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riu>ncM>R or i-fiiur jfuiM-Bi-DKMcK AT rruracKO. 


A N D 11 1C W C R I C II T O N. 






I 6 3 c l 


THE Vnvr or TH* REVOLUTIONS OF EUROPE, by M. Koch, has been long known and highly 
esteemed on the Continent, as a work of incontestable merit, and entitled to hold tl 
rank among productions of its kind. It occupied tin- labours and researches of thirty years 
uf tin- author's life; and had the benefit of receiving, at different intervals, several addition** 
ami improvement.* from his own hand. As a concise, luminous, and accurate summary of 
il history, it stands unrivalled. The principal events and vicissitudes of more than 
fourteen hundred ye.irs an- her.- condcn-cd within an incredibly small space ; bringing, as 
-. uiuler one view, the successive changes and destinies of Europe, from the f.ill of the 
Roman Empire, in the fifth century, to the restoration of the Bourbons in France. The 
eouiitrie^ whieh the different nations from time to time have occupied. their laws and 
institutions their progress from barbarism to refin. in nt the revival of arts and sciences 
the origin of inventions and discoveries and the wonderful revolutions, both moral and poli- 
tical, to which they gave birth, arc here detailed at once with brevity and perspicuity. The 
author has restricted himself as it were to the pure elements or essence of useful knowledge, 
discarding from his narrative every thing that did not minister to solid instruction. II.- 
book has been compared to a sort of chart or genealogical tree of history, where only the 
grand and prominent events have been recorded, striptof all their secondary and subordinate 
circumstances, which often distract the attention without adding in the least to the interest 
or elucidation of the subject. His researches have thrown a new light on some of the 
difficulties and obscurities of the Middle Ages, particularly with regard to Chronology and 
Geography. 1 1 is veracity and precision are unimpeachable; and, though his style has been 
thought inelegant, his candour, judgment, and erudition have never been called in question, 
f all parties and of opposite opinions, both in politics and religion, have united their 
suffrages in his praise. M. I'ontanes, Grand Master of the Unix ersity of 1'aris ; M. bvesque, 
: -nt of the Class of Ancient History and Literature, and M. Dacier, Perpetual 
Secretary of the Third Class, in the Institute; M. Fourrroy, Director-General of 1'ublie 
Instruction at Paris; M. lY'-deric Huchholx, of Berlin, who translated the Tableau into 
(ierman ; and many others, have spoken of this book in terms of the highest commendation, 
and obtained it a place in most of the t'niversities. Schools, and Libraries on the Continent. 

The REVOLUTIONS, although an excellent digest of the history and policy of Europe, 
claims no higher merit than that of an elementary work. It was originally designed for tin- 
young entering on their political studies, and is an outline that must be filled up by sub- 
it reading, and from collateral sources. With regard to the prc.-cnt English edition, 
the Translator has only to say, that he has endeavoured to give a faithful transcript of his 
author, and as literal as the idiom of the two languages would admit, lie has been more 
studious of fidelity to his original than elegance of style or novelty of expression. 1 
prefixed a short sketch of the author's life, abridged from two of his biographers, MM. 
Sclurll and Weiss. 

Tin- : Periods bring down the History of Europe to the Freneh Kc-.olntion, which 

is all that our author undertook, or rather lived to accomplish. The period from that 
to the restoration of the Hourbons in 1815, has been continued by M. S< hu-11.* the editor 
h's Works, and author of the History of the Treatiet qf Peace. Sec. As the conti- 
nuation, houexer, differs a little in some points from the \iewsof the original, and is not 
so full on others as might be \\Mird, the Translator has introduced tuch additions and 
amendments as seemed necessary to complete what was defu -lent, according as nearly as 

If. Schci-ll has also inttraperaed a few explanatory paragraph*, which, in the present volume, the 

render \\ill timl iucliuktl within brackets [ J. 


pos-ible with the spirit and design of the author himself. These alterations, as well as the 
authorities on which they have' been made, will be found carefully marked. 


CHRISTOPHKR WILLIAM KOCH, equally distinguished as a lawyer and a learned historian, was 
born on the Mh of May, 1737, at Bouxwiller, a small town in the seigniory of Lichtenberg, 
in Alsace, which then belonged to the Prince of Hesse-Darmstadt. His father, who was a 
member of the Chamber of Finance under that prince, sent him to an excellent school in 
his native place, where he received the rudiments of his education. At the age of thirteen, 
he went to the Protestant University of Strasburg, where he prosecuted his studies under 
the celebrated Schcepflin. Law was the profession to which he was destined ; but he showed 
an early predilection for the study of history, and the sciences connected with it, such as 
Diplomatics, or the art of deciphering and verifying ancient writs and chartularies, Genea- 
logy, Chronology, &c. Schcepflin was not slow to appreciate the rising merit of his pupil, 
and wished to make him the companion of his labours. He admitted him to his friendship, 
and became the means of establishing him as his successor in that famous political academy, 
which his reputation had formed at Strasburg, by attracting to that city the youth of the 
first families, and from all parts of Europe. Koch devoted much of his time to the Canon 
Law, and soon gave a proof of the progress he had made in that branch of study, by the 
Academical Dissertation which he published in 1761, under the title of Commentatio de 
Collatione dignitatum et beneficiorum ecclesiasticorum in imperio Romano- Germanico. This 
treatise was a prelude to his Commentary on the Pragmatic Sanction, which he published 
in 179 a work which excited an extraordinary sensation in Catholic Germany, and pro- 
cured the author the favourable notice of such prelates as were most eminent for learning 
and piety. 

After taking his academic degree, Koch repaired to Paris in 1762, where he staid a year ; 
honoured with the society of the most distinguished literati in the capital, and frequenting 
the royal library, wholly occupied in those researches which prepared him for the learned 
labours in which he afterwards engaged. On his return to Strasburg, he wrote the con- 
tinuation of the Historia Zaringo-Badensis, of which the first volume only was drawn up by 
Schcepflin. All the others were entirely the work of Koch, though they bear the name of 
the master who had charged him with the execution of this task. Schcepflin bequeathed to 
the city of Strasburg, in 1766, his valuable library and his cabinet of antiques, on condition 
that Koch should be appointed keeper ; which he was, in effect, on the death of the testator 
in 1771. He obtained, at the same time, the title of professor, which authorized him to 
deliver lectures ; for the chair of Schcepflin passed, according to the statutes of the University, 
f o another professor, a man of merit, but incapable of supplying his place as an instructor 
of youth in the study of the political sciences. The pupils of Schcepflin were thus transferred 
to Koch, who became the head of that diplomatic school, which, for sixty years, gave to the 
public so great a number of ministers and statesmen. 

In 177'.J the government of Hanover offered him the chair of public German Law in the 
;sity of Gottingen, which he declined. Next year the Emperor Joseph II., who knew 
well how to distinguish merit, complimented him with the dignity of Knight of the Empire, 
an intermediate title between that of baron and the simple rank of noblesse. About the 
same period lie obtained the chair of Public Law at Strasburg, which he held until that 
university was suppressed at the French revolution. Towards the end of 17'.>, the Pro- 
testants of Alsace sent him as their envoy to Paris, to solicit from the King and the Constitu- 
tional Assembly the maintenance of their civil and religious rights, according to the faith of 
former treaties. He succeeded in obtaining for them the decree of the 17th of August, 17W, 


i ilieieriftht*. and declared that the ecclesiastical brnefi' 

tho-e \\ ! -. had 

: the ii.itimi. The former di-cree wa- 
:!<! by an act, bearing date December 1, !7!m. Kuth <>i il:,-c U.-H- .<;.| i ,\i-d and 

Meantime, tin- terrors and turhnlein e of the revolution had dispersed from Strasbwg 
that brilliant assemblage >i M.iuh, which tin- n-|.ut tM n of the professors, and the natural 
i attracted from nil i, astrous events interrupted 

the cm eh, at a time \h' n In- w.i* ca] .idcring Btt BKMt tepOftfJDt 

i thai moment he devoted himself to public a: ing appn. 

mem' \s<embly. he o|)|x>se<l the fiction which 

and ultimately suhverte. I the throne. When president of the comnu a assembly, 

r the maintenance of peace ; and in a report which In- made in 17 
!il the calamities v. huh would overwhelm France, if war should !< drri.tred 
publican faction, by their clamours, silenced the remonstrances ot 

when, on the -joih of April, he spoke in opposition to a mea.-ure which proved so fatal to 
which lie addressed, loth of August, to the constituted authorities 

of the b>wer Hliine, sufficiently expressed the horror with which that dayV ; .gs had 

in-piied him. HP procured, n. of his fellow-citi/ens in a reai- 

which he had then some reason to hope would be made a common c.tu>e by th- 

;.T drc\\ down upon him the peiscculion of tin- inline jiarty. lie was im- 
mured i:i a pri>on, \\h.-ri' he languished for eleven months, and from which he had no pro- 

\cept to mount the >catlold. The revolution of the Uth Thermidor n 
him to liU-rty, when he was appointed, by the voice of his fellow-citi/ens, to tl> 

of their provincial department, lie endeavoured by all means in hi.- to defeat the 
measures that were taken to injure his constituents; and had influence enough, it is said, 
to prevent the sale of the funds belonging to manufactories and hospitals. He t! 
with plcaMire those functions which he had unwillingly accepted ; in 17'J", he recomn. 
his professorship of public law, and returned with new /eal to his literary labours, which had 
>o long interrupted. Six years he spent in these useful occupations; from which, bow- 
ever, he was once more detached by a decree of the senate, which nominated him a member 
of the Tribunal. This nomination Koch accepted, in the hope of being useful to his Protestant 
countrymen, and to the city of Strasburg, in obtaining the re-establishment of the reformed 
religion, and its restoration in the university. He did, in et'eet, exert himself much in 
n, according to the confession of Augsburg, as well as of the Protestant 
Academy at Strasburg, which was suppressed at this period. 

I'll'' Tribunal having been suppressed, Koch declined all places of trust or honour which 
were offered him ; and only requested permission to retire, that he might have a short interval 
for himself between business and the grave. A pension of 3000 francs was granted bin), 
without any solicitation on his part. In ISO*, he returned to Strasburg, where he con- 
tinned to devote himself to letters, and in administering to the public good. About the end of 
< .rand-master of the I'ltiversity of France conferred on him the title of Honorary 
of the Academy of Strasburg. His health, which had been prolonged by a life of 
great temperance ami regularity and the peace which result- from a good conscience, became 
.n l^i J. u ! :i I. Fell into a state of languor, which terminated his life on the 25th 
of October lsi;{. His colleagues, the professors of Strasburg, erected to his memory a 
monument of white marble in the church of St. Thomas, near those ot u and 

Oberlin, which was executed by M. Ohnmacht, an eminent sculptor in Strasburg. One of 
his biographers has pronounced the following eulogium on Koch: "A noble regard for 
futicc and truth, a penetration i 'inmon. a diligence unrivalled in historical 

researches, a remarkable talent in arranging and illustrating his subject, an incorruptible 
t principle, and unclouded serenity of mind, with a zealous desire of renderim; 
lies, his information, and activity useful to his species these were the prominent 
s of the mind and character of this amiable u lias been 

Kcd, that although professor Koch had not the art of a graceful or even a fluent elm u- 


tion, no man ever possessed in a higher degree the talents and qualifications of a public 
instructor. Like Socrates, he had a manner peculiar to himself. He was not so much a 
teacher of sciences, as of the means of acquiring them. He could inspire his scholars with a 
taste for labour, and knew how to call forth their several powers and dispositions. Though 
a man of the most domestic habits, and a lover of children, Koch never married. 

Two lives of this celebrated professor have been written by foreigners. The one is by M. 
Schweighaeuser, junior, a professor at Strasbourg; and the other is prefixed to the new 
edition of the Histoire des Traites de Paix, by M. Schcell, the editor and continuator of 
several of our author's works. This latter biographer has accompanied his sketch with a 
descriptive catalogue of all Koch's works, the principal of which are the following: ]. 
Tables Genealogiquesdes Maisons Souveraines du Midi et de FOuest de r Europe. 2. Sanctio 
Pragmatica Germanorum illustrata. 3. Abreg6 de FHistoire des Traites de Paix entre les 
Puissances de f Europe. A new edition of this work appeared in 1818, enlarged and conti- 
nued by M. Schcell down to the Congress of Vienna and the Treaty of Paris, 1815. 4. Table 
des Traitis entre la France et les Puissances Etrangeres, depuis la Paix de Westphalie, fyc. 
5. Tableau ties Revolutions de I'Europe, fyc. 6. Tables Gn6alogiques des Maisons Souve- 
raines de FEst et du Nord de I'Europe. This work was published, after the author's death, by 
M. Srlurll. Besides these, Koch left various manuscripts, containing memoirs of his own 
life, and several valuable papers on the ancient ecclesiastical history and literature of his 
native province. 

A. C. 


THE work here presented to the public is a summary of the Revolutions, both general and 
particular, which have happened in Europe since the extinction of the Roman Empire in the 
fifth century. As an elementary book, it will be found useful to those who wish to have a concise 
and general view of the successive revolutions that have changed the aspect of states and 
kingdoms, and given birth to the existing policy and established order of society in modern 

Without some preliminary acquaintance with the annals of these revolutions, we can 
neither study the history of our own country to advantage, nor appreciate the influence 
which the different states, formed from the wreck of the ancient Roman Empire, recipro- 
cally exercised on each other. Allied as it were by the geographical position of their terri- 
tories, by a conformity in their religion, language, and manners, these states, in course of 
time, contracted new attachments in the ties of mutual interests, which the progress of 
civilisation, commerce, and industry, tended more and more to cement and confirm. Many 
of them, whom fortune had elevated to the summit of power and prosperity, carried their 
laws, their arts, and institutions, both civil and military, far beyond the limits of their own 
dominions. The extensive sway which the Romish hierarchy held for nearly a thousand 
years over the greater part of the European kingdoms, is well known to every reader of 

This continuity of intercourse and relationship among the powers of Europe became the 
means of forming; them into a kind of republican system ; it gave birth to national law -and 
conventional rights, founded on the agreement of treaties, and the usages of common prac- 
tice. A laudable emulation sprang up among contemporary states. Their jealousies, and 
rvi'M their competitions and divisions, contributed to the progress of civilisation, and the 
attainment of that high state of perfection to which all human sciences and institutions have 
been carried by the nations of modern Europe. 

It is these political connexions, this reciprocal influence of kingdoms and their revolu- 
tions, and especially the varieties of system which Europe has experienced in the lapse of so 

\i i IlEFACE. 

many ages, that require t.> be developed in a general view, such as that which profene* to 

I tin- present Work. 

author lus l,rri- remodelled his " View of tin- Revolution* of tli.-' Mi.ldle Ages" 
(published in IT'-H)), and extended or abridged th- iods according 

tinuin- this \iork down to tin- ]!- n: tiim-. In- has deemed it necessary to 
conclude at the Fn-n.-h Revolution; a.s tin- iiuun ; Its of that ^reat event are too 

much involu-d in uncertainty to be clearly or impartially exhibited by contemporary 

:-ilinu with tin- principal revoh 

which have changed, in > ;lic jxilitical state ot Knrope. At the head of each jx-riod 

is placet 1 i-ithcr the <li -lu'iution ,.f its particuliir revolution, or that of the power or empire 
which helil tin a.-endaiicy at the time. In limiting his treatise solely to the revolutions of 
KUI-OJM-. the writer has not touched upon those of Asia and the East, except in so far as they 
have bad an immediate influence on the destinies of Europe. Conscious also that tl 
tinuishin characteristic of an historian is veracity, and that the testimony of a writer who 
has not himself been an eyewitne>s of the events he records cannot be relied on with implicit 
confidence, the author has imposed on himself the invariable rule of citing, with scrupulous 
care, the principal authorities and vouchers, of each period and country, that have : 
him. during his researches, in selecting and examining his materials by the torch of patient 
criticism. Without this labour and precaution, the Work would have been of no avail as an 
elementary help to those who were desirous of acquiring a more minute and solid knowledge 
of history. 

In the edition of 1823, from which the present translation is made, the Tableau has been conti- 
mied by tli f, S, 1m 11, down to the 20th November 115. T. 

f Nine in the last editions, including the continuation. 





Lin OK M.KOCH iv 


INTRODUCTION: Use of history, 1. Archives and records, 
8. Geography. 2. Genealogies, 2. Chronology, 3. Age 
of the World, 4. The Mosaic or Sacred history, 4. Julian 
year, 4. Gregorian calendar, 4. Reformed year or 
calendar, 4. Old and new style, 4. Birth of our Saviour 
anil Christian era, 5. Epochs or eras in ancient and 
modern computation of time, 5. Hegira or flight of 
Mahomet, G. Vulgar or Dionysian era, 6. Era used 
in Spanish and Portuguese records, 6. Julian period, 
according to Scaliger, 6. Cycle of the sun, 6. Lunar 
eyc-le, 6. Cycle of indications, 6. History, how divided 
and classified. C. Universal history, ? The middle ages, 
7. The ancient historians, 7. Astronomical science origi- 
nated in Chaldea, 7. Phoenicians the first navigators, 7. 
Early history of Europe unknown, 7- Early monarchies, 

7. Vestiges of the Egyptian civilisation and power, 7. 
Antiquities of the states of Assyria and Babylon, 7. Tra- 
ditions thereof unsupported by Herodotus, 7- The only 
certain account of the conquests of Shalmaneser and 
Nebuchadnezzar to be found in the Scriptures, 7. Per- 
sian monarchy founded by Cyrus, 7. Petty kingdoms 
of Greece, a. Powerful republics of Athens and Laceda;- 
mon, 8. Military prowess, love of liberty, learning, art 
and sciences of tne Greeks, 8. Philip, King of Macedon, 

8. Conquests of Alexander the Great, 8. Kingdoms 
established at his death, 8. Egypt and Syria, 8. Kings 
of Home, 8. II istory of the republic of Rome, 8. Roman 
historians, 8. The Carthaginian power, c. The Punic 
wars, or contest of Rome and Carthage, 8. Destruction of 

;hage, 9. No vestiges, monuments, or public records, 
of that maritime city, now extant, 9. Pompey, Caesar, 
and Crasiun, 9. Destructive ambition of Julius Caesar, 9. 
Fall of the Commonwealth of Rome, 9. Death of Caesar, 
I riunmr.iie of Octavianus, Antony, and Lepidus, 9. 
heath <>( Marc Antony, in Egypt, 9. Roman Empire 
founded by Augustus or Octaviauus, 9. Extent and popu- 
lation of the Roman Empire, 9. Conquests of Trajan, 9. 
Tin- Human Senate loses all real authority under Tibe- 
rius, Caligula, Nero, and Domitian, 9. Reigns of the 
emperors Titus, and the Antoniues, 9. Constautine the 
Great establishes the Christian religion, 10. He transfers 
the seat of empin- t" l!y/.antium, then-after named Con- 
staniiiio|ili-, 10. Division uf thu Roman Kmpire by the 
will of Theodoxiux tin- <;rt-at, 10. Honoring Emperor of 
ur Rome, 10. Arcndins Emperor of the East or 
Constantinople, known as the Greek Kmpire. 10. Origin 
ut'thi- |,.i|iai power at Rome, 10. Mahomet founds u new 
religion and an empire, 10. Kingdoms of the Franks and 
noiilii-rn barbarians, 10. The Normans, Russians, and 
Hungarians, &c., establish monarchies, 10. Germany 
becomes a paramount state and sovereignty, 10. Rise of 
the lloineuf Capet, 10. Norman conquests. 10. Domi- 
nation of tl,e ropes, 10. Restoration of Kmnan jiuis- 
prudrnre. Id. Italian republics, 10. Mogul Empire in 
:, 10. Magna Charta aii'l Kn.-h-h I.iliniy, 10. 
Tin- Inquisition. 10. The Turku under Mahomet II. con 
<|iier tin- <in-ek or Lower Kmpire, lu. Fall of Constau- 
tinnple, ID. Restoration of learning in the \Vet, 10. Re- 
newal of roni in-, lo. Revival of the idles Icttrel, 10 

The reformation, 10. Discovery of America, 10. Hell 
gums wars, 10. Political system of Europe. 10. Federal 
>Ktem, 10. Peace of Utrecht, 10. Libertine and im- 
pious philosophy, 10. Revolutionary epoch, 10. 


From the Invasion of the Roman Empire in the West ly 
the Barbarians, to the time of Charlemayne. A.D. 

300 Barbarian nations invading the Western Empire 

of Rome, enumerated 1 

300375 The Goths embrace Christianity 1 

300400 Confederacy of- the Franks 1 

300 Confederacy of the Alemanni 1 

200 The Saxons and Angles | 

375 The Huns invade Europe 1 

412 Ataulphus King of the Visigoths 1 

413 Conquests of the Burgundians 1 

Conquests of the Alemanni and Suevi 

430 Clodion founds the kingdom of the Franks at 

Cambrai * 

451 Attila defeated by Stilts, in which obstinate battle 
Theodoric King of the Visigoths, the ally of the 
Romans, is slain 

486 Clovis defeats Syagrius and the Romans at 

Soissons " 

496 Clovis defeats the Alemanni at Tolbiac near 

Cologne " J 

496 He embraces Christianity j 

50: He defeats the Visigoths at Vouille 1* 

534 The descendants of Clovis conquer the kingdom 

of Burgundy ] 

409 The Vandals conquer Spain 1 

415 5H4 The Visigoths establish their dominion in 

Spain and in Africa 1 

427 Genseric the Vandal subdues the Romans in Africa 1 

455 The Vandals pillage Rome 

534 Belisarius overturns the Vandal kingdom in Atru-a l.i 

410 The Romans retire from Britain j 

450827 The heptarchy of the Anglo-Saxons 1 

827 Egbert crowned King of England 

476 Augustuliis, the last Roman emperor, is dethroned 

bv Odoacer "". ' 

489 Odoacer put to death at Ravenna by Theodoric 

the Ostrogoth j 

547 Totila takes Rome ] 

552 Death ol Totila - 

553 Nurses defeats Teias the last king of the Ostrogoths 1 

it'H The I. omtiards invade Italy | 

f>7'J I'avia taken by King Albuinus 1 

572 On the state of Germany 15 

400 GOO The Slavi establish themselves along the 

Danube- \ 

Fiefs of Germany J 

Customs of the Germans -j 

Laws of the Germans J 

Influence of the Christian religion 1 

The Latin language used by the clergy ; modern 

longua"i-s thai arc- derived from it 17 

678 Pepin d'lleristal. Kingdoms of Australia and 

Neustria ; '/ 

733 Charles Martel defeats the Saracen invaders^ 

under Abdalrahmau of Coi duva I/, 19 

736 The Iconoclasts. Religious liissensiiiiis ol the 

Eastern or Greek empire ; 1 

730 Roman republic- temporal iv revived ill the ponti- 
ficate ol'Oregory II ! 

751 Astolphus the Lombard king seizes Ravenna ..... 
lla\ enna ,-eded by king Pepin to the Roman p.intill 

(',22 Tim he.giru of Mahomet. 

713 The Saracens conquer Spain 

7l!9 Alphonso I. establishes the kingdom of Ovie.lo or 
A: ,1111. as (^iilisequeiilly of Leon) 


800-900 Divtaionoflbe caUlpUUoftheSeJMeM. 

i .in- and science, at the Arabian* 19, 8" 

Commerce of Arabia nU 1 ml ia . 

l II. 
r to Otto tkt Ortat, A.D. 

PTM Aeceeeton of Charle* the Great or ChariecMga*.* 90 

800 Fall of the Lombard kingdom ..... ... 90 

Pall of lh new Roman rep.iMic. and of the ejur- 

rh4te of Rjvrnn* ............. .... 90 

800 Charles the Great crowned cmpeiur uf the (toman* 

by Pope L ... 91 

800 900 Sute of learning. Foundation of .chooU.... 91 

897 BffbertttlacofKngUnd ......... ... 99 

814 Sucoresor* of Charlemagne ..................... 99 

Iiaari4ll. K in -.. I (..:!.!:> ........... 99 

IrealyofVer.! ... 92 

844 877 RelgnofCharleatheli K trance.. 98 

The romance idiom was the origin of the French 

language ................................... 92 

888 Empire of the Writ i separated into the King- 
\. Lorraine. Ilurgundy, 

Nar.,rr.-. .. ... 92 

008 09> Reign of Charl. 

Affair. G .mil of the duchy of Lorraine.. 93 

879 Hoaoo founder of the. Kingdomof burgundy ..... 93 

930 Rodolph King of Burgundy ............. ...... 23 

85tf Kingdom of Navarre .......................... 23 

Feudal iiMiiluii.iiis of the Franks ami German* .. 23 

Vim erof military chief*, and of the noble* ........ 1M 

t .il partHkHtt ........................... 94 

;i.ilU ....................... 94 

............................ 93 

TII.-II pir-i.-i.-s and sea-king* .................... 95 

Tlie r rum|ue*l* ............................... 95 

Their invasion of Ireland ____ ................... 95 

874 Norman* found a republic in Iceland ............ 95 

919 Roll... -. r Roliert. Duke uf Noriii.uidy ............ 95 

i m conquest* .......................... 96 

-ti invasion* of Kngland ................... '-6 

879 Reign oi Alfred the Great ..................... 86 

Norman navigator*, and maritime discoveries .... 9C 

From OtMo the Oriat to Orrgory the Ortnt. A D. 96121074. 

MI i*6i Civil inftiniliun<i)f the (iernian monarchy.. 97 

it Henry I. ur named I he Kowli-r .................. 97 

964 Otlio i Kropcror uf (ifrmany.ronquen luly ..... K7 

' " 

M A ly. John Xl'l. INipe 

96* 150$ The i-lective king* of (;rm.iny c 

emperor* by the ceremony of a triple coronation 

. .. 

-lective king* of (;rm.iny con*tituted 

at Rome ............... " ..................... 98 

Mart ,'iihtuif. MUnia and Liuatia 39 

f the rh'irrii in (irrnuiiiy ................. IfJ 

1039 Kini(d<>m of Hur^iindy, or Arlrvunit.itto .,. 

man crown. onian dynaty ........ 99 

Power of the Count. ..: < hamnagne, 

Savoy, the Dauphin and other hereditary feuda- 
toriei ....................................... 99 

< of /.ihringen. Regent of . 89 
1100 1191 The Dnke* of /ahriiiK- - itier- 

Und ............. ... 89 

1043 Trrat) l>etwrm the Emperor Hmry III., and 

Samuel AK* KmK ot lluni(.ry ................ 99 

.t of Henry III.'* dommiuui. .r (irrmau 
Emj.. ............... 29 

1046 I'ammount aitlhority of the German emperor*. . . 
Temporal *vlem of tin- ppr< .................' uuth ! ...... 30 

10501100 Pief.of the empiie become her. ditary ..... 30 

Imi^iialandprefeetiNUI < .... 30 

< acquire temporal power in Germany ..... 30 

Decline of the authority under the inc. 

;< I 



tlon. dethroned ..... 
ngdoms on the ruin* 

on the de- 



bret .......... 

anle tnrr ngum* n on* monarcy, an 
pel the Moon from Spain 
' ih Capet r.ubluhr. a new <t) i, , 

-10HO Tancred. and hi* aone Robert and i 

1474 Ferdinand of Arragon and Itabell. of CtMilU 
anile tnrlr kingdum* in on* monarchy, and 
pel the Moon from Spain 

' ih Ca 


.Kxjuer part of l 
. 'ie North of I 

10941035 Sweyn II. King uf Norway 
null- I. irk ......... 

u. euatom*. and |uernmrn 


906ftH) Christianity introduced into I'uUnU and 

988 Vladimir the Grrat >pou*e* toe (ir.-i-k VrioepM 

. ':i i ...... 

kiow. capital of thp liraud U 
1015 Jaruslau*. Kiiian lawgiver ...... : ............ 

>ry I. uf Hrincf rcpoute* Anne ilaughur ( 
JaitMUu* ................................... 

uiity introduced into Hungary ........... 

: lien I., king, lawgiver, anJ Bpotilooflup llun- 
eariniM ....................... ... 

I'oliiical iiKtitiitiont and u-rniurial division* of 


ilitiun uf the H -T.I ............ 

1000 Keel* and >chi>in* of thr Grrek church .......... 

Schism and breach between the churches o! ' 
t.intinpli- and Kume.. . . ... 

Hun-, Avar*, and other barbarians, also th>- 

lian* and Russians, haras* the Eastern Kmpire 

W 71* Arab* conquer Sicily, and besiege Constan- 

tinople .................................... 

Thr Iximhard. Normans, Arab*, and Turk* eix 
on its pruvincci ............................. 

470-774 l.oinlianlkin^clomof Itily .................. 

Tin- <ii.-.-k t. 

TtO I. in, Krnpemr <-f Coiit.infc. 

;o-IOOO TheSt-ljuk Tuiks conquer Alia Minor ..... 

1000 Noun-ill ,-,,ti.p,-.t, in ..................... 

too The Turk .ililain autiioiity iu 

Hi.- i .................... 

Institution l I'.miri of Srljuckians and Aralii.i 
MS RoiMli, Kmir-al-Omrah, or cummandi-r of com. 






43 The llowidr* or Great Kmirs .................. . 

<l u! the A rnliiitn rali|>hati* .......... 

1038 i .il Oinr^h . . 

lu7l AI|-Arlan takes the Greek Emprrur Ilomantu 
|iri.."in-r ......... ............. ......... 

1079 Mal^k Sha 

Is nametl 
1092 Death of 

, S-ljuckun Sultan ............... 

omniandrr of the K-iithful ........... 

alek and partition of his dominions into 

1.1' 1 1. 1 n. Krrni.iu, and Koum ......... 

1159 Caliph* of llaplmd reloreU 

From POM Orryvry Vlt. to frmiface I'll I. A.I 

to 1 

10711300 Supremacy of the Koman pontiffs ......... 36 

IBM I*ope Nicholas II. form* an alliance itli Robert 

u ........... .. 36 

tan In'' -"'-'I Mil'l. lit.i:i 1 in tli- lection 

IK- Alrx.mdi-r II ......................... 36 

1071 Hild--l.r .11.1 ol'tuui* the tiara underthe apprllatloM 

'k'ur\ \11 ................. ... 3$ 

1MO lie* Rome subtert to the liennan potentate ..... 36 

ters Invest. ture l the ring and erotic:. .. 36 

- II. 1 .r bids the exercise of the vecular 
right of investiture ............ . . 37 

I).- proc'aima himsrlf independent of leaipotal 
authority ....... 

1074 tin renews the law of clerical elib%ry ........... 37 

The False Decretals forced by Istdore ........... 37 

..iv VII .-XMU canonical obedience. tValiy 
and homage to Kume 


to convoke general Councils ...... 

I- .-;e and power of legatee . 
Gregory wipmne head of the church, eonatitate* 
himself Ihe arbiter of temporal pnnre. ......... 38 

the emperor Henry IV. to appear 



1076 That emperor and the German hMiops pronounce 

the deposition of the pope, at Worms 38 

TV VII. excommunicates and deposes Henry 

IV * 38 

He absolves the emperor after a penanre 38 

1080 New papal sentence fulminated again*! Henry IV. 38 

in V I l.'s address to Philip I. of France 39 

1076 1080 He claims a jurisdiction over Solomon 
Kin;: of Hungary. Sueno of Denmark and other 

princes ". 39 

Hi> M-heme of an universal domination 39 

10861088 His successors Victor III. and Urban II. 

maintain the object of a papal supremacy 39 

Contest between the emperors ot Germany and the 

copes " 39 

Rise of the c;ue I ph. or imperial, and the Ghibelline, 

or papal, lactions 39 

l>eror Henry V. cedes the right of investiture 

to Calixlus ]"!., at Worms 40 

Decay of the German Empire 40 

1198 Innocent III. assumes the temporal government 

of the city of Rome 40 

The ecclesiastical states 40 

Patrimony of the Countess Matilda ceded by Fre- 
deric 1 1. to Pope Honorius III 40 

Multiplication of religious orders 40 

The Benedictine Order 40 

817 Rule of St. Benedict prescribed at the Council of 

Aix-la- ( 'hapelle 40 

10001100 The Carthusians and the Order of St. An- 
thony 40 

1198 Innocent III. establishes the Mendicant Orders. . 40 
1271 Gregory \., at the Council of Lyons, reduces the 

Friars to four orders 40 

The Monks employed as legates and as mission- 
aries 40 

1198 1216 Character and ambition of Innocent III. .. 41 
He appoints legates h latere to preside over the 

collation to all ecclesiastical preferments 41 

Provisional mandates, and reversions to benefices. 41 

1265 Rf servations instituted by Clement IV 41 

The Crusades or Holy Wars 41 

107o Pilgrims to Jerusalem oppressed by the Seljuckian 

Turks 42 

10/5 Council of Clermnnt convoked 42 

101*5 Urban II. preaches the first crusade in the assem- 
bly at Clvrraont 43 

Peter the Hermit excites the Christian princes and 
barons to take the cross 42 

1096 Godfrey of Bouillon aud Baldwin lead the crusaders 

through Hungary and Bulgaria 42 

Hugh of Vermandois, Robert of Normandy, Ste- 
phen of Blois, and Robert Count of Flanders, 

proceed through Italy 42 

Raymond Count of Toulouse, and other crusaders, 
take the route, of Dalmatia 42 

1097 They t ike Nice in Asia Minor, and defeat the 

Turks in Bithynia 42 

1098 Crusaders take Antioch 42 

W They take Jerusalem from the Caliph of Egypt. . . 42 

109J 1187 Kingdom of Jerusalem established "under 

Godfrey of Bouillon 42 

1099-1144 Counts of Edessa 42 

11001188 Princes of Antioch and Counts of Tripoli... 42 
1268 1289 The Mamelukes reconquer those domi- 
nions 43 

1 191 Richard Coeur de Lion conquers Cyprus 43 

1191 1487 Guy de Lusignan aud his descendants. Kings 

of Cyprus 43 

114" The Emperor Conrad III. and Louis VII. under- 
take a second crusade 43 

:189 Saladin and the Saracens take Jerusalem 43 

1189 The Emperor Kred.-ric Barbaroua. Philip Augus- 
tus, and Richard Coeur de Linn, join in the third 

crunade 43 

)i! Innocent III. instigates to fourth crusade 43 

Conquest of Constantinople bribe Latin* 43 

1217 Amlrew, King of Hungary, in obedience to the de- 
crees of tin- rimncil of LaUrran, leads a fifth 

crusade 43 

1228 The Empeior Frederic II. regains Jerusalrmin the 

sixth crusade ; 43 

1244 The Chariimian Turks pillage and burn the Holy 

City I..... 43 

1249 Louis IX. conducts the seventh crusade to the 

i nd bikes Dumietta 43 

and t.iken prisoner at Mansoura... 43 
imelukes take Tyre and Ptolemaic 43 

A.rt. PAOE 

The aggrandisement of papal power a result of the 

Ku-,tern crusades 43 

Crusades directed against the Moors, the Slavoni- 
ans, anil other infidels 43 

Also against Christian princes who disavowed 

papal supremacy 43 

AIM against the Waldeiises, Albigenses, and Hus- 
sites 43 

Consequences of the crusades on the political condi- 
tion of Germany, Italy, Hungary, and England. 43 
They increased the power of the French monarchs. 44 
Aud were the origin of armorial bearings and he- 
raldry 44 

Surnames brought into modern use 44 

Origin of jousts and tournaments 44 

1100 Institution of the Religious Military Orders 44 

Order of St. John of Jerusalem 44 

The Knights Hospitallers 44 

1310 They establish themselves in Cyprus, and conquer 

Rhodes 44 

1530 Emperor Charles V. grants Malta to the Knights 

of St. John, or Knighis ol Malta 44 

1 119 Order of Knights Templars 44 

11201192 The Teutonic Knights of St. Mary of Jeru- 
salem 45 

1309 Their history, and conquest of Prussia 45 

1528 Albert de Brandenberg, Grand Master of the Teu- 
tonic Order 45 

1200 1300 Various military and religious imi- 
tation of the preceding 45 

Institutions of chivalry in the feudal ages 45 

Learning fostered by the caliphs 45 

Magniticence and literature of Constantinople.. . . 45 

Commerce of Venice, Genoa, and Pisa 45 

1241 Commerce ot Hamburg and Lubec 45 

Origin of the Hanseatic League 45 

12001300 State of European society 45 

The peasantry serfs, and not possessing the rights 

of citizens 45 

Communes or free corporations 46 

Italian republics of Naples, Genoa, Venice, Pisa, 

and Amalfl 46 

1108 Louis le Gros grants constitutional charters to di- 
vers cities 46 

1120 Barons emancipate the serfs for a pecuniary com- 

pensation 46 

Increase of municipalities 46 

1223 The citizens obliged to military service in France 

under Louis VIII 46 

1106 Municipal charters in Germany, under the Empe- 
ror Henry V" 46 

The principle of the wealth of nations recognised . 46 
1265 The Commons called to Parliament under Henry 

III. of England 46 

1303 Philip le Bel convokes the States of France 46 

12981303 Dispute of Philip with Boniface VIII 46 

1342 Edward III. calls two Houses of Parliament, the 

barons, and knights of the shires and burgesses. 46 
1309 Pir.-t German Diet held at Spire, under the ''Empe- 
ror Henry VII 

1344 Diet of Frankfort 47 

( '. ir|)i ati- bodies and municipalities 47 

Enfranchisement of serfs progressive 47 

Feuds ofihe Italian republics 47 

1180 1315 Louis VII. and Louis X. grant freedom to 

the French peasantry 47 

Enfranchisement takes place in Germany 47 

Henry II., Duke of Brabant, grants freedom to the 

cultivators of the soil 47 

Roman jurisprudence extended throughout the 

kingdoms oftiie West 47 

Principles ot civilisation, liberty and good govfin- 

ment " 47 

Code of Justinian taught at Bologna. 4"J 

TheCnuon Law established by the Roman pontilfs. 48 
1145 Eugeniui 111. encourages Gratian in the compila- 
tion of canons, known as the Denetals o! the 


1152 He gives the Decretals his sanction 48 

Tri 1 mi. ui's Institutes of Justinian, or code of the 

Human law 48 

1235 Gregory IX. publishes another collection of Decre- 
tals 4s 

These strengthen the papal authority 48 

And have a salutary influence on society 48 

The Peace or Truce" of God, explained 48 

The Judgments of God and Ordeals abolished .... 48 
The feudal law reduced to order and system 48 

.\ III \l \M> < HKONOUXiK \I I \ 


PMfcMtM Of the few **Jdtod . . 

.cal .ladle*, ami *xiene* 

Degree* conferred Ml student. ..f the ( mm U>- 
UM //afcfn of 

.... 48 

: the llnuvuf II .1,, .lauCrn 

1 luierregniuu. period of aaarchy la 

Germany . . . ... 49 

253 TV- Han*ealic League 

1278 Rodolph of llapaburg. Emperor <>f Germany 49 

Ph. tfrtMi of the ductile* of Bavaria 

and Saauir. 49 

Pro., i 49 

lUti.bon declared immrdtatt.ot holdiag of 

in* eruwD . 49 

1180 Bernard, too of the margrave of Hrnndenbuig. in- 

vested tih the duchy of Saxony 49 

Suabta aiMl Pranconla ... 

1446 Succession of the duchy of Austria M 

ISM Richatfl of Cornwall, rmp. r . . 50 

.in-,,: II. KingofBohemi.. . ... 90 

I25H I* *lain by the Emperor Hodolph at lh lull I.- of 

Marchfield 60 

11061138 Italian republics reeoKnise the German em- 
peror a* thrir suprrme head, but claim sovereign 

power ftir iheniw. . . . . M 

1158 Frederic Barbaras** claim* the kingdom of luly . 50 

ll'-S He rate* the city of Milan 10 

I .eagoe of the cities of 50 

W* Frederic 1 1. ren.-w. thr war in lialv 50 

1226 He ta oppoaed by Gregory IX. and the league of 

Lumbardy 50 

Faction* of the "uelph* ami (ihibelline* in Italy . 50 

The Italian municipalities low tlicir hli.-riy 50 

The institii-.ion of Podesta in several Italian state*. 50 
Thr I'.xirsias.or captain*, arrogate Mvereign power 

over Uieir cities 51 

Commerce of Venice and Genoa 51 

7 Doge of Vrnicr. institution of that magistrate 51 

ilicr 51 

Hereditary aritiocracy of that republic 51 

HMory of Genoa 61 

Account of the republic of Pia 63 

Norman chief* acquire a portion of Italy 53 

*7 Rotfer. sori-reign of Sicily 52 

1130 Anaclein* II.. anil- pope 62 

1166 William II.. King of Naples and Sicily 63 

Account of the 1 1 HUM- of lliili-ii<t.iuffii 42 

1189 Maniace of the Emperor Il.-ur> I V.ithCon*tanee 

of Naple* ." 69 

1189 The tuurper Tancmi 53 

I3SM Mainfrui uiurpi the kingdom of the Two Sicilies.. 63 
.nt IV. 111% ruts Charles .,f AnJMi with the 

kingdom of Maples 53 

1!W M oinlroi slain in thr battle of Hrnrvrntum 63 

1968 Conradm hrir to Uwtcruwnof Naplec.aud Frederic 

of Austria, hrheadml 62 

Michael Haleolngu* expel* the Latin* from c3on- 

stair 53 

i .e Sicilian Vriper*. mawacre of tin- Krenrl 58 

MM Peter III. of ArraOB crowned in Sicily 53 

lly . . . 
Conquests of Moorlih klnvdoms ID Spain by the 


Kins* of Arrntfun and Castile 
1234 Count of Champagne acquires the kingdom of Na- 

varrein right of Blanche, daughter of Sancho VI. 53 

( France acquire* Navarre and Cham- 
pagne by his marriage with Juan, daughter of 
Henry 1. of Na.i. ... 53 

1838 Joan, daughter of I....H, le Hut in. transfers the 
kingdom of Navarre to the Count of Ktreux, re- 
linquishing Champagne and Brie to Philip of 
VaU. . . 53 

1338 Philip of Valol* ineceed* Charles the Fair on the 


1137 Raymond. Count of Barcelona, becomes King of 

tron. hy hi* marriage with Petronilla 63 

grandson. 1'e.lio 1 1., doe* homage to Innocent 

111 53 

1830 Jame* I. of Anagon conquers the Balearic Islands 

and the kingdom of Valeolia 53 

M.uiii. IV. with Pedro 111. of Ar- 


Alphonso I.) con 
ihr kinjdutn of Toledo... .... 53 

Commander of the Faithful, expel* the 

Zeiride* from Africa .... 63 

1089 His n YousufT builds the city of Morocco 53 

dyaaaty of I] 

-f the 


h*.te^ and uTerthrow* the AlmoravlsW* 63 

Na.r Mohammed at:etnpU Ihe eunqiM*)* of gpain. 63 

1313 I .dalntfoain 64 

13361862 MIM.II.II kmgd..: . Seville, and 

Murcia. cooq tiered by Ferdinand III 64 

|M M..i Met I- .'. '.ra ....u M 

1 1M k>anUb Order of Alcantara. ..64 

1I6M Order of Calalrava instinii. . .. 64 

1161 Order 01 .. 64 

109U II .f Portugal.... 64 
i -i so I. ol Portugal, roala the Moon 

... 64 

1 ii n< >ci- tit IV. depute* Haucho II. of Portugal .... 64 
1349 Al| I,. .1,. .Ill .uuquer* Algane from the Maho- 
metans 64 

1'oweiful vassals of the King* of France enume- 

- rated... 64 

Rivalry between France and England 64 

108? War hetuixt William the Conqueror and Philip 

Louia VII. divorce* hi* queen, Eleanor of Potton. 64 

1159 Her marriage llh II .-iu..i 64 

11001393 Reign of I'lnl.p II. A.^.I.I.IS. King of 

Fran. ..66 

I...uis VII . I'hilip AuKiutu*. and Loul* IX.. seve- 
rally look the crosa and proceeded to the II 

Land 66 

1308 Innocent III. persuadrc Loui* VIII. to a crusade 
against the Alliigeuses, under ihe Count* of 

Toulouse and Caicastonne 66 

1836 Death of I... ins V HI 65 

1239 Loui* IX. acquire* Langaedoe by the treaty of 

Pan* 65 

County of Toulouse, county of Venaiasln, and pos- 
sessions of the Count* of Carcassonne 66 

Establishment of the tribunal of the Inquisition.. 66 

1220 Onler of Si. Domini.- foiin.-ed 66 

1 167 Death of the Empress Matilda 65 

1167 Henry II. of England inherit* Normandy. Gat- 
cony, Guienne, Aujou, Tuuraine, and Maine. ... 65 

1173 H is conquest of Ireland 65 

1175 Roderick, King of Connaught, submits 65 

1199 Usurpation of Kin* Jnlu. 66 

12101213 John of England deposed by Innocent III. 66 
1215 John signs Magna Charts at Kuunymede near 

Windsor ... 66 

1216 12J2 Reign of Henry 1 II. of England 56 

1879 Edward 1 66 

1389 He conquer* Wale*. Llewellyn being slain near 

the Menai. and Prince David executed 66 

1157 Valdemar 1.. King of Denmark, undertake* a 

cruaade again* t the pagan nations of the North.. . 66 
1183 Canute VI., of Denmark, reduces I'omeranU. 

Irntiurg.and Scherin 66 

1909 Conquests of Valdemar II. of Denmark 66 


1080 1133 Anarchy in Sweden 66 

the apostle nud roui|iieroi of Finland .... i? 

Charles I. Kini: of Sweden and (iothland 67 

1250 Hirger. King of Sweden, spread* the Christian re- 
ligion in the north of Europe . 57 

PrttMiaa* unknown before the cloe of the tenth 

century 57 

St. Adelliert suffer* martyrdom in Prussia 67 

1215 The Abbot of Oliva appointed the first bishop in 

Prusaia, by Innocent III 57 

..ritis III, piil.ii.hes a crusade agalust the 

pagan* of Prussia ... 67 

1928 Conrad, Duke of Masovia. grant* to the Teutonic 
Knight* the cotxruesis they might make in 

Prussia . 57 

1855 They build the city of Koningtberg 67 

1280 They found Manenburg. their capital 5/ 

13*3 The Teutonic enlarge their cooque.t*. . . 37 

I1UO-12W Commerce of the Baltic 

1199 Mainard, Bishop of Livonia . 67 
1204 He iiisiit.ii.-. ihe Order of Knight* of Christ, or 

8word-beai. ... 67 

nkm of these with the Teutonic Knight* 67 

HtaloryoflheMof .... M 
1906 Conque*U of 7.l)ghU Khan 

. 60 

n Oetai Khan eosjotiers the north of China. 68 

1837 Baton rouqncrs Klpta* and enter* Russia 64 

The Mo C ul Tartan overrun Poland. Huniaiy. and 99 

Moravia... ... W 

1978 CuUai.or Yuen Chi taon. conquer, the south of 

China . . 88 



Tartarian khans of Persia. Zagatai, and Kipzac. . . 58 
1291 Fall of the Mogul power in China and death of 

Cublai 58 

Tlu- Grand or Golden Horde, or Horde of Kipzac, 

a terror to the Russian princes 58 

1431 Actinift Kh.iu, the last chief of the Horde of 

Kipzac 53 

Defendants of Vladimir the Great share the Rus- 
sian territories 59 

1157 The Grand-Duke Andrew 1 59 

Grand-duchy of Kiow devastated by the Lithua- 
nians and Poles 59 

1223 Toushi, son of Zinghis Khan, defeats the princes 

of Kiow 59 

1237 His son Baton takes Moscow 59 

Tin? Mogul Tartars conquer the Grand-duchy of 

Ylademir, and devastate Russia 59 

1241 Alexander Newski defeats the Knights (if Livonia. 49 
1:261 On his death he was declared a saint in the Rus- 
sian calendar 59 

The Piast dynasty in Poland 59 

1138 Dissensions ou the partition of that kingdom by 

Holeslaus II 59 

1230 Conrad, son of Casimir the Just, establishes the 

Teutonic Knights in Culm 59 

Laws of the II uugdrians 59 

1077 1095 Conquests of Ladislaus I. King of Hungary 60 
1102 Coloman, King of Hungary, conquers Croatia and 

Dalmatia 60 

1131 Bela II.. King of Hungary 60 

Appanages of the younger sons of the kings 

weaken that kingdom 60 

1204 Andrew II., King of Hungary 60 

1217 He undertakes a crusade to the Holy Land 60 

12i2 The Golden B ull, or Constitution of Hungary 60 

Andrew 1 1. confers privileges on the Saxons settled 

in Transylvania 60 

1235 Bela IV., King of Hungary 60 

I'-'ll The Moguls under Batou and Gayouk conquer 

that kingdom 60 

1244 Ou the death of Oktai Khan, his son Gayouk 

with the Moguls return towards China 60 

Decline of the Greek or Eastern Empire 60 

1195 The Emperor Isaac Angelus dethroned by Alexius 

III 60 

1203 The Crusaders replace Isaac on the throne of Con- 

stantinople 60 

Alexius, named Mourzoufle, usurps the throne ... 61 

1204 The Crusaders again take Constantinople, and 

place Baldwin, Count of Flanders, on the 
throne, the first Latin emperor of Constanti- 
nople 61 

Venetian acquisitions in the Levant 61 

Boniface. Marquis of Montferrat, acquires the so- 
vereignty of Candia, the ancient Crete 61 

1207 Boniface transfers Candia to the Venetians 61 

1206 Theodore Lascaris crowned emperor at Nice in 

Bithynia 61 

1205 Alexius and David Comnenus found an empire in 

Pontus, of which Trebizond is the capital 61 

Michael Angelus Comneuus, emperor at Durazzo, 

over Kpirus, Acarnania, /Etolia. ami Thessaly. . 61 
1261 BaldwiuII. .the last Latin emperor, flies from Con- 
stantinople 61 

1261 Michael Paleologus, Greek emperor at Constanti- 
nople, with assistance of the Genoese 61 

Atabeks, of Iran, reign in Syria 61 

1099 Fatimite Caliphs of Egypt dispossessed of Jeru- 
salem by the Crusaders 61 

1168 Noureddin sends Saladin to Egypt against the 

Crusaders ." gj 

11J1 Saladin, or Salah-ed-deen, sultan on the death of 

the Atabek Noured<lin 61 

His conquests in Mesopotamia, Armenia and 

Arabia 61 

1187 He defeats tbe Christian princes at Ilium near 

Tiberias 61 

He takes Guy de Lusig.-ian, King of Jerusalem, 

prisoner 61 

Subsequent history ef the Saracens 61 

The M.imeluke slaves acquire power 61 

The Ayonbile dynasty ; reign of the Sultan Saleh. 62 

1250 Sultan Totiran sh-ih assassinated 62 

Itwg, the Mameluke. Miltan of Egypt 62 

1210 The Mamelukes take Damascus and Aleppo from 

the Moguls 62 

1268 They conquer Antiuch 62 

1289 And possess themselves of Tripoli 62 


1289 Ptolemais taken by assault 62 

Tyre surrendered to the Mamelukes 62 

1291 The Franks entirely expelled from Syria 62 


From Pope Boniface VIII. to the tatting of Constantinople oy 
the Turks. A.D. 13001453. 

1303 Usurpations of Boniface VIII. over the secular 

princes of Europe 62 

History of the popes considered to be the best his- 
tory of Europe 

Aggrandisement of papal dominion 

1305 Clement V. pope 

1309 Translation of the popes to Avignon 

1367 Gregory XI. again removes the see to Rome 

1347 Rienzi, tribune of Rome, restores for a time the 

form of a commonwealth 

The Ecclesiastical States a prey to the Italian 

1492 Pontificate of Alexander VI 

1502 Julius II . restores the papal influence 

1378 Urban VI. elected at Rome by the Italian eccle- 

1378 Clement VII., the pope at Avignon, chosen by the 
French cardinals 

1389 Boniface IX. at Rome. 1394, Benedict XIII. at 

1409 Deposition of the rival popes by the Council of 

Pisa, and election of Alexander V 

Schism, of the see of St. Peter, consequent on the 
co-existence of three popes 

1410 John XXIII. elected at Pisa 

1414 The Emperor Sigismund convokes a general coun- 
cil at Constance 

Schism in the pontificate terminated by this 


John Huss, the Reformer of Bohemia, burnt at 


Jerome of Prague burnt 

1417 Otho de Colonna elected pope, who assumes the 

name of Martin V 

His scheme of church reform 

1431 Council of Basil assembled 

1437 Eugenius IV. transfers the council to Ferrara and 

to Florence 

1439 The prelates at Basil elect Arnadeus VIII., ex-duke 
of Saxony, as pope under the name of Felix 

Schism renewed until the resignation of Felix V. . 
1433 The Pragmatic Sanction promulgated by Charles 

VI I., King of France 

The liberties of the Uallican church 

1448 Nicholas V. concludes a concordat with the Ger- 

1516 Leo X.'s concordat with France 

General councils considered superior in authority 

to the Roman pontiff 

Rise of the Reformation, or reformed religion .... 
John of Paris defends Philip the Fair against the 

arrogance of Boniface VI II 

Dante Alighieri maintains the cause of Louis of 

Bavaria against the power of Rome 

William Ockham, Peter d'Ailly, and other early 

controversial writers 

Philosophy of Aristotle occasions a controversy 

among schoolmen 

1294 Heath of Koger Bacon 

1321 Of the poet Dante 

1374 Of Petrarch 

1375 Of Boccacio, author of the Decameron 

History of Inventions: Paper : Painting in oils. 

1436 Printing 

1460 Copper-plate engraving 

1300 1400 Application of gunpowder in warfare 

146J Mortars and bombs 

Cnnnons and muskets 

The mariner's compass 

Italian and Hanseatic commerce 

The Lombard meichant* 

Genoese trade in the Black Sea 

Venetian commerce with India 

Maritime power of the Hanse Towns 

13501450 Enumeration of towns forming the II m- 
seatic League 

Causes of its decline 

. \l \M> ( HRON< 

1360 1450 Artisan* of Plandcr* *nd Brabant carry UM 

ih manufacture into En.-Uu.l 

13081438 Prioe** of Luxemburg elect.. I tot lie empire 

rg circled to the Kmpiru . . 

j| Hi* i- lector r ii..- (ierman 

1356 TIM &UN Hull aiitnoriaed by Charle* IV. of 

1439 Decree. ..f the Ciiunnl ,.f IU,il ..!,. |,tM. 

; ,-,.r :..!. UN Ni. '. 

I'liilipthe F... 

134'J lluml.eri II.,.. territory 

French monarch 

i br.piealh* Prorence tothecrown 
1348 Avignon s.,1,1 by Joanna 1 of Naple* to ( 

HI* Puke* ol \'.:iirt 

r-rlitud. under the Imperial go- 

IfM Albert t of Austria 

13V8-1 urn Switwrland... 

1315- 1355 league ol the citie* of Switzerland 

1415 The s i. , ,|-,, m .- l--r.-d.-ric of Austria of liii patrl- 

1363 Duke* ..f 

130ft Wcnee*lau \ . of II -hernia, a**a*inatrd 

1309 Henry VII.. of Luxemburg, emperor, seise* on 
I'-.'ieni i.i 

ir ofthe Hussites 

Crusade m;iiui /.j.k.i. or John de Troctnora .... 

13S9 House of \MttcIsback po**e**ea the Palatinate 

ao<l lUviiriii 

The Aecanian prince* lw Saxony 

1373 Fre.lerie of Hohrnzollrrn acquire* Saxony 

13W) Anarchy in Italy 

1309 MriKn of tin- Km'|H-r..r Henry VII 

1336 House of E*te govern Modena and Reggio 

15,'W Houteof Oonxaga. duke* of Mantua 

1395 John i;.ilf4i, of the Houe of Viiconli, duke of 

14*7 II.. ,..-,.f Sforxa acquire Milan 

13001400 Florence. Veoice. and Genoa maintain re- 
publican institution* 

im The Gonfaloulere of Juitice established in Flo- 

1406 The Florentine* oYerpower the republic <>f P-M.. . 
irpatii.n of thr \I. i. i m Florence 

ir ..I Genoa and Venice 

IVter Doria take* th |">rt of Chioggia from the 


1380 The Vi-n.-u.iii. rxpel th.- (-noee from ChioKgia.. 
1464 Genoa become* a dependency of the duchv of 

Mii.m v. : :... 

1528 Genoa recover* it* independence 

iiau criie on Treviio 

1440 They ileprive SiguniuDd, Kiug of Hungary, of 

I >!m.itm 

1404. . ;.inion. in Italy 

13Hi Joanna I., of Naple*. auopta Chatlr* uf Duraixo. 

ho put her todra'h 

1433 Joanna ll..daui(hierof Charle*uf Duraixo. adopt* 

.f A njiNi 

\njou expelled from Naple* by Alpliunto 

V. of Armietin .' 

1340 Alphnnw XU of Caitile, defeat* the Moon at 


13S4 John I. .of Caitil*. rupiraae* Beatrix of Portugal. 

and lay* ie*e to LUbon 

1385 John the iUUrd. King of Portugal, defeat* the 

13S8 Acceuion of th* Houe of Valoi* to the throoe of 


1338 ('omen ..f K.lwarJ III. wiih Philip VI 

The Salir !- . 

1398 Insanity of rhai I > v I . of France 

141 '.i Jean ;>'n I'rur. Duke of Burfuody,m*u*inated.. 

11 > II rnry V. vielorioa* at A|tacoart 

1 1 it marrUfe ith Catt.eriM of France 

:u> VI. cmwned at \Vr.tmin.trr a* King of 
Knelaml and Franc.- 

. uglith uoder 
iho I 

Joan of A ic, the Maid of (>rlr< 

1429 Coronation of Charle* VII. at Khcim 

1445 A .landing anny formed by CharW. VII. to re 

! t.-.. l,,..mbitW.o. .s. ... 74 

!..**. of York aa4U*MMl*t.. 74 

! t 

IfM Candidate* for the etww u.f Scotland 

.it II , k'n<. Establishment of the Sluaits 

. .n ili.- thn>ne of Scotland 

13X7 Murgaret f Norway 

Norway, and l^n- 
mark governed by Mar 
141 i r 7* 

.toptier III. .uceeeds to that t'niou of Northern 

... 75 

1448 Charle* VIII. Canutson. King of Sweden 75 

.risii.n I. King of Denmark and Norway 75 

1457 Charles VIII. dethroned 75 

1461 Hi. restoration 7* 

14W Christian I. acquires Holstein nod Sle*wic JS 

i dukes ufKusMa ,5 

.liik.- ol I .it >.. i i ni. i 75 

(irand-dukes ..f \Vol.xliinir 7*> 

1380 Victory of p.-nietriiis Iwanorilsch, sornamed 

i. or conqueror of the Don "6 

13111343 The Teutonic Knights of Marienburg ac- 

quite D.IIIUU- 76 

Their war* against the pagan Lithuanian* ~d 

1454 Their wars with the kiuijs ,.f Poland 76 

146G Peace of Thorn ' 

Teutonic Knights established in Koningfberg 76 

1S20 Uladislaus IV.. King of Poland 76 

1340 Caiimir the Great'* conquest of Red Itussia 76 

1*7" Piast dynasty extinct 

1370 Ix)ui*. King of Iliuigiry acquire* the crown or 

1386 riadiilaus Jairello. of Lithuanu, King of Poland ;; 

1404 i Piei of Polish noble* J 7 

1310 Charle* Robert of Anjou, King of Hungniy ,, 

134J Loui* I., of Hungary, acquire* great territorial ac- 

in 77 

1386 Hi* daughter Mary rnarrie* Sigismund of Luxem- 
burg, who unite* Hungary to the German 

Kmpirc 77 

1411 Calamitou* reik'n of the Emperor Sigisrannd . . . 
i I i* son Albert. Kmperor and King of Hungary . 
1444 I'ladislau* of Poland, King of Hungary, slain at 

Varna by the Turk* '. 77 

1 -1.16 John II un'nindes defeats Mubomet 1 1. at Belgrade 77 

1300 Origin ol the Ottoman Turk* 

1327 Oman, <ir Ottoman take* Buria in Bithynia 78 

The Janissarie* established by Orchan 7" 

1358 Sultan Soiirann take* Gallipot in the Thrarian 


1360 Amuraih I. conquer. Thrace 

He i* (lain by the Servians at Cauova 

13% Bajsxet (.defeat* Sigismund of Hungary at Ni- 


1369 Timour. or Tamerlane, establishes hi* authority m 

Samarcand a* hi* capital 7" 

He conquer* Kipcac, Persia, and India TK 

1400 He defeat* Bajaiel 1. in the battle of Angora ,8 

1 HO He marches toward* China, and die*.... 

1500 The MOKII! Kmime in Hindottan esulni.bed by 

Babnur. or Baba 

1431 Amurath II. cunquersthe Morea. or IVIoponrwns '.* 
Seamier IH-K and Johu H.mniadrs oppose Amurath 

II .,!(-.-... 78 

1453 Mahomet II. takes Constantinople 79 

146C Datid Comnenu*. Kmperor of Trebiioud. slain by 

the Turks 79 

1464 Pins 1 1. die* while preparing a crusade against th 

power of Mahomet II 79 


fro*, f A takima of Cmtal<*vpk * Utt Turkt to Uu Ptaet 
A.D. I4i3 1648. 



140 Rev iral of learning in Kurope 

Italian school of painting 
Metaphyneal nd ph 

philoMmhical pursuit* ...... 

nw dlacoreri. 

her ColMbua sail* In the Bahama Island* 80 
1 4 'I He dlscorer* the Continent of America ......... 9) 

1497 Amerifo Ve*pntlo. a Florentine. give* hi* name to 

South America ... ... 80 

Spanish eoe)q**t la America .................. M 




Ferdinand the Catholic receives a grant from Alex- 
ander VI. of the American territories 8 ' 

The Portuguese discoveries in the East 80 

1521 Cortes subdues the empire of Mexico 80 

Death of Monteium i and Guatimoziu 80 

1533 Pizarro makes conquest of Peru 80 

Atabalipa. Inca of I'eru. slain 80 

The Spaniards import negroes to work in the 

mines of South America 80 

They establish the Inquisition in those, countries. 81 
1500 Cnbral takes possession of Brazil for the King of 

Portugal 81 

15841616 Virginia colonized by Sir Walter Raleigh. . 81 

1603 Reignof James 1., King of Great Britain 81 

1699 West India Islands settled by the English 81 

1655 Admirals I'enn and Venables take Jamaica from 

the Spaniards 81 

1534 1604 French establish themselves in Canada in 

the reigns of Francis Land Henry IV 81 

1608 City of Quebec founded 81 

1635 French settle in Martinique and Guadaloupe 81 

1630 1/22 Their colony in St. Domingo 81 

Barthelemi Diaz, a Portuguese admiral, doubles 

the Cape of Good Hope 81 

1498 Vasco di Gama reaches Calicut, by that route, in 

the reign of Emanuel 81 

1509 Francis Almeida defeats the Egyptian and Indian 

fleets 81 

1511 Alfonzo Albuquerque conquers Goa 81 

1547 Silveira defeats the fleet of Soliman the Great at 

Diu 81 

Mercantile establishments of the Portuguese in 

India 81 

Change in the commerce with India once carried 

on by the Venetians 82 

The Portuguese and Dutch engross the trade by 

the route of the Cape 82 

English, French, and Danish commerce withjAme- 

rica and India 83 

15171542 Portuguese commerce with China and Japan 82 
1519 Magellan's voyage by the route of Cape Horn, aud 

the Straits o'f Magellan 82 

Establishment of horse posts in Europe, for letters 82 

1500 Abuses of the clergy of Rome 82 

Causes of the Reformat ion 82 

1513 Sale of indulgences by Leo X 82 

Martin Luttier burns' the bull issued by Leo X. 

against him, at \Vitirmber:,' . 83 

Zuingle preaches the Reformation at Zurich 83 

15321538 Doctrines of John Calvin 83 

1529 Protest f the Lutherans and Calviuists against 

the Decrees of the Diet of Spire 83 

1530 The Confession of Faith presented to the Diet of 

Augsburg and the Emperor Charles V 83 

Universities and schools founded in the Protestant 

Slates 83 

Ware ensue throughort central Europe in conse- 
quence of the Reformation 83 

1545 Paul II I. convokes th- Council of Trent M 

1547 He iranfers this assembly to Bologna. . 84 

1551 Julius 111. re-assemble* the Council at Trent .... 84 
Maurice, Elector of Saxony, takes Augsburg and 

marches against the emperor 84 

1560 Pius IV. renews the Council of Trent 84 

Its decisions maintain the cause of Rome against 

the Prote-tant League 84 

1534 Ignatius Loyola founds the order of Jesuits 84 

Their vow of obedience to Rome 84 

Their missions to China, Japan, and the Indies.. 84 

Balance or power, devised in Italy 84 

1477 Maximilian, of Austria, by his marriage with Mary 

of Burgundy, acquires the Low Countries, in 

(Incline Pranche-Comte, Flanders, and Attois . . 85 
1506 Charts V. Kmperorof Germany, called Charles I. 

of Spain, inherits the Low Countries 85 

Extent of his empire 85 

1557 He cedes his patrimonial dominions in Austria and 

Germany to his brother Ferdinand 1 85 

1526 Louis. King of Hungary aud Bohemia, is slain at 

tip- battle of Mohacs by the Turks 85 

His king iom devolve on Ferdinand I. of Austria 85 
1700 The House of the Kmperor Charles V. becomes 

extinct on the demise ol' Charles 1 1. of Spain ... 85 
1740 The male line of Ferdinand 1., of Austria, ends in 

les VI 

1580 Philip II. inheiiu Portugal in right of his mother 

Isabella, daughter f Emaniiel 85 

1580 Death of Henry the Cardinal, King of Portugal . . 85 


1544 1551 Francis I., King of France, and his son 
Henry II. oppose the further aggrandizement of 

the House ol Austria 85 

Henri Quatre, Louis XI II. .Richelieu, a ndMazariu, 

join the Protestant League against Austria 85 

1618 Thirty years' war commenced 85 

1619 Reign of the Emperor Ferdinand II 85 

1648 Peace of Westphalia 85 

1650 Treaty of the Pyrenees 85 

1493 Reign of the Emperor Maximilian 1 86 

Anarchy of the German Empire 80 

1495 The perpetual public peace, published by the Diet 

of Worms 86 

The Imperial Chamber constituted 86 

1512 Institution of the Aulic Council, by the Diet of 

Cologne 86 

1519 The Imperial Capitulations, a guarantee of Ger- 
man liberties 86 

1521 The war of Smalcalde 86 

Proscription of Luther by Charles V 86 

Charles V. condemns the Confession of Augsburg . 86 
1530 Union of Smalcalde, or league of Protestautprinces 

in Germany 86 

The Holy League of Catholic princes h'J 

The Turks invade Hungary, which occasions the 

truce or accommodation of Nuremberg 86 

1544 Peace signed at Cressy with Francis 1 86 

1546 Proscription of the Protestant Klector John Fre- 

deric of Saxony, and the Landgrave of Hesse . . 87 

1547 Capture of those princes by Charles V >7 

1518 Maurice created Elector of Saxony 8J 

The Interim designed for the extirpation of the 

reformed religion 87 

Maurice, of Saxony, espouses the Protestant cause, 

and nearly surprises Charles V. at Insprurk .... 87 
1552 Treaty of Passau secures toleration to the Pro- 
testants > / 

1555 Dietof Augsburg concludes a pacification SJ 

The Kcclesiastical Reserve explained 8y 

1608 Henry IV., of France, promotes a new union of the 

Protestant princes of Germany 87 

1609 Holy League renewed at Wurtzburg 87 

1610 Murder of Henry IV. by Ravaillac 87 

1618 Thirty years' war narrated 87 

1620 Battle of Prague , . ,-7 

1626 Tilly defeats Christian IV., of Denmark, at Lutzen 87 

Gustavus Adolphus, of Sweden, puts himself at the 

head of the Protestant league 88 

1631 He gains the battle of Leipsic 

1632 U slain at Lulzen. where his arms were victorious 88 

1634 The Swedes defeated at Nordliugen 83 

1635 Tr.-aty of Prague between John George of Saxony 

and the Emperor 88 

Louis XIII. declares war against Spain 88 

Banier and Torstenston, Swedish generals, con- 
tinue the war in Germany , 88 

Turenne and UT.nghien distinguished in this con- 
test against the emperor 88 

1648 Peace ol Minister 8S 

The religions pacification confirmed 88 

France acquires M.-tz, Toul, Verdun, and Alsace . 88 
The Low Countries inherited by Philip II. of Spain SS 
1556 1699 Origin of the republic of the United Pro- 
vinces 88 

1559 The Inquisition established in the Low Countries 

by Philip II 89 

Confederacy of the nobles at Breda, called the 


They are denominated Giieux or Beggars >'.> 

William of Orange, Louis of Nassau, and the chief 

nobility '-migrate 89 

1567 Duke of Alva sent into Flanders executes 18,000 

persons, together with the Counts Egmont aud 

II.,:.. 89 

The Beggars of the Woods -:i 

Tin- Maritime Beggars "'.> 

1568 The Prince of Orange places himself at their head 89 
l.'ijL' He takes the Brill by surprise 89 

The republic founded by the Assembly of Dort ... 89 

1576 The Pacification ol Ghent signed 

Queen Kli/.al>eth countenances the new republic.. 90 
Alexander l''arn.'-i>, a Spanish governor, take's 

M.i-'stricht by assault 90 

l.~>7'. The Prince of Orange) by the Union of Utrecht, 
establishes the Seven United Provinces of Hol- 
land, Sec 90 

1584 William, Prince of Orange, assassinated at Delft. . 9 

Maurice of Orange, stadtholdur 90 



IMS Th Print* of Parma (Alexander Fame**) takes 

Ant . ... 90 

mpanyeetat ... 90 

lew Tniee of Twelte year* between t) 

... M 

.tlofthrwar ... 90 

Ht>of France and !>> .1 M 

1*48 In.l.-|rdenee of ihr I 

ledged bv Mpain . . .. 91 

Closing of the ruin* ihe commerce of 

Aot 91 

Retrospect of the affair* of Swiu.-rlan.l 91 

<.ln l Nancy by the Swiss . . 91 

Maximilian I ... 91 

1499 Peace rooclvded at Ba*il 91 

15011903 IUk>.or B*>ll, ld**4kwsw*v *od Appensel. 

mlmitlril M Caulon. of the Heltetir ( 


1519 The Frenrh expelled from Milan, which rererts tu 

KuWHuMbat .... 91 

The Swiss gain ihr bttU> of Norara, but are de 

fratrd at 91 

1516 Treaty of Priburg ttwren Switzerland and 

France 99 

1591 Treaty of alliance with Frmocii I. it Lucerne 9S 

1591 Tho Catholic Canton* make war on the Pro- 

l*taut or/>irirh. Bernr. fcc 99 

1534 U*ne*a thr *eat of ( 'al t ini.m 99 

1536 Duke of Sawiy blockade* < .encva 99 

Thr Berorte i-t thr Generan* M 

1564 Peace withll,- H.ike of Saroy 99 

Thr Euper. ^ ctutomarilyerownMl as 

King* nf Italy at Milan, and emperor* at Rone 99 
1506 Maximilian I uuaMe to repair to Rome, it content 

with ihr lyle nf Emperor Elect 99 

1530 Coronation nf Charles V. at Bologna by Pope 

nt VII 92 

Expedition* by Charle* VIM.. Loui XII.. aad 
Franci* I., into Italy, frustrated by the Spa- 
niard* 99 

1544 The Sp.inih power dominant in Italy 98 

1537 Clement VII. besieged in Rome by the Impe- 

riali.H 99 

1530 Mo.i v of Medici re-eUblifhed at Florence 92 

1537 Alexander de' Medici asas*inated by Lorenzo de' 

'Medici ... 93 

1537 Coiuode' Medici, duke of Florence and Sienna . . 93 

I960 He become* Grand- Duke of Tucn> 93 

md-Duke. holding of the 

llnu 93 

1564 Maximilian II. emperor 93 

iwxmti, Sfbna.and Pitrnete 93 

it Farne*e. ton of Pope Paul III., aasas- 

inaled 93 

1310 15J3 KuinhUofSt. John occupy Rhode* 93 

1533 They >unvnd>-r Rhoile* to Soliman the Ureat after 

*iz month*' *iegv 93 

1530 Thrv rn-rive a gr* nt nt Malta from the Empeior 

Char 93 

1597 The French. aUted by Andrew Doria, repoweM 

themtf It of Grtoa 94 

DorU next epoii*e*the cmu*ei>f (,'harle* V. 94 

Thr Krvnc>> l..-i.-j.- N iplrn, but are frustrated by i, .1 94 

! ' irt. oflTered ihr orrtri.-nty ..f 
!>. I li..rlr. V.,*tip.ilat.-- ily of that 

.nd rxpel. the Fiench {arriion 94 

!>..'. .111.1\ ul li. -HIM :>l 

: f Venetian* increate their cnntinrntal territory 94 
1503 On ihr .v ,ih at Pope Alrxan.ler VI.. they aciw on 

Rimini and Paensa ... 94 

Jamr*. Kin( of Cypru*. wpouse* Catherine Cur- 

nam, a Vrnrtian 1 . 94 

1475 Shortly after hi* death the Venetian* teiie on 

Cypro*.... 94 

Injury to Venetian commerce, by the ducotery of 
the paatage to India ruund the Cape of Good 


LUboa become* the mpurlam foe Eait Indian 

prndurr ... 95 

1508 Alliance again*! Venice cooclooVd at Cambrai by 

. . 95 

1509 t...m. XII. .I.-V.U. f.- VrnrtiaM at AgMdello .. 95 
The ' ivr them of tome pucu:. 

i.m. !.. M*1taia and Na|ioli 

magna in the Morea 95 

- iltau Selim II. eooi)aen C>ru*.. ... 95 

. Juan of Au.lria destroys the Turki.h ftset at 

I-*!" . 96 

173 Veneilansc*.! ... 96 

... 96 

Maxim.llanof Austria esputiae* Mary of Burgundy. 
and thereby acquires PI. 

1477 LouUXI. seiirsontheduriiy of Hurgnndy ( Ihe 

..on of the war* with, . ... 96 
II telies on PfOTsnon, and claims Milan and 
Naples.... 96 

1494 His sou Charle. VIII. oecopie* N, . 95 

1495 He defeat* ihe Italian confederate* al Pomnooro, 

and quits Italy . . 96 

14981515 Expeditions of Loots XII. again*! Milan 

and Na|.l- 96 

i:50 Henry II. of France join* the Protectaot league. 

and Maurice Klectnr of Sax<my 96 

1579 Chark-* IX. massacre* the HugonuUor falviulsts 

of Prance 96 

1576 Edict of pacification by Henry III., of France, 

who had been King of Poland... ... 96 

1589 with Henry III., murdered 

by Jaquea Clemen! 96 

Arce.fion of Henry IV., and the House of 

:..'- II- |, .1 :.,' .'-',' tY. Y :'.''.' '<\'. ':,,''.'. :"..":."...'.' '. 

linert, <ifhi. *>|i.jeets 97 

He encourages the manufactures of Prance 97 

1610 I. .97 

u.son LnuisXllL. and administration 

off, 97 

1698 Reduction of \M Rochelle. the fortress of the Cal- 

Tinit party ... 97 

Richelieu maintain* the Duke of Never* in the 

duchy of Mantua 97 

1631 Peace concluded at Ratubon and Quenuque 97 

1643 Minority of Louis XIV.. and regency of Anne of 

Auitria the queen -mot her ." 97 

AdminUtration of Cardinal Mnurtn 

1648 By the pence of Muniter, Loui, XIV. acquire* 

Alsace. &c 97 

Ily the peace of t . acquire* Kou< 
lillon and *ome cities of Flandrr* and Luxem- 
burg 97 

1474 Reiitn of Ferdinand the Catholic and Ita!lla of 

Castile 97 

1476 .Million o V., of Portugal, defeated at Torn by Fer- 
dinand lh.- ' 97 

1478 Ferdinand and Isabella establish the Inquitition 

inS| M .i, 97 

Ferdiu.ind conquer* the Moorih kingdom of 

(r-nada 97 

He banitbe* the Jew* from Spain 97 

Emigration of the M.>or . 98 

Al.-v.n'ler 1 1 1. confer* on Ferdinand the title of 

Catholic King ... 98 

Ferdinand conquers the Spanish province .. 

varre 98 

1510 Julius II. form* the Holv League again*! I.OUM 

XII. m Ii., t ' 98 

1516 Charle I.. King of Spain, grandson of Ferdinand 

the C.ilh. Ik- .... 98 

1519 He i elected em^-ror under the title of Charles V. 
1557 Philip II .Kmx of Spata... . 9* 

1559 He make* peace at Chateau CambresU with 

Prance ... 90 

.!>-. nm gives occasion for esiablUhlng the 
Dutch ... 98 

1588 The Invincible Armada defeated by Elizabeth's 

admiral*... ... 98 

- SpanUh power 98 

1610 Reign of Philip III., who expels the Moors from 

Spain .. 98 

r.manuel the Fortunate Kin of Portugal 98 

1511 1557 Greainexol Portugal under John HI W 

Sebattian of Portugal slain in Ihe kingdom 
of Kei. and Muley Mahomet. King of Morocco. 

drowned 99 

IVrlineof the Portuguese power . ... 99 

1580 Death of Henry : ,ke of 

Alva conquer* I'ortugal far Philip II of Spain . 98 
The Dutch purchase in Lisbon the prmlucikw* of 

India 99 

Pt.ilip II I ..-.I.M . the Dutch merchant* from re 

i^ to Portugal ... 99 
1595 H.-uiman ad sail to India... 99 
Tlirv defeat the Portuguese at sen near Bantam in 
Java 99 



They conquer the Moluccas and engross the spice 

trade 99 

Goa aud Diu alone remain to the Portuguese 99 

16-10 Revolt of the Catalans 99 

1640 The Duke of Bragntiza on Lisbon, and is 

crowned king by the title of John IV 99 

14*"i The lions,- of York ends, by the ileath of Richard 

III. in the battle of Bosw'orth 100 

I486 Ileniy VII.. of the House of Tudor, espouses Eli- 
zabeth, daughter of Edward IV 100 

Agriculture ami commerce revive on this happy 

conclusion of the wars of the Two Roses 100 

1'09 Reign of Henry VIII 100 

1521 The pope grants him the title of Defender of the 

Faith 100 

1532 Henry VIII. divorces his queen, Catherine of Ar- 

ragon ICO 

Clement VII. having maintained her cause, gives 

rise to the separation of the English church from 

Rome 108 

1531 Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury, on the death 

of Cardinal Wolsey 100 

1534 Henty V11I. declares himself supreme head of the 

church 1 00 

Court of High Commission established 100 

15361539 Suppression and confirmation of monasteries 

iu England 100 

The Six Articles of religion iu the reign of Henry 

Mil 100 

1542 He takes the title of King of Ireland 100 

1547 Reign of Edward VI. Calvinism established in 

England 100 

1553 Mary I., Queen of England, persecutes the Pro- 

testants 100 

She restores the Catholic religion 100 

1554 Her marriage with Philip II 100 

Cranmer, Latimer. and Ridley, burut 100 

1558 Reigu of Queen Elizabeth . . ." 100 

eth establishes the Protestant faith 100 

Distinction of the English or High Church, and 

the Calvinistic or Presbyterian .". 100 

Marv of Lorraine, widow of James V., is Regent of 

Scotland 100 

The Congregation, or Presbyterian church of Scot- 
land 1 101 

1560 Elizabeth's general expels the French troops from 

Scotland by the capitulation signed at Leith.... 101 
1560 Mary, Queen of Scots, and her husband Francis II., 

renounce her claim to the English ctown 101 

15CO Death of Francis II., King of France 101 

Death of Parnley, second husband of Mary of 

Scots ." "....101 

1568 The Scottish queen flies into England 101 

1537 Mary is beheaded by Elizabeth's order, on a suspi- 
cion of conspiracies 101 

1567 Minority of James VI. .King of Scotland 101 

1598 Rebellionof Hugh O'Neal, Earl of Tyrone 101 

Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, having failed to 
suppress it, Charles, Lord Mountjoy, reduces 

Ireland ." 101 

Queen Elizabeth patronises commerce and naviga- 
tion 101 

She encourages the Flemish manufacturers in Eng- 
land 101 

1555 Richard Chancellor's voyage to Archangel 101 

Charter granted by John HnMlo\itz II. to the Knj;- 

lish company trading to Russia 101 

\?>"\bb() Sir Frnncis Drake's voyage round the world 101 

if.iKj English East India Company instituted 101 

1584 Sir Walter Raleigh attempts to colonize Virginia. . 101 
Maritime greatness of England. The Spanish ar- 
mada destroyed 102 

1603 Accession ol James I. (James V 1. of Scotland), and 

the House of Stuart 102 

1625 Reign of Charles 1 102 

lie levies impositions without a parliament 102 

He endeavours to establish episcopacy in Scotland 102 
1638 The Covenant taken by the Presbyterians of Scot- 
land ". 1 -> 

1640 The Ixing Parliament Straflord beheaded 102 

1641 The civil war in England 102 

1642 Dr. Laud. Archbishop of Canterbury, beheaded .. 102 
1644 The Pnrliarrentati:ins defeat Charles I. near York. 102 
1646 He flies to Scotland, and is sold by the Scottish 

army to the parliament 102 

The raiiUM ovetpowend by the Independents.. 102 

1649 Charles 1. beheaded at Whitehall 102 

Oliver Cromwell, Protector 102 


Revolutions in the North of Europe 102 

Union of Calmar dissolved 108 

14711520 StenoSttire. Suante Sture, and Steno Sture 

the young, govern Sweden 102 

1497 Jolin.'King of Denmark 102 

1513 1520 Victory of Christian II. of Denmark over 

Steno Sture the youug, at Bogesund 102 

1520 Christian II. crowned at Stockholm 102 

He massacres the Swedish nobles 102 

1521 Gustavus Vasa delivers Sweden from the Danes.. 103 

1523 Is crowned King of Sweden 103 

15i/ Frederic I. of Denmark embraces the Reformation 

of religion 103 

1534 Christian III. abolishes the Catholic worship and 

episcopacy, in Denmark and Norway 103 

House of Oldenburg ". 103 

1544 Treaty of Partition among the branches of this 

family 103 

The Dukes of Holstein-Gottorp 103 

1588 Reign of Christian IV. in Denmark H'3 

1616 The Danish East India Company instituted 1"3 

Danish colony in Tranquebar 103 

University of Copenhagen, and other Danish col- 
leges . ." 103 

Reformation of religion in Sweden 104 

1540 The Hereditary Union passed at Orebro 104 

1604 Charles IX.. King of Sweden 101 

1611 Gustavus Adolphus the Great, King of Sweden, 

commands the Protestant confederates in Ger- 
many 104 

1631 He defeats Tilly at Leipsic 104 

16i>2 Is slain when gaining the victory ot Lutzen 104 

1632 Christina, Queen of Sweden . . .". 104 

1466 Albert of Brandenburg, Grand-Master of the Ten- 

tonic Order 105 

1519 His contest with the Poles 105 

Doctrines of Luther disseminated in Prussia 105 

1525 Duchy of Prussia made hereditary in the House of 

Brandenburg, by tlie treaty of Cracow 105 

1525 Walter de Croneiiberg establishes the Teutonic 

Knii'hts iu Franconia 105 

1527 Walter de Platlenberg. Grand-Master of the Teu- 
tonic Order, made a prince of the Empire by 
Charles V '.105 

1535 Joachim II. Elector of Brandenburg 106 

1640 Frederic William the Great, Elector of Branden- 
burg and Duke of Prussia 105 

1688 His son, Frederic!., King of Prussia 105 

Lutheranism introduced into Livonia 106 

1561 Golthard Kettler, Grand-Master nf the Knights 

Sword-bearers, cedes Livonia to Sigismund Au- 
gustus, King of Poland 106 

Keiller is created Duke of Courland 106 

Suppression of the Knights of Livonia, and of the 

Archbishops of Riga and their suffragans 106 

15611582 The city of Revel, and Esthi.uia. cla:m the 
protection ot Kric XIV., King of Sw eden, against 

the Russians 106 

Contest between Poland and Sweden 106 

1660 Terminated by the Peace of Oliva 106 

1481 Achmet.Khan of Kipzac, resisted in Russia by John 

Basilov i tz III . . '. 106 

1481 1552 The Nogai Tartars assist the Czars in the 

destruction of the Grand Horde of Kipzac 1<>6 

1552 John Basilovitz IV. takes Casan and Astracan ... 106 

The, or standing army, instituted 107 

Discovery of Siberia 10? 

1548 Reformed religion embraced in Poland by 

mund II 107 

1573 Henry III. of Valois. KiiiL' of Poland 10/ 

1618 Uladislaus of Poland marches to Moscow 107 

1458 Matthias Corvinus, King of Hungary, son of John 

Hunniades ". 108 

1485 He takes Vienna from the Emperor Frederic III., li'tl 
1490 Death of Matthias at Vienna 108 

1526 Louis, King of Hungary, slain at Mohacz by Soli- 

man I. the Great " ". 108 

1526 Ferdinand of Austria claims the crown of Hun. 
j, which is given by the H nngai ians to John 
/apolya. Count of Zips and Tran*\l\ama. ... 108 
1529 Soliman I. aids John de /.apolya, aud lays siege to 

Vienna ". 108 

1541 Solimau invades Hungary and takes Hilda 1<W 

1562 Truce between Ferdinand and Soliman 108 

Protestants of Hungary and Transylvania perse- 
cuted ". 108 

Bethlem Gabor, and George Ragotzi, Protestant 
princes of Transylvania 108 


1606 R.d>lph II. f AuilrU agree* to religion* pttlft- 

:i lit Vicuna 

)f,l' rVf.tin..nd I I.. -mirror 

:* 10H 

Lints 108 

reformers, of lloh.-mia tolerated 

.11 II 108 

1MB Dif when Kodolph II. grants them 


tiers of Majesty cutil.rmed I.;. King Mat- 

liemian cro* n elective 

its' War. a consequence uf rrligiuu* 


I'ahtline 1<" 

Verities of Ferdinand II of Austria 109 

> .eorge. KI.-<-t"r of Saxon) 109 

14-4 1 nqner* RecMraliU lu'J 

:i I. drf.-at-. tlu- SUh Ismail. Sophi of Pei- 


1517 He defeats the Sultan f Lyvpt, overthrows the 

Manieliik.--., and takes Ca r 109 

15901534 Soliman I. the Great conquers Rhodes. Hun- 
gary, and B.igdnd 109 

1566 Death of Sultan Soliman. ami decline of ih 

man puwer 109 

-bm 1 1 . take.. Cyprus 110 

1571 Hi* fleet destroyed at U-panto 110 


from the Peace of ITettphalia to that of I'trechl. A.D. 
1648- 1713. 

Revol ution in the political system of Europe 110 

Formidable power of Franco 110 

Abawmrnt of the House of Austria 1 10 

16431713 I-oiiis XIV. patronises learning and the arts. 110 

Administration of Colbert 1 10 

Hit queen. Maria Theresa, daughter of Philip IV. 

.in 110 

i .'iix XIV., in her right, conquer* Flanders Ill 

! i iple Alliance signed at tie Hague Ill 

1673 He attacks tr.e Sr\t-n I'mied Province*, and over- 

runs Hollaud Ill 

England and Sweden make an alliance wjtli Louis 111 
Amsterdam def.-n>le.| by cutting the dxkes and in- 

undatini; the country Ill 

1674 Charles II. of England makes peace with Holland 111 

Louis XIV. conquers Frauche Comte Ill 

Coinli- gain* tin- victory of Senef Ill 

Tureune conquers Alsace Ill 

1675 Death nf Tun-one in the campaign against Monte- 

cm-uli Ill 

Tin- Swedm routed at Fehrbellin by Frederic Wil- 

li mi of Krandenburg Ill 

1678 Petire of Nimeguen Ill 

Trouble* of the re-union* 119 

M. de Ixiuvois takes Sirasbnrg \\-2 

16b4 Truct- of twenty years signed at Ratisbon 11- 

t-s the Calvinists 1 1-J 

The l>ragnnnades 11- 

-iie edicts of Nantes and of Nisrae*. Ill 
The French Protestant* carry their industry and 

manufactures into foreign lands 119 

16~5 Louis's disputes with Clement IX. and Innocent 

XI. as to the Regain 119 

Libertie of the Gallican church 113 

16S-* Leopold I. emperor 113 

1688 Loin* XIV. brrnks the truce, and publishes a ma- 
nifesto airainst Leup<il>l 1. 1 13 

m;r II. Kiugof Kngland 113 

1688 1 he English Revobr .113 

1689 William and Mary crowned 1K< 

Alliance against Louis \ I 113 

1690 Marshal de Luxemburg cains the. victory of 


Marshal Catinat defeat* the Duke of Savoy at 

Stafarda 113 

1697 Peace of Rvswirk .. 113 

es II. u f Spi 114 

1098 Treaty of Partition 114 

of the Archilukr Ch.rle. 114 

. 11. names Phili|> of Aujon. second son of 

the D.1tl{ll>:: . . . . 114 

1701 Philip V. proclaimed at Madrid... ... 115 

170-i William III . 

airninvt I . . . \1\ 
1704 M 

1706 Rattle of Ka 


ra Annr. UM 

. 115 



raillie* won by Marlhorou|(h ........ II " 

1 -niH-r I u.'rnc defeats Marshal de Marsin alTnrin 115 

hirlborouxh defeats Villars at Malplaque- 

1711 I' : J. ,-,,)! |. . 

The arch'lnk' 'rmny.. 115 

The Tories supplant the Whig ministry in Eng- 

land ....... .. ............. . ....... . ...... .. 115 

I'r.-liniinnrirs of peace signed in London .......... 116 

1712 Villars defeats the Karl of Albeciarle at Denain . . 116 

1713 1 >t ............................. 116 

1714 Pence between the emperor and France signed at 

Itaden ..................................... llfi 

1715 Death of Louis XIV .......................... 116 

1 li-putr between llie Moliniits and the JansenU's. 116 
The Hull I n u. nitns ............... ............ 116 

1658 State of Germany under I .eo] u!d 1 .............. 1 17 

'Hi.- Electors of tlie Empire .................... 117 

House of WitteUbach .......................... 1 17 

1C9-J Ernest Augustus of Brunswick-Lunenbury. first 

Elector of Hantivcr ........................ 117 

The Kin.- of llohemia obtains a voice in the Elec- 
toral C, I--,- ............................... 117 

The Ini) Capitulations changed into a perpe- 
tual Capitulation ............................ 117 

Kingdom* of Saxony and Prussia estnblished ..... 117 

1701 Installation of Frederic I. KinK of Prussia ........ IH 

The Electress Sopln . of, daughter ofEli- 
xabeth and the Elector Palatine, and grand- 
daughter of James I. of England .............. 118 

171 t Her son. George. Elector of Hanover, ascends the 

throne nf England ........................... 1 IS 

History of the ducal lloti-e of S.m.y ............. 118 

1713 The Cortes i>l Spain i.-i/n'ate the Cat Hlian Sueeti- 

tion to be in the male line of Philip V ......... 119 

1661 Warof Aluhnnso VI. of Portuiral against Spain... 119 
He cede* Tangier* to the English .............. 119 

He cede* the Maud of llomb >> also to the English 119 
1663 1665 Victories of Count Schomberg and the Por- 

tugllese ..................................... 119 

1667 Alphonso VI. dethroned, aud Pedro II. appointed 

regent ....................................... 1 20 

1668 Spain recognises the independence of Portugal ... 190 
1706 1'edni II. joins the alliance against Philip V. of 

Spain ....................................... ISO 

The Portuguese nnd English proclaim the Arch- 

duke Charles at Madiid ...................... 190 

1715 Treaty of I'ln-cht betweeu Spain and Portugal . . 

Cessions to Portugal in S>uth A merica ........... 1 .-"' 

1649 The Commonwealth of England ................. liO 

li.M OraiMraOfUae* the Navigation Act ............ ISO 

Ifi55 1C58 Heacquire* Dunkirk and Jamaica ........ 120 

|t ; .V.t Richard Cromwell resigns the protectorate ....... 120 

1660 General Monk restores Charles II ............... 1 -JO 

. nf Whig and Tory i actions ................ l'.'l 

1685 Ri-ivnof James II. of fc'nglaud ................ I'.'l 

The bishops committed to the Tower ............ 191 

1688 Birth of the Pretender ......................... !- 

William Prince of Orange lands in Torhay ........ 191 

1689 Jnrne* II. defeated at tU- lioyne by William III.. 191 
The Declaration of Kights. . ." ..... " ............. l-'l 

17" I Succrionof the Home of Hanover enacted ..... 191 

1689 ReUn of William ami Mary ..................... IS 

\nne ...................... 1-1 

17U Reigu of George 1 .............................. 191 

Hiiyler and Van Tromp sail up the Thames to 

Chathum ................................... 19 

Treaty of Brrd ............................... 199 

1674 Treaty of Westminster . . . ....... . . 198 

1650 Death of \\illiam 1 1 . Prince of Orant e .......... 199 

John de Witt enacts the Perpetual Edict ......... 1Z2 

1675 Ixitiis XIV. invad.-s Hll.u>d ................... 199 

John and Cornelius de Witt assaavinatnl at the 

Haiti.- ......... ......... 

1673 William 111. of Or.uae. sladtlioMer ............. 129 

The Barrier Treaty .............. . . 199 

1656 War of religion in Switierlund between /itrieh and 
ll.-rne in the Pn<t-sUnt cause, and St. Gall. &e> 
on the Catholic .Me .......................... 193 

1654 duties X. succeeds Christina, f Sweden ......... 193 

1658 He besieges Copenhagen ....................... \13 

1 'he Pinch fleet defeat* the Swede* and relieve* 
Coeoharii .............. ............. 193 



1660 Minority of Charles XI. of Sweden 123 

Pence concluded at Copenhagen 1 23 

Peace of Oliva 123 

1680 Revolution in Sweden effected by Charles XI. 

against the aristocracy 12i 

1693 Despotic power entrusted by the Swedish Diet to 

Charles XI 124 

1697 Accession of Charles XI 1 124 

1688 Peter tlie (Jrcat 124 

1700 Charles XII. gains the battle of Narva 124 

17011703 He defeats Augustus of Saxony, King of Po- 
land 124 

1T04 Stanislaus Lec/.inski. King of Poland 124 

Charles XII. marches towards Moscow, but di- 
verge" to the Ukraine 125 

Mnzeppa, Hetman of the Cossacs, joins him 125 

1708 Peter the (ireat defeats General Lewenhaupt at 

Desna 125 

1709 Defeatof Charles XII. nt Puhowa 125 

1718 Charles XII. killed at the siege of Fredericshall, 

in Norway 125 

1719 Treaty of Stockholm between Sweden and George 

I. of England , 125 

1721 Peace of Nystadt between Peter I. and Frederic I. 

Kins of Sweden 125 

Sweden thereby acquired Finland, and Peter I. 

acquired Livonia, Esthonia, Ingria, and Oarelia. 126 
1660 Frederic III. of Denmark convokes the States-Ge- 
neral 126 

The Royal Law becomes the constitution of Den- 
mark 126 

lf>75 Christian V. declares war against Sweden 126 

16/7 Naval successes of the Danes l'/7 

16J9 Peace signed at Lunden 127 

104-' R'-ign of John Casimir, King of Poland 127 

The l.ibervam Veto explained 127 

1647 War of the Cossacs and the Poles 127 

1645 Reign of Alexis Michaelovitz in Russia 127 

166" Treaty of Andrussov between Russia and Poland. 12J 

1673 John Sobieski defeats the Turks at Choczim 127 

John Sobieski was then elected King of Poland. . . 127 

1699 Peace of Carlowitz 123 

1C76 Heigu of Feodor Alexievitz in Russia 128 

1686 I'eace of Moscow concluded by the Princess Sophia 

ol llussia .' 128 

1688 Peter the Great deposes his sister Sophia 128 

He c-t.ibl >hes the marine of Russia 128 

1698 He travels to Holland and to England to study 

ship-building and naval science 128 

He puts the Stielit/.es to death 129 

He disciplines tie Russian soldiery 129 

1703 Peter I. founds the northern capital of St.Petersburg 129 

He constructs the port of Kronschlot 12'J 

1701 He vanquishes Charles XII. at Pultowa 1:29 

I7in Peter puts his son Alexis to death 129 

1725 < atlierine I. ascends the throne on the death of the 

Emperor Pet.-r I 129 

1664 The Turks invade Hungary and Germany, and are 

defeated by Montecuculi 129 

Tru<v of twen'y yearn concluded at Temeswar .... 129 

I'.Tl H ut.garian nobles beheaded, and the Protestants 

persecuted 130 

1677 Count, leader of the Hungarian malcon- 
tents 130 

1683 Kara Mustnpha lays siege to Vienna 130 

John Sobieski, King of Poland, saves the city of 

Vienna 130 

..tries of Lorraine. Louis of B*den. and Prince 
Eugene, defeat the Tut ks and take Bnda 130 

1687 The Imperialists defeat the Turks at Mohacz 130 

Mahomet I V. causes Kara Mustapha to be strangled, 

ami U himself deposed by the Janissaries 130 

Leopold I. assembles the states at Preslmrii, which 
crown his son, Joseph 1., as hereditary King of 

Hungary 130 

1669 Louis of linden gains the victories of Nissa and 

Widdin 130 

Muslnplm Kupruli retakes Nissa, Widdin, and 

Belgrade 130 

1691 Is defeated by Louis of Baden at Salankemen. and 

slain 130 

1697 Prince Eugene defeats Mustapha II. near the river 

Teus 130 

.r Carlowitz 131 

uicis Ragoczi, prinre of Transylvania, leader of 

the Hungarian insurrection . . . .' 131 

1645 Sultan Ibrahim attempts to take Camlia, or Crete, 

from the Venetians 131 


1648 Mahomet IV. Sultan 131 

1669 Achmet Kupruli, after a long siege, takes the city 

of Candia '. 131 


From the Peace of Utrecht to the French Revolution. A.D. 

1700 1800 Progress of the sciences and of literature... 132 

The modern philosophy 132 

Hobbes, Bolingbroke, Shaftesbury, and Tindal... 132 

Voltaire, D'Alembert, Diderot, and Helvetius 132 

Deism and infidelity 13.'! 

The Economists . . .". 133 

Francis Quesnay, and Victor de Riquetti, Marquis 

of Mirabeau 133 

The Pre-ideut de Montesquieu publishes his Esprit 

des Ltiix 133 

The Contrat Social of Jean-Jacques Rousseau. ... 133 

The llluminati in Germany 134 

Balance of power in Europe 134 

Preponderance of England 134 

State of Russia and of Prussia 134 

The mercantile system of Europe 134 

Colonies of the European powers 135 

Public fuuris and funded debt 135 

The sinking fund instituted by Mr. Pitt 135 

1715 Minority of Louis XV. The regent Duke of Or- 
leans '. 135 

Philip V., and administration of Cardinal Alberoni 

in Spain 135 

1718 The Spaniards conquer Sardinia and Sicily 135 

The Quadruple Alliance signed at London 135 

Articles ol this treaty specified 135 

1720 Philip V. exiles Alberoni 135 

1721 Peace of Paris 136 

Renunciation of Italy and the Netherlands by 

Philip V 136 

The Company of Osteud 136 

Question of the reversion of Tuscany, Parma, and 

Placentia 136 

1725 Treaty ofVieuna between the Emperor Charles VI. 

and Philip V 136 

The alliance of Hanover between France, England, 

and Prussia 136 

1727 Death of Catherine I. of Russia 137 

1/29 Cardinal Fleury engages England, Spain, and 
France to guarantee Parma and Tuscany to Don 

Carlos 137 

1731 Charles VI., on the death of Anthony Farnese, 

takes possession of the duchy of Parma 137 

Treaty of Vienna, suppressing the Ostend Company, 
and ranting Tuscany, Parma, and Placentia to 
Don Carlos 137 

1715 War between the Turks and Venetians for the pos- 

session of the Morea 137 

The Emperor Charles VI., Philip V., and the pope, 
side with the Venetians 137 

1716 Prince Eugene gains the battle ol Peterwar.i.ini 

and takes Temeswar. . 

1717 He routs the Turk- at Belgrade 

1718 Peace of Passarowit/ |3g 

l~2-2 Diet ol Presbnrg confirms the succession to females 

according to the Austrian Pragmatic Sanction .. 138 

1719 Ulrica Bleonor* elected Queen of>wedeii 

The lln/al shs>ir<;nce, limiting the authority of the 

crown in Sweden 

1720 Frederic I. of Hesse Cassel, King of Sweden.. .. 
1733 Stanislaus Lecziuski restored lo the tlirone of Po- 

1730 Death of Peter II. of Russia, and accession of the 

Empress Anne 13g 

Augustus III., supported by the Empress Anne 

and the Polish nobles, proclaimed king 138 

Field Marshal Munich besieges Kin;; Nani-laus 

in Dantzic 139 

1733 LouU XV. seizes on Lorraine lit'.' 

IT.'M Marshal Berwick slain ut I'hilipsburg lli'.l 

1738 Peace of Vienna 139 

1739 The Turks, directed by the Count de Honneval, 

defeat the Austrian.* and lay siejje to Belgrade.. 140 

1739 Munich defeats the Turk* at Checsim 140 

IV.! re signed at Belgrade 140 

1740 Mari.i Theresa, yueen of Hungary HO 

1/42 The Elector of Bavaria elected emperor by the title 

of Charles VII 141 






\N AJ.YTH \l. \M> ( HBOVOIXX. 

* n. 




Frederic II .King of Pr..ia. invade. Silesia 141 

... 141 

- Inch he acquired Silrsla and 
Glat< ... 141 

Affair, ufiar.!,!,.. 141 

Oeorgell.Kingof Enj<U< ... 141 

victory at Detlingr: .. 141 

Soc'oMsrs of Maria Tnere-a . 141 

Louis XV. invade* the Au.trian N.-tu. -ri .ii.U Ul 

Treaty of union with Charles V 1 1 . tinned at Fr .. 

fort.. ... 141 

Frederic 11. Invades Bohemia ...141 

Death of the Emperor Charl.. \ II 14* 

Frederic 1 1. defect* the truop< of Augn.tu* 1 1 1. and 

Maria Theresa, at Hohenfriedberg 1 43 

He take* Dresden ... 14S 

.. 143 
XV and M..r.'",I Saxe defeat the Duke of 

C,,, ; , .-,!. l,. I .1 I'....'- : 11-' 

1 4'J 

> Stuart lands in Scotland and ad- 

! 'tike of Cumberland defeat* him at Culloden ..... 148 

! nnrc Doria expels the Austrian* from < JetxM. ... US 

Blix-kad* of (Jeooa ............................. 14* 

1747 LoaU XV. conquers Dutch Flanden ......... 

Stof of Maeuicht ............. ..... u:t 

>aee of Aix-la Chapelle ..................... 

Contract of the Aiieuto ........................ 144 

1740 Mioorlty of Ivan and regency of Anne of Mecklen- 

burg in Ru ' .................... 144 

nimn created Duke of Courland ................. 144 

Faction, f ihe Hats and the Cap* iu Sweden ..... 144 

1741 HlMbeth proclaimed Empres of Rusla ......... 144 

1743 Adolphus Frederic, biihop of Lubec. elected King 

of Sweden ................................... 144 

Peace of AKo .................................. 144 

1750 JoMph I. King of Portugal ...................... 145 

Tho J " 

esuits inititntc a republic in Paraguay ...... H"> 

War between Portugal and Spain ................ 145 

-Urn dettruyed bv an earthquake .............. 145 

1758 King Joaeph wounded, and in contequence tome of 

the Portuguese noble* are executed ........... 145 

The Jesuit* banihed from Portugal ............. 14 > 

1763 The Jesuit* expelled from Prance and Spain ..... 145 
Their good* ronAtcated ......................... U'i 

1773 Clenii-nt MV. upprsses Ihrir onli-r ............ 146 

1764 Contest of England and Prance re-|x-ctin( the de- 

marcation ! riia ami Canada, ic... 146 

The Knglish capture French merchant \esiel* off 
New iniiinlUna ami on the high sra* ........... 146 

1756 Treatv of Writmt inter between England and Frede- 

ricll.of l'ni*ia ............................. 146 

Frederic II. inrailrs Saxony ......... ........... 146 

1757 League agaiu.t Krederic 1 1 ..................... 146 

1/56 The Frmrh, under the Dukeuf Richrlicu, conquer 

Minor.-, ................................... 14 

Thev occupy llaiunrr, Miuoswick, and HesM ..... 14*> 

1757 l~il I ) Knidi.h take Chandernaj(ore. Pondi ..................... U" 

1759 General Wolfe tlain at Quebec, when Canada falls 

itiln (>, h.uiil- of the EnjflNh ................ 147 

Guadalonpe, Martiniqur. Toda^'O. Dominica, and 
Tariou* West India colonie*. taken by the Eng- 

.......... 147 

1756 176 I -evrn Yeart'War ........... U7 

.~<, tf \]\ Kinw-f Kniflaii.l ................... 14? 

1761 The familv ('mpa.t cunclmled at Paris by the 

...................... 147 

Peter III. Emperor of Russia .................... 147 

1765 i: <"* with Fre-leric It ............. 14? 

Peter III. dethruoed. Catheiine II. Empress of 

Ru**ia .................................... 147 

1763 A irenernl pacittcatioa signed at Poolainebleau and 

.. 147 

Article* of the. peace of Pari*. *ppcifyinx cessions 
or restitution* ............................... 1 47 

Commerce of England with all parts of the w or M . . 148 
Cooequence of the peace in the policy of Conti- 
nental Europe. . . ..... ' .......... 148 

Decline of the Mogul Empire in India ........... 14- 

Sourajah Dowlah. Sul>a>> of H.-n.-al ............ 148 

feat* in action )>> Ixnd Clive ............. 14S 

.. 14- 

Sbah Allum cde* Bengal. Bahar. and OrUsm to 
UieEndish ------ 

OoBUrt with Hyder Ali, Rajah of Mysore ........ U- 


-..'the crowns of Spain and of ibe Two 

... 140 

.-I at Can* on tin. Mit>Ject 
Aggi.f .Un power. . 

. . 149 
erin* It. concludes a treaty with Denmark at 

! 450 


I/*) The Corsican. ri,e lli- 
The Einperm i 

17.14 lii ifferi. general of the Cor.ican* . . 

1736 Tlin.loi,-. Banm NculiofT. elected by the Cortkams 

for thrlr king 

1738 The French Ian 

urral of the Cotsican* 

,ICH to lx.uis XV 







itowikiiM the 

. 1 

..lent*, or Protestant* of Poland 

Polith confederacy 

War bei .nd Turkey.. 

Cnthei.i . and Wallarhia 


and Kukuli 

Count 1'aniii carrie* Hender by a.taull 

The Ruitian* burn the Turki.h fleet in the bay of 


Princ.- DolyorncUi conquer* the Ciimea 

The plague at Mo*co 

The court* of Vi.-nna aud Berlin oppose the am 

lutioi: ' .itlierine 11 

-< .it Bucharest 

Achmet IV., sultan 

.|--s peace with Komanxow at K.iinar.'i 

n.-.r Sili.trm 

The Tartars of the Crimea and Cuban declared 

iiulepenilei.t of ihe I'orte 

W.ofT and Kinbiirn l>y this 

.e city uf Cher>on 

Knkowina.ri-iiiil to Au.tria. 
Ru*ian eUbli*hmrnt* on the shore* of the Hue', 

Prince Henry of I'miiia propoec* to partition 

1779 Contention signed l>> Ruia. Austria, and Prnstia 
at St. Petersburg for partiiiou of ceiUin part 

Shares confirmed to those power* by the republic 

of Warsaw ................................ 

The /.ifr-rvn fel-i ratiflrd ..................... 

1771 GiMtavn* III.. King uf Sweden ................ 

Captain Hellicliiu* conspiiv* again*t the authority 

of ihe Hates ol Sweili-n ....................... 

(utatu* 1 1 1. carrie* the revolution of Stockholm 

into i-fTiTt ................................... 

New o>n<iiiut>on of the SwetlUh monarchy ...... 

A partial rrrolufon take* |>la> e at Copenhagen . 
The Zaparog Cossacs ............ ... 

Succession to thr K.lectorate of Bavaria contested 

on the demiv of Maximilian . . . . 

1778 Convention signed nt Vienna on ih! question .... 
Frederic II. take* the Held on thi* occasion, and 

invade* liohemia. but i* foiled b> Marshal 
Laudohn .............. . . 

1779 Congre** held at Trschen in Siletia c 

dominion* to the Elector Palatine. Char'.e* 

PacirtcatKMi of Germany ......... ... 

1785 The (irrmanic ConfedrMlion ..... . . 

\orth America.. 

I he Sump Act patwd and reciudrd ............ 

1767 Duties on tea, &c. in North America ............ 

Aiminilration of >rth ...... ..... 












1 i3 








1774 Embargo on the port of Boston 
i;,4 Congms at Philadelph 
f indeend 

Gsxm Washington 

i;,4 Congms at iaepa . 
1776 Declaration of independenc* 
Command eunfcirea 1 on Gsx 

1 1 e UM Hewisuw at Trmton ... 

I'.urguyoe ravituUtr* at Saratoga . . 

1778 Treaty of Paris between France and the United 

State* of North America . . . 

1778 Action between Keppel and Count d'l tmlliers. . . 


. - 






'.Var between England and the Dutch republic. . . 161 

1 rd Rodney defeat* Count .lelirasfe 161 

The French take Dominica, Tobago, and other 

islands 161 

They al.o possess themselves of Senegal 161 

The Spaniards take Pensacola and Western Flo- 
rida 161 

17801782 Siege of Gibraltar 161 

Port Maliou and Fort St. Philip taken by the 

French and Spaniards 161 

The French take Trincomalee 161 

1781 Lord Cornwall!* capitulates to Washington, La 

Fayelte, and Rochambeau 161 

1783 Peace concluded at Paris and Versailles 101 

Independence of the t'nited States acknowledged 

by England 161 

The cessions and restitutions agreed on 162 

Armed neutrality of the northern powers 162 

17SO Manifesto of Catherine II 162 

The Baltic declared by Denmark to be a shut sea Ifi2 
European siat.'s which joined the armed neutrality 162 
1778 Catherine II. places Sachem Gueray on the throne 

oi the Ciimea 162 

1782 Dispute with Turkey respecting the Khan of the 

Crimea 163 

17S3 The Empress Catherine seizes on the Crimea and 

Cuban 1P3 

Governments of the Taurida and Caucasus 163 

The Dutch blockade the Scheldt 163 

1785 The Emperor Joseph II. consents, by the treaty of 

Fontainebleau, to the closing of the Scheldt .... 164 

Discontents in the United Provinces 164 

Louis, Duke of Brunswick, governor of the 

holder, driven from Holland 164 

Parties, named the Palriuts, and the Free Bodiei. , 164 

1783 Insurrection at the Hague 164 

William V.. Prince of Orange, the stadtholder, re- 
tires 10 Guelders 164 

',7-7 1 rederic William II., King of Prussia, sends an 
army into Holland for protection of his sister the 
Princess of Orange 164 

1788 The cUdiholdership declared hereditary in the 

House of Orange 165 

Factions in the Belgic provinces, and insurrection 

in Brabant Ifi5 

The states of Urabant declare their independence 165 

1790 The sovereign congress of the Belgic states 165 

Reign of the Emperor Leopold 11 165 

The Belgic provinces submit to Leopold 166 

1787 Catherine II. accompanied by the Emperor Jo- 
seph II., of Germany, in a journey to visit the 

Crimea " 166 BoulgakolT. Russian ambassador, committed 

. to the Castle ot the Seven Towers 166 

Prince Potemkin marches against the Turks 166 

1789 Marshal Laudolm, with an Imperial army, invests 

i.i.- '. 166 

1789 Gustavus III. invades Finland, and threatens 166 

Tin- D.ine* la\ -iege to Gotteuburs 166 

(>u>tavus 1 1 1 . defeats the Russian fleet under the 

Prince of NaMau-Seig*-ii 1G6 

1J90 Peace concluded Between Sweden and Russia .... liij 

Prince Potemkin takes OczakoIT by assault 167 

.mm and the Prince of Cotioiirg defeat the 
Turks lit Focksani. and likewise on the Kymna. 167 

Bender urreudered to the Russians 167 

Marshal Suwarow takes Ismail by assault 167 

Frederic William II., in alliance with England, 
ends an army against Catherine II. and 
Leopold II 167 

1791 Lco|>oid II. makes peace with the Porte at Szis- 

town in Bulgaria, and restores Belgrade lf>7 

The Emprets of Russia con tin nes the war 167 

1792 IV.-ire signed at Jassy between I-elim III. and the 

Empirss Catherine Ifi/ 

Catherine 11. founds the city and port of Odessa 
ou the coast of the Black Sea 16" 


From thf. Commencement of the French Revolution to the 

l of Btiuttaparte. A.D. 1789 1815. 

[he French Revolution ........................ IfiS 

Primar) c nu-es conducing to this important event. 169 

Retrospect of the reign of Louis XV .............. 169 

1774 Reign of Louis XVI 169 

Administrations of the Count de Maurepas, of 

Turgot, ami of Mal.-sherbes 169 

1783 French finances exhausted at the close of the 

American war 169 

1787 M. <!> Calonne, minister of finance 170 

Assembly 01 the Notaries 170 

Loans, and deficit of the revenue 170 

1788 Cardinal de Brienne's administration 170 

M. Necker's several administration- 170 

Double representation of the Tiers Etat 1 JO 

1/89 The States General meet at Versailles 170 

Louis XVI. opens the Assembly in person 170 

Costume of the nobles, the clergy, anil the deputies 170 

The National Assembly constituted 170 

The Count de Mirabea'u 1JO 

The Duke of Orleans employs his resources to 

agitate the public, and promote insurrections. . . 170 
Marquis de la Fayette, commandant of a national 

guard 170 

1789 Destruction of the Bastille 170 

Declaration of the Rights of Man 1/0 

The ancient provinces divided into eighty-three 

departments 171 

Emigration of the wealthy class, and the nobility.. 171 

Louis XV 1 . flies, and is arrested at 1 J 1 

The Orleans party 171 

The Moderate party preponderant 1/1 

1791 The Constituent Assembly, succeeded by the Le- 
gislative Assembly 171 

Leopold II. addresses the sovereigns of Europe in 

the cause of Louis XVI 171 

Alliance of Prussia and Austria 171 

The Legislative Assembly composed of inexpe- 
rienced deputies 171 

Popular society denominated the Jacobins 1J2 

179' Administration of Dumouriez, Roland, and oilier 

republicans 1/2 

Insurrection of the Fauxbourgs 172 

The Sections of Paris 1/2 

Attack on the Tuileries and massacre of the Swiss 

Guards 172 

The National Convention 172 

Louis XVI. and the royal family imprisoned in the 
Temple '. 172 

1791 The Duke of Brunswick and General Clairfait 

take Verdun and Long wy 172 

1792 The Republic one and indivisible 173 

1793 Trial and execution of Louis XVI 173 

Proscription of the Girondists 173 

Discredit of the assignats, or paper-money 1/3 

The Queen, Marie Antoinette, executed 174 

The Duke of Orleans guillotined 174 

The whole kingdom visited with remorseless execu- 
tions of men, and of women 174 

Era of the Republic adopted 174 

The Christian religion aliolished 174 

Royalist insurrection in Brittany 174 

1793 Battle of Saumur '. 1/4 

1J93 Toulon admits some English auxiliaries, but is 

taken by assault 174 

Buonaparte distinguishes himselt under General 

Carteaux in this siege 174 

L\ons taken by the republicans and partly de- 
stroyed " "..... 174 

1792 General Custine takes Mayence 174 

Dumouriez gains a victoiy at Jeraappe, and con- 
quers Belgium 174 

1793 Vicissitudes of the campaign in Flanders l/.i 

The Duke of York defeated at Hondscote 175 

General Pichegru obliges the Austrians under 

Wurmser to repass the Hhine 17"' 

The Committee of Public Safety, presided by 
Robespierre 1/5 

1794 Rol>espi.-rre and many of the Mountain faction 

guillotined lT. r > 

Jourdau defeats the Duke of Cobourg at Fleurus . 175 
Dugomraier and Periguou defeat the armies of 

Spain 175 

1/95 General Pichegru conquer* the I'nite,! rn,\inres . 17"i 

William V.. uta.lthol.ter. retires to England 1J6 

Monsieur takes the title of Louis XVIII. ou the 

death of the Dauphin 1J6 

Insurrection . I the Chouaus in Brittany and Nor- 
mandy 17C 

R\ allots landing at Quibcrou defeated bv General 
tloclie 176 

1795 The Executive Directory 176 

AN \l.\ IK M \M> riIK<iNM OGK \1. I \ 



1796 Royalists ol La Vendee OWpOwered 

of Tuscany, and I 
Ham 1 1 . of l'mtu. make peace ith the French 


Generals JourJan and Pichegru cross the Rhine, 
but are not sueee*. .. 177 

.-rer disWU General de Vinsat Lorano 
In the Genoese territory. 

