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Emibon: CAMBRIDGE WAREHOUSE, 17, Paternoster Row. 


Leland Stanford, 


(/« tit nola.) 

Vou HI. 

p i,,IineJi.'ai^'"4-9-' 

p ,1, Bw I?./'*' 'Natunim fessend,' m>/ 'Nator um^«*«"'- 

p. ft, line '9> f"*' ' writings.' 


Text and Commentary, Book III. 

Appendix (E). 

Shilleto^ Adversaria ON Aristotle's Rhetoric . 222—227 

Greek Index to Text and Notes 228—262 

Supplementarv Index to Subject-Matter and Notes 263—270 




OYK ^n6xpH rd IxeiN a A€i A^rciN 
AAA' ANiirKH KAi TAfjA <bc AeT eIneT*!. 



^Eirei^^ Tpla earlv a Set irpayfxaTevdfivai irepl chap. i. 

Tov Xoyov. ev uev Ik tipwv al TrifrreK ecovrau ScJ-Bekker 
' '^ p. 1403* 

CHAP. I. edition 

In the Introduction, pp. 276 — 370, 1 have already given a complete p , ,0 
paraphrase of the contents of this book, exhibiting the main divisions octavo 
and general principles of arrangement and the connexion of its several edition 
parts: and have added, in five appendices, dissertations on some special ' ^^' 
points which seemed to require a more detailed treatment than they 
could conveniently receive in mere notes. Referring to this for informal 
tion on all such general matters, I may confine myself in the commen- 
tary to special details of language, allusion, and such like particulars. 
This book, by the extreme brevity of expression which characterises it, 
leaving even more than usual to the reader's ingenuity to supply, by the 
consequent difi^culty of translation, and the obscurity of many of the 
allusions, offers at least as many impediments and stumblingblocks to 
the embarrassed commentator as either of the two preceding ; and it is 
to be feared that the explanation and illustration are not likely to be much 
shorter than before, in spite of what has been already done in the Intro- 

With the^ndof Book 1 1 we finish the treatment of what (according 
to the Latin division) is termed inventio, the invention and supply of 
all the various kinds of arguments, which the orator has to invent, or 
find for himself; and we now proceed to the analysis of (i) Xcfir, 
elocutiOy verbal style, including vnoKp^ri?, delivery, pronun/iatio and acfy'o, 
(Aristotle omits the latter, at all events in the treatment of it, confining 
vnoKpia-is to the mode of speaking, declamation, § 4): and (2) ri^i.^, the 
order and disposition, together with the ordinary topics, oJf the sieveral 
divisions of the speech. The first is examined in the first twelve chapters, 
the second from the thirteenth to the end. These three general divi- 
sions of the art are expressed by Cicero, Orator § 43, tria videnda sunt 
oratori, quiddicat (mtrrfiv), quo quidque loco (rdfty), et quomodo (Xeftf). 

§ I commences with a partial repetition of the concluding summary 
of the preceding chaptef. The three modes of proof are enumerated, 
m<rT€is, rjBos, nddos : (i) the direct logical proof, by argument ; (2) the con- 


2 , PHT0PIKH2 r I §§ 1—3. 

Tepov Ze Trepi ti)i/ Xi^iv, Tpirop Se ttcSs xP^ Ta^ai Ta 
fxepvi rod Xoyov^ Trepl filv twv iricTetav eipriraij kui 
eK 7r6(r(oVy on eK Tpiwv eiaiy kui tuvtu iroiay kui hd 
Ti ToaravTa fxopa* tj yap Tto avToi Ti ireirovQevai oi 
Kpivovre^y tj tw ttoioJs Tiva^ viroXanfidveiv tov^ \€- 
yovra^y ti tw aTroiedeTx^^f' '^^i^oprai irdvre^. eipriTai 
Se Kai Ta ip6vfjii]fxaTay iroOev Set iropi^eadac ecTi 

2 yap Ta fxev ei^ri twv epdvjUifjfidTtov, Ta Se towoi. irepl 
he Ttj^ Xe^eta^ exofievov iarTiv eiTreip* ov yap diroxp^ 
TO ex^iP d Se? XeyeiVy dXX dvdyKti Kat TavTa no^ Set 
€£7re£i/, Kai orvixfid7\XeTai iroXXd irpo^ to (l)ap^vai. 

3 TTOiov Tiva TOP Xoyop. to fiep ovp irpwTOP e^riTndn 

veying a favourable, impression by the exhibition of character in and by 
the speech; and (3), working on the feelings of the audience, so as to 
bring them to that state of mind which is favourable to the orator's pur- 
pose; to excite an angry or a calm temper, love or hatred, envy, jea- 
lousy, righteous indignation, and so on, according to circumstances and 
the immediate occasion. 

*The enthymemes too have been stated, whence they are to be sup- 
plied; for of enthymemes there are special (cidi;) as well as common 
topics (roTToi)'. See the quotation from SpengeVs Study of Ancient Rhe- 
toric prefixed to 11 23. 

§ 2. *The next subject to be treated of is style' (the manner of 
expressing oneself; including not only the language, but the manner of 
delivery; both in voice, declamation, the pronunciation, tone, rhythm, 
&c. ; and — here Aristotle stops, and the Latin rhetoricians add — action^ 
the appropriate gesticulation, management of the hands and the body in 
general, and expecially the features): 'for it is not sufficient to know 
n^uhat to say, it is necessary also to know how to say it ; and this contri- 
butes greatly to the impression conveyed of a certain character in the 
speech'. The tone of voice, the expression of the features, the gestures 
employed, the kind of language used, quite independently of the argu- 
ments, will materially assist the impression of moral (or any particular) 
character which the orator wishes to assume, on the minds of the audi- 
ence. The 9^of of III 16. 8 is part of this, the moral character imparted 
by the choice of language, of terms, tone and expression, significant of 
moral purpose, npoalpeo'is, 

§ 3. ' Now first of all, inquiry was naturally directed to that which is 
first in the natural order, the sources from which things themselves 
derive their plausibility or power of persuasion' (i. e. what are the sources 
of rhetorical proof of facts themselves ; which of course is the basis of 
the entire art or practice, and therefore 'first in the order of nature'); 
'and secondly, the due setting out (disposal) of these by the language; 

PHT0HKH2 r I § 3. 3 

Kara (pvaiVj o Trep 7re<pVK€ TrpwTOU, avra Ta Trpdy 
fxara €k tIpcop e)(eL to Tndavov hevrepov Se to ravTa 
Trj \€^€i SiadearOar TpiTOV he tovtcovj 6 ZvvafjLiv fitv 
ex^f- lJLeyl(TTt]Vi oi/ttco S' iinKex^^p^Taiy ra Trepi tyiv vtto^ 

and thirdly (Tovrtav, of such things as these, the divisions of Rhetoric), 
what has the greatest force (or influence, is especially effective as a means 
of persuasion), but has not yet been attempted (regularly, systematically, 
as an art, no serious attempt has yet been made upon it), that which 
relates to delivery^ 

§ 3. vp^Tov €(rini3rj Kara <l>v(nv] A similar phraseology occurs at the 
beginning of the Poetics, I i, ult. ap^afievoi Kara Kpva-iv npSrov djro rau 
wpdrcuv. And de Soph. £1. init. dp^dfievot Kara f^ivtnv diro r&v irptorav. 

bia6€(T6aC\ denotes the 'disposal* or * disposition', i. e. the investing of 
the speech with a certain character, putting it in a certain state, by the 
use of language: as the dxpoarai of a speech are said harideadai ira^, to 
be brought into such and such a disposition or state of feeling by it : a 
common use of the verb. It does not mean here distribution, ordering, 
arrangement, which is not the special office of the graces and proprieties 
of language or style. There is another sense in which this verb is used 
by later writers, as Polybius, Dionysius, Diodorus, with \6yovs and the 
like, disppnere, in publicum proponere^ in medium proferre^ to dispose or 
set out (bid) J as wares in a market for sale, italer; which may possibly be 
the meaning here, though, I think, it would be less appropriate. Victo- 
rius renders it explanare. bidBeo-is, in Longinus quoted below, seems to 
correspond to diariBeaScu here in the sense in which I have explained it. 

€mKex€iprjTai] is a Striking instance of that abnormal formation of the 
passive, which I have explained and illustrated in Appendix B on i 12. 22 
[Vol. I. p. 297]. 

viroKpitrify 'acting', properly includes, besides declamation, the ma- 
nagement of the voice, to which Aristotle, as already mentioned, here 
confines it, § 4, that of the features, arms, hands, and the entire^body : and 
so it is treated by the Latin rhetoricians, Cicero, Quintilian, &c. Longi- 
nus, Ars Rhet., (apud Spengel, Bket. Gr. I 310,) has a chapter upon it, 
following another Trcpt Xcfewff. His description of it is, fiifuja-tg rav Kar 
d\i]$fiav €KdoT<io 'jrapKTTap.evap r\6^v kcu iraBSv Koi didBcaris (Ttaiiaros re Koi 
rdvov (jycivfjg irp6a'<l)opos roi? viroKcifievois'iv, bvvarai de neyiarrov 
€ls mcrriv jc.t.X. Dionysius, de admirabili vi dicendi in Demos thene, c. 22, 
p. 1023 (Reiske), says of the great orator, Koa-fiovvros dnavra koi xPlt^orl- 
{^ovTos ((rx^y/AOTifoiTor, Sylburg).r5 irpeTrovtrfj vfroKpi<r€i rjs dfivoraros da-krj' 
T^s iyevfTOf co£ anavreg t^ ofxokoyovo'i koi i^ avrcap Idelv tari tSv \oya>v, ic.r.X. 
See Quint, xi 3. 5, on the effect of pronuntiatio, 'delivery, declamation', 
where he says that even an indifferent speech set off by the vigour and 
grace of action will have more weight or effect than the very best without 
it: in §6 he quotes the opinion of Demosthenes, who assigned successively 
the first, second, and third place to declamation (pronuntiatio), and so 
on till his questioner stopped. In § 7 he quotes Aeschines' saying to the 

I — 2 

4 PHTOPIKHS r i§3. 

KpKTiV. Kal yap 619 Triv TpayiKtjp Kal payf^Oi^iap 6\f^e 
iraptiXOev* vireKpivovro yap avroi Ta9 Tpayw^ia^oi woi" p. m* 

Rhodians, who were admiring the de Corona as he recited it to them, 
Quidsiipsum audtssetis? et M, Cicero unam in dicendo actionem domi- 
nari putaL Cic. de Or. in 56. 213, from which the whole passage of 
Quintilian is taken. Also Brutus,' LXVI 234, Lentulus' opinion, xxxviii 
141, 142. XLin 168 (Spalding ad loc. Quint.). On Demosthenes' dictum. 
Bacon, Essays^ Of Boldnesse, init., has this remark: A strange thing 
that that part of an Oratour which is but superficial!, and rather the ver- 
tue of a Player, should be placed, so high above those other noble parts 
of Invention, Elocution, and the rest ; nay almost alone, as if it were all 
in all. But the reason is plaine. There is in humane Nature generally 
more of the foole then of the wise ; and therefore those faculties by 
which the foolish part of men's mindes is taken are most potent. 

* (And this is not at all surprising) because in fact it was not till late 
that it made its way into the tragic art and rhapsody ; for the poets at 
first (in the earliest stages of the drama) used to act their tragedies them- 
selves' (and therefore, as there was no profession of acting or professional 
actors, it was not likely that an art of acting should be constructed ; the 
poets acted, as they wrote, as well as they could by the light of nature, 
without any rules of art). 

pa^^dto. On pa^ydoi and pa^^ d«Iv, see Plat. Ion, 530 B, et seq., 
Miiller, Hist Gr. IJt c. 4 § 3. Heyne, Excursus II ad I/, Q,^ 21 VoL 
VIII. p. 792. F. A. Wolf, Proleg. ad Hom.j p. 99 seq. Nitzsch, Quaest. 
Horn. IV. p. 13 seq. 

6^€ iraprjKBtvl infra § 5, o^€ vporiK6tp\ Poet. IV 17, to fjJytBos {Tjjg 
rpay^dtaff)*..o'^c dir€<r€fivvv6rjf also V 3. 

vniKpiPovTo avrot] Plut. Sol. XXIX (Victorius), o SoXop iBtatraro top 
S€<nriv avTov vnoKpivofitvov oSfcrrrcp ZO09 ^v toIs waKatois, Liv. VII 2, Livius 
'^dem scilicet y id quod omnes turn eranty suorum cartninum actor, Vic- 
torius thinks that this statement is confirmed by Hon A. P. 277, quae 
canerent agerentque peruncti faecibus ora, which means that * the poets- 
themselves had their faces smeared'. Donaldson, Theatre of the Greeks^ 
£d. vii. p. j;9, n. 10. 

' It is plain then that there is something of this kind in Rhetoric also 
as well as in poetry ' (declamation may be studied and practised for the 
purposes of Rhetoric, as well as for those of acting in tragedy and comedy 
or of rhapsodical recitation) : * which, in fact, (i.e. the 'poetical' declama- 
tion), has been dealt with (treated artistically, see note on i i. 3), besides 
others, by Glaucon of Teos in particular'. 

This tautological repetition of lea/, koX irepl rfjv pfjropiK^v, Ka\ nepl rrjv 
noirjTiKi^v, is not unfrequent in Aristotle. Compare Pol. i 2,1252^26, 
cacnrcp de koi ra ttdrj — ovt» koi tovs piov9 T&v Beay, lb. 1 253 tf 31, ^airtp 
yap Kal reXca^ev — ovrco icai ;(Oi>p(ordev. 

Glaucon of Teos, an Ionian city on the coast of Asia Minor, is most 
probably the same as a Glaucon mentioned by Ion, Plat. Ion 530 D (so 
Stallbaum's note ad loc), as following his own profession as a rhapso- 
dist, which seems suitable enough for one who writes on the art of tragic 
declamation, especially as acting and rhapsodizing are actually coupled 

PHT0PIKH2 r i§§3,4- 5 

fjTai TO irpiaTov. dfjXov ovv on Kai irepl t^v pfjropiKiiu 

iiTTi TO ToiovTOP iooTTrep Kal irept Trjv 7roifiTiKi]p* 6 irep 

(ETCpoi Tii/€9 ewpayiiaTevOriarav Kal TXavKVOv 6 Tt;(09. 

4 €(rTi §€ avTYi ' fxev iv Ty (pooyfif irm avTrj Set ;f/o^o'0a£ 

7rpO£ tKaCTTOV TTOido^y oloV TTOTC jJLeydXtl Kal TTOTC 

fxiKpa Kal TTOTC fieaij, Kal ttcos Toh topois^ oTov o^eia 
Kal /3ap€ia Kal fxetrri^ Kal pvOfwU tlci irpo^ eKaCTOv. 
Tpia yap cem Trepl top ctkottovo'ip* TavTa 8' e(rTh 

* avni 
together by Aristotle in the preceding sentence. I should be disposed 
also to identify with him of Teos, the Glaucon quoted in Poet, xxv 23 
— seemingly as a poetical critic, which is also a kindred pursuit See in 
Smith's Biogr. Diet the /A/n/ article on Glaucon. 

Tyrrwhitt ad loc. Poet, seems in favour of the supposition that the 
three Glaucons are one. A Glaucon who wrote a work on yXcSo-o-oi (sic), 
Athen. xi 480 F, was at all events not far removed from the same stu- 
dies. Schneider, ad Xen. Conv. ill 6. 

§ 4* cdrri d* avn;] So all MSS and £dd.,* except Buhle, who reads 
ovTi;. This surely must be right : avrfi seems to have no meaning here. 
Victorius retaining avrq translates ^ haec\ 

'This (declamation, viroKpifris) resides in the voice, in the mode of 
employing it, that is, for (the expression of) any emotion ; that is to say, 
sometimes loud, sometimes low, sometimes intermediate (between the two, 
middling, neither the one nor the other) ; and in the mode of employing 
the accents (or tones of voice), that is to say acute, grave, middle' (circum- 
flex, from the combination of the two others, a = •- ), *and certain measures 
(times) in respect of each. For there are three things that are the sub- 
jects of such enquiries, magnitude (intensity, volume of sound), tune, time*. 

ohv] is here in both cases videlieet^ * that is to say', a direct specifica- 
tion of certain definite things ; not, as usual, * for instance', as an exam- 
ple or specimen, which supposes other things of the same kind, besides 
those expressly mentioned. Thus oiav here does not mean that the three 
kinds of sounds and accents mentioned are mere examples of a much 
larger class, but they specify the exact number of kinds which are 
intended to be distinguished in either case. This is common in Ari- 
stotle. Instances are, few out of many, Pol. I 6, sub fin., ho\>\Qi fiepos n 
rot) deairorovy aiiov €fiyltvxo¥"*fi€pos, C. 7 sub fin. 17 de KTrjTtKj^,*.olov 17 dmeUa, 
C. 8, 1256 a 36, olop oi fUp diro Xjjorcias' /c.r.X. C. 1 3, 1 260 a 6, olov tou 
Xoyoy txpvTos ksu roO dXoyov. II $9 1 264 ^ 26, olov <f>povpovs> lb. c. 6, 
1265 a 35, olov, 'I mean to say.' De Sens. c. 5, 443 a 10, ra (rroixt'La, 
olov irvp drjp vdoap yrj. Plat. Gorg. 502 D. [Cf. supra II 19. 26.] 

On the modulation of the voice in the expression of the various emo- 
tions, see Cic. de Or. iii. cc. 57, 58, §§ 215—219, where it is illustrated at 

On the acceilts, and lUytOos, dpftovia^ pvBfio?, and their application to 
Rhetoric, see Introduction, Appendix C to Book lii, p^ 379 seq^ 

6 .PHT0PIKH2 r I §§4, 5. 

jULeyeOos apjuovia pvOfio^. to, [xev oZv ad\a ax^^ou 
Ik Tviu dycovwp ovroi Xajufidpovaiu, Kal Kaddirep eKei 


jxei^ov ZbvavTai vvv tcop iroLtiTviv 61 viroKpiTaij kol 
KUToi Tov^ iroXiTiKOv^ dywpas ^id Tfju fXOxBfipiav rwv 
5 7ro\iT6tft>i/. ovira) he avyKeirai rex^tl irepl avTWPj 
eTrei Kal to irepl rrji/ Xi^iP d^e irporiKdev* Kal hoKei 
(popTLKOv elvaiy KaKw^ viroXafifiavoixevov. aAA' oXti^ p. 1404 

\ . ' Now one might almost say (it is pretty nearly true to say) that these 
are the men that gain all the prizes in (///. out of, as the produce or profit 
derived from, got out of them,) the contests (dramatic and rhapsodical), 
and as in these the actors have more power, influence, effect (over the 
audiences, and those who adjudge the prizes), than the poets nowadays, 
so likewise (has acting or declamation) in civil and social contests (the 
x:ontests of the law-courts, and public assembly — comp. in 12.2) by rea- 
son of the defects (the vicious^ depraved character) of our constitutions' 
(as that of Athens, where I, Aristotle, am now writing). 

The vice or defect, which permits these irregular and extraneous 
appeals to the feelings, and the influence which * acting' thereby acquires, » 

. are attributed here to the constitution — comp. I 1.4, where 'well-governed 
states', €vvotiov^(V(u noXeis, states which are under good laws and insti- 
tutions, are said to forbid them : if that of Athens were sound and 
healthy and right, vyiijs, opB^, opposed to fiox^fP^f they would not be 
allowed t^ere. In the next section, 5, the defect is attributed to the 
audience: in the one case the institutions themselves are in fault, in the 
other the tempers and disposition of the hearers, whose taste and judg- 
ment are so depraved that they require the stimulus of these distorting 
(dcacrrpe(/>oyra, I l> 5) emotions. 

On the influence of acting in producing emotion, and thereby per- 
suasion, see by all means Cicero's description, de Or. in 56 § 213, seq., 
which furnishes an excellent illustration of what is here said. Note par- 
ticularly the case of Gracchus, § 214. After a quotation from his speech 

. Cicero adds, quae sic ab illo esse acta constabat oculis voce gestUy inimici 
ui lacrimas tenere non possent. And Orat. c. xvii, est enim actio quasi 
corporis quaedam eloquentia^ quum constet e voce et motu, § 55 and 
the rest. 

§ 5. ' But no art has been as yet composed of it ; for in fact it was 
not till late that that of composition made any advance: and it (17 
vnoKpiTiKjj) is thought low and vulgar' (in the sense of popular and unsub- 
stantial, directed to show, not substance) * and rightly so considered' (or, 
Svhen considered aright' ; so Victorius. But the other is the more natu- 
ral interpretation of vnokafifiapeiv ; which will not in fact bear the mean- 
ing assigned to it by Victorius *Si vere iudicare volumus': * consider' in 
the two renderings has different senses). 

<l>opTiK6sy see note on 11 21. 15, opposed to x^P^^^^ ^^ ^^ sense of 
mental refinement and cultivation, Molestos et illepidos, quos Graeci 
fAoxOrjpovs Koi <l)opTiKovs dicerent; Aulus Gellius, Noctes Attici 18. 4 

PHT0PIEH2 r I § 5. / 

ovcrti^ irpo^ Zo^av r^s wpayfiareia^ ti?s Trepi rriu pn- 
TopiKrii/f ovK opdw^ exovTO^^ aW ais dvayKaiov Tfjv 
eirifieXeiav ireiviTeov^ eirel to ye SiKaiop fxri^ki/ TrXeita 
^rireip Trepi rou Xoyov tj w? /JLi^Te Xvireiv ixnTe ev^pai^ 
veiv. BUaiop yap avTois dytavi^ecrdai tols irpdyfiacriVj 
wcTTC TaAAa c^oi tov aTToSel^ai irepiepya itTTii/* aAA* 

o/jiai9 fxiya dvparaiy Kaddirep eiptiTai, Sid Ttju tov 

(Gaisford). See Twining on Poet, note 263, pp. 540 — 544, where a 
number of examples illustrative of its various applications are collected. 
0opriic»s>, €irax6as, imTrkaaras (Suidas). The last of these two equiva- 
lents helps to explain a distinction in £th. Eudem. I 4. 2, of arts (fiop- 
TiKoi, vfpX xpif^TurfjLov (engaged in money-making, mercenary), fidvavtroi 
(mechanical), which is subsequently explained, Xryw de (jyopriKas luv rag 
vpog boiav npayiJLaT€vofi€vav fiovop. This I suppose must be meant of arts 
that have nothing solid and substantial about them, but aim at mere 
outside show, ostentatious and hollow, irpog bo^av contrasted with irphg 
dKi]$€iav: and mirKatrrtis * beplastered* seems to correspond to this. 
And this same signification is plainly conveyed by the word here in the 
Rhetoric, which is immediately followed by dXX* SXrjs ovarjs npog do^ 
rrjs npayfuxTtlaSf i. e. not only viroxptruei;, but the whole of Rhetoric, is 
directed wpos bo^. So that ^opnicov here must stand, as it often does, for 
the vulgarity which is shewn in unphilosophical habits of ^lind, want of 
mental cultivation in persons : and, as applied to a study or art, may 
signify popular, showy, unsubstantial, and in this point of view too low 
and vulgar to be entertained by a man of science or philosopher. It has 
precisely the same meaning in PoL i 11, 1258 b 3j. See Eaton ad loc. 

' But since the entire study and business of Rhetoric is directed to 
mere opinion, is unscientific, (directed to to doK€lv, mere outward show, 
not TO flvai : I 7. 36 — 37, see note,) we must bestow the requisite (nji^) 
pains and attention upon it, not that it is right (to do so), but as neces- 
sary (for success \n persuading): for, as to strict justice, that implies, 
(requires, subaudi iarif) looking for no more in the delivery of the speech 
than (to speak it) in a manner which will give neither offence nor 
delight : for fairness requires that the case be fought on the facts alone^ 
and therefore everything else outside the direct proof (of them) is super- 
fluous : but still, as has been already said, they have vast influence by 
reason of the vice or defects (depraved taste and judgment) of the 
hearer*. Quint. II 17. 27 seq. Imperiti enim indicant^ et qui frequenter 
in hoc ipsum fallendi sunt^ ne errent. Nam si mihi sapientes indices 
dentur^ sapientum condones^ atque omne concilium^ nihil invidia valeaty 
nihil gratia^ nihil opinio praesumpta falsique testes: perquam sit exi- 
guus eloquentiae locusy et prope in sola delectatione ponatur. Sin et 
audientium mobiles animi et tot malis obnoxia Veritas^ arte pugnandum 
est et adhibenda quaeprosunt. §§ 28, 29. 

OVK opBas txovros] If it be supposed (with Vater) that <os is omitted 
in this clause, comp. c. 3 § 3, ov yttp i^dva/utrc XP?^^ <^^^' ^^ ibta'pari* 

8 PHT0PIKH2 r I §§ 6, 7, 

6 dnpoaTOV jULOxOtipiap. to [xev ovv t^s Ae^ecos ofita^ e;^€« 
Ti fxiKpov dvayKoiov ev 7rd<r^ hSatrKaXia* Zia<^epei 
yap Ti irpo^ TO ZriKvoaai wSi rj uiSi elireip* ov fiivTOL 
ToarovTOV, aW dwavTa (pavTaaia tuvt itrri Kai 
TTjOos TOP uKpoaTfiv* Sio ovSek ovTO) yetofieTpeip SiSa- 

y (TKeu eKeiPfj /xep oup .OTap e\6n tuvto Tronjaei Ttj 

§ 6. 'Now (attention to) style (mode of speaking) is nevertheless in 
some slight degree necessary (has some slight portion of necessity) in 
every kind (department) of instruction : for it makes some difference 
in the clearness of an explanation whether we speak in one way or 
another ; not however so much (as is generally supposed), but all this is 
mere fancy ((jiavratria 'the mental presentation, a mere copy, without 
reality, note on i 11. 6), and addressed to (for the sake of, to gratify) the 
hearer: for no one teaches geometry in this way*. These tricks and 
graces of style^ declamation and acting, have no power of instruction, 
and therefore are never addressed to any student; but only to a popular 
audience like that of the orator, which requires to be flattered or have its 
ears tickled (as Plato says in the Gorgias [463 C, Kokaxtias fiopiop rrjv 
pi^fTopiK^, and 502 E^ &<m€p fraio'l...;^ap(^c<r^]); to be amused and con- 
ciliated, as well as instructed and convinced 

§ 7. * Now that (the art which applies wroKpiTKn to Rhetoric), when- 
ever it reaches us (arrives), will produce the same effects as the art of 
acting (i. e. the application of it to dramatic poetry, § 3) : some indeed 
have already to a trifling extent made the attempt to treat of it, as Thra- 
symachus in his HXeoi; in fact, a capacity for acting is a natural gift' 
(part of that general love of imitation which is the foundation of all the 
imitative or fine arts, Poet. c. i) *and less subject to rules of art' (more, or 
somewhat, spontaneous, avroo-xcdfaaruci;, extemporaneous. Poet iv 14, 
of tragedy in its earliest stage), 'but when applied to language (declama- 
tion) it (the practice of it) may be reduced to an art. And therefore 
those who have the faculty (of vnoKpiTiKfl koto X«f ty) obtain prizes in 
t^tr turn ' (again, iraiXiv ; of which rois Kara rrjv viroKpitriv pifropariv is an 
explanation, Victorius), ' as do also rhetoricians in respect of (by) their 
acting or declamation: for written speeches (in the (mbciKTiKop ySvos) 
owe more of their effect to the style, and language than to the thought or 
intellectual part'; didvoiap (Rhet. 11 26. 5, Poet xix 2) meaning here 
the logical part of Rhetoric, the direct and indirect arguments. 

Thrasymachus and his IXcoi are described by Plato, Phaedr. 267 C, 
f^v y€ iiTJp oiicrpoyoa>y tm yrjpas koX ir€viap ikKOfifvap X6y»v K€KpaTrjK€Pai 
Tfxya H^^ <l>aiP€Tai t6 tov XaXKijboplov a-Bepot, opyia-ai re av noKKot^s apa 
diipos dprip y€yop€, Koi nakiv wpyurpepois iirq.ti»p KrjkeiPf nis t<jiii' hui^ahXtiy 
T€ Koi dnokviraa'Bat biafioXas odepdrj KpoTiOTOf. 

On Thrasymachus see Cambridge Journal of Classical and Sacred 
Philology, No. IX Vol. ill p. 268 seq., on the eXcoi 274, Spengel, Artium 
Scriptores [pp. 95 — 97, and Blass, die Attische Beredsamkeit, I esp. p. 244, 
also K. F. Hermann's Disputatio de Thrasytnacho Chalcedonio sophista. 

PHTOPIKHS r i§§7, 8. 9 

VTroKptTiKfj^ eyKex^ipYiKaci he eir oXiyov irepi avTrj^ 
eiTreiv Tti/€5, olou Qpaavixayp^ ev Toi^ eXeoiv Kai eaTi 
0i/(r6co9 TO vTTOKpiTiKov ehaij Kal dre'xyoTepoVf irepl 
Se 77/1/ Xe^iv evrex^ov. hio Kal roh tovto hvvafiivoi^ 
ylveTai TrdXiv ddXay Kaddirep Kai to?? Kara Ttjv i/tto- 
Kpiciu priTopcriv* ol yap ypaKpofxevoi Xoyoi fiei^ov 
io'xyova'i Sid Tnv Xe^ip rj Bid ti}i/ hidvoiav. 
8 ' rip^avTO fxep ovv Kivijo'ai to itpwTOVy ujO'Trep 7r€-p. m. 
(pVKeVy oi TTOiriTai' rd ydp oi/ofxara fxifA^fxara eiTTiPy 

Gottingen, 1848, pp. 15, and Mayor's note on Juv, vii 20^ paenituit 
tnultos vanae iterilisque cathedrae^ sicut Tharsymachi probat exitus. 
Quint III 3. 4, Nee audiendi quidam,,.qui ires tnodo pritnas esse partes 
volunty quoniam memoria atque actio natura non arte contingant^,,Mcet 
Thrasymachus quoque idem de actions crediderit (sc. ar^xyvrtpov dvai)^ 
where Quintilian must be referring to the present passage, though he is 
misled by the words oioi^ Opcurvftaxos cV rots ikfoiSy into supposing that 
the sentence, koI tori <l>wr€ns ro vnoKpirinhv c&oi, ical dr€xyoTtpovy is a 
quotation from Thrasymachus.] 

ol yap ypa<l>6ptvoi \6yoi icr.X.] Comp. Ill 12. 5^ <Ti dc fioKKop tj iv\ 
KpiTJ icrX at the end of the section. 

§ 8. * Now the origin of this was due, as is natural, to the poets : for 
not only are all names imitations (copies of things, which they are sup* 
posed to represent), but there was also the voice ready for use, the most 
imitative of all our members ; and so it was (in virtue of the same 
imitative faculty, Victorius) that the arts were composed, that of rhapso- 
dizing and of acting and of course (ye, to be sure) others'. 

KivtiVf in the sense of originating anything, 'to stir, set in motion', 
is found in Plut. Solon. 95 B, dpxopevav dc r»v irepl top Bimnv tj^rf rijp 
Tpay^hiaif Kivtip^ (Victorius). Sext. Empir., adv. Math, vii 6, quotes Ari- 
stotle as having said that Empedocles vpmtov pifropue^v K€KitnjK€vai : and 
Quintilian, in i. 8, doubtless also with reference to Aristotle, repeats 
this, primus post eos...movisse aliqua circa rhetoricen Empedocles dicitur. 
Sext. Empir. again, p. 546, Bekk. adv. Math. x. vpos riBiKovs § 2, of 
Socrates' * origination' of the study of Moral Philosophy, 6 irpmros avTrjp 
doias KeKiPffK€pai. See Spalding ad loc. Quint., who quotes Athen. xiv 
629 c, oBep iKip^Biia-ap ai Kokovpfpoi wppixou Movere eodem sensu apud 
Quint III 6. 10, 103, IV I. 29* 

opopara pipiipara] This is the Platonic theory, CratyL 423 A seq. 

* Welcker, Nachirag^ p. ^39, note 175, accuses Bentley of a 'wonderftd 
blunder' in the interpretation of ku^v in this passage, in saying, viz., that it 
signiGes ' the first beginning of tragedy'— ^which it most undoubtedly does — and ' 
understands it himself of ' disturbing, altering', as Kt»wf v6fiov9 (and the proverb 
prj Klvet Ka/idpipop, "let well alone," quieta non movere, "let sleeping dogs lie"). 
He says that Bentley*s rendering is Idngst widerlegt* [Bentley, On Pkaiaris, i 
PP« ^84, 386, ed. Dyce, pp. ^62, 309, cd. Wagner.] 

10 PHTOPIKHS r I §§8, 9. 

VTTfip^e Se Kal tj (jxaptj iravTfap fiifxriTiKtoraTOU Ttuv 

fxopitav fifxiv 8«o Kal ai t^xvci^ a'VP€<rTtia'ai/j r/ re 

gpay^rtaZia Kal ij VTroKpiTiKrj Kal aWat ye. eVei S' oi 

The conclusion is^ 423 B, Svofia apa iarip, as ebcxr, fiifirnia <l>mnjs tKeivov, o 
fiifittrcu Kal 6ifOfia(€i 6 fu/iovfievos rff <t>«inf^, 6 av fiifi^rai. '' Olympiodorus 
ad Philebum Platonis tradit Democritum nomina vocales imagines rerum 
appellare consuevisse, on dyaX/tara fftuvrjtvra jcal ravrd iari rav Beap, »s 
ArjfxoKpiTos" Victorius. Aristotle himself, deInterpretatione,sub init. i6<z3, 
calls words r£» cV rg "^vyS vaBtnuerav avfiPoKa, and afterwards, line 7, 
ofJMuofioTay signs or representatives, and copies, of fnental affections, i. e. 
impressions, a theory quite different from that of Plato, which is here 
adopted. On the terms applied by Aristotle to express the nature of 
words, see Waitz, on Organon 16 a 4. Of the four employed, he says, 
trvfiPokop is a subjective (rrifjL€iov, and oftoiafia an objective fufirjfjuu On 
imitation and the natural love of it, the origin and foundation of all the fine 
arts, see the first three chapters of the Poetics. In c. 4, init. imitation or 
mimicry is described as natural to man from infancy, and charetcUristic 
of humanity. [Dionysius Halic. de comp, verb, p. 94 (quoted in Farrar's 
Chapters on Language^ chap. Xl), /ieydXi; rmnav dpxi Kai dMa-Kokog tj 
^vo-iff, jj iroiovtra fuiiririKoifs rjfias ical ^criicovr t£p opofiormPf ols dtjXovrai ra 

ra yap opofiara <c.r.X.] This is introduced to account for the poets hav- 
ing been the first who devoted themselves to the study of style or language, 
in this sense. Words being the copies of things, the poets, whose 
object is imitation, addicted themselves to the study of them, in order to 
be able better to represent the things of which they were images. Vic- 

al rixyai oi;yc0Tiy<rav] Some of the writers on rhapsodizing, with 
which was naturally combined the criticism of Homer, are mentioned in 
Plat. Ion. 530 C, Metrodorus of Lampsacus, Stesimbrotus of Thasos 
(Xenoph. Conv. iii 6), and Glaucon, probably of Teos, mentioned above, 


§ 9. 'And as the reputation which the poets acquired in spite of the 
simplicity of what they said (the silliness of the thoughts expressed) was 
thought (by those who imitated them) to be due to their language, it was 
for this reason that the language (of prose) first took a poetical colour, 
as that of Gorgias. And still, even at this day, the mass of the unedu- 
cated think the discourses of speakers of this kind mighty fine. Such 
however is not the fact, but the language of prose and poetry is distinct'. 

To the same effect Dionysius, de Lys. lud. c. 3, (v. 457, Reiske). Ly- 
sias' predecessors were not of his opinion about style — his was the ax^tkfis 
Xoyor, the * smooth and simple' style — oXX' ol fiovKoiupoi Koa-iiop tivA 
irpoativai, roh oXotp cfiyXXorroy Ibuorrjp, Koi Kari^ftxtyop tls t^p iroirjriKrjp 
^pdaip iJUTofioXcus re iroXXai^ xpayxpoi xal virtpPokals Kal rais SKKais rpo^ 
triKais ideoxff, opofiarmp rt yXmrrrmaTiKap Kal ^ipap XPV^^h ^^^ '''^^ ^^ic e2«0- 
Barap a'X'IP^Tia'iJMP rj dioXXoyJ Kal rj aXKjj KcupoXoyitf. KaTaTrkrjTTofAepoi top 
idimifPf K.T.\» This was the new style introduced by Gorgias and his 
followers Polus and Licymnius (Alcidamas, &c.). Hermogenes, ircpl 

PHT0PIKH2 r i§9. II 

TTOitiTal A.6701/T6S ev^dri Std rrju Xe^iP eZoKOVv tto- 
pio'aa'dai Tripde Ttjp 5o^ai/, Sia tovto TroitjTiKrj Trpairri 
iyei/ero Xe^is, oiov rj Topyiov. Kal vvv en oi ttoWoI 
TcSu dwai^evTiav Tom tolovtov^ oiovrai SiaXeyeardai 
KaXKKTTa. TOVTO 8' ovK ecTTiVy d\K eTcpa \6yov 
Kai 7roit](rea)s Xe^i^ earTiv. SijAoI Se to (TVfilSaTvop* 

Idtav, ff, irtpX dtivorriTos (Spengel, Rket Gr. ill 395) ; on the third 
kind of deivorris represented by Gorgias and his school, o{ a-oftturrai ; o 
xl>(uv6fi€vos \oyos ifivos ovk »p ToiovTos. ytV€T<u yap to nXfiarov irtpl t^v 
'Xi^iu, Srav rpaxfUis ica\ fr<fio^pas rcf tj koX aefivas avfi<f)opij(ras Xcfeip c&r 
cfoyycXXj; ravrais iwoias €iri7ro\alovs kqX Koivdf, 

\eyovTts tvriBii ic.r.X.] Cic. Orat. Lli 175, of Isocrates, also a follower 
of Gorgias, Quum enim videret oratores cum severitate audiri poetas 
autem cum voluptate^ turn dicitur numeros secutus quibus etiam in ora" 
tione uteremur^ quum iucunditatis causa turn ut varietas occurrerei 
satietatu So Theophrastus, Dion. Lys. lud. c. 14, condemns this af- 
fected poetical language of the Sicilian school of rhetoricians as childish^ 
TO la-op Koi oiAoiov Traibi&d€9, and unworthy of a serious purpose, Ka$a7r€p€l 
Iroirffia' dio Koi IJttov apfioTTft rg airovbj <c.t.X. Plato, Rep. X 601 A — B. 

On Gorgias' novel and poetical style and the figures that he intro* 
duced into Rhetoric, see Camb, Joum, of Classical and Sacred Philology y 
No. VII Vol. Ill pp. 66 — 7, 73 — 5, and on the rhetorical figures, which are 
classified, 69 — 72. Comp. Cic. Orat. § 175 [paria paribus adiuncta et 
similiter definita itemque contrariis relata contraria, quae sua sponte^ 
etiamsiidnon agas, cadunt pierumque numerose, Gorgias primus invenit, 
sed eis est usus intemperantius. See also Blass, die Attische Beredsamkeity 
I esp. pp. 57 — 64. As a specimen of the poetical style of Gorgias we have 
his metaphorical term for vultures, e/i^vxoft Toa^oiy parallels to which may 
be found in the/^^/r Lucretius and Spenser, Lucr. v 924, viva videns vivo 
sepeliri viscera busto, and Faery Queen II 8. 16 (quoted by Munro), To be 
entombed in the raven or the kight. That this fancy for poetic prose was 
with Gorgias a 'ruling passion strong in death', is proved by the phrase 
used at the close of his life, *At last Sleep lays me with his brother 
Death*. Anothet of his death-bed utterances, cSfcnrfp «« a-airpov #cal ptovros 
avpoiKiov dafUvws diraKKoTTOfuu (Thompson's ed. of the Gorgias, p. 184), 
may be illustrated by Waller's lines, The souPs dark cottage, battered 
and decayed. Lets in new light through chinks that time has made\ 

\irfov\ prose, opposed to iroirja-u, infra § 9, c. 2 §§ 3 and 6, ^CKoi Xoyoi, 
§ 7, Iv wonia-d Koi cV \6yots, § 8, o Xoyos t&v p.€Tp<ap. Poet II 5, VI 26. 
Plato Rep. Ill 390 A, ev Xoy^ ^ cV 7rotj;(r«. *This is shewn by the result : 
for even the tragic writers no longer employ it (sc. rj XcfeO in the same 
way (as the earlier tragedians did), but just as they passed from the 
(trochaic) tetrameter to the iambic measure because of all other metres 
this most resembles prose, so also in the use of words (names or nouns) 
they have dropped all that are contrary to the usage of ordinary conver- 
sation, and have dropped also those with which the earliest (dramatic) 
writers {subaudi noiijfravTn ; especially yEschylus) used to adorn (their 

12 PHT0PIKH2 r I §9. 

ovSi yap oi Tct^ TpaywSia^ Troiovi/Tes en ^^pciJi'Tai tob^ 
avrov TpoTTOVj d\X w<nrep Kal Ik twv TeTapfieTpwp 
eh TO iafx^eiov ixeTefiricrav Zia ro rta Xoyto touto 
Tvov jUieTpwv ofioioTaTOP elvai twv aXKwVy ovTta Kal 
Twv ouofxaTiai/ dcpeiKaarip oara wapa Ttiv SidXcKTOP 

compositions), a practice which is even now retained by the writers of 
hexameters (Epics) : it is absurd therefore to copy those who themselves 
no longer employ that (the original) style*. 

woTrcp Kai...ovTo Kai\ This tautological repetition of kol in an anti- 
thesis is characteristic of Aristotle's style. [Cf. sufira § 3.] 

€K reSv reTpafA€Tpav €ls to layifitiov fi€T€Prj<rav] Poet. IV I/) 1 8, 1 9. fM' 
^lara yap \wktik6v rmv fierpov to iapfitlop cWi...7rXc(aTa yap lofifiua 
Xcyo/icv €P T^ dtaXcKTa tJ irpos oXXifXovv k,t.\» III 3. 3 ult. where this 
passage is referred to. Ill 8. 4. Welcker, Nachtrag^ p. 239. 

ofwiaraTov Tav aXkap] In translating this I have purposely retained 
the ungrammatical and illogical * other' with the superlative, because the 
same blunder is equally common in our own language. Swift, Ta/e of a 
Tub^ 'The most perfect of all others', Hooker, EccL PoL 'of all other, 
they are... most infallible'. Bacon, Essay Of Envy ^ ' one of the most able 
of his predecessors' (of whom he is not, and cannot be, one), 'of all 
other affections (envy) the most importune and continual'. The examina- 
tion of this, and the other irregular use of SXKos, (itoKitoi kclL oi SKkot {cW 
[Plat. Gorg. p. 473 c]), and the analogies in English, is reserved for 
an Appendix [this Appendix was apparently never written, though its 
intended preparation is also hinted in Mr Cope's translation of the 
Gorgias, p. 1 1. Compare note I to II 9. 9, r«jr aXXcoy oi avTovpyol /xaXicrra]. 

HiaXeKTov] for 'common conversation' (properly dialogue): compare 
c. 2. 5, 1) €i»6vla dtak€KTog, and Poet xxii 14. In a somewhat different 
application dtaXcxrof is the third and highest stage of ' sound', (i) noise, 
'4r6<l>os, which even inanimate things, brute matter, wood and stone, are 
capable of producing : (2) <i>mni, Kl>66yyos, the indistinct voice of an animal : 
and (3) biaK€KTos, the distinct utterance of the fiepoTreg avBptonoi, the power 
of conversation, characteristic of humanity. This distinction lies in 
the power which man has, and other animals (I believe) want, of pro- 
nouncing consonants, which produce distinct, articulate words. On speech, 
as the characteristic of man, see PoL i 2, 1253 a 10, seq. where Xoyor is 
substituted for didXexrof, [also Isocr. Paneg. § 48, roCro pjovov (sc. rovff 
Xoyovs) €*£ dnavTov t&v (<p€dp l8iov €<fnjpxv €xovt€s, and Cicero, de Ofif. I 16. 
50, (ferae) rationis et orationis expertes, de Oratore i §§ 32, 33]. 

oiTrflo Koi Twv ovopArwv d(l)€iKaa'Of] Of this change, the lowering of the 
language of tragedy to the level of common life, the earliest author (as 
we are told in c. 2. 5) was Euripides, in his later plays, which are to be 
carefully distinguished from such as the Medea, Hippolytus, and Ion, 
The change was completely carried out in the New Comedy of Menander, 
Philemon Diphilus, &c. On this everyday character of Euripides' later 
and worse compositions — ^which are to be carefully distinguished from 
such as the Medea, Hippolytus and Ion— to which the language was 

PHTOPIKHS r I §§ 9, lo; 2 § I. 13 

io'TiVy^oh [5*] *o£ irporepov^ iKoajiiovv, Kal en vvv oi Toi 
e^afierpa Troiovpre^^* Sio yeXoiov ixiiieiadai tovtous 01 
10 avTOi ovKCTi xp^^'^^f' iK€iv(a tw Tpoirw. wa'T€ (paue-* 
pop OTL ov'x^ cLTTavra otra irepl Ae^ews ecTiv eiireiv aKpi^ 
fioXoyrjTeoi/ yiimv^ dXX o(ra irepl TOiavTrj^ dia^ Ae^o- 
/u€i/. irepl S' eKelvri^ eiprjTai ev roh irepl TroitiTiKfj^. 
I ecTTft) OVI/ €Keii/a Tedecoptifxipd, Kal iapia'6(a Xepew^ chap. ii. 
ap€Tti a-atpf] eiuai. a-rnxeiov yap on o A0709, eap fitj 
oriXoT, ov iroiYiO'ei to eavrov epyov* Kal fxriTe Taireivriv 

^"^ [The rendering given at the foot of p. ii follows Bekker's Oxford ed. of 
1837, which has oti 8' (sic) ol irpfSrop Mfffiow, koI in vvv ol ra i^dftcrpa iroiovvres^ 
d^elKaai' but there is nothing to shew that Mr Cope deliberately preferred this 
to the text as printed in Bekker's third edition ; which is also approved in Spengel's 
note, except ^at he would strike out the first dtpelKoatv, and not the second.] 

made to conform, see MUUer, Iftsf. Gr, Ht ch. xxv. §§ 2, 3. In Arist, 
Ran. 959, Euripides is made to take credit for it^ otxeia irpoyfiar €l(ray<ov, 

§ 10. * And therefore it is plain that we must not go into exact detail 
in describing all that may be said about style, but confine ourselves to 
the kind of which we are now speaking (i. e. the use of it in Rhetoric). 
The other (tlie general view of the subject) has been treated in the 

There is a useful note on the various senses of d«cpt)3em in Aristotle in 
Grant's Ethics^ i 7. 1 8. Here it is used in the first of these, of accuracy, 
or exactness, as shewn in minute detail^ a complete survey of an entire 


Some general remarks upon Style and its virtues, and the various 
classifications of these in ancient and modem systems of Rhetoric, are 
given in the Introduction, as preliminary to the paraphrase of this chap* 
ter, pp. 279 — 282. [Volkmann, die RhetoHk der Griechen und Rbtner^ 


§ I. * Let so much suffice for the consideration (observation) of that 

(ra irfpl irotj/riic^s, c. I. lo) ; and (now) let it be regarded as settled (or 
determined) once for all that one virtue of style is to be perspicuous : for 
a sign of this is, that if the speech (or language) do not explain its 
meaning, it will fail to perform its own proper function'. 

This is a reference to the rule first laid down by Plat. Rep. I 352 D 
seq., and adopted by Aristotle who constantly recurs to it —see especi- 
ally Eth. Nic. II 5, init. — that the virtue or excellence of anything, knife, 
horse, or anything that can be employed as an instrument^ is deter- 
mined by its t^ov or special function, in the due performance of which 
it lies. If the special function of language is to explain one's meaning, 
it is plain that if it fail to do that — if it is not perspicuous — it does not 
answer its intended purpose. 

14 PHT0PIKH2 r 2 §§ I, 2. 

/u>;t€ VTrep to d^itanxa, dWa wpeirovcrav* rj yap 7ro£- 
2 tjTiKti icTio^ ov TaireiVYif dXX ov irpeTrovcra Xoyto. twu 
S* ovofidTtdv Kcti pruJLOLTiav <ra(j)tj fxev Troiei Ta Kvpia, jmrj 
TaTreivriv Ze dXKa KeKOCfxrifxepriv TaWa ovoiiara bora 
eiprirai ev Toh irepl TroitiriKti^' to yap i^aWa^ai 
TTOieT (I>aip€ar6ai cefxvoTepau* wo'Trep yap irpo^ tou^ 
^ei/oi's ol di/6pti)7roi Kal irpos toi)s TroXira?, to auTO 

* And neither mean nor exaggerated ' (beyond or above the true 
valuation of the subject it is employed upon, turgid, pompous, inflated), 
'but decent, appropriate, suitable' (a precept oi propriety)', 'for though 
it may be (t<ra>r) poetical language is not tame, yet it is by no means 
suitable to prose'. Comp. Poet, xxil i, Xcffo); hi apvn\ catfifj kqI ii^ 
rmrtivfiv €ipau These! are the two indispensable excellences of style, 
^i) clearness or perspicuity, and (2) propriety. On these see Introduc- 
tion, p. 280. 
^y § 2. 'Of nouns and verbs' (the ultimate elements, and principal 

components, of language: see Introd. Appendix A to Bk. III. p. 371. 
Poet. XXI 8 — 9) ' perspicuity is produced by (the use of) proper names, a 
character not tame but ornate is imparted by all the rest of the (kinds of) 
words which are enumerated in the Poetics (c. xxi 4) : to alter language 
in this way' (from the received and familiar expressions to which we are 
accustomed), ' invests it with a higher dignity' (because it makes it unu- 
sual, and strange; not familiar, which 'breeds contempt'): 'for men have 
the same feeling in regard of language as they have to strangers as com- 
pared with their fellow-citizens' (they disregard those whom they are in 
the habit of seeing every day, but are struck with the appearance of 
strangers, and pay them attention, if not always respect). To the note 
on Kvpia ovofiara, Introd. p. 282, note 2, add that in the Rhet. ad Alex. 
25 (26) I, and 30 (31) 6, these are called oiKeia 'proper', by a different 

cf oXXafai] infra § 5> cfoXXarrctv rov TrptiropTos^ C 3. 3, to tloiBbs efaX- 
Xdrrctv (which explains it : comp.Poet. XXil 3 infra). So Poet. XXI 4, and 
20, livofia i^riXKar/fifvov, XXII 3, (Xcftr) i^cLKXarTOvtra to IBiaTLKoVf lb. § 8, 
f (oXXayal tSp ovofULTav, From which it results that the meaning of the 
term is ' a change out of, or departure from opo^tg Kvpia, the vulgar lan- 
guage, the ordinary mode of expression', for which something novel, 
unusual, striking is substituted. Isocr. irepl dpTiboaeiog § 179, \6yovs 
tu^iAp vo\v Tap elBuTfjifPOiv Xcyco'dai nap* vfiip €(rj\\ayfi.cpovs ', Demetr. 
irepl ippriPfiaSi irtpi ovyKpia-^ois ult. (Spengel, RAet, Gr, III 280), Xcfiv ircptr- 
TTiv Koi t(ri\\ayfi€^p, Kul davpijOrj. Dionysius, de admirabili vi dicendi in 
Demosthene, c. 10, i^rjXXayfiepop tov avprjBovs xapaKxTipoiy lb. c. 15, 
frtpiTrh, Kcu. i^rfXKayfiepop tov <rvpi]$ovs, de Thuc. lud. c. 28, t^p Hidpoiap 
€(ak\aTT€iP fK T&p ip €$€1, Ep. II ad Amm. C. 3 17 iirjWayp^epr} t^s avpijBovg 
XP^o-toif, Emesti, Lex, Techn, Gr, s. v. 

§ 3. * And therefore a foreign air must be given to the language ; 
for people are admirers of (or wonder at) what is far off, remote, and 


3 irdo'xova'i koi wpo^ Trjp Xe^ip. 8io Se? ttoicip ^evtjv 
Trjp Sid\€KTOP* daviiafTTal yap twv aTrSuTcov elcrivj 
iJSi) Se TO daviiacTov. eirl fiev ovv tcSv fxerptav iroTsXd 
T€ iroiei TOVTOy Kal dpfioTTCi eKet* irXeov yap €^- 
€<rTriK€ Trepi it Kal irepi ov^ 6 \oyov iv Se Toh \fjri\oi^p- 113- 
Xoyoi^ TToWw eXaTToaiv tj yap vTroOeai^ iXdrreoPj 
eirel Kal evravday ei ZovXo^ KaXXieTroiTO 17 Xiav i/€09, 
d7rp€7rea'T€p0Py t] Trepl Xlav fxiKptdv* dXX eari Kal ev 
TOVTOi^ iTTurvo'TeXXoiuLepop Kal av^apojiiepop to irpeirop. 

all that is wonderful (excites surprise, raises our curiosity) is agreeable '. 
Poet. XXIV 17, TO di $avfJM<rr6v iJW* oyjfjitiop 5c, iravTts yap irpoari$€trr€g 
dirayyiXXova-iv €os x^P^C^l*'^^^^ Comp. I 1 1. 21, on the pleasure of ' wonder \ 
and the gratification of curiosity in learning : see the note. 

f cw;v] infra § 6, ^tviKov, Poet, xxn 3. 

^Now in verse of all kinds there are many ways of producing this 
effect, and there they are appropriate, because the subject (circum- 
stances) and the characters (persons) of the story (the fable or poem) 
are further removed ' from common life ; stand out of and above, the 
ordinary level of humanity, Hist. An. I 14. i) — * but in prose compositions i- 
these (modes of giving novelty and variety to the language) must be 
much more sparingly used' {xptifrtiov^ or are appropriate to fewer 
occasions, rov6\ or rather ravff, dpfiorrei, Buhle), * because the subject 
(theme, argument^) is less (lower, less elevated), — (and this is true 
a fortiori in prose) for even in the other (in poetry) if a slave or a 
very young man were to use fine language it would be rather un- 
becoming, or (if any one else did so) on a very trifling subject, but on 
the contrary even in thaV (poetry, not 'prose' as Victorius), 'propriety 
consists in a due contraction and expansion (amplification)'; the adapta- 
tion of the language to the circumstances, raising or lowering it as the 
occasion requires. Comp. Cic. de Orat. in 38. 153. Orat. LX 202. Also 
XXI 70, ut enim in vita sic in oratione nihil est difficilius quam quid 
deceat videre. ILpiirov appellant hoc Graeci; nos dicamus sane decorum. 
§ 72, Quam enim indecorum est de stilicidiis quum apud unum iudicem 
dicas amplissimis verbis et locis uti communibus, de maiestate populi 
Romani summisse et subtiliter! De stilicidiis dicere illustrates irtpX \iav 
Ijuxpav. On the language of poetry and prose, comp. Isocr. Evag. §§ 8 — 1 1. 

KdKkieir€i<r6(u. Comp. Plat. AppL Socr. 17 B, KCKoKKicinffievovs \6yovs 
pj^fjuuri T€ KcH ovofjuurivj ovdc KeKoa-pjifJLevovgf aXX*...ciie^ Xeyop^va roir cVi- 
Tvxova-tp Svofiaa-i. Thuc. VI 83, Plat. Hipparch. 225 C, rav o-o^^v prjfiar 
ra>v...cDy ol dc^iol rrcpi ras dUas KaXXienovvTcu, Valckenaer, Diatr, Eur,, 
Fr, p. 261 c. 

1 virdOeffis^ anything that is subjected as a foundation, a supposition or 
hypothesis, the basis of an argument, a first principle assumed, a theory, an 
underlying principle on which a scheme is to be built, the//?/ (ground plan) of a 
play, and so forth. 

i6 PHT0PIKH2 r 2§4. 

4 Sio iei XavOdveiv iroiovvra^y Kai jnyj SoksTp \eyeiv ttc- 
TrXao'fJLevws dWa ire^vKorw^. tovto yap iridavov^ 
eKeivo Se Tovvavrlov^ cos yap irpo^ eiri^ovKevovra ^la^ 
fidXKovTaiy Kaddirep irpo^ TOi)s oivov^ tov^ jULefJuyfie* 
vov^y^ Kal olov fj QeoSwpov (jxavrj ireirovOe wpo^ Trjv 

TWV dXKwV VTTOKplTcSif* t] JULSP ydp TOV XeyovTos eoiK€P 

§ 4. ' Hence — from the necessity of paying attention to the selection 
of appropriate language in respect of characters and subjects — ^may be 
inferred (Bio) the necessity of disguising the art employed, and of 
avoiding the appearance of speaking, not naturally, but artificially ' 
i^amiv fingere^ oi fiction, or artificial composition), 'for the one is 
persuasive, the other the contrary', (comp. c. 8 § i, to fiep yhp nviBavoUf 
v€w\aa6ai yap do/cci.) ' For people take offence at (///. are at variance 
with, in opposition to) (one who employs artifice) as at one who has a 
design upon them, just as they do at mixed wines'. 

Victorius quotes Plat Symp. IV p. 661 D, dio ^thyovtn top fufuyfuvop 
olvop oi vivovTtg* ol dc fityvvovrts ir€ipwvT(U 'kavBapfiP, as cVi/9ovXcvovrcff* 
From this curious coincidence it seems that *' mixed v^ine" must have been 
proverbial for a concealed enemy: mixed wine, 'the mixing of liquors', be- 
ing, as was supposed, ofa much more intoxicating character than unmixed. 
Philinus is arguing against xtockiXi; rpoi^i; : simple food is always best. 

' And as is the case with Theodorus' voice (///. Theodorus* voice is af- 
fected) in comparison with that of all the rest of the actors' (there should 
be a colon, instead of a comma, at }i€fjityfi€vovs : Kal olop 17 Of ob»pov is 
continued from tovto yap ntOavop : it is an instance of the art disguising 
art, an artificial voice assuming the appearance of one natural and 
simple) : ' for his voice appears to be that of the speaker (though it is in 
reality disguised), but the others as though they belonged to other 
people' (were assumedy with the character represented). 

Theodorus, a celebrated tragic actor, is mentioned— generally with 
Polus or Aristodemus— by Dem. de F. L. § 274, bis; Arist. Pol. iv (vii) 
17, sub fin., 1336 b 28, from which it appears that, like other great 
artists and performers, ancient and modern, he presumed upon his repu- 
tation and artistic skill : also by Plutarch, frequently, as Bellone an pace 
cl. f. Ath. c. 6, 348 F, de sui laud. c. 7, 545 F (a dictum of his to Satyrus 
the comic poet), Praecepta gerendae reipublicae, c, 21, 816 F, Theodorus 
and Polus taken as types of top ip rpoy^di^ vptoraympum^v : probably^ 
by Diogenes Laertius, who at the end of his account of Axistippus, 
n 8, § 103, 4, enumerates twenty Theodoruses (including the philo- 
sopher who gives occasion to this digression), and amongst them one 
ou TO ^pavKLKOP (on the exercise of the voice) pifi^iop nayKoKop : a 
subject so germane to the profession of a tragic actor, that, although 
Diogenes says no more about him, one cannot help suspecting that he 
must be the same with the one here mentioned. Fabricius in his 
catalogue of Theodoruses, Vol. x, names him with a special reference 
to the passage of Aristotle's Politics, and a general one to Plutarch, 

PHTOPIKH2 r 2 § 5. 17 

5 eiuatj al S* oWoTpiai. kKeTrreTai S* ev, idv tk iK 
Tfj^ eitoOvia^ SiaXcKTOU iKXeywy avpTiOtj* 6 irep E.vpi-^ 
TTiSiy^ TTOiei Kai vTreSei^ wptiTm. 

ovTtav S* ovofiaTiav km pvifiaTWv i^ wu 6 \6yo^ 
crvvetmiKeVj twv Se ovofiaTwv TOO'caiT exovrmv eiSfi 
oara TeOetuptiTat ev toJ? irepi iroitiTiKti^^ Tovrmv yXtar* 
Tais fjLBV Kai SittXoU ovofiao'i Kal Treiroififiafoi^ oXiycucK 
Kai oXiyaxou ')(pfiaT€Ov (ottov Se, vtrrepov ipovfieu, 

Valckenaer Dtiiiribe ad Eur. Fragm, p. 1S2 b. He is omitted in 
Svcixi^^ Biographical DicHoruay, 

§ 5. *And tkis cheat (disguise, delusion) is fairly effected' (the 
assumed character escapes observation, is stolen from the view), 'if the 
composer selects for his composition words out of the ordinary language 
(of common life) ; such as are the verses of Euripides, who gave us the 
earliest specimen (hint or glimpse, wro) (of this kind of writing)*. 

tcXcirTfrcu] Comp. infra § 10, ov jcXeirrrnu oJy, C 7. lo, ovr«» KKnrrtrtu 
6 oKpoarris. Rhet. ad Alex. 15 (16) §§ 5, and 6, jtXcRTriy n)y fMoprvpiap^ 
lb. 35 (36) § 4, r^ 9* c(« Kklnrerau Aesch. Choeph. 839, oCroi 4>p€¥ hv 
KKi^€ta» miJLfi4a-mfuinjp, Soph. PhiL 57> ^ ^ ovx^ Kkarrtov (not to be 
disguised), Aj. 188, cc d* viro/SoXXoficvoi itXenrrovci fivBovs ol fieyakoi /9curiX$ff, 
et alibi ap. Soph. (Wunder's note adloc.). lb. 1135, kkamfs, 11 37, iroXX' 
a» kokAs \a6pa av Kkei^eias kaiuL Eur. Fragm. 'IinroXuroff jcoXvirroi^rof, 12, 
tvpooun oTofuun raKjiBiarara Kkhrrova-i- Dionysius, de Comp. Verb. c. 19, 
raatig (tension, pitching) tpnwrjs al KokovfuiHu vpoa-^im dca^opoi, cXcirrovatu 
T§ noiKiXi^ TOP Kopov. lb. Ars Rhet. c. X § 14, jeXcnrorra r^r dxpoaauf 
(''captata furtim auditorum attentione," Reiske). Bacon, Essays, 0/ 
great Place^ ''And do not think to steale it." 

vircdct^e] as I have pointed out, Introd. p. 284, note 2, q. v., may 
also signify 'traced as a guide', for his successors to follow. See also 
p. 285, note I, on Euripides' style, and Archimelus' epigram there given. 

'And of the nouns and verbs' (or subject and predicate, Introd. 
p. 371, Appendix A to Bk. Ill), 'of whidi the speech (or language, in 
general) is composed, of Which the nouns have so many kinds as have 
been considered in the treatise on Poetry' (c xxi, where^ in § 4, eight 
varieties are enumerated, and then defined seriatim^ §§ 5 — 20), ' of these 
words, foreign or obsolete, and (long) compound words' (Aeschylean 
compounds), 'and words invented (manufactured for the occasion), are 
to be rarely employed, and in rare places (on rare occasions) ; where 
(these are), we will state by and by: (in cc. 3 and 7). The «/Ay, has 
been already stated ; and that (the wh^) is because // (the use of them) 
varies (from the ordinary standard) towards, in the direction of, exag- 
geration (or excess) beyond propriety (what is becoming)'. 

On yXttiroi, dinrXa oyo/Aoro, see Introd. on c. 3, pp. 287, 8. wtnoiti fit y op 
d* l(rr\p o Sk»s /i^ icaXov/ifvoy uiro ripttp avrog rlBtroi o irofti/n;^ * o2oy ra 
Mpara Ifppvyas koX rov Upta ipfirfjpa (Poet. XXI. 17). 

AR. III. 2 

i8 PHTOPIKHS r 2 §§5,6, 

TO re ha ri eiptjrar eirl to [xei^ov yap e^aXKarrei 
6 Tov TrpeTTOPTO^) , TO Se Kvpiov Kal to oiKeioi/ Kai ixeTa^ 
(popa fxopai ;(;|Oifo"£/xoi 7rpo9 Trjv twv -^iXwv Xoywv 
Xe^iv. (rriiuLeiop Se oti tovtol^ fiovoi^ Trairre^ XP^^" 
Tar 7rapT€^ yap fxeTaCpopaTs SiaXeyovTai Kal tois 
ciKeloi^ Kal Tol^ KVploLs' oioTTe SfjXop o5s av ev 'jroitj 

§ 6. ' The proper (ordinary) name, and the special name of anything ' 
(oiKtlovj the thing's own or right name, its special designation, Victorius), 
'and the metaphor, are alone serviceable for the language of prose. And 
a sign of this is, that these alone are used by everybody (are of universal 
application); for everyone makes use of metaphors^, and the common' 
(sanctioned by common usage) 'and appropriate words in his ordinary 
conversation : and therefore it is clear that good composition will have 
^foreign air (an air of novelty, something unusual, above the flatness 
and monotony of ordinary, vulgar, talk: § 3), that (the art employed 
in it) may escape detection (pass unobserved, § 4), and that it will be 
clear and perspicuous, (in virtue of the isu/Ma and oixcTa oi^o/Liara). And 
in these, as we said (^y, in §§ i, 3, 4, 5, 6), consists the excellence of the 
rhetorical speech**. 

With the ' foreign', unusual character of good composition, comp. De- 
metr. ircpl ipfirjveias § 77, (Spengel, J^Ait. Gr. in 280), r^v dc Xcftv cV t^ 
XapaKrfjpi rovrt^ vrcptrT^y €?vai d«( Ktk i^XKayfi^injv Kal davyifBrj /lioXXov. 
ovro yap efct tov oyxov, 1; bf Kvpia Kol avvqdris 0*0(^4 r /xcy, Xcir^ de Kal 
€VKaraff>p6vrfro9, <\ 

Kvpiov tivofia is o XP^^^^^ iKaaroi (Poet. XXI 5)y opposed to ykSrra 
f €T€poi : the common, usual, established^ term, for expressing anything, 
opposed to the foreign and barbarous, or archaic and obsolete •yX^rro. 
The word derives its special meaning from the original signification of 
Kvptos, 'carrying authority', 'authoritative' ; whence 'authorised, esta- 
blished, fixed (by authority), settled', as Kvptof vofios, doyna, Kvpia ^fUpa^ 
iKKkfja-iof opposed to the irregular cxxXi/o-ia crvy/cXip^r, convoked at un- 
certain times on special occasions : and hence applied to the established, 
settled, regular name df a thing. See fiirther on Kvpiov Zvopa in note 
2, Introd. pp. 282, 3. [On Kvptos, compare notes on I 2. 4 and 3. 4.] 

oIk€iov ovopa expresses much the same thing by a different metaphor. 
It is something 'of one's own', appropriate, peculiar, characteristic, 
special. This is the Latin ' nomen proprium', of which Cicero says, 
de Or. Ill 37, 149, quae propria sunt, et cert^ ('definite') quasi yocabula 
rerum, paene una nata cum rebus ipsis (nathrally belonging to them). 
From these are distinguished quae iransferuntur (all metaphorical words) 

* Schrader qaotes Cic. Orator, c. 44 § 81, TranslaHonefreguenHssimesermoomnis 
uiitUTf non modo urbanorum, sed etiam rusticorum, siquidem est eorum gemmare 
viteSf sitire agrosj laetas esse segetes, laxoxiosji frumenta, 

' * If the orator confines himself to these, his style may be novel and orna- 
mental, yet without forcing itself unduly upon the attention, and perspicuous.' 
Paraphr. in Introd. 

PHT0PIKH2 r 2§§6, 7. 19 

Tt9, earai re ^eviKOV Kal XavQaveiv ivSex^Tai Kai 
cacptiviei. avTti S' riv »} rod priropiKOu \6yov dperri. 
7 Twv 8' oi/Ofidrwp Tta (lev cocjyKrT^ dfxtavvfxlai j(^pi]a'iiJLOi 
(jrapd TavTus yap KUKOvpyei), tw TroirjTfj Se avpcovv" 
fjLiai. Xeyto Se KvpLo, t€ Kal avvdwixa olov to Tropev^^' ^40$, 
ecdai Kai to (3aSi^eiv* TavTa yap dfx^OTepa Kai 
Kvpia Kai (Tvvtavvfxa dA\^\oc9. 

ei quasi alieno in loco collocantur: autiis quae novamus etfacimus ipsi 
(all foreign innovations on the ordinary language, aliena^ Cicero, yXeUrrai, 
hiiika ovofiara, neirotrfiieva, &c.). Cicero and the Latins do not distinguish 
icupio and oLmIol, Yet, as Victorius has pointed out, he uses terms exactly 
corresponding to those of Aristotle : de Or. ill 39, 159, quod omnes 
translatis et alienis magis quam propriis et suis. For even if we under- 
stand here suis of their own language (as I suppose we should), this 
is immediately followed by nam si res suum nomen et vocabulum pro- 
prium non habetj and in pro Caecina, c. 18 § 51, we have, res ut omnes suis 
certis ac propriis vocabulis nominentur. olKCioi stands for Kvpios, Metaph. 
A 29, 1024 a 32, of Antisthenes, €vtj6S£ fero firjBiv a^t&v XeyctrBai irkfju 

§ 7. This is a parenthetical note : it has little to do with Rhetoric 
except so far as it occupies common ground with poetry, in the use 
of synonyms. 'Of names (words) homonyms (ambiguous words, with 
more than one meaning) are useful to the Sophist' (the fallacious reasoner ; 
see II 24, 2, the topic of ofAawfila, and the note)—' for those are the 
(principal) instruments of his (logical) frauds or cheats ; to the poet, 
synonyms*. The homonym and the synonym are defined at the com- 
mencement 6f the Categories. The former is a word of more than 
one signification, of which the several definitions do not agree ; so that 
the name being the same, the one signification can be employed fal- 
laciously for the other ; synonyms are words which can be variously 
applied, in which the name and the definition (or meaning) do agree ; 
as animal, can be said with truth of man and ox. Trendelenburg, EL Log. 
Ar, § 42, p. u6, on synonyms. Of hononyms Quintilian says, Inst. Or, 
VII 9. 2, singula afferunt errorem^ quum pluribus rebus aut hominibus 
eadem appellatio est, (pfuowfiia dicitur) ut Callus ; avem enim, an gentem, 
an nomen, an fortunam corporis significet incertum est : et Aiax Tela- 
monis an Oileifilius, Verba quoque quaedam diversos intellectus habent^ 
ut cemo : (with the application of it in suits of law). Of this logical 
application of leajcovpyetv, see the examples quoted in note on I i. 10. 

'By proper and synonymous I mean such words as nopcvea-dM and 
PabiC^tv: these are both of them proper and identical in meaning'. 
According to Trendelenburg, u. s.^ voptvfirBai is the genus and Pahi^cuf 
the species, both predicable of animals in the same sense : " Aristoteles 
enim constanter vocabulum (<rvv<owfios) ita frequentavit, ut vel eiusdem 
generis formas vel genus et species, quatenus communi nomine com- 
prehenduntur, synonyma diceret.'' The i4se of these to the poet lies 

2 — 2 

20 PHT0PIKH2 r 2 §§7, 8. 

T« fieu oZv TOVTtap tKaarop ecTi, Kai irocra eiiri 

[lJL€Ta(j>opas^]j Kai oTi ^rovrwp TrXeTo'TOP ZvvavTa^ Kal ev 

TTOn^aei Kal ev Xoyoi^ ai fieracfyopaij eiptjTaiy KadaTrep 

8 eXeyofieVy ev Toi^ irepl TroitiTiKfj^* tootovto^ S' ev Xoyta 

Se? fiaXXov (piXo7rove'i<r6ai irepl avrcSv, octa e^ eAar- p. 1 1 

^ fiertupopas sine uncinis, •"■ tovto xKciffrw Z^varoA ■ rwro^tfi 

in this, that they help him to give variety to his diction, and relieve him 
from the necessity of constantly repeating the same word. 

'Now what each of these things is' — i. e. the things already enu- 
merated, «^»i/;/tf/r^/r/«, translata^ avvtiwfia &c. (Victorius) — 'and the 
number of the kinds of metaphors, and that this, metaphor, is most 
elective both in poetry and prose, has been already stated, as we said 
(§ 2, TW d* ovofidrav nai prffiorav — r^Xa opofurra oira clpi/rai cV roi£ irtpX 
woifiriKfjs), in our work on poetry'. Max Schmidt, in his tract On the 
date of the Rhetoric, Halle, 1837 (frequently referred to in the Introd.), 
and before him Victorius, notices here, that the synonyms alone of all 
the words here referred to do not appear in the Poetics ; from which 
each of them infers a lacuna in that work : more especially as Simplicius 
had left on record that Aristotle had treated of them in his book on 
poetry. There is another loss in that work indicated by a reference in 
lUiet. I II. 29 [and ill 18.7] to the Poetics for an account of to ytXoiov, 
which is now no longer to be found there. 

§ 8. 'And they require all the more diligent attention (^iXoirovcIy 
* labour con amore,' fond, affectionate, loving, care and pains), to be be- 
3towed upon them in prose, in proportion as the sources from which prose 
draws its aids or supplies are fewer than those of verse': see ante% 3. 
I have translated roa-ovrtf which seems much more likely than roaovro. If 
the latter be retained, it can only mean 'so much as I have described', but 
where ? or when? I have no doubt that roa-ovrm is the right reading. ["oSraa 
A (quod Bekkerum fugit) Q, unde iam Victorius rotrovr^ restitui t" SpengeL] 

'And perspicuity' (perhaps rather, 'clearness' in the sense of vivid, 
graphic, representation^), ' and pleasure, and the foreign air, are con- 
veyed by metaphor more than in any other way', (more than by any 
other kind of word which can be used to give an extraneous interest to 
language), tart de fuya fitv ro tKoar^ rap tlprffiamp frpeiropras xP^^^^t 
Koi dtirkois opopxuri xal yXttrroiff, iroXv bt fUyiarop ro fUTa<f}optKop §tpai. 
Poet. XXIII. 16. The pleasure derived from metaphors is that we learn 
something from them ; they bring into view hitherto unnoticed resem- 
blances between things the most apparently dissimilar, ro r J pxra^kpup 
TO TO Sfioiop B€»ptip, Poet. XXII 17. Top. Z 2, 140 a 9. This is the ' 
fourth kind of metaphor, that from analogy, and by far the commonest and i 
most attractive. On the pleasure of learning, see I 1 1. 21 and 23, ill 10. 2. I 

'And it can't be derived (acquired) from anyone else'. This does not i 
of course mean that one writer or speaker cannot borrow a metaphor 1 

1 Demetrius, however, ircpL ^Epftripelas § 89, (Spengel, JRhet. Gr, ill 381), says, 
%ifia [kbrrw. va^arepov h rcis fUTa4>opcus \4yerai Kal Kvpuarepop VTep h a^ott roit 
Kvplois, Cn t6 i<l>pk%tv Zi fidx^l (H* N 339), ir.r.X. but this is by the vividness of 
the description. 

PHTOPIKH2 r 2§§ 8,9. 21 

Toviav /SofjdfifJLaTwp 6 \6yos ecTi twi/ ixerptav. Kal to 

a'a(p€s Kal to fJSi) Kal to ^eviKov ex^i fiaXKrTa tj [leTa^ 

9 (popdj Kal Xafieiu ovk ecTti/ avTtjv Trap* aWov. Sec 

from another ; but that the invention of metaphors is a mark of original 
genius, and therefore cannot be taught ^ derived from another in the 
way of instruction. Not that metaphors in general are confined to men 
of genius, navrts yap> iitra<t>opais diaXcyoi/roi, § 6 ; but they all shew ori- 
ginality more or less, and are marks of natural (not acquired) ability, or 
genius, each in proportion to its merit, ilovov yap tovto {to fi€Ta<l>opiK6v) 
ovT€ Trap* ak\ov ccrrt Xcc^civ, 9v(l)vtas t€ aijfieiop eariv' ra yap c2 fi€ra<f>€p€i» 
TO TO ofioiov 0€<op€iv f'oTiV. Poet. XXII 1 7. And therefore, the more remote 
the resemblance between the two objects brought together by the loeta- 
phor, the more ingenuity and natural ability is required for detecting it 

Harris, Philol, Inq.y Part il, ch. lo, takes this view of the meaning ; 
'' that metaphor is an effort of genius and cannot be taught is here again 
(in the present passage) asserted in the words, jcai \afi€iv,.,irap* SXkov" 
Whately, on the other hand, denies that this means, " as some interpret- 
ers suppose, that this power is entirely a gift of nature, and in no degree; 
to be learnt: on the contrary he expressly affirms that the 'perception of 
resemblances' on which it depends is the fhtit of 'philosophy': but he 
means that metaphors are not to be, like other words and phrases, 
selected from common use and transferred from one composition to 
another, but must be formed for the occasion" [Rhetoric, chap, in p. 277 
ult.]. Whatever Aristotle may have said elsewherey it is certain that what 
he says in the Poetics^ and therefore in this passage which is repeated 
from it, is what Harris has described: the close connexion of vap aKKxAt 
XojSfiv with the following tv^vta shews this unmistakably. Besides this, 
a remark about borrowing metaphors from other people's speeches or 
writings is not only trivial in itself, but here altogether out of place : and 
if it were not, why should metaphors be singled out from all other forms 
of speech as things that should not be borrowed? Is not purloining your 
neighbour's thoughts or expressions or bons mots equally reprehensible in 
all cases? or may yXcSrrai and ir€Troirfp.€pa and the rest, all of them be 
* borrowed', and metaphors alone excepted ? Victorius, according to Schra- 
der, renders it, " non licet semper sumere ipsam ab alio auctore," which he 
approves, and interprets, that you musn't be always begging or borrow- 
ing your metaphors from others, when you can and ought to invent them 
yourself. In my copy of Vettori's Commentary [Petri Victorii Commen- 
tarii in Opera Aristotelis, 5 vols, folio, published at Florence, 1548 — 1583], 
these words do not occur : the passage is there explained, as it should be^ 
of 'acquiring metaphors' from any one but oneself: they being due to a 
natural ingenuity. Victorius also says that this remark, upon the inven- 
tive power which they presuppose, is introduced as an additional recom- 
mendation of metaphors : and refers to one of the topics of Top. in., the 
degrees of good, Koi h firj eo-rt nap* aXXov rropifrauBaA rj o tori nap* aWov, 
what can't be procured from another, any native excellence or advantage,* 
is superior to anything that can. Also c. i, 116^ 10, to ^vtrei roi; /ai^ 

22 PHTOPIKH2 r 2§9. 

Se Kai TO. €7ri6eTa kui Ta^ iJL€Ta(j>opa^ dpixoTTOvca^ 
Xeyeip. tovto S' ecTTai eK tov dvdXoyov* ei 8e ixy\ 
a7rp67r€9 (pavtiTai Sia to irap aXKt]\a to, ci/ai/- 
Tia fxdXio'Ta (paiveardai. dWd Sei (TKOireiVy 1J9 i/eoi 
(boiviKiSy ovTW yepouTi ti* ov yap tj avrtj irpeirei 

^va-ii {aip€TtaT€pov) to fUv yap ^vcret, ro S* iirlicrrjrov, the superiority of the 
natural to the acquired, 

§ 9. * Epithets* (including not only single adjectives, but any ornamental 
or descriptive addition to a plain ovo^ Kvpiov, as a sauce to a joint ; see In- 
trod. p. 289) *and metaphors must be made appropriate (in the former, to the 
subjects to which they are applied, in the latter to those to which we 
transfer them from something else): this appropriateness will proceed 
from the proportion* (between the epithet or metaphor and the thing it is 
applied to in either case : " si ex proportione duxerimus, observaverimus- 
que ut ipsa sibi mutuo respondeant, similemque rationem inter se ha- 
beant" Victorius): 'otherwise (ti \tx\ cio-iv op/Aorrovcroi) the impropriety 
will be apparent, glarings (by the juxtaposition), because the opposition 
of two contraries becomes most apparent when they are placed side by 
side of one another. But (on the contrary) we must consider, as a scar- 
let coat is suitable to a youth, so also (what is suitable) to an old man : 
for the same dress is not becoming to both'. 

^ovcirai, 0aiV€(r^ai] in the emphatic sense, equivalent to <f>avtpov tlpoi — 
which occurs in the parallel passage, 11 23. 30 — is illustrated in note on 
II 2. 1, and I 7. 31 [p. 141]. The observation that irapoXXi^Xa ra ivavria 
fiaXkop (t>aiv€rai is a favourite one with Aristotle. The parallels from the 
Rhetoric are quoted in note on II 23. 27. Add Dem. de F. L. § 192, 
nap' aX\rj\a yap coroi ^av€p<OT€pa, 

An inappropriate epithet may be illustrated by the substitution of 
amabile and formosum for horrendum and informe in Virgil's line, Man' 
strum horrendum informe ingens cui lumen ademptum : a metaphor is 
inappropriate when you bring some incongruous notion into juxta-posi- 
tion with the object which you * invest' with your metaphor, like an old 
man with the incongruous dress of a scarlet coat; — although viridis is 
not inappropriate to senectuSy though greenness and old age might seem 
incongruous, because in this application of the metaphor the proportion 
or ratio is observed between Xh^ freshness implied in the green vegetation 
and the freshness and vigour of old age, and the two are thus brought 
under a common genus. When old age is called the evening of life the 
metaphor is appropriate, because there is a true proportion or analogy ; 
evening : the day :: old age : man's life ; evening and old age are un- 
der a common genus, viz. the close of a period, iv r^ avry ytVei, infra j 
comp. Poet. XXI 10, rapLtiv, dpvacu' a/ui<^a> yap dfjieXt'iv ti cWtV. But when 
Shakespeare [Hamlet, ill i. 59] speaks of taking arms against a sea of 
troubles there is neither proportion nor congruity: and in such cases, 
when the two notions are placed side by side, and so brought directly 
into contrast, the incongruity becomes at once apparent. This kind of 
solecism is usually called 'confusion of metaphor'. 

PHTOPIKHS r 2 § 10. 2S 

10 €a'6f]9. Kcu idv T€ Koaixeiv fiovXti, diro twp /BcXtiopwu 
Tc5i/ iv TavTM yevei (pepeiv Triv fxeTa(^pdvy edi/ re 
yJ^ey.eiPy diro twv ;(;e(poi/ft)i/. Xeyta S* olovy eirel Ta 
evavTia eV to? uvtm yeveiy to <pdvai tov fxev tttcox^v^ 
opra ei'xea'dai top Se euxofiepop WTW'xeveiPj on dfitbio 
aiTtjo'ei^y TO eiprjiixipop icTi Troieip* cos Kal 'l(piKpdTfi^ 
KaWlap fiYiTpayvpTfiP aW* ov SaSovxop* o 8' e(pfj 

§ lo. * And if you want to set off anything (if praise is your object), you 
must take your metaphor from the superior (better, more honourable or 
valuable) things that fall under the same genus ; if blame, from the inferior. 
As an instance of my meaning ; since contraries are (the extremes of 
the species) imder the same genuSj to say that one that prays, begs, and 
one that begs, prays, is to do this ; because both of them are kinds of 
petition'. These are the two extremes of the genus petition, or solicitation ; 
praying the highest form, begging the lowest ; * as also (besides others, 
jcat) Iphicrates (called) Callias (whom he wished to depreciate) iirjrpa- 
yvpTfj^ instead of dabovxos [*a mendicant priest', instead of * bearer of 
the mystic torch ']. The other (Callias) replied, that he (his opponent) 
never could have been initiated (or he would have been incapable of 
such a mistake), else he would not have called him firjrpayvprrjg but 
S^dovxos — for it is true (adds Aristotle, by way of explanation) that they 
are both attached to the service of a goddess (both come under the 
common genus 'servants of a goddess'), but the one is a term of honour, 
the other of dishonour'. It is much like calling the Precentor of a 
Cathedral a ballad-singer. 

ra ivavrla iv r^ avr^ ycvci] This is the definition of 'contrary', ivav 
Tiov : ra irXeioTov oXXi^XfiDy dtcori^icora tov iv r^ avT^ yei/ci ivavria opiffiv* 
Tcu, Categ. c, 6y 6 a 17. 

KakXias is the third of that name, the son of the third Hipponicus, 
pf that noble and wealthy Athenian family, of which the heads received 
these names alternately during several generations, Arist. Ran. 283, 
'iTnroviKos KoXXtov icd^ 'iTnroviKov KoXAia^. The title of d^dov^of, here- 
ditary in his family, is especially assigned to him by Xenophon, Hellen. 
VI 3. 3, KaKKias 6 dabovxos* His pride in this distinction would of course 
have rendered him much more susceptible to the slight conveyed by 
Iphicrates' ignorant, or malicious, mistake. The substitution of the 
one word for the other, though evidently interpreted by Callias (from 
his reply) as a mistake made in ignorance of the distinction between 
the two— perhaps wilfully, to save his dignity — is much more likely to 
have been intentional and malicious. Callias was a vain foolish man — 
see Xenoph. 1. c. § 3, ult. and Callias' speech §§ 4, 5, 6, — and Iphicrates, 
the self-made man, who had risen to distinction by his own merits, e^ otap 
€l9 Ota, would doubtless have enjoyed a joke at the expense of the pom- 
pous and empty 'descendant of Triptolemus' (Xen. L c.) and hereditary 
d^bovxos of the Great Mysteries. Xenophon mentions him as one of the 
ambassadors to the congress at Sparta in 371 B. c, in virtue of his here- 

24 PHT0PIKH2 r 2 § 10. 

dfxvfiTov avTOV etvac ov yap av fAtiTpayvprtiP avTOU 
KaXeiv, dWa Sa8oi;;^oi/' afiipw yap Trept deou, dWa 

ditary irpo(tvta of that state. There is a good account of this Callias 
by Mr Elder in Smith's Bto^r. Diet. He is the entertainer, of the 
Sophists in the Protagoras, and the host of Xenophon^s * Banquet'. On 
Callias and his family, its wealth and splendour, see Hockh, Pudl. Econ. 
of Athensy Bk. iv c. 3, pp. 42, 3 (Lewis* Transl.), and Heindorf s learned 
note on Protag. 311. 

The dgdovxta was, as we have seen, an ofi&ce of great distinction. 
The dfdoOxo^ ^^d ^^^ procession of the ftvarai froin Athens to Eleusis 
on the fifth day of the great Eleusinia, the terch-day^ if r&v Xafivddmp 
Tiliipa. See Dkt Antiq. Art. 'Eleusinia,* p. 373 ^. Rich, Diet, Gr. 
and Rom, Ant. s. v. p. 232. 

lifjTpayvprrit^ on the contrary, implies everything that is vile and 
contemptible: it is the designation of a class of profligate beggars, 
chiefly women, who attached themselves to the worship of some par- 
ticular deity— usually Cybele, ^t Magna Mater^ from which fifirpayvpnig 
is taken — at whose festivals they attended to ply their profession, that 
of dyfip€ip, collecting alms, stipem cohere, and then practised every kind 
of imposture and indulged in every variety of licentiousness. They 
seem also to have gone their rounds through the great houses in cities. 
Plat. Rep. II 364 B — c, fortune-telling, and with charms and spells 
(as to draw down the gods from heaven) and other nostrums for sale. 
They carried about with them an image of the goddess in whose name 
they asked alms. Lobeck, Aglaophamusy p. 629, compares them to men- 
dicant friars or Bigtnnes^ and designates them viles Metragyrtas. Me- 
nander wrote two or three plays upon them, the Q€o<l>opovfi€Vff and Mijrpa- 
yvprris (or Hrivayvfynjs, so Meineke, Fr. Comic. Gr.^ Menander, IV 163, on 
which see Lobeck, ibid. 645, note), and the 'Icpcco, which, from the 
lines c{ y^ cXicci rov 0€op rots KVftPdkoif avBpnuns th o /SovXcrot, Lobeck 
supposes (apparently with little reason) to have been directed against 
the Mryrpayvprcu. Meineke, ib. Menand. iv 140. Compare on their cha- 
racter, Antiphanes, Fragm. Mitroirovifpov, Meineke, Ib. ill 86, aSreu d* virrp- 
paKXmKTt /bicra y€ vrj Am rovf pifTpayvprovprdg yc* ttoKv yap aS yipot 
fuapmjTov TovT iartVf «e.r.X. On incantations and the like, see Ruhnken ad 
cVoycoyat, p. 1 1 4. To this extremity Dionysius the younger, once tyrant 
of Syracuse, was finally reduced, avrog de Atoi^o-iOf rcXer fjajrpayvpr&p 
jcal TVfiiravo<l>opovfuvog ohcrpas top fiiop Kar€(rrp€^ : Clearchus ap. Athen. 
541 C (Victorius). The iitfTpayvprcUf male and female, did not confine 
themselves to a single goddess, though Cybele was their favourite, but 
also attached themselves to the service of I sis ; and apparently to that 
of Demeter and Cora (from the present passage) ; of Opis and Arge, 
Hdt. IV 35 ; and in general, of those whose worship was of an orgiastic 
character, see by all means Ruhnken ad Tim. p. lOy s. v. aytip^tp. Here 
there are two goddesses implied, Demeter in d^dot/xof, and Cybele in 
prirpayvpTifs, There is a short article in Diet. Antiq. on the subject 
under ayvprris, 

dytiptip is used to signify collecting alms, or begging, several times by 
Herodotus; twice, for instance, in iv 35. By Homer, dytipfaOai and ayvp- 

PHT0PIKH2 r 2 § 10. 25 

TO fiev Tifiiov TO Se aTi/xov. Kal o [lev itovvtroKO* 
\aKa^, avTOi S' avrov^ T€;^i/iTas Ka\ov(riv tuvtu S* 

ra^ftv, Od. T [xix] 284. Plato, Rep. II 364 B, 381 D. Dem. ir. t. eV x^PP^^* 
96. 1 7, d^* 0V aytip^i Kok irpovairti km. davttCerai, Hence dyvprriSy ayvprpiof 
' a vagabond', one that goes about collecting for a deity. Aesch. Agam. 
1244, Cassandra of herself, Kakoviiimi di i^oiraf, at ayvprptay Blomfield's 
Gloss, ad loc Soph. Oed. R. 387, iiayov Toio»bt,,,bokwif dyvfynjv. Lysippus, 
Comic, ap. Meineke, Lys. ll p. 746, Fragm. Cratin. Apmrer. 11, lb. 11 51 
EubuL Kvpfvraiy Fr. 2, V 5, (r<l>aXk»v, ayvpTfj^ olarpog, Rhes. 503, of 
Ulysses, dyvprris irr«x**4'' 'x*" oroXi/i'. lb. 7 1 5, /3tov fi* ciroirooy tipv 
dyvpTfjs Tig Xdrpis* 

The next is a case of the same kind ; o£ two possible designations of 
actors one takes the lowest and most contemptuous, the other the 
opposite and highest and most complimentary. ^lowcoKokaKts represents 
them as parasites or flatterers, not worthy to be companions or friends 
of the god ; the lowest and most degraded form of service^ of Dionysus 
the patron deity of the stage and its belongings (Aristophanes passim) 
T^xviToi as 'artists', or ^artistes* — as the lower kind of professional 
performers, singers, dancers, posture-makers, are fond of calling them- 
selves nowadays by way of dignifying their profession : the term is 
actually applied to them by Dem. de F. L. § 212, of Philip who collected 
at a festival nmrras rols rtx^iras ; on which Ulpian (quoted by Shilleto 
ad loc.) Tois vnoKpiTas o^rw Koktl K»fiueovg re Koi rpayiKovs, Shilleto 
adds, ut aiunt in Graecis artificibus^ Cic. pro Murena 13 (29). [Ar, 
Problems 30. 10, 956 ^11, dc^ ri o\ Atoyvcruixol rcxi'^'rai or cVl to iro\^ 
wovrjpot €unv; referred to by Aulus Gellius, XX 4. Comp. Alciphron, III 48, 
{AiKVfjofiov Tov Tpaytj^p) ov €y» t^s axapi<rrov <l>c»v^g €V€Ka avTOKopvdop 
Kak€UrBat vpot rjfjMv koi tov x^P^ ^^^ AiomMroKokaxw Zxpiva (Otto Liiders, 
di^ Dionysischm KUnstleTy 1873, pp. 58—63).] 

The zovDXtxQtt genus or notion which unites AMi^vo-oicoXaiecr and rr^yiroi 
as 'contraries ' is that of service to a deity : the rcxwrot as well as the 
nSKaKit being assumed as actors, to be devoted to his especial service. 
The distinction is that between true ar/, and low buffoonery. Thisy 
as far as I can see, is the whole mieaning of the passage. 

Victorius however, and Schweighauser on Athen. vi 249 F, drag in 
here, wholly as I can conceive beside the point, another sense of Aio- 
yvo-ofcoXoKcff in which it was applied to the flatterers of Dionysius of 
Syracuse— of whose filthy and disgusting practices Theophrastus (quoted 
in Wyttenbach on Plut. p. 53, f) gives some revolting examples — in a 
double sense, of Dionysus and Dionysius : see their notes for the ex- 
planation of this. (It is supposed by them and Mr Shilleto u. s. to be 
a joke ; if so, it is of a very frigid description.) Wyttenbach says (note 
ad Plut. L c.) " Actores scenici honesto nomine dicebantur oc ircpl Acowcroy 
rcxi'irac, per contemptum Atowo-oxoXaiccf '' : which is no doubt all that is 
meant here, though he refers to Victorius* note, who makes a great deal 
more out of it. This special sense of rcx^rai is fully confirmed by an- 
other passage of Athen. v 198 B describing a magnificent procession of 
Ptolemy Philadelphus (cc. 25 — 30), pxff ovg €irop€viTo <^ikiaKos 6 noifpifg, 
2rpci)f tap Aioyvcrov, Ktu navrts oi ircpl top Aiopvcop r€;i^rirai. It 

26 PHT0PIKH2 r 2 §10. 

afxcpw fxeraKpopay tj fiev pviraivovTiav f\ Be TOVPavTtop. 
Kat oi fiev XifO'Tat avTOvs Tropurra^ KaXovtri vvv* hto 

occurs also in Diog. Laert x 4. 8, Epicurus called rovs n-cpl IlXaro»va 
(Plato's followers) Liowa-oKoKoKas, km avrov UXaTuva xpvfrovv (which is 
translated ^ Dionysii assentatores ' in Cobet's corrected version, though 
Dionysius can surely have nothing to do with the matter, any more than 
here). Here also the word is a term of reproach ; and seems by this time 
to have h^dovat proverbial for gross and low flattery: " tanquam assenta- 
tores eos, non sodales, insimulans." Victorius. Victorius understands the 
term, as here used, to express the lowest order of attendants on the stage 
(parasites of Bacchus), such as the scene- shifters, candle-snuffers, and such 
like menials of a modern theatre, but another passage of Athen« xi 
538 F, — «cac fKTort oi irportpov Kcikovfiepoi AiowtronoKoKes *AXf^avdpoK6kaK€9 
i<KriBr)a'av^ bia rag t£v b<op(ov vrrepfiokas' e<^' ols Koi ijaBri 6 *AXc£aydpor. This 
occurs in a list of the entertainments which were exhibited in a great 
marriage-feast given by Alexander after the capture of Darius, taken 
from a work of Chares, *the histories of Alexander'. Now whether 
€(f>* oU rja-6rj refers to Alexander's delight at their gifts (neut.) or at 
themselves (masc), that is, their acting, in either case their employment 
could not have been of the mean and degrading character attributed 
to it by Victorius — in the one case they were too rich, in the other, 
if they amused him, they must have been actors, or at all events above 
the degree of menials, though their acting may have been mere grimace 
and buffoonery. 

*And one (to vex and lower them) calls them' (whether this means 
any *one' in particular, we do not know) 'parasites of Dionysus (low 
buffoons), whereas they themselves style themselves artists: and each of 
these is a metaphor {artist as applied to them is a metaphor, I suppose, 
because the proper object of art v& production — rkx}"\ /*«^« Xoyov iroirp-iK^, 
TovTov av €irj rexvrj Koi e^is p^ra \6yov akriBovs iFoirfTiKi^ : and iroiijcrir being 
distinguished from npa^is, dvayiaj rrjv rexvrjv Troii^o-co)^ oXX' ov irpd(€»s 
€ivai, Eth. Nic. VI 4, 1 140 a 7 seq. — and these vaon produce nothing; 
their profession is practical, ends in npa^iv, or action), 'the one for the 
purpose of (///. belonging to) blackening (soiling, defaming), the other 
the contrary'. 

pvnaivuv (pimos, dirt), Eth. N. I 9, 1099 b 3, ivi&^v de njrcoficvoi pwrai- 
vovari TO fieucapiov, * their bliss is tarnished, sullied, defiled, defaced'. Phe- 
recrates, ap. Meineke, Fr, Comic, Gr. il 352, Pherecr. Fr. Inc. 48, ap. 
Photium, Suidam, Thomam Magistrum. " Schol. ad Ar. Nub. 97, €ls Sov 
Xe/ay tppxmaivero 6 (f>iK6(ro4>os, Simile est ima-pjv" Meineke, Id. ad 
fragm. Cratini, Cleobul. 9, ap. Schol. ad Arist. Thermoph. 389, rl yap ijpBt 
ovK €7ri<rp.j rav kukov; Dion, de Isocr. Indicium, c. 18, koX ovt 'Aptoro- 
riXfi TTci^ofuu pxmaiv€iv rbv avUpa /SovXo/aci^^. 

*And pirates nowadays call themselves purveyors^. So Pistol, in 
Merry Wives of Windsor, i 3. 49, " Convey the wise it call : Steal, foh I 
a fico for the phrase !" 

vvp] referring to the early times spoken of by Thucyd., i 5, when the 
Greeks irpairovro npbg Xi7ot€(W...ovic €xovt6s fro> al(rx^f^v tovtov tqv tpyov, 

PHTOPIKH2 r 2§§ lo, ir. 27 

e^ecTi Xeyeiv top dSiKi^a'avTa fxep djuLapTdpeip, tou 5' 

dfiapTOLVovTa dSiKfi(rai, Kai top KXeylraura Kal Xafietv 

KUi TTopdfja'ai. TO he ws* 6 Tfi\e(j>o^ EvpiTrlhov (l>ri(riy 

KcoTTf]^ dvaarcraiv Kdwo^d^ eU Mvcriap, 

aVpeTres, otl fxet^op tS apdarcreip t] kut d^lap' ov 

1 1 KeKXeTTTat ovp. eCTi Se Kai dp rals avXXa/Sai^ dfxap^ 

Tia, idp firi ijSe/a? ^ arjiixeia (pcopfj^, olop Aiopvclo^ 

irpoaayopevei 6 x^^*^^^^ ^^ '^^^^ eXeyeioi^ Kpavyrjp 

<l>€povTos 5c ri Kai bo^rjs fiaKKov, jc.t.X. On what follows, see Homer, Od. 
Ill 73, and elsewhere. 

On the actual iropKrrai at Athens, see Schneider's note on Arist. Pol. 
I II, ult, Comm, p. 65. 

'And therefore (by the same rule) wrong may be called error, and 
error wrong ' (both of them kinds of injury or offence ; that is here the 
supposition in dfiapravfiv ; but the one is a crime because it is done with 
a bad Trpoaipca-is or moral purpose, the other a venial offence; avev de 
KOKias dfiaprrifia ic.r.X. Eth. N. V lo, 1135 ^ i8 seq.) 'and stealing either 
taking or robbing (on a grand scale)'. 

* A phrase like that of Euripides' Telephus, " He lords it over the oar 
{sways it, like a sceptre, the emblem of royalty), and having on his 
departure for Mysia," is unbecoming (inappropriate), because ruling^ 
swaying, lording^ is too big, pompous, for the value (measure, merits) 
(of the object described) ; and so, the disguise (concealment) is not ef- 
fected (the art or effort becomes apparent, supra, § 5). 

Kami\'s dvdxrtTiAv Kanofiai ets Mvalav] The rest of the sentence is supplied 
by the Schol. irpavparla-Bri iro\€^ ppaxlovu The first line should be 
read [not, as in the MSS, Ktoivas dvda-a-eiv, kcu diro^as tU Mvalap, 
but] as it is by Dindorf, Poet. Sc, Fragm. Eur. Tel. 20, and Wagner, 
Fragm. TeL 10 (Fr, Trag, Gr. II 359), Ktovris dvcurvvkv Kcarofias €ls Mwo-tav. 
dvda-a-eiv takes the genit. and dative, not the accus. Kiomjs ava$ and 
dvd(r(T€Lv et similia are found elsewhere in Eurip. Helen. 1048, Cyclops [86], 
and Aesch. Pers. 378. In Aeschylus the pompous phrase is much more 
characteristic. The cautious and sober Sophocles never employs it 

§ II. 'There is also a fault (which may be committed) in the (com- 
position of, and the sound thence arising of the) syllables of a word if 
(i. e. if ever, or when) they are not signs or marks (indications, repre- 
sentations) of sweet or agreeable voice' (i. e. if, when they are pro- 
nounced, or expressed by the voice, they don't produce an agreeable 
sound; ^aoi/i; is the sound of the voice, or the voice as uttered, and 
forming w'ords) 'as Dionysius the Brazen calls poetry in his elegies " Cal- 
liope's screech," because they are both voices^ — and so far his metaphor 
was right : both terms fall under the same genus, (^©yi;, the met, dhos 
irpos eldos — ' but his metaphor is a bad one by reason of its unsignificant 

Kpavy^] a screech, scream, any harsh and dissonant sound. lepdCuv, 

28 PHTOPIKHS r 2§§ II, 12. 

KaWioTTti^ T/Ji/ iroLYi(TiVj OTi afKJxa (jxouai* <pav\ti Se 
12 i; fieTa^opa Tais dtr^fiois (jxai/aU. €Ti Se ov iropptaQev 

with which it is connected, expresses the harsh voices of certain animals 
as the * croak' of the raven and the frog, and the * bawling* of a man, 
all suggestive of disagreeable associations. The * badness of the meta- 
phor' seems to reside in this. SarrjfjLos fjiavj^ is, it is true, nothing but a 
non-significant voice or sound,' applied. Poet. XX §§ 5, 6, 7, to sounds 
like syllables, and conjunctions, which signify nothing by themselves, 
but only in combination with other sounds or words; and opposed to 
(n/fuunriKoi, sounds which do signify something each by itself, as noun 
and verb §§ 8, 9. But these non-sigpiificant sounds, which represent 
discordant and unmeaning cries, are here to be interpreted as expressing 
also the associations which they suggest, and so /cpovyi;, which suggests 
all these disagreeable cries and screams, is particularly ill applied as a 
metaphor to the sweetest of all voices, such as that of a Muse. 

