they 
derived no small emoluments. But when the 
Seljukian Turks, a barbarous and ferocious people, 
had conquered that country (1075), imder the 
Caliphs of Egypt, the pilgrims saw themselTes 
exposed to every kind of insult and oppression.' 
The lamentable accoimts which they gave of these 
outrages on their return to Europe, excited the 
geneml indignation, and gave birth to the roman- 
tic notion of expelling these InMels from the Holy 

Gregory YII. was the projector of this grand 
scheme. He addressed circular letters to ail die 
sovereigns of Europe, and invited them to make a 
general crusade against the Turks. Meantime, 
however, more pressing interests, and his quarrels 
with the Emperor Henry lY., obliged him to 
defer the projected enterprise ; but his attention 
was soon recalled to it by the representation of a 
pilgrim, called Peter the Hermit, a native of 
Amiens in Picardy. Furnished with letters from 
the Patriarch of Jerusalem to the Pope and the 
prinoes of the West, this ardent fanatic traversed 
the whole of Italy, France, and Germany ; preach- 
ing everywhere, and representing, in the liveliest 
colours, the profanation of the sacred places, and 
the miserable condition of the Christians and poor 
pilgrims in the Holy Land. It proved no difficult 
task for him to impart to others the fiinaticism 
with which he was himself animated. His seal 
was powerfully seconded by Pope Urban II., who 
repaired in person to France, where he convoked 
the council of Clermont (1095), and pronounced, 
in full assembly, a pathetic harangue, at the close 
of which they unanimously resolved on the Holy 
War. It was decreed, that all who should enrol 
their names in this sacred militia, should wear a 
red cross on their right shoulder : that they should 
enjoy plenary indulgence, and obtain remission of 
all their sins. 

From that time the pulpits of Europe resounded 
with exhortations to the crusades. People of every 
rank and condition were seen flocking in crowds 
to assume the signal of the cross ; and, in the fol- 
lowing year, innumerable bands of crusaders, from 
the different countries of Europe, set out, one 
after another, on this expedition to the East.* The 
only exception was the Germans, who partook but 
feebly of this universal enthusiasm, on account of 
the disputes which then subsisted between the 
Emperor and the court of Bome.^^ The three or 
four first divisions of the crusaders, under the 
conduct of chie&, who had neither name nor ex- 
perience, marched without order and wiUiout 
discipline; pillaging, burning, and wasting the 
countries through which they passed. Most of 
them perished from fittigue, hunger, or sickness, 
or by the sword of the exasperated nations, whose 
territories they had laid desolate.^^ t 

To these unwariike and uBdisdplined troopi, 
succeeded regular armies* csommanded by eiperi- 
enced officers, and powerful princes. God^ d 
Bouillon (1096), Duke of Loirain, acoonipuifid 
bv his brother Baldwin, and his cousin BaMvia 
of Bourg, with a vast retinue of noblemen, pn 
himself at the head of the first body of cnmden. 
He directed his march through Getmanj, Hi&- 
gary, and Bulgaria, towarda ConstantiBople, izkI 
was soon followed by several French prinees, nd- 
as Hugh the Great, brother of PhiUp I., Kisi 
of France ; Robert, Duke of Nonnandy, ssa d 
William the Conqueror ; Stephen YL, Conat ai 
Blois ; Eustace of Boulogne, brother to Godncf 
de Bouillon; and Robert, Count of Flanden; vas 
all preferred the route by Italy. They passed lis 
winter in the environs of Ban, Biindisi* id 
Otranto ; and did not embark for Greece until vs 
following spring. Boemond, Prince of Tareotoi, 
son to Roger, Earl of Sicily, at the instigsUoc :' 
the French grandees, took the cross, a^ tiair 
example, and carried with him into the £u|tk 
flower of the Normans, and the noblesse of My 
Apulia, and Calabria. Laatly, Raymond IT. 
Count of Toulouse, accompanied by the Biihof -" 
Puy, traversed Lombardy, Friuli, and DaUaaii 
on his passage to the Holy Land. 

The general rendesvous of the erossden ^ 
at Chalcedon in Bithynia. It is suppoeed ito 
their forces, united, amounted to six hundred ti*- 
sand combatants. They commenced their a^^ 
with the siege of Nice, capital of the empire h 
Roum, of which they made themselves "•^'^ 
after having repulsed the Turks, who )a^}^ 
vanced under the command of the Sultsn KiJ»j 
Arslan, the son of Soliman, premier fulti> '-' 
Roum. Another victory, gained over tbe ^ 
sultan (1097) in the Gorgonian vaUey in Bithji* , 
opened for the crusaders a passage into Sjm- 
There they undertook the siege of the 8troas^7 
of Antioch, which they carried after sn imB«* ; 
loss of Uves (1098). Having at length •rriTedu' 
Palestine, they planned the attack of Je^«*2 | 
which the Caliph of Egypt had just nff^ 
from the Turks; and which the cruaaden, intk^ | 
turn, carried by assault from the Egyptian* (Ipf) 
This city was declared the capital of a n«^Jj^ 
dom, the sovereignty of which was bestowed * 
Godfrey of Bouillon, though he refused t« tt^ 
the title of king. This famous prince extend^ 
his conquests by a splendid victory, ^^^^ 
gained that same year near Ascalon, oy^t ^ 
Caliph of Egypt. On his death, bis broiW | 
Baldwin succeeded bim, and transmitted J^ j 
throne to his cousin Baldwin of Boqrg, **»<* | 
posterity reigned in Jerusalem until the d«ti«- , 
tion of that kingdom by Saladia (1187). . . 

Besides the kingdom of Jerusalem, jj^ 1 
comprehended Palestine, with the cities of Sido^ ^ 
Tyre, and Ptolenuus, the crusaders founded ^ 
vend other states in the East. The esridom « j 
Edessa, first conquered by Baldwin, brother & 
Godfrey, passed to several French princes w «^ 
cession untU the year 1144, when it w»s «»»«« 
by Atabek-Zenghi, commonly called SanguiM 
The principaUty of Antioch fell to the «h»« " | 
Boemond, Prince of Tarentum, whose hein ^ \ 
descendants added to it, in 1188, the County » 
TripoU, which had been founded (1110) by W* 
mond, Count of Toulouse, one of the auiw«* 

Richard I. of Bnglimd. 
The six foeeaeding cni- 

FEBIOD IV. A.D. 1074—1800. 

Wan ondertakea by the 

Church of Rome. 
Albigenaea andWaldenset. 


But thev were deprived both of the one and the 
other of these eovereigntie* by the Mamelukes in 
1268, who afterwards ^1289) conquered Antioch 
and Tripoli. Lastly, the kingdom of Cyprus, which 
Bichard Cceur-de-Lion, King of England, took 
from the Greeks (1191), was surrendered by that 
prince to Guy de Lusignan, whose posterity reigned 
in Cyprus tiU the year 1487, when that island was 
taken possession of by the republic of Venice. 

The transient duration of these different states 
presents nothing surprising. The Christians of 
the £ast, disunited among themselves, surrounded 
on all hands, and incessantly attacked by powerful 
nations, found themselves too remote from Europe 
to obtain from that quarter any prompt or effective 
succour. It was, therefore, impossible for them 
long to withstand the efforts of the Mahometans, 
who were animated, as well as the Christians, by 
a sectarian seal, which led them to combine their 
forces against the enemies of their religion and- 
their prophet. The enthusiasm of religious wars 
did not, however, become extinct until neariy two 
centuries. It was encouraged and supported by 
the numerous privileges which popes and sove- 
reigns conferred on the invaders, and by the rich 
endowments that were made in tiieir iavour. All 
Europe continued to be in motion, and all its 
principal sovereigns marched in their turn to the 
East, either to attempt new conquests, or maintain 
those which the first crusaders had achieved* 

Six grand crusades succeeded to the first ( all 
of which were either fruitless, or at least without 
any important and durable suceess. Conrad III., 
Emperor of Germany, and Louis VIJ., King of 
France, undertook the second (1147), on account 
of the conquests of Atabek-Zenghi, who, three 
years before, had made himself master of Edessa. 
The third (1189) was headed by the Emperor 
Frederic L, sumamed Barbarossa ; Philip Augus- 
tus, King of France ; and Bichard Csur-de-Lion 
of Enffland ; and the occasion of it, was the tak- 
ing of Jerusalem by the feunous Saladin (1187). 
The fourth was undertaken (1202), at the pressing 
instigation of Innocent III. Several of the French 
and German nobility uniting with the Venetians, 
assumed the cross under the command of Boniface, 
Marquis of Montferrat ; but instead of marching 
to Palestine, thev ended their expedition by taking 
Constantinople from the Greeks. The fifth cru- 
sade (1217) was conducted by Andrew, King of 
Hungary, attended by many of the princes and 
nobility of Gennany, who had enlisted under the 
banner of the Cross in consequence of the decrees 
of the council of Lateran (1215). The Emperor 
Frederic II. undertook the sixth (1228). By a 
treaty which he concluded with the Sultan of 
Egypt, he obtained the restoration of Jerusalem 
and several other cities of Palestine; although they 
did not long continue in his possession. The 
Carismian Turks, oppressed by the Moguls, seized 
on the Holy Land ^1244), and piUaged and burnt 
Jerusalem. That nmous city, together with the 
greater part of Palestine, fell afterwards under the 
dominion of the Sultans of Egypt. 

The seventh and lest grand crusade, was under- 
taken by Louis IX. King of France (1248). He 
conceiTed it necessary to begin his conquests by 
that of Egypt; but his design completely mis- 
carried. Being made prisoner with his army after 
the action at Mansouia (1250), he only obtained 

his liberty by restoring Damietta, and paying a 
large ransom to the Sultan of Egypt. The un- 
fortunate issue of this last expedition slackened 
the seal of the Europeans for crusading. Still, 
however, they retained two important places on 
the coast of Syria, the cities of Tyre and Ptole- 
mais. But these places having heen conquered 
by the Mamelukes (1291), there was no longer 
any talk ahout crusades to the East ; and all the 
attempts of the Court of Bome to revive them 
proved ineffectual. 

It now remains for us briefly to notice the ef- 
fects which resulted from the crusades, with re- 
gard to the social and political state of the nations 
in Western Europe. One consequence of these, 
was the aggrandisement of the Boman Pontiffs, 
who, during the whole period of the crusades, 
played the part of supreme chiefe and sovereign 
masters of Christendom. It was at their request, 
as we have seen, that those religious wars were 
undertaken; it was they who directed them by 
means of their legates, — ^who compelled emperors 
and kings, by the terror of their spiritual arms, to 
march under the banner of the Cross — ^who taxed 
the clergy at their pleasure, to defray the expenses 
of these distant expeditions, — who took under their 
immediate protection the persons and effects of the 
Crusaders, and emancipated them, by means of 
special privileges, from all dependence on any 
power, civil or judiciary. The wealth of the 
clei^gy was considerably increased during the time 
of which we speak, both by the numerous endow- 
ments which took place, and by the acquisition 
which the Church made of the immense landed 
property which the pious owners sold them on 
assuming the badge of the Cross. 

These advantages which the See of Bome drew 
from the Crusades in the East, were inducements 
to undertake similar expeditions in the West and 
North of Europe. In these quarters we find 
that the wars of the cross were carried on, 1. 
Against the Mahometanis of Spain and Africa. 
2. Against the Emperors and Kings who re- 
fused obedience to the orders of the Popes.^' 3. 
Against heretical or schismatic princes, such as 
the Greeks and Bussians* 4. Against the Sla^ 
vonians and other Pagan nations, on the coasts of 
the Baltic. 6. Against the Waldenses, Albi- 
genses, and Hussites, who were regarded as here- 
tics. 6. Against the Turks. 

If the result of the crusades was advantageous 
to the hierarchy, if it served to aggrandise the 
power of the Boman Pontiffs, it must, on the con- 
trary, have proved obviously prejudicial to the au- 
thority of the secular princes. It was in &ct dur- 
ing this period that the power of the emperors, 
both in Germany and Italy, was sapped to the 
very foundation ; that the royal house of Hohen- 
staufen sunk under the determined efforts o( the 
Court of Bome ; and that the federal system of 
the Empire gained gradual accessions of strength. 
In England and Hungary, we observe how the 
grandees seized on the opportunity to increase 
their own power. The former took advantage of 
their sovereign's absence in the Holy Land, and 
the latter of the protection which they received 
from the Popes, to claim new privileges and 
extort charters, such as they did' from John of 
England, and Henry II. of Hungary, tending to 
cripple and circumscribe the royal authority. 

The ReligioQs and MiUtery 
44 Orden. 

Sunuunea and eoati of araf . 


KOCH'S EEV0LUTI0N8. Mght.Jto^jijn«. 

In France, howerer, the result wu different. 
There, the kings being freed, by means of the 
crusades, from a crowd of restless and turbulent 
Yassals who often threw the kingdom into a state 
of faction and discord, were left at liberty to ex- 
tend their prerogatives, and turn the scale of power 
in their own favour. They even considerably aug- 
mented their royal and territorial revenues, either 
by purchasing lands and fiefr from the proprietors 
who had armed in the cause of the cross ; or by an- 
nexing to the crown the estates of those who died 
in the Holy Land, without leaving feudal heirs ; 
or by seixing the forfeitures of oUiers who were 
persecuted by religious fanaticism, as heretics or 
abettors of heresy. Finally, the Christian kings of 
Spain, the sovereigns of the North, the Knights of 
the Teutonic order, and of Livonia, joined the 
crusades recommended by the Popes, from the 
desire of conquest ; the former, to subdue the 
Mahometans in Spain, and the others to vanquish 
the Pagan nations of the North, the Slavonians, 
Finns, Livonians, Prussians, Lithuanians, and 

It is to the crusades, in like manner, that 
Europe owes the use of surnames, as well as of 
armorial bearings, and heraldry.** It is easy to 
perceive, that among these innumerable armies of 
crusaders, composed of different nations and lan- 
guages, some mark or symbol was necessary, in 
order to distinguish particular nations, or signflilice 
their commanders. Surnames and coats of arms 
were employed as these distinctive badges ; the 
latter especially were invented to serve as rallyuig 
points, for the vassals and troops of the crusading 
chiefs. Necessity first introduced them, and va- 
nity afterwards caused them to be retained. These 
coats of arms were hoisted on their standards, the 
knights got them emblazoned on their shields, and 
appeared with them at tournaments. Even those 
who had never been at the crusades became ambi- 
tious of these distinctions ; which may be consi- 
dered as permanently established in fiunilies, from 
about the middle of the thirteenth century. 

The same enthusiasm that inspired the Euro- 
peans for the crusades, contributed in like manner 
to bring touniaments into vogue. In these solemn 
and military sports, the young noblesse were train- 
ed to violent exercises, and to the management of 
heavy arms ; so as to gain them some reputation 
for valour, and to insure their superiority in war. 
In order to be admitted to these tournaments it 
was necessary to be of noble blood, and to show 
proofs of their nobility. The origin of these feats 
is generally traced back to the end of the tenth, or 
beginning of the eleventh century. Geoffrey of 
Freuilly, whom the writers of the middle ages 
cite as being the inventor of them, did no more, 
properly speaking, than draw up their code of re- 
gulations. France was the country from which 
the practice of tournaments diffused itself over all 
the other nations of Europe. They were very 
frequent, during all the time that the crusading 
mania lasted. 

To this same epoch belongs the institution of 
Religious and Military Orders, These were ori- 
ginally established for the purpose of defending 
the new Christian States in the East, for protect- 
ing pilgrims on their Journey, taking care of them 
when sick, &c. ; and the vast wealth which they 
acquired in most of the kingdoms of Europe, pre- 

served their existence long after the loss of the 
Holy Land ; and some of these oidera even mdr 
a conspicuous figure in the political histaiy ef 
the Western nations. 

Of all these, the fint and moat d ialiu g u k J iwi 
vras the Order qf St. Jolm <^ Jermfaiem, csIM 
afterwards the Order qf Malta. Prior to tbe ^ 
crusade, there had existed at Jerusalem a chzrl 
of the Latin or Romish liturgy, dedicated to S* 
Mary, and founded by some merchants of Amah 
in the kingdom of Naples. There ^ras also i 
monasterv of the Order of St. Benedict, and e 
hospital tor the relief of poor or afflicted pilfni 
This hospital, the directors of virhich vreie ap- 
pointed by the Abbot of St. Maiy'a, having a i 
very short time become immensely rich by »- 
merous donations of lands and seignories, boc& r. 
Europe and Palestine, one of its govemon bs»». 
Gerard, a native of Martigues in ProTenee, t» i> 
alleged, took the regular habit (IIOO), and foaeJ 
with his brethren a distinct congregation, hbst 
the name and protection of St. John the BapOL 
Pope Pascal II., by a bull issued in 1 114, mppn^ 
of this new establishment, and ordained, that a£r 
the death of Gerard, the Hospitallers alone ^obi 
have the election of their superintendent. Sii- 
mond du Puy, a gentleman £ron& Dauphiae, lu* 
successor to Gerard, vras the first that took tb 
title of Grand Master. He prescribed a rakr fr 
the Hospitallers ; and Pope Calixtos II., ia im- 
proving of this rule (1120), divided the mesbt^ 
of the order into three classes. The noUes, csaei! 
Knights of Justice, were destined for the pro^ 
sion of arms, making war on the Infidds, and pio> 
tecting pilgrims. The priests and rhaphira, g- 
lected from the respectable citizens, were intnsrtr^ 
with functions purely ecclesia8ti<»l ; while t^ 
serving brethren, who formed the third ciaas, vrt 
charged with the care of sick pilgrinw, and fib*- 
wise to act in the capacity of soldiers. Tbm 
new knights were known by the name of iTisylB 
qf the Hospital qf St. John qf Jerusalem, wai 
were distingtdshed by wearing a white oct^os 
cross on a black habit. 

After the final loss of the Holy Land, thai c- 
der established themselves in the Isle of Cvpro^ 
From this they passed into Rhodes, which tiif; 
had conquerea from the Infidels (1310). Ths 
latter island they kept possession of till 1522; asd 
being then expelled by Soliman the Great, thr^ 
obtained (1530) from Charies Y., the munifkvst 
grant of the Isle of Malta, under the express tcrax 
of making war against the Infidels. Of this pisev 
they were at length deprived by Buonapaitr la 
1798. ~''~ 

The order of Templars followed nearly that <^ ' 
St. John. Its first founders (1119) were wan 
French gentlemen ; the chief of whoni were Hue 
de Payens, and Geoffiiey de St. Omer. Hsiist 
made a declaration of their vows before the Pim- 
arch of Jerusalem, they took upon themselves tk 
special charge of maintaining free passage and nir 
conduct for the pilgrims to Uie Holy Land. Bsid- 
win, king of J^ninlem, assigned them an apart- 
ment in his palace, near the temple, whence tber 
took the name of Knights qf the Temple, sod 
Templars. They obtained from Pope Honoriw 
II. (1120) a rule, with a white habit; to whirh 
Eugene III. added a red cross octagon. Thi< 
order, after accumulating vast wealth and ridm, 

Knighto Templan. 
The Teutooic Order. 
RiM of Chivaby. 

PERIOD rV. A.D. 1074—1300. 

Venice. Genoa. Flaa. 
Commeroff of Italy. 45 

HAOscatic Ijeafpie. 

especially in France, and distinguiBhing themselTes 
by their military exploits for nearly two centuries, 
were at length suppressed by the Council of 
Vienna (1312). 

The Teutonic order, according to the most pro- 
bable opinion, took its origin in the camp before 
Acre or Ftolemais. The honour of it is ascrihed 
to some charitable citizens of Bremen and Lubec, 
who erected a hospital or tent with the sails of 
their vessels, for the relief of the numerous sick 
and wounded of their nation. Seyeral Grerman 
gentlemen having joined in this establishment, 
they devoted themselves by a vow to the service of 
the sick ; as also to the defence of the Holy Land 
against the Infidels. This order, known by the 
name of the Teutonic Knights of St. Mary of Je- 
rusalem, received confirmation from Pope Calu^us 
III. (1192), who prescribed for them the rjpof 
the Hospital of St. John, with regard to their 
attendance on the sick ; and with regard to chi- 
valry or knighthood, that of the order of Templars. 
Henry Walpott de Passenheim was the first grand 
master of the order ; and the new knights assumed 
the white habit, with a red cross, to distinguish 
them from the other orders. It was under their 
fourth grand master, Hermann de Saltsa (1230), 
that they passed into Prussia, which they con- 
quered (1309). They fixed their chief residence 
at Marienbuzg; but having lost Prussia in con- 
sequence of a change in the religious sentiments 
of their grand master, Albert de Brandenburg 
(1528), they transferred their capital to Meigen- 
theim, in Franconia. 

A fourth order of Hospitallers founded in the 
Holy Land, was that of St. Laxarus of Jerusalem, 
who had for their principal ohject the treatment 
of lepers ;^* and who, in process of time, from a 
medical, became a military order. After having 
long resided in the Esst, where they distinguished 
themselves in the Holy Wars, they followed St. 
Louis into France (1254), and fixed their chief 
seat at Boigny, near Orleans. Pope Gregory 
XIII. united them with the order of St. Maurice, 
in Savoy ; and Henry lY . with that of Our Lady 
of Mount Caimel, in France. On the model, and 
after the example of these four military orders, 
several others were founded in succession, in vari- 
ous kingdoms of £urope.*' All these institutions 
contributed greatly to the renown of chivalry, so 
famous in the Middle Ages. The origin of this 
latter institution is earlier than the times of which 
we now speak, and seems to belong to the tenth, 
or the beginning of the eleventh century. The 
anarchy of feudalism being then at its height, and 
robberies and private quarrels everywhere pxevail- 
ing, several noble and distinguished individuals 
devoted themselves, hy a solemn vow, according 
to the genius of the times, to the defence of reli- 
gion and its ministers ; as also of the hit sex, and 
of every person suffering from distress or oppres- 
sion. From the end of the eleventh century, to 
the time when the crusades began, we find chi- 
valry, with its pomp and its ceremonies, esta- 
blished in all the principal states of Europe. This 
salutary institution, hy inspiring the minds of men 
with new energy, gave birth to many illustrious 
characters. It tended to repress the disorders of 
anarchy, to revive order and law» and establish a 
new relationship among the nations of Europe. 

In general, it may he said, that these ultra- 

marine expeditions, prosecuted with obstinacy for 
nearly two hundred years, hastened the progress 
of arts and civilization in Europe. The crusaders, 
journeying through kingdoms better organized than 
their own, and observing greater refinement in their 
laws and manners, were necessarily led to form 
new ideas, and acquire new information with re- 
gard to science and politics. Some vestiges of 
learning and good taste had been preserved in 
Greece, and even in the extremities of Asia, 
where letters had been encouraged by the patron- 
age of the Caliphs. The city of Constantinople, 
which had not yet suffered from the ravages of the 
barbarians, abounded in the finest monuments of 
art. It presented to the eyes of the crusaders 
a spectacle of grandeur and magnificence that 
could not but excite their admiration, and call 
forth a strong desire to imitate those models, the 
sight of which at once pleased and astonished them. 
To the Italians especially, it must have proved of 
great advantage. The continued intercourse which 
they maintained with the East and the city of 
Constantinople afforded them the means of be- 
coming fitmiliar with the language and literature 
of the Greeks, of communicating the same taste to 
their own coimtrymen, and in this way advancing 
the glorious epoch of the revival of letters. 

About the same time, commerce and navigation 
were making considerable progress. The cities of 
Italy, such as Yenice, Genoa, Pisa, and others, in 
assisting the Crusaders in their operations, by 
means of the transports, provisions, and warlike 
stores with which they fruiiished them, continued 
to secure for themselves important privileges and 
establishments in the seaports of the Levant, and 
other ports in the Greek empire. Their exam- 
ple excited the industry of several maritime towns 
in France, and taught them the advantage of ap- 
plying their attention to Eastern commerce. In 
the Korth, the cities of Hamburgh and Lubec 
formed, about the year 1241, as is generally sup- 
posed, their first commercial association, which 
afterwards became so formidable under the name 
of the Hanseatie Lecigue^* The staple articles of 
these latter cities consisted in marine stores, and 
other productions of the North, which they ex- 
changed for the spiceries of the East, and the 
manufactures of Itidy and the Low Countries. 

The progress of industry, the protection which 
sovereigns extended to it, and the pains they took 
to check the disorders of feudalism, contributed to 
the prosperity of towns, by daily augmenting their 
population and their wealth. This produced, 
about the times we are speaking of, an advan- 
tageous change in the civil and social condition of 
the people. Throughout the principal states of 
Europe, cities began, after the twelfth century, to 
erect themselves into political bodies, and to form, 
by degrees, a third order, distinct from that of the 
clergy and nobility. Before this period, the inha- 
bitants of towns enjoyed neither civil nor political 
liberty. Their condition was very little better 
than that of the peasantry, who were all serfs, at- 
tached to the soil. The rights of citizenship, and 
the privileges derived from it, were reserved for 
the clergy and the noblesse. The Counts, or 
governors of cities, by rendering their power here- 
ditary, had appropriated to themselves the rights 
that were originally attached to their functions. 
They used them in the most arbitrary way, and 

46 I'ree Corporatiaiu. 
Italian Hepablics. 


English Uocueof Conw 
Edwaxd III. Henry III. 
French Far liamenln. 

loaded the inhabitants with every kind of oppres- 
sion that avarice or caprice could suggest. 

At length, the cities which were either the most 
oppressed, or the most powerful, rose in rebellion 
against this intolerable yoke. The inhabitants 
formed themselves into confederations, to which 
they gave the name of Communes or Free Corpo- 
raHons. Either of their own accord, or by char- 
ters, obtained very often on burdensome terms, 
they procured for themselves a free government, 
which, by relieving them from servitude, and all 
impositions and arbitrary exactions, secured them 
personal liberty and the possession of their effects, 
under the protection of their own magistrates, and 
the institution of a militia, or city guard. This 
revolution, one of the most Important In Europe, 
first took place in Italy, where it was occasioned 
by the frequent Interregnums that occurred in 
Germany, as well as by the disturbances that rose 
between the Empire and the priesthood, in the 
eleventh century. The anathemas thundered 
against Henry lY., by absolving the subjects from 
the obedience they owed their sovereign, served 
as a pretext to the cities of Italy for shaking off 
the authority of the Imperial viceroys, or bailifi^, 
who had become tyrants instead of rulers, and for 
establishing free and republican governments. In 
this, they were encouraged and supported by the 
protection of the Roman pontiffs, whose sole aim 
and policy was the abasement of the Imperial 

Before this period, several maritime cities of 
Italy, such as N'aples, Amalfl, Venice, Fisa, and 
Genoa, emboldened by the advantages of their 
situation, by the increase of their population and 
their commerce, had already emancipated them- 
selves from the Imperial yoke, and erected them- 
selves into republics. Their example was followed 
by the cities of Lombardy and the Venetian terri- 
tory, especially Milan, Pavia, Asti, Cremona, Lodi, 
Como, rarma, Placentia, Verona, Padua, &c. All 
these cities, animated with the enthusiasm of li- 
berty, adopted, about the beginning of the twelfth 
century, consuls and popular forms of government. 
They formed a kind of military force, or city 
guard, and vested in themselves the rights of 
royalty, and the power of making, in their own 
name and authority, alliances, wars, and treaties 
of peace. From Italy, this revolution extended 
to France and Germany, the Low Countries, and 
England. In all these different states, the use of 
Communes, or boroughs, was established, and 
protected by the sovereigns, who employed these 
new institutions as a powerful check against the 
encroachments and tyranny of the feudal lords. 

In France, Louis the Fat, who began his reign 
in 1108, was the first king that granted rights, or 
constitutional charten, to certain cities within his 
domain, either from political motives, or the allure- 
ment of money. The nobility, after his example, 
eagerly sold liberty to their subjects. The revolu- 
tion became general; the cry for liberty was raised 
everywhere, and interested every mind. Through- 
out all the provinces, the inhabitants of cities soli- 
cited charters, and sometimes without waiting for 
them, they formed themselves voluntarily into 
communities, electing magistrates of their own 
choice, establishing companies of militia, and tak- 
ing charge themselves of the fortifications and 
wardenship of Uieir cities. The magistntei of 

free cities in northern France were nsoallj ci&e^ 
mayors, sheriffs, and liverymen} while, in tk 
south of France, they were called syndics aai 
consuls. It soon became an established pimdfk, 
that kings alone had the povrer to anthoriie the 
erection of corporate towns. Louis Till, dedscd 
that he regarded all cities in which these corpo- 
rations were established as belonging to liis do- 
main. They owed military service directly aad 
personally to the king ; while such cities ais hid 
not these rights or charters were obliged to kiOaw 
their chiefs to the war. 

In Germany, we find the emperots adopting t^ 
same policy as the lungs of France. The resonrcei 
which the progress of commerce and msom&etiaa 
opened up to the industry of the inhabitanlt a 
ci^sB, and the important succours which the ea- 
p^m^ Henry IV. and V. had received from thra 
in their quarrels with the Pope and the prince* of 
the Empire, induced them to take these cities as- 
der their protection, to augment their nnmber.ssi^ 
multiply their privileges. Henry Y. was die firs 
emperor that adopted this line of policy. H* 
granted freedom to the inhabitants of scTeral atiet, 
even to artisans and tradesmen ; whose conditk^ 
at that time, was as degraded and debased as thar 
of serfs. He extended to them the rank and pri- 
vileges of citizens, and thus gave rise to the £ry- 
sion of cities into classes and corporations of tndoL 
This same prince set about repairing the hdi 
which the emperors of the house of Sajconv had 
committed, of giving up to the bishops the teniponl 
jurisdiction in all the cities wherein they resided. 
He gradually superseded these rights, by the sew 
privileges which he granted to the inhsbitai^ e^ 
cities. The emperors, his successors, followed ta; 
example : in a little time, several of these cities 
threw off the yoke of their bishops, while othen 
extricated themselves from the Jurisdiction of di«r 
superiors, or provosts, whether imperial or feudal, 
and adopted, in imitation of the cities in Itslf 
and France, magistrates of their own choosing, t 
republican form of government, and a mcmidpd 

This liberty in cities gave new Tigotir to is- 
dustry, multiplied the sources of labour, and cre- 
ated means of opulence and power, till then un- 
known in Europe. The population of these citi» 
increased with their wealth. Communities rose 
into political consequence ; and we find them wae- 
cessively admitted to the diets and national sssem- 
blies, in all the principal states of Europe. Eng- 
land set an example of this ; and thong'h KngtiA 
authors are not agreed as to the precise time when 
the Commons of that kingdom were called into 
Parliament, it is at least certain that their fiist 
admission belongs to the reign of Henry* III. 
(about 1265 or 1266), and that the formal divi- 
sion of the Parliament into two hotiaes is as latr 
as the reign of Edward III.** France followed the 
example of England ; the convocation of the states, 
bv Philip the Fair (1303), on the subject of his 
disputes with Pope Bonifrice VIII., is considered 
as the first assembly of the States-general, con- 
posed of the three orders of the kingdom. As tx> 
Germany, the first diet in which the cities of the 
Empire appeared in the form of a third order, was 
that of Spire (1309), convoked by the Emperor 
Henry VII., of the house of Luxemborr. After- 
wards, we find these cities exercising a decislvs or 

Germaai Diflte. 
BnlVanchiaement of 

PERIOD IV. A.D. 1074—1300. 

Louis VII. LooiiX. 

The Roman Law. 47 

Code of Justinian. 

deliberatiTe Toice at the diet of Frankfort (1844), 
under Louis the Bavarian. 

In all these states, we find the sovereigns pro- 
tecting more especially those free cities which 
aided them in checking the devastations, and put- 
ting a stop to the fury of private or intestine wars. 
The most powerful of the feudal chiefs, finding 
everywhere cities in a capacity to defend them- 
selves, became less enterprising in their ambition ; 
and even the nobles of inferior rank learned to 
respect the power of these communities. The 
royal authority was thereby strengthened; and 
the cities, natiurally inclining to the sovereigns 
that protected them, served as a counterpoise, in 
the general assemblies, to the power of the clergy 
and the noblesse, and were the means of obtaining 
those subsidiary supplies necessary for the exigen- 
cies of the state. 

The liberty which the inhabitants of cities had 
thus procured by the establishment of these com- 
munities, or corporate bodies, extended itself to the 
inhabitants of the country, by way of enfiranchise- 
ments. Yarious circtunstances concurred to ren- 
der the use of these more frequent, afier the twelfth 
century. The sovereigns, guided by the maxims 
of sound policy, set the first example of this within 
their own demesnes ; and they were speedily imi- 
tated by the feudal lords and nobles, who, either 
out o^ courtesy to their sovereigns, or to prevent 
the desertion of their vassals, or acquire new 
dependents, were compelled to grant liberty to the 
one, and mitigate the servitude of the other. The 
communities, or chartered cities, likewise seconded 
and promoted these enfranchisements, by the pro- 
tection which they granted to the serfii against 
their feudal superiors. 

In Italy, we perceive these enfranchisements 
following as an immediate consequence of the in- 
stitution of communities.' The continual feuds 
that arose among the numerous republics which 
had lately thrown off the yoke of authority, made 
the liberty of the 8er6 a measure absolutely ne- 
cessary, in order to augment the number of cities 
qualified to bear arms, and hold places of trust. 
BonacYUiK), Captain of Bologna (1256), proposed 
to his fellow-citizens, and carried the law of en- 
franchisement. All those who had serfs were ob- 
liged to present them before the Podesta, or Cap- 
tain of the people, who afiranchised them for a 
certain sum or tax, which the republic paid to 
the owner. The feudal superiors, finding that 
these enfranchisements had a powerful support In 
the liberty of the three cities, were obliged either 
to meliorate the condition of their serfis, or grant 
them liberty. 

In France, after the twelflh century, and the 
reign of Louis the Fat, these enfranchisements be- 
gan to be frequent. The son and successor of that 
prince, Louis YII., by royal letter (1180), af&an- 
cbiaed all the serfs which the crown possessed at 
Orleans, and within five leagues of it. Louis X. 
passed a general law (1315), for the enfranchise- 
ment of all serfs belonging to the crown. He 
there made a positive declaration, that slavery was 
contrary to nature, which irUended that all men by 
birth should he free and equal ; that, since his 
kingdom was denominated the kingdom of the 
FroTikSf or Freemen, it appeared Just and right 
that the fact should correspond with the name. 
He invited, at the same time, all the nobility to 

imitate his example, by granting liberty to their 
serfs. That prince would have ennobled the ho- 
mage he paid to nature, if the gift of liberty had 
been gratuitous on his part ; but he made it a 
mere object of finance, and to gratify those only 
who coidd afford to pay for it; whence it hap- 
pened, that enfranchisements advanced but very 
slowly ; and examples of it are to be found in his- 
tory, so late as the reign of Francis I. 

In Germany, the number of serfs diminished in 
like manner, after the twelfth centurv. The cru- 
sades, and the destructive wartfJl^hich the Dukes 
of Saxony and the Margraves of the North car- 
ried on with the Slavian tribes on the Elbe and 
the Baltic, having depopidated the northern and 
eastern parts of Germany, numerous colonies from 
Brabant, the Netherlands, Holland and Friesland, 
were introduced into these coimtries, where they 
formed themselves into establishments, or associa- 
tions, of free cultivators of the soil. From Lower 
Germany the custom of enfranchisements extended 
to the Upper provinces, and along the banks of 
the Rhine. This was encouraged by the free 
cities, which not only gave a welcome reception 
to the serfb who had fled to shelter themselves 
from expression within their walls, but they even 
granted protection, and the rights of citizenship, 
to those who had settied within the precincts or 
liberties of the town ;*• or who continued, without 
changing their habitation, to reside on the lands 
of their feudal superiors. This spirited conduct 
of the free cities put the nobles of Germany to the 
necessity of aiding and abetting, by degrees, either 
the suppression or the mitigation of slavery. They 
reimbursed themselves for the loss of the fine or 
tax which they had been in the habit of levying, 
on the death of their serfs, by an augmentation of 
the quit-rent, or annual cess which they exacted 
from them on their being affranchised. 

In the Low Countries, Henry II., duke of Bra- 
bant (1218), in his last will, granted Uberty to all 
cultivators of the soil ; — he affranchised them on 
the right of mortmain, and ordained, that, like the 
inhabitants of free cities, they should be judged 
by no other than their own magistrates. In this 
manner, liberty by degrees recovered its proper 
rights. It assisted in dispelling the clouds of 
ignorance and superstition, and spread a new lustre 
over Europe. One event which contributed es- 
sentially to give men more exact notions on go- 
vernment and jurisprudence, was the revival of the 
Roman law, which happened about the time we 
now speak of. The German tribes that destroyed 
the Western Empire in the fifth centurj, would 
naturally despise a system of legislation, such as 
that of the Romans, which neither accorded with 
the ferocity of their manners, nor the rudeness of 
their ideas. In consequence, the revolution which 
occasioned the downfall of that empire brought at 
the same time the Roman jurisprudence into de- 
suetude over all the Western world.** 

A lapse of several centuries, however, was re- 
quired, to rectify men's ideas on the nature of so- 
ciety, and to prepare them for receiving the laws 
and institutions of a civilized and refined govern- 
ment. Such was the general state and condition 
of political knowledge, when the fame of a cele- 
brated civilian, called Imerius, who taught -the law 
of Justinian publicly at Bologna, about the com- 
mencement of the twelfth century, attracted to 

The Canon Law. 
48 Decretals of the popei. 
Gregory IX. 


Judgm«ntaor God. 
UuiTCTsittes ftwnnteid, 
Ftedctic Barbarnii .Eayewg. 

that academy the youth of the greater part of Eu- 
rope. There they devoted themselyes with ardour 
to the study of this new science. The pupils, in- 
structed by Imerius and his successors, on return- 
ing home, and being employed in the tribunals and 
public offices of their natiTe country, gradually 
carried into practice the principles which they had 
imbibed in the school of Bologna. Hence, in a 
short time, and without the direct interference of 
the legislatlTe authority, the law of Justinian was 
adopted by degrees, as a subsidiary law in all the 
principal states oLEurope. Various circumstances 
contributed to a^lerate the progress of this revo- 
lution. People had felt for a long time the neces- 
sity of a new legislature, and the insufficiency of 
their national laws. The novelty of the Roman 
laws, as well as their equity and precision, arrested 
the attention of all Europe ; and sovereigns found 
it their interest to protect a jiuisprudence, whose 
maxims were so favourable to royalty and mo- 
narchical power, and which served at once to 
strengthen and extend their authority. 

The introduction of the Roman jurisprudence 
was soon followed by that of the Canon law. The 
Popes, perceiving the rapid propagation of this new 
science, and eager to arrest its progress, immedi- 
ately set themselves to the work of raising that 
vast and astonishing edifice the Canon law, as an 
engine to promote the accomplishment of their 
own greatness. Gratian, a monk of Bologna, en- 
couraged by Pope Eugenius III., compiled a col- 
lection of Canons, under the title of the Decret, 
which he arranged in systematic order, to serve as 
an introduction to the study of that law. This 
compilation, extracted from different authors who 
had preceded him, recommended itself to the 
world by its popular method, which was adapted 
to the genius of the times. Pope Eugenius III. 
gave it his approval in 1152, and ordained that it 
should be read and explained in the schools. This 
collection of Gratian soon obtained a wide and 
most successful reception ; from the schools it 
passed to the public tribunals, both civil and eccle- 
siastical. At length, Pope Gregory IX., in imita- 
tion of the Emperor Justinian, who had caused a 
collection of his own statutes, and those of his pre- 
decessors, to be made by Tribonian, ordered his 
chaplain Raymond de Pennafort to compile and 
digest, in their proper order, all the decisions of 
his predecessors, as well as his ovni ; thus extend- 
ing to common practice, what had been originally 
established but for one place, and for particular 
cases. He published his collection (1235) under 
the name of Decretals, with an injunction, that it 
should be employed both in the tribunals and in 
the schools. 

If this new system of jurisprudence served to 
extend the jurisdiction, and strengthen the tempo- 
ral power of the Popes, it did not foil at the same 
time to produce salutary effects on the governments 
and manners of Europe. The peacCy or truce qf 
Godf which some bishops of France, in the ele- 
venth century, had instituted as a check on the un- 
bridled fury of private quarrels and civil discord, 
was established, by the Decretals, into a general 
law of the church.*® The judgments qf Godj till 
then used in the tribunals of justice, trial* by single 
combat, by hot iron, hot and cold water, the cross, 
&c. were gradually abolished. The restraints of 
the Canon law, added to the new information 

which had diffused its light orer the hmttan tto-M. 
were instrumental in rooting out practice whieb 
served only to cherish and protract tbe aackst 
ferocity of manners. The spirit of order and ms- 
thod which prevailed in the new jiixi^in]de&£e. 
soon communicated itself to every branch of le<»- 
lation among the nations of Europe. The ieOA 
law was reduced to systematic order; and t^ 
usages and customs of the provinces, till then kea. 
and uncertain, were collected and oznaniaed into - 
regular form.*^ 

Jurisprudence, having now become a complicai^i 
science, demanded a long and laborioos coime u 
study, which could no longer be asaociated will 
the profession of arms. The sword iras then ae- 
liged by degrees to abandon the courts of jiatkt. 
and give place to the gown, A new daaa of oci 
thus arose, that of the law, who contributed h 
their influence to repress the ove iy r ow u power d 
the nobiUty. 

The rapid progress which the new jm iapmd eac^ 
made, must be ascribed to the recent feundatbi 
of universities, and the encouragements whki 
sovereigns granted these literary coxpotati^ 
Before their establishment, the principal yahk 
schools were those which were attached either k 
monasteries, or cathedral and collegiate chnrc&eiL 
There were, however, only a few colleges iaid- 
tuted ; and these in large cities, such as Bob«* 
Paris, Angers, Oxford, Salamanca, &c. The sci- 
ences there taught were comprised under the srvs 
liberal arts, vix. Grammar, Rhetoric, JDialectks c< 
Logic, Arithmetic, Geometry, Music, and Astn- 
nomy. The first three were known by the naiae , 
of Trivium ; and the other four, which make jnrt 
of mathematics, by that of Qtuadrinium. As iiar 
Theology and Jurisprudence, they did not as T«t 
figure among the academic sciences ; and tbm \ 
was no school of medicine prior to that of Sakfao 
— ^the only one of which any traces are discoverei ' 
towards the end of the eleventh century. 

These schools and academies cannot, by ti^ 
means, be put in comparison with modem univ^ 
sities ; which differ from them essentially, both as 
to the variety of sciences which are profinaed, vA 
by their institutions as privileged bodies, enjojias; 
a system of government and jurisdiction pecuiurij 
their own. The origin of these UniTersiues is 
coeval with the revival of the Roman law in Itah 
and the invention of academic degrees. The niae ' 
Imerius, who is generally acknowledged as ^ 
restorer of the Roman law at Bologna, was ak> 
the first that conceived the idea of conferring, with 
certain solemnities, doctorial degrees; and granticf 
license or diplomas to those who excelled in tbt ' 
study of jurisprudence. Pope Eugenius III. . 
(1153), when he introduced the Code of Gratiar 
into tiie academy of Bologna, gave permission k' 
confer the same degrees in the Canon law, as hai 
been customary in the Civil law. These degree* j 
were much coveted and esteemed on account d 
the honours, immunities, and prerogatires whid 
the sovereign had attached to them. Nothinr. 
however, contributed more to bring universiSK» 
into favour, than the privileges and inununitks I 
which the Emperor Frederic Barbarossa conierre<d ' 
on them (1158), by his Authentic (or resciipU i 
called Hciita), The example of this prince 
was speedily followed by the other sovereigns d 

TroablM of Genuaij. 
The Onnd Interregnum. 
The HanMatic Leacue. 

PERIOD ly. A.D. 1074—1300. 


Honry the Lion. 49 

House of Hohonstaufen. 

The teaching of jurispnidence passed from the 
school of Bologna to the different academies of 
£urope. Theology also was soon admitted, as 
well as medicine; and these completed the four 
faculties, as they were called, of which the uniyer- 
sities were composed. That of Paris was the first 
which comhined all the faculties. It was com- 
pleted under the reign of Philip Augustus, from 
whom it obtained its earliest charter, about the 
year 1200. Except itself there are only the uni- 
Tersities of Bologna, Padua, Naples, Toulouse, Sa- 
lamanca, Coimbra, Cambridge, and Oxford, that 
date their origin in the thirteenth century.*' 

The down£U of the Imperial authority, and of 
the house of Hohenstaufen, and the new power 
usurped by the princes and states of the Empire, 
occasioned a long series of troubles in Germany, 
and that frightful state of anarchy, known by the 
name of the Grand Interregnum. Strength then 
triumphed orer law and right; the government 
was altered from its basis ; and no other means 
were found to remedy this want of public security, 
than by forming alliances and confederations, sudi 
as that of the Rhine," and the Hanseatic League, 
which began to appear about this time (1253). 
The election of the emperors, in which all the 
princes and states of the Empire had formerly con- 
curred, became then the priyilege solely of the 
great officers of the crown, who, towards the mid- 
dle of the thirteenth century, claimed for them- 
selyes exclusively the right of electing, and the 
title of Electors.*^ The princes and states of the 
Empire, anxious to confirm their growing power, 
sought to promote only the feeblest emperors, who 
were incapable of supporting the rights and prero- 
gatives of the crown. The electors, in particular, 
had no other object in view, than to derive a lucra- 
tive traffic from elections ; bargaining every time 
with the candidates for laige sums, and obtaining 
grants or mortgages of such portions of the Impe- 
rial demesnes as suited their convenience. One 
only of these weak emperors, Bodolph, Count of 
Hapsburg in Switxerland (1273), dimppointed 
the expectations of his electors. He repressed by 
force of arms the disorders of anarchy, restored the 
laws and tribunab to their pristine vigour, and re- 
conquered several of the Imperial domains from 
the usurpers who had sebed them. 

In consequence of the revolutions which we 
have now detailed, we find very important and 
memorable changes accomplished in the different 
provinces of the Empire. The princes and states 
of the Germanic body, regarding as their own pa- 
trimony the provinces and fiefs with which they 
were invested, thought themselves further autho- 
rised to portion them out among their sons. The 
usage of these partitions became general after the 
thirteenth century ; and this wrought the downfall 
of some of the most powerful fiimilies, and tended 
to multiply almost to infinity the duchies, princi- 
palities, and earldoms of the Empire. The em- 
perors, hi fit>m condemning this practice, which 
by no means accorded with the maxims of the 
feudal law, on the contrary gave it their counte- 
nance, as appearing to them a proper instrument 
for humbling the power of the grandees, and ac- 
quiring for themselves a preponderating authority 
in the Empire. 

The ancient duchies of Bavaria and Saxony ex- 
perienced a new revolution on the fall of the pow- 

erful house of the Guelphs, which was deprived of 
both these duchies by the sentence of proscription 
which the Emperor Frederic I. pronounced against 
Henry the Lion (1180), Duke of Bavaria and 
Saxony. The first of these duchies, which had 
formerly been dismembered from the Margravate 
of Austria by Frederic 1. ril56), and erected into 
a duchy and fief holding immediately of the Em- 
pire, was exposed to new partitions at the time of 
which we now speak. The bishoprics of Bavaria, 
Stiria, Carinthia, Camiola, and the Tyrol, broke 
their alliance with Bavaria ; and the city of Ratis- 
bonne, which had been the residence of the ancient 
dukes, was declared immediate, or holding of the 
crown. It was when contracted within these new 
limits that Bavaria was conferred, by Frederic I. 
(1180), on Otho, Count of Wittelsbach, a scion of 
the original house of Bavaria. This house after- 
wards acquired by marriage (1215) the Palatinate 
of the Bhlne. It was subsequently divided into 
various branches, of which the two principal were 
the Palatine and the Bavarian. 

As to the duchy of Saxony, which embraced, 
under the Quelphs, the greater part of Lower 
Germany, it completely changed its circumstances 
on the decline of that house. Bernard of Aschers- 
leben, younger son of Albert named the Bear, first 
Margrave of Brandenburg, a descendant of the 
Ascanian line, had been invested in the duchy of 
Saxony by Frederic I. (1180), but was found much 
too feeble to support tiie high rank to which he 
had been elevat^. In consequence, the titie, or 
qualification to the duchy of Saxony and the Elec- 
torate, was restricted, under the successors and de- 
scendants of that prince, to an inconsiderable dis- 
trict, situated on both sides of the Elbe ; called 
since the Electoral Circle, of which Wittenberg 
was the capital. The princes of Fomerania and 
Mecklenburg, the Counts of Holstein and West- 
phalia, and the city of Lubeck, took advantage 
of this circumstance to revolt from the autho- 
rity of the Duke of Saxony, and render themselves 
immediate. A part of Westphalia was erected 
into a distinct duchy, in favour of the Archbishop 
of Cologne, who had seconded the Emperor in his 
schemes of vengeance against the Guelphic princes. 
This latter house, whose vast possessions had ex- 
tended from the Adriatic Sea to the Baltic and the 
Northern Ocean, retained nothing more of its an- 
cient splendour than the free lands which it pos- 
sessed in Lower Saxony, and which the Emperor 
Frederic II. (1236) converted into a duchy, and 
immediate fief of the Empire, in fiivour of Otho 
the Infrmt, grandson of Henry the Lion, and the 
new founder of the House of Brunswick. 

The extinction of the House of Hohenstaufen 
having occasioned a vacancy in the duchies of 
Suabia and Franconia, the different states of these 
provinces, both secular and ecclesiastical, foimd 
means to render themselves also immediate (1268). 
A number of cities which had belonged to the do- 
mains of the ancient dukes, were raised to the 
rank of free and imperial cities ; and the Houses 
of Baden, Wurtemberg, Hohen-Zollem, and Fur- 
stenberg, date their celebrity from this period. 
The death of the anti-emperor, Henry le Raspon 
(1247), htft Landgrave of Thuringia, gave rise to a 
long war between the Margraves of Misnia and 
the Dukes of Brabant, who mutuallv contested 
that succession. The former advanced au Expec- 


Daehy of Austria. 
50 The Emperor Albert. 


Italian rapvbUes. 
Gregory IX. ftlmwrat IV. 

tatiTe, or Deed of ReTenion of the Emperor Fre- 
deric II., as well u the claims of Jutta, sistei of 
the last landgraye ; and the others maintained those 
of Sophia, daughter of the Landgrave Louis, elder 
brother and predecessor of Henry le Raspon. At 
length, by a partition -which took place (1264), 
Thuringia, properly so called, was made oyer to 
the House of Misnia ; and Henry of Brabant, sur- 
named the Infant, son of Henry II. Duke of Bra- 
bant, and Sophia of Thuringia, was secured in the 
possession of Hesse, and became the founder of a 
new dynasty of hindgraTes— those of the House of 

The ancient dukes of Austria, of the House of 
Bamberg, having become extinct with Frederic 
the Valiant (1246), the succession of that duchy 
was keenly contested between the niece and the 
sisters of the last duke; who, though females, could 
lay claim to it, in Tirtue of the priyilege granted 
by the Emperor Frederic Barbarossa. Ottocar II. 
son of Wenceslaus, KJng of Bohemia, took advan- 
tage of these troubles in Austria, to possess him- 
self of that province (1261). He obtained the in- 
vestiture of it (1262) from Richard, son of John, 
King of England, who had purchased the title of 
emperor at a vast expense; but Rodolph of 
Hapsburg, treating him as a usurper, made vrar 
upon him, defeated and slew him in a battle which 
was fought (1278) at Marchfield, in the neighbour- 
hood of Vienna. The duchies of Austria, Stiria, 
Carinthia, and Camiola, being then detached from 
the kingdom of Bohemia, were declared vacant, 
and devolved to the Empire. The investiture of 
these the Emperor conferred (1282) on Albert and 
Rodolph, his own sons. Albert, the eldest of these 
princes, who was afterwards emperor, became the 
founder of the Hapsburg dynasty of Austria. 

In Italy, a great number of republics rose about 
the end of the eleventh, or beginning of the twelfth 
century. These republics, though they had cast 
off the Imperial authority, and claimed to them- 
selves the rights of sovereignty, protested, never- 
theless, their fealty to the Emperor, whom they 
agreed to recognise as their supreme head. The 
Emperors Henry V., Lothaire the Saxon, and 
Conrad III., saw themselves compelled to tolerate 
an usurpation which tliey were too feeble to re- 
press. But Frederic Barbarossa being determined 
to restore the royalty of Italy to its ancient splen- 
dour, led a powerful army into that kingdom 
(1158) ; and in a diet which he assembled on the 
plains of Roncaglia, in the territory of Flacentia, 
he caused a strict investigation to be made by the 
lawyers of Bologna into the rights on which he 
founded his pretensions to the title of King of 
Italy. The opposition which the execution of the 
decrees of that diet met with on the part of the 
Milanese, induced the Emperor to undertake the 
siege of their city. He made himself master of it 
in 1162, razed it to the foundation, and dispersed 
the inhabitants. 

This chastisement of the Milanese astonished 
the Italians, but without abating; their courage. 
They afterwards took advantage of the re\'er8e« of 
the Emperor, and the schism which had arisen in 
the Romish Church, to form a league with the 
principal cities of Lombardy (1167), into which 
they drew the King of the Two Sicilies, as well as 
Pope Alexander III., whom the Emperor treated 
as a schismaUc. The city of Milan was rebuilt in 

consequence of this league ; sb alio tfatt of AVs- 
andria, called della Paglia. The wir ▼« loe 
protracted ; but the Emperor being abandoBcri kj 
Henry the Lion, Duke of Bararia and Ssxodt. tb 
most powerful of his yasaals, received a detet 
Lignano, which obliged him to make sn tamm- 
dation with Pope Alexander III., and to aet, fl 
Venice, a treaty of six years with the coaWenk 
cities (1177). This treaty was aftenptrfs «« 
verted, at Constance, into a definitiTe p»* 
(1183); by virtue of which, the cities of IuItwp 
guaranteed in the forms of govenment ihtjh!. 
adopted, as well as in the exercise of the npia^ 
rights which they had acquired, whether by nap 
or prescription. The Emperor resened for \sk»^ 
the investiture of the consuls, the oath of tllepw^. 
which was to be renewed every ten years, lu^t 
appeals, in civil cases, where the sum ntxMt- 
value of twenty-five imperial livres (abort 15* 

The Emperor Frederic II., grandson of Fw^^f 
I., and heir, in right of his mother, to the kia^ 
of the Two Sicilies, made nevr efforts (o re^ 
the prerogatives of the Empire in Italy. Bm » 
cities of Lombardy renewed their letjrWt **• 
which they drew Pope Gregory IX. (1226), J^ 
dignity and power would be endangered iftls 
Emperor, being possessor of the Two SioBes 
should succeed in conquering the dtiesofw"- 
hardy. The war which ensued (1236), ▼« '« 
and severe. Popes Gregory li. and Inww^ 
IV. went so fiu> as to preach up a crussde i^ 
the Emperor, as if he had been an infldd; ^ 
that unfortunate prince, after the most conrtf"" 
and indeiatigable efforts, had the ™®'***^f; 
see his troofS once more discomfited by the w* ■ 
of the League. 

Tlie cities of Italy were no sooner ddirff^ 
from the terror of the Emperors, ^?"JJ2iw 
loose their fury against each other; impeiW . 
the rage of conquest, and torn by the iaW» 
factions of the Guelph^ and the GhibelliWi**^ ^ 
as by the contests which had arisen ^^*'^?! ' 
noblesse and the free cities. The P*^^. J, 
nobles in these cities were strengthened by 
very measures which had been tiicn to b«"r 
them. The chartered towns, by destro/iw^ 
multitude of seignories, earldoms, and msrq^* ^^ 
with which Lombardy swarmed before ***f^*^ 
century, and by incorporating them with ^' 
territories, obliged the deserted noblca «!°^ 
dees to M^eik an estAhlishment within thetf^v 

dees to seek an establishment within 
These latter, finding their partisans 

powerful, soon attempted to seise the 8**^*'^?^ 
and hence arose an interminable ^^^^.J^j, 
discord, which ended with the loss ofhwflj 
the greater part of these communities. , . ^ 
To arrest these evils, and put a *^^^ JLa^ 
ambition of the powerful citizens, they W\^ 
the plan of intrusting the government to * fjj^ , 
magistrate, to be called the Podesta, who w 
be chosen in the neighbouring cities. '^"*?^ 
was but a palliative rather tlMui a remedy ; ^^ 
order to guarantee themselves from the ^Vf^^^ 
of the nobles, the corporations of *^^ ^rf 
gradually adopted the plan of conferring » ^^ 
dictator^p on one of the powerful citi«f»^*» , 
some prince or nobleman, even though ^ -^ ^ 
stranger, under the title of Captain; J^le^jixi I 
this way, to succeed in re-establishing V^ 

Origin aiM 

Ito ooaquMl of Dalnutia. 

PERIOD IV. A.D. 1074:-1300. 

Dogn of Venic*. 

The Council of Ten. 5 1 

Commerce of Genott. i 

order. These ehieft or captains co&triTed, in pro- 
ceee of time, to render abflolute and perpetual an 
authority which at first was temporary, and only 
intuited on certain conditions. Hence the origin 
of several new Independent soyereignties which 
were formed in Italy during the course of the 
fourteenth century. 

Venice and Genoa at that time eclipsed all the 
republics of Italy, hy the flourishing state of their 
navigation and commerce. The origin of the 
former of these cities is generally dated as far back 
as the inTasion of the Huns under Attila (452). 
The cruelty of these barbarians having spread terror 
and flight over the whole country, many of the 
inhabitants of ancient Yenetia took refuge in the 
iales and lagoons on the borders of the Adriatic 
Gulf; and there laid the foundation of the city of 
Venice, which, whether we regard the singularity 
of its construction, or the splendour to which it 
rose, deserves to be numbered among the wonders 
of the world. At first its government was popular, 
and administered by a bench of tribtmes whose 
power was annual* The divisions which rose 
among these yearly administrators, occasioned the 
election of a chief (697), who took the title of 
Duke or Doge. This dignity was for life, and 
depezaded on the su£frages of the community ; but 
he exercised nevertheless the rights of sovereignty, 
and it was not till after a long course of time that 
hiH authority was gradually abridged ; and the go- 
vernment, which had been monarchical, became 
again democratieal. 

Venice, which from its birth was a commercial 
city, enjoyed in the middle ages nearly the same 
renown which Tyre had among the trading cities 
of antiquity. The commencement of its grandeur 
may be dated from the end of the tenth century, 
and under the magistracy of the Doge Peter Ur- 
seolo II., whom the Venetians regard as the true 
founder of their sUte (992). From the Greek 
emperors he obtained for them an entire liberty 
and immunity of commerce in all the ports of that 
empire; and he procured them, at the same time, 
several very important advantages, by the treaties 
which he concluded with the Emperor Otho III. 
and with the Caliphs of Egypt. The vast increase 
of their commerce inspired these republicans 
with a desire to extend Uie contracted bounds of 
their territory. One of their iiivt conquests was 
the maritime eities of Istria, as well as those of 
Dalmatia ; both of which occurred under the ma- 
giBtracy of Peter Urseolo II., and in the year 997. 
They were obliged to make a surrender of the 
cities of Dalmatia by the Emperors of the East, 
who regarded these cities as dependencies of their 
empire; whUe the Kings of Croatia and Dalmatia 
also laid daim to them. Croatia having passed 
into the hands of the Kings of Hungary, about the 
end of the eleventh centuij, these same cities be- 
came a perpetual source of troubles and wars be- 
t\%'een the Kings of Hungary and the Republic of 
Venice ; and it was not Ull the fifteenth century 
that the Republic fbund means to confirm its au- 
thority in Dalmatia* 

The Venetians having become parties in the 
iamous League of Lombardy, in the eleventh cen- 
tury, contributed by their efforts to render abortive 
the vast projects of the Emperor Frederick I . Pope 
Alexander III., as a testimony of his gratitude, 
granted them the sovereignty of the Hadriatic 

(1177),** and this circumstance gave rise to the 
singular ceremony of annually marrying this sea to 
the Doge of Venice. The aggrandisement of this 
republic was greatly accelerated by the crusades, 
especially the fourth (1204), which was followed 
by the dismemberment of the Greek empire. The 
Venetians, who had joined this crusade, obtained 
for their portion several cities and ports in Dal- 
matia, Albania, Greece, and the Morea ; as also 
the Islands of Corfu, Cephalonia, and Candia or 
Crete. At length, towards the end of the thirteenth 
century, this republic assumed the peculiar form of 
government which it retained till the day of its 
destruction. In the earlier ages its constitution 
was democratic, and the power of the Doge limited 
by a grand council, which was chosen annually 
m>m among the different classes of the citizens, by 
electors named by the people. As these forms 
gave occasion to troubles and intestine commotions, 
the Doge Fietro Gradenigo, to remove all cause of 
discontent in future, passed a law (1298), which 
abrogated the custom of annual elections, and fixed 
irrevocably in their office all those who then Mit 
in the grand council, and this to descend to their 
posterity for ever. The hereditary aristocracy thus 
introduced at Venice did not nil to excite the 
discontent of those whose iamiUes this new law 
had excluded from the government; and it was 
Uiis ir^ch afterwards occasioned various insurrec- 
tions, of which that of Tiepolo (1310) is the most 
remarkable. The partisans of the ancient govem- 
mentj^and those of the new, attempted to decide 
the matter by a battle in the city of Venice. 
Tiepolo and his party were defeated, and Querini, 
one of the chiefs, was killed In the action. A com- 
mission of ten members was nominated to inform 
against the accomplices of this secret conspiracy. 
This commission, which was meant to be but tem- 
porary, was afterwards declared perpetual; and, 
under the name of the Council of 7>n, became 
one of the most formidable supports of the aristo- 

The city of Genoa, like that of Venice, owed her 
prosperity to the progress of her commerce, which 
she extended to the Levant, Constantinople, Syria, 
and Egypt. Governed at first by consuls, like the 
rest of the Italian states, she afterwards (1190) 
chose a foreign Podegta, or governor, to repress the 
violence of faction, and put a check on the ambition 
of the nobles. This governor was afterwards made 
subordinate to a Captain of the people, whom the 
Genoese chose for the first time in 1267, without 
being able yet to fix their government, which ex- 
perienced nequent variations before assuming a 
settled and permanent form. These internal di- 
visions of the Genoese did not impede the progn^ss 
of their commerce and their marine. The crusades 
of the 12th and 13th centuries, the powerful 
succours which these republicans gave to the 
crusaders, and to the Greeks, as well as the treaties 
which they concluded with the Moorish and 
African princes, procured them considerable es- 
tablishments in the Levant, and also In Asia and 
Africa. Caflk, a iamous sea-port on the Black Sea, 
and the port of Asoph, the ancient Tanais, at the 
mouth of the Don, belonged to them ; and served 
as entrepots for their commerce with China and 
the Indies. Smyrna in Asia Minor, as also the 
suburbs of Pera and Galata at Constantinople, and 
the isles of Scio, Metelin and Tenedos, in the Ar- 


Power of the Gcdomo. 
52 Republic of PiM. 

Nonnaa oonquest of Nuplei. 



Charle* of AigoB. 
The Stciliui Veipos. 

chipelago, were ceded to them by the Greek em- 
perors. The Kings of Cyprus were their tributaries. 
The Greek and German emperors, the Kings of 
Sicily, Castille and Arragon, and the Sultans of 
Egypt, zealously sought their alliance, and the pro- 
tection of their marine. Encouraged by these 
successes, they formed a considerable territory on 
the continent of Italy, after the 12th century, of 
which nothing but a fragment now remains to 

Genoa had at that time, in its immediate neigh- 
bourhood, a dangerous riyal of its power and 
greatness. This rival was Pisa, a flourishing re- 
public on the coast of Tuscany, which owed its 
prosperity entirely to the increase of its commerce 
and marine. The proximity of these two states — 
the similarity of their views and their interests — 
the desire of conquest — and the command of the 
sea, which both of them affected, created a marked 
Jealousy between them, and made them the natural 
and implacable enemies of each other. One of the 
principal subjects of dispute was the possession of 
Corsica and Sardinia,** which the two republics con- 
tested at the point of the sword, after having, by 
means of their combined force, expelled the Moors, 
toward the middle of the eleventh century. Pisa, 
originally superior to Genoa in maritime strength, 
disputed with her the empire of the Mediterranean, 
and haughtily forbade the Genoese to appeax*wlthin 
those seas with their ships of war. This rivalry 
nourished the animosity of the two republics, and 
rendered it implacable. Hence a continual source 
of mutual hostilities, which were renewed inces- 
santly for the space of 200 years, and only ter- 
minated in 1290 ; when, by the conquest of Elba, 
and the destruction of the ports of Pisa and Leg- 
horn, the Genoese effected the ruin of the shipping 
and conmierce of the Pisan republic. 

