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Full text of "Rheims and the battles for its possession"

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=i MIGHELIN ILLUSTRATED GUIDES 



TO THE 



TLEF1ELDS (1914-1918) 



RHEIMS 



AND THE BATTLES FOR ITS POSSESSION. 



MICHEUN & Cie., CLERMONT-FERRAND 

MICHEL1N TYRE Co. Ltd., 81 Fuiham Road, LONDON, S. W* 

MICHEUN TIRE Co,, MUXTOWN. K JU U. S. A, 



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THE "TOURING CLUB DE FRANCE." 



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THE TOURING CLUB DE FRANCE. 
i 

65, AVENUE DE LA GRANDE ARMfiE, PARIS (16). 



IN MEMORY 

OF THE MICHELIN WORKMEN AND EMPLOYEES WHO 

DIED GLORIOUSLY FOR THEIR COUNTRY 



RHEIMS 

And the Battles For Its Possession 



Published by 
Michelin & Cie, Clermont-Ferrand, (France) 



Copyright, 1920, by Michelin & Cie 

All rights of translation, adaptation or reproduction (in part or whole) reserved 

in all countries 



On July 6th, 1919, the President of the French 
Republic conferred the Croix de la Legion 
d'Honneur on Rheims (fastening it personally on 
the City Arms), with the following " citation ": — 

" Martyred city, destroyed by an infuriated 
enemy, powerless to hold it. 

''''Sublime population, who, like the Municipal 
Authorities — models of devotion to duty and de- 
spising all danger — gave proof of magnificent 
courage, by remaining more than three years under 
the constant menace of the enemy s attacks, and 
by leaving their homes only when ordered to do so. 

" Inspired by the example of the heroic French 
maid of venerated memory, ivhose statue stands in 
the heart of the city, showed unshakeable faith in 
the future of France (Croix de Guerre)." 




RHEIMS, AS SEEN FROM THE CERMAN LINES 
{Photograph found on a German prisoner) 






RHEIMS 

POLITICAL HISTORY 

Rheims is one of the oldest towns in France, so old that legendary accounts, 
in an endeavour to outdo one another, carry back its foundation sometimes 
to 1440 B.C. after the Flood, sometimes to the siege of Troy. Lying at the 
intersection of the natural routes between Belgium and Burgundy, and between 
the Parisian basin and Lorraine, i.e. between political districts that long 
remained different in character, and regions having different commercial 
resources, it was at one and the same time the " oppidum " and market-town. 
Its military and commercial position destined it early to be a great city. 

It probably takes its name from the tribe of the Remi, who occupied 
almost the whole territory now forming the " departements " of the Marne 
and the Ardennes, and who were clients of the Suessiones (Soissons) before 
the Roman conquest. It was already a prosperous town, under the name of 
" Durocortorum," when Caesar conquered Gaul. It freed itself from the yoke 
of the Suessiones by accepting the Roman domination. When the Belgians 
revolted in 57 B.C., the Remi remained faithful to Caesar and received the title 
of " friends of the Roman people." Neither did they take any part in the 
general revolt of Gaul in 52 B.C. Under the Empire, Rheims was, with Treves, 
one of the great centres of Latin culture in "Gallia Belgica." On becoming a 
federated city, it retained its institutions and senate. A favourite residence of 
the Roman Governors, Rheims was embellished with sumptuous villas and 
magnificent monuments, and soon became one of the most prosperous towns in 
Gaul. At the beginning of the Germanic invasions Rheims drew in its borders 

ce and became a military town. Under Diocletian it was the capital of Belgica 

q£ Secunda. 

— According to tradition, Christianity was first preached in Rheims by St. 
_. Sixtus and St. Sinirus, the first bishops of the city. However that may be, 
^3 Christianity was firmly established there as early as the 3rd century. A bishop 
3: of Rheims was present at the Council of Aries in 314. The conversion of 
§§ several great Roman personages (amongst others, the Consul Jovinus — see 
<j p. 118) favoured the progress of the Christian religion. 

In the 5th century, when Rome, otherwise occupied, was unable to hold 
back the barbarians, invasions interfered with the development of the city. 
The Frankish conquest marked the beginning of a new period of prosperity. 
In 486, after the victory of Soissons, Clovis entered into negotiations with 
St. Remi, who, at the age of 22, had been elected Bishop of Rheims in 459, 
and whose long episcopate of seventy-four years is probably unique in history. 
On Christmas Day, a.d. 496, St. Remi, who had arranged the marriage of 
Clovis with the Christian princess Clotilde, baptized the Frankish king with 
his <»wn hands in the Cathedral. This important event took place undoubtedly 
at Rheims and not at Tours, as a learned German, Krusch, has attempted to 
prove. 

Under the Merovingians and Carolingians, the history of Rheims became 
merged in that of the French monarchy. The possession of the city was dis- 
puted as fiercely as that of the throne. The city was mixed up in quarrels from 
which it suffered, without, however, losing its religious prestige. Pepin-le- 
Bref and Pope Stephen III., Charlemagne and Pope Leo III. had famous inter- 
views there. When the Carolingians restored the religious hierarchy Rheims 
became one of the twenty-two chief cities of the Empire. From the time of 
Charlemagne, the Archbishop of Rheims ruled over twelve bishoprics, com- 
prising the cities of the ancient Roman province of Belgica Secunda. 



3456G4 



From the 9lli to the 11th century the history of Rheims is that of its 
church. The Counts of Vermandois, the Lords of Coucy and the archbishops 
first disputed, then divided its temporal possession, the latter falling eventu- 
ally to the archbishops in the 11th century. After becoming Counts, with the 
right to coin money, and, from 940, powerful temporal princes, the archbishops 
played a great political part in the struggles between the Carolingian princes. 
I ader Charles-le-Chauve, Archbishop Hincmar became the protector of the 
enfeebled monarchy. In 858 he prevented Louis-le-Germanique from deposing 
his nephew and becoming King of France. In 987, Archbishop Adalberon, at 
the .Meeting of Senlis, drove the legitimate heir, Charles de Lorraine, from the 
throne, and favoured the election of Hughes Capet. Although, under the Cape- 
tians, Paris became the political capital of France, Rheims became the religious 
metropolis of the kingdom. From the time when Louis-le-Pieux had himself 
consecrated emperor in the Cathedral, by Pope Stephen IV., it was understood 
that every new king must be consecrated by the successor of St. Remi. 



The Consecration of the Kings of France 

In the 12lh century, Popes and Kings formally acknowledged the right 
of the Archbishop of Rheims to consecrate and crown the Kings of France. 
As a matter of fact, until the Revolution, all the kings, except Louis IV. and 
Henri IV., were consecrated at Rheims. 

The ceremony of consecration filled the Cathedral with a great crowd of 
people. Apart from the peers, numerous prelates, dignitaries of the Kingdom, 
the Court, the Chapter of the Cathedral and the populace crowded in. Staging 
was erected for the public in the transept ends and along the choir. Before 
the consecration took place, the archbishop, at the head of a procession, went 
to receive the Sacred Ampulla at the threshold of the Cathedral, brought on 
horseback by the Abbot of St. Remi. Returning to the altar, the prelate 
received the King's oath and then consecrated him, anointing him with the 
holy oil on bis head and breast, between and on his shoulders, on the joints 
of his arms and in the palms of his hands, each motion being accompanied 
with a special prayer. Then the Peers handed the insignia of royalty to the 
archbishop, who, surrounded by all the Peers, placed the crown of Charlemagne 
on the head of the King, while the people shouted " Long live the King." 

The King was then led to a throne prepared for him at the entrance to 
the Choir, and mass was celebrated with great pomp. The King and Queen 
communicated in both kinds, and the royal party then went in procession to 
the archbishop's palace, where the Feast oj Consecration was held. 

In 1162, the Archbishopric of Rheims, until then a county, became a Duchy 
and the highest peerage in France, which explains why it was given to great 
personages, such as Henri-de-France and Guillaume-de-Champagne, brother 
and brother-in-law of Louis VII. 

In the 12th century the archbishops, freed from the feudal rivalries, were 
confronted by a new power, the bourgeoisie or middle classes, born of the 
progress of industry and commerce, and whose importance was demonstrated 
by the great Champagne Fairs held sometimes at Rheims and sometimes at 
Troyes. The first Company of Burgesses, founded in 1138, soon became a 
" Commune." In 1147, the suburb of St. Remi, which the archbishop refused 
to allow to become attached to the "Commune," rose in revolt and was only 
appeased by the intervention of St. Bernard and Suger. 

In 1160, Archbishop Henri-de-France, with the help of the Count of Flan- 
ders, who was occupying Rheims with a thousand horsemen, suppressed the 
" Commune," whose independence was alarming him. In 1182 a royal charter, 
granting to the inhabitants the right to elect for a year twelve " echevins" 



(aldermen), re-established the Commune in fact, if not in name, but the 
struggle between the Commune and the archbishop still went on. In 1211, 
Philippe-Auguste compelled the aldermen to hand over the keys of the city 
gates to the archbishop. 

In 1228, Archbishop Henri-de-Braine, not feeling himself safe in the city, 
built the fortified castle of Mars-Gate (or old castle of the archbishops) outside 
the walls, but looking towards the city {photo below). During the serious 
riots of 1235, the burgesses besieged the archbishop's castle, for which act 




THE CONSECRATION CEREMONY OF THE KINCS OF FRANCE IN THE 
CATHEDRAL OF RHEIMS (.SCC p. 4) 



they were excommunicated liy Pope Gregory 1\.. and rebuked by St. Louis. 
In 1lV>7. St. Louis intervened once more, in pul an end to the fighting between 
the free Companies ol the Burghers and the soldiers ol the archbishop. 

In the llili centurj the two adversaries frequently came to blows, until 
the kin?:, in L362, pul an end to their quarrels by taking into bis own bands 
ilie care and military government of Rheims. 

In spite of these local struggles the city developed in i lie course of tbe 
Middle Ages. With Chartres it had a well-attended episcopal school, long 
before Paris. Among tbe masters of this school were Gerbert, one of the 
most learned men of the Middle Ages, who became Pope under the name of 
Sylvester II., and St. Bruno, founder of the Carthusian Order. Among the 
pupils were Fulbert (afterwards Bishop of Chartres), the historian Richer, 
Guillaume de Champeaux, and Abelard (adversary of St. Bernard). 

During the Hundred Years' War (see military section) the Town Council 
of Rheims, which the Treaty of Troyes in 1420 had placed under the domina- 
tion of the English, declared in favour of Charles VII., in spite of the Duke of 
Burgundy, who was residing at Laon, and notwithstanding tbe intrigues of the 
Bishop of Beauvais, Pierre Cauchon, who, profiting by the absence of the arch- 
bishop, went so far as to have a Corpus Christi procession in the city, to call 
down the blessing of Heaven upon the English. On July 17th, 1429, Joan-of- 
Arc handed over the keys of the city to the king, and was present at the con- 
secration, standing near the altar with her standard which, '* after having been 
through much tribulation, was accounted worthy of a place of honour." Since 
the return of Charles VII. to Rheims, the city had never ceased to be French. 
After the departure of the king and Joan-of-Arc, a friend of Pierre Cauchon 
plotted to deliver the town into the hands of the Duke of Burgundy, to whom 
the English promised it, provided he could take it. The plot was discovered 
and failed. 

Under Louis XL a serious revolt, known as the Micquemaque, broke out 
in the town. Louis, well received at the time of his consecration, had promised 
the people of Rheims (or so they believed) the abolition of the tax known as 
the " taille." When, therefore, in the following year, the collectors demanded 
payment, the people rose in revolt and drove them out. 




THE OLD CASTLE OF THE ARCHBISHOPS OF RHEIMS, 
RAZED TO THE CROUND BY HENRI IV. 

The Archbishops of Rheims were formerly powerful temporal 
lords (see page 4). 



As usual, the king had recourse to treachery. Disguised as peasants, his 
soldiers entered the city unperceived. Once inside, they arrested those who 
were most deeply compromised, and carried out violent reprisals. Houses were 
plundered, many of the inhabitants banished, and nine put to death. 

During the War of Religion, Rheims sided with the Catholics. 

Under the influence of the Guises, five of whom were archbishops of Rheims 
(notably Cardinal Charles de Lorraine, the protector of Rabelais and Ronsard, 
and founder of the University of Rheims in 1547), the town espoused the cause 
of the League and opened its gates to the Due de Mayenne in 1585. It sub- 
mitted to Henri IV. only after the battle of Ivry, when the Castle of Mars 
Gate (stronghold of the archbishops) was razed to the ground. Henceforth 
the archbishops played no political part, and Richelieu put an end to strife 
by turning the Guises out of the archi-episcopal see. 

In the 17th and 18th centuries the town lived in peace, with alternations 
of misery and suffering (caused by plague or famine) and commercial and 
industrial prosperity. It was at Rheims that the first French newspaper, the 
" Gazette de France," printed by Godard in 1694, appeared. 

During the Revolution, Rheims received the new ideas with enthusiasm. 
It furnished a great number of volunteers to withstand the invasion, and on 
August 14th, 1792, the Legislative Assembly proclaimed that the city " had 
deserved well of the country." 

Under the Restoration its industry developed. In August, 1830, the people, 
who were favourable to the Revolution of July, overturned the cross of the 
" Calvaire de la Mission" erected in 1821 by the ultra-Catholic party, and in 
its place set up a funeral urn with the inscription, "To the brave men who 
died for liberty on the 27th, 28th and 29th days of July, 1830." The population 
accepted the monarchy of July, but without enthusiasm. 

The Second Empire witnessed a remarkable development of business activity 
which, after the momentary stoppage caused by the War of 1870 and the Prus- 
sian occupation (see military section), made of Rheims, at the end of the 19th 
century, one of the great commercial and industrial cities of France. The 
population increased from about 30,000 (in 1792) to 59,000 (in 1865), and to 
more than 115,000 in 1912. 

When the War of 1914 broke out, the rich and ancient city was still as 
La Fontaine had described it: 

" No town is dearer to me than Rheims, 
The Honour and Glory of our France." 



I 



' ■ \¥t:\ >< 

1 ' i^^f-5-5 




RHEIMS, FROM AN OLD ENCRAVING (1622) 



MILITARY HISTORY 

If the military and commercial situation of Rheims destined it, from early 
times, to be a great city, it also exposed it to the greed of ambitious foreigners, 
and opened the road to invasion. 

During the Hundred Years' War the city was fiercely disputed. On Decem- 
ber 1. 1359, Edward III. of England besieged it. On January 11, 1360, a 
sortie of the troops and burghers, under Remi Grammaire, compelled him to 
raise the siege, in recognition of which feat of arms Charles V. permitted the 
"fleur-ile-lys" (emblem of the Royal House of France) to be emblazoned on 
the City's coat of arms. Since then the Shield of Rheims has been: In chief 
Fiance ancient, in base argent Two, laurel branches in Saltire vert. In 1420 
the English were more successful and entered Rheims, whose gates were opened 
to them by Philippe-le-Bon, Duke of Burgundy. Nine years later (July 16, 
1429) the Dauphin of France and Joan-of-Arc entered the town, then finally 
delivered, by the Dieu-Lumiere Gate (formerly the Gate of St. Nicaise). 

During the invasion of 1814, Marshal Marmont's troops retook Rheims on 
March 13, after sharp street fighting, and Napoleon entered the city the same 
night. 

In 1870, after the investment of Metz, Rheims witnessed the departure of 
the army formed by MacMahon at Chalons-sur-Marne, for the relief of Marshal 
Bazaine. A few days later (September 4) the Prussian troops entered the city 
at 3 o'clock in the afternoon by three different gates. On the 6th, the King of 
Prussia, accompanied by Bismarck and Von Moltke, made an imposing entry, 
and resided for some time at the archi-episcopal palace, in the apartments 
reserved for the Kings of France at the time of their consecration. Rheims 
was held to ransom, and a number of citizens shot for protesting against the 
German yoke, chief among whom was the Abbe Miroy, Cure of Cuchery, whose 
tomb (the work of the sculptor Saint Marceaux) is in the northern cemetery. 
Others were carried away prisoners to Germany. The Prussian troops evacuated 
the town on November 20, 1872. 

The Invasion of 1914 

(See map, p. 11) 

Forty-four years later to a day (September 4, 1914), German advance 
troops again entered Rheims, as General Joffre's plans had not provided for 
defending the city. However, the Army detachments placed under the com- 
mand of General Foch on August 29, and wedged in between the 4th and 
5th Armies, stayed the German advance for a few days. On August 30 the 
42nd Division from the East, detrained at Rheims and took up positions at 
Sault-Saint-Remy and Saint-Loup-en-Champagne on August 31, to the left of 
the 9th and 11th Corps. 

On September 1, General Foch resisted on the river Retourne but, in the 
evening, withdrew to the river Suippe, in conformity with the general orders. 
On the 2nd the town was still protected by the 10th Corps (elements of which 
occupied the Fort of St. Thierry), by the 42nd Division near Brimont and to 
the north of the Aviation ground, and by the 9th and 11th Corps to the east. 
On the 3rd, the French retreat towards the Marne became more rapid, and 
Rheims was abandoned. On September 5, Prince August Wilhelm of Prussia 
entered the town and took up his quarters at the Grand Hotel. The Germans 
at once requisitioned 50 tons of meat, 20 tons of vegetables, 100 tons of bread, 
50 tons of oats, 15,000 gallons of petrol, besides straw and hay, and insisted 
on the immediate payment of a million francs as a guarantee that their require- 
ments would be met. 




THE TEMPORARY GERMAN OCCUPATION OF SEPT., 1914 

German troops in front of the Cathedral. The scaffolding of the latter was set on 
fire on Sept. 19th. 



This sum was paid in the course of the afternoon, under threats by the 
enemy. From the 6th onwards the German soldiers gave themselves up to 
plundering. The tobacco warehouse at 21 Rue Payen was ransacked, and more 
than 700,000 francs worth of cigars and tobacco stolen. On the following days 
pillaging, especially of the food-shops, continued. On the 9th, the Komman- 
dantur requisitioned civilians to bury the dead in the Rethel, Epernay and 
Montmirail districts. On the 11th, the Crown Prince arrived and took up his 
quarters at the Grand Hotel, where he was joined by Prince Henry of Prussia, 
brother of the Kaiser. On the morning of the 12th, the Germans, alarmed at 
the victorious approach of the French troops from the Marne, arrested the 
Mayor (Dr. Langlet), Mgr. Neveux, coadjutor of Rheims, and the Abbe Camus. 
They then drew up a list of a hundred hostages and threatened to hang them 
at the first attempt at disorder. They also threatened to burn the city, wholly 
or partially, and to hang the inhabitants, if any of them molested the German 
soldiers. All that day the Germans, instead of organising defences, left the 
town in haste, after first pillaging it. In the afternoon the Crown Prince left 
the Grand Hotel with his suite. At 5 p.m., after setting fire to the forage 
stores, the Kommandantur left Rheims by the Rethel road in drenching rain, 
followed by the hundred hostages, who were only released at the level-crossing 
at Witry-les-Rheims. When the latter returned to Rheims, a patrol of French 
mounted Chasseurs had already entered the town by the suburb of St. Anne. 
The next morning, at about 6 o'clock, the French troops with the 6th mounted 
Chasseurs at their head, entered Rheims by the Rue de Vesle. At 1 p.m. 
General Franchet d'Esperey, commanding the French 5th Army, entered the 
city. 

The Battles for Rheims 1914-1918 

Although evacuated by the Germans, Rheims had yet to remain for nearly 
four years under enemy fire. With equal obstinacy the adversaries disputed 
the town, the French seeking to disengage it and the Germans to recapture it. 



10 

On September 12, on the approach of the victorious French Army from 
ili< Maine, the Germans entrenched themselves to ihe south-west of the town, 
and established a line of resistance passing through Thillois, Ormes, Bezannes 
.mil Villers-aux-Noeuds. 

In spite of the very unfavourable weather, the 3rd Corps (Gen. Hache^ 
vigorously engaged the enemy at Thillois. and foxed them to abandon the 
position in the evening. The I si Corps (Gen. Deligny), on the right, had 
orders to push forward advance-guards into Rheims, but as a matter of fact 
they reached the suburb of Vesle. The 10th Corps (Gen. Defforges) attacked 
at Puisieulx and forced the enemy across the Vesle. 

On the 13th, the left of the 3rd Corps arrived in front of Courcy and Bri- 
mont. where the Germans were strongly entrenched. A desperate battle took 
place, with the result that Courcy was taken before noon. Loivre likewise fell 
into the hands of the French, but the passage of the Aisne Canal was fiercely 
disputed. The attack on Brimont failed, in spite of the great valour of the 
troops, who sustained heavy losses. Meanwhile, the 1st Corps crossed 
Rheims, with orders to debouch at Betheny. Just outside the town they were 
met with violent artillery fire, which, however, did not completely check their 
advance. La Neuvillette, Pierquin Farm and Betheny were occupied, and the 
1st Corps linked up on its left with the 3rd Corps, on the outskirts of Soulain 
Woods. The advance continued during the night, and Modelin Farm was 
reached by advance-guards. General Deligny took up his headquarters in the 
suburb of Vesle. The 10th Corps crossed the Vesle, engaged the enemy at 
St. Leonard and reached the railway. 

On the 14th, the fighting greatly increased in violence. The 3rd Corps, in 
spite of repeated efforts, was unable to advance ; on the left it failed to drive 
the enemy from the St. Marie Farm, while on the right it was held up before 
Brimont. The 1st Corps was likewise checked; the 1st Division (Gen. Gallet I 
attempted unsuccessfully to support General Hache in his attack on Brimont. 
The 10th Corps, although strongly engaged towards the Fort of La Pompelle, 
made but little progress. Farther away, on the right, the battle extended along 
the front of the 9th Army. 

On the 15th, at 5.30 a.m., the 5th Army resumed a general offensive. 
Fierce fighting took place at St. Marie Farm, to the left of the 3rd Corps, and 
also further north, near Hill 100. Despite heavy sacrifices, however, the enemy 
held their positions; but, on the right, the 36th Infantry Regiment captured 
the Chateau of Brimont at day-break. General Deligny, less fortunate, was 
driven out of Soulains Woods, but stood firm at the Champ-de-Courses and 
Betheny. The 10th Corps continued to advance slowly, and at certain points 
reached the high-road to Suippes. 

On the 16th, the 3rd Corps attacked Brimont again, but failed. At the 
chateau the situation became more and more critical, by reason of the retreat 
of the 1st Corps on the previous day. This Corps had again to face a powerful 
enemy counter-offensive, which, however, failed to drive it from the Modelin 
Farm and the " Cavaliers de Courcy." 

On the 17th, the Germans counter-attacked all along the line. In the 
afternoon the 3rd Corps, which stood firm at Godat Farm and Loivre, was else- 
where compelled to cross to the west bank of the canal and fall back on 
Courcy. 

After a heroic defence the isolated garrison of Brimont Castle, weakened 
by heavy losses, surrendered during the night, after having spent all its ammu- 
nition. The 1st Corps, the greater part of which had left for the region of 



11 

Berry-au-Bac, held its positions with its last available units. The 10th Corps 
extended its front westwards to B'etheny, while one of its regiments, the 2nd 
Infantry, occupied La Pompelle Fort. 

On the 18th, the enemy increased their efforts against the front held by the 
3rd Corps and the reserve units further west. Loivre, which had so far resisted. 
fell. The French withdrew to the west of the road to Laon. The situation 
was considered critical at this point of the front. The 10th Corps, which had 
been withdrawn from the east of Rheims, in favour of another sector, was 
slopped on the way and sent for a few days in support of the 3rd Corps. 

On the 19th, one of its brigades counter-attacked Courcy Mill. On the 
other side, the Moroccan Division (Gen. Humbert), which had relieved the 
10th Corps, continued to hold La Pompelle Fort. 

Gradually the front became fixed. Desperate, indecisive fighting still took 
place, but finally the front stabilised on the line extending from the foot of 
the Berru and Nogent-l'Abbesse Hills, along the road from Rheims to Suippes, 
on the east, and along the western bank of the Aisne Canal on the north. 



S l LoupO 

- en-Champagne 



Sau!t- 




V^deWitry/er/fr// 

O berru 

3 Viqie de Berru 



EXPLANATORY MAP OF THE MILITARY OPERATIONS IN 1914 
{See pp. 9-11.) 



12 



The French Offensive of April, 1917 



llu- French uflcnsivt'. planned lis t lie then Commander-in-Chief, General 
Nivelle. and launched in April, between Soissons and Auberive, aimed at 
piercing the German front and disengaging Klieims. 

Nurlhwesl of Rheims was the 5th Army (Gen. Ma/ell. of which the 38th 
(dips (Gen. de Mondesir) held the immediate approaches to the town, followed 
1>\ the 7th Corps (Gen. de Bazelaire), 32ml Gorps (Gen. Passaga) astride the 
Visne, and. extending beyond C.iaonne. the 5lh Corps (Gen. de Boissoudy) and 
the 1st Corps (Gen. Muteau). 

East of Kheims the 4lh Army (Gen. Anthoine) was engaged only during 
the second stage of the bailie. 

At 6 a.m. on the 16th, in drenching rain, the 5th Army attacked all along 
the front in conjunction on the left with the 6th Army (Gen. Mangin), which 
undertook to storm the Chemin-des-I)ames. The enemy was expecting the 
attack, and had concentrated very large forces and powerful artillery. Despite 
their bravery, the French were unable to break through. 

In the Rheiins sector, the 32nd Corps advanced three kilometers to the 




EXPLANATORY MAP OF THE MILITARY OPERATIONS IN 1917 



north of the Aisne. The 7th Corps crossed the canal at Loivre and captured 
Bermericourt in the morning, but was forced to give up part of the conquered 
ground in the afternoon, in consequence of a powerful German counter-attack. 
In front of Brimont a brigade of the 38th Corps failed to pierce the enemy's 
positions. 

On the 17th, while the army of General Mazel resisted a violent enemy 
counter-attack, General Anthoine attacked from the east of Rheiins to Auberive 
with the 8th Corps (Gen. Hely d'Oissel), 17th Corps (Gen. J. B. Dumas), 
12th Corps (Gen. Nourrisson). At 4.45 a.m., despite violent squalls of rain 
and snow, the French infantry rushed forward and carried the first German 
lines along a front of eleven kilometers. The 34th Division (Gen. de Lobit) 
carried the Mont Cornillet and Mont Blond hills, which the enemy attempted 
in vain to recapture. 

On April 18 and 19, and May 4 and 5, the fighting was spasmodic 
and finally ceased. On the whole, the French offensive failed, and Rheims 
continued to remain under enemy gun-fire. 

On the morning of May 27, 1918, the Germans commenced a powerful 
offensive between Vauxaillon (on the Chemin-des-Dames) and the Fort of 
Brimont. At the beginning of the attack, the French line passed through 
Betheny and along the Aisne-Marne Canal. In the evening, after the loss of 



13 

the Chemin-des-Dames and the Aisne Canal, Rheims was no longer protected on 
the northwest, except by the St. Thierry Heights, which were soon turned. 
The Cermans crossed the Vesle at several points, principally at Bazoches and 
Fismes, and advanced as far as Muizon. 

On May 29, the French line passed through La Neuvillette, Chalons-sur- 
Vesle, Muizon and Rosnay. On the 30lh, it extended from Perquin Farm to 
Mery-Premecy, via Champigny. On the 31st, Tinqueux and Vrigny fell. 

Further to the south the Germans advanced along the valley of the Ardre 
towards the Chateau-Thierry — Epernay — Chalons railway, threatening Epernay 
(see the Michelin Guide: "The Second Battle of the Marne"). 

However, Rheims still held out. On June 1st the Germans attacked simul- 
taneously, without success, to the south-east of the town (between Pommery 
Park and La Pompelle Fort), and on the west and south-west (between La 
Haubette and Ormes), while the French recaptured Vrigny. On three separate 
occasions — in the evening of the 1st, and on June 9 and 18, the enemy's 
powerful and costly efforts to recapture this important position broke down. 
On the 18th, they delivered a fresh general attack from Vrigny to La Pom- 
pelle, gaining a footing in the Northern Cemetery of Rheims and in the north- 
eastern outskirts of Sillery, but everywhere else they were repulsed. On the 
23rd and 29th, they rushed Bligny Hill, held by the Italians, only to lose it 
again shortly afterwards. Once again, Rheims had eluded the enemy's grasp. 

July 15th to August 9th, 1918 

At dawn, on July 15, the Germans began a new offensive from Chateau- 
Thierry to La Main de Massiges. It was Ludendorff's much vaunted " Frieden- 
slurm " (peace-battle), and was expected by him to prove irresistible and 




EXPLANATORY MAP OF THE MILITARY OPERATIONS DESCRIBED ABOVE 



14 

decisive, lis purpose was to complete the encirclement of Rheims, carry the 
lull- surrounding the town, crush the French 4th Army, and reach Chalons-sur- 
Vfarne (see the Michelin Guide: "Champagne and 'Argonne"). However, this 
time, there was no surprise, and the \llies held out victoriously. 

To the west, between Dormans and Rheims, Franco-Italian forces held 
their ground on the Chatillon-sur-Marne — Cuchery — Marfaux — Bouilly line. 
To the east, from La Pompelle to the Argonne. the army of General Gouraud, 
after voluntarily abandoning its first line previous to the enemy's attack, 
checked and decimated the armies of Von Einem and Von Mudra, on its 
second or battle-line. On July 16, 17 and 18, the enemy, now exhausted and 
incapable of resuming their general attack, attempted local attacks only. 
especially near Beaumont-sur-Vesle, to the north of Prosnes, and in the region 
of Trigny and Pourcy, to the west, all of which were repulsed. Once more 
Rheims escaped, and was destined from now on, to be gradually freed from 
the enemy's grasp. The French counter-offensive began on July 18, on the 
Aisne (see the Michelin Guide: "The Second Battle of the Marne"), extend- 
ing shortly afterwards to the west of Rheims. On the 22nd, the army of 
General Berthelot captured St. Euphraise and Bouilly, and on the 23rd reached 
a point between Vrigny and the Ardre. A number of German counter-attacks 
on July 24, 25 and 30 and August 1 failed to check its advance. On August 2, 
Gueux and Thillois were recaptured. On the 4th, the Vesle was reached to 
the east of Fismes, and the latter occupied, while a small force crossed to the 
north bank of the river. On the 7th, after fierce fighting, in which the French 
and Americans advanced foot by foot, the Vesle was crossed to the east of 
Bazoches and Braine. On the 9th, Fismette was taken. 