'Dionysius the Brazen', so called from having first suggested the 
use of bronze money at Athens, Athen. XV 669 D, was a poet and 
rhetorician, ibid., whose floruit is to be referred to the earlier part of the 
fifth cent B. c, judging from a remark in Plut. Nic. c. 5, 526 B, where we 
are told that there was in Nicias' household a man called Hiero, who 
claimed to be the son of Dionysius the Brazen. A further account 
of him is to be found in Smith's Biographical Dictionary^ Dionysius 
no. 16 ; and a collection of the fragments of his elegies, amounting to 
seven, in Bergk, Fragm, Lyr, Gr, p. 432 [p. 468, 2nd ed.], In fragm. 5 there 
is a still worse specimen of his metaphors preserved, which beats even 
the Ktomis dvatrafif and in the same kind of fault koI rtvts olvov oyovrcff 
cV €lp€(rirj AiovvcoVf avftwoo'lov vavrai kclL kv\ikSv iprrai, 

[On the Bronze coinage of Athens, see Beule's Monnaies cCAMnes^ 
pp. 73 — ^^, It seems in^ossible to say with certainty, either when it first 
came in, or what is the date of the oldest bronze money extant Leake 
supposes it probable that it came in soon after the first unsuccessful 
attempt to introduce it, while Beule thinks that the early extant bronzes 
are of the age of Alexander. It is certain they were in circulation in the 
time o( Philemon, the Comic poet See Leake's Numismata Hellenica 
(European Greece), p. 22. These details are due to Professor Churchill 

On harshness of sound in composition, see Hermog. n-rpi {deo>v 
To/i. a . c. 7, Trrpl rpoxwri/rof, Spengel RheL Gr, II 299. Of the second 
■ class, the d^* iayrr&v (TKkrfpaL^ the harshness arising ^ out of themselves ' 
from the disagreeable combination of the letters, arapnogj tfjuzpTrrev^ 
tyvafiylt€f and such like, are given as examples. In the same treatise 
To/i. /S'. c. 4, (11 359), there are some remarks upon the connexion of 
sounds with pleasant associations, which make the sounds themselves 

§ 12. ' Further, they must not be far-fetched, but from things kindred 
(cognate) and of like form must be transferred notions (in the form 
of words) hitherto nameless in the fashion of names (so as to become 
new names), any one of which as soon as spoken will be clearly perceived 

PHT0PIKH2 r 2 § 12. 29 

Set dW Ik t£v avyyevtov kui twv ofioeih^u fxeTa" 
Kpepeiv Ta di/tapvfia (avofiaatievia^^ o Xe'xBev SfjXoi^ 
eaTLv on cvyyeve^^ olov iv tw amyfiaTi rw evSo- P- '405 ^. 


ai/Sp' elSoi^ TTvpt ;^aAxoi/ irr dvepi KoXKria'avTa^ p. "S- 
dvtivviiov yap to irddo^j etrri S' ajxipta irpocQeaU ti^* 

to be near of kin, as in the popular (famous) aenigma, 'I saw man 
gluing upon man bronze with fire' ; for the process was nameless, but 
both of them are a kind of application (the common genus) ; and 
accordingly he (the author of verses) gave the name of 'gluing' to the 
application of the cupping glass/ 

v6ppmBfv\ infra c. 3. 4? dca^l^fis dc «af ir6pp«^€P» Demetrius, ircpl tpfirfvtias, 
78, lAffTf fiTfv fr6pp»$€V fi€T€vrjvtyfjJvat9 (jAeraffMpais. xpi7<Teoy), aXX' avroBfv 
jcal €K Tov ofioiov. Cic. de Or. Ill 41. 163, Deinde videndum estnelonge 
simile sit ductum, Syrtem patrimonii, scopulum libentius dixerimj 
Charybdim bonorum, voraginem potius, Facilius enim ad ea quae 
visa^ quant quae audita^ mentis oculi feruntur. lb. il 63.255, of jokes, 
in quOy ut ea quae sint frigidiora vitemus — etenim cavendum est ne 
arcessitum dictum putetur,,. Quint, viii Proem. 23, sunt optima minime 
arcessita. Similarly of arguments supra^ I 2.12, II 22.3. Top. A 105 a 8. 

dvawfta ayofuurfuvag] Cic. de Or. Ill 38. 155, tertius ille modus trans^ 
fefendi verbi late pate t, quern necessitas genuit inopia coacta et angustiisj 
post autem iucunditas delectatioque celebravit. In fact, to say nothing 
of others, words which stand for moral and intellectual operations, 
notions, abstractions, conceptions, are and must be ultimately derived 
by metaphor from objects of sense : see Locke, who gives a list of 
them, Essayy Bk. ill ch. 1. 5, Berkeley, Three Dialogues^ Dial, ill Vol. I 
p. 202 (4to. ed.), ''most part of the mental operations" (this is saying 
far too little) "being signified by words borrowed from sensible things; 
as is plain in the terms, comprehend, reflect, discourse, &c.'' Whewell, 
Nov, Org. Renov. Bk. iv i, p. 260. Renan, Orig, du Langage, p. 128, 
seq. Leibnitz, Nouv, Essais sur Pentend. hum, ill i. 5 (quoted by 
Renan), Max Miiller, Led, on science 0/ Lang, ist series, VoL I p. 377 

The second line of this aenigma, which completes it, is found in 
Athen. X 452 C, the only author, says Victorius, who gives it entire, 
ovrtt (n/yfcoXXoor clorc avvcufia irocciy. rovro dc aTifiaiv€i rrjs (rijcvav vpofrfior 
Xijv. It is inserted amongst the ahLyiiaray No. viil in the Anthology, 
Vol. IV p. 288, Jacobs' ed., and preceded by another on the same subject 
in four lines. The first line is also quoted, Poet, xxii 5, Demetr. 
ircpl ipfjLtjvtiag § I02, (Demetrius recommends that aenigmatical ex- 
pressions of this kind should be avoided), and Plut. Symp. Sept Sap. 
154 B (Victorius). Harris, Philol. Inq. Pt ll ch. 10, on aenigmas. [On 
the cupping-instrufhent referred to in the riddle, compare Juvenal xiv 58 
(with Mayor's note), iam pridem caput hoc ventosa cucurbita quaerit 

30 PHT0PIKH2 T 2 §§ 12, 13. 

KoWfiaii/ TOLWv dire ti)i/ t^s a-ucva^ irpoafioXtiv* Kat 

oXxa^ €K Twp €v i^ifiyiJL€Ptoy icri fJUETatpopm Xafieiv eiri" 

eiK€LV fjL€Ta(f)opai yap aluiTTOirraif wo'Te BtjXou otl 

13 6? fieTevYiveKTai* Kal diro koXHv* koKKo^ Se oi/OfiaTO^ 

Bronze specimens about four inches high, found by Pompeii, maybe seen 
in the Museum at Naples.] 

'And in general, from all ingenious, well-constructed, aenigmas good 
metaphors may be derived : for all metaphors convey (imply) an aenigma, 
plainly therefore a metaphor (so borrowed from a good aenigma) must be 
itself well converted (L e. a well-selected metaphor)'. Cicero thought less 
highly of aenigmas as a source of metaphors ; at all events metaphors, 
accumulated till they become aenigmas, are reprehensible. De Or. ill 
42. 167, es^ hoc (translatio) magnum ornatnentum orationis^ in quo obscu" 
ritasfugienda est: etenim hoc genere fiurrt ea quae dicuntur aenigmata, 

€v ftcron/ycffroi] is rendered by Cicero (according to Victorius) ratione 
translata^ and quae sumpta raiione est^ de Or. ill 4a 160. to inuutks 
fi€Ta<f)€pofi€v dvrl rot) dyaBov, Eth. N. V. 14, sub init. 

§ 13. 'And (metaphors should be taken) from things fair and noble 
{subaudi dec Xo/Sciy furacfiopds) : but the beauty of a word (especially a 
noun, which can represent some visible or audible object), as Licymnius 
says, resides either in the sound or the sense (the thing signified), and 
the ugliness in like manner '. 

When Aristotle wrote to iuv, he seems to have intended to introduce 
TO bi to correspond as the second member of the division, which was 
afterwards carelessly changed into ^. It is surprising however that 
he never corrected such palpable blunders as these, for which he must 
have had frequent opportunities. Did he think that they were of no 
consequence in writing, of which the object was instruction only? He says 
at any rate, ill i. 6, that no one pays much attention to style in teaching 

dno /coXov] Cic. de Or. ill 41. 163, seq. Et quoniam haec vel summa 
laus est in verbis transferendis ut sensumferiat id quod translatum sit^ 
fugienda omnis turpitudo earum rerum ad quas eorum animos qui 
audient trahet similitude. Nolo did morte Africani castratam esse rem- 
publicam; nolo stercus curiae did Glaudam : quamvis sit simiUy tamen 
est in utroque deformis cogitatio similitudinis. Quint., viil 6. 14 — 17, 
quotes the line of Furius Bibaculus (Hor. Sat. ii 5.41), luppiter hibernal 
cana nive conspuit Alpes, 

KoiCKoi dc ovo]uxTo^ Theophrastus, according to Demetrius «rrp* 
ipfirjv€ia£, §§ 173—5 (-^^/. Gr, III 300, ed. SpengeP, recognised three 
sources of beauty in words, (i) the appeal to the sight, the direct sugges- 
tion of beautiful objects by the words which are associated with them ; (2) 
to the ear, by the sound of the words themselves ; and thirdly didvoiOf 
by the 'meaning' or 'sense*, Licymnius' a7ifuuv6fi€vov, and Aristotle's 
dvvdfiti the viSf virtue, force, i.e. significance, its power of suggestion. 
These are illustrated by Demetrius, 1. c, the first by poBoxpoov, dvOo- 
ffiopov xpoas : the second by KaXXiWparor, *hwo&v^ (the XX and w seem 

PHT0PIKH2 r2§i3. 31 

TO fxepy wcTrep AiKVfivio^ \eyei, ev Toh yj/^ocpoi^ t] tw 
(rrjfxaivoiJLiva}, Kal aLG")(0^ Se wcavTw^. en Ze TpiTOPy 
6 \v€i TOP (TOtpiaTiKOP \oyop' ov yap oJs ecprj Bpvawp 
ovdepa ala")(^po\oyeiPy eiirep to avTo (rrjiixaipei ToSe 
dpTi Tov ToSe elireip* tovto yap iaTt -^evdos* ecTi 

to have pleased his ear): and the third by apxaios as compared with 
TToXaidr, the former being suggestive of higher and nobler associations : 
01 yap dpxaioi av8p€g ivrifiortpoi. It seems from this that the distinction 
between the first and third of these sources of beauty in a word is 
that the first is the direct suggestion, by word-painting^ of a beautiful 
object of sight, as a rosy cheek or skin : the third is the remoter sug* 
gestion of beauty, by inference from association, as apxait^i suggests 
worth and respect ; this fonn of suggestion has an intellectual character, 
and is therefore represented by Theophrastus as hiavoia. To the direct 
suggestions of sight in the first class, Aristotle afterwards adds all the 
other senses — as music to the ear, a well-remembered flavour to the 
palate, smell to the nose, soft and warm things to the touch. The 
second of the three, is the actual sound of the word, suggesting nothing 
else ; Licymnius' V^o<^oc, and Theophrastus' and Demetrius' vpos dKotjy' 

ToU Vroc^o*^] There are [as already remarked supra p. 12, on i § 9, 
fttoXc/tTOff], three degrees of sound in an ascending scale. The first and 
lowest is '4r6<l>os 'noise', such as even inanimate things are capable 
of when struck. The second is voice, ^av^ or ^06yyoSf (as distinguished 
from speech,) which is shared by all animals that have a throat. The 
third is distinctive of the human race, didXeicror (sometimes called Xoyor), 
discourse, aitiailaite speech, '^o^r as distinguished from ^fi>i^will include 
all sounds which, though human, do not proceed from the voice and organs 
of speech : such as sneezing, coughing, hissing, whistling (nomnMrfios) and 
so on. These particulars are taken from two passages, Ar. Hist. Anim. 
IV 9, 535 a 27— d 3, and Dion, de Comp. Verb. c. 14 (p. 72, Reiske), 
Of sound, ylr6(l>os, in its most general sense, as the object of hearing, 
see de Anima n 8. De Sens. c. 3, init. lb. c. i, 437 a 10. Hist. An. 
I 1.29, 488 a 31, seq., of the distinctions of animals, in respect of the 
sounds they make. 

What is known of Licymnius, I have collected in Camb. Joum, of 

CL and Sacred Phil, No. ix Vol. lii pp. 255 — 7. [Plato Phaedrus p. 267 c, 

^ra hk IlttXov v&g <l>pacr<ofifV fiovaeia \6y<av...6»oiidTav re AiKVfiviav, a €K€iv^ 

ibapritraro irpos irolricriy cvcircmr. Blass, die A ttische Beredsamkeit, I 75,76*] 

*And again thirdly (a third observation upon metaphors), which 
solves (furnishes an answer to, serves to refute) the sophistical argument 
(theory or position) ; for it is not true, as Bryson said, that no one 
ever uses (that there is no such thing as) foul or indecent language, if 
(if— as the case really is, i. e. since or because) the same thing is signified 
by saying this or that (by using the broad word or disguising it by 
a veil of vnoKopurfjkos), for this is false : for one term is more properly 
applied to an object than another (represents it more literally and directly), 
and is more assimilated to it, and more nearly akin to it, by setting the 

32 PHTOPIKHS r2§i3. 

^ap aXKo aSXov Kvpuorepou Kai wfxouofieyov fxaWop 
Kai oiKeiOTepov toJ iroieiv to Trpayfia npo ofi/jLaTWPm 
en ovx o/Jioiia^ €;^oi/ orrifiaipei ToSe Kai toSc, wtrre Kai 
ovTO)^ aWo aWov KaWiov Kai aicr^t'OP dereov afit^ta 
fiev yap to Ka\6v kcu to ai^xpop Cfifxaipovoriu, dW 

thing more directly before the eyes (and so making it more vividf striking^ 
and impressive)\ 

Of Bryson, I have collected what is known in Camb. youm, bf 
CI. and Sacred Phil. No. v VoL ll pp. 143—6. In this dogma of 
the impossibility of indecent language he seems to have anticipated 
the Stoics — see Cicero's famous letter to Paetus on this Stoic liber- 
ias loguendiy u. s. p. 144 note. Suo quamque rem nomine appellare 
was their statement of this Miberty', to call everything its right and 
proper name without shame or disguise, to call a spade a spade, to use 
the language of a Swift or Aristophanes. Aristotle answers Bryson by 
a simple denial of the fact It is not true that there is no difference 
in the use of words in respect of their moral effect upon us ; the broad 
and literal expression presents the abomination much more vividly and 
impressively to the mind, naked as it were, than the same notion when 
half hidden from the view by a decent veil which conceals a great deal 
of its deformity. On this subject of plain speaking, besides Cicero's 
letter to Paetus (ad Div. ix 22), already referred to, see Cic. de Off. 
I 35. 128 where the Stoics are again introduced. Cicero takes the mora! 
and delicate side of the question. Eth. N. iv 14, iiaS ^i 23, 7doi d* 2v rcr 
jcal cjc r»y K»fu^iov r&v irdKai£v Koi t»v KauwW roig fi€v ^v ytkoiov rj 
alaxpokoyia, rots Be /aSXKov 17 vrr6poia (the covert insinuation : this is the 
difference between coarse and refined indelicacy). Ar.'s opinion upon the 
subject is given much more strongly and decidedly, PoL iv (vii) 17, 1336 
b 3, oXoDff jiiv cZv aivxpo\oyia» €k r^r woKtnt, ttmp ofXXo ri, Bri t6¥ pofut- 
Beniv €^opiCfiv' cjc tov yap rox^p^s Xryciir ortovv r<Sy ai<rxp^v yiwerai Koi to 
voulv avveyyvs. Perhaps one of the wisest observations the author ever 
made. Comp. Quint, vi 3. 29. 

' And besides, it is not under the same conditions and circumstances 
that it signifies this or that, so that on this ground again we must assimie 
that one (mode of expression) is fairer or fouler than another : for 
though both of them do express (or signify) beauty and deformity, yet 
not qua beautiful and deformed (in so far as they are beautiful and the 
reverse, and in no other respect) : or, if the latter also, at all events in 
different degrees'. These two different effects of altrxpokoyla seem to 
be thus distinguishable. We are first told that the use of the broad 
word is offensive because it suggests directly and immediately, paints 
on the mind a vivid picture of the ugly, foul or impure object : nothing 
is said of any further, indirect, associations connected with it, and the 
bad effect arises solely from the strength or vividness of the impure 
or ugly impression. But in the second case the effect of the plain 
speaking and its associations is contrasted with those that may be 
produced by softening the term, or employing one which signifies the 

PHTOPIKHS r 2 §§13, 14. 33 

ovx fi KaXov rj ovx ^ alarxpov* tj tuvtu [xeVj dWd 
fxaWop Kai ^ttop. Ta9 5e fieraipopa^ ivrevdeu 01* 
CTeovy diro KaXwu ti Trj (Jxainj ij rij Zwafxei tj Ttj oyfrei 
t] aWti TLVL ato'urja'ei. oia^epei eiTretu, oiou pooo* 
SakTvXo^ tjm liidWov tj (poiviKohaKTvXo^y fi kri (pav^ 
14 XoTepov epvOpodaKTuXo^. Kai iu toTs iirideTOi^ ean 

same thing, but suggests an entirely different and innocent set of asso- 
ciations. As in the instances given by Cic. in de Off. i 35. 128 Uteris dare 
operam. Here all the associations which would be at once suggested by 
the broad, obscene word, are diverted, and another Set introduced, 
connected solely with children, as the result of the intercourse, and 
perfectly free from all impurity. In the one case it is the mere com- 
parison of strength and intensity that makes the difference, in the other 
there is a difference of kind, *The fair term and the foul term it is 
true mean the same thing, point to the same object, but not in respect 
of beauty and deformity alone simply and solely (J), but besides that, 
there are associations suggested by which the one may be invested with 
a moral and the other with an immoral character, either altogether, 
or at all events in different degrees*: a^(^a> yap..,yMhXov koL rJTrov, An 
example of these* words suggestive of unpleasant associations which 
are willingly avoided by the well-bred and refined under the name of 
cutrxpokoyia, is to be found in Plat. Gorg. 494 C, where Socrates is made 
to apologise to Callicles for shocking him by the use of terms such as 
ylfopav, Kvrjaiav. 

* These are the sources from which metaphors may be taken ; from 
things beautiful either by the voice (the sound of the word itself when 
uttered),. or by the force or meaning' (what it indirectly suggests: as 
dvvatrBcUf to have the power, force, virtue, when applied to words, denotes 
their 'value', in the sense of meaning or signification, see note on i 9.36 ; 
so bvvaiitg the subst. may of course be similarly employed), *or by (i.e. 
conveyed by) the sight or any other sense'. These terms have been 
already explained. o^€i fj ShXn rwX aio-^ijo-c* is illustrated by Victorius 
from Cic. de Or. ill 40.161, Nam ut odor urbaniiaiis^ et mollitudo huma^ 
nitatis, et murmur maris^ et dulcedo orationisy sunt ducia a ceteris 
sensibus; ilia vero oculorum multo acriora^ quae ponunt paene in con- 
speciu animi quae cemere et videre non possumus, 

* But it is preferable (dia^epc t here, to surpass, excel) to say rose-fingered 
dawn, rather than purple-fingered^ or, still worse, redfingered,^ The 
latter suggests cooks' hands, or other vulgar associations. The rose on 
the contrary reminds one of what is agreeable to the sights and the smelL 
Add to this from Campbell, Phil, of Rhet.^ Bk. Ill ch. i § i, (Vol. Ii p. 
142, 2nd ed.), that the last of the three epithets compared is the vaguest 
and most general, and therefore the worst : the second better, because 
more special ; and the first best of all, because the most particular, the 
red {purple Campbell says) of the rose. He also mentions the gratifica- 
tion of the two senses. 

§ 14. 'In the epithets also, the application of them maybe made (they 


34 PHT0PIKH2 T 2 §§ I4, iS- 

fxiv ra^ iwidea-eK Troieia-dai diro <pav\ov i} alaxpoVf 
oJop 6 ixfiTpo(p6vTti^y earn S* diro toO jSeXTiopo^y oiov 
6 irarpo^ d/jLVPTWp^ km 6 Xi/xaii/iSi/s^ 6t€ jjlcp iBiSov 
fxiardov oXiyov avrw 6 PiKijara^ toIs opevaiVy ovk tjdeXe 
TTOieiv ftJs 8i;cr;^€pa/i/ft)i/ €ls tifiiovov^ iroieiPy eirei S* 
iKapoif €Sa)K€Vy eTroitice 

KaiTOi Kal Ttov oi/wp dvyarepe^ tjcap. en to avro 

IS v7roKopi^€<r6ai. ecrri 5' 6 viroKopicriio^ 6s eKarTOU 

TTOiei Kal TO KaKOV Kal to dyaOop, iicnrep Kal 6 'Api- 

may be derived, for application) from what is mean and low (morally bad 
in this sense), or foul and ugly, or disgraceful (another kind of badness), 
for instance "matricide**, or from what is (nobler and) better, as "a father's 
avenger***. The one represents the fair side of Orestes' act, the other its 
bad aspect. "Locus ex Eur. Oreste 1587, o fn^rpcx^ovn^s, €tr\ ^oy^ 
frpaa-a-av ifiovov inquit Menelaus, Orestem criminans : cui se defendens 
respondet Orestes, 6 irarpos dfiyyrap ov crv irpovdcDjear Bav€tp" 

On cVi^cra, see Introd. on c. 3. p. 289. £rnesti*s Lex, Technologiae Gr. 

* And Simonides, when the victor in the mule-race offered him only 
a small fee, refused to write (the ode on this occasion) on the plea of 
being offended (shocked) at the notion of " composing an ode on half- 
asses,** but when the other gave him as much as he wanted (as satisfied 
him), he wrote at once, "All hail, daughters of storm-footed mares** 
[" Hurrah, for the brood of the storm-footed coursers !**], and yet they 
were daughters of the asses as well*. Dion., de Comp. Verb. c. 25 (Vol. v 
20I, ed. Reiske), quotes a pentameter verse, without the* author's name, 
which contains an analogous epithet, Kovpm «\a<f)poir6i<ov txve* atipafuvai. 
On Simonides* greed of gain and miserly habits, see Aristoph. Pax 697 — 9. 
Ar. Eth. N. IV 2. ult. (o e\€vB€pio£) Sifuuvidj; ovk dp€(rK6p*vo£, which has 
the air of a proverbial expression for a miser. Comp. his dictum in 11 
16.2, on the comparative advantages of money over wisdom. The case 
of Simonides is referred to by Whately, Rhei. c. ill (p. 277, Encycl. Metrop. 
Enc. of mental philosophy), in illustration of the " employment of meta- 
phors {epithets^ not metaphors) either to elevate or degrade a subject," of 
which he says in the note " a happier instance cannot be found ** than 

§ 1 5. ' Further the same thing may be effected (as by epithets in the 
way of elevation or depreciation) by diminutives', ///. * diminutives are, 
or amount to, much the same thing as epithets*. As epithets, so dimi- 
nutives, may be applied to diminish the good or bad of a thing, accord- 
ing as a favourable or unfavourable view is to be taken of it. On vttoko- 
piCta-Bai, vTTOKopurp^s, see note on I 9.29. Add Grafenhan, Geschichte 
der Klass, Philologies I p. 459. It will be seen by the examples quoted in 
the note referred to, that the term includes much more than mere diminu- 

PHT0PIKH2 r 2 § IS. 35 

a'TO(J)di/fj^ crKtaTTTei ev toi^ Bal3v\o)vioi9j dvTi [xev - 
Xpvdov xp^<^^^dpiop, dvrt 5' Ifxariov IfJiaTihdpioVj dvTi 
Se XoL^opia^ XoiBoprjfxdTiop Kai vocrrnidriov* ei;\a-p. ii6, 
iSeio'daL 8e Set Kai TrapaTtjpeip ev dficpoiv to fietpiop. 

tives, and is extended to the expression of all coaxing, flattering, soothing, 
endearing phrases ; and does no/ (properly) include expressions of con-- 
tempt, which ts however conveyed by many diminutives. The two terms 
are therefore by no means co-extensive : Aristotle, who has merely illus- 
trated this form of language by examples of diminutives, has taken them, 
alone as the most distinctive class of words which convey by the termina- 
tion endearment and contempt The form of endearment used in ex- 
tenuation diminishes the bad, the contemptuous employment of them 
diminishes the good. 

There are no less than thirteen \'arieties of Greek diminutive termina- 
tions, which may be found in Matth. Gr, Gr. § 103. Donaldson, Gr, Gr, 
§ 361, 3. f. aa, p. 320, gives only ten. Both of them have omitted a form 
Arrixiavj which occurs in Arist. Pax 214, where the Schol. has Kortt^ 
^poiofo-fCDff €V€KCL It is to be noted that some of these diminutives in 
'hiov have the i long, though by the ordinary rule it is short. rt^Kibiov^ 
At. Nub. 93. ovatiiovy Nicom. Inc. Fr. ap. Meineke, IV. 587. arjiridiovy 
Arist. Fragm. et octies ap. Comic. Fragm. dfyyvpldiov, Av. 1622. lfuiTi8iov, 
Lysistr. 470. diKaarripldLovy Vesp. 803, and others, ap. Fritzsche ad Arist. 
Ran. 1 30 1, nopvidtov has the i long and short, Arist Ran. 1301, and Nub. 
997. The long i arises from a contraction, so that nopvlbiov must be, 
derived from iropvi-ibiov, and is a diminutive of a diminutive. [Kiihner 
Gk Gr, § 330.] 

On Latin diminutives, Madvig, Lat, Gr. § 182. "By means of lus, la 
or lum^ and culus^ cula or culum^ are formed diminutives {nomina dimi- 
nutiva) which denote littleness, and are often used by way of endearment, 
commiseration, or to ridicule something insignificant, e.g. hortulusy a 
little garden, matercula^ a, (poor) mother, ingeniolum^ a little bit of talent." 

On English diminutives see a paper by Sir G. C. Lewis, PhiL Mus, 
I 697 seq. in Marsh's Led, on the Eng, Lang., Smith's ed. p. 218; and 
Latham's Eng. Lang, c. xv § 337 ; also a paper by J. C. Hare in (Hare' 
and Thirlwall's) Phil. Mus, Vol. i. p. 679. These are in kin, ling, and et, 
let (from the Norman, French and Italian (e. m. c). Marsh. L^ct, u. s. 
Led, XIV. § 6). To which Latham adds ie (Scotch), (lassie, doggie), en 
(chicken, kitten), et and let, trumpet, lancet, pocket, owlet, brooklet, 
streamlet ; ock (Grimm), bullock, hillock : paddock, buttock, hummock 
(Lewis). "The Greek word ftc/cDo-if means diminution ; vjroKopiarpa means 
an endearing expression. Hence we get names for the two kinds of 
diminutives ; viz. the term meiotic for the true diminutives, and the term 
hypocoristic for the dim. of endearment." Grimm, Deutsche Grammatik, 
III 664 (ap. Latham). The contemptuous diminutive in English is ling ; 
lordling, bantling, foundling, underling, hireling. 

* By diminutive I mean that which diminishes the evil and the good 
(which belongs to the proper meaning of a word ; by the addition of a 


36 PHT0PIKH2 T 3 § t. 

I Ta Sc yj^vxpci iv TeTTapan yiyperai kutu Ttjv 
Xe^iPf eu T€ Toh ^iTrXoh ovofiaarip, olov AvKO^ptou 
TOP 7ro\v7rp6(ra)7rov ovpavov rtj^ ixeyaXoKopvtpov yfj^ 

termination), of which Aristophanes' sarcasm in the Babylonians is a 
specimen, where he substitutes xP^^^P^^^ ^^r xP^^^^ (^^is again is 
diminutive of diminutive), ifianbapiov for IfidrioVf Xoidoprffiariotf for Xoibopia^ 
and vofniftanop* (Fritzsche, ap. Meineke 1. c, by a very probable conj., reads 
voTjfiarioVf which is certainly much more germane to the matter). *We 
must, however, be very careful (in the use of this figure), and be on our 
guard against exaggeration in both ' (in the employment of iviBrra and 
vnoKopuryioA On these diminutives of Aristophanes, Meineke, Fragm. 
BabyL xxx. Fr. Comic, Gr. ll. 982, observes : " Usurpasse autem videtur 
poeta istas verborum formas, ut Gorgiam et qui eius in dicendo artem 
sectarentur rideret, quemadmodum etiam in Acharnensibus saepissime 
ista ornamenta orationis vituperat." • This explains orKwrrti* 

iraparriptlv] *to lie in wait for', see on'ii 6.20. In the word here 
there is no * evil purpose ' implied. It is rather 'to wait upon', watch for 
an opportunity. 


From the graces and excellences of style we now pass on to some of 
its defects. These are comprehended under the term V^xp4 'faults of 
taste', expressions stale and cold, flat, lifeless, opposed to irp6<nf>aTa 
'fresh'. The import and origin of this word, as applied to style, are 
illustrated in Introd. pp. 286, 7, The faults lie mostly in some kind of 
exaggeration, or turgid and bombastic phraseology, the error of excess. 
Add to the examples there given, Dem. de Cor. § 256, de F. L. § 207, 
TO ^jrvxpov TovTo Zvofia (the name of €V€pyeTris applied to Philip). 

Demetrius, irepX ipfirfvfkaf § Ii6, refers (in his chapter ntpl -^Inixpov rov 
avTiK€ifi€vov r^ /AfyaXoTTpfTf*!) to this division with the author's name. All 
the details are omitted, and only one of the examples, the vypov Ibpmra in 
§ 3> is given. There is no doubt a lacuna. 

§ I. * Faults of taste are shewn (are made to appear; arise, grow) in 
four points of style or language ; first in compound words, instances of 
which are Lycophron's * many-visaged heaven', his Wast-topped earth', 
and his * narrow-passaged shore '. 

On biirka ovofuvra, see Introd. p. 287. All the compound words men- 
tioned are words compounded of two significant elements, ovopara «n;- 
ludvovray Poet. XXI. I, 2, i. e. of words which have an independent sense 
of their own ; opposed to such as are only significant in combination with 
others, as prepositions, conjunctions, particles. 

fToXtm-pdo-ttfrov ovpav6v\ " quod plurimam variamque faciem habeat ob 
sidera ipsa, nisi fallor." Victorius. Compare Plato's famous epigram: 
aarepas flaadpeis darrip ipot' cW« yipoiprjv ovpavos, as noWois oppjatriv tXs 
o-e iSX/jTo). Anthol. XlXarcawf, I (Vol. I. p. I02, ed. Jac), Bergk, PlaLEpigr, 
14, Lyr, Gr. p. 445. [Anthol. Gr. vil 669]. 

pMydkoKopi^ov\ Kopvf\ir\ is a moHntain-top. To one who lived in 
Greece and knew nothing beyond it, the Earth might well seem to be 
covered with vast summits. 

PHT0PIKH2 r 3 § r. 37 

Kai aKTtjp Se arepoTropop, Kal «Js Topyla^ wpofxa^e, 
TTTtoxofiovfTO^ KoXa^y iTTiopKfjcrapTa^ Kal KarevopKri^ 
a-apTas^ Kal oJs AAKiSa/xas ^^ fiipov^ fxep ttjp '^vj^rjp P. i4o5. 

dicrfip arevorropov] also belongs to the mountainous character of 
Greece. The cliffs come down precipitously to the very edge of the sea 
(in which there are no tides\ leaving but a narrow passage for horseman 
or foot-passenger. The word is used appropriately enough by the poei 
Aeschylus, P. V. 729, and Eur. Iph. Aul. 1497; also by Herod. Vli 211. 

[Blass, in his brief notice of Lycophron, die Attische Beredsamketfy 
II p. 235, while conjecturing that several of the phrases here quoted must 
have come from a panegyric in glorification of Athens and her heroes, and 
of Theseus in particular, is led by the Sophist's application of viKnpov 
Qvdpa to Xerxes in § 2, to refer cucrfiv arcpoiropov to the Hellespont. It 
would be more reasonable, however, to take the hiiit supplied by his allu< 
sion to Sciron in the same section, and explain it of the narrow path 
which runs like a cornice along the precipitous sides of the cliffs of Sciron 
on the coast of Megara (Eur. HippoL 1208, l^Ktipavos dicras, Strabo ix 
p. 39 1 » at ^K€ip^vid(£ nerpeu irapo^ov ovk aTrokeStrovrcu rrpos Oakdrrri* virip 
aCr^v d' iiTTiv 17 o^£ 17 cVi Meyapcov, and Pausanias I 44 § 6 (Bekker), r^y 
owop.a{ofjJvrjv diro Sx/poyoff {odov) ^Kipay irparos €iroirnrev dphpaaiv 6b€V€iif 
€v(fovois, Hadrian (as Pausanias adds) made this narrow ledge rvpvx^pv^ 
but the cliff and its pathway have since once more become an dKrrj 
aT€voir6pof, which is described by Leake (Northern Greece, II 414) as 
*only practicable by foot-passengers'.] 

On Lycophron the Sophist, see Camb, Journ, of Classical and Sacred 
Phil. No. V, Vol. II. p. 141 seq. Not to be confounded with Lycophron 
the tragic poet, the author of Cassandra, who lived at 'Alexandria in the 
reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus, towards the middle of the third cent B.c 

'And the name g^ven by Gorgias, " beggar-witted or pauper-witted 
flatterer** *. imoxoiiovtros koKo^, as Victorius understands it, inops ingenium. 
Or perhaps rather one who prostitutes his literature and intellectual ac- 
complishments to flattery and sycophancy to make a living by them, 
* making his Muse a beggar.' [" This can hardly mean 'arm an dichter- 
ischer Begabung,' as Rost and Palm explain. Liddell and Scott give with 
greater probability "living (or rather starving) by his wits." It might 
also mean, "one whom poverty inspires" (cui ingeni largitor Venter). 
Wit and poverty are the hackneyed attributes of the Greek parasite, 
and in a comic poet the epithet would probably have been thought happy. 
A similar compound, nrcDxaXafcDv, is quoted from Phrynichus com. 
(Meineke, C. G, II p. 582)." Thompson's ed. of the Gorgias, p. 179 note.] 
iirtopKfi<rayTas jcal icorevopicijcroyray] 'forsworn, and oath-observing'. 
The objection here is to Kor^vopKriaavTas, in which the koto is super- 
fluous. All that Gorgias meant might have been equally well ex- 
pressed by the simple €vopKtiv 'to keep one's oath'; or rather the simple 
opposition of false and true, which he has exaggerated into two long 
words. evopKflp, though itself a compound, seems to be regarded here as 
a single word. The Schol. has on this, kqI to KorwvopKfjaai Xeycroi cVt 
dXrjOm ofwa-aPTos' ovx dpfioCfi di rj \€^ts avrtf prjBfjtfM M rov dir\6s 


38 PHTOPIKH2 T 3 §§ i, 2. 

TrXfipovfievriVj infpixp^v Se ri/i/ o^^iv yiyvoixevriVy^ 
Kal *^ TeXeacfyopou tiridt] Trjp TrpoOvfilav avToiv yevtj- 
aeo'daiy^ Kal ** T€\ea'(popop ttiv Treidio twv Xo'ytav 
KctTea'TrjaeVy^ Kal ** Kvapoxpf^^ to Trj^ OaXaTTrj^ eSa- 
^os'" iravra yap Tavra TroitiTiKa Sia Tt}v ZiTrXwciv 
2 (jyaipeTai. fila fxev ovv avTtj aWiaj fxia he to xP^I^^^*- 
yXwTTai^y oiop AvKOCfyptop ^Zep^rjp ireXtapov avSpay 

fEinovTos TO dkrjB€Sj olop on vntp ytjv ovrog tov 17X10V Tffi€pa iarip, i. e. this 
is like expounding Mt is day' into the longer and. more pompous phrase 
* the sun is above the earth.' 

fuvovs flip T^p ^ln)x^p wXripovfiepriP irupixpo^^ ^^ t^^ o^lnp ytypofi^vrjp] 'And 
Alcidamas' phrases, "His soul saturated with wrath, and his face 
growing the colour of fire" (fire-coloured)'. This, as I have noted in the 
account of him in Camb, Joum, of CI, and Sacred PhiL No. ix, Vol. 11 1, 
p. 266, is an exemplification of three of the new figures which 
Gorgias, his master, had recently introduced into Rhetoric, dpTiBfcriv, 
irapifraxrif or laoKcoiXoPf and ofioioreXtvTOPf on which see lb. No. VII, 
III 69 — 72. The ^Irvxpop objected to is of course the BinXovp opofia, 
'wpi\p<op [* flame-flushed'], 

'And "end-fulfilling deemed he would be their zeal", and "end- fulfilling 
.established he the persuasion of his words", and "dark-blue-coloured the 
sea's foundation ". {Kvavtos is indigo blue, also dark in general) — * for all 
these have a poetical character arismg from (due to) the doubling'. 

' TfX€0'<^opoff may be translated by Shakespeare's "thought-executing" 
fires ; but that is poetr}*^ {J^^^g Lear ill. 2. 4. — T€\€a(l>6pos became com- 
moner in lafer Greek prose, as remarked by Lobeck, PhrynichuSy 
p. 673 (referred to by Vahlen, der Rhetor Alkidamas^ p. 491 infrd\, 

An account of Alcidamas will be found in Camb. Joum, of CI, and 
Sacred Phil, No. ix. Vol. in, pp. 263 — 8 (omit pp. 264, 5, where the proof of 
a paradox is unnecessarily undertaken). [See also Vahlen, der Rhetor 
Alkidamas^ pp. 491 — 528 of Transactions of Vienna Academy ^ XLlil 2, 
1863 ; and Blass, die Attische Beredsamkeit^ il pp. 317 — 335.] 

§ 2. On the second defect of rhetorical style, yK&Trai^ see Introd. 
p. 288. 

* Now this is one cause (of ylrvxporris) ; another is the employment 
of obscure and unintelligible words. As Lycophron calls Xerxes a 
"hugeous" man, and Sciron ' (the famous robber who gave name to the 
Scironian rocks ; put to death by Theseus, after Hercules the greatest 
eradicator of nuisances from the land of Attica) *a "bale" of a man*. 

yXtoTTais] Whether those which have never been much in use, unusual ; 
or those which have gone out of use, obsolete or archaic ; or those which 
belong to a foreign language or dialect Comp. Julius Caesar's rule, tan- 
quam scopulum fugere inauditum atque insolens verbum (Aulus Gellius 
1 10). 

7r«Xa>poi^] This word frequent in Hom. and Hes. under the forms 
ircXfiop, 7r€Xa)pos (subst.), TreX&por and7rcX(op(of (adj.) ; TrcXfopcor twice in Aesch. 

PHT0PIKH2 r 3 §§ 2, 3. 39 

Kai ^Kip(av cippi^ dvYipy Kal *A\KihdiJLa^ advpfxa Ttj 

TTOiiicreiy Kal Ttjv Ttj^ (pvceta^ dracrdaXiaVy Kal aKparta 

3 T^s Siavola^ opyn Tedtiyfievov. Tpirop 8' ev toi^ €7ri- 

and once in Eurip. Iph. T., had it seems become obsolete in Arist's time. 
Comp. tn/ra 7 § 1 1. 

(ripms dvijp] If alvpts stands for the actual robber, o UiTvoKOfiirnis, rival 
and contemporary of Procrustes, and Sciron, all of whom Theseus dis- 
posed o^ he may be translated a ^'Turpin-man:" but the word is also 
used to represent the "incarnation of all mischief and destructive agency" 
— see Monk on Eur. HippoL 981, and the authors cited; comp.' the old 
poetical words <riv€(rB(u, viwosy {frivrffs of the great robber and ravager, the 
mischievous, destructive lion, Hom. XL XX 165,) ando-iW. Both (rtVo£ and 
frivti occur in Aeschylus in the abstract sense of mischief or destruction, 
and if oriwis is to be so understood here, as I rather think it should, bale^ 
an old English word of similar import, may serve to express it [Suidas 
S. V. 2(W* ivofia Xi^oToO /9Xairriicov.] 

iBvpfui Tg TTotijo-ci] ' And Alcidamas "/B>yj to poetry.*". The rest of the 
phrase is supplied below § 4, "to apply to or introduce ^ys in poetry"* 
aBvpiia is 3L childish amusement, dBvpfiw to sport like a child, of a child's 
sport or pastime. So employed by Homer, Pindar, Apoll. Rhod., AnthoL 
(guinquies), Euripides (in his Auge, Fragm. viii Wagner, vi Dindorf) iny- 
viois aO^ppLoxriVy and by Plato in the solemn semi-poetical Leges, vii 796 B. 
See Donaldson on Pind. NenL ill 44, irais iw o^vpc, also Meineke ad Frag^m. 
Crat. 'Odvoro^f, xvi; Suidas &Bvppjay vraiyviov. It seems from this that ^toy ' 
is the corresponding English word ; which is actually used by Spenser in 
the same more general sense of ' a childish sport or amusement,' and in 
this sense is with us obsolete. Faery Queen^ Bk. I. Cant. 6, 28 " To dally 
thus with death is no fit toy^ Go, find some other play-fellowes, mine 
own sweet boy." 'Gawd' is another word now obsolete that might repre- 
sent it 

r^y rQff 0v(r€«0ff draiiTBdK[a!t\ and ^the outrecuidance of his nature*. 
droo-^oXui, drwrBdkoiy drao-^oXXtt, a poetical word denoting 'mad, pre- 
sumptuous arrogance', found in Homer and Herod., and also in an 
epitaph of Archedice quoted by Thucyd. Vi 59, ovk {fpBrj vovv cV dtaa-- 
OfiKlffv. ['Retchlessness,' for recklessness, is similarly an unfamiliar 
word with ourselves, and may serve as an illustration, if not a rendering 
of this use of drafrBaKUu] 

Kfu oKpar^ — TfBriyp.€vov] and 'whetted with the unadulterated' (hot and 
heady, like pure unmixed wine) 'wrath of his mind'. The yk^rra 
here is TfBfjyp^vop, a not very rare, but usually poetical, metaphor for 
exasperated, excited, provoked, irritated ; sharpened like a knife or tool, 
or an animaVs teeth. Examples from the tragic poets are supplied by 
Valck. on Eur. Hippol. 689, opyg avvreBriyfUvo^ tfiphas : it is opposed to 
dfjLffKvvtiv as Aesch. Theb. 721, TtBrjyixevoy rot fi ovk dirafiPkvv€ig Xoyo, 
comp. P. V. 308, Soph. Aj. 585, yXSa-aav rfOrjypeyriv. lb. Fragm. 762, Inc. 
Trag. Dind., Eur. Cycl. 240, Electr. 836. Xenophon however has em- 
ployed it several times; Cyrop. I 2. 10, 6. 19, 6.41, ll i. 4, 5, 7, Mem. 
Ill 3. 7. Lat acuere. [Vahlen, der Rhetor Alkidamas p. 492, notes that 

40 PHT0PIKH2 r 3 § 3- 

Beroi^ TO ri iiiaKpoh ri aKaipoi^ ri ttvkvoi^ xP^^^^^^ 
€V fxev yap iroirio'ei Trpiwei yd\a XevKou elireTi/y iu 
Se \6y(0 Tci fxeu dirpeTrea'Tepaj rd Se, dv ri KaTaKopfj^ 
e^eXeyxei kul iroiei (pavepov on Trolrjo'is earivy eirei 
Zei ye ;fp5<r^a£ avTti' e^aAAarrei yap to eltado^ Kai 

its repeated use by Xenophon need not prevent us from regarding this 
use of Bifytiv in prose as a kind of provincialism ; it appears among the 
ykSTTM Kara woktis in Bekker's Anecdota^ 'ApKod^y ojop ^t^or. ^j/yct 
aicoi/g.] ' 

§ 3. * The third vice of style lies in the misuse of " epithets ", that 
is, in introducing them either too long, or out of season (out oi place ^ 
we say), or too frequent (numerous) ; for in poetry it is suitable enough 
to say " white milk " (a Homeric epithet of course ; as red wine, fair 
women^ &c. in ballad poetry), but in prose it is not only less appropriate, 
but also, if they be employed to satiety (excess), they convict (detect, 
expose, the art of the composition) and make it plain that it is poetry : 
for, to be sure, it must be used ; for it varies the customary style and 
gives a foreign air to the language'. 

On inidera see Introd. p. 289. The over-long 'epithets' are illustrated 
by those of Aeschylus in Tragedy, and Aristophanes in Comedy — who 
sometimes strings together an entire line of epithets, as apxaiofUXiaidavi' 
Kf>pvvi,xripaTa, of Phrynichus' /xAi; [Vesp. 220]. Such epithets are of course 
most inappropriate to prose. The excessive length may also be shewn 
in the * descriptive additions' to a substantive, which often takes the 
place of a regular epithet 

d€i yt xP^o'^oA o^'f'v] ^' 6« to a limited extent ; taking care at the same 
time that the poetical character of the language be not marked and ap- 
parent (reading avrg the vulgata lectio retained by Bekker). Spengel with 
^ avT^ : Victorius and Vater avrols ; but the variation of the customary 
language is far more applicable to poetical usages than to epithets: in 
fact I doubt whether c|aXXarr6i could be applied to ciridera with any 
satisfactory meaning). 

cfoXXoTTCi] supra c. 2 § 2, note, and § 5. ^cviktjv rrjv Xcftv] supra c. 2 § 3. 

* But the mean should always be our aim, for (the reverse of mode- 
ration, excess) does more mischief than careless, random, speaking, 
(over-doing it, exaggeration, is worse than entire carelessness, taking 
no pains at all) : for the one no doubt wants the good, but the other {has) 
the bad (the defect in the one case is negative, the mere absence of 
special excellence, in the other it is positive). And this is why Alci- 
damas' (epithets) appear tasteless ; because he employs them, not as 
the mere seasoning but as the actual meat {pihe de resistance, the 
substance, not the mere adjunct or appendage); so frequent, and unduly 
long (ji€i(o(n Tov B€6vro9, too long) and conspicuous are they '. Victorius 
is doubtless right in his opinion that these three words are a repetition 
in slightly altered terms of the three views of epithets at the commence- 
ment of the section ; unseasouadleness, the importunity with which they 
engross the attention, is now represented by the conspicuousncss "or 

PIITOPIKH2 r 3 § 3' 41 

^eviKrjv TTOiel Trjv Xe^ip. aWa Se? (rroxd^ea-dai 
Tov fxeTploVy eirel imel^ov 'iroiel kukov tov eiKtj Xeyeii/* 
h fxev yap ovk ex^i to €v, rj he to kukw^. Sio ra A\fct- 
Ba/xapTO^ ^vxpci (jyaiverar ov yap ri^vcriiaTi xp^l^^^ 
dW ctf5 ihecimaTi Toh ewiQeTOi^y ovtu) irvKVoh Kai 
/JLel^oari Kai cVtS^'Aots, oJoi/ ovx ihpcoTa dWa tov 
vypop Idpcora, Kai ovk eU '^la-dfiia a'AA' eU Trjp twv 
'ladfxitou iravnyvpiVy Kai ovxi pojulov^ dWa toi)s tcSu 

undue prominence which produces the same effect. A fair specimen of 
this pompous inflated writing, in epithet and metaphor, is given in 
Auctor. ad Keren, iv 10. 15, nam qui perduellionibus venditat patriam 
non satis supplicii dederit sipraeceps in Neptunias depulsus erit lacunas. 
Paeniteat igitur istum qui monies belli fabricatus esl, campos sustulit 

[«7rtai}Xo«, 'obtrusive', 'glaring'. Bemays proposes cVi d^Xoiy, ap- 
parently without due cause, though Vahlen quotes it with approval.] 

[The little that is left of Alcidamas seems to justify Aristotle's strictures 
on his want of taste in the use of epithets : e.g. Trrpl cro<^to-T<5v, § 6, avrlrymos 
Kol TrpotfdvTTfs 17 T(3v x<>X€7rc0r6p<uy (irifiiXtia, ^y^o irobddKq^ Bpofievs, § 1 6, €v\vt& 
TTJs intx^s dyxivoi(} xP^f-^^^^ vypSs Ka\ <fiCkavBp(iair<os ficTaxctpiCffrdai roifs 
Xoyovs, § I7> >) ypa<l)rj...ajtopov Kai Sca-fiaTW ttjv irvxnv Kadiarrjai Koi rrjs iv 
Tots avToa-xf^aariKois tvpoias dwdoTjs inlnpoaOev yiyverai, (where for cvpoiaf 
we should surely read €viroplas which is a suitable contrast to dnopov and 
is supported by § 26, rois avTOfidrois evnopi^fmaip ifinodoav cVriv, and by the 
fact that fviTopia, tviroposy dnopia and ^nopos occur at least ten times in the 
thirty-five sections of the rhetorician's diatribe, e. g. § 34, which is also an 
instance of the superabundance of epithets here criticised ; ttjv yv<6p.T]p 
€v\vTov KaX rrjv fivijfirjv fviropov leai rriv Xi^Orjp &driXov). See also Vahlen, 
Alcidamas, u. s. pp. 508 — 510, and Blass (who has edited Alcidamas, 
Gorgias, and Antisthenes in the same volume as Antiphon), die Attische 
Beredsamkeit li 328.] 

* For instance, (he says) not 'sweat', but "the moist sweat" ; and not 
*to the Isthmian games', but "to the general assembly (great convo- 
cation) of the Isthmian games"; and not 'laws', but "laws the kings 
of cities" ; and not ' running', but " with the impulse of his soul at 
speed" ; and not merely *a Museum, or haunt of the Muses', but "a 
Museum of all Nature that he had received " ; and " sullen-visaged (or 
sullen-looking, with sullen aspect) the care (solicitude, anxiety) of his 
soul"; and "artificer" not of 'favour', but "of universal public favour"; 
and "steward (administrator, dispenser) of the pleasure of the hearers"; 
and "concealed", not 'with boughs', but "with the boughs of the 
wood"; and "he clothed", not 'his body', but "his body's shame"; 
and "counter-imitative (responsive-answering) the desire of his soul"; 
and " so extravagant (inordinate, [abnormal]) the excess of the wicked- 


42 PHTOPIKHS r 3 § 3. 

TToXewi/ ^aa-iXeis pofjiovsy Kal ov dpofxta dWa Zpofxaia 
Ttj T^s ^V)(ti£ opfjifiy Kal ovx^ fiovareiop ciWa to t^s 
^Jcrews TrapaXa^wv fiovaeioVy Kal CKvOpwirop Ttiu 
(ppovrlZa Tti^ ^vxri^y i^^l ov x^P^'^o^ aXKa Travdrjfxov 
xdptTOs Brj/JLiovpyo^y Kal oifcoj/o/xos r^s tcCi/ UKOVOVTiav 
f}Soi/^s, Kal ov K\dhoi^ aA\a toi^ tijs v\fj9 ic\aSo£9p. 117. 
dweKpvyj/'ei/, Kal ov to arcS/JLa TraprifiTTicrx^^ dWa tyiv 
Tov ortafjiaTO^ aia-x^^n^y '^«^ dyTifXiiiov T171/ r^s '^^X^^ 
eTriQvixlav Itovto S* dixa Kal ZiirXovv Kal eTrideTOVy 

irok€<av paa-iXels vofiovs] Fragm. Find, quoted by Plat. Gorg. 484 B, 
VQfios 6 TraPT&p fiaaik^vs Bparav re Koi dBapartov, and Sympos. 196 C, 
oi TToKcas /3a<r«X5ff i/ofto4. [Also by Herod, ill 38, icol 6pB£s /jmi doKw 
ILlvdapos iroirjaai, vofiov ndvrav 0a<rtXca <l>i^(r€is cW, quoted by Thomp- 
son on Gorg. u. s.] 

TO Ttjs <t>va-€<os vapaKapmv /loucreTov] I have above translated this quite 
literally, and own that I do not fully understand it : napaXap<aif seems 
suspicious : A* has TrepiKaficavj which does not much mend the matter. Per- 
haps all the meaning lies on the surface, and there ts none underneath. 
Victorius says that ^imxT^iov is locus a musts bonisque artihus frequen- 
tatus : and translates, cum naturae museum accepisset : adding, appellat 
igitur hie quoque r^r (^vo-fwr epitheiotiy cum adponatur illi nomini 
ad naturam eius explanandam, [Vahlen discusses the phrase in his 
article on Alcidamas, u. s., pp. 494 — 6, and suggests that the passage 
originally stood as follows : dpop,ai(f. rjj Tfj£ ylrvx^^ opfij to ttjs (fwa-eos 
wapoXo/Swi' p^waelov, which he translates " mil der Seele Slurmesdrang den 
Wissensschalz der Nalurum fassend^ fiova-tiop occurs in a well-known 
passage of the Phaedrus, 267 B, r^ d€ Ucaikov iras <l}pda-oi>fi€v aS fiovtrela 
XoycaVy ca£ biirXatrioXoyiav kcH yvafxoKoyiap kcu tlKovoKoyiav, and an interest- 
ing account of the word may be found in Thompson's note. Vahlen, who 
holds that fiovfT€ia \6ytav there means Redeschulen, in denen man das 
biirkavUi^ und das hi cuoyov, dta yvap-mv Xeyciv, lemen konnte^ suggests 
that by to Trjs </>v(r€o>s /xovcrciov Alcidamas here intends to express what 
in ordinary language would have been expressed by some such phrase as ij 
TTcpl (l>v<r€Ci)g ioTopia. In illustration of this view, he quotes a fragment of 
Diogenes Laertius, viii 2. 56, where 'AXicida/ias iv r^ ^va-U^ says of Em- 
pedocles,' Ava^ayopov 8iaKova-ai Koi JIvBayopov' Koi tov fiiv ttjv frtpv&niTa 
(rjX&a-ai tov T€ fiiov Koi tov a-\ripaTOS, tov be Ttjv ^vcioXoyiav. — In 
Stobaeus, 120. 3, the quotation of two lines of Theognis ck row 'AX^da- 
fmvTos Movaeiov shews that as a title of a book (whatever its exact meaning 
may be) the term is not so modem as might be supposed. (Compare 
Blass, die Allische Beredsamkeil 11 322, note).] 

dpTifiifUiv — iniBvpiav^ dvrifufios * corresponding by, in the way of, imi- 
tation', as dvTipopffios * corresponding in form', dvTiTvKos 'stroke answering 
stroke', dvTi<rTpo<f>os of an * answering wheel' of a chorus. Aristoph. 
Thesm. 18, Z<f)daXfiov dvTiptpov i/Xiov '''po\^. Thuc. VII 67, dprifiifiria-is. 

PHT0PIKH2 r 3 § 3. 43 

coare TToiriiJLa yiyeTai)^ Kai ovtw^ e^edpov Trjv Tf/9 
jULOxOfjpias virep^oXriv. dip iroitjTiKw^ XeyopTe^ Ttj 
aTrpeTrela to yeXoTov kol to ylrvx^poi/ e/ULTrotovcriy Kai 
TO daa(pe^ hia tviv aZo\ea")(iav* OTav yap yiyvw^ 
CTKOVTL eTrefxjidWfi, ^laXvet to craves tw eTritTKOTeiv' 

From the passage of Aristoph. it seems that this word, like ain-iorpoc^or, 
should have after it a dative of the object to which it answers ; what 
that object was in Alcidamas' declamation Aristotle has not informed us. 

'And this is at the same time a compound word and an epithet, so that 
it becomes quite a poem (a mere bit of poetry : plain prose is turned by 
this inflated style into poetry)'. 

€^€8po9, from the analogy of (tcroTroty eVroiriof, and the actual use of 
the word — as t^cbpov x^P^^ fX^**'j of birds of omen in an unlucky quarter 
of the heavens, Arist. Av. 275 ; t^ebpoi 4>p€vav \6yot, ' words beside the 
seat of the wits', Eur. Hippol. 985, ovk e^ebpos, aXX' tvroiros avijp, Soph. 
Phil. 212 — must mean *out of its proper seat or place', 'abroad'; and 
hence as an exaggeration of excess, 'extravagant', as translated. 

On these extracts from Alcidamas Victorius remarks, "Cum autem 
haec omnia a mediis quibusdam orationibus sumpserit, ut vitiosae tantum 
locutionis exemplum sint, non est quod miremur aut plenam sententiam 
in nonnullis non esse ; aut desiderari, ut in hac, verbum unde casus 
nominum regantur." 

'And so this poetical diction by its unsuitableness introduces ab- 
surdity and tastelessness into their composition, and obscurity which is 
due to the verbiage : for whenever (a speaker or writer) accumulates 
words (throws a heap of them) upon one already informed (already 
acquainted with his meaning), he destroys (breaks up, dissolves, effaces) 
all perspicuity (distinctness) by the cloud (or darkness, obscurity) in 
which he involves his meaning' (///. which he brings over it; tmarKo- 
T€iv T§ Kpia-€i, I 1. 7, see note : fo over-cloudy over-shadow, obscjire). 

dSoXfo-xiav] the accumulation of unnecessary or unmeaning words : 
dboXecrxia is idle, empty, chatter, prating. It is applied to Socrates 
and the Sophists by Aristoph. Nub. 1480, 1485, and Eupol. tov tttc^x^^ 
ddok€<rxijv, Fragm. Inc. X (Meineke, 11 553), comp. xi (lb.) dbo\«rx€lv 
avTov €KbtdaioVf <S aro(l}i(rrd. Aristoph. Fragm. Tagenist. Ill (Meineke II 
1 149) rj npoBiKos fj rap ddoXtax^v efy yc ns. Supra II 22. 3, infra III 12. 6^ 
Eth. N. Ill 13, iiiZ a I, de Soph. El. c. 3, 165 b 15. 

eVffi/SoXXjy]. " Similiter locutus est Plat. Cratyl. 414 d, de inculcatis 
alicui nomini syllabis, oore errfp^dWovres cVi ra Trpara ovopxxra reXeirrSv- 
r€S noiovtri p^rjb^ av €va apOpwtrov irvvtivai on wore /SovXerai to Svopa* Illae 
enim impediunt ne unde ductum id nomen sit videri possit. Idem affirm- 
avit M. Varro, de L. L. multa enim verba litteris commutatis sunt inter- 
polata." Victorius. 

' And people in general, use their compound words (roZf , those that 
they do use) when it (what they want to express) is nameless (has no 
single word to represent it) and the word is easily put together (the com- 
bination is easily made), as xP^^orpiPtlv: but if this be carried too far 

44 PHT0PIKH2 T 3 § 3- 

01 8' avBptOTTOi Toh hiTrXoh xp^^^^h oTap dvwvvfxov rj 
Kal 6 A070S evavvdero^y oTov to J^poi/orptjServ dXM P- '4°^ 
iiv iroXvy iravToo^ TroirjTiKoy. Sio ^(^prja'ifiwTdTri tj 
^iTrXfi A€^£S T019 BidvpafxlSoTroioU' ovtoi yap -yp^otpta^ 
Sets* ai Se yXtarrai toT^ eTTOwoioi^* aefxvop yap Kal 

(overdone), it (the result) becomes absolutely poetical. And this is why 
compound words are most serviceable to the dithyrambic poets — r«5v d* 
ovofiarav ra fiiv dnrka fiaXiara dpfioTTfi rolr diBvpdfipoiSf Poet. XXII 1 8 — 
for these are noisy, "full of sound and fury"; full of pompous, high- 
sounding phrases' (on ifroc^or see III 2.13); ^and obsolete or unusual, to 
Epic poets, for language of this kind has a stately (majestic, dignified, 
proud, solemn^ and scornful or disdainful) air ; and metaphor to writers 
in iambics, for these they (i. e. the tragic poets) now-a-days — since they 
have quitted the tetrameter — employ, as has been already stated. Ill 1.9 
comp. tn/ra 8.4, and Poet, iv 18. The reason, conveyed by yap, is this: 
I say iambics, not tetrameters, because now-a-days, &c. 

[xpoporpi/Seiy. Compare our 'pastime,* which is also a Xoyor tvavvBtros, 
So in Daniel's Ulysses and Siren, ^^ Delicious nymph I suppose there were 
No honour or report, Yet manliness would scorn to wear The time in 
idle sport. ^^ Isocr. Paneg. § 41, rfilfiras diarpi/9ar.] 

On compound words, as connected with dithyrambic poetry, Demetrius, 
ircpt ipp^ivelas § 9 1, says, Xrjnrcov dc Koi truvOtra ovofiara, ov ra di&vpafjL^iKas 
ovyKtlyxva, olov $€OT€pdTOvg trXdvas, ovde ao'Tpav dopvnopov (rrparov, 
aXX* ioiKora rois viro rijs avvtiO^las avyK€ip^voig (such as vofxoOercu, dpxvrtK" 
Tov€s): comp. § 78, the accumulation of metaphors will make dMpafipou 
dvTi Xoyou. 

The dithyramb at Athens became at and after the end of the fifth cent, 
the wildest, and (in point of style) most licentious and most extravagant of 
all the kinds of poetry. See note in Introd. on iii 9, pp. 307, 8, and the reff. 
to Aristoph. there given ; Bode, Gesch, der Hell, dichtk. Vol. ll. Pt il. 
p. 1 1 1 seq. and 290 seq. ; and M tiller, If. G. L. s. xxx. To use words 
suited to a dithyrambic poet is therefore an exaggeration of the ordinary 
defect of the introduction into prose of poetical language. 

Plat. Phaedr. 238 D, ovkIti iroppa bL6vpdp.p<dv ff^Q^yyoyiai, Ibid. 24 1 £9 
T^brj em; (ftOiyyopjai, dXX* ovk€TI 8i6vpdfipov£. Cratyl. 409 C, (o-cXoj/ata) di^ 
pafipSbes y€ tovto rovpofuu Dionys. Dinarch. lud. c. 8, of the imitators of 
Plato, diBvpafiPabrf ovofiara km (jiopriKa €la-<l>€povT€s, Lys. lud. C. 3, Vopylas 
...ov troppa biBvpdpfiiov €via <l>6€yy6p^vo£, deadm. vi. die. in Dem. c 29, Kp. 
ad Pomp. c. 2 (of Socrates' poetical outburst, Phaedr. 237 a), ^o^ot raZr 
€aT\ Kal bMpapfioi, (p. 763 r) and (764) where the words of Phaedr. 
238 D (u. s.) are quoted. Hor. Od. iv 2. 10, of Pindar, per audaces nova 
dithyrambos verba devolvit, Donaldson, Theatre o/Gks. p. yj, note 3; and 
the references. biBvpapfiiiv is a step beyond Tpayabelv in pomp and exagge- 
ration of language. 

a'€p.vhv ydp^ a-ep.vosy contracted from fnP6p.tvos, lit, an object of wor- 
ship: applied again to the heroic measure or rhythm, in 8.4. 

On these passive forms in Greek and Latin, see Donaldson, New 

PHTOPIKH2 r 3 §§ 3, 4. 4S 

avOa^e^' ri nxera^opd Be toT^ laixfieioiv tovtoi^ yap 
Avvv xp^^T^h uxrirep eiprirai. kul en TeTaprov to 
'4^^XP^^ 61/ Tah ixeTa(popai^ yiyverar eio'i yap Kai 
fX€Ta(J>opai aTrpeirehy al fxev Zia to yeXofiov {^pdiurai 
yap Kai oi KcoiULtohoTTOioi iJL€Ta(j)opah)y di Be Bia to 

cefivov ayav Kai TpayiKOV do'acpeh Be, av iroppvodev* 

Crat § 410, Varron, p. 406 (ed. 11), 97. Add to the Greek examples 
given a-ffivos and ipvfivos and to the Latin, somnus (sopio). 

Kai avBab€i] This means that the unusual yk^Trai affect an air of 
independence and hauteur ; they, like the avBdbrjSf the self-pleaser, self- 
willed, stubborn, haughty, independent man, will not conform to ordinary 
usage, and scornfully affect singularity. Comp. Poet, xxiv 9, to yap 
rjpcoiKov araa-ifjuorarov Ka\ oyKo^b€aTaTOV t£p lurpav cVriV, dio Kai yXmrrat 
Kai fura^opav btX'Pi'at fiaKiara. 

§ 4. 'And further, the fourth vice of style is shewn in metaphors ; 
for metaphors also are inappropriate, some because they are laughable — 
for the comic poets also employ metaphors— others from their exaggera- 
tion of the stately (solemn) and tragic (pompous) style : if far-fetched, 
they are obscure*. ir6pp<»0€v, see on ill 2. 12. * As Gorgias, "things (rrpay- 
fwra, actions, occurrences, events, business) all fresh and raw'". This 
certainly is a good exemplification of what it is designed to illustrate : it 
IS obscure. It seems, however, to mean nothing more than 'recent 
events*, events /rcs/i, and with the blood in them: the metaphor from a 
beast just killed. It therefore corresponds to np6<rfl>aTos, 'fresh', which also 
stands for ' recent'. irp6(r<t>aTos is specially applied to 'fresh meat'. See 
Lobeck On Phrynichus^ p. 375, note : examples of 7rp6a-<f>aTos are there 
given, p. 374. '"And these things thou hast sown in disgrace, and 
reaped in misery". For it smells too much of poetry'. [Both the 
extracts probably belong to the same context, and may perhaps be com- 
bined by rendering them thus: 'all was green and unripe (fresh and 
flushed with sap), and this was the crop that you sowed in shame to reap 
in ruin', j^&pa Ka\ evaifia possibly refer to the green and unripe stalks 
of com, with the sap still fresh in them. This assumes that alfia can be 
used metaphorically of 'sap', both coming under the generic notion of 
'vital juice'. If so, the metaphor is a sufficiently bold one. Thompson 
(ed. of the Gorgias, p. 179) notes that Sivaipa (which is the reading of 
Q, Y* and Z"*) is 'well supported, and cannot but be right,' and remarks 
that while the metaphor of sowing and reaping is a mere commonplace, 
"pallid and bloodless affairs" would need apology even from a modern.] 

A metaphor, nearly resembling the first of these two, occurs in 
Demetrius Trcpt epfirjvtiaSf § 1 1 6, ylvtrai bk kcu. iv p.€Ta<f>op^ ro yjrvxpov^ 
Tpcfiovra jcal toxpa to irpayfmra. Longinus ircpl vyjrovs 3'^y Tavrg kclL rd 
Tov AfovTiyov Topyiov ytXarai ypaffiovTos, '* Siep^s 6 rov Htptr&v Zevs" Koi 
^yvjTis c/i^vxoi Td(l)oi^' [comp. sufira i § 9, on the poetical style of Gorgias]. 

Hermogenes also, Trepl cdc<ov To|a. a', ircpi a-cfivorriTos 226 (p. 292, 
Spengel, Rketores Graeci, vol. 1 1.) gives some examples of exaggerated 
metaphors, cVvivrtipKr^voi, ical TO ircirpaice&ff cavroi^, Koi ro XorrodvrcSy 

46 PHT0PIKH2 r 3 § 4. 

oJop Fopyla^ ^^'X^wpa Kal ei/aifia Ta irpdyfxaTa* au 
fie TavTu al(rxp(^^ f^^v eaweipa^ KaKws Se i6epi<ra^*^^ 
TTOitjTiKto^ yap ayav* Kal ws *A\KiBafxa^ TrjV <J)i\0' 
croipla}/ liriTeixi'^Fixa twp vo/Jitoi/, Kal tyiv 'OSvo'O'eiap 

Ka\6u dvOptaTTLVOV filoV KCtTOWTpOVy Kal ** OvSeV TOL-' 

ovTOV ddvpfia Trj 7roit](r€i 7rpo(r(pepwv.^^ aTrapra yap 

rrjv 'EWada: and a few lines below, Td(f)ovs c/i^v^ov; rovr yviraSf 
but without the author's name. The objection to some of these meta- 
phors, as the ^sowing and reaping', the 'selling oneself', and above all, 
Alcidamas' ' mirror of human life ', seems to shew a change of taste from 
ancient to modern criticism. IVe certainly should object to none of 
these ; and the ' mirror ' in particular has become one of the commonest 
metaphors in our language. The ' sowing and reaping' appears in Plato, 
Phaedr. 260 c (see Thompson's note), and Aesch. Pers. 821. In Cic. de 
Orat. II 6y 261 (without comment), »/ sementem feceris ita metes, i Ep. 
ad Cor. xv.42 — ^4. Ep. ad Gal. vi. 7 (and Lightfoot ad loc). "They 
that sow in tears shall reap in joy : he that now goeth forth weeping, 
and beareth forth good seed, shall doubtless come again with joy, and 
bring his sheaves with him,*' Psalm cxxvi. 6, 7. Possibly the antithesis, 
one of Gorgias' new inventions, may have helped to offend Aristotle's 
tastes, and it is the effect of the whole phrase, and not of the harmless 
metaphor alone, that has unconsciously provoked his disapprobation : yet 
the same occurs in the simple psalm. 

[fcoXdy dpSpanrivov piov Koronrpov. Alcidamas elsewhere uses this 
metaphor from a mirror, in the form of a simile^ nepl a'o(l>i<rraPi § 32, cir 
de ra yeypafifieva Karibovrag tSfnr^p iv Karoirrpt^ 6€»prjvai rag rrjs "^^XV^ 
cVidoo-ccr p^bioy €<mv. The present passage and those already quoted 
in § 3 Tolg r$ff vKrii kKol^ois diriKpv^^v K,r.X. (Odyss. VI 128) and Kvavoxp^y 
TO rfjs Oakdmjg €ba(t)o£, probably belong to a declamation on Odysseus 
(or on the Odyssey); while rfXtatfiopov rfjv irtiB^ rSv Xoyenv KaTforrja-tv 
(§ l), and navbi^'p.ov xapiros Brjp.iovpy6g Koi oiKOPOfios rrjs tSp dicovovTOiU 
ijdopijs (§ 3), point with equal probability to a pamphlet on Rhetoric] 

' And as Alcidamas (follower of Gorgias), (called) philosophy a 
"fortress to threaten" (a standing menace to), the laws; and the 
Odyssey a "fair mirror of human life" ; and "introducing no such 
toys, or gawds, in his poetry" — for all such things are subversive of 
credibility, for the reasons already stated'. These are, that forced 
metaphors, and all such-like artificial graces and ornaments, make the 
art and the labour of composition apparent ; make the speech appear 
studied and affected, and therefore premeditate^/ and unreal, and without 
serious purpose : ovk tv #cX/7rTCTai : the language of genuine emotion, of 
earnest and real conviction, which are required for persuasion, being 
always simple and natural. Probably the most perfect example of art 
thus disguised by art is to be found in Mark Antony's speeches over 
Caesar's body in Julius Caesar; and the first thing he does is to impress 
upon his audience the entire artlessness and unstudied simplicity of 

PHT0PIKH2 r 3 § 4. 47 

TavTa aTTidava Sia Tci eiprjiuLeva. to Se Topyiov €£? 
Tiji/ 'xeXiZovaj eirel kut avrov ireTOfxevri d(J>fJKe to 
TrepiTTcoiiia, apicTa t£v TpayiKWP* eJire yap *^ aKr" 
XP^^ 7^ ^ 4>£\o/jii?\a.'* opviBi fxlv yap 9 el eiroitio'evy 
ovK aic^poi^f Trapdevw Se alc^pov* ev ovv iXoi^oprj^ 
(rev eiTTtov b tiVy a\\* ovx b eaTiv. 

his address : / am no orator as Brutus £s, duty as you know me ally 
aplainy blunt man that love myfriendy &c [iii 2. 221]. 

c7rtT«;^to'fia] in the first extract from Alcidamas, is interpreted in this 
passage in the Lexicons of Rost and Palm, and Liddell and Scott — in Ste- 
phens' Thesaurus it is quoted but not explained — * a bulwark or defence of 
the laws'. But (mreixurfAa in its proper literal sense seems to be invariably 
used of an offensive, not defensive, fortification, to command and annoy an 
enemy's country, like Decelia, which, rj x^^P^f cVgxccTto, Thuc. vii 27. 3 
(Bekker, in Thuc. VIII 95, reads Ttixi<rim for tTrirfixKrfMy on this account) 
as indeed is required by the cVi with which it is compounded ; and 
philosophy may be used in the attack, as well as the defence, of esta- 
blished laws and institutions, whether it be understood as speculation 
or scientific research. 

'And Gorgias' address to the swallow, when she discharged her 
excrement' [rather, * dropped her leavings'] upon him as she flew over, is 
in the best style of tragic diction, {jo hk r. apiaroy sc. cTpi/rai,) " For 
shame, Philomel", said he. For to a bird it was no disgrace to have 
done it, but to a young (unmarried) lady it was. And therefore he was 
right in his reproach to describe (speak of) her as she was, and not 
as she is'. The simplicity of all this is delightful. I could fancy 
Aristotle winking to his imaginary reader as he wrote the explanation, 
opvi3i fi€v yap K.T.X., a bird, you know, &c. [The anecdote illustrates the 
habit of irony ascribed to Gorgias in 7 § 11, tn/ra, fitr elpavtias oirep 
Topyias cVoici, as noticed in Thompson's ed. of the Gorgias, p. 180.] 

TTcpiTTOfia] in medicine and natural history is ' a secretion '. It occurs 
constantly all through Ar.'s writings on Nat. Hist. Plut. Symp. p. 727 
D (Victorius), in telling the same story, uses the broad Aristophanic word : 
Topyias dc o trocjyiaT^s x^^^^^vos d<f)ela7js cV* avrov diroTraTOVy dvc^Xty^as 
irpos avnipy ov icaXa ravr^y cittci^, co OtXofiijXa. 

On the transformation of Procne and Philomela authorities differ. 
Thucydides, il 29, referring to the story, seems to adopt Gorgias' view, 
and make Procne the nightingale. Ovid seems to leave the point un- 
settled, Metaph. VI 667 seq. But tradition in general, and English poetry 
in particular, have always associated Philomela with the nightingale ; e. g. 
'Less Philomel will deign a song. Milton's Penseroso, 56. 

Victorius notices on this passage that Aristotle includes under the 
designation of metaphor more than is now recognised as belonging to it. 
The case here, he says, is a mere hypallas^e or change of name. Comp. 
Cic. Orator c. xxvil 93, 94. Hanc vvatCKayipf rhetoreSy quia quasi sum^ 
mutantur verba pro verbis y \i€riAwp.iav grammatici vocanty quod nomina 

48 PHTOPIKH2 r 4 §§ I, 2. 

1 €<rT£ Se Kai tj eiKcov iiera^opa* Ziacpepei yap chap. 
fjLiKpov orav [lev yap elirti top 'A^iXKea 

cos he \e(oi/ eiropovcrevj 

eiKtav icTii/y orav Se *^ Xetav eiropovaey^ iiera(popd' 
Zia yap to ajiKpa) dp^peiovs eipai, Trpoariyopeuae fieTe- 

2 veyKa^ XeovTa top 'Axi'XXea. ')(^pri(riixov Se i} elKwv 
Kal eV Xgywy oXiyaKi^ Se* iroiriTLKOV yap. olaTeai 

transferuntur, Aristoteles autem tralationi et haec ipsa subiungit^ et 
abusionem quam Kardxputrip vacant, ut quum minutum dicimus animum 
pro parvo, et abutimur verbis propinquis^ si opus est, vel quod delectat 
vel quod decet, Comp. Introd., Appendix on Metaphor, pp. 375 and 376. 


From metaphors (c. 2), and the abuse of them (c. 3), we pass on in 
this chapter to the simile, cikwi/; which differs from the metaphor only 
in this, that the latter concentrates, or fuses into one, the two things 
or notions brought into comparison. The former separates them by the 
particle of comparison aJy. Thus the simile may be regarded as an 
expanded metaphor. See further on this in Introd. p. 290, and the 
references to other authorities. 

§ I. 'The simile too is a metaphor, the difference between them 
being slight : for when he (Homer') says of (his, or the great) Achilles 
" and as a lion he rushed on ", it is a simile, but when, " he rushed on, 
a (very) lion", a metaphor : for (in the latter) because they are both brave, 
he transferred to Achilles the appellation of lion*. 

§ 2. 'The simile is useful also in prose, but seldom (to be employed), 
since it has a poetical character. They must be used like metaphors 
(the same rules must be observed in the use of them as of metaphors) ; in 
fact they are metaphors, only with the difference already stated*. 

oior/oi] <t)€p€iv for Xeytiv or xpw^^ is commonly applied in Arist 

^ The words here assigned to Homer do not occur in our present text : but the 
substance of them is found at the beginning of the famous simile of the lion, II. 
XX 164, UriXeidrjs 5* h-^ptaOtv ivavriov wpTO \etav ms, if.r.X. followed by a long 
description of this animal. On the quotations from Homer in Aristotle, see 
Heitz, Verl. Schrift, Arist,, die homerischen Fragen, p. 258, seq. : and Paley's 
note, with the extract from Wolfs Proleg. §11, Introd. (to the ed. of the Iliad) 
p. XXXVI. The former of course includes this amongst the quotations which 
differ from Homer's text, but draws from this the inference that the text used 
by Aristotle (who himself revised it) was here different to our own. I think 
that nothing more can fairly be inferred from cases like this than that Aristotle 
has misquoted the words of our present version: all the substance is there. As 
we have already so many times had occasion to notice, Ar. has here quoted from 
memory ; and like all other men of very extensive reading and very retentive 
memory, Bacon for example, and Walter Scott, has trusted too much to his 
memory, not referred to his author, and consequently misquoted. And I think 
that is all that can reasonably be said about it. 

PHT0PIKH2 r 4 §§ 2, 3. 49 

Se ioo'irep al fxeTa(^opar iieTaK^pal yap ei(n 81a- 
3 (f>epova'ai t£ eiprifievio* eio'l S' eiKove^ oiov tjp *Ai/8^o- 
Tiwi/ e/9 'iSpiea, on o/jloio^ toU €k twi/ SecrfJuSu kvvi" 
hioL^* eKeivd re yap TrpoawiTrTOvra huKveiy Kai 'Ihpiea 
\v6eirra iK twu ZeafitHv eivai yaXeTrov* Kal 019 
Oeoddfia^ eiKa^ev 'ApxiSafiou Ev^€}/(p yeto/jLerpeip ovk 

to any topic, example, argument, or anything else that is to be 'brought 
forward'. Supra c. 2. 10, i^yin/ra c. 6. 7, also ll 22. 16, 17. Top. i, 153 
^ 14, et passim. Isocn Areopag. § 6. 

§ 3. 'An example of the simile is' {/it. Similes are a thing like that 
simile which), 'that which Androtion (directed, discharged) against Idrieus, 
that he was like the curs when they are let loose (untied) ; for /Aey fly 
at you and bite, and so Idrieus was vicious (or savage) when he was 
freed from his chains '• 

Androtion was an Athenian orator, whose name occurs coupled with 
many opprobrious epithets not only in the speech delivered against him 
(Or. 22), but also in that against Timocrates in which he is very 
frequently mentioned. He was sent on an embassy with Melanopus 
and Glaucetes, Dem. c. Timocr. §§ 12, 13, alibi^to Mausolus prince of 
Caria 377 — 35 1 B. c. Idrieus was his brother, and Androtion may have 
met him at his court, and there had the encounter with him which ended 
in the discharge of his simile. The Scholiast on Isocr. p. 4 ^ 27 (ap. Sauppe, 
/nd, Nom, ad Or. Att.) tells us that he was a pupil of Isocrates, and the 
writer of the 'Atthis', "a work on the history of Attica", Biographical 
Dictionary — which settles the question raised in that Dictionary about 
the identity of the orator and author — and the Scholiast adds that he was 
also the defendant in Demosthenes' speech contra Androtionem. 

Idrieus was a prince of Caria who succeeded to the throne on the 
death of his brother Mausolus in 351 B.C. See Mr Bunbury's Art in 
Biogr. Diet. He is mentioned by Isocrates, Philippus § 103, as cvn-opcmi- 
rov r&v vvv ircpl r^v rjfrtipov. This speech was published in 346 B.C. 
(Clinton), and therefore subsequent to his accession. It may be presumed 
that the imprisonment with which Androtion taunts him was due to his 
brother, and of course prior to his accession to the throne. He is referred 
to again without his name by Demosth. in the speech de Pace, § 25, — 
this was also delivered in 346 B.C. (Clinton F. H. 11 360) — as ' the Carian', 
who had been permitted to take possession of the islands of Chios, Cos^ 
and Rhodes. [A. Schaefer, Dem. u.s. Zeity i 351,440.] 

' And Theodamas' comparison of Archidamus to Euxenus —minus his 
geometry, by proportion : for Euxenus also will be Archidamus plus geo- 
metry' (a geometrical Archidamus). Nothing is known of the three per- 
sons here mentioned. Theodamas compares Archidamus to Euxenus 
without his geometry ; and so — by the rule of proportion, i. e. in the 
same proportion — will Euxenus be to Archidamus with geometry: i. e. 
equalj both being alike rascals. The proportion is that of equality. With 
€y r^ avaXoyov supply Xoy^^^in the ratio, or relation, oi proportion^. 

AR. III. 4 

50 PHTOPIKJI2 r 4§3. 

ewKTraiievio iv tw dvaXoyov* earrai yap koi 6 Ei/^€i/09 
'Apxiict/Jio^ yetajxerpiKo^. kuI to ev ry iroXirela Trj 
UXarwpo^y oTi oi toi)s Ted^ewra^ orKuXevome^ ioiKaai 
Toh KVi/iSioi£f a TOi)s Xi6ov9 SaKi/ei tov /BaXXoPTO^ 
ovx aTTTOfAepa* Kal tj eU rdv irj/jiop, on ojuloio^ vav^ 

In this we are referred to the 'proportional metaphor', the last and most 
approved of the four kinds described in Poet, xxi 7 — 16. Comp. Rhet. 
Ill 10. 7, where the proportional met. is illustrated at length. Victorius, 
who agrees in this explanation, supplies a parallel case from Diogenes 
Laertius, Polemo, IV 3. 7, tfXtytp oiv rov fUv^Ofjoipoy iviithv thm So^itXca, rov 
dc lo<f>oKk€a "Ofiripov rpayntov* Theodamas has taken this common mode of 
comparison and applied it to the equal worthiessness of Archidamus and 
Euxenus. It was probably a standing joke at Athens. The case may 
have been something of this kind : — Two contemptible fellows, one of 
them priding himself upon a little knowledge of geometry, are comparing 
or disputing their respective merits: "you needn't say anymore about the 
matter," says Theodamas, a bystander, who was listening much amused to 
the discussion, ''you are both equal. Arcades amdo, a pair of fools, only 
Euxenus is a geometrical Archidamus, Archidamus an ungeometrical 

» And that in Plato's Republic (v 469 D), that " the spoilers of the 
dead are like curs (kvpi^Ioiv, contemptuous, diminutive: an improvement 
on P/a/o, who merely says m/vwv), which bite the stones (thrown at them) 
without attacking, setting upon, the thrower"*. Aristotle, like Bacon, 
quoting from memory, and assuming a knowledge of the original in his 
readers, has left out the explanatory part of the illustration which is sup- 
plied by Plato. Victorius cites Pacuvius, ap. Nonium, in Armorum 
ludicio, Nam cam's, quando est percussa lapide^ non tam ilium appetity 
Qui se icitf quam ilium eum lapidem, qui ipsa icta est, petit* 

nxiX 17 elf rhv hri\kov\ This, which originally stood in MSS Q, Y*, Z*, 
and the early editions, ical cor o t:i\\LovBivr\t tls rbv brjfiov, was first corrected 
by Victorius from MS A*. 

'And that (simile, understand c2ic»m,) (directed) against democracy, 
that it is like a ship-owner (or ship's captain) strong but slightly deaf. 
This again is a mere allusion to or reminder of, ' what every one must 
surely remember', Plato's celebrated illustration (Rep. vi 488 A) of the 
evils of democracy by the comparison of it to the undisciplined, untrained, 
turbulent, anarchical, crew of a ship ; each of them, though utterly with- 
out qualification for the charge, ready to dispute with the captain the 
direction and control of the vessel. The passage is referred to by Cicero, 
de Off. I 25. The words quoted by Ar., few as they are, are not correct: 
he makes the vavKXrjpog the representative of the bfjftof, the whole state ; 
in Plato the vavicKripos — the ship-owner, who in this case is captain, and 
steers his own vessel — is the governor, or governors, of the unruly mob of 

' And that (sc, €Ik»v, as before) applied to the poet's measures, that they 
are like thei bloom of youth without beauty (actual beauty of features) : 

PHTOPIKH2 r 4§3. Si 

KXripta liTX^pw fxkv viroKau(f>w he. Kai t] eU to, fxerpa 
Twv TTOifiTwVj on €OiK€ Toh avev kolWov^ iipaioL%* 01 
fjiev yap aTravBria'avTe^y ra Se SiaXvdeura ovx ofxoia 
(palverai. Kai tj TlepiKXeov^ eh 'Z.afxiovsy eoiKevai p. 1407. 
avTov^ ToX^ TraiSioi^ a toi/ yj/'cofxoif 8€;)^€Ta£ fxev, KXai^ 
ovTa he. Kat eU Bofwroi;?, on ofxoioi Toh vpivoi^* 

for they, when their bloom has faded (worn off, when they have losf it), 
and the other (the poet's measures) when they are broken up, seem utterly 
unlike (their former selves)'. This also comes from Rep. x 601 B, €oiKt 
{ra Tciu iroirircav) roir rStv eS>pai«i>v irpocciiroiSj «eaX<5y be firj, oia yiyvtrai ibtiP 
orav avra ro avBog npoKijqj. All poetry is imitation of natural objects, 
which are invested with certain 'colours' by the poetical art, in which 
the entire interest and beauty of poetry lie. These colours resemble the 
bloom on a youthful face, which is merely superficial, when there is 
nothing corresponding underneath, no beauty of feature or solid attrac- 
tion. The imitation of the objects themselves may be bad and incorrect, 
as the face itself may be plain ; so that when the bloom, the poetical 
colours, the graces and ornaments, and especially the numbers^ are 
removed, there remains only a substratum, which may be worthlessj of 
the direct imitation. Horace, Sat. l 4.60, has pronounced, as is well* 
known, a directly contrary opinion, at least in respect of the better kind of 
poetry. After applying to Lucilius' verses much the same criticism as 
Plato does to poetry in general, he adds, Notty ut si soTiras *p&iiquam 
discordia tetra Belli ferratos posies portasque refregiti Invenias etiam 
disiecti membra poetae: from Ennius. Compare Isocr. Evag. § ix, 5»» 
yap riff r»y iroii^fuircov rcov cvdoKi/xovio'ioy ra fiiv ovofiara Koi rat diavoiat 
KaraXiiqjy to dc furpop dtaXvcrj/v ^avifcrfrai iroXv KorcidfttrTtpa lijs bo^rft ^s 
vvu c;^ofiey vfp\ avrap. Also Rhet. Ill 1.9- 

With the expression comp. Eth. N. x 4, 1174^ ult. oloy roiv dicfuiiocr 1; 
Spa, pleasure is like the bloom on the cWpy^ca, the realizedj active energy: 
illustrated by ZelFs note ad loc«, from Valerius Paterculus [ll 29. 2], of 
Pompeius, forma excellens, non ea qua flos commendatur aetatiSj sed 
ex dignitate constanti. Youthful bloom, distinct from, and independent 
of, personal beauty. 

' And that of Pericles against the Samians, that they are like babies 
(TToidtotr, 'little children') which cry whilst they take the morsel (or sop) 
offered them'. yjrSfios recurs, under the form ^tifucfia, in the third simile 
following, where it is explained. The comparison made here by Pericles 
of the Samians to babies, which take their food, but cry while they take 
it, refers to their conduct af\er the final reduction of the island by Pericles 
in 440 RC, Thuc. i 115 — 1 17, after an eight months' contest, elciroXftopinf- 
Brja-av ivarif fxrjvL The sop, i.e. the nourishment, benefits, favours, they 
had received — from the Athenian point of view — consisted, thinks Schra- 
der, in their freedom, and liberation from the yoke of the Persians and 
the oligarchs. They nevertheless, though they accepted them, most un- 
gratefully and unreasonably grumbled. Buhle refers to Diodor. xn 27. 

* And (of Pericles again) against the Boeotians ; that they are like their 


52 PHT0PIKH2 r 4§3- 

Tov^ T€ yap Trpivov^ v(p* avrwv KaTaKOTTTecrOaij Ka\ 
TOi)? Boia)TOi)s Trpo^ aAAiy\oi/s jULaxofiei/ov^. Kal ' ij A>;- 
f.iOG'Qevov^ eU top SfjfjLOP^y oti ojuloio^ iaTi toU iv tol^ 
irXoioi^ pavTiwcriv. Kal cos 6 Afi/noKpaTri^ eiKace tov^ 
ptjTOpa^ rals TiTdai^ cu to ylrtofxicua KaTairlvovaai 
Tw o'ldXtp Ta TTaidia '7rapaXei(pova'iv. Kal aJs Ai/ri- 

^~^ 6 ArjfjLoaO^n^ top 9^fiop imlgata igctio, 

own holm-oaks : for as these are cut down (knocked about or down) by 
themselves' (dashed one against another by the wind ; so Victorius ; or ' cut 
down', split by wedges and mallets made of their own wood, like the 
** struck eagle" of Aeschylus, Waller, and Byron), *so are the Boeotians, 
by their civil (or domestic) contentions'. 

*And Demosthenes compared the people' (of the Athenian, or some 
other, democracy: understand ctxao-fy, which is expressed in the next 
example) 'to the sea-sick passengers in the vessels at sea'. Their squeam- 
ishness, fastidiousness, nausea with the existing state of things, constant 
desire of change, is produced by the perpetual agitationy fluctuation of their 
political .condition and circumstances, the tumultuous waves of the 
stormy sea of civil commotion : they are sick of the present, and long for 
change. • The Demosthenes here mentioned is, by general consent, not 
the Orator ; more probably the Athenian general of the Peloponnesian 
war in Thucydides [sine causa^ says Spengel]. 

The very remarkable fact that the name of the great Orator is 
in all probability only once mentioned by Aristotle — II 24. 8, where 
Demades' condemnation of his policy is quoted — though the pair were 
living together for many years in the same city — is parallel to a similar 
silence of Bacon as to his great contemporary Shakespeare ; but still 
more remarkable in the former case, from the constant occasion oifered 
to the writer on Rhetoric of illustrating his rules and topics from the 
practice of the first of speakers. It has been already noticed in the Intro- 
duction, pp. 45, 46, and notes, where the cases of supposed mention of or 
allusion to Demosthenes are collected and examined. And this omission 
will appear still more remarkable when it is contrasted with the nine 
closely printed columns of references and citations in SpengePs Index 
Auctorum ad Rhetores Graecos ill 312, seq. 

*And Democrates' comparison of the "orators" to the nurses who 
themselves swallow the morsel (which they have previously chewed and 
softened for the baby), and smear (or slobber over) the babies with the 
spittle (that they have used in the process)'. This is the case of the 
lawyer and the oyster in the caricature ; the legal practitioner swallows 
the savoury contents, and presents the rival claimants with a shell apiece ; 
so the public speakers swallow the substantial profit themselves, and 
besmear the audience with their unctuous flattery. Comp. Ar. Eq. 715, 
(KXca>v) inlarafiai yap avrov (rov drjfiov, represented as a toothless old man 
that must be fed like a baby) ols yjrtofiiCtTai' ('AXXovroTraXiys) K^fd' <S<nrtp 
ai TirOai yt aiTL^tis kqkSs' fiaaiofitvos yap r^ fiiu oXiyou ipTidrjgf avrht b* 

PHTOPIKHS r 4§3, 53 

cdeuri^ Kfj^icoSoToi/ tov -Xeirrop Xifiavtarto etKacev, 
OTi aTToWJ/xei/os ev(ppaiv€i. Trdo'a^ yap Tavra^ Kai 

€K€ivov rpi7r\a<riov KaT€(r7raKas. Democ rates, the author of this saying, 
seems, from a passage of Plutarch (in Vict.), Pol. Praec. 803 D, to have 
been notorious for biting and offensive sayings, ro Xvnovv aKaip&s rovs 
QKovovTas : two of them are quoted. Two persons of this name are men- 
tioned by the Orators. One, son of Sophilus, of the deme of Phlya, in a 
list of the ambassadors sent to Philip in 347 B.C., after the fall of 
Olynthus (in the spurious '^(fna-yia, Demosth. de Cor. § 29, see Dissen), 
and again in another questionable ^(/xo-fui, Dem. de Cor. § 187, purport- 
ing to be Demosthenes' decree for the appointment of ambassadors to 
Thebes and the other Greek states, to negotiate an alliance, and arrest 
the progress of Philip, June, B.C. 338, Clinton, Fasti Hellenici, sub anno. 
The other, of Aphidna, Isaeus, irepi tov ^tkoK-n^fiovos icXijpov, § 22, and 
Aesch. de F. L. § 17. Nothing more seems to be known of either of them. 
The two are confounded in the article of Smithes Btographical Dictionary, 
Democrates No. i ; and the saying here quoted is styled ** a fragment of 
one of his orations.'' 

* And Antisthenes' comparison of Cephisodotus the thin (slight, lean) 
to frankincense, because he gives pleasure by wasting away'. 6 Xfwros 
seems to have been a sobriquet of Cephisodotus ; and may also indicate 
a second point of resemblance between him and frankincense, namely 
his slight, vaporous, unsubstantial nature. Buhle quotes in illustration 
the German proverb, die Juden nehmen sick nirgend besser aus als am 
Galgen, *Ori aTroXXvficvor €v<l}paiv€i means that that was the only enjoy- 
ment that was to be got out of him : all the rest of him, his properties, 
qualities, character, was anything but enjoyable, bad and vicious. On 
XcTiTof contrasted with iraxw, and men distinguished by this personal 
peculiarity, Athenaeus has three chapters, xii 75 — yy, p. 551, seq. 

Antisthenes is most likely the Cynic philosopher, who outlived the 
battle of Leuctra, 371 B.C., Clinton, Fasti Hellenici y sub anno 365, and 
was therefore contemporary with Cephisodotus. He, like his successor, 
Diogenes, had a habit of bitter sarcasm, of which the saying here quoted 
is a fair specimen. It is truly a bitter jest. See the account of him in 
Cotton's art. in Smith's Biogr, Diet. Vol. I, p. 208 a, A long list of his 
sayings is given by Diog. Laert. in his life, vi i, some of which are caustic 
enough. Mr. Grote, in his account of Antisthenes, Plato, iii, p. 504, seq., 
has not specified this cynical feature in his character. [Blass, die Attischg 
Beredsamkeit, 11 304 — 316.] 

Cephisodotus, c/c K^papl&v, Distinguished by Sauppe (Jnd, Nom, ad 
Or, Alt, III, p. ^^) from the general of that name, mentioned by Demosth. 
c. Aristocr. §§ 153, 156, 163, 167, as sent (about 359 B.C.) to cooperate 
with Charidemus in the Hellespont and Chersonese, and elsewhere ; by 
Aesch. c. Ctes. § 51, seq.; by Suidas and Harpocration. Cephis. eic 
Krpa/ACttv, the orator, is referred to in Dem. c. Lept. § 146, together with 
Leodamas, Aristophon, and Deinias, as one of the best speakers of the 
time ; and again, § 150, ovros ianv ovdfvot rjrrov rav XcyowoDv deivos elneiv. 
The Cephisodotus who was sent (with Callias, see note on ill 2. 10) to the 
congress at Sparta in B.a 371, Xen. Hellen. Vi 3. 2, vii 1. 12, seems more 

54 PHT0PIKH2 r 4 § 3— S § I. 

tas eiKOPa^ Kcti w^ fi€Ta<popa% €^€<m Xeyeiif* wtTTe 
oaai av evSoKi/jtwartp W9 fieratpopat XexGeiarai^ hrjXov 
on avTai Kai eiKOve^ tcrovraij Kal ai eiKOPe^ fi^Ta^ 

4 ipopal \6yov ZeofAevai. del Ze Se? Triv fA€Ta(J)opdp ttjp 
eK Tov dpdXoyop dprairoZiZopai Kal eirl OaTCpa twv 
Ofxoyepwp* oiop ei tj (pid\ri darirh Aiopvaov^ Kal Trjp 
d(r7riSa dp/jLOTTei Xeyea^ai ipidXtiP *'A|06O9. 

I 6 fxep ovp \6yo^ avprWeTai eK tovtwp, earn S'chap 

likely to have been the orator than the general ; and so Schneider pro- 
nounces, ad Xen. 1. c. Three more doris mots of the same are quoted, 
infra lii lo. 7. Ip Mr Elder's art. Cephisodotus No. 2, Biog. Dicty the 
two are identified. [Arnold Scbaefer distinguishes them, Dem. u, s. Zeit 
III 2. 155—6.] 

* For all these maybe expressed either as similes or as metaphors : and 
therefore, plainly, all those that are popular when expressed as meta- 
phors, will be also (if required) similes, and similes metaphors without 
the descriptive details (the detailed explanation)*. ''A simile is a metaphor 
writ larf^e, with the details filled in ; this is XcSyo^." Introd. p. 290. 

§ 4. * T\^t profiortional metaphor should always be reciprocally trans- 
ferable, ^nd to either of the two congeners ; for instance, if the goblet is 
Dionysius' shield, then also the shield may be appropriately called Ares' 
goblet. Such then are the elements pf which the speech (or discourse in 
general, or prose) is composed '. This section, and its concluding obser- 
vation, are fully explained in detail in the Introd, pp. 290 — ^92, to which 
the reader is referred. 

Anaxandrides (Meineke, Fragm. Comif. Gk hi. 201, Anax. Fr. Inc. 
XXXI.) as well as Antiphanes (J^tvtvv, Meineke, Fragm, lii. 58) quote 
this metaphor of Timotheus in ridicule. From Athenaeus, xi. 502 B, we 
learn that the goblets which Anaxandrides calls ^idXa^ ^Apeor are rat 
Kapwuyrds, * walnut-shaped'. This tends to confirm Twining's remark, on 
Poet. XXI. 12, note 185, that there was a resemblance in shape between 
this kind of cup and a shield, which h^ped to suggest and justify the 
metaphor. He refers, as also Buhle ad loc Poet — ^see also Qrafenhan, ad 
Poet. p. 157 — to Hom, II. xxill 270, on the shape of th^ ^t«iXi|, vrffiirr^ 
d' d/i0t^eroy KJiiakrjv awvp^Tov IQrjKt and the not^s. 

I have followed Bekker, ed. 3, and Spengel, in his recent ed. [1867], 
who agree in excluding from the text the superfluous kcX enly before rmv 
ofw'ycywi',— -apparently a mqre repetition of the preceding kqI cVt before 


Here commences the second division of X«|*f, the treatment of style 
as it appears in the combination of words in sentences^ and the connexion 
of the latter in harmonious periods. The «p;^7, the beginning, basis or 

PHTOPIKH2 r s §§ I, 2. 55 

cipX^ T^? \e^€W9 TO eWfiPi^eip* tovto S^ ea-rlv iv 
2 7rei/T€, irpiioTou fxev iu toT^ (rvuSetrfAOi^y av dirohihta T«p. 119. 
<y9 'TreijWKaari irporepoi Kal varepoi yiyvecdai a\- 

foundation, of style in this sense, is purity of language, to 'EXXiyv/ff ir, 
pure and correct Greek, in idiom and choice of words, opposed to bar^ 
barism, solecism, and all impropriety in general. The subject of Purity 
has been already treated in the Introduction, under the head of ^ General 
observations on Style,' p. 279, note 3. 

The divisions of the chapter, the jfive heads to which Purity may be 
reduced — to which are added in the last section two supplementary topics 
which belong rather to /^rjr//Vi//V)^, punctuation and iitrafyKoyieLy or parens 
thesis — are explained and illustrated by references to the works of other 
rhetoricians, in the analysis, Introd. pp. 292 — 5. 

The classification is, as we shall see, extremely imperfect and defi- 
cient ; and, moreover, the distinction of purity and perspicuity is not 
carefully observed. Most probably Aristotle did not recognise it at all. 
Nearly all the precepts given in this chapter are referrible to perspicuity 
rather than purity. 

§ I. apx^ TTis XcfcMff] Cic. Brut LXXiv. 258, Solum quidem^ et quasi 
fundamentutn oratoris.,.locuiionem emendatam et Latinam, 

TO AXt^M'firtv] 'EXXiyytcr/ior, <l>pdais ddidTrraTos (Diogenes Laertius, Zeno, 
VII. 59)' ''o cXXiyptfftir rpiTTuv' rj rb r^v 'EXXi/Mic^y <rvv4B€icaf diatr^ieuf r«v 
oPoiAorav cirl irayr»v* ol iroXXot* $ ro aKpifiovy rfjv 'EWrfvucrjv <^a>in)ir, ical rrjp 
opBonjTa T^p cV TJ 7rpo(l>op^' ol ypafifxariKoi* ^ t^p Kvpiorryra r£p ovopar^p n)y 
Kara ffiCo'iP irpoon^KOva'ap rois irpaypao'tp* ol 0tXo<ro^i (Schol. ad Plat. p. yo 
ap. Gaisford). This takes quite a different view of the meaning of the word 
to that of Aristotle ; in the one case the ' purity of the Greek* is shewn in 
the choice of words, in the other in the connexion of sentences by obser- 
vance of the iifiom of the language. But in fact both of these belong to 
'pure Greek': and purity is a negative quality of style, consisting in the 
avoidance of error {(ppaa-is abidwrt^ros, emendata locutio^ in the shape of 
(i) solecism (Aristotle's view, idiomatic, grammatical, blunders), (2) bar- 
barism; the latter, the use especially oi foreign words (whence the name)^ 
or any similar impropriety. Atque^ ut Latine loquamur^ non solum 
videttdum est ut et verba efferamus ea quae nemo iure reprehendaty et ea 
sic et casibus et tempotibus etgenere et numero conservemus, &c. Cic. de 
Orat. Ill 11.40. In the next section he includes pronunciation. The 
examples of (roXoiKurpos^ the opposite to cXXi^vio-fiof , given in de Soph. £L 
32, 182 <i 13 and 34, are both of them grammatical errors : one who is 
guilty of either, ovk dp doKoirj iWripiC^iv. In the same, c. 3, 165 3 20, 
aoXoiKiCtiv is defined, r^ Xcfci PapPapiCtiv. [Dem. Or. 45 {Kara 2rc<^ayot; a) 
§ 30, vfifis d* itrc^s avTOP virctXi;0ar6, on o'oXoiict^ci rj <^a>i{, fidpfiapop kuX 
€VKaTa<fip6prjT0P ciyai.] 

' (Pure, correct) Greek is the foundation of style : this falls under five 
heads or divisions '. 

§ 2. * The first of these is (the proper use of) connective particles, that 
is^ when they are made to correspond, in such a natural position (relation) 
of priority or posteriority to one another in the sentence^ as some of them 

56 . PHT0PIKH2 T s § 2. 