Lower Italy, possessed by the Norman princes, 
under the title of Duchy and Comt^, became the 
seat of a new kingdom in the eleventh century — 
that of the Two Sicilies. On the extinction of the 
Dukes of Apulia and Calabria, descendants of 
Robert Guiscard, Roger, son of Roger, Count of 
Sicily, and sovereign of that island, united the do- 
minions of the two branches of the Noiman dy- 
nasty (1127) ; and, being desirous of procuring 
for himself the royal di^ty, he attached to his 
interest the Anti-Pope Anacletus II., who invested 
him with royalty by a bull (1130), in which, how- 
ever, he took care to reserve the territorial right 
and an annual tribute to the church of Rome. 
This prince received the crown of Palermo from 
the hands of a cardinal, whom the Pope had de- 
puted for the express purpose. On the death of 
the Emperor Lothaire, he succeeded in dispossess- 
ing the Prince of Capua, and subduing the duchy 
of Naples (1139) ; thus completing the conquest 
of all that is now denominated iSte kingdom of 
Naples. William II., grandson of Roger, was the 
principal support of Pope Alexander III. ; and of 
the ftjnous League of Lombardy formed against 
the Emperor Frederic Barbarossa. The mate line 
of the Norman princes having become extinct in 
William II., the kingdom of the Two Sicilies 
jmssed (1189) to the House of Hohenstaufen, by 
the maniage which the Emperor Henry lY., son 
of Frederic Barbarossa, contracted with the Prin- 
cess Constance, aunt and heretrix of the last king. 
Henry maintained the rights of his wife against 

the usurper Tancred,and transmitted this km^iaa 
to his son Frederic II., who acquired by 1^ st> 
riage with Jolande, daughter of John de Bmas:, 
titular King of Jerusalem, the titles and ura .< 
this latter kingdom. The efforts which Ficdez 
made to annihilate the League of Lombudi, ud 
confirm his own authority in Italy, drew iar- 
upon him the persecution of the court of B<^& 
who, taking aidvantage of the minority oT tW 
young Conndin, grandson of Frederic II., wwfc: 
the crown of the Two Sicilies from this ri^ to* 
which alone was able to check its ambitioib pn- 
Jecto. Mainfipoi, natural son of Frederic lUiii^ 
gusted with playing the part of tutor to the psr 
Conradin, in which capacity he at fint viti. 
caused himself to be proclaimed and tnwatA. £ 
Palermo, King of the Two SiciUes (1258). r& 
Popes, Urban IV. and Clement I V., dwadia? li' 
genius and talents of this prince, made an oic; 
that kingdom to Charles of Anjou, CanK ; 
Provence, and brother of St. Louis. ClemflB H 
granted the investiture of it (1266) to him aa^^ 
descendants, male and female, on conditioo d^ 
doing fealty and homage to the Holy See, »iJ 
presenting him annually \^th a white riding^' 
and a tribute of eight million ounces d e^ 
Charles, after being crowned at Borne, Btfcfc^; 
against Mainiroi, with an army chiefly caapo*- 
of crusaders. He defeated that prince, wbow> 
slain at the batUe of Benevcnto (1266), whid''-^ 
soon after followed by the reduction of the t» 
kingdoms. One rival to Charles still es^ 
the young Conradin, the lawful heir to the tkr* 
of his ancestors. Charles vanquished him »• 
two years afterwards, in the plains of ^•gi^'ff ' 
and having made him prisoner, ^^^^V'Jv^ 
young friend Frederic of Austria, he cansw*^ 
of these princes to be beheaded at Htf^^ 
October, 1268. 

Charles did not long eiyoy his new d^ 
While he was preparing to undertake t ffj^ 
against Michael Paleologus, a schimstie f^i^ 
who had expelled the Latins from Coiu^obo^ 
he had the mortification to see himself diflWJ^ 
of Sicily, on the occasion of the famoos 5«»f 
Veapera (1282). This event, which is ge^^ 
regarded as the result of a conspiracj, pj^ 
with great address by a gentleman of ^*'f^ 
named John de Procida, appears to ^^ \7 
but the sudden effect of an insurrection, <*r 
sioned by the aversion of the Sicili«B« w ^ 
French yoke. During the hour of vespeffi ^ 
second day of Easter (30th March), when u*^ 
habitants of Palermo were on their ^J ^ ^ 
church of the Holy Ghost, situated at woe^ 
tance from the town, it happened thata'^ 
man, named Drouette, had offered a I"*!*^!^ 
suit to a Sicilian woman : hence a qii^rd «^ 
which drew on a general insurrection at * "^ 
All the French who were in the city or thenWT^ 
bourhood were massacred, with the ^^P??Lj 
one gentleman from Provence, called i^"^ 
PorceUet, who had conciliated aU hearts by JJ , 
virtues. This revolt gradually extended w ^ 
other Sicilian cities. Everywhere the y^^ 
were put to death on the spot. Messina ^ 
last that caught the infection ; but there thet^. 
lution did not take place tiU thirty dayi *^'^ ' 
same event at Palenno (2»th April, 1282)- 'j, 
therefore, not true that this massacre of the t^ \ 

Pster of Anagon oonquen 

JimYum and Anagon. 

PERIOD IV. A.D. 1074^1300. 

Moon dofoated by Alphooio 

Aboubeker. Abdabnoumeo. 


tappened at the same hour, and at the sound of 
he -vesper bells, over all parts of the island. Nor 
» it more probable that the plot had been con- 
rived by Peter III «, King of Arragon ; since the 
^alerxnitans displayed at first the banner of the 
hurchy having resoWed to surrender to the Pope ; 
•ut being driven from this resolution, and dread- 
ng the vengeance of Charles, they despatched 
leputies to the King of Arragon, who was then 
niisini^ with a fleet off the African coast, and 
lade him an offer of their crown. This prince 
ielded to the invitation of the Palermitans; he 
3inded at Trapani, and thence passed to Palermo, 
rhere he was crowned King of Sicily. The whole 
sland submitted to him ; and Charles of Anjou 
ras obliged to raise the siege of Messina, which 
le had undertaken. Peter entered, and took pos- 
ession of the place, and from that time Sicily 
eznained under the power of the Kings of Arra- 
on; it became the inheritance of a particular 
branch of the Arragonese princes; and the House 
if AnJou were reduced to the single kingdom of 

Spain, which was divided into several sove- 
'ei^nties, both Christian and Mahometan, pre- 
sented a continual spectacle of commotion and 
^ama^e. The Christian states of Castille and 
Arragon were gradually increased by the con- 
quests made over the Mahometans; while the 
kingdom of Navarre, less exposed to conquest by 
Its local situation, remained nearly in its original 
state of mediocrity. This latter kingdom passed 
in succession to female heirs of different houses. 
Blanche of Navarre, daughter of Sancho YI., 
transferred it to the Counts of Champagne (1234). 
On the extinction of the male line of that house, in 
Henry I. of Navarre (1274), Joan I., his daughter 
and heiress, conveyed that kingdom, together with 
the Comt^s of Champagne and Brie, to the crovm 
of France. Philip the Fair, husband of that prin- 
cess, and his three sons, Louis le Hutin, Philip 
the Long, and Charles the Fair, were, at the same 
time, kings both of France and Navarre. Finally, 
it was Queen Joan II., daughter of Louis le 
Hutin, and heretrix of Navarre, who transferred 
that kingdom to the fiimily of the Coimts d'Evreux, 
and relinquished the Comt^s of Champagne and 
Brie to Philip of Yalois, successor of Charles the 
Fair to the throne of France (1336). 

The femlly of the Counts of Barcelona ascended 
the throne of Arragon (1137), by the marriage 
of Count Raymond-Berenguier IV. with Donna 
Petronilla, daughter and heiress of Ramira II., 
King of Arragon. Don Pedro II., grandson of 
Raymond-Berenguier, happening to be at Rome 
(1204), was there crowned King of Arragon by 
Pope Innocent III. On this occasion he did ho- 
mage for his kingdom to that pontiff, and engaged, 
for himself and successors, to pay an annual tri- 
bute to the Holy See. Don James I., sumamed 
the Conqueror, son of Don Pedro II., gained some 
important victories over the Mahometans, from 
whom he took the Balearic Isles (1230), and the 
kingdom of Valentia,*^ (1238). Don Pedro II., 
eldest son of Don James L, had dispossessed 
Charles I. of Anjou and Sicily, which drew dovm 
upon him a violent persecution on the part of 
Pope Martin IV., who was on the eve of publish- 
ing a crusade against him, and assigning over his 
estates to Charles of Valois, a younger brother of 

Philip called the Hardy, king of France. Don 
James II., younger son of Don Pedro III., suc- 
ceeded in making his peace with the court of Rome, 
and even obtained from Pope Boniface VIII. 
(1297) the investiture of the Island of Sardinia, on 
condition of acknowledging himself the vassal and 
tributary of the Holy See for that kingdom, which 
he afterwards obtained by conquest Srom the re- 
public of Pisa. 

The principal victories of the Christians over the 
Mahometans in Spain, were reserved for the kings 
of CastiUe, whose history is extremely fertile in 
great events. Alphonso VI., whom some call 
Alphonso I., after having taken Madrid and 
Toledo (1085), and subdued the whole kingdom of 
Toledo, was on the point of altogether expelling 
the Mahometans from Spain, when a revolution 
which happened in Africa augmented their forces 
by fresh numbers, and thus arrested the progress of 
the CastUian prince. 

The Zeirides, an Arab dynasty, descended from 
Zeiri, son of Mounad, reigned then over that part 
of Africa which comprehends Africa properly so 
called (vis. Tripoli, Tunis, and Algiers), and the 
Mogreb (comprehending Fe» and Morocco), which 
they had conquered from the Fatamite caliphs of 
Egypt. It happened that a new apostle and con- 
queror, named Aboubeker, son of Omer, collected 
some tribes of Arabs in the vicinity of Sugulmessa, 
a city in the kingdom of Fez, and got himself pro- 
claimed Commander of the Faithful. His ad- 
herents took the name of Morabethifit a term which 
signifies zealously devoted to religion; and whence 
the Spaniards have formed the names Almoramdea 
and Marahoutke. Having made himself master of 
the city of Sugulmessa, this warlike Emir extended 
his conquests in the Mogreb, as well as in Africa 
Proper, whence he expelled the Zeirides. His 
successor, Yousuff, or Joseph, the son of Taschefin, 
completed the conquest of these countries; and 
built the city of Morocco (1069), which he made 
the capital of the Mogreb, and the seat of his new 
empire. This prince joined the Mahometans of 
Se'rille, to whose aid he marched with his victorious 
troops, defeated the King of Castille at the battle 
of Badajos (1090), and subdued the principal Ma- 
hometan states of Spain, such as Grenada and 
Seville, &c. 

The empire of the Almoravides was subverted in 
the twelfth century by another Mahometan sect, 
called the Moahedina, or Almohades, a word signify- 
ing Unitarians. An upstart frinatic, named AbdaU 
moumen, was the founder of this sect. He was edu- 
cated among the mountains of Sous, in Mauritania, 
and assumed the quality of Emir (1120), and the 
surname of Mohadi, that is, the Chief— ihe leader 
and director of the Faithful. Having subdued 
Morocco, Africa, and the whole of the Mogreb, he 
annihilated the dynasty of the Almoravides (1146), 
and at the same time vanquished the Mahometan 
states in Spain. He took also (1160) from the 
Normans, Tunis, Mohadie, and Tripoli, of which 
they had taken possession. One of his successors, 
named Naser-Mohammed, formed the project of 
reconquering the whole continent of Spain. The 
immense preparations which he made for this pur- 
pose aUrmed Alphonso VIII., King of Castille, 
who immediately formed an alliance with the Kings 
of Arragon and Navarre, and even engaged Pope 
Innocent III. to proclaim a crusade against the 

Ferdinand III. Ukea Cordova 
54 and Seville. 

OrdersoTAloantaxa & CaUtraTa. 


lof Fortopi. I 

lof Ftaaee. ' 

WiUtam ttie Cooqverar. 

Mahometaxis. The armies of Europe and Africa 
met oa the confines of Castille and Andalusia 
(1212) ; and in the environs of the city Ubeda 
wa« fought a bloody battle, which so crippled the 
power of the Almonadea, as to occasion in a short 
time the down&l and dismemberment of their 
empire .*• ' 

About this period (1269), the Mahometans of 
Spain revolted afresh from Africa, and divided 
themselves into several petty states, of which the 
principal and the only one that existed for several 
centuries was that of the descendants of Naser, 
Kings of Grenada. Ferdinand III., King of Cas- 
tille and Leon, took advantage of this event to 
renew his conquests over the Mahometans. He 
took from them the kingdoms of Cordova, Murcia, 
and Seville (1236, et seq.), and left them only the 
single kingdom of Grenada. 

These wars against the Mahometans were the 
occasion of several religious and military orders 
being founded in Spain. Of these, the most ancient 
was that founded and fixed at Alcantara (1156), 
whence it took its name ; having for its badge or 
decoration a green cross, in form of the lily, or 
JUur-de-Ua, The order of Calatravawas instituted 
in 1158; it was confirmed by Pope Alexander III. 
(1164), and assumed as its distinctive mark the 
red cross, also in form of the lily. The order of 
St. James of Campostella, founded in 1161, and 
confirmed by the same Pope (1175), was distin- 
guished by a red cross, in form of a sword.. 
Finally, the order of Montesa (1317), supplanted 
that of the Templars in the kingdom of Arragon. 

The Kings of CastiUe and Anragon having con- 
quered from the Arabs a part of what is properly 
called Portugal, formed it into a distinct government, 
under the name of PortocaiOt or Portugal. Henry 
of Buigundy, a French prince, grandson of Robert, 
called the Old, Duke of Burgundy, and great- 
grandson of Robert II., King of France, having 
distinguished himself by his bravery in Uie wars 
between the Castillians and the Mahometans, 
Alphonso YI., King of CastlUe, wished to attach 
the young prince to him by the ties of blood ; and, 
for this purpose, gave him in marriage his daugh- 
ter the In&nt Donna Theresa; and created him 
Count of Portugal (1090). This stote, indudii^ 
at first merely the cities of Oporto, Braga, Mi- 
randa, Lamego, Yiseo, and Coimbra, began to as- 
sume its present form in the reign of Alphonso I., 
son of Count Henry. The Mahometans, alarmed 
at the warlike propensities of the young Alphonso, 
had marched with a superior force to attack him 
by surprise. Far from being intimidated by the 
danger, this prince, to animate the courage of his 
troops, pretended that an apparition from heaven 
had authorized him to proclaim himself king in 
the face of the army, in virtue of an express order 
which he said he had received from Christ.'' He 
then marched against the enemy, and totally routed 
them in the plains of Ourique (1139). This vic- 
tory, famous in the annals of Portugal, paved the 
way for the conquest of the cities Leiria, Santarem, 
Lisbon, Ciutra, Alcasar do Sal, Evora, and £lvas, 
situated on tlie banks of the Tagus. Moreover, to 
secure the protection of the court of Rome against 
the Kings of Leon, who disputed with him the in- 
dependence of his new state, Alphonso took the 
resolution of acknowledging himself vassal and 
tributary to the Holy See (1142). He afterward* 

convoked the estates of his kingdom at Laiaeir^, 
and there declared his independence by a fociv- 
mental law, which also regulated the oraer of euc- 
cession to the throne. Sancho I., son ajid soc- 
cessor of Alphonso, took from the Mahooielans tL< 
town of Silves in Algarve; and Alphoztso Ul. 
soon after (1249) completed the conquest of da£ 

The first Kings of Portugal, in order to pc. 
the protection of the court of Rome, were obli^ 
to grant extensive benefices to the ecrleaJMriov 
with regalian rights, and the exemptioa of cbe 
clergy from the secular jurisdictioxi. Their suc- 
cessors, however, finding themselves firmly etfa- 
blished on the throne, soon changed their poliq. 
and manifested as much of indifierenoe for ik 
clergy as Alphonso I. had testified of kindness aii 
attachment to them. Hence originated a kae 
series of broils and quarrels with the eourt :f 
Rome. Pope Innocent lY. deposed San^o XL 
(1245), and appointed Alphonso III. in his phee. 
Denys, son and successor of this latter prince, wu 
excommunicated for the same reason, and ctss* 
pelled to sign a treaty (1289), bv which the dorp 
were re-established in all their former rig-hts. 

In France, the whole poUcy of the kings w 
directed against their powerful vassals, irho shmni 
among them the finest provinces of that kingd;jaB. 
The Dukes of Burgundy, Normandy and Acqs.- 
taine ; the Counts of Flanders, Champagne, Kn! 
Toulouse ; the Dukes of Bretagne, the Cooati d 
Poitiers, Bar, Blois, Anjou and Maine, Aks^ 
Auvergne, Angoul6me, Perigord, Carcaasomtf." , 
&c. formed so many petty B0Yerei^ns» equi is : 
some respects to the electors and prinoes of ^ ■ 
Germanic empire. Several circumstances, bp«- 
ever, contributed to maintain the balance in &tc>« | 
of royalty. The crown was hereditary, and tbe ' 
demesne lands belonging to the king, which, bcinf | 
veiy extensive, save him a power which £ur oai^ 
weighed that of any IndiTidual vassaL Beaadei. I 
these same demesnes being situate in the centiv d • 
the kingdom, enabled the sovereign to ohserre Ctf \ 
conduct of his vassals, to divide their forces, ^ 
prevent any one from preponderating over another. I 
The perpetual wars which they waged with eack 
other, the tyranny which they exerused over tbdi I 
dependants, and the enlightened policy of setvsl ' 
of the French kings, by degrees re-estahliahed tbe ! 
royal authority, which had been almost annihilated I 
under the last princes of the Carloving^an dyaa«T. i 

It was at this period that the rivahy beturea < 
France and England had its origin. The &ah i 
that Philip I. committed, in making no oppositioii { 
to the conquest of England, by William Duke o^ | 
Normandy, his vassal, served to kindle the fiasoe of ! 
war between these princes. The war which took j 
place in 1087, was Uie first that happened between ■ 
the two nations ; it was renewed under the subee 
quent reigns, and this rivalry was still more in- 
creased, on occasion of the unfortunate divorce be- 
tween Louis VII. and Eleanor of Poitou, heireai 
of Guienne, Poitou, and Gascogne. This drvoroed 
princess married (1152) Henry, somamed Pha> 
tagenet, Duke of Normandy, Count of Ai\|ou sad 
Maine, and afterwards Kong of England; sod 
brought him, in dowry, the whole of her vast pos- 
sessions. But it was reserved for Philip Augustus 
to repair the faults of his predecessors. This grest 
monaiohy whose courage was equal to bis pm&Ks 

English dupoaeaedorNov- 

mandy. Aci PEWOD IV. AJ). 1074 

Henry II. of England. 


King Jobn. 

Power of the boiong. 55 

Magna Charta. 

and his policy, recorered his superiority oyer Eng- 
land ; he strengthened his power and authority by 
the numerous accessiona which he made to the 
crown-lands,** (1180-1220). Besides Artois, Yer- 
mandois, the earldoms of Eyreux, Auyergne, and 
Alenqon, which he annexed under different titles, 
he took advantage of the ciril commotions which 
had arisen in England against King John, to dis- 
possess the English of I^ormandy, Anjou, Maine, 
Lorraine, and Poitou (1203) ; and he maintained 
these conquests by the brilliant yictory which he 
gained at Bouyines (1214), oyer the combined 
forces of England, the Emperor Otho, and the 
Covint of Flanders." 

Several of the French kings were exclusiyely 
occupied with the crusades in the East. Louis 
Vll.y Philip Augustus, and Louis IX. took the 
cross, and marched in person to the Holy Land. 
These ultra-marine expeditions (1147, 1248), 
wliich required great and powerful resources, could 
not but exhaust France ; while, on the contrary, 
the crusades which Louis VIIL undertook against 
the Albigenscs and their protectors, the Counts of 
Toulouse and Carcassonne, considerably aug- 
mented the royal power. Pope Innocent III., by 
proclaiming this crusade (1208), raised a tedious 
and bloody war, which desolated Languedoc ; and 
during which, fanaticism perpetrated atrocities 
Ti'hich make humanity to shudder. Simon, Count 
Monfort, the chief or general of these crusaders, 
had the whole estates of the Counts of Toulouse 
adjudged him by the Pope. Amauri, the son and 
heir of Simon, surrendered his claims oyer these 
forfeitures to Louis YIII. King of France (1226) ; 
and it was this circumstance that induced Loins to 
march in person at the head of the crusaders, 
against the Count of Toulouse, Ms yaasal and 
cousin. He died at the close of this expedition, 
leaving to his son and successor, Louis IX., the 
task of finishing this disastrous war. By the peace 
which was concluded at Paris (1229), between the 
King and the Count, the greater part of Languedoc 
was allowed to remain in the possession of Louis. 
One arrangement of this treaty was the marriage 
of the Count's daughter with Alphonso, brother to 
the King; with Uds express clause, that failing 
heirs of this marriage, the whole territory of 
Toulouse should reyert to the crown. The same 
treaty adjudged to the Pope the county of Yenaissin, 
as an escheat of the Counts of Toulouse ; and the 
Count of Carcassonne, implicated also in the cause 
of the Albigenses, was compelled to cede to the 
King all right oyer the yiscounties of Beziers, Car- 
cassonne, Agde, Bodes, Albi, and Kismes. One 
consequence of this bloody war was the establish- 
ment of the terrible tribunal of the Inquisition,^ 
and the founding of the order of Dominicans.'^ 

Henry II., a descendant of the house of Planta- 
genet, haying mounted the throne of England, in 
right of his mother Matilda, annexed to that crown 
the duchy of Normandy, the counties of Anjou, 
Touraine, and Maine, together with Guienne, 
Gascogne and Poitou. He afterwards added Ire- 
land, which he subdued in 1172. This island, 
which had neyer been conquered, either by the 
Komans or the barbarians who had desolated 
Europe, was, at that time, divided into five prin- 
cipal sovereignties, viz. Munster, Ulster, Con- 
naught, Leinster, and Meatb, whose several chiefii 
ail assumed the title of kings. One of these princes 

ex^Joyed the dignity of monarch of the island ; but 
he had neither authority sufficient to secure in- 
ternal tranquillity, nor power enough to repel with 
success the attacks of enemies from without. It 
was this state of weakness that induced Henry to 
attempt the conquest of the island. He obtained 
the sanction of Pope Adrian lY., by a bull in 1155, 
and imdertook, in a formal engagement, to subject 
the Irish to the Jurisdiction of the Holy See, and 
the payment of Peter' 8 pence ^^ The expulsion of 
Dermot, King of Leinster, who had rendered him- 
self odious by his pride and his tyranny, furnished 
Henry with a pretext for sending troops into that 
island, to assist the dethroned prince in recoveruig 
his dominions. The success of the English, and 
the victories which they gained over Roderic, King 
of Connaught, who at that time was chief monarch 
of the island, determined Henry to undertake, in 
person, an expedition into Ireland (in October 
1172). He soon reduced the provinces of Lein- 
ster and Munster to submission ; and after having 
constructed several forts, and nominated a viceroy 
and other crown officers, he took his departure 
without completing the conquest of the island. 
Roderic, King of Connaught, submitted in 1175 ; 
but it was not till the reign of Queen Elizabeth 
that the entire reduction of Ireland was accom- 

In England, the rashness and rapacity of John, 
son of Henry II., occasioned a mighty revolution 
in the government. The discontented nobles, with 
the Archbishop of Canterbury at their head, joined 
in a league against the King. Pope Innocent III. 
formally deposed him, made over his kingdom to 
the Crown of France, and proclaimed a crusade 
against him in every country of Europe. John 
obtained an accommodation with the Pope ; and 
in order to secure his protection, he consented to 
become a vassal of the Church, both for England 
and Ireland ; engaging to pay bis Holiness, besides 
Peter's pence, an annual tribute of a thousand 
marks. But all in vain; the nobles persisted in 
their revolt, and forced the King to grant them the 
grand charter oi Magna Charta, 19Ui June, 1215, 
by which he and his successors were for ever de- 
prived of the power of exacting subsidies without 
the counsel and advice of Parliament ; which did 
not then include the Conimons. He granted to 
the city of London, and to all cities and burghs in 
the kingdom, a renewal of their ancient liberties 
and privileges, and the right of not being taxed 
except with the advice and consent of the common 
council. Moreover, the lives and properties of 
the citizens were secured by this charter; one 
clause of which expressly provided, that no subject 
could be either arrested, imprisoned, dispossessed 
of his fortune, or deprived of his life, except by a 
legal sentence of his peers, conform to the ancient 
law of the country. This charter, which was re- 
newed in various subsequent reigns, forms, at this 
day, the basis of the EngUsh Constitution. 

King John, meantime, rebelled against this 
charter, and caused it to be rescinded by Pope In- 
nocent III., who even issued a bull of excommu- 
nication against the barons; but they, far from 
being disconcerted or intimidated, made an offer 
of their crown to Louis, son of Philip Augustus 
King of France. This prince repaired to England, 
and there received the fealty and homage of the 
grandees of the nation. John, abandoned by all 


Conquest of Wales by 
Edward I. 


A&in of Denmark. 
Swediah kinga. 

his subjects, attempted to take refuge in Scotland ; 
but he died in his flight at the Castle of Newark. 
His death made a sadden change in the minds 
and sentiments of the English. The barons for- 
sook the standard of the French prince, and rallied 
round that of young Henrj', son of King John, 
whose long and unfortunate reign was a succession 
of troubles and intestine wars. Edward I., son 
and successor of Henry HI., as determined and 
courageous as his fiithcr had been weak and in- 
dolent, restored tranquillity to England, and made 
his name illustrious by the conquest which he 
made of the principality of "Wales. 

This district, from ihe most remote antiquity, 
was ruled by its own native princes, descended 
from the ancient British kings. Although they 
had been vassals and tributaries of the Kings of 
England, they exercised, nevertheless, the rights 
of sovereignty in their own country-. Lewellyn, 
Prince of Wales, having espoused the cause of the 
insurgents in the reign of Henry III., and made 
some attempts to withdraw from the vassalage of 
the English crown, Edward I. declared war against 
lilm (1282) ; and in a battle fought near the 
Henau, Lewellyn was defeated and slain, with 
2000 of his followers. David, his brother and 
successor, met with a fate still more melancholy. 
Having been taken prisoner by Edward, he was 
condemned to death, and executed like a traitor 
(1283). The territory of Wales was annexed to 
the crown; the king created his eldest son Ed- 
ward, Prince of W^ales ; a title which has since 
been borne by the eldest sons of the Kings of Eng- 

At this period, the kingdoms of the North pre- 
sented, in general, little else than a spectacle of 
horror and carnage. The warlike and ferocious 
temper of the Northern nations, the want of fixed 
and specific laws in the succession of their kings,*' 
gave rise to innumerable factions, encouraged in- 
solence, and fomented troubles and intestine wars. 
An extravagant and superstitious devotion, by 
loading the church with wealth, aggravated still 
more the evils with which these kingdoms were 
distracted. The bishops and the new metropo- 
litans,'^ enriched at the expense of the crown 
lands, and rendered bold by their power, and the 
strength of their castles, domineered in the senate 
and the assemblies of the states, and neglected no 
opportunity of encroaching on the sovereign's 
authority. They obtained, by compulsion, the 
introduction of tithes, and the immunity of the ec- 
clesiastics ; and thus more and more increased and 
cemented the sacerdotal power.** This state of 
trouble and internal commotion tended to abate 
that ardour for maritime inclusions which had so 
long agitated the Scandinavian nations. It did 
not, however, prevent the kings of Denmark and 
Sweden from undertaking, from time to time, ex- 
peditions by sea, under the name of Crusades, for 
the conversion of the Pagan nations of the North, 
whose territories they were ambitious to conquer. 

The Slavians, who inhabited the coasts of the 
Baltic, were then constantly committing piracies, 
in imitation of the ancient Normans, plundering 
and ravaging the provinces and islands of Den- 
mark. Yaldemar I., wishing to put an end to 
these devastations, and thirsting moreover for the 
glory of converting to Christianity those nations 
against whom all the efforts of the Germans had 

failed, attacked (them at different times wilfa his 
numerous flotillas. He took and pillaged aewni 
of their towns, snch as Arcona and Carentz er 
Garts, in the isle of Rugen (1168), Julin, b09 
called WoUin, and Stettin, two sea-ports in Vcbs- 
rania (1176-6). He made the princes of Bnccs 
his vassals and tributaries, and is generally rr> 
garded as the founder of Dantsic (1165), whk^ 
originally was merely a fort constructed by the 
Danes. Canute YI., son and successor of Takfe- 
mar I., followed the example of his lather ; he re- 
duced the princes of Pomerania (11 S3) and Meck- 
lenburg (1186), and the Counts of Schweria 
(1201),'(to a state of dependence ; he made bim«€!f 
master of Hamburg and Lubec, and subdued tbe 
whole of Holstein. Yaldemar II. assumed the 
title of King of the Slavians, and Lord of Ncrdot- 
binffia. He added Lauenburg, a part of Pruna, 
Estonia, and the Isle of Oesel, to the conquests of 
his predecessors, and became the founder of tl^ 
cities of Stralsund and Revel (1209 and 1223). 

This prince, master of nearly the whole sootbeta 
coast of the Baltic, and raised to the summit of 
prosperity by the superiority of his commenal 
and maritime power, commanded Ibr a time tk 
attention of all Europe ; but an unibreseen ereai 
eclipsed his glory, and deprived him of all the ^- , 
vantages of Ms victories and his conquests. Heon, , 
Count of Schwerin, one of the vassals of Talderasr. 
wishing to avenge an outrage which he prelseDded ' 
to have received from him, seized that jirinee In , 
surprise (1223), and detained him for three yean 
prisoner in the castle of Schwerin. This dram- 
stance aroused the courage of the other ranquiriiet! i 
nations, who instantly took to arms. Adolphra, 
Count of Schauenburg, penetrated into Holsteta, 
and subdued the princes of Mecklenhmg sad I 
Pomerania, with the cities of Hamburg and Labec , 
Yaldemar, restored to liberty, made serefal efibrti 
to reconquer his revolted provinces ; but a power- 
ful confederacy being formed against him, he wos , 
defeated in a battle fought (1227) at BornhoeiTt 
near Segeberg, in Holstein. Of all his conquests. ' 
he retained only the Isle of Rugen, Estonia, and \ 
the tovm of Revel, which, in course of time, wcr 
lost or abandoned by his successors. | 

Sweden, which had been governed in successkm , 
by the dynasties of Stenkilt Swerkar, and St, £ric, , 
was long a prey to internal diasensions, which > 
arose principally from the two different forms of 
worship professed and authorized by the state. ' 
The whole nation, divided in their religious senti- -> 
ments, saw themselves arranged into two fortioss, - 
and under two reigning families, mutusdlj hating ' 
and exasperated against each other, for neariy half , 
a century. Two, and sometimes more, princes wne ' 
seen reigning at once from 1080 till 1 133, wheo i 
the throne began to be occupied ultimately by th< ' 
descendants of Sweyu and St. Eric. During all ! 
this time, violence usurped the place of right, and ■ 
the crown of Sweden was more than once tbf 
prize of assassination and treason. I 

In the midst of these intestine disorders, we find I 
the Swedes even attempting foreign conquests. To 
these they were instigated both by the genius of 
the age, which encouraged crusades and military 
missions, as well as by the desire of avenging the 
piracies which the Finlandcrs, and other Pagan 
tribes of the North, committed from time to time 
on the coasts of Sweden. St. Erie became at once 

Swedish oonqnetts. 
'Wan of Prussia. 
Tlie Teutonic knights. 

PERIOD IT. A.D. 1074-^1300. 

Commeroe of the Baltic. 

Biga huilt. 57 

Livonian military Orders. 

the apostle and the conqueror of Finland (1157) ; 
he established also a Swedish colony in Nyland, 
and subdued the prorinces of Helsingland and 
Jamptland. Charles I., son of Swerkar, united 
the kingdom of Gothland to Sweden, and was the 
first that took the title of these two kingdoms. 
!Eric, sumamed Laspe, or the Lisper, resumed the 
crusading system of warfare ; and, in the character 
of a missionary, conquered TaTastland and the 
eastern part of Bothnia. Birger, a prince of the 
Folkungian dynasty, who ascended the throne of 
Sweden in 1250, conquered, under the same pre- 
text, Carelia and Sayolax, and fortified Yiburg. 
He compelled the inhabitants of these countries to 
embrace the Christian religion (1293), and an- 
nexed them to Finland. We find, also, several of 
the Swedish kings undertaking missionary expedi- 
tions against their Pagan neighbours the Estonians, 
who, from time to time, committed dreadful ra- 
Tages on the coasts of Sweden. These expeditions, 
which were always esteemed sacred, served as an 
excuse for the sovereigns of the North in avoiding 
the crusades to the Holy Land, in which they took 
no part.** 

Prussia and the Prussians are totally unknown 
in history before the end of the tenth century.** 
The author of the Life of St. Adelbert, of Prague, 
who suffered martyrdom in Prussia in the leigii of 
Otho III., is the first that mentions them under 
this new name (997). Two hundred years after, 
the Abbot of Oliva, sumamed the Christian, be- 
came the apostle of the Prussians, and was ap- 
pointed by Pope Innocent III. the iirst bishop of 
Prussia (1215). This idolatrous nation, haughty 
and independent, and attached to the reigning su- 
perstition, having repulsed all the efforts that were 
repeatedly made to convert them to Christianity, 
Pope Honorius III., in the true spirit of his age, 
published a crusade against them (1218), to pro- 
selytise them by force. Armies of crusaders were 
poured into Prussia, and overran the whole country 
Avith fire and sword. The Prussians took cruel 
vengeance on the Polonese of Masovia, who had 
made common cause against them with the cru- 
paden of the East. At length Conrad, Duke of 
Masovia, finding himself too weak to withstand 
the fury of the Prussians, called in the Teutonic 
knights to his aid ; and, anxious to secure for ever 
the assistance and protection of that order, be made 
them a grant of the territory of Culm ; and more- 
over promised them whatever lands he might 
conquer from the common enemy (1226). This 
contract having been sanctioned by the Emperor 
Frederic II., the knights speedily came into pos- 
session of their new dominions (1230). They 
extended themselves by degrees over all Prussia, 
after a long and murderous war, which they had 
carried on against the idolatrous natives. That 
country, which had been peopled by numerous 
German colonies in succession, did not submit to 
the yoke of the Teutonic order, until the greater 
part of its ancient inhabitants had been destroyed. 
The knights took care to confirm their authority 
and their religion in Prussia, by constructing cities 
and forts, and founding bishoprics and convents. 
The city of Koningsberg,** on the Pregel, was built 
in 1255 ; and that of Marienburg, on the Nogat, 
which became the capital of the Order, is supposed 
I to have been founded in 1280. 

The Teutonic knights completed the conquest 

of that country (1283), by the reduction of Suda- 
via, the last of the eleven provinces which com- 
posed ancient Prussia. We can scarcely conceive 
how a handful of these knights should have been 
able, in to short a time, to vanqxiish a warlike and 
powerful nation, inspired with the love of liberty, 
and emboldened by fanaticism, to make the most 
intrepid and obstinate defence. But we ought to 
take into consideration, that the indulgences of the 
court of Rome allured contmually into Prussia a 
multitude of crusaders from all the provinces of 
the Empire ; and that the knights gained these over 
to their ranks, by distributing among them the 
lands which they had won by conquest. In this 
way, their numbers were incessantly recruited by 
new colonies of crusaders, and the nobles flocked 
in crowds to their standard, to seek territorial ac- 
quisitions in Prussia. 

The increase of commerce on the Baltic, in the 
twelfth century, led the Germans to discover the 
coasts of Livonia. Some merchants from Bremen, 
pn their way to Wisby, in the Island of Gothland, 
a sea-port on the Baltic very much frequented at 
that time, were thrown by a tempest on the coast 
near the mouth of the Dwma (1158). The desire 
of gain induced them to enter into a correspondence 
wiSi the natives of the country ; and, from a wish 
to give stability to a branch of commerce which 
mi^t become very lucrative, they attempted to 
introduce the Christian religion into Livonia. A 
monk of Segeberg, in Holstein, named Mainard, 
undertook this mission. He was the first bishop 
of Livonia (1192), and fixed his residence at the 
castle of Uxkull, which he strengthened by forti- 
fications. Berthold, his successor, wishing to ac- 
celerate the progress of Christianity, as well as to 
avoid the dangers to which his mission exposed 
him, caused the Pope to publish a crusade against 
the Livonians. This zealous prelate perished, 
sword in hand, fighting against the people whom 
he intended to convert. The priests, after this, 
were either massacred or expelled firom Livonia ; 
but, in a short time, a new army of crusaders 
marched into the country, under the banner of Al- 
bert, the third bishop, who built the city of Riga 
(1200), which became the seat of his bishopric, and 
afterwards the metropolitan see of all Prussia and 
Livonia. The same prelate founded a military 
order of the Knights of Christ or Sword'hearers^ 
to whom he ceded the third of all the countries he 
had conquered. This Order, confirmed by Pope 
Innocent III. (1204), finding themselves too weak 
to oppose the Pagans of Livonia, agreed to imite 
with the Teutonic order (1237), who, at that time, 
nominated the generals or provincial masters in 
Livonia, known by the names of Heermeister and 
Landmeister, Pope Gregory IX., in confirming 
the union of these two Orders, exacted the sur- 
render of the districts of Revel, "Wesemberg, "Wei- 
senstein, and Hapsal, to Yaldemar II., which the 
knights, with consent of the Bishop of Dorpat, had 
taken from him during his captivity. This retro- 
cession was made by an act passed at Strensby 
(1238). Several documents which still exist in 
the private archives of the Teutonic order at Ko- 
ningsberg, and especially two, dated 1249 and 1254, 
prove that, at this period, the bishops of Riga still 
exercised superiority, both temporal and spiritual, 
over these knights sword-bearers, although they 
were united with the Teutonic order, which was 

58 The Mognls. 
Zinghis Khan. 


MosaU oonqoer < 
Death of CabUi. 
Hotdeof Kifc 

independent of these bishops. The combinatioxi 
of these two Orders rendered them so powerful, 
that they gradually extended their conquests oyer 
all Prussia, Livonia, Courland, and Semigallia; 
hut they could never succeed farther than to sub- 
ject these nations to a rigorous servitude, under 
pretence of conversion. 

Before we speak of Russia and the other Eastern 
countries of Europe, it will be necessary to turn 
our attention for a little to the Moguls, whose con- 
quests and depredations extended, in the thirteenth 
century, from the extremity of Northern Asia, over 
Russia and the greater part of Europe. The 
native country of this people is foimd to be those 
same regions which they still inhabit in our day, 
and which are situated to the north of the great 
wall of China, between Eastern Tartary and mo- 
dem Bukharia. They are generally confounded 
with the Tartars, from whom they differ essen- 
tially, both in their appearance and manners, as 
well as in their religion and political institutions. 
This nation is divided into two principal branches, 
the Elvtks or Oelots, better known by the name 
of Calmucs, and the Moguls^ properly so called. 
These latter, separated from the Calmucs by the 
mountains of Altai, are now subject to the domi- 
nion of China. 

The Moguls, scarcely known at present in the 
history of Europe, owe their greatness to the 
genius of one man — the famous Zinghis Khan. 
This extraordinary person, whose real name was 
Temudgin^ or, according to Pallas, Damutchin, 
was bom in the year 1163, and originally nothing 
more than the chief of a particular horde of Mo- 
guls, who had settled on the banks of the rivers 
Onon and Kerlon, and were tributary to the em- 
pire of Kin. His first exploits were against the 
other hordes of Moguls, whom he compelled to 
acknowledge his authority. Emboldened by suc- 
cess, he conceived the romantic idea of aspiring to 
be the conqueror of the world. For this purpose, 
he assembled near the source of the river Onon, 
in 1206, all the chiefs of the Mogul hordes, and 
the generals of his armies. A certain pretender to 
inspiration, whom the people regarded as a holy 
man, appeared in the assembly, and declared that 
it was tne will of God that Temudgin should rule 
over the whole earth, — that all nations should sub- 
mit to him, — and that henceforth he should bear 
the tiUe of Tacking kU-Khan, or Most Great 

In a short time, this new conqueror subdued the 
two great empires of the Tartars ; one of which, 
called also the empire of Kin, embraced the whole 
of Eastern Tartary, and the northern part of 
China ; the other, that of Kara-Kitai, or the Khi- 
tans, extended over Western Tartary, and had its 
capital at Kaschgar in Bukharia.*' He afterwards 
attacked the Carismian Sultans, who ruled over 
Turkestan, Transoxiana, Charasm, Chorasan, and 
all Persia, from Derbent to Irak-Arabia and the 
Indies. This powerful monarchy yna overturned 
by Zinghis-Khan, in the course of six campaigns ; 
and it was during this war that the Moguls, while 
marching under the conduct of Toushi, the eldest 
son of Zinghia-Khan, against the Kipzacs or Cap- 
chacs, to the north of the Caspian Sea, made their 
first inroad into the Russian empire. Zinghis, after 
having subdued the whole of Tangout, died in 
the sixty-fifth year of hia age (1227). Historians 

have remarked in him the traite of a great xms, | 
bom to command others, but whose noble quaiitiss 
were tarnished by the ferocity of his nature, whirt 
took delight in carnage, plunder, and derastation. j 
Humanity shudders at the recital of the mexprev- 
Bible horrors exercised by this barbarian. ;«^^«e ' 
maxim was to exterminate, without mercy, all i»1w I 
offered the least resistance to Ids Tictorious arm*, j 

The successors of this Mogul conqoeror fol- 
lowed him in his career of victory. They acbicved 
the conquest of all China, overturned the caliphate 
of Bagdat, and rendered the siiltans of Icomosa 
their tributaries.** Octai-Khan, the immediate 
successor of Zinghis, despatched from the centre of 
China two powerful armies, the one against Corea, 
and the other against the nations that Ue to the 
north and north-west of the Caspian Sea. This 
latter expedition, which had for its chiefs Giyoui, 
son of Octal, and Baton, eldest son of Toushi, zad 
grandson of Zinghis-Khan, after having subdued all 
Kipzac, penetrated into Russia, which they ccai- 
quered in 1237. Hence they spread over Poland, 
Silesia, Moravia, Hungary, and the countries bcr- 
dering on the Adriatic Sea ; they plundered citiea. ' 
laid waste the country, and carried terror and ds- i 
stniction wherever they went.*' All Europe trem- 
bled at the sight of these barbarians, who seetaec 
as if they wished to make the whole earth one vast 
empire of desolation. The empire of the Mogufe | 
attained its highest point of elevation under Cubbi 
grandson of Zinghis, towards the end of the tenth , 
century. From south to north, it extended froB ^ 
the ChLuese Sea and the Indies, to the extremin i 
of Siberia ; and from east to west, from Japan to | 
Asia Minor, and the frontiers of Poland in Europe. ; 
China and Chinese Tartary formed the seat of the 
empire, and the residence of the Great Khaa ; 
while the other parts of the dominions were go- 
verned by princes of the fiimily of Zinghis KhaB» 
who either acknowledged the Great Khan as their 
supreme master, or had their own particular kins* 
and chiefs that paid him tribute. The prindpal 
subordinate Khans of the race of Zinghis wex 
those of Persia, Zagatw, and Kipzac* Their de- 
pendence on the Great Khan, or emperor of Chim, 
ceased entirely on the death of Cublai (1294), ani 
the power of the Moguls soon became extinct in 

As for the Moguls of Kipzac, their dominiim 
extended over all the Tartar countries situated to 
the north of the Caspian and the Euxine, as abo 
over Russia and the Crimea. Batou-Khan, elde«i 
son of Toushi, was the founder of this dynaaC}. 
Being addicted to a wandering life, the Khans of 
Kipzac encamped on the banks of the Wolsa, 
passing from one place to another with their tenb 
and flocks, acconUnff to the custom of the Mogul 
and Tartar nations.*^ The principal sect of these 
Khans was called the Grand or Golden Horde, or 
the Horde qf Kipzac, which was long an object of 
the greatest terror to the Russians, Poles, Litho- 
anians, and Hungarians. Its glory declined va- 
wards the end of the fourteenth century, and en- 
tirely disappeared under the .last Khan Achmec, 
in 1481. A few separate hordes were all that 
remained, detached from the grand horde, such as 
those of Casan, Astracan, Siberia, and the Crimea ; 
— all of which were, in their turn, subdued or ex- 
tirpated by the Russians.^' 
A crowd of princes, descendants of Ylademir 

Grand-dokM of Kiow. 
Baiou invades RnwU. 
Alexander Newski. 

PERIOD IV. A,D. 1074—1300. 

Disaenflioos of Poland. 
Moguls oonooer Poland. 
Laws of the liuQgaiians. 


the Great, had shared among them the vaat do- 
minions of Russia. One of these princes, invested 
with the dignity of Grand Duke, exercised certain 
rights of superiority oyer the rest, who, neverthe- 
less, acted the part of petty sovereigns, and made 
war on each other. The capital of these grand 
dukes was Kiow, which was also regarded as the 
metropolis of the empire. Andrew I., Prince of 
Suzdal, having assumed the title of grand duke 
(1157), fixed his residence at Ylademir, on the 
river Rliasma, and thus gave rise to a kind of 
political schism, the consequences of which were 
most fatal to the Russians. The Grand Duchy of 
Kiow, vnth its dependent principalities, detached 
themselves by degrees from the rest of Uie empire, 
and finally became a prey to the Lithuanians and 

In the midst of these divisions and intestine 
broils, and when Russia was struggling with diffi- 
culty against the Bulgarians, Polowzians/" and 
other barbarous tribes in the neighbourhood, she 
had the misfortune to be attacked by the Moguls, 
under Zinghis Khan. Toushi, eldest son of that 
conqueror, having marched round the Caspian, in 
order to attack the Polowsians, encounteied, on Ms 
passage, the princes of Kiow, who were allies of 
that people. The battle which he fought (1223), 
on the banks of the river Kalka, was one of the 
most sanguinary recorded in history. The Russians 
were totally defeated ; six of their princes perished 
on the field of battle ; and the whole of Western 
Russia was laid open to the conqueror. The Mo- 
guls penetrated as far as Novogorod, wasting the 
whole country on their xnarch with fire and sword* 
They returned by the same route, but without ex- 
tending their ravages farther. In 1237 they made 
a second invasion, under the conduct of Baton, 
son of Toushi, and governor of the northern parts 
of the Mogul empire. This prince, after having 
vanquished the Polowzians ana Bulgarians, that is, 
the whole country of Kipsac, entered the north of 
Russia, where he took Rugen and Moscow, and 
cut to pieces an army of the Russians near Ko- 
lomna. Several other towns in this part of Russia 
were sacked by the Moguls, in the commencement 
of the following year. The fiuaulv of the Grand 
Duke, Juri II., perished in the sack of Ylademir ; 
and he himself fell in the battle which he fought 
with the Moguls near the river Sita. Batou ex- 
tended his conquests in northern Russia as far as 
the city Torshok, in the territory of Novogorod. 
For some years he continued his ravages over the 
whole of W estem Russia ; where, among others, 
he took Kiow, Kaminiec in PodoUa, Ylademir, 
and Ualitsch. From this we may date the &U of 
the Grand Duchv of Kiow, or Western Russia, 
which, with its dependent principalities, in the 
following century, came into the possession of the 
Lithuanians and Poles* As for Uie Grand Duehy 
of Ylademir, which comprehended Eastern ana 
Northern Russia, it ww subdued by the Moguls or 
Tartars, whose terrible yoke it wore for more than 
two hundred years.^ 

An extraordinary person who appeared at this 
disastrous crisis, preserved that part of Russia 
from sinking into total ruin. This was Prinoe 
Alexander, son of the Grand Duke, Jaroslaus II., 
who obtained the epithet or surname of Newakit 
from a victory which he gained over the Knights 
of Livonia, near the Neva (1241). £lev«ted by 

the Khan Batou to the dignity of Grand Duke 
(1245), he secured, by his prudent conduct, his 
punctuality in paying tribute, and preserving his 
allegiance to the Mogul emperors, the good will 
of these new masters of Russia, during bis whole 
reign. When this great prince died in 1261, his 
name was enrolled in their calendar of saints. 
Peter the Great built, in honour of his memory, a 
convent on the banks of the Neva, to which he 
gave the name of Alexander Newski ; and the 
Empress Catherine I. instituted an order of 
knighthood that was also called after the name of 
that prince. 

Poland, which was divided among several princes 
of the Piast dvnasty, had become, at the time of 
which we speak, a prey to intestine Actions, and 
exposed to the incursions of the neighbouring 
barbarians. These divisions, the principal source 
of all the evils that afflicted Poland, continued 
down to the death of Boleslaus II. (1138), who, 
having portioned his estates among his sons, or- 
dered that the eldest should retain the district of 
Cracow, under the title of Monarch, and that he 
should exercise the rights of superiority over the 
provincial dukes and princes, his brothers. This 
clause, which might have prevented the dismem- 
berment of the state, served onlv to kindle the 
flame of discord among these collegatory princes. 
Uladislausi who is generally considered as the 
eldest of these sons, having attempted to dispos- 
sess his brothers (1146), they rose in arms, ex- 
pelled him from Poland, and obliged his descend- 
ants to content themselves with SUesia. His sons 
founded, in that country, numerous families of 
dukes and princes, who introduced German colo- 
nies into Silesia ; all of which, in course of time, 
became subject to the kings of Bohemia. Conrad, 
son of Casimir the Just, and grandson of Boles- 
laus III., was the ancestor of the dukes of Cujavia 
and Masovia. It was this prince who called in 
the assistance of the Teutonic knights against the 
pagans of Prussia, and established that Order in 
the territory of Cukn (1230). 

The Moguls, after having vanquished Russia, 
took possession of Poland (1240). Having gained 
the victory at the battle of Schi^low, they set fire 
to Cracow, and then marched to Lignite in Silesia, 
where a numerous army of crusaders were assem- 
bled under the command of Henry, Duke of 
Breslau. This prince was defeated, and slain in 
the action. The whole of Silesia, as well as 
Moravia, was cruelly pillaged and desolated by 
the Moguls. 

Hungary, at this period, presented the spectacle 
of a warlike and barbarous nation, the ferocity of 
whose manners cannot be better attested than by 
the laws passed in the reigns of Ladislaus and 
Coloman, about the end of the eleventh and be- 
ginning of the twelfth century. Crimes were then 
punished either with the loss of liberty, or of some 
member of the body, such as the eye, the nose, 
the tongue. Sec, These laws were published in 
their general assemblies, which were composed of 
the king, the great officers of the crown, and the 
representatives of the clergy and the free men. 
All the other branches of the executive power 
pertained to the kings, who made war and peace 
at their pleasure ; while the counts, or governors 
of provinces, daimed no power either personal or 

Kings oi Hangary. 
60 Cnuade under Andrew II. 
The Golden Bull. 


Greek or 


Under a goTemment so despotic, it was eaay 
for the kings of Hungary to enlarge the boundaries 
of their states. Ladislaus took from the Greeks 
the duchy of Sirmium (1080), comprising the 
lower part of SclaTonia. This same prince ex- 
tended his conquests into Croatia, a country which 
was goTemed for several ages by the SUman 
princes, who possessed Upper Sclayonia, and ruled 
OTcr a great part of ancient Illyria and Dalmatia, 
to which they gave the name of Croatia. Dircls- 
laus was the first of these princes that took the 
title of king (in 984). Demetrius Swinimir, one 
of his successors, did homage to the Pope, in order 
to obtain the protection of the Holy See (1076). 
The line of these kings haying become extinct some 
time after, Ladislaus, whose sister had been mar- 
ried to Demetrius Swinimir, took advantage of the 
commotion that had arisen in Croatia, and con- 
quered a great part of that kingdom (1091), and 
especially Upper SclaTonia, which was one of its 
dependencies. Coloman completed their conquest 
in 1102, and the same year he was crowned at Bel- 
grade King of Croatia and Dalmatia. In the course 
of a few years he subdued the maritime cities of 
Dalmatia, such as Spalatro, Trau, and Zara, which 
he took firom the republic of Venice.** The king- 
dom of Bama, or Bosnia, fell at the same time 
under his power. He took the title of King of 
Rama (1103) ; and Bela II., his successor, made 
over the duchy of Bosnia to Ladislaus, his younger 
son. The sovereignty of the kings of Hungary 
was also occasionally acknowledged by the princes 
and kings of Bulgaria and Servia, and even by the 
Russian princes of Halitsch and Wolodimir. 

These conquests gave rise to an abuse which 
soon proved fatal to Himgary. The kings claimed 
for themselves the right of disposing of the newly 
conquered provinces in fiivour of their younger 
sons, to whom they granted them under the title 
of duchies, and with the rights of sovereignty. 
These latter made use of their supreme power to 
excite factions and stir up ciril wars. 

The reign of King Andrew II. was rendered 
remarkable by a revolution which happened in the 
government (1217). This prince having under- 
taken an expedition to the Holy Land, which he 
equipped at an extravagant and rtiinous expense, 
the nobles availed themselves of his absence to 
augment their own power, and usurp the estates 
and revenues of the crown. Corruption had per- 
vaded every branch of the administration ; and the 
king, after his return, made several ineffectual 
efforts to remedy the disorders of the government, 
and recruit his exhausted finances. At length he 
adopted the plan of assembling a general Diet 
(1222), in which was passed the famous decree, 
or Golden BuU, which forms the basis of that de- 
fective constitution which prevails in Hungary at 
this day. The property of the clergy and the 
noblesse were there declared exempt from taxes 
and military cess ; the nobles acquired hereditary 
possession of the royal grants which they had re- 
reived in recompense for their services ; tiiey were 
freed from the obligation of marching at their own 
expense on any expedition out of Uie kingdom ; 
and even the right of resistance was allowed them, 
in case the king should infringe any article of the 
decree. It was this king also (Andrew II.) that 
conferred several important privileges and immu- 
nities on the Saxons, or Germans of Transylvania, 

who had been invited iJuther bj Geiaa II. aboat 
the year 1142. 

Under the reign of Bela lY. (1241) Hongaty 
was suddenly inundated with an army of Moguls, 
commanded by several chiefs, the principai of 
whom were Baton, the son of Touahi, and Gsyouk, 
son of the great Khan Oetai. The Hm^mriaiis, 
sunk in effeminacy and living in perfect > e cuiit t , 
had neglected to provide in time for their defexiee. 
Having at length rallied round the banner of their 
king, Uiey pitched their camp very negligently oa 
the banks of the Sajo, where they were surprised 
by the Moguls, who made terrible havoc of them. 
Coloman, the king's brother, was dain in the 
action ; and the king himself succeeded with diffi- 
culty in saving himself among the isles of Dahnatia. 
The whole of Hungary was now at the mercy of 
the conqueror, who penetrated with his -victoriow 
troops into Sclavonia, Croatia, Dalmatia, Bosnia, 
Servia, and Bulgaria ; everywhere glutting his fury 
with the blood of the people, which he shed in 
torrents. These barbarians seemed determined to 
fix their residence in Hungary, when the news of 
the death of the Khan Octal, and the accession of 
his son Gayouk to the tlurone of China, indoeed 
them to abandon their conquest in leas than tfarE« 
years, and return to the East loaded with inmiense 
booty. On hearing this intelligence, Bela ven- 
tured from his place of retreat, and repaired to 
Hungary, where he assembled the remains of lus 
subjects, who were wandering in the forests, or 
concealed among the mountains. He rebuilt the 
cities that were laid in ashes, imported new cc^ 
nies from Croatia, Bohemia, Moravia, and Saxony; 
and, by degrees, restored life and vigoor to the 
state, which had been almost annihilated by the 

The Empire of the Greeks, at this time, was 
gradually verging towards its downfid. Harassed 
on the east by the Seljukian Turks, infested on the 
side of the Danube by the Hungarians, the Pata- 
nacites, the Uses, and the Cumans ; ^ and torn to 
pieces by fiictious and intestine wars, that Eknpite 
was making but a feeble resistance to the inces- 
sant attacks of its enemies, when it was suddenly 
threatened with entire destruction by the elfects 
of the fourth crusade. The Emperor Isaac Angela 
had been dethroned by his brother, Alexius III. 
(1196), who had cruelly caused his eyes to he put 
out. The son of Isaac, called also Alexius, Ibond 
means to save his life ; he repaired to Zara, in 
Dalmatia (1203), to implore the aid of the Cru- 
saders, who, after having assisted the Venetians to 
recover that rebellious city, were on the point of 
setting sail for Palestine. The voung Alexiut 
offered to indemnify the Crusaders ror the expenses 
of any expedition which they might undertake in 
his favour ; he gave them reason to expect a re- 
union of the two churches, and considerable sup- 
plies, both in men and money, to assist them in 
reconquering the Holy Land. Yielding to these 
solicitations, the allied chieft, instead of passii^ 
directly to Syria, set sail for Constantinople. 
They immediately laid siege to the dty, expelled 
the usurper, and restored Isaac to the throne, in 
conjunction with his son Alexius. 

Scarcely had the Crusaders quitted Constanti- 
nople, when a new revolution happened there. 
Another Alexius, sumamed Mourzonfiey excited 
an insurrection among the Greeks ; and having 

Latins take Cautantmople. 
FaU of the Latiu power. 
Dynasty of Pailediogiui. 

PERIOD lY. A.D. 1074—1800. 

The SeUitkUn Turks. 
Salah-ed-deen's victories. 61 

Death of Saladin. 

procured the death of the Emperors Isaac and 
Alexius, he made himself master of the throne. 
The Crusaders immediately returned, again laid 
8ieg« to Constantinople, wnich they took by as- 
sault; and, after having slain the usurper, they 
elected a new emperor in the person of Baldwin, 
Earl of Flanders, and one of the noble Crusaders.^ 
This event transferred the Greek Empire to the 
Latins (1204). It was followed by a union of the 
two churches, which, however, was neither general 
nor permanent, as it terminated with the reign of 
the Latins at Constantinople. 

Meantime the Crusaders divided among them- 
selves the provinces of the Greek Empire, — ^both 
those which they had already seised, and those 
which yet remained to be conquered. The greater 
part of the maritime coasts of the Adriatic, Greece, 
the Archipelago, the Fropontis, and the Euxine ; 
the islands of the Cyclades and Sporades, and 
those of the Adriatic, were adjudged to the re- 
public of Venice. Boniiace, Marquis of Mont- 
ferrat, and commander-in-chief of the crusade, ob- 
tained for his share the island of Crete or Candia, 
and all that belonged to the Empire beyond the 
Bosphorus. He aiterwards sold Candia to the 
Venetians, who took possession of it in 1207. 
Tlae other chieft of the Crusaders had also their 
portions of the dismembered provinces. None of 
them, however, were to possess the countries that 
were assigned them, except under the title of 
vassals to the Empire, and by acknowledging the 
sovereignty of Baldwin. 

In the midst of this general overthrow, several 
of the Greek -princes attempted to preserve the 
feeble remains of their Empire. Theodore Las- 
caris, son-in-law of the Emperor Alexius III., re- 
solved on the conquest of the Greek provinces 
in Asia. He made himself master of Bithynia, 
Lvdia, part of the coasts of the Archipelago, and 
Phrygia, and was crowned emperor at Nice in 
1206. About the same period, Alexius and David 
Commenus, grandsons of the Emperor Andro- 
nicus I., having taken shelter in Fontus, laid there 
the foundation of a new Empire, which had for its 
capital the city of Trebisond. 

At length Michael Angelus Commenus took 
possession of Durano, which he erected into a 
considerable state, extending from Durazzo to the 
Gulf of Lepanto, and comprehending Epirus, 
Acamania, Etolia, and part of Thessaly. All 
these princes assumed the rank and dignity of 
emperors. The most powerful among them was 
Theodore Lascaris, Emperor of Nice. His suc- 
cessors found little difficulty in resuming, by de- 
grees, their superiority over the Latin emperors. 
They reduced them at last to the single city of 
Constantinople, of which Michael Faleologus, 
Emperor of Nice, undertook the siege ; and, with 
the assistance of the Genoese vessels, he made 
himself master of it in 1261. Baldwin II., the 
last of the Latin emperors, fled to the Isle of 
Negropont, whence he passed into Italy ; and his 
conqueror became the ancestor of all the emperors 
of the House of Faleologus, that reigned at Con- 
stantinople until the taking of that capital by the 
Turks in 1453. 

It now remains for us to cast a glance at the 
revolutions of Asia, closely connected vdth those 
of Europe, on account of the crusades and expe- 
ditions to the Holy Land. The Empire of the 

Seljukian Tmrks had been divided into several 
dynasties, or distinct sovereignties ; the Atabeks 
of Irak, and a number of petty princes, reigned in 
Syria and the neighbouring countries ; the Fata- 
mite Caliphs of Egypt were masters of Jerusalem, 
and part of Falestine, when the mania of the 
crusades converted that region of the East into 
a theatre of carnage and devastation. For two 
hundred years Asia was seen contending with 
Europe, and the Christian nations making the 
most extraordinary efforts to maintain the con- 
quest of Falestine and the neighbouring states, 
against the arms of the Mahometans. 

At length there arose among the Mussulmans 
a man of superior genius, who rendered himself 
formidable by his warlike prowess to the Christians 
in the East, and deprived them of the fruits of 
their numerous victories. This conqueror was the 
famous Saladin, or Salaheddin, the son of Ayoub, 
or Job, and founder of the dynasty of the Ayou- 
bites. The Atabek Noureddin, son of Amadoddin 
Zenghi, had sent him into Egypt (1168), to assist 
the Fatamite Caliph against the Franks, or Cru- 
saders of the West. While there, he was declared 
vizier and general of the armies of the Caliph ; 
and so well had he established his power in that 
country, that he effected the substitution of the 
Abassidian Caliphs in place of the Fatamites ; and 
ultimately caused himself to be proclaimed sultan 
on the death of Noureddin (1171), under whom 
he had served in the quality of lieutenant. Having 
vanquished Egypt, he next subdued the dominions 
of Noureddin in Syria ; and, after having extended 
his victories over this province, as well as Mesopo- 
tamia, Assyria, Armenia, and Arabia, he turned 
his arms against the Christians in Falestine, whom 
he had hemmed in, as it were, with his conquests. 
These princes, separated into petty sovereignties, 
divided by mutual jealousy, and a prey to the dis- 
tractions of anarchy, soon yielded to the valour of 
the heroic Mussulman. The battle which they 
fought (1187) at Hittin, near Tiberias (or Ta- 
baria), was decisive. The Christians sustained a 
total defeat ; and Guy of Lusignan, a weak prince 
vrithout talents, and the last King of Jerusalem, 
fell into the hands of the conqueror. All the 
cities of Falestine opened their gates to Saladin, 
either voluntarily or at the point of the sword. 
Jerusalem surrendered after a siege of fourteen 
days. This defeat rekindled the zeal of the Chris- 
tians in the West ; and the most powerful sove- 
reigns in Europe were again seen conducting 
innumerable armies to the relief of the Holy 
Land. But the ^ents and bravery of Saladin 
rendered all their efforts unavailing ; and it was 
not till after a murderous siege of three years, that 
they succeeded in retaking Sie city of Ptolemais, 
or Acre ; and thus arresting, for a short space, the 
total extermination of the Christians in the East. 

On the death of Saladin, whose heroism is ex- 
tolled by Christian as well as Mahometan authors, 
his Empire was divided among his sons. Several 
princes, his dependants, and known by the name 
of Ayoubites, reigned afterwards in f^ypt, Syria, 
Armenia, and Yemen, or Arabia the Happy. 
These princes quarreUing and making war vrith 
each other, their territories fell, in the thirteenth 
century, under the dominion of the Mamelukes. 
These Mamelukes (an Arabic word which signifies 
a slave) were Turkish or Tartar captives, whom 

Dominion of the Hajnelokes. 
62 Their eonqaests. 

Franks expelled tnm Syria. 


Fmrer oTflie Fbatift. 
Arroganee of BoDiboe Vm. 
Temponl dottlaian of Boar, 

the Syrian merchants purchaaed from the Mogals, 
and sent into Egypt nnder the reign of the Sultan 
Saleh, of the Ayoubite dynasty. That prince 
bought them in yast numbers, and ordered them to 
be trained to the exercise of arms in one of the 
maritime cities of Egypt.*' From this school he 
raised them to the highest offices of trust in the 
state, and even selected from them his own body 
guard. In a very short time these slaves became 
so numerous and so powerful, that, in the end, 
they seired the government, after having assas- 
sinated the Sultan Touran Shah (son and successor 
of Saleh), who had in vain attempted to disen- 
tangle himBelf of their chains, and recover the 
authority which they had usurped over him. This 
revolution (1250) happened in the very presence 
of St. Louis, who, having been taken prisoner at 
the battle of Mansoura, had just concluded a truce 
of ten years with the Sultan of Egypt. The 
Mameluke Ibeg, who was at first appointed regent, 
or Atabek, was soon after proclaimed Sultan of 

The dominion of the Mamelukes existed In 
Egypt for the space of 263 years. Their numbers 
being constantly recruited by Turkish or Circas- 

sian slaves, they disposed of tiie tlinme of Efypt 
at their pleasure ; and the crown generally fell to 
the share of the most audacious of the gang, pro- 
vided he was a native of Turi^istan. These Ma. 
melukes had even the courage to attack the 
Moguls, and took from them the kingdoms of 
Damascus and Aleppo in Syria (1210), of whack 
the latter had dispossessed the Ayoubite princes. 
All the princes of this latter dynasty, with those 
of Syria and Yemen, adopted the expedient c^ 
submitting to the Mamelukes ; who, in order to 
become masters of all Syria, had only to reduR 
the cities and territories which the Fnnks, or 
Christians of the West, still retained in their pos- 
session. They first attacked the principality of 
Antioch, which they soon conquered (1308). 
They next turned their arms against the county c^ 
Tripoli, the capital of which they took by assaok 
(1280). The city of Ptolemais shared the same 
Aite ; after an obstinate and murderous siege, it 
was carried sword in hand. Tyre svorendeitd 
on capitulation; and the Franks were entiielj 
expelled from Syria and the East in the year 



TURKS. A.D. 1300—1463. 

At the commencement of this period the Ponti- 
fical power was in the xenith of its grandeur. The 
Popes proudly assumed the title of Masters of the 
Worid ; and asserted that their authority, by divine 
right, comprehended every other, both spiritual 
and temporal. Boniface YIII. went even iarther 
than his predecessors had done. According to 
him, the secular power was nothing else than a 
mere emanation from the ecclesiastical ; and this 
double power of the Pope was even made an 
article of belief, and founded on the sacred Scrip- 
tures. « God has intrusted" (said he) «• to St. 
Peter and his successors, two swords, the one 
spiritual, and the other temporal. The former 
can be exercised by the church alone ; the other, 
by the secular princes, for the service of the 
church, and in submission to the will of the Pope. 
This latter, that is, the temporal sword, is subor- 
dinate to the former ; and all temporal authority 
necessarily depends on the spiritual, which judges 
it; whereas God alone can judge the spiritual 
power. Finally, (added he,) it is absolutely in- 
dispensable to salvation, that every human crea- 
ture be subject to the Pope of Rome." This 
same Pope published the first Jubilee riSOO), with 
plenary indulgence for all who should visit the 
churches of St. Peter and St. Paul at Rome. An 
immense crowd from all parts of Christendom 
flocked to this capital of the Western world, and 
filled its treasury with their pious contributions. * 

The spiritual power of the Popes, and their 
Jurisdiction over the clergy, was moreover increased 
every day, by means of dispensations and appeals, 
whldi had multiplied exceedingly since the in- 
troduction of the Decretals of Gregory IX. They 

disposed, In the most absolute mami«>, of the 
dignities and benefices of the Church, and imposed 
taxes at their pleasure on all the clergy in Chiistes- 
dom. CoUectors or treasurers were estabtiahed 
by them, who superintended the levying of tbt 
dues they had found means to exact, under a mul- 
titude of different denominations. These edlleeton 
were empowered, by means of ecclesiastical cen- 
sure, to proceed against those who should refiise to 
pay. They were supported by the authority of the 
legates who reside in the ecclesiastical provinces, 
and seized with avidity every occasion to extend 
the usurpation of the Pope. Moreover, in sup- 
port of Uiese legates appeared a vast number of 
Religious and Mendicant Orders, founded in those 
ages of ignorance; besides legions of monka dta- 
persed over all the states of Christendom. 