Cha. id part of 

Domingo to the French, l.\ the treaty of 

Basl ... 177 

179ft Lord Hridport defeats a French ll. ,t. 177 

1796 Buonapru>"i vletorious car.-.- "-re be 

.ts Generals Beaulieu and Colll. 177 

He grant* a true* to the K lug of Sardinia and the 

i ma 177 

Buonaparte and Augereau force the bridge of Lodi 177 

-..-rtMilau 177 

Ferdinand IV.. of Naples, and the repuhli 

i. conclude peace with France \~* 

Buonaparte defeats Alviusi at ArcoU 178 

1796 The Archduke Charles defeats fieneral Jourdan. 

and obluet him to the Rhine 

Celebrated retreat of General Moreau 178 

vacuaUs Corsica 1*8 

1796 Negociations of Lord Malmesbury at Lille prove 

abortive 178 

French armament under (ieneral Huche unsuccess- 
ful in an invasion of Ireland 178 

1797 Marshal Wurmser surrenders Mnlu i 178 

Buonaparte suns |>relimin.<rie! at Leoben with 

Francis II.. Emperor of Germany 1J8 

Genoese territories constituted into a I.igurian re- 
public 1J8 

Peace concluded at Campo Fonnio 17'.) 

Articles of this treaty 179 

Negoeiations at Rastadt 179 

Tlie Cisalpine republic 179 

Tumults at Home 179 

1798 General Berliner establishes a republic at 

Rome 179 

The Helvetic republic subservient to France 179 

1799 Death of Pius VI. at Valence 179 

1798 The Toulou fleet under Admiral Brueyi. with 

Buonaparte and a French army, sail and take 
Malta " 180 

Buonaparte lands his troops in Egypt 180 

Lord Nelson, after an indefatigable pursuit, de- 
stroys or takes the Toulon fleet iu the Nile, or 
Bay of Aboukir 180 

diaries Emanuel IV., King of Sardinia, concludes 
a convention at Milan with the French re- 
public 180 

The second coalition against France 1 -it 

17*6 Paul, Kmperor of Ruisia 190 

1798 Treaties of alliance enumerated 

Disorder of the French finances 1 -" 

Military conscription in France iso 

Ferdinand IV.. of the Two Sicilies, attacks the 

Fr-nch in Home 180 

General Chamnionnet takes Naples, and esta- 
blishes a Partnenopean republic 190 

Charles Emanuel IV. retires Iu Sardinia 

1799 Congress of Rastadt dissolved 1-1 

War between Francis II. and the French 181 

The Archduke Charles defeats Jourdan at 

Stockach 181 

Snwarow. generalissimo of the allies in Italy, de- 
feats Moreen at Caasano '..... 181 

General Macdonald effects a junction with Moreau 181 
1799 Suwarow defeats Joubert at Novi. who is slain in 

the action 181 

The Archduke Charles attacks Massena In Swit- 

terland. and marches toward* the Rhine 181 

Snwarow crosses UM Alps 181 

The Turkish and Russian fleets take Corfu and 

other i.Un.U 183 

1799 The Duke of York conduct! an expedition to the 

r 183 

He returns home, according to a capitulation with 

General Nrune 

The English take Surinam from the Dutch 

1799 Buonaparte, hating conquered Egypt. is obliged to 

raise the siege of Acre 189 

A Turkish army laaded at Aboukir. and was 
totally routed by Buonaparte ... ... 183 

ids at Frrjus in Proveoor . i-j 

Discontents against the Directory 


.; i: 
lurreettoo of UwCteMM .......... 181 

:i by Buosjaparto and his 

, lliul.ilr<l . 

Bwmaparte. Camhateres, and I* llruu. cuuiuls of 

the i 

PaeiBcation . f I.- \Vrt .,f Krn. . . 
Mr I'm', subsi.lie! to the runtlneoUl silk* at 

... m 

1800 In 

Hmiii i llie Alpi, ab'l lakrs MlUii 

!i'6-ai Mela! in i'ur inttli- of Mareofu. where 
General l).-.aix ii >Uin ...................... 183 

il Mini-nil defeats Orneral Kr.i>. and eutrrs 
'I ................ 

Francis II. refuses to ratify t!ir |>rrlimiuarir 
igned at Pri .......... .......... 183 

ArmUtictt and truces agreed on in Germany and 
Italy ........................ 

1800 Peace of Lmi.-viU- ............... 

Tlie (Cii|{li>h compel (jeneral V'aubois to surrender 
MalU ...... ...................... 183 

Convention of EI-Ari.h ........................ ItCi 

1801 General Kleber aisassinaied in Egypt ........... 183 

1801 Sir Ralph AiMrrromuy landi at Aboukir and de- 

feats General Menou at Kahmanieh neat AUx- 
andria ........................ ... 183 

Death uf Abcrcromliy ......................... IS 4 

llu- Frrncli capitulate U> General Hntchinson at 
Alexandria ................................. 184 

1901 Alexamlt-r. Emperor of Rutsia ................ 

1SOS Peace of Amiens .............................. 184 

Sti|,,ii fur surrrudeiinx Malta to the Knights 
of St. John .................................. 184 

The principle of flee commerce not alluded to ill 
the Treaty .................................. 185 

Retrospect of the affairs of Spain ............... J -.' 

>7M Character of Charles IV ........................ 186 

Don Maburl <;.,<!..>. I'nn.-eof the IVace ......... lai 

1797 Sir John Jen-is defeats Admiral Cordova off Cape 

St. Vincent ............................... 

a- EnjcIWi t;vk.- Trinidad and Minorca ........ 183 

1800 Spain surrrmleri: ; .leveutu-illy Parma 

to tlte French, by the treaty of St. lldefonto. ... 185 
The Granil-Duchv of Tuscany promised, in conse- 
quence, to the Infant of Parma ............... 185 

1801 Treaty of Madrid sign*-.! by I.iu-u-u Uuouaparto. . 186 
1719 A.i ministration of the Right llou. Willum Put... 196 

Eloquence of Mr Kdmund Burke ............... 1K6 

i MI i if the Habeas Corpus Act ........... 186 

1793 Alien liill ..................................... 186 

1796 A French fleet sails to Bantry Bay ............. 186 

England subsidizes the continental powers, and 

< the coalitions against the French republic 186 

1798 Insurrection in Ireland ......................... 186 

1800 The Union between Great Britain and Ireland ... 186 
Right of search ................................ 186 

Armed Neutrality ............................. 186 

1901 Sir llyte Parker and Lord Nelson attack the 

Danish fleet at Copenhagen ................... 186 

Hanover occupied by the Kingof Prussia ........ 186 

1795 The Batavian Republic established ............ 187 

1/97 Admiral Lord Duncan defeats De Winter in the 

action off Camperdown ....................... 1 

Treaties of peace and alliance .................. 187 

1798 Overthrow of thu Heretic confederacy .......... 187 

1809 State of Italy at the peace of Amiens ............ 187 

i?n Victor Amadeuslll.. K ing of Sardinia ........... 17 

Charles Emanuel IV ...................... 

The Cisalpine republic ........................ 187 

Republic ol <ie D<> democratic ................... 188 

1801 Pnnee f Parma proclaimed King of Etrurla ..... 188 
1791 Pius VI.. protests against the French uniting 

Avignon to the Venaissin ...... ...... 188 

1796 He equips an army under General Colli ..... 
,.,<-,. .1 T..leniin.>with IV.. 

17W General Duphut killed in an indirection at Rome 188 
A republic proclaimed in ROOM ... 188 

1799 Pin* VI. mad* prisoner, sod dies at Valence ...... 188 

Pictures and statues removed froas Rome. Ice., to 

the Louvre. ... IW 

Admiral l. T-wche obliges Ferdinand IV. to re- 
cognise the French republic .... . . 188 

1800 Republic ..f the Seven Islands, or Ionian Islands . 188 
1793 Neutrality of the North of Germany recognised by 

the Convention of ...................... 188 

1796 Frederic William II. of Prussia lenuins neutral.. 188 















Doctrines of the French revolution invade the 

Herman people 189 

Confederation of Warsaw 189 

Kim; Stanislaus Augustus sanctions a new consti- 
tution in Poland 189 

That throne declared hereditary in the House of 

Saxony ". 189 

Absurdity of the Lihernm Veto 189 

r at her me II. sends an army into Poland 189 

The Poles take up arms 189 

Convention of 1st. Petersburg, between Russia 

and Prussia 

New dismemberment of Poland 

Extent of lite portion seized by Catherine II .... 

Prussian acquisitions 

Treaty between Russia and Poland as then con- 
stituted 190 

Secret association of Warsaw elects Thaddeus 

Kosciugzko general of the insurrection 190 

Revolt of the Ciiy of Warsaw 190 

Siiwarow defeats Kosciuszko at Matchevitz 191 

He carries Praga, the great suburb of Warsaw, by 

assault 191 

King Stanislaus Augustus retires to Grodno, where 

he abdicates 191 

Final partition of Poland 192 

Death of Catherine II 192 

Murderof the Emperor Paul 192 

The Emperor Alexander of Russia abandons the 

claim for a free trade by neutral vessels 192 

Assassination of Gustavus 111. of Sweden 193 

Reign of Christian VII. in Denmark 193 

PERIOD IX, continued. 
The nililnry preponderance of France under the sway of 

rapefeM Buonaparte. A.D. 18021810. 
1S02 Buonaparte declared, at Lyons, President of the 

Italian or Cisalpine republic 193 

1801 French concordat with Pope Pius VII 194 

Restoration of the Catholic liishops 19-t 

Institution of the Legion of Honour 194 

1802 General Le Clerc's expedition to St. Domingo.. 194 
Huonaparte chosen Consul for ten years, and also 

for hie 194 

General Ney enters Switzerland 195 

1*03 New constitution of Switzerland, or the Act of 

Mediation 195 

The Recess of the Deputation of Ratisbon 195 

Declaration of war between England and the 

French republic 195 

Presidency of Mr. Jefferson in the United States.. 195 
Those States purchase Louisiana of the trench... 195 

Affairs of tin- liatavian republic 195 

1804 Charles IV. of Spain unwillingly joins in the wnr 

against England 1% 

18031804 The Army of England collected near Bou- 
logne lor the threatened invasion 196 

D.-nrrara and Essequibo taken by the English 

from Holland 196 

England conquers various islands and colonies 

from her enemies 196 

1804 CoiMpiiaeyofGenernI Pichegru 196 

Expatriation of the celebrated General Moreau, 
wh'i visits America 196 

1804 Military execution of the Duke d'Knghien, son 

of the Duke de Hourbon 196 

1&04 Napoleon Iluonaparie, Emperor of the French ... 197 
1'iiiit VII. assists at his coronation in Notre Dame 197 
Alrxanderof Russia demands Ihat .Napoleon should 

evacuate Hanover, and iuileiiiiiify Sardinia.... 19? 
Coalition of Russia, Prussia, and Austria against 

tin- French Knipcror 197 

Tlie English take Surinam I'.i, 

French spoliations of the Italian states 197 

Mr. Pitt again appointed Prime Minister 197 

\ aiitms treaties which led to the coalition against 


Camp of Boulogne IIP. ken up, and an Invasion of 

England averted 198 

1805 The Archduke Chnrlei commands iu Italy, and tin' 

Aichduke John in the Tyrol 198 

.rsof liniiitia, Wurtemherg and linden, quit 

the muse of the allies 198 

1805 Defeat i, f Muck, who capitulates in Ulra 

to Napoleon 198 

The French emperor eaters Vienna 199 




Battle of Austerlitz , 199 

Peace of Presburg 199 

Part of Italy, Venice, Dalmatia, and Albania ceded 

to Napoleon 199 

Austria cedes the Tyrol to the Elector of Bavaria 199 

The Emperor Alexander repairs to Berlin 199 

liy a treaty signed at Vienna, Frederic William 

111. of Prussia acquires possession of Hanover 1!>9 
Sir Robert Calder's success off Cape Fiuisterre. . . 199 
Battle of Trafalgar, and death of Admiral Lord 

Nelson 200 

Ferdinand IV. embarks for Sicily 200 

Joseph Buonaparte created King of Naples 200 

Eugene Ueauliarnais, Viceroy ol Italy, and declared 

next in succession t that throne 
Arrangement of several Italian duchies. 











Murat created Grand-Duke of Berg and Cleves .. . 200 

liernadotte made Prince o! Pontecorvo 200 

Berthier created Prince of Neuchatel 201) 

The French enter Frankfort and levy a contribution 200 

Violation of the existing treaties , . . 200 

Death of Mr. Pitt, also of Mr. Fox in 1806, who 

had joined Lord lirenville's administration .... 200 
Lord Lauderdale negociates for peace but returns 

without success 201 

Treaty signed at Paris between the Emperors 

Alexander and Napoleon 201 

The Confederation of the Rhine '20 \ 

Maximilian Joseph, King of Bavaria 201 

Kingdom of Wurtemherg established 201 

Declaration of the Emperor Francis II., who resigns 

the empire, and becomes Francis 1. of Austria. . 201 

Louis Buonaparte, King of Holland 201 

Frederic illiam III. sends his ultimatum to Paris 201 
Prince Hohenlohe totally defeated by Napoleon at 

Jena '. '. 201 

Duke of Brunswick, defeated by Marshal 

at Auerstadt, diesof his wounds 201 

General Blucher surrenders at Lubec 202 

Capitulation of Magdeburg 202 

Frederic Augustus, K ing of Saxony 202 

General Bennigseu with the Russian army arrives 

in Prussia 202 

Battle of Pultitsk 202 

The English claim a right of blockade 202 

Napoleon publishes the Berlin Decree, forbidding 

English merchandise on the contiuent 202 

Battle of Prussian Eylau 202 

Negociations for peace, iufrtictuous 202 

Convention of Bartensteiu preparatory of a new 

coalition 202 

Siege of Dantzic 203 

Battle of Friedland 203 

Napoleon enters Koningsbcrg 203 

Armistice concluded at Tilsit between France, 

Russia, and Prussia 203 

Interview of the Emperors Alexander and Napo- 
leon, on a ruft in the Niemen 203 

Spoliation of part of the Prussian dominions -'u.'i 

Convention of Koningsberg 203 

Wars of Gustavus Adolphus IV. of S eden 203 

The King of Saxony put in possession of the Duchy 

of Warsaw 204 

Jerome Buonaparte, King of Westphalia, has 

Brunswick and Hesse, part of Hanover, &c., 

given him for his kingdom 204 

Affairs ot Spain 204 

Con ven l ion of Fontainebleau . 204 

Maishal .In not enters Spain lid I 

Being joined by a Spanish force he takes Lisbon. 204 
John Prince, Regent of Portugal, with his family 

sail to Rio Janeiro 204 

Conii-ealioii of English merchandise in the Han 

B cities 204 

English Orders in Council, regulating a blockade 

of hostile ports 204 

The decree of Milan 2ti j 

Napolei stablishes the Continental System, 

against British trade 205 

Pius VII. refus.-s to accede to it 20;> 

General Miollis thereupon enters Home 205 

Napoleon creates a new French nobility -'U.~> 

Insurrection in Madrid against Godoy 205 

Abdication of Charles IV 205 

Fei.liuand VII. King of Spain 205 

The French under Murat enter Madrid 205 

Charles IV. cedes his dominions to Napoleon, at 

Bayouue -'05 

\N \l.\ 111 \l \M I!: 


1800 PMlBUd VII.. Menaced With death. I. obliged to 
COO MO I to that arrangement, anil It < ..nBoed at 
Valeocay . 105 

MaMMrVby Mnrai !...MS 

i|>rfe. Klnjf of S|>ln 906 

Mural. <>r Joxrhlm, Kin* of Nap ...906 

General iiKurrt-riiiin of Spain KOI) Portugal 105 

MM Inter, lew of Alexander ao.l Napoleon a< i 


Franc-is. Emperor of Au.lrm, calls out the Land- 

.is dominion* 206 

Francis appeal* In the German Stales; heo Ha- 
. ny and Wurtembrrg declare war 
aiMiii.i him . . . 906 

Amount and ehl'fsof the Austrian force* S(l6 

1809 TV* Emperor Francis Invades Bavaria 908 

rut lliller.t Ai*usherg 906 

1809 He defeat* iheAirh.luke O, .rl-. at Krkmuhl and 

at H.if..lH.n 906 

Napoleon enter. Virnnnin triumph ... 
1809 Bailies of Bbersdorff. and of A*perne or Essllngen 906 
Napoleon in dangt-r In the I.I.- f l.obau on the 

... 806 

Cnnu.ii-1. ,.' i ; Archduke John in Italy iWi 

BeauharnaH rff.-ct - -Iron . . . . 9U6 

The Archduke Ferdinand lakes Warsaw and 

attack* I'ru.iian I'olnu.l 906 

1809 Buttle of Waram 806 

Insurrection u( ilir Tyrol headed by Hoffer 906 

Expedition of the Duke of Brunswick Oels KM 

An armistice concluded at /.u.i\m 806 

1909 The Earl ul Chatham 

take the Island of Walcberen 906 

They take Flushing 906 

i armament frustrated as to Antwerp 
by Marshal Bernadotte 307 

1809 Peace of Srluriihriinn between the emperork 

Fnncis and Napoleon 207 

The lllyriau provinces not united with the French 

Empire 207 

Napoleon seixrs oo the Ecclesiastical Slates 807 

r..|-- 1'ius % ll.ilr ( Ni.eil by Napoleon 907 

Naal victories of the Kncll.h 907 

Colonie* of Cayenne and French Guiana, taken... 207 
- ;-.inianl expel the Freucli fnun St. !>,. 111111^0 907 
18091810 Napoleon divorces tin* empreis Jost'phiiu-, 

and espouses Maria Louisa of Austria 207 

1810 Abdirat>n of l^.ui. ll,,,,,. n| .arte . . . . 907 
Napolron annrxes Holland to the French Empire 9V7 
(juadaloupe. the Mauritius and Island of Bourboa 

taken by the Kngliih 208 

The Continental System. Decree or tariff of 

T nan. >n 208 

1806 Insurrection at Oporto 908 

>ur Welletley defeats Juuot at Vimiera. . . . 208 
Russian fleet in the Tapis surrendered t>< 

Charl.-n C.i-.tnii 

Marshal Jiinot's army, by capitulation at Cintra, 
eonteyed in Kuvliili vessels to France 908 

1809 Marshal Soult takes Oporto after a resistance by 

the I'ortiiKuett . 908 

Bit Arthur Welleslejr land* at Lisbon, when Soult 

. . into OalUeia 908 

1806 General Bemford and Sir Home l'<>|.tiam take 

Ilurin> A> rr< 909 

1807 ODeral Anrhmaty lake* Motite Vidro 909 

General Whitelucke defeated in an attempt to re- 
take Iliieuos Ayrr* 909 

Thr Juuu of .Wille declares for Kiur Frrdioand 
VII 909 

1808 General Dupoot surrenders at Haylru 209 

16V9 Death of sir John Moore at Corunoa XU9 

DrfrureofSar.Ko.wb) Palalux 909 

Lord Wellington defeats Jourdan and Victor at 
TalaTrr* 910 

1810 Soull overrun* Andalusia. Sier of fadix 910 

.not ukrs Ciu.U.I Kodrifo and Almeida L'lU 

Wellington mainUin* his post of Torre* Vrdras 

M'iost Marshal Maateoa at Santarrm 910 

Knglwh comrorro-. Krop.rr of the Sea. Conque*t 

.nch. Spanish aud Dutch eolottie* 910 

trade by Kngland 910 

Condition of Holl.ui>! 810 

Affair* of Switirrlan-l, and of Italy, reviewed .... 211 
Political oniitition of liermany . . . . 'Jl I 

1806 Abdication of the imperial crown by Fiancis. 

Emperor of Austria .. 91] 

Confederation of the Htiin- 

.'>. r*i 

1806 Slab- and nlenl of the A .1. Irian dominloo* e* the 

> of Lanevill. ...919 

of Sehotabnutsj ... 

Aeq.ii- 813 

Tin- ifrup.iti. ii of Hanover eaase* a war between 
England and Prussia ... ... 913 

union of Prus.U. and enlightened adminlsi ra- 
Drtigns of Napoleon on Denmark.... 

1807 Lotd* Cathrart and Gambler bomb.. 

gen, aud *ecure tlie Dauiih fleet 

UN Chrt.n.u. Ml. succeeded by Frederic VI.. King 

ol Denmark 914 

1807 The KIIII>. ror Alexander declare* war against tlie 

-i> ... 814 

1808 H conquers FinJajasT from n.e e>!e 914 

Sir I. Jin Mre arrive* mtti English soeeoors at 

Gottiiigen, but i* ill receded by Gustavo* IV. 

1809 Gnttavus Atotphus IV., deposed. .. 2.5 
The Dnki- of >iidi-Mii.i!ii i proclaimed a* King 

rh..ile. Mil 

Peace of Fredericsham between Russia anil v r-ien X15 

1810 Marshal Brrnadotte. el. ried I'rincr I after 

ward* crowned as King Charles John, uf Sweden) 916 
MiiniAreut luuitilkiiori*, and national undertakings 

oft.' T, in Kimia 216 

Swe>inli a n 'i I ii..iii .ir, unimportant 816 

Affair* of Persia and the Porie 

Alexander annexes Georgia to his empire .... 

1813 Hit urith Per-ia 216 

His war with Turkey 916 

All Pacha of Joanniua X16 

17W Condition of Tui key under Selim III 816 

1007 Sir John Duckworth forces the passage of the 

Dardanelles 216 

Admiral Siniaviu ueirals the Turkish fleet at 

Lemno* 917 

Selim III., establishes the Nixami gedid. troops in 

European uniform*, and disciplined 917 

1807 AlHlicatiouofS-limlll Si; 

Muttapha IV. .Sultan 817 

1808 Mustapha IV. and Selim III. are alike victims 

in an insum-ciiou 

Mahmoud 11.. Sultan 817 

1809 1810 The Russian generals take Ismail, and 

Silistria 818 

General Kamenskoi defeats Mucktar Picha. . . 

Strong Turkish position atShumla 9lt( 

1810 Tlie Russians take Rudschuk, Gulrdesov aud 


The Decline and Anea/a/ / Iht Kmpire of Bttonafarfr. 
A.b. 18101813. 

1811 Napoleon's infant son receives the title of King of 


VII. refuses to confirm the nomination of the 

French prelates 

1911 A council assembled at Paris, for this object, fails HI- 
1811 Retreat of Massrna, pursued by Lord Wellington, 

through Portugal 

1811 Badajos invested by Wellington. bo retreats into 

I'ortucal 919 

Marshal Sochet storms Tarragona, and defeat* the 

:.h General Blake at M umedru 919 

1819 Wrlllnttoo lakes Ciudad Rodngo. and agaiu retire* 919 

1812 He defeats Marmont at Salamanca ..819 
Alliance of Rutsia and Sweden against N(o.eon, 

anil devign on Norway . - ... 919 

Napoleon s alliance ilh Frederic William III... *1'J 
Tlie Kmperor FraucU uuites * ith Napolnia against 
HU..I.I, hut is not much in earn. . . . 919 

Enumeration of N'apoleoa'* force* 980 

Napoleon passes the river NiweB t9V 

1819 Battle of Muhilofl ... . . 990 

Napoleon lakes SmoJesuko ...890 

Napoleon defeats Prince Kutusoffat the Mo.ka. 2*0 

1818 He enter* Moscow. September 14 *) 

Conflagration ot ii> . tfo 

liiMutroas retreat of the Preach froM Russia 999 

KntososT. who bad*bilba*to irlnrated. now puisnes 

and harasses UM French army 290 

Pmasage of the Bereataa on the retreat, with serere 
ks ... 281 



1812 Napoleon returns to Paris, leaving his army under 

the conduct of his marshals 821 

General Yorke and the Prussian troops capitulate 
to the Russians 22 1 

1812 PiusVlI. at Fontainebleau signs a concordat 221 

1813 Treaty of Kalisch, between Alexander and Fro- 

deri;- William III 221 

KutusoflTs proclamation from Kalisrh for the Dis- 
solution of the Rhenish Confederation 221 

1813 King Murat retires to Naples. 222 

Forces of the belligerents preparatory to the 

campaign oflSIS 222 

Napoleon takes the command in person 222 

Battleof Gross-Gerscheu or Lutzen 222 

Battle of Bautzen 2:!2 

1813 Convention signed at Dresden, under the media- 
tion i) the Emperor Francis 222 

Francis declares war against the French 223 

Treaties signed antecedent to the sixtli coalition 

of the allieil sovereigns 223 

Armies of tlie Allies enumerated ii'.'3 

Strength of Napoleon's army 223 

Battleof Gross-Beeren 224 

1813 Battle of Dresden 224 

Kail of General Moreau 224 

Vaudamme, defeated in the Battle of Culm, sur- 
renders to Barclay de Tolly and Marshal Milio- 

radowich 224 

Ney routed by Bernadotte 224 

1813 Battle of Leipsic gained by Blucher, Bennigsen 

and the Prince Royal of Sweden 224 

Flight of Napoleon to Mayence 224 

King of B ivaria joins the allies 224 

Marshal Davoust attacked in Hamburg by the 

Prince Royal 225 

18H Frederic VI. of Denmark joins the allies 225 

Peace at length concluded between Denmark and 
England 225 

1813 Wellington defeats Marshal Jourdan at Vittoria .. 225 
The electors of Hanover and Hesse recover those 

dominions, and other political arrangements take 

place throughout Germany 2S5 

Forces of the contending parties, before the cam- 
paign oflSU 225 

18131814 The allies enter France 225 

1814 Napoleon defeated by Blncher at Rothiere 225 

Blucher, surrounded 'by Grouchy, loses 6000 men 

at Etnges ". 225 

Events and vicissitudes of the war in France 225 

1814 Napoleon defeated at Laon 225 

Congress of Chfitillon for a peace 226 

The Quadruple Alliance signed at Chaumont, 

Maich 1 226 

Marmont and Mortier driven from Motitmartre and 

Belleville 226 

1814 The allied sovereigns enter Paris 226 

Count d'Artois, Lieutenant-General of the kingdom 226 
1814 Napoleon abdicates in favour of the King of Home 226 
The sovereignty of Elba secured to him, to which 

island he is conducted by commissioners 226 

Wellington delimits Sunlt at Orthes 22ii 

The Battle of Toulouse 227 

Conduct of Joachim Murat. King of Naples, in 

Italy, at this crisn of political affairs 227 

1814 Eugene BeauharuaiiT action witli Field Marshal 

Itellegarde 22J 


1814 He retires to Germany 227 

Keian of Louis XV 1 1 1.' King of France 22? 

He grants a Charter lo his people 227 

1814 Cession- and restitutions uf colonies, on the con- 
clusion of a general peace at Paris 227 

1814 The Emperor of Russia, King of Prussia, Prince 
Metternich, Prince Blucher, 1'latolT. and oilier 
generals, visit the Prince Regent in London.... 227 

Articles of the Peace of Paris 228 

King of Saxony loses a portion of his dominions. . 228 
Treaty for the abolition of negro slavery 

1814 Buonaparte lands in Provence 229 

1 1 is adventures and successful march on Paris . . . 229 
Louis XVI 1 1. retires to Ghent 

The Additional Act to the Constitution of the 

Empire 229 

1315 The Champ de Mai, held at Paris 

The allies prepare to fulfil the treaty of Chanmont i29 

Murat declares for Buonaparte 2J ' 

He is defeated at Tolentiuo 229 

1815 Ferdinand IV. restored in Naples 229 

The Act of the Germanic Confederation 22'J 

The Act of Congress signed 

The armies of the allies approach France 230 

Numerical strength ot Buonaparte's army 230 

June. He crosses the Sambre, and defeats timelier at 

Ligny, who retires in good order 230 

The D'uke of Wellington defeats Buonaparte at 

Waterloo 230 

Prince Blncher and Billow assist in that final 

victory 230 

Buonaparte flies to Paris 230 

His abdication . 230 

He surrenders to Captain Maitland, R.N 230 

Is banished to St. Helena, where he dies 5th May, 

1821 .".230 

Wellington and Blucher march in triumph to Paris 230 

Capitulation of that capital 

Louis XVI 1 1. is restored to the throne of France. 230 
Military execution of Marshal Ney and Colonel 

Labedoyere 231 

Indemnity paid by France 231 

Agreement entered into for the at olition of the 

slave trade 231 

1815 The Holy Alliance signed at Vienna 231 

The Cortes of Spain 231 

Retrospect of the political affairs of Europe 232 

1810 Mental affliction of George III 232 

1811 George, Prince Regent 

1812 War between the United States ami Knvland 233 

Cape of Good Hope, Essequibo, Berbice, and 

Demerara ceded to Kngland 233 

Recapitulation of treaties, &c 234 

The Ionian Islands placed under the protection of 

Great Britain 234 

1815 Military execution of Murat on landing in the 

kingdom of Naples 234 

Settlement of the states of Germany 235 

1814 Norway acquired by Sweden V3j 

War between Russia and Turkey favourable lo the 

former power 236 

Russian acquisitions in the Turkish provinces, in 

those uf Persia, and in Poland 236 

State of the Ottoman Empire 236 






HISTORY has very properly been considered as that 
particular branch of philoo]>liy, which teaches, by 
examples, how men ought to conduct themselves 
in all situations of life, both public and | 

is tin- infirmity and incapacity of the human 

mind, that abstract or ^fin-rul ideas make no lat- 

apressionon it; and often n|>pearto usdouht- 

ful or obscure, at least if they be not illustrated 

nnd confirmed by experience and observation. 

It is from history alone, which supcradds to our 
own experience that of other men and of other 
times, that we learn to conquer the prejudices which 
we have imbibed from education, and which our 
own experience, often as contracted as our educa- 
tion, tends in general rather to strengthen than to 
subdue or destroy. " Not to know (says Cicero) 
what happened before we were born, is to remain 
always a child ; for what wen- the life of man, did 
we not combine present events with the recollec- 
tions of past ages 1" 

There are certain principles or rules of conduct 
that hold true in all cases ; because they accord and 
consist with the invariable nature of things. To 
collect and digest these, belongs to the student of 
history, who may, in this way, easily form to him- 
self a system, both of morals and of politics, founded 
on the combined judgment of all ages, and con- 
firmed by universal experience. Moreover, the 
advantages that we reap from the study of history 
are preferable to those we acquire by our own ex- 
.r not only does the knowledge we de- 
rm- from this kind of study embrace a greater 
number of oliject.s, l.ut it is purchased at the ex- 
pense of other*, while the attainments we make 
in. MI personal experience often cost us extremely 

" We may learn wisdom, (says Polybius) either 
from our own misfortunes, or the misfortunes of 
others. The know ledge (adds that celebrated 
historian) \\hich we acquire at our own expense 
i* undoubtedly the most efficacious ; but that which 
we learn from the misfortunes of others is the 
aJMt, in as much as we receive instruct ion with- 
out pain, or danger to ourselves." This know- 
ledge has also the advantage of being in general 
more accurate, and more complete than that which 
we den\. from indnidual experience. To history 
alone it belongs i.i judge with impartiality ..t' pub- 
lic characters and political measures, which are 
often cither misunderstood or not properly appre- 
ciated by their contemporaries ; and while men 

individually, and from their own observation, can 
see great events as it were but in part, h. 
embraces the whole in all its various details. 'I 
for example, we can tee but imperfectly all tin- 
.;igs of that mighty revolution which is now 
(IT'.i:i) passing before our eyes; and it will re- 
main tor posterity to perceive all its inti 
ctl'ects and to judge of its different actors without 
feelings of irritation or party spirit. 

It is a fact universally admitted, that all ranks 
and professions of men find in history appro; 
instruction, and rules of conduct suited to their 
respective conditions. In occupying the mind 
agreeably with such a vast di\< r-it\ of -u'j 
serves to form the judgment, to inspire us with the 
ambition of glory, and the love of virtue. Those 
especially who devote themselves to the study of 
politics, or who are destined to the management of 
public affairs, will discover in history the stn. 
and constitution of governments, their faults, and 
their advantage*, their strength and their weak- 
ness; they will find there the origin nnd progress 
of empires, the principles that have raised th 
greatness, and the causes which have prepared 
their fall. The philosopher, and the man of letters, 
will there trace the progress of the human mind, 
the errors and illusions that have led it astray ; the 
connexion of causes and effects ; the origin of arts 
and science*, their changes, and their influence on 
society ; as well as the innumerable evils that 
have sprung from ignorance, superstition, and t \ - 

Histor\, in short, avails more than all precepts 
to cure us of those mistakes originating in self- 
love, and national partiality. He who knows no 
other country than his own, easily persuades him- 
self that tin- government, manners, and opinions 
I the little corner of the earth which he inhabits, 
are the only ones consistent \\iih reason and pro- 
priety. Self-love, so natural to man, cherishes this 
prejudice, and makes him disdain all other nations. 
It is only by an extensive acquaintance with his- 
torv, and by familiarising ourselves with the insti- 
tutions, customs, and habits of different ages, and 
of dit: . that we learn to esteem 

wisdom and virtue, ami to acknowledge talents 
wherever they exist. Besides, when we observe, 
though revolutions are continually changing 
the face of kingdoms, nothing essentially new ever 
happens in the world, we cease to be longer the 
slaves of that extravagant admiration, and that 

Use of i ! 

1 ublic Rpcords. 




credulous astonishment -which is generally the 
characteristic of ignorance, or the mark of a feeble 

The most important attribute of history is truth, 
and in order to find this out, it is necessary to ex- 
amine the materials which serve as the elements and 
evidences of history, by the test of sound criti- 
cism. These materials are of two kinds: I. Pub- 
lic Acts and Records, such as medals, inscriptions, 
treaties, charters, official papers ; and in general, 
all writings drawn up or published by the csta- 
blished authorities. II. Private writers, viz. au- 
thors of histories, of chronicles, memoirs, letters, 
&c. These writers are either contemporary, or 
such as live remote from the times of which they 

Public acts and official records are the strong- 
est evidences we can possibly have of historical 
truth ; but as, in different ages, there have been fa- 
bricators of pretended acts and writings, it becomes 
necessary, before making use of any public docu- 
ment, to be assured that it is neither spurious nor 
falsified. The art of judging of ancient charters 
or diplomas, and discriminating the true from the 
false, is called Diplomatics ;* in the same way as 
we give the name of Numismatics to the art of 
distinguishing real medals from counterfeit. Both 
of these sciences are necessary ingredients in the 
criticism of history. 

It will not be out of place to subjoin here some 
rules that may serve as guides in the proper selec- 
tion of historical documents. 1 . The authority of 
any chartulary or public act is preferable to that 
of a private writer, even though he were contem- 
porary. These public registers it is always neces- 
sary to consult if possible, before having recourse 
to the authority of private writers ; and a history 
that is not supported by such public vouchers must 
in consequence be very imperfect. 2. When pub- 
lic acts are found to accord with the testimony of 
contemporary authors, there results a complete and 
decisive proof, the most satisfactory that can be de- 
sired, for establishing the truth of historical facts. 
3. The testimony of a contemporary author ought 
generally to be preferred to that of an historian, 
who hag written long after the period in which the 
events have happened. 4. Whenever contem- 
porary writers are defective, great caution must be 
used w,ith regard to the statements of more modern 
historians, whose narratives are often very inac- 
curate, or altogether fabulous. 5. The unanimous 
i- of contemporary authors on any memorable 
>< of its.lf a strong presumption for suspect- 
ing, or even for entirely rejecting, the testimony of 
recent writers. 6. Historians who narrate 
f vents that have happened anterior to the times in 
which they lived, do not, properly speaking, de- 
serve credit, except in so far as they make us 
acquainted with the sources whence they have 
drawn their information. 7. In order to judge 
of the respective merits of historians, and the pre- 
ference we ought to give some beyond others, it is 
necessary to examine the spirit and character of 
each, as well as the circumstances in which they 
are placed at the time of writing. Hence it 
follows That we ought to distrust an historian 
who is ddirii nt in critical discernment, who is fond 
of fables, or who scruples not, in order to please 
and amuse his readers, to alter or disguise tin- 
truth : That as impartiality is an essential quality 

in an historian, we must always be on our guard 
against writers who allow their minds to be warped 
aside by the prejudices of their nation, their party, 
or their profession ; for, in order to be impartial, 
the historian must form his judgment on actions 
themselves, without regard to the actors : That 
historians who have had a personal concern in the 
transactions, or been eye-witnesses of the events 
they describe, or who, writing by the permission or 
authority of government, have had free access to 
national archives and public libraries, ought always 
to be preferred to those who have not enjoyed the 
same advantages : That among modern historians, 
he who has written last often deserves more con- 
fidence than those who have handled the same 
subject before him ; inasmuch as he has had it in 
his power to obtain more exact information, to 
avoid all party spirit, and rectify the errors of his 

There are several auxiliary sciences which may- 
be said to constitute the very foundation of his- 
tory ; and among these, geography, genealogy, 
and chronology, hold the first rank. In truth, no 
fact can be fully established, nor can any narrative 
possess interest, unless the circumstances relating 
to the times and places in which the events have 
happened, as well as to the persons who have been 
concerned in them, be previously made known, and 
distinctly explained. It is obvious, therefore, that 
geography, genealogy, and chronology, are the 
faithful interpreters and inseparable companions of 

Geography may be divided into the mathemati- 
cal, the physical, and the political ; according to 
the different objects which it embraces. Mathe- 
matical geography regards the earth, considered as 
a measurable body. Physical geography has for its 
object to examine the natural or physical structure 
of the earth ; while political geography illustrates 
the different divisions of the earth which men have 
invented, such as kingdoms, states, and provinces. 
This science is also divided, relatively to the times 
of which it treats, into ancient, middle-age, and 
modern geography. Ancient geography is that 
which explains the primitive state of the world, 
and its political divisions prior to the subversion of 
the Roman Empire in the west. By the geogra- 
phy of the middle ages, is understood that which 
acquaints us with the political state of the nations 
who figured in history from the fifth century to the 
end of the fifteenth, or the beginning of the six- 
teenth. Modern geography represi nts to us the 
state of the world and its political divisions, from 
the sixteenth century to the present time. 

Antiquity has handed down to us the works of 
several very eminent geographers, the most crle- 
brated of whom are Strabo, Ptolemy, Pomponiu- 
Mela, Pausanias, and Stephanus of Byzantium/ 
Among the moderns who have laboured in this 
department of geography, those more particularly 
deserving of notice, are Cuvier, Cellarius, Briet, 
D'Anville, Gosselin, Maunert, and Ukert. 

The geography of the middle ages is lint little 
known ; and remains yet a sort of desert which de- 
mands cultivation. There does not exist a single 
geographical work which gives a correct represen- 
ts ion of that new order of things, which the ' 
man nations introduced into Europe after the 
downfall of the Roman Empire in the tifth century. 
The literati of France and Germany have thrown 

i MB l( .: . 

IN I lid 

erne raya of light on certain parts of thne obscure 

regio: ut of 

thoroughly iera. 

uodrru author*, too, the mixt conspicuous M 
l)u- restorer of geographical wicnre, i Sebastian 

llillshril a 

\\..; k on cosmography, toward* the tnidilli- ' 

.< mings uid the Dutch 
have been among the earliest cultivu- 
graphy wiice the revival of letter-. Or 

.. ml 
. known 1>\ tin- maps and learned 

work- wllirh they ha\c produce. I. 

Among tin- liuiiilirr of i I'll I., iti tl 1'iriii :. 

graphera are to be reckoned N.HI- 
Ca*i le ; IIIK! n. \ /.iiiii.iiii, 

Bauche, Mrnt.-ll.-, Barbie du Bocage, Multe- 
lliuii, A..-. i is the Ant who subn 

geography to the touchstone of astronomical ob- 
servation. Buachiug, a German, wrote a work on 
geography, which has been translated into < 
languages, and has n- UH additions and 

impr.ncmcnts. especially in tin- hands of the 
h tran*laton. M. Hit;, r, a professor at 
lli-rlm. published a work in which he gives a new 
uiul M .1 to geography. 

It wan during the latter half of the eighteenth 

century that the attention of tin- h-arm-d wa* 

turn.. I more particularly towards geography, wh>-n 

a series of the most elegant maps app. -an-d in all 

tin- principal states of Hiiro pe. The wars that 

' from tlu- revolution encouraged several 

engineer* and geographers, hoth ton i_'ne,s and 

uhliih those masterpieces of their 

art, the charts and plans of the countries that had 

as the theatre of hostilities. 
Connected with geography is the science of 
Statutirn, or the study of tin- constitution and po- 
litical economy .<: . I u u Italians, SaiwoM uo 
and Bolero, about the end of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, were the first that attempted to treat this as 
a particular science, separate and distinct from 
geography. The Germans followed nearly in the 
fooUteps of the Italian writers ; they introduced 
statistics into their I in v entities a* a branch of 
. and gave it also the name by which it is 
still kn\\n.* It was chiefly, how>-\er. during the 
coune of the eighteenth century that the govern- 
ments of Euro|x- encouraged the study of this new 
science, w hich borrows its illustrations from his- 
tes at present an essential branch 
nal jx.lity. 

GENEALOGY, or the science which treat* of the 

-i and descent of illustrious families, is not 

let* important to the knowledge >f history than 

geography. It teaches us to know and distinguish 

th>- pi m. ipal characters that have acted a connpi- 

- part n the tt 1,1 ; an d by 

l.licit ideas of the ties of r> - 

btionshij) that subsist among sovereigns, it enables 

us to investigate the rights of succession, and the 

respective claims of rival prince*. 

The study of Genealogy is full of difficulties, 
on account of the uncertainty and fabulous ob- 
scurity in which the oriirin of almost 
family i* einelop.-d. \.uiity. aided by t! 
has given birth to a thousand legendary' wonder*. 
es at the touch o? sound criticism. 
!>y the light of this science tint we learn to 
rtainties from probabilities, and pro- 

Ul.ilitiea from fables and conjectures. Few fa- 
milies who have occupied the throne* of former 
dynasties, or who now bold pre-eminent rank in 
..-, can trace their genealogy beyond the 
> of Capet U the only 

it can boat of a pedigree that reaches back 

to the middle of the niutli century. The origin 

royal families of Savoy, Lorrain, Unino- 

ii)l, and Haden. belongs to the el- 
centur) ; all the otlu-rs are of a date porter. 
tl,. M. 

A single fact in diplomatics has proved suffl* 
o. ut to Us. i.-.iit a multituile of errors and fablea, 
that tradition hud engrafted on the legend* of the 
dark ages. From the examinations that have 
hccn made of ancient charters and records, there 
is abundant that, prior to the twelfth 

o nt in y, unions I uiiili.-s even the moil illustriou*, 
tin- distinction of surname* wa* unknown. The 
greatest noblemen, and the presumption U much 
stronger that oommon .never used any 

ire than their baptismal name; to . 
.m. times annexed that of the dignity or or- 
der with which they were invested. There wa* 
then-fore little chance of il 
from each other, and till less of distinguishin. 
dmduals of one and the same family. It was only 
towards the end of the eleventh century, and 
during the era of the crusades, that the use of 
family name* was gradually introduced ; and that 
they began, in their puhlic transactions, to super- 
add to th.-ir baptismal and honorary names, that of 
the country or territory they possessed, or the 
castle w here they had th.-ir residence ; and it must 
have required nearly two hundred yean before 
this practice became geueral in Europe. 

The Germans were the first, aAfr the Reforma- 
tion, who comhimd the study of genealogy with 
that of history. Aiiion* their most distinguished 
genealogists may ID- mentioned Ueincrus 1. 
culm. Jerome Ueuniiiges, Klias Keunncru-. 
colas Ritterahusiers, James-William Imhof, and 
the two (iebhards of Luncburg, father and son. 
'1 In- work of Hcnningcii is much sought aft- 
account of its rarity ; but the genealogical labour* 
of the two .. tihards arc particular) remar 
for the profound and accurate criticism they 
play. The principal writen on this subject among 
the' French are, D'llori.-r. (iodefroy, An 
Duchesne, St. Marthe, Father Anselme, Chazot 
de Nantigny, and M. ! St. Allais. 

CHBOMOLOOT, or the computing time, 

represents fact* or event* in the order in which 
they have occurred. The historian ought by no 
mean* to neglect to ascertain, a* nearly as possible, 
.act mid precise date of events; since, with- 
out this knowledge, he will be perpetually liable 
to commit anachronism*, to confound thing* with 
persons, and often to mistake effects for cause*, or 

causes !'<n i !!' .I-. 

This study U not without it* difflmHie*. which 

are a* perplexing a* they are singularly various. 

both in kind and degree. Thee* embarrassment* 

relate chicHy, 1. To the age of the world ; -'. 

The different form* of the year ; S. The number 

.n that elapsed from the creation to the birth 

rist ; 4. The variety of epoch* or period* of 

reckoning time. 

Many of the ancient philosopher* maintained 
that the world waa eternal. Ocellus Locanue, a 

A?e of the World. 




Gregorian Calendar. 
Jn'ian Year, 
lu't'ormed Calendar. 

Greek philosopher of tin- Pythagorean sect, at- 
tempted to prove this hypothesis, in a treatise en- 
titled lit- ('iiirt-rsa, which t!ie Marquis IVArgrns 
and the Abbe Batteux have translat >! into French. 
Aristotle followed in the footsteps of Ocellus. His 
opinion as to the eternity of the minors, > is de- 
tailed at length in his commentaries 011 Physics. 

Some modern philosophers, as Bulfon, Hamil- 
ton, Dolomieu, Saussure, Faujas de St. Fond, &c. 
have assigned to our globe an existence long an- 
terior to the ages when history commences. Their 
reasoning they support by the conformation of the 
globe itself, as well us the time that must have ne- 
. ;ily elapsed before the earth, in the progres- 
sive operations of nature, could be rendered a 
suitable habitation for man. 

The most ancient account that we have of the 
origin of the world, and of the human race is de- 
rived from Moses. This leader and lawgiver of 
the Jewish nation lived about 1500 years before 
Christ ; and nearly 1000 before Herodotus, the 
mo-t ancient profane author whose works have 
been handed down to our times. According to 
s and the Jewish annals, the history of the 
human race does not yet comprehend a period of 
six thousand years. This account seems to be in 
opposition to that of several ancient nations, such 
as the Egyptians, Indians, Chaldeans, Thibetians, 
and Chinese, who carry back their chronology to a 
very remote date, and far beyond what Moses has 
assigned to the human race. But it is sufficient 
at present to remark, that this high antiquity, 
which vanity has led these nations to adopt as a 
reality, is either altogether imaginary, or purely 
mythological, founded on a symbolical theology, 
whose mysteries and allegories have been but little 
understood. This primeval epoch is usually filled 
with gods and demigods, who are alleged to have 
reigned over these nations for so many myriads of 

Traditions so fabulous and chimerical will never 
destroy the authenticity of Moses, who indepen- 
dently of his nativity, and the remote age in which 
he lived, merits implicit credit from the simplicity 
of his narrative, and from the circumstance, that 
there lias never yet been discovered on the surface 
or in the internal structure of the earth, any or- 
ganic evidence or work of human art, that can 
lead us to believe that the history of the world, 
or more properly speaking, of the human race, is 
antecedent to the age which the Jewish legislator 
lia< n^i^ned it. 

With regard to the division of time, a consider- 
able period must, no doubt, have elapsed before 
j ifn bewail to reckon by years, calculated accord- 
ing to astronomical observations. Two sorts or 
forms of computation have been successively in 
use among different nation*. Some have employed 
solar years, calculated by the annual course of the 
sun ; others have made use of lunar years, calcu- 
late-. I l,y the periodical revolutions of the moon. 
All Christian nations of the present day adopt the 
solar year ; while the lunar calculation is that fol- 
lowed by the Mahometans. The solar year con- 
sists of :*'<;.-) dajs 5 hours, 48', 45'', 30'" ; 'the lunar 
year, of 354 days, 3 hours, 48', 3S", 12"'. 

The invention, or more properly speaking, the 

calculation of the solar year, is due to the ancient 

l'.j \ptians, who, by the position of their country, 

11 as by the periodical overflowings and eb- 

bings of the Nile, had early and obvious induce- 
ments for making astronomical observations. The 
solar year lias undergone, in process of time, va- 
rious corrections and denominations. The most 
remarkable of these are indicated by the distinc- 
tions, still in use, of the Julian, the Gregorian, 
and the Reformed year. 

Julius Ca?sar introduced into the Roman empire 
the solar or Egyptian year, which took, from him, 
the name of the Julian year. This he substituted 
instead of the lunar year, which the Romans had 
used before his time. It was distinguished, on 
account of a slight variation in the reckoning, into 
the common and bissextile or leap year. The 
common Julian year consisted of 365 days ; and 
the bissextile, which returned every four years, of 
3t>G days. This computation was faulty, inasmuch 
as it allowed 365 days, and 6 entire hours, for the 
annual revolution of the sun; being an e 
every year, of 11', 14", 30"', beyond the true time. 
This, in a long course of ages, had amounted to 
several days ; and began, at length, to derange the 
order of the seasons. 

Pope Gregory XIII., 3 wishing to correct this 
error, employed an able mathematician, named 
Louis Lilio, to reform the Julian year according 
to the true annual course of the sun. A new ca- 
lendar was drawn up, which was called after the 
name of that pontiff, the Gregorian calendar ; and 
as, in consequence of the incorrectness of the 
Julian era, the civil year had gained ten da,s, the 
same Pope ordered, by a bull published in 15S1, 
that these should be expunged from the calendar ; 
so that, instead of the 5th of October 158'2, they 
should reckon it the 15th. 

The Catholic States adopted this new calendar 
without the least difficulty ; but the Protestants 
in the Empire, and the rest of Europe, as also the 
Russians and the Greeks, adhered to the Julian 
year ; and hence the distinction between the old 
and new style, to which it is necessary to pay at- 
tention in all public acts and writings since the 
year 1582 of the Christian era. The difference 
between the old and new style, which, until l(i'.ii), 
was only ten days, and eleven from the commence- 
ment of 1700, must be reckoned twelve days 
during the present century of 1800 ; so that the 
1st of January of the old year, answers to the 13th 
of the new. 

The Reformed year or Calendar, as it is called, 
is distinct from the Gregorian, and applies to the 
calculation of the year, which was made by a pro- 
fessor at Jena, named Weigel. It differs from the 
Gregorian year, as to the method of calculating 
the time of Iv.ister, and the other moveable feasts 
of the Christian churches. The Protestants of 
Germany, Holland, Denmark and Switzerland, 
adopted this new calendar in 1700. Their ex- 
ample was followed in 17f)'2 by Great Britain; and 
in L753) by Sweden; but since the year 177li, the 
Protestants of Germany, Switzerland and Holland, 
abandoned the reformed calendar, and adopted the 
Gregorian; and there is, properly speaking, no 
nation in Europe at this day, except the Russians 
and the Greeks, which makes use of the Julian 
calendar, or old style. 4 

But it is not merely the variations that have pre- 
vailed as to the form and computation of the 
that have perplexed the science of chronologj ; 
the different methods of commencing it have also 

CMMMMMt of Ymr. 

M..;.r., I !, r. .,.......-:. t. 


TW CVfcMM Era. 


been the source of much confusion. 'I In- Romans, 
i irsar, began the year 

IMI the first of Jnnunrj. The ancient Greeks at 
MI tin- wint.r si.Utice, and after- 
wards front niiiUumn ^ro- Macedonians 
or Seleuoidsj, commenced from (he autumnal equi- 
acred year of (he Jews began 
w moon after (he venial equinox, that 
i-., in the month of March; and their civil yemr 
began with tin- m \\ in. ...ii iniin. -.(lately following 
tin- .-i|UiMi'\. i, KI t!..- ii.i.ntli ..t 

'1 lie same diversity of practice which rre obaerre 
among (hr ancient* existed nU. in tin- middle 
ages. The Frank*, under tin- Merovingian kinir*. 
began (he year with the month of March. '1 he 
- began it sometimes at Christmas, or (he 
> c.-ml>-r ; sometimes on the 1st of 
January ; and sometimes on tin* V >th of March, 
called indiscriminately the day of thr Annuncia- 
tion, or Incantation. I'nder the Carlovingiau 
prince*, two method* of beginning the year were 
generally prevalent in France, the one fixed ita 
commencemen( at Christmas, or the 25th of De- 
cember, and the other at Kaater; that in, at the 
day on which that moveable feast happened to 
fall. Thin latter custom prevailed a No under the 
Capetian kinir*, and it was not suppressed until 
>ic miilille of the sixteenth century. Charles 
\ an edict published in 1564, ordered, that 
in Franre the year should henceforth commence 
on the 1st of Janu.iry. Previously to this edict, 
it sometimes happened, frrm the variable date of 
Easter, that the same month was found to occur 
twice iii one and the same year. For example, 
the year 135H having begun on the Iwt of April, 
on which Easter day happem-d to I'.ill, diil not ter- 
minate until the 2<)th of April following, that is, 
on the eve preceding Easter. There were conse- 
i|iii-ntly in this year nearly two complete months 
of April. Since tin- n-iini of Charles IX., it has 
continued th- invariable practice in France to be- 
frin the year on the 1st of January. 

In England the year used to commence on the 
25th of March, and the old style was there ob- 
served until 1753 ; when, l>\ virtue of an act of 
Parliament, passed in 17.">2. tin- In-winning of the 
year was transferred to the 1st of January. It 
was decreed also, at the same time, that, in onl.-r 
to accommodate the English chronoloiry to tin- 
new style, th.- :t.l of s. ptember 1752 should be 
:<-i\ the 14th of the name month. 

It is easy to conceive tin- perplexity and con- 
fasion that must have been introduced into chro- 
nology, as much by the difference of style* as by 
the different methods of commencing tin- 
Nothing is mure prohahle, than that we should 
h. r.- tind mistakes and contradictions which, in 
>, have no existence ; and the more so, as the 
writers or recorders of pn' -ho employ 

these different -tyles, or date the he k 'innin^ of the 
year variously, never give us any intimation on the 
subject ; anil all reckon pr M the 

n.itiMt\, without informing M 

whither they f.'ll..\v t!:e old or the new style 
whether they commence the yrar in the month 

or March, at Easter or at Christmas. 
I rn chronologist* have fotuid much embar- 
rassment in calculating the number of years that 
elapsed between (be creation and (he birth of 

. one of the most learned 

m. n in tin* MI i that (hi* point of chro- 

nology is (o be established rather bv probable 
lecture* than olid anruincnts. Tnerr have even 
been reckoned, according to Fabricins, about a and forty different oyfalMI r. p-rtui|f the 
epoch of ( hrnt'i nuiniiy. Home fix tht* era in 
the Mar of the world 34>lfi, while others carry it 
back to th. Tins -p-nt iliwordaoee of 

opinions arises from the eontradictiotm ! >. 
exist betwet'ii tin- thn p m ,. ip.,1 t.\t. of t! 

:. lit. 'I he HI In- u text, for ilmtnll- 

which most chronolotrists give the preference, fixes 
the delude in the year of the world 1 1 1."*! ; while, 

lintr to the Samaritan text, it happ-n 
i:>7 ; and, according to th 

The system at present most accredited is that of 
Archbishop t slier, an Irish prelate, who, founding 
Iculation on the Hebrew text, tixet the date 
of ( hrist's nativity in the year of the world 4000. 

A variety of epochs prevailed at different times ; 
as most nations, both ancient and modern, who 
had governments and laws of their own, adopted 
chronological eras that were peculiar to them- 
selves. The ancient (i reeks had their Olympiads, 
and the Ryro-Macedonians the era of the Seleu- 
.-!!::. The Romans calculated by consulship*. 
which became the era of their public acts ; and 
l>. --ides theie, their historian* used to reckon from 
the foundation of the city, which goes back 
yean before Christ, or 3249 after the creation. 
The era of Dioclesian, introduced in honour of 
that emperor, and sometimes also called the era 
of the martyrs, bc-jan in the year 2K4 after Christ, 
and was for a long time used in the West. Hut, 
w ithout stopping here to enumerate the different 
eras of antiquity, we shall rather restrict ourselves 
at present to the pointing out of those that belong 
more properly to modern hi-t..r\, \i/. 1. The era 
of the modern Greeks. 2. Of the modern Jews. 
3. Of the Spaniards. 4. The Hegira, or Maho- 
metan era. 5. The Dionysian, or Christian era. 

The era of the modem Greeks is known by the 
name of the Mundane era of Constantinople. It'ins 550K years before the birth of Chri-t. The 
tirvt M-ar of the incarnation thus falls in the year 
of the world 5509; and, consequently, th- 
I s '- 1 :! of the Christian era answers to th' 
of the Mundane era of Constantino) 
this system, two kinds of years are in use, the ciul 
and the ecclesiastical. The former commences 
with the month of September, the other has begun 
-mi. -limes on the 21st of March, and sometimes 
on the 1st of April. This era is followed, even at 
this day, by the (Jreek church. The K'KMaiK, 
who ad'opted it from the <.r.-,k, almi? with the 
Christian religion, made use of it even in 
ciul acts, until the reign of IVter the Great. 
That emperor, in 1700, abolished the Mundane 
era of Constantinople, and substituted in its place 
the Christian era, and the Julian calendar or old 


The modern Jews have likewise a mundane 
era ; as they reckon from the creation of the 
world. It c.immenccs on the 7th of October of 
and reckons 3761 yean before 
' year 3762 of the world is the first of 
the ( !:n-!i in era, according to the Jews : and the 
1 s23 answers to the year 5593 of their mun- 
dane era. 

The Hf^'ir Period. 


Solar and Lunar Cycles. 
Cycle of Indictionsl 

In Spain, the era began with the year of Rome 
714. .".*> \ears hefore the birth of Christ ; being the 
time when the triumvirate was renew eil between 
Caesar Octavianus, Mark Antony, and Lepidus. 
The Spaniards, wishing to give Octaviaiius some 
testimony of their satisfaction on being compre- 
hended within his province, began a new era with 
this event,* which prevailed not only in Spain and 
Portugal, but also in Africa, and those parts of 
France which were subject to the dominion of the 
'ths. It is of great importance to know 
that the Spaniards and Portuguese constantly em- 
ployed this era in their annals and public acts, so 
late as the 14th and 15th centuries, when they 
substituted the Christian era in its place. 

The era which the Mussulman nations follow is 
that of Mahomet, called the Hegira, or the Flight 
of the Prophet. It began on the 16th of July 
(VJ2 A. ('., and is composed of lunar years. In 
order to find out in what year of the vulgar era any 
given year of the Hegira falls, it is necessary first 
to reduce the lunar into solar years, and then add 
the number (522. For example, the year 1238 of 
the Hegira answers to the year 1823 of the vulgar, 
or Christian era. It began on the 18th of Sep- 
tember 1822, and ended on the 7th of the follow- 
ing September. 

Dionysius, or Denys the Little, a Roman Abbe, 
who lived in the time of the Emperor Justinian, 
about the year of Christ 530, was the author of 
the vulgar era, which afterwards received a more 
perfect form from the hands of the venerable Bede, 
an English monk, about the year 720. Before 
that time, the Latins, or Christians of the West, 
employed the era of the Consuls, or that of Dio- 
11. Dcnys the Little, imagining it would be 
more convenient for the Christians to reckon their 
time from the birth of Christ, applied himself with 
great industry to calculate the mimber of years 
that had elapsed from the Incarnation to his own 
times. Modern chronologists have remarked, that 
both Denys and Bede were mistaken in their cal- 
culations ; but a difference of opinion prevails on 
this subject, as may be seen in the learned work 
of Fabricius. There are some of these chronolo- 
.\ho date the birth of Christ thirty-four years 
earlier, while others find a difference of but one 
y-ar, or at most four, between the true epoch of 
the nativity, and that adopted by Denys. This 
dU-iL'p-i i>,ent of the modern chronologists has given 
the distinction between the true era of the 
birth of Christ, and the V 'ulyar or Dionysian era, 
which the general usage has now consecrated and 

In France, this era was not introduced until the 
eighth century. We find it employed, for the first 
time, in the acts of the Councils of Germany, 
Liptines, and Soissons, h-ld in the years 742-3-4, 
under Pepin, surnamcd the Short. The Kings of 
France never used it in their public acts, until the 
end of the ninth century; and the Popes only 
since tin- eleventh. 

In order to compare the different eras, and to 
faeilitate the process of reducing the years of one 
into those of another, a scheme has been proposed 
called the Julian period. The invention of" this is 
due to Joseph Scaliger, a professor at Leyden, ami 
well known by his chronological works. He gave 
it the name of Julian, because the Julian 
served as the basis of it. It is composed of the 

several products of the cycles of the sun, the moon, 
and the indictions multiplied by each other. 

The cycle of the sun is a period, or revolution 
of twenty-eight solar years ; at the end of which 
the same order of years returns, by a kind of cir- 
cle or cycle. Its use is to indicate the days on 
which each year commences, and the Dominical 
Letters. These are the first seven letters of the 
alphabet, A, B, c, D, E, F, o, which are employed 
to indicate the seven days of the week, more par- 
ticularly the Sabbath (dies Dominica). At the 
end of twenty-eight years, of which this cycle is 
composed, there returns a new order or series of 
yars, so similar to the preceding, that the Domi- 
nical letters again answer exactly to the same 

The cycle of the moon comprises nineteen lunar 
years, twelve of which are called common, and the 
remaining seven intercalary ; these yield a product 
of 6939 days 18 hours, according to the calculation 
of the ancients ; 6 and are equal to nineteen Julian or 
solar years. By means of this cycle always recur- 
ring, the new moons fall again on the same days 
and the same hours on which they had happened 
nineteen years before ; so that, for all the new 
moons, the cycle which is to come is entirely si- 
milar to the preceding. The cipher which indi- 
cates the year of the cycle is called the golden 
number, because they used to write it in characters 
of gold in the ancient calendars, where it was i in- 
ployed to mark the times of the new moons. 

The cycle of indictions is a cycle which recurs 
every fifteen years ; and which, like those already 
mentioned, was frequently employed in charters 
and public records. The origin of these indictions 
is generally referred to a contribution or cess ap- 
pointed, for fifteen years, by the Romans, and after- 
wards renewed for the same period. They began 
in the reign of Constantino the Great, that is, about 
the year of Christ 313, and are distinguished into 
three kinds; 1. that of Constantinople, which 
was employed by the Greek Emperors, and be- 
gan on the 1st of September ; 2. that which 
was termed the Imperial, or Ca^sarean indict ion, 
the use of which was limited to the West, and 
which began on the 25th of September; and, 
3. the Roman or Pontifical indiction, which the 
Popes employed in their bulls. This last began 
on the 25th of December, or the 1st of January, 
according as the one or the other of these days 
was reckoned by the Romans the first of the new 

The cycle of the sun, comprising twenty-eiflhl 
. and that of the moon nineteen, when multi- 
plied together, give a product of 532,whieh is called 
the Paschal cyle, because it serves to ascertain the 
feast of Easter. The product of 532, multiplied h\ 
15, the cyle of indictions, amounts to the number 
7980, which constitutes the Julian period. With- 
in the compass of this period may be placed, as it 
were, under one view, these different eras and 
epochs, in order to compare and reconcile them 
with each other; adopting, as their common term, 
the nativity of Christ, fixed to the year 171 t of the 
Julian period. 

History has been divided, according to the dif- 
ferent subjects of which it treat-, into ( 'ml. Krcl.-- 
siastical, Literary, and Philosophical Hi-tory. 
Civil and political history is occupied entirely with 
events that relate to mankind, as distributed into 

tarcU Hilary. 
Th. MU41. *. 


societies, and united together by gofenunna. 
laws, and manners. Tfrrfcieiastifal history i* eon- 
fined to those events that properly belong to re- 
ligion. Literary history treaU more particularly 
of the origin, progress, and vicissitudes of the arts 
and sciences. Lastly, philosophical hutory, v 
is but a branch or sub-division of literary history, 
illustrates the different systems of philosophy that 
hare flouriahed in the world, both m ancient and 
modern lime*. 

Another division of bUtory, according to ita ex- 

rnal, General, and Particular 

ml hutory give* kind of outline 

or summary of the events of all the nations that 

have figured on the earth, from tho remotest ages 

to the present time. 

By general history, it understood that which 
treats of the revolutions that have happened in 
the world, whether of great states or confederate 
powers, or of several nations combined together, 
by various and complicated interests. Thus, there 
may be a general history of France, or of Great 
Britain, a general history of the I mces, 

a general history of Europe, &c. Particular his- 
tory embraces, in detail, the events of a particular 
people, or province, or city, or illustrious indi- 

Finally, in regard to the time of which it treats, 
history is distinguished into Ancient and Modern, 
and that of the Middle Ages. Ancient history is 
that of the nations who flourished from the time 
of the creation to the fifth century ; while the his- 
tory of the middle ages has, for its object, the re- 
solutions that took place from the fifth to the i ml 
of the fifteenth century. What is now termed 
modern hi which retraces the events 

of the last thn-e o siim !-. 

This division, which applies more particularly 
to the history of Europe, is founded on the great 
revolutions which this part of the world ex|-ri- 
enced in the fifth and fifteenth centuries. The 
revolution of the fifth century ended in the sub- 
version of the Roman empire in the West, and 
gave birth to the principal state* in mode: 
!! ; while that of the fifteenth century, which 
dates its commencement from the destruction of 
the Eastern empire, brought along with it the re- 
vival of literature and the fine arts, and the reno- 
vation of civil society in Europe. 

:iouirh ancient history does not enter into the 
plan of the following work, nevertheless it appear- 
ed necessary to give here a brief sketch of it to 
ader, with the view of connecting the order 
of time, and the chain of the great events that 
have occurred from the remotest ages to the pre- 
sent day. We have divided it into three periods, 
the tint of which embrace* 9000, the second 10UO, 
and the third 900 yean. 

The first period, which comprises thirty centu- 
ries, is almost wholly fabulous. The notices of it 
that have been transmitted to us are very imperfect. 
The order of time cannot be established on any 
solid foundation. Even the anthenti. iu of the 
famous Parian marbles has been called in ques- 
tion as spurious ; and there is no othrr chronology 
that can guide our uteps through thi dark labyrinth 
of profane history. The only literary monuments 
i us of these remote and obscure ages, 
are the books of Moses and the Jews. Herodotus, 
the earliest profane historian, wrote more than 

a thousand )ears after Moses, and about 440 be- 
fore Christ. He had been preceded several cen- 
turies by Sanchoniathoit the Phoenician ; but the 
work of this latter historian is lost, and there exist 
only a few scattered fragments of it in Porphyry 
and Eusebius. 

It appears, therefore, that of the 43OO yean that 
fall within the compass of ancient history, the Ant 
thirtj centuries may, without inconvenience, be 
retrenched. Amidst the dsrhnes* of those ages, 
we discover nothing but the germs of tmriatiee. 

; i menta, sciences, and arts. The . 
the Israelites, the Phoenicians, the Assyrians, the 
Babylonians, or Chaldeans, made then the moat 
conspicuous figure among the nation* of Asia and 

Egyptians and Chaldeans were the first 
who cultivated astronomy. Egypt was long the 
nursery of arts and sciences. The Phoenicians, 
without any other guide than the stars, boldly 
traversed unknown seas, and gave a vast extent of 
intercourse to their commerce and na\i 

founded many celebrated colonies, such as 
Carthage in Africa, and Malaga, and Cadiz on the 
bores of Spain. 

The history of Europe, which is utterly un- 
known during the first two thousand years, begins 
to exhibit in tin- third millenary a few slight no- 
tices of ancient Greece. A multitude of petty 
states had then taken root ; most of which, as 
Argos, Athens, and Thebes, had been founded by 
colonies from l'._'\|>t. The Greeks, in imitation of 
the Plurnicians, applied themselves to art*, navi- 
gation, and commerce. They established nume- 
rous colonies, not only on the coasts of Asia 
Minor, but on those of Italy and Sicily. That in 
Italy, or Calabria, was known by the name 
of Magna Gnecia. 

It was during the second period of ancient his- 
tory, or in the fourth millenary, that great and 
powerful monarchies arose ; which contributed to 
the progress of arts and civilisation, and the per- 
fection of society. These are commonly reckoned 
five, viz., the Egyptian, the Assyrian, the Persian, 
the Macedonian, and the Roman ; all of which 
successively established themselves on the ruins of 
each other. 

The history of the first two monarchies is en- 
M'li.ped in mystery and doubt. Of the ancient 
Egyptians, nothing now remains but their pyra- 
mids, their temples, and obelisks, monuments 
which can only attest the power and grandeur of 
the ancient sovereigns of Egypt. 

As to the Assyrian antiquities, the contradic- 
tions that we find between the narratives of 1 ' 
dotus and Ctosias, cannot fail to make us reject, 
as fabulous, the details of the latter, negating the 
magnificence of Niuus, Bemiramis, and Sarda- 
napalus, the supposed monarch* of Assyria and 
Babylon. Nothing certain is known of this em- 
pin-, or the conquests of these- king*, beyond what 
we find recorded in the annals of the Jew*. 8hal- 
maneeer, King of Assyria, subdued the kingdom 
of Samaria or Israel, about the year of the world 
3370 ; and Nebuchadnetsar. one of hi* successor*, 
conquered that of Judah and Jerusalem, about the 
year :t i 

The Persian monarchy we* founded by Cyras, 
who put an end to the dominion of the Assyrian* 
and Babylonians, by taking the city of Babylon, 


(\.ii()U.->t.- ui Alexander. 
Greece Subdued. 


Kings of Rome. 
Republic of Home. 


about the year of the world 3463. The Persian 
empire, when at i:s greatest height, under Darius 
. comprehended all that jiart of Asia 
which stretches from the Iiidus to the Caspian 
.slid from the Kuxiiie to the shores of the 
Mediterranean. Egypt in Africa, and Thrace in 
Europe, were subject to its laws. After a dura- 
tion of nearly two centuries, it was finally de- 
stroyed by the Macedonians in the year 3672. 

Greece, which was at first divided into several 
petty kingdoms, changed its condition towards the 
commencement of the fourth millenary ; when its 
principal cities, till then governed by kings, formed 
themselves into detached republics. An enthu- 
siasm for liberty spread over all Greece, and in- 
spired every bosom with the love of glory. Mili- 
tary bravery, as well as arts, and talents of all 
kinds, were fostered and encouraged by public 
games, the principal of which were the Olympic. 
Two cities, Athens and Lacedsemon, fixed upon 
themselves for a time the eyes of all Greece. So- 
lon was the legislator of the former, and Lycurgus 
of the latter. To these two republics all the rest 
succumbed, either as allies, or by right of conquest. 
Athens has rendered herself immortal by the vic- 
tories which she pained over the Persians, at the 
famous battles of Marathon, Salamis, and Plataa ; 
fought A. M. 3512, 3522, and 3523. 

The ascendancy which these victories procured 
the Athenians over the rest of the Greek states, 
excited the jealousy of the Lacedaemonians, and 
became the principal cause of the famous civil war 
which arose in 3572, between these two republics, 
and which is known by the name of the Pelopon- 
iit-i;m war. This was followed by various other 
civil wars ; and these disasters contributed greatly 
to exhaust the Greeks, and to break that union 
which had been the true source of their prosperity 
and their glory. Philip, King of Macedon, had 
the address to turn these unhappy divisions to his 
own advantage, and soon made himself master of 
all Greece. The battle of Chseronea, which he 
4 over the Athenians about the year of the 
world 3646, completed the conquest of that coun- 

Alexander the Great, son of Philip, afterwards 
attacked the Persian empire, which he utterly 
OM rthrew, in consequence of the three victories 
which he gained over Darius Codomannus, the last 
of the Persian kings, at the passage of the Granicus 
in :H;I;S, at Issus in 3669, and near Arbela in 

The monarchy founded by Alexander fell to pieces 
after his death. From its wreck were formed, 
: lining others, by three of his generals, the three 
kingdoms of Macedon, Syria, and Egypt ; all of 
which were conquered in succession by the Ro- 
mans, A. M. 3835, 3936, and 3972. Greece itself 
had been reduced to a Roman province, after the 
famous sack of Corinth, and the destruction of the 
AHia-an league, A. M. 3856, or 144 years before 

mpire of the Greeks was succeeded by 
that of the Romans, which is distinguished from 
all its predecessors, not more by its extent and 
duration, than by the wisdom with which it was 
administered, and the fine monuments of all kimls 
which it has transmitted to posterity. The great- 
of this empire was not, however, tin- acliicM- 
ment of a single conqueror, but the work of ages. 

Its prosperity must be chiefly ascribed to the pri- 
mitive constitution of the Republic, which inspired 
the Romans with the love of liberty, and the spirit 
of patriotism, which animated them to glory and 
perseverance, and taught them to despise danut is 
and death. Their religion, likewise, served as a 
powerful engine to restrain and direct the multi- 
tude, according to the views and designs of the 

The earlier part of the Roman history may be 
divided into three periods. The first of these re- 
presents Rome under the government of kings ; 
from the time of its foundation, about the year of 
the world 3249, to the expulsion of Tarquin the 
Proud, and the establishment of the Republic, in 
3493. The second extends from the establishment 
of the Republic, in the year of Rome 245, to the 
first Punic war, in the year of the City -490, and 
of the world 3738. The third commences with 
the first Punic war, and terminates at the battle 
of Actium, which put an end to the Republican 
goveniment, and re-established monarchy under 
Augustus, in the year of Rome 723. 

During the first of these periods, the Romans 
had to sustain incessant wars with their neighbours, 
the petty states of Italy. They subdued the whole 
of that peninsula in course of the second period ; 
and it was not till the third, that they carried 
their arms beyond their own country, to conquer 
the greater portion of the then known world. The 
first two periods of the Roman history are full of 
obscure and uncertain traditions. In those remote 
ages, the Romans paid no attention to the study 
of letters. Immersed entirely in the business of 
war, they had no other historical records than the 
annals of their pontiffs, which perished in the sack 
of Rome, at the time of its invasion by the Gauls, 
in the year of the City 365. 

The most ancient of their historians was Fabius 
Pictor, who wrote his Annals in the sixth century 
after the foundation of Rome, or about the time of 
the second Punic war. These Annals, in which 
Fabius had consulted both tradition and foreign 
authors, are lost ; and we possess no information 
on these two periods of Roman history, except 
what has been left us by Dionysius of Halicar- 
nassus, and Titus Livius, who both wrote in the 
reign of Augustus, and whose narratives often 
resemble a romance rather than a true history. 

The cultivation of letters and arts among the 
Romans did not, properly speaking, commence 
until the third period ; and after they had had in- 
tercourse with civilized nations, as the Carthagi- 
niaus and Greeks. It was not until 484 jenrs 
after the building of the city that they struck their 
first silver coinage ; and ten years afterwards, they 
equipped their first fleet against the Carthaginians. 
It is at this period, also, that truth begins to dawn 
upon their history, and to occupy the place of 
fable and tradition. Besides their native histo- 
rians, Titus Livius, Florus, and Velleius Patercu- 
lus, several Greek authors, as Polybius, Plutarch, 
Appian of Alexandria, Dion Cassius, &c. have 
furnished useful memorials on this period. The 
history of Polybius, especially, i* a work of the 
highest merit. The statesman will there find les- 
sons on politics and goveniment, and the soldier 
instructions in the art of war. 

A long scries of foreign wars put the Romans 
in possession of the Isles of the Mediterranean, 

I! .,:.:, I. ,.,,-.. 


H .. ...i 

Spain, Northern Africa, Egypt, Caul. Illyria, Ma- 
' reece, Thrace, and all Asia, as far as 

!iage was the grand ca' 
that decided the empire of the world in favour of 

thagr was a colony which the ancient Phe- 
nicians had founded on the coast of Africa, near 

.di-rii city ( Tunis, in (he year of the World 
. and 180 b*for the founding of Rome. In 
:on of their mother country, the Carthagi- 
nians rendered themselves famous by thru 
chandise nnd their marine. The extent to win. h 

irrn-d their commerce, nnd the force neces- 
sary for its protection, rendered their arms 
where victorious. They irrndually extended their 

conquests aloni: the shores of Africa, in Spain, and 
iiidsofthe Mediterranean. 

The attempts which they had made to get pos- 
session of Sicily was the occasion of embroiling 
them in a war with the Romans. For nearly two 
hundred years, Rome and Carthage disputed be- 
tween them the empire of the world ; and it was 
not until these two mighty rivals had, more than 
once, made each other tremble for their independ- 
ence, that the Carthaginians yielded to the yoke 
of the conqueror. Their capital, after a siege 
vvhieh lasted nearly three years, was completely 
laid in ruins by the famous Scipio .ICmilianus, tin- 
scholar of Polybius. No monument of the Car- 
thaginians now remains to point out the ancient 
splendour of that republic. Their national ar- 
-. and all the literary treasures they contained, 
perished with the city, or were destroyed by the 
Romans. The destruction of Carthage happened 
in the year of Rome 608, and of the world 
the same year that witnessed the sack of Corinth. 

The fall of Carthage, and more especially the 
conquest -M'N an l tnc Asiatic king- 

doms, occasioned a wonderful revolution in tin- 
manners and government of the Unmans. The 
riches of the Hast, the arts and institutions of the 
vanquished nations, brought them acquainted with 
luxuries they had never known, which soon proved 
the fatal harbingers of vice. Their patriotism and 
IOM- of lib.-rty insensibly declined, and became 
'vverful and ambitious citizens foment. -d 
insurrections and civil wars, which ended in the 
subversion of the republican government, and the 
establishment of monarchy . 

i Two triumvirates appeared in succession. The 
first consisted of Pompey, Cs?sar, and Crassus, 
and was dissolved in consequence of the civil war 
that arose among the triumvirs. Ctrsar, having 
conquered Pmupcy at the battle of Pharsalia, in 
the year ' . became master of the eiu- 

utider the title of perpetual dictator. This 
new elevation of fortune In- did not long enjoy ; 
he was assassinated in the senati* by a band of con- 
spirators, at the head of whom was Brutus, in the 
>f Rome 710, .. re the birth of 

t hrist. 

A second triumvirate was formed between Mark 

Antony, Crsar Octavianus, and Lepidus. Many 

aids of illustrious Romans, and among others 

this time proscribed, and put to 

t the triumvirs. Jealousy having 

at length disunited these new tyrants, Octavianus 

stript l.cpidus <.f his power, and defeated Mark 

Antony ui the famous naval battle which took 

place near the promontory of Actium, in the year 

, hsTffasj been rinilid 

vpl. immediately after hi* defeat, (' 

tariainis 1 . >tbich 

he afterwards rulel with sovereifn authority under 

'Ins tune t!.. Unman empire comprehended 
tin- finest countries i : with 

and all the northern part of Africa. It 
was bounded on the west by the Ithine and the 
Danube, and on the east by the Euphrates. The 
QMwaors of Augustus added the greater part of 
Britain to the empire. Trajan carried his \ ; 
ous arms beynml the I):muh<- ; In- conquiTi-d the 
Dacians, who inhabited those countries known at 
present under the name of llunirary , Transylvania, 
Moldavia, Walachia, and Bessarabia. In the East 
this prince extended the limits of the empire be- 
yond the Kuphrates, having subdued Mesopotamia, 
Assyria, Armenia, Colchis and Iberia (or < 
gia) ; but the conquests of Trajan were aban- 
doned hy his successors, and the empire again 
shrunk within the bounds prescribed by Augustas. 

This empire, which extended from north to 
south nearly six hundred leagues, and more than 
a thousand from east to west, rix. from the I 
the 50 of latitude, comprised a total of 180,000 
square leagues. The population, during its most 
flourishing state, may be estimated at about 
120,000,000, a population which equals that of 
modern Kurope, with the exception of Great Bri- 
tain, Denmark, Sweden, Russia, and Turkey. 

The government which had been introduced 
was. an absolute monarchy, only clothed with the 
forms of the ancient republic. I'nder the popular 
titles of consul, tribune of the people, general, 
grand pontiff, censor, &c., the prince united in 
himself all the various attributes of supreme p< 
The senate indeed enjoyed extensive prerogatives; 
the legislative power, which had been feserved at 
first for the people, was afterwards transferred to 
this body ; but as the military were wholly sub-, 
ordinate to the prince, and as he had also at his 
command a numerous guard, it is easy to per 
that the authority of the senate was but precari- 
ous, and by no means a counterpoise to that of the 

A government so constructed could not insure 
the welfare and happiness of the people. . 
under princes as humane as Titus, as just and en- 
lightened as Trajan and the Antonines; or so long 
as the forms introduced hy Augustus should be 
respected. It could not fail to degenerate into ar- 
bitrary power, under tyrants such as Til" 
Caligula, Nero, nnd Domitian ; and the senate 
must then have been but a servile instrument in 
the hands of the prince, employed by him to faci- 
litate the means of satiating his passions and his 
tyranny . 

maxims of absolute power soon became the 
fashionable and favourite doctriix . be- 

gan to teach publicly that all the authority of the 
senate nnd the people was transferred t" 
prince ; that he was superior to the laws ; that his 
p..\\.r i xti'iulcd to the li\es and fortunes of the 
. iti/i-ns; and tint he might dispose of the state 
as his own patrimony. These encroachmr: 
despotism, joined to the instability of the imperial 
throne, the decay of military discipline, the un- 
bridled licence of the troops, the employing whole 


10 Christianity Established. 
Arcadiiis. Honorius. 


The Nine Periods 
tn-atcd of in this 

corps of barbarians in their wars, must all be reck- 
om-il among the number of causes that hastened 
the downfall of the Roman empire. 

Coiistantine the Grear was the first of the em- 
perors that embraced Christianity, and made it 
the established religion of the state in 324. He 
quitted the city of Rome, the ancient residence 
of the Ca?sars, and fixed his capital at Byzantium, 
in 330, which took from him the name of Con- 
stantinople. Anxious to provide for the security 
of his new capital, he stationed the rlower of his 
legions in the East, dismantled the frontiers on the 
Kliine and the Danube, and dispersed into the 
provinces and towns the troops who had hereto- 
fore encamped on the borders of these great rivers. 
In this waj he secured the peace and tranquillity 
of the interior, and infused, for a time, a new vi- 
gour into the government ; but he committed a 
great mistake in giving the first example of mak- 
ing a formal division of the state between his sons, 
without regard to the principle of unity and indi- 
visibility which his predecessors had held sacred. 
It is true, this separation was not of long continu- 
ance ; but it was renewed afterwards by Theodo- 
stu-- tin Great, who finally divided the empire be- 
tween his two sons in the year 395 ; Arcadius 
had the eastern, and Honorius the western part of 
the empire. This latter comprehended Italy, 
Gaul, Britain, Spain, Northern Africa, Rhetia, 
Yindelicia, Noricum, Pannonia, and Illyria. It 
was during the reign of Honorius, and under the 
administration of his minister Stilico, that the 
memorable invasion of the barbarians happened, 
which was followed shortly after by the destruc- 
tion of the Western Empire. 

It is with this great event, which gave birth to 
a variety of new states and kingdoms, that the fol- 
lowing History of the Revolutions of Europe com- 
mences. It is divided into nine sections or pe- 
riods of time, according to the successive changes 
which the political system of Europe experienced 
from the fifth to the nineteenth century. 

In the first, which extends to the year 800, the 
barbarians, who invaded the Western Empire, 
formed new states in Spain, Gaul, and Italy ; and 
produced a complete revolution in the govern- 
ment, laws, manners, letters, and arts of Europe. 
It was during this period that the Franks gained 
the ascendancy over the other European nations ; 
that the Popes laid the groundwork of their secu- 
lar power ; that Mahomet founded a new religion 
in Asia, and ;in empire which extended through 
Africa into Sp;iin. 

In the second period, which extends from 800 
to 962, a vast empire was erected, and again dis- 
membered, after enjoying a short-lived splendour. 
From its wreck were formed new kingdoms, which 
have served as the basis for several states of mo- 
dern times. Ol: stablished by the Nor- 
mans, Russians, and Hungarians. 

In the third period, which terminates with the 
1072, Germany became the preponderating 
power, and began to decline, through the abuse of 
tin- feudal -Astern. The House of Capet mounted 
the throne of France ; :ui<l the Normans achieved 
the conquest of England. The Northern nations, 
converted to Christianity, began to make some 

figure in history : the monarchy of Russia became 
great and powerful ; while the Greek empire, or 
that of the Remans, fell into decay. 

During the fourth period, which ends with the 
Mar 1300, the Roman Pontiffs acquired an im- 
mense sway. This is also the epoch of the Cru- 
sades, which had a powerful influence on the 
social and political state of the European nations : 
The darkness of the middle ages began gradually 
to disappear ; the establishment of communities, 
and the enfranchisement of the serfs, gave birth 
to new ideas of liberty. The Roman jurispru- 
dence was restored from the neglect and oblh ion 
into which it had fallen, and taught in the unhcr- 
sities : Italy was covered with a multitude of re- 
publics, and the kingdoms of the Two Sicilies, and 
of Portugal were founded : The inquisition was 
established in France, and Magna Charta in Eng- 
land : The Moguls in the East raised, by their 
conquests, a powerful and extensive empire. 

The fifth period, which ends at the taking of 
Constantinople by the Turks in 1453, witnessed 
the decline of the Pontifical jurisdiction : Learning 
and science made some progress, and various im- 
portant discoveries prepared the way for still 
greater improvements : Commerce began to nou- 
rish, and extend its intercourse more widely : the 
European states assumed their present form ; while 
the Turks, an Asiatic race, established their do- 
minion in Europe. 

The sixth period, from 1453 to 164, is the 
epoch of the revival of the belles lettres, and the fine 
arts ; and of the discovery of America : It is also 
that of the Reformation of religion accomplished 
in Germany ; the influence of which has extended 
over all the countries in the world. It was like- 
wise during this period that Europe was desolated 
by religious wars, which eventually must have 
plunged it again into a state of barbarism. The 
peace of Westphalia became the basis of the poli- 
tical system of Europe. 

In the seventh period, from 1648 to 1713, this 
federal system was turned against France, whose 
power threatened to overturn the political balance 
of Europe. The peace of Utrecht set bounds to 
the ambition of its aspiring monarclis, while that 
of Oliva adjusted the contending claims of the 

The European states, delivered from the terror 
of universal dominion, began to think the 
blishment of it an impossibility ; and losing con- 
ceit of the system of political equipoise, thoj sub- 
stituted in its place maxims of injustice and 

The eiyhtk period, which comes down to I 
is an epoch of weakness and corruption, during 
which the doctrines of a libertine and impious phi- 
losophy led the way to the downfall of thrones and 
the subversion of social order. 

[The consequences of this new philosophy bring 
us to the ninth period, during which Europe was 
almost entirely rcu>lutmni/cd. The present his- 
tor\ terminates with the year 1S15, which forms 
a natural division in this revolutionary epoch ; the 
final results of which can be known only to pos- 

; v ,.,,.n ,,f I),.- II. .!.,,: 

Kmnin. by Northern 

I) I. A.D. 405800. 

Th.- % 


101) I. 


1 IN. TIME OP CHAItl.l.M \i,M.. A.D. 

Iloman empire had, for many years, been 
gradually tending towards its downfall. 
gin were exhausted ; and it required no great 
efforts to lay prostrate that gigantic power v 
y lost its strength and n< ' 

of the government, the rclaxati, 
pline, the animosities of faction, and the miseries 
of the people, all announced the approaching ruin 
of the empire. Divided by mutual jealousies, 
enervated by luxury, and oppressed by desp, 
the Romans were in no condition to withstand the 
numerous swarms of barbarians from the North, 
who, unacquainted with luxury, and despising 
danger and death, had learned to conquer in the 
t' the Imperial armies. 

, ml of the Kmperors, guided by a short- 
sighted policy, had received into their pay entire 
battalions of foreigners; and, to recompense their 
services, had assigned them settlements in the 
frontier provinces of the empire. Thus the Franks 
obtained, by way of compensation, territories in 

Gaul ; while similar grants were made in 

iiia and in Thrace to the Vandals, Alans, 

, and other barbarians. This liberality of 
the Romans, which was a true mark of weakness, 
ith the vast numbers of these troops 
which they employed in their wars, at length ac- 
ted the barbarians to regard the empire as 
their prey. Towards the close of the year 406, 
the Vmdal-, the Suevi, and the Alans, sounded 
the tocsin of that famous invasion which a. 
rated the downfall of the Western empire. The 
example of these nations was soon followed by the 
he l!ur_'imdians, the Alemanns,' the 
Franks, the Huns, the Angles, the Saxons, the 

*, the Ostrogoths, and the Lombards. All 

nations, with the exception of the Huns, 

man origin. 

Tin: VANDALS, it appears, were originally set- 
tled in that part of northern Germany which lies 
between the I'.lbe and the Vistula. They formed 
a branch of the ancient Suevi, as did also the Bur- 
gundians and the Lombards. After the third cen- 

tnl under the reiirn of the Kmperor Probus, 
'h the Iturj'iiidinns, engaged in 
warring against the Romans on the Khinc. In 
the time of Am. they established them- 

selves in the Western part of Dacia, that i*, in 
Transylvania, and a part of modem Hungary. 
Oppressed in these districts by the Goths, they 
nstantine the Great settlement's 
, condition of rendem 

ervi. 'iey remained in Pan- 

nonia until the commencement of the fifth century, 
when they set out on their emigration towards 
Gaul. It was on this occasion that they associated 
-Ives with the Alans, a people originally 
from Mount Caucasus and an- i; a 

branch of which, settled in Sarmatia near the 

I "nieper, had ad- 
vanced as far as the Danube, and there made a 

formidable stand against the Romans. In 
passage through Germany, the Vandals and the 
Alans joined a body of the Suevi, who al- 
habited the banks of the Danube, eastward of the 
powerful nation of the Alemann*. ( Mt. I in this 
rude confederacy, thi-y enter- d (ianl, plundering 
and destroying wherever they went. Msyenee, 
ire, Strasbourg, and many flourishing 
of Gaul, were pillaged by these barbarians. 

THE GOTHS,* the most powerful of these de- 
structive nations, began to rise into notire in the 
third century, after the time of the Kmpemr 
Caracalla. They then inhabited the country 
between the Vistula, the Dniester, the Borys- 
th> DC*, and the Tanais or Don. It is not certain 
whether they were originally from these region*, 
or whether, in more remote times, they inhabited 
naxia, from which, accordingly Jornandes, 
a Gothic author, they emigrated at an early |v 
It is howi-M-r certain that they were of Oermn: 
traction ; and that, in the third and fourth 
they made the Csjsars tremble on their th: 
The Kinjieror Aurelian was compelled (274) to 
abandon the province of Daciu to their dominion. 

This nation, the first of the German tribes that 
embraced the Christian religion, 1 was divided, in 
their ancient settlements beyond the Danube, into 
two principal branches. They who inhabited the 
districts towards the east and the F.uxine Sea, 
between the Dniester, the Borysthenes, and the 
Tanais, were called Ostrogoths ; the Visigoths were 
the branch which extended westward, and occupied 
ancient Dacia, and the regions situated between 
the Dniester, the Danube, and the Vistula. At- 
tacked in these vast countries by the Huns 
some were subjugated, and others compel 
abandon their habitations. A part of the 
goths then fixed their abode in Thrace, in Mcesia, 
and the frontiers of Dacia, with consent of the 
emperors; who granted also to the 
settlements in Pannonia. At length the V!M 
after having twice ravaged Italy, sacked and plun- 
dered Rome, ended their conquests by establi- 
themselves in Gaul and in Spain. One branch of 
these Goths appears to have been the Thuringiana, 
whom we find in the tilth century established in 
the heart of Germany, where they erected a very 
powerful kingdom. 

TH -A ere probably a confederacy which 

rman tribes, situated between the Rhine, 

>\ eaer, and the Elbe, had !" 

among themselves, in order to maintain their 
liberty and independence against the Romans. 
Tacitus, who wrote about the commencement of 
the second century, did not know them under this 
new name, which occurs for tho first time in the 
historians of the thin! century. Among the i 
man tribes who composed this association we find 
. the Sicambri, the Chamnvi. the Che- 
rusci, the Bructeri, th Ampsivarii, the 

BJpoarii, the Salii, &c.* These tribes, though com- 

The Germans. 
The Alfmauui. 
Tin- II, ins. 


Tho Buigundians. 

Supvi imadc Gaul. 
Attila. Theodoric. 

bined for the purposes of common defence, under 
the general name of Franks, preserved, neverthe- 
less, cadi their laws and form of government, as 
well as their particular chiefs, anil the names of 
their aboriginal tribes. In the fourth, and towards 
the beginning of the fifth century, the whole 
country lying within the Rhine, the Weser, the 
Maine, and the Elbe, was called Francia. 

Another confederation of the German tribes was 
that of the A LI: MANNS ; unknown also to Tacitus. 
It took its origin about the commencement of the 
third century. Their territories extended between 
the Danube, the Rhine, the Necker, the Maine, 
and the Lahn. On the east, in a part of Fraiiconia 
and modern Suabia, they had for their neighbours 
and allies the SUEVI, who, after having longformed 
a distinct nation, were at length blended with the 
Alemanns and gave their country the name of 
Suabia. The Alemanns rendered themselves formi- 
dable to the Romans, by their frequent inroads into 
Gaul and Italy, in the third and fourth centuries. 

THE SAXONS, unknown also to Tacitus, began 
to make a figure in history about the second cen- 
tury, when we find them settled beyond the Elbe, 
in modern Holstein, having for their neighbours 
the ANGLES, or English, inhabiting Sleswick Pro- 
per. These nations were early distinguished as 
pirates and freebooters ; and, while the Franks 
and the Alemanns spread themselves over the 
interior of Gaul, the Saxons infested the coasts, 
and even extended their incursions into Britain. 
The Franks having penetrated into Gaul with 
their main forces, the Saxons passed the Elbe, and 
in course of time occupied, or united in alliance 
with them, the greater part of ancient France, 
which took from them the name of Saxony. There 
they subdivided themselves into three principal 
branches, the Ostphalians to the east, the West- 
phalians to the west, and the Angrians or Angri- 
varians, whose territories lay between the other 
two, along the Weser, and as far as the confines of 

THE HUNS, the most fierce and sanguinary of 
all the nations which overran the Roman empire in 
the fifth century, came from the remote districts of 
northern Asia, which were altogether unknown to 
the ancient Greeks and Romans. From the de- 
scriptions which the historians of the fifth and 
sixth centuries have given us of them, we are led 
to believe that they were Kalmucks or Monguls 
originally. The fame of their arms had begun to 
spread over Europe so early as the year 375 of the 
Christian era. Having subdued the Alans, and 
crossed the Tanais, they subverted the powerful 
monarchy of the Goths, and gave the first impulse 
to the great revolution of the fifth century, which 
changed the face of all Europe. The Eastern 
empire first felt the fury of these barbarians, who 
carried lire and sword wherever they went, ren- 
dered the emperors their tributaries, and then 
precipitated themselves on the West under the 
conduct of the famous Attila.* 

Several of the nations we have now enumerated 
divided among themselves the territories of Gaul. 
This province, one of the richest and most im- 
portant in the Western empire, was repeatedly 
in and devastated by the barbarous hordes of 
th<- fifth century. The Visigoths were the first 
that formed settlements in it. On their arrival, 
under the command of King Atulf, or Adoljihus 

(412), they took possession of the whole country 
lying within the Loire, the Rhine, the Durance, 
the Mediterranean, and the Alps. Toulouse be- 
came their capital and the residence of their kings. 

THE BURGUNDIANS, a people, it would appear, 
originally from the countries situated between the 
Oder and the Vistula, followed nearly in the track 
of the Visigoths ; as we find them, about the y\ir 
413, established on the Upper Rhine and in Swit- 
zerland. After the dissolution of the empire they 
succeeded in establishing themselves in those parts 
of Gaul known by the names of the Sequanois, 
Lyonnois, Viennois, and Narbonnois, viz. in those 
districts which formed, in course of time, the two 
Burgundies, the provinces of Lyonnois, Dauphiny, 
and Provence on this side of the Durance, Savoy, 
the Pays de Vaud, the Valais, and Switzerland. 6 
These countries then assumed the name of the 
Kingdom of the Burgundians. 

THE ALEMANNI and the SUEVI became flourish- 
ing nations on the banks of the Upper Rhine and 
the Danube. They invaded those countries in 
Gaul, or the Germania Prima of the Romans, 
known since under the names of Alsace, the Pa- 
latinate, Mayence, &c. ; and extended their con- 
quests also over a considerable part of Rhetia and 

At length the Franks, having been repulsed in 
different rencounters by the Romans, again passed 
the Rhine (430), under the conduct of Clodion, 
their chief; made themselves masters of the greater 
part of Belgic Gaul, took possession of Tournay, 
Cambray, and Amiens ; and thus laid the foun- 
dation of the new kingdom of France in Gaul. The 
Romans, however, still maintained their authority 
in the interior of that province, and the brave 
JEtius, their general, made head against all those 
hordes of barbarians who disputed with him the 
dominion of Gaul. 

It was at this crisis that the HUNS made their 
appearance on the theatre of war. The fierce 
Attila, a man of great military talents, after having 
overthrown various states, conquered Pannonia 
and different provinces of the Eastern empire on 
the right bank of the Danube, undertook his 
famous expedition into Gaul. Marching along the 
Danube from Pannonia, at the head of an innu- 
merable army, 7 he passed the Rhine near the 
Lake of Constance, pillaged and ravaged several 
places, and spread the terror of his arms over all 
Gaul. The Franks and the Visigoths united their 
forces with those of the Roman general, to arrest 
the progress of the barbarian. A bloody and ob- 
stinate encounter took place (451) on the plains 
of Chalons-sur-Marne, or Mery-sur-Seine, accord- 
ing to others. Thierry King of the Visigoths, 
and more than a hundred and sixty thousand men, 
perished on the field of battle. lS"i;;ht separated 
the combatants ; and Attila, who found his troops 
too much exhausted to renew the combat, resolved 
to retreat. The following year he made :i descent 
on Italy, and committed great devastations. This 
proved his last expedition; for he died suddenly 
on his return, and the monarchy of the Huns ex- 
pired with him. 

The defeat of the Huns did not re-establish the 
shattered and ruinous affairs of the Romans in 
Gaul. The Salian Franks, 8 under their kings 
Meroveus and Childeric I., the successors of 
Clodiou, extended their conquests more and more ; 

\ MS* ,,,.1 \.,.. 

,,<>,, hi Ipifi 

A.D. 406-400. 


Tbr BriU*. 

till at length I'lovis, ton of Childcric I., put an 
i ml to r..- dominion : u m thai 

.ry which he K . *>\, at 

Soisaon*, over Syagriu*, the last of the It 
general*, who died of a broken heirt in COOM- 

<(ll :i. . ,il' til- il'-l- it. '1 :..' Al. ... '.: - ill i .:,!, 

h.iMiig ditpoted with him tin- . :i,|.i . .if the (.aul, 

he routed them completely i t ".. j..,. uinous 

battl. <>r /ulpieh ;' s. u. .1 tin ir cttales, 

and toon after embraced Christianity, l.mbold- 

ened by hi* new creed, and backed by the orthodox 

,>, he atia> \ utigothn, who \*. 

.-retical tert <>t 4ted and killed 

VUri.- II., in the plain* of VougK, near 

'7 i, .iu. I stripped tin -in nt* all tin ir pos- 

aaaions between the Loire and the Pyrenees. ' 

became thus, by degrees, the uiulisputi-il 

MMMtaion of the Franks. The descendant* of 

( I..M- .i.l ;.-c| to their conquests the kingdom of the 

Burgundiana (534), which they totally overthrew. 

These same prince* increased their possessions 
in the interior of Germany, by the destruction of 
the powerful kingdom of the Thuringiaus (531), 
comprisin.; those vast countries betw eeii tin- V. 
th.- All. r, th.- Kll.i-. the Saal, the Mulda, and th.- 
Danube ; and which are now known under the 
name* of Saxony, Thuringia, Franconia, the ( ]>|-r 
Palatinate, " &c. Thukingduin they .Im.l.-d with 
their allic* the Saxons, who obtained the northern 
part of it, situated between the L nstrut and the Saul. 

U In!.- the Visigoths, the Burgundians, the 
Franks and the Alemanns, were disputing with 
each other the conquest of Gaul, the Vandals, the 
Sue\i, :iu<l the Alans, turned their ambitious views 
toward* Spain. After having settled some yean 
ml. these tribes passed the Pyrenees (4O9) 
to establish themselves in the most fertile re- 
gions of Spain. The Vandals seized Boetica, and 
a part of Ualliria ; the Suevi seized the rest of 
Gallicia ; while the Alans took possession of 
1.11-11.1111:1 uiul the pn>\inee of Carthagena. The 
A Una afterward* Mihmittcd to the sway ofGon- 
tlerie. King of the Vandals (420), while the Sue\i 
preserved their native princes, who reigned in 
Gallicia and l.tiMtauia; thi.i latter province* having 
been abandoned by the Vaudah) (427) when they 
passed into Africa. 

Meanwhile new conquerors began to make their 
appearance in Spain. The Visigoths, pressed by 
the Romans in Gaul, took the resolution of carry- 
ing their arms beyond the Pyrenees. Under the 
conduct of their Knur, Adolphus, they made them- 
selves masters of the city of Barcelona (in 415). 
Kurie, one of the successors of this prince, took 
from the Romans (472) all that yet remained ,,t 
their posMssaons in Spain ; and LeovigUd, another 
of their kinK*, completed the conquest of all that 
count > reducing the kingdom of the 

Sue\i. The monarchy <il' the Vi-i^utliH, \\ hich in 
it- !!..nri-!iiiu' -t ite compiined, besides the conti- 
iH-nt <>f Spam. Septimania L: . iii Gaul, 

and Mauritania Tingitana in Africa, maintained 
it* existence until the <.< .-nt of the 

ei-hth century ; \\ln-n, as we shall afterwards see, 
it was tin. illy <>\iTthri>\vn l.y the Arabs. 

i, one of the finest posaeaaions of 
the Romans was wrested from them by the Van- 
dals. Count Boniface, who had the government 
of that country, ha\ing been falsely accused at the 
court of the ilmperor Valentiuian HI., and be- 

in the esteem of that p.- 

> the \ .,ii,| ,N ..-. ng to 

th* suiTOudcr ..f the pn.Mi 

' letiM-ric was at that tin,. L 
.nduli. Tho prepomli 
goths had ac<|iiiri-d in Sp.un induced that prince 

. |.t the offer of the Roman General ; li. 
barked at the port of Andaluiia (427). and pasaed 
uith the Vandal* and the Alan* into Africa. 
Meantime liunii.icc, h.ium; mude up matters 
amicably with the lm|> 1 to retract 

tin- . n-a^i-ini nit which he had made with the 
Vandals. Genseric nevertheleaa persisted in his 
enterpn--. lie carried on a long and obstinate 
war with the Romans ; the result of which turned 
to the advantage of the barbarians. Genseric con* 
quered in succession ail that part of Africa per- 
taining to the Western empire, from the Straits of 
Cadiz as far as Cyrcnaica, which was dependent 
tut tin- empire of the East. He subdued likewise 
the Balearic Isles, with Sardinia, Corsica, and a 
part of Sicily. 

The \\riters of that age who speak of this in- 
vasion agree in painting, in the most lively colours, 
the horrors with which it wan accompanied. It 
appears that (ien-eric, whose whole subject-, in- 
cluding old men and slaves, did not exceed eighty 
thousand persons, being resolved to maintain his 
authority by terror, caused, for this purpose, a 
general massacre to be made of the ancient in- 
habitants of Africa. To these political severities 
\\en- added others on the s.core of religion ; being 
devoted with all hi* subjects to the Arian heresy, 
he aa well as his successors became the constant 
and implacable persecutors of the orthodox 

This prince signalized himself by his maritime 
exploits, and by the piracies which he committed 
on the coasts of Italy and the whole Roman 
empire. Encouraged, as is supposed, by the 
KmpreHS Eudoxia, \vln.\vi.sln-d to avenge the death 
<>f her husband Valentinian III., he undertook an 
\ji. liitiun into Italy (4.">.">). in wlu.h he made 
himself muster of Rome. This city waa pillaged 
during nftcen days l.y the Vandals, spoiled of all 
it.s riches and it- finest monuments. Innumerable 
statues, ornament* of temples, and the gilded 
cupola of the temple of Jupiter C'apitolinu-. 
removed in order to be transported to Africa; 
together with many thousands! of illustrious cap- 
tives. A vessel laden with the most precious monu- 
of Rome perished in the paaaage. 

The dominion of the Vandals in Africa lasted 
about a hundred years. Their kingdom was de- 
stroyed by the Emperor Justinian, who reunited 
Africa to tlie empire of the East. Gilimcr, the last 
king of the Vandals, waa conquered by Bclisariu* 

and conducted by him in triumph to < 

BRITAIN, inaccessible by its situation to moat of 
the in\ aden that overran the Western empire, waa 
infested in the fifth century by the northern in- 
habitants of that island the free Britons, known 
hy tin* name of Caledonians or Picts, and Scots, 
i tomans having withdrawn their legions from 
the inland (410). to employ them in Gaul, the 
Britons abandoned to their own strength, thought 
proper to elect a kinu of their own nation, named 
Northern; hut, finding themselves still too weak 
to resist the incursions of the Picts and Scots, 


Anglo- Saxons. 
The Hr),t;iri-hy. 
. belt. " 



Justinian and Ifelisarius. 

Lombards. COIU|IUT Italy. 

who, breaking over the wall of Severus, pillaged 
and laid wa>te the Roman province, they took 
the imprudent resolution, of calling in to their 
succour the Angles, Saxons, and Jut landers, who 
were already distinguished for their maritime in- 
cursions. A body of these .us, arrived 
in Britain (450) in the first year of the reign of 
the Emperor Marcian, under the command of 
Hengist and Horsa. From being friends and 
allies, they soon became enemies of the Britons ; 
and ended by establishing their own dominion in 
the island. The native islanders, after a protracted 
struggle, were driven into the province of "Wales, 
where they succeeded in maintaining their inde- 
pendence against their new conquerors. A num- 
ber of these fugitive Britons, to escape from the 
yoke of the invaders, took refuge in Gaul. There 
they wen- received by the Franks into Annorica 
and part of Lyonnois, to which they gave the 
name of Brittany. 

The Anglo-Saxons founded successively seven 
petty kingdoms in Britain, viz., Kent, Sussex, 
ex, Essex, Northumberland, East Anglia, 
and Mercia. Each of these kingdoms had se- 
verally their own kings ; but they were all united 
in a political association, known by the name of 
the Heptarchy. One of the seven kings was the 
common chief of the confederacy ; and there was 
a general convention of the whole, called wittena- 
geniot, or the assembly of the wise men. Each 
kingdom was likewise govemed by its own laws, 
and had its separate assemblies, whose power 
limited the royal authority. This federal system 
continued till the ninth century, when Egbert the 
Great succeeded in abolishing the Heptarchy (S27), 
and raised himself to be king over all England. 

Jn the midst of this general overthrow there 
were still to be seen in Italy the phantoms of the 
Roman emperors, feebly supporting a dignity which 
had long since lost its splendour. This fine 
country had been desolated by the Visigoths, the 
Huns, and the Vandals, in succession, without be- 
coming the fixed residence of any one of these 
nations. The conquest of that ancient seat of the 
first empire in the world was reserved for the 
Heruls and the Rugians. Fora longtime these 
German nations, who are generally supposed to 
ha\.- emigrated from the coasts of the Baltic Sea, 
had been approaching towards the Danube. They 
served as auxiliaries to the Romans in Italy, after 
.ample of various other tribes of their coun- 
trvuien. Being resolved to usurp the dominion of 
that country, they chose for their king Odoacer, 
under whose conduct they seized Ravenna and 
Home, dethroned Romulus Momyllus Augustulus, 
the last of the Roman emperors (476), and put an 
entire end to the empire of the AYest. 

The Heruls did not enjoy these conquests more 
than M". enteen \ears, when the) were deprived of 
them in their turn by the Ostrogoths. This 
nation then occupied those extensive countries on 
tin* right bank of the Danube, in Pannonia, 
Ilhria, and Thrace, within the limits of the 
Eastern empire. They had rendered theiu- 
formidatde to the Romans in that quarter by their 
frequent incursions into the very heart of the 
empire. The F.mpi ror /eno, in order to withdraw 
these dangerous neighbours from his frontier*, 
encouraged their king, Theodoric, as is alleged, to 
undertake the conquest of Italy from the Heruls. 

This prince immediately penetrated into the coun- 
try : he defeated the Heruls in several actions ; 
and at length forced Odoacer to shut himself up in 
the citv of Ravenna (4S<)), where, after a siege of 
three years, he fell into the hands of the con- 
queror, who deprived him at once of his throne 
and his life. 

Theodorii not to be confounded with 

the other barbarous kings of the fifth century. 
Educated at the court of Constantinople, where he 
passed the years of his youth, he had learned to 
establish his authority by the equity of his laws, 
and the wisdom of his administrations. He ruled 
an empire which, besides Italy, embraced a great 
part of Pannonia, Rhetia, Noricum, and Illyria. 

This monarchy, formidable as it was, did not 
exist beyond the space of sixty years : after a san- 
guinary warfare of eighteen years, it was totally 
subverted by the Greeks. The Emperor Justinian 
employed his generals, Belisarius ls and N arses, in 
recovering Italy and Sicily from the hands of the 
Goths. This nation defended their possession* 
with determined obstinacy. Encouraged by Totila, 
one of their last kings, they maintained a pro- 
tracted struggle against the Greeks, and with con- 
siderable success. It was during this war that the 
city of Rome was pillaged afresh, and at length 
(547) dismantled by the Goths. Totila sustained 
a complete defeat at the foot of the Apennines in 
Umbria (552), and died of the wounds which he 
had received in the action. His successjr Teias 
was by no means so fortunate in military affairs. 
Ilia bloody battle which he fought with >x 
in Campania (553), he was vanquished and slain. 
His dominions passed into the hands of the 
Greeks, with the exception of that part of Rhetia 
and Noricum which the Alemanns occupied, and 
which, during the war between the Greeks and the 
Goths, had become the possession of the Franks. 13 

Anew revolution happened in Italy (">< is), by 
the invasion of the*Lombards. This people, who 
originally inhabited the northern part of Germany 
011 the Elbe, and formed a branch of the 
nation of the Suevi, had at length fixed them- 
in Paunonia (527), after several times chanying 
their abode. They then joined with the Avars, an 
Asiatic people, against the Gepida-, W!M p"esM'<l 
a formidable dominion in ancient Dacia, on tin- 
left bank of the Danube. This state \\a- 
overturned by the combined forces of the two 
nations, ami the whole territories of the Gepidaj 
passed (olio) under the dominion of the A 
The Lombards -also abandoned to them their pos- 
sessions in Pannonia, and went in quest of 
settlements into Italy. It was in the spring ot'.~><;s 
that they began their route, under the conduct of 
their King Alhoin, who, without coining to regular 
combat with the Greeks, took from them, in suc- 
cession, a great number of cities and province*. 
Pavia, which the Goths had fortified with 
was the only town that opposed him with vi- 
gorous resistance ; and it did not surrender till 
after a siege of three years, in .">72. The Lombard 
kings made this town the capital of their new 
dominions, which, besides I ppcr Italy, known 
more especially by the name of Lombardy, com- 
prehended also a considerable part of the middle 
and lower di-triets, which the Lombards gradually 
\\ rested from the Greeks. 

The revolution, of which we have just now 

OwwMle Nation*. 

ID I. V.I). 400-800. 

i a summary view, changed the (ace of all 

| Europe ; but it had a more particular influence on 

tale of an < any. The Germanic 

-. whose former boundaries were the Rhine 

and the Danube, now extended their ten 

beyond these m MIC* of thoae 

TtfrlT. IMOrdfd l>\ l.intus, fell into ohlixion, 

and were replaced by those of five or six grand 

. '.ilited. 1 ill I.-, \ .. . I 'I. 1 ' .1.'* -, - .\ : . 1 i I n. .. 

amis, Suabiana, and Bavarians 14 , which em- 
braced all the regions afterwards comprehended 
the name of Germany. 

Alemanns, and their neighbour* the Sua- 
bians, occupied, along with the Bavarian*, the 
greater part of what i* called I ;<;: < ierm 
both sides of the Danube as tar as the Alps. 
Franks, masters of a powerful monarchy it * 
preserved, under their immediate dominion l> 

a part of ancient Fru; > with 

the territories of which they hud deprived the 

inns'* and the Thurinifiuns. In short, in all 
Lower Germany, no other namea were to be found 
than thoae of the Thuringians, Saxons. 

LIU ; and a* to the eastern part, situated 
beyond the Saal and the 1.1 lie, as it had !, -n 
deserted of inhabitant ,iicnt emigrations 

man tribes, and hy the total destnu -lion 
of the kingdom of the Thnringians, it was ad and 
in turn by the Slavi, or Slavonian*, a race dis- 
tinguished from the Germans hy their language 
and their manners. 

This nation, different colonies of which still 
occupy a great part of Europe, did not begin to 
figure in history until the fourth century of tin- 
era. Jornandes, a Gothic writer of the 
sixth century, is the first author who mentions 
them. He call* them Slari, or Xlarini ; and dis- 
tiniruishes them into three principal branches, the 

Ii, the Slavi, and the Antes, whose nut 
tribes occupied the vast countries on the north of 
the l.uxine Sea, between the Vistula, the \ 
the N'ieper, &c. It was after the commencement 
of the sixth century that these i. .'rated 

(mm their ancient habitations, and spread them- 
aehrea over the east and south of F.urope. On the 

-i'l,' they ,-XteMde.! tl'.'ir r<.|.. I,,. > H I'll' BJ Ii. 

Eft* and the Saal ; on the other they crossed the 
Danube, and penetrated into Noricum, Pannonia, 
and Illyria ; occupying all those countries known 
at this d ; names of Hungary, Scln- 

f, via, Boania, Croatia, Dalmatia, Carniola, 

Carinthia, Stiria, and the march of t 

:itury preent nothing 

more memorable than tlie !,l...,dy wars which the 
.>i of the l-.ast had to maintain against the 
Slavians of the Dann 

sc colonies of them who first distinguished 
1. the Oder, and 

in the countries situated to the north of the 
.';>e, were I - ,\i of ltol>. 

rabiatiH inhabit. 
between the Saal ami 

kuown under the names of Miania, S:> 

. >wer Luaaee ; the ^\ 

tabes, and the Ah., trite*, spread over Bran- 
denburg, Pomerania, and Mecklenburg proper; 
and, lastly, the Monvi, ,, r Moravians, settled in 

ia. and in a part of m ' I 

til..!, iii the seventh century, a chief named Samo, 
who ruled over many of these nation*. He fought 

uccessfully againat the armies of King Dagobert. 

ii|>po-d that thin man wa* a Frank 
chant, whom M v ." HUrian tribe* had 

elected as their chief. 

iing which, at this period, ought 
above all to Hx our attention, and that u the in- 
fluence Whieli tin- 

i the government*, law*, mannei 

t* of Europe. The German trib-- 
hlitthinir t)iein>el\e^ in the |iii.\iiii-e< of the Western 
empire, iiitrodtin-d :ilon- with them the pt,\, 
institutions l>y whn-h tliey had been governed In 
their native country . '1 he governments of andent 

my were a kind of military democracies, 
under ganermh <>r chief*, with the prerogativea of 
All matters of importance were decided 
in tlieir -> neral assemblies, composed of freemen, 
li:i\in.' the pri\ilcge of carrying arms and going 
to war." The succession to the throne WD~ 
hereditary ; and, though it became so in fact in 
most of the new German states, still, on the ac- 
ceaaion of their princes, they were attentive t 
serve the ancient tornis which evinced the primi- 
tive riu'ht of election that the nation had reserved 

t.) itM-lf. 

I he political (livi-ion into canton* (gate), 
used in ancient Germany, was introi! 
all the new conquests of the German tribe*, to 
facilitate the administration of juMii-c. At the 
head of every canton was a justiciary officer, called 
Gran, in Latin Comet, who held his court in the 
open air, assisted by a certain number of assessors 
or sheriffs. This new division caused a total 
change in the geography of Europe. The ancient 
names of the countries wan every where, replaced 
by new ones ; and the alterations which the no- 
menclature of these divisions underwent in course 
of time crentid no small embarrassment in the 
study of the history and geography of the middle 

Among the freemen who composed the armies 
of the German nation* we find the gi iitiime and 
nolile-i, who were distinguished by the mini! 

'.t-arnw, or freemen, whom they carried in 
their train. ' T They all followed the kimr. or com- 
mon chief, of the expedition, not as mercenaries or 
r soldiers, but as volunteers who had come, 
of their own accord, to accompany him. 
booty and the conquests which they made in war 
they regarded a* a common pi which 

they had all an equal rijrht. The kind's, chiefs, and 
grandees, in the division of their territories, lecetved 
larger portions than the other military and free- 
men, on account of the greater efforts they had 
| made, and the greater number of warrior* who had 
followed them to the- field. These lands were 
them as property in every respect free ; and, 
although an obligation was implied of their con- 
curring in defence of the common cause, yet it was 
rather a sort of consequence O f the territorial grant, 
and not imposed upon them as a clause or eaaen- 
tial condition of the tenure. 

It is therefore wrong to regard this division of 
lands as having given ri*e to fiefc. War w 
favourite occupation, the only honourable rank, 
and the inalienable prerogative of a German. 1 
were soldiers, not of neceaairjr or constraint, but of 
their own free will, and because they despised 
every other employment, sad every other mode of 
life. Despotism wa, therefore, never to be ap- 

Customs of the 
16 (Jermuns. 

Fiefs <T Ik-noficcs. 


Puel-i mid Judgements 
of God. 

State of Literature. 

prehended in a government like this, where the 
great body of the nation -\vore in arms, sat in their 
sreneral assemblies, and marched to the field of war. 
.Their kings, however, soon invented an expedient 
calculated to shackle the national liberty, and to 
augment their own influence in the public assem- 
blies, by the number of retainers which they found 
means to support. This expedient, founded on the 
primitive manners of the Germans, was the institu- 
tion of fiefs. 