September 26th to November 11th, 1918 

The disengaging of Rheims, which had begun slowly, was now rapidly 
accomplished. Two French offensives completely effected it in a few days — 




15 

that of September 26 (see the Michelin Guide: "Champagne and Argonne") , 
under General Gouraud, and that of September 30, first by General Berthelot 
and then by General Guillaumat. The first of these offensives, to the east, 
brought about the fall of the Moronvilliers Heights, after outflanking them; 
the second, to the west, captured the Saint Thierry Heights, the French troops 
crossing the Aisne-Marne Canal from Le Godat to La Neuvillette. This double 
manoeuvre forced the Germans, whose communications were threatened, to 
beat a hasty retreat on October 5 along a twenty-seven mile front. An 
important part of the old German front of 1914, and one of the most fiercely 
disputed, collapsed suddenly. The formidable forts of Brimont and Nogent- 
l'Abbesse, which had held Rheims under their guns for four years, fell. This 
time the deliverance of Rheims was complete and final. 




THE DISENGAGING OF KHEIIYIS 



The dotted lines show the Allied advance at the date indicated in the middle of 
each zone conquered. The line of departure is that of July 18 (18/7). On the 
evening of Oct. 6 (6/10)— the upper thick dotted line — the town was completely dis- 
engaged. The Allied advance has the appearance of a fan spreading out west of 
Kheims until Oct. 5 (5/10), when the Germans were forced to make a deep retreat. 



16 

The Destruction of Rheims 

Being unable t<> capture Rheims, the Germans reduced it to ruins by 
bombardment. For lour years (September 4, 1914, to October 5, 1918) they 
rained explosive and incendiary shells on it, almost without intermission. 

On September 3, 1914, at about 11 a.m., a German aeroplane dropped 
bombs on the town. A few of the inhabitants left, as the enemy approached, 
but the majority remained. A lady-teacher, sixty years of age, Mile. Fouriaux 
(afterwards decorated with the Legion d'Honneur), who had charge of Hos- 
pital No. 101 (formerly a high-school for girls), transferred the wounded to 
Epernay and then returned on foot to Rheims. 

On September 4, at 9.30 a.m., when the enemy advance-guards were 
already in the town, and a German officer was making requisitions at the Town 
Hall, the bombardment began again. From 9.30 to 10.15 a.m., 176 large 
shells fell into the town, three of which tore open the great gallery of modern 
paintings in the Museum. Forty-nine civilians were killed and 130 wounded, 
several of them mortally. 

The Germans, hard pressed by the French, evacuated Rheims on September 
12. Two days later, at 9 a.m., they bombarded the town. Their tire was 
especially directed against the headquarters of General Franchet d'Esperey, 
near the Town Hall. On the following days, firing was resumed at the same 
hour. On the 17th, the first fires broke out. Many civilians were killed or 
wounded. The vicinity of the Cathedral, which was believed to be specially 
aimed at, was among the places that suffered most. To protect the Cathedral, 
which the Germans had fitted up on the 12th for the reception of their wounded, 
some seventy to eighty German wounded were accommodated on straw in the 
nave. The Red Cross flag was displayed on each tower, and notice given to 
the enemy. 




i\W 



GERMAN SHELLS BURSTING IN A STREET OF RHEIMS 



17 




THE MONT DE PIETE 

On the 18th, the bombardment began again at 8.15 a.m. In addition to 
the Sub-Prefecture, which was almost entirely destroyed, as were also many 
important factories, the Cathedral, in spite of the Red Cross flag, was struck 
by 8-in. shells, which damaged the outside sculptures of the lower windows of 
the main transept, smashing the 13th and 14th century stained-glass. Splinters 
of stone killed a French gendarme and two wounded Germans in the lower 
part of the south nave. 

On the 19th. the bombardment was intensified. The Town Hall, Museum, 
hospitals (including that of the Girls' High School), the south side of the 
Cathedral and the Archbishop's Palace were all hit. Towards noon, incendiary 
shells were rained on the centre of the town. 

At about 4 p.m., a shell fired the wooden scaffolding round the north-west 
tower which had been under repair since 1913. The fire spread quickly to 
the roof, the molten lead from which set fire to the straw in the nave. 




THE SAINT FRERES FACTORY IN RUINS (OCT. 1916) 

(IS Rue de I'Univetsity) 



18 




CENTRAL WOOL CONTROL OFFICE IN SEPT., 1915 



In spite of a rescue party, who risked their lives in getting out the wounded, 
a dozen of the German wounded perished in the flames. The conflagration 
spread to the Archbishop's' Palace, from which it was impossible to remove 
the tapestries or the prehistoric Roman and Gothic collections. The Protestant 
Church, the Offices of the Controller of silk and woolen cloths, and the 
Colbert barracks along the eastern boulevards were burnt. Everywhere new 
centres caught fire, and nearly thirty-five acres of buildings were destroyed. 
On the 20th, the bombardment continued with equal violence, then after a 
respite of two days began again. Of the Place Royale and the Rue Colbert 
nothing remained but a heap of ruins. 




THE PROTESTANT CHURCH IN AUGUST, 1917 

{Boulevard Lundy) 



19 




KINDERCARTEN SCHOOL IN THE BOULEVARD LUNDY 

On November 1 the number of civilians killed by shell fire had increased 
to 282. 

From September 14, 1914, to the beginning of June, 1915, the town never 
remained more than four days without being shelled. Up to the end of 
November, 1914, the shells rarely went beyond the Cathedral and the theatre, 
falling mostly in the suburbs of Ceres and Laon. On November 22, the suburb 
of Paris was struck, and from that time onwards there was no security for the 
inhabitants in any quarter of the city. 

As it would take too long to recount all the bombardments, only the most 
terrible ones are here mentioned. On November 26, 1914, the German guns 
fired all day, one shell alone killing twenty-three patients in the Hospital for 
Incurables. On the night of February 21 and on February 22, 1915, more than 
1,500 shells fell in the town, killing twenty civilians, setting on fire a score of 
houses and piercing the vaulting of the Cathedral. 




RUE CAMBETTA 

The Cathedral is seen at the end of the street. 



20 

On March 8, terrifying fires broke out again. On April 29 and July 20 
more than 500 shells, many of them incendiary, were counted. In April, 1916, 
more than 1.200 projectiles struck the different quarters of the town in one 
day. On August 13, whilst the town was being bombarded, seven German 
aeroplanes dropped incendiary bombs, which burnt the Hotel Dieu Hospital. 
On October 25, the Germans fired more than 600 shells into Rheims and more 
than 1.000 on the 27th. 

On April 1, 1917, more than 2.800 shells fell in the town, and on the 4th, 
2.121. According to the Official Communique, on the night of the 5th and 
on Good Friday, the number of shells was 7,500. Easter-Day was likewise 
terrible. On April 15, 19 and 21 the town received large numbers of 8-in., 




THE BOMBARDMENT OF THE CATHEDRAL QUARTER 

Part of the striking-points of the shells which fell around the Cathedral, as noted 
by the architect of the latter (M. Sainsaulieu). The shells which struck the Cathedral 
were far too numerous to allow all of them to be shown on the above plan. 



21 



12-in. and 15-in. shells. On May 3 the Town Hall and 108 houses were burnt. 
On the 4th the fires spread to fifteen neighbouring streets. 

From April 8 to the 15th the enemy rained incendiary shells on the town 
without respite, and completed their work of destruction, in the course of the 
afternoon of the 21st, by burning the centre of the town. Hardly anybody was 
left in the latter, except the firemen, who, despite their prodigious activity and 
valour, were unable to cope with the flames. 

Whole streets, often the finest, were burnt down, more than 700 houses 
being destroyed. 

When, on October 5, the Germans retreated, the havoc caused by this con- 
tinual bombardment was incalculable. Of the town's 14,000 houses, only about 
sixty were immediately habitable when the people came back. 

In addition to the material losses, there were, unfortunately, numerous 
irreparable artistic and archaeological losses. 

Life in Bombarded Rheims 

Although there were short respites, it may be said that for four years 
Rheims led the life of a besieged town, under the fire of the German guns and 
howitzers. The enemy increased the calibre of their shells and varied their 
modes of bombardment, sometimes firing for a few hours, sometimes all day 




the destructions, photocraphed from an aeroplane (Cliche Illustration) 



ND- The Cathedral. 
PR.— Place Royale. 

D. — Hotel dc la Douane. 
s< ;, Societe I lenerale Bank. 

P.— -General Pos1 Office. 

J. — Palais de Justii e. 

T. -Theatre. 

M. — Museum. 

(111. Grand H6t< I. 



LO. — Hotel du Lion d'Or. 
PA. — Archi-episcopal Palace. 
A.- — The Cardinal's House. 
EP. — Professional School for Young Ladies. 
SP. — Sub-Prefecture. 
PG.— Place Godinot. 

L. — Lycee. 

C. — Colbert Barracks. 




•,*sm 



THE FIRST AND SECOND STORIES 
OF A HOUSE IN THE RUE 
D'ANJOU, AFTER THE BURST- 
ING OF AN 8-IN. SHELL 




THE EFFECT OF AN i 
PREMISES OF " LA 



-IN. SHELL IN THE 
MUTUALITE," IN 



THE Rl I. DES ELUS (SEPT. 8, 1915) 



lung at the rale of one shell every three min- 
utes, or again at night. Sometimes 3-in. 
shells would be used, at others "Jack John- 
sons" of 8-in., 12-in. and 15-in. calibre; some- 
times all four at the same time. Both explo- 
sive and incendiary shells were used, while 
aeroplane bombs, darts and asphyxiating gas 
were resorted to occasionally. Public holidays 
were the occasion of the fiercest bombard- 
ments, in the hope of increasing the number 
ill victims. For instance, the shelling was 
particularly murderous on All Saints' Day of 
1914, when the eastern and southern ceme- 
teries (generally crowded on this day) were 
especially aimed at. Easter Monday of 1916 
and Good Friday of 1917 were similarly 
favoured. 

After each check — at Verdun, in Cham- 
pagne, on the Somme or wherever it might 
be — the Germans revenged themselves on 
Rheims. In this way the Cathedral was fired 
by incendiary shells after the defeat on the 
Marne in 1914. The awful fires of February 
22 and March 8, 1915, were the German re- 
ply to their set-backs in Champagne and Ar- 
gonne. The Hotel Dieu hospital was burnt 
down in August, 1916, the day after the 
Franco-British attack on the Somme. The 
Town Hall was reduced to ashes on May 3, 
1917, after the French offensive on the 
Champagne hills. For the same rea- 
son the bombardments reached their 
maximum of intensity in April and 
May, 1918, i.e. after the enemy had 
lost all hope of crushing the Allies 
and taking Paris. 

At the beginning of the siege the 
population took refuge in the south- 
western districts, which were not as 
yet bombarded, but on and after No- 
vember 22, 1914, when the German 
shells reached the suburb of Paris, a 
large number of the inhabitants left 
the town. 



In February, 1915, the exodus be- 
gan again, but at the end of May in 
that year there were still some 26,000 
people in the town. In February, 
1917, after twenty-eight months of 
bombardment, there remained 17,100 
people, or 100,000 fewer than in 1914. 
At the beginning of April in that 
year, the mayor and later the sub-pre- 
fect, requested all those who were not 
prevented by their duties to leave the 
town. This invitation not having the 
desired effect, the military authorities, 



23 



in view of the increased intensity of the bombardment and the imminence of 
the French offensive, announced that they could not guarantee food supplies 
for the town, and decided that the civil population must leave not later than 
April 10. The evacuation was effected by carts and motor-vehicles to Epernay, 
where trains awaited the people. 

A part of the inhabitants returned to Rheims after the French offensive of 
April-May, but for a few months only, as, in February, 1918, the coming German 
offensive compelled the civil population again to leave the town. 

During the thirty-one months, during which a considerable portion of the 
population persisted in staying in Rheims (September, 1914, to April, 1917), 
life and work wen!, on in the bombarded city, the people adapting themselves 
courageously to their precarious existence and to the danger. They were 
supplied with helmet and gas masks, like the soldiers. Shell and bomb-proof 
shelters were organised, and the cellars, with which the city abounds, became 
the people's ordinary dwellings. The Town Council, with the exception of a 
few members who left on the approach of the enemy, remained at the Town 
Hall until it was destroyed, then installed themselves in a cellar, under the 
constant chairmanship of the Mayor, Dr. Langlet. The services rendered by 
the latter during these trying times were such that the French Premier deco- 
rated him personally in November, 1914, with the Croix de la Legion d'Honneur. 
The General Post Office had to change its quarters several times; but until 
the complete evacuation of the town the postmen went their rounds regularly. 

The Courts of Justice were set up in the cellars of the Palais-de-Justice. 
The archbishop, Mgr. Lugon, was absent from Rheims in 1914, being retained 
in Rome by the Council. As soon as the latter was ended, he returned to 




REMOVING THE WORKS OF ART 
IN JANUARY, 1918 



24 




SCHOOL CHILDREN WITH CAS MASKS 



Rheims and thereafter, like his co-adjutor, Mgr. Neveux, and the unmobilized 
clergy, he remained at his post until the evacuation of April, 1917. The 
Cathedral architect, M. Sainsaulieu, who, like Mgr. Lucon, has been made a 
Chevalier de Legion d'Honneur, remained constantly at his post, repairing 
from day to day, as well as might be, the damage caused to the Cathedral, and 
saving the art treasures spared by the German shells. 

The firemen, reinforced in March, 1915, by thirty-two of their comrades 
from Paris, devoted themselves, at the risk of their lives, to fighting the flames 
caused by the bombardments. Unfortunately, their courage and devotion were 
often unequal to their task. For instance, twenty-two separate fires occurred 
on the night of February 22, 1915. Their task was rendered still more 
difficult by the fact that the Germans often fired on the burning buildings to 
drive off the men who were trying to save them. 

On July 6, 1917, the President of the French Republic fittingly ac- 
knowledged the magnificent bravery of the firemen by personally decorating 
their flag with the Croix de la Legion d'Honneur. At the same time he con- 
ferred this dignity on the city (see p. 2). 

After remaining closed for several weeks, the schools re-opened. Until 
then, the children had been too much in the streets looking for aluminium 
fuses of shells, out of which they made rings, or for scraps of stained-glass 
from the broken windows of the Cathedral. The first school, called the 
" Maunoury " school, was installed on December 7, 1914, in a wine cellar of 
the firm Pommery, Boulevard Henri-Vasnier, near the Rond-Point St. 
Nicaise. On January 22, 1915, the '* Joffre " school was opened in the cellars 
of Messrs. Mumm, 24 Rue du Champ-de-Mars. Then came the " Albert I." 
school, in the cellars of Messrs. Krug, 5 Rue Coquebert, and the " Dubail " 
school in those of Messrs. Champion, Place St. Nicaise. In addition to the 
underground schools, open-air classes were conducted. The underground 
schools, in which the teaching staff, exclusively voluntary, lived permanently, 
together with the school-children and their relatives, were situated in the most 
exposed and frequently bombarded districts. The " Dubail " school was struck 
three times: on March 6, 1915 (by an 8-inch shell), and on March 25 and 
October 25, 1916. Luckily there were no victims. 

The schools were quite close to the enemy lines, the distance varying from 
about two-thirds of a mile to a mile and a half. 



25 



In 1915 and 1916, the examinations for the " Elementary School Certifi- 
cate" took place in July, as usual. In 1915, the ceremony of the Annual 
Prize Distribution, which had not taken place at Rheims for ten years, was 
restored, the book-prizes for the pupils coming from every corner of France. 

The victualling of the town, thanks to the co-operation between the Muni- 




CARDINAL LUCON, ARCHBISHOP OF RHEIMS, COMING OUT OF THE CATHEDRAL 



26 




MILK-WOMAN, WITH HELMET, GOING 
HER ROUND 



cipal and Military Authorities, was effected with regularity. There was never 
any shortage of bread. The butchers' and grocers' shops remained open. The 
milk-women and hawkers donned their helmets and continued to push their 
carts through the streets. The market-women remained at their stalls. The 
nuns of St. Vincent-de-Paul, whose convent had been largely destroyed, en- 
sured the service of cheap meals, organised by the Municipality for the poor. 
The undaunted inhabitants had their daily paper (" L 'Eclair eur de rEst"), 
edited by M. Dramas, a courageous journalist, whose printing-house was early 
wrecked by shell-fire, but who continued almost single-handed to issue his 
paper. 




WINE-CELLAR OF MESSRS, POMMERY USED 
AS A DWELLING 



27 




PANORAMIC VIEW, SEEN FROM ST. NICAISE HILL (p. 102) 

A VISIT TO RHEIMS 

(pp. 28 to 120) 
THE CATHEDRAL ( pp. 28 to 60 ) 

FIRST ITINERARY (pp. 61 to 94) 

The Archi-episcopal Palace, Museum, Church of St. Jacques, Prome- 
nades, Town Hall, Place Royale, Musicians' House, Mars Gate, Fau- 
bourg Ceres, Church of St. Andre, Palais-de-Justice, etc. 

SECOND ITINERARY {pp. 95 to 120) 

The Lycee, Abbey of St. Pierre-Ies-Dames, Rue Barbatre, Church of 
St. Maurice, Church of St. Remi, Hotel-Dieu Hospital, etc. 




GERMAN PRISONERS CLEARINC A STREET (OCT., 1918) 



28 



The Cathedral 
The Cathedral of Rheims, which Charles VIII. declared to be " pre-eminent 
among all the churches of the kingdom," and which a local poet in the reign 
of Louis XIII. extolled above the seven wonders of the world, is one of the 
most beautiful Gothic churches extant. 

Few edifices combine such grandeur, simplicity and grace ; still fewer, its 
characteristic unity and symmetry. 

The work of at least four architects, the building operations extended over 
two centuries, yet it has retained rare unity both of plan and style. The whole 
is so harmonious as to give the impression of being the effort of a single 
master-mind. 

Historical Account 

The Cathedral stands on the site of former churches, successively erected 
between the 5th and 13th centuries. On the night of May 6th, 1210, a terrible 
fire destroyed the then existing edifice, together with a portion of the city. 








THE CATHEDRAL BEFORE THE WAR 



29 



Exactly one year later, Archbishop Aubri de Humbert laid the first stone of 
a new edifice, which was destined to become the Cathedral of to-day. 

Begun in 1211, the building went on without pause for twenty years, after 
which there was a slackening, followed by a vigorous resumption in 1299. An- 
other pause occurred during the Hundred Years' War. The Cathedral, less 
the tower spires provided for in the plans, was finished in 1428. The spires 
were not yet built when the great fire of July 24, 1481, entirely destroyed the 
roof of the Cathedral, further deferring their construction, which was subse- 
quently abandoned. 

The funds for this colossal work were furnished partly by the clergy and the 
people, partly by Papal Indulgences granted to donors, and by collections in 
Christian lands, especially in the ecclesiastical province of Rheims. The won- 
derful plans of the Cathedral were long believed to be the work of Robert de 
Coucy, whereas the original ones were in fact drawn by Jean d'Orbais, who 
began their execution between 1211 and 1231. His work was continued with 
wonderful fidelity by Jeande-Loup, from 1231-1247; by Gaucher of Rheims in 
1247-1255, Bernard of Soissons from 1255 to 1290, Robert de Coucy until 1311, 
and afterwards by Maitre Colard, Gilles le Macon, Jean de Dijon and Colard de 
Givry in the course of the 14th and 15th centuries. 





H fljl 










THE CATHEDRAL AFTER THE FIRE OF SEPT. 19TH, 1914 



30 

In the IT1I1 and L8th centuries onlj repairs rendered necessary by the wear 
of the stone wore elVeeted. In tlie 19th century, beginning in 1845, important 
restorations, principally bj \ iollet-le-Duc, were carried out with regularity. 

The Cathedral's approximate measurements are 480 feet long (it is the 
longest church in France), and l(>0 feet wide at the intersection of the transept. 
The vaulting, less lofty than that at Beauvais (156 feet) and Amiens (143 feet), 
is 123 feet in height. The lowers are six in number (as in the cathedral at 
Laon). of which the four situated at the extremities of the transept have never 
had more than one storey. The principal towers are about 266 feet in height, 
oi about 60 feet higher than those of Notre-Dame in Paris. 

The plan of the Cathedral is in shape a Latin cross, with radiating chapels. 
It is built entirely of stone from the neighbourhood of Rheims. Forty pillars 
support the vaults, which are further sustained by fifty buttresses. Three great 
doorways and eight secondary doors give access to the interior, which is lighted 
by a hundred windows and rose-windows; 2.303 figures of all sizes decorate the 
exterior and interior. 




CATHEDRAL PHOTOCRAPHED FROM AEROPLANE IN 1916 



31 

The Cathedral During the War 

In revenging themselves on Rheims for their disappointments and failures, 
the Germans seem to have been particularly determined to destroy the building 
which is at once one of the most precious artistic treasures of France and one 
of the most ancient evidences of her history. In 1814 the then Allies bom- 
barded Rheims but respected the Cathedral. It is true that there were Germans 
who found fault with this respectful forbearance. One of them, Johann Joseph 
Goeres, author of a voluminous work entitled " Christian Mysticism," dared 
to write in April, 1814: "Destroy, reduce to ashes, this Rheims basilica, where 
Chlodovic was consecrated, and where ivas born that empire of the Franks, 
those turncoat brothers of the noble Germans; burn the Cathedral." In the 
course of the recent war the Germans followed the vindictive advice of Goeres, 
although, less frank than he, they did not dare, in face of the indignation of 
Christendom and of the whole world, boast of their vandalism. 

By way of excuse they alleged sometimes errors in firing, sometimes that 
the French had established a battery of artillery near the Cathedral and an 
observation-post in one of the towers (a projector was installed on the Cathc- 




■ • ■ 



THE PIERCED VAULTING AM) TOWERS OF THE CATHEDRAL IN 1919 



32 

drill, but on September, 13, 1914, i.e. the day that the French re entered Rheims, 
and it remained there only one night). 

On November 9, 1914, General Rouquerol declared to the French Govern- 
ment, who had demanded an enquiry, that the nearest battery to the Cathedral 
was at that time more than 1,200 yards away; that on the day (September 
19) the Cathedral was set on fire by the German shells, the nearest French 
batteries were still quite close to the spot occupied by the above-mentioned 
battery, whose position the French Premier verified personally. The General 
concluded that the German artillery could not have made an error of 1,200 
yards in firing, but that they had deliberately aimed at the Cathedral. 

The Cathedral, though terribly shattered, is still standing. The description 
of the edifice (pp. 33 to 60) gives particulars of the damage and destructions 
which occurred principally in September, 1914; April, 1917, and July, 1918. 

On September 19, 1914, incendiary shells set fire to various portions of 
the building. The roof was burnt, but the vaulting escaped injury. The 
tambours of the side doors and the statues on the latter were destroyed by 
the flames. The 18lh century stalls, consecration carpet of Charles X. and 
archi-episcopal throne were likewise burnt. The great rose-window of the 
western fagade, together with several other stained-glass windows, were de- 
stroyed, as were also the " Angel " steeple and its caryatids above the chevet. 
The northern tower was seriously injured by the burning of the scaffolding 
around it (see photo, p. 9). The statues were eaten into by the flames and 
subsequently crumbled away, some of them being irrecoverably lost. 

In 1915 and 1916 the Cathedral was struck a hundred times, but it was 
during the bombardments of April 15, 19, and 24, 1917, that it suffered most. 
For seven consecutive hours, at the rate of twelve per hour, the Germans fired 
12 in., 14-in. and 15-in. shells on the edifice, causing terrible havoc, especially 
to the south-western side. 

During the terrible bombardments of April, 1918, the Cathedral did not 
suffer — for once the Germans seemed to have decided to spare it ; but, un- 
fortunately, the truce did not last. In the following months the bombardment 
began again, and the ravages increased, especially in the two towers and the 
vaulting. However, both vaulting and towers, in spite of their injuries, have 
not been irreparably damaged in their vital parts, and are capable of restoration. 

That the damage is not more serious is due to the protective measures 
taken by the Cathedral architect and by the Department of Historical Monu- 
ments. As early as 1915, the doorways of the western fagade were protected 
with beams and sand-bags (see photo, p. 25), while the Treasure was removed 
and placed in safety, together with the paintings and tapestries. 

In 1916 and following years masonry protections were placed around some 
of the more valuable statues. The fallen fragments of carvings and sculpture 
were carefully collected, with a view to future restoration. In this way the 
debris of the head of the beautiful statue of the " Visitation " Group, known 
as the " Smile of Rheims," on the left-hand side of the central doorway of the 
western fagade, were saved. 

At the beginning of 1918, it was found possible to save the remains of the 
stained-glass of the windows, and other glass-work still intact — amongst which 
was some of the finest in the nave. The salvage was difficult, for scaffolding 
would have furnished the Germans with an excuse for further bombardments. 
Recourse was had to a small body of Paris firemen and two glaziers who, 
in foggy weather, and before daybreak, climbed up to the iron frame-work 
of the windows and accomplished their work at great heights with remark- 
able courage and skill. 



J ^ 



AERODROME MIU1AIHE 



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,00 


1000 M. 


PORTE DE MARS 




A. 


D-3-4 


musicians' HOUSE 


B. 
C. 
D. 


D-4 


CATHEDRAL 




d-4-5 


ARCHI-EPISCOPAL PALACE 


E. 


D-S 


CHURCH OF ST. MAURICE 


F. 


B-5-6 


POLICE STATION 




G. 


D-2 


HOTEL DE VILLE 




II. 


D-4 


LAW COURTS 




T. 


D-4 


HOTEL DIEU 




K. 


E-6 


CI'URCH OF ST. REMY 


L. 


E-6 


MUSEUM 




M. 


D-S 


OCTROIS (Tolls) 




0. 




SUB-PREFECTURE 




P. 


e-4-5 


THEATRE 




T. 


D-4-5 


POPULATION 




115, 


17S h 


ALTITUDE 






83 M 





CATHEDRAL OF EHEJMS 

Han of Cathedral 

and 

Arcbi-episcopa] Palace 



1. Staircase of the Towers. 

2. Site of the Labyrinth (p. 53). 

3. Main Pulpit (p. 53). 

4. Site of " La Rouelle de Saint- 

Nicaise " ( Flag-stone with 

memorial inscription) < p. 53). 

5. Pillar supporting the "Vintage 

Scene " (p. 52) . 

6. Altar of the Rear Choir (p. 57). 

7. 14th century Tombstones (p. 53). 

8. Tomb of Cardinal de Lorraine. 



9. The Treasure (p. 58). 

10. Clock with Automatons (p. 55). 

11. Tombstone of Hughes Libergier 

(p. 55). 

12. Norman Door (p. 45). 

13. Great Organ (p. 55). 

14. Lady Chapel (p. 55). 

L5. Chapel of the Holy Sacrament 
(p. 56). 

16. Rosary Chapel (p. 57). 

17. Roman Mosaic (p. 57). 



34 

West Facade 

(See full views on pp. 28 and 29) 

Better than any other, this part of the building reveals the desire for unity 
and harmony which guided the various builders of the Cathedral. The door- 
way, probably designed by .ban d'Orbais. was very likely not begun till about 
1250. by Gaucher, of Rlieims. Hernard of Soissons built the great rose-window 
and the facade as far as the Gallery of the Kings. The architects of the 14th 
century built the lateral parts forming the first story of the towers, the 
Kings' Gallery and the gable. The upper story of the towers was only finished 
in the 15th century. Except for slight modifications in detail, the original plan 
was respected. The facade, with its full open-work towers and immense rose- 
window, demonstrates that the architects knew how to obtain the maximum of 
resistance with wonderfully light construction. 

The Western Doorway (photo below) comprises three doors flanked by 
two full arcades, and surmounted by gables adorned with statues. 

Between the gables are pinnacles on small columns (the left-hand ones 
have been destroyed). At the foot of the pinnacles are statues of seated 
musicians, which recall those on the house in the Rue de Tambour (see p. 
80), but which have been partly destroyed. 

The splaying of the doors is adorned with great statues backed up against 
columns and separated by smaller columns, the capitals of which are con- 
nected to a foliate frieze of elegant design. The bases are ornamented with 
carved drapery. The tympana of the doors contain window-lights, while five 
rows of statues, separated by lines of flowers and foliage, fill up the archings, 
which suffered severely in the bombardment of September 19, 1914. About a 
dozen subjects were destroyed or spoilt. During the subsequent bombardments, 
shell splinters did further damage. 




DOORWAY OF THE WEST FRONT BEFORE THE WAR 



35 

Generally the sculptural decoration on the ground-floor dates from the 
middle of the 13th century. 

In September, 1914, several of the great statues of the lateral splayings 

were completely destroyed and the others more or less seriously damaged. 

However, subsequent damage was slight, thanks to the protective measures 
taken in 1915. 

Central Door 

The Lavish decoration of the central door suffered mutilations during the 
last three centuries. The inscription carved on the lintel dates from 1802 and 
replaced carving descriptive of the life of the Virgin, destroyed during the 
Revolution. The sculpture on the arches, especially that of the three upper 
lines, was partly restored in the 17th and 18th centuries. 

The beautiful statues in the splayings of the door represent: to the right 
(photo, p. 36), the Annunciation and Visitation (the latter group is striking 
by reason of its inspiration from the antique) ; to the left, the Purification 
(photo, p. 36). 

The Virgin of the Annunciation group was damaged by shell splinters on 
September 4, 1914. 




CENTRAL DOOR OF THE WEST FRONT BEFORE 

the war (Cliche LL.) 



36 




THE ANNUNCIATION. THE VISITATION. 

RIGHT-HAND SPLAYING OF CENTRAL DOOR. 