Nothing is more remarkable than the infloenee of 
the papal authority over the temporalitiea of princes. 
We find them interfering in all their quarrels — 
addressing their commands to all without diatinc- 
tion — enjoining some to lay dovm their arms — re- 
ceiving others under their protection — rescindiDg 
and annulling their acts and proceedinga— «innnion- 
ing them to their court, and acting as arbiters in 
their disputes. The history of the Popes is the 
history of all Europe. They assumed the privile|re 
of legitimating the sons of kings, in order to qnaliij- 
them for the succession ; they forbade sovereigns 
to tax the clergy ; they claimed a feudal superiority 
over all, and exercised it over a very great number ; 
they conferred royalty on those who were ambi> 
tious of power ; they released subjects from tbeir 
oath of allegiance ; dethroned sovereigns at their 
pleasure; and laid kingdoms and empires under 

Betiitenee to Rome. 
Philip the ndr of ftanee. 
Hu dispate with Bonlhee. 

PERIOD V. A.D. 1300—1453. 

Exeomittanicatl<m of Louis 

of Bavaria. 63 

Fkpal Me at Avignon. 

interdict, to aTenge their own qiumreUi. We find 
them disposing of the states of excommunicated 
princes, as well as those of heretics and their fol- 
lowers ; of islands and kingdoms newly disoorered ; 
of the property of infidels or schismatics; and 
even of Catholics who refused to how hefoie the 
insolent tyranny of the Popes.' 

ThuS) it is ohvious that the cotirt of Bome» at 
the time of which we speak, enjoyed a conspicuous 
preponderance in the political system of Europe. 
But in the ordinary course of human afikirs, this 
power, Tast and Ibrmidahle as it was, began, 
firom Uie fourteenth century, gradually to diminish. 
The mightiest empires have their appointed term ; 
and the highest stage of their elevation is often the 
first step of their decline. Kings, becoming more 
and more enlightened as to their true interests, 
learned to support the rights and tiie majesty of 
their crowns against the encroachments of the 
Popes. Those who were rassals and tributaries 
of the Holy See gradually shook off the yoke ; 
even the clergy, who groaned under the weight 
of this spiritual despotism, joined the secular 
princes in repressing these abuses, and restraining 
within proper bounds a power which was making 
incessant encroachments on their just prerogatives. 

Among the causes which operated the downfal 
of the pontifical power may be ranked the excess 
of the power itsetf, and the abuses of it made by 
the Popes. By issuing too often their anatiiemas 
and interdicts, they rendered them useless and con- 
temptible ; and by their haughty treatment of the 
greatest princes, they learned to become inflexible 
and boundless in their own pretensions. An in- 
stance of this may be recorded, in the famous dis- 
pute which arose between Boniface VIII. and 
Philip the Fair, King of Fiance. Not content with 
constituting himself judge between the King and 
his vassal, the Count of Flanders, that pontiff 
maintained, that the King could not exact subsidies 
from the clergy without his permission ; and that 
the right of Regale (or the revenues of vacant 
bishoprics) which the Crown enjoyed, was an abuse 
which should not be tolerated.' He treated as a 
piece of insanity the prohibition of Philip against 
exporting either gold or silver out of the Icin^om ; 
and sent an order to aU the prelates in France to 
repair in person to Rome on the Ist of November, 
there to sdvise measures for correcting the King 
and reforming the state. He declared, formally, 
that the King vfas subject to the Pope, as well in 
temporal as in spiritual matters ; and that it was 
a foolish persuasion to suppose that the King had 
no superior on earth, and vras not dependent on 
the supreme Pontiff. 

Philip ordered the papal buU which contained 
these extravagant assertions to be burnt ; he for- 
bade his ecclesiastics to leave the realm; and 
having twice assembled the States-General of the 
kingdom (1302-3), he adopted, vrith their advice 
and approbation, measures against these dangerous 
pretensions of Ae court of Rome. The Three 
Kntates, who appeared for the first time in these 
Assemblies, declared themselves strongly in favour 
of the King, and the independence of the crown. 
In consequence, the excommunication which the 
Pope had threatened asainst the King proved in- 
effectual. Philip made his appeal to a future 
assembly, to which the three orders of the State 

The Emperor Louis of Bavaria, a prince of 
superior merit, having incurred the censures of the 
Church for defending the rights and prerogatives 
of his crown, could not oMaln absolution, not- 
withstanding the most humiliating condescensions, 
and the offer which he made to resign the Impe- 
rial dignity, and surrender himself, his crown and 
his property, to the discretion of the Pope. He 
was loaded with curses and anathemas, after a 
series of various proceedings which had been in- 
stituted against him. The bull of Pope Clement 
YI., on this occasion, far surpassed all those of his 
predecessors. <* May God (said he, in speaking 
of the Emperor) smite him with madness and dis- 
ease; may heaven crush him with its thunder- 
bolts; may the mtith of God, and that of St. 
Peter and St. Paul, fall on him in this world and 
the next; may the whole universe combine against 
him; may the earth swallow him up alive; may 
his name perish in the first generation, and his 
memory disappear from the earth; may all the 
elements conspire against him ; may his children, 
delivered into the hands of his enemies, be mas- 
sacred before the eyes of their father." The 
indignity of such proceedings roused the attention 
of the princes tfnd states of the Empire ; and on 
the representation of the Electoral College, they 
thought proper to check these boundless preten- 
sions of the Popes, by a decree which was passed 
at the Diet of Frankfort in 1888. This decree, 
regarded as the fundamental law of the Empire, 
declared, in substance, that the Imperial dignity 
was held only of God ; that he whom the Electors 
had chosen emperor by a plurality of sufirages, 
was, in virtue of that election, a true king and 
emperor, and needed neither confirmation nor 
coronation from the hands of the Pope ; and that 
all persons who should maintain the contrary, 
should be treated as guilty of high treason. 

Among other events prejudicial to the authority 
of the Popes, one was, the translation of the pon- 
tifical see from Rome to Avignon. Clement T., 
archbishop of Bourdeaux, having been advanced to 
the papacy (1305), instead of repairing to Rome, 
had his coronation celebrated at Lyons ; and thence 
he transferred his residence to Avignon (1309), 
out of complaisance to Philip the Fair, to whom 
he owed his elevation. The snccesson of this 
Pope continued their court at Avignon until 1367, 
when Gregory XI. again removed the see to Rome. 
This sojourn at Avignon tended to weaken the 
authority of the Popes, and diminish the respect 
and veneration whi(^ till then had been paid them. 
The prevailing opinion beyond the Alps admitted 
no other city than that of Rome for the true capital 
of St. Peter; and they despised the Popes of 
Avignon as aliens, who, besides, were there sur- 
rounded with powerful princes, to whose caprice 
they were often obliged to yield, and to make con- 
descensions prejudicial to the authority they had 
usurped. This circumstance, joined to the lapse 
of nearly seventy years, made the residence at 
Avignon be stigmatized by the Italians, under 
the name of the Bahylomsh Captivity. It occa- 
sioned also the diminution of the papal authority 
at Rome, and in the Ecclesiastical States. The 
Italians, no longer restrained by the presence of 
the sovereign pontiffs, yielded but a reluctant 
obedience to their representatives ; while the re- 
membrance of their ancient republicanism Induced 

fii(4izi tribune of Rome. 
64 Schism of the church. 

Urban VI. John XXI 11. 


CouBcU of ComteB 

them to lend a docile ear to those who preached up 
insurrection and revolt. Historians inform us, 
that Nicolas Gabrini de Rienxo, or Cola di Riensi, 
a man of great eloquence, and whose audacity was 
equal to his ambition, took advantage of these re- 
publican propensities of the Romans, to constitute 
himself master of the city, under the popular title of 
Tribune (1347). He projected the scheme of a new 
government, called the Good Batate, which he 
pretended would obtain the acceptation of all the 
princes and republics of Italy; but the despotic 
power which he exercised over the citizens, whose 
liberator and lawgiver he affected to be, soon re- 
duced him to his original insignificance ; and the 
city of Rome again assumed its ancient form of 
government. Meantime the Popes did not re- 
cover their former authority ; most of the cities 
and states of the Ecclesiastical dominions, after 
having been long a prey to faction and discord, 
fell under the power of the nobles, who made an 
easy conquest of them; scarcely leaving to the 
Pope a vestige of the sovereign authority. It re- 
quired all the insidious policy of Alexander YI., 
and the vigilant activity of Julius II., to repair 
the injury which the territorial influence of the 
pontira had suffered from their residence at 

ijxother circumstance that contributed to 
humble the papal authority was the schisms which 
rent the Church, towards the end of the fourteenth, 
and beginning of the fifteenth century. Gregory 
XI., who had abandoned Avignon for Rome, being 
dead (1378), the Italians elected a Pope of their 
own nation, who took the name of Urban YI., 
and fixed his residence at Rome. The French 
cardinals, on the other hand, declared in favour of 
the Cardinal Robert of Geneva, known by the 
name of Clement YII., who fixed his capital at 
Arignon. The whole of Christendom was divided 
between these two Popes ; and this grand schism 
continued from 1378 till 1417. At Rome, Urban 
YI. was succeeded by Bonifiice IX., Innocent 
YII., and Gregory XII. ; while Clement YII. had 
Benedict XIII. for his successor at Avignon. In 
order to terminate this schism, every expedient 
was tried to induce the rival Popes to give in 
their abdication ; but both having refused, several 
of the Cardinals withdrew their allegiance, and 
assembled a council at Pisa (1409), where the 
two refractory Popes were deposed, and the ponti- 
fical dignity conferred on Alexander Y., who was 
afterwards succeeded by John XXIII. This 
election of the council only tended to increase 
the schism. Instead of two Popes, there arose 
three ; and if his Pisan Holiness gained partisans, 
the Popes of Rome and Avignon contrived also to 
maintain each a number of supporters. All these 
Popes, wishing to maintain their rank and dignity 
vrith that splendour and magnificence which their 
predecessors had displayed before the schism, set 
themselves to invent new means of oppressing the 
people ; hence the immense number of abuses and 
exactions, which subverted the discipline of the 
church, and roused the exasperated nations against 
the court of Rome. 

A new General Council vras convoked at Con- 
stance (1414) by order of the Emperor Sigismund ; 
and it was there that the maxim of the unity 
and permanency of Councils was established, as 
well as of its superiority over the Pope, in all that 

pertains to matters of faith, to the extirpation d 
schism, and the reformation of the Church, both i£ 
its supreme head, and in its Bubordinate membcn. 
The grand schism vras here tenniziaied by t^ 
abdication of the Roman pontiff, and the deposi- 
tion of those of Pisa and Avignon. It vras this 
famous Council thatgave their deciaioiL aigainat Jobs 
Huss, the Reformer of Bohemia, and a follower of 
the celebrated Wickliff. His doctrines wen coo- 
demned, and he himself burnt at Consteace: « 
was Jerome of Prague, one of his moat aealow 
partisans. As to the measures that vrere taken a! 
Constance for effecting the reformation of tiv 
Church, they practically ended in nothing. A* 
their main object was to reform the eoort of 
Rome, by suppressing or limiting the new prero- 
gatives wnich Uie Popes for several ceataries had 
usurped, and which referred, amonif other things, 
to the subject of benefices and pecuniary ^r^^f^, 
all those who had an interest in maintaining these 
abuses, instantly set themselves to defeat the pro- 
posed amendments, and elude redreaa. The 
Council had formed a committee, conapoaed of the 
deputies of different nations, to advise nseans fior 
accomplishing this reformation, which the vriboK 
world so ardently desired. This committee, knowc 
by the name of the College qf Rf^ m mti s, had 
a&eady made considerable progress in their tstk, 
when a question was started. Whether it vras pn>- 
per to proceed to any reformation without th? 
consent and co-operation of the visible Head of the 
Church t It was carried in the negatiTe, thxoa|[h ' 
the intrigues of the cardinals ; and, before thr; . 
could accomplish this salutary work of r e fonas- ' 
tion, the election of a new Pope had taken placi^ 
(1417). The choice fell on Otho de Coloma. 
who assumed the name of Martin V., and in ' 
conformity with a previous decision of the CoanriU 
he then laid before them a scheme of refom. 
This proceeding having been disapproved by tltp ■ 
different nations of Europe, the whole matter was . 
remitted to the next Council ; and in the mcaa- I 
while, they did nothing more tiban pass some con- i 
cordats, with the new Pope, as to what steps the; ' 
should take until the decision of the approacfainir | 
Council. I 

This new Council, which vras assembled at Basle I 
(1431) by Martin Y., resumed the suspended work , 
of reformation. The former decrees, that a Gene- 
ral Council was superior to the Pope, and could i 
not be dissolved or prorogued except by their own t 
free consent, were here renewed ; and the greater ■ 
part of the reserves, reversions, annats, and other | 
exactions of the Popes, were regularly abolished. , 
The liberty of appeals to the court of Borne was ' 
also circumscribed. Eugenius lY., succeasor to | 
Martin Y., alarmed at the destruction thus aimed 
at his authority, twice proclaimed the dissolutioB i 
of the Council. The first dissolution, which oe- | 
curred on the 17th of December, 1431, was re- 1 
voked, at the urgent application of the £mperor 
Sigismund, by a bull of the same Pope, issued on 
the 15th of December, 1433. In this he acknow- 
ledged the validity of the Council, and annulled 
all that he had formerly done to invalidate its au- 
thority. The second dissolution took place on the 
Ist of October, 1437. Eugenius then trsnsfomd 
the Council to Ferrara, and fit>m Ferrara to Flo- 
rence, on pretext of his negociating a union with 
the Greek church. This conduct of the P<qpe oc- 

The Pngtaaiic Sojotdau. 
Liberties of GaUicui Chiiidi. 
JohnofFtois. Dante. 

FEBIOD y. A.D. 1300^1453. 

Roger Becon. 

Petrarch. Boccacio. 65 

Linen and Cotton Fiap«v. 

casloned a new schism. The prelates who re- 
mained at Basle instituted a procedure against 
him ; they first suspended him for contumacy, and 
finally deposed him. Amadeus YIII., ex-Duke of 
Saxouy, was elected in his place, under the name 
of Felix v., and recognised by all the partisans of 
the Council as the legitimate Pope. This latter 
schism lasted ten years. Felix Y. at length gave 
in his demission; and the Council, which had 
witlidrawn from Basle to Lausanne, terminated its 
sittings in 1449. 

The French nation adopted sereral of the de- 
crees of the Council of Basle in the famous Prag- 
matic Sanction, which Charles YII. caused to be 
drawn up at Bourges (1438) ; and whose stipula- 
tions served as the basis of what is called the Xrt- 
berties qf the GaUican Church* The example of 
the French was speedily followed by the Germans, 
who acceded to these decrees, at the Diet of May- 
ence, in 1439. The court of Rome at length re- 
gained a part of those honourable and lucrative 
rights of which the Council of Basle had deprived 
them, by the concordats which the Germans con- 
cluded (1448) with Nicholas Y., and the French 
(1516) with Leo X. The Councils of which we 
have- now spoken tended materially to limit the 
exorliitant power of the Roman ponti£b, by giving 
sanction to the principle which established the su- 
periority of General Councils over the Popes. This 
maxim put a check to the enterprising ambition of 
the court of Rome ; and kings availed themselves 
of it to recover by degrees the prerogatives of their 
, crowns. The Popes, moreover, sensible of their 
weakness, and of the need they had for the protec- 
tion of the sovereigns, learned to treat them with 
more attention and respect. 

At length the new light which began to dawn 
about the fourteenth century, hastened on the pro- 
gress of this revolution, by gradually dissipating 
the darkness of superstition into which the nations 
of Europe were almost universally sunk. In the 
midst of the distractions which agitated the Em- 
pire and the Church, and during the papal schism, 
several learned and intrepid men made their ap- 
pearance, who, while investigating the origin and 
abuse of the new power of the Popes, had tiie cou- 
rage to revive the doctrine of the ancient canons, 
to enlighten the minds of sovereigns as to their 
true rights, and to examine with care into the just 
limits of the sacerdotal authority. Among the first 
of these reformers was John of Paris, a famous 
Dominican, who undertook the defence of Philip 
the Fair, King of France, against Pope Boniface 
Till. His example was followed by the cele- 
brated poet, Dante Alighieri, who took the part of 
the £mperor Louis of Bavaria against the court of 
Rome. Marsilo de Padua, John de Janduno, 
^'illiam Ockam, Leopold de Babenberg, &c., 
marched in the track of the Italian poet; and 
among the crowd of writers that signalized them- 
selves after the grand schism, three French authors 
particularly distinguished themselves, Peter d' Ailly, 
Nicholas de Clemange, and John Gerson, whose 
writings met with general applause. Most of these 
literary productions, however, were characterized 
by bad taste. The philosophy of Aristotle, studied 
in Arabic translations, and disfigured by scholastic 
subtleties, reigned in all the schools, imposed its 
fetters on the human mind, and nearly extinguished 
every vestige of useful knowledge. The belles 

lettres were quite neglected, and as yet had shed 
no lustre on the sciences. Sometimes, however, 
genius broke with a transient splendour through 
Uie darkness of this moral horizon ; and several 
extraordinary persons, despising the vain cavils of 
the schools, began to study tru& in the volume of 
nature, and to copy after the beautiful models of 
antiquity. Such was Roger Bacon (who died in 
1294), an Englishman, and a Franciscan friar, who 
has become so fietmous by his discoveries in che- 
mistry and mechanical philosophy. Dante, nur- 
tured in the spirit of the ancients, was the first 
that undertook to refine the Italian language into 
poetry, and gave it the polish of elegance and grace 
in his compositions (he died in 1321). He was 
succeeded by two other celebrated authors, Pe- 
trarca (who died in 1374), and Boccacio (1375). 

The period of which we speak gave birth to se- 
veral new inventions, which proved useful auxili- 
aries to men of genius, and tended to accelerate 
the progress ofknowledge, letters, and arts. Among 
the principal of these may be mentioned the inven- 
tion of writing paper, oU-painting, printing, gun- 
powder, and the mariner's compass ; to the efiects 
of which Europe, in a great measure, owes its civi- 
lization, and the new order of things which ap- 
peared in the fifteenth century. 

Before the invention of paper from linen, parch- 
ment was generally used in Europe for the tran- 
scribing of books, or the drawing out of public 
deeds. Cotton paper, which the Arabs brought 
from the East, was but a poor remedy for the 
scarceness and dearth of parchment. It would 
appear, that the invention of paper from linen, and 
the custom of using it in Europe, is not of older 
date than the thirteenth century. The famous 
Montfaucon acknowledges, that, in spite of all his 
researches, both in France and lUdy, he could 
never find any manuscript or charter, written on 
our ordinary paper, older than the year 1270, the 
time when St. Louis died. The truth is, we know 
neither the exact date of the invention of this sort 
of paper, nor the name of the inventor.' It is 
certain, however, that the manufacture of paper 
from cotton must have introduced that of paper 
from linen ; and the only questiou is, to determine 
at what time the use of linen became so common 
in Europe, as to lead us to suppose they might 
convert its rags into paper. The cultivation of 
hemp and flax being originally peculiar to the 
northern countries, it is probable that the first at- 
tempts at making paper of linen rags were made 
in Germany, and the countries abounding in flax 
and hemp, rather than in the soutliem provinces 
of Europe. The most ancient manufactory of 
paper from linen to be met with in Germany v^as 
esUblished at Nuremberg (1390). 

The invention of oil-painting is generally 
ascribed to the two brothers Yan-Eick, the younger 
of whom, known by the name of John of Bruges, 
had gained considerable celebrity about the end of 
the fourteenth century. There is, however, reason 
to believe that this invention is of an older date. 
There are two authors who have carried it back to 
the eleventh century, viz., Theophilus and Eraclius, 
whose works in manuscript have been preserved in 
the library at Wolffenbiittel, and in that of Trinity 
College, Cambridge ; and who speak of this art as 
already known in their times. According to them, 
all sorts of colours could be mixed up with Unseed 

Invention of Oil-paiuting. 
Inveution of Printin|{. 
Peter Schaffer. Gutenberg. 


Bufraring on capper. 

oil, and employed in painting ; but they agree as 
to the inconvenience of applying this kind of paint- 
ing to images or portraits, on account of the diffi- 
culty in drying colours mixed with oil. Admitting 
the credibility of these two authors, and the high 
. antiquity of their works, it would appear, never- 
theless, that they made no great use of this inven- 
tion ; whether it may be that painters preferred to 
retain their former mode, or that the difficulty of 
drying oil colours had discouraged them. It is, 
however, too true, that the finest inventions have 
often languished in unmerited neglect, long before 
men had learned to reap any adequate advantage 
from them. Were the Yan-Eicks the first that 
practised this style of painting t Or did John of 
Bruges, the younger of the brothers, and who car- 
ried it to the highest degree of perfection, invent 
some mixture or composition for increasing the 
exsiccative qualities of linseed or nut oil ; espe- 
cially with regard to colours not eajily dried 1 It 
belongs to connoisseurs and artists to examine 
these questions, as well as to decide whether the 
pictures, alleged to have been painted in oil colours 
before the time of the Yan-Eicks, were executed 
with any degree of perfection in that style of paint- 
ing.* This invention totally changed the system 
and the principles of the art of painting. It gave 
birth to rules as to light and shade, and procured 
modem painters one advantage over the ancients, 
that of rendering their works much more durable. 
One of the most important inventions is that of 
printing ; which was borrowed, it would appear, 
from the art of engraving on wood ; while this 
latter owes its origin to the moulding or imprinting 
of common cards, which seems to have suggested 
the first idea of it. The use of cards was borrowed 
from Italy ; though we find this custom established 
in Germany soon after the commencement of the 
fourteenth century, where card-makers formed a 
distinct trade, about four and twenty years before 
the invention of printing. It is probable that the 
Germans were the first who designed models and 
proper casts for the impression of cards.^ The 
desire of gain suggested to these card-makers the 
idea of engraving on wood, after the same manner, 
all kinds of figures or scenes frofti Sacred History, 
accompanied with legends, or narratives, intended 
to explain their meaning. It was from these 
legends, printed in single folios, and published 
also in the form of books, or rather of impressions 
from engravings on solid blocks of wood, that the 
art of typography took its origin.* This wonder- 
fill art, to which Europe owes its astonishing pro- 
gress in the sciences, consists of two distinct inven- 
tions, — ^that of the moveable typee, and that of the 
font. The former belongs to John Gutenbuig, a 
gentleman of Mayence, who made his first attempt 
in moveable types at Strosburg, in 1436; the 
other, which is generally attributed to Peter Schoef- 
fer of Gemsheim, took place at Mayence in 1452. 
Gutenberg resided at Strasbuig from 1424 till 1445. 
Being a noble senator of that city, he married a 
lady of rank ; and during the twenty years of his 
residence there, he cultivated all sorts of occult 
arts, especially that of printing. It was chiefly in 
reference to this latter art that he contracted an 
acquaintance with several of his wealthy fellow- 
citisens, one of whom, named Andrew Drifehn, 
having died, his heirs brought an action against 
Gutenberg on account of some claims which they 

made against him. The magistrate o idere d an 
inquiry to be instituted, the original copj of wliidi, 
drawn up in 1439, was discovered by 8clMEpdin 
(1745) in the archives of the city, and ie still pre- 
served in the public library at Strasbuiig. Accord- 
ing to this authentic document, it appears, that 
from the year 1436 there existed a priiitin^-pfv» 
at Strasbuig, under the direction of Gutenbere. 
and in the house of Andre wDriaehn, his associate ; 
that this press consisted of forms, that were fas- 
tened or locked by means of screws ; and that tiw' 
types, either cut or engraved, which were endosei! 
within these forms, were moveable.* 

Gutenberg, after his return to Mayence, ?ti]i 
continued his typographical labours. 'While thnr 
he contracted an acquaintance with a new asso- 
ciate in the exercise of his art (1445) — the frmow 
John Faust, a citizen of Mayence. This secvjci* 
alliance continued only five years ; and it is within 
this interval, as is generally supposed, that the in- 
vention of the font, or casting of types, should br 
placed ; as well as that of the die and the mouU 
or matrix, bv the help of which the art of trpL- 
graphy was brought nearly to its present stftfp or 
perfection.^* Some disputes, which had iwa. 
between these new associates, having disaoh^ 
their partnership, Faust obtained the press of Gat- 
enbeig, with all its printing apparatus, which had 
fallen to him by sequestration. Gutenberg^, bov- 
ever, fitted up another press, and continued to 
print till the time of his death, in 1468. Not ooe 
of the books which issued from the press of thk ' 
celebrated man, either at Strasburg or Mayence, 
bears the name of the inventor, or the date of ihe 
impression ; whether it was that Gutenberg mid<p i 
a secret of his invention, or that the prejodices '-^f . 
the class to which he belonged prevented him froB 
boasting of his discovery.^ Faust, on the coo- i 
trary, no sooner saw himself master of Gutenbog's 
presses, than he became ambitious of notoriety, so 
example of which he gave by prefixing his naor 
and that of Peter SchsfTer to the famous Psalter, ' 
which they published in 1457. 

The arts of which we have Just spoken, in &D 
probability, suggested the idea of engraving on i 
copper, of which we can discover certain trsres 
towards the middle of the fifteenth century. The { 
honour of this invention is generally ascribed to a 
goldsmith of Florence, named Maso Finiguerra, | 
who is supposed to have made this discovery about 
the year 1400, while engraving figures on silrer- I 
plate. Baccio Baldini, another Florentine, An- . 
drew Montegna, and Mark Antony Raimondi, I 
both Italians, followed in the steps of Finiguem. | 
and brought this art to a high degree of per^ction. 
There is, however, some cause to doubt whethrr t 
Finiguerra was exactly the first to whom the idn 
of this sort of engraving occurred ; since, in dif- > 
ferent cabinets in Europe, we find specimens of : 
engraving on copper, of a date earlier than what ' 
has been assigned to Finiguerra. If, however, the i 
glory of this invention belongs in reality to the ' 
Italians, it is quite certain that the art of engrariiu: I 
on copper, as well as on wood, was cultivated frvm ' 
its infrncy, and brought to perfection, in Germanv. ; 
The first native engravers in that country who arr 
known, either by their names or their signatures, 
in the fifteenth century, were Martin Schoen, a 
painter and engraver at Colmar, lihere he died in 
1406 ; the two IsraeUi Yon Mechein, &ther and r 


Albert Durer. 

GoBpowder used in wufi^e. 

Artillery. Fire-arms. 

PERIOD V. A.D. 180a-.1463. 

Ma^etic needle. 

Mariner's Compass. 67 

The Lombard merchants. 

son, who resided at Bockholt, in Westphalia ; and 
Michael Wolgemuth of Nuremberg, the master of 
the celebrated Albert Durer, who made bo conspi- 
cuous a %ure about the end of the fifteenth and 
beglnuLng of the sixteenth century. 

Next to the invention of printing, there is no 
other that so much arrests our attention as that of 
gunpowder, which, by introducing artillery, and a 
new method of fortifjfing, attacking, and defending 
cities, wrought a complete change in the whole 
art and tactics of war. This inyention comprises 
several discoveries which it is necessary to dis- 
tinguish from each other. 1. The discovery of 
nitre, the principal ingredient in gunpowder, and 
the cause of its detonation. 2. The mixture of 
nitre vrith sulphur and charcoal, which, properly 
speaking, forms the invention of gunpowder. 3. 
The application of powder to fire-works. 4. Its 
employment as an agent or propelling power for 
throwing stones, bullets, or other heavy and com- 
bustib le bodies. 5. Its employment in springing 
mines, and destroying fortifications. 

All these discoveries belong to different epochs. 
The knowledge of saltpetre or nitre, and its ex- 
plosive properties, called detonation, is very an- 
cient. Most probably it was brought to us firom 
the East (India or China), where saltpetre is 
found in a natural state of preparation. It is not 
less probable that the nations of the East were 
acquainted virith the composition of gunpowder 
before the Europeans, and that it was the Arabs 
who first introduced the use of it into Europe. 
The celebrated Roger Bacon, an English monk 
or friar of the thirteenth century, was acquainted 
with the composition of gunpowder, and its employ- 
ment in fire-works and public fiestivities; and ac- 
cording to aU appearances, he obtained this in- 
formation from the Arabic authors, who excelled 
in their skill of the chemical sciences. The em- 
ployment of gunpowder in Europe as an agent for 
throwing balls and stones is ascertained to have 
been about the commencement of the fourteenth 
century ; and it vras the Arabs who first availed 
themselves of its advantages in their wars against 
the Spaniards. From Spain the use of gunpowder 
and artillery passed to France, and thence it 
gradually extended over the other States of Eu- 
rope. As to the application of gunpowder to mines, 
and the destruction of fortified works, it does not 
appear to have been in practice before the end of 
the fifteenth century.*' The introduction of bombs 
and mortars seems to have been of an earlier date 
(1467). The invention of these in Europe is at- 
tributed to Sigismund Fandolph Malatesta, Prince 
of Rimini ; but in France they were not in use till 
about the reign of Louis XIII. Muskets and 
matchlocks began to be introduced early in the 
fifteenth century. They were without spring- 
locks till 1517, when for the first time muskets 
and pistols vnth spring-locks were manufactured 
at Nuremberg. 

Several circumstances tended to check the pro- 
gress of fire-arms and the improvement of artillery. 
Custom made most people prefer their ancient 
engines of war ; the construction of cannon was 
but imperfect ;*' the manufibcture of gunpowder 
bad ; and there was a very general aversion to the 
newly invented arms, as contrary to humanity, 
and calculated to extinguish military bravery. 
Above all, the knights, whose science was ren- 

dered completely useless by the introduction of 
fire-arms, set themselves with all their might to 
oppose this invention. 

From what we have just said it is obvious, that 
the common tradition which ascribes the invention 
of gunpowder to a certain monk, named Berthold 
Schwartz, merits no credit whatever. This tradi- 
tion is founded on mere hearsay ; and no writers 
agree as to the name, the country, or the circum- 
stances of this pretended inventor ; nor as to the 
time and place when he made this extraordinary 
discovery. Lastly, the mariner's compass, so 
essential to the art of navigation, was likewise the 
production of the barbarous ages to which we 
now refer. The ancients were aware of the pro- 
perty of the magnet to attract iron ; but its dkec- 
tion towards the pole, and the maimer of commu- 
nicating its magnetic virtues to iron and bteel, 
were unknown even to all those nations of ahti- 
quity who were renowned for their navigation and 
commerce. This discovery is usually attributed 
to a citizen of Amalfi, named Flavio Gioia, who is 
said to have lived about the beginning of the four- 
teenth century. This tradition, ancient though it 
be, cannot be admitted, because we have incon- 
testable evidence, that, before this period, the 
polarity of the loadstone and the magnetic needle 
were known in Europe ; and that, from the com- 
mencement of the thirteenth century, the Pro- 
ven9al mariners made use of the compass in navi- 

It must be confessed, however, that we can 
neither point out the original author of this valu- 
able discovery, nor the true time when it was 
made. All that can be well ascertained is, that 
the mariner's compass vras rectified by degrees ; 
and that the English had no small share in these 
corrections. It is to this polar virtue or quality of 
the loadstone, and the magnetic needle, that we 
owe the astonishing progress of commerce and 
navigation in Europe, from the end of the fifteenth 
century. These were already very considerable at 
the time of which we speak, although navigation 
was yet confined to the Mediterranean, the Baltic, 
and the shores of the Indian Ocean. 

The cities of Italy, the Hanseatic towns, and 
those of the Low Countries, engrossed, at that 
time, the principal commerce of Europe. The 
Venetians, the Genoese, and the Florentines, were 
masters of the Levant. The Genoese had more 
especially the command of the Black Sea, while 
the Venetians laid claim exclusively to the com- 
merce of India and the East, which they carried 
on through the ports of Egypt and Syria. This 
rivalry in trade embroiled these two republics in 
frequent disputes, and involved them in long and 
sanguinary wars. The result turned in feivour of 
the Venetians, who found means to maintain the 
empire of the Mediterranean against the Genoese. 
The manufactories of silk, after having passed from 
Greece into Sicily, and from Sicily into the other 
parts of Italy, at length fixed their principal resi- 
dence at Venice. This city came at length to fur- 
nish the greater part of Europe with silk mercery, 
and the productions of Arabia and India. The 
Italian merchants, commonly known by the 
name of Lombards, extended their traffic through 
aU the different states of Europe. Favoured by 
the privileges and immunities which various sove- 
reigns had granted them, they soon became mas- 


Thel ._ 
68 The Baltic trade. 

Flcmiah oommocial dtiM. 


ten of the commerce and the current money of 
e^ery comitry where they established themselres ; 
and, in all probability) they were the first that 
adopted the practice ofletters or bills of exchange, 
of which we may discover traces towards the 
middle of the thirteenth century. 

The Hanseatic League, which the maritime 
cities on the Baltic had formed in the thirteenth 
century, for the protection of their commerce 
against pirates and brigands, gained very consi- 
derable accessions of strength in the following 
century, and eren became a very formidable mari* 
time power. A great number of tlie commercial 
cities of the Empire, from the Scheld and the isles 
of Zealand, to the confines of Lironia, entered 
successively into this League ; and many towns in 
the interior, in order to enjoy their protection, 
solicited the favour of being admitted under its 
flag. The first public act of a general confedera- 
tion among these cities was drawn up at the as- 
sembly of their deputies, held at Cologne, in 1364. 
The whole of the allied towns were subdivided 
into quarters or circles ; the most ancient of which 
were the Yenedian quarter, containing the south- 
em and eastern coasts of the Baltic ; the Westpha- 
lian, for the towns on the western side ; and the 
Saxon, comprehending the inland and intermediate 
towns. A fourth circle or quarter was afterwards 
added, that of the cities of Prussia and Livonia. 
The boundaries of these different circles and their 
capital towns varied from time to time. The 
general assemblies of the League were held regu- 
larly every three years, in the city of Lubec, which 
was considered as the capital of the whole League ; 
while each of the three or four circles had also their 
particular or provincial assemblies. 

The most flourishing epoch of this League was 
about the end of the fourteenth and the early part 
of the fifteenth century. At that time, the deputies 
of more than fourscore cities appeared at its as- 
semblies ; and even some towns who had not the 
privilege of sending deputies were, nevertheless, 
regarded as allies of tlie League. Having the com- 
mand of the whole commerce of the Baltic, their 
cities exercised at their pleasure the rights of peace 
and war, and even of forming alliances. They 
equipped numerous and powerfid fleets, and offered 
battle to the sovereigns of the North, whenever 
they presumed to interfere with their monopoly, 
or to restrict the privileges and exemptions which 
they had had the weakness to grant them. The 
productions of the North, such as hemp, flax, tim- 
ber, potash, tar, com, hides, furs, and copper, with 
the produce of the large and small fisheries on tlie 
coasts of Schonen, Norway, Lapland, and Iceland,'^ 
formed the staple of the Hanseatic commerce. 
They exchanged these commodities, in the western 
parts of Europe, for wines, fruits, drugs, and all 
sorts of cloths, which they carried back to the 
North in return. Their principal factories and 
warehouses were at Brages for Flanders, at Lon- 
don for England, at Novogorod for Russia, and at 
Bexigen for Norway. The merchandise of Italy and 
the East was imported into Flanders, in Genoese 
or Yenetian bottoms, which, at that time, carried 
on most of the commerce of the Levant and the 

Extensive as the trade of the Hanseatic cities 
was, it proved neither solid nor durable. As they 
were themselves deficient in the articles of raw 

materials and laige manufactories* and entijvlT . 
dependent on foreign traffic, the industry of other ' 
nations, especially of those skilled in the arts, had 
a ruinous effect on their commerce ; and, in caoone i 
of time, turned the current of merchandise into 
other channels. Besides, the want of union amoo? . 
these cities, their factions and intestine diTi^ons | 
and their distance from each other, prevented them t 
from ever forming a territorial or colonial power, 
or obtaining possession of the Sound, w^bich aloae ' 
was able to secure them the exduaive conuneice of ' 
the Baltic. The sovereigns of Europe, peroeivuif j 
at length more clearly their tme interests, aad 
sensible of the mistake they had committed in 
surrendering the whole commerce of their kingdom 
to the Hanseatic merchants, used every means to 
limit and abridge their privileges more and morv. . 
This, in consequence, involved the confederate 
towns in several destructive wars with the King* 
of the North, which exhausted their finances, asd 
induced one city after another to abandon the 
League. The English and the Dutch, encoura^^ 
by the Danish kings, took advantage of tl^< 
favourable opportunity to send their Tessels to the 
Baltic ; and by degrees they appropriated to them- 
selves the greater part of the trade that had ber^. 
engrossed by the Hanseatic Union. But what U 
of more importance to remark, is, that this Leaguf . 
as well as that of Lombardy, having been formed 
in consequence of the state of anarchy into vrhidi 
the Empire had fallen in the middle siges, the ci- 
tural result was, that it should lose its credit and 
its influence in proportion as the feudal anarch; ■ 
declined, and when the administration of the Em- ' 
pire had assumed a new form, and the landed ' 
nobility, emboldened by the accessions which the 
seventeenth century had made to their power, hail 
found means to compel their dependent cities to > 
return to their allegiance, after having made re- 
peated efforts to throw off their authority, en- 
couraged as they were by the protection which the | 
League held out to them. 

In this manner did the famous Hanseatic Lesgur, 
so formidable at the time of which we now speak, i 
decline by degrees during the course of the seven- , 
teenth century, and in the early part of the I 
eighteenth ; and during the thirty years war it | 
became entirely extinct. The cities of Lubec, 
Hamburg and Bremen, abandoned by all their ' 
confederates, entered into a new union for the in- i 
terests of their commerce, and preserved the ancient ! 
custom of treating in common with foreign powers I 
under the name of the Hanse Towns. 

The cities of Italy and the North were not the I 
only ones that made commerce their porsuit in > 
the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Ghent, i 
Bruges, Antwerp, and other towns in the Nether- I 
lands, contributed greatly to the prosperity of trade • 
by their manufiictures of cloth, cotton, camlets, and | 
tapestry; articles with which they supplied the 
greater part of Europe. The English exchanged 
their raw wool with the Belgians, for the finished 
manufactures of their looms, while the Italians 
furnished them with the productions of the Levant, 
and the silk stuffs of India. Nothing is more sur- 
prising than the immense population of these cities, 
whose wealth and affluence raised their rulers to 
the rank of the most powerful princes in Europe. 
The city of Bruges was, as it were, the centre and 
principal repository for the merchandise of the 

Fleminp inirodiice flMir 

■teple in England. 
Gennwn eonctitatioos. 

PERIOD y. A.D. 1300—1453. 

Coneordati witb Borne. 
Feudal inheritaOce. 
RevoIoUoa in Switierland. 

North ind the South. Such kd. «ntrep6t was ne- 
cessary, at a time when navigation was yet in its 
io&ncy. For this puq^e, Flanders and Brabant 
were extremely proper* as these proyinces had an 
easy communication with all the principal nations 
of the continent ; and as the great number of their 
manudactories, together with the abundance of fish 
which their rivers afforded, naturally attracted a 
vast concourse of foreign traders. Thu superiority, 
as the commercial capital of the Low Countries, 
Bruges retained till nearly the end of the fifteenth 
century, when it lost this preponderance, which 
was then transferred to the city of Antwerp. 

The intestine dissensions with which the cities 
of Flanders and Brabant were agitated, the 
restraints which were incessantly imposed on their 
commerce, and the frequent wars which desolated 
the Low Countries, induced, from time to time, a 
great many Flemish operatives about the four- 
t-centh century, and the reign of Edward IIL, to 
take refuge in England, where they established 
their cloth manufactories under the immediate pro- 
tection of the crown. One circumstance which 
more particularly contributed to the prosperity of 
the Dutch commerce, was the new method of 
salting and barrelling herring, which was disco- 
vered in the fourteenth century by a man named 
William Beukelssoon, a native of Biervliet, near 
Sluys. The new passage of the Texel, which the 
sea opened up about the same time, proved a most 
favourable accident for the city of Amsterdam, 
which immediately monopolized the principal 
commerce of the fisheries, and began to be fre- 
quented by the Hanseatic traders. 

We now return to the history of Germany. The 
Imperial throne, always elective, was conferred, in 
1308, on the princes of the House of Luxembourg, 
who occupied it till 1438, when the House of 
Hapsburg obtained the Imperial dignity. It was 
under the reign of these two dynasties that the 
government of the Empire, which till then had 
been racillating and uncertain, began to assume a 
constitutional form, and a new and settled code of 
laws. That which was published at the Diet of 
Frankfort in 1338, secured the independence of 
the Empire against the Popes. It was preceded 
by a League, ratified at Rens^ by the Electors, 
and hinown by the name of the General Union of 
the ISlectors, The Golden Bull, drawn up by the 
Emperor Charles IV. (1356), in the Diets of Nu- 
remberg and Metz, fixed the order and the form of 
electing the Emperors, and the ceremonial of their 
coronation. It ordained that this election should 
be determined by a mi^Jority of the suffrages of the 
seven electors — and that the vote of the elector 
who might happen to be chosen should also be 
Included. Moreover, to prevent those electoral 
divisions, which had more than once excited fac- 
tions and civil wars in the empire, this law fixed 
irrevocably the right of suffrage in the Princi- 
palities, then entitled Electorates. It forbade any 
division of these principalities, and for this end it 
introduced the principle of birth-right, and the 
order of succession, called agnate^ or direct male 
line from the same fiither. Finally, the Golden 
Bull determined more particularly the rights and 
privileges of the electors, and confirmed to the 
electors of the Palatinate and Saxony the vice- 
^ royalty or government of the empire during any 

The efforts which the Council of Basle made for 
the reformation of the church excited the attention 
of the Estates of the empire. In a diet held at 
Mayence (1439), they adopted several decrees of 
that Council, by a solemn act drawn up in presence 
of the ambassadors of the Council, and of the 
Kings of France, Castile, Arragon, and Portugal. 
Among these adopted decrees, which were not 
afterwards altered, we observe those which esta- 
blish the superiority of Councils above the Popes, 
which prohibited those appeals called omiaao 
medio, or immediatCf and ei^oined the Pope to 
settle all appeals referred to his court, by commis- 
sioners appointed by him upon the spot. Two 
concordats, concluded at Rome and Vienna 
(1447-48), between the Papal court and the Ger- 
man nation, confirmed these stipulations. The 
latter of these concordats, however, restored to tlie 
Pope several of the reserves, of which the Prag- 
matic Sanction had deprived him. He was also 
allowed to retain the right of confirming the prelates, 
and enjoying the annats and the alternate months. 

The ties which united the numerous states of 
the German empire having been relaxed by the 
introduction of hereditary feudalism, and the 
downfal of the imperial authority, the consequence 
was, that those states which were more remote 
from the seat of authority by degrees asserted their 
independence, or were reduced to subjection by 
their more powerful neighbours. It was in this 
manner that several provinces of the ancient king- 
dom of Burgundy, or Aries, passed in succession to 
the crown of France. Philip the Fair, taking ad- 
vantage of the disputes which had arisen between 
the archbishop and the citizens of Lyons, obliged 
the archbishop, Peter de Savoy, to surrender to 
him, by treaty (1312), the sovereignty of the city 
and its dependencies. The same kingdom acquired 
the province of Dauphiny, in virtue of the grant 
which the last dauphin, Humbert II., made (1.349) 
of his estates to Charles, grandson of Philip de 
Valois, and first dauphin of France. Provence was 
likewise added (1481) to the dominions of that 
crown, by the testament of Charles, last Count of 
Provence, of the House of Anjou. As to the city 
of Avignon, it was sold (1348) by Joan I., Queen 
of Naples, and Countess of Provente, to Pope 
Clement VI., who at the same time obtained let- 
ters-patent from the Emperor Charles IV., re- 
nouncing the claims of the Empire to the sovereignty 
of that city, as well as to all lands belonging to the 

A most important revolution happened about 
this time in Switzerland. That country, formerly 
dependent upon the kingdom of Burgundy, had 
become an inmiediate province of the Empire 
(1218), on the extinction of the Dukes of Zahrin- 
gen, who had governed it under the title of regents. 
About the beginning of the fourteenth century, 
Switzerland was divided into a number of petty 
states, both secular and ecclesiastical. Among 
these, we find the Bishop of Basle, the Abb^ of 
St. Gall, the Counts of Hapsburg, Toggenburg, 
Savoy, Gruyires, Neufchatel, Werdenbeig, Bu- 
check, &c. The towns of Zurich, Soleure, Basle, 
Berne, and others, had the rank of free and im- 
perial cities. A part of the inhabitants of Uri, 
Schweitz, and Underwalden, who held imme- 
diately of the Empire, were governed by their own 
magistrates, under the name of Cantons. They 

£mp«rar Albert I. 
70 BatUe of Morguten. 
Swi« ooofiMlerfttion. 


were placed by the Emperor under the joriBdiotion 
of governors, who exercised, in his name and that 
of the Empire, the power of the sword in all these 
cantons. Such was the constitution of Switzer- 
land, when the Emperor Albert I., of Austria, son 
of Rodolph of Hapsburg, conceived the project of 
extending his dominion in that country, where he 
already had considerable possessions, in his capa- 
city of Count of Hapsburg, Kyhurg, Baden, and 
Lentzburg. Being desirous of forming Switzer- 
land into a principality in favour of one of his 
sons, he made, in course of time, several new ac- 
quisitions of territory, vnth the view of enlarging 
his estates. The Ahbeys of Murbach, Einsiede^ 
Interlaken, and Disentis, and the Canons of Lu- 
cerne, sold him their rights and possessions in 
Claris, Lucerne, Schweitz, and Underwalden. He 
next directed his policy against the three imme- 
diate cantons of Uri, Schweltx, and Underwalden ; 
and endeavoured to make them acknowledge the 
superiority of Austria, by tolerating the oppres- 
sions which the governors exereised, whom he had 
appointed to rule them in the name of the Em- 
pire. It W9M under these circumstances that three 
intrepid individuals, Werner de Stauffach, a native 
of the canton of Schweitz, Walter Filrst, of Uri, 
and Arnold de Melchthal, of Underwalden, took 
the resolution of delivering their country from the 
tyranny of a foreign yoke.^ The conspiracy which 
they formed for tbds purpose, broke out on the 1st 
of January, 1308. The governors, surprised in 
their castles by the conspirators, were banished 
the country, and their castles razed to the ground. 
The deputies of the three cantons assembled, and 
entered into a league of ten years for the main- 
tenance of their liberties and tiieir privileges ; re- 
serving, however, to the Empire its proper rights, 
as also those claimed by tiie superiors, whether lay 
or ecclesiastical. Thus a conspiracy, which was ori- 
ginally turned only against Austria, terminated in 
withdrawing Svritzerland firom the sovereignty of 
the German Empire. The victory which the con- 
federates gained over the Austrians at Morgarten, 
on the borders of the canton of Schweitz, encou- 
raged them to renew their league at Brunnen 
(1316); and to render it perpetual. As it was 
confirmed by oath, the confederates, from this 
circumstance, got the name of EidgenoBsen^ which 
means, hound by oath. This league became hence- 
forth the basis of the federal system of the Swiss, 
who were not long in strengthening their cause by 
the accession of other cantons. The city of Lu- 
cerne, having shaken off the yoke of Hapsbuig, 
Joined the league of Brunnen in 1332, Zurich in 
1351, Olaris and Zug in 1353, and Berne in 1356. 
These formed the eight ancient cantons. 

The situation of the confederates, however, could 
not fail to be very embarrassing, so long as the 
Austrians retained the vast possessions which they 
had in the very centre of Switzerland. The pro- 
scription which the Emperor Sigismund and the 
Council of Constance issued against Frederic, Duke 
of Austria (1415), as an adherent and protector of 
John XXIII., at length furnished the Swiss with 
a fiivourable occasion for depriving the house of 
Austria of their possessions. The Bernese were 
the first to set the example ; they took from the 
Austrian dukes, the towns of Zoffingen, Arau, and 
Bruck, with the counties of Hapsburg and Lents- 
burg, and the greater part of Aargau. Kyburg 

fell into the hands of the Zurichers ; the La 
made themselves masters of Surtte ; and the free 
bailiwicks, with the county of Baden, the towns 
of Melliugen and Bremgarten, were nibdued by 
the combined forces of the ancient cantons, who, 
since then, have possessed them in common. 

In the kingdom of Lorraine a new power rose 
about this time (1363), that of the dukes of Bur- 
gundy. Philip the Hardy, younger son of Joha 
the Good, King of France, having been created 
Duke of Burgundy by the king his father* msr- 
ried Margaret, daughter and heiress of Louis IIU 
last Count of Flanders. By this marriage he ob- 
tained Flanden, Artois, Franche-Comt^, Nerers 
Rethel, Malines, and Antwerp, and transmitted 
these estates to his son John the Feaileaa, and hn 
grandson, Philip the Good. This latter prince 
increased them still more by several new acquisi- 
tions. The Count of Namur sold him his whole 
patrimony (1428). He inherited from his ooosib, 
rhilip of Burgundy, the duchies of Brabant sad 
Limbourg (1430). Another cousin, the £unow 
Jaqueline de Bavaria, made over to him by treat} 
(1433) the counties of Hainault, Holland, Zealand, 
and Friesland. Finally, he acquired also the dudij 
of Luxembourg and the county of Chiny, by s 
compact which he made with the Princess Blizabecli 
(1443), niece of the Emperor Sigismund. These 
different accessions were so much the more im- 
portant, as the Low Countries, especially Flanden 
and Brabant, were at that time the seat of the moit 
flourishing manufitctories, and the principal mart 
of European commeree. Hence it happened, that 
the Dukes of Burgundy began to compete with the 
first powers in Europe, and even to riTalthe Kings 
of France. 

Among the principal reigning familiea of the 
Empire, several revolutions took place. The an- 
cient Slavonic dynasty of the Dukes and Kings of 
Bohemia became extinct vrith Wenceslaus Y^ who 
was assassinated in 1306. The Emperor Henry 
TIL, of the House of Luxembourg, setaed this 
opportunity of transferring to his own AxoSty the 
kingdom of Bohemia, in which he invested his sob 
John (1309), who had married the Princeaa Eliia- 
beth, sister to the last King of Bohemia. John, 
having made considerable acquisitions in Bohemia, 
was induced to cede, by treaty with Poland, the 
sovereignty of that province. The Emperor Charks 
ly., son of John, incorporated Silesia, as also 
Lusatia, with the kingdom of Bohemia, by the 
Pragmatics which he published hi 1355 and 137a 
The war with the Hussites broke out on the death 
of the Emperor Wenceslaus, King of Bohemia 
(1418), because the followers of John Huss, and 
Jerome of Prague, had refused to acknovriedge, as 
successor of that prince, the Emperor Sigismund, 
his brother and heir, whom they blamed ibr the 
martyrdom of their leaders. ThiiB war, one of the 
most sanguinary which the spirit of intolerance and 
fanaticism ever excited, continued for a long series 
of years. John de Trocsnova, sumamed Ziaka, 
general-in-chief of the Hussitra, defeated several 
times those numerous armies of crusaders, which 
were sent against him into Bohemia ; and it was 
not till long after the death of that extnoidinary 
man, that Sigismund succeeded in allaving the 
tempest, and re-establishing his own authority in 
that kin^om. 

The house of Wittelsback, which possessed at 

Homo of Shuuny. 
Elflctem of Braudeaborg. 
Family of Esto. 

PBBIOD Y. A.D. 1800—1453. 

Family of Vinoati. 

Rapublic of Floranoe. 71 

Wars of Oeuoa and Pia. 

the same time the Faktinate and Bayaria, wa9 
divided into two principal bnmchea, ▼»., that of 
the Electon Palatine and the Dukee of Bayaria. 
By the treaty of division which was entered into 
at Pavia (1329), they agreed on a reciprocal sue* 
cession of the two branches, in case the one or the 
other should happen to fail of heirs-male. The 
direct line of the electors of Saxony, of the Asca- 
nian House, happening to become extinct, the 
Emperor Sigismund, without paying any regard to 
the claims of the younger bmnches of Saxony, con- 
ferred that Electorate (1423), as a vacant fief of 
the Empire, on Frederic, the Warlike, Margrave of 
Misnia, who had rendered him signal assistance in 
the war against the Hussites. This prince had 
two grandsons, Ernest and Albert, from whom are 
descended the two principal branches, which still 
divide the House of Saxony. 

The Ascanian dynasty dUd not lose merely the 
electorate of Saxony, as we have just stated ; it 
was also deprived, in the preceding century, of the 
electorate of Brandenburg. Albert, sumamed the 
Bear, a scion of this house, had transmitted this 
latter electorate, of which he was the fbmider, to 
his descendants in direct line, the male-heirs of 
which failed about the beginning of the fourteenth 
century. The Emperor Louis, of Bavaria, then 
bestowed it on his eldest son, Louis (1324), to the 
exclusion of the collateral branches of Saxony and 
Anhalt. The Bavarian princes, however, did not 
long preserve this electorate ; they surrendered it 
(1373) to the Emperor Charles lY., whose son, 
Sigismund, ceded it to Frederic, Burgrave of Nu- 
remberg, of the House of Hohensollern, who had 
advanced him considerable sums to defray his ex- 
peditions into Hungary. This prince was solemnly 
invested with the electoral dignity by the Emperor, 
at the Council of Constance (1417), and became 
the ancestor of aU the Electon and Margraves of 
Brandenburg, as well as of the Kings of Prussia. 

The numerous republics which had sprung up 
in Italy, in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, 
were torn to pieces by contending factions, and a 
prey to mutual and incessant hostilities. What 
contributed to augment the trouble and confusion 
in that unhappy country was, that, during a long 
series of years, no emperor had repaired ^ther in 
person, or made the smallest attempt to restore the 
imperial authority in those states. The feeble 
efforts of Henry YII., Louis of Bayaria, and 
Charles lY., only served to prove, that in Italy the 
royal prerogative was without vigour or effect. 
Anarchy everywhere prevailed ; and that spirit of 
liberty and republicanism which had once ani- 
mated the Italians gradually disappeared. Dis- 
gusted at length vrith privileges which had become 
Bo fatal to them, some of these republics adopted 
the plan of choosing new masters ; while others 
were subjected, against their inclinations, by the 
more powerful of the nobles. The Marquise of 
Este seized Modena and Reggio (1336), and ob- 
tained the ducal dignity (1452) from the Emperor 
Frederic III. Mantua fell to the house of Gonzaga, 
who possessed that sovereignty first under the title 
of Margraves, and afterwards under that of Dukes, 
which was conferred on them by the Emperor 
Charles Y. in 1630. But the greater part of these 
Italian republics fell to the share of the Yisconti of 
Milan. The person who founded the prosperity 
of their house was Matthew Yisconti, nephew of 

Otho Yisconti, Archbishop of Milan. Invested 
vrith the titles of Captain and Imperial Yiceroy in 
Lombardy, he contrived to make himself be ac- 
knowledged as sovereign of Milan (1315), and 
conquered in succession all the principal towns 
and republics of Lombardy. His successors fol- 
lowed his example : they enlarged their territories 
by several new conquests, till at length John Ga- 
leas, great grandson of Matthew Yisconti, ob- 
tained, from the Emperor Wenoeslaus (1395), for 
a sum of one hundred thousand florins of gold, 
which he paid him, the title of Duke of Milan for 
himself and all his descendants. The Yisconti 
family reigned at Milan till 1447, when they were 
replaced by that of Sforza. 

Among the republics of Italy who escaped the 
catastrophe of the fourteenth century, the most 
conspicuous were those of Florence, Genoa, and 
Yenice. The city of Florence, Uke all the others 
in Tuscany, formed itself into a republic about the 
end of the twelfth century. Its government un- 
derwent frequent changes, after the introduction of 
a demod^y about %he middle of the thirteenth 
century. The various fruitions which had agitated 
the republic induced the Florentines to dect a 
magistrate (1292), called GottfeUoniere de JuBttoe^ 
or Captain of Justice : invested with power to as- 
semble the inhabitants under his standard, when- 
ever the means for concilistion were insufficient to 
suppress friction and restore peace. These internal 
agitations, however, did not prevent the Florentines 
firom enriching themselyes by means of their com- 
merce and manufactures. They succeeded, in 
course of time, in subjecting the greater part of the 
free cities of Tuscany, and especially that of Pisa, 
which they conquered in 1406. The republic of 
Lucca was the only one that maintained its inde- 
pendence, in spite of all the efforts which the Flo- 
rentines made to subdue it. The republican form 
of government continued in Florence till the year 
1530, when the family of the Medici usurped the 
sovereignty, under the protection of the Emperor 
Charles Y. 

The same rivalry which had set the Genoese to 
quarrel with the Pisans excited their jealousy 
against the Yenetians. The interests of these two 
republics thwarted each other, both in the Levant 
and the Mediterranean. This gave rise to a long 
and disastrous series of wars, the last and most me- 
morable of which was that of Chioggia (1376-82). 
The Genoese, after a signal victory which they 
obtained over the Yenetians, before Pola, in the 
Adriatic Gulf, penetrated to the very midst of the 
lagoons of Yenice, and attacked the port of Chi- 
oggia. Peter Doria made himself master of this 
port; he would have even surprised Yenice, had 
he taken advantage of the first consternation of the 
Yenetians, who were already deliberating whether 
they should abandon their city and take refuge in 
the isle of Candia. The tardiness of the Genoese 
admiral gave them time to recover themselyes. 
Impelled by a noble despair, they made extraor- 
dinary efforts to equip a new fleet, with which 
they attacked the Genoese near Chioggia. This 
place vnw retaken (24th June, 1380), and the se- 
vere check which the Genoese there receiyed, may 
be said to have decided the command of the sea 
in favour of the Yenetians. But what contributed 
still more to the downfal of the Genoese, was the 
instability of their govemmenty and the internal 

The Levut tnde. 
72 Venedan conqoesfai. 
Joftn I. of Naples. 


Caatiluui iimnmli 

commotions of the republic. Agitated by conti- 
nual diTisionB between the nobles and the common 
citizens, and incapable of managing their own 
aflairs, they at length surrendered themselves to 
the power of strangers. Volatile and inconstant, 
and equally impatient of liberty as of servitude, 
these fickle republicans underwent a frequent 
change of masters. Twice (1396-1458) they put 
themselves under the protection of the Kings of 
France. At length they discarded the French, and 
chose for their protector either the Marquis of 
Montferrat or the Duke of Milan. Finally, from 
the year 1464, the city of Genoa was constantly 
regarded as a dependency of the duchy of Milan, 
until l.)28, when it recovered once more its ancient 
state of independence. 

Mliile the republic of Genoa was gradually 
declining, that of Venice was every day acquiring 
new accessions of power. The numerous esta- 
bhshmeuts which they had formed in the Adriatic 
Gulf and the Eastern Seas, together with the ad- 
ditional vigour which they derived from the intro- 
duction of the hereditary arfctocracy, w^re highly 
advantageous to the progress of their commerce 
and marine. The treaty which they concluded 
with the SulUn of Egypt (1343), by guaranteeing 
to their republic an entire liberty of commerce in 
the ports of Syria and Egypt, as also the privilege 
of having consuls at Alexandria and Damascus, 
put it in their power gradually to appropriate to 
themselves the whole trade of India, and to main- 
tain it against the Genoese, who had disputed 
with them the commerce of the East, as well as 
the command of the sea. These successes en- 
couraged the Venetians to make new acquisitions ; 
the turbulent state of Lombardy having afforded 
them an opportunity of enlarging their dominions 
on the continent of Italy, where at first they had 
possessed only the single dogeship of Venice, and 
the small province of Istria. They seized on 
Treviso, and the whole Trevisan March (1388), 
which tliey took from the powerful house of Car- 
rara. In 14*20 they again got possession of Dal- 
matia, which they conquered from Sigismund, 
King of Hungary. This conquest paved the way 
for that of Friuli, which they took about the same 
time from the Patriarch of Aquileia, an ally of the 
King of Hungary. At length, by a succession of 
good fortune, they detached from the duchy of 
Milan (1404) the cities and territories of Vicenza, 
Belluno, Verona, Padua, Brescia, Bergamo, and 
Cremona (I4d4), and thus formed a considerable 
estate on the mainland. 

Naples, during the course of this period, was 
governed by a descendant of Charles, of the first 
House of Anjou, and younger brother of St. Louis. 
Queen Joan I., daughter of liobert. King of 
Naples, having no children of her own, adopted a 
younger prince of the Angevine family, Charles of 
Durazso, whom she destined as her successor, 
after having given him her niece in marriage. 
This ungrateful prince, in his eagerness to possess 
the crown, took arms against the Queen his bene- 
factress, and compelled her to solicit the aid of 
foreign powers. It was on this occasion that 
Joan, after rescinding and annulling her former 
deed of adoption, made another in favour of 
Louis I., younger brother of Charles V., King of 
France, and founder of the second House of 
Anjou. But the succours of that prince came too 

late to save the Queen from the hands of ber cniel 
enemy. Charles, having made himwfJf master of 
Naples and of the Queen's person (1382), iauae- 
diately put her to death, and maintained himsdf 
on the throne, in spite of his advenarj, Louis of 
Anjou, who obtained nothing more of the Qneen^t , 
estates than the single county of Provenee, wld^ 
he transmitted to his descendants, together with 
his claim on the kingdom of Naples. Joan lU 
daughter and heiress of Charles of DtirazKo, faavinf 
been attacked by Louis III. of Axtjou, who wiafaed 
to enforce the rights of adoption which had de- 
scended to him from his grandfather Lonis I., she 
implored the protection of Alphonao T., King af 
Arragon, whom she adopted and decbLied her heir ■ 
(1421) ; but afterwards, having quaLxrelled with 
that prince, she changed her resolution* and pasK^ 
a new act of adoption (1423) in favour of that 
same Louis of Anjou who had just made war 
against her. Beni of Anjou, the brother and eac- 
cessor of that prince, took possession of the kirn;- 
dom of Naples on the deaUi of Joan IT. (14^5); 
but he was expelled by the King of Am^jos, 
(1445) ; who had procured from Pope Cageniv 
IV. the investiture of that kingdom, which he 
transmitted to his natural son Ferdinand, de- 
scended from a particular branch of the Kings of 
Naples. The rights of the second race of Angevine 
princes were transferred to the Kings of France, 
along with the county of Provence (1481). 

Spain, which was divided into a Tsriety of so- 
vereignties, both Christian and Mahometan, pre- ! 
sented at this time a kind of separate or distinct 
continent, whose interests had almost nothing in 
common with the rest of Europe. The Kings of ' 
Navarre, Castile, and Arragon, disagreeing among , 
themselves, and occupied with the internal a&ii^ . 
of their own kingdoms, had but little leisure to 
attempt or accomplish any foreign enterprise. Of , 
all the Kings of Castile at this jieriod, the most , 
famous, in the wars against the Moors, was ' 
Alphonso XI. The Mahometan Kings of Morocco 
and Grenada having united their forces, laid sieee , 
to the city of Tariffa in Andalusia, where Al- 
phonso, assisted by the King of Portugal, ventured 
to attack them in the neighbourhood of iJhat place. < 
He gained a complete victory over the Moon 
(1340) ; and this was followed by the conquest of 
various other cities and districts ; among othcn, 
Alcala-Beal, and Algesiras. 

While the Kings of Castile were extending their 
conquests in the interior of Spain, those of Arra- 
gon, hemmed in by the Castilians, were obliged 
to look for aggrandisement abroad. They pos- 
sessed the country of Barcelona, or Catalonia, in . 
virtue of the marriage of Count Baymond B«- 
renger IV. with Doima Petronilla, heiresa of the 
kingdom of Arragon. To this they added the > 
county of Rouslllon, and the seignory or lordship . 
of Montpellier, both of which, as well as Cata- 
lonia, belonged to the sovereignty of France. Don 
James I., who conquered the kingdom of Valencia 
and the Balearic Isles, gave these, with Rousillon 
and Montpellier, to Don James, his younger son, 
and who was a descendant of the Kings of Majorca, 
the last of whom, Don James III., sold Montpellier 
to France n348). Don Pedro III., King of Arra- 
gon, and eldest son of Don James I., took Sicily, 
as we have already seen, from Charles I. of Anjou. 
Ferdinand II., a younger son of Don Pedro, 

Sicily and Sardinia. 
John, kinff of Portugal. 
Edward III. claims France. 

PERIOD T. A.D. 1300—1463. 

Wars of England 

and France. 73 

Vlctoriw of Henry V. 

formed a separate branch of the Kings of Sicily, 
on the extinction of which (1409), that kingdom 
reverted to the crown of Arragon. Sardinia was 
incorporated with the kingdom of Arragon by Don 
James II., who had conquered it from the Pisans. 
Finally, Alphonso Y., King of Arragon, having 
deprived the Angevines of the kingdom of Naples, 
established a distinct line of Neapolitan kings. 
This kingdom was at length united with the 
monarchy of Arragon by Ferdinand the Catholic. 