XifXctfi/y olov epioi d'ffaiTOvaiv^ warrep 6 fiev Kai 6 iya 
fxei/ airairei top oe Kai top o ce* oei oe ews /^6/ic- 
vrirai duraTro^iSopai a\Af;\0£9, Kai fxriTe fxaKpdv dirap^ 
Tap firiT^ arvvheo'ixop wpo aupSeaj^ov aTroStSopai tov 

require ; as /i«V and iy^ lUv require de and o dc (as correlatives)'. That is 
to say, the connective fiiv (6 V«»'' vv»d€<rno£) requires an answering dc in 
the apodosis, the one particle necessarily implying the other; and the 
same with ey<o fuv, and 6 de ; ficV with eyti necessarily implies a second^ or 
other person, some one else, (see note on l 6. 22, and Donaldson, NeTv 
Cratylusy § 154, there cited,) correlative and subsequent or posterior: and 
therefore in the construction of the sentence ^v is placed before {irpo- 
r€pop\ d€ after (HoTtpop), 

On a-vv^aiios as a ' part of speech ', see Introd. Appendix A to 6k. HI 
c. 2, p. 371 seq. ; and on its various senses in general, ib. Appendix D, 
p. 392 ; and again p. 437, in the analysis c. 25 (26) of the Rhet ad Alex. 
The rule here given for the treatment of connectives is derived originally 
from I Socrates' t/x*^. Ibid. pp. 437, 8. The Rhet. ad Alex, also has 
it, C. 25 (26), I, fitra df awbia-fJLXivs ovs av irpoeiiqjs iirMdov rois aico- 
'KovBovvras ; which is then exemplifted by fi€P and dc, and Ka), kgL 

dirodMvaf,] to render, or * assign, to its proper place ', see note on I 1.7. 
dw-aTrobtdovai (in the following clause) is to do this so that there is a 
•reciprocal correspondence' between the two, ifrr-aKK^Xois, *But this 
reciprocal correspondence between them should be introduced (by the 
speaker, dei tov Xlyovra) before the audience has had time to forget 
{ttos ^ftvrjrai, sc. o aKpoarqs, while he $tiU retains in his recollection) the 
Jirst of the two connectives, with its accompanying clause ; and the two 
should neither be too widely separated, nor should (another) conjunction 
be introduced before that which is absolutely required; for (such a 
construction) is seldom appropriate, " But I, as soon as he told me — 
for Cleon came entreating and requiring {claiming^ demanding)— set 
out with them in my company." For in examples Ijke this, several clauses 
with conjunctions are prematurely inserted before that which is to 
correspond as the correlative'. 

The example of this faulty construction here given is one of the very 
few which Aristotle has manufactured, contrary to his usual rule of 
citing examples from the sayings or writings fl^^f^s supplied by 
memory. This has been noticed as one of the «Sacw|istic differences 
which distinguish Aristofl^s RhetQUQ JmmJmG Rhet. ad Alex. — see 
Introd. p. 414* — the author of the latter, al^Wrmvariably, illustrating his 
precepts by examples of his own. The example itself, as appears from the 
TToXXot avvdetr/ioi of the ensuing clause, is to be. regarded, not as an actual 
exemplification of the fault, but only as a suggestion of what might 
be. In itself it is clear enough ; but if these parenthetical clauses be 
piultiplied—2& in fact is very often done in Aristotle's own writings— 
between protasis and apodosis, the hearer, or reader, is very apt to 

1 Where "the single exceptioii, ©f HI |6 " rec|uires modification: but the ex- 
ceptions are extremely rare. 

PHTOPIKH2 r S§§2— 4. 57 

-dvayKaiov* 6\iyaj(^ov yap dpfioTrei. ** iyw 8', eTrei 
[jLOi eiTrev {^Xde yap KXetov heofxepo^ re Kai a^iwi/), 
iTTopevofiriv irapaXafiwv ai;TOi;s." ev tovtoi^ yap ttoX- 
\oi wpo Tov d7roSo6rj(roim€POv avvhio'iiov TrpoefxfH' 
fiXtlprai avv^ecixor idu Se ttoXv to fxera^v yevtirai 

3 TOV eTTOpevofjLtjVy dfrafpe^. ev fxep St] to ev iv Toh 
avvheaixoi^y ZevTepov Se to toI^ lS/019 ovofxaai Xeyeiu 

4 Kai fxrj To7^ TrepiexovaiP. TpiTOV fxrj dfKpi^oKoL^* 

forget the commencement of the sentence, and the argument becomes 

'But if the clauses that intervene (before) cVopfvo/xijv {between the 
irporaais and it) be numerous, it becomes obscure*, iitra^v is not 
unfrequently used with only one of the two extremes, between which 
the intermediate lies, expressed : examples are, Arist. Ach. 432, Tr)\€(f>ov 
paKtoyLora, Ktlrai d* avtodtv tSv Bvcoretcav paKcav, fifra^v reav 'ivovs, Aesch. 
Choeph. 55} ^^ ^* ^^ fitrcuxfii^ aKorov, for (tkotov kcli <f>aovs. Others 
in Shilleto's note on Dem. de F. L. § 181, who compares with the last 
instance, our own twilight, i.e. 'betwixt (darkness and) light'. Add 
Soph. Oed. CoL 583, ra ivp^a-fj^. lb. 291 (with Schneidewin's note). Eur. 
Hec. 437. [Isocr. Paneg. § 70, cV t^ fura^v rtjs x^P^h Dem. de Corona 
§ 32, TOV p,€Ta^v xpovov rmv opKtov^ 

A violation of this rule is pointed out by Arnold, on Thuc. I 32. i. 
Comp. Quint, viii 2. 14, 15. The parenthesis, to ficrcL^v, is there called 
interiectiO' Interiectione, qua et oratores et historici frequenter utuntur, 
ut medio sermone aliquem inserant sensum, impediri solet intellectus, 
nisi quod interponitur breve estj Virg. Georg. in 79 — 83 being adduced 
as an example. This is properly referred by Quint, to perspicuitas, 

§ 3. * So one point (or head, of merit in style) appears, resides, 
in the due construction of connectives (conjunctions); a second is to 
call things by their own proper (special) names, and not by terms that 
are general (comprehensive ; i. e. names oi classes , abstract terms)*. 

ra n€pi€xovTa is explained by Victorius and Schrader, 'periphrases, 
circumlocutions ', such as the general definition for the particular object 
under it, the \ayos for the oi/c/xa ; or a description in several words substi- 
tuted for the single Xdiop ovoyia, as Ibericas herbas for spartum, duratos 
muria pisces for salsanfenta, Quint, viii 2.2,3, ^^^ others, quoted by 
Schrader from Cic. de Qi)^%]jj^4, This is ircpi^pacrtf, a roundabout, 
not direct, expression of your meaning, circumlocutio, circuitus eloquendi. 
Quint. VIII 6. 59—61. 

I have followed this ejjplanation myself in the paraphrase, Introd. 
p. 293 ; but I now see that th^ word cannot bear this meaning, and 
adopt the explanation of Schweighauser on Athen. vii 309 a (q. v.), who 
understands by it the y«Voff, the genus or class name, which, being an 
abstract, general term, is of course less perspicuous than the direct 
expression of one of the particulars, (idia, of which the class is composed,) 
by the name of the cgncrete individual; as animal or man than John 

58 PHTOPIKH2 r s§4. 

TavTa §€, at/ fuj TavavTia TrpoaipfJTai. 6 Trep iroi^ 
ovariv orav /mtjOeu fiev €;^fticri Xeyeiv^ Trpoo'TroiwvTai Se 
Ti Xiyeiv* ol yap toiovtoi ev Troitjo'ei \iyov<ri TavTa^ 
olou 'E/iTreSoicA//^* (pevaKi^ei yap to KiKXto ttoXv oVj 

and Thomas. The genus may be said ntpux'iv ' to comprehend, embrace, 
include', the species, and individuals of which it is made up ; and con- 
versely n€pi€X((r0ai of the included object, ro viroK§iii€vov, Anal Pr. I 27, 
43 ^ 239 ^9* Comp. Met. A 2, 1013 d 34, ra vtpUxpvra oriovv rwv Kaff 
€KaaTcu lb. 2, 1046 d 24, fiiq, yap apxji »rep*€X€Tai, ry Xoy^. Moreover 
ovopao-if which must be carried on to n(pi€xov(riv, can hardly stand for 
'descriptions' consisting of many words. 

§ 4. 'Thirdly, to avoid ambiguous terms ; but that, (viz. to avoid them,) 
only if the purpose be not the contrary' : the contrary, viz. to perspicuity, 
that is obscurity. If your object is to be obscure, you should then not 
avoid, but make use of, these equivocal terms, to hide your meaning 
and mystify your audience. 

dp<l>ip6\ois] . I 15.10. dfK^ijSoXia is one of the fallacies of language, wapa 
TTjv X«fiv, * ambiguity' in words connected in a sentence, 'in the proposi- 
tion'; distinguished from 6p<ii>wp,ia, ambiguity in single words, de Soph. 
EL c. 4. It is exemplified, 1. c. 166 « 6 seq. See above, in preliminary 
observations to 11 24. These two last precepts are most probably taken, 
like the preceding on o-vvdfafios, from Isocrates' rc^i^ ; and appear also 
in Rhet. ad Alex. 25 (26) l, irpSrov pkv odv ovopa^f roii oIk€[ois 6u6pM<n.v 
on hv Xc'yijf, bia(t>€vyap to apipifioXov, See in the analysis of this treatise, 
ch. 25, Introd. p. 437. The qualification, av prj rdvavria jrpoaiprjraiy seems 
to be Aristotle's own. On the various kinds of dp<f>i,po\iaf ambiguiias^ 
in Rhetoric sunt innumerabiles (Quint. VII 9). They may be referred 
to two general heads ; in singulis verbis {6pc»vvpia), and coniunctis 
(Aristotle's dp^ifioXicLJ, 

' As is done (ambiguous terms employed, by speakers and writers) 
whenever, having in fact nothing to say, they make a pretence (affect) of 
saying something ; for such (those who pretend to a meaning when there 
is none) express this no-meaning inverse (comp. ill i. 9, o2 troufTai Xcyovrcr 
tyr^Oi) iLT,\.)f Empedocles, for instance : for this (roundabout, circuitous, 
phraseology) circumlocution cheats (deludes) by the multitude (accu- 
mulation) of words, and the listeners are affected (i. e. imposed upon) 
in the same way as the vulgar in the presence of diviners ; that is, when 
(the latter) pronounce their ambiguous utterance, they express their 
approval by a nod of assent, "Croesus, if he pass the Halys, shall destroy 
a mighty realm"'. 

The oracle leaves it doubtful whether the power or dominion to be 
destroyed is his own, or some other. Herod, i 53, 91. Oracles are pro- 
verbially ambiguous and enigmatical. [Macbeth, v 8. 19, Be these juggling 
fiends no more believed That palter with us in a double sense; That keep 
the word of promise to our ear; And break it to our hope. Cicero, de 
Divin. II 56. 116 (to Pyrrhus), Aio te Aaecida Romanos vincere posse,] 

Perhaps the two following verses of Empedocles' collected fragments, 

PHTOPIKH2 r s§4- S9 

Kal Trdo'xova'ii/ oi aKpouTai 6 irep ol woWoi irapa 
TOi^ fxdvTeo'iv* OTav yap XeywcrtP dix(j>il3o\a, avfi" 

KpoTcro^'AXvu hia/Sas fxeyaXtjv dpxv^ KaToKvcrei. 

Karsten, p. icx), lines io6 — 7, may in some degree illustrate Aristotle's allu- 
sion to this writer, and his sound without sense ; 

NeiKOff T ov\6fjL€Vo» ^t'xa t&p, aTakavTou anavrrj^ 
KCLi ^(Xoriys yi«ra rol(Tiv taij fi^Kos r* irXaros re, 
Karsten's remarks on Empedocles' style, de Emp, vita et studiis p. 60, 
(prefixed to the Fragm. and Comment.) well illustrate this passage, to 
which he refers. He notices the obscurity of his diction, which appears 
especially in the symbolical terms, such as N^orw, by which he some- 
times designates the elements — see for instance the four lines, Fragm. 
211 — 214 — and in the ambiguities ascribed to him here by Aristotle, 
** Nonnunquam vero ad oraculorum gravitatem adsurgit, quales sunt ver- 
sus illi, co-rtv 'AidyKjyr XP^f^ «e r.X. Fragm. init. oKKa to h€v navriov vofxi- 
fiov K.T.X. V. 404. Quamobrem minime miramur quod affirmat Theodo- 
retus, seriores fatidicos ex Empedoclis potissimum versibus oracula sua 

Aristotle says of him. Poet. I 1 1, ovbev dc koivou itrnv 'Ofirip<o koL 'E/xttc* 
doKK€i irX^y TO fitrpov' dio rov fi€v noiriT^p dijcoioy icaXeci', rbv de ^vciokoyov 
IJuaWov rj iroirfTi^u, It is curious to contrast this contemptuous judgment 
of his poetry and the general character and value of his writings, as it 
may be gathered from the two passages of the Rhet. and Poet., with the 
glowing eulogium of Lucretius, de rerum nat. i 716 — 733. After describ- 
ing the wonders and good things of Sicily, his birthplace, he concludes, 
JVi7 iatnen hoc habuisse viro praeclarius in se, nee sanctum magis et 
mirum carutnque videtur, Carmina quin etiam divini pectoris eius voci- 
ferantur et exponunt praeclara reperta^ ut vix humana videatur stirpe 
creatus. And still more remarkable is Aristotle's contradiction of him- 
self, if Diogenes Laertius' quotation, vili 57, is to be depended upon, iv 
dc rf irept iroii;r£p tfnicw on kcli 'Ofujpucos 6 'E/iircdoicX^ff leal Btipos irepi rfjv 
iftpaa-iv, it.r.X.^-comp. the passage of the Poetics : — the possible explana- 
tion, that what he said in the one refers to the style, and in the other to 
the contents, of Empedocles' poem, is excluded by the contemptuous 
remark upon his style in the Rhetoric. On the passage of Lucretius, see 
Munro's note, I 733. 

Of the vagabond impostors who hawked about spurious oracles and 
predictions under the names of ftovrcir and xPH^f^^^h prophets or 
diviners and soothsayers, Aristophanes has given us specimens, Hiero- 
cles in the * Peace,' 1252, foil., and the nameless xPWt^okoyos in the 
* Birds,' 959, foil. 

* And by reason of the less liability to mistake in general (by follow- 
ing this course) diviners are accustomed to deliver their predictions in 
(through the channel, or medium of) general terms of the fact (which is 
prophesied), /raus laiet in generalibus; for a man is much more likely to 
make a hit in playing "odd aiid even" by saying "even" or **odd", than 

6o PHTOPIKH2 r 5 §§4,5. 

Kai ha TO cAws eXarrov that dfidpTrifxa, Sect tcSi^ p. h 
yevwp Tov TTpdy/uLaTOs Xeyovo'iv oi fxaPTei^* tvxol yap 
av Tt9 fxaXKov ev Toi^ dpTia(rfJLoh dpria tj Trepicara 
eiTTcop iddWop h TToaa e^^ij Kal to otl eo'Tai i] to 
TTore, Sio oi xp^^l^^Xoyoi ov Trpoo'opi^ouTai to ttotc, 
inravTa dri TavTa bfioia' wctt ap fxrj tolovtov tlpcs 
5 eveKUj (pevKTeop. TeTapTOP, ws UpwTayopa^ tu yeptj 
Tcop opofxaTVDP Zitipeiy appepa Kal 6f]\ea Kai (TKevrj' Set 

any particular number that he has in his hand ; or " that (the event pre- 
dicted) «//*// be" than "when*' (it will be) ; and this is why the soothsayers 
never add (to their prediction) the preciit time (lit. the definition of the 
* when'). All these then (circumlocutions, ambiguities, and the like) are 
alike (in h€vci% faults) and therefore, unless for some such (reason as was 
before suggested), to be avoided'. 

OiaprwxT\LQi "odd and even", (a child's game, played with do-rpayoXoi, 
or knuckle-bones, Plato, Lysis 206 E , rjf)Tia(ov aarpayakois rrafinoWoif,) an 
account is given in Becker's Charicles^ on *the games', p. 354; and of the 
corresponding Latin game par impar in Gallus^ p. 504. Ludere par im- 
par, Hor. Sat. II 3. 248 (Heindorfs note), Ovid, Nux Eleg. line 79, estetiam, 
par sit Humerus^ qui dicat, an impar. The game might be played with 
any kind of counters, beans, acorns, coins — in Carion's house, after he had 
grown rich, Arist. Plut. 816, "the servants played at odd and even with 
golden staters." It is usually described as played by two persons, one of 
whom held in his closed hand a number of counters, and the other had 
to guess whether it was odd or even. This was no doubt one way of 
playing it, but there was also another not quite so simple, as appears 
from this passage of the Rhetoric, and also from the Schol. on Plut. 1057, 
in which the guess was made at the number, ttoo-o. In the Plutus, 1. c, 
the game is played with 'walnuts', Kapva, and the Scholiast's comment is, 
" one grasps a handful of walnuts, and with his hand stretched out asks, 
how many? and if the other guesses right, he receives all the contents of 
his hand ; if wrong, he paj^s the number found in the other's hand when 

ol xPV^P^^oyoi ov irpo(ropl(opTai to ttotc'] On this intentional indefi- 
niteness and obscurity of would-be prophets, Victorius refers to Aeschi- 
nes c. Ctes. § 99, who contrasts Demosthenes with other dkaCovfs, who 
orav Tt yjrevbavTai, doptara koI d(ra<f>^ irap^vTcu. Xfyeiv, (fiofiovfievot tov ^ry- 
xov : and, to the same effect, of a supposed citation from the Sibylline 
verses, Cic. de Divin. 11 54. 1 10, Callide enim qui ilia cpnfo^uit perfecit 
uty quodcumque accidisset, praedictum videretur, hotf^M^atfet teniporum 
definitione sublata* -^ ^.-^ j 

§ 5. * Fourthly, to observe Protagoras' division of the classes (classi- 
fication) of nouns, into male, female, and inanimate (prop, implements) : 
for these also must be correctly assigned, each to its proper place*. This 
is illustrated by an example of two participles in the feminine following 17. 

PHTOPIKH2 r 5§§S,6. 6i 

yap aTTO^iZovai kui Tavra Spdco^ ** ti S' iKdov&a Kai 

6 SiaXexOeiaa a{;)^€TO." TrefXTrrov ev tw tu TroAAa Kai 

6\iya Kai ei^ 6p6(S^ ovoixd^eiv* *^ oi S* eXdovTe^ ervir^ 


oAftJs Se Se? evavdyvtco'TOv eluai to yeypafifxei/ov 
Kai eijcppao'TOP* ecTTi he to ai/To'. o irep oi iroWoi 

Oa the import of this, the earliest attempt at Greek grammar, and 
other similar essays of Protagoras in the same line, see Camb Journ, of 
CL and Sacred Phil, No. vii. Vol. in. p. 48 seq. in the article on Protagoras. 
I have there, and subsequently in a note, Introd. p. 293, endeavoured by 
comparison of various passages on the subject to determine its meaning, 
and I need not here repeat what is there said. At all events it is not 
the now recognised grammatical classification of 'genders of nouns', 
masculine, feminine and neuter, -ycvi; is not here 'genders', though the 
later grammar adopted this name to express it; but simply 'classes*. 
This is a genuine precept of 'EXXi^vicr/iof, 'purity of language', as is also 
the next. 

§ 6. ' Fifthly, in the correct expression (by change of termination) of 
many, few, and one', followed by an example of a plural participle and 
verb. This is of course the due expression of the number of nouns, and 
the observation of the concord^ or agreement of adj. with subst. or pronoun, 
or verb with nom. case, in number, Victorius thinks that oklya stands for 
what was afterwards distinguished as the dual number. Comp. Cic. de 
Orat. Ill II. 40. 

' And, as a general rule, every written composition must be easy to read, 
or — ^which is much the same thing — to speak, or deliver'. Comp. Quint. 
VIII 2. 17. Demetr. rttpX tpurjvtias, § 193 (Spengel, Rhel, Gr, III 304), 
ypa^iidl di Xcfir (written composition) jj evavayvaaros, avrq B^forip ij avvrfp' 
rrjfjJvrj Koi olov i^a'<t>a\i(rfi€vi] roils awbtafioif, i.e. written composition must 
be carefully and well constructed, with due regard to the conjunctions, 
and the connexion of sentences, or syntax in general. This is opposed 
to declamatory speaking, vrroKpiTtKrj Xcftr, 1; diaXcXv/AcVi;, in which the want 
of exact connexion — particularly asyndeton, the omission of icai— often 
aids the effect : comp. § 194. 

' This is wanting (in compositions in which) conjunctions and other 
connecting particles are numerous, and such as are not e2isy to puncluale, . 
like those of Heraclitus '. This does not contradict what was said before 
about the necessity of conjunctions, &c., to ensure perspicuity, it only 
condemns the excessive use of them ; a long string of connected clauses 
is apt to lead to obscurity : the due mean is to be observed, here as else- 
where. With what follows compare Demetrius, u. s. § 192, to di aavvberop 
Koi dta\(\vfi€vov o\op d<Ta(f>€S irav' aSi^Xos yap ij cxaorov KeoXov apxV ^*« ttjv 
XvfrtVf «crir«p ra 'Hpa/eXc/rov' Koi yap ravra trKOTtiva iroifl to frXeiarrov rj 
Xocriff, and Theon, Progymn. irtpi Stiyyijftaros § 187 (Spengel, J?/iel, Gr. 11 82), 
TTopa Tavrrjv Sc ttjv dp^tPokiav (ambiguity arising from punctuation) ra 
'HpojcXfirou TOV <l>i\o<r6<l}ov fiifiXia aKOTeiva yiyovt «caraKopa>r out^ ;ifp7cra/xe- 
vovy ?T04 tmrrjbis rj koi di Syvoiav (the fault had been previously illustrated) 

62 PHTOPIKH2 r 5§6. 

cvvZeo'iJLOi ovK exovariUf ovS* a firj pa^iop SiacTi^ai, 
uxrirfp TO. ^HpaKXeiTOv. to. yap ^HpaKXeiTOv Sia- p- i 
CTi^ai epyop Sia to aSrjXoi/ elvai irorepw npoiTKeiTai^ 

Quintilian, vii 9. 7, classes this as one of the varieties of amphibolia 
(ambiguity), viz. per collectionem^ ubidubium est quid quo referri oporteaf^ 
exemplifying it from Virgil, Aen. i 477 lora tenens iamen. % 8, unde con- 
troversia ilia, Testamento quidam iussit poni statu am auream hastam 
tenentem. Quaeritur^ siatua hastam tenens aurea esse debeatj an 
hasta esse aurea in siatua alterius materiaef — cricorftva, in the above 
passages of Demetrius and Theon, is of course an allusion to Heracli- 
tus' well-known sobriquet, o vKortt,vo%\ his 'obscurity' was proverbial. 
This want of punctuation is not by any means the only, or indeed 
the principal, source of the obscurity of the mystic enigmatical sayings 
of the *dark' philosopher. The remains of these have been collected by 
Schleiermacher, Bemays [and Bywater] in their respective tracts, and 
several of the most remarkable quoted by Thompson in his note on 
Butler's Led. on Anc. Phil. 1 313, note 10 ; see also Diog. Laert ix i, 
vita Heracliti, 

diacrri^oi] dick oriffiv, ('to prick'), is 'to distinguish or duly distribute 
hy pointing or punctuation'. Two examples similar to this are given in 
de Soph. £1. c. 4, 166 a 36, in illustration of the fallacy of biaip€<ri£, 

' For to punctuate Heraclitus' writing is a hard matter (a difficult job^ 
a business), owing-to the uncertainty as to which of the two (words), the 
preceding or following, (any particular word) is attached ; as for instance, 
at the commencement of his (avrov, masc.) composition, where he says, 
'* Of this reason constant (being) ever (reading roCd' tovros dti) men come 
into being devoid of understanding" ; for this leaves it uncertain to which 
of the two (covrof or aivvtroi yiykovrtu) the word «/^r should be attached by 
the punctuation '. Bekker, who in his first edition reads rov biovrot, has in 
the third altered it to rovh^ tovrot. Spengel retains the former — ^which 
is the reading of MS A'^ (or A), rovd' coyror, which had been already 
proposed by Victorius from a passage of Sext. Empir., is undoubtedly 
right. The words are quoted also by Clemens Alex. Strom, v 14, p. 716, 
by Eusebius, Praep. Evang. xiii, and by Sextus Empiricus adv. Math. 
VII 132, who extracts several lines, reading rovh^ iovrof, and omitting 
dfi, which are cited and commented on by Schleiermacher in his 
tract on the fragments of Heraclitus, No. 47, p. 482. Clemens and 
Eusebius have rov beovros (Schleierm.). The Xoyor, according to Sextus — 
and this is confirmed by Heraclitus' context, which he quotes — is the 
universal reason, o Oflos Xoyor, of which men are unconscious, depending 
rather upon sense, though it is the true Kpvrfipiov. roirov hri top koivov \6yop 
KOI 6*ioVy feat oZ Kara fitrox^v yivofitBa 'XoyiKoi, Kpinipiov d\r}0fiat flirjaiv 6 
'HpaicXciTor. This interpretation of course requires €ovtos* An additional 
argument in its favour is suggested by Schleiermacher, that if dfovrof had 
been the reading in Aristotle's copy of Heraclitus, he would have found 
no difficulty in the reference of dei The title of his avyypajjifia — which is 
omitted by Diogenes in his life, IX i, though the avyypafifia itself is twice 
mentioned, §§ 6, 7, find some of its contents quoted in the 7th and follow- 

PHTOPIKH2 r 5 §§ 6, 7. 63 

TttJ varrepov fj raJ wporepovj olop ev rfj c!px^ avrov 
Tou o-vyypa/jLfxaTOV (ptjci yap ** tov \6yov Tovh* 
iouTO^ del d^vveroi avdpvoTroi ylypovTar^^ ciSriXou yap 
7 TO dei^ irpo^ 6woTep(o Sia(rTi^ai. en he TroieT (roXoi" 
Ki^eiv TO fxri dTToSihovaiy edv firi eiri^evyvvti^ diJL(polv o 

ing sections — seems to have been ntpi (ffvo-tois ; the ordinary title of works 
upon similar subjects by the earlier cosmical speculators, as Empedocles, 
Anaxagoras, &c. 

Zpyov] of something hard, diflficult of execution, laborious — in the 
same sense as tpydbrjs, operosus^ which is derived from it — occurs occa- 
sionally in various Greek writers, though it is exemplified by only one 
instance in Liddell and Scott's Lexicon. It is used sometimes with, 
sometimes without, xoXcirov. Arist. Ran. 1 100, xoX^n-ov oZv €pyov diaiptiv, 
A number of instances of cpyoy in this sense and ipytidrfs are to be found 
in the fragments of the Comic poets, Menander, Diphilus, Posidippus, 
ApoUodorus ; for instance, Hpyov — avouiv 4t^€p^ firratrrfjo'tu fiia' cpyoir c'orl 
fjuMpav (TvviJ^ciay — Xvaai' tfpyov tK Xoyov iriim¥ XaPtiP, K.r.X. See the Ind. 
to Meineke's Fragm, Comic, Gr, s. v. Xen. Mem. iv 7. 9, tpyov €?wu cvpciv 
larpov ft.r.X. Plat. Symp. 187 E, fuya tpyov,..Ka\£f xP^^^^t 1^- l^ini. 28 C, 
TOP voirinfv..,tvp(iv t€ tpyov Koi wpoifra, K.r.X. Demostli. de Rhod. Lib. § 34, 
aXX* o<^* oiroifiov Xoyoov — roDr Iffyyov fvp€tv. It occurs more frequently in 
Aristotle, and is, I think, almost confined to the later of the classical 
Greek writers. Arist. Pol. il 7, 1266 ^13, Zpyov yap pfj vtcirtpoiroiovs tlvai 
roits roiovrovff. Ill 1 5? 1 286 a 35» ^'^^^ ^* ^pyov apa iraurav opyitrBrjvfu Koi 
apaprelv. £th. Nic. V 13) II 37 ^ 13) rovro dc irXcov tfpyov (a harder task) 
S ra vyttiva cidcW. lb. c. 3, 1 1 30 /I 8. Topic. E c. 4, 133 ^ 16, c. 5, 
134 a 19, G 3, 159 a Si c* l'» '^' ^ 3^) vkfovot Mpyov htopiv^v. Hist. 
Anim. II 6, ^vrt tpyov tJvai id«i>». lb. VI 20. 7, 30. 2, IX 40. 29, tpyov d* fori 
XaBfOf. tpywbrig occurs, £th. N. I 13, 1 102 a 25, IX 2, sudjinem, c. 7, 11 68 
24, c. 10, 1 171 a 5, and Top. Z i, 13 ^ 9, (pytabiartpov. In Latin we 
have negotium similarly employed, and nullo negotio; and Virgil has 
opus; Hoc opusy hie labor esiy Aen. vi 129. 

onoripip dtao-rtf ai. Bekker in margin of 4ta edition " an dri arl^at }*' 
He (and Spengel) has now returned to the vulgata lectio diao-W^at, sub- 
audi d«i. Gaisford conjectur(:d dct hisurri^ai, 

§ 7. * And further a solecism is made if, in combining (two words) in 
one phrase (and grammatically connected with a third ; as two substs. 
with one verb, or two verbs with a subst), you fail to assign one which is 
equally appropriate to them both (///. and again, a solecism is made, by 
not assigning, that is, if you don't unite in construction with them, i. e. 
with the two verbs or nouns, which are not expressed, one which is 
appropriate to them both : in other words, if you do assign to them a 
third word which is appropriate only to one of them). For instance, to 
see is not common to sound and colour (won't combine with, is not ap- 
propriate to, both) but to perceive is '. 

(ToXotict^fiy] See note on croXoixoi, ii 16. 2 [and Dem. Or. 45 § 30, quoted 
on p. 55]. 

64 • PHT0PIKH2 T 5§;— 6§i- 


dpiioTTeiy olov ri >/ro<^oi/ ri X/^w/ia* to fiev ihu>v ov 
KOLvoVj TO 5' aladoixevo^ koivov* d(ra(j}fi he Kai av fitj 
irpodeh eiTrmj imeWcoi/ iroWa [xera^v e/i/3a\\6ii/, olov 
^* efxeWoi/ yap SiaXex^^i^ eKehta rdSe Kal TaSe kui 
cSSe iropevecdaij^ dWd fxri ^'efieWov yap hiaXex^eh 
TTOpeuecOai, eiTa TaSe Kal TdSe Kal whe eyevero.^ 

€£5 oyKOv Se T^s Xe^evo^ crvixfiaXXerai raSe, to chap. 

im(tvyvvvat, which occurs again c. 6 § 5, and c. 9 § 7, seems to be 
technical in this grammatical application, of * uniting' as it were * under 
a vinculum or bracket* ; iYi^yoke in the Greek fulfilling a similar function 
in uniting two animals, as a bracket, in arithmetic or algebra, unites two 
or more symbols that are placed under it. So that ivi^fvyvvvai is to 
place the firyoy upon the two words, and so bring them together in one 
construction. This solecism, as Ar. rightly calls it, usually passes under 
the respectable name of a figure y grammatical or rhetorical. It is the 
figure C^vyfia or (rvXXi^^ir, the office of which has been already explained. 
It is illustrated at length in the note on i 4.6. 

yfto^ov and xP^f^ ^^e 'governed' by 2^q$i/ following. Why Aristotle 
should have chosen to write Ij the alternative, instead of Kai the copula, 
which he clearly means, no one I suppose can guess. I have taken for 
granted, as Victorius has also done, that he does mean and, and not or, 
and have so translated it. A bad instance of ^cvy/xa is given in note i, 
Introd. p. 295, from the immaculate Isocrates, Paneg. § 80 (koi aarfjpfs 

* It tends to obscurity too (is an offence against, violation of, perspicuity) 
if you intend to introduce a number (of words or details) in the middle 
of a sentence, not to complete the sense first {^npo, before you proceed, 
///. not to put first, that which will remove what would else be the obscu- 
rity). For instance, " I intended, after having talked to him about this 
and that and so and so"— here the details are to be introduced; but 
^these are so long, that before the speaker has come to the end of his 
sentence the hearers have forgotten the beginning — "to start:" instead 
of, " I was about to start after my conversation with him, and then (when) 
this and that and so and so happened.'' This is fiera£vXoyta, interiectio 
^Quint.), or Parenthesis. See Introd. p. 295. 


Of oyroff (swelling), pomp, grandeur, dignity (Auct. ad Heren. IV 13.18, 
dignitas\ of style; most appropriate to Epic poetry: Poet. xxiv. 9, 
ro yap rjpanKov (rrao'ifUdTaTOv Ka\ oyKmbtoraTov tSp fiirpcuv iariv. lb. § 6, 
o Tov noijfiaros oyKos. See Grafenhan's note ad loc. So Dion. Hal. de 
Dinarch. lud. c. 7 (Vol. V. 643, Reiske), rfjg Be Karaa-Ktvrjs to firj rpayucov 
p,rj8€ oyKoibts txV' This is near akin to a-cfivorrj^f on which Hermogenes 
has a chapter, nepl tSf<5v, rofi. a, (Spengel, jRAet Gr. II. 287), arid trtpX 
fr€p.vov \6yov, Trcpi fvpcVcfi>r, rofi, d'. c. II (lb. p. 255), and again ir€pl 
p.tyt6ovs, in the preceding chap. 10, p. 286. So Demetrius writes ircpl 

PHTpPIKHS r6§§i, 2. 65 

Xoyta XP^^^^^ ^^'^^ dvofiaro^f oTov fifj KVKkoVy aW* : 
ewiirehov to eK tov fxeaov tarov. eU Be avpTO/ukiav to 
2 ivavTiovj dvTt tov \6yov ovofxa. KCtl eav aitrxpop fi\ 
dirpeirev eav /xev ev Tta \6ytd ri altrxpov, TQvvofia 

fifyaKoirptirovgf in his frcpl epfjLriv€ias, § 38, seq. (Spengel, RAet Gr, III. 
270 seq.): and Dion. HaL, de D inarch. lud. 3. 7, attributes iKydkonpintta 
to Demosthenes' style. And in these writers oyKos, fitytBot, and dfUitfia 
(dignity) are often associated as characteristics of style. Iii Top. e i, 
155 ^ 22, i) (is oyKov rov Xoyov (one of the four motives for multiplying 
irpoToa-tis), it means nothing more than a device for swelling out^ increasing 
the bulk of, the discourse or argument. 

In the language of Rhetoric we see that tiyKos implies excellence and is 
a virtue of style. In the vulgar usage of common life, when it and its 
derivatives are applied metaphorically, as they often are, it may bear 
either a favourable or an unfavourable interpretation. In the latter case 
the ' pomp ' of style becomes * pomposity *, and the * swelling phrases ' 
turgid and inflated ampullae. And in a moral sense the same notion of 
fastus is attached to it, and it comes to denote vanity, ostentation, arror 
gance, as Plat Meno 90 A, where it is personal, and opposed to Kocfuos. 
In Soph. Oed. CoL 1162, ppa^yp fivOop ovk oyKov nkeap is a short con- 
versation without *bulk', not unnaturally and unreasonably swelled out 
or lengthened. oyKo^flv X^^^i 11^ the same author (Fragm. Inc. ap. 
Stobaeum, No. 679, Dind.) has the same sense in a moral application. 
And so oyKov aipny, Soph. Aj. 129. to oym/pov, Ar. £th. N. IV. 13, sub 
fineniy is again ' inflated \ of mere bulk without solidity, show without sub- 
stance; i. e. morally, 'ostentation', a pretentious air and exterior, assump- 
tion. See Emesti, Lex. Tech, Gr, s. vv. oyKrjpaVf oyfcor, oyKovv, oyKabes. 

§ I. * To dignity, amplification of style, the following things contri- 
bute ; first, the substitution of definition (or detailed description) for the 
(direct, proper) name (of the object) ; to say for example not circle, but 
'^ a plane figure which is in all points equidistant from the centre"'. One 
would have supposed that this was an exemplification rather of the un- 
favourable sense ofZyKos: it also seems opposed to what was said 
c. 5. 3, Tois liiois ovofjuuri Xcyf ti^ Kai y^ roi$ ir(pi€xpvatp I and in fact dignity 
ought not to interfere with perspicuity. The two precepts, however, do 
not in reality contradict one another. The use of abstract, general 
terms, instead of the plain and direct individual names, is a source of 
obscurity : there is no obscurity, but rather the contrary, in setting forth 
the definition of it at length. * For (the purpose of) brevity the contrary 
(is the rule), the proper name, and not the definition'. Both of these 
precepts appear in the Rhet. ad Alex. c. 22 (23) §§ 3 and 5. They are 
probably taken, like the others mentioned in Introd. pp. 437, 438, from 
Isocrates' rixtnj. 

§ 2. *And if (you have to express) anything ugly or foul' (to the eye 
or to the mind and moral sense), ' or unbecoming, if the foulness or 
indecency is in the (conception, explanation, description, i. e.) meaning 
and associations, use the word, if in the word itself, the description'. See 
on alaxpclkoyia, note on c. 2. 1 3, and the distinction there laid down. 

AR. III. 5 

66 PHT0PIKH2 r 6 §§ 3, 4. 

3 A676II/, iau 8' €1/ Tw ovofxan^ top \6yop. Kal fxera^ 
(J}opai9 hjXovp Kal toU eTrideTOiSy evXafiovfievop to 

4 TTOitiTiKOV. Kal TO ep iroXKa Troieip, 6 irep oi TTOifiTai 
woiovo'ip^ ti/os oPTO^ Xi/xipo^ ofjuo^ Xiyovcri 

Xijiiepa^ eU 'A^aiKOv^ 


^eXTOV fiep aiSe TroXvdvpoi Sia7rTVx<^i* 

§ 3. 'And setting forth (representing) things by metaphors and the 
descriptive and ornamental epithets (epithets proper, and any descriptive 
addition to a noun), guarding at the same time against giving them a too 
poetical character'. One of the characteristics of Thucydides is ro iroifjri- 
Khv T&v ovoyAravy according to Dionysius, de Thuc. lud. 24; as likewise 
of Gorgias and his school, who exaggerated this defect so that their prose 
made a near approach to dithyrambics. 

§ 4. ' And to make one many (to put plural for singular) after the 
manner of the poets : they say, though all the while there is only one 
harbour, "to Achaean harbours"'. [Victorius refers to the treatise wepl 
v^V9, 23 § 2 (Spengel, li/ief. Gk l 274), cb*^ oirov irpo<nriirrn ra irXtiBvPTiKti 
lityakopprffiov€aT(paf Koi avr^ do^oKOfiwovvra r^ ^X^^ tov dpiBfwv, which the 
writer illustrates by quoting Soph. Oed. Rex 1403—7, J ydfiot ydyuoi iLrXJ] 

Xifitvat (h *AxaiKovt] There are five instances of Xc/ieWr for a single 
harbour in Euripides, and one in Sophocles, but none of them is 
^Achaean harbours'. Victorius says that he has not been able to 
find the passage. 

'And again, "Here are the many-leaved folds of the tablets**', the 
letter, namely, which Iphigenia was proposing to send by one of the two 
strangers to Orestes at Ai^os. Iph. Taur. 727. 

nMBvpoi] restored (for iroXvBpriPoi) from noXvOijpoi found in one MS, 
describes the many leaves of the tablets : this, which was less usual than 
the simpler form, with only two leaves, shews that it was a hn^ letter. 

On dcXror, comp. Becker's Ch^iricles, p. 162 note [Vol. L p. 285, of 
unabridged German ed.]. Rich's Diet, of Gr, and Rom, Ant, s. v. cera 
p. 144. The leaves of the tablets, which were thin slabs or plates of wood 
coated with wax, were sometimes shaped like doors (a very natural form 
to give them), whence the name ^pa, Pollux IV 18 (ap. Herm. ad Iph. 
'^* 7I5)> ^^ ^ *Attiko\ ypafifjLOTtiov ^iBvpoiT itoX Bvpas rds vrvxas, &xP^ 
dvo* ttra vTvx^fy 'co^ rpirnvx^ 'cal iroKvwntxov. Hesychius, Bvpidtu 'Arrcxol 
r^ff r»y ypafiftdrtov fnvxf^h '^ ^iBvpov \eyav<riP, oH rplBvpov^ oKKa rplmikov 
[rpiim)xovl!\ Paley, ad loc, well compares the hikros with its wooden 
leaves to 'the modem ivory memorandum-book'. Becker, u.s., observes 
that ' these wax tablets were only used for letters^ and matters of no 
permanent moment'. They could be fastened with a string and sealed, 
Paley on Iph. Aul. 37. 

^umrvxf'^ is interpreted by the Lexicons as equivalent to irrvxa^ and 
ineaning 'folds'— not of course, though the difference is not stated, 
folded like a modem letter, of paper, which this explanation sug- 

PHTOPIKHS r 6^S>6' 67 

5 Kai ixri iTTi^evypvpaij aW iKarepta eKarepop^ ** t^s 
yvvaiKos rtj^ fifjL€T€ptz^'^^ eav Ze <ri;i/TO/xftis, Tovvavriov 

6 " T^9 nfieTepa^ yvvaiKos.^^ Kai fiera avvhea-fiov \€- 
^eiv* lap he arvPTOfna^f dpev fiep avpZeaiiovy fitj darvP" 
deTa Se, oJop wopevdeh Kai ZiaXe'xdei^y wopevSeh 

gests, but in another sense of irrvx^ or wrv^, *a leaf, layer, slab, 
or plate'. It is repeated in line 793, ypafA/Lun-eoy Hiairrvxaf. The Com- 
mentators, who are totally silent oif the subject, appear to take the 
same view. As it seems necessary to assign some meaning to the dia,. 
we may suppose that it expresses the division of the leaves, whether two 
or more ; but in the latter case, derived from the primary division into 
two, Hermann and Paley have both noticed, what is sufficiently appa- 
rent, that Aristotle here has mistaken Euripides' meaning. It is quite 
plain from the epithet iro\v$vpoi, that the plural is to be understood lite- 
rally of the several leaves of the tablets. If Euripides had written htkroi 
he would have used the licence ascribed to him by Aristotle. 

§ 5. *And not to combine (two cases with one article, Victorius: t^j »;/*«- 
ripa^ yvvaiKos), but to assign or attach (anoMovai or frpooTt^cMu, under- 
stand airo Koantv, or by C^vyna, from imCtvyvvpai) each to either (an article 
in either instance to either case) t^s yvvaucbs rrjt ijfKTfpas, '* that wife of 
ours'". But if conciseness be the object (if you would express yourself 
concisely), the contrary, r^s iJftcVfpar yvmiKos, * our wife.' 

§6. 'And to use (as a rule) in speaking (and Avriting) conjunctions 
and other connectives ; or, for conciseness, to write without connectives, 
but not without connexion : as either nopevBtU mu BtakexOfis, or iropcv^ctr 
difXc^^y'. It is impossible to translate this into English^ so as to shew 
the difference in the two Greek phrases, because the approved transla- 
tion of the second is to convert the participle, which we seldom use 
in this connexion, into a finite verb connected by a copula with the 
verb succeeding: so that in our language the two expressions become 

d<rvpdcroff Xoyor is composition in which the conjunctions and other 
connecting particles, especially the copula, are omitted ; and therefore 
more or less loose, unconnected, incoherent. Ernesti, Lex. Tecbn. Gr. 
p. 45. It is to be observed that as connecting particles occur much more 
frequently in Greek than in our own language, the want of them, which 
constitutes asyndeton^ would be much more disagreeable to the Greeks 
than to us, and would give the composition the appearance of being both 
naked and disjointed. Consequently the general rule (which is stated here) 
is to avoid it : but in special cases, where the aim is to give emphasis and 
vigour, rapidity and conciseness to a narrative, it may often be used with 
advantage, as the examples will shew. Demetrius ntpl cp/ii^ycuir, § 192, 
TO dc dcrvydcroy xoi dioXcXv/icvov okov aa'a<l>€S irav, 

dtrvvdfTov is defined alike in several of the later Greek rhetoricians, 
Hermogenes, irrpl luBohov beivartfTos, 1 1, Phoebammon, Tiberius, Hero- 
dian, Zonaeus and others, as the ^omission of avvbttrfioi*; and all alike 
exemplify it by the omission of koI, which is no doubt the most frequent 

s— 2 

68 - PHT0PIKH2 r 6^7. 

7 ZieXlxB^v. Kdl tS ^ApTifiaxov XP^^^I^^^^ ^^ ^^ M^ ^- '4' 
e-xei XeyeiVy o eKeivo^ iroiei iiri tov TevjjLrjo'a'OVy 

eoTTi Ti^ riv€fi6ei^ dA/709 \6(po^* 

case. Compi Cic. Orat xxxix 135, who speaks of it as one of the ora- 
tionis lumina et quodammodo insignia^ quum demptis coniuftctionibus 
dissolute plura dicuntur. Quint. IX 3. 50, figuram^ quae quia coniunC' 
Honibus caret dissolutio vacatur j apta quum quid itistantius dicimus; 
. nam et singula inculcantur et quasi plura fiunt^ seq. Confer omnino 
Dem. PhiL r 118, § 27, Ibid. p. 130 § 130, rovt b* aWovt^'EXKfivas (rvyKa- 
Xcip avvay€iv didaa'K€iv vovOffdv, The speeches of Lysias against Era- 
tosthenes and Andocides both conclude with an asyndeton of this kind. 
The former ends thus : n-avo-o/xai KoniyopSp, djci^Koarc, etipoKartf ntirop- 
6aT€' €xcre, dixa^crc : which Aristotle quotes Rhet III 19.6, at the end of 
the work ; and of course wrongly. See also ill 12. 2 and 4, where a simi- 
lar example is given ; not to omit Cicero's, adiit ercessit, evasit, erupit 
[in Catilinam ll § \\ Demetrius vrcpi ipfjLiivdas, § 194 (Spengel, RAet, Gr» ill 
304), on dc yiroKpiTiKop 17 \vm$ irapddfiyfia ^yKtitrBoi rode* ibt^apaiv^ microv^ 
.Ztp€<I)ov, ^(^ff, ic.r.X. 

The meaning of § 6 is this. If you wish to add pomp and dig- 
nity to your style, as in an ordinary narrative, employ conjunctions — 
Victorius refers this to the so-called figure |y dia dvotv, hendiadys^ paten's 
libamus et auro, in brevia et Syrtes, molemque et monies insuper altos 
imposuity from Virgil's Georg. and Aen. — Or, if you don't employ con- 
junctions, at any rate don't break the connexion between the parts of the 
sentence ; if on the other hand (as he implies elsewhere) you want to be 
concise or g^ve vigour and animation to your language, asyndeton will 
often do it. 

§ 7. 'And the (practice) of Antimachus is useful (for this purpose), 
to draw the materials of a description from the attributes, (qualities, vir- 
tues, excellences,) which (the thing described) has not^ as he does in the 
case of Teumessus, "There is a windy low hill"; for in that way the 
amplification may be carried to infinity'. This is a quotation from 
^Antimachus' Thebais, the expedition of Adrastus and his six Argive 
companions against Thebes, the iirra cVl Bi^fias, In this he had occa- 
sion to mention Teumessus, " a village of Boeotia in the plain of Thebes, 
standing upon a low rocky hill of the same name". Launching out^ as 
his manner was, into an episodical encomium of this little hill, he ex- 
pended many verses upon it lUa voKKSp ivap, '' enumerating all the 
virtues that did not belong to it". Strabo, ix. 2, Boeotia, p. 409. 
Strabo, like Aristotle, only quotes these five words, adding, as a reason 
for breaking off there, yw»pifia b€ ra cmj. This same poem is referred to 
by Horace, A. P. 146, Nee reditum Diomedis ah interitu Meleagri; a 
narrative of Diomedes' fortune and return seems to have been interwoven 
with the main subject of. the poem. Diintzer, Epic, Gr, Fragm, p. 99, 
(The fragments of Antimachus are collected by Diintzer in this volume, 
p. 99 seq. and Nachtrag pp. 38 — ^43.) 

The Scholiast Porphyrion, on the verse of Horace, says, Antimachus 
fuit cyclicus poeta : hie adgressus est materiam^ quam sic extendit ui 

tHTOPIKHS r 6§7. 69 

av^eTcci yap oc/rws hU arreipov. ecri Se tovto kuI ewi 
dyadwv Kai KUKwPy 07rft)9 ovk e^^h OTTOTcpta^ au ti 
Xpno'ifiov. bdev Kol Ta opofiUTa 01 iroif]Tal (pipovcLy p. m, 

viginti quattuor volumina (i. e. books) impieverit antequam septem 
duces usque ad Thebas perducereL On the connexion of the two stories, 
see Welcker Ep, Cyclus, p. 163 ; also quoted by Orelli ad loc. Anti- 
machus was an elder contemporary of Plato. The occasion of their 
meeting is related by Plutarch, Lysand. 18, and differently by Cicero, 
Brutus 51 § 191, Antimachum^ Clarium poetam^,,,qui quum convocatis 
audiioribus legeret eis magnum illud quod novistis volumen suum (the 
Thebais), et eum legentem omnes praeter Platonem reliquissenty Legam^ 
inquif, tuhilominus : Plato enim mihi unus instar est omnium millium, 
(Welcker pronounces both forms of the story unworthy of credit) In 
magnum Cicero no doubt refers not to the merit or celebrity, but to 
the bulk of the poem. His style is spoken of by Dionysius de Comp. 
Verb. c. 22 (v. 150, ed. Reiske), together with that of Empedocles, Pindar, 
Aeschylus, Thucydides and Antiphon, as belonging to the aJcmyp^ 
Xc^if, already described. To class him with these authors may seem 
to imply approbation. Quintilian, x i. 53, in a comparison of the Epic 
poets, places him next to — though far below — Homer. Contra in Anti" 
macho vis et gravitas et minime vulgare eloquendi genus (this agrees 
with Dionysius) habet laudem. Sed quamvis et secundas fere gramma-- 
ticorum (of Alexandria) consensus deferatj et affectibus et iucunditate et 
dispositione et omnino arte deficitur, ut plane manifesto appareat quanta 
sit aliud proximum esse^ aliud secundum : (so Horace of Jupiter, nee 
viget quicquam simile aut secundum; proximos ill! tamen occupcpvit 
Pallas honores). He is called by some authors Clarian, by others Colo* 
phonian. Claros was a small town near Colophon, a colony and de- 
pendency of it. Most probably Claros was his birthplace, for which 
the more important and neighbouring mother-city was substituted. See 
further on Antimachus in Schrader and Buhle's notes ; and on Teu- 
messus, Valken. ad Phoen. 1 107. 

[f f COP /i^ €Xf c. This device of description by a series of negations may 
be exemplified by Homer's Odyss. vi 43, (Olympus) ovr dv€fioi(ri rtvdo-cre- 
rat o{jT€ freer ofifipt^ devcrai ovrc x^^^ iiriTTikvarcu (and Lucr. III. i8). 
There are some striking instances in an expanded Anglo-Saxon para- 
phrase by Cynewulf of Lactantius' poem de Phoenice, And there nor rain ' 
nor snow, nor breath of frosty Nor blast offire, nor rush of rattling hail. 
Nor fall of rime nor scorching heat of sun. Nor lasting cold nor drought 
nor winter-shower.., {^Yds translation is due to the Rev. W. W. Skeat).] 

* This mode of treatment, that the things are not there, (or that the 
object of praise or censure has them not,) may be applied to things 
either good or bad (to bad things in a panegyric, to good as virtues, 
accomplishments, merits of all kinds, in a censure or invective), in which- 
ever of the two ways it may be serviceable (or, whichever of the two the 
occasion may require). Hence (from the absence of a certain quality or 
attribute) the poets also derive their epithets (3i/ofia here stands for an 
adjective : see Introd. Appendix A to Bk. in on ovoiiara and p^fiara) 

70 PHTOPIKH2 T 6§7. 

TO axop^ov Kai to oKvpov fxeXo^* eK rtiv (rrepYiG'euiv 
yap einfpepovG'iv* eihoKifxei yap tovto ev Tats fUTa* 
(popaT^ Xeyofxevov Tal^ dvdXoyov, olov to ^ai^ai Ttjv 
adXiriyya ehai fxeXo^ oKvpov. 

such as a stringless or lyreless music ' — ^music, but without the ordinary 
accompaniment or instrument, the strings of the lyre, or the lyre itself : 
applied to the sound of the «//«//-instrument, the trumpet — 'for they 
apply privative epithets ; this being popular when expressed in the meta- 
phors of proportion, as when the (sound or music of the) trumpet is 
called a lyreless music'. 

cK reSv trr(prfa'(av.:iirt<l>€pov<nv'] lit. they attach epithets borrowed or 
derived from privations : m-fpria-ts and €^s being one of the four forms 
of opposition : Categ. c. lo, 1 1 ^ 17 and 12 a 26 seq. 

fierdifiopaif. . .rour dvdkoyov] avcikoyov in this combination seems to be 
used adverbially ; comp. sufira c. 4 §§ 3, 4, r^y ii€Ta<l>opaif r^v fV rov aniXoyoy, 
in/ra c. 7 § 10, rots dvoKoyoy, On the proportional metaphor, the best 
of all the four kinds, I have already referred (on lii 4. 4) to the Introd. 
pp. 290 — 292. See also Appendix B Bk. in on Metaphor, where this is 
fully explained. 

Comp. with this section Poet. XXI 159 16 tart dc rf rpow^ rouroi r^s fura' 
ffiopas (the proportional, to wit) XPW^^^ '^^^ aAX«>f, 7rpo<rayoptv(rairra to 
dWoTptov aTTOififjaai rmv oIk€ici>v ri, oiov ci rfju d<nrida tlnoi (^ioXijy 1^117 *A/ico»ff 
dXK* &01VOV (Victorius' etnendatio palmaria for the vulgata lectio aXX* otvov). 

I transcribe Twining's excellent note on this passage, which well illus- 
trates our present subject. Note 1 89, p. 446. " Metaphors from their nature 
are in danger of being obscure or forced, though it is essential to their 
beauty and effect thait they should be clear and apposite. For this 
purpose a metaphor may be guarded in various ways. If the simple 
substitution of the improper for the proper term would be obscure or 
harsh, the metaphor may be converted into an image or comparison 
(referring to Demetrius, n-fpi ipp.i\vtlat § 80) ; it may be used analogically^ 
and we may say ff>iaKfi''Apf<os or ^cdXi; aotpos ; or if that be not sufficient 
for perspicuity — that is, if the meaning be not sufficiently pointed out 
by the manner or circumstances in which the expression is introduced — 
we may join these (<^uiXf; "Ape^s aoivos), or even add to either of them 
the proper word itself. There is a fine instance of this negative mode 
of explaining a metaphor in Isaiah li. 21, 'Thou drunken, but not with 
wine,* The same end is often answered by an epithet affirming of 
the thing expressed some quality of the thing signified j thus ships are 
floating bulwarks [Mason's Ode to the Naval Officers], and the lyre 
a chorded shelly where Dryden [Song for St Cecilia's Day, line 17, Jubal 
struck the chorded shell^ has made the same use of the affirmative 
epithet chorded that Theognis did of the negative Hx^pdog in his meta- 
phorical expression for a bow, <l>6pfuy( dxopdos (comp. Rhet ill 11. 11, 
and Demetr. ircpl ipfoiv^ias § 85, quoted in Introd. p. 297). Sometimes the 
explanatory epithet is itself a metaphor ; as in the vrtpmroU ipiuun 
(I ph. Aul. 251) of Euripides, 'winged chariots'. Here we have a double 
metaphor : chariot for ship^ and wing for ja/7." 

PHTOPIKHS r 7 §§ I, 2. 71 

I TO Se TTpeTTOP €^€l ij X6^«9, idu p WadtlTlKti T£ Kal CHAP. VII. 

2 ^'^CKij Kai TOis viroKeifjuevoi^ irpdyixa<riv dvoKoyov. to 

*Ije then concludes with four examples of these privative explanatory 
epithets from the Greek Tragedians, which I have already quoted with 
some others in the Introduction p. 297, in the note on this passage of 
the Rhetoric. Add to these Cephisodotus' 'parti- coloured millstones', 
livktivas TToiKiXovf, III 10. 7, by which he meant to represent the ' crushing' 
properties of the Athenian 'triremes' in devastating the coasts and 
islands and exacting tribute. These differ from millstones in having 
their sides gaily painted in various colours, iimpos ^onr, Aesch. Agam. 
267 (contrasted with tfnta nrfpotyra)^ Hirrfpos opvtfj Eur. Iph. Taur. 1095. 
[Eur. Phoen. 791 ("Aptisi) Kofiov dvavKararow irpoxop€V€ity 808 ^ffnyyos 
aiunxrardraun avv ^datt, Here. Fur. 879, 891, 892. Similarly the Italian 
poet, Guarini, called birds 'winged lyres \] 

It remains to notice ii^t proportion of the metaphor, which, according 
to Victorius, is Trumpet : sound of trumpet (anonymous) :: lyre : /tcXor, 
the music of the lyre (properly so called). To qualify the harshness, 
throw light on the obscurity, of this improper application of the word 
/icXoff, the epithet akvpov " not that of the lyre" is added. 

One more remark on privative epithet, which has not been pointed 
out They have two uses, the one to qualify^ the other to coutradict^ the 
substantive they are joined with. In the latter case they are not meta- 
phors at all. This is what is called the figure oxymoron^ which combines 
in one expression two contradictory notions of which the one denies the 
other : ix^ptiy a^pa d£pa (Aj. 655), an enemy's gifts are no gifts at all ; 
Xopit axapi£ "graceless graced", or ''thankless favour" ; /ii^n/p dft^mpy Soph* 
£1. 1 1 54; yofAos &yaiios^ Oed. T. 12 14; doiKOP tttrpiicria'iPf PhiL 534; (jirvos 
dvfTvos lb. 848 ; pios dfilwo£ or dpioros (Eur. Hipp. 821, 867), insanUns 
sapieniia^ strenua inertia, 


On the general subject, and the connexion of the several parts of this 
Chapter on Propriety^ see the Introduction, pp. 297 — ^303, where they 
are treated in fulL 

The passages of Cicero and Quintilian in which the same subject is 
dealt with are referred to in p. 298 : and p. 299 has a note (i), with 
various references on ^6ot and iro^o^ in style* 

% I. ' Style will have propriety, if it be made to express feeling (the 
various emotions) and character, and be proportionate to the subject- 
matter'. The perverse transition from the feminine to the abstract neuter 
dvakoyw (sc. irpay^ia, as in t9^te lupus stabulis et sim.) is characteristic Of 
Aristotle's carelessness in writing. Perhaps, however, it may be used ad- 
verbially as in c. 6 § 7 (see note). 

§ 2. ' This proportion consists in a style of composition (Xeyiyrai of 
speaking and writing) such as is neither off-hand (i. e. careless and slo- 
venly, awrotmff^oKot is ' extemporaneous') on a dignified, nor stately on a 
slight and mean (lit. cheap\ subject, and has no ornamental epithets 
(cii^ refers to iniBtra) attached to mean words ; otherwise, it (the compo- 
sition) has the appearance of mere comedy (i. e. laughable ; its subject 


12 ^ PHT0PIKH2 r 7 § 2. 

V avaKxy^ov iimv kav fjn^re Trepl emyKwv dvTOKafiia^ 
Xtas Xeyfirai fx^re irepl evTeXviv cr€)ui/£»9, fivi^ inrl TtS 
cr;T€\6r oPOfiaTi ifrfj Koafio^^ €i ?^ /xif, KiafnaSia ^al- 
ls TO ycXotoy : Poet. V. i, 2), like Qeophon's poetry {tragic poetry: he was 
a tragedian) : for some things that he wrote (said) were like saying (like 
as though one were to say), " Lady fig", or "august ^%^^\ 

On propriety in this sense, the adaptation of language to the subject 
or matter of the speech, spoken or written, comp. Hon Ars Poet 86 seq., 
Cic. de Or. iii 55. 212, ut figurant orationis,.,ad id quod agemus accom- 
modatam deligamus, seq. Orator xxi 70, seq. Quam itiim indecomm 
est de stilicidiis quum apud unum iudicem dicas^ amplissimis verbis et 
locis uti communibus^ de maiestaie populi Romani summisse et subtiliteri 
§ 72. Quint. VIII 3. w^niud observatione dignius^ quod hie ipse hones- 
tus omatus pro maieriae genere decet variatus^ et seq. Clara ilia atque 
sublimia plerumque materiae modo cernenda. Quod alibi tnagnificum^ 
tumidum alibi. Et quae humilia circa res magnas^ apta circa minores 
videntur, § 18. 

€voyico>v] here refers to the ^ynor or dignity of style, as applied in 
c. 6. 1. Elsewhere, as Meteor. IV 2. 6, it is to be interpreted literally of 
bulk or size f " of a good or fair bulk": ^voyKortpov Koiiraxyrtpow are there 
equivalent to a preceding nax^rtpa. Similarly Eur. Syleus, FragnL 2 sq. 
.-{Dind.), vpoo'xi^yM a-tfivhs kov raw€iv6g, ovd* Syap ttloyKos (bulky) : this is 
said of Hercules, whom Mercury is selling to Syleus, and like an auc- 
tioneer, setting forth all his excellences : several more examples are to be 
jfound in Rost and Palm's Lex. The ordinary meaning of the word 
seems to be 'of fair, or reasonable, sixe'. 

avroKo/SdoXttf] extempore, recurs as an adj. avroKafibciKa III 14. Ii sub 
fin. cap. It is said to be derived from Kafios (ill-kneaded meal or dough, 
(Hebr. JCab, translated ko^os in LXX ; Rost and Palm's Lex, s. v. tcAfios). 
The avTo is ' selP, as in avroTroii/roff, avrofJLorog, avrcyvi^fimvy avSaHrjg, et 
isim. Comp. avroa-xeiiaari 'extempore', avroo'xf^taa'na 'an impromptu', 
Poet. IV 7, avrocrx^dcaoTiiei;, of tragedy and comedy in their infancy, 
whilst still 'extemporaneous*, ib. § 14. avroxo^doXoi — Semus of Delos^ 
ap. Athen. xiv 16, 622 B — improvisatori, Rost and Palm's Lex. inter- 
prets this eine art possenreisser aus dent stegreif, and Liddell and Scott 
sim. buffoonsy buffo-actors. But Athenaeus says of them trxsdtjv Mpcuvov 
pijo-riff, which is exactly equivalent to avrtirx^^'^iov. So ox^dta is 'a 
raft', a vessel extemporised, constructed on the spur of the moment to 
meet a sudden occasion. And the whole family of these words seems to 
derive the notion of hasty, off-hand, unpremeditated, unartistic, action or 
composition, which distinguishes them, fi'om tx^iv (tf<rxov, trx^uf) or 
rather tx^odai, in the sense of seizing or grasping the first materials that 
come to hand for a sudden and unforeseen emergency. 

avro«ra0daX»v in Lucian, Lexiph. § 10 (ed. Hemsterh. ll 336), is inter- 
preted, quifarinam ipsi sibi subigunt : with the note, a&roKafibaKov Sk^v- 
pov, ro e»r crv;^€ ifivpaBiv. Spengel reads avroKifiiriKov (apparently a vox 
nihili — ^at all events a oiraf Xryo/icvoy, and without meaning here) from 
MS A«.(A). [" Victorius primus avroKofi^oKiAs scripsit.'* Spengel]. 

PHTOPJKHlS r 7 §§ 2, 3. 73 

i/€Ta«, oiov TTOici KXeoipwp* 6iJtoi(o^ yap evia eXeye 

icflfx ec eiireiep \av\ ^^ ttotuiu avKt}. TrautiriKti be, eap. 

3 fJieu 5 vfipi^9 opyi^ofievov Ae^*9," cai/ Se d(rel3fj Kai 

ala-xpdf ^vax^p^ii^ovros Kai evXa/Sovfievov Kai Xeyeiv^ 

^ &r sine unctnis, 

Mciios] This is mentioned as one of the kinds (ft^rj) of poetical and 
ornamental words ^ with yXcSrra and fi€Ta4>opdf Poet. XXII 7, and again 
§ 19, as an ovofuiy ^<m dc ra roiavTa ro Kvpiov jcal fi€Ta<f>opa koi Kovfiot, It 
is therefore a poetical or ornamental word, wnav d< fSyo/xa c'oriv $ icvpiov 
^7 yXcSrra $ ft€Ta(f>opa fj Kotriiog fj nttroififiivov icr.X., eight in all. Poet. XXI 
4. All these are defined seriatim except Koa-fios, Twining, in his note on 
§ 1 7, argues from this that Aristotle could not have intentionally omitted 
this alone, and that the explanation of Koa-fios is one of the many lacunae 
which had to be supplied in Aristotle's MSS, one of the dtappafuna — the 
moth- and worm-eaten passages, as Strabo calls them in his celebrated 
account of the transmission of Aristotle's manuscripts (xili. i). In the 
Paris MS, indeed, there is a mark of omission which Buhle and Hermann 
have indicated in their editions. He understands Koanos to signify 
'*such an epithet as embellishes or elevates the thing to which it is 
applied.** Though he quotes this passage of the Rhetoric, he does not 
notice that cVJ here applied to it proves that the kind oi. ornament 
intended by Koafios is an ornamental epithet See also Grafenhan, on 
Poet. XXI 17, p. 159 and on xxiv 9, p. 189, where roif tmBtrois Koafxou is 
quoted from Dionysius de admirabili vi dicendi in Demosthene c. l^ 
(vi 955. 12, ed. Reiske) and again, de Thuc. lud. c 23, p. 864. 2. 

KXco^cdv] *Adrjv(iios rpayiKos* r&v hpaparav avrov ^AxTaimv, 'AfK^mpaor, 
*AxiXXcvf, BoKxcUf ^€$o.fjLgy6s, 'Hpiyoin;, Qvearris, AiVKimrof, Utpaitj Ti/Xc^s'y 
Suidas. He is omitted in Wagner's collection, Fragm, Trag, Gr, vol. Iii. 
We learn from Poet. ll 5, that his subjects and characters were neither 
above nor below the level of ordinary, every-day, life and character. 
To the same effect it is stated in Poet, xxil i, that his style was low 
or humble, roirciinf, and devoid of all poetical ornament. Grafenhan, 
ad loc. II 5. Id. ad Poet, xxii i, '^ qui humili dictione imitabatur vulgares 

To Suidas' list of 10 tragedies must be added the Map^pofiovkof, de 
Soph. £L 15, 174 ^ 27y olov 6 KXco<^fl0i» vroifi ev r^ MavdpojSovXo, where it 
is quoted in illustration of a mode of argument 

tt ttir€itp &v] That ^v, which Bekker puts in brackets, may be retained 
and justified with tl and the optative, will be seen by referring to the Ap^ 
pendix (D) on c{ dvpoir &p II 20. 5 [Vol. 11 p. 336]. 

irorvia] the feminine of wotrig and d€a-ircT'tit, is a female title of 
honour, equivalent to dtantuva^ implying reverence and high station, 
'august'. It is best rendered by 'Lady'. It > has two forms, frorvca and 
9f oTva — oalof worva ^€<Sv, Eur. Bacch. 370— >and in both the a is short, and 
can therefore be elided. There is a good article on the word in Liddell 
and Scott's Lex. which will supply further information. 

§ 3. 'Emotion is expres^ed^if insult (wanton outrage) (be what yoU 

74 PHTOPIKH2 r 7 §§ 3, 4- 

iap Se hraiveTdy dyafuvta^j idp Be eXeeivd^ TaireipmSj 

4 Kal eirl rtav aSXwv Be ofiom^. Tridapoi Se to irpayfiu 

Kal ri oiKela Ac^tsv m'apaXoyi^eTM yap ij ^vxn ^^ 

are describing), by the language of one in anger; if impiety or anything 
foul or base, by that of indignation and reluctance (hesitat'on) even to 
name (or mention) it ; what is praiseworthy, by that of admiration ; what 
is pitiable, in a low tone and language, and so on for the rest in like 
manner'. With dyafitvms and rantivws supply Xcyovror. [For aaififj koi 
alaxpa K.r.X., compare Dem. Or. 54 (irora K^vwvos) § 9, xai ra ficv SXXa kcu 
p\aaxl>rjfuaif e^ci rtpa, koi ovofiadtiv oKvriaraifi av iv vfutf &<a.] 

dyofjLfwos] as in Plat. Phaedo 89 A, * approvingly, admiringly, with 
admiration', wr ijdettp jcol tvfuvas koi oya/icvoff tȴ vtapiCKov top Xoyov 
oircdcforo. The word is rare, and the meaning here has been doubted. 
Victorius, cum laetitia^ 'with delight or exultation'. Ruhnken ad Tim. 
'p. 9, omnibus perpensis^ inclines to the opinion that in Aristotle (that is, 
here: in Plato, it has the other meaning,) it signifies admirabiliter^ mag- 
nificej 'admirably, so as to be admired'; which seems to me the least 
likely of the three. 

raircimSff] seems to combine Horace's dolet sermone pedestri {k, P. 95) 
of the language, with Cicero's sumtmssa voce [Orator § 56] of the tone of 
voice: a low tone in expressing pity is appropriate to both. 

§ 4. 'This appropriate language (proper or peculiar to the emotion 
to be represented) also gives a plausible air to the facts (or statements 
under consideration) : for the mind draws a false inference to the truth 
of the speaker (the reality of his emotion, and hence to the truth of his 
statements), because every one under similar circumstances feels the 
same — so that they (the audience) are led to think, even though the fact 
is really not so, that the things (the facts of the case, the things under 
consideration) are as the speaker represents them {amh tx^w ^viy Buhle), 
and (besides this) the listener always has a fellow-feeling with one who 
speaks with emotion, even though what he says is naught (worthless; 
proves nothing)'. 

otKcia] comp. infra § 7, ovSfnara otxcta t^ c^cc. 

wapdkoyiCerai ic.r.X.] The fallacy is this. A speaker puts himself into a 
passion in describing some atrocity imputed to his opponent, assuming the 
tone of anger or virtuous indignation, which would naturally be provoked 
by the act as described. People always sympathize with the expression of 
emotion, and the audience, knowing what it is to be angry themselves, and 
perceiving by reference to their own experience the 'appropriateness' of the 
language, tone, and gestures, to the true expression of the passion, draw 
from this the fallacious inference that the speaker must be in earnest, as 
they were when they were similarly affected, and therefore that the facts 
that he states must be true : arguing from the truth of the delineation to 
the truth of the fact stated. 

The logic of the fallacy-is explained in de Soph. £1. c. 5, 167 b i seq. 
It proceeds from the false assumption, in antecedent and consequent, 
that they are reciprocally convertible : that if a consequent always follows 
an antecedent the converse is likewise true, and that the consequent in- 

PHT0PIKH2 r 7 §§4— 6. 75 

dXfjOiSs XeyovTa^y on irri roT^ TOtovTOi^ ovtw^ ^xov* 
KTiv iooTT oiovTai [cl Kal fxri ovTw^ ^X^'* ^^ ^ \iypoif] 
Ta TTpdyjULaTa oi/rcos 6;^€£i/, Kal avpofioiOTradei 6 ukov" 

5 (ov del T<S wadriTiKiSs Xeyovriy Koiv fxtiQev \eytj. ho 

TToWol KaTUTtX^TTOVO'l T0V9 aKpOUTCt^ dopV^OVVTe^. 

6 Kal ijdiKri Se avrrj tj €K tcoj/ (rtjfAeicov Sel^i?, oti aKOr 
\ov6eT tj dpfxoTTOvcra eKao'Tto yevei Kal e^ei. Xiyto 

variably implies the antecedent as well as the antecedent the consequent. 
Here, the language &c. used is the ordinary sign of the emotion repre- 
sented, as they themselves know from their own experience ; and does 
usually arise in men as a consequence of such facts as those alleged : the 
antecedent is then falsely inferred * reciprocally* from the ordinary, but not 
necessary or universal, consequent. This may be otherwise represented 
as a confusion between the aijfif'iov, the usual and ordinary, and the 
T€KfuipMv, the universal and necessary, accompaniment of something 
thereby signified. Comp. Poet, xxiv i8, coTi di tovto irapakoyia-fiog* 
oiovTcu yap av^pofrot, orav rovSi Smros roSi y t\ yivofjJpov yimfrai, el t6 
varfpav f'orc, «cal to vpmpov ciMU tj ytP€<rBai* rovro d* ttrri ^tvdos. And 
with the language of our text, infra TrapaKayiCertu i^pMV ij ^vx»;. Twining 
in his note on the passage of the Poet., at the end of n. 222, p. 488 
[11 p. 352, ed. 2], has quoted and translated this sentence of the Rhetoric. 

§ 5. 'And this is the reason why many (speakers) try to stun 
(overwhelm, confound) their hearers with the clamour that they raise*. The 
speaker carries, that is, his delvaa-ts or exaggeration even to the excess of 
mere empty noise and clamour, thinking thereby to produce a deeper im- 
pression upon the audience, who will suppose that the depth and 
sincerity of his feeling are in proportion to the noise he makes. The 
dio is, because the listener always sympathizes with the language and 
raised tone of passion ; the more violent the expression of it, the more 
he is likely to be affected. Thuc. Vii 42 has KaTcnrXrj^is to describe 
the 'consternation', abattement de coeur, of the Syracusans at the arrival 
of Demosthenes and Eurymedon. 

§ 6. 'And this mode of proof arising out of (external) signs (exhibited 
in language, tone, and action) may be invested also with an ethical 
character, in that (in so far as) that which is appropriate (i. e. the appro- 
priate language, &c.) to each class and moral state (i. e. character, ^Qog ; 
the sum of the moral states and habits which characterizes the indi- 
vidual) is attendant upon each of them'. The datives yivti and c^ei 
seem to belong equally to clkqKwBu, and dpfAorrovatu Compare, with 
what is said here of €$i,s and ^6of, ill 16. 9. 

In the Introduction, p. 108 foil., on tlBos, I have endeavoured to shew 
(against Spengel) that there are three kinds of ^^ distinguished by 
Aristotle in the Rhetoric ; (i) the ^Oog iv r^ Xcyoirc, the personal cha- 
racter exhibited by the speaker himself, serving as a kind of proof of 
his sincerity, competency, and good will ; (2) the characters of certain 

^6 PHT0P1KH2 r 7 §§ 6, 7. 

^€ yepo£ fJL€P Kaff tjXiKiaPy oiov TraTs i; dpfjp #/ yepwv, Kai 
yvpti ti dvripy Kai AaKWP fi OerraXo^y ^^^fs Se, Kaff 
as TTOios T«9 Tfti jStfti* ov yap Kaff aTrao'ap e^ip oi /3ioL 
7 TTOioi Tii/69. iap ovp Kai Tci opofxara oiKeia \eyij 
rr^ e^ei, iroirio'ei to ^6os* ov yap TavTct oi/S' wa'avrta^ 

ages and classes, with which the speaker must be previously acquainted, 
<in order to acconunodate his general tone, and the opinions he expresses, 
to the tastes and dispositions of his audience, their political sentiments 
and such like : as for instance an audience of rich and poor, young and 
old, aristocratic and democratical, must be addressed each in a different 
tone and with different language, suitable to their several opinions and 
prejudices ; and (3) what I have called the dramatic characters, which 
are treated only in the third book as belonging to style, and are still 
more important, and occupy a larger share of attention in poetry (espe- 
cially dramatic poetry) — and therefore in the Poetics XV — ^than in the prose 
of Rhetoric. These consist in the accurate representation of personal 
'character, as described by Horace, A. P. 114 seq. See also the 
instances given in the parallel passage, III 16.9, above referred to. 
This is what is now called 'keeping', and seems to me to be totally 
distinct from the second, which refers to classes; although the two have 
some points in common. The principal differences between them are 
that the latter describes personal peculiarities^ and is an ingredient of 
propriety of style: and the two are therefore treated in different parts 
of the work. The dramatic ^Bot^ morata oratio^ does however in some 
inferior degree assist the argumenty as Aristotle has just told us, and is 
a kind of dcif if ; it conveys a favourable impression of the accuracy of 
the speaker, and the truth of his description. 

'By class I mean (according to age, different ages) the various 
ages of life, youth, manhood, old age ; and (sexes) woman or man, and 
(natives of different countries) Lacedaemonian or Thessalian ; and by 
states (moral states) those by which the character (or quality) of a 
man's life is determined: for it is not every kind of state that determines 
the character of men's lives'. ''Efts, an acquired, developed, permanent, 
habit, is a general term (opposed to didBetris an incomplete and pro- 
gressive state, Categ.) and applicable to various states in men and things, 
physical as well as intellectual and moral. It is only the last two that 
determine the ^Bos. 

§ 7. 'If therefore (the speaker) use the words (language) also appro- 
priate' (o^xciof, domestic: hence properly belonging to, things of one's 
own : hence special, appropriate, &c) ' to the (given) state, he will pro- 
duce this character (i. e. convey it to his speech) : for the clown' (rustic, 
boor: oypoijcor, country-bred, opposed to aoTctbr, city-bred, polished, as 
urbanus to rusticus) 'would not use the same language nor in the same 
way {sc. the same tone, pronunciation, action), as the educated gentle- 
man'. These are the two c^cir of rvr/iaircXia 'easy, well-bred pleasantry' 
and its opposite aypoixta, 'rusticity, boorishness' ; the contrasted 'con- 
versational virtue and vice ', of Eth. Nic. il 7, and iv 14. Comp. Poet. 

PHTOPIKH2 r 7^7—9: 77 

dypoiKO^ av Kat TreTraihevfxevo^ etireiev. 'jraa'xpv&i Se 
TL oi aKpoaTal Kal w KaraKopto^ XP^^^^^ ^* Xoyoypd^ 
<poiy **TX5 S' ovK oiSei/;" ^^ airavre^ i<ra(rtu*^^ ofAoXo" 
yei yap 6 aKOvwv aKTX^^ofJLevo^, ottcj^ I^^Te^^ ov irep 
Kal oi aXKoi iravre^. 

8 TO 8' €VKaipa)9 tj firj evKalpto^ ^P^^^^^ KOivov a7rai/-P«Mo8*. 

9 Twv TcSy elScoi/ icTiP. cckos S' ctti Trdaif VTrep/SoXfj to 
SpvAovfiei/op* Se? yap avTOU avTto irpoo'eirnrXriTTeiv^* P* "*• 

XV 4, htvTtpov hi ra ap/ioTTOvra' citrrt yap op^ptiop flip to ij^or, aXX' oO;^ 
dpiioTTov yvvcLuci to dvbpeictv $ h€ivrfv cimu. 

What follows is a ftoU suggested by the preceding remarks upon the 
na$rjTtKfi Xcf (s, and not very closely connected with the immediate subject 
of * propriety \ 

'The hearers are affected also in some degree (some impression is 
also made upon the audience) by what (a trick which) the speech- writers 
employ to a nauseous excess ; (the introduction viz. of such phrases as) 
'* Who doesn't know ?" " Everybody knows." For the listener is shamed 
into an admission (of the fact) that he may be supposed to share (what 
is assumed to be) the feeling of ** everybody else*". 

On Xoyoypa</>oi, the paid writers of speeches for the use of plaintiff 
or defendant in the law-courts, a much-despised class, see note on 
II II. 7. Victorius supposes, in accordance with his preconceived opinion 
of a still continued hostility between Aristotle and Isocrates, that the 
latter is here alluded to ; quoting four instances of it from Isocrates and 
two from Demosth. de Cor. This is hardly enough to sustain the charge. 
On this subject, see Introd. p. 41, foil. 

§ 8. Of propriety in the use of every tottos and every ornament of 
style. 'The seasonable and unseasonable', fitness in regard to time, 
place, occasion, 'is common alike to all the kinds'. This observation 
is thought by Victorius to be suggested by the 'nauseous excess' of 
the preceding section. 

§ 9. 'A remedy for every excess (exaggeration in style) is the notorious 
practice of speakers: a speaker, that is, should pronounce censure 
on himself beforehand (in anticipation of the possible disapprobation of 
the audience) : for {tkeUy the exaggeration) is thought to be sound and 
right since the speaker himself is quite aware of what he is doing'. 

TO Bpvkovfitpop] See note on 11 ii. 11. 

The reading of all MSS is irpoo'ciriTrXiirrcf, which the staunch Bekker 
and Spengel, the consistent adherent of A or A', both retain. Nevertheless, 
the emendation frpocn-iirXifTTci makes excellent sense, and its rival is 
decidedly inferior ; and a passage of Quintilian, vill 3. 37, which seems 
to have been copied from this of Aristotle and repeats his words, has (in 
the Greek words) 9rpocinirXif(r(rciy rj i^irrpjSoX^, and a little above, /m^- 
muniendum, which also seems to be a reminiscence of frpocirtirXi/rrciy; 
Spalding (ad loc. Quint.) and Gesner approve,, and Casaubon had 

;8 PHTOPIKH2 r 7 §§ 9, lo. 

Sofre? yap d\t]Be^ etvatj iirei ou \av6dvei ye S ^roiel 

10 TOP Xeyovra, en Toh dpoKoyov juLf] ird(nv dfxa XP^' 

caaQac oi/Tta yap KXeiTTeTai 6 aKpoaTtj^. Xeyia 5e 

olop eai/ Ta opo/JLara (rKXrjpd »y, fx^i Kai t^ ^(apfj Kai 

already suggested this emendation, and Stephens introduced it in his 
Lexicon. Supported by this evidence, and the common- sense view of the 
case, I venture to read frpocfrMrXifrreii^. The passage of Quintilian 
above referred to runs thus : — Et si quid periculosius finxisse vide- 
bimur, quibusdam remediis praemunieiidtim est, ut ita dicam ; si 
licet dicere; quodam modo; permiitite mihi sic uti. Quod idem 
etiam in iis quae licentius translata erunt proderit^ quae non into did 
possunL In quo non falli iudicium nostrum soliciiudine ipsa mani- 
festum est Qua de re Graecum illud elegantissimum esty quo praeci- 
pitur, TrpoiTTLTrX^aatip (sic) tJ wrepfiokj. And again § 50, sed hoc quoque 
quum a prudentibus fit (eVei ov Xay^ovri ye o n-oict), of another doubtful 
use of fieiWcff. If we keep Trpocrcn-drXijrrctv, it is ''to add something in 
the way of reprehension of oneself" — so Vater; — which certainly gives a 
fair sense. 

akrfiis is similarly used for 'sound, substantial, genuine*, infra 11. 10; 
comp. also Hor. Ep. I 7. 98, Metiri se quemque suo modulo etpede verum 
est. lb. Ep. I 12.23. Liv. 11 48, iii 40. 

§ 10. The greatest care and pains are always requisite to give the 
speech an artless^ natural, and unstudied character : the rule ars est 
celare artem is of the utmost importance in effecting the end and object 
of a speech, persuasion or conviction. See, for instance, in 2. 4, 5 ; 8. i. 
This applies equally to proportion, as an element of propriety. It has 
been laid down that a certain proportion (or resemblance) of style, tone, 
and manner to the subject is always to be observed : but this, if carried 
too far, will defeat its own object ; the study will appear, and the suspicions 
of the hearers will be aroused. For instance, there is a proportion in the 
tone of voice and manner of deliver}', in the expression of features and 
the action, to the subject of the words delivered : these however should 
not be all employed at once : if the words have a harsh sound — o-jcXi/pa 
ovofiUTa are exemplified by Hermogenes irtpl IBf&v, a, nepi rpa^vt^rop, 
p. 236, II 300 {Rhet. Gr, Spengel), by drapiros, c/uip9rrev, typapyitt, &c., and 
again, lb. ff, (11 359), by a line from Homer in which ayjcar c/uui/raxe, both 
of them objectionable on this ground, occur together. " The voice and 
the features and the rest should not be made to assume a harsh expres- 
sion, else the study becomes apparent — it will give the composition a stiff 
and studied appearance, make it look affected and overdone : whereas, if 
one or two of them are made to correspond, and the rest not, the same 
ejict is produced, whilst the artifice escapes detection**. Introd. 
pp. 301, 2. Compare on this subject, Cic. de Or. iii 57. 216. 

* Further, not to employ all these proportions (or correspondences) 
together ; for by the observance of this precept (following this rule) the 
listener is deluded (i.e. the art is disguised). I mean, to take an instance 
if the words used are harsh (in sound), not to (extend the harshness) to 

PHT0PIKH2 r 7 § la 79 

TftJ 'jrpoo'WTrw Kai roh dpfioTTOVCip* el Se [xriy (pavepov 
yiperai eKaarov 6 iarrtv. eav Se to fxev to Se juiii, 
\av6dvei iroiwv to avTO. lav ovv to, fiaXaKa trKKf]" 
pw^ Kai Ta CK\ripd fxaXaKW^ Xeyf\Taiy diridavov yiype^ 

the tone of voice and the features and the other appropriate (correspond- 
ences or proportions)': (we must supply here either xP^^^^^ ^''^"^ 
XP^o'afrOai preceding ; or, adsensum, from trickripa jj, a-KKrjpoTffra irpo(r<l>€ptiv, 
or something else similar). 'Otherwise the true character of each of 
them (their studied and artificial character^ ircVXaa^m supra 2. 4) becomes 

Vahlen, in his observations on the Rhetoric, Trans, Vienn. Acad, 
p. 144 (already referred to), says, that nothing else can be implied in ro%£ 
dpfioTTovtrip than the adaptation of voice and feature to subject, already 
specified ; and therefore proposes to strike out icat before rols ipfiorrova-iv 
so that Tois apfioTTova-uf may be connected with, not distinguished from, 
the two preceding. This seems to me quite unnecessary. Besides thie 
two proportions specified by Aristotle, there is at all events viroKpuriSy 
appropriate action or gesticulation, that may be brought into correspond-* 
ence ; and also the mode of delivery may be distinguished — at all events 
for the nonce— from the other three. And he adds a similar objection 
to another perfectly innocent kqI, in i 15. 28, icai m ovtos jcr.X., the sense 
(as I have explained it in the paraphrase of the Introduction) being at 
least equally good with, as without, the conjunction. 

In the succeeding clause — which guards against a possible misappre- 
hension of the foregoing, as though it were meant that. a// this kind of 
adaptation should be avoided, and intimates that the mean is to be 
observed here as everywhere else ; that we do not rush into the opposite 
extreme, like those who dum vitant stulti vitia in contraria currunt — ^the 
connexion of thought might seem to require that cav hi and coy oZv 
should change places. If the two clauses, cay dc, ih» ovp, are to be 
connected in sense, we require some kind of opposition, expressed by a 
restrictive or adversative particle such as ficWoi, dc, or ^tXL, to establish 
this, and not one that conveys an inference or consequence, which does 
not follow from the foregoing. 

'But if (the speaker introduce) one and omit the other (make the 
adaptation in some cases, in others not), he does the same thing (really has 
recourse to study and art) and yet escapes detection. So then', (it results 
in a general way from all this,) or, * well then — as I say — if things soft and 
mild (for instance, the expression of compassion) be represented by a 
harsh tone and language, or harsh things in soft tone and language (so 
Victorius), it (the expression or things expressed) loses all its plausibility 
(or power of persuasion) '. If o^v be retained^ it must be understood (I 
think) as I have rendered it. There will be no connexion between the 
clause which it introduces and that which immediately precedes it, and 
ow will be a mere continuative, as in the narrative use of ficv oZv — the 
inferential^ as with our then^ having degenerated into a temporal sense, 
denoting mere continuation or succession.. The clause will then be a sort 

8q phtqpikhs r 7 § 1 1. 

II Tat. Ta Be ovofiara Ta SittXcl xai ra eTriBera irXilie 
Kal TcJ ^eva ixaXifrra dpfxoTrei Xeyovri iraQtiTiKw^^ 
avyyvcifjirj yap opyi^ojuLei/ip KaKOV (pavai ovpavofMiKe^ 

'oi general conclusion, from all that has been said in this section on the 
adaptation of delivery to subject-matter. dwiBopov, see ill 3. 4. 

§11. 'Compound words, epithets' (including descriptive' additions of 
tnore than one word) *more than one (several), and strange (foreign, 
unusual) words, are most appropriate to the language of emotion : an 
angry man may be forgiven (excused) for saying a wrong heaven-high^ 
or for calling it colossal\ I have translated kokov 'wrong', on the suppo- 
sition that the speaker is a complainant in a court of justice, and that the 
'evil' at which he is so indignant is some injustice or wrong done to 
him by the defendant, against whom he is inveighing. 

ovpoyo/ii^iecff] is an example of a difrXovv ovo/ui, viktopiov of a ^/voy. 
Comp. Ill 3.2, where nfkapos (the alternative form) is cited as an 
instance of a yXcDrra, an antiquated or barbarous term that requires 
explanation. Isocrates, frcpl avriboatag § 1 34, has used the former 
word quite in cold blood, to dc KOTopB»6t¥ ovpavofiriKts noiija-ovaiv, 
* your success they will exalt as high as heaven'. Aristophanes has it as 
an epithet of ^ovi;. Nub. 357, and again of kX/op, 459, in a chorus. 
Herod., 11. 138, of excessively tall trees, and so Horn., Od. v. 239, of a 
pine. Aesch., Agam. 92, of the beacon-light, in the irapo^s of the chorus. 

With 6pyt(ofuvtf «c.r.X. comp. Ill 11. 16, where vircp^oXoi, the figure 
hyperbole, or any excess or extravagance, is said to be most used by 
men in anger, and is illustrated by two quotations from Homer. Also 
Hermog., ircpi idcooy a. {Rhet, Gr. Spengel, II 302.3) ircpi afl>odparriTos 
(vehemence), quotas a number of instances of this exaggerated language 
and long compound words from Demosthenes when he was affecting 
indignation, iap/Scco^yor, de Cor.§ 139, ypapparoxv^y, lb. 209. "Nearly 
the whole of the speech against Aristogeiton," he says, '' is a specimen of 
this vehement language": and then proceeds to illustrate it from his 
other writings: [the speeches against Aristogeiton are, however, un- 
doubtedly spurious.] 

'And also (this kind of language may be used) when (the speaker) 
has fairly' (lit. already, by this time, then and not till then : on this use 
of fjdrj, oviTMf ovKcri, see note on I 1.7) 'overmastered (got into his 
power) his audience, and worked them up into a fit (raised them to the 
height) of enthusiasm, either by praise or blame or indignation, or love 
(which he has assumed towards them); as Isocrates also (as well as 
others^ km) does in his Panegyric, at the end : ^7/117 dc km ypnifiri*. 

This is, as usual, a misquotation; Isocrates wrote, Paneg. § i86| 
4>^pffp dc Koi fiviffifip (Aristotle ought not to have forgotten this, for it is 
a striking case of ofioioriXtvrov, or rhyming termination, one of the new 
figures introduced into Rhetoric by Gorgias and his school) : ^ijpip de jtol 
lanfliifp Kid do^M^ voarjv rti^ XPV ^opiCtiv ^ (avras cfciy rj reXcvrifcrayrar 
KOTokti^tip Tovs cV Toiovrois Tois €pyoi£ apurr€va'catras ; It is in fact a finely 
written sentence. 

'And again, ot ruftt trXtjaap k.tX. (Paneg. § 96, another striking sen- 

PHTOPIKHS r 7§ u. 8i 

tj -TreKoopiov ettretv. Kal orav ixi ^^V tovi aKpoarat 
Kai TOitja-rj iv6ov<riaa'ai r} evaivoK t] -^070(9 tj opyrj tj 
(piKiay olov Kai '\<TOKpdrr]<i nom iv tw iravnyvpiKm 
ivi TeKei, ** ^rifxtj 5« koi yviafttj " xai " 01 rices 6t\i)- 
trav" (pdiyyovrai tc yap ra TOtadra ivdova-id^ov- 
tence): for men (in genera]) give utterance to such language in their - 
enthusiasm (the language of inspiration)', and therefore (the audience) 
also being themselves in a similar state of feeling (having been brought 
thereto by the orator) are plainly ready to accept and approve of it'. 

[It is worth noticing that frXi/wa*, 'in that they brooked to &C.', is 
characteristic of poetic usage, and is rare in Attic prose : though found 
in Xenophon, Cyrop. ill I. 2, ovKin frXi) tU xij^w ikSilr. The cor- 
responding prose form ia fVoX/iijoaF, which indeed is the manuscript 
reading in Isocrates Lc. and is corrected by the edilors from the present 
passage and Dionysius Halic. de adm. vi dicendi in Dem. c. 40.] 

*Xo] Comp, Emesti, Z^x. Techn. Gr. s.v, "rovt aKpoatds, auditores occu- 
patos tenere, obsedisse oratione. Ar, Rhet. 111 7, ubi permutat cum rf 
ii/iova-iaiKUf extra se rapere." [Cicero, Orator § zio, id auiem (numerosa 
oratio) tutn valet cum is qui audit ab oralore iam odsessus est a£ tenetur; 
and (for oraw iroi^cij ivBouiriAaai) compare ib. § 99, si is non praeparatis 
auribus injlammare rem coepitj furere apud sangs et guffji inter sobrios 

bacchari vinolenius videtur^ 

The careless introduction of the superfluous rt after <i>6fyyoiiTtu, re- 
peated in/ra c. 11.7,™ Tr yhp T^r apx^v k.tX, is abundantly illustrated 
by Shiileto, Dem. de F. L., critical note on § 176, rqv rt yap iipiinji' 
k.tX, including this passage amongst his instances. [See Bonitz, Zeit- 
schriftf. Oest. Gyinn. 1867, pp. 672 — 682, quoted in Index Aristotelicus 
s.v. re, ad fin., where, amongst other passages, a reference is given to 
Pol. VII 14 § 6, 1333 a I, tiv Tt y&p niiXoyta Kokm' dpxSljval 0airi 
ikiP irpuTOI'.] 

' This also accounts for the fitness of this kind of langyage for poetry, 
because poetry is inspired. It must therefore (be used) either in the way 
above described, or with irony, as Gorgias did, and (in) the passages of 
Plato's Phaedrus'. The 'passages' referred to are 231 D, tir Spa 

iroXXariE n/fi^dXijirror. . .yiVufHi*, /i^ 0auita/rjit' ri vvp yap ovkiti wippdi 

SiBupifiSav tj>0tyyanat, alluding to the exaggerated aijd entbusiastic ex- 
pressions with which Socrates had been inspired by the local in- 
fluence ; in particular I 
fppifijiti'us piairdelira vt 
uTi IjBi) Imj ^df'yyofuu, 
tztaivtir Tov iTtpov ap^it 
iTafp^s iv6ovtTiatr& \ 

A specimen of Gor 

ropyiot liio ouv fLtovr'y 
KoS&TCip oXflOVE tXnai ToilS 

Tovs itih T£y Sijiuovpyi 
read, with Schneider, f 
AR. in. 

82 PHT0PIKH2 r 7 § II ; 8 § I. 

T€9, w(TT€ Kot diTohexovTai hriXov on ofioitos e%oi/T€s. 
^lo Kal T^ TTOiYia'ei ^pfxoo'ep* epdeop yap rj 7roifi(ri^m tj 
Sri ovTia Sel, t] jmeT eipwpeia^y 6 irep Topyia^ eiroiei Kal 
TOL eV Tia ^aiSpta. 

TO Se a")(riiia Ttj^ Ac^ews Sel jul^tb efifxerpov eiuai cha 
fxriTC appvO/JLOP* to jnep yap diridapop {ireirXda'dai 

refers to an ingenious evasion of an awkward question. Whilst Gorgias 
was in Thessaly, where he seems to have spent a considerable time at 
Larissa, some Thessalian^ who had no doubt heard his boast that he was 
able and ready to answer any question upon any subject, took him at 
his word, and asked him what constituted a citizen. — This is the consti- 
tutional question which gives occasion to Aristotle^s quotation. — Partly in 
jest, and partly because he was really at a loss, he replied, that citizens 
were made by citizen-manufacturers: as the vessels made by mortar- 
manufacturers were mortars, so those made by the Larissaean-manu- 
facturers were Larissaean citizens or Larissaeans : for there were such 
people as AaptatraunroioL Aapia-<ra, besides the Thessalian city, denotes 
also some kind of kettle or other cooking-utensil. The reply is much the 
same as if some one being asked, What makes a citizen of the town of 
Sandwich ? were to answer, *a cook, for he is a sandwich- maker * ; and is 
no bad specimen of the way in which Gorgias most likely fulfilled his 
promise of solving any problem whatsoever that was proposed to him. 
It may be doubted whether, as Schneider supposes, there is also an am- 
biguity in HrffAiovpyav : the word bears also the sense of a magistrate, as 
the grammarians tell us, especially in Doric states. Larissa was not a 
Doric state: but we learn from K. O. Miiller, Dor. Bk. ill ch. 8. 5 ; from 
Thuc. V ITyiv Mavriv€i<f, ol Brjiiiovpyoi Koi ij /3ovXi;...€V^HX(dt ol drjfi, k€U oi 
ra reXff txovres, and from a (doubtful) letter of Philip, Dem. de Cor. § 157, 
Il€\oTrovvij<ri<i^v toU drffu ; that the use of the term was not confined to 
these, and Aristode applies it to 'magistrates ' in general, Pol. vi (iv), 
4, 1291 iJ5 34. See further on this subject, Miiller's Dorians y u. s." From 
a note in Camb, Joum, of CI and Sacred PhiL VoL ill No. vii p. 80, 
with additions [see also p. 180 of Thompson's edition of the Gorgias], 

On rhythm in Prose, 

In the paraphrase of the Introduction I have already given an out- 
line of the contents of this chapter and their connexion, with references i 
and some details, pp. 303 — ^306. And on rhythm in general, and its appli- 1 
cation to prose, there is an Appendix (C), pp. 379 — 392 ; in which is a 
full account of its original and derived significations in the first part, and 
of its distinction from fj^rpov in the second. The commentary on this 
chapter will therefore deal principally with the details of the language, 
allusions, and such particulars as require explanation, which are omitted 
in the paraphrase. 

In the fragments of Isocrates' rexvrjy collected by Benseler in the 
Teubner series. Vol. 11 p. 276, we have the following, fragm. 4 — cited from 

PHTOPIKH2 r 8 § I. 83 

yap SoK€i) Kal dfxa kuI i^larTtiO'LV* frpoo'ex^iv ycip 

Maximus Planudes ad Hermog. and Joannes Siceliotes — Skons d€ 6 \6yos 
firj \6y09 earn' (fpo^ yop' fi/dc tfifitrpos' KaTa<l>aP€s yap' dWa fi€fiix^<^ 
Tropri pvOfi^, fiaKiara lofxPiK^ fj rpoxcuK^* The first of these precepts is in 
entire agreement with Aristotle, § i ; the disagreement of the second with 
the statements of § 4 is equally striking. It seems from what is said of 
Thrasymachus and the paean in § 4, that the subject of prosaic rhythm 
was not included in the r^xvat of himself and the succeeding writers on 
Rhetoric. It does not appear even in the Rhet. ad Alex. Cicero, de Or. 
Ill 44. 173, attributes to Isocrates the first introduction of 'numbers' into 
prose composition. 

Dionysius de Comp. Verb. c. 25 (p. 197 r.) refers to this chapter of 
Aristotle in support of his observations on rhythm in prose. His own 
opinions on the subject are given, pp. 195^ 6. 

References are made by Cicero to this chapter (§ 4 et seq.), de Or. i 
47. 182, 183, in 'the course of his dissertation on rhythm, from § 171 foil. 
The same subject is treated, Orat. c. LXiil 212 seq. The various 
rhythms heroic, iambic, trochaic, &c. are discussed in c. LXIV, where 
Aristotle's opinions, as expressed in this chapter, are twice referred to, 
§§ 215, 218. In § 214 we have, temeritas ex tribus brevibus et longa est^ 
quern (sc. paeanem) Aristoteles ut optimum probaty a quo dissentio, Cicero 
is referring to this chapter, from which the other references are taken : and 
as this is not found there, he must be either quoting inexactly, from 
memory, or perhaps cgnfoui^ding Aristotle's opinion on the point with 
that of one of the other rhetoricians whom he mentions, § 218. There is 
likewise an incorrectness in the opinion which he there attributes to 
Aristotle, that the paean is, aptissimus orationi vel orienti vel mediae : 
Aristotle says nothing of the * middle' of the sentence. 

Compare also, Demetrius r<pt ipfirjvfias, wcpl p^aKo7rp€7rovSf § 38 
seq. {I^Aet, Gr. Spengel, III 270 — 273) who also refers thrice to this chapter 
of the Rhetoric. Quint. IX 4. 45 seq. There are references to this ch. in 

On the abuse of rhythm, which degrades and is incompatible with 
the sublime, there is a short chapter in Dionysius Trepl vyl^ovs, c. 41. 

§ I. * The structure (figure, fashion) of the language (i. e. prose com- 
position) shoul4 be i^either metrical (run into verse) > nor entirely without 
measure or rhythm ; for tljie one has no power of persuasion, because it is 
thought to be artifici^ {st^pra, c. 2. 4, 7r€ir\aa-fjL€vci>s), and at the same time 

^ A remarkable in^nce of this defect in composition is quoted by Twining 
on Poet,, note 36, p. 209, from Dr Smith's System of Optics— vAitvty as he 
truly says, one would least expect to find such a thing — the beginning of Bk. 
I c 3 § 47, Whens parallel rays Come contrary ways And fall upon opposite sides. 
This is decidedly more metrical than a parallel instance in one of Dr Whewell's 
treatises on Mechanics, Hence no force however great, Can stretch a cord how- 
ever fine. Into an horizontal line, Which is accurately straight [WhewelPs Mechanics 
I p. 44, ed. 18 1 9, Facetiae Cantabrigienses p. 162]. Quintilian is particularly 
indignant at this introduction of a verse into prose writing : versum in oratione 
fieri multo foedissimum est, totum; sed etiam in parte deforme^ ix 4. 72. [For 
iambic verses in the prose of Isocrates, see Paneg. § 1 70, kxp^v yap avroi'S etirtp 
Tjaav &^ioi and Spengel's Artium Scriptores^ pp. 152 — 4.] 