In the gable, a pretty group representing the Coronation of the Holy 
Virgin was injured by the fires of 1914. 

Of the two fine statues on the top of the buttresses framing the Central door, 
only the right-hand one (Solomon) exists to-day; the other, representing the 
Queen of Sheba, was destroyed by a shell in September, 1914, except the 
head, which was saved. 




LEFT-HAND SPLAYING AND LINTEL OF THE CENTRAL DOOR (Cliche LL.) 



37 



The Right-Hand Door 

See photograph on p. 25 

On the lintel, Saint Paul, blind, is being led to Ananias, who restores his 
sight and baptizes him. 

On the jambs are pretty little figures which have been variously inter- 
preted. The majority represent vices and virtues, e.g. on the inner portion: 
Courage, in knightly raiment; Cowardice fleeing before a hare; Charity 
holding out a purse; Avarice with a cash-box; on the outer portion: Pride 
blasted and overthrown with his horse; Sloth, represented as a man seated 
with his head resting on his elbows, in a stall; Wisdom seated, holding a book 
and a lighted lamp. On the same jambs other figures are supposed to sym- 
bolise the seasons: Autumn sitting on a vine-trellis; Winter standing before 
a fire-place; Spring in the midst of flowers; Summer with bared chest. 




RIGHT-HAND SPLAYING OF THE RIGHT-HAND DOOR 

The two ci-ntral figures have been decapitated. 

The six statues in the splaying on the right [photo above) represent: the 
aged Simeon holding Christ in his arms; John the Baptist, Isaiah, Moses 
with the brazen serpent and the tables of the Law ; Abraham about to sacrifice 
Isaac; Samuel carrying a lamb (which has been broken). They differ by 
their more archaic style from the other sculptures of the lower facade, and 
closely resemble those of the central door of the north transept of the Cathedral 
of Chartres. Like the latter, they date without doubt from the beginning of 
the 13th century. Possibly they belonged to an earlier doorway, or were pre- 
pared in advance for a purpose not realised, being finally utilised in the place 
where they now stand. 

The Last Judgment, in the gable, was severely damaged by shell splinters. 



3456^4 



38 



The Left-Hand Door 



This door, on account of t lit* scaffolding which surrounded it, was seriously 
damaged by the tires of September, L914 (see p. 17). 

On thf Lintel is Saint Paul, thrown from his horse at the gates of Damascus. 
On the outside of the jambs, fourteen seated figures meditating, are supposed 
li\ some to be embodiments of the arts and sciences, but represent more prob- 
ably prophets or teachers. Along the splayings are eleven statues, which have 
not definitely been identified. 

In the left-hand splaying is Saint Nicaise between two angels. The right- 
hand angel, generally known as the " Smile of Rheims," was decapitated on 
September 19, 1914. Fortunately, the fragments of the head of this fine statue 
were saved. 

The sculptures in the archings depict scenes from the Passion, while the 
group which adorns the gable represents The Crucifixion. 

These archings and gable were greatly damaged by the fires of September 
19, 1914, and the bombardments. 




LEFT-HAND DOOR OF THE WEST FRONT. 
The headless angel on the left against the door was known as the " Smile of Rheims." 



39 




LEFT-HAND SPLAYING OF THE LEFT-HAND DOOR, BEFORE THE WAR. 

St. Nicaisc (between two angels) and St. Clotilda. The angel on the right, known as 
the " Smile of Rheims," was decapitated. (See photo, p. 38.) Cliche LL. 




GABLE OF THE LEFT-HAND DOOR, WITH CRUCIFIXION. 
(Cliche LL.) 



10 




FIRST STORY OF THE WEST FRONT 



The First Story 

In the centre is the great rose-window, best seen from the interior of the 
nave. The stained-glass is broken. On either side, against the arching which 
surmounts it, were two large statues. One of them, David as a youth in 
shepherd's garb (also known as the Pilgrim), was destroyed by the bom- 
bardments. The other very fine statue is variously said to be Saul, Solomon 
and St. James. 

The arching which begins above these statues was adorned with small 
groups of figures representing scenes from the life of Solomon. Most of them 
were destroyed at the same time as the Pilgrim statue. 

Above the arching, a gigantic statue (twice restored) represents David 
challenging Goliath. The bombardments of 1914 destroyed a similar statue on 
the left representing David slaying Goliath ivith a stone from his sling. 

The first story of the towers flanking the rose-window is broken by lofty 
twin bays crowned with gables. The niches and pinnacles of the buttresses 
are identical with those of the nave, but the style of their decoration denotes 
a more recent period (early 14th century). 

The northern tower was badly damaged by the bombardment of Septem- 
ber 19, 1914, which fired the scaffolding around it (see photo, p. 9). Two 
of the pinnacled niches surmounting the buttresses wtere decapitated, while 
the flames completely disfigured the statues, including that of Christ. 

A large calibre shell burst in the southern tower on April 19, 1917, causing 
very serious damage. 



41 




SECOND STORY AND UPPER STORY OF THE TOWERS 



The Second Story 

The second story comprises a series of niches, surmounted by sharply 
pointed gables and adorned with gigantic statues, known as the Kings' Gallery. 

The central group, consisting of seven figures, commemorates the Baptism 
of Clovis. Clovis, standing in the baptismal font, between Saint Remi, re- 
ceiving the Sacred Ampulla, and Clotilda. 

The balcony in front of the Baptism of Clovis was formerly called the 
Gloria Gallery, as it was the custom for the choir-boys to sing the Gloria there 
on Palm Sunday. 



The Upper Portion of the Towers 

The upper story of the towers, built on an octagonal plan, is flanked with 
four open-work turrets, one of which contains stairs leading to the platforms. 

The northern tower, badly damaged by the fire of 1914, lost several of the 
fine colonnettes of its corner turrets in 1918. 

In the same year, the pierced staircase of the southern tower was almost 
entirely destroyed. 

At the time of the last restorations, the foundations of the spires provided 
for in the original plans, but which have never been built, were laid. 

In the belfry of the northern tower are two magnificent deep-toned bells. 
One of them is modern and was cast at Le Mans, and blessed in 1849 by 
Cardinal Gousset. The other, one of the finest bells known, and presented to 
the church in 1570 by Cardinal Charles de Lorraine, is the work of the Rheims 
metal-founder, Pierre Deschamps. 

The scaffolding fire of 1914 reached the belfry, bringing down the bells, 
which were broken in the fall. 



42 

The Lateral Facades and Chevet 

The lateral facades of the Cathedral are of rare beauty. Nowhere have 
abutments and flying buttresses hern so harmoniously employed as here. They 
are not merely supports, but form part of the decorative scheme of the nave, 
and ensure the harinom of the whole. Buttresses, finished off with pinnacles, 
serve as points ol support for two superimposed flying-buttresses. The oc- 
tagonal pinnacles are flanked with four small triangular pyramids and sup- 
ported in front by two slender detached columns. Between the latter, under 
canopies, angels with outstretched wings carry the instruments of the Passion 
and various other emblems (.see photo, p. 49). 

Skirt the Cathedral on the left, passing in front of the North Facade {see 
below), to reach the Northern Transept. 



THE 

NORTHERN 
TRANSEPT 
IN 1919 




The Northern Facade and Transept 

The transept is pierced with broad bays, whose completion, as in all the 
windows of the Cathedral, consists of two twin arches surmounted by a six- 
leaved rose. The niches in the buttresses are ornamented with statues believed 
by some to represent Kings of France. At any rate, that of the buttress on 
the western front of the north-west tower greatly resembles the figure of St. 
Louis carved on the doorway of the church of St. Vincent at Carcassonne. 

The carvings of the lower windows were either destroyed or damaged on 
September 19, 1914, at the same time as the stained-glass. The two towers 
which flank the crossings were left unfinished. 

Before the fire of 1481, there was a lantern over the intersection of the 
transept. 



43 




)F THE 

(ORTHERN 
rRANSEPT 



£ F I r 




The Central Door of the Northern Transept 

The sculptural decoration, while rich, is more sober than that of the door- 
way of the western fagade. It is commemorative of the glory of the Archbishops 
of Rheims. 

The statue of the Pontiff with a tiara, backing up to the dividing-pillar, is 
supposed to be that of St. Sixtus, first Bishop of Rheims. In the splaying, on 
the left, is St. Nicaise holding his head in his hands, between St. Eutropia, an 
angel and a figure improbably said to be Clovis. 

The pediment was pierced by a shell and scarred with splinters. It is 
divided into five tiers, and represent the life of St. Remi and St. Nicaise. 

Beginning at the bottom, the figures represent: on the first tier, the be- 
heading of St. Nicaise by the Vandals and the Baptism of Clovis by St. Remi ; 
on the second, St. Remi, as a child, restores sight to Montanus and, as a 
man, exorcises the demons who had set fire to Rheims; on the third, the story 
of Job; on the fourth, the restoring to life of a young Toulouse girl, and the 
miracle of the cask filled with wine by St. Remi; on the filth, Christ between 
two angels. 



II 








LEFT-HAND DOOR OF THE NORTHERN TRANSEPT: THE LAST JUDGMENT 

The dead rise from their graves. 



The Left-Hand Door of the Northern Transept 

This door, which has long been walled up, is called The Doorway of the 
Last Judgment, on account of the carving on the tympanum. 

In the upper part, Christ is supported on one side by the Holy Virgin, and 
on the other by John the Baptist. Below {two rows) the dead rise from their 
graves {photo above). Lower down, on one side are The Virtues, represented 
by seated women; on the other, The Vices, mutilated in 1780 on account of 
their realism. On the lowest tier, to the left, angels carry souls to Abraham's 
bosom; on the right, Satan leads a chain of damned souls to Hell {photo be- 
low), amongst whom are a king, a bishop, and a monk. 

In the arching are three rows of angels carrying books or blowing trumpets, 
and the wise and foolish virgins. 

Backing up to the dividing pillar is an exceedingly fine 13th century statue, 
which recalls the "Beautiful God" of Amiens Cathedral {see the Michelin 
Guide: Amiens Before and During the War) ; Jesus blessing with His right 
hand, holds the globe of the world in His left {see photo p. 45). 

This statue was decapitated by a shell which struck the doorway in 1918, 
also taking off the head of the first statue on the left-hand portion of the 
doorway. 




LEFT-HAND DOOR OF THE NORTHERN TRANSEPT: THE LAST JUDGMENT 

Satan drags a chain of damned Souls to Hell- 



45 



On the plinth of the dividing pillar is a bas-relief, 
remarkable for its delicate carving. 

According to local tradition, this plinth was erected 
at the expense of a dishonest master-draper, convicted 
of selling by false measure. 

On the left, the merchant is seen in his shop. In 
front of the counter, customers of both sexes look at 
the outspread stuffs, while clerks write in books. 

On the right, the merchant kneels before a statue of 
the Virgin in penance. 

Near-by, burgesses talk together and seem to judge 
the delinquent's conduct severely. 

The six statues against the walls represent the 
apostles: on the right, St. John, St. James and St. Paul; 
on the left, St. Andrew, St. Peter and St. Bartholomew. 

The rose is carved in a voussoir; the uprights are 
decorated with statues of Adam and Eve in long tunics, dividing-pillar of 

THE LEFT-HAND DOOR 

and the arch with twenty-two groups of small figures of the northern 

transept 

depicting, from left to right, the story of Adam and 
Eve, the various tasks to which they and their de- 
scendants were condemned, and the story of Cain and 
Abel. 

Above the rose an open-work gallery contains seven 
statues of the prophets. The statues are 13th century, but the gallery was re- 
stored in 1846. 

The balustrading and triangular gable flanked with pinnacles, which dom- 
inate the gallery, date from the beginning of the 16th century, but have been 
repaired in recent times. On the gable is a colossal Annunciation; the 
Archangel and Mary are under Flamboyant canopies. 




The statue of Christ 
was decapitated by a 
shell. 

On the plinth is the 
legend of the Master- 
draper {see text oppo- 
site.) 



The Right-Hand Door of the Northern Transept (Norman Door) 
This little door formerly connected, by means of a vaulted passage, the 
Cathedral with the Cloister (no longer existing) of the Chapter. 

Its tympanum is a relic of the Cathedral built by Archbishop Samson. It 
depicts, in beautiful Romanesque relief, a majestic Virgin. The archivolt which 
frames it, doubtless belonged to a 12th century tomb. At the top of the arch, 
angels carry a soul, while on the uprights, clerks officiate at a funeral service. 



46 

The Chevet 

(See photograph of Cathedral, taken from aeroplane, p. 30.) 

The Chevet. begun by .lean D'Orbais and finished by Jean Le Loup, was 
inaugurated by the Chapter about 1241. It is one of the finest 13th century 
chevetS in existence. 

It is stayed by two rows of buttresses supporting double flying-buttresses. 
Like those of the nave, the buttresses are surmounted with pinnacles, beneath 
which niches shelter statues of flying angels. 





THE CHEVET BEFORE THE WAR 

One of the finest 13th century Chevets. 



All around the apse, between the windows of the radial chapels and on 
the main buttresses, are statues of angels, some of them of great beauty. 

The 13th century clerestory gallery, which surrounds the upper portion of 
the apsidal chapels, was restored by Viollet-le-Duc. It was partially destroyed 
by the bombardments. On April 19. 1917, three large calibre shells, which 
burst on the chevet, destroyed forty to fifty feet of it. At the same time, the 
buttress jutting on the centre of the destroyed gallery lost its pinnacle, and 
behind, an arch of the flying-buttress. The buttresses between the above- 
mentioned one and the corner of the South Transept Tower lost either a 
colonnette or their pinnacle with angel statue. 



47 

The slender spire which, before the War, rose above the chevet, was known 
as the Angel Spire, on account of a bronze angel which surmounted it, and 
which was removed in 1860 as unsafe. This spire, the work of Colard le 
Moine, was built in 1485, after the fire of 1481. Its pierced base with bal- 
ustrading was supported by eight leaden caryatids, some of which, in the 
popular costume of the Louis XI. period, became deformed in consequence of 
the rotting of their oaken core. 

The fire of September 19, 1914, caused by the German shells, entirely de- 
stroyed the spire and its caryatids. 




THE CHEVET IN 1919 

The roof with the " Angel Spire " was destroyed. 



The bombardment in the spring of the following year further damaged the 
gallery, also causing fresh mutilations to the flying buttresses and the pinnacles 
of the apse. 

A plain stone gallery with blind arcading, which formerly ran round the 
chevet on a level with the springing of the roof, was replaced by Viollet-le- 
Duc, with pierced battlemented arcading. Part of the original gallery which 
surrounded the entire building, level with the roof, still exists on the northern 
side. 

On October 12, 1914, a shell destroyed about twenty-five feet of the gal- 
lery round the chevet, which later was further damaged by another shell. 



48 

The Lateral Facade and South Transept 

This facade and transept {which should be seen from the courtyard of the 
Archbishop's Palace) are identical, as a whole, with the northern facade and 
transept (see pp. 28 and 42 >. 

The gallery at the springing of the roof of the nave was entirely rebuilt in 
1878 by Architect Millet, in a style foreign to that of the Cathedral. 

Among the statues of the transept buttresses that at the corner of the south- 
western tower, bestriding a lion, is thought by some to represent Pepin-the- 
Short, and another near him, Charlemagne. 








THE LATERAL FA£ADE AND SOUTHERN TRANSEPT IN 1919 



The fagade of the transept has no doorway. Above the lower story, the 
architectural arrangement is the same as that of the northern transept. At 
the base of the rose-window, on each side, are two very fine statues. 

On the left, The Christian Religion, symbolised by a crowned woman 
with chalice and standard. This statue was destroyed by a German shell in 
1918, after being damaged in April, 1917. 

On the right, The Synagogue, with eyes bandaged and a crown on one 
side, was not seriously damaged. 



49 



In consequence of the fire of 
1481, the gable of the South Tran- 
sept was rebuilt at the beginning of 
the 16th century by three master- 
masons, one of whom, Guichart An- 
toine, co-operated later with the 
building of Notre-Dame de l'Epine. 
(See the Michelin Guide: The 
Revigny Pass. ) It was restored 
about 1888 in the original style. 
The subject sculptured on the pedi- 
ment represents the Assumption of 
the Virgin. 

The Sagittarius which sur- 
mounted the gable was destroyed in 
1914. It was a modern faithful copy 
of the old lead-covered wooden 
Sagittarius, which was carved, 
gilded and painted about 1503 by the 
Rheims sculptor, Jean Bourcamus. 
According to tradition, this Sagit- 
tarius, which appeared to be shoot- 
ing its arrow at the bronze stag of 
the archi-episcopal palace, symbol- 
ised the rivalry between the Arch- 
bishop and the Chapter of the 
Cathedral. 




cable of the southern transept 
in 1914 




TIIK Mil Till UN LATERAL FACADE IN 1914 



50 



fi -«!• &m 






i wp: M; ie«h L 




REVERSE SIDE OF THE CENTRAL DOOR IN 1914 
■S>e complete view on p. 52. 



THE INTERIOR OF THE CATHEDRAL 
The Inner Western Faqade 

(See description of the Exterior on pp. 34 to 41.) 

This is a master-piece. Its sculptural decoration is as unique, and rich as 
that of the outer fagade. 

In the tympanum of the central door a sixteen-leaved rose-window, the 
stained-glass of which was made shortly before the Revolution, is faced with 
three small trefoil rose-windows. 

. At the top of the dividing pillar St. Nicaise, headless, is between two 
angels and two armed men personifying the barbarians who killed him. 

The entire door, as far as the triforium, is framed by seven rows of super- 
imposed niches separated by panels of sculptured foliage. The basements are 
covered with figured drapery, as on the outside. In each niche, under a 
trefoil arcade, is a statue. The subjects represented are, from bottom to top: 



51 




STATUES ON REVERSE SIDE OF DOORS AFTER FIRE, SEPT., 1914 



o/i the right: The Life of John the Baptist; on the left: The Fulfilment of 
the Prophecy and The Childhood of Christ. 

The first row on the right is known as " The Knight's Communion "; a 
priest offers the Host to a knight wearing 13th century armour, and turns his 
back on another knight clothed in a leathern Carolingian tunic with iron scales, 
and armed with a small round buckler. 

Above the door, a gallery with nine openings lights the triforium. 

On the highest story, the great rose-window occupies the whole breadth 
of the nave. It is the masterpiece of Bernard de Soissons (see p. 40). 

In the form of a gigantic flower with twelve petals, each of the latter is 
sub-divided by quatrefoils and trefoil archings. Its harmonious gracefulness 
and seeming lightness, in spite of the great thickness of its border (about 
7 ft.), and mullions (about 2 ft. 6 in.), are very striking. 

The stained-glass, which, with the stonework, formed a harmonious whole, 

was restored in i lern times. The subject represented was: The Virgin 

surrounded by angels, kings and patriarchs. 

The fire of 1914 destroyed the stained glass. 

The side-doors have only a quatrefoil rose-window (sec pp. 25 and 34), 
and their framework of niches consists only of four rows of two niches each. 
However, two lines of niches, in which are statues in demi-relief, form the 
contour of the arches which frame their top. 

The subjects of the sculptures are allied, in the case of each door, to those 
of the outer decoration, i.e. " The Life of St. Stephen." 

The wooden doors and their tambours were destroyed by the fire of Sep- 
tember 19, 1914, which also disfigured or destroyed the statues framing them 
(see photos above). 



..' 




INTERIOR OF THE NAVE IN 1919 



The Great Nave 

The fire of September 19. 1914, destroyed the framework of the Nave and 
its 15th century lead roof. In the following years a number of shells pierced 
the vaulting, without, however, damaging its vital parts. It will be possible 
to restore it. 

It seems to be clearly established that although the first four bays were 
built later than the others, the nave as a whole, like that of the Cathedral of 
Amiens, was completely finished before 1300 a.d. Vaulted throughout on 
diagonal ribs, the nave, which is perfectly regular, has three stories: the low- 
est, formed of great arches, rests on massive pillars ; the triforium, formed 
of two, four, five, or six arcades, extends round the entire building; the high 
twin-bay windows are surmounted with a six-leaved rose-window. 

The pillars, which have been likened to a row of antique columns, are 
composed of a great cylindrical shaft, reinforced by four smaller engaged 
columns, standing on an octagonal base. The pillars which follow the first 

bay of the nave and carry one of the 
corners of the towers, as also the four 
pillars of the transept square, are more 
massive. 

The capitals of the pillars and of the 
columns (see photo opposite) are most 
beautifully decorated. The dominating sub- 
ject of their decoration is natural foliage 
(vine, oak, thistle, ivy, ranunculus, fig-tree). 
Occasionally, human or animal figures or 
monsters, and scenes from nature, i.e. the 
dainty Vintage scene on the capital of 
CAPITAL in THE NAVE the sixth pillar on the right of the nave, 




53 



are interspersed. The ornamenta- 
tion of the capitals of six pillars of 
the first hays is more elaborate and 
more recent in style. These capi- 
tals are not. like those of the other 
pillars, divided on the four flanking 
columns into two equal courses by 
an astragal, neither do they include, 
like some of the others, crockets, 
acanthus leaves and other conven- 
tional ornaments of an older and 
less realistic style. 

The 13th and 14th century 
stained-glass of the high windows 
represents, on two superimposed 
lines, figures of kings of France 
and archbishops of Rheims. Some 
of the glass was broken, but the 
finest was saved. 

In the third and fourth bays 
there was formerly a square Laby- 
rinth, flanked at the corners by 
polygonal compartments. In the in- 
terior, a line of white tiles bordered 
with black stones ran from one side, 
and after complicated windings 
reached a central compartment. At 
the corners of the compartments 
were figures of the four first archi- 
tects of the Cathedral: Jean d'Or- 
bais, Jean le Loup, Gaucher of 
Rheims and Bernard of Soissons. 
The central figure is probably that 
of Archbishop Aubri de Humbert, 
who laid the first stone of the edi- 
fice. This Labyrinth, the drawings 
of which revealed the names of the 
builders of the Cathedral, was de- 
stroyed in 1778 by the Chapter, to 
prevent the children playing there. 

Between the Labyrinth and the 
Choir are about twenty 14th cen- 
tury tombstones. 

The great pulpit set up against 
the fifth left-hand pillar was made, 
in the time of Louis XV., by a 
Rheims artist (Blondel). Il comes 
from the "Id church of St. Pierre- 
le \ ieil. 

In the sixth bay, jusl before 





rjk/iA 




M 


i 






I II 






1 






ill! 






>£ 




ROOF OF THE NAVE IN 1914 

In the foreground on the right: Corner of 
the Southern Transept. 




ROOF OF THE NAVE IN 1919 

In the foreground, on the right: Corner of 
the Southern Transept 



54 

the entrance to the choir, the spot where St. Nicaise was beheaded, on the 
threshold of his church. «;h formerly indicated by a small circular chapel 
known as La Rouelle de St. Nicaise. The tiny building was replaced by a 
memorial inscription on the flagstone, supposed to have been stained with the 
blood of the martyr. 

The Aisles of the Naves 
The windows of the Aisles are similar to the lofty windows of the nave. 
The walls were formerly hunt; with valuable tapestries, which were taken 
down and evacuated by the Historical Monuments Department at the outbreak 
of the War. The two oldest, dating hack to about 1440, and known as the 
tapestries of the fort roi-Clovis, were presented by Cardinal Charles de Lor- 
raine, and depict the historj of Clovis. Those of the Renaissance, given in 
1530 by Archbishop Robert de Lenoncourt, who caused himself to be por- 
trayed kneeling in the picture of the Birth of Christ, depict the Life of the 
] irgin. The most modern, presented in 1640 by Archbishop Henri de Lor- 
raine and worked by the Fleming, Daniel Pepersack, represent Jesus at the 
Marriage at (.una in Galilee and Jesus among the Doctors. 

At the foot of the walls, three stone steps serve as seats. 




TAPESTRIES IN THE SOUTHERN SIDE AISLE, BEFORE THE WAR 



55 




The Interior of the Northern Transept 

(See plan, p. 33, and the Exterior, p. 42) 

The inner facade is partially 
hidden by the great organ, built 
about 1487 and transformed several 
times since then. Of the original 
organ the loft only remains, the 
Gothic balustrading of which is 
pierced with Flamboyant arcading. 

The facade originally consisted 
of three lofty bays with lancet- 
shaped windows surmounted by a 
gallery lighted by three rose- 
windows of six lobes each and one 
of twelve lobes. The subsequent 
addition of a doorway about the 
middle of the 13th century, caused 
the partial suppression of the bays, 
of which the transformed summits 
alone remain. 

Almost all the high windows 
of the transept contained 13th cen- 
tury grisaille glass, which was dam- 
aged or broken by the bombard- 
ments, as was also the 13th cen- 
tury stained glass of the great rose- 
window (repaired in 1869), which 
represented The Story of the Crea- 
tion and The Fall of Adam. 

The reverse side of the Central Door is bare, except the dividing pillar, 
the statue of which is hidden by the 18th century wooden tambour. 

The small western side-door, which formerly communicated with the 
cloister of the Chapter, is entirely covered with 18th century woodwork. 
The adjoining bay, closed in by a beautiful 13th century wrought-iron rail- 
ing, is the old chartulary or muniment room of the Chapter. Near the railing, 
in the corner of the transept, is a clock with automatons, which come out 
when the hours strike. Its woodwork is 14th and 15th century and its works 
17th and 18th century. 

To the right of the door of the organ stair, a tombstone to Hugues 
Libergier was set up against the wall. He was the architect who, in 1231, 
commenced the abbatial church of St. Nicaise. The tombstone has been 
in the Cathedral since 1800. The altar in the Lady-Chapel, surmounted with 
a statue by Frangois Ladatte (17421, replaced a Gothic altar-screen destroyed 
in 1739. 

The picture The Washing of the Disciples Feet is by Jerome 
Muziano. 

On the western walls of the transept is a fine tapestry, the pendant 
of which is in the south transept. These two great tapestries, 
made at the Gobelins, after cartoons by Raphael, represent the life 
of St. Paul. They were removed in 1914, at the same time as those in the 
aisles. 



THE NORTHERN TRANSEPT (see p. 33) 







THE VAULTING OF THE CHOIR FELL IN ON THE HIGH ALTAR 

The photo on p. 31 shows the collapse, seen from above. 



The Choir 

(See the Chevet, p. 46) 

The ambulatory with its radiating chapels is of incomparable beauty. 
Excepting the larger central chapel, known as the Chapel of the Holy 
Sacrament, which is nine-sided, each chapel has seven sides rising from a 
circular floor. 

In each chapel, three windows similar to those of the nave, light the 
three hindmost walls. Blind windows imitate the true ones on the side walls. 

At the base of the windows a narrow gallery, passing through the pillars, 
continues all along the side-aisles of the transept and nave — a peculiarity in 
Champagne architecture. 

The 13th century stained glass of the high windows was destroyed by 
the bombardment of September 19, 1914. 

In \pril. 1917, part of the vaulting fell in on the High Altar (photo above). 

The costly marble High Altar was erected in 1747 by Canon Godinot. 
who spent considerable sums in making alterations to the Cathedral, not all 
of which were happy. Its six chandeliers date from the consecration of 
Charles X. 



57 



The High Altar of the rear choir dates from 1764 and came from the 
Church of St. Nicaise. On either side of this altar are two 14th century 
tumulary stones. Behind is the tomb of Cardinal de Lorraine. 

The small pulpit of the rear choir, the medallions of which depict the 
life of St. Theresa, dates from 1678. It is a gift of the widow of M. Pommery 
( photo belou > . 

Twenty-two archbishops of Rheims were buried under the choir pavement. 
Their tombstones were removed in 1747. The present flag-stones came from 
the old church of St. Nicaise. 




THE SMALL 
PULPIT IN 
THE REAR 
CHOIR 



The archbishop's throne, by Viollet-le-Duc, was destroyed by the fire of 
1914, together with the 18th century stalls. 

The railings ( 1826-1832 ) replaced, not very happily, an ancient stone 
rood-loft destroyed in 1761. 



The Interior of the Southern Transept 

(See plan, p. 33, and the Exterior, p. 47) 

A gap was made in the vaulting by the bombardment of April 19, 1917. 

The arrangement of the inner facade is similar to that of the northern 
transept, except that the three high bays with lancet windows, which are 
partially hidden in the northern transept, are here entirely visible. 

The stained-glass of the rose-window, destroyed by a hurricane in 1580, 
was replaced in 1581 by the Rheims artist Nicolas Derode. It represents the 
Eternal Father surrounded by the twelve apostles. 

In the Rosary Chapel is a Renaissance altar-screen (1541), attributed to 
the Rheims sculptor Pierre Jacques. The general scheme represents The 
(lend body of Christ on the knees of the Virgin, and above, Christ coming forth 
from the sepulchre. It was a gift of Canon Paul Grandraoul, who is shown 
on his knees before Mary Magdalene. 

The Roman mosaic work in the centre of the chapel was discovered in 
the courtyard of the archbishop's palace in 1849. Among the most remarkable 
scenes are: Christ appearing to Mary Magdalene, attributed to Titian; Christ 
with tin- angels, by Thaddeo Zuccaro; The Nativity, attributed to Tintoret; 
Manna in the Desert, attributed to Nicolas Poussin. 



58 




st. remi's chalice (Cliche LL.) 



The Cathedral Treasure 

This is kept in a sacristy built by Viollet-le-Duc, which is reached through 
a plain door in the southern facade of the transept. 

The treasure, which is very rich in precious reliquaries, chalices, and 
other pieces of goldsmith's work, was saved from the fire of September 19, 
1914, by the Cure of the Cathedral and one of his abbes. After being tem- 
porarily placed in the house of the Cardinal, it was evacuated in 1915, at the 
order of the Historical Monuments Department. 

Among the best known of these art treasures are the Chalice of St. Remi 
and St. Ursula's Skiff. 

The Chalice of St. Remi, with its gold filagree work, six rows of chasing, 
and precious stones set in a collier, is a remarkable work of art. It was in 
this chalice that, by special privilege, the kings of France communicated in 
wine at the conclusion of their consecration. Tradition has it that the gold 



55 



m 




st. Ursula's skiff (Cliche LL.) 



of which it is made was that of the Soissons Vase, whereas in reality it is 
12th century. Confiscated in 1793 and deposited in the Bibliotheque Rationale, 
it was restored to tire Cathedral by Napoleon III. 