In Portugal, the legitimate line of kings, de- 
scendants of Henry of Burgundy, had fuled in 
Don Ferdinand, son and successor of Don Pedro 
III. This prince had an only daughter, named 
Beatrix, bom in criminal intercourse with Elea- 
nora Tellez de Menkes, whom he had taken from 
her lawful husband. Being desirous to make this 
princess his successor, he married her, at the age 
of eleven, to John I., King of Castile ; securing 
the throne to the son who should be bom of this 
union, and failing him, to the King of Castile, his 
son-in-law. Ferdinand dying soon after this mar- 
riage, Don Juan, his natural brother, and grand- 
master of the order of Aviex, knowing the aversion 
of the Portuguese for the CasUlian sway, turned 
this to his own advantage, by seizing the regency, 
of which he had deprived the Queen-dowager. 
The King of Castile immediately laid siege to 
Lisbon ; but having miscarried in this enterprise, 
the States of Portugal assembled at Coimbra, and 
conferred the crown on Don Juan, known in 
history by the name of John the Bastard, This 
prince, aided with troops from England, engaged 
the Castilians and their allies, the French, at the 
famous battle fought on the plains of Aljubarota 
(14th August, 1385). The Portuguese remained 
masters of the field, and John the Bastard suc- 
ceeded in maintaining himself on the throne of 
Portugal. The war, however, continued several 
years between the Portuguese and the Castilians, 
and did not terminate till 1411. By the peace 
which was then concluded, Henry III., son of 
John I., King of Castile, agreed never to varge the 
claims of Queen Beatrix, his mother-in-law, who 
had no children. John the Bastard founded a 
new dynasty of kings, who occupied the throne 
of Portugal from 1385 to 1580. 

In France, the direct line of kings, descendants 
of Hugh Capet, having become extinct in the 
sons of Philip the Fair, the crown passed to the 
collateral branch of Yalois (1328), which furnished 
a series of thirteen kings, during a period of 261 

The rivalry between France and England, 
which had sprung up during the preceding period, 
assumed a more hostile character on the accession 
of the family of Yalois. Till then, the quarrels 
of the two nations had been limited to some par- 
ticular territory, or province ; but now they dis- 
puted even the succession to the throne of France, 
which the kings of England claimed as their right. 
Edward III., by his mother, Isabella of France, 
was nephew to Charles lY., the last of the Capetian 
kings in a direct line. He claimed the succession 
in opposition to Philip YI., sumamed de Yalois, 
who, being cousin-german to Charles, was one de- 
gree more remote than the King of England. The 
claim of Edward was opposed by the Salic law, 
which excluded females from the succession to the 
throne ; but. according to the interpretation of that 

ftince, the law admitted his right, and must be 
understood as referring to females personally/ who 
were excluded on account of the weakness of their 
sex, and not to their male descendants. Granting 
that his mother, Isabella, could not herself aspire 
to the crown, he maintained that she gave him the 
right of proximity, which qualified him for the 
succession. The States of France, however, hav- 
ing decided in favour of Philip, the King of 
England did fealty and homage to that prince for 
the duchy of Guienne ; but he laid no claim to the 
crovni until 1337, when he assumed the title and 
arms of the King of France. The war which be- 
gan in 1338 was renewed during several reigns, 
for the space of a hundred years, and ended with 
the entire expulsion of the English from France. 

Nothing could be more wretched than the situa- 
tion of this kingdom during the reign of Charles 
Yl. That prince having fallen into a state of in- 
sanity in the flower of his age, two parties, those 
of Burgundy and Orleans, who had disputed with 
each oSier about the regency, divided the Court 
into factions, and kindled the fiames of civil war 
in the four comers of the kingdom. John the 
Fearless, Duke of Burgundy, and uncle to the 
king, caused Louis, Duke of Orleans, the king's 
own brother, to be assassinated at Paris (1407). 
He himself was assassinated in his turn (1419) 
on the bridge of Moutereau, in the very presence 
of the Dauphin, who was afterwards king, under 
the name of Charles YII. These dissensions gave 
the. English an opportunity for renewing the war. 
Henry Y. of England gained the famous battle 
of Agincourt (1415), which was followed by the 
conquest of aU Normandy. Isabella of Bavaria 
then abandoned the faction of Orleans, and the 
party of her son, the Dauphin, and joined that of 
Burgundy. Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, 
and son of John the Fearless, being determined to 
revenge the death of his father, which he laid to 
the charge of the Dauphin, entered into a negocia- 
tion with England, into which he contrived to 
draw Queen Isabella and the imbecile Charles YI. 
By the treaty of peace concluded at Troyes in 
Champagne (1420), it was agreed that Catharine 
of France, daughter of Charles YI. and Isabella of 
Bavaria, should espouse Henry Y., and that, on 
the deaUi of the King, the crown should pass to 
Henry, and the children of his marriage with the 
Princess of France ; to the exclusion of the 
Daiiiphin, who, as an accomplice in the murder of 
the Duke of Burgundy, was declared to have lo«t 
his rights to the crown, and was banished from 
the kingdom. Henry Y. died in the flower of his 
age, and his death was followed soon after by that 
of Charles YI. Henry YI., son of Henry Y. and 
Catharine of France, being then proclaimed King 
of England and France, fixed his residence at 
Paris, and had for his regents his two uncles, the 
Dukes of Bedford and Gloucester. 

Such was the preponderance of the English and 
Burgundian party in France at this period, that 
Charles YII., commonly called the Dauphin, more 
than once saw himself upon the point of being ex- 
pelled the kingdom. He owed his safety entirely 
to the appearance of the fiunoos Joan of Arc, 
called the Maid of Orleans. This extraordinary 
woman revived the drooping courage of the French. 
She compelled the English to raise the siege of 
Orleans, and brought the king to be crowned at 

English expelled 
74 tnm Fnuice. 

Hniue of Plantairenet. 


EngUih ehrU WB 
Margaraik of N« 

Rheims (1429). But what contributed gtill nioi» 
to retrieye the party of Charles VII. was the re- 
conciliation of that prince with the Duke of Bur- 
gundy, which took place at the peace of Arras 
(1435). The duke having then united his forces 
with those of the king, the English were in their 
turn expelled from France (1453), the single city 
of Calais being all that remained to them of their 
former conquests. 

An important revolution happened in the go- 
vernment of France under the reign of Charles VII. 
The royal authority gained fresh vigour by the 
expulsion of the English, and the reconciliation of 
various parties that took place in consequence. 
The feudal system, which till then had prevailed 
in France, fell by degrees into disuse. Charles 
was the first king who established a permanent 
militia» and taught his successors to abandon the 
feudal mode of warfare. This prince also insti- 
tuted Companies qf ordonnance (1445) ; and, to 
defray the expense of their maintenance, he or- 
dered, of his own authority, a certain impost to 
be levied, called the Tax of the Gena^armes, 
This standing army, which at first amounted only 
to 6000 men, was augmented in course of time, 
while the royal finances increased in proportion. 
By means of these establishments, the^kings ob- 
tained such an ascendancy over their ^nusals that 
they soon found themselves in a condition to pre- 
scribe laws to them, and thus gradually to abolish 
the feudal system. The most powerful of the 
nobles could make little resistance against a sove- 
reign who was always armed ; while the kings, 
imposing taxes at their pleasure, by degrees dis- 
pensed with the necessity of assembling the States- 
general. The same prince secured the liberties of 
the GaiUcan church against the encroachments of 
the court of Rome, by solemnly adopting several 
of the decrees of the Council of Basle, which he 
caused to be passed in the National Council held 
at Bourges, and published under the title of the 
Pragmatic Sanction (1438). 

In England, two branches of the reigning family 
of the Flantagenets, those of Lancaster and York, 
contested for a long time the right to the crown. 
Henry IV., the first king of the House of Lan- 
caster, was the son of John of Gauntt Duke of 
Lancaster, and grandson of Edward III., King 
of England. He usurped the crown from Richard 
II., whom he deposed by act of Parliament (1399). 
But instead of enforcing the rights which he in- 
herited from his father and grandfather, he rested 
his claims entirely upon those which he alleged 
had devolved to htm in right of his mother, Blanch 
of Lancaster, great grand-daughter of Edward, 
sumamed Hunchback, Earl of Lancaster. This 
prince, according to a popuhir tradition, was the 
eldest son of Henry III., who, it was said, had 
been excluded from the throne by his younger 
brother, Edward I., on account of his deformity. 
This tradition proved useful to Henry IV. in ex- 
cluding the rights of the House of Clarence, who 
preceded him in the order of succession. This 
latter family was descended from Lionel, Duke 
of Clarence, and elder brother of John of Gaunt. 
Philippine, daughter of Lionel, was married to 
Edward Mortimer, by whom she had a son, 
Roger, whom the Parliament, by an act passed in 
1386, declared presumptive heir to the crown. 
Ann Mortimer, the daughter of Roger, married 

Richard, Duke of York, son of Edward Lan^leT, 
who was the younger brother of John of GAnni, 
and thus transferred the right of Lionel to the 
royal House of York. « 

The princes of the House of Lancaster wn 
known in English history by the name of the Re^ 
Rose, while those of York were designated by that 
of the White Rose. The former of these Uouan 
occupied the throne for a period of sixty -three 
years, during the reigns of Henry IV., V., VI. It 
was under the feeble reign of Henry YI. that the 
House of York began to advance their right to the 
crown, and that the dvil war broke out betweea 
the two Roses. Richard, Duke of York, and hev 
to the claims of Lionel and Mortimer, was ^ 
first to raise the standard in this war of competi- 
tion (1452), which continued more than thnti 
years, and was one of the most cruel and saacvi- 
nary recorded in history. Twelve pitched battle* 
were fought between the two Roses, ei^;!!!/ |irinre< 
of the blood perished in the contest, and Bnglsiid, 
during the whole time, presented a tra^cal ^mc- 
tacle of horror and carnage. Edward I Y^ son ef 
Richard, Duke of York, and giandson of Ans 
Mortimer, ascended the throne (1461), which bi 
had stained with the blood of Henry VI., and ot 
several other princes of the House of Lancaster. 

In Scotland, the male line of the ancient kiccf 
having become extinct in Alexander III., a crawi 
of claimants appeared on the field, who disrated 
with each other the succession of the tluxnie. The 
chief of these competitors were the two Soottisii 
fiunilies of Baliol and Bruce, both descended b; 
the mother's side from the Royal Family. Fov , 
princes of these contending nimilies reigned is 
Scotland until the year 1371, \idien the crows ' 
passed from the House of Bruce to that of Stnart. i 
Robert II., son of Walter Stuart and Maijsnr ' 
Bruce, succeeded his uncle, David II., and in hu 
family the throne remained until the Uniosi, wbea , 
Scotland was united to En^and about the befis- '' 
ning of the seventeenth century. Under the go- , 
vemment of the Stuarts, the royal authority ac- 
quired fresh energy after being long restrained and I 
circumscribed by a turbulent nobility. Towardi , 
the middle of tiie fifteenth century, James I., s 
very accomplished prince, gave the first blow to i 
the feudal system and the exorbitant power of the , 
grandees. He deprived them of sereral of the 
crown-lands which they had usurped, and coo^ ; 
cated the property of some of the most audadom 
whom he had condemned to execution. James II. 
followed the example of his father. He strength- 
ened the royal authority, by humbling' the power- ■ 
ful frimily of Douglas, as well as by the wise lavs 
which he prevailed vrith his Parliament to adopt. 

The three kingdoms of the NoHh, after havisf . 
been long agitated by internal dissenaioDs, wen 
at length united into a single monarchy by Mat^ 
garet, called the Semiramis of the North. Thif . 
princess was daughter of Valdemar III., the hut 
King of Denmark of the ancient reigning &mih» t 
and widow of Haco VII., King of Norway. She 
was first elected Queen of Denmark, and then of > 
Norway, after the death of her son, OUos \\ 
whom she bad by her marriage with Haco, and 
who died without leaving any posterity (1387). 
The Swedes, discontented with their King, Albert { 
of Mecklenburg, likewise bestowed their crown : 
upon this princess. Albert was Tanqushed and 

ChtflM VIII. of Sweden. 
Chrifthui I. of Denmark. 
Khane of Klpac. 

PERIOD Y. A.D. IdOO— 1453. 

TJihi^^ nlgn 

Grand-duchy of Kiow. 


made prisoner at the Iwttle of Fahlekoepiog (1988). 
The whole of Sweden, from that time, acknow- 
ledged the authority of Queen Margaret. Being 
desiroui c€ uniting the three kingdoms into one 
Kingle body-politic, she assembled their respective 
£8tateB at Calmar X^^^'^)* <^<^ there caused her 
grand-nephew Eric, son of Wratislaus, Duke of 
I'omerania, and Mary of Mecklenburg, daughter 
of Ingebuig, her own sister, to be received and 
crowned as her successor. The act which ratified 
the perpetual and irrevocable union of the three 
kingdoms was approved in that assembly. It 
provided, that the united states should, in future, 
have but one and the same king, who should be 
chosen with the common consent of the Senators 
and Deputies of the three kingdoms ; that they 
should always give the preference to the descend- 
ants of Eric, if there were any; that the three 
kingdoms should assist each other with their com- 
bined forces against all foreign enemies ; that each 
kingdom shoiSd preserve its own constitution, its 
senate, and national legislature, and be governed 
conformably to its own laws. 

This union, how formidable soever it might 
appear at first sight, was by no means firmly con- 
soJidate«l. A federal system of three monarchies, 
divided by mutual jealousies, and by dissimilarity 
in their laws, manners, and institutions, could pre- 
sent nothing either solid or durable. The predi- 
lection, besides, which the kings of the union who 
succeeded Margaret showed for the Danes; the 
preference which they gave them in the distribu- 
tion of favours and places of trust, and the tone 
of superiority which they affected towards their 
allies, tended naturally to foster animosity and 
hatred, and, above all, to exasperate the Swedes 
against the union. Eric, after a very turbulent 
reign, was deposed, and his nephew, Christopher 
the Bavarian, was elected king of the union in 
his place. This latter prince having died without 
issue, the Swedes took this opportunity of break- 
ing the union, and choosing a khig of their own, 
Charles Canutson Sonde, known by the title of 
Charles YIII. It was he who induced the Danes 
to venture likewise on a new election ; and this 
same vear they transferred their crown to Christian, 
son of Thierry, and Count of Oldenburg, descended 
by the female side from the race of their ancient 
kings. This prince had the good fortune to renew 
the union wiUi Norway (1450) ; he likewise go- 
verned Sweden from the year 1457, when Charles 
YIII. vnu expelled by his subjects, till 1464, when 
he was recalled. But what deserves more particu- 
larly to be remarked, is the acquisition which 
('hnstian made of the provinces of Sleswic and 
HoUteiu, to which he succeeded (1459), bv a dis- 
position of the States of these provinces, after the 
death of Duke Adolphus, the maternal uncle of the 
new King of Denmark, and last male heir of the 
Counts of Holstein, of the ancient House of Schau- 
enburg. Christian I. was the progenitor of all the 
kings who have since reigned in Denmark and 
Norway. His grandson lost Sweden ; but, in the 
last century, the thrones both of Russia and Swe- 
den were occupied by princes of his family. 

Russia, during the whole of this period, groaned 
under the degrading yoke of the Moguls and the 
Tartars. The grand dukes, as well as the other 
Russian princes, were obliged to solicit the con- 
firmation of their dignity from the Khan of Kip- 

sac, who granted or refused it at his pleasure. 
The dissensions which arose among these northern 
princes were in like manner submitted to his de- 
cision. When summoned to appear at his horde, 
they were obliged to repair thither without delay, 
and often suffered the punishment of ignominy and 
death.^7 The contributions which &e khans at 
first exacted from the Russians in the shape of 
gratuitous donations were converted, in course of 
time, into regular tribute. Bereke Khan, the suc- 
cessor of Baton, was the first who levied this tri- 
bute by officers of his own nation. His successors 
increased still more the load of these taxes ; they 
even subjected the Russian princes to the perform- 
ance of military service. 

The grand ducal dignity, which ibr a long 
time belonged exclusively to the chiefr of the 
principalities of Vladimir and Kiaso, became com- 
mon, about the end of the fourteenth century, to 
several of the other principalities, who shared 
among them the dominion of Russia. The princes 
of Resan, Twer, Smolensko, and several others, 
took the title of grand dukes, to distinguish 
themselves from the petty princes who were esta- 
blished within their principalities. These divi- 
sions, together with the internal broils to which 
they gave rise, emboldened the Lithuanians and 
Poles to carry their victorious arms into Russia ; 
and by degrees they dismembered the whole wes- 
tern part of the ancient empire. 

The Lithuanians,^' who are supposed to have 
been of the same race with the ancient Prussians, 
Lethonians, Livonians, and Estonians, inhabited 
originally the banks of the rivers Niemen and 
Wilia; an inconsiderable state, comprehending 
Samogitia and a part of the ancient Palatinates of 
Troki and Wilna. After having been tributaries 
to the Russians ibr a long time, the princes of 
Lithuania shook off their yoke, and began to ag- 
grandise themselves at the expense of the grand 
dukes, their former masters. Towards the middle 
of the eleventh century, they passed the Wilia, 
founded the town of Kiemow, and took from the 
Russians Braclaw, Novgorodek, Grodno, Borsese, 
Bielsk, Pinsk, Mosyr, Polotsk, Minsk, Witepsk, 
Orsa, and Mscislaw, with their extensive depend- 
encies. Ringold was the first of these princes that 
assumed the dignity of grand duke, about the 
middle of the thirteenth century. His successor, 
Mendog or Mindow, harassed by the Teutonic 
knights, embraced Christianity about the year 
1252, and was declared King of Lithuania by the 
Pope ; though he afterwards returned to Paganism, 
and became one of the most cruel enemies of the 
Christian name. Gedimin, who ascended the 
throne of the grand duke (1315), repdered him- 
self famous by his new conquests. After a series 
of victories which he gained over the Russian 
princes, who were supported by the Tartars, he 
took possession of the city and principality of 
Kiow (1320). The whole of the grand duchy of 
Kiow, and its dependant principalities on this side 
the Dnii|>er, were conquered in succession. The 
Grand Dukes of Lithuania, who had become for- 
midable to all their neighbours, weakened their 
power by partitioning their estates among their 
sons ; reserving to one, under the title of grand 
duke, the right of superiority over the rest. The 
civil dissensions which resulted from these divi- 
sions, gave the Poles an opportunity of seizing the 

Demt^Qt Iwanovitsh. 
76 CoQfjaests by the Teatonic 



UUdiaUuB IV. of 1V>lui4. 

Casimir the Greet. 

principalities of Leopold, Fraemysl, and Halitsch 
(1340), and of taking from the Lithuanians and 
their grand duke, Olgerd, the whole of Yolhynia 
and Podolia, of which they had deprived the Rus- 
sians (1349). 

Nothing more then remained of the ancient 
Russian Empire except the grand duchy of 
Wolodimir, so called from the town of that name 
on the rirer Kliarma, where the Grand Dukes of 
Eastern and Northern Russia hod their residence, 
before they had fixed their capital at Moscow; 
which happened about the end of the thirteenth or 
the beginning of the fourteenth century. This 
grand duchy, which had seTcral dependant and 
subordinate principalities, was conferred by the 
Khan of Kipzac (1320) on Iwan or John Danilo- 
vitsh, Prince of Moscow, who transmitted it to his 
descendants. Demetrius Iwanoyitsh, grandson of 
Iwan, took advantage of the turbulence which dis- 
tracted the grand horde, and turned his arms 
against the Tartars. Assisted by several of the 
Russian princes his vassals, he gained a signal vic- 
tory near the Don (1380), over the Khan Temnic- 
Mamai, the first which gained the Russians any 
celebrity, and which procured Demetrius the proud 
epithet of Doruki, or conqueror of the Don. This 
prince, however, gained little advantage by his vic- 
tory ; and for a long time after, the Tartars gave 
law to the Russians and made them their tributa- 
ries. Toktamish Khan, after having vanquished 
and humbled Mamai, penetrated as far as Moscow, 
sacked the city, and massacred a great number of 
the inhabitants. Demetrius was forced to implore 
the mercy of the conqueror, and to send his son a 
hostage to the horde in security for his allegiance. 

The chief residence of the Teutonic order, 
which had formerly been at Yerden, was fixed at 
Marienburg, a city newly buUt, which from that 
time became the capital of all Prussia. The Teu- 
tonic knights did not limit their conquests to 
Prussia; they took from the Poles Dantzic or 
Eastern Pomerania (1311), situated between the 
Netze, the Vistula, and the Baltic Sea, and known 
since by the name of Pomerelia. This province 
was definitely ceded to them, with the territory of 
Culm, and Michelau, by a treaty of peace which 
was signed at Kalitz (1343). The city of Dantzic, 
which was their capital, increased considerably 
under the dominion of the Order, and became one 
of the principal entrepdts for the commerce of the 
Baltic. Of all the exploits of these knights, the 
most enterprising was that which had for its object 
the conquest of Lithuania. Religion, and a pre- 
tended gift of the Emperor Louis of Bavaria, 
served them as a pretext for attacking the Lithu- 
anians, who were Pagans, in a muiderous war, 
which continued almost without interruption for 
the space of a century. The Grand Dukes of 
Lithuania, always more formidable after their de- 
feat, defended their liberties and independence 
with a courage and perseverance almost miracu- 
lous ; and it was only by taking advantage of the 
dissensions which had arisen in the fanmy of the 
grand duke, that they succeeded in obtaining 
possession of Samogitia, by the treaty of peace 
which was concluded at Racianz (1404). 

The Knights of Livonia, united to the Teutonic 
order under the authority of one and the same 
Grand Master, added to their former conquests 
the province of Estonia, which was sold to them 

by Valdemar IV., King of Denmark.** The Teu- 
tonic knights were at the zenith of their greatness 
about the beginning of the fifteenth century. At 
that time they were become a formidable power 
in the North, having under their dominion the 
whole of Prussia, comprehending Pomerania and 
the New March, as also Samogitia, Couriand, 
Livonia and Estonia.'^ A population proportioned 
to the extent of their dondnions, a well regulated 
treasury, and a flourishing commerce, seemed to 
guarantee them a solid and durable Empire. Ne- 
vertheless, the jealousy of their neighbours, the 
union of Lithuania with Poland, and the conver- 
sion of the Lithu^ans to Christianity, which de- 
prived the knights of the assistance of the cru- 
saders, soon became fatal to their order, and ac- 
celerated their down&L The Lithuanians again 
obtained possession of Samogitia, which, with Su- 
davia, was ceded to them by the various treaties 
which they concluded with that Order, between 

The oppressive government of the Teutonic 
knights — ^their own private dissensions, and the 
intolerable burden of taxation — the &tal conse- 
quence of incessant war — induced the nobles and 
cities of Prussia and Pomerania to form a confe- 
deracy against the Order, and to solicit the pro- 
tection of the Kings of Poland. This was granted 
to them, on their signing a deed of submission to 
that kingdom (1454). The result was a long and 
bloody war with Poland, which did not terminate 
till the peace of Thorn (1466). Poland then ob- 
tained the cession of Culm, Michelau, and Dantzic ; 
that is to say, all the countries now comprehended 
under the name of Polish Prussia. The rest of 
Prussia was retained by the Teutonic order, who 
promised, by means of their Grand Master, to do 
fealty and homage for it to the Kings of Poland. 
The chief residence of the Order was then trans- 
ferred to Koningsberg, where it continued until 
the time when the knights were deprived of 
Prussia by the House of Brandenburg. 

At length, however, Poland recovered from this 
state of weakness into which the unfortunate divi- 
sions of Boleslaus III. and his descendants had 
plunged it. Uladislaus IV., sumamed the Dwarf, 
having combined several of these principalities, 
was crowned King of Poland at Cracow (1320). 
From that time the royal dignity became perma- 
nent in Poland, and was transmitted to all the 
successors of Uladislaus.'^ The immediate suc- 
cessor of that prince was his son Casimir the 
Great, who renounced his rights of sovereignty 
over Silesia in fiivour of the King of Bohemia, and 
afterwards compensated this loss by the acquisition 
of several of the provinces 4>f ancient Russia. He 
likewise took possession of Red Russia (1340), as 
also of the provinces of Volhynia, Podolia, Chelm, 
and Belz, which he conquered from the Grand 
Dukes of Lithuania (1349), who had formerly dis- 
membered them from the Russian Empire. 

Under Casimir the Great, another revolution 
happened in the government of Poland. That 
Prince, having no children of his own, and wish- 
ing to bequeath the crown to his nephew Louis, 
his sister's son, by Charles Robert, King of Hun- 
gary, convoked a general assembly of the nation 
at Cracow (1339), and there got the succession of 
the Hungarian Prince ratified* in opposition to the 
legitimate lights of the Piast dynasty, who reigned 

of Teutonic CMer. 

PERIOD y. A.D. 1300-~1463. 

Louifl, king of Hungary. 
W»r BgaiuKt the Turks. 
Decliuo of Greek ompire. 


in MmotU and Silesia. This tabvenion of the 
hereditary rif^ht of the different branches of the 
Piasti, gave the Polish nobles a pretext for inter- 
fering in the election of their kings, until at last 
the throne became completely elective. It also 
ftiforded them an opportunity for limiting the power 
of their kings, and laying ue foundation of a re- 
publican and aristocratic government. Deputies 
were sent into Hungary (1356), even during the 
life of Casimir, who obliged King Louis, his in- 
tended successor, to subscribe an act which pro- 
rided that, on his accession to the crown, he should 
bind himself, and his successors, to disburden the 
Polish nobility of all taxes and contributions; 
that he should never, under any pretext, exact 
lubsidies from them ; and that, in travellhig, he 
should claim nothing for the support of his court, 
in any place during his Journey. The ancient race 
of the Piast sovereigns of Poland ended with Ca- 
flimir (1370), after having occupied the throne of 
that kingdom for several centuries. 

His successor in Poland and Hungary was Louis, 
sumamed the Great. In a Diet assembled in 1382, 
he obtained the concurrence of the Poles, in the 
choice which he had made of Sigismund of Luxem- 
bourg, as his Bon-in-law and successor in both 
kingdoms. But on the death of Louis, which 
happened immediately after, the Poles broke their 
engagement, and conferred the crown on Hedwiga, 
a younger daughter of that prince. It was 
stipulated, that she should marry Jagello, Grand 
Duke of Lithuania, who agreed to incorporate 
Lithuania with Poland, to renounce Paganism, 
and embrace Christianity, himself and all his sub- 
jects. Jagello was baptised, when he received the 
name of Uladislaus, and was crowned King of 
Poland at Cracow (1386)." It was on the acces- 
liou of Jagello, that Poland and Lithuania, long 
opposed in their interests, and implacable enemies 
of each other, were united into one body politic 
Quder the authority of one and the same king. 
Nevertheless, for nearly two centuries, Lithuania 
Hill preserved its own grand dukes, who acknow- 
ledged the sovereignty of Poland ; and it was not, 
properly speaking, till the reign of Sigismund 
Augustus, that the union of the two states was 
finally accomplished (1569). This important union 
rendered Poland the preponderating power of the 
North. It became fatal to the influence of the 
Teutonic order, who soon yielded to the united 
efforts of the Poles and Lithuanians. 

Uladislaus Jagello did not obtain the assent of 
the Polish nobility to the succession of his son, 
except by adding new privileges to those which 
they had obtained from his predecessor. He wts 
tlie first of the Polish kings who, for the purpose 
of imposing an extraordinary taxation, called in 
the Nuncios or Deputies of the Nobility to the 
General Diet (1404), and established the use of the 
Dietines or provincial diets. His descendants en- 
joyed the crown until they became extinct, in the 
sixteenth century. The succession, however, was 
mixed ; and although the princes of the House of 
Jagello might regard themselves as hereditary pos- 
sessors of the kingdom, nevertheless, on every 
change of reign, it was necessary that the crown 
should be conferred by the choice and consent of 
the nobility. 

In Hungary, the male race of the ancient kings, 
descendants of Duke Arpad, had become extinct 

in Andrew III. (1301). The crown was then 
coiltested by several competitors, and at length 
fell into the hands of the House of Anjou, the 
reigning family of Naples. Charles Robert, grand- 
son of Charles II. King of Naples, by Mary of 
Hungary, outstripped his rivals, and transmitted 
the crown to his son Louis, sumamed the Great 
(1308). This prince, characterized by his emi- 
nent qualities, made a distinguished figure among 
the Kings of Hungary. He conquered from the 
Venetians the whole of Dabnatia, from the frontiers 
of Istria, as fikr as Durazio; he reduced the 
Princes of Moldavia, Walachia, Bosnia and Bul- 
garia, to a state of dependence ; and at length 
mounted the throne of Poland on the death of his 
unde Casimir the Great." Mary his eldest daugh- 
ter succeeded him in the kingdom of Hungary 
( 1 382) . This princess married Sigismund of Lux- 
embourg, who thus united the monarchy of Hun- 
gary to the Imperial crown. 

The reign of Sigismund in Hungary was most 
unfortunate, and a prey to continual disturbances. 
He had to sustain the first war against the Otto- 
man Turks ; and, with the Emperor of Constanti- 
nople as his ally, he assembled a formidable army, 
with which he undertook the siege of Nicopolis in 
Bulgaria. Here he sustained a complete defeat by 
the Turks. In his retreat he was compelled to 
embark on the Danube, and directed his flight 
towards Constantinople. This disaster was fol- 
lowed by new misfortunes. The malecontents 
of Hungary ofiered their crown to Ladislaus, called 
the Magnanimous, King of Naples, who took pos- 
session of Dalmatia, which he afterwards surren- 
dered to the Venetians. Desirous to provide for 
the defence and security of his kingdom, Sigismund 
acquired, by treaty wiUi the Prince of Serria, the 
fortress of Belgrade (1425), which, by its situation 
at the confluence of the Danube and the Save, 
seemed to him a proper bulwark to protect Hun- 
gary against the Turks. He transmitted the crown 
of Hungary to his son-in-law, Albert of Austria, 
who reigned only two years. The war with the 
Turks was renewed under Uladislaus of Poland, 
son of Jagello, and successor to Albert. That 
prince fought a bloody battle with them near Varna 
in Bulgaria (1444). The Hungarians again sus- 
tained a total defeat, and the King himself lost his 
life in the action.'^ The safety of Hungary then 
depended entirely on the bravery of the celebrated 
John Hunniades, governor of the kingdom during 
the minority of Ladislaus, the posthumous son of 
Albert of Austria. That general signalized him- 
self in various actions against the Turks, and 
obliged Mahomet II. to raise the siege of Belgrade 
(1456), where he lost above twenty-five thousand 
men, and was himself severely wounded. 

The Greek Empire was gradually approaching 
its downfal, imder the feeble administration of the 
House of Paleologus, who had occupied the throne 
of Constantinople since the year 1261. The same 
vices of which we have already spoken, the great 
power of the patriarchs and the monks, the ran- 
cour of theological disputes, the fury of sectaries 
and schismatics, and the internal dissension to 
which they gave rise, aggravated the misfortunes 
and disorders of the 8tat«, and were instrumental 
in hastening on its final destruction. John I. and 
his successors, the last Emperors of Constanti- 
nople, being reduced to the sad necessity of pay- 

The Ottoman Turks. 
78 Osmau. Orchan. 

Timour, or Tamerlane. 


Defeat or Bqjuet. 
Babonr conquct* Ii 
Honniailps. Scmnderbe^ 

ing tribute to the Turks, and marching on military 
expeditions, at the command of the sultans, owed 
the preservation of their shattered and declining 
Empire, for some time, entirely to the reverses of 
fortune -which had befallen the Ottomans ; and to 
the difficulties which the siege of their capital pre- 
sented to a barbarous nation unacquainted with the 
arts of blockade. 

The power of the Ottoman Turks took its rise 
about the end of the thirteenth century. A 
Turkish emir, called Ottoman, or Osman, was its 
original founder in Asia Minor. He was one of 
the number of those emirs, who, after the subver- 
sion of the Seljukians of Roum or Iconium, by the 
Moguls, shared among them the spoils of their an- 
cient masters. A part of Bithynia, and the whole 
country lying round Mount Olympus, fell to the 
share of Ottoman, who afterwards formed an 
alliance with the other emirs, and invaded the pos- 
sessions of the Greek Empire, under the feeble 
reign of the Emperor Andronicus II. Prusa, or 
Bursa, the principal city of Bithynia, was con- 
quered by Ottoman (1327). He and his successors 
made it the capital of their new state, which, in 
course of time, gained the ascendency over all 
the other Turkish sovereignties, formed, like that 
of Ottoman, from the ruins of Iconium and the 
Greek Empire. 

Orchan, the son and successor of Ottoman, in- 
stituted the famous Order of the Janissaries, to 
which in a great measure the Turks owed their 
success. He took from the Greeks the cities of 
Nice and Nicomedia in Bithynia ; and, after having 
subdued most of the Turkish emirs in Asia Minor, 
he took the title of sultan or king, as well as that 
of pacha, which is equivalent to the title of em- 
peror. His son Soliman crossed the Hellespont, 
by his orders, near the ruins of ancient Troy, and 
took the city of Gallipoli, in the Thracian Cher- 
sonesus (1358) . The conquest of this place opened 
a passage for tiie Turks into Europe, when Thrace 
and the whole of Greece was soon inundated by 
these new invaders. Amurath I., the son and suc- 
cessor of Orchan, made himself master of Adria- 
nople and the whole of Thrace (1360) ; he next 
attacked Macedonia, Servia and Bulgaria, and ap- 
pointed the first Beglerbeff, or Governor-General of 
Roumelia. Several Turkidi princes of Asia Minor 
were obliged to acknowledge his authority; he 
made himself master of Kiutaja, the metropolis 
of Phrygia, which afterwards became the capital 
of Anatolia, and the residence of the governor of 
that province (1389). Amurath was slain at the 
battle of Cassova, which he fought with the despot 
of Servia, assisted by his numerous allies. In this 
bloody battle the despot himself was slain, and 
both sides equally claimed the victory. Bajazet 
I., the successor of Amurath, put an end to all 
the Turkish sovereignties which still subsisted in 
Asia Minor. He completed the reduction of Bul- 
garia, and maintained the possession of it by the 
signal victory which he gained at Nicopolis (1396) 
over Sigismund, King of Hungary. The Greek 
Empire would have yielded to the persevering 
efforts of that prince, who had maintained, for ten 
years, the siege of Constantinople, had he not been 
attacked, in the midst of these enterprises, by the 
famous Timour, the new conqueror of Asia. 

Timour, commonly called Tamerlane, was one 
of those Mogul Emirs who had divided amongst 

them the sovereignty of TnasozianA, after tbe ex- 
tinction of the Mogul djmasty of Zagatai. Trsss- 
oxiana was the theatre of his first exploits ; tbrre 
he usurped the whole power of the Khans, or Em- 
perors of Zagatai, and fixed the capital of his npw 
dominions at the city of Samarcand (1309). Penb« 
the whole of Upper Asia, Kijwtar, azKl Hin- 
dostan, were vanquished by him in suceessiisi; 
wherever he marched, he renewed the aame •ceaes 
of horror, bloodshed, and carnage^ ivfaidi had 
marked the footsteps of the first Mogul coiMiDcror.^ 
Timour at length attacked the dominions of Bajaert 
in Anatolia (1400). He fbnght a bloody and deci- 
sive battle near Angora, in the ancient GaUogn- 
da, which proved fatal to the Ottoman Eapir?. 
Bajazet sustained an entire defeat, and fell himse^ 
into the hands of the conqueror. All A natO'lis vis 
then conquered and pillaged by the Moguls, sad 
there Timour fixed his winter quaitera. Meao- 
time he treated his captive Bajaaet with HTwliM»ai 
and generosity ; and the anecdote of the iron ca^ 
in which he is said to have confined his pnsoiwr. 
merits no credit. Sherefeddin All, -who aeros- 
panied Timoui; in his expedition against Bajaxet, 
makes no mention of it ; on the conttvry, he t^m 
that Timour consented to leave him the Empire. 
and that he granted the investiture of it to his 
and two of his sons. Bajazet did not long sorniT 
his misfortune ; he died of an attack of vpofkaj 
(1403) with which he was struck in the caap oi 
Timour in Caramania. 

Timour, a short time after, formed the project 
of an expedition into China ; but he died on tbe 
route in (1405), at the age of sixty-nine. HisTtst 
dominions were dismembered alter his deatk 
One of his descendants, named Babonr, Ibmided i 
powerful Empire in India, the remains of wbidi 
are still preserved imder the name of the Erapin^ 
of the Great Mogul. The invasion of Timoi^ 
retarded for some time the progress of the Turkic 
Empire. The fatal dissensions, which arose amca? 
the sons of Bajazet, set them at open war vith 
each other. At length Amurath II., the son of 
Mahomet I., and grandson of Bajazet, succeeded 
in putting a stop to these divisions, and restored 
the Empire to its primitive splendour. He de- 
prived the Greeks of all the places which still re- 
mained in their hands on the Black Sea, along the 
coast of Thrace, in Macedonia and ThessalT. 
He even took, by assault, the wall and forts whieh 
they had constructed at the entrance of the istlimas 
of Corinth, and carried his ravages to the v^pr^ 
centre of the Peloponnesus. 

The two heroes of the Christians, John Hun- 
n&des and Scanderbeg, arrested the p royrces of the 
Ottoman Sultan. The former, who was genenl 
of the Hungarians, boldly repulsed the Sultan of 
Servia, whom he was ambitious to conifoer. Tbe 
other, a Greek prince, who possessed one of the 
petty states of Albania of which Croja vras the 
capital, resisted vrith success the repeated attacks 
of the Turks. Supported by a small but well dis- 
ciplined army, and fiiToured by the mountains 
with which his territory was surrounded, he twice 
compelled Amurath to raise the siege of Crojs. 
At length appeared Mahomet II., the son and suc- 
cessor of Ajnurath (1451). This prince, who 
was raised to the Ottoman throne in the twentieth 
year of his age, conceived the design of achieving 
the conquest of the Greek Empire, by the taking 


Fall of Constantinople. 
Conqoesti by Mahomet II. 

PERIOD YI. A.D. 1453—1648. 

Greek learning carried 

into Italy. 79 

Academies founded. 

of Constantinople. He succeeded in oTercoming 
all the difficulties which obstructed this enterprise, 
in which several of his predecessois had &iled. 
At the head of an army of 300»000 combatants, 
supported by a fleet of 300 sail* he appeared 
before that capital, and commenced the siege 
on the 6th April, 1453. The besieged, having 
only from 6000 to 10,000 men to oppose the 
superior force of the enemy, yielded to the power- 
ful and redoubled efforts of the Turks, after a 
vigorous defence of fifty-three days. The city was 
carried by assault, 29th May, and delivered up to 
the unrestrained pillage of the soldiers. Constan- 
tine, sumamed Dragases, the last of the Greek 
emperors, perished in the first onset; and all the 
inhabitants of that great and opulent city were car- 
ried into slavery.'* Mahomet, on entering the very 
day of the sack, saw nothing but oHe vast and dis- 
mal solitude. Wishing afterwards to attract new 
inhabitants to this city, which he proposed to make 
the seat of his Empire, he guaranteed an entire 
liberty of conscience to the Greeks who might come 
to settle there ; and authorised them to proceed to 
the election of a new patriarch, whose dignity he 
enhanccMl by the honours and privileges which he 
attached to it. He restored also the fortifications 
of the city, and, by way of precaution against the 
armame-nts of the Venetians and other western 
nations^ which he had some reason to dread, he 

constructed the famous castle of the Dardanelles, at 
the entrance of the Hellespont. 

This conquest was followed by that of Servia, 
Bosnia, Albania, Greece, and the whole Pelopon- 
nesus or Morea, as well as most of the islands of the 
Archipelago. The Greek Empire of Trebizond, 
on the coast of Asia Minor, submitted in like man- 
ner to the law of the conqueror (1466). David 
Comnenus, the last emperor, fell by the swords 
of the Mahometans, and with him perished many 
of his children and relations. Such a rapid succes- 
sion of conquests created an alarm among the 
powers of Christendom. In an assembly, which 
Pope Pius II. held at Mantua (1459), he proposed 
a general association among the powers of the 
West against the Turks. A crusade was published 
by his orders, and he was on the point of setting 
out in person at the head of this expedition, 
when he was suddenly cut off by death at Ancona 
(1464), where he had appointed the general ren- 
desvous of the confederate troops. This event, 
added to the terror which the arms of Mahomet 
had created among the nations of the West, dis- 
concerted the plans of the crusaders, and was the 
means of dissolving their confederacy. The 
Turkish Empire thus became firmly established in 
Europe, and the Tartars of the Crimea put them- 
selves at the same time under the protection of the 


OF WESTPHALIA. A.D. 1453—1648. 

The revolution which happened in the fifteenth 
century entirely changed the &ce of Europe, and 
introduced a new system of politics. This revolu- 
tion \^ras not achieved by any combinations of 
profound policy, nor by the operation of that phy- 
sical force which generally subverts thrones and 
goverrunents. It was the result of those pro- 
gressive changes which had been produced in the 
ideas and understandings of the nations of Eu- 
rope, by the improvements and institutions of pre- 
ceding times ; as well as by the invention of paper 
and printing, of gunpowder, and the mariner's 
compass. By means of these, the empire of let- 
ters and arts was greatly extended, and various 
salutary improvements made in the religion, man- 
ners, and governments of Europe. The people by 
degrees shook off the yoke of barbarism, supersti- 
tion, and fiuiatidsm, which the revolution of the 
fifth century had imposed on them ; and from that 
time the principal states of Europe began to acquire 
the strength, and gradually to assume the form, 
which they have since maintained. 

Several extraordinary events, however, con- 
spired to accelerate these happy changes. The 
belles lettres and the fine arts broke out with new 
splendour, after the downfal of the Greek Empire. 
The celebrated Petrarch, and his disciples Boc- 
cacio and John of Ravenna, were the first that 
brought the Italians acquainted with ancient lite- 

rature, as the true source and standard of good 
taste. They prepared the way for a vast number 
of the Grecian literati, who, to escape the barbarity 
of the Turks, had fied into Italy, where they 
opened schools, and brought the study of Greek 
literature into considerable repute. The most 
celebrated of these Greek refugees were, Manuel 
Chrysoloras, Cardinal Bessarion, Theodore Gaza, 
George of Trebizond, John Argyrophilus, and De- 
metrius Chalcondyles. Protected by the family of 
the Medicis at Florence, they assisted in forming 
those fine geniuses which arose in Italy during the 
fifteenth century, such as Leonardo Aretino, the 
two Guarini, Poggio of Florence, Angelo Politian, 
and many others. Academies, or free societies, 
were founded at Rome, Naples, Venice, Milan, 
Ferrara and Florence, for the encouragement of 
ancient literature. 

From Italy the study of the ancient arts passed 
to the other states of Europe. They soon dififused 
their influence over every department of literature 
and science, which by degrees assumed an aspect 
totally new. The scholastic system, which till 
then had been in vogue in the pulpits and univer- 
sities, lost its credit, and gave place to a more re- 
fined philosophy. Men learned to discriminate 
the vices of the feudal system, and sought out the 
means of correcting them. The sources of disorder 
and anarchy were gradually dried up, and gave 

•very of . 

80 Christopher Columbus. 

Ammgo Ve&putio. 


Feidinuid the Gtflhd&r. 
CortM eoaqnen Mooeo. 
Mines of PMnL 

place to better organised govemments. Paintiug, 
sculpture, and the arts in general, cleared from 
the Gothic rust which they had contracted during 
the barbarous ages, and finished after the models 
of the ancients, shone forth with renewed lustre. 
Navigation, under the direction of the compass, 
reached a degree of perfection which attracted 
universal attention ; and while the ancients merely 
coasted along their own shores in the pursuit of 
commerce or maritime exploits, we find the modem 
Europeans extending their navigation over the 
whole globe, and bringing both hemispheres under 
their dominion. 

America, unknown to the ancients, was disco- 
vered during this period ; as well as the route to 
India and the East, round the continent of Afirica. 
The notion of a fourth quarter of the world had 
long been prevalent among the ancients. We all 
recollect the Atlantides of Plato, which, according 
to the assertion of that philosopher, was larger 
than Asia and Africa ; and we know that ^lian 
the historian, who lived in the reign of Adrian, 
affirmed in like manner the existence of a fourth 
Qontinent of immense extent. This opinion had 
got so much into fashion, during the fourth and 
fifth centuries of the Christian era, that Lactantius 
and St. Augustine thought themselves bound in 
duty to combat it in their writings; inveighing 
against the antipodes by reasons and arguments, 
the frivolousness of which is now very generally 
admitted ; but, whatever were the notions which 
the ancients might have entertained as to a fourth 
quarter of the globe, it is very certain that they 
knew it only from conjecture, and that their navi- 
gation never extended so far. 

The honour of Uiis important discovery belongs 
to modem navigators, more especially to Chris- 
topher Columbus, a native of Genoa. From the 
knowledge which this celebrated man had acquired 
in the sciences of navigation, astronomy, and 
geography, he was persuaded that there must be 
another hemisphere lying to the westward, and 
unknown to Europeans, but necessary to the equi- 
librium of the globe. These conjectures he com- 
municated to several of the courts of Europe, who 
all regarded him as a visionary ; and it was not till 
after many solicitations, that Isabella, Queen of 
Castile, granted him three vessels, with which he 
set sail in quest of the new continent, 3rd August, 
1492. After a perilous navigation of some months, 
he reached the Island Guanahani or Cat Island, 
one of the Lucayos or Bahamas, to which he gave 
the name of St. Salvador. This discovery was 
followed soon after by that of the Islands of St. 
Domingo and Cuba ; and in the second and third 
voyages which that navigator undertook to Ame- 
rica (L493-1498), he discovered the mainland or 
continent of the New World ; especially the coast 
of Faria, as far as the point of Araya, making part 
of the province known at present by the name of 

The track of the Genoese navigator was followed 
by a Florentine merchant, named Amerigo Ye- 
sputio. Under the conduct of a Spanish captain, 
called Alfonso de Ojeda, he made several voyages 
to the New World after the year 1497. Different 
coasts of the continent of South America were 
visited by him ; and in the maps of his discoveries 
which he drew up, he usurped a glory which did 
not belong to him, by applying his own name 

to the new continent; which it has sinee re- 

The Spaniards conquered the islands mud s 
great part of the continent of America ; exteodis^ 
their victories along with their diacoTeries. Stimc- 
lated by the thirst of gold, which the New Worid 
offered to them in abundance, they c^ommitted 
crimes and barbarities which make hmnaaftr 
shudder. Millions of the unfortunate native* weir 
either massacred or buried in the sea» in «pite (^ 
the efforts which the Spanish bishop, BarthelRii 
de Las Casas, vainly nuude to arrest the fury of hii 
countrymen.^ In tlie year after the fiivt discovery 
of Columbus, Ferdinand the Catholic, Kins; of 
Spain, obtained a bull firom Pope Alexander VL, 
by which that pontiff made him a gift of all the 
countries discovered, or to be discovered, toward* ' 
the west and the south ; dravring an imaginary lint 
from one pole to the other, at the distance of a 
hundred leagues westward of Cape Verd and t^ 
Asores. This decision having given oSence to the ; 
King of Portugal, who deemed it prejudicial to hn , 
discoveries in the East, an accommodation m 
contrived between the two courts, in Tirtoe of 
which the same Pope, by another bull, remored 
the line in question fiurther west, to the distann 
of four hundred and seventy leagues ; so that a& 
the countries lying to the westward of this li&f 
should belong to Ihe King of Spain, vrhile tbcwe 
which might be discovered to the eastward, sboQid 
fall to the possession of the King of Portugal.* It 
was on this pretended title that the Spaniari« 
founded their right to demand the submission of 
the American nations to the Spanish crown. Tfa^ir 
principal conquests in the New World commence ' 
from the reign of the Emperor Charles V. It was in , 
his name that Ferdinand Cortes, with a mere hand- 
ful of troops, overthrew the vast Empire of Mexira ; 
(1521) ; the last emperors of which, Montesnoia , 
and Guatimozin, were slain, and a prodigious 
number of the Mexicans put to the sword. The i 
conqueror of Peru was Francis Pizarro (1533). 
He entered the country, at the head of 300 men, 
at the very time when Atabalipa was commenciiur ' 
his reign as Inca, or sovereign, of Peru. That t 
prince was slain, and the whole of Peru subdued 
by the Spaniards. ! 

[The Spaniards founded various colonies and . 
establishments in that part of America Trfaich they 
had subjected to their dominion. The character i 
of these colonies differed from that of the establish- ^ 
ments whicluthe Portuguese had founded in India, 
and the Dutch, the English, and the French, in 
different parts of the world. As the Spaniards 
were by no means a commercial nation, the pre- 
cious metals alone were the object of their cupidity. ! 
They applied themselves, in consequence, to the I 
working of mines ; they imported negroes to labour ' 
in them, and made slaves of the natives. In pro- | 
cess of time, when the number of Europeans had . 
increased in these countries, and the preriou9 ' 
metals became less abundant, the Spanish colonists I 
were obliged to employ themselves in agricultorr, , 
and in rtdsing what is commonly called colonial I 

produce. What we have now said, accounts for 
the limitations and restrictions which were imposed 
on the trade oi these colonies by the Spanish go- 
vernment; they wished to reserve to themselves 
exclusively the profits of the mines. Commerce, 
which at first had been confined to the single en- 

Bimiil diacoTered. 
InquUdou in S. AoMtioft. 
Virginia ookwiMd. 

PERIOD TI. A.D; 1468--1648. 

PortagUTM diaoovoiM. 
Vartn^nme commeret. 


trepM of Seville, fell into the haadi of a imaU 
number of merchants, to the entire exclusion of 
foxeigners. As for the Spanish p o ss es sions in 
America, thej were planted with Episcopal and 
metropoUtan sees, missions, conrents, and uniTer^ 
•ities. The Inqmsition was also introduced; but 
the hierarchy which was founded there, instead of 
augmenting the power of the popes, remained in a 
state of complete dependence upon the sore- 

The discovery of Braail belongs to the Porlu* 
guese. AlTsres Cabral, the commander of their 
fleet, while on his route to India, was driven, by 
contrary winds, on the coast of Brasil (1500), and 
took possession of the country in the name of the 
King of Portugal. This colony, in the course 
of time, became highly important, from the rich 
mines of diamonds and gold which were discovered 

The S]>aniards and Portuguese were at first the 
only masters of America ; but in a short time, 
estabUshiiientB were formed there by some of the 
other maritime nations of Europe. The first 
English colony was that of Virginia, which was 
conducted to North America by Sir Walter B^ 
leigh (1584-1616), but it did not gain a perma- 
nent settlement till the reign of James I. This 
was afterwards followed by several other colonies 
which had settled in that part of the American 
continent, on account of the persecution carried 
on by the Stuart kings against the nonconformists. 
The first settlemento of the English in the Antilles 
were those which they formed in the islands of 
Barbadoes and St. Christopher (1629) ; to these 
they added the island of Jamaica, which they took 
from the Spaniards (1655). The date of the French 
establishments in Canada is as old as the reigns 
of Francis I. and Henrv lY ., in the years 1534 
and 1604. The city of Quebec was founded in 
1608. It WM at a later period when the French 
established themselves in the Antilles. The origin 
of their colonies in Martinique and Guadaloupe is 
generally referred to the year 1635. They gained 
a footing in St. Domingo as early as 1630, but the 
flourishing state of that remarkable colony did not 
begin, properly speaking, till 1722. All the esta- 
blishments which the English and French had 
formed in America were purely agricultural ; and 
in this respect they were distinguished from the 
Spanish colonies. 

The discovery of a passage by sea to the East 
Indies round Africa belongs also to the Portu- 
guese. It forms one of those great events which 
often take their first impulse from very slender 
causes. John I., sumamed the Bastard, the new 
founder of the kingdom of Portugal, being desirous 
of affording to his sons an opportunity of signalising 
themselves, and earning the honour of knighthood, 

Elanned an expedition against the Moors in Africa ; 
e equipped a fieet, with which he landed in the 
neighbourhood of Ceuta (1415), of which he soon 
made himself master, and created his sons knights 
in the grand mosque of that city. After this event, 
the Portuguese began to have a taste for naviga- 
tion and maritime discoveries. In this they were 
encouraged by the Infont Don Henry, Duke of 
Yiseau, and one of the sons of Sing John, vdio 
had particularly distinguished himself in the expe- 
dition of which we have just spoken. That prince, 
who was well skilled in mathematics and the art 

of navigation, established his residence at Cape St. 
Vincent, on the western extremity of Algarva. 
There he ordered vessels to be constructed at his 
own expense, and sent them to reconnoitre the 
coasts of Africa. From that time the Portuguese 
discovered, in succession, the islands of Madeira 
(1420), the Canaries (1424), the Asores (1431), 
and Cape Yerd (1460). There they founded 
colonies; and, advancing by degrees along the 
southern shores of Africa, they extended their na- 
vigation as frur as the coasts of Guinea and Nigritia. 
The islands which they had newly discovered, 
were confirmed to the kings of Portugal by several 
of the Popes. The Canaries, however, having 
been claimed by the Spaniards, a treaty was nego- 
ciated between the two kingdoms, in virtue of 
which these islands were abandoned to Spain 

It was under the reign of John II. that the Por- 
tuguese extended their navigation as for as the 
most southeriy point of Africa. Barthelemi Dias, 
their admiral, was the first who doubled the Cape, 
which he called the Stormy Cape ; a name which 
King John changed into that of GkK>d Hope. At 
length, after twdve years of toils, Yasco di Gama, 
another Porttiguese admiral, had the glory of car- 
rying his national flag as for as India. He landed 
at the Port of Calicut (1498), on the Malabar 
coast, in the third year of the reign of Emmanuel. 
Several other celebrated Portuguese navigators, 
such as Almeida, Albuquerque, Acunga, SUveira, 
and de Castro, following the track of Yasco di 
Gama, laid the foundation of the power of the 
Portuguese in India. Francis Almeida defeated 
the fleet of the Mameluke Sultan of Egypt, in con- 
junction with that of the kings of India (1500). 
Alfonso Albuquerque conquered Goa (1511), and 
made it the capital of all the Portuguese settle- 
ments in that part of the world. About the same 
time, the Portuguese established themselves in the 
Molucca IsLands, with some opposition on the part 
of the Spaniards. Anthony SUveira signalised 
himself by his able defence of Diu (1588). He 
repulsed the Turks, and nuned the fleet which 
Soliman the Great had sent to the siege of that 
place (1547). The King of Cambay having re- 
sumed the siege, he experienced likewise a total 
defeat frxtm John de Castro, who then conquered 
the whole kingdom of Diu. 

The Portuguese found powerful kingdoms in 
India, and nations rich and civilised. There, na- 
* ture and the industry of the natives, produced or 
fobricated those articles of commerce and mer- 
chandise which have since become an object of 
luxury to Europeans ; at least until the activity of 
the Yenetians had furnished the inhabitants of this 
part of the world with them in such abundance, as 
to make them be regarded as articles of absolute 
necessity. This circumstance was the reason why 
the Portuguese never formed any other than mer- 
cantile establidiments in India, which they erected 
on the coasts, vrithout extending them into the 
interior. The working of the mines, and the cares 
of agriculture, were abandoned entirely to the 

This era produced a total change in the com- 
merce of the East. Formeriy the Yenetians were 
the people that carried on the principal traffic to 
India. The Jewish or Mahometan merchants pur- 
chased, at Goa, Calicut, and Cochin, those spiceries 


Trade with the Beet. 
83 Wealth or the Vanatiaiie. 
Letter cairien. 



fly* of 

and other prodocfcioiu of the East, which they 
imported into Syria by the Persian gulf; and into 
£^t by the Red Sea. They were then conveyed 
by a laborious and expensive land-carriage, eidier 
to the port of Alexandria, or that of Baironft in 
Syria. Thither the Venetians repaired in quest of 
the luxuries of India ; they fixed their price, and 
distributed them over all Europe. TUs commerce 
proved a source of vast wealth to these republi- 
cans ; it furnished them with the means of main- 
taining a formidable marine, and of very often 
dictating the law to the other European powers ; 
but after the discovery of the new passage round 
the Cape, and the conquests of the Portuguese in 
India, the Venetians saw themselves compelled to 
abandon a traffic in which they could not compete 
with the Portuguese. This was a terrible blow to 
that republic, and the principal cause of its down- 
fal. The Portuguese, however, did not profit by 
this exclusive commerce as they might have done. 
They did not, like other nations, constitute com- 
panies, with exclusive commercial pririleges ; they 
carried it on by means of fieets, which the govern- 
ment regularly despatched at fixed periods. In 
this manner, the commodities of the East were 
imported to Lisbon; but the indolence of the 
native merchants left to other nations the cate of 
distributing them through the markets of Europe. 
The Dutch were the people that profited moot by 
this branch of industry ; they cultivated it with so 
much success, and under such fiivoorable circum- 
stances, that they at length succeeded in excluding 
the Portuguese themselves from this lucrative 
traffic, by dispossessing them of their colonies in 
the East. 

If the events which we have now briefly de- 
tailed proved httl to the Venetians, and afflicting 
to humanity, by the wars and misfortunes which 
they occasioned, it is nevertheless certain, that 
commerce and navigation gained prodigiously by 
these new discoveries. The Portuguese, alter hav- 
ing maintained for some time the exclusive posses- 
sion of the navigation and trade of the East, found 
afterwards powerful competitors in the Spaniards, 
the Dutdi, English, French, and Danes, who all 
estabBshed mercantile connexions both in India and 
America.' Hence innmnerable sources of wealth 
were opened up to the industry of the Europeans ; 
and their commerce, fbrmeriy limited to the Me- 
ditetianean, the Baltic, and the Northern Seas, 
and confined to a few cities in Italy, Handera, and 
Germany, was now, by means of their colonies in 
Africa, and the East and West Indies, extended to 
all parts of the globe.^ The intercourse of the 
Poituguese with Chin* was as eariy as the year 
1517, and with Japan it began in 1642. Feidinaad 
Magellan undertook the first voyage round the 
world (1619), and Ids example foand afterwards a 
number of imitators.* By degrees the maritime 
power of Eurc^ assumed a formidable aspect; 
arts and manu&otnres were mnltipUed ; the states, 
foimeriy poor, became rich and flourisUng. King- 
doms at length found, in their commerce, resources 
lor augmenting their strength and their influence, 
and carrying into execution their projects of ag- 
grandisement and conqnest. 

[Among the causes of tfus revolution, which 
took place in commerce, it bneeessary to take into 
account a discovery apparentiy of trivial import- 
ance, hut which exercised a moat eKtraordmary In- 

fluence over the dviUniion of Europe, tis^ that of 
horte«^>otts for the conveyance of lettera. Befixa 
the sixteenth centnry, the communicnlignn bet i rc s n 
distant countries were few and dlfficnlt, Measen- 
gers, traveUing on diort journeys, on Ibot or on 
horseback, were their only conrien. About the 
beginning of the seventeenth centnrf , and dariaf 
the reign of MaximilLan I., an Italian gentiesnan, 
of the name of Francis de la Tour et Taxis, csta^ 
blished the first poets in the Low Countziea. Their 
object at first was merdy for the MMiveyanee of 
letters, for which he provided regular relaya. By 
and by, for the sake of deapatcfa, the nae of bona 
was introduced, pUced at certain distanoea. Froa 
the Low Countries this system found iCa vray iatc 
Germany, where it vras conferred on the fomily of 
Taxis as a regalian right; and firom thenee it spRail 
over every civiUied country in the woiid.] 

A revolution, not less important, ia that whirii 
took place in religion about the beginning of tk^ 
sixteenth century. The abuses wiiicli disgraced 
the court of Eome, the excess of the power, sad ; 
the depravity of the morals of the dei^, had ex- '. 
cited a very general discontent. A refomatiai 
had for a long time been deemed neceasary, btf 
there was a d^renoe of opinion aa to the method • 
of effecting it. The common notion vraa, that tbii 
task could be legally accomplished only by Ge> 
neral Councils, convoked under the anUiority «i 
the popes. It was easy, however, to pesveiw tfe 
inefflcacy of any remedy left at the di^KMal cf 
those very persons from whom the evil proceeded; 
and the imsocoessful results of the Coandk of t 
Constance and Bade had taught the people, tliac» ' 
in order to obtain redress for the abases of whieb . 
they complained, it was necessary to have reeoone ' 
to some other sdieme than that of genetal coos- t 
ells. This scheme was attempted by tiie Be- I 
formers of the sixteenth century, who were per- 
suaded, that, in order to restrain the esorbitaai 
power of the clergy, they ought to reject ^ 
infallibility of the pope, as well as that of genenl 
councils ; admitting no other authority in 
astical matters, thui that of the sacred J 
interpreted by the lights of re 

The immediate and incidental cauae of tl^ 
change in religion was the enoimoua abuse of iat- 
dulgnices. Pope Leo X., who was of die femily 
of the Medicis, and well known for hia ex tensin 
patronage of literature and tiie fine arte, haring 
exhausted the treasury of the efautch by hib loxaty 
and his munificence, had recourse to the expedient 
of indulgences, which several of his piedmssots 
had already adopted as a means of reormtii^ their 
finances. The ostensible reason was, the bamJicow 
of St. Peter's at Borne, Ae completion of whid 
was equally hiteiesting to (he whole of Chriatea- 
dom. Offices for the sale of Indulgencea were es- 
tablished in all the different states of Bun^^. The 
purehaaera of these indulgenees obtained ahadhitise 
of their sins, and exemptf on from the peine «f 
puigatory after death. The wt eo ss e s oanmitted 
by the emissaries who had the diaige of thoee in- 
dulgeacea, and the ecandalona means which tbey 
practised to extort money, brought on the arhism to 
which vre are about to advert. 

Two theologians, Mardn Latbar and Ufaw 
Zuingle, opposed these indolgenoes, and inveicfacd 
against them ia their •enaoDB and their writings ; 

[ Scriptaref, 


John CUvio. 

ConftMioo of An^ibitig. 

PEfilOD Y|. A.D. 1463— 1M8. 

CoDwqiiQDoes of the 

the former at Wittembeig» in Saxoay ; the other, 
fint at Bmeiedftlii, and afterwards at Zurich, in 
Swilaeriand. Leo X. at first held these adyersa- 
lies In contempt. He did npt attempt to allay 
the stonn, until due minds of men, exasperated hj 
the heat of dispute, vera no longer disposed to 
listen to the yoice of calmness and conciliation. 
The meana which he subsequently tried to induce 
Luther to retract haying proyed abortive, he 
launched a thundering Bull against him (1520), 
which, so fiur from abating the courage of the Re- 
former, tended, on tlie contrary, to embolden him 
still more. He publidy burnt the pope's bull, 
together with the canon law, at Wittemberg (10th 
December), in presence of a yast concourse of doc* 
tors and atiidents from different nations, whom he 
had assembled for the purpose. From that moment 
Luther and Zuingle never ceased to preach against 
the abuses of the indulgences. They completely 
undermined this system of abomination, and eyen 
attacked yaiious other dogmas and institutions of 
the Romish church, such as monastic yows, the 
celibacy of the priests, the supremacy of the pope, 
and the eccleaiastical hierarchy. These two cele- 
brated men, who agreed in the greater part of their 
opinions, soon attracted a number of followers. 
The people, long ago prepared to shake off a yoke 
which had been so oppressive, applauded the seal 
of the Reformers ; and the new opinions, promptly 
and easily diffused by means of the press, were 
received with enthusiasm throughout a great part 
of Europe. 

John Calvin, another Reformer, trod nearly in 
the footsteps of Zuin^e. He was a native of 
Noyon in Picardy, and began to distinguish him- 
self at Paris in 1632. Being compelled to leave 
that city on account of his opinions, he withdrew 
to Switzerhmd (1638) ; thence he passed to Stras- 
bourg, where he was nominated to the office of 
French preacher. His erudition and his pul^t- 
talents gained him disciples, and gave the name of 
Calvinists to those who had at first been called 
Zuingiiaas. The Lutherans, as well as the 
Zuinglians or Calvinists, in Germany, were compre- 
hended under the common appellation of Protest- 
ants, on account of the Ptxieat which th^ took 
against the decrees of the Diet of Spire (1529), 
which forbade them to make any innovations in 
religioxi, or to abolish the mass, until the meeting 
of a general council. The name of Lutherans was 
apjri&ed more particularty to those who adhered to 
the Confession of Augsbui^, that is, die Confession 
of Faith, whidi they presented to the Emperor 
Cfaaries Y., at the fomous Diet of Augsburg, held 
in 1630. 

In this manner a great part of Europe revolted 
from the pope and the Romish churdi, and em- 
braced ei&er the doctrines of Luther, or those of 
Zuingle and Calvin. The half of Germany, Den- 
mark, Norway, Sweden, Prussia, and Livonia, 
adopted the Confession of Augsburg ; while Eng- 
land, Scotland, the United Provinces, and the 
principal part of Switzerland, declared themselves 
in favoiur of the opinions of Zuingle and Calvin. 
Hie new doctrines made likewise great progress in 
France, Hungary, Transylvania, Bohemia, Silesia, 
and Poland. 