It was long a custom among the ancient Ger- 
mans, that their chiefs should have, in peace as 
well as in war, a numerous suite of the bravest 
youths attached to their person. Besides provi- 
sions, they supplied them with horses and arms, 
and shared with them the spoil which they took 
in war. This practice subsisted even after the 
Germans had established themselves in the pro- 
duces of the Western empire. The kings, and, 
after their example, the nobles, continued to enter- 
tain a vast number of companions and followers ; 
and, the better to secure their allegiance, they 
granted them, instead of horses and arms, the 
enjoyment of certain portions of land, which they 
dismembered from their own territories. 

These grants, known at first by the name of be- 
nejires, and afterwards otjiefs, subjected those who 
received them to personal services, and allegiance 
to the superiors of whom they held them. As 
they were bestowed on the individual possessor, 
and on the express condition of personal service, 
it is obvious that originally fiefs or benefices were 
not hereditary, and that they returned to the su- 
perior when the reason for which they had been 
given no longer existed. 

The laws and jurisprudence of the Romans were 
in full practice through all the provinces of the 
Western empire when the German nations esta- 
blished themselves there. Far from superseding 
or abolishing them, the invaders permitted the 
ancient inhabitants, and such of their new subjects 
as desired it, to live conformably to these laws, 
and to retain them in their courts of justice. Ne- 
vertheless, without adopting this system of juris- 
prudence, which accorded neither with the rude- 
ness of their manners, nor the imperfection of their 
ideas, they took great care, after their settlement 
in the Human provinces, to have their ancient cus- 
toms, to which they were so peculiarly attached, 
<iii:e-ied and reduced to writing. 

The Codes of the Salian and Ripuarian Franks, 
thus" of the Visigoths, the Burgundiaus, the Ba- 
varians, the Anglo-Saxons, the Frisians, the Ale- 
inanns, and the Lombards, were collected into one 
body, and liberty given to every citizen to be go- 
verned according to that code of laws which he 
himself might choose. All these laws wore the 
impress of the military spirit of the Germans, as 
well as of their attachment to that personal lilierty 
and independence which is the true characte- 
ristic of human nature in its primitive state. Ac- 
cording to these laws, every person was judged by 
his peers ; and the right of vengeance was reserved 
to the individuals, or the whole family, of those 
who had received injuries. Feuds, which thus be- 
came hereditary, were not however irreconcilable. 
Compromise was allowed for all private delin- 
quencies, which could be expiated, by paying to 
tlie injured party a specified sum, or a certain 
number of cattle. Murder itself might be expiated 

in this manner ; and every part of the body had a 
tax or equivalent, which was more or less se\ere, 
according to the different rank or condition of the 

Every freeman was exempt from corporal pu- 
nishment ; and, in doubtful cases, the law obliged 
the judge t > refer the parties to single combat, 
enjoining them to decide their quarrel sword in 
hand. Hence, we have the origin of the Judge- 
ments of God, as well as of Challenges and Duels. 18 
These customs of the German nations, and their 
singular resolution in persisting in them, could not 
but interrupt the good order of society, encourage 
barbarism, and stamp the same character of rude- 
ness on all their conquests. New wants sprung 
from new enjoyments ; while opulence, and the 
contagion of example, taught them to contract 
vices of which they had been ignorant, and which 
they did not redeem by new virtues. Murders, 
oppressions, and robberies, multiplied every day ; 
the sword was made the standard of honour, the 
rule of justice and injustice ; cruelty and perfidy 
became everywhere the reigning character of the 
court, the nobility, and the people. 

Literature, with the arts and sciences, felt above 
all the baneful effects of this revolution. In less 
than a century after the first invasion of the bar- 
barians there scarcely remained a single trace of 
the literature and fine arts of the Romans. Learn- 
ing, it is true, had for a long time been gradually 
falling into decay, and a corrupt taste had begun 
to appear among the Romans in works of genius 
and imagination ; but no comparison can be made 
between the state of literature, such as it was in 
the West anterior to the revolution of the fifth 
century, and that which we find there after the 
conquests of the German nations. 

These barbarians, addicted solely to war and 
the chase, despised the arts and sciences. Un- 
der their destructive hands, the finest monuments 
of the Romans were levelled to the ground ; their 
libraries were reduced to ashes ; their schools and 
seminaries of instruction annihilated. The feeble 
rays of learning that remained to the vanquished 
were unable to enlighten or civilize those enemies 
to knowledge and mental cultivation. The sci- 
ences, unpatronised and unprotected by those 
ferocious conquerors, soon fell into total contempt. 

It is to the Christian religion alone, which was 
embraced, in succession, by the barbarous destroy- 
ers of the empire, that we owe the preservation of 
the mutilated and venerable remains which we 
possess of Greek and Roman literature. ' 9 The 
clergy, being the authorized teachers of religion, 
and the only interpreters of the sacred writings, 
were obliged by their office to have sunn 1 tincture 
of letters. They thus became, over all the F.a-*t, 
the sole depositaries of learning ; and for a lung 
series of ages there were none in any other rank 
or profession of life that occupied themselves with 
science, or had the slightest acquaintance' even 
with the art of writing. These advantages, which 
the clergy enjoyed, contributed in no small degree 
to augment their credit and their influence. Every- 
where they were intrusted with the management 
of state affairs ; and the offices of chancellor, minis- 
ters, public notaries, and in general all situations 
\\here knowledge of the art of writing was indis- 
pensable, were reserved for them ; and in this way 
their very name (cluricus) became as it were the 


1) 1. A.I). 400 00. 

I., :, . !. . 

i ; 

synonym fur a man uf ! tt. >-, ur any 

nil in war mai. i. l.l in j 

s their vassals. 

:aitance that contributed to raise 
''ler^'y was, that 

111.- l..ilin language continued t l>i- empliij 
'i hud been sul' 
:in:in nation*. ! 
tliini; was w riltcn cxclu-ivclv in tin- Human 1 

-Tuatfe of tin- church, and of 

all |i ind it was long l> ruian 

Inch hail become univcrMilly prevalent, 

could he reduced to writing. 'I he corrupt pronnn- 

:i uf tin- l,:itlll, :ilnl its mixture \\lth ! 

iili-Mii- ami coiiNtnictioiis, gave birth, in course of 
v language*, win. h -till retain evidence 
uf their It. <m in origin, such as the Italian, Spanish, 
Portuguese, French anil r.nulish language. In 
the fifth and following centuries, the Teutonic 
language, or that spoken h\ the c<ini|iirn>ra of 
Haul, wa* called liny net Francica : this was dis- 
-hcd from tin- Imi/ua Romano, or the lan- 
guage spokt-n by tin- people ; ami which after- 
wards gave rise to the modern Freiu-li. It appears, 
therefore, from what we have just stated, the 
incursion of the tierinan tribes into the provinces 
of the West waa the true source of all the bar- 
baritj, ignorance, anil superstition, in which that 
part was so long and so universally 


There would have been, therefore, every reason 
to deplore a revolution, not less sanguinary in 
itself than disastrous in its consequences, if, on tin- 
one hand, it hail not heeii the instrument of de- 
livering l-'.uro|ie from the terrihle despotism of the 
Romans ; anil, on the other, if we iliil not lind. in 
the rude institutions of the (icrman conqu 
some germ* of lihcrtv, which, sooner or later, wen- 
: the nations of Europe to wiser laws, 
and better organised government-. 

in; the state-, which rose on the ruins of the 

Roman empire, that of the Franks acquired the 

preponderance ; and, f..r several ages, it sustained 

the character of liein^ the most powerful kingdom 

ope. This monarchy, founded by Clovis, 

and extended still more by his successors, cm- 

1 the whole of Caul except Languedoc, which 

Iicloiijjcd to the Visigoths.* The greater part of 

my ahto was subject to it, with the exception 

i itorics of the Slavi. After 

it had fallen int.. deeaj, li\ the partitions and ci\il 
wars of t: .uts nf ( |,.\i-, it rose again, 

solely however bj the wisdom and ability of the 
rs of the palace, who restored it once more 
to its original pplemlour. 

These mayors, from being originally merely 
grand-master* of the court, rose by degrees 

.ore of the state, and ulti- 

mati-U to ; Hie founder of their urcat- 

ncm was Pepin .I'll, ristal, a cadet of the dynasty 

of the Carlo* injfiant, which stu-ceeded that of the 

. ingiaiu, townnls the middle of the eighth 

centnrj. I'; t 1 ..- Merovingian pr. 

soTerfignty was divided > . principal 

kin-''. ;at of Austrasia, which compn- 

..U' nil that part of 

d:iul situ.itc.l I,. : the Schclil, and 

the llhine ; as Well as the ti.-rman 

beyond the Ithtue, wldch also made a part of that 

The whole of Wroteni liaul. 
b-t 1.1. the Meuw and t!.. 

-tria. Bur. 
. weru considered a . of this II., Kn..' <.f Australia, having '' 
MMUsinatcd (in r.>;. t. i. .-tria, 

\ 111., \\ould in all ] 
uniti-d the t\w> miinarchics ; hut tin- Aitstraoiaus, 
\\lio dreaded and detested Lliroui, Major ol .' 
tria, elected a mayor of their <>un, under the 
nominal authority of Thierry. This gave rise to a 

Sort of Civil War between the AustriM 

trians, headed by 1'epin d'Heristal, Major of 
Austrasia, and liertain-, Majr of Neiutrin, \\lio 

SUCCe. ! in. The haUle which 1'epin 

gained at Testry, near St. Quentiu (6M7), d 

tit.- fate of the empire ; Uertairc was shun, and 
Thierry III. fell into the power of the coni[ 
I'cpin afUrwsrds confirmed to Thierry the honours 
of rojaltj, and colit.-ntcd himself with the <i. 

. .[, and tin- title of Duke and l'i. 
Franks; hut re^ardini; the throne an his own by 
ri^ht of conquest, he tented in himself the sove- 
reign authority, and granted to the Merovingian 
1'rince nothing more than the m. : externals of 
majesty, and the simple title of king. Such waa 
the revolution that transferred the supreme autho- 
rity of the Franks to a new d\:. .-t\, \i/.. that of 
the Carlovingians, who, with jrreat moderation, 
still preserved, during a period of sixty-five yean, 
the royal dignity to the Merovingian princes, 
whom they had stripped of all their power.* 1 

Pepin d'Heristal being dead (714), the partisans 
of the ancient dv nasty made a last effort to h 
the Merovingian kind's from that dependence under 
which 1'epin had held them KO long. This prince, 
in transferrini,' the sovereign authority to his ffrund- 
sonTheodwald, onlj six years of age, had devolved 
on his widow, whose name was I'lectrude, the 
regency and guardianship of the \..un- major. 

A government no extraordinary einholdened the 
factious t<> attempt a revolution. The regent, as 
well an her grandson, were divested of the 
reignty, and the Neustrian grandees chose a 
mayor of their own party named Kainfroy ; but 
their triumph was only of short duration. Charles 
Martel, natural son of Pepin as is supposed, hav- 
ing escaped from the prison where he had been 
detained l.j the recent, passed into Australia, and 
then caused himself to be proclaimed dulve, after 
the example of his father. He engaged hi a war 
against Ohilpcric II. and his major Ituinfroy ; 
three successive victories which he gained, vi*. at 
Stavelo, Vinci near Cainbrav, and Soi-son,. in 
710 17 IN, made him once more master of the 
throne and the sovereign authoritv. The duke of 
Aquitain having delivered up Kin/ Clitlp. : . 
him, he continued anew the title of rojaltj to that 
prince ; and shortly after raised his glory ' 
highest pitch, by the brilliant v . 'i he 

gained over the Arabs (733 737), in the plains of 
Poitiers and Narbonue. 

in le Href (or the Short), son and ucrewor 
of Charles Martel, tin. Inn; hi* authority established 
both w ithin and without his dominions, judged 
this a favourable opportunity for reuniting the title 
..t" p' to the power of the sovereign. H. 
managed to have himself elected King in the Oe- 



Rome a Republic. 
Tin- Ironm-laMs. 
Luiulxirel Kniijs. 


Stephen II., Pope. 
Arabs and Sarac-rn s . 
Maliomot, Prophet. 

neral Assembly of the Franks, which Mas convened 
in tin- Champ-dc-Mars, in the 'neighbeiurhood of 
Soissons. Childeric III. the last of tin- Merovin- 
gian kin-s. \\as there de-pose-d (7.";1 ), ami shut up 
ill a convent. Pepin, with the intention of ren- 
ili-riiiLT his jierson sacred and inviolable, had rc- 

to the ceremony of coronation ; and \\>- WHS 
the tirst king who caused himself to be solemnly 

rated and crowned in the cathedral of Sois- 
sons, b\ St. Boniface, first archbishop of Majence. 88 
The example of Pepin was followed soon after by 

.1 princes and sovereigns of Europe. The 
la-t comiuest he added to his dominion Mas the 
province of Languedoc, which he took (759) from 
the Arabs. 

The origin of the secular power of the Roman 
pontiffs commences M ith the reign of Pepin. This 
event, which had so peculiar an influence on the 
religion and government of the European nations, 
requires to be detailed at some length. 

At the period of which M~C write, there existed 
a \iolent controversy between the churches in the 
Kast, and those in the West, respecting the wor- 
ship of images. The Emperor Leo, the Isaurian, 
had declared himself against this worship, and had 
proscribed it by an imperial edict (72G). He and 
iiis successors persisted in destroying these objects 
of idolatry, as well as in persecuting those who 
. d themselves devotees to this heresy. This 
extravagant zeal, which the Roman pontiffs blamed 
as excessive, excited the indignation of the people 
against the Grecian Emperors.* 8 In Italy, there 
were frequent rebellions against the imperial offi- 
cers that were charged with the execution of their 
orders. The Romans especially took occasion, 
from this, to expel the duke or governor, who re- 
sided in their city on the part of the emperor ; 
and they formally erected themselves into a re- 
public (730), under the pontificate of Gregory II., 
l>\ usurping all the rights of sovereignty, and, at 
the same time, reviving the ancient names of the 
senate and the Roman people. The Pope was 
recognised as chief or head of this new republic, 
and had the general direction of all affairs, both at 
home and abroad. The territory of this republic, 
formed of the duchy of Rome, extended, from 
north to south, from Viterbo as far as Terracina ; 
and from e-ast t'> west, from Nami to the mouth of 
the Tiber. Such was the M'eakness of the Eastern 
empire, that all the efforts of the emperors to re- 
iluce the Romans to subjection proved unavailing. 
The Greek viceroy the Duke of Naples, who had 
marched to besiege Rome, was killed in battle, 
together with his son ; and the exarch himself 
\\as compelled to make peace with the republi- 

> which the- Grecian em- 
pire was reduced afforded the Lombards an op- 
portunity of extending their possessions in Italy. 
Ai-tolphus the-ir king attacked the cit\ of EUvenaa 
(7.~>1), where the exarchs or governors-gene-nd of 
the Greeks had fixed their residence; and soon 
made- himself master of it, as well as the province 
of the exarchate,* 4 and the Pentapolis. The exarch 
KutychiiM was obliged to fly, ami took shelti r in 

'. urrcnder of the capital e)f Grecian Italy 

iijhe.ldene-d the Lombard king to extend his 
^e\ss still farther: lie demanded the' submission e>f 
the city and duchy of Rome, which he considered 

as a dependency of the exarchate. Pope Stephen 
II. became alarme-d, and be'gan to solicit an alliance 
with the Greek empire, \vhe>se distant power seemed 
to him less formidable than that of the Lombards, 
his neighbours ; but being closeh -pressed b\ Ai>- 
tolphus, and finding that he had no succour to 
expect from Constantinople, he determined to 
apply for protection to the Franks and their king, 

The Franks, at that time, held the first rank 
among the nations of Europe; their exploits 
against the Arabians had gained them a high re- 
putation for valour over all the West. Stephen 
repaired in person to France, and in an interview 
which he had with Pepin, he found means to in- 
terest that prince in his cause. Pepin did not yet 
regard himself as securely established on a throne 
which he had so recently usurped from the Mero- 
vingian princes ; more especially as there still ex- 
isted a son of Childeric III., named Thierry, anil 
a formidable rivalry in the puissant dukes of Aqui- 
tain, who were cadets of the same family. Hi 1 
had no other right to the crown than that of elec- 
tion ; and this title, instead of descending to his 
sons, might perhaps serve as a pretext for de- 
priving them of the sovereignty. Anxious to ren- 
der the crown hereditary, he induced the Pope to 
renew the ceremony of his coronation in the 
Church of St. Denis ; and at the same time, to 
consecrate his two sons, Charles and Carloman. 
The Pope did more ; he disengaged the King from 
the oath which he had taken to Childe rie-, anel 
bound all the nobility of the Franks, that Mere- 
present on the occasion, in the name of Jesus 
Christ and St. Peter, to preserve the royal dignity 
in the right of Pepin and his descendants ; anel 
lastly, that he might the more effectually secure 
the attachment of Pepin and his sons, and procure 
for himself the title of being their protector, he 
publicly conferred on them the honour of be'ing 
patricians of Rome. 

So great comlescension on the part of the Pope 
could not but excite the gratitude of Pepin. He 
not only promised him succour against the Lom- 
bards, he engaged to recover the exarchate from 
their hands, and make a present of it to the 1 1 oly 
See ; he even made him a grant of it l<y anticipa- 
tion, which he signed at the- Castle e>f ('hie rsi-siir- 
1'Oise, and which he like-wise cau--c d to lie si^-ncel 
b\ the princes his sons.** It was in fulfilment of 
these stipulations that Pepin undertook (',:>:< 
two successive expe-elitions into Italy. He- com- 
pelleel Aistolphus to acknowledge himse-lf his 
vassal, and deliver up to him the exarchate with 
the Pentapolis, of which he immediate'ly put his 
Holiness in possession. This elematioii eif JVpin 
serve-el to confirm anel to extend the secular po\ve-r 
of the Popes, M'hich had already been augim-nte-d 
b\ \:iriems grants of a similar kind. The- original 
document of this singular contract ne> longer 
e-xi-ts ; but the- names of the place-s are- prc-i r\ed 
which M-e-re- cedeel to the pemtitie-al hierarchy.-* 1 

In the conclusion of this period, it may he pro- 
per to take some notice of the Arabs, commonly 
calh-d Saracens, 8 ? and of their irruption into Ku- 
rope. Mahomet, an Arab of noble- birth, and a 
native <if Mecca, bad coustitute-el himself a pro- 
phi t, a legislator, and a conqueror, about the be- 
ginning of the seventh century of the Cl.ristian 
era. He had been expelled from Mcee-a ' 

\\ ,:..; ..,-... i. . i: m -. 
..,... ,. J 

I) 1. \.l>. 406800. 

AUUlralMM* or Cavern. 
lUtuuo AlmeUA. 


OB account of hi* predictions, but afterwards re- 


him< If master of the citj, he succeeded, by de- 
ting to his yoke the nun 

tribe* of Arabia. Hi* successor*, known I.) the 
i.ari njnrilual ami temporal 

i>t the prophet, followed the Mtnv tnuiii|.li.4iit 
1 hey proposal' .1 ilnu religion whcrerer 
Iht-v extended tin ir empire, uinl <.\. M..II wit!. 

, tests the vast regions both of Aia and Africa. 
Syria, Palestine, Egypt, Barn., Tri,H,li, and the 
wnoli , were won trm 

in l>> tin- ( uli|ih> ; who at the 
same time (;"> I) oMithrew tin- powerful monarchy 
of tin- IViM.nis ; conquered ( hariMn, I rannoxiaaa, 
and the laities, and founded an empire more ex- nt' tin- Romans had been. '1 In 
capital of tin- l .ili|iK-, which had originally been 
at Medina, and afterward* at Cufa, was Iran-: 

b\ tli.- ( 'uliph Moavia I. to Damascus in 

; and by tin- C 'aliph Almanzor, to Bagdad in 

Irak-Arabia, (760) which was founded by that 

It was umler the Caliphate of Walid (711), that 
the Arabs first invaded Europe, and attai kcd the 
monarchy of the Visigoths in Spain. Tin-, mo- 
narchy hod already sunk under tin- feebleness of 
its kings, and the despotic prerogatives which the 
grandees, and especially the bishops, had arrogated 
inselves. These latter disposed of tin- llnoin 
at their pleasure, having declared it to IK- cli -cti\e. \\ith supreme authority in the coun- 
eiU i>t the nation, and in all affaire of state. Musa 
at that time commanded in northern Africa, in 
name of the Caliph Walid. By the authority of 
that sovereign, he sent into Spain one of hi.- . 
rals, named Taric, or Tarcc-Abeuzara, who, having 
made a descent on the coasts of AudaliiMa, took 
his station on the hill which the ancients called 
Calpe, and which has since been kno\vu b\ tin- 
name of Gibraltar (Gibcl-Toric), or the hill of 
Taric, in commemoration of the Arabian general. 

It wa.t in the neighbourhood of the city Xerea 
de la Frontera, in Andalusia, that Taric encoun- 
tered the army of the Visigoth*, commanded l>\ 
their kiin; Hoderic. The battle was decisive, as 
the \ iM.-oth* sustained a total defeat, lloderic 
perished in the Bight ; and Muia, the Arabian 
..'I. h.i\in_' armed to second the efforts of 
. the conquest of all Spain followed as a 
consequence of this \ictory. "" Scptimania, or 
Languedoc, which then made a purl of the \ 1-1- 
. monarchy, paased at the same time under 
tin dominion of the Arabs. 

These fierce invaders did not limit their con- 
quests in Europe to Spain and Languedoc ; tin- 
Balearic Isles, Sardinia, Corsica, part of Apulia 
and Calabria, fell likewise under tlu-ir dominion : 
tin) infested the sea with (Inir tlrcN, and more 
than once carried terror and desolation to tin- 
.fates of Koine. It is probable even that all 
|> would have nul.milt.-d to tln-ir j.ikr, it 
Charles Martel had not arrested the career of their 
He defeated their numerous and war- 
like armies in the bloody battle* which were fought 
near Poitiers and Narbonne (7:tv-":{7), and at 
length compelled them to shut themselves up with- 
in the province of Languedoc.\ of the empire and the religion of 
Mahomet did not long remain undivided. 

tint dynasty of the Csliph*. that of the Ommiadrs, 
was subverted ; and all the prince* of that> 
flMaMcred by the Aba-idr. (74U), who seised 
the caliphate.** A solitary descendant of the Om- 
miadea, named Abdalrahmaii, grandaon of UM tif- 
( 'nliph MuM-hrm, wa* Mvrd in Hpain, and 
his residence a' . and bein. 

knowledged as Caliph by the Mussulmans there, 
In detached that province from the great empire 
of tin- Arabians (', 

This revolution, and the confuMon with which 
it was accompanied, gave fremh couragtr to the 
small number : . :.,, to escape the 

Mahometan yoke, had i!n- mountains of 

Asturias. I<-u:i._- ti-.m their retreat*, tln-j . 
atcd on the InHdcla; and towardw the mid.. 
the eighth centun, they laid the foundation 
ne\s Christian state, called afterwards the kingdom 
i.f ()>ii-do nr I, .-(in. M|.l;..i. i. I., Huniamed tin- 
Catholic, must be regarded as the tint found 
thi* new monarchy.** 

Frank*, likewise, took advantage of these 
events to expel the Arabs from Languedoc. 1 
took p..s! s.ii.n of the riti.-s of .N i-mes, Mague- 
lonne, Au'de, and Betiera (~->~), which were deli- 
M n d uji to him by a noble Uotli, named Osmond. 
The reduction of Narbonue was by no means so 
easy a task. For seven years he continued to 
blockade it ; and it was not until 7-VJ that i. 
came master of the city, and the whole of Lan- 

The loss of Spain, on the part of the Abassides, 
was soon after followed by that of Northern Africa. 
Ibrahim-Bcn-Aglab, having been sent thither a 
governor by the Caliph of Bagdad, Uaroun 
Alrashid (KOO), be found means to constitute 
himself sovereign prince over the countries then 
properly termed Africa; of which TrijKjli, Cairoau, 
Tu:.i, and Al^irrs, funm-d a part. He was the 
founder of the dynasty of the Aglabites ;" while 
another usurper, named Edris, having conquered 
Numidiu anil Mauritania, culled by the Arab.* 
Muyreb, founded that of the Edrissites. Theee 
two dynasties were overturned (about UOK) by 
Aboul Cassem Mohammed, son of Obeidallah, 
who claimed to be descended from Ali, by Fatima 
daughter of the prophet; he subjected tin- whole 
of Northern Africa to his yoke, and took the titles 
of Mahadi and Caliph. From him were descended 
the Caliphs, called Fatimites, who extended their 
ciiiii|iiest* to Egypt, and laid tin-re the foundation 
nt Kaln-nih, <>r (.land Ian.. ('.H'.*). where they 
established the seat of their caliphate, which, in 
the twelfth century, was destroyed by tin AJ.HI- 

The irruption of the Arabs into Spain.disastrooa 
as it was, did not fail to produce effect* beneficial 

irope, which owe* its civilisation part 
this i in ninstauce. The Abamidian Caliphs, as- 
piring to be the protectors of letters and arts, 
began to found schools, and to encourage transla- 
tion* of the most eminent Greek author* into tin- 
Arabic language. '1 In ir example was followed l>\ 
tin ( aliphs of Cordova, and even by the Fatimites, 
who held the sovereignty of Egypt and Northern 
Africa. In thi* manner a taste for learning was 
unicated to all the Mahometan state*. From 
Bagdad it passed to Cairo ; and from the banks of 
the Euphrates and th- read itself as far 

as the Tagus. Mathematics," Astronomy, ' 



Ar.ibian Li'iming. 
Si-lioolsof Cordova. 



Araluc futures. 

mistry, Medicine, Botany, and Materia Mcdica, 
we're' the sciences which the Arabians affected 
chierly to cultivate. They excelled also in poetry, 
and iu the art of embodying the ti lions of imagi- 
nation in the most agreeable narratives, Rha/.os, 
Averroes, Avicenna, are union;,' the number of 
their celebrated philosophers and physicians. 
Klmacin, Abulfeda, Abiilpharagius, and Bohadin, 
;is liistorians, have become famous to all posterity. 
Thus Spain, under the Mahometans, by culti- 
vating many >eiences little known to the rest of 
F.uropc, became the seminary of the' Christians ill 
the West, who resorted thither in crowds, to pro- 
secute iu the schools of Cordova the study of 

learning and the liberal arts. 83 The use of the 
numerical characters, the manufacture of paper, 
cotton, and gunpowder, were derived to us from 
the Arabians, and especially from the Arabians of 
Spain. Agriculture, manufactures, and navigation, 
are all equally indebted to the Arabians. They 
gave a new impulse to the commerce of the Indies; 
from the Persian Gulf they extended their track- 
along the shores of the Mediterranean, and to the 
borders of the Black Sea. Their carpets, and 
embroideries in gold and silver, their cloths of 
silk, and their manufactures in steel and leather, 
maintained for years a celebrity and a perfection 
unknown to the other nations of Europe. 



THE reign of Charles the Great forms a remark- 
able epoch in the history of Europe. That prince, 
who succeeded his lather Pepin (768), eclipsed 
all his predecessors, by the superiority of his ge- 
nius, as well as by the wisdom and vigour of his 
administration. Under him the monarchy of the 
Franks was raised to the highest pinnacle of glory, 
lie would havc'been an accomplished prince, and 
worthy of being commemorated as the benefactor 
of mankind, had he known how to restrain his 
immoderate thirst for conquest. 

He carried his victorious arms into the centre 
of Germany ; and subdued the warlike nation of 
the Saxons, whose territories extended from the 
Lower Rhine, to the Elbe and the Baltic sea. 
After a sanguinary war of thirty-three years, he 
compelled them to receive his yoke, and to embrace 
Christianity, by the peace which he concluded with 
them (808) at'Saltz on the Saal. The bishoprics 
of Minister, Osnaburg, Minden, Paderborn, Ver- 
den, Bremen, Hildesheim, and Halberstadt, owe 
their origin to this prince. Several of the Sla- 
vonian nations, the Abotrites (789), the \Vil/ians 
(HO.-)), the Sorabians (80), the Bohemians (811), 
&c., acknowledged themselves his tributaries ; and 
by a treaty of peace which he concluded with 
Hemming, King of Jutland, he fixed the river 
F.vder, a< the northern limit of his empire against 
the Danes. Besides these, the powerful monarchy 
of the Avars,' which comprehended all tin- coun- 
tries known in modern times by the names of 
Austria, Hungary, Transylvania, Sclavonia, Dal- 
matia, and Croatia, was completely subverted by 
him (791) ; and he likewise despoiled the Arabians 
of all that part of Spain which is situated between 
the Pyrenees and the Kbro (7!>), as also of Cor- 
sica. Sardinia, and the Balearic Isles. In Spain 
hf established military commander;., under the 
title of Margraves. 

Of these conquests, the one that deserves the 
most particular attention is that of Italy, and the 
kingdom of the Lombards. At the solicitation of 
1'opc Adrian I ., Charles undertook an expedition 
nsrainst the la-t of the Lombard kin-s. He be- 
-ie-irrd that prince in his capital at. J'avia ; and 
having made him prisoner, after a long siege, he 

shut him up in confinement for the rest of his 
days, and incorporated his dominions with the 
monarchy of the Franks. The Dukes of Bene- 
vento, who, as vassals of the Lombard kings, then 
occupied the greater part of Lower Italy, were at 
the same time compelled to acknowledge the sove- 
reignty of the conquerors, who allowed them to 
exercise their hereditary rights, on condition of 
their paying an annual tribute. The only places 
in this part of Italy that remained unsubdued, 
were the maritime towns, of which the Greeks 
still found means to maintain the possession. 

In order to secure the conquest of this country, 
as well as to protect it against the incursions of 
the Arabians, Charles established several marches 
and military stations, such as the marches of Fri- 
uli, Tareuto, Turin, Liguria, Teti, &c. The down- 
fall of the Lombards put an end to the republican 
government of the Romans. During the blockade 
of Pavia, Charles having gone to Home to be pre- 
sent at the feast of Easter (774), was received 
there with all the honours due to an Exarch and 
Patrician; and there is incontestable proof that 
he afterwards received, under that title-, the rights 
of sovereignty over Rome and the Ecclesiastic al 

The Patrician dignity, instituted by Constan- 
tino the' Great, ranked, in the Greek empire, next 
after that of emperor. It was of such considera- 
tion, that even barbarian kings, the destroyers of 
the ancient lloman empire in the West, became 
candidate's for this honour at the Court of Con- 
stant inople. The- exarchs of Ravenna we're gem-- 
rally invested with it, and exercised under this 
title, rather than that of exarch or governor, the 
authority which they enjoyed at Rome. Pope 
Stephen II. had, twenty \ears before, conferred 
the patriciate on Pepin and his sons ; although 
these princes appear never to have- exercised the 
right, regarding it mereh as an honorary title, so 
long at least a* the kingdom of the Lombards se- 
parated them from Rome 1 and the- State-s of the 
Church. Charles no sooner saw himself master of 
that kingdom, than he affected to add to his titles 
of King of the Franks and Lombard* that of Pa- 
trician of the Romans; and began to exercise over 

BOMB Bpif* Of 
the Wt rrMtca 

i. Qbaitri 

MI \ I). 800-063. 

- . 



Rome mud the Ecclesiastical States those right* of 
MI|.|. - emperor* mod exarchs 

had i IIJ..M il before him. 

'lln- prince n-turoed to Rome toward* the end 
of the year HOO, in onlrr to inquire into a con- 
spiracy which some of the Kom.m nobility had 

rted again*! the lift- <>f I'.'p. I.... 111. The 
' affair having been diacussed in hi* presence, 
and the innocence of the Pope clearly estahl 

> H went In assist at the solemn maaa which 
was celebrated ii , Church mi ( hriatmas 

day (NX). ) The Tope, niixi.u- ti> show him some 
public testimony of his gratitude, rhme the mo- 
inent when the prince was on his knee* at the 
foot of the grand altar, to put the imperial crown 
on Ins head, and caused him to he proclaimed to 
the people Emperor of the Roman*. 

From thia affair imi-t !> dated the reriTal of the 
Roman Kmpire in the West, a title which had 
been extinct for three hundred year*. The em- 
perors of the Ka-t who. dnrtiii; that inter* al, had 
continued cvlusm ly in the enjoyment of that 
title, appeared to have some reason for opposing 
an innoMition which might c\. ntu.iliy become pre- 
judicial to them. The content which arose on this 

; hctwci-n tin- t\\o emperors, waa at length 

terminated by treaty. The (i reek emperors 

lised tin- new diirnity of Charles (S1'J) ; and 
on these conditions they wire allowed to retain 
those possessions, wliirh they still held by a feeble 
tenure in Italy. 

In thus maintaining the imperial diiniity against 
the Creek emperor*, Charles added nothing t<> his 
real power; he acquired from it no new ri:;ht \>T 
the dismembered pro\inces of the Western em- 
pire, the stati- of \\iiiert had, for a long time pant, 
been fixed by specific regulation*. He did not 

mgment bin authority over Home, where he 
continued r -in- same rights of superiority 

under tin- title of emperor, which he had formerly 
dour under that of patrician. 

Thi prince, whose ire n ins soared beyond his 
ge, did not figure merely a- a warrior and a con- 
queror ; he waa also a legislator, and a xealous pa- 
tron of letter*. Ky the laws which he puhlisheil 
under the title of Cajiitularirx, he reformed - 
ral abuses, and introduced new ideas of order and 
justice. Commissioner^, nominated by himself, 

cbarired to travel through the prn\inre, to 

uperilltend the execution of the law*, listen to the 

.-niiiplaints of the people, and render justice to 

without distinction nnd without partiality. 

niched likewise the idea of establishing' a 

uniformity of weights and measures throughout 

the impip-. ''! la\\s .if that great man, 

howcxcr, indicate a disposition tinctureil with the 

barbarism and upentition of his age. The Judy- 

mrntu qf God are expressly held by him i 

legal tests of rijrht and wronir, and the greater part 

-lies expiahli- by money. Hy :i _-.-n. Till law, 

which he passed in 77l, introducing tit.- payment 

'ical tithes, nnd which he extended to 

-lied Saxons (791), he alienated the 

f that people ; and the code which he 

d on this occasion, is remarkable for its 

atrocity; which their rc|* . and fre- 

to paganism, caii: 

> his patronage and love of letters* this is at- 

!>y the numerous schools which he founded, 

and the encouragements he held out to them ; ma 

well as the attention ha showed r la his 

court, the moi celebrated learned men from 

them into a kind 

of a. literary nociciy, of wlm-h he was 

himself a member. \N hen at an advanced age, be 
receive I instruction in th- nd astro- 

nomy, tr. n. the !:u;. i;- Alt nil), an l.ii'.'lishman, to 
whom he waa much attacln-.i. II. i mlearourcd 
also to improM- bis M rn:i ulnr tongue, which 
was the Teutonic, or linyua Frattcica, by draw 
:> a grammar of that language, giving German 
named to the months and tin- wiu<U, winch had 
not yet n-cehcd them; and in making a rnllectinn 
of the military songs of the .ia:>-. 1).- 

(tended an e<ninl protection to the arts more ea- 
!ly architecture, a taste for which he had im- 
bibed in Italy and Home. \Vritersof those times 
peak with admiration of the palaces and edifices 
constructed by his orders, at Ini'i-llii.-ni, near 
Mei. t/, at Ninieifucn, mi tin- left hank of the 
Waal, and at Aix-la-Chapelle. Tins, buildings 
tdornei! with numerous paintii:^, aa well as 
marble and mosaic work, which he had brought 
from Home and Ha\cnna. 

The empire of Charlemagne, which may bear a 
comparison as to its extent with the ancient Km- 
pire of the West, embraced the principal part of 
Kurope. All Caul, Germany, and Spain as far 
as the Khro, Italy to Ueiievento, several islands in 
the Mediterranean, with a considerable part of 
1'annonia, compo^-d this vast empire, which, from 
west to east, extended from the Kbro to the l.lbe 
and the Raab ; and from south to north, from the 
duchy of HeiH-M-nto and the Adriatic Sea to the 
Kher I-'.yder, which formed the boundary between 
(lei-many and Denmark. 

In detiiiini; the limits of the empire of Charle- 
majftie, care must be taken not to confound the 
provinces and states incorporated with the empire 
with those that were merely tributary. The for- 
mer were jfoierncd by officers who might 1^ 
called at the will of the prince ; while the latter 
were free states, whose only tenure on the empire 
was by alliance, and tin- contributions th< 
'.> jiny. Such was the |>oliey of this pt 
that, besides the marches or military stations which 
he had established on the frontiers of (ierinany. 
Spain, and Italy, he chose to retain, on different 
points of his dominions, nations who, under the 
name of tributaries, nijoyrd the protection of tin- 
Franks, and might act as a guard or barrier acainst 
the barbarous tribe* of the east and north, who had 
long been in the habit of making incursions into 
the western and southern countries of Kurope. 

Thus the dukes of H.n. -\eiito in Italy, who were 
simply vassals and tributaries of the empire, sup- 
plied, as it were, a rampart or bulwark againot the 
Creeks and Arabian*; while the Sclavonian na- 
tions of Cennany, I'annonia, Dalmatia, and ' 
alia, though feudatories or tassals of France, were 
:ieil, ne\ertheles, by their own laws, and in 
.1 did not even profess the Christian religion. 

From this brief sketch of the r. km of ( >. 
magne, it is easy to perceive that there was then 
no sjnsrlc power' in Kurope formidable enough to 
enter into eomjM-tition with the empin* of the 
Franks. The monarchies of the north, Denmark, 
Norway, and Sweden, and those of Poland and 
Russia, were not then in r had not 

emerged from the thick darkness that still covered 

Egbert. King of 
22 England. 

Louis le Dcbonnaire. 


Roman, or Romance. 
Origin of French. 
Kingdom of Lorraine. 

those parts of continental Europe. England then 
presented a heptarchy of seven confederate govern- 
ments, the union of which was far from being well 
consolidated. The kings of this confederacy were 
incessantly engaged in war with each other ; and 
it was not until several years after Charlemagne, 
that Egbert the Great, king of Wessex, prevailing 
in the contest, constituted himself king of all Eng- 
land in 887. 

The Mahometan part of Spain, after it was 
separated from the great empire of the Caliphs, 
was engaged in. perpetual warfare with the East. 
The Ommiades, sovereigns of Cordova, far from 
provoking their western neighbours, whose valour 
they had already experienced, showed themselves, 
on the contrary, attentive to preserve peace and 
good understanding with them. The Greek em- 
perors, who were continually quarrelling with the 
Arabs and Bulgarians, and agitated by factions 
and intestine commotions, could no longer be an 
object of suspicion or rivalry to the monarchy of 
the Franks. 

Thus did the empire of Charlemagne enjoy the 
glory of being the ascendant power in Europe ; 
but it did not long sustain its original splendour. 
It would have required a man of extraordinary 
talents to manage the reins of a government so ex- 
tensive and so complicated. Louis-le-Debonnaire, 
or the Gentle, the son and successor of Charles, 
did not possess a single qualification proper to 
govern the vast dominions which his father had 
bequeathed to him. As impolitic as he was weak 
and superstitious, he had not the art of making 
himself either loved or feared by his subjects. By 
the imprudent partition of his dominions between 
his sons, which he made even in his lifetime, he 
planted with his own hand those seeds of discord 
in his family which accelerated the downfall of the 
empire. The civil wars which had commenced in 
his reign continued after his death. Louis, sur- 
named the German, and Charles the Bald, com- 
bined against their elder brother Lothaire, and 
defeated him at the famous battle of Fontenay in 
Burgundy (841), where all the flower of the 
ancient nobility perished. Louis and Charles, 
victorious in this engagement, obliged their brother 
to take refuge in Italy. They next marched to 
Strasbourg, where they renewed their alliance 
i, and confirmed it by oath at the head of 
their troops.* 

These princes were on the point of dividing the 
whole monarchy between them, when, by the in- 
terference of the nobility, they became reconciled 
to their elder brother, and concluded a treaty with 
"iim at Verdun (x-M), which finally completed the 
division of the empire. By this formal distribu- 
tion, Lothaire retained the imperial dignity, with 
the kingdom of Italy, and the provinces situated 
between the Rhone, the Saoiie, the Meuse, the 
Scheld, the Rhine, and the Alps. Louis had all 
Germany beyond the Rhine, and on this side of 
the river, the cantons of Mayeuce, Spire, and 
Worms ; and, lastly, all that part of Gaul which 
ids from the Scheld, the Meuse, the Saone, 
and the Rhone, to the Pyrenees, fell to the lot of 
Charles, whose division also comprehended the 
March of Spain, consisting of the province of 
Barcelona, and the territories which Charlemagne 
had conquered beyond the Pyrenees. 

It is with this treaty, properly speaking, that 

modern France commences, which is but a de- 
partment of the ancient empire of the Franks, or 
monarchy of Charlemagne. For a long time it 
retained the boundaries which the conference at 
Verdun had assigned it; and whatever it now 
possesses beyond these limits, was the acquisition 
of conquests which it has made since the four- 
teenth century. Charles the Bald was in fact 
then the first King of France, and it is from him 
that the series of her kings commences. It \vu-, 
moreover, under this prince that the government 
of the Neustrians, or Western Franks, assumed a 
new aspect. Before his time it was entirely of a 
Frankish or German constitution ; the manners 
and customs of the conquerors of Gaul everywhere 
predominated; their language (the lingua Franca) 
was that of the court and the government. But 
after the dismemberment of which we have spoken, 
the Gauls imported it into Neustria, or Western 
France ; the customs and popular language were 
adopted by the court, and had no small influence 
on the government. This language, which was 
then known by the name of the Roman or Ro- 
mance, polished by the refinements of the court, 
assumed by degrees a new and purer form, and, in 
course of time, became the parent of the modern 
French. It was, therefore, at this period, viz., the 
reign of Charles the Bald, that the Western Franks 
began, properly speaking, to be a distinct nation, 
and exchanged their more ancient appellation for 
that of French, the name by which they are still 

At this same period Germany was, for the first 
time, embodied into a monarchy, having its own 
particular kings. Louis the German was the first 
monarch of Germany, as Charles the Bald was of 
France. The kingdom of Louis for a long time 
was called Eastern France, to distinguish it from 
the western kingdom of that name, which hence- 
forth exclusively retained the name of France. 

The empire of Charlemagne, which the treaty 
of Verdun had divided, was for a short space re- 
united (884) under Charles, surnamed the Fat, 
younger son of Louis the German, and King of 
Germany ; but that prince, too feeble to support 
so great a weight, was deposed by his German 
subjects (887), and their example was speedily 
followed by the French and the Italians. The 
vast empire of the Franks was thus dismembered 
for ever (S88), and besides the kingdoms of 
France, Germany, and Italy, it gave birth to three 
new states the kingdoms of Lorraine, Burgundy, 
and Navarre. 

The kingdom of Lorraine took its name from 
Lothaire II., younger son of the Emperor Lothaire. 
1., who, in the division which he made of his 
< -tales among his sons (855), gave to this Lothaire 
the provinces situated between the Rhine, the 
MeiiM 1 , and the Scheld, known since under the 
name of Lorraine, Alsace, Treves, Cologne, Juliers, 
Liege, and the Low Countries. At the death of 
Lothaire II., who left no male or legitimate heirs, 
his kinirdoiu was divided by the treaty of Procaspis 
(870) into two equal portions, one of which was 
assigned to Louis the German, and the other to 
Charles the Bald. 8 By a subsequent treaty, con- 
cluded (*"!)) between the sons of Louis, Minnunrd 
the Stammerer, King of France, and Louis the 
Young, King of Germany, the French division of 
Lorraine was ceded to this latter prince, who thus 

li. \.i> MQ Mf. 

K mif.U.tu of .N\ne. 
i'uasjti of 

I i 

united thu whole of that kingdom. Arnulph, 

'ermany, and successor <>f ( 
I the kingdom of Lorrain ibald, 

hi* natural ton, who, after a reign of five yean, 
was deposed by Louis, surnamed (he Infai 
and successor of Arnulph. Lorn* .Urn.- without 
wane (M12), Charles the Simple. King of France, 

commotions 111 < MTfliany to 

put liniiHill in |i<><fiioii of that kingdom, which 
WM at length finally reunited t tin- << nuanic 
crown by Henry, surnamed the Fov\ fer. 

Two new kingdoms appeared under tin- name 

.rgundy, M: i e, cir Cisjurinc Bur- 

gundy, and rransjurane Burgundy. The fnuii<l<T 
icrwasa nobleman named Bunon, whose 
sister Charles) the Bald had espoused, h'lcvated 
b\ the king, bin brother-in-law, to tin* highest 
dignities in the state, he wax cn-ati ,l, iit succession, 

of \ niiiiii, Duke of Provence, Duke of 
Italy, and Prime Minister, and even obtained in 
marriage the Prim-ess Irmengarde, daughter <'. 
Louis 11., Emperor and King of Italy. Instigated 
l>> this princess, he did not -temple to raise his 
ambitious views to tin- throne. The death of 
Loots the Stammerer, and the troubles tint en- 
sued, afforded him an opportunity of attaching to 
his interest most of the bishops in those countries 
intrusted to his government. In an assembly 
which he held at Mantaille in Dauphin6 (870), hi- 
engaged them by oath to confer on him the royal 
I he schedule of this election, with the 
signature* of the bishop* affixed, informs us dis- 
tmetly of the extent of this new kingdom, which 
comprehended Franche-Comte, Macron, Chalons- 

. >ne, I.\ons, Vienne and its dependencies, 

. N i \iers, Use*, with their dependencies in 
Languedoc, Provence, and a part of Savoy. Bo- 
son caused himself to be anointed king at Lyons, 
by the archbishop of that city. Me maintained 
possession of his usurped dominions, in spite of 
the combined effort* which were made by the kings 
of France and Germany to reduce him to subjec- 

The example of Boson was followed soon after 
l'\ K'idolph, governor of Traiisjunuie Burgundy, 
mil' .I by the female side to the Cailovin- 
gians. He was proclaimed km,', and crowned at 
M. Maurice in the Valais; ami his new kingdom, 
situated between Mount Jura and the lVnin<- 

contained Switxerland, as far as the Hiver 
llcuM, the Yalais, and a part of Savoy. The death 
<>t II. -.on happening about this time, furnishe 1 
Kllph with a favourable opportunity of ex- 
tending his frontiers, and seizing a part of the 
country of Hnrc' 

These two kingdoms were afterwards (930) 

1 into one. Hugo, king of Italy. 
at that time the guardianship of the young Con- 
stantine, his relation, the son of Louis, and grand- 
son of Boson. The Italians, di- under 
the government of Hugo, and having devolved 
their crown on H-Hloloh IL, ki:._- of I'ransjurauo Hugo, in order to m-iintain himself on 
the throne of Italy, and exclude Kodolph, ceded 
to him the district <>f 1'roiencc, and the kingdom 
of hi.H royal ward. Thus united in the person of 

t<h, these two kingdoms passed to 1; 
acendants, viz. Conrad, his son, and Rodolph 111.. 

indflon. These princes are styled, in their 

sometimes Kuu/9 qf Burytatdy; sometimes 

Kitty* o/ yiftnui or Ariel ; sometimes Kt*y* o/ 
PTVIMHM and Aiiemtmia. They I re of 

>'n possrssious beyond th< i. 
Saone; and in : Ko<lolph II L. 

kingdom hail for it* liouiidaries) the Ilhine, the 
Khone, th. IleuM, and the A 

Ninurn , the kiiik'dom next to I,, mentioned, 
kiiM\\n n-uiiii.' the ancients uinl .n- of 

y<uconia, was one of the prmim < In \.>nd UM 

is wliieh Charlemagne had conquered from 
the \r:il.-. Among the counts or wardrns of the 

ins Margrave*) 

\\lliehhe eil:itilished, the inrml : 

those of li ue.-|.iii.i in Catalonia, Jaccain Arragon, 
and rampeluni i;i N.I-..UI.-. All tliese Spanish 
Marches were comprised within Western France, 
and within the dhisn>a which tell to the si 
Charles the Bald, on the dismemberment of thai 
monarchy among the sons of Louis the < ntl. . 
The extreme imbecility of that prince, and the 
calamities of his LUM, u...- the causes why the 
Navarresc revolt' ...I .. !.,! them- 

selves into a free and independent st ,t. . It ap- 
pears also, t!i -y were iiupli. .it. <l in the dcfec- 
tioii of Aiiuitain ( S .">^1). "hen it threw off tin- 

.rl.-s the li.vM. i)on Garcia*, son of the 
t i. nut Don < i.ireias, and grandson of Don Sancho, 
is generally reckoned the lirst of their mm. 
that usurped the title of King of Pampeluna ( 
He and his successors in the kingdom 
possessed, at the same time, the pnnincc f Jacca 
in Arragon. The Counts of Barcelona were tin- 
only Spanish dependencies that, for many cen- 
turies, continued to acknowledge the severe 
of tin- Kings of France. 

On this part of our subject, it only remains for 
us to point out the causes that conspired to acce- 
lerate the downfall of the empire of the Franks. 
Amoni; these we may reckon the ineonvenieneM 
of the feudal system, a system as unfitted for the 
purposes of internal administration, a- 
compatible with the maxims that ought to rule 
a great empire. The abuse of fiefs was ca 
so far by the Franks, that almost all property had feudal ; and not only grants of land, and 
portions of large estates, but governments, duke- 
doms, and counties, were contern d and held under 

the title of fiefs. The conseipie: - was, 

that the great, by the allurements of fiefs or bene- 
fices, became devoted followers of the kings, while 
the body of the nation sold themselves as retainers 
of the great. Who. \er refused this vassalage was 
despised, and had neither favour nor honour to 
'.* By this practice, the libe .joct 

was abridged without augmenting the royal autho- 
rity. The nobles soon became so powerful, by the 
liberality of their kings, and the number of their 
vassals they found means to procure, that tin 
at length the presumption to dictate laws to the 
sovereign himself. By degrees, the obligations 
which they owed to the state were forgotten, and 
those only recognised which the feudal con: 
imposed. This new bond of alliance was not 
in opening a door to lieent:ounncs,aa,bya natural 
consequence, it was imagined, that the feudal 
>r inu-lii l.e changed, whenever there was a 
possibility of charging him with a violation 
engagements or of that reciprocal fide!. 
he owed to his vassal*. 

A system like this, not only overturned public 

The new Emyire 

Power of Niililt-s. 


Charles 1e Oh:iuve. 
Irruption of the 

order, by planting the perms of corruption in 
every part of the internal administration ; it was 
still more defective with regard to the external 
operations of government, and directly at variance 
with all plans of aggrandisement or of conquest. 
As war was carried on by means of slaves or 
vassals only, it is easy to perceive that such armies 
not being kept constantly on foot, were with diffi- 
culty put in motion ; that they could neither pre- 
vent intestine rebellion, nor be a protection against 
hostile invasion ; and that conquests made by 
means of such troops must be lost with the same 
facility that they are won. A permanent military, 
fortresses and garrisons, such as we find in modern 
tactics, were altogether xmknown among the 
Franks. These politic institutions, indispensable 
in great empires, were totally repugnant to the 
genius of the German nations. They did not even 
know what is meant by h'nances, or regular sys- 
tems of taxation. Their kings had no other pe- 
cuniary resource than the simple revenues of their 
demesnes, which served for the maintenance of 
their court. Gratuitous donations, the perquisites 
of bed and lodging, fines, the tierce of which be- 
longed to the king, rights of custom and toll, 
added but little to their wealth, and could not be 
reckoned among the number of state resources. 
None but tributaries, or conquered nations, were 
subjected to the payment of certain imposts or 
-ments ; from these the Franks were ex- 
empted ; they would have even regarded it as an 
insult and a blow struck at their national liberty, 
had they been burdened with a single imposition. 

It is obvious, that a government like this, so 
disjointed and incoherent in all its parts, in spite 
of the advantages which accrued to it from nour- 
ishing a spirit of liberty, and opposing a sort of 
barrier against despotism, was nevertheless far 
from beinir suitable to an empire of such prodi- 
gious extent as that of the Franks. Charlemagne 
had tried to infuse a new vigour into the state 
by the wise laws which he published, and the 
military stations which he planted on the frontiers 
of his empire. Raised, by the innate force of his 
genius, above the prejudices of the age in which he 
lived, that prince had formed a system capable of 
triving unity and consistency to the state, had it 
been of lonirer duration. Hut this system fell to 
jiii-ei s and vanished, when no longer animated and 
put in execution by its author. Disorder and 
ainrehy speedily paralw.ed every branch of the 
Lrovernment, and ultimately brought on the dis- 
'nnent of the empire. 

Another cause which accelerated the fall of this 
mpire, was the territorial divisions, practised 
by the kings, both of the Merovingian and the 
Carlovinijian rare. Charlemagne and Louis the 
Gi title, when they ordered the empire to be 
divided amon^' their sons, never imagined this 
partition would terminate in a formal dismember- 
ment of the monarchy. Their intention was rather 
to preserve union and amity, by means of certain 
rights of superiority, which they granted to their 
eldest sons, whom they had invested with the 
Imperial dignity. Hut this subordination of the 
younger to their elder brothers was not of long 
continuance ; and these divisions, besides natu- 
rally weakening the state, became a source of 
perpetual discord, and reduced the Carlovininun 
princes to the necessity of courting the grandees 

on every emergency, and gaining their interest 
by new gifts, or by concessions which went to sup 
the foundation of the throne. 

This exorbitant power of the nobles must also 
be reckoned among the number of causes that 
hastened the decline of the empire. Dukes and 
Counts, besides being intrusted with the justice 
and police of their respective governments, exer- 
cised, at the same time, a military power, and 
collected the revenues of the Exchequer. So 
many and so different jurisdictions, united in one 
and the same power, could not but become dan- 
gerous to the royal authority ; while it facilitated 
to the nobles the means of fortifying themselves in 
their governments, and breaking, b\ degrees, the 
unity of the state. Charlemagne had felt this in- 
convenience ; and he thought to remedy the evil, 
by successively abolishing the great duchies, and 
dividing them into several counties. Unfortu- 
nately this policy was not followed out by his 
successors, who returned to the ancient practice of 
creating dukes ; and besides, being educated and 
nurtured in superstition by the priests, they put 
themselves wholly under dependence to bishops 
and ecclesiastics, who thus disposed of the state at 
their pleasure. The consequence was, that go^ ern- 
meiits, at first alterable only by the will of the 
King, passed eventually to the children, or heirs, 
of those who were merely administrators, or super- 
intendants, of them. 

Charles the Bald, first King of France, had the 
weakness to constitute this dangerous principle 
into a standing law, in the parliament which he 
held at Chiersi (877), towards the close of his 
reign. He even extended this principle generally 
to all fiefs ; to those that held immediately of the 
crown, as well as to those which held of laic, or 
ecclesiastical superiors. 

This new and exorbitant power of the nobles, 
joined to the injudicious partitions already men- 
tioned, tended to sow fresh discord among the 
different members of the state, by exciting a mul- 
titude of civil wars and domestic feuds, which, by 
a necessary consequence, brought the whole body- 
politic into a state of decay and dissolution. The 
history of the successors of Charlcmainie presents 
a sad picture, humiliating and distressing to hu- 
manity. Every page of it is filled with insurrec- 
tions, devastations, and carnage: princes, sprung 
from the same blood, armed against each other, 
breathing unnatural vengeance, and bent on 
mutual destruction: the royal authority insulted 
and despised by the nobles, who were perpetually 
at war with each other, either to decide their 
private quarrels, or aggrandize themselves :it tlie 
expense of their neighbours; and, finally, the 
citizens exposed to all kinds of oppression, reduced 
to misery and servitude, without the hope or 
possibility of redress from the government. Such 
was the melancholy situation of the States that 
composed the Kmpire of Charlemagne, \\ hen tin- 
irruption of new barbarians, the Normans from the 
extremities of the North, and the Hungarians from 
the back settlements of Asia, exposed it afresh to 
the terrible scourge of foreign invision. i 

The Normans, of German origin, and inhabiting 
ancient Scandinavia, that i< to say, Sweden, Den- 
mark, and modern Norway, be^an, towards tin- 
end of the eighth century, to cover the sea with 
their ships, and to infest successively all the ma- 

itsrins of Wm. 

N I ! " 

I-'., .".,! /,i 

FKBIOD II. A.D. 800-063. 


coasts of Europe. During the upace of two 

liutiilrrtl '...i;-., ill. \ continued their incursions 
and dc\ ast .itr !:. w ill) .1 ticrceiies* anil perevrranre 
that turpassrs all imau his phrnom 

I, if we iilti-nil i 

late of barbariiin in \\liirh the inhahitn: 
Scandinavia, in general, wen- at that time plun^i d. 
sing agriculture and tin- art*. : 

unable to draw from tMiiug ixnil the 

th<- urceiwary mrans even for (hrir scanty 

subsistence. The comfortable circumstance* of 

ili' i: i.i lu'hhours, who cultM.itcd their lands, ex- 

:nl united tin-in to . 

liiiiili-r, \\lial thi-j hail not 

uAcicnt -kill to procure by thrir own unln-t i ;. . 
. moreover, animated lij a >rt of rcli- 
cioua fanaticism, v. Inch inspired them u 
lor the moat |H-rtl.'iis enterprise. This recklew 
superstition they ilrrw from tin- doctrines of Oilin, 
who waa the god of their armies, the revvardcr of 
v il'.ur mill intrepidity in war, n-rmin- into hi* 
paradise of I'alAaKa the brave who fell beneath 
tin- nwords of tin- rnriny ; while, on tin- other 
hand, the abode of the wretched, called by thrin 
Hrlrrte, waa prepared for those who, abandoned 
to eaae and effeminacy, .1 lifi- of tranquil- 
lit) in the _!.:% of arms, and the perils of warlike 

Thin ilurtriiie, generally diffused over all the 
north, inspired the Scandinavian yuth with an 
intrepiil and ferocious courage, which made them 
hr.i\e all dangers, and consider the sanguinary 
death of warriors as the surest path to immortality. 
Often did it happen that the sons of kinirs even 
those who were already destined as successors to 
their father's throne, volunteered as chiefs of 
pirates and brigands, under the name <: 
A."i;s solely for the purpose of obtaining a name, 
and signalizing t liy their maritime ex- 


Tin I of the Normans, which at HIM 

limited to the seas and countries hoi. 1 
<>n Scandinavia, soon extended over all tin- w 
and southern coasts of l.urope. (n-nnain, the 
kingdoms of Lorraine, France, Kngland, Scotland, 
Ireland, Sp-iin, the Balearic Isles, Italy, (i recce, 
and even the shores of Afric.i, were exposed in 
their lurn to the insults and the ravages of these 

' i: 01 i:.O 

France more especially suffered from their in- 

n, under the fcehle n i-ns of Charles the 

lialil, and Charl.-s the lat. Not content with 

the havoc which they made on the coasts, they 

ascended the Seine, the Loire, the Garomic, and 

the Rhone, earning tire and sword to the \er\ 

centre of the kingdom. Nantes, Angrm, Tours, 

IMois, Orleai.s, M :*, Dourdeaux, Rouen, 

^ois5iotu, and various other 

these invaders. 

Paris was three times sacked and pillaged l>\ them. 
KolMTt the Stri-n-, a scion of the n>\al II 

f. whom ( liu'.es the Hald had c'reuted (HOI) 

!><ik. ' ' 'ria, was killed in hat tie 

'.a t i nir with SUCCCM against the 

ans. At Icnirth. the terror which they had 

; \where Was stich, that the French, who 

trcmMed at (lie M i\ name of the Normans, had 
eiKi.iintcr them in arms; 
and in order to i id t! ' uch forn . 

enem d to purchase their retreat 

by a um of money ; a wrrtrnrd and feeble re- 
incih, which only agKrawl 74 ' '"'' ' %1 '. by inching 
the invaders, by the hope of gain, to rrturn to the 

It i not however at all astonishing, that France 
shi.nld have been exposed so long to thM incur- 
since, bmidi s the inemcient state of that 
monarch), she had no vcMwls of her own to pro* 
r coasts. The unities, occupied with 
the care of augmenting or confirming their grow* 

ing power, ottered hut a feehle opposition to the 

ins, whose presence in the kingdom caused 
a diM-fsioii fuMitirahle to their \ii\\s. Some of 
them e\en had no hesitation in joiniiu; the bar- 
barians, when they happened to be in digra< 
whi-n they thought they had reason to comp' 
the government. 

It was in consequence of these numerous expe- 
ditious over all the seas of F.uropc, that the mo- 
narchies of the North were formed, and that the 
Normans succeeded also in founding several other 
states. It is to them that the powerful monarchy 
f tli- Russians owes its origin ; Ruric the Norman 
in allowed to have been its founder, toward- 
middle of the ninth century. 7 He and the grand 
dukes, his successors, extended their conquests 
from the Baltic and the White Sea, to the 
Kuxine ; and during the tenth century they made 
the emperors of the F.ast to tremble on their 
thrones. In their native style of piratical warfare, 
they emharked on the Dnieper or l<i>r\-thenea, 
infested with their fleets the coasts of the Black 
Sea, carried terror and dismay to the gates of 
Constantinople, and obliged the drcek emperor* 
to pay them large sums to redeem their capital 
from pillage. 

Ireland was more than once on the point of 
1'cin.r suhdued by the Normans, during these pi- 
rutieal excursions. Their tir-t invasion of this 
i-land is stated to ha\e been in the vear T'.'.'t. 
(neat ravages. were committed by the barbarians, 
who conquered or founded the cities of AVaterford, 
Dublin, and Limerick, which they formed into 
separate petty kingdoms. Christianity was intro- 
ilueed among them towards the middle of the 
tenth century ; and it was not till the twelfth, the 
time of its invasion by the English, that they 
cucceeded in expellin? them from the island, when 
they were dispossessed of the cities of Waterford 
Bd Dublin (ll"0) by Henry II. of F.ii-rland. 

Orkney, the Hebrides, the Shetland and Faroe 

Islands, and the Isle of Man, were also dio >\ 

and peopled by the Normans.' Another colony 

if these Normans peopled Iceland, where they 

founded a republic (X"4), which preserved iU 

ndenee till nearly the middle of the thir- 

ccntury. when that inland was conquered 

by the Kinipi of Norway." Normandy, in France, 

also recei\ed its name from this people. Charles 

rnple. wishing to put a check oil their 
linual incursions, concluded, at St. Clair-sur 

, a treaty with Rollo or Rolf, chief of the 
ans, by which he abandoned to them all 
that part of N'custria which reaches from the 
river* Audi-lie and Aure to the ocean. To this he 
added a part : tuated between the 

rivers Andelle and F.pte ; asalsothe territory of Bre- 
tni'ne. Rollo embraced Christianity, a ml re. 

1 aptismal name of Robert. He submitted to 
lecome a vassal of the crown of France, under the 


Hungarian inroads. 
Henry I. of Germany. 
OUio the Great. 


Alfred the Grrat. 
State of learning. Sec. 
in Kiuland. 

title of Duke of Normandy ; and obtained in mar- 
riage the princess Gisele, daughter of Charlc.- the 
Simple. In the following century, we shall meet 
with these Normans of France as the conquerors of 
England, and the founders of the kingdom of the 
two Sicilies. 

The Hungarians, a people of Turkish or Finnish 
origin, emigrated, as is generally supposed, from 
Baschiria, a country lying to the north of the 
Caspian Sea, between the \Y"lira, the Kama, and 
Mount I" nil, near the source of the Tobol and the 
Jaik, or modern Ural. The Orientals designate 
them by the generic name of Turks, while they 
deiic.niinate themsehes Mayiars, from the name of 
one of their tribes. After having been long de- 
pendent on the Chazare, 10 a Turkish tribe to the 
north of the Palus Ma>otis, they retired towards 
the Danube, to avoid the oppressions of the 
Patzinacites; 11 and established themselves (887) in 
ancient Daeia, under the auspices of a chief named 
Arpad, from whom the ancient sovereigns of 
Hungary derhe their origin. Aniulph, King of 
Germany, employed these Hungarians (892) 
against the Slave-Moravians, who possessed a 
flourishing state 011 the banks of the Danube, the 
Morau and the Elbe. 1 * "While engaged in this 
expedition, they were attacked again in their 
Dacian possessions by the Patzinacites, who suc- 
ceeded at length in expelling them from these 
territories. 13 Taking advantage afterwards of the 
death of Swiatopolk, king of the Moravians, and 
the troubles consequent on that event, they dis- 
severed from Moravia all the country which ex- 
tends from the frontiers of Moldavia, 'VYallachia, 
and Transylvania, to the Danube and the Morau. 
They conquered, about the same time, Pannonia, 
with a part of Noricum, which they had wrested 
from the Germans ; and thus laid the foundation 
of a new state, known since by the name of Hun- 
No sooner had the Hungarians established 
themselves in Pannonia, than they commenced 
their incursions into the principal states of Europe. 
Germany, Italy, and Gaul, agitated by faction and 
anarchy, and even the Grecian empire in the East, 
became, all in their turn, the bloody scene of their 
ravages and devastations. Germany, in particular, 
for a lonir time felt the effects of their fury. All 
it-, provinces in succession were laid waste by 
these barbarians, and compelled to pay them 
tribute. Henry I., King of Germany, and his 
son Otho the (ireat, at length succeeded in ar- 
restinir their destructive career, and delivered 
Kurope from this new yoke which threatened its 


It was iii ronsequence of these incursions of 
the Hiinirariaiis and Normans, to which may be 
added those of the Arabs and Slavonians, that the 

kingdoms which sprang from the empire of the 
Franks lost once more the advantages which the 
political institutions of Charlemagne had procured 
them. Learning, which that prince had encou- 
raged, fell into a state of absolute languor ; an end 
was put both to civil and literary improvement, by 
the destruction of convents, schools, and libraries ; 
the polity and internal security of the states were 
destroyed, and commerce reduced to nothing. 
England was the only exception, which then en- 
joyed a transient glory under the memorable reign 
of Alfred the Great, who succeeded Ethelred in 
872. That prince, grandson of king Egbert, 
expelled the Normans from the island (S7), and 
restored peace and tranquillity to his kingdom. 
After the example of Charlemagne, he culthated 
and protected learning and the arts, by restoring 
the convents and schools which the barbarians had 
destroyed; inviting philosophers and artists to his 
court, and civilizing his subjects by literary in- 
stitutions and wise regulations. 14 It is to be re- 
gretted, that a reign so glorious was so soon 
followed by new misfortunes. After the Normans, 
the Danes reappeared in England, and overspread 
it oiice'more with turbulence and desolation. 

During these unenlightened and calamitous 
times, we find the art of navigation making con- 
siderable progress. The Normans, traversing the 
seas perpetually with their fleets, learned to con- 
struct their vessels with greater perfection, to be- 
come better skilled in wind and weathe-, and to 
use their oars and sails with more address. It 
was, moreover, in consequence of these invasions, 
that more correct information was obtained re- 
garding Scandinavia, and the remote regions of 
the North. Two Normans, Wolfstane and Other, 
the one from Jutland, and the other from Norway, 
undertook separate voyages, in course of the ninth 
century, principally with the view of making ma- 
ritime discoveries. Wolfetane proceeded to \isit 
that part of Prussia, or the Estonia of the ancients, 
which was renowned for its produce of yellow 
amber. Other did not confine his adventures to 
the coasts of the Baltic ; setting out from the port 
of Heligoland, his native country, he doubled 
Cape North, and advanced as far as Biarmia, at 
the mouth of the Dwina. in the province of Arch- 
angel. Both he and Wolfstane communicated the 
details of their voyages to Alfred the Great, who 
made use of them in his Anglo-Saxon translation 
of Orosins. 

Besides Iceland and the Northern Isles, of which 
we have already spoken, we find, in the tenth 
century, some of the fugitnc Normans peopling 
Greenland; and others forming settlements in 
Finland, which some suppose to be the island of 
Newfoundland, in North America. 15 

!..;.!- ..? I..-TM. .in 



101) HI. 

M oiTio i in. (,i;i \ i .,,iu\ i in.! \ i. \. i,. 

: R matt of the states that sprang from the 

llisaslimlM 1 1 il empire of tin- Frmks continued lii 
be the prey of disorder and anarchy, tin- kingdom 

;. assumed a new form, and for 
ages maintain- <1 tin character of living the ruling 
power in Europe. It was erected into a monarchy 
at the pc . >), and Imcl for its tint 

1 iiil -on of Louis the 

. At tlmt tun.- it comprised, besides the 
inn, and Mayence, on 
, le tin- Hhinr, .ill thr countries and pro\ 

'. thai in IT, which had belonged to the 
empire of thr Franks, from I lie Kyd>-r ami the 
H.iltic, to tin- Alps and the confines of 1'unnonia. 
Several of the Slavian tribes, also, were iu tri- 

in thr tint formation of thin kingdom, the 
royal authority was limited ; and Louis the 
(uTiiian, in an assembly held at Manne (H51), 
had formally engaged to maintain thr states in their 
rtyhts and pririlryi:i ; to follow their counsel and 
adricr ; and to consider thrm as his true coUrayues 
and coadjutors in all the qffaira of government. 
The states, however, toon found mean* to vest in 
themselves the right of choosing their kings. Tin- 
1 arlovingian monarch* of (iermany were he- 
reditary. Louis the German even divided his 
kiiu'doin among his three sons, viz., Carloman, 
l.'niis tlir Y'lumj, and Chillies the Fat; but 
Charles having been deposed in an assembly held 
at Frankfort (HH7), the states of Germany elected 
in hi* place Arnulph, a natural son of Carloman. 
This prinee added to his crown both Italy and tae 
Imperial dignity. 

The custom of election has continued in Ger- 
many down to modern times. Louis I'l'.nfant, or 
the Infant, son of Arnulph, succeeded to the 
throne hy election; and that prince having died 
very young ('.HI ), the states bestowed the crown 
on a French nobleman, named Conrad, who was 
duke or governor of France on the Rhine, and 
'1 by the female nidi- to (lie Carlovingian line. 
1 mounted the throne, to the exclusion of 
Charles the Simple, King of France, the only 
male and legitimate heir f the Carloviugian line. 
This latter prince, however, found means to sehte 
the kingdom of Ixnraine, which Louis the Young 
bad annexed to the crown of (ieimanv. On the 
death of Conrad I. (!MH). the choice of the state* 
fell on Henry L, uniamcd the Fowler, a scion of 
9 txon dynasty of the kings and emperors of 

It was to the valour and the wisdom >f Henry 

I., and to his institutions, civil and military, that 

in\ was indelited for its renewed grandeur. 

That monarch, taking advantage of the intestine 

trundles which had arisen in Fr.mcc under Charles 

tin- Simple, recovered possession of the kingdom 

raine, the nobility of which made their sub- 

mission t<> him in the vcsrs '.''.'.'I and 92ft. By 

thi union he extended the tin many 

west, as far as the Mease and the 

my afterwards divided 

(ho territory of Lorraine into two governments or 

duchies, called I'pper and Ixiwer Lorraine, 
former, situated on the Mo., u,., was called the 
duchy of the Moselle ; the other, houndrd I 
Rhine, the Mi-use, and the Scheld, was kn<" 
the naiii.- <>!' l.othiem or Brabant. The** two 
In. -lues comprised all the province* of the king- 
dom of Lorraine, except tlios. which t: . 
judged proper to exempt from the authority and 
iiclion of the dukes. The duchy o^ the 
Moselle, alone, finally retained the nan..' of Lor- 
raine ; and pasted (1U4M) to derard of Alsace, 
descended from the duke* of that name, tv 
the eighteenth centur), succeeded to the Imperial 
throne. As to the duchy of Lower Lorraine, the 
Lmperor Henry V. contern-d it on (iixlfrev. Count 
nvain (11U6), whose male descendants kept 
possession of it, under the title of I)iik.- of 
Brabant, till 1355, when it passed by female 
succession to the Dukes of Burgundy, who found 
means also to acquire, by degrees, the greater part 
of Lower Lorraine, commonly called the Low 

Henry I., a prince of extraordinary genius, 
proved himself the true restorer of the fierman 
kingdom. The Slavonian tribes who inhabited 
the banks of the Saal, and the country d.-tw.-. n 
the Elbe and the Baltic, committed incessant 
ravages on the frontier provinces of the kingdom. 
With these he waged a successful war, and re- 
duced them once more to the condition of tribu- 
taries. But his policy was turned rhietlv against 
the Hungarians, who, since the reign of Lonis II., 
had repeatedly renewed their incursions, and 
threatened to subject all Germany to their yoke. 
Desirous to repress effectually that ferocious nation, 
he took the opportunity of a nine years' truer, 
which he had obtained w itli them, to construe) 
new towns, and fortify places of strength. 1 1 
instructed his troops in a new kind of tactics, 
accustomed them to military evolutions, and, 
all, he formed and equipped a cavalry sufficient to 
cope with those of the Hungarians, who par- 
ticularly excelled iii the art of managing bones. 
These depredators having returned with fn-sh 
forces at the expiry of the truce, he completely 
d them in two bloody battles, which be 
fought with them ('.CW) near Sondershmiscn rind 
Hamburg ; and thus exonerated (iennany from 
the tribute which it had formerly paid them.' 

This victorious prince extended his conquests 
beyond the F.yder, the ancient frontier of Den- 
mark. After a prosperous war with the Danes 
. he founded the margravate of >:.-wick, 
which the Km peror Conrad II. afterward* ceded 
back ( loa:) to Canute the Great, King of Den- 

Otho the Great, son and successor of Henry I., 
added the kingdom of Italy to the conqu. 
his father, and procured also tin- Imperial <! 
for himself, and his successors in Germany . 
had become a distinct kingdom since the revolu- 
tion, which happened (HHH) at the death of th- 
<>r i buries the prince* in sac- 

cession occupied the throne during the space of 

Knijit'ror of (ii-rmany. 
28 Jlm XI. ami XII. ftj 



Otho crowned Emperor 

in Home. 
German dominion. 

se\ cut \-three \ears. Several of these princes, 
such as Guy, Lambert, Arnulf, Louis of Bur- 
gundj, and Bcrenger I., were invested, at the 
same time, with the Imperial dignity. Berenger 

I. having been assassinated (924), this latter dig- 
nity erased entirely, and the city of Rome was 
even dismembered from the kingdom of Italy. 

The sovereignty of that city was seized by the 
famous Marozia, widow of a nobleman named 
Alberic. She raised her son to the pontificate by 
the title of John XI. ; and the better to establish 
her dominion, she espoused Hugo King of Italy 
(932), who became, in consequence of this mar- 
riage, master of Rome. But Alberic, another son 
of Marozia, soon stirred up the people against 
tliis aspiring princess and her husband Hugo. 
Having driven Hugo from the throne, and shut up 
his mother in prison, he assumed to himself the 
sovereign authority, under the title of Patrician 
of the Romans. At his death (954), he trans- 
mitted the sovereignty to his son Octavian, who, 
though only nineteen years of age, caused himself 
to be elected pope, by the title of John XII. 

This epoch was one most disastrous for Italy. 
The weakness of the government excited factions 
among the nobility, gave birth to anarchy, and 
fresh opportunity for the depredations of the Hun- 
garians and Arabs, who, at this period, were the 
scourge of Italy, which they ravaged with impu- 
nitj. 1'avia, the capital of the kingdom, was 
taken, and burnt by the Hungarians. These 
troubles increased on the accession of Berenger 

II. (950). grandson of Berenger I. That prince 
associated his son Adelbert with him in the royal 
dignity ; and the public voice accused them of 
having caused the death of King Lothaire, son and 
successor of Hugo. 

Lothaire left a young widow, named Adelaide, 
daughter of Rodol'ph II., King of Burgundy and 
Italy. To avoid the importunities of Berenger 
II., who wished to compel her to marry his son 
Adelbert, this princess called in the King of 
Germany to her aid. Otho complied with the 
solicitations of the distressed queen; and, on this 
occasion, undertook his first expedition into Italy 
('.)."> 1 ). The cit\ of Pa\ia, and several other places, 
having fallen into his hands, he made himself be 
proclaimed King of Italy, and married the young 
queen, his protegee. Berenger and his son, being 
dm en for shelter to their strongholds, had recourse 
to intonation. They succeeded in obtaining for 
thcmsches a confirmation of the royal title of 
Italy, on condition of doing homage for it to the 
Kin;,' of Germany; and for this purpose, they 
repaired in person to the diet assembled at Augs- 
Inirij (952), where they took the oath of vassalage 
under the hands of ()thi>, who solemnly invested 
them with the royalty of Italy ; resetting to him- 
self the towns and marches of Aquileia and Verona, 
the command of which he bestowed on his brother 
the Duke of Bavaria. 

In examining more nearly all that passed in this 
atlair, it appears that it was not without the 
t, and even contrary to the wish of Adelaide, 
that Otho agreed to enter into terms of accommo- 
dation with Berenger, and to ratify the compact 
which Conrad, Duke of Lorraine, and son-in-law 
of the Emperor, had made with that prince. 
Afterwards, however, he lent a favourable ear to 
the complaints which Pope John XII., and some 

Italian noblemen had addressed to him against 
Uerenger and his son ; and took occasion, on their 
account, to conduct a new army into Italy (961). 
Berenger, too feeble to oppose him, retired a 
second time within his fortifications. Otho marched 
from Pavia to Milan, and there made himself be 
crowned King of Italy ; from thence he passed to 
Rome, about the commencement of the following 
year. Pope John XII., who had himself invited 
him, and again implored his protection against 
Berenger, gave him, at first, a very brilliant re- 
ception ; and revived the Imperial dignity in his 
favour, which had been dormant for thirty-eight 
years. ~n 

It was on the 2d of February, 962, that the 
Pope consecrated and crowned him Emperor ; but 
he had soon cause to repent of this proceeding. 
Otho, immediately after his coronation at Rome, 
undertook the siege of St. Leon, a fortress in 
Umbria, where Berenger and his Queen had taken 
refuge. While engaged in the siege, he received 
frequent intimations from Rome, of the misconduct 
and immoralities of the Pope. The remonstrances 
which he thought it his duty to make on this 
subject, offended the young Pontiff, who resolved, 
in consequence, to break off union with the 
Emperor. Hurried on by the impetuosity of hie 
character, he entered into a negociation with 
Adelbert ; and even persuaded him to come to 
Rome, in order to concert with him me-isures of 
defence. On the first news of this event, Otho 
put himself at the head of a large detachment, with 
which he marched directly to Rome. The Pope, 
however, did not think it advisable to wait his 
approach, but fled with the King, his new ally. 
Otho, on arriving at the capital, exacted a solemn 
oath from the clergy arid the people, that hence- 
forth they would elect no pope without his counsel, 
and that of the Emperor and his successors.* Hav- 
ing then assembled a council, he caused Pope John 
XII. to be deposed ; and Leo VIII. was elected in 
his place. This latter Pontiff was maintained in 
the papacy, in spite of all the efforts which his 
adversary made to regain it. Berenger II., after 
having sustained a long sie<,'e at St. I. eon, fell at 
length (964) into the hands of the conqueror, who 
sent him into exile at Uamberg, and compelled his 
son, Adelbert, to take refuge in the court of Con- 

All Italy, to the extent of the ancient kingdom 
of the Lombards, fell under the dominion of the 
Germans ; only a few maritime towns in Lower 
Italy, with the greater part of Apulia and Ca- 
labria, still remained in the power of the Greek*. 
This kingdom, together with the Imperial dignify, 
Otlio transmitted to his successors on the throne 
of Germany. From this time the Germans held it 
to be an imiolahle principle, that as the Imperial 
dignity was strictly united with the royalty of 
Italy, kings elected by the German nation should, 
at the same time, in virtue of that election, become 
Kings of Italy and Emperors. The practice of this 
triple coronation, viz., of Germany, Italy, and 
Rome, continued for main centuries; and from 
Otho the Great, till Maximilian l.(l')OS), no king 
of Germany took the title of Kmperor, until after 
he had been formally crowned by the Pope. 

The kings and emperors of the house of 
Saxony did not terminate their conquests with the 
dominions of Lorraine and Italy. Towards the cast 

v.v,., .:-..,..-. r, ...... 

Kr. :..,.n, ,.., Mil 

M III. A.D. 002-1074. 

K . . .- I . 
I' /..'..-. 

ml tin- i, -ill., ihey extended them beyond the 
BM! ami i. \ 1 ()> M... 

tweei. . r ; the Aholril. 

Rhedariativ .:>-, (In- Slavonians 01 

.. the Sorsbians, the Dalemlncians, the ' 
tan*ns,tAe Milaians,an< -him; the dukes 

also of Bohemia and Poland, although they often 
look up anna in defence of their liberty ami . 
pendence, were all reduced to subjection, and again 
compelled to pay trihutc. In unli-r ! . un- their 
tuba lesion, the Saxon kings iiitrt>duri*<l German 
..Liu. - mt. 1 1 hi- .-..11.111. r.-.l countries; ind founded 
there several margravates, such a that of the North, 
on this aide of the Elbe, afterward* called Bran- 
dcnhuri; ; ..n. 1 in the East, those of Miania and 
Losat 'In- (treat adopted measures for 

promulgating Christianity among Minn. Tin- l>i- 
nhopri. of Oldenburg in Wagria, of Havelburg, 
Brandenburg, Meissen, Meraebuix, /i-itz ; those 

mania or Poscn, in Poland, of Prague in 
It li.-mia; and la.Htly, the mclro|Miliii of Magdeberg, 
all owe their origin to this monarch. HU grand- 
son, the Kmperor Otho III., founded (in 1000) 
tin- Archbishopric of Cinemta, in Poland, to whirl) 
. 'ijectcd the l>ishoprica of Colbcrif, Cracow, 
and Brealau, resenring Posen to the metropolitan 

- ixon dynasty became extinct (1024) with 

the emperor Hrnry II. It was succeeded by 

i,. "ininonl) railed the Salic. Conrad 

II., the first emperor of this house, united to the 

in crown the kingdom of Burgundy; or, as 

sometimes culled, the kingdom of Aries. 
This monarchy, situate between the Rhine, the 
Reuss, Mount Jura, the Saone, the Uhone, and 
Mi.- Alps, had been divided among a certain num- 
ber of counts, or governors of provinces, who, in 
consequence of the weakness of their last kings, 
Conrad and Rudolph III., had converted their 
temporary jurisdictions into hereditary and patri- 
monial offices, after the example of the French 
noSilii), who had already usurped the same power. 
The principal and most puissant of these Burgun- 
diaii the counts of Provence, Vienne, 

: wards called Dauphins of Vicnnc), Savoy, 

.nd), and Monthclliard ; the Archbishop of 
l.\"iis, Besanyon, and Aries, and the Bishop of 
Basle, &c. The contempt in which these power- 
ful vassal* held the royal authority, inductd Ro- 
dlph to .ippl\ lor protection to his kinsmen the 
l-'.mpcrors Henry II. and Conrad II., and to ac- 
knowledge them, by several treaties, his heirs and 
successor* to the crown. It was in virtue of these 
treaties, that Conrad II. took possession of the 
kingdom of Burirnndv (lux') on the death of 

Ko.lolph III. lit- maint.ii I his rights bv 

of arms against Eudes, Count of Champagne, 
who claimed to be the legitimate successor, as 
being nephew to the hut king. 

This reunion was but a feeble addition to the 
power of the German emperors. The bishops, 
counts, and great vassal* of the kingdom they had 
newly acquired, still retained the authority which 
they had usurped in their several departments ; 
and nothing was left to the emperors, but the 
exercize of their feudal and proprietor)- rights. 
together with the slender remains <>f the demesne 
lands bflon^ini; to the last kings. It is even pro- 
bable, that the high rank which the Burgundian 
nobles enjoyed excited the ambition of those in 

.ny, and emboldened then to usurp the 

name picroir 

ron Conrad II. (1033) and Henry 
III. (lo:i), were both crowned Kings of Bur. 
gund}. 1 l ,.. : : l.othaire conferred the 
Ticeroyaity or regency on Conrad Duke of Zah- 

it, who thiii t....k the litli- ' 
Regent of Burxuiid). li.-ithold IV., ...n ot ' 
rad, resigned (I I. ">'), in fuM>ur of the Kinprror 
11- I., hit rights of Ticcrovalty over that pert 
of the kingdom situate beyond .Mount Jura. Sw it - 
I, at that time, was subject to the Dukes of 
Zahringvn, who, in order to retain it in Tassalafe 
to their got eminent, fortified Morges, Mouden, 
'i Inn, and Berthoud ; and built the cities of 
Frihourg and Berne. On tin- extinction of the 
./tan dukes ( ll'.H ), Switzerland became an 
immediate province of the empire. It was after- 
wards (121H) formed into a republic; and the 
other parts of the kingdom of Burgundy or Aries 
were gradually united to France, as we shall see 
in course of our narrative. 

The Hungarians, since their first invasion under 
I. oiii- rr.nfant, had wrested from the (ierman 
crown all its possessions in Panuonia, with a part 
of ancient Noricum ; and the boundaries of ' 
many had been contracted within the river I 
Bavaria. Their growing preponderance after- 
wards enabled the Germans to recover from the 
Hungarians a part of their conquests. They suc- 
ceeded in expelling them, not only from Noricum, 
but even from that part of Upper 1'annonia which 
lies between Mount Cetius, or Kahlenberg ax it it 
called, and the river Leila. Henrj III. secured 
the possession of these territories by the treaty of 
peace which he concluded (1043) with Samuel, 
surnamed Aba, King of Hungary. This part of 
Hungary was annexed to the Eastern Margin vale, 
or Austria, which then began to assume nearly its 
present form. 

Such then was the progressive aggrandisement 
of the German empire, from the rcu'n of Henry I. 
to the year 104U. I'mler its most nourishing 
state, that is, under the F.mperor Henn 11 i 
embraced nearly two-thirds of the monarch) of 
Charlemagne. All Germany between the Rhine, 
the Eyder, the Oder, the Leita, and the Alps ; all 
Italy, as far as the confines of the Greeks in Apu- 
lia and Calabria ; Gaul, from the Hhine to the 
Scheldt, the MI-US.-, and the Rhone, acknowledged 
the supremacy of the emperors. The Dukes of 
II. .hernia and Poland were their tributaries ; a de- 
pendence which continued until the commotions 
which agitated Germany put an cud to it in the 
thirteenth century. 

nan), at this period, ranked as the ruling 
power in F.urope ; and this preponderance was 
not owing so much to the extent of her posses- 
. as to the vigour of her government, which 
si ill maintained a kind of system of political >. 
The emperors may be regarded as true mon:. 
ill-;., using, at their pleasure, all di-.niities, civil 
and ecclesiastical possessing very huge domains 
in all parts of the empire and exercising, indi- 
vidually, various branches of the sovereign power ; 
only, in affairs of great importance, asking the 
advice or consent of the grandees. This great- 
ness of the German emperors gave rise to a sys- 
tem of poll!) which the 1'opes took great care to 
support with all tin ir credit and authority. Ac- 

Schism at Rome. 
30 Henry III. and IV. 
: Italy. 


Feudal t-ystt-m. 
Power of the Clergy. 

Ittshuyrirs. Kiiyai Cities. 

cording to this system, the whole of Christendom 
composed, as it were, a single and individual re- 
public, of which the Pope was the spiritual head, 
and the Emperor the secular. The duty of the 
latter, as head and patron of the Church, was to 
take eogni/ance that nothing should be done con- 
trary to the general welfare of Christianity. It 
was his part to protect the Catholic Church, to be 
the guardian of its preservation, to convocate its 
general councils, and exercise such rights as the 
nature of his office and the interests of Christianity 
seemed to demand. 

It was in virtue of this ideal system that the 
emperors enjoyed a precedency over other mo- 
uarchs, with the exclusive right of electing kings ; 
and that they had bestowed on them the title of 
masters of the world, and sovereign of sovereigns. 
A more important prerogative was that which they 
eel in the election of the Popes. From 
Otlio the Great to Henry IV., all the Roman 
pontiffs were chosen, or at least confirmed, by the 
emperors. Henry III. deposed three schismatical 
popes (104(5), and substituted in their place a 
German, who took the name of Clement II. The 
same emperor afterwards nominated various other 
popes of his own nation. 

However vast and formidable the power of these 
monarchs seemed to be, it was nevertheless far 
from being a solid and durable fabric ; and it was 
easy to foresee that, in a short time, it would 
crumble and disappear. Various causes conspired 
to accelerate its downfall ; the first and principal of 
which necessarily sprang from the constitution of 
the empire, which was faulty in itself, and incom- 
patible with any scheme of aggrandisement or 
conquest. A great empire, to prolong its dura- 
bility, requires a perfect unity of power, which 
can act with despatch, and communicate with faci- 
lity from one extremity to the other ; an armed 
force constantly on foot, and capable of maintain- 
inir the public tranquillity ; frontiers well defended 
against hostile invasion ; and revenues propor- 
l to the exigencies of the state. All these 
characteristics of political greatness were want- 
ing in the German empire. 

That empire was elective ; the states co-operated 
jointly with the emperors in the exercise of the 
legislative power. There were neither permanent 
armies, nor fortresses, nor taxation, nor any regu- 
\ stem of finance. The government was with- 
out vigour, incapable of protecting or punishing, 
or even keeping in subjection, its remote provinces, 
consisting of nations who differed in language, 
manner*, and legislation. One insurrection, though 
(Hii-lli .I. was only the forerunner of others ; and 
the conquered nations shook off the- joke with the 
name facility as they received it. The perpetual 
wars of the emperont in Italy, from the tirst con- 
quest of that count rj by (Mho the Great, prove, 
in a manner most evident, the strange imbecility 
of the government. At every change of reign, and 
little revolution which happened in Ger- 
many, the Italians rose in arms, and put the em- 
perors again to the necessity of reconquering that 
Kingdom ; which undoubtedly it was their interest 
to have abandoned entirely, rather than to lavish 
for so many centuries their treasures and the blood 
of their people to no purpose. The climate of 
Italy wax also disastrous to the Imperial armies ; 
and many successions of noble German families 
found there a foreign grave. 

An inevitable consequence of this vitiated con- 
stitution, was the decliiie of the royal authority, 
and the gradual increase of the power of the no- 
bility. It is important, however, to remark, that 
in Germany the progress of the feudal system had 
been much less rapid than in France. The dukes, 
counts, and margraves, that is, the governors of 
provinces, and wardens of the marches, continued 
for long to be regarded merely as imperial officers, 
without any pretensions to consider their govern- 
ments as hereditary, or exercise the rights of sove- 
reignty. Even fiefs remained for many ages in 
their primitive state, without being perpetuated in 
the families of those to whom they had been ori- 
ginally granted. 

A total change, however, took place towards 
the end of the eleventh century. The dukes and 
counts, become formidable by the extent of their 
power and their vast possessions, by degrees, con- 
stituted themselves hereditary officers ; and not 
content with the appropriation of their duchies and 
counties, they took advantage of the weakness of 
the emperors, and their quarrels with the popes, 
to extort from them new privileges, or usurp the 
prerogatives of .royalty, formerly reserved for the 
emperors alone. The aristocracy, or landed pro- 
prietors, followed the example of the dukes and 
counts, and after the eleventh century they all 
began to play the part of sovereigns, styling them- 
selves, in their public acts, By the Grace of God. 
At length fiefs became also hereditary. Conrad 
II. was the first emperor that permitted tae trans- 
mission of fiefs to sons and grandsons ; the suc- 
cession of collateral branches was subsequently 
introduced. The system of hereditary feudalism 
became thus firmly established in Germany, and, 
by a natural consequence, it brought on the de- 
struction of the imperial authority, and the ruin of 
the empire. 

Nothing, however, was more injurious to this 
authority than the extravagant power of the clergy, 
whom the emperors of the Saxon line had loaded 
with honours and benefactions, either from a zeal 
for religion, or with the intention of using them as 
a counterpoise to the ambition of the dukes anil 
secular nobility. It was chiefly to Otho the Great 
that the bishops of Germany were indebted for 
their temporal power. That prince bestowed on 
them large grants of land from the imperial do- 
mains ; he gave them towns, counties, and entire 
dukedoms, with the prerogatives of royalty, such 
as justiciary powers, the right of coining money, 
of levying tolls and other public revenues, &c. 
These rights and privileges lie granted them un- 
der the feudal law, and on condition of rendering 
him military servitude. Nevertheless, as the dis- 
posal of ecclesiastical dignities belonged then to 
the crown, and fiefs had not, in general, become 
Hereditary, the Emperor still retained possession of 
tlio-.e which he conferred on the clergy: these he 
bestowed on whomsoever he judged proper, using 
them, however, alwaj-s in conformity with his own 
views ami inter, -ts. 

The same policy that induced Otho to transfer 
to the bishops a large portion of his domains, 
led him also to intrust them with the government 
of cities. At that time, there was a distinction 
of towns into royal and jirrfectoridl. The latter 
were dependent on the dukes, while the former, 
subject immediately to the king, gave iKe to \\lut 

Onfsry VII.. Ftope. 

k] ' i 

ri.KHMJ 111. A.H. 0621074. 

i-. . i. .- 

I, ,- MI.. IT. II . ill, ,1 I,,!/,, -:,(/ ...'.,. ! .,.-:;. 

these royal cities that thr (ii-nimn king* w . 

the practice of establishing roanU nd burgomas- 

r >sj*titS| to exercise in their name the 
rifhts of justice, civil and rriminal, the levying 
of money, customs, Ac. M well M other pre- 
rogative* usual I > t<> t! km.-. (Mho 
oufcrrad the counties, or goven.o,,!,,],, "' 
where bishop resided, on toe hUh>|M themselves, 
who, in process . ul<- use of this new 
powci - to their own a 

.ml rv-uder them mediate and episcopal, in- 
tead of bring immediate and royal as they were 

The successor* of < Mho, a impolitic an himself, 

- example. Ill ciuiscipiciicc of this, the 

possessions of tin- i P.UM \\i-n-. I \ .(_:.>, reduced 

liintf, niul the authority nl tin- cmjM-rors de- 

tttaed uith the diminution of their wealth. 

bishop*, at first .(.voted to tin- emperors, both 

necessity and gratitude, no sooner perceived 

their nun strength, than they were tempted t 

ii-.,- of n. ami in the secular princes, in 

order to tap the imperial authority, M well as to 

WUtolidate their own power. To these M-veml 

cause* of the downfall <>t' theemjiire must be added 

the new power of the K...U.HI pontiffs, the origin 

of \vlin-h i ascribed to l'.,pi- dnirory VII. In 

the following 1'eriod, this matter will be treated 

ore in detail ; meantime, we shall proceed to 

i:iet view of the other states that figured 

during this epoch on the theatre of Kurope. 

The dynasty of the Oiniiii'iiles in Spain, founded 
about the middle of the eighth century, wax over- 
turned in the eleventh. An insurrection having 
happened at Cordova again.-.! the Caliph Husehein, 
that prinee wus ilethroneil (1005), and the caliph- 
ale ended ill 10'.'". The governors of rities and 

province*, and the principal nubility of the Arabs, 
formed thi-ni-i-lves into independent - 
under the title of king*; and a* many pet? 
hometan State* roue in Spain n.s there 1ml heen 
principal cities. The most i-onsiilerable of these 
were the kingdom* of C'onlova, Seville, Toledo, 
I.tahon, Sangosaa, Tortosa, N 'ah -ncia, Murcia, &c. 
This partition of the caliphate of Cordova enabled 
the princes of Christendom to aggrandise their 
own power at the expense of the Mahometans. 
Besul l.ims ,,| I., ,., u . there 

i-\l--ted in Spaiii. .it the eonillieneement of the 
eleventh rentlirv, the eoiinty of Custille, which 

had been dismembered from the kingdom of Leon, 
and th. .ountv of Barcelona, which acknowledged 
the sovereignty of the Kinir* of r ranee. 

8' ire, had the for- 

tune to unite in hi< own fainilj all these different 
sovereignties, with the exception of Barcelona; 
and as thin occur :it the name time with 

the destruction of the caliphate of Cordovi, it 
would hive he.-n easy for the ( d l,t ,in 

inplete avendency over the Mahometans, if 
their had kept their forre* united. Hut th. 

N tvarre fell into the name mistake that had 

been so fatal to the Mahometans; he divided hi* 

dominion* anmng lu sons (1036). Don Uarcias, 

the eldest, h:id Navarre, and was the ancestor of a 

line of Navarre- ,, !, 

d'Alhret. was deposit (1512) by Ferdinand 

I .-nliti u:il. the younger son, 

King of Leon and Castille, were descended all the 

sovereigns of Cu-nlle and Leon down to <J 
Isabella, who tr^ e kingdoms (1474). 

by marriau .and the Catholic. Lastly, 

Da lUmira. natural son of Sancho, was the stem 

from whom sprung all !). king* of Arragon, down 

dinand, who, h\ hi- marriage with Isabella, 

happened to unite all the different Christian State* 

in Spain; and put an end also to the dominion of 

ri in that p. iim-.ul:i. 

In France the royal authority declined more and 
more, from the rapid pro^n-sn which the feudal 
i made in kingdom, after the ! 

' the Buld. The Duke* and the 

Counts, usurping the right* of royalty, made war 
on each cither, and raised on every occasion tin- 
standard of revolt. Tin- kings, in order to gain 
IIH-, and maintain others in their allegiance, 
were obliged to u'ive up to them in succession 
iirnnch of the royal revenue ; so that the last 
.re reduced to such a state 

of di- tress, that, far from being able to counter- 
balance the power of the nobility, they had hardly 
left wherewithal to furnish a scanty subsistence 
for their court. A change of dynasty became 
then indispensable ; and the throne, it was evident, 
must fell to the share of the most powerful and 
daring of it* vassals. This event, which had Ion- 
been foreseen, happened on the death of Louis 
.i-named the Slothful (!M7), the last of the 
Carlovingians, who died childless at the age of 

Hugh Capet, great-grandson of Robert the 
Strong, possessed at that time the central parts of 
the kingdom. He was Count of Pan*, Duke of 
France and Neustria ; and his brother Henry was 
master of the duchy of Burgundy. It was not 
difficult for Hugh to form a party; and under 
their auspices he got himself proclaimed k 
Noyon, and crowned at llheim*. Charles Duke 
<>f Lorrain, paternal uncle of the last king, and 
sole leu'itimate heir to the Carlovincian line,* ad- 
vanced his claims to the crown : he seized b\ 
of arms on Laon and Rheims ; but being betrayed 
by the Bishop of Laon, and delivered up to his 
: iv .1. he was confined in a prison at Orleans, where 

he ended his days , 

Hugh, on mounting the throne, restored to the 
possession of the crown the lands and dominion* 
which had belonged to it between the Loire, the 
Seine, and the Meuse. His power gave a n. w 
lustre to the royal dignity, which he found means 
( render hereditary in his family; while at the 
same time he permitted the grandees to transmit 
to their descendants, male and female, the duchies 
and counties which they held of the crown, re- 
it merely the feudal superiority. Thus 
the feudal government was firmly establish. 
France, by the hereditary tenure of the great 
and that kingdom was in coim-quc: 
among a certain mini er of powerful va**als, who 
tendered fealty and homagv to their kings, and 
marched at their command on military expeditions ; 
but who nevertheless were nearly absolute masters 
in their own dominion*, and often dictated the 
law to the sovereign himself. H'jgh was the pro- 
genitor of the Capetian dynasty of French kings, 
I from hi* own surnan 

Kngland, during the feeble reigns of the Anglo- 
Saxon princes, successors to Alfred the Great, had 
sunk under the dominion of priests and monks. 

Dunes, Kings of Kngland. 
HanilJ II.. S.ixon Kiii^'. 
William tin? l'oni|iUTor. 


Nurnian coui|ur>t-, in 
Italy and Sicily, 

The consequence was, the utter ruin of its finances, 
and its naval ami military power. This exposed 
tlic kingdom afresh in the attacks of the Dunes 
(991), who imposed on the English a tribute or 
tax, known by the name of Danegelt. Under the 
command of their kings Sueno or Sweyn I., and 
Canute the Great, they at length drove the Anglo- 
Saxon kings from their thrones, and made them- 
selves masters of all England (1017). But the 
dominion of the Danes was only of short continu- 
ance. Tlie English shook otf their yoke, and 
conferred their crown on Edward the Confessor 
( 1042), a prince of the royal blood of their ancient 
kings. On the death of Edward, Harold, Earl of 
Kent, was acknowledged King of England (106G) ; 
but he met with a formidable competitor in the 
prison of William Duke of Normandy. 

This prince had no other right to the crown 
than that founded on a verbal promise of Edward 
the Confessor, and confirmed by an oath which 
Harold had given him while Earl of Kent. Wil- 
liam landed in England (October 14th, 1066), at 
the head of a considerable army, and having offered 
battle to Harold, near Hastings in Sussex, he 
gained a complete victory. Harold was killed in 
the action, and the conquest of all England was 
the reward of the victor. To secure himself in 
his new dominions, William constructed a vast 
number of castles and fortresses throughout all 
parts of the kingdom, which he took care to fill 
with Norman garrisons. The lands and places 
of trust, of which he had deprived the English, 
were distributed among the Normans, and other 
foreigners who were attached to his fortunes. He 
introduced the feudal law, and rendered fiefs 
hereditary ; he ordered the English to be dis- 
armed, and forbade them to have light in their 
houses after eight o'clock in the evening. He 
even attempted to abolish the language of the 
country, by establishing numerous schools for 
teaching the Norman-French ; by publishing the 
laws, and ordering the pleadings in the courts of 
justice to be made in that language ; hence it 
happened that the ancient British, combined with 
the Norman, formed a new sort of language, which 
still exists in the modern English. NVilham thus 
became the common ancestor of the kings of Eng- 
land, whose right to the crown is derived from him, 
and founded on the Conquest. 

About the time that William conquered Eng- 
land, another colony of the same Normans founded 
the kingdom of the Two Sicilies. The several 
prounces of which this kingdom was composed 
were, about the beginning of the eleventh century, 
dixided among the Germans, Greeks, and Ara- 
bians, 4 who -wire incessantly waging war with 
each other. A band of nearly a hundred Nor- 
mans, equally covetous of war and glory, landed 
in that country (101G), and tendered thrir s -ruees 
to the Lombard princes, vassals of the German 
empire. The bravery which they displayed on 
vaiious occasions made these princes desirous of 
retaining them in their pay, to serve as guardians 
of their frontiers against the Greeks, and Arabians. 
The Greek princes very soon were no less eager 
to gain their services ; and the Duke of Naples, 
with tin- view of attaching them to his interest, 
ceiled to them a large territory, where they built 
the city of Aversa, three leagues from Capua. The 
Emperor Conrad II. erected it into a county 

(1038), the investiture of which he granted to 
Raiuulph, one of their chiefs. 

At this same period the sons of Tancred con- 
ducted a new colony from Normandy into Lower 
Italy. Their arrival is generally referred to the 
year 1033 ; and tradition has assigned to Tancred 
a descent from Hollo or Robert 1. Duke of Nor- 
mandy. These new adventurers undertook the 
conquest of Apulia (1041), which they formed 
into a comity, the investiture of which they ob- 
tained from Henry III. Robert Guiseard, ;ie 
of the sons of Taucred, afterwards (1047) com- 
pleted the conquest of that province ; he added to 
it that of Calabria, of which he had also deprived 
the Greeks (1059), and assumed the title of Duke 
of Apulia and Calabria. 

To secure himself in his new conquests, as well 
as in those which he yet meditated from the t\\o 
empires, Robert concluded a treaty the same year 
with Pope Nicholas II., by which that Pontiff con- 
firmed him in the possession of the duchies of 
Apulia and Calabria; granting him not only the 
investiture of these, but promising him also that 
of Sicily, whenever he should expel the Greeks 
and Arabians from it. Robert, in his turn, ac- 
knowledged himself a vassal of the Pope, and en- 
gaged to pay him an annual tribute of twelve 
pence, money of Pavia, for every pair of oxen in 
the two duchies.* Immediately after this treaty, 
Robert called in the assistance of his brother 
Roger, to rescue Sicily from the hands of the 
Greeks and Arabs. 6 No sooner had he accom- 
plished this object, than he conquered in succes- 
sion the principalities of Bari, Salerno, Amain', 
Sorrento, and Benevento ; this latter city he sur- 
rendered to the Pope. 

Such is the origin of the duchies of Apulia and 
Calabria ; which, after a lapse of some years, were 
formed into a kingdom under the name of the 
Two Sicilies. 

As to the kingdoms of the North, the light of 
history scarcely began to dawn there until the 
introduction of Christianity, which happened about 
the end of the tenth or beginning of the eleventh 
century. 7 The promulgation of the Gospel opened 
a way into the North for the diffusion of arts 
and letters. The Scandinavian states, Denmark, 
Sweden, and Norway, which before that time 
were parcelled out among independent chiefs. 
began then to form plans of civil government, and 
to combine into settled monarchies. Their new 
religion, however, did not inspire these nations 
with its meek and peaceable virtues, nor overcome 
their invincible propensity to wars and rapine. 
Their heroism was a wild and savage braver}, 
which emboldened them to face all dangers, to 
undertake desperate adventures, and to achieve 
sudden conquests, which were lost and won with 
the same rapidity. 

Harold, surnamed Blaatand, or Blue teeth, was 
the tirst sole monarch of the Danes, who with his 
son Sweyn received baptism, after being van- 
quished by Otho the Great (905). Sweyn relapsed 
to paganism; but his son Canute the Great, on 
his accession to the throne (1014), made Christi- 
anity the established religion of his kingdom. He 
sent for monks from other countries, founded 
churches, and divided the kingdom into dio' 
Ambitious to distinguish himself as a conqueror, 
he afterwards subdued England and Norway 

mm M >.;..< 

,', ,..!:,:,.,. I 

ol) HI. A.I). WW.-HI74. 

Kimc oT IW VMM41 

8). To UMM be added a part of Scotland 

ml Sweden; and conferred in lui own h: 
no of lii sous, named Swejn. tin- kn. 
. and ou the other, named 1 Unlit 
i 1), inn uk.. These acquisition*, hou 
were merely temporary. Sweyn WM dnvi n from 

:.lflund an.! 

also shook <r tin- Danish \..' K .- , !MM, .., the 
death of llardicanuti- ; and Magnus, Km_-. 

. even made himself master <if Denmark, which 
tlid nut r. .tire indcp' . t \ the 

death of that prince ( 1047). -^ 

The ancient il\n i-t\ <>f King* who occupied the 
tlirniii- .-i 1). iiin.iik from the mot remote ages 
it know n ti v the name of Skiuldtutgt, because, 
u I'.i'.ulous tradition, tin-j were de- 
kccmlcd from Sktalit, a pretended aou of the 
t'lm.nis Oilin, win), from heing the conqueror, was 
.\;ilii-il int.. the dcitv of tin- North. Tin- king* 
who reigned after Sweyn II. were called Eitrt- 
t/tiilrs, from that monarch, who WM the on of 
I'lf :i Danish nobleman, and E.ilnt/i, sinter to 
Canute the Great. It was this Swevn that raised 
tin- stand ml of revolt against Magnus, King of 
Nor A . mil kept possession of the throne 

until hit death. 

In s \vi-ili-n, the kings of the reigning family, 
descended, as is allege*!, from Rcgner Lodbrok, 
took the title of Kinifs of t'psal, tin- place of tlii-ir 
ri sideii, .-. Olaus Skotkonung changed this title 
into tint of King of Sweden. He was the Knit 
.irh of his nation that embraced Christianity, 
ami evrtcd himself to propagate it in his king- 
iloin. Sijjefroy, Archbishop of York., who was 
-.cut into Swi-ili-n liy Kthclrcd, Kiinj of England, 
I. iptized Olaus and his w holt- family (1001). The 
roiiM-rxion of the Swedes would haw- l>< m more 
.nuns, hail not the zeal of Olaus been n-- 
traiiu-il l>\ tin- Swedish Diet, who decided for full 
liln-rty <>f oon-M-iriiri-. Hi-nce the strange mixture, 
hoth of ilix-triiie and worship, that long prevail<-<l 
in Swi-ili-n, whi-n- Jrsu^ Cliri-t was profanely as- 
sociated with Odin, and the Pagan goddess Freya 
confounded with the Virgin. Anund J:ii-i|iii-, 
son of Olaus, contributed much to the progress of 
utility; and his zeal procured him the title 

Christian King. 

In Norway, Olaus I., surnamed Trygyuetom, 
towards the end of the tenth century, constituted 
himself the apostle and missionary of his people, 
and undertook to convert them to Christianity by 
torture and punishment. Iceland and Greenland* 
were likew i-.e converted by his efforts, and after- 
wards became his tributaries (1020). One of his 
-ors, Olaus II.,. ... .1 the Fat, and also the 
. succeeded in extirp.iiin^ paganism from 
Norway (1020); but he used the cloak of religion 
to establish his own authority, by destroying seve- 
ral petty king*, who before this time possessed 

-.eir own dominions. 

Christianity was likewise instrumental in throw- 
ing some rays of light on the history of the Scla- 
!>y imparting to them the know- 
ledge of letters, and i i in the scale of 
taiu-e amoti the civilized nations of Europe. 
1 1 tans, who were settled north of the 
ih.lucil by the Germans, and com- 
! to emhr.u-c Christianity. The haughtiness) 
of Thierry, Margrave of the North, in- 
: them to shake otf the joke, and to concert 

a general insurrection, which broke out in the 
t otlio 1! i lie episcopal palace*. 

,.--. i:,.| . ,.n. nt, were destroyed; and the 
people returned ooee more to the Mperslition* of 
paganism. Tboae tribes that Inhabited Brauden- 
l.ui k '. part of 1'om.T.inia and Mrcklrnburg, known 

ly iind.-r the name of \\diiam and We- 
laUbe*. formed lhemelves into a rrpublinui or 

. l.od v. and took the name of LiulittanM. 

\hoiritcs, on the contrary, the Polabes, and 
the \Vagrians,* were decidedly for a monan 
goTcrnineiit, the capital of which was Hxed at 
Sleckleuhurg. Some of the prince* or sovereign* 
of these Utter |M-ople were stvleil Kinya of the 
FeiMttf. The result of this general revolt was a 
series of long and bloody wars between (he 
(ermans and Sclavonians. The latter defended 
their civil and religious liberties with a remark- 
able courage and perseverance ; and it was not till 
after the twelfth century that they were milxlued 
and reduced to Christianity by the continued 
efforts of the Dukes of Saxony, and the Mar- 
grave* of the North, ami by means of the crusades 
and colonies which the Germans despatched into 
their country. ' 

The first duke of Bohemia that received bap- 
tism from the hands, as is supposed, of Metho- 
dins, bishop of Moravia (894), was Borzivo\. 
His successors, however, returned to idolatry; 
and it was not till near the end of the tenth 
century, properly speaking, and in the reign of 
Boleslaus II., tturnamed the 1'ious, that ChrUti- 
anitv became the established religion of Holienu.i 
(91)9). Tlie^e duke, wep- \asvils and the tribu- 
taries of the German empire; and their tribute 
consisted of 500 silver marks, and 1*20 oxen. 
They exercised, however, all the rights of sove- 
reignty over the people ; their reign was a system 
of terror, and they seldom took the opinion or 
advice of their nobles and grandees. The suc- 
cession was hereditary in the rei^nin.' dv nasty; 
and the system of partition was in use, otherwise 
the order of succession would have been fixed and 
permanent. Over a number of these partitionary 
princes, one was vested with certain rights of 
superiority, under the title of Grand 1' 
according to a custom found very prevalent among 
the half-civilized nations of the north and cast of 
llurope. 11 The greater proportion of the inhabi- 
tants, the labouring classes, artisans, and domes- 
tics, were serfs, and oppressed by the tyrannical 
yoke of their master*. The public sale of men 
was even practised in Bohemia ; the tit! 
tenth part of which, belonged to the sovereign. 
The descendants of Horxivoy possessed the throne 
of Bohemia until 1306, when the male line became 

The Poles were a nation whose name doe* not 
occur in history before the middle of the t 
century; and we owe to Christianity the first in- 
timations that we have regarding this people. 

;slaus I., the first duke or prince of the 
Pole* of whom we posses* any authentic accounts, 
embraced Christianity (000), at the solicitation of 
his spouse Dambrowka, sister of Boleslaus II.. 
duke of Bohemia. Shortly after, the first bishopric 
in Poland, that of Poscn, was founded by Otho 
the (in-at. Christianity did not, however, tame 
the ferocious habits of the Poles, who remained 
for a long time without the least progress in men- 


i dominion. 
34 Vladimir tin- Ur.Mt. 

Grand Pukes i>i Kiu\v. 


Christianity introduced in 

1 liniu'ary. 
Schism of Greek church. 

tal cultivation. 18 Their government, as wretched 
as that of Bohemia, subjected the great body of 
the nation to the most debasing sen itude. Tin- 
ancient sovereigns of Poland were hereditary. 
They ruled most de-pot it-ally, and with a rod of 
iron; and, although they acknowledged them- 
selves vassals and tributaries of the German em- 
perors, they repeatedly broke out into open re- 
lielliou, asserted their absolute independence, and 
! a successful war against their masters. 
Boleslaus, sun of Mierzislaus I., took advantage 
<>f the troubles whieh rose in Germany on the 
de-ith of Otlio III., to possess himself of the 
Man-lies of Lusatia and Budissin, or Bautzen, 
which the emperor Henry II. afterwards granted 
him as fiefs. This same prince, in despite of the 
Germans, on the death of Henry II. (1025), as- 

su (1 the royal dignity. Mieczislaus II., son 

of Boleslatis. after having cruelly ravaged the 
country situate between the Oder, the Elbe, and 
the Saal, was compelled to abdicate the throne, 
and also to restore those provinces which his father 
bad wrested from the Empire. The male descend- 
ants of Mieczislaus I. reigned in Poland until the 
death of Casimir the Great (1370). This dynasty 
of kings is known by the name of the Piasts, or 
Piasses, so called from one Piast, alleged to- have 
been its founder. 

Silesia, which was then a province of Poland, 
received the light of the Gospel when it first 
visited that kingdom ; and had for its apostle, 
as is supposed, a Romish priest named Geoffry, 
who is reckoned the first bishop of Smogra (966). 

In Russia, Vladimir the Great, great-grandson 
of Ruric, was the first grand duke that embraced 
Christianity (988). He was baptized at Cherson 
in Taurida, on the occasion of his marriage with 
Anne Romanowna, sister of Basil II. and Constan- 
tine VIII., Emperors of Constantinople. It was 
this prince that introduced the Greek ritual into 
Kn->ia, and founded several schools and convents. 
The alphabet of the Greeks was imported into 
a along with their religion ; and from the 
reign of Vladimir, that nation, more powerful and 
united than most of the other European states, 
carried on a lucrative commerce with the Greek 
empire, of which it became at length a formidable 

At the death of that prince (1015), Russia 
comprehended those vast regions which, from east 
to west, extend from the Icy Sea and the mouth 
of the Uwina, to the Nit-men, the Dniester, and 
the But;-; and southward of this last river, to the 
Carpathian Mountains, and the confines of Hun- 
and Moldavia. The city of Kiow, on the 
Dnieper, was the capital of the empire, and tin- 
residence of the Grand Dukes. This period also 
^ave rise to those unfortunate territorial partitions 
whieh, by dividing the Russian monarchy, exposed 
it to the insults and ravages of the neighbouring 
nations. Jaroslaus, one of the sons of Vladimir, 
made himself famous as a legislator, and supplied 
the Novogorodians with la\vs to regulate their 
courts of justice. IS'o less the friend and protector 
of letters, be em ploy ctl himself in translating M eek 
books into tin- Sclavonian language. He foiinth d 
a public school at Novo^orod, in whieh three 
hundred children were educated at bis sole ex- 
pense. His daughter Anne married Henry I., 
King of France ; and this princess was the com- 

mon mother of all the kings and princes of the Ca- 
pet ian dynasty. )? 

Hungary was divided, in the tenth century, 
among several petty princes, who acknowledged a 
common chief, styled the Grand 1'rinee, whose 
limited authority was reduced to a simple pre-emi- 
nence in rank and dignity. Each of these princes 
assembled armies, and made predatory excursions, 
plundering and ravaging the neighbouring coun- 
tries at their pleasure. The East and West 
suffered long under the scourge of these atrocious 
pillagers. Christianity, which was introduced 
among them about the end of the tenth century, 
was alone capable of softening the manners, and 
tempering the ferocity of this nation. Peregrine, 
bishop of Passau, encouraged by Otho the Great, 
and patronised by the Grand Prince Geisa, sent 
the first missionaries into Hungary (1)7^). St. 
Adelbert, bishop of Prague, had the honour to 
baptize the son of Geisa, called Waic (994), but 
who received then the baptismal name of Stephen. 

This latter prince, having succeeded his father 
(997), changed entirely the aspect of Hungary. 
He assumed the royal dignity, with the consent of 
Pope Sylvester II., who sent him on this occasion 
the Angelic Crown, 13 as it is called ; the same, 
according to tradition, which the Hungarians use 
to this day in the coronation of their kings. At 
once the apostle and the lawgiver of his country, 
Stephen I. combined politics with justice, and 
employed both severity and clemency in reforming 
his subjects. He founded several bishoprics, ex- 
tirpated idolatry, banished anarchy, and gave to 
the authority of the sovereign a vigour and effi- 
ciency which it never before possessed. To him 
likewise is generally ascribed the political divisions 
of Hungary into counties, as also the institution 
of palatines, and great officers of the crown. He 
conquered Transylvania, about 10023, according 
to the opinion of most modem Hungarian authors, 
and formed it into a distinct government, the chiefs 
of which, called Vaivodes, held immediately of his 

The history of the Greek empire presents, at 
this time, nothing but a tissue of corruption, fa- 
naticism and perfidy. The throne, as insecure as 
that of the Western empire had been, was filled 
alternately by a succession of usurpers ; most of 
whom rose from the lowest conditions of life, ami 
owed their elevation solely to the perpetration of 
crime and parricide. A superstition gross in its 
nature bound as with a spell the minds of the 
Greeks, and paralysed their courage. It \\;;-< 
carefully cherished by the monks, who had found 
means to possess themselves of the- government, 
by procuring the exclusion of the secular el 
from the episcopate; and directing the attention 
of princes to those theological controversies often 
exceedingly frivolous, which were produced and 
reproduced almost without intermission. 14 Hence 
originated those internal commotions and distrac- 
tions, those schisms and sects, which more than 
once divided the empire, and shook the throne it- 

These theological disputes, the rivalry between 
the two patriarchs of Koine and Constantinople,' 1 
and tlie contests respecting the Unitarian converts, 
led to an irreparable schism between the churches 
of the Hast and the West. This controversy was 
most keenly agitated under the pontificate of John 

I) III. A.D. 9021074. 