84 PHTOPIKHS T 8 §§ i, 2. 

TTOtei Tw o/JLOiw^ TTore iraXiv ^^«. iocirep oZv twv 

KYipvKODV TrpoXaii^avovai tol iraiSia to ^^TLva alpeiTai 

2 eirLTpoTTOv 6 dweXevdepoviaepos ; KXewj/a." to he ap- 

pvd/jLOv ftirepavTOu, Set Se ireTrepavdai /ifj/, ^17 /jLeTpto 

also diverts (the hearers* attention, from the main subject or the proof of 
the fact): for it makes him attend to the recurrence of the similar 
cadence. And so (the audience anticipate the answering or recurring 
cadence) just as the children anticipate the answer to the herald's sum- 
mons^ " Whom does the freedman choose for his attorney ? and the answer 
is, Cleon '* \ 

€wiTpoiro£ one who is charged or entrusted with the management of 
his case, or of any business as deputy for another ; procurator, imrponois 
Kaia-apos, Plut. Praec. Ger. Reip. c. 17, 813 E, »t avrhs fiiv ovk €ir(/Uk^6tj 
TovT»Vy 6 d' iniTponos MiXvar, 'his man of business, deputy, agent'. 

On Cleon's self-assumed functions of public prosecutor and poor 
man's advocate, see Grote, Hist Gr, ch. Liv, VoL vi. p. 667 seq. An 
example in Arist Ran. 569, (one of the tavern-keepers says,) IBi hi 
itoXciroy rhv npoararriv KXcova fioi, (and the Other) av d* Zpjoiy^ i6afirtp ini- 
rvxQh '^irtpPoXov, tv avrov €inTpi^mp,fv : from which Mr Grote draws his 
inferences as to the real nature of Cleon's misrepresented policy. The 
children, in the illustration, are so accustomed to the invariable reply to 
the herald's proclamation, for an attorney or deputy to plead some freed- 
man's cause — who by law was not allowed to speak for himself in court- 
that they have learned to say ' Cleon' whenever the question is asked. 
It has not been noticed that this story is told in the present tense, as if 
the children were in the habit of doing this in Aristotle's own time. Can 
it be meant that the custom had been handed down from generation to 
generation for a century or so after Cleon's death? If so, it is a very 
remarkable fact. 

With the opening words of the chapter, comp. Cic. Orat. Ll 172, Is 
(Aristoteles) igitur versum in oratione vetat esse, numerum iuhet. lb. 
§ 189, of verses unintentionally introduced by the orator in his speech, 
Jnculcamus per imprudentiam.,, versus J vitiosutn genus, et longa animi 
provisione fugiendum. With amOavov k.t.X., comp. lb. LXII 209, Si enim 
semper utare (these studied arts and tricks of rhetoric), quum satietatem 
ctdfert turn quale sit etiam ab imperitis agnoscitur, Detrahit praeterea 
actionis dolorem, aufert humanum sensum actoris, tollitfunditus veritatem 
et fidem,,, LXV 220, Multum interest utrum numerosa sit, id est, similis 
numerorum an plane e numeris constet oratio, Alterum si fit, intolera- 
bile vitium est; alterum nisi fit, dissipata et inculta etfluens est oratio, 

§ 2, * That (composition) which is (entirely) devoid of rhythm (has 
, no measure) is indefinite (or, unlimited), but it ought to be limited, only 
not by metre (like verse) : for the infinite (indefinite, unlimited) is dis- 
pleasing and (i. e. because it) cannot be known. But everything is 
defined (or limited) by number; and the number {numerus in both its 
senses) of the structure of the language (prose composition) is rhythm, 
of which metres are so many sections'. Here we pass for a moment into 
Platonic metaphysics. The doctrine of the formless, vague, indefinite, 

PHT0PIKH2 r 8 §§ 2, 3. 85 

Se* dfihe^ yap Kai aypaxrrop to aireipov. Trepaluerat 
8e dpiO/j,^ irdvTa* 6 Se tov ctx^I^cito^ ttj^ Ae^eios 
3 dpLdfios pvOfxo^ iaTiVj ov Kal to, fierpa Tfxtird* Sio 
pvOfWP Set ex^iv TOV Xoyoi/, jmeTpou Se /xij* iroirifia 
yap ecTTai, pvdfiov he /JLtj dxpifim* tovto Se etrTai 

unlimited, infinite of more or less, of degree ; into which to fUrptop order, 
harmony, measure, symmetry, law — the mean — are introduced by the 
limiting irepag, the definite principle ; coming originally from the Pytha- 
goreans, is adopted and expounded by Plato in the Philebus, 23 E et seq. 
The principle is applied to the numbers or measures of music and com- 
position, verse and prose, 26 A, cV dc ofet mX /Sopei (the tones of music) 
fcal raxci Jtal ppaBel, direlpois ovo'iv, ip ov ravra iyyiyvop^va ravra (jh 
iripat Kai to &ir€ipov) a/jta rrtpav re aTTftpyacraro koH p^vtrtK^v trvpvao'av reXcco- 
Tora ^v^oTTja'aTo; From him Aristotle undoubtedly borrowed his con- 
ception of rhythm, as he did likewise his grand division of vXi;, the 
informis materia^ the potential, unenergized matter, the material cause of 
all things ; and Xoyor, the forma) cause, that which gives form and sub- 
stance to the brute matter, energizes or realizes it into complete exist- 
ence, and is the original design, or conception in the mind of the Creator, 
the 'what it was to be', to tI ^v theu: and also his doctrine of the 
' mean'. With ^axrrov ro &ir€ipov, compare AnaL Post. A 24, [86 a 5,] 
€<m d* ^ p,€P Sireipa ovk iirianfra, § d« iraripovTai eirton/rd. Metaph. B 4i 
999 a 27, rtuv dwdpap ww cVdcx'rai Xo/Sciv iiriarripriv ; le.r.X. 

On TO Sippv$pop mrtpapTOP, compare Cic. Orator, Lxvill 228, Hanc 
igitur^ sive compositionem sive perfectionem sive numerum vocari placet^ 
adhibere necesse est^ si ornate velis dicere^ non solutn^ quod ait Aristoteles 
et TheophrastuSy ne infinite feratur ut flutnen oratio^ seq. On pvBpot, 
fUTpoPy * measure of time', lb. § 227, sonantium omnium quae metiri 
auribus possumus, 

ir€paiv€Tai.,Mpidfi^ iropTo] This axiom is doubtless derived ultimately 
from the Pythagoreans, who traced the laws of the universe in numbers 
and mathematical symbols. Kat iropTa ya pap to. yiypoirKoptpa api6pop 
€xoPTij ov yap olop re ovdtp ovrc porfB/jpep ovt€ yptafrBrjpfp Uptv rovr<o, ap. 
Stobaeum, Bockh, Philolaos, p. 58. ''The finite in number is the cal- 
culable, that which the mind can grasp, and handle ; the infinite is the in- 
calculable, that which baffles the mind, that which refuses to reduce itself 
to law, and hence remains unknowable." Grant, Essay on Ar. Ethics^ 
p. 202 (ist ed. [p. 252, 3rd ed.]). Probl xix 38, pvOp^ dc x^P^I^^ ^*« ^o 
yp<6pipop Koi Terayptpop dpiBpoP ffx^iP, icai KiP€VP i^pas reToypePos' olKxwripa 
yap Tj T€Tayp€PTi*Kiprja-is <f)va'€i Trjs aroicrov, ©crrc Kal koto, KJiwrip paXXop^ 
This illustrates cajb€s.,,T6 air€ipop. With pvBp6s...ov tcL piTpa TprjTo^ 
comp. Poet IV 7, to yap p€Tpa oti popta top pvBp&p ifrri, f^apepop' i.e. 
metres, verses or systems of verses, are definite lengths or sections, into 
which the indefinite matter of rhythm is as it were cut. Similarly it is 
said, III 9. 3, that the period and all metres are measured by number. 

§ 3. 'From this it may be inferred that the speech (i.e. prose com- 
position) should have rhythm, but not metre ; otherwise it will be a poem 

86 PHTOPIKHS r 8§4. 

4 eau jui^xpi '^^^ ^» *t^^ ^^ pvOfidov 6 ixev r\ptao^ trefivo^ 
Kal XeKTiKfj^ dpjuLOuias Seo/iei/09, 6 8' lafx^o^ avTt] 

(verse-composition). Its rhythm however should not be exactly and 
nicely finished': (i.e. with exact and systematic accuracy so as to be 
continuous, and pervade the whole structure of the Avriting. The de- 
scription of prose rhythm by Hermogenes, irtpi idtrnv a, Introd. p. 391, 
Appendix on pvdfios, will serve as a commentary on this and fitxP'- '''^^) • 
* and this will be effected if it be only carried up to a certain point (and 
there stop short ; left incomplete and irregular ; not finished and sys- 
tematic, like verse)'. 

§ 4. * Of (the three) rhythms, the heroic (hexameter, epic) is (too) 
stately (or solemn), and deficient in conversational harmony'. By using 
the word * harmony ', I have left it open whether we are to understand 
by dpfiovla * harmony ' in its ordinary musical sense — in which case the 
meaning vidll be ' that particular kind of harmony which is adapted to 
ordinary conversation', the language of common life, and inferior to that 
of the heroic rhythm — a somewhat non-natural interpretation ; or in the 
primary, more general sense of the word, * an adaptation or fitting of 
parts into an organized whole') which with Xciertx^s MriU signify ^ deficient 
in conversational structure', in an adaptation of parts fitted for conversa- 
tion (Dionysius uses dpfwvta as equivalent to Xi$is, for style of compo- 
sition) ; the iambic is the very language of the vulgar, and therefore of 
all measures the iambic is most frequently uttered in common speech (or 
conversation) ; but it wants (the acquisition of, ywfrBai) solemnity and 
dignity and the power (or facility) of striking. The trochaic is too 
farcical (has too much of the comic dance about it ; reminds one of its 
indecency and buffoonery ^ : is totally devoid of all dignity and sobriety, 
too light and lively) : this is shown by the trochaic tetrameters, for the 
tetrameter is a tripping (running, rolling) rtteasure'. 

o...i/p<i5of] The * heroic' measure, also called * dactylic *, 'hexameter', 
'epic', including the spondaic and anapaestic, is one of the three kinds 
of rhythm, its basis, pda-is — corresponding to the *feet' in metre — ex- 
pressing the ratio of equality i : i. See further on the doctrine and 
ratios of rhythm, in the Appendix on that subject, Introd. p. 387, foil, 
where the statements of the following sections are illustrated. The 
epithet a-tiufos has been already applied to it in ill 3.3; Dionysius, de 
Isocr. lud. c. II (p. 557. 3, Reiske), designates it by the similar epithet 
/ifyaXofrpcfrcf. Comp. Poet. XXII 9, to tjpmKov (rra<npMTQTov icai oyica)- 
dcararov rav fiwrpav, 

(r€pvos KcX \€KTiKos KOI opftovias hiop^vos is the vulgata lectio. But to say 
that the heroic or hexameter measure — Homer's verses for instance — ^are 
deficient in harmony is absurd in itself, and contradictory to the evidence 
of our own ears, and all ancient authority : at all events Dionysius was not 

1 This may possibly be included in the meaning of the word herei but if so, it 
is quite subordinate. In the references from other authors it is predominant. 

' rpox^pos ^v0/i6s. There are some bars in the overture to Auber's Bronze 
Horse^ which, to those who are acquainted with it, will perfectly represent the 
measure of trochaic tetrameter, and illustrate the epithet here used, implying a 
light, tripping, metre. 

PHT0PIKH2 r 8§4. 87 

Twv fjLeTpcoi/ lafx^eia (pdeyyovrai XeyovTe^. 8e? di p. 123. 
o'efivoTtiTa yevecdai Kal iica'Tfja'ai. 6 5e Tpo'xcuo^ 
KopZaKiKWTepos* SriXoT Se rd TeTpdfierpa* ecTTi yap p. 1409. 

of that opinion, who says, de Comp. Verb. c. 18 (p, 109, Reiske), the exact 
opposite ; dcucrvXiKo^ ndw eWl aefipos Koi tls KaWos apfiovia? d^io\oy<uT<xros» 
Victorius, from Demetrius, n€pl ipfirjveias § 42, read 6 yxv ijpSos a-tfipos koL 
ou XoyiKos, which leaves dpfiovlas beofievos to explain itself as it best may. I 
have adopted with' Tyrwhitt on Poet. IV 19, cla/icrpa okiydus {\tyofirv) Kal 
€icpcuvovTcs rrjs Xe/crtK^y apyioviaS', the reading suggested by that passage, 
which had been already proposed by Vincentius Madius, ad loc, and 
since approved by Spalding ad Quint. IX 4. 76, and finally adopted by 
Bekker and Spengel, each in his latest ed. 

tafiffos., jj Xe^is ij r&v iroXKcav] This has been already noticed, ill i. 9, 
and twice in Poet. xxil. 19. The Latin rhetoricians make the same 
remark upon their own language. Cic. de Or. in 47. 182, Orat. LVI 
189, magnam enim partem ex iambis nostra constat oratio^ LVll 192. 
Quint. 1x4.76, //// (trimetri) minus sunt notabiles, quia hoc genus sermoni 
proximum est. 

€Kurr\<Ta%\ is used here in a much milder sense than its ordinary one, 
to strike, excite, mettre hors de soiy to displace or remove a man out of his 
ordinary state of feeling, to a higher one of excitement : whereas in this 
metaphorical application, it usually implies a much more violent emotion 
than mere admiration or amusement, as Demosth. c. Mid. 537 ult., rovro 
iccvei, Tovra i^iorrjo'iv dpOpfonovs avrav, * drives men besides themselves, 
drives them mad'. £ur. Bacch. 850, irpStra d* tKfmia'ov ^p€v&v iveis 
e\a(f)pap Xvercrai/, equivalent to cf a> d* iXavpap rov <l>pov€ip, in line 853. 

Tpoxatos KopBoKiKmrepos] Cic. Orat. LVii 193, TrocAaeum autem, qui 
est eodem spatio quo choreus, cordacem appellat (Aristoteles), quia con^ 
tractio et brevitas dignitatem non kabeat. Quint. IX 4. 88, herous, qui est 
idem63iCty\MS,Aristoteliamplior, iambus humanior (too like the language 
of vulgar humanity) videatur: trochaeum ut nimis currentem {rpoxcpop) 
damnetf eique cordacis nomen impofiat, Harpocr. Kop^aKia-fxos' 6 Kopda^ 
KonfiiKfjg opxoo'itos €i86s iariPy KaOdirep <l>T]a\p 'Apctrrofcvof «p t£ nepl rfjs 
TpayiKrjs opx^cecor. Suidas Kopbcuci^ci' al<rxpa opx^irai (the rest as Harpocr,). 
The characteristics of the'#copSa|, a kind of Comic dance, may be gathered 
from notices in Theophr. Char. 6, n-cpi dnopoiasj ' desperate recklessness ', 
where it is a mark of this character to dance the cordax sober and without 
a mask : in Aristophanes, who takes credit to himself, Nub. 540, for never 
introducing it into his comedies : in Athenaeus, xiv 28, ult. 630 E, who calls 
it irmypifihriiy 'sportive*. Dem. Olynth. ll § 18 (of Philip's mode of 
life), « b€ Tis (T&^ipcMf tj hUcuos oXXcoff, rfiP Kaff rjp.€pap aKpcuriap rov fiiov 
ical fiiOjjp Koi KopbaKitrp^ifg ov dvpdficpos <l>€p€ip K.r.X. It seems therefore 
to have been accompanied by the grossest indecencies, so that no 
respectable person could allow himself even to look on the performance 
of it. See further in Miiller, Hist. Gr. Lit. xxvii 7. 

This however is not the point of the reference here. But the Kopda^ 

88, PHTOPIKHS r 8 §§ 4, 5. 

Tpo')(ep6^ pvdfxo^ Ta TeTpafxerpa. XenreTai Se TraidPy 
(p expwvTO fxev diro Qpacvfjidxov dp^dfiei/oif ouk 
elxov Se Xeyetp tU tip. etm 8e Tpiro^ 6 waidi/^ 
Kal exofJ^vo^ TftJj/ eiptiixeviav* rpia yap "rrpo^ SJ* io'Tii/j 

€K€lP(OV 06 O fXeV €P TTpO^ €1^, O 0€ CVO TT/OOS €V. €;^€Ta£ 

Be Twv \6ya)i/ tovt(op 6 riiJ,i6\iof* oiJtos S* icTTiu 6 

5 Tvaidv. ol (xev ovv aXKoi Sid re Tci eiprjiiepa d<peTeoi^ 

Kal SioTi nxerpiKor 6 he Traidi/ \rj7rre0s* diro fxovov 

was accompanied by vefses in the trochaic tetrameter, and these are 
identified ; and all that is implied here by the term is the lightness, the 
want of gravity and dignity, and the dancing tripping measure, afterwards 
expressed by rpoxtpos ; as we see also in the passages of Cic. and Quint 
This character always belonged to the tetrameter ; and hence we are told 
that the dithyrambs, from which Tragedy took its rise, were originally 
written in this measure, which was afterwards exchanged for the iambic, 
the metre nearest to the language of ordinary conversation, when the 
dialogue had been introduced, and Tragedy assumed a regular form. To 
re fi€T^p (of Tragedy) cic TrrpayArpov iafifieiov iymro* to iu¥ yap wpwrov 
TfTpafi€Tp<f ixp&VTo hta to g-arvpiKriv ical 6px^O'TiKcn'€pap tlvcu TffV noirjaiVf 
Xc^ecdf de yfkop,€vr}s avTrj tj ^v(rtr to oiKtlop fifTpov ct/pcv* fiaKiara yap 
\€ktik6v Tav p.€Tpiov TO lafi/Sciov eanriv (Poet. IV 1 9). Comp. Rhet. Ill I. 9. 

These rhythms being set aside, (they are in fact reducible to two, the pro- 
portions 1:1, Jind 2 : J, iambus and trochee,'— and-** respectively) the third 
* the paean reihains, the use of which began with Thrasymachus, though 
he and his followers couldn't tell what it was (did not know how to 
define it). The paean* is the third (of the rhythms) and closely con- 
nected with the preceding: for it has the ratio of three to two (J : i| 
three short, and one long syllable equal to two short), whilst the others 
have that of one to one (dactyl, spondee, anapaest), and two to one 
(iambus and trochee), severally. And one and a half (f : i, the ratio 
of the paean) is connected with these (two) ratios ['next to' both ratios, 
i. e. the mean between the two extremes, i : i and 2:1], and that is the 
paean'. On this see Introd. Appendix on pvOfios, pp. 387, 8. The paeonic 
ratio includes also the bacchius and cretic. These three ratios are the 
^cuT€is of the three measures. 

§ 5. *Now all the rest (of the pvB^ioL) are to be discarded, not only 
for the reasons already mentioned, but also because they are metrical 
(too suggestive of the cadence of regular verse) : but the paean is to be 
adopted : for it is the only one of the rhythms named which cannot be 
made into a regular verse, and therefore (the use of it) is most likely 
to escape detection', diro p^vov yap ie.r.X., that is, it is an element of 
rhythm, not metre. Hermann, £/em. doctr. metr. il 19, de vers. Cret. 
(near the beginning of the chapter), has a criticism of this passage which 

* Aristotle writes toxom : Cicero, paean in the Orator, and faeon in the de 
Oratorc : Quintilian, paeon. 

PHT0PIKH2 r 8§§s,6. 89 

*yap ovK ecTi fxeTpov rcSu pridePTcov pvd/xwv, wfrre 

fxdXiO'Ta Xavddveiv. vvv fxev ovv 'x^ptavrai tc5 evl 

iraiavi Kai dp^ofievoi (jcai reAcurwi/TCs'^, del Se Sia^e- 

CpeiP Tnv reXevTrjv rfj^ dpxm* io-rt Se Traiapos Svo 

^ addidit Bekker^ ed, ill. 
he quotes, attributing to the author a misconception of the nature of the 
paeonic measure, which has caused him to fall into the error of denying 
it to be a metre ^ See Cic. Orator, § 194, poian autem minime est 
aptus ad versum; and the whole section. Also § 218, numerus a qui- 
busdam (Aristotle, no doubt), non pes habetur, * At present the one 
(form of) paean is employed (at the end) as well as at the beginning 
(of the sentence), but the end ought to be different to the beginning'. 
Vater proposed to supply reXevrfivrcf before xal apxofiepoi : but in a 
writer like Aristotle the supplement or opposite may be very well sup- 
posed to be implied in the xat. 

§ 6. * There are two kinds of paean opposed to one another, of which 
the one is suitable at the beginning (of the sentence or period), as in 
fact it is employed: and this is the one which begins with the long 
(syllable), and ends with three short. AaKoytves ftri AvictW, " O Delos- 
bom, or if perchance Lycia" (were thy birthplace). The poet, whose 
alternative is cut short by the inexorable brevity of the quotation, 
was doubtless going on, as the manner of the ancient pOetS is, to offer 
the deity whom he was addressing the choice of the various titles under 
which he was known and worshipped, expressive of place of birth, 
special character or office: which was done -to avoid the possibility of 
giving offence by omitting any title of honour of which he might be 
specially proud. The following specimens of a very frequent custom 
will suffice to illustrate it. Hor. Carm. Sfec. line 14, Lenis Ilithya,,, 
sive tu Lucina probas vocdri seu Genitalis, Sat. II 6. 20, Matutine 
pater y seu lane libentius audis. [We may also compare Horace's enu- 
meration of the favourite haunts of Apollo, qui rore puro Castaliae lavit 
crines solutos^ qui Lyciae tenet dumeta natalemque silvam Delius et 
Patareus Apollo, Od. III 4.61.] Zevy, ovm nor €(rriv, el Tofi* avr^ <^iXov 
K€K\rjfi€v<i^, ToifTo viv wpoo-ewcTrfl). Agam. 147. The author of the paean 
was apparently about to add after AvkIov, pcficup or some such word, 
offering the god the alternative birthplace of Lycia, if he happened to 
prefer it. The Homeric epithet AvicrfyevrjSy II. A loi, 119, is usually 
supposed to denote his Lycian birthplace, Patara, though Miiller, Dor. 
II 6.8, would "rather understand" by it* born of light*. On the epithet 
Av/ccior, frequently applied to Apollo by the Tragedians, as Aesch. 
Suppl. 668 (with Paley's note), Sept. c. Theb. 133, Agam. 1228, Soph. Oed. 
R. 203 (Schneidewin), Electr. 6, &c. &c., see M tiller's Dorians, 11 6. 8, 
where the various significations of Apollo's titles are discussed at length ; 
and Donaldson's New Cratylus § 269, on the connexion of Xv/cor with 
^ Though I cannot see much force in HermantCs argument against Aristotle, 
yet it must be owned that it is odd to deny that to be metrical, which derived its 
very name from the hymns to Apollo which were principally written in that measure, 
as may be seen from the two specimens here quoted. 

90 PHTOPIKH2 T 8 § 6. 

eihrj avTiKeiixeva aAAiyAot?, tav to fiev ev cipx^ dpfxoT" 
T€i, wcTrep Kal ^ptSi/Tar oi)tos S' earTiv ou cipx^L fxev 
fj /xaKpdf TsXevTWG'i he TpeTs /Spa^eiaiy 

AaXoyepe^ eiTC AvKiav 

XpuaeoKOiaa ''E^are wai At09. 

leTCpo^ 8' i^ evavrla^^ ov ^pa-xjeiai dp^ovo'i Tpeh, f] 
Se fxaKpd TeXevTala* 

jULeTCL Bi yau vBaTa t WKeavov rjcpdifKre vv^. 

ovTO^ he TeXevTrjp Troier f] yap iSpa^eTa hid to 

\€vk6s and -Xvkij, [In G. Curtius' Greek Etymology^ § 88 Xcvicof and a\u^i- 
XvKTjf and § 89 Xujtoff, no such connexion is suggested.] 

Brandis' 'Anonymus* [Pkilologus IV. i] reads "AoXoycw", ctro, 
" XvKi€ iKOfpye ". 

Victorius has noted that this and the following quotation are both 
commencements of paeans to ApoUo, from which the name of the metre 
is derived : and each of them exemplifies the * paean at the beginning'. 

* " Golden-haired Archer son of Zeus ". The other, the opposite to this, 
in which three short syllables form the beginning, and the long one comes 
at the end. "After earth and its waters, night obscured (blotted out) 
ocean'' '. In the Greek line there are four pure paeans, all of this con- 
struction <--"-- : but Ar. appears to quote it as an exemplification only 
of this form of paean in the last place of the verse, or rhythm. 

€| €vayTias] = €vavTi<as, or ivavTiop, ex Opposito, Polit. VIII (v) II, 1314 
a 31, o K erepos (rxibov ef ivavrias €;^€t toIs elprjfjkevoLg r^v ivifUKfUiv. 
Herod. VII 225, oi fi€V ef ipavrirjs iinair6p.€voi, Thucyd. IV 33, ef ivav- 
rias ovToi KoBefTTTiKea'avj * opposite', opposed to €ic TrXoytov. Ep. ad Titum ii. 
8, d 6^ ivavrias, i^ ivavrlov is the more usual form. The ellipse to be 
supplied is according to Bos, Ellips, p. 325 (562, ed. Schafer), x^?^^ 
corrected to apxji^ by Schafer ad loc, q. v., where several instances of the 
omission of that word are produced. But the ellipse of ohosy in one or other 
of its cases, is very much more common than that of x®P« or opX^> ^^ ^^^ 
formation of adverbs and quasi-adverbs in the feminine, genitive, dative 
and accusative ; such as 17 r^ ravni rjbe iKelvfj aXKrj et sim. — a large num- 
ber of instances of these three varieties of the ellipse of 6b6s is collected 
under that head in the work referred to, pp. 188 — 192 ; and at p. 192 init. 
cV^ ivavrias fl>ep€a-Bcu is rightly inserted among them by Leisner (one of 
the earlier editors). 

''And this makes a (true and proper) end: for' (yap: the reason of 
this, that the long syllable is required for the end, may be inferred from 
the consideration that follows of the incompleteness, &c. of the skor^ 
syllable) * the short syllable by reason of its incompleteness makes (the 
rhythm appear) mutilated (cut prematurely short)'. Cic. Orator, §§ 214, 
215, 218, u. s. 

PHTOPIKHS r 8 §§ 6, 7 ; 9 § I. 91 

dreXri^ ehai TTOtei koXo^ov. dWa Sel T^ /xaKpa 
dTTOKOTTTecrdai Kal St]\rip ehai Ttiv reAei/r^V, ixri Zia 
Tov ypa(j>€ay /x^Se hd Trjv 7rapaypa(j>t]Vy dWd Sid 
TOP pvOfxcp. 

on fxev ovu evpvdfiov Sei elvai rrii/ Xe^ip Kal firi 

dppvdflOPi Kal T4I/6S evpud/JLOP TTOLOVCTL pvdjULol Kal TTCOS 

e'xppre^^ elpviTaC Tr\p he Xe^ip dpdyKtj eipat tj eipo- chap. ix. 

KoXoPov] truncuSj de Soph. £1. I/y 176 a 40, oa^a firj (raffms aXKa ko\o' 
/Swj cptoTaraif irapa rovro (rvfiPalv€i 6 cXeyxps. Poste, 'ellipticaL' For 
Other examples see the Lexicons. 

* But the (sentence or period) should be broken off (brought abrtiptly 
to a close) and the end marked by the long syllable — not (however) by 
the scribe (or copyist), nor by a marginal annotation (marking the end of 
the sentence), but by the measure itself*, hia with the accusative, which 
indicates the cause or motive, (not the medium, channel or means, which 
is dta, with genitive,) here implies that the indication of the end of the 
sentence should not be due to the scribe or his marks, stops, or what 
not, but solely to the rhythm : that the end should appear by the abrupt 
close of that. 

irapoypa^r^y a by-writing, or marginal annotation. That these were 
occasionally stops appears from our use of the word 'paragraph': just as 
the words that we use for stops^^ comma, colon, period, originally repre- 
sented members of the period or the whole period itself. Victorius aptly 
quotes, Cic. Orat. c. LXViii §228 (already referred to), quod ait Arisioteles et 
Tkeophrastus, ne infinite feratur ut flumen oratio, quae non aut spiritu 
pronunciantis aut interductu librarii, sed numero coacta debet insistere. 
And to the same effect de Orat. iii 44. 173, where the librariorum tiotae 
are again mentioned. Victorius also cites Isocr. Antid. § 59 — ^to the 
clerk of the supposed court — dp(afi€Vos dno rrjs 7rapaypa<l)rjg dpayv»6i icr.X. 
Emesti Lex, Tech, Gr, s. v. [In the papyrus of the Funeral Oration of 
Hyperides, preserved in the British Museum, and edited in facsimile 
by Professor Churchill Babington, the approach of the end of a sentence 
is indicated by a short interlinear dash below the first word of the line 
in which the sentence is about to close.] 

§ 7. *So this subject, that the composition should be rhythmical, 
and not altogether without rhythm, and what rhythms, and how con- 
structed, make style rhythmical, is finished and done with'. 

We now come to another kind of dpfiovia, the adaptation of the 
several parts of the sentence to one another in order to its fit composi- 
tion {apta composition Cic. [de Orat. in 52. 200]), shewn in the arrangement 
of its words and subordinate clauses. The subject of the chapter is 
accordingly the period and its construction ; and some of its leading 
figures — those originally introduced by Gorgias and his school — are 
illustrated by several examples from Isocrates' Panegyricus. 

92 PHTOPIKHS r 9 §§ I, 2. 

fievtiu Kai TO) (Twiecixia fiiau^ warirep ai ev toT^ 
Sidvpdfx/Sois dual3o\aiy tj KaTeaTpafifievriv Kal ofioiap 
I rah T£oi/ dpxctioDV TroirirtSu dvTia'Tp6(poi^n t} fxev 
ovv elpofievri Xe^i^ ly dp')(aia earTLv* ^'^HpoSoTOV 
Qovplov i]B* l(rTopiti^ aVoSei^is*" Tavrrj yap 7rp6^ p. 124 

Of the two principal varieties of style, the tlpofi€tn} and KartoTpafi" 
pxinf \€$if, the latter more usually called irrpiodijci;, the style of Demo- 
sthenes, I Socrates, and the more finished rhetoricians, there is a detailed 
account in the Introduction, in the analysis of this chapter, p. 306 seq. 
So that we may at once pass on to the translation, and the particular 
points of interest and difficulty that the text offers. On Dionysius' dis- 
tinction of three varieties of style, see p. 306, note 4. On the etpo/Ac'in; 
Xffif, the earlier style of Hecataeus, Herodotus and the 'koyoypaxIxH, see 
p. 307, and 306, note 5 ; and on avafioXai, to which this style of prose is 
compared, p. 307 note i. The opposite style, 1} icarcorpo/x/ieyi;, is de- 
scribed at length, pp. 308 — ^310. See Ernesti, Lex, Techn, Gr, s. v. a-wrrpi- 
<l)€w. For a good description of both, following Aristotle, see Demetr. 
TFfpl tpfiTjvfias^ 12. 

§ I. ' The style must be either loose and concatenated* (the sentences 
loosely strung together, connected solely by connecting particles, as df, 
icai, like onions on a string) ^ and one only by the connecting particle, like 
the preludes in the dithyrambs, or close and compact (L e. periodic) and 
resembling the (regular) antistrophes of the old lyric poets', Pindar 
Arion, Stesichorus, and the like. The last of the three is said to have 
owed his new name of Stesichorus — his original name was Tisias — ^to his 
having been the first to bring the chorus to a stand, make it stationary, 
for a time at least ; and give it order, regularity, symmetry, and dignity* 
This is also attributed to Arion. 

§ 2. * Now the loose style is the ancient (origfinal) one. " This is 
the setting forth of the researches of Herodotus of Thurii." This style 
which was formerly universal is now confined to a few. By loose I mean 
that which has no end^ in itself except the completion of the subject 
under discussion. And it is displeasing by reason of its endlessness (or 
indefinite length or character, supra c. 8. 2) ; for every one desires to 
have the end distinctly in view*. Quintilian, vill 5. 27, thus describes 
the (lpofi€inj Xcf If, soluta fere oratio, et e singulis non membris sed 
frustis collatay structura caret. Cicero, Or. LV 186, notices the want of 
^numbers' in Herodotus and his predecessors: which niay possibly 
include the periodic structure of sentences ; as Aristotle does, infra § 3, 
apiBfiov l^ei 1; €V n€pi6bois Xcf tr. 

'UpodoTov OovpLov] This appears to be the reading of all MSS, 
except that A^ has Bvpiov. Herodotus did actually join the colony 
established at Thurium in 443 (Clinton, F, If, sub anno 443, col. 3), 
and was thence sometimes called a Thurian from this his second 
birthplace. So Strabo, xiv c. 2, (Caria,) p. 657, of Halicarnassus ; 
avBp€s de ycyovaaiv e^ avrijs 'HpodoTos t€ 6 avyypa^ptvSf oy vartpop 
Qovpiov €Kak€a'aVy dia to Koiyovfja-cu rijs tls Qovpiovs dnoiKias* Plut. de 

PHT0PIKH2 r 9 § 2. 93 

Tcpop fxep airavTe^y vvv 5e ov woWoi y^pvivrai, Xeyw 
06 eipoixevYiv t] ovcep €;^€« reAos Kao avrnvy av jiiti to 
Trpayfxa Xeyofievop TeXeKodfjp ecTi Se driSe^ Sia to 
aireipov* to 'yap t€\os 7rai/T€s /3ov\oPTai Kadopav. 
Sio Trep iirt toT^ KafXTTTfjpo'ip eK7rveov(n Kat ekKvovTac 

exilio, C. 13, TO btf "'Hpoiorov * ^ucapvatra-ec^s Itrropiris airo^fi^is ^Se," ttoX- 
Xol fi€Taypa(l)ova't, "'Hpoborov Bovpiov," p,€rt^KriiT€ yap €is Sovpiovs, Koi rfj's 
diroiKiag (K€ivrjs fimarx^' Id. de Herodoti malignitate c. 35, Koi ravra, 
Qovpiov fi€P vfTo r<ov iiWav vofuC6p,evov, avrop be *A\iKapi'a(r<r€iov vepiex^ 
fitpov. The second of these passages may be interpreted to mean, that 
the reading in Plutarch's time was often found altered tn the copies of 
Herodotus* history y from 'AXiKoppatra-ems to Qovpiov ; and if so, no doubt 
Aristotle's copy may have had that reading, which he transferred to his 
Rhetoric. But on the other hand, Demetrius, nfpX ipfiriviias, § 17 (ir€p\ 
irepiodov), in quoting the same passage, follows the reading of all our MSS 
'HpoboTov 'AXiKapvaa-afjot iaropiris dnobc^is ribe. Which, together with two 
other inaccuracies of quotation (in the Rhet.X the transposition of ^d€, 
and the writing aTrobet^ig for dn6df£i£ — Demetr. preserves the correct 
form — leads me rather to conclude that the variation from our text is due 
here, as we have already seen in so many other instances, to our author's 
carelessness in quoting from memory, without referring to the original. 
Aristotle was a book-collector, and no doubt possessed a copy of Herodo- 
tus. Victorius thinks that the reading here is sufficiently justified by the 
fact that Herodotus did actually become a citizen of Thurii, and was so 
called. But the point here to be decided is not whether he was ever so 
called by others, or even by himself at odd times ; but whether he did, 
or did not, write himself a Thurian at the commencement of his own 
history: which I deny, and attribute the implied assertion of that fact as 
a mere misquotation to our author himself 

*And this is why it is only at the goal that (the runners) pant (or 
gasp) and become faint, because whilst they are looking forward to the 
limit of the race they don't flag before that (i.e. before they have reached 
the goal)'. This, as I have said in Introd. p. 311, note, seems the ex- 
planation of the illustration which is required by the application of it 
and by the context. The sight of the goal before them, the term of their 
labour, keeps up the racers' spirits and stimulates their exertions, so that 
they neither faint nor fail till they reach it: then cJCTrvcovcri jcal c#eXvoin-ac, 
they breathe hard, and their exertions being over, their sinews are 
relaxed, they slacken and grow languid. This interpretation, which is 
opposed to that of Victorius (see note u.s.), makes the ko/xtti^p, which is 
properly the turning-point of the hiavkoi — whence its name — here the 
goal of the frrahiov or single race, in a straight line : the Kafiimfp of the 
biavkos being in fact the vtpas of the aradiov. If the Kap,irrrip were in- 
tended here for the turning-point, the statement made of it could not be 
true, for in that case the runners would not come in sight of the goal 
until \\iey\i2idi passed Xh^ Kafinnip, So in Eth. N. V. i. 2, 1095 d i, an illus- 
ration is borrowed from the single foot-race^ the urabiov ; Santp iv t^ 

94 PHTOPIKH2 T g § 3- 

3 Trpooptavre^ yap to Trepan ov Ka/xi/ovo'i TrpoTcpop, yj 

oradio) diro rap affKoOerSv cVl ro iripas fj wfatrakiv (to illustrate the 
Platonic iwo rSv dpxvv 7 cVl rat dpxas)* And similarly the Tragic poets 
express reaching the term or end of life by Kafiiriiv^ which seems to imply 
the necessity of this explanation. Soph. Oed. Col. gi, hravda xa/i-^ftv t6v 
TCkKalirapov fiiov. £ur. HeL 1666, Srcof dc Kdixyjrijs Kal TtXtvniirjjs piov, 
Electr. 956, irpof av rfkos ypafifirjs iKrjTai Kcii'irepai KOfiyl^rf /Stov. Hippol. 87, 
rfKos be Kdn^j^aifi mairep i^p^ftrjv /3ioi». This single course is also called 
dpofiog SitafiTrTog, or oTrKovSf or €v6vg, Pollux et Hesychius ap. Stallbaum 
ad Phaedo 72 B. The KafiTmjp, or cmJXi;, with the inscription Kap.^ov, 
was called ripyM, pan^p, riXos and vvara-a, Comp. Krause Gymn, u. Agon, 
der Hell, i 140. 

eicXtx>tTai] Comp. Isocr. Paneg. J 150, irpog rou nokefiov fKKcXvficvog 
(slack, remiss). lb. dvriB. § 59> "'* ^uv firj jravTOTtaa-iv €K\vBa (be exhausted) 
nokXmv €Ti fioi \€KT€<ov oPTOv* Al. Pol. VII (Vl) 6, irkoia cfcXfXvfieVa, of 
crazy vessels. lb. Hist Anim. IX i. 32, cox hv eKkvaaa-ip (of taming 
elephants). Xen. de Ven. 5. 5, dogs lose their keen smell in the 
summer dia to eVXeXifa-doi ra a-nfioTa, Ar. ProbL XXX I. 6, Xiav wokvs 
(ohos) ckXvci, de Gen. Anim, I 18.51, €K\v<rig, relaxation, weakness, 
lb. V 7* 21, 17 dpx^ rj KLPov(ra ttjv ([icDv^p e/eXverai. 

§ 3. * Such then is the loose (* jointed' Mure, H. G.L^) kind of style ; the 
compact, condensed, concentrated, kind is the periodic, that which is con- 
structed in periods : hy period I mean a sentence (//V. kind of style or .com- 
position) having a beginning and end in itself, and a magnitude such as 
can be readily taken in at one view*. The other style is antipog, perpetua^ 
indefinite, continuous, running on without end, and without proper divi- 
sions; and therefore ^^«V be comprehended in one view. evfrvpowTov^ 
comp. Pol. IV (VIl) 4, ult. j} fieyia-TTi vircp^oX^ n\ij6ovs,,,fV(rvpo7rrosi (for 
purposes of supervision). So of a tragedy. Poet, vii 10. 74, ^^^tv fUu 
fieycdos, TOVTO 8e evirvvoTrrov elvai. On the construction rj cipoficvrf rrjs 
\€$€ws, for ij €ipofi€vrj Xef ty, see the examples in Matthiae's Cr. Gr. 442. 2. 
Add this, and Isocr. Paneg. § 132, ttjs x^P^^ ''7'' /**" irXeiarTfv avrrjsf 
ib. § 148, Tfjp dolKrjfrop rrfs x^P^s* Plat. Protag. 329 A, 86\ixop tou Xoyov. 
Arist. Pol. VIII (V) 10, 1312 ^ 20, TToXXal tSp KaTCLkvaetup. 

* A Style of this kind is agreeable, and easy to be learnt* (evfiaSi^s, 
passive; see Aesch. Eum. 442, Soph. Aj. 15, Trach. 611, where 'easy 
to be learnt' means 'readily intelligible'); * agreeable, because it is the 
contrary of the endless, indefinite, and also because the listener 
is constantly thinking by reason of this constant definite conclusion 
(or limitation of each sentence) that he has got hold of something 
(got something in his grasp — in the way of a conclusion) for himself {avrm, 
retained by Bekker and Spengel; quaere avr^?); whereas, to have 
nothing to look forward to (no conclusion to anticipate) either to be, 
or to be finished (di/veiv, ©art rwa dpvciv), either fact, or effect, is 
disagreeable'. It occurred to me that elvat, which seems superfluous, 
might have arisen from a repetition of the €lp in irpopoeip. The 
translation will then be, * nothing to look forward to nor to finish (get 
done, effect)' : dpvtip identifying the hearer with the speaker, as if he 
himself had to come to the conclusion. Comp. § 6, opfiap cVt to n6pp<a^ 
Koi TO fxtrpop, ov €x^^ ^^ iavr^ opop, dpTioTraaS^ trava^ap.fvov. 

PHT0PIKH2 r 9 §§ 3, 4. 95 

fxep ovv elpofxevri Ttjs Xe^ew^ eaTiv ffSe, KaTecTpafX' 
ixevn Se n €1/ irepio^oi^* Xeyto Se irepio^ov Xe^iv 
€xov(rap dp^rju Kai TeXevrrju avTrjp Kaff uvtyiv Kai 
fxeyedo^ evcrvvoTrrop. tj^eia S' t; TOiavrri Kai evfxadri^j p. 1409^. 
fjSeia fiev Sia to ivaprico^ c;^€£i/ rw aVepai/Tft), Kai on 
dei Ti oierai ex^iP 6 aKpoaTt]^ tw dei ireirepavdai ti 
avTtS' TO Se fitiSip irpopoeip eipai fxri^e dpveip dtj^e^. 
evfiadfj^ Se on evfXPtj/JLOPevTO^. tovto Se, on dpidfxop 
€;^€i 1} ip TrepioSois \€^i9, b irdpTtap evjULprjiaopevTo- 
Tarop. Sio Kai Ta fiSTpa irdpTe^ jxptiixopevovo'i fiaX" 
Xop Twp xySriP* dpid/xSp yap e^^i w fxerpeiTai. 
4 Sel 5e TYiv TrepioSop Kai Ttj hapoia TereXeitSarOai, Kai 

'And easy to be learnt because easily recollected : and this because the 
periodic style can be numbered^ and number is of all things the most 
easily recollected'. The proportions, or relations of the several parts or 
members of the period to the whole, and to one another — its synunetrical 
structure — can be expressed in numbers, like the numerical relations of 
rhythm, c. 8. This gives the periodic structure a hold upon the memory, 
by its definite proportions, which is entirely wanting to the continuous 
and indefinite succession of the other. - 

*And this is why every one recollects metres (verses) better than 
(disorderly) irregular prose; because it has number which serves to 
measure it'. 

ra» x^^v\ is the soluta oratio (Cic Orat. § 228, alibi), the butKekvyiivr) or 
bLfppifunj \€^is (Demetrius) : the incoherent style, words poured out at 
random, in confused mass, one after another, without order or discrimi- 
nation. Thus, in distinguishing the symmetrical structure of verse from 
the comparative confusion and disorder of prose, Plato, Legg. vii 811 D, 
writes Xoyoiy, ovs tv noi^fuunv tj xydrjp ovrc^s elprjfitpovs (where ovrcas is, 
Platonicey 'just as they are', *just as it happens', 'indiscriminately', 'without 
order or regularity'; or 'without consideration', 'just as it may be'. 
Heindorf Gorg. § 127 and Ast's Lex. Plat. s. v.) ; Phaedr. 264 B, ov x^^*?" 
do«ci fi€p\rja'6ai ra rw Xoyov (helter-skelter, like rubbish shot out of a cart ; 
Thompson). Rep. VII 537 C, ra re x^^V^ fia6i^fuiTa..,y€v6fi€va (taught 
promiscuously). Isocr. Panath. § 24, o/xoior uv €lvai bo^ifu roU ^Ik^ koI 
€l>opTiKas Koi x^^^^ ^ri a» eVcX^ \€yov(np (who Utter at random, pro- 
miscuously anything that comes into their head). Arist. Pol. iv (vii) 
2, 1324 d 5, rSv wXtiarav pofiifimp x^^^^ ^^ ctwciv Ktifupap (shot out in a 
heap, indiscriminately, at random, without order or system), de part. 
An. IV 5. 27, <aa bt€fmapp.€Pa xy^r^p. The passage of Plato, Legg. u.s., is 
referred to by Dionysius, Ars Rhet. X 6 (v 381 ed. Reiske), ov \vbfip, tas 
€Tvxop PtPX^adcu TO. €p6vp.i^fiara, 

§ 4. 'The period must also be completed (or brought to a conclusion) 

96 PHTOPIKHS T 9§4. 

fxri ZiaKOiTTearOai wairep ra ^o(pOK\eovs laju/Se'ia^ 

Tovvavriov yap kcmv viroXafieiv tw Staipeia'daiy 
wo'Trep Kal eirl tov eiptjinevov t^v Ka\v^(Sva ehai Ttjs 
Il€\o7roi/vi](ro v . 

by the sense (ica/, as well as by the structure and rhythm) and not broken 
off abruptly (without completing the sense: diaKrWciv 'to cut in two'), 
like Sophocles' iambics, "Calydon is thi§ land of the Pelopian soil — ": 
for the contrary supposition (to this real fact) arises from (///. is caused 
Sy ; dativus instrumentt) this (wrong) division (in general), as also in the 
instance given, that Calydon belongs to the Peloponnesus*. 

We learn from the Anonymous Scholiast on this passage (see Brandis' 
tract [Philologus iv i] pp. 46, 7,) and more precisely from the Schol. on 
Ar. Ran. 1269, that this verse comes not from Sophocles, but from 
Eur, Meleager, of which it is the commencement. See Wagner, Fragm, 
Eur. Mel. I (/r. TV. Gr, 11 270). The second verse, which completes the 
author's meaning, is supplied by Lucian, Conv. c. 25 (Hemsterh. ill. 436), 
and Demetr. w^pt cp/xi/vciaff § 58 {Rhet. Gr, Spengel iii 275), iv dvrtnopBfxois 
vihC €xov<r €vdaifjLova: and the three following by Wagner, u. s. This 
makes it clear that this misstatement was not due to Euripides. As to the 
substitution of Sophocles for Euripides as the author, I have no doubt, 
from the abundant evidence we have already had, that it is due solely to 
a lapse of memory on Ar.'s part, and that 1x0 alteration of the t^xt, as sug- 
gested by Vater and Buhle, is required. 

The stop, or pause, which the speaker or reader makes, when intro- 
duced in the wrong place, may make a complete alteration in the mean- 
ing : as here, if the verse be read as an entire sentence with the pause at 
xBovis, it conveys the meaning that Calydon is situated in the Pelopon- 
nesus, which is contrary to the fact : but if it be read continuously without 
a pause with the ensuing line, the true sense becomes clear. duupela-Oai 
here is equivalent to htaari^ai HI 5. 6, comp. Anon. ap. Brandis, p. 47, ota 
€10*1 Kara avv3ea-iv Koi biaip€(nv, Kai ivTav6a fitv diaoTi^avres oKKrjv diapotav 
airapTio-optv, ivravBa hk diaari^avres 5XXi;v. This is in fact the 'fallacy of 
division', de Soph. El. 4, 166 a 33, napk ttjv bialptfriv, where two verses 
are quoted in illustration. 

Demetrius u.s. quotes the two verses in illustration of a different kind 
of fault ; the interpolation of a avvBca-fios — in which he includes interjec- 
tions— \yf actors, as an expletive, Oi hk npbs ovdh dvajrkrjpovvrfs, <^trl, 
TOV (Tuvbta'pov ioiKaai rois vwoKptrals toXs to Kal to irpos ovBtv cjroy Xcyovcriyy 
oiov ci Tis ode Xryot, KaXvbov piv rjbf yaia IIcXoTrftar xOovos, <f>ev, iv avrt- 
jropBpois iribC €\ovir €vbaipova, at at, «y yap irapiXKet to at at Kal to ifxv 
ivOabf, oCto Ka\ 6 navraxov paTrfv ififiaXXopevos avvSeo-pot. 

The MSS, with the exception of A% have IlcXcwrciaf , which is found also 
in Demetrius and retained by Bekker and Spengel; MS A', Lucian, the 
Schol. on Aristophanes, Dindorf (Eur, Fragm, Mel. 2), and Wagner, read 
the more usual form neXon-iar. The text of Euripides, who alone of the 

PHTOPIKHS r 9§S. 97 

5 Treptooo^ oe >/ /lei/ 6i/ iccoaois i; o acpeXri^. earn o 
iv KoiXoL^ fiev Ae^£9 i; TeTeXenafxepti re ica/ Zit^ptiixeini 
Kal evavaTrvevcrTO^j firj eV r^ hiatpeaei tio'Trep 9] elpt]^ 
fxevfi irepiohosi^ dXX oXrj. kwXov S' eirrl to erepou 

three Tragedians uses the word, has n^Xomos in five places, including, 
the line of the Meleager (Beck's Index). 

'-* § 5. * A period may be either divided into clauses, or simple (con- 
fined to one)*. Ar. himself defines what he means here by d<^«?XiJy, viz. 
finvoKoiXos, a sentence consisting of a single member, without the com- 
plication, or elaborate construction of the period, ac^f Xtyr properly denotes 
smooth and level, without inequalities or irregularities, as'Arist. Eq. 527, 
dta T&v d(l)€\av 7r€bi<av €pp€t. It is therefore 'plain' as opposed to 
'mountainous', literally and metaphorically, level, easy to be traversed^ 
simple, plain; whereas the mountain is suggestive of difficulty. It is ap- 
plied by Dionysius, de admirabili vi dicendi in Demosthene [c 2], to Lysias' 
style, which is said to be Xtr^ xal a(\iiKr\^y 'smooth and plain or simple'. 
Lysias' style is in fact a medium between the tlpofievrj \4(ts of Hecataeus 
and Herodotus, and the complex periods of Isocrates and Demosthenes : 
and a comparison of the sentences of Lysias with those of Demosthenes 
will clearly shew the difference between the dt^cXify and rj iv KmXois 
TTtpiodos. Quint. IX 4. 124, 12. 5. Genera eius (periodi) duo sunt: alterum 
simplex^ quum sensus unus longiore ambitu circumducitur ; alterum^ 
quod constat membris {iv jcoiXois) et ificisis^ quae plures sensus habent, 
Habet p^riodus niembra minimum duo : medius numerus videntur quat- 
tuor (so Cic. Orat. § 221), sed recipit frequenter etpiura, 

N * The period in clauses or divisions must be complete in itself, duly 
divided (its members distinct and definite), and such as can be easily 
delivered without stopping to draw breath' (//A easily breathed, well 
adapted to the limits of the breath). 

^xtavimvtvuTo^ Cic. de Or. Ill 44. 175, Rudis erator incondite fundit.,^ 
spiritu, non arte determi^iat. Orat § 228, Non spiritu pronunciantis.*, 
debet insistere, 

* Not however (^»;, if, provided, it be not) by the mere (arbitrary) 
division (as if the speaker might pause for breath, wherever he pleases^ 
as (in) the period already cited (KaXvdwv pAv Ijde...), but as a whole. 
A member or clause is one of the two parts of this. By simple 
I mean a period of a single member'. It appears from this that a 
period, according to Ar., is a sentence that includes a complete y 
sense\ and is thereby distinguished from a kSXov or member of it : which 
is a member or part of a whole, and therefore incomplete until the whole 
has been expressed. The period therefore is twofold, simple, povoKaXosy 
and compound, iv fccaXots. The phrase to irtpov popiov divides the 
compound period primarily or essentially into two parts, which stands 
for, and may be extended to, division in general. Cicero, as Vater 
^ So Hermog. irepil eOpttrtuts rop, 8', ir€pl irepioSov (ll 241 Rh, Gr, Spengel), 
of the kQ\ov, The period may consist of one, two, three or four, colons. 
kCHKw Sk itrrtv drrfpTiffpiini didvoiaf a complete* sense. Aristotle admits this cn/y 
of the pwoKuXos wepio^os* 

AR. III. 7 


98 PHT0PIKH2 r 9 §§ S, 6. 

6 ixopiov TavTfi^m d(pe\ti Se Xeym Trjp fiovoKtaXov. Sel 
5e Kai TCL KwXa. Kal tus TrepioSov^ I^^t€ /JLVovpov^ ehai 

observes, acknowledges the compound alone to be a true period. To dc 
4c£kov*ApiaroT€\Tis ovTcas oplCtraij "^caXov cori to €T€pov pJpos ntpiobov"' 
«tTa €7ri(t)ep€ij *^ yiptTM de Koi avXfj irc piodoff.*' ot/rtfff opttrafitpos " ro mpov 
fupos^ diKaXop ePov\€To tlvai t^v ntplobov dtfXovoTi, 6 dc *Apx€bvjfios crvXXa^ 
fit^v TOP opop Tov *Ap., Koi TO €in<t>€p6iuvov T^ opa a'a<t>^aTtpov Koi rfXetoTtpov 
^kms upia-aro, ^^xciXov iariv Ijroi carXfj nepiobos, rj avvderov 9rc/;iodot; fjJpos " 
[Demetrius tt. ipfiriveias, § 34]. On KwXa and KOfiiiara in general, see Introd. 
PP- 312, 3, note I. 

fiov6K<aXos appears in a totally different sense, Pol. iv (vii) 7, 1327 
^ 35) ^^ t^^^ y^P i'^^^l) ^X^ ^"^ ffiio'iv puovoKviXov^ one-sided, ill-balanced, 
like a man with one arm or leg ; opposed to the Athenian, m se toius 
teres atque rotundus. 

§ 6. ^ The members or clauses and the periods themselves should be 
neither truncated (cut prematurely short), nor too long'. Constat ilie 
ambitus et plena comprehensio ex quattuor fere partibus^ quae membra 
dicimtiSy ut et aures impieat et ne brevior sit quam satis sit neque longior. 
Cic. Orat. § 221. 

\Kvovpom^ This word is variously written p.yy- and fiil-ovpos, and so here 
the MSS. The Lexicons, including Stephens', regard them as two differ- 
ent words : Stephens only distinguishing the sense, fjitiovpos, KoX'tpovpos, 
bob-tailed, with a stunted tail ; fwovpos, sharp-tailed, like a mouse : 
while Liddell and Scott, and Rost and Palm, deriving fivovpo^ from 
a mouse's tail, set the facts of the case at defiance by defining it 
nevertheless 'curtailed', ^ abgestutzt oder abgestumpft\ This at all 
events is no doubt the meaning of it It seems to me rather that 
the word is the same, and the variety only in the spelling. The 
meaning of it is always the same ; bob-tailed, curtailed, originally ; and 
thence blunted, truncated, docked, maimed, cut short where you would 
naturally expect a prolongation. Comp. Poet. c. xxvi 13, cov pXv ha 
TOP fivdop iroi&a-ip dpayicrj rj fipax*a htikpvu^pop fivovpop <f}aipt(rBai, unna- 
turally, unduly, curtailed. See Twining's note, p. 557. He refers to 
Hephaest. fidovpos 0x1^0^, 6 icari to tIXos iXXtinap XP®"^* opposed to 
doXixovposy * long-tailed', 6 Kara to tcXos irXeovd^top avXXa^^. Comp. dc 
part. Anim. Ill 1. 13, of blunt-nosed, as opposed to sharp-nosed, fishes ; ol 
a-apKoffidyoi, fishes of prey, like the shark, are sharp- nosed, 01 dc firi trcLp- 
K6<f>ayoi fivovpoi (a bulldog's nose is particularly fivovpos). And again iv 
13. 22, the same remark is repeated. Pausanias, x 16. i, describing one 
of Croesus' offerings at Delphi, o-x^fta dc tov vnoBqfjLaTos #caro irvpyov 
fxaXioTa c( fxvovpop dviopTa dno fvpvripov tov icar^, of a truncated cone or 
pyramid. Athenaeus (xiv 632 D, E, ter^ of three kinds of defective verses ; 
aK€(t>cLkoiy at the beginning, as a verse beginning with ineihri; Xayapolj 
prop, spider-shaped, contracted or weak in the flanks ; hence of verses, 
faulty in the middle {claudicant in medio Schweighaiiser ad loc), where a 
short syllable occurs for a long one in the middle of the verse : illustrated 
by II. B [11] 73 1, and another hexameter which Schweighaiiser can't find, and 
to him is inexplicable; and thirdly /zetovpot, o\ cVl t^s €KPoXrj^, at the end of 
the verse ; of which three specimens are given, II. M [xii]2o8, another which 

PHT0PIKH2 r 9§6. 99 

fif]T€ [laKpd^. TO juiep yap fxiKpov TrpocnrraieLV ttoX- 
XaKL^ TTOiei TOP ccKpoaTfiP* dvayKTi ydp, oTav en 
dpfxcSv iiri TO Troppto Kat to ixeTpoVy ov ex'^f- cV eavTw 
opop, dpTi(r7ra(r6fj Trava'afxepov, oiop TrpoaTTTaieip 
ylypecdai Sia tyip dpTiKpovaiP. Ta Se fxaKpd dTroXel- 
Treordai iroiei, wcTrep oi i^coTepo) diroKdfnrTOPTe^ tov 
TepfxuTO^* aTToXeiTTOVo'i yap Kat ovtoi tovs o'viuLTrepL" 

is misquoted from II. e [vill] 305, and a third from Od. i [ix] 212. This 
passage of Athenaeus is quoted at length by Hermann, £1. doctr. metr, 
II 26. 20. Athenaeus writes fitiovpos, Ernesti Lex. Techn, Gr. s. v. 


' For that (sc. the kS^Kov) which is too short often makes the listener 
stumble {balks him by bringing him up short and abruptly) ; because 
if, whilst he is still hurrying (eager) to get on (forward), and to the 
(end or completion of the) measure (rhythm), of which he has already 
a definition (i.e. a definite and preconceived notion) in himself, he be 
suddenly pulled up (checked, ///. pulled against) by a pause (a premature 
cessation on the part of the speaker), there must necessarily follow (arise 
yiyvtaSai) a sort of stumble by reason of the check', 

irpooTTTaieiv] must be regarded as a subst in the accusative before yiy- 
v€(T6ai, equivalent to ro TrpocnrraiW. The metaphor is from driving: 
a sudden and unexpected check, or pulling against him, will often cause 
a horse to stumble, or bring him on his knees. The abnipt cessation of 
the onward motion; in the listener's mind, as in the horse's career, pro- 
duces analogous effects — ^whence the metaphor — in the two cases. 

'Those again which are too long produce a feeling of being left 
behind, like those who (in a measured walk, as in the colonnade of a 
gymnasium) turn back only after passing (not till they have passed) the 
limit ; for they too — like the speaker that uses too long periods — leave 
behind their companions in the walk'. 

The notion is that of a party walking backwards and forwards in 
the portico of a gymnasium, the walk, like the period, being properly 
limited, though the limit is capable of being passed. If one of the party 
— suppose Aristotle himself in his daily TrcpiVaroi in the Lyceum — 
chanced to have thus outstripped his companions, the latter would be 
left in the lurch, and be no longer able to hear him. Similarly the speaker 
who makes his periods of undue length, leaves kts hearers in the lurch : 
they stop short, as it were, and lose the thread of his discourse. diroKa/xTr- 
reiv is here not in its usual sense, but *to turn away' in the sense of 
* turning back', as dnobibopat, anovefieiv, aTraiTelp, 

On this subject comp. Cic. Orat. Liii 178, itaque et longiora et 
breviora iudicat et perfecta ac moderata semper expectatj miitila sentit 
quaedam et quasi decurtata, quibus tanquam debito fraudetur offenditur, 
productiora alia et quasi immoderatius excurrentia^ quae magis etiajn 
aspernantur aures, et seq. 

loo PHTOPIKH2 r 9§6 

TTorovvTa^. ofioico^ Se Kai at TrepioBoL ai fxaKpal ovcrai p. '2- 
A070S yiverai Kai dpa/SoXfj oiuloiop. were yipeTui b 
ecTKcoylre AtjfioKpiTOs 6 Xtos eU MeXavLirTrlSriP TTOiri- 
aavTu dvTi tvov dvria'Tpocpwv dvafioXd^^ 

61 T avTW KOKa T€vx^^ dvrip dXKta kuku t€VX^^9 
^ Be fxaKpd dvafioXri tw iroiria'avTi KaKiCTti* 
dpfxoTTei yap to tolovtop Kai eU toi)s fiaKpoKtoXov^ 

' And in like manner also the periods that are too long become so 
many speeches, and like a dithyrambic prelude ; that is, rambling and 
incoherent, without unity or system. 

al ir€pioboi...\6yqs ytWrai] verb attracted from the plural to the singular, 
as the nearer of the two : so infray at re \iap PpaxvuaiXoi ov irtpiobos yiyvtrat. 
For ofioiov cf. tn'sfe lupus stabulis, et sim. On dpoPok^, see note i, 
Introd. p. 307. 

* And therefore what Democritus of Chios quoted to taunt Melan- 
ippides for writing (long, rambling) dithyrambic preludes instead of 
the (compact and regular) stanzas, is realized (in these overgrown 
periods). "A man works mischief to himself in working mischief to 
another, and the long dithyrambic prelude is most mischievous to its 
composer" (substituted for i) de KaKrj PovXfj r^ PovKcva-avri KaKiarrj, of 
the original, Hesiod. Op. et U. 263) : for a taunt of the same kind may 
also be appropriately applied to the long-membered gentry, (the dealers 
in long-membered periods)*. The makers of the periods are themselves 
called here /xa/epoKiuXoi. To scan the second verse of the quotation fia> 
KpavaJ^oKi) must be read as a crasis. " Democritus Chius Musicus, 
Abderitae aequalis teste Diogene Laertio, IX 49 (yeyorao-i hi ArffxoKptroi 
€^' TTpoTos avTos ovToSf BcvTcpos "Klos fiovaiKo^ Kara top avrov 'xpovov), 
Meminerunt eius Suidas s. v. ;^ia^€(v, Pollux, iv 9. 4, Arist. Rhet. Ill 9. 
De hoc omnium optime egit Coraes iv XiaKrjs *Apxaio\oyiag *Y\fi *Araicr, 
III p. 192, seq." Miillach, ad Democr. Fragm. p. 91. 

In the note on dvafioXai, Introd. p. 307, already referred to, may 
be found some account of the two kinds of dithyramb here alluded 
to ; the earlier antistrophic form of that of Arion, Stesichorus, Pindar, 
and the novel, relaxed, often incoherent, extravagances, of Melanippides 
and his followers. Nevertheless, Melanippides is selected by Aristo- 
demus, in answer to Socrates' question, Xen. Mem. i 4. 3, as the most 
distinguished representative of dithyrambic poetry, as Homer of epic, 
Sophocles of tragedy, Polycletus of sculpture, and Zeuxis of painting. 
This represents the popular judgment, as opposed to that of the critics. 
On this subject, I have referred to Bode, Gesch. der Hell. Dichtk. Vol. 
II Pt. II p. in seq. and 293 seq. and to Miiller, Hist Gr. Lit c. XXX. 
See also Arist. Probl. xix 15. Of Melanippides of Melos, there is a life in 
Smith's Biogr, Diet. [E. Curtius, Greek Hist Vol. iv p. 102 of Ward's tr.] 

' Those which have their members too short make no period at all : < 
and so it (i. e. the period made up of these short jcwXa) drags the hearer 
with it headlong'. The audience is carried away by them, as by a 

PHT0PIKH2 r 9 §§ 6, 7. loi 

Xeyeiv. at re Xlap (ipa'xyKvoXoi ov 7r€pioSo% ylyi/eruL' 
TrpoTrerfj ovv ayei tov aKpoaTriV. 
7 T^s §€ ev KuiKoi^ Ae^ecos ^ [lev hit]pYiixlvf] earTiv fi Se 
avTiKeifxevtiy Sifjprjimevfi flip diov **7ro\AaKis edavfiaca 
Twv Ta^ iravriyvpei^ (rvvayayoPTCdv Kal tow yvfxvi" 
Kov^ dytava^ KaTacrTt](TdvT(joVy^ avrLKeifievri 8e, ev ti 
eicaTepo) tw kw\(o f] irpos evavrita tvavriov orvyKeirai 
i] TavTO eire^evKTai Toi'i evavTiOi^y otov ^^ dixcpoTepov^ P. iaio. 
8' coi/iycrai/, Kal toi)s vTrofxeivavTa^ koi toi)s aKoXovBri' 
aapTa^* Toh fiev yap irXeiu) rfj^ oiKOi irpoareKTri- 
(ravTOj ToT^ Se iKapijp Trjp o'ikoi KareXiirop." ipapTia 
VTrofxoPYi dKoXov6t}(n^y iKapop ttXclop. ^^vicrre Ka\ toIs 

horse, at a headlong, break-neck, pace. Specimens of this style are 
given in Introd p. 314, note i. 

^ § 7. 'The periodic style has two divisions, of which the one has its 
' clauses (simply) divided, the other opposed to one another ; an instance 
of simple division is, " I have often wondered that those who first 
assembled these universal gatherings and established the athletic con- 
tests..."' dijjprjfjJvrj Xcfir, 'Mn qua membra periodi copula a se invicem 
distinguuntur." Emesti, Lex, Techn, Gr, dtaipclv. This is the opening 
of Isocrates' Panegyric Speech, supposed or intended to be delivered 
at the 'General Assembly' of the great Olympic games— whence the 
name. It is remarkable, and shews that Ar. could not have looked 
at the passage he was quoting, that the very next words to those at 
which his qaotation stops, long before the end of the sentence, contain 
a regular antithesis or opposition of members, and the * simple division' 
is absolutely confined to the words cited. I should suppose that he 
could not have been aware of this. 

* (An instance) of the antithetic period, wherein in each of the two clauses 
contrary by contrary are brought together, or (the same word is imposed 
as a yoke, i.e. bracket, or vinculum^ on both contraries) the two con- 
traries are coupled together by one and the same word^ is "Both they 
served, them that remained, and them that followed ; for the one they 
acquired more land than they had at home in addition, and to the 
others they left behind sufficient in what they had at home.'* virofiomj^ 
(staying behind) is contrary to dKo\ovBT|a^^s (following), Uavop to wXctov'. 

It is unnecessary to say that the passage is quoted wrong : it runs 
in the original, Paneg. § 35, 6, diitj). de koi tovs dicoX. koL roifs vtto/*. 
eaucraif' roU fi€P yap Uavrjp rrju oXkoi x^P^"^ KoriXarov, rois de ttXcio rfjf 
v/rapxov<njs inopttrav. The first clause is an exemplification of eVifcvf ir, 
on which see note supra c. 5 § 7 ; the second, of the antithesis of con- 
traries in two clauses balanced and opposed to one another. 

In the quotation that follows, Paneg. § 41, the original is, Jore koi tois 

102 PHT0PIKH2 r9§7- 

^(^priiJidTcop 8€Ojuei/0(9 Kai roh diroXava'ai PovXojULevot^*^^ 
ccTToXavo'is KTricrei dpTiKetrai. Kal en ^^ (rvfifiaivei 
TToTiKaKi^ ev ravrai^ koi tov^ (ppoA/JLOV^ drvxeiv Kal 
TOi)s d(ppova^ KaTopQovv.^^ ^^€v6vs jnev riav dpiareifav 
TJ^itodrjcai/y ov ttoXv Se va-repov Tf]V dpxnv rfj^ OaXdr- 
Tri^ eXafiov.^ ^* 7rXev(Tai fxev hd rf}? liireipov, Tre^cv- 
<rai Se hd Ttj^ daXdrrri^, top fiey 'EXXi^a-Troi/rou 
^ev^a^, Tov S' ''A^co Siopv^as.^^ ^'kuI (pvcei nroXira^ 
oi/ras pofxip T^s TToXew^ crrepecrdaiJ*^ "oi fxeu jdp 

Xpi7/AOTttV diOfjJvois Koi Toi£ dwokavaat rav vira/>xow«y iwiBvfiovaiv a/i^orc- 
poig apfi6TT€w. An in his alteration has adorned Isocrates' text with an 
additional rhetorical figure, the ofioioriXa/rov or rhyming terminations 
of 8€Ofi€vois and Povkofitvois, ^ aTrokava-is, (sensual) enjoyment, is opposed 
to KTija-et, acquisition', as the text has it. As these two can hardly be 
considered antithetical, and nothing corresponding to icnja-ei occurs in 
Isocr., are we to suppose that Ar., meaning to write Mci^, carelessly 
substituted icnfo-ci? or rather, that KT^trei is a mistake of a copyist for 
dfi/o-ci, which occurs twice in the sense of ' want ' ii 7. 3 and 4 : and 
also, in the same sense, Pseudo- Plato, Eryxias, 405 E 3is, 

Then follows a string of quotations from the same speech of Isocrates, 
illustrative of antithesis ; § 48 (wrong), § 72 (right), § 89 (right again), 
§ 105 (wrong), § 149 (right), § 181 (wrong), § 186 (wrong, a^civ for ((fiv)* 

The passage rdv /xcv *EWii<nrovTov K.r.X» occurs likewise in the funeral 
oration attributed to Lysias, § 29. This speech is marked as spurious by 
Baiter and Sauppe in their ed. of the Or, Att. If this be so, the figure is 
probably due to Isocrates, which is all the more likely as Lysias' style, 
XtTj) KCLi d(/)6Xi;r, is usually free from these rhetorical artifices. Victorius 
refers to an imitation of this, Cic. de Fin. ii 34. 112, Ut si Xerxes,,, 
Hellesponto iunctOy Athofie perfosso, tnaria ambulavisset terramque navi- 
gasset. And Lucr. in 1042 (1029, Munro), ilk quoque ipse (Xerxes) viam 
qui quondam per mare magnum siravit, et seq. 

* And what some one (some advocate, in accusation, whose name Ar. 
either had never heard, or didn't recollect) said against Peitholaus and 
Lycophron in the law-court (at some trial : quaere^ theirs ?), " And these 
fellows {pvToiy apparently *the accused' or * opponents' as usual) who 
used to sell you when they were at home, now that they have come 
to you here, have bought you"*. Peitholaus and Lycophron were 
brothers of Thebe, the wife of Alexander of Pherae. At her instigation 
they murdered their brother-in-law and succeeded him in the dynasty. 
They maintained themselves long against the attacks of Philip by the 
aid of Onomarchus the Phocian commander, but at last were defeated, 
353 — 352 B. c, and Onomarchus slain ; upon which they " retired with 
their mercenaries, 2000 in number, into Phokis." Grote, Hist. Gr, 
from Diodorus, Vol. xi ch. Lxxxvii pp. 366, 408, 9, 11, where Ly- 
cophron alone is mentioned as *the despot of Pherae': in p. 412, 

PHT0PIKH2 r 9 §§ 7, 8. 103 

auTwi/ KUKco^ aTTviXovTOy dl S* alorxptSs ecwdrjaa}/.^^ 
*^i5ta ftei/ ToT£ fiap^apoi^ OiKerat^ ')(^pria'daiy KOii/fj Be 
TToTsXov^ Tvov (Tvixiiayfjuov irepiopav Soi;\ei/oi/ra9." **^ 
^ct)j/Ta9 a^eiv tj TeXevTriaravra^ KaTaXeiylreii/.^^ Kal o 
eU HeidoXaov T£s eiire Kal AvKo^ppova ev tw Siku^ 
(TTrjpliOy ^^ovTOi S' vixd^ diKOi fxei/ oi/re^ eirtaXovVy 
eXdovre^ S' ws iJ/xds etavriVTai.^^ airavTa yap ravra 
8 TTOiei TO elprjfiti/oi/. rideia 8' icTip ?; TOiavTt] Xe^i^, 

Peitholaus and Lycophron are named together for the first time as joint 

As the time, place, and circumstances, as well as the speaker, of 
what is here related, are alike utterly unknown, any attempt at in- 
terpreting it must be a mere guess. Afy conjecture is, (i) that the scene 
is a court of justice — where ^ no one can say ; I will assume at Athens — 
(2) that ovroi are Peitholaus and Lycophron, as accused or defendants — 
this is suggested by cis n. rtj €«r€ and the use of owroi — and if so, this 
must have been after their downfall : and (3) that, to give the remark a 
point, Im^ai. niust have a double sense. * These fellows, says some 
one to the judges, used when they weare at home, at Pherate, to sell you 
(as slaves)— u/iaff maliciously identifies the Athenian judges with their 
fellow-countrymen, captives in Thessaly — now that they are come to 
you, the tables are turned, and they have to buy you' (i. e. to bribe 
the judges). Victorius, but utterly without point, Videiur cantunuliosa 
vox in eos iacta^ qui pecunia, quam comparassent in suis civibus hostibus 
emancipandis^ eadem postea ulerentur in illis aJb iisdem emendis^ atque 
in servitudinem sibi adiudicandis. 

*For all these (passages) do what has been mentioned^, i.e. give an 
antithetical structure to the several sentences. 

§ 8. *This kind of style is agreeable because contraries are best 
knowrn (in themselves and by reason of their opposition)^ and still better 
when placed side by side (in juxtaposition, for the purpose of contrast 
and comparison) ; and also because it resembles a syllogism ; for the 
cXey^of (the refutative syllogism) is a bringing together (for the same 
purpose) of the two opposites (the two- contradictory conclusions)'. 

This opposition of contraries in the antithesis, also reminds us of the 
fXfyxoSi the conclusion of opposites, refutation by an opposite conclusion ; 
this resemblance makes the fonner look like a proof, which is a source of 

Aristotle is constantly telling us — see Bonitz ad Metaph. B 2, 996 a 18 
— that contraries, which are the two extremes of things under the same 
genus, are also subject to the same science, tSv ivavrla fiia, or 17 aiJriJ, 
iitKTTrmri, And accordingly, inferences may be drawn from one contrary 
to another, Eth. N. V i, 112^ a 14 seq. This appears to be the founda- 
tion of what is here said, that contraries are best known to us ; they can 
be studied together, and one throws light upon the other. Comp. iii 1 1. 9, 

104 PHT0PIKH2 T 9 §§8, 9. 

OTL TcivavTia yvwpiiiwTaTa Kal irap aWtjXa /iaWoi/p. i 
yuioptjiiay Kal on eoiKS (rvWoyicfKa' 6 yap eKeyx^^ 
O'vvaywyYi.Tvov avTiKeiixevtov eariv. 
9 dvTidearL^ fxev ovv to toiovtov ia'TLVj Trapitraxn^ 
S' iau iara Ta KwXa, TrapojULOiuJO'is S' iai/ Ofxoia Tci 
ecx^tTa exv eKciTepop to kcoXop. di/ayKtj Se ti eu 
dp^fj ^ eirl TeXevTY}^ €;^C{|/. Kal dp^il fJ^^v del Ta 

oar<^ ay».*dvTiK€ifi€vci>s ^fX^O foaovrc^ (vBoMfiei fioKKov, to b airiov on i; 
fidBTi(ris dia fxev to avrLKtlaBai fiaXXoi/...ytV€rat. II 23. 30 and III 17. 13) on 
eXeyxos, and the conclusion (implying learning) yr<7/« opposites. In Probl. 
XIX 5, rfiv TO fmv6av€w is assigned, as an acknowledged truth, in ex> 
planation of a musical fact. ' Best known' seems to mean that contraries, 
being under the same genus, are better known than any other things that 
have no such relation, or no relation at all, to one another. 

On the pleasure derived from learning, which is here assumed to be 
the explanation of the agreeableness of this periodic style, see the notes 
on I II. 21, 23; particularly the latter, in which it is fully illustrated from 
Aristotle's writings. I will repeat here that the Metaphysics opens with 
a statement that all men have a natural longing for (strive after) know- 
ledge, iravTcs av3p(airoi tov cl^Wi opeyovrcu <^v(rct : and this of course 
implies pleasure in learning, which is the satisfaction of this natural 
appetite. The natural love of imitation or copying, which gives rise to 
all the imitative arts, is based in the same way upon the desire and plea- 
sure of learning. And contrariwise therefore (this is additional), as we 
saw in c. 8. 2, drjbts koI ayvaa-rou to a^ctpov, the infinite, or indefinite, is 
displeasing to us because it is unknowable. Comp. infra c. 10. 2, to yap 
fiavddveiv pabltas »}5u </)ucrei Traa-iv eVrt : the words that convey the most 
instruction to us are the most pleasing ; hence the pleasure derived from 
metaphors^ which is explained : yXwrrat on the contrary, which teach us 
nothing, are therefore disagreeable. 

tsap oiCKrfKa /LiaXXovyi/*>pt/ia] juxtaposition makes things more intelligible 
is a fact already more than once appealed to, as ll 23. 30; compare 
the parallel passage, III 17. 13 ; in 2. 9 ; and again in 1 1. 9. 

On the tkfyx^^ ^^^ ^^^ opposite conclusions, (rvXXoyc(r/Ao; dvTi(l>d<T€Ois 
see Introd. on 11 22, and note i, p. 262, and again, on 11 25, p. 268. 

§ 9. 'Such then is antithesis; the equality of the members (or 
clauses) is irapLa-dnais ; irapop.oltains is when each of the two members (the 
supposition that the period consists of only two clauses is still carried on) 
has its extremities similar (i.e. in the letters, so that the terminations 
rhyme to one another). (The clauses) must have this either' at the 
beginning or at the end. And when they (the similar sounding letters) 
are at the beginning (the figure is) always (expressed in) whole words (///. 
the words, entire words, always are a beginning), but at the end (it 
admits of) either the (similarity of the) last syllables, or the same word 
with a changed termination (declension, adverbial, adjectival, termina- 
tion, &c), or the same word. Similar sound {napopoiwais) at the com- 

PHT0PIKH2 r 9 § 9. 105 

o'l/o/iarcf, >; Se reXevTrj ra^ €cr;taras arvWa/Sa^ rj tov 
civTOv ovofxaTO^ TTTuxrei^ t] to avTO ovofia. ev cipY^ 
fJL€P Ta TOiavra ^^dypov yap eXafiev dpyou Trap* 


ScoptiToi T eTreXopTO irapdppriToi t eireearaiv* 
eTTi TeXevTfi^ Se ^^(prjdtio'av avTOU Trai^lov TeTOKevaij 
aW avTOv alrtov yeyovevai^ **€i/ irXeiCTTai^ Se <ppoV' 
^i(ri Kai ev iXa^i(rTai^ eXirio'LV.^^ TrreScK he Tavrou 
^^a^io^ Se (rradfjvai x^Xkovs, ovk d^ios wv )(^aXKOv.^^ 
TavTO S* ovofia ^^crif h* avTOV Kal ^wi/Ta eXeye^ KaKw^ 
Kal vvv ypd(^i^ KaKw^.^^ diro auXXajSri^ Se ^'ti av 

mencement (may be illustrated by) such examples as this; aypov yap 
€Aa^cv dpyov (fallow, uncultivated) nap* avrov \ Victorius quotes a parallel 
example from Xen. Cyrop. VIII 3. 15^ ov iuvafitvos Tpt<f>€iv apyov tit aypov 
dnayay^v €K€ktva€if epyaCtoScu, The * rhyme at the beginning* of clauses 
is properly called opotoKorapKrov ; at the end opoiorikfvrov and, da^prpvC 
t' tTTtkovro irapappryroC r iiritaeiv, II. I [ix] 526. *At the end, t^Brifrop 
avTov iraibiop rcroxci^ai, oXX' avrov aXnov ytyovivcu (in this there appears to 
be neither rhyme nor reason [the assonance, or correspondence of vowel 
sounds, is however clearly marked in the two clauses]; it is most likely 
corrupt, says Buhle). cV TrXcComus dc 0poinrC<ri kcu. iv cXa^Co^ovs Ikirlanv '. 

'And an inflexion (declension, change of termination from a root : see 
note on l 7. 27) of the same word (i. e. root) a^ios di (rraBfjvcu xakicovs, ovic 
a^ios »v x<^XkoO, " worthy to be set up in brass (have a bronze statue 
erected in his honour, Dem. de F. L. § 296, ^iknnrov BavpAfjovtri xal 
XClKkovv laraa-i.,, lb. § 378, ecrriv ovriv v/i«r...xo^*<>''*' onfcair' av iv 
ayopq. ; as a public benefactor), not being worth a brass farthing**'. (Sup- 
posed to deserve a brass statue — bronze in reality — when he doesn't 
deserve a brass farthing. This is in fact more in the nature of a irapo' 
vopairia, or play upon words, than of an opourriktvrov. Ar. however seems 
to class both under bis napopol&ais). 

*And the same word (repeated) cXryev KaK»s,,,ypd<f>tis KaKc9s\ Demetrius, 
who repeats all this, following Arist. very closely, and sometimes borrow- 
ing his examples, supplies in his version a word which is wanting in our 
text, both to the sense and to the due balance of the sentence : av d* 
avTov Koi CSvra eXeycr icaKat, Kal vvv Bavovra ypa<l)€is KaKWf, Demetr. irtpi 
ipfjLTivfias § 26. Compare the three chapters, ir. ntpiodov, n, napopoiav 
K(oXa)y, w. 6poioT(\€VToVf Rkct, Gr. Ill 262 — 268, ed. Spengel. This sen- 
tence was applied by some rival orator to one who, after slandering some 
one all his life, after his death wrote a panegyric on him — which, the 
speaker says, was just as bad as his slander^ 

^ This reminds us of Lord Lyndhurst*s saying of Campbell's Lives of the 

io6 PHTOPIKHS r 9§9. 

eTraues oeij/oi/, ei avcp eioe^ apyov; tarn oe a/da 

*And (a rhyming termination arising) from a single syllable : 5«v-oi/... 
dpy-6v. And the same clause may have all three at once, and the antithesis 
and balance of clauses, and similar termination may be the same' (included 
or exemplified in one or the same clause). An instance of this is given by 
Victorius from a saying of Gorgias preserved by Plutarch, Cimon. c. lo, 
TOP KificDva TO. xprfyLaia KTaadai flip ms xp^roy j^p^o-^at hi »r rifi^TO. Gorg. 
Fragm. Sauppe, Or, AtL III p. 131, Fr. Inc. 6. This is not only anti- 
thesis and the rest, but a false antithesis to boot. Demetr., u. s. § 23, has 
supplied a much more elaborate example from Isocr. Helen. § 17. ry 
(tov Isocr.) p.kv iiriirovop Koi <l>i\oKLvbvvov tou ^lov Karearrja-e (Dem. has 
(TTotrja-c), TTJs 5« TrfpifiXeTTTOv Koi irepifidx^Tov rfjv (fivanv iiroirja-ev (Dem. Kare- 
aTTftrep), ' The commencements of periods (in this view of the artificial 
structure of the sentence) have been enumerated with tolerable ((rx<5oi» 
'pretty nearly') completeness (cf — *out', 'to the end or full') in the Theo- 
dectea. There are also false antitheses, as Epicharmus, besides others, 
(*cat) wrote, rUa fitp ic.r.X.' This line of Epicharmus is also given by 
Demetr. u, s, § 24. He speaks of it as * said in jest', nt7raiyp,€Pop — to 
avTo fi€P yap cTpiyrot, Koi ovSep cVamoy— to make fun of the rhetoricians, 
a-KcaTTTODP Toiis prjTopafy viz. Gorgias and his school, the inventors of anti- 
thesis and the rest of these rhetorical novelties. 

For further details on the subject of these rhetorical figures intro- 
duced by Gorgias and his school, who carried them to a vicious excess, 
a style to which the term Vopyia^cLp was afterwards applied ; which was 
thought to have attained its highest perfection in the measured and 
laboured, empty and monotonous, periods of Isocrates ; — see the paper on 
Gorgias, Camb. yourn.ofCL and Sacred PhiL^ No. vii, Vol. ill. p. 69 seq. 
where they are classified and arranged under three heads, representing 
parallelism in scfise^ structure^ and sounds which is in fact Aristotle's 
division. Illustrative extracts from Gorgias' speeches are given at p. 67 : 
and a collection of his fragments in Sauppe, Fragm. Or. Att. (appended 
to the Or, AtL Vol. iii) p. 129 seq. [Compare Blass, die Attische Bered- 
samkeity I pp. 60 — 62, and Thompson's ed. of the Gorgias, Appendix, On 
the Fragments of Gorgias^ 

Perhaps the most complete specimen of Isocrates' style in his Pane- 
gyric, from which I will select one or two illustrations, is § 76, ov yap 
ci\iy(opovp tSp KoivwPy oud* drreXavop /xev a>s IbtcDPy i^p.€kovp di cas dKKoTpi(OPf 
dXX' €Krj8oPTO p.€P COS olKeiciP, aTTtixovTO d' ©o-TTfp xph '^^^ fiTi^ep 7rpo(TT)K6pT<av' 
and so on, in the same measured strain. Of 7rapo|xoia)(rty, we have an 
example § 45, en d' ayapas Ibflp p,^ popop rdxovs Ka\ poiprjs, dWa Koi \6ya>p 
Koi yv&prjsy K.T.X. The rhyming terminations pervade §§ 185, 186, cul- 
minating in a sentence, in which for once the echo is really effective, 
(j>rjprjp be Ka\ P'Pripr}P Ka\ bo^ap noaijp rlpa XPV vopl^eip rj (Spras c^etv ij T^Xev- 
T^a-avras KaToKec^rcip Toif£ ip rois toiovtois epyois dpiarcvaaPTas; (Aesch. c. 
Ctes. p. 65 § 78, at the close of a paragraph, ov yap top Tponop oKKd top 
Toirop popop pfTTJXXa^ep, Ennius, ap. Cic. Orat. XXVII 23, Arce et urbe 
orba sum,) No better illustration could be found of the importance of 

Chancellors: that the prospect of having his life written by him added a new 
terror to death. 

PHTOPIKHS r 9 §§ 9, lo; lo § r. 107 

irdvra ex^iv TavTOy Kai avTideaiv eivai TavTO ica« p. 1410^. 
TTccpKrop Kal oixoLOTeXevTOV. ai S' dp'x^ai tcop irepio^ 
10 Swj/ cx^^ov ev Toh Qeo^eKTeioL^ e^ripidimriprai. elcrl 
Se Kai ^evhei^ avTideaei^y olop Kal 'Ettlx^PH'O^ eTroleif 

TOKa jnev iu Trivtav eytav tjv, TOKa Se Trapd Trjvoii 

I eTrei Se ^iwpi(rTai Trepi toJtwj/, wodeu Xeyerai Ta chap.x. 
d<rreTa Kal Ta evhoKiixovvTa XeKTeov* iroieiv fxev ovv 
earl tov evcpvov^ tj tov 'yeyvfivao'fxevovy dei^ai Se t^? 

the precept so much insisted upon by Aristotle, that the art employed in 
composition should be carefully concealed, than the striking difference 
in point of interest between the studied, monotonous, wearisome periods 
of Isocrates, and the animated, vigorous, natural, yet rhythmical pe- 
riods of Demosthenes, on which though at least as much pains and 
labour had been bestowed by the one as by the other — the critics said 
* they smelt of the lamp^ — in the one the study entirely escapes notice, in 
the other it is most painfully apparent. 

On antithesis and the rest, there are also remarks in Introd.pp. 314, 5^ 
and the note : and on the divisions of the period, Kofifia and KoiKov, of 
which the last two are not distinguished by Ar., p. 312, note i. ^ 

The meaning and authorship of the Theodectea has been already 
discussed at length, p. 55, seq. The conclusion arrived at is, that the 
work here referred to was an earlier treatise on Rhetoric by Aristotle, the 
result of his rhetbrical teachings which confined itself to the subjects 
dealt with in the extant third book. aX apx^^ ^w" 'ntpiohinvy which is 
confined by the expression to the ofwtoKarapKToi^, may perhaps, as Vic- 
torius supposed, be intended to include by inference all the other figures 
described in this chapter. 


This chapter offers a remarkable exception, at all events in the first six 
sections, to Aristotle's ordinary manner of writing ; in that the thoughts 
are in some degree written out and the meaning fairly represented by the 
language : instead of being left, as usual, to the sagacity of the reader 
to fill up and interpret as best he can. 

§ I. * Having discussed and settled the preceding subject we have 
next to describe the sources of lively, pointed, sprightly, witty, facetious, 
clever, and popular (cvdoKc/ioiJwa) sayings. Now to make them is the 
result either of natural ability (cleverness) or of long practice (exercise); 
the exhibition (or explanation) of them is the province of this study (or 
treatise)'. ciJ^viyy, note on I 6.15. The Rhet. ad Alex. c. 22 (23) treats 
of doTctoi/ in style, apparently with much the same meaning as that of 
Aristotle. See the analysis of the chap, in Introd. p. 434. Brevity is at all 
events an element of r© aurCiov, Aristotle's to dare'iop seems to correspond 
to Campbell's * vivacity' of style, which is treated in the first three chap- 
ters of his third book. 

io8 PHT0PIKH2 F io§§2, 3. 

2 fxeOoSov Tavrti^. eiirvojxev ovv Kai Siapidfxtia'taiJLeda' 
dpxn 8' efTTO) riiiiv avTtt^ to yap [xavdaveLv padiw^ 
ijSi) (pvaei irao'iv earrlj Ta Se ouofxara (rfjfJLaii/ei t£, 
oia^e oca twp opofxaTwu iroiei tjiuup fiadtiaiVj ^SuTTa. 
ai fxev ovv yXwTTat dyvtore^, Ta Se Kvpia tajievj t; 
Ze fXETaipopd TroieT tovto ixaXiaTa* oTav yap eiwrj 
TO yfjpa^ KaXdfXYiVy iiroitiare [xadrio'iv Kal yvwaiv Sid 

3 Tov yevow djULCpta yap dirriudtjKOTa. iroiovai fiei/ 
ovv Kal ai tcSv ttoititcSv eiKove^ to avTO' Sio irep av 
evy dtTTeiov (palveTai. ecTi yap 1; eiKwv, Kaddwep 
eipriTai Trporepov, lULeraCJyopa Bia(p€pova'a irpodecrer p. i 

§ 2. * Let us then describe it by a complete (thorough or detailed) 
enumeration, and let this be our starting-point. Learning namely with 
ease (without trouble or labour) is naturally agreeable to every one, and 
names (nouns) are significant; and therefore all nouns or words from 
which we learn anything are most agreeable*. On this see note on 
c. 9 § 8, add c. 1 1. 9, and i 1 1. 21, 23. 
^ 'Now words strange, foreign, archaic, are not known at all (and can 

therefore convey no information), and the proper, ordinary, names of 
things, we know already. It is the metaphor (the only remaining kind 
of single word) that does this in the highest degree : for when (the poet, 
Homer Od. f [xiv] 214) calls old age a (dry, withered) stalk or stubble, 
he conveys learning and knowledge through the medium of the genusy 
because both are withered', *are fallen into the sere and yellow leaf\ 
bih TOV ywovs, because the metaphor brings remote members (species) of 
the same genus into a novel comparison, which teaches us something new 
of one or the other. 

§ 3. * Now the poets' similes produce the same effect (give point, 
vivacity, or liveliness, to the narrative of an epic poem, in which they 
usually appear) : and therefore if the simile be well (selected or executed, 
or both), it gives an air of liveliness, point, vividness to the composition. 
For the simile, as has been said before ' (not literally what is said here, 
but the substance of it, ill 4.1), Ms a metaphor, differing from it merely 
by the manner of setting forth (mode of statement) : and therefore it is 
less agreeable because longer (/xafcporfpoDf, Xryo/xcvi; or ireirotrifjJvri, III. 
written in a longer form, at greater length), and (because) it does not 
say directly that (of the two things compared) one Is the other; and 
accordingly (as the speaker's longue does not say this, so) neither 
does the (hearer's) mind look out for it' — and so loses the opportunity of 

ftaKp<rr€pas] On this termination of the adv. comparative, see Jelf, Gr. 
Gr. § 141. 3, Donaldson's Gr, Gr. § 282 b, [KUhner, Gr, Gr. § 158,2]. 
Matthiae has omitted it. 

The meaning of irpo^/o'ci, by which the simile is said here to differ from 

PHT0PIKH2 r 10 §§3, 4. 109 

Sio YiTTOV nZvy oTi fiaKporipcos* Kai ov \eyei cos 

TOVTO €K€iPO' OVKOVV Ovht ^^Te? TOUTO f] ^VX^' 

4 dvayKfi Srj Koi Xe^iv Kal evdvuAtifxaTa TavT etvai 
dcTeia, oca ttoiei tiiMV iiddri(riv ra-xj^Tav. ^16 ovt€ 
Ta eiTLTroXaia twp ivdvixtifxaTUiv ev^OKifiei {jLTriTroXaia 
yap Xeyojxev Ta iravrl SfjXay Kal a ixtilev Sel 
^riTfj<rai)y ovre ocra eiprnmeva dypoovfieva ecrlvy dXX* 
ocrcov fj afxa Xeyofxevodv 1; yvwai^ yii/erai, Kai el fxtj 
TTporepop vTrfjpx^Vf h /niKpop vcTTepi^ei rj Zidvoia' 
yiyveTai yap olop fxaOrja-L^, eKeipws Se ovZerepop. 

the metaphor, may be inferred from the previous passage referred to, ill 4. i, 
but is not there directly expressed. It means the *mode of setting forth ', 
of describing or stating the comparison which both of them make ; just 
as in c. 13. 2, 3 (in Ar.'s division of the speech), and Rhet. ad Alex. 29 
(30) §§ 2, 21 ; 35 (36) § I, irpodccis and npoeKridemi are put for * the statement 
of the case' or exposition of the facts. There are two distinguishable 
points in which the simile differs from the metaphor; the length, and 
(consequent) dilution of the force of its impression. The metaphor is 
concise, generally expressed in a single word, which suggests the com- 
parison, and identifies the two things compared, Xcyci or rovro tKeiPo; 
so that the comparison is forced directly upon the hearer's mind, who 
thereby learns something : whereas the simile goes into detail, often to a 
considerable length, so that it loses the pointed brevity of the metaphor ; 
and instead of identifying the two objects compared, like the other, by 
the introduction of the particle of comparison «y, so weakens its force 
that the hearer is apt to lose the lesson and the pleasure that should 
be derived from it. 

§ 4. * Accordingly in style and enthymemes, all those ' {^ravra^ agree- 
ing only with evBvfirjfiaTa, stands for ravrrjv Kai ravra ; including the 
former of the two) *are pointed and lively, which convey to us instruction 
rapidly '. Then follows a note on the preceding. * And this is the reason 
why neither superficial enthymemes are popular — by superficial (yap, 
videlicet) I mean those that (lie on the surface, and) are (therefore) plain 
to everybody (so that he who runs may read) and require no research 
or investigation — nor those which when stated are unintelligible (to a 
popular audience) ; but all those of which the knowledge is acquired 
at the moment of delivery— even though it did not exist previously — or 
(in which) the understanding is only a little in the rear (of the speaker). 
For in the one case knowledge as it were is acquired ; in the other, 
neither the one nor the other', i. e. in either of these two ways there 
is a sort of learning, either immediate or nearly so : in the other case, 
that of superficial and unintelligible enthymemes or style in general, 
neither immediate nor quasi-immediate knowledge is attainable. Com- 
pare with this the second clause of 11 23. 30. 


no PHT0PIKH2 T lo §§ 5, 6. 

5 Kara fiev ovv Trjv Zidvoiav tox Xeyojitvov ra TOiauTa 
evSoKifxel Twv €vdvfir]fxaTWVy kutu Se Trjv Xe^ip Tta 
fxei/ (TX^I^ctTi, idp dmK€iixev(a^ XeyriTai, dloi/ '^ Kai 
Trjv Tois dWoi^ KOiPi]U elprivriv vofxi^ovTcoi/ toT^ 
avTcov iS/ors TToXefiov.^^ duriKeiTai TToXefio^ elpfii/ri,^ 

6 Toh S* oi/Ofiao'iy, idp c;^i^ fxeTaCpopaVy Kai tuvtyiv 
IXYiT dXXorpiaPf ^aXeTTOV yap crvpibeivy fxtjT tVi- 

^ colon, 

§ 5. * Such is the approved (popular) kind of enthymemes in respect 
of the sense or meaning (in their intellectual aspect). In that of style 
or language, so far as regards the^^re (i. e. the structure of the period 
and its clauses), the popularity is attained by the antithetical expression 
of them (the balance of opposite clauses or members)^ as in the example, 
(Isocr. Phil. § 73)) Jtat rriv eipi^v^v t^v tois SKkois Kouf^v v6\€fiov rdls avrmif 
IBiois (their own private interests) tlvai yo/xtfoi/rwv' — as it stands in Iso- 
crates' text, Aristotle having altered the arrangement, as usual; — *war 
is antithetical to peace*; — 

§ 6. * and in the single words, by the metaphors they contain, 
and these neither foreign and strange', (compare ill 11. 5, drr oIku<ou, 
where reference is made to this place; so that mr oiKtrnv may be 
regarded as an interpretation of /i7 ahXoTplav here : and this coincides 
with III 2.-9, metaphors should be ^appropriate', apfiorrovaasi or cic row 
dvoKoyov 'derived from a proportional or i^/«^r^^ subject' : and ibid. 
§ 12, metaphors should not be * far-fetched', otJ iroppaBcv, oXX' €k t£v 
<rvyy€p£p Koi r»p ojiotidaPy) ^for such it is difficult to take in at a glance ; 
nor superficial, for these produce no impression. Further, (words are 
popular) if they vividly represent (things that they describe) ; for things 
should be seen (in the orator's description of them) as if they were 
actually being done (going on, transacted, before the hearer's eyes) 
rather than as future. This is in fact the 'historic present', applied to 
future, instead of past, events. On irpo 6pp.dT»p, see note on li 8. 13. 
dWoTplap "alienam, ductam a rebus parum propinquis et affinibus," 
Victorius ; who also, as a parallel case, refers to Cic. de Or. 11 59. 241, 
est autent kaec huius generis virtus^ ut ita facta demonstreSy ut mores 
eius de quo narres, ut sermo^ ut vultus omnes exprimantur^ ut its qui 
audiunt tum geri ilia fierique videantur, 

' These three things then are to be aimed at (in the attempt to give 
vivacity and pungency to style), metaphor, antithesis, and vivid repre- 

The meaning of ipkpy^ia is clearly shewn by a comparison with 
the statements of c. 11. It is there identified with irpo 6p.pAro>p 
nottlvy § 2, and is principally shewn in animation^ literally and meta- 
phorically, in a vivid, vivacious, style, and in animating, vivifying, 
inanimate objects ; investing them with life, motion, and personality^ ; 

^ I may observe that this is one of the principal arts by which Mr Dickens 
attracts his readers, to which the remarkable vivacity of his writings is due. 

PHTOPIKHS r lo §§ 6, 7^. in 

TToXaioVf ovhep yap TroieT 7roV;^€£j/. eTi el Trpo 
ofifxaTcop TTOier opau yap Set ra TrpaTTOfxeva fidWou 
i) lULeWopra. Set apa tovtcov <rTo;^a^€cr0ai Tpmv, 
lieTa(popa^ di/Tideaetos evepyeia^. 
7 Twv Se jULeracfyopcou rerTapwi/ ovcrtav ev^OKijULOvci^- h^^' 

§§ 2, 3, 4. KivovfAfva yap Kal (civra irotct navra' 1; de ((ofj ivtpycia ris 
(Eth. N. X 4, 1175 rt 12). This sense is borrowed from the metaphysical 
use of the term, to express 'realization', as opposed to bvpofus, the mere 
capacity or poteijdality of life and action. I may add that cWpyeta 
is used in two distinct senses, representing two different forms of de- 
velopment, which may be distinguished as the metaphysical and moral 
applications of it ; as will appear from a comparison of the form it 
assumes in the Nicom. Ethics, and the biology of the de Anima. It 
is sometimes identifiable with ctorXcx^ta, expressing the actuality or 
actual realization of existence out of a mere undeveloped capacity of 
life : in the moral view, it is the realization of action^ a realized activity, 
from the dormant capacity — implying existence — to the active exercise 
or energy of the bodily and mental functions. So happiness is an ivfpyeia 
i^vxv^f pleasure rcXetot (completes and crow^ns) t^u ivipyuav, Eth. N. x 4, 
sub init. and again c. 4, ult. c. 5, sub init. : and the def. of pleasure 
in the seventh (Eudemian) book, ivtpytia di^tpirodiaro?. Sometimes three 
stages are distinguished (as frequently in the de Anima), illustrated 
by thiee degrees of knowledge in man: (i) the latent capacity, (2) know- 
ledge acquired but not exercised, and (3) the active exercise of thought 
and knowledge by Beapla, philosophical contemplation and speculation^. 

Quintilian on cVcpycia, VIII 3. 89, ivfpyeia confinis his {est enim ab 
agendo dicta) et cuius propria virtus^ non esse quae dicuntur, otiosa. 
lb. 6. II, Praecipueque ex his oritur sublimitas quae audaci et proxime 
periculum translatioue tolluntury quum rebus sensu carentibus actum 
quendam et animos damus ; qualis est, pontem indignatus Araxes, 
From €V€py€UL another quality of style is to be distinguished (in Quint ) 
viz. ivapytia, 'clear, lively, graphic, narration,' {evidential though near 
akin to the other. It is mentioned iv 2. 63, and distinguished from 
perspicuitaSy VIII 3. 61. eVopyfta, ^uae a Cicerone illustratio et evidentia 
nominatur, quae non tarn dicere videtur quam ostendere : et affectus non 
alitcr, quam si rebus ipsis intersimus, sequentur [id. VI 2. 32]. See Em. 
Lex, Tech. Gr. s. v. et ivcpytka, 

§ 7. * Of the four kinds of metaphors, the proportional are the most 
popular*. On metaphor in general, and the proportional metaphor in 
particular, see Appendix B to Bk. ill, Introd. p. 374. 

Here follows a string of pointed, striking, sayings, exemplifying 

^ At the conclusion of Mr Mill's Examination of Sir W, Hamilton's Phil. 
P« 559> we find the following remark. **In Aristotle's case the assertion (of 
Sir W. H.) rests on a mistake of the meaning of the Aristotelian word ip^pycia, 
which did not signify energy, but fact as opposed to possibility, ac/ns io poteniia.*' 
Had Mr Mill turned to the first two sentences of Aristotle's Ethics, or to the 
chapters on Pleasure, x. 4, 5, he would have seen reason to alter this statement. 
By * energy ' I suppose active, vigorous, exercise to be intended. 