This revolution did not convulBe merely the 
church; it influenced the politics, and changed 
the form of goveinmanty in many of the states of 

Europe. Th« same men who believed themselves 
authorised to correct abuses and imperfections in 
religion, undertook to reform political abuses with 
the same freedom. New states sprang up; and 
princes took advantage of these commotions to 
augment their own power and authority. Consti- 
tuting themselves heads of the church and of the 
religion of their country, they shook off the fetterft 
of priestly influence ; whUe the clergy ceased to form 
a counteracting or controlling power in the state. 
The freedom of opinion which characterised the 
Protestant frith awoke the human mind from its 
intelleetual lethargy, infused new energy into it, 
and thus contributed to the progress of civilisation 
and science in Europe. Even the systems of pub- 
lic instruction underwent a considerable change. 
The schools were reformed, and rendered more 
periect. A multitude of new seminaries of edu- 
cation, academies, and universities, were founded 
in all the Protestant states. This revolution, how- 
ever, was not accomplished without great and 
various calamities. A hierarchy, such as that of 
the Church of Rome, supported by all that was 
dignified and venerable, could not be attacked, or 
shaken to its foundation, without involving Europe 
in the convulsion. Hence we find that wars and 
fections arose in Germany, France, the Low Coun- 
tries, Switzeriand, Hungary, and Poland. The 
march of reformation was every where stained with 

[This, however, was not always shed on account 
of religion, which was made the pretext for the 
greater part of the wars that raged for two hundred 
years. All the passions of the human breast — the 
ambition of the great — and the turbulent spirits of 
the disaffected — assumed that mask. If the Re- 
formation contributed ultimately to the progress of 
learning in the Protestant states, it arrested these 
improvements in the j^itholic countries, and gave 
birth to a headlong mnaticism which shut men's 
eyes to the truth. Even in the Protestant states, 
it occupied the attention with the study of a theo- 
logy full of scholastic subtleties, instead of directing 
the mind to the pursuit of more useful sciences. 
If this liberty of opinion, and the absence of all 
authority in matters of faith, gave new energy to 
human thou^t, It also led men into errors of which 
the preceding ages had seen no example. The re- 
pubUcanism which desolated France in the sixteenth 
century, the rebellions which distracted England 
in the seventeenth, the pestilent doctrines that 
were broached in the eighteenth, and the revolu- 
tionary spirit which overturned all Europe in the 
nineteenth, may justly be r^jarded as the conse- 
quences of the lEUformation, whose evils have, in a 
great measure, counterbalanced its advantages.*] 

The means that were employed to bring the 
quarrds of Uie diurch to an amicable conclusion, 
tended rather to exasperate than allay the mischief; 
and if the conferences among the clergy of different 
persuasions foiled, it was not to be expected that 
a better agoeement, or a re-union of parties, could 
be founded on the basis of a General Council. The 
Protestants demanded an uncontrolled liberty for 
the council. They wished it to be assembled by 
order of the Emperor, in one of the cities of the 
Empire ; and that their divines shoved have a voice 
and a seat in its meetings. The pope was to sub- 

* This Is QQC of the paragraphs ioterpolated by M. Schoell, 
iHusci o|ri]Kioii in this matter we by no mean* subaoibe to.---T. 

O 2 

84 Maiuioe of Suony. 
Ignatiw Loyda. 


mit to it8 authoritv, and all matten should there 
he decided according to the role of the sacred 
Scriptures. These terms were hy no means agree- 
able to the Catholics. Paul III. summoned a 
council at Mantua n.557), and another at Yicenia 
ri558) ; but both ot these convocations were inef- 
fectual, as was also the proposed reform in the 
court of Rome, made by the same pontiff. It was 
resolTed at last, at the instance of the Catholic 
princes (1542), to convoke the Council of Trent, 
though ike opening of it was deferred till 1545. 

This famous council met with two intermptions ; 
the first took place in 1547, when the pope, who 
had become alarmed at the success of the imperial 
arms, transferred the council to Bologna, on pre- 
tence that an epidemic distemper had broken out 
at Trent. All the prelates of the emperor's party 
remained at Trent, in obedience to the command 
of their master, who protested loudly against the 
assembly at Bologna, which, nevertheless, held its 
ninth and tenth sessions at that city. This latter 
council having been dissolved by Paul III. (1548), 
its affairs continued in a languid state for the next 
two years, when Pope Julius III., the successor of 
Paul, revived it, and transferred it once more to 
Trent (1551). Another interruption took place at 
the time when Maurice, Elector of Saxony, had 
made himself master of Augsburg, and was march- 
ing against the emperor towards Inspruck. It was 
then agreed to prorogue the council, now in its 
sixteenth session, for two years ; and to assemble 
again at the end of that period, if peace should 
happen in the mean time to be established. At 
length, in 1560, Pius lY. summoned the council, 
for the third and last time, to meet at Trent. The 
session, however, did not commence till 1552, and 
next year its sittings were finally terminated. 

In this council, matters were not treated in the 
same way as they had been ^ Constance and Basle, 
where each nation deliberated separately, and then 
gave their suffrage in common, so that the general 
decision was taken according to the votes of the 
different nations. This form of deliberation was 
not at all palatable to the court of Rome, who, in 
order to gain a preponderance in the assembly, 
thought proper to decide by a majority of the votes 
of every individual member of the council. The 
Protestant princes rejected entirely the authority 
of this council ; which, far from terminating the 
dispute, made the schism wider than ever. Its 
decisions were even condemned by several of the 
Catholic sovereigns. In France, more especially, 
it was never formally published, and they ex- 
presslv excluded such of its acts of discipline as they 
considered contrary to the laws of the kingdom, to 
the authority of the sovereign, and the nuxims of 
the GaUican church. 

It is, nevertheless, certain that this council was 
instrumental in restoring the tottering power of 
the Roman pontifih ; which received at the same 
time a new support by the institution of the Order 
of the Jesuits. The founder of this order was 
Ignatius Loyola, who was bom at the castle of 
Loyola in Guipuscoa. He made the declaration 
of his vows in the church of Montmaitre, at Paris 
(1534), and obtained from Paul III. the confirma- 
tion of his new society. This Order vras bound, 
by a particular vow of obedience, more intimately 
to the court of Rome, and became one of the main 

(Tuments of its enormous power. From Spain 

the society was speedily propagated !& att the 
other Catholic states ; they filled cities and eoott 
with their emissaries ; midertook miaaions to 
China, Japan, and the bidies ; and, under the spe- 
cial protection of the see of Rome, tli«y sfMiB ^- 
passed in credit and wealth every other wt^ipma 

In the midst of these changes which took pkn 
in civil and ecdesiasticai matten, we find a nev 
system arisii^ in the political govenuBent of 
Europe ; the bonaequence of those new^ ties ssd 
relations which had been established amongst the 
different powers since the doee of the fificeask 
century. Prior to this date, moct of the Buropeaa 
states were feeble, because insulated and detadied. 
Occupied with their own particular intereals aad 
quarrels, the nations were little aoqudnted with 
each other, and seldom had any influence on their 
mutual destinies. The feults and imperfectioDs 
inherent in the feudal system had pervaded aB 
Europe, and crippled the power and aier^ies of 
government. The soverei^, condnually at var 
with their fe.ctious and powerful vmsaals, cooU 
neither form plans of foreign conqnesC, nor cam 
them into execution ; and their military operatiou 
were in general without unity or effect. [Ham 
it happened, that in the middle agea, changes weze 
produced in the different states, which so little 
alarmed their neighbours, that it may be aaid they 
were scarcely conscious of their existence. S<Kk 
were the conquests of the English in France, whidi 
might certainly have compromised the independ- 
ence of Europe.] 

A combination of causes and circamatances, 
both physical and moral, produced a revolution in 
the manners and governments of most of the Coa- 
tinental states. The disorders of feudal aaardiy 
gradually disappeared ; constituticma better orgaa^ 
ised were introduced; the temporary levies of 
vassals were succeeded by regular and permanent 
armies ; which contributed to humble the exoriutaat 
power of the nobles and feudal barona. The eon- 
sequence was, that states formerly weak and ex- 
hausted acquired strength ; while their sovereigns, 
freed from the turbulence and intimidatiwi of their 
vassals, began to extend their political viewa, and 
to form projects of aggrandisement and eonqnest. 

From this period the reciprocal influence of the 
European States on each other began to he mani- 
fest. Those who were afraid for their ind^»aid- 
ence would naturally conceive the idea of a 
balance of power capable of protecting them against 
the iiuroads of ambitious and warlike princes. 
Hence those finquent embassies and negociations ; 
those treaties of alliance, subsidies, and guarantees ; 
those wars carried on by a general comhination of 
powers, who deemed themselves obliged to beer a 
part in the conunon cause; and hence too those 
projects for establishing checks and barriers on 
each other, which occupied the di&rent courts of 

[The system of equilibrium, or the balance of 
power, originated in Italy. That peninsolay sepa- 
rated from the rest of the continent by the sea and 
the Alps, had outstripped the other countries in 
the career of civilisation. There a multitude of 
independent states had been formed, unequal in 
point of power and extent ; but none of them had 
sufficient strength to resist the united power of the 
rest, or usurp dominion over them; whiie at the 

Austrian cl 
Hongary and Bohemia. 

PEBIOB VI. A.D. 145a-1648. 

Bmperor Charles V. 
FYsncis I. Philip U. 
Phitestant League. 


tame time» none of them were rafficienUy ccm- 
temptible in point of weakness, as not to be of some 
weight in the scale. Hence that rivalry and jea- 
lousy among them, which was incessantly watch- 
ing orer the progress of their neighbours ; and 
hence, too, a series of wars and confederacies, 
whose object was to maintain some degree of 
equality among them ; or at least a relative pro- 
portion, which might inspire the weaker with 
courage and confidence. The popes, who were 
exceedingly active in these transactions, employed 
all their policy to prevent any foreign power from 
interfering, or establishing itself in Italy. The 
doctrine of political equilibrium passed the Alps 
about the end of the fifteenth century. The 
House of Austria, which had suddenly risen to a 
high pitch of grandeur, was the first against which 
its efforts were directed.] 

This House, which derived its origin from 
Rodolph of Hapsburg, who was elected Emperor 
of Germany towards the end of the thirteenth cen- 
tury, owed its greatness and elevation chiefly to 
the Imperial dignity, and the different marriage- 
alliances which this same dignity procured it. 
Maximilian of Austria, son of the emperor 
Frederic III., married Mary of Burgundy (1477), 
daughter and heiress of Charles the Rash, last 
Duke of Burgundy. This alliance secured to 
Austria the whole of the Low Countries, in- 
cluding Franche-Comt4, Flanders and Artois. 
Philip the Fair, the son of this marriage, espoused 
the Inlanta of Spain, daughter of Ferdhiand and 
IsabelU of Castille. They had two sons, Charles 
and Ferdinand, the former of whom, knovm in his- 
tory by the name of Charies Y., inherited the Low 
Countries in right of his fitther Philip (1506). On 
the death of Ferdinand, his maternal grandfather 
(1516), he became heir to the whole Spanish suc- 
cession, which comprehended the khngdoms of 
Spain, Naples, Sicily, and Sardinia, together with 
Spanish America. To these vast possessions were 
added his patrimonial dominions in Austria, which 
were transmitted to him by his paternal grand- 
fiither the Emperor Maximilian I. About the 
same time (1519), the Imperial dignity was con- 
ferred on this prince by the electors ; so that 
Europe had not seen, since the time of Charle- 
magne, a monarchy so powerful as that of 
Charles Y. 

This emperor concluded a treaty vrith his bro- 
ther Ferdinand, by which he ceded to him all his 
hereditary possessions in Germany. The two 
brothers thvB became the founders of the two prin- 
cipal branches of the House of Austria, vis. that of 
Spain, which began with Charles Y. (called 
Charles I. of Spain), and ended with Charles II. 
(1700) ; and that of Germany, of which Ferdinand 
!• was the ancestor, and which became extinct 
in the male line in the Emperor Charles YI. 
( 1740). These two branches, closely allied to each 
other, acted in concert for the advancement of their 
reciprocal interests; moreover they gained each 
their own separate advantages by the marriage 
connexions which they formed. Ferdinand I. of 
the German line, married Anne (1521), sister of 
Louis King of Hungary and Bohemia, who having 
heen slain by the Turks at the battle of Mohacs 
(1526), these two kingdoms devolved to Ferdi- 
i^ud of the House of Austria. Finally, the mar- 
riage which Charles Y. eondracted with the Infant 

Isabella, daughter of Emmanuel, King of Portugal, 
procured PhUip II. of Spain, the sou of that mar- 
riage, the whole Portuguese monarohy, to which 
he succeeded on the death of Henry, called the 
Cardinal (1580). So vast an aggrandisement of 
power alarmed the sovereigns of Europe, who be- 
gan to suspect that the Austrian Princes, of the 
Spanish and German line, aimed at the universal 
monarchy. The unbounded ambition of Charles 
Y., and his son Philip II., as well as that of Fer- 
dinand II., grandson of Ferdinand I., tended to 
confirm these suspicions, and all felt the necessity 
of uniting to oppose a barrier to this overwhelming 
power. For a long time the whole policy of 
Europe, its wars and alliances, had no other object 
than to humble the ambition of one nation, whose 
preponderance seemed to threaten the liberty and 
independence of the rest. 

[llie system of political equilibrium, which from 
this period became the leading object of every 
European cabinet, until it was undermined by 
unjust and arbitral^ interferences, and threatened 
to bury the independence of Europe in its ruins, 
did not aim at maintaining among the different 
states an equality of power or territorial possession. 
This would have been chimerical. The object of 
this system was to maintain a perfect equality of 
rights, in virtue of which the weaker might enjoy 
in security all that they held by a just claim. It 
vras purely a defensive and preservative system ; 
nor did it affect to put an end to all wars ; it was 
directed solely against the ambition and usurpa- 
tion of conquerors. Its fundamental principle 
vras to prevent any one state from acquiring suffi- 
cient power to resist the united efforts of the others.] 

France was the leading power that undertook 
the task of regulating the balance against the 
House of Austria. Francis I. and Henry II. used 
every effort to excite combinations against Charles 
Y. Francis was the first sovereign in Europe 
that enterod into treaties of alliance with the Turks 
against Austria ; and in this vny the Porte was, 
to a certain extent, amalgamated with the political 
system of Europe. So long as their object was to 
subvert the feudal aristocracy, and the Protestant 
religion in France, Francis and Henry were 
strenuous defenders of the Germanic system, and 
extended their protection to the sovereigns of the 
Protestant states of the empire, under the per- 
suasion that all Europe would bend to the Austrian 
yoke, if the emperors of that house should succeed 
in rendering their power absolute and hereditary 
in the Empire. Henry lY., Louis XIII., and 
the Cardinals Bichelieu and Masarin, adopted 
the same line of policy.* They joined in league 
with the Protestant Princes, and armed by turns 
the greater part of Europe against Austria, and 
the Emperor Ferdinand II., whose ambitious 
designs threatened to subvert the constitution of the 
Empire. This was the grand motive for the 
famous thirty years' war, which 'vi*as put an end to 
by the treaties of Westphalia (1648), and of the 
Pyrenees (1659). France succeeded, not how- 
ever without prodigious efforts, in supporting the 
balance against Austria; while the federative 
system of the Empiro, consolidated by the former 
of these treaties, and guaranteed by France and 
Sweden, became a sort of artificial barrier, for 
preserving the equilibrium and the general tran- 
quillity of Europe. 


Anarchy of Germany. 
The 'Pnblic Pence/ 
Aalic Coancil iustitated. 


Union of ~ 

It was during this period that almost e-rery 
kingdom in Europe changed their condition, and 
assumed by degrees, the form which they have still 
retained. The German Empire continued to ex- 
perience those calamities to which erery goyem- 
mentis exposed, when Its internal spnngs hsTe 
lost their vigour and activity. Private wars and 
feuds, which the laws authorixed, were then r^- 
girded as the chief bulwark of the national liberty ; 
the noblesse and the petty states in general, 
knew no other justice than what the sword dis- 
pensed. Oppression, rapine and violence, were 
become universal ; commerce languished ; and tiie 
different provinces of the empire presented one 
melancholy scene of rain and desolation. The 
expedients that were tried to remedy these dis- 
orders, the traces, the treaties (called the Peace of 
God), and the different confederacies of the Im- 
perial states, served only to palliate, but not to 
cure the evil. The efforts which some of the 
Emperors made to establish the public tranquillity 
on some solid basis, proved equally abortive. 

It was not untU near the end of the fifteenth 
century that the states of the Empire, impressed 
with Juster notions of government and civil subor- 
dination, consented to the total and entire aboli- 
tion of feuds and intestine wars. This was accom- 
plished under the reign, of Maximilian I., by 
the Perpetual PubKc Pecux^ drawn up at the Diet 
of Worms in 1495. All violent means of redress 
among the members of the Germanic Body were 
rigorously interdicted ; and all who had any com- 
plaint to make against each other, were enjoined 
to apply to the regular courts of jtistice. This 
ordinance of the public peace, which was after- 
wards renewed and enlarged in several diets, has 
been regarded, since that time, as one of the prin- 
cipal and fundamental laws of the Empire. 

The establishment of the public peace rendered 
a reformation necessary in the administration 
of justice, which had long been in a languid and 
disordered state. For this purpose, the Imperial 
Chamber, which sat at fint at Spire, and was 
afterwards transferred to Wetdar, was instituted at 
the Diet of Worms (1495). Its object was to judge 
of any differences that might arise among the im- 
mediate members of the Germanic body ; as aho 
to receive any appeals that might be referred to 
them from the subordinate tribunals. It was com- 
posed of a chief or head, called the Judge of the 
Chamber, and of a certain number of assessors, 
chosen from among the electors and independent 
nobility. The institution of the Aulic Council, 
another sovereign court of the Empire, ibliowlBd 
soon after that of the Imperial Chamber. Its 
origin is generally referred to the Diet of Cologne 
ri512). Of the same date also is the plan which 
tiiey adopted of dividing the Empire into ten 
Circles, as a proper expedient for maintaining the 
public peace, and fiudlitating the execution of the 
sentences of the two Imperial Courts. Over each 
of these circles were placed conveners, directors, 
and colonels, whose duty it was to superintend 
and command the troops of their respective dis- 

The custom of imperial capitulations was intro- 
duced at the time of the accession of Charles Y. 
to the imperial throne (1519). The electors, 
apprehensive of the formidable power of that 
prhice, thought proper to Umit it by a capitolation, 

which they made him dgn and soleiniilf mwett 
to observe. This compact between tfie new 
emperor and the electors, renewed under every 
subsequent reign, has been always congideTed a* 
the grand charter of tiie liberties of the Genaaaie 

The dissensions on the score of religioB tbst 
happened about the beginning of the sixteestib 
century, gave rise to a long series of troubles aod 
civil wars, which proved of advaaUige to tbe 
House of Austria, by the confirmmtian of tiicir 
power in the Empire. The first of these is known 
by the name of the war of Smalcalde, of which 
the following is a brief sketch. The EkBpeitir 
Charles Y., in tiie first diet which he held at 
Worms (1621), had issued an edict of proecriptko 
against Luther and his adherents, ordaining tint 
they should be treated as enemies of the Empire, 
and prosecuted to tiie utmost rigour of the law. 
The execution of this edict was ineeasantly wged 
by the emperor and the pope's legates, nntfl the 
whole Empire was in a state of combustiim. 
The Catholic princes, at the instigation of (^ardinsl 
Campeggio, assembled at Batisbon (1524), asj 
there adopted measures of extreme r%Dnr, fat 
putting the edict into execution -within their 
respective stittes. The case was by no means the 
same with the princes and states who adhered to 
the reformation, or who gave it their proteetioa. 
To apply the conditions of the edict to them, it 
would have been necessary to come to a civil 
war, which the more prudent members of tte 
Germanic body sought to avoid. This religie« 
schism was stUl xhore aggravated at tltt Diet of 
Augsburg, where the emperor issued a decree, 
condemning the Confession of Faith wfaixA tiie 
Protestant princes had presented to him. This 
decree limited a time within which they were 
commanded, in so far as regarded the articles ia 
dispute, to conform to the doctrines of the Catholic 
Church. Thus urged to extremities, the Protes- 
tant leaders determined to assemble at Smalcalde 
before the end of this veiy year (1990), where 
they laid the foundation of a CTfitofi, or defensive 
alliance, which was afterwards renewed at diiierait 
times. John Frederic, Elector of Bazony, and 
Philip, Landgrave of Hesse, declared themaehres 
chiefs of this union. In opposition to this confe- 
deracy, the Catholic princes instituted the H€hf 
League; so called because its object was tlie 
defence of the Catholic religion. 

Everything seemed to announce a fMk war, 
when a new irruption of the Turks into Rnngaxy 
and Austria induced the Catholic* to sign, at 
Nurembeig (1590), a truce, or accommodatioB, 
with tiie princes of the union ; in virtue of which, 
a peace between the states of the two religioBs 
was concluded, and approved by the emperor ; to 
continue till a general council, or some new as- 
sembly, should decide otherwise. This peaee was 
renewed in various subsequeht assemblies. Hie 
Protestant princes, however, still persisted ih. tiwir 
refusal to acknowledge the authority of eomicili 
convoked by the popes ; and their conlMeraey 
daily receiving new accessions, the emperor» after 
having made peace with France, at Cxepy (1M4>, 
and concluded an armistice of five years with the 
Tuiks, resolved to declare war against these schis- 
matics, who, presuming on their union and their 
amicable relations with foreign ftmet% thoii^t 


PEBIOD YI. A.D. 1453—1648. 

Henry IV. of fVuiee. 
Bohemiutt eoDtMt. 


themtelTet capftUe of dietating lawt to the Empijre. 
Me inued an edict of proMriptlon (1646) against 
the Elector of Saxony and the LandgraTe of Heoe, 
the two chieft of the union ; and haTing entered 
into a aeoret alliance with Duke Maurice, a 
younger branch of the fiiuniiy of Saxony, and a 
near relation of the elector, he succeeded in trans- 
ferring the theatre of war from the Danube to the 
Elbe. The elector being defeated by the emperor, 
in an action which took place at Meeklenbuzg 
(1547), fell into the hands of the conqueror; 
and the Landgraye of Hesse met with the same 
fiUe two months after. The union of Bmatcalde 
was then dissolred, and the emperor, who now 
saw himself master of Geimany, assembled a diet 
at Augsburg in which he acted the part of a 
dictator. A large detachment of his troops» billeted 
on the city, senred as his body guard, while the 
rest of his army was encamped in the neighbour- 
hood. At this diet he ooirfeRed on Duke Maurice 
the Bleetorate of Saxony, of which he had deprived 
his prisoner, John Frederick. The iuTestiture 
of the new elector took place at Augsbuzg (1548) ; 
and what deserves to be particularly remarked 
in this diet is, that the emperor entered into a 
scheme for the entire ruin and extirpation of Pro- 
testantism» by compelling the princes and states 
of the reformation to rejoin the Catholic Church, 
by means of a formula which he made them adopt, 
known by the name of the /nlertm ; and which, by 
its preliminary arrangement, allowed them only 
the use of the communion in both kinds, and the 
marriage of their priests, until the whole matter 
should be decided by a coundL 

The victories of Charies Y., which seemed to 
have made him absolute master of the Empire, 
were soon followed by rereises, whieh eclipsed all 
the former glory of his reign. The Elector Mau- 
rice, though indebted to him for his new dignity, 
thought he might take advantage of the distressed 
condition to which that prince was teduoed by 
the lo'W state of his finances, to make a new at- 
tempt to limit his authority, and restore the Pro- 
testant religion. With this view, having enlisted 
some of the princes of the Empire in his cause, 
and concluded a seoret treaty vrith Henry II. of 
Frsnce, at Chambord, he marched vritii such 
rapidity against the Emperor, tiiat he nearly sur- 
prised him at Inspruck, and obliged him to have 
recourse to Ae mediation of his brother Ferdinand, 
when a treaty was concluded vrith Maurice, which 
wss signed at Passau (1562). There the liberty 
of the Protestant woiship yna sanctioned ; and it. 
was agreed that a General Council should be 
summoned to draw up tilie artldee of a solid and 
permanent peace between the elates of both 

This diet, which was long retarded by political 
events, did not assemble at Augsburg till the year 
1555. There a deflnitive peace vras concluded 
on the subject of rsligion, and it iras ordained titat 
both Protestant and Catholic states should enjoy a 
perfect liberty of worship ; and that no reunion 
should ever be attempted by any other than ami- 
cable means. The secularising of the eeelesiastical 
revenues, which the Protestant princes had intro- 
duced into their elates, ifas ratified ; but there iras 
one of the articles of the treaty vriiich expressly 
provided, that every prdate or churchman, who 
renounced his aadent fiuth to eminaoe the Con- 

fession of Augsburg, should lose his benefice. This 
latter clause, known by the name of Sooleaiaatical 
Reterve, did not pass but with the most determined 

Differences of more kinds than one sprang from 
this treaty of peace, — the articles of which each 
party interpreted to their own advantage. Hence 
those stratagems which at length occasioned a 
new war (1618>--that of the Thirty Year*. The 
Protestant Princes and States, vrishing to provide 
for their own security, and to put an end to those 
arbitrary measures, of which they thought they 
had reason to complain, assembled at Heilbronn 
(1594), and there laid the foundation of a new 
union, which was confirmed in the assemblies held 
at Halle, in Suabia, in the years 1608 and 1610. 
The chief promoter of this union was Henry lY. 
of France, who designed to use it as a check on 
the ambition of the House of Austria ; and as a 
means for carrying into execution the grand pro- 
ject which he meditated vrith regard to the pacifi- 
cation of Europe. He concluded an alliance with 
the princes oi the Union, and determined the 
number of troops to be fomished by each of the 
contracting parties. The Catholic princes and 
States, afindd of being taken unawares, renewed 
their League, which they signed at Wurtsburg 
(1609). The rich duchy of Juliers, whieh had 
become vacant this same year, was contested by 
several claimants ; and as Austria vras equally de- 
sirous of possessing it, this was made the occasion 
of raising powerful armies in France, Germany, 
Italy, and the Low Countries. A considerable 
number of troops had already taken the field 
about the beginning of the year 1610, when the 
unexpected death of Henry IV. disconcerted all 
their measures. This changed the politics of the 
French court, and also induced the princes of the 
Union to conclude a treaty with the League, — 
the articles of whidi were signed at Munidli and 
Wildstett (1610). 

In this manner the resentment of both parties 
was suspended for the moment; but the cause 
of their disunion still remained, which at length 
(1618) kindled a war that extended from Bohemia 
over sll Germany, and involved, in course of time, 
a great part of Europe. The history of this tedious 
war, in which polities had as great a share as seal 
for religion, may be divided into four principal 
periods, namely, the Palatine, the Danish, the 
Swedish, and the French war. Frederick Y., 
Elector Palatine, and head of the Protestant 
j Union, having been raised to the throne by the 
i Bohemian States (1619), vriiich had rebeUed 
against the Emperor Ferdinand II., engaged in a 
war vrith that prince ; but being deserted by his 
alUes, and defeated at the batUe of Prague (1620), 
he was driven from Bohemia, and stripped of all 
his dominioiis. The victorious arms of Austria 
soon extended their conquests over a great part 
of the Empire. 

Christian IY.« King of Denmarii, who vras in 
alliance vrith most of the Protestant princes, next 
undertook the defence of the federal system ; but 
he VTSS not more fortunate than the Elector Pala- 
tine had been. Being defeated by Tilly, at the 
femous battle of Lutien (1626), he veas compelled 
to abandon the cause of his allies, and to sign a 
separate peace with the Emperor at Lubeck 
(1620). GustavuB Adolphus, King of Sweden, 

Goslavus Adolphw ilain. 
Swedish wan. 
Peaee of Munster. 


Tlie Lofw GooBliM. 

p«ni;ked the career of the Danish monarch. En- 
couraged by France, he put himself at the head of 
the Protestant princes, with the view of checking 
the ambitious projects of Ferdinand II., who, by 
means of his general, Wallenstein, whom he had 
created Duke of Friedland, and inyested in the 
duchy of Mecklenburg, was dictating the law to 
the whole £mpire, and eren threatening the king- 
doms of the North. Nothing could be more 
splendid than the campaigns of the Swedish hero 
in Germany, and the victories which he obtained 
at Leipsic (1631), and Lutzen (1632) ; but having 
been slain in the latter action, the affairs of the 
Swedes began to decline ; and they were totally 
ruined by the defeat which they sustained at 
Nordlingen (1634). From that time the Elector 
of Saxony, John George I., renounced the alliance 
of Sweden; and in yielding up Lusace to the 
Emperor, he consented to a separate treaty of 
peace, which was signed at Prague (1635). 

It was at this period that France, which till 
then had but feebly supported the Swedes and the 
Protestant princes, thought it of advantage to her 
interests to undertake their defence against Aus- 
tria. Having declared war against Spain, she 
marched numerous armies at once into Italy, 
Spain, Germany, and the Low Countries. Ber- 
nard, Prince of 8 axe Weimar, and the three 
French generals, Guebriant, Turenne, and the 
Duke d'Enghien, signalised themselves by their 
exploits in the Imperial war ; while the disciples 
of Gustavus Adolphus, Banier, Torstenston, and 
Wrangel, distinguished themselves at the head of 
the Swedish arniies, in the various campaigns 
which took place, from the year 1635 till the con- 
clusion of Uie peace. Never were negociations 
more tedious or more complicated than those 
which preceded the treaty of Westphalia. The 
preliminaries were signed at Hamburgh in 1641 ; 
but the opening of the Congress at Munster and 
Osnaburg did not take place till 1644. The 
Counts D* Avaux and Servien, the plenipotentiaries 
of France, shared with Oxenstiem and Salvius, 
the Swedish envoys, the principal glory of this 
negociation, which vras protracted on purpose, as 
the belligerent powers were daily expecting to see 
the events of the war change in their favour. It 
was not until the 24th of October, 1648, that the 
peace was finally signed at Munster and Osnaburg. 

This peace, which was renewed in every subse- 
quent treaty, and made a fundamental law of the 
Empire, fixed definitively the constitution of the 
Germanic body. The territorial rights of the 
states, known by the name of n/pmort<y— the 
privilege of making alliances with each other, and 
with foreign powers— and advising with the Em- 
peror at the Diets, in everything that concerned 
the general administration of the Empire, were 
confirmed to them in the most authentic manner, 
and guaranteed by the consent of foreign powers. 
As to ecclesiastical affairs, the Religious Peace of 
1555 was confirmed anew, and extended to those 
who were known by the name of the Refcrmed^ 
or CdMmaU, The state of religion, the forms of 

C* He worship, and the enjoyment of ecclesiastical 
efices, throughout the whole Empire, were re- 
gulated according to the decree, called Uti potU" 
detis^ of the Ist of January, 1624, which was termed 
the normalt or decretory year. In this treaty, 
France obtained, by way of indemnity, the sove- 

rdgntj of the three bishoprics, Mets» Tovd, and 
Yerdun, as vrell as that of Alsace. The eompeasa^ 
tion of the other parties interested was aettled in a 
great measure at the expense of the Chsr^ and 
by means of secularising several biahopocs and 
ecclesiastical benefices. 

Besides Pomerania and the city of Wmbbsx* 
Sweden got the archbishopric of Bremen and the 
bishopric of Yerdun. To the House of Branden- 
burg they assigned Upper Pomeranian, Cfae axc^ 
bishopric of Magdeburg, the bishoprics of Halbcr- 
stadt, Minden, and Camin. The House of Meck- 
lenburg received, in lieu of the city of Wiaorar, 
the bishoprics of Schwerin snd Rataebm^g. The 
princely abbey of Hirsehfeld was adjudged to the 
Landgrave of Hesse-Casselt and the altemity of 
the bishopric of Osnaburg' to the House of &vbb- 
vrick-Luneburg. An eighth Electorate was insti- 
tuted in favour of the Elector Palatine, whom the 
Emperor, during the vrar, had divested of his 
dignity, which, vrith the Upper Palatinate, he had 
conferred on the Duke of Bavaria. 

The greater part of the provinces known by 
the name of the Low Countries, made part of thie 
ancient kingdom of Lorraine, which had been 
united to the German Empire since the tenth 
century. The principal of these had been acquired 
by the dukes of Burgundy, who made them over, 
with other estates, to the House of Austria (147 «>. 
Charles Y. added the prorinoes of Friealand, Gio- 
uingen, and Gneldres, to the states to which he 
had succeeded in Burgundy. He united Che se- 
venteen provinces of the Low Countries into oae 
and the same government; and ordered, hy the 
Pragmatic which he published (1549), that they 
should never henoeforUi be diranited. This same 
prince, at the diet of Augsburg (1548), entered 
into a negociation with the Germanic body, in 
virtue of which he consented to put these pRyvinees 
under their protection ; under condition of their 
observing the public peace, and paying into the 
exchequer of the Empire double Uie contribution 
of an electorate. He guaranteed to the princes 
of the Low Countries a vote snd a aeat at the 
Diet, as chieft of the circle of Burgundy. These 
provinces, moreover, were to be considered as free 
and independent sovereignties, vrithout being sub- 
ject to the jurisdiction either of the Empire or of 
the Imperial Chamber, who were not aothoriaed 
to proceed against them, except when thej were 
found in arrears vrith the payment of th^ con- 
tingent, or when they infringed the law of the 
public peace. 

Charles Y. having transferred these countries to 
his son, Philip II. of Spain, they were then incor- 
porated with the Spanish monarchy ; and it was 
under the reign of this latter prince that those 
troubles began which gave rise to the repuhtic of 
the United Provinces oi the Low Countries. The 
true origin of these troubles is to be found in the 
despotinn of Philip II., and in his extravagant 
and fimatical seal for the Catholic religion. This 
prince, the declared enemy of the rights and liber- 
ties of the Belgic provinces, wss mortified to wit- 
ness the religious privileges which they enjoyed ; 
xmder &vour of which die doctrines of the Re- 
formation were daily making new progress. Be- 
ing resolved to extirpate this new frith, together 
with the political liberties which served to protect 
it, he introduced the tribunal of the Inquisitioa 


Dttkeof Alva. 

PERIOD YI. A.D. 1463~.1648. 

Exeeutiana and Ptonecn- 

Stadtliolden of Holland. 


(1559), «8 the most sore and infallible support of 
despotism. With the consent and authority of 
Pope Paul lY., he suppressed, for this purpose, 
the metropolitan and diocesan rights which the 
archbishops and bishops of the Empire and of 
France had exercised in the Low Countries ; he 
instituted three new bishoprics at Utrecht, Cam- 
bray, and Malines ; and under their Jurisdiction 
he put thirteen new bishoprics which he had 
erected, besides those of Arras and Toumay. 
Having in this way augmented the number of his 
satellites in the assembly of the States-General, 
he suppressed a great multitude of abbeys and 
monasteries, the revenues of which he applied to 
the endowment of his newly made bishoprics. 

These innovations, added to the publication of 
the decrees of the Council of Trent, according to 
his orders, excited a very general discontent. The 
repeated remonstrances on the part of the States, 
having produced no effect on the inflexible mind 
of Philip, the nobility took the resolution of form- 
ing a confederacy at Breda, known by the name 
of the Compromiae. The confederates drew up 
a request, which was addressed to Margaret of 
Austria, the natural daughter of Charles Y., and 
Regent of the Low Countries, under the King of 
Spain. Four hundred gentlemen, headed by 
Henry de Brederod^, a descendant of the ancient 
Counts of Holland, and Louis of Nassau, brother 
to the Prince of Orange, repaired to Brussels 
(1566), and there presented this request, which 
may be considered as the commencement of the 
troubles in the Low Countries. It was on this 
account that the name of Gueux, or Beggarn^ was 
given to the Confederates, which has become so 
famous in the history of these wars. 

About this same time, the populace collected in 
mobs in several towns of the Low Countries, and 
fell upon the churches and monasteries ; and hav- 
ing broken down their altars and images, they 
introduced the exercise of the Protestant religion 
by force* The storm, however, was cahned ; the 
Catholic worship was re-established everywhere ; 
and the confederacy of the nobles dissolved, several 
of whom, distrustM of this apparent tranquillity, 
retired to foreign countries. William Prince of 
Orange, Louis of Nassau, the Counts de Culem- 
burg and Berg, and the Count de Brederod^, were 
in tiie number of these emigrants. Philip II., 
instead of adopting measures of moderation and 
clemency, according to the advice of the Begent, 
was determined to avenge, in the most signal 
manner, this outrage against his religion and the 
majesty of his throne. He sent the famous Duke 
of AIIm^ or Alva, into the Low. Countries, at the 
head of an army of 20,000 men (1567). The 
Regent then gave in her resignation. A general' 
terror overspread the country. Yast numbers of 
manufactorers and merchants took refuge in Eng- 
land, carrying along with them their arts and their 
industry. Hence the commerce and manufactures 
of the Low Countries, which had formerly been 
the most flourishing in Europe, fell entirely into 

The Duke of Alva, immediately on his arrival, 
established a tribunal or court, for investigating the 
excesses that had been committed during these 
commotions. This council, which the Flemings 
called the •* Council of Blood," infonned against 
all those who had been in any way concerned with 

the Beggars (a sort of HuguenoU) ; who had fre- 
quented their preachings, contributed to the sup- 
port of their ministers or the building of their 
churches ; or harboured and protected these here- 
tics, either directly or indirectly. Before this 
council, whose only judges were the Duke of Alva 
and his confidant John de Yaigas, were cited high 
and low, without distinction ; and all those whose 
wealth excited their cupidity. There they insti- 
tuted proceedings against the absent and the pre- 
sent, the dead and Uie living, and confiscated their 
goods. Eighteen thousand persons perished by 
the hands of the executioner, and more than 
30,000 others were entirely ruined. Among the 
number of those illustrious victims of AWa's cru- 
elty, were the Counts Egmont and Horn, who 
were both beheaded. Their execution excited a 
general indignation, and was the signal of revolt 
and civil war throughout the Low Countries. 

The Beggars, who seemed almost forgotten, be- 
gan to revive ; and were afterwards distinguished 
into three kinds. All the malecontents, as well as 
the adherents of Luther and Calvin, were called 
simply by this name. Those were called Beggars 
of the Woode^ who concealed themselves in the 
forests and marshes ; never sallying forth but in 
the night, to commit all sorts of excesses. Lastly, 
the Maritime or Marine Beggars, were those who 
employed themselves in piracy; infesting the 
coasts, and making descents on the country. 

It was in this situation of affairs that the Prince 
of Orange, one of the richest proprietors in the 
Low Countries, assisted by his brother, the Count 
of Nassau, assembled different bodies of troops in 
the Empire, with which he attacked the Low 
Countries in several places at once (1568). Fail- 
ing in these first attempts, he soon changed his 
plan ; and associating the Marine Beggars in the 
cause, he ventured to attack the Spaniards by sea. 
The Beggars, encouraged by that Prince, and Wil- 
liam Count de la Mark, sumamed the Boar qf 
Ardennes, took the city of Brille by surprise (1572), 
situated in the Isle of Yoorn, and regarded as the 
stronghold of the new republic of the Belgic pro- 
vinces. The capture of the port of Brille caused a 
revolution in Zealand. All the cities of that pro- 
vince, except Middleburg, opened their gates to 
the Beggars ; and tlieir example was followed by 
most of the towns in Holland. An assembly (xf 
the states of this latter province met this same year 
at Dort, where they laid the foundation of their 
new republic. The Prince of Orange was there 
declared Stadtholder or govenior of the provinces 
of Holland, Zealand, Friesland, and Utrecht ; and 
they agreed never to treat with the Spaniards, ex- 
cept by common consent. The public exercise 
of the reformed religion was introduced, according 
to the form of Geneva. 

This rising republic became more firmly esta- 
blished in consequence of several advantages which 
the Confederates had gained over the Spaniards, 
whose troops being badlv paid, at length mutinied ; 
and breaking out into the greatest disorders, they 
piUaged several cities, among others Antwerp, and 
laid waste the whole of the Low Countries. The 
States General, then assembled at Brussels, im- 
plored the assistance of the Prince of Orange and 
the Confederates. A negociation was then opened 
at Ghent (1576), between the states of Brussels and 
those of Holland and Zealand; where a general 

VMiaeftaon of Ghent. 
90 SeToD Unitad ProyinoM. 
Union of Utraeht. 



War or Spain 

imion« known by the name of the PaoifhaHon tff 
Ghent, was signed. They engaged mutually to 
assist each other, with the yiew of expelling the 
Spanish troops, and neyer more permitting them 
to enter the Low Countries. The Confederatesi 
who were in alliance with Queen Elisabeth of 
England, pursued the Spaniards every where, who 
soon sawthemseWes reduced to the single proTincet 
of Luxemburg, Limbutg, and Namur. 

They were on the point of beinff expelled from 
these also, when the government of the Low Coun- 
tries was intrusted to Alexander Fames^, Prince 
of Parma. Equally distinguished as a politician 
and a warrior, this prince revived the Spanish in- 
terests. Taking advantage of the cussenaions 
which had arisen among the Confederates from 
the diversity of their religious opinions, he again 
reduced the provinces of Flanders, Artois, and 
Hainault, under the Spanish dominion. He took 
the city of Maestricht by assault, and entered into 
a negotiation with the States-General of the Low 
Countries at Cologne, under the mediation of the 
Bmperor Rodolph II., the Pope, and some of the 
princes of the Empire. This negociation proved 
unsuccessful ; but Uie Prince of Orange, foreseeing 
that the general confederacy could not last, con- 
ceived the plan of a more intimate union among 
the provinces ; which he regarded as the most fit 
to make head against the Spaniards. He fixed on 
the maritime provinces, such as Holland, Zealand, 
and Friesland ; and above all, on those whom the 
same religious creed, viz., the Calvlnistic, had at- 
tached to the same interests. The commerce of 
Holland, and Zealand, and FriesUnd, began to 
make new progress daily. Amsterdam was rising 
on the ruins of Antwerp. The fioutishlng state of 
their marine rendered these provinces formidable 
by sea ; and gave them the means not only of re- 
pelling the efforts of the Spaniards, but even of 
protecting the neighbouring provinces which might 
join this union. Such were the motives which in- 
duced the Prince of Orange to form the special 
confederacy of the Seven Provinces, the basis of 
which he laid by the fiimous treaty of union con- 
cluded at Utrecht (1579)* That union was there 
declared perpetual and indissoluble; and it was 
agreed that the Seven Provinces, viz., those of 
Gueldres, Holland, Zealand, Utrecht, Overyssel, 
Freisland, and Groningen, should hencefortii be 
considered as one and the same province. Each 
of these, nevertheless, was guaranteed in the pos- 
session of their rights and privileges — ^that is, their 
absolute superiority in everything regarding their 
own internal administration. 

[We may remark, however, that these insurrec- 
tionary provinces had not originally the design of 
forming a republic. Their intention, at first, was 
only to maintain their political privileges ; and 
thev did not absolutely shake off the Spanish 
authority until they despaired of reconciliation. 
Moreover, they repeatedly ofiered the sovereignty 
of their states to different foreign princes ; and it 
was not till the unioh of Utrecht that the Seven 
Provinces became a federal republic. Coniie- 
quently everything remained on its ancient foot- 
ing; and some of the provinces even retained 
their Stadtholders or governors at the head of their 
administration. Hence that mixture of monarchy, 
aristocracy, and democracy, which prevailed in 
these countries ; and hence, too^ the feeble tie 

which imited them with each other, maA. wbicb 
would probably have speedily broken, if HflBmid 
had not, by its riches and its power, obtained aa 
influenee and a preponderance which m a intainr d 
the union.] 

The declaration of the independenee of the 
United Provinces did not take place till 1581 ; 
when the Prince of Orange induced the S tates 
General to make a fbrmal proclamation of it, oat 
of revenge for the fhrious edicts of proecriptifln 
which the court of Spain had issued against him. 
The prince, however, was assassinated et Ddfi in 
1564 ;7 and the Spaniards took advantage of the 
consternation which this event had spread \ 

the Confederates, to reconquer moat of the pro- 
vinces of the Low Countries. The gememl Con- 
federacy languished away by degrees; mod the 
imion of Utrecht was the only one maintatnsd 
among the Seven Provinces. This new republic, 
which was in strict aUianee with Kngiand, not 
only made head against the Spaniarda, but gained 
a considerable increase of strength by the vast 
numbers of refbgees from the diffnent Belgie pro- 
vinces, who took shelter there; as well as froai 
France, where the persecution stiU raged vioiealiy 
against the Protestants. It is calculated that after 
the taking of Antwerp by the Prince of Panna in 
1586, above a hundred thousand of these logitives 
transported themselves to Holland and Amster- 
dam, carrying with them fheir wealth and thcv 

From this date the commerce of the Coniederate 
States increased everv day ; and in 1595 thej ex- 
tended it as &r as India and the Eastern Sees. 
The Dutch India Company was established is 
1602. Besides the exclusive commerce of India, 
which was guaranteed to them by their elianer, 
they became likewise a political body, under the 
sovereignty of the States-General of the United 
Provinces. Supported by a formidable marine, 
they acquired vast influence in die East by dieir 
conquests over the Portuguese, whom they dis- I 
possessed, by degrees, of all their principal esta- 
blishments in India. The Spaniards, findliig their 
efforts to reduce the Confederates by fbree of anas 
iuefiiictual, set on ibot a negociadon at Antwerp 
(1609), under the mediadon of France and £i^ 
land ; in consequence of which, a truce of twehc 
years was concluded between Sjudn and the United 
Provinces. It was chiefly during this time that 
the Confederates extended their commerce over aQ 
parts of the globe, while their marine dadj is- 
creased in strength and importance ; whidi'sooa 
raised them to the rank of being the second mari- 
time power, and gave them a decidve iaflnence 
over die political alfain of Europe. 

At the expiry of this truce hostilities irere re- 
newed with Spain. The Dutch cairied on the 
war for twenty-five years with great glory, under 
the auspices of their Stadtholdiers, Mauriee and 
Henry Frederic, Princes of Orange, who diaoo* 
vered great military talents. One event, which 
proved &vourable for die republicans, was the war 
that broke out between France and Spain, and 
vriiich was fbUowed by a strict alliance between 
France and the States-General. The paitfflon of 
the Spanish Netheriands was aetded by this txeaty ; 
and the allied powers entered into an engagement 
never to make peace or truce with Spain, except 
by common consent. This latter danae, however. 

¥ ■' ■■!■■■■■ 
SetcB United Ptorfncn 

Dukes of Boni^ndy. 

PBftlOD Yli A.D. i4Mk--ie48. 

Sfona, Dnke of Milan. 


did not prerent the States-Genenl from conclude 
ing at Munster a sq>arate peace with Spain, to 
the exclusion of France (1648). By this peaee 
the King of Spain acknowledged the United Pro- 
Tinces as free and independent States ; he gave up 
to them all the places which they had seised in 
Brabant, Flanders, and Limbing, vit., Bois-le-Duc, 
Bergen-op-Zoom, Breda, and Maestricht ; as also 
their possessions in the Bast and West Indies, in 
Asia, Africa, and America. The closing of the 
Scheld, which was granted in hrorxt of the United 
Provinces, entirely mined the city of Antwerp, 
and shut out the Spanish Netherlands fit>m iXL 
maritime commerce. 

The feudal system of the Swiss, which had ori- 
ginated in the fourteenth eentury, acquired a new 
importance towards the end of the fifteenth, by 
reason of the success of the confederates in their 
war with Charles, Duke of Buigundy. This 
prince, who was of a hot and turbulent spirit, was 
constantly occupied wiHi projects of co&quest. 
Taking adyantage of the ruinous state of the 
finances of the Archduke Sigismund of Austria, 
he induced him to sell him the territories of Bris- 
gau and Alsace, with the right of repurchase. 
Peter de Hagenbaeh, a gentleman of Alsace, who 
had been appointed gpoTemor of these countries by 
the Duke, had oppressed the Austrian subjects, 
and harassed the whole neighbouring states ; espe- 
cially the Swiss. The complaints which were 
made on this score to the Duke having only ren- 
dered Hagenbaeh still more insolent, the Swiss, 
with the concurrence of several states of the Em- 
pire, paid down, at Basle, the sums stipulated in 
the contract for repurchasing the two provinces ; 
and, by force of arms, they re-established the Aus- 
trian prince in the possession of Alsace and Bris- 
gau. They even Went so fitr as to institute legal 
proceedings against Hagenbaeh, who was in con- 
sequence beheaded at Brisach in 1474. 

The Duke, determined to avenge this insult, 
assembled an army of 100,000 men, with which 
he penetrated through Franche-Comt£ into Swit- 
zerland. He was defeated in the first action, 
which took place at Granson (14T6) ; after which 
he reinforced his troops, and laid siege to Morat. 
Here he vras again attacked by the Swiss, who 
killed 18,000 of his men, and seised the whole of 
his camp and baggage. The Duke of Lorrain, an 
ally of the Swiss, was then restored to those states 
of which the Duke of Burgundy had deprived him. 
This latter prince, in a great l\u7, came and laid 
si^^ to Nancy. The Swiss marched to the relief 
of this place, Where they fought a third and last 
battle with the Duke, who was here defeated and 
slain (1477). 

These victories of the Swiss over the Duke of 
Burgundy, one of the most powerful princes of 
his time, raised tiie fiime of tfieir arms ; and made 
their friendsbro and alliance be courted by the first 
sovereigns in Europe, especially by France. Their 
confederacy, which had fbrmerly been composed 
of only eight cantons. Was augmented by the ac- 
cession of two new states, Friburg and Soleure, 
which were enrolled In iShe number of cantons. 

From this time the Svriss vrere no longer afraid 
to break the ties that bound them to the Germanic 
body, as members of the ancient ktiigdom of Aries. 
The Diet of Worms, In 1495, having granted the 
Emperor Masimlttan succours against the Frendi 

and the Turks, the Swiss alleged thehr Immunities* 
and their alliance with France, as a pretext for 
rdVising their contingent of supplies. This de- 
mand, however, wtu renewed at the Diet of Lhi- 
dau, in 1496, which required them to renounce 
their alliance vrith France, and accede to the 
League of Swabia ; as also to submit themselret to 
the Imperial Chamber, and the law of the public 
peace ; and to furnish their quota for the support 
of that Chamber, and the oUier contributions of 
the Empire. All these demands were resisted by 
the Helvetic body, who regarded them as contrary 
to their rights and privileges. Meantime the Ori- 
sons had allied themselves with the Svdss, in order 
to obtain their protection tmder the existing diffbr- 
ences between them and the Tyrolese. 

The Emperot Maximilian seised this pretext fof 
making war against the Cantons. Beii^; desiiDus 
of vindicating the dignity of the Empire, which 
had been outraged by the Swiss, and of avenging 
the insults offered to his own fkmily, he stirred up 
the League of Swabia to oppose them ; and at- 
tacked them in dlAsi^nt points at once. Eight 
batties were fought In succession, in course of l£at 
campaign ; all of which, with one solitary excep- 
tion, were in favour of the Swiss, while the Im- 
perialists lost more than 20,000 men. Maxloiilian 
and his allies, the Swablan League, then came to 
the resolution of making their peaee with the 
Cantons, which was concluded at Basle n.499). 
Botii psjrties made a mutual restitution ^ what 
they had wrested from each other; and it was 
agreed, that the dlSbrences between the Emperor, 
as Count of Tyrol, and the Orisons, should be 
brought to an amicable termination. This peace 
forms a memorable era in the history of the Hel- 
vetic ConfMeracy, whose independence, with re- 
gard to the German emperor, was from that time 
considered as decided ; although no mention of 
this vras made In the treaty, and although the 
Swiss still continued for some time to request from 
the emperors the confhmation of their immunities. 
Two immediate cities of the Empire, those of 
Basle and SchauflThausen, took occasion, fh>m these 
latter events, to solicit their admission into the 
Confbderacy. They vrere received as allies, under 
the titie of Cantons (1001) ; and the territory of 
Appenzel, which was admitted in like manner 
(1513), formed the thirteenth and last canton. 

The aUiance which the Swiss had kept up vrith 
France, since the reigns of Charies VII. and 
Louis XL, tended greaUy to secnre the independ- 
ence of the Helvetic body.' This alliance, which 
Louis XL had made an instrument for humbling 
the power of the Duke of Burgundy, was never 
but once broken, in the reign of Louis XII., on 
account of the Holy League, into which the Svriss 
were dravm by the intrl^es of the Bishop of Sion 
ri512). The French were then expelled bom the 
Milanese territory by the Swiss, who placed there 
the Duke Maximilian Sfona. It was in gratitude 
for this service, that the duke ceded to the Swiss, 
by a treaty which was concluded at Basle, the 
four bailiwicks of Lugano, Locarno, Mendrisio, 
and Yal-Maggio, which he dismembered horn the 
Milanais. Though conquerors at the batUe of 
Novara, the Swiss experienced a sanguinanr defeat 
at Marignano ; when they Judged it for their in- 
terest to renew their alliance with France (1515). 
A treaty of petpetuai peace was signed at Friburg 


di«p«lMor Swiks- 

Dukcs of Savoy. 


Emperan of Gcmuoiy. 
AiEUn of Naples. 
Family of MedicL 

between these two states (1516), which wms soon 
after followed by a new treaty of alliance, oon- 
cluded with Francis I. at Lucerne (1521), and 
regularly renewed under the subsequent reigns. 

The change which took place in religion, at the 
beginning of the sixteenth century, extended its 
influence to Switzerland, where it kmdled the flame 
of civil discord. Four cantons, those of Zurich, 
Berne, Schauffhauseu, and Basle, renouncing en- 
tirely«the Romish faith, had embraced the doc- 
trines of Zuingle and Calvin ; while two others, vis., 
Glaris and Appenzel, were divided between the 
old and the new opinions. The B«formation having 
likewise found its way into the common bailiwicks, 
the Catholic Cantons rose in opposition to it (1531); 
denying liberty of conscience to the inhabitants. 
Hence, a war arose between the Cantons of the 
two religions ; which, however, was terminated the 
same year by a treaty of peace, guaranteeing to 
such parishes within the bailiwicks as had em- 
braced the new doctrines, the liberty of [still ad- 
hering to them. The same revolution extended to 
Geneva, whose inhabitants had declared solemnly 
in favour of the reformed worship, and erected 
themselves into a free and independent republic 
(1^34). The church of Geneva, under the direc- 
tion of Calvin, became the centre and citadel of the 
Reformation ; while the academy founded in that 
city, produced a vast number of theologians and 
celebrated scholars. It was at this time that the 
Duke of Savoy planned the blockade of Geneva, 
to enforce certain ancient rights which he claimed 
over that city ; but the Bernese espoused the cause 
of the Genevans, in virtue of the treaties of com- 
mon citizenship which subsisted between them. 
This Canton having entered into alliance with 
Francis I., declared war against the Duke of Savoy 
(1536) ; and in less than three months took from 
him the Pays de Yaud. Being desirous of inter- 
esting their neighbours the Friburgers in their 
cause, they invited them to take possession of all 
those places that might suit their convenience ; and 
it was on this occasion that the city of Friburg 
acquired the principal part of its territory. These 
acquisitions were confirmed to the two Cantons, 
by the treaty which the Bernese concluded at Lau- 
sanne with the Duke of Savoy (1564). 

The German Empire from time to time renewed 
its pretensions on Switzerland, and the Imperial 
Chamber usurped an occasional Jurisdiction over 
one or other of the Cantons. Negociations for a 
general peace having commenced at Munster and 
Osnaburg, the thirteen Cantons sent their minister 
or envoy to watch over the interests of the Hel- 
vetic Body at that congress ; and they obtained, 
throxigh the intervention of France and Sweden, 
that in one of the articles of the treaty it should be 
declared, that the city of Basle, and the other Swiss 
Cantons, were in possession of full liberty, and 
independent of the Empire, and in no respect 
subject to its tribunals. 

In Italy, the authority of the Emperor of Ger- 
many, which had silently declined during the pre- 
ceding centuries, languished more and more imder 
the long and feeble reign of Frederic III. At 
length it was reduced to the mere ceremony of 
coronation, and the simple exercise of some hono- 
rary and feudal rights, such as the investitures 
which the Imperial Court continued to grant to 
the vassals of Lombardy. Although the Imperial 

dignity implied the royalty of Italy, which was 
considered as indissolubly united to it, neveriheleas 
it was the custom that the kings of Germany should 
have themselves crowned separately, kings of Italy 
at Milan, and emperors at Rome. Frederic III., 
having had certain reasons for avoiding his coro • 
nation at Milan, received fit)m the hands of Pope 
Nicholas Y., in his own capital, the two crowns 
of Italy and Rome. Maximilian I., being pre- 
vented by the Yenetians fivm repairing to Italy 
for his coronation (1508), was content to take the 
title of Emperor Elect, which his soccesaors in the 
Empire have retained till the present time. 
Charles Y. was the last emperor to whom the 
Pope, Clement YII., administered this double 
coronation of king of Italy and emperor, at Bologna, 
in 1530. 

The popes, the kings of Naples, the dukes of 
Milan, and the repubUcs of Yenice and Florence, 
were the principal powers that shared among them 
the dominion of Italy tovrards the end of the 
fifteenth century. The continual wars which these 
states waged with each other, added to the weak- 
ness of the German emperors, encouraged foreign 
powers to form plans of aggrandisement and con- 
quest over these countries. The kings of France, 
Charles YIII., Louis XIL, and Francis I., led 
away by a mania for conquest, undertook several 
expeditions into Italy, for enforcing their claims 
either on the kingdom of Naples, or the duchy of 
Milan. They were thwarted in their schemes by 
the kings of Spain, who, being already masters of 
Sicily and Sardinia, thought they behoved also to 
extend their views to the continent of Italy. Fer- 
dinand the Catholic deprived the French of the 
kingdom of Naples (1500). His successor, Charies 
Y., expelled them frY>m the Milanais, and obliged 
Francis I., by the treaties of Madrid (1526), Cam- 
bray (1529), and Crepy (1544), to give up his pre- 
tensions on the kingdom of Naples, and the duchy 
of Milan. From this time the Spaniards were the 
predominating power in Italy for more than a 
hundred years. 

In the midst of these revolutions, there arose 
three new principalities within that kingdom ; thoae 
of Florence, Parma, and Malta. The republic of 
Florence held a distinguished rank in Italy during 
the fifteenth century, both on account of the flou- 
rishing state of its commerce, and the large extejit 
of its territory, which comprehended the greater 
part of Tuscany, and gave to this republic the 
means of holdix^ the balance between the other 
powers of Italv. The opulent fiunily of the Medici 
here exercised a high degree of influence; they 
ruled not by force but by their munificence, and 
the judicious use which Uiey made of fheir great 
riches. The credit and popularity of the Medici 
excited envy and persecution against them, and 
caused them to be several times banished from 
Florence. They were expelled frt>m this latter 
place at the same time that Pope Clement Y'll., 
who was of this fiunily, was besieged by the Impe- 
rialists in Rome (1527). That pontiff in makhig 
his peace with Charles Y., obtained his consent 
that the Medici should be re-established at Flo- 
rence, in the state in which they were before their 
last banishment. The Emperor even promised the 
Pope to give Alexander de' Medici hu natural 
daughter in marriage, with a considerable dowry. 
The Florentines, however, having shown some re- 

Qrand-Dukw of Tomny. 
The VimntI of Milan. 

PERIOD YI. A.D. 140S-.1M8. 

fuaXiy of Fanww. 
KnigMiorSt. John 98 
at Malta. 

Ivetonce to recehre the Medici, t{>eir city wm be- 
sieged by the Imperial army, and compelled to 
surrender by capitulation (1530). 

The Emperor, by a charter dated at Augsburg 
on the 28th of August following, presenred to the 
city of Florence its ancient republican forms. 
Alexander de' Medici was declared govemor-in- 
ehief of the state ; but this dignity was Tested in 
himself and his male descendants, who could only 
enjoy it according to the order of primogeniture. 
He was authorised, moreoyer, to construct a 
citadel at Florence, by means of which he after- 
wards exercised an absolute power over his fellow- 
citixens. As for the ducal dignity with which the 
new prince of Florence was vested, it properly 
belonged to the duchy of Parma, in the kingdom 
of Naples, which the Emperor had conferred on 

Alexander de' Medici did not long enjoy his new 
honours. He was uniyersally abhorred for his 
cruelties, and assassinated by Laurentio de' Medici, 
one of his own near relations (1537). His suc- 
cessor in the duchy was Cosmo de' Medici, who 
annexed to the territory of Florence that of the 
ancieht republic of Sienna, which the Emperor, 
Charles Y., had conquered, and conferred on his 
son Philip II. in name of the Empire (1554). This 
latter prince being desirous of seducing Cosmo 
from his alliance with the Pope and the King of 
France, with whom the Spaniards were at war, 
granted him the investiture of the territory of Sienna, 
as a mesne-tenure holding of the crown of Spain, 
by way of equivalent for the considerable sums 
which he had advanced to Charles Y . while he was 
carrying on the siege of Sienna. In transferring 
the Siennois to the Duke, Philip reserved for him- 
self the ports of Tuscany, such as Porto Ercole, 
Orbitello, Telamone, Monte- Argentaro, St. Steftno, 
Longone, Piomblno, and the whole island of Elba, 
with the exception of Porto Pernio. By the 
same treaty, Cosmo engaged to furnish supplies to 
the Spaniards, for the defence of Milan and the 
kingdom of Naples. 

At length the Medici obtained the dignity of 
grand dukes, on occasion of the difference that 
had risen between them and the dukes of Ferrara, 
on the suliject of precedency. The Pope termi- 
nated this dispute, by granting to Cosmo the title 
of Grand Duke of Tuscany, with the royal honours 
(1569). The Emperor, however, took it amiss 
that the Pope should undertake to confer secular 
dignities in Italy; thus encroaching on a right 
which he alleged belonged ozdy to himself in viztue 
of his being king of Italy. The quarrels which 
this afikir had occasioned between the court of 
Rome and the Empire, were aiyusted in 1576, 
when the Emperor Maximilian II. granted to 
Frsncis de* Medici, the brother and successor of 
Cosmo, the dignity of Grand Duke, on condition 
that he should acknowledge it as a tenure of the 
Empire, and not of the Pope. 

AmoDg the number of those republics which the 
Yiseonti of Milan had subdued and overthrown in 
the fourteenth centunr, were those of Parma and 
Placentia. They had formed a dependency of the 
duchy of Milan until 1512, when Louis XII. 
^ring been expelled from the Milanais by the 
•Hies of the Holy League, these cities were sur- 
rendered by the Swiss to Pope Julius II., who laid 
some daim to them, as making part of the dowry 

of the fiunous Countess Matilda. The Emperor 
Maximilian ceded them to the Pope by the treaty 
of peace which he made with him in 1512. Francis 
I. took these cities again firom the court of Rome, 
when he reconquered the duchy of Milan (1515) ; 
but this prince having also been expelled from the 
Milanais (1521), the Pope again got possession of 
Parma and Placentia, in virtue of the treaty which 
he had concluded with Charles Y., for the re-esta- 
Uishment of Frands Sfona in the duchy of Milan. 
These dties continued to form part of the ecclesi- 
astical states until 1545, when they were dismem- 
bered from it by Paul III., who erected them into 
duchies, and conferred them on his son Peter 
Louis Famese, and his heirs-male in the order of 
primogeniture ; to be held under the title of fiefs 
of the holy see, and on condition of paying an 
annual tribute of 9000 ducats. 

This elevation of a man, whose very birth seemed 
a disgrace to the pontiff, gave universal offence. 
The new Duke of Parma soon rendered himself so 
odious by his dissolute life, his crimes and scan- 
dalous excesses, that a conspiracy was formed 
against him ; and he was assassinated in the dtadel 
of Placentia in 1547. Ferdinand Gonzaga, who 
was implicated, as is alleged, in this assassination, 
then took possesnon of Placentia in name of the 
Emperor; and it was not till 1557 that Philip II. 
of Spain restored that dty, with its dependendes, 
to Octavius Famese, son and successor of the 
murdered Prince. The house of Famese held the 
duchy of Parma as a fief of the ecdesiastical 
states, until the extinction of the male line in 

The Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, after 
their expulsion from the Holy Land, had retired 
to the Isle of Cyprus, and from thence to Rhodes, 
in 1810, of which they had dispossessed the Gbeeks. 
They did not maintain possession of this place 
longer than 1523, when Soliman the Great under- 
took the siege of Rhodes, with an army of 200,000 
men, and a fieet of 400 sail. The knights boldly 
repulsed the different attacks of the Turks ; but 
being entirely dependent on their own forces, and 
receiving no succour from the powers of Christen- 
dom, they were compelled to capitulate, after an 
obstbiate defence of six months. Leaving Rhodes, 
these knights took shelter in Yiterbo, belonging to 
the states of the church, where they were cordially 
received by Pope Clement YII. There they re- 
mained until the Emperor Charles Y. granted 
them the Isle of Malta, which became their prin- 
dpal reddence (1530). That prince ceded to them 
the islands of Malta and Gozio, with the city of 
Tripoli in Africa, on condition of holding diem 
from him and his successors in the kingdom of 
Sicily, as noble fie6, fhmk and free, without any 
other obligation than the annual gift of a falcon, 
in token of their domanial tenure, and presenting 
to the King of Sicily three of their sub)ects, of 
whom he was to choose one, on each vacancy of 
the bishopric of Malta. Charies Y. added another 
clause, that if ever the Order should leave Malta 
and fix their residence elsewhere, that island 
should revert to the King of Sicily. The Knights 
of St. John continued in the sovereignty of Malta 
and Gosso till 1798 ; but they lost Tripoli in 1551, 
which was taken from them by the Turks. 

A memorable revolution happened at Genoa, 
about the beginning of the sixteenth century. 

loHapendoBoa of Genoa. 
94 Andrnw DorU. 
Veuetian power. 

tmrmmm^ ^ jjj ^ uj.t j« 


Affiura or Italy. 



Tb«t republic, after having for a long time formed 
part of the duchv of KlUn» reoovered its ancient 
independence about the time when the French 
and SpaniaidB disputed the soyereignty of Italy» 
and the conquest of the Miianais* f«xpeUed by the 
Imperialists from the city of Genoa in 1522, the 
French had found means to repossess it (1^37), 
with the assistance of the celebrated Andrew 
Doria, a noble Qenoesei who had been in the 
service of Francis I. This distinguished admiral* 
supplanted by fiiTourites, and maltreated by the 
court, abandoned the cause of France in the fol- 
lowing year, and espoused that of the Bmperor 
Charies V. 

The French then laid siege to the city of Naples, 
which was reduced to the last extremity and on 
the point of surrendering, when Doria, having 
hoisted the Imperial flag, set sail for Naples, with 
the galleys under his command, and threw abund- 
ance of provisions into the besieged city. The 
French army, now cut off from all commimication 
by sea, soon began to experience those calamities 
fiN>m which the Imperialists had just been deli- 
vered. Their whole troops being destroyed by 
fiimine and contagious disease, the expedition to 
Naples fell to the ground, and the affairs of the 
French in ItaW were totally ruined. It is alleged 
that Charles v., to recompense Doria for this im- 
portant service, offered him the sovereignty of 
Genoa ; and that, instead of accepting this honour, 
that great man stipuhited for the libertv of his 
country, whenever it should be delivered from the 
yoke of France. Courting the glory of being the 
liberator of his native city, he sailed directly for 
Genoa, of which he mwie himself master, in a 
single night, without shedding one drop of bh>od 
(1628). The French garrison retired to the 
citadel and were obliged to capitulate for want of 

This expedition procured Doria the title of 
Father of his Country, which was confeired on 
him by a decree of the senate. It was by his 
advice that a conimittee of twelve persons was 
chosen to organize a new scheme of government 
for the republic. A register was drawn up of sil those 
fomilies who were to compose the grand council, 
which was destined to exercise the supreme power. 
Tiie doge vras to continue in office ten years ; and 
great care was taken to remove those causes which 
had previously excited ftctions and intestine dis- 
orders. Hence the establishment of the Genoese 
aristocracy, whose forms have since been pre- 
served, with some few modifications which were 
Introduced afterwards, in consequence of certain 
dissensions which had arisen between the ancient 
and the new nobility. 