I :. ..c 


N III., ft] 'MIS was pa- 


effort* which ervnl k cmpcrori ami 

patriarch* afterward* made in !' . t : unu.i, with 

the KooiMi we, the .< , grew 

more implacable, and ended ( in a rup- 

Sctwecn tin- two churches. A icovcrnr 

weak and > capricious M t 
r.ul.l 11. .t I. ut be perpetually exposed t,. t 
road* of foreign gotha, 

Avar*. Bulgarians, lluwiaiis. Hungarian!*, Chaxars, 
ami I , harassed the . M.J.H. <>n tl.. 

f tl. ; while tin- 1'ei-: ins" 

santly exhausting it* strength in tin- Kant, and >>i, 
ule of the Kuphrate*. All these nations, 
however, were content with mcrclv desolating the 
frontier- .if the empire, and imposing frequent rmi- 
trihiiti.tii- ..ii t In- ( reeks. It was a Uak raenrwl 
t'-r the Lombard*, the Arab-, the Normans, and 
tin- Turk-, to detach from it whole provinces, and 
by degrees to hasten its downfall. 

(In Lombard* were the first that conquered 

from the Greeks the greater part of Italy. Pales- 

tin. , svria, and the whole possessions .V th>- Iliu- 

111 (Jreatcr Asia, an well as V.\ |>t. Northern 

Africa, and the Isle "of Cyprus, v in the 

sercnth century by tin- Arabs, who made them- 

- masters of Sicily, and three times laid siege 

ustantinople (669, 717, 719). They would 

have even oceeeded in taking this Eastern capital, 

and annihilating the (ire,-k empire, had not the 

courage of Leo the Isaurian, and the siirj. 

ta of the Grryeoit, or Greek Fire, 17 rendered 
their effort* useless. At length, in the eleventh 
centurv, the Normans conquered all that remained 
to the Greeks in Italy ; while the Seljuk Turks 
who must not be confounded with the Ottoman 
-, deprived them of the greater part of Asia 

Turk is the generic appellation for all the Tar- 
tar nations, 1 * mentioned !>\ the ancient* under the 
name m. Their original country was 

in those vast regions situate t<> the north of Slount 
Caucasus, and eastward of the Caspian SIM. 

'lie Jilloll, or OxtlS of the aiieients, especially 

in < harusm, Transoxiana, Turkestan, &c. About 
the . i-hth eentiirv, the Aralx had passed the < 
and rendered the Turks of Charasm and Trai, 
ana tlu-ir tributaries. The) in-trneied them in the 
n-liirinii and laws of Mahomet ; mil, 1>\ a tramii- 
tion rather extraordinary, it afterwards happened, 
tint the tammi-hed impo-i-d the y.>k<- "n their 
new masters. 

empire of the Arabs, already enfeebled by 
ritorial losses whieh I. mentioned^ 

deelined n'.-re and more, from a I t the middle 

of the ninth eentury. The Caliph- of It ,.-,| ,.| had 
eniiimiMed thr ini-taki- of truitilitf their p.-i^.iii- to 

a military guard of foreigners, 1 * MZ. the Tmk-. 
who, taking advantage of the etremin., 

S noon arrogated to th.m,,h,- the whole 

authority, and abuned it so fcr, as to leave the 

lent on their will, and to 

res the hereditary succession of 

Tim-, ill the verj eelitie of the 

I" Bagdad, then- rows a multitn.: 
:ntiei or d\n.i-tie-, the heads of whieh. 
the title .,(' l-:>,i 1 1- 01 I Omm nnl. r. \. r. -i-e.l 

preme |HI\VIT; ! iMiii: nothing more to the 
than :i pre-.-uunenri- of dignity, and that 

rather of a ipiritual than a temporal nature. Be- 
i homage and respect 
< paid him, hi* name continued 
HIM-,! in the mosques, and inscribed 
.in were granted all l> 

'. -i-iii'l IM!-, 

from mal- 

lltlll^ till ! 

son, or e\. n attempting their lives, whenever It 
might nerve to promote their interest. 

ral revolution broke out under 
liph Hahdi. That prinee, wishing to am 

es of usurpation, thought <>f creating a new 
mini-ter, whom he inrested with the title of Kmir- 
al-Otnra, or Commander :..! r- ; and 

ml .in him powers mnrh more timple than 
those of his vizier. Tin- mini-ter, whom he se- 
leeted from the Emirs, officiated even in tin- grand 
mosque of Bagdad, instead of the caliph ; and hi- 
name was pronouneed with equal honour- in the 
divine kervice throughout the empire. Tin 

.tin h the i-aliph employed to re-establish his 
authority, onlj tended to accelerate its de-true- 
tion. The Hiivvides, the- most powerful dynasty 
among the Kmini, arrogated to then,.. . 
nity of Chief Commander (945), and seixed both 
the rit) ami the sovereignty of Bagdad. The Ca- 
liph, stript of all temporal power, was then onlv 
grand Iman, or sovereign-pontiff of the Mussul- 
man religion, under the protection of the Bowidian 
prince, who kept him a- his pri-oner at Bagdad. 

Such waa the sad situation of the Arabian em- 
pire, fallen from its ancient glory, when a nume- 
rous Turkish tribe, from the centre of Turkestan, 
appeared on the stage, overthrew the dominions of 
the How ides; and, after imposing new fetters on 
the caliphs, laid the foundation Of a powerful em- 
pire, known b\ the name of the Seljnkides. This 
roving tribe, whieh took its name from Seljuk a 

ilman Turk, after having wandered for - 
time with their nocks in Transoxiana, passed tin- 
Jihon to seek pasturage in the province of Chora- 
nan. Reinforced by new Turkish c,>|oiiie- from 
Transoxiana, this coalition became in a little time 
so powerful, that To^rul Heg, grandson of Seljuk, 
DM the boldness to make him-elf be proclaimed 
Sultan in the < it v "t N ie-abur,* the capital of ( 'ho- 
rasan, ami formally announced him-elf a- a con- 
qncror ( lolts). '1'hi- prinee, and the sultai. 
nuccessore, subdued by degrees most of the pro- 

in Asia, which formed the caliph r 
Bagdad.* 1 Thev annihilated the power oftli 
wide*, reduced the Caliphs to the condition of 
dependents, ami at length attacked also the po- 
setwions ot tin (in-ck empire. 

Alp-Arslan, the nephew and immediate suc- 
cessor of Togrul Beg. gained a 
Armenia, over t! ' r Romania Diogenes 

I M71 ), who was then- taken pri-mcr. i 

which thi- ev. nt caused in the 
\:m favourable to the Turks, who sobcd nut 
onlv what remainel to the < . but 

also several provinces . 
licia, Isauria, Pamphylia, 1 
onia, Cappadocia, Cialatia, Pontus, and Bithynia. 

the Seljiikides was in it- 

rioiiri-hing -Lite under the sultan Mai- k Shah. 
: successor of Alp-Andan. The caliph 
Caycm, in confirming to this prince the tit 

D 2 

Soljuckiau Pyn.-isty. 
36 Power of H> 1:11:111 Pou- 


Romo subject to Kings 

of Germany. 
Hildebruml, Cardinal. 

Sultan and Chief Commander, added also that of 
Commander of the Faithful, which before that time 
hud never been conferred but on the caliphs alone. 
On the death of Malek (1092), the disputes that 
rose among his sons occasioned a civil war, and 
the partition of the empire. These vast territories 
were divided among three principal dynasties de- 
scended from Seljuk, those of Iran, Kerman, and 
Ruitm or Rome. This latter branch, which ascribes 
its origin to Soliman, great grandson of Seljuk, 
obtained the provinces of Asia Minor, which the 
Seljukides had conquered from the Greeks. The 
princes of this dynasty are known in the history of 
the Crusades by the name of Sultans of Iconium 
or Cogni, a city of Lycaonia, where the sultans 

established their residence after being deprived by 
the crusaders of the city of Nice in Bithyiiia. 
The most powerful of the three dynasties was that 
of the Seljukides of Iran, whose sway extended 
over the greater part of Upper Asia. It soon, 
however, fell from its grandeur, and its states 
were divided into a number of petty sovereignties, 
over which the Emirs or governors of cities and 
provinces usurped the supreme power.** These 
divisions prepared the way for the conquests of 
the crusaders in Syria and Palestine ; and fur- 
nished also to the Caliphs of Bagdad the means 
of shaking off the yoke of the Seljukides (1152), 
and recovering the sovereignty of Irak- Arabia, or 



A NEW and powerful monarchy rose on the ruins 
of the German empire, that of the Roman Pon- 
titl"-; which monopolized both spiritual and tem- 
poral dominion, and extended its influence over all 
the kingdoms of Christendom. This supremacy, 
whose artful and complicated mechanism is still 
an object of astonishment to the most subtle poli- 
ticians, was the work of Pope Gregory VII., a 
man born for great undertakings, as remarkable 
for his genius, which raised him above his times, 
as for the austerity of his manners and the bound- 
less reach of his ambition. Indignant at the de- 
pravity of the age, which was immersed in igno- 
rance and vice, and at the gross immorality which 
pervaded all classes of society, both laymen and 
ecclesiastics, Gregory resolved to become the re- 
former of morals, and the restorer of religion. To 
succeed in this project, it was necessary to replace 
the government of kings, which had totally lost its 
power and efficiency, by a new authority, whose 
salutary restraints, imposed alike on the high and 
the low, might restore vigour to the laws, put a 
stop to licentiousness, and impose a reverence on 
all by the sanctity of its origin. This authority 
was the spiritual supremacy of the Pope, of which 
Gregory was at once the creator and inventor. 

This extraordinary person, who was the son of 
a carpenter at Saona in Tuscany, named Boni- 
zone, or, according to others, descended of a Ro- 
man family, had paved the way to his future great- 
ness under the preceding pontiffs, whose counsels 
he had directed under the title of Cardinal Hilde- 
brand. While Cardinal, he engaged Pope Nicolas 
II. to enter into a treaty with Robert Guiscard 
(1059), for procuring that brave Norman as an ally 
and a vassal of the Holy See. Taking advantage, 
likewise, of the minority of Henry IV ., lie caused, 
thi> same year, in a council held at Rome, the 
famous decree to be passed, which, by renewing 
the election of the pontiffs principally to the car- 
dinals, converted the elective privileges which the 
emperors formerly enjoyed in virtue of their crown 
riirlit'v into a ]>er>onal favour granted by the Pope, 
and emanating from the court of Rome. 

On the death of Pope Nicolas II., Cardinal Hil- 
debrand procured the election of Alexander II., 
without waiting for the order or concurrence of 
the Imperial court ; and he succeeded in maintain- 
ing him in the apostolical chair against Pope Ho- 
norius II., whom the reigning empress had des- 
tined for that honour. At length, being raised 
himself to the pontifical throne, scarcely had he 
obtained the Imperial confirmation, when he put 
in execution the project which he had so long been 
concerting and preparing, viz. the erecting of a 
spiritual despotism, 1 extending to priests as well 
as kings ; making the supreme pontiff the arbiter 
in all affairs, both civil and ecclesiastical the 
bestower of favours, and the dispenser of crowns. 
The basis of this dominion was, that the Vicar of 
Jesus Christ ought to be superior to all human 
power. The better to attain his object, he began 
by withdrawing himself and his clergy from the 
authority of the secular princes. 

At that time the city of Rome, and the whole 
ecclesiastical states, as well as the greater part of 
Italy, were subject to the kings of Germany, who, 
in virtue of their being kings of Italy and Roman 
emperors, nominated or confirmed the popes, and 
installed the prefects of Rome, who there received 
the power of the sword in their name. They 
sent also every year commissioners to Rome, to 
levy the money due to the royal treasury. The 
popes used to date their acts from the years of 
the emperor's reign, and to stamp their coin with 
his name; and all the higher clergy were Mrtually 
bound and subject to the secular power, by the 
solemn investiture of the ring and the crosier. 
This investiture gave to the emperors and the other 
sovereigns the right of nominating and confirming 
bishops, and even of deposing them if thcj s;iw 
cause. It gave them, moreover, the right of con- 
ferring, at their pleasure, those fiefs and royal pre- 
rogatives which the munificence of princes had 
vested in the Church. The emperors, in putting 
bishops and prelates in possession of tlieM- tirfs, 
iiM-d the symbols of the riiii,' and the crosier, 
which were badges of honour belonging to bishops 

IM.IIIOI) IN. A.I). 10741300. 

I),.- I'.! - l> .,,t.:. 

ml abbots. They made them, at the same time, 
take the oath of ti-l--lit\ uml allegiance; ami i!i: 
Was III- origin of then their ..hll- 

gation In furnih (hi-ir princes With troojw, and to 
pSJCfbrm in 

Nil. |. .1, unilt-r p:iii. 

muiur.iliMii. all - rights of 

investiture, by a fnrtnal decree which he puL 
in a council assembled at Rome in 1074. There 
was more than the simple ceremony ( th. 
and the crosier implied in this int. -r-i t. H. 
aimed at depriving princes nl" tin- ru'lil I'l n-'ini- 
nating, coi.: -(--posing prelates, as well 

M of receiving their fealty and homage, and exact- 
ing military service. He thu br-.k. all those tie 
t'\ winch tin- l>ihop* were hrlil in allegiance and 
subordination In princes ; making them, in thin 
respect, entirely independent. In suppressing 
investitures, the pontiff had yet a more important 
hjcct in view. It wma his policy to withdraw 
both himself and hit successors, M well as the 
whole ecclesiastical state, fn>in tin- power of the 
German king* ; especially by abolishing the right 
which these prince* had to long exercised of no- 
minating and continuing the I'opes. He saw, in 
fact, that if he could succeed in rendering the 
clergy independent of the secular power, it would 
follow, by a natural consequence, that the Pope, 
M being supreme head of the clergy, would no 
longer be dependent on the emperors ; while the 
emperor, excluded from the nomination and in- 
ire of Li-hops, would have still less right to 
interfere in the election of pontiff*. 

Thin affair, equally interesting to all sovereigns, 
was of the utmost importance to the kings of 
Germany, who had committed the unfortunate 
error of putting the greater part of their domains 
into the hands of ecclesiastics; so that to divest 
those princes of the right to dispose of ecclesias- 
tical ttefc, was in fact to deprive them of nearly 
the half of their empire. The bishops, vainly 
flattering themselves with the prospect of an ima- 
ginary liberty, forgot the valuable gifts with which 
the emperors had loaded them, and enlisted under 
the banners of the Pope. They turned against 
the secular princes those arms which the latter had 
imprudently trusted in their hands. 

There yet subsisted another bond of union 
which connected the clergy with the civil and 
political orders of society, and gave them an inte- 
rest in the protection of the secular authority, and 
that was, the marriages of the priests ; a custom 
in use at that time over a great part of the NVrst, 
as it still is in the Greek and Kasteni Churches. 
It it true, that the law of celibacy, already recom- 
mended strongly by St. Augustine, had 1 n 

adopted by tin- K<>mih church, which neglect. -d 
no means of introducing it by degrees into all the 
chiin IICH of the Catholic communion. It hail met 
with better success in Italy and the south of 
l>e than in the northern countries; and the 
priests continued to marry, not only in Germany, 
England, and the kingdoms of the North, but 
even in Spain. :ind Italy, notwithstanding 
the l;iw of celibacy, which had been sanctioned in 
vain by a multitude of council*. 

,-orv Nil., perceiving that, to render the 

completely dependent on the wnuld 

be necessary to break this powerful connexion, 

renewed the law of celibacy, in a council held at 

P. ining the married priest* either 
to ijuit th. ir ui%. -, or renounce the Hrrrdotal 

The wli.-le -lergy murmured again-' 
unfeeling rigour of this decree, which even ex 
tumult and insurrection in sererml countries of 
nv , ,...'. it required all the firmnesa* of Gre- 
gory and his successors to abolish clerical mar- 
riage*, and establish the law of celibacy through- 
out the Western churches.* In thus dbwmng 

ular ties of the clergy, it was far fror 
intention of Gregory VII. to render them inde- 
pendent. His designs were more politic, and 
more suitable to his ambition. Hr wished to 
make the clergy entirely subservient to his own 
elevation, and even to employ them as an instru- 
ment to humble and subdue the power of the 

The path had already been opened up to him 
by the FaUte Decretals, as they were called, forged 
about the beginning of the ninth century, by the 
famous impostor Isidore, who, with the view of 
diminishing the authority of the metropolitans, 
advanced in these letters, which he attributed to 
tin- early bishops of Rome, a principle whose 
main object was to extend the rights of the Romish 
See, and to vest in the popes a jurisdiction till 
then unknown in the church. Several Popes be- 
fore Gregory VII. had already availed themselvei 
of these False Decretals ;* and they had even 
been admitted as true into different collections of 
canons. Gregory did not content himself with 
rigidly enforcing the principles of the impostor 
Isidore. He went even farther ; he pretended to 
unite, in himself, the plenary exercise both of the 
ecclesiastical and episcopal power; leaving nothing 
to the archbishops and bishops but the simple title 
of his lieutenants or vicars. He completely un- 
dermined the jurisdiction of the metropolitans and 
ln-h.>ps, by authorising in all cases an appeal to 
the Court of Rome; reserving to himself exclu- 
sively the cognizance of all causes termed major 
including more especially the privilege of judging 
and deposing of bishops. This Utter privilege 
had always been vested in the provincial councils, 
who exercised it under the authority, and with 
the consent of the secular powers. Gregory abo- 
lish- d this usage ; and claimed for himself the 
power of judging the bishops, either in person or 
by his legates, to the exclusion of the Synodal 
Assemblies. He made himself master of these 
assemblies, and even arrogated the exclusive right 
of convocating General Councils. 

This ]M>ntitr, in a council which beheld at Rome 
(107H), at length prescribed a new oath, which 
the bishops were obliged to take; the main object 
of which was not merely canonical obedi 
hut even fealty and homage, such as the prelates, 
as lieges, vowed to their sovereign* ; and 
the pontiff* claimed for himself alone, bearing that 
tli. > should aid and defend, against the whole 
world, his new supremacy, and what he called the 
r, mil right* qf St. Peter. Although various so- 
vereigns maintained possession of the homag. 

v-il from their bishops, the oath imposed by 

rv nevertheless retained its full force; it was 

tiled hv his successors, and extended 

to all bishops without distinction, in spite of its 

inconistency with that which the bishops swore to 

their princes. 

Another very effectual means which Gregory 

Gregory VII. excom- 
38 inuiiii- lies tin- KIH- 

peror Henry IV. 


Emperor Henry IV. 

does pemmce. 
Church censures. 

VII. made use of to confirm his now authority, 
send, more frequently than his predecessors 
hud done, legates into the different states and 
kingdoms of Christendom* He made them a kind 
\ernors of provinces, and invested them with 
the most ample powers. These legates soon ob- 
tained a knowledge of all the affairs of the pro- 
duces delegated to their care; which great 1\ 
impaired the authority of the metropolitans and 
provincial councils, as well as the jurisdiction of 
the bishops. A clause was also inserted, in the 
form of the oath imposed on the bishops, which 
obliged them to furnish maintenance and support 
tor these legates; a pnictiee which subsequently 
gave place to frequent exactions and impositions 
on their part. 

While occupied with the means of extending 
his power over the clergy, Gregory did not let 
slip any opportunity of making encroachments on 
the authority of princes and sovereigns, which he 
represented as subordinate to that of the Church 
and the Pope. As supreme head of the Church, 
he claimed a right of inspecting over all kings and 
their governments. He deemed himself authorized 
to address admonitions to them, as to the method 
of ruling their kingdoms ; and to demand of them 
an account of their conduct. By and by, he 
presumed to listen to the complaints of subjects 
against their princes, and claimed the right of 
being a judge or arbiter between them. In this 
capacity he acted towards Henry IV., emperor of 
Germany, who enjoyed the rights of sovereignty 
OUT Rome and the Pope. He summoned him to 
Rome (1076), for the purpose of answering before 
the synod to the principal accusations which the 
nobles of Saxony, engaged in disputes with that 
prince, had referred to the Pope. The emperor, 
burning with indignation, and hurried on by 
the impetuosity of youth, instantly convoked an 
a-M-mbly of bishops at Worms, and there caused 
the pontiff to be deposed. No sooner was this 
sentence conveyed to Rome, and read in presence 
of the Pope in a council which he had assembled, 
than Gregory ventured on a step till then quite 
unheard of. He immediately thundered a sentence 
of excommunication and deposition against the 
Emperor, which was addressed to St. Peter, and 
couched in the following terms : 

" In the name of Almighty God, I suspend and 
interdict from governing the kingdom of Germany 
and Ital\, Henry, son of the Emperor Henry, who, 
witli a haughtiness unexampled, has dared to rebel 
against thy church. I absolve all Christians what- 
ever from the oath which they have taken, or shall 
hereafter take, to him ; and henceforth none shall 
b permitted to do him homage or service as king ; 
1'ir he who would disobey the authority of thy 
Church, deserves to lose the dignity with which 
he is invested. And seeing this prince has refused 
to submit as a Christian, and has not returned to 
the Lord whom he hath forsaken, holding com- 
munion with the excommunicated, and despising 
the advice which I tendered him for the safety of 
'ill, I load him with curses in thy name, to 
the end that people may know, even by experi- 
. that thou art Peter, and that on this rock 
the Son of the living (iod lias built his church ; 
Hid that the gates of hell shall HCUT prevail 
against it.'' 

This measure, which seemed at first to have 

been merely the effect of the pontiff's impetuosity, 
soon discovered of what importance it was for 
him to persevere, and what advantage he might 
derive from it. In humbling the Emperor, the 
most powerful monarch in Europe, he might hope 
that all the other sovereigns would bend before 
him. He omitted nothing, therefore, that might 
serve to justify his conduct, and endeavoured to 
prove, by sophistries, that if he had authority to 
excommunicate the Emperor, he might likewise 
deprive him of his dignity ; and that the right to 
release subjects from their oath of allegiance was 
an emanation and a natural consequence of the 
power of the Keys. The same equivocal inter- 
pretation he afterwards made use of in a sentence 
which he published against the same prince (1080), 
and which he addressed to the Apostles St. Peter 
and St. Paul, in these terms : " You, fathers and 
princes of the apostles, hereby make known to the 
whole world, that if you can bind and unbind in 
heaven, you can much more, on earth, take from 
all men empires, kingdoms, principalities, duchies, 
marquisates, counties, and possessions, of whatso- 
ever nature they may be. You have often de- 
prived the unworthy of patriarchates, primacies, 
archbishoprics, and bishoprics, to give them to 
persons truly religious. Hence, if you preside 
over spiritual affairs, does not your jurisdiction 
extend a fortiori to temporal and secular dignities ? 
and if you judge the angels who rule over princes 
and potentates, even the haughtiest, will you not 
also judge their slaves' Let then the kinus and 
princes of the earth learn how great and irresistible 
is your power ! Let them tremble to contemn the 
commands of your church ! And do you, blessed 
Peter, and blessed Paul, exercise, from this time 
forward, your judgment on Henry, that the whole 
earth may know that he has been humbled, not by 
any human contingencies, but solely by your 
power." Until that time, the emperors had exer- 
cised the right of confirming the Popes, and even 
of deposing them, should there be occasion ; but, 
by a strange reverse of prerogatives, the popes 
now arrogated to themselves the confirmation of 
the emperors, and even usurped the right of de- 
throning them. 

However irregular this step of the pontiff might 
be, it did not fail to produce the intended effect. 
In an assembly of the Imperial States, held at 
Tribur (1076), the Emperor could only obtain 
their consent to postpone their proceeding to a 
new election, and that on the express condition of 
his submitting himself to the judgment of the 
Pope, and being absolved immediately from the 
excommunication he had incurred. In conse- 
quence of this decision of the States, Henry crossed 
the Alps in the middle of winter, to obtain recon- 
ciliation with the Pope, who then resided \\ith the 
famous Countess Matilda, at her Castle of Canossa, 
in the Modencse territory. Absolution was not 
granted him, however, except under conditions 
the most humiliating. He was compelled to do 
penance in an outer court of the castle, in a woollen 
shirt and barefooted, for three successive days, and 
afterwards to sign whatever terms the pontiff 
chose to prescribe. This extraordinary spectacle 
must have spread consternation among the sove- 
reigns of Europe, and made them tremble at the 
crnsurt's of the Church. 

After this, Gregory VII. exerted his utmost 

VII.'. m 

t tatfeMl 

I'EIUOI) IV. N.I). 1-.7 | -1JOO. 

influence to engage all sovereigns, without dis- 
n, to acknowledge themselves hi* vaesats 
mml tributaries, (he Emperor Unas. 

say be, lu a letter which he wrote to 


slave, hut let him know Ihut she u art over him M 
sovereign." From that time thr pout iff regarded 
the empire as a nef of hU church ; and afterwards 
whan letting up a riral emperor to 11 rj IV, 
in the penon of Hermann of Luxemburg, he 
exacted from him a formal oath of vamtalage. 
Gregory punoed the aamr condm t in regard to 
thrr sovereigns of !.>;> .p. . Holclaus II., 
I'oland, having killed Stanislaus Bishop 
icow, who had ventured to excommunicate 
him, the pontiff took occasion from this to depose 
that priii. . ; releasing all his suhje. N from tin ir 
oaths of fidelity, ;in.l oven prohibiting the Polmh 
bishops henceforth to crown any king without the 
express consent <>f tin- 1'ope. 

This aspiring pontiff stuck at nothing ; he re- 
garded nothing, provided he could obtain his 
object. However contrary the customs of former 
time* were to his pretensions, hi* quoted them as 
examples of authority, and with a boldness capable 
posing anything on weak and ignorant mind*. 
It was thus that, in order to oblige the French 
nation to pay him the tax of one penny each 
house, he alleged the example of Charlemagne, 
and pretended that that prince had not merely 
paid this tribute, but even granted Saxony as a 
fief to St. Peter ; as he had conquered it \\ith the 
assists nee of that apostle. In writing to 1'hilip I. 
mce, he expressed himself in these terms : 
ve to please St. Peter, who has thy kingdom 
as well as thy mini in his power ; and who can 
bind thee, and absolre in heaven as well as on 
earth." And in a letter which he addressed to 
the 1'rinces of Spain, he attempted to persuade 
them, that the kingdom of Spain, being originally 
the property of the Holy >> >ild not ex- 

onerate themselves from paying him a tax on all 
the lands they had conquered from the Infidels. 

!! :itfirmed to Solomon, King of Hungary, 
that Stephen I., on receiving his crown at the 
hands of Pope Silvester II., had surrendered his 
kingdom as free property t< the Holy See; and 
.11 virtue of this donation, hi* kingdom was 
to be considered as a part of the domain of the 
church. He wrote in exactly the same st\ 
Gey*a hi* im mediate successor. In one of his 
letters to Sueno, King of Denmark, he enjoins him 
to delh-T up his kn, _.!. m to the power of the 
Komish See. He refused ( 1076) to grant the royal 
eUgBttl to Demetrius Swinimir. Duke <>f Croatia 
and Dalm i .n the express condition 

that he should do him homage lor hi* kingdom, 
and engage to pay the Pope an annual tribute <>f 
two hundred golden piece* of Ityzantium. This 
pontiff hi. I th>- art of disguising his ambition so 
dexterously, under the mask of justice and piety, 
I hat he prevailed with various other sorereL- 

w ledge themselves his vassals. 
<"!:. i inferred to him hi* ' 

and h..m:i.,'e. ?.. the prejudice of those (puds I 

- he owed to the En. - ml princes 

i any, influenced by artifice or in- 

. ibandoaed the emperor, and put i!>. m- 

sclves under submission to 1 1 l (Forts 

were not equally successful with William the Con- 

queror, King of England, whom be had p. 

him homage tar his king- 
dom, after the manner of his rani predecessors. 
That prince, too wise to be duped by papal impo- 
liut be was not in a humour to 
m homage which he bad never promised, and 
which he was not aware bad ever been performed 
by any of his predecessors. ") 

The successors of Gregory VII. followed in the 
path he had opened op, giving their utmost sup- 

port to all his maxims and pretensions. In 
sequence, a very great number of the prince* of 
Christendom, some intimidated by the thunders 
of ecclesiastical anathemas, others with a view to 
secure for themselves the protection of the Holy 
See, acknowledged these usurped powers of tin- 
Popes. The Kings of Portugal, Arragon, England, 
Scotland, Sardinia, the two Sicilies, and several 
others, became, in course of time, vassals and tri- 
butaries to the Papal See; and there is not a 
doubt that the universal monarchy, the scheme of 
which Gregory VII. had conceived, would have 
been completely established, if some of his suc- 
cessors had been endowed with his vast ambition, 
and his superior genius. 

In every other respect, circumstances were such 
as to hasten and facilitate the progress of this new 
pontifical supremacy. It had commenced in a 
barbarous age, when the whole of the Western 
world was covered with the darkness of ignorance; 
and when mankind knew neither the just rights of 
sovereignty, nor the bounds which reason and 
equity should have set to the authority of the 
priesthood. The court of Rome was then the 
only school where politics were studied, and the 
Popes the only monarchs that put them in prac- 
tice. An extravagant superstition, the in-, parable 
companion of ignorance, held all Europe in subjec- 
tion ; the Popes were reverenced with a veneration 
resembling that which belongs only to the Deity ; 
and the whole world trembled at the utterance of 
the single word Excommunication. Kings were 
not sufficiently powerful to oppose any successful 
resistance to the encroachments of Home ; their 
authority was curtailed and counteracted by that 
of their vassals, who seized with eagerness every 
occasion which the- Popes offered them to aggran- 
dize their own prerogatives at the expense of the 
sovereign authority. 

The KmpiTor of Germany, who was alone able 
to coiintei \-u! tliis new spiritual tyranny, was at 
open war with hi* grand vassals, whose usurpa- 
tions be was anxious to repress ; while they . 
respecting the majesty of the throne, and consult- 
ing only their own animosity against the en. 
blindly seconded the pretension* of the pontiff. 
The emperor, however, did all in hi power to 
oppose a barrier to thin torrent of 
despotism ; but the insolence of Gregory 
so extravagant, that, not content to attack 
with spiritual weapons, he net up rival emperors, 
and excited intestine wars against him ; ami hi* 
successors even went so nv as to arm the sons 
against their own father. Such was the origin of 

.tef- which arose between the Empire and 

the Papacy, under the reign of Henry IV., and 

which agitated both (iermany and Italy for a 

1 hey gave birth, 

nlo. to the two factions of the (itielphs and the 

Mines, the former Imperial, and the other 


Concordat of Worms. 
Decay of the Uerm.iu 


The Ecclesiastical states. 
Tin- Mendicant orders. 
Pope Innocent III. 

Papal, who for a long course of time tore each 
other to pieces with inconceivable fury. 

Henry V., son and successor of Henry IV., 
terminated the grand dispute about the imestitnres 
of the ring and the crosier. By the Concordat, 
which he concluded at Worms (1122) with Pope 
Calixtus II., he renounced tin- ceremony of the 
ring and the cross ; and granting to the churches 
free liberty of election, he reserved nothing to 
himself, except the privilege of sending commis- 
sioners to the elections, and giving to the newly 
elected prelates, after consecration, the investiture 
of the regalian rights, by means of the sceptre, in- 
stead of the ring and crosier. The ties of vassal- 
age which connected the bishops with the empe- 
rors, were still preserved by this transaction, con- 
trary to the intentions of Gregory VII. ; but the 
emperors being obliged to approve of the persons 
whom the Church should hereafter present, lost 
their chief influence in the elections, and were no 
longer entitled, as formerly, to grant or refuse in- 

These broils with the court of Rome, the check 
which they gave to the Imperial authority, joined 
to the increasing abuses of the feudal system, 
afforded the princes and states of the Empire the 
means of usurping the heritable succession of their 
duchies, counties, and fiefs ; and of laying the 
foundations of a new power, which they after- 
wards exercised under the name of territorial 
superiority. Frederic II., compelled by the pres- 
sure of events, was the first emperor that sanc- 
tioned the territorial rights of the states by char- 
ters, which he delivered to several princes, secular 
and ecclesiastic, in the years 1220 and 1232. The 
Imperial dignity thus lost its splendour with the 
power of the emperors ; and the constitution of 
the Empire was totally changed. That vast mo- 
narchy degenerated by degrees into a kind of fe- 
deral system; and the Emperor, in course of time, 
became only the common chief, and superior over 
the numerous vassals of which that association 
was composed. The extraordinary efforts made 
by the Emperors Frederic I. and II. of the house 
of Hohenstaufen, 4 to re-establish the tottering 
throne of the empire, ended in nothing ; and that 
house, one of the most powerful in Europe, was 
deprived of all its crowns, and persecuted even to 
the scaffold. 

The empire thus fell into gradual decay, while 
the pontifical power, rising on its ruins, gained, 
d;iy by day, new accessions of strength. The suc- 
cessors of Gregory VII. omitted nothing that 
policy could suggest to them, in order to humble 
more and more the dignity of the Emperors, and 
to briii:,' them into a state of absolute dependence, 
1>\ arrogating to themselves the express right of 
confirming, and even of deposing, them ; s and 
compelling them to acknowledge their feudal su- 
periority. Being thus no longer obliged to submit 
their election to the arbitration of the Imperial 
court, the ambitious pontiffs soon aspired to abso- 
lute sovereignty. 

The cuutom of dating their acts, and coining 
their money with the stamp and name of the em- 
peror, disappeared after the time of Gregory VII.; 
and the authority which the emperors had exer- 
cised at Rome ceased entirely with the loss of t lie 
prefecture or government of that city; which Pope 
Innocent III. took into his own hands 

obliging the prefect of Rome to swear the usual 
oath of homage to the Apostolic See, which that 
magistrate owed to the Emperor, from whom he 
received the prefecture. Hence it happened, that 
the chiefs of the Empire, obliged to compromise 
with a power which they had learned to dread, 
had no longer any difficulty in recognising the 
entire independence of the Popes ; even formally 
renouncing the rights of high sovereignty which 
their predecessors had enjoyed, not only over 
Rome, but over the Ecclesiastical States. The 
domains of the church were likewise considerably 
increased by the acquisitions which Innocent III. 
made of the March of Ancona, and the duchy of 
Spoleto ; as well as by the personal property or 
Patrimony of the Conn tens Matilda,*' which the 
Emperor Frederic II. ceded to Honorius III. 
(1220), and which his successors in the Apostolic 
chair formed into the province known by the name 
of the Patrimony of St. Peter. 

One of the grand means which the Popes em- 
ployed for the advancement of their new autho- 
rity, was the multiplication of Religious Orders, 
and the way in which they took care to manure 
these corporations. Before the time of Gn 
VII., the only order known in the "West was that 
of the Benedictines, divided into several families 
or congregations. The rule of St. Benedict, pre- 
scribed at the Council of Aix-la-Chapelle (S17) to 
all monks within the empire of the Franks, was 
the only one allowed by the Romish Church ; just 
as that of St. Basil was, and still is, the only one 
practised in the East by the Greek church. The 
first of these newly invented orders was that of 
Grammont in Limosin (1073), authorized by Pope 
Gregory VII. This was followed, in the same 
century, by the order of Chartreux, and that of St. 
Antony. 7 The Mendicant orders took their rise 
under Innocent III., near the end of the twelfth, 
and beginning of the thirteenth century. Their 
number increased in a short time so prodigiously, 
that, in 1274, they could reckon twenty-three 
orders. The complaints which were raised on 
this subject from all parts of Christendom, obliged 
Pope Gregory to reduce them, at the Council of 
Lyons, to four orders, viz., the Hermits of St. 
William or Augustines, Carmelites, the Minor or 
Franciscan friars, and the Preaching or Dominican 
friars. The Popes, perceiving that they might 
convert the monastic orders, and more particu- 
larly the mendicants, into a powerful engine for 
strengthening their own authority, and keeping 
the secular clergy in subjection, granted by dt 
to these fraternities, immunities and exemptions 
tending to withdraw them from the jurisdiction of 
the bishops, and to emancipate them from e-u'ry 
other authority, except that of their Heads, and 
the Popes. They even conferred on them various 
privileges, such as those of preaching, confession, 
and instructing the young, as being the most 
likely means to augment their credit and their in- 
fluence. The consequence was, that the monks 
were frequently employed by the Popes in quality 
of legates and missionaries ; they were feared anil 
respected by sovereigns, singularly revered hj the 
people, and let slip no occasion of exalting a 
power to which alone they owed their promotion, 
their respectability, and all the advantages they 

Of all the successors of Gregory VII., he who 

. MM .. .. r. -, It 

SB* : i 

,, ,..,... 

R0v0ftoMnr * 

i i Kion iv. A.I). 1074 laoo. -.--. 


nbled him moat in the superiority of hU 
reniu*. mini (In- extent of his knowledge, was 
Inno i i 111., who was of tin- famih < 

i* of Segni, and elevated 1.1 tin- pontificate 
t the age ..! .17. !! WM M ambitious M I hut 
poMift", and equally fertile in resources ; m 
even surpassed him in tin- I... I. In.--, of hi< plans, 
and the Mcces* rprises. Innocent an- 

nounced himself M tke tnoetttar oj Si. Pet. 
tip by God to govern mot only tke fhurck, but the 
whole world. It was this 1'<>|H- \\li.i tint made 
ate of the iunoiu comparison ahnut tin- mm and 
the moon : A God (says he) has placed hro grrat 
luminaries m tkr firmammt, the out to rule the 
day, ami tke offer to give light by ntyht, so has ke 
tttmbtiukem 1 two grand potrrrt, tke pontifical and 
tke royal ; and at tke moon reeeifr* ker light from 
tke ma, to don royalty borrow its splendour from 
tke Papal authority. 

N content to exercise the legislative power as 
In- pleased, by means of the miim-rous decrrtals 
which hi- di>p<T-nl IIXIT all Christendom, thin 
pontiff was tht- tint that arrogated to himself the 
prr motive of di*|>ensing with the laws themselves, 
in \irtueofwhat hi- termed the plrnitudr of his 
futtrrr. It is t<> him also that the origin of the 
Inquisition i< a<K-riht>d, that terrible trilmn:il which 
afterward* became the firmest prop of sacerdotal 
dcwpotism ; but what is of more importance to 
remark, in, that he laid the foundation* of that 
exorbitant power, which hi* successor* have since 

:~cd in colhtinir <>r presenting to ecclesiastical 
dignities and benefices. 

secular princes having hern deprived of 
their rights of nomination and confirmation, l>\ 
tin- decrees of tiri-_'"r\ VII. and hi* successors, 
the privilege of electing bishop* was restored to 
tin- clergy and congregation of each church, and 
to the chapter* of convents ; the confirmation of 
the elected prelates belonged to their immediate 
superiors; and collation to the other ecclesiastical 
benefice* was referred for the bishops and ordi- 
\!1 these regulation* were changed to- 
wards the end of the twelfth century. The canon* 
of cathedral churches, authori/cd hy the Court of 
Koine, claimed to themselves the right of election, 
t the exclusion of the clergy and the people; 
while the Popes, gradually interfering with eler. 
and collations, found means to usurp the 
nomination and collation to almost all ecclesiastical 
benefice*. The principle of these usurpations waa 
founded on the fmlso decretals; according to which 
all ecclesiastical jurisdiction emanates from the 
court of Rome, as a river flows from its source. 
It i* from the Pope that archbishops and bishop- 
hold that portion of authority with which they are 
endowed; and of which he does not di\est him- 
self, by the act of communicating it to them ; but 
is rather the more entitled to r<>-i>pcr.itc with them 
in the exercise of that jurisdiction as often as he 
may judgi- |> 

This principle of a conjunct authority, furnished 

y plausible pretext fur the Pope* to interfere 
in collation to benefices. This collation, according 
to the canon law, being essential to the jurisdiction 
of bishops, it seemed natural that the Pope, who 

irrt-d in the jurisdiction, should also concur 
in the privilege* derived from it, namely, induc- 
tion or to l>ci>. ;i. .-. I'mm the right of 
concurrence, therefore, Innocent III. proceeded 

to that <>f /< 

tfot*, brio* the fint pontiff that 
made ue i,f it. M. . M rri.ed that right, especially 
with regard to benefice* which bad newly Detoma 
vacant by the death of their incumbent*, when at 
in <>f It .n,. ; in u bi'-h ca*r* it WM easy to 

l>ate or gt-t the start of thr hbnopa. In the 
same manner, this right wa* exrr mote 

, by means of legate* a latrrr, whkh be 
ilisj.. rs.-d OMT the diflerent province* of Christen* 

MI the right of prevention were derived the 
provisional mandates, and the Gracra Rrpectotne* 
(reversionary grant* or Hulls), letters granting 
promise of church livings before they became 
vacant. The l'..p.-, nut having legate* every- 
where, and wishing, besides, to treat the bishops 
with some respect, began by addressing to them 
l.-tti-rs of recommendation in favour of those per- 
sons for whom they were anxious to procure 

These l.-tters becoming t 

and importunate, the bishops ventured to refuse 
their compliance ; on which the Popes began to 
change their recommendations into orders or 
mandates ; and appointed commissioner* to en- 
force tlx-ir execution l>\ means of ecclesiastical 
censures. These mandates were succeeded by the 
Graces Expectatives, which, properly SJM- > 
were nothing else than mandates issued for ' 
tiees, whose titulars or incumbents were yet alive. 
Lastly appeared the Rcxrrratiun*, which wen- 
distinguished into general and special. Tl 
general reservation was that of benefices becoming 
vacant by the incumbent* dying at the court of 
Rome. This was introduced by Pope Clement 
IN. in 17(55, in order to exclude for e>er the 
bishops from the right of concurrence and preven- 
tion in benefices of that kind. 

This first reservation was the forerunner of 
several others, such as the reservation of all ca- 
thedral churches, abbey*, and priories ; as also of 
the highest dignities in cathedral and collegiate 
churches ; and of all collective benefices, becoaa 
ing vacant during eight months in the year, called 
the Pope's months, so that only four months re- 
mained for the ordinary collators ; and these, too, 
encroached upon by mandates, expectative*, and 
reservations. The Popes having thus seized til-- 
domination to episcopal dignities, it followed, by 
a simple and natural process, that the confirmation 
of all prelate*, without distinction, wa* in like 
manner reserved for them. It would have even 
been reckoned a breach of decorum to address an 
archbishop, demanding from him the confirmation 
of a bishop nominated by the PO|K> ; so that this 
point of common right, which \cMcd the confirm- 
ation of c\cr\ prelate in his imnicdiute sii] 
waa also annihilated; and the Homish See waa at 
length acknowledged over the whole Western 
..i III. as the onl\ source of all jurisdiction, and 
all ecclesiastical power. 

An extraordinary rtcnt. the offspring of that 
superstitious age. served still more to increase the 
poucr of the I'oprs ; and that was the Crusades, 
which the nations of Kuropc undertook, at their 
reipiest and hy their orders, for the conquest of 
Palestine or the Holy Land. These expeditions, 
known by the iiume of Holy Wars, because re- 
ligion was made the pretext or occasion of them, 
require a somewhat particular detail, not me; 
the circumstances that accompanied them, but also 

lllgrimagc* to Je- 
Crusadf preached. 


Godfrey of liouillon. 
C'aj'turc of Nice-. 
Tukiufrof Jerusalem. 

of the changes which they introduced into the mo- 
ral and political condition of society. Pilgrimages 
to Jerusalem, which were in use from the earliest 
ages of Christianity, had become very frequent 
about the beginning of the eleventh century. The 
opinion which then very generally prevailed, that 
the end of the world was at hand, induced vast 
numbers of Christians to sell their possessions in 
Europe, in order that they might set out for the 
IIol\ Laud, there to await the coming of the Lord. 
So long as the Arabs were masters of Palestine, 
they protected these pilgrimages, from which they 
derived no small emoluments. But when the 
Seljukian Turks, a barbarous and ferocious people, 
had conquered that country (1075), under the 
Caliphs of Egypt, the pilgrims saw themselves 
exposed to e\ery kind of insult and oppression. 8 
The hmentable accounts which they gave of these 
outrages on their return to Europe, excited the 
L.' indignation, and gave birth to the roman- 
tic notion of expelling these Infidels from the Holy 

Gregory VII. was the projector of this grand 
scheme. He addressed circular letters to all the 
sovereigns of Europe, and invited them to make a 
general crusade against the Turks. Meantime, 
however, more pressing interests, and his quarrels 
with the Emperor Henry IV., obliged him to 
defer the projected enterprise ; but his attention 
was soon recalled to it by the representation of a 
pilgrim, called Peter the Hermit, a native of 
Amiens in Picardy. Furnished with letters from 
the Patriarch of Jerusalem to the Pope and the 
princes of the West, this ardent fanatic traversed 
the whole of Italy, France, and Germany ; preach- 
ing everywhere, and representing, in the liveliest 
colours, the profanation of the sacred places, and 
the miserable condition of the Christians and poor 
pilgrims in the Holy Land. It proved no difficult 
task for him to impart to others the fanaticism 
with which he was himself animated. His zeal 
was powerfully seconded by Pope Urban II., who 
repaired in person to France, where he convoked 
the council of Clermont (1095), and pronounced, 
in full assembly, a pathetic harangue, at the close 
of which they unanimously resolved on the Holy 
War. It was decreed, that all who should enrol 
their names in this sacred militia, should wear a 
n-d cross on their right shoulder: that they should 
enjoy plenary indulgence, and obtain remission of 
all tin i 

From that time the pulpits of Europe resounded 
with exhortations to the crusades. People of every 
rank and condition were seen flocking in crowds 
to assume the signal of the cross; and, in the fol- 
.owiiiL' jear, innumerable bands of crusaders, from 
the different countries of Europe, set out, one 
after another, on this expedition to the East. 9 The 
only exception was the Germans, who partook but 
feebly of this uni\ers:il enthusiasm, on account of 
the disputes which then subsisted between the 
Emperor and the court of Rome. 10 The three or 
four first divisions of the crusaders, under the 
conduct of chiefs, who had neither name n> 
perienee, man-bed without order and without 
discipline; pillaging, burning, and wasting the 
countries through which they passed. Most of 
them perished from fatigue, hunger, or sickness, 
or by the sword of the exasperated nations, whose 
territories they had laid desolate. 11 

To these unwarlike and undisciplined troops, 
succeeded regular armies, commanded by experi- 
enced officers, and powerful princes. Godfrey of 
Bouillon (1096), Duke of Lorrain, accompanied 
by his brother Baldwin, and his cousin Baldwin 
of Bourg, with a vast retinue of noblemen, put 
himself at the head of the first body of crusaders. 
He directed his inarch through Germany, Hun- 
gary, and Bulgaria, towards Constantinople, and 
was soon followed by several French princes, such 
as Hugh the Great, brother of Philip I., King 
of France ; Robert, Duke of Normandy, son of 
William the Conqueror ; Stephen VI., Count of 
Blois ; Eustace of Boulogne, brother to Godfrey 
de Bouillon ; and Robert, Count of Flanders ; who 
all preferred the route by Italy. They passed the 
winter in the environs of Bari, Brindisi, and 
Otranto ; and did not embark for Greece until the 
following spring. Boemond, Prince of Tarentum, 
son to Roger, Earl of Sicily, at the instigation of 
the French grandees, took the cross, after their 
example, and carried with him into the East the 
flower of the Normans, and the noblesse of Sicily, 
Apulia, and Calabria. Lastly, Raymond IV., 
Count of Toulouse, accompanied by the Bishop of 
Puy, traversed Lombardy, Friuli, and Dalmatia, 
on his passage to the Holy Land. 

The general rendezvous of the crusaders was 
at Chalcedon in Bithynia. It is supposed that 
their forces, united, amounted to six hundred thou- 
sand combatants. They commenced their exploits 
with the siege of Nice, capital of the empire of 
Roum, of which they made themselves masters, 
after having repulsed the Turks, who had ad- 
vanced under the command of the Sultan Kili- 
Arslan, the son of Soliman, premier sultan of 
Roum. Another victory, gained over the same 
sultan (1097) in the Gorgonian valley in Bithynia, 
opened for the crusaders a passage into Syria. 
There they undertook the siege of the strong city 
of Antioch, which they carried after an immense 
loss of lives (1098). Having at length arrived in 
Palestine, the.y planned the attack of Jerusalem, 
which the Caliph of Egypt had just recovered 
from the Turks; and which the crusaders, in their 
turn, carried by assault from the Egyptians (1099). 
This city was declared the capital of a new king- 
dom, the sovereignty of which was bestowed on 
Godfrey of Bouillon, though he refused to take 
the title of king. This famous prince extended 
his conquests by a splendid victory, which he 
gained that same year near Ascalon, over the 
Caliph of Egypt. On his death, his brother 
Baldwin succeeded him, and transmitted the 
throne to his cousin Baldwin of Bourg, \v 
posterity reigned in Jerusalem until the destruc- 
tion of that kingdom by Saladin (1187). 

Besides the kingdom of Jerusalem, which 
comprehended Palestine, with the cities of Sidon, 
Tyre, and Ptolemais, the crusaders founde 
veral other states in the East. The earldom of 
Edessa, first conquered by Baldwin, brother of 
Godfrey, passed to several French princes in suc- 
cession until the year 1144, when it was Mihdiied 
by Atabek-Zenghi, commonly called San^nin. 
The principality of Antioch fell to the share of 
Boemond, Prince of Tarentum, whose heirs and 
descendants added to it, in llss, the ('nnnu ,,f 
Tripoli, which had been founded (1110) by Ray- 
mond, Count of Toulouse, one of the crusaders. 


\ I). I.H4 1300. 

1 ! 

!icv wen deprived b- ne and the 

oiliiT of those sovereignties by the Mameluke* in 

Lastly, tin- kingdom of Cyprus, which 

ug of England, took 

I ), WM urrriidrn-.l l>y that 

JTUH nil the year I t-1. u ',. that iw .nd was 
i ik-ii jHMHewuon of by the n-|- 

The transient duration of these dim-rent ttates 
presents nothing surprising. I < hrutians of 

: ist, disunited among them- 
on ill, and incessantly attacked by powerful 

.-, found themselves too remote l~riu Kurope 
d> olitiiin from tlmt quarter any prompt or effective 

ir. It wiit, theictore. impomiblc for them 
l"ii,- to withstand the efforts of the Mahometan*, 
\\li.i were animated, an well as the Christians, by 
a sectarian semi, which led them (41 combine their 
against tt ..f thrir religion and 

thi-ir prophet. The enthusiasm of religious wan 
iliil not, however, become extinct until nearly two 
centuries. It was encouraged and supported by 
the numerous privilege* which popts and sove- 
reigns oonferrcd on the invader*, and by the rich 
endowments that were made in their favour. All 
Europe continued to be in motion, and all its 
principal sovereigns marched in their turn to the 
East, either to attempt new conquests, or maintain 
those which the first crusaders had achieved. 

grand crusades succeeded to the first ; all 
of which were cither fruitless, or at least without 
any important and durable success. Conrad III., 
Emperor of Germany, and Louis VII., King of 
France, undertook the second (1147), on account 
of the conquests of Atabck-'/.eiiirhi, who, three 
Tears before, had made himself master of Edessa. 
The third (I I*'.)) was headed by the Emperor 
Frederic I., surnanied Barbarossa ; Philip Augus- 
King of France; and Richard Creur -de- 1. ion 
of England ; and the occasion of it, was the tak- 
ing of Jerusalem by the famous Saladin (11S7). 

urth was undertaken (1202), at the pressing 
in-tiifatinn of Innocent III. Se\eral of thr French 
and German nobility uniting with the 
assumed the cross under the command of Boniface, 
Marquis of Montferrat ; hut m-i. ,id of marchiin; 
to P:> ended their expeilition by taking 

iiitinople I'IOMI the Greeks. The fifth cru- 
sade (1217) wan conducted by Andrew, King of 

iiy. :itteniled hy many of the princes and 
nubility of Germany, who had enlisted under the 
banner of the Cross in consequence of the decrees 
of the council of Lateral! (121">). The Emperor 

Tic II. undertook the sixth ( 122*).- By a 
treaty Inch he concluded with the Sultan of 

, he obtained the restoration of Jerusalem 
and several other cities of Palestine; although they 
ih. I not long continue in his possession. The Turk-, oppressed by the Moguls, seised 
on ih- Holy Land (1244), and pillaged and burnt 
Jem-alem. That famous < : \\it\i the 

greater part of Pale-tine, fell afterwards under the 
(loin. in. .11 of the Sultans of Egypt. 

The -. -\enth and last grand crusade, was under- 
taken hy Loafa l\. King of France (1248). He 
it necessary to begin his conquests by 
that l>ut his design completely mis- 

made prisoner with his army after 
lion at Mansoura (1250), he only obtained 

hi- lihertN \,\ restoring Damietta, and paying a 
large ransom to the >iltaii of Egypt. Th 
ite of tbi< Ust e&pedition shirk 
d of the I.uL.p. :UIH for crusading. Still, 
however, they retained two important places on 
the coast of >\m, i(. I'yre and Ptole- 

Itut th> conquered 

hy the Mamelukes (l'.".'l), there was no lunger 

any talk about crusades to the East ; and all the 

- i ' ( .:i of Home to revive them 

It now remaiiiM for us brietly to notice the ef- 
fects which reunited from the crusades, WH 
gard to the social and political tate of the n 

Europe. One coliHequeii" 
Was the aggrandisement of the K<>man P 
who, iluring the u hoh- period of the crusades, 
pla\ed the part of supreme chiefs and sovereign 
:- of Christendom. It was at their request, 
as we have seen, that th-c religious wars were 
undertaken ; it was they who directed them by 
means of their legates, who compelled em|>rrors 
and kin;:-, by the terror of their spiritual arms, to 
march under the banner of the Cross who taxed 
the clergy at their pleasure, to defray the expenses 
of these distant expeditions, who took under their 
immediate protection the person.- and effect- of the 
Crusaders, and emancipated them, by means of 
i! pn\il._'es, from all dependence on any 
po\\cr, ci\il or judiciary. The wealth of the 
clergy was considerably increased during the time 
of which we speak, both by the numerous endow- 
ments which took place, ami by the acquisition 
which the Church made of the immense landed 
property which the pious owners sold them on 
assuming the badge of the Cross. 

These advantages which the See of Borne drew 
from the Crusade* in the I'.a-t. were inducement* 
to undertake similar expeditions in the West and 
North of Europe. In these quarters we find 
that the wars of the cross were carried on. 1. 
Against the Mahometans of Spain and A 
2. Against the Emperors and Kings who re- 
fused obedience to the orders of the Popes." 3. 
-' h(T'-ti<al or schismatic princes, such as 
the Greeks and Russians. 4. Against the Sla- 
vonians and other Pagan nations, on the coasts of 
the Baltic. 5. Against the Waldenses, Albi- 
genses, and Hussites, who were regarded as ban- 
tics. 6. Against the Turks. 

If the result of the crusades was advanta. 
to the hierarchy, if it served to aggrandi/- 
power of the Unman Pontiffs it must, on the con- 
trary, have proved ol^iously prejudicial to the au- 
thority of the secular princes. It was in fact dur- 
ing this period that the power of the i-mp 
both in (iermany and Italy, was sapped to tin- 
very foundation ; that the royal house of II 
staufen sunk under the determined etforls of the 
Court of Uome ; and that the federal ijt. 
the Umpire gained gradual accessions of strength. 
In r.ngland and Hungary, we observe how the 
grandees seized on the opportunity to increase 
their own power. The former took advantage of 
their sovereign's absence in the Holy Land, and 
the latter of the protection which they re 
from the P..p.-, to claim new privileges and 
extort charters, such as they did from John of 
England, and Henry II. of Hungary, tending to 
cripple and circumscribe the royal authority. 

Tin- Krlii-ious anil Military 
44 Orders. 

Surnames and coat* of arms. 


Order of St. John of Jerusalem. 
Knights Hospitallers. 
C'\ pms and Rhodes. 

In France, however, the result was different. 
There, the kings being freed, by moans of the 
crusades, from a crowd of restless and turbulent 
Ja who often threw the kingdom into a state 
of faction and discord, were left at liberty to ex- 
tend their prerogatives, and turn the scale of power 
in their own favour. They even considerably aug- 
mented their royal and territorial revenues, either 
by purchasing lands and fiefs from the proprietors 
who had armed in the cause of the cross ; or by an- 
nexing to the crown the estates of those who died 
in the Holy Land, without leaving feudal heirs ; 
in- by seizing the forfeitures of others who were 
persecuted by religious fanaticism, as heretics or 
abettors of heresy. Finally, the Christian kings of 
Spain, the sovereigns of the North, the Knights of 
the Teutonic order, and of Livonia, joined the 
crusades recommended by the Popes, from the 
desire of conquest ; the former, to subdue the 
Mahometans in Spain, and the others to vanquish 
the Pagan nations of the North, the Slavonians, 
Finns, Livonians, Prussians, Lithuanians, and 

It is to the crusades, in like manner, that 
Europe owes the use of surnames, as well as of 
armorial bearings, and heraldry. 13 It. is easy to 
pen-t ive. that among these innumerable armies of 
crusaders, composed of different nations and lan- 
guages, some mark or symbol was necessary, in 
order to distinguish particular nations, or signalize 
their commanders. Surnames and coats of arms 
were employed as these distinctive badges ; the 
latter especially were invented to serve as rallying 
points, for the vassals and troops of the crusading 
chiefs. Necessity first introduced them, and va- 
nity afterwards caused them to be retained. These 
coats of arms were hoisted on their standards, the 
knights got them emblazoned on their shields, and 
appeared with them at tournaments. Even those 
who had never been at the crusades became ambi- 
tious of these distinctions ; which may be consi- 
dered as permanently established in families, from 
al'-mt the middle of the thirteenth century. 

The same enthusiasm that inspired the Euro- 
peans for the crusades, contributed in like manner 
to bring tournaments into vogue. In these solemn 
and military sports, the young noblesse were train- 
ed to violent exercises, and to the management of 
ln-:i\y arms ; so as to gain them some reputation 
for valour, and to insure their superiority in war. 
In order to be admitted to these tournaments it 
j to be of noble blood, and to show 

proofs of their nobility. The origin of these feats 
i- ^em-rally traced back to the end of the tenth, or 
I'l-irinning of the eleventh century. Geoffrey of 
I'reuilly, whom the writers of the middle ages 
cite as being the inventor of them, did no more, 
properly speaking, than draw up their code of re- 
gulations. France was the country from which 
the practice of tournaments diffused itself over all 
the other nations of Europe. They were very 
frequent, during all the time that the crusading 
mania lasted. 

To this same epoch belongs the institution of 
Hflii/iaus and Military Orders. These were ori- 
irinally established for the purpose of defending 
tin' in w Christian States in the Hast, for protect- 
ing pilgrims on their journey, taking care of them 
vsheti sick, &c. ; and (lie vast wealth which they 
acquired in most of the kingdoms of Europe, pre- 

served their existence long after the loss of the 
Holy Land ; and some of these orders even made 
a conspicuous figure in the political history of 
the AVestern nations. 

Of all these, the first and most distinguished 
was the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, called 
afterwards the Order of Malta. Prior to the first 
crusade, there had existed at Jerusalem a church 
of the Latin or Romish liturgy, dedicated to St. 
Mary, and founded by some merchants of Amalfi 
in the kingdom of Naples. There was also a 
monastery of the Order of St. Benedict, and an 
hospital for the relief of poor or afflicted pilgrims. 
This hospital, the directors of which were ap- 
pointed by the Abbot of St. Mary's, having in a 
very short time become immensely rich by nu- 
merous donations of lands and seignories, both in 
Europe and Palestine, one of its governors named 
Gerard, a native of Martigues in Provence, as is 
alleged, took the regular habit (1100), and formed 
with his brethren a distinct, congregation, under 
the name and protection of St. John the Baptist. 
Pope Pascal II., by a bull issued in 1114, approved 
of this new establishment, and ordained, that after 
the death of Gerard, the Hospitallers alone should 
have the election of their superintendent. Ray- 
mond du Puy, a gentleman from Dauphine, and 
successor to Gerard, was the first that took the 
title of Grand Master. He prescribed a rule for 
the Hospitallers ; and Pope Calixtus II., in ap- 
proving of this rule (1120), divided the members 
of the order into three classes. The nobles, called 
Knights of Justice, were destined for the profes- 
sion of arms, making war on the Infidels, and pro- 
tecting pilgrims. The priests and chaplains, se- 
lected from the respectable citizens, were intrusted 
with functions purely ecclesiastical ; while the 
serving brethren, who formed the third class, were 
charged with the care of sick pilgrims, and like- 
wise to act in the capacity of soldiers. These 
new knights were known by the name of Knights 
of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem, and 
were distinguished by wearing a white octagon 
cross on a black habit. 

After the final loss of the Holy Land, this or- 
der established themselves in the Isle of Cyprus. 
From this they passed into Rhodes, which they 
had conquered from the Infidels (1310). This 
latter island they kept possession of till l.V2'-> ; and 
being then expelled by Soliman the Great, they 
obtained (1530) from Charles V., the munificent 
grant of the Isle of Malta, under the express terms 
of making war against the Infidels. Of this place 
they were at length deprived by Buonaparte in 

The order of Templars followed nearly that of 
St. John. Its first founders (1119) were some 
French gentlemen; the chief of whom were 
de ravens, and Geoffrey de St. Onicr. Having 
made a declaration of their MI\\S before the Patri- 
arch of Jerusalem, they took upon themselves the 
special charge of maintaining free passage and safe 
conduct for the pilgrims to the H<>1\ Land. Hald- 
win, king of Jerusalem, assigned them an apart- 
ment in his palace, near the temple, whence they 
took the name of Knights of thr Tt >/>/<, and 
Templars. They obtained from Tope llonorins 
II. (1120) a rule, with a white habit; to which 
Kugene III. added a red cross octagon. This 
order, after accumulating vast wealth and riches, 


Tl,- T.-..t : .l,r. 

<>I) IV. A.D. 10741300. 

of lul) . 



specially in France, and distinguishing themselves 
l'\ tlu-ir military f\iili>i[t for in-.irU < .. . ,turies, 
at length suppressed by Uic < 

. according to the most pro* 

bsble opinion, took iU origin in the camp before 
Acre or Ptolemai*. The honour of it is ascribed 
to some charitable citizens of Itrcmrii and Lubec, 
who erected a hospital ur trut with the .. 
tlu-ir \cssrl*. t"r tin- n-ln-f of tin* mimrroi; 
and wounded of th.-ir n.iti..n. Several German 
iix-it h-mug j -H...I in thin establishment, 
tin-) il<-\iit.-il themselves by a TOW to the service of 
the sick ; u also to tin i . . I^and 

against the Infidels. This order, known by tin- 
name of the Teutonic Knight.* of St. Mary of Je- 
rusalem, received continuation from Pope Calixtus 
III. (ll!''.'), who prescribed for them tin- rule of 
the Hospital of St. John, with regard to their 
attendance on the sick ; and with regard to chi- 
valry or knighthood, that of the order of Templars. 
Il.-nry Walpott de Pasnenheim was the first grand 
master of the order ; and the new knights assumed 
the white habit, with a red cross, to distinguish 
them from the other orders. It was uu<l<-r thrir 
fourth grand master, Hermann de Saltza (1230), 
that they passed into 1'russin, which they con- 
quered (1309). They fixed their chief residence 
at Marienburg; but having lost Prussia in con- 
sequence of a change in the religious sentiments 
of their grand master, Albert de Brandenburg 

- i, they transferred their capital to Mergen- 
theiui. in Franconia. 

I urth order of Hospitallers founded in the 
I Inly Land, was that of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem, 
who had for their principal object the treatment 
of lepers ; u and who, in process of time, from a 
medical, became a military order. After li:i\m_r 
long resided in the East, where they distiuguUhed 
themselves in the Holy Wars, they followed St. 
Louis into France (1254), and fixed their chief 
seat at Boigny, near Orleans. Pope Gregory 
XIII. united them with the order of St. Maurice, 

w>y ; and Henry IV. with that of Our Lady 

nut Ciinni-l, in France. On the model, and 
after the example of these four military orders, 
several others were founded in succession, in vari- 
ous kingdoms of Europe. 11 All these institutions 
contritmtcil greatly to the renown of chivalry, so 
famous in the Middle Ages. The origin of this 
latter institution i earlier than the times of which 
we now speak, and seems to belong to the tenth, 
or the beginning of the eleventh century. The 
anarchy of feudalism ln-imr then at it.s height, and 
robberies ami private quurrels everywhere ptevail- 

neveral noble and distinguished individuals 
devoted themselves, by a solemn vow, according 
to the genius of the times, to the defence of reli- 
gion and its ministers; u also of the fair sex, and 
of every person suffering from distress or oppres- 
:u the end of the eleventh century, to 
the time when the crusades began, we find chi- 

. with its pomp and its cerem- 

.1 in all the principal states of Europe. This 
salutary institution, !>\ inspiring the minds of men 
with new energy, gate hirtli to many illustrious 
characters. It tended to repress the disorders of 
auan li\. to i-.-\ivc order and law, and establish a 

r. -I. it i. m-hip among the nations of Europe. 
In general, it may be said, that these ultra- 

marine expeditions, prosecuted with obstinacy for 
nearly two hundred yean, hastened the progress) 
of arts and civilization in Kurope. The cru . 
jom in -sing through kingdoms better organised than 
il.- ir own, and observing greater refinement in ih< -ir 
Uws and manners, were necessarily led to form 
new ideas, and acquire new information with re. 
gard to science and politics. Some vestiges of 
learning and good taste had been preserved m 
Greece, and even in the extremities of Asia, 
where letters had been encouraged by the pu- 
age of the Caliphs. I ;.!. 

which had not yet suffered from the ravages of the 
barbarians, abounded in the finest monuments of 
art. It presented to the eyes of the crusaders 
a spectacle of grandeur and magnificence that 
could not but excite their admiration, and call 
forth a strong desire to imitate those models, the 
sight of which at once pleased and astonished them. 
To the Italians especially, it must have proved of 
great advantage. The continued intercourse which 
they maintained with the East and the- city of 
Constantinople afforded them the means of be- 
coming familiar with the language and literature 
of the Greeks, of communicating the same taste to 
their own countrymen, and in this way advancing 
the glorious epoch of the revival of letters. 

About the same time, commerce and navigation 
were making considerable progress. The cities of 
Italy, such as Venice, Genoa, Pisa, and others, in 
assisting the Crusaders in their operations, by- 
means of the transports, provisions, and warlike 
Stores with which they furnished them, continued 
to secure for themselves important privileges and 
establishments in the seaports of the Levant, and 
other ports in the Greek empire. Their exam- 
ple excited the industry of several maritime towns 
in France, and taught them the advantage of ap- 
plying their attention to F.a.stern commerce. In 
the North, the cities of Hamburgh and Lubec 
formed, about the year I'.Ml, as is generally sup- 
posed, their first commercial association, which 
afterwards became so formidable under the name 
of the Harueatic League. 1 * The staple articles of 
these latter cities consisted in marine stores, and 
other productions of the North, which they ex- 
changed for the spiceries of the East, and the 
manufactures of Italy and the Low Countries. 

The progress of industry, the protection which 
sovereigns extended to it, and the pains they took 
to check the disorders of feudalism, contributed to 
the prosperity of towns, by daily augmenting their 
population and their wealth. This produced, 
about the times we are speaking of, an advan- 
tageous change in the civil and social condition of 
the people. Throughout the principal states of 
Europe, cities began, after the twelfth century, to 
erect themselves into political bodies, ami to form, 
by degrees, a third order, distinct from that of the 
clergy and nobility. Before this period, the inha- 
bitants of towns enjoyed neither ci\il nor political 
liberty. Their condition was very little better 
than that of the peasantry, who were all serfs, at- 
tached to the soil. The rights of citizenship, and 
the privileges derived from it, were reserved for 
the clergy and the noblesse. The Counts, or 
governors of cities, by rendering their power hcre- 
ditary, had appropriated to themselves the rights 
that were originally attached to their functions. 
They used them in the most arbitrary way, and 


I'n-i- Corporations. 

I Lilian Ki-jmblics. 


Kiiulish House of Commons. 
Edward III. Hi-ury III. 
French Parliaments. 

loaded the inhabitants with every kind of oppres- 
sion that avarice or caprice could suggest. 

At length, the cities which were either the most 
oppressed, or the most powerful, rose in ivbelliou 
against this intolerable yoke. The inhabitants 
formed themselves into confederations, to which 
they gave the name of Communes or Free Corpo- 
rations. Either of their own accord, or by char- 
ters, obtained very often on burdensome terms, 
they procured for themselves a free government, 
which, by relieving them from servitude, and all 
impositions and arbitrary exactions, secured them 
personal liberty and the possession of their effects, 
under the protection of their own magistrates, and 
the institution of a militia, or city guard. This 
revolution, one of the most important in Europe, 
tir-t took place in Italy, where it was occasioned 
by the frequent interregnums that occurred in 
(iermam, as well as by the disturbances that rose 
between the Empire and the priesthood, in the 
ele\enth century. The anathemas thundered 
against Henry IV., by absolving the subjects from 
the obedience they owed their sovereign, served 
as a pretext to the cities of Italy for shaking off 
the authority of the Imperial viceroys, or bailiffs, 
who had become tyrants instead of rulers, and for 
establishing free and republican governments. In. 
this, they were encouraged and supported by the 
protection of the Roman pontiffs, whose sole aim 
and policy was the abasement of the Imperial 

Before this period, several maritime cities of 
Italy, such as Naples, Amain 1 , Venice, Pisa, and 
Genoa, emboldened by the advantages of their 
situation, by the increase of their population and 
their commerce, had already emancipated them- 
selves from the Imperial yoke, and erected them- 
selves into republics. Their example was followed 
by the cities of Lombardy and the Venetian terri- 
tory, especially Milan, Pavia, Asti, Cremona, Lodi, 
Como, Parma, Placentia, Verona, Padua, &c. All 
these cities, animated with the enthusiasm of li- 
berty, adopted, about the beginning of the twelfth 
century, consuls and popular forms of government. 
They formed a kind of military force, or city 
guard, and -vested in themselves the rights of 
royalty, and the power of making, in their own 
name- and authority, alliances, wars, and treaties 
of peace. From Italy, this revolution extended 
to France and Germany, the Low Countries, and 
Knj,'hnd. In all these different states, the use of 
Communes, or boroughs, was established, and 
protected b\ the sovereigns, who employed these 
new institutions us a powerful check against the 
i ncroachments and t \ranny of the feudal lords. 

In France, Louis the Fat, who began his reign 
in 110S, was the first kin;,' that granted rights, or 
('institutional charters, to certain cities within his 
domain, either from political moti\es, or the allure- 
ment of money. The nobilitj, after his example, 
eagerly sold libtrtj, to their subjects. The revolu- 
tion became general; (lie crj for liberty was raised 
everywhere, and interested even mind. Through- 
out all the provinces, the inhabitants of cities soli- 
cited charier-;, and sometimes without waiting for 
them, they formed themsehes voluntarily into 
communities, electing magistrate-, of their own 
choice, establishing companies of militia, and taL- 
ing charge themselves of the fortifications and 
wardenship of their cities. The magistrates of 

free cities in northern France were usually called 
mayors, sheriffs, and liverymen ; while, in the 
south of France, they were called syndics and 
consuls. It soon became an established principle, 
that kings alone had the power to authorize tin- 
erection of corporate towns. Louis VIII. declared 
that he regarded all cities in which these corpo- 
rations were established as belonging to his do- 
main. They owed military service directly and 
personally to the king; while such cities as had 
not these rights or charters were obliged to follow 
their chiefs to the war. 

In Germany, we find the emperors adopting the 
same policy as the kings of France. The resources 
which the progress of commerce and manufactures 
opened up to the industry of the inhabitants of 
cities, and the important succours which the em- 
perors Henry IV. and V. had received from them 
in their quarrels with the Pope and the princes of 
the Empire, induced them to take these cities un- 
der their protection, to augment their number, and 
multiply their privileges. Henry V. was the first 
emperor that adopted this line of policy. He 
granted freedom to the inhabitants of several cities, 
even to artizans and tradesmen; whose condition, 
at that time, was as degraded and debased as that 
of serfs. He extended to them the rank and pri- 
vileges of citizens, and thus gave rise to the divi- 
sion of cities into classes and corporations of trades. 
This same prince set about repairing tl e fault 
which the emperors of the house of Saxony had 
committed, of giving up to the bishops the temporal 
jurisdiction in all the cities wherein they resided. 
He gradually superseded these rights, by the new 
privileges which he granted to the inhabitants of 
cities. The emperors, his successors, followed his 
example: in a little time, several of these cities 
threw off the yoke of their bishops, while others 
extricated themselves from the jurisdiction of their 
superiors, or provosts, whether imperial or feudal, 
and adopted, in imitation of the cities in Italy 
and France, magistrates of their own choosing, a 
republican form of government, and a municipal 

This liberty in cities gave new vigour to in- 
dustry, multiplied the sources of labour, and cre- 
ated means of opulence and power, till then un- 
known in Europe. The population of these cities 
increased with their wealth. Communities rose 
into political consequence; and we find them suc- 
cessivch admitted to the diets and national assem- 
blies, in all the principal state-, of Knrope. Eng- 
land set an example of this; and though Knglisli 
authors are not agreed as to the precise time \\ben 
the Commons of that kingdom were called into 
Parliament, it is at least certain that their first 
admission belongs to the reign of llenrv III. 
(about 1205 or 1266), and that the formal dm- 
sioii of the Parliament into two houses is as Lite 
as the reign of Edward III. 1 ' France followed the 
example of England; the convocation of the slate-, 
h\ Philip the Fair (!:{():{), on the Mibject of his 
disputes with Pope Boniface VI I I., is considered 
as the first assembly of the States-general, com- 
pOMd of the three orders of the kingdom. As to 
Germany, the first diet in which the cities of the 
Empire appeared in the form of a third order, was 
that of Spire ( I HO!) ), convoked by the Kmperor 
lleur\ VII., of the house of Luxemburg. After- 
wards, we find these cities exercising a decisive or 

...:n.,:, I'. - 

ri in.i) iv. A.I). 10741800. 

Look VII. LMJX. 

Tw IbMM* t*. 

I . ... 


In all these t 


tiog a stop ' ; itiTc.tiiie war*. 
I l.ii k ' 
> in ft capacity to def. ml thcm- 

selves, became less* enterprising In their ambition ; 
ami even rank lean 

impact the power ,,; 
royal authority was t :,.-r!., ,, ! ; ami 

lll\ inclilllli;.' I" tl:. 

: as a com.- 
the general assemblies, to the }>< 

' '! noblesse, and were tin- means nl 

liiry supplic, nee, ,.:u y I'm- thf \ 

tin- state. 

liberty which tin- inhabitants of cities had 
thus procured by tin- . >t.i'.li-hmenl of ' 
11:111. itn--, or mi -por id- ti.nlii-s, extended itself to the 
inhabitants of the country, (IN way of enfranchise- 
ments. Various circumstances, concurred In ren- 
der the use of these more frequent, after the twelfth 

century. Tin- sovereigns, guided by tlir in 
of sound policy, set tlii' tii -i example <>f this within 
their own demesnes; ami they were speedily imi- 
tated by the feudal lords and nobles, who, cither 
i>ut of courtesy to their sovereigns, or to prevent 
the desertion of their vassals, or acquire new 
pelled to grant liberty to the 

one, and mitigate tin- servitude of the other. The 
communities, or chartered cities, likewise seconded 
and promoted these enfnuichisenientM, by the pro- 
i which they granted to the serfs against 
their feudal superiors. * 

In Italy, we perceive these enfranchisements 
following as an immediate consequence of the in- 
stitution of communities. The continual feuds 
that arose among the numerous republics which 
had lately thrown off the yoke of authority, made 
the liberty of the serfs a measure absolutely nc- 
cewary, in order to augment the number of cities 
qualified to bear arms, .and hold places of trust. 
Bonacurso, Captain of Bologna (l'J'>*>), proposed 

! the law of en- 

ut. All those who had serfs wore ob- 
to present them before the 1'oJ.esta, or Cap- 
tain of the people, w ho affranchised them for a 
certain sum or tax, which the republic paid to 
the owner. The feudal superiors, finding that 
these enfr.inchiseinenU had a powerful support in 
the liberty of the three cities, were obliged either 
to meliorate the condition of their serfs, or grant 

them lib. : 

In 1'Vmrc, after the twelfth centurj, and the 
reign of Louis the Fat, these enfranchisements be- 
X 'ii to I- : , . :.:. 'I !;' - ;> :n,d -;. . . SJQI of '(. ,' 
: letter (1180), afiVan- 
n-h the crown possessed at 
Orleans, and within fire leagues of it. I.< 
passed a general law (1315), for the enfrai. 

- b.-loii-i: . .-.. : . II 

made a p. 

nry to natun, intrndrd that all mm by 
hirtfl *hnt,M f* fr, t awl rtjun! 
kmyditm i/-* (irnomiiuit'tt the ktnydoin of the 
mat, it appraf ' right 

that tttr /art should carrt*pa*<t 

%:t,,l, at the same time, all the nob:. 

imitate his example, by mating 

serfs. That ptii. 

magr he piid to natuie, if the gift of liberty hail 

II his pa:' it a 

thoe only 

who i mid alfoid |.. p.i\ f..r it; M In-nee it hap- 

'- advancc<l but 

nlo\l; . '..pies of il an- ! be found ill lli- 

In (ierii.any, the number of si-it's dii 
like manner, after tin- twi-lfth century . 
sades, and the dc-tructhe wars which the Dukes 

,..n\ and the Mar^M-. North Caf- 

.11 with the tribes on the Kibe and 

the Haltic, having depopulated the northern and 

1 . ermaiiy , numei. from 

Brabant, the Netherl -inds, Holland and I'riesl.nid, 

wen- introduced into these countries, w here tln-y 

formrd themsi-Ues into establishnic-nts, or associa- 

..f free culli\:il.,. !. 1'iom I. 

(iermany the custom of etifr..iicliisetnents extended 
to the I pper provinces, and aloii^ the banks of 
the Khine. This w:is encoiiia^ed b\ th- 

. which not only gare a welcome reception 
to the serfs who had lied to shelter then.- 
from op|iression within their walls, but the;, 
granted protection, and the rights of citizenship, 
to those who had settled within the | 
liberties of the town ; 1 or who continued, without 
chanicinij their habitation, to reside on the lands 
of their feudal superiors. This spirited conduct 
of the free cities put the nobles of (iermany to the 
necessity of aiding and abetting, by degrees, either 
the suppression or the mitigation of sla\ery . 
reimbursed themselves for the loss of the fine or 
tax which they had been in the habit of b, 
on the death of their serfs, by an augmentation of 
the quit-rent, or annual cess which they exacted 
from them on their being affranch: 

In the Low Countries, Henry II., duke of Bra- 
bant (121S), in his last will, granted liberty to all 
cultivators of the soil; he affranchised them on 
the ri^'ht of mortmain, and ordained, that, lik 
inhabitants of free cities, they should be ji 
by no other than their own magistrates. In this 
manner, liberty by degrees rec,,verid its j 
rights. It assisted in dispelling the clouds of 
.nee ami superstition, and spread a new lustre 
I. mope. One event which contributed ea- 
men more exact notions on go- 
vernment and jurisprudence, was the revival of the 
Roman law, which happened about the tin. 
now speak of. The German tribes 
the Western Kmpire in the fifth century, would 
naturally despise a system of legislation, such a* 
that of the Romans, which neither accorded with 
the ferocity of their manners, nor the rudeness of 
their idea*. In consequence, the revolution which 
occasioned the downfall of that empire brought at 
the same time the Homan jurisprudcn. 
suetude o>cr all the West.-rn world. 1 * 

A lapse of several centuries, however, waa re- 
quired, to rectify men's ideas on the nature of so- 
ciety, and to prepare them ! 
and institutions of a civdixed and refit. 
inent. Such was the general Mate and condition 
of political kni.-.v 

! civilian. ( died Irnerius, who taught the law publicly at Itologna, about the 
me nt of the twelfth century, attracted tu 


Tin- l'iiiiu:i I^iw. 
IVerftals of tin 1 
(Jrrj-ory IX. 


Judgments of God. 
I'liivor.-itii-s (bunded. 
1'irdi-rk- Harbarossa, Emperor. 

that academy the youth of the greater part of Eu- 
rope. There they devoted themselves with ardour 
to the study of this new science. The pupils, in- 
structed by Irnerius and his successors, on return- 
in^ home, and being employed in the tribunals and 
public offices of their native country, gradually 
carried into practice the principles which they had 
imbibed in the school of Bologna. Hence, in a 
short time, and without the direct interference of 
the legislative authority, the law of Justinian was 
adopted by degrees, as a subsidiary law in all the 
principal states of Europe. Various circumstances 
contributed to accelerate the progress of this revo- 
lution. People had felt for a long time the neces- 
sity of a new legislature, and the insufficiency of 
their national laws. The novelty of the Roman 
laws, as well as their equity and precision, arrested 
the attention of all Europe ; and sovereigns found 
it their interest to protect a jurisprudence, whose 
maxims were so favourable to royalty and mo- 
narchical power, and which served at once to 
strengthen and extend their authority. 

The introduction of the Roman jurisprudence 
was soon followed by that of the Canon law. The 
Popes, perceiving the rapid propagation of this new 
science, and eager to arrest its progress, immedi- 
ately set themselves to the work of raising that 
vast and astonishing edifice the Canon law, as an 
engine to promote the accomplishment of their 
own greatness. Gratian, a monk of Bologna, en- 
couraged by Pope Eugenius III., compiled a col- 
lection of Canons, under the title of the Decret, 
which he arranged in systematic order, to serve as 
an introduction to the study of that law. This 
compilation, extracted from different authors who 
had preceded him, recommended itself to the 
world by its popular method, which was adapted 
to the genius of the times. Pope Eugeuius III. 
it his approval in 1152, and ordained that it 
should be read and explained in the schools. This 
collection of Gratian soon obtained a wide and 
most successful reception ; from the schools it 
'1 to the public tribunals, both civil and eccle- 
siastical. At length, Pope Gregory IX., in imita- 
tion of the Emperor Justinian, who had caused a 
collection of his own statutes, and those of his pre- 
decessora, to be made by Tribonian, ordered his 
chaplain Raymond de Pennafort to compile and 
dii,"-t, in their proper order, all the decisions of 
his predecessors, as well as his own ; thus extend- 
ing to common practice, what had been originally 
established but for one place, and for particular 
cases. He published his collection (1235) under 
the name of Decretals, with an injunction, that it 
should be employed both in the tribunals and in 
the schools. 

If this new system of jurisprudence served to 
extend tlie jurisdiction, and strengthen the tempo- 
ral power of the Popes, it did not fail at the same 
time to produce salutary effects on the governments 
and manners of Europe. The peace, or truce of 
God, which some bishops of France, in the ele- 
\enth century, had instituted as a check on the un- 
bridled fury of private quarrels and civil discord, 
was established, by the Decretals, into a general 
law of the church.* The judgments of God, till 
then used in the tribunals of justice, trial by single 
combat, liy hot iron, hot and cold water, the cross, 
\c. were gradually abolished. The restraints of 
the Canon law, added to the new information 

which had diffused its light over the human mind, 
were instrumental in rooting out practices which 
served only to cherish and protract the ancient 
ferocity of manners. The spirit of order and me- 
thod which prevailed in the new jurisprudence, 
soon communicated itself to every branch of legis- 
lation among the nations of Europe. The feudal 
law was reduced to systematic order ; and the 
usages and customs of the provinces, till then local 
and uncertain, were collected and organised into a 
regular form. 1 " 

Jurisprudence, having now become a complicated 
science, demanded a long and laborious course of 
study, which could no longer be associated with 
the profession of arms. The sword was then ob- 
liged by degrees to abandon the courts of justice, 
and give place to the gown. A new class of men 
thus arose, that of the law, who contributed by 
their influence to repress the overgrown power of 
the nobility. 

The rapid progress which the new jurisprudence 
made, must be ascribed to the recent foundation 
of universities, and the encouragements which 
sovereigns granted these literary corporations. 
Before their establishment, the principal public 
schools were those which were attached either to 
monasteries, or cathedral and collegiate churches. 
There were, however, only a few colleges insti- 
tuted ; and these in large cities, such as Rome, 
Paris, Angers, Oxford, Salamanca, &c. The sci- 
ences there taught were comprised under ttie seven 
liberal arts, viz. Grammar, Rhetoric, Dialectics or 
Logic, Arithmetic, Geometry, Music, and Astro- 
nomy. The first three were known by the name 
of Trivium ; and the other four, which make part 
of mathematics, by that of Qiiadrivium. As for 
Theology and Jurisprudence, they did not as \<t 
figure among the academic sciences ; and there 
was no school of medicine prior to that of Salerno 
the only one of which any traces are discovered, 
towards the end of the eleventh century. 

These schools and academies cannot, by any 
means, be put in comparison with modern univer- 
sities ; which differ from them essentially, both as 
to the variety of sciences which are professed, and 
by their institutions as privileged bodies, enjoying 
a system of government and jurisdiction peculiarly 
then- own. The origin of these Universities is 
coeval with the revival of the Roman law in Italy 
and the invention of academic degrees. The same 
Irnerius, who is generally acknowledged as tin- 
restorer of the Roman law at Bologna, was also 
the first that conceived the idea of conferring, with 
certain solemnities, doctorial degrees; and granting 
license or diplomas to those who excelled hi the 
study of jurisprudence. Pope Eugenius III. 
(1153), when he introduced the Code of Gratiau 
into the academy of Bologna, gave permission to 
confer the same degrees in the Canon law, as had 
been customary in the Civil law. These degrees 
were much coveted and esteemed on account of 
the honours, immunities, and prerogatives which 
the sovereign had attached to them. -Nothing, 
however, contributed more to bring universities 
into favour, than the privileges and immunities 
which the F.mperor Frederic Harharossa conferred 
on them (1158), by his Authentic, (or rescript, 
called Habita). The example of this prince 
-pccdily followed by the other sovereigns of 

rW ll..i.M-ali.- (**# 

pi |;i \. \ [>. 10741300. 

The teaching of jurisprudence passed from the 
school of Bologna to the different academies of 
Europe. Theology also was soon admitted, as 

is medicine ; sad these completed th 
fctsjltiss, M they were called, of which the on 
sities were composed. That of Paris was the first 
which combined all the faculties. It was com- 
pleted under the- reign of Philip Augustus, 
whom U obtsined its earliest charter, about the 
year 1200. ire only the uni- 

versities of Bologna, Padua, Naples, Toulon* 
lamauca, Coimbra, Cambridge, nnd Oxford, that 
date their origin in the thirteenth century." 

The downfall of the Imperial authority, and of 
the house ot llohcintaufen, and the new power 
usurped by the princes and states of the Empire, 
occasioned a long series of troubles in Germany, 
and that frightful state of anarchy, known by tin- 
name of the Grand Interregnum. Strength then 
triumphed over law and right ; the government 
was altered from its basis ; and no other nvtsns 
were found to remedy this want of public security, 
than by forming alliances and confederations, such 
as that* of the Rhine." and the Hanseatic League, 
which began to appear about this time (1 

election of the emperors, in which all the 
princes and states of the Empire had formerly con- 
curred, became then the privilege solely of the 
great officers of the crown, who, towards the mid- 
dle of the thirteenth century, claimed for them- 
selves exclusively the right of electing, and the 
title of Electors.* 4 The princes and states of the 
F.mpire, anxious to confirm their growing power, 
sought to promote only the feeblest emperors, who 
were incapable of supporting the rights and prero- 
gatives of the crown. The electors, in particular, 
had no other object in view, than to derive a lucra- 
tive traffic from elections; bargaining every time 
with the candidates for large sums, and obtaining 
grants or mortgages of such portions of the Impe- 
rial demesnes as suited their convenience. One 
only of these weak emperors, Rodolph, Count of 
Hapsburg in Switzerland (IV7::). disappointed 
the expectations of his electors. He repressed by 
>f arms the disorders of anarchy, restored the 
laws and tribunals to their pristine vigour, and re- 
, icred several of the Imperial domains from 
the usurpers who had seized them. 

In consequence of the revolutions which we 
have no\v detailed, we find very important and 
memorable changes accomplished in the different 
provinces of the Empire. The princes and states 
of the Germanic body, regarding as their own pa- 
trimony the province* and fiefs with which they 
were invested, thought themselves further autho- 
rised to portion them out among their sons. The 
usage of these partitions became general after the 
thirteenth century ; and this wrought the downfall 
of some of the most powerful families, and tended 
to multiply almost to infinity the duchies, princi- 
palities, and earldoms of the F.mpire. The em- 
per.irs, far from condemning this practice, which 
by no means accorded with the maxims of the 
feudal law, on the contrary gave it their counte- 
nance, as appearing to them a proper instrument 
for humbling the power of the grandees, and ac- 
quiring for themselves a preponderating authority 
in the Empire. 

The ancient duchies of Bavaria and Saxony ex- 
perienced a new revolution ou the fall of the pow- 

erful house of the Guelphs. which wss deprived of 
hotli i . by the sentence of prox-n 

the|..-n.i I rrdrric 1. pronounced against 

| the I.i 1 1 -" . !>.. ! Uavaria and 

< duchies, which had 

.\ I... ii .I. . thr Margravate 

of Austria by Frederic I. ( 1 1 :.; i. and rected mi-. 
a duchy and li.-f holding immediately of th< 
pire, was exposed to new partition* at the time of 
ii we now speak. The bishoprics of Bavaria, 
Stiria, r.imitlii i, Carniola, and the Tyrol, broke 
their .illi u.c. \vith Bavaria; and the city of I: 
bonne, which h:id been the residence of the m. 
dukes, wan declared immediatr, or holding of the 
crown. It was when contracted within the-. 
limit* that Bavaria was conferred, by Fred, n.- I. 
i 1 IMI), on Otho, Count of WitteUbach, a scion of 
the original house of Bavaria. This house after- 
wards acquired by marriage (1215) the Palat: 
of the Rhine. It was subsequently divided into 
various branches, of which the two principal were 
the Palatine and the Bavarian. 

As to the duchy of Saxony, which embraced, 
under the (imlphs, the greater part of Lower 
iernruiN, it completely changed its circumstances 
on the decline of that house. Bernard of Aschen- 
leben, younger son of Albert named the Bear, first 
Margrave of Brandenburg, a descendant of the 
Ascaniau line, had been invested in the duchy of 
Saxony by Frederic I. ( 1 IHO), but was found much 
too feeble to support the high rank to which he 
had been elevated. In consequence, the title, or 
qualification to the duchy of Saxony and the Elec- 
torate, was restricted, under the successors and de- 
scendants of that prince, to an inconsiderable dis- 
trict, situated on both sides of the Elbe; called 
since the Electoral Circle, of which Wittenberg 
was the capital. The princes of Pomerania and 
Mecklenburg, the Counts of HoUtein and West- 
phalia, and the city of Lubeck, took advantage 
of this circumstance to revolt from the autho- 
rity <>f the Duke of Saxony, and render themselves 
immediate. A part of Westphalia was er. 
into a distinct duchy, in favour of the Archbishop 
of Cologne, who had seconded the ror in his 
schemes of vengeance against the Guelphic princes. 
This latter house, whose vast possessions had ex- 
tended from the Adriatic Sea to the Baltic and the 
Northern Ocean, retained nothing more of its an- 
cient splendour than the free lands which it pos- 
sessed in Lower Saxony, and which the Emperor 
Frederic II. ( r.*:i5) converted into a duchy, and 
immediate fief of the Empire, in favour of Otho 
the Infant, grandson of Henry the Lion, and the 
new founder of the House of Brunswick. 

The extinction of the House of Hohenstaufen 
having occasioned a vacancy in the duchies of 
Suabia and Franconia, the different states of these 
provinces, both secular and ecclesiastical, found 
means to render themselves also immediate ( 1968). 
A number of cities which had belonged to the do- 
mains of the ancient dukes, were raised to the 
rank of free and imperial cities; and the Houses 
of Baden, Wurtemberg. llohi n-/ollern, and Fur- 
stenberg. date their celebrity from this period. 
Tin death of the anti-emperor, Henry le Kaspon 
(1247), last Landgrave of Thuringia, gave rise to a 
\var between the Margraves of Misnia and 
the Dukes of Brabant, who mutually contested 
that succession. The former advanced au Expec- 



Duchy of Austria. 
The KmptTor Albert. 
Kodolpli of Hapsburg. 


Italian republics. 
Frederic II. oppressed by 
Gregory IX. & luuocnit IV. 

tative, or Deed of Reversion of the Emperor Fre- 
deric II., as well as the claims of Jutta, sister of 
the last landgrave ; and the other? maintained those 
of Sophia, daughter of the Landgrave Louis, elder 
brother and predecessor of Henry le Raspon. At 
length, by a partition which took place (1264), 
Thuringia, properly so called, was made over to 
the House of Misnia ; and Henry of Brabant, sur- 
named the Infant, son of Henry II. Duke of Bra- 
bant, and Sophia of Thuringia, was secured in the 
possession of Hesse, and became the founder of a 
new dynasty of landgraves those of the House of 

The ancient dukes of Austria, of the House of 
Bamberg, having become extinct with Frederic 
tin- Valiant (1246), the succession of that duchy 
was keenly contested between the niece and the 
sisters of the last duke ; who, though females, could 
lay claim to it, in virtue of the privilege granted 
by the Emperor Frederic Barbarossa. Ottocar II. 
son of Wenceslaus, King of Bohemia, took advan- 
tage of these troubles in Austria, to possess him- 
self of that province (1251). He obtained the in- 
M'stiture of it (1262) from Richard, son of John, 
King of England, who had purchased the title of 
emperor at a vast expense ; but Rodolph of 
Hapsburg, treating him as a usurper, made war 
upon him, defeated and slew him in a battle which 
was fought (1278) at Marchfield, in the neighbour- 
hood of Vienna. The duchies of Austria, Stiria, 
Carinthia, and Carniola, being then detached from 
the kingdom of Bohemia, were declared vacant, 
and devolved to the Empire. The investiture of 
these the Emperor conferred (1282) on Albert and 
Rodolph, his own sons. Albert, the eldest of these 
princes, who was afterwards emperor, became the 
founder of the Hapsburg dynasty of Austria. 

In Italy, a great number of republics rose about 
the end of the eleventh, or beginning of the twelfth 
century. These republics, though they had cast 
off the Imperial authority, and claimed to them- 
- the rights of sovereignty, protested, never- 
^, their fealty to the Emperor, whom they 
agreed to recognise as their supreme head. The 
Emperors Henry V., Lothaire the Saxon, and 
Conrad III., saw themselves compelled to tolerate 
an usurpation which they were too feeble to re- 
Kut I'n-deric Barbarossa being determined 
tore the royalty of Italy to its ancient splen- 
dour, led a powerful army into that kingdom 
( 1 l.Ys) ; and in a diet which he assembled on the. 
plains of Uoncaglia, in the territory of Placentia, 
he caused a strict in \estigation to be made by the 
lawyers of Bologna into the rights on which he 
founded his pretensions to the title of King of 
Italy. The opposition which the execution of the 
d< erees of that diet met with on the p;irt ol' the 
Milanese, induced tin- Kmperor to undertake the 
siege of their city. He made himself master of it 
in I HIV, ne/.ed it to the foundation, and dispersed 
the inhabitants. 

This chastisement of the Milanese astonished 
the Italians, but without abating their courage. 
Thej afterwards took advantage of the rexerses of 
the Kmperor, and the schism which had arisen in 
tin- Uouiish Church, to form a league ujth the 
principal cities of Lombardy ( 1 K',7), into which 
they drew the Kinsj of the Two Sicilies, as well as 
Pope Alexander 111., whom the Emperor treated 
as a schismatic. The city of Milan was rebuilt in 

consequence of this league ; as also that of Alex- 
andria, called della Paglia. The war was long 
protracted ; but the Emperor being abandoned by 
Henry the Lion, Duke of Bavaria and Saxony, the 
most powerful of his vassals, received a defeat at 
Lignano, which obliged him to make an accommo- 
dation with Pope Alexander III., and to sign, at 
Venice, a treaty of six years with the confederate 
cities (1177). This treaty was afterwards con- 
verted, at Constance, into a definitive peace 
(1183) ; by virtue of which, the cities of Italy were 
guaranteed in the forms of government they had 
adopted, as well as in the exercise of the regalian 
rights which they hud acquired, whether by usage 
or prescription. The Emperor reserved for himself 
the investiture of the consuls, the oath of allegiance, 
which was to be renewed every ten years, and all 
appeals, in civil cases, where the sum exceeded the 
value of twenty -five imperial livres (about 1500 

The Emperor Frederic II., grandson of Frederic 
I., and heir, in right of his mother, to the kingdom 
of the Two Sicilies, made new efforts to restore 
the prerogatives of the Empire in Italy. But the 
cities of Lombardy renewed their league, into 
which they drew Pope Gregory IX. (12'JG), whose 
dignity and power would be endangered if the 
Emperor, being possessor of the Two Sicilies, 
should succeed in conquering the cities of Lom- 
bardy. The war which ensued (1236), vus long 
and severe. Popes Gregory IX. and Innocent 
IV. went so far as to preach up a crusade against 
the Emperor, as if he had been an infidel ; while 
that unfortunate prince, after the most coura L 
and indefatigable efforts, had the mortification to 
see his troops once more discomfited by the forces 
of the League. 

The, cities of Italy were no sooner deli\ 
from the terror of the Emperors, than they let 
loose their fury against each other; impelled by 
the rage of conquest, and torn by the internal 
factions of the Guelphs and the Ghibellim^, aswell 
as by the contests which had arisen between the 
noblesse and theft-cecities. The partisans of the 
nobles in these cities were strengthened by the 
very measures which had been taken to humble 
them. The chartered towns, by destroying that 
midtitude of seignories, earldoms, and marquisates 
with which Lombardy swarmed before the twelfth 
century, and by incorporating them with their own 
territories, obliged the deserted nobles and gran- 
dees to seek :;u establishment within their walls. 
These latter, findim; their partisans united and 
powerful, soon attempted to seize the government ; 
and hence arose an interminable source of civil 
discord, which ended with the loss of liberty in 
the irrcatcr part of these communil 

To arrest these e\i|s, and put a check to the 
ambition of the powerful eiti/ens, they adopted 
the plan of intrusting the government to a single 
magistrate, to be called the Podestu, who should 
be chosen in the neighbouring cities. This M-heme 
was but a palliative rather than a remedy ; and in 
order to guarantee themselves from the oppre^ioii 
of the nobles, the corporations of -r\nal cities 
gradually adopted the plan of conferring a sort of 
dictatorship on one of the powerful citi/.ens, or on 
some prince or nobleman, even though he w 
stranger, under the title of (.'a/itu/ii ; hoping, in 
this way, to succeed in re-establishing peace and 

PERIOD IV. A.D. 10741300. 


order. Thrc chief* or captains contrived, in pro- 
MM of tune, to render absolute uml perpetual an 
unili.. Mt) which at Ant was tem|M>nu\, ,i,.| only 
granted on certain "*" > iMtfflTir note* the origin 

vend new independent sovrreit: 
were farmed in Italy during the ruune 
fourteenth century. 

Venice and Genoa at that time eclipsed all the 
republics of Italy, l.y tin- fionrlahing slulc <>l their 
navigation and commerce. The origin of the 
former of theee cities la generally dated an fat hack 
as the invasion of the linn* under Attil-.i 

: : ' -se barbarians having spread terror 
niul tliifht orer the whole country, many of tin 

illli:ili|t:ilils of :il,r ; , nt \ . I. .:,,!, r, fl Rajt III !'.< 

ialea and lagoons on the border* of the Adriatic 

(mil ; :iinl there I ml the foundation of the city ! 
'* -, which, whether we regard the singularity 
of it* construction, or tin- splendour to which it 
rose, deserves to be numbered among the wonden 
of the world. At first its government was popular, 
and administered by a bench of tribunes whose 
power was annual. The division* which rose 
among these yearly administrators, occasioned tin- 
election of a* chief (007), who took the title of 
Hulk.- or Doge. This dignity was for life, and 
depended on the suffrages of the community ; but 
he <-\erci*ed nevertheless the right* of sovereignty, 
and it was not till after a lon^ course of time that 
his authority was gradually abridged ; and the go- 
vernment, which had been monarchical, became 
again democrat ical. 

Venice, which from its birth was a commercial 
city, enjoyed in the middle ages nearly the same 
renown which Tyre had among the trading citi, - 
of antiquity. The commencement of its grandeur 
may be dated from the end of the tenth century, 
and under the magistracy of the Doge Peter I i - 
seolo II., whom the Venetians regard as the true 
founder of their state (092). From the Cn-.-k 
emperor* he obtained for them an entire liberty 
ami immunity of commerce in all the ports of that 
empire; and he procured them, at the same time, 
several very important advantages, by the treaties 
wlm h he concluded with the Emperor Otho III. 
and with the Caliphs of Egypt. '1 lie vast increase 
of their commerce inspired these republican 
with a desire to extend the contracted bounds of 
their territory. One <>f their first conquests was 
the maritime ci: i, as well an those of 

Dalmntia ; both of which occurred under the ma- 
gistracy of Peter Urseolo II., and in the year 097. 
,-.-d to make a surrender of the 
1 ilmatia by the Emperors of the East, 
win. regarded these cities as ile|.emleneies of their 
empire; while the Kinirx of Croatia and Dalmatia 

iid claim to tin m. Croatia having passed 
into the hands of the K "jrary, about the 

tod of die eleventh century, these same cities be- 
came a perpetual source of troubles and wars be- 
tween the Kings of Hungary and the Republic of 
I it w:m not till the fifteenth century 
e Republic found means to confirm its au- 
thority in Dalmatia. 

Venetians having become parties in the 
famous League of Lombardy, in the eleventh cen- 

"!itri!>titeil by their effort* to render abortive 
thev.i f the F.mpenir Frederick I. 1 

Alexander III., as a testimony of his gratitude. 
granted them the sovereignty of the Hadriatic 

ill77).and this cimanstance faro rise to the 

singular ceremony of anaually marrying thte sea to 

I i<>ge of Venice. The ! iHnsjsiH of thi. 

republic was greatly accelerated by the crusades, 

,,rth ( r.'M), which was followed 

' dismemberment of the Greek empire. The 

Venetians, who had joined this crusade, obtained 

for their portion several cities and ports in Dl- 

matia, Albania, Greece, and the Morea ; as also 

the l-l.n.iU ..i Corfu, Cephalonia, and Candia or 

Crete. At length, towards the end of the thirteenth 

century, tin- republic assumed the peculiar form of 

government which it retained till the day of its 

il. -In;, tion. In l!.e HSjtsI '- - !'-<:. MMl : 

was democratic, and the power of the Doge limited 
by a grand council, which was chosen annually 
from among the different classes of the citizens, by 
electors named by the people. As these forms 
gave occasion to troubles and intestine commotions, 
the Doge Pietro Gradenigo, to remove all cause of 
discontent in future, passed a law (1298), which 
abrogated the custom of annual elections, and fixed 
irrevocably in their office all those who then Kit 
in the grand council, and this to descend to their 
posterity for ever. The hereditary aristocracy thus 
introduced at Venice did not fail to excite the 
discontent of those whose families this new law- 
had excluded from the government ; and it was 
this which afterwards occasioned various insurrec- 
tions, of which that of Tiepolo (1310) is the most 
remarkable. The partisans of the ancient govern- 
ment, and those of the new, attempted to decide 
the matter by a battle in the city of Venice. 
Tiepolo and his party were defeated, and Querini, 
one of the chiefs, was killed in the action. A can- 
mission of ten members was nominated to inform 
against the accomplices of this secret conspiracy. 
This commission, which was meant to be but tem- 
porary, was afterwards declared perpetual ; and, 
under the name of thf Ci.timtl of Ten, became 
one of the most formidable supports of the aristo- 

I he city of Genoa, like that of Venice, owed her 
prosperity to the progress of her commerce, which 
she extended to the Levant, Constantinople, s 
and Egypt. Governed at first by consuls, like tin- 
rest of the Italian states, she afterwards (1100) 
chose a foreign Podetta, or governor, to repress the 
violence of faction, and put a check on the ambition 
of the nobles. This governor was afterwards made 
subordinate, to a Captain of the people, whom the 
Genoese chose for the first time in 1V">7. without 
being able yet to fix their government, which ex- 
.iced frequent variations before assuming a 
-tried and permanent form. These intenial di- 
visions of the Genoese did not impede the progress 
>f their commerce and their marine. The crusade* . 
>f the 12th and 13th centuries the powerful 

eours which these republicans gave to the 
crusaders, and to the Greeks, as well as the treaties 
which they concluded with the Moorish and 
African princes, procured them considerable es- 
ahlishments in the Levant, and also in Asia and 
Africa. Caffa, a famous sea-port on the Black Sea, 
and the port of Axoph, the ancient Tanais, at the 
notith <>f the Don. belonged to them ; and served 
- for their commerce with China and 
he liidie. Smyrna in Asia Minor, as also the 
iihui-U of Ten and (ialata at Constantinople, and 
he isles of Scio, MeU-lin and Tenedon, in the Ar- 


I'uwrr of tin 1 (lonoesc. 
52 Kepublic of Pisn. 

Norman coneiuest of Naples. 


The usurper Muinfroi. 
Cli:irles of Aujou. 
The Sicilian Vfs\H-rs. 

chipelago, were ceded to them by the Greek em- 
perors. The Kings of Cyprus were their tributaries. 
Tin- Greek and German emperors, the Kings of 
Sicily, Castillo and Arragon, and the Sultans of 
Egypt, zealously sought their alliance, and the pro- 
tection of their marine. Encouraged by these 
successes, they formed a considerable territory on 
the continent of Italy, after the 12th century, of 
which nothing but a fragment now remains to 

Genoa had at that time, in its immediate neigh- 
bourhood, a dangerous rival of its power and 
greatness. This rival was Pisa, a flourishing re- 
public on the coast of Tuscany, which owed its 
prosperity entirely to the increase of its commerce 
and marine. The proximity of these two states 
the similarity of their views and their interests 
the desire of conquest and the command of the 
sea, which both of them affected, created a marked 
jealousy between them, and made them the natural 
and implacable enemies of each other. One of the 
principal subjects of dispute was the possession of 
Corsica and Sardinia,* 8 which the two republics con- 
tested at the point of the sword, after having, by 
means of their combined force, expelled the Moors, 
toward the middle of the eleventh century. Pisa, 
originally superior to Genoa in maritime strength, 
disputed with her the empire of the Mediterranean, 
and haughtily forbade the Genoese to appear within 
those seas with their ships of war. This rivalry 
nourished the animosity of the two republics, and 
rendered it implacable. Hence a continual source 
of mutual hostilities, which were renewed inces- 
santly for the space of 200 years, and only ter- 
minated in 1290 ; when, by the conquest of Elba, 
and the destruction of the ports of Pisa and Leg- 
horn, the Genoese effected the ruin of the shipping 
and commerce of the Pisan republic. 

Lower Italy, possessed by the Norman princes, 
under the title of Duchy and Comte, became the 
seat of a new kingdom in the eleventh century 
that of the Two Sicilies. On the extinction of the 
Dukes of Apulia and Calabria, descendants of 
Robert Guiscard, Roger, son of Roger, Count of 
Sicily, and sovereign of that island, xmited the do- 
minions of the two branches of the Norman dy- 
nasty (1127) ; and, being desirous of procuring 
for himself the royal dignity, he attached to his 
interest the Anti-Pope Anacletus II., who invested 
him with royalty by a bull (1130), in which, how- 
CMI, he took care to reserve the territorial right 
and an annual tribute to the church of Rome. 
This prince received the crown of Palermo from 
the hands of a cardinal, whom the Pope had de- 
puted for the express purpose. On the death of 
the Emperor Lothaire, he succeeded in dispossess- 
ing the Prince of Capua, and subduing the duchy 
of Naples (1139) ; thus completing the conquest 
of nil that is now denominated the kingdom of 
Naples. William II., grandson of Roger, was the 
principal support of Pope Alexander III. ; and of 
the famous League of Lombardy formed against 
the Emperor Frederic Barbarossa. The male line 
of the Norman princes having become extinct in 
AVilliam II., the kingdom of the Two Sicilies 
passed (1189) to the House of Hohenstaufen, by 
the marriage which the Emperor HenrjrW., son 
of Frederic Barbarossa, contracted with the Prin- 
cess Constance, aunt and heretrix of the last king. 
Henry maintained the rights of his wife against 

the usurper Tancred, and transmitted this kingdom 
to his son Frederic II., who acquired by his mar- 
riage with Jolande, (laughter of John de Brienne, 
titular King of Jerusalem, the titles and arms of 
this latter kingdom. The efforts which Frederic 
made to annihilate the League of Lombardy, and 
confirm his own authority in Italy, drew down 
upon him the persecution of the court of Rome, 
who, taking advantage of the minority of the 
young Conradin, grandson of Frederic II., wrested 
the crown of the Two Sicilies from this rival house, 
which alone was able to check its ambitious pro- 
jects. Mainfroi, natural son of Frederic II., dis- 
gusted with playing the part of tutor to the young 
Conradin, in which capacity he at first acted, 
caused himself to be proclaimed and crowned, at 
Palermo, King of the Two Sicilies (1258). The 
Popes, Urban IV. and Clement IV., dreading the 
genius and talents of this prince, made an offer of 
that kingdom to Charles of Anjou, Count of 
Provence, and brother of St. Louis. Clement IV. 
granted the investiture of it (1265) to him and his 
descendants, male and female, 011 condition of his 
doing fealty and homage to the Holy See, and 
presenting him annually with a w : hite riding horse, 
and a tribute of eight million ounces of gold. 
Charles, after being crowned at Rome, marched 
against Mainfroi, with an army chiefly composed 
of crusaders. He defeated that prince, who was 
slain at the battle of Benevento (1266), which was 
soon after followed by the reduction of the two 
kingdoms. One rival to Charles still survived, 
the young Conradin, the lawful heir to the throne 
of his ancestors. Charles vanquished him also, 
two years afterwards, in the plains of Tagliacozzo ; 
and having made him prisoner, together with his 
young friend Frederic of Austria, he caused both 
of these princes to be beheaded at Naples, 29th 
October, 1268. 

Charles did not long enjoy his new dignity. 
While he was preparing to undertake a crusade 
against Michael Paleologus, a schismatic prince 
who had expelled the Latins from Constantinople, 
he had the mortification to see himself dispossessed 
of Sicily, on the occasion of the famous Sicilian 
Vespers (1282). This event, which is generally 
regarded as the result of a conspiracy, planned 
with great address by a gentleman of Salerno, 
named John de Procida, appears to have been 
but the sudden effect of an insurrection, occa- 
sioned by the aversion of the Sicilians to the 
French yoke. During the hour of vespers, on the 
second day of Easter (30th March), when the in- 
habitants of Palermo were on their way to the 
church of the Holy Ghost, situated at some dis- 
tance from the town, it happened that a French- 
man, named Drouette, had offered a private in- 
sult to a Sicilian woman : hence a quarrel arose, 
which drew on a general insurrection at Palermo. 
All the French who were in the city or the neigh- 
bourhood were massacred, with the exception of 
one gentleman from Provence, called William 
Porcellet, who had conciliated all hearts by his 
virtues. This revolt gradually extended to the 
other Sicilian cities. Kvcr\ where the French 
were put to death on the spot. Messina was the 
last that caught the infection ; but there the revo- 
lution did not take place till thirty days after the 
same event at Palermo (29th April, 12K2)- It is, 
therefore, not true that this massacre of the French 

ivi.r ( \i: mpm 

N v\ ir * .' r.-l \rr _"' 

I) IV. A.I). 1074 1900. 

happened at the Mine hour, and at the tor 
tin- >r;<. r I.. IN, over all parts of tin- iland. Nor 
uore probable that the plot had been 
t" Arragon ; sin< 
Palermitans displayed at first thr bn: 

-tirrend.-r t" the 1 

but bring driven from thin revolution, and dread* 
ing the vengeance of Charles, they despatched 
. the King of Amgon, who wan then 
!i a rl.-ct <>tr the African coast, and 
made him nn offer of their crown. Thin ; 
yielded to the imitation of tin- I'alerniitaiis ; ): 
landed at Trapani, and thence passed to PH!>-I m>>. 
where he was crowned King <( Sn-il\. The wlm!.- 
inland nubmitte<l t<> him ; ntul ChnrleK of AHJ.MI 
was obliged to raise the iiiege of Messina, which 
he had undertaken. Peter entered, and took pos- 
naion of the place, and from that time Si< il\ 
remained under the power of the King* of Arra- 
gon; it became the inheritance of a particular 
branch of the Arragoneae prince*; and the House 
of Anjou were reduced to the single kingdom of 

Spain, which was divided into several sove- 
reignties, both Christian and Mahometan, pre- 
sented a continual spectacle of commotion and 
carnage. The Christian states of CastiUe and 
Arragon were gradually increased by the con- 
quests made over the Mahometans ; while the 
kingdom of Navarre, less exposed to conquest by 
its local situation, remained nearly in its original 
state of mediocrity. This latter kingdom passed 
in -ureession to female heirs of different houses. 
Blanche of Navarre, daughter of Sancho \ 1., 
transferred it to the Counts of Champagne ( I 
On the extinction of the male line of that hou-i-. in 
Henry I. of Navarre (1274), Joan I., his daughter 
and heiress, conveyed that kingdom, together with 
the Comtes of Champagne and Brie, to the crown 
of France. Philip the Fair, husband of that prin- 
cess, and his three sons Louis le Hutin, IMiilip 
the Long, and Charles the Fair, were, at the same 
time, king* both of France and Navarre. Fin::ll\, 
it was Queen Joan II., daughter of Louis le 
Hntin, and herrtrix of Navarre, who transferred 
that kingdom to the family of the Counts d'Kvreux, 
snd relinquished the Comic's of Champagne and 
Brie to Philip of Valois, successor of Charles the 
Fair to the throne of Franco (1336). 

The family of the Counts of Barcelona ascended 
the throne of Arragon (li:7), by the marriage 
nit Raymond- Bcrcnguicr IV. with Donna 
nilla, daughter and heiress of Uamira II., 
King of Arragon. Don Pedro II., grandson of 
Raymond-Berenguier, happening to be at Rome 
wneil King of Arragon l.\ 
I fin-went III. On this occasion he did ho- 
mage for his kingdom to that pontiff, and engaged, 
for himself and successors, to pay an annual tri- 
bute to the H"h See. Don James I., Mirnanicd 
nqucror, son of Don Pedro II., gained some 
important victories mer the Mahometans from 
whom he took the Balearic Isles (1230), and the 
kingdom of Valentia.- Don Pedro II., 

eldest *nn of Don J.i..., I., had dispossessed 
Charles I. of Anjoii ami SiciU. which drew down 
upon him a violent persecution on the part of 
D IV., who was on the eve of publish- 
ing a crusade against him, and aujgnhig over his 
estatca to Charles of Valois, a younger brother of 

Philip called the Hardy, king of France. Don 
JamcM II., younger son <>f Don I'.dr., Ill . *. . 
eeeded in making his prace *ith the court of Rone, 
and even ohtain.-d from Pope Boniface \ 1 1 1 . 
(1207) the - irdinia, on 

! acknowledging himself the vaaaal and 
tiibnlarj of the II. -l\ See for that kingdom, which 
he afterwards obtained by conquest from t! 
pnhlic of Pisa. 

The principal victories of the Christians over the 
in tan- in Spain, were reserved for the kings 
of CastiUe, whose history is extremely fertile in 
great events. Alphonso VI., whom some call 
Alphons.1 I., after having taken Madrid and 
Toledo (10X5), and subdued tin- whole kingdom of 
Toledo, was on the point of altogether expelling 
the Mahometan* from Spain, when a revolution 
which happened in Africa augmented their forces 
by fresh numbers, and thus arrested the progress of 
the Ca.stitian prince. 

The Zeiridcs, an Arab dynasty, descended from 
nad, reigned then over that part 
of Africa which comprehends Africa properly so 
called (%i7.. Tripoli, Tunis, nnd Algiers), and the 
Mogreh (comprehending Fex and Morocco), which 
the) had conquered frotu the Fatamite caliphs of 
Egypt. It happened that a new apostle and con- 
queror, named Aboubekcr, son ofOmer, collected 
some tribes of Arabs in the vicinity of Sugulmesaa, 
a city in the kingdom of Fez, and got himself pro- 
claimed Commander of the Faithful. His ad- 
herents took the name of MorabetAin, a term which 
signifies zealously devoted to religion; and v. 
the Spaniards have formed the names Almoraride* 
and Marabouths. Having made himself master of 
the city of Sngulmessa, this warlike Emir extended 
his conquests in the Mogreb, as well as in Africa 
Proper, whence he expelled the Zeirides. HU 
successor, Yousuff, or Joseph, the son of Taschefin, 
completed* the conquest of these countries ; and 
built the city of Morocco (1069), which he made 
the capital of the Mogreh, and the seat of his new 
empire. This prince joined the Mahomet.; 
Se\ ille, to whose aid he marched with his v ictorioua 
troops, defeated the King of CastiUe at the battle 
of Badajos (1090), and subdued the princip; 
hometaii states of Spain, such as Grenada and 
Seville, &c. 