St. Ursula's Skiff is a reliquary given by Henri III. It represents a ship 
carved out of cornelian, floating on a sea of enamel. The ship, whose mast 
bears the royal crown, is adorned with the escutcheons of France and Poland, 
and contains eleven small figures. That of St. Ursula is said to be the portrait 
of the Queen of France. 

Amongst the other remarkable works of art in the Treasure are the 
following: the reliquaries of Archbishop Samson, St. Sixtus (12th century), 
St. Peter and St. Paul (14th century), and the Holy Sepulchre (16th century); 
a monstrance of gilt copper (13th century) ; a liturgical comb of ivory, said to 
have belonged to St. Bernard (12th century) ; a rock-crystal cross, which 
formerly belonged to Cardinal de Lorraine; or frays embroidered with silver 
thread (13th century); the credence and oil vessels of Abbot de la Salle; a 
fragment of a carved wood crozier (incorrectly said to be the crozier of 



60 





B^BB 






■1 v ^ 8v.. 








■ v ■ 




■Siiiinii J 1 ■ 

V ' - ~\ >V '" "-■ ft k- ' f' u * 5 


v -'if 


V . * 

it. v 


Til 




' fifr 



CASKET OF THE SACRED AMPULLA {Cliche LL.) 

St. Gibrien), two other fragments of which are in the Town Museum (12th 
century) ; the vases, utejisils, and sacred ornaments which were used at the 
consecration of Charles X.; the reliquary of the Sacred Ampulla, designed 
by Lafitte for the consecration of Charles X. The original Sacred Ampulla 
was broken in 1793. The present one, which has only served for the con- 
secration of Charles X., is a replica said to have been made with the few 
drops of balsam of the Clovis Ampulla, which pious hands saved from the 
broken fragments of the sacred vessel. 




FRAGMENTS SAVED FROM THE RUINS (Cliche LL.) 



6] 




FIRST ITINERARY FOR VISITING RHEIMS 



Starting-point: Place du Parvis Notre-Dame 



1. The Archbishop's Palace (p. 63). 

2. The Theatre (p. 68). 

3. The House of Levesque de Pouilly 

(p. 68). 

4. The Stores: Galeries Remoises 

(p. 73). 

5. The Maison Fossier (p. 7."> i . 

6. The House of .1. P>. de la Salle 

(p. 75). 

7. The House of the Enfi I'Or 

(p. 75). 

8. The Statue of Louis XV. (p. 79). 



9. The Musicians' House (p. 80). 

10. The House of De Muire (p. 83). 

11. The House of Le Vergeur (p. 85). 

12. A 16th Century House (p. 86). 

13. The General Post Office and 

Chamber of Commerce (p. 87). 

14. The Cloister of the Franciscan 

Friars (|». 90). 

15. The House of Thiret de Prain 

(p. 89). 

16. The House of de la Pourcelette 

(p. 92). 



62 




REMOVING THE STATUE OF JOAN-OF-ARC 
IN MAY, 1918 

Place du Parvis 

The Place du Parvis (photo below) is in front of the main fagade of the 
Cathedral. The shells made enormous craters there. 

In the centre of the square stands an equestrian statue of Joan-of-Arc, 
by Paul Dubois, of which there is a replica in the Place St. Augustin in Paris. 
It was removed in May, 1918, by the Historical Monuments Department (photo 
above) . 




THE PLACE DU PARVIS 

On the right: The Law Courts. In the centre: The Theatre. On the left: The Grand 

Hotel. In centre of Square: Statue of Joan-of-Arc. 



63 



Looking towards the Cathedral, the 
tourist will see on the right the ruins 
of the Hotel du Lion d'Or and' of the 
Hotel de la Maison Rouge. 

The latter was completely destroyed. 
Above the door was the inscription : 
"In the year 1429, at the consecration of 
Charles VII., in this hostelry — then called 
the ' Striped Ass ' — the father and 
mother of Jeanne d'Arcq were lodged at 
the expense of the Municipality." In 
reality only the father of Joan-of-Arc 
lodged there. 

It was at the Hotel du Lion d'Or 
{photo opposite) and at the Grand Hotel 
(No. 4 in the Rue Libergier, which opens 
out in front of the statue of Joan-of-Arc I 
that the Field-Marshal French stayed 
in August, 1914, and later General von 
Zuchow, commanding the Saxon troops 
which entered Rheims on September 4, 
1914. 

On the right of the Cathedral are 
the ruins of the Archbishop's Palace 
(see plan, p. 33). A general view of them 
is seen in the photograph on p. 48. 




INNER COURTYARD OF THE LION 

d'or hotel {Cliche A.S.) 



The Archbishop's Palace 

Of the three buildings which surrounded every Cathedral in the Middle 
Ages — the bishop's palace, the cloister of the canons, and the house set apart 
for the sick and poor ( Hotel-Dieu )-— only the archbishop's palace existed at 
Rheims in 1914. It extended all along the south lateral facade of the 
Cathedral, on the site of the ancient abode of St. Nicaise, which had replaced 
a Roman palace. Of the ancient building erected by the successors of 
St. Nicaise down to the 13th century, there remained only the graceful two- 
storied chapel, doubtless contemporary with the chevet of the Cathedral. 
The round entrance tower, known as Eon's tower (from the name of the 
heretic who was imprisoned there in the 12th century), and the great bronze 
stag placed in the middle of the courtyard by Archbishop Samson in the 
11th century, still existed in the 17th century, but about that time the one 
was demolished and the other melted down. This stag, into which on feast- 
days wine was poured, which flowed out again by the mouth, was a beautiful 
specimen of the art of the old metal-founders of Rheims. 

The archbishop's palace and most of its rich collections were burnt in the 
fire of September 19, 1914. Of the palace proper there remains only the great 
chimney-piece of the Salle du Tau, on which the Latin motto, " Good faith pre- 
served makes rich," is inscribed (see p. 64), the very opposite of the German 
'' scrap of paper " theory. 

The Archeveche: The buildings which lined the courtyard were of dif- 
ferent periods. The wing abutting on the entrance-gate was 19th century, 
while the correct but heavy and dull southern fagade was rebuilt in the 
17th century by Archbishop Maurice Le Tellier, from the plans of Robert 
de Cotte. 



64 




THE SALLE DU TAU, BEFORE THE WAK 



The Salle du Tau (or Kings' Hall) 

(See plan, p. 33) 

At the bottom of the courtyard there used to be a large late 15th and 
early 16th century hall, access to which was gained by a horse-shoe stair with 
late 17th century wrought-iron hand-rail. 

A small porch-like structure at the top of the stair was an unfortunate 
addition of 1825. 

The hall was known as the Salle du Tau, in memory of the ancient palace 
which was shaped like the Greek letter Tav, or the Kings' Hall, on account 
of the portraits of the Kings consecrated at Rheims, received in 1825. 

Built by the Cardinal Archbishop Guillaume Brigonnet between 1497 and 
1507, it comprised two stories. 




THE SALLE DU TAU IN 1918 

Behind the ruined Hail arc seen the Southern Transept 
and Chevet of the Cathedral. 



65 



The upper hall, in which the 
royal banquet was served at the 
consecrations, became the Stock 
Exchange at the beginning of the 
19th century. It was disfigured by 
poor paintings and false Gothic 
ornamentation at the time of the 
consecration of Charles X. 

The walls were hung with four 
admirable tapestries by Pepersack 
and several others given by Robert 
de Lenoncourt. 

The vast chimney-piece with 
the Brigonnet and Church of 
Rheims Arms is all that the fire of 
1914 spared of the ancient decora- 
tion. It is visible in the photo- 
graphs on page 64, at the bottom 
of the hall. 

The lower hall, with its Gothic 
arching, was as large as the upper 
one. The capitals of the prismatic 
pillars and the key-stones of the 
arches were adorned with escut- 
cheons, fleur-de-lys, flowers and 
crockets. 




ENTRANCE TO THE SALLE DU TAU 

(or kings' hall) (see plan, p. 33) 



The Archi-episcopal Chapel 

(See plan, p. 33) 

This was without doubt the work 
of Jean d'Orbais, the first architect 
of the Cathedral. It resembled the 
latter in many respects. 

With its seven-sided apse, four-bay 
nave and lancet-shaped windows with- 
out rubber-work, it was remarkably 
slender and graceful. 

Its finest ornament was the 13th 
century bas-relief, The Adoration of 
the Magi, in the tympanum of the 
entrance door. 

The white marble inner portico 
of the door dated from the Restora- 
tion. The other, formed of in-laid 
wood panels, was adorned with five 
16th or early ] 7th century painted 
figures. 

The lower chapel, partly subter- 
ranean, was fitted up as a lapidary 
museum in 1865 and 1896. 




- £ % 







nm 



yt-%& 




ENTRANCE TO THE ARCHI-EPISCOPAL 
chapel (see plan, p. 33) 



66 



THE ROYAL 

APARTMENTS 

IN THE 

\Ki HBISHOP'S 

PAI.ACE J] 




mm 



\ 



V~ 



01*. 




pas^'TEx. 




ft 1 




The Royal Apartments 

From the Kings' Hall, access was obtained to five royal saloons 
with windows looking on the gardens and adorned with portraits of arch- 
bishops. 

It was in the archbishop's palace that the Kings stayed at the time of 
their consecration or when passing through Rheims. Henry IV. lived there 
during his two sojourns at Rheims. He washed the feet of the poor on Holy 
Thursday in the great hall and listened to the sermon of Father Cotton. 
Louis XIII. and Richelieu stayed there in 1641, Louis XIV. in 1680, Peter the 
Great in 1717, Louis XV. in 1722 and 1744, the Queen in 1765, Louis XVI. 
and Marie Antoinette in 1774, and Charles X. in 1825. From year VI. (Revolu- 
tion Calendar) to 1824 it was occupied by the tribunals. The archbishops 
formerly held many Councils and Synods there, but lived there only rarely. 
In the Middle Ages they preferred living in their fortified castle of Porte Mars 
(see p. 6). In the 17th and 18th centuries they lived mostly outside 
Rheims. 

After visiting the ruins of the Archbishop's Palace return to the Place du 
Parvis. Take the Rue Libergier, opposite the Cathedral, turning into the first 
street on the right (Rue Chanzy). The Museum is soon reached (see Itinerary, 
p. 61). 

The Museum, formerly The Grand Seminaire 

This fine 18th century building was erected by Nicholas Bonhomme in 
1743-1752. The carved entrance-door and terraced central pavilion, bordered 
with a fine balustrade (damaged by shell splinters), are the remains of the 
ancient Abbey of St. Denis, the church of which was destroyed at the time 
of the Revolution. The right wing was rebuilt in the 19th century, by order 
of Cardinal Thomas Gousset. The ground-floor of the left wing is old, but 



67 




THE ENTRANCE 
TO THE COURT- 
YARD OF THE 
OLD GRAND 
SEMINAIRE 

(lSth century) 




im^piN$ 



the other floors are modern. These buildings were comparatively little dam- 
aged by the bombardments. 

Successively occupied since 1790 by the District Council, a free secondary 
school, and by the Russians in 1814-1815, the buildings were handed over to 
the Grand Seminaire in 1822. Since the separation of the Church and Stale 
in 1905, they have been fitted up as a Museum. 

The Museum was struck at the beginning of the bombardment on Sep- 
tember 4, 1914, several pictures in the Modern Gallery being destroyed. Later, 
it was again hit by shells, but the greater part of the collections had already 
been removed to a place of safety. 




THE OLD CRAND SEMINAIRE (MUSEUM) 



68 



TIIK HI D l N 
WHICH 

NAPih i ON 

si.F.rT in 1814 

i hi ruined 

house at No. 18 

Rue de Vesle) 




Continue along the Rue Chanzy, which skirts the Theatre (1873), of which 
only the walls remain. Take the Rue de Vesle (first street on the left. See 
Itinerary, p. 61). 

Among the ruins of this street, in the yard of No. 18 on the left, is a building 
of which only the ground-floor and front with large windows and spacious 
dormers remain. 

It was there that Napoleon I. slept after his return to Rheims. His room 
had been preserved exactly as it was in 1814 (see p. 8). 

At No. 27 are vestiges of the old Hotel Levesque de Pouilly. Inside the 
court there was a 16th century house, the residence of a family which furnished 
Rheims with some remarkable administrators, chief among whom was 
Levesque de Pouilly, •'lieutenant of the inhabitants.'' Among the celebrated 
guests received by him were Voltaire and Madame du Chatelet (1749). In a 




THE PARIS GATE 



69 




THE VAULTING AND BELFRY OF THE CHURCH OF 
ST. JACQUES. (Cliche LL.) 

letter to him. Lord Bolingbroke wrote: "/ know but three men ivho are ivorthy 
of governing the nation: You, Pope and myself." 

On the right, between Nos. 44 and 46. is tne Rue St. Jacques. 

Folloiv the Rue de Vesle to the end, where the Paris Gate stands, about 
1 km. from the entrance to the Rue St. Jacques. 

This Gate replaced the Vesle Gate which formerly abutted on the river. 
In consequence of the growth of the city it was built in the faubourg about 
1845. Its beautiful wrought-iron work (photo opposite), by the local master- 
locksmiths Lecoq and Revel, was erected by the City in 1774, at the time of 
the consecration of Louis XVI. 

From the Paris Gate, return by the Rue de Vesle to the Rue St. Jacques, on 
the right of which stands the Church of St. Jacques. 

The Church of St. Jacques, whose fine tower contributed to the charm 
of the general appearance of the city, was destroyed by the bombardments 
of 1918. Begun in the 12th century, it was finished in the 16th. Before the 
war, it was the only parish church in Rheims which had been preserved intact. 




THE INTERIOR OF THE CHURCH OF 

ST. Jacques (Cliche LL.) 



70 



~ -_ 



r 










THE PLACE DROUET D ERLON, BEFORE THE WAR 

On the right: Belfry of the Church of St. Jacques. 

The Rue St. Jacques leads to the long Place Drouet d'Erlon, which was 
much damaged hy the bombardments of 1918 (photo opposite). 

Formerly known as Place de la Couture, this square, like the old streets 
with picturesque names: Rue des T fillers, Rue du Clou-dans-le-Fer, Rue de la 
Belle Image, Rue de la Grosse-Ecritoire, Rue du Cadran St. Pierre, formed part 
of the Quartier des Loges, built in the 12th century by Cardinal Guillaume-aux- 
blanches-mains for the wood and iron workers. The house-fronts above the 
first storey rested mostly on wooden pillars, leaving recesses or covered galleries 
on the ground floor. 

In the centre of the square stood a statue of Marshal Drouet d'Erlon, 
afterwards removed to the crossing of the Boulevards Gerbert and Victor Hugo, 
and replaced by a monumental fountain, the gift of M. Sube. 

Follow the Place Drouet d'Erlon to the Boulevard de la Republique, which 
skirts The Promenades. 




THE PLACE DROUET D ERLON, AFTER THE WAR 

The Belfry of the Church of St. Jacques no longer exists. 



71 







THE SUBE FOUNTAIN, IN THE PLACE DROUET D ERLON 
Seen from the Rue Bnirette tin ruins). 

The Promenades, greatly damaged by the war, have sometimes been 
wrongly attributed to Le Notre. Their designer was a Rheims gardener, Jean 
le Roux. Commenced in 1731, they were finished and extended in 1787. They 
were formerly reached by the Gates of Mars and Vesles, but preferably by 
the Promenade Gate specially opened in the ramparts in 1740 and inaugurated 
by Louis XV. in 1744, on his return from Flanders. The Promenades were 
first called Cours Le Pelletier (the name of the Intendant of Champagne, who 
approved the plans), then Cours Royal, after the passage of Louis XV. They 
were encroached upon by the railway station, built in 1860. 

In the centre of the Promenades, opposite the station, in the Square Colbert, 
laid out by the landscape gardener Vare in I860, is a statue of Colbert. 

Take the Rue Thiers, which begins at the Square Colbert and leads to the 
H6tel-de-Ville. 




THE SQUARE COLBERT IN THE MIDDLE 

OF THE " PROMENADES." 

The Entrance to the Station is just opposite this " Square." 



72 




THE TOWN HALL IN 1918 



The H6tel-de-Ville 

This building, which was destroyed by shell-fire on May 13, 1917, was 
similar in many respects to the old H6tel-de-Ville in Paris, burnt in 1871. 

Commenced in 1627, from plans by the Rheims architect, Jean Bonhomme, 
it was completed in stages, at long intervals. Only the central pavilion and the 
left-hand portion were 17th century. 

The building was a beautiful specimen of the architecture of the Louis 
XIII. period. Seventy-eight columns, Doric on the ground-floor and Corinthian 
on the first story, framed the windows of the facade, whose bases on the first 
floor carried trophies in bas-relief and a graceful frieze. The niches in the 
central portico were empty, but the pediment on twisted columns enclosed an 
equestrian statue of Louis XIII. 

In the interior, in the great vestibule, a staircase with a remarkable wrought- 
iron balustrade led to the City Library, which was destroyed by the fire ol 
1917 {photo p. 73). 

On the right, the room where the Municipal Council meetings were held, 
contained rich panelling alternated with paintings by Lamatte, commemorating 
episodes in the history of Rheims. On the left, the mayor's office contained 
magnificent Louis XVI. wood-work. 

On the other side of the courtyard, in the centre of which is a statue of 
"' La Vigne," by St. Marceaux, was the great marriage-hall, containing a Gallo- 
Roman mosaic, framed with rosettes and an interlaced border, representing a 
gladiatorial fight. 

A number of the pictures and works of art in the Hotel-de-Ville were saved 
by the firemen and soldiers. The mosaic in the marriage-hall was protected by 
sand-bags and is intact. 

In the Place de I 'Hotel-de-Ville, between the Rue Thiers and the Banque de 
France, are two small streets : the Rue Salin and the Rue de Pouilly. 



73 




THE GRAND 
STAIRCASE 
OF THE 
TOWN HALL 



At No. 5 of the Rue Salin. the old 17th century Hotel Coquebert, which was 
destroyed by the shells, used to be the headquarters of the Society of Friends 
of Old Rheims. Several of the illustrations in this Guide are taken from the 
collections of this Society. 

In the Rue de Pouilly, close to the Hotel-de-Ville, are the ruins of the 
Galeries Remoises stores. These shops were partly housed in a Gothic building, 
of which only a few chimney-stacks remain (see chimney in photo below). 

Opposite the Hotel-de-l ille take the Rue Colbert to the Place des Marches. 




Till. HI i; COLBERT, BETWEEN THE TOWN HALL 
AND THE MARKET-PLACE 



:i 




RUINS IN THE MARKET-PLACE 

Seen from the Rue de Tambour. The " Maison de I'Enfant d'Or" is among the 

ruined houses seen in the middle (see pp. 75 to 77). The "Hotel de la Salle" and 

"Maison Fossier " (p. 76), on the right-hand side of the Square, are not visible in 

in the above photograph. 



The Place des Marches 

Built on the site of the ancient forum, the Market Square, before the war, 
still contained several remarkable 15th century wooden houses. Unfortunately, 
they were destroyed by the terrible bombardment of May 8-15, 1918, together 
with the Square. 







THE ' HOTEL DE LA SALLE 

On the left : the Carriage Entrance -with Caryatids : Adam and Eve. 



75 




THE COURTYARD 
OF THE " HOTEL 
DE LA SALLE " 

The graceful 
turret has 
partially 
collapsed 



After turning to the right, on leaving the Rue Colbert, and quite close to the 
Square, at No. 4 in the Rue de VArbalete, is the house, dating from the middle 
of the 16th century, where J. B. de la Salle was born. 

Although this house suffered from the bombardments of 1918, its front is 
practically intact. It is the finest Renaissance front in Rheims, after that of 
Le Vergeur's House {see p. 85). 

The carriage entrance is flanked with two life-size caryatids, popularly called 
Adam and Eve, on account of their nudity. Along the first story runs a broad 
frieze ornamentated with trophies of arms and a shield of unknown significance. 
Between two windows of this story a niche, resting on a console, is crowned 
with a canopy. The shops on the ground-floor somewhat spoilt the general 
look of the building. The interior of the house was less interesting than the 
front. 

In the courtyard is a strikingly graceful three-story turret (photo above), 
one side of which has collapsed. 

Among the wooden houses destroyed by the bombardments^ of 1918 ^ in 
the Place des Marches, the following must be mentioned: the Maison Fossier 
(see p. 76), which stood in the Square at the right-hand corner of the Rue de 
l'Arbalete, and especially the Maison de 1'Enfant d'Or (sometimes wrongly 
called the House of Jacques Callou), which stood near the Rue des Elus. 
The latter house took its name from an old sign representing the g'.lt figure 
of a sleeping child. Hence, punningly, the name Golden or Sleeping 
Child. 

In spite of alterations, this house (photo, p. 77), with its pen' '.ouse roof, 
two overhanging storeys, windows crowned with finials, and sculptural decora- 
tion (see carved console, p. 77), was a well-preserved specimen of 15th century 
architecture. 

From the Place des Marches, follow the Rue Colbert to the Place Royale. 



76 



BEFORE 
[•HE \\ \ K 




See text, page 75. 



AFTER 
THE WAR 




THE MAISON FOSSIER BEFORE AND AFTER THE WAR 

See Itinerary, p. 61 (No. 5 of Explanatory Notes). 




RUINS OF THE MAISON DE L ENFANT D OR 
Second house on the left, after the Rue des Elus. (See p. 77). 






/■ •)_ 



JttllU 

A II I 

flHIIHI 



I 



77 



THIS VERY 
CURIOUS 15th 
CENTURY HOUSE 
STOOD IN THE 
MARKET-PLACE 

It was completely 
destroyed {see p. 76) 




THE " MAISON DE L'ENFANT d'oR,'' 
BEFORE THE WAR 




BRACKET OF THE " MAISON DE L'ENFANT d'oR,' 
REPRESENTING SAMSON SLAYING THE LION 



THF PI U I 

ROYA1 E 

in i r o 5 




(., ^ '- »; w, f> <! , • 



THE INAUGURATION OF THE STATUE OF " LOUIS LE BIENAIME " 

August 26, 1765; erlgraving by Varin. The original statue (by Pigallc) 

is in the middle of the Square. 



The Place Royale 

The Place Royale, which had previously suffered severely on September 
19-22, 1914, was completely destroyed by fire, with the exception of the 
modern buildings of the Societe Generate Bank, during the bombardment of 
April 8-15, 1918. 

Commenced in 1756, from plans by the architect Legendre, it formed an 
oblong, of severe and imposing appearance, at the cross-ways of the four main 
streets of the City. In order to carry out Legendre's plans, forty-nine 
houses had to be acquired and pulled down. The Square remained unfinished, 
only three of its sides being built. The Louis XV.-XVI. Transition style 
houses were of uniform construction, and were remarkable for their arcades 
and eaveless roofs, around which latter ran a balustrade. The central 
house (formerly the Hotel des Fermes) had a Doric front "with a statue of 




J<~ - - 



THE PLACE ROYALE IN 1918 

The plinth of the statue was protected by masonry-work. 



79 

Mercury surrounded bv children arranging bales or carrying grapes to the 
wine-press. A statue of Louis XV., in the middle of the Square, was pro- 
tected from the bombardments by masonry-work (photos p. 78 and below). 

The monarch is represented in a Roman mantle and laurel wreath. On 
either side of the pedestal are two allegorical bronze figures. One, a 
woman, holding a helm with one hand and leading a lion with the other, 
symbolizes gentleness of Government ; the other, a contented man resting in 
the midst of abundance, represents the happiness of nations. The wolf and 
the lamb sleeping side by side at their feet are symbolical of the Golden 
Age. 

The monument, inaugurated in 1765, is the work of Pigalle, but the two 




STATUE OF LOUIS XV., PLACE ROYALE, WITH 

PARTIALLY BUILT PROTECTING WALL 

OF MASONRY 

The two allegorical figures arc supposed to be likenesses of 
the Sculptor Pigalle and his wife. 



allegorical figures, which are supposed to be portraits of the sculptor and his 
wife, alone are original. 

The original statue of Louis XV. was removed at the time of the Revolution 
(August 15, 1792), and sent to the foundry. It was first replaced by a 
pyramid surmounted by a " Fame," in memory of the defenders of the 
Patrie, then by a plaster Goddess of Liberty, and in 1803 by a trophy of 
arms and flags. The present statue, erected under Louis XVIII. (1818). 
is due to the sculptor Cartellier, and is an exact replica of the original 
one. 

It was on the steps of the monument that the Conventionist Ruhl smashed 
the Sacred Ampulla under the Revolution. 



80 



From the Place Royale, return to the Market Square, cross over to the Rue 
</<• Tambour {parallel with the Hue Colbert). 

Tin- line ilc Tambour owes its name cither to the statue of a tambourine- 
playei on one oJ it^ houses, or in the presence of the town-drummer who 
lived in it. It was first damaged, then burnt, in \pril, 1918. 




THE STATUES OF THE MUSICIANS HOUSE 
The house ivas destroyed by bombardment , but the statues zverc saved. 



Previous to 1918, old houses in this street were still numerous. The most 
celebrated was the now completely destroyed Musicians' House (photo above), 
the true origin of which is unknown. 

It has variously been supposed to have been the house of a rich burgess, 
of the Tom Fiddlers" Brotherhood, and the Mint of the Archbishops of Rheims. 
The first story of the facade had been preserved intact since the 13th century. 
In the Gothic niches which separated the mullioned and transomed windows, 
five large seated figures on carved consoles {photo above) represented a 
tambourine and flute player, a piper, a falconer with crossed legs, a harpist 
and an organ-grinder crowned with a garland of flowers. The falcon on the 
wrist of the central figure was removed by the organisers of the consecration 
of Charles X., as it was feared that the royal banners might get caught 
on it. 

Fortunately, these statues, which are remarkable for their natural 
expression and vigour, were removed to a place of safety before the house was 
destroyed. 

Thanks to a public subscription, the town was able to acquire them shortly 
before the war, thus preventing them from being sold abroad. 

The cellars of this house are curious, but there exists no proof that they 
date back, as has been said, to the Roman period. 

The adjoining house (No. 22) is 14th century, and probably dates back 



81 




14th century 

DOORWAY, 
22 RUE DE 
TAMBOUR 



to about the end of the reign of Philippe-le-Bel. Its front has been greatly 
spoilt, but still contains a fine door surmounted by an elliptical arch (photo 
above) . 

At No. 13 of this street, two 13th century carved heads, one of a man and 
the other of a woman wearing one of the mortar-shaped hats in fashion until 
the end of the reign of St. Louis, have been built into the fagade. 

At the end of the Rue de Tambour, take the Rue de Mars, on the right of 
the Hotel-de-Ville, at the end of which, on the left, stands the Triumphal Arch 
of the Mars Gate. 




THE RUE DE MARS. THE TOWN HALL IS ON THE LEFT 



B2 




The Mars Gate 

This monument was long believed to be a Roman gate — hence its name — 
although the ornamentation of its four sides proves that it cannot origi- 
nally have been connected with the ramparts. It was only in the Middle 
Ages that it was included in the fortified castle (photo, p. 6) built by the arch- 
bishops a few steps to the rear. About 1334 its arcades were walled up, 
while towards 1554 it was buried under a mass of rubbish during the building 
of the fortifications. Partly disinterred in 1594, when the archbishops' 
castle was pulled down, it was not completely cleared until 1816-1817. Restored, 
then classed as an historical monument (thanks to Prosper Merimee), it 
is one of the largest Roman structures remaining in France. Forty-four 
feet high, one hundred and eight wide, and sixteen thick, it was really a 
triumphal arch built on the Caesarean Way at the entrance to the town, 




18TH CENT! RY ENGRAVING BY COLLIN OF THE VAULTING OF THE 
ROMULUS AMI REMUS ARCADE OF THE MARS GATE 

In the centre: Romulus cud Remus suckled by the she-wolf. 



83 

probably in the 4th century. It comprises three arches separated by fluted 
Corinthian columns which support the entablature. On the two main fagades 
between the columns are carved medallions and niches which have lost their 
statues. The vaulting of the arches is divided into sunken panels, the carving 
of which is mostly in a good state of preservation. Under the eastern arch 
Romulus and Remus are seen suckled by the she-wolf. Under the middle 
arch, the twelve months <>f the year, represented by persons (five of whom 
have been destroyed) occupied in the labours of the four seasons, surround 
Abundance and Fortune. Under the western arch Love is seen descending 
from the sky above Leda and the Swan. 

Behind the Mars Gate is the Place de la Republique. containing a statue 
by Bartholdi, damaged by shell-fire. In front of the Gate, take the Rue 




HOTEL >OEL DE MLIRE 

Note the curious masonry-work of the first story, composed 
• of polygonal stones in relief. 



Henri IV., leading behind the llotel-de-Ville. then turn to the left into the Rue 
de Sedan. The house at No. 3 was destroyed by shells, except the Louis XVI. 
front with its gracefully carved garlands, which escaped injury. 

Take the Rue du Grenier-a-Sel, on the right, to the H6tel Noel de Muire, 
on the left, at the corner of the Rue Linguet. 

This house consists of the remains of a sort of Henry II. manor with 
turrets and dormer-windows. The walls, rounded at the corners like those 
of the Templars, are of brick and dressed stone. The plinth separating the 
two stories is decorated with carved wreathed foliage. Fret-work and hexagonal 
point- frame the windows, while a broad cornice on consoles carries 
the roof. Formerly the residence of the lords of Muire, this house was 
popularly known a- i he Waisofl des Petits Pates, on account of the polygonal 
-ha,,,. ,,f the -loin- in relief. Theodore de Beze, one of the leaders of the 
Reformation in France, lived there with his friend, Noel de Muire. 



84 




THE RUE UU MARC 

Take the Rue du Marc, which continues the Hue du Grenier-a-Sel {photo 
above) . 

The Rue du Marc was the quarter where the old nohle families and the 
higher bourgeoisie of Rheims lived. It suffered considerable from the bom- 
bardments. 