Venice, the eldeat of the European rq)ublloa, 
had reached the zenith of its greatness about the 
end of the fifteenth century. The vast extent of 
its commerce, supported by a poweilul msxine, 
the multiplied sources of its industry, and the 
moiM^ly of the trade in the East, had made it 
one of the richest and most formidable states in 
Eon^. Besides several ports on the Adriatic, 
and numerous settlements which they had in the 
Archipelago, and the trading tovnis on the Levant, 
they gidnol ground more and more on the conti- 
nent of Italy, where they formed a considerable 
territory. Guided by an artful and enterpriaing 
pcdioy, this jM^nhUc seised with marveUous avidity 

every circumstance which fiivoured its views of ag* 
grandisement. bn the occasion of their quaxrek 
with the Duke of Fenara, they obtained poeses- 
sion of the province of Folesino de S^vigo, by a 
treaty which they concluded with that prince m 

Afterwards, having Joined the league wfaidi the 
powers of Itsly had opposed to Charies Till, and 
his projects of conquest, they refused to grant 
supplies to the King of Naples for the recovery of 
his kingdom, except by his consen t ing to yield up 
the cities of Trani, Otranto, Brindisi, and Galli- 
poli. Louis XII., being resolved to enibrce lus 
claims on the duchy of KUan, and wishing to gain | 
over this republic to his interest, gave up to t^a, .' 
by the treaty of Blois (1499), the town of Cie- I 
mona, and the whole country lying between the | 
Oglio, the Adda, and the Po. On the death of 
PopeAlexanderYI. (1908), they took that &voQr- | 
able opportunity of wresting from the ecclesias- | 
tical states several towns of the Bomagna ; among . 
others, Rimini and Faenza. 

Of all the acquisitions which the Yenetaana made, ' 
the most important was that of Cypma. That { 
island, one of the most considerable in the Me- i 
diterranean, had been conquered from the Greeks, 
by Eichanl Coeur de Lion, lUng of England, who 
surrendered it to Guy of Lusignsn (1192), the last 
king of Jerusalem, in compensation for the lo«s of 
his kingdom. From Guy de Lusignan descended 
a long line of Cypriot kings ; the last of whom, 
John III., left an only daughter, named Charlotte, 
who succeeded him in that kingdom, and caased 
her husband, Louis of Savoy, to be also crowned 
king. There still remained a bastard son of John 
III., called James, who was protected by the 
Sultan of Egypt, to whom the kings of Cyprus 
were tributaries, and who succeeded in expelling 
Charlotte and her husband, the prince of Savoy, 
from the throne (1460). James, who was desirous 
of putting himself under the protection of the 
Venetians, married Catherine Comaro, daughter oi 
Marco Comaro, or Comelio, a patrician of Venice. 
The Senate, in honour of this marriage, adopted 
Catherine, and declared her daughter of St. Mark« 
or the Bepublic. James died in 1473, leskTing a 
posthumous son, who died also in the second year 
q{ his age. The republic then, oonndering the 
kingdom of Cyprus as their own inheritance, took 
possession of t$e natural children of Jamea, and 
induced Queen Catherine, by various means, to 
retire to Venice, and there to resign her crown 
into the hands of the Senate, who asiigned h& a 
pension, with the castle of AmkAo, in Trevisano, 
for her residence ; and obtained for themaelves the 
investiture of that idand from the Sultan of TBgjpl 

A career so prospecous was eventually foUowcd 
by a reverse of foxtune ; and aeveral circumatances 
concurred to accelerate the decline of this flourish- 
ing republic. They received a terrible blow by the 
discovery of the new passage to India round the 
Cape, widch deprived them of the eommeroe of 
the East; thus drying up the principal aouree of 
their wealth, as well as of their revenue and their 
marine. In vain did they put in practice aU the 
arts of their policy to defeat A» commercial jenter- 
innses of the Fortuguese in India; exciting against 
them, first the snUaas of £gypt, and afterwards 
the Tiukith Bmpwon, and liunidnng theae Ma- 

Coma«toe with IndU. 
Victory of LooiiXIL 
Turks defiBated at Lepuito. 

PERIOD YI. ▲•D. 1468--1648. 

Dedineof Veuico. 
Rivnlry of FHJiee 
And Attitaria. 


hometan powen wiUi nqipliet. The activitj of the 
FortQgueie ninnouiited idl^tiiese obstacles. They 
obtained a finn settlement in the East, where, in 
course of time, they became a Tery formidable 
power. Lisbon, in place of Venice, became the 
emporium lor the productions of India ; and the 
Yenetians could no longer compete wi^ them in 
this field of Eastern commerce. Besides, the good 
fortune which so long attended the undertakings 
of the republic, had inspired them with a passion 
for eonqueat. They took every opportunity of 
making encroachments on their nei^^bours ; and, 
sometimes forgetting the counsels of prudence, 
they drew down upon themseWes the jealousy and 
resentment of the principal states of Italy. 

To this jealousy must be attributed the fiunous 
league, which Pope Julius II., the Emperor Msju* 
milian, Louis XII., Ferdinand of Spain, and se- 
Teral of the Italian states, concluded at Cambray 
(1508), for the partition of the Venetian territory 
on Terra Firma. Louis XII. gained a signal vic- 
tory over the republicans near Agnadello, which 
was followed by such a rapid succession of con- 
quests, that the senate of Venice were struck with 
consternation; and the republic must haye been 
in&lUbly lost, had Louis been supported by his 
allies. But the pope and the Xing of Spain, who 
dreaded the preponidcrance of the French in Italy, 
suddenly abandoned the league, and concluded 
separate treaties of peace with the republicans ; nor 
was the Emperor Maximilian long in following 
their example. In consequence of this, the Vene- 
tians, after baring been menaced with a total OTer- 
throw, lost only, in the course of the war, the ter- 
ritory of Cremona and Ghiera d'Ada, with the 
cities and ports of Bomagna and Apulia. But this 
loss was fiur surpassed by that which they expe- 
rienced in their finances, their commerce, and 
manufactures, on account of the expensive efforts 
which they were obliged to make in resisting their 
numerous enemies. 

The ruin of this republic was at length com- 
pleted by the prodigious increase of the power of 
the Ottomans, who took from them, by degrees, 
their best possessions in the Archipelago and the 
Mediterranean. Dragged, as it were, in spite of 
themselves, into the war of Charles V. against the 
Turks, they lost fourteen islands in the Archipe- 
lago ; among odiers Chios, Patmos, J£gina, Nio, 
Stampalia, and Paros ; and were obli^, by the 
peace of Constantinopie (1640), to surrender to 
the Turks, Malvasia and NapoU di Bomagna, the 
only two places which remained to them in the 

The Turks also took from them the isle of Cy- 
prus, the finest of their possessions in the Mediter- 
ranean. The Sultan, Selim II., being determined 
to conquer that island, attacked it with a superior 
force (1570), although the Venetians had given him 
no ground tor hostilities. He made himself master 
of the cities of Nicosia and Famagusta ; and com- 
pleted the conquest of the whole island, before the 
succours which the Xing of Spain and the pope 
had granted to the Venetians, could join their fleet. 
On the approadi of the Christian army, the Turkish 
fleet retired within the Chdf of Lepanto, where 
they were attadced by the allies under the com- 
mand of Don Juan of Austris, a natural son of 
Charles V. The Christians gained a complete 
victory (1571). The whole Turkish fleet was 

destxoyed, and the eonfederates took immense 
booty. The news of this defeat struck terror into 
the city of Constantinople, and made the Grand 
Signior transfer his court to Adrianople. The 
Christians, however, reaped no advantage from 
their victory. A misunderstanding arose among 
the confederates, and their fleets dispersed without 
accomplishing anything. The Venetians did not 
return to the isle of Cyprus ; and knowing well 
that they could not reckon on any effectual aid on 
the part of their allies, they determined to make 
peace vrith the Turks (1573). By thU treaty they 
left the Forte in possession of Cyprus, and con- 
sented to pay it a sum of 300,000 ducats, to obtain 
the restitution of their ancient boundaries in Dal- 
matia. From this epoch, the republic of Venice 
dates its entire decay. It was evident, that it must 
thenceforth resign its pretensions as a leading 
power, and adopt a system of neutrality whi^ 
might put it in condition to maintain peace with 
its neighbours. 

England, as we have mentioned above, had been 
the rival of France, while the latter now became 
the rival of Austria. This rivalry eommenced with 
the marriage of Maximilian of Austria, to Mary, 
daughter and heiress of Charles, last Duke of Bur* 
gundy, by ^diich the House of Austria succeeded 
to the whole dominions of that prince. The Low 
Countries, which at that time were the principal 
emporium for tiie manufactures and commerce of 
Europe, formed a part of that opulent succession. 
Louis XI., Xing of France, was unable to prevent 
the marriage of the Austrian prince with the heiress 
of Burguiidy, but he took advantage of that event 
to detach from the territories of that princess what- 
ever he found convenient. He seized on the duchy 
of Burgundy as a vacant fief of his crown, as weU 
as the seigniories of Auxerrois, Macoimois, Bar- 
sur-Seine, and the towns of the Somme ; and these 
different countries were preserved to France by 
the treaties of peace concluded at Arras (14S2), 
and Senlis (1493). Such was the origin of the ri- 
valry and bloody wars between France and Austria. 
The theatre of hoettUties, which, under Louis XL, 
had been in the Low Countries, vnw transferred 
to Italy, under Charles VIII., Loms XIL, and 
Franeis I. From thence it was changed to Ger- 
many, in the reign of Henry II. 

In Italy, besides this rivalry between the two 
powers, tibuere was another motive, or pretext, for 
war, viz., the claims of France on the kingdom of 
Naples and the duchy of Milan. The claim of 
Louis XL on the kingdom of Naples had devolved 
to him with the county of Provence, which he in- 
herited in virtue of the will of Charles, Count of 
Provence, and the last male descendant of the 
House of Anjou (1481). Charles VIIL, the son 
and successor of Louis XL, urged on by youths 
ambition, was determined to enforce this claim. 
He undertook an expedition into Italy (I^^)> "^ 
took possession of the kingdom of NafAes without 
striking a blow. But being opposed by a formi- 
dable eonfoderacTof the Italian princes, widiMaxi- 
nalian at th^r head, he was obliged to abandon 
his conquests with the same facility he had made 
them ; and he was fortunate in being able to effect 
his retreat, by the famous victory which he gained 
over the allies, near Foronuovo, in tiie duchy of 

The claim to the duchy of Milan was founded 

Duchy of MiUtB. 
96 Wan of Italy. 

Civil wan of Franee. 





on the oontnct of marritge between Louis, Duke 
of Orleans, the grandfiither of Louis XII., and 
Yalentine of Milan. That contract prorided, that 
fuling heirs-male of John Galeas, Duke of Milan, 
the duchy should fall to Yalentine, and the chil- 
dren of her marriage with the Duke oi Orleans. 
Louis XII. claimed the rights of Valentine, his 
grandmother, in opposition to the princes of the 
fiunily of Sfona, who had taken possession of the 
duchy of Milan, on the extinction of the male 
heirs of the Yisconti, which happened in 1447. 
The different expeditions which he undertook into 
Italy, both for the conquest of Milan and the 
kingdom of Naples, met with no better success 
than that of his predecessor had done, in conse- 
quence of a new league, called the Holif League, 
which Pope Julius II. raised against him, and into 
which he drew the Emperor Maximilian, the Kings 
of Arragon and England, with the Venetians and 
the Swiss. Louis XII. lost all the advantages of 
his conquests. The kingdom of Naples fell under 
the power of Ferdinand the Catholic, and the family 
of Sforsa were reinstated in the duchy of Milan. 

These Italian wars, which were renewed at 
different times under the reign of Francis I., cost 
France much blood and immense sums. In thii 
struggle she was forced to succumb, and Frauds I. 
bound himself, by the treaty of Crepy, to abandon 
his claims on Italy in favour of Charles Y. The 
kingdom of Naples and the duchy of Milan re- 
mained incorporated with the Spanuh monarchies. 
Francis I., nevertheless, had the glory of arresting 
the progress of his riyal, and effectually counter- 
balancing a power which, at that time, made all 
Europe to tremble. 

Henry II., the son and successor of Francis I., 
adopted a new line of policy. He attacked the 
House of Austria, in Germany, having entered 
into a league with Maurice, Elector of Saxony, and 
the Protestant princes of the Empire, to oppose 
Charles Y. That league, which was ratified at 
Chambord (1552), procured for Henry II. posses- 
sion of the bishoprics of Metz, Toul, and Yerdun ; 
and he even succeeded in forcing the Emperor to 
raise the siege of Mets, which that prince had un- 
dertaken about the end of the year 1552. A truce 
of five years was agreed on between these two 
sovereigns at Yaucelles ; but, in the course of a 
few months, the war was renewed, and Philip II., 
who had succeeded his fiither, Charles Y., induced 
his Queen, Mary of England, to join in it. Among 
the events of this war, the most remarkable are the 
victory of St Quentin, gained by the Spaniards 
(1557), and the conquest of the city of Calais, by 
Francis, Duke of Guise, the last possession of the 
English in France (1558). The death of Queen 
Mary prepared the way for a peace, which was 
signed at Chateau -Cambresis (1559), between 
France, England, and Spain. The Duke of Savoy 
obtained there the restitution of his estates, of 
which Francis I. had deprived him in 1536. Calais 
remained annexed to France. 

A series of wars, both civil and religious, broke 
out under the feeble reigns of the three sons and 
successors of Henry II. The great influence of 
the Guises, and the factions which distracted the 
court and the state, were the true source of hosti- 
lities, though religion was made the pretext. 
Francis II. having espoused Mary Stuart, Queen 
of Scotland, the whole power and authority of the 

government passed into the hands of Fnnds, Dob ' 
of Guise, and the Cardinml de Lwxaine, loi bcc ; 
ther, who were the queen's maternal undes. Dm 
power which these noblemen enjoyed excited the 
jealousy of Anthony, King of Navarre, and his 
brother Louis, Prince of Cond4, who inngiBed 
that the precedency in this respect wis doe to 
them as princes of the blood, in prefierenee to die 
Lorraine &mily, who miffht be coniidered u 
strangers in France. The lormer being Calnoitt, 
and having enlisted all the leaders of that putjin 
their cause, it vnw not difficult lor the Lomiiie 
princes to secure the interest of all the most seiloo 

The first spark that kindled these civil van mi 
the conspiracy of Amboise. The intention of the 
conspirators vras to seise the Guises, to brio^ ^ 
to tiial, and throw the management of si&in isto 
the hands of the princes of the Uood. The eos. 
spiracv having been discovered, the Prince of 
Conde, who was suspected of being at its bead, j 
was arrested ; and he would have beeu executed, 
had not the premature death of Francis II. lap- ' 
pened in the meantime. The queen-mother, Ci- | 
therine de* Medici, who wras intrusted with the j 
regency during the minority of Charles IXt *» , 
desirous of holding the balance between the tw . 
parties, set Condi at Uberty, and granted the C^- 
vinists the free exerdse of their religion, in t^e 
suburbs and parts lying out of the towns. ^ ^ 
fionous edict (January 1662) occasioned the W 
civil war, the signal of which vras the mssssoeof 
Yassy of Champagne. , 

Of these wars, there have been commonly i 
reckoned eight under the family of Vtlois, m^ , 
four in the reign of Charles IX., and four in that j 
of Henry III. The fourth, under Chiries IX- | 
began with the fiimous massacre of St. B«^ I 
mew, authorized and directed by the king 0^*y:^ j 

It is of some importance to notice here the Edta , 
qf Pad/ication of Henry III., of the month .« 
May, 1676. The new privileges which this edid 
granted to the Calvinisto, encouraged the G«w» 
to concoct a league this same year, ostensiDljw 
the maintenance of the Catholic religion, hut whoM 
real object was the dethronement of the reign^ 
dynasty, and the elevation of the Guises, iw 
Duke of Alencon, only brother of HennF l"" 
behig dead, and the King of Navarre, who p*- 
fessed the CalrinisUc faith, having become ^ 
sumptive heir to the crown, the chieft of the u- 
tholic League no longer made a secret of ^^ JJJ!* 
sures. They concluded a formal aUisnce (IW 
with PhUip II. of Spain, for excluding ^^f^^ 
bona from the throne of France. Henry HI- ^ 
obliged, by the Leaguers, to recommence the ^ 
against the Calvinists ; but perceiving "*\"v 
Duke of Guise, and the Cardinal his b'<>^^'[' !^ 
every occasion to render his government o<uo 
he caused them both to be assassinated si J^T' 
(1688), and threw himself on the protecaon oi w« 
Kmg of Navarre. In coi^JuncUon with that lrm« 
he undertook the siege of Paris, during whi«»° 
was himself assassinated at St. Cloud, by a i*^^ 
of the name of James Clement (1589). .^ 

The dynasty of Valois ended with Hen^]^ 
after having occupied the throne for 261 J^ 
Under this dynasty the royal authority ^^ 
considerably, both by the annexation of ^f\j 
^h to the ciown-lands, and by the intxoductioii <» 


Concordat with Leo X. 
Kdiet of Nuitai. 
RicheU0u*9 odministntioii. 

PERIOD VI. A.D. 1453—1648. 

AocessioD of Louis XIV. 

The Regency. Mazarin. 97 

Inquisition in Spain. 

regular armies, which pat an end to the feudal 1 
power. Louis XI. was chiefly instrumental in 
bringing the grandees under subjection, and put- 
ting an end to the cruelties and oppressions of 
anarchy. If these changes, howeyer, contributed 
to public order, it is nevertheless true that the 
national liberty suffered by them ; that the royal 
authority daily received new augmentations ; and 
that, so early as the reign of Louis XII., it was 
considered as high treason to speak of the necessity 
of assembling the States-General. The practice of 
these assemblies, however, was renewed under the 
successors of that prince ; they even became fre- 
quent under the last kings of the House of Yalois, 
who convoked them chiefly with the view of de- 
manding supplies. Francis I. augmented his in- 
fluence over ihe clergy by the concordat which he 
concluded with Leo X. (1516), in virtue of which 
he obtained the nomination to all vacant pre- 
latures ; leaving to the Pope the confirmation 
of the prelates, and the liberty of receiving the 

The race of Yalois was succeeded by that of the 
Bourbons, who were descended from liobert. Count 
of Clermont, younger son of St. Louis. Henry IV., 
the first king of this dynasty, was related in the 
twenty-first degree to Henry III., his immediate 
predecessor. This prince, who was a Calvinist, 
the more easily reduced the party of the League, 
by publicly abjuring his religion at St. Denis. He 
concluded a peace with the Spaniards, who were 
allies of the League, at Yervins ; and completely 
tranquillized the kingdom by the famous edict of 
Nantes, which he published in favour of the re- 
formed religion. By that edict he guaranteed to 
the Protestants perfect liberty of conscience, and 
the public exercise of their worship, with the 
privilege of filling all oflSces of trust ; but he ren- 
dered them, at the same time, a piece of disservice, 
by granting them fortified places, under the name 
of places of security. By thus fostering a spirit of 
party and intestine fiu;tion, he furnished a plausible 
pretext to their adversaries for gradually under- 
mining the edict, and finally proscribing the exer- 
cise of the reformed religion in France. 

This great prince, after having established the 
tranquillity of his kingdom at home and abroad, 
encouraged arts and manufiictures, and put the 
administration of his finances into admirable order, 
was assassinated by RavaiUac (1610), at the very 
moment when he was employed in executing the 
grand scheme which he had projected for the paci- 
fication of Europe. Cardinal Richelieu, when he 
assumed the reins of government under Louis 
XIII., had nothing so much at heart as the ex- 
pulsion of the Calvinists from their strongholds. 
This he accomplished by means of the three wars 
which he waged against them, and by the fiunous 
siege of Bochelle, which he reduced in 1628. 
That great statesman next employed his policy 
against the House of Austria, whose preponder- 
ance gave umbrage to all Emrope. He took the 
opportunity of the vacant succession of Mantua to 
espouse the cause of the Duke of Nevers against 
the Courts of Yienna and Madrid, who supported 
the Duke of Guastalla ; and maintained his pro- 
teg6 in the duchy of Mantua, by the treaties of 
peace which were concluded at Ratisbon and Que- 
rasque (1631). Having afterwards joined Sweden, 
he made war against the two branches of Austria, 

and on this occasion got possession of the places 
which the Swedes had seized in Alsace. 

Louis XIY. was only four years and seven 
months old when he succeeded his fiither (1643). 
The queen-mother, Anne of Austria, assumed the 
regency. She appointed Cardinal Mazarin her 
prime minister, whose administration, during the 
minority of the King, was a scene of turbulence 
and distraction. The same external policy which 
had directed the miniatry of Richelieu was fol- 
lowed by his successor. He prosecuted the war 
against Austria with vigour, in conjunction with 
Sweden and their confederates in Germany. By 
the peace which was concluded with the Emperor 
atMunster, besides the three bishoprics of Lor- 
raine, France obtained the Landgraviate of Lower 
and Upper Alsace, Sungaw, and the prefecture of 
the ten Imperial cities of Alsace. Spain was ex- 
cluded from this treaty ; and the war continued be- 
tween that kingdom and France until the peace of 
the Pyrenees, by which the counties of Rousslllon 
and Conflans were ceded to France, as well as 
several cities in Flanders, Hainault, and Luxem- 

Spain, which had long been divided into several 
states, and a stranger, as it were, to the rest of Eu- 
rope, became all of a sudden a formidable power, 
turning the political balance in her own favour. 
This elevation was the work of Ferdinand the Ca- 
tholic, a prince bom for great exploits ; of a pro- 
found and fertile genius ; but tarnishing his bright 
qualities by perfidy and unbounded ambition. He 
was heir to the throne of Arragon, and laid the 
foundation of his greatness by his marriage with 
Isabella (1469), sister to Henry YI. last King of 
Castile. That match united the kingdoms of Castile 
and Arragon, which were the two principal Chris- 
tian states in Spain. Henry of Castile had left a 
daughter, named Jane, but she being considered as 
illegitimate by the Castilians, the throne was con- 
ferred on Isabella and her husband Ferdinand 
(1474). The Infanta Jane, in order to enforce her 
claims, betrothed herself to Alphonso Y. King of 
Portugal ; but that prince, being defeated by Fer- 
dinand at the batUe of Toro (1476), was obliged 
to renounce Castile and his marriage with the 

At the accession of Isabella to the throne of 
Castile, that kingdom was a prey to all the miseries 
of anarchy. The abuses of the feudal system were 
there maintained by violence and injustice. Fer- 
dinand demolished the fortresses of the nobles who 
infested the country ; he gave new vigour to the 
laws ; liberated the people from the oppression of 
the great ; and, under pretence of extirpating the 
Jews and Mahometans, he established the tribunal 
of the Inquisition (1478), which spread xmiversal 
terror by its unheard of cruelties. Torquemada, 
a Dominican, who was appointed grand Inquisitor 
(1483), burnt in the space of four years near 6000 

The Moors still retained the kingdom of Gre- 
nada. Ferdinand took advantage of their dissen- 
sions to attempt the conquest of it, in which he 
succeeded, after a vigorous war of eighteen years. 
Abo Abdeli, the last King of Grenada, fied to 
Africa. An edict, which was published immedi- 
ately after, ordered the expulsion of all the Jews ; 
about 100,000 of whom fied from Spain, and took 
shalter, some in Portugal and others in Africa. 


Ferdinand the Catholic. 
9g Neapolitan afTain. 

Charles V. PhiUp 11. 


Philip IV. 

Ferdinand did not include the Moora in this pro- 
scription, whom he thought to gain over to Chris- 
tianitv by means of persecution ; but having re- 
volted in the year 1500, he then allowed them to 
emigrate* It was this blind and headlong zeal that 
procured Ferdinand the title of the Catholic King, 
which Pope Alexander III. conferred on him and 
his successors (1493). This prince also augmented 
his power by annexing to his crown the Grand 
Mastership of the Militair Orders of Calatrava, Al- 
cantara, and St. James of Compostella. 

Everything conspired to aggrandize Ferdinand ; 
and, as if the Old World had not been sufBlcient, a 
New one was opened up to him by the discovery 
of America. He was heir, by the father's side, to 
the kingdonis of Arragon, Sicilv, and Sardinia. 
He got possession of Castile by nis marriage, and 
of Grenada by force of arms ; so that nothing was 
wanting except Navarre to unite all Spain under 
his dominion. The Holy League, which Pope Ju- 
lius II. had organized against Louis XII. (1511), 
furnished him with a pretext for seizing that king- 
dom. Entering into an alliance with the Pope, 
he concerted with the King of England to invade 
Guienne, on which the English had some ancient 
claims. They demanded of the King of Navarre 
that he should make common cause with the allies 
of the Holy League against Louis XII. That 
prince, however, wishing to preserve neutrality, 
they prescribed conditions so severe, that he had 
no other alternative left than to seek protection in 
France. Ferdinand then obtained possession of 
all that part of Navarre which lay beyond the Py- 
renees. Twelve years before that time Ferdinand 
had, by the treaty of Grenada, planned with 
Louis XII. the conquest of the kingdom of Naples. 
Frederic of Arragon was then deprived of that 
kingdom, and his states were divided between the 
two allied kings ; but Ferdinand having soon 
quarrelled with Louis XII. as to their respective 
boundaries, this was made a pretext for expelling 
the French from Naples, which was again united 
to the Spanish monarchy, in the years 1503 and 

Charles Y. of Austria, grandson of Ferdinand, 
and his successor in the Spanish monarchy, added 
to that crown the Low Countries and Franche- 
Comt£, which he inherited in right of his fiither, 
Philip of Austria, and his grandmother Mary of 
Burgundy. He added likewise the kingdoms of 
Mexico and Peru, on the continent of America, 
and the duchy of Milan in Italy, in which he in- 
vested his son Philip, after having repeatedly ex- 
pelled the French in the years 1522 and 1525. 

These were all the advantages he derived from 
his wars against Francis I., which occupied the 
greater part of his reign. Blinded by his animosity 
against that prince, and by his ruling passion for 
war, he only exhausted his kingdom and impaired 
his true greatness. Charles resigned the Spanish 
monarchy to his son Philip II., which then com- 
prehended the Low Countries, the kingdoms of 
Naples, Sicily and Sardinia, the duchy of Milan, 
and the Spanish possessions in America. The 
peace of Ch&teau Cambresis, which PhiUp II. 
signed in 1559, after a lonff war against France, may 
be regarded as the era of Spanish greatness. To 
the states which were left him by his father, Philip 
added the kingdom of Portugal, with the Fortu- 
guese possessions in Africa, Asia, and America; 

but this was the termination of his pnM^t}. 
His reign after that wa« only a raccttaon of 
misfortunes. His revolting despotism excited the 
Belgians to insurrectioii, and gave birth to tbt 
republic of the United Provinces. Elixabelh of 
TCn glRTKJ having joined with the oon&deiates of dx 
Low Countries, PhiUp, out of revenge, eqirippei i 
formidable fleet, known by the name of tbe It- 
Hndhle Armada, which was composed of 1^ 
vessels of enormous size, manned with 20,»J 
soldiers, exclusive of sailors, and armed with 13ft) 
pieces of cannon. On entering the chsimel thf} 
were defeated by the English (2l8t of July, UH 
and the greater part of them destroyed by a itora 

From this calamity may be dated the dediocof 
the Spanish monarchy, which was exhausted fcj 
its expensive wars. PhiUp, at his death, left u 
enormous debt, and the whole gloiy of the Sp- 
nish nation perished vrith him. The reigns of ha 
feeble successors are only remarkable for tbar 
disasters. PhiUp III. did irreparable injury to lu< 
crown by the expulsion of the Moors or Moreiwo 
(1610), which lost Spain neariy a miUion of ir; 
industrious subjects. Nothing can equal the bil- 
fortunes which she experienced under the reigs d 
PhUip IV. During the war which he hsd to wp- 
port agamst France, the Catalans revolted, a&l 
put themselves under the protection of that crowi 
(1640). Encouraged by their example, thtror- 
tuguese Ukewise shook off the yoke, andrepJift<i 
the House of Bragansa on their throne. LmH). 
the NeapoUtans, harassed by the Duke d'Ohnw. 
prime minister of PhUip IV., revolted, ind »- 
tempted to form themselves into a republic (IMi). i 
These reverses on the part of Spain added to tte 
number of her enemies. The frmous Cromveu, 
having entered into an alUance with France (lb»). 
dispossessed the Spaniards of Jamaica, oneottbot 
richest settlements in America. „ i 

Towards the end of the fifteenth century, roi- . 
tugal had reached a high pitch of deration, ^fi'^ I 
she owed to the astonishing progress of her m«- ^ 
gation and her commerce. John II., whoie fl« 
first doubled the Cape of Good Hope, *^^^. i 
the royal authority, by humbling the ««**tJ \ 
and tyrannical power of the grandees, ^^^.u.} 
which was assembled at Evora, he w*'*^ ^ ' 
concessions which his predecessors had "*^*j, i 
the nobles, to the prejudice of the oown. n 
aboUshed the power of life and death, '^^^^ 
lords exercised over their vaanOs, and *^^^ 
their towns and their territories to t**®}""*^?^^ 
of officers appointed by the king. The now^ 
who were displeased at these innovatiom* »^ 
combined in defence of their privileg*** ■^^jflha 
the Duke of Bragansa for their leader, ^^ 
without being disconcerted by this oppo«tioD, 
the Duke brought to a trial, and W» "^^^.^g^ 
whUe his brother was hanged in effigy* , j,^ 
ample of severity intimidated the V^^^j^ 
made them submit to his authority. The w^ 
brUUant era of Portugal was that of £i»^'^L^ 
John III., who reigned between the ^^^^^ 
and 1557. It vn« under these two P^°***. ^qJjj, 
Portuguese formed their powerful empir^.^ ^ 
of which nothing now remains but the '*"**' j- 

The glory of Portugal sofifored an ecUp^.«"*'^ 
the feeble reign of Sebastian, grandsoo u^ ^ 
diate successor of John. That prince, who <» 
to the throne at the age of three yeai% bad d*^ 

Sebarfiui of PortugiL 
Philip II. ecnufmn Vat- 

FEBTOD YI. A.D. 1453^1648. 

in the 

Dutch <xmc 

East Indies. 
John IV. of Partogal. 


brought up by the Jesuits, who, instesd of in- 
structing him in the important arts of goTemment, 
had giyen him the education of a monk. They 
had inspired him with a dislike lor matrimony, 
but with a decided attachment for the crusades. 
Muley Mahomet, King of Morocco, haTing r^ 
quested his assistance against his uncie Moluc, who 
had dethroned him, Sebastian undertook an expe- 
dition into Africa in person, cairying with him the 
flower of his nobilitv. A great battle was fbogfat 
near Alca^, in the kingdom of Fei (1578), where 
the Portuguese sustained a complete defeat. Se- 
bastian was slain ; and, what is sufficiently remark- 
able, his enemy Moluc died a natural death during 
the action, while Muley Mahomet was drowned 
in the flight. 

[During the reign of this king, every thing had 
fallen into decay ; even the character of the nation 
had begun to degenerate. The spirit of chivalry 
which had distinguished them was exchanged for 
mercantile adventures, which even infected the 
higher classes ; while avarice, luxury, and effemi- 
nacy brought on a universal corruption. The 
governors of their colonies indulged in all sorts of 
violence and ii^jusdce. They seized the more lu- 
crative branches of commerce. The military force, 
which £manuel and John III. had kept up in 
India, was neglected. The clergy usurped the 
whole wealth of the colonies, and exercised an ab- 
solute power by means of the Inquisition, which 
was no where more terrible than at Ooa.1 

As Sebastian had never been married, the throne 
passed, at his death, to Henry the Cardinal, his 
grand uncle by the fother's side, who vras already 
far advanced in life. Perceiving his end approach, 
and that his death would involve the kingdom in 
confusion, he summoned an assembly of the States 
at Lisbon (1579), in order to fix Uie succession. 
The states appointed eleven commissioners, who 
were to investigate the claims of the different can- 
didates for the crown. Philip II. of Spain, who 
was one of this number, did not pay the least re- 
gard to the decision of the States. No sooner 
had he learned the death of Henry (1580), than 
he sent the Duke of Alva, at the head of an army, 
to take possession of Portugal. The duke defeated 
the troops of his opponent, Anthony, Prior of 
Crato, one of the claimants, who had proclaimed 
himself king, pretending that he was the legitimate 
ton of the Infant Don Louis, son of Emanuel. 
Anthony had no other alternative left than to take 
■belter in France, and the whole of Portugal 
yielded to the yoke of the Spaniards. 

An inveterate antipathy, however, subsisted be- 
tween the two nations, which made the Portuguese 
detest their S])anish masters. This hatred was 
still more increased, on account of the losses which 
the Portuguese sustained, in the mean time, in 
their commerce and possessions in the East Indies. 
The lucrative traffic which the confederates in the 
Low Countries, called the Dutch^ carried on by 
Importing the merchandise of the East from Por- 
tugal, and hawking them over the north of Europe, 
haring enabled them to support the war against 
Spain, Philip II. thought to strike a fatal blow at 
their prosperity, by forbidding them all commerce 
with Portugal. That prince, however, vras deceived 
in his expectation. The confederates, deprived of 
tbis lucrative branch of their industry, and after | 
having made some unsuccessful attempts to find a | 

north-west passage to India, took the resolution of 
sailing directly thither (1595), under the conduct 
of Cornelius Houtman and Molinaar, in order to 
seek, at the fountainhead, those commodities which 
were refiised them in Portugal. No sooner had 
they attempted to form settlements in India than 
the Portuguese determined to prevent them, and 
fought vrith them, near Bantam, a town in Java, a 
naval battle, which ended in fitvonr of the con- 

Encouraged by this first success, the Dutch un- 
dertook to deprive the Portuguese of their principal 
possessions in India. The conquest which they 
made of the Moluccas procured them the spice 
trade. They likewise formed settlements in the 
island of Java, where they founded the city of Ba- 
tavia, which became the capital and emporium of 
their settlements in India. At length Ooa and Diu 
were the only places that remained to the Portu- 
guese of their numerous possessions in India. 
These important losses greatly exasperated the 
Portuguese against the Spaniards. What added 
still more to their resentment was, that in the 
court of Madrid they saw a premeditated design to 
make vassals of the Portuguese ; and to cut off the 
most likely means of enabling them, sooner or 
later, to recover their ancient independence. It 
was with this view that their army and their 
marine were disorganized, their crown revenues 
dissipated, their nobilitv precluded from the ma- 
nagement of afikirs, and the nation exhausted by 
exorbitant assessments. 

The revolt of the Catalans, which happened in 
1640, at length detenAined the Portuguese to 
shake off the Spanish yoke. A conspiracy was 
entered into by some of the grandees, in concert 
with the Duke of Bragansa, which broke out on 
the Ist December that same year. On that day, at 
eight o'clock in the morning, the conspirators, to 
the number of about 400, repaired by different 
routes to the palace of Lisbon, where the vice- 
queen, Maigaret of Savoy, and dowager of Mantua, 
resided, with Yasconcellos the secretary of state, 
who exercised the functions of prime minister of 
the kingdom. Part of them disarmed the guard 
of the pabMre, while others seised Yasconcellos, 
who vras the only victim that fell a sacrifice to 
the public vengeance. They secured the person 
of the vice-queen, and took measures to protect 
her from insult or violence. The conspirators then 
proclaimed the Duke of Bragansa king, under the 
title of John IT. That prince arrived at Lisbon 
on the 6th December, and his inauguration took 
place on the I6th. It is not a little surprising that 
this revolution became general in eight days time, 
and that it vras not confined merely to Portugal, 
but extended even to India and Africa. Every- 
where the Portuguese expelled the Spaniards, and 
proclaimed the Duke of Bragansa. The city of 
Ceuta in Africa vras the only town which the 
Spaniards found means to retain possession of. 

John lY. was descended in a direct line from 
Alphonso, natural son of John the Bastard, who 
vras created Duke of Bragansa. The first care of 
this new king of Portugal, on his accession to the 
throne, was to convene an assembly of the states 
at Lisbon, in order to make them acknowledge his 
right to the crown. The states, conformably to 
the Amdamental lavrs of the kingdom, declared 
that Catherine, daughter of the infant Don Edvrard, 


HcBTvVlI. Henry VIII. 
100 The Iteformation. 

Cranmer arehbuhop. 


Edward VL 
Mary I. 

and grandmother of King John, haTing become 
the true and legitimate heiress to the throne on 
the death of Henry the Cardinal, her grandson 
John IV. was entitled to the repossession of those 
rights of which that princess had been unjustly de- 
priyed by the Spaniards. The better to establish 
himself on the throne, John concluded treaties of 
peace with France, the United ProTinces, the 
Netherlands, and Sweden ; but confining his whole 
ambition to the maintaining the ancient limits of 
the kingdom, he remained completely inacti-ve with 
regard to Spain, which being overpowered by nu- 
merous enemies, was quite incapable of carrying 
on the war with Tigour against Portugal. The 
truce and alliance which that prince had entered 
into with the Dutch, did not prevent these repub- 
licans from continuing their conquests in India ; 
where, in process of time, they stript the Portuguese 
of their finest settlements. 

England, long before this time, had emerged 
from the state of turbulence and desolation into 
which she had been plunged bv the destructire 
wars of the two Roses. A new nunily, that of the 
Tudors, had mounted the throne; Henry YIL, 
who was its founder, claimed the crown in light 
of his mother Margaret Beaufort, alleged heiress 
of the house of Lancaster, or the Red Rose; and 
raised an insurrection against Richard III., the last 
king of the house of York. This prince being de- 
feated and slain at the battle of Bosworth (1485), 
Henry, who was then proclaimed King of Eng- 
land, xmited the titles or claims of the two Roses, 
by his marriage with Elizabeth, daughter of Ed- 
ward IV., and heiress df York, or the White 
Rose. The country being thus restored to tran- 
quillity after thirty years of civil war, everything 
assumed'a more prosperous appearance. Agricul- 
ture and commerce began to flourish anew. Henry 
applied himself to the restoration of order and in- 
dustry. He humbled the factious nobles, and 
raised the royal autiiority almost to a state of abso- 
lute despotism. 

The reformation of religion in England began 
in the reign of his son Henry VIII. That prince, 
who was of a very capricious character, vacillating 
continually between virtue and vice, appeared at 
first as the champion of popery, and published a 
treatise against Luther, which procured him, from 
the court of Rome, the title of Defender of the 
Faith, But a violent passion, which he had con- 
ceived for Anne Boleyn, having induced htm to 
attempt a divorce from Catherine of Arragon, 
daughter of Ferdinand the Catholic, he addressed 
himself for this purpose to Pope Clement VII., 
alleging certain scruples of conscience which he 
felt on account of his marriage with Catherine, 
who was within the degrees of affini^ prohibited 
in the sacred Scriptures. The Pope being afraid 
to displease the Emperor Charles V., who was the 
nephew of Catherine, thought proper to defer 
Judgment in this matter ; but the King, impatient 
of delay, caused his divorce to be pronounced by 
Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbiuy 
(1532), and immediately married Anne Boleyn. 
The sentence of the Archbishop was annulled by 
the Pope, who published a threatening bull against 
Henry. This incensed the King, who caused the 
Papal authority in England to be abrogated by the 
parliament, and installed himself in the capacity of 
supreme head of the English church (1634) ; a title 

which was conferred on him by the dn^, ud . 

confirmed by the parilaxnent. He also introduced 

the oath of supremacy, in virtue of which all who | 

were employed in offices of trust, were obliged to ^ 

acknowledge him as head of the church. A ccut < 

of high commission was established, to ya^ \ 

ecclesiastical causes in name of the king, sod froa | 

whose sentence there was no appeal. The wa- i 

ventB or monasteries were suppressed, and thw 

revenues confiscated to the crown (153e-1539). i 

Henry even became a dogmatist in theology; vd , 

discardmg the prindplea of Luther, as well isthoif 

of Calvin and Rome, he framed a religion aecoriiB? , 

to his own fiincy. Rejecting the wonhip cf 

images, relics, purgatory, monastic vows, tad tk I 

supremacy of the Pope, he gave his sanction, by 

the law of the Six Articles, to the doctrine of the | 

real presence, the communion in one kind, the tov 

of chastity, the celibacy of the prieste, the iw* 

and auricular confession ; inflicting very sewre 

penalties on all who should deny or disobey one or 

other of these articles. t? j- 1 I 

This monarch, who vras the first of the Eugwh 

kings that took the title of King of Ireland (15^j I 

was involved in the disputes which thenembioiK ; 

the continental powers ; but instead <>f *><^*"!!J^ 

balance between France and Austria, he adherrt j 

in general to his friend and ally Charles V. agMW^ 

France. This conduct was regulated le*^ | 

poUtlcs than by passion, and the personsl mteresi j 

of his minister Cardinal Wolsey, whom the ei^ i 

peror had attached to his cause, by the hope oi^ \ 

papal tiara. _ « ^ , 

The religion which Henry had planted m tag- 1 

land did not continue after his death. ^^ . 

VI., his son and immediate successor, intwducrt i 

pure Calvinism or Presbyterianism. Mary,d»ap- 

ter of Henry VIII., by Catherine of ^J^' ^ i 

her accession to the throne, restored the tatwn^ 

religion (1553), and Ukewise received the »e« , 

legate of the Pope into England. She uJW« , 

great cruelties on the Protestants, many alj^ , 

were burnt at the stake ; among others, CrtfU"^' | 

Archbbhop of Canterbury, and the Bishops of i>^ 

don and Worcester. With the view of^^^fZi ' 

estabUshing the CathoUc religion in her domi- 

nions, she espoused Philip, presumptive heir to 

Spanish monarchy (1564). The restricDons ^ , 

which the English parUamcnt fettered ^^^ 1 

of marriage with the Queen, so dispIeM^' , 

prince, that, finding himself without po'^ 

authority, he speedily withdrew fro"* ^^ 

Mary's reign lasted only five years; she ''^ .♦ 

ceeded by her rister Elizabeth (1558), ^»^^ 

Henry VIII. by Anne Boleyn. Thi» P""^ 

once more abrogated the authority of the r^ 

and daimed to herself the supreme •^'^'"L J 

both spiritual and temporal, within her ^^^ 

Though she adopted the Calvinistic P'^Tlji. 

everything regaling the doctrines of the en 

she retained many of the Romish *^^^^ 

and the government of bishops. It ^"L^'^iJor 

gave rise to the distinction between the ^^^\j^ 

High Churchy and the Calvimstic or rrt^ 

terian* ^tv 

About the time when the High Ch««* P^ 

rose in England, a change of religion toos p ^^ 

Scotland, protected by Queen Eli»J>«2 :- ihe 

regency of that kingdom was then ^^■^. » - of 

Queen-dowager, Mary of Lorraine, the ^f^ 

Reign of EliAbeth. 
Mary Queen of Soots. 
Fends in Irehuid. 

PERIOD VI. A.D. 1463—1648. 

Rebellion of O'Neal. 

The English Nary. ini 

SirF.Drake. Sir W.Raleigh. 

James Y., and mother of Mai7 Stuart, Queen of 
Scotland and France. That princefls, who was 
guided solely by the councils of her brothers of 
Lorraine, had introduced a body of French troope 
to repress the followers of the new doctrines, who 
had formed a new league, under the name of the 
Congregation* These, reinforced by the Catholic 
malecontents, who were apprehensive of falling 
under a foreign yoke, took the resolution of apply- 
ing for assistance to the English queen, which it 
was by no means difficult to obtain. Elisabeth 
readily foresaw, that so soon as Francis became 
master of Scothmd, he would attempt to enforce 
Mary's claims to the throne of England, grounded 
partly on the assumption of her being illegitimate. 
A considerable number of English troops were 
then marched to Scotland, and having formed a 
junction with the Scottish malecontents, they be- 
sieged the French in the town of Leith, near 
Edinburgh. The latter were soon obliged to 
capitulate. By the articles signed at Leith ( 1560), 
the French and English troops were to evacuate 
Scotland; Francis II., King of France, and hii 
wife Mary Stuart, were to renounce the titles and 
arms of the sovereigns of England, which they bad 
assumed ; while a parliament was to be assembled 
at Edinburgh for the pacification of the kingdom. 

The parliament which met coon after, ratified 
the Confession of Faith, drawn up and presented 
by the Presbyterian ministers. The Presbyterian 
worship was introduced into Scotland; and the 
parliament even went so fiir as to prohibit the ex- 
ercise of the Catholic religion. Mary Stuart, on 
her return to Scotland (1561)» after the death of 
her husband Francis, was obli^d to acquiesce in 
all these changes ; and it was with difficulty she 
was allowed the liberty of having a Catholic chapel 
attached to her court. This unfortunate princess 
was afterwards accused of having caused the assas- 
sination of Henry Damley, her second husband ; 
and being obliged to fly the country, she took 
shelter in Engkuad (1568), where she was arrested 
and imprisoned by order of Queen Elizabeth. 
After a captivity of nineteen years she was sen- 
tenced to death, and beheaded (18th February, 
1587), as an accomplice in the different plots which 
had been formed against the life of her royal 

The troubles which the reformation of religion 
had excited in Scotland, extended also to Ireland. 
A kind of corrupt feudal system had prevailed 
originally in that island, which Henry II. had not 
been able to extirpate. The F.ngliRh proprietors, 
nho were vassals of the crown, and governed by 
the laws of England, possessed nearly one-third of 
the whole country ; while the rest of the island 
was in the hands of the Irish proprietors, who, 
although they acknowledged the sovereignty of the 
English kings, preserved nevertheless the language 
and manners of their native land ; and were in- 
clined to seize every opportunity of shaking off 
the English yoke, which they detested. Hence, a 
continued series of wars and feuds, both among 
the Irish themselves, and against the English, who 
on their part had no other object than to extend 
their possessions at the expense of the natives. 
The kings of England, guided by an injudicious 
policy, for several centuries exhausted their re- 
sources in perpetual wars, sometimes against 
France, sometimes against Scotland, and some- 

times against their own subjects, without paying 
the least attention to Ireland, of which they ap- 
pear to have known neither the importance nor 
the effectual advantages which they might have 
reaped from it by means of a wise administration. 
The progress of agriculture and industry became 
thus completely impracticable; a deep-rooted 
hatred was established between the islanders and 
the English, who in fact seemed two distinct 
nations, enemies of each other, and forming no 
alliances either by marriage or reciprocal inter- 

The resentment of the Irish against the English 
government was aggravated still more, at the time 
of the Reformation, by the vigorous measures that 
were taken, subsequently to the reign of Henry 
YIII., to extend to Ireland the laws framed in 
England against the court of Rome and the Catholic 
clergy. A general insurrection broke out in the 
reign of Elizabeth (1598), the chief instigator of 
wldch was Hugh O'Neal, head of a clan in the 
province of Ulster, and Earl of Tyrone. Having 
gained over the whole Irish Catholics to his cause, 
he planned an extensive conspiracy, with the de- 
sign of effecting the entire expulsion of the English 
from the island. Philip II., King of Spain, sup- 
plied the insurgents with troops and ammunition ; 
and Pope Clement YIII. held out ample indul- 
gences in favour of those who should enlist under 
the banners of O'Neal, to combat the English 
heretics. This insurgent chief met at first with 
considerable success ; he defeated the English in a 
pitched battle, and maintained his ground against 
the Earl of Essex, whom Elizabeth had despatched 
to the island with a formidable army. The rebels, 
however, ultimately failed in their enterprise, after 
a sanguinary war which lasted seven years. 
Charles, Lord Mountjoy, governor of Ireland, 
drove the insurgents to their last recesses, and had 
the glory of achieving the entire reduction of the 

The maritime greatness of England began in the 
reign of Elizabeth . That princess gave new vigour 
to industry and commerce ; and her efforts were 
seconded by the persecuting zeal of the French 
and Spanish governments. The numerous re- 
fugees from France and the Netherlands found a 
ready asylum in England, under the protection of 
Elizabeth ; and her kingdom became, as it were, 
the retreat and principal residence of their arts and 
manu&ctures. She encouraged and protected na- 
vigation, which the English, by degrees, extended 
to all parts of the globe. ' An Englishman, named 
Richard Chancellor, having discovered the route to 
Archangel in the Icy Sea (1555), the Czar, John 
Basilovitz II., granted to an English company the 
exclusive privilege of trading with Russia (1569). 
The commerce of the English with Turkey and the 
Levant, which began in 1579, was likewise mono- 
polized by a company of merchants. Sir Francis 
Drake, a distinguished navigator, and the rival of 
Magellan, was the first Englishman that performed 
a voyage round the world, between 1577 and 
1580. The intercourse between England and the 
East Indies began in 1591 ; and the East India 
Company was instituted in 1600. Attempts were 
also made, about the same time, to form settle- 
ments in North America ; and Sir Walter Raleigh, 
who had obtained a charter from the Queen (1584), 
endeavoured to found a colony in that part of the 

AeceMioD of James I. 
102 Bcign of Charles I. 
SbmlTord and Laud. 




American contineiit, now called Yirgmia, in com- 
pliment to Elixabetfa. That colony, howerer, did 
not, properly ipeaking, take root or flourish till 
the reign of James f . The competition with Spain, 
and the destruction of the Innncihle Armada of 
Philip II., hy the combined fleets of England and 
Holland, gare a new energy to the "Rnglish marine^ 
the yalue of which they had learned to appreciate, 
not merely in guarding the independence of the 
kingdom, but in securing the prosperity of their 
commerce and nayigation. 

The House of Tudor ended with Queen Elisa- 
beth (1003), after haTing occupied the throne of 
England about 118 yeats. It was replaced by that 
of Stuart. James VI., King of Scotland, son of 
Mary Stuart and Henry Damley, succeeded to the 
throne of England, and took the title of King of 
Great Britain, wMch his successors still retain. 
This prince derived his right to the crown from 
the marriage of his great grandmother, Margaret 
Tudor, daughter of Henry YII., with James IV. 
of Scotland. Yain of his new deration, and fond 
of prerogatire, James constantly occupied himself 
with projects for augmenting his royal power and 
authority in England ; and by instilling Uiese prin- 
ciples into his son, he became the true architect of 
all the subsequent misfortunes of his house. 

Charks I., the son and successor of James 
(1625), seldom conrened the Parliament ; and 
when they did assemble, he provoked them by the 
measures he proposed, and was then obliged to 
dissolve them. Being entirely guided by his 
ministers, Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury, the 
Earls of Strafford and Hsmilton, and his queen, 
Henrietta of France, he ventured to levy taxes 
and impositions without the advice of Parliament. 
This conduct on the part of the king produced a 
general discontent. The flames of civil war began 
to kindle in Scotland, where Charles had intro- 
duced Episcopacy, as more fiivourable than Presby- 
terianism to royalty. But the Scottish nobility 
having formed a confederacy, known by the name 
of the Covenant^ for the maintenance of their ecde- 
siasUcal Uberties, abolished Episcopacy (1638), and 
subsequently took up arms against the king. The 
Parliament of England, under such circumstances, 
rose also against Charics (1641), and passed an 
act that they should not be dissolved without pre- 
viously obtaining redress for the complaints of the 
nation. This act, which deprived the king of his 
principal prerogative, proved fiital to the royal 
dignity. A trial was instituted by the Parliament 
against the king's ministers. The Earl of Straflford 
and Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury, were be- 
headed (1640^1642) ; and Charles had the weak- 
ness to sign the death-warrant of his fidtfaful 

The Presbyterians soon became the prevailing 
party, and excluded the bishops from the Upper 
House. The management of affidrs fell then into 
the hands of the House of Commons ; Episcopacy 

; were abolished ; and the Parliament of England 
acceded to the Scottish Covenant. War now 

' broke out between the king and the Parliament; 

. a battle was fought near York, in which the latter 
was victorious (1644). Charles, seeing his affairs 
nuned, took the determination to throw himself 
into the arms of the Scots (1646), who, he sup- 
POMd, might stUl retain an aflection for the race 
of their ancient kings. He soon found reMon» 

howeter, to repent of this step ; the Scots did not 
hesitate to sdl him to the Es^tilish PttiliaiMBft far 
a sum of £400,000 steriing, which they 
necessary for the payment of Uieir troopa. 

A new revolution, which soon after ' 
in the Parliament, completed the nan of the kiag. 
The Presbyterians, or Puritans, who had sop- 
pressed the Episcopalians, wera erudied, m their 
turn, by the Independents. Theae latter were i 
sort of fanatics, who admitted no soboirdiiiatiBB 
whatever in the church, entertaiBMl a pofect 
horror for royalty, and were inclined for a repdb- 
lican or democratic form of govemineBt. The 
head and soul of this &etion was the famoos Ohva 
Cromwell, who, with great dexterity, nuHde it aa 
engine for raising himself to the s a rea w gn as- 
thoritv. The whole power of the Legialatiite fell 
entirely into the hands of the Independent party ; 
who, by one act, expelled sixty membere from the 
House of Commons. The Parliament* now essi- 
pletely under their dominion, appointed a eo«- 
mission of 150 persons, whom they vested with 
power to try the king. In vain dlid the Upper 
House oppose this roolution; in vain did the 
king ol^ect to the judges named by the Hosse : 
the commission proceeded, and pronoimeed the 
fiunous sentence, by virtue of which Chailes was 
beheaded on the 30th of January, 15M. Hi» 
family were dispersed, and saved theaaelvei by 

The revolutions in the North of Europe, abovt 
the period of which we now q[)eak, were noft le* 
important than those which agiti^ed the Wert and 
the South. These arose chidiy from tiie diseoio- 
tion of the Union of Calmer, and the reionnatiDB 
in religion; both of which happened aboot the 
beginning of the sixteenth century. The Union 
of Calmar, between the three kingdoms of the 
North, had been renewed several times; hot, beiair 
badly cemented from the first, it was at length 
irreparably broken by Sweden. This latter king- 
dom had been distracted by intestine foods, eera- 
sioned by the ambition and jealousy of the nobica, 
which continued during the whole reign of Charie* 
YIII., of the House of Bonde. After the death 
of that prince (1470), the Swedes, without re- 
nouncing the Union, had regulariy i^peinted as 
administrators of the kingdom, from the year 1471 
till 1520, three individuals of the fimfly of 8t»«, 
vis. Steno Sture, called the Oldj Suante Store and 
Steno Sture, called the Tottng. 

Meantime John, King of Denmark, and eon of 
Christian I., had governed the three kingdoess 
since 1497, when Steno Store the elder had n- 
signed, until 1501, when he resumed the adnuni- 
stration. At length, however, Christian II., son 
of John, made war on Steno Sture, snmamed the 
Young, with a view to enforce the daima which 
he derived from the act of union. Being victorious 
at the battle of Bogesund, where Sture lost his Ufo, 
he succeeded in making himself acknowledged by 
the Swedes as king, and was crowned at Stock- 
holm (1620). Within a short Ume after this oeie- 
mony, he viohited the amnesty whidi he had 
publicly announced ; and to gratii^ the revenge of 
Gustavus Trolle, Archbishop of Upsal, whom the 
Swedes had deposed, he caused ninety-four of tlie 
most distinguished personsges in the kingdom to 
be arrested, and publicly beheaded at Steekholm. 

This massacre caused a revdntion, hy which 

SwetHdi Iiid0pancl0iiO6< 

Ocmaviu Van. 

Piujtr ei B of the Beftmnation. 

PBRIOD VI. A.D. 1458—1648. 

House of Oldenburg. 
Affiiirs of Denmark. 
Dake* of Holstein-Gottorp. 


Sweden reeorered its ftndent state of independ- 
ence. GostaTUS Yasa put himself at the head of 
the Daleearlians, ambitiom to become the liberator 
of his country ri521). He was declared Reg^t, 
and two years after. King of Sweden (1523). The 
example of the Swedes was soon followed by the 
Danes, who, indignant at the excesses and cruelties 
of Christian II., deposed him, and conferred their 
crown on Frederic, Duke of Holstein, and paternal 
uncle to that prince. Christian, after haying long 
wandered about the Low Conntriest was made 
prisoner by the Danes, and remained in captirity 
the rest of his days. The Kings of Denmark 
haxing renewed, from time to time, their preten- 
sions to the Swedish throne, and still continued 
the three crowns on their escutcheon, seTeral wars 
broke out on this subject between the two nations ; 
and it was not till the peace of Stettin (1570), 
that the Danes acknowledged the entire independ- 
ence of Sweden. 

Denmark then lost the ascendancy which she 
had so long maintained in the NorUi. The go- 
Temment of the kingdom underwent a radical 
change. A oomrot aristocracy rose on the ruins 
of the national liberty. The senate, comx>o8ed 
wholly of the nobles, usurped aU authority ; they 
oTerruIed the election of the kings, and appro- 
priated to themselTes the powers of the States- 
general, which they had not conyoked since 1536 ; 
they encroached ercn on the royal authority, wliich 
was curtailed more and more erery day ; while the 
prerogatiyes of the nobility were extended by the 
conditions which the senate prescribed to the lungs 
on their accession to the crown. The reformation 
of religion took place in Denmark, in the reign of 
Frederic I., the successor of Christian II. That 
prince employed an eloquent preacher, named John 
Tausen, and sereral other disciples of Luther, to 
promulgate the Protestant doctrines in his king- 
dom. In a diet held at Odensee (1527), the kii^ 
made a public profession of the new fidm ; and, in 
spite of the remonstrances of the bishops, he passed 
a decree, in rirtue of which liberty of conscience 
was established, and x>ermission granted to the 
priests and monks to marry. These articles were 
renewed in another diet, assembled at Copenhagen 
(1630) ; where the king ratified the Confession of 
Faith presented to him by the Protestant ministers, 
similar to what had taken place the same year at 
the Diet of Augsburg. 

At length Christian III., who was elected in 
1534, brought these changes in religion to a close. 
The bishops, during the last interregnum, had done 
eTerything to stop the progress of the Reformation. 
The king, desirous of annihilating their temporal 
power, colluded with the principal nobility to hare 
&11 the bishops in the kingdom arrested ; and 
hiring then assembled a meeting of the States at 
Copenhagen, he abolished Episcopacy, and sup- 
pressed the public exerdse of the Catholic religion. 
The castles, fortresses, and rast domains of the 
prelates were annexed to the crown; and the other 
benefices and revenues of the clergy were appro- 
priated to the support of the ministers of religion, 
public schools, and the poor. The monks and 
nuns were left at liberty, either to quit their con- 
vents, or remain there during their lives. The 
bishops were replaced by superintendents, the 
nomination of whom was vested in the king ; 
while eadi congregation retained the privilege of 

choosing its own pastors. From Denmark this 
revolution passed to Norway, which at that time, 
on account of having joined the party of Christian 
II., who was deposed by the Danes, lost its inde- 
pendence, and was declared a province of the 
kingdom of Denmark. 

The House of Oldenburg, which had occupied 
the throne of Denmark since 1448, was separated 
in the reign of Christian III. into two powerful 
branches, viz. the royal, descended from that 
prince ; and the family of Holstein-Gottorp, de- 
scended from his brother, the Duke Adolphus. 
This latter branch was afterwards divided into 
three others, viz. those of Russia, Sweden, and 
Holstein-Oldenburg. As the law of primogeniture 
was not established in the duchies of Sleswick and 
Holstein, which had fallen into the succession of 
the House of Oldenburg, the Kings of Denmark 
soon found themselves under the necessity of divid- 
ing these duchies among the younger princes of 
their fieunily. The treaty of partition, which was 
entered into (1544) between Christian III. and 
his brother, had been preceded by a treaty of per- 
petual union, annexing these duchies to the king- 
dom, and intended to preserve the throne, which 
was elective, in the House of Oldenburg ; as well 
as to prevent anv portion of these two duchies 
from ftdling into tne possession of strangers. The 
union was to endure as long as the descendants 
of Frederic I. reigned in Denmark. They pro- 
mised to settle, by arbitration, whatever difierences 
might arise between the states of the union ; to 
afford each other mutual succour against every 
external enemy ; and to undertake no war but by 
common consent. 

The treaty of 1544, which regulated this par- 
tition, made several exceptions of matters that 
were to be managed and administered in conmion ; 
such as the customs, jurisdiction over the nobles, 
the bishops, and certain cities. This gave rise to 
a sort of copartnership of power, common to all 
the princes of the union. Everything regarding 
either the general safety as stipulated in the treaty, 
or the exercise of these privileges included in the 
exceptions, was to be discussed and settled by 
unanimous consent ; and for this purpose a coun- 
cil of regency, an exchequer, and common courts 
were established. This union and community of 
rights were followed^ as a natural consequence, by 
long and destructive feuds between the Kings of 
Denmark and the Dukes of Holstein-Gottorp, in 
which the other powers of the North were also 

Christian lY., grandson of Christian III., was 
distinguished not more by the superiority of his 
talents, than by the indefiitigable zeal with which 
he applied himself to every department of the 
administration (1588). It was in his reign that 
the Danes extended their commerce as far as India. 
He founded the first Danish East India Company 
(1616), who formed a settlement in Tranquebar, 
on the Coromandel coast, which had been ceded 
to them by the Rajah of Tanjore. Various manu- 
factories of silk stufb, paper, and arms, were con- 
structed, and several towns built under the auspices 
of Christian IV. The sciences were also much 
indebted to him ; he gave a new lustre to the 
University of Copenhagen, and founded the Aca- 
demy of Soroe in Zealand, besides a number of 
colleges. If he was unsuccessful in his wan 

Christun IV. of Denmark. 
104 Rciini ot Gustavus Vaaa. 
LutJienin religion. 


GnstaTiw AddlplinB. 

against Sweden and Austria, it muat be ascribed 
to the narrow limits of his power, to the influence 
of the aristocratic spirit, and of the feudal regime 
which still preyailed in Denmark. He succeeded, 
however, in excluding the Swedes from access to 
the Icy Sea, which opened them a way to the 
coasts of Lapland, by obtaining possesion, at the 
peace of Siorod (1613), of that part of Lapland 
which extends along the Northern and Icy Seas, 
from Titisfiord to Waranger and Wardhuys. The 
disputes concerning the three crowns were settled 
by the same treaty, in such a way that both sove- 
reigns were permitted to use them, without author- 
izing the King of Denmark to lay any claim to the 
Swedish crown. 

Sweden, which had long maintained a struggle 
against Denmark, at length acquired such a pre- 
ponderance over her as to threaten, more than 
once, the entire subversion of the throne. This 
preponderance was the achievement of two great 
men, who rose in the period we now speak of, 
viz. Gustavus Yasa, and his grandson, Gustavus 
Adolphus. Gustavus Yasa was not merely the 
liberator, but the restorer of his country. Elevated 
to the throne by the free choice of the nation, he 
gave Sweden a power and influence which it never 
had before. Everything under him assumed a new 
aspect, the government, the religion, the finances, 
the commerce, the agriculture, the sciences, and 
the morals of the Swedes. Instead of the assem- 
blies of the nobles, formerly in use, and destructive 
of the national liberty, he substituted diets com- 
posed of the different orders of the state, the 
nobility, the clergy, the citizens, and the peasantry. 
By this means he acquired a new influence, of 
wMch he took advantage to humble the power of 
the church and the nobles, which had long been 
a source of oppression to Sweden. 

The reformation of religion, which then occupied 
every mind, appeared to Gustavus a very proper 
expedient to second his views, and introduce a 
better order of things. On his accession to the 
throne, he authorized the two brothers Olaus and 
Laurentius Petri to preach publicly at Stockholm 
the doctrines of Luther, and did everything in his 
power to accelerate the progress of the Reforma- 
tion in his kingdom. The bishops, who were 
apprehensive for their benefices and their authority, 
having drawn the greater part of the nobility over 
to their interest, the king, in the presence of a 
diet of the four orders assembled at Westeras, 
took the determination of formally abdicating the 
crown. This step threw the diet into a state of 
consternation, and encouraged the two lower 
orders, the citizens and peasants, to declare them- 
selves loudly for the king. The bishops and nobles 
were obliged to comply ; and the king, resuming 
the reins of government, succeeded in overruling 
the deliberations of the diet. By the authority of 
a decree, he annexed the strong castles of the 
bishops to the demesnes of the crown, and re- 
trenched from their vast possessions whatever he 
Judged convenient. The prelates at the same time 
were excluded from the senate ; the ties that 
bound them to the court of Rome were broken ; 
and they were enjoined henceforth to demand 
confirmation from the king, and not from the Pope. 
The revenues of the clergy in general, and those 
of the convents, were left at the free disposal of 
the king, and the nobles were permitted to bring 

forward whatever claims they could luldimp over 
lands granted to these convents by their aneeston. 
There was nothing now to retard the maidi of re- 
formation. The Lutheran religion, was intzodncni 
universally into Sweden, and that eTent oontn- 
buted not a little to exalt the royal aathority. 

Gustavus secured the hereditary sacoession of 
the crown in frivour of his male descendanto. The 
states, anxious to obviate the troubles axid disor- 
ders which the demise of their kings had cifiea 
produced, regulated the succession by an act known 
by the name of the Hereditary Unum, It was 
passed at Orebro (1540), and ratified anew by the 
states assembled at Westeras. The Union Act 
was renewed at the Diet of Nordkoping, in the 
reign of Charles IX. (1604), when the successioa 
was extended to females. 

The reign of Gustavus Adolphus, the son of 
Charles IX., forms the brightest gem in the glory 
of Sweden. The virtues and enei^es of thu 
prince, the sagacity of his views, ihe admirabfe 
order which he introduced into erery branch of 
the administration, endeared him to his subjects ; 
while his military exploits, and his superiority in 
the art of war, fixed upon him the adnairstion of 
all Europe. 