The empire of the Almoravides was subverted in 
the twelfth century bj another Mahometan sect, 
called the Mnakcdint, or Alnwhadf9, a word signify- 
ing Unitarians. An upstart fanatic, named Aixtal- 
monmcn, was the founder of this sect. He was edu- 
cated among the mountains of Sous, in Mauritania, 
and assumed the quality of Emir (11 -')). and the 
surname of Mohadi, that is, Ike CHrf the leader 
and director of the Faithful. Having subdued 
Morocco, Africa, and the whole of the M.-grrb. he 
annihilated the dynasty of the Almora\ide (1146), 
and at the same time vanquished the Mahometan 
states in Spain. He took also (1160) from the 
Normans, Tunis. M..hadie, and Tripoli, of which 
they had taken possession. One of his successors, 
mated Naaer-Mohammed, formed the j<rj 
reconquering the whole continent of Spain. The 
immense preparation!) which he made for this pur- 
pose alarmed Alphonso MIL. King of ( aaUU*. 
who immediately formed an alliance with the Kings 
of Arragon and Navarre, and even engaged Pope 
Innocent III. to proclaim a crusade against the 

Ferdinand III. takes Cordova 
54 and Seville. 

Orders of Alc<ontara & Calatrava. 


Kingdom of Portugal. 
Diirhifs of France. 
William the Conqueror. 

Mahometans. The armies of Europe and Africa 
met on the confines of Castille and Andalusia 
(1212); and in the environs of the city Ubeda 
was fought a bloody battle, which so crippled the 
power of the Alinohades, as to occasion in a short 
time the downfal and dismemberment of their 
empire. 88 

About this period (1269), the Mahometans of 
Spain revolted afresh from Africa, and divided 
themselves into several petty states, of which the 
principal and the only one that existed for several 
centuries was that of the descendants of > 
Kings of Grenada. Ferdinand III., King of Cas- 
tille and Leon, took advantage of this event to 
renew his conquests over the Mahometans. He 
took from them the kingdoms of Cordova, Murcia, 
and Seville (1236, et seq.), and left them only the 
single kingdom of Grenada. 

These wars against the Mahometans were the 
occasion of several religious and military orders 
being founded in Spain. Of these, the most ancient 
was that founded and fixed at Alcantara (1156), 
whence it took its name ; having for its badge or 
decoration a green cross, in form of the lily, or 
fleur-de-lis. The order of Calatrava was instituted 
in 1158; it was confirmed by Pope Alexander III. 
(1164), and assumed as its distinctive mark the 
red cross, also in form of the lily. The order of 
St. James of Campostella, founded in 1161, and 
confirmed by the same Pope (1175), was distin- 
guished by a red cross, in form of a sword. 
Finally, the order of Montesa (1317), supplanted 
that of the Templars in the kingdom of Arragon. 

The Kings of Castille and Arragon having con- 
quered from the Arabs a part of what is properly 
called Portugal, formed it into a distinct government, 
under the name of Portocalo, or Portugal. Henry 
of Burgundy, a French prince, grandson of Robert, 
called the Old, Duke of Burgundy, and great- 
grandson of Robert II., King of France, having 
distinguished himself by his bravery in the wars 
between the Castillians and the Mahometans, 
Alphonso VI., King of Castille, wished to attach 
the young prince to him by the ties of blood ; and, 
for this purpose, gave him in marriage his daugh- 
ter the Infant Donna Theresa; and created him 
Count of Portugal (1090). This state, including 
at first merely the cities of Oporto, Braga, Mi- 
randa, Lamego, Viseo, and Coimbra, began to as- 
sume its present form in the reign of Alphonso I., 
son of Count Henry. The Mahometans, alarmed 
at the warlike propensities of the young Alphonso, 
had marched with a superior force to attack him 
by surprise. Far from being intimidated by the 
danger, this prince, to animate the courage of his 
troops, pretended that an apparition from heaven 
had authorized him to proclaim himself king in 
the face of the army, in virtue of an express order 
which he said he had received from Christ. 89 He 
then marched against the enemy, and totally routed 
them in the plains of Ourique (1139). This vic- 
tory, famous in the annals of Portugal, paved the 
way for the conquest of the cities Leiria, Santarem, 
Lisbon, Cintra, Alcazar do Sal, Evora, and Elvas, 
situated on the banks of the Tagus. Moreover, to 
secure the protection of the court of Rome against 
the Kings of Leon, who disputed with him the in- 
dependence of his new state, Alphonso took tin- 
resolution of acknowledging himself vassal and 
tributary to the Holy See (1142). He afterwards 

convoked the estates of his kingdom at Lamego, 
and there declared his independence by a funda- 
mental law, which also regulated the order of suc- 
cession to the throne. Sancho I., son and suc- 
cessor of Alphonso, took from the Mahometans the 
town of Silves in Algarve ; and Alphonso III. 
soon after (1249) completed the conquest of that 

The first Kings of Portugal, in order to pain 
the protection of the court of Rome, were obliged 
to grant extensive benefices to the ecclesiastics, 
with regalian rights, and the exemption of the 
clergy from the secular jurisdiction. Their suc- 
cessors, however, finding themselves firmly esta- 
blished on the throne, soon changed their policy, 
and manifested as much of indiiference for the 
clergy as Alphonso I. had testified of kindness and 
attachment to them. Hence originated a long 
series of broils and quarrels with the court of 
Rome. Pope Innocent IV. deposed Sancho II. 
(1245), and appointed Alphonso III. in his place. 
Denys, son and successor of this latter prince, A\ as 
excommunicated for the same reason, and com- 
pelled to sign a treaty (1289), by which the clergy 
were re-established in all their former rights. 

In France, the whole policy of the kings was 
directed against their powerful vassals, who shared 
among them the finest provinces of that kingdom. 
The Dukes of Burgundy, Normandy and Acqui- 
taine ; the Counts of Flanders, Champagne, and 
Toulouse ; the Dukes of Bretagne, the Counts of 
Poitiers, Bar, Blois, Anjou and Maine, Aleiicmi, 
Auvergne, Angouleme, Perigord, Carcassonne, 30 
&c. formed so many petty sovereigns, equal in 
some respects to the electors and princes of the 
Germanic empire. Several circumstances, how- 
ever, contributed to maintain the balance in favour 
of royalty. The crown was hereditary, and the 
demesne lands belonging to the king, which, being 
very extensive, gave him a power which far out- 
weighed that of any individual vassal. Besides, 
these same demesnes being situate in the centre of 
the kingdom, enabled the sovereign to observe the 
conduct of his vassals, to divide their forces, and 
prevent any one from preponderating over another. 
The perpetual wars which they waged \\-\\\\ each 
other, the tyranny which they exercised over their 
dependants, and the enlightened policy of se\eral 
of the French kings, by degrees re-established the 
royal authority, which had been almost annihilate (! 
under the last princes of the Cariovingian dynasty. 

It was at this period that the rivalry between 
France and England had its origin. The fault 
that Philip I. committed, in making no opposition 
to the conquest of England, by "William Duke of 
Normandy, his vassal, served to kindle the flame of 
Avar between these princes. The war which took 
place in 1087, was the first that happened hetween 
tin- two nations; it was renewed under the subse- 
quent reigns, and this rivalry was still more in- 
creased, on occasion of the unfortunate divorce l>e- 
tween Louis VII. and Eleanor of Poitou, heiress 
of Guienne, Poitou, and Gascogne. This divorced 
princess married (1152) Henry, surnamed 1'lan- 
tagenet, Duke of Normandy, Count of Anjou and 
Maine, and afterwards King of England ; and 
brought him, in dowry, the whole of her vast pos- 
sessions. But it was reserved for Philip Augustus 
to repair the faults of his predecessors. This great 
monarch, whose courage was equal to his prudence 

, . h 


II ., 

-.!.,( S . 

PI KliMl |N. A.D. 1074-1300. 

King John. 


M."... | 

md liu policy, rccorrrrd hi* 

i M 1 : i - - 

uade to the 

i, ..i .:;-. M in l D ;i iin i igainal K .1 ., to dk* 

| 1 | . !>.. I ':._-..- . I N : :,. LUll . \ , M ill*', 

) ; .in.) i..- maintained 

these conqurtU by lli>- l-u. . which be 

gained at i r.'lti, >. r tin- con 

.pei,.r iitlm, and the 
Several uf the French kings were excln 

uuli thi> crusades in id.- Hast. Louu 
\ 11., Philip Augustus, and L<>< k. the 

crow, and man h> >1 in IMTMHI t the 1 ! 

ultra-marine expeditions (1147, 1 
v. inch required great ami powerful resource*. 
not but exhaust 1 .iiilc, on the contrary, 

the cruaadea which Louin VIII. undertook against 
the Albigenitcs and their protectors, il> ('..tints of 
I onlousr and Carcassonne, considerably aug- 
racuted the royal power. !';' Innocfiit III., by 
. this crusade ( I vn- i. raised a tedious 
and bloody war, which desolated Languedoc ; and 
during which, fanati. (rated atr<> 

which make humanity to shudder. Simon, Count 
it, tin- chief or general of these crusaders, 
hail the whole estates of the Counts of Toulouse 
adjudp-d him by the Pope. Amauri, the sou and 
heir of Simon, surrendered his claims o\cr these 
forfeitures to l,<niis N III. Kinu of France (IV'Jii); 
and it win this circumstance that induced Louis to 
march in person ml the head of the crusaders, 
against the Count of Toulouse, his vassal and 
"ii, in. He died at the close of this expedition, 
leaving to his son and successor, Louis IX., the 
taak of finishing this disastrous war. By the peace 
which was concluded at Paris (1229), between the 
King and the Count, the greater part of Languedoc 
was allowed to remain in the possession of Louis. 
One arrangement of this treaty was the marriage 
t' the Count's daughter with Alphonso, brother to 
the km.;: with this express clause, that failing 
heint of this marriage, the whole territory of 
Toulouse should ri-M it to the crown. The game 
treaty adjudged to the Pope the county of Yenaissin, 
as an escheat of the Counts of Toulouse ; and the 
'. of Carcassonne, implicated also In the cause 
of the Albigenses, was compelled to cede to the 
T the viscounties of Beziera, Car- 
cassonne, Agde, Rodex, Albi, and Nismes. One 
consequence of thin bloody war was the establish- 
ment of the terrible tribunal of the Inquisition,* 3 
ami the founding of the order of Dominicans.* 4 

1 1 nry 1 1., a descendant of the house of Planta- 
genet, having mounted the throne of England, in 
I" his mother Matilda, annexed to that crown 
the d rmandy, the counties of Anjou, 

Touraine, and Maine, together with (itiicnne, 
Gaacogne and Poitou. lie afterwards added Ire- 
l IT..!, which he subdued in II"'.'. This island, 
which had never been conquered, either by the 
Romans or the barbarians who had desolated 
e, was, at that time, divided into five prin- 
cipal sovereignties, vii. Monster, Ulster, < 
naught, Leinster, and Meath, whose several chiefs 
all assumed the title of kings. One of these princes 

he ha,l 

tcrnal tnuujmllity, nor pow 

' i !...-:.' ! ' 

the conqui 

. Adriai 

ugh u> rvpcl with 
-orn without. It 

.1. II 
by a 

and iinil.-M nnal rngag. 

tin- Irisli In (he jnrls.l: 

the payment of I'etcr't pence.** The expu! 
HIT:; . I ho hail tendered him- 

self odious hy his pri<lc and hi* tyranny, furnished 
ll.-nry with :t | liin.- ir.M.j, into that 

.'I, to assist the .1. llii..: 

his dominions. The nuccess of the English, and 

the M. t..ii.-s which they gained ov 

of Connaught, who at that time was chief monarch 

of the island, determined Henry to undertak 

ii, an expedition into Ireland (in (> 
117Vj. He soon n-iliii -ed ih- provinces of Lein- 
ster and Minister to submission ; and after baring 

: n< ted several forts, and nominated a viceroy 
and other crown otHccr-, he took bis departure 
without completing the conquet of the island. 
Roderic, King of Conuaught, submitted in 11"); 
hut it was not till th- reign of Queen Elizabeth 
that the entire reduction of Ireland was accom- 

In Ku-laMil, the rashness and rapacity of John, 
) Henry 1 1., occasioned a mighty revolution 
in the government. The discontented nobles, with 
tin- Archbishop of Canterbury at their head, j. 
in a league against the King. Pope Innocent III. 
formally deposed him, made over bis kingdom to 
the Crown of France, and proclaimed a crusade 
against him in every country of Europe. John 
obtained an accommodation with the rope; and 
in order to secure his protection, he consented to 
become a vassal of the Church, both for England 
and Ireland ; engaging to pay his 1 1 olinens, besides 
s pence, an annual tribute of a thousand 
marks. But all in rain ; the nobles persisted in 
their revolt, and forced the King to grant them the 
grand charter of .\fayna Cfiarta, I'.Hh June, IJI'i, 
by which he and his successors w r de. 

;.: n.'d of the power of exacting subsidies without 
the counsel and advice of Parliament ; which did 
not then include the Commons. He grant< 
the city- of London, and to all cities and burghs in 
the kingdom, a renewal of their ancient liberties 
and privileges, and the right of not being taxed 
except with the advice and consent of the common 
council. Moreover, the lives and properties of 
the citizens were secured by this charter; one 
clause of which expressly provided, that no subject 
could be either arrested, imprisoned, dispossessed 
of his fortune, or deprived of his life, except by a 
legal sentence of his peers, conform to the ancient 
law of the country. This charter, which was re- 
newed in various subsequent reigns, forms, at this 
day, the basis of the English Constitution. 

King John, meantime, rebelled against this 
charter, and caused it to be rescinded by Pope In- 
t III., who even issued a bull of excommu- 
nication against the barons; but they, far from 
being disconcerted or intimidated, made an offer 
of their crown to Louis, son of Philip Augustus 
King of France. This prince repaired to England, 
ami then received the fealty and homage of the 
grandees of the nation. John, abandoned by all 


Fall of Llrwrllyn. 
r<ir>i|iu->t nf "Wales by 
K<iard I. 


1'ir.ites of the North. 
AITairs of Denmark. 
SwcilUh kiugs. 

his subjects, attempted to take refuge in Scotland ; 
but he died in his flight at the Castle of Newark. 
His death made a sudden change iu the minds 
and sentiments of the English. The barons for- 
sook the standard of the French prince, and rallied 
round that of young Henry, son of King John, 
whose long and unfortunate reign was a succession 
of troubles and intestine wars. Edward I., son 
and successor of Henry III., as determined and 
courageous as his father had been weak and in- 
dolent, restored tranquillity to England, and made 
his name illustrious by the conquest which he 
made of the principality of Wales. 

This district, from the most remote antiquity, 
was ruled by its own native princes, descended 
from the ancient British kings. Although they 
had been vassals and tributaries of the Kings of 
England, they exercised, nevertheless, the rights 
of sovereignty in their own country. Lewellyn, 
Prince of Wales, having espoused the cause of the 
insurgents in the reign of Henry III., and made 
some attempts to withdraw from the vassalage of 
the English crown, Edward I. declared war against 
him (1282) ; and in a battle fought near the 
Menau, Lewellyn was defeated and slain, with 
2000 of his followers. David, his brother and 
successor, met with a fate still more melancholy. 
Having been taken prisoner by Edward, he was 
condemned to death, and executed like a traitor 
(12S3). The territory of Wales was annexed to 
the crown ; the king created his eldest son Ed- 
ward, Prince of Wales ; a title which has since 
been borne by the eldest sons of the Kings of Eng- 

At this period, the kingdoms of the North pre- 
sented, in general, little else than a spectacle of 
horror and carnage. The warlike and ferocious 
temper of the Northern nations, the want of fixed 
and specific laws in the succession of their kings, 3 ' 
gave rise to innumerable factions, encouraged in- 
solence, and fomented troubles and intestine wars. 
An extravagant and superstitious devotion, by 
loading the church with wealth, aggravated still 
more the evils with which these kingdoms were 
distracted. The bishops and the new metropo- 
litans, 3 ? enriched at the expense of the crown 
lands, and rendered bold by their power, and the 
strength of their castles, domineered in the senate 
and tin 1 assemblies of the states, and neglected no 
opportunity of encroaching on the sovereign's 
authority. They obtained, by compulsion, the 
introduction of tithes, and the immunity of the cc- 
clesiaMic- ; and thus more and more increased and 
cemented the sacerdotal power. 38 This state of 
trouble and internal commotion tended to abate 
that ardour for maritime incursions which had so 
long agitated the Scandinavian nations. It did 
not, however, prevent the kings of Denmark and 
Sweden from undertaking, from time to time, ex- 
peditions by sea, under the name of Crusades, for 
the conversion of the Pagan nations of the North, 
whose territories they were ambitious to conquer. 

The Slavians, who inhabited the coasts of the 
Baltic, were then constantly committing piracies, 
in imitation of the ancient Normans, plundering 
and ravaging the provinces and islands of Den- 
mark. Valdemar I., wishing to put an end to 
these devastations, and thirsting moreover for the 
glory of converting to Christianity those nations 
against whom all the efforts of the Germans had 

failed, attacked fthem at different times with his 
numerous flotillas. He took and pillaged several 
of their towns, such as Arcona and Carentz or 
Gartz, in the isle of Rugen (1168), Julin, now- 
called Wollin, and Stettin, two sea-ports in Pome- 
rania (1175-6). He made the princes of Rugen 
his vassals and tributaries, and is generally re- 
garded as the founder of Dantzic (1165), which 
originally was merely a fort constructed by the 
Danes. Canute VI., son and successor of Valde- 
mar I., followed the example of his father ; he re- 
duced the princes of Pomerania (1183) and Meck- 
lenburg (1186), and the Counts of Schwerin 
(1201), '[to a state of dependence ; he made himself 
master of Hamburg and Lubec, and subdued the 
whole of Holstein. Valdemar II. assumed the 
title of King of the Slaviaus, and Lord of Nordal- 
bingia. He added Lauenburg, a part of Prussia, 
Estonia, and the Isle of Oesel, to the conquests of 
his predecessors, and became the founder of the 
cities of Stralsund and Revel (1209 and 1222). 

This prince, master of nearly the whole southern 
coast of the Baltic, and raised to the summit of 
prosperity by the superiority of his commercial 
and maritime power, commanded for a time the 
attention of all Europe ; but an unforeseen event 
eclipsed his glory, and deprived him of all the ad- 
vantages of his victories and his conquests. Henry, 
Count of Schwerin, one of the vassals of Valdemar, 
wishing to avenge an outrage which he pretended 
to have received from him, seized that prince by 
surprise (1223), and detained him for three years 
prisoner in the castle of Schwerin. This circum- 
stance aroused the courage of the other vanquished 
nations, who instantly took to arms. Adolphus, 
Count of Schauenburg, penetrated into Holstein, 
and subdued the princes of Mecklenburg and 
Pomerania, with the cities of Hamburg and Lubec. 
Valdemar, restored to liberty, made several efforts 
to reconquer his revolted provinces ; but a power- 
ful confederacy being formed against him, he was 
defeated in a battle fought (1227) at Bornhoevet, 
near Segeberg, in Holstein. Of all his conquests, 
he retained only the Isle of Rugen, Estonia, and 
the town of Revel, which, in course of time, were 
lost or abandoned by his successors. 

Sweden, which had been governed in succession 
by the dynasties of StenkU, Swerknr, and ,S7. Eric, 
was long a prey to internal dissensions, which 
arose principally from the two different forms of 
worship professed and authorized by the state. 
The whole nation, divided in their religious senti- 
ments, ?aw themselves arranged into two factions, 
and under two reigning families, mutually hating 
and exasperated against each other, for nearly half 
a century. Two, ai:d sometimes more, princes were 
srcn reigning at once from 10HO till 1133, when 
the thione began to be occupied ultimately by the 
descendants of Sweyn and St. Eric. During all 
this time, violence usurped the place of right, and 
the crown of Sweden was more than once the 
pri/c of assassination and treason. 

In the midst of these intestine disorders, \\ e I'md 
the Swedes even attempting foreign conquers. To 
these they were instigated both by the genius of 
the age, which encouraged cmsades and military 
missions, as well as by the desire of aven^im: the 
piracies which the ^'inlanders, and other J'sigan 
tribes of the North, committed from time to time 
on the coasts of Sweden. St. Eric became at once 

i . i tm ksJsjMi 

PERIOD IV. A.D. 1074 1JOO. . , i 

. ..::., . ,.- ,/ !, IV,!;. 

I 1 !;.'.,, MB] (Mai 

;>ostlc and the conqueror of Finland (1157); 

h-d also Swrduh c..l..i,j 

and *ubdued lh province of HekiofluM and 
Jamptland. Charles I., ton nf Mwcrkar, united 
tin- itafiom "i tiothliind ID Sweden, and wi the 
Ant that took the tit. t\\.. kiti/ilnrno. 

/.apr, or the Lispcr, resumed thr 
crusading system of warfare ; and, in the character 
of a missionary, conquered Tavatland and the 
stern put of Bothnia. Birgrr, a prince of the 
Folkungian dynasty, who ascended the thmne of 
Sweden in 1260, conquered, under thr -an 

Carrlia and Savolax, and fortified Yiburg. 
mpcllod th<- inhabitants of thme countries to 
embrace tin- ChrUiian n liirion (1293), and an- 
nexed them to Finland. We find, also, several of kiiii,"* undertaking missionary expedi- 
tions airninsi thrir Pagan neighbour* the Estonians, 
who, from time <> tun.-, rmnmitti-d dreadful ra- 
vages on the coasts of Sweden. These exped . 

i were always esteemed sacred, served as an 
excuse for the sovereigns of the North in avoiding 
(li.- crusades to the Holy Land, in which they took 
no part." 

Prussia and the Prussian* are totally unknown 
in history before the end of the truth century. 4 * 
The author of the Life of St. Adelbert, of Prague, 
who suffered martyrdom in Prussia in the reign of 
Otho III., is the tir>t that mentions them under 
this new name (997). Two hundred years after, 
the Abbot of Oliva, sumamed the Christian, be- 
came the apostle of the Prussians, and was ap- 
pointed by Pope Innocent III. the first bishop of 
Prussia (I2l.i). This idolatrous nation, haughty 
and independent, and attached to the reigning su- 
perstition, having repulsed nil the efforts that were 
repeatedly made to convert them to Christianity, 
Pope Honorius III., in the true spirit of his age, 
published a crusade again*t them (1218), to pro- 
nelytiie them by force. Armies of crusaders were 
poured into Prussia, and overran the whole country 
with fire and sword. The Prussian* took cruel 

\. !!_ II1C.' ..II til'" I'"!' -III'-!' of M l-..\ i I, U ho (rid 

made common cause against them with tin- cru- 
sader* of the East. At length Conrad, Duke of 
Masovia, findint; himself too weak to withstand 
tho fury of tin- Prussians, called in the Teutonic 
ktii.'lit- to his aid ; and, anxious to secure for ever 

sistance and protection of that order, he made 
them a grant <>f the territory of Culm ; and more- 
ox r tin-in whatever lands he might 
conquer from the common enemy (122>). This 
contract having been Kanrtiom-ri by tin- Kinperor 

ric II.. the knights <.|n->-iiil\ rum- into pos- 
session of tlieir new dominions ( P.'.'JO). Tli--\ 

Inl tin mv-Ucs by degrees over all Prussia, 
after a long and munlerons war, which they had 
carried on nifain*t tin- idolatrous natives. That 

try, which had been peopled by numerous 

in colonies in succession, <li<l nl>t submit to 
the joke of the Teutonic order, until the greater 
part of its ancient inhabitant* had hen. 

knights took care to confirm their authority 
:'-liiri<>n in Pru*ia, by constructing cities 
and fort, and founding bishoprics nml cm. 

,', 4 ' on the Pmrel, was built 

in PA5; and I Nognt, 

which becnme the capital of the Order, is suppoaed 
iv e been founded in 12W. 

>ic knights completed the conquest 

of that country (12K3), by the redaction of Suda- 
vla, the la- province* which com- 

posed ancient Prussia. We can scarcely conceive 
how a handful of tbete knights should have been 
able, in m nhort a time, to vanquish a warlike and 
powerful nation, inspired with the love of liberty, 
and emboldened by fanaticism, to make the most 
intrepid and obstinate defem-.-. But we ought i<> 
take into consideration, that the indulgence* of the 
court of Rome allured continually into Prussia a 
multitude of crusaders from all the |>r\inces of 
pire ; and that the knight* gained these over 
to their ranks, by distributing among them the 
lands which they had won by conquest. In Mm 
way, their numbers were incessant K recruited by 
new colonies of crusaders, and the nobles r! 
in crowds to their standard, to seek territorial ac- 
i|in-ition in Prussia. 

The increase of commerce on the Baltic, in the 
twelfth century, led the Germans to discover the 
coasts of Livonia. Some merchants from Bremen, 
on their way to Wisby, in the Island of Gothland, 
a sea-port on the Baltic very much frequented at 
that time, were thrown by a tempest on the coast 
near the mouth of the Dwina (1158). The desire 
of gain induced them to enter into a correspondence 
\\iih the natives of the country ; and, from a wish 
to give stability to a branch of commerce which 
might become very lucrative, they attempted to 
introduce the Christian religion into Livonia. A 
monk of Segeberg, in HoUtein, named Mainard, 
undertook this mission. He was the first bishop 
of Livonia (1192), and fixed his residence at the 
castle of Uxkull, which he strengthened by forti- 
fications. Berthold, his successor, wishing to ac- 
celerate the progress of Christianity, as well as to 
avoid the dangers to which his mission exposed 
him, caused the Pope to publish a crusade against 
'the Livonians. This zealous prelate perished, 
sword in hand, fighting against the people whom 
he intended to convert. The priests, after thi, 
were either massacred or expelled from Livonia ; 
but, in a short time, a new army of crusaders 
marched into the country, under the banner of Al- 
bert, the third bishop, who liuilt the city of Riga 
(1200), which became the seat of his bishopric, and 
afterwards the metropolitan see of all Prussia and 
I.iviii:i. The same prelate founded a military 
order of the Knights of Chriat or Svord-bearers, 
to whom he ceded the third of all the countries he 
ha<l conquered. This'Ordcr, confirmed by Pope 
Innocent HI. (1204), finding themselves too weak 
to oppose the Pagans of Livonia, agreed to unite 
uiili the Teutonic order (1237), who, at that time, 
nominated the generals or provincial master* in 
Livonia, known by the names of Hrrrmritter and 
I.antimcinttr. Pope Gregory IX., in confirming 
the union of these two Orders, exacted th- 
render of the districts of Revel, Wesembenr. 
senstcin, and Hapsal, to Valdemar II., which the 
kni.-ht-. u ith consent of the Bishop of Dorpat, had 
taken from him during his captivity. This retro- 
cession was made by an act passed >' 

^veral documents which still i \ 
the pri\Mc archm-i of the Teutonic order ; 
niiiK*berg, and especially two, dated 1249 and 1 

that, at this period, the bishop* of Riga still 

MierioriU. both temporal and spiritual, 

over these knights *word-beareni, although they 

were united with the Teutonic order, which was 


The Moguls. 
Zinghis Khan. 


Moguls conquer Chiuu. 
Death of Cublai. 
Horde of 

independent of these bishops. The combination 
of these two Orders rendered them so powerful, 
that they gradually extended their conquests over 
all Prussia, Livonia, Courland, and Semigallia ; 
but they could never succeed farther than to sub- 
ject these nations to a rigorous servitude, under 
pretence of conversion. 

Before we speak of Russia and the other Eastern 
countries of Europe, it will be necessary to turn 
our attention for a little to the Moguls, whose con- 
quests and depredations extended, in the thirteenth 
century, from the extremity of Northern Asia, over 
Russia and the greater part of Europe. The 
native country of this people is found to be those 
same regions which they still inhabit in our day, 
and which are situated to the north of the great 
wall of China, between Eastern Tartary and mo- 
dern Bukharia. They are generally confounded 
with the Tartars, from whom they differ essen- 
tially, both in their appearance and manners, as 
well as in their religion and political institutions. 
This nation is divided into two principal branches, 
the Eluths or Oelots, better known by the name 
of Calmucs, and the Moguls, properly so called. 
These latter, separated from the Calmucs by the 
mountains of Altai, are now subject to the domi- 
nion of China. 

The Moguls, scarcely known at present in the 
history of Europe, owe their greatness to the 
irenius of one man the famous Zinghis Khan. 
This extraordinary person, whose real name was 
Tcmudgin, or, according to Pallas, Deemutchin, 
was born in the year 1163, and originally nothing 
more than the chief of a particular horde of Mo- 
guls, who had settled on the banks of the rivers 
Onon and Kerlon, and were tributary to the em- 
pire of Kin. His first exploits were against the 
other hordes of Moguls, whom he compelled to 
acknowledge his authority. Emboldened by suc- 
cess, he conceived the romantic idea of aspiring to 
be the conqueror of the world. For this purpose, 
he assembled near the source of the river Onon, 
in 1206, all the chiefs of the Mogul hordes, and 
the generals of his armies. A certain pretender to 
inspiration, whom the people regarded as a holy 
man, appeared in the assembly, and declared that 
it was the will of God that Temudgin should rule 
over the whole earth, that all nations should sub- 
mit to him, and that henceforth he should bear 
the title* of Tschinghis-Khan, or Most Great 
Emperor. 4 * 

In a short time, this new conqueror subdued the 
two great empires of the Tartars ; one of which, 
called also the empire of Kin, embraced the whole 
of Eastern Tartary, and the northern part of 
China; the other, that of Kara-Kitai, or the Klii- 
tans, extended over Western Tartary, and had its 
capital at Kaschgar in Bukharia. 48 He afterwards 
attacked the Carismian Sultans, who ruled over 
Turkestan, Transoxiana, Charasm, Chorasan, and 
all Persia, from Derbent to Irak-Arabia and the 
Indies. This powerful monarchy was overturned 
by Zinghis-Khan, in the course of six campaigns ; 
and it was during this war that the Moguls, while 
marching under the conduct of Toushi, the <:l<l> -( 
son of Zinghis-Khan, against the Kipzacs or Cap- 
chacs, to the north of the Caspian Sea, made their 
first inroad into the Russian empire. Zinghis, after 
having subdued the whole of Tangout, died in 
the sixty-tilth year of his age (1227). Historians 

have remarked in him the traits of a great man, 
born to command others, but whose noble qualities 
were tarnished by the ferocity of his nature, which 
took delight in carnage, plunder, and devastation. 
Humanity shudders at the recital of the inexpres- 
sible horrors exercised by this barbarian, whose 
maxim was to exterminate, without mercy, all who 
offered the least resistance to his victorious arms. 

The successors of this Mogul conqueror i'ol- 
lowed him in his career of victory. They achieved 
the conquest of all China, overturned the caliphate 
of Bagdat, and rendered the sultans of Iconium 
their tributaries. 44 Octai-Khan, the immediate 
successor of Zinghis, despatched from the centre of 
China two powerful armies, the one against Con-a, 
and the other against the nations that lie to the 
north and north-west of the Caspian Sea. This 
latter expedition, which had for its chiefs Gayouk, 
son of Octai, and Batou, eldest son of Toushi, and 
grandson of Zinghis-Khan, after having subdued all 
Kipzac, penetrated into Russia, which they con- 
quered in 1237. Hence they spread over Poland, 
Silesia, Moravia, Hungary, and the countries bor- 
dering on the Adriatic Sea; they plundered cities, 
laid waste the country, and carried terror and de- 
struction wherever they went. 45 All Europe trem- 
bled at the sight of these barbarians, who seemed 
as if they wished to make the whole earth one \asl 
empire of desolation. The empire of the Moguls 
attained its highest point of elevation under Cublai, 
grandson of Zingbis, towards the end of the tenth 
century. From south to north, it extended from 
the Chinese Sea and the Indies, to the extremity 
of Siberia ; and from east to west, from Japan to 
Asia Minor, and the frontiers of Poland in Europe. 
China and Chinese Tartary formed the seat of the 
empire, and the residence of the Great Khan ; 
while the other parts of the dominions were go- 
verned by princes of the family of Zinghis Khan, 
who either acknowledged the Great Khan as their 
supreme master, or had their own particular kings 
and chiefs that paid him tribute. The principal 
subordinate Khans of the race of Zinghis were 
those of Persia, Zagatai, and Kipzac. Their de- 
pendence on the Great Khan, or emperor of China, 
ceased entirely on the death of Cublui (1294), and 
the power of the Moguls soon became extinct in 
China. 48 

As for the Moguls of Kipzac, their dominion 
extended over all the Tartar countries situated to 
the north of the Caspian and the Euxine, as also 
over Russia and the Crimea. Batou-Khan, eldest 
son of Toushi, was the founder of this d\nn--t\. 
Being addicted to a wandering life, the Khans of 
Kipzac encamped on the banks of the "Wolira, 
passing from one place to another with their tents 
and nocks, according to the custom of the Moifid 
and Tartar nations. 47 The principal sect of these 
Khans was called the (iriind or Golden ll<>ri{<; or 
the Horde of Kipzac, which was long an object of 
the greatest terror to the Russians, Poles, Lithu- 
anians, and Hungarians. Its glory declined to- 
wards the end of the fourteenth century, and en- 
tirely disappeared under the last Khan Aclnnet, 
in I 1*1. A few separate hordes were all that 
remained, detached from the grand horde, such as 
those of Casan, Astraoan, Siberia, and the Crimea; 
all of which were, in their turn, subdued or ex- 
tirpated by the Russians. 48 

A crowd of princes, descendants of Vlademir 

Uraad-4uk~ rf Klow. 

. n,x . ... , It,-.. 

PERIOD IV. A.D. 10741900. 

the Great, had tared among them the vast do- 

':>< of these princes, invested 

uiti, t!>. < nd Dukr, exercised c< 

right* of .u|K-rn>ritj orer the rest, who, ne*< 

less, acted the part of petty sovereigns, and made 

war on m< The capital of these grand 

duke* WM Kiow, which was also regarded at the 

metropolis of the empire. Andrew I.. Prince of 

Susdai, having assumed the title of grand duke 

.1 hi* residence at Vlademir, on the 

ma, and thua gave rite to a kiml >( 

political Khiam, the consequences of which were 

meet fetal to the Russians. The Grand Duchy of 

\\uli its .It-pendent principal itim, detached 

themselves by degree* from the rest of the empire, 

.IM.I finally became a prey to the Lithuanians and 


In the midst of theae divisions and intestine 
broiU, and when Ruaaia was struggling with diffi- 
cult) against the Bulgarians, Polowaian*, 4 * and 
otli.T barbarous tribes in the neighbourhood, *he 
had the iniiifortune to be attacked by the Moguls, 
under /iiu'ln- Khan. Toushi, eldest son of that 
conqueror, having marched round the Caspian, in 
order to attack tin- I'olowxians, encounteied, on his 
passage, the princes of Kiow, who were allies of 
that people. The battle which he fought ( I-''.':! ), 
on the banks of tin- rm-r Kalka, was one of the 
most sanguinary recorded in history. The Russians 
were totally defeated ; six of their prince* perished 
..n the field of battle; and the whole of \\i-ti -in 
Russia was laid open to the conqueror. The M - 
guls penetrated as far aa Novogorod, wasting the 
whole country on their march with fire and sword . 
returned by the same route, but without ex- 
tending their ravages farther. In 1*237 they made 
a second invasion, under the conduct of Batou, 
son of Touahi, and governor of the northern parts 
of the Mogul empire. This prince, after having 
vanquished the Polowxians and Bulgarians, that is, 
the whole country of Kipzac, entered the north of 
Russia, where he took Rugen and Moscow, and 
rut to pieces an army of the Russians near Ko- 
lomna. Several other towns in this part of Ruaaia 
were sacked by the Moguls, in the commencement 
of tin- following year. The family of the Grand 
Duke, Jnri II.. perished in the sack of Ylademir; 
and he himself fell in the Irnttle which he fought 
with the Mogul* near the river Sita. Batou ex- 
truded hi* conquests in northern Russia as far as 
the dty Torshok, in the territory of Novogorod. 
For some years he continued his ravages over the 
whole of Western Russia ; where, among others, 
be took Kiow, Kaminiec in Podolia, Vlademir, 
and Halitsch. From this we may date the fall of 
the Grand Duchy of Kiow, or Western Ruaaia, 
which, with its dependent principalities, in the 
following century, came into the possession of tin- 
Lithuanians and Poles. As for the Grand Durhy 
!' N lademir, which comprehended Eastern and 
Northern Russia, it was subdued by the Moguls or 
Tartars, whose terrible yoke it wore for more than 
two hundred years. M 

An extraordinary person who appeared at this 
disastrous crisis, pi emu red that part of Russia 
-..' into total ruin. This was Prince 
Alexander, son of the Grand Duke, Jaroslaus II., 
who obtained the epithet or surname of Afev*i, 
from a victor}- which he gained over the Knights 
of Livonia, near the Neva (1241). Elevated by 

v flatou to the dignity of Grand Duke 

lality in paving tribute, and preserving his 
allegiance to the Mogul emperors, the good Hill 
of these new masters of Russia, during bis whole 
reign. When this great prince died in IOTI, his 
name was enrolled in their calendar of saints. 
Peter the Great built, in honour of bis memory, a 
convent on the hanks of the Neva, to which he 
am the name of Alexander Newski ; and the 

-s Catherine I 

knighthood that was also called after the name of 

I'oland, which was divided among several princes 
<>f the 1'iast d \uasty, had become, at the time of 
which we speak, a prey to intestine factions, and 
exposed to the incuntions of the neighbouring 
barbarians. Theee divisions, the principal source 
of all the evils that afflicted Poland, continued 
down to the death of Boleslaus II. (I !'<*), who, 
having portioned his estates among his sons, or- 
dered that the eldest should retain the district of 
Cracow, under the title of Monarch, and that he 
should exercise the rights of superiority over the 
provincial dukes and princes, his brothers. This 
clause, which might have prevented the dismem- 
berment of the state, served only to kindle the 
flame of discord among these collegatory princes. 
UladislaiiR, who is generally considered as the 
eldest of these sons, having attempted to dispos- 
sess his brothers (114<>), they rose in arms, ex- 
pelled him from Poland, and obliged his descend- 
ants to content themselves with Silesia. Ilis sons 
founded, in that country, numerous families of 
dukes and princes, who introduced German colo- 
nies into Silesia ; all of which, in course of time, 
became subject to the kings of Bohemia. Conrad, 
son of Casimir the Just, and grandson of Boles- 
laus III., was the ancestor of the dukes of Cujavia 
and Masovia. It was this prince who called in 
the assistance of the Teutonic knights against the 
pagans of Prussia, and established that Order in 
the territory of Culm (1230). 

The Moguls, after having vanquished Russia, 
took possession of Poland (1240). Having gained 
the \ietory at the battle of Schiedlow, they set fire 
to Cracow, and then marched to Lignitx in Silesia, 
where a numerous army of crusaders were assem- 
bled under the command of\. Duke of 
Hrcslau. This prince was defeated, and slain in 
the action. The whole of Silesia, as well as 
Moravia, was cruelly pillaged and desolated by 
the Moguls. 

I i ungary, at this period, presented the spectacle 
of a warlike and barbarous nation, the fenx-itv of 
whose manners cannot be better 
the laws passed in the reign* of Ladulau* and 
( .'!<>man. about the end <>t :h ami be- 

innning of the tv* elfth century. Crimes were then 
punished either with the !<> 
member of the body, such as t! nose, 

the tongue, Ac. These laws were psjbiisbed in 
their general assemblies, which were composed of 
the king, the great officers of the crown, ai 
representatives of the clergy an 
All the other branches of the ower 

pertained to the kings, who made war and peace 
at their pleasure ; while the counts, or governors 
of provinces, *'' no power either personal or 
hereditary.* 1 

K:n_-> nf 11 

60 Crusade under Andrew II. 
The Golden Bull. 


Uutou conquers Hungary, 
(ireek or Kastcrn Empire. 
The Crusades. 

Under a government so despotic, it was easy 
for the kings of Hungary to enlarge the boundaries 
of their states. Ladislaus took from the Greeks 
the duchy of Sirmium (1080), comprising the 
lower part of Sclavonia. This same prince ex- 
tended his conquests into Croatia, a country which 
was governed for several ages by the Slavian 
princes, who possessed Upper Sclavonia, and ruled 
over a great part of ancient Illyria and Dalmatia, 
to which they gave the name of Croatia. Dircis- 
laus was the first of these princes that took the 
title of king (in 984). Demetrius Swinimir, one 
of his successors, did homage to the Pope, in order 
to obtain the protection of the Holy See (1076). 
The line of these kings having become extinct some 
time after, Ladislaus, whose sister had been mar- 
ried to Demetrius Swinimir, took advantage of the 
commotion that had arisen in Croatia, and con- 
quered a great part of that kingdom (1091), and 
especially Upper Sclavonia, which was one of its 
dependencies. Coloman completed their conquest 
in 1102, and the same year he was crowned at Bel- 
grade King of Croatia and Dalmatia. In the course 
of a few years he subdued the maritime cities of 
Dalmatia, such as Spalatro, Trau, and Zara, which 
he took from the republic of Venice . M The king- 
dom of Rama, or Bosnia, fell at the same time 
under his power. He took the title of King of 
Rama (1103); and Bela II., his successor, made 
over the duchy of Bosnia to Ladislaus, his younger 
son. The sovereignty of the kings of Hungary 
was also occasionally acknowledged by the princes 
and kings of Bulgaria and Servia, and even by the 
Russian princes of Halitsch and Wolodimir. 

These conquests gave rise to an abuse w : hich 
soon proved fatal to Hungary. The kings claimed 
for themselves the right of disposing of the newly 
conquered provinces in favour of their younger 
sons, to whom they granted them under the title 
of duchies, and with the rights of sovereignty. 
These latter made use of their supreme power to 
excite factions and stir up civil wars. 

The reign of King Andrew II. was rendered 
remarkable by a revolution which happened in the 
government (1217). This prince having under- 
taken an expedition to the Holy Land, which he 
equipped at an extravagant and ruinous expense, 
the nobles availed themselves of his absence to 
augment their own power, and usurp the estates 
and revenues of the crown. Corruption had per- 
vaded every branch of the administration ; and the 
king, after his return, made several ineffectual 
efforts to remedy the disorders of the government, 
and recruit his exhausted finances. At length he 
adopted the plan of assembling a general Diet 
(1222), in which was passed the famous decree, 
or Golden Bull, which forms the basis of that de- 
tccthe constitution which prevails in Hungary at 
this day. The property of the clergy and the 
noblesse were there declared exempt from taxes 
and military cess ; the nobles acquired hereditary 
possession of the royal grants which they had re- 
cehed in recompense for their sen-ices ; they were 
freed from the obligation of marching at their own 
expense on any expedition out of tli<- kingdom ; 
and even the right of resistance was allowed them, 
in case the king should infringe any article of the 
decree. It was this king also (Andrew II.) that 
conferred several important privileges and immu- 
nities on t^e SmxoiiH, or Germans of Transylvania, 

who had been invited thither by Geisa II. about 
the year 1142. 

Under the reign of Bela IV. (1241) Hungary 
was suddenly inundated with an army of Moguls, 
commanded by several chiefs, the principal of 
whom were Batou, the son of Toushi, and Gayouk, 
son of the great Khan Octai. The Hungaiiaiis, 
sunk in effeminacy and living in perfect security, 
had neglected to provide in time for their defence. 
Having at length rallied round the banner of their 
king, they pitched their camp very negligently on 
the banks of the Sajo, where they were surprised 
by the Moguls, who made terrible havoc of them. 
Coloman, the king's brother, was slain in the 
action ; and the king himself succeeded with diffi- 
culty in saving himself among the isles of Dalmatia. 
The whole of Hungary was now at the mercy of 
the conqueror, who penetrated with his victorious 
troops into Sclavonia, Croatia, Dalmatia, Bosnia, 
Servia, and Bulgaria ; everywhere glutting his fury 
with the blood of the people, which he shed in 
torrents. These barbarians seemed determined to 
fix their residence in Hungary, when the news of 
the death of the Khan Octai, and the accession of 
his son Gayouk to the throne of China, induced 
them to abandon their conquest in less than three 
years, and return to the East loaded with immense 
booty. On hearing this intelligence, Bela ven- 
tured from his place of retreat, and repaired to 
Hungary, where he assembled the remains of his 
subjects, who were wandering in the forests, or 
concealed among the mountains. He rebuilt the 
cities that were laid in ashes, imported new colo- 
nies from Croatia, Bohemia, Moravia, and Saxony ; 
and, by degrees, restored life and vigour to the 
state, which had been almost annihilated by the 

The Empire of the Greeks, at this time, was 
gradually verging towards its downfal. Harassed 
on the east by the Seljukian Turks, infested on the 
side of the Danube by the Hungarians, the Patzi- 
nacites, the Uzes, and the Cumans ; 53 and torn to 
pieces by factious and intestine wars, that Empire 
was making but a feeble resistance to the inces- 
sant attacks of its enemies, when it was suddenly 
threatened with entire destruction by the effects 
of the fourth crusade. The Emperor Isaac Angelus 
had been dethroned by his brother, Alexius III. 
(1195), who had cruelly caused his eyes to be put 
out. The son of Isaac, called also Alexius, found 
means to save his life ; he repaired to Zara, in 
Dalmatia (1203), to implore the aid of the Cru- 
sader*, who, after having assisted the Venetians to 
recover that rebellious city, were on the point of 
setting sail for Palestine. The young Alexius 
offered to indemnify the Crusaders for the expenses 
of any expedition which they might undertake in 
his favour ; he gave them reason to expect a re- 
union of the two churches, and considerable sup- 
plies, both in men and money, to assist them in 
reconquering the Holy Land. Yielding to these 
solicitation-, the allied chiefs, instead of passing 
directly to Syria, set sail for Constantinople. 
They immediately laid siege to the city, expelled 
the usurper, and restored Isaac to the throne, in 
conjunction with his son Alexius. 

Scarcely had the Crusaders quitted Constanti- 
nople, when a new revolution happened there. 
Another Alexius, suniamed Mourzoufle, excited 
an insurrection among the Greeks ; and having 

Uitin. Ukr 
K.ll u< v Ulm 

PERIOD IV. AD l"Tl 1*00, 

llM-^l, ,k..., 

-.!.h-.!. 1..-,, 

Dm* * Malta 

procured the death of the Emperor* Isaac and 
is he made himself master of the throne. 
The Crusaders immediately r<-turn..|, again laid 
siege to Constantinople, which they took by as- 
sault ; and. after having slain the usurper, they 
Uatsd a new emperor in the perwui of Baldwin, 
f Flanders, and one of the noble rrusaden.* 4 
Tent traunfrrred the Greek Umpire to the 
l.atun ( 12O4). It was followed by a union of the 
,urche, which, however, was neither general 
nor permanent, as it terminated with the reign of 
the Latiut at Coiutantinopl.-. 

Meantime the Crusaders divided among them- 
selves the provinces of the Greek Umpire, both 
thoee which they had already seized, and those 
which yet remained to be conquered. The greater 
part of the maritime coasts of the Adriatic, Greece, 
the Archipelago, the Propontis, ami tl. 
tli<- inlands of the Cj elides and Sporade*, and 
those of the Adriatic, were adjudged to the re- 
public of \iiin.-. Boniface, Marqui* of Mont- 
. and commander-iii-chief of the crusade, ob- 
tained for his share the island of Crete or Candia, 
and all that belonged to the Empire beyond the 
Uosphoru*. He afterwards sold Candia to the 
Venetian*, who took possession of it in I'.'oT. 
'1'ln- other chief* of the Crusaders had also tin ir 
portions of the dismembered provinces. None of 
them, however, were to possess the countries thut 
were assigned them, except under the title of 
vassals to the Empire, and by acknowledging the 

,-nty of Hahhvin. 

In the midst of this general overthrow, several 
of the Greek princes attempted to preserve the 
feeble remains of their Kinpire. Theodore Las- 
carU, son-in-law of the Emperor Alexius III., n-- 
aolved on the conquest of the Greek provinces 
in .Vita. He made himself master of Bithynia, 
1. \ilia, pan of the coasts of the Archipelago, and 
Phrygia, and was crowned emperor at Nin> in 
<>ut the same period, Alexius and David 
Commenus, grandsons of the Emperor Andm- 
nicus I., having taken shelter in Pontus, laid there 
thi- fouiulation of a new Empire, which had for its 
capital the city of Trebixond. 

At length Michael Angelus Commenus took 
possession of Durazzo, which he erected into a 
considerable state, extending from Durazzo to the 
Gulf of Lepanto, and comprehending Epirus, 
Acarnania, Etolia, and part of Thesaaly. All 
these princes assumed the rank and dignity of 
emperor*. The most powerful among them was 
Tlu-odora Lascaris, Emperor of Nice. His suc- 
cessors found littlr difficulty in resuming, by de- 
grees, their superiority over the Latin emperors, 
reduced them at hut to the single cit\ t 
Constantinople, of which Michael Paleologun, 
I:II<IT..: ..! Ni. e, undertook the siege ; and, with 
the assistance of the Genoese vessels, he made 
himself master of it in 1261. Baldwin II., the 
last of the I<atin emperors, fled to the Isle of 
pout, whence he passed into Italy ; and his 
conqueror became the ancestor of all the emperors 
of the House of Paleologus, that reigned at Con- 
stantinople until the taking of that capital by the 
Turks m I i 

It now remains for us to cast a glance at the 

re\oliitinn lit" AM:I, r|..-.!\ ci.mii-clrd with tli'-i- 

;m|.c. mi nrouim <>t the crusades and expe- 
ditious to Uic Holy Land. The Empire of the 

Seljukian Turks had heen divided into several 
dynasties, or distinct sormlgsjtsM ; the Alaheks 
of Irak, and a number of petty princes, reigned la 
Syria and the neighbouring countries ; the Fata* 
I -irypt were masters of Jerusalem, 
and pan of Palestine, when the mania of the 
crusades convened that region of the East into 
a theatre of carnage and devastation. For two 
Immlred years Asia was seen contending with 
Europe, and the Chrutian nations making the 
most extraordinary efforts to maintain the con- 
quest of Palestine and the neighbouring states, 
against the arms of the Mahometans. 

At length there arose among the Mussulmans 
a man of superior genius, who rendered himself 
formidable by his warlike prowess to the Christians 
in tin- East, and deprived them of the fruits of 
tlii-ir numerous victories. This conqueror was the 
famous Saladin, or Salaheddin, the son of Ayoub, 
or Job, and founder of the dynasty of the Ayou- 
bites. The Atabek Nourvddin, son of Amadoddin 
/inr'n. sent him int I ^), to assist 

thi- 1'iitumite Caliph against the Franks, or Cru- 
saders of the West. While there, he was declared 
vizier and general of the armies of the Caliph ; 
and so well had he established his power in that 
country, that he effected the substitution of tin- 
Abassidian Caliphs in place of the Fatamites ; and 
ultimately caused himself to be proclaimed sultan 
on the death of Nouraldin (1171), under whom 
he had served in tin* quality of lieutenant. Having 
vanquished l._r\|>t. In- next subdued the dominions 
of Noureddin in Syria; and, after having extended 
his victories over this province, as well as Mesopo- 
tamia, Assyria, Armenia, and Arabia, he turned 
his arms against the Christians in Palestine, whom 
he had hemmed in, as it were, with his conquests. 
These princes, separated into petty sovereignties, 
divided by mutual jealousy, and a prey to the dis- 
tractions of anarchy, soon yielded to the valour of 
the heroic Mussulman. The battle which they 
fought (1187) at Hittin, near Tiberias (or Ta- 
baria), was decisive. The Christians sustained a 
total defeat ; and Guy of Lusignan, * weak prince 
without talents, and the last King of Jerusalem, 
fell into the hands of the conqueror. All the 
cities of Palestine opened their gates to Saladin, 
either voluntarily or at the point of the sword. 
Jerusalem surrendered after a siege of fourteen 
days. This defeat rekindled the zeal of the Chris- 
tians in the West ; and the most powerful sove- 
reigns in Europe were again seen conducting 
innumerable armies to the relief of the H.. I \ 
Land. But the talents and bravery of Saladin 
rendered all their efforts unavailing ; and it was 
not till after a murderous siege of three Years, that 
they succeeded in retaking the city of Ptolemais, 
or Acre ; and thus arresting, for a short space, the 
total extermination of the Christians in the East. 

On the death of Saladin, whose heroism is ex- 
tolled by Christian as well as Mahometan authors, 
Mpire was divided among his sons. Several 
princes, his dependants, and known by the name 
of Ayoubites, reigned afterwards in Egypt, Syria, 
Armenia, and Yemen, or Arabia the Happy. 
These princes quarrelling and making war with 
each other, their territon- fell, in the thirteenth 
century, under the dominion of the Mamelukes. 
These Mamelukes (an Arabic word which signifies 
a slave) were Turkish or Tartar captives, whom 

Dominion of the Mamelukes. 
62 Their conqu. 

Franks expelled from Syria. 


Power of the Pontiffs. 
Arrogance of Boniface VIII. 
Temporal dominion of Home. 

the Syrian merchants purchased from the Moguls, 
and sent into Egypt under the reign of the Sultan 
Saleh, of the Ayoubite dynasty. That prince 
bought them in vast numbers, and ordered them to 
be trained to the exercise of arms in one of the 
maritime cities of Egypt." From this school he 
raised them to the highest offices of trust in the 
state, and even selected from them liis own body- 
guard. In a very short time these slaves became 
so numerous and so powerful, that, in the end, 
they seized the government, after having assas- 
sinated the Sultan Tourau Shah (son and successor 
of Saleh), who had in vain attempted to disen- 
tangle himself of their chains, and recover the 
authority which they had usurped over him. This 
revolution (1250) happened in the very presence 
of St. Louis, who, having been taken prisoner at 
the battle of Mansoura, had just concluded a truce 
of ten years with the Sultan of Egypt. The 
Mameluke Ibeg, who was at first appointed regent, 
or Atabek, was soon after proclaimed Sultan of 


The dominion of the Mamelukes existed in 
Egypt for the space of 263 years. Their numbers 
being constantly recruited by Turkish or Circas- 

sian slaves, they disposed of the throne of Egypt 
at their pleasure ; and the crown generally fell to 
the share of the most audacious of the gang, pro- 
vided he was a native of Turkistan. These Ma- 
melukes had even the courage to attack tin- 
Moguls, and took from them the kingdoms of 
Damascus and Aleppo in Syria (1210), of which 
the latter had dispossessed the Ayoubite princes. 
All the princes of this latter dynasty, with those 
of Syria and Yemen, adopted the expedient of 
submitting to the Mamelukes ; who, in order to 
become masters of all Syria, had only to reduce 
the cities and territories which the Franks, or 
Christians of the West, still retained in their pos- 
session. They first attacked the principality of 
Aiitioch, which they soon conquered (12<>S). 
They next turned their arms against the county of 
Tripoli, the capital of which they took by assault 
(1289). The city of Ptolemais shared the same 
fete ; after an obstinate and murderous siege, it 
was carried SAVord in hand. Tyre surrendered 
on capitulation ; and the Franks were entirely- 
expelled from Syria and the East in the year 



TURKS. A.D. 13001453. 

AT the commencement of this period the Ponti- 
fical power was in the zenith of its grandeur. The 
Popes proudly assumed the title of Masters of the 
World; and asserted that their authority, by divine 
right, comprehended every other, both spiritual 
and temporal. Boniface VIII. went even farther 
than his predecessors had done. According to 
him, the secular power was nothing else than a 
mere emanation from the ecclesiastical ; and this 
double power of the Pope was even made an 
article of belief, and founded on the sacred Scrip- 
tures. " God has intrusted" (said he) " to St. 
Peter and his successors, two swords, the one 
spiritual, and the other temporal. The former 
can he exercised by the church alone ; the other, 
by the secular princes, for the service of the 
church, and in submission to the will of the Pope. 
This latter, that is, the temporal sword, is subor- 
dinate to the former ; and all temporal authority 
necessarily depends on the spiritual, which judges 
it ; whereas God alone can judge the spiritual 
power. Finally, (added he,) it is absolutely in- 
dispensable to salvation, that every human crea- 
ture be subject to the Pope of Rome." This 
same Pope published the first Jubilee (1300), with 
plenary indulgence for all who should visit the 
churches of St. Peter and St. Paul at Rome. An 
immense crowd from all parts of Christendom 
flocked to this capital of the Western world, and 
filled its treasury with their pious contributions. * 

The spiritual power of the Popes, and their 
jurisdiction over the clergy, was moreover increased 
every day, by means of dispensations and appeals, 
which had multiplied exceedingly since the in- 
troduction of the Decretals of Gregory IX. They 

disposed, in the most absolute manner, of the 
dignities and benefices of the Church, and imposed 
taxes at their pleasure on all the clergy in Christen- 
dom. Collectors or treasurers were established 
by them, who superintended the levying of the 
dues they had found means to exact, under a mul- 
titude of different denominations. These collectors 
were empowered, by means of ecclesiastical cen- 
sure, to proceed against those who should refuse to 
pay. They were supported by the authority of the 
legates who reside in the ecclesiastical produces, 
and seized with avidity every occasion to extend 
the usurpation of the Pope. Moreover, in sup- 
port of these legates appeared a vast number of 
Religious and Mendicant Orders, founded in those 
ages of ignorance ; besides legions of monks dis- 
persed over all the states of Christendom. 

Nothing is more remarkable than the influence of 
the papal authority over the temporalities of princes. 
We find them interfering in all their quarrels 
addressing their commands to all without distinc- 
tion enjoining some to lay down their arms re- 
ceiving others under their protection rescinding 
and annulling their acts and proceedings summon- 
ing them to their court, and acting as arbiters in 
their disputes. The history of the Popes is the 
history of all Europe. They assumed the privilege 
of legitimating the sons of kings, in order to quality 
them for the succession ; they forbade sovereigns 
to tax the clergy ; they claimed a feudal superiority 
over all, and exercised it over a very great number ; 
they conferred royalty on those who \\> re ambi- 
tious of power ; they released subjects from their 
oath of allegiance ; dethroned sovereigns at their 
pleasure ; and laid kingdoms and empires under 

I';..:,,, ..-. \ 
II,. j ,,.-.- 

.1 | I * .-! 

PERIOD V. A.D. 1100-1453. 

I . ... :, . ,'.. , < 

: r.a \ u . i 
r,,., i ... ,- \ -..-. i 

i!. i . ' , : ,\ -..' v, . U : 

*, as well as those of heretics and their fol- 
lowers ; of tshmde and kingdom* newly discovered ; 
of the property of infidels or schismatic*; and 
even of Catholics who refused to bow befoie the 
insolent tyranny of the Pope*. 1 

is obvious that the court of Rome, at 
the time of which we speak, enjoyed a conspicuous 

iderauco in the political system of Europe. 
Kut in the ordinary course of human affair*, this 
power, vast and formidable as it was, began, 
from the fourteenth century, gradually to din. 

lightiest empires have their appointed term ; 
and the highest stage of their elevation is often the 
first step of their decline. Kings, becoming more 
and more enlightened as to their true interests, 
learned to support the rights and the majesty of 
their crowns against the encroachments of the 

-. Those who were vassals and tributaries 
of the Holy See gradually shook off the yoke ; 

the clergy, who groaned under the weight 
of this spiritual despotism, joined the secular 
princes in repressing these abuses, and restraining' 
within proper bounds a power which was making 
incessant encroachments on their just prerogatives. 
Among the causes which operated the downfal 
of the pontifical power may be ranked the excess 
of the power itself, and the abuses of it made by 
tin Popes. H\ issuing too often their anathemas 
and interdicts, they rendered them useless and con- 
temptible ; and by their haughty treatment of the 
greatest princes, they learned to become inflexible 
and boundless in their own pretensions. An in- 
stance of this may be recorded, in the famous dis- 
pute which arose between Boniface VIII. and 
Philip the Fair, Kin,' of France. Not content with 
constituting himself judge between the King and 
his vassal, the ('< -.1' I'i in.!.-:--, that p.uilili 
maintained, that the Kin j could not exact subsidies 
from! -...thout Ins permission; and that 

the right of Regale (or the revenues of vacant 
bishoprics) whi rh the Crown enjoyed, was an abuse 
which should not be tolerated.* He treated as a 
piece of in:uut\ the prohibition of Philip against 
exporting either gold or silver out of the kingdom ; 
and sent an order to all the prelates in Fr.i 
repair in person to Rome on the 1st of November, 
th.-re t.> advise measures for corn-dim; the 

forming the state. He declared, formalU, 
that the King was subject to the Pope, as well in 1 :i ' matter- ; and that it was 

a foolish persuasion to suppose that the King had 
no superior on earth, and was not dependent on 

t).' - -,). . !'. I' ' 'ill'. 

ip ordered the papal hull which contained 
these extravagant assertions to be burnt ; I - 
bade his ecclesiastic* to leave the realm ; and 
having twice assembled the States-General of the 
kingdom (1302-3), he adopted, with their ad\ie. 
and approbation, measures against these dangerous 
pretensions of the court of Home. The I 
Estates, who appeared for the first time in 
Assemblies, declared themselves strongly in favour 
of the King, and the independence of the crown. 
; sequence, the excommunication which tin- 
Pope had threatened against the I. .1 in- 
effectual. Philip made bis appeal to a future 
assembly, to which the three orders of the State 

The Emperor Louis of Bavaria, a 
superior merit, having Incurred the 
Church for defending the right* and prerogative* 
of bis crown, could not obtain absolution, not- 
withstanding the 

to resign the Impe- 
ls* mm M mi 

and the offer which he 
rial dignity, and surrender himself, ! 
his property, to the discretion of the Pope. 1 1 
was loaded with curses and anathemas, after a 
aeries of various proceedings which had been in- 
stituted againtt him. The bull of Pope Cl 
\ 1.. ;. IMS occasion, far surpassed all those of his 
predecessors. " May God (said he, in speaking 
of the Emperor) -nut. him with madness an<l 
ease; may heaven crush him with its tin. 
bolts ; may the wrath of God, and that of St. 
Peter and St. Paul, fall on him in this world and 
the next; may the whole universe combine against 
him; may the earth swallow him up alive; may 
his name perish in the first generation, and his 
memory disappear from the earth ; may all tin- 
elements conspire against him ; may his children, 
delivered into the hands of his enemies, be mas- 
sacred before the eyes of their father." The 
iniliimity of such proceedings roused the attention 
of the princes and states of the Empire ; and on 
the representation of the Electoral College, they 
thought proper to check these boundless preten- 
sions of the Popes, by a decree which was passed 
at the Diet of Frankfort in 1338. This decree, 
regarded as the fundamental law of the Ki 
declared, in substance, that the Imperial dignity 
was held only of God ; that he whom the* Electors 
had chosen emperor by a plurality of suffrages, 
was, in virtue of that election, a true king and 
emperor, and needed neither confirmation nor 
coronation from the hands of the Pope ; and that 
all persons who should maintain the contrary, 
should be treated as guilty of hi^h treason. 

Among other events to the authority 
of the Popes, one was, the translation of the pon- 
tifical sec from Rome to Avignon. Clenn: 
archbishop of Bourdeaux, having been advanced to 
the papacy ( 1305), instead of repairing to Rome, 
had his coronation celebrated at Lyons; and thence 
he transferred his residence to Aviirnon (13O9), 
out of complaisance to Philip the Fair, to whom 
In- owed his elevation. The successors of ihis 
Pope continued their court at Avignon until 1 
when Gregory XI. again it-moved the see to Rome. 
This sojourn at Aviirnon tended to weaken the 
authority of the Popes, and diminish the respect 
and veneration which till then had been paid them. 
Tin- pretailinir opinion beyond the Alps admitted 
DO other city than that of Rome for the true capital 
of St. Peter; and they despised the Popes of 
Avignon as aliens, who, besides, were there sur- 
rounded with powerful princes, to whose caprice 
they were often obliged to yield, and to make con- 
descensions prejudicial to the authority they had 
usurped. This circumstance, joined to the lapse 
of nearly seventy years, made the residence at 
Avignon be stigmatised by the Italians, under 
the name of the HalrylonuM Captinty. It occa- 
sioned also the diminution of the papal autl. 
at Rome, and in the Ecclesiastical Slates. 
Italian*, no longer restrained by the presence of 
the sovereign pout ins, yielded but a reluctant 
obedience to their rspreeeotstivti ; while t) 
metnbrance of their ancient republicanism induced 

Itionzi tribune of Rome. 
64 Schism of the church. 

Urban VI. JohuXXIIl. 


Council of Constance. 
Him, and Jerome of Prague. 
Council of Basil. 

them to lend a docile ear to those who preached up 
insurrection and revolt. Historians inform us, 
that Nicolas Gabrini de Rienzo, or Cola di Rienzi, 
a man of great eloquence, and whose audacity was 
equal to his ambition, took advantage of these re- 
publican propensities of the Romans, to constitute 
himself master of the city, under the popular title of 
Tribune (1347). He projected the scheme of a new 
government, called the Good Estate, which he 
pretended would obtain the acceptation of all the 
princes and republics of Italy; but the despotic 
power which he exercised over the citizens, whose 
liberator and lawgiver he affected to be, soon re- 
duced him to his original insignificance ; and the 
city of Rome again assumed its ancient form of 
government. Meantime the Popes did not re- 
cover their former authority ; most of the cities 
and states of the Ecclesiastical dominions, after 
having been long a prey to faction and discord, 
fell under the power of the nobles, who made an 
easy conquest of them ; scarcely leaving to the 
Pope a vestige of the sovereign authority. It re- 
quired all the insidious policy of Alexander VI., 
and the vigilant activity of Julius II., to repair 
the injury which the territorial influence of the 
pontiffs had suffered from their residence at 

Another circumstance that contributed to 
humble the papal authority was the schisms which 
rent the Church, towards the end of the fourteenth, 
and beginning of the fifteenth century. Gregory 
XL, who had abandoned Avignon for Rome, being 
dead (1378), the Italians elected a Pope of their 
own nation, who took the name of Urban VI., 
and fixed his residence at Rome. The French 
cardinals, on the other hand, declared in favour of 
the Cardinal Robert of Geneva, known by the 
name of Clement VII., who fixed his capital at 
Arignon. The whole of Christendom was divided 
between these two Popes ; and this grand schism 
continued from 1378 till 1417. At Rome, Urban 
VI. was succeeded by Boniface IX., Innocent 
VII., and Gregory XII. ; while Clement VII. had 
Benedict XIII. for his successor at Avignon. In 
order to terminate this schism, every expedient 
was tried to induce the rival Popes to give in 
their abdication ; but both having refused, several 
of the Cardinals withdrew their allegiance, and 
assembled a council at Pisa (1409), where the 
two refractory Popes were deposed, and the ponti- 
fical dignity conferred on Alexander V., who was 
afterwards succeeded by John XXIII. This 
election of the council only tended to increase 
the schism. Instead of two Popes, there arose 
three ; and if his Pisan Holiness gained partisans, 
the Popes of Rome and Avignon contrived also to 
maintain each a number of supporters. All these 
Popes, wishing to maintain their rank and dignity 
with that splendour and magnificence which their 
predecessors had displayed before the schism, set 
themselves to invent new means of oppressing tin- 
people ; hence the immense number of abuses and 
exactions, which subverted the discipline of the 
church, and roused the exasperated nations against 
the court of Rome. 

A new General Council was convoked at Con- 
stance (1414) by order of the Emperor Sigismund ; 
and it was there that the maxim of the unity 
and permanency of Councils was established, as 
well as of its superiority over the Pope, in all that 

pertains to matters of faith, to the extirpation of 
schism, and the reformation of the Church, both in 
its supreme head, and in its subordinate members. 
The grand schism was here terminated by the 
abdication of the Roman pontiff, and the deposi- 
tion of those of Pisa and Avignon. It was this 
famous Council that gave their decision against John 
Huss, the Reformer of Bohemia, and a follower of 
the celebrated Wicklitf. His doctrines were con- 
demned, and he himself burnt at Constance; as 
was Jerome of Prague, one of his most zealous 
partizans. As to the measures that were taken at 
Constance for effecting the reformation of the 
Church, they practically ended in nothing. As 
their main object was to reform the court of 
Rome, by suppressing or limiting the new prero- 
gatives which the Popes for several centuries had 
usurped, and which referred, among other things, 
to the subject of benefices and pecuniary exactions, 
all those who had an interest in maintaining these 
abuses, instantly set themselves to defeat the pro- 
posed amendments, and elude redress. The 
Council had formed a committee, composed of the 
deputies of different nations, to advise means for 
accomplishing this reformation, which the whole 
world so ardently desired. This committee, known 
by the name of the College of Reformers, had 
already made considerable progress in their task, 
when a question was started, Whether it was pro- 
per to proceed to any reformation without the 
consent and co-operation of the visible Head of the 
Church 1 It was carried in the negative, through 
the intrigues of the cardinals ; and, before they 
could accomplish this salutary work of reforma- 
tion, the election of a new Pope had taken place 
(1417). The choice fell on Otho de Colonna, 
who assumed the name of Martin V., and in 
conformity with a previous decision of the Council, 
he then laid before them a scheme of reform. 
This proceeding having been disapproved by the 
different nations of Europe, the whole matter was 
remitted to the next Council ; and in the mean- 
while, they did nothing more than pass some con- 
cordats, with the new Pope, as to what steps they 
should take until the decision of the approaching 

This new Council, which was assembled at Basle 
(1431) by Martin V., resumed the suspended work 
of reformation. The former decrees, that a Gene- 
ral Council was superior to the Pope, and could 
not be dissolved or prorogued except by their own 
free consent, were here renewed ; and the greater 
part of the reserves, reversions, annats, and other 
exactions of the Popes, were regularly abolished. 
The liberty of appeals to the court of Roni 
also circumscribed. Eugeuius IV., successor to 
Martin V., alarmed at the destruction thus aimed 
at his authority, twice proclaimed the dissolution 
of the Council. The first dissolution, which oc- 
curred on the 17th of December, 1431, was re- 
voked, at the urgent application of the Emperor 
Sigismund, by a bull of the same Pope, issued on 
the 15th of December, 1433. In this he acknow- 
ledged the validity of the Council, and annulled 
all that he had formerly done to invalidate its au- 
thority. The second dissolution took place on the 
1st of October, 1437. Eugenius then transferred 
the Council to Ferrara, and from Fcrrara to Flo- 
rence, on pretext of his negociating a union with 
the Greek church. This conduct of the Pope oc- 

The PrafSMtie 

l.r.-M.,-. ..>;: .,.. ;.,:.; 

M* 4 i-..-.. 

PERIOD V. A.I), l :!. i 

casioned a new Khiim. The prelates who re- 

d at Basle instituted a procedure n 
htm ; tin-) first suspended luiu f..r COBtOBMI 

tin ally drpoed him. Ainadriu VIII., \.|>uke of 

Saxony, wu riveted in hi* plan-, under (ho name 

. and reeofniMd by all the parti- 

I u the li .uti-r 

schism bated ten yean. Felix V. at length gave 

in hU demission ; and the Council, which bad 

withdrawn from Basle to Lausanne, terminated its 

>ii adopted neveral of the de- 
cree* of tin* Council of Ha-lc in the famous Prag- 
tion, which ( I. nl. - \ II. caused to be 
drawn up at llnin,-! s , 1 i:tS) ; and who*)- stipula- 
-erved at the basis of what i* called tin- /./'- 
brrtift o/ the Gallican Church. The example of 
i >i<- French wu speedily followed by tin- Germans, 
who acceded to these decrees, at tli<- DP i >!' May- 
ence, in 1439. The court of Rome at length n-- 
gaiued a part of those honourable and lucrative 
lights of which the Council of Basle had deprived 
tin-in, by the concordat- which the Germans con- 
rludi-d (1448) with Nicholas V., and the French 
(1516) with Leo X. The Councils of which we 
have now spoken tended materially to limit the 
exorbitant power of the Roman pontiffs, by giving 
sanction ! the principle which established the su- 
periority of (ieiu-ral Councils over the Popes. This 
maxim put a check to the enterprising ambition of 
the court of Rome ; and kings availed themselves 
of it to recover by degrees the prerogatives of their 
crowns. The Popes, moreover, sensible of their 
weakness, and of the need they had for the protec- 
tiou of the sovereigns, learned to treat them with 
more attention and respect. 

At length the new light which began to dawn 
about the fourteenth century, hastened on the pro- 
gress of this revolution, by gradually dissipating 
the darkness of superstition into which the nations 
.rope were almost universally sunk. In the 
midst of the distractions which agitated the I'.m- 
pire and the Church, and during the papal schism, 
several learned and intrepid men made their ap- 
pearance, who, while investigating the origin and 
abase of the new power of the Popes, had the cou- 
rage to revive the doctrine of the ancient canons, 
to enlighten the minds of sovereigns as to their 
true rights, and to examine with care into the just 
limits of the sacerdotal authority. Among the first 
>f these reformers was John of Paris, a famous 
Dominican, who undertook the defence of Philip 
tin- Fair, King of France, against Pope Bo: 
N 1 1 1 . II is example was followed by the cele- 
brated poet, Dante Alighieri, who took the part of 
r Louis of Bavaria against the court of 
Rome. Marsilo de Padua, John de Janduno, 
William Ockam, Leopold de Babenberg, &c., 
marched in the track of the Italian poet ; and 
among the crowd of writers that signalized them- 
selves after the grand schism, three French authors 
particularly distinguished themselves, Peter d'Ailly, 
..i- d<- (1.- mature, and John (ierson, whose 
writing met with >. neral applause. Most of these 
literary productions, however, were characterized 
by bad taste. The philosophy of Aristotle, studied 
: ibic translations, and disfigured by scholastic 
subtleties, reigned in all the schools, imposed its 

* on the human mind, and nearly extingui-! . I 
; vestige of useful knowledge. The belles 

neglected, and u yet had died 
no lustre on the sciences. Sometimes, however, 
genius broke with a transient splendour through 
tin- ilurkm-M of thi* moral horizon; and several 
extraordinary persons, despising the rain ~\\i\+ >( 
the schools, began to study truth in tin- M>!U 
nature, and to copy after the beautiful mod* 
antiquity. Such was Roger Bacon (*)>> !.! in 
1204), an Englishman, and a Franciscan friar, who 
has become so famous by his discover i 
mistry and mechanical philosophy. Dante, nur- 
tured in the spirit of the ancients, was the first 
that undertook to refine the Italian language 
I" "-try, and gave it the polish of elegance ana grace 
in hi-. compo-ition* (he died in I.T.Mj. He was 
succeeded by two other celebrated author-, Pe- 
trarca (who died in 1S74), and Boccacio (1375). 

The period of which we speak gave birth to se- 
veral new inventions, which proved useful auxili- 
aries to men of genius, and tended to accelerate 
the progress of knowledge, letters, and arts. Ai 
the principal of these may be mentioned the i. 
tiou of writing paper, oil-painting, printing, gun- 
powder, and the mariner's compass ; to the effects 
of which F.urope, in a great measure, owes its 
Hzation, and the new order of things which ap- 
peared in the fifteenth century. 

Before the invention of paper from linen, parch- 
ment was generally used in Europe for the tran- 
scribing of books, or the drawing out of public 
deeds. Cotton paper, which the Arabs brought 
from the East, was but a poor remedy for the 
scarceness and dearth of parchment. It would 
appear, that the invention of paper from linen, and 
the custom of using it in Europe, U not of older 
date than the thirteenth century. The famous 
Montfaucon acknowledges, that, in spite of all his 
researches, both in France and Italy, he could 
never find any manuscript or charter, written on 
our ordinary paper, older than the year 1270, the 
time when St. Louis died. The truth is, we know 
neither the exact date of the invention of this sort 
of paper, nor the name of the inventor. 3 It is 
certain, however, that the manufacture of paper 
from cotton must have introduced that of paper 
from linen ; and the only question is, to determine 
at what time the use of linen became so common 
in Europe, as to lead us to suppose they might 
convert its rags into paper. The cultivation of 
hemp and flax being originally peculiar to the 
northern countries, it is probable that the first at- 
tempts at making paper of linen rags were made 
in Germany, and the countries abounding in flax 
and hemp, rather than in the southern provinces 
of Europe. The most ancient manufactory of 
paper from linen to he met with in Germany was 
established at Nuremberg (1390). 

The invention of oil-painting U generally 
ascribed to the two brothers Van-Kick, the younger 
of whom, known by the name of John of Bruce*, 
had gained considerable celebrity about the end of 
the fourteenth century. There is, however, reason 
to believe that this invention is of an older date. 
There are two authors who have carried it back to 
the i-leM-nth lentury, vu.,Theophilusand Eraclius, 
whose works in manuscript have been preserved in 
the library at Wolffenbuttel, and in that of T< 
College, Cambridge ; and who speak of this art as 
already known in their times. According to them, 
all sorts of colours could be mixed up with linseed 

The Hanseatic League. 
68 The Baltic tr.ide. 

Flemish commercial cities. 


Knylish commerce. 
The ILmse towns. 
Woclloiis and Silks. 

ters of the commerce and the curreiit money of 
ever)- country where they established themselves ; 
and, in all probability, they were the first that 
adopted the practice of letters or bills of exchange, 
of which we may discover traces towards the 
middle of the thirteenth century. 

The Hanseatic League, which the maritime 
cities on the Baltic had formed in the thirteenth 
century, for the protection of their commerce 
against pirates and brigands, gained very consi- 
derable accessions of strength in the following 
century, and even became a very formidable mari- 
time power. A great number of the commercial 
cities of the Empire, from the Scheld and the isles 
of Zealand, to the confines of Livonia, entered 
successively into this League ; and many towns in 
the interior, in order to enjoy their protection, 
solicited the favour of being admitted under its 
flag. The first public act of a general confedera- 
tion among these cities was drawn up at the as- 
sembly of their deputies, held at Cologne, in 1364. 
The whole of the allied towns were subdivided 
into quarters or circles ; the most ancient of which 
were the Venedian quarter, containing the south- 
ern and eastern coasts of the Baltic ; the Westpha- 
lian, for the towns on the western side ; and the 
Saxon, comprehending the inland and intermediate 
towns. A fourth circle or quarter was afterwards 
added, that of the cities of Prussia and Livonia. 
The boundaries of these different circles and their 
capital towns varied from time to time. The 
general assemblies of the League were held regu- 
larly every three years, in the city of Lubec, which 
was considered as the capital of the whole League ; 
while each of the three or four circles had also their 
particular or provincial assemblies. 

The most flourishing epoch of this League was 
about the end of the fourteenth and the early part 
of the fifteenth century. At that time, the deputies 
of more than fourscore cities appeared at its as- 
semblies ; and even some towns who had not the 
privilege of sending deputies were, nevertheless, 
regarded as allies of the League. Having the com- 
mand of the whole commerce of the Baltic, their 
cities exercised at their pleasure the rights of peace 
and war, and even of forming alliances. They 
equipped numerous and powerful fleets, and offered 
battle to the sovereigns of the North, whenever 
they presumed to interfere with their monopoly, 
or to restrict the privileges and exemptions which 
they had had the weakness to grant them. The 
productions of the North, such as hemp, flax, tim- 
ber, potash, tar, corn, hides, furs, and copper, with 
the produce of the large and small fisheries on the 
- of Schonen, Norway, Lapland, and Iceland, 15 
formed the staple of the Hanseatic commerce. 
They exchanged these commodities, in the western 
parts of Europe, for wines, fruits, drugs, and all 
sorts of cloths, which they carried back to the 
Ninth in return. Their principal fac'ories and 
warehouses were at Bruges for Flanders, at Lon- 
don for England, at Novogorod for Russia, and at 
Bergen for Norway. The merchandise of Italy and 
the East was imported into Flanders, in Genoese 
or Venetian bottoms, which, at that time, carried 
on most, of the commerce of the Levant and the 

Extensive aa the trade of the Hanseatic cities 
was, it proved neither solid nor durable. As tin \ 
were themselves deficient in the articles of raw 

materials and large manufactories, and entirely 
dependent on foreign traffic, the industry of other 
nations, especially of those skilled in the arts, had 
a ruinous effect on their commerce ; and, in course 
of time, turned the current of merchandise into 
other channels. Besides, the want of union among 
these cities, their factions and intestine divisions, 
and their distance from each other, prevented them 
from ever forming a territorial or colonial power, 
or obtaining possession of the Sound, which alone 
was able to secure them the exclusive commerce of 
the Baltic. The sovereigns of Europe, perceiving 
at length more clearly their true interests, and 
sensible of the mistake they had committed in 
surrendering the whole commerce of their kingdom 
to the Hanseatic merchants, used every means to 
limit and abridge their privileges more and more. 
This, in consequence, involved the confederate 
towns in several destructive wars witli the Kings 
of the North, which exhausted their finances, and 
induced one city after another to abandon the 
League. The English and the Dutch, encouraged 
by the Danish kings, took advantage of this 
favourable opportunity to send their vessels to the 
Baltic ; and by degrees they appropriated to them- 
selves the greater part of the trade that had been 
engrossed by the Hanseatic Union. But what is 
of more importance to remark, is, that this League, 
as well as that of Lombardy, having been formed 
in consequence of the state of anarchy into which 
the Empire had fallen in the middle ages, the na- 
tural result was, that it should lose its credit and 
its influence in proportion as the feudal anarchy 
declined, and when the administration of the Em- 
pire had assumed a new form, and the landed 
nobility, emboldened by the accessions which the 
seventeenth century had made to their power, had 
found means to compel their dependent cities to 
return to their allegiance, after having made re- 
peated efforts to throw off their authority, en- 
couraged as they were by the protection which the 
League held out to them. 

In this manner did the famous Hanseatic League, 
so formidable at the time of which we now speak, 
decline by degrees during the course of the seven- 
teenth century, and in the early part of the 
eighteenth ; and during the thirty years war it 
became entirely extinct. The cities of Lubec, 
Hamburg and Bremen, abandoned by all their 
confederates, entered into a new union for the in- 
terests of their commerce, and preserved the ancient 
custom of treating in common with foreign powers, 
under the name of the Hanse Towns. 

The cities of Italy and the North were not the 
only ones that made commerce their pursuit in 
the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Ghent, 
Bruges, Antwerp, and other towns in the Nether- 
lands, contributed greatly to the prosperity of trade 
by their manufactures of cloth, cotton, camlets, and 
tapestry ; articles with which they supplied the 
greater part of Europe. The English exchanged 
their raw wool with the Belgians, for the finished 
manufactures of their looms, while the It:ili;m> 
furnished them with the productions of the Levant, 
and the silk stuffs of India. Noihinir is more sur- 
prising than the immense population <if these cities, 
whose wealth and affluence raised their rulers to 
the rank of the most powerful princes in Europe. 
The city of Bruges was, as it \\i-n-, the centre and 
principal repository for the merchandise of the 


.t,, . . , 


1M1KIOU \. A.M. 1300-1443. 

rasl Mtutlmw 


i and the Sooth. Such an entrepot was ne- 
cessary, at a lima when navigation was vet i. 
infanc \ . For tin* purpose, Flanders and Brabant 
were extremely proper, M thes* province* bad an 
easv commnnloUion with all (In- principal nations 
of the continent ; and M the great number : 

i factories, together with tin- abundance of fish 
win. ii their rn.-r- .iil'-nl.-.!. naturally attracted a 
vast eoneoone of foreign trader*. This mi per. 
as the commercial capital uf the Low 
Hrugv* retained till nearly the end of the fifteenth 
cntur\. u In ii it !<>( (Ins preponderance, which 
wan then transferred to tin- citj ,.t 

'I'll.- intestine dissensions with which the cities 
of Handep. and Brabant were agitated, the 
restraint* which wen incessantly imposed on their 
commerce, ami tin- fn-i|uent wan* which desolated 
tin- Low Countric*, induced, from time to time, a 
great many riemish operatives about the four- 
t-uth century, and the reign of Edward III., to 
take refuge in England, where they established 
their cloth manufactories under the immediate pro* 
. of the crown. One circumstance which 
more particularly contributed to the prosperity of 
the Dutch coimiirrce, was the new method of 
salting and barrelling herring, which was disco- 
vered in the fourteenth century by a man named 
William Beukelasoon, a native of Biervliet, near 
Sluys. The new passage of the Tcxcl, which the 
sea opened up about the same time, proved a most 
favourable accident for the city of Amsterdam, 
which immediately monopolized the principal 
commerce of the fisheries, and began to be fre- 
quented by the Hanscatic traders. 

now return to the history of Germany. The 
Imperial throne, always elective, was conferred, in 
- . on the princes of the House of Luxembourg, 
who occupied it till 1438, when the House of 
Hapsburg obtained the Imperial dignity. It was 
under tin- r- i.-n of these two dynasties that the 
government of tin- Km pi re, which till then had 
been vacillating and uncertain, began to assume a 
constitutional form, and a new and settled code of 
laws. That which was published at the Diet of 
Frankfort in 1338, secured the independence of 
the Empire against the Popes. It was preceded 
by a League, ratified at Reuse by the Electors, 
and known by the name of the General Union of 
the Electors. The Golden Bull, drawn up by the 
Emperor Charles IV. (1356), in the Diets of Nu- 
reuiheri: inil Metz, fixed the order and the form of 
nlorring the Emperors, and the ceremonial of their 
coronation. It ordained that this election should 
be determined by a majority of the suffrages of the 
i-lecturs and that the vote of the elector 
who might happen to be chosen should also be 
included. Mori-liver, to prevent those electoral 
di\iioin, which had more than once excited fac- 
t !!!- :>n<l eivil wars in the empire, this law fixed 
irrevocably the right of suffrage in the Princi- 
palitic... then entitled Electorates. It forbade any 
di\i-ion ofth. e principalities, and f>r this end it 
introduced the principle of birth-right, and the 
order of succession, called agnate, or direct male 
line from the same fattier. Finally, the Golden 
Bull determined more particularly the rights and 
privileges of the electors, and continued to the 

>rs of the Palatinate and Saxony the 
royalty or government of the empire during any 

efforts which the Council of Basle made for 

1 nnarioi, . i excited the attention 

of the Estates of the empire. In a dirt held at 
Mayei . d several decree* of 

that Council, by a solemn act drawn up in preseoco 
of the ambassadors of the Council, and of the 
Kings of France, Castile, Arragon, and Portugal. 
Among these adopted decrees, which were not 
afterwards altered, we observe those which e*U 
lihli (he hiip.-noniy of Councils above the Popes, 
which prohibited those appeals called omtuo 
media, or immediate, and enjoined the Pope to 
settle all appeals referred to his court, by commis- 
sioners appointed by him upon the spot. Two 
concordats, concluded at Rome and Vienna 
l 1 17-4H), between the Papal court and the Ger- 
man nation, confirmed these stipulations. The 
Utter of these concordats, however, restored to the 
Pope several of the reserves, of which the Prag- 
matic Sanction had deprived him. He was also 
allowed to retain the right of confirm ing the prelates, 
and enjoying the annats and the alternate months. 
The ties which united the numerous states of 
the German empire having been relaxed by the 
introduction of hereditary feudalism, and the 
downfal of the imperial authority, the consequence 
was, that those states which were more remote 
ftom the seat of authority by degrees asserted their 
independence, or were reduced to subjection by 
tin ir more powerful neighbours. It was in this 
manner that several provinces of the ancient king- 
dom of Burgundy, or Aries, passed in succession to 
the crown of France. Philip the Fair, taking ad- 
vantage of the disputes which had arisen between 
the archbishop and the citizens of Lyons, obliged 
the archbishop, Peter de Savoy, to surrender to 
him, by treaty (1312), the sovereignty of the city 
and its dependencies. The same kingdom acquired 
the province of Dauphin y, in virtue of the grant 
which the last dauphin, Humbert II., made (1340) 
of his estates to Charles, grandson of Philip de 
Valois, and first dauphin of France. Provence was 
likewise added (14H1) to the dominions of that 
crown, by the testament of Charles, last Count of 
Provence, of the House of Anjou. As to the city 
of Avignon, it was sold (1348) by Joan I., Queen 
iples, and Countess of Provence, to Pope 
Clement VI., who at the same time obtained let- 
ti rs-patcnt from the Emperor Charles IV., re- 
nouncing the claims of the Empire to the sovereignty 
of that city, as well as to all lauds belonging to the 

A most important revolution happened about 
this time in Switzerland. That country, formerly 
dependent upon the kingdom of Burgundy, had 
become an immediate province of the Empire 
(1218), on the extinction of the Dukes of Zahrin- 
gen, who had governed it under the title of regents. 
About the beginning of the fourteenth century, 
Switzerland was divided into a number of petty 
states, both secular and ecclesiastical. Among 
these, we find the Bishop of Basle, the Abbe of 
all, the Counts of Hapsburg, Toggenburg, 
Savoy, Gruyeres, Neufcha- iberir, Hu- 

check, &c. The towns of Zurich, Soleure, Basle, 
It. me, and others, had the rank of free and ira- 
p. ml cities. A part of the inhabitants of I'ri, 
Srhweitz, and Underwalden, who held imme- 
diately of the Empire, were governed by their own 
magistrates, under the name of Cantons. They 

The Hanseatic League. 
68 The Baltic trade. 

Flemish commercial cities. 


Knglish commerce. 
The Ilanse towns. 
Woollens and Silks. 

ters of the commerce and the current money of 
every country where they established themselves ; 
and, in all probability, they were the first that 
adopted the practice of letters or bills of exchange, 
of which we may discover traces towards the 
middle of the thirteenth century. 

The Hanseatic League, which the maritime 
cities on the Baltic had formed in the thirteenth 
century, for the protection of their commerce 
against pirates and brigands, gained very consi- 
derable accessions of strength in the following 
century, and even became a very formidable mari- 
time power. A great number of the commercial 
cities of the Empire, from the Scheld and the isles 
of Zealand, to the confines of Livonia, entered 
successively into this League ; and many towns in 
the interior, in order to enjoy their protection, 
solicited the favour of being admitted under its 
flag. The first public act of a general confedera- 
tion among these cities was drawn up at the as- 
sembly of their deputies, held at Cologne, in 1364. 
The whole of the allied towns were subdivided 
into quarters or circles ; the most ancient of which 
were the Venedian quarter, containing the south- 
ern and eastern coasts of the Baltic ; the Westpha- 
lian, for the towns on the western side ; and the 
Saxon, comprehending the inland and intermediate 
towns. A fourth circle or quarter was afterwards 
added, that of the cities of Prussia and Livonia. 
The boundaries of these different circles and their 
capital towns varied from time to time. The 
general assemblies of the League were held regu- 
larly every three years, in the city of Lubec, which 
was considered as the capital of the whole League ; 
while each of the three or four circles had also their 
particular or provincial assemblies. 

The most flourishing epoch of this League was 
about the end of the fourteenth and the early part 
of the fifteenth century. At that time, the deputies 
of more than fourscore cities appeared at its as- 
semblies ; and even some towns who had not the 
privilege of sending deputies were, nevertheless, 
regarded as allies of the League. Having the com- 
mand of the whole commerce of the Baltic, their 
cities exercised at their pleasure the rights of peace 
and war, and even of forming alliances. They 
equipped numerous and powerful fleets, and offered 
battle to the sovereigns of the North, whenever 
they presumed to interfere with their monopoly, 
or to restrict the privileges and exemptions which 
they had had the weakness to grant them. The 
productions of the North, such as hemp, flax, tim- 
ber, potash, tar, corn, hides, furs, and copper, with 
the produce of the large and small fisheries on the 
coasts of Schonen, Norway, Lapland, and Iceland, 1 * 
formed the staple of the Hanseatic commerce. 
They exchanged these commodities, in the western 
parts of Europe, for wines, fruits, drugs, and all 
sorts of cloths, which they carried back to the 
North in return. Their principal fac'orics and 
warehouses were at Bruges for Flanders, at Lon- 
don for England, at Novogorod for Russia, and at 
Bergen for Norway. The merchandise <>f ltal\ and 
the East was imported into Flanders, in Genoese 
or Venetian bottoms, which, at that time, carried 
on most of the commerce of the Levant and the 

Extensive an the trade of the Hanseatic cities 
was, it proved neither solid nor durable. As thoy 
were themselves deficient in the articles of raw 

materials and large manufactories, and entirely- 
dependent on foreign traffic, the industry of other 
nations, especially of those skilled in the arts, had 
a ruinous effect on their commerce ; and, in course 
of time, turned the current of merchandise into 
other channels. Besides, the want of union among 
these cities, their factions and intestine divisions, 
and their distance from each other, prevented them 
from ever forming a territorial or colonial power, 
or obtaining possession of the Sound, which alone 
was able to secure them the exclusive commerce of 
the Baltic. The sovereigns of Europe, perceiving 
at length more clearly their true interests, and 
sensible of the mistake they had committed in 
surrendering the whole commerce of their kingdom 
to the Hanseatic merchants, used every means to 
limit and abridge their privileges more and more. 
This, in consequence, involved the confederate 
towns in several destructive wars with the Kiii;_ r -; 
of the North, which exhausted their finances, and 
induced one city after another to abandon the 
League. The English and the Dutch, encouraged 
by the Danish kings, took advantage of this 
favourable opportunity to send their vessels to the 
Baltic ; and by degrees they appropriated to them- 
selves the greater part of the trade that had been 
engrossed by the Hanseatic Union. But what is 
of more importance to remark, is, that this League, 
as well as that of Lombardy, having been formed 
in consequence of the state of anarchy into which 
the Empire had fallen in the middle ages, the na- 
tural result was, that it should lose its credit and 
its influence in proportion as the feudal anarchy 
declined, and when the administration of the Em- 
pire had assumed a new form, and the landed 
nobility, emboldened by the accessions which the 
seventeenth century had made to their power, had 
found means to compel their dependent cities to 
return to their allegiance, after having made re- 
peated efforts to throw off their authority, en- 
couraged as they were by the protection which the 
League held out to them. 

In this manner did the famous Hanseatic League, 
so formidable at the time of which we now spe:ik, 
decline by degrees during the course of the sc\cn- 
teenth century, and in the early part of the 
eighteenth ; and during the thirty years war it 
became entirely extinct. The cities of Lubec, 
Hamburg and Bremen, abandoned by all their 
confederates, entered into a new union for the in- 
terests of their commerce, and preserved the ancient 
custom of treating in common with foreign powers, 
under the name of the Hanse Towns. 

The cities of Italy and the North were not the 
only ones that made commerce their pursuit in 
the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Ghent, 
Bruges, Antwerp, and other towns in the Nether- 
lands, contributed greatly to the prosperity of trade 
by their manufactures of cloth, cotton, camlets, and 
tapestry; articles -\\ith which they supplied tlip 
greater part of Europe. The English exchanged 
their raw wool with the Belgians tor the finished 
manufactures of their looms while the Italians 
furnished them with the productions of the Levant, 
and the silk stalls of India. Nothing is more sur- 
prising than the immense population nf these cities, 
whose wealth and affluence raised their rulers to 
the nink of the most powerful prinres in Kumpe. 
The cit\ of Bruges was, as it were, the centre and 
principal repository for the merchandise of the 

I :. .- Mi -I i - H.. r 

.Uplcln P 

PERIOD V. A.D. 18001463. 

I, .:', I! 

>. .1-1 

i and the Sooth. Such an entrepot WM ne- 
eewary, nt inn- Cation wa- 

infm. i* purpoae, Flanders and Brabant 

were extm . a* these province* had an 

easy coinnr. -ili ult tin- |.i im-ipal nation* 

of the continent; and M the great nun.' 

.factories, together \\nli tin- abundance of fiah 
I-H uir<>nli-il. naturally attracted a 
vast concourse of foreign traders. This u;.. . 
u the commercial ..i| i>f the Low < 
Brugr* retained till nearly the end of the fifteenth 
eentur\ . I., i. it i -( tin-* pi. IM.M.'.I-I.IIH c, which 
wan then traiifcrn-d in tin- . -it\ n|" Antu 

'II. lissensions with which the cities 

..indent and Brabant were agitated, the 
restraint* which were incessantly imposed on their 
commerce, and the frequent wan which desolated 
the Low Countries, induced, from time to time, a 
great many ri'-iiu-li operatives about the four- 
teenth century, and the reign of Kdward III., to 
take refuge in England, where they established 
tin 11 cloth manufactories under the immediate pro- 

ii of the crown. One circumstance which 
more particularly contributed to the prosperity of 
the Dutch commerce, was the new method of 
Baiting and barn-llim; herring, which was disco- 

; in tin- foiirtrriiih ci-niui \ by a man named 
William Beukelsxoon, a native of Biervliet, near 
Sluys. The new passage of the Tcxel, which the 
sea opened up about the same time, proved a most 
favourable accident fur the city of Amsterdam, 
which Immediately monopolized the principal 
commerce of the fisheries, and began to be fre- 
quented by the Hanseatic traders. 

now return to the history of Germany. The 
Imperial throne, always elective, was conferred, in 

. on the princes of the House of Luxembourg, 
who occupied it till 1438, when the House of 
Hapsburg obtained the Imperial dignity. It was 
under the rei^n of thc-.e two dynasties that the 
govern mi nt of tin- Kmpirc, which till then had 
been vacillating and uncertain, began to assume a 
constitutional form, and a new and settled code of 
laws. That which was published at the Diet of 
Frankfort in 1338, secured the independence of 
the Empire against the Popes. It was preceded 
by a League, ratified at Rens by the Electors, 
u id known by the name of the General Union of 
the Electors. Tin- (ioldcn Hull, drawn up by the 
Emperor Charles IV. (1350), in the Diets of Nu- 
remberg ami Met*, fixed the order and the form of 
electing the Emperors, and the ceremonial of their 
coronation. It ordained that this election should 
be determined by a majority of the suffrages of the 
electors and that the vote of the elector 
who might happen to be chosen should also be 
included. Moreover, to prevent those electoral 
di\i-io!i., which had more than once excited fac- 
tion- ami riul wars in the empire, thi< l:iw tivd 

cably the ri^ht of miflragv in the Piinci- 
palitie-. tli. n entitled ! . It forbade any 

diiiMon of th.--e princip.ilitie, and for this end it 
introduced the principle of birth-right, and the 
order of succession, culled agnate, ..r direct male 
In..- from the same father. Finally, tin- dolden 
Hull determined more particularly the rights and 
prhil-scs of the electors, and continued to the 

>rs of the Palatinate and Saxony the vice- 
royalty or government of the empire during any 

The efforts which the Council of Basle made for 

formation of the church excited the attention 
of the Estates of the empire. In a diet held at 
Mayei they adopted several decrees of 

that Council, by a solemn act drawn up in presence 
of the ambassador* of I'M- Council, and of the 
King* of France, Castile, Arragon, and Portugal. 
Among these adopted decrees, which were not 
afterward* altered, we observe those which eeU 
bli*h the iup<Tiorit\ of Councils above the Popes, 
which prohibited those appeals called omtMO 
media, or immediate, and enjoined the Pope to 

all appeals referred to bis court, by commis- 
sioners appoint,-. | l,\ him upon the spot. Two 
concordats, concluded at Rome and Vienna 
(1447-48), between the Papal court and the < 
man nation, confirmed these stipulation*. The 
latter of these concordat*, however, restored to the 
Pope several of the reserves, of which the Prag- 
matic Sanction had deprived him. He was also 
allowed to retain the right of confirming the prelate*, 
and enjoying the annats and the alternate month*. 
The tie* which united the numerous state* of 
the German empire having been relaxed by the 
introduction of hereditary feudalism, and the 
downfal of the imperial authority, the consequence 
was, that those states which were more remote 
fiom the seat of authority by degree* asserted their 
independence, or were reduced to subjection by 
their more powerful neighbours. It was in this 
manner that several provinces of the ancient king- 
dom of Burgundy, or Aries, passed in succession to 
the crown of France. Philip the Fair, taking ad- 
vantage of the disputes which had arisen between 
the archbishop and the citizens of Lyons, obliged 
the archbishop, Peter de Savoy, to surrender to 
him, by treaty (1312), the sovereignty of the city 
and its dependencies. The same kingdom acquired 
the province of Dauphiny, in virtue of the grant 
which the last dauphin, Humbert II., made (1340) 
of his estates to Charier, grandson of Philip de 
Valois, and first dauphin of France. Provence was 
likewise added (1481) to the dominion* of that 
crown, by the testament of Charles, but Count of 
Provence, of the House of Anjou. As to the city 
of Avignon, it was sold (1348) by Joan I., Queen 

- iples, and Countess of Provence, to Pope 
Clement VI., who at the same time obtained let- 
tcrx-patent from the Emperor Charles IV., re- 
nouncing the claims of the Empire to the sovereignty 
of that city, as well as to all lands belonging to the 

A most important revolution happened about 
this time in Switzerland. That country, formerly 
dependent upon the kingdom of Burgundy, had 
become an immediate province of the Empire 
(1218), on the extinction of the Dukes of Zahrin- 
gen, who had governed it under the title of regents. 
About the beginning of the fourteenth century, 
Switzerland was divided into a number of petty 
states, both secular and ecclesiastical. Among 
these, we find the Bishop of Basle, the Abb of 

.all, the Counts of Hapsburg, Toggenburg, 
Savoy, Gruyere*, Neufchatel, Werdenberg. H<i- 
check, &c. The towns of Zurich, Solcurr, Basle, 
Herne. and others, had the rank of free and im- 
perial cities. A part of the inhabitants < 
Schweiu, ami I'nderwalden, who held imme- 
diately of the Empire, were governed by their own 
magistrates, under the name of Cantons. They 

Emperor Albert I. 
70 Battle of Morgart.-n. 
Swiss confederation. 


Duchy of Burgundy. 
Kiii<.'ilom of Bolu-nm. 
The Hussite war. 

were placed by the Emperor under the jurisdiction 
of governors, who exercised, in his name and that 
of the Empire, the power of the sword in all those 
cantons. Such was the constitution of Switzer- 
land, when the Emperor Albert I., of Austria, son 
of Rodolph of Hapsburg, conceived the project of 
extending his dominion in that country, where he 
already had considerable possessions, in his capa- 
city of Count of Hapsburg, Kyburg, Baden, and 
Lentzburg. Being desirous of forming Switzer- 
land into a principality in favour of one of his 
sons, he made, in course of time, several new ac- 
quisitions of territory, with the view of enlarging 
hi* estate*. The Abbeys of Murbach, Einsiedel, 
Interlaken, and Disentis, and the Canons of Lu- 
cerne, sold him their rights and possessions in 
Claris, Lucerne, Schweitz, and Underwalden. He 
next directed his policy against the three imme- 
diate cantons of Uri, Schweitz, and Underwalden ; 
and endeavoured to make them acknowledge the 
superiority of Austria, by tolerating the oppres- 
sions which the governors exercised, whom he had 
appointed to rule them in the name of the Em- 
pire. It was under these circumstances that three 
intrepid individuals, Werner de StaufFach, a native 
of the canton of Schweitz, Walter Fttrst, of Uri, 
and Arnold de Melchthal, of Underwalden, took 
the resolution of delivering their country- from the 
tyranny of a foreign yoke. 16 The conspiracy which 
they formed for this purpose, broke out on the 1st 
of January, 1308. The governors, surprised in 
their castles by the conspirators, were banished 
the country, and their castles razed to the ground. 
The deputies of the three cantons assembled, and 
entered into a league of ten years for the main- 
tenance of their liberties and their privileges ; re- 
serving, however, to the Empire its proper rights, 
as also those claimed by the superiors, whether lay 
or ecclesiastical. Thus a conspiracy, which was ori- 
ginally turned only against Austria, terminated in 
withdrawing Switzerland from the sovereignty of 
the German Empire. The victory which the con- 
federates gained over the Austrians at Morgarten, 
on the borders of the canton of Schweitz, encou- 
raged them to renew their league at Brunnen 
(1315) ; and to render it perpetual. As it was 
confirmed by oath, the confederates, from this 
circumstance, got the name of Eidgenossen, which 
means, bound by oath. This league became hence- 
forth the basis of the federal system of the Swiss, 
who were not long in strengthening their cause by 
the accession of other cantons. The city of Lu- 
cerne, having shaken off the yoke of Hapsburg, 
i >incd the league of Brunnen in 1332, Zurich in 
1351, Claris and Zug in 1353, and Berne in 1355. 
These formed the eight ancient cantons. 

The situation of the confederates, however, could 
not fail to be very embarrassing, so long as the 
Austrians retained the vast possessions which they 
had in the very centre of Switzerland. The pro- 
scription which the Emperor Sigismund and the 
Council of Constance issued against Frederic, Duke 
of Austria (1415), as an adherent and protector of 
John XXIII., at length furnished the Swiss with 
a favourable occasion for depriving the house of 
Austria of their possessions. The Bernese were 
the first to set the example ; they took from the 
Austrian dukes, the towns of Zoffiugen, Arau, and 
Brack, with the counties of Hapsburg and Lentz- 
burg, and the greater part of Aargau. Kyburg 

fell into the hands of the Zurichers ; theLucernese 
made themselves masters of Sursee ; and the free 
bailiwicks, with the county of Baden, the towns 
of Mellingen and Bremgarten, were subdued by 
the combined forces of the ancient cantons, who, 
since then, have possessed them in common. 

In the kingdom of Lorraine a new power rose 
about this time (1363), that of the dukes of Bur- 
gundy. Philip the Hardy, younger son of John 
the Good, King of France, having been created 
Duke of Burgundy by the king his father, mar- 
ried Margaret, daughter and heiress of Louis III., 
last Count of Flanders. By this marriage he ob- 
tained Flanders, Artois, Franche-Comte, Nevers, 
Rethel, Malines, and Antwerp, and transmitted 
these estates to his son John the Fearless, and his 
grandson, Philip the Good. This latter prince 
increased them still more by several new acquisi- 
tions. The Count of Namur sold him his whole 
patrimony (1428). He inherited from his cousin, 
Philip of Burgundy, the duchies of Brabant and 
Limbourg (1430). Another cousin, the famous 
Jaqueline de Bavaria, made over to him by treaty 
(1433) the counties of Hainault, Holland, Zealand, 
and Friesland. Finally, he acquired also the duchy 
of Luxembourg and the county of Chiny, by a 
compact which he made with the Princess Elizabeth 
(1443), niece of the Emperor Sigismund. These 
different accessions were so much the more im- 
portant, as the Low Countries, especially F.'anders 
and Brabant, were at that time the seat of the most 
flourishing manufactories, and the principal mart 
of European commerce. Hence it happened, that 
the Dukes of Burgundy began to compete with the 
first powers in Europe, and even to rival the Kings 
of France. 

Among the principal reigning families of the 
Empire, several revolutions took place. The an- 
cient Slavonic dynasty of the Dukes and Kings of 
Bohemia became extinct with Wenceslaus V., who 
was assassinated in 1306. The Emperor Henry 
VII., of the House of Luxembourg, seized this 
opportunity of transferring to his own family the 
kingdom of Bohemia, in which he invested his son 
John (1309), who had married the Princess Eliza- 
beth, sister to the last King of Bohemia. John, 
having made considerable acquisitions in Bohemia, 
was induced to cede, by treaty with Poland, the 
sovereignty of that province. The Emperor Charles 
IV., son of John, incorporated Silesia, as also 
Lusatia, with the kingdom of Bohemia, by the 
Pragmatics which he published in 1355 and i:!7<>. 
The war with the Hussites broke out on the death 
of the Emperor Wenceslaus, King of Bohemia 
(1418), because the followers of John Huss, and 
Jerome of Prague, had refused to acknowled- 
successor of that prince, the Emperor Sigismund, 
his brother and heir, whom they blamed for the 
martyrdom of their leaders. This war, one of the 
most sanguinary which the spirit of intolerance and 
fanaticism ever excited, continued for a long scries 
of years. John de Trocznova, surnamed /iska, 
general-in-chief of the Hussites, defeated several 
times those numerous armies of crusaders, which 
were Bent against him into Bohemia; and it 
not till long after the death of that extraordinary 
man, that Sigismund succeeded in allaying the 
tempest, and re-establishing his own anthori'y in 
that kingdom. 

The house of Wittelsback, which possessed at 

of Stuay. 

i ..t.-, .11- t 
Kunuly ./&* 

' .: .' 

PI HI. l> V. A.D. 1300-145.1. 

of ITownr.. 


:ime time the Palatinate ami Havana, was 

I into two principal bran' "iat of 

the Klectora Palatine ami the l)ukrs of Bavaria. 

. PII which \VM enters! 

at Pavia ( I agreed on a reciprocal soc- 

rnwion of the two branches, in rase the one 
other nhoulil happen to fail <>f heio-m:tl>-. 
direct line of the elector* of Saxony, of the Asca- 
; , happening to become extin> 

it paying any regard to 
lima of the younger branchei of Saxon; . 
! that Electorate (1423), as a vacant fief of 
it-, the Warlike, Margrave of 
Misnia, who hail !.<. 

var against the Hussites. Thin prince had 
two grandson*, Ernest and Albert, from whom are 
descended tin- two principal branches, which still 

I louse of Sn\ 

The Ascaniau dynasty did not lose merely tin- 
rate of Saxony, as we have just stated; it 
was also deprived, in the preceding rent MM, ( tin- 
electorate of Brandenburg. Allu-rt, stirnamed the 
Bear, a scion of this house, had transmitted thin 
l.itti-r electorate, of which he was the founder, to 
his descendants in direct line, the male-heirs of 
hieh failed about the beginning of tin- fourteenth 
century. The Emperor Louis, of Bav:iri:i, then 
wed it on his eldest son, Louis (l^'.M), to the 
vision nf the collateral branches of Saxony and 
A n ha It. The Bavarian princes, however, did not 
long preserve this electorate ; they surrendered it 
i mperor Charles IV., whose son, 
1 it to Frederic, Hurgrave of Nu- 
remberg, of the House of Hohenzolleru, who had 
advain. I him considerable sums to defray his cx- 
pedit. ! in^;ii\. This jirinei \v:is solemn!} 

invested \\ith the electoral dignity by the Kmpcror, 
at the Council of Constance (1417), and become 
the ancestor of all the Electors and Margraves of 
Brandenburg, as well as of the Kings of Prussia. 

The numerous republic* which hud sprung up 
in Italv, in the twelfth ami thirteenth centuries, 
were torn to pieces by contending factions, and a 
prey to mutual and incessant hostilities. What 
e.intri'iMtcil to augment the trouble and confusion 
in that unhappy country was, that, during a long 
series of yean, no emperor had repaired thither in 
person, or made the smallest attempt to restore the 
imperial authority in those states. The feeble 
II'!ir\ \II., Louis of Bavaria, and 
Charles IV., only served to prove, that in Italy the 
royal prerogative was without vigour or effect. 
Anarchy everywhere prevailed; and that spirit of 
libertj and republicanism which had once ani- 
mated the Italians gradually disappeared. Dis- 
gusted at length with privileges which had !> 
so fatal to them, some of these republics adopted 
in of choosing new masters; while others 
were subjected, against their inclination)!, by the 
more powerful of the nobles. The Marquises of 

i, and ob- 

iueal diijnr ;>eror 

Frederic III. Mantua' >ueof Goiuaga, 

who possessed that sovereignty fint under the title 

rgraves, and afterward - ' > nkes, 

was conferred on them t >.Tor 

Hut the greater part of these 

fell to the share of the Visconti of 

> person who founded the pros) 

of their house was Matthew Visconti, nephew of 

Otho Vi< ishop of Milan. Invested 

with tin- title* of Captain and Imperial Viceroy In 
Lombmrdy, be contrived to make himself be ac- 
knowledged as sovereign of Milan (1315), and 
lercd in succession all the principal towns 
and republics of Lombardy. His successor 
lowed his example : they enlarged their territories 
by several now conquests, till at \> nth J..I 
leas, great grandson of Matthew Vuwonti, ob- 
tained, from tin- Kmperor Wenceslaus (13.'> 
a sum of one hundred thousand H<>r. 
which he paid him. the tide of Duke ot 
himself and all his descendant*. T 
family reigned at Milan till 1447, when they were 
replaced by that of Sforza. 

.Vinous the republics of Italy who cscap* 
catastrophe of the fourteenth century, tin: most 
conspicuous were those of Flop-nee, (idiom, and 
Venire. The <-it\ of Florence, like all the ol 
in Tuscany, formed itself into a republic alx. . 
end of the twelfth century. Itx t un- 

derwent frequent changes, after the introduction ,,t 
a democracy about the middle of the thirteenth 
ccntiiM. The various factions which had agitated 
the republic induced the Florentines to elect a 
magistrate (129J), called Gaitfaluntere de Justice, 
or Captain of Justice: invested with power to as- 
semble the inhabitants under his standard, when- 
ever the means for conciliation were insufficient to 
suppress faction and restore peace. These internal 
agitations, however, did not pre\ent the Florentines 
from enriching themselves by means of their com- 
merce and manufactures. They succeeded, in 
course of time, in subjecting the greater part of the 
free cities of Tuscany, and especially that of Pisa, 
which they conquered in 14(Hi. The republic of 
Lucca was the only one that maintained its . 
pendenee, in .spite of all the efforts which the Flo- 
rentines made to subdue it. The republican form 
of government continued in Florence till the year 
1530, when the family of the Medici usurped the 
sovereignty, under the protection of the Emperor 
Charles V. 

The same rivalry which had set the Genoese to 
quarrel with the Pisans excited their jealousy 
against the Venetians. The interests of these two 
republics thwarted each other, both in the Levant 
and the Mediterranean. This gave rise to a long 
and disastrous series of wars, the last and most me- 
morable of which was that of Chioggia 
The Genoese, after a signal victory which they 
obtained over the Venetians, before Pola, in the 
Adriatic Gulf, penetrated to the very midst of the 
lagoons of Venice, and attacked the port of Chi- 
oggia. Peter Doria made himself master of this 
port ; he would hare even surprised Venice, had 
he taken advantage of the first consternation of the 
Venetians, who were already deliberating whether 
they should abandon their city and take refuge in 
the isle of Candia. The tardiness of the Genoese 
admiral gave them time to recover themselves. 
Impelled by a noble despair, they made extraor- 
dinary efforts to equip a new fleet, with which 
they attacked the Genoese near Chioggia. This 
place was retaken (24th June, 1380), and the se- 
vere check which the Genoese there received, may 
be said to have decided the command of the sea 
in favour of the Venetians. But what contributed 
still more to the downfal of the Genoese, was the 
instability of their government, and the internal 


The Levant trade. 
Venetian conquests. 
Joan I. of Naples. 


House of Anjou 



commotions of the republic. Agitated by conti- 
nual divisions between the nobles and the common 
citizens, and incapable of managing their own 
alF;iirs, they at length surrendered themselves to 
the power of strangers. Volatile and inconstant, 
and equally impatient of liberty as of servitude, 
those fickle republicans underwent a frequent 
change of masters. Twice (1396-1458) they put 
themselves under the protection of the Kings of 
France. At length they discarded the French, and 
chose for their protector either the Marquis of 
Montferrat or the Duke of Milan. Finally, from 
the year 1404, the city of Genoa was constantly 
regarded as ;i dependency of the duchy of Milan, 
until l.VJS. when it recovered once more its ancient 
state of independence. 

"While the republic of Genoa was gradually 
declining, that of Venice was every day acquiring 
new accessions of power. The numerous esta- 
blishments which they had formed in the Adriatic 
Gulf and the Eastern Seas, together with the ad- 
ditional vigour which they derived from the intro- 
duction of the hereditary aristocracy, were highly 
advantageous to the progress of their commerce 
and marine. The treaty which they concluded 
with the Sultan of Egypt (1343), by guaranteeing 
to their republic an entire liberty of commerce in 
the ports of Syria and Egypt, as also the privilege 
of having consuls at Alexandria and Damascus, 
put it in their power gradually to appropriate to 
themselves the whole trade of India, and to main- 
tain it against the Genoese, who had disputed 
with them the commerce of the East, as well as 
the command of the sea. These successes en- 
couraged the Venetians to make new acquisitions ; 
the turbulent state of Lombardy having afforded 
them an opportunity of enlarging their dominions 
on the continent of Italy, where at first they had 
^sed only the single dogeship of Venice, and 
the small province of Istria. They seized on 
Treviso, and the whole Trevisan March (1388), 
which they took from the powerful house of Car- 
rara. In 1420 they again got possession of Dal- 
matia, which they conquered from Sigismund, 
Kintr of Hungary. This conquest paved the way 
for that of Friuli, which they took about the same 
time from the Patriarch of Aquileia, an ally of the 
King of Hungary. At length, by a succession of 
L"""l fortune, they detached from the duchy of 
.Milan (1404) the cities and territories of Vicenza, 
Belluno, Verona, Padua, Brescia, Bergamo, and 
Cremona (14.">4), and thus formed a considerable 
estate on the mainland. 