At No. 3 is a Henry IV. house, the windows of which are framed with 
graceful ornamentation (photo below). 

However, the most remarkable house in the street is undoubtedly the Hotel 
Nicolas le Vergeur (No. 1), which, unfortunately, was partly destroyed by 
the shells (see p. 85). 



HOUSE DATING 

BACK TO THE 

REIGN OF 

HENRI IV. 

(1589-1610) 

AT NO. 3 

RUE DU MARC 




85 



The Hotel Nicolas Le Vergeur 

The interior building, which has a 17th century carriage entrance, offers 
two fine examples of 15th and 16th century architecture. It is the finest 
Renaissance structure in Rheims. The main front, incomparably the most 
graceful, was but little damaged by the bombardments (photo below). 

On the ground-floor the great arched doorway is divided by a wooden 
post into two delicately carved compartments. Pilasters decorated with heads, 
flowers, birds, and horns of plenty frame the three stone-mullioned windows. 
Above these runs a frieze of trophies and medallions, with portraits of noble 
lords with upturned moustaches and pointed beards, and of great ladies with 
collerettes and high head-dresses, gracious or haughty, standing well out in 
relief. 

On the irst story, carved panels above the windows form a sort of broad 
frieze of bas-reliefs representing men-at-arms or knights of the time of 




HOTEL NICOLAS LE VERCEUR 



Francnis I. and Henri II. fighting at tournaments with lance, sword and 
pike. 

In one of the rooms overlooking the Rue Pluche were, a fine stone mantel- 
piece decorated with graceful delicate foliage ; a timberwork ceiling with 
large and small beams, carrying panels decorated with scrolls, and 
15th century tile-flooring of terra-cotta, varnished and painted green and 
yellow. 

At the back of the courtyard, a building, supposed by some to be an 
old chapel, had been transformed into vast cellars and store-rooms. The 
oaken ceiling of the latter, about fifty feet long and twenty-one broad, destroyed 
in 1918, was one of the most beautiful in the world. The beams, whose 
extremities carried grotesque figures, were carved on all their sides with 
foliage, dragons, birds, and fruits. The beams were connected by joists resting 
on stems, which represented apes, dragons, persons, and foliage. Between the 
joists the panels had the appearance of scrolls. 

After visiting the Hotel Le Vergeur, turn to the right into the Rue Pluche, 
which leads to the Place des Marches. Skirt the Square on the left, then take 
the first street on the left : Rue Courmeaux. 



8<> 



HOTEl 
Rl II 

MONI i IN, 

1 8 RUE 

COURMEA1 \ 




// No. 18 are the ruins of the Hotel Rogier de Monclin, tlestroyed after 
April. 1918. This house dated back to the Louis XV. period, but had been 
disfigured by modern alterations. The fagade overlooking the courtyard, the 
entrance-hall, and the staircase with ornamental balustrade, were interesting. 
At the time of the consecration of Louis XVL, one of the saloons was 
furnished for the King's brother, the Comte (or Monsieur) d'Artois, whence 
the name "Rue de Monsieur," formerly borne by the Rue Courmeaux. 

At No. 30 is a Renaissance door, almost intact (photo below). At No. 
34, at the corner of the Rue Legendre, is a late 16th century house, whose 
interior arrangement and fagade are intact, except for the woodwork of the 
windows, which was modernised in the 18th century. It was built on the site 




REN USSANCE DOOR 

30, Rue Courmeaux. 



87 









of the old wool-market, after Marshal de Saint-Paul, at the time of the League, 
had compelled the inhabitants of the Faubourg Ceres to destroy their houses. 

Return to the Rue Courmeaux and take the Rue Bonhomme on the left, 
which leads to the Rue Ceres. 

The Rue Ceres was totally destroyed by fire, from the Place Roy ale to the 
Post Office, which had to be given up in the autumn of 1914. 

At No. 30 is the Chamber of Commerce, one of the finest late 18th cen- 
tury buildings in Rheims. The magnificent Louis XVI. rooms escaped prac- 
tically uninjured. The staircase leading to the first story, with its delicate 
balustrade, is very remarkable. 








CHURCH OF ST. ANDRE, 

Rue du Faubourg Ceres. 




INTERIOR OF THE CHURCH OF ST. ANDRE 



The Rue Ceres ends at the Esplanade Ceres {photo p. 87), which was 
made outside the old ramparts near the Ceres Gate. The name Ceres is 
derived from a tower that long served as a prison {career, whence by cor- 
ruption chair, cere, and then by false myth- 
ological association, Ceres). It was in this 
tower (no longer existing, but famous as early 
as the 9th century) that, according to the 
chansons de geste, Ogier the Dane, handed 
over by Charlemagne to the custody of the 
Bishop of Rheims, was incarcerated. 

From the Esplanade continue, if desired, 
by the Rue du Faubourg Ceres (greatly dam- 
aged by the bombardments), to the Church 
of St. Andre, a modern building erected by 
the architect Brunette. 

It was struck several times by shells and 
will have to be rebuilt. As early as the first 
bombardment of September 4th, 1914, shell 
splinters damaged the doorway, transept, 
stained glass (part of which was 16th cen- 
tury and came from the old church), small 
organ, and the painting of the Baptism of 
Clovis. Subsequently, the vaulting and parts 
of the walls collapsed. 

The Church possesses a precious reliquary 
of copper (15th century) and a statue of 
St. Andre (patron of the church) of painted 
and gilded stone, attributed without author- 
ity, to Pierre Jacques. 

RELIQUARY OF ST. ANDRE 




89 




HOTEL THIRET DE PRAIN IN 1916 
19, Rue Eugene Dcstcuque. 

Return to the Esplanade Ceres, turn to the left at the beginning of the 
Boulevard de la Paix, then to the right into the Rue Eugene Desteuque. 
At No. 19 of this street are the ruins of the Hotel Thiret de Prain. 

The Hotel Thiret de Prain 

This was a mansion in the days of Henry IV. and Louis XIII. Richelieu 
stayed there in 1641. 

An imposing building, bordered with streets on its four sides, it had 
retained its original appearance. The carriage-entrance in the Rue Eugene- 
Desteuque alone had been rebuilt in 109/. 1 lie principal entrance was sur- 
mounted with a gallery, the walls, ceiling and beams of which were covered 
with delicate decorative paintings. 

On the first floor one of the corner rooms, looking east, contained a large 




HOTEL THIRET DE PRAIN IN 1918 

These two photographs illustrate the systematic destructions 
practised by the Germans. 



90 




INTKRIOR FACADE OF THE CLOISTER OF THE 
FRANCISCAN FRIARS 

In the courtyard of No. 9. Rue des Trois-Raisinets. 

Henry IV. mantelpiece, above which were the arms of the nobles of Prain. 
Only the metallic portion remains. 

The dove-cot of the Hotel, a massive square tower with pent-house roof, 
overlooking the Rue d'Avenay, was destroyed by the bombardments. 

On the left of the Rue Eugene-Desteuque, opposite the Hotel Thiret-de- 
Prain, is the Rue des Trois-Raisinets. At No. 9 are the ruins of a Franciscan 
Cloister (photo above). 

This street {photo below), like the Cloister, suffered severely from the 
bombardments. 

Return to the Rue Eugene-Desteuque unci follow the same as far as the Rue 
de la Grue (on the right). This street was badly damaged by shell-fire and 
is impracticable for motor-cars. 

It was named after the sign carved on a stone (photo, p. 91) of the house 
at No. 5 (entirely destroyed by the shells). At the end stood the house where 




RUINS OF THE MARCOTIN FACTORY 

14. Rue des Trois-Raisinets. 



9] 




THE SIGN WHICH GAVE ITS NAME TO THE 
RUE DE LA GRUE 

It was at a\'o. 5, but has been destroyed. 

J. B. Colbert was born (at the corner of the Rues Ceres and de Nanteuil, 
photo beloiv) . 

Return to the Rue Eugene-Desteuque, follow it as jar as the Rue de l'Uni- 
versite. Turn into the latter on the left. 

This street was destroyed as early as September, 1914. At No. 25 are the 
ruins of a Professional School for Girls, formerly the St. Martha Hospital. 
The latter, also known as the " Hopital des Magneuses," was founded in the 
17th century by Mesdames de Magneux, and rebuilt in the 18th century in 
the Louis XVI. style. 




' — -—-i. . 



RUINS OF THE HOUSE WHERE COLBERT 
WAS BORN 

At the corner of the Hues Ceres and de Nanteuil. 



92 



At No. 40, opposite the Sub-Prefecture, now in ruins, is the Maison de 
Jean Maillefer, named after the rich merchant who built it in 1652. It was 
scarcely finished, when it was chosen — and this was a source of pride to its 
owner as an abode for Vnne of \ustiia, at the lime of the consecration of 
Louis XIV. The inside of the courtyard alone has retained practically its 
ancient appearance. The front looking on the street had recently been put 
back and altered. Some of the sculpture which adorned it came from an- 
other house. 

A short distance farther on, on the left, is the Place Godinot, named after a 
canon of the 18th century, who caused numerous alterations to be made in the 
decoration of the choir and sanctuary of the Cathedral. 

Take tlie Rue St. Just on the right, and follow its continuation (the Rue des 
Anglais) as far as the Rue d'Anjou, which take on the right. 

The Hotel de la Pourcelette ( No. 7 ) evokes memories of Mabillon, who 
lived there when a young student at the University of Rheims. 

At the end of the Rue d'Anjou, turn to the left into the Rue du Cardinal de 
Lorraine, and follow the same to the short Rue des Tournelles on the left. 

In the house at No. 3 of this street were incorporated the turret and two 
principal windows of an old Gothic 16th century structure, situated at No. 18 
of the Rue des Anglais, and in ruins since 1898. The drawing-room likewise 
contains a large stone chimney-piece, which formerly stood in the great hall 
of the old house. 

At the end of the Rue des Tournelles, turn to the right into the Rue des 
Fusiliers, which leads to the Place du Parvis. Cross the latter to the Rue 
Tronson Ducoudray. Follow this street, which runs between the Palais de 




LOUIS XIII. DOOR 

At No. 20 Rue du Carrouge. 



93 

Justice and the Theatre, turn to the left, in front of the latter, into the Rue de 
Vesle, and take the first street on the right, the Rue de Talleyrand. 

Follow this street, the greater part of which was destroyed by fire during 
the bombardments of April, 1918. It suffered further damage in the months 
that followed, and a number of interesting old houses were destroyed. 

Turn into the first street on the right (Rue du Cadran St. Pierre », and fol- 
low the same as far as the Rue de la Clef. Take the latter on the right. 

Before doing so, however, take a look at the fine Louis XIII. entrance 

(photo p. 92) of the house at No. 20 of the Rue du Carrouge opposite. 

At No. 4 of the Rue de la Clef are the ruins of the former Hotel de 
Bezannes, partly built by Pierre de Bezannes, Lieutenant of Rheims in 1458. 
This house contains some fine 16th and 18th century woodwork. 

The Rue dcs Deux Anges, which continues the Rue de la Clef, leads to the 




RUE CARNOT 

The Place Royalc is seen in the background. 



Place du Palais, destroyed during the bombardments of April, 1918. In 
this square stands the Palais de Justice. The Palais replaced the old 
Hotel-Dieu, but has been almost entirely rebuilt. It is a building of little 
note, the principal entrance in particular being stiff to excess. 

Its only interest is provided by two relics of the past: the vast cellars 
or subterranean vaults with pointed arches supported by columns with 
Gothic capitals; and the fagade of the Audience-Chamber, formerly the 
principal ward of the old H6tel-Dieu, the exterior of which has retained its 
venerable appearance and the interior, vestiges of its lofty timber-work and 
wainscoted vaulting. 

The ground -floor of the Palais alone escaped damage from fire and the 
shells, thanks to a terrace of reinforced concrete. 

On the left of the Palais take the Rue Carnot, destroyed by the bombard- 
ments of April, 1918. 



94 

I l„- Rue (.mint communicates with the courtyard of t lit- Chapter- 
House, also burnt, bj a greal gate and passage which pass right through a 
li. use. 

This entrance was buill aboul l").'i(). in the Transition style between the 
Gothic ami Renaissance, lis elliptical arch bears a scutcheon with the arms 
of the Chapter. Consoles, decorated with grotesque figures, support the 
beams. The points of the turrets have disappeared, a supporting shaft lias 
been mutilated and the carved wooden leaves of the door have been removed 
lo ilif Lycee, >et the gate is still imposing. 

It is tlu> last remaining vestige of the Chapter buildings which, with their 
gates closing at the same time as those of the city, at the sound of the bell, 
formed a "city within a city." In point of fact, the Chapter was once lord 
of that part of the city which lies around the Cathedral, and which it admin- 




DOOR OF THE CHAPTER-HOUSE 
COURTYARD 

The Northern Transept of the Cathedral is 
seen in the background. 



istered. The canons, jealous of their prerogatives, were often in conflict with 
the archbishops. 

A few capitals and shafts of the ancient cloister of the Chapter, adjoining 
the Cathedral, were recently discovered and placed under one of the pent- 
houses built between the buttresses of Notre-Dame. 

Go through the gate, cross the Place <li< Chapitre, follow the Rue du Preau 
towards the Cathedral, then tarn to the right into the Rue Robert de Coucy, 
which Jeails back to the Place du Purvis Notre-Dame. 



SECOND ITINERARY FOR VISITING RHEIMS 



95 




Starting from the Place du Parvis-N otre-Dame, take the Rue Libergier, 
opposite the Cathedral. Turn to the left into the Rue Chanzy, which was 
destroyed by the bombardments of April-August, 1918. 




96 



DOOR AND BA1 CONT! 

O] i n i null i I'l: 

I "IK 1 *i.\"\. 

(18t/i Centut y), 

at No. 71 
/?/((• Chancy 




The ruins of the 18th century Hotel Lagoille de Courtagnon may be 
seen at No. 71 of this street. It was destroyed by the bombardments of 
April, 1918, with the exception of a part of the front. The finely carved door 
and remarkable ironwork of the balcony are visible in the above photo- 
graph. 



ORNAMENTAL 

RAIN-WATER 

TIPE-HEAD OF 

LEAD UNDER 

THE ROOF OF THE 

HOSPICE NOEL 

caque (see p. 97) 




97 




GALLO-ROMAN 
BAS-RELIEF 

at No. 65, Rue de 
I'Universite. This 
bas-relief and the 
one opposite, on the 
wall of the Lycee, 
are the last 
remaining vestiges 
of a Gallo-Roman 
gate. 



The Hospice Noel Caque (formerly Hospice St.-Marcoul), on the right, 
was seriously damaged by the bombardments of April, 1918. It dated from 
the middle of the 17th century, and was well preserved, with the exception of 
the chapel, rebuilt in 1873. 

Take the Rue de Control, on the left, which leads to the Rue de I'Universite. 
Inserted in the facade of the house at No. 65 (on the right), and in the wall of 
the Lycee (on the left), are two stone bas-reliefs ornamented with trophies 
of arms and Roman insignia, the sole remaining vestiges of the Porte Basee 
(from Basilea) which formerly stood there on the Caesarean way, at the southern 
extremity of the Gallo-Roman town. (See photo above of the right-hand 
bas-relief. ) 

Follow the Rue de TUniversite and skirt the Lycee de Garcons, of which 




THE FA£ADE 
OF THE LYCEE, 
DESTROYED 
BY THE 
BOMBARDMENTS 



98 



DOOR OF THE 
PET1 1 

S, Rue Vauthier- 

le-Noir. 

On either side of 

the arcade are 

heads of 

" Jean qui rit " 

and 

"Jean qui pleure." 




only the chapel and one of the buildings are left. The rest was burnt or 
destroyed by shell-fire. 

The Lycee replaced the old College des Bans Enfants, founded in the Mid- 
dle Ages, and rebuilt in the 16th century by the Cardinal de Lorraine, founder 
of the University of Rheims. 

Of the old College, only the central part remained, in the second court 
built by Archbishop Charles Maurice Le Tellier in 1686 and the following 
years. 

The gate of the Cour des Etudes dates from 1688. 

The ancient door of the College — the tympana of whose arcading contain 
two laughing and crying heads — was transferred to the entrance of the Petit 
Lycee, at No. 5 of the street on the right of the Lycee (Rue Vauthier-le-Noir) 
{photo above). 

Shortly after the Lycee, turn to the right into the Place Godinot, then take 
the Rue St. Pierre-les-Dames on the right. At No. 8 are the ruins of the Abbey 
of St. Pierre-les-Dames. 

Of this celebrated Abbey, where several royal persons stayed: Mary Stuart 
twice, in her childhood and after she was widowed; Henry IV., on a visit to 
his cousin, the Abbess Renee II.; Anne of Austria, of whom the Congregation 
library contains a portrait ; there remains hardly anything but two 16th 
century pavilions belonging to the period when Renee de Lorraine, sister of 
the Queen of Scotland and aunt of Mary Stuart, was abbess of the convent. 
Built of stone and brick with marble incrustations, and adorned with beautiful 
carvings, these pavilions were pure Renaissance in style. The head of an angel 
with unfolded wings and the head of a grinning demon surmounted the two 
windows of one of the ground-floors. On the first floor of the same pavilion 
the window, framed with delicate ornaments, opened above a cornice, the prin- 
cipal sculptural subject of which was a nude woman, helmeted, suckling 
two children. 



99 




1 

^ RUINS OF THE 

■ ABBEY OF 

7 ST. PIERRE-LES-DAMES, 

» 8, Rue St. Pierre- 

\ les-Dames 



The Rue St. Pierre-les-Dames leads to the Rue des Murs, into which turn 
to the right, then to the left into the Rue du Barbdtre. Follow the latter to the 
end. This street suffered greatly from the early bombardment, and was almost 
entirely destroyed in the summer of 1918. 

At Nos. 137 and 139, at the corner of the Rue Montlaurent, are the ruins of 
the Hotel Feret de Montlaurent. 

Hotel Feret de Montlaurent. 

This large building, occupied by the Cercle Catholique, was commenced 
about 1510 by Hubert Feret, a Lieutenant of the people, and the most cele- 




CALLERY FACING THE COURTYARD OF THE HOTEL FERET 
DE MONTLAURENT 

The statues in the niches represent the sun and planets. 



100 



entury, most of t lie decoration is 
on the ground-floor of the wing 
a six-arched gallery which was 
Between the arch-centres and at 
stone statues 



brated member of a family which played an important part at Rheims in the 
15th, 16th. and 17th centuries. The outside facade has been greatly altered. 
\t No. L37 it was entirely rebuill under Louis XVI. At No. 139 the ground- 
floor openings have been modified. 

V> in many <>l the mansions oJ the Huh c 

on the innei facades. Inside the c tyard, 

abutting on the Rue Montlaurent, there is 

damaged hut not destroyed (photo, p. 99). 

the ends of the gallery are seven inches, three feet high, enclosing 

of the sun and the six planets known in the L6th century. 

Taken in their order thej arc: Saturn, with a scythe in his hand and 
serpent round his arm. devouring a child, and the zodiacal signs Aquarius 
and Capricornus at his feet: Jupiter, holding a lighted torch, with Sagittarius 
at his feet ; Mars, armed from head to foot, surmounting Cancer and Aries ; 
the Sun, personified by Phoebus with flowing mantle, a lion at his side ; 
Venus, clothed only in her hair, surmounting Taurus and Balcena ; Mercury, 
with wings on his head and heels, the caduceus in his hand, Virgo and Gemini 
at his feet ; the Moon, represented by Diana hearing a crescent ; below her 
Scorpio. 

The escutcheons on the wall at the hack of this fagade bear the initials 
of Regnault Feret, who completed the mansion. In the second court there 
are still vestiges of the chapel of this family. 

At No. 142 of the same street, the entrance to the Cour Maupinot (one of 
the numerous cours which have survived in Rheims) is framed in pilasters, 
the carved entablature of which supports a triangular pediment (photo below). 

The Rue Barbdtre is continued by the Rioe des Salines, which leads to the 
Place St. Nicaise. 



ENTRANCE TO 

MAUPINOT COURT. 

THE DOORWAY IS 

RENAISSANCE, 

142, Rue du Barbatre. 
See Itinerary, p. 95 




101 

The Place St. Nicaise was destroyed by the bombardments of April- 
August, 1918. It took its name from the celebrated Bishop of Rheims, 
who, with his sister, St. Eutropia, was put to death by the Vandals in 
407. 

The Church of St. Nicaise, rebuilt in the 13th century by Libergier and 
Robert de Coucy, was destroyed at the time of the Revolution. Amongst 
other curiosities it contained a loose pillar, which Peter the Great had pointed 
out to him at the time of his journey through Rheims. 

At the corner of the Place St. Nicaise, between the Boulevard Victor- 
Hugo and the Rue St. Nicaise, is the entrance to the Champion Cellars, 
in which the Dubail school was installed during the war (see p. 24). 

Take the Rue St. Nicaise to the Boulevard Henry Vasnier (photo below), 
turn into the latter, on the right, and follow same as far as the Rond-Point 
St. Nicaise. 

All this part of the town, which was quite close to the German lines, was 
constantly under the fire of their guns. It was violently bombarded during the 
German offensives of May, June and July, 1918. 

Near the Rond-Point de St. Nicaise are the Pommery Cellars, which 
gave shelter to many citizens and school-classes during the war (see p. 24). 

The Pommery Cellars 

These cellars are among the finest in Rheims, and form, with their 
eleven miles of streets, squares and boulevards lighted by electricity, rail- 
tracks, waggons, lifts, electric pumps and siphons, quite an underground city. 
A visit to them will give the tourist an idea of the importance and complexity 
of the Champagne wine industry in Rheims. 




Till: HENRY. VASNIER, SEEN FROM THE ROND-POINT ST. NICAISE 



102 




TRENCHES AND SHELTERS IN THE SQUARE ST. NICAISE 
See Itinerary, p. 95, and panorama from the top of St. Nicaisc Hill, p. 27. 



The Boulevard Diancourt, which skirls the Square St. Nicaise, begins at the 
Rond-Point St. Nicaise. 

This square was much cut up by the bombardments, and by the trenches 
and defensive works made there during the war (photo above). 

The square contains two eminences, from t lie top of which there is a fine 
panoramic view of Rheims. 

The photograph on page 27 was taken from the eminence nearest the 
Rond-Point St. Nicaise. 

The other eminence is crowned by a limestone tower — all that remains of 
the ancient city ramparts. 

Follow the Boulevard Diancourt to the Place Dieu-Lumiere. 

The name Dieu-Lumiere, borne by the old gate through which Joan-of-Arc 
and the Dauphin entered Rheims, was not derived, as supposed at the 
Renaissance, from the Sun-God Apollo, but from the old Gate Dieu-li-Mire 
(God the Physician), so called in the Middle Ages on account of the proximity 
of a Cistercian hospital. 

Cross the square and take the Rue Dieu-Lumiere on the right to the Place 
St. Timothee. The wood-panelled houses, whose loges faced the Place St.- 
Timothee, were destroyed by the bombardments of April-September, 1918, 
except the one at the corner of the Rue St. Julien. This house, though 
severely damaged, has retained its butcher's stall with 17th century wooden 
balustrading. 

Take the Rue St. Julien on the left to the Place St.-Remi, in which stands 
the Church of St. Remi. 



103 



The Church of St. Remi 



The Church of St. Remi is the oldest church in Rheims, and one of the 
oldest in all France. Although it is not certain that it replaced a Roman 
basilica, said to have stood on the site of the present transept, there is no 
doubt that Gallo-Roman building materials, taken from neighbouring edifices, 
were used in its construction or restoration. 

To-day, the church covers a ground-space of about an acre and a quarter. 
In shape a Latin cross, it measures inside about 450 feet in length, 98 feet 
in breadth and 124 feet in height under the vaulting. Only the southern 
facade shows to advantage, but in spite of its varied styles, which mark the 
different stages of its growth, the church realises to the full the purpose of 
its founders. Its architecture and decoration, especially in the interior, 
make it, as was intended, a grand and dignified depository for sacred 
remains. 

The Church of St. Remi stands on the site of a former cemetery, in the 
middle of which was the Chapel of St. Christopher, where St. Remi was 
buried. The chapel soon became popular and grew rapidly, especially between 
the 6th and 9th centuries, when it became a great fortified church. The 
present church, which replaced it, is not only one of the finest Romanesque 
churches in the north of France, but also forms a curious epitome of the history 
of architecture for several centuries. Begun in 1039 under Abbot Thierry, 
it was still far from finished when consecrated in 1049 by Pope Leo IX. 
Building was continued in 1170 by Abbot Pierre de Celle, the future Bishop 
of Chartres, whose restorations were the first application of the Gothic style 
to a great building in Rheims ; in the 13th and 14th centuries, under Abbot 
Jean Canart, and in the 15th century, under Abbot Robert de Lenoncourt. 
Partially transformed at the end of the 16th century, it has been restored 
and partly rebuilt at intervals since 1839. 



The Church of St. Remi During the War 

The Church of St. Remi escaped severe damage until the middle of 1918. 
The bombardment of September 4, 1914, injured one of the tapestries 
depicting the life of St. Remi, and destroyed a fine painting: The Entry of 
Clovis into Rheims. The bombardment of November 16, 1914, wrecked the 
apsidal chapel of the Virgin, bringing down the vaulting, destroying the 
key-stone and pointed arches, crushing the altar beneath a heap of ruins, 
smashing the magnificent windows of the apsidal gallery, and destroying 
the priceless 12th century stained-glass depicting Christ crucified between the 
Virgin and St. John. The Church narrowly escaped destruction when the 
Hotel-Dieu Hospital was burnt down in 1916. From April, 1918, it was 
marked down by the German batteries. The roof was entirely burnt, and 
the dummy vaulting of the nave collapsed. Of the fine 15th century 
timber-work nothing remains, but parts of the lofty 13th century vaulting 
over the choir and transept withstood the bombardment. The treasure, 
tapestries, sacristy doors, storied tile-flooring of the chapel of St.-Eloi, 
the old stained-glass of the lofty windows, and the apsidal windows round 
the gallery of the first storey, were saved by the Historical Monuments 
Department. 

The tomb of St. Remi is intact. The relics of the saint which, at the 
request of the Archbishop of Rheims had not been disturbed, were removed 
by the vicar of the parish at the time of the final evacuation of the town. 
The reliquary was taken away by officers at a later date, while the church was 
burning. 



104 

The Apse of St. Remi Church 

The \|i-c was rebuilt under Pierre de Celle in 1170, in early Gothic. Five 
three-sided radiating chapels arranged in three stages, one behind the other, 
have Mowing and elegant lines, broken bj the enormous projections of the 
buttresses which were added at a later period. 

This apse is one of the earliest religions edifices in France, in which flying 
buttresses were employed. 

The latter, very simple in design, rest on outside fluted columns detached 
from the wall of the apse. This is one of the last examples of fluting, as 
applied to columns, the process disappearing generally with the introduction 
of pointed architecture, only to re-appear at the Renaissance. 

The persistence of this fluting is doubtless explained by the influence of the 
many specimens of Roman architecture which Rheims had preserved. 

The Doorway of the Southern Transept 

Although the transept dates from the 11th century, its southern fagade 
was built in 1480 by Robert de Lenoncourt. 

The doorway, which bears the Lenoncourt arms, comprises only one door, 
divided by a pillar with statues of St. Remi and the Virgin. 

The deep vaulting of the door is ornamented with vine-foliage. At the 
base, in the supporting walls, are statues of St. Sixtus and St. Sinicius (the 
first missionaries to Rheims) bare-footed, clothed in long embroidered mantles 
and holding books. In the vaulting above the head-covering of the mission- 
aries are eight groups of statuettes representing episodes in the Life and 
Passion of Jesus. 

Tourists who follow the Itinerary on page 95, come out by the Rue St. 
Julien, in front of the doorway of the south transept. The latter is between 
the ruined apse (on the right) and the south lateral fagade (on the 
left). 



SOUTHERN 

TRANSEPT 

OF ST. REMI 

CHURCH 




105 




DOORWAY 
OF THE 
SOUTHERN 
TRANSEPT 

(see photo, 
p. 104) 



The 15th century leaves of the door are composed of wood panels in blind 
arcading, ornamented with flowering clover. 

On the buttresses which frame the doorway are five statues of saints, 
including St. Remi, St. Benedict and St. Christopher carrying a kneeling 
Jesus on his shoulder. 

The tympanum of the gable above the great flamboyant window is arranged 
on a Gothic pediment. Its decoration represents the Assumption of the Virgin 
and her crowning in Heaven. 

On the top of the pediment, and crowning the whole, is St. Michael tramp- 
ling Satan underfoot. 

The whole of the doorway is a beautiful example of Flamboyant Gothic. 
Its rich carvings and delicate ornamentation are in striking contrast with 
the severity of the rest of the building. 

At the intersection of the transept, there was formerly a wooden spire, 
built in 1394, which was pulled down as unsafe in 1825, by order of those 
who had charge of the arrangements connected with the consecration of 
Charles X. 

On the right-hand side of the transept, and also in the north transept, are 
small semi-circular chapels. 

South Lateral Facade 

This front has the bare, massive appearance of the 11th century buildings. 
The remarkable Roman arches, massive buttresses and blind doorway, framed 
by two primitive capitals with a wreath-shaped astragal, are apparently vestiges 
of constructions of an earlier date than those of Abbot Thierry. 

The semi-cylindrical abutments are among the oldest of mediaeval but- 
tresses. They are crowned with cones or capitals, the greater part of which 
are devoid of decoration. 



106 




The West Front of St. Remi Church 

Between its two towers, this gabled facade, the recesses and blind arcading 
of which form almost its sole decoration, is in strong contrast with the principal 
facade of the Cathedral. At once elegant and severe, like most of the monastic 
buildings of the 12th century, it lacks unity. All that part situated above 
the five windows of the first storey, including the rose-window, has been re- 
built in modern times. The very simple rose-window, between two lines of 
superimposed arcading, is protected, in the Champagne style, by a relieving- 
arch. The northern tower (on the left) was almost entirely rebuilt in the 19th 
century, on the lines of the old one. The simpler southern tower (on the 
right), with its arched windows and loopholes, is Roman of the 11th or 12th 
century. The pointed part of the facade is late 12th century, and dates from 
the time of the restorations by Pierre de Celle. 