Gustavus brought the wars, which he had to 
sustain against the different powers of the Koitb, 
to a most triumphant conclusion. By the peace 
which he concluded at Stolbova with Russia (1617), 
he obtained possession of aU Ingiia, Kexhohn, azid 
Russian Carelia ; and even cut that Bmpire off 
from all communication with Europe by the Gulf 
of Finland and the Baltic Sea. His succea was 
not less brilliant in his campaigns against Sigi^ 
mund III., King of Poland, who persisted in con- 
testing with him his right to the crown of Sweden. 
He took from the Poles the whole of Lironia, with 
a part of Prussia ; and kept possession of these 
conquests by the six years truce which he oon- 
cluded with the latter at Altmark (1629). 

It was about this time that Sweden began to 
occupy a distinguished place among the powers of 
Europe ; and that she was called on to take the 
lead in tiie league which was to protect the prin«s 
and states of the Empire against the ambition of 
Austria. Gustavus, who was in alliance with 
France, undertook a task as difficult as it wiu glo- 
rious. In the short space of two years and a half, 
he overran two-thirds of Germany with his victo- 
rious arms. He vanquished Tilly at the famous 
battle of Leipsic (1631), and extended his con- 
quests from the shores of the Baltic to the Rhine 
and the Danube. Everything yielded before him, 
and every place opened its gates to him. This 
great prince, who had made war a new art, and 
accustomed his army to order, and a system of 
tactics never before luiown, perished at the memo- 
rable battle of Lutzen (1632), which the Sviredes 
gained after his death, in consequence of the skilful 
dispositions he had formed. 

The war was continued under the minority of 
Queen Christina, his daughter and heir. It was 
still carried on, although the Swedes had under- 
taken a new war against Denmark, with the view 
of disengaging themselves from the mediation 
which Christian lY. had undertaken between the 
Emperor and Sweden, at the congress which was 
to meet at Mimster and Osnaburg. The result of 
that war was completely to the advantage of Swe- 

Teulonie Knifdite deprived 
Home of Brandenburg. 

PERIOD TI. A.D. 1453—1648. 

Albert of Brandenburg. 
Walter de Plattenberg. 105 
KolghU of LJTonia. 

den, -who gained by the peace of Bromsbro (1645) 
the freedom of the Sound, u aleo the poneasion 
of the provinces and islands of Jamptland, Herge- 
dalen, Gothland, Oeeel, and Halland. Lastly, the 
peace of Westphalia secured to Sweden consider- 
able possessions on the southern coast of the Baltic 
Sea, such as Wismar, Bremen and Verden, and 
part of Pomerania. 

The power of the Teutonic knights, which had 
been greatly reduced during the preceding period, 
by the defection of a part of Prussia, was com- 
pletely annihilated in the North, in consequence 
of the changes introduced by the reformation of 
religion. Albert of Brandenburg, grandson of the 
Elector Albert Achilles, on hii elevation to the 
dignity of Grand Master of the Order, made an at- 
tempt to withdraw from Poland that fealty and ho- 
mage to which the knights had bound themselres 
by the treaty of Thorn in 1466. This contest fur- 
nished matter for a war between them ; which be- 
gan in 1519, and ended in 1521, by a truce of 
four years ; at the expiration of which the grand 
master, who saw the doctrines of Luther dissemi- 
nated in Prussia, and who had himself imbibed 
these principles in Germany, found means to settle 
all differences with the King of Poland, by a treaty 
which he concluded with him at Cracow (1525). 
He there engaged to do homage and fieaUy to the 
crown of Poland as usual ; and Sigismund I., who 
was his maternal uncle, granted him Teutonic 
Prussia, with the title of Duchy, as a hereditary 
fief, both for himself and his male heirs, and for 
his brothers of the House of Brandenburg and 
Franconia, and their feudal heirs ; reserving the 
right of reversion in favour of Poland, failing the 
mole descendants of these princes. 

The Teutonic knights thus lost Prussia, after 
having possessed it for nearly three hundred years. 
Retiring to their possessions in Germany, they 
established their principal residence at Mergen- 
theim in Franconia, where they proceeded to the 
election of a new grand master, in the person of 
Walter de Cronberg. The Poles, in getting quit 
of the Teutonic knights, whom they had regarded 
with jealousy, and substituting the House of Bran- 
denburg in tiieir place, never dreamed of adopting 
an enemy still more dangerous, who would one 
day concert the ruin and annihilation of their 

Immediately after the treaty of Cracow, the new 
Duke of Prussia made a public profession of the 
Lutheran religion, and married a daughter of the 
King of Denmark. This princess dying without 
male issue, he married for his seconcl wife a prin- 
cess of the Brunswick family, by whom he had a 
Bon, Albert Frederic, who succeeded him in the 
duchy of Prussia. The race of these new dukes 
of Prussia (1568), as well as that of Franconia, 
which should have succeeded them, appearing to 
be nearly extinct, Joachim II., Elector of Bran- 
denburg, obtained from the King of Poland the 
investiture of Prussia, in fief, conjunctly with the 
reigning dukes. Thii investiture, which was re- 
newed in fiivour of several of his successors, se- 
cured the succession of that duchy in the electoral 
family of Brandenburg ; to whom it devolved on 
the death of Albert Frederic (1618), who left no 
male descendants. He was succeeded by the 
Elector John Sigismund, who had been ooinvested 
with him in the duchy. That prince, who had 

married Anne, eldest daughter of Albert Frederic, 
obtained likewise, in right of that princess, part of 
the succession of Juliers, viz., the duchy of Cleves, 
the counties of Marck and Bavensberg, which had 
been adjudged to the house of Brandenburg, by 
the provisional act of partition concluded at San- 
ten (1614), and converted into fa definitive treaty 
at Cleves. The grandson of John Sigismund, the 
Elector Frederic William, was a prince of superior 
genius, and the true founder of the greatness of 
his family. Illustrious in war as in peace, and re- 
spected by all Europe, he acquired by the treaty of 
Westphalia, a part of Pomerania, the archbishopric 
of Magdeburg under the title of a duchy, vrith the 
bishoprics of Halberstadt, Minden, and Camin, 
imder the title of principalities. His son Frederic 
was the first King of Prussia. 

[The Teutonic knights had nearly lost Livonia 
at the beginning of the sixteenth century ; but 
that province was saved by the courage and talents 
of the Provincial Master, Walter de Plattenberg. 
The Grand Duke Iwan, or John III., having 
threatened Livonia vrith an invasion, Plattenberg 
concluded a defensive alliance at Walik (1501), 
with Alexander II., Grand Duke of Lithuania, and 
the bishops of that country. After having assem- 
bled troops to the number of 14,000 men, he de- 
feated the Russian army, which wras 40,000 strong, 
at Maholm; a second rictory, which he grained 
vrith the same number of troops over 100,000 Rus- 
sians at Pleskow (1502), is one of the most famous 
exploits in the history of the North. Next year 
he concluded a truce of six years vrith the Livonian 
order, which was afterwuds renewed for fifty 

It is commonly said that Walter, the provincial 
master, taking advantage of the distresses of the 
Teutonic kn^hts, and urging the repeated suc- 
cours which he had furnished them against the 
Poles, purchased from them his own independ- 
ence, and that of his Order ; but a recent author 
(Le Comte de Bray) has shown that this was not 
exactly the case. By a first agreement signed at 
Koningsberg (1.520), Albert of Brandenburg, who 
was then only Grand Master of the Teutonic Or- 
der, confirmed to the knights of Livonia the free 
right of electing a chief of their own number, pro- 
mising to sustain the indiridual whom they should 
nominate. He secured them the possession of the 
whole sovereignty of Revel and Narva ; the coun- 
tries of Altenkirken, Jerwen, and Wierland ; as 
also the town and castle of Wesenberg, with their 
dependencies. This agreement was revived and 
ratified by a second, signed at Grobin (1525), when 
it was formally stipulated, that the relations be- 
tween the knights of Livonia and the Teutonic 
order should be maintained as they were, and that 
the Livonians should continue to regard the Grand 
Master as their true head, and render him homage 
and obedience. They were forbidden to solicit 
from the Emperor or the Pope any privilege dero- 
gatory of their allegiance. It appears, consequently, 
that Walter de Plattenberg did not purchase the 
independence of his Order, but that he regarded 
those ties which existed between it and the Ten- 
tonic order as broken, when Albert of Branden- 
burg was declared Duke of Prussia. He next re- 
newed those connexions vrith the German Empire 
which had existed since the thirteenth century; 
and wras declared by Charles Y. (1527) a prince 

The Beftvmed Religion. 
106 Duchy of Coarland. 
TronblM of Liyonia. 


Hofde of Kipne. 

of the Empire, haying a Tote and a aeat in the 

It was daring the mastership of Flattenberg 
that the Lutheran doctrines penetrated into Liyo- 
nia, where they made rapid progress, especially in 
the cities. Walter dexterously turned the disturb- 
ances caused by the opposition of the clergy to the 
new tenets, into an occasion for establishing his 
authority oyer all Liyonia and Esthouia, which 
the Order had formerly shared with the bishops. 
The citizens of Riga acknowledged him as their 
only soyereign, and expelled the archbishop. The 
burgesses of Reyel followed their example. The 
clergy were so frightened at these moyements, that 
the archbishop of Riga, and the bishops of Dorfat, 
Oesel, Ck>urluid, and Reyel, formally submitted to 
the Order. The clergy themseWes soon after em- 
braced the reformed religion.] 

The dominion of the Kdighti Sword-bearers 
had continued in Liyonia until the time of the 
fiunous inyasion of that country by the Csar, John 
Basiloyits lY. That prince, who had laid open 
the Caspian Sea by his conquest of the Tartar 
kingdoms of Casan and Astrachan, meditated also 
that of Liyonia, to obtain a communication with 
Europe by the Baltic. Gotthard Kettler, who^ 
was then Grand Master, finding himself unable to 
cope with an enemy so powerful, implored first 
the assistance of the Germanic body, of whom he 
was a member ; but hayinf got nothing but yague 
promises, he next addressed himself to Sigismund 
Augustus, King of Poland, and, in concert with 
the Archbishop of Riga, he concluded with that 
prince a treaty of submission at Wilna (IMl) ; 
in yirtue of which, the whole of Liyonia, with 
Esthonia, Couriand, and Semigallia, comprising 
not only what was still in the possession of the 
Order, but those parts which had been seued by 
the enemy, were ceded to the crown of Poland and 
the Grand Duke of Lithuania, on condition that 
the use of the Confession of Augsburg should be 
preseryed on the same footing as it then was, and 
that all orders of the state should be maintained 
in their goods, properties, rights, priyileges, and 

By this same treaty, Couriand and Semigallia 
were reseryed to Gotthard Kettler, the last Grand 
Master of Liyonia, to be enjoyed by himself and 
his heirs male, with the title of duchy, and as a 
fief of the king and crown of Poland. The new 
duke, on taking the oath of fidelity to the King of 
Poland, solemnly laid aside all the badges of his 
former dignity. He married Anne, daughter to 
the Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, and trans- 
mitted the duchy of Courltmd to his male descend- 
ants, who did not become extinct until the eigh- 
teenth century. The Order of Liyonia was en- 
tirely suppressed, as were also the archbishoprics 
of lUga, and the bishoprics under its jurisdiction. 

The reyolution in Liyonia caused a yiolent com- 
motion among the powers of the North, who were 
all eager to sharo in the plunder. While the 
Grand Master of the Order was in treaty with 
Poland, the city of Reyel, and the nobles of Es- 
thonia, left without aid, and oppressed by the Rus- 
sians, put themseWes under the protection of Eric 
XIY., King of Sweden, who obtained possession 
of that proyince. The Isle of Oesel, on the con- 
trary, and the district of Wyck in Esthonia, were 
sold to Frederic II., King of Denmark, by the last 

bishop of the island, who also ceded to bom the 
bishopric and district of Pilten in Couofisnd. Po- 
land at first held the balanee, and maintniaed li- 
yonia against the Russians, by the peace wliidk 
she concluded with that power at Ki e f wwa - 
Horca (I5S2). A struggle aftowBrds ensued be- 
tween Poland and Sweden for the sanoe obje^ 
which was not finally terminated until tbe pea ee 

Russia, during the period of wiiidi we now 
treat, assumed an aspect entirely new. She sne- 
ceeded in throwing off the yoke of the Moguls, and 
began to act a conspicuous part on the tbeeSie of 
Europe. The Horde of Kipsac, called also the 
Orand^ or the Golden Horde, had been greatly 
exhausted by its territorial losses, and the intesdae 
wars which followed ; while tbe Ghrand Dtdtes at 
Moscow gained powerful accessions by the renaion 
of seyeral of these petty principalities, wfai^ had 
for a long time diyided among thera die sorereiijiity 
of Northern Russia. John Basiloyits III^ who 
filled the grand ducal throne about the end of the 
fifteenth century, knew well how to profit by these 
drcumstanees to strengthen his authori^ at home, 
and make it be respected abroad. In eonrse of 
seyeral expeditions, he subdued the p owe i ful re- 
public of Noyogorod, an andcnt ally of the Han- 
seatic towns, and which had for a long thne a^ 
fected an entire independence. He was also the 
first soyereign of Russia that dared to refuse a 
humiliating ceremony, according to whidt the 
grand dukes were obliged to wi& on loot before 
the enyoys that came from the Khan of Kipsac. 
He eyen suppressed the residence of Tartar en- 
yoys at his court ; and at length shook off their 
yoke entirely, refbsmg to pay the tribute which 
the grand dukes had owed to the khans for seyenl 
centuries. Achmet, Khan of Kipsac, haying 
despatched certain deputies with an order, nnder 
the great seal, to demand payment of this tribute, 
the grand duke trampled the order under his feet, 
spit upon it, and then put all the deputies to death 
except one, whom he sent back to his master. 

The khan, with the yiew of reyenging that in- 
sult, inyaded Russia seyeral times, but the grand 
duke yigorously repulsed all his attacks; and while 
he was arresting Uie progress of his arms on the 
borders of the Ugra, he despatched a body of troops 
to the centre of the Grand Horde, who laid eyery 
thing desolate (1481). The Nogai Tartars joined 
the Russians to finish the destruction of the Grand 
Horde, whose diflbrent settlements on the Wolga 
they laid completely in ruins; so that notfiing 
more remained of the powerful empire of Kipsac 
than a few detached hordes, such as those of Casan, 
Astracan, Siberia, and the Crimea. Iwan ren- 
dered himself formidable to the Tartars; he sub- 
dued the Khans of Casan, and seyeral times dis- 
posed of theb throne. The entire rednetion of 
that Tartar state was accomplished by his grand- 
son, John Basiloyits lY., who twice undertook 
the siege of Casan, and seised and made prisoner 
of the Isst khan (1562). The fell of Casan ynw 
followed by that of Astracan. But John was by 
no means so fortunate in his enterprises against 
Liyonia, which, as we haye already said, he iras 
obliged to abandon to Poland by the peace of 

John IT. was inspired with noble yiewa of 
policy. Being anxious to eirilise his subfects, he 

CooqoMt of Hberk. 
V^dot Iwaaovits. 
DyoMtyof T 

PEBIOD VI. A.D. 1453—1648. 

Kiaffdam of Polaiid. 
The King! alectiye. 
The I^u!ta GooTeota. 


sent for workmen and srtisto from England. He 
requested Charles Y • to send tiim men of talentSt 
wellreised in the difBerent trades and manufactures* 
He introdnoed the art of printing at Moscow, and 
established the flist permanent army in the country, 
that of the StrtHUtet^ which he employed in keep* 
ing the nobles in check. The diseorery of Siberi* 
is one of the erents that belonged to his reign. A 
certain chief of the Don Cossa^, named Jermak, 
who employed himself in robberies on the borders 
of the liVolga and the Caspian Sea, being pursued 
by a detachment of Russian troops, retired to the 
confines of Siberia. He soon entered these regions 
at the head of 7000 Cossacks, and hating gilned 
seTcral Tictories otct the Tartars of Sibcur^ and 
their Khan Kutschem, he got possession of the 
city of Sibir, which was their principal fortress 
(1581). Jermak, in order to obtain his pardon 
of the caar, made him an oflfer of all he con- 
quered ; which was agreed to by that prinoe, 
and the troops of the Russians then took possession 
of Siberia (1583). The toUl reduction of the 
country, howerer, did not take place until the reign 
of the Csar Theodore or Fedor Iwanorits, the son 
and successor of John, who buih the city of Tobolsk 
( 1 587), which hassince become the capital of Siberia. 

Fedor Iwanorits, a prince weak both in mind 
and body, was entirely under the counsels of his 
brother-in-law Boris Qodunow, who, with the 
'view of opening a way for himself to the throne, 
caused the young Demetrius, Fedor's only brother, 
to be assassinate (1591). This crime gaTe rise 
to a long series of troubles, which ended in the 
death of Fedor (1598). With him, as he left no 
children, the reigning family of the ancient sove- 
reigns of Russia, the descendants of Ruric, became 
extinct ; after baring occupied the throne for more 
than eight hundred years. 

After this, the Russian crown was worn by per- 
sons of difl^nt houses. Their reigns were dis- 
turbed by Tsrious pretenders, who assumed the 
name of Demetrius, and were supported by the 
Poles. During fifteen years Russia presented a 
shocking spectacle of confusion and carnage. At 
length, as a remedy for these disasters, they thought 
of bestowing the crown on a foreign prince. Some 
chose Charles Philip, the brother of GiistSTUS 
Adolphus of Sweden ; and others Toted for ITladis- 
Uua, the son of Sigismund lY., King of Poland. 
These resolutions tended only to increase the 
disorders of the state. The Swedes took adran- 
tage of them to seise Ingria and the city of Noro- 
goxod ; while the Poles took possession of Smo- 
lensko and its dependencies. 

The Russians, now seeing their monarchy on the 
edge of a predpiee, adopted a plan of electing a 
new csar of their own nation. Their choice foil 
on Michael Fedrorits, who became the founder of 
the new dynasty, that of Romanow (1618), under 
whom Russia attained to the senith of her great- 
ness. Thai prince, guided by the sage counsels of 
his fother Fedor Romanow, Archbishop of Rostow, 
soon rectified aU the disorders of the stote ; he 
purchssed peace of the Swedes, by surrendering 
to them Ingria snd RuMian Carelia. The sacri- 
fices which he made to Poland were not less 
considerable. By the truce of Dirilina (1618), 
uid the peace of Wiasma (1634), he ceded to 
them tbe-fast territories of Smolensko, Tschemlgou, 
UMi NoTogofod* with their dependencies. 

Poland, at this time, presented a corrupt aris. 
tooracy, which had insensibly degenerated into 
complete anarchy. The nobles were the only per- 
sons that ei^oyed the rights of citixenship; they 
alone were represented in the diets, by the nuncios 
or deputies which they elected at Uie Diettnes ; 
the honours and dignities both in church snd state, 
and in general all perogatiyes whaterer, were re- 
serred for them ; while the burgesses and peasantry 
alone supported the whole burthen of expenses. 
This constitution, at the same time, was under the 
control of a sort of democracy, in as for as the 
nobles, without ezoeption, were held to be perfectly 
equal in their rights and dignities. Imperfect as 
a goTemment must hare been, established on such 
a basis, it still continued, ncTertheless, to preserve 
some degree of rigour; and Poland supported, 
though feebly, the character of being the ruling 
power of the North, so long as the House of 
Jsgello occupied the throne. Berides Prusria, of 
whidi she had dispos se ss e d the Teutonic Knights, 
she acquired Livcmia, and maintained it in sptte of 

The reformation of religion was likewise pro- 
mulgated in Poland, where it was particularly 
patronised by Sigismund II. A great part of the 
senate, and the better half of the nobility, made, 
with their king, a profession of the new opinions ; 
and if the reformation did not take deeper root 
in that kingdom, or if it had not a more conspi- 
cuous influence on the ciriUsation of the pe^le, it 
was from not being supported by the middle classes, 
which were not to be found in that kingdom. 

The male line of Jagello, baring become extinct 
with Sigismund II. (1572), the throne became 
purely electite ; and it was ordained that, during 
the King's life, no successor could be appointed ; 
but that the stales, on his demise, should enjoy 
for eyer a perfect fireedom of election on eyery va- 
cancy of the throne. Such was the origin of the 
diets of election, which, from their yery constitu- 
tion, could not fail to be always tumultuous in their 
proceedings. The nobles in a body appeared at 
these diets ; thither they repaired in arms and on 
horseback, ranked sccording to the order of the 
Palatinates, in a camp prepared for the purpose 
near Warsaw. The custom of the Pacta Cowoenta 
took its rise about the same time. Henry de 
Valois, who was elected king on the deatii of 
Sigismund II«, was the first that swore to these 
conyentional agreements, [by which he engaged, 
that no foreigner should be introduced either in a 
ciril or military department. ] These Pacta, which 
had all the force of a fundamental law, specified 
those conditions under which the throne was con- 
ferred on the new monarch. The royal authority 
was thus curtailed more and more, and the prero- 
gatiyes of the nobility exalted in proportion. 

Poland, in consequence, soon lost its infiuence ; 
the goyemment was altered from its basis, and the 
kin^om plunged into an abyss of calamities. 
Among the elective khigs who succeeded Henry 
de Yalois, the last that supported the dignity of 
the crown against Russia, y^as UladisUus lY., the 
son of Sigismund III., of the House of Yasa. In 
an expedition which he undertook into the interior 
of Russia (1618), he penetrated as far as Moscow ; 
and in a second which he made (1634), he com- 
pelled the Russians to raise the siege of Smo- 
lensko ; and shut ^em up so closely in their camp. 

108 MatthiM Comnus, King. 
Saltan Soliman's victories. 


Turks take Boda. 
Kagotxi. Protestant Prinee 
of TiBBsylvania. 

that they were obliged to capitulate for want of 
proTisions. He then made a new attack on the 
capital of Russia ; and at the peace of Wiasma, he 
obtained conditions moat advantageous to Poland. 

In the history of Hungary, the most splendid era 
was the reign of Matthias Conrin, who, at the age 
of scarcely sixteen, had been raised to the throne 
by the pure choice of the nation (1458). Like 
his fether the valorous John Hunniades, he was 
the terror of the Turks during his whole reign ; 
he took Bosnia from them, and kept Transylvania, 
Wallachia, Moldavia, Sdavonia, and Servia in 
dependence on his crown, in spite of the incessant 
efforts which the Turks made to rescue these pro- 
vinces. He likewise conquered Moravia, SUesia, 
and Lusatia; he even took Austria from the 
Emperor Frederic IIL, and came to fix his resi- 
dence at Vienna (1485). It was in that city that 
he terminated his brilliant career, at the early 
age of forty-seven (1490). That great prince 
added to his military talents, a love for elegant 
literature, of which, from the fint revival of letters, 
he showed himself a zealous protector. 

The glory of Hungary suffered an eclipse in the 
loss of Matthias. His successors, Uladislaus II., 
the son of Casimir IV., King of Poland, and Louis 
the son of Uladislaus, who held at the same time 
the crown of Bohemia, were weak and indolent 
princes, who saw Hungary torn by Actions, and 
ravaged with impunity by the Turks. Soliman 
the Great, taking advantage of the youth of Louis, 
and the distressed state in which Hungary was, 
concerted his plans for conquering the kingdom. 
He attacked the fortress of Belgrade (1521), and 
made himself master of that important place, be- 
fore the Hungarians could march to its relief. 
His fint success encouraged him to return to the 
chaige. Having crossed the Danube and the 
Drave without meeting with any resistance, he en- 
gaged the Hungarians near Mohacs (1526), in 
that famous battle which cost them the life of their 
king and their principal nobility. Twenty-two 
thousand Hungarians were leit on the field of 
battle, and the whole kingdom lay at the mercy 
of the conqueror. Soliman now proceeded as far 
as the Raab ; but instead of completing the con- 
quest of Hungary as he might have done, he con- 
tented himself with the laying waste all that part of 
the country with fire and sword; and carrying 
several hundred thousand prisoners into slavery. 

The premature death of the young king, who 
left no progeny, occasioned a vacancy in the throne 
of Hungary and Bohemia. Ferdinand of Austria, 
who married Anne, sister to Louis, claimed the 
succession in virtue of the different treaties signed 
in the years 1463, 1468, 1491, and 1515, between 
the Austrian princes and the last kings of Hun- 
gary. But Uiough the Bohemian States were 
disposed to listen to the pretensions of Ferdinand, 
it was not so with those of Hungary, who trans- 
ferred the crown to John de Zapolya, Count of 
Zips, and Palatine of Transylvania. That prince 
being hardly pressed by Ferdinand, at length 
determined to throw himself under the protection 
of the Turks. Soliman marched in person to his 
assistance, and laid siege to the city of Vienna 
(1629). In this enterprise, however, he failed, 
after sacrificing the lives of neariy 80,000 men. 

In 1538, a treaty was agreed on between the 
two competitors, in virtue of which the whole 

kingdom of Hungary, on the death of John 
Zapolya, was to devolve on Ferdinand. This treaty 
was never carried into execution. John at his 
death having left a son named John Sigismund, 
then an infiint in his cradle. Bishop Geoige Mar- 
tinussi, prime minister of the defunct king, pro- 
claimed the young prince, and secured for him the 
protection of the Turks. Soliman undertook a new 
expedition into Hungary in his &vour (1541) ; but 
by a piece of signal perfidy, he took this occasion 
to seize the city of Buda, tiie capital of the king- 
dom, and several other places ; and banished the 
prince with his mother the queen-dowager, to 
Transylvania, which he gave up to him, with seve- 
ral other districts in Hungary. The city of Buda 
with the greater part of Hungary and Sdavonia 
remained in the power of the Turks ; and Ferdi- 
nand was obliged to pay an annual tribute for the 
protection of that kingdom, the possession of which 
was guaranteed to him by the truce which he con- 
cluded with them in 1562. 

In the midst of these unfortunate events, the 
Austrian princes had again the imprudence to 
alienate the affections of the Hungarians, by the 
intolerant spirit they displayed, and the ^orts 
which they incessantly made to extirpate the Pro- 
testant religion in that kingdom. The opinions of 
Luther and Calvin had already been propagated in 
Hungary during the reign of Louis, the predecessor 
of Ferdinand. They had even made great pro- 
gress ; especially in Transylvania, where the Ger- 
man language and literature were generally culti- 
vated. The oppressions which the partisans of the 
new doctrines experienced, added to the attempts 
which the Austrian princes madeXfrom time to time 
to subvert the ancient constitution of the kingdom, 
excited fresh troubles, and fiivoured the designs of 
the discontented and ambitious, who were watch- 
ing their opportunity to agitate the state, and make 
encroachments on the government. Stephen 
Botschkai, Bethlem Gabor, and George Ragotzi, 
princes of Transylvania, were successively the chie6 
or leaders of these malecontents in the reigns of 
Rodolph II., Ferdinand II., and Ferdinand III., 
Emperors of G ermany. According to the pacifica- 
tion of Vienna (1606), and that of Lints (1645), 
as well as by the decrees of the Diet of Odenbuq;^ 
(1622), and of Presburg (1647), these princes 
were compelled to tolerate the public exercise of 
the reformed religion ; and to redress the political 
complaints of the Hungarian malecontents. 

The same troubles on the score of religion, which 
infested Hungary, extended likewise to Bohemia, 
where the new doctrines met with a much better 
reception, as they were in unison with the reli- 
gious system of the Hussites, who had already 
numerous partisans in that kingdom. It was chiefly 
under the reign of the mild and tolerant Maximi- 
lian II. that Protestantism made its way in Bo- 
hemia. All those who were formerly called Utra- 
gui8t8, from their professing the communion in 
both kinds. Joined the followers either of Luther 
or Calvin. Rodolph II., the son and successor of 
Maximilian, was obliged, at the Diet of Prague 
(1609), to grant them the free exercise of their 
worship, without distinction of place; and even 
to extend this indulgence to the Protestants of 
SUesia and Lusatia by letters patent, known by the 
name Letters qf Mqjeety ; copies of which were 
made at Prague on the Ilth of July and 20th of 

Brttleofmg UM> B 
ProtesteiilB perMCttted. 

PERIOD YI. A.D. 1453—1048. 

Saltan Selim 1. 

ConqneaU of Solinua. 109 

Btf iMTOMa of Algim. 

August 1000. These letters were confirmed by 
King Matthias, on his accession to the throne of 
Bohemia; as also by Ferdinand III., when he was 
acknowledged by the Bohemian States as the 
adopted son and successor of Matthias. 

The different interpretations which were put on 
these letters occasioned the war, known in history 
by the name of the Thirty Years' War. The Em- 
peror Matthias happening to die in the midst of 
these disturbances, the Bohemian States, regard- 
ing their crown as elective, annulled the election 
of Ferdinand II. (1019), and conferred the crown 
on Frederic, the £lector Palatine. Being in strict 
alliance with the states of Silesia, Morana, and 
Lusatia, they declared war against Ferdinand, who 
was supported, on the other hand, by Spain, the 
Catholic princes of the Empire, and the elector of 

The famous batde of Prague TIO^O), and the 
fall of the Elector Palatine, brou^t about a rero- 
lution in Bohemia. The ringleaders of the insur- 
rection were executed at Prague, and their goods 
confiscated. Ferdinand, who treated that king- 
dom as a conquered country, declared that the 
states had forfeited their rights and privileges; 
and, in the new constitution which he gave them, 
he consented to restore these, only on condition pf 
expressly excepting the rights which they had 
claimed in the election of their kings, as well as 
the Xietters of Mi^esty which granted to the Pro- 
testants the free exercise of their worship. But 
this prince did not stop with the suppression of 
their religious liberties, he deprived them also of 
their rights of citizenship. Laws the most atro- 
cious were published against them, and he even 
went so iar as to deny them the liberty of making 
testaments, or contracting legal marriages. All 
their ministers, without exception, were banished 
the kingdom ; and the most iniquitous means were 
employed to bring back the Protestants to the 
pale of the Catholic Church. At length it was 
enjoined, by an edict in 1007, that all Protestants 
who persisted in their opinions should quit the 
kingdom within six monUis. Thirty thousand of 
the best families in the kingdom, of whom a hun- 
dred and eighty-five were nobility, abandoned 
Bohemia, transporting their talents and their in- 
dustry to the neighbouring states, such as Saxony, 
Brandenburg, Prussia, &c. 

Ferdinand judged it for his interest to detach 
the elector of Saxony from the alliance with 
Sweden, which he had joined. He concluded a 
special peace with him at Prague, in virtue of 
which he made over to him the two Lusatias, 
which he had dismembered from the kingdom of 
Bohemia,%o reimburse the elector for those sums 
which he claimed, as having been the ally of 
Austria against the Elector Palatine, then King 
of Bohemia. That province was ceded to the 
Elector John George, for himself and his succes- 
sors, as a fief of £e Bohemian crown, under the 
express condition, that failing the male line of the 
electoral branch, it should pass to the female heirs ; 
but that it should then be at the option of the King 
of Bohemia to use the right of redemption, by repay- 
ing to the female heirs the sum-, for which Lusatia 
had been mortgaged to Saxony. This sum 
amounted to seventy-two tons of gold, valued at 
7,200,000 florins. 

The Turkish Empire received new accessions of 

territory, both in Asia and Europe, under the suc- 
cessors of Mahomet II., who had fixed their capital 
at Constantinople. The conquest of Bessarabia 
belongs to the reign of Bajazet II., about the year 
1484. That prince had a brother named Jem or 
Zisim, who had been his competitor for the throne ; 
and having fied to Rome, he was imprisoned by 
order of Pope Alexander YI., at the instance of 
Bajaxet, who had engaged to pay the Pope a large 
pension for him. Charles YIII. of France, when 
he made his expedition into Italy for the conquest 
of Naples, compelled the Pope to surrender up 
the unfortunate Zizim, whom he designed to em- 
ploy in the expedition which he meditated against 
the Turks, but which never took place. Selim I., 
the son and successor of Bajaxet, taking advantage 
of a revolution which happened in Persia, and of 
the victory which he gained near Tauris over the 
Schaw Ismail Sophi I. (1514), conquered the 
provinces of Diarbekir and Algesira, beyond the 

The same prince overturned the powerful Em- 
pire of the Mamelukes, who reigned over Egypt, 
Syria, Palestine, and part of Arabia. He defeated 
the last Sultans, Cansoul-Algouri, and Toumambey 
(1510), and totally annihilated that dynasty. 
Cairo, the capital of the Empire of Egypt, was 
taken by assault (1517), and the whole of the 
Mameluke states incorporated with the Ottoman 
Empire. The Scheriff of Mecca likewise sub- 
mitted to the Porte, with several tribes of the 

Soliman the Great, who succeeded his father 
Selim, raised the Turkish Empire to the highest 
pitch of glory. Besides the island of Bhodes, 
which he took from the Knights of St. John, and 
the greater part of Hungary, he reduced the pro- 
vinces of Moldavia and WaUachia to a state of 
dependence, and made their princes vassals and 
tributaries of his Empire. He likewise conquered 
Bagdad and Irak- Arabia, which happened, accord- 
ing to the Turkish authors, about the year 1534. 

That prince distinguished his reign by the efforts 
which he made to increase the maritime strength 
of the Empire, which his predecessors had neg- 
lected. He took into his service the famous pirate 
Barbarossa, King of Algiers, whom he created 
Capitan Pacha, or Giand Admiral. Barbarossa 
equipped a fieet of more than a hundred sail, with 
which he chased the imperialists from the Archi- 
pelago ; and infested the coasts of Spain, Italy and 
Sicily (1506). Soliman miscarried, however, in 
his enterprise against Malta. The courageous 
defence xnade by the knights, together with the 
arrival of the fieet from Sicily, obliged the Otto- 
mans to retreat. 

The decline of the Ottoman Empire began with 
the death of Soliman the Great (1500). The sul- 
tans, his successors, surrendering themselves to 
luxury and effeminacy, and shut up in their sera- 
glios and harems, left to their grand visiers the 
government of the Empire, and the management 
of the army. The sons of these sultans, educated 
by women and eunuchs, and secluded from all 
civil and military affiiirs, contracted from their 
earliest infancy all the vices of their fiithers, and 
no longer brought to the throne that vigorous and 
enterprising spirit, which had been the soul of the 
Ottoman government, and the basis of all their 
institutions. Selim II., the son of Soliman, was 

Great power of France. 
110 RiclieUeu. Blaxarin. 
Beign of Louis XIV. 


Balanee of fynper. 
BmaOmg Axwam. 

the fint who set this fiital example to his successors. 
In his time, the Turks took the Isle of Cyprus 
from the Yenetians (1570), which they maintained 

in spite of the terrible defeat which tfaej 

at Lepanto (1571), and whidi was followed by 

the ruin of their marine. 



Thb political system of Europe underwent a 
great change at the commencement of this period. 
France, after haring long struggled for her own 
independence against Austria, at length turned the 
balance, and became so formidable as to combine 
against herself the whole policy and military power 
of Europe. The origin of this extraordinary in- 
fluence of France belongs to the reigns of Charles 
YII. and Louis XI. Seyeral important accessions 
which she made at this epoch, together with the 
change which happened in her goTemment, gare 
her a power and energy, which might have secured 
her a decided preponderance among the conti- 
nental states, had not her influence been oTcr- 
balanced by Austria, which, by a concurrence of 
fortunate events, and sereral wealthy marriages, had 
suddenly risen to a degree of power that excited 
the jealousy of all Europe. Hence, for nearly two 
hundred years, it required all tlie political resouices 
of France to make head against her rival; and 
what added to her misfortunes was, that, though 
freed from the distraction of the Italian war, she 
was still agitated by civil wars, which employed 
her whole military force. 

It was not till near the middle of the seven- 
teenth century that she extricated herself from 
this long struggle ; and that, disengaged from the 
shackles of her own factions and internal dissen- 
sions, her power assumed a new vigour. The 
well regulated condition of her finances, the 
prosperity of her commerce and manufactures, and 
the respectable state of her marine, all concurred 
to diffuse wealth and abundance over the king- 
dom. The abasement of the House of Austria, 
eflected at once by the treaties of Westphalia and 
the Pyrenees, together with the consolidation of 
the Germanic body, and the federal system of the 
Provinces in the Netherlands, put the last climax 
on her glory, and secured to her the preponder- 
ance in the political scale of Europe. This change 
in her political system was achieved principally 
by the two great statesmen. Cardinals Richelieu 
and Masarin, who, by drying up the fountains 
of civil dissensions, and concentrating the reins of 
authority in the hands of the government, raised 
that monarchy to the rank which its position, its 
population, and its internal resoiuves, had assigned 
it among the powers of the continent. 

Mazarin left the kingdom in a flourishing state 
to Louis XIV., who, aided by the counsels and 
assistance of the fkmous Colbert, became the 
patron of letters and the fine arts, and finished the 
work which was begun by his prime minister. 
Nothing could equal the ardour which inspired 
that prince for military fame. France would have 
been prosperous under his reign, and respected 
even by aU Europe, had he kept nothing else in 
view than the true interests and happiness of his 

people ; but he was ambitious of that sort of glory 
which is the scourge of mankind, the giorr of 
heroes and conquerors. Hence there FesoHed a 
long series of wars, which exhausted the stoeqgt^ 
and resources of the state, and introdneed * new 
change in its political system. The same statei 
who had formerly made common cause with 
France against Austria, now combined againct the 
former, to humble that gigantic powier whith 
seemed to threaten thier liberty and independence. 

[In these alliances the maritime powrers Tc^mi- 
tarily took part ; and, having less lear than thp 
others of falling under the yoke of a universal 
monarchy, they joined the confederates merelj for 
the protection of their commerce — the true sonrre 
of their influence and their wealth. They nnder- 
took the defence of the equilibrium system, because 
they perceived, that a state which could ctHmnand 
the greater part of the continental coaste, might 
in many ways embarrass their commerce, and per- 
haps become dangerous to their marine. They 
soon acquired a very great influence in the afftire 
of this system, by the subsidies with which from 
time to time they furnished the states of Che conti- 
nent. From tikis period the principal aim of 
European policy was their finances and their com- 
mercial interests, in place of religion, vrhich had 
been the grand motive or pretext for the preceding 
wars. With this new system began those abodes 
of commercial privileges and monopolies, prohibi- 
tions, imposts, and many other regulations, which 
acted as restraints on natural liberty, and becazoe 
the scourge of future generations. It was then 
that treaties of commerce first appeared, by which 
every trading nation endeavoured to proenre 
advantages to itself^ at the expense of its liTsls ; 
and it was then that the belligerent powers began 
to lay restraints and interdicts on tiie eommem 
of neutral states. 

But the i>olitical system of Europe ezperieneed 
other changes at this period. Standing armies 
were introduced, and augmented to a degree that 
proved ruinous both to the agriculture of the in- 
habitants, and the finances of the govemmentt 
which by this means was rendered more and more 
dependent on those states, whose principal object 
was commerce. The frequent communication 
between foreign courts, which the policy of Riche- 
lieu had rendered necessary, gave occasioii for 
envoys and resident ministers ; whereas fbrmeriy 
scarcely any other intercourse was known, except 
by extraordinary embassies.] 

The first war that roused the European powers 
was that which Louis XIY. undertook against 
Spain, to enforce the claims which he advanced, 
in name of his Queen Maria Theresa, over several 
provinces of the Spanish Netheriands, especially 
the duefaies of Brabant mod limlniig, the seigniories 

Wan of Fhuiea and Spain. 
Louis XIV. invades Hol- 

PEBIOD VII. A.D. 1648—1713. 

diaries II. of England. 
Deatli of Turenne. 
Peace of Nimegucn. 


of Malines, the maiqnisate of Antwerp, Upper 
Gueldrefl, die oountiet of Nanrar, Hainault and 
Artois, Cunbray and Cambreaia, which he alleged 
belonged to him, in Tirtae of the right qf devolu' 
tion, according to the naagea of that country. Ac- 
cording to that right, the property of gooda paaaed 
to the children of the fint maniage, when their 
parents contracted another. Maria Theresa, Queen 
of France, was Uie daughter, by the fint marriage, 
of Philip lY. King of Spain ; whereas Charles II., 
Ms successor in that monarchy, was descended of 
the second marriage. Loms XIY. contended, that 
from the moment of Philip's second marriage, the 
property of all the countries, which were affiscted 
by the right of deTolution, belonged to his queen ; 
and that, after the death of her fiither, that princess 
should enjoy the succession. In opposition to 
these claims of France, the Spaniards alleged, that 
the right of devolution, being founded merely on 
custom, and applicable only to particular succes- 
sions, could not be opposed to the fundamental 
laws of Spain, which maintained the indiTisibility 
of that monarchy, and transferred the whole suc- 
cession to Charles II. without any partition what- 

In course of the campaign of 1667, the French 
made themseWes masters of several cities in the 
Low Countries, such as Bruges, Fmmes, Armen- 
tieres, Charleroi, Binch, Ath, Toumay, Douay, 
Courtray, Oudenarde, and Lille ; and in couse of 
the following winter, they got possession of 
Franche-Comt£. The Pope and several princes 
having volunteered their good offices for the re- 
atoration of peace, thev proposed a congress at 
Aix-la-Chapelle ; but the principal scene of the 
negociation vras at the Hague, where Louia sent 
the Count d'Estrades to treat separately vrith the 
States-Greneral. This negociation vras greatly ac- 
celerated by the fiunous Triple Alliance, concluded 
at the Hague 1668, between Great Britain, 
Sweden, and the States-General. By the terms 
of this treaty, the allied powers offered Louis the 
alternative, either to leave him in possession of the 
places which he had conquered, during the cam- 
paign of 1667, or to cede to him either the duchy 
of Luxemburg, or Franche-Comt^ vnth the cities 
of Cambray, Douay, Aire, St. Omer, and Fumes, 
with their dependencies. The Spaniards having 
accepted the former of these alternatives, the 
draught of a treaty of peace was agreed on, and 
signed by the ministers of France, England, and 
the States-General ; and this scheme served as the 
basis of the treaty which was concluded at Aiz- 
la-Chapelle, between France and Spain (May 2d 
1668). In consideration of the restitutions which 
she had made to Spain, France retained, in terms 
of this treaty, the towns of Charleroi, Binch, Ath, 
Douay, Toumay, Oudenarde, Lille, Armentierea, 
Courtray, Bergues, and Fumes, with their baili- 
wicks and dependencies. 

This peace was soon followed by a new war, 
which Louis XIY. undertook against the republic 
of the Seven United Provinces (1672). Wishing 
to be avenged on the Dutch, whom he knew to be 
the principal authors of the Triple Alliance, and 
consulting only his own propensity for war, he 
alleged as a pretext, certain insulting medals 
which had been struck in Holland, on the 
peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, and the Triple Alliance.^ 
la vain did the States-General offer him every 

satii&ction; he persisted in his purpose of de- 
claring war; and the better to succeed in his 
design, he endeavoured first to dissolve the Triple 
Alliance. Colbert de Croissy, whom he sent to 
England, found means to detach Charles II. irom 
the alliance, and to draw him over to side with 
Louis against the Republic. The same success at- 
tended tiie negociation which he set on foot with 
the Court of Stockholm. Following the example 
of England, the Swedes renounced the Triple Alli- 
ance, and joined with France. Seveiml princes of the 
Empire, such as the Elector of Cologne and the 
Bishop of Munster, adopted the same line of con- 
duct. The war broke out in 1672 ; and so rapid 
were the conquests of Louis, that he subdued in 
one single campaign the provinces of Gueldres, 
Utrecht, Overyasel, and part of Holland. He 
would have cajrried the city of Amsterdam, if the 
Dutch had not cut their dikes and inundated the 

Alarmed at these extraordinary successes, and 
apprehending the entire subversion of the Re- 
public, the Emperor Leopold I., the King of Spain, 
the elector of Brandenburg, and the Imperial 
States, leagued in their favour, and marched to 
their relief. The Parliament of England obliged 
Charles II. to make peace with the republic, by re- 
fusing to grant him supplies (1674). The Elector 
of Cologne and the Bishop of Munster did the 
same thing. Louis XIY. then thought proper to 
abandon his conquests in Holland ; and directed 
his principal strength against Spain and the Ger- 
manic states. He subdued Franche-Comt6 in 
the spring of 1674 ; and in course of the same 
year, the Prince of Cond6 gained the battle of 
Senef. In the following winter Turenne attacked 
the quarters of the Imperialists in Alsace, and 
chased them from that province, in spite of their 
superior numbers. That great general was slain 
at Saspaeh in Ortenau, in the campaign against 
Montecuculi (11th Aug. 1674). Next year Ad- 
miral du Quesne gained two naval victories, near 
the islands of Lipari and Messina, over De Ruyter, 
who died of the wounds he had received* 

The Swedes, according to the secret articles of 
their alliance with France, had penetrated, in the 
month of December 1674, into the Electorate of 
Brandenburg, to cause a diversion against the 
Elector Frederic William, who commanded the 
Imperial army on the Rhine ; but the Elector sur- 
prised them by forced marches at Rathenow, and 
completely routed their army near Fehrbellin 
(1676). The Emperor then declared war against 
Sweden; and the Elector, in concert with the 
princes of Brunswick, the Bishop of Munster, and 
the King of Denmark, stript the Swedes of the 
greater part of their possessions in the Empire. 

At length, in the years 1678-79, a peace was 
concluded at Nimeguen, under the mcNliation of 
England. Louis XIY. contrived to divide the 
allies, and to make a separate treaty with the 
Dutch, by which he restored to them the city of 
Maestricht, which he had seised. The example of 
the Dutch was followed by the Spaniards, who in 
like manner signed a special treaty vrith France ; 
in virtue of which, they gare up to her Franehe- 
Comt^, vriUi several cities in Flanders and Hainault, 
such as Yalenciennes, Bouchsin, Cond6, Cambray, 
Aire, St. Omer, Ypres, Warwick, Wameton, 
Poperingen* Bailleul, Cassel, Bavay, and Mau- 

Troubles of the 
112 Re-anioDs. 

Louia conqoen Alsace. 


Be penecntes tfao Fftneli 

Edict of Nantes rerokcd. 

beuge, with their dependencies. The peace of 
Munster waf renewed by that concluded at 
Nimeg^n, between France, the Empire, and the 
Emperor. France, on renouncing her right to a 
garrison in Philipsburg, got possession of the city 
of Friburg in Brisgaw, but refused to restore what 
she had wrested from the Duke of Lomdne, except 
on conditions so burdensome, that the Duke would 
not accept them, and preferred to abandon the re- 
possession of his duchy. As to the peace which 
France and Sweden had negociated with Denmark 
and her allies the Princes of the Empire, it was 
renewed by different special treaties, concluded in 
course of the year 1679. 

No sooner was the peace of Nimeguen con- 
cluded, than there sprung up new troubles, known 
by the name of the Troubles of the Re-^tnioru. 
Louis XIY ., whose ambition was without bounds, 
had instituted a Chamber qf Re-union, in the par- 
liament of Metz, for the purpose of examining the 
nature and extent of the territories ceded to him 
by the treaties of Westphalia, the Pyrenees, Aix- 
la-Chapelle, and Nimeguen. This Chamber, as 
well as the parliament of Besan^on, and the Sove- 
reign Council of Alsace, adjudged to the King, by 
their decree, seyeral towns and seigniories, as 
being fieft or dependencies of Alsace ; as also the 
three bishoprics, Franche-Comt^, and the terri- 
tories which had been ceded to him in the Nether- 

The king's yiews were principally directed to 
Alsace. He had already tendered his claims on 
this proTince, shortly after the peace of the Pyre- 
nees, when the matter had been referred to the 
decision of arbiters chosen by the emperor him- 
self. The work of arbitration was not fer ad- 
Tanced, when it was interrupted by the Dutch 
war, in which the Emperor and the Empire were 
both implicated. The peace of Nimeguen haying 
confirmed the treaty of Munster, he preferred the 
method of re-union to that of arbitration, for re- 
claiming his alleged rights. Taking adyantage of 
the general terms in which the cession of Alsace 
was announced in the seyenty-third and seyenty- 
fourth articles of the said treaty, he claimed the 
absolute soyereignty of the whole proyince, and 
obliged the immediate states, included in it, to 
acknowledge his soyereignty, and do him fealty 
and homage, notwithstanding the reseryations 
which the eighty-seyenth article of the same treaty 
had stipulated in iayour of these yery States. M. 
de Louyois appeared before Strasburg at the head 
of the French army, and summoned that city to 
submit to the King. Accordingly, it surrendered 
by capitulation on the 30th September, 1681. 
These re-unions extended also to the Netherlands, 
where the French seized, among others, the cities 
of Courtrai, Dixmunde, and Luxemburg. 

Louis XIY., in thus taking upon himself alone 
the interpretation of these treaties of peace, could 
not but offend the powers interested in maintaining 
them. A new general league was projected against 
France, and at the Diet of Batisbon they deli- 
berated on the means of setting on foot an Impe- 
rial army ; but the want of unanimity among the 
members of the Germanic body, the troubles in 
Hungary, which were immediately succeeded by a 
war with the Porte, and the march of a Turkish 
army on Vienna, threw them into a state of con- 
sternation, and preyented the Imperial Diet from 

adopting any yigorous resolution. 8] 
hausted by protracted wars, and 
England and Holland, was quite 
from taking arms. Nothing, therefore, remnned 
for the parties concerned, than to hare reoourse to 
negodation. Conferences were opened mt Fisak- 
fort, which, after haying languished lor fifteei 
months in that city, were transferred to BatJs^oa, 
where a truce of twen^ years yras sif^oed (lath 
August, 1684) between France and Spain ; as mbo 
between France, the Emperor, and the Empire. 
By the former of these treaties, Louis retained 
Luxemburg, Boyines, and Chimay, with their de- 
pendencies ; restoring back all the places whieh 
he had occupied in &e Netherlands prior to the 
20th August, 1683. As to the treaty betwieea 
France and the Emperor, the former retained, 
during the truce, the city of Strasburig, and the 
fort of Kehl, besides all the places and seignioriei 
which they had taken possession of since the cam- 
mencement of the troubles till the 1st of Ai^u^ 
1681. In all the places that were surrendered to 
him, Louis preseryed the exerdse of his aoyereis^ 
rights, leaying to the proprietors or seigniors the 
entire enjoyment of the fruits and revennea be- 
longing to their territorial rights. 

It was nearly about this same time that Looif 
XIY. undertook to extirpate Calyinism in France. 
Incensed against the Protestants by the old Chan- 
cellor Letellier, and his minister Louyois, the 
chancellor's son, he circumscribed, by repeated 
declarations, the priyileges which they enjoyed in 
yirtue of former edicts. The holding of general 
synods was forbidden; the two Chambers yreie 
suppressed ; and they were all, ynthout exception, 
debarred from exercising any public function. At 
last, Louis went so &r as to send, immediately 
after the truce of Ratisbon (1684), dragoons over 
all France, to endeayour, as was said, to conyert 
the Protestants by gentle compulsion. This mea- 
sure was next followed by the &mou8 £dict of 
1686, which reyoked that of Nantes, published in 
1598, and that of Nismes in 1629. All exercise of 
their religion — all assemblies for worship, eren in 
the house, were forbidden to the Protestants, under 
pain of imprisonment and confiscation of goods. 
Their churches were ordered to be demolished. 
Parents were enjoined to have their children bap- 
tized by the Catholic clergy, and to brin^ them 
up in the religion of the state. The ministers were 
banished, and the other Protestants were forbidden 
to depart the country, under pain of the gallpys 
for men, and imprisonment and confiscation for 
women. The rigour of these prohibitions, how- 
ever, did not prevent a vast multitude of the French 
Protestants horn removing to foreign countries, and 
transferring the seat of their industry to Germany, 
England and Holland. 

This blindfold zeal for religion, however, did not 
hinder Louis from vigorously supporting the rights 
of his crown against the encroachments of the court 
of Rome. Among the different disputes that arose 
between him and the popes, that which regarded 
the Regale deserves to be particularly remarked. 
The King, by declarations issued in 1673 and 
1675, haying extended that right to ail the arch- 
bishoprics and bishoprics within the kingdom, the 
bishops of Aleth and Pamiers, who pretended to 
be exempt from it, applied to the Pope, claiming 
his protection. Innocent XI. interposed, by vehe- 


Elector IVdatiM. 

PEKIOD VII. A.D. 1648—1713. 

James II. dethroned. 
WUlUm III. 113 

Coiilition agunst Louig. 

ment briefii which he addressed to the king in 
fiivour of the bishops. This Induced Louis to con- 
Toke an assembly of the French clergy, in which, 
besides the extension of the Begale, he caused 
them to draw up the four famous propositions, 
which are regarded as the basis of the liberties of 
the Gallican church. These propositions were : — 
1. That the power of the pope extends only to 
things spiritual, and has no concern with temporal 
matters. 2. That the authority of the pope in 
spiritual affiurs is subordinate to a general council. 
3. That it is even limited by the canons, the cus- 
toms, and constitution of the kingdom and the 
Gallican church. 4. That in matters of faith the 
pope's authority is not infallible. 

The truce which had been concluded for twenty 
years at Batisbon continued only four ; at the end 
of which Louis again took up arms. He pretended 
to have got information, that the Emperor Leopold 
only waited till the conclusion of the peace with 
the Turks, to make war upon him ; and he thence 
inferred, that prudence required him rather to an- 
ticipate his enemy, than idlow himself to be cir- 
cumvented. In proof of this assertion, he cited 
the treaty concluded at Augsbuig in 1606, between 
the emperor, the King of Spain, the States-Ge- 
neral, Sweden, the Duke of Savoy, and the prin- 
cipal states of the Empire, for the maintenance of 
the treaties concluded with France. Louis wished 
moreover to enforce the claims which the Duchess 
of Orleans, his sister-in-law, alleged to the succes- 
sion of the palatinate. That princess was the 
sister of Charles, the last elector palatine, of the 
&mily of Simmem, who died in 1685. She did 
not dispute the fiefii with her brother's successor 
in the electorate ; she claimed the freeholds, which 
comprehended a considerable part of the palati- 
nate ; while the new Elector, Philip William, of 
the family of Neuburg, maintained that, according 
to the laws and usages of Germany, the entire suc- 
cession belonged to him, without any partition 

Besides these motives wMch Louis XIY. set 
forth in a long manifesto, there was another which 
he kept concealed, the object of which was, to 
prevent the expedition which the Prince of Orange, 
Stadtholder of the United Provinces, was pre- 
paring to send to England, against James II. his 
brother-in-law, who had become odious to the 
whole English nation. It was of great importance 
for France to maintain, on the throne of Great 
Britain, a prince whom she protected, and who 
would always espouse her interests ; while it was 
easy to foresee, that if the Prince of Orange, the 
declared enemy of Louis, and the author of the 
league of Augsburg, should succeed in uniting the 
crown of England to the stadtholdership, he would 
not fail to employ this new influence, and turn the 
combined force of both states against France. The 
only method of preventing an event so prejudicial 
to {he true interests of that kingdom would have 
been, doubtless, to equip an expedition, and pitch 
his camp on the frontiers of Holland. The court 
of France knew this well, and yet they contented 
themselves with sending an army to the Rhine, 
which took possession of Philipsburg, Mayence, 
and the whole palatinate, as well as a part of the 
Electorate of Treves (September and October 
1688). Louvois, the French minister who directed 
these operations^ had flattered himself that the 

Dutch, when they beheld the war breaking out in 
their vicinity, would not dare to take any part in 
the troubles of England. In this opinion he was 
deceived ; the Prince of Orange, supported by the 
Dutch fleet, e£Eected a landing in England (16th 
November, 1668). The revolution there was soon 
completed, by the dethronement of James II. ; and 
Louis XIY., ending where he should have beg^un, 
then declared war against the States-General. 
This mistaken policy of the French minister be- 
came the true source of all the subsequent reverses 
that eclipsed the reign of Louis XIY. 

A powerful league was now formed against 
France, which was joined successively by the em- 
peror, liie Empire, England, Holland, Spain, and 
Savoy (1689). Louis XIY., in order to make 
head against these formidable enemies, recalled 
his troops from those places which they occupied 
in the palatinate, and on the banks of the Rhine ; 
but in withdrawing them, he ordered a great num- 
ber of the towns to be burnt to ashes, and laid 
waste the whole country. By this barbarity, which 
circumstances by no means called for, he only ag- 
gravated the hatred and increased the ardour of 
his enemies. War was commenced by sea and 
land ; in Italy, Spain, Ireland, the Low Countries, 
and on the Rhine. Louis supported it nobly 
against a great part of Europe, now combined 
against him. His armies were victorious every- 
where. Marshal Luxembourg signalized himself 
in the campaigns of Flanders, by the victories 
which he gained over the allies at Fleurus (Ist 
July, 1690), Steinkirk (3rd August, 1692), and 
Landen or Nerwindeu (29th July, 1693). In 
Italy, Marshal Catinat gained the battle of Sta&rda 
(18th August, 1690), and Marsailles (4th October, 
1693), over the Duke of Savoy. The naval glory 
of France was well supported by the Count de 
TourviBe at the batUes of Beachy-head (10th July, 
1690), and La Hogue (29th May, 1692). 

However brilliant the success of her arms might 
be, the prodigious efibrts which the war required 
could not but exhaust France, and make her 
anxious for the return of peace. Besides, Louis 
XIY. foresaw the approaching death of Charles II. 
of Spain ; and it was of importance for him to 
break the grand alliance as soon as possible; as 
one of its articles secured the succession of the 
Spanish monarchy to the emperor and his descend- 
ants, to the exclusion of the King of France. In 
this case, he wished, for his own interest, to give 
every &cility for the restoration of peace ; and by 
the treaty which he concluded separately with the 
Duke of Savoy, he granted that Prince, besides 
the fortress of Pignerol, and the marriage of his 
daughter with the Duke of Bmrgundy, the privi- 
lege of royal honours for his ambassadors. This 
treaty, concluded at Turin (29th August, 1696), 
was a preliminary to the general peace, signed at 
Ryswick, between France, Spain, England, and 
Holland (20th September, 1697). Each of the 
contracting parties consented to make - mutual 
restitutions. France even restored to Spain all 
the tovms and territories which she had occupied 
in the Low Countries, by means of the re-unions ; 
with the exception of eighty-two places, mentioned 
in a particular list, as being dependencies of 
Charlemont, Maubeuge, and other places ceded 
by the preceding treaties. Peace between France, 
the emperor, and the Empire was also signed at 

Peace oTRyiwick. 
114 The Spanish Socoenioii. 
Claimants and partition. 



Byswick. The treaties of Westphalia and Nime- 
guen were there renewed ; and tiie decrees of the 
Chamber of Re-union at Mets, and of the sore- 
reign courts at Besanqon and Brisach, were re- 
scinded and annulled. Louis XIT. engaged to 
restore to the Empire all that he had appropriated 
to himselfi by means of the re-unions, either be- 
fore or during the war ; that is to say, all places 
situated or acquired beyond the bounds of Alsace. 
The city of Strasburg was ceded to France, by a 
particular article of the treaty ; but the fortress of 
Kehl, the cities of Friburg, Brisach, and Fhilips- 
burg, were surrendered to the emperor. Leopold, 
Duke of Lorraine, and son of Charles Y., was re- 
instated in his duchy, without any other reserra- 
tion than that of Saar-Louk, and the city and 
prefecture of Longwy. As to the claims of the 
Duchess of Orleans on the palatinate, they were 
submitted to the arbitration of the emperor and 
the King of France ; to be referred to the decision 
of the Pope, should these two soyereigns happen 
to difier in opinion. 

The peace of Ryswick was followed by the war 
of the Spanish succession, which embroiled Eu- 
rope afresh, and occasioned considerable changes 
in its political state. Charles II., King of Spain, 
son of Philip lY., and last male descendant of the 
Spanish branch of the House of Austria, haying 
neither son, nor daughter, nor brother, the Spanish 
monarchy, according to a fundamental law of the 
kingdom, which fixed the succession in the cognate 
line, appeared to belong to Maria Theresa, Queen 
of France, eldest sister of Charles, and to the 
children of her marriage with Louis XIY. To 
this title of Maria Theresa was opposed her ex- 
press renunciation, inserted in her marriage-con- 
tract, and confirmed by the peace of the Pyrenees ; 
but the French maintained, that that renunciation 
was null, and that it could not prejudice the 
children of the queen, who held their right, not 
from their mother, but by the fundamental law of 

Admitting the yalidity of the queen's renimcia- 
tion, the lineal order derolyed the Spanish suc- 
cession on her younger sister, Margaret Theresa, 
who had married the Emperor Leopold I., and 
left an only daughter, Maria Antoinette, spouse 
to the Elector of Bavaria, and mother of Joseph 
Ferdinand, the Electoral Prince of Bavaria. 

The Emperor, who wished to preserve the 
Spanish monarchy in his own family, availed him- 
self of the renunciation which he had exacted from 
his daughter, the Archduchess Maria Antoinette, 
when she married Maximilian, the Elector of 
Bavaria, to appear as a candidate himself, and 
advance the claims of his mother, Maria Anne, 
daughter of Philip III., King of Spain, and aunt 
to Charles II. He alleged, that the Spanish suc- 
cession had been secured to this latter princess, 
both by her marriage-contract, and by the testa- 
ments of the Kings of Spain ; and as he had two 
sons, the Archdukes Joseph and Charles, by his 
marriage with the Princess Palatine of Neuburg, 
he destined the elder for the Imperial throne and 
the States of Austria, and the younger for the 
Spanish monarchy. 

These different claims having excited appre- 
hensions of a general war, England and Holland, 
from a desire to prevent it, drew up a treaty of 
partition, in concert with Louis XIY. (11th Oct. 

, in virtue of wbich i^ Spanish i 
was secured to Joseph Ferdinand, incasesf the 
death of Charles IL ; while the kingdom of tbr 
Tvro SidUes, with the ports of Tuscany, tbt bm- 
quisate of Finale, and the proviaec of Guipiwi, 
virere reserved to the Dauphin of Fianee. The 
Archduke Charles, son to the Emperor, vm ts 
have Uie duchy of Milan. Although the King cf 
Spain disapproved of the treaty, in so fa «« 
admitted a partition, nevertheless, in hi swffltW 
recognised the Prince of Bavaiia as bis mtam 
in the Spanish monarchy. 
A premature death haying fitwtrated sH the l# 

expectations of that prince, the powers who hid 
concluded the first treaty of partition drewjip » 
second, which was signed at London (March 13. 
1700). Accordhig to thia, the A«hduke Chiite 
eldest son of the Emperor Leopold, wis dotiK^ 
the presumptive heir to the Spsmish moMrdiy 
They awarded to tiie Dauphin the dnehy of Lor. 
raine, with the kingdom of the Two SidUo, ml 
the province of Guipuscoa ; assigning to the Dak* 
of Lorrafaie the duchy of Milan in ewhiaff 
Louis XIY. used every efibrt to have this v 
treaty of partition approved by the court of VienB^ 
He sent tiiitiier tiie Marquis Yillars, who, aitw 
having been long amused with vague proB»a» 
iailed entirely in his negoeiation 5 ■»**!»• *f 
peror, whose main object was to eoadme aa 
court of Madrid, lost tiie only fiivomable momw^ 
which might have fixed the succession of w 
Spanish monarchy in his fitmily, with the wnwai . 
of Louis XIY. and tiie principal courts of Rffopj- 

At Madrid tiiis affiur took a turn diimete^J 
opposite to the vievrs and interests of the court « 
Yienna. Charles IL, following the cosiwbj , 
his prime minister, Cardinal Portocarrefo, iw 
after having taken tiie adyice of tiie Tope, afl" « 
the most eminent theologians and lawyen m bb 
kingdom, determined to make a ^^^1^1 ' 
which he recognised the rights of Maris Tbti^ 
his eldest sister ; and dedared, tiiat ss the m^ \ 
elation of that princess had been ^^^ eoieiyi , 
prevent tiie union of Spain with the hing*'* 
of France, tiiat motive ceased on tranffcmnf "« 
Spanish monarchy to one of the jo^a'^j^..^ 1 
tiie Dauphin. Accordingly, he nominated rm 
of Anjou, tiie Dauphin's second son, ^^ 1 
whole dominions ; failing him, tiie Dake of»^ 
his younger brotiier ; next, tiie Archduke Cto^ 
and Isfltly, the Duke of Savoy; expressly forwa^ | 
all partition of the monarchy. ^^ ^^ | 

Charies 11. having died on tiie Ist ^^'^'iS t 
foUowlng, the Junta, or Coundl of Regency. *»? . 
he had appointed by his vriU, sent to Lo»>'/;l .' ) 
praying him to accede to the ^etdemeotot^ , 
late king, and give up his grandson to w^.^T^ | 
of tiie Spanish nation. The same ^^?J^ | 
orders to pass on to Yienna, in case ofi '^Tr.^ ( 
his part, and make tiie same ofifer to the *rehQB»^ , 
The court of France then assembled » P^ / 
council, in which tiiey held a deUbejatiJ^ J?, j, 
what step it was best to adopt, in an •^^L'JJl. 
so nearly concerned the general repose of '^^' 
The result of tins council was, tiist the/ ^^L 
accede to tiie vriU of Charies II., and ^"^^^ 
advantages which the second treaty ^^J*^^ 
held out to France. It was alleged, aa toe ttv^ 
of tills resolution, tiiat by refusing to »««PJ ^ 
wiU, Louis must eitiier abandon altogetlier 


P£BIOD YII. A.D. 1648-.1713. 

Marlborough and £nfleu«. 
Battle of menhcim. 


pretensions to the Spanish monuchy » or undertake 
an expensire war to obtain by conquest what the 
treaty of partition assigned him ; without being 
able, in this latter case, to reckon on the effectual 
co-operation of the two maritime courts. 

Louis XIY. having therefore resolred to accede 
to the will, Philip of Ai\)ou was proclaimed king 
by the Spaniards, and made his solemn entry into 
Madrid on the 14th of April, 1701. Most of the 
European powers, such as the States of Italy, 
Sweden, England, Holland, and the kingdoms of 
the North, acknowledged Fhilip Y. ; the King of 
Portugal and the Duke of Savoy even concluded 
treaties of alliance with him. Moreover the situa- 
tion of political affiurs in Germany, Hungary, and 
the Noilh, was such, that it would have been easy 
for Louis XIY., with prudent management, to 
preserve the Spanish crown on the head of his 
grandson ; but he seemed, as if on puqM>se, to do 
everything to raise aU Europe against him. It was 
alleged, that he aimed at the chimerical project of 
univerml monarchy, and the re-union of France 
with Spain. Instead of trying to do away this 
supposition, he gave it additional force, by issuing 
letters-patent in fiivour of Philip, at the moment 
when he was departing for Spain, to the effect 
of preserving his rights to the throne of Prance. 
The Dutch dreaded nothing so much as to see the 
French making encroachments on the Spanish 
Netherlands, which they regarded as their natural 
barrier against France ; the preservation of which 
appeared to be equally interesting to England. 