Naples, during the course of this period, was 
ned by a descendant of Charles, of the first 
House of Anjou, and younger brother of St. Louis. 
Queen Joan I., daughter of Robert, King of 
Naples, having no children of her own, adopted a 
younger prince of the Angevine family, Charles of 
Durazzo, whom she destined as her successor, 
after having given him her niece in marriage. 
This ungrateful prince, in his eagerness to possess 
the crown, took arms against the Queen his bene- 
factress, and compelled her to solicit the aid of 
foreign powers. It was on this occasion that 
Joan, after rescinding and annulling her former 
deed of adoption, made another in favour of 
Louis I., younger brother of Charles V., King of 
France, and founder of the second House of 
Anjou. But the succours of that prince came too 

late to save the Queen from the hands of her cruel 
enemy. Charles, having made himself master of 
Naples and of the Queen's person (1382), imme- 
diately put her to death, and maintained himself 
on the throne, in spite of his adversary, Louis of 
Anjou, who obtained nothing more of the Queen's 
estates than the single county of Provence, which 
he transmitted to his descendants, together with 
his claim on the kingdom of Naples. Joan II., 
daughter and heiress of Charles of Durazzo, having 
been attacked by Louis III. of Anjou, who wished 
to enforce the rights of adoption which had de- 
scended to him from his grandfather Louis I., she 
implored the protection of Alphonso V., King of 
Arragon, whom she adopted and declared her heir 
(1421) ; but afterwards, having quarrelled with 
that prince, she changed her resolution, and passed 
a new act of adoption (1423) in favour of that 
same Louis of Anjou who had just made war 
against her. Rene of Anjou, the brother and suc- 
cessor of that prince, took possession of the king- 
dom of Naples on the death of Joan II. (1435) ; 
but he was expelled by the King of Arragon 
(1445) ; who had procured from Pope Eugeuius 
rV. the investiture of that kingdom, which he 
transmitted to his natural son Ferdinand, de- 
scended from a particular branch of the Kings of 
Naples. The rights of the second race of Angevine 
princes were transferred to the Kings of France, 
along with the county of Provence (1481). 

Spain, which was divided into a varietj of so- 
vereignties, both Christian and Mahometan, pre- 
sented at this time a kind of separate or distinct 
continent, whose interests had almost nothing in 
common with the rest of Europe. The Kings of 
Navarre, Castile, and Arragon, disagreeing among 
themselves, and occupied with the internal affairs 
of their own kingdoms, had but little leisure to 
attempt or accomplish any foreign enterprise. Of 
all the Kings of Castile at this period, the most 
famous, in the wars against the Moors, was 
Alphonso XI. The Mahometan Kings of Morocco 
and Grenada having united their forces, laid si.--'' 
to the city of Tariffa in Andalusia, where Al- 
phonso, assisted by the King of Portugal, ventured 
to attack them ill the neighbourhood of that place. 
He gained a complete victory over the Moors 
(1340) ; and this was followed by the conquest of 
various other cities and districts ; among others, 
Alcala-Real, and Algeziras. 

AVhile the Kings of Castile were extending their 
conquests in the interior of Spain, those of Arra- 
gon, hemmed in by the Castilians, were obliged 
to look for aggrandisement abroad. They pos- 
sessed the country of Barcelona, or Catalonia, in 
virtue of the marriage of Count Raymond Be- 
renger IV. with Donna Petronilla, heiress of the 
kingdom of Arragon. To this they added the 
county of Reusillon, and the seignory or lordship 
of Montpellier, both of which, as well as C'at-i- 
lonia, belonged to the sovereignty of Trance. Don 
James I., who conquered the kingdom of Valencia 
and the Balearic Isles, gave these, with Rousillon 
and Montpellier, to Don James, his younircr son, 
and who was a descendant of the Kinir* of Majorca, 
the last of whom, Don James III., sold Montpellier 
to France (1349). Don Pedro III., King of Arra- 
gon, and eldest son of Don James I., took Sicily, 
as we have already seen, from Charles I. of Anjou. 
Ferdinand II., a younger son of Don Pedro, 

dh mi -:;.:.,.. 
M - 

\. \.D. 1300145.1. 

\.. .... , ...- ii.,,., v 


d a separate bnux h of the Km-'. ,,f S 

t kingdom 
irdmia was 

Incorporated with tin- kin-dMin <>f Ar.agon by Don 
. n In > had conquered it from the 1'iuiui. 


'^ed the Angevlnes of the kingdom of Naples, 
eetabltohed a distinct line of Neapolitan kings. 
Thi kingdom WM at length united with the 
monarchy of Arrmgon by Ferdinand the Catholic. 

In, tin- legitimate line of king*, de- 
eeeadaato of Henry . : i .\, had failed in 

uand, son uid successor of Don Pedro 
III. 'I his jirinre had an only daughter, named 
Beatrix, burn in criminal intercoms, with Elea- 
nora Telles dc Meneaes, whom he had taken from 
her lawful huaband. Being desirous to make this 
princess his successor, he married her, at the age 

.11 I., King ot" Casldi- ; ,-, 

the throne to the son who should be born f tin-. 
union, ami failing him, to tin- Kmu' of Casti 
son-in-law. Ferdinand dying soon after this mar- 
riage, Don Juan, his natural brother, and grand- 
master of the order of Aries, knowing the aversion 
of the Portuguese for the Caatilian sway, turned 
this to his own advantage, by seizing the re- 
of which he had deprived the Queen-dowager. 
- of Castile immediately hud siege to 
ii ; but having miscarried in this enterprise, 
the StatcN of Portugal assembled at Coimbra, and 
conferred the crown on Don Juan, known in 
hist-.i-y l>\ the name of John the Bastard. This 
prince, aided with troops from England, engaged 
tin Caatiliaus and their allies, the French, at the 
famous battle fought on the plains of Aljubarota 
(14th August, l.'JHS). The Portuguese remained 
masters of the field, and John the Dastard suc- 
ceeded in maintaining himself on the throne of 
Portugal. The war, however, continued several 
years between the Portuguese and the CaHtilians, 
and did not terminate till 1411. My the peace 
which was then concluded, Henry III., son of 
John I., Kin- of Castile, agreed never to urge the 
claim* of ljuccn Beatrix, his mother-in-law, who 
hail no children. John the Bastard founded a 
new dynasty of kings, who occupied the throne 
of Portugal from 1385 to 15KO. 

In France, tin- direct line of kings, descendants 
of Hugh Capet, having become extinct in the 
sons of Philip the Fair, the crown passed to the 
collateral branch of Valois (IIJ'.'M), which furnished 
a series of thirteen kings, during a peiiod of 'Jill 

The rivalry between France and England, 
which had sprung up during the preceding period, 
assumed a more hostile character on the accession 
of the family of Valoi*. Till then, the quarrels 
of the two natioii!i had been limited to some par- 
r territory, or province; hut now they dis- 
pnt. -.'. i'-ccssion to the throne of 1 

which the king* of England claimed as their right. 
<d III., l>y his mother, Isabella of France, 
phew to Charles IV., the last of the- Caprtian 
in a direct hi.<-. lie claimed the 
ii to Phiiip VI., surnameil 
\\ ho, being cousin-germau to Charles, was on 
gree more remote than the King of England. The 
! dward waa opposed by the Salic law, 
.uded females from the succession to the 
throne ; but, according to the interpretation of 

prince, the law admitted his right, and must be 
understood as referring to female* personally, who 
were excluded on account of the wemkneea of their 
aex, ami not to their male descendants, Granting 
that his mother, Isabella, could not herself aspire 
to the crown, he maintained that she gave him the 
right of proximity, which qualified him for the 
accession. The States of France, however, hav- 
ing decided in favour of I 'I. dip, the King of 
England did fealty and homage to that prin- 
the duchy o| (.111- -line ; hut he laid no claim to the 
crown until i:i:i7, when he assumed the title and 
arms of the King of France. The war which be- 
gan in 1338 waa renewed during several reigns, 
for the space of a hundred years, and ended with 
the entire expulsion "I" the English from France. 

Nothing could be more wretched than the situa- 
tion of this kingdom during the reign of Charles 
\ 1. That prince having fallen into a state of in- 
sanity in the flower of his age, two parties, those 
of Burgundy and Orleans, who had disputed with 
each other about the regency, dixided the Court 
into factions, and kindled the flame* of civil war 
in the four corners of the kingdom. John the 
Fearless, Duke of Burgundy, and uncle to the 
king, caused Louis, Duke of Orleans, the king's 
own brother, to be assassinated at Paris (1 
He himself was assassinated in his turn (1 >!'.<) 
on the hridge of Montereau, in the very presence 
of the Dauphin, who was afterwards king, under 
the name of Charles VII. These dissensions gave 
the English an opportunity for renewing the war. 
Henry V. of England gained the famous battle 
of Agincourt (141.">), which waa followed by the 
conquest of all Normandy. Isabella of Bavaria 
then abandoned the faction of Orleans, and the 
party of her son, the Dauphin, and joined that of 
Burgundy. Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, 
and son of John the Fearless, being determined to 
revenge the death of his father, which he laid to 
the charge of the Dauphin, entered into a negocia- 
tion with England, into which he contrived to 
draw Queen Isabella and the imbecile Charles VI. 
My the treaty of ponce concluded at Troyes in 
Champagne (1420), it was agreed that Catharine 
of France, daughter of Charles VI. and Isabella of 
Bavaria, should espouse Henry V., and that, on 
the death of the King, the crown should pass to 
Henry, and the children of his marriage with the 
Princess of France ; to the exclusion of the 
Dauphin, who, as an accomplice in the murder of 
the Duke of Burgundy, was declared to have lost 
his rights to the crown, and was banished from 
the kingdom. Henry V. died in the flower of his 
age, and his death was followed soon after by that 
of Charles VI. Henry \ I., son and 

Catharine of France, hcing then proclaimed King 
igland and France, fixed Ins residence at 
Paris, and had for his regents his two uncles, the 
Dukes of Bedford and t.I.-n, 

!i was the preponderance of the English and 
Hiirgundian party in France at this period, that 
Char!' .monly called the Dauphin, more 

than once saw himself upon the point of being ex- 
pelled the kingdom. He owed his safety entirely 
t the appearance of the famous Joan of Arc, 
called the Maid of Orleans. This extraordinary 
woman revived the .trooping courage of the French. 
inpelled the English to raise the siege of 
Orleans, and brought the king to be crowned at 


English expelled 

from Prance. 
House of Plantagenet. 


Knglisli civil war. 
Houso of Stuart. 

<'t of Norway. 

Rheims (1429). But what contributed still more 
to retrieve the party of Charles VII. was the re- 
conciliation of that prince with f he Duke of Bur- 
gundy, which took place at the peace of Arras 
(1435). The duke having then united his forces 
with those of the king, the English were in their 
turn expelled from France (1453), the single city 
of Calais being all that remained to them of their 
former conquests. 

An important revolution happened in the go- 
vernment of France under the reign of Charles VII. 
The royal authority gained fresh -vigour by the 
expulsion of the English, and the reconciliation of 
various parties that took place in consequence. 
The feudal system, which till then had prevailed 
in France, fell by degrees into disuse. Charles 
was the first king who established a permanent 
militia, and taught his successors to abandon the 
feudal mode of warfare. This prince also insti- 
tuted Companies of ordonnance (1445) ; and, to 
defray the expense of their maintenance, he or- 
dered, of his own authority, a certain impost to 
be levied, called the Tax of the Gens -(formes. 
This standing army, which at first amounted only 
to 0000 men, was augmented in course of time, 
while the royal finances increased in proportion. 
By means of these establishments, the kings ob- 
tained such an ascendancy over their vassals that 
they soon found themselves in a condition to pre- 
scribe laws to them, and thus gradually to abolish 
the feudal system. The most powerful of the 
nobles could make little resistance against a sove- 
reign who was alwajs armed; while the kings, 
imposing taxes at their pleasure, by degrees dis- 
pensed with the necessity of assembling the States- 
general. The same prince secured the liberties of 
the (iallican church against the encroachments of 
the court of Rome, by solemnly adopting several 
of the decrees of the Council of Basle, which he 
caused to be passed in the National Council held 
at Bourges, and published under the title of the 
Pragmatic Sanction (1438). 

In England, two branches of the reigning family 
of the Plantagenets, those of Lancaster and York, 
contested for a long time the right to the crown. 
Henry IV., the first king of the House of Lan- 
caster, was the son of John of Gaunt, Duke of 
Lancaster, and grandson of Edward III., King 
of England. He usurped the crown from Richard 
II., whom he deposed by act of Parliament (1399). 
But instead of enforcing the rights which he in- 
herited from his father and grandfather, he rested 
his claims entirely upon those which he alleged 
had devolved to him in right of his mother, Blanch 
of Lancaster, great grand-daughter of Ed\\anl, 
sumamed Hunchback, Earl of Lancaster. This 
prince, according to a popular tradition, was the 
eldest son of Henry III., who, it was said, had 
been excluded from the throne by his younger 
brother, Edward I., on account of his deformity. 
This tradition proved useful to Henry IV. in ex- 
cluding the rights of the House of Clarence, who 
preceded him in the order of succession. This 
latter family was descended from Lionel, Duke 
of Clarence, and elder brother of John of Gaunt. 
Philippine, daughter of Lionel, was married to 
Edward .Mortimer, by whom she had a son, 
Roger, whom the Parliament, by an act passed in 
. declared presumptive heir to the crown. 
Ann Mortimer, the daughter of Roger, married 

Richard, Duke of York, son of Edward Langley, 
who was the younger brother of John of Gaunt, 
and thus transferred the right of Lionel to the 
royal House of York. 

The princes of the House of Lancaster are 
known in English history by the name of the Red 
Rose, while those of York were designated by that 
of the White Rose. The former of the-~< 11 
occupied the throne for a period of sixty -three 
years, during the reigns of Henry IV., V., VI. It 
was under the feeble reign of Henry VI. that the 
House of York began to advance their right to the 
crown, and that the civil war broke out between 
the two Roses. Richard, Duke of York, and heir 
to the claims of Lionel and Mortimer, was the 
first to raise the standard in this war of competi- 
tion (1452), which continued more than thirty 
years, and was one of the most cruel and sangui- 
nary recorded in history. Twelve pitched battles 
were fought between the two Roses, eighty princes 
of the blood perished in the contest, and England, 
during the whole time, presented a tra;_ r i<"il - 
tacle of horror and carnage. Edward IV., sou of 
Richard, Duke of York, and grandson of Ann 
Mortimer, ascended the throne (1461), which he 
had stained with the blood of Henry VI., and of 
several other princes of the House of Lancaster. 

In Scotland, the male line of the ancient kings 
having become extinct in Alexander III., a crowd 
of claimants appeared on the field, who disputed 
with each other the succession of the throne. The 
chief of these competitors were the two Scottish 
families of Baliol and Bruce, both descended by 
the mother's side from the Royal Family. Four 
princes of these contending families reigned in 
Scotland until the year 1371, when the crown 
passed from the House of Bruce to that of Stuart. 
Robert II., son of Walter Stuart and Marjory 
Bruce, succeeded his uncle, David II., and in his 
family the throne remained until the Union, when 
Scotland was united to England about the begin- 
ning of the seventeenth century. Under the go- 
vernment of the Stuarts, the royal authority ac- 
quired fresh energy after being long restrained and 
circumscribed by a turbulent nobility. Towards 
the middle of the fifteenth century, James I., a 
very accomplished prince, gave the first blow to 
the feudal system and the exorbitant power of the 
grandees. He deprived them of several of the 
crown-lands which they had usurped, and confis- 
cated the property of some of the most audacious 
whom he had condemned to execution. James II. 
followed the example of his father. He strength- 
ened the royal authority, by humbling the power- 
ful family of Douglas, as well as by the wise laws 
which he" prevailed with his Parliament to adopt. 

The three kingdoms of the North, after having 
been long agitated by internal dissensions, were 
at length united into a single monarchy by M ar- 
iraret. c-tlled the Semiramis of the North. This 
princess \\ as daughter of Vmldemar III., the last 
Kini: of Denmark of the ancient reigning family, 
and widow of Haco VII., King of Norway. She 
was fiixt elected Queen of Denmark, and then of 
Norway, after the death of her sen, Oluus V., 
whom she had by her marriage with Haeo, and 
who died without leaving any posterity (i:?S7). 
The Swedes, discontented with their Kin-, Alhert 
of Mecklenburg, likewise hrstowed their crown 
upon this princess. Albert was vanquished and 

lluulr* VI 1 1. 

KhMM Of KtfMC. 

PERIOD \. \.i>. 



made prisoner at th battle of Fahlekoeping ( 1 3H9). 
Nveden, from that time, acknow- 
ledged thr ii. if I Heing 
deatrou* of uniting the three kingdoiM into one 
hud;. politic, -he assembled their respective 
Estate* at Calmar (1397), and there cauMd her 
grand-nephew I t Wratialaus, Duka of 
Mary of Mecklenburg, daughter 
T own slater, to be received and 
crowned an her successor. The act which ratified 
nil and irrevocable union of the three 
vras approved in that assembly. It 
!<<!, that the united states should, in future, 
have but one and the game king, who should be 
chosen with the common consent of the Senator* 
:m.| 1' tli.- three kingdom*; that they 
id always give the preference to the descend- 
there were any; that the three 
kingdom* should assist each other with their com- 
bined t'. :.-es against all foreign enemies ; that each 
km.'doin should preserve ita own constitution, it* 
. imd 11 iiional legislature, and be governed 
conformably to its own law*. 

This union, how formidable soever it might 
appear at first sight, was by no means firmly con- 
solidated. A federal system of three monarchies, 
.!m.!,-c| by mutual jealousies, and by dissimilarity 
in their laws, manners, and institutions, could pre- 
sent nothin lid or durnhlf. The predi- 
|.-i-ti,.ii, l>. -ide, which the kings of the union who 
ded Margaret showed for the Danes; tin- 
preference which they gave them in the distribu- 
tion of favours and places of trust, and the tone 
Apriority which they affected towards their 
allies, tended naturally to foster animosity and 
hatred, and, above nil, to exasperate the Swedes 
against the union. Eric, after a very turbulent 
r. i.-u, was deposed, and his nephew, Christopher 
the Bavarian, was elected king of the union in 
his place. This latter prince having died without 
tone, the Swedes took this opportunity of break - 
.< union, and choosing a king of their own, 
Honde, known by the title of 
Charles VIII. It was he who induced the Danes 
to venture likewise on a new election ; and this 
same year they transferred their crown to Christian, 
unt of Oldenburg, descended 

by the female side from the race of their ancient 

. This prince had the good fortune to renew 

the union with Norway (1480) ; he likewise go- 

from the year 1457, vrl 

\ 1 1 1. w-is \;i. ll.-d by his subjects till 1464, when 
he was recalled. But what deserves more particu- 
larly to be remarked, is the acquisition which 
Christian made of th H.-swic anil 

which he succeeded ( 1 l.V.i), by a dis- 
- province*, after the 

drat! '. 'lolphus, the maternal uncle of the 

new Kim: "t" Denmark, and last male heir of the 

in, of the ancient Mouse of Schau- 

.- . Christian I. was f rofallthe 

in Denmark and 

ay. His grandson lost Sweden ; but, in the 
last century, the thrones l>oth of Russia and 8we- 
.\ ere occupied by princes of his family. 

f this period, groaned 

the degrading yoke of the Moguls and the 
Tartan. The grand dukes, as well a* the other 
Russian princes, I to solicit the con- 

firmation of their dignity from the Khan of Kip- 

Mr, who granted or refused h at hi. pleasure. 

prince* were in like manner ahaHUd to hi de- 
cision. Whra summoned to appear at hi* horde, 
thej- were obliged to repair thither without delay, 

UHi Often ttflvT9d tfl6 pWiistnilUfflt Of tOOHUDT ftlui 

death. 17 The contributions which the khan* at 
ftrat exacted from the Russians in the shape of 
gratuitous donations were converted, in course of 
into regular tribute. Bereke Khan, the toe. 
cessor of Baton, was the first who lcvi< 
bute by officers of his own nation. Mb successors 
increased still more the load of these taxes ; they 
even subjected the Russian princes to the perform- 
inilitary e! 

The grand ducal dignity, which for a 
time belonged exclusiv chiefs 

principalities of Vladimir and Kiaso, became com- 
mon, about the end of the fourteenth century, to 
several of the other principalities, who shared 
among them the dominion of Russia. The princes 
of Retan, Twer, Smolensko, and several others, 
took the title of grand duke-, to distinguish 
themselves from the petty prin'-<-s who were esta- 
blished within their principalities. These divi- 
sions, together with the internal broils to which 
they gave rise, emboldened the Lithuanians and 
1'olei to carry their victorious arms into Russia; 
and by degrees they dismembered the whole wee- 
tern part of the ancient i inpire. 

The Lithuanians, 18 who are supposed to nave 
been of the same race with the ancient Prussians, 
Lethonians, Livonians, and Estonians, inh 
originally the banks of the riven Niemen and 
\Vilia ; an inconsiderable state, comprehending 
Samogitia and a part of the ancient Palatinates of 
Troki and AVilna. After having been tributaries 
to the Russians for a long time, the princes of 
Lithuania shook off their yoke, and began to ag- 
grandise themselves at the expense of the grand 
dukes, their former masters. Towards the middle 
of the eleventh century, they passed the Wilia, 
founded the town of Kiernow, and took from the 
Russians Braclaw, Novgorodek, Grodno, Borxeec, 
Bielsk, Pinsk, Mozyr, Polotsk, Minsk, Witepsk, 
Oraa, and Mscislaw, with their extensive depend- 
encies. Ringold was the first of these princes that 
assumed the dignity of grand duke, about tin- 
middle of the thirteenth century. I r*8or, 
Mendog or Mindow, harassed by the Teutonic 
knights, embraced Christianity about the year 

md was declared King of Lithuania 1 
I'ope ; though he afterwards returned to Paganism, 
and became one of the most cruel enemies of the 
Christian name. Gcdimin, who ascended the 
throne of the grand duke (1315), tendered him- 
self famous hy his new conquests. After a series 
of victories which he gained over the Russian 
princes, who were supported by the Tartan, he 
took possession of the city and principality of 
i). The whole of the grand duchy of 
Kiow, and its dependant principalities on thi 
.ieper, were conquered in succession, 
(imnd Dukes of Lithuania, who had become for- 
midable to all their neighbours, weakened their 
power by partitioning their estate* among 
son* ; reserving to one, under the title of grand 
duke, the right of superiority over tin- 
civil dissensions which resulted from these divi- 
sions, gave the Poles an opportunity of seizing the 

Demetrius Iwanovitsh. 
76 C'.mc|Mi' I iy the. Teutonic 



riadUaus IV. of Poland. 

(.'ii.ximir tlie Great. 

principalities of Leopold, Przemysl, and Halitsch 
(i;i40), and of taking from the Lithuanians and 
their grand duke, Olgerd, the whole of Volhynia 
and Podolia, of which they had depffced the Rus- 
sians (1349). 

Nothing more then remained of the ancient 
Russian Empire except the grand duchy of 
"Wolodimir, so called from the town of that name 
on the river Kliarma, where the Grand Dukes of 
Eastern and Northern Russia had their residence, 
before they had fixed their capital at Moscow ; 
which happened about the end of the thirteenth or 
the beginning of the fourteenth century. This 
grand duchy, which had several dependant and 
subordinate principalities, was conferred by the 
Khan of Kipzac (1320) on Iwan or John Danilo- 
vitsh, Prince of Moscow, who transmitted it to his 
descendants. Demetrius Iwanovitsh, grandson of 
Iwan, took advantage of the turbulence which dis- 
tracted the grand horde, and turned his arms 
against the Tartars. Assisted by several of the 
Russian princes his vassals, he gained a signal vic- 
tory near the Don (1380), over the Khan Temric- 
Mamai, the first which gained the Russians any 
celebrity, and which procured Demetrius the proud 
epithet of Donski, or conqueror of the Don. This 
prince, however, gained little advantage by his vic- 
tory ; and for a long time after, the Tartars gave 
law to the Russians and made them their tributa- 
ries. Toktamish Khan, after having vanquished 
and humbled Mamai, penetrated as far as Moscow, 
sacked the city, and massacred a great number of 
the inhabitants. Demetrius was forced to implore 
the mercy of the conqueror, and to send his son a 
hostage to the horde in security for his allegiance. 

The chief residence of the Teutonic order, 
which had formerly been at Verden, was fixed at 
Marienburg, a city newly built, which from that 
time became the capital of all Prussia. The Teu- 
tonic knights did not limit their conquests to 
Prussia ; they took from the .Poles Dantzic or 
Eastern Pomerania (1311), situated between the 
Netze, the Vistula, and the Baltic Sea, and known 
since by the name of Pomerelia. This province 
was definitely ceded to them, with the territory of 
Culm, and Michelau, by a treaty of peace which 
was signed at Kalitz (1343). The city of Dantzic, 
which was their capital, increased considerably 
under the dominion of the Order, and became one 
of the principal entrep&ts for the commerce of the 
Baltic. Of all the exploits of these knights, the 
most enterprising was that which had for its object 
the conquest of Lithuania. Religion, and a pre- 
tended gift of the Emperor Louis of Bavaria, 
served them as a pretext for attacking the Lithu- 
anians, who were Pagans, in a murderous war, 
which continued almost without interruption for 
the space of a century. The Grand Dukes of 
Lithuania, always more formidable after their de- 
feat, defended their liberties and independence 
with a courage and perseverance almost miracu- 
lous ; and it was only by taking ad\antage of the 
dissensions which had arisen in the family of the 
grand duke, that they succeeded in obtaining 
possession of Samogitia, by the treaty of peace 
which was concluded at Racianz (1404). 

The Knights of Livonia, united to the Teutonic 
order under the authority of one and the same 
Grand Master, added to their former conquests 
the province of Estonia, which was sold to them 

by Valdemar IV., King of Denmark. 1 * The Teu- 
tonic knights were at the zenith of their greatness 
about the beginning of the fifteenth century. At 
that time they were become a formidable power 
in the North, having under their dominion the 
whole of Prussia, comprehending Pomerania and 
the New March, as also Samogitia, Courland, 
Livonia and Estonia. 40 A population proportioned 
to the extent of their dominions, a well regulated 
treasury, and a flourishing commerce, seemed to 
guarantee them a solid and durable Empire. Ne- 
vertheless, the jealousy of their neighbours, the 
union of Lithuania with Poland, and the conver- 
sion of the Lithuanians to Christianity, which de- 
prived the knights of the assistance of the cru- 
saders, soon became fatal to their order, and ac- 
celerated their downfal. The Lithuanians again 
obtained possession of Samogitia, which, with Su- 
davia, was ceded to them by the various treaties 
which they concluded with that Order, between 

The oppressive government of the Teutonic 
knights their own private dissensions, and the 
intolerable burden of taxation the fatal conse- 
quence of incessant war induced the nobles and 
cities of Prussia and Pomerania to form a confe- 
deracy against the Order, and to solicit the pro- 
tection of the Kings of Poland. This was granter 1 
to them, on their signing a deed of submission to 
that kingdom (1454). The result was a long and 
bloody war with Poland, which did not terminate 
till the peace of Thorn (1466). Poland then ob- 
tained the cession of Culm, Michelau, and Dantzic ; 
that is to say, all the countries now comprehended 
under the name of Polish Prussia. The rest of 
Prussia was retained by the Teutonic order, who 
promised, by means of their Grand Master, to do 
fealty and homage for it to the Kings of Poland. 
The chief residence of the Order was then trans- 
ferred to Koningsberg, where it continued until 
the time when the knights were deprived of 
Prussia by the House of Brandenburg. 

At length, however, Poland recovered from this 
state of weakness into which the unfortunate divi- 
sions of Boleslaus III. and his descendants had 
plunged it. Uladislaus IV., surnamcd the Dwarf, 
having combined several of these principalities, 
was crowned King of Poland at Cracow (1320). 
From that time the royal dignity became perma- 
nent in Poland, and was transmitted to all the 
successors of Uladislaus.* 1 The immediate suc- 
cessor of that prince was his son Casimir the 
Great, who renounced his rights of sovereignty 
over Silesia in favour of the King of Bohemia, and 
afterwards compensated this loss by the acquisition 
of several of the provinces of ancient Russia. He 
likewise took possession of Red Russia (1IUO), as 
also of the provinces of Volhynia, Podolia, Chelrn, 
and lU'lz, which he conquered from the Grand 
Dukes of Lithuania (1349), who had formerly dis- 
membered them from the Russian Empire. 

Under Casimir the Great, another revolution 
happened in the government of Poland. That 
Prince, having no children of his own, and will- 
ing to bequeath the crown to his nephew Louis, 
his sister's son, by Charles Robert, King of Hun- 
gary, convoked a general assembly of the nation 
at Cracow (1339), and there got the succession of 
the Hungarian Prince ratified, in opposition to the 
legitimate lights of the Piast dynasty, who reigned 



.! I..,,..:,.. >!,, 

PERIOD V. A.D. 1300-1443. 

I... ... ,:.. .,f II 

U ,.,,. V.. 

,.>.,..< I..,.- ] .:... 


fal MMorU mud Silesia. This subversion of the 
hereditary right of the different branches of the 
Piast*, gave the Polish nobles a pretext for 

lie election of thrir king*, until at hut 
the throne became completely elective. It also 
afforded them an opportunity for limiting the power 
<>f their king*, and laying the found ition of a re- 
publican and arintocretic goTernmrnt. Deputies 
were * ut into llumranr (1355), even during the 
life of Catimir, who obliged King Louis I 

I uccesaor, to subscribe an art which pro* 
that, mi his accession to the crown, he hould 
hind himself, and hi* tucccMorn, to <libunl. n the 
of all taxes and contribution* ; 
that he should never, under any pretext, exact 
subsidies from them ; and that, in travelling, he 
should el-inn nothing for the support of hit court, 
in any place durini; hit journc) . The ancient race 
of tin- 1'iast sovereign* of Poland ended with Ca- 
simir ( i:70), after having occupied the throne of 
that kingdom for several centuries. 

1 1 u successor in Poland and Hungary was I 
sumamed the Great. In a Diet assembled it 
he obtained the concurrence of the Pole*, in tin- 
choice which he had made of Sigismund of Luxem- 
bourg, u hi* son-in-law and successor in both 
kingdom*. But on the death of Louis, which 
happened immediately after, the Poles broke their 
engagement, and conferred the crown on Hedwiga, 
a younger daughter of that prince. It waa 
stipulated, that she should marry Jagello, Grand 
Duke of Lithuania, who agreed to incorporate 
Lithuania with Poland, to renounce Paganism, 
and embrace Christianity, himself and all his sub- 
jects. Jagello was baptized, when he received the 
name of Uladislau*, and was crowned King of 
Poland at Cracow (1386).** It was on the acces- 
sion of Jagello, that Poland and Lithuania, long 
opposed in their interests, and implacable enemies 
Pleach other, were united into one body politic 
under the authority of one and the same king. 
Nevertheless, for nearly two centuries, Lithuania 
-till preserved its own grand dukes, who acknow- 
ledged the sovereignty of Poland ; and it was not, 
properly speaking, till the reign of Sigismund 
Augustus, that the union of the two states waa 
tiii ill) accomplinhed (1569). This important union 
rendered Poland the preponderating power of the 
North. It became fatal to the influence of the 
Teutonic order, who soon yielded to the united 
Awt* of the Poles and Lithuanians. 

I ladislaus Jagello did not obtain the assent of 
thi- 1'oliah nobility to the succession of his son, 
except by adding new privileges to those which 
tli> \ had obtained from his predecessor. He was 
the first of tin- l'"li-h kings who, for the purpose 
of imposing an extraordinary taxation, called in 
tin- Nuncios or Deputies of the Nobility to the 
"4 ). and established the use of the 
' j or provincial diets. His descendant* en- 
joyed the crown until they became extinct, in the 
ith century. The succession, however, wa* 
! ; and although the prince* of the House of 
Jagello might regard themselves a* hereditary pos- 
sessors of the kingdom, nevertheless, on every 
it wa* necessary that the crown 
should be conferred by the choice and consent of 

i,'nn,, the male race of the ancient 
descendants of Duke Arpad, had become extinct 

in Andrew III. (rMt). The crown was then 
contested by several competitors, and at UiBflh 
Ml into the hands of the House of Anji 
reigning family of Nanlr*. 
son of Charles II. Km- <,f Naples, by Mary of 
;u-y, outstripped hi* rival*, and transmitted 

niwn to hi* son Louis, surnaned the Great 
(UUH). Thi* prince, characterized by hi* emi- 

'lualities, made a distinguished figure among 

. :._ i Hungary. He conquered from the 
Venetians the whole of Dalmatia, from the frontier* 
of Istria, a* fiur a* Duraxxo ; he reduced the 
i'rmces of Moldavia, Walachia, Bosnia and Hi. I- 
garia, to a state of dependence ; and at length 
mounted the throne of Poland on the death 
uncle Casimir the Great.** Mary hi* eldest daugh- 
ter succeeded him in the kingdom of Hungary 

. i . Thi* prince** married Sigismutid of 
embourg, who thus united the monarchy of Hun- 
gary to the Imperial crown. 

The reign of Sigismund in Hungary wa* meet 
unfortunate, and a prey to continual disturbance*. 
Mi- had to sustain the first war against the ' 
man Turks ; and, with the Emperor of Constanti- 
nople a* hi* ally, he assembled a formidable army, 
with which he undertook the siege of Nicopolis in 
Bulgaria. Here he sustained a complete defeat by 
the Turks. In his retreat he was compelled to 
embark on the Danube, and directed hi* Might 
towards Constantinople. This disaster wa* fol- 
lowed by new misfortunes. The malecoutent* 
of Hungary offered their crown to Ladislaus, called 
the Magnanimous, King of Naples, who took pos- 
session of Dalmatia, which he afterwards surren- 
dered to the Venetians. Desirous to provide for 
the defence and security of bin kingdom, Sigismund 
acquired, by treaty with the Prince of Senia, the 
fortress of Belgrade (1425), which, by its situation 
at the confluence of the Danube and the Save, 
seemed to him a proper bulwark to protect Hun- 
gary against the Turks. He transmitted the crown 
of Hungary to his son-in-law, Albert of Austria, 
who reigned only two year*. The war with the 
Turks was renewed under U ladislaus of Poland, 
son of Jagello, and successor to Albert. That 
prince fought a bloody battle with them near Varna 
in Bulgaria (1444). The Hungarians again sus- 
tained a total defeat, and the King himself lost hi* 
life in the action.* 4 The safet\ of Hungary then 
depended entirely on the bravery of the celebrated 
John Hunniades, governor of the kingdom during 
tin- minority of Ladislaus, the posthumous son of 
Albert of Austria. That general signalized him- 
self in various actions against the Turks, and 
obliged Mahomet II. to raise the siege of Belgrade 
(1466), where he lost above twi nt\-tive thousand 
men, and wa* himself severely wounded. 

The Greek Empire wa* gradually approaching 
it* downfs.1, under the feeble administration of the 
Howe of Paleologus, who had occupied the throne 
of Constantinople since the year 1261. The same 
vice* of which we have already spoken, the gnat 
power of the patriarch* and the monk*, the ran- 
cour of theological disputes, the fury of sectaries 
and schismatics, and the internal dissension to 
which they gave rue, aggravated the misfortunes 
and disorders of th- state, and were instrumental 
in hastening on it* final destruction. John I. and 
hi* successor*, the last Emperor* of Constanti- 
nople, being reduced to the sad necessity of pay- 


The- Ottoman Turks. 
Osman. Orcluin. 
Timour, or Tamerlane. 


Defeat of Bajazet. 
Babour conquers India. 
Huiiniudes. Scanderbeg. 

ing tribute to the Turks, and marching on military 
expeditious, at the command of the sultans, o\\i-cl 
the preservation of their shattered and declining 
Empire, for some time, entirely to the reverses of 
fortune which had befallen the Ottomans ; and to 
the difficulties which the siege of their capital pre- 
sented to a barbarous nation unacquainted with the 
arts of blockade. 

The power of the Ottoman Turks took its rise 
about the end of the thirteenth century. A 
Turkish emir, called Ottoman, or Osman, was its 
original founder in Asia Minor. He was one of 
the number of those emirs, who, after the subver- 
MOH of the Seljukiaus of Itoum or Iconium, by the 
Moguls, shared among them the spoils of their an- 
cient masters. A part of Bithynia, and the whole 
country lying round Mount Olympus, fell to the 
share of Ottoman, who afterwards formed an 
alliance with the other emirs, and invaded the pos- 
sessions of the Greek Empire, under the feeble 
reign of the Emperor Audronicus II. Prusa, or 
Bursa, the principal city of Bithynia, was con- 
quered by Ottoman (1327). He and his successors 
made it the capital of their new state, which, in 
course of time, gained the ascendency over all 
the other Turkish sovereignties, formed, like that 
of Ottoman, from the ruins of Iconium and the 
Greek Empire. 

Orchan, the son and successor of Ottoman, in- 
stituted the famous Order of the Janissaries, to 
which in a great measure the Turks owed their 
success. He took from the Greeks the cities of 
Nice and Nicomedia in Bithynia ; and, after having 
subdued most of the Turkish emirs in Asia Minor, 
he took the title of sultan or king, as well as that 
of pacha, which is equivalent to the title of em- 
peror. His son Soliman crossed the Hellespont, 
by his orders, near the ruins of ancient Troy, and 
took the city of Gallipoli, in the Thracian Cher- 
sonesus (1358). The conquest of this place opened 
a passage for the Turks into Europe, when Thrace 
and the whole of Greece was soon inundated by 
these new invaders. Amurath I., the son and suc- 
cessor of Orchan, made himself master of Adria- 
nople and the whole of Thrace (1360) ; he next 
attacked Macedonia, Servia and Bulgaria, and ap- 
pointed the first Beglerbcy, or Governor-General of 
lioumclia. Several Turkish princes of Asia Minor 
were obliged to acknowledge his authority; he 
made himself master of Kiutaja, the metropolis 
of Phrygia, which afterwards became the capital 
of Anatolia, and the residence of the governor of 
that province (1389). Amurath was slain at the 
battle of Cassova, which he fought with the despot 
of Servia, assisted by his numerous allies. In t his 
bloody bat tli- the despot himself was slain, and 
both sides equally claimed the victory. Bajazet 
I., the successor of Amurath, put an end to all 
the Turkish sovereignties which still subsisted in 
Asia Minor. He completed the reduction of Bul- 
garia, and maintained the possession of it by the 
signal victory which he gained at Nicopolis (1396) 
over Sigismund, King of Hungary. The Greek 
Empire would have yielded to the persevering 
" ti'nils of that prince, who had maintained, for ten 
. the siege of Constantinople, had he not been 
attacked, in the midst of these enterprises, by tin 
famous Timour, the new conqueror of Asia. 

Timour, commonly called Tamerlane, was one 
of those Mogul Emirs who had divided amongst 

them the sovereignty of Transoxiana, after the ex- 
tinction of the Mogul dynasty of Zagatai. Trans- 
oxiana was the theatre of his iirst exploits ; there 
he usurped the whole power of the Khans, or Em- 
perors of Zagatai, and fixed the capital of his new 
dominions at the city of Samarcand (13G9). Persia, 
the whole of Upper Asia, Kipzac, and llin- 
dostan, were vanquished by him in succession ; 
wherever he marched, he renewed the same scenes 
of horror, bloodshed, and carnage, which had 
marked the footsteps of the first Mogul conqueror. 45 
Timour at length attacked the dominions of Bajazet 
in Anatolia (1400). He fought a bloody and deci- 
si\e battle near Angora, in the ancient Gallogre- 
cia, which proved fatal to the Ottoman Empire. 
Bajazet sustained an entire defeat, and fell himself 
into the hands of the conqueror. All Anatolia was 
then conquered and pillaged by the Moguls, and 
there Timour fixed his winter quarters. Moan- 
time he treated his captive Bajazet with kindness 
and generosity ; and the anecdote of the iron cage, 
in which he is said to have confined his prisoner, 
merits no credit. Sherefeddin Ali, who accom- 
panied Timour in his expedition against Bajazet, 
makes no mention of it ; on the contrary, he avers 
that Timour consented to leave him the Empire, 
and that he granted the investiture of it to him 
and two of his sons. Bajazet did not long survive 
his misfortune ; he died of an attack of apoplexy 
(1403) with which he was struck in the camp of 
Timour in Caramania. 

Timour, a short time after, formed the project 
of an expedition into China ; but he died on the 
route in (1405), at the age of sixty-nine. His vast 
dominions were dismembered after his death. 
One of his descendants, named Babour, founded a 
powerful Empire in India, the remains of which 
are still preserved under the name of the Empire 
of the Great Mogul. The invasion of Timour 
retarded for some time the progress of the Turkish 
Empire. The fatal dissensions, which arose among 
the sons of Bajazet, set them at open war with 
each other. At lezigth Amurath II., the son of 
Mahomet I., and grandson of Bajazet, succeeded 
in putting a stop to these divisions, and restored 
the Empire to its primitive splendour. He de- 
prived the Greeks of all the places which still re- 
mained in their hands 011 the Black Sea, aloi: 
coast of Thrace, in Macedonia and Thessaly. 
He even took, by assault, the wall and forts which 
they had constructed at the entrance of the isthmus 
of Corinth, and carried his ravages to the very 
centre of the Peloponnesus. 

The two heroes of the Christians, John Hun- 
niudes and Scanderbeg, arrested the progress of the 
Ottoman Sultan. The former, who was general 
of the Hungarians, boldly repulsed the Sultan <>!' 
Servia, whom he was ambitious to conquer. The 
other, a Greek prince, who possessed one of the 
petty states of Albania of which Croja was the 
capital, resisted with success the repeated attack* 
of tin- Turks. Supported by a small but well dis- 
ciplined army, and favoured by the mountains 
with which his territorj v\as surrounded, lie (\vice 
compelled Amurath to raise the siege of Croja. 
At length appeared Mahomet II., the son and -u<-- 
cessor of Amurath (14.")1). This prince, who 
was raised to the Ottoman throne in the twentieth 
year of lu's age, conceived the design of ac)iie\in^ 
the conquest of the Gicck Kmpire, by the taking 



I .... ., . 


,. . ... . 

., I, 

lutuntinoplo. He succeeded in overcoming 

.ill i. h obstruct, prise, 

in win- li -.-M-r-il uf hi* predecessors hud failed, 
id of an army of 3W,> unU, 

rli.l l.y .1 tint of 300 siill. i..- appeared 
that capital, ami commenced the liege 
on the iltl. Apnl, 1 I.. I 

.mis . to oppose the 

rce of the enemy, yielded to the power- 
ful uini r. il"ul.|. .1 it 

> us defence of fifty -three day*. '1 

I by u.-sault, '.".'til M.iy, iinl delivered up to 

i restrained pillage of the soldier*. Coustan- 
turuamed Dragases, the Ut of the < 

.I in tin hi-t .!.-. t; and all the 
inhabitant* of that great and opulent < ity were car- 
>nto slavery.** Hahooift, u cut. ring the very 
sack, nw nothing but one* vast and dis- 
mal solitude. Wishing afterwards to attract new 
inhabitants to tin- city , \% hichhe proposed to make 
the seat of his l.mpirc, lit- guaranteed an entire 
libci t. ( reek* who might come 

to settle there ; and authorized them to proceed to 
tin- election of a new patriarch, whote dignity he 
enhanced by tin- honours and privilege* which he 
attached to it. II. restored also the fortifications 
and, by way of precaution against the 
armaments of t .us and other western 

nations, which he had some reason to dread, he 

constructed the famous castle of the Dardanelles, at 
the entrance uf the II. llc|> 

- conquest was followed by that of Scrria, 
Bosnia, Albania, Greece, and the whole Pelopon- 
nesus or Morca, as well as most of the islands of the 

B coast of Aia Minor, ubn, , man- 

. tin- law oJ" the conimcror (\4M). David 
('oiiincnus, tin- last rn.p. i..i, fell li) the sword* 
Mahometans, and with him p< u.hed many 
of his children and relations. Such a i 
lion of coi. .ted an alarm .. 

powers of ( . In an assembly, 

Pope Pius II. hel.l at M;.:,n. . | I I. '.' , ':. i ...p.*.d 

a general association among th. 

West against the Turks. A crusade was put 

by hi* orders, and he was on the point of setting 

out in person at the head of this exped 

when lie was suddenly cut olf by death at Ancona 

I 1 f.i i. when in- hud appointed the general r. n- 

'is of the > troops. 'J 

added to the terror which the arms of Mahomet 
had created among the nations of the West, dis- 

: ted the plans of the crusaders, and was the 
means of dissolving their confederacy. The 
Turkish Umpire thus became firmly establish. . I m 
Europe, and the Tartars of the Crimea put t 
selves at the same time under the protection of the 


OF WEST I' HA LI A. A.D. 14531648. 

TUB revolution which happened in the fifteenth 

century entirely chunked the (ace of Kuropc, and 

:ucrd a new system of politics. This re\olu- 

tion was not achieved by any combinations of 

nor by the operation of that phy- 

which generally subverts thrones and 

governin. UN. It was the result of those pn>- 

gressJTe changes which had been produced in tin- 

ideas and understandings of the nations of Hu- 

nts and institutions of pre- 

- ; a-, well as b\ the imeutiuii of paper 

and printing, of gunpowder, and the mat . 

' >-ans of these, the empire of let- 

d arts was greatly extended, and various 

salutary improvements made in the religion, raan- 

i.'irope. The people by 

degrees shook off the yoke of barbarism, supersti- 

-m, which the revolution of the 

iiitii century had imposed on them ; and from that 

:r principal states of Europe began to acquire 

the strength, and gradually to assume the form, 

Several extraordinary events, however, con- 
spired to accelerate these happy changes. The 
belles lettrrs and the fine arts broke out with new 



rature, as the true source and standard of good 
taste. '1 'hey prepared the way for a vast number 
of the (li.i-km lit. rati, who, to escape the barbarity 
of the Turks, had fled into Italy, wh< re they 
opened schools, and brought the study of < 

,re into coiiMii .U-. Tin- most 

celebrated of tin WCflfcj ^lanuel 

linal Hessarion, Theodore Gasa, 
1 rebi/ond, John Ai_r\rophilus, and De- 
is Chalcondyles. Protected by the family of 
the Mcdicis at Florence, they assisted in forming 
those fine genius. , u Inch arose in Italy during the 
titt.enth e.ntury, such as Leonardo Aretiuo, the 

\neli> 1'olitian, 
and many others. Academies, or free soci 

Rome, Naples, Venice, Milan. 
Ferrara and Florence, for the encouragement of 
ancient literature. 

:n Italy the study of the ancient arts paeeed 
to the oth. : ' ir..|>e. They soon diffused 

their intlii. me <. r .very department of literature 
and science, \\hi.-h by degrees aumcd an aspect 
totall 'mlastic y - h till 

then had been in vogue in the pulpits and m 
sities, lost its credit, and gave pla- 
nned philosophy. Men learned to diw-rin 

udal system, and sought out the 
means of correcting them. The sources of disorder 
and anarchy were gradually dried up, and gave 

Pis.Mvrry of America. 
80 Christoj>iifr Columbus. 
Amerigo Vi-sjiutio. 


TVrcliimml the Catholic. 
Cortes conquers Mfxit-o. 
Mines of Potosi. 

place to better organized governments. Painting, 
sculpture, and the arts in general, cleared from 
the Gothic rust which they had contracted during 
the barbarous ages, and finished alter the models 
of the ancients, shone forth with renewed lustre. 
Navigation, under the direction of the compass, 
reached a degree of perfection which attracted 
universal attention ; and while the ancients merely 
coasted along their own shores in the pursuit of 
commerce or maritime exploits, we find the modern 
Europeans extending their navigation over the 
whole globe, and bringing both hemispheres under 
their dominion. 

America, unknown to the ancients, was disco- 
vered during this period ; as well as the route to 
India and the East, round the continent of Africa. 
The notion of a fourth quarter of the world had 
long been prevalent among the ancients. We all 
recollect the Atlantides of Plato, which, according 
to the assertion of that philosopher, was larger 
than Asia and Africa ; and we know that JElian 
the historian, who lived in the reign of Adrian, 
affirmed in like manner the existence of a fourth 
continent of immense extent. This opinion had 
got so much into fashion, during the fourth and 
fifth centuries of the Christian era, that Lactantius 
and St. Augustine thought themselves bound in 
duty to combat it in their writings ; inveighing 
against the antipodes by reasons and arguments, 
the frivolousness of which is now very generally 
admitted; but, whatever were the notions which 
the ancients might have entertained as to a fourth 
quarter of the globe, it is very certain that they 
knew it only from conjecture, and that their navi- 
gation never extended so far. 

The honour of this important discovery belongs 
to modern navigators, more especially to Chris- 
topher Columbus, a native of Genoa. From the 
knowledge which this celebrated man had acquired 
in the sciences of navigation, astronomy, and 
geography, he was persuaded that there must be 
another hemisphere lying to the westward, and 
unknown to Europeans, but necessary to the equi- 
librium of the globe. These conjectures he com- 
municated to several of the courts of Europe, who 
all regarded him as a visionary; and it was not till 
after many solicitations, that Isabella, Queen of 
Castile, granted him three vessels, with which he 
eet sail in quest of the new continent, 3rd August, 
1492. After a perilous navigation of some months, 
he reached the Island Guanahani or Cat Island, 
one of the Lucayos or Bahamas, to which he gave 
the name of St. Salvador. This discovery was 
followed soon after by that of the Islands of St. 
Domingo and Cuba ; and in the second and third 
voyages which that navigator undertook to Ame- 
rica (1493-1498), he discovered the mainland or 
continent of the New World ; especially the coast 
of Paria, as far as the point of Araya, making part 
of the province known at present by the name of 

The track of the Genoese navigator was followed 
by a Florentine merchant, named Amerigo Ve- 
sputio. Under the conduct of a Spanish captain, 
called Alfonso de Ojeda, he made several voyages 
to the New World after the year 1497. Different 
ni:i-its of the continent of South America \\en- 
\Uited by him ; and in the maps of his <lisco\ cries 
which he drew up, he usurped a glory which did 
not belong to him, by applying his own name 

to the new continent; which it has since re- 

The Spaniards conquered the islands, and a 
great part of the continent of America ; extending 
their victories along with their discoveries. Stimu- 
lated by the thirst of gold, which the New World 
offered to them in abundance, they committed 
crimes and barbarities which make humanity 
shudder. Millions of the unfortunate natives were 
either massacred or buried in the sea, in spite of 
the efforts which the Spanish bishop, Barthelemi 
de Las Casas, vainly made to arrest the fury of his 
countrymen. 1 In the year after the first discovery 
of Columbus, Ferdinand the Catholic, King of 
Spain, obtained a bull from Pope Alexander VI., 
by which that pontiff made him a gift of all the 
countries discovered, or to be discovered, towards 
the west and the south ; drawing an imaginary line 
from one pole to the other, at the distance of a 
hundred leagues westward of Cape Verd and the 
Azores. This decision having given offence to the 
King of Portugal, who deemed it prejudicial to his 
discoveries in the East, an accommodation was 
contrived between the two courts, in virtue of 
which the same Pope, by another bull, removed 
the line in question further west, to the distance 
of four hundred and seventy leagues ; so that all 
the countries lying to the westward of this line 
should belong to the King of Spain, while those 
which might be discovered to the eastward, should 
fall to the possession of the King of Portugal. 8 It 
was on this pretended title that the Spaniards 
founded their right to demand the submission of 
the American nations to the Spanish crown. Their 
principal conquests in the New World commence 
from the reign of the Emperor Charles V. It was in 
his name that Ferdinand Cortes, with a mere hand- 
ful of troops, overthrew the vast Empire of Mexico 
(1521) ; the last emperors of which, Montezuma 
and Guatimozin, were slain, and a prodigious 
number of the Mexicans put to the sword. The 
conqueror of Peru was Francis Pizarro (1533). 
He entered the country, at the head of 300 men, 
at the very time when Atabalipa was commencing 
his reign as Inca, or sovereign, of Peru. That 
prince was slain, and the whole of Peru subdued 
by the Spaniards. 

[The Spaniards founded various colonies and 
establishments in that part of America which they 
had subjected to their dominion. The character 
of these colonies differed from that of the establish- 
ments which the Portuguese had founded in India, 
and the Dutch, the English, and the French, in 
different parts of the world. As the Spaniards 
were by no means a commercial nation, the pre- 
cious metals alone were the object of their cupidity. 
They applied themselves, in consequence, to the 
working of mines ; they imported negroes to labour 
in them, and made slaves of the natives. In pro- 
cess of time, when the number of Europeans had 
increased in these countries, and the precious 
metals became less abundant, the Spanish colonists 
were obliged to employ themselves in agriculture, 
and in raising what is commonly called colonial 
produce. What we have now said, accounts for 
the limitations and restrictions which were imposed 
on the trade of these colonies by the Spanish go- 
vernment ; they wished to reserve to themselves 
exclusively the profits of the mines. Commerce, 
which at first had been confined to the single en- 

Hnuil dlwotnvd. 
" '" 

PERIOD VI. A .!>. 14M 14H. 


trepol of Seville, fell Into the hands of a mall 
number of merchant*, to the entire exclusion of 
foreigner*. At for the Spanish posMaaions in 
America, they were planted with Episcopal and 
metropolitan MM, missions, convents, and univer- 
sities. Mi.- In.|uiaiUon was also Introduced ; l>ut 
the hierarchy which was founded there, instead of 
augmenting the power of the pope*, remained in a 
state of complete dependence upon the sovc- 


iscovery of Brazil belongs to the Portu- 
guese. Alvares Cabral, the commander of tlu-ir 

.\hil. i.u hi route to India, was driven, by 
contrary winds, on the coast of Brazil (1300), and 
took possession of the country in the name of the 

of Portugal. This colony, in the course 
f tune, became highly important, from the rich 
mines of diamonds and gold which were discovered 

t!., !,-. 

The Spaniards and Portuguese were at first the 
only masters of America ; but in a short (inn-, 
establishments were formed there by some of the 
othiT maritime nations of Europe. The first 
English colony was that of Virginia, which was 
conducted to North America by Sir Walter Ra- 
leigh (1584-1016), but it did not gain a perma- 
nent settlement till the reign of James I. This 
was afterwards followed by seteral other colonies 
\\ lui-h had settled in that part of the American 
continent, on account of the persecution carried 
on by the Stuart kings against the nonconformists. 
The tint settlements of the English in the Antilles 
were those which they formed in the islands of 
Barbadoes and St. Christopher (1629); to these 
they added the island of Jamaica, which they took 
from the Spaniards (1655). The date of the French 
establishments in Canada is as old as the reigns 
of Francis I. and Henry IV., in the years 1534 
and 1004. The city of Quebec was founded in 
1608. It was at a later period when the French 
established themselves in the Antilles. The ori/in 
of their colonies in Martinique and Guadeloupe is 
generally tttemd to the year 1635. They gained 
a footing in St. Domingo as early as 1630, but the 
flourishing state of that remarkable colony did not 
begin, properly speaking, till 1722. All the esta- 
blishments which the English and French had 
formed in America were purely agricultural ; and 
in this respect they were distinguished from the 
Spanish colonies. 

The discovery of a passage by sea to the East 
Indies round Africa belongs also to the Portu- 
guese. It forms one of those great events which 
often take their first impulse from very slender 
causes. John I., surnamcd the Bastard, the new 
founder of the kingdom of Portugal, being desirous 
of affording to his sons an opportunity of signnli/.ini; 
themselves, and earning the honour of knighthood, 
planned an expedition against the Moors in Africa ; 
he equipped a fleet, with which he landed in the 
neighbourhood of Ceuta (1415), of which he soon 
made himself master, and created his sons knights 
in the grand mosque of that nt\ . After this event, 
the Portuguese began to hare a taste for naviga- 
tion and maritime discoveries. In this they were 
encouraged by the Infant Don Henry, Duke ,,f 
Viseau, and one of the sons of King John, who 
had particularly distinguished himself in the expe- 
dition of which we have just spoken. That prince, 
who was well (killed in mathematics and the art 

nation, established his residence at Cape St. 
Vincent, on the western extremity of Algarva. 
There he ordered vesassi to be coaetmcted at his 
own expense, and sent them to reconnoitre the 
coasts of Africa. From that time the Portuguese 
discovered, in succession, the islands of Madeira 

i, the Canaries (1424), the Azores (It 
and Cape Verd (I4O). There t!,.-> founded 
colonies; and, advancing by degrees along the 
southern shores of Africa, they extended their na- 
vigation as far as the coasts of Guinea and N igritia. 
The islands which they had newly discovered, 
were confirmed to the kings of Portugal by several 
of the Popes. The Canaries, however, having 
been claimed by the Spaniards, a treaty was nego- 
ciated between the two kingdoms, in virtue of 
which these islands were abandoned to Spain 

It was under the reign of John II. that the Por- 
tuguese extended their navigation as tar a* the 
most southerly point of Africa. Barthelemi Diaz, 
their admiral, was the first who doubled the Cape, 
which he called the Stormy Cape ; a name which 
King John changed into that of Good Hope. At 
length, after twelve years of toils, Vasco di Gama, 
another Portuguese admiral, hod the glory of car- 
r\invr his national flag as far as India. He landi-d 
at the Port of Calicut (14UH), on the Malabar 
coast, in the third year of the reign of Emmanuel. 

d other celebrated Portuguese navigators, 
such as Almeida, Albuquerque, Acunga, Silveira, 
and de Castro, following the track of Vasco di 
Gama, laid the foundation of the power of the 
Portuguese in India. Francis Almeida defeated 
the fleet of the Mameluke Sultan of Egypt, i. 
junction with that of the kings of India (15O9). 
A Ifonzo Albuquerque conquered Goa (1511), and 
made it the capital of all the Portuguese settle- 
ments in that port of the world. About the same 
time, the Portuguese established themselves in the 
Molucca Islands, with some opposition on the part 
of the Spaniards. Anthony Silveira sign: 
himself by bio able defence of Diu (15HH). 
repulsed the Turks, and ruined the fleet which 
Soliman the Great had sent to the niege of that 
place (1547). The Kim; of Cambay having re- 
sumed the siege, he experienced likewise a total 
defeat from John de Castro, who then conquered 
the whole kingdom of Diu. 

The Portuguese found powerful kingdoms in 
India, and nations rich and civilized. There, na- 
ture and the industry of the natives, produced or 
fabricated thone articles of commerce and mer- 
chandize which have since become an ot>j 
luxury to Europeans; at least until the activity <>f 
the Venetians had furnished the inhabitants of this 
part of the world with them in such abundance, as 
to make them be regarded as articles of absolute 
necessity. This circumstance was the reason why 
the Portuguese never formed any other than mer- 
cantile establishments in India, which they erected 
on the coasts, without extending them into the 
interior. The working of the mines, and the cares 
of agriculture, were abandoned entirely to the 

This era produced a total change in the com- 
merce of the Eat. Formerly the Venetians were 
the people that carried on the principal traffic to 
India. The Jewish or Mahometan merchants pur- 
chased, at Goa, Calicut, and Cochin, those spiceries 

Tr.ule with tl. 

S2 Wealth of the Yeuetians. 
Lettor carriers. 


Leo X., Pope 

Sale of Indulgences. 

Luther und Zuiuglc. 

and other productions of the East, which they 
imported into Syria by the Persian gulf, und into 
l^\pt by the Red Sea. They were then conveyed 
by a laborious and expensive land-carriage, either 
10 the port of Alexandria, or that of Bairout in 
Syria. Thither the Venetians repaired in quest of 
the luxuries of India; they Jixeii their price, and 
distributed them over all Europe. This commerce 
proved a source of vast wealth to these republi- 
cans ; it furnished them with the means of main- 
taining a formidable marine, and of very often 
dictating the law to the other European powers ; 
but after the discovery of the new passage round 
the Cape, and the conquests of the Portuguese in 
India, the Venetians saw themselves compelled to 
abandon a traffic in which they could not compete 
with the Portuguese. This was a terrible blow to 
that republic, and the principal cause of its dovvn- 
fal. The Portuguese, however, did not profit by 
this exclusive commerce as they might have done. 
They did not, like other nations, constitute com- 
panies, with exclusive commercial privileges ; they 
carried it on by means of fleets, which the govern- 
ment regularly despatched at fixed periods. In 
this manner, the commodities of the East were 
imported to Lisbon ; but the indolence of the 
native merchants left to other nations the care of 
distributing them through the markets of Europe. 
The Dutch were the people that profited most by 
this branch of industry ; they cultivated it with so 
much success, and under such favourable circum- 
stances, that they at length succeeded in excluding 
the Portuguese themselves from this lucrative 
traffic, by dispossessing them of their colonies in 
the East. 

If the events which we have now briefly de- 
tailed proved fatal to the Venetians, and afflicting 
to humanity, by the wars and misfortunes which 
they occasioned, it is nevertheless certain, that 
commerce and navigation gained prodigiously by 
these new discoveries. The Portuguese, after hav- 
ing maintained for some time the exclusive posses- 
sion of the navigation and trade of the East, found 
afterwards powerful competitors in the Spaniards, 
the Dutch, English, French, and Danes, who all 
established mercantile connexions both in India and 
America. 8 Hence innumerable sources of wealth 
were opened up to the industry of the Europeans ; 
and their commerce, formerly limited to the Me- 
diterranean, the Baltic, and the Northern Seas, 
and confined to a few cities in Italy, Flanders, and 
Germany, was now, by means of their colonies in 
Africa, and the East and West Indies, extended to 
all parts of the globe. 4 The intercourse of the 
Portuguese with China was as early as the year 
1517, and with Japan it began in 1542. Ferdinand 
Magellan undertook the first voyage round the 
world (1 '>!)) and his example found afterwards a 
number of imitators.* By decrees the maritime 
power of Europe assumed u formidable aspect; 
arU and manufactures were multiplied ; the states, 
formerly poor, became rich and nourishing. King- 
doms at length found, in their commerce, resources 
for augmenting their strength and their influence, 
and carrying into execution their projects of ag- 
grandisement and conquest. 

[Among the causes of this revolution, which 
took place in commerce, it is necessary to take into 
account a discover;, apparently of trivial import- 
ance, but which exercised a most extraordinary in- 

fluence over the civilization of Europe, viz., that of 
horse-posts for the conveyance of letters. Before 
the sixteenth century, the communications between 
distant countries were few and difficult. Messen- 
gers, travelling on short journeys, on foot or on 
horseback, were their only couriers. About the 
beginning of the seventeenth century, and during 
the reign of Maximilian I., an Italian gentleman, 
of the name, of Francis de la Tour et Taxis, esta- 
blished the first posts in the Low Countries. Their 
object at first was merely for the conveyance of 
letters, for which he provided regular relays. By 
and by, for the sake of despatch, the use of horses 
was introduced, placed at certain distances. From 
the Low Countries this system found its way into 
Germany, where it was conferred on the family of 
Taxis as a regalian right; and from thence it spread 
over every civilized country in the world.] 

A revolution, not less important, is that which 
took place in religion about the beginning of the 
sixteenth century. The abuses which disgraced 
the court of Rome, the excess of the power, and 
the depravity of the morals of the clergy, had ex- 
cited a very general discontent. A reformation 
had for a long time been deemed necessary, but 
there was a difference of opinion as to the method 
of effecting it. The common notion was, that this 
task could be legally accomplished only by Ge- 
neral Councils, convoked under the authority of 
the popes. It was easy, however, to perceive the 
iuefficacy of any remedy left at the disposal of 
those very persons from whom the evil proceeded ; 
and the unsuccessful results of the Councils of 
Constance and Basle had taught the people, that, 
in order to obtain redress for the abuses of which 
they complained, it was necessary to have recourse 
to some other scheme than that of general coun- 
cils. This scheme was attempted by the Re- 
formers of the sixteenth century, who were per- 
suaded, that, in order to restrain the exorbitant 
power of the clergy, they ought to reject the 
infallibility of the pope, as well as that of general 
councils ; admitting no other authority in ecclesi- 
astical matters, than that, of the sacred Scriptures, 
interpreted by the lights of reason and sound 

The immediate and incidental cause of this 
change in religion was the enormous abuse of in- 
dulgences. Pope Leo X., who was of the t'amih 
of the Medicis, and well known for his extenshe 
patronage of literature and the tine arts, having 
exhausted the treasury of the church by his luxury 
and his munificence, had recourse to the expedient 
of indulgences, which several of his predecessors 
had already adopted as a means of recruiting their 
finances. The ostensible reason was, the liasilicon 
of St. Peter's at Rome, the completion of which 
was equally interesting to the whole of Christen- 
dom. Offices for the sale of indulgences were es- 
tablished in all the different states of I'.urope. The 
purchasers of these indulgences obtained absolution 
of their sins, and exemption from the pains of 
purgatory after death. The excesses committed 
by the emissaries who had the charge of those in- 
dulgences, and the scandalous means which tiny 
practised to extort money, brought on the schism to 
which we are about to advert. 

Two theologians, Martin Luther and I hie 
/uillgle, opposed these indulgences, and in\ ci^lied 
;i-.iinst them in their sermons and their writings; 


OD M. \.!>. 1448164*. 

..f '.:.. 

the former at Wlttemberg, in S <>U*r, 

flnt at Einsiedeln, and afterward* at /ur. 
Switseriand. Leo X. at flnt held these adversa- 
ries in cont.-mpt. lie did not attempt to allajr 
the storm, until the mind* of mm, cxaspcnr 
the heat of dispute, were no I 
listen to the voice of calmneM and tonriliation. 
mean* which he subsequent!) trii-il t.> indue* 
Luther t<> retruct having proved at 
launched a thundering Bull against him (1520), 
which, so far from abating the courage of the Re- 
former, tended, on the contrary, to embolden him 
-till publicly burnt the pope's hull, 

together with the canon law, at Wittembcrg (10th 
December), in presence of a vast concourse of doc- 
tors and student* from different nation*, whom he 
had assembled for the purpose. From that moment 
Luther and 7uint;le nr\er erased to preach against 
the abuses of the indulgences. They completely 
umlermiued this system of abomination, and even 
attacked various other dogmas and institutions of 
the Romish church, such as monastic TOWS, the 
celibacy of the priests, the supremacy of the pope, 
and the ecclesiastical hierarchy. These two 
brated men, who agreed in the greater part of their 
opinions, soon attracted a number of followers. 
The people, long ago prepared to shake off a yoke 
which had been so oppressive, applauded the seal 
of the Reformers; and the new opinions, promptly 
and easily diffused by means of the press, \\--r-- 
received with enthusiasm throughout a great part 
of Europe. 

John Calvin, another Reformer, trod nearly in 
the footsteps of Zuingle. He was a native of 
Novon in ricardy, and began to distinguish him- 
self at Paris in 1532. Being compelled to leave 
that city on account of his opinions, he withdrew 
to Switzerland (153H) ; tin-lire he passed to Stras- 
bourg, whete he was nominated to the office of 
French preacher. His erudition and his pulpit- 
talents gained him disciples, and gave the name of 
Calvinists to those who had at first been called 
Hans. The Lotnerans, as well as the 
.-liana orC'ahinit. in (iermam, were compre- 
hended under the common appellation of Protest- 
ants, on account of the Protrtt \\hich they took 
against the decrees of the Diet of Spire (1529), 
which forbade them to make any innovations in 
religion, or to abolish the mats, until the meeting 
of a general counril. The name of Lutherans was 
1 more particularly to those who adhered to 
the Confe-Mon of Augsburg, that is, the Confession 
of Faith, which they presented to the Emperor 
Charles V., at the famous Diet of Augsburg, held 
in 1530. 

In this manner a great part of Europe revolted 
from the pope and the Romish church, and em- 
braced either the doctrines of Luther, or those of 
le and Calvin. The half of <;.-rm:nn. Den- 
mark, Norway, Sweden, Prussia, and l.i\..:.n, 
adopted the Confession of Augsburg ; while Eng- 
land, Scotland, the Tinted Provinces, ami ti 
principal part of Switzerland, declared then. 
in favour of the opinions of Zuingle and Cahin. 
ew doctrines made likewise great progress in 
France, Hungary, Transylvania, Bohemia, Silesia, 
and Poland. 

This revolution did not contulse merely the 
church; it influenced the politics, and changed 
the form of government, in manj of the states of 

Europe. The same men who belfc 

authorUed to correct abates and imperfections in 
religion, undertook to reform political abuses with 
the same freedom. New states sprang up; and 
took advantage of these commotions to 
augment their own power and authority. Const i- 
themselves heads of the church and of the 
religion of their country, they shook off the fetters 
of priestly influence ; while the clergy ceased to form 
a counteracting or controlling power in the state. 
The freedom of opinion whieh characterised the 
Protestant faith awoke the human mind from its 
intellectual lethargy, infused new energy it/ 
and thus contributed to the progress of civilization 
and science in Europe. Even the systems of pub- 
lic instruction underwent a considerable change. 
Tin- schools were reformed, and rendered more 
perfect. A multitude of new seminaries of edu- 
cation, academies, and universities, were founded 
in all the Protestant states. This revolution, how- 
ever, was not accomplished without great and 
various calamities. A hierarchy, such as that of 
the Church of Rome, supported by all that was 
dignified and venerable, could not be attacked, or 
shaken to its foundation, without involving Europe 
in the convulsion. Hence we find that wars and 
factions arose in Germany, France, the Low Coun- 
tries, Switzerland, Hungary, and Poland. The 
march of reformation was every where stained with 

[This, however, was not always shed on account 
of religion, which was made the prctdkt for the 
greater part of the wan that raged for two hundred 
years. All the passions of the human breast the 
ambition of the great and the turbulent spirits of 
the disaffected assumed that mask. If the Re- 
formation contributed ultimately to the progress of 
learning in the Protestant states, it arrested these 
improvements in the Catholic countries, and gave 
birth to a headlong fanaticism which shut men's 
eyes to the truth. Even in the Protestant states, 
it occupied the attention with the study of a theo- 
logy full of scholastic subtleties, instead of directing 
the mind to the pursuit of more useful sciences. 
If this liberty of opinion, and the absence of all 
authority in matters of faith, gave new energy to 
human thought, it also led men into errors of which 
the preceding ages had seen no example. The re- 
publicanism which desolated France in the sixteenth 
century, the rebellions which distracted England 
in the seventeenth, the pestilent doctrines that 
were broached in the eighteenth, and the revolu- 
tionary spirit which overturned all Europe in the 
nineteenth, may justly be regarded as the conse- 
quences of the Reformation, whose evils have, in a 
great measure, counterbalanced its advantages.*] 

The means that were employed to bring the 
quarrels of the church to an amicable conclusion, 
tended rather to exasperate than allay the mischief; 
and if the conferences among the clergy of dit! 
persuasions failed, it was not to be expected that 
a better agreement, or a re-union of parties, could 
be founded on the basis of a General Council. 
Protestants demanded an uncontrolled lihertt for 
the council. They wished it to be assembled b\ 
order of the Emperor, in one of the cities of the 
Empire; and that their div ines should have a voice 
and a seat in its meetings. The pope was to sub- 


Council of Trent. 
Maurice of Saxony. 
Ignatius I-oyola. 


Jesuit missions. 
Fi'cid.-il system. 
Halaiice of power. 

mit to its authority, and all matters should there 
be decided according to the rule of the sacred 
Scriptures. These terms were by r>o means agree- 
able to the Catholics. Paul III. summoned a 
council at Mantua (1557), and another at Yicenza 
( l.'i.'jS) ;"but both of these convocations were inef- 
fectual, as was also the proposed reform in. the 
court of Rome, made by the same pontiff. It was 
resolved at last, at the instance of the Catholic 
princes (1542), to convoke the Council of Trent, 
though the opening of it was deferred till 1545. 

This famous council met with two interruptions; 
the first took place in 1547, when the pope, who 
had become alarmed at the success of the imperial 
arms, transferred the council to Bologna, on pre- 
tence that an epidemic distemper had broken out 
at Trent. All the prelates of the emperor's party 
remained at Trent, in obedience to the command 
of their master, who protested loudly against the 
assembly at Bologna, which, nevertheless, held its 
ninth and tenth sessions at that city. This latter 
council having been dissolved by Paul III. (1548), 
its affairs continued in a languid state for the next 
two years, when Pope Julius III., the successor of 
Paul, revived it, and transferred it once more to 
Trent (1551). Another interruption took place at 
the time when Maurice, Elector of Saxony, had 
made himself master of Augsburg, and was march- 
ing against the emperor towards Inspruck. It was 
then agreed to prorogue the council, now in its 
sixteenth session, for two years ; and to assemble 
again at the end of that period, if peace should 
happen in the mean time to be established. At 
length, in 1560, Pius IV. summoned the council, 
for the third and last time, to meet at Trent. The 
session, however, did not commence till 1552, and 
next year its sittings were finally terminated. 

In this council, matters were not treated in the 
same way as they had been at Constance and Basle, 
where each nation deliberated separately, and then 
gave their suffrage in common, so that the general 
decision was taken according to the votes of the 
different nations. This form of deliberation was 
not at all palatable to the court of Rome, who, in 
order to gain a preponderance in the assembly, 
thought proper to decide by a majority of the votes 
of every individual member of the council. The 
Protestant princes rejected entirely the authority 
of this council ; which, far from terminating the 
dispute, made the schism wider than ever. Its 
decisions were even condemned by several of the 
Catholic sovereigns. In France, more especially, 
it was never formally published, and they ex- 
1 y excluded such of its acts of discipline as they 
eonmwrad contrary to the laws of the kingdom, to 
the authority of the sovereign, and the maxims of 
the Gallican church. 

It is, nevertheless, certain that this council was 
instrumental in restoring the tottering power of 
the Roman pontiffs ; which received at the same 
time a new support by the institution of the Order 
of the Jesuits. The founder of this order was 
Ignatius Loyola, who was born at the castle of 
Loyola in Guipuscoa. He mode the declaration 
of his vows in the church of Montmartre, at Paris 
(1534), and obtained from Paul III. the confirma- 
tion of his new society. This Order was bound, 
by a particular vow of obedience, more intimately 
to the court of Rome, and became one of the main 
instruments of its enormous power. From Spain 

the society was speedily propagated in all the 
other Catholic states ; they tilled cities and courts 
with their emissaries ; undertook missions to 
China, Japan, and the Indies ; and, under the spe- 
cial protection of the see of Rome, they soon sur- 
passed in credit and wealth every other religious 

In the midst of these changes which took place 
ill civil and ecclesiastical matters, we find a new 
system arising in the political government of 
Europe; the consequence of those new ties and 
relations which had been established amongst the 
different powers since the close of the fifteenth 
century. Prior to this date, most of the European 
states were feeble, because insulated and detached. 
Occupied with their own particular interests and 
quarrels, the nations were little acquainted with 
each other, and seldom had any influence on their 
mutual destinies. The faults and imperfections 
inherent in the feudal system had pervaded all 
Europe, and crippled the power and energies of 
government. The sovereigns, continually at war 
with their factious and powerful vassals, could 
neither form plans of foreign conquest, nor carry 
them into execution ; and their military operations 
were in general without unity or effect. [Hence 
it happened, that in the middle ages, changes were 
produced in the different states, which so little 
alarmed their neighbours, that it may be said they 
were scarcely conscious of their existence. Such 
were the conquests of the English in France, which 
might certainly have compromised the independ- 
ence of Europe.] 

A combination of causes and circumstances, 
both physical and moral, produced a revolution in 
the manners and governments of most of the Con- 
tinental states. The disorders of feudal anarchy 
gradually disappeared ; constitutions better organ- 
ised were introduced ; the temporary levies of 
vassals were succeeded by regular and permanent 
armies ; which contributed to humble the exorbitant 
power of the nobles and feudal barons. The con- 
sequence was, that states formerly weak and ex- 
hausted acquired strength ; while their sovereigns, 
freed from the turbulence and intimidation of their 
vassals, began to extend their political views, and 
to form projects of aggrandisement and conquest. 

From this period the reciprocal influence of the 
European States on each other began to be mani- 
fest. Those who were afraid for their independ- 
ence would naturally conceive the idea of a 
balance of power capable of protecting them against 
the inroads of ambitious and warlike princes. 
Hence those frequent embassies and uegociations ; 
those treaties of alliance, subsidies, and guarantees ; 
those wars carried on by a general combination of 
powers, who deemed themselves obliged to bear a 
part in the common cause ; and hence too those 
projects for establishing checks and barriers on 
each other, which occupied the different courts of 

[The system of equilibrium, or the balance of 
power, originated in Italy. That peninsula, sepa- 
rated from the rest of the continent by the sea and 
the Alps, had outstripped the other countries in 
the career of civilization. There a multitude of 
independent states had been formed, unequal in 
point of power and extent ; but none of them had 
sufficient strength to resist the united power of the 
rest, or usurp dominion over them ; while at the 

II. > ( 

PKUIOD VI. A.I). ll.Vi K.IV 

:,- <!,!,. -. 

same time, none of then were stiff 

-.'I- in pointof weakness, a* not to beof MMBO 
weight in the scale. Hence that rivalry and jea- 
lousy among them, wln.-h was incessantly watch- 
ing over the piogiBas of their neighbours ; and 
f wan and confederaeka, 

wboae object was to maintain some decree of 
equality aiming thorn; or at leant a r< 
portion, which iiiiuhl inspire the weaker with 
courage and confidence. The pope*, who were 
. in these transaction*, employed 
all thrir jMilir\ to prevent any foreign power from 
interfering, or entabl : in Italy. The 

doctrine of political equilibrium paused the Alps 
about tin- end of thf fifteenth centurv. The 
I (HOC of Austria, which had suddenly risen to a 
hii;h jiit.-h of grandeur, vva* the Hrt against which 
its effort* were, directed.] 

Tliis House, which derived its origin from 
I'll of Haphurg, who was elected Emperor 
of Germany towards the end of the thirteentb cen- 
tury, owed its greatness and ele\:itiu r!u.-tl\ to 
t lie Imperial dignity, and the different marriage- 
allianceii which tins same dignity procured it. 
Maximilian of Austria, son of the emperor 
Frederic III., married Mary of Burgundy (1477), 
daughter and heiress of Charles the Rash, last 
Puke of Burgundy. This alliance secured to 
Austria the whole of the Low Countries, in- 
cluding Frmche-Comte, Flanders and Artoio. 
Philip the Fair, the son of this marriage, espoused 
the Infanta of Spain, daughter of Ferdinand and 
Isabella of Castille. They had two sons, Charles 
and Ferdinand, the former of whom, known in his- 
tory by the name of Charles V., inherited the Low 
( 'outlines in right of his father Philip (1.506). On 
the death of Ferdinand, his maternal grandfather 
(1516), he became heir to the whole Spanish suc- 
cession, which comprehended the kingdoms of 
. Naples, Sicily, and Sardinia, together with 
Spanish America. To these vast possessions were 
added his patrimonial dominions in Austria, which 
were transmitted to him by his paternal grand- 
father the Emperor Maximilian I. About the 
same time (151!)), the Imperial dignity was con- 
ferred on this prince by the electors ; so that 
Europe had not seen, since the time of Charle- 
magne, a monarchy so powerful as that of 

s V. 

This emperor concluded a treaty with his bro- 
ther Ferdinand, by which he ceded to him all his 
hereditary possessions in Germany. The two 
brothers thus became the founders of the two prin- 
cipal branches of the House of Austria, viz. that of 
Spain, which began with Charles V. (called 
Charles I. of Spain), and ended with Charles II. 
(1700) ; and that of Germany, of which Ferdinand 
I. was the ancestor, and which became extinct 
in the male line in the Emperor Charles \ I. 
( 1740). These two br . ly allied to each 

I her, acted in concert for the advancement of their 
'cal interests; moreover they gained each 
their own separate advantages by the marriage 
\ions which they formed. Ferdinand I. ( 
th.-derman line, married Anne (l.V.M), Mister of 
Louis King of Hungary and Bohemia, who having 
been slain by the Turks at the battle of Mohacs 
so two kingdom : rdi- 

nandofthe House of Austria. Finally, the mar- 
riage which Charles V. contracted with* the Infant 

Isabella, daughter of Emmanuel, King of Portugal, 
procured I'hilip II. of Spain, the sou of that mar- 
riage, the whole Portuguese monarchy, to which 
ha succeeded on the death ..f Henrj, railed the 
Cardinal ( I vast an aggrmndUeni 

power alarmed the sovereigns of Europe, who be- 
gan to sunpert that thi- Austrian 1'rinrm, of the 
Spanish and (iennan line, aimed at the universal 
monarchy. Tin- un hounded am' haries 

V., and his son Philip II., as well as that of 
diiund II., grandson of Ferdinand I., tended to 
roiiKrm tin's,- suspicions, and all felt the necessity 
of uniting to oppose a barrier to this overwhelming 
power. For a long time the whole p<.l' 
Kuropo, its wars and alliances, had no other object 
than to humble the ambition of one nation, whose 
preponderance seemed to threaten the liberty and 
independence of the rest. 

[The system of political equilibrium, which from 
this period became the leading object of every 
European cabinet, until it was undermined by 
unjust and arbitrary interferences, and threatened 
to bury the independence of Europe in its ruins, 
did not aim at maintaining among the .In- 
states an equality of power or territorial possession. 
This would have been chimerical. The object of 
this system was to maintain a perfect equality of 
rights, in virtue of which the weaker might enjoy 
in security all that they held by a just claim. It 
was purely a defensive and preservative system ; 
nor did it affect to put an end to all wan ; it was 
directed solely against the ambition and usurpa- 
tion of conquerors. Its fundamental principle 
was to prevent any one state from acquiring suffi- 
cient power to resist the united efforts of the others.] 

France was the leading power that undertook 
the task of regulating the balance against the 
House of Austria. Francis I. and Henry II. used 
every effort to excite combinations against Charles 
V . Francis was the first sovereign in Europe 
that entered into treaties of alliance with the Turks 
against Austria ; and in this way the Porte was, 
to a certain extent, amalgamated with the political 
system of Europe. So long as their object waa to 
subvert the feudal aristocracy, and the Protestant 
religion in France, Francis and Henry were 
strenuous defenders of the Germanic system, and 
extended their protection to the sovereigns of the 
Protestant states of the empire, under the per- 
suasion that all Europe would l>cnd to the Austrian 
yoke, if the emperors of that house should su> 
in rendering their power absolute and hereditary 
in the Empire. Henry IV., Louis XIII., and 
the Cardinals Richelieu and Masarin, adopted 
the same line of policy.* They joined in league 
with the Protestant Princes, and armed by turns 
the greater part of Europe against Austria, and 
the F.uiperor Ferdinand II., whose ambitious 
designs threatened to subvert the constitution of the 
Umpire. This was the grand motive for the 
famous thirty yean' war, which was put an end to 
!> the treaties of Westphalia (I04M), and of the 
Pyrenees (in.MI). France succeeded, not how- 
ever without prodigiom efforts, in supporting the 
balance against Austria ; while the federative 
of the Empir^, consolidated by the former 
<>t these treaties, and guaranteed by France and 
Sweden, became a sort of artificial barrier, for 
preserving the equilibrium and the general tran- 
quillity of Europe. 

Anarchy of Germany. 
86 The 'Public lV;i. ...'' 

Aulic Council iustitutoil. 


War of Smalcaldc. 
Union of Protestants. 
The Catholic Lr:ii;ui'. 

It was during this period that almost every 
kingdom in Europe changed their condition, and 
assumed by degrees, the form which they have still 
retained. The German Empire continued to ex- 
perience those calamities to which every govern- 
ment is exposed, when its internal springs have 
lost their vigour and activity. Private wars and 
feuds, which the laws authorized, were then re- 
garded as the chief bulwark of the national liberty ; 
the noblesse and the petty states in general, 
knew no other justice than what the sword dis- 
pensed. Oppression, rapine and violence, were 
become universal ; commerce languished ; and the 
different provinces of the empire presented one 
melancholy scene of ruin and desolation. The 
expedients that were tried to remedy these dis- 
orders, the truces, the treaties (called the Peace of 
God), and the different confederacies of the Im- 
perial states, served only to palliate, but not to 
cure the evil. The efforts which some of the 
Emperors made to establish the public tranquillity 
on some solid basis, proved equally abortive. 

It was not until near the end of the fifteenth 
century that the states of the Empire, impressed 
with juster notions of government and civil subor- 
dination, consented to the total and entire aboli- 
tion of feuds and intestine wars. This was accom- 
plished under the reign of Maximilian I., by 
the Perpetual Public Peace, drawn up at the Diet 
of Worms in 1495. All violent means of redress 
among the members of the Germanic Body were 
rigorously interdicted ; and all who had any com- 
plaint to make against each other, were enjoined 
to apply to the regular courts of justice. This 
ordinance of the public peace, which was after- 
wards renewed and enlarged in several diets, has 
been regarded, since that time, as one of the prin- 
cipal and fundamental laws of the Empire. 

The establishment of the public peace rendered 
a reformation necessary in the administration 
of justice, which had long been in a languid and 
disordered state. For this purpose, the Imperial 
Chamber, which sat at first at Spire, and was 
afterwards transferred to Wetzlar, was instituted at 
the Diet of Worms (1495). Its object was to judge 
of any differences that might arise among the im- 
mediate members of the Germanic body ; as also 
to receive any appeals that might be referred to 
them from the subordinate tribunals. It was com- 
posed of a chief or head, called the Judge of the 
Chamber, and of a certain number of assessors, 
chosen from among the electors and independent 
nobility. The institution of the Aulic Council, 
another sovereign court of the Empire, followed 
soon after that of the Imperial Chamber. Its 
origin is generally referred to the Diet of Cologne 
(1512). Of the same date also is the plan which 
they adopted of dividing the Empire into ten 
Circles, as a proper expedient for maintaining the 
public peace, and facilitating the execution of the 
sentences of the two Imperial Courts. Over each 
of these circles were placed conveners, directors, 
and colonels, whose duty it was to superintend 
and command the troops of their respective dis- 

Tin- custom of imperial capitulations was intro- 
duced at the time of the accession of Charles V. 
to the imperial throne (151!)). The electors, 
apprehensive of the formidable power of that 
prince, thought proper to limit it by a capitulation, 

which they made him sign and solemnly swear 
to observe. This compact between the new 
emperor and the electors, renewed under every 
subsequent reign, has been always considered as 
the grand charter of the liberties of the Germanic 

The dissensions on the score of religion that 
happened about the beginning of the sixteenth 
century, gave rise to a long series of troubles and 
civil wars, which proved of advantage to the 
House of Austria, by the confirmation of their 
power in the Empire. The first of these is known 
by the name of the war of Smalcalde, of which 
the following is a brief sketch. The Emperor 
Charles V., in the first diet which he held at 
Worms (1521), had issued an edict of proscription 
against Luther and his adherents, ordaining that 
they should be treated as enemies of the Empire, 
and prosecuted to the utmost rigour of the law. 
The execution of this edict was incessantly urged 
by the emperor and the pope's legates, until the 
whole Empire was in a state of combustion. 
The Catholic princes, at the instigation of Cardinal 
Campeggio, assembled at Ratisbon (1524), and 
there adopted measures of extreme rigour, for 
putting the edict into execution within their 
respective states. The case was by no means the 
same with the princes and states who adhered to 
the reformation, or who gave it their protection. 
To apply the conditions of the edict to them, it 
would have been necessary to come to a civil 
war, which the more prudent members of the 
Germanic body sought to avoid. This religious 
schism was still more aggravated at the Diet of 
Augsburg, where the emperor issued a decree, 
condemning the Confession of Faith which the 
Protestant princes had presented to him. This 
decree limited a time within which they were 
commanded, in so far as regarded the articles in 
dispute, to conform to the doctrines of the Catholic 
Church. Thus urged to extremities, the Protes- 
tant leaders determined to assemble at Smalcalde 
before the end of this very year (1530), where 
they laid the foundation of a Union, or defensive 
alliance, which was afterwards renewed at different 
times. John Frederic, Elector of Saxony, and 
Philip, Landgrave of Hesse, declared themselves 
chiefs of this union. In opposition to this confe- 
deracy, the Catholic princes instituted the Holy 
League; so called because its object was the 
defence of the Catholic religion. 

Everything seemed to announce a civil war, 
when a new irruption of the Turks into Hungary 
and Austria induced the Catholics to sign, at 
Nuremberg (1530), a truce, or accommodation, 
with the princes of the union ; in virtue of which, 
a peace between the states of the two religions 
was concluded, and approved by the emperor ; to 
continue till a general council, or some new as- 
sembly, should decide otherwise. This peace was 
renewed in various subsequent assemblies. The 
Protestant princes, however, still persisted in their 
refusal to acknowledge the authority of councils 
convoked by the popes ; and their confederacy 
daily receiving new accessions, the emperor, after 
having made peace with France, at Crepy (1544), 
and concluded an armistice of five years with tin- 
Turks, resolved to declare war against these schis- 
matics, who, presuming on their union and their 
amicable relations with foreign powers, thought 

IM.HIOD M. \ n. 


themselves capable of dictating mwa to the 

MMW| Ml edict of proscription (1546) aceinet 

I lector of Saxony and the l.andirrateof Hew*, 

tin- two chiefs of the union ; and having entered 

into a eerrvt allianr.- with Duke Maurice, 

..IT branch of the fmmily of Saxony, and a 

near rrlatinn uf th elector, he succeeded in tnum- 

ferrinf the theatre of war from the Danube t<> tin- 

I elector being defeated by the emperor, 

in an :i. M..;I which took place at Mecklenburg 

I into the hands of the romp 
and the Landgrave of HI-MO met with the aame 
late two month* after. The union of Smalcalde 
was then dissolved, and the emperor, who now 
aaw himself maater of Germany, mem bird a diet 
at Augaburg in which he acted the part of a 
dictator. A large detachment of hi* troops, billeted 
mi t In- city, served aa his body guard, while the 
reat of bia army was encamped in the neighbour- 
hnixl. At thit dirt he conferred on Duke Maurice 
tin- l.lectormle of Saxony, of which he had deprived 
his prisoner, John Frederick. Tin- investiture 
uf the new elector took place at Augiburg (1548) ; 
and what deserves to be particularly remarked 
in this dirt ia, that the emperor entered into a 
acfaene for the entire ruin and extirpation of Pro- 
testantism, by compelling the prince* and states 
of the reformation t rejoin the Catholic Church, 
l>\ means of a formula which he made them adopt, 
known by the name of the Interim; and which, hy 
ita preliminary arrangement, allowed them only 
the IMC of the communion in both kinds, and tin- 
marriage of their priests, until the whole matter 
should be decided by a council. 

Tin- victories of Charles V., which seemed to 
have made him abaolute maater of the Empire, 
were soon followed by reverses, which eclipsed all 
the former glory of his reign. The Elector Muu- 
rirr, though indebted to him for his new dignity, 
thought he might take advantage of the distressed 
condition to which that prince was reduced by 
tin- low state of his finances, to make a new at- 
tempt to limit his authority, and restore the Pro- 
testant religion. With this view, having enlisted 
some of the princes of the Kmuin- in his cause, 
and concluded a secret treaty with Henry II. of 
France, at Charabord, he marched with such 
rapidity against the Emperor, that he nearly sur- 
prised him at Inspruck, and obliged him to have 
recourse to the mediation of his brother Ferdinand, 
when a treaty was concluded with Maurice, which 
was signed at Paaaau ( 1552). There the liberty 
of the Protestant worship was sanctioned ; and it 
waa agreed that a General Council should be 
manned * draw up the articles of a solid and 
permanent peace between the states of both 

This dint, which waa long retarded by political 
, did not assemble at Augsburg till the year 
1555. There a definitive peace waa concluded 
on the subject of religion, and it was ordained that 
both Protestant and Catholic states should enjoy a 
perfect liberty of worship ; and that no reunion 
should ever be attempted by any other than ami- 
cable means. The eculariiing of to* ecclesiastic-mi 
revenues, which the Protestant princes had intro- 
duced into their states, waa ratified ; bat there waa 
one of the articles of the treaty which expressly 
provided, that every prelate or churchman, who 
renounced his ancient faith to embrace the Con- 

feasion of Augsburg, should lose his benefice. 
latter rUusr, known by the name of JtrWeWeeKpef 
Reterrr, did not pass but with the moat determined 

'renew of more kind* than one eprang from 
thia treaty of peace, the articles of which each 
party interpreted to their own advantage. Henee 
those stratagems which at length occasioned a 
new war (1618) that of the Thirty Years. The 
Protestant Princes and States, wishing to provide 
for their own security, and to put an end to those 
arbitrary measures, of which they thought they 
had reaiMin to complain, assembled at Hrilbronn 
(1504), and there laid the foundation of a new 
tini' m, -which was confirmed in the assemblies held 
at Halle, in Suabia, in the yean 160H and l'.l. 
The chief promoter of thia union wa* Henry IV. 
of France, who designed to use it as a check on 
the ambition of tin- House of Austria; and as a 
means for earning into execution tin- grand pro- 
ject which he meditated with regard to the pacifi- 
cation of Europe. He concluded an alliance with 
tin- princes of the Union, and determined the 
number of troops to be furnished by each of the 
contracting panics. The Catholic princes and 
States, afraid of being taken unawares, renewed 
their League, which tln-y signed at Wurtzburg 
(1609). The rich duchy of Julier*. which had 
become vacant this same year, was contested by 
several claimants ; and as Austria was equally de- 
sirous of possessing it, this waa made the occasion 
of raising powerful armies in France, Germany, 
Italy, and the Low Countries. A considerable 
number of troops had already taken the field 
about the beginning of the year 1610, when the 
unexpected death of Henry IV. disconcerted all 
their measures. This changed the politics of the 
French court, and also induced the princes of the 
I moii to conclude a treaty with the League, 
the articles of which were signed at Munich and 
WUnatt (1610). 

In this manner the resentment of both parties 
was suspended for the moment ; but the cause 
of their disunion still remained, which at length 
(1618) kindled a war that extended from Bohemia 
over all Germany, and involved, in course of time, 
a great part of Kuropc. Tin- ln-tory <>f thia tedious 
war, in which politics had aa great a share aa xeal 
for religion, may be divided into four principal 
periods, namely, the Palatine, the Danish, t til- 
Swedish, and the French war. Frederick N . 

r Palatine, and head of the Protestant 
Union, having been raised to the throne by the 
Bohemian States (1619), which had rebelled 
against the Emperor Ferdinand II.. engaged la a 
war with that prince ; but being deserted by hie 
allies, and defeated at the battle of Prague (1620), 
he was driven from Bohemia, and stripped of all 
his dominions. The victorious anna uf Austria 
soon extended tin ir conquests over a great part 
of the Empire. 

Christian IV., King of Denmark, who was in 
alliance with most of the Protestant princes, next 
undertook the defence of the federal system ; but 
he was not more fortunate than the Elector Pala- 
tine had been. Being defeated by Tilly, at the 
famous battle of Lutaen ( 1638), he was compelled 
to abandon the cause of his allies, and to sign a 
separate peace with the Emperor at Lubeck 
(1639). Gustavue Adolphus, King of Sweden, 

< iiL-t.-i\ us Adolplius slain, 
gg Swedish wars. 

Peace of MunstT. 


State of Religion. 

The Germanic sovereignties. 

The Low Countries. 

pursued the career of the Danish monarch. En- 
couraged by France, he put himself at the head of 
the Protestant princes, with the view of checking 
the ambitious projects of Ferdinand II., who, by 
means of his general, "\Yallenstein, whom he had 
(rented Duke of Friedland, and invested in the 
duchy of Mecklenburg, was dictating the law to 
the whole Empire, and even threatening the king- 
doms of the North. Nothing could be more 
splendid than the campaigns of the Swedish hero 
in Germany, and the victories which he obtained 
at Leipsic (1631), and Lutzen (1632) ; but having 
been slain in the hitter action, the affairs of the 
Swedes began to decline ; and they were totally 
ruined by the defeat which they sustained at 
Nordlingen (1634). From that time the Elector 
of Saxony, John George I., renounced the alliance 
of Sweden ; and in yielding up Lusace to the 
Emperor, he consented to a separate treaty of 
peace, which was signed at Prague (1635). 

It was at this period that France, which till 
then had but feebly supported the Swedes and the 
Protestant princes, thought it of advantage to her 
interests to undertake their defence against Aus- 
tria. Having declared war against Spain, she 
marched numerous armies at once into Italy, 
Spain, Germany, and the Low Countries. Ber- 
nard, Prince of Saxe "Weimar, and the three 
French generals, Guebriant, Tureune, and the 
Duke d'Enghien, signalized themselves by their 
exploits in the Imperial war ; while the disciples 
of Gustavus Adolplius, Banier, Torstenston, and 
"Wntngel, distinguished themselves at the head of 
the Swedish armies, in the various campaigns 
which took place, from the year 1635 till the con- 
clusion of the peace. Never were negociations 
more tedious or more complicated than those 
which preceded the treaty of Westphalia. The 
preliminaries were signed at Hamburgh in 1641 ; 
but the opening of the Congress at Munster and 
Osnaburg did not take place till 1644. The 
CounU D'Avaux and Servien, the plenipotentiaries 
of France, shared with Oxenstiern and Salvius, 
the Swedish envoys, the principal glory of this 
negociation, which was protracted on purpose, as 
the belligerent powers were daily expecting to see 
the events of the war change in their favour. It 
v\ as not until the 24th of October, 1648, that the 
peace was finally signed at Munster and Osnaburg. 

This peace, which was renewed in every subse- 
quent treaty, and made a fundamental law of the 
Empire, fixed definitively the constitution of the 
Germanic body. The territorial rights of the 
states, known by the name of superiority the 
j/rivilege of making alliances with each other, and 
with foreign powers and advising with the Em- 
peror at the DieU, in everything that concerned 
the general administration of the Empire, were 
confirmed to them in the most authentic manner, 
and guaranteed by the consent of foreign powers. 
As to ecclesiastical affaire, the Religious Peace of 
1555 was confirmed anew, and extended to those 
who were known by the name of the Reformed, 
or CaMnists. The state of religion, the forms of 
public worship, and the enjoyment of ecclesiastical 
l-i -in fices, throughout the whole Empire, were re- 
gulated according to the decree, called Uti possi- 
dctis, of the 1st of January, 1624, which was termed 
the normal, or decretory year. In this treaty, 
France obtained, by way of indemnity, the sove- 

reignty of the three bishoprics, Metz, Toul, and 
Verdun, as well as that of Alsace. The compensa- 
tion of the other parties interested was settled in a 
great measure at the expense of the Church, and 
by means of secularizing several bishoprics and 
ecclesiastical benefices. 

Besides Pomerania and the city of Wismar, 
Sweden got the archbishopric of Bremen and the 
bishopric of Verdun. To the House of Branden- 
burg they assigned Upper Pomerania, the arch- 
bishopric of Magdeburg, the bishoprics of Halber- 
stadt, Minden, and Camin. The House of Meck- 
lenburg received, in lieu of the city of "Wismar, 
the bishoprics of Schwerin and Ratzeburg. The 
princely abbey of Hirschfeld was adjudged to the 
Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel, and the alternity of 
the bishopric of Osnaburg to the House of Bruns- 
wick-Luneburg. An eighth Electorate was insti- 
tuted in favour of the Elector Palatine, whom the 
Emperor, during the war, had divested of his 
dignity, which, with the Upper Palatinate, he had 
conferred on the Duke of Bavaria. 

The greater part of the provinces known by 
the name of the Low Countries, made part of the 
ancient kingdom of Lorraine, which had been 
united to the German Empire since the tenth 
century. The principal of these had been acquired 
by the dukes of Burgundy, who made them over, 
with other estates, to the House of Austria (1477). 
Charles V. added the provinces of Friesland, Gro- 
ningen, and Gueldres, to the states to which he 
had succeeded in Burgundy. He united the se- 
venteen provinces of the Low Countries into one 
and the same government ; and ordered, by the 
Pragmatic w'hich he published (1549), that they 
should never henceforth be disunited. This same 
prince, at the diet of Augsburg (1548), entered 
into a iiegociation with the Germanic body, in 
virtue of which he consented to put these provinces 
under their protection ; under condition of their 
observing the public peace, and paying into the 
exchequer of the Empire double the contribution 
of an electorate. He guaranteed to the princes 
of the Low Countries a vote and a seat at the 
Diet, as chiefs of the circle of Burgundy. These 
provinces, moreover, were to be considered as free 
and independent sovereignties, without being sub- 
ject to the jurisdiction either of the Empire or of 
the Imperial Chamber, who were not authorized 
to proceed against them, except when they were 
found in arrears with the payment of their con- 
tingent, or when they infringed the law of the 
public peace. 

Charles V. having transferred these countries to 
his son, Philip II. of Spain, they were then incor- 
porated with the Spanish monarchy ; and it was 
under the reign of this latter prince that those 
troubles began which gave rise to the republic of 
the United Provinces of the Low Countries. Tin' 
true origin of these troubles is to be found in the 
despotism of Philip II., and in his extravagant 
and fanatical zeal for the Catholic religion. This 
prince, the declared enemy of the rights and liber- 
ties of the Belgic provinces, was mortified to wit- 
ness the religious privileges which they enjo\ed ; 
under favour of which the doctrines of the Re- 
formation were daily making new progress. Be- 
ing resolved to extirpate this new faith, together 
with the political liberties which served to protect 
it, he introduced the tribunal of the Inquisition 

T)H> <Jur ue 

Deftest Abe. 

rr.UIOI) M. \.l>. 1453 1. 

(1559), M the most mure and support of 

deep 'It the consent ami authority of 

1' .'. IV. he suppressed, fur this puqiose, 

an right* which the 

archl>ihi>ps and bishop* of the Empire ami <>f 
Frai>< :.-isfl in t nitric* ; he 

instil ti i < I three new buhoprics at I i: 

: < ; and uinlrr tln-ir jurisdiction 

!;.- put tliirteeu new bishoprics which hr had 

!. Ill-tide* theme of Arras and Tournajr. 

_ in this way augmented tin- IIIMII|>IT of hi* 

; tin- nsM-mtily <>f tin- stati-General, 

he suppressed a great multitude of abbey* and 

monasteries, the revenues of wlm-li h- applied to 

iowment of hi* newly made bishop 

These innovations, added in tin- publication of 
the decree* of the Council of Trent, accord i: 
hia orders, excited a very general discontent. The 
repeated remonstrance* on tin- purt of the State*, 
having produced no effect on the inHexible mind 
of Philip, the nobility took the resolution of form- 
ing a confederacy at Breda, known by the name 
of the Ctmtpromitr. The confederates drew up 
a request, which was addressed to Margaret of 
Austria, the natural daughter of Charles V., and 
Regent of the Low Countries under the King of 
Spain. Four hundred gentlemen, headed by 
M.-nry .I.- Hieilerode', m descendant uf the uncit-ut 
Counts of Holland, and Louis of Nassau, brother 
to the Prince of Orange, repaired to Brussels 
(1566), and there presented this request, which 
may be considered as the commencement of the 
troubles in the Low Countries. It was on this 
account that the name of Gumx, or Beggars, was 
given to the Confederate*, which has become so 
famous in the history of these wars. 

About this same time, the populace collected in 
mobs in several towns of the Low Countries, and 
fell upon the churches and monasteries ; and hav- 
ing broken down their altars and images, they 
introduced the exercise of the Protestant religion 
liy force. The storm, however, wa calmed ; the 
Catholic worship was re-established every w here ; 
and the confederacy of the nobles dissolved, several 
of whom, distrustful of this apparent tranquillity, 
retired to foreign countries. William Prince of 
Orange, Louis of Nassau, the Counts de Culcm- 
burg and Berg, and the Count de Brederodl, \v> re 
in the number of these emigrants. Philip II., 
instead of adopting measures of moderation and 
clemency, according to the advice of the Regent, 
was determined to avenge, in tin- most signal 
manner, this outrage against his religion anil tin- 
majesty of his throne. He sent the famous Duke 
i.t' Alba, or Alvn, into the Low Countries, at the 
head of an army of 20,000 men (!..IM). The 
Regent then gave in her resignation. A general 
terror overspread the country. Vast numbers of 
manufacturers and merchants took refuge in i 
land, carrying along with them their arts and their 
industry. Hence the commerce and manufactures 
of the Low Countries, which had formerly been 
the most flourishing in Europe, fell entirely into 

The Duke of Aim, immediately on his arrival, 
established a tribunal or court, for inv-> 
excesses that had been committed durtiiir 
i oimi:' t : , : ,. i! . council, which the Flemings 
> ncil ot~ Hlo.'d," informed against 
all those who had been in any way concerned with 

jgart (a sort of Httymemotf) ; who bad fre- 
quented thru preachings, c<>: '< the sup- 
ine building of their 

lies ; or harboured and protected these here- 
. :th. r directly or indirectly. Before thu 
.1, whose only judges were the Duke of Alva 
and hi* confidant John d>- Vargas, were cited high 
and low, without diMinrtion ; and all those nbuee 
wealth excited th.-ir rtipidity. I insti- 

tuted proceedings against the absent and th> 
sent, the dead and the living, and confiscated 
good". M thousand persons perished by 

tin- hand* of tin- e\i-eutioner, and more than 
3O.OOO others were entirely ruined. Among the 
iiiimlirr of those illustrious victims ofAUa'- 
elty, were the < :ont and Horn, who 

were both beheaded. Their execution excited a 
general indignation, and was the signal of revolt 
and ei\il war throughout tin- Low Couii' 

The Beggars, who seemed almost forgotten, be- 
gan to revive ; and were afterwards distinguished 
into thn-i- kinds. All the malccontents, as well as 
the adherents of Luther and Calvin, were called 
simply l>y this name. Those were called Beyyart 
of the Woodt, who concealed themselves in the 
forests and marshes ; never sallying forth but in 
the ni-,'ht, to commit all sorts of excesses. Lastly, 
the Maritime or Marine Beyyara, were those who 
employ rd themselves in piracy ; infesting the 
coasts, and making descents on the country. 

It was in this situation of affairs that the Prince 
of Orange, one of the richest proprietors in the 
Low Countries, assisted by his brother, the Count 
of Nassau, assembled different bodies of troops in 
the Empire, with which he attacked the Low 
Countries in several places at once (1568). Fail- 
ing in these tii-t attempts, he soon changed his 
plan; and associating the Marine Beggars in the 
cause, he ventured to attack the Spaniards by sea. 
The Beggars, encouraged by that 1'rinre, and \\ il- 
liam Count de la Mark, eurnamed the Boar of 
Ardennes, took the city of Brille by surprise ( 1 
situated in the Isle ot Vooni, and regarded as the 
stronghold of the new republic of the Belgic pm- 
Miires. The capture ot" the port of Brille caused a 
revolution in Zealand. All the cities of that pro- 
vince, except Middleburg, opened their gates to 
the Beggars ; and their example wa followed by 
most of the towns in Holland. An assembly of 
the states of this latter province met this same year 
at Dort, where they laid the foundation of their 
new republic. The Prince of Orange was there 
declared Stadtholder or governor of the provinces 
of Holland, Zealand, Friesland, and Utrecht ; and 
they agreed never to treat with the Spaniards, ex- 
cept by common consent. The public exercise 
of the reformed religion was introduced, according 
to the form of Geneva. 

This rising republic became more firmly esta- 
blished in consequence of several advantages w 
the Confederates had gained o\cr the Spaniards, 
whose troops being badly paid, at length muti: 
and breaking out into tin- irreatest disorders, they 
pillaged cities, among others Antwerp, and 
laid waste the whole of the Low Countries. The 
States General, then nscniblcd at Brussels, im- 
plored the assistance of the Prince of Orange and 
the Confederates. A negociation was then opened 
at Ghent ( l.)1), between the states of Brussels and 
those of Holland and Zealand; where a general 

I'arifiiMtiim of Client. 
90 Seven X'nited Provinces. 
Union of I'treclit. 


Dutch K. I. Company. 

War of Spain and Hol- 

union, known by the name of the Pacification of 
Ghtiit, was signed. They engaged mutually to 
as-ist each other, with the view of expelling the 
Spanish troops, and never more permitting them 
to enter the Low Countries. The Confederates, 
who were in alliance with Queen Elizabeth of 
England, pursued the Spaniards every where, who 
soon saw themselves reduced to the single provinces 
of Luxemburg, Limburg, and Namur. 

They were on the point of being expelled from 
these also, when the government of the Low Coun- 
tries was intrusted to Alexander Farnese, Prince 
of Parma. Equally distinguished as a politician 
and a warrior, this prince revived the Spanish in- 
terests. Taking advantage of the dissensions 
which had arisen among the Confederates from 
the diversity of their religious opinions, he again 
reduced the provinces of Flanders, Artois, and 
Hainault, under the Spanish dominion. He took 
the city of Maestricht by assault, and entered into 
a negociation with the States-General of the Low 
Countries at Cologne, under the mediation of the 
Emperor Rodolph II., the Pope, and some of the 
princes of the Empire. This negociation proved 
unsuccessful ; but the Prince of Orange, foreseeing 
that the general confederacy could not last, con- 
ceived the plan of a more intimate union among 
the provinces ; which he regarded as the most fit 
to make head against the Spaniards. He fixed on 
the maritime provinces, such as Holland, Zealand, 
and Friesland ; and above all, on those whom the 
same religious creed, viz., the Calvinistic, had at- 
tached to the same interests. The commerce of 
Holland, and Zealand, and Friesland, began to 
make new progress daily. Amsterdam was rising 
on the ruins of Antwerp. The flourishing state of 
their marine rendered these provinces formidable 
by sea ; and gave them the means not only of re- 
pelling the efforts of the Spaniards, but even of 
protecting the neighbouring provinces which might 
join this union. Such were the motives which in- 
duced the Prince of Orange to form the special 
confederacy of the Seven Provinces, the basis of 
which he laid by the famous treaty of union con- 
cluded at Utrecht (1579). That union was there 
declared perpetual and indissoluble ; and it was 
agreed that the Seven Provinces, viz., those of 
(iiicldren, Holland, Zealand, Utrecht, Overyssel, 
Kreisland, and Groningen, should henceforth be 
considered as one and the same province. Each 
of these, nevertheless, was guaranteed in the pos- 
session of their rights and privileges that is, their 
absolute superiority in everything regarding their 
iwn internal administration. 

[We may remark, however, that these insurrec- 
tionary provinces had not originally the design of 
forming a republic. Their intention, at first, was 
only to maintain their political privileges ; and 
they did not absolutely shake off the Spanish 
authority until they despaired of reconciliation. 
Mori-over, they repeatedly offered the sovereignty 
of their states to different foreign princes; and it 
was not till the union of Utrecht that the Seven 
Provinces became a federal republic. Conse- 
quently everything remained on its ancient foot- 
ing ; an-l some of the provinces even retained 
their Stallholders or governors at the head of their 
administration. Hence that mixture of monarchy, 
ari-tinT.iey, and democracy, which prevailed in 
these countries ; and hence, too, the feeble tie 

which united them with each other, and which 
would probably have speedily broken, if Holland 
had not, by its riches and its power, obtained an 
influence and a preponderance which maintained 
the union.] 

The declaration of the independence of the 
United Provinces did not take place till 15s l ; 
when the Prince of Orange induced the States- 
General to make a formal proclamation of it, out 
of revenge for the furious edicts of proscription 
which the court of Spain had issued against him. 
The prince, however, was assassinated at Delft in 
1664 \> and the Spaniards took advantage of the 
constemation which this event had spread among 
the Confederates, to reconquer most of the pro- 
vinces of the Low Countries. The general Con- 
federacy languished away by degrees ; and the 
union of Utrecht was the only one maintained 
among the Seven Provinces. This new republic, 
which was in strict alliance with England, not 
only made head against the Spaniards, but gained 
a considerable increase of strength by the vast 
numbers of refugees from the different Belgic pro- 
vinces, who took shelter there ; as well as from 
France, where the persecution still raged violently 
against the Protestants. It is calculated that after 
the taking of Antwerp by the Prince of Parma in 
1585, above a hundred thousand of these fugitives 
transported themselves to Holland and Amster- 
dam, carrying with them their wealth aid thtir 

From this date the commerce of the Confederate 
States increased every day ; and in 1595 they ex- 
tended it as far as India and the Eastern Seas. 
The Dutch India Company was established in 
1602. Besides the exclusive commerce of India, 
which was guaranteed to them by their charter, 
they became likewise a political body, under the 
sovereignty of the States-General of the United 
Provinces. Supported by a formidable marine, 
they acquired vast influence in the East by their 
conquests over the Portuguese, whom they dis- 
possessed, by degrees, of all their principal esta- 
blishments in India. The Spaniards, finding their 
efforts to reduce the Confederates by force of arms 
ineffectual, set on foot a negociation at Antwerp 
(1G09), under the mediation of France and Eng- 
land ; in consequence of which, a truce of twelve 
years was concluded between Spain and the United 
Provinces. It was chiefly during this time that 
the Confederates extended their commerce over all 
parts of the globe, while their marine daily in- 
creased in strength and importance ; which soon 
raised them to the rank of being the second mari- 
time power, and gave them a decisive influence 
over the political affairs of Europe. 

At the expiry of this truce hostilities were r. - 
newed with Spain. The Dutch carried on the 
war for twenty-five yenrs with great glory, under 
the auspices of their Stadtholders, Maurice and 
Henry Frederic, Princes of Orange, who disco- 
vered great military talents. One event, which 
proved favourable for the republicans, was tin- war 
that broke out between France and Spain, and 
which was followed by a strict alliance between 
France and the States-General. The partition of 
the Spanish Netherlands was settled by this treaty ; 
ami the allied powers entered into an eniraireinent 
never to make peace or truce with Spain, except 
by common consent. This latter clause, however, 



PERIOD vi. \.i) uas HUM. 

li< I not prevent the States-General from conclud- 
ing at Munster a separate peace with Spain, to 
the exclusion of France (1048). By this peace 
the King of Spain acknowledged the United Pro- 
vinees as free and independent Stale* ; he ga>e up 
t<> tli. in all the places which they had M-ited in 
Brabant, Flandrrs, and LimhurK. >., Bois-le-Duc, 
Berftn-op-Zoom, Breda, and Maestricht ; M alao 
iMMeessions in the East and West Indie*, in 
Aiia, Africa, and America. Tin- cloning of the 
Beheld, which was granted in favour of the I mt.-i 
l> ruined the city of Antwerp, 
and shut out the Spanish Netherlands from all 
maritime commerce. 

The feudal system of the Swim, which had ori- 
ginated in the fourteenth century, acquired a new 
importance towards the end of the fifteenth, by 
reason of the success of the confederates in their 
war with Charles, Duke of Burgundy. This 
prince, who was of a hot and turbulent spirit, was 
constantly occupied with projects of conquest. 
Taking advantage of the ruinous state of the 
finances of the Archduke Sigismund of AuNtria, 
he induced him to sell him tin- territories of Hrix- 
trau and Alsace, with the right of repurchase. 
1 1 agenbach, a gentleman of Alsace, who 
had liei-n appointed governor of these countries by 
the Duke, had oppressed the Austrian subjects, 
and harassed the whole neighbouring ctates ; espe- 
cially tin- Swiss. The complaints which were 
iiri.!.- ..a this score to the Duke having only ren- 
dered Hagenbach still more insolent, the Swiss, 
with the concurrence of several states of the Em- 
pire, paid down, at Basle, the sums stipulated in 
the contract for repurchasing the two provinces ; 
and, by force of arms, they re-established the Aus- 
trian prince in the possession of Alsace and Bris- 
gau. They even went so far as to institute legal 
proceedings against Hagenbach, who was in con- 
sequence beheaded at Brisach in 1474. 

The Duke, determined to avenge this insult, 
assembled an army of 100,000 men, with which 
In- penetrated through Franche-Comte into Swit- 
zerland. He was defeated in the first action, 
\\ lin-h took place at Uranaon (1476) ; after which 
he reinforced his troops, and laid siege to Moral. 
Here he was again attacked by the Swiss, who 
killed 18,000 of his men, and seised the whole of 
hi* camp and baggage. The Duke of Lorrain, an 
nlly of the Swiss, was then restored to those states 
of hich the Duke of Burgundy had deprived him. 
This latter prince, in a great fury, came and laid 
siege to Nancy. The Swiss marched to the relief 
l this place, where they fought a third and last 
liuitle wtth the Duke, who was here defeated and 
slain (1477). 

'1 hcse victories of the Swiss over the Duke of 
Hnr.'iiii.u, one of the most powerful princes of 
his time, raised the fame of their arms ; and made 
their friendnhip and alliance be courted by the first 
igua in Europe, especially by France. Their 
confederacy, which had formerly been composed 
of only eight cantons, was augmented by the ac- 
cession of two new states, Friburg and Soleure, 
xvhi'-h were enrolled in the number of cantons. 

:u this time the Swiss were no longer afraid 

to break the ties that bound them to the Germanic 

body, as members of the ancient kingdom of Aries. 

in, in 1495, having granted the 

Kni|>rrnr Maximilian soceoun against the French 

and the Turk*, the 8wto sllafrf their 
and their alliance with Fnnce, as a ptnUrt for 
refusing their contingent of supplies. This de- 
mand, however, was renewed at the Diet of Lin- 
dan, in 141W, which required them to renounce 
their alliance with France, and accede to the 
League of Swabia ; aa also to submit themselves to 
the Imperial Chamber, and the law of the public 
peace ; and to furnish their quota for the support 
>t Chamber, and the other contributions of 
npire. All thc*e demands were resisted by 
the llelvetic body, who regarded them as contrary 
to their riirhts and privilege*. Meantime the ( >ri- 
sons had allied themselves with the Swiss, in order 
to obtain their protection under the existing differ- 
ence* between them and the Tyrolcse. 

The Emperor Maximilian seised this pretext for 
making war against the Cantons. Being desirous 
of vindicating the dignity of the Empire, which 
had been outraged by the Swiss, and of avenging 
the insult* offered to his own family, he stirred up 
the League of Swabia to oppose them ; and at- 
tacked them in different points at on i 
battles were fought in Huccession, in course of that 
campaign ; all of which, with one solitary excep- 
tion, were in favour of the Swiss, while the Im- 
perialists lost more than 20,000 men. Maximilian 
and his allies, the Swabian League, then came to 
the resolution of making their peace with the 
Cantons, which was concluded at Basle (1409). 
Both parties made a mutual restitution of what 
they had wrested from each other ; and it was 
agreed, that the differences between the Emperor, 
as Count of Tyrol, and the Orisons, should be 
brought to an amicable termination. This peace 
forms a memorable era in the history of the Hel- 
vetic Confederacy, whose independence, with re- 
gard to the German emperor, was from that time 
considered as decided ; although no mention of 
this was made in the treaty, and although the 
Swiss still continued for some time to request from 
the emperors the confirmation of their immunities. 
Two immediate cities of the Empire, those of 
Banle and Schauffliausen, took occasion, from these 
latter events, to solicit their admission into the 
Confederacy. They wen- received as allies, under 
tin- title of Cantons (1501); and the territory of 
Appensel, which was admitted in like manner 
(1513), formed the thirteenth and last canton. 