Three doors open on the nave. The central one is flanked by two columns 
with statues of St. Peter and St. Remi. The marble and granite columns 
came, no doubt, from some neighbouring Gallo-Roman building. These 
statues, with arms pressed close to their sides in the ancient stiff manner, are 
probably from the original basilicas. 



107 




The Inner Side of the Western Doorway 

Here, the architecture is peculiar. Pierced columns form a gallery con- 
necting the upper courses. The galleries of the first story are supported by 
two great columnar shafts, each formed of two portions joined by a stone ring 
and surmounted by bell-shaped marble capitals. The columns and capital? are 
Gallo-Roman. 



The Nave 

Alterations were made at different times to the nave which, in the 11th 
century, had a timber-work roof. Pierre de Celle lengthened it by two bays, 
the pointed arches of which contrast with the circular ones of the lower bays. 
and also increased its height. Note the ogives above the round arches. The 
visible timber-work was replaced with vaulting on diagonal ribs sustained by 
clusters of small Gothic columns backing up against the Roman piers, the 
latter being still visible. These heavy piers (composed of fourteen small 
columns) which surround the central nave, and whose capitals (photo, p. 108), 
with Barbaric wreathed astragals and foliage, recall the Carolingian period, 
contrast strikingly with the lightness of the apse. They are undoubtedly 
11th century. All the stone vaulting of the nave, as far as the transept, 



108 




was replaced alter 1839 with wood and plaster, which collapsed under the 
bombardments of 1918, when the roof was burnt. 

The pulpit, with its Benedictine monogram, is late 17th century. It is 




THE nave and choir in 1914 (Cliche LL.) 



109 




ornamented with three bas-reliefs: St. Remi receiving the Sacred Ampulla, 
St. Benedict imploring the Holy Spirit, and St. Benedict giving the Injunction 
to his monks. As far as the pulpit, on both sides of the nave, the granite 
columns resting on the piers date from the Gallo-Roman period. 

The side-aisles of the nave are surmounted with a triforium (photo above) 
with semi-circular vaulting at right-angles to the nave. The south aisle is 
almost entirely in ruins (photo, p. 107). 




THE NAVE AND CHOIR IN 1919 



110 



The Tapestries 

The priceless tapestries which, before the war, decorated the tribunals of 
the side-aisles, were saved. 

Those given 1>\ Robert de Lenoncourt and restored by Les Gobelins, are 

rich in composition and decorative effect. In an architectural frame of the 

Renaissance period, the) represent the following legendary scenes from the 
life "I St. Remi. the costumes belonging to the period of Francois I.: — 

1. The blind hermit Muiiiamis visits the new-born Remi, who, touching him 
with his lingers wet with milk, restores his sight. 

2. The hermit St. Remi. called by the people to the bishopric, receives the 
mitre. 

3. Four miracles are performed by the saint: he extinguishes a fire lighted 
by demons in the city; he restores life to a girl; he is served at table by 
angels; when wine ran short at the table of his cousin Celsa, he blessed an 
empty cask, which was immediately filled. 

1. The Battle of Tolbiac; Clovis instructed and baptized by Remi; 




THE TENTH TAPESTRY OF ST. REMI, DAMAGED BY SHELL-SPLINTERS ON 

SEPT. 4, 1914 

(See description pp. 110-111.) 



Ill 

the miraculous dove and an angel bring from heaven the Sacred Ampulla and 
the fleur-de-lys scutcheon. 

5. Remi gives Clovis a cask of wine, telling him that he will always be 
victorious so long as the cask remains full; a miller who refused to give his 
mill to the Church, sees his wheel turn the wrong way and his mill fall down ; 
St. Genebaud, Bishop of Soissons, punished by Remi for his sins, is after- 
wards delivered from his fetters by the saint. 

6. The miracle of Hydrissen : Remi raises a man from the dead, who con- 
firms his wish to leave a portion of his wealth to the Church, to the confusion 
of his son-in-law who contested the will. 

7. Remi contemplating a heap of corn which he had collected to provide 
against famine, and which some drunkards had burnt. At a Council, Remi 
paralyses the tongue of a heretic priest, and then restores speech to him after 
repentance. 

8. Remi, singing Matins in the chapel of the Virgin, is assisted by St. 
Peter and St. Paul and blessed by Mary. Remi. blind, dictates his will in the 
presence of St. Genebaud and St. Medard. Remi recovers his sight, celebrates 
mass and gives the Communion to his clergy. Remi dies and four angels carry- 
away his soul. 

9. Remi's funeral ; the procession goes towards the church of St. Timothy, 
where it is proposed to bury the saint, but in front of St. Christopher's, on 
the site of the present basilica, the saint, by making it impossible to lift his 
coffin, manifests his desire to be interred in this chapel. The saint's winding- 
sheet, carried in procession, dispels the plague that had been ravaging the 
city. 

10. Angels transfer the relics of the saint to his mausoleum. A soldier who 
had tried to break in the door of the church, cannot withdraw his foot. Remi 
punishes the Bishop of Mayence, guilty of theft. Remi reveals himself with 
the Virgin and St. John. The Archbishop of Rheims, Robert de Lenoncourt, 
kneeling, presents the ten pieces of tapestry to the saint. 

The latter tapestry was riddled with splinters {photo, p. 110) during the 
bombardment of September 4, 1914. 



The Treasure 

This was kept in the sacristy, the 15th century carved wood doors of which 
have Flamboyant style frames. 

Formerly the richest of all the church treasures of France, it was impover- 
ished in the course of the centuries, through wars and revolutions. 

The enamels by Landin of Limoges (1633), dedicated to the lives of St. 
Timothy and St. Remi, a 12th century abbot's crozier, reliquaries and 
sacerdotal ornaments are noteworthy. 

The treasure was removed, together with the doors of the sacristy, by the 
Historical Monuments Department. 



The North Transept 

Three small white marble Gallo-Roman or Carolingian capitals crown the 
colonnettes of the triforium. 

Formerly, the church contained several tombs. Let into the wall of the 



112 

north transept is a Latin epitaph, praising the virtues of a woman named 
Guiberge, who seem- to have combined in her person the perfections of six 
women, i.e. the heaut> ol Uachcl, the fidelity of Rebecca, llie modesty of 
Susanna, the pietj of Tahitha. the warm alVi-«l ions of Until, and the high 
morals of Anna. 




THE RUINED TRANSEPT 

In the foreground : Renaissance Balustrade round the Choir (see p. 115), at 
the intersection of the Northern Transept. At the back: Inner side of the 

South Transept Door. 

The South Transept 

The first chapel on the right of the apse, against the transept, is the chapel 
of St. Eloi. 

In 1816, forty-eight storied flag-stones, taken from the flooring of the 
sanctuary of the church of St. Nicaise and collected by the architect Brunette, 
were placed there. 

These 14th century lozenge-shaped stones are engraved in black, the hol- 
lowed-out portions being filled with lead. Each stone has a pretty border with 



113 

a square medallion, in the middle of which two or three figures represent a 
scene from the Old Testament, from Noah to Daniel in the lions' den. 

This chapel also contained two very expressive mediaeval statues of painted 
wood and a 14th century Christ, all of which came from the old church of 
St. Balsamic. 

The second chapel on the eastern side of the south transept contained an 
Entombment dating from 1531. In this group, which belonged to the old 
church of the Commandery of the Temple of Rheims, Joseph of Arimathea 
and Nicodemus hold the winding-sheet. Salome, and Mary the mother of St. 
James, stand near the tomb, while the Virgin, overcome with grief, is sup- 
ported by St. John. 




THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY ENTOMBMENT, FORMERLY IN ONE OF THE 
CHAPELS OF THE SOUTHERN TRANSEPT (Cliche LL.) 



Facing this Burial Scene was the Altar-screen of the Three Baptisms, the 
work of Nicolas Jacques and the gift of Jean Lespagnol in 1610. This 
screen, which formed the background of the baptismal fonts, represented in 
three bas-reliefs : The baptism of Clovis (on the right), the baptism of Jesus 
by John-the-Baptist (in the center), and the baptism of Constantine (on the 
left). 

The railing round the baptismal fonts belongs to the second half of the 
18th century, and was taken from the church of St. Pierre-le-Vieil. 



114 




SCULPTURED CONSOLES OF COLONNETTES IN THE CHOIR 



The Choir of St. Remi Church 

The Choir was rebuilt by Pierre de Celle. Tbe plan is very like that of the 
choir of the Cathedral, of which it is the prototype. 

As in the Cathedral, it intrudes upon the nave, of which it occupies the 
three last bays. In the latter, the columns placed against the six piers were 
removed. The groups of small columns which support the ribs of the vaulting 
rest upon a corbel-table carried by three consoles {photo above), which in 
turn rest on colonnettes with crocheted capitals. The central consoles are 
ornamented with figures of angels and symbolic animals, while under the 
lateral consoles are statuettes of prophets holding scrolls, on which their names 
are inscribed in painted letters. 

Five circular radiating chapels open out on the vast ambulatory. The 
plan of the latter, like that of Notre-Dame-de-Chalons, evokes all that is most 
original in the Gothic architecture of Champagne. The bays with their al- 
ternations of square-ogival and triangular vaulting do not correspond with 
the breadth of the radiating chapels, which are connected to one another 
by three arcades resting on light columns. In the lower nave, from the 
curiously large number of points of support, it would seem that the builders 
had doubts as to the strength of the pointed style and, by way of precaution, 
greatly increased the number of points of support inside the church and of the 
exterior buttresses. The tribunes rising above the arcades are surmounted 
with a triforium lighted by high windows, which still retain their beautiful 
early 18th century stained-glass. The somewhat stiff figures stand out on a 
uniformly blue ground. In the upper part, apostles, evangelists, and the 
sixteen greater prophets are grouped around a stately Virgin. In the lower 



115 




FRAGMENT OF PASCHAL CHANDELIER DESTROYED BY 
THE BOMBARDMENTS OF 1914 



part, the principal archbishops of Rheims on thrones are seated round St. 
Remi who occupies the place of honour below the Virgin. In the two last 
windows are effigies of Archbishops Samson (deceased in 1161) and Henry of 
France, during whose episcopate Pierre de Celle caused the apse to be built. 

The choir is surrounded by a Renaissance railing which is out of harmony 
with the general scheme. It was erected between 1656 and 1669, at the joint 
expense of the widow of the famous barrister Omer Talon, the Town Council, 
the Duke of Longueville, and the Grand Prior of St. Remi. The sculptor 
Francois Jacques seems to have co-operated therewith. 

The great crown of light hanging at the entrance to the choir was an imita- 
tion of the original crown, destroyed in 1793, and which was garnished with 
ninety-six candles symbolizing the ninety-six years of St. Remi's life (see p. 
108). 

The 18th century high-altar of red marble which, like the cross and the 
six chandeliers, came from the church of the Minims, was crushed beneath 
the falling vaulting. 

At the time of the Revolution (1792) the chandelier (masterpiece of the 
old Rheims metal-founders), which adorned the centre of the Sanctuary, was 
broken and melted down, with the exception of a portion of one of the feet. 
This fragment (photo above), preserved in the Archaeological Museum, was 
destroyed by the bombardment of 1914. 



116 



roMB \M> 

RELIQUARY 
>>> ST. REMI 




The Tomb and Reliquary of St. Remi 

The present tomb, erected in 1847, is only a memorial of the sumptuous 
mausoleum, profusely decorated with gold medals, diamonds and sapphires, 
which was destroyed at the time of the Revolution. 

It is a Renaissance chapel, ornamented with the statues of the original 
tomb, which form by far the most interesting part of the monument. The 
twelve Peers are represented in their coronation robes : the Archbishop, Duke 
of Rheims, carries the Cross ; the Archbishop, Duke of Laon, the sceptre ; 
the Bishop, Count of Beauvais, the royal mantle ; the Bishop, Count of 
Chalons, the ring ; the Bishop, Count of Noyon, the girdle ; the Duke of 
Burgundy, the crown ; the Duke of Aquitaine, the standard ; the Duke of 
Normandy, a second standard ; the Count of Flanders, the sword ; the Count 
of Toulouse, the spurs ; the Count of Champagne, the military standard of 
the King. 

The Reliquary of St. Remi, which is in the mausoleum, dates from 1896. 
It was bought by national subscription and presented to the church on the 
occasion of the centenary of the baptism of Clovis. In the niches of the lower 
part of the reliquary are statuettes of the twelve apostles. Higher up, in 
the recesses of the long sides, enamels illustrating episodes in the life of 
St. Remi are imbedded. On the two ends, two enamels represent the Battle of 
Tolbiac and the Baptism of Clovis. 



117 

Leave the Church of St. Remi by the western doorway, which faces the 
Place de VHopital civil, cross the square, then turn to the right into the Rue 
Simon. The entrance to the Hotel-Dieu Hospital is on the right. 



The Hotel-Dieu 

This hospital is installed in the buildings of the ancient Abbey of the 
Benedictine monks of St. Remi who, for centuries, were the guardians of the 
relics of the famous Bishop of Rheims. 

During the invasion, at the time of the Revolution, the Abbey was trans- 
formed into a military hospital, but it was only in 1827 that it became officially 
the Hotel-Dieu, in place of the old Municipal Hospital {see " Palais de Justice," 
p. 93). The furnishings of the latter were then transferred to the Abbey 
buildings, disaffected since the Restoration. 

Of the ancient abbey, where Charles-le-Simple and the Due Robert were 
proclaimed king, and where several archbishops were elected, only a few 
vestiges remain. Damaged by the fires of 1098, 1481, and 1751, it was com- 
pletely destroyed by the great conflagration of January 15, 1774. The present 
abbey, rebuilt by Duroche, the King's architect, was scarcely finished when 
the Revolution broke out. 

Incendiary bombs dropped by German aeroplanes in August, 1916, de- 
stroyed most of the buildings. 

The monumental facade which faces the Court of Honour is Louis XVI. in 
style. 

The second court, that behind the main buildings, is bordered by a cloister 
built by the Rheims architect, Nicolas Bonhomme, in the first part of the 
18th century, in place of the 13th and 14th century cloister destroyed in 1707. 
The buttresses of the side which abuts on the church of St. Remi, and those 
of the opposite side, are 12th century. 

The marble fountain with bronze furnishings, in the centre of the court, 
was formerly in the Place St. Nicaise. It was erected in 1750 from designs 
by Coustou. 




THE CLOISTKK AND FOUNTAIN OF THE HOTEL-DIEU 



118 




THE GRAND STAIRCASE OF THE HOTEL-DIEU 

Through the windows is seen the North Front of St. Remi. 

At the back of the court, on the left, is an exceedingly fine Louis XVI. 
staircase with wrought-iron handrail (photo above). 

The Lapidary Museum, which was formerly in the crypt of the archi- 
episcopal chapel (.see p. 65), was installed under one of the galleries of the 
cloister in 1896. Of the tombstones, storied floor-tiles, and various carvings 
which it contains, the most remarkable is the Tomb of Jovinus. 

Consul in 367, Jovinus commanded the armies in Gaul, under the Em- 
peror Julian, and successfully resisted three attempts at invasion by the Ale- 
manni. As a Christian, he founded a basilica at Rheims. 

The white marble tomb with carvings is apparently Graeco-Roman of the 
3rd century, and dates back before the time of Jovinus, who died in 370. It 
is possible that Jovinus had the first occupant of the tomb ejected, or that 
he bought an old sarcophagus and had his own portrait affixed to it. 

The chapel installed in the old library of the abbey contained some fine 
Louis XVI. wood carvings (see photo below of the ruins of the chapel). 




CHAPEL OF THE HOTEL-DIEU IN 1919 



119 




The chapter-house of the abbey, which served as a refectory, was rebuilt 
about the end of the 12th century. With its pointed arches, it belonged to 
the early period of Gothic architecture. The most remarkable portion was 
the vestibule facing the cloister. The decoration of the lateral arcades of 
the vestibule included Roman capitals, nearly all of which are intact (photo 
below), and which are of great value from the standpoint of the history of 
art and costumes. In the refectory were the Godard tables made out of a 
single branch of a gigantic oak-tree from the forest of St. Basle. They were 
given to the old Hotel-Dieu by Canon Godard, whose name is incrusted in 
lead in the wood, as a rebus : Go, followed by the figure of a dart (French : 
dard) . 

Near the chapter-house, a round-arched chamber was all that remained of 
the early portion of the abbey. 




^ 






ROMAN CAPITALS IN THE VESTIBULE OF THE 
CHAPTER-HOUSE 



120 



THE GRAND 

I EtCASE 

OF THE 

HOPITAL 

GENERAL 




After visiting the Hotel-Dieu, follow the Rue Simon, which skirts the Ecole 
de Medecine, then turn to the right into the Rue St. Remi. At the end of same, 
tuke the Rue Gambetta on, the left, and follow it as far as the Hopital General 

on the right. 



The Hopital General 

This is the old Order-House of the Jesuits, built at the beginning of the 
17th century. The refectory is ornamented with rich woodwork and paint- 
ings, by the Rheims artist Helart. Of greater interest is the library, situated 
under the gables, and which is reached by a fine staircase. The room is 
adorned with a profusion of wood-carvings and mouldings. Exceedingly fine 
consoles carry the ceiling, whose carved panels are profusely ornamented with 
crowns, polygons, florets and heads of angels. The oaken pilasters which 
separate the bookshelves are decorated with a variety of leaves and flowers. 
In spite of this wealth of ornament, the general effect is harmonious. The 
recesses in the woodwork, opposite the dummy dormer-windows, were for 
reading. 

Ancient vines cover the walls of the chapel, near the entrance to the 
hopital. 

At the side of the Hopital General stands the Church of St. Maurice. 

This church was entirely rebuilt by the Jesuits after the destruction of the 
ancient edifice, which was one of the oldest in Rheims. Here may be seen 
the Eagle Reading-Desk, a fine piece of 17th century wood-carving ; two 
Louis XIV. portable iron desks and the paschal chandelier of carved wood ; 
the 17th century confessionals of the lateral chapels, and in the sacristy re- 
markable Louis XIII., hand-embroidered guipures of open-work designs, after 
the style of the models by the Rheims artist, Georges Baussonnet. 

Return to the Place du Parvis, in front of the Cathedral, via the Rue Gam- 
betta and its continuation, the Rue Chanzy. 



121 



A VISIT TO THE B ATTLEFIEJLDS 
AROUND RHEIMS 




A thorough visit can he made in two days. 

The Itinerary for each day is divided into two parts, to allow tourists to 
return to Rheims for lunch. 

r- . r» \ Morning PP- 122-133. 

F,r8t ° ay j Afternoon PP- 134-159. 

, „ \ Morning PP- 160-165. 

Second Day - ^^ pp _ ^^ 



122 



FIRST DAY 

MORNING 

THE MOUNTAIN OF RHEIMS 

(See the complete Itineraries on />. 121, and the summary of the war 
operations on p. L31.) 



REIMS 



Gueux 




OO Kilometres 



This part of the Itinerary will take the tourist to the most important 
points of the last German offensive of 1918, which aimed at the capture of 
Rheims. 

Starting from the Place du Parvis Notre-Dame, take the Rue Libergier, op- 
posite the Cathedral, turn to the right into the Rue Chanzy, follow same as far 
as the Rue de Vesle, take the latter on. the left, and follow it to the end. 

After the Porte de Paris (see p. 68) the Rue de Vesle becomes the Avenue 
de Paris. Take same, but after passing under the railway bridge, turn to the 
left into the Avenue d'Epernay (R.N. 51, see plan, p. 121). 

Take the second street on the right (Rue de Bezannes) , which passes in front 
of the Western Cemetery, devastated by the bombardments. 

The road crosses numerous lines of trendies and boyaux, which defended 
the immediate approaches to Rheims. 



123 



Before reaching Bezannes village, leave on the right two roads which skirt 
a large estate enclosed with railings, go straight on to the ruined railway- 
station of Bezannes, then turn to the right. 



Bezannes 

(See Itinerary p. 122.) 

• Cross the first group of half-ruined houses, then, on reaching a second 
group, which forms the main part of the village, turn to the left into the first 
street encountered, where the partially destroyed church stands. 

The round-vaulted apse, tower, nave and aisles all belong to the Roman- 
esque period. The Gothic doorway is 13th, and the spire of the belfry 15th 
century. 

The square tower greatly resembles the old belfry on the doorway of St. 
Remi Church in Rheims, and, like the latter, dates apparently from the middle 
of the 11th century. 

The Gothic doorway of the west front is set up against a Romanesque 
wall. The gable has been rebuilt in modern times. Vestiges of an ancient 
portal are to be found on each side of the doorway. The keystones of the 
arch above the tympanum, like those of the upper arching, are numbered in 
Roman figures, a peculiarity rarely to be found. 

Facing the doorway of the church, on the left of the great entrance-door 
to a court, is a niche containing a 16th century stone statue representing a 
bishop wearing a chasuble. 

In the court of the same house, over the door of the main structure, on 
the right, in an arched Renaissance niche, hollowed out and ornamented 
with marble incrustations, is the statue of a canon with folded hands 
kneeling at the foot of a cruci- 
fixion. 

A shell-splinter took off the head 
of the bishop's statue, but the other 
group is intact. 

Those interested in things pre- 
historic, may visit the Pistat 
Collection at Bezannes, which con- 
tains a great number of interest- 
ing specimens belonging to the 
stone and neolithic ages, and to 
the Gallic and Roman periods of the 
region. 

Of the old castles of Bezannes, 
nothing of interest remains. 

On September 11, 1914, during 
the Battle of the Marne, the Ger- 
man Staff took up their quarters 
in the house of M. Poullot. On the 
12th, the battle attained the vicinity 
of the village. 

Skirt the church, and at the 
cross-roads at the end of the village, 
keep straight on, past the cemetery 
on the right. 




CHURCH OF BEZANNES IN 1914 



124 

The road climbs a small hill lined with trenches, then descends to the vil- 
lage of Les Mesneux. 

It the entrance to this village {which is of no particular interest) turn to 
the right, and at the fork about fifty yards farther on, to the left, leaving the 
unmetalled road on the right. 

About half-a-mile from Les Mesneux and shortly before reaching the cross- 
ing with the road to Rheims (G.C. 6), there is a small wood at the place called 
Le Champ Clairon. Il was from here that German batteries under Colonel 
von Roeder fired on Rheims on September 4, 1914, in spite of the protestations 
of the Mayor of l.<-s Mesneux, who assured the German commander that the 
French troops had completely evacuated the town. 

At the crossing with G.C. 6, keep straight on to Ormes, whose church, at 
the entrance to the village, was almost entirely destroyed. 



Ormes 

(See Itinerary, p. 122.) 

This village, in addition to numerous subterranean passages and chambers, 
possesses the interesting 12th century Church St. Remi (photo below). 

Its circular apse with cornice resting on corbels is barrel-vaulted. Colon- 
nettes in the great bays of the steeple (in ruins) carry carved 12th century 
capitals. 

The pointed vaulting of the southern transept is 12th century, and the 
ogival groining rests on Norman capitals. The doorway of the western facade 
dates from the second half of the 12th century, and although its porch was 
destroyed in 1853 it is still remarkable. 




THE CHURCH OF ORMES 



125 




THE INSIDE OF ORMES CHURCH 



It comprises three tierce-pointed arcades surmounted by a line of billet- 
moulding. The lateral arcades are blind, while the higher central arcading 
around the door is surmounted with three receding tori resting on crocketted 
foliate capitals. The lateral arcades have similar capitals but only one 
torus. 

Inside the church are interesting 16th century statues; St. Barbara in 
stone and St. Catharine, painted and decorated, face the altar ; St. Remi in 
stone, remarkable for its costume and decoration, stands above the altar of the 
northern chapel; a wooden Virgin surmounts the inner doorway. 




ALTAR-SCREEN OF THE CHOIR 



126 





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THE ROAD FROM RHEIMS TO .IOUY, NEAR THE 
LATTER VILLAGE 

Note the camouflaging. 



Return by the same road to the crossing with the road to Rheims (G.C. 6), 
where, opposite the Cafe du Joyeux Laboureur, turn to the right. 

The road rises towards the Mountain of Rheims. Of the camouflaging 
seen in above photograph, only traces remain. 

Shortly after, the tourist passes between the villages of Jouy and Pargny, 
whose houses border the road. Jouy (on the left) and Pargny (on the right) 
were bombarded by the Germans in June, 1915. 

The Church of Jouy, visible from the road to Rheims, was almost entirely 
destroyed. 

To visit the church of Pargny, turn to the right opposite the grocery stores, 
No. 262, then take the second street on the left (near a fine mansion partly in 
ruins). 

About 100 yards further on is the church, the belfry of which was destroyed. 
Return to the crossing with the main road to Rheims, ivhere turn to the right. 

The road continues to climb the northern slopes of the Mountain of Rheims. 
On a bill to the left, the Chapel of St. Lie dominates the surrounding plain. 
There is a very fine view of Rheims from here. 

The top of the rise is reached soon afterwards. Descend the southern slopes, 
passing between the sidings of an important material and ammunition depot 
situated on the reverse side of the mountain out of sight of the enemy's 
observation-posts. On reaching the crossing half-way down the hill, leave on 
the left the two roads leading respectively to Ville Dommange and Courmas. 

A short distance further on, after passing the road to Onrezy (on the left), 
take the following narrow road on the left, which passes between clumps of trees 
that were cut to pieces by shell-fire. 

A little further on, on the right, is a cemetery containing the graves of some 
two hundred French, British and Italian soldiers. 

Turn to the right after the cemetery. The road crosses a fine avenue bor- 
dered with shell-torn poplar trees, leading to the Castle of Commetreuil on 
the left. The village of Bouilly is reached soon afterwards. 



127 




THE END OF BOUILLY VILLAGE 

(going towards St. Euphraise) . 



Bouilly — St. Euphraise — Clairizet 

{See pp. 131-132, and Itinerary, p. 122.) 

Bouilly was burnt by the Germans on September 12, 1914, under the 
pretext that the inhabitants had caused the death of two Uhlans killed the 
day before by French Chasseurs. 

Turn to the right opposite the Church of Bouilly. There is a small ceme- 
tery on the right, just outside the village, containing several German graves. 

On reaching G.C. 6, leading to Rheims, turn to the right. Take the first 
road on the left, which passes through a small devastated wood, where batteries 
of guns were posted. Cross a small stream, and immediately afterwards the 
railway, then turn to the left into the village of St. Euphraise. 

Turn to the right in the village, opposite the church. The road rises steeply 
to the hamlet of Clairizet, which was almost entirely destroyed. Pass by 
a " Calvary," composed of four large trees surrounding a cross, then turn to 
the left into a small narrow street. 




RUINED CHURCH OF ST. EUPHRAISE 



128 




COULOMMES VILLAGE SEEN FROM THE CHURCH 



Coulommes-la-Montagne — Vrigny 

(See Itinerary, p. 122.) 

The road rises, then descends to Coulommes-la-Montagne. Turn to the 
right at the entrance to the village. The church, in ruins, is on the left. 

At the cross-roads just outside the village take G.C. 26 on the left. At 
first, the road dips rather abruptly, then rises to Vrigny. 

The Church of Vrigny, entirely in ruins, is on the right at the entrance to 
the village. Pass the town hall, leaving a public washing-place on the left, 
then turn to the right. 

On leaving the village, take G.C. 26 on the left to the village of Gueux. 






V- ~ V^TT' >'%«&** W5T* ' t 




>• --*^»' 




RUINS OF THE CHURCH AT VRIGNY 



129 




RUINS OF THE CHURCH OF CUEUX IN 1918 

Gueux 

(See pp. 131-132 and Itinerary, p. 122.) 

Gueux is a small old-world village, with ancient houses, castle and church. 

At the entrance to the village, a large square with trees, cut to pieces and 
devastated by the bombardment. 

From the square, go to the Church On the right, now a heap of ruins. Seen 
through the trees from the square it forms a pitiful sight. 

In the chapel, on the left of the main entrance, there was a fine piece of 
Renaissance carving. 

It was to Gueux that the Archbishop of Rheims, Mgr. Lugon, betook 
himself after the bombardments of April, 1917. The village cemetery contains 




GUEUX CHURCH IN 1917 
Cardinal LuQOti coming out of the Church {see above). 



130 




THE ANCIENT CASTLE OF GUEUX 

many soldiers' graves. The Cardinal-Archbishop of Rheims presided at a 
pathetic ceremony held during the War in honour of the dead. 

To visit the Castle, cross the square and take a small street on the left, 
which leads to the road to Rosnay (G.C. 27). 

Turn to the left, and fifty yards further on take on foot the narrow street 
on the left, which leads to the old castle. 

This ancient castle, where the Kings of France, on their way to Rheims to 
be consecrated, used to dine, suffered severely from the bombardments. Out- 
wardly it has, however, retained its general appearance (photo above). 

Return to the car, and go straight on to the fork in the roads to Rosnay and 
Premecy. Facing the fork is the entrance to the park and modern Castle of 
Gueux, belonging to the Roederer family, which was completely destroyed 
(photo below). 

Turn the car round at the above-mentioned fork and continue straight along 
G. C. 27. 

Beyond the village of Gueux the road crosses numerous lines of trenches. 
Many shelters and ammunition depots can still be seen along the road. The 
National Road from Rheims to Soissons (N. 31) is reached soon afterwards. 
Near the cross-ways are the ruins of an inn. 

At this crossing, leave the National Road on the left and take the narrow 
road on the right which leads to Thillois. 




THE MODERN CASTLE OF GUEUX 



131 




CROSSING OF THE THILLOIS AND RHEIMS ROADS 



Thillois 

(See Itinerary, p. 122.) 

The Church of Thillois (late 12th century), now a heap of ruins, stood 
at the entrance to the village. 

In 1914 it was still intact in all its vital parts. Its vaulting was pointed, 
with groining resting on columns, whose capitals were either Romanesque or 
Gothic. The nave had a timber roof. 