112 PHT0PIKH2 r io§7«. 

fxaXia-ra al Kar dvaXoylaVy wairep TlepiKXtj^ e(pn Tt]P 
peoTTjTa Tfju diroXofievfiv ev tw iroXifKo oi/rcos ty^aj/*- 
cdai eK Trjs ttoAcws wcTrep ei T£9 to eap Ik toD 
eviavTOv i^eXoi. kui AeTrr/Vr/s wept AaKeSaijULOvitop, 
ovK idv Trepudeip Trjp 'EAAcrSa eTep6(pda\fxov yevoiie- 
VYiv. Kai Kt](pi(r6doTOS CTrovSa^opTO^ Xdprjro^ evOvpa^ 

TO darelou in Style ; all of them metaphors, and most of these conveyed 
in single words. They do really, I think, deserve the character attributed 
to them. The passage, rav be yLtratfiop^v — jr€ipa<r6ai dovvac, is transcribed 
by Dionysius, Ep. I ad Amm. c. 8, in his enquiry into the date of the 
Rhetoric. The most important variation from the text of An is the 
omission of the example from Leptines "by all the MSS" (Spengel's 
Traa on RheL Munich 1851 p. 47), though it has been supplied in the 
printed copies ; he begins the quotation with tiara Xcf iv ovr» ypa<f>ay. 
The only other difference of any importance is ayayovra for Ix^vra^ and 
bibovai ovTds for dovutu, 

* As Pericles said, that the youth that had perished in the war had 
vanished out of the city, as though one were to take the spring out of 
the year*. On this saying, and Pericles' claim to it, see note on I 7.34, 

* And Leptines of the Lacedaemonians^ (to the Athenian assembly,) 
that he would not let them look on whilst Greece became one-eyed (lost 
one of her eyes — the other being of course Athens ; Athens^ the eye of 
Greece^ Milton, P, R. iv 240). Victorius has produced similar expressions 
from Cic. pro leg. Manil. c. 5 § 1 1, de Nat. Deor. in 38, Hi duos illos 
oculos orae maritimae effoderunt " Similiter Cimon Atheniensibus sua- 
sit, \i.y\r€ •rr\v 'EXXoda \iaki\v^ fii^e t^v ttoKiv €T€p6(vya ireptibtiv ytytvrjfievriv^ 
Plut. Cim. 489 ^f <>^^ o etircoUf p,^ Troiijcn/rc €T€p6<f>0<iXp4}v r^v 'EXXada (Plut. 
Polit. Praecept. 803 a)," Victorius. The Leptines here mentioned 
is no doubt the proposer of the law Tr^pl rfjs drcXciar against which 
Demosthenes delivered the speech c. Leptin. in B.C. 355. He may possibly 
be the same as the Leptines mentioned by Demosth. c. Androt. § 60, 
o eK KoiKrjs. Wolf, Proleg. ad Dent. Leptin, p. 45, note 12 (Schafer, 
Appar, ad Dem, p. 8), supposes that the author of this saying and 
the opponent of Demosthenes are the same person. The occasion on 
which Leptines produced his metaphor was the embassy sent by the 
Lacedaemonians to Athens in their extremity, after the defeat of 
Leuctra (371 B.C.), during the invasion of their country by the Thebans, 
B.C. 369 ; see Xen. Hellen. vi 5. 34, 35, Isocr. Archia § 64, seq. Grote, Hist 
Gr. Vol. X [ch. Lxxviii] p. 320 seq. Thirlw. Hist Gr, ch. xxxix (Vol. v. p. 
106, 1st ed.). Isocrates, Areop. § 69, alludes to the same event, cdotc Aoxc- 
dat/uu>v(ovr, rovi cVi r^r okiyapxias oXiyov beiv Kaff eKoarrjv r^v rjii€pa» irpoaroT' 
Tovras riplv (see the fragm. of Lysias, Or. 34, quoted in note on 11 23. 19, 
on this Lacedaemonian ' dictation ',404 B.C.) ikBwiv cVl Tfji brfftoKpariat 
(369 B. C.) iKfTfvaoyras koX b€rjaop^vovs prj irfpiibtlv avrovs dvaoTOTOvs ycvo- 
p€vovs. [A. Schaefer's Dem. u. j. Zeity i p. 75, note.] 

' And the saying of Cephisodotus, in his indignation at Chares* eager- 

PHTOPIKHS r io§7Z^; m5 

hovvai Trepl toV 'OXvpOiukop 7r6\eixo9 iqyavaKTeii 
(pacKwu eh Trvlyixa top htiixov exovTcH^ tol^ evdvvas 
ireipao'dai Zouvai^. Kal irapaKaXtav irore tov^ 'Adrj^ 
vaiov^ eU Ev/Soiai/ eTnaiTicrafievov^^ e(pfi Seiv i^iei/ai to 

^ dyayovra cum Dionysio, ' ^ihhvox ovrwj cum Dionysio, ' hrKriTicojjJvovi 
ness for the scrutiny of the accounts (of his charge) in the conduct of the- 
Olynthian war, " that he drove the people into a fit of choking by his, 
(pertinacity in the) attempt to offer his accounts for scrutiny in this way.'" 
He wanted to force his accounts down their throats, and nearly 
choked them in the attempt. I have followed Dionysius' version of this 
extract, which is plainly preferable to the text of Aristotle, ayeiv tls 
muyfjux is Greek and sense; exftv €ls nviyfia neither one nor the other; 
and dMvcu ovTo>£f at the end, has far more meaning than the simple 
dovvai of our text. With the vulgar reading, txovra must be taken with 
Tos €v6vvasy "with his accounts in his hands" — which is so far graphic, as 
it indicates the eagerness with which he was trying to force them upon 
the people — but then 6ovvai rov dtjiiov €is irvly/io, for * to drive them into 
a choking-fit *, is surely indefensible. 

Cephisodotus, 6 €k KcpaftcW, has been already quoted ; see ill 4.3 not§ 
(near the end of the section [p. 53]), where some account is given. Two mor<* 
of his pungent sayings are quoted further on. Chares, with his mercenaries, 
was sent to take the command in the Olynthian war in 349 B. c. (Clinton, 
^. //J). Olynthus was taken by Philip, 347. This notice is cited by Max 
Schmidt in his tract On the date of Ar.^s Rhetoric^ p. 15, as a piece of 
evidence on that question ; but the limit of the period of publication can be 
brought much lower down. See Introd. On the date of the Rhetoric^ p. 36 seq. 

nifiyfia or vviy fios, and its congeners, is a medical term, used by Hip- 
pocrates, expressive of choking, stifling, suffocation. 

* And the same (Cephisodotus) once in an exhortation to the Athe- 
nians said that they must march out (at once) to Euboea (to the aid 
of the Euboeans), and there provide themselves with provisions ' (read by 
all means fTrunriaofuvovs, the future, with Spengel ; Bekker retains the vu/- 
gata lectio eirnriTurafievovs, which spoils the point), *like Miltiades' decree' 
(with all the unhesitating haste prescribed by Miltiades' decree at the time 
of the first Median invasion). They were therefore not to Ibse any time in 
making provision at home^ but to get to Euboea with all speed and there 
provide themselves ; the future is necessary : Victorius, though he reads 
the aorist, translates it as the future. This hurried expedition to Euboea 
occurred in 358 B.C., Clinton, F,.H,, sub anno, Dem. c. Androt. § 14, to-^' 
OTi Trpt^rjv Ev^ocvcrti/ rjficpoiv Tpieop ePorjdrjoraTe K.r.X. and Aesch> C. Ctes. 
§ 85. It was made to assist the Euboeans against the Theban invaders ; 
and in the archonship of Cephisodotus himself. 

TO MiXtmiSov ^ij<f>i(rfui\ is explained by the Scholiast, quoted by Vater, 
rb firj Pov\ev<raa$ai' MikTidbrjs fi^ /SouXeutra/ievos e^rjXBev koto, tov S€p^ov : 
and more at length by Ulpian in Shilleto's note to Dem. de F. L. § 346, 
tmovrav tSp Mrj8a>v, tSapxfjs Kal 6 MiKridbiji dpaficiv €v6vs eVi tov MapaO^va 
iy^rj(^l(raTo leal /xi} dvafievtiv e<os avWeyairiv ol crvp.yMXjrio'ovT^s, As to the 
grammatical construction of the accusative, it seems to be a substitutioa 

AR. in. 8 

114 PHT0PIKH2 r io§7r. 

MiXrid^ov y^rtipKrixa. Kal 'ItpiKpaTri^ (nreKraiievayv 
'Adripaitop Trpo^ ^EmBavpop Kal Trjp TrapaXiap tjya^ 
puKTei, (j>da'Ka)p avTOus Tci e(p6Sia tov iroXeiiov wapti^ 
ptiadui. Kal YleiQoXao^ Tf]v irdpaXop powaXop tov 

of TO MiXrtodov ylr^ffna-fAa for the proper cognate accusative t^obov^ to 
make an expedition, such as, on the principle of, Miltiades' decree, with 
all haste, and without deliberation. 

'And Iphicrates, indignant at the truce that the Athenians had made 
with Epidaurus and the neighbouring coasts, said of them that " they 
had stript themselves of their provisions (not ' for the way\ but) for the 
war"*. f<l>6bia are viatica^ provisions for a journey ; which in the absence 
of inns the traveller had to carry with him : here, provisions for the 
support and maintenance of war and its expeditions. Hdt. writes iirobia^ 
Xen. €<t>6bu)P (sing.). Arist., Pol. il 5, 1263 a 37, uses it of provisions for 
hunting expeditions in Lacedaemon. 

The small independent state of Epidaurus, bounded by the territories 
of Corinth, Argolis, Troezen, and the Saronic gulf, was at this time in 
alliance with Sparta, to which it supplied troops, in the great contest 
with the confederate Greeks, allied for the reduction of the Lacedae- 
monian power, terminating in the battle of Corinth, 394 B. C, see Grote, 
Hisf. Gr.Voh lx[ch.LXXlv] p. 422, 425 ; and Xenophon's description of the 
battle, Helen, iv 2.9 — 23. It appears from ihis passage that the Athenians 
had made a truce with Epidaurus. Cephisodotus' indignation was aroused 
at the folly of making a truce with people who had a sea-board, which the 
Athenians with their naval superiority could have plundered with im- 
punity, and so have supported the war, 

*And Peitholaus (called) the Paralian (trireme) "the people's cudgel", 
and Sestos "the corn-stall of the Piraeus"'. Whether this Peitholaus is 
the same as the one already mentioned in 9. 7, as associated with Lyco- 
phron in the government of Pherae, we have no means of precisely deter- 
mining. The probability is that he is. For even Aristotle's careless- 
ness could hardly have carried him so far as to neglect to mention the 
distinction between two persons named so nearly together, if there were 
any. This being so, it appears again, as from the former passage, that 
he lived at Athens after his downfall. 

Tf/v napoKov] This vessel and its companion the ^akantvta were two 
picked vessels, fast sailers, and with carefully chosen and highly paid 
crews, kept in reserve at the Piraeus for state purposes ; such as sacred 
embassies, ^ccopmi, to carry the admiral of the fleet in a naval expedition, 
for ordinary embassies, *for the transport of money and persons* (Bockh, 
PudL Econ.f Bk. II. c. 16, Lewis' Transl. p. 240), and for the pursuit and 
conveyance to Athens of state offenders who had made their escape ; as 
Alcibiades after the mutilation of the Hermae, Thuc. vi 53, 61 to, of the 
Salaminia. As illustrating the use of the Paralus as a pcmdKov, Demosth. 
TTfpi r»y iv Xfppovj^<r<j^f § 29 is still more in point ; dXX' eVl piv rour 
f^BpovSy ovs ovK ?0Ti Xa/3ciy vno roif vopniSy icat OTparuoras rpf<fi€tv Koi rpti;- 
p€is itciripntiv Ka\ xpripaTa €la'<l>€pfiv dfl icol dvayKoiov cWti', cVl d* ijpar 
avToiff ^i7<^i(r/xa, ^ItrayyeXta, IlapaXo;, ravr iarivy i.e. the special decree, 

PHTOPIKH2 r ro§7^. 115 

Sfj/JLOV, ^ricrrov Se rriXiau rod Tleipaiea)^. Km Fle/o/- p. 128. 
kA^s TTiv hiyivap d<pe\eiv eVeAei/<r€ rr^v Xfi/mtji/ rod 

impeachment, and the Paralus, were the three principal instruments of 
punishment of offenders amongst the Athenian citizens. The HapaKos 
therefore is here compared to a pdiraXoi^ or cudgel, because it is the 
instrument with which the state deals her heaviest blows, not only upon 
those that have escaped her justice, but upon all those who offend her. 
IlapaXof- fiia tSp nap* *A6rivai»v npos ras drifwalag ;^pctaff btairtinrofUwov 
rpii^pcovy Harpocr. s. v. He adds that the crews of the two vessels 
received four obols a day, and stayed at home the greater part of the year. 
Photius has four articles on the word, one of them borrowed from Har- 
pocr., almost in the same words. The first of the four identifies the 
Salaminian and Paralian. There is an article upon this in Smith's Dict^ 
of Ant (s, V. Salaminia). 

Sestos, on the Hellespont, seems from this passage to have been one 
of the emporia for the com which was imported from the coasts of the 
Black Sea and the adjacent regions, it is mentioned with others by 
Isocr. avri'b, § 107, as an important and well-situated town. Strabo, 
in writing of Troas, makes no mention of the corn-stores of Sestos. 
[Biichsenschiitz, Besitz und Erwerb, pp. 421 — ^430 (on the corn-trade 
between Greece and the Euxine). The present passage, which he does 
not quote, suggests a modification of his statement on p. 426 that Sestos 
and Abydos were less important emporia than Lampsacus.] 

This corn-store or warehouse is compared to the 'shopboard' or 'stall* 
n/Xio, the tray on which corn was exposed for sale in the shops. The word 
was used for a 'stand' or * stage' of various kinds. A passage which 
illustrates the use of it referred to here (which does not appear in the 
Lexicons) is Arist. Hist. An. vi 24. 3, where there is an account of a 
wonderful mule, that lived to the age of 80 ; after it had been released 
from labour by reason of its age, it used to walk by the side of the teams 
which were dragging the stone for the building of the temple (doubtless 
the Parthenon), and not only urged them on to their work, but helped 
them itself to drag the load up the hill (how this was done by the animal 
is not explained) ; oor* i\^<l>i(ravTo p,^ dircXavvciy avrov rovs a-iTtnrtSXovg dvro 
ravrrjki&v. This clearly explains the particular sense of n/X/a in this 
passage. The rrjKia is the tray or stand at the corn-dealer's door, in 
which the corn is exposed for sale. In Aristoph. Plut. 1038, it means 
*a sieve', koo-kivov kvkXos sive TrepK^/peta, SchoL ad loc, Etym., Suidas 
and Hesychius. 

* And Pericles bade (his countrymen) get Aegina out of the way (get 
rid of it, as a plague or obstacle to their enjoyment or happiness) " the 
eyesore of the Piraeus'". This saying is quoted by Plutarch, Pol. Praec. 
803 A, amongst the ttoXitiico Trapayyekpara^ and also prj Troirja-TjTc erep- 
6(f>6akyLov rriv 'EXXada, without the author*s name. It is attributed to 
Demades by Athen. in 99 D, ^ripjabris 6 pi^rtop tkeye ttjv ph Atyipav X^prjp 
fivat Tov Utipaiw, Comp. Plut. Apophth. Reg. et Due. 186 c, and Wyt- 
tenbach note^' ad loc. It suggested to Casaubon an emendation of an 
apparently unmeaning word in Strabo ix p. 395, of the islet of Psyttalea, 


ii6 PHTOPIKH2 r 10 §7^. 

Ueipaieaos. Kai MoipoKXij^ ovOep e(pri Trovfiporepo^ 
ehaij opofxaaras Tivd rwp iwieiKwv* eKeivov /aep yap 
eTTLTpiTVDV TOKcov Troptjpeveirdaif avTos Se iTnSeKaTWP, 
Kai TO 'Ava^avipiSov iafjLJBeiov vrrep rtiv Ovyarepuyp 
irpo^ TOP yapiov iyxpopi^ovawPy 

VTreptJimepoi fxoi twp yd/JLcop al irapdepoi. 

between Salamis and the mainland, in^o-toy Uprj/unf ircrpciidcr (fiva-opfios^ 
Aesch. Pers. 450) 6 tiv€s €hrov XifUva {lege Xq/irip) row ncipaior. 

X^firj and \rjfxav seem (from the Lexx.) to be almost confined to Ari- 
stophanes amongst the earlier writers. ArisL Lysistr. 301, with a pun 
upon Xi;/AViov TTvp (on which see Schneidewin on Soph. Philoct. 799) ; Plut. 
581, KpoviK(U£ \jifuug (old-fashioned prejudices, dinmesses of sight) ^vto>s 
\rifiavT€s ras <l>p€vas afKJya, Nub. 327, Xij/t^v Ko\oKvvTai£» (They occur 
however as medical terms in Hippocrates.) They are not found, where 
they were to be most expected, in the Fragments of the other Comic 
writers. No instance of either is to be found in the very complete 
Index to Meineke, Fr. Com, Gk 

'And Moerocles said that he was in no respect a greater knave than 
— one of the respectable (upper) classes that he named : for the other 
played the knave at the rate of 33 per cent., he (himself) only at ten '. 
The degree of knavery is compared to the rate of interest or profit which 
is made upon each : "a very respectable person indeed!" says Moerocles 
** and a very respectable interest he makes upon his respectability (or, 
rightly interpreted^ roguery) : why! I only get a third of that for mine.'' 
Of Moerocles an account is given in Smith's Biogr* Diet, s. v. MocpoicX^r, 
^oKsmivioi r<3y Trap* 'AOrivaiois ovk d<l>caf&s ndkirevaafuwov, Harpocr. He 
was a contemporary of Demosthenes, who mentions him four times, see 
Sauppe's Ind, Nom, ad Or, Att, ill 99, and an anti-Macedonian orator. 
He seems from the allusion, de F. L. § 293 (§ 335) to have been a 
greedy fellow, and inclined to exaction in money-matters. On the rates 
of interest at Athens, and the modes of computing it, see Bockh, PubL 
Econ, Bk. I. c. 22, Lewis' Tr. p. 1 30. 

'And Anaxandrides' iambic verse about (not ' on behalf of, of which 
there is no evidence in the text) the daughters' (so in the Scriptures, 
^daughters of Jerusalem*, &c) *who were over long about marrying, " I 
find (ftoi) the young ladies have passed the day for their marriage."' 
[" My daughters' marriage-bonds have passed their date."] 

v7r€pT^fi€pos, her^ metaphorically used by Anaxandrides, is properly a. 
technical term of Attic law, signifying one who has failed to pay a fine, or to 
comply with any judgment or verdict imposed by the court on the day 
appointed: one who has passed the prescribed term or the day fixed. It 
takes the genit. here, as if it were vnip rrjv ruiipav rap yap^v, Hke axoKKog 
d<nribavj &7r€7r\og ff>ap€<av, a^o<f>riros Ko>Kvp,aT<auy &c. Anaxandrides was a 
poet of the Middle Comedy, Meineke, Fragin, Com, Att, Vol. I. p. 367 
seq. The line here quoted is Fragm. Inc. xvii, Meineke in 200. Anaxan- 
drides is quoted again, c. 11. 8, an equally uncertain fragment, No. 
XVIII, and probably again, 11. 10, also 12.3, and £th« N. vii 11. 

PHTOPIKH2 r io§7/ ii? 

Kat TO TIoXvevKTov els dTroTrXrjKTiKou Tivu ^v&iaiir^ 
TTOVy TO fiti hvvatrdai t^o'v^^lav dyeiv vtto Ttjs tvxh^ €P 
TrevTea-vpiyyw vocrto Ze^efievov. kui Kfi(J>iir6doTO^ Ta« 

* And that of Polyeuctus to one Speusippus who was paralysed, "that 
he could not keep still (was as restless as ever), though bound (fettered, 
confined) by fate (or accident) in a pillory- (or stocks-) complaint" ["bound 
in a perfect pillory of pain'*]'. 

Polyeuctus, probably of (the Ath. deme) Sphettus, an Attic orator, 
contemporary with Demosth, and of the same political party, viz. anti- 
Maced )nian. See Plut. Vit. Demosth. 846 C, which connects him with 
Demosthenes. Also, Vit. Parallel. Demosth. c. 10, d If avros <^iXd(ro^of 
(Ariston of Chios) EtoXvcvjcrov iaropti top S^i/mov, eVa rap rore TroXircv- 
ofiepap *ABi]Pj^a'iP^ d7ro<f}aip€a6ai fieyiarop yxp eivat pi^Topa AtujuMrBeprf k,t,\» 
A short account of him is to be found in Smith's Biogr, Did, s. v. 
No. 2, (the writer says that "the orations (!) of P." are here referred to). 
There are six of the name mentioned in the Orators — Sauppe Index 
Nominum {ad Or, AU,) iil 117. — It is uncertain whether the P, who 
appears in Dem. c. Mid. § 139 is the same as he of Sphettus, Sauppe 
distinguishes them : Buttmann, ad loc. Mid. 560. 2, has this note : 
"Orator temporis illius, praeter hanc Midiae defensionem, cum De- 
mosthene coniunctissimus, si credimus Ruhnkenio, qui eundem putat 
ac Sphettium. Augerus non item ; " nor, apparently, Sauppe [nor 
Arnold Schaefer, Dem, u, s. Zeity 11. p. 100, who elsewhere quotes Dem. 
Phil. III. § 72, noXv€Vi<TO£ d p€\Ti<rro£ ovroai (of the Sphettian)]. The 
speaker quoted by Ar. was doubtless the best known of them, the 
Sphettian. See the reff. in Westermann, Gesch, der Beredts, § 53, 5, 6. 

dn-oTrXi/Arixdf, ciTrdTrXi^Krof, one who has received a shock or strode 
(as of palsy), which has driven him away from (dtrd) himself and his 
normal condition, and so disabled, paralysed, him: of an 'apoplectic 
stroke'^ but not here ; also, like eWXifrrccr^ai, to be startled out of one's 
wits, or driven mad, attonitus, I have followed Victorius in the in- 
terpretation of the saying ; that Speusippus, though his body was now 
paralysed, and motionless as if he had been fastened in the stocks 
or pillory — or worse, in an instrument that confined his head, hands, 
and feet — had his mind as restless and excitable as ever. 

ir€yT€avpiyyos is a transfer from a wooden instrument with five 
'pipes' or holes, kept in the prison for the punishment of refractory 
prisoners, which confined at once the head, hands, and feet, to a disorder 
which paralyses and deprives of motion. Arist. £q. 1049, d$<rat «** 
(K€\€V€ v€VT€<n)plyy^ i^^ "n€PT€ OTTOS txopTij hC Zv ot re irddcf icol al x^tp^^ 
Koi 6 Tpdxi^os dvePdKKero,** Schol. ad loc. TTtpreavpiyytj^ £vXq|>, r^ voboKoucif' 
iT€PT€ yap onds exft, Bi Zp, . . (as before) ipiPaKXoPTai (Suidas). Comp. lb. s. v. 
nodoKOKKi] (a later form of TroSoKOioy), ArffioaOepris Kara TifioKparovs (in a law, 
§ 105), r6 (v\ov rh iv r^ BearpMTtjpltj^ ovras cxaXcIro icr.X. To which 
Harpocr. adds, s. v. irodoKOKicrjy Avaias d* ip rf Kara Otopv^jarov, ci 
ypija-ioSf c ji/yclroi Tmipofia' (jyrfol yap* 17 Trodo/caiuci; avro itrnv o pvp KoKtirai 
€P T^ ^vX^ dfdiaOai (Lys. c. Theomn. a § 16. q. v.). On this, and the 
various other punishments in use at Athens, see Becker's Charicles^ 

ii8 PHTOPIKH2 r 10 §7^. 

rpiripei^ IkoKh fxvXwva^ woiklXov^^ 6 Kvwv Se ra 
KawriXeia Tci 'Arriica (l)iyiTia. Aicrtoii/ Se, on eU 
^iKeXiav rnv iroXiv i^ex^av* tovto yap fxeTa(popa 
Kal wpo OfifiaTdov. Kat "wcttc l3ofia'ai rriu 'EWaSa*'' 

pp. 369, 370. He says "Suidas is wrong in taking this (tt. f ) to be 
synonymous with the nodokOKKTj :" but does not tell us why, or upon 
what authority (probably on account of the name, iro^kdioff). 

'And Cephisodotus called the triremes parti-coloured (gaily-painted) 
(mills i. e.) millstones ' from their crushing and grinding (exactions and 
oppressions) the Athenian tributaries and others. Comp. on this ex- 
pression III 6. 1, as an instance of a " privative epithet ", the note on that 
section, near the end. On TroueiXovr, Victorius quotes Virg. Georg. IV 
289, pic/i's phaselis [cf. St John's Hellenes ill 302], On Cephisodotus, 
o Xcsrror, o Ik. Kf pafut^Pj see note on lii 4. 4. 

'And " the Dog ** (Diogenes the Cynic) called the taverns (or wine- 
shops) " the Attic messes" '. 

Of Diogenes^ o Kvav\ see Grote's Pla^ III p. 507, seq. ch. 38. 
** Diogenes seems to have been known by his contemporaries under this 
title. Aristotle (L c) cites from him a witty comparison under that desig- 
nation." u. s. p. 509. He receives this name from the little boys or the 
bystanders in several of Diogenes'. (Laert.) stories about him. A long 
list of his sayings, often witty, but usually bitter and sarcastic, is to 
be found in Diogenes Laertius' Life. This does not appear amongst them. 

TO, icainjXcia] retail shops (icaTr^Xtfi;), cook-shops, wine-shops and taverns. 
Comp. Isocr. Areop. § 49 ; speaking of the change of habits and manners 
in Athens in the author's time : cV xain^Xct^ de <f>ay€iv rj mtlv ovb§\s 
ov^ hv olKfTTjs inuucrjs iroKyaiarev' trtfivvvta-Bai yap ifi/Kerttv aXX' ov /SofAoXo- 
X^vea-BaiK These scenes of riot, drunkenness, and licentiousness, says 
the satirical Diogenes, are what the Athenians call l^eir (nKraiTia ; 
this is lAeir substitute for (or representative of) the sober and orderly 
Spartan (f^ihirui. See the description in Grote, //". G^. ll 513 [chap, vi], 
Miiller, hor, iv 3, on the meals of the Dorians. KptbLTia, or as it 
is usually written (^ct&Via, is the name given by the Si>artans to what 
the Athenians and others called ava-a-iTLOj the public tables or messes 
at which all the citizens dined in common. Muller, u. s. § 3, li 294 
Leyris' Transl), remarks, note 2, " It is very probable that this ^cifima, 

1 One Aristogeiton, an Athenian orator, also received this nickname, iweKoKeiTo 
KVitfP did T^v ijnUdeieu' avrov, Suidas. 

• This passage of Isocr. Areopag. is cited by Athen. xin 21, 566 F, on tavem- 
faaunting, ot iy tois KarrjXeloit koI r<£s lecurSoKelois del SiaiTaraL, Kalroi *l(roKpd- 
Tovs Tov jt^Topoa kv T(p *Ap€oiray€iTiK(fi eipi^orof — here follow the words quoted in 
this text. Athenaeus continues 'tireplSris W iv t$ Kara XlarpoKXiovs. . .roOt *Apeoirayl- 
rat ipyjclif dptariffovrd riva iv KavriXeitfi KcaXvffai di'i^vac elt "Apeiov rcdyov, cb Si, 
ta ffixpiaTd, ip roU KairtiXcLois avvapa^^pji oO pxO* iralputP, dXXA /AerA iraipciv 
JC.T.X. Plut Vit. X Orat. Demosth. 847 F, Aioyik'ns 8i 6 Kdwv ^eaadfixvoi avrbv 
(Demosth.) xore ^i' KavriXeitfi (U(rxuy6fuvoy koI {nrox<apovyTa, ttirev, oatp fiaXXov 
ifTrox»^M Toao{rr<fi /itaXXov iv Ka-njXeltfi (rg. These extracts descriptive of the 
character of these taverns will throw some l^ht upon Diogenes' pleasantry. 

PHTOPIKHS r io§;;i. 119 

Kal TOVTO TpoTTOV Tiva fxeraKpopa Kai Trpo ofifxarcov. 
Kal oio'Trep Kri(j>ia'6BoTOi evXafieicrdai eKeXeve firj 
7ro\\a9 TTOitio'coai Tcis cvi/Spofias eKKXfiO'ia^* Kal 

{spare or scanty meals) was a ludicrous distortion of an ancient Spartan 
name ^tXino, i.e. love-feasts.^^ This is made still more probable by 
the fact that An in his Politics always writes the word ^cdcVta — ra 
avtrfrlria ra KcikovfifPa ^idirca, II 9» 1 27 1 A 27» lb. ID, 1 272 a 2, c. II, 
1272 d 34— and the constant interchange of d and / (dajcpv, lacrima; 
*Odva-(r€vs, Ulysses), They were originally called apbp€ia, merCs mealsy both 
by Cretans and Spartans, the institution being common to both peoples, 
the Spartan being in this, as in other particulars, borrowed from the 
Cretan. Pol. 1 1 10, 1272 a 2, kclL ava-a-ina frap' diiijioTcpois tariv* koi 
TO y€ dp\<uov €KdXovv ol AaKOiiV€£ ov (^idtrux aXX aydpia, icaBdirtp oi Kprjrts^ 
S Kal dfjXov on cicct^cv cXi/Av^cv. And of the Carthaginian constitution, 
lb. c. II, 1272 d 34, c;^ft df irapar\^<na r^ Aox. woXiTtiq, to, fiiv avaalTia 
ray iraipiAv roig (fn^iriois x.r.X. 

*And Aesion, that (the Athenians) had emptied (or drained) their 
entire city into Sicily'. Meaning, that the Athenian forces sent over 
for the invasion of Sicily in 415 — 413 B. c were so enormous in pro- 
portion to the population of Athens, that they might be said to have 
completely drained it. 'For this is a metaphor, and sets the thing 
before our eyes*. 

Aesion's name occurs, but only as the father of Euctemon, in De» 
mosth. Mid. § 165. Also in a citation from Hermippus, in Plut Vit 
Demosth. (Vit Parall.) c. 11, in which he compares Demosthenes' 
speeches, especially for readings advantageously with those of his pre- 
decessors. The only other notice of him that I have been able to 
find is Suidas s. v. Arjp.oa-B€vrfs : which is merely that he (Dem.) <rw€0tXo- 
'Xoyriae Alai<ovi r^ 'Adi;mi^ ; which implies community of studies. He 
was therefore an Athenian orator, contemporary with Demosthenes. 

* And '—Aesion again— "so that Greece cried aloud": this again is 
in some sense a metaphor, and a vivid expression*. A metaphor no 
doubt (though Victorius says it is a mere hypallage\ since it transfers 
the voice from an individual to a collective people, or country. It is Trpo 
oft/iiara>v in that it animates an inanimate object, or abstraction ; c. 1 1. 
2, 3. Demosthenes has used this twice, de F. L. § 92, 1} yap akrfitux icol 
ra TTfirpayp.tva avra fioaj and § 129, ravr ovxi /?o^ koX Xcyei on xPVf^^* clXi/^fV 
Ala-x^pfjs : and a very near approach to it, Olynth. a § 2, 6 pev ovv vap^v 
icaip6s...p6vop ovx} Xcyft <l)a)vriv d<l>i(\s on k.t.\, Aesch. Agam. 1 106 (Dind.), 
jrao'a yap noXis finq,. Eur. Hippol. ^Jjy fiug, fiuq HfKros oKaara, 

* And as Cephisodotus bade (the Atlienians) take care not to convert 
many of their mobs into assemblies * {lit. their mobs, in any numbers), 
Cephisodotus we have had three . times already as the author of pointed 
sayings, III 4. 3, and 10. 6, dis. The point of this saying seems to lie in 
the word <rvvbpofidsf which is substituted for avyicKiiTovs fKK\rj<riag. It im- 
plies that most of their ordinary assemblies are mere mobs, tumultuary 
gatherings, riotous and unruly, instead of <ri5y«Xi;Tot, regularly convoked 
for special occasions in due form and order. It would certainly be 


120 PHTOE1KH2 r lo § 7 i^ 

'laoKpart}^ Trpos toi)s trvvrpexovra^ Iv rah Travtiyv- 
pea IP. Kat oiop ev Tta €7riTa(f)iwj ^ioti a^iop riv eiri 
Tw Td<p(a Tw Twv ev ^aXafxivi T^XevTtio'dvTwv Keipa^ 
crdai Trju 'EWaSa oJs avyKaTadaTTTOfxei^ri^ ry dper^ 
avTiop T^s iXevOepla^* ei fxev yap eiir^v on a^tov 
SaKpucai avyKaTadaTTTOixevri^ Ttj^ dpeTtj^f ixeTa(J}opa 
Kai irpo OfxixdrtaVj to Se **t^ dperfj rifs eXeudepia^ p. ,, 

better without ^KKkria-iasy as Wolf proposes. It would then mean " not to 
hold their — mobs too frequently." Both Bekker and Spengel retain the 
vulgata lectio : the latter with a comma between avvbpofias and eKkkria-ias, 

* And I Socrates, "to those that flock together promiscuously (scramble, 
as it were) in the general festivals"'. This is an expression of precisely 
the same import as the preceding. It occurs in Isocr. Phil. § 12, and 
runs thus, on to iuv toIs navrfyvpea-iv tvox^fiv Ka\ irpbs airavras Xcyciv rovs 
&vvTp€XOPTas iv avT(Hs irpos ovdiva Xcyciv eariPf K.r.X. 

* And the example in the Funeral Oration, that " Greece might well 
have her hair cut off (go into mourning) over the tomb of those that died 
at Salamis, for her freedom and their valour were buried in the same 
grave"? for had be only said "that she might well weep for the virtue 
that lay buried with them", it would have been a metaphor and a graphic 
touch, but the (addition of) " freedom with the virtue " carries with it a 
kind of antithesis'. This really affecting passage, which Aristotle has 
partially spoiled by omission and alteration, runs thus in the original — 
the funeral oration attributed to Lysias^, Or. 2, in Baiter and Sauppe's 
Or, Att I 68, § 60: "and therefore Greece might well that day cut off 
her hair over yonder tomb (the orator is on the spot, and points to it) and 
mourn for those that lie buried here, seeing that her own (the text has 
avrav^ their own, the collective 'EXXa; being resolved into its component 
members) freedom and their valour are laid together in one grave". 
Aristotle has very much marred the simple beauty of the sentence (which 
if it be not Lysias', is at all events quite worthy of him) by his alterations ; 

^ This speech is condemned as spurious by [Dobree and] Baiter and Sauppe [and 
also by Blass, die Attische Beredsamkeit, I p. 431, and Jebb, Attic Orators^ I p. 208. 
It contains some close parallels to the Panegyric of Isocrates and would appear to 
have been written by one of the pupils of that rhetorician, from whom Ar. (it will 
be observed) takes the quotation just preceding the present passage]. Let us hear 
on the other side Mr Grote, Hist, Gr, vol. vi [chap, xlviii] p. 191, note, **0f (the 
funeral orations) ascribed to Plato and Lysias also, the genuineness has been 

suspected, though upon far less grounds (than that attributed to Demosth.) but 

this harangue of Lysias, a very fine composition^ may well be his, and may perhaps 
have been really delivered — though probably not delivered by him, as he was not 
a quahfied citizen." In this judgment I entirely agree ; and it seems to derive 
some authority from the citation of this extract here, as a specimen of pointed 
style, which shews that it was at all events well known to Aristotle and the 
Athenian public, and well remembered, though the author*s name is not given ; 
perhaps for tliis ver;y reason, that the authorship of it was so well known. 

PIITOPIKHS r io§7>&. 121 

dvTiQeariv riva €;)^€t, Kai w^ 'IcpiKpdtrris ehrev ** ij yap 
oZo^ fxoi tUv Xoywv dia fUcwp tcSu XdprjTi TreTrpay- 
jiiet/coi/ iaTiv*^^ fieTacpopd Kar dvaXoyiaVj Kai to hid 
fxeaov wpo ofXfxaTvov 7roi€u ' Kai to Kpdvai irapaKaXeXv 
Tov^ Kivhvvov^ Toh Kivhvpois l3otj6ri(ropTa^y irpo oixfid-- 

especially the substitution of the frigid, explanatory, t^ r&v iv SoXa/itpt, for 
the graphic r^b^ and t6t€ of the original (I here follow Victorius). [The 
context of the original passage shews that the substitution is really 
a blunder, as the reference is not to the Athenians who fought at Salamis 
but to those who died at Aegospotami and elsewhere towards the close of 
the Peloponnesian war.] 

The metaphor lies of course in the word lecipao-^at, by which Greece 
is personified and compared to a woman who, according to the national 
custom, cuts off her hair as a sign of mourning — on this custom see 
Becker's Charicles^^, 398; comp. BUir. Troad. 141, Orest. 458, Ale. 515^, 
.Suppl. 97, 974, HeL 1060, itkvQi^Lo^y frcvBT^pris, Kovpd^ KovpaL Aesch. 
Choeph. 6 (Paley's note ad loc), Horn. II. xxiii. 142, &c. The last 
two passages shew that this custom was not absolutely confined to 
women, though it was especially characteristic of them. In Lysias the 
personification, which is most tastelessly interrupted by the plural avr&v, 
is resumed in the next clause, o; dvcrrvx^f M^i' >7 'lEXkag roiovrtov dvbpav 
6p<l>a»fi yevofUvrf icr.X. Here Greece becomes a bereaved mother. 

* And as Iphicrates said, "the course of my argument cuts right through 
the middle of Chares' acts": a proportional metaphor; and the "right 
through the middle" sets the thing vividly before our eyes'. This was 
said by Iphicrates in the same case as that which is noticed in 11 23. 7 
(see note), the prosecution, namely, of him and his colleagues Menestheus 
and Timotheus, together with Chares, who were all brought to trial by 
Aristophon the Azenian in 355 B.C. on the scrutiny of their accounts, for 
misconduct in their command during the Social war. Sauppe u. s. p. 191, 
conmienting on this passage, sa3rs " Iphicrates se et coUegas accusatos 
defendens exponit quam male Chares rem gesserit. Hoc facturus dixit, 
iter orationes suae ferre per medias Charetis res gestas, ^uasz de itinere 
per hostium fines faciundo diceret." The proportion of the metaphor is 
this : As a road is carried, or an army or expedition marched, right into 
the heart of an enemy's country, so Iphicrates in his defence carried 
hostility and destruction (exposure and censure) into Chares' conduct 
during their joint command. 

* And the saying, "to invite dangers to the help (rescue, remedy) of 
dangers ".is a vivid metaphor'. The author, and occasion, of this sen- 
tence are alike unkndwn. I have followed Schrader in the translation. 
To rid yourself of one danger another must often be invoked or invited, as 
a man saves himself from a shipwrecked vessel by throwing himself 
overboard and clinging to a plank. H« also quotes Florus, i. 17, Fabius 
Maximus periculosissimum bellum bello explicavit The metaphor lies 
in ^apwcdkCiv and fiorjOija-ovTas, which are transferred from men to dan- 
gers, which are' thereby * animated' ; rb ayltvxop becomes fix-^vxov. 

122 PHT0PIKH2 r lo § 7 /* 

Ttav fxeTacbopd. Kal AvKoXitap virep Xal3piov ^^ ovhe 
Trjp iKerriplav alarx^vdevTe^ aurov, rnv eiKoua tyiv 
yaXKfjp'" ixeTa(popd 'yap ev tw irapovriy dXK ovk 
delj dWd irpo ojULfxartop' KipdvP€voPTOs yap avrov 
iKerevei n et/cwV, to dyj^vxop 5i)' Cfx^vxop, to virofxpntia 

1 fortasse Zk 

'And (what) Lycoleon (said) in his defence of Chabrias, "not even 
awed by that symbol of his supplication, the bronze image (yonder)"'. 
Of Lycoleon nothing seems to be known, beyond what may be gathered 
from this passage, that he was an Athenian orator, and defended Chabrias 

in his trial B.C. 366. 

The circumstances referred to are briefly these. In 366 B.C. Chabrias 
was brought to trial with Callistratus, the orator, on a charge of miscon- 
duct leading to the loss of Oropus. See ante, note ad i 7- 13- Grote, 
Hist. Gr. X [chap. LXXix] pp. 392, 3, and note i\ Chabrias had greatly 
distinguished himself on a former occasion, described in Grote, Hist, Gr, 
X [chap. LXXVii] pp. 172, 3, in an action near Thebes fought against 
Agesilaus and the Lacedaemonians, 378 B. C. Agesilaus " was daunted 
by the firm attitude and excellent array of the troops of Chabrias. They 
had received orders to await his approach on a high and advantageous 
ground, without moving until signal should b^ given ; with their shields 
resting on the knee, and their spears protruded" (Diodorus, XV. 33, 
Cornelius Nepos, Chabr. c. i, obnixo genu sctito), "The Athenian public 
having afterwards voted a statue in his honour, he made choice of this 
attitude for the design." lb. 173, note i. This is also referred to, the 
details being passed over, in Dem. c. Lept., in a long enumeration of all 
Chabrias' services to his country, §§ 75 — 78 ; vpoi airayras ncXoTroFin/o-tov^ 
irap€Td^aTo cV Qj^^ais, § 76. See also Wolf, ad loc. p. 479.25 (Schafer, 
Appar, ad Dem, in 168). Lycoleon in his speech points to this statue 
which stood in the ayopa in sight of the court, and taking advantage of 
the posture of it, which he interprets as that of a suppliant, appeals from 
it to the feelings of the judges, at the same time reminding them of the 
merits of the original. The effect no doubt must have been very striking. 
The metaphor resides in Ucrrfpiav, which is transferred from the sup- 
pliant*s olive-branch (cXa/ai^) to a suppliant attitude in general, implied in 
the posture of the kneeling figure. On the accusative of the object of 
awe with alax^vtaOai, see note on 11 2.22. 

' For it was a metaphor at the moment (whilst Lycoleon was speaking 
and Chabrias was in actual danger), but not for ever (i. e. so long, and no 
longer ; not permanently), but yet perpetually (repeat dd, Schrader) before 
the eyes (vivid and graphic) : for it is only while he (Chabrias) is in 
danger that the image seems to supplicate, but the inanimate is ever 
animated — ** the monument of his deeds for the city" \ 

This very obscure sentence seems intended as an explanatory com- 

^ Diog. Laert., in 3, 24, says that Plato also was engaged in the defence of 
Chabrias, no one else daring to undertake it. See Grote's Ftato, 1 xa8, note i. 

PHT0PIKH2 r 10% 7m. 123 

TftJi/ Ttjs TToAcft)? epytov. kol ** iravTa Tpoirov fiiKpop 
<j>pov€ii/ jueAercoi/Tes* " to yap juLeXerdp av^eiv Ti 
earTiv. Kal oti tcv vovv 6 6e6^ ^c5s dptj^ep ev Trj p- "9' 
"^^X^' a/x^ft) ydp ^tjXoT n, ^^ ov yap ZiaXvofxeda 
Tovs 7ro\e)UOi/s aW di/a/SaWofxeda* " dimcjxo yap ean 
fieWovray Kal ij aj/a/3oA^ Ka/ ?J TOiavrtj eipr^vri. Kal 

mentary on the preceding extract. It is truly obscurum per ohscurius^ a 
masterpiece of Aristotelian brevity, and a complete illustration of the Ho- 
ratian brevis esse laborOy obscurus fio, I follow Schrader and Victorius 
in the interpretation. First he says that there is a metaphor: this of 
course is in the word UeTtipiav, as above explained. But the metaphori- 
cal application of it only continues during the danger of the person 
represented; when that is over, and the suppliant out of danger, the 
statue loses indeed the suppliant character with which it was invested 
for the time by the application of Lycoleon, but retains the posture and 
its associations as ** the memorial of his services to the state." (I agree 
with Victorius in supposing that this is a continuation of the extract, and 
TO vnofivTjfjLa therefore in apposition with Tfjv tlKOPa r^v xoX/c^i'. He inge- 
niously suggests an alternative, that it may be a second extract from the 
same speech, alibi in eadem causa, and another example of a pointed 
and graphic saying.) Kivbvvtvovros ydp.,.i^ €Ik(6v is the explanation of oXX* 
ovK del, and to ^yfruxov tiv^xov oiirpo ofAfidratv. Comp. c. 1 1. 2, 3, a vivid re- 
presentation gives animation to inanimate objects. If this explanation be 
correct we must read hi for brj : by which the explanation of dXX' ovk dsL 
is contrasted with that of wpo ofifiMnov, dij is retained by all the £dd., but 
I cannot discover any sense in which it is here applicable. It seems 
also that vntp has dropt out in the phrase to viropv, tSv {virkp) r^f ttoXccd^ 
tpyoiv. vnofAvrjpa occurs in the same sense, Isocr. Paneg. § 156, and 
de Pace § 124. 

'And, "in every way practising (or studying) meanness of spirit", for 
studying is a kind of increasing or promoting^ fitX^Tav being a * kind', 
^ibos, of aS^eitf, the metaphor is one cmo tov elBovs enl yeVoy, Poet. XXI 7, 
one of the four kinds of metaphor. * To study' therefore, which is one 
kind of the genus 'promoting', is here p«it metaphorically for the general 
term * to promote '. And the point of the metaphor lies in the unusual 
application of 'study': a man usually studies or takes pains to promote 
some worthy object, to cultivate some virtue : here the object is an 
unworthy one, a vice or defect. This is taken from Isocr. Paneg. § 151, 
in a note on which passage Coraes ingeniously proposed to read da-Ktuf 
for av^€iv in Aristotle's comment on ptXcTap. 

'And "that God kindled (lit up) reasan as a light in the soul": for 
both of them shew something (make things clear and visible) '. This is a 
proportional metaphor. As light to material, so reason to intellectual 
objects. Cuius haec verba sunt notidum repperi, says Victorius, and no 
subsequent commentator has supplied the deficiency. 

* (The peaces that we make are nugatory) for we do not put an end to 

:j24 .PHT0PIKH2 T io% 7 ft, 

TO ra^ ovvdt^Ka^ ipdpai Tpoiravop eJuat woku KoWtov 
Twp €P TOK woAe/MOfs yivofiiviav* Ta fiev yap virep 
fxacpwu Kol fiia^ TV)(ri^9 avrai S' vTr^p ttco/to^ to9 
woXefxov* apxpw yap piKfj^ arjiuLeia. oTi kcu al iroXei^ 
T« yfroyip Twv duOpwTwp fxeydXai evdvva^ Sihoatrip* 
tj ydp.€v0vva I3\dfifi rts SiKala io'TiU. . 

wars (do away with them altogether), but merely postpone them '. This 
also comes from Isocr. Paneg. § 172. 'For both of them look to the 
future (to future results), both actual postponement (in its proper sense 
and application) and a peace of that kind'. This therefore is a metaphor 
from 6t8off to eJbos, from one kind of postponement, to another, analo- 
gous, kind. 

*And to say'* that the treaty is a far fairer trophy than those which 
are obtained in wars : for the one is for the sake of (to commemorate) a 
trifling success and a single chance, but /Ais for (on behalf of, marking 
the issue of,) the entire war": for both of them are signs of victory', 
Isocr. Paneg. § 180, quoted by Aristotle, as Mr Sandys says in his 
note, memoriter. fiias rvx^i is explained by Isocr. Antid. § 128. It is * a 
single stroke of fortune', a mere lucky accident, as opposed to a series of 
successes, which prove design, skill, and knowledge, {pri, the mark of 
quotation). 'Again, "Cities pay a heavy reckoning (render a terrible 
account, for their misdeeds) to (or by?) the censure of mankind.'' For 
the "account" or "reckoning" is a legal damage or punishment'. The 
explanation shews, first, (as Bemays also remarks, Dialog, des Arist 
p. 16,) that €vBwa here expresses not merely the account itself that is 
rendered, but the penalty consequent upon it, if unsatisfactory: and 
secondly, that the metaphor is a transfer from the legal and particular 
scrutiny or account rendered by the officer on laying down his command, 
and extended from this to an account or scrutiny in generaly the penalty 
paid by whole cities to the judgment and censure of mankind and pos- 
terity : consequently it is a metaphor from eZSot to yims, from species to 
genus. The passage referred to in Bernays' treatise will furnish a com- 
mentary on the use and signification of tvBvpos and \6yov or \6yovs dido- 
vtuy pp. 157 16. 

€v0vva] This, according to some authorities, as Bdckh and L. Din* 
dorf, is the only true Attic form of the word, tvOvinj belonging to the 
later Greek. G. Dindorf writes tvBvvai, Dem* Olynth. a. 17. 15, and 
Bockh, Pudl Ecim, Bk. ii, ch. 8, note 177, cv^vfo, tlBwa*, (p. 190 Lewis' 
TransL), Schafer {App, Crit p. 229) note on the passage of Dem. Shil- 
leto on Dem. de F. L. § 19, not. crit., acknowledges both plurals, r^Bvvai 
and cv^t/yoi : " ^vBvvaiy quod nihil! est. .." The Zurich Editors have ctf^vm. 
In Lysias tara Qeofiv^arov /S' § 9, €v6vvav is found without various read- 
ing. The parallel form cifiwa, ultiOy is cited by Phrynichus p. 23 (Lobeck) 
as forbidden; also by Moeris and Thomas Magister. It is however 
approved by Timaeus (p. 26 Ruhnken). Ruhnken in his note indig- 
nantly denies the use of the word in Plato, and refers it to the later 

PHTOPIKH2 r io%7o; u §§ i, 2. 125 

oTi fiev ovu Toi darTeia €k fieTuCpopd^ tc Trjs dvd- 
\oyov XeyeTat kui t« ttjOO d/ijuaro)!/ iroieiPj eipriTar 

1 A6fCT€oi/ Se Ti Xeyofxep irpo ojULjuLdTtovj kui tl ttoiovcti chap. xi. 

2 yiyv€Tai TOVTO. Xeyta 5>) ttjoo ofXixaTwv Tavra TroieTi/ 
oca evepyovvTa (rrifjialvei. olov toi/ dyaBov ai/Spa 
ipdvai €ivai TeTpdycopoi/ fxeTa(popd^ aix(p<a ydp TeXeia, 

* And so we have despatched the subject of the pointed sayings that 
are derived from the proportional metaphor and by the vivid graphic 
language that sets things described before your eyes (presents them 
vividly to your mind's eye, as it were to the actual sense) \ 

ccpi/rai] is done, and over, and enough of it. Note on I 11. 29. 

» CHAP. XI. 

This chapter is in continuation of the subject of the preceding, t6 
dareiov'f first as it is exemplified in to npo ofifidrciv ttouiv, and next in 
jokes, puns, plays upon words, and verbal pleasantries of all kinds, meta- 
phors and similes ; and lastly hyperboles, which are also a kind of meta- 
phor. All these may be employed in imparting * vivacity' to style. 
Whately, R/iei. c. 3, on Style, following Aristotle, calls ro np6 oiifiarmv 
iroiflvy 'energy'. His remarks on this, partly from Aristotle, are worth 

§ I. 'We must now state what we mean by Trpo o/i/Mira>y, and what 
must be done in order to give rise to this.' 

§ 2. 'I mean then that things are set before our eyes by all expres- . 
sions that indicate realized activity. For instance ; to say that a good 
man is 'square' (i.e. complete) is a metaphor; for both are complete, but 
still don't signify a state of realized action (or activity). On the other 
hand, the phrase " with his vigour and prime in full bloom" (Isocr. Phil. 
§ 10) does convey the notion of life and activity, as is also, " but thee, 
free to roam at large" (lb. § 127) ; and again, in the verse, "so thereupon 
the Greeks (with a rush) darting forward with the spear"' (dopt, Eur. Iph. 
Aul. 80: I believe the otiose ttoo-i to be a mere misquotation of An), *the 
word 'darting forward' is at once life-like and metaphorical'. 

€P€pyovpTa.,.€V€py€iap] • See an/e, note on c. 10. 5. Comp. the explana- 
tion of wpo ofiparav there given, 6p^v ydp dec rd 7rpaTr6p.€va fidWop rj /xeX- 
\ovTa ; the representation must be /t/e-//ke, the action must seem to be 
actually carried on before us. Poet, xvil i. Cic. de Or. ill 53. 202. 
Auct ad Heren. IV 55. 68. Demonstration quum ita verbis res exprimitur 
utgeri negotium et res ante oculos esse videatur: with examples. Cic. de 
Inv. I 54. 104, 55.107; II 26. 78. Quint. Vlll 3. 81. cVepycia, lb. § 89. 
Infra § 3) ^f'^^X^ tlvat, ivepyovvra. (paivercu, § 4, Kivovp€va Koi (^pra vroic?. 
See Whately's Rhetoric above referred to. This 'energ^y' includes /'r<?je?- 
popoeia or Personification : illustrated in Whately's note J. Demetr. w. 
ipiirfveiag §§ 8 1, 82, quotes c^/wfev fie fJ^xV' Campbell, PAit. of Rhet^ has a 
section, iii 1.4, on "Things animate for things lifeless." 

Tfrpaya>voff comes from Simonides — or rather from the Pythagoreans, 
who by a square number or figure symbolized (or, as Aristotle tells us, 
Met. A, actually identified it with) completeness, and perfect equality in 

126 PHT0PIKH2 r 1 1 §§ 2, 3. 

d\\* ov (rriiULaipei ivepyeiav* dWd to ^* di/6ov(rap 
exoi/TOs TYiv dKfjLi]!/^^ ii/epy€ia, kclI to ^^ ae 8* axnrep 
acperov^^ ipepyeia, kui 

Tovvrevdev oZv ''RXKtive^ a^apre^ ttociu 
3 TO a^aj/T€9 ii/epyeia Kai jmeracpopd. nal cws Kexp^'Tai 
'Ofiripo^ iroWaxov Tta Ta a>/ri;^a €/i>/ri;^a Xeyeiv Sia 
T^9 fieracpopa^. iv Trdai Se tw ivepyeiav iroieiv €i/- 
ooKi/Jiei, olov iv ToIo'Se, 

oItl^ iwi faVeSoVJe KvXipdero Xda^ dpaiSrj^, 

the shape of justice. It was their type of perfection. Bergk, Fr, Lyr. Gk 
p. 747 [p. 869, ed. 2^, Simon. Fr. 5, whp dya6oy,..xfpo'i rt icai iroa-i tcai 
v6& Ttrpaywvov, Plat. Protag. 339 B. Arist. Eth. N. I II, 1 100^ 21, o y 
(Off akriBm ayaQhs Kai r€rpaytavo£ avtv i^oyov. Comp. Hor. Sat. II vii. 86, 
in se ipso totus teres aique rotuudus. 

The second extract quoted from Isocr. Phil. § 127 requires the con- 
text to justify its selection as an example of animated style ; with that, it 
becomes ver>' striking. The orator is contrasting the entire freedom of 
view which Philip's commanding position allows him, as compared with 
the narrow patriotism enforced upon those who are 'fast bound' in the 
constitution and laws of their native cities ; which he expresses by o-c 
d* cicnrrp a<f>€Tov yeyevrjfAivov aira<rav r^v 'EWdSa irarpi^a vofAiCeiv ic.r.X. — a 
flight quite beyond Isocrates' ordinary range of imagination. The meta- 
phor is of course derived from the sacred cattle which were devoted to 
the worship of some god, and left free from the ordinary labours of the 
plough and cart, to roam and graze at large in the sacred precincts, the 
r€ti«vo? of his temple. See Plat. Protag. 320 A, Rep. vi 498 c, and the 
notes of the Comm. : Aesch. Prom. Vinct. 666, 684 (Paley) and the note 
there (also Blomfield's Glossary, 687), Eur. Ion 822, o ^ iv Btov ^ofioiaiv 
a0crof, Off XaOoi, iratdcvcrau 

The difference between the mere metaphor T^rpdyavos, and the meta- 
phor which also vivifies and animates, is this : in a square there is neither 
life nor action ; in * blooming' we have the life of a plant, in a^rrov of an 
animal, in $foin-fff the vigour and impetuosity of living human beings. 

§ 3. * And Homer's frequent employment of the figure which invests 
inanimate objects with life and motion by the medium of the metaphor. 
But in all of them it is by representing (objects) as animated — setting 
them as it were in action — that he distinguishes himself (acquires his 
popularity, secures our approbation): in the following for instance: 
"again (this belongs to the preceding sentence: av6ir tirtira nedovdt 
Kvkivd€To \aas dvaibrig is the reading of Homer, Od. XI 598): then to the 
plain rolled the ruthless (remorseless) stone"' ["Downward anon to the 
valley the boulder remorselessly bounded "]. The animating metaphor 
is of course in dvmbifsf which attributes not only life, but also shameless- 
ness, recklessness, remorselessness, want of mercy and proper feeling, to 
the stone. Whately, u. s., ingeniously, but not correctly : * provoking', mock- 
ing Sisyphus' efforts, dvaibrjf in the same sense, ruthless, pitiless, Soph. 

PHT0PIKH2 r ii§3. 127 






eTTiTrreo'dai /xeveaivcop, 
iv yairi 'itTTapro XiXaiofxeua )(po6^ aaaij ^- '4". 

• ctixiu^rj Se arepvoio hetrauro iiaiixtavoG-a. 

ii/ Tract yap tovtoi^ Sia to (fi^vxct uvai ii/epyoCi/ra 
(jyaii/erar to dvai(r')(yirreiv yap Kai fiaifiav Kai ToXKa 
evepyeia. TavTa Si 7rpo(rfjyl/'€ Sia Ttj^ KaT dvaXoylav 
lxeTa(popdv oJ? yap 6 Xido^ npos top 2/cri/^oi/, 6 p. 130. 

Oed. Col. 516. alb<as, clementiay misericordia, opposed to Spaavs, crudeliSj 
Elmsl. ad Med. 461. This line has always been quoted as an example 
of " the sound an echo to the sense." 


IV] 126. This 

* And, "the arrow flew" — like a bird' — Horn. II. N fxili" 

* And, " raging or yearning to fly to its mark"'. II. A 
attributes human feelings and passions to the arrow^ otorof. He might 
have added oXro in line 125. 

*And, (sc. ra bovpa Spaa-tiamv diro x^^P^^) "longing to taste blood" 
(more lit. *to take their fill of flesh')'. IL A [xi] 574, Paley ad loc. 

*And "the spear-point panting, quivering in its eagerness, rushed 
through his breast " '. 

On these extracts, Whately, JRAef. u. s., note, well observes, "that 
there is a peculiar aptitude in some of these expressions : an arrow or 
dart from it flying with a spinning motion quivers violently when it is 
fixed ; thus suggesting the idea of one quivering with eagerness". This 
is particularly applicable to the two last extracts. In the third, toroi/ro 
may help to convey this. The darts which fell short of their aim, 
struck, >vere fixed, in the ground, and there stood quivering. "And 
winged the shaft that quivered in his heart". Byron (of Kirke White), 
in English Bards and Scotch Reviewers. Gaisford, in Variorum not, 
p. 426, adds Od. c' 175, i^fr, ayoKKop^vai (exulting) Aior ov/>o>. Eustath. ad 
loc. Kai 6p^ TO dyciKXofiewai, as ent eftyjnjxcdv ra>v p^Sv Xf^^cV. Soph. Aj. 58 1, 
TTpos TOfjLmvTi Yi^fiari, and this Schol., rop^s iviBvpciv, ^<mtp el ai(r6Tj(riv 
€ix€P' Plut. on Pyth. 398 A. See also in Heitz, Vert. Schri/t. Arist. 
pp. 278, 9, some passages from the Schol. to Homer, and that of Plutarch, 
on this peculiarity of Homer. 

* For in all these by reason of the living character (with which they 
are invested) they appear to be in action: for "shameless conduct", 
and "quivering with eagerness" and the rest, all express forms of activity 
(implying life). But these he has applied to them through the medium 
of the proportional metaphor, for as the stone is to Sisyphus, so is 
the shameless actor to him who is shamelessly treated '. 

128 PHTOPIKH2 r II §§4,5 

4 dvaia"xyvTwv Trpo^ top dvai(r)(yvTovixevov. iroieV hk 
Kal ev Tcu^ evZoKifiovaai^ eiKoaiv eirl tclp dylrvx^u 

KvpTCLy (paXfjpiocopTa* irpo fiev t aW\ avrdp iir aWa* 
KiPOVfJLepa yap Kal ^wpra TTOiei Trapra, tj 8' ipepyeia 

5 Set Se fieTacpepeiP, Kaddirep elprirai irporepopj &7ro 
oiKeiwp Kal firj (papepcoPy olop Kal ip <piKoa'0(pia to 

I am sorry to be obliged to differ from our author in the view he 
here takes of the meaning of ai/ai5i)r. The notion of " reckless impu- 
dence ", conveyed by his equivalent dvaLa-xwros, seems to me altogether 
alien from the Homeric conception of it. I can't think that " reckless 
impudence", dpaurxvvria, is what Homer meant to attribute to the stone 
when he called it dvaibi^s, but * unmerciful treatment *. At all events it 
is better than Pope's " huge round stone." 

§ 4. *In his most approved similes too (as well as metaphors) he 
deals thus (employs this treatment) with inanimate things (tVi ' in the case 
of upon, applying to): "(Waves) arched, foam-crested, some in front, 
others (tumbling) after them"; for he draws (depicts) them all as living 
and moving, and living activity is a kind of motion'. II. N [xili] 799, 
[* the waves of the bellowing ocean ; Bending their heads foam-crested, 
they sweep on, billow on billow ']. The following verse will shew where 
the €V€py€ia lies ; as Tpaes npo jxeu aXkot dprjpoTeSf aCrap cV* oXXoi^ x^aX'^V 
lxapfiaipovT€S apL fjyfix6vf(ra-iv €7rovro. 

1 have followed Bekker (Ed. 3) and Spengel in reading Kivrjms 
for fiLfirja-LS) from a conjecture of Bekker in his first ed. filpjjais will 
however make good sense. 

§5. 'Metaphors should be drawn, as has been stated before, (iii 
2. 12, and 10.5, also ; oiKfioou in the former, fifj <j)av€pSv implied in 
the words fn}r innroXaiov, in the latter,) from objects closely related, but 
not obvious to every one at first sight' (i. e. not so related, so clearly 
resembling one another, that no one can fail to see the resemblance 
at once : such metaphors do not pique the curiosity, and set people 
thinking ; and from them you learn nothing, that you did not know 
before) ; 'just as in philosophy also, to observe the resemblances in 
widely distant things is characteristic of a sagacious penetrating in- 
tellect : like Archytas' saying, that arbitrator and altar were the same 
thing ; because both are the refuge of the injured or wronged' (thing 
or person, animal or man, expressed by the neuter). 

olov Koi iv <^tXo(ro^ta] Poet. XXII 17, fiovov yap tovto ovt€ nap* aWov 
coTi Xa^eiv €v(l>vLas re OTjp^lov iariv (this is equivalent to evaroxoVf * requires 
quick wit, penetration, natural sagacity')* to yap €v p€ra<f>fpeiv to to 
ofLoiov Btoptiv itrrlv, Rhet. II 20. 7, of fables, used as arguments, voijjaai, 
yap delf aairtp kqi irapafioKaSf a» ns dvtnjrai to opLciov op^v, onep p^ov 

PHTOPIKH2 r ii§s. 129 

ofxoiov Kal ev ttoAiJ Siexovci Betapeiv evcToxov, tocnrep 
'Apxyra^ et^ tuvtop ehai haiTfirrji/ Kal ficofxoi/' err 
afjL(j>(o yap to dSiKOVfxevoi/ KaTa(p€vy€i, rj el ti9 
(J>airi ayKvpav Kal Kpefiddpav to avTO ehar dficpo) 
yap TavTO tLj dWa Sia^epet rw dvtoBev Kal Karcodei/, 
Kai TO di/tofxaXio'dai Tci^ TroAets ip ttoXv Siexovai 

iariv €K ^tXo<ro^(ar, see the note, and references there given. On the 
use of resemblances and differences in defining, distinguishing, and the 
formation of concepts, see Trendelenburg, ad Categ* § 59 p. 137, and Sir W. 
Hamilton, Lectures on Logic ^ Vol. I p. 102, Lect. vi. This is the kind 
of 'philosophy' here referred to. Diotima's account, PL Symp. 211, 
of the formation of general conceptions or ideas will serve as an illus- 

On Archytas, the Pythagorean philosopher and mathematician of 
Tarentum, see Diog. Laert. viii 4. 79 — 83. 

* Or if one were to say that an anchor and a hook were the same : 
for they are both the same kind of thing, but differ in position ' (//'/. * the 
above and below'). 

Kpcfiddpa is defined by the SchoL on Ar. Nub. 218, and by Suidas, as 
a basket for remnants, tls o ra ntpiTTtvovra o^ (the leavings of the 
dinner-table) tl<odafi€v dTroriBfadai, This was usually *hung up', icpe- 
fiaBpa be €ipfjTai dia to dfl KptpxiyAvriv ptT€»pov elvai (Suidas)» Hence the 
use of it for Socrates in the Clouds, u. s. But it is plain that that cannot 
be the meaning of it here, for it does not answer to the subsequent 
description of it, in respect either of the resemblance or the difference 
stated. Rost and Palm in their Lexicon translate it *afikeriau\ the cable 
that holds the anchor ; but this is open to precisely the satn6 objection. 
It must be something in the nature of a hook, from which things may be 
suspended; and is literally * a suspending instrument '. The resemblance 
to the anchor lies in its hooked form, and also in the intention or design 
of them both, which is to keep things where they are, preser^^ation or 
security. The difference is that the anchor is applied to keep the 
vessel safe and steady at the bottom^ the hook is above, and from it the 
thing suspended hangs. Liddell and Scott have KpepAorpa (the reading of 
three inferior MSS) with this reference, and identify It With KpepAOpa 
in the Nubes. 

'And the re-equalisation of cities (in the respect of property, and 
powers, i. e. state offices, privileges, &c.) when the same principle is ap- 
plied to (is the same for) things standing wide apart (very dissimilar^ viz. 
to surface (area) and powers (functions, offices, prerogatives &c.)'. The 
widely dissimilar things which are here brought together for comparison, 
are the areas of properties, and the state offices and privileges, &c., 
which are to be alike equalised. The Scholiast quoted by Vater, explains 
the word and its application in the same way of the equalisation of the pro- 
perties, fortunes or conditions, duties and rights of the citizens of a state. 
Victorius quotes Isocn Phil. § 40, otSa yap anda-ai fop-CLkitrpivas trro rav 

AR. ni. 9 

130 PHTOPIKIIS r II §§5, 6. 

TavTOy ev eirKpaveia Kai Zvvdixeari to icov* 
6 ecTi Ze Kal to, dcTeia tcl irXeio'Ta Zid jULCTacpopa^ 
Kal €K Tov irpoae^aTraTCLv* ixdWov yap yiyveTai 
SfjXop OTL eixade irapa to ivavTiw^ CX^'*'> '^^^ eoiKe 
\eyeiv iq ^vxn ^^dis d\ri6a)9y iyo) S' tj/uiapTOvJ'^ Kal 

trvfKfiopciv, all the Greek cities have been alike levelled to one condition 
by their misfortunes. 

Vahlen has again applied his perverted ingenuity to the emend- 
. ation of this passage. The passage wants none : it is clear in sense 
and construction, and the reading of the text is retained by Bekker 
and Spengel. In the first place, av in the compound verb is not 
a privative with p inserted, as opdwfiosf dvaaBwoSf &c., but dva is 
re, of breaking up (ai/aXu€(y, &c.) for redistribution, restoring to aa 
original equality: so dvahthovai *to distribute' (^»)0ov£), dvahaxravQai 'to 
redistribute' Thuc. V 4, di/odao-roff, dvafiav\i.6^, de agro ex integro aequis 
partibus dividendc (Herod., Plat., see Ruhnken's Timaeus p. 33), dvavefitiv, 
et sim. dvoaixakio'daL therefore does not denote /^equality, but r^-equal- 
isation. What the signification of the word is, appears from two passages 
of the Polit. II 7, 1266 d 3 and c. 12, 1274 ^9. In the first of these 
the word is 6fjLa\i(r6qvai, in the second, dvofiakaais, from verbs in -ICtiv 
and 'ovv respectively. They both refer to the same thing, viz. Phaleas of 
Chalcedon*s scheme for the equalisation or re- equalisation of properties, 
and plainly, except perhaps so far as the dvd is concerned, have precisely 
the same signification : and this is perfectly applicable here. Vahlen 
proposes koI " 6fJLaKia6fjvai ras noXeis^* iv woXv die\ova-t ravro. His ob- 
jection to dvafiaKiadcu seems to me to be entirely unfounded, and I 
can see no reason whatever for altering the text. There is another 
slight alteration proposed, which is not worth mentioning. 

C7r(0ai/f(a is a surface, here area ; and in Euclid, a plane figure, which 
has only length and breadth, a superficies. 

§ 6. This introduces a new topic of darc'ia, things pointed and lively, 
in the sense of witticisms, things amusing and laughable, such as jokes 
nap* vnuvoiav, or irapa irpoaboKiav, repartees, puns, plays upon words, and 
the like. 

'Though it is true in general that most of these 'vivacities' are 
conveyed by (did) metaphor, yet they are also derived from (a tem- 
porary, momentary) delusion (leading to a pleasing surprise at the un- 
expected supplement) : for it becomes clearer (to the listener) that 
he has learnt something from (the conclusion of the sentence) being 
contrary' to his expectation — or, as Victorius, from Ms own contrary, 
i. e. changed, state of mind, which has arisen between the beginning and 
end of the sentence — *and the soul seems to say to herself, "Really, 
so it is ; and I missed it (never found it out till now)"'. (This explanation 
of the pleasure derived from the unexpected surprise, — that the previous 
deception heightens the pleasure of the acquired knowledge — is due, I 
think, rather to the theory which had become habitual with Ar., that all 
intellectual pleasure is due to the natural desire of learning, than to 


PHT0PIKH2 r II §6. 131 

T<Sp dwoc^deyixdrwv Ze rd darreTd ecrriv ik tou lULtj o 
<pt]<n XeyeiVj oiov to tov ^Trjaix^opoVy oti ol t€tt£- 
7€s iavToT^ x^l^^^^^ aaopTai. Kal rd ev i^i/iyiuiva 
Zia TO avTO !/§€«• judOria-i^ yctp, Kal XeyCTai fxeTa- 
<l>opa. Kai 6 Xeyet QeoBcopo^y to Kaivd Xeyeiv, 
ytyveTUL 5e oTav TrapdZopoif ^y kuI ju^y oJs eKeivo^ 
Xeyeiy rrrpo^ Trji/ e/ULTrpocrdep So^ap, dXX* oia-Trep ol ev, 

his sober judgment exercised upon this particular application of it.) 
Schrader has supplied two capital instances of this form of pleasantry : 
the first IS ivomCicde Or Al22>\, Quid huic abest— nisi reset virtus? Here, 
the listener is misled by the opening of the sentence to expect a very good 
character of somebody, when unexpectedly, after a pause, two words are 
added as exceptions, which convert the expected eulogium into beggary 
and worthlessness : but is it the learning, the becoming acquainted with 
that fact, however unexpectedly, that constitutes the pleasure or amuse- 
ment that the listener derives from his surprise? A still better from 
Quint, of a dandy advocate, illud Afri ^^ homo in agendis causis optime — 
vestitus^^ for the expected versatus\ Quint. VI 3. 24 and 84. This 
topic he calls, decipiendi opinionem* He returns to it again in VIII 5. 15 
under the name of ex inopinato : and gives two examples. Cic. de Or. 
'II 63. 255 ; 70. 284, iocus praeter expectationem, I have quoted two or 
three English ones in the note to Introd. p. 319, note 3. 

*And the apophthegms that have point and vivacity derive this 
character from the indirect statement of the meaning (from the speaker's 
not directly expressing the intended meaning), as that of Stesichorus 
"that their cicadas will have to sing to themselves from the ground"' all 
the trees being cut down and the land devastated; which is the real, 
direct, meaning: and iavrois, that there will be no one else to listen 
to them. On ano^^BeyyiaTa, see II 21. 8, where this is alsa quoted^ 
Stesichorus' apophthegm also appears in Demetr. tt. ep/m. § 99 where it 
is attributed to Dionysius (the tyrant; as a threat); and § 243, as an 
example of Ppaxvkoyia in the chapter on deivoTrjf* This is a riddle in the 
shape of an apophthegm : the next topic brings us to aenigmas proper. 
The pleasure derived from these is traced, as usual, to that of learning:, 
and against that explanation in the present instance I have no objection, 
to make. 

'And for the same reason, riddles well wrapped up give pleasure ; for 
not only is this (viz. the solution of them) a kind of learning, but they 
are also expressed in metaphor. And what Theodorus calls "novel 
phrases, expressions." This is effected (this novelty, this surprise) when 
(the sequel) is unexpected, and not, to use his own words, " according to 
previous opinion or expectation"; but, as is the custom of humorous, 

1 What is learnt here is only that the man whom you expected (at the beginning 
of the sentence) to be an accomplished lawyer, turns out to be an empty coxcomb. 
It may be doubted a^ain wliether the knowledge of that fact would give much 


tS2 PHTOPIKH2 r II §6. 

ToTs yeXoioi^ to, TrapaTreTroirjiuLepa. oirep Zvvarai Kai 
Ta Trapa ypaixfia CKtlfiixara* e^airara yap. Kai ev 
Tols ixerpoi^* ov yap wo'irep 6 aKOvtav V7re\a(3ep* 

o 8' tJCTO TrehiXa epeiv. tovtov 8' ajma Xeyofxevov lei 
iriXov elyai. Ta Se Trapa ypafx/ia iroiei ovx o \eyei 
XeyeiVy dXX* o iJLeTaa'Tpe(j)€i opo/may oJop to Qeohwpov 

jocular writers, who alter the letters of words to make jokes'. I have 
given a free transl. of the last clause ; with ot cV rois yeXolots understand 
SvTts or diaTpiffovT€g ; and with ra irapaTrenoirjfiiva, woiov<nv, or the like. 

napairoL€iv^ is, as I have pointed out in Introd. p. 320, the general 
name for 2i}\ falsification {napa) or (illicit) changes of the letters of words, 
for the purpose of a jest, neipovofiaaia, ra Trapa ypdfifia (rKiOfifAara, perver^ 
sion^ wwapplication, of a word : all jokes that depend upon verbal or 
literal changes. Compare irapciwftos and its congeners, in logic and 
grammar (Categ. init.), applied to irrma-ii^ or changes of termination. 
See further, Introd., u. s., note i. 

On Theodorus of Byzantium, see note on ii 23. 28, ult and the refer- 
ences there given. 

* Which is the effect also o{ literal jokes (founded upon the letters and 
the changes of them) ; for these also cheat (the expectation, and so far 
mislead). (This kind of joke is not confined to prose: it appears) also in 
verses. For (the conclusion) is not as the hearer (the listener to the 
recitation of a rhapsodist) supposed: "and he trod with his — chilblains 
under his feet " (statelily stept he along, and under his feet were his — 
chilblains) — whereas the other thought he was going to say "sandals"'. 
This Trapa ypafifxa a-KSfipxi, which must be taken from some burlesque 
hexameter poem — author unknown — has its counterpart in Arist. Vesp. 
1 1 67) KaKoBaifMiv iyto' Sorts y' enl yripq xifieTkov ovbiv X^^ftofiat. The 
Schol. ad h. 1. (in Gaisford's Not, Var,) refers, as another instance, to 
Alcibiades' rpavXccr/Lior, Arist. Vesp. 45» oA^s BeoXor r^v itc^aXi^y leoXa/eof 
e^**' f^<^P ^v ypafifiOy rjroi napa ro p cotI to o-Kap-fia. Hermogenes, trtpl 
lieBobov ddvoTTiTos, c. 34 {R/t, Gr, II 453, Spengel) in a chap, irtpt rov 
KmpLiK&s Xcyciy, has illustrated this topic, which he calls TrapwSto, by the 
same verse of Aristoph. ; and also this and to napa npoohoKiav from Dem. 
de Cor. 

* Pleasantries arising from changes of letters (plays on words) are 
produced, not by a mere enunciation of a word in its direct meaning, but 
by something (a change) which gives a different turn to it, (converts or 
twists it into a different sense) ; as that of Jheodorus (of Byzantium, the 
rhetorician: sufira, II 23. 28), against Nicon the harper, Oparrti: he pre- 
tends namely to say "it confounds you" (you are confounded), and 
cheats; for he means something else: and therefore it is amusing only 
after one has become acquainted with the meaning (or circumstances) ; 

* A/du/ii9f ^i7<r£ T^F v€fA 6yov ffKiai irapoLnlaif Taparevot^adai bwo rov pifyropot 
\fyopTot TtfA r^s iv AA0o(f (r«f(as...[Harpocration]. 

PHTOPIKHS^ r II §§ 6, 7. 133 

€19 N//cwj/a TOP Kidaptadop ^^dparrei ere**" irpocTTroi^ 
eirai yap Xtyeiv to ^^OpdrTei ere" Kai i^awaTa' 
aWo yap Xeyer Sio fiadoPTi rjSi/, iirei el firj i/tto- p- 'S'- 
Xafx^dvei QpaKa eli/aiy ov So^et do'Teiov elvai. Kal 
7 TO '^ fiovXei avTov irepaai.^^ hei Se dimcporepa Trpocr^ 

^ om, 

for if (the hearer) doesn't know that he is a Thracian, he will see no 
point in it at all'. Victorius and Schrader have both missed the mean- 
ing of this pun. But in order to arrive at it, we must first remove from 
the text the first o-c after Oparrti which has been introduced from the 
second (where it is required) and spoils the pun. Nicon, it appears 
from the explanation, is, or is supposed to be, of foreign extraction ; and 
not only that, but a Thracian, the most barbarous of all nations. The 
Thracian women were habitually slaves, in Athenian families : Arist. 
Thesm. 279, 280, 284, 293, Pac. 1138, Vesp. 828. This person is ad- 
dressed by Theodorus with the word dparrti, which means apparently^ 
" You are confounded"; this appears from the interpretation that follows, 
(rt) dparrti o-f , which is of course convertible in meaning with the passive 
6pdrr(i (and it follows also that the first <re must be an error of the tran- 
scriber, for $paTT€L ere would be no interpretation of Bpdrrci a-e ; nor in that 
form would there be any pun). It really means, however, eparr' et, " You 
are a Thracian maid-servant", not only an out-and-out barbarian, but 
effeminate to boot, and a menial. Schrader's explanation is " Qpdmi {sic) 
trcj hoc est, Thracia mulier te, intellige peperit: " at once impossible in 
respect of the Greek, and pointless. Victorius, to much the same effect. 

The amusement derived from a pun is thus explained by Cicero, de 
Or. II 62. 254, Ambiguum (double-en tendre) per se ipsum probatur id 
guidem, ut ante dixi, vel maximej ingeniosi enim videtur vim verbi in 
aliud atqtie ceteri accipiant posse ducere; sed admirationem magis quam 
risum movet, nisi si quando incidit in aliud genus ridiculi, 

fiovXei avTov vepa-ai] No satisfactory explanation has hitherto been 
given of this pun. The point of the joke has been always supposed to 
lie in ntpnat, Francesco dei Medici, a friend of Vettori, suggested to 
him a solution which he quotes at length, that the Persae a poem of 
Timotheus is referred to^ and that we should read Uepa-an. But as 
Buhle justly remarks, " non video quidnam in hoc sii/aceti" Majoragius' 
explanation, who supposes that there was a verb Ueptreiv, of the same 
meaning as Mi;di^€4v, Persis favere, is equally out of the question. I 
have looked (for once) into Spengel's commentary, and find that he has 
suggested an analogy with Horace's vin tu curtis ludaeis oppedere^ Sat. 
I 9.70. The same thought once occurred to me, but I abandoned it, in 
consideration of the form of the word, jrepa-cu ; which, though a possible 
aorist, is entirely without authority. Trepbofiai is a dep. and has irapfti;- 
0-0/xat for its future, €irapbop for the aorist. The solution I have finally 
arrived at is that the alteration of letters which makes the pun, resides in 
/SavXfi. This would probably be pronounced nearly, if not quite, like 
/SouXi}, and the word could be rendered * will you ?' or * the Council': in the 

134 .PHT0PIKH2 T ii§7. 

ijKOUTw^ \e)(^dfjpai, ovTOi) Se kui tu darTeiaj oiov to 
cjxivai 'Adrii/aioi^ rtji/ Tfjs daXaTTtj^ cipx^^ M'i ^PX^^^ 
ehai Twp KaKwv* oi/aadai 'yap. ri wairep 'IcoKpaTtj^ 
Trjp dpxh^ T^ TToKei dpxn^ eiuai twp KaKcov. a/x^ore- 
petrs yap o ovk civ wtjOrj Tis epeivj tovt eipriTai, Kai 
€yi/co(r6ri otl dXride^* to re yap Trjv dpxh^ (f>dvaL 
dpx^i^ €«/«£ ovdev cocpov* d\\* ov^ obrto \eyei d\\* 
aWa)9, Kai dpx^^ ov^ o eiireu dn6(pti(riVy d\K aA\w9. 

latter sense the words would mean * may the council destroy him.' Sed 
de his nugis iam satis est 

§ 7. * But both of them' (either the two last examples of napa ypctfi^ia ; 
or that topic itself and the preceding, irapa TrpoaboKiav : they all require 
the same precaution) * must be properly pronounced' (or delivered — atten- 
tion must be called to the napa irpoaboKiav, by a slight pause, and to 
the double-entendre by heightening the tone or some similar expedient). 
The following words, ovTa> de koi ra darrela, sadly want the end of the 
Sentence to enable us f o determine their meaning. Victorius understands 
it, "tanquam in <TK(op,p.a(riv et iocis amarioribus, ita in urbanis hisce 
sermonibus" : but Ar. makes no such distinction : all the jokes napa 
ypaixfia are alike da-rela. Vater fills it up thus ; ovrca Sc Kai {ravro 
dvporai ravra) ra dorela (8ia 6p<idpvp.ias) : ravra being the before-mentioned 
dfKfioTcpa ; SO that this is to be referred to the 6p,a)wpia which follows, 
and begins a new topic : a most unnatural interpretation as it seems 
to me. In default of any thing better I propose the following : — 

*And so likewise witticisms, pointed sayings in general (as dis- 
tinguished from the two special varieties, or two particular instances 
preceding), (require the same attention to pronunciation)^ as to say 
that " to the Athenians the command of the sea was not the beginning 
(both expressed by the same word, dpxf\v) of their misfortunes " ; for 
they derived benefit from it' (it was the source not of evil, but of good). 
Or, as Isocrates puts it, that "the command was to the city the beginning 
(or source) of her calamities." This, or something like it, occurs three 
times in Isocrates. The two similar places, one a mere repetition of 
the other, Phil. § 61, and de Pace § loi, are probably what Ar. had 
(very imperfectly) in his recollection : the third is, Paneg. § 119, which 
differs more widely from the quotation. 

^ For in both (these cases, or examples) that is said which one would 
not suppose likely to be said by any one, {lit, which one would not 
.suppose that any one, rtva, would say) and (yet, at the same time) is 
recognised as true (sound, in accordance with facts, Victorius, see 
III 7. 9, infra § 10) : for though it is true that there is nothing particularly 
clever in calling the command a. beginning, (in calling dpxv dpxni though 
in different senses), still he uses the term not in the same, but in 
different senses, (in the second example, Vahlen), and does not con- 
tradict (or deny) the use of dpx^i (in the Jirst example), only in a different 
sense'. The second example, from Isocrates, may seem at first sight to 

PHT0PIKH2 r II §8. 135 

8 61/ cnraa'i he tovtoi^, iap TrpoariKOvrta^ to oi^o/ma 
eveyKtj dixiawixia rj fxeTa(popdy Tore to ev* olov 
^^'Ai/acrx^TOs ovK di/dcrx^TOS'^^ o/JLcoi/vfJilav d7re(pfiaevy 
dWa irpo(rt]KOVT(a^y el drjSt]^. Kal 

OVK dp yepoio fxdWop tj ce Sel ^eVo? [^eVos]** 
t] ov fxdWop t] o"€ §€?, TO avTO. Kal **oi} Zel top 
^evop ^evop dec eipar^^ dWorpiop yap Kal tovto. to 

^ ^ [<re Set] ^ivos ^ivos 

contradict the first, what is affirmed in the one being denied in the 
other. But if allowance be made for the double sense of dpx'fj the 
apparent discrepancy between the two statements will disappear. 

§ 8. * But in all these cases, the merit (ro ev) consists in the proper 
application of the term (i. e. the appropriateness of it to the thing de- 
scribed), whether by (expressed in) ambiguity (the play on words) or 
metaphor'. ipiyKji^ sc. o Xeytav : and comp. in 4. 2, olaT€ fi€Ta(f>opaL 

* For instance "Intolerable Tolerable" — the contradiction lies only 
in the ambiguity ; but this is appropriate if the owner of the name is 
a bore (or nuisance)'. Read with Bekker and Spengel ^Avaaxtros ovk 
duarxeTos [not curx^ros, with Bekker's Oxford ed. of 1837]. The first is a 
proper name; as * Tolerable' must be supposed to be in the English 
version, oficawfiiav cxTrct^iyo-ei' * the speaker contradicts the ambiguous word 
only'; not the t/iin^' itself: the application, not the fact. These con- 
tradictory, or privative, epithets of proper names — comp. the privative 
epithets of metaphors, III 6. 7 and note — may be exemplified in our 
own language by ruthless Ruth, helpless Helps, fearless Phear, incon- 
stant Constance, unpleasant Pleasance, ignoble Noble, Hotspur cold-spur^ 
and the like. Significant Greek names are to be found in II 23. 29, 
III 15. 8 ; Latin in Quint. VI 3.55. Others are^Avcicrop (which is pre- 
cisely parallel to 'Avao-xcror in our text) and NtKi/n/r, Eustath. ad Hom. 
II. A p. 156 — but in fact most Greek proper names are significant in 
themselves, though they may have lost the appropriateness of their per- 
sonal application. 

'And, "never make thyself as a stranger, more of a stranger than 

is required of thee", "not more than thou art bound to do" ; the same 
thing (in different words)'. As the words are not different, but the same, 
Vahlen^ very reasonably proposes to omit ere hCi in the Iambic verse, 
OVK av ykvoio fiaWov rj f eVof $€vos * more strange than a stranger' ; so that 
ov fiaWov Ij (T€ d« is now differently expressed, and becomes what it is 
said to be, an explanation ; or the expression of the same thing in 
different words. Victorius thinks that one of the two may mean 
*host' or *guest' ; but as ^ivoi is not repeated in the alternative, Vahlen's 
explanation seems more probable. *And, (in a third way) "a stranger 
must not be always a stranger" (or, strange) : for that too is again of 

1 Vahlen, in Trans, Vien, Acad,, u. s. pp. 146, 7. He also would connect the 
sentence thus, which is a more doubtful improvement, jj ov fkdWov ij <re Set. rb avrb 
Kal "oJ 5ct" K.T.X. 

136 PHT0PIKH2 T ii§§8— lo. 

avTO Kai TO *Ai/a^auSpiSov to eiraivovixevovy 

KaXov y dirodaveiv irpiv davaTOV Spdv a^iou* 
TavTov yap ecTi tw elireiv a^iop y aTrodaveiv [xri 
ovTa a^iov dirodaveiv [r\ a^iov y' aTTodaveiv firj davd-^ 
9 Tov d^LOV 6vTa\ t] jxri iroiovvTa davdTOV a^ia» to 
ixev ovv elSos to avTo Ttj^ Xe^ea)^ tovtwv aAA' bao) 
dv iXaTTOvi Kal dvTiKeifxeva)^ A.6;^6^, ToaovTia cijSo- 
Kiixei fxdXXov. to S' aiTiov oti »} jjidOritri^ Sid fxev to 
avTiKeiadai jiiaXXov, did Se to iv oXiyta daTTOU 
lo yivsTai^ dei $' dei Trpotreivai tj to Trpdg ov XeyCTai 
tj TO 6p6(S9 Xey€(rdaiy el to Xeyo/xevov dXride^ Kal fxtj 
eTTiTToXaiov* eo'Ti yap TavTa x^P^^ ^X^^^9 ^^^^ ^^diro^ 

a different kind, or form\ (foreign, alien, to the two others : aKkorptov 
belonging to something or somebody else; opposed to oiKfiov), 

' Of the same kind is also that so highly praised verse of Anaxan- 
drides, "A noble thing it is to die ere doing aught worthy of death": 
for this is the same as saying, "It is worthy to die when one is not 
worthy to die", or "it is a worthy thing to die when one does not 
deserve death", or "doing nothing worthy of death"'. Anaxandrides 
is quoted iii lo. 7 (see note) and tn/ra 12. 3. 

§ 9. * Now of all these the kind of expression (language) is the 
same : but the more briefly {iXdrropi, rg Xcf ct) and antithetically ', (repeat 
fioKkov from the compar. iXarrovL : I have represented the similar ellipse 
which our own language makes in the like case), * so much the more are 
they popular (approved, applauded). The reason of this is, that to the 
antithesis is due the increase, and by the brevity (in a short time, xP^va^ 
or space, compass, t^jto),) the more rapid growth (or acquisition) of the 
learning (that arises from them)'. Comp. notes on I 11. 21, 23, and ill 
9.8, also 10.2. 

§ 10. * (To make a phrase aorcTov) it should always have (attached 
to it, Trpoo-ctyoi) some special personal application '{r6 riva thai npos ou 
Xcycrat), or propriety in the expression if what is said (is to) be true and 
not superficial' (supra c, 10.5). 

dh}$fs\ i.e. sound, solid, substantial, genuine, comp. ill y.<),senienliam 
gravem et honestanty Victorius. M^tiri se quemque suo modulo ac pede 
verum est, Hon Ep, i. 7, ult. also I 12.23, "et saepe ap. Livium." 
Orelli ad loc. These two, the S^rjdfs and the fi^ tirmoXaLov, do not 
always go together : when they are separated, the sentence loses its 
point and attraction. This separation is illustrated by two examples : 
the first, as a sentiment^ has truth^ weight, and solidity ; the second is 
well enough written, as far as the style goes ; but neither of them is par- 
ticularly attractive. 

< Because these two may be separated in a sentence : for instance, 
^'^ man should die free from ail offence"— but there is no point 

PHT0PIKH2 r ii§§io— II. 137 

di^rjcKeip ^eT fxrideu dixaprdvovTa*^^ d\M ovk dtrreiop. 
^^Ttji/ d^iav Se? yafAeTi/ top d^ioi/.^^ aW ovk daTeiov^ 
d\K edv dfia a/uLCfxo €)(yi* *^d^ioi/ y dTTodaveiv ju») 
a^iop ovTU Tou aTTOvaveiv. o<r(a av irXeivt) exHy 
ToarovTia dcreiorepov (palveraij oiov ei Kai tu 61/0^ 
fiara jjLeTacpopd eirj Kal fieratpopd TOiadi Kal dprl* 
Oetri^ Kai irapla'coa'i^f Kal exoi evepyeiav, 
1 1 elai Se Kal al eiKove^j warirep eipriTai Kal iv Toi^ p. i3«. 
avoiy del evZoKifiova'ai rpoirov Tivd fxeracpopar del 
yap eK SvoTi/ XeyovTai^ w(nrep tj dvdXoyov fxeTacpopd. 
oiov tj dcTTrh (pafxev eari <pidKt\ 'Apeo?, Kal to^ov 

in that: "the worthy man should marry the worthy woman^" — but 
there is no point in that (this is superficial) : but if they are both com- 
bined in the sentence (then only the sentence becomes pointed). " It is 
a worthy thing (or worth while) for a man to die when unworthy of death 
(when he has done nothing to deserve death)." Here we have the grave, 
sound, true doctrine, and the antithesis, which gives it point, and redeems 
it from superficiality. * But the greater the proportion of these qualities, 
the more pointed and attractive it appears ; if, for instance, the (indi- 
vidual) words also were to convey (cu;) a metaphor, and a metaphor of a 
particular kind (the proportional met. for example), and antithesis, and 
balanced clauses, and to carry with them vividness and animation\ On 
€P€py€iay see above § i. 

§ 1 1. ' Similes too, as has been already said in the preceding (chap- 
ter, c. 4), are always in a certain sense popular metaphors. For they are 
always composed of (or, expressed in) two terms, just like the propor- 
tional metaphor ; as for instance, the shield, we say, is Ares' goblet*, (the 
shape of the <l)iaXTi is in reality more like an elongated saucer, or shield — 
whence the comparison), *and a bow a stringless harp. When thus ex- 
pressed, the phrase is not single (or simple ; it has dotk terms expressed, 
the two terms viz. that are brought into comparison ; and is therefore a 
simile) ; whereas to call the bow a harp or the shield a goblet is single* 
(and therefore only a metaphor). [d*\ fv^Kifiova-cu, *^in du/orlasse la/el 
ai" Spengel.] 

The mezlning seems to be this. The difference between a simile and 
a metaphor is — besides the greater detail qf the former, the simile being 
a metaphor wril large — that it always distinctly expresses the two terms 
that are compared, bringing them into apparent contrast : the metaphor 
on the other hand, substituting by transfer the one notion for the 
other of the two compared, identifies them as it were in one image, 
and expresses both in a single word^ leaving the comparison between 

^ This comes most likely from Anaxandrides again (note on § 8). The verse 
ran thus r^v d^laif 8i Set yafieuf rhv o^tov. Spengel, Artium Scriptores p. 30, adds 
hi. Meineke, />. Comic. Gr, in 201, 

138 PHtOPIKHS r ii§§ii, 12. 

KpopfJLiy^ a^op^os. ovto) fxeu ovv Xeyovaip ov^ «7r- P- m 
Xovi/y TO S* eiTreiu to to^ov (popfiiyya rj Tt]V dcTri^a 
12 ^LciKriP dirXovi/. Kal eiKa^ovcri Se oi/Tft)9, olov TTiOriKia 
auXfjTrjUj Xv^vw y^aKa^ojievta [eW\ /JLvcoTra* ajULCJXo yap 

the object illustrated, and the analogous notion which throws a new 
light upon it, to suggest itself from the manifest correspondence to the 

On the <l)id\rf "Apcos, see note on III 4.4, and Introd. pp. 220 — 292, 
there referred to. This was due to Timolheus the dithyrambic poet. 
The (jiopfjLiy^ axopbos for to^ov — the point of resemblance which brings 
the two together seems to be the common twang of the bowstring and 
harp-string produced in each case by the vibration of the string. The 
' bow may therefore be called a- stringless harp, as wanting the mafty 
strings of the musical instrument, or, in other words, an unmusical 
harp. On these privative epithets with metaphors, comp. in 6. 7. 
The author of this last bit of da-TcioTrjs is a tragic poet named Theog- 
nis, mentioned with contempt and ridicule three times by Aristophanes, 
Acharn. 11, and 138, and Thesm. 168. He is said to have received 
the nickname of x'*^" from his excessive ylrvxporrjs. Of all his writings 
only this one phrase has survived, preserved by Demetrius, tt. ipfirj' 
peiasf TT. pL^Ta<f)opai, § 85. He gives the author's name, and cites this as 
a specimen of a KivBwaBjjs p.€Ta(l)opd, ©? 6 Oioyvis TrapaTidcTM to (toJov) 
<t>6pp.iyya d^opbov em rod r^ Tof o) ^aXKovros' rj p-ev yap <f)6ppiy^ KLpbvva>8€s 
€7ri Tov To^ovy r« §€ dxophcd rj(r(t>dXiaTai. Out of this Wagner, Fr. Trag, Gr. 
Ill lob, and the writer of the article Theognis No. II in Biog Diet., have 
made what they print as a verse, irapaTiOcTai to to^ov, tftoppiyy dxopbov. 

§ 12. * The simile is made in this way, by comparing for instance a 
flute-player to an ape ' — Simia quam similisy turpissivia bestia nobis 
[Ennius, ap. Cic. de Nat. Deor. I § 97]: besides this general resemblance 
of the two natures, there is also a special resemblance between the 
two, thus described by Victorius, "quod tibicines quoque ut simiae 
contracto corpore, manibusqtte ad os appositis, cum tibias inflant, ut 
bestia ilia sedent." The resemblance is quite sufficient to justify the 

In the next example we must (with Bekker and Spengel) read, after 
MS A", \vxvf^ [not \vKta\f and omit etr. 

* And a short-sighted man to a lamp with water dropping upon it \ 
The involuntary contraction, the convulsive winking, of the half-closed 
eyes of the short-sighted man is compared to the fizzing, spirting, and 
sputtering of the lamp when water is dropped on it : * because both are 
contracted*, /xvo)^ {pvtiv) is one that keeps his eyes half shut, Probl. 
XXXI 16, dm tI 01 p,v<a7r€s p\€(t)apa crvmyovrcs 6p£(riv; Arist. makes the 
point of the comparison lie in the contraction of both, the eyelids and 
the flame. ^oKa^ or ^f#cdy 'a drop'; •^aKd^<^tv *to drop, fall in drops', 
Ar. Nub. 580 of the clouds, § i/raicafo/utfy, * we drizzle'; tl/aKaCtaOai (pass.) 
* to be sprinkled with drops.' Xen. Symp. II 26, rjv Be ij/uttv oi TralBfs pi- 
Kpah KuXif t irvKva cVi^f /ea^cuo-d' : opposed to aOpoov nipeiVy to drink all at 

PHT0PIKH2 r II § 13. 139 

13 (rvparyerai. to Se €u i(rTiv oTav iieracpopa ri' eaTi 
yap eiKdcrai rrji/ dcTriZa (pidXri ''Apeo^ Kai to epeiTriov 
paK€i OLKia^y Kal top ^LKtipaTOi/ (J)dvat ^iXoKTrjTr]!/ 
eii/ai he^riyfjievov viro TlpdTVO^f wo'Trep eiKacre Qpacrv- 

fXa^O^ IBcOV TOP ^lKt]paTOV ^TTf/jUei/Ol/ vtto UpdTVO^ 

payj/ta^ovpTaf kojulwi/tu he Kal avx^/ULtipop eTi. ev 019 

once, in large measures. The other is to distribute your potations in 
* drops', as it were, in very small glasses ; and so to make up for what 
you lose in the magnitude of the draught by the frequent repetition of 
the little one. 

§ 13. 'Excellence is attained in them when they contain (involve) 
metaphor (comp. c. 10 § 3) : for the shield may be compared to "Ares' 
goblet", and a ruin to the "rag of a house"'; [conversely we have rags 
described as ipeima x^ai'tSiW, Soph. Fragm. (Niobe) 400, comp. Eur. 
Troad. 1025.] 

'And Niceratus may be said to be "a Niceratus stung by Pratys" — 
according to Thrasymachus' simile, when he saw Niceratus after his 
defeat by Pratys in the rhapsodical contest, and still all dishevelled 
and dirty (squalid)'; with the marks of the long and laborious struggle 
still fresh upon him; before he had had time to shave and dress. 
Ko^av is here used in the unusual sense of long hair as a sign of neglect, 
incomtis capillis^ uncombed, unkempt : in the ordinary acceptation long 
hair is a sign of foppery, or the distinctive mark of a young man of 
fashion, Arist. Eq. 580, except at Sparta, Rhet. I 9. 26, where it was a 
national distinction, eV AaKebalfiovi Kofiau koKov: as it was likewise in 
the Homeric ages, when the Achaeans were KaprjKOfi6ci>PT€s. 

Of the many Niceratuses whose names appear in Sauppe's Ind, Norn, 
ad Or. AtL p. 102, there are two better known to us than the rest, (i) 
the son of the distinguished Athenian general, who appears as one of 
the guests in Xenophon's banquet, in Lysias, &c., and was put to death 
by the Thirty tyrants. If the Thrasymachus who made the remark upon 
him be — as he doubtless is — the famous Sophist, this must be the Nice- 
ratus who is here meant. The second, mentioned in Dem. c. Mid. § 165, 
and afterwards in a list of witnesses with the name of his deme *Ax^p- 
doiJortoy, § 168, was probably the grandson of the other; for the names of 
Nicias and Niceratus seem to have alternated in successive generations 
in this family, as they did in that of Callias and Hipponicus. These 
two are habitually confounded by Taylor, Reiske (see his Ind. ad 
Dem.) and others ; and the confusion still exists in Smith's Biographical 
Dictionary^ although Buttmann proved their diversity (in Exc. viii ad 
Dem. c. Mid.). Sauppe likewise, in his Ind, Nom, ad Or. Att, p. 102, 
distinguishes them. Several other Niciases and Niceratuses appear in 
Sauppe's Index, u. s. 

Niceratus had engaged in a contest with one Pratys, a professional 
rhapsodist, and, being in all probability an amateur, had been defeated. 
In this state, and still bearing all the marks of it on his person, he is 

I40 PHTOPIKH2 T ii § 13. 

IxoKio'ra eKTriTTTOvaLV oi iroiriTaiy iau jULtj ev^ Kat eav 

€v, ev^OKifioviriv. Xeyw S' orav aTroSiBwo'iu, 
warirep (reXivov ov\a Tct (TKeXri ^opeiy 
wcrrep ^iKdixixvov ^vyofia'^fiiv Tta KcopVKw. 

Kal Tci TOiavra irdvT eiKove^ eiaiv. al S' eiKOve^ on 

fxeTaCpopaiy etprjTai TroWaKis. 

encountered by Thrasymachus, who thereupon compares him to " a Phi- 
loctetes bitten or stung by Pratys." Schneider on Xen. Sympos. Ill 5 
supposes that "the subject of the recitation in which Niceratus was 
beaten was the account in Lesches* * little Iliad' of the story of Philoc- 
tetes in which was related the calamity arising from the serpent's bite ; 
alluded to by Homer, II. B 721"; and by Soph. Phil. 267, nXrjyfvj^ 
€xL^vris dypia ;^apay/uiar(, and 632. 

* Wherein the poets are most condemned when they fail, and ap- 
plauded when they succeed*. eKiriirreiv is properly said of an actor 
who is hissed off the stage, and hence of condemnation, disapproba- 
tion, in general. Poet. XViil 15, €7r«t koi 'Ayadcov cfcTTforev cV TovT(jf fiova, 
Dem. de Cor. § 265, i^imirrts (Aeschines) eyei d* iavpirrov. Metaphor- 
ically, Plat. Gorg. 517 A, ov yap au f^enecrov (eWtWeiv omnino dicuntur 
ea quae reiiciuntur et repudiantur ; Stallbaum). explodi^ exactus, Ter. ProL 
(2) Hec. 4 et 7. The opposite of the agent is eV/SaXXciy ' to hiss off the 
stage'; Dem. de F. L. § 389 (of Aeschines again, as acting Thyestes), 
efc/SoXXere txvTov kcll i^eavpiTTere (k reiv 6farpa>v, 

* 1 mean when they make (the two members) correspond (bring into 
comparison, note on dnodibovak l 1.7). "He wears his legs as curfy as 
parsley." {oSXos, Buttmann Lexil. No. 44 and 88). " Like Philammon, 
at close quarters with the sack**'. Philammon, a famous Athenian ath- 
lete, gained the prize at the Olympian games, Dem. de Cor. § 319. 