The alliance which the Swiss had kept up with 
France, since the reigns of Charles VII. and 
Louis XL, tended greatly to secure the independ- 
ence of the Helvetic body.' ThU alliance, which 
Louis XL had made an instrument for humbling 
the power of the Duke of Burgundy, was never 
but once broken, in the reign of Louis XII 
account of the Holy League, into which the Swiss 
were drawn t>y the intrigues of the HUhop of Sion 
(1512). Th' French were then expelled from the 
Milanese territory by the Swiss, who placed there 
''ike Maximilian Sfonta. It was in gratitude 
for this service, that the duke ceded to the 8 win, 
by a treaty which was concluded at Basle, the 
four bailiwicks of Lugano, Locarno, ^ 
and Val-Matrgio, which he dismembered from the 
Milanais.' Though conquerors at the battle of 
Novara, the Swiss experienced a sanguinary defeat 
at Marignaiio ; when they Judged it for their in- 
ee with Fn 

tercet to renew theii 

France (1515). 

A treaty of perpetual peace was signed at Friburg 

Religious disputes of Switz- 
92 erland. 

Dukes of Savov. 


Emperors of Germany. 
Affairs of Naples. 
Family of Medici. 

between these two states (1516), which was soon 
after followed by a new treaty of alliance, con- 
cluded with Francis I. at Lucerne (1521), and 
regularly renewed under the subsequent reigns. 

The change which took place in religion, at the 
beginning of the sixteenth century, extended its 
influence to Switzerland, where it kindled the flame 
of civil discord. Four cantons, those of /urich, 
Berne, Schauifhausen, and Basle, renouncing en- 
tirely the Romish faith, had embraced the doc- 
trines of Zuingle and Calvin ; while two others, viz., 
Glaris and Appenzel, were divided between the 
old and the new opinions. The Reformation having 
likewise found its way into the common bailiwicks, 
the Catholic Cantons rose in opposition to it (1531); 
denying liberty of conscience to the inhabitants. 
Hence, a war arose between the Cantons of the 
two religions ; which, however, was terminated the 
same year by a treaty of peace, guaranteeing to 
such parishes within the bailiwicks as had em- 
braced the new doctrines, the liberty of .still ad- 
hering to them. The same revolution extended to 
Geneva, whose inhabitants had declared solemnly 
in favour of the reformed worship, and erected 
themselves into a free and independent republic 
(1534). The church of Geneva, under the direc- 
tion of Calvin, became the centre and citadel of the 
Reformation ; while the academy founded in that 
city, produced a vast number of theologians and 
celebrated scholars. It was at this time that the 
Duke of Savoy planned the blockade of Geneva, 
to enforce certain ancient rights which he claimed 
over that city ; but the Bernese espoused the cause 
of the Genevans, in virtue of the treaties of com- 
mon citizenship which subsisted between them. 
This Canton having entered into alliance with 
Francis I., declared war against the Duke of Savoy 
(1536) ; and in less than three months took from 
him the Pays de Vaud. Being desirous of inter- 
esting their neighbours the Friburgers in their 
cause, they invited them to take possession of all 
those places that might suit their convenience ; and 
it was on this occasion that the city of Friburg 
acquired the principal part of its territory. These 
acquisitions were confirmed to the two Cantons, 
by the treaty which the Bernese concluded at Lau- 
sanne with the Duke of Savoy (15G4). 

The German Empire from time to time renewed 
its pretensions on Switzerland, and the Imperial 
Chamber usurped an occasional jurisdiction over 
one or other of the Cantons. Negociations for a 
general peace having commenced at Munster and 
Osnaburg, the thirteen Cantons sent their minister 
or envoy to watch over the interests of the Hel- 
Mtir Body at that congress; and they obtained, 
through the intervention of France and Sweden, 
that in one of the articles of the treaty it should be 
declared, that the city of Basle, and the other Swiss 
Cantons, were in possession of full liberty, and 
independent of the Empire, and in no respect 
subject to its tribunal*. 

In Italy, the authority of the Emperor of Ger- 
many, which had silently declined during the pre- 
ceding centuries, languished more and more under 
die long and feeble reign of Frederic III. At 
length it was reduced to the mere ceremony of 
coronation, and the simple exercise of Home hono- 
rary and feudal rights, such as the investitures 
which the Imperial Court continued to grant to 
the vassals of Lombardy. Although the Imperial 

dignity implied the royalty of Italy, which was 
considered as indissolubly united to it, nevertheless 
it was the custom that the kings of Germany should 
have themselves crowned separately, kings of Italy 
at Milan, and emperors at Rome. Frederic III., 
having had certain reasons for avoiding his coro- 
nation at Milan, received from the hands of Pope 
Nicholas V., in his own capital, the two crowns 
of Italy and Rome. Maximilian I., being pre- 
vented by the Venetians from repairing to Italy 
for his coronation (1508), was content to take the 
title of Emperor Elect, which his successors in the 
Empire have retained till the present time. 
Charles V. was the last emperor to whom the 
Pope, Clement VII., administered this doxible 
coronation of king of Italy and emperor, at Bologna, 
in 1530. 

The popes, the kings of Naples, the dukes of 
Milan, and the republics of Venice and Florence, 
were the principal powers that shared among them 
the dominion of Italy towards the end of the 
fifteenth century. The continual wars which these 
states waged with each other, added to the weak- 
ness of the German emperors, encouraged foreign 
powers to form plans of aggrandisement and con- 
quest over these countries. The kings of France, 
Charles VIII., Louis XII., and Francis I., led 
away by a mania for conquest, undertook several 
expeditions into Italy, for enforcing their claims 
either oil the kingdom of Naples, or the duchy of 
Milan. They were thwarted in their schemes by 
the kings of Spain, who, being already masters of 
Sicily and Sardinia, thought they behoved also to 
extend their views to the continent of Italy. Fer- 
dinand the Catholic deprived the French of the 
kingdom of Naples (1500). His successor, Charles 
V., expelled them from the Milanais, and obliged 
Francis I., by the treaties of Madrid (1526), Cam- 
bray (1529), and Crepy (1544), to give up his pre- 
tensions on the kingdom of Naples, and the duchy 
of Milan. From this time the Spaniards were the 
predominating power in Italy for more thau a 
hundred years. 

In the midst of- these revolutions, there arose 
three new principalities within that kingdom ; those 
of Florence, Parma, and Malta. The republic of 
Florence held a distinguished rank in Italy during 
the fifteenth century, both on account of the flou- 
rishing state of its commerce, and the large extent 
of its territory, which comprehended the greater 
part of Tuscany, and gave to this republic the 
means of holding the balance between the other 
powers of Italy. The opulent family of the Medici 
here exercised a high degree of influence ; they 
ruled not by force but by their munificence, and 
the judicious use which they made of their great 
riches. The credit and popularity of the Medici 
excited envy and persecution against them, and 
caused them to be several times banished from 
Florence. They were expelled from this latter 
place at the same time that Pope Clement VII., 
who was of this family, was besieged by the Impe- 
rialists in Rome (1527). That pontiff, in making 
his peace with Charles V., obtained his consent 
that the Medici should be re-established at Flo- 
rence, in the state in which they were before their 
last banishment. The Emperor even promised the 
Pope to give Alexander de' Medici his natural 
daughter in marriage, with a considerable dowry. 
The Florentines, however, having shown some re- 

I. .,..,.., I- M.-.U, 
llrma.) .Uit 

Th.. \,-. ,.,( M,U,, 

PERIOD vi. v.D. 1 1 

Family of Vt 

luctanre to receive the Mrd i ity was be- 

iefsd by the Imperial army, and compelled to 
onvnder by capitulation ( 1530). 

The Emperor, by a charter dated at Augsburg 
,.- 38th of August following, preserved to the 
i lorence its ancient republican forms. 
mder de' Medici waa declared goveroor-in- 
chief of the state ; but tliii dignity waa vesto! m 
hiaaelf ami tun mule descendants, who could only 
enjoy it according to the order of primogeniture. 
i 1 wa authorized, moreoTer, to construct a 
citadel at Florence, by means of which he after- 
wards exercised an absolute power >\ <T hi* fellow- 
ettbens. As for the ducal dignity with which the 
new prince of Florence was vested, it properly 
belonged to the duchy of Parma, in tin- kingdom 
. i pies, which the Emperor had conferred on 

Alexander dc* Medici did not long enjoy his new 
honour*. He was universally abhorred for his 
cruelties, and assassinated by Laurentio de' M 
one i.f his own near relations (1537). His suc- 
ceasor in the duchy was Cosmo de' Medici, who 
annexed to tin- territory of Florence that of the 
ancient republic of Sienna, which the Emperor, 
Charles V., had conquered, and conferred on his 
son 1'hilip II. in name of the Empire (1554). Thin 
latter prince being desirous of seducing Cosmo 
from his alliance with the Pope and the King of 
France, with whom the Spaniards were at war, 
granted him the investiture of the territory of Sienna, 
as a mesne-tenure holding of the crown of Spain, 
by way of equivalent for the considerable sums 
which he had advanced to Charles V. while he was 
carrying on the siege of Sienna. In transferring 
tin- Sicnnois to the Duke, Philip reserved for him- 
self the ports of Tuscany, such as Porto Krcole, 
Orhitello, Tclamone, Moute-Argentaro, St.Stefano, 
Longone, Piumbino, and the whole island of Elba, 
with the exception of Porto Ferrajo. By the 
same treaty, Cosmo engaged to furnish iiupplies to 
the Spaniards, for the defence of Milan and the 
kiiu'iloin of Naples. 

At length the Medici obtained the dignity of 
grand dukes, on occasion of the difference that 
hail risen between them and the dukes of Ferrari, 
on the subject of precedency. The Pope termi- 
nated this dispute, by granting to Cosmo the title 
<>f (irand Duke of Tuscany, with the royal honours 
(1509). The Emperor, however, took it amiss 
that the Pope should undertake to confer secular 
dignities in Italy ; thus encroaching on a right 
which he alleged belonged only to himself in viilue 
i>f his Ix'ing king of Italy. The quarrels which 
this affair had occasioned between the court of 
Rome and the Empire, were adjusted in 1576, 
when the Empcr<>r Maximilian II. granted to 
Francis de' Medici, the brother and successor of 
Cosmo, the dii^uit) of (irand Duke, on condition 
that he should acknowledge it aa a tenure of the 
. and not of the Pope. 

Among the number of those republics which the 
Visconti of Milan had subdued and overthrown in 
ih.- fourteenth century-, were those of Parma and 
Plarentia. They had formed a dependency of the 
duchy of Milan* until I.')!'.', wh.-n Ixmis XII. 
li.iMu- l.r.-n I-\|H ii.-i from the Milanais by the 
allies of the Holy League, these cities wete sur- 
rendered by the Swiss to l'"pe Julius II. .who laid 
some claim to them, as making part of the dowry 

of the fiuaous Countess Matilda. The Emperor 
Maximilian ceded them to the Pope by the treaty 
of peace which he made with him m 1512. Francis 
I. took these cities again from the court of Rome, 
when he reconquered the duchy of Milan (1515) ; 
but this prince having also been expelled from the 
Milanais (1521), the Pope again got possession of 
Parma ami . the treaty which 

he had concluded with Charlm V., fur the ru teU 
hlishment of Francis Sforza in the duchy of Milan. 
These cities continued to form part of the ecclesi- 
astical states until 1545, when th.-\ were dismem- 
bered from it by Paul III., who erected them into 
duchies, and conferred them on his son Peter 
Louis Farnese, and his heirs-male in the order of 
primogeniture ; to be held under the title of fiefs 
<>f the holy see, and on condition of paying an 
annual tribute of 9000 ducats. 

This rlevitinti of a man, whose very birth seemed 
a disgrace to the pontiff, gave universal offence. 
The new Duke of Parma soon rendered liimself so 
odious by his dissolute life, his crimes and scan- 
dalous excesses, that a conspiracy was formed 
against him ; and he was assassinated in the citadel 
nf TUcentia in 1547. Ferdinand Goniaga, who 
was implicated, as is alleged, in this assassination, 
then took possession of Placentia in name of the 
Emperor; and it was .not till 1557 that 1'hilip 11. 
of Spain restored that city, with its dependencies, 
to Uctaviu* Farnese, son and successor of the 
murdered Prince. The house of Farnese held the 
duchy of Parma as a fief of the ecclesiastical 
states, until the extinction of the male line in 

The Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, after 
their expulsion from the Hl\ Land, had retired 
to the Isle of Cyprus, and from thence to Rhodes, 
in 1310, of which they had dispossessed the Greeks. 
They did not maintain possession of this place 
longer than 1523, when Soliman the Great under- 
took the siege of Rhodes, with an army of 200,000 
men, and a fleet of 400 sail. The knights boldly 
repulsed the different attacks of the Turks ; hut 
being entirely dependent on their own forces, and 
receiving no succour from the powers of Christen- 
dom, they were compelled to capitulate, after an 
obstinate defence of six months. I^eaving Rhodes, 
these knights took shelter in Viterbo, belonging to 
the states of the church, where they were cordially- 
received by Pope Clement VII. There they re- 
mained until the Emperor Charles V. granted 
them the Isle of Malta, which became their prin- 
cipal residence ( 1530). That prince ceded to them 
the islands of Malta and Goxso, with the city of 
Tripoli in Africa, on condition of holding them 
from him and his successors in the kingdom of 
Sii -ily, as noble fiefe, frank and free, without any 
other obligation than the annual gift of a falcon, 
in token of their domanial tenure, and presenting 
to the King of Sicily three of their subfects, of 
whom he was to choose one, on each vacancy of 
the bishopric of Malta. Charles V. added another 
clause, it c\er the Order should leave Malta 
and fix their residence elsewhere, that island 
should revert to the King of Sicily. The Knights 
of St. John continued in the sovereignty of Malta 
and Goxxo till 17UM ; but they lost Tripoli in 1551, 
which was taken from them by the Turks. 

A memorable revolution happened at Genoa, 
about the beginning of the sixteenth century. 

Independence of Genoa. 
94 Andruw Doria. 

Venetian power. 


Affairs of Italy. 
Kings of Cyprus. 
Now passage to India 

That republic, after having for a long time formed 
part of the duchy of Mihm, recovered its ancient 
independence about the time when the French 
and Spaniards disputed the sovereignty of Italy, 
and the conquest of the Milanais. Expelled by the 
Imperialists from the city of Genoa in 1522, the 
French had found means to repossess it (1527), 
with the assistance of the celebrated Andrew 
Doria, a noble Genoese, who had been in the 
service of Francis I. This distinguished admiral, 
supplanted by favourites, and maltreated by the 
court, abandoned the cause of France in the fol- 
lowing year, and espoused that of the Emperor 
Charles V. 

The French then laid siege to the city of Naples, 
which was reduced to the last extremity and on 
the point of surrendering, when Doria, having 
hoisted the Imperial flag, set sail for Naples, with 
the galleys under his command, and threw abund- 
ance of provisions into the besieged city. The 
French army, now cut off from all communication 
by sea, soon began to experience those calamities 
from which the Imperialists had just been deli- 
vered. Their whole troops being destroyed by 
famine and contagious disease, the expedition to 
Naples fell to the ground, and the affairs of the 
French in Italy were totally ruined. It is alleged 
that Charles V., to recompense Doria for this im- 
portant sen-ice, offered him the sovereignty of 
Genoa ; and that, instead of accepting this honour, 
that great man stipulated for the liberty of his 
country, whenever it should be delivered from the 
yoke of France. Courting the glory of being the 
liberator of his native city, he sailed directly for 
Genoa, of which he made himself master, in a 
single night, without shedding one drop of blood 
(1.V28). The French garrison retired to the 
citadel and were obliged to capitulate for want of 

This expedition procured Doria the title of 
Father of his Country, which was conferred on 
him by a decree of the senate. It was by his 
advice that a committee of twelve persons was 
chosen to organize a new scheme of government 
for the republic. A register was drawn up of all those 
families who were to compose the grand council, 
which was destined to exercise the supreme power. 
The doge was to continue in office ten years ; and 
great care was taken to remove those causes which 
had previously excited factions and intestine dis- 
order*. Hence the establishment of the Genoese 
aristocracy, whose forms have since been pre- 
s.-r\r(l, with some few modifications which were 
introduced afterwards, in consequence of certain 
dissensions which had arisen between the ancient 
and the new nobility. 

Venice, the eldest of the European republics, 
had reached the zenith of its greatness about the 
end of the fifteenth century. The vast extent of 
its commerce, supported by a powerful marine, 
the multiplied sources of its industry', and the 
monopoly of the trade in the East, had made it 
one of the richest and most formidable states in 
Europe. Besides several ports on the Adriatic, 
and numerous settlements which they had in the 
Archipelago, and the trading towns on the Le\ant, 
they Alined ground more and more on the conti- 
nent of Italy, where they formed a considerable 
territory. Guided by an artful and enterprising 
policy, this republic seized with marvellous avidity 

every circumstance which favoured its views of ag- 
grandisement. On the occasion of their quarrels 
with the Duke of Ferrara, they obtained posses- 
sion of the province of Polesino de Rovigo, by a 
treaty which they concluded with that prince in 

Afterwards, having joined the league which the 
powers of Italy had opposed to Charles VIII. and 
his projects of conquest, they refused to grant 
supplies to the King of Naples for the recovery of 
his kingdom, except by his consenting to yield up 
the cities of Trani, Otranto, Brindisi, and Galli- 
poli. Louis XII., being resolved to enforce his 
claims on the duchy of Milan, and wishing to gain 
over this republic to his interest, gave up to them, 
by the treaty of Blois (1499), the town of Cre- 
mona, and the whole country lying between the 
Oglio, the Adda, and the Po. Cyi the death of 
Pope Alexander VI. (1503), they took that favour- 
able opportunity of wresting from the ecclesias- 
tical states several towns of the Romagna ; among 
others, Rimini and Faenza. 

Of all the acquisitions which the Venetians made, 
the most important was that of Cyprus. That 
island, one of the most considerable in the Me- 
diterranean, had been conquered from the Greeks, 
by Richard Cceur de Lion, King of England, who 
surrendered it to Guy of Lusignan (1192), the last 
king of Jerusalem, in compensation for the loss of 
his kingdom. From Guy de Lusignan descended 
a long line of Cypriot kings ; the last of whom, 
John III., left an only daughter, named Charlotte, 
who succeeded him in that kingdom, and caused 
her husband, Louis of Savoy, to be also crowned 
king. There still remained a bastard son of John 
III., called James, who was protected by the 
Sultan of Egypt, to whom the kings of Cyprus 
were tributaries, and who succeeded in expelling 
Charlotte and her husband, the prince of Savoy, 
from the throne (1460). James, who was desirous 
of putting himself under the protection of the 
Venetians, married Catherine Cornaro, daughter of 
Marco Cornaro, or Cornelio, a patrician of Venice. 
The Senate, in honour of this marriage, adopted 
Catherine, and declared her daughter of St. Mark, 
or the Republic. James died in 1473, leaving a 
posthumous son, who died also in the second year 
of his age. The republic then, considering the 
kingdom of Cyprus as their own inheritance, took 
possession of the natural children of James, and 
induced Queen Catherine, by various means, to 
retire to Venice, and there to resign her crown 
into the hands of the Senate, who assigned her a 
pension, with the castle of Azolo, in Trevisano, 
for her residence ; and obtained for themselves the 
investiture of that island from the Sultan of Egjpt 

A career so prosperous was eventually followed 
by a reverse of fortune ; and several circumstances 
concurred to accelerate the decline of this flourish- 
ing republic. They received a terrible blow by the 
di-iovery of the new passage to India round the 
Cape, which deprived them of the commerce of 
the Ka-t ; thus drying up the principal source of 
their wealth, as well as of their revenue and their 
marine. In vain did they put in practice all the 
arts of their policy to defeat the commercial enter- 
prises of the Portuguese in India; exciting airainst 
them, first the sultans of Ejrypt, and afterwards 
the Turkish Emperors, and i'viniishiutr these Ma- 

i M 

\: ....' I..,.. Ml 

Tut*. J*ftl-<i .1 Ls-nta. 

PERIOD VI. A.D. 14M-104S. 

I.. .:.,, \ 
Rtlry rf 

I \ .. 

bometan powers with supplies. Tin- activity of the 

^ucse surmounted all these obstacle*. They 
obtained a firm settlement in the East, where, in 
course of i became m wry formidable 

power. Lisbon, .ice, became the 

emporium for the productions of India ; and the 
compete with them in 

thin Hi-id of Kiuttrn commerce. Beside*, the good 
fortune ,- nil. ml.. 1 the undertaking! 

nf the rcpul.lic, had inspired them with a passion 
for conquest. They took every opportunity uf 
making encroachim-nti on thrir neighbours; and, 
sometimes forgetting the counsel* of prudence, 
the\ drew down up>n tli.-m-clve- the jealousy and 
resentment f tin JH ineiji:il state* of Italy. 

To this jealousy must be attributed the famous 
league, which Pope Julius II., the Emperor Maxi- 
milian, \ II., Ferdinand of Spain, and se- 
veral of the Italian states, concluded at Cambray 
(1508), fortlie partition of the Venetian territory 
on Terra f'irma. Louis XII. gained a signal M. - 
tory over the republicans near Agnadello, which 
was followed by such a rapid succession of .oil- 
quests, that the senate of Venice wore struck with 
consternation ; and the republic must have been 
infallibly loot, had Louis been supported by his 
allies. But the pope and the Kin/ of Spain, who 
dreaded the preponderance of the French in Italy, 
suddenly abandoned the league, and concluded 
separate treaties of pence with the republicans; nor 
was the F,ni|)cror Maximilian long in following 
their example. In consequence of this, the Venc- 

;ifter having been menaced with a total over* 
throw, lost only, in the course of the war, the trr- 
rilorj of Cremona and Ghiera d'Ada, with the 

and ports of Romagna and Apulia. But this 
loss was far surpassed by that which they expe- 
ri.-nce.l in their finances, their commerce, and 
manufactures, on account of the expensive efforts 
which they were obliged to make in resisting their 
numerous enrn. 

The ruin of this republic was at length com- 
plete.) liy the prodigious increase of the power of 
1 1 1 tomans, who took from them, by degrees, 
their best possessions in the Archipelago and the 
Mediterranean. Dragged, as it were, in spite of 
themselves, into the war of Charles V. against the 
Turks, they lost fourteen islands in the Archipe- 
lago ; among others Chios, Patmos, . 1 
Stampalia, and Paros ; and were obliged, by the 
peace of Con-tantinople (1540), to surrender to 
the Turks Malvasia and Napoli di Romagna, the 

two places which remained to them in the 

The Turks also took from them the isle of Cy- 
prus the finest of their possession* in the Mediter- 
ranean. The Sultan, Selim II., being determined 
to conquer that island, attacked it with a superior 

i |."7<>). although the Venetians had given him 
no ground for hostilities. He made himself master 
of the cities of Nicosia and Famagusta ; and com- 
pleted the conquest of the whole Uland, before the 

in which the Kim; of Spain and the pope 

had granted to the Venetians, could join their Meet. 

On the approach of the Christian army, the TurkUh 

fleet retired within tin tiulf of I.cpanto, where 

they were attacked by the allies under the 

maiul of Don Juan t \t:jri:i, a natural son of 

- u'luncd a complete 

ie Turkish fleet was 

destroyed, and the confederate* took immense 
booty. The news of this defeat struck terror 
the city of Constantinople, and made the Grand 
Bignior transfer hi* court to Adrianople. The 
Christians, however, reaped no advantage from 
their victory. A misunderstanding arose anioag 
the confederate*, and their fleets dispersed without 
accomplishing anything. The Venetian* did not 
return to the isle of Cyprus ; and knowing well 
that they could not MMM on any effectual aid on 
the part of their allies, they determined to make 
peace with tin- Turks (1573). By this treaty they 
left the Porte in possession of Cyprus, and con- 
sented to pay it a sum of 300,000 ducats, to obtain 
the restitution of their ancient boundaries in Dal- 
matia. From this epoch, the republic of Venice 
dates it* entire decay. It was evident, that it must 
thenceforth resign it* pretensions a* a leading 
power, and adopt a system of neutrality which 
might put it in condition to maintain peace with 

Kngland, as we have mentioned above, had been 
the rival of France, while the Utter now became 
the rival of Austria. This rivalry commenced with 
the marriage of Maximilian of Austria, to Mary, 
daughter and heiress of Charles, last Duke of Bur- 
gundy, l.y which the House of Austria succeeded 
to the whole dominions of that prince. The Low 
Countries, which at that time were the principal 
emporium for the manufactures and commerce of 
Europe, formed a part of that opulent succession. 
Louis XI., King of France, was unable to prevent 
the marriage of the Austrian prince with the heiress 
of Burgundy, but he took advantage of that event 
to detach from the territories of that princes* what- 
e\i r he found convenient. He seised on the duchy 
of Burgundy as a vacant fief of his crown, as well 
as the seigniories of Auxerrois, Maconnois, Bar- 
sur-Seinc, and the towns of the Somme ; and these 
different countries were preserved to France by 
the treaties of peace concluded at Arras (1 
and Senlis (1493). Such was the origin of the ri- 
valry and bloody wars between France and Austria. 
The theatre of hostilities, which, under Louis \ I., 
had been in the Low Countries, was transferred 
to Italy, under Charles VIII., Louis XII., and 
Francis I. From thence it was changed to Ger- 
many, in the r.-i-n of Henry II. 

In Italy, besides this rivalry between the two 
powers, there was another motive, or pretext, for 
war, vit., the claims of France on the kingdom of 
Naples and the duchy of Milan. The claim f 
Louis XI. on the kinirdom of Naples hsd devolved 
to him with the county of Provence, which he in- 
herited in virtue of the will of Charles, Count of 
Provence, and the last male descendant of the 
House of Anjou (14*1). Charles VIII., the son 
and successor of I...u> XI., urged on by youthful 
ambition, was determined to enforce this claim. 
II undertook an expedition into Italy (1494). and 
took possession of the kingdom of Naples without 
striking a blow. But bring opposed by a t 
dable confederacy of the Italian prince*, with Maxi- 
milian at their head, he was obliged to abandon 
his conquest* with the same facility he had made 
them ; and he was fortunate in being able to effect 
hU retn at. l\ the famous victory which he gained 
over the allies, near Foronuovo, in the duchy of 

The claim to the duchy of Milan was founded 

Duchy of Milan. 
96 Wars of Italy. 

Civil wars oi' France. 


Kind's of Navarre. 

HoUM' ot'GuiM 1 . 

Henrv 1 1 1. of France. 

on the contract of marriage between Louis, Duke 
of Orleans, the grandfather of Louis XII., and 
Valentine of Milan. That contract provided, that 
failing heirs-male of John Galeas, Duke of Milan, 
the duchy should fall to Valentine, and the chil- 
dren of her marriage with the Duke of Orleans. 
Louis XII. claimed the rights of Valentine, his 
grandmother, in opposition to the princes of the 
family of Sforza, who had taken possession of the 
duchy of Milan, on the extinction of the male 
heirs of the Visconti, which happened in 1447. 
The different expeditions which he undertook into 
Italy, both for the conquest of Milan and the 
kingdom of Naples, met with no better success 
than that of his predecessor had done, in conse- 
quence of a new league, called the Holy League, 
which Pope Julius II. raised against him, and into 
which he drew the Emperor Maximilian, the Kings 
of Arragon and England, with the Venetians and 
the Swiss. Louis XII. lost all the advantages of 
his conquests. The kingdom of Naples fell under 
the power of Ferdinand the Catholic, and the family 
of Sforza were reinstated in the duchy of Milan. 

These Italian wars, which were renewed at 
different times under the reign of Francis I., cost 
France much blood and immense sums. In this 
struggle she was forced to succumb, and Francis I. 
bound himself, by the treaty of Crepy, to abandon 
his claims on Italy in favour of Charles V. The 
kingdom of Naples and the duchy of Milan re- 
mained incorporated with the Spanish monarchies. 
Francis I., nevertheless, had the glory of arresting 
the progress of his rival, and effectually counter- 
balancing a power which, at that time, made all 
Europe to tremble. 

Henry II., the son and successor of Francis I., 
adopted a new line of policy. He attacked the 
House of Austria, in Germany, having entered 
into a league with Maurice, Elector of Saxony, and 
the Protestant princes of the Empire, to oppose 
Charles V. That league, which was ratified at 
Chambord (1552), procured for Henry II. posses- 
sion of the bishoprics of Metz, Toul, and Verdun ; 
and he even succeeded in forcing the Emperor to 
raise the siege of Metz, which that prince had un- 
dertaken about the end of the year 1552. A truce 
of five years was agreed on between these two 
sovereigns at Vaucelles ; but, in the course of a 
few months, the war was renewed, and Philip II., 
who had succeeded his father, Charles V., induced 
his Queen, Mary of England, to join in it. Among 
the events of this war, the most remarkable are the 
victory of St. Quentin, gained by the Spaniards 
(1557), and the conquest of the city of Calais, by 
Francis, Duke of Guise, the last possession of the 
English in France (1558). The death of Queen 
Mary prepared the way for a peace, which was 
signed at Chateau -Cambresis (1559), between 
France, England, and Spain. The Duke of Savoy 
obtained there the restitution of his estates, of 
which Francis I. had deprived him in 1536. Calais 
remained annexed to France. 

A series of ware, both civil and religious, broke 
out under the feeble reigns of the three sons and 
successors of Henry II. The great influence of 
the Guises, and the factions which distracted the 
court and the state, were the true source of hosti- 
lities, though religion was made the pretext. 
Francis II. having espoused Mary Stuart, Queen ! 
of Scotland, the whole power and authority of the I 

government passed into the hands of Francis, Duke 
of Guise, and the Cardinal de Lorraine, his bro- 
ther, who were the queen's maternal uncles. The 
power which these noblemen enjoyed excited the 
jealousy of Anthony, King of Navarre, and his 
brother Louis, Prince of Conde, who imagined 
that the precedency in this respect was due to 
them as princes of the blood, in preference to the 
Lorraine family, who might be considered as 
strangers in France. The former being Calvinists, 
and having enlisted all the leaders of that party in 
their cause, it was not difficult for the Lorraine 
princes to secure the interest of all the most zealous 

The first spark that kindled these civil wars was 
the conspiracy of Amboise. The intention of the 
conspirators was to seize the Guises, to bring them 
to trial, and throw the management of affairs into 
the hands of the princes of the blood. The con- 
spiracy having been discovered, the Prince of 
Conde, who was suspected of being at its head, 
was arrested ; and he would have been executed, 
had not the premature death of Francis II. hap- 
pened in the meantime. The queen-mother, Ca- 
therine de' Medici, who was intrusted with the 
regency during the minority of Charles IX., and 
desirous of holding the balance between the two 
parties, set Conde at liberty, and granted the Cal- 
vinists the free exercise of their religion, in the 
suburbs and parts lying out of the towns. This 
famous edict (January 1562) occasioned the first 
civil war, the signal of which was the massacre of 
Vassy of Champagne. 

Of these wars, there have been commonly 
reckoned eight under the family of Valois, viz., 
four in the reign of Charles IX., and four in that 
of Henry III. The fourth, under Charles IX., 
began with the famous massacre of St. Bartholo- 
mew, authorized and directed by the king (157'2). 

It is of some importance to notice here the Edict 
of Pacification of Henry III., of the month of 
May, 1576. The new privileges which this edict 
granted to the Calvinists, encouraged the Guises 
to concoct a league this same year, ostensibly for 
the maintenance of the Catholic religion, but whose 
real object was the dethronement of the reigning 
dynasty, and the elevation of the Guises. The 
Duke of Alenqon, only brother of Henry 111., 
being dead, and the King of Navarre, who pro- 
fessed the Calvinistic faith, having become pre- 
sumptive heir to the crown, the chiefs of the Ca- 
tholic League no longer made a secret of their mea- 
sures. They concluded a formal alliance (ir>84), 
with Philip II. of Spain, for excluding the Bour- 
bons from the throne of France. Henry III. -was 
obliged, by the Leaguers, to recommence the war 
against the Calvinists ; but perceiving that the 
Duke of Guise, and the Cardinal his brother, took 
every occasion to render his government odious, 
he caused them both to he assassinated at Hlois 
d~> x *), and threw himself on the protection of the 
King of Navarre. In conjunction with that Prince, 
he undertook the siege of Paris during which he 
was himself assassinated at St. Cloud, by a Jacobin 
of the name of James Clement (1.">S!)). 

The dynasty of Valois ended with Henry III., 
after having occupied the throne lor '.Ml years. 
Under this dynasty the royal authority had gained 
considerably, both by the annexation of the great 
fiefs to the crown-lands, aUd by the introduction of 

: ^ 

I..... .' N 

\.I). 14531048. 


at UU XIV. 

regular armlet, which put an <-n<l to tin- 
power. 1. \ M I* cln.-iU iiikirumental in 

briiuring the grander under subjection, an. I put- 

the cruelties and o|ipn-<uii. . 
anarchy. If these ohugM, however, contributed 
tn pulilir order, it U neverthclcM true tin' 
Mttonal liberty suffered |.\ them; th:it the 
Authority daily received new augmentations ; and 
that, M> early M the reign . II., it was 

considered aa high treaaou to iipeak <>)' the necessity 
of aaaemblinf the States-General. The prar i . 
thaw assemblies, however, was renewed under the 
raecesaors of that prince; t!..-\ .-\.-u hcean 

i|iient under tin- last kings ,it 'the : \alois, 

who convoked them chiefly with the view of <le- 
manding supplies. Francis I. augmented hit in- 
fluence over the clergy l>y the concordat which he 
...ill-hided witli 1.. \. i l.'ih:), i,, virtue of which 
he "U. in.. . I the ii'.niisi ition to all vacant pre- 
laturvs; leaving to the 1'opo the continuation 
of the prelates, and tin- liberty of receiving the 

The race of Valois was succeeded by that of the 
Hourbons, who were descended from Robert, Court 
of Clcrmont, youngcrson of St. Louis. II. m\ \\ ., 
the tir-t kin- of this dynasty, wxs related in the 
twenty-first degree to Henry III., his immediate 
predecessor. This prince, who was a Calvinist, 
tlie more easily reduced the party of the League, 
hy publicly abjuring his religion at St. !> ni-. He 
concluded a peace with the Spaniards, who were 
allies of the League, at Vcrvins ; and completely 
tranquillized the kingdom by the famous edict of 
S which he published in favour of the re- 
formed religion. By that edict he guaranteed to 
tin- Protestants perfect liberty of conscience, and 
the public exercise of their worship, with the 
privilege of tilling all offices of trust ; but he ren- 
dered them, at the same time, a piece of disservice, 
by granting them fortified places, under the name 
of places of security. By thus fostering a spirit of 
party and intestine faction, he furnished a plausible 
. t to their adversaries for gradually under- 
mining the edict, ami finally proscribing the exer- 
cise of the reformed religion in France. 

This great prince, after having established the 
tranquillity of his kingdom at home and abroad, 
encouraged arts and manufactures, and put the 
administration of his finances into admirable order, 
was assassinated by RavaiUac (1610), at the very 
moment when he was employed in executing (lie 
grand scheme which he had projected for the paci- 
fication of Europe. Cardinal Hichclieu, when he 
mimed the reins of government under Louis 
XIII., had not Inn-,' so much at heart as the ex- 
pulsion of the Calvinista from their strongholds. 
This he accomplished by means of the three wars 
which he waged against them, and by the famous 
siege of Rochelle, which he reduced in 
That great statesman next employed his policy 
against the House of Austria, whose preponder- 
ance gave umbrage to all Europe. He took the 
opportunity of the vacant succession of Mantua to 
espouse the cause of the Duke of Never* against 
the Courts of Vienna and Madrid, who supported 
the Duke of (uiostalla; and maintained his pro- 
tege in the duchy of Mantua, by the treaties of 

: were concluded at Katisbon an.l 
rnsque (1031 ). Ha\ing afterwards joined Su 
he made war against the two branches of Austria, 

: (hi occasion got possession of the places 
whi.-h the swedes had Mind in Alsac*. 

LIT, wai only four years and seven 
nafititt old when he succeeded his father (1> 
Tin- i|ueeii-iiioth.T, Aniicof Austria, assume.: 
regency. She a, 

prime minister, whose administration, during the 
minority of the King, was a scene of lurbu, 
and distraction. The sam.- . vt. rnal policy which 
had directed the ministry of Itichelicu wax fU 
lowed by his successor. He prosecuted the war 
against Austria with \i/ ir. in < .injunction with 
Sweden and their confederates in Germany. Hy 
the peace which was concluded with the KiiijMTor 
at Minister, besides the three bishoprics of Lor- 
raine, France obtained the LandgraviaU? of Ixnver 
and I pper Alsace, Sungaw, and the prefecture of 
the ten Imperial cities of Alsace. Spain was ex- 
cluded from this treaty ; and the war continued be- 
tween that kingdom and France until the pea 
the 1'yrenees, by which the counties of Rousiillon 
and Conflans were ceded to France, as well as 
several cities in Flanders, Hainault, and Luxem- 

Spain, which had long been divided into several 
states, and a stranger, as it were, to the rest of I'.u- 
rope, became all of a sudden a formidable power, 
turning the political balance in her own favour. 
This elevation was the work of Ferdinand the Ca- 
tholic, a prince born for great exploits; of a pro- 
found and fertile genius ; but tarnishing his bright 
qualities by perfidy and unbounded ambition. II.- 
was heir to the throne of Arragon, and laid the 
foundation of his greatness by his marriage with 
Isabella (1469), sister to Henry VI. last Kinir of 
Castile. That match united the kingdon 
and Arragon. which were the two principal Chris- 
tian states in Spain. Henry of Castile had left a 
daughter, named Jane, but she being considered as 
illegitimate by the Castilians, the throne was con- 
ferred on Isabella and her husband Ferdinand 
(1474). The Infanta Jane, in order to enforce her 
claims, betrothed herself to Alphonso V. King of 
Portugal ; but that prince, being defeated b\ 
dinand at the battle of Toro (1476), was obliged 
to renounce Castile and his marriage with the 

At the accession of Isabella to the throne of 
Castile, that kingdom was a prey to all the miseries 
of anarchy. The abuses of the feudal system were 
there maintained by violence and injustice, 
dinand demolished the fortresses of the nobles who 
infested the country ; he gave new vigour to the 
laws; liberated the people from the oppression of 
the great; and, under pretence of extirpating the 
Jews and Mahometans, he established the tribunal 
of the Inquisition (147H), which spread universal 
terror by its unheard of cruelties. Toruueruada, 
a Dominican, who was appointed grand Imp 
( 1483), burnt in the space of four years near 6000 

The Moors still retained the kingdom of Gre- 
nada. Ferdinand took advantage of their dissen- 
sions to attempt the conquest of it, in which he 
succeeded, after a vigorous war of eighteen years. 
Abo Abdeli, the last King of Grenada, tlrd to 
Africa. An edict, which was published immedi- 
ately after, ordered the expulsion of all the Jews ; 
about 100,000 of w h<>m fled from Spain, and took 
halter, some in Portugal and others in Africa. 



Ferdinand the Catholic. 

.1 in all'.ir>. 
Ch.irl.-s V. Philip II. 


Kli/.ahrth of England. 
Philip IV. D*Olivare. 

John II. of Portugal. 

Ferdinand did not include the Moors in this pro- 
scription, whom he thought to gain over to Chris- 
tianity hy means of persecution ; but having re- 
volted m the year 1500, he then allowed them to 
emigrate. It was this blind and headlong zeal that 
procured Ferdinand the title of the Catholic A'l/it/, 
which Pope Alexander III. conferred on him and 
his successors (1493). This prince also augmented 
his power by annexing to his crown the Grand 
Mastership of the Military Orders of Calatrava, Al- 
cantara, and St. James of Compostella. 

Everything conspired to aggrandize Ferdinand ; 
and, as if the Old World had not been sufficient, a 
New one was opened up to him by the discovery 
of America. He was heir, by the father's side, to 
the kingdoms of Arragou, Sicily, and Sardinia. 
He got possession of Castile by his marriage, and 
of Grenada by force of arms ; so that nothing was 
wanting except Navarre to unite all Spain under 
his dominion. The Holy League, which Pope Ju- 
lius II. had organized against Louis XII. (1511), 
furnished him with a pretext for seizing that king- 
dom. Entering into an alliance with the Pope, 
he concerted with the King of England to invade 
Guienne, on which the English had some ancient 
claims. They demanded of the King of Navarre 
that he should make common cause with the allies 
of the Holy League against Louis XII. That 
prince, however, wishing to preserve neutrality, 
they prescribed conditions so severe, that he had 
no other alternative left than to seek protection in 
France. Ferdinand then obtained possession of 
all that part of Navarre which lay beyond the Py- 
renees. Twelve years before that time Ferdinand 
had, by the treaty of Grenada, planned with 
Louis XII. the conquest of the kingdom of Naples. 
Frederic of Arragon was then deprived of that 
kingdom, and his states were divided between the 
two allied kings ; but Ferdinand having soon 
quarrelled with Louis XII. as to their respective 
boundaries, this was made a pretext for expelling 
the French from Naples, which was again united 
to the Spanish monarchy, in the years 1503 and 

Charles V. of Austria, grandson of Ferdinand, 
and his successor in the Spanish monarchy, added 
to that crown the Low Countries and Franehe- 
Comtc., which he inherited in right of his father, 
I'hilip of Austria, and his grandmother .Mary of 
Burgundy. He added likewise the kingdoms of 
Mexico and Peru, on the continent of America, 
and the duchy of .Milan in Italy, in which he in- 
vested his son Philip, after having repeatedly ex- 
pelled the French in the years 1522 and 152."). 

These were all the advantages he derived from 
his wars against Francis I., which occupied tin- 
greater part of his ruign. lilindtd by his animosity 
against that prince, and hy Ids riding p.i -MOM for 
war, he only exhausted his kingdom and impaired 
his true greatness. Charles resigned the Spanish 
monarchy to his son Philip II., which then com- 
prehended the Low Countries, the kingdoms of 
.Naples, Sicily and Sardinia, the duchy of .Milan, 
and the Spanish possessions in America. The 
peace of Chateau Cambresis, which Philip II. 
signed in 15511, after a long war against l-'iance, may 
he regarded an the era of SpanM: . To 

the Mates which wen- left him hy his father, I'hilip 
added the kingdom of Portugal, with the Portu- 
guese possessions in Africa, Asia, and America ; 

but this was the termination of his prosperity. 
His reign after that was only a succession of 
misfortunes. His revolt ing despotism excited the 
Belgians to insurrection, and gave birth to the 
republic of the United Provinces. Elizabeth of 
England having joined with the confederates of the 
Low Countries, Philip, out of revenge, equipped a 
formidable fleet, known hy the name of the lii- 
riiirihlv Arntiidu, which was composed of 130 
vessels of enormous size, manned with 20,000 
soldiers, exclusive of sailors, and armed with 1360 
pieces of cannon. On entering the channel they 
were defeated by the English (21st of July, 15HS), 
and the greater part of them destroyed hy a storm. 

From this calamity may be dated the decline of 
the Spanish monarchy, which was exhausted hy 
its expensive w r ars. Philip, at his death, left an 
enormous debt, and the whole glory of the Spa- 
nish nation perished with him. The reigns of his 
feeble successors are only remarkable for their 
disasters. Philip III. did irreparable injury to his 
crown by the expulsion of the Moors or .More- 
(1610), which lost Spain nearly a million of her 
industrious subjects. Nothing can equal the mis- 
fortunes which she experienced under the reign of 
Philip IV. During the war which he had to sup- 
port against France, the Catalans revolted, and 
put themselves under the protection of that crown 
(1640). Encouraged by their example, the Por- 
tuguese likewise shook off the yoke, and replaced 
the House of Braganza on their throne. Lastly, 
the Neapolitans, harassed by the Duke d'Olnarez, 
prime minister of Philip IV., revolted, and at- 
tempted to form themselves into a republic (1647). 
These reverses on the part of Spain added to the 
number of her enemies. The famous Cromwell, 
having entered into an alliance with France (1655), 
dispossessed the Spaniards of Jamaica, one of their 
richest settlements in America. 

Towards the end of the fifteenth century, Por- 
tugal had reached a high pitch of elevation, which 
she owed to the astonishing progress of her navi- 
gation and her commerce. John II., who>e llects 
first doubled the Cape of Good Hope, augmented 
the royal authority, by humbling the cxorhitant 
and tyrannical power of the grandees. In the diet 
which was assembled at Evora, he retracted the 
concessions which his predecessors had made to 
the nobles, to the prejudice of the- crown, lie 
abolished the power of life and death, which the 
lords exercised over their \assals, and subjected 
their towns and their territories to the jurisdiction 
of ollicers appointed hy the king. 'The nobles, 
who were displeased at these innovations, having 
combined in defence of their privileges, and chosen 
the Duke of Ur:igan/a for their leader, John, 
without being disconcerted by this opposition, had 
the Duke brought to a trial, and his head cut oil', 
while his brother was banged in ciligy. This ex- 
ample of severity intimidated the grandees, and 
made them submit to his authority. The most 
brilliant era of Portugal was that of Kmanuel and 
John III., who reigned between the years I I!).") 
and 1557. It was two princes that the 
Porliiu'iK-M- formed their powerful empire ill India, 
of which nothing now remains but the ruins. 

The glory of Portugal sutl'ered an eclipse under 
the feeble reiirn of Sebastian, urainUon and imme- 
diate successor of John. That prince, who came 
to the throne at the age of three years, had been 

S.bMltea of IWtupl. 
II. eooqu. 

ill) \ I. 

| i. i, , 

... i\ 

.(.suits, who, instead of in- 
Mnotfl | '..i . In '! important art . MM M, 
had given hint the education of a n 
luitl m.pirrd him with a dislike for malm 
1'i.t with decided attachment for the crusade*. 
Haley Mahomet, King of Morocco, having re- 
quested hie assistance against hi* uncle Molu< . 
had dethroned bin, Sebastian undertook sn expe- 
dition into Africa in prnon, carrying with him the 
dower of his nobility. A great battle was fought 
new Alcacar, in the kingdom of Fez (157H), where 
the Portuguese sustained a complete <i 
bastian was ilain ; and, what is sufficiently remark- 
able, his enemy Molue died a natural death during 
the action, while Muley Mahomet WM drowned 
in the t 

( During tin- reign ..I this knur, every thing had 
fallen into decay; even the character of tin- 
had I ,'euerate. The spirit uf chivalry 

which had distinguished them was exchanged for 
mercantile adventures which fveii infected the 
higher classes; while avarice, luxury, and . i!'. t..i- 
nacy brought on it univenal rorruption. The 
governor* of their colonies indulged in all sort* of 
.i-e and injuntice. They seized the mon- lu- 
crative brunches of coiiiin. re . . Tin- military 
which Kmuuuel and John III. h:ul kept up in 
India, was in -In tnl. Tl .:rp.-d ih.- 

whole \M alth of tin- !. .!-. exercised an ab- 
solute power by means of the Inquisition, which 
was no where more t. rribl. than at Goa.l 

As Sebastian had never been married, the throne 
passed, at his death, to Henry the Cardinal, his 
grand uncle !% th>. father's side, who was already 
far advanced in life. Perceiving hi-* end approach, 
and that his death would involve the kingdom in 
.tunned an assembly of the States 
at Lisbon (1570), in order to tix the succession. 
The states appointed i<>ncr*, who 

weie to investigate the claims of the diHVrent can- 
didates for the t row a. 1'hilip II. of Spain, who 
was one of thii nuinher, did not pay the lea-t n-- 
ganl to the decision of the State*. No sooner 
e learned the death of Henry (1;>HO), than 
be aent the Duke of Alva, at the head of an army, 
to take poeaeasion of Portugal. The duke d. . 
the troops of his opponent, Anthony, Prior of 
Onto, one of the claimant-, who had proclaimed 
himself king, prctcndini; that he was the legitimate 
son of the Infant Don Louis, -on of Kmanucl. 
Anthony had n<> other alternative left than to take 
shelter in France, an. I the whole of Portugal 
yielded to the yoke of the Spaniards. 

AD mtipathy, however, subsisted be- 

tween the two nations, whi< ' Portuguese 

detest their Spanish masters. This hatred was 
till more increased, on account of the losses which 
the Portuguese sustained, in the mean time, in 
their commerce and possession" in the East Indies. 
irrative traffic which the con ;n the 

Low Countries, called the Dutch, carried on by 
he merchandise of the East from Por- 
tugal, and hawking them over the north of Europe, 
!! them to support the war against 
. Philip II. thought to strike a fatal blow at 
their pros; 'lidding them all commerce 

with Portugal, That prince, however, was deceived 
in hi* expectation. The confederate*, deprived of 
tin* lucrative branch of their industry, and after 
having made some unsuccessful attempt! to find a 

north-west passage to India, took the resolution of 
sailing die (IMA), tinder the conduct 

Helms lioutmanand Molinaar, in order to 
serk, at the fount ainhead, those commodities which 
were refused them in Portugal. Mo sooner had 
they attempted to form settlements in India them 
tctermined to prevent them, and 
fought with them, near Bantam, a town in Java, t 
naval battle, which ended in favour of the con- 

Encouraged by this first success, the Dutch un- 
dertook to deprive the Portuguese of their principal 
possessions in India. The conquest which they 
made of the Moluccas procuied them the spice 
trade. They likewise formed settlements in the 
island of Java, where they founded the city of Ba- 
tavia, which became the capital and emporium of 
iheir settlements in India. At length Goa and Din 
were the only places that remained to the Portu- 
guese of their numerous possessions in India. 
These important losses greatly exasperated the 
1'ortugneee against the Spaniards. What added 
still more to their resentment was, that hi the 
court of Madrid they saw a premeditated design to 
make vassals of the Portuguese ; and to cut off the 
most likely means of enabling them, sooner or 
later, to recover their ancient independence. It 
was with this view that their army and their 
marine were disorganized, their crown revenues 
dissipated, their nobility precluded from the ma- 
nagement of affairs, and the nation exhausted by 
exorbitant assessments. 

The revolt of the Catalans, which happened in 
1640, at length determined the Portuguese to 
shake off the Spanish yoke. A conspiracy waa 
entered into by some of the grandees, in concert 
with the Duke of Braganza, which broke out on 
the 1st December that same year. On that day, at 
eight o'i lock in the morning, the conspirators, to 
the number of about 400, repaired by dit! 
routes to the palace of Lisbon, where the vice- 
i|ueen, M:irguret of Savoy, and dowager of Mantua, 
resided, with Vosconcellos the secretary of state, 
who exercised the functions of prime minister of 
the kingdom. Part of them disarmed the guard 
of the palace, while others seized Vasconcelloe, 
who was the only victim that fell a sacrifice to 
the public vengeance. They secured the person 
of the vice-queen, and took measures to protect 
her from insult or violence. The conspirator* then 
proclaimed the Duke of Braganza king, under the 
title of John IV. That prince arrived at Lisbon 
on the 6th December, and his inauguration took 
place on the 15th. It is not a little surprising that 
this revolution became general in eight days time, 
and that it was not confined merely to Portugal, 
but extended even to India and Afric 
where the Portuguese expelled the Spaniards, and 
proclaimed the Duke of Braganza. The city of 
Ceuta in Africa was the only town which the 
Spaniards found means to retain possession of. 

John IV. was descended in a dii> < t line from 
Alphouso, natural son of John the Bastard, who 
was created Duke of Braganza. The first care of 
this new king of Portugal, on his accession to the 
throne, was to convene an assembly of the states 
at Lisbon, in order to make them acknowledge his 
right to the crown. The states, conformably to 
uidamental laws of the kingdom, declared 
that Catherine, daughter of the infant Don Edward, 

u 2 

M.MiryVII. IleuryVIlI. 
100 'f' 11 ' Deformation. 

('runnier archbishop. 


The Six Articles. 

Edward VI. 

M;irv I. Persecution. 

and grandmother of King John, having become 
the true and legitimate heiress to the throue on 
the death of Henry the Cardinal, her grandson 
John IV. was entitled to the repossession of those 
rights of which that princess had been unjustly de- 
prived by the Spaniards. The better to establish 
himself on the throne, John concluded treaties of 
peue.' with France, the United Provinces, the 
Netherlands, and Sweden ; but confining his whole 
ambition to the maintaining the ancient limits of 
the kingdom, he remained completely inactive with 
regard to Spain, which being overpowered by nu- 
merous enemies, was quite incapable of carrying 
011 the war with vigour against Portugal. The 
truce and alliance which that prince had entered 
into with the Dutch, did not prevent these repub- 
licans from continuing their conquests in India ; 
where, in process of time, they stript the Portuguese 
of their finest settlements. 

England, long before this time, had emerged 
from the state of turbulence and desolation into 
which she had been plunged by the destructive 
wars of the two Hoses. A new family, that of the 
Tudors, had mounted the throne ; Henry VII., 
who was its founder, claimed the crown in right 
of his mother Margaret Beaufort, alleged heiress 
of the house of Lancaster, or the Red Rose ; and 
raised an insurrection against Richard III., the last 
king of the house of York. This prince being de- 
feated and slain at the battle of Bosworth (1485), 
Henry, who was then proclaimed King of Eng- 
land, united the titles or claims of the two Roses, 
by his marriage with Elizabeth, daughter of Ed- 
ward IV., and heiress of York, or the "White 
Rose. The country being thus restored to tran- 
quillity after thirty years of civil war, everything 
assumed a more prosperous appearance. Agricul- 
ture and commerce began to flourish anew. Henry 
applied himself to the restoration of order and in- 
dustry. He humbled the factious nobles, and 
raised the royal authority almost to a state of abso- 
lute despotism. 

The reformation of religion in England began 
in the reign of his son Henry VIII. That prince, 
who was of a very capricious character, vacillating 
continually between virtue and vice, appeared at 
first as the champion of popery, and published a 
tri-ative against Luther, which procured him, from 
the court of Rome, the title of Defender of the 
Faith. But a violent passion, which he had con- 
ceived for Anne Boleyn, having induced him to 
attempt a divorce from Catherine of Arragon, 
daughter of Ferdinand the Catholic, he addressed 
him-elf fur this purpose to Pope Clement VII., 
alleging certain scruples of conscience which he 
felt on account of his marriage with Catherine, 
who was within the degrees of affinity prohibited 
in the sacred Scriptures. The Pope being afraid 
to displease the Emperor Charles V., who was the 
nephew of Catherine, thought proper to defer 
judgment in this matter; but the King, impatient 
of delay, caused his divorce to be pronounced by 
Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury 
(I.">:i2), and immediately married Anne Bolevn. 
'J'hc sentence of the Archbishop was annulled by 
tin- Pope, who published a threatening bull against 
Henry. This incensed the King, who caused the 
Pupal authority in England to be abrogated by the 
parliament, and installed himself in the capacity of 
supreme head of the English church (1534) ; a title 

which was conferred on him by the clergy, and 
confirmed by the parliament. He also introduced 
the oath of supremacy, in virtue of which all who 
were employed in offices of trust, were obliged to 
acknowledge him as head of the church. A court 
of high commission was established, to judge 
ecclesiastical causes in name of the kin:;, and from 
whose sentence there was no appeal. The con- 
vents or monasteries were suppressed, and their 
revenues confiscated to the crown (1536-1539). 
Henry even became a dogmatist in theology ; and 
discarding the principles of Luther, as well as those 
of Calvin and Rome, he framed a religion according 
to his own fancy. Rejecting the worship of 
images, relics, purgatory, monastic vows, and the 
supremacy of the Pope, he gave his sanction, by 
the law of the Six Articles, to the doctrine of the 
real presence, the communion in one kind, the vow 
of chastity, the celibacy of the priests, the mass, 
and auricular confession ; inflicting very severe 
penalties on all who should deny or disobey one or 
other of these articles. 

This monarch, who was the first of the English 
kings that took the title of King of Ireland (1542), 
was involved in the disputes which then embroiled 
the continental powers ; but instead of holding the 
balance between France and Austria, he adhered 
in general to his friend and ally Charles V. against 
France. This conduct was regulated less by 
politics than by passion, and the personal interest 
of his minister Cardinal Wolsey, whom the em- 
peror had attached to his cause, by the hope of the 
papal tiara. 

The religion which Henry had planted in Eng- 
land did not continue after his death. Edward 
VI., his son and immediate successor, introduced 
pure Calvinism or Presbyterianism. Mary, daugh- 
ter of Henry VIII., by Catherine of Arragon, OH 
her accession to the throne, restored the Catholic 
religion (1553), and likewise received the new 
legate of the Pope into England. She inflicted 
great cruelties on. the Protestants, many of whom 
were burnt at the stake ; among others, Cranmer, 
Archbishop of Canterbury, and the Bishops of Lon- 
don and Worcester. "With the view of more firmly 
establishing the Catholic religion in her domi- 
nions, she espoused Philip, presumptive heir to the 
Spanish monarchy (1554). The restrictions with 
which the English parliament fettered his contract 
of marriage with the Queen, so displeased that 
prince, that, finding himself without power or 
authority, he speedily withdrew from England. 
Mary's reign lasted only five \ears; she was suc- 
ceeded by her sister Elizabeth (1558), daughter of 
Henry VIII. by Anne Boleyn. This princess 
once more abrogated the authority of the Pope, 
and claimed to herself the supreme administration, 
both spiritual and temporal, within her kingdom. 
Though she adopted the Calvinistic principles in 
everything regarding the doctrines of the church, 
she retained many of the Romish ceremonies, 
and the government of bishops. It was this that 
gave rise to the distinction between the Knylish or 
High Church, and the Calvinistic or Presby- 

About the time when the High Church party 
rose in England, a change of religion took place in 
Scotland, protected by Queen Elizabeth. The 
regency of that kingdom was then \estnl in the 
Queen-dowager, Mary of Lorraine, the widow of 

M '.V... ' .'.' 

i. ,,, Is M 

\ I). H63 IA4K. 

: m 

Ta toft*!* KaVy. 

- . i . ,...., 


James V., and mother <>f Mary Stuart, Queen of 

tul ami France. Th:il 'p r '"" --. ^ho WM 

aided soU-U by ili<- conn. I > rot hers of 

'ruilured a body troops 

jimw the follower* of the new doctrines, who 
bad formed a new league, under tin- name < 
1'imyrryation. The< . ' by the Catholic 

malecontent*. who were apprehensive .,f 

r a foreign yoke, tiHk thr resolution of apply - 

.-Itsli i|iiern, \\hich it 

was by no mean* difficult t<> obtain. Elisabeth 

:\ foresaw, that to toon an Franci* became 
master of Scotland! he would Httempt to enforce 
Mar}-'* claim* to tho thrum- of F.nirhnd, grounded 
partly on tin- asauniption of her hi -ing illegitimate, 
risiderahle number nf Fnglish troops were 
then marched ti> Scotland, and having fnrmcil a 
junction with the Scottish maler y be- 

deged thr French in the town of l.cith, m -ar 
l.'linhurirh. The latter were noon obliged tn 
Lit.-. By the article* signed at Leith (1560), 
th<- French and English troops were to e\ 

'md; Francis II., King of France, and his 
wife Mary Stuart, were to rcn<>uncr thr titles and 
arms of the sovereigns of England, which they li:ul 
assumed ; while a parliament was to be assembled 
at Edinburgh for th<- pacification of the kingdom. 
The parliament which met FOOH after, ratified 
thi- Confession of Faith, drawn ii]> and presented 
liy the Presbyterian ministers. Thr Presbyterian 
worship wa introducc-d into Scotland ; and the 
parliament even went so far as to prohibit the ex- 
ercise of the Catholic religion. Mar}* Stuart, on 
hern-turn to Scotland (1561), after the death of 
her husband Francis, was obliged to acquiesce in 
all these change* ; ami it wan with difficulty she 
WM allowed the liberty of baring a Catholic chapel 
attached to her court. This unfortunate princess 
was afterwards accused of having caused the assas- 
sination of Henry Darnlry, her second husband ; 
and lii-iii-,' obliged to tly thr country, she took 
shelter in England (1568), when* she was arrr-t<->l 
and imprisoned by onlrr of (jun-n Klirabeth. 
After a captivity of ninrteen years she was sen- 

! to di-ath, and Wheaded (isth Febnmry, 

. aa an accomplice in thr different plots which 
had been formed against the life of her royal 

The troubles which the reformation of religion 
had r\citi-d in Scotland, extended also to Ireland. 
A kind nf corrupt feudal system had prevailed 
originally in that island, which Henry II. had not 
been able to extirpate. The KnglUh proprietors, 
who were vassals of the crown, and governed by 
the laws of England, posacoed nearly one-third of 
the whole country ; while the rest of the island 
was in the hand* of the Irish proprietors, who, 
although they acknowledged the sovereignty of the 
English kings, preserved nevertheless] the language 
and manner* of their native land ; and were in- 
clined to seize CACM opportunity of shaking off 

ngliah yoke, which the\ ib-testeil. 1 1 '-nee, a 
continued aeries of wars and feuds, both among 
the Irish themselves, and against the English, uho 
on their part had no other object than to extend 
their possessions at the expense of the native*. 
t l.ii'/la:nl, (glided by an injudicious 
policy, fur several centuries exhausted their re. 

s in perpetual wars, sometimes against 
France, sometimes against Scotland, and some- 

times against their own subject*, without paying 
(In least attention to Ireland, of which ap- 
pear in )>.-i\r known neither the Importance nor 
the effectual advantages which thi-% might hare 
reaped from it l< a wise administration. 

< >* nf agriculture and industry became 
thus coinpli-trly impracticable; a deep... 

I Was established between the i . 
the English, who in fact .mcd tv 
nations, enemies of each other, and formii. 
alliances either by marriage or reciprocal inter- 

Tin- resentment of the Irish against the 
government was aggravated still more, at the tim>- 
of the Reformation, by the vigorous measures that 
were taken, subsequently to the reiirn of Henry 
VIII.. tn extend to Ireland the laws framed in 

md against the court of Home and tin- Catholic 
clergy. A general insurrection broke out in the 
reign of Elizabeth (, the chief instigator of 
which wan ilu^h O'Neal, head of a clan in the 
pnnince of I Uter, and Earl of Tyrone. Having 
gained over the whole Irish Catholic-* to his cause, 
he plannei! w- conspiracy, with the de- 

sign of effecting the entire expulsion of the Knglish 
from the Uland. Philip II., King of Spain, sup- 
plied the insurgents with troops and ammunition ; 
and Pope Clement VIII. held out ample indul- 
gences in favour of those who should enlist under 
the banners of O'Neal, to combat thr F.n-_'IUh 
heretics. This insurgent chief met at first with 
considerable success ; he defented the Knglish in a 
pitched battle, and maintained his ground agninst 
the F,arl of Essex, whom Elizabeth had despatched 
to thr island with a formidable army. The rebels, 
however, ultimately failed in their enterprise, after 
a sanguinary war which lasted seven years. 
Charles, Lord Mountjoy, governor of Ireland, 
drove the insurgents to their last recesses, and had 
the glory of achieving the entire reduction of the 
island. 9 

The maritime greatness of F.ngland begnn in the 
reign of Elizabeth. That princess gave new vigour 
to industry and commerce ; and her efforts 
seconded by the persecuting real of the French 
and Spanish governments. The numerous re- 
fugees from France and the Netherlands found a 
ready asylum in England, under the protection of ; and her kingdom became, as it were, 
the retreat and principal residence of their arts and 
manufactures. She encouraged and protected na- 
vigation, which thr English, by degrees, extended 
to all parts of the globe. An Englishman, named 
Richard Chancellor, haxini: discos-red the route to 
\rehaiigel in the Icy Sea (1555), the Car, John 
HasiloviU II., granted to an English company the 
exclusive pri\ile^e nf trading with Russia (1569). 
The commerce of the English with Turkey and the 
Levant, which began in 1579, was likewise r.. 
poliscd by a company of merchants. Sir Francis 
Drake, a distinguished navigator, and the rival of 
Magellan, was the first Englishman that performed 
a voyage round the world, between 1577 and 
1580. The intercourse between England and the 

indies began in 1 VU ; and the Eart India 
Company was instituted in 1600. Attempts were 
also made, about the same -n settlr- 

ments in North America; and SirAValvr K-V 
who had obtained a charter from the Queen < 1 
endeavoured to found a colony in that part of the 

'mi of .lames I. 
102 Krii-n (if I'liiirl. - 1. 
SlralVord nml Luud. 


The Parliament. 


Dcatli of Charles I. 

American continent, now called Virginia, in com- 
pliment to Elizabeth. That colony, however, did 
not, properly speaking, take root or flourish till 
the reigu of James I. The competition with Spain, 
and the destruction of the Invincible Armada of 
Philip II., by the combined fleets of England and 
Holland, gave a new energy to the English marine, 
the value of which they had learned to appreciate, 
not merely in guarding the independence of the 
kingdom, but in securing the prosperity of their 
commerce and navigation. 

The House of Tudor ended with Queen Eliza- 
beth (1603), after having occupied the throne of 
England about 118 years. It was replaced by that 
of Stuart. James VI., King of Scotland, son of 
Mary Stuart and Henry Darnley, succeeded to the 
throne of England, and took the title of King of 
Great Britain, which his successors still retain. 
This prince derived his right to the crown from 
the marriage of his great grandmother, Margaret 
Tudor, daughter of Henry VII., with James IV. 
of Scotland. Vain of his new elevation, and fond 
of prerogative, James constantly occupied himself 
with projects for augmenting his royal power and 
authority in England ; and by instilling these prin- 
ciples into his son, he became the true architect of 
all the subsequent misfortunes of his house. 

Charles I., the son and successor of James 
(1 '>->), seldom convened the Parliament; and 
when they did assemble, he provoked them by the 
measures he proposed, and was then obliged to 
dissolve them. Being entirely guided by his 
ministers, Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury, the 
Earls of Strafford and Hamilton, and his queen, 
Henrietta of France, he ventured to levy taxes 
and impositions without the advice of Parliament. 
This conduct on the part of the king produced a 
general discontent. The flames of civil war began 
to kindle in Scotland, where Charles had intro- 
duced Episcopacy, as more favourable than Presby- 
terianism to royalty. But the Scottish nobility 
ha\!rig formed a confederacy, known by the name 
of the Covenant, for the maintenance of their eccle- 
siastical liberties, abolished Episcopacy (1638), and 
subsequently took up arms against the king. The 
Parliament of England, under such circumstances, 
rose also against Charles (1641), and passed an 
act that they should not be dissolved without pre- 
uously obtaining redress for the complaints of the 
nation. This act, which deprived the king of his 
principal prerogative, proved fatal to the royal 
dignity. A trial was instituted by the Parliament 
against the king's ministers. The Earl of Strafford 
and Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury, were be- 
headed (16401642) ; and Charles had the weak- 
ness to sign the death-warrant of his faithful 

The Presbyterians soon became the prevailing 
party, and excluded the bishops from the Upper 
House. The management of affairs fell then into 
the hands of the House of Commons ; Episcopacy 
wen- abolished; and the Parliament of Knglaml 
acceded to the Scottish Covenant. War now 
broke out between the king and the Parliament; 
a battle was fought near York, in which the latter 
was victorious (1644). Charles, seeing his affairs 
ruined, took the determination to throw himself 
into the arms of the Scots (1646), who, he sup- 
posed, might still retain an affection for the race 
of their ancient kings. He soon found reason, 

however, to repent of this step ; the Scots did not 
hesitate to sell him to the English Parliament for 
a sum of 400,000 sterling, which they found 
necessary for the payment of their troops. 

A new revolution, which soon after happened 
in the Parliament, completed the ruin of the kin:;. 
The Presbyterians, or Puritans, who had sup- 
pressed the Episcopalians, were crushed, in their 
turn, by the Independents. These latter were a 
sort of fanatics, who admitted no subordination 
whatever in the church, entertained a perfect 
horror for royalty, and were inclined for a repub- 
lican or democratic form of government. The 
head and soul of this faction was the famous Oliver 
Cromwell, who, with great dexterity, made it an 
engine, for raising himself to the sovereign au- 
thority. The whole power of the Legislature fell 
entirely into the hands of the Independent party ; 
who, by one act, expelled sixty members from the 
House of Commons. The Parliament, now com- 
pletely under their dominion, appointed a com- 
mission of 150 persons, whom they vested with 
power to try the king. In vain did the Upper 
House oppose this resolution; in vain did the 
king object to the judges named by the House ; 
the commission proceeded, and pronounced the 
famous sentence, by virtue of which Charles was 
beheaded on the 30th of January, 1649. His 
family were dispersed, and saved themselves by 

The revolutions in the North of Europe, about 
the period of which we now speak, were not less 
important than those which agitated the West and 
the South. These arose chiefly from the dissolu- 
tion of the Union of Calmar, and the reformation 
in religion ; both of which happened about the 
beginning of the sixteenth century. The Union 
of Calmar, between the three kingdoms of the 
North, had been renewed several times; but, being 
badly cemented from the first, it was at length 
irreparably broken by Sweden. This latter king- 
dom had been distracted by intestine feuds, occa- 
sioned by the ambition and jealousy of the nobles, 
which continued during the whole reign of Charles 
VIII., of the House of Bonde. After the death 
of that prince (1470), the Swedes, without re- 
nouncing the Union, had regularly appointed as 
administrators of the kingdom, from the year 1471 
till 1520, three individuals of the family of Stnre, 
vi/.. Steno Sture, called the Old, Suante Sture and 
Steno Sture, called the Youny. 

Meantime John, King of Denmark, and son of 
Christian I., had governed the three kingdoms 
since 1497, when Steno Sture the elder had re- 
signed, until 1501, when he resumed the admini- 
stration. At length, however, Christian II., son 
of John, made war on Steuo Stnre, surnamed the 
Young, with a view to enforce the claims which 
he derived from the act of union. Being victorious 
at the battle of Bogesund, where Sture lust his life, 
he succeeded in making himself acknowledged l>y 
the Swedes as king, and was crowned at Stock- 
holm (1520). Within a short time after this cere- 
mony, he violated the amnesty which he had 
publicly announced; and to gratify the revenue of 
Gustavus Trolle, Archbishop of Upsal, whom the 
Suedes had deposed, he caused nineu -four of the 
most distinguished personages in the kingdom to 
be arrested, and publicly beheaded at Stockholm. 

This massacre caused a revolution, by which 


PERIOD VI. \.D. 145S164H. 

II ... .,,,.:... ,., 


Sweden r*oovred Hi ancient state of indepewd* 
enee. (iiiiaviM Yarn put himself at thn brad of 
' i.dccarliaiM, uinluf I..M. to become the iihrnitor 
of hi* country ( i was declared Hug ant, 

and tm> yean after. King of Sweden ( 1523). The 
example of th* Swede* waa aoon followed by UM 
Dane*, who, iinliiniant at the excesses and craelUm 
. deposed him, and conferred their 
rmwn on Frederic, Duke of HoUtein, and paternal 
unde to that pm -nan, after having Ion* 

wandered about the Low Countries, wan made 
priaonrr \>\ the Dane*, and remained in captivity 
the rest of hi* day". The Kings of Denmark 
bavin*; renewed, from time to time, their preten- 
ions to UM Swedish throne, anil mill continued 
the three crown* on their escutcheon, several war* 
broke out on this subject between the two nai 
and it waa not till the peace of Stettin (1670), 
that the Dane* acknowledged the entire independ- 
ence of Sweden. 

Denmark then loat the ascendancy which aho 
had ao long maintainetl in the North. The go- 
vernment of the kingdom underwent a radical 
change. A corrupt aristocracy roae on the ruins 
f the national liberty. The senate, composed 
wholh of tin- nobles, usurped all authority; they 
overruled the election of the kings, and appro- 
priated to themselves the powers of the States- 
general, which they had not convoked since l.Vtil ; 
tin -\ encroached even on the royal authority, which 
waa curtailed more and more every day ; while the 
prerogative* of the nobility were extended by the 
"inliiions which the senate prescribed to the kings 
on their accession to the crown. The reformation 
of religion took place in Denmark, in the reign of 
Frederic I., the successor of Christian II. That 
prince employed an eloquent preacher, named John 
Tausen, and several other disciples of Luther, to 
promulgate the Protestant din-trine* in his king, 
dom. In a diet held at Odensee (1527), the king 
made a public profession of the new faith ; ami, in 
-i. Hi- of tin* remonstrance* of the bishops, he passed 
a deem-, in virtue of which liUerty of conscience 
waa established, and permission granted to the 
priests and monks to marry. These articles were 
mother diet, assembled at Copenhagen 
'i ; where the king ratified the Confession of 
Faith presented to him by the Protestant ministers, 
simitar to what had taken place the same year at 
the Diet of Augsburg. 

At length Christian III., who was elected In 
'rmiirht these change* in religion to a close. 
1h. hbihops, during the hut interregnum, had done 
everything to Mop the progress of the Reformation. 
The king, desirous of annihilating their temporal 
power, colluded with the principal nobility to have 
all the bishops in the kingdom arrested ; and 
having then assembled a meeting of the States at 
ihagrn, he abolished Episcopacy, and sup- 
preisnii the public exercise of the Catholic religion. 
'I MI- castles, fortresses, and vast domain* of the 
prelates were annexed to the crown; and the other 
btncflcei and revenues of the clergy were appro- 
priated to the support of the ministers of religion, 
pnMie schools, and the poor. The monks and 
were left at liberty, either to quit their con- 
vents, or remain there during their lives. The 
were replaced by superintendents, the 
. of whom was vested in the king ; 
while each congregation retained the privilege of 

choosing Its own pastor*. From Denmark this 
revolution passed to Norway, which at that 
on account of having joined the party of Christian 
II., who was deposed by the Danes, loat iU inde- 
pendence, and was declared a province of the 
kingdom of Denmark. 

The House of Oldenburg, which had occupied 
the throne of Denmark diner I-MH, waa separated 
in the reign of Christian III. into two powerful 
branches, viz. the royal, descended from that 
pnn, -,- ; and the family of Holsteln-GotU>r| 
scrnded from his brother, tho Duke Adolphus. 
This latter branch was afterwards divided into 
three others, viz. those of Russia, Sweden, and 

iii-olili-nlnirg. As the law of primogei 
Was not established ill tin- iln.-hi- . of -leswick and 
ll.<Ui. in, which had fallen into the succession of 
the House of Oldenburg, the Kings of Denmark 
soon found themselves under the necessity of divid- 
ing these duchies among the younger princes of 
their i:imil\. The treaty of partition, which was 
entered into (1544) between Christian III. and 
hi* brother, had been preceded by a treaty of per- 
petual union, annexing these duchies to the king- 
dom, ami intended to preserve the tnrone, which 
was electhe, in the House of Oldenburg; as well 
as to prevent any portion of these two duchies 
from falling into the possession of strangers. The 
union was to endure as long as the descendants 
of Frederic I. reigned in Denmark. They pro- 
mised to Mettle, by arbitration, whatever difference 
might arise between the states of the union ; to 
afford each other mutual succour against every 
external eiii-nn ; and to undertake no war but by 

eommiili consent. 

The treaty of 1.V14, which regulated this par- 
tition, made several exceptions of matters that 
were to be managed and administered in common ; 
such as the customs, jurisdiction o\er the i, 
the bishops, and certain cities. This gave rise to 
a sort of copartnership of power, common to all 
the princes of the union. Everything regarding 
either the general safety as stipulated in the treaty, 
or the exercise of these privileges included in the 
exceptions, was to be discussed and settled by 
unanimous consent ; and for this purpose a coun- 
cil of regency, an exchequer, and common courts 
were established. This union and community of 
rights were followed, as a natural consequence, by 
long and destructive feuds between the Kings of 
Denmark and the Dukes of Holstein-(iottorj>, in 
which the other powers of the North were also 

Christian IV., grandson of Christian III., was 
distinguished not more by the superiority of his 
talents, than by the indefatigable seal with which 
he applied himself to every department of the 
administration (l.VSM). It was in hi* reign that 
the Danes extended their commerce as far as India. 
in. led the first Danish East India Company 
(1616), who fonned a settlement in Tranquebar. 
..n the Coromandel coast, which had been ceded 
to them by the Rajah of Tanjore. Various manu- 
factories of silk stuffs, paper, and anna, were con- 
structed, and several towns built under the auspices 
of Christian IV. The science* were also much 
indebted ! him: he gave a new loatre to the 
:.enhagen. and founded the Aca- 
of Soroe in Zealand, beside* a number of 
colleges. If he was unsuccessful in his wan 

Christian IV. of IVumark. 

104 Kri'.'ii of Gi^taM.- 
I.uthonin religion. 


Swedish reforms. 
( ;>i<t;ivus Ailolphus. 
liattlir of Liitzi-u. 

against Sweden and Austria, it must be ascribed 
to the narrow limits of his power, to the influence 
of the aristocratic spirit, and of the feudal regime , 
which still prevailed in Denmark. He succeeded, 
however, in excluding the Swedes from access to 
the Icy Sea, which opened them a way to the 
coasts of Lapland, by obtaining possession, at the 
peace of Siorod (1613), of that part of Lapland 
which extends along the Northern and Icy Seas, 
from Titisfiord to "\Varanger and "Wardhuys. The 
disputes concerning the three crowns were settled 
by the same treaty, in such a way that both sove- 
reigns were permitted to use them, without author- 
izing the King of Denmark to lay any claim to the 
Swedish crown. 

Sweden, which had long maintained a struggle 
against Denmark, at length acquired such a pre- 
ponderance over her as to threaten, more than 
once, the entire subversion of the throne. This 
preponderance was the achievement of two great 
men, who rose in the period we now speak of, 
viz. Gustavus Vasa, and his grandson, Gustavus 
Adolphus. Gustavus Yasa was not merely the 
liberator, but the restorer of his country. Elevated 
to the throne by the free choice of the nation, he 
gave Sweden a power and influence which it never 
had before. Everything under him assumed a new 
, the government, the religion, the finances, 
the commerce, the agriculture, the sciences, and 
the morals of the Swedes. Instead of the assem- 
blies of the nobles, formerly in use, and destructive 
of the national liberty, he substituted diets com- 
posed of the different orders of the state, the 
nobility, the clergy, the citizens, and the peasantry. 
By this means he acquired a new influence, of 
which he took advantage to humble the power of 
the church and the nobles, which had long been 
a source of oppression to Sweden. 

The reformation of religion, which then occupied 
every mind, appeared to Gustavus a very proper 
expedient to second his views, and introduce a 
better order of things. On his accession to the 
throne, he authorized the two brothers Olaus and 
Laurentius Petri to preach publicly at Stockholm 
the doctrines of Luther, and did everything in his 
power to accelerate the progress of the Reforma- 
tion in his kingdom. The bishops, who were 
apprehensive for their benefices and their authority, 
having drawn the greater part of the nobility over 
to their interest, the king, in the presence of a 
diet of the four orders assembled at "Westcras, 
took the determination of formally abdicating the 
crown. This step threw the diet into a state of 
consternation, and encouraged the two lower 
orders, the citizens and peasants, to declare them- 
sel\e- loudly for the king. The bishops and nobles 
were obliged to comply ; and the king, resuming 
tin- reins of government, succeeded in overruling 
the deliberations of the diet. My the authority of 
a decree, he annexed tin? strong castles of the 
bishops to the demesnes of the rniwn, and re- 
trenched from their vast possessions whatever he 
j lidded convenient. The prelates at the same time 
wen- excluded from the senate ; the ties that 
bound them to the court of Rome were broken ; 
and they were enjoined henceforth to demand 
confirmation from the king, and not from the Pope. 
The revenues of the clergy in general, and those 
of the convents, were left at the free disposal of 
the king, and the nobles were permitted to bring 

forward whatever claims they could adduce over 
lands granted to these convents by their ancestors. 
There was nothing now to retard the march of re- 
formation. The Lutheran religion was introduced 
universally into Sweden, and that event contri- 
buted not a little to exalt the royal authority. 

Gustavus secured the hereditary succession of 
the crown in favour of his male descendants. The 
states, anxious to obviate the troubles and disor- 
ders which the demise of their kings had often 
produced, regulated the succession by an-act known 
by the name of the Hereditary Union. It was 
passed at Orebro (1540), and ratified anew by the 
states assembled at "\Vesteras. The Union Act 
was renewed at the Diet of Nordkoping, in the 
reign of Charles IX. (1604), when the succession 
was extended to females. 

The reign of Gustavus Adolphus, the son of 
Charles IX., forms the brightest gem in the glory 
of Sweden. The virtues and energies of that 
prince, the sagacity of his views, the admirable 
order which he introduced into every branch of 
the administration, endeared him to his subjects ; 
while his military exploits, and his superiority in 
the art of war, fixed upon him the admiration of 
all Europe. 

Gustavus brought the wars, which he had to 
sustain against the different powers of the North, 
to a most triumphant conclusion. By the peace 
which he concluded at Stolbova with Russia <"1617), 
he obtained possession of all Ingria, Kexholm, and 
Russian Carelia ; and even cut that Empire off 
from all communication with Europe by the Gulf 
of Finland and the Baltic Sea. His success was 
not less brilliant in his campaigns against Sigis- 
mund III., King of Poland, who persisted in con- 
testing with him his right to the crown of Sweden. 
He took from the Poles the whole of Livonia, with 
a part of Prussia ; and kept possession of these 
conquests by the six years truce which he con- 
cluded with the latter at Altmark (1629). 

It was about this time that Sweden began to 
occupy a distinguished place among the powers of 
Europe ; and that she was called on to take the 
lead in the league which was to protect the princes 
and states of the Empire against the ambition of 
Austria. Gustavus, who was in alliance with 
France, undertook a task as difficult as it was glo- 
rious. In the short space of two years and a half, 
he overran two-thirds of Germany with his victo- 
rious arms. He vanquished Tilly at the famous 
battle of Leipsic (1631), and extended his con- 
quests from the shores of the Baltic to the Rhine 
and the Danube. Everything yielded before him, 
and every place opened its gates to him. This 
great prince, who had made war a new art, and 
accustomed his army to order, and a system of 
tactics never before known, perished at the memo- 
rable battle of Lut/en (l<;:<'2), which the Swedes 
trained after liis dentil, in consequence of the skilful 
dispositions he had formed. 

The war was continued under the minority of 
Queen Christina, his daughter and heir. It was 
still cairied on, although the Swedes hud under- 
taken a new war against Denmark, with the view 
of disengaging themselves from the mediation 
which Christian IV. had undertaken between the 
Emperor and Sweden, at the congress which was 
to meet at Munster and Osnuhurg. The result of 
that war was completely to the advantage of Swe- 

1 1...,-- ,.r 

VI, \.I>. 145.11048. 


K ..'.'.I I 


den, who gained by the peace of Bromsbro (IMS) 

tin- !;... !. -I' ih. Bound, as also the possMsJoa 
of tin- pro* ' | tl U..I. II 

iluli i I, and Iliitliuiil. LaM! 

ilia secured to Sweden eon 
able possessions on the southern coast of the ! 

ns Wimar, Brnncii and \ erdcn, and 
put of Pomerania. 

The power of the Teutonic knight*, which hail 
been greatly reduced tint in.- the preceding \ 
by (In- . I lection of a part of 1'ruMiia, was eom- 
pjcti ly annihilated in the North, in consequence 
of llu- changes introduced by the reformation of 
religion. Albert of Brandenburg, grandson of the 
Elector Albert Achilles, on hit <|c \ntion to the 
digniu of <.rnid Muster of thr Ordrr, made an at- 
tempt to withdraw from Poland that fealty and ho. 
mage to which the knight* had bound themselves 
>\ tin- treat) of Thorn in 1406. ThU contest fur- 
faked matter for a war between them ; v\ hirh be- 
gun in l.'il'.i, and ended in I.VJ1, l.\ a jtruce of 
tour )ears; at the expiration of which the grand 
master, who saw the doctrine* of Luther di--.-mi- 
nated iu Prussia, and who had himself imbibed 
principles in Germany, found means to settle 
all differences with the Kin-; of Poland, by n b 
which he concluded with him at Cracow (1525). 
Id- there engaged to do homage and fealty to the 
crown of Poland a* usual ; ami Sigisimind I., who 
wa* hi* maternal uncle, granted him Teutonic 
Prussia, with the title of Duchy, as a hereditary 
fief, both for himself and his male heirs, and for 
his brothers of the House of Brandenburg and 
Franconia, and their feudal heirs ; reserving the 
right of reversion in favour of Poland, failing the 
ii-sccndants of these princes. 

The Teutonic knights thus lost Prussia, after 
hating possessed it for nearly three hundred yean. 
Retiring to their possessions in Germany, they 
established their prineip:il r.-i.i.-n. at Mergen- 
theim in Franconia. when- they pmei edeil to the 
election of a new grand innstcr, in the person of 

Walter de Cr.>nherg. The Poles, ill getting quit 

of the Teutonic knights, whom they had regarded 
with jealousy, and substitutm- tin- House of Bran- 
denburg in their place, never dreamed of adopting 
an enemy still more dangerous, who would one 
day concert the ruin and annihilation of their 

Immediately after the treaty of Cracow, the new 
Duke of Prussia made a public profession of the 
Lutheran religion, and married a daughter of the 
of Denmark. This princess dving without 
male issue, he married for his MOOSM wife a prin- 
cess of the Brunswick family, l>y whom he had a 
\Ihert Frederic, who succeeded him in the 
duchy of Prussia. The race of these new dukes 
..t I'M>-, i i l.i-'.s), as well as that of Franconia, 
which should have succeeded them, appearing to 
be nearly extinct, Joachim II., F.lector of Hran- 
dcnhurg. obtained from the Kin-/ of Poland the 
investiture of Priisnia, in fief, conjunctly with the 
fsjgulng dukes. This investiture, which was re- 
newed in favour of several of his successors, se- 
cured the succession of that duchy in the . l.-etoml 
fami'M :.-nhiirir; to whom it devolved on 

the li.-ath of Altx-rt Frederic (1018), who left no 
male descendants. He was succeeded by the 
M Sigismund, who had been coinvested 
with him in the duchv. That prince, who had 

msrri I rut daughter of Albert Frederic, 

obtalmd lik- \\i.. , in ri-.'ht of that princess, part of 

Jllliero, \i/., the iliM'ln ' 

'unties of Marck and Kavensberg, which had 
been adjudged to id.- li..i,.. . f Hi n,.' 
the provisional act of partition ronrlmlfd at Kan- 
( n i li.l n, ruirl roiiverti-d into :i -n-aty 

. .-. The grandson of John Bigtsnond, the 
!<-ric \N illinm, was a prince of superior 
genius, and the true founder of the greatness of 
his family. Illustrious in war as in peace, an 
perted by all F.iirope, he aci|uired l>y the treaty of 

linlin, a part <>f Pomerania, the arehlu>! 
of Magdeburg umler the title of a duchy, with the 
. : llalbcnitadt, Minden, and Camin, 
under the title of principalities. His son Frederic 
was the first Kinir of Prussia. 

[The Teutonic knights had nearly lost Livonia 
at the beginning of the sixteenth century ; but 
that province was saved )>v the courage and talents 
of the Provincial Master, Walter de Plattenberg. 
The Grand Duke I wan, or John III., having 
threatened Livonia with an invasion, Plattenberg 
concluded a defensive alliance at Walik (1501), 
with Alexander II., Grand Duke of Lithuania, and 
the hisliops of that country. After having assem- 
bled troops to the number of 14,000 men, he de- 
feated the Russian army, which was 40,000 strong, 
at Maholm ; a second victory, which he gained 
with the same number of troops over 100,000 Rus- 
sians at Pleskow (1502), is one of the most famous 
exploits in the history of the North. Next year 
he concluded a truce of six years with the Livoiiian 
order, which was afterwards renewed for fifty 

It is commonly said that Walter, the provincial 
master, taking advantage of the distresses of the 
Teutonic knights, and urging the repeated suc- 
cours which he had furnished them against the 
Poles, purchased from them his own independ- 
ence, and that of his Order; but a recent author 
(Le Comtc dc Bray) has shown that this was not 
exactly the cose. By a first agreement signed at 
Koningsberg i I.V.'IM. Albert of Brandenburg, who 
was then only drawl Master of the Teutonic Or- 
der, confirmed to the knights of Livonia the free 
right of electing a chief of their own number, pro- 
ini-iii^ to sustain the individual whom they should 
nominate. He secured them the possession of the 
whole sovereignty of Revel and Narva ; the coun- 
tries of Altenkirken, Jerwen, and Wierland; as 
also the town and castle of Wesenberg, with their 
dependencies. This agreement was revived ami 
ritiHed by a second, signed nt G robin ( l.V..">), when 
it was formally stipulated, that the relations be- 
tween the knights of Livonia and the Teutonic 
order should be maintained ns they were, and that 
thr Livonians should continue to regard the Grand 
r ns their true head, and render him homage 
and obedience. They were forbidden to - 
from the Kmpcror or the Pope any privilege dero- 
gntory of their allegiance. It appears, consequently, 
that Walter de Plattenlx-rg did nt purchase the 
indcj his Order, but that he regarded 

* !iich existed between it and the Teu- 
tonic order as broken, when Albert of Branden- 
burg was declared Duke of Prussia. He next re- 
d those connexions with the German F.mpiro 
which had existed since the thirteenth century ; 
and was declared by Charles V. (1527) a prince 

The Reformed Religion. 
106 Duchy of Courland. 
Troubles of Livonia. 


Peace of Oliva. 
Horde of Kiyzac. 
Ivan Itiwilovitz 111. 

of the Empire, having a vote and a seat in the 

It was during the mastership of Plattenherg 
that the Lutheran doctrines penetrated into Livo- 
uia, where they made rapid progress, especially in 
the cities. Walter dexterously turned the disturb- 
ances caused by the opposition of the clergy to the 
new tenets, into an occasion for establishing his 
authority over all Livonia and Esthonia, which 
the Order had formerly shared with the bishops. 
The citizens of Riga acknowledged him as their 
only sovereign, and expelled the archbishop. The 
burgesses of Revel followed their example. The 
clergy were so frightened at these movements, that 
the archbishop of Riga, and the bishops of Dort'at, 
Oesel, Courland, and Revel, formally submitted to 
the Order. The clergy themselves soon after em- 
braced the reformed religion.] 

The dominion of the Knights Sword-bearers 
had continued in Livonia until the time of the 
famous invasion of that country by the Czar, John 
Basilovitz IV. That prince, who had laid open 
the Caspian Sea by bis conquest of the Tartar 
kingdoms of Casan and Astrachan, meditated also 
that of Livonia, to obtain a communication with 
Europe by the Baltic. Gotthard Kettler, who 
was then Grand Master, finding himself unable to 
cope with an enemy so powerful, implored first 
the assistance of the Germanic body, of whom he 
was a member ; but having got nothing but vague 
promises, he next addressed himself to Sigismund 
Augustus, King of Poland, and, in concert with 
tin.- Archbishop of Riga, he concluded with that 
prince a treaty of submission at "Wilna (1561) ; 
in virtue of which, the whole of Livonia, with 
Esthouia, Courland, and Semigallia, comprising 
not only what was still in the possession of the 
Order, but those parts which had been seized by 
the enemy, were ceded to the crown of Poland and 
the Grand Duke of Lithuania, on condition that 
the use of the Confession of Augsburg should be 
preserved on the same footing as it then was, and 
that all orders of the state should be maintained 
in their goods, properties, rights, privileges, and 

By this same treaty, Courland and Semigallia 
were reserved to Gotthard Kettler, the last Grand 
Master of Livonia, to be enjoyed by himself and 
his heirs male, with the title of duchy, and as a 
fief of the king and crown of Poland. The new 
duke, mi taking the oath of fidelity to the King of 
Poland, solemnly laid aside all the badges of his 
former dignity. He married Anne, daughter to 
the Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwcrin, and trans- 
mitted the duchy of Courland to his male descend- 
ants, who did not become extinct until the eigh- 
teenth century. The Order of Livonia was en- 
tirely suppressed, aa were also the archbishoprics 
of Riga, and the bishoprics under its jurisdiction. 

The revolution in Livonia caused a violent com- 
motion among the powers of the North, who \\rp- 
all eager to share in the plunder. While the 
Grand Master of the Order was in treaty with 
Poland, the city of Revel, and the nobles of Es- 
thonia, left without aid, and oppressed by the Rus- 
sians, put themselves under the protection of Kric 
XIV., King of Sweden, who obtained possession 
of that province. The Isle of Oesel, on tin 
trary, and the district of Wjck in Ksthonia, were 
sold to Frederic II., King of Denmark, by the last 

bishop of the island, who also ceded to him the 
bishopric and district of Pilten in Courland. Po- 
land at first held the balance, and maintained Li- 
vonia against the Russians, by the peace which 
she concluded with that power at Kievorova- 
Horca (1582). A struggle afterwards ensued be- 
tween Poland and Sweden for the same object, 
which was not finally terminated until the peace 
of Oliva (1660). 

Russia, during the period of which we now 
treat, assumed an aspect entirely new. She suc- 
ceeded in throwing off the yoke of the Moguls, and 
began to act a conspicuous part on the theatre of 
Europe. The Horde of Kipzac, called also the 
Grand, or the Golden Horde, had been greatly 
exhausted by its territorial losses, and the intestine 
wars which followed ; while the Grand Dukes of 
Moscow gained powerful accessions by the reunion 
of several of these petty principalities, which had 
for a long time divided among them the sovereignty 
of Northern Russia. John Basilovitz III., who 
filled the grand ducal throne about the end of the 
fifteenth century, knew well how to profit by these 
circumstances to strengthen his authority at home, 
and make it be respected abroad. In course of 
several expeditions, he subdued the powerful re- 
public of Novogorod, an ancient ally of the Han- 
seatic towns, and which had for a long time af- 
fected an entire independence. He was also the 
first sovereign of Russia that dared to refuse a 
humiliating ceremony, according to which the 
grand dukes were obliged to walk on foot before 
the envoys that came from the Khan of Kipzac. 
He even suppressed the residence of Tartar en- 
voys at his court ; and at length shook off their 
yoke entirely, refusing to pay the tribute which 
the grand dukes had owed to the khans for several 
centuries. Achmet, Khan of Kipzac, having 
despatched certain deputies with an order, under 
the great seal, to demand payment of this tribute, 
the grand duke trampled the order under his feet, 
spit upon it, and then put all the deputies to death 
except one, whom he sent back to his master. 

The khan, with the view of revenging that in- 
sult, invaded Russia several times, but the grand 
duke vigorously repulsed all his attacks; and while 
he was arresting the progress of his arms on the 
borders of the Ugra, he despatched a body of troops 
to the centre of the Grand Horde, who laid e\ery 
thing desolate (1481). The Nogai Tartars joined 
the Russians to finish the destruction of the Grand 
Horde, whose different settlements on the Wolga 
they laid completely in ruins; so that nothing 
more remained of the powerful empire of Kipzac 
than a few detached hordes, such as those of Cusan, 
Astracan, Siberia, and the Crimea. Iwan ren- 
dered himself formidable to the Tartars ; lie sub- 
dued the Khans of Casan, and several times dis- 
posed of their throne. The entire reduction of 
that Tartar state was accomplished by his grand- 
son, John Basilovitz IV., who twice undertook 
the siege of Casau, and seized and made prisoner 
of the last khan (1552). The fall of Casan was 
followed by that of Astracan. But John was by 
no means so fortunate in his enterprises against 
LiMinh, which, as we have already said, IP 
obliged to abandon to Poland by the peace of 

John IV. was inspired with noble \'u-\ 
policy. Being anxious to civilize his subjec' 

.M , ,. : -.'.. ::>. 




MBt for workmen and artists from England. He 
requeued Charles V. to tend him mn of talents, 
well vcned in the different trade* and manufacture*, 
itroduced the art of printing at Moeoow, and 
established the flnt permanent army in the country, 
that of the StrtltlMet, which be employed in keep- 
ing the noblee in cheek. The discovery of Siberia 
U one of the events that belonged to hu reign. A 
certain chief of the Don Cossack*, named Jermak, 
who employed himself in robberies on the border* 
and the Caspian Sea, being pursued 
by a detachment of Russisn troop*, retired to the 
confines of Siberia. Ue soon entered these region* 
at the head of 7000 Cossacks, and having gained 
several victories over the Tartars of Siberia, and 
their Klrni Kiiucliein, he got possession of the 
:r, which won their principal fortress 
I ). Jcnnuk, in order to obtain his pardon 
of the csar, made him an offer of all he con- 
quered ; which was agreed to by that prince, 
and the troops of the Russians then took possession 
of Siberia (1583). The total reduction of the 
country, however, did not take place until the reign 
of the Cur Theodore >r Fedor Iwanovitz, the son 
and successor of John, who built the city of Tobolsk 
" ), which hassince become the capital of Siberia. 

Fedor Iwanovitz, a prince weak both in mind 
and body, was entirely under the counsel* of his 
>>rother-iii-law Boris Godunow, who, with the 
\iew of opening a way for himself to the throne, 
caused the young Demetrius, Fedor 1 s only brother, 
to be assassinated (151)1). This crime gave rise 
to a long series of troubles, which ended in the 
death of Fedor (l.VJX). With him, as he left no 
children, the reigning family of the ancient sove- 
reigns of Russia, the descendants of Ruric, became 
'\iiuct ; after having occupied the throne for more 
than eight hundred years. 

After this, the Russian crown was worn by per- 
sons of different houses. Their reigns were dis- 
turbed by various pretenders, who assumed the 
name of Demetrius, and were supported by the 
Poles. Darin,' fifteen years Russia presented a 
shocking spectacle of confusion and carnage. At 
length, as a remedy for these disaster*, they thought 
of bestowing the crown on a foreign prince. Some 
chose Charles Philip, the brother of Gustavus 
Adolphusof Sweden ; and others voted for liladis- 
laus, the son of Sigismund IV., Kim: of 1'oland. 
These resolutions tended only to increase the 
disorders of the state. The Swedes took advan- 
tage of them to seise Ingria and the city of Novo- 
: ; while the Poles took possession of Smo- 
leusko and its dependencies. 

The Russians, now seeing their monarchy on the 
edge of a precipice, adopted a plan of electing a 
new csar of their own nation. Their choice fell 
on Michael who became the founder of 

the new dynasty, that of Romanow (1613), under 
\\ liom Russia attained to the senith of her great- 
ness. That prince, guided by the sage counsels of 
bis father Fedor Romanow, Archbishop of Rostow, 
soon rectified all the disorders of the state ; he 
purchased peace of the Swedes, by surrendering 
to them Ingria and Russian Carelia. The sacri- 
fices which he made to Poland were not lees 
considerable. By the truce of DivUina ( 1 
and the peace of Wiasma (1634), he ceded to 
them the vast territories of Smolenako, Tscberuigou, 
and Novogorod, with their dependencies. 

Poland, at this time, presented a corrupt arts, 
tocracy, which had insensibly defaneialed into 
complete anarchy. The nobles were the only per- 
sons that enjoyed the rights of dtisenship; they 
alone were represented in the diets, by the nuncio* 
or deputies which they elected at the Dietines ; 
the honours and dignities both in church and state, 
and in general all prerogatives whatever, were re- 
served for them ; while thr burgesses and peasantry 
alone supported the whole burthen of expenses). 
This constitution, at the same time, was under the 
1 of a sort of democracy, in as far as the 
nobles, without exception, were held to be perfectly 
equal in their rights and dignities. Imperfect as 
a government must have been, established on such 
Basis, it still continued, nevertheless, to preserve 
some degree of vigour ; and Poland supported, 
though feebly, the character of being the ruling 
power of the North, so long as the House of 
Jagello occupied the throne. Besides Prussia, of 
which she had dispossessed the Teutonic Knights, 
she acquired Livonia, and maintained it in spite of 

Ku -.:. 

The reformation of religion was likewise pro- 
mulgated in 1'oland, where it was particularly 
patronised by Sigismund II. A great part of the 
senate, and the better half of the nobility, made, 
with their king, a profession of the new opiii 
and if the reformation did not take deep* . 
in that kingdom, or if it had not a more conspi- 
cuous influence on the civilization of the people, it 
was from not being supported by the middle rlsusos, 
which were not to be found in that kingdom. 

The male line of Jagello, having become extinct 
with Sigiftmund II. (1572), the throne became 
purely elective ; and it was ordained that, during 
the King's life, no successor could be appointed ; 
but that the states, on his demise, should enj<>\ 
for ever a perfect freedom of election on every va- 
cancy of the throne. Such was the origin of the 
diet* of election, which, from their very constitu- 
tion, could not fail to be always tumultuous in their 
proceedings. The nobles in a body appealed at 
these diets ; thither they repaired in arms and <>n 
horseback, ranked according to the order of the 
Palatinates, in a camp prepared for the purpose 
near Warsaw. The custom of the Pacta Cmtvmta 
took its rise about the same time. Henry de 
Valois, who was elected king on the death of 
Sigismund 1 1., was the first that swore to these 
conventional agreements, [by which he engaged, 
that no foreigner should be introduced either in a 
i\:l <>r military department.] These Pacta, which 
had all the force of a fundamental law, specified 
those conditions under which the throne was con- 
ferred on the new monarch. The royal auth 
was thus curtailed more and more, and the prero- 
gatives of the nobility exalted in proportion. 

1'oland, in consequence, soon lost its influence ; 
the government was altered from its basis, and the 
kingdom plunged into an abyse of calamities. 
Amoni; the elective Wings who succeeded Uenr\ 
de Valois, the last that supported the dignity of 
the crown against Russia, was Uladialaos IV., the 
son of Sigismund III., of the House of Vasa. In 
an expedition which he undertook into the interior 
of Ituvtia (IfilH), he penetrated as far as Moscow; 
and in a second which he made (1634), he com- 
pelled the Russians to raise the siege of Smo- 
Icnsko ; and shut them up so closely in their camp. 

Affairs of Hungary. 
108 Matthias Corvinus, Kin::. 

Sultan Soliinati's victories. 


Turks take Hilda. 
H;\irot/.i, Protestant Prince 
of Transylvania. 

that they were obliged to capitulate for want of 
provisions. He then made a new attack on the 
capital of Russia ; and at the peace of AViasma, lie 
obtained conditions most advantageous to Poland. 

In the history of Hungary, the most splendid era 
\\as the reign of Matthias Corvin, who, at the age 
of scarcely sixteen, had been raised to the throne 
by the pure choice of the nation (145<S). Like 
his father the valorous John Hunniades, he was 
the terror of the Turks during his whole reign ; 
he took Bosnia from them, and kept Transylvania, 
"Walluchia, .Moldavia, Sclavonia, and Servia in 
dependence on his crown, in spite of the incessant 
efforts which the Turks made to rescue these pro- 
cures. He likewise conquered Moravia, Silesia, 
and Lusatia ; he even took Austria from the 
Emperor Frederic III., and came to fix his resi- 
dence at Vienna (14S5). It was in that city that 
he terminated his brilliant career, at the early 
age of forty-seven (1490). That great prince 
added to his military talents, a love for elegant 
literature, of which, from the first revival of letters, 
he showed himself a zealous protector. 

The glory of Hungary suffered an eclipse in the 
loss of Matthias. His successors, Uladislaus II., 
the son of Casimir IV., King of Poland, and Louis 
the son of Uladislaus, who held at the same time 
the crown of Bohemia, were weak and indolent 
princes, who saw Hungary torn by factions, and 
ravaged with impunity by the Turks. Soliman 
the Great, taking advantage of the youth of Louis, 
and the distressed state in which Hungary was, 
concerted his plans for conquering the kingdom, 
lie attacked the fortress of Belgrade (1521), and 
made himself master of that important place, be- 
fore the Hungarians could march to its relief. 
His first success encouraged him to return to the 
charge. Having crossed the Danube and the 
Drave without meeting with any resistance, he en- 
quired the Hungarians near Mohacz (1526), in 
that famous battle which cost them the life of their 
king and their principal nobility. Twenty-two 
thousand Hungarians were left on the field of 
battle, and the whole kingdom lay at the mercy 
of the conqueror. Soliman now proceeded as far 
as the Raab ; but instead of completing the con- 
quest of Hungary as he might have done, he con- 
tented himself vAith the laying waste all that part of 
the country with fire and sword ; and carrying 
several hundred thousand prisoners into slavery. 

The premature death of the young king, who 
left no progeny, occasioned a vacancy in the throne 
of Iliitr/ary and Bohemia. Ferdinand of Austria, 
uh<. married Anne, sister to Louis, claimed the 
succession in virtue of the different treaties signed 
in the years 1403, 1408, 14!M, and 1515, between 
the Austrian princes and the last kings of Hun- 
gary. But though the Bohemian States were 
disposed to listen to the pretensions of Ferdinand, 
it was not so with those of Hungary, who trans- 
ferred the crown to John de 7,apol\a, Count of 
/ i | >-, and Palatine of Tram-.\lvania. That prince 
lieing hardly pressed by Ferdinand, at length 
determined to throw himself under the protection 
of the Turks. Soliman marched in person to his 
assistance, and laid siege to the city of Vienna 
(l.'iV'.l). In this enterprise, however, he failed, 
after sacrificing the li\es of nearly H(),(X)0 men. 

In 153S, a treaty was agreed on between the 
two competitors, in virtue of which the whole 

kingdom of Hungary, on the death of John 
Zapolya, was to devolve on Ferdinand. This treaty 
was never curried into execution. John at his 
death having left a son named John Sigismund, 
then an infant in his cradle, Bishop George Mar- 
timizzi, prime minister of the defunct king, pro- 
claimed the young prince, and secured for him the 
protection of the Turks. Soliman undertook a new 
expedition into Hungary in his favour (1541) ; but 
by a piece of signal perfidy, he took this occasion 
to seize the city of Buda, the capital of the king- 
dom, and several other places ; and banished the 
prince with his mother the queen-dowager, to 
Transylvania, which he gave up to him, with seve- 
ral other districts in Hungary. The city of Buda 
with the greater part of Hungary and Sclavonia 
remained in the power of the Turks ; and Ferdi- 
nand was obliged to pay an annual tribute for the 
protection of that kingdom, the possession of which 
was guaranteed to him by the truce which he con- 
cluded with them in 1562. 

In the midst of these unfortunate events, the 
Austrian princes had again the imprudence to 
alienate the affections of the Hungarians, by the 
intolerant spirit they displayed, and the efforts 
which they incessantly made to extirpate the Pro- 
testant religion in that kingdom. The opinions of 
Luther and Calvin had already been propagated in 
Hungary during the reign of Louis, the predecessor 
of Ferdinand. They had even made grent pro- 
gress ; especially in Transylvania, where the Ger- 
man language and literature were generally culti- 
vated. The oppressions which the partisans of the 
new doctrines experienced, added to the attempts 
which the Austrian princes madelfromtime to time 
to subvert the ancient constitution of the kingdom, 
excited fresh troubles, and favoured the designs of 
the discontented and ambitious, who were watch- 
ing 1 their opportunity to agitate the state, and make 
encroachments on the government. Stephen 
Botschkai, Bethlem Gabor, and George Ragot/i, 
princes of Transylvania, weresuccesshely the chiefs 
or leaders of these malecontents in the reigns of 
Rodolph II., Ferdinand II., and Ferdinand III., 
Emperors of Germany. According to the pacifica- 
tion of Vienna (1606), and that of Lint/ (10 15), 
as well as by the decrees of the Diet of Oclenlnirg 
(1622), and of Presburg (1047), these princes 
were compelled to tolerate the public exercise of 
the reformed religion ; and to redress the political 
complaints of the Hungarian malecontents. 

The same troubles on the score of religion, which 
infested Hungary, extended likewise to Bohemia, 
where the new doctrines met with a much better 
reception, as they were in unison with the reli- 
gious system of the Hussites, who had already 
numerous partisans in that kingdom. ItwaschielN 
under the reign of the mild and tolerant .Maximi- 
lian II. that Protestantism made its way in Bo- 
hemia. All those who were formerly called t'lrn- 
quistx, from their professing the communion in 
both kinds, joined the followers either of Luther 
or Calvin. Rodolph II., the son and successor of 
Maximilian, was obliged, at the Diet of Prague 
(lOO'.l), to grant them the free exercise of their 
worship, without distinction of place ; and even 
to extend this indulgence to the Protestants of 
Silesia and Lusatia by letters patent, kno\\ n by the 
name Letters of Majesty ; copies of which - 
made at Prague on the llth of July and :>i)th of 

Thr Thirty Ytmr. 1 V% 

i. . r , . i-.....: 

\ 1). 14A3 194M. 


August 1609. These letters were confirmed by 
King Matthias, on hu acceiwioii i.. the tin 

uia ; u also by 1 . 1 1 .. \\ hen he WM 

acknowledged by the Bohemian Bute* M the 
adopted son and succr^ .ia*. 

1 he different interpretation* which were put on 
the** letter* occaaioned the war, known in I. 
by tli lie Thirty Yean* War. Tin 

Matthias happening to die in the miilt ( 
thcae disturbances, the Bohemian States, regard- 
ing their crown as elective, annulled the election 
.dinaiul 11. (1619), and conferred the crown 
mi Frederic, the Elector Palatine. Being in strict 
alliance with the states of Silesia, Moravia, and 
Lusatia, they declared war against Ferdinand, who 
was supported, on the other hand, by Spain, tin- 
Catholic princes of the Empire, and the elector of 
Saxon \ . 

The famous battle of Prague (1620), and the 
fall of thi- Elector Palatine, brought about a revo- 
lution in Bohemia. The ringleaders of the iusur- 
.1 \\ru- executed at Prague, and their goods 
confiscated. Ferdinand, who treated that king- 
dom as a conquered country, declared that the 
states had forfeited their rights and privileges ; 
and, in the new constitution which he gave them, 
he consented to restore these, only on condition of 
-1\ e\i-. pting the rights \\hich they h;ul 
l.iiiin-il in the election of their kings, as well as 
the Letters of Majesty which granted to the Pro- 
testants the free exercise of their worship. But 
this prince did not stop with the suppression of 
their religious liberties, he deprived them also of 
their rights of citixeuship. Laws the most atro- 
cious were published against them, and he even 
went so far as to deny them the liberty of making 
testaments, or contracting legal marriages. All 
their minister*, without exception, were banished 
the kingdom ; and the most iniquitous mean- 
em ployed to bring back the Protestants to the 
pale of the Catholic Church. At length it was 
enjoined, by an edict in 1607, that all Protestants 
who persisted in their opinions should quit tin- 
kingdom within six months. Thirty thousand of 
the best families in the kingdom, of whom a hun- 
dred and eighty-five were nobility, abandoned 
!'. iieinia, transporting their talents and their in- 
du-try to the neighbouring states, such as Saxony, 
Brandenburg, Prussia, &c. 

ilinand judged it for his interest to detach 
the elector of Saxony from the alliance with 
Sweden, which he had joined. lie concluded a 
special peace with him at Prague, in virtue of 
which he made over to him the two Lusatias, 
which he had dismembered from the kingdom of 
Bohemia, to reimburse the elector for those sums 
which he churned, M having been the ally of 
Austria against the Elector Palatine, then King 
of Bohemia. That province was ceded to the 
^TiH^Ar John George, for himself and his succes- 
sors, as a fief <>i the Bohemian crown, under the 
express condition, that failing the male line of the 
ral branch, it should pass to the female heirs ; 
but that it should then be at the option of the King 
hernia to use the right of redemption, by repay- 
ing to the female heir* the sum for which Lusatia 
had been mortgaged to Saxony. This sum 
amounted to seventy-two tons of gold, valued at 
H K) florins. 

irki-h Empire received new accessions of 

i y, both in Asia and Europe, under th< 
cessor* of Mahomet II., who had fixed their capital 
at Constantinople. The conquest of Bessarabia 
,11 of Bajazcl II., about the year 
That prince had a brother named Jem or 
/.mm, who had been hi. tit., r for the thr 
and having tied to llome, lie was imprisoned by 

JK! Alexander VI., at the instate 
Bajaset, who had engaged to pay the Pope a huge 
pension for him. Charlc* VIM. ( Trance, when 
he made his expedition into Italy for the ronqueet 

of Naples, compelled the Pope to iiirri luler Up 

the nnt'ortunute /i/im, whom he designed to em- 
ploy iu the expedition which he meditated against 
the Turks, but which never took place. Si-Urn I., 
the sou and successor of Bajazet, taking advantage 
of a revolution which happened in Persia, and of 
the victory which he if.iincd near Tauris over the 
Schaw Ismail Sophi I. (1514), conquered tin- 
provinces of Diarbekir and Algczira, beyond the 

The same prince overturned the powerful Em- 
fthe Mamelukes, who reigned over Egypt, 
Syria, Palestine, and part of Arabia. He det 
the last Sultans, Cansoul- Algouri, and Toumambey 
(1516), and totally annihilated that dynasty. 
Cairo, the capital of the Empire of Kirjpt, was 
taken by assault (1517), and the whole of the 
Mameluke states incorporated with the Ottoman 
Empire. The Scheritf of Mecca likewise sub- 
mitted to the Porte, with several tribes of the 

Soliman the Great, who succeeded his father 
Selim, raised the Turkish Empire to the highe&t 
pitch of glory. Besides the island of Rhodes, 
which he took from the Knights of St. John, and 
the greater part of Hungary, he reduced the pro- 
vinces of Moldavia and Wallachia to a state of 
dependence, and made their princes vassals and 
tributaries of his Empire. He likewise conquered 
Bagdad and Irak- Arabia, which happened, a> 
ing to the Turkish authors, about the year 15.'U. 

That prince distinguished his reign by the efforts 
which he made to increase the maritime strength 
of the Empire, which his predecessors had neg- 
lected. He took into his service the famous pirate 
Barbarossa, King of Algiers, whom he created 
(,':tpitan Pacha, or Gland Admiral. Barbarossa 
equipped a fleet of more than a hundred sail, with 
which he chased the imperialists from the Archi- 
pelago ; and infested the coasts of Spain, Italy and 
Sicily (1565). Soliman miscarried, however, in 
his enterprise against Malta. The courageous 
defence made l.y the knights, together with the 
arrival of the fleet from Sicily, obliged the Otto- 
mans to retreat. 

The decline of the Ottoman Empire began with 
the death of Soliman the Great (1566). The sul- 
tans, his successors, surrendering themselves to 
luxury and effeminacy, and shut up in their sera- 
glios and harems, left t<> their grand Miier* the 
government of the Empire, and the management 
of the army. The sons of these sultans, educated 
by women and eunuchs, and secluded from all 
eixd and military affair*, contracted from their 
earliest infancy all the vices of their fathers, and 
no longer brought to the throne that vigorous and 
enterprising spirit, which had been the soul of the 
Ottoman -.ivriniiient, and the basis of all their 
institution*. Selim II., the son of Soliman, was 

IMV. er iif France. 
110 Richelieu. Mazuriu. 
Heii;ii ul I.niii- XIV. 


liakiiifc of Power. 
Staii'linir Armies. 
Invasion of the Netherlands. 

the first who set this fatal example to his successors. 
In his time, the Turks took the Isle of Cyprus 
from the Venetians (1570), which they maintained 

in spite of the terrible defeat which they received 
at Lepanto (1571), and which was followed by 
the ruin of their marine. 



THE political system of Europe underwent a 
change at the commencement of this period. 
France, after having l<mg struggled for her own 
independence against Austria, at length turned the 
balance, and berame so formidable as to combine 
against herself the whole policy and military power 
of Europe. The origin of this extraordinary in- 
fluence of France belongs to the reigns of Charles 
VII. and Louis XI. Several important accessions 
which she made at this epoch, together with the 
change which happened in her government, gave 
her a power and energy, which might have secured 
her a decided preponderance among the conti- 
nental states, had not her influence been over- 
balanced by Austria, which, by a concurrence of 
fortunate events, and several wealthy marriages, had 
suddenly risen to a degree of power that excited 
the jealousy of all Europe. Hence, for nearly two 
hundred years, it required all the political resouices 
of France to make head against her rival; and 
what added to her misfortunes was, that, though 
freed from the distraction of the Italian war, she 
was still agitated hy civil wars, which employed 
her whole military force. 

It was not till near the middle of the seven- 
teenth ci ntury that she extricated herself from 
this long struggle ; and that, disengaged from the 
>haekks of her own factions and internal dissen- 
sions, her power assumed a new vigour. The 
well regulated condition of her finances, the 
prosperity of her commerce and manufactures, anil 
the respectable state of her marine, all concurred 
to diffuse wealth and abundance over the king- 
dom. The abasement of the House of Austria, 
effected at once by the treaties of Westphalia and 
the Pyrenees, together with the consolidation of 
the (ieriiianic body, and the federal system of the 
Provinces in the Netherlands, put the last climax 
on her glory, and secured to her the preponder- 
.1 the political scale of Europe. This change 
in her political system was achieved principally 
by the two great statesmen, Cardinals Richelieu 
and Ma/.arin, who, by drying up the fountains 
of chil di>-eii-ions, and concentrating the reins of 
authority in the hands of the government, raised 
that monarchy to the rank which its position, its 
population, and its internal resources, had assigned 
it among the powers of the continent. 