It would have been prudent in Louis XIY. to 
give these maritime powers some security on this 
point, who, since the elevation of William, Prince 
of Orange, to the crown of Great Britain, held as 
it were in their hands the balance of Europe. 
Without being swayed by this consideration, he 
obtained authority from the Council of Madrid to 
introduce a French army into the Spanish Nether- 
lands ; and on this occasion the Dutch troops, who 
were quartered in various places of the Nether- 
lands, ac€»rding to a stipulation with the late King 
of Spain, were disarmed. This circumstance be- 
came a powerful motive for King William to rouse 
the States-General against France. He found 
aome difficulty, however, in drawing over the 
British Pariiament to his views, as a great majority 
in that House were averse to mingle in the quar- 
rels of the Continent ; but the death of James II. 
altered the minds and inclinations of the English. 
Louis XIY. having formerly acknowledged the 
H>n of that prince aa King of Great Britain, the 
EnglUh Parliament had no longer any hesitation 
in joining the Dutch and the other enemies of 
France. A new and powerful league was formed 
against Louis. The Emperor, England, the United 
Provinces, the Empire, the Kings of Portugal and 
Prussia, and the Duke of Savoy, all joined it in 
succession. The allies engaged to restore to Aus« 
tria the Spanish Netheriands, the duchy of Milan, 
the kingdom of the Two Sicilies, with tiie ports of 
Tuscany; and never to permit the union of France 

At the oommencement of the war, Louis for 
some time maintained the ^ory and superiority of 
his arms, notwithstanding the vast number of 
adverssries he had to oppose. It vras not until 
the campaign of 1704 that fortune abandoned him ; 
when one revene waa only soceeeded by another. 

The Duke of Marlborough and Prince Eugene 
defeated Marshal de Tallard at Hochstett, or Blen- 
heim (Aug. 13), where he lost 30,000 men, and 
was himself carried prisoner to E^and. This 
disaster vras followed by the loss of Bavaria, and 
aU the French possessions beyond the Bhine. The 
battle which Marlborough gained (May 23, 1706) 
at BamilUes, in Brabant, was not less disastrous ; 
it secured to the allies the conquest of the greater 
part of the Netherlands ; and to increase these 
misfortunes, Marshal de Marsin lost the famous 
battle of Turin against Prince Eugene (Sept. 7), 
which obliged the French troops to evacuate Italy. 
The battle which was fought at Oudenarde, in 
Flanders (July 11, 1708), was not so decisive. 
Both sides fought with equal advantage ; but the 
Duke of Buigundy, who was commander-in-chief 
of the Frendb army, having quitted the field of 
battle during the night, contrary to the advice of 
Yend6me, Marlborough made this an occasion for 
claiming the victory. 

At length the dreadful winter of 1709, and the 
batUe of Malplaquet, which Marlborough gained 
over Yillars (Sept 11), reduced France to the 
greatest distress, and brought Louis under the 
necessity of suing for peace, and even descending 
to the most humiliating conditions. M. de Torcy, 
his minister for foreign affairs, was despatched to 
the Hague ; and, among a number of preliminary 
articles, he agreed to make restitution of all the 
conquests which the French had made since the 
peace of Munster. He consented to surrender the 
city of Strasburg, and henceforth to possess Alsace 
according to the literal terms of the treaty of 
Munster ; the throne of Spain was reserved for the 
archduke ; and Louis consented to abandon the 
interests of Philip. But the allies, rendered 
haughty by their success, demanded of the king 
that he should oblige his grandson voluntarily to 
surrender his crown, otherwise they would compel 
him by force of arms, and that within the short 
space of two months. The conferences, which 
lud been transferred from the Hague to Gertruy- 
denberg, were consequently broken o£^ and the 
war continued. 

In this critical state of things two unexpected 
events happened, which changed the face of affiiirs; 
and Louis XIY., fiur from being constrained to 
submit to the articles of the preliminaries at Ger- 
truydenberg, saw himself even courted by England, 
and in a condition to dictate the law to several of 
the powers that were leagued against him. The 
Emperor Joseph I. died (April 11, 1711) without 
leaving any male ofibpring. His brother, the 
Archduke Charles, who took the title of King of 
Spain, now obtained the Imperial dignity, and 
became heir of all the states belonging to the Ger- 
man branch of the House of AustriL It appeared, 
therefore, that the system of equilibrium could not 
possibly admit the same prince to engross likewise 
the whole Spanish monarchy. This event was 
coupled with another, relative to the change which 
had taken place in the ministry and Parliament 
of Great Britain. The Whigs, who had been the 
ruUng party since the Revolution of 1689, were 
suddenly supplanted by the Tories. This over- 
throw brought the Duke of Marlborough into dis- 
grace, who had long stood at the head of afiisdrs in 
England, as chief of the Whig foction. Queen 
who stood In awe of him, found no other 
z 2 

QueMi Anne. 
116 Battle of Denain. 
Peace of Utnicht. 


De«th of Louis XIV. 

expedient for depriving him of his influence, than 
to make peace with France. L'Abb6 Gualtier, 
who resided at London in quality of ahnoner to' 
the ambassador of Charles of Austria, was de* 
spatched by her Majesty to France, to make the 
first overtures of peace to Louis. A secret nego- 
ciation was set on foot between the two courts, 
the result of which was a preliminary treaty signed 
at London (October 8th, 1711). 

A congress was opened at Utrecht, with the 
view of a general pacification. The conferences 
which took place there after the month of February, 
1712, met with long interruptions ; both on ac- 
count of the disinclination of several of the allied 
powers for peace, and because of the matters to be 
separately treated between France and England, 
which retarded the promss of the general nego- 
ciation. The battle of Denain, which Marshal 
Yillars gained over the Earl of Albemarle (July 
24), helped to render the allies more tractable. 
Peace was at length signed at Utrecht in the 
month of April, 1713, between France and the 
chief belligerent powers. The Emperor alone re- 
fused to take part in it, as he could not resolve to 
abandon his claims to the Spanish monarchy. 

The grand aim of England in that transaction 
was to limit the overwhelming power of France ; 
for this purpose she took care, in that treaty, to 
establish as a fundamental and inviolable law, the 
clause which ordained that the kingdoms of France 
and Spain never should be united. To effect this, 
it was necessary that Philip of Anjou should for- 
mally renounce his right to the crown of France ; 
while his brother, the Duke de Bern, as well as 
the Duke of Orleans, should do the same in regard 
to the claims which they might advance to the 
Spanish monarchy. The deeds of these renuncia- 
tions, drawn up and signed in France and in 
Spain, in presence of the English ambassadors, 
were inserted in the treaty of Utrecht; as were 
also the letters-patent which revoked and annulled 
those that Louis had g^ven for preserving the right 
of the Duke of Anjou to the succession of the 
French crown. Louis XIV . promised for himself, 
his heirs and successors, never to attempt either 
to prevent or elude the effect of these renuncia- 
tions ; and failing the descendants of Philip, the 
Spanish succession was secured to the Duke of 
Savoy, his male descendants, and the other princes 
of his family, to the exclusion of the French 

Another fundamental clause of the treaty of 
Utrecht bore, that no province, city, fortress, or 
place, in the Spanish Netherlands, should ever be 
ceded, transferred, or granted to the crovm of 
France ; nor to any prince or princess of French 
extraction, under any title whatever. These pro- 
vinces, designed to serve as a barrier for the Low 
Countries against France, were adjudged to the 
Emperor and the House of Austria, together with 
the kingdom of Naples, the ports of Tuscany, and 
the dudby of Milan ; and as the Emperor was not 
a party to the treaty, it was agreed that the Spanish 
Netherlands should remain as a deposit in the 
hands of the States-General, until that prince 
should arrange with them respecting the barrier- 
towns. The same stipulation was made in regard 
to that part of the French Netherlands which 
Louis had ceded in favour of the Emperor ; such 
as Menin, Toumay, Fumes, and Fumes-Ambacht, 

the fortress of Kenock« Ypres, and their depcad- 

England, in particular, obtained by this trcscv 
various and considerable advantages. Iamos XTV. 
withdrew his protection from the Pretender, sni 
engaged never to give him harbour in France. 
The succession to the throne of Great Britain «« 
guaranteed to ihe House of HanoTer. Thej 
agreed to rase the fortifications of the port at Dan- 
kirk, which had so much excited the jeaionsy d 
England ; while France Ukewiae ceded to W 
Hudson's Bay and Straits, the IsUnd of Sc 
Christopher, Nova Scotia, and NewfeundlBod ia 
America. Spain gave up Gibraltar and Minoiva, 
both of which had been conquered bj the Engli^ 
during the war ; they secured to her, besideB, for 
thirty years, the privilege of furnishing' negroes fior 
the Spanish American colonies. 

The King of Prussia obtained the Spanish pan 
of Gueldres, with the city of that name, and thr 
district of Kessel, in lieu of the principality ef 
Orange, which was given to France ; tfaoi^ ht 
had claims to it as the heir of William III., Kia^ 
of England. The kingdom of Sicily was adjudged 
to the Duke of Savoy, to be possessed bj hua wad 
his male descendants ; and they confirmed to bis 
the grants which the Emperor had made hioi, ai 
that part of the duchy of Milan which had be- 
longed to the Duke of Mantua, aa also Alexandria. 
Valencia, the LumeUine, and the Valley of Sessxa. 
Finally, Sardinia was reserved for the Elector d 
Bavaria, the ally of France in that war. 

As the Emperor had not acceded to the treaty 
of Utrecht, the war vras continued between hiss 
and France. Marshal Villars took I^andau and 
Fribuig in Brisgaw ; afterwards a conference took 
place between him and Prince Eugene at Bad- 
stadt; new preliminaries were there drawn up: 
and a congress was opened at Baden in Swiixcr- 
land, where the peace was signed (September 7th, 
1714). The former treaties, since Uie peace oi 
Westphalia, were there renewed. The Electon 
of Cologne and Bavaria, who had been pat to the 
ban of the Empire, and deprived of their estates, 
were there fully re-established. Sardinia, which 
had been assigned to the Elector of Bavaria by 
the treaty of Utrecht, remained in pasecasion of 
the Emperor, who likewise recovered Briaach and 
Fribuig in Brisgaw, instead of Landau, vrhich had 
been ceded to France. 

Louis XIV. did not long survive thia latter 
treaty. Never did any sovereign patronise liteia- 
ture and the fine arts like him. Many celebrated 
academies owe their origin to his auspices, snefa 
as the Academy of Inscriptions, BeUes-Lettres, 
Sciences, Painting, and Architecture. His reiga 
was illustrious for eminent men, and talents of 
every description, which were honoured and en- 
couraged by him. He even extended his &vour 
to the philosophers and literati of foreign coun- 
tries. This prince has been reproached lor his too 
great partiality to the Jesuits, his eonfeaaon, and 
for the high importance which he attached to the 
dispute between the Jansenists and the Molinisti, 
which gave rise to the fiunons bull UmpeniiHg^^ 
approved by the clergy, and published by the king 
as a law of the state over all France. Thia illus- 
trious prince ended his days after a reign of se- 
venty-two years, fertile in great events ; he trans- 
mitted the crown to his great grandaoDy Looia XV., 

Empcnv Leopold I. 
Eledorato oCnuiovort* 
The Imperial GapitalatUmi. 

PERIOD VII. A.D. 1648—1713. 

IKingofFbland. 117 
Kings of PniaHia. 

who wan only fire years of age when he mounted 
the throne (Sept. 1, 1715). 

In the coune of this period, sereral memorable 
events happened in Gennany. The emperor, 
Leopold I., having assembled a diet at Batisbon, 
to demand subsidies against the Turks, and to 
settle certain matters wUch the preceding diet had 
left undecided, the sittings of that assemblv were 
continued to the present time, without ever haTing 
been declared permanent by any formal law of the 
Empire. The peace of Westphalia had instituted 
an eighth electorate for the palatine branch of 
Wittlesbach ; the emperor, Leopold I., erected a 
ninth, in favour of the younger branch of the 
House of Brunswick. The first elector of this 
fiimily, known by the name of Brunswick-Lunen- 
burg, or Hanover, was the Duke Ernest Augustus, 
whom the emperor invested in his new dignity, to 
descend to his heirs male, on account of his en- 
gaging to furnish Austria with suppUes in money 
and troops, for carrying on the war against the 
Turks. This innovation met with decided oppo- 
sition in the Empire. Several of the electors were 
hostile to it ; and the whole body of princes de- 
clared, that the new electorate was prejudicial to 
their dignity, and tended to introduce an electoral 
oligarchy. The Duke of Brunswick- Wolffenbuttel 
especially protested against the preference which 
was given to the younger branch of his house over 
the elder, in spite of family compacts, and the right 
of primogeniture established in the House of 

A confederacy was thus formed against the ninth 
electorate. The allied princes resolved, in an as- 
sembly held at Nuremberg, to raise an army, and 
apply to the powers that had guaranteed the treaty 
of WestphalUi. France espoused the quarrel of 
these princes; she concluded with the King of 
Denmark, a treaty of alliance and subsidy against 
the ninth electorate, and declared, before the diet 
of the Empire, that she regarded this iimovation 
as a blow aimed at the treaty of Westphalia. In 
course of time, however, these animosities were 
allayed. The princes recognised the ninth elec- 
torate, and the introduction of the new elector 
took place in 1708. A decree was passed at the 
diet, which annexed a clause to his admission, that 
the Catholic electors should have the privilege of a 
casting Tote, in cases where the number of Pro- 
testant electors should happen to equal that of the 
Catholics. By the same decree, the King of Bo- 
hemia, who had formerly never been admitted but 
at the election of the emperors, obtained a voice in 
all the deliberations of the Empire and the Elec- 
toral College, on condition of his paying, in time 
coming, an electoral quota for the kingdom of Bo- 

The imperial capitulations assumed a form en- 
tirely new, about the beginning of the eighteenth 
century. A difference had formerly existed among 
the members of the Germanic body on this im- 
portant article of public law. They regarded it as 
a thing illegal, that the electors slone should claim 
the right of drawing up the capitulations ; and 
they maintained, vrith much reason, that before 
these compacts should have the force of a funda- 
mental law of the Empire, it was necessary that 
they should have the deliberation and consent of 
the whole diet. The princes, therefore, demanded, 
that there should be laid before the diet a scheme 

of perpetual capitulation, to serve as a rule for the 
electors on every new election. That question 
had already been debated at the Congress of West- 
phalia, and sent back by it for the decision of the 
diet. There it became the subject of long discus- 
sion ; and it vras not till the interregnum, which 
followed the death of the Emperor Joseph I., that 
the principal points of the perpetual capitulation 
were finally settled. The plan tiien agreed to was 
adopted as the basis of the capitulation, which they 
prescribed to Charles YI. and his successors. 
Among other articles, a clause was inserted re- 
garding the election of a king of the Romans. 
This, it was agreed, should never take place during 
the emperor's life, except in a case of urgent ne- 
cessity ; and that the proscription of an elector, 
prince, or state of the Empire, should never take 
place, without the consent of the diet, and observ- 
ing the formalities enjoined by the new capitula- 

There were three electoral families of the Em- 
pire who were raised to the roysl dignity ; viz., 
those of Saxony, Brandenburg, and Brunswick- 
Lunenburg. Augustus II., Elector of Saxony, 
after having made a profession of the Catholic re- 
ligion, was elected to the throne of Poland ; a dig- 
nity which was afterwards confierred, also by elec- 
tion, on his son Augustus III. That change of 
religion did not prevent the Electors of Saxony 
from remaining at the head of the Protestant in- 
terest in the Diet of the Empire, as they had given 
them assurance that they would make no innova- 
tions in the religion of their country, and that they 
would appoint a council entirely composed of Pro- 
testant members, for administering the affidrs of 
the Empire. These princes, however, lost jMut of 
their influence ; and so far was the crown of Po- 
land, which was purely elective, from augmenting 
the gpreatness and real power of their house, that, 
on the contrary, it served to exhaust and enfeeble 
Saxony, by involving it in ruinous wars, which 
ended in the desolation of that fine country, the 
alienation of the electoral domains, and the in- 
crease of the debts and burdens of the state. 

If the roysl dignity of Poland was prejudicial 
to the House of Saxony, it was by no means so to 
Prussia, which the House of Brandenburg ac- 
quired soon after. The elector, John Sigismund, 
on succeeding to the duchy of Prussia, had ac- 
knowledged himself a vassal and tributary of the 
crown of Poland. His grandson, Frederic Wil- 
liam, took advantage of the turbulent situation in 
which Poland was placed at the time of the inva- 
sion of Charles X. of Sweden, to obtain a grant of 
the sovereignty of Prussia, by a treaty which he 
concluded with that republic at Welau (I9th Sep- 
tember, 1657). Poland, in renouncing the terri- 
torial rights which she exercised over Ducal Prus- 
sia, stipulated for the reversion of these same rights, 
on the extinction of the male line of the electoral 
House of Brandenburg. 

Frederic I., the son and successor of Frederic 
William, having become sovereign of Ducal Prussia, 
thought himself authorised to assume the royal 
dignity. The elevation of his cousin-german, the 
Prince of Orange, to the throne of Great Britain, 
and of his next neighbour, the Elector of Saxony, 
to the sovereignty of Poland, tempted his ambi- 
tion, and induced him to enter into a negociation 
on the subject with the court of Vienna* The 


Frederic William of Fkiwia. 
English royal fkmily. 


Chai^ in Italy. 
Dttkes of Savoy. 

Emperor Ijeopold promised to acknowledge him 
as King of Prussia, on account of a supply of 10,000 
men which Frederic promised to furnish him in 
the war of the Spanish succession, which was then 
commencing. To remove all apprehensions on the 
part of Poluid, who might perhaps offer some op- 
position, the elector signed a revenal, bearing, that 
the royal dignity of Prussia should in no way pre- 
judice the rights and possessions of the king and 
states of Poland over Polish Fnissia ; that neither 
he nor his successors should attempt to found 
claims on that part of Prussia ; and that the clause 
in the treaty of Welau, which secured the rever- 
sion of the territorial right of Ducal Prussia, on 
the extinction of the heirs male of Frederic Wil- 
liam, should remain in full force and vigour, never 
to be infringed by the new king or any of his suc- 
cessors. After tiiese different conventions, the 
elector repaired to Koningsberg, where he was 
proclaimed King of Prussia (18th January, 1701). 
It is vrorthy of remark, that on the ceremony of 
his coronation, he put the crovm on his own head. 

All the European powers acknowledged the new 
king, with the exception of France and Spain, with 
whom he soon engaged in war. The Teutonic 
knights, bearing in mind their ancient claims over 
Prussia, deemed it their duty to support them by 
a protest, and their example was Allowed by the 
Court of Rome. Nothing is so remarkable as the 
opinion which the author of the Memoirs of Bran- 
denburg deliyers on this event. ** Frederic," says 
he, <* was flattered with nothing so much, as the 
externals of royalty, the pomp of ostentation, and a 
certain whimsical self-conceit, which vras pleased 
with making others feel their inferiority. What at 
first was the mere offspring of vanity, turned out in 
the end to be a masterpiece of policy. The royal 
dignity liberated the House of Brandenburg from 
that yoke of servitude imder which Austria hadt 
till then, held all the princes of Germany. It was 
a kind of bait which Frederic held out to all his 
posterity, and by which he seemed to say, I have 
acquired for you a title, render yourselves worthy 
of it ; I have laid the foundation of your greatness, 
yours is the task of completing the structure." In 
fact, Austria, by promoting the House of Branden- 
burg, seemed to have injured her own greatness. 
In the very bosom of the Empire, she raised up a 
new power, which afterwards became her rival, 
and seised every opportunity of aggrandisement at 
her expense. 

As for the electoral House of Brunswick-Lunen- 
burg, it succeeded, as we have observed, to the 
throne of G^at Britain, in virtue of a fundamental 
law of that monarchy, which admitted females to 
the succession of the crown. Ernest Augustas, 
the first elector of the Hanoverian line, had mar- 
ried Sophia, daughter of the Elector Palatine Fre- 
deric v., by the Princess EUsabeth of England, 
daughter of James I., King of Great Britain. An 
act of the British Parliament in 1701, extended 
the succession to that princess, then Electrees- 
Dowager of Hanover, and to her descendants, as 
being nearest heirs to the throne, according to the 
Mder established by former acts of parliament, 
limiting the succession to princes and princesses 
of the Protestant line only. The Electress Sophia, 
by that act, was called to the succession, in case 
William III., and Anne, the youngest daughter of 
James II., left no issue ; an e^ent which look place 

on the death of Anne, in 1714, Queen of Gb«at 
Britain. The Electress Sophia was not alive at 
that Ume, having died two months before that 
princess. George, Elector of Hanover, and son 
of Sophia by Ernest Augustus, then mounted the 
British throne (Aug. 12, 1714), to the exclusion of 
all the other descendants of the Princess BUxabeth, 
who, though they had the rif^t of precedence, were 
excluded by-being Catholics, in wrtue of the acts 
of parliament 1689, 1701, 1705. 

The war of the Spanish succession had occa- 
sioned great changes in Italy. Spain, after having 
been long the leading power in that country, gave 
place to Austria, to whom the treaties of Utrecht 
and Baden had adjudged the duchy of Milan, the 
kingdoms of Naples and Sardinia, and the ports of 
Tuscany. To these she added the duchy of Man- 
tua, of which the Emperor Joseph I. had dispos- 
sessed Duke Charies lY. of the House of Gonxaga, 
for having espoused the cause of France in Uie 
War of the Succession. The Dukeof Mirandola 
met with a similar fate, as the ally of the French 
in that war. His duchy was confiscated by the 
emperor, and sold to the Duke of Modena. This 
new aggrandisement of Austria in Italy excited 
the jealousy of England, lest the princes of that 
house should take occasion to revive their obsolete 
claims to the royalty of Italy and the imperial dig- 
nity ; and it was this whidi induced the court of 
London to fevour the elevation of the dukes of 
Savoy, in order to counterbalance the pownr of 
Austria in Italy. 

The origin of the Hoose of Savoy is as old as 
the beginning of the eleventh century, when we 
find a person nsmed Berthold in possession of Sa- 
voy, at that time a province of the kingdom of Bur- 
gundy or Aries. The grandson of Berthold mar- 
ried Adelaide de Suza, daughter and heiress of 
Mainfroi, Marquis of Italy and Lord of Susa. This 
marriage brought the House of Savoy considerabie 
possessions in Italy, such as the marquisate of Suza, 
the duchy of Turin, Piedmont, and Yal d'Aoste 
(1097). Humbert II., Count of Savoy, conquered 
the province of Tarentum. Thomas, one of his 
successors, acquired by marriage the barony of 
Faudgny. Amadeus Y. was inTcsted by the Em- 
peror Henry YII. m the city and county of Asti. 
Amadeus YII. received the Toluntary submission 
of the inhabitants of Nice, which he had dismem- 
bered from Provence, together with the counties 
of Tends and Boglio ; having taken advantage of 
the intestine diwensions in that country, and the 
conflict between the factions of Durss and Anjou, 
who disputed the succession of Niqiles and the 
county of Provence. Amadeus YIII. purchased 
from Otho de YiUars the county of Geneva, and 
was created, by the Emperor Sigismund, first Duke 
ofSavoy (Feb. 19,1416). 

The rivalry which had subsisted between Fnmce 
and Austria since the end of the fifteenth century, 
placed the House of Savoy in a situation extremely 
difficult. InTolved in the wan which had arisen 
between these two powers in Italy, it became of 
necessity more than once the victim of political 
circumstances. Duke Charies III., having allied 
himself with Chsrles Y., was deprived of his es- 
tates by France ; and his son Pfailibert, noted for 
his exploits in the campaigns of Flanders, did not 
obtain restitotion of them until the peace of Chilean 
Camforesis. The Dukes Charies Emanuel II., and 

CanpakM in Ittly. 

PERIOD Vn. A.D. 1648—1713. 


Duke of Vendue. 119 

Alphonao VI. of Ftetu^al. 

Victor AmadeiM II., expexieoced siiiulur indigni- 
ties, in the wan which agitated France and Spain 
during the teTenieenth century, and which were 
terminated by the treaties of the Pyrenees and 
Turin in the years 1659, 1696. In the war of the 
Spanish succession, Yictor Amadeus II. declared 
at first for his son-in-law, Philip King of Spain, 
even taking upon himself the chief command of 
the French army in Italy; but afterwards, per- 
ceiring the danger of his situation, aiA seduced by 
the advantageous offers which the emperor made 
him, he thought proper to alter his plan, and joined 
the grand alliance against France. Savoy and 
Piedmont again became the theatre of the war be- 
tween Fiance and Italy. The French having un- 
dertaken the siege of Turin, the duke and Prince 
Eugene forced their army in its entrenchments be- 
fore the place, and obliged them to abandon Italy. 
The emperor granted the duke the investiture of 
the different estates which he had secured to him, 
on his accession to the grand alliance; such as 
Montferrat, the provinces of Alexandria and Ya- 
lencia, the country between the Tanaro and the 
Po, the Lumelline, Vsl Sesaia, and the Yigeva- 
uesco ; to be possessed by him and his male de- 
scendants, as fiefii holding of the emperor and the 

The peace of Utrecht confirmed these posses- 
sions to the duke ; and England, the better to se- 
cure the eqvuUbrium of Italy and Europe, granted 
him, by that treaty, the royal dignity, with the 
island ii Sicily, which ahe had taken from Spain. 
That island was ceded to him under the express 
clause, that, on the extinction of the male line of 
Savoy, that kingdom should revert to Spain. By 
the same treaty they secured to the male descend- 
ants of that house, the right of succession to the 
Spanish monarchy ; and that dauae was confirmed 
by a solemn law passed in the cortes of Spain, and 
by subsequent treaties concluded between these 
powers and Europe. The duke was crowned 
King of Spain at Palermo (Dec. 21, 1713), by the 
archbishop of that city ; and the only persons who 
refused to acknowledge him in that new capacity 
were the emperor and the pope. 

In proportion as France increased, Spain had 
declined in power, in consequence of the vices of 
her government, the feebleness of her princes, and 
the want of qualifications in their ministers and 
favourites. At length, under the reign of Charles 
11., the weakness of that monarchy was such, that 
France despoiled her with impunity, as appears 
by those cessions she was obliged to make by the 
treaties of Aix-la-ChapeUe, Nimeguen, and Rys- 
wick. Charles II. was tiie last prince of the 
Spanish line of the house of Austria. At his death 
(Nov. 1700), a long and bloody war ensued about 
the succession, as we have already related. Two 
competitors appeared for the crown. Philip of 
Anjou, grandson of Louis XIY., had on his side the 
will of Charles II., the efforts of his grand&ther, 
and the wishes of the Spanish nation. Charles of 
Austria, younger son of the Emperor Leopold I., 
was supported by a formidable league, which poli- 
tical considerations and a jealousy of the other 
powers had raised against France. 

Philip, who had been placed on the throne by 
tbe Spaniards, had already resided at Madrid for 
sevend years, when the Austrian prince, his rival, 
Msisted by the allied fleet, took possession of Bar- 

celona (Oct. 9, 1705), where he established his 
capital. The incessant defeats which France ex- 
perienced at this period, obliged Philip twice to 
abandon his capital and seek his safety in flight. 
He owed his restoration for the first time to Mar- 
shal de Bervrick, and the victory which that general 
gained over the allies near Almanza, in New Cas- 
tile (April 25, 1707). The archduke having after- 
wards advanced as &r as Madrid, the Duke de 
Yend6me undertook to repulse him. That general, 
in conjunction with Philip Y., defeated the allies, 
who were commanded by General Stahremberg, 
near Yilla Yiciosa (Dec. 10, 1710). These two 
victories contributed to establish PhiUp on his 
throne. The death of Joseph I., which happened 
soon after, and the elevation of his brother, the 
Archduke Charles, to the Imperial throne and the 
crowns of Hungary and Bohemia, accelerated the 
conduaion of the peace of Utrecht, by which the 
Spanish monarchy was preserved to Philip Y. and 
his descendants. They deprived him, however, in 
virtue of that treaty, of the Netherlands and the 
Spanish possessions in Italy, such as the Milanais, 
the ports of Tuscany, and tiie kingdoms of Naples, 
Sicily, and Sardinia. 

The conditions which England had exacted at 
the treaty of Utrecht, to render effectual the re- 
nunciation of Philip Y. to the crown of France, as 
well as that of the French princes to the monarchy 
of Spain, having made it necessary to assemble the 
Cortes or States-General, Philip took advantage of 
that circumstance to change the order of succes- 
sion which till then had subsisted in Spain, and 
which was known by the name of the CastUian 
SucceaaoK. A law was passed at the Cortes 
(1713), by which it was ordained that females 
should never be admitted to the crown, except in 
default of the male line of Philip ; that the male 
heirs should succeed according to the order of 
primogeniture ; that, failing the male line of that 
prince, the crown should fall to the eldest daughter 
of the last reigning king and her descendants ; 
and, fiuling them, to the sister or nearest relation 
of the last king ; always keeping in force the right 
of primogeniture, and the preference of the male 
heirs in the order of succession. 

France, by the sixtieth article of the treaty of 
the Pyrenees, having renounced the protection of 
Portugal, the war between Spain and this hitter 
power was resumed with new vigour. Alphonso 
YI., King of Portugal, finding himself abandoned 
by his allies, resolved to throw himself on the 
fiivour of England. The English granted him sup- 
plies, in virtue of a treaty which he concluded with 
them (June 23, 1661), and by which he ceded to 
them the city of Tangiers in Africa, and the Isle of 
Bombay in India. France, who well knew that it 
was her interest not to abandon Portugal entirely, 
rendered her likewise all the secret assistance in 
her power. The Count Schomberg passed over to 
that kingdom with a good number of officers, and 
several companies of French troops. The Portu- 
guese, under the command of that general, gained 
two victories over the Spaniards at Almexial, near 
Estremos (1663), and at Montes Claros, or Yilla 
Yiciosa (1665), which re-estoblished their affairs, 
and contributed to secure the independence of 
Portugal. When the war took place about the 
Bight of Devolution, the court of Lisbon formed a 
new alliance with France. Spain then learned 

SoTolatioD in Portugal. 
120 The Spuiith eontert. 

South American provinces. 


0« Giuweilf ^VotBcAoT* 
War wifli Bolluid. 
ll<mk rertoraa CfaMkBB n. 

that it would be more for her interest to abandon 
her projects of conquering Portugal, and accept 
the proposals of accommodation tendered to her 
by the mediation of England. 

It happened, in the meantime, that Alphonso 
YI., a prince of vicious habits, and of a ferocious 
and brutal temper, was dethroned (Not. 23, 1667), 
and the Infant Don Pedro, his brother, was de- 
clared regent of the kingdom. The queen of Al- 
phonso, Mary of Sayoy, who had managed the 
whole intrigue, obtained, from the court of Rome, 
a dissolution of her marriage with Alphonso, and 
espoused the regent, her brother-in-law (April 2, 
1668). That prince would willingly have fulfilled 
the engagements which his predecessor had con- 
tracted with France, but the English ambassador 
having drawn over the Cortes of Portugal to his 
interests, the regent was obliged to make peace 
with Spain, which was signed at Lisbon, February 
13th, 1668. The Spaniards there treated with the 
Portuguese as a sovereign and Independent nation. 
They agreed to make mutual restitution of all they 
had taken possession of during the war, with the 
exception of the city of Ceuta, in Africa, which 
remained in the power of Spain. The subjects of 
both states obtained the restoration of all property 
alienated or confiscated during the war. That 
peace was followed by another, which Portugal 
concluded at the Hague, with the United Pro- 
vinces of the Netherlands (July 31, 1669), who 
were permitted to retain the conquests they had 
made from the Portuguese in the East Indies. 

The court of Lisbon was soon after involved in 
the war of the Spanish Succession, which divided 
all Europe. Bon Pedro II. had at first acknow- 
ledged Philip v., and even contracted an alliance 
with him ; but yielding afterwards to the influence 
of the British minister, as well as of the court of 
Vienna, he joined the Grand Alliance against 
France.' The Portuguese made a distinguished 
figure in that war, chiefly during the campaign of 
1706, when, with the assistance of the English, 
they penetrated as far as Madrid, and there pro- 
claimed Charles of Austria. 

The Portuguese, by one of the articles of their 
treaty of accession to the grand alliance, had been 
given to expect, that certain important places in 
Spanish Estremadura and Gallicia would be ceded 
to them at the general peace. That engagement 
was never fulfilled. The treaty of peace, concluded 
at Utrecht (6th February, 1715), between Spain 
and Portugal, had ordered the mutual restitution 
of all conquests made during the war. The treaty 
of Lisbon, of 166S, was then renewed, and espe- 
cially the articles which stipulated for the restitu- 
tion of all confiscated property. The only point 
which they j-ielded to the Portuguese was that 
which referred to the colony of St. Sacrament, 
which the Portuguese governor of Rio Janeiro had 
esUblished (1680) on the northern bank of the 
river La Plata, in South America, which was op- 
posed by Spain. By the sixth article of her treaty 
with Portugal, she renounced all her former claims 
and pretensions over the above colony. 

A similar dispute had arisen between France 
and Portugal, relative to the northern bank of the 
Amasons river, and the territories about Cape 
North, in America, which the French maintained 
belonged to them, as making part of French 
Guiana. The Portuguese having constructed there 

the fort of Macapa, it was taken by the FRDck 
governor of Cayenne. By the treaty of tJtiedtt, 
it was agreed, between France and Portogai, that 
both banks of the river Amasons afaould bekag 
entirely to Portugal ; and that France ahoold re- 
nounce all right and pretensionB whatever Id the 
territories of Cape North, lying between the fivert 
Amasons and Japoc, or Vincent Pinaon, in South 

In England, an interregnum of eleven yean fol- 
lowed the death of Charles I. Oliver OromwA 
the leader of the Independent party, passed two 
Acts of Parliament, one of which ahotishwi the 
House of Lords, and the other the royal dignitr. 
The kingly ofiice was suppressed, as useless to the 
nation, oppressive and dangerous to the interests 
and liberties of the people ; and it was decided, 
that whoever should speak of the restoration of 
the Stuarts should be regarded as a traitor to his 
country. The kingdom being thus changed inio 
a republic, Cromwell took on himself d^e chief 
direction of afiairs. This ambitious man was not 
long in monopolizing the sovereign authority 
(1653). He abolished the parliament called the 
Rump, which had conferred on him his power 
and military commission. He next assembled a 
new parliament of the three kingdoms, to the 
number of 144 members ; and he took care to 
have it composed of individuals whom he knew to 
be devoted to his Laterests. Accordingly, they 
resigned the whole authority into his hands. An 
act, called the Act of Government, conferred on 
him the supreme authority, under the title of Pro- 
tector of the three kingdoms; with the privilege 
of making war and peace, and assembling eveiy 
three years a parliament, which shoold exercise 
the legislative power conjunctly with himself. 

Cromwell governed England with a more nn- 
controlled power than that of her own kii^ had 
been. In 1651, he passed the iamons Navigatioa 
Act, which contributed to increase the conunerte 
of Great Britain, and gave her marine a prepon- 
derance over that of all other nations. That ex- 
traordinary man raised England in the estimation 
of foreigners, and made his protectorate be re- 
spected by all Europe. After a war which he had 
carried on against the Dutch, he obliged them, by 
the treaty of Westminster (1654), to lower their 
flag to British vessels, and to abandon the cause 
of the Stuarts. Entering into alliance with France 
against Spain, he took from the latter the ishmd oi 
Jamaica (1655) and the port of Dunkiik (16o8). 

After his death, the generals of the army com- 
bined to restore the old parliament, called the 
Rump. Richard Cromwell, who succeeded his 
father, soon resigned the Protectorate (April 22, 
1659). Dissensions having arisen between the 
parliament and the generals. Monk, who was go- 
vernor of Scotland, marched to the assistance of 
the parliament; and, after having defeated the 
Independent Generals, he proceeded to assemUe a 
new parliament composed of both houses. No 
sooner was this parliament assembled, than they 
decided for the restoration of the Stuarts, in the 
person of Charles II. (18th May, 1660). 

That prince made his public entry into London, 
in the month of May, 1660. His first care was 
to take vengeance on those who had been chiefly 
instrumental in the death of his &ther. He re- 
scinded all Acts of Parliament passed linoe the 

Dethronement dC )aS0M II. 
WiUiiun III. a&d Mary II. 

PERIOD VII. A.D. 1648—1713. 

Deekration of Rights. 

The ProtMtant SoccaHiofD. 121 

Reign of Anne. 

year 1633, and re-established Episcopacy both in 
England and Scotland. Instigated by his pro- 
pensity for absolute power, and following the 
maxims which he had imbibed from his predeces- 
sors, he adopted measures which were opposed by 
the parliament; and even went so far as more 
than once to pronounce their dissolution. His 
reign, in consequence, was a scene of faction 
and agitation, which proTed the forerunners of a 
new reyolution.^ The appellation of Whigs and 
Tories, so famous in ^glish history, took its 
rise about this time. We could almost, howerer, 
pardon Charles for his fiiults and irregularities, in 
consideration of the bencTolence and amiableness 
of his character. But it was otherwise with James 
II., who succeeded his brother on the British 
throne (16th Feb., 1685). That prince alienated 
the minds of his subj|^ by his haughty de- 
meanour, and his extraragant seal for the church 
of RomC) and tlie Jesuits his confessors. Scarcely 
was he raised to the throne, when he undertook 
to change the religion of his country, and to go- 
TPm still more despotically than his brother had 
done. Encouraged by Louis XIV., who offered 
him money and troops, he was the first King of 
England that had kept on foot an army in time of 
peace, and caused the legislature to decide, that 
the king can dispense with the laws. Availing 
himself of this decision, he dispensed with the 
seTeral statutes issued against the Catholics; he 
permitted them the public exercise of their reli- 
gion within the three kingdoms, and gradually 
gave them a preference in all places of trust. At 
length, he even solicited the pope to send a nuncio 
to reside at his court ; and on the arrival of Ferdi- 
nand Dada, to whom Innocent XI. had confided 
this mission, he gave him a public and solemn 
entry to Windsor ( 1687) . Seven bishops, who had 
refused to publish the declaration respecting Ca- 
tholics, were treated as guilty of sedition, and 
imprisoned by his order in the Tower. 

During these transactions, the Queen, Mary of 
Modena, happened to he delivered of a prince 
(2(Hh June, 1688), known in history by the name 
of the Pretender. As her Majesty had had no 
children for more than six years, it was not difficult 
to gain credit to a report, that the young prince 
was a spurious child. James II., by his &:st mar- 
riage with Anne Hyde, daughter of the Earl of 
Clarendon, had two daughters, both Protestants, 
and regarded, till then, as heirs to the crown. 
Marj', the eldest, was married to William, Prince 
of Orange, and Anne, the youngest, to George, 
younger son of Frederic III., King of Denmark. 
The English Protestants had flattered themselves 
that all their wrongs and n^isfortunes would ter- 
minate with the death of James II. and the ac- 
cession of the Princess of Orange to the throne. 
Being disappointed in these expectations by the 
birth of the Prince of Wales, their only plan was 
to dethrone the king. The Tories even joined 
with the Whigs in offering the crown to the Prince 
of Orange. William III., supported by the Dutch 
fleet, made a descent on England, and landed 
15,000 men at Torbay (5th Nov., 1688), without 
experiencing the smallest resistance on the part of 
James, who, seeing himself abandoned by the mili- 
tary, took the resolution of withdrawing to France, 
where he had already sent his queen and his son, 
th« young Prince of Wales. He afterwards re- 

turned to Ireland, where he had a strong 
party; but being conquered by William, at the 
battle of the Boyne (1 1th Julv, 1690), he was 
obliged to return to France, where he ended his 

Immediately after the flight of James, the par- 
liament of England declared, by an act, that as he 
had violated the fundamental law of the constitu- 
tion, and abandoned the kingdom, the throne was 
become vacant. They, therefore, unanimously 
conferred the crown on William III., Prince of 
Orange, and Mary his spouse (February 22, 1689) ; 
intrusting the administration of affairs to the prince 
alone. In redressing the grievances of the nation, 
they set new limits to the royal authority. By an 
Act, called the Declaration of Rights, they decreed, 
that the king could neither suspend, nor dispense 
vrith the laws; that he could institute no new 
courts, nor levy money under any pretence what- 
ever, nor maintain an army in time of peace with- 
out the consent of parliament. Episcopacy was 
abolished in Scotland (1694), and the liberty of 
the press sanctioned. The succession of the crown 
was regulated by different Acts of Parliament, one 
of which fixed it in the Protestant line, to the ex- 
clusion of Catholics. Next, after William and Mary 
and their descendants, was the Princess Anne and 
her descendants. A subsequent Act conferred 
the succession on the House of Hanover (1701), 
under the following conditions: — That the king 
or queen of that family, on their accession to the 
throne, should be obliged to conform to the High 
Church, and the laws of 1689 ; that, without the 
consent of Parliament, they should never engage 
the nation in any war for the defence of their 
hereditary dominions, nor go out of the kingdom ; 
and that they should never appoint foreigners to 
offices of trust. 

The rivalry between France and England as- 
sumed a higher tone imder the reign of William 
III. ; and was increased by the powerful efforts 
which France was making to improve her marine, 
and extend her navigation and her commerce. The 
colonies which she founded in America and the 
Indies, by bringing the two nations more into 
contact, tended to foment their jealousies, and 
multiply subjects of discord and division between 
them. From that time England eagerly seized 
every occasion for occupying France on the Conti- 
nent of Europe ; and the whole policy of William, 
as we have seen, had no other aim than to thwart 
the ambitious views of Louis XIV. If this rivalry 
excited and prolonged vears which inflicted many 
calamities on the world, it became, likewise, a 
powerful stimulus for the contending nations to 
develope their whole faculties ; to make the highest 
attainments in the sciences, of which they were 
susceptible ; and to carry arts and civilization to 
the remotest countries in the world. 

William III. vras succeeded by Anne (in 1702). 
It was in her reign that the grand union between 
England and Scotland was accomplished, which 
incorporated them into one kingdom, by means of 
the same order of succession, and only one par- 
liament. That princess had the honour of main- 
taining the balance of Europe against France, by 
the clauses which she got inserted into the treaty 
of Utrecht. At her death (12th August, 1714), the 
throne of Great Britain passed to George I., the 
Elector of Hanover, whose mother, Sophia, de- 


Contort vidi Um Dukh. 
De Witt. PfciuioDary. 
Louia XIV. inTadesHoUuid. 





riTed her right to the British throne from James L 
her maternal gruidfiither. 

The power and political influence of the United 
PioTinces of the Netherlands had increased every 
day, since Spain acknowledged their independence 
hy the treaty of Munster (1648). Their extensive 
commerce to all parts of the globe, and their flou- 
rishing marine* attracted the admiration of aU 
£urope. Sovereigns courted their alliance; and 
the Hague, the capital of the States-General, he- 
came, in course of time, the centre of European 
politics. That republic was the rival of England 
in all her commercial relations ; and she ventured 
also to dispute with her the empire of the sea, by 
refusing to lower her flag to British vessels. These 
disputes gave rise to bloody wars between the two 
states, in which the &mous Dutch Admirals, Tromp 
and Ve Buyter, distinguished themselves by their 
maritime exploits. De Buyter entered the Thames 
with the Dutch fleet (1667), advanced to Chatham, 
burnt the vessels in the roads there, and threw 
the City of London into great consternation. 
Nevertheless, by the treaties of Breda (1667) and 
Westminster (1674), they agreed that their vessels 
and fleets should lower their flag when they met 
either one or more ships carrying the British flag, 
and that over all the sea, from Cape Finisterre, iu 
Gallicia, to the centare of Statt in Norway ; but 
the States-General preserved Surinam, which they 
had conquered during the war ; and at the treaty 
of commerce, which was signed at Breda, the 
Navigation Act was modified in their favour, in so 
tu that the produce and merchandise of Gennany 
were to be considered as productions of the soil of 
the republic. 

It was during these wars that a change took 
place with regard to the Stadtholdership of the 
United Provinces. William II., Prince of Orange, 
had alienated the hearts of bis subjects by his at- 
tempts against their liberties ; and having, at his 
death, left his wife, the daughter of Charles I. of 
England, pregnant of a son (1650), the States- 
General took the opportunity o[ leaving that office 
vacant, and taking upon themselves the direction 
of aflairs. The suspicions which the House of 
Orange had excited in Cromwell by their alliance 
with the Stuarts, and the resentment of John de 
Witt, Pensionary of Holland, against the Stadt- 
holder, caused a secret article to be added to the 
treaty of Westminster, by which the States of 
Holland and West Friesland engaged never to elect 
William, the posthumous son of William II., to 
be Stadtholder; and never to allow that the office 
of captain-general of the republic should be con- 
ferred on him. John de Witt likewise framed a 
regulation known by the name of the Perpetual 
Edict, whidi separated the stadtholdership from 
the office of captain and admiral -general, and 
which enacted, that these functions should never 
be discharged by the same individual. Having 
frikd, however, in his eSostB to make the States- 
General adopt this regulation, which they con- 
sidered as contrary to the union, John de Witt 
contented himself with obtaining the approbation 
of the States of Holland, who even went so far as 
to sanction the entire sappression of the stadt- 

Matten continued in this situation until the 
twae when Louis XIV. invaded HoUand. His 
•*»"»*»« progress caused a rev<^ution in &vour of 

the Prince of Orange. The ruling fiM!tioii« at the 
head of which was John de Witt, then Um the 
good opinion of the people. He was mecxatd of 
having neglected military affiurs, and left tbe State 
without defence, and a prey to the enem j. The 
first signal of revolution was given by the mtall 
town of Yeere in Zealand. William vrma tbese 
proclaimed Stadtholder (June 1672), and the ex- 
ample of Yeere was soon followed by all the ciUes 
of Holland and Zealand. Everywhere the people 
compelled the magbtrates to confer the stadthold- 
ership on the young prince. The Perpetual Edict 
was abolished, and the stadthoklership eonfinaed 
to William III. by the Assembly of States. Thry 
even rendered this dignity, as well as the office of 
captain-general, her^taxy to sll the male and 
legitimate descendants of the prince. It was oo 
this occasion that the ^o brothers, John and 
Cornelius de Witt, were massacred by the feagk 
assembled at the Hague. 

After William was nused to the tfaronke of Great 
Britain, he still retained the stadtholdershipi with 
the offices of captain and admiral-general of ihe 
r^ublic. England and Hollsnd, united under the 
Jurisdiction of the same prince, acted thenoefocik 
in concert to thwart the ambitioas designs of 
Louis XIV. ; and he felt the effects of their power 
chiefiy in the war of the Spsnish Succcssioin, when 
England and the States-General made extraoidi- 
naiy effi>rts to maintain the balance of the Con- 
tinent, which they thought in danger. It was in 
consideration of these efforts that they goftranteed 
to the Dutch, by the treaty of the Grand a iv««^, 
as well as by that of Utrecht, a barrier against 
France, which was more amply deflnfd by die 
Barrier TVca^y, signed at AjitwAp (I5<th No- 
vember, 1715), under the mediation and g«armnt«e 
of Great Britain. The provinces and towns of the 
Netheriands, both those that had been poseesseJ 
by Charles II., and those that France bad snncn- 
dered by the treaty of Utrecht, were transferred to 
the Emperor and the House of Austria, on con- 
dition that they should never be ceded under any 
title whatever ; neither to France, nor to any other 
prince except the heirs and successors of the House 
of Austria in Germany. It was agreed that there 
should always be kept, in the Low Countries, a 
body of Austrian troops, from 30,000 to 3^,000 
men, of which the Bjnperor was to furnish tluee- 
fifths, and the States-General the remainder. Fi> 
nally, the States-General were allowed a garrisoau 
entirky composed of their own troops, in the cities 
and castles of Namur, Toumay, Menin« Furaes, 
Wameton, and the fortress of Kenock ; while the 
Emperor engaged to contribute a certain sum an- 
nually for the maintenance of these troops. 

Switserland, since the confirmation of her liberty 
and independence by the peace of Westphaha, had 
constantly adhered to the system of neutrality 
which she had adopted ; and taken no part in the 
broils of her neighbours, except by fdmidkinf 
troops to those powers with whom she was in 
alliance. The fortunate inability which was the 
natural consequence of her union, pointed out this 
line of conduct, and even induced the European 
states to respect the Helvetic neutrality. 

This prdfound peace, which Switserland enjoyed 
by means of that neutrality, was never internq»ted, 
except by occasional domestic quarrels, which arose 
from the difference of their religious opinions. 

Joha GMiadv.K.or FoUod. 

PERIOD VII. A.D. 1648—1713. 

War of SwedMi and 

Denmark. 123 

Trfwty of Coponfaagen.' 

Certain ^Wmitia^ from the canton of Schweiti, 
had fled to Zurich on account of their religious 
tenets, and had been protected by that republic. 
This stiired up a war (1656) between the Catholic 
cantons and the Znrichers, with their allies the 
Bernese ; but it was soon terminated by the peace 
of Baden* which renewed the clauses of the treaty 
of 1531, relative to these very subjects of dispute. 
Some attempts haying afterwards been made 
against Ubertv of conscience, in the county of 
Toggenburg, by the Abb6 of St. Gall, a new war 
broke out (1712), between five of the Catholic 
cantons, and the two Protestant cantons of Zurich 
and Berne. These latter expelled the Abb6 of 
St. Gall from his estates, and dispossessed the 
Catholics of the county of Baden« with a consider- 
able part of the free bailiwicks, which were granted 
to them by the treaty concluded at Araw. The 
Abb^ then saw himself abandoned by the Catholic 
cantons ; and it was only in Tirtue of a treatr, 
which he concluded with Zurich and Berne (1718), 
that his successor obtained his restoration. 

Sweden, during the greater part of this period, 
supported the first rank among the powers of the 
North. The -rigour of her goTcmment, added to 
the weakness of her neighbours, and the important 
adyantages which the treaties of Stolbova, Stums- 
dorf, Bromsbro, and Westphalia had procured her, 
secured this superiority; and gaye her the same 
influence in the Nor^ that France held in the 
South. Christina, the daughter of Gustayus 
Adolphus, held the reins of goyemment in 
Sweden about the middle of the sixteenth century; 
but to gratify her propensity for the fine arts, she 
resolved to abdicate the crown (1654). Charles 
Gostavus, Count Palatine of Deux-Ponts, her 
cousin-german, succeeded her, under the title of 
Charles X. Being nurtured in the midst of arms, 
and ambitious only of wars and battles, he was 
anxious to distinguiih himself on the throne. John 
Casimir, King of Poland, having provoked him, 
by protesting against his accession to the crown of 
Sweden, Chu'les made this an occasion of breaking 
the treaty of Stumsdoif^ which was still in force, 
and invaded Poland. Assisted by Frederic William, 
the Elector of Brandenburg, whom he had attached 
to his interests, he gained a splendid yictory over 
the Poles near Warsaw (July, 1658). At that 
crisis, the fitte of Poland would haye been decided* 
if the Ciar, Alexis Hichaelorits, who was also at 
war wilh the Poles, had chosen to make common 
cause with her new enemies ; but Alexis thought 
it more for bis advantage to conclude a truce with 
the Poles, and attack uie Swedes in liyonia. In- 
gria, and Carelia. The Emperor Leopold and the 
Kiog of Denmark followed the example of the 
Csar ; and the Elector of Brandenburg, after ob- 
taining the sovereignty of the Duchy of Prusaia, 
by the treaty which he concluded with Poland at 
Welau, acceded in like manner to this league— the 
object of which was to secure the preservation 
of Poland, and "*•«"♦*«" the equilibrium of the 

Attacked by so many and such powerful ene- 
mies, the King of Sweden determined to withdraw 
his troops from Poland* and direct his principal 
force against Denmark. Haring made himself 
master of Holst^ Sleswick, and Jutland, he 
passed the Belts on the ice (January 1658) with 
his army and artillery, and advaneed towards the 

capital of the kingdom. This bold step intimi- 
dated the Danes so much, that they submitted to 
those exceedingly seyere conditions which Charles 
made them sign at Roschild (February 1658). 
Scarcely was tins treaty concluded, when the Kii^ 
of Sweden broke it anew ; and, under different 
pretexts, laid siege to Copexihagen. His intention 
was, if he had carried that place, to race it to the 
ground, to annihilate the kingdom of Denmark, 
and fix his residence in the province of Schonen, 
where he could maintain his dominion over the 
North and the Baltic. The besieged Danes, how- 
eyer, made a vigorous defence, and they were en- 
couraged by the example of Frederic III., who 
superintended in person the whc^e operations of 
the siege ; nevertheless, they must certainly have 
yielded* had not the Dutch, who were alarmed for 
their commerce in the Baltic, sent a fleet to the 
assistance of Denmark. These repuUicans fought 
an obstinate naval battle with the Swedes in the 
Sound (20th October, 1658). The Swedish fleet 
was repulsed, and the Dutch succeeded in relieving 
Copenhagen, by throwing in a supply of provisiMis 
and ammunition. 

The King of Sweden persisted* nevertheless, in 
lus determination to reduce that capital. He vrss 
not even intimidated by the treaties which France* 
B^igland,and Holland, had concluded at the Hagi»* 
for maintaining the equilibrium of the North ; but 
a premature death* at the age of thirty-eight, put 
an end to his ambitious projects (23rd February, 
1660). The regents who governed the kingdom 
during the minority of his son Charles XI., im- 
medifOely set on foot negociations with all the 
powers Uut were in league against Svreden. By 
the peace which they concluded at Copenhagen 
with Denmark (July 3, 1660), they sonrendered to 
that crown several i^ their late conquests ; reserv- 
ing to themselves only the provinoes of Sdionen, 
Bleckingen, HaUand, and Bohus. The Duke of 
Holstein-GU>ttorp, the prot^ of Charies K., was 
secured by that treaty in the sovereignty of that 
part of Sleswick, which had been guaranteed to 
him by a former treaty concluded at Copenhagen. 
The war with Poland, and her allies the Elector 
of Brandenburg and the Emperor, was terminated 
by the peace of Oliya (May Srd, 1660). The 
King of Poland gaye up his pretensions to the 
crown of Sweden ; while the former ceded to the 
latter the provinces of Livonia and Esthonia, and 
the islands belonging to them ; to be possessed on 
the same terms that had beoi agreed on at the 
treaty of Stumsdorf in 1635. The duke of Conr- 
land was re-established in his duchy, and the 
soyereignty of ducal Prussia confirmed to the 
House of Brandenburg. Peace between Sweden 
and Russia was concluded at Kardis in Esthonia; 
while the latter power surrendered to Sweden all 
the places which she had conquered in Liyonia. 

Sweden was afterwards drawn into the war 
against the Dutch by Louis XIY., when she ex- 
perienced nothing but disasters. She was depriyed 
of all her provinces in the Empire, and only re- 
gained possession of them in virtue of the treaties 
of Zell, Nimeguen, St. Greimain-en-Laye, Fon- 
tainebleau, and Lunden (1679), which she con- 
cluded suocessiyely with the powers in league 
against France. Immediately after that peace, a 
reyoiution happened in the government of Sweden. 
The abuse which the noMes made of their priri- 

Charles XI. of Sweden. 
124 SwediihDiet. 
Charlea XII. 


The Fdluh eoolert. 

leges, the extrayagant authority claimed by the 
senate, and the different meUiods which the 
grandees employed for gradually usurping the do- 
mains of the crown, had excited the jealousy of the 
other orders of the state. It is alleged that Baron 
Gillenstiem had suggested to Charles XI. the idea 
of taking advantage of this discontent to augment 
the royal authority, and humble the arrogance of 
the senate and the nobility. In compliance with 
his advice, the king assembled the estates of the 
kingdom at Stockholm (1680) ; and baring quar- 
tered some regiments of his own guards in the 
city, he took care to remove such of the nobles as 
might give the greatest cause of apprehension. An 
accusation was lodged at the Diet against those 
ministers who had conducted the administration 
during the king's minority. To them were attri- 
buted the calamities and losses of the state, and 
for these they were made responsible. The senate 
was also Implicated. They were chained with 
abusing their authority ; and it was proposed that 
the States should make investigation, whether the 
powers which the senate had assumed were con- 
formable to the laws of the kingdom. The States 
declared that the king was not bound by any other 
form of government than that which the constitu- 
tion prescribed ; that the senate formed neither a 
fifth order, nor an intermediate power between the 
king and the States ; and that it ought to be held 
simply as a council, with whom the king might 
consult and advise. 

A College of Re-union was also established at 
this Diet, for the purpose of making inquiry as to 
the lands granted, sold, mortgaged, or exchanged 
by preceding kings, either in Sweden or Livonia ; 
with an offer on the part of the crown to reim- 
burse the proprietors for such sums as they had 
originally paid for them. This proceeding made 
a considerable augmentation to the revenues of the 
erown ; but a vast number of proprietors were 
completely ruined by it. A subsequent diet went 
even further than that of 1680. They declared, 
by statute, that though the king was enjoined to 
govern his dominions according to the laws, this 
did not take from him the power of altering these 
laws. At length the act of 1693 decreed that the 
king was absolute master, and sole depository of 
the sovereign power ; without being responsible for 
his actions to any power on earth ; and that he 
was entitled to govern the kingdom according to 
his will and pleasure. 

It was in virtue of these different enactments and 
concessions, that the absolute power which had 
been conferred on Charles XL, was transmitted to 
the hands of his son Charles XIL, who was only 
fifteen years of age when he succeeded his father 
(April 1st, 1697). By the abuse which this prince 
made of these dangerous prerogatives, he plunged 
Sweden into an abyss of troubles ; and brought her 
down hom. that high rank which she had occupied 
in the political system of Europe, since the reign 
of Gustavus AdolphuB. The youth of Charles ap- 
peared to his neighbours to afford them a favour- 
able opportunity for recovering what they had lost 
b^ the conquests of his predecessors. Augustus IL, 
Xing of Poland, being desirous to regain Livonia, 
and listening to the suggestions of a Livonian gen- 
tleman, named John Fatkul, who had been pro- 
scribed in Sweden, he set on foot a negociation 
with the courts of Russia and Copenhagen ; the 

result of which was, a secret and ofleiisiTe ailing 
concluded between these three powers against 
Sweden (1699). Peter the Great, who had jurt 
conquered Azoff on the Black Sea, and equipped 
his first fleet, was desirous also to open ap the 
coasts of the Baltic, of which his predeceasors hsd 
been dispossessed by Sweden. War accordingly 
broke out in the course of the year 1700. The 
King of Poland invaded Livonia ; the Danes fril 
upon Sleswick, where they attaicked the Doke 
of Holstein-Gottoip, the ally of Sweden ; while 
the Csar, at the head of an army of 80,000 men, 
laid siege to the city of Narva. 

The King of Sweden, attacked by m many ene- 
mies at once, directed his first eflbrts against Den- 
mark, where the danger appeared most preasii^. 
Assisted by the fleets of England and Holland, 
who had guaranteed the last peace, he made a 
descent on the Isle of Zealand, and advanced rsr- 
pidly towards Copenhagen. This obliged Fre- 
deric IV. to conclude a special peace with him at 
Travendahl (August 18, 1700), by which that 
prince consented to abandon his allies, and restore 
the Duke of Holstein-Gottorp to the same state in 
which he had been before the vrar. Next directing 
his march against the Csar in Esthonia, the young 
king forced the Russians from their entrenchmenti 
before Narva (November 30), and made prisonen 
of all the general and principal officers of the Ri»- 
sian army ; among others, Field-Marshal General 
the Duke de Croi. 

Having thus got clear of the Russians, the 
Swedish Monarch then attacked King* Augtrstns, 
who had introduced a Saxon army into Poland, 
without being authorised by that republic Charies 
vanquished that prince in the three famous battles 
of Riga (1701), Clissau (1702), andPultusk (1703): 
and obliged the Poles to depose him, and elect in 
his place Stanislaus Lecksinski, Palatine of Posen, 
and a prot£g6 of his own. Two victories which 
were gained over the Saxons, and their allies the 
Russians, one at Punie (1704), and the other at 
Fraustadt (1706), made Stanislaus be acknow- 
ledged by the whole republic of Poland, and 
enabled the King of Sweden to transfer the seat of 
war to Saxony. Having marched through Silesia. 
without the previous authority of the court of 
Vienna, he took Leipzic, and compelled Atig:ustiB 
to sign a treaty of peace at Alt-Ranstadt, by which 
that prince renounced his alliance with the Caar. 
and acknowledged Stanislaus legitimate King of 
Poland. John Patkul, being delivered up to the 
King of Sweden, according to an article In that 
treaty, was broken on the wheel, as beln^ the 
principal instigator of the war. 

The prosperity of Charles XII. had now eome 
to an end. From this time he experienced only a 
series of reverses, which were occasioned as mnch 
by hlB passion for war, as by his indiscretions, and 
the unconquerable obstinacy of his character. The 
Russians had taken advantage of his long aojomrn 
in Poland and Saxony, and conquered the greater 
part of Ingria and Livonia. The Csar had now 
advanced into Poland, where he had demanded of 
the Poles to declare an interregnum, and elect a 
new king. In this state of matters, the King of 
Sweden left Saxony to march agauist the Csar; 
and compelled him to evacuate Poland, and retire 
on Smolensko. Far from listening, however, to 
the equiuble terms of peace which Peter dfeivd 



PERIOD YII. A.D. 1648--1713. 

Death of CharlM XII. 
PQMe of Stockholm. 125 
War wiUi Kawia. 

him, be penisted in his resolution to march on to 
Moncow, in the hope of dethroning the atari as he 
had dethroned Augustus. The discontent which 
the innoTations of the csar had excited in Russia, 
appeared to Charles a fitTOorable opportunity for 
effecting his object ; but on reaching the neigh- 
bourhood of Mohilew, he suddenly changed his 
purpose, and, instead of directing his route to- 
waxds the capital of Russia, he turned to the right, 
and penetrated into the interior of the Ukraine, in 
order to meet Maseppa, Hetman of the Cossacs, 
who had offered to join him vrith sll his troops. 
Nothing could have been more imprudent than 
this determination. By thus marching into the 
Ukraine, he separated himself from General Lew- 
enhaupt, who had brought him, according to 
orders, a powerful reinforcement from LiTonia; 
and trusted himself among a fickle and incon- 
stant peojde, disposed to break faith on every 

This inconsiderate step of Charles did not escape 
the penetration of the csar, who knew well how 
to profit by it. Putting himself at the head of a 
chosen body, he intercepted General Lewenhaupt, 
and joined him at Desna, two miles from Propoisk, 
in the Palatinate of Mscislaw. The battle which 
he fought with that general (0th October, 1708) 
was most obstinate, and, by the confession of 
the csar, the first -rlctory which the Russians 
had gained over regular troops. The remains of 
Leweuhaupt's army haying joined the king in the 
Ukraine, Charles undertook the siege of Pultowa, 
situated on the banks of the Yorsklaw, at the ex- 
tremity of that province. It was near this place, 
that the famous battle was fought (8th July, 1709), 
which blasted all the laurels of the King of 
Sweden. The czar gained there a complete vic- 
tory. Nine thousand Swedes were left on the 
field of battle ; and 14,000, who had retired with 
General Lewcoihaupt, towards Ferevolatschna, be- 
tween the Yorsklaw and the Nieper, were made pri- 
soners of war, three days after the action. Charles, 
accompanied by his aUy Maseppa, saved himself 
with difficulty at Bender in Turkey. 

This disastrous rout revived the courage of the 
enemies of Sweden. The alliance was renewed 
between the cxar, Augustus II., and Frederic II., 
King of Denmark. Stanislaus was abandoned. 
All Poland again acknowledged Augustus II. The 
Danes made a descent on Sdbonen ; and the czar 
achieved the conquest of Ingria, Livonia, and 
Carelia. The states that were leagued against 
France in the vrar of the Spanish Succession, 
wishing to prevent Germany from becoming the 
theatre of hostilities, concluded a treaty at the 
Hague (31st March, 1710), by which they under- 
took, under certain conditions, to guarantee the 
neutrality of the Swediih provinces in Germany, 
as well as that of Sleswick and Jutland ; but the 
King of SvTeden having constantly declined ac- 
ceding to this neutrality, the possessions of the 
Swedes in Germany were also seized and con- 
quered in succession. The Duke of Holstein-Got- 
torp, the nephew of Charles X.II., was involved in 
his disgrace, and stript of lus estates by the King 
of Denmark (1714). 

In the midst of these disasters, the inflexible 
King of Sweden persisted in prolonging lus sojourn 
at Bender, making repeated efforts to rouse the 
Turks against the Russians. He did not return 

from Turkey till 1714, when his aifiurs were al- 
ready totally ruined. The attempto which he then 
made, either to renew the war in Poland, or in- 
vade the provinces of the Empire, excited the 
jealousy of the neighbouring powers. A formi- 
dable league was raised against him ; besides the 
csar, the Kings of Poland, Denmark, Prussia, and 
England, joined it. Stralsund and Wismar, the 
only places which Sweden still retained in Ger- 
many, fell into the hands of the allies ; while the 
czar added to these losses the conquest of Finland 
and Savolax. In a situation so desperate, Charles, 
by the advice of his minister. Baron Gorts, set on 
foot a special and secret negociation -with the 
csar, which took place in the isle of Aland, in 
course of the year 1718. There it was proposed 
to reinstate Stanislaus on the throne of Poland ; to 
restore to Sweden her possessions in the Empire ; 
and even to assist her in conquering Norway ; by 
way of compensation for the loss of Ingria, Carelia, 
Livonia, and £sthonia» which she was to cede to 
the csar. 

That negociation was on the point of being 
finally closed, when it was broken off by tbe un- 
expected death of Charles XII. T