Harpocr. ^. to» *ABrivcuov irvK-niv. Eustath. ad Horn. II. ^ p. 1324, 
quoted in Dissen's note on Dem. 1. c. 

firyofMix€4«'] of a close struggle, desperate encounter, prop, of two 
oxen under the yoke, or of any yoke-fellows. Ruhnken ad Tim. s. v. 

r^ KapvK^i] K<ofxvicQSf BvXaKos* Suidas. BvXaKiov. tori de dtpfianvov 
ayytlov, oyuoiov da-ic^. Hesychius. ^ A sack filled with bran and olive husks 
for the young, and sand for the more robust, and then suspended at a 
certain height, and swung backwards and forwards by the players.' 
Die/, Ant. art. * Baths,' p. 144 ^. It is evident that this describes only one 
use of it, namely for amusement or exercise at the baths : this game was 
called KapvKOfiaxia. The other purpose for which it was employed was 
plainly from this passage that of boxers, who practised upon it, [Com- 
pare Plautus, Rudens 722, follem pugilatorium faciam et pendentem 
incursadopugnis, and see K. F. Hermann's Privatalterthiimer, § 37. 17.] 

These two iambic lines, from unknown authors, are clearly selected 
not for the failure^ but the success, of the poet or poets who composed 

' (These) and the like are all similes. That all similes are (a kind of, 
or involve) metaphors, has been stated already many times '. 

PHT0PIKH2 r II §§ 14, IS. 141 

14 Kai al TrapoifAiai iuL€Ta(popai dir eihov^ iir ello^ 
ei(rip' oiop av tl^ ws dyadov TreKro/uiepos avro^ iirayd^ 
yrjrai, eira ^\a(3fij cos 6 KapirdOio^ (prjo'i tov Xayvi* 
ajjL^u) yap to elptijULepov ireTrovdaa-iv. 

c6ev fiev ObV ra darela Xeyerai Kal SiOTLy 0";^ eSoi/ 

15 eiprirai to oitlop* eiai Si kuI evSoKLiuLoi(rai vireplSoXai 

§ 14. * Proverbs too are metaphors from species to species : as for 
instance, if a man has of his own accord invited the aid of (//'/. called in 
to help him) another in the expectation of deriving benefit (from his as- 
sistance), and then incurs harm and loss instead, as the Carpathian says 
of the hare : for each of them is a case of the accident (or result) above 

Carpathus, an island lying between Crete and Rhodes, from which 
the neighbouring sea took the name of Carpathian (Hor. Cami. i 
35. 8) : now called Skarpanto. The proverb is thus explained by 
Buhle. "Cum Carpathi incolae leporibus carercnt, unus eorum par 
leporum introduxit" (rabbits, doubtless), "unde tanta eorum multitudo 
propter faecunditatem exorsa est, ut omnes fructus absumerentur." 
Erasmus, A dag, ChiL il Cent, i 81, p. 1250. 

A similar result follows from similar conduct in Stesichorus' fable 
of the stag, the horse, and the man, ix 20. 5. These are both species 
of the same genus of disappointed expectation, or disastrous result ; and 
the proverb is a transfer^ a tralatio of the one to the other. On the 
fpur kinds of metaphor, see Poet, xxi 7. 

* So the sources of witticisms and pointed, pungent, vivid things in 
general, and the reason why (they are such ; their raison d'etre)^ have 
been pretty well explained'. I have omitted to ainov as a mere tauto- 
logical repetition of diori. On the three senses of Stdrt see note on I i.ii. 
Here the sense of "why" is proved by the explanatory to oitiov. 

§ 15. *A11 approved hyperboles are also metaphors', i.e. a mere 
hyperbola, without metaphor, will not be approved. On the hyperbole^ 
Auct. ad Heren. iv 33. 44, superlatio est oratio superans veritatem ali^ 
cuius augendi minuendive causa, et seq. Cic. Topic, c. X § 45, aut 
aliquid quod fieri nullo modo possit augendae rei gratia dicatur, aut 
ntinuendae, quae hyperbole dicitur. Quint, vili 6. 67 — 76, Hyperbolen 
audacioris ornatus summo loco posuu Est haec decens veri superiectio. 
Virtus eius ex diversopar augendi atqueminuendi. Then follow the de- 
scription and illustration of its several varieties. In Ernesti, Lex. Techn, 
(both Greek and Latin), hyperbole is omitted. vircp/SoXiJ is in fact 
'exaggeration*. *For instance (what was said) to (or against^ for the 
purpose of exaggeration, making the most of it) the man with the black 
eye, "you'ld have taken him for a basket of mulberries". For the black 
eye^ is something red ' (and so is the mulberry ; the colour is similar ; and 

* ri virc^riov, which stands here for *a black eye', is originally nothing but 
the seat of that, the part that is under the eye. It is thence transferred to the 
signification of the discoloured surface that results from a blow under the eye (uttw- 

142 PHT0PIKH2 r n §§15,16. 

fxeTaipopaiy 0101/ fi? v7r<jd7ria(riievov *^Mt]6rjTe S* av 
avrov eiuai (rvKajjiivtav KoXadov^^ epvdpov yap ti to 
vTrwTTioVy dWa to ttoXv acpoSpa. to he wairep to 
Kal TO V7r€pl3o\ri ^V Ae^et hiacpepovo'a. 

wcwep ^iXdjULiuLCoi/ ^vyojuaxcop tw KcapvKto. 
wrjdf]^ S' aV avTOV ^iXdjUL/jwi/a ehai iUia)(^6iJ.€POi/ tw kco^ 


worirep areXivov ovXa tol (TKeXrj (f)opeiv' 
wf]df]^ S' au ov CKeXf] dXXd creXiva e^^iv ovTto^ ovXa. 
16 elcrl oe virepfioXaL ineipaKiwSei^' cipodpoTriTa yap p. 133. 

the7'efore so far it is a metaphor from one red thing — purple is nearer 
to the true colour — to another, tlho^ npos €l8os) ; * but the hyperbole or 
exaggeration' (crc^oSpa, which distinguishes it from metaphor) 'lies in the 
excessive quantity', (i. e. in the absurdly exaggerated number of black 
spots represented by a whole basket of mulberries. Victorius). According 
to Theophrastus, de Caus. Plant. VI 6. 4, there are two kinds of mul- 
berries, red and white, ipvOpov koi \fVK6v. This is an instance of Quin- 
tilian's Jirst variety of hyperbole ; gui4m plus facto dicimus, direct 
exaggeration ; of which two examples are given. Victorius refers to the 
saying of an Athenian wag about Sulla, (ruKafxivop iaff 6 SvAXar ak(l>Lrip 
TTfTratr/icVoi/, "Sulla (i. e. his face) is like a mulberry powdered with flour", 
in Plutarch [Sulla, c. 2, p. 45 1 f], 

'And another (kind of phrase) like so and so' (comp. raKoi rd, infra 
c. 17. II ; this seems to mean the two preceding examples, which are 
here repeated, and others like thejn) *is a hyperbole, differing from it 
merely by the form of the expression (it becomes a hyperbole by dropping 
the particle of comparison, Sancp). Thus ^Mike Philammon at close 
quarters with the sack", (may be thrown into the form of a hyperbole, 
thus,) "you would have taken him for Philammon fighting the sack". 
Again, "to wear his legs curly like parsley", becomes "you'ld have 
thought his legs not legs, but parsley, so crooked are they"'. This is 
Quintilian's second variety of hyperbole, u. s. § 68, superiectio per si- 
militudinenty aut per comparationem : illustrated by Credas innare revul- 
sas Cycladas, Virg. Aen. viii 691. 

§ 16. *The hyperbole has 2i juvenile character, signifying vehemence : 
and therefore they are most used by people when they are angry ; " No, 
not if he were to offer me gifts as the sand or dust for multitude" (or 
gifts in number like the sand or dust). "And the daughter of Agamemnon 

vLOLaijJii) — the special for the general — virwindltiv being to 'strike, or inflict a blow 
under the eye', and viruTriaafiivov here *one so struck', including the resulting dis- 
colouration. See for exemplifications of all three, Arist. Pax 541, Acharn. 551, 
Vesp. 1386. Fragm. Apolloph. i. Vol. ii 880, Meineke, Fr, Com. Gr., KiaOov 
(a cupping-glass) rots uTWTrfoty, Antiph. 13. 5, Vol. in 139. lb., ffTOiCriv <rrdff€i, 
t^^XV M-^XV^ vvcjrrloit Si TrvKTtjv (i^eXavvetv). Eiibul. Semele s. Dionysus. Fr. 
I. 8, iKTbs 5« {Kpar^p) Kibfiuy' f^dofios 5* vrrwiriuy. Meineke u.s. 14. Vol. ii. 29. 

PHT0PIKH2 r II § i6; 12 § i. 143 

Sri\ov(riv. Sio opyi^ofxepoi Xeyovcri /uidXia'Ta* 

ovh' ei i^KOi Toca ^oiri b(ra ylrdjiiado^ T6 kovl^ t€. 

Kovptji/ 8' ov yajULEO) 'AyafxejuLvoi/o^ 'ATpelBaOy 

ovS' el XP^^^'^^ AcppoZiTfj KaWo^ epi^oij 

epya h' 'Adrjpalrj. 
Xpt^^VTai §€ fxaXiCTTa tovtu) oi 'Attikoi pr^rope^. ho P-h^s^ 
irpecr^vTeptp Xeyeiv dTrpene^, 
I Se? Se /ULrj \e\rj6evai otl dWrj eKaaTcp yevei dp^ chap, xh. 

fJiOTTei, \e^i£. ov yap fj avTrj ypacpiKrj Kat dyio- 
Pi(rTiKt]y ovcie Brj/ULfjyopiKri Kal ZiKaviK)}. djLKpa) Se 

son of Atreus will I noi wed, no, not though she vied in beauty with 
golden Aphrodite, and in accomplishments [deftness of handiwork] with 
Athene'", comp. ill 7. 11. II. I [ix] 385 (the angry Achilles indignantly 
refusing Agamemnon^s offered presents). fi€ipaKi<a8(is is here meant 
to convey the fire, vigour, spirit, impetuosity, proneness to passion and 
excitement ; or in general 'vehemence', as he tells us ; which are cha- 
racteristic of early youth. It is used by Plato [Rep. 466 B, and 498 b] in 
the sense of * puerile'. The latter usually represents this by vfaviKos, 
which he uses in two opposite senses, of the good and bad qualities 
of youth ; either gallant, spirited, generous, noble, splendid and such 
like, or rash, wanton, insolent : also v€aviai and veavLfvfaSai. 

* This figure is an especial favourite with the Attic orators'. 

*And this is why the use of it is unbecoming to an elderly man' — 
not because, as might be supposed from the arrangement of the sen- 
tences, it was such a favourite with the Attic orators but — because 
it is a juvenile trait of character, and as such must be inappropriate to 
the opposite, 

[It may be doubted whether the awkward remark, xp<5>^at ^e /uaAtora 
TouTG) ol *Attiko\ pijropff, which is a parenthetical note immediately suc- 
ceeding another parenthesis and breaking the connexion between the 
beginning and the end of the section, was really written by Aristotle at 
all. The phrase ol ^AttikoI pjJTopfs, which is not found elsewhere in 
Aristotle (though we have oi *A^i;Viy«rt pi^ropti, vifra 17 § 10), is peculiarly 
open to suspicion, and may perhaps be ascribed to the pen of some 
Alexandrine critic familiar with the canon of the Ten * Attic Orators'.] 


We now return for the last time to the subject of propriety of style, 
on which in this chapter we have some concluding observations. Rhe- 
torical propriety must shew itself in the due adaptation of style to 
matter ; and consequently the three branches of Rhetoric must be treated 
each in its appropriate style. We therefore distinguish two kinds of 
speeches, and two styles appropriate to them; (i) 'debate', speaking 
in the actual strife or contest of the assembly and the law-court, dyca- 

144 PHTOPIKHS r 12 § I. 

dudyKti elSepar ro fiiu yap icrrip eWrjvi^eip iiria'Ta'' 
aOaiy TO Se fiij dvayKci^eardai KaTacicoTrav, av Tt 

vKTTiK^ X/^ip, and (2) ypa<l>iK^, written compositions, which are confined 
to the third or epideictic branch : and the first is again subdivided into 
(a) public speaking, popular harangues addressed to the assembly, and 
(d) forensic. This is only true in theory : in practice speeches were often 
written by the orators, as Demosthenes and Isocrates, for the use of 
those who were incompetent or unwilling to write and plead for them- 

Under the head of ypa(f)iitrf X/fis are included all compositions which 
are intended to be read, and consequently the whole range of literature, 
with the exception of speeches which are intended to be delivered or 
acted^ deliberative and forensic, public and private orations — such as 
those of Demosthenes. Thus the third branch of Rhetoric, the eVi- 
dftKriKi;, is made to embrace all poetry, philosophy, history, and indeed 
any writing on any subject whatsoever. The distinction coincides with 
that of Hermogenes, Trcpt Ih^Siv to\l. ff. irtpX tov TroKiriKov \6yov (see 
Rket, Gr, 11. p. 401 seq. Spengel), who divides composition into \oyoi, 
avfi^ovXevTiKol, diJcaviKot, and TravrjyvpiKoi, the last including the works of 
Homer and Plato, the most distinguished of poets and prose writers. 

The declamations delivered at the Olympian Games and other great 
public festivals or assemblies Trawyvptusf whence the name iraprjyvpiKtA 
Xoyoi — such as Isocrates' Panegyric* and Panathenaic orations, and 
Lysias' celebrated ^OXvfimaKos, of which a short fragment is preserved, 
(Or. 33, Baiter et Sauppe, Or, Att. I 146) — were intermediate between the 
public or agonistic and the epideictic or graphic speeches, partaking of 
the character of both ; being declaimed in public and sometimes with a 
political object (as Lysias' speech, and some of Isocrates'), but that object 
was subordinate, the main consideration being always the display. Iso- 
crates is always anxious to impress his readers with the conviction that his 
speeches are not mere empty declamations, eVtSftf €«, but genuine TroXt- 
TiKoX \oyoi — are indeed a branch of Philosophy, which with him is pretty 
nearly convertible with Rhetoric, see Korh t6v <ro<t)iaT£p §§ i, 11, 21, and 
Mr Sandys' note on Paneg* § 10. [* Isocrates means by "Philosophy" a 
combination of the accomplishments of the pjjrwp and the itoXitikos', 
Thompson's P/taedrus, p. 172.] 

Isocrates, writing from his point of view, aprlb. §§ 46 — 50, contrasts 
himself and his own declamations, which he calls 'EXXi/i/uovf koi ttoXi- 
TiKoifs Koi navTjyvpiKovs, with diicaviitol Xoyoi, forensic pleading and plead- 
ers, whom, probably in consequence of his own failure in that branch 
of Rhetoric, he attacks and vituperates upon intellectual, social, and 
moral grounds. Writing before the establishment of Aristotle's three- 
fold division of the art, he evidently recognises only two branches, 
public or political speaking, in which national interests are concerned — 
and at the head of these he places his own TramjyvptKoi \6yoi^ the true 
philosophy (§ 50) — and judicial or forensic, in which private interests 

* See on this, Mr Sandys' Introduction to Isocratis PanegyricuSy p. XL seq. 

PHTOPIKH2 r 12 §§ I, 2. 145 

fiovXtirat fxera^ovi/ai Toh aWoi^, o irep irdcrxovo'ii^ 
2 ol fxrj ^Tnardiievoi ypdcpeiv. earn Se \e^is ypa^iKrj 

between man and man are debated and decided. In respect of style, 
he of course gives the preference to his own kind of composition, §§ 46, 7. 

On this adaptation of style to the different kinds of oratory, see 
Quint VIII 3. II — 14. The opening observation, at all events, looks like 
a reference to this chapter, though Spalding in his note is silent on the 

Whately also, in his Rhe^, c. IV *on Elocution', {EncycL Metrop. 
p. 299 by 300 a, 301 ^,) has some good observations, partly derived from 
Aristotle, upon the contrast of the agonistic and graphic styles. On the 
contrast of the two, see by all means Isocr. Phil. §§ 25, 26: all the main 
points of interest in public and forensic, or agonistic, speeches are there 
enumerated, and the comparatively lifeless speeches to be ready forcibly 
contrasted with them. [Comp. also Alcidamas, wfpl tcbv rovy ypanrovs 
\6yov£ ypa(l>6vr<av, (against Isocrates).] 

§ I. 'It must not be forgotten (lost sight of) that a different kind of 
language is appropriate to each different kind (of Rhetoric). For the 
same style is not suitable to written composition (that which is intended 
to be read) and that which is used in debate (in the contests y the actual 
struggle, of real life ; nor again in (the two divisions of the latter) public 
and forensic speaking. The orator must be acquainted with both : for 
the one (debate) implies the knowledge and power of clear expression in 
pure Greek, and the other freedom from the necessity (///. the not being 
obliged to) of suppressing in silence {Koxa^ keeping down) anything that 
one may want to communicate to the rest of the world ; which is the case 
with those who have no knowledge (or skill) of writing (i.e. composition)'. 
Comp. Ill 1.7. Cicero, de Or. 11 82. 337, gives a brief description of the 
* grand' and dignified style appropriate to the exalted subjects of public 

The meaning of this seems to be — the orator must be acquainted 
with the written as well as the debating style; the latter implies and 
requires only the correct use of one.'s native language, so that one may 
be able to make oneself clearly intelligible ; this (debate alone) does not 
require the minute accuracy of studied composition, which can be exam- 
ined at leisure and criticized: but since one who can only speak, and not 
write, is incapable of communicating his opinions to the rest of the world 
(rots ^[XXoif, all others besides the members of the assembly or law-court 
that he is actually addressing), it is necessary for a statesman to acquire 
the power of writing well, and therefore to study in some degree the art 
of exact composition. Victorius, who renders to firj dpoyKaCca-Bm — rots SXXoig 
of actual writing, that is of tetters to absent friends, seems to narrow the 
meaning of * writing' in such a way as to produce a somewhat ridiculous 
result Surely anj^ educated man, whether he be an orator and states- 
man or not, requires and possesses the knowledge of writing in that 
sense. On ro fiiv yap iariv iXKriviCtiv imaraaBai, Thuc. II 60, 5—6 may 
serve as a commentary ; Pericles, in his defence,^ describing his qualifi- 
cations for a statesman, says ovdtpos oiofiai rja-aov civac yv&val re ra biovra 
AR. III. 10 

146 PHTOPIKHS T 12 § 2. 

/x€i/ fj aKpifieo'TdTfiy dycoi/io'TiKri Se »J vTroKpiTiKayTartj, 
TavTfi^ Se Si/o el'Sij* ty juei/ yajt) ij^ifci) ^ Se TraQviTLKiq. 
Zio Kal OL VTTOKpiTai Tci TOiavTa TftJi/ ZpajxcLTiav dia)~ 
Kovo'iy Kai oi TTOiriTai tov^ tolovtov^. fiaaTa^ovrai 

Koi ipfirivtvo'cu ravra...o re yap yvots Koi fifj catf^ms diba^s iv to*^ Jcai ^l fi^ 

§ 2. 'The written style is the most exact' (or finished : on dicpt/3cia and 
its various senses, see Grant ad Eth. Nic. I 7. 18, and the references in 
Introd. ad h. 1. p. 334, note 4), *that of debate lends itself most to acting' (or 
delivery: is the *most capable of being acted'). Comp. lii 1.4. The 
reason of this as far as declamation is concerned, viz. why i^a^ graphic style 
admits of more ornament and artificial arrangement than the other, is 
thus stated by Cicero, OraL LXi 208. After the invention of the period, 
&c., he says, nemo qui aliquo esset in numero scripsit oraUonem geiuris 
eiusy quod esset ad delectationem comparaium remotumque a iudiciis 
forensique certamine^ quin redigeret omnes fere in quadrum numerumque 
sententias. Nam quum is est auditor^ qui non vereatur ne compositae 
orationis insidiis sua fides attemptatur^ gratiam quoque habet oratori 
voluptati aurium servienti, 

* Of this (dywwoTiici}) there are two kinds ; one that (includes, con- 
veys,) represents character, the other emotion (in the speech)'. That is, 
not that d-ytowoTiKij is a genus, containing two species under it, moral and 
emotional : for this is not the fact, and also any speech may have both : 
but that these two elements belong specially, not exclusively, to the 
two debating branches of Rhetoric, of which they are very prominent 
ingredients : the reality of the interests at stake giving more room for the 
play of passion and the assumption of character than the cold unimpas- 
sioned, deliberate written compositions. The ethical part is of two kinds, 
the ^Boi iv T^ \iyovTi, I 2. 4, II 1. 4, and the characters IjBq of the several 
ages and conditions, 11 12. 17. The emotional is of course that which is 
partially described I 2.5, and treated at length in 11 2. 16. Of these 
'appeals to the feelings', dtipaa-is and eXeor, the earlier rhetorical trea- 
tises were full, I 1.3, of which Thrasymachus' eXeoi (ill 1.7) described by 
Plato, Phaedr. 267 c, was a well-known specimen. Quint, ill 8. 12, (In 
concionibus deliberatio) affectus, ut quae maxima, postulat, seq. Valet 
autem ifi consiliis auctoritas (this is principally due to ^^of) plurimum, 
seq. See in 7. i, 3, 6, where the two are described. The rjBos is there 
confined to those of age, nation, station, &c. Compare with all this, 
Demetr. n-. ipiiT}V€ias § I93,<Wycavior ikpo^v Xfrm pJaKKov rj buik€\vfi€vrj Xcfcr, 
avTTf Ka\ viroKpiTiKrj fcoXctroi* Kiv€i yap vnoKpunv 17 Xvo-if. ypacfyiKfj dc Xc^tp 
rj fiuavayvoDOTOg. avTif de iariv ij a-vvrjpTrnxevrf kgi oiou i^a'<l)dKi(rfX€vij rolg 
avvb€fTfiois. dia tovto Be ka\ Mtvavdpov vnoKpivoprai "kfXvfiepov iv rots irXet- 
aroLs, ^iXiJfiova de dpayivcoaKovfriv, 

*And this is why actors also (as well as debaters) hunt after (dm- 
Kovai) plays of this kind (that is, plays of which the subjects give scope 
for the exhibitions of passion and character), and the poets after persons 
(whether actors to represent the nadrj, or characters in the dramas to be 
represented with them) of the same kind. At the same time, the poets 

PHT0PIKH2 r 12 §2. 147 

Se oi dvaypwo'TiKOiy olov Xaipiifxtai/ (aKpi/Sri^ yap 
iio'Trep Xoyoypdcpos:^ Kal Aikvjulpios twv Zidvpafifio' 
TTOitSv. Kal irapa^aXKofxevoi oi fxev tcop ypacpiKvop 
eV Toh dywcri arevoi (paivovraiy oi Se Ttav priTopvov 

that can be read (that write to be read as well as acted or rhapsodised) 
become pocket-companions, or favourites '. 

jSaora^co-^ai is said of anything that is carried about in the hand or 
arms, fondled, cherished, fondly and familiarly treated, like a baby or 
pet lapdog ; and hence when applied to a book naturally means one that 
people are fond of, and carry about with them in their pockets. There 
are several instances in Sophocles — see EUendt's Lex. — that illustrate 
this sense of fiaardCfo-Baiy as Philoct. 655 of the /avaun'U bow and 657, 
(Neopt.) tariv SaT€.,.Kal Paaraa-cu, fit (be allowed to nurse it), irpoa-Kvaai 
0* ocnrfp Btov, Aesch. Agam. 34, vutf^iKrj x^P^ avoKTOi rfj^t fiaaTaa-cu (to 
press and caress) x«p* (Blomfield's Glos. ad loc). Quint vill 3. 12, of any 
striking sentiment or expression, intuendum (to be narrowly looked into) 
ei paene pertractandum. 

* Chaerenion for instance who is as exact (highly finished) as a pro- 
fessional speech-writer (such as Isocrates), and Licymnius amongst the 
dithyrambic poets'. On Chaeremon, see note .11 23. 29, ult. [The aKplptia 
of Chaeremon may be illustrated by his partiality for minute details, such 
as enumerating the flowers of a garland, e.g. Athenaeus xv p. 679 F, 
Kia-cre^ tt vapKiafrt^ re rpilkiKas KVKkt^ ^rrtijyavav iXucrSv.^ On \oyoypd(f}osj 
see II II. 7; Shilleto on Dem. de F. L. § 274. Licymnius is mentioned 
above, in 2. 13, where reference is made to Camb. Joum. of CL and 
Sacred PhiL No. ix. Vol. ill pp. 255 — 7, for an account of what is known 
of him; and again ill 13. 5. 

'And upon comparison the (speeches, Xoyoi) of the writers when 
delivered in actual contests have a narrow, confined, contracted (i.e. 
poor, mean, paltry) appearance, whilst those of the orators (meaning 
particularly the public speakers, in the assembly), which by their skilful 
delivery succeed or pass muster' (none of this is expressed but 'well 
delivered'^), ' when taken in the hands (to read) look like the work of mere 
bunglers or novices', orcvoff is the Latin tenuis, and the English slight 
and slender, in a contemptuous and depreciatory sense. In its primary 
sense of narrow it stands in opposition, in respect of style, to the wider 
range, and the broader, larger, freer, bolder, tone required by the loftier 
and more comprehensive subjects, and also by the larger audiences, of 
public speakers ; the high finish and minute artifices of structure, as well 
as the subtler and finer shades of intonation and expression, are lost in 
a crowd and in the open air. So Whately, Rhet ch. IV {Encycl. Metrop. 
p. 301 a), describes the agonistic style, as " a style somewhat more blunt 
(than the graphic) and homely, more simple and, apparently, unstudied 
in its structure, and at the same time more daringly energetic." trrtvoi then 

^ [So in Introd. p. 325, after Victorias and MajoTagius, but compare Mr Cope's 
second thoughts as given in the note on the same page : " ev \€xBivT€i can mean 
nothing but *well spoken of, ^opes being understood."] 

10 — 2 

148 PHTOPIKHS r 12 §2. 

ev \€x6euTe^ idi(aTiKOi ev rah x^P^'^^' ainov V oTi 
ev Tta dytavi dpfioTrer Sio kul rd viroKpiTiKa dcpriprj- 
fxevm Tt}^ vTroKpicrews ov iroiovvra to uvtwp epyov 
{baiperai evridt], ohv rd re da-vvhera Kai to TToWaKi^ 
TO avTO eiTreiv ev t^ jpa(piK^ 6p6m dirodoKi^id^eTaiy 
ev le dytovia-TiK^ kol ol priTopes x/o^J^Tar e(rTi yap 

represents the comparative narroivness or confined character of the 
graphic style, with its studied artificial graces, careful composition, and 
other such 'paltrinesses', ' things mean and trifling'— a sense in which it 
occurs in a parallel passage of PL Gorg. 497 C, where cr/iticpa Kai ^^va 
are contemptuously applied by Callicles to Socrates' dialectics. This is 
actually said of Isocrates, in the passage of Dionysius, de Isocr. lud. 
c. 13, by Hieronymus, the philosopher of Rhodes ; avayvS^vai f*eV 5i/ rwa 
hvytik^ai Tovs \6yov9 avrov (Isocr.) itaX«£, htifirfyopwai bk r^v re ttaav^v 
Koi TOP Tovov iirapavra, kcu iv TavT^i tJ KoravKtv^ fi€Ta rfjs apfiorrovinis vno- 
Kpia-€Ci>s €iTr€lv, ov 7ravT€\ms. 

i'awTiKoi] such as have only the capacity (-km) of unprofessional per- 
sons, or laymen in art, &c. as opposed to clerks^ when all science and 
learning were in the hands of the clergy. i8t«n;s is opposed to diy- 
pxov^o^, a practitioner of any art, science, profession, or pursuit : and 
especially to philosophy and its professors, as in the adage, ZStwnyp cV 
<l>i\oa6(t>oi5, (f)i\6<ro(l)os ividiaraK. 

Spengel follows MS A*' (or A) m reading rj r&v XexBevrmv for €u Xcx* 
etirrts. But I confess that I do not see who could be intended by t^v 
XexBivrav besides the orators. Certainly not the preceding dvayvtunrriKoL 
ibiaTiKol iv rais x«po'H ^^^^ "^"st have been the case with Cicero's 
rival, Hortensius. Quintilian [xi 3. 8], after telling us that Hortensius 
was, during his lifetime, first thought to be chief of all orators, secondly 
Cicero's rival, and thirdly second to him alone, adds, ui appareat placuisse 
aliquid eo dicente quod legentes non invenimus (the same may be said of 
many sermons). Isocrates' RhiL §§ 25, 26, an excellent commentary on 
this, is unfortunately too long to quote. 

* The reason is that their appropriate place is in an actual contest or 

debate' (with dpfiorrei supply, if you please, ravra as the nomin. — it means 

at all events the subject of the immediately preceding clause): 'and this 

^ also is why things (speeches) intended to be acted or delivered (///. proper 

^ to be, or capable of being, -/cos), when the delivery is withdrawn don't 

produce their own proper effect (or perform their special function ^ lpn/ov\ 

and so appear silly: for instance asyndeta, and the reiteration of the 

same word in the written, graphic style'— with which the agonistic 

divested of its acting or delivery is now (surreptitiously) associated — * are 

rightly disapproved ; whereas in debating the orators do employ them, 

^^^ because they are proper for acting '. Aquila c. 30 (ap. Gaisford, Not. Var.), 

y"^^^^^ Ideoque et Aristoteli et iteratio ipsa verborum ac nominum et repetitio 

r frequentior^ et omnis huius modi motus actioni magis et certamini quam 

stilo videtur convenire. 


PHT0PIKH2 r 12 §3. 149 

3 vTTOKpiTiKa. dvdyKt] Se fxerafidWeiv to uvto Xeyov^ 
ras* 6 Trep wV TrpooZoiroiei tw v7roKplve(r6ai. ^^ oi)to9 
ecTiv 6 fcA6>/ra9 vjUiuVj ovro^ eo'Tiv 6 i^aTraTrjo'a^, 
oifTO^ 6 TO ear'xcLTOV irpoZovvai eTri'xeipria'a^.^^ oiov 
Kal ^iXrijULwi/ 6 vTTOKpiTPj^ eTTolei ev t€ Ttj 'Ai/a^ai/- 
Spi^ov yepoi/TOfxai/ia, 6t€ \eyei ^Fa^afxapOvs Kal Ha- 
\aiuL9]Br]^, Kal iv T(S TrpoXoyto twv evare/Swi/ to eyw* 
eat/ yap ti^ tcc TOiavTa fxri v7roKpipf]Tai, yiyveTai 6 

§ 3. What follows is a 7iote, a passing observation suggested by the 
subject, but not immediately connected with it. * In this repetition of 
the same thing, some change must be made in the mode of expression of 
each member of it ': (the repetition should be made in different words, to 
avoid monotony. See on the interpretation of this, and the figure /acto- 
/SoXiJ, to which yL^TOL^cOCKfiv points, a full explanation, Introd. p. 326, and 
note i:) * which paves the way as it were for the delivery' (on TrpoodonoieT, 
see note on i i. 2). "' This is he that sfole from you, this is he that cheated 
you, this is he that last of all attempted to betray )rou"'. (From an un- 
known rhetorician ; most probably not the author's own.) * And again, as 
another instance, what Philemon the actor (not to be confounded with 
the Comic poet) used to do in Anaxandrides' OM nierCs madness^ where 
(lit. wheUy otf) he says (uses the words in playing his part) "Rhada- 
manthys and Palamedes," and also, in the prologue of the Devotees ^ the 
word eyoi : for if such things (phrases, sentences, or words) as these be 
not (varied) in the delivery, they become like " the man that carries the 
beam," in the proverb (ti}i/)', i.e. stiff and awkward, like one that has 
'swallowed a poker', as ^«r proverb has it. 

Anaxandrides, quoted before. III 10.7. The first citation from his 
comedy, the ycpovrofiavia, has the rest of the verse supplied in Athen. Xiv 
614 C, Kai Toi noXv yc trovovfiev, rov d(rvfi^\ov ev/>€ yfAota Xcyctv *Pa5a- 
fiavBvs Kal Ua\afii^8rjs. On the passage of Aristotle, which he quotes, 
Meineke, Fr. Comtc. Gk hi 166, has the following remark: "Philemon 
autem quid fecerit in recitandis verbis P. kcu n., non satis apparet." I don't 
suppose the repetition to have been confined to these words ; all that 
Aristotle means to say seems to be, when Philemon had come to that point, 
thereabouts, the repetition took place. " Num forte eadem verba in 
pluribus deinceps versibus recitabantur et alio atque alio vocis flexu et 
sono ab histrione recitabantur ? (This follows Victorius' interpretation of 
ftera^aXXf(l'.) Ita sane videtur, neque alia alterius loci fuerit ratio, in quo 
identidem repetebatur pronomen cyaJ." At all events, these were two noto- 
rious and well-remembered points made by Philemon in this varied 
repetition in acting the character which he sustained in these two come- 
dies. There is, or was, a similar tradition (which I heard from Dr Butler, 
the late Bp of Lichfield, and Master of Shrewsbury School) of the effect 
produced by Garrick's rendering of Pray you tmdo this button: — thank 
yoUy sir^ — of Lear, choking in his agony, at the point of death [v. 11 r. 309]. 

ISO PHTOPIKH2 r 12 §4. 

4 Tf]P hoKOP (pipoov. Kal Tci dcvpSera wcaurco^* ** ^\6ov, p. 
d7rriVTY\(raj eZeoixriv'^^ dvdyKri yap viroKplveo'daL Kal jmrj 
ftJs eV XtyovTa tm avTw iidet Kal tovw elireiv. eTi 
€;\;6£ 'ihiov TL ra davvZeTa* ev icrta yap ')^p6v(jo iroXKd 
hoKei elpfi(rdar 6 yap (rvpSeafJio^ eV TroieT Ta TroAAa, 
w(rT edv e^aipedtjj ^fjKop on TOVpapTiop earai to ep 
TToWa. €;^€£ ovp av^rjo'ip. ^^tjXdop, dieXexOrjPy i/c€- 
Tevcray iroXKa BoKel VTreptSeip oca eiTrep, tovto Se p. 
fiovKeTai Troieip Kal'^Ofitjpo^ ip Tui 

§ 4, ' And of asyndeta the same may be said, " I came, I met, I 
implored"'. I have translated this upon the supposition that there is no ' 
intention of distinguishing here the aorist and imperfect: 'for (here 
again) delivery (i. e. intonation) must come into play, and it must not be 
spoken as if it were all one, with the same character and accent'. Of etcrvj/- 
h^Tov or Xvortp, the disconnected style, in which avpBecrfwi ' connecting par- 
ticles' are absent, comp. Demetrius, w. ipfirjvtias § 194, on fie vnoKpiTiKov 1} 
Xtcriff irapdbciyfxa iyKtlada ToBe, idt^afirfv, crticrov, eVrp€<^a>, 0iXf (Menander, 
F'r. Inc. 230, Meineke, u. s. IV 284). ovrox yap \e\vfievov dvayKa<r€i Koi top p,^ 
Oekovra vtroKpiveadai 8ia Trjv \vaiv tl Be {n)ubi](ras tlirois, iSe^dfirfv Kal triKTov 
icat €ifrp€0a>, ttoXX^v diroBtiav rots avvbea-fiois c/ij3aXfCf. Of asyndeton two 
examples are given from Demosthenes by Hermogenes Tr.fieOodov bfivoTtiros, 
§ II, Rhet, Gr II 435, Spengel. 

A good example of asyndeton^ illustrating the rapidity and vivacity 
which it imparts to style, is supplied by Victorius from Demosth. c. 
Androt. § 68, opov peToUovs, *ABrjpalovs, beav, carayav, fitmv iv roTj iKKkrf- 
(Tiaiff, fVt Tov fi^ipxiTos. Add Cicero's a^iit, excessity evaszt, erupit. 

The vivacity imparted to style by asyndeton and the opposite (the 
employment of connecting particles) is admirably explained and illus- 
trated by 'Campbell, PAtt, of Rhet, Bk. ill sect. 2, near the end (2nd ed. 
Vol. II pp. 287 — 293.) 

' Further asyndeta have a certain special property ; that (by their aid) 
many things seem to be said in the same time' (as one thing would be, if 
they had been employed); 'because the connecting particle (or con- 
nexion) converts several things into one, (Harris, Hermes^ li 2, p. 240,) 
and therefore if it be withdrawn (extracted), plainly the contrary will 
take place ; one will become many. Accordingly (the asyndeton) exag- 
gerates (or amplifies: or multiphes, increases the number)^: "I came, 
I conversed, I supplicated": (the hearer or reader) seems to overlooker 
survey a number of things that he (the speaker) said'. (I have followed 
Bekker, £d. 3, ttoXXo doKfi vTreptdeiy o^ra tltt^v* Spengel has, xroXXa doKct, 

^ The opposite of this, the employment of Qivlwpj(n,^ sometimes tends to 
produce the same effect. Demetr. r. ipprjveiaSf § 54, «j vap* 'Oyitijpy (H B 497), 
Tuyp BoKufTiKwp Tro\4uip rd ovopara ^vTcKrj ovra Kcd piKph. oyxov rwit, ^x« * «^ piy^Oot 
5tA Toin awdiapovs ir.r.X., and again, § 63. 

PHT0PIKH2 r 12 §§ 4, 5. ^Si 

N(jO€l)s 09 KaXKiO'TO^. 

irepl ov yap woWa eipriraiy dvdyKt] Kai iroWaKi^ 
eipfjo'dar ei ovv Kal 7ro\Aaic4s, Koi iroWd doKeT, wcTe 
rju^rjarep aira^ jxvtiardeh Zid top. TrapaXoyiorfioVy Kai 
fxprjiuLtjv ireTTolriKeVy ovSafxov vcrrepov avrov \6yov 
5 ;/ ft€i/ ow driiurjyopiKr} A€^(9 Kai TravreXm eoiKe rfj 

vn€pfi^v oa-a tiirov, which does no/ agree with MS A% and is also ob- 
scure. Bekker, Ed. I, has noXXa' do/ecT de vTrcpideiv oaa (Ittov, otra <f>rifii)- 

*And this is Homer's intention also in writing Nireus at the com- 
mencement of three lines running'. 11. li 671. On this Demetrius, ir. cp- 
fiTjufias §§ 61, 62, rov d€ 'Sipta, avrw r€ ovra fMKpor jcai ra irpayftara avroO 
fUKpmpa — all this is raised to magnitude and importance by €irava<t>opaf 
repetition, and BiaXvais, asyndeton. He then quotes the three lines; and, 
§ 62, continues, Kfu, ^x^hov dira^ rov "Sipems ovopLcurOivros iv r^ bpapnn (dra- 
matic poetry) fi(fiinip.(0a ovdfv rjrrov fj rov 'A^cXXccas koi rov 'Odvo'(rco>r, Kairoi 
KOT tiros €KaaTov K(ikovfi€v<av (Txebov Jc.r.X. concluding with an ingenious 
simile ; acnrcp yap iv rats ifrridaco'i ra oXiya. diarax'SevTa irios (a few meats 
by a certain disposition or arrangement) xroXXa ^alpcrai, ovra nap rois \6yois, 
Comp. also Hermogenes, ncpi iiravakri^i<oiy de repetitione, w. fieOoBov 
. dfivoTTjTosj § 9 {R/iet Gr. 11 433, Spengel), who gives this example of 
Nireus, with others from Homer, Xenophon, and Demosthenes. Illus- 
trations of this emphatic repetition, and especially of that of the pro- 
noun avroff, occur in a fragm. of AeschyL, Fragm. Inc. 266, quoted at 
length in Plat. Rep. 11 383 B, the most forcible of them all: jcay« (Thetis) 
TO ^oi^ov B(2op dylrevbes crropa rj\7riCop (ivoi, pavriitj ftpvop T€\v]^, 6 d' 
avTos vfip^Py avTos cV Ooivjj Trapeipy avrot rdd* €lfrcip, avros tarip 6 ktop^v tup 
iralha top ip.6p. After, this it will be unnecessary to quote inferior speci- 
mens; such as Xen. Anab. in 2.4, Aesch. Eumen. 765, with Paley's 
note, and Blomfield's note on 745, in Lin wood's ed. p. 188, where several 
references are given. 

* For a person (or thing) of which many thii^s are said must neces- 
sarily be often mentioned ; and therefore (this is a fallacy) they think it 
follows (#cai, that it is also true) that if the name is often repeated, there 
must be a great deal to say about its owner : so that by this fallacy (the 
poet) magnifies (Nireus) by mentioning him only once (i. e. in one place), 
ai^d makes him famous though he nowhere afterwards speaks of him 
again'. This is the fallacy of illicit conversion of antecedent and conse- 
quent, de Soph. El. C. 5> 167 ^ l, 6 de Traptfrop^pop eXeyxos 8ta to oXetrOai 
duTi<TTp€(f>€ip rrfp aKoXovBrjcip K.r.X. and Rhet. I 7. 5. Analogous to this is 
the fallacy exposed in in 7.4. 

§ 5. It seems as if in the following section Aristotle had, probably 
unconsciously misled by the ambiguous term, used dxpi/Si); and its wra^ 


152 PHTOPIKHS r 12 §5. 

orKiaypa^ia* b(rta yap av TrXeicov ^ 6 ox^o^, Troppo)- 
T€p(a rj 6eay Zio ra aKpi/Stj wepiepya Kai x^/jOeo (pai^ 

€r€is in two distinct senses : exactness and high finish in sfyle and rsa- 
sotting. The general subject and connexion of the chapter will oblige us 
to refer the first clause, with its comparison of public speaking to a 
rough sketch in black and white, without details, and producing no 
effect on close inspection, to the style of the speech — which indeed is the 
subject of the whole book as well as this chapter — though it may pos- 
sibly include also minute details of reasoning. The same thing may be 
said of j) fitic?; dKf>ifi€aT€pov: in this the style and the argument may be 
minuter, exacter and more detailed in proportion to the diminished size 
of the audience, and the increased probability of their paying attention 
to such things (see note ad loc). But when we come to the third degree, 
the single judge, it seems to be false and absurd to say that exactness 
and high finish of sfyle is fnore suited to speeches addressed to him : no 
man would endeavour to attract or impose upon an arbitrator by such 
artifices. The exactness in this case seems therefore to be confined to 
exactness of reasoning and minute detail, as of evidence and the like. 
A single judge — as in our own courts — would always be more patient, 
more inclined to listen to, and more influenced by, exact reasoning and 
circumstantial evidence than either of the two preceding : the mob of the 
assembly would not hear them, nor follow them, nor listen to them at all : 
the large body of dicasts would be more ready to do so ; but most of all 
the single judge. The last clause of the section brings us back to the 
point from which it started, viz. differences of style, 2Xi^ seems to apply 
this exclusively to what has been said of aKpipeia in forensic pleading. 

*Now the style of public-speaking is exactly like scene-painting; for 
the greater the crowd, the more distant the point of view, and conse- 
quently' (in these crowded assemblies; held too in the open air — which 
should be added in respect of the style required, though this does not 
distinguish it from forensic rhetoric,) * all exactness, minute and delicate 
touches, and high finish in general appear to be superfluous and for the 
worse (deviating from the true standard of public speaking) in both*. 
Compare with this Whately's remarks, partly borrowed from Ar., Rhet. 
c. IV {EncycL Metrop, p. 299), on the " bolder^ as well as less accurate, 
kind of language allowable and advisable in speaking to a considerable 
number": he quotes Ar.'s comparison of scene-painting, and then pro- 
ceeds " to account for these phenomena" — which Ar. has omitted to do. 
His explanation is derived from the various sympathies which are espe- 
cially awakened in a great crowd. 

frKiayf}a<t>ia is a painting in outline and chiaroscuro, or light and 
shade, without colour, and intended to produce its effect only at a dis- 
tance — herein lies the analogy to public speaking — consequently rough 
and unfinished, because /r^/;* the distance all niceties and refinements in 
style and finish would be entirely thrown away (nepUpya). This point is 
well brought out in a parallel passage of Plat. Theaet. 208 E, pvv d^ra, J 
0., navrcLTraa-i ye lywyc €7r€ibrj iyyvs manep (rKiaypa(l>rjfiaTos ytyova rov Xryo- 
fifi/ovy (vvirifii ovbe a-fiiKpov' eiws d(})e(rT^Kri 7r6pp(o6fV iipaLvtro fiol rt XeyeaBai 

PHTOPIKHS r 12 §5. 153 

P€Tai eV d/JL^OTepois* 1} Se diKapiKrj^ aKpi^etTTepa. en 
Ze fxaXKov »; evl KpiTtj* i\dxt<T'TOP yap iariv ev ptirO'^ 
piKoh* evcvvoTTTOV yap fxdWov to oiKeiov tov Trpdy^ 

^ CorrexU Tynvhitt; secuttis est Bekker^ et SpengeL MSS UKr\ dxpipia-repov, 

(Heindorf, note ad loc): "as long as he was at a distance he seemed to 
understand the meaning of what was said ; on a nearer approach all the 
apparent clearness vanished, and it became confused and indistinct." In 
Phaedo, 69 B, (rKiaypa<l)ia is a mere rough sketch or outline ; a daub, with- 
out any distinct features (see Wyttenbach ad loc). Parmen. 165 c, olov 
€(rKiaypa^rjfi€va, drroaTavri fi€V ev iravra <f>aiv6fi€vaf» irpocriKBovTi Be TroXXa 
Koi €T€p(u Rep. X 602 D. lb. II 365 c, where it has the same sense as in 
the Phaedo. Ast ad loc. Comm. p. 410. And in several other passages 
of Plato. As the point of comparison here is solely the difference be- 
tween the near and distant effects, I have translated it * scene-painting' 
(as also Whately) which represents this better to us: the proper and 
literal meaning of the word is "the outline of a shadow", the supposed 
origin of painting. See further in Mr Wornum's art. on 'painting', in 
Diet, Ant p. 680 b. With itoppnnTepcn 1} 6ea, comp. de Soph. El. i 164 b 27, 
where the 'appearance' as opposed to the 'reality', is compared to this 
distant view, (f>aLvtTai be 8i aTreipiaV oi yap aneipoi aairep hv djre^ovres Trop- 
p&Qev Beapova-iv. 

jy 8e diKrf aKpi^earepop] * Whereas justice (forensic pleading) admits of 
more exactness and finish'. The audience is less numerous, and nearer, 
literally and metaphorically, to the speaker ; they are nearer to him locally, 
so they can hear better what he says, and also nearer to him in respect 
of the knowledge of persons and circumstances, which permits him to 
enter into more minute detail. Also they are not personally interested 
in the dispute, and can afford to bestow more attention upon minutiae of 
style, action, intonation, and such like, and being comparatively unoccu- 
pied are more likely to notice and criticize such things. All these are 
reasons why ij hiKq is ditpipearepov in various senses. See Quint, in 8.62 
seq. After speaking of the declamatory style, he continues, A/ia veris 
consiliis ratio est; ideoque Theophrastus quam maxime remotum ab omni 
affectatione in deliberativo genere voluit esse sermonem : secutus in hoc 
auctoritatem praeceptoris sui; quanquam dissentire ab eo non timide 
so let. Namque Aris to teles idoneam maxime ad scribendum demonstrati- 
vam, proximamque ab ea iudicialem putavit et seq. 

'And still further (in respect of the reduction of the number of 
hearers, and the consequent admissibility of accuracy and finish in 
the speech) that {subaudi diicrjf the pleading) before a single judge: 
for he is least of all subject to (liable to be imposed on by) rheto- 
rical artifices (appeals to the feelings and the like): for he takes a 
more comprehensive view of what belongs to the subject and what 
is foreign to it (this seems to define the kind of aKpifieia that is here 
intended) and the contest is absent (there is no room for partisanship 
and prejudice) and his judgment clear or pure (i.e. free and unbiassed ; 
sincerum, pure of all alloy, such as the preceding). And this is why the 

154 PHT0PIKH2 T 12 §§ S, 6. 

jULaro^ kai to dWoTpiov, Kai 6 dywv aTrearTiv^ ware 
Kadapd rj Kpicis, Sio ov^ oi avroi ev Tratri tovtoi9 
ei^OKijULOvcri pf]TOpe^' dW ottov iidXiorTa VTroKpiaeuy^y 
evTavda nKiCTa dKpi/Seia evi. tovto Se, birov (jxovfj^j 
Kai fxaXiCTTa ottov fxeyaf^^. 
6 in l^^v ovv eTri^eiKTiKrj Xe^i^ ypacfyiKoordrri* to yap 
epyov avTfj^ dvdyi/coai^* ZevTepa 8e f/ ^LKavLKY]. to Se 

same orators don't succeed (become popular, distinguish themselves) 
in all these (at once): but where action or delivery is most required, 
there is least of exact finish to be found*. [With o ayvtv airefmp comp. 
Cic. ad Att. i 16. 8 remoto illo studio contentionis quern dy^va vos ap- 

With /iaX(o-ra viroKpia-(ci>s something must be supplied : whether we 
should understand dti or the like ; or simply eWt, * when it (the speech, 
or the thing in general,) belongs to, is concerned with, when it is a question 
of, delivery \ *And this where voice is required, and especially loud 
voice' (to reach a /^;^<?r assembly). 

<^o)wf, voice in general, means the various qualities of voice, flexi- 
bility, sweetness, power, &c.; out of which a powerful voice is especially 
distinguished as the most important. It seems that Aeschines was very 
proud of his sonorous voice. Demosth. alludes to this, de F. L. § 388, 
ahCKa rriv aAXof Ivravff cVapfi Tr\v (fiavTJv Koi irc^tiAvaa-ic^fCcor Zarai, And 
§ 3^9> '^'** ^^'^ *<*' ififA rfjs (Ixavrjs tcro)£ (hrfiv avayKrf' ndw yap fieya kcu eVl 
ravrrj (j)pov€iv avTov aKova. And elsewhere. 

§ 6. * So now, as I was saying, the demonstrative, declamatory, branch 
of Rhetoric is the best adapted for writing ; for its special function (the 
purpose which it was made to serve, its Zpyov^) is reading; and in the 
second degree the dicastic branch' (and its pleadings). Corsv^, supra 
III 1.4 and 7. Cic. Orat. LXI 208 (already referred to). Quint u. s. 
(ill 8.63) referring to this place, Namque Ar, idoneam maxime ad scri- 
bendum demonstrativam, proximamque ab ea iudicialem putavit : vide- 
licet quoniam prior ilia tola esset ostentationis j haec secunda egeret artisy 
vel ad falleftdum, si ita poposcissei utiHtas; consilia fide prudentiaque 
constarent. It is very manifest, and had already been pointed out by 
Victorius and Spalding, ad loc. Arist. et Quint., that this is not Aristotle's 

* To make the further distinction, that the language must be sweet 
and magnificent is superfluous' — the author of this 'distinction' is 
Theodectes, in his 'Art.' Quint. IV 2.63, Theodectes,„non magnificam 
mode vult esse, verum etiam iucundam expositionem—^ {qx why that more 

^ The ipyov of a thing is always directed to its tAos. If the end of a 
knife and of a horse be respectively to cut and to run, their ^pr^ov will be fulfilled 
in sharpness and fleetness. So here the end of one of these compositions is to 
be read, its ipr^Qv or appropriate function is exercised in reading, fulfilled in being 
pleasant to read. 

PHT0PIKH2 r i2§6. 155 

irpoo'ZiaipeiG'Bai ttju Xe^ip, oti tj^eiav Set kuI fxeya- 
XoTTpeTTtiy irepiepyov* tl yap jmaWov tj acocppova Kai 
eXevdepiov Kal el rt? dWti tjOovs dpeTii*^ to yap ^^eTai/ 
eivai TTOiYiaei SfjXop on tcl elprjiixipay elirep opdco^ 
wpKTTai t] dpeTYi T^9 Ae^ews' r/i/os yap eveKa Set 
a'a(j>fj Kal fxri Taneivriv eivai dWd Trpeirovcav ; dv t€ 
yap ddoXeaxtjj ov (racj)}]^, ovSe dv (rvi/TOjULO^, dXXd p. 135. 
SfjXop oTi TO fxeo'ov dpfxoTTei. Kal to tjdeiav Ta 
elpri/uLeva 'iroiriceij dv ev fjux^^j '^-o ei(a66^ Kal ^eviKov, 
Kal 6 pvdixo^j Kal TO iridavov eK tov TrpeirovTOs. 

Trepl fxev odv rf/s Xe^ecos eiprjTaiy Kal koiv^ irepi 
diravTcov Kal ihia Trepl eKQtaTOV yevov Xonrov Ze Trepi 

than continent (or perhaps discreef) and liberal, or any other virtue of 
character (the moral virtues, of which fieyakoTrptntia is one. Eth. Nic. II and 
iv)?' For irpoarbiaipelaBai, Brandis' Anonymus, quoted in Schneidewin's 
Philologus [IV. i.] p. 45, has TrpoabiopiieaOat, 

* For plainly the sweetness will be produced by all that has been 
enumerated (purity, propriety, rhythm, vivacity, and the rest) if we 
have rightly defined what the excellence of the language consists in: 
for why (else, subaudi ^Xov) must it be (as we have described it) 
clear, and not low (mean and common-place), but appropriate (ch. 
2 § 2, /i^ ra!n^ivr\v SKka KCKOO'firjfieinjv, (rtpvoripav^ § 3 i^vrj^)^ For if 
it be verbose, it is not clear ; nor if it be too concise (brief)'. Bre- 
vis esse laboro^ obscurus fio, ddo\€a-x€lv, said of idle chatter: here of 
verbosity, vain repetition, tautology. Comp. de Soph. El. c. 3, 165 b 1$, 
TO TToiTJo'ai ddoKeaxfjO'ai top irpo8id\€y6p.tvov' tovto d' tori to iroXkaKis 
dvayKai^adcu (by the opponent) tqvto Xcyctv, Comp. supra c. 3. 3, to 
da-a<l)€£ dia t^v ddoXeaxuiyf and II 21.3, where it is applied to unneces- 
sary accumulation of steps of proof in reasoning, or drawing inferences. 

* But (on the contrary) it is quite plain (of itself, and without rule or 
precept) that the mean is the appropriate style'. Of this the preceding 
example is an illustration : clearness or perspicuity is the mean between 
the excess of garrulity, verbosity, and the defect overconciseness, in the 
amount of words, * Also the rules (ingredients) already stated will pro- 
duce sweetness of language if they be well mixed, viz. the familiar (these 
are the dv6p.aTa Kvpia^ the customary), and the foreign (yXSTrai, i^rjkXay- 
p.iua, ^€VTju T^v didXcKTov, c. 2 § 3, c. 3 § 3, sub init. ^cvlktiv Trotyl t^p ^^M, 
and the rhythm, and the plausibility that arises out of (the due observa- 
tion of) propriety' (supra c. 7). 

* We have now finished our remarks upon style or language, of all (the 
three branches of Rhetoric) in common (cc. 2 — 11), and of each kind 
individually (c. 12): it now remains to speak of the order (division and 
arrangement) of the parts of the speech'. 

IS6 PHTOPIKHS r 13 § I. 

I Ta^6ft)s etTreFi/. ecn Se tov \6yov 81/0 jmepri* aVay- chap. 3 
fcaloi/ yap to t€ irpayfia eiTreiv irepi ov, kui tot 
aTToSeT^ai. Sio eiTTOVTa firj aTroSel^at fj ctTro^eT^ai firi 
TTpoeiTTOVTa ohvvaTOv* 6 T€ yap aTroSeiKvvcov ti diro- 
ZeiKvvaiy Kal 6 TrpoXeywp eveKa tov aTroZei^ai Trpo- 


Of the two divisions of this third book, proposed at the conclusion of 
Bk. II, and the opening of Bk. 1 11, irtpi Xcfccor kcu rd^toiSf irwr XPV Ta(ai 
ra fi€prf rod Xoyov, the first having been dispatched in the preceding 
chapters 2 — 12, we now proceed to the second, on the arrangement 
of the parts of the speech : this will include a criticism of the anterior, 
and the current, divisions, with a new classification in c. 13 : and an 
explanation and discussion of the proper contents of each. A full 
account of the various divisions which prevailed before and after Aristotle 
has been already given in the Introd. p. 331, 332, and the notes, and 
need not be here repeated. It will be sufficient to say that Aristotle in 
this chapter takes the fourfold division, adopted by Isocrates, and accepted 
by his followers, as the author of the Rhet. ad Alex., viz. npooLfuovy 
5ii7yiJ(r€ir, TTtoTftff, iirikoyos, criticizes it, and reduces it to two, npoffcais 
and marcis, as the only two parts necessary to the speech ; adding 
notices of some superfluous distinctions introduced by Theodorus (of 
Byzantium) and Licymnius. [See Rossler's pamphlet, Rhetorum anti- 
quorum de dispositione doctrina, pp. 30, Budissin, 1866 ; and Volkmann, 
die Rhetorik der Griecken und Rbiner^ § 38 J 

On the importance attached to the arrangement of the topics of these 
divisions, and especially to the order of the proofs^ Whately has some 
good remarks, Rhet, c. i {Encycl, Metrop. p. 256). This is illustrated 
by the contest between Demosthenes and Aeschines. " Aeschines strongly 
urged the judges (in the celebrated contest for the Crown) to confine 
his adversary to the same order in his reply to the charges brought 
which he himself had observed in bringing them forward. Demo- 
sthenes however was far too skilful to be thus entrapped ; and so much 
importance does he attach to the point, that he opens his speech with 
a most solemn appeal to the judges for an impartial hearing ; which 
implies, he says, not only a rejection of prejudice, but no less also a 
permission for each speaker to adopt whatever arrangement he should 
think fit. And accordingly he proceeds to adopt one very different from 
that which his antagonist had laid down ; for he was no less sensible 
than his rival that the same arrangement which is the most favourable 
to one side, is likely to be least favourable to the other." 

§ I. * Of the speech there are (only) two parts; for it is only necessary 
first to state the subject, and then to prove (your side of) it. It follows 
from this necessary relation between them (8to), that it is impossible 
(if the speech is to be complete) either to state your case without going 
on to prove it, or to prove it without having first stated it', (the 
impossibility lies in the absurdity of the supposition: it is a moral 

PHTOPIKH2 r I3§§2, 3. 157 

2 \eyei. rovrvov Ze to fxev irpodeo'i^ eari to Se Trtcms, 
tao'Trep av ei tl^ oieXoi otl to fiev TrpopXfjfxa to oe 

3 dwoBei^LS. vvv Se Siaipovci yeXolco^' Sit]yrj(ri9 yap 
TTOV TOV ^LKaVlKOV fxovov Xojov eoTTiv^ eTTtdeiKTiKOv Se 
Kai SrjjULriyopiKOv ttcSs evhex'^Tai etvuL ZiYiyf](Tiv o\av 

impossibility) : * for proving implies something to prove, and a preli- 
minary statement is made in order to be proved'. All this implies 
that the speaker has some object in view, some case to make out. It 
would not apply to all declamations ; though it is true that, as a general 
rule, even they try to prove somethings however absurd it may be. 

§ 2. * Of these the one is the statement of the case (the setting forth 
of all its circumstances, as a foundation for judgment and argument), 
the other the (rhetorical) arguments in support of it, just as if the 
division were (the dialectical one) the problem (alternative question 
proposed or stated) and its demonstration'. irp6B€ai£s propositio : Rhet. 
ad Al. C. 29 (3®)* 2, 7rpo€KT-i6ev(u to npayfAa, lb- § 21, rrjv irpodeaiv iv dpxi 
€Kdi]a-oix€v, c. 35 (3^)» '> <l>poiiJiiaaT€OP,..irpaTov TrpoBep^povg ras npoBia-eis i 
irlaris confirmation ^^TrpofiXrjfia ^uiKeKTiKov Beaprffxa, Top. All, 104 d I, 
quod in disputando quaestione bipartita efferri solebat, ex. gr. voluptas 
estne expetenda, annon? mundus estne aeternus, annon?" Trendel- 
enburg, £/. Log, Ar. § 42, p. 1 18. 

§ 3. * The present ' (current, Isocrates') division is absurd ; for surely 
narrative {duiyrfim narratio, the detailed description of the circumstances 
of the case) belongs only to the forensic speech, but in a demonstrative 
or public speech how can there be a narrative such as they describe, 
or a reply to the opponent; or an epilogue (peroration) in argumentative 
or demonstrative speeches ? ' On this Quint, says, iii 9. 5, Tamen nee iis 
assentior qui detrahunt refutationem (sc. ra npos tov dpribiKov) tanquam 
probationi subiectam, ut Aristoteles ; haec enim est quae constituat, 
ilia quae destruat. Hoc quoque idem aliquatenus novat, quod prooemio 
non narrationem subiungity sed propositionem. (This is one of Quin- 
tilian's ordinary misrepresentations of writers whom he quotes. Ar. 
says nothing here of the prooemium^ theoretically disallowing it : though 
in compliance with the received custom he afterwards gives an account 
of it and its contents). Verum id facit quia propositio genus, narratio 
species videtur: et hac non semper, ilia semper et ubique credit opus 
esse. The last clause very well explains Ar.'s substitution of 7rp66€o-is 
for {npooifiiop and) dn^ais. 

In Introd. p. 333, I have given at length from Cic. de Inv. I 
19. 27, the distinction of biiiyija-is in its ordinary sense and wpoBta-ig. 
It is here said that the narrative or statement of the case, strictly 
speaking, belongs (he means necessarily belongs) only to the forensic 
branch of Rhetoric ; there there is always a case to state : in the de- 
clamatory, panegyrical branch, not a regular systematic narrative 
or detailed state;ment as of a case ; in this the dirjyTj(ris is dispersed 
over the whole speech, in/ra 16. i : and, in Brjpjiyopla equally, there is 
not universally or necessarily, as in the law-speech, a di^yrf<ns, because 

IS8 PHTOPIKH2 r 13 §3. 

XeyovcLPy fi rd irpo^ top di/rlSiKOv, tj eiriXoyov tcwi/p. mm 
aTToSeiKTiKwp ; irpooifiiov Se Kal avriirapafioKri kui 
€7raj/oSos €P Toi^ Stiiiifiyopiai^ Tore yiperai otup dpri" 
\oyla fi. Kal yap ^ Kartiyopia kul ti diroXoyia 7ro\- 

its time is the future, and a narrative of things future is impossible : 
when it is used, it is to recall the memory oi past facts for the purpose 
of comparison — which is a very different thing from the forensic dnjyiyaty. 
Comp. c. 16. II. The author of the Rhet. ad Alex. c. 30 (31) includes 
biiiyTj(ns in the deliberative branch, btnuiyopiKov yivos ; no doubt following 
Isocrates. On bii^yrja-is see Dionysius Hal., Ars Rhet. c. x § 14. 

The same argument applies to the refutatioy ra jr p6s t6v avrlbiKov^ and 
with more force than to the preceding, for in the epideictic branch there 
is no adversary, and therefore can be no refutation of his arguments, 
at least such as those who lay down this division intend : though it 
is true that a panegyrist may have to meet adverse statemaits or impu- 
tations on the object of his panegyric, real or supposed. In fact, it is 
only in the forensic branch that there is necessarily an opponent. On 
this division, see ill 17. 14, 15. 

17 eViXoyov r&v aiTohuKTiK»v\ This is understood byVictorius, Majoragius, 
and Schrader of the de^nonstrativum genus^ dirod. being supposed to be 
put here for cVid€t«crc«c»y. This in Aristotle I hold to be impossible. Nor 
have I found any example of it elsewhere, though Victorius says that 
Isocrates uses dirobeiKvvvai for tmdeiKvvvat more than once in the Panath. 
speech. I have supposed (in note on p. 335 Introd.) that his text of 
Isocrates may have exhibited this interchange from the uncorrected 
carelessness of transcribers. What is true is, that Isocrates, twice in 
the Paneg. §§ 18 and 65, does use embeiKvvvM in a sense nearly ap- 
proaching, if not absolutely identical with, that of aTrobcticvvpai. The 
words can only mean, as I have translated them, that there may be 
some speeches which consist entirely of proof or arguments, and that 
a summary of these would not correspond to the eViXoyos in its ordinary 
sense — described c. 19. i — of which only a small part is a recapitulation. 

*And again npooifucv (preface, opening or introduction), and com- 
parison (setting over against one another side by side) of opposing 
(views, statements, arguments), and review, are found in public speeches 
then only when there is a dispute (between two opponents)^; as in 
Demosthenes* Speech for the Crown, of which the npooifiiov has been 
before referred to. iiravobosy * a going over agai n* = avaK€<i>aK aiaa-ts, summary 
recapitulation of the foregoing topics of the speech, appears also in Plato 
Phaedr. 267 D, to Be bij r/Xor t£v Xoyiov Koivj iraaiv coixe avvbtBoyfievov 
tlvcu, f TiP€s iikv (TTOvobop, oXXot dc oKKo TiBcyrai ovofia. The aWo ovofia 
may be cViXoyor or avaiee^aXaioo-if, or TroKiKKoyia (Rhet. ad Alex. c. 20 
(21). i). It is properly a subdivision of the eViXoyoff, and as such is here 
condemned as superfluous. 

orav carrikoyia rj] "The object of the prooemium is to conciliate the 
audience, and invite their attention, and briefly intimate the subject 
of the ensuing speech. In recommending this or that measure to the 
assembly, unless there is an adversary who has poisoned the hearers' 

PHTOPIKHS r i3§§3,4. iS9 

XaKi^, dW ovx V^ avix^ovXri. aAA* 6 ewiXoyo^.^ en 
ovSe SiKapiKOv irapro^y olov eav fjiiKpo^ 6 A0709 tj to 
Trpayfia eij/jiVfifxopevTOP* avfxfiaLvei yap tov fxriKOv^ 
d(paipei(rdai. dvayKoia apa fiopia Trpodeari^ Kal itio'Ti^. 
Ai^iCL [xev ovv TavTUy tu Se TrXefcrra Trpooifjiiou irpO" 
dearie TrKms iiriXoyos* Ta yap irpo^ tov dinri^iKOV 
TtSp TriaTecop earTL^ Kai ij dpTiirapafioXf) av^tjcri^ tcSp 

^ i ■ ddenda distinctio, 

minds against it and its author, or some other special reason, there is 
no occasion for this : and also, the audience is usually well acquainted 
with the subject See further on this, c. 14. 11. Comparison of argu- 
ment, and review, can only be required when there is an opposition." 
Introd. pp. 335, 6. The Rhet. ad Alex, expressly tells us, c. 28 (29) ult., 
that the npooifiiop is "common to all the seven species, and will be 
appropriate to every kind of (rhetorical) business." 

The following argument xal yap — rroKkeuus is a reductio ad absurdum 
of the preceding. You say that irpooifuov, dpriTrapafioKTJ and iiravobos are 
essential parts of the public speech — * Why at that rate (is the reply) so are 
accusation and defence, for they are frequently there*— this involves the 
absurdity of introducing the whole contents of the forensic genus into the 
drjfiriyopiKov ytvog as a mere part of the latter — *but not jp^wrt- deliberation' : 
not in the sense or character of deliberation, which is essential to the 
deliberative branch, but as mere accidents. 

There can be no question that we should read ^ for tJ o-v/i^ovXiJ. So 
Victorius, Schrader, Buhle, Spengel. Bekker alone retains i|. The 
following clause requires an alteration of punctuation to make it intel- 
ligible ; suggested long ago by Victorius, Majoragius, Vater, and adopted 
by Spengel ; not so by Bekker. Spengel also rejects rrt [delendum aut in 
iariv mutandum]. With the altered reading, aXX 6 iirlXoyos en ovde 
diKaviKov K.r.X, it is certainly out of place. I am by no means persuaded 
of the certainty of this alteration — perhaps Bekker had the same reason 
for withholding his consent to the two alterations — I think it quite as 
likely that a word or two has dropt out after cV/Xoyoc. 

* But further' (if cr* be retained) 'neither does the peroration belong 
to every forensic speech ; as for instance if it be short, or the matter 
of it easy to recollect; for what happens (in an ordinary epilogue) is a 
subtraction from the length ' — not the brevity, of a speech : i e. an 
epilogue is appropriate to a long speech, not a short one. This is 
Victorius' explanation, and no doubt right (that which I gave in the 
Introd. is wrong, and also not Victorius', as stated in the note). 

'Consequently the (only) necessary parts are the statement of the 
case, and the proof. 

§ 4. 'Now these two are peculiar to, and characteristic of, speeches 
in general'. 

It is possible that tdiov here may be the proprium of logic, one of the 
predicables : that which characterizes a thing, without being absolutely 

i6o PHTOPIKHS r i3§§4, S. 

avTOVj w<rT€ jmepo^ ti tcSi/ irlo'TeaiV' diroZeiKwai yap 

TL 6 TTOIVOV TOVTOy d\\* OV TO TTpOoifllOP, Ovh* 6 €7r/- 

S Xoyo^y aAA' dvanifivntrKei. ecTai ovVy av ris ra 
TOiavra Siaipfjy 6 Trep eTTOiovv o Trepl QeoScopoUy Siri- 
yri(n^ erepov Kal einZiriyria'i^ Kal 7rpoSii]yr](rL^ kui 
€\ey)(^os Kal erre^eXeyxo^* Sel Se elSo^ ti XeyovTa 

essential to it, as the genus and differentia are. The proprium is a 
necessary 2LCz\^^Xi\. or property, though it is not of the essence itself: "but 
flowing from, or a consequence of, the essence, is inseparably attached 
to the species" (J. S. Mill, Logic ^ i p. 148). All this would apply very 
well to these two parts. They are not of the essence of the speech, and 
do not enter into the definition : the speech could exist without them. 
At the same time they are immediate consequences of that essence, 
and inseparably attached to all species of speeches, according to the 
view put forward here. 

We might therefore be satisfied with these. ' If we add more' (fol- 
lowing the authorities on the subject), *they must be at the most, preface, 
statement of case, confirmatory arguments, conclusion : for the refutation 
of the adversary belongs to the proofs' (Quint, u.s. Ill 9. 5, Tamen nee iis 
assentior qui detrahunt refutationem, tanquam probationi subiectam, ut 
Aristotelesj haec enim est quae constituat, ilia quae destruat), *and 
counter-comparison, (a comparative statement of your own views and 
arguments placed in juxtaposition with them to bring them into contrast,) 
which, being as it is a magnifying (making the most) of one's own case, 
must be a part of the confirmatory arguments, or general proof: for one 
who does this proves something : but not so the prologue ; nor the 
epilogue, which merely recalls to mind'. 

§ 5. 'Such divisions, if any one choose to make them, will be pretty 
much the same as the inventions of Theodorus and his school, that is, to 
distinguish narration from after-narration and fore-narration, and refutation 
and per-re-refutation'. In this compound word cVi 'in addition' is repre- 
sented by rey and cf, 'out and out', 'outright', *' thoroughly^ ^ completely^ 
by per, 3ia and per in composition are the more usual and direct 
exponents of 'thoroughness' or 'complete carrying through', of a thing. 
On €mbtijyTj(r*s, repetita narratio, see Quint. IV 2. 128, res declamatoria 
tnagis quam forensis. He accepts it as a division, but thinks it should 
be rarely used. Plato, Phaedr. 266 D seq., in speaking of these same 
superfluous divisions of Theodorus, leaves out cVi- and Trpo-ddfyi^crir, and 
introduces irtWoxrtv Koi emm<rTo><riv in their place. These plainly cor- 
respond to the other pair cXcyxor and iirt^iktyxos, the one being con- 
firmatory, the other refutatory arguments. See Camb, Journ, of CL 
and Sacred PhiL No. ix. Vol. ill p. 285, and Thompson's notes on the 

The general drift of the last clause is this ; if you introduce such divi- 
sions at all, you may go on dividing and subdividing for ever, as Theo- 
dorus does in his Tixvr\, This is followed by the statement of the true 

PHTOPIKHS r 13 § S; 14 § I. 161 

Kai Zia(popav ovoixa ridecrdai. el he fxrij yiperai Kevov 

Kal Xtipwhe^y oiov Aikvijli/ios iroiel ev Trj Tex^^^y €7ro«/- 

pwarip opofxd^wi/ Kai dTro7r\dvti(riv Kal o^ov^. 

TO fxep ovp irpooLfxiov eo'Ttv dp^t] Xoyov^ o Trep eVcuAP.xiv. 

p. 136. 

principle of division : the foundation of my own twofold division, hints 
Ar. *But a name (like one of these, the class-name, or, as here, the name 
of a division) should be given to mark a kind and a specific difference*. 
It is the genus p/us the specific {elbonoios, species-making) difference that 
constitutes the distinct species or h'u^f. Now these names, though sup- 
posed to mark distinct kinds, have no specific differences which thus 
distinguish them. A special name demands a real distinction of kinds. 
Waitz ad Categ. 1^17. Trendelenburg, EL Log. ^r. § 59. 

* Otherwise they become empty and frivolous, such as Licymnius* inven- 
tions in his art, the names which he coins, cVovpcoo-iy, aTroirkAptia-ii and oioi'. 
On Licymnius and his productions, see Heindorf ad Phaedr. u. s. p. 242, 
and Camb,youm. 0/ CL and Sacred PhiL No. ix. Vol. in pp. 255 — 7 ; where 
an attempt is made to explain these three obscure names. Licymnius 
was a dithyrambic poet, supra ill 12. 2, as well as a rhetorician, and his 
prose style seems to have participated in the dithyrambic character. cVov- 
pttxriff I take to be a word coined by Licymnius for his own purposes : it 
is a a?ra| Xeyofitvov, It seems to be formed from inovpovv, a synonym pf 
iirovpi{€iv, *to speed onward by a fair gale*, also (rvv€irovpi{;€iv, Hist. Anim. 
VIII 13. 9, de Caelo, ill 2. 17 : Polybius has iirovpovv il 10. 6, and Korovpovvy 
I 44.3, 61. 7, both as neut. The Schol. quoted by Spengel, -4r//«;« Scrip- 
tores p. 89, defines iwopovtri^ (cVov/moo-is) to, avvfVTropiiovra kol PorfBovpra 
Tois €p6vfii^fjta€rif Kai a7r\£s oira Xeyovrai PorjOovvra r^ dirobfi^eu All which 
seems to favour the notion that the figurative rhetorician represented 
'subsidiary' or 'confirmatory arguments', Theodorus' jriVraxTty and cVt- 
TrioTaais, under the image of 'a fair wind astern'. airoTrXdvrfo-is is no 
doubt, as in Plato Polit. 263 C, 'a digression', wandering off {rova the 
main subject, Schol. to e^o) rov wpaypxeros; and 0(01, 'branches', most 
likely means places in which the discourse 'branches off' in different 
directions, 'ramifications': unless the same Scholiast's explanation be 
preferred, ra aKpa, tJtoi to, TrpooifMia Koi rovs trrikoyovg. This would mean 
the 'branches' opposed to the stock or trunk, as something extraneous, 
or at all events non-essential. (I think this is preferable.) 


Having considered the divisions of the speech in general we now 
come to the details, to the enumeration and examination of the ordinary 
contents of each of the four. These in each case are discusseid under the 
heads of the three branches of Rhetoric. The treatment of the irpooip.iov 
occupies the 14th chapter, to which is appended a second, c. xv, which 
analyses the topics of dio/SoX^, the art of 'setting a man against his 
neighbour', infusing suspicion and hostile feeling against him in the 
minds of others, raising a prejudice against him — especially of course in 
the minds of judges against your opponent. One would be sorry to be 

AR. TIL 1 1 

i62 PHTOPIKHS r 14 § I. 

7rot9](r€i 7rp6\oyo^ Kai ev avXtifrei irpoavXiov* nairra 
yap dp-xjoLi TavT eio'iy Kal olop oBoTToltio'i^ t£ eTnovri. 
TO fiep out/ TrpoavXiov oixoiov Tta twp twiZeiKriKiHv 
irpooifxita* Kal yap oi avXtjTalf 6 Ti ap ev e^w^'*' 
av\ij(rai, tovto 7rpoav\Yi(rapTe^ arvpfi\l^ap tw €i/Socri- 

obliged to call this * calumniating*. Aniyrja-is is treated in c. xvi, TriVrctr in 
xvii : to which is attached in xviii a digression on cpttn/o-ir, the mode of 
putting questions — this includes the * answer', repartee: and the 19th 
chapter, appropriately enough, concludes the work with the conclusion 
(cVtXoyor, peroration) of the speech. 

The prooemium is thus defined by the author of the Rhet ad Alex. 
C. 29 (30). I, aKpoarSp Yrapacnccv^ Kal rov irpdyfiarot iv K^ifitiKait^ fi^ €ido<ri 
di;Xtf<rtr, tva yiyprntrKaai irtpti (Jy o \6yos vapaKoKovBatrl re rfj vtroBitreiy kqi 
(ttI to irpofrkx^^v napaKciKiaaiy kcu, Kaff otrov rf Xoy^ bvvarov tvvovs i^/iiti' 
avTois itoirjaai. These rules seem to be chiefly derived from the actual 
practice of the Orators. Some of the arts to which public speakers had 
recourse in the topics of their prooemium are mentioned by Isocrates, 
Paneg. § 13. Compare Cic. de Orat. 11 19. 80 ; de Invent. 1 15. 20 ; where it 
is defined : it has two parts, principium (the object of this is ito make the 
hearer benevolum autdocilem aut attentum^ and insinuation oratio quadam 
dissimulatione et circuitione obscura subiens auditoris animum. Quint. I v. 
c. I, seq. principium exordium, H-e agrees with the preceding ; see § 5. 
On the irpootfiiov as a hymn, see Stallbaum ad Phaed. 60 D. On the 
prooemium in Rhetoric, Cic de Orat. 1 1 78, 79, principia dicendi. [See 
also Volkmann, die Rhetorik der Griechen U. Romer § 12, die Einleitung.'] 

§ I. 'Now iht prooemium is the beginning of a speech and stands in 
the place of the prologue in poetry (i. e. tragedy, and specially of- Euri- 
pides' tragedy), and of the prelude in flute music'. 

irpoavXioy] an introduction, ornamental, and preparatory to, not an 
essential part of, the theme or subject of the composition; for all these 
are beginnings^ and as it were a paving of the way (preparation, pioneer- 
ing of the road) for what follows (oSowotiyo-tt, note on i i. 2). 

'Now the flute-prelude is like the prooemium of the epideictic 
branch : that is to say, as the flute-players first open their performance 
with whatever they can play best (in order to gain attention and favour 
of the audience) which they then join on to the cVdocn/xov (the actual 
opening, preliminary notes, of the subject which gives the tone, or 
cue, to the rest), so in the epideictic speeches the writing (of the irpool- 
luov) ought to be of this kind : for (in these the speaker) may say first 
(f IiroiTa) anything he pleases, and then should at once sound the note of 
preparation, and join on (the rest)'. 

This represents the epideictic prooemium^ like the flute-prelude, as 
hardly at all connected with what follows ; it is a preliminary flourish, 
anything that he knows to be likely to be most successful, as already 
observed, to conciliate the audience and put them in good humour. 
'' For here, as there is no real interest at stake, the author is allowed 
a much greater liberty in his choice of topics for amusing (and gaining 

PHTOPIKH2 r 14 § I. 163 

/uw, Kai ep TOi^ eTTiBeiKTiKoi^ \0701s ?€i ovTCD ypd(])€iv^ 
b Ti yap av iBovXtjTai evdu enrovTa evZovvai Kai 
(Tvpd^ai. 6 irep wdpTC^ ttoiovciv. wapdZeiyiia to 
Tfj^ 'liTOKpaTOV^ *E\6i/i7S TTpooifiiop* ovdkv yap oiKeiov 

over) an audience; a license which would be intolerable in a case of 
life and death, or in the suggestion of a course of action which may in^ 
volve the safety or ruin of the state. Here the audience are too eager 
to come to the point to admit of any trifling with their anxiety." Introd. 
pp. 337, 8. Cic. de Or. II 80. 325, Connexum autem ita sit principium 
consequenti orationi^ ut non tanquam citharoedi prooemium affictum 
aliquody sed cohcterens cum omni corpore membrum esse videatur (Vic- 
torius). Quint. II 8. 8, in demonsirativis (Arist.) prooemia esse maxime 
libera existimat 

The ivbofnyuov {subaudi itrfia or Kpov<rfjtaj Bos, Ellips, s. v.) occurs 
again Pol. V (vin) 5 init apparently in the same sense as here, Sntro- 
duction'; also Pseudo-Arist. de Mundo, c. 6 § 20, where we have Kara 
yap TO avo^Btv tvboatfiov viro tov <l>€pa>vvii<os hu Kopv<f>aiov wpoo'ayoptvQtirrot 
Kiveirai fiev ra &(rrpa K.r.\. * for according to the law above, by him who 
might be rightly called leader of the chorus, the stars are set in motion, 
&c.' I have given this in full because it throws some light upon the 
meaning of tuboa-ipov, and explains its metaphorical application, God ^ is 
here represented as the leader pf a chorus who gives the time, the key- 
note, and the mode or tune, to the rest, and thus acts as a guide to be 
followed, or (in a similar sense) as an introduction, or preparatory tiansi« 
tion to something else. It thus has the effect of the 'key-note', and 
takes the secondary sense of a 'guide!, 'preparation for', 'introduction 
to', anything. So Plut de disc. aduL ab amico, c. 55, 73 B, iSairtp 
tvdotrtfiov «(«£ irpo£ ra fMciCova r&v dfiaprfjfjMraVy ubi Wyttenbach, occasio^ 
incitamentumj similarly lb. c. 30, 70 B, Kai ^6yos.,,ri tircuvos m<nrtp 
Moa-ifJMP €ls irappri<ria» iariv, 'gives the tone, the cue, i.e. the occa- 
sion or incitement, to freedom (taking liberties).' See other passages 
from Plutarch and others in Wyttenbach's note on 73 B. Gaisford and 
Wyttenbach refer to Gataker ad Anton. XI 20, p. 336 (g), XI 26 (w), 
" cVd. usurpatur pro modulationis exordio, quo praecentor sive chori prae- 
fectus cantandi reliquis auspicium facit. Hesychius, tvboaifiovy ro npo r^ 
t^biff KiBapia-pLa,^' ap. Gaisford Not. Var, Wyttenbach describes cVdoaiji^y as 
" signum et adhortatio in certaminibus et musicis et gymnicis : tum ad 
alias res translatum." Lastly Athen. XIII 2, 556 A, of certain authors, oU 
TO ivhwinov *Api<n'OT€\rfs cdeoiccy iarop^v tovto iv ry irtp\ cvycvcmr, 'gave 
the tone, i. e. hint', furnished the occasion for their statement. Schweig- 
hauser, ad loc. says, "Dalecampius vertit quos ad id scribendum provo- 
cavit Ar, Dicitur autem ^rapnt praecentus praeludium, exordium melo- 
diae quod praeit ckorodidascalus cui dein accinere oportet chorum. 
H. Stephanus' Thesaurus, Budaeus in Comm. Gr. Ling, p. 874 sq. IvtL" 
iripjop biBopat or vapix^iv is expressed in one word ivMivai Xli 520 D,'' 
as it is here by Aristotle. 

'And this is done by all. An example is the prooemium of Isocrates* 
Helen : for there is nothing in common between the disputatious dia- 

II — 2 

i64 PHTOPIKHS r 14 §§ i^ 2. 

vTrdpx^t' ToTi ipio'TiKoU Kal *^\evtj. ajxa hi kui eav 
eKTOTTicrtij dpfiorrei /if) o\ov top Aotj^v Ofioei^fj €iPai. 
2 Xiyerai Se ra twp eTriSeiKTiKWP Ttpooifua i^ eiraipov 
tj -y^oyov* dlop Fopyla^ fiep ip tm ^OXvfXTriKtp Xoyto 
** VTTO TToAAftJj/ a^ioi Oavfid^eo'daiy tS ai/5p€5''EA\iii/€s''' 
iiraipei yap tov^ tus irapriyvpei^ avpayoPTav *Ia"o- 
Kpartis Se '^eyet, oti tol^ fxep twp (rwfiaTWP dpcTa^ 

kcticians, and Helen*. The ^rooemtum, which occupies the first thirteen 
sections of the speech, includes many other subjects besides the iptartKoi, 
and is certainly an excellent illustration of the want of connexion 
between proem and the rest in an epideictic speech. Quint, ill 8. 8, 
Ih demonstrativis vero prooemia esse maxitne libera existimat (An), 
Nam et longe a materia duct hoc, ut in Helenae laude Isocrates feceritj 
et ex aliqua rei vicinia, ut idem in PanegyricOy cum queritur plus 
honoris corporiim quam animorum virtutibus dari, 

* And at the same time also (it has this further recommendation) that 
if (the speaker thus) migrate info a foreign region, there is this propriety 
in it, that the entire speech is not of the same kind' (it removes the weari- 
some monotony which is characteristic of this branch of Rhetoric). 

cicToirtfcti' is to 'change one's residence', and applied especially to 
migratory birds and animals. It is always neuter in Aristotle. Hist. 
Anim. VIII 12. 3 and 8, IX 10. I, IV 8. 23, iKronnrfiovs noiovvrai, VIII 13. 14, 
€KTojriarTtKa f^a, I I. 26. In the primary sense of absence from one's 
proper or ordinary place, Pol. VIII (v) 11, 1314 b 9, roU crroTrifovtri rvpap- 
voit dnb T^s oiKciar, and so eKTonos, iicrontos, aroiros ' out of tlieir proper 
place '. 

§ 2. * The introductions in the epideictic branch are derived from 
praise and blame (naturally : see i 3 §§ 3, 4) ; as, for instance, Gorgias' 
opening of his Olympic oration (a navrfyvpiKos Xoyor, delivered at the 
Olympic games), "By many' (or vttc/), *for many things'; which seems 
more in accordance with what followed) *are ye worthy to be admired, 
O men of Hellas" : that is to say {yap videlicet) he praises those who 
first brought together the general assemblies'. Comp. Quint in 8. 9, 
(continuation of the preceding quotation) et Gorgias in Olympico laudans 
eos quiprimi tales instituerunt conventus (translated from Ar.). Another 
short fragment of this oration is preserved by Philostr. Vit. Soph, i 9. 
*0 de 'OXvfifrtieoff Xoyof, says Philostratus, wrcp roO /icyiorov avr^ (Gorgiae) 
€iro\iTtv$ri' aTatriaCova-av yap rfjv 'EXXoda 6p£p opjovoias ^vfipovXog avrois 
cycVcro rpcVttV inl roils Pappdpovs Kal irtLBfov iffka noL€i<r$ai rmv oirkfov fir^ 
rds oXXifXflDy woKut dKka rrjp rSu fiapfidp^v x^P^*** The rest of his 
fragments, genuine and spurious, are collected by Sauppe Ok Att. iii 
129, seq. [See also Appendix to Thompson's ed, of the Gorgias.] 
Hieronymus adv. lovin. (quoted by Wyttenbach on Plut. 144 b), 
"Gorgias rhetor librum pulcerrimum de concordia, Graecis tunc inter 
se dissidentibus, recitavit Olympiae." *Isocr., Panegyr. § 3, after stating 
the nature of the contents of his own speech, adds, in allusion to this, 

PHT0PIKH2 r 14 §§2— 4. 165 

StopeoL^ eTifiriarav^ Toi^ 8* eZ (f>povov(nv ovdep adXov 

3 eTToiticrav, Kat diro (rvfifiovXti^^ olov on Zei tov^ 
dyaOov^ Tifiai/y Sio Kai avTos 'ApitrreiSriv eTraiveiy ti 
Tovs TOiovTOv^ ol fiTiTe evSoKifiovtri /x>}t€ (^avXoiy 
dXK oaroi dyadoi 6pt€^ aSrjXoiy ioairep 'AXe^apdpo^ 6 

4 Hpidfxov ovros yap trufxIiovXevei. €ti S' €fc t<Sp p. 1415. 
ZiKapiKwp TrpooijULiiap* tovto S' iarip €k twp ttjoos top 

with others, ovk aypoSv on ytoXXoc t£» vpotmoiovfUvap €wai <ro<^iaT<5y cVl 
TovTO¥ TOP \6yov »pfifj(rav. 

• But I Socrates blames them for that bodily excellences they rewarded 
with gifts, whilst to intellectual excellence they awarded no prize '. This 
is the substance of the two first sections of Isocr. Paneg. Mr Sandys, 
in his note ad locum, gives a summary of the whole exordium §§ i — 14. 
Victorius points out this as one of the places in which Aristotle's hostility 
to Isocrates appears ! The problem here proposed by Isocr. — the omis- 
sion of the institution of prizes for intellectual competition — is solved 
by Arist, Probl. XXX 11. 

§ 3. * (A second topic for an epideictic prooemiunC) is derived from 
advice (the deliberative branch) ; for instance "men are bound to pay 
honour to the good", and therefore he, the speaker, himself is going 
to praise Aristides* {p^ro^ is obliqua oratio : the cUrecta oratio would 
have been cyu : it is a sort of semi-quotation : where it comes from 
no one seems to know) ; *■ or, to all such as though not distinguished are 
yet not bad, only their merits are buried in obscurity, as Alexander 
(Paris), Priam's son. For one who speaks thus offers advice*. The 
encomium Alexandri here referred is doubtless the same as that which 
has been already mentioned in 11 23. 5, 8, 12 and ll 27. 7, 9; the author 
is unknown. 

§ 4. 'Further (a third kind) they may be borrowed from the forensic 
introductions ; that is to say, from the appeals to the audience, or as 
an apology to them, (comp. infra § 7) — when the subject of the speech 
happens to be either paradoxical (contrary to ordinary opinion or ex- 
pectation, and therefore ittcredible\ or painful^, or trite and worn-out, 
and therefore tiresome (rfBpvkrifuvov that which is in everyone's mouth, 
decanlalum, note on li 21. 11)— for the purpose of obtaining indulgence 
(with an apologetic object) ; as Choerilus says, for instance, "But now 

1 XoXexoOf Victorius, Majoragius, ardua ; Vet. Transl. et Riccobon difficilis. 
Is it *hard to do^ or 'hard to bear^ f x*^*'*"^* has both senses. If the former, 
it may mean, either, difficult, to the speaker to handle, or to the hearer to 
understand, or the recommendation of some scheme, undertaking, or policy, 
difficult to encounter or execute, (but this belongs to the deliberative rather than 
the epideictic branch) ; if the latter—which seems equally probable— it is simply 
painful, unpleasant. So Pind. Fragm. 96 (Bockh, Fragnt, P. n p. 621) v. .9, 
TtpTpQw i^ipwovaap x^^^^ ^« Kpifftp. PI. Protag. 344 D, xoXct^ tSpa *a 
Aard season'* Legg* [744 D] X**^*") ireWo. Et passim ap. Hom. et cct. 
So in Latin durus. 

i66 PHTOP1KH2 r I4§4, 

aKpoarnVy ci 7r€pl wapaSo^ov \6ym 17 Trepl j^aXewov 
fj irepi redpvXtifxevov ttoWoIs, oicttc avyyvtaixtiv (tx^i^9 
oiov XoipiXo^ 

pvi/ ore iravra ceoaarTai. 

Ta fiev ovv TtSv eTriSeiKTiKiou \6ya)i/ irpooifua eK 

when all is spent''' {lit, has been distributed sc, amongst others ; and 
nothing is left for me). [Compare Virgil's omnia iam vulgata in the 
Exordium of the third Gcorgic] 

Of the four Choeriluses distinguished by Nake, this is the Epic 
poet of Samos, born, according to Nake, in B.C. 470. His principal work, 
from which this fragment is taken, was a poetical narrative of the Persian 
wars with Greece under Darius and Xerxes — "all that was left him" 
by his predecessors — very much applauded, as Suidas tell us, and 
''decreed to be read with Homer." Aristotle (Top. e i, ult. napaBd-' 
.y;xara...ota "OfArjpos, firj ola XoipiKof) thinks less favourably of it ; and 
it was afterwards excluded from the Alexandrian Canon in favour of 
the poem of Antimachus. An earlier Choerilus was the Athenian tragic 
poet, contemporary with Phrynichus, Pratinas, and Aeschylus in early 
life ; the third a slave of the Comic poet Ecphantides, whom he is said 
to have assisted in the composition of his plays ; and the fourth, Horace's 
Choerilus, Ep. II i. 232, Ars Poet. 357, a later and contemptible epic 
poet who attended Alexander on his expedition, and according to Horace, 
incultis qui versibus et male natis rettulit acceptos, regale nomisma^ 
Philippos, Suidas tells this story of the Samian Choerilus, an evident 
mistake. The fragments of the Choerilus of our text are all collected 
and commented on by Nake in his volume on Choerilus. This fragm. 
is given on p. 104. See also Diintzer Epic, Gr. Fragm. p. 96 seq. where 
live lines of the poem, from which our extract is made are given : and 
the four articles in Biogr, Diet The context is supplied by the Schol. 
on this passage— see in Spengel's ed., Scholia Graeca^y p. 160 : printed 
also in Nake and Diintzer — and runs thus : a fiaKop, oaris ttfv Ktlvov 
Xpovop idpiff doibijff Movcracov Btpairtav or* aKqpceros ^v m Xeifuov' vvv d* 6t€ 
ndvra dcdaorat, (xovvi dc irctpora rixveu, vararoi oorr Spofiov KardKtmontffy 
ovdc irg iurX iraPTtj vawralvovra V€o(vy€S apfia ircXa<r<rat. koL to, i^rjsK 
Which are certainly pretty lines enough : perhaps the rest was not equal 
to them. Compare with Xctfuoi^ Movtrcuov, and the whole passage, Lucr. 
I 925 seq. avia Pieridum peragro loca^ nullius ante trita solo, et seq., 
which might possibly have been suggested by this of Choerilus. An 
apology of the same kind is introduced by Isocrates in the middle of 
his Panegyr. § 74 ; and another in his Jmdoo-ir, § 55. In the latter the 
word dMr§6pv\fjn€wvs occurs. 

^ On these Scholia, see Spengel, Praef. ad Rhet, p. vixi. 

* Nake, Choerilus p. 105, thinks that this, and not the second fragm. in 8 6 — 
as Bttble, Wolf, Vater, agree in supposing — ^was the opening of the poenL This 
is rendered probable by the \^w dT X \ y in v. i, of the other. 

PHT0PIKH2 r 14 §§ 4r-6. 167 

aTTOTpOTrfi^, eK twv irpo^ top aKpoarriv* Set Be rj ^ipa 

5 fi oiKe'ia etvai tcl ii/doariima Tta Xoytp. Ta Sc tov SikU" 
viKov irpooifxia Se? Xa^eiv oti Tavro Svparai 6 irep 
TtSp Spa/xaTWV oi irpoKoyoi Kai twp eirwp to, Trpooifxia* 
Tci fxev yap twv hidvpafx^tav ofxoia Toh eTTiSeiKTiKoTv 

Sia (re Kal Tea Swpa eire CKvXa* 

6 €1/ Se ToT^ Xoyoi^ Kal eireai Seiyfid iarTi tov Xoyov, p. 157. 
iua 7rpoeiS(S<ri irepi ov rju 6 Xoyo^ Kai fjifj KpejuriTai tj 

* So the introductions of the epideictic speeches are derived from the 
following topics ; from praise, blame, exhortation, dissuasion, appeals to 
the hearer: and these "introductions"' (see the note on § i : (pdoa-ifia is 
used here for frpooifua in general, instead of the more limited sense of 
the preceding passage) 'must be either foreign or closely connected with 
the speeches (to which they are prefixed)'. 

f cVor, a stranger or foreigner, is properly opposed to oiKctor, domes- 
ticus, one of one^s own household. This last clause, dct de ic.r.X. is, as 
Vater remarks, introduced as a transition to the next topic, the forensic 

§ 5. ' The introduction of the forensic speech must be understood as 
having the same force (or value, or signification) as the prologue of a 
drama ijovy the drama to which it belongs), or the introduction to an 
epic poem: for to the epideictic exordia the preludes (introductions, 
ava^oKax) of the dithyrambs bear resemblance, " for thee and thy gifts, 
or spoils"'. On the ava^oKaiy the openings or introductions of dithyrambs, 
and their loose, incoherent, flighty character, see note on ill 9. i. Introd. 
p. 307, note I. It is this which makes them comparable to the epideictic 
exordia, as above described. 

The dramatic, i.e. tragic, prologue, and the introduction of, the epic, 
are compared to the exordium of the dicastic speech, in that all three con- 
tain 'statements of the case'; the last, literally; the tragic and epic, vir- 
tually. The prologue of Euripides (who of the three extant tragedians can 
be the only one whose prologues are referred to) actually states all the 
preceding circumstances of the story of the drama, which it is necessary 
that the spectator should be acquainted with in order to enter into the 
plot. The introduction of the Epic poem is neither so long nor so regular. 
That of the Iliad occupies only seven lines, and states the subject very 
simply and in few words. That of the Odyssey is concluded in ten, and 
little or nothing of the story told. The Aeneid, and Pharsalia have 
seven apiece. 

§ 6, Having hinted at the points of resemblance between the dithy- 
rambic dva^o\ai and the epideictic /n?^?^/;^/^, he now proceeds to explain 
further the resemblance of the dicastic proem to the prologue of tragedy 
and prelude of the Epic poem. 

Mn the prose speeches as well as the poetry' (Victorius understands 

i68 PHTOPIKH2 r 14 §6. 

Sidpoia' TO yap dopio'TOV 7r\ava* 6 Soi/5 ovv iotrirep 
€19 Triv X^^P^ ^^^ dpx^v TTOiei i)(OfAepov aKoXovdeiv tw 
Xoyto. Zid TOVTO 

fii\viv aeiZe Bed. 

di/Spa fULOi evveTre fiovo'a. 

fjyeo ixoi \6yov dWov, ottw^ *A<ria^ diro yait]^ 

riXdev €9 EvpwTrriv 7ro\€/xo9 fxeya^. 

Kul oi TpayiKol Sfj\ov(ri Trepl to Bpafxaj kclv fit) evdu^ 
wo'Trep EvpiTTi^ri^, dW* iu tw irpoXoyta ye ttov [8^- 
Xol], woTTrep Kai ^o(pOK\i]^ 

ejJiot TTUTrip rjp Il6\vl3o^, 

r, \6yois^, fabulae poetamm^ meaning the dramas as contrasted with the 
Epics : the other contrast of prose and verse is more natural as well as 
-more suitable here) * these prooemia are (present, offer) a specimen or 
sample of the subject (of the speech or poem) in order that they may have 
some previous acquaintance with the intention of it* (if 91^, ^ about what it 
was to be^ as in to ti r^v civat; the object, purpose, or design), *and the 
mind not be kept in suspense ; for all that is vague and indefinite keeps 
the mind wandering (in doubt and uncertainty) : accordingly, (the speaker 
or writer) that puts the beginning into his hand supplies him with a clue, 
as it were, by which he may hold, so as to enable him to follow the 
story (or argument). This is why (Homer in the Iliad and Odyssey, 
began the two poems with the lines quoted ; and Choerilus — if Nake u. s. 
is right about the order of the two fragments in our text — did not begin 
his poem with r^yto fioi k.t.X., but introduced it in his exordiumf — here 
the quotations from the three poems are introduced, and the sentence 
remains unfinished. 

* Similarly the tragic poets explain the subject of their play, if not 
immediately at the opening, as Euripides, at any rate somewhere or 
other the poet explains it in his prologue or introduction), as even Sopho- 
cles (who does not usually employ it ; in the Oedip. Tyr. 774 seq.) " Po- 
lybus of Corinth was my father, &c.", and the following.' 

" The Commentators object to TrpoXoy^ here because the passage that 
it indicates occurs not at the beginning, but in the middle of the play. 
But, it seems that Aristotle has here used irp6\oyo£ in a more compre- 

^ Spengel puts \6yois koI and rjv in brackets, as spurious or doubtful : Bekker 
retains rjv. MS A° has ^r. By rejecting the words Spengel seems to shew that he 
thinks that \6yoi alone cannot mean 'stories* in the sense of dramas. I think it is 
doubtful. Otherwise, this interpretation is certainly more suitable to the general 
connexion and what follows. On the other hand, our author here seems to be 
rather digressive, and not to observe any very r^;ular order of succession in his 
remarks. So that perhaps upon the whole, we may let the other consideration 
have its due weight in deciding the point. 

PHTOPIKMS r 14 §§6, 7. 169 

Kal 1; fcco/ji^S/a cJ(rai;1"ft)s. to fxev ovv duayKaiorarou 
epyop rod Trpooifxlov Kai ihov toOto, ^riXwcai ti icri 
TO Te\o^ ov ev€Ka 6 \6yo^* Sioirep av ZfiXov 17 Kal 
7 fJLiKpov TO Trpayfia, ov xptitTTeop Trpooifixiea. to, Se 
ciWa eiSri oh ;^pwi/Ta£, laTpeviiaTa Kal KOivd. Xe^e- 
Tai Se TavTa eK t€ tov XeyovTO^ Kal tov aKpoaTOv 
Kal TOV TTpdyjULaTO^ Kal tov evairriov. irepl avTOv 
fiev Kal TOV dvTL^LKOVy oaa irepl BiafioXrju Xvirai Kal 

hensive sense than that which it usually bears, for an * explanatory intro- 
duction* in general, wherever it may occur: and that it has much the 
same relation here to its ordinary signification, as irpoOea-is has to diifyi;- 
ais in c. 13. Also the analogous Trpooifuop is applied twice in § 10 in/ra 
to introductory speeches anywhere in a play." Introd. p. 339 note. 

'And comedy in like manner': that is, wherever an introductory 
explanation is required, there it is introduced. Victorius notes that this 
appears in Terence, the Latin representative of the New Coniedy, and 
Plautus. Simo in the Andria^ Menedemus in the Heautontimorumenosy 
Micio in the Adeiphiy ^triorvci this office. And similarly, Strepsiades in 
Aristoph. Nubes, Demosthenes in the Equites, 40 seq., Dionysius in the 
Kanae — ^Victorius says " tum maxime cum Servo narrat, &c.," but the 
conversation referred to is with Hercules, not Xanthias, lines 64 seq. 
There is another explanatory introduction, preparatory to the dramatic 
contest between Aeacus and Xanthias, 759 seq. 

* So then (to resume) the most necessary function of the prooemiumy 
and that peculiar to it, is to make it clear what is the end and object of 
the speech or story ' (the former is the \oyoi in Rhetoric^ the latter in the 
Epic and the drama). Compare Rhet. ad Alex. 29 (30). i, def. of Trpooi- 
ykiov, ' And therefore if the subject (the thing, the matter in hand) be 
already clear and short (or, of trifling importance) the prooemium is not 
to be employed*. Comp. Cic. de Or. 11 79. 320, in parvis atque in/re- 
quentibus causis ab ipsa re est exordiri saepe commodius: Victorius, who 
wxiits frequentibus : repeated in Gaisford, Not, Var. 