The high-altar screen was a fine piece of sculptured stone-work of late 
16th or early 17th century. In a niche above the altar, the Virgin, sitting on 
an X-shaped seat, was holding Jesus, clothed in a tunic and standing on her 
knee. 

Leaving the church behind on the right, turn to the left, to reach the 
National Road. On the right is a small 18th century castle, behind a clump of 
fine stately trees, known as the Bosquet de Thillois. It was destroyed by shells. 

Return to the National Road, turn to the right at the cross-roads, leaving on 
the left the road to Champigny, then return direct to Rheims, entering the city 
by the Avenue and Porte de Paris. 

The Mountain of Rheims Battles 

(See p. 14 and p. 122.) 

The fighting known as the Battles of the Mountain of Rheims took place in 
1918 over the whole of the area described above, i.e. from Bouilly to Thillois, 
via St. Euphraise, Coulommes, Vrigny and Gueux (see the Michelin Illustrated 
Guide: The Second Battle of the Marne). 

The Mountain of Rheims prolongs the region of Tardenois to the east. 
Il is an important military position between the Vesle and the Marne, as it 
dominates the plain of Champagne. The higher part of it is finely wooded, 
while on the lower slopes and eastern and southern edges are the famous 
Champagne vineyards (see Verzenay, pp. 171-172). 



132 



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During the year 1918 the Germans made tremendous efforts to carry this 
position, the loss of which would have meant the fall of Rheims, leaving 
Epernay and Chalons-sur-Marne unprotected. 

Although held to the east of Mountain, they obtained important successes 
on the west, where they reached the Marne, while in May they occupied the 
Woods of Courton and Le Roi. In July they crossed the Marne and advanced 
as far as Montvoisin, on the road to Epernay. Very fierce fighting took place, 
especially to the north-west of the Mountain at Bouilly, Bligny, St. Euphraise 
and Vrigny. These positions, and Hill 240 to the west of Vrigny, were several 
times lost and recaptured by the Allied troops under General Berthelot, French, 
Italian and British, who fought there side by side. 

Vrigny was taken by the Germans on May 30, but retaken by the Allies 
on June 1 at the point of the bayonet. The same evening, four German 
regiments, after progressing slightly in the direction of Hill 240, were first 
checked, then driven back after bitter hand-to-hand fighting. 

On June 9, the Germans were repulsed around Vrigny, after having sus- 
tained severe losses. On the 23rd, they rushed Bligny Hill, held by Italian 
troops, reaching the summit, but were shortly afterwards driven back. On 
the 29th, they sustained a like check at the same place. 

In July they advanced their lines slightly toward Marfaux, Pourcy and 
Cuchery, but were unable to hold the captured ground. On the 18th, the 
Italians advanced in the region of Bouilly. On the 19th, Franco-British troops 
progressed towards St. Euphraise. On the 21st, the Allies carried Bouilly 
and St. Euphraise. On the 24th and 25th, in spite of desperate repeated 
efforts, the Germans were unable to hold Hill 240 which they had temporarily 



133 

captured. On August 1 further enemy efforts to carry the Bligny uplands 
failed. 

The region of Gueux— Thillois— Champigny was terribly ravaged by the 
war. 

On September 11. 1914, the French 5th Division, under General Mangin, 
drove the enemy from these positions, which remained in the French lines 
until May 30, 1918. Occupied by the Germans on May 31, after fierce 
fighting, they were completely devastated by artillery fire. Retaken by the 
French, then lost again in July, Thillois was finally recaptured on August 2, 
at the same time as Gueux. 

On August 4, after having reached the Vesle at several points east of 
Fismes, French troops engaged a vigorous battle between Muizon and 
Champigny, and some of them succeeded in crossing the river the same day. 

Champagne Wine 

Wine-growing has always been a favourite industry in this part of France. 
The vineyards extend over the Rheims hills and along the valley of the Marne. 
In the hilly country around Rheims there are two distinct growths of wine: 
the Montague proper, with its famous Verzy, Verzenay, Mailly, Ludes, Rilly 
and Fillers " crus," and the Petite Montague with its secondary " crus " of 
the Tardenois Valley, Hermonville Hills, St. Thierry, Nogent I'Abbesse and 
Cernay-les-Reims. The Montague produces more especially black grapes for 
white wines. 

Champagne wines were famous as far back as the 16th and 17th centuries. 
Henri IV. had a marked preference for the wines of Ay. The magnitude of 
the cellars still to be seen in the 16th and 17th century houses testifies to the 
importance of a trade, whose main outlets were Paris, Flanders, Belgium and 
Germany. 

The Champagne wines of that period were red, and rivals of the famous 
Burgundy wines. 

The vogue of Champagne wines as understood to-day dates back to the 
end of the 17th century. It was Dom Perignon, cellarer of the Abbey of 
Hautevillers, near Epernay, who, if not actually the inventor of sparkling 
wines, first undertook to perfect them by blending the " crus " and preparing 
them with greater care. 

In the last years of the reign of Louis XIV., and still more so under the 
Regency, the use of Champagne at Court gained ground, especially at the 
tables of the Due de Vendome and the Marquis de Sillery. 

At that time Champagne was merely a " creamy " wine, i.e., semi-sparkling. 
The low breaking strain of the glass of those days would not have allowed 
of the higher pressure (six atmospheres) of the present-day wine. The 
discovery of the chemist Francois, who in 1836 at Chalons invented a special 
" densimeter," made it possible to calculate the amount of carbonic acid gas 
contained in the must, and to proportion the expansive force of the wine to the 
strength of the bottles, thus reducing losses by breakage, which for long had 
been very serious. 

From the 19th century onwards, the production of Champagne wine has 
grown unceasingly. The number of bottles of sparkling Champagne placed on 
the market for sale in France and abroad rose from 19,145,481 (of which 
16,705,719 went abroad) between April, 1875, and April, 1876, to 33,171,395 
(of which 23,056,847 went abroad) between April, 1906 and April, 1907. During 
the first ten months of 1915, the exports of Champagne and sparkling wines 
were 630,140 wine-quarts, as against 1,092,660 wine quarts in 1914. 



134 



FIRST DAY (Continued) 
AFTERNOON 

ST. THIERRY HEIGHTS— LE GODAT— THE GLASS-WORKS OF 
LOIVRE— BRIMONT— THE " CAVALIERS DE COURCY " 

(See complete Itineraries, />. 121. and summary of the military operations, 

pp. 147 and 154.) 




/^Haubette 'iVs) 



135 

Starting from the Place du Parvis-Notre-Dame, follow the morning's Itinerary 
(p. 122) as far as the railway bridge, then continue straight along the Avenue 
de Paris </V. 31). Before leaving Rheims the tourist can, if desired, visit 
Haubette Park. In this case, turn to the left, opposite No. 10, Avenue 
de. Paris, into the Rue Flin des Oliviers. The entrance to Haubette Park 
(an annex of the Calmette Dispensary) stands at the beginning of this street, 
on the right. 

Napoleon I. bivouacked in this park while his troops attacked Rheims in 
1814. A monument and a small museum commemorate the event. At the 
end of 1914 Haubette Park was a favourite recreation ground and refuge 
for the inhabitants of the city during the bombardments. 

Return to the function of N. 31 (which leads to Fismes) with G.C. 6 (the 
road to Ville-en-Tardenois) . Take N. 31 on the right. About 1 km. from the 
fork take the first road on the right. 

On reaching Tinqueux turn to the left at the entrance to the village, and 
follow the main road. 



Tinqueux — Mont St. Pierre 

The church of Tinqueux (St. Peter's) was entirely destroyed. It contained, 
on the left side of the nave, a remarkable 16th century painting on wood, 
representing the Adoration of the Shepherds, with a frame of the same 
period. 

Near the church, between the Vesle and the main street of the village, stood 
an old baronial mansion, in front of which was a building with turreted fagade 
known as the Maison de la Salle. Inside the buildings which, in later years, 
served as a farm, there was a curious old wooden staircase with railed 
balustrade. The whole was destroyed by the shells. 

In September, 1914, at the beginning of the bombardment of Rheims, 
many of the people took refuge at Tinqueux. 

At the end of the main street of the village, opposite a kind of observation- 
post with ladder in a tree, turn to the right. The road passes at the foot of 
Mont St. Pierre, whose village and church entirely disappeared in the 17th 




THE MAIN STREET OF TINQUEUX VII.I.ACE 



136 

century. Ii was t" replace the church of Mont St. Pierre that the church of 
St. Pierre de Tinqueux ua^ buill al the end of the 17th century. 

The road turns abruptly and actus the / esle. Turn to the right and cross 
tin- rivet in reach St. Brice. 



St. Brice — Champigny — Merfy 

(See Itinerary, p. 134.) 

Turn In the right at the entrance to the tillage and take the first street on 
the right, which leads to the church. 

The Church of St. Brice was almost enlirely destroyed. In style, it is 




THE RUINED CHURCH OF CHAMPICNY 



Romanesque, with Renaissance doorway and aisles. The door of the west 
front contains interesting carvings — unhappily much mutilated. 

Return by the same way to the cross-roads in front of the bridge over the 
Vesle, turn to the right, then, about 150 yards further on, to the left. Continue 
straight ahead, cross the raihvay (L.C.) and follow the railway on the left. 

About half a mile further on an avenue on the right leads to the Chateau 
de la Malle. Both the castle and grounds were badly damaged by the bom- 
bardment. 

Standing in the park with magnificent avenues of beech-trees, the castle 
is one of the most ancient manors in the vicinity of Rheims. It was rebuilt 
in one story at the beginning of the 14th century on the old foundations. 
The decoration of the interior (Louis XVI.) is interesting. The drawing- 
room has retained its old wainscoting and paintings. A carved shield bearing 



137 

the arms of the Cauchon family, a member of which, the Bishop of Beauvais, 
sided with the English and the Duke of Burgundy against the Dauphin of 
France and Joan of Arc during the Hundred Years' War, is still to be seen 
over a door of one of the out-buildings. 

Return by the same road to the Vesle. Cross the river and follow it (as per 
Itinerary, p. 134) , to the village of Champigny. 

Cross straight through the village by the main street, at the end of which 
s:ands the church in a narroiv by-street near the entrance to a park {photo 
p. 136) . 

The little church of St. Theodule is 12th century, except the wooden belfry, 
which was modern. The belfry and roof were destroyed. 




MERFY CASTLE, CONVERTED BY THE CERMANS INTO 
A BLOCKHOUSE 

Gen. Foch had his Headquarters there in 1914. 



On leaving the village, go straight ahead. The road (G.C. 75) folloivs the 
railway on the left. Cross the railway (L.C.). The road passes along the 
marshy valley of the Vesle, then rises towards the St. Thierry Heights. 

At the cross roads of the hamlet of Maco, keep straight on along G.C. 26. 
The road runs between two fairly high embankments containing numerous 
shelters. Slightly before entering the village of Merfy is a cemetery con- 
taining graves of French, British and German soldiers. 

At the entrance to the same village, on the right, stands a castle, severely 
damaged, which, early in September, 1914, served as headquarters to General 
Foch (photo above). 

A little farther is the church, almost entirely destroyed. 

At the church, turn to the right and follow the main street, which is lined 
with houses in ruins. 

On leaving Merfy, cross the railway (L.C.\. The village of St. Thierry 
is reached shortly afterwards. 



138 




ENTRANCE TO ST. THIERRY VILLAGE 

The sign and camouflaging are German. 




ST. THIERRY CHATEAU IN 1914 




ST. THIERRY CHATEAU IN 1919 



139 




ST. THIERRY CHURCH 

(.See other photos, p. 140.) 



St. Thierry 



(See Itinerary, p. 134, and summary of the Military Operations, p. 



147.) 



This village was frequently bombarded by the Germans from 1914 to 1918. 
It is crossed by a narrow, ivinding street containing several sharp turnings. 
Shortly before the end of the village, the street widens abruptly. About a hun- 
dred yards further on is the church, while on the right a monumental door gives 
access to the Chateau of St. Thierry (photos p. 138). 

This castle was built in 1777 by Mgr. de Talleyrand-Perigord, Archbishop 
of Rheims. It replaced the ancient abbey founded in the 6th century by St. 
Thierry, a disciple of St. Remi. Remains of the 12th century chapterhouse, 
ogives, colonnettes and capitals, as well as an old chimney-piece, have been 
rebuilt into the kitchens. The spacious Louis XVI. drawing-room and the 
dining-room were likewise remarkable. 

The church (see photos above and on p. 140) possessed certain remarkable 
features, e.g. the porch, nave and organ-loft. The 12th century porch had a 
17th century pent-house roof. 

Inside the church were Gothic stalls, and a 16th century bas-relief depicting 
The Martyrdom of St. Quentin. 

The church is now in ruins. 

Opposite the castle gate turn to the left into G.C. 26. 

In the embankments along the road are numerous shelters, posts of com- 
mandment, ammunition depots, etc. 



110 



ST. THIERRY 
CHURCH 

t.s\v p. 139) 




RUINED PORTAL 

OF ST. THIERRY 

CHURCH 




RUINS 

OF CHOIR, 

ST. THIERRY 

CHURCH 




141 



RUINS OF 
THIL CHURCH 




Thil — Villers-Franqueux 

(See Itinerary, p. 134.) 

On reaching Thil, turn to the left at the entrance to the village. Go straight 
through. 

The church, entirely in ruins, stands at the end of the village, on a small 
eminence to the right. 

Half-way through the village, on the left, is a road which leads to the St. 
Thierry Fort, via the village of Pouillon. 

The road from Thil to Cormicy was the starting-point of the communicating 
trenches which led to the first lines along the National Road No. 44 and along 
the canal from the Aisne to the Marne, during the long stabilisation period 
of the Berry-au-Bac — Rheims front. All along the road can still be seen, 
practically intact, the military works which were in the immediate rear of 
the front lines, viz., posts of commandment, depots, shelters, etc. At the 
present time, close to the destroyed villages, these shelters are being used by 
the people as habitations. 

Beyond Thil, the road passes between two embankments. Villers-Fran- 
queux is soon reached. The ruined village and church are somewhat to the 
right. 




RUINS OF 
VILLERS- 
FRANQUEUX 



142 



RUINED 

CHURCH OF 

HERMONVILLE 




Hermonville 

Follow the rails, straight ahead, to Hermonville. 

Turn to the left, at the entrance to the village, into the large square, on the 
opposite side of which stands the Town Hall, partially destroyed. The 
Church is on the right. 

This remarkable church is 12th century. The pointed vaulting of the 
nave was raised in 1870, but this had been provided for in the original plans. 
At the intersection of the transept the pointed vaulting is lower. The capitals 
with their finely carved palm-leaves appear to be rather more recent than 
those of the nave, and extend frieze-like round the pillars. The bays of the 
transept-arms and of the two square eastern chapels are round-arched and 
surmounted with a quatre-foil — an arrangement frequently met with in the 
vicinity of Rheims. 

The outer porch, like that of Cauroy-les-Hermonville and St. Thierry, is a 
12th century addition. The depressed arch of the entrance is 17th century. 

The square tower at the corner of the nave and south transept has cubic 
capitals in the twin bays of the second storey. 

The ancient cemetery, which used to surround the church, is bordered 
by old houses. Entrance was gained by a little gate facing the porch, in 
which are incrusted fragments of a 15th century altar-screen representing a 
horseman and a group of persons. 

The village was frequently bombarded by the Germans after the Battle of 
the Marne. In 1916 several inhabitants were killed by shells. 

Leave the church on the right, and follow the Rue Sebastopol, at the end of 
ivhich is an abrupt turning to the left. The road skirts a large house and gar- 
den surrounded by a wall. At the end of the latter, turn to the right into the 
Rue de Sommerville. On leaving the village, turn to the left, then go straight 
on to Cauroy-les-Hermonville. 



143 




CAUROY 
CHURCH 
IN 1914 



Cauroy-les-Hermonville 

Turn to the right at the entrance to the village, then into the first street on 
the left, where stands the half-destroyed Church of Notre-Dame. 

This Church (historical monument) has an original 12th century porch, 
which was mutilated by the bombardments. 

Romanesque in style, it stands out from the remainder of the building 
and extends over the whole breadth of the west front. Its tile-covered roof 
rests on a timber-work frame, whose beams appear to be 16th century. Two 
round-arched openings in the ends of the porch serve as entrances. The 
front is pierced with a number of round arcades. The central door giving 
access to the church is of a later date (16th or 17th century). The capitals 
of the arcadings are 12th century. Their curious decoration represents figures 
of men, animals, birds, scrolls, etc. 

The ruined tower and nave were likewise 12th century. The side-chapels, 
transept-crossing and choir were rebuilt in the 16th century. 



CAUROY 
CHURCH 
IN 1918 




I It 




STREET IN CAUKOY VILLAGE 

(seen from the Porch of the Church. To go from Cauroy to Cormicy, 
take this street opposite the Church.) 



In the interior of the church, the wooden altar-screen over the high-altar 
dated from 1616. The painting which decorated its central panel, and the side 
wood-work of the choir were removed in 1888. The altar-screen (1547) of the 
southern side-chapel was composed of an assemblage of stone statues repre- 
senting The Virgin carrying Jesus, St. Roch, a pilgrim, and St. Stephen, a 
deacon, with the donor kneeling at his feet. 

Under several of the houses in the village are subterranean passages, the 
most noteworthy being that under the old presbytery on the left of the church, 
to which access is gained by a stair of fifty-one steps. 

Leave the village of Cauroy by the street (photo p. 145) which opens up 
opposite the church. 

The road passes through clumps of devastated trees. On the left side of 
the road is a cemetery, containing numerous well-organised shelters. The village 
of Cormicy is next reached. 



Cormicy 

(See Itinerary, p. 134.) 

Turn to the right at the entrance to the village. On either side are tree- 
lined boulevards, which were made on the ancient ramparts. The trees have 
been cut to pieces by the shells. 

Cormicy was formerly a small fortified town with turret, gates, ramparts 
and moats, all of which have disappeared except one gate. The site was 
planted with trees, which surround practically the whole town. The town 
was destroyed in the time of Charles VI., during the Hundred Years' War. 

The present village suffered severely during the German bombardments, 
most of the houses being damaged. In June, 1916, only eighty-three inhabi- 
tants remained in their homes. 



145 




CORMICY CHURCH IN 1914 

The ancient Church was likewise badly damaged (photos above and below). 
While the tower, west front, and the two first bays of the nave are late 15th 
or early 16th century, the greater part of the nave is 11th or 12th century. 
The chevet and the transept-crossing are early 13th century, while the transept 
ends probably date from the middle of 12th century. 

The portal comprises twin doors surmounted with a broad flamboyant 
recess. The doors have been partially mutilated. Above the window 




CORMICY CHURCH IN 1918 



116 




C.C. 32 ROAD ON LEAVINC CORMICY 

{See Itinerary, p. 134.) 



runs a balcony, the Gothic balustrade of which, known as the Gloria Gallery, 
was modern. This balustrade was destroyed by the bombardments, which 
also brought down the steeple. 

The west front has two Gothic doors with 16th century iron-work, at the 
extremity of the aisles. The tympana of these doors, formerly lighted, have 
been bricked up. The lintels have three consoles ornamented with fantastic 
animals and banderoles. Three statues which carried the consoles have long 
since disappeared. 

In the south transept on the left, behind the altar, is an interesting small 
door surmounted with a square lintel of the 11th or 12th century. Two figures 
of winged monsters with heads of a man and a woman and fish tails, stand 
out in high relief, framed and separated by a belt, on which are carved florets 
mingled with fantastic figures. 

The three remarkable 18th century marble altars of the choir and transept 
chapels come from the Church of the Nuns of Longueau, the abbey of which, 
in the Rue du Jard at Rheims, was sold in 1790. The high-altar occupies 
nearly the whole of the chancel. Over the tomb, six columns of grey Dinant 
marble, crowned with Corinthian capitals, support an oval marble cornice 
with richly carved and gilt consoles of wood. The very large, white and gilt 
tabernacle is a fine example of 17th or 18th century wood-work. Its door, 
decorated with symbolic attributes, is surrounded by statuettes depicting. 
in the lower part, St. John the Evangelist and a holy woman wearing crowns; 
above each of these figures, an angel; at the top, The Resurrection ol 
Christ. 

The sixteen carved oak stalls of the choir, as well as the wrought-iron 
reading-desk on a marble pedestal, also came from the former Abbey of 
Longueau. 

Near the choir, on a pillar of the nave, is an inscription to the effect that 
the chronicler Flodoard, who died in 966, was Cure of Cormicy. 

The modern Town Hall, built by the Rheims architect, Gosset the elder, 
which faced the church, was entirely destroyed. 



147 




All the places visited since leaving Merfy, i.e. St. Thierry, Thil, Villers- 
Franqueux, Hermonville and Cormicy, border the St. Thierry Heights. The 
latter are commanded by the fort of the same name and the Chenay Redoubt, 
with altitudes of about 670 and 620 feet respectively. They were recaptured 
from the Germans after the Battle of the Marne on September 11th, 1914, by 
the French 3rd Corps. 

After the loss of the Chemin-des-Dames and the Aisne Canal on May 27, 
1918, this position, which with its guns commands the road and railway 
from Rheims to Soissons and the road from Rheims to Laon, remained the 
sole protection of Rheims to the north-west. 

It was defended by the French 45th Infantry Division (General Naulin), 
composed of Algerian Sharp-shooters, Zouaves and African Light Infantry, 
who held their ground on May 27-28, after which they were reinforced 
by battalions of Singalese and Marines drawn from the sector east of 
Rheims. 

The struggle was a fierce one, and hand-to-hand fighting frequent. Finally 
the constant inflow of German reserves forced back the French, who, on May 
29, had to abandon the position, to which the enemy afterwards clung for 
four months. On October 1 the Germans, beaten on the previous evening 
by the French 5th Army on the high ground between the Aisne and Rheims, 
was forced to retreat. The French regained possession of Merfy and St. Thierry, 
and advanced as far as the outskirts of the Fort of St. Thierry, which, with 
Thil and Villers-Franqueux, Hermonville, Couroy and Cormicy, fell into their 
hands in the course of the next few days (see map above). 



1-18 




DESTROYED BRIDCE OVER THE CANAL, NEAR LE CODAT 



From Cormicy to Godat Farm 

(See Itinerary, p. 134.) 

Pass straight through Cormicy, leaving the church on the left. Take G. C. 
32 to the Rheims-Laon road (N. 44), where turn to the right. Rather less than 
a mile further on, near the Maison Blanche, is a road leading to Godat Farm. 
Cars can only go as far as the canal, the destroyed bridge {photo above) not 
having yet been rebuilt. The lock4;eeper's house seen in the photograph below 
was completely destroyed. 

Cross the canal on foot to reach Godat Farm, situated about 300 yards 
further on. 

Le Godat, formerly a small fief with a castle and chapel (destroyed during 
the Revolution in 1793), was merely a farm and a plain country house when 




THE LOCK-KEEPER S HOUSE AT LE CODAT 

(Now destroyed.) 



149 







s 



• *; . 



RUINS OF LE GODAT FARM 

the war broke out. By reason of its position, north of the Aisne Canal, 
this bridgehead was, throughout the war, one of the most fiercely disputed 
points in the sector north-west of Rheims, even during the period of trench- 
warfare. At the time of the French offensive of April, 1917, the 44th Infantry 
Regiment advanced beyond Le Godat, where the French held their ground 
until the powerful German push of May 27, 1918. 

The farm is now a mere heap of ruins. Shelters still exist in the basements. 

Return to the National Road, and turn to the left. 

The road crosses numerous boyaux which provided access to the front-line 
trenches down the hill on the right. 

Follow the National Road to Chauffour Farm (in ruins), where take the 
road on the left to Loivre. 

On nearing the canal, the ruins of the village of Loivre (entirely destroyed) 
become visible. 




EMPLACEMENT OF GERMAN HEAVY GUN AT LOIVRE 



150 




RUINS OF THE CHURCH AT LOIVRE 



From Loivre to Brimont 

Loivre. — Visit the village on foot. The canal can only be crossed near the 
lock south-east of the village. The destroyed bridge has been replaced by a 
temporary footway across the bed of the canal, which necessitates climbing 
down and up the banks by steep paths. 

After crossing the canal the tourist passes by the ruins of the Loivre Glass- 
Works, founded in 1864 by the descendants of the noble house of Bigault de 
Crandrupt, glass manufacturers of Argonne. 

Loivre and its glass-works were occupied in September, 1914, by the Ger- 
mans, who deported the inhabitants to the Ardennes. The village and works 




GENERAL VIEW OF THE RUINS AT LOIVRE IN 1919 



151 




SEPULCHRE 
IN THE 
CEMETERY 
AT LOIVRE, 
USED BY THE 
GERMANS AS A 
PHOTOGRAPHIC 
DARK-ROOM 



were re-captured during the offensive of April 16, 1917, by the French 23rd 
and 133rd Infantry Regiments, surnamed Les Braves and Les Lions respec- 
tively. Whilst other battalions outflanked the village and crossed the canal, 
the third battalion of Lions attacked it in front. The position, powerfully 
organised, was stoutly defended. The attacking troops were obliged to come 
to a halt in front of the cemetery (a veritable bastion with concrete casemates), 
and before the ruins of the mill, both of which bristled with machine-guns. 
Withdrawing slightly to allow of a barrage of 75's, they rushed forward again 
under the protection of the latter. The site of the mill and the cemetery 
were captured, together with numerous prisoners (122 were taken in one 
machine-gun shelter) . The ruined village was next carried in a bayonet 
charge, to the sound of the bugles. The captures were considerable, one 
battalion of 500 men alone taking 825 prisoners. 

In March and May, 1918, two violent attacks were made on Loivre by the 
Germans, but without success. They took it on May 27, only to be driven 
out on October 4. 

Before the war, a road, which has since completely disappeared, led direct 
from Loivre to Brimont. To reach the latter it is now necessary to go farther 
north, via Bermericourt and Orainville, returning southwards by the Neufchdlel 
to Rheims road (see Itinerary, p. 134) . 

Bermericourt.— This hamlet, of Gallo-Frankish origin, was formerly more 
populous. The bombardments have literally wiped it out. 

From Bermericourt the tourist reaches Orainville by G.C. 30, which becomes 
l.C. 2 after crossing the boundary line between the " departments " of the Marne 
and the Ardennes. At the entrance to the ruined village, near the church, turn 
to the right into l.C. 12, which, 1 kilometer further on, joins the road from 
Ncufchdtel to Rheims {G.C. 9), where turn to the right. 

Follow this road for four and a half kilometers to the ruins of Landau Farm, 
turn to the right, then, about 200 yards further on, take the road on the left to 
the village of Brimont, entirely destroyed. 



152 




ALL THAT REMAINS OF BERMERICOURT VILLACE 



Brimont Fort and Chateau 

(See Itinerary, p. 134, and summary of the Military Operations, p. 154.) 

Situated to the west of the road from Rheims to Neufchatel (formerly a 
Roman causeway which crossed the hill at Cran de Brimont) Brimont was 
already important in Roman times. It was fortified in the Middle Ages, 
and traces of its ancient fortifications are still to be found on the hill. The 
discovery of a Roman tomb in 1790 caused considerable excitement in archaeo- 
logical circles, as it was believed to be the burial-place of the Frankish Chief 
Pharamond who, according to one chronicler, had been buried on a hillock 
near Rheims. 

In 1339, during the siege of Rheims by the English, the Duke of Lancaster 
had his camp at Brimont. 




RUINS OF BRIMONT VILLAGE 

In the foreground, on the left: Road to Brimont Fort. On the right: Beginning of 

the road to the Chateau {entirely destroyed.) 



153 




RUINS OF THE CHURCH OF BRIMONT 



On several occasions, since September, 1914, the Germans deported the 
inhabitants of Brimont and Coucy to the Ardennes. The village is now 
destroyed and its church a heap of ruins. 

The church was built at the beginning of the 15th century. 

The four last bays of the nave, which was partly Romanesque, were altered 
in the middle of the 16th century. 

The sacristy occupied the lower story of the square, pointed-arch tower. 

Several ancient statues were placed at the entrance to the Choir: St. 
Remi, with a woman in late 15th century dress kneeling at his feet; a Virgin 
offering grapes to the infant Jesus in her arms (late 15th century) and a 
large Christ Crucified, dated from the middle of the 16th century. A beautiful 
18th century lectern of carved wood, representing an eagle standing on a 
massive three-sided pedestal of red and white marble, stood in front of the 
Choir. 




BRIMONT FORT 



i.l 

To visit the Fort of Brimont, skirt the church on the side of the portal stair- 
cose, then take the road seen on the photograph on p. 152. The Fort is about 
100 yards furthei on. 



The Defences North of Rheims and the Fighting 
in that Sector 

The Fort of Brimont, completed by the Battery of the Cran de 
Brimont about a mile to the east, and on the west by the Loivre Battery, 

mentioned on page 151, sweeps the whole country north of Rheims as far as 



Warmenvilie 




REIMS 



The roads shown on the above map are those followed bv the Third Itinerary 

(see p. 160.) 



the banks of the Aisne, Suippe, Retourne and the Aisne-Marne canal, the 
Rheims-Neufchatel, Rheims-Vouziers, Rheims-Rethel and Rheims-Laon roads, 
and the Rheims-Laon and Rheims-Charleville railways. About five miles 
east of Brimont and four miles east of Rheims is the position of Berru 
(see p. 165), extending along a front of about six miles, via the hills of 
Berru and Nogent l'Abbesse. Intended by those who planned it to guard 
the valley of the Suippe, the Rheims-Rethe and Rheims-Vouziers roads, as 
well as the Rheims-Charleville and Rheims-Chalons-sur-Marne railways, it 
comprises the Fort of Witry (about 150 feet in altitude), the batteries of 
La Vigie de Berru (870 feet), and the fort and batteries of Nogent- 
l'Abbesse (670 feet). 

Brimont and Berru are further covered and linked up by the Fort of 
Fresne (360 feet), situated four miles north-east of Rheims. 