Ma/a rin left the kingdom in a flourishing state 
to Louis XIV., who, aided by the coun^-ls and 
assistance of the famous Colbert, became the 
patron of letters and the tine arts, and finished the 
\\ork which was begun by his prime min 

ing could equal the ardour which inspired 
that prinec for military fame. France would h:m- 
been prosperous under his reign, and rcsp-Ttnl 
e\en by all Europe, had he kept nothing else in 
view than the true interests and happiness of his 

people ; but he was ambitious of that sort of glory 
which is the scourge of mankind, the glory of 
heroes and conquerors. Hence there resulted a 
long series of wars, which exhausted the strength 
and resources of the state, and introduced a new 
change in its political system. The same states 
who had formerly made common cause with 
France against Austria, now combined against the 
former, to humble that gigantic power which 
seemed to threaten thier liberty and Independence. 
[In these alliances the maritime powers volun- 
tarily took part ; and, having less fear than the 
others of falling under the yoke of a unh 
monarchy, they joined the confederates merely for 
the protection of their commerce the true source 
of their influence and their wealth. They under- 
took the defence of the equilibrium system, because 
they perceived, that a state which could command 
the greater part of the continental coasts, might 
in many ways embarrass their commerce, and per- 
haps become dangerous to their marine. They 
soon acquired a very great influence in the a flairs 
of this system, by the subsidies with which from 
time to time they furnished the states of the conti- 
nent. From this period the principal aim of 
European policy was their finances and their com- 
mercial interests, in place of religion, which had 
been the grand motive or pretext for the preceding 
wars. With this new system began those abuses 
of commercial privileges and monopolies, prohibi- 
tions, imposts, and many other regulations, which 
acted as restraints on natural liberty, and became 
the scourge of future generations. It was then 
that treaties of commerce first appeared, by which 
every trading nation endeavoured to procure 
advantages to itself, at the expense of its rivaK ; 
and it was then that the belligerent powers be^an 
to lay restraints and interdicts on the commerce 
of neutral states. 

But the political system of Europe experienced 
other changes at this period. Standing armies 
were introduced, and augmented to a degree that 
proved ruinous both to the agriculture of the in- 
habitants, and the finances of the go\ eminent, 
which by this means was rendered more and more 
dependent on those states, whose principal object 
was commerce. The frequent communication 
between foreign courts, which the policy of Riche- 
lieu had rendered necessary, ga\< invasion for 
envoys and resident ministers; whereas formerly 
scarcely any other intercourse was known, except 
b\ i \traordinary embassies.] 

The first war that roused the European powers 
was that which Louis XIV. undertook against 
Spain, to enforce the claims wlii< h he advanced, 
in name of his Queen Maria Theresa, over se\cral 
prminces of the Spanish Netherlands, especially 
the duchies of Brabant andLimburg, the seigniories 

'A I ', - 

1) MI. A.I). KMs 111 :. 



of Mali tics, the marquisate of Antwerp, Upper 
>uttlie of Namur, lUinault and 
-. ('amhray Uid Ctunbresis, which he alleged 
, in urtue of the nyht <>J devolu- 
tion, according to the wage* of that country. Ac- 
cording to that right, the property of goods pseud 
to tli.- clui first marriage, when their 

parents contracted another. Maria Theresa, Queen 
I" France, was the dimwit, r, l.\ the Drat marriage, 

h|. l\. King of Spain; whereas Chart, 
lii* successor in tlmt monarchy, waa descended ot' 
the second marriage, Louis XIV. contended, that 
from the moment of Philip'* second marriage, the 
property of all th<- countries which were aBlietod 
liy tin- right of devolution, lidnm-ed to his queen; 
and that, after the death of her father, that princess 
*lioulil enjoy the saccession. In opposition to 
these claims of France, the Spaniards alleged, that 
the riirht nt' <! \olutioii, being founded merely on 
custom, and applicable only to particular succes- 
sions, rotilil not be opposed to the fundamental 
laws of Spain, which maintained tin- indivisibility 
of that monarch}, and transferred tin- \\\\<-. 
cession to Chatles II. without any partition what- 

In course of the campaign of 1667, the French 
made themselves masters of several cities in tin- 
Low Countries, such as Bruges, Fumes, Armen- 
tieres, Charlcmi, Hindi, Ath, Touniay, Douay, 
Courtriy, Oiidenarde, and Lille; and in course of 
tli. following winter, they got possession of 
Franche-Comte. The Pope and several princes 
having volunteered their good offices for the re- 
storation of pence, they proposed a congress at 
.-('hiipelte ; liut DM principal scene of the 
negociation was at the Hague, where Louis sent 
the Count d'Estrades to treat separately with the 
States-General. This uegociation was greatly ac- 
celerated by the famous Triple Alliance, concluded 
at the Hague 166M, between Great Britain, 

ii, and the States-General. By the 
<>f thin treaty, the allied powers offered Louis the 
altcn to leave him in possession of the 

which he had conquered, during the cam- 

of 1067, or to cede t.) him either the duchy 
t" Luxemburg, "r Franche-Comte with the 
of Cambray, Douay, A ire, St. Otner, unit Fumes, 
with their dependencies). The Spaniards having 
accepted the former of these alternatives, the 
draught of a treaty of peace was agreejl on, and 
signed l> \ i ' r* of France, England, and 

the States-General ; and this scheme served as the 
basis of the treaty which was concluded at \i\- 
la-Chapelle, between France :n '!ay2d 

10(1*). In consideration of the restitutions which 
he hail made to Spain, Fr.i .1, in terms 

of this treaty, the towns of Charleroi, Hindi, Ath, 
:rnay, Oudenarde, Lille, Armentieres, 
;iiicit, with their baili- 
wicks and dependencies. 

This peace was soon followed by a new war, 
which I.OUM XIV. undertook against the republic 
..f i In- Seven United Provinces (1872). Wishing 
to be avenged on the Dutch, whom be knew to be 
the principal authors of the Triple Alliance, and 
consulting only his own propensity for war, In- 
alleged as a pretext, certain r 
which hud )>.-. n struck in Holland, on tin- 
peace of Aix-la-Chaprlle, and the Trip). 
in vain did the States-General offer him . 

satisfaction; be persisted la his purpose . 
daring war ; and the better to succeed in his 

il ..'. .:..:.... \ ...'.! -t . .!i-, !\. <' 'I .;.; 

England, found means to detach Charles II. from 
the alliance, and to draw him over to side ith 
Louis against the lt<-puMic. The same success at- 
tended the negociation which he set on foot with 
the Court of Stockholm. !' ll.uiiiir t 

.land, the Swedes rciluiinri (I tlie Trip!' 

ance,and joined with France. Several princes of the 
.re, such as the Elector of Cologne and the 
Bishop of Munster, adopted the same line of con- 
duct. The war broke out in 1672; and so rapid 
were the conquests of Louis, that he subdued in 
one single campaign the provinces of Gueldres, 
Utrecht, Overyssel, and part of Holland. 
would have carried the city of Amsterdam, if the 
Dutdi had not cut their dikes and inundated the 

Alarmed at these extraordinary successes, and 
apprehending the entire subversion of the Re- 
putdic, the Emperor Leopold I., the King of Spain, 
the elector of Brandenburg, and the Imperial 
States, leagued in their favour, and marched to 
their relief. The Parliament of England obliged 
Charles II. to make peace with the republic, by re- 
t'uMiig to grant him supplies (1674). '1 
of Cologne and the Bishop of Munstcr did the 
same thing. Louis XIV. then thought pr< 
abandon his conquests in Holland; and di. 
his principal strength against Spain and the 
manic states. lit- subdued Franche-Comte. in 
the spring <>f ll>74 ; and in course of the same 
year, the Prince of Conde gained the battle of 
Senef. In the following winter Turcnnc attacked 
the quarters of the Imperialists in Alsace, and 
chased them from that province, in spite of their 
superior numbers. That great general was slain 
at Saspach in Ortenau, in the campaign against 
Monteeuculi (llth Aug. 1674). Next year Ad- 
miral du Quesne gained two naval victories, near 
the islands of Lipariand Messina, over DC Uuyu-r, 
who dieil of the wounds he had rer< 

The Sweden, according to the secret artii '. 
their alliance with France, had penetrated, in the 
month of December 1674, into the Elector i- 
Brandenburg, to cause a diversion against the 
Elector Frederic William, who commanded tin- 
Imperial army on tin* Rhine ; hut the Klector sur- 
pn> d them hy forced marches at Uathenuw, and 
completely routed their army near Fehrbellin 
. }. Tin- F.inpcror then declared war against 
Sweden ; and the F.lector, in concert with the 
princes of Brunswick, the Bishop of Munnter, and 
the King of Denmark, strip! the Sweden of the 
greater part of their possessions in the F.mpirc. 

At length, in the year< Ki7M-79, a peace waa 
coin-hided at Nimcgucu, under the mediation of 

:id. l.ouis \l\. -Mimed |o diude the 

allies, and to make a separate treaty with the 
Dutch, l>\ which he rcnton-d to them the dtjr of 
Maestricht, which he had seized. The exam] 
the Dutch was followed by the Spaniards, who in 
like manner signed a special treaty with Fr . 
in virtue nf which, they irnvr up to her Franchc- 
(..ii-. .al citips in Flanders and Hoinault, 

such as Valenciennes. Bouchain, C'ondc, Cambray, 
Aire, St. Oim-r, Yprus, Warwick, Wani 
Poperingcu, Bailleul, Caasel, Bavay, and Man- 

Troubles of tho 
112 Ke-uuious. 

Louis cunqucrs Alsace. 


Hi- iKTsocutos the Kivnrh 

Edict of Nautes revoked. 

bcuge, with their dependencies. The peace of 
Minister was renewed by that concluded at 
Nimegueu, between France, the Empire, and the 
Emperor. France, on renouncing her right to a 
garrison in Philipsburg, got possession of the city 
of Friburg in Brisgaw, but refused to restore what 
she had wrested from the Duke of Lorraine, except 
on conditions so burdensome, that the Duke would 
not accept them, and preferred to abandon the re- 
possession of his duchy. As to the peace which 
France and Sweden had negociated with Denmark 
and her allies the Princes of the Empire, it was 
renewed by different special treaties, concluded in 
course of the year 1679. 

No sooner was the peace of Nimeguen con- 
cluded, than there sprung up new troubles, known 
by the name of the Troubles of the Re-unions. 
Louis XIV., whose ambition was without bounds, 
had instituted a Chamber of Re-union, in the par- 
liament of Metz, for the purpose of examining the 
nature and extent of the territories ceded to him 
by the treaties of Westphalia, the Pyrenees, Aix- 
la-Chapelle, and Nimeguen. This Chamber, as 
well as the parliament of BesaiKjon, and the Sove- 
reign Council of Alsace, adjudged to the King, by 
their decree, several towns and seigniories, as 
being fiefs or dependencies of Alsace ; as also the 
thivt- bishoprics, Franche-Comte, and the terri- 
tories which had been ceded to him in the Nether- 

The kind's views were principally directed to 
Alsace. He had already tendered his claims on 
this province, shortly after the peace of the Pyre- 
nees, when the matter had been referred to the 
decision of arbiters chosen by the emperor him- 
self. The work of arbitration was not far ad- 
vanced, when it was interrupted by the Dutch 
war, in which the Emperor and the Empire were 
both implicated. The peace of Nimeguen having 
confirmed the treaty of Munster, he preferred the 
method of re-union to that of arbitration, for re- 
claiming his alleged rights. Taking advantage of 
the general terms in which the cession of Alsace 
was announced in the seventy-third and seventy- 
fourth articles of the said treaty, he claimed the 
absolute sovereignty of the whole province, and 
obliged the immediate states, included in it, to 
acknowledge his sovereignty, and do him fealty 
and homage, notwithstanding the reservations 
which the eighty-seventh article of the same treaty 
had stipulated in favour of these very States. M. 
de Louvois appeared before Strasburg at the head 
of the French army, and summoned that city to 
submit to the King. Accordingly, it surrendered 
by capitulation on the 30th September, 1681. 
These re-unions extended also to the Netherlands, 
where the French seized, among others, the cities 
of Courtrai, Dixmunde, and Luxemburg. 

Louis XIV., in thus taking upon himself alone 
the interpretation of these treaties of peace, could 
not but offend the powers interested in maintaining 
them. A new general league was projected against 
France, and at the Diet of Ilatisbon they deli- 
ln -rated on the means of setting on foot an Impe- 
rial army ; but the want of unanimity among the 
members of the Germanic body, the troubles in 
Hungary, which were immediately succeeded by a 
war with the Porte, and the march of a Turkish 
army on Vienna, threw them into a state of con- 
sternation, and prevented the Imperial Diet from 

adopting any vigorous resolution. Spain, ex- 
hausted by protracted wars, and abandoned by 
England and Holland, was quite incapacitated 
from taking arms. Nothing, therefore, remained 
for the parties concerned, than to have recourse to 
negociation. Conferences were opened at Frank- 
fort, which, after having languished for fifteen 
mouths in that city, were transferred to Ilatisbon, 
where a truce of twenty years was signed (loth 
August, 1684) between France and Spain ; as also 
between France, the Emperor, and the Empire. 
By the former of these treaties, Louis retained 
Luxemburg, Bovines, and Chimay, with their de- 
pendencies ; restoring back all the places which 
he had occupied in the Netherlands prior to the 
20th August, 1683. As to the treaty between 
France and the Emperor, the former retained, 
during the truce, the city of Strasburg, and the 
fort of Kehl, besides all the places and seigniories 
which they had taken possession of since the com- 
mencement of the troubles till the 1st of August, 
1681. In all the places that were surrendered to 
him, Louis preserved the exercise of his sovereign 
rights, leaving to the proprietors or seigniors the 
entire enjoyment of the fruits and revenues be- 
longing to their territorial rights. 

It was nearly about this same time that Louis 
XIV. undertook to extirpate Calvinism in France. 
Incensed against the Protestants by the old Chan- 
cellor Letellier, and his minister Louvois, the 
chancellor's son, he circumscribed, by repeated 
declarations, the privileges which they enjoyed in 
virtue of former edicts. The holding of general 
synods was forbidden ; the two Chambers were 
suppressed ; and they were all, without exception, 
debarred from exercising any public function. At 
last, Louis went so far as to send, immediately 
after the truce of Ilatisbon (1684), dragoons over 
all France, to endeavour, as was said, to convert 
the Protestants by gentle compulsion. This mea- 
sure was next followed by the famous Edict of 
1685, which revoked that of Nantes, published in 
1598, and that of Nismes in 1629. AIL exercise of 
their religion all assemblies for worship, even in 
the house, were forbidden to the Protestants, under 
pain of imprisonment and confiscation of goods. 
Their churches were ordered to be demolished. 
Parents were enjoined to have their children bap- 
tized by the Catholic clergy, and to bring them 
up in the religion of the state. The ministers were 
banished, and the other Protestants were forbidden 
to depart the country, under pain of the galle\s 
for men, and imprisonment and confiscation for 
women. The rigour of these prohibitions, how- 
ever, did not prevent a vast multitude of the French 
Protestants from removing to foreign countries, and 
transferring the scat of their industry to Germany, 
England and Holland. 

This blindfold zeal for religion, however, did not 
hinder Louis from vigorously supporting the rights 
of his crown against the encroachments of the court 
of Rome. Among the different disputes that arose 
between him and the popes, that which regarded 
the R(i/nli deM'i-ves to he particularly remarked. 
The King, by declarations issued in \t\~,:; and 
1675, having extended that, right to all the arch- 
bishoprics and bishoprics within the kingdom, the 
bishops of Aletli and Pamicrs, who pretended to 
be exempt from it, applied to the Pope, claiming 
his protection. Innocent XI. interposed, by vehe- 

I) VII. A.D. lMft-1713. 


inent brief* which he addressed t<> tin- king in 
favour of (In- Inhop4. Tliit 11. 'I 

an assembly of the Prrnrh . I.T^M . in < . 
bmide the extension of the Regale, he caused 
tin-in to draw tip tin- four famous propositions, 

i are regmrded the basis of the liberties of 
illnMii church. Theee propositions were : 
1 . That the power of the pope extends only to 
thing* spiritual, mncl has no conreru with temporal 
matter*. 2. That the authority of the pope in 
spiritual affair* is subordinate to a general council. 
:. That it is even limited by tin- < , :i .m, the cus- 
toms, and constitution of the kingdom and the 
in < hurch. 4. That in matters of faith tin- 
pope's authority in not infallible. 

Th<- truce which had been concluded for twenty 
years at Katisbon rontinuril <>nU four ; at the -ml 
of which Louis again took up arm*, lie pret-int>-<l 
to hare got information, licit tin- Emperor Leopold 
only waited till the conclusion of the peace with 
the Turks, to make war upon him ; and he thence 
inferred, that prudence required him rather to an- 
ticipate hi* t-in-niy, than allow himself to be cir- 
cumvented. In proof of this assertion, he cit.-d 
the treaty concluded at Augsburg in 1606, between 
the emperor, the King of Spain, the States-Ge- 
neral, Sweden, the Duke of Savoy, and the prin- 
cipal states of the Empire, for the maintenance of 
the treaties concluded with France. Louis wished 
moreover to enforce the claims which the Duchess 
of Orleans, his sister-in-law, alleged to the succes- 
sion of the palatinate. That princess was the 
sister of Charles, the last elector palatine, of the 
family of Simmern, who died in 168.5. She did 
not dispute the fiefs with her brother's successor 
in the electorate ; she claimed the freeholds, which 
comprehended a considerable part of the palati- 
nate ; while the new Elector, 1'hilip William, of 
the family of Neuburg, maintained that, according 
to the laws and usages of Germany, the entire suc- 
cession belonged to him, without any partition 

Besides these motives which Louis XIV. set 
forth in a long manifesto, there was another which 
he kept concealed, the object of which was, to 
prevent the expedition which the 1'rince of Orange, 
Stadt holder of the United Provinces, was pre- 
paring to send to England, against James II. his 
brother-in-law, who had become odious to the 
whole English nation. It was of great importance 
for France to maintain, on the throne of Great 
Britain, a prince whom she protected, and who 
would always espouse her interests ; while it was 
easy to foresee, that if the Prince of Orange, the 
declared enemy of Louis, and the author of the 
league of Augsburg, should succeed in uniting the 
crown of England to the stadtholdership, he would 

il to employ this new influence, and turn the 
combined force of both states against France. The 
only method of preventing an event so prejudicial 
to the tnie interests of that kingdom would (lave 
been, doubtless, to equip an expedition, and pitch 
his camp on the frontier* of Holland. The court 

mce knew this well, and yet they contented 
themselves with sending an am .; : .u:.-, 

which took possession of Philipvburg, May 
and the whole palatinate, as well as a part of the 
Electorate of Treves (September and October 
16M8). Louvois, the Trench minister wh< di 
these operations, had flattered himself that the 

.. when they beheld the war breaking out in 

then .;,| not dare to take any part in 

the trouble**. ,f England. In this opinion he was 

lie Prince of Orange, supported by the 

. fleet, effected a landing in KngUnd (10th 
November, 1668). The revolution there was soon 
completed, by the dethronement of James II. ; and 
Louis XIV., ending where he should have begun, 
then declared war against the Slates-General. 
This mistaken policy of the French minister be- 
came the true source of all the subsequent icvtaes 
that eclipsed the reign of Louis X I \ . 

A powerful league was now formed against 
France, which was joined successively by the em- 
peror, the Kmpire, I.ngland, Holland, Spain, and 
Savo\ Look \l\., in order to make 

head against these formidable enemies, recalled 
his troops from those places which they occupied 
in the p:il:itni.iic, and on the banks of the Rhine ; 
but in withdrawing them, he ordered a great num- 
ber of the towns to be burnt to ashes, and laid 
waste the whole country. By this barbarity, which 
circumstances by no means called for, he only ag- 
gravated the hatred and increased the ard>< 
his enemies. War was commenced by sea and 
l.uid ; in Italy, Spain, Ireland, the Low Countries, 
and on the Rhine. Louis supported it nobly 
against a great part of Europe, now combined 
against him. His armies were victorious every- 
where. Marshal Luxembourg signalized himself 
in the campaigns of Flanders, by the victories 
which he gained over the allies at Fleurus (1st 
July, 1690), Steinkirk (3rd August, 1692), and 
Landen or Nerwindcn (29th July, 1693). In 
Italy, Marshal Catinat gained the battle of Stafarda 
(IKth August, 1690), and Marsailles (4th October, 
1693), over the Duke of Savoy. The naval glory 
of France was well supported by the Count de 
Tonrville at the battles of Beachy-head (10th July, 
1690), and La Hogue (29th May, 1692). 

However brilliant the success of her arms might 
be, the prodigious efforts which the war required 
could not but exhaust France, and make her 
anxious for the return of peace. Besides, Louis 
\ 1 V. foresaw the approaching death of Charles II. 
of Spain ; and it was of importance for him to 
break the grand alliance as soon as possible ; aa 
one of its articles secured the succession of the 
Spanish monarchy to the emperor and his descend- 
ants, to the exclusion of the King of France. In 
this case, he wished, for his own interest, to give 
every facility for the restoration of peace ; and by 
the treaty which he concluded separately with the 
Duke of Savoy, he granted that Prince, besides 
the fortress of Pignerol, and the marriage of his 
daughter with the Duke of Burgundy, the privi- 
lege of royal honours for his ambassadors. This 
treaty, concluded at Turin (29th August, 1696), 
was a preliminary to the general peace, signed at 
Ryswick, between France, Spain, England, and 
Il'..ll:ind (-JOth September, 1697). Each of the 
contracting parties consented to make mutual 
restitutions. France even restored to Spain all 
the and territories which she had occupied 
in the Low Countries, by means of the re-un. 
with the exception of eighty-two places, mentioned 
in a particular list, as being dependencies of 
<'h irlcmont, Maubeuge, and other places ceded 
by the preceding treaties. Peace between France, 
the emperor, and the Empire was also signed at 


Peace of Ryswick. 
114 The Spanish Succession. 
Claimants and partition. 


Archduke Charles. 
Philip of Anjou, King 
of Spain. 

Ryswick. The treaties of Westphalia and Nime- 
guen were there renewed ; and the decrees of the 
Chamber of Re-union at Metz, and of the sove- 
reign courts at Besanijon and Brieach, were re- 
scinded and annulled. Louis XIV. engaged to 
restore to the Empire all that he had appropriated 
to himself, by means of the re-unious, either be- 
fore or during the war ; that is to say, all places 
situated or acquired beyond the bounds of Alsace. 
The city of Strasburg was ceded to France, by a 
particular article of the treaty ; but the fortress of 
Kehl, the cities of Friburg, Brisach, and Philips- 
burg, were surrendered to the emperor. Leopold, 
Duke of Lorraine, and son of Charles V., was re- 
instated in his duchy, without any other reserva- 
tion than that of Saar-Louis, and the city and 
prefecture of Longwy. As to the claims of the 
Duchess of Orleans on the palatinate, they were 
submitted to the arbitration of the emperor and 
the King of France ; to be referred to the decision 
of the Pope, should these two sovereigns happen 
to differ in opinion. 

The peace of Ryswick was followed by the war 
of the Spanish succession, which embroiled Eu- 
rope afresh, and occasioned considerable changes 
in its political state. Charles II., King of Spain, 
son of Philip IV., and last male descendant of the 
Spanish branch of the House of Austria, having 
neither son, nor daughter, nor brother, the Spanish 
monarchy, according to a fundamental law of the 
kingdom, which iixed the succession in the cognate 
line, appeared to belong to Maria Theresa, Queen 
of France, eldest sister of Charles, and to the 
children of her marriage with Louis XIV. To 
this title of Maria Theresa was opposed her ex- 
press renunciation, inserted in her marriage-con- 
tract, and confirmed by the peace of the Pyrenees ; 
but the French maintained, that that renunciation 
was null, and that it could not prejudice the 
children of the queen, who held their right, not 
from their mother, but by the fundamental law of 

Admitting the validity of the queen's renuncia- 
tion, the lineal order devolved the Spanish suc- 
cession on her younger sister, Margaret Theresa, 
who had married the Emperor Leopold I., and 
left an only daughter, Maria Antoinette, spouse 
to the Elector of Bavaria, and mother of Joseph 
Ferdinand, the Electoral Prince of Bavaria. 

The Emperor, who wished to preserve the 
Spanish monarchy in his own family, availed him- 
self of the renunciation which he had exacted from 
his daughter, the Archduchess Maria Antoinette, 
when she married Maximilian, the Elector of 
Bavaria, to appear as a candidate himself, and 
advance the claims of his mother, Maria Anne, 
daughter of Philip III., King of Spain, and aunt 
to Charles II. He alleged, that the Spanish suc- 
cession had been secured to this latter princess, 
both by her marriage-contract, and by the testa- 
ments of the Kings of Spain ; and as he had two 
sons, the Archdukes Joseph and Charles, by his 
marriage with the Princess Palatine of Neuburg, 
he destined the elder for the Imperial throne and 
the States of Austria, and the younger for the 
Spanish monarchy. 

These different claims having excited appre- 
hensions of a general war, England and Holland, 
from a desire to prevent it, drew up a treaty of 
partition, in concert with Louis XIV. (llth Oct. 

1G98), in virtue of which the Spanish monarchy 
vvas secured to Joseph Ferdinand, in case of the 
death of Charles II. ; while the kingdom of the 
Two Sicilies, with the ports of Tuscany, the mar- 
quisate of Finale, and the province of Guipuscoa, 
were reserved to the Dauphin of France. The 
Archduke Charles, son to the Emperor, was to 
have the duchy of Milan. Although the King of 
Spain disapproved of the treaty, in so far as it 
admitted a partition, nevertheless, in his will, he 
recognised the Prince of Bavaria as his successor 
in the Spanish monarchy. 

A premature death having frustrated all the high 
expectations of that prince, the powers who had 
concluded the first treaty of partition drew up a 
second, which was signed at London (March 13, 
1700). According to this, the Archduke Charles, 
eldest son of the Emperor Leopold, was destined 
the presumptive heir to the Spanish monarchy. 
They awarded to the Dauphin the duchy of Lor- 
raine, with the kingdom of the Two Sicilies, and 
the province of Guipuscoa ; assigning to the Duke 
of Lorraine the duchy of Milan in exchange. 
Louis XIV. used every effort to have this new 
treaty of partition approved by the court of Vienna. 
He sent thither the Marquis Villars, who, after 
having been long amused with vague promises, 
failed entirely in his negociation ; and the Em- 
peror, whose main object was to conciliate tin- 
court of Madrid, lost the only favourable moment 
which might have fixed the succession of the 
Spanish monarchy in his family, with the consent 
of Louis XIV. and the principal courts of Europe. 

At Madrid this affair took a turn diametrically 
opposite to the views and interests of the court of 
Vienna. Charles II., following the counsels of 
his prime minister, Cardinal Portocarrero, and 
after having taken the advice of the Pope, and of 
the most eminent theologians and lawyers in his 
kingdom, determined to make a second will, in 
which he recognised the rights of Maria Theresa, 
his eldest sister ; and declared, that as the renun- 
ciation of that princess had been made solely to 
prevent the union of Spain with the kingdom 
of France, that motive ceased on transferring the 
Spanish monarchy to one of the younger sons of 
the Dauphin. Accordingly, he nominated 1'hilip 
of Anjou, the Dauphin's second son, heir to his 
whole dominions ; failing him, the Duke of Berri, 
his younger brother ; next, the Archduke Charles ; 
and' lastly, the Duke of Savoy; expressly forbidding 
all partition of the monarchy. 

Charles II. having died on the 1st of November 
following, the Junta, or Council of Regency, which 
he had appointed by his will, sent to Louis XIV., 
praying him to accede to the settlement of their 
late king, and give up his grandson to the wishes 
of the Spanish nation. The same courier had 
orders to pass on to Vienna, in case of a refusal on 
his part, and make the same oiler to the archduke. 
The *OUTt of France then assembled a grand 
council, in which they held a deliberation as to 
what step it was best to adopt, in an allair \\ liieh 
so nearly concerned the general repose of Europe. 
The result of this council was, that they on-lit to 
accede to the will of Charles II., and reiioimee the 
advantages which the second treaty <>f partition 
held out to France. It was alleged, as the reason 
of this resolution, that by refusing to areept tin- 
will, Louis must either abandon altogether his 

I!., .,,., ,;,..! I ,. ,, \ 
\\ .,..,, I.,... \l. 

H Ml. A.D. ItHH 

MsAoM .-:. .t.i i 

I 111 

I. ..! , f t. ..,', I 


pretensions to the SpanUh monarchy, or uiidcrUko 
MI expensive war to obUiu by conquest what the 
, irtitjuu assigned him ; without being 
r case, to reckon ou the ell 
ie two maritime court*. 

1.. iving there/ore rewired to accede 

to the will, 1'hdip f Anjou was proclaimed king 
by the Spaniard*, and made hi* *olcnm < ut: 
Madrid on the 14th of April, 1701. Most of the 

i'cau powers, uch a* the Stat<-* of Italy, 
Hand, and the kingdom* of 
.red 1'hilii) N . ; th.- King of 

.:il ami the Duke of Savoy even concluded 
treatie* of alliance with him. Moreover the aitua- 

!' political attaint iu German), Hungary, and 
the North, wa* such, that it would have been easy 
for Loui* XIV., with prudent management, tu 
preserve the Spanish crown on the head of hi* 
grandson ; but he teemed, as if on purpose, to d 
everything to raise all Europe against him. It was 
alleged, that he aimed at the chimerical project of 
iiimersal monarchy, and the re-union of France 
with Spain. Instead of trying to do away this 
supposition, he gave it additional force, by issuing 
let tent -patent in favour of Philip, at the moment 
uli.-u he was departing for Spain, to the 
<>f preserving his rights to the throne of France. 
The Dutch dreaded nothing so much as to ser tin 
French making encroachments on the Spanish 
Netherlands, which they regarded as their natural 
barrier against France ; the preservation of which 
appeared to be equally interesting to England. 

It would have been prudent in Louis XIV. to 
give these maritime powers some security ou this 
l'"iut, who, since the elevation of William, Prince 

iUge, to the crown of Great Britain, held as 

re in their hands the balance of Europe. 
Without being swayed by this consideration, he 
obtained authority from the Council of Madrid to 
introduce a French army into the Spanish Nether- 
lands ; and on this occasion the Dutch troops, who 
were quartered in various place* of the Nether- 
lands, according to a stipulation with the late King 
of Spain, were disarmed. This circumstance be- 
came a powerful mothe tor Kim: William to rouse 
the States-General against France, lie found 
some difficulty, however, in drawing over the 
British Parliament to his view*, as a great majority 
in that House were averse to mingle in the quar- 
rels of the Continent ; but the death of James II. 
altered the minds and inclinations of the English. 
Loui* XIV. having formerly acknowledged the 
son of that prince as King of Great Britain, tin- 
English Parliament had no longer any hesitation 

uiing the Dutch and the other enemies of 
France. A new and powerful league was formed 
against Louis. The Emperor, England, the U tiited 

i tees, the Empire, the Kings of Portugal and 
Prussia, and the Duke of Savoy, all joined it in 
accession. The allies engaged to restore to Aus- 
tria the Spanish Netherlands, the duchy of Milan, 
the kingdom of the Two Sicilies, with the ports of 
Tuscany; and never to permit the union of Franco 

At the commencement of the war, Louis for 
some time maintained the glory and superiority of 
his arms, notwithstanding the vast num: 
adversaries he had to oppose. It was not until 
the campaign of 1704 that fortune abandoned him ; 
when one reverse was only succeeded by another. 

The Duke of Marlborough and Prince Eugene 
defeated Marshal de Tallard at Hochstett, or Blcn- 

(Aug. 13), when be lost 30,000 men, and 
himself carried prisoner to England. 
disaster was followed by the loss of Bavaria, and 
all the French possession* beyond the Rhine. The 
battle which Marlborough gained (May 23. 1706) 

all the French possession* beyond the Rhine. The 

battle which Marlborough gained (Ma 

at Kamillies, in Brabant, wa* not leas disastrous ; 

U secured to the allies the conquest of the greater 
part of the Netherlands; and to increase these 
misfortunes, Marshal de Marvin lost the famous 
battle of Turin against Prince Eugene (Sept. 1), 
which obliged the Freuch troops to evacuate Italy. 
The battle which was fought at Oudenard 
Flanders (July 11, 1708), was not so decisive. 
Both side* fought witli equal advantage ; but tin- 
Duke of Burgundy, who was commander-in-chief 
of the Freuch army, having quitted the field of 
liattle during the night, contrary to the advice of 
me, Marlborough made this an occasion for 
claiming the victory. 

At length the dreadful winter of 1709, and the 
battle of Mai plaque t, which Marlborough gained 
over Villars (Sept. II), reduced France to the 
greatest distress, and brought Louis under the 
necessity of suing for peace, and even descending 
to the most humiliating conditions. M. de '1 
his minister for foreign affairs, was despatched to 
the Hague ; and, among a number of preliminary 
articles, he agreed to make restitution of all the 
conquests which the French had made sinr 
peace of Munster. He consented to surrender the 
cit\ of Strasburg, and henceforth to possess Alsace 
according to the literal terms of the treat) of 
Munster ; the throne of Spain was reserved for the 
archduke ; and Louis consented to abandon the 
interests of Philip. But the allies, rei. 
haughty by their success, demanded of the king 
that he should oblige hi* grandson voluntarily to 
surrender his crown, otherwise they would compel 
him by force of arms, and that within the short 
space of two months. The conferences, which 
had been transferred from the Hague to Gertmy- 
denberg, were consequently broken off, and the 
war continued. 

Iu this critical slate of things two unexpected 
events happened, which changed the face of affairs; 
and Louis XIV., far from being constrained to 
submit to the articles of the preliminaries at Gcr- 
truydenberg, saw himself even courted by England, 
and in a condition to dictate the law to several of 
the powers that were leagued against him. The 
Emperor Joseph I. died (April 11, 1711) without 
leaving any male offspring. His brother, the 
Archduke Charles, who took the title of King of 
Spain, now obtained the Imperial dignity, and 
became heir of all the states belonging to the 
man branch of the House of Austria. It appeared, 
therefore, that the system of equilibrium could not 
possibly admit the same prince to engross likewise 
the whole Spanish monarchy. This event was 
coupled with another, relative to the change which 
had taken place in the ministry and Parliament 
of Great Britain. The Whigs, who had been the 
ruling party since the Revolution of 1688, were 
suddenly supplanted by the Tories. This over- 
throw brought the Duke of Marlborough into dis- 
grace, who had long stood at the head of affairs in 
ad, a* chief of the Whig faction. Queen 
Anne, who stood in awe of him, found no other 

i 2 


Wueen Anne. 
Kittle of Denain. 
Peace of Utrecht. 


House of Hanover. 

Gibraltar and Minorca. 
Death of Louis XIV. 

expedient for depriving him of his influence, than 
to make peace with France. L'Abb6 Gualtier, 
who resided at London in quality of almoner to 
the ambassador of Charles of Austria, was de- 
spatched by her Majesty to France, to make the 
first overtures of peace to Louis. A secret nego- 
ciation was set on foot between the two courts, 
the result of which was a preliminary treaty signed 
at London (October 8th, 1711). 

A congress was opened at Utrecht, with the 
view of a general pacification. The conferences 
which took place there after the month of February, 
1712, met with long interruptions ; both on ac- 
count of the disinclination of several of the allied 
powers for peace, and because of the matters to be 
separately treated between France and England, 
which retarded the progress of the general nego- 
ciatiou. The battle of Deiiain, which Marshal 
Yillars gained over the Earl of Albemarle (July 
24), helped to render the allies more tractable. 
Peace was at length signed at Utrecht in the 
month of April, 1713, between France and the 
chief belligerent powers. The Emperor alone re- 
fused to take part in it, as he could not resolve to 
abandon his claims to the Spanish monarchy. 

The grand aim of England in that transaction 
was to limit the overwhelming power of France ; 
for this purpose she took care, in, that treaty, to 
establish as a fundamental and inviolable law, the 
clause which ordained that the kingdoms of France 
and Spain never should be united. To effect this, 
it was necessary that Philip of Anjou should for- 
mally renounce his right to the crown of France ; 
while his brother, the Duke de Berri, as well as 
the Duke of Orleans, should do the same in regard 
to the claims which they might advance to the 
Spanish monarchy. The deeds of these renuncia- 
tions, drawn up and signed in France and in 
Spain, in presence of the English ambassadors, 
were inserted in the treaty of Utrecht ; as were 
also the letters-patent which revoked and annulled 
those that Louis had given for preserving the right 
of the Duke of Anjou to the succession of the 
French crown. Louis XIV. promised for himself, 
his heirs and successors, never to attempt either 
to prevent or elude the effect of these renuncia- 
tions ; and failing the descendants of Philip, the 
Spanish succession was secured to the Duke of 
Savoy, his male descendants, and the other princes 
of his family, to the exclusion of the French 

Another fundamental clause of the treaty of 
Utrecht bore, that no province, city, fortress, or 
place, in the Spanish Netherlands, should ever be 
ceded, transferred, or granted to the crown of 
France ; nor to any prince or princess of French 
extraction, under any title whatever. These pro- 
vinces, designed to serve as a barrier for the Low 
Countries against France, were adjudged to the 
Emperor and the House of Austria, together with 
the kingdom of Naples, the ports of Tuscany, and 
the duchy of Milan ; and as the Emperor was not 
a party to the treaty, it was agreed that the Spanish 
Netherlands should remain as a deposit in the 
hands of the States-General, until that prince 
should arrange with them respecting the barrier- 
towns. The same stipulation was made in regard 
to that part of the French Netherlands which 
Louis had ceded in favour of the Emperor ; such 
as Menin, Tournay, Fumes, and Furnes-Ambacht, 

the fortress of Kenock, Ypres, and their depend- 

England, in particular, obtained by this treaty 
various and considerable advantages. Louis XIV. 
withdrew his protection from the Pretender, and 
engaged never to give him harbour in France. 
The succession to the throne of Great Britain was 
guaranteed to the House of Hanover. They 
agreed to raze the fortifications of the port of Dun- 
kirk, which had so much excited the jealousy of 
England ; while France likewise ceded to her 
Hudson's Bay and Straits, the Island of St. 
Christopher, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland in 
America. Spain gave up Gibraltar and Minorca, 
both of which had been conquered by the English 
during the war ; they secured to her, besides, for 
thirty years, the privilege of furnishing negroes for 
the Spanish American colonies. 

The King of Prussia obtained the Spanish part 
of Gueldres, with the city of that name, and the 
district of Kessel, in lieu of the principality of 
Orange, which was given to France ; though he 
had claims to it as the heir of "William III., King 
of England. The kingdom of Sicily was adjudged 
to the Duke of Savoy, to be possessed by him and 
his male descendants ; and they confirmed to him 
the grants which the Emperor had made him, of 
that part of the duchy of Milan which had be- 
longed to the Duke of Mantua, as also Alexandria, 
Valencia, the Lumelline, and the Valley of Sessia. 
Finally, Sardinia was reserved for the Elector of 
Bavaria, the ally of France in that war. 

As the Emperor had not acceded to the treaty 
of Utrecht, the war was continued between him 
and France. Marshal Villars took Landau and 
Friburg in Brisgaw ; afterwards a conference took 
place between him and Prince Eugene at llad- 
stadt ; new preliminaries were there drawn up ; 
and a congress was opened at Baden in Switzer- 
land, where the peace was signed (September 7th, 
1714). The former treaties, since the peace of 
Westphalia, were there renewed. The Electors 
of Cologne and Bavaria, who had been put to the 
ban of the Empire, and deprived of their estates, 
were there fully re-established. Sardinia, which 
had been assigned to the Elector of Bavaria by 
the treaty of UtrechJ, remained in possession of 
the Emperor, who likewise recovered Brisach and 
Friburg in Brisgaw, instead of Landau, which had 
been ceded to France. 

Louis XIV. did not long survive this latter 
treaty. Never did any sovereign patronize litera- 
ture and the fine arts like him. Many celebrated 
academies owe their origin to his auspices, such 
as the Academy of Inscriptions, Belles-Lettres, 
Sciences, Painting, and Architecture. His reign 
was illustrious for eminent men, and talents of 
every description, which were honoured and en- 
couraged by him. He even extended his favour 
to the philosophers and literati of foreign coun- 
tries. This prince has been reproached for his too 
great partiality to the Jesuits, his confessors, and 
for the high importance which he attached to the 
dispute between the Janseuists and the Molinists, 
which gave rise to the famous bull Unigenitus,* 
approved by the clergy, and published by the king 
as a law of the state over all France. This illus- 
trious prince ended his days after a reign of se- 
venty-two years, fertile in great events ; he trans- 
mitted the crown to his great grandson, Louis XV., 


I,. ,.: .I.',;.,, ........... 

>1> VII. A.D. 1MH 1713. 

K ...,.,! 




who was only five yean of age when he mounted 

til.- Jim. Mr I"*. pt I. I". 

Iii tli' our,.- u>d, several memorable 

event* happened in (urmany. Tbe emperor, 
Leopold I., bavin* assembled a diet at KaUsbon, 
to demand subsidies against the Turks, an<l ( 
settle certain matters which the \ t had 

1< ti undecided, the sittings of that aMvnibly wen 
.uued to the piesvnt tun.-, \\ ithut ever having 
been declared permanent by any formal law of the 
Kmpire. The peace of Wntphalia had instituted 
an eighth electorate for Uie palatine braurh of 
Wittlri-Jiarh ; the emperor, Leopold I., erected a 
ninth, in favour of the younger branch of the 
House of 1! run* wick. The first elector of this 
family, known by the name of Bnmswick-Lunen- 
burg, or Hanover, was tht> Duke Ernest Augustus, 
whom the emperor imcMled in his new di<nil\, to 
descend to his heirs male, on account of his en- 
gaging to furnish Austria with supplies in money 
mi troops for carrying un the war against the 
Turks. This innovation met with decided oppo- 
sition in the Empire. Several of the electors were 
hostile to it ; and the whole body of princes de- 
clared, that the new electorate was prejudicial to 
their dignity, and tended to introduce an electoral 
oligarchy. The Duke of Bmnswick-Wolffcnlnittcl 
specially protested against the preference \\hi.-h 
was given to t!i'- \nunger branch of his house over 
thr elder, in spite of family compacts, and the right 
of primogeniture established in the House of 

A confederacy was thus formed against the ninth 
electorate. The allied princes resolved, in an as- 
sembly held at Nuremberg, to raise an army, and 
apply to the powers that had guaranteed the treaty 
' stphalia. France espoused the quarrel of 
these princes; she concluded with the King of 
Denmark, a treaty of alliance and subsidy against 
the ninth electorate, and declared, before th<- diet 
of the Empire, that she regarded this innovation 
as a blow aimed at the treaty of Westphalia. In 
course of time, however, these animosities were 
allayed. The princes recognized the ninth elec- 
torate, and the introduction of the new elector 
took place in 1708. A decree was passed at the 
ili. t, which annexed a clause to his admission, that 
the Catholic electors should have the privilege of a 
casting vote, in cases where the number of Pro- 
testant electors should happen to equal that of the 
Catholics. By the same decree, the King of Bo- 
hemia, who had formerly never been admitted but 
at the election of the emperors, obtained a voice in 
all the deliberations of the Empire and the Elcc- 
toral College, on condition of his paying, in time 
coming, an electoral quota for the kingdom of Bo- 

The imperial capitulations assumed a form en- 
tirely new, about the beginning of the eighteenth 
century. A difference had formerly existed among 
the members of the Germanic body on this im- 
portant article of public law. They regarded it as 
a tiling illegal, that the electors alone should claim 
the right of drawing up the capitulations ; and 
they maintained, with much reason, that before 
these compacts should have the force of a funda- 
mental law of the Empire, it was necessary that 
they nhould have the deliberation and consent of 
the whole diet. The princes, therefore, demanded, 
that there should be laid before the diet a scheme 

: I'ctual capitulation, to sene as a rule for the 
electors on every new election. That question 
bad already been debated at the Congress of West- 
phalia, and sent back h\ it for the decision of the 
ili.-t. '1 here it became the subject of long discus- 
sion ; and it was not till tho interregnum, which 
followed the death of the Emperor Joseph I., that 
the principal points of the perpetual capitulation 
were finally settled. The plan then agreed to WM 
adopted as the basis of the capitulation, which they 
prescribed to Charles VI. and his successors. 
Among other articles, a clause was inserted re- 
garding the election of a king of the Romans. 
This, it was agreed, should never take place during 
the emperor's life, except in a case of urgei 
cessity ; and that the proscription of an elector, 
prince, or state of the Empire, should never take 
pl.t.-.-, without the consent of the diet, and observ- 
ing the formalities enjoined by the new capitula- 

There were three electoral families of the Em- 
pire who were raised to the royal dignity ; viz., 
those of Saxony, Brandenburg, and Brunnwick- 
Luncnburg. Augustus II., Elector of Saxony, 
after having made a profession of the Catholic re- 
ligion, was elected to the throne of Poland ; a dig- 
nity which was afterwards conferred, also by elec- 
tion, on his son Augustus III. That change of 
religion did not prevent the Electors of Saxony 
from remaining at the head of the Protestant in- 
terest in the Diet of the Empire, as they had given 
them assurance that they would make no innova- 
tions in the religion of their country, and that they 
would appoint a council entirely composed of Pro- 
testant members, for administering the affairs of 
the Empire. These princes, However, lost part of 
their influence ; and so far was the crown of Po- 
land, which was purely elective, from augmenting 
the greatness and real power of their house, that, 
on the contrary, it served to exhaust and enfeeble 
Saxony, by involving it in ruinous wars, which 
ended in the desolation of that fine country, the 
alienation of the electoral domains, and the in- 
crease of the debts and burdens of the state. 

If the royal dignity of Poland was prejudicial 
to the House of Saxony, it was by no means so to 
Prussia, which the House of Brandenburg ac- 
quired soon after. The elector, John Sigismund, 
on succeeding to the duchy of Prussia, had ac- 
knowledged himself a vassal and tributary of the 
crown of Poland. His grandson, Frederic Wil- 
liam, took advantage of the turbulent situation in 
which Poland was placed at the time of the inva- 
sion of Charles X. of Sweden, to obtain a grant of 
the sovereignty of Prussia, by a treaty which he 
concluded with that republic at Welau (19th Sep- 
tember, 1657). Poland, in renouncing the terri- 
torial rights which she exercised over Ducal Prus- 
sia, stipulated for the reversion of these same rights, 
on the extinction of the male line of the electoral 
House of Brandenburg. 

leric I., the son and successor of Frederic 
\Viiii ITU. h IMIU" become sovereign of Ducal Prussia, 
thought himself authorised to assume the royal 
ili.'uity. The elevation of his cousin gfrinsn, the 
I'mirc of Orange, to the throne of Great Britain, 
and of his next neighbour, the Elector of Saxony, 
to the sovereignty of Poland, tempted his ambi- 
tion, and induced him to enter into a negociation 
on the subject with the court of Vienna. The 


Frederic William of Prussia. 
English royal family. 


George I. 
Changes in Italy. 
Dukes of Savoy". 

Emperor Leopold promised to acknowledge him 
as King of Prussia, on account of a supply of 10,000 
men which Frederic promised to furnish him in 
the war of the Spanish succession, which was then I 
commencing. To remove all apprehensions on the | 
part of Poland, who might perhaps offer some op- 
position, the elector signed a reversal, bearing, that 
the royal dignity of Prussia should in no way pre- 
judice the right* and possessions of the king and 
states of Poland over Polish Prussia ; that neither 
he nor his successors should attempt to found 
claims on that part of Prussia ; and that the clause 
in the treaty of Welau, which secured the rever- 
sion of the territorial right of Ducal Prussia, on 
the extinction of the heirs male of Frederic "Wil- 
liam, should remain in full force and vigour, never 
to be infringed by the new king or any of his suc- 
cessors. After these different conventions, the 
elector repaired to Koningsberg, where he was 
proclaimed King of Prussia (18th January, 1701). 
It is worthy of remark, that on the ceremony of 
his coronation, he put the crown on his own head. 

All the European powers acknowledged the new 
king, with the exception of France and Spain, with 
whom he soon engaged in war. The Teutonic 
knights, bearing in mind their ancient claims over 
Prussia, deemed it their duty to support them by 
a protest, and their example was followed by the 
Court of Rome. Nothing is so remarkable as the 
opinion which the author of the Memoirs of Bran- 
denburg delivers on this event. " Frederic," says 
he, " was flattered with nothing so much, as the 
externals of royalty, the pomp of ostentation, and a 
certain whimsical self-conceit, which was pleased 
with making others feel their inferiority. What at 
first was the mere offspring of vanity, turned out in 
the end to be a masterpiece of policy. The royal 
dignity liberated the House of Brandenburg from 
that yoke of servitude under which Austria had, 
till then, held all the princes of Germany. It was 
a kind of bait which Frederic held out to all his 
posterity, and by which he seemed to say, I have 
acquired for you a title, render yourselves worthy 
of it ; I have laid the foundation of your greatness, 
yours is the task of completing the structure." In 
fact, Austria, by promoting the House of Branden- 
burg, seemed to have injured her own greatness. 
In the very bosom of the Empire, she raised up a 
new power, which afterwards became her rival, 
and seized every opportunity of aggrandizement at 
her expense. 

As for the electoral House of Brunswick-Lunen- 
burg, it succeeded, as we have observed, to the 
throne of Great Britain, in virtue of a fundamental 
law of that monarchy, which admitted females to 
the succession of the crown. Ernest Augustus, 
the first elector of the Hanoverian line, had mar- 
ried Sophia, daughter of the Elector Palatine Fre- 
deric V., by the Princess Elizabeth of England, 
daughter of James I., King of Great Britain. An 
act of the British Parliament in 1701, extended 
the succession to that princess, then Electress- 
Dowager of Hanover, and to her descendants, as 
being nearest heirs to the throne, according to the 
order established by former acts of parliament, 
limiting the succession to princes and princesses 
of the Protestant line only. The Electress Sophia, 
by that act, was called to the succession, in case 
William III., and Anne, the youngest daughter of 
James II., left no issue; an event which took place 

on the death of Anne, in 1714, Queen of Great 
Britain. The Electress Sophia was not alive at 
that time, having died two months before that 
princess. George, Elector of Hanover, and son 
of Sophia by Ernest Augustus, then mounted the 
British throne (Aug. 12, 1714), to the exclusion of 
all the other descendants of the Princess Elizabeth, 
who, though they had the right of precedence, were 
excluded by being Catholics, in virtue of the acts 
of parliament 1689, 1701, 1705. 

The war of the Spanish succession had occa- 
sioned great changes in Italy. Spain, after having 
been long the leading power in that country, gave 
place to Austria, to whom the treaties of Utrecht 
and Baden had adjudged the duchy of Milan, the 
kingdoms of Naples and Sardinia, and the ports of 
Tuscany. To these she added the duchy of Man- 
tua, of which the Emperor Joseph I. had dispos- 
sessed Duke Charles IV. of the House of Gouzaga, 
for having espoused the cause of France in the 
War of the Succession. The Duke of Mirandola 
met with a similar fate, as the ally of the French 
in that war. His duchy was confiscated by the 
emperor, and sold to the Duke of Modena. This 
new aggrandizement of Austria in Italy excited 
the jealousy of England, lest the princes of that 
house should take occasion to revive their obsolete 
claims to the royalty of Italy and the imperial dig- 
nity ; and it was this which induced the court of 
London to favour the elevation of the aukes of 
Savoy, in order to counterbalance the power of 
Austria in Italy. 

The origin of the House of Savoy is as old as 
the beginning of the eleventh century, when we 
find a person named Berthold in possession of Sa- 
voy, at that time a province of the kingdom of Bur- 
gundy or Aries. The grandson of Berthold mar- 
ried Adelaide de Suza, daughter and heiress of 
Mainfroi, Marquis of Italy and Lord of Suza. This 
marriage brought the House of Savoy considerable 
possessions in Italy, such as the marquisate of Suza, 
the duchy of Turin, Piedmont, and Val d'Aoste 
(1097). Humbert II., Count of Savoy, conquered 
the province of Tarentum. Thomas, one of his 
successors, acquired by marriage the barony of 
Faucigny. Amadeus V. was invested by the Em- 
peror Henry VII. in the city and county of A-ti. 
Amadeus VII. received the voluntary submission 
of the inhabitants of Nice, which he had dismem- 
bered from Provence, together with the counties 
of Tenda and Boglio ; having taken advantage of 
the intestine dissensions in that country, and the 
conflict between the factions of Duras and Anjou, 
who disputed the succession of Naples and the 
county of Provence. Amadeus VIII. purchased 
from Otho de Villars the county of Geneva, and 
was created, by the Emperor Sigismund, first Duke 
of Savoy (Feb. 19, 141tf). 

The rivalry which had subsisted between France 
and Austria since the end of the fifteenth century, 
placed the House of Savoy in a situation extremely 
difficult. Involved in the wars which had arisen 
between these two powers in Italy, it became of 
necessity more than once the victim of political 
ein-umstances. Duke Charles III., having allied 
himself with Charles V., was deprived of his es- 
tates by France ; and his son Philibert, noted for 
his exploits in the campaigns of Flanders, did not 
obtain restitution of them until the peace of Chateau 
Cambresis. The Dukes Charles Emanuel II., and 

PERIOD VII. A.D. 164S-1713. 



Victor Amadous II., experienced similar indigni- 

ties, in the wan which agitated France and Spain 
during the seventeenth century, and which wen 
terminated by the treaties of the Pyrenees end 
i m i ho yean 1609, 1696. In the war of the 
Spaniah succession, Victor Amadous II. declared 
at first for his son-in-law, IMulip Km* of Spain, 
even taking upon himself the chief command of 
the French army in Italy ; but afterwards, per- 
ceiving the danger of his situation, and seduced by 
the advantageous offen which the emperor made 
him, he thought proper to alter his plan, and joined 
rand alliance against France. Savoy and 
.-lit again became the theatre of the war be- 
i France and Italy. The French having un- 
dertaken the siege of Turin, the duke and Prince 
Eugene forced their army in it* entrenchments be- 
fore the place, and obliged them to abandon Italy. 
The emperor granted the duke the investiture of 
the different estates which he had secured to him, 
on his accession to the grand alliance; such as 
Montferrat, the provinces of Alexandria and Va- 
lencia, the country between the Tanaro and the 
lie Lumelline, Val Seseia, and the Vigeva- 
neeco ; to be possessed by him and his male de- 
seendanta, as fiefs holding of the emperor and the 

The peace of Utrecht confirmed these posses- 
sions to the duke ; and England, the better to ee- 
i-un- the equilibrium of Italy and Europe, granted 
him, by that treaty, the royal dignity, with the 
island of Sicily, which she had taken from Spain. 
That island was ceded to him under the express 
clause, that, on the extinction of the male line of 
Savoy, that kingdom should revert to Spain. By 
the same treaty they secured to the male descend- 
ants of that house, the right of succession to the 
Spanish monarchy ; and that clause was confirmed 
by a solemn law passed in the cortes of Spain, and 
by subsequent treaties concluded between these 
powers and Europe. The duke was crowned 
Km* of Spain at Palermo (Dec. 21, 1713). by the 
archbishop of that city ; and the only persons who 
refused to acknowledge him in that new capacity 
were the emperor and the pope. 

In proportion as France increased, Spain had 
declined in power, in consequence of the vices of 
her government, the feebleness of her princes, and 
the want of qualifications in their ministers and 
favourites. At length, under the reign of Charles 
II., the weakness of that monarchy was such, that 
France despoiled her with impunity, as appears 
by those cessions she was obliged to make by the 
treaties of Aix-la-Chapelle, Nimeguen, and Rys- 
wick. Charles II. was the last prince of the 
Spanish line of the house of Austria. At his death 
(Nov. 1700), a long and bloody war ensued about 
the succession, as we have already related. Two 
competitors appeared for the crown. Philip of 
Anjou, grandson of Louis XIV., had on his side the 
will of Charles II., the efforts of his grandfather, 
and the wishes of the Spaniah nation. Charles of 
Austria, younger eon of the Emperor Leopold I., 
was supported by a formidable league, which poli- 
tical considerations and a jealousy of the other 
powers had raised against France. 

I' lii lip, who had bren placed on the throne by 
the Spaniards, had already resided at Madrid for 
several years, when the Austrian prince, his rival, 
assisted by the allied fleet, took possession of Bar- 

capital. The 

(Oct. 0. 1706), when be 

which France am. 

perienced at this period, obliged Philip twice to 
abandon his capital and se. 
He owed hie restoration for tho first time to Mar- 
shal de Berwick, and the victory which that general 
gained over the allies near Ahnanta, in New Cas- 
\pril2fi, 1707). The archduke having after- 
Wards advanced as far as Madrid, the Dame de 
irac undertook to rnpnles. him. That general, 
^junction with Philip V., defeated the ilM. 
who were commanded by General Stahmnberg, 
near Villa Viciosa (Dec. 10, 1710). The.* tw,, 
victories contributed to establish Philip on his 
throne. The death of Joseph I., which happened 
soon after, and the elevation of his brother, the 
Archduke Charles, to the Imperial throne and the 
crowns of Hungary and Bohemia, accelerated tho 
conclusion of the peace of Utrecht, by which the 
Spanish monarchy was preserved to Philip V. mad 
his descendants. They deprived him, however, in 
virtue of that treaty, of tho Netherlands and the 
Spanish possessions in Italy, such as the Milanais, 
the ports of Tuscany, and the kingdoms of Naples, 
Sicily, and Sardinia. 

The conditions which England bad exacted at 
the treaty of Utrecht, to render effectual the re- 
nunciation of Philip V. to the crown of France, ae 
well as that of the French princes to the monarchy 
of Spain, having made it necessary to assemble the 
Cortes or States-General, Philip took advantage of 
that circumstance to change the order of succes- 
sion which till then had subsisted in Spain, and 
which was known by the name of the Ctutiltan 
Succession. A law was passed at the Cortes 
(1713), by which it was ordained that ft males 
should never be admitted to the crown, except in 
default of the male line of Philip ; that the male 
heirs should succeed according to the order of 
primogeniture ; that, failing the male line of that 
prince, the crown should fall to the eldest daughter 
of the last reigning king and her descendants; 
and, failing them, to the sister or nearest relation 
of the last king ; always keeping in force the right 
of primogeniture, and the preference of the male 
heirs in the order of succession. 

France, by the sixtieth article of the treaty of 
the Pyrenees, having renounced the protection of 
Portugal, the war between Spain and this latter 
power was resumed with new vigour. Alphonso 
\ I.. King of Portugal, finding himself abandoned 
by his allies, resolved to throw himself on the 
favour of England. The English granted him sup- 
plies, in virtue of a treaty which he concluded with 
them (June 23, 1661), and by which he ceded to 
them the city of Tangiers in Africa, and the Isle of 
Bombay in India. France, who well knew that it 
was her interest not to abandon Portugal entirely, 
rendered her likewise all the secret assistance in 
her power. The Count Schomberg passed over to 
that kingdom with a good number of otBeats, and 
several companies of French troops. The Portu- 
guese, under the command of that general, gained 
two victories over the Spaniards at Almexial, near 
Kiitremos (1663), and at Monies Claroa, or Villa 
a (1668), which re-estabUfthrd their affairs, 
and rontiit ut.d to secure the independence of 
Portugal. When the war took place about the 
Right of Devolution, the court of Lisbon formed a 
new alliance with France. Spain then learned 

Revolution in Portugal. 
120 The Spanish contest. 

South American provinces. 


O. Cromwell, Protector. 
War with Holland. 
Monk restores Cluirh's II. 

that it would be more for her interest to abandon 
her projects of conquering Portugal, and accept 
the proposals of accommodation tendered to her 
by the mediation of England. 

It happened, in the meantime, that AlphonBO 
"VI., a prince of vicious habits, and of a ferocious 
and brutal temper, was dethroned (Nov. 23, 1667), 
and the Infant Don Pedro, his brother, was de- 
clared regent of the kingdom. The queen of Al- 
phonso, Mary of Savoy, who had managed the 
whole intrigue, obtained, from the court of Rome, 
a dissolution of her marriage with Alphonso, and 
espoused the regent, her brother-in-law (April 2, 
1668). That prince would willingly have fulfilled 
the engagements which his predecessor had con- 
tracted with France, but the English ambassador 
having drawn over the Cortes of Portugal to his 
interests, the regent was obliged to make peace 
with Spain, which was signed at Lisbon, February 
13th, 1668. The Spaniards there treated with the 
Portuguese as a sovereign and independent nation. 
They agreed to make mutual restitution of all they 
had taken possession of during the war, with the 
exception of the city of Ceuta, in Africa, which 
remained in the power of Spain. The subjects of 
both states obtained the restoration of all property 
alienated or confiscated during the war. That 
peace was followed by another, which Portugal 
concluded at the Hague, with the United Pro- 
yinces of the Netherlands (July 31, 1669), who 
were permitted to retain the conquests they had 
made from the Portuguese in the East Indies. 

The court of Lisbon was soon after involved in 
the war of the Spanish Succession, which divided 
all Europe. Don Pedro II. had at first acknow- 
ledged Philip V., and even contracted an alliance 
with him ; but yielding afterwards to the influence 
of the British minister, as well as of the court of 
Vienna, he joined the Grand Alliance against 
France. 3 The Portuguese made a distinguished 
figure in that war, chiefly during the campaign of 
1706, When, with the assistance of the English, 
they penetrated as far as Madrid, and there pro- 
claimed Charles of Austria. 

The Portuguese, by one of the articles of their 
treaty of accession to the grand alliance, had been 
given to expect, that certain important places in 
Spanish Estremadura and Gallicia would be ceded 
to them at the general peace. That engagement 
was never fulfilled. The treaty of peace, concluded 
at Utrecht (6th February, 1715), between Spain 
and Portugal, had ordered the mutual restitution 
of all conquests made during the war. The treaty 
of Lisbon, of 166*, was then renewed, and espe- 
cially the articles which stipulated for the restitu- 
tion of all confiscated property. The only point 
which they yielded to the Portuguese was that 
which referred to the colony of St. Sacrament, 
which the Portuguese governor of Rio Janeiro had 
established (1680) on the northern bank of the 
river La Plata, in South America, which was op- 
posed by Spain. By the sixth article of her treaty 
with Portugal, she renounced all her former claims 
aud pretensions over the above colony. 

A similar dispute had arisen between France 
ami Portugal, relative to the northern bank of the 
Amazons river, and the territories about Cape 
North, in America, which the French maintained 
belonged to them, as making part of French 
Guiana. The Portuguese having constructed there 

the fort of Macapa, it was taken by the French 
governor of Cayenne. By the treaty of Utrecht, 
it was agreed, between France and Portugal, that 
both banks of the river Amazons should belong 
entirely to Portugal ; and that France should re- 
nounce all right and pretensions whatever to the 
territories of Cape North, lying between the rivers 
Amazons and Japoc, or Vincent Pinson, in South 

In. England, an interregnum of eleven years fol- 
lowed the death of Charles I. Oliver Cromwell, 
the leader of the Independent party, passed two 
Acts of Parliament, one of which abolished the 
House of Lords, and the other the royal dignity. 
The kingly office was suppressed, as useless to the 
nation, oppressive and dangerous to the interests 
and liberties of the people ; and it was decided, 
that whoever should speak of the restoration of 
the Stuarts should be regarded as a traitor to his 
country. The kingdom being thus changed into 
a republic, Cromwell took on himself the chief 
direction of affairs. This ambitious man was not 
long in monopolizing the sovereign authority 
(1653). He abolished the parliament called the 
Rump, which had conferred on him his power 
and military commission. He next assembled a 
new parliament of the three kingdoms, to the 
number of 144 members ; and he took care to 
have it composed of individuals whom he knew to 
be devoted to his interests. Accordingly, they 
resigned the whole authority into his hands. An 
act, called the Act of Government, conferred on 
him the supreme authority, under the title of Pro- 
tector of the three kingdoms ; with the privilege 
of making war and peace, and assembling every 
three years a parliament, which should exercise 
the legislative power conjunctly with himself. 

Cromwell governed England with a more un- 
controlled power than that of her own kings had 
been. In 1651, he passed the famous Navigation 
Act, which contributed to increase the commerce 
of Great Britain, and gave her marine a prepon- 
derance over that of all other nations. That ex- 
traordinary man raised England in the estimation 
of foreigners, and made his protectorate be re- 
spected by all Europe. After a war which he had 
carried on against the Dutch, he obliged them, by 
the treaty of Westminster (1G54), to lower their 
flag to British vessels, and to abandon the cause 
of the Stuarts. Entering into alliance with France 
against Spain, he took from the latter the island of 
Jamaica (1655) and the port of Dunkirk (1658). 

After his death, the generals of the army com- 
bined to restore the old parliament, called the 
Rump. Richard Cromwell, who succeeded his 
father, soon resigned the Protectorate (April 22, 
1659). Dissensions having arisen between the 
parliament and the generals, Monk, who was go- 
vernor of Scotland, marched to the assistance of 
the parliament; and, after having defeated the 
Independent Generals, he proceeded to assemble a 
new parliament composed of both houses. No 
sooner was this parliament assembled, than they 
decided for the restoration of the Stuarts, in the 
person of Charles II. (18th May, 1660). 

That prince made his public entry into London, 
in the month of May, 1660. His first care was 
to take vengeance on those who had been diieily 
instrumental in the death of his father. He re- 
scinded all Acts of Parliament passed since the 


IM..O.I Mir) II. 

i) MI. A.n. i4ft ma. 


TMT 1839, and re-established F.pi*oopacy both in 

England and Scotland. Instigated ly hi* pro- 

l>ovver, ami following the 

maxim* which he had iml>il>l from hi* predeces- 
sor*, he adopted nirumirc<i which were opposed by 
; and even wrut o far as more 
than once to pronounce their dissolution. His 
'(ucnce, waa a scene of faction 
and agitation, which proved the forerunner* of a 
new revolution. 4 The appellation of H'Ai</'and 
Toritt, o fiunou* in Kn-li^h hi-tory, took it* 
rise about thin time. We rould almost, however, 
pardon Charles for hi* fault* and irregularities, in 
!! t ion of the benevolence and amiablenen 
of hi* character. Hut it wa othenviic with James 
II.. who succeeded his brother on the Briti-h 
throne (16th F ' That prince alienated 

the mind* of hi* aubject* by hi* haughty <!- 
meanour, and hi* extravagant teal for the church 

me, and the Jeiuit* his confessors. Scarcely 
was he raited to the throne, when he undertook 
to change the religion of his country, and to go- 
vern still more de*potically than his brother had 
done. Encouraged by Louis XIV., who offered 
him money and troop*, he waa the first King of 
l-.M-i.iinl that had kept on foot an army in time of 
peace, and caused the legislature to decide, that 
the king can dispense with the laws. Availing 
himself of this decision, he dispensed with the 
several statut< s i tied against the Catholics; he 
permitted them the public exercise of their reli- 
gion within the three kingdoms, and gradually 
gave them a preference in all places of trust. At 
l'-i>-'th, he even solicited the pope to send a nuncio 
to reside at his court ; and on the arrival of Ferdi- 
nand Dada, to whom Innocent XI. had confided 
this mission, he gave "him a public and solemn 
entry- to Windsor (167). Seven bishops, who had 
refused to publish the declaration respecting Ca- 
tholir*, were treated as guilty of sedition, and 
imprisoned by his order in the Tower. 

During these transactions, the Queen, Mary of 
Modena, happened to be delivered of a prince 
i .'I >il i Junr, H;HH), known in history by the name 
of the Pretender. As her Majesty had had no 
children for more than six years, it was not difficult 
to gain credit to a report, that the young prince 
was a spurious child. James II., by his first mar- 
riage with Anne Hyde, daughter of the Earl of 

don, had two daughters, both Protestants, 
and regarded, till then, as heirs to the crown. 
Mary, the eldest, was married to William, Prince 
of Orange, and Anne, the youngest, to George, 
younger son of Frederic III., King of Denmark. 
The English Protestants had flattered themselves 
that all their wrongs and misfortunes would ter- 
minate with the death of James II. and the ac- 
cession of the Princess of Orange to the throne. 
Being disappointed in these exj>ectations by the 
birth of the 1'rinre of Wales, their only plan was 
t.. dethrone the king. The Tories even Joined 
with t :i offering the crown to the Prince 

of Orange. William 111., supported by the Hutch 

made a descent on England, and landed 
15,000 men at Torbay (5th Nov., 1688), without 
ug the smallest resistance on die pan of 
James, who, seeing himself abandoned by the mili- 
tary, took the resolution of withdrawing to France, 
where he had already sent his queen and his son, 

in.- 1'rincc of Wales. He afterwards rc- 

tunird to Ireland, where he had a strong 
party; l>ut deing con<|ii-rrd by William, at the 
battle of the Bovne (11th July, 1090), be was 
obliged to return to t ranee, where he ended his 

Immediately after the flight of Janes, the par- 
liament of England declared, by an act, that as be 
had violated (In- fundamental law of the coratitn- 
tion, and abandoned the kingdom, the throne was 
become vacant. They, therefore, unanimously 
conferred the crown on William III., I'm. 
Orange, and Mary his spouse (February 22, 1B80); 
intrusting the administration of affair* to the ]. 
alone. In redressing the grievances of the n 
they et new limits to the royal authority. By an 
Act, called the Defloration of /tight*, they decreed, 
that the king could neither suspend, nor dispense 
with the law*; that he could institute no new 
courts, nor levy money under any pretence what- 
ever, nor maintain an army in time of peace with- 
out the consent of parliament. Episcopacy was 
abolished in Scotland (1604), and the liberty of 
the press sanctioned. The succession of the crown 
was regulated by different Acts of Parliament, one 
of which fixed it in the Protestant line, to the ex- 
clusion of Catholics. Next, after William and Mary 
and their descendants, was the Princess Anne and 
her descendants. A subsequent Act conferred 
the succession on the House of Hanover (1701), 
under the following conditions : That the king 
or queen of that family, on their accession to the 
throne, should be obliged to conform to the High 
Church, and the laws of 1689 ; that, without the 
consent of Parliament, they should never engage 
the nation in any war for the defence of their 
hereditary dominions, nor go out of the kingdom ; 
and that they should never appoint foreigners to 
offices of trust. 

The rivalry between France and England as- 
sumed a higher tone under the reign of William 
III.; and was increased by the powerful efforts 
which France was making to improve her marine, 
and extend her navigation and her commerce. The 
colonies which she founded in America and the 
Indies, by bringing the two nations more into 
contact, tended to foment their jealousies, and 
multiply subjects of discord and division between 
them. From that time England eagerly seised 
every occasion for occupying France on the Conti- 
nent of Europe ; and the whole policy of William, 
as we have seen, had no other aim than to thwart 
the ambitious views of Louis XIV. If this rivalry 
excited and prolonged wars which inflicted many 
calamities on the world, it became, likewise, a 
powerful stimulus for the contending nations to 
develope their whole faculties ; to make the highest 
attainments in the sciences, of which they were 
susceptible ; and to carry arts and civilization to 
i test countries in the world. 

William III. was succeeded by Anne (in 1702). 
It was in her reign that the grand union between 
England and Scotland was accomplished, which 
incorporated them into one kingdom, by means of 
the same order of succession, and only one par- 
liament. That princess had the honour of main- 
taining the balance of Europe against France, by 
the clauses which she got inserted into the treaty 
cht. At her death (12th August, 1714), the 
throne of Great Britain passed to George I., the 
Elector of Hanover, whose mother, Sophia, de- 

Contest with the Dutch. 
122 !>*' Witt. I'.-nsionary. 

Louis XIV. invades Holland. 


The Stadtholders. 

The Austrian Netherlands. 

Tranquillity of Switzerland. 

rived her right to the British throne from James I. 
her maternal grandfather. 

The power and political influence of the United 
Provinces of the Netherlands had increased every 
day, since Spain acknowledged their independence 
by the treaty of Munster (1648). Their extensive 
commerce to all parts of the globe, and their flou- 
rishing marine, attracted the admiration of all 
Europe. Sovereigns courted their alliance ; and 
the Hague, the capital of the States-General, be- 
came, in course of time, the centre of European 
politics. That republic was the rival of England 
in all her commercial relations ; and she ventured 
also to dispute with her the empire of the sea, by 
refusing to lower her flag to British vessels. These 
disputes gave rise to bloody wars between the two 
states, in which the famous Dutch Admirals, Tromp 
and De Ruyter, distinguished themselves by their 
maritime exploits. De Ruyter entered the Thames 
with the Dutch fleet (1667), advanced to Chatham, 
burnt the vessels in the roads there, and threw 
the City of London into great consternation. 
Nevertheless, by the treaties of Breda (1667) and 
Westminster (1674), they agreed that their vessels 
and fleets should lower their flag when they met 
either one or more ships carrying the British flag, 
and that over all the sea, from Cape Finisterre, in 
Gallicia, to the centre of Statt in Norway ; but 
the States-General preserved Surinam, which they 
had conquered during the war ; and at the treaty 
of commerce, which was signed at Breda, the 
Navigation Act was modified in their favour, in so 
far that the produce and merchandise of Germany 
were to be considered as productions of the soil of 
the republic. 

It was during these wars that a change took 
place with regard to the Stadtholdership of the 
United Provinces. "William II., Prince of Orange, 
had alienated the hearts of his subjects by his at- 
tempts against their liberties ; and having, at his 
death, left his wife, the daughter of Charles I. of 
England, pregnant of a son (1650), the States- 
General took the opportunity of leaving that office 
vacant, and taking upon themselves the direction 
of affairs. The suspicions which the House of 
Orange had excited in Cromwell by their alliance 
with the Stuarts, and the resentment of John de 
"Witt, Pensionary of Holland, against the Stadt- 
holder, caused a secret article to be added to the 
treaty of Westminster, by which the States of 
Holland and West Friesland engaged never to elect 
William, the posthumous son of William II., to 
be Stadtholder ; and never to allow that the office 
of captain-general of the republic should be con- 
ferred on him. John de Witt likewise framed a 
regulation known by the name of the Perpetual 
Edict, which separated the Stadtholdership from 
the office of captain and admiral -general, and 
which enacted, that these functions should never 
be discharged by the same individual. Having 
failed, however, in his efforts to make the States- 
General adopt this regulation, which they con- 
sidered as contrary to the union, John de Witt 
contented himself with obtaining the approbation 
of the States of Holland, who even went so far as 
to sanction the entire suppression of the stadt- 

: tiers continued in this situation until the 
time when Louis XIV. invaded Holland. His 
alarming progress caused a revolution in favour of 

the Prince of Orange. The ruling faction, at the 
head of which was John de Witt, then lost the 
good opinion of the people. He was accused of 
having neglected military affairs, and left the State 
without defence, and a prey to the enemy. The 
first signal of revolution was given by the small 
town of Veere in Zealand. William was there 
proclaimed Stadtholder (June 1672), and the ex- 
ample of Veere was soon followed by all the cities 
of Holland and Zealand. Everywhere the people 
compelled the magistrates to confer the Stadthold- 
ership on the young prince. The Perpetual Edict 
was abolished, and the Stadtholdership confirmed 
to William III. by the Assembly of States. They 
even rendered this dignity, as well as the office of 
captain-general, hereditary to all the male and 
legitimate descendants of the prince. It was on 
this occasion that the two brothers, John and 
Cornelius de Witt, were massacred by the people 
assembled at the Hague. 

After William was raised to the throne of Great 
Britain, he still retained the Stadtholdership, with 
the offices of captain and admiral -general of the 
republic. England and Holland, united under the 
jurisdiction of the same prince, acted thenceforth 
in concert to thwart the ambitious designs of 
Louis XIV. ; and he felt the effects of their power 
chiefly in the war of the Spanish Succession, when 
England and the States-General made extraordi- 
nary efforts to maintain the balance of the Con- 
tinent, which they thought in danger. It was in 
consideration of these efforts that they guaranteed 
to the Dutch, by the treaty of the Grand Alliance, 
as well as by that of Utrecht, a barrier against 
France, which was more amply defined by the 
Barrier Treaty, signed at Antwerp (loth No- 
vember, 1715), under the mediation and guarantee 
of Great Britain. The provinces and towns of the 
Netherlands, both those that had been possessed 
by Charles II., and those that France had surren- 
dered by the treaty of Utrecht, were transferred to 
the Emperor and the House of Austria, on con- 
dition that they should never be ceded under any 
title whatever ; neither to France, nor to any other 
prince except the heirs and successors of the House 
of Austria in Germany. It was agreed that there 
should always be kept, in the Low Countries, a 
body of Austrian troops, from 30,000 to :5.~>,<)UU 
men, of which the Emperor was to furnish three- 
fifths, and the States-General the remainder. Fi- 
nally, the States-General were allowed a garrison, 
entirely composed of their own troops, in the cities 
and castles of Namur, Tournay, Menin, Fumes, 
Warneton, and the fortress of Kenock ; while the 
Emperor engaged to contribute a certain sum an- 
nually for the maintenance of these troops. 

Switzerland, since the confirmation of her liberty 
and independence by the peace of Westphalia, had 
constantly adhered to the system of neutrality 
which she had adopted ; and taken no part in the 
broils of her neighbours, except by furnishing 
troops to those powers with whom she wa* in 
alliance. The fortunate inability which was the 
natural consequence of her union, pointed out this 
line of conduct, and even induced the European 
states to respect the Helvetic neutrality. 

This profound peace, which Switzerland enjoyed 
by means of that neutrality, was never interrupted, 
except by occasional domestic quarrels, which arose 
from the difference of their religious opinions. 

/,r,.h mt -1 I. .11 
( -, -V ..t IMS* 

Jota CtaisUr. E. sf Mas*. 

PERIOD VII. A.I). 14 1713. 

U r ..( 

TrnrtyofC iniijii. 


Certain families, from the canton of Scbweita, 
had fled to Zurich on account of their religious 
tenets, and had bean protected by that re ( 
l Htirred up a war (1606) between the Catholic 

ti and the Zuricherm, with their allies the 
Bernese ; but it was soon terminated by the peace 
of Baden, which renewed the clauses of the treaty 
lative to these very subject* of dispute. 
Borne attempts baring afterwards been made 
against liberty of conscience, in the county of 
Toggcnburg, by the Abb* of St. Gall, a new war 
broke out (1712), between five of the Cathli< 
cantons, and the two Protestant cantons of Zurich 
and Berne. These latter expelled the Abbe of 
ill from his estates, and dispossessed the 
Catholics of the county of Baden, with a consider- 
able part of the free bailiwicks, which were granted 
to them by the treaty concluded at Araw. The 
Abb6 then saw himself abandoned by the Catholic 
cantons; and it was only in virtue of a treaty, 
which he concluded with Zurich and Berne ( 1 T 1 - > , 
that his successor obtained his restoration. 

Sweden, during the greater part of this period, 
supported the first rank among the powers of the 
North. II','' \i_'our of her government, added to 
the weakness of her neighbours, and the important 
advantages which the treaties of Stolbova, Stums- 
dorf, Bromsbro, and Westphalia had procured her, 
secured this superiority ; and gave her the same 
influence in the North that France held in the 
Christina, the daughter of Gustavus 
Adolphus, held the reins of government in 
Sweden about the middle of the sixteenth century ; 
but to gratify her propensity for the fine arts, she 
resolved to abdicate the crown (1654). Charles 
Gustavus, Count Palatine of Deux-Ponts, her 
conain-german, succeeded her, under the title of 
Charles X. Being nurtured in the midst of arms, 
and ambitious only of wars and battles, he was 
anxious to distinguish himself on the throne. John 
Casimir, King of Poland, having provoked him, 
by protesting against his accession to the crown of 
Sweden, Charles made this an occasion of breaking 
the treaty of Stumsdorf, which was still in force, 
and invaded Poland. Assisted by-Frederic William, 
the Elector of Brandenburg, whom he had attached 
to his interest*, he gained a splendid victory over 

i'oles near Warsaw (July, 1658). At that 
crisis, the fate of Poland would have been decided, 
if the Csar, Alexis Michaelovitz, who was also at 
war with the Poles, had chosen to make common 
cause with her new enemies ; but Alexis thought 
it more for his advantage to conclude a truce with 
the Poles, and attack the Swedes in Livonia, In- 
gria, and Carclia. The Emperor Leopold and the 
of Denmark followed the example of the 
Csar; and the*Elector of Brandenburg, after ob- 
taining the sovereignty of the Duchy of Prussia, 
by the treaty which he concluded with Poland at 
welau, acceded in like maimrr to tins league the 
object of which was to secure the preservation 
of Poland, and maintain the equilibrium of the 

Attacked by so many and such powerful ene- 
mies, the King of Sweden determined to withdraw 
his troops from Poland, and direct his principal 
force against Denmark. Having made himself 
max' rein, Sleswick, and Jutland, he 

passed the Belts on the ice (January 1658) with 
his army and artillery, and advanced towards the 

isjasjrtfasi i -,>.. 

capital of the kingdom. This bold step intimi- 
dated the Danes so much, that they sobmttted to 

II. MMifts*jij SSTW - I " MWhlrfc < ,.ri.- 

made them sign at Hoachild (February I860). 
Scarcely was this treaty noshsded, when the King 
of Sweden broke it anew ; and, under s-lflhm* 
pretexts, laid siege to Copenhagen. His isHsnrlsa 
was, if he had carried that place, to rase it to the 
ground, to annihilate the kingdom of 
and fix his residence in the province of 
where he could maintain his domin 
North and the Baltic. The hesisged Danes, how- 

made a vigorous defence, and they were en- 
couraged by the example of Frederic III., who 
superintended in person the whole operations of 
the siege ; nevertheless, they must certainly have 
yielded, had not the Dutch, who were alarmed for 
their commerce in the Baltic, sent a Meet to the 
assistance of Denmark. These republicans fought 
an obstinate naval battle with the Swedes in the 
Sound i .".nil October, 165H). The Swedish fleet 
was repulsed, and the Dutch succeeded in relieving 
c.ip. nhniren. )>> throwing in a supply of provisions 
and ammunition. 

The King of Sweden persisted, nevertheless, in 
his determination to reduce that capital. He was 
not even intimidated by the treaties which France, 
England, and Holland, had concluded at the Hague, 
for maintaining the equilibrium of the North ; but 
a premature death, at the age of thirty-eijjht, put 
an end to his ambitious projects (23rd February, 
1660). The regents who governed the kingdom 
during the minority of his son Charles XI., im- 
mediately set on foot negociations with all tho 
powers that were in league against Sweden. By 
the peace which they concluded at Copenhagen 
with Denmark (July 3, 1660), they surrendered to 
that crown several of their late conquests ; reserv- 
ing to themselves only the provinces of Schonen, 
Blcckingen, Halland, and Bohns. The Duke of 
Holstein-Gottorp, the protegi of Charles X., was 
secured by that treaty in the sovereignty of that 
part of Sleswick, which had been guaranteed to 
him by a former treaty concluded at Copenhagen. 
The war with Poland, and her allies 
of Brandenburg and the Emperor, was terminated 
I.) the peace of Oliva (May 3rd, 1660). The 
King of Poland gave up his pretensions to the 
crown of Sweden ; while the former ceded to the 
latter the provinces of Livonia and Esthnnia, and 
the inlands belonging to them ; to be possessed on 
the same terms that had been agreed on at tin- 
treaty of Stumsdorf in 1635. The duke of Conr- 
land was re-established in his duchy, and the 
sovereignty of ducal Prussia confirmed to the 
House of Brandenburg. Peace between Sweden 
and Russia was concluded at Kardis in Esthonia ; 
while the latter power surrendered to Sweden all 
the places which she had conquered in Livonia. 

Sweden was afterwards drawn into the war 
against the Dutch by Louis XIV., when she ex- 
perienced nothing but disasters. She was deprived 
of all her provinces in the Empire, and only re- 
gained possession of them in virtue of the tit silts 
of Zell, Nimeguen, St. Germain-en-Lajc, 
Uineblean, and Lnnden (1679), which she con- 
cluded successively with the powers in league 
against France. Immediately after that peace, a 

ution happened in the government 
The abuse which the nobles made of their 


Charles XI. of Sweden. 
Swedish Di--t. 
Charles XI I. 


Victorious at Narva. 
The Polish contest. 
PeU-r the Great. 

leges, the extravagant authority claimed by the 
senate, and the different methods which the 
grandees employed for gradually usurping the do- 
mains of the crown, had excited the jealousy of the 
other orders of the state. It is alleged that Baron 
Gillenstiern had suggested to Charles XL the idea 
of taking advantage of this discontent to augment 
the royal authority, and humble the arrogance of 
the senate and the nobility. In compliance with 
lu's advice, the king assembled the estates of the 
kingdom at Stockholm (1680) ; and having quar- 
tered some regiments of his own guards in the 
city, he took care to remove such of the nobles as 
might give the greatest cause of apprehension. An 
accusation was lodged at the Diet against those 
ministers who had conducted the administration 
during the king's minority. To them were attri- 
buted the calamities and losses of the state, and 
for these they were made responsible. The senate 
was also implicated. They were charged with 
abusing their authority ; and it was proposed that 
the States should make investigation, whether the 
powers which the senate had assumed were con- 
formable to the laws of the kingdom. The States 
declared that the king was not bound by any other 
form of government than that which the constitu- 
tion prescribed ; that the senate formed neither a 
fifth order, nor an intermediate power between the 
king and the States ; and that it ought to be held 
simply as a council, with whom the king might 
consult and advise. 

A College of Re-union was also established at 
this Diet, for the purpose of making inquiry as to 
the lands granted, sold, mortgaged, or exchanged 
by preceding kings, either in Sweden or Livonia ; 
with an offer on the part of the crown to reim- 
burse the proprietors for such sums as they had 
originally paid for them. This proceeding made 
a considerable augmentation to the revenues of the 
crown ; but a vast number of proprietors were 
completely ruined by it. A subsequent diet went 
even further than that of 1680. They declared, 
by statute, that though the king was enjoined to 
govern his dominions according to the laws, this 
did not take from him the power of altering these 
laws. At length the act of 1693 decreed that the 
king was absolute master, and sole depository of 
the sovereign power ; without being responsible for 
his actions to any power on earth ; and that he 
was entitled to govern the kingdom according to 
his will and pleasure. 

It was in virtue of these different enactments and 
concessions, that the absolute power which had 
' (!! conferred on Charles XL, was transmitted to 
the hands of his son Charles XII., who was only 
fifteen years of age when he succeeded his father 
(April 1st, 1697). By the abuse which this prince 
made of these dangerous prerogatives, he plunged 
Sweden into an abyss of troubles ; and brought her 
down from that high rank which she had occupied 
in the political system of Europe, since the reign 
of Gustavus Adolphus. The youth of Charles ap- 
peared to his neighbours to afford them a favour- 
able opportunity for recovering what they hail lost 
by the conquests of his predecessors. Augustus II., 
King of Poland, being desirous to regain Livonia, 
and listening to the suggestions of a Livonian gen- 
tleman, named John Patkul, who had been pro- 
scribed in Sweden, he set on foot a negociation 
with the courts of Russia and Copenhagen ; the 

result of which was, a secret and offensive alliance 
concluded between these three powers against 
Sweden (1699). Peter the Great, who had just 
conquered Azoff on the Black Sea, and equipped 
his first fleet, was desirous also to open up the 
coasts of the Baltic, of which his predecessors had 
been dispossessed by Sweden. War accordingly 
broke out in the course of the year 1700. The 
King of Poland invaded Livonia ; the Danes fell 
upon Sleswick, where they attacked the Duke 
of Holstein-Gottorp, the ally of Sweden ; while 
the Czar, at the head of an army of 80,000 men, 
laid siege to the city of Narva. 

The King of Sweden, attacked by so many ene- 
mies at once, directed his first efforts against Den- 
mark, where the danger appeared most pressing. 
Assisted by the fleets of England and Holland, 
who had guaranteed the last peace, he made a 
descent on the Isle of Zealand, and advanced ra- 
pidly towards Copenhagen. This obliged Fre- 
deric IV. to conclude a special peace with him at 
Travendahl (August 18, 1700), by which that 
prince consented to abandon his allies, and restore 
the Duke of Holstein-Gottorp to the same state in 
which he had been before the war. Next directing 
his march against the Czar in Esthonia, the young 
king forced the Russians from their entrenchments 
before Narva (November 30), and made prisoners 
of all the general and principal officers of the Rus- 
sian army; among others, Field-Marshal General 
the Duke de Croi. 

Having thus got clear of the Russians, the 
Swedish Monarch then attacked King Augustus, 
who had introduced a Saxon army into Poland, 
without being authorized by that republic. Charles 
vanquished that prince in the three famous battles 
of Riga (1701), Clissau (1702), andPultusk (1703); 
and obliged the Poles to depose him, and elect in 
his place Stanislaus Lecksinski, Palatine of Posen, 
and a protege of his own. Two victories which 
were gained over the Saxons, and their allies the 
Russians, one at Punie (1704), and the other at 
Fraustadt (1706), made Stanislaus be acknow- 
ledged by the whole republic of Poland, and 
enabled the King of Sweden to transfer the seat of 
war to Saxony. Having marched through Silesia, 
without the previous authority of the court of 
Vienna, he took Leipzic, and compelled Augustus 
to sign a treaty of peace at Alt-Ranstadt, by which 
that prince renounced his alliance with the Czar, 
and acknowledged Stanislaus legitimate King of 
Poland. John Patkul, being delivered up to the 
King of Sweden, according to an article in that 
treaty, was broken on the wheel, as being the 
principal instigator of the war. 

The prosperity of Charles XII. had now come 
to an end. From this time he experienced only a 
series of reverses, which were occasioned as much 
by his passion for war, as by his indiscretions, and 
the unconquerable obstinacy of his character. The 
Russians had taken advantage of his long sojourn 
in Poland and Saxony, and conquered the greater 
part of Ingria and Livonia. The Czar had now 
advanced into Poland, where he had demanded of 
the Poles to declare an interregnum, and elect a 
new king. In this state of matters, the King of 
Sweden left Saxony to march against the Czar ; 
and compelled him to evacuate Poland, and retire 
on Smolensko. Far from listening, however, to 
the equitable terms of peace which Peter offered 

Charts* XII. tevarfss 

!(.... II 

I.., ...V.I rf PtJSBSW, 

ri:Kioi) MI. \.i>. i. I--1713. 

DMlBjarChvU. XII. 

r isffMsslBBi 

War wttfc *!. 


him. he persisted in hU resolution to inarch on to 
Moscow, in the hop* of dethroning the cur, M he 
had dethroned Augustus. The discontent which 
the innovation* of the ar had excited in Russia, 
appeared to Chariee a favourable opportunity for 
effecting his object ; but on reaching the neigh- 
bourhood of Mohilew, he uddenly changed hia 
purpoce, and, instead of directing hi* route to- 
ward* the capital of Russia, he turned to the right, 
and penetrated into the interior of the Ukraine, in 
order to meet Maaeppa, lietman of the Comae*, 
who had offered to join him with all hi* troop*. 
Nothing could hare been more imprudent than 
thia determination. By thu* marching into the 
Ukraine, he ceparated himself from General Lew- 
euhaupt, who had brought him, according to 
order*, a powerful reinforcement from Livonia; 
and trusted himself among a fickle and incon- 
stant people, disposed to break faith on every 

Thi* inconsiderate step of Charles did not escape 
the penetration of the csar, who knew well how 
to profit by it. Putting himself at the bead of a 
chosen body, he intercepted General Lewenhaupt, 
and joined him at Desna, two miles from Propoisk, 
in the Palatinate of Mscislaw. The battle which 
he fought with that general (9th October, 1708) 
was most obstinate, and, by the confession of 
the csar, the first victory which the Russians 
had gained over regular troops. The remains of 
Lewenhaupt's army having joined the king in the 
Ukraine, Charles undertook the siege of Pultowa, 
situated on the banks of the Vonklaw, at the ex- 
tremity of that province. It was near this place, 
that the famous battle was fought (8th July, 1709), 
which blasted all the laurels of the King of 
Sweden. The czar gained there a complete vic- 
tory. Nine thousand Swedes were left on tin- 
field of battle; and 14,000, who had retired with 
General Lewenhaupt, towards Perevolatschna, be- 
tween the Vonklaw and the Nieper, were made pri- 
soners of war, three days after the action. Charles, 
accompanied by his ally Mazeppa, saved himself 
\\ith difficulty at Bender in Turkey. 

This disastrous rout revived the courage of the 
enemies of Sweden. The alliance was renewed 
between the czar, Augustus II., and Frederic II., 
King of Denmark. Stanislaus was abandoned. 
All Poland again acknowledged Augustus II. The 
Danes made a descent on Schonen ; and the czar 
achieved the conquest of Ingria, Livonia, and 
Carelia. The states that were leagued against 
France in the war of the Spanish Succession, 
wishing to prevent Germany from becoming the 
theatre of hostilities, concluded a treaty at the 
Hague (31st March, 1710), by which they under- 
took, under certain conditions, to guarantee the 
neutrality of the Swedish provinces in Germany, 
as well as that of Sleswick and Jutland ; but the 
King of Sweden having constantly declined ac- 
ceding to this neutrality, the possessions of the 
Swedes in Germany were also seised and con- 
quered in succession. The Duke of Holsteiu 
torp, the nephew of Charles XII., was involved in 
his disgrace, and stript of his estates by the King 
of Denmark (17 14). 

In the midst of these disasters, the inflexible 
King of Sweden persisted in prolonging his sojourn 
at Bender, making repeated effort* to rouse tin- 
Turks against the Russians. He did not return 

from Turkey till 1714, when his aflairs were al- 
ready totally ruined. The attempts which be then 
made, either to renew the war in Poland, or in- 
vade the provinces of the Empire, excited the 
jealousy of the neighbouring powers. A formi- 
dable league was raised against him; besides the 
czar, the Kings of Poland, Denmark, Prussia, and 
England, joined it. Stralsund and WUmar, the 
only places which Sweden still retained in ' 
many, fell into the hands of the allies ; while the 
csar added to these losses the conquest of Finland 
and Savolax. In a situation so desperate, Charles, 
by the advice of his minister, Baron Gorta, set on 
foot a special and secret negociation with the 
csar, which took place in the isle of Aland, in 
course of the year 1718. There it was proposed 
to reinstate Stanislaus on the throne of Poland ; to 
restore to Sweden her possessions in the Empire ; 
and even to assist her in conquering Norway ; by 
way of compensation for the loss of Ingria, Carelia, 
Livonia, and Esthonia, which she was to cede to 
the czar. 

That negociation was on the point of being 
finally cloned, when it waa broken off by the un- 
expected death of Charles XII. That unfortunate 
prince was slain (December llth, 1718), at the 
siege of Fredericshall in Norway, while visiting 
the trenches ; being only thirty-seven years of age, 
and leaving the affairs of his kingdom in a roost 
deplorable state. 

The new regency of Sweden, instead of remain- 
ing in friendship with the czar, changed their 
policy entirely. Baron dc Gortz, the friend of the 
late king, fell a sacrifice to the public dupleasure, 
and a negociation was opened with the court of 
Sweden. A treaty of peace and alliance was con- 
cluded at Stockholm (November 20, 1719), be- 
tween Great Britain and Sweden. George I., on 
obtaining the cession of the duchies of Bremen 
and Verden, as Elector of Hanover, engaged to 
send a strong squadron to the Baltic, to prevent 
any further invasion from the czar, and procure 
for Sweden more equitable terms of peace on the 
part of that prince. The example of Great Britain 
was soon followed by the other allied powers, who 
were anxious to accommodate matters with Sweden. 
By the treaty concluded at Stockholm (21st Ja- 
nuary, 1720), the King of Prussia got the town of 
Stettin, and that part of Pomerania, which lies 
between the Oder and the Peene. The King of 
Denmark consented to restore to Sweden the 
towns of Stralsund and Wismar, with the isle of 
Rugen, and the part of Pomerania, which extends 
from the sea to the river Peene. Sweden, on her 
side, renounced, in favour of Denmark, her exemp- 
tion from the duties of the Sound and the two 
Belts, which had been guaranteed to her by former 
treaties. The czar was the only person who, far 
from being intimidated by the menaces of England, 
persisted in his resolution of not making peace 
with Sweden, except on the conditions which he 
had dictated to her. The war was, therefore, con- 
tinued between Russia and Sweden, during the 
two campaigns of 1720 and 1 7 V 1 . Different parts 
of the Swedish coast were laid desolate by the 
csar, who put all to fire and sword. To stop the 
progress of these devastations, the Swedes at length 
consented to accept the peace which the csar of- 
fered them, which was finally signed at Nystadt 
(13th September, 1721). Finland was surren- 


Frederic III. of Denmark. 
States-General of Denmark. 


Political Revolution in 

Christian V. 

dered to Sweden in lieu of her formally ceding to 
the czar the provinces of Livonia, Esthonia, Ingria, 
and Carelia ; their "limits to be determined accord- 
ing to the regulations of the trinity. 

The ascendancy which Sweden had gained in 
the North since the reign of Gustavus Adolphus, 
had become so fetal to Denmark, that she was on 
the point of being utterly subverted, and effaced 
from the number of European powers. Nor did 
she extricate herself from the disastrous wars which 
she had to support against Charles X., until she 
had sacrificed some of her best provinces ; such as 
Schonen, Bleckingen, Halland, and the govern- 
ment of Bohus, which Frederic III. ceded to 
Sweden by the treaties of Roschild and Copen- 
hagen. It was at the close of this war that a re- 
volution happened in the government of Denmark. 
I util that time, it had been completely under the 
aristocracy of the nobles ; the throne was elective ; 
and all power was concentrated in the hands of the 
senate, and the principal members of the nobility. 
The royal prerogative was limited to the command 
of the army, and the presidency in the senate. 
The king was even obliged, by a special capitula- 
tion, in all affairs which did not require the con- 
currence of the senate, to take the advice of four 
great officers of the crown, viz. the Grand Master, 
the Chancellor, the Marshal, and the Admiral ; 
who were considered as so many channels or 
vehicles of the royal authority. 

The state of exhaustion to which Denmark was 
reduced at the time she made peace with Sweden, 
obliged Frederic III. to convoke an assembly of 
the States-General of the kingdom. These, which 
were composed of three orders, viz. the nobility, 
the clergy, and the burgesses, had never been 
summoned together in that form since the year 
Io3<>. At their meeting at Copenhagen, the two 
inferior orders reproached the nobles with having 
been the cause of all the miseries and disorders of 
the state, by the exorbitant and tyrannical power 
which they had usurped ; and what tended still 
more to increase their animosity against them, was 
the obstinacy with which they maintained their 
privileges and exemptions from the public burdens, 
to the prejudice of the lower orders. One subject 
of discussion was, to find a tax, the proceeds of 
which should be applied to the most pressing 
wants of the state. The nobles proposed a duty 
on articles of consumption ; but under restrictions 
with regard to themselves, that could not but ex- 
asperate the lower orders. The latter proposed, 
in testimony of their discontent, to let out to the 
highest bidder the fiefs of the crown, which the 
j.obles held at rents extremely moderate. This 
proposal was highly resented by the nobility, who 
regarded it as a blow aimed at their rights and 
properties ; and they persisted in urging a tax on 
articles of consumption, such as they had pro- 
posed. Certain unguarded expressions which 
escaped some of the members of the nobility, gave 
rise to a tumult of indignation, and suggested to 
the two leaders of the clergy and the burgesses, viz. 
the bishop of Zealand and the burgomaster of 
Copenhagen, the idea of framing a declaration for 
the purpose of rendering the crown hereditary, both 
in the male and female descendants of Frederic III. 
It was not difficult for them to recommend this 
project to their respective orders, who fiatt>-n <l 
themselves that, under a hereditary monarchy, 

they would enjoy that equality which was denied 
them under an aristocracy of the nobles. The act 
of this declaration, having been approved and 
signed by the two orders, was presented in their 
name to the senate, who rejected it, on the ground 
that the States-General then assembled, had no 
right to deliberate on that proposition ; but the 
clergy and the burgesses, without being discon- 
certed, went in a body to the king, carrying with 
them the Act which offered to make the crown 
hereditary in his family. The nobles having made 
a pretence of wishing to quit the city in order to 
break up the Diet, care was taken to shut the 
doors. The members of the senate and the no- 
bility had then no other alternative left than to 
agree to the resolution of the two inferior orders ; 
and the offer of the crown was made to the king 
by the three orders conjunctly (13th October, 
1660). They then tendered him the capitulation, 
which was annulled ; and at the same time they 
liberated him from the oath which he had taken 
on the day of his coronation. A sort of dictator- 
ship was then conferred on him, to regulate the 
new constitutional charter, according to his good 
pleasure. All the orders of the state then took a 
new oath of fealty and homage to him, while the 
king himself was subjected to no oath whatever. 
Finally, the three orders separately remitted an 
Act to the king, declaring the crown hereditary in 
all the descendants of Frederic III., both male 
and female ; conferring on him and his successors 
an unlimited power ; and granting him the privi- 
lege of regulating the order both of the regency 
and the succession to the throne. 

Thus terminated that important revolution, 
without any disorder, and without shedding a 
single drop of blood. It was in virtue of those 
powers which the states had conferred on him, 
that the king published what is called the Royal 
Law, regarded as the only fundamental law of 
Denmark. The king was there declared absolute 
sovereign, above all human laws, acknowledging 
110 superior but God, and uniting in his own per- 
son all the rights and prerogatives of royalty, with- 
out any exception whatever. He could exercise 
these prerogatives in virtue of his own authority ; 
but he was obliged to respect the Royal Law ; and 
he could neither touch the Confession of Augs- 
burg, which had been adopted as the national re- 
ligion, nor authorize any partition of the kingdom, 
which was declared indivisible ; nor change the 
order of succession as established by the Royal 
Law. That succession was lineal, according to 
the right of primogeniture and descent. Females 
were only admitted, failing all the male issue of 
Frederic III.; and the order in which they were to 
succeed was defined with the most scrupulous ex- 
actness. The term of majority was fixed at the 
age of thirteen ; and it was in the power of the 
reigning monarch to regulate, by his will, the tu- 
torage and the regency during such minority. 

This constitutional 'law gave the Danish govern- 
ment a vigour which it never had before ; the 
effects of which were manifested in the war which 
Christian V. undertook against Sweden ( ItiT.")), in 
consequence of his alliance with Frederic William, 
Elector of Brandenburg. The Danes had the ad- 
vantage of the Swedes both by sea and land. Their 
llt-et, under the command of Niels Juel, gained 
two naval victories over them, the one near tin; 

I!.. . 

PERIOD VII. A.D. 164* 


u.l, nu.l thu <itl. 

/mland i M. 77). That war wu 
terminated by the rn-ace of Lunden (October 6, 

tored matter* bet we. 

nations, to Iho same footing in which they had 
been before the war. The severe check which 
Sweden receivrtl i.> ih,- ,!,. ,i of bartoi 

(owa, tended to extricate Denmark from 

-iiil'nl situation in which the had been placed 
uuh i.--.pc.-t to that power. . '. >iu of the 

Sound, which Sweden had maintain. .1 during her 
prosperity, wa taken from In r l.\ the treaty of 

holm, ami l.\ tin- explanatory article* of 
urg, eoucluilr.l I-, [. :. Sweden and 
Denmark (14th June, IT.'"). '1 hut kingdom like- 
wise retained, in terms of the treat), the possession 
of the whole duchy of Sleiiwick, with a claim to 
the part belonging to the duke of Holstein 

whom Sweden wax obliged to remove from 
under her protection. 

Poland, at the commencement of this period, 
presented an afflicting spectacle, under the unfor- 
tunate reign of John Casirair, the brother and suc- 
cessor of Uladialaus VII. (1048). Detracted at 

by foreign wan and intestine factions, she 
seemed every moment on the brink of destruction ; 
and while the neighbouring states were aiurt. 
ing their forces, and strengthening the hands of 
their O>M HIM!, nts Poland grew gradually weaker 
and weaker, and at length degenerated into abso- 
lute anarch). The origin of the Liberum Veto of 
' I.--., which allowed tin- opposition of a single 
member to fnMratc the deliberations of the whole 
diet, belongs to Uie reign of John L'asimir. The 
first that suspended the diet, by the interposition 
of his veto, was Schinski, member for I pitu in 
Lithuania; his example, though at tint disap- 
proYcd, found imitators ; and this foolish pr 
which allowed one to usurp the prerogative of a 
majority, soon passed into a law, and a maxim of 


vards the end of the reign of Uladislaiu VII. 
a murderous war had arisen in Poland, that of the 
Cossacs. This warlike pi -<>ple, of Russian < 
as their language and their religion prove, iuha- 

bothbauksof the lior\slhi n.->, bi wind Kiow; 
where they were subdivided into regiments, under 
the command of a general, called I /it man ; and 
erred as a military frontier for Poland against the 
Tartars and Turks. Some infringements that had 

made on their privileges, added t the efforts 
which the Poles had made to induce their 
to separate from the Greek Church, and acknow- 
ledge the supremacy of the pope, exasperated the 
Cossacs, and engendered among them a spirit of 
revoi- Vssisted by the Turks of tl. 

raea, they invaded Poland, and committed terrible 
devastations. The Poles succeeded from time to 

in pacifying them, and even concluded a 
. with them ; but the minds of both parties 

-. always r 

with erery new offence. At length, th. . 
Chmiruiiski, being hardly pressed by the Poles, 
took the resolution of y>Hting the protection of 
Russia, anil concluded u Cxar 

January 16, 16ft* 
K iow and the other towns of t . 
under tfcc power of the Cossac*, were occupied 
!> Russian garrisons. It was on this occasion 
that the czar retook the city of Smolensk" 

the Poles, as well as most of the district*, that had 
been ccdrd to Poland, by the treaties of Dwilina 
and Viasma. That prince made also several other 
cats from the Poles ; be took po sussing of 
Wilna, and several places In Lithuania, at the very 
time when Charles X. was invading Poland, and 
threatening that country with entire deatruetioa. 
The ciar, however, instead of following up his 
conquests, judged it more for his interest to con- 
. a truce with the Poles (1656), that be might 
turn his arms against Sweden. 

The peace of Oliva put an and to the war be- 
tween Poland and Sweden ; but hostilities wen 
renewed between the Russian* and the Poles, 
which did not terminate till the treaty of Andrus- 
SOT (January, 167). The csar restored to the 
Poles a part of his conquests; but he retained 
Smolensko, Novogorod-Sieverskoe, Tehernigov, 
. and all the country of the Cossacs, beyond 
: >rysthencs or Dnieper. The Cossacs on this 
side the ri\er were annexed to Poland, and as for 
those who dwelt near the mouth of the Dm 
called Zaporogi, it was agreed that they should 
remain under the common jurisdiction of the two 
states ; ready to serve against the Turks whenever 
circumstances might require it. The wars of which 
we have just spoken were attended with troubles 
and dissensions, which reduced Poland to the most 
deplorable condition during the reign of John Ca- 
simir. That prince at length, disgusted with a 
crown which he had found to be composed of 
thorns, resolved to abdicate the throne (16th Sep- 
tember, Ititis) ; and retiring to France, he there 
ended his days. 

Michael Wiesnouiski, who succeeded John 
Casimir, after a stormy interregnum of seven 
months, had no other merit than that of being de- 
scended in a direct line from Corihut, the brother 
of Jagello, King of Poland. His reign was a 
scene of great agitation, and of unbridled anarchy. 
Four diets were interrupted in lens than four 
years ; the war with the Cossacs was renewed ; 
the Turks and the Tartars, the allies of the Cos- 
sacs, seised the city of Kamiuiec ( li>72), the only 
bulwark of Poland against the Ottomans. Mi- 
chael, being thrown into a state of alarm, com . 
a disgraceful peace with the Turks ; he gave up to 
them Kaminiec and Podolia, with their an 
limits ; and even agreed to pay them an annual 
tribute of t\v..-nt \-two thousand ducats. The 
Ukraine, on this side the Borysthenee, was aban- 
doned to the Cossacs, who were to be placed under 
the protection of the Turks. This treaty was not 
ratified by the republic of Poland, who preferred 
to continue the war. John Sobieski, Grand Ge- 
neral of the Crown, gained a brilliant victory over 
the Turks near Chocsim (November llth, l< 

,. pl:uv the next day after the death of Mi- 
chael, and determined the Poles to confer their 
crown on the victorious general. 

Sobieski did ample justice to the choice of his 
fellow-citizens. By the peace which he concluded 
at Zarowuu with the Turks (26th 70). 

he relieved Poland from the tribute lately 
raised, and recovered some parts of the Ukraine ; 
but the city of Kaminiec was left in the power of 
the Ottomans, with a considerable portion of the 
Ukraine and Pndlia. Poland then entered 
an alliance with the House of Austria, against the 
Porte. Sobicski became the deliverer of Vienna ; 


is to Russia. 
Augustus II. of I'olaiul. 
Theodore Alexievitz. 


Peter the Great. 

His travels. 

His political Institutions. 

he signalized himself in the campaigns of 1683 
and 1684 ; and if he did not gain any important 
advantages over the Turks, if he had not even the 
satisfaction of recovering Kaminiec and Podolia, 
it must be ascribed to the incompetence of his 
means, and to the disunion and indifference of the 
Poles, who refused to make a single sacrifice in 
the cause. Sobieski was even forced to have re- 
course to the protection of the Russians against 
the Turks ; and saw himself reduced to the pain- 
ful necessity of setting his hand to the definitive 
peace which was concluded with Russia at Mos- 
cow (May 6th, 1686), by which Poland, in order 
to obtain the alliance of that power against the 
Ottomans, consented to give up Smolensko, Be- 
laia, Dorogobuz, Tchernigov, Starodub, and Novo- 
gorod-Sieverskoe, with their dependencies ; as also 
the whole territory known by the name of Little 
Russia, situated on the left bank of the Borysthenes, 
between that river and the frontier of Putivli, as 
far as Perevoloczna. The city of Kiow, with its 
territory as determined by the treaty, was also in- 
cluded in that cession. Finally, the Cossacs, 
called Zaporogs and Kudak, who, according to 
the treaty of Audrussov, ought to have been de- 
pendencies of these two states, were reserved ex- 
clusively to Russia. Sobieski shed tears when he 
was obliged to sign that treaty at Leopold (or 
Lemberg), in presence of the Russian ambassa- 

The war with the Turks did not terminate until 
the reign of Augustus II., the successor of John 
Sobieski. The peace of Carlowitz, which that 
prince concluded with the Porte (1699), procured 
for Poland the restitution of Kaminiec, as well as 
that part of the Ukraine, which the peace of Za- 
rowno had ceded to the Turks. 

Russia became every day more prosperous under 
the princes of the House of Romanow. She 
gained a decided superiority over Poland, who 
had formerly dictated the law to her. Alexis 
Michaelovitz not only recovered from the Poles 
what they had conquered from Russia during the 
disturbances occasioned by the two pretenders of 
the name of Demetrius ; we have already observed 
that he dispossessed them of Kiow, and all that 
part of the Ukraine, or Little Russia, which lies 
on the left bank of the Borysthenes. 

Theodore Alexievitz, the son and successor of 
Alexis Michaelovitz, rendered his reign illustrious 
by the wisdom of his administration. Guided by 
the advice of his enlightened minister, Prince 
Galitzin, he conceived the bold project of abolish- 
ing the hereditary orders of the nobility, and the 
prerogatives that were attached to them. These 
orders were destructive of all subordination in 
civil as well as in military affairs, and gave rise to 
a multitude of disputes and litigations, of which 
a court, named Rozrad, took cognizance. The 
czar, in a grand assembly which he convoked at 
Moscow (1682), abolished the hereditary rank of 
the nobles. He burnt the deeds and registers by 
which they were attested, and obliged every noble 
family to produce the extracts of these registers 
which they had in their possession, that they might 
be committed to the flames. That prince having 
no children of his own, had destined his younger 
brother, Peter Alexievitz, to be his successor, to 
the exclusion of John, his elder brother, on ac- 
count of his incapacity. But, on the death of 

Theodore, both princes were proclaimed at once 
by the military, and the government was intrusted 
to the Princess Sophia, their elder sister, who as- 
sumed the title of Autocratix and Sovereign of all 
the Russias. Peter, who was the son of the second 
marriage of the czar, was at that time only ten 
years of age. It was during the administration of 
the Princess Sophia that the peace of Moscow was 
concluded (May 6th, 1686) ; one clause of which 
contained an alliance, offensive and defensive, be- 
tween Russia and Poland against the Porte. 

Peter had no sooner attained the age of seven- 
teen than he seized the reins of government, and 
deposed his sister Sophia, whom he sent to a con- 
vent. Endowed with an extraordinary genius, 
this prince became the reformer of his Empire, 
which, under his reign, assumed an aspect totally 
new. By the advice of Le Fort, a native of Ge- 
neva, who had entered the Russian service, and 
whom he had received into his friendship and con- 
fidence, he turned his attention to every branch of 
the public administration. The military system 
was changed, and modelled after that of the civi- 
lized nations of Europe. He founded the mari- 
time power of Russia, improved her finances, en- 
couraged commerce and manufactures, introduced 
letters and arts into his dominions, and applied 
himself to reform the laws, to polish and refine the 
manners of the people. 

Peter, being in alliance with Poland, engaged in 
the war against the Porte, and laid open the Black 
Sea by his conquest of the city and port of Azoff ; 
and it was on this occasion that he equipped his 
first fleet at Woronitz. Azoff remained in his 
possession, by an article of the peace which was 
concluded with the Porte at Constantinople (13th 
July, 1700). About the same time, Peter abo- 
lished the patriarchal dignity, which ranked the 
head of the Russian Church next to the czar, and 
gave him a dangerous influence in the affairs of 
government. He transferred the authority of the 
patriarch to a college of fifteen persons, called the 
Most Holy Synod, whose duty it was to take cog- 
nizance of ecclesiastical affairs, and, in general, of 
all matters which had fallen within the jurisdiction 
of the patriarch. The members of this college 
were obliged to take the oath at the hands of the 
sovereign, and to be appointed by him on the pre- 
sentation of the synod. 

Being desirous of seeing and examining in person 
the manners and customs of other nations, he un- 
dertook two different voyages into foreign coun- 
tries, divested of that pomp which is the usual ac- 
companiment of princes. During these travels, he 
cultivated the arts and sciences, especially those 
connected with commerce and navigation ; he en- 
gaged men of talents in his services, such as naval 
officers, engineers, surgeons, artists, and mechanic-; 
of all kinds, whom he dispersed over his vast do- 
minions, to instruct and improve the Russians. 
During his first voyage to Holland and England, 
the Strelitzes, the only permanent troops known 
in Russia before his time, revolted ; they were 
first instituted by the czar, John Basilovitz IV. 
They fought after the manner uf the Janissaries, 
and enjoyed nearly the same privileges. Peter, 
with the intention of disbamliiiir these seditious 
and undisciplined troops, had stationed tnem on 
the frontiers of Lithuania; he had also removed 
them from being his own body-guard, a sen-ice 

Owrlw Ml. la Turkrv. 

I .,,..:. ( IVt I 

1) MI. A.D. 164H 1713. 

I ,..,-..:,..( \ X,, 


he intrusted to the regiments raised by 
hinuell. 'I f degradation incen.i 

t.iok the opportunity nf tin- czar's 
absen .-) directed their roar 

Moscow, with the design of deposing 
the mar, and replacing Sophia on the throm . 

\\trv defeated by the General* Bchein and 
ii, who had marched to oppoe them. Pe- 
n-turn, caused 2.0OO of them to be 
executed, and incorporated the rest among his 
troop*. He afterward* employed foreign officer*, 
cither Germani or Swedes, to instruct the Russians 
in Hi. military art. 

It \\.is chte'riy during the war with Sweden that 
the Russian army was organised according to the 
Kuropcan system. The czar took advantage of 
the che.-k he had sustained before Narva ( No\.-m- 

'th. 1700) to accomplish thin important cliange 
in levjin.', equipping, and training all hi* tnnqn 
after the German manner. He taught tin- 
sians the art of combating and conquering tin- 
Swedes ; and while tin- King of Sweden wan lient 
on the ruin !' An,' MM> II., and made but feeble 
efforts against the cxar, the latter succeeded in 
conquering Ingria from the Swedes, and laid open 
the navigation of the Baltic. He took the fortreos 
of Noteburg (1702), which he afterwards culled 
Schlisselburg ; he next made himself master of 
Nyenschantz, Kopori, and Jamu (now Jamburg) 
in Ingria. The port of NyenchauU was entir.-ly 
rased ; and the cxar laid the foundation of St. IV- 
teraburg in one of the neighbouring islands of the 
Neva (May 27th, 1703). In the middle of winter 
he n instructed the port of Kronschlot to serve as 
a defence for the new city, which he intended to 
make the capital of hia Empire, and the principal 
depot for the commerce and marine of Russia. 
The fortune of this new capital was decided by the 
famous battle of Pultowa (July Kth, 1709), which 
likewise secured the preponderance of Russia in the 

Charles XII., who had taken refuge in Turk<-\, 
used every effort to instigate the Turks against the 
Russians; and he succeeded by dint of intrigue. 

1 'orte declared war against the cxar towards 
the end of the year 1710; and (Unrips opened the 
campaign of 1711 by an expedition which he un- 
dertook into Moldavia ; but, having rashly pene- 
trated into the interior of that province, he was 
surrounded by the Grand Vizier near Falczi on 
the Pruth. Besieged in his camp by an army 
vastly superior to his own, and reduced to the last 
necessity, he found no other means of extricating 
himself from this critical situation, than by agreeing 
to a treaty, which he signed in the camp of Falczi 
Julj, 1711 ); in virtue of which, he consented 
to restore to the Turks the fortress of Azoff, with 
its territory and its dependencies. This loss was 
amply compensated by the important advantages 
which the peace with Sweden, signed at Nystadt 

. loth, 17 '21), procured the czar. It was on 
thi-i occasion that the senate conferred on him the 
epithet f Great, the Father of kit Country,