§ 7. ' The other kinds (of prooemia) which are employed are mere 
cures (remedies [specifics] for the infirmities or defects of the hearers — bia 
rffv TOV oKpoarov fiox^piav, HI I. 5 — such as inattention, unfavourable dis- 
position, and the like), and common', to all parts of the speech. Koivd 
is opposed to the special office, peculiar to the irpooifiiop, kqI tiiov tovto 
supra: all these other kinds may be introduced in the exordium— and 
also anywhere else, wherever they are required. 

* These may be derived from the speaker himself, from the hearer, 
the subject, and the adversary' (*the opposite'). Cic. de Or. ll 79.321, 
seq. Sed quum erit utendum principio, quod plerumque erit, aut ex 
reOy aut ex adversario, aut ex re, aut ex eis apud quos agitur (Jk tov 
cLKpoia-ov), sententias duct licebit. Ex reo — reos appelloy quorum res 
est— quae significent bonum virum seq. followed by the illustration of 

I70 PHTOPIKH2 T 14 §7. 

7roiii<rai. ecri Be ovx ofioiia^* difoXoyovfiepta fxev 
yap irpwTOv to, irpo^ Sia/3o\i]Py Karriyopovim S' ii/ 
Tw iTTiXoytp. Si o §€, ovK aSri\6v* rou [lev yap diro^ 
XoyovfievoVf orav fieWtj eiard^eiv avTOi/^, duayKalov 
dveXeiv rd KtoXvoi/ray wcTe Xvreov TrptaTOV tvju Sxa- 
fioXfiv Tto Se ha/SdWoim ev rto eirCKoyio SiafiXr]" 
Teovj *iva fivfjfiopevo'coa'i fxaWov, Ta Se tt/oos toj/ 

the remaining three. Cicero, who is certainly following Arist., seems 
here to translate rov Xeyoin-os by reus, in the sense which he explains, 
of both parties in the case. Quintilian, iv 1.6, seems to charge Aristotle — 
if he includes him in the plerique who have been guilty of the omission — 
with having neglected to include the ^ auctor causae^ amongst the sources 
of topics for prooemia, Victorius defends him against this, by pointing 
out, as Cicero, that o Xcyoy includes both parties in a suit or prosecution, 
actor as well as reus (in its ordinary sense). See the passage of Quint., 
with Spalding's note. 

*The topics derivable from the speaker himself and the opponent, are 
all such as relate to allaying {lit, * refuting*) and exciting prejudice and ill- 
feeling (after Troc^o-at understand avnfi/) : but with this difference : that 
in defending oneself all that relates to dca/SoXi; (i. e. the removal of 
prejudice and ill-will from ourselves, and exciting them against the 
opponent) must be put first {subaudi Xeicreov, viz. in the exordium), but 
in the accusation of another reserved for the peroration. The reason 
of this is not difficult to see; that is, that the defendant, when he is 
about to introduce his own case, must necessarily begin by doing away 
with all hindrances {sc. to the establishment of it; all prepossessions 
against him on the part of the judge) ; and therefore must make the 
removal or refutation of all calumnies or prejudices against him his first 
point; whereas the accuser (the speaker whose office it is to 'set' the 
defendant 'against' the judges, conciliate their ill-will to him) must 
reserve all that tends to prejudice his antagonist for the epilogue 
(peroration, conclusion), that they may better remember it' (that his 
accusations may 'leave their sting behind them' in the judges' minds). 
Both Spengel and Bekker write avrov after fUa(€tv for the vulgata lectio 
avrov ; which as far as appears to the contrary is the reading of all MSS. 
I think avTov for 'his own case', ///. himself, is defensible. We often say 
' him ' for ' himself, leaving the reflexive part to be understood, in our 
own language. See note on i 7. 35, and Waitz on Organ. 54 a 14, 
Vol. I. p. 486, there referred to. 

' The topics of the npoolfuov which are addressed to the hearer (i. e. 
in the dicastic branch now under consideration, the judges,) are derived 
from {subaudi yiyvcrdt, or as before, Xcycrai) the conciliation of his good 
will (towards ourselves) and irritating him (exciting his indignation against 
the adversary, dciVoNris), and sometimes too (dc), (but only when it is 
required,) from engaging his attention or the reverse : for it is not always 

PHTOPIKH2 r I4§7. »7» 

dKpoarrjp €k re rov evi/ovv Troiijarai Kai Ik tov 
opyiaraiy Kai eviore 8c eK tov TTpoaeKTiKOP tj rovvav-- 
Tiov* ov yap del crvfx(pepei iroieiv irpoaeKTiKov^ Sia 
TToTiXoi eU yeXwTa TreipwvTai irpodyeiv. eU he 

expedient to make him attentive, and this is why many (speakers) try 
to move or provoke him to laughter'. ILpoayeiv tU yeXwra*, to move, or 
provoke to\ Herod. II 121. 4, vK&y^ai fiiv koi is ycXcura vpoayay€<rBai, 
Rhet. I I. 5, ciff opyrjv Trpoayopras fj <1>66pov 7 €\€0V, I 2. 5, tls ird$0Sy Ct sim.- 
*to carry forward, i. e. stimulate, excite, provoke'. 

tvvovv froirjo'ai] "The three requisites in the disposition of the 
audience, according to the later writers on the subject, are that they 
should be benevoli, dociles^ attenti. Cic. de Inv. i 15. 20, Quint iv i. 5 : 
and frequently elsewhere. Ar. includes the two latter under one head 
vpoa-fKTiKol : and in fact if a man is inclined to attend, he shews that he 
is already inclined to or desirous of learning. The two are closely con- 
nected, Cic. de Inv. 1 16. 23." Introd. p. 340, note i. 

Causa principii nulla est alia, quam ut auditorem^ quo sit nobis 
in ceteris partibiis accommodatior, praeparemus. Id fieri tribus maxime 
rebus^ inter auctores plurimos constat si benevolum, attentum, docilem 
fecerimus; non quia ista non per totam actionem sint custodienda, sed 
quia initiis praecipue necessaria, per quae in animum iudicis^ ut prO' 
cedere ultra possimusy admittimur* (Quint iv i. 5). 

ov yap aci trv/n^epci icr.X.] Cic. de Or. II 79. 323. He begins by 
saying that neither of these topics is to be confined to the prooemium 
§ 322, nam et attentum monent Grcuci ut principio faciamus iudicem et 
docilem (this is included in Trpoo-rin-iieoi) ; quae sunt utiliay sed non prin- 
cipii magis propria quam reliquarum partiumj faciliora etiam in prin- 
cipHs, quod et attenti tum maxime sunty quum omnia exspectanty et 
dociles magis initiis esse possunt. Quint., iv i. 37, 38, criticizes Aristotle's 
remark on this point : Nee me quanquam magni auctores in hoc duxerini 
ut non semper facere attentum ac docilem iudicem velim : non quia 
nesciamy id quod ab illis dicitury esse pro mala causa qualis ea sit non 
intelligi: verum quia istud non negligentia iudicis contingity sed errore. 
Dixit enim ctdversariuSy et fortasse persuasit : nobis opus est eius diversa 
opinione : quae mutari non potest nisi ilium fecerimus ad ea quae dicemus 
docilem et attentumy seq. That is, the judge's inattention often arises 
not from negligence, but from a mistaken supposition that the adversary 
is right and we are wrong : in order to set him right we must rouse his 
attention. The supposition implied here in explanation of ovk atl <rvii<t>' 
K.T,\.y which Quint, refers to and criticizes, is that inattention on the 
judge's part is sometimes expedient when our cause is bad. Quint.'s 
reply is, it is not his inattention that would be of use to us in such 
a case, but his attention to the arguments which we are about to use 
in order to convince him to the contrary. Another disadvantage that 
may arise from over-attention on the judge's part, occurs when we want 
to slur over an unfavourable point in our case. In illustration of the 
following Iko iroXXol nrX. Gaisford very appositely quotes Arist Vesp. 564, 
Oi M XcyotMTcv fiv^ovt ^fiivf ol ^ Alvmirov ri ytkotoif' ol dc vKwrrowr', iv* 

172 PHT0PIKH2 r 14 §7. 

evfidOeiai/ aTravra dvd^eiy edv tk /iotiXfiTai, Kai to 
eTTieiKfj ^aipecdar Trpocixovci yap ftaWoi/ tovtoi^. 
TTpoo'eKTiKol he Toh fieydXoi^f toU iSioi^y to?? 6av^ p. 
fiaaToi^j Toh i^Secrip* Sio Set ifiTroieiv cws wept toiov^ 
TO)!/ 6 \6yo^^ edv Se fti) 7rpo(reKTiKOV9, on fxiKpoi/, 

€ym y«\d<ro, Koi top Ovfiov KoraBSfuu, [Dem. Or. 54 (jcara Kovtivos) §§13 
20, YcXmrovrcff di^iforrc, and Or. 23 § 206.] 

The Scholiast on this place (see in Spengel's Ed. p. 158), tells, apropos 
of this, the story from Demosth. de Cor. §§ 51, 52, with additions. The 
Scholiast, Ulpian on the passage of Dem., and a scholiast on Ar. AnaL Pr. 
I 24 ^ 20 (in Brandis' collection, Arist Op. Bekker's 4to. vol. IV. p. 147 
b 43 of Bekker's quarto ed. of Aristotle), all agree that Demosthenes' jok^ 
consisted in an intentional mispronunciation of the word fiurdwoSf which 
he applied to Aeschines, pronouncing it iiiaBwos, in order to divert the 
attention of the audience : he appealed to them to say whether the word 
was not well applied : they burst into a roar of laughter, accepted the 
application, and shouted Ala-xlvrfs fiurBonTos, Alaxlvrjs fiitrBioTosy with the 
pronunciation corrected. I entirely agree with Dissen that this is a 
foolish and improbable story, absurd in itself, and receiving no counte- 
nance from the iext of Demosthenes » All that he did say is found in the 
existing text, viz. that he interpreted Aeschines' (cyiov 'AXr^aydpov — which 
Aesch. claimed — as meaning that he was not a {cyor, a guest and friend, 
but a fita-Oioros (a hireling) 'AXc£ai/dpov and nothing more, and that the 
people accepted this version. See Dissen's note on § 52. 

(ev/ia^€ia, docilitaSy need not be made a separate topic, because) ^ any 
speaker may refer to this (carry back, i. e. apply) any thing he pleases 
(any of the topics of the frpooifiiop)y even the appearance of worth and 
respectability; for to these {rots tfrituceai) the audience is always more 
inclined to attend'. (This is in fact the dp€n^ which the speaker must 
always assume dy his speech^ in order that his hearers may have confi- 
dence in him, that he may have weight and authority with them ; one of 
the three ingredients in the ^^0$ eV r^ X/yoi^c, ll 1.5. Introd. on ^^or, 
p. 108 seq.) In short, tdfutBeia need not be made a separate topic, pro- 
vided only the speaker treats the other topics of the irpooifiiov with the 
view of making the audience docilcSy that is, ready to receive the informa- 
tion which he is prepared to communicate to them. 

*The things to which the audience is most inclined to listen are 
things great (momentous, important), things of special interest (to the 
hearers themselves), things wonderful (surprising), and things pleasant 
(to hear; either in themselves, or in their associations); and therefore 
the speaker should always try to produce the impression (cV in his hear- 
ers' minds) that things of such kinds are his subject If he wish to make 
them inattentive (he must try to convey the impression, c^ /xif, subaudi 
froiciy c^cXj? rii — n-poo-cm-tjcovr) that his subject is trifling, has no reference 
to them and their interests (that is, is unimportant in general, or to them 
in particular : the opposite of the ra cdia in this preceding topic) or that it 
is unpleasant'. 

PHTOPIKH2 r 14 §§ 8, 9. 173 

8 on ou^eu tt^os cKeiPOv^y on XvTrripop. Sci Se [xt] p. 138. 
\av6dveiv otl iravra €^«o tov \6yov to, toiuvtw 
Trpos (f)av\op yap aKpoar^i/ kui to, e^co tov irpdyixa- 

Tos aKOvovraj eirei dp jxri toiovto^ 17, ovOep Set 
irpooiiiioVy aW ^ oo'op to irpayfia eiireip Ke(j>a\ai(a'> 

9 8£os, iVa 6;^j; wairep awiixa Ke<pa\i^p. €Ti to irpoareK^ 
TiKOu^ iroieip irapTtop twp jnepcop koipop^ idp Sei/* 

On interesting and uninteresting topics, see the parallel passages in 
Rhet. ad Alex. 29 (30), 3, where those of Aristotle are subdivided : Cic. de 
Inv. I 16.23: Cic, Orat. Part, c, 8, expresses Ar.'s tdia, Coniuncta cum 
ipsis apud quos ageiur. 

§ 8. * However it must not be forgotten that all such things as these 
(all these ordinary contents of the npooifiia) are foreign to (outside ; extra, 
not secundum, artem) the speech (and its real object, which is the proof 
of the case, and that alone, al dc irtWfir €vtmxv6v i<m fiovov, ra d* clfXXa 
irpoaBrJKai, I 1. 3) : it is only because the audience is bad, and ready to 
listen to things beside the real question, (that these are addressed to 
them) ; for if he be not such, there is no occasion for an exordium (to 
flatter him into a good humour, and the rest), except just so far as to 
state the case in a summary way, that, like a body, it may have a head 
on it'. There is probably a reference in this to a-Sfia tjjs irtWcwy, as the 
enthymemes, or direct logical proofs, are called i i. 3. 

4hiv\o9, as applied to the audience or judges, means here not mo- 
rally bad, but only defective in intellect and patience, too ignorant and 
frivolous to attend long to sound and serious reasoning : they require to 
be relieved and diverted occasionally. So Schrader. Comp. what is said 
of the 'single judge' in 12.5. Of the summary npoolfuop, the Rhet. ad 
Alex. 29 (30). 2, gives two examples. 

ha — ^Kc0aXi;v] Comp. Eth. Nic. VI 7, I141 a 19, of cofPia; vovs xal 
iirurnifirj, Jcnrcp icci^aX^y txavtra inian^firf tSv rc/xa>rar»v. Plat. Gorg. 505 D, 
dXX* ovBi Toi^s fivBovs <t>curl /icrafv 6€fus €ivcli KaraKtiirMiP, dXX' imQivras, tva 
fifj &v€V K€<l>(iKfjs irepitrj, Phaedr. 264 C, deiv iravra \oyov a<nr€p (^v avv' 
f crrdvac aafid ri e^ovra avrov avrov. Sort fiifrc dK€<f)aKov fAJre &irovv, ie.r.X. 
Phileb. 66 D. Polit. 277 C. Legg. vi 752 A. Stallbaum and Heindorf 
ad loc. Gorg. Thompson ad loc. Phaedri [et Gorg.]. The notion con- 
veyed in all these places is the same, a headless animal is incomplete. 
See note in Introd. p. 341, on the book, which, without a preface, looks 
like a man going out into the street without his hat. This gives the same 
notion of want of finish and completeness. Quint, iv i. 72, Haec de 
prooemio, quoties erit eius usus: non semper autem estj nam et super- 
vacuum aliquando est, si sit praeparatus satis etiam sine hoc iudex, aut 
si res praeparatione non eget, Aristoteles quidem in totum id necessa- 
rium apudbofiosiudices negat; seq. Comp. xii 10.52, Quod si mihi des con- 
cilium iudicum sapientum,,,Neque enim affectus omnino movendi sunt, 
nee aures delectatione mulcendae, quum etiam prooemia supervacua esse 
apud tales Aristoteles exis timet. 

% 9. ' Besides, this making the hearers disposed to listen (keep up 

174 PHTOPIKH2 r 14 §§ 9. 10. 

iraprax^ov yap dvidat fxaXKov tj dp^oii^vot* Sio 
yeXoTop ev dpj(ri TdrreiVf 6t€ ixaKiCTa iravTe^ Trpotre^ 

X0PT€9 dKpoUvTai. W(rT€ OTTOV aV Y\ Kaip09y XeKTCOV 

^^Kai fxoi Trpoa-ex^TE tov vovv* ovQev yap fiaXKop 

€fxov ri vfieTepov Kai 

f f* 


epu) yap v/ulii/ oiov ovoeTTcoTroTe 
dKtjKoaTE SeivoPy 

fj ovTU) Qavfxaa'TOV. tovto S' efrrivj wairep e(f>fi 

TlpoBiKO^y 6t€ putTTa^oieu ol dKpoaTaly irapeixfiaXKeiv 

10 T^s TrepTtiKOVTa^pd-x^fiov avroi^. on Se ttjOOS tov 

dKpoarrjvovx ^Trep d* dKpoaTt]^, StjXop* Trapre^ yap ti 

their attention), is common to all the parts of the speech alike, wherever 
it is required : for they are more inclined to relax it anywhere rather than 
at the opening. It is absurd therefore to fix its place ('post' it) at the 
beginning, a time when everybody listens with the greatest attention*. 
Cic. de Or. 11 79. 323 quoted on § 7, «v yi^ aei (rvfi,<t)€p€t. Also Quint. IV. 
I. 73, who follows Arist. in quoting Prodicus* artifice. 'And therefore, 
(not only at the beginning, but) wherever there is occasion, such phrases 
as this must be used, "And now attend to what I say, for it is no more 
my affair than yours"; or, " FU tell such a strange thing — or a thing so 
marvellous — as you have never yet heard before." And this is like 
what Prodicus said, "whenever his audience were inclined to be drowsy, 
he would slip them in a taste of the fifty drachm"'. n-ap^fiiSaXXcti/, 
throw them in by the side of the rest, on the sly, (irapabirjyeltrBaiy infra 
16.5). The * fifty drachm' was Prodicus' most famous, and interesting, 
and expensive lecture. Plat. Crat. 384 B, Saicp. Et ^v ovp cyo fjSfj 0107x017 
vapa UpobiKov r^v ntvniKovTdbpaxP'OP 4irih€i^i,Vy ^v aKovo'avTi. wrapxfi vtpl 
TOVTO vrciroideOcr^ac, 0v ^Tiatv iKtlvos, ov^ev av iictSXve ire avTiKa fuiXa eidevoi 
T^v akqBeiop wfpl ovopaTtdV opBoTijTos' vvp ^ ovk aKi^Koay akXa r^v bpaxiuaiaif, 

§ 10. ' But (that all this is beside the point, and extra artemi) that it 
is not addressed to the hearer as a hearer (read by all means ^ aKpoairf\^ 
sc. cWi : i. e., that it is addressed to him as a hearer and something more, 
as a man liable to all the defects and mfirmities and feelings above men- 
tioned) ' is plain : for speakers invariably employ their exordia either in 
prejudicing (the audience against the adversary), or in the endeavour to 
remove similar apprehensions (of the like suspicions and prejudices) 
from themselves'. If the audience were mere impartial listeners, met 
there to hear and judge the case, and nothing more; there would be no 
occasion for all this accusation and defence with which the orators 
always fill \yi€\x prooemia. 

The first example referred to, the excuse of the 0i;Xa| for his lack 
of speed and his unwelcome message, Soph. Antig. 223 seq., is a case 

PHTOPIKH2 r I4§§ 10, ii. 175 

ava^, ip(S ixev ov^ oirw^ CTrovhij^ i/tto. 

Kal 01 TTOPrjpop TO TTpayfjLa exovre^ tj ^okovptcv 
irairraxov yap fieKTtov SiaTpi/Seiv t] ev t£ TrpayixaTi. 
dio oi BovXoi ov TO, ipoiTcofxepa Xeyovcip dWd Tci 
1 1 kvkXwj Kal Trpooifxid^oprai. TroOep S' evpov^ Set ttoi- 
€£!/, eipriTaif koI twp ciWwp eKaarop twp TOiovToyp, 
eirei 6 ev AeyeTai 

Sos fi €s <bairiKa^ (j)i\op eXdeiP i;S* iXeeiPOP, 

of dvo\oy€'i(r0ai fftofiovf, * to remove the threatened danger, or postpone 
it as long as he can, by a defence': and the application is, that if he 
had not been afraid of Creon, if he had been quite sure that Creon 
was an altogether impartial hearer, he would not have indulged in 
such a long preface. The second is an example of the same kind 
from Eur. Iph. Taur. 1162, Thoas to Iphigenia, rl ff)poifuaC€i pfoxfiov; 
i^avha (ra<l>ms. The actual defence is confined to one line (1161), but 
Thoas suspects her of entering upon a long apology. Buhle, who 
could not have looked at the passage, says " Iphig. longo exordio uten- 
tem." The Scholiast (SpengePs Ed. p. 161) here gives a long paraphrase 
of the watchman's speech. After this, incredible as it may appear, be 
adds rh dc ri <l>poifud(if rot) KptoPTos iari Xcyovror, as if this had been a 
continuation of the line from the Antigone. 

' And those who have, or suppose themselves to have, a bad case (///• 
their case bad) are apt to indulge in long prooemia : for it is better for 
them to dwell upon anything rather than upon their case'. — This also is 
illustrated by the speech of the 0vXa{ in the Antigone : and perhaps was 
suggested by it; for it is not very consecutive — *And this is why slaves 
(when charged with a fault, and excusing themselves to their masters) 
never answer the questions directly, but (state) the attending (surrounding) 
circumstSLTices, and make a long (roundabout) preface (before they come 
to the point)'. On ra JtvieXy see 1 9. 33. Victorius quotes Virg. Georg. 11 45, 
Non hie te carmine ficto Atque per ambages et longa exorsa teneho, 

§ 1 1. 'The topics for conciliating good will have been already stated' 
{i^CKla II 4, tk^oi II 8, especially, from the quotation following. 11 1.7, 
9r#pl d* tvpoias Kcii 4^i\ias cV vols V€pi ra ir^Mf Xcicrcov vvy. Cic. de Inv. 
I 16. 22, benevolentia quatiuor ex locis comparatur^ seq.) 'as well as 
(for exciting) any feeling of the same kind in generar(any of the vqBi^ in 
Bk. II 2 — 11). And since the saying is true, seeing that it is well said 
" Grant that I may come to the Phaeacians an object of love and pity" — 
Horn. Od. li [vii] 327, — it follows that these two (to make ourselves 
loveable and pitiable) are what we ought to aim at (for this purpose)'. 

176 PHTOPIKH2 T I4§§ 11,12. 

TOVTiav Zei Svo trro-xa^^arOai. ev Se toU iiriheiKTi^ 
K0t9 oieo'dai Sei Troteiu a-vveiraiveiaBai top aKpoarrji/y 
ri avTov n yevo^ tj eiriTrihevfiar avTOv tj dfiw^ ye Trojs' 
o yap Xeyei ^(aKpdrti^ ev Tta iTriTatjylwy dXrides, on 
ov ;^a\67roi/ *A6ripaiov^ ev 'Adrivaioi^ eiraiveXv aW eV 
12 TaZe Tov SriiiXfiyopiKOV ck tUv rod SiKaviKOV \d- 
701; ia-riv, (^vaei 8' i^Kia'Ta e^er kui yap koi irept ov 
ia-aa-if Kai ovZev Seirai to wpdyixa irpooifxioVj aW // 
Si' avTOV n Toi)s dvriXeyovTa^y t] edv ixtj YiXiKOV fiovXei 

Hvo] here is indeclinable, like &fi<ti» sometimes. As only the first four 
numerals in Greek (and Sanskrit; the first three in Latin) are declinable ; 
buo occasionally follows the general rule of indeclinability. In Homer 
this is the usual form (see Damm's Lex. s. v.) ; in later and Attic writers 
not so frequent. Several examples are to be found in Ellendt's Lex. Soph., 
Sturz, Lex. Xen. See Schweighauser, Lex. Herod, for instances with 
fem. plur. Analogous to this of Arist. is Wo w«v muCktfvfT^ivinvj Thuc. 
Ill 89. Aristoph. dvo fjLvpuides r&v drffioTiKav. Plat. Gorg. 464 B, dvo 
\ty<o T€xva?. Eur. Bacch. 916, dvo i)Xtovr. Orest. 140I1 Xeowcff dvo, 

Phoen* 55, &c. 

* In the epideictic prooemia the hearer must be made to suppose that 
he is a sharer in the praise, either personally, or by his family, or his 
studies and pursuits, or at any rate somehow or other : for what Socrates 
(i. e. Plato, Menex. 235 D, supra i 9. 30) says in his funeral oration is 
quite true, that it is easy enough to praise Athenians at (friendly) Athens ; 
the difficulty lies in doing it at Sparta (amongst rivals and enemies)'. The 
old adj. afioff, 'some', survives in several forms found in most Greek 
authors ; a^&9 (yc 9r»f) and a^iji^ (yc ir^;), sc od^, dfu>i), afjLoBcv, and the 
compounds ovbafioSf ovda/x<off, ouda/io€, ov8a/irj (or ft^), ovdafioBev, ovdafi6{r€f 
and the same with ^117. 

§ 12. *The exordia of the public oration are borrowed from those of 
the forensic speech, but are naturally very rare in it : for in fact the sub- 
ject of it is one with which they are already well acquainted, and there- 
fore the facts of the case require no preface (no preparatory explanation) 
except — if at all — on his own account or that of the adversary {hC avrov 
to put himself right with the audience, the ^6os ip r^ Xeyorrt ; vj rovs 
amrCKiyovTos to meet the adversary's charges, combat the prejudices the 
other has raised against him : both of these therefore are accidental)^ or 
in case the subject (this is essential) is not considered by them of the 
precise degree of importance which you wish, but rated either too high 
or too low.' As to tovs dwtXeyoiraf, we had been told before, c. 1*3.3, 
irpooifuov d€ rais Brjiiriyopiatf t6t€ yivtrtu orap dirrikoyia ij: as in De- 
mosth. de Corona, and de Falsa Legatione. Comp. Quint, iii 8. 8, who 
borrows this from Aristotle, Aristoieles quidem nee sine causa putat ct 

PHTOP1KH2 r 14 §12. 177 

viroXafifidviaaiVy «AA' 1^ fxei^oi/ i^j €X«ttw. Sxo ^p. 139. 
Sia/SdWeii/ ^ diroXvea'duL dmyKfj^ Kai tj av^fja-ai ^ 
fieMCai. TOUTwv Se ^i/cku TrpooifAiov SeiTai^ ti Kccfxav 

X^P^^y W5 avTOKd^ZaXa (paipeTai, iav jxt] ^XV* '^^^^ ^' '*'^' 
ovTOv yap to Fopylov eyKcofuou eh ^HAeiovs* ovSey 
yap 7rpoe^ayK(aviara^ ovZe irpfoavaKivnara^ ev6v^ ^PX^" 
Tai **'H\is 7roAi5 evdaliatapJ^ 

a nostra, et ab eius qui dissentiet persona, duct frequenter in consiliis 
exordium, quasi mutuantibus hoc nol>is a iudiciali generej nonnunquam 
etiam ut minor res ntaiorve videaiur: in demonstrativis vero frooemia 
esse maxime libera existimat. 

* And hence the necessity of either raising or doing away with preju- 
dice (dio, because when there is an adversary, as there always is in 
dicastic practice, the same treatment in deliberative speaking is neces- 
sarily required) and (the topics) of amplification and diminution (to meet 
the other requirement, c^ y^ i|Xt«eoy /SovXcc, viroXotfroir, ic.r.X.)' 

On the Kowos tottos (or roarot) av^rpris and faEiauxs, see II 26. i» lb. 

* These are the circumstances in which a preface is required (dfirai, 
o'X6yo£, or o Xcy4k>y) ; either these, or for mere ornament's sake, because, 
without U, the speech has an off-hand, slovenly (impromptu, extempora- 
neous) air (note on lii 7. i). For such is Gorgias' encomium on tho 
.Eleans ; without any preliminary sparring (flourish) or preparatory stir- 
ring up he starts abruptly (rushes at once, in medias res; without any 
previous warning or preparation) with '' £lis, blessed city.'' 

TO Tofyyiov cyxoofuoy <«'HX.] Sauppe, Or, Att. Fragm,, Fragm. Gorg. 
No. IV. Nothing more is known of the speech. 

frpoe|ayKa»W<ra^] is a metaphor from boxing, and denotes a preliminary 
exercise of the boxer, a swinging, and thrusting to and fro of the arms 
{lit. elbows), as a pieparation for the actual blow, *'ex athletarum 
disciplina ..-. qui bracchiis sublatis et vibratis pugnae proludunt (I 
think this is not quite exact: the exercise is not so much to prepare 
for the encounter with the antagonist, though this of course may be 
included, as to give weight aad impetus to the actual blow). Hinc ab 
Ar. ad oratorem traductum, qui prooemio quodam utitur priusquam ad 
rem ipsam deveniat" Spanheim ad Callim. Hymn. Del line 322. This 
word is a arra^ Xeyo/xcvov. 

irpo€aMiKiv€w expresses much the same thing by a different metaphor ; 
the rousing, stirring up, excitement of emotion or interest, as a prepa- 
ration (jrpo) for what is to follow. This is illustrated by Plato, Legg. 
IV 722 D, Xoyc»jr 'iravrtav icat octav (fifaprj KtKOiviOprjKt irpooifud r eicrrt K€lI 
ax^^ov olov Tives dv€uuvi^a€is, txowrai rtva (Ivr^xy^of iirix^iprjirip XPW^'t'^*' 
npog t6 luXKoy n«paiv€<r6ai, lb. VII 789 C, of the inspiriting, animating, 
exciting process — * quo validiores atque animosiores ad certamina fierent,' 
Stallbaum ad locum — which is the object of the training of fighting 
cocks and quails, {iravovs) iv oh avra dvcLKwovai, yvftpafoi/rcr. Meno, 85 C, 

AR. 111. 12 

178 PHT0PIKH2 T 15 § i. 

Trepl Se ha/SoXfj^ ep fiev to e^ wv av Tis i/7ro\»j>/r4i/ ch 
hvo'x^pfi diroKvaraLTO* ovdev yap Sia<j)ep€i eire einov- 

fScnrrp ovap avaKficivrjrrai al do^at avrat, Comp. Plut. Cato Mai. c. 26, 
^drf dc jcol rrpoapaKiV€ur$ai toU Nofuxdticotff {Numidae) rovs irpos 'Pw/iatovp 
dySvas, here literally, in the primary sense, the Numidians were already 
making preparations to stir up, &c. lb. n. rod vpoirov i/n;xpov, c. 9, 948 C, 
ra aMrira ravrl vpoavaKunjcu, to Stir up, by a preparatory examination 
or study, these sensible elements (of Empedocles &c.) — from all which 
it seems to me certain that Victorius is incorrect in interpreting this 
in the same way as the preceding metaphor, " brachia manusque com- 
movere et concutere.** Ernesti, Lex. Techn, Gr.s. y .^ proludereprooemio 
guodam^ throws no light upon the matter. 


The following chapter is a continuation of the preceding on the 
ordinary contents of the irpooifuou, two of which, as we have seen c. 
14 § 12, are diajSoXXciy and car6Kv€aBai: and on these two the orator is 
supplied with topics. 

The same subject is treated in the Rhet. ad Alex. c. 29 (30), at even 
l^eater length than by Aristotle: and a summary of its contents, with 
some remarks on its moral character, and its connexion with Isocrates, 
may be found in Introd. pp. 441 — ^443. A comparison of this with Aris- 
totle's treatment of the subject is altogether in favour of the latter. He 
had already told us that he disapproves of the irpoolfiioy, as distinct 
from the vpoBtaity altogether : but he is obliged, by the practice of his 
predecessors, and the evident importance of the subject, which in 
spite of its unscientific character cannot be altogether passed over in 
a complete treatise on Rhetoric, to give it a place in his system; but 
it will be observed that in dealing with it he occupies at least three- 
fourths of the chapter with the topics of the defensive use oT it, confining 
his observations on the aggressive side to two topics in a single section. 
See also especially § 10, rotovrot h% 01 TMxy^K^raro^ K.r.X. The reckless 
and unscrupulous precepts of the other treatise present dio/SoXif in its 
very worst character: it is truly here the 'deviPs art', 1; xo'^ bia^okov 
rix^i the art of insinuating by whatever means prejudice and ill-will 
against your opponent — merely because he happens to be such, and for 
no other reason — and so prejudicing his case* There is something 
further on this in c. 36 (37). 46, 47. There is an invective against d»a- 
fiokri in. Isocr. dmd. § 18. "dui/3^Xeiv is *to set at variance^ 'to make 
hostile'; and so to inspire ill-will, insinuate suspicions, or prejudice a 
person against another. It applies as a technical term to all insinuations 
and accusations by which one of the parties in a case endeavours to 
raise a prejudice against the other, which are to be reflected upon, but 
do not directly help to prove, the main charge or point at issue ; and are 
therefore extra artem^^^ tov vpdyp,aros. See ill 15. 9; and comp. the 
example, infra § 3. dvcikvea-Bat is to clear oneself of such insinuated 
charges, to remove evil suspicions. Aristotle begins with this, because, 
as he told us before (c. 14. 7), it is more appropriate to the exordium, as 
the opposite (in accusation) is to the peroration." Introd. p. 344. 

PHTOP1KH2 r 15 §§ I, 2. 179 

2 TO^ TIVO^ eiT€ fAtif SoTTe TOVTO KuOoXoV. aA\0S 

TpoTTO^ iocrre tTjOOS tu diuL^i<r(3tjTOv/jiepa d'TtairraVf fj tos 
ovK ecriVj r\ w^ ov ^Kajiepov^ tj ov tovtw^ rj cJ? 01; t^Ai- 
KOVTOv i] OVK aZiKOv ti ov jiieya t] ovk alarxpoi/ fj ovk e^ov 
fxeyeOos* irept yap roiovroop t] diLKpia-fi/jTnari^f wcirep 

§ I, 'With respect to ^lapoXrf, (intentional and malicious) calumny 
or (accidental, undesigned) prejudice, one (the first) topic is anything 
from which arguments may be derived for removing offensive (unplea- 
sant, injurious) suspicion i for it makes no difference whether (the 
charge or insinuation) has been actually spoken (expressed, in the shape 
of a direct personal calumfiy) or not' (i.e. has merely been conceived, not 
openly stated ; vnoKri^is as a mere conception or supposition — against us 
by inference, from our words, actions, or manners, or altogether acci- 
dentally, when people have a bad opimon of us : in either case the 
prejudice requires to be removed) ; ' and therefore this is a general rule'; 
includes everything, every kind of argument which tends to remove any 
bad opinion or prejudice which for whatever reason may be entertained 
against us : and this, whether the charge we have to meet be a direct 
statement, or merely an uncertified suspicion. This is illustrated by 
Rhet. ad Alex. 29 (30). 8, 9. 

In Benseler's Isocrates, il 276, a ref. is given upon dto^SoXi) to Isocr. 
Tixvr\^ Fragm. rixv. No. 2 (from Anon, et Maxim. Planud. v 551. loy 
Waltz), which runs thus : iv yap raif KaracrrturtiTi ra n oiKtia avtfior&fitv 
(establish) Ka\ rar^y ivavrimv dia^aXXofnv irpos To'olKtlov avfi<l^pov ipyqr 
(6fi€yoi ras jcaracrraarcir, nis 'lo'oxponyr ddlda^tv. 

§ 2. 'Another way (of clearing oneself) is to meet the charge on any 
of these issues' (qrcKreit or a/i^Mr/SiTn^o-cw, status^ the turning-point of the 
case, on which issue is joined : on these see Appendix £ to Book iii 
in Introd. p. 397 seq. where the various classifications of them are given ;) 
'either by denying the fact (ro on, status coniecturalis) ; or admitting 
that, and asserting that the alleged act was not injurious {ab utiiiy Vic- 
torius) ; or at any rate not to him (the complainant) ; or that the amount 
of injury is overstated ; or that it was either no wrong at all (not unjust: 
not a legal crime), or a slight one ; or, (taking the other view of morality, 
supposing it to be strictly speaking unjust, at any rate) not disgraceful, 
or a mere trifle, of no importance at all'« ov luya differs in this from ovk 
^xov fjJytBos : the former qualifies merely the wrong of the ahucov^ the latter is 
"no great matter'*; oi greatness, in the sense of magnitude or importance 
in general. 'For these are the points upon which the issue (of a case) 
turns, as in that between Iphicrates and Nausicrates: for he admitted the 
fact and the injury, but said it was no wrong\ Nausicrates or (always 
in the Latin Rhetoricians) Naucrates, is mentioned by Cicero, Orat. L 
172, de Orat. li 23.94, and ill 44. 173, as a pupil of Isocrates. Quint., ill 
6. 3, stating the same fact, tells us ^o that some attributed to him the 
first systematic division of these araatu or status. See Art. in Biogr, 
Diet. s. V. Westermann's Gesch. der Gr. U, Rom* Beredtsamkeit, 50. 5^ 
comp. 83. 10. 

12 — 2 

i8o PHT0PIKH2 T 1$ §§ 2, 3. 

^l(f>tKpdrti^ Trpo^ ^avfriKpartiu* ic^tl yap 'n'Oifjcai o 
eXeye koI fiXd-^ai^ ofW ovk d^iKeip* ri dvTLKaraX^ 
XdTreo'dai a^iKOvvTay el fiXafiepov dXXd KaXovy el 
3 Xvirripov dXK iiu(peXifiov ij ti dXXo toiovtov. dXXo^ 
TpoTTO^ «Js io'Tiv dfidpTrjima tj aTV-xtlfia tj dvayKoiov^ 

Spalding, on Quint, ill 6. 60, retains the vulgata lectio tovto (instead 
of rovr^} in the sense of optici} (rrairis or Jimtw. 

On the redundant cS^crrc in rpoiros mare airavr^, add to the examples 
from the Tragic poets collected by Monk ad Eur. Hippol. 1323, JLvwpis 
yap ^^eX' atrt€ yiyveaOai rabt, Thuc. I 28, iToifioi §hai tforr (provided dc be 
retained), lb. c. 119, dci^^cvrcs cdotc ^fftlaaaBai, Vlli 45, idiBaa-Ktv nm-t, 
lb. C. 79, bo^op Q^oTt biavavfia)(eiVy lb. 86, ttOTC.iraw cVaimv. Find. 
Kem. V 64, Kar^vtvaev wart irpa^ai, Herod. I 74, ^rvmjvtiKt (SaT€,,,vvicTa 
y€V€a0aiy lb. Ill 1 4, awrjvtiKw eSi(rrc...9rapicVae. Plat. Protag. 338 C, ddvyorov 
mor€, where see Heindorf's note, and also on Phaedr. 269 D, rb hvvaaBai 
«»oTc . . .y€V€(TBai, Phaedo 93 B and 1 03 E, coriy . . . oorc. . .d^iovtrOat (Stallbaum^s 
note), Isocr. Archid. § 40, ytyoviP floorc.iepan^^^pai. Dem. de F. L. § 124 
fjLTj^ ^v ©orr" Ibtiv anavras (with Shilleto's critical note). Aesch. de F. L. p. 49 
§ 158, eao'er€...»oT€...amoTp€^€(rdat. Ar. PoL II 2, 1 26 1 A 34, avfifiaivti. . . 
atrrt vcan-as apx^w, lb. VIII (v) 9, 1 309 b 32, ttmv m(rr' cxeiif. lb. VI (iv) 
5, 1292^ 12, ovfip€Pi]Ktp ^aT€,,.TTjP7ro\ir, fivai. Soph. Oed. CoL 570, lb. 
1350 (Dind,), biKai£v S<rr ifiov xXvctv, Philoct. 656, ip* tarw ^<rrt K&yyvBeif 
Oiav XapfOf, £ur. Iph. T. 1 01 7, w«£ oZv ytvoir hv Sort firjB' ijp,as Oavtiv, 

^Or (in justifying oneself), admitting a wrong done, to balance (or 
compensate) it (by something else which may be taken as a set-off, or 
drawback, in diminution of the wrong) ; for instance you say, what I did 
was injurious no doubt, but honourable ; or painful, but serviceable ; or 
anything else of the same sort '. The comparison of a few passages will 
best illustrate the meaning of dyriicaraXXarT€<r^ai. Ar. de part Anim. i 
5. 3, 644 b 22. The author is comparing the interest and value in natural 
philosophy of the objects of sense, things that we can see and touch and 
handle, and so examine and satisfy our curiosity about, with those that 
are beyond the reach of our senses, ovaias dytvrjrovs koi d(f)6aprovs top 
&iraPTa aiapa. Though the latter are in themselves higher and more 
excellent, " yet by their greater nearness to us, and more immediate con- 
nexion with our nature, there is a sort of compensation, dyriKaTaXXarTeral 
ri, when they are compared with the things divine as objects of study.'' 
Dem. de Cor. §, 138, rfjs M raU Xoibopiais ^boprjs koA x4p^^off to ttjv nokt^s 
tn)ix!^€pop dyraXXoTTo/icvoi, ' bartering, exchanging for, compensating by.' 
Plat. Phaedo 69 A, rjhopas npbs ijdopas, koI \virag trpos Xvirasy xal <l>6fiop vpbs 
<l>ofioPKar(iK\aTTf€r6ai.,.«a<nrtp pofiitrpara: and Other passages collected by 
Wyttenb. ad loc. Dinarch. adv. Dem. § 2j /ii^dc t^p Koiprjp irwnipiap dvrt- 
KaTaXXo^acr^at t&p tov KpiPOfi€Pov 'Koynp. Aesch. c. Ctesiph. § 92, p^fia 
fiopop dprtKoraKka^dfitPos dirt rovrop, Isocr. Phil. § 135, vnip SXXov fiiv 
-ovbtpos ap rb {fjp di/rtKaraXXo£afi€M>vf . (Ernesti Lex, Techn. Gk s. v., tx'- 
cusare renmf) 

§3. * Another method is (to extenuate the dbUrjfia by the milder 

PHTOPIKH2 r is§§3,4. i8i 

oJov ^o(pOK\ti^ e(j>ri Tpifieiv ovx ^^ o Sial3d\\wi/ €(j)rj, 
*lpa SoKfj yepcov, aA\* i^ dvdyKYi^* ov yap Ikovti ehat, 
avTw errj oy^onKOinra. Kai dpTiKaTaWaTreo'dai to 
ov eveKUy on ov jSXdyfrai i(3ov\eTO dWd TO^e, Kal ov 
TOVTO o helSdWero Troifja'aiy cvve^ti Se fiXafifjpar 
** hiKaiop Be fJLKreTu, el ottcos tovto yepriTai eiroiovv*^ 
4 aWo9, el ifXTrepLeiXriTrTai 6 hiafidWtop, i] vvv tj tt^o- 

terms), (to say) that it is a mistake, or an accident, or compulsory', done 
under compulsion : pla, see l lo. 14, and Appendix C to Bk. i., Introd. p. 225, 
and the references there. dvayKtj or /3ia, * overpowering £orce^, /orza mag- 
giore^ force majeure^ absolves from responsibility. Four degrees of cri- 
minality are thus distinguished in Eth. Nic. V 10, 1135 ^ 11, (i) drvxnH^ 
a mere accident, an injury done unintentionally without knowledge of the 
special circumstances of the case : (2) dfjMpTtjfia, an error or mistake, where 
the act is intentional but the injury unintentional (the case of killing a 
friend with a gun supposed not to be loaded) ; this does not include the 
case of moral ignorance, ignorance of right and wrong, for which a man 
is responsible : (3) ddiiefjfM, a wrong, intentional in a sense, but without 
deliberation or malice prepense^ as a deadly blow dealt in a fit of passion^ 
when the judgment is for the moment overpowered; (this is, I believe, 
the only place in which this degree is distinguished from the following : 
at all events the ordinary division is threefold.) All these are short 
of actual guilt or crime. The last stage, of actual crime, is (4) ddtxio, a 
wrong act committed with full knowledge of the circumstances, and 
deliberate purpose, orov €k 7rpoatpea-€o>s oBikos itai fioxdripos. With this 
compare iii 2, on the intentional and unintentional Comp. also Rhet. 
ad Alex. 4 (5). &, 9. 

'As for instance Sophocles said that his trembling was not^ as his 
accuser (or traducer) said, assumed to convey the appearance of old age, 
(and thereby obtain the sympathy and compassion of the judges) but 
compulsory (and therefore he was not responsible for it) ; for his eighty 
years were quite unintentional*. On Sophocles — not the poet — see note 
on I 14. 3^ The same Sophocles is mentioned again in 18. 6. 

* And again, by a balance (compensatory interchange or substitution) 
of motives ; (for instance) that you had no intention of injuring him ; 
what you really intended to do was so and so, and not that which was 
falsely laid to your charge ; the injury was an accident (not of the essence 
of what you did : a mere wfjfitprjKos), '^ I should deserve to be hated if 
that were my intention in doing it"'. This seems to be introduced as a 
specimen of what might be said on such an- occasion ; and contrary ta 
his usual practice, Aristotle's own manufacture. 

§ 4, 'Another (way or topic) is recrimination, when the accuser is- 
involved in the same charge, either at the present time or on some 
previous occasion ; either himself or any of those near to him (relatives, 
connexions, intimate friends)'. If you can shew that your adversary 
or any one very near to him is liable to the same charge as that of 

^ 182 PHT0PIKH2 r IS §§ 5, 6. 

5 T€popy n aJros n t£v €771/5. aAAos, ci aWoi ifiTrepi^ 
Xafifidvovraif ov^ o/jLoXoyovai /nrj evoxov^ ehai ry Sia^ 
fioXfif dlov el OTi HaBdpio^ 6 ' l^oi^osj Kai 6 Zeli/a apa. 

6 a \\o9, ei dWov^ SicjSaXei/, ij aAAos ai/rovs, tj dvev Sea- 
jSoXfj^ vTreXafxfidvovTO ioairep avTO^ vvVy o'l 7re(pfii^aa'iu 

1 fortasse transponendutn aut prorsus omittendum, 
which he accuses you, though the charge may not therefore fall to the 
ground, at any rate you can silence him by saying, that ^ at all events 
was not the person to make it. Majoragius cites Cic. pro Ligar. § 2. 
Habes igittir^ Tubero, quod est accusatori maxinie optandum, confitentan 
reuutf Sid tamen ita confitentem^ se in ea parte fuissey qua te, TuberOy 
qua virum omni laude dictum, patrem tuum, Itaque prius de vestro 
delicto confiteamini necesse esty quatn Ugarii ullam culpam reprefiendatis. 
He adds that the whole of the exordium of the fifth action against Verres 
is to prove, neminem debere alterum accusare de ea re qua ipse sit 

§ S* ^ Again, if others are included in the charge who are admitted 
not to be liable to the accusation ; for instance if (it be argued) that so 
and so is an adulterer because he is a smart dresser, (the reply is) why 
in that case so must Smith and Jones be adulterers' — although it is 
perfectly well known that Smith and Jones are entirely free from that 
vice. Bekker and Spengel accept Riccoboni's, and Bekker's own, sug- 
gestion KoBaptos for vulgata lectio KoBapos : but they retain the article o in 
its old position Sri KaOapios 6 fuuxos. With this reading the only trans- 
lation can be> "that all adulterers dress smartly", which is not to the 
point. The converse is required by the argument— which is, to free your- 
self from a suspicion which has arisen from some accidental association, 
by shewing that, if the two things were really associated, others would 
be liable to the same suspicion, who are known not to be obnoxious to it : 
"if, as is alleged, all smart dressers were adulterers, then so and so, 
who are known not to be liable to the charge, would be involved in it" : 
and besides this, the following passages on the same subject shew that 
this was the argument that was used. icaBaptosy 11 4. 15, for 'neatness 
and cleanliness in dress' and attention to personal appearance : the 
argument from this appears II 24. 7, cVci KoXXcMrtcmff, kqI vvicrap vkopanu, 
/ioi;(os* ToiovTfH yap ; and de Soph. £1. c. 5, 167 b 9, pov\6fi€voi yap dct|at 
OTi fMOixpfy TO inop^vov tXaPovy oti KaXXcoTrior^r 17 on vvKTap oparai irXa- 
wayAvos. It IS necessary therefore, besides the alteration of KaOapot 
into KaBapiosy either to change the position of the article, ct ort 6 xaBapios 
fu>ix6s or to omit the article altogether ei or* KaSapios potxos. If such a 
mistaken inference has been drawny you infer from this example by 
analogy to a like case. 

§ 6. 'Again, if (your accuser) ever brought against others (the same) 
charges (which he is now bringing against you) ; or if, without a direct 
accusation, these same were ever subjected to the same suspicions as 
you yourself are now; who have been shewn to be entirely innocent 
of them'— you may infer by analogy that a similar mistake is likely to 
have been made in the present case. 

PHT0PIKH2 r IS §§ 7> 8. 183 

7 ovK evo'Xpi. aAAo5 eic tov dvridiafidWeip tov Zia-' 
/idWopTu* droTTOV yap ei os* ai/ros aTTio'TO^, oi 

8 TOVTOv \6yoi ecrovrai irKFToi. aA\os, el yeyove 
Kpici^j ibCTrep EvpiTriSti^ Trpo^ ^Yyiaivovra ev Trj 
avTihocrei KaTtiyopovvra cJs dcefiri^y os y iTroittcr^ 
KeXevtav iiriopKeii/ 

ij yXwaa o/uiwfxoxy n 8e (ppnv dvdixoroi* p. 140. 

§ 7. 'Or again, (another topic may be derived) from recrimination, 
by a retort upon the accuser: (the inference being, that) it is strange 
that where (in what, o,) a man himself is not to be trusted, his state- 
ments should be trustworthy*. MSS 6 avrosj Bekker Ed. 3, and Spengel 
(apparently from Bekker) os. I read o as nearer to the text, *in what'. 

§ 8. 'Another is, the appeal to a previous decision ; an instance of 
which is Euripides' reply to Hygiaenon, in the exchange case, in which 
the latter accused him of impiety for the verse that he wrote in recom- 
mendation of perjury, "the tongue hath sworn; but the mind is un- 
sworn". His reply was that the other had no right to bring cases 
(decisions) out of the Dionysiac contest into the courts of law : for he 
had already given an account (stood his trial) of them (his words, ovrcoi', 
included in the verse), or was prepared to do so, if the other chose to 
accuse him'. This celebrated verse, Hippol. 608, probably owes a good 
deal of its notoriety to Aristophanes* parody of it near the end of the 
Frogs. Seldom has so "much ado about nothing" been made as about 
this unlucky line. The charge of recommending perjury is at any 
rate a gross exaggeration. Nor does it necessarily imply even mental 
reservation. Cicero, de Off. ill 29. 107 (quoted by Monk ad loc), puts the 
case very clearly. Quod ita iuratutn est ut mens conciperet fieri opor- 
tere, id servandum est: quod cUiter^ id si nonfeceris nullum est periuHum, 
Non enim falsum iurare periurare est; sed quod ex animi tut sententia 
iurariSy sicut verbis concipitur more nostro, id nonfacere periurium est. 
Scite enim Euripides^ luravi lingua, mentem iniuratam ,gero. See the 
whole of Monk's note. Paley in his note follows Cicero, Of course the 
deceit, if there be any, lies in the intention and not in the word ; and 
this is all that Hippolytus seems to say. He never intended that his 
oath should be kept in that sense : and his ignorance of the circum- 
stances absolves him from the responsibility, or obligation of the oath. 
See above in note on § 3 ^ 

We learn from this passage that Euripides (the tragic poet) was 

^ I find this note in one of my copies of the Hippolytus. "I don't think the 
principle implied in this (the verse of Eurip.) can be defended. Hippolytus 
says that he swore to keep the secret in ignorance of the nature of it : now that 
he knows that, he is fireed from the obligation of keeping it. Has a man a 
right to lay himself under an obligation, of the nature of which he is ignorant ?" 
However the question still remains, if the oath has been taken in ignprauce, is 
he still bound to keep it ? The last sentence was added when this Commentary 
was written. 

i84 PHTOPIKHS T iS §§ 8, 9- 

€(bri yap avrov dliKeiv ra^ eK rov AiovvctaKOu dyuiuo^ 
Kpltrei^ els rd ZiKacrripKt ayovra* iKeT yap avrtav 
heZtoKevai \6yw f] SwVeii/, el fiovKerai Karrjyopeip. 
9 aWo^ eK rov Sia^oXfj^ Karriyopeiu, tjXiKOVf Kal tovto 
OTi a\Ka^ Kpi(rei£ tto/^I, Kai on ov TrixTTevei Tip 
irpdyfxaTi. KOivd^ S' dficpoiu 6 tottos to crvfJifioKa r. i. 
XeyeiPy olov ei/ t(o TevKpw 6 'OSi/crcrets oti oikcTo^ Tta 

capable of pleading a cause ia public. Another public speech, in an 
embassy to Syracuse, is attributed to him in ll 6. 20 ult., where see note. 

On the dvrlboa-iSf the compulsory * exchange of property', in the case 
of an unfair assignment of a liturgy at Athens, see Bockh Pudi. Econ. 
Bk. IV. ch. 16. It does not appear from the text which of the two par- 
ties it was that proposed the exchange. 

Valckenaer ad Hippol. 612, p. 232, would change the name in the text 
to *Yyiaiv€Tov, as more agreeable to the analogy of Greek proper names. 
The name is right. Harpocr. quotes twice the speech of Hyperides 
irpos *YyiaivoPTa, sub W. tvrf Kal vea et BetrOai, 

§ 9. 'Another (may be borrowed) from the accusation of calumny 
and malicious insinuation itself, (shewing) its enormity (magnitude, how 
great it is) — and this in particular that it raises extraneous points for 
decision* {SKKat different from, foreign to, the question at issue: like Hy- 
giaenon's quotation in the last section, which may perhaps have sug- 
gested this topic. This seems to fix the meaning of ^Xar and so Victo- 
rius : otherwise if might be " gives rise to other trials," one trial gene- 
rated out of another ad infinitum); 'and because it places no reliance on 
the facts of the real matter at issue'. Comp. Rhet. ad Alex. 29 (30). 12, 
and Isocr. Trcpl avrMa-etoi § 18^ who dto^oXXei diaj3oXij[v — and in good round 

' Common to both (rf dfojSaXXoi/ri ical diroXoyovfiepift) is the topic of 
signs and tokens: as, for example, in (Sophocles') Teucer, Ulysses 
charges him with being closely connected with Priam (i. e. with the 
enemy: closely connected in a double sense: it is an inference from his 
connexion by blood to his political connexion, to his favouring the cause 
of Priam) ; for Hesione (Teucer's mother) was his (Priam's) sister*: the 
other (Teucer) replies (in the same topic) that his father"* (a still nearer 
relation. See Apollo's speech in Aesch. Eumen. 657 — 673 and in many 
other places, on the nearer connexion, and higher obligation, of the son 
to the father than to the mother) *Telamon, was Priam's enemy, and 
also that he did not betray (inform against) the spies to him'. This play 
of Sophocles has already been named before — ^in 11 23. 7. There are only 
two short fragments of it remaining (Dind., Wagn. Soph, Fragm*\ from 

1 On this connexion, Victorins refers to Viig. Aen. viii 157, Nam memini 
HesUmes visentem regna sororis Laomedontiadem Priamum seq.; and Soph. Aj. 
1999 seq., where Teucer in answer to Agamemnon, boasting of his descent, says, 
OS iK Tarpbt fUv tliu, TcXafu5yof...dVr{S...f9X^i ^i^nvpov fiifrip^ ij ^^a fiAf rtw 
/Sa^iXrta, AaofA^Sovros, 

PHTOPIKHS r IS §§9, 10. 185 

TlpidfAa)' fj yap 'H<ri6i/ri dScA^?;* o Se on 6 TraTrjp 
ixOpo^ Tw Upid/iip, 6 TeXajuLwi/, Kat oti ov KUTeiire 
iotwv KaTacTKOTTcop. dWo^ Tft) Bial3d\\oPTiy TO eV- 
aivovvri juiiKpop fiaKpia^ ^^^^^ fxeya (rvpTOfiu)^, rj 
TToWa dyadd Trpodepra, 6 ek to Trpdyjia Trpo^epei 
€P -^e^ai. TOiovTOi Se oi TexpifcwTaTOi Kat dSiKcjTa^ 
Tor Toh dyaOoh yap fiXdiTTeip TreipwPTai, fxhypvpTe^ 
avTa Tw KaKta. koipop §€ t« Jza/3aAAoi/T£ Kai tH 

which absolutely nothing is to be learned as to the plot of the play. It 
is clear from this passage, that Ulysses' accusation was that Teucer had 
betrayed the Greek cause, and bad dealings with the enemy. The 
charge is supported by the sign of Teucer's connexion — in the double 
sense above explained — with Priam; and met by the other with two 
signs or tokens leading to the opposite inference. Wagner, Sopk, Fragm, 
(Fr, Trag, Gr, I, 385 — 391, T^vKpo^^ supposing that Pacuvius "Soph, 
fabulam imitatione expressisse", collects a number of his fragments 
from various Latin writers, from which he derives an interpretation of 
the story of the play, totally different — as. he candidly admits — from that 
which we shall gather from this passage. But as the interpretation of 
this passage is perfectly clear, and his hypothesis altogether the reverse, 
uncertain in every particular, there is little doubt which of the two is to 
be preferred for the elucidation of Aj.'s text — provided we confess our 
entire ignorance of all else in and about the play in question. 

§ 10. 'Another, for the accuser, is to praise some trifle at great 
length, and then (under cover of that) to introduce in concise (and preg- 
nant) terms a censure of something that is of real importance ; or after a 
preliminary enumeration of a number of advantages (virtues and accom- 
plishments, which have little or nothing to do with the point at issue) 
hold up that one thing to censure which has a direct and real bearing on 
the question'. irpo<l>€ptip, to promote (carry forward), aid, assist, fur- 
ther. Hes. Op. et D. 579, i^cb^ roi irpo^cpec /*cy odov, irpo^pct dc Kok 
ffyyov. Thuc. I 93, Koi avrovs povtikovs yeyfinjfievovs firya fr/>o^c/Kiy cr r^ 
Hnja-acBai dvvafuv, 

Victorius illustrates the topic by Hor. Sat. i 4. 94 seq. and the follow, 
ing well-known passage from Cic. pro L. Flacco, iv 9. Verumtamen hoc 
duo detoto genere Graecorum: tribuo illis litterasi do tnultarum artium 
discipiinant: non adimo sermonis leporeniy ingeniorutn acumen^ dicendi 
copiam: denique etiam^ si qua sibi alia sumunt non repugno: testimo- 
niorum religionem etfiUem nunquam ista natio coluit: totiusque huius 
rei quae sit vis^ quae auctoritas, quod pondus^ ignorant. 

'(Topics) such as these are at the same time most artful and most 

unfair: for they endeavour to do harm with what is good (to convert the 

good into an instrument of mischief) by mixing it with the bad'; like 

one who mixes poison with wholesome food. 'Another topic common to 

^. both accuser and excuser is, that since the same act may always be attri- 

i86 PHTOPIKHS T 15 § 10; 16 §1. 

aTToXvoiJiipWj eVeiSi) to ovto ivZex^Tui irXeioptav eveKa 
irpa')(6f]vaij tw fxev hiafiaXKovri KaKOtidio'Teov eirl to 
')(eipov tKXafxfidvovTij tw hi dTroXvofiei/tp tTTi to 
fieXTiov* olov OTi 6 AiojuLt^St]^ Tov 'OZvcraea irpo^ 
eiXeTOy tw jxev otl hia to apiaTOV vwoXafx^dveiv tov 
'Odvcraea, tw S' oti ovj dXXd hid to iiovov fxrj 
avTaywyiCTeiv cJs (pavXov. 

Kal Trepi fxev Sia/BoXfj^ €lpi^(rda) ToaavTUy Si)iyr,<n^ chap, j 
S' iu fxei/ To7^ eTTiSeiKTiKoT^ ecTTip ovk €(j)e^f]£ dXXd 
KUTa fxepo^' Set fieu yap Ta^ Trpa^ei^ SieXOeTp e^ wv 6 

buted to several (different) motives, the accuser has to depreciate (dis- 
parage, put a bad character or construction upon) it, by selecting the 
worse (lit. by directing his selection to what is worse), the apologist to 
put the more favourable interpretation upon it* {interpretari in peius^ in 

€K\afjiPav€ip, €K of 'selection.' Rhet. ad Al. 10 (11). 2, iKkTjTrrtov. 
lb. 2 (3). 26, (K\afio}[X€v. Top. Z 4, 141 3 49 cAajSriy. cVXcyctv and fK~ 
\afiPaveiv — technically applied to the selection of topics— are illustrated 
by Poste, Post. Anal. p. 21, n. i, and p. 121, n. i. Similarly we have cV- 
K€7(rBai, Rhet. Ill 9. 2, €KB€(rBai, Phys. VI 5. 9, €KTt6tpai, Rhet. ad AL 29 (30). 
21, €KK€7(rBat, pluries, Top. A 9. eicnOcvai, ZkBco-i?, Waitz, Ind. ad Org. 
s. vv. Poet. XVII 5, iKTiBca-Bat, Ar. Pol. IV (vii) 13, sub init 6 a-Korrot 
^KMirai icaXor, "the mark stands well put, full in view, prominent." Lite- 
rally, Dem. c. Mid. § 103, irKriv tv €kk€oito (Euctemon, * publicly posted', 
affichd^ npb rmv ^EiravvfAav. Dem. (?) Kara QtoKp, § 8, c^eVrtro dc iroXiv 
Xpovov ffATTpoaBev tov avvtbpiov ij <j>aa'it. 

*For instance, (to say) that Diomede preferred Ulysses (to be his 
companion in the nocturnal adventure), on the one side because he sup- 
posed Ulysses to be the best (i.e. the most valiant) of men (or the best 
companion, for such an occasion), on the other, not for that reason, but 
because, from his worthlessness, he was the only (one of the heroes) 
of whose rivalry he (Diom.) was not afraid *. Supra li 23. 20, 24 : where 
the same case is given, and the two sides opposed, in illustration of 
two different topics. See Hom. II. K [x] 242 seq. 

*And so much for the treatment of diajSoXif '. 


On the various divisions of the parts of the speech, including dijf- 
yriaisy the special subject of the following chapter, see the introductory 
remarks to c. 13, Introd. p. 331 seq., and in the Commentary. 

*l(roKpnTfjs €V Tjj rexTfl <t>^o'iv tos€V rj diijy^(r€i Xcxrcov to T€ irpayfxa 
Koi TO. npo TOV irpayfjMTOS Koi Ta /ixera to Trpayfia koi ras biavoias, als i Km pot 
r<5y ay6»vi(ofifviov xptofk^vos Tobt rt ireirpaxty $ fitXXn vpoTTtip, koi rovrov 
roir (Tv/i^oXXo/icVotf ^fiiv xp«7(rrcoy (from Syrianus, Sopater, and Anon. ap. 
Walz, Benseler Isocr. Il 276, dnoinraafi. Na 3); Rhet. ad Alex. 36 (37). 

PHTOPIKH2 r i6§§ I, 2. 187 

\6yo^* <rvyK€iTai yap ex^v o \6yo^ to fieu aTe^yov 
{pv6ev yap aiTio^ 6 Xeytav Ttov irpd^ewp) to S' eK rfj^ 
T^Xyt]^* TOVTO ecTip ti on eo'Ti oei^ai, eav rj 
airiO'TOVy Yi OTi ttoiou, fj oti TrotroVy t] Kai airavra. 
2 Sia Se TOUT ivlore ovk iipe^fjs del ^itiyeiordai Trdvray 
on Svo'iULvrjiuopevTOP to SeiKi/vpai oi/to)?. €K fxlv oZv 
TOVTO)!/ di/dpeio^y €K Se Twi/Se aotpo^ ?] SiKaio^. Kai 
d7r\ov(rT€po^ 6 Xoyo^ oi)to9, CKeipo^ Se ttoikiXo^ Kai 

14, the Bn^yrja-is is there called dn-ayycX/ai. Cic. de Or. 11 19 § 83 ; 
80 §§ 326—330, Orat. XXXV 122, 124. Orat. Part, ix 31, 32. de Inv. 
I 19. 27 — 21. 30. By Quintilian narratio is treated in great detail in 
IV 2. [Volkmann, die Rhetorik der Griechen und Romer^ §§ 11 — 27, esp. 
§ 13, die Erzdhlungl\ 

§ I. Mn the epideictic branch of Rhetoric narration is not consecutive 
but fragmentary', ovk e<^€55p> not continuous, one part of it following the 
other in a regular series or succession, but broken up into parts, piece- 
meal, KOTO /JLtpos, to aid the memory by giving opportunity for proving 
each point of laudation as it arises. *For we have to go through* 
{fiarrate, or enumerate in detail; there mus^ be a narration;) *all the 
actions which form the subject of the panegyric' (///. out of which the 
speech, i. e. the praise conferred by the speech, is made to arise : the 
special topics of €vaivo£ are 'moral action', npd^€is; see on this Appendix 
B to Bk. I c. 9, Introd. p. 212 seq.) : *for the speech is constructed 
with (or from) one element with which ari is not concerned — because 
the speaker is not the author of the actions he praises ' (art is pro- 
ductive, Eth. Nic. VI 4. The speaker has not made his materials 
himself: he finds them ready to his hand, and uses them. These are 
the aTfxvoi wifTTfts of I 15)— * and another which is derived from the 
(rhetorical) art (these are the mexvoi mareis, the inferences which are 
derived from the materials) ; and this (the latter) is to prove either the 
fact, if it be incredible, or that it is of a certain quality, or quantity 
(amount, magnitude, importance), or all three'. 

§ 2. ' And it is this character of an epideictic speech (this necessary 
admixture of inference with statement of facts) that sometimes obliges 
the speaker not to relate everything seriatim (one after another, in 
continuous, uninterrupted order), because a proof of this kind (a long 
series of statements followed by a still longer series of proofs, which 
after the first two or three topics would be difficult to recollect in their 
proper connexion, so as to fit them together,) would be difficult to retain 
in the memory. From this set of topics he (the hero) is. to be shewn 
to be brave, from the others to be wise or just, (and the proofs of these 
would get intermixed and confounded in the hearer's memory). And 
the speech by this arrangement of topics (ovror) is simpler; by the 
other it is made puzzling (prop, parti-coloured, and so by the variety^ 
perplexing) and not smooth' (i.e. plain and easy— like a smooth surface 
to walk or drive over). 

i88 PHT0PIKH2 T i6 § 3. 

3 ov \it6s. Set §€ Ta^ (xev yucopiiuLov^ dvafxiixvria'Keip* 
Sio ol TToWoi ovSep Zeovrai hitiyiqceta^y oiov ei 6e\eis 
'A;)^£AAea eTraiveiv* tcraa'i yap iravre^ ras Trpa^et^, 
clWd ^pfjaOai avTah Set. iai/ Se Kpirlap, Ser ov yap p. 141 

\iT65] connected with Xio-o-or and Xeio?* The metaphor is from a 
smooth and easily travelled road ; like the road to vice, smooth and 
easy, Xctij fifi^ obus, iiaika d* iyyvdi vaUi, in Hesiod's often-quoted lines, 
Op. et D. 287 — 292 ; and Euripides' style, in Archimelus' epigram, An* 
thol. II 64, XeiTj flip yap idiiu kcu iniKporos — ^** it seems indeed to the eye 
a smooth and well-beaten track" — c2 dc ra avTrjv tla-fiaivti x^^^^^ ''P7*' 
X^ripri a-KoXoTTos. It is applied frequently by Dionysius to style in the 
sense of aTrXoOr, cvrcXifp (Hesych.). In de adm. vi die. in Demosth. c. 2 
init., the terms Xirrj koI d<l}€ktjs are applied to a style like that of Lysias, 
plain, smooth, simple, easy, opposed to the rough, rugged, contortions 
of that of Thucydides. In de vet. script, cens. c. 2 § 11, it is opposed to 
vylrrjkos, ' low or mean \ 6 d' EvpimBrjs ovre vyl^rjXog itmv ovt€ firjv Xiror : 
de Thuc. lud. c. 23, it is 'simple and unadorned', Xc^ty \iTfjv Kiii dKoo-firjrov 
Koi firjbev txovaav nepirrov : and in de adm. vi die. in Demosth. c. 34, it is 
again opposed to vylrrfkos, *low', rrfv Xit^v kol la-^vfiv (thin, tenuis^ koL 
dvipiTTov (without any striking points or features, *flat'). 

§ 3. * Of well-known actions the hearer should merely be reminded 
(they should merely be suggested, by a brief allusion, not dwelt upon) ; 
and therefore most people^ (i. e. men of ordinary education) in such 
cases don't require a regular narrative of them' — everybody at once 
remembers that Achilles conquered Hector; people only need to be 
reminded oi that — *as for instance, if you want to praise Achilles : for 
his actions are known to everybody, they only require to be employed 
(that is, to be enlarged upon, and commented, for the purpose of en- 
hancing their glory). If Critias is to be praised (or censured), he 
does want one : for not many people know anything about him '. Critias 
too — one of the Thirty — was a famous man in his day \ one wonders that 
he should have been so entirely forgotten in Aristotle's time. Pericles 
and Alcibiades still lived fresh in men's memories ; though I don't 
mean that the three were absolutely on a level in contemporary repu- 

It appears that between Xfratnv and vvv dc ycXoicor there has been a 
gap in the MSS, including A*, which has been filled up with an extract 
from I 9, on tvaivos, §§ 33 — 97. Comp. Spengel, in a paper on the 
Rhet. ad Alex, in Zeitschrift fUr Alt. Wiss, 1840, p. 1226. Bekker*s 
VaricLe^ Lectiones include A' with the rest, as having the interpolated 
passage : Buhle, ad h. 1., says '^ in nearly all the £dd. except that of 
Victorius and his followers," the interpolation is found. 

The abrupt transition from the epideictic to the dicastic branch had 
already made Vettori (for once I will give him his proper name) suspect 

^ There is a temptation here to understand ol iroXXo/ as * the heroes of the 
declamation' ; 'those who have their actions narrated '—which is to be resisted. 
It is not true in this sense. 

PHT0PIKH2 r i6§4. 189 

4 7roWoi i(racrip..,pvu 5e ye\oi(0£ Trjp hvytjirii/ tpacri 
Seip elvai Ta-xjEiav. kuItoi Scrirep 6 Tto fxaTTOvri 
epofjLei/io irorepov aKXtjpdv ij /xaXaKrjv fta^^, *^ti 5';'* 
ecprjy ^^€v aSJi/aroi/;" Kai ipTavda ofxoiaov SeT yap (jlyi 
fiaKpm Sifiyeio'dai wairep oi/Se irpooiixid^eo'dai /xaKptSsj 
ovSe Tcis 7ri(rT€£s Xeyeip^ ovhe yap evTavdd itrTi to €v 
f] TO Tayy ri to cri;i/T0juft)9, ocWa to ixeTplwv tovto 

a lacuna. The words pCy h€, which have no reference to anything pre- 
ceding, suggest the same conclusion. 

§ 4. Something is here lost. * But as it is, it is absurd to say ' (as the 
writers on Rhetoric do in their treatises; and especially Isocrates) 'that 
the narration ought to be rapid*. This precept is suggested in Rhet. ad 
Alex. 6 (7). 3, in the word fipaxvXoyia; and 30 (31). 4, it is further recom- 
mended that the narrative of a drjfjLijyopia should be j3pa;^ta and trvvrofiog, 
• See SpengeFs note on ed. of Anaximenes* Ars Rhet., pp. 214,5: and 219. 
Cic. de Orat. 11 80. 326. Quint, iv 2. 31, 32, (Narrationem) plerique 
scriptores^ maxime qui sunt ab Isocrate, volunt esse lucidam, brevem, veri- 
similem....£'rtW5?»« nobis placet divisio; quanquam et Aristoteles ab Iso^ 
crate in parte una discesserit^ praeceptum brevitatis irridensy tanquam 
necesse sit longam aut brevem esse expositionem^ nee liceat ire per 
medium. From Plato Phaedr. 267 A, it appears that this precept appeared 
in rhetorical treatises as early as those of Tisias and Gorgias ; and a 
remark of Prodicus, to precisely the same effect as that of the customer 
to the baker here, is quoted, 267 B. The precept, that it should be 
avpTofjMv, is found also in Dionysius de Lys. lud. c. 18, (p. 492 R) : probably 
taken from Isocrates. (SpengePs Artium Scriptores, p. 158). 

The extract from Isocrates^ on this quality of the BujyrjaiSy is quoted at 
the commencement of this chapter. This is one of Vettori*s evidences 
(perhaps the best) of Aristotle's dislike of Isocrates. This subject is dis- 
cussed in Introd. pp. 41 — ^45, and the probability of the hypothesis reduced 
to a minimum. If they ever were enemies — as is likely enough in Ar.'s 
early life — after the death of Isocrates, by the time that this work was 
completed and published, all trace of hostility (ycXot^o^ <l> atrip can at 
the worst hardly imply hostility) must have long vanished from Aris- 
totle's mind. 

' And yet — just as the man replied to the baker when he asked him 
whether he should knead his dough {rfiv iiaCav) hard or soft^ "what'', 
said he, " is it impossible to do it wellf* — so here in like manner : that is 
to say {cf^p)y the narration should be no more over long' than the prooe- 

^ Spengel, Art. Script, 169 note, has discovered here some fragments of a 
comic verse: which he thus restores: cxKripiiLif 5^...^ fMKaK^v fui^fa ; ri di; 
dSi6vaT0f €0 ^drriip <rc>. [The addition of rorepop would fill the blank left 
in the first line.]. 

• It would be difficult to assign any sufficient reason (in point of the sense) for 
making the distinction of /ui) and ovdi here; though we may say, grammatically, 
of course, that the fi-fj is joined immediately with the inf. mood, whereas the two 
oi'W-s following require ScT to be supplied after them in each case. 

igo PHT0P1KH2 T i6 §§ 4— 6. 

8' icTi TO Key 611/ oara SriXcoTCi to irpayfxaj f] bora P. 14 
7roif](r€t vTToXa^eiv yeyovevai tj fie^\a(jj>evai fi rihiKti" 
Kevaiy f] TfjXiKavTa ijA/ica ^ovXei* Tto he evavTita tu 

5 ii/aj/Tia. TrapaSitjyeia-dai Se co'a eU Tt]V crrju dpeTtji/ 
(pepeij olov ^^iyco B* evovQeTOvv <i€i Ta hiKaia XeywVj 
IJLVi TO, tIkvu eyKaToXeLTTHVy^ tj OaTepov KaKtav **6 
S* (XTreKpivaTO (xoi oTiy ov av rj aiyro?, ecTui aXXa 
Traihiaj^^ o toi)s aKpLCTaixivov^ AlyvTTTiov^ aTTOKpi^ 
vaadai (J>r}(riv 6 'HjOoSoro?. // oca tj^ea Toh hiKa^ 

6 o'TaT^. dTroXoyovfjLeva) Se eXuTTcop ij htrjyriari^' al yap 
diuL<pia'l3rjTf]a'€i^ t] fxri yeyovtvai i] fxri fiXa/3epov eivai 

mUim should be over-long, or the proofs ; for neither in these two cases ^ 
does the excellence consist in the rapidity or conciseness, but in the 
observation of the due mean : and that is, to say just so much — and no 
more — as will clearly explain the facts of the case, or will (make the 
judge suppose) establish in the judge's mind the conviction of their 
having occurred, (the question oi facty ro oti)^ or that by them injury has 
been done (harm and loss) or wrotig (according to the status or issue 
which you wish to raise): or (as will produce on him the impression, 
make him suppose them,) of any amount or magnitude that you please 
(to estimate them at): or the opposites of these, for the opponent', if he 
be the pleader. 

§ 5. * You may slip into your narrative (bring in by a side wind, on 
the sly, TrapcufiaXktiv, subra c. 14. 9) anything that tells to the advantage 
of your own character — as for instance, " and I always admonished him 
to do what was right, not to leave his children behind him in the lurch" 
(in distress and difficulty), or to the disadvantage of your opponent's ; 
"but he made answer to me, that wheresoever he was himself, there 
would he find other children:'' the answer, as Herodotus tells us, of the 
revolted Egyptians (to the king who was inviting them to return).' The 
story of the latter part of the alternative is told by Herodotus II 30, with 
the addition of certain circumstances, which add indeed to its graphic 
character, but cannot be here repeated. Aristotle seems to have tacked 
on the first part of the alternative — out of his own head — to make a Uttle 
" imaginary conversation." * Or (to slip in) anything else that is likely 
to be agreeable to the judges '. 

§ 6. * In defence' — when you have to narrate circumstances in order 
to correct an opponent's statement of the facts — *the recital may be 
shorter (because most of the stoiy has been already told by the other), 
and as the issues (aV<^tcr/3»7n}<r€« is Arist.'s term for what were afterwards 
called crracrctff, status) are (on the defensive side) the denial either of the 
fact, or the injury, or the wrong, or the degree (the estimated amount of 
the crime and penalty), we must therefore waste no time upon proving 
what is already admitted, unless it (the proofs of any of the facts) chance 

PIITOPIKHS r i6§§6, 7. 191 

ri firi aSiKOv ij jut] tyiKlkovtoVj oiarre m-epl to o/jloXo' 
yovfxevov ov SiaTpiTTTeoi/j iav fxri ti eU iKeivo (rvvreiprf^ 
7 oioi/ €1 7r€7rpaKTai, dW ovk ahiKov. Ietl ireirpayfieva 
Set Xiyetv oca firi TrpuTTOjieva r] oIktov i] Zeivwo'iv 
(pepei. Trapd^eiyfia 6 'A\kii/ov dnoKoyo^^ on irpo^ 
Ttjp TlfiveXoTTfjv eV e^riKOVTa eTreart TreTroitirat. kui 1J9 
Oai/\Ao9 Tou kvkXoi/, kuI 6 eu tio Oivei TrpoXoyo^* 

to contribute to the establishment of the issue (on which we do rest our 
case); for instance, when we admit the fact, but deny the wrong'. 
Though on the other hand, it may be necessary, whilst we admit the 
facts of our opponent's case, still to go over that ground, in order to clear 
up points which have a bearing upon the justice of the act which is 
acknowledged to have been done. 

§ 7. * Events should generally be recited as past and gone — except 
those which by being acted' (represented as actually done, passing before 
the eyes, irpo ofAfMarov, note on III 11, 2,) *may afford an opportunity for 
exciting either commiseration or indignation '. btivuxris, and TKeos, oIkto?, 
crxcrXiao-/Aof, are two ordinary 'common topics', (subordinate varieties of 
av^ais and fjL€L(o<ri5,) of appeals to the feelings in use amongst rhetoricians. 
See notes on ll 21. 10, and 24. 4. Of Thrasymachus, and his use of these 
in his Rhetoric, PI. Phaedr. 267 c, D, and of the early rhetoricians in 
general, lb. 272 A, where /Spa^vXcyio is joined with the other two. 

*An example of this is "the story of Alcinous," (it is an example) 
because it is told (TreTroti/rat, composed, written) to Penelope in sixty 
verses ', i. e. the long story of Ulysses' wanderings, which occupies in the 
narration of it to the Phaeacians four whole books of the Odyssey, ix — 
XI r, is condensed by Ulysses, when he repeats it to Penelope, Od. ^' 
[xxill] 264 —284, 310-^343, into a summary of 55 verses— which here (with 
the characteristic inaccuracy of the ancient writers in calculations and 
descriptions of all kinds) are called in round numbers sixty — and thus 
furnishes a good example of the summary treatment required in an ordi- 
naiy narrative. Vater, who explains all this in his note, understates the 
actual number by two. " Hi versus quinquaginta et tres numero rotundo 
recte (correctly enoughiox the occasion, I suppose) i^vKovra €7rrj nominantur." 

*And as Phayllus reduced (condensed: cnoirjare, I suppose, must be 
understood from nenoiriTai, 'composed') the Epic cycle: and Euripides' 
prologue to the Oeneus'. These three cases are appealed to as well- 
known instances of concise summaries. The 'AXkiVov dnoXoyos, in its 
original form, when given at length with all its details, became proverbial 
for " a long story." Erasmus Chil, 'AnoXoyos 'aXkiVow M rcav <fikvapovvT<av koL 
fxaKpov aTTOTdPovrmv Xoyov, Suidas s.v. Plato, Rep. X 614 B, uses it in the 
same proverbial application. See Ast and Stallbaum ad locum. The 
*A\kivov dnoXoyos appears in Aelian's list of payfrablM into which the Ho- 
meric poems were divided for recitation (Var. Hist. XIII 13, ir. *Op,^pov 
cVwi' KOI iroirjar€a>s, quoted by Paley, Pref. to Hom. II. p. xlvii). It is 
quoted again to supply an instance of dvaypapiais, Poet. xvi. 

Of Phayllus nothing whatever is known. It seems that this is the 

192 PHT0PIKH2 r i6§§7,8. 

8 fjOiKriv §€ XP^ '^^^ Sniytiaiu eli/ai. ecrrai Se toi/to, ai^ 
eiSw/Jieu tl ri6o9 Troiei^ €i/ julcp Sfj to- Trpoalpearip 
SrjXovVf TTOiop Se to rjOo^ Tta iroiav TavTr\v* tj Se 
TTpoaipecis TTOia tS reAci. Sia tovto ovk expvoriv oi 
fAadrifiaTiKOi \6yoi ijdriy on ovhe irpoalpea-LV* to yap 
ov iveKa ovk expvcriv. d\K oi ^coKpaTiKor irepi 

only place in which his name occurs ; neither is it to be found in Smith's 
Biogr, Diet, We gather from the notice of him here, that whether poet 
or rhapsodist, he attempted to reduce the whole of the Epic Cycle into 
a brief summary. F. A. Wolf is so staggered by the overwhelming 
labour of such a task that he prefers to read KvxAioira^ from a correction 
in one of the MSS ; overlooking the fact that top KvKkoma is not in point 
here ; rhv KviCKovy which gives a second instance of a summary, is. 

The third example is the prologue to Euripides' Oeneus. Four lines 
and a half of this are to be found in Wagner's collection, Fragm, Eurip. 
p. 290, Oen. Fr. i. and Dindorf, Eur. Fr. Oeneus. They are written with 
Euripidean compactness; and seem to justify their citation for this 

§ 8. *The narrative should have an ethical cast: this will be effected 
when (if) we know what imparts this ethical character. One thing in 
particular that does so, is any indication of a moral purpose (ll 21. 16, 
III 17.9, Poet VI 24) : it is by (the quality oO this that a moral quality is 
given to character : and the quality (good or bad) of the moral purpose 
is determined by the end'. On Trpoaipeo-ir, see Eth. Nic. ill cc. 4, S, Vl 2, 
^Consequently Mathematics (mathematical calculations or reasonings, 
Xoyot) can have no moral character, because they have no moral purpose : 
for they have no (moral or practical) end in view'. {Their end is the 
intellectual one, truth,) * But the " Socratic dialogues" have (a moral pur- 
pose, and an ethical and practical end), for they treat of such (ethical) 
subjects'. On this class of works, called collectively * Socratic dialogues', 
see Grote, Plato in 469; also Heitz, Verl, Schrift, Ar,^ die dial, des 
Arist, pp. 140 — 144. By 'Socratic dialogues' are meant dialogues on 
moral philosophy, after the manner of Socrates, and therefore bearing 
his name, whether (as in Plato and Xenophon) he was an interlocutor, 
or not ; the compositions of Socrates' friends and followers, the Socratic 
' family', Xenophon, Plsuto, Aeschines, Antisthenes, Phaedo, (Socraticam 
domumy Hor. Od. I 19. 14, comp. ill 21. 9, Socraticis sermonibus madet, 
Ars Poet. 310. Socraticae chartae, all meaning moral philosophy). On 
Socrates' philosophical pursuits and studies see Arist. de part Anim. 
I 1.44, 642 « 28, Cic. Tusc. Disp. V 5. 10, Academ. Post I 4. 15. Conf. 
Athen. XI 505 C, 'ApeororAiys bt i» r^ Trepl iroii/rtty ovtcds ypd(fi€i, ** Ovkovv 

Ovdc iflfAtrpoVS TOV£ K(lKoVfl€VOVS S<»(f)pOVOS flijJLOVQ , . .firj <j>Sfl€P» . .$ Toifs *AX(£- 

afjL€Vov Tov Ttftov Toifs irptoTOvs ypa<f)€VTas tSv ^ttxparcxoy dcaXoya>y." dirrt" 
Hpvs <t}a(rKwv 6 TrdkvfiaOtaraTos 'Ap. wpo IlXarcoyof d(aX(Syovff ytypax^ivai tov 
'AXc£a/ici/ov. This extract will serve as a corrective to Poet. I 8, from 
which it viight seem that the * Socratic dialogues' were in verse. See 

PHT0PIKH2 r i6§§8,9, I93 

gTOiovTtop yap Xiyova-iu. aWa ^6iKa rd eTTOfieva 
€Kd(rT(a tjdeij olov on afia Xeycap ifidSi^ev* Sn\oT yap 
OpaavTfiTa Kai dypoiKiau iidov^. Kai /mri cJs aTTO 
Siai/oia^ XeyeiVy oio'Trep oi vvv^ dXX 1J9 dwo irpoai^ 
pea-eta^, ^'iyoi S* ifiovXafiriv* Kai TrpoeiXojULtjp yap 
TOVTO* dXX* el fxtj tov^fJiriPy /SeXTiovJ^ to [lev ydpp.H'i- 
(ppovifJLOv TO Se dyadov* (fypovifAOV fiev yap ev tw to 

Tyrwhitt's note ad loc. p. 110. The meaning of that passage is, that the 
Socratic dialogues are not to be called poetry or verse, although they 
have a dramatic character (Grafenhan). 

§ 9. * Another, different, kind of ethical drawing or representation 
(aXKa ; no longer confined to moral qualities, but the representation of 
character in general) are the characteristic peculiarities that accompany 
each individual character : for instance, '^ so and so walked on as he was 
talking" — an indication of audacity and rudeness of character*. The 
rudeness and insolence are shewn in not stopping to speak to the other ; 
it is a sign of slight esteem and contempt, oKiyiapia, The characters here 
spoken of differ in one point from the dramatic characters of ill 7. 6, — 
though they belong to the same family, the third kind of ^^7, Introd. 
p. 112 — in that these are the characteristic peculiarities of individuals^ 
the others those of classes. A good specimen of this ethical description 
occurs in Demosth. de F. L. § 361, a portrait of Aeschines; and two 
similar traits in c. Steph. a § 63, ovtos yap, rjvUa fitv avvifiaivep cvrvxccp 
*Api(rrok6x<p t^ Tpamf^irg^ icra Paivav €/3adi^€V V9ro9r«frra>«c<off avT^..,€ir€id^ 
d*€oX€T €Ke7vos icr.X. and § y/f €yc^ d'...r$ff fi€P o'^coDf r^ <f>va'ti /eat r^ 
Tax^w9 pa^L^etv kcu XaXctv fiiya (signs apparently of ill-breeding) ov rmv 
€vrvx^s n€<l)vK^av iyLovrov Kpivm, The tea Paivtiv in the former passage, 
is *to keep pace with', 'to walk on a level', 'place oneself on equal terms 
with' another. See Shilleto ad loc. de F. L. (His reference to the pas- 
sage of c. Steph. should be § 63, not yj,) 

'And again, in speaking, let your words seem to proceed, not from 
the intellect (as the effect of calculation, deliberation), but as it were 
from a moral purpose or intention (the will; or, as we should say, the 
heart)'. '^ Let your style bear the impress, not so much of intellectual 
subtlety and vigour, as of good feeling and sound moral purpose : the 
one may be the mark of a wise man, the other is that of a good — and, 
what is more to the purpose in Rhetoric, a popular — character." Introd. 
(slightly altered). * **And I wished this to take place ; in fact such was 
my purpose and intention: it is true that I gained nothing by it; but 
even so it is better." The one is characteristic of a wise or prudent man, 
the other^f a good one : for prudence (worldly, practical, wisdom) shews 
itself in the purstiit of one's interest, goodness in that of the fair, high, 
noble, right'. 

* If any (trait of character that you introduce) seem incredible, then 
add the statement (or explanation) of the cause or reason, as (in) the 
example that Sophocles gives, the passage of (from) his Antigone "that 

AR. III. 13 

194 PHT0PIKH2 T i6§9. 

ta<^\ilxov htwKeiVj dyaOov 8' ip rw to KaXoP. ap 
8* aTTiorrov ^, tots ttjp aiTiap iTriXeyeip, ioo'Trep 
^ocpOKXtis TTOic? TrapdSeiyfxa to Ik Ttj^ 'Apriyopti^, on 
paWop Tov dheX^ov eKt^SeTO tj dp^po^ ti reKPoop* ra 
fiep yap ap yepeaOai diroXofxepay 

firiTpo^ S' ip a^ov Kal jrarpos iSe/SfjKorayp, 
ovK ecT aScX^os os T£9 ap fiXdarroi irore. 

eap be ixf\ €X^^ ainap, oAA on ovk aypoei^ a- , 

she cared more for her brother than for husband or children, for the one 
could be replaced (recovered) if they were lost — ^but when father and 
mother are buried in the grave, no brother can spring up evermore"'. 
This is Antigone's reason for preferring the burial of her brother's body 
to marriage with Haemon, a husband and children : she has shewn her 
character in the preference, and the obstinacy in which she adheres to it. 
It is the conclusion of a beautiful passage, beginning, J rvfifios, «J w/ii- 
(/)€lov, Antig. 891 — 912. Arist. has altered K€K€v$6rQi>p of the original to 

The same answer is put into the mouth of the wife of Intaphemes, 
when Darius, having condemned her husband and the whole of his 
family to death, allows her to choose one of the number whose life is to 
be spared. She chooses her brother, and when Darius expresses his 
surprise and demands the reason, replies thus : ^Q Pa<rt)i€v, dpfjp fi€v fioi 
ap aXKos yevoiro, tl daifi<op idekoiy Kal reKva a}<kay €i ravra diroffaXoifAi' 
narpos be Kal firjrpos ovk trt fi€v {cdoptoup, adcX^cor ap aWos ovdcvl rp6n<j^ 
yepoiro. ravrrj rjj yp<op.j} xpf(oyL€pri TKt^a ravra. The comparison of these 
two passages of the poet and historian, and another equally close cor- 
respondence of Herod. li 35 with Soph. Oed. Col. 337, have led to the 
inference that there was some connexion or acquaintance between the 
two. When or where they met, if they ever did meet, cannot now be 
ascertained : Samos (which has been suggested) is out of the question ; 
for Herodotus was at Thurium before Sophocles was appointed to his 
command in the expedition under Pericles against that island. The 
Antigone was produced in 440 B.C. It is probable that some parts of 
Herodotus* history had been published^ before the final completion of 
the work at Thurium, and Sophocles may have thus obtained access to 
them. That he was the borrower, there can be no reasonable doubt. At 
all events that Sophocles was an admirer of Herodotus we know from 
Plutarch, who gives us the first line and a half of an epigram by Sophocles 
in his honour; ^d^v 'Upobort^ rev^cp ^o<l>oK\rjs M<op mp itip^ cVi Trcyn)- 
Kopra ; adding that it was 6p,o\tyyoviM€PCis Scm^okXcov^. 

' If you Aave no reason to give, at any rate you may say that *'you 
know that what you say will convince nobody, but such is your nature 
(you can't help being virtuous and disinterested, do what you will)— for 

^ There is a doubtful story of a recitation at Olympia. 

PHT0PIKH2 r i6 §§ 9, lo. 195 

TTiarra \eytavy aXKa ipvcret toiovto^ ei* dTricrTOvcri 
yap aWo Ti TrpaTTeip enovra irXriv to arviJi(f>epov. 
10 en Ik t£v iradriTiKwv Xiyeip, Sifiyovfxepoi/ Kai rd 
eirofxevaj Kai a icraa-iy Kai ra ihla ti avrw, tj €K€iv(p 
irpoo'ovTa* *^d S' (fx^^^ 1^^ i/7ro/3\€>/ras." Kai cos irepi 
KpaTv\ov Aia")(}Vfi^j OTi Siaci^tov Kai toip x^poipv. j^\^b. 
Siaceiuyp* Tridapd ydpy SiOTi avfifioKa yipcTai Tavra 
a icaaip, eKeiptoPy wp ovk iaaarip. TrXeio'Ta Se roiavTa 
\afieTp €^ ^Ofxripov earrtp. 

MS ap €(J}fiy ypfjv^ Se Karitrx^TO X^P^^ irpoo'iowa. 

people never believe in disinterested motives^'. {Lit. people always disbe- 
lieve that any one does anything intentionally except what is for his own 
interest.) Even such a reason is better than none at all. 

§ 10. * Further, besides the ^^of, topics may be also derived from 
the expression of emotion of various kinds, by introducing in your narra- 
tion both the usual accompaniments of these emotions (the outward 
expressions, attitudes, and other external indications), which everybody 
is acquainted with, and also any special peculiarities by which you your- 
self or the adversary may be distinguished (which may be attached to, 
belong to, npoaovrtif. These special touches and traits in the expression 
of individual emotion will lend a lifelike character to the descriptions 
of your narrative, and impart fidelity to your own impersonations of 
feelings, and your representation of them as they manifest themselves in 
others. How true and lifelike all that is, the audience will say: that can 
be no counterfeit: the man is evidently in earnest Again, the same 
popular fallacy as before ; the illicit inference from the faithfulness of the 
imitation to the sincerity of the feeling and truth of the fact. 

' Such indications are " and he went away with a scowl at me from 
under his eyebrows" (so rctvprjdov virofiXeyfras of *an angry glance', PI. 
Phaed. 1 17 B ; three other examples in Ast's Lex., where it is joined in the 
same sense with tos Kara<f>povouvra, Symp. 220 B, cdottcp ri dducovfievof, £ryx. 
395 A, t/TrojSX/^oi/rai crc dta<f>$op€a i^ovp.€voi, Grit. 53 B. vno represents 
an * under-look '. Comp. the Homeric vnoUpa Ibap) : *and as Aeschines says 
of Cratylus " furiously hissing and shaking his fists"' (dm in both participles 
is intensive, 'thorough, thoroughly'; here 'violently': Aeschines and 
Cratylus are supposed by Victorius to be, the one Socrates' intimate, the 
other Plato's instructor in the Heraclitean philosophy, and the Eponymus 
of one of his dialogues : but nobody really knows) : 'these are persuasive, 
because these things (indications of passion) which they do know are 
made (by the speaker) signs or tokens of those that they don't know (in 
the manner above explained). A great number of these (indications of 

* Comp. Rhet ad Al. 7 (8). 10, ireipw di dro^alveu^ kclL ut \vfftT€\^s vjv wurifi 
roJura iroieur o2 ydp irXetOTM rw dpOpcSxtov avral to XvnreXit fidKurra irpcTipQirret 
Kol roi)f oXXovt vofilj^ovfftP hexa to^ov wdm-a wpdrretp, 


196 PHT0PIKH2 T i6§§ lo, n. 

oi yap SaKpuciP dp^ofAepoi^ eirikaix^dvovTai tSv d^ 
6a\fxwv^ Kat evOif^ eiardyaye aeavTOP iroiov riva, 
*iva (OS roiovTOV decopaiari Kai top dpriSiKOP* Xapdapwp 
Se TToiei. on Se pahop, 6 pap Set eK tcop dirayyeX- 
XoPTtap* irepl wp yap firidep larfxep^ ojULtos Xafx^apofiep 
viroXnylrip TLPa. TroWaxov Se Set Sirjyeio'dai, Kai 
1 1 epioT€ ovK €P dpx^* cV Se Srjfitjyopia ^Kia-ra hi^ytiais 
earriPy on irepi rtap fieWopnop ov6ek SitjyeLTar dAA* 

feeling) maybe obtained from Homer: "Thus then he spake; and the 
aged dame (Euryclea, Ulysses' old nurse) held fast (clasped) her face with 
her hands" (Hom. Od. r [xix] 361) — for people, when they are beginning 
to cry, are apt to lay hold of their eyes. Introduce yourself at once (to 
the audience) in a particular character (in that, namely, which you wish 
to bear in their eyes) that they may regard you as such : and the adver- 
sary in the same way {mutatis mutandis) : only take care that the design 
isn't detected. That there is no difficulty in this— in conveying these 
impressions to the audience, how readily they seize, and draw inferences 
from, these indications of emotion, expression of features, action and the 
like — ^must needs be seen' (retaining del with Bekker, Spengel omits it) 
* from the case of messengers : of things that we know nothing whatever 
about, we nevertheless (instantly) conceive a notion or suspicion' (from 
the face, expression, gestures, general appearance of the messenger ; as 
if he is hot and tired, and so on). 

See what a ready tongue suspicion hath! He that but fears the 
thing he would not knowi hath by instinct knowledge from others^ eyes^ 
that what he feared is chanced, Northumb. Henry IV, Act i, Sc. i, 84, 
Victorius refers to Soph. Trach. 869 (Dind.) as an instance of this, the 
suspicions of the Chorus gathered from the old woman's face. 

* The narrative should be (not confined to one place and continuous, 
but) distributed over the speech (iroXXaxov *in many places'), and some- 
times not at the beginning'. In saying ovk iv dpxj, Ar. is referring to his 
own division of the speech, which excludes the irpooifiiov and commences 
at once with the irpoBttris^ c. 13. The narrative, he says, should some- 
times even be entirely out of its proper place, which is at the beginning. 

§ II. 'In public speaking there is least occasion for narrative, 
because no one ever gives a narrative of things future' (the only pro- 
vince of deliberative Rhetoric, from which all its materials are derived; 
ttff tiros ciirctv) : ' but if there be a narrative, it must be of things past, in 
order that with these in their recollection they may be better able to 
deliberate about things to come'. Gaisford refers to Dionys. Ars Rhet. 
X 14, 0X7 fiiv idea avfiPovkevriKfl Biriyij(r€<as ov belrai' taatn yap ol /3ov- 
Xtvofievoi ircpt ov crieoirovyrai, Koi StopTcu iiaBtIv o irptucTfOP cWiy, oi;;^ oircp 

* Or it may be employed in the way of accusation or of praise', dirj- 
yrjaovTaif tl diffyouvrai, to be understood from the preceding. 'But in 

PHTOPIKH2 r i6§n; I7§i. 197 

idy irep Setyyi/cris ^, rwi/ yevofievtap io'Taiy i'lA ai/a- 
fivfjo'devTe^ €K€iP(OP l3e\Tiov fiovXevo'toirrai irepl Ttav 
vo'Tepop. t] Sial3dXKovT€9y tj ewaivovvTe^. dXKa Tore^ 
ov TO Tov (rvjUL^oyXov iroiei epyov. av S* ri diriarTOv^ 
VTTio'xi^^^o'Octi T€ Kai alriau \eyeip evdvs^ Kai Sia^ 
TuTTeip oh (iov\o)^Tar oJop, ij ^loKdaTtj tj KapKivov 
€1/ Tw OlSiTToBi alei vTrKT^peTrai irvvOavofxevov tov 
^riTOvvTOs TOP viop, Kai 6 A'tjuLcop 6 2o^o/cA€Oi;9. 

TC5t9 Be 7ri(rTei£ Set dTrodeiKTiKa^ eJpai* aTroSet- chap. 


that case, (the speaker who thus employs it) does not fulfil the proper ^' ^^^' 
function of the adviser' (whose office is to exhort and dissuade). 

The following sentence to the end of the chapter I have done what I 
can to elucidate in the Introd. p. 354. No commentator, except Victo- 
rius, whose explanation I have there criticized, has bestowed a single 
word upon it ; not even Spengel in his recent edition : I suppose he has 
given it up as hopeless. What it seems to me to mean is something of 
this kind — but I think there is most likely some latent corruption. * If 
there be anything incredible in your narrative, you may promise your 
audience (omit re) to add^ a reason (i. e. explanation, to account for it), 
and a full, detailed, explanation of it as long as they please '. fiiararrcti/ 
is one of the chief difficulties of the passage. The only appropriate 
meaning that occurs to me is to * set out in order, i. e. set forth in full and 
clear detail': oh povkoyrai 'with what, with as many details as, they 
please'. * As Carcinus' Jocasta, in his Oedipus, is perpetually promising, 
in answer to the inquiries of the man who is looking for her son — (some- 
thing or other, which is left to be supplied by the hearer's knowledge of 
the context : probably, to satisfy him). And Sophocles' Haemon'. This 
last example must be given up as hopeless ; there is nothing in the extant 
play which could be interpreted as is required here. And what Carcinus' 
Jocasta has to do with the topic to be illustrated, is not easy to see. 
Carcinus' Medea has been already quoted il 23. 28, where an account is 
given of him in the note. His Thyestes is referred to. Poet, xvi 2, and a 
fault pointed out, XVii 2. And as if to aggravate the difficulties which 
surround the interpretation of this passage, Wagner, in his collection of 
the Tragic Fragments, has chosen to omit this reference to Carcinus. 


Of the various kinds of proof, the various ways in which facts and 
statements may be made to appear probable, maT€is, some are direct and 
logical, and appeal exclusively to the reasoning faculty ; others indirect, 
which by appealing to the moral sense rjdos, or to the emotions nadosy 
support the logical arguments by the favourable impressions they pro- 
duce upon the hearts and feelings of the listeners, who are ever ready to 

^ Kfil alrlav a reason in addition, besides the mere statement. 