155 

These defensive works, conceived and executed after the war of 1870, had, 
in consequence of the evolution of strategical and tactical doctrines, been 
abandoned or disarmed before the war of 1914. After evacuating Rheims 
on September 12, 1914, the Germans grasped the importance of these works, 
to which they clung tenaciously, after hurriedly organising them. It was 
against these naturally strong positions, further strengthed by trenches, that 
the French 5th Army, in pursuit of the enemy, found themselves brought to a 
standstill on the evening of September 12. From September 13 to 18, the 
French tried in vain to capture them. The 5th Division, under General Mangin, 
did succeed in capturing the Chateau de Brimont, in the plain, but were 
unable to hold it. 

Later, the Germans converted these hills into one of the most formidable 
positions organised by them in France. Brimont, Berru, Fresne and Nogent 
lAbbesse, whose guns slowly destroyed Rheims, were,' so to speak, her jailers 
for four years. 

In April, 1917, during the French offensive of the Aisne, one division, 
known as the "Division of aces" (because its four regiments have the 
fourragere decoration), penetrated into Bermericourt and advanced to the 
outskirts of Brimont, but was unable to hold its ground against the furious 
counter-attacks of the Germans. It was only in October, 1918, that the French 
5th Army, in conjunction with the victorious attacks of the 4th Army in 
Champagne, after forcing the Germans back to the Aisne and the canal, and 
after crossing the Aisne canal on October 4 in front of Loivre and near 
Bermericourt, forced the enemy, whose communications were now threatened, 
to abandon one of the most valuable portions of his 1914 positions. On 
October 5, the French re-entered Brimont and Nogent lAbbesse, progressed 
beyond Bourgogne, Cernay-les-Rheims, Beine, Caurel and Pomade, and, in 
spite of desperate enemy resistance, drove back the Germans to the Suippe. 

After visiting the fort return to the village of Brimont. 

From here the Chateau de Brimont may be visited, but this will have to be 
done on foot as the road has been destroyed, traces only of it being left in 
places (the lower photograph on p. 152 shows the beginning of the road in the 
village) . 

The Chateau de l'Ermitage, also known as the Chateau de Brimont, is 
situated about 500 yards south of the village, at the entrance to a large park, 
completely devastated. It was the scene of desperate fighting (see p. 152). 

. Return to Brimont, cross the village (skirting the church) and continue 
straight on to the Cran de Brimont Redoubt on the road to Rheims. Numerous 
German trenches, etc., are to be seen here. 

Turn to the right into G.C. 9, which dips down to the Plain of Rheims. The 
region hereabouts bristle with barbed-wire entanglements and is crossed with 
numerous trenches. It was ranged to an incredible degree by the bombard- 
ments. 

At the bottom of the hill which starts at the Cran de Brimont, cross Soulains 
Wood, of which only a few torn tree-stumps remain. 

Several hundred yards after leaving the wood, take on foot the broken road 
to the " Cavaliers de Courcy," situated on the right, about 500 yards 
further oji. 



156 




THE AISNE CANAL AT THE ' CAVALIERS DE COURCY 



The " Cavaliers de Courcy " 

To the north of La Neuvillette, the Aisne-Marne Canal is flanked on 
both sides by enormous artificial embankments planted with fir-trees and 
known as the " Cavaliers de Courcy." After their retreat in September, 1914, 
the Germans entrenched themselves there and clung to the east bank until 
April, 1917. 

On April 16, 1917, the French 410th Regiment of the Line attacked 
the enemy's formidable positions there. This Brittany regiment set out from 
positions to which they had given names taken from the history of their country 
(Quimper Bastion, Auray, Redon Bastion, etc.). On the first day they carried 
three successive lines of defences, and advanced about a mile. On the 17th 
and 18th they left their zone of action, to ensure the liaison on their right, 
and to help a brigade in difficulties on their left. For eight days they held 
their positions against powerful enemy counter-attacks, after having progressed 
to a depth of two miles and captured more than 400 prisoners, 11 bomb- 
throwers, and an immense amount of stores. 

These positions, like the neighbouring villages, were re-taken by the 
Germans in May and June, 1918, and finally by the Allies in October, 1918. 

Return to the road and follow it towards Rheims. Leave on the left the devas- 
tated Aviation-ground of Champagne — now in a state of complete upheaval, 
due to the terrific shelling it received — then cross the Plain of Betheny {photo 
p. 157). 

The Plain of Betheny was the scene of two important historical events: 
in 1901 the Tsar Nicolas II. reviewed a part of the French Army there ; 
in August, 1909, the Great Aviation Week was inaugurated there, in the 
presence of an immense crowd of spectators. 



157 




GERMAN 
FIRST-LINE 
POSITIONS IN 
BETHENY 
PLAIN 

{see sketch- 
map below) 



Photographed at 7,000 it. from aeroplane, August 6, 1916, at 30 a.m. 



or^ eS 




Trench 
oulposi 



^Shelters Iff feet j/eep connected 
by subterranean tjalkr/es shown 
Tiy dolled /tnes. 



THE CERMAN FIRST-LINE DEFENCES IN THE PLAIN OF BETHENY 

The tourist passes through this region on returning to Rheims, shortly before coming to 
the bridge under the railway. The sketch map explains the photograph above. 



158 

Pass under the Rheims-Laon railway by a very sharp double turning. Pier- 
quin Farm, entirely destroyed, stood on the right a short distance further on. 
The only remaining trace is the torn shapeless carcass of a large iron 
shed. 

The railway embankment south of Pierquin Farm was fiercely disputed 
from September 18, 1914, onwards. Several enemy attacks against it broke 
down before the French 75's. During the offensive of May, 1918, the whole 
of this region was the scene of desperate fighting. La Neuvillette was taken 
on May 30, and Pierquin Farm on the 31st. On August 4, the French, after 
crossing the \isne Canal, advanced to La Neuvillette, where the enemy made 
a desperate stand. At the beginning of October they advancd to the north of 
La Neuvillette, which the enemy was eventually compelled to abandon. The 
last inhabitants had left the locality on July 12, 1916. 

The tourist enters Rheims by the Rue de Neujchdtel and the Avenue de 
Laon. 



La Neuvillette 

On reaching the Avenue de Laon, the tourist, instead of entering Rheims, 
may turn to the right and go northwards as far as the village and cemetery of 
La Neuvillette. 

The cemetery of La Neuvillette is on the right of the road, between the last 
houses of Rheims and the village. It was completely cut up by a network of 
first-line trenches (photos p. 159). 

The village of La Neuvillette, now in ruins, was the scene of desperate 
fighting during the German offensive of May, 1918. 

Nothing remains of the 12th century church of John-the-Baptist. 

The glass-works north-west of the village, by the side of the canal, are 
now a heap of ruins (photo p. 159). 

Return to Rheims by the same road. 




THE ROAD TO RHEIMS AT NEUVILLETTE 



159 



■ . | 




THE CLASS-WORKS AT NEUVILLETTE 




DRESSING-STATION AT NEUVILLETTE 




THE CEMETtiRY AT NEUVILLETTE 



160 



SECOND DAY 

MORNING 

FRESNES FORT— WITRY-LES-REIMS— BERRU— 
NOGENT L'ABBESSE— BEINE 

(See complete Itineraries, p. 121, and map on p. 154.) 




This Itinerary will lead the tourist through the region of the Forts to the 
north-east of Rheims, which formed the rear of the German lines during the 
stabilisation period of 1914-1918. 

It was this line of forts that, in the German hands, held the French in 
check after the first Battle of the Marne. Practically the whole of these 
works were but little damaged by the relatively light bombardments, and 
have retained traces of the German organisation. 

Leave Rheims by the Avenue de Laon (which begins at Les Pomenades, 
opposite Mars Gate), and the Rue de Neufchdtel (second street on the right), 
Sortie No. IX. of the Michelin Tourist Guide (see coloured plan, pp. 32-33) . 



161 




RUINS OF THE CHURCH AT BOURCOGNE 



Follow in the contrary direction the route described in the preceding Itin- 
erary (p. 134 to p. 159) as far as the crossing in the Bermericourt-Bourgogne 
road, where stood Landau Farm, now entirely in ruins. At this crossing take 
G.C. 30 on the right. German camouflaging is still visible on the right-hand side 
of the road. 



Bourgogne — Fresnes 

The village of Bourgogne, entirely in ruins, is soon reached. 

The village is of very ancient origin. Formerly it was protected by a 
belt of moats, now partly filled in, and by earthern ramparts, almost every- 
where levelled. The lines of these moats, planted with rows of elm-trees, 
are clearly distinguishable. There is a very extensive view from this original 
site. 

A portion of the village was burnt by the Germans who, in 1916, destroyed 
the belfry of the church with dynamite. 

This church (dedicated to St. Peter and St. Paul), with its fine Romanesque 
tower, was remarkable. 

The greater part of it dated from the 12th and 13th centuries. It is now 
in ruins (photo above). 

Cross straight through the village. Numerous German signs are still to be 
seen. At the cross-roads just outside the village, follow the railway, then cross 
it near the destroyed railway station of Fresnes. The village of Fresnes is 
reached shortly afterwards. 

Turn to the right at the first crossing met with. The church stands about 
100 yards away, on the left. 

Norman in style, the Church of Fresnes comprises a central nave with 
aisles and a tower without transept. It dates back to the 12th century, but 
was several times extensively altered and restored both in the 18th century 
and in recent times. 

A small porcli of limestone added to the northern aisle, is reached by a 



162 



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RUINED CHURCH OF WITRY-LES-RK.I MS 



round Norman bay of stone. In the corner of the porch, to the left on entering, 
is incrusted a fragment of a small funerary monument of the 16th century. 

This church was almost entirely destroyed. 

After turning to the right at the crossing mentioned above, keep straight on. 

About 2 kilometers from Fresnes the road from that village to Witry- 
les-Reims crosses an old Roman causeway, at the side of which, slightly to 
the south of Hill 118. the Fort of Fresnes was built in 1878. This fort was 
blown up by the Germans during their retreat in 1918. Its ruins are impressive. 
In the moats of the fort are German trenches and shelters extending right up 
to the walls of the fort. 

The village of Witry-les-Reims is next reached. It suffered severely from 
the numerous bombardments, which its situation near the first lines rendered 
inevitable. 



Witry-les-Reims 

After crossing the railway (I. c.) at the entrance to the village, keep straight 
on. The ruined church is on the left, near the entrance to the village. 

Except for one tower which dates from the 12th century, the church is 
modern. The spire was destroyed by the Germans. The belfry, used by the 
enemy as an observation-post, was struck by French shells. 

Like many of the villages around Rheims, Witry-les-Reims is of Gallo- 
Roman origin. More than two hundred Gallic sepulchres and cinerary urns 
have been brought to light. The objects thus discovered, including a large 
number of vases, now form the Bourin pre-historic collection. 

After visiting the church keep straight on. At the Mairie, of which only 
the front remains standing, turn to the right into the Rue Boucton-Fayreaux. 
Follow this street to the Place Gambetta {about 200 yards distant), where turn 
to the left. The entrance to " Pommern Tunnel," which connected up the 
German rear and front lines (photo, p. 163), is in this square. 

The German inscriptions in the tunnel have been taken down, and the 
entrance blocked up. on account of the roof and walls giving way. 



163 




ENTRANCE TO " POMMERN TUNNEL " AT WITRY-LES-REIMS 



Leaving the Place Gambetta, take the Rheims-Rethel road {N. 51) on the 
left, then the first street on the right to the Fort of Witry. 

Just outside the village the road crosses the old Roman causeway from 
Rheims to Treves, and a little further on passes to the left of the Fort of Witry. 

The Fort of Witry suffered but little from the bombardments. 

The road climbs the northern slopes of the Berru Hill, across numerous 
German trenches. At the bottom of a short run-doivn, opposite the village of 
Berru, is a crossing of four ways. The road leading to the fort is the one 
straight ahead. 

On the right, among the numerous defences, is a German cemetery con- 
taining a monument to the dead, ornamented with somewhat rudimentary 
carving and bearing an epitaph dedicated to the memory of the German 
soldiers who fell in the battles around Rheims. 

The road continues up the slopes of Berru Hill, to the right of the way lead- 
ing to the auxiliary' battery of the fort of Vigie de Berru. The top of the hill 
is soon reached, on which the fort, known as the " Vigie de Berru,"' stands. 
This fort was little bombarded, and is practically intact. 

Berru Hill, on account of its height, its sulphurous and ferruginous 
waters, flint quarries, and fertile soil, was inhabited in pre-historic times. At 
the summit, a campignien workshop, and farther down, above the springs which 
supply the village with water, a neolithic station have been discovered. 
Thousands of knives, arrow-heads, scrapers, saws, and other primitive tools 
have been unearthed. In the Gallo-Roman times the village must have been 
fairly important, judging by the vestiges of the ancient buildings discovered 
at the foot of the hill. It was near Berru that the Gaulish helmet, now in the 
National Museum of St. Germain, was found. Towards the end of the 16th 
century (about 1575*. during the Leaguers' struggles around Rheims, the 
village was fortified, to protect it from pillaging by the soldiers. The moats 
and glacis which surrounded it are still visible to the south, where, covered 
with trees, llie> adjoin the gardens. Subterranean places of refuge, the 
entrance to which is no longer known, formerly existed underneath the village. 

From the fort, the road winds down tin- opposite slopes of the hill. At 
the bottom of the latter, leave on the right the road to the Fort of Nogent 
1'Abbesse, sec// on the high ground to the right. 



164 




ENTRANCE TO BEINE VILLAGE BY THE ROAD TO NOGENT L ABBESSE 

Nogent 1'Abbesse — Beine — Berru 

(See Itinerary, p. 160, and summary of the Military Operations, p. 154.) 

The village of Nogent 1'Abbesse is next reached, at the entrance to which 
the road divides into three branches. Take the middle one (G.C. 64), which 
leads to the ruined village of Beine. During the run-down to the village, there 
is a fine view of the Champagne Hills in front (Mont Cornillet and Mont Haut). 

The village of Beine was one of the oldest demesnes belonging to the 
Abbey of St. Remi-de-Reims. It was made into a commune at the end of the 
12th century. 

The church of St. Laurent, situated in the centre of the village, was an 
excellent specimen of the transition style of the 12th century (photo below). 

A road leading to Sillery leaves Beine in a south-westerly direction, but 
owing to its bad condition it is impossible to use it for returning to Rheims. 




RUINS OF THE CHLRCH AT BEINE 



165 




BERRU CHURCH 

The trenches and shell holes have barely been filled in, and the temporary 
bridges over the wider trenches would probably break down under a fairly heavy 
car. On the other hand, the huge craters made by the Germans in the course 
of their retreat, have only been summarily repaired and are not practicable 
for motor-cars. Tourists should therefore return to Nogent VAbbesse by the 
road they came by. 

Enter the village by the main street, ivhich follow as far as the church, whose 
belfry has been destroyed. 

After the church, take the first street on the right, then the second road on 
the left (G.C. 64), which leads to Berru. In front of the village, turn to the 
left and cross straight through. The 12th century Church of St. Martin, which 
suffered only slightly from the bombardments, is in the middle of the village, 
on the left (photo above). 

On leaving Berru, the tourist comes again to the crossing mentioned on 
p. 163. Turn to the right and return to Witry-les-Reims by the road previously 
followed. 

At W r itry-les-Reims, take N. 51 on the left, passing by the ruined works of 
Linguet (photo below). 

Rheims is reached by the Faubourg Ceres. Keep straight on to the Place 
Royale, via the Rue du Faubourg Ceres and the Rue Ceres. 




RUINS OF THE LINGUET WORKS 



166 



SECOND DAY (Continued 
AFTERNOON 

LA POMPELLE FORT — SILLERY 

(See complete Itinerary, p. 121.) 



40 k, 



TTer* 



REIMS 

NA*r A Butte de tir 



F me de la Jouissance 



Aub 3 ' 

d'Alcje 




167 



This Itinerary will take the tourist through two regions of entirely different 
characters. 

The first part is devoted to visiting the battlefield south-east of Rheims, 
which was the scene of much desperate fighting throughout the war, but 
especially in 1918. This region formed the pivot of the French right wing, and 
remained firm despite the repeated powerful attacks of the enemy. 

The second part of the Itinerary leaves the battlefield proper, and conducts 
the tourist across the most reputed vine-growing centres of Champagne (Verze- 
nay, Mailly-Champagne, and Ludes), through lovely, picturesque country, which, 
although it has somewhat suffered from the bombardments, has nevertheless 
retained its pre-war aspect. 

Leave Rheims by the Avenue de Chalons, continued by N. 44 (see the plan 
of Rheims between pp. 32 and 33, F. 6 and H. 1). 

The Avenue de Chalons was well within the first-line defences. 

Two communicating trenches run along the footpaths on either side of the 
Avenue. 

Skirt Pommery Park, on the left, completely ravaged by the bombardment 
and the net-work of trenches which cross it. 

As soon as the last houses of the town have been left behind, the tourist 
finds himself in the midst of the battlefield. 

The sector, known as " La Butte de Tir," situated on the left, below 
Cernay and beyond the railway, was the scene of furious fighting throughout 
the German occupation of 1914 to 1918 {photo below K 




THE " BUTTE-DE-TIR " SECTOR 
Listening-post in front of Cernay village. 



108 




J? v >* •.. 

COMMUNICATING TRENCH AT JOUISSANCE FARM (1915) 



The road crosses the Chalons Railway {I. c.) , and goes thence direct to the 
Fort of La Pompelle, passing through an inextricable network of trenches 
and barbed wire entanglements. The country hereabouts was completely 
ravaged by the terriffic bombardments, and recalls the devastated regions 
around Verdun, near Vaux and Douaumont (see the Michelin Illustrated Guide: 
Verdun, and the Battles for its Possession) . 

La Jouissance Farm is next passed. Nothing remains either of it or of 
the road, which started from this point towards Cernay, on the left. 













LA POMPELLE FORT (1918) 



169 




THE MOATS OF LA POMPELLE FORT (1918* 



The Fort of La Pompelle, ivhich is next reached, is now a mere heap of 
ruins. The road which led to the fort no longer exists. To visit the ruins 
of the fort, tourists will have to follow on foot the narroiv-gauge railway which 
starts from the road (photo above). 

Tradition has it that St. Timothy came from Asia to convert Rheims, 
suffered martyrdom, together with St. Apollinaris and several companions, on 
the hill known as La Pompelle, so-called perhaps from the procession (pompa 
or pompella) which, in the Middle Ages, used to visit the place of martyrdom 
of the saints. 

This hill, which rises close to the crossing of the Rheims-St. Hilaire-le- 
Grand and Rheims-Chalons Roads, was fortified after 1870, to flank the 
position of Berru on the south. 

The road from Rheims to Saint-Hilaire-le-Grand (G.C. 7), which used to 
start from the " Alger Inn," at the cross-roads mentioned above, no longer 
exists. Like the inn, it was obliterated by the shelling. A huge crater now 
occupies the site of the Alger Inn (photo below). 




CRATER, WHERE USED TO STAND THE " ALGER INN " 



170 




THE IMMEDIATE VICINITY OF WHAT WAS THE 
" ALCER INN " (1918) 

Continue along N. 44. About 1 kilometre from the fort, at a bend in the 
road, the shattered remnants of trees of an avenue are visible on the left. Under 
the first fir-tree of this avenue, about 20 yards from the national road, is an 
armoured machine-gun shelter, almost intact. 

Cross the railway (/. c.) near the entirely destroyed station of Petit-Sillery. 
After passing a ruined chateau on the left, cross the bridge over the Vesle. At 
the fork beyond the bridge, leave N. 44 and take G.C. 8 on the right to Sillery. 

This village, renowned for its dry wine, is pleasantly situated on the banks 
of the Vesle. Throughout the war, it was quite close to the trenches and was 
frequently bombarded. In .May, 1916, only some fifty of its inhabitants 
remained in the village, which subsequently suffered very severely, especially 
in 1918. 

Take a turn in the village, then folloiv N. 44 towards Chalons (see Itinerary, 
p. 166). 




THE "PLACE DE LA MAIRE " AT SILLERY (1918) 



171 

The region of Sillery-Pompelle was the scene of much fierce fighting 
throughout the war. After the capture of La Pompelle and the " Alger Inn " 
by the French 10th Corps on the night of September 17-18, 1914, the Germans 
increased the number of their attacks, with a view to regaining these important 
positions. 

One of these attacks (that of December 30, 1914) was preceded by the 
explosion of a mine at the "' Alger Inn," which made a hole 130 feet in diameter 
by 55 feet deep (see photo, p. 1691. After a hand-to-hand fight, the French 
drove back the enemy and remained masters of the crater. 

In 1918. during their offensives against Rheims, the Germans attacked several 
times in this region. On June 1, between Pommery Park (in the south- 
eastern outskirts of Rheims) and the north-east of Sillery, they attacked with 
eight or nine battalions and fifteen tanks. The garrison of Fort Pompelle, 
momentarily encircled, held out until a furious counter-attack by the French 
Colonial Infantry relieved it and drove back the assailants. The German 
tanks were either captured or destroyed. On the 18th, after an hour's intense 
bombardment, the Germans made a fresh attack and secured a footing in 
the Northern Cemetery of Rheims and in the north-eastern outskirts of Sillery, 
but French counter-attacks drove them out almost immediately. From July 15 
to 17 their attacks on Sillery were likewise repulsed. 

Continue along N. 44 to the destroyed Esperance Farm (about 2 kilometres 
distant), then turn to the right. Numerous military' works were made by the 
French in the embankments of the Aisne-Marne canal along the left side of 
the road. 

The road rises toward the " Mountain of Rheims." A white tower, domi- 
nating the whole plain, is seen on the left (photo below). 

Verzenay is next reached by the Rue de Sillery. 




VERZENAY, SEEN IKOM THE VERZENAY — MAILLY — CHAMPAGNE ROAD 



172 




THE OLD MILL AT VERZENAY 



It was at Verzenay that, on the evening of September 3, 1914, the German 
aeroplane, which had dropped bombs on Rheims the same morning, was 
brought down. It lias suffered relatively little from the bombardments. 

To visit the church, which contains the tomb of Saint Basle (chapel on the 
right), take the Rue Gambetta, then the Rue Thiers. 

After visiting the church, return to the Rue Thiers, at the end of ivhich is 
the Rue de Mailly (G.C. 26). 

Take the latter, which, on leaving Verzenay, rises fairly stiffly. 

At the top of the hill, on the right, begins the road leading to Verzenay 
Mill, which crowns Hill 227 (see Itinerary, p. 166, and photo above). 

This mill, whence there is a fine panorama of the plain as far as the hills 
of Berru and Moronvilliers, was a military observation-post of the first order 
during the siege warfare. 

It belongs to the champagne-wine firm of Heidsick Monopole, which allows 
tourists to visit it, as also their vineyards in the surrounding country. 

The road dips down to Mailly-Champagne, at the entrance to which village 
turn to the right into the Rue Gambetta, then to the left into the Rue de Ludes 
(G.C. 26). The road, cut out of the hillside, is very picturesque as far as Ludes. 
In the forest, on the left of the road, are numerous " cendrieres," or quarries, 
from which volcanic sulphurous cinders, used for improving the vines, are 
extracted. Heaps of these valuable cinders (grey, white and black) are fre- 
quently encountered at the side of the road. 

Ludes is next reached by the Avenue de la Gare. 

The region just passed through, including the villages of Verzenay, Mailly- 
Champagne and Ludes, as well as Verzy (to the east) and Rilly-la-Montagne 
and Villers-Allerand (to the ivest) , are the wine-growing centres of the "Moun- 
tain of Rheims " properly so-called, the black grapes from which produce the 
best brands of Champagne. The villages are picturesquely situated at the edge 
of the forests which crown the hills, while the vineyards which cover the 
slopes of the latter descend to the chalky plain. These vineyards, divided 
into tiny plots, the ground of which before the ravages of the phylloxera 
cost as much as 93.000 francs per hectare (about 2% acres), constitute the 
principal wealth of the country. Here and there they have suffered from the 
war, but this has not prevented the vine-dressers from cultivating them (often 
with the help of the soldiers) or from gathering the grapes, under the con- 
tinual menace of the German guns. 



173 




PUISIEULX. THE CHURCH AND ROAD TO SILLERY 



At Ludes, in the Avenue de la Gare, turn to the right into the Rue de 
Cormontreuil, and again to the right, into the Rue de Puisieulx (G.C. 33). 

At the crossing, 1 kilometer beyond Ludes, go straight on. After passing 
on the right an avenue bordered with trees leading to the Chateau of Romont, 
Puisieulx is reached. 

At the first crossing, on entering the village, keep straight on, then turn to 
the right as far as the ruined church, with its curious loop-holed chevet. Leave 
the church on the right and, at the end of the village, turn to the left. There are 
a few graves on the right of the road. After skirting a large estate, the trees 
of which were destroyed by shell-fire, the tourist reaches Sillery. 




RUINED CHURCH OF TAISSY 



171 

Turn to the left into G.C. 8, at the entrance to the village. On the right are 
vestiges ol a small wood, known as "'Zouaves Wood." which was the scene of 
mam sanguinary fights after its capture hy the French in 1911. 

The tourist next reaches Taissy, whose ruined church is on the right, by 
the side of the I esle {photo, p. 173 1. 

This interesting church is largely Romanesque in style (tower, chevet and 
nave). The tabernacle, with altar-piece of carved wood, is Louis XIII. A 
tine wrought-iron railing encloses the sanctuary [photo below). The small, 
sonorous hell of the hell'ry is, strange to say, 13th or 14th century. 

Pass straight through Taissy, then follow the tram-lines. Cormontreuil is 

entered by the Rue I ii tor-Hugo. 

From Cormontreuil. the tourist may return to Rheims either by turning to 
the right in the village, beyond the train station {in this case he will enter 
Rheims by the Rue de Cormontreuil which leads to the Place Dieu-Lumiere) or 
by continuing straight ahead. In the latter case he will cross the Faubourg 
Flechambault by the Rue Ledru-Rollin. At the end of the latter, turn to the 
right into the Rue Flechambault which, after crossing the Vesle and the canal, 
leads to the Church of St. Remi. 









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THE CHOIR OF TAISSV CHURCH 



CONTENTS 



PACES 

Political History of Rheims 3-7 

Military History of Rheims 8 and 9 

The Battles for Rheims. 1914-1918 ...... 9-15 

The Destruction of Rheims by the bombardments . . . 16-21 

Life in the bombarded City 21-26 

I. — A Visit to the City 27-120 

The Cathedral (description of) 28-60 

History of the Cathedral 28-30 

The Cathedral during the War 31 and 32 

Coloured Plan of Rheims between 32 and 33 

Plan of the Cathedral and Archi-episcopal Palace ... 33 

Exterior of the Cathedral 34-49 

Interior of the Cathedral 50-60 

First Itinerary — The City 61-94 

The Place du Parvis 62 

The Archi-episcopal Palace 63-66 

The Place Drouet dTrlon and The Promenades ... 70 and 71 

The H6tel-de-Ville . 72 

The Place des Marches 74 

The Place Royale 78 

The Musicians' House . 80 

The Mars Gate 82 

The Rue de Ceres 87 

Second Itinerary— The City (continued) 95-120 

The Rue Chanzy 95-97 

The Lycee 97 and 98 

The Abbey of Saint Pierre-les-Dames 98 

The Pommery Wine-Cellars . . 101 

The Church of St. Remi 103-116 

The Hotel-Dieu (Hospital) . . 117 

II. — A Visit to the Battlefield. 

First Itinerary (Morning) 122-133 

Ormes ............ 124 

St. Euphraise 127 

Coulommes-la-Montagne 128 

Gueux 129 

Thillois 131 

Second Itinerary (Afternoon) 134-159 

Tinqueux 135 

Merfy 137 

St. Thierry 138 

Villers-Franqueux .......... 141 

Cormicy 144 

Le Godat 148 

Loivre 150 

Brimont 152 

The " Cavaliers de Courcy " 156 

La Neuvillette 158 



176 



Thirii Itinerary (Morning) . 
Bourgogne — Fresnes 
Witry-les-Reims 
Nogent 1" \lilicsse — Beine — Berru 

Fourth Itinerary (Afternoon) 
The Butte-de-Tir . 
The Fort de la Pompelle 
Alger Inn .... 
Verzenay .... 



PACES 

160-165 
161 
162 
164 

166-174 
167 
168 
169 

172 



PRINTED IN THE 
BY ESSEX PRESS- INC.. 



J. S. A 
JEWARK. 



BEAUTIFUL FRANCE 



NORMANDY 



Land of rich pastures and fashionable watering-places, 
Normandy may truly be said to have been "favoured by 
the gods." Her fertile soil, famous breeds of horses and 
cattle, picturesque sites, and renowned sea-bathing coast have 
made Normandy one of France's most flourishing provinces. 
Numerous splendid monuments evoke in the tourist's mind 
reminiscences of a glorious past. 

No region has been more lavishly adorned by Nature. 
Its mountain landscapes have caused it to be surnamed 
"La Petite Suisse." Among the more interesting places 
may be mentioned BagnoIes-de-1'Orne, with its famous 
mineral-water springs; Rouen, with its celebrated cathedral, 
Churches of St. Ouen and St. Maclou, Palais-de-Justice, and 
port (which the war has transformed into one of the most 
important in Europe); Caen — "Norman Athens" — with 
its Romanesque churches, Renaissance mansions, and ancient 
houses; the great cathedrals of Sees, Evreux, Bayeux, and 
Coutances; the feudal ruins of Arques, Chateau- Gail lard 
and Falaise; the Abbeys of Jumieges and St. Wandrille; 
the mediaeval narrow winding streets of Lisieux. 

Numerous sea-side resorts: Dieppe, St. Valery, Fecamp, 
Entretat, Le Havre, and St. Adresse, Honfleur, Trouville, 
Deauville, Villers, Houlgate, Cabourg, Cherbourg and Grand- 
ville are too widely known to call for special mention. 

Lastly St. Michael's Mount (surnamed the "Marvel 
of the West"), with its extraordinary pyramid of superim- 
posed Gothic monastery and Churches, built on a rock in 
the middle of the deep bay. 



All enquiries with regard to traveling should be addressed 
to the "Touring Club de France," 65, Avenue de la Grande 
Armee 65, Paris. 



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