198 PHTOPIKHS T 17 §§ i, 2. 

Kvvvai Ze xP^9 €7rei irepi Terrdpwv tj dtxtpKr^nrno'i^s 
irept Tov dfKpicrfiri'^ovixevov (pepovra Ttiv diroZei^iV^ 
olopy €1 on ov yeyovev djixpiarlitiTeij ev tti Kpicrei Set 
TOVTOV fxdXio'Ta nrriv diroZei^iv (pepeiVy el 8' on 

OVK €{3\a\j/€l/, TOVTOV, KUl OTl OV TOtTOvhe fj OTl 

iiKai(09. w(ravT(os Kai el irepl tov yevetrdai tovto i; 

2 dficpio'lSiiTria'K. firi XavdapeTio S', OTi dvayKoiov 

ev TavTti Tp diJi<pi(rfitiTnorei ixovrij top eTepov etvai 

draw inferences from what they feel to the truth of what is said; and 
further the adventitious and external aids, which are not invented by the 
speaker but found ready for use and applied by him in evidence of the 
facts of his case : of these three the first only have any pretension to the 
character of airodcijcriicat. But not even these are entitled to the name in 
its strict and proper sense, dirodei^is ^demonstration' implying conclu- 
sions universal and necessary and a rigorous exact syllogistic method. 
This belongs, strictly speaking, exclusively to the domain of Science and 
to the sphere of certainty, to which no conclusion of Rhetoric can ever 
attain. When it is said therefore in § i, that " the proofs of preceding 
statements, and refutation of those of the adversary" — ^which from the 
third division of the speech — " must be demonstrative", — no more is 
meant than that they must be demonstrated, so far as the nature and 
limits of rhetorical proof permit, that is, that they must be such, so far 
consistent with sound reasoning and the rules of logic, as will induce 
those who hear them to believe what they seek to establish. We have 
very frequently had to remark the language of strict Logic applied to the 
laxer methods of Rhetoric, here it is done a little more formally than 

* The point to which this proof must be directed (addressed) of the 
four questions on which the issue may turn, is the particular point on 
which the issue is actually joined between the two contending parties : 
for example, if the issue is the question oi fact, was the thing done or 
not? in the trial this is the point that he must most aim at establishing; 
if of harm or loss^ injury, at that; or if — these two being admitted — ^the 
question is one of the degree or amount of the injury ; or of the justice of 
the action — admitting the fact and the injury and even the amount 
charged— of that ; just as much (in the three last cases) as if the issue 
had been one of that same thing as 2.fact\ Spalding, ad Quint, ill 6. 60, 
seems to understand irrpl rov ymfrQax rovro of a distinct issue, the uraxrvi 
opuc^, or status flnitivus, 

§ 2. 'But let it not be forgotten that this issue {p{ fact) is the only 
one in which it may happen that one of the two parties must necessarily 
be a rogue : for in such cases, ignorance (which exempts from responsi- 
bility, see note on c. 15. 3) cannot be pleaded (cannot be assigned as the 
cause or reason), as it may when the issue is the justice (or injustice) of 
the act' — and the same of the injury^ and alleged degree or amount of 
the offence — 'and therefore in this issue alone the topic may be dwelt 

PHTOPIKHS r 17 §§ 3, 4. 15^ 

irovYipov* ov yap ecTiv aypoia aiTia, oicTrep au et 
T£i/€9 irepi Tov SiKaiou dix<^ia'fitiToievj Coott iu rovTto 

3 ;f/ooi/£(rTeoi/, ei/ Se tois aWois 01/. €i/ Se rols eVt- 
SeiKTiKoTs TO TToXvy OTi KuXct KUi oitpeXifia^ fj av^ti<n^ 
kcTai* ra yap irpdyfiaTa Zei Trio'revea'dUi' oXiyaKi^ 
yap Kai tovtwv aTroSei^ei^ (jyepovaiVy edv aTrio'Ta ri 

4 h ^CLV aXKia^ airiav e^tl' ^V Se toX^ ZrifxriyopiKoi^ 
h ftJs ovK ecTai diiji(J>ia'/3rjTiia'ei€P av Ti9, ri cJs ecrai 

upon, but not in the (three) others'. It is important to observe here a 
qualification of the apparent meaning, which has not been — at all events 
distinctly — pointed out by the Commentators. It would not be true to 
say universally that when the issue is that of fact, whether the act 
alleged has or has not been committed, that one of the two parties con- 
cerned must necessarily be a rogue : as when A accuses B of murder, the 
question is one of fact, is B guilty or not guilty? B may be perfectly 
innocent, though the circumstantial evidence is so strong as to justify A 
in bringing the charge. All that is meant is, that there is a certain class 
of cases which fall under this status or issue, in which this topic may be 
safely used. Comp. Eth. Nic. V 10, 11 35 ^ 30, eSoirrp eV rotff trwatCkaf^' 
fjuun irfpl TOV ymtrBu dfi<l>urPrirov(riVf mv dvayKt} tov €T€pop ctva& iioxOrjpoPf 
av firj dia Xi^Bijv avro bp&crw. This is the case of a deposit, which A seeks 
to recover from B, who denies having received it. Here — unless either 
of them has forgotten the transaction— either A, if he seeks to recover 
what he knows that he has never confided, or B, if he refuses to restore 
what he knows has been lent him, must intend to defraud the other 
(Schrader). This is repeated from Introd. p. 356, note. 

MS A^ (Bekker) has xpn^^^i which has not been adopted either by 
Bekker or Spengel. The Schol., quoted by Gaisford Not, Var,, manifestly 
reads xprjoTMOp. 

§ 3. ^In the epideictic branch, in its ordinary topic, amplification 
is mostly employed in shewing that things are fair (fine) or useful' — 
the other, fiema-iSf 'detraction' employed in censure, is omitted as less 
usual — *the facts must be taken on trust: declaimers seldom adduce 
proofs of these ; only when they seem incredible, or some one else has 
got the credit of them (been charged with them ; made responsible for 
them)'. Bekker and Spengel have both adopted ofXAor without manuscript 
authority, from a conjecture of the former in his 4to ed. I think they 
must have overlooked the natural interpretation of a><kog given in the 
translation, irco-rcvco-^ac belongs to the family of irregular passives, 
of which an account, and a list, are given in Appendix (B) [Vol. I p. 297]. 

§ 4. * In public, deliberative, speaking (the four forensic issues may 
be applied to its special subjects), it may be contended (against an oppo- 
nent), (i) that the future facts alleged will not be (i. e. that the conse- 
quences which are assumed to result from the policy recommended will 
not take place) ; or admitting that, (2) that it will be unjust ; or (3) inex- 
pedient ; or (4) that the amount and importance of them will not be so 

200 PHT0PIKH2 r i7§§4— «. 

fiei/ a KcXevei^ aW ov hUaia fj ovk w^eXifia tj ov 
TtiKiKavTa. hei Ze Kot opav el ti ^evZerai €kt6^ tov 
irpdyfiaTO^* TeKfxripia yap Tuvra (paiperai koI TiSv 

5 aWwi/, on yfrevSeTai. eari 8e to, fxeu TrapaZelyixara P. 141 
StifiriyopifcwTepay tu 8' evdvixnfxara SiKapiKcorepa* tj 
fxev yap irepl to /ueWoi/* Cio'T eK twu yepofxeutav 
dvdyKfi TrapaBelyfjiaTa Xeyeiv^ ti de Trepi ovrtav i] firi 
ovTtaVy ov fxdWoi/ aTToSei^i^ icTi Kal dmyKti* €;)^€i yap 

6 TO yeyovos dvdyKtiv. ov 8e? Se €(J>€^tis \eyeiv tu 

great as the other anticipates. (The principal attention of the speaker is 
of course to be directed to the point immediately in question,) but he 
-must also be on the look out for any lurking fallacy or misstatement out- 
side the main point or issue: for the one may be shewn necessarily to 
imply the other*. reKfiijpioPf a necessary sign, or indication, I 2. 17. The 
construction is, raCra <l>aLP€Tai TtKfirjpia r£v SXKcdv, on ^evdercu iv avrocr. 

§ 5. 'Examples are most appropriate to public speaking, enthy- 
memes more so to forensic'. Pleading gives more occasion to the em- 
ployment of logical reasoning ; it admits of closer and subtler argumen- 
tation ; for the reasons stated in iii 12. 5. Comp. i 9. 40, where the facts 
are the same, but the reason assigned for the latter different 

*For the one*, (understand di^/miyyopta, from brjfirjyopiKfiTarcu Victorius 
understands trvfifiovki], and Vater niarts,) * dealing as it does with the future, 
is forced consequently to derive examples from past events (from which the 
'4inalogous events future are inferred), whilst the other* (understand in like 
manner hiKr\ from biKaviKforepa ; not maris as Vater) * deals with matters of 
fact, true or false, which admit to a greater extent (than deliberative 
speaking) of demonstrative reason and necessary conclusions (not to the 
full extent, which is found only in science) : for past facts involve a kind 
of necessity*. Past events are beyond recall, fixed and definite, and thus 
have a sort 0/ necessary character about them; and they can be argued 
about, and their relations deduced, with some approach to certainty: 
about things future no exact calculation is possible, anticipation and 
inference from the past is all that nature allows : uncertainty is the cha- 
racteristic of the future. 

§ 6. * The enthymemes, or argumentative inferences, should not be 
all brought forward one after another, in a continuous connected series, 
but mixed up (dva) with other topics : otherwise they injure one another 
by destroying {Kara) the effect ^ (And this is not all,) for there is also a 

1 This is, "to relieve the weariness, and assist the intelligence of the un- 
cultivated audience. A long and connected chain of arguments not only puzzles 
and confounds a listener unaccustomed to continuous reasoning, but also wearies 
and overwhelms him: so that, one argument coming upon another before he 
has perceived the force of the preceding, they clash together, come into conflicti 
as it were, and the force and effect of the whole is weakened or destroyed. Comp. 
12, 17, 13, II 33. 3, o/i^V From Introd. p. 357. 

PHT0PIKH2 r i; §§ 6—8. 5oi 

evOvfiriixara^ dXfC di/afxiyvvvar el Se fw;, KUTa^XaTTTei 
aWtiXa. etTTi yap Kai tov 'ttoo'ov opos* 

to (J>i\\ eirei Tocra eiTres btr au Treirvvjxevo^ d^Vp^ 

7 dXX ov TOtavra. Kai fxrj Trepl irdvTVdv evdviiriixaTa 
^YiTeiv* ei Se juif, Troir^o'ei^ 6 irep evioi ttoiovcl twv 
(J)i\oa'o(f)ovPTU)i/y di (rvWoyi^ovTai Ta yvoapifiwrepa 

8 Kai TriCTTdrepa ri i^ top Xeyovciv. Kai orai/ iraQo^ 
TTOifj^, fit] Xeye evdviJitiixa* rj yap eKKpovaei to irddo^ 
t] fxarrju elprijuievop ecrai to evdvixrifia' eKKpovovct yap 
ai Kivrio'ei^ dXXriXa^ ai ajuiay Kai tj d^avi^ovariv tj 
dadeveh iroiovo'iv. oiJS* OTav ridiKOV tov Xoyovy ov 

limit of quantity J (as Homer says, Od. iv 204, Menelaus to Nestorides 
Pisistratos^ " Dear boy, seeing that thou hast said as much as a prudent 
man would" (speak and utter, cwroi koX pc^eic) — rwra he says, not rotavra', 
shewing thereby that it is the quantity and not the quality of the words 
that he had in view. 

§ 7. * (Another topic is) not to look for arguments about every thing 
(see again 11 22. 3) : otherwise, you will do like some philosophers, who 
draw conclusions better known and more to be trusted (easier to believe, 
'more self-evident or evident at first sight) than the premisses from which 
they deduce them. Quint. V 12. 8, Nee tamen omnibus semper qua£ inve- 
nerimus argumentis onerandus est iudex: quia et taediu?n afferunt et 
Jidem detrahunt.,. In rebus vero apertis argumentari tam sit stultum 
quam in clarissimum solem mortale lumen (a lamp, or other artificial\\^\^ 
made by human agency) inferre, 

§ 8. * Also, when you are trying to excite emotion (appealing to the 
feelings) use no logical argument : for either it will knock out (drive out, 
expel) the emotion, or (the emotion will get the better of it and) the argu- 
ment will have been stated in vain : all simultaneous motions mutually 
drive out one another, and are either obliterated altogether (by the co- 
existence) or (the less powerful) is (still further) weakened'; overpowered 
by the stronger. Comp. Poet. XXIV 22, vvv be rois aXXoir dyaOols 6 noirf 
Tfjs d^aviC^i fjbvvatv to aronoPy and again § 23, airoKpvirrti yap nakiv rj \iap 
\afX7rpa Xe^is to. t€ rjOrj Kai ras diavoias. Long, de Subl. § 1 5) 4^v<r€i Be frcdr, 
fV TOis ToiovTois diracTiv, act tov Kpeirropos aKovofiev' 06 fv diro tov aTrodciicrc- 
Kov nepuXKOfieda els to kuto, (jyavTaaiav\r}KTi.K6vy a> to irpayfiaTiKov 
eyKptnrTcrai nepiKafxirofxepov, And again § 17 ult. tc^p \6y<op to. irdBrj Kai to 
vylnfj Tals ylryxo-ls rip-^v iyyvTip<a K€ip,€pa Bid re <^v<ri«f»fi' Tipa avyytpeiap Ka\ 
bid Xap.'jrpoTrjTa^ del tSp crxripArcDP Trpoep.<f)apii€Tat, Kai ttjp TtxPffP avTcap 
diro(TKidCei Koi olov iv KaTaKoKv^ti Tfjpei, Twining ad Poet. p. 424,. 
note 227. 

* Nor again, when you would give the speech an ethical cast, should 
there be any attempt to combine enthymeme with it; for proof has no 

202 PHT0PIKH2 r 17 §§8— 10. 

Se? ipdviArifid ri ^tjTeip dfia* ov yap ix,^i ovre rido^ p- 144 

9 ovT€ TTpoaipeciV 1} ctTroSei^is. yi/wfiai^ Se \pti<rTiov 

Kal ev Siriyi^crei Kai ev 7ria'T€r tjdiKOP ycip» **icai eyto 

eocoKa, Kai tuvt 610019 cos ov 0€i iriO'Teveiv. eav oe 

iradriTiKcisy ^^ Kal ov ixeraixeKei fioi KaiTrep fiSiKf]fievio* 

TOVTia fiev yap irepieo'TL to K€pdo9, eixol Se to S/- 

loicatoi/." TO Se hfiiiriyopeiv 'xaXeirtaTepov tov SiKd" 

^€<rdat, eiKOTto^, dioTi irepl to fxtXKov eKci he irepl 

TO yeyoi/6^, o eiria'TriTov tfdn Kai toIs fidpTetriVy cos 

moral character nor moral purpose*. When the hearer's mind, says 
Schrader (in substance), is occupied with the impression of the moral 
and intellectual good qualities which the speaker is endeavouring to 
convey to them, of his intelligence and good intentions, he has neither 
time nor inclination to attend to the proof of anything else. 

§ 9. ^ Still, general maxims are to be employed both in narrative 
and in proof, by reason of the ethical character which belongs to them'. 
(See II 21. 16, III 16. 8.) This is illustrated by a yyco/ii; that ^ it is folly to 
trust" any one, in the instance of a deposit which has not been returned 
(Victorius). The maxim is expressed by Epicharmus in the well-known 
verse, Na</»f, Koi fiifivcur dirtorcii/* &pBpa ravra r<oi/ if>p€V»Vj quoted by 
Polybius, Dio Chrysostom, and Cic. ad AtL I 19-6. Miiller, Fragm, Phil, 
Gr, p. 144. Epicharm. Fr. 255. 

'And I have given it, and that, knowing all the while '4hat trust 
is folly". If your object is to appeal to the feelings ijrK€Oi is the iraBos 
liere appealed to), (express it thus) " And I don't regret it, though I have 
been wronged : for he (the opponent) it is true has the advantage in profit, 
but 1 in justice" '. Compare the first example in c. 16. 9. 

§ 10. '(Here again, as in general) public speaking is more difficult 
than pleading (see i; and naturally^ [so, because it is concerned 
with the future.] 

[On the 'times' with which the three classes of speeches, Xoyoi 
dijcavcxoi, <rvfApov\(vTiKoi and ftribfiKTiKoi are concerned^ see I 3* 4* ^^ 
fjLiv avfifiovK^vovTi 6 ficXXA>v...r^ dc diKa^ofieyt^ 6 ycvofiepos K.r.X. 

€V«i dc — d8iJX»y d«] 'whereas in the former case (forensic oratory) 
the speaker is concerned with the past, which, as Epimenides the Cretan 
said, is already known even to diviners ; for he himself was not in the 
habit of divining the future, but only (interpreting) the obscurities of 
the past.' 

Koi Tois fjLavT€(riy] as has been noticed elsewhere, "was doubtless meant 
by Epimenides as a sarcasm upon his prophetic brethren, who pretended 
to see into futurity. 'Even diviners', said he, 'impostors as they are, 
can prophesy what is past' ". Introd. p. 358, note. 

1 At (his point the manuscript of Mr Cope's Commentary comes to an end; 
the rest of the notes have accordingiy been supplied by Mr Sandys. 

PHT0PIKH2 r 17 § lo. 203 

€^1; 'E7r£)U€i//S>;s 6 KjOifs* eKeTvos yap 'rrept twv ea'Ofxe" 
vtap ovK i/xavreveTOy dWa irepl TiSv yeyovoTwv fieu 
dSi]\a)p Si. Kal 6 vojulos vTrodeai^ ev Toi^ SiKauiKoT^* 
e')(pvTa Se dpj(fjv paov evpeiv diroSei^iv. Kal ovk €;)^6i 
TToAAas Siarpi^dsy dlov Trpo^ dpTiSiKOP fj irepi avrovj 
t] iradrjTiKOi/ iroieip. d\X riKKTra iravnavy edv fxij 

The statement that Epimenides specially devoted himself as a 
soothsayer to solving the riddles of the past, is exemplified by his 
being invited by the Athenians to advise them as to the purification 
of the city from the pestilence which arose in consequence of the crime 
of Cylon (Plutarch, reipubl. ger. pr. 27, Pausanias, i 14.4, Diogenes 
Laert i 10 : Grote, H, G. chap, x sud Jinetn), Plato, who calls him a 
^€io£ ai^p, speaks of his foretelling the future (Legg. 642 d), and the 
very gift which in the text he appears to disclaim is similarly ascribed 
to him by Cicero, who after saying est enim ars in its qui novas res 
coniectura persequuntur, veteres observatione didicerunty classes Epi- 
menides among those who are destitute of this art ; qui non ratione aut 
coniectura^ observatis cu: notatis signis, sed concitatione quadam animij 
aut soluto liberoque motu^futura praesentiunt (de divin. 118. 34). But 
the office of the prophet, or intermediary interpreter between God and 
man, was not necessarily confined to the prediction of the future, but 
also included the expounding of the will of heaven respecting the 
present and the past. Spengel observes: "dicit cfiaiTcvcro, non c/iuiy- 
Tcvcraro, i.e. plerumque, non semper." 

KoX o v6\iJO^ — ajTofififiv] * Besides, in forensic pleadings, the law 
supplies a subject ; and when you once have your starting-point, it is 
easier to find your proof. 

'And it (namely, public speaking) does not admit of many digres- 
sions, such as references to one's opponent or to oneself; or again, 
appeals to the emotions'. The subject of ovk t\ti, is ro diy/AJ/yopctv, all 
the intervening clauses from eicct de down to aVodct^ty being parenthetical 

By iiarpi^ai are meant * landing-places', where the speaker may 
pause and linger for a while, and whence he may even expatiate into 
a passing digression. This use of the word, which is not noticed in 
Liddell and Scott, is defined in Ernesti's Lex. Techn, Gr, as commoratio, 
excursio et quoddam iireurddioVi quo orator subinde utitur^ ornatus atque 
ampiificationis gratia, Comp. Men and er, ^laipca-Ls imdciicriKap (Spengel's 
Rhet. Gr. III 338), cireira (ras diarpiPas) eii^ai r^ iroirfT^ fxiy akXa (2XXa>ff 
Waitz) 'npo(T(^6povs' rj yap i^ovtria jcal tov Kara axoX^v Xeyeiv, Kal to 
frtpiariKkfiP rois nokniKois Koapots Ka\ rals KaraaKtwus ovt€ Kopov ovre 
arihiav napiaTTjat, (leatroi ovk dypoS »a'avT<as on tvioi rav froiTjTSv Trpooi^c- 
povcrt ras aKaipovs dtarpijSar) avyypa<t>€va'i dc $ Xoyonoiois cXa;((OTi; 

dXX* rJKKTTa — efto-njrai] *0n the contrary, there is less room (for 
digression) in this than in either of the other branches of Rhetoric, unless 
the speaker quits his proper subject'. With clio-njrai, compare supra 
14. 1, iav iKTOviajj, 

204 PHTOPIKHS r 17 §§ 10, II. 

ipiarTriTai. Se? ovv aTropovvra tovto Troieiv oirep oi 
*A6^pri(n pnrope^ iroiovcri kuI 'la-OKpaTtj^* Kal yap 
crvfJL^ovXevtau KarriyopeTy olop AaKeZaijULOvitoi/ fiev ev 
II Tfti TrapfiyvpiKt^y XdpriTO^ S' iu tw avfAfxaxiKw. ev Se 
TOis iTTLheiKTiKols Sc? TOP Xoyop iTreicroSiovp eiraipoi^^ 
OLOP 'laoKpaTfi^ TTOier del yap ripa eladyei. Kal 6 
eXeye Topyla^y otl ov^ vTroXeiTrei avTOP 6 Xoyo^, 

oi 'A^ijwycrt pi^Topts] This does not imply that Aristotle himself was 
absent from Athens while writing the Rhetoric ; here and elsewhere he 
simply uses the phrase which would be most intelligible to his readers, 
whether at a distance from Athens or not. Poet, v 6, 1449 d 7, t»v 
^ABi]VTj<riP (KtofKoBoiroiav) Kparrjs irparos ^pfev #c.r.X. and supra II 23. II 
*ABijvri(n MavTi^ r^ pTjTopi, This usage is rather different from the 
suspicious phrase in c. 11 ad fin., oi 'AttikoI pi^ropcs* 

iv T^ navfiyvpiKo] The Panegyric of Isocrates is strictly speaking 
a Xoyof avfiPovkevTiKos, as its ostensible object is to advise Athens and 
Sparta to unite their forces against Persia, under the lead of the former 
state, but incidentally it becomes a \6yos cVidctJcrcKof, in so far as it 
eulogizes the public services of Athens (§§ 21 — 98), while it also digresses 
into the region of X&yos biKaviKos when it attacks (jcan^yopci) the conduct 
of Sparta and her partisans (§§ 1 10 — 1 14). 

eV T« avfipMxiic&} By this is meant the pamphlet generally known as 
Isocratis de Pace, where the policy of the Athenian general Chares in 
the conduct of the Social war is criticised, though his name is not men- 
tioned, § 27, dvayicrf tov €^<a t«i/ «i6ia-fJLevoi>v tnix^ipovvra bt^prfyopuv,,, 
ra p.€V dvafivrjo'dai tcjv de k ar i;y op ^ (rat. 

§ II. *In speeches of display you must introduce laudations into 
your speech by way of episode, as Isocrates does ; for he is always 
bringing in some character'. The reference to Isocr. is explained by 
his laudatory episode on Theseus in the Helen §§ 22 — 38 ; on Agamemnon 
in the Panathenaicus §§ 72 — 84 ; and on Timotheus in the avrlbovis 
§ 107 seq. Spengel, who gives the first two references, also cites some 
less striking instances, the episode on Paris in Hel. §§ 41 — 48, on 
Pythagoras and the Egyptian priests in Busiris §§ 21 — 29, and on poets 
ib. §§ 38 — 40. Comp. Dionys. Halic. de Isocr. lud. c. 4, where, among 
the points in which Isocrates appears superior to Lysias, special mention 
is made of to dioXa/ijSai/eo'^at r^i' 6fio€idiav idiais fiira^okais Koi ^eVoir 


€7r€i(robiovv] Poet. XVII 7, vnodevra ra opoftara iir€i(robiovv, onas dc 
Zarai oIkcm to. cVeio-ddta o'KOTrelv. ib. XXIV 7> (of epic poetry) tovt €)((i 
TO dyaBop fls fieyaXotrpeireiap Koi to fierapaXXfiP top aKovopTa jcai ctrfio'obiovP 
dvofioiois €ir€ia-obioi£. Quintil. Ill 9. 4, egressio vero veL,,excessuSy stve 
est extra causam, non potest esse pars causae; sive est in causa, adiU" 
torium vel omamentum partium est earum ex quibus egreditur, 

^And this is what Gorgias meant when he remarked that he was 
never at a loss for something to say ; for if (for instance) he speaks of 

PHT0PIKH2 r 17 §§ II, 12. 20s 

TOVTO io'Tiv* €L yap *A;(;i\\€a Xeyei, YltjXea eTTatveij 
eira AiaKOVy eiTa top ueoVj ojulokos oe Kai ai/opiap ri 
12 Tce Kai Tci iroiei* o TOiovSe iaTip. exoPTa [xep ovp 
aTToSei^eis Kai i]diK€09 \€kt€OP Kai dTroheiKTiKcos, idp 
Se /uLtj exv^ epdvfxrifiaTay t]6iK(o^* Kai fiaWop TtS eiriei' P. 1418 b. 
Kei dpfxoTTei xp^^^op (paipecrdai ii top Xoyop aKpi/Sfj. 

Achilles, he (naturally) praises Peleus, next Aeacus, then Zeus himself 
(the father of Aeacus); and similarly valour also (the special virtue of 
Achilles), and so and so (so ad mfinitunC) ; and this is just what I have 
been describing '. 

From this passage of Gorgias the existence of a panegyric oration 
*in praise of Achilles ^ is inferred by Dr Thompson (on p. 178 of his 
ed. of the Gorgias), who also suggests that " a fragment preserved by 
the Scholiast on Iliad IV ^50 may have belonged to this speech : 
av^yXayovTo hi Xirais czTrfiXal Koi €vxo.^s olfuoyaL" 

The unfailing resource of complimentary episodes on which Gorgias 
appears to have prided himself, may be paralleled by Pindar's favourite 
device of leading up by easy transitions to the praises of the Aeacidae 
(Isthm. IV (v) 20, TO d* €fiov ovK aTcp AlaKibSv K€ap vfiPCDP yeverai) ; and also 
by the artifice adopted by the rhetorician Lycophron, de Soph. El. 
15, 174^30, as explained by Alexander Aphrodisiensis : — "the sophist 
Lycophron, when he was compelled by some persons to write an 
encomium upon the lyre, and found that he hadn't very much to say 
about it, first very briefly touched upon the praises of the sensible 
lyre, which we have here on earth, and then mounted up to that in 
heaven,... the constellation called the Lyre, upon which he composed 
a long and beautiful and excellent discourse" (from Cope's translation 
in J ournal of Classical and Sacred Philology y Vol. 11, No. v, p. 141). 

5 ra icat ra wotet] In Vol. Ill, No. Vll, p. 75 of the Journal above 
mentioned, Mr Cope has the following note: "The sentence hangs so ill 
together, and the r\ has so little meaning, that I think we ought to change 
it into the relative pronoun ^ ; and then the sentence will run *and in 
like manner valour, which performs such and such feats,' i.e. he first 
praises valour generally, and then proceeds to enumerate different acts of 
prowess; which may be multiplied cui infinitutn^^ This suggestion, it 
may be remarked, harmonizes fairly with the reading of MS A" ^ ra kcX ra 
wotfT $ (not o) Toiovdf €OTtV. It has been anticipated by Foss (de Gorgia 
p. TJ ap. Spengel) who proposes ofioiag dc koi dvbpiav ^ ra leat ra iroifi o 

TOIOP yc fOTlV. 

Spengel's own suggestion is €l yap 'AxiXX^a Xeyav {A% Q, Z^) Ui^Xca 
C7ra(m...ofio(o»f de Kai avbpiav rj ra kcX ra, iroiti o roi6vb€ iariv. 

§ 12. * If you have proofs to produce, you may express yourself both 
in the ethical style, and in that of proof besides ; but if you are at a loss 
for enthymemes, then in the ethical style alone. In fact, it better befits a 
man of worth to appear in his true character than that his speech be 
elaborately reasoned'. The change of subject in the last clause would 
have been more sharply marked by avrop <l)alpta6ai xpritrrbp fj top Xoyop 

206 PHT0PIKH2 r i; §§ 13, 14. 

13 Twp §€ ivdvfififidTWP Tci iXeyKTiKoi /xaWov evSoKiimeT 
TtSp heiKTiKWP, on oaa eKeyxpv woiei^ [laWov ZriXov 
on avWeXoyiG'Taf irap dXKriXa yap /maWov rdvav^ 
na yva)pi^€Tai. 

14 Tci Se TTjOos TOP dvnhiKOv ovk erepov ti cISos, 
dWd Twv Trlarreoav earn Ta fxev Xvcai ivtrrdo'ei Ta Se 
{rvXXoyKTiJLw. Sei Se Kai ev avfx/iovXfi Kal ev S/icj; 
dpxofievov fiev Xeyeiv rds eavrov Trio-rcis irpoTepoVj 
vtrTepov Se Trpo^ Tdvavrla diravrdv Xvovra Kal irpo- p. 145 

cLKpi^fj, Spengel asks with some reason, ''nonne nexus flagitat xprjtrrhv 
Tov \6yop 4>aivf<r6ai fj oKptPrj? magis enim convenit probo viro, ut i^diKas 
quam ut ividnKTiKas loquatur." * 

§ 13. *0f enthymemes, those that refute are more popular than those 
that prove ; because a syllogistic conclusion is more clearly drawn (thereby) ; 
for opposites are more readily recognised when set beside one another'. 
Comp. II 23.30, rvdofcc/ici dc fAaXXov t&p fvBvfirffidrc^v ra iXryKTixa ro»y 
dxrodcMcrtKttv diet rb avvay<ayfiv fUy ivavrlt^v tlvai iv fiiKp^ to MktyKTtKov iuBv' 
firffia, vapaKKrjKa de <l>av€pa eivai r^ aKpoar^ fiaXXoy. The Tk§yxos which is 
described in Anal. Pr. Il 20, 66 d 10, as avTi<l>aa€ais trvXXoyicrftof, meets the 
opponent's conclusion with a counter- syllogism drawing a conclusion con- 
trary to that of the opponent, while the €v<rra<ris checks the opponent's 
argument at an early point by attacking one of his premisses (see Introd. 
pp. 264, 5). 

§ 14. 'The refutation of your opponent is not a distinct division of 
the speech ; on the contrary, it is part of the proofs to refute the oppo- 
nent's positions either by contrary proposition or by counter-syllogism* 

(i.e. by IXey^oO' 

Quint. Ill 9. 5, Tamen nee his assentior^ qui detrahunt refutationem, 
tanquam probationi subiectam, ut Aristoteles, haec enim est quae consti- 
tuaty ilia quae destruat, 

* Now both in public deliberation and in forensic pleading it is neces- 
sary, when you are the opening speaker, to state your own proofs first, and 
then to meet the arguments on the other side, by direct refutation and by 
pulling them to pieces beforehand.' 

For dwauTav, comp. Apsines Rhet. irrpl Xvo-rflor c. 7 (Spengel's Rhet. 
Gr. II 366), <TV de KOT av^rjcriv dtravnitrjjs Kara mfkiKOTtjTa fj froaorrjra fj SX\o 
Ti r&v av(rfTUc£¥ tj koto, avriirapdarao'iy. 

For irpoduurvpovra (* cutting up by anticipation') comp. Rhet ad Alex. 

18 ^19). 139 irpoBi€avp€ Xryov, ib. § 12, frpoircrcXa)3c...Yrpod(e/3aX«v...dia- 
irtavpBai irpmpov viro rovrov, ib. 33 (34). I, irpoKarakafi^dvap buurvptis, 
Isocr. avrlBoais § I99> dtacrvpovo'i (rrjv Traib€lap) tos ovdev cs^cXctv dvmz- 
fi€vr}v (ib. § 300)1 Dem. Or. 13 § 12, dicVvpc rd irapovra kqI rovg vpoyoifovs 

*But if there is much variety in the opposition, you should be/rin with 
the points opposed to you'. For noXvxovs (manifold, complex, diversified, 

PHT0PIKH2 r 17 §§ 14, 15. 20; 

Ziacrvpovra. av Se 7ro\i;;^oi;s ^ ij evavritao'i^y TrpoTC' 
pov TO, evainria^ olop iiroirjo'e KaWio'TpaTOS ev Ttj 
MecrcrriviaKy eKKXricia* a yap epovo'i irpoaveXtav ovtoj 
15 t6t€ ai/TOS eiTrev. vcrepop Se Xiyovra irptoTOv Ta 
wpo^ TOP evavTLOV \6yov XeKTeoVy Xvovtu Kal dvTi" 
avWoyi^ofxevoVy nal fxdXKrTa av evSoKifxriKOTa ti* 
wairep yap dvdpcoTrop irpoZiafiefiXruJievov ov hex^Tai t] 
'4^^X^y ^^^ ai/TOi/ Tpoirov ovhe Xoyovy edv 6 evavrlo^ 
ev hoKti eipriKeuai. Set ovi/ ;^cJ|Oai/ iroieiv ev T(o 
aKpoaTtj Tw fxeXXovTi X6y(p* e<rTai Se av dveXtj^. 
^16 rj Trpo^ TrdvTa tj rd fxeyKTTa tj Ta evBoKi/JLOvvra tj 

iroXvcidiff), comp. de Part. Anim. 11 10, 656 a 5> iroKvxovaripa ibeof where 
it is combined with noKvfJLopfporipa. 

On Callistratus, see note on i 7. 13. The reference is probably to the 
embassy on which Callistratus was sent into the Peloponnesus, shortly 
before the battle of Mantineia, B.C. 362. 17 MccrariviaKrj €KK\rjaria can 
hardly mean anything else than 'the public assembly of the Messenians', 
and not 'the assembly held (at Athens) respecting the Messenians', 
(which last appears to be the view of Sauppe, Or. Att 11 218, note i ; 
A. Schaefer, Dem, und seine Zeit I p. 113, rightly understands it die 
Volksgemeinde der Messenier). It was on this embassy that Epaminondas, 
cum in conventum venisset Arcadum fetens ut socieiatetn cum Thebanis 
et Argivis facerent^yfdiS confronted by Callistratus, Atheniensium legatus 
qui eloquentia omnes eo praestabat tempore, who urged them to ally them- 
selves with Athens (Nepos, Epam. 6, quoted by A. Schaefer). 

irpocoftK^v icr.X.] i.e. It was not until after he had by anticipation got 
rid of the arguments of his opponents that he stated his own arguments. 
ovT(o, 'accordingly'; similarly used after the participle fiaxftrafievov, at 
the end of the next section. 

§ 15. 'When you are speaking in reply, you should first mention the 
arguments against the statement on the other side, by refuting that state- 
ment and drawing up counter-syllogisms, and especially if the arguments 
on the opposite side are well received ; for just as the mind refuses to 
open itself favourably to one who has been made the victim of prejudice, 
the same applies to oratory also, if your opponent is held to have made 
a good speech*. 

'You must therefore as it wel-e make room in the hearer's mind for 
the speech that is about to be made, and this will be effected by getting 
out of the way your opponent's speech' (with which the minds of your 
audience are pre-occupied). 

'Hence you should establish the credibility of your own case, by first 
contending either against all or the most important or the most popular 
or the most easily refuted of the adverse arguments'. As an instance, 
Aristotle refers to the lines in the Troades of Euripides, beginning with 

2o8 PHTOPIKHS r 17 §§ IS, 16. 

Tci eieKeyKTa ixw^eaoifxevov ourto to. avrov Tria-ra 

Tals deai(n TrptSra avixixa'xo^ yevrio'oiiac 
iyta yap * Hpau. 

eV TOVTOl^ i^yfyUTO irpWTOV TOV evYideo'TaTOV. 

16 . irepl ixev oZv irlcTeiav TavTu* eU Se to t]do^, 
€7r€iSrj evia irepl avrov Xeyeiv 1} i7rl(pdopov ti fiaKpo- 
Xoyiau tj dvTiXoyiav cx^x, Kal irepl aWov ti XoiSopiau 
fj dypoiKiavy erepov xp^ Xiyovra iroieivy 6 Trep 'Icro- 

969, the first line of Hecuba's lengthy reply to Helen's speech in her 
own defence ; then follows a line koI riji/dc bci^a firj Xtyova-av tfubiKa, After 
this, in a passage beginning with the lines iym yap "Hpav irapBivov r€ 
IlaXXada ovk €s rocrovrov dpadias IkBtiv boKa, she disposes of Helen's 
weakest argument first, an argument which Euripides, like a skilful 
rhetorician, has placed in the middle of Helen's speech, lines 932—5, 
vt/rg KvfTpiff BtaSy xal rocropd' ovpjoi yafioi ^vrf(ra» 'EXXad', ov Kpor^iirff €K 

§ 16. *As regards ethical proof, since there are some things, which, if 
you say them of yourself, are either invidious or tedious or provoke con- 
tradiction, or which, if said of another, involve slander or rudeness, 
you must ascribe them to some one else instead'. 

The reference to the Philippus of Isocrates points (according to 
Victorius) to p. 96 D §§ 72 — 78, where the writer gets rid of the indeli- 
cacy of himself reminding Philip of the current imputation that his 
growing power ovx vrrep rfjs '£XXad«ff dXX* cVl ravrrjp av^dpercu, by attribut- 
ing it to others in the words, ataBavofuu yap a-€ biapaKKofitvov vvo r<oy crol 
^ovovvrav in § 73) ^^^ ^7 describing it in § 78 as roiavniv ^i^fujv cravr^ 
vtpi<l>vofi€injv, fjv oi pjiv €xBpo\ ncpiBcivai avi (rjrovo'i. This, however, seems 
to be open to the objection pointed out by Spengel, that Isocrates can 
hardly be regarded as putting what are really Ais own views as a friend 
of Philip into the mouth of that monarch's enemies ("at vix Isocrates ipse 
haec animo probans vera putabat"). Spengel accordingly prefers taking 
it as a reference to §§ 4 — 7, where, instead of expressing his own satisfac- 
tion with one of his compositions, he states that his friends who have 
heard it recited had been struck by its truthful statement of facts, § 4, and 
had expected that, if published, it would have led to the establishment of 
peace ; it so happened, however, that Philip had concluded peace, before 
the fastidious rhetorician had elaborated his pamphlet to a sufficient 
degree to think it deserving of publication. Perhaps a still more appo- 
site passage, which is omitted by Victorius and Spengel, is that in p. 87 
B, § 23, where the writer, after describing himself as deterred by his friends 
from addressing Philip, adds that finally eoTrcvdoi^ /mXXov i/y^ ir€fi(fiBfjvai 
croi TOV \6yov rovroPf TK€yov d' »s iXniCovtrw ov pavov ai icaX njy froXiv l^civ 
fUH x^P^ ^^P ^^^ tlpfifUvtav aKXa km tovs ^'EXXi/yas airopras^ 

PHTOPIKHS r 17 § 16. 209 

Kparti^ TTOieT iu tw ^iXiTrTno Kai ev ttj avrihoceiy Kai 
COS ^Apx^Xo^o^ yf^iyer TvoieT yap top irarepa Xeyovra 
irepl Tfj^ OvyaTpo^ ev tw idiuL^tp 

XpyifJ^oLTiov S' deXTTTOU ovdev etTTiv oiJS' dTTtofioroUj 
Kai Tou Xapiapa rov TeKTOva ev roJ lafx/Sto ov 1; dp)(ti 

ov fxoi rd Tvy€(o. 
Kai oJs ^o^OKXfj^ TOP A^ifjLOPa virep ti?9 'Auriyopti^ 

iv TJ dvrMcrei] §§ 141 — 149, aKpotifuvog be riy rCv eVtn^dc/aiv eT6\fjLrf<r€P 
ccirctv ic.r.X. In the course of the passage referred to, the rhetorician makes 
his imaginary friend compliment him on his writings as ov ft€fjL-^t€<»s dK\a 
Xapa-og rfjs iieyiarrris a$iovs ovras, an expression which would have heen 
open to the imputation of indelicacy (vepl avrov \eytiv ivi<l>Bovov), had not 
the writer ingeniously placed it in another man's mouth. The device is 
sufficiently transparent, even if it were not for the candid confession in 
§ 8, €1 fifv ovv iiraivtlv ifutvrov iirixfipoiriPy iwpap ovT€,,,iirixctpirios ovd^ 
dv€fri<l}36v<os elirt'ip ircpl avrSv bwrfirofievos. 

The same device, in a less refined form, may be noticed in the modem 
parallel from Martin Chuzzlewit^ which will occur to every reader (chap, 

*Apxikoxos ^^y] Hor. A, P. 79, Archilochum propria rabies 
armavit iambo. Comp. note on ll 23.11. Archilochus {Lycambae 
spretus infido genery Epod. VI 13), instead of directly attacking Neobule, 
the daughter of Lycambes, puts his lampoon into the mouth of her own 
father, thereby ostensibly refraining from a coarseness of invective, which 
would imply dypoiKta on his own part, but really intensifying its bitter* 
ness ; as the reader will naturally argue, * If her own father can say nothing 
better of her, what will the rest of the world say?' Comp. Bergk, Gr, 
Lyr*y p. 542, ed. 2, Archil, fragm^^ ovi\v AvKOfipeo walba rffv vireprepriv, 
Stobaeus (ex 10, Bergk u. s. p. 552) has preserved nine trochaic lines 
beginning with the first of the two quotations given by Aristotle, but 
there is nothing in the passage, so far as there quoted, which illustrates 
Aristotle's object in here referring to it. There is a rendering of the lines 
by J. H. Merivale in Wellesle/s Anthologia Polyglotta p. 220, beginning 
Never man again may swear^ things shall be as erst they were, 

oS fioi ra Fvyeo] rov vokvxpva-ov /icXec, The four lines of which this is 
the first are preserved by Plutarch de tranquill. an. c. 10 (Bergk Gr. Lyr. 
p. 541) and are thus rendered by Milman, No care have I of Gyges^ golden 
storey Unenvious I for nought the gods implore; I have no love of wide 
and kingly sway But turn from pride my reckless eyes away. On 
Gyges, the wealthy king of Lydia, compare Herod. 112, rov (sc. Tvyea) Ka\ 
*Apx^oxos 6 Udptos Korh, rov avrov XP^*^^^ ycvofievos iv Idfipc^ rpip.€rp& circ- 
fiinfaOri. Archilochus is inveighing against the vice of envy and the vanity 
of riches, and with a dramatic skill that is one of his characteristics, gives 
expression to his own feelings by ascribing them to Charon the contented 
carpenter (comp. Mure, //, G, Z. iii 167). 

Zo<f)oK\rig] Antig. 688—700, where Haemon quotes the talk of the 

AR. III. 14 

210 PHT0PIKH2 r 17 §17; 18 §r. 

17 7r/90( Toy Trarepa ols Xeyom'tau erepiov. Se? Se Kal 
fxeTafidWeiv tcl ii/Ovfu^fiaTa kui yvw/uias TTOieiv eviore^ 
oTov *^XP^ ^^ '^^^ SiaWayds iroieip Toik vovv exovra^ 
evTV)(pvvTav ovtod yap av jULeyiaTa irXeoveKToiev* 
ipdvfxrjfxaTiKm Se, **€£ yap Sei, orav w(pe\iix(aTaTaL 
uxri Kal 7r\€0}/€KTiKcoTaTai ai KaraXKayaly tots 
KaTa\\dTT€<r6ai , evTV^ovvra^ Set ^KaTaWdrTeordai.^^ 
1 Trepi §€ €pa)Tfi(rea)^y evKaipop ecTi iroieicQai fxa- cha 

Xicrra fxev orav to erepov etpriKw^ rjy were 6i/os p. i. 

* p. I 

town about Creon's treatment of Antigone, instead of himself directly 
attacking him. 693, rrip fraida ravrrpf oV 6dvp€Tai v6kis,,.f JQO, roiatf 
ipt/ipfl <rly Inipxtrcu ^<ircf . 

§ 17. * Further, you should occasionally transform your enthymemes 
and express them as general maxims'. Comp. 11 21. i, 2, with the notes 
in Vol. II p. 206. On the *enthymeme', see Saint-Hilaire's Rhdtorique, 
^Aristote^ Vol. 11 pp. 345 — 376; and Jebb's Attic Orators^ il 289. 

Aristotle's example of a yvf»p,y\ seems to be a general reminiscence of a 
passage in Isocr. Archidamus p. 126 B § 50, xp^ 5< ^ovf /xey eJ Trpdrrovras 
Trjs tlpifyrif tniBvptlv' iu ravTfj yap tJ Kara(rTda€i irXciorov &p ris ;ifpovo» rd 
mpwra dia^vXa^cuv* rovs dc bvaruxovvras f^ TroXc/io) irpoa-exfw top povp' €K 
yap Tfjs Tapaxrjs icai rrjf Kaipovpyias Bdrrop ap perafio\rJ£ rvxoi€P, Spengel 
gives a reference to Rhet. ad Alex. 2 (3). 32, del rovs povp tfx^vras /a^ irepi- 
IAtP€ip c«>£ hf ircVoxriv, dXX* ip rf Kpartip noitiaBcu lifp cipifyi^p. In expressing 
the yp»p,ff in the form of an ivBipjipLOy Ar. alters dmXXayaf into its syn- 
onym KaTf]^\ayaly possibly for no other reason than to avoid the reitera- 
tion of similar sounds in dei...d(aXXayaK..d(aXXarrc(r^ai, and the harsh 
collocation del dtaXXarrea^ai. 

CHAP, xviir. 

This chapter treats of 'Interrogation' of one's opponent (§§ 1—4), 
and of * Reply' to his interrogations (§§ 5, 6); it concludes with a few 
remarks on the use of * ridicule', as an accessory to argument. These 
may be regarded as subdivisions of the general subject of proofs, iriarctr, , 
dealt with in the previous chapter, to which the present is an appendix. , 

**A favourite instrument of debate with speakers in the public 
assembly and law-courts is the interrogation of the adversary. The 
object of this is to enforce an argument ; or to take the adversary 
by surprise and extract from him an unguarded admission ; or to place 
him in an awkward dilemma, by shaping your question in such a way 
that he must either by avowing it admit something which his antagonist 
wishes to establish, or by refusing seem to give consent by his silence 
to that which the questioner wishes to insinuate; or to gain some 
similar advantage." Introd. p« 362. 

A Gre^k paraphrase of the first six sections of this chapter, with the 
headings wtpi fp«n{<rf«*t and vcpl ctiroicpi<rc<»r, which owes its interest 

PHT0PIKH2 r i8§i. 211 

TrpoareptaTYiQevro^ arvfilSaii/ei to utottov* oiop TTepiKXfi^ 
Aa/uLTTtapa iirripero irepl Ttj^ TeXeTvjs twp Trjs arwTeipa^ 

mainly to the rareness of such commentaries on the Rhetoric, was edited 
in 1838 by Seguer from a MS in the library in Paris, and is reprinted 
in Spengel's Rhetores Graeci I pp. 163 — 8, and also in his edition of 
the Rhetoric^ Vol. i pp. 147 — 152. It is a puerile piece of composition, 
but one or two extracts from it will be given where the writer's language 
really illustrates the text of Aristotle. 

On the subject of Interrogatories it may be noticed, that by 
Athenian Law either party to a suit might put questions to the other, 
and demand a reply, not only at the preliminary hearing (di/axpurtf) 
but also at the trial itself (Plato, Apol. 25 D, dwoKpivM J 'ya^c* koi yap 
6 v6fu)£ KcXevci djTOKpivaaBai), In the former instance, the answers were 
taken down in writing, and produced in court if wanted ; in the latter, 
the questions could only be asked by the party addressing the court, 
who could not himself be interrupted by any interrogation on the part 
of his opponent, but only by the enquiries of the jury, which were some- 
times even invited by the speaker. (Comp. C. R. Kennedy's Demosthenes 
rv Appendix vii On Interrogatories). 

Such interrogati9ns, judging from the few specimens that have come 
down to us, were of the simplest kind ; and owing to the large number 
and the natural impatience of the audience present, (whether as members 
of the general assembly or of the jury, in cases of the deliberative or 
the forensic class respectively), anything approaching an elaborate and 
protracted cross-examination was quite out of the question. 

As instances we may quote the following : Isaeus Or. 10 (tt. rot) 
'Ayvlov kK^pov) §§ 4* 5^ (rv d* dvdfirfdi bevpo . . . cparrifaai crc. db€\<f)6s itrB* 
6 iraU 'Ayviov, ddcXi^idovff c^ db€\<l>ou 1j (( dbeXtjirjs yeyov&g, fj dvcyfnbr, 
rj €( dvf^tov irpos firirpos fj irphs narpos ;... btl ^7 <rf rfjs dyxiortiat, o ri 
o TTotff *Ayvlq, wpotnJKeiy ro yivos tlirelv, ifipdtrop ovv rovroitrL — alcdmaBt 
OTi ovK c^ci r^v avyyev€tav thniVy dXX' diroKpivtrai irdvra fiBXkov ^ o dci 
fiaBeiv vfjMs, KoiTOi top yc npdrrovrd ri dUatop ov wpoaiJK€P dirop€lp aXX' 
€vBut Xryety. 

Lysias Or. 22 (Korct roy airoTrcSXav) § 5» (^) ft^roixos wl ; {b) paL 
(a) fuToiKt'ig di TT&rtpop tig ir€ia'6p^Pos tois pofiois roTg rfjg 9roXc»ff, 
9 tag ironjaop S ri ap PovKjj ; (d) «or vwitropevog. (a) dXXo re ovp d(ioig rj 
dnoBovttp 61 rt irtnoiriKag napa rovg pop^ovg, i<l> olg Bdvarog 1; (17/iia ; {b) tycryt* 
{d) dnoKpipai 8ij ftoi, tl 6po\oy«ig wXtia (tItop arvpirplaa-Oai irtpn^KOPTa <f}opp£vy 
wp 6 popjog c^civai Ktktvii ; {b) cyo rcSv dpxopnop (not the Archons but the 
(nTO(t>v\{iK€g of § 7) KtkevoPTtap avp€vpidprip, ib. Or. 13 {Kara ^Ayopdrov) 
§§ 30 — 33, cV avTo<fxaptf ey© avroP ef eXeyf©. dnoKpivat di; pot ic.r.X. ib. 
Or, 12 {kot ^Eparoa-Bevovg) § 25, set forth at length in Introd. p. 364, note. 
Spengel also gives a reference to Dem. de Cor. § 52. 

The subject of questioning and replying in sophistical debate is 
treated by Aristotle hinjself in the Sophistici Elenchi, esp. c. xv and xvi, 
(Grote's Aristotle il pp. 109 — 115 ; see also Top. e). Some of the more 
striking parallels will be quoted in the course of the commentary. 

§ I. *As to Interrogation, you may opportunely resort to it, when 
your opponent has said the opposite, so that as soon as one more 

14 — 2 

212 PHT0PIKH2 r i8§2. 

UpwVy "eliromro^ Se on, ov^ oiop re dTeKe<rTOv aKOveiv, 
fjpero el oIBeu oi/ros, (J>da'KOVTO^ Se, ^^kui ttcSs are" 
2\6crTOS wi/;" Zevrepov Se orap to fxev (pai/epoi/ r, to 
Se epuiTYicciVTi 8iJ\oi/ ri on dciaei* irvdoiievov yap Sei 
Trip fiiap irpoTaaiP fxtj irpoorepiaTcip to (papepop dWd 
TO arvixirepaciJia eiireipy oJop ^(aKpaTtis Me\f]TOV ov 
ipdaKOPTO^ avTOP deov^ po/Jil^eip eiptiKCP el Sui/jlopiop 
Ti \eyoif ofioXoyna'apTO^ Ze fjpeTO el ovx ol Saifxope^ 
nToi dewp TraZSes elep tj deiop T£, (ptiaaPTO^ Se, ^^eaTiP 
ovp^ eipfi **os Ti9 6e<Sp /xep TracSas oieTai elpai, Oeovs 

question is put to him^ a contradictory result ensues', i.e. the result is 
a reductio ad absurdum. 

This Topic is exemplified by Pericles' retort to Lampon, the sooth- 
sayer, who is mentioned in Arist. Av. 521, Aafiirtov d* ofiwa^ tri koi pwI 
TOP XO^ ^^^'^ i^omarq. rt, and Plut. Pericles C. VI, Aofitrava rov iiavrtp. 
On rcXcnf, see note oh II 24. 2. 

The fragpnent ir^pi ipwria-^&s (as Spengel points out), besides having 
Uprro and ainip€To instead of imfpero and {jprro respectively, closes with 
the paraphrase avfifl)rj<rcarrog de rov Aa/iirtivos, ical irws cTfrcv drikearog Sv. 

§ 2. *0r, secondly, (you may employ interrogation) when om point 
is self-evident, and it is clear that the person interrogated will grant 
you the ot/ter as soon as you put the question. For, when you have 
obtained your first premiss by asking your opponent to admit it, you 
must not proceed to put what is self-evident in the form of a question, 
but simply state the conclusion yourself*. Soph. El. 15, 174 d 38, 
01S drc de TO avfJL7r€p€urfui irporariKws ipwrav' tvia d* ovd' ipmrtfTeoVy dXX' cJr 
ofioKoyovfuptf XP^frreov. Top. G 2, 1 54 ^ 7i ov del be to avfintpaafta iparrma 
irocciv. CI de /i^, dvavtvaavTogj ov doKei ytyovivai oi/XXoytcr/iOf. 

The illustration is taken from the Apologia of Socrates. * Socrates, 
when accused by Meletus of denying the existence of the gods, asked 
{vulg. lect. said), if there was anything which he called divine, and on 
his admitting this, he enquired whether the divine beings (ficuftopes) were 
not either children of the gods or of godlike nature, and on his answering 
"Yes", "Is there any one" he said "who believes in the existence of 
the children of the gods and yet denies that of the gods themselves ?" 
This corresponds only partially to the well-known passage in Plat. Apol, 
p. 27, already commented on in the note on 11 23. 8. There is probably 
some corruption in the word €lpr}K€v where we should expect i/pora 
or TJptTo. Spengel, following A* and the vetus translatioy reads uprjic€P 
ttf &y dcufJLOPiov Ti \iyoif ijptTo. " lUud o/ioXoyi/cravror Bt sensui et consilio 
Aristotelis repugnat, neque €ipfiK€P ti significat : quaesivit ex Meleto num 
daemonion quid credereU Sed Meletus de Socrate ctpi^icep «ff ay ha^utpvov 
Ti Xryoi." After quoting part of the passage of Plato, he says in con- 
clusion, ^Vides Socratem id quod Meletus dixit, non interrogare, sed 

PHT0PIKH2 r i8§§3,4. 213 

3^6 oif;" €Ti orav fieWij tj evavTia Xeyovra diEi^eip tj 
4 7rapd8o^ov. TerapTov he Srau fxtj ivfj dW* fj a-o^ 
<J)i(rTiK(iS^ dTroKpLvdfievov \v<rar edu yap oi/rws 
diroKpivtiTaiy on €(rTi fxev ecri 8* ov, tj Ta fiev rd 
o ovy f] Try fieu tt^ 8' oy> Oopvfiovo'iv W9 dwopovpre^. 
aAAois §€ firi iyx^ipeip" edv yap eva-T^y KeKparfia-Bai 
SoKer ov yap olov re iroWd epwTav hid ttjv da-diveiav 
Tov aKpoaTOv. ho Kal rd evdvfxrifxaTa oti ^dXitrra 
crvcTpecpeiu Sel. 

§ 3. * Further, (interrogation is appropriate) when the speaker is in- 
tending to shew up his opponent either in a self-contradiction or a paradox*. 

§ 4. 'Fourthly, when it is impossible (for the opponent) to meet the 
question, without giving a sophistical answer'. For the examples of this 
topic, €crri fiiv cori d* oS^ ic.r.X., comp. Soph. Elench. 19, 177 a 21, *the 
proper way for the respondent to deal with questions involving equivoca- 
tion of terms or amphiboly of propositions is to answer them, at the 
outset, with a reserve for the double meaning ' : mawtp to <riyavra Acyetv 
on tltrriv cor, cot* d' tos ov, kcX ra d€ovTa irpattrtov eortv o, cort d* a ov 
(Grote's Ar, li 114), where the interrogation is characterized as sophisti- 
cal, while here the same invidious epithet is applied to the answer. 
Comp. Top. O Jy €w\ t£v wraflmt koX nkeopax^s XtyofUvrnv. . .ro yAv ^vdoff 
TO If aXij^cV. As an instance of a quibbling answer^ we may compare the 
subtle distinction drawn by the over-intelligent servant in reply to the 
enquiry whether his master Euripides was at home; Ar. Ach. 396^ 
{(vbov torr "Evpimbrjs;) ovk tvbov^ Hvdov r eoriv, tl yvtoyirjv cj^'Cff. 

Bopv^vciv] This is a neutral word, and may be used of expressions of 
either pleasure or displeasure on the part of the audience> any ^sensa- 
tion' in fact, whether breaking out into applause or the reverse (see 
Riddell's note on its application to ^iKaaraiy Introd. to Plato's Apology, 
p. IX). Isocr. avriboo'iSj § 20, fifra Bopvfiov mX ;^aX€iron]roff aKpoatrBai r»y 
dirokoyavfUvonv. It is used of disapprobation (as here) in Rhet ad Alex* 
18 (19). 3, 6, 7, 8. 

»i anopovvTts'] It is not the audience that is perplexed ; on the con- 
trary it has a perfectly clear opinion on the obviously shuffling character 
of the answer, and expresses its displeasure accordingly. It is the 
person who gives a * sophistical' answer, who is apparently perplexed; 
hence we should accept the correction <of dvopovvTO£ proposed by Spengel 
and Schneidewin. The Paris MS A" actually has airopoOvrar, which sug- 
gested to Spengel the alternative emendation mropwvrcu Similarly the 
fragment ircpl ipan^atons has, irpos yap roits ovre^ anoKputojkivovs ol cucpotoiJLfPOi 
Oopyfiovaiv tos Anopovvras kcu ovk f^^ovras avrciTTCtv. 

*But otherwise' (i.e. except under the above limitations), 'the speaker 
must not attempt interrogation ; for if his opponent should interpose an 
objection, the questioner is considered beaten', tporj is here used of 
giving a check by interposing an * instance ' or Hyarraais. See Introd. p. 269, 

on fidkiara a'v<rrp€^ctv] 'to pack into as small a compass as possible'. 

214 PHT0PIKH2 r i8§§s, 6. 

5 d'TTOKpli/aadai Se Sel irpos fxev rd dfxfpifioXa Siai'- 
povvTa Xoytp kuI firj crvvTOfiw^y 7rp6^ Se Tci ^OKOvin'a 
evavria rrriv XvaiP (l)€popTa evOvs Ttj dTroKplaei, irplv 
e7repu)Tfi(rai to einov ij avWoyiaaadai* ov yap ^aAc- 
TTOV Trpoopap ev tlvi 6 A.07OS. <^avep6v S' ij/xli/ eo'Tta 

6 eV Twp TOTTiKWP Kai TOVTO Kal ai Xvaei^. Kal ovjul^ 
Trepaivofxepop, edp epvortiixa woifj to avfxwepaa'iJiaj Ttjp 

II 24. 2, TO awtiTTpafifiivop Kal dvriKcifihois elfrelp <l>aiv€rai €V0vfirjficu 
Dionysius, de Lys. lud. c. 6, iJ fruaTp€<t)ova'a ra voijfiaTa ical trrpoyyvkas 
€K(j>€pov(ra Xef iff. The verb is used metaphorically to express conciseness 
and condensation of style; in its literal meaning it might be applied 
to any squeezing and compacting process like that (for instance) of msJcing 
a snowball. Comp. note on 11 7. 5, irvinivayKda-Briarav, 

§ 5. 'In answering, you must meet ambiguous questions by drawing 
a distinction, and not expressing yourself too concisely*. Top. 07, 156 tf 
26, €av {to ipmrrjdep) em t\ fiev ylrtvdos j[, cVl t\ 6* akrjOeSf eniOTifiavTiov or* 
9r\eopax^s Xcyrrai icac didrt to fih yjttvbos to d' dXi;^C9* voTepov yap diaipav~ 
fi€Vov adrjKov el Ka\ iv dpxS orvve<Dpa to d/i^ij3oXov. In the fragment rrepX 
dnoKpia-eais (as Spengel notices) the latter part is paraphrased in such 
a manner as to shew that the writer read dunpovvra Xoy^ (omitting koi p^) 


'In answering questions that appear to involve you in a contradiction, 
you miist give your explanation immediately in your answer, before your 
opponent asks the next question or draws his conclusion*. This corre- 
sponds to what in the old style of our legal pleading would have been 
termed 'confession and avoidance*. 

cV t£v ToTTiKmv] namely in Top. lib. Vlil (8), in the opening words 
of which nas tel iptoTav is mentioned as one of the subjects of the 
book ; irepi diroKpla-eas is treated from c. 4 to c. 10 ; (Grote's Ak Vol. II 
47 — 54). Spengel somewhat questionably remarks: "notandus impera- 
tivus eoTG), hoc enim ut fipijo-^o), librum ilium nondum compositum esse 
indicare videtur ;'* (on the perfect imperative, see note on I 11.29). ^^ 
adds, ** neque coroi, quod deteriores exhibent, placet, praesens expectamus, 
aut intelligendum potius verbum in hac formula." 

§ 6. A second precept for 'answering*. 'When a conclusion is being 
drawn, if your opponent puts the conclusion in the form of a question, 
you must add the cause of your conduct*, ovpirepaivopevov is a neuter 
accusative absolute. It is here passive, not middle, though the vetus 
iranslatio renders it concludentem^ which is contrary to the sense required 
and to the general use of the verb, which is rarely found in the middle. 
Spengel even asserts non dicitur media forma^ but this assertion (unless 
I misunderstand his meaning) is refuted by Top. H 5, 150 ^ 33, paov yaph 
avpTrepdvacrOai ^ TroXXd, and by Eth. Nic. I I, IO94 d 22, dyain}Tov TrepX rotovrcov 
Ka\ €K TOiovToap XeyovTas 7raxv\as»**Td\i]$€s epbeUwcrdai koi irepl tSp iiti to 
TTokif Kal eK TotovTiDP XtyopTas ToiavTa Kal avpfrepaipeadai (which cannot be 

taken as any other than the middle voice). 

PHT0PIKH2 r i8§§6,7. 215 

airiav elireip* oiov ^ocpoKXfj^ €ptoTciiJ,evos vtto Oeicrai/- 
Bpov ei eSo^ei/ avrw wtrTrep Koi toTs aWoi^ TrpofiovXoi^y 
Karacrrfja'ai toi)s TeTpaKoariov^y €(j>r]. ^^ tl 8e; ov 
TTOVYipd aoi Tavra eSoKCi eli/ai;^^ e(pt]. ^^ovkovp av 
TavTU eirpa^a^ Ta noytjpa; ^^vai ecpvi* ^^ ov yap tiv 
aWa iSeXriwJ^ koi oJs 6 AaKWp evdvpoiaevo^ t^9 
icpopia^y ipcoTWfxepo^ el hoKOvcrip avrw SiKaiu)^ dwoXta^ 
Xepai drepoij eiprj. o Se ^^ovkovp av tovtoi^ tuvtci 
euovi Kai 05 ecpti. ^'ovkovp oiKaicos ap etprj ^^Kai o"i; p. 147. 
aTToXoLOi^^ ^'ov SfJTa^^ e(pri' ** 04 /xei/ yap ^p^fiaTa 
Xal36pT€£ Tavra eirpa^aPy iyo) S' 01/, dXXd ypcSfitjJ^^ 
Sio ovT eirepwrdp Zei fxcTa to cv/jLTrepaaiuLa, ovt€ to p. 1419 d. 
ovfATripao'iuia iwepwraPy eap fxrj to ttoXv Trepifj tov 
7 7r€pi Se Twp yeXoicoPy iTrei^tj Tipa SoKei 'Xptjo'iP 
€X^^P €1/ ToTs dywCLy Kai Seip e(pf] Fopylas Ttjp fiep 

^o<f)OKKrJ9] On this statesman and orator (not the poet), and on the 
ten TTpoffovkoi of whom he was one, see note on i 14. 3. 

€v6vv6fi€vos Trj£ €<l}opias] ^called to account for his administration of the 
office of ephor*. The ephors are charged with being liable to venality in 
Pol. II 9, 1270 d 10, 8ia T^v diropiap ^viou The ephor in the present 
instance repudiates the charge, and insists that he had not acted on the 
prompting of bribery, but * on principle' (yvaofirf), 

OVT ^ntptoTop — aKfiQovs] * hence (to avoid being thus foiled), you should 
neither put a further question after drawing the conclusion nor express 
the conclusion itself in the form of a question, unless the truth of 
the facts is superabundantly clear', Comp. Top. 62, 154 ^ 7, already 
quoted on § 2. 

§ 7 treats very briefly of 'jests', as a useful accessory in debate ; 
Ridiculum acri Fortius et melius magnas plerumque secat res (Hor. 
Sat. I 10. 14). The subject of ridiculum is treated by Cicero de Oratore, 
II 58.236 seq., Quintil. VI 3.22 — 112, haec iota disputatio a Graecis nepl 
yekoiov inscribitur (§ 22),.. usus autem maxime triplex, aut enim ex aliis 
visum petimus aut ex nobis aut ex rebus mediis (§ 23). For other re- 
ferences see note on i 11. 29. 

hfiv cc^i; Topyiai — opBSs Xcy&p] ' Gorgias laid it down, and rightly too, 
that you should confound (spoil the effect of) the seriousness of your 
opponents by ridicule, and their ridicule by seriousness'. In a Scholium 
on Plat Gorg. p. 473 E, (where Socrates says to Polus) yeXas ; oAXo av 
TOVTO (Idos i\€yxov corly, fTTdbdv ris ri curj;, icaraycXai/, iXeyx^iP dc fii;, the 
dictum of Gorgias is quoted in the following form : (del) rds awovdas rSp 

2i6 PHTOPIKH2 r i8§7. 

(TTTOvhrip hiaipdeipeiv twv iyaPTiwp ye\a)Ti top Se 
ye\(OTa cttoi/S^, opdtS^ Aeycoj/, eiptirai iroo'a eiSri 
yeXoiwp earlv iu toU irepl iroifiTiKtis^ wp to [xev 
dpfioTTei eXevBepia to 8' ov. ottcos ovv to dpfxoTTOV 
avTM \^\j/'eTai. eo'Ti 8' ij eipwveia Trjs ^ft)/xo\o;^£a9 
eXevdepKOTCpov* o fxev yap ovtov eveKa Troiei to 
yeXoTop, 6 Se /SiafxoXoxos eTepov. 

dirnBiKtav yeXtori ckXvcm', to de ycXota rats mrmtbeus exiepovriv (Plato, ed. 
Baiter and Orelli, p. 910 ^20; Sauppe, Fragm. Or. Att. iii 131). The 
only material variation between the two forms of quotation is Aristotle's 
probably intentional alteration of r&v avrtbUapf which would apply to the 
forensic branch alone, into t£p eyavriW, which extends the applicability of 
the remark to all the three branches of Oratory. Dr Thompson observes 
that " the remark is one which could not have been made by an ordinary 
man, and the sentence is too nicely balanced for a mere colloquial 
dictum" {Gorgiasy p. 178). The first half of Gorgias' precept may be 
exemplified by the familiar line, And coxcombs vanquish Bi^rkeley hy a 
grin (Dr Brown's Essay on Satire il 224). 

One of the best classical instances of the effective use of pleasantry to 
neutralize over-strictness on the part of one's opponent is Cicero's good- 
humoured banter of his friends Sulpicius and Cato, in the speech pro 
Murena (§§ 19—30 and §§ 61 — 65). We may also compare Dem. Or. 54 
(icoTo YJovfAVQ^ §§13 and (as an illustration of meeting jest by earnest) 20, 
cira yeXao'czyrcf v/xci£ d<f>i^(r€T€; ov yap av yiXtos vfi&v TKaPtv ovdivoy d irapmv 
€Tvyxav€v ic.r.X, Comp. Or. 23 § 206, av h rj bv dtrrtia cur«>a-i...d<^icr€, Arist 
Vesp. 566, 01 dc \iyovariv fii6ov£ 17/xiP oi ^ Aicmrov ri ytXoiov' ol dc CKtmrova 
IV cyeo ytXaaa Ka\ tov dvfiov KaTd$a>tiat, See also Volkmann, die Rhetorik 
der Griechen und Romero § 29, Ueber Lachen und Witz, 

€v Tois TTfpl noirjTiKrjs] See note on I 11. 29} di^piarai ircpt ytkoiov x*^f*' 
iv To2g irepi iroiriTiKrjs, 

dpfioTTfi iXivSiptp] £th. Nic. IV 14, 1 128 a ly, tov hrtJbf^lov cori 
Toiavra Xryeiy Ka\ oKoviiv ola r^ ciriciKcZ Ka\ cXcvtfcpi^ apfiorrci. Cic* de 
Off. I 29. 103, ipsutn genus iocandi non profusum nee immodestuniy sed 
ingenuum et facetum esse debet ^ § 104, facilis est distinctio ingenui et illi- 
beralis ioci, 

TO qpfioTTov avT^ Xif^crai] Cic. Orator, § 88, ridiculo sic usurum 
oratoreniy ut nee nimis frequentiy ne scurrile sit,..negue aut sua persona 
aut iudicum aut tempore alienum. There is a kind of quiet irony ob- 
servable in Aristotle's hint that the orator is to select his special line of 
pleasantry according as he happens to be a gentleman or the reverse. 

dptovtia — iripov] * Irony is more gentlemanly than buffoonery: one who 
resorts to irony makes his joke for his own amusement only, whereas the 
buffoon does so for an ulterior object*. On /SofioXoxta, comp. Eth. Nic. iv 14, 
1 1 28 ^ 4, ol r^ ycXot^ v7r€pPak\oVT€s Pafiokoxoi ^oKovartv e?yai Ka\ (fioprucoly 
y\ix6p,€Poi 7rdvT(os tov ycXoiov Kai pSKKov <rToxaC6p€voi tov ycXoyra 9roi$<raA fj 
TOV Xcycti' tva-xrjpova km p>*j Xi/jrciJ^ top (rKoitropepop. ib, line 349 ^ dc /So/ioXo- 

PHT0PIKH2 r I9§i. 217 

6 8' iTTiKoyo^ crvyKeirai ix reTTaptop, tic t€ tov chap. xix. 
TTpos iavTOU KaTacKevdcai ev tov uKpoaTtiv Kai top 
ipapTiop (pavXw^, Kal €k tov av^fjo'ai Kai Taweipwa'ai, 
Kai CK TOV eh to, irdOti top aKpoaTtiP KaTa(rTfi(rai, 
Kai i^ dvafxpnceta^. fritpVKe yap fiSTa to otTroSel^ai 

Xos iJTT»v iarl tov y€\olcVf Koi ovrt iavrov o vt€ rmv oKKtov airtxotifvosy tl yc- 
Xcora iroii/drci. On tlptov^ia, comp. ib. C. 13^ o2 ^ Apavts ciri to Zkarrov Xcyoyrcff 
X<ipi^oT€poi fUp TO, (jBrf <f>aivovTai' ov yap Kcpbovs mxa boKovai Xryciv, aXX^ 
^{yovTfs TO dyiajpop: see also the references in note on 1 1 2. 24, to which 
may be added Auctor ad Herennium IV 34. 46, where irony is called 

It is a nice question whether avrov tvtKa is neuter (as Mr Cope takes 
it inthefexl of the Introd. p. 366), or 'perhaps masculine' (as he suggests 
in the nofe, and as I have ventured to translate it above). The latter is 
the view supported by Victorius: ''Qui utitur dissimulatione, sibique 
semper in sermone detrahit, atque-aliis plusquam vere concedi possit, 
tribuit, ut ipse oblectetur, voluptatemque ex aliorum stultitia capiat^ hoc 
facit. quare sibi servit: contra scurra ridiculus est, et iocos undique 
captat, ut alii voluptatem gignat, quod illiberale ac sordidum est, omnia 
facere, ut alii turpiter inservias." 


The book appropriately closes with a chapter on the Peroration: 
the contents of that portion of the speech are distributed under four 
heads : (i) to inspire the audience with a favourable opinion of yourself 
and an unfavourable one of your opponents, (2) amplification and 
extenuation, (3) the excitement of the emotions of your audience, (4) 
refreshing their memory by recapitulation. 

Comificius, II 30. 47, gives three divisions, (i) enumeration (2) amplt" 
ficatio^t (3) commiseratio, Cic. de Inv. i 52. 98, (i) enumeration (2) indig" 
natiOy (3) conquestio. Apsines 12 p. 384, (i) dvafjanja-is, (2) Tk€os, (3) ^€i- 
woais (17 dc dtlpmo'ts Kara ttjv av^ritnv ^eopclrai). Amplificatio and com- 
miseratio are sometimes brought under one head, thus reducing the 
divisions to two, as in Cic. part, orat 15. 52, (i) amplification (2) enume- 
ratio (Volkmann, die Rhetorik der Griechen und Romero § 29). 

In spite of what is here said about av^rja-is, the student of ancient 
eloquence cannot fail to be struck by the quiet character of most of the 
perorations of the Attic orators. Perhaps the tamest of all (to our modern 
taste) is the closing sentence of Lysias Or. 22 («cara t£v o-(roira>Xa>v) § 22, 
oCk oI^ o Ti del ffrXciitt Xeyciv* ircpt fAtP yap rcav iW&v reov adiKovvrap, 
oT€ diKa(ovTcu, b(i wapa tSp Korrjyop&p irvBivBaiy Trjp de Tovrtop iroptjpiap 
&jraPT€S ivlaraa-BM, clp ovp Tovrap KaTayffTj(f>iaria3tf to. t€ dUaia iroiija'er€ leal 
d^iiOTtpop top aiTOP mpritrtaBt' ft dc firj, Tifii(OT€pop» It is well 
remarked by Brougham that "the perorations, if by this we mean the con- 
cluding sentences of all, in the Greek orations, are calm and tame, com- 
pared with the rest of their texture, and especially with their penultimate 

2i8 PHT0PIKH2 r i9§§i, 2. 

avTov ixiv d\fi6fj toi/ Se evavriov \l^ev^fj, ouTto to 
eTraiveiv kol -y^eyeip kui i7rixct\K€veii/» SvoTp he 
Oarepov Se? a'T0X(i^€O'6ai, tj on toi/to£s dyados ri 
OTi aTrXco^y o 5' OTi KaKo^ tovtoi^ tj oTi a7r\ctts» 
e^ (Jj/ Se Sij TOLOVTOv^ KUTaaKevd^eip Set, elptiP' 
Tai oi TOTTOi TTodev (TTTOvSaiov^ hei KaTacKevd" 
2 ^€iv Kal (pavKov^. to Ze fieTo, tovto heheiyfxepaiv 

portions, which rise to the highest pitch of animation' (vol. vii, Rhetorical 
Dissertations^ pp. 25, 184 ; see also especially Jebb's /i///V Orators I p. ciii). 

7r€<f>vK€ — eVixaXiceueti'] * For the natural order is first to prove your 
own case to be true and your opponent's to be false ; and after that, 
to use praise and blame, and to elaborate these topics'. These words 
give the reason for giving theyfrj/ place in the four heads to inspiring 
in the audience a favourable opinion towards yourself. 

imxa^i^^^eiv] is a difficult word to translate satisfactorily in the present 
context. Victorius dubiously explains it : " expolire et quod factum iam 
est cursim festinanterque eo consilio ut concinnes, iterare ac repetere.' 
It is metaphorically used in Arist. Nub. 422, where Strepsiades offers 
himself (not his son, as Ernesti says Lex. Techn, s.v.,) to Socrates, as sturdy 
and tough material for him to hammer upon and forge to his purpose, 
dXX' €V€K€P ye "^vxvs arTeppas...dfi€\ei Bappap, ovpcKa rovrcDV ^TrcxoXKcvciv 
7rap€xot/x' &p (for a Latin metaphor from the anvil, comp. Horace, A. P. 
441, mate tcmatos incudi reddere versus). At first sight the word might 
be supposed to refer to dudfxujia-is, which is subsequently explained in 
the words TroXXaKis eiVelv, in which case it would mean 'to hammer 
your subject down', * drive it home'; but firra tovto in § 2 shews that 
in the present section Ar. is only dwelling on the first of the four heads 
of the epilogue, and does not at present touch on dvaftvi^o-ir, which is 
reserved for § 4. Consequently we must understand it to mean *to 
elaborate', 'to finish off', the topics belonging to the first head. It may 
also mean to mould the audience to one's purpose. Brandis in Schneide- 
win's Philologus IV i, p. 45, points out that his Anonymus read the clause 
as follows : koi p,tTa (not ovtw) to inoAPeip kcu 'sjriyeip to (not kol) eVixoX- 
K€V€ip, in which case the last word corresponds to the third head, 
els TO. nddrj KaTaaTfj(rai top oKpoaTijp. 

' Now (in this) you must aim at one of two objects ; to represent 
yourself as either relatively or absolutely good, and your opponent as 
either relatively or absolutely bad'. As is remarked in the In trod, 
p. 368, ' the virtue assumed may be either virtue /^r se, and independent 
of all other considerations, as times, places, and persons — or in default 
of this, at any rate good to the judges or audience ; as it may be, useful, 
or well-disposed'. On dnXcosj see note on I 2. 4. 

€tpr)PTai 01 TOTTot] See I 9- i» 

§ 2. debeiyfiepap — cVrtV] * The next point in the natural order is to 
proceed to amplify what has already been proved {bebayfupop^ or again to 
depreciate (what has been proved by your opponent) ; for the facts must be 

PHT0PIKH2 r 19 §§2— 4. 219 

^Bri av^eiv io'Ti Kara (j>v(np tj raireivovv^ Zei yap 
Tct ireirpayixeva oiioXofyeicrdai^ ei fxeXXei to ttocop 
epeiv* Kul yap t] tcop artojudreop av^rjari^ iK Trpovirap^ 
'XpvTtav earriv. o6ev Se Set av^eip Kal Taireipovp^ 

3 eKKeiprai oi tottoi irporepop. fierd Se TavTa, Sti\wp 
OPTWP Kal dla Kal t]\lKa^ eU Ta iradti ayeip top aKpoa^ 
TYiP* TavTa S' ioTTlp eXeos Kal Seipoxri^ Kal opyrj kolI 
fxicro^ Kal (J)66po£ Kal ^Aos Kal €pi£. eiprjPTai Se Kal 

4 TOVTWP ol TOTTOI TTpoTcpop. wo'Te XoiTTOP dpafxpfjorai 

Ta TTpoeipriiJLepa. tovto Se dpfxoTTei ttoicTp ovtco^ p. 148. 
iiairep (paclp ip toTs Trpooifiioi^, ovk Spdco^ XiyoPTe^* 
*ipa yap evfxadfj ^, KeXevovai TToXXdKi^ eiTreTp. eKei fiep 
ovp hei TO irpdyixa elireiPy ^ipa jmrj Xapddprj 'irepl ov ti 
kpicri^y ipTavda Se Sl wp Se^eiKTat Ke(l)aXai(oSm. 

admitted, if one is to treat of the question of degree (by way of amplification 
or the reverse) ; just as the growth of the body arises from something 
pre-existing.' dedciy/icvov is supported by the vefus translatio and all 
the MSS except A", which has deBtiyfuvav, an awkward genitive absolute 
which is left standing alone owing to the loss of some words which 
. would have made the sentence run like the next transition in § 3, /*€Tck 
dc ravra, di^Xcov ovrav koi oia Koi ifXi/ca. Spengel suggests as an alternative 
that the participle refers to " ipsam argumentationem, i.e. coniirmationem 
et confutationem, quod suadent verba del yap ra W€irpayfi€va o/aoXo- 

€KK€ivTat oi roTToc] See I cc. 7, 9, 24 ; and II 7. 2. 

§ 3. lyXiica] referring particularly to av^euf Koi raveivovv, 

€\€os] 'commiseration*. Cic. de Inv. i 55. 106, Conquestio oratie 
auditorum misericordiam captansy ib. § 100. Supra li 8. 2. 

dcivoMrtf] 'indignation'. See note on li 21. 10, o-xcrXtao-fif (correspond- 
ing to tkio^ KCLi b(iv<6<r€i, and note 3 on p. 368 of Introd. Cf. Plat Phaedri 
272 A, cXcifoXoyiar Kai b€ivda'€€09. 

On opyrj see ll 2. i and 4.31; on pXaos, ll 4.31; on <f>66vosy II 9. 3 
and 10. 1 ; on pjkos, 11 11. i. 

ol TOTTot] See II cc. I — II, where however duvoao'is and tpig are not, like 
the other topics, specially treated of. 

§ 4. * The remaining branch of the peroration is the recapitulation 
of the previous parts of the speech. At this point you may appropriately 
do what some, absurdly enough, advise one to do in the exordium. They 
recommend you to to state your points again and again that they 
may be distinctly understood. In the exordium, however, you should 
simply state the subject of the speech, that the point at issue may be 
clearly seen ; in the peroration you have to state summarily the means 
whereby your case has been proved*. 

220 PHT0PIKH2 r 19 §5. 

S ap'xti be cioTi a vireo'^^TO aTrodectoKey* ware a re Kai 
Si o A6KT60I/. Xeyerai Se e^ dvTiirapafioXr]^ tov 
evavTLOV. irapa^dWeiv Se ri oca irepl to uvto diJicpta 
eJirop, fj jULtj KaTavTiKpv* **c?W' ovto^ fxev Taie Trepi 
TovTOV, eyo) oe Taoiy Kai oia TavTa. t\ e^ eiptaveia^y P. 1420 
oiov ^^ovTO^ yap Tad eiirePy eyw oe Taoe. Kai tl av 
eiroieiy ei race eoei^eUf aWa fxti TaoL\ ti e^ epw 
Tf]ore(os* **Ti ov heSeiKTai;^^ ^ ''ovto^ ti eSei^ei/;" tj 
0^1 oi/Tws ^; €/c TrapapoAri^y ti Kara (pvcrip, cws eXe-xp^y 
ovt(o to, avTOVy Kai iraXiVy edv /BovXtiy x^P^^ '^^ '^^^ 

§ 5. 'The first point (in the recapitulation) is (to state) that you 
have performed all that you have promised'. Isocr. dmdoo-if § 75, oc/mic 
yap ovrodcdoKevai t^v virotrx^o'iy, 

*(The recapitulation) may also consist of a comparison (of the 
opponent's case with your own) ; you may either compare what both 
said on the same pointy or else (you may do so) without setting each 
point over against the other'. 

7j €K TraptxPokrjs] as dvTiTrapaPokfi is actually the subject of all the 
preceding part of the section, cV vapaPoXrjs cannot be contrasted with 
ovTC9Sf but must be identical with it. Hence we should either strike out 
this clause, or at any rate (with Victorius and Spengel), put tj into 
brackets, in which case J} d^ ovras will be explained if. necessary by cV 
arapa^Xfjs. Possibly, however, the clause is due to the intrusion into 
the text of a marginal explanation of ovras such as an abbreviated 
form of rjyovp (the scholiast's common equivalent for scilicei) e«c vapaPokrjs, 

Kara <^v<rtv] i. e. your recapitulation may follow and contrast your own 
points in the natural order, as they were spoken ; and then, if you please^ 
separately, what has been said by your opponent. 

TcXcvn) — \6yog §] *As a conclusion (to a speech) the most suitable 
style is that which has no conjunctions, to make it a true peroration, 
and not an actual oration'. 

TeXcvrg is with much plausibility conjectured by Victorius, and the 
conjecture is supported by F. A. Wolf. The nominative is possibly due 
to the copyist being misled by the apparent parallelism above, dpxfl 
di diori IC.T.X. — T^s Xeffwff is constructed with ly davpBtTos; on this kind 
of * attraction', comp. note on ill 9. 3, tj flpop.4vri rfjs Xc|fa>f. 

€7rikoyos.,.\6yos] Quint. VI 1.2, nam si morabimur, non iam enume- 
ration sed quasi altera fiet oratio. Supra ill 9. 6, oX ntploboi al fioKpal 
vv(r<u \6yos yiverai, 

(tprjKa, aKJiKoare, txprf, Kplvar^] ' I must now close ; you have heard 
all; the facts are in your hands; I ask for your verdict'. Considering 
the carelessness of style which characterizes many portions of the Rke" 
toric, it is all the more striking to find its close marked by a sentence 
so happily chosen,— a sentence which at once illustrates the point under 

PHT0PIKH2 r r9§6. 221 

6 epaPTiov \oyov. TeXevrtj Se r^s Ae^ews dpfioTrei 1; 
davp^eTO^y ottoi^ €7ri\o709 d\Aa /ui; Aoyos ^* ^^eiptjKa, 
aKfiKoaTSj e'x^re, Kpivare.^^ 

consideration and also serves as an appropriate farewell to the subject 
of the treatise ; as though Aristotle had added at the conclusion of his 
course : * I have said all that I had to say ; my lectures are now finished ; 
I leave the subject in your hands, and trust it to your judgment*. The 
closing words of the Sophistic! Elenchi are at least equally eflfective, 
\oiirop av ftrj iravrmv vn^v rj rSv T^Kpoaiieve^v tpyov vols fiev TrapoXeXct/i/ici/oiff 
r^s fifBobov avyyvaififiv rots d* evprjfjJvois noXK^v ^X^^^ X^'P*"* 

The illustration is doubtless a reminiscence ofthe closing words of one 
of the best-known speeches of Lysias, Or. 12 (kot 'Ef}aTo<rB€vovs)f nava-ofiai 
Korrfyopav' aKrjKoarfy iapaKOTf, ireirovBarf' ?X^^^9 diKa(€T€, a passage which 
may perhaps find its modem equivalent in some such words as these : 

* The speech for the prosecution must now close ; I have appealed to 
your ears, to your eyes, to your hearts : the case is in your hands ; I ask 
for your verdict.'] . 


Shilletds Adversaria on the Rhetoric of Aristotle, 

[Among the books belonging to the late Mr Shilleto which have been 
recently acquired by the University Library, are two interleaved copies of 
the edition of the Rhetoric printed at the Oxford University Press in 1826. 
One of these, which is in bad condition owing to many years of use, 
contains a large number of annotations of very unequal value, written in 
various hands; in the other, which bears on the title-page the name 
Richard Shilleto with the date Dec, 15, 1863, apparently all the notes on 
which his maturer judgment set any value, are copied out by himself in 
a hand rivalling that of Richard Porson for clearness and beauty. All 
these notes, and a few selections from the older book, with some trifling 
omissions, (parallel passages, for instance, already quoted at large in 
these volumes,) I have transcribed in full by permission of the Syndics 
of the University Library, and I append them here as an epilogue to 
Mr Cope's Commentary,] 


A 1. 12, avarfta\ hi avrav i^Traa-dai] di.' avrSv i. e. t&v pijTopiKo^v, 

1, 13, Tovroi9 CLV Tis to(l>€\rj(r€i€ TO. fieyiara xp^y-^^^^ biKai&s ic.r.X. Plat. 
Meno. 87 £, (TKeylrafifOa brj Kaff eKaarov apciKafipdvovrcs, noid iartv a rjfias 
co^eXet. vyiiiOy 0a/x€i/, /eat ta-x^s Koi koKKos koi ttXovtos 8rj' roOra Xryo/xcy 
fcat TO, TOiavra o>^6Xc/ia...ravra be ravrd <f>aiLev eviore koi /SXawreiv. 

1. 14, (To^toT^ff ficV] Intellige; <TO(f>icrTffs fxev {a'o(l>i<rTi]s itrrijj.^.bicXtK" 
TiKos di ov ((TO(f)ia"njs eori) k.tX, 

2. 12, rj y€V€<rdai rj eaeaBcu fj exeip] €X«v: Plat. Theaet. 1 83 A, 204 A, 
I Rep. 35 1 C inter tariv et r^tt lis est in Codd. Editt.) 

2.20, Kara Tp67rov] = opBcos, Vid. Cobet. N. Lect. p. 87. "Plat, de 
Rep. IX 581 A, KciXovvTes avrb ^CKoxp^p-orov 6p6^£ av KoKoiiieVy et post 
pauca: <f>L\ofia6es Brj Koikovvres avro Kara rpoirov av KcXoifuv,'^ Itaque 
h. 1. scribe Kard \6yov vel fj Kara rpoirov. Hoc praefero, 

3, 2, fj deapbv flvai § KpiTrjv jcr.X.] Cicero Orat. Part. 3. 10, Quid 
hdbes igitur de causa dicere f Cicero Pater : A uditorum earn genere distingui. 
Nam aut auscultator est modo qui audita aut disceptator^ id est rei sen- 
ientiaeque moderator: ita^ ut aut delectetur^ aut statuat aliquid, Sta- 


Mi autent out de praeteritisy ut iudex^ aui de futuriSy ui senaius. Sic 
tria sunt genera^ iudicii, deliberationis, exomationis : quae quia in laur 
dationes maxime con/ertur, proprium habet iam ex eo nomen, I de Ora- 
tore 31. 141, (non negabo me didicisse) causarum.,.partim in iudiciis 
versari, partim in deliberationibus : esse etiam genus tertiunty quod in 
laudandis aut vituperandis hominibus ponereiur. de invent, il 4. 12, 
omnis et demonstrativa et deliberativa et iudicialis causa,., Aliud enim 
laus aut vituperaHOy aliud sententiae dictiOy aliud accusatio aut recusatio 
conficere debet. In iudiciis quidaequum sit quaeritur^ in demonstrationibus 
quid honestunty in deliberationibus y ut nos arbitramuTy quid honestum sit 
et quid utile, 

3.8, ovhk ra firj y€v6fi€va fj fjLrj itrofi^va ov\ oXov re K.r.X,] alia collegit 
Herm. ad Plat. Rep. ill 389 A. [Rhet.] ill 17. 8, Isaei Ciron. Hered. § 27; 
Dem. Androt. 603, Mid. 532 ; Plat. Rep. iv 426 B, Dem. irpoy ^opfiimva 
907, I Aphob. 834, Aesch. Choeph. 64, 470, Plat. Symp. 204 a ; Lucian; 
I p. 22, Somnium 17; Bremi ad Aeschin. adv. Ctesiph. § yS; Lysias de 
olea 108 St = 264 R, Theomnest. 116 St =344 R et 117 St =350 R; Herod. 
VII loi, Lys. xiii § i6, Dem. Vll 83 § 28. 

ovd€.,.ov qu. [Rhet.] i S- 15; (oXX*) ov, i 11. 9. 

4. 6, Xi;(r€ra(] Anal. Pr. II 19, rovro ^ T^\La.i ov Xifo-rrai dia to tlbtvai ir<3y 
vrr€)(Ofitv Tou Xoyoy. De Xijo*®, Xi/crofiai, disputavit Cobet Nov. Lect. 
p. 265, 266. 

5. 3, KTTifiaroiv Kol o-ofiarwv] dead and live stock, thing-chattels, man- 
chattels. — Num Plat. Gorg. 511 D idem sibi vult? rrjv KvPcpvrjriic^Vy fj ov 
liovov ras ^jrvxag (rd^eiy dXXa Koi ra troifiara Koi rci xprjiiarcu 

5. II, ^vro yf/pas Xat^rcu] €^v=tovt»p a (nominativus). 

5. 13, TocrovTOD p.(i(ovi wore /x^ . . .ttoicTi' #f.r.X.] Transl. 'by an amount 
just so far larger as not to render*. Si voluisset Ar. * so that we make 
our movements not more tardily', scripturus fuit iroiflvdai, 

5. 15, otjy aXvTTos Koi noXvxpovios' ovt &vev] Quid si ov'd' a\vwos kq\ 
fro\vxpoviog ovK av€v...? Si vera lectio est, aX. koi no\. idem fere valet 
quod TToXvxpoviios aXviros, ut in Tac. XI Ann. 5, continuus inde et saevus 
accusandis reis Suillius, — \pvT^'\ Bekk. st. De ovh€..,ov vid. ad I 3. 8. 

6. 24, KopivSiois y ov pi€fi(l>€Tai TO "iXiop] Schneidewin Simonides 
Fragm. XCiv, p. 105, 106. " Schol. Vratislav. Pind. Olymp. xiii 78, tovto 
de Koi 2ip.avi8rjs cittc* KopivOioiari d* 01/ iiaviti to ^iXioy ovde Aavaoi' 
dfi(f>oT€pots yap avfifiaxoi iyivovro. Codex Kopiv6iot(riv ot/ fiavtec, omissis to 
"iXiov, turn Aavaolsy quae omnia restituit Boeckhius. Numeri dissoluti. 
Plutarch. Dion. I. Vox (j^jviciv interpretationi cessit apud Aristot. 
Rhet. I 6." 

7. 14, &pi(TTov fi€v vdtt)p] " So then I will conclude with the saying of 
Pindarus optima res aqua; not for the excellency but for the common 
use of \\J* Bacon, Speech Touching Purveyorsy vol. IV, p. 306, ed. 


TO TToXXdicif row oXiyoicir wrepexti] *' degrees of well-doing there could 
be none, except perhaps in the seldomness and oftenness of doing well." 
Hooker, EccL Pol. i 8. 8, voL i, p. 290, ed. Keble. 

7. 21, o Kpivtiv hp Ij (vel) KfKpiKatTiP oi <fip6pifJL0i fj irdpT€s fj oi noWol 
(sapientes sive omnes sive quam plurimi; of. II 23. 12) fj (aut) oi irXeiovs 
fj (aut) ol fcparioTOc. 


7. 2S, 17 ovs cvroi Kpipova-i] § ovg dirMxovrat II 22. 3 ; 23. 12. — XeiU 
Memor. iv 4. 16, Eur. Heracl. 197, 

9. 2,] Quintil. Ill 7. 6. 

9. 38, t fjMkiara ireirotiyicfv] o delet Bekk. ecL ult Sed o idem valet 
quod €1 rt. 

(dft*) •Ap/io^toi'] a** add. Vater. Bekk. ed. ult 

9. 38, avmidtiav] Cicero Brut 12. 48 (Ait Aristoteles) Isocratem 
prima artem dicendi esse negavisse^ scribere autem aliis solitum orationes^ 
quibus in iudiciis uterentur. Quid sibi velit Bekker ex uno Codice prae- 
ferens davvi]d€uuf, quum reliqui tres aw^Btiap praebeant, parum intelligo, 
Cf. Ill 13. 3. [" Jebb, AUic Orators ll p. 68 note 2. Surely dtnnn^Oeuuf is 
utterly inconsistent with ill 13.'' Note in Shilleto^s older copy of Rhet] 

9.41, €xofi€p<ov] Cf. II 22. iiy 16. 

II. 10, nuiaBai] cWiovwot, II 20. 6, ["Lobeck. ad Phrynich. p. 31" 

1 1. 23, " Not only what is gpreat strange or beautiful, but anything 
that is disagreeable when looked upon, pleases us in an apt description... 
for this reason therefore the description of a dunghill is pleasing to the 
imagination, if the image be represented to our minds by suitable ex- 
pressions; though perhaps this may be more properly called the plea- 
sure of the understanding than of the fancy, because we are not so much 
delighted with the image that is contained in the description, as with the 
aptness of the description to excite the image," Addison, Spectator y 418. 

1 1. 8, r\ di an-opcoy] fj ^ci^ bi diropiay Bekk. St. sed in ols latet tt rta-i, 

12. 23, i^pofficuTitas dclroi ykovov 1; 9rovi7pia] Proverbii scriptor sic scrips 
sisse videtur: barat irpo<lida'€Cis iixwvov f\ nomipiaf vel ro roi vovrjpop vpo- 
^tiCUT€i»$ deiroc /lovov. 

12.28, ols xapwui^ai] ^ovg A exhibere Thurot I^ev, Arch, IV 299 
dicit." SpengeL 

13. 12, dvrfvirotciv] mn ev iroceof, [See Shilleto's article in Journal 
cf Philology VII, No. xiii, p. 157]. 

14. 5, deftar iTiWctr] vide ne aut deltas niartis (Eur. Med. 21 et ibi 
Porson) scribendum aut n-iWctv omittendum tanquam gloss, vocabuli 

I5< 12, ovdcv biaxf}€p€i rj fuj KtitrBcLi ^ fu} XP^^^^^ ^^ ^5* ^^ Thuc IV. 73, 
Dem. Pantaen. p. 978 § 41. 

15. 10, e^* 6iroT€pov icr.X.] Cf. II 4. 32* Suspensa et quo ducerentur 
inclinatura responderety Tac. xi Ann. 34, 

15. 12, ov rov 9rapa rov pofiov cvcxa dijcafciv] Plat, Gorg. 454 C, rov 
i$fis €V€Ka wtpaivfadai rov \oyov, Dem. de Coron. p. 267 § 120, rov df rt»¥ 
fn'€<f>a»ovynov hf€Ka avpxf>ipovTOs\ 

15. 13, irpo<r^orot] vid. Lob, ad Phryn. p. 374, 375, 


B I. I, avToi BiaKeip€Vot nci£}^oi Kpirai, sive cieieXi;(rca<rral sive biKaarai 
2.5, o vPpi(av — 170-^] I 13.10, ou yap cl CTrarafe irovrcof vppitr€v' 
dXX* c( cVciea rov, oiov rov drcfuzo-cu iKtivov tj adros rjaBfjvcu* 

3. 10, ddvvttTop dpa ^ojScTo-^ai Koi 6pyiC€<r6ai] ''My affright at his bale- 
ful aspect begins to abate, and my hatred to arise/' Scott, Kenilworth 
ch. xix. *' Under this iron domination scarce a complaint was heard; 


for hatred was effectually kept down by terror," Macaulay, Hist. Enfr, 
I p. 628. 

3. 13, Travel... o/yy^y...X]7<^^«to'a rifjMpla np6T€pov] *l have little doubt 
of procuring a remission for you provided we can keep you out of the claws 
of justice till she has selected and gorged upon her victims ; for in this, 
as in other cases, it will be according to the vulgar proverb, "First come, 
first served"' Scott, Waverley ch. LXii. "After the first storm there is 
naturally some compassion attends men like to be in misery." Clarendon, 
Rebel lion y Book I p. 3 ^. las yap iiri ro voKv ol rcXcvraioi Kpivofievoi 
a-<o(ovTcu' 7r€iravfi€voi yap rfjs opyfjs avrav dxpodtrBe, Ka\ roifs ikeyxovs fjdrj 
ddeXovrts dirob€Xf(r6€, Lysias XIX § 6 p. 152 St= i66 R. 

3. 17, avTovs»»»vapaa'Ktvd(ov(n roiovrovs] avrovg i.e. roifS Kpirds. Cf. 9. 16. 
Quid sibi velit Bekkerianum avrovr, me quidem latet. 

4. 18, etdorar {ra t&v likrurlov KaKo)] *Who make themselves ac- 
quainted with.' Thus Plutarch II 73 G, o y cyirct/icpos a€i kcli navraxov 
iriKpos Kcu, dT€p7rrJ£f Koi vdvra yivcSaKav kcH irokv7rpaypMf»p [from Shilleto's 
older copy]. 

4. 27, 015 6appovfi€v] otfs MS A°. Spengel. Ego diu conieceram. 

4. 31, o fiio'wv] Ennius 379, ^uem metuuntj oderunt: quern quisgue 
odity periisse expetit, Ovid il Amor. 2, 10, quern metuit quisque perisse 

4.32, ay«v] I 15. 10. 

5. I7> h TrXetovf...^ Kpeirrovfx.^ 2fi<^a>] vid. ad 12. 6. 

6. 10, irayra : vid. ad 9. 3. 

6. 20, rovf Trp&Tov bttiOivra^ ri alfrxyvovrai] Plato Sophist. 217 C, fii) 
Toiwv, (3 $€vty i7/Lt(Sy nfy ye Trpcirrjv alTrjo'dirrc^v x^P^^ dirapyrfB^is yevj;. Hinc 
explicandus locus Aristoph. in Nub. 12 15, akka Kptirrov ^» nOvg t6t€ 
d7r€pv0piaa'ai i. e. fifj ala'xyvt<r6ai rov berjdevra, 

7. 6, dxapiare'iv] Tcroicrat fuv tog eVl to TrXeiorov irpos rovg c^ vaBovragy 
orav p^ PovkoDvrai X^^^ exrti/ciP rotg tv irfTrot};ieo(rtv. taff ore de xol cttI tov 
XapiC^trQai pjj Oekovrov ;(p^yrai r^ dxapurrtiVy Bekk. Anecd. 2 1 8, 9. Plat. 
Symp. 186 c 

8.6, ov yap iXeovaiv ol €icir€jr\riyp,€voi\ Shakesp. A^. Z^ar V 3. 231, 

9. 2, cVi Tolg dva^iois nparrovfn KaxSg ovvaxBetrBai] Soph. Electr. 237, 
nSg €ir\ Tolg ^Bipjivoig a/ieXctv xaXov; 

9. 3, oTrao-iv] all who possess these two feelings (vepea-ig and (jiBopog), 
Cf. Politic. Ill 9* I J ^^ ^o dUcuov TO T€ oXiyapxtKov KcXhrip^KpariKov, irdvTcg 
(all who uphold either form of government) yap airrovrai biKoiov Tivog. 
TTovra = ndvra Ta ToiavTa 6. 10. 

9.4* Toiig 7rarpaXoiaff...orav...rvxo^(ri...ovdctff av XvjrrjBeirj XP'?^"'*'*] ^id. 
nos ad Aristoph. Av. 652. [" tarlv Xeyop^vov dij ri r^y oKwrtx *>^^ <^Xavp<os 
§Koiv<iiinj(r€v der^ irorc. Accusativus anticipatus non solum post verba activa 
ponitur, sed neutralia (ut /cat /carayeX^r vw <og €V€ppd<l>rj Aibg prip^y Eur. 
Bacch. 286), deponentia quae intransitiva sunt (ut TLovaitTov ibiovTo Bouorolg 
oirtog frapabaaova-i Thuc. V 36), passiva (ut praeter h. 1. Dem. I Aphob. p. 826 
§ 47> ey€ypawro.,,T6v oacoy oiroag px<r6»aoiTo, Xen. Cyrop. II 1.5, Tovg 
"^E^KKrivas ovbtv ira <ra<^€g Xryerai ci €irovTai. Aristot. Rhet. II 9.4.....); 
audacius post adiectiva ut infra 1269, deivou ye t6v icjpvKa..,tl injbeirore 
vooTTjO'ei vroXiv. Nee alia est ratio loci Platonici tovtov ovv top p.v6ov otrag 
av ir€ia6(i€v ex^ig riva firfxatniv; III Rep. p.415 C. Madv. Gr. Synt. citat 

AR. III. T c 


Xen. Anab. ii i. 5, § 159, Anm. 4." Transcribed from adv, on Aristoph. 

9. 5, f^>BoV€poi\ Plat. Phileb. 48 B, oKKa firfv 6 <t>6opciV y cVi kqkois tois 
T&p iriKas TJb6fi€P09 dva^avrjcreToi, 

10. II, d$iovfi€voi\ ^for whom a claim is put in.' Vid. nos ad Dem. de 
Fals. Leg. § 293. 

12.6, &fi<l><o ravTo] i.e. <l>iK6rifu>t, <f>Lk6viKot, Vid. ad Plat. Phil, 
p. 37 C [" Plat Theaet. p. IS4B, €t dc av ro irapafurpovfifvov fj eKfiairrofifPov 
€Kaa-TOP ^p TovTtDP, i.e. fuya rj \evKOP fj Oepfiop* Aristot. Nic. Eth. 19 = 8, 
13, Kaff avras ap el€P ai Kar dptrrjp irpa^fis TJbeicu' oKXa fi^p Ktd dyaBai ye 
KtH Kokaij jcal /taXcora rovrap cKao-rop, i.e. i/dv, dyaSop, Kcikap, Rhetor. 
II 12.6, Ka\cifi<f>m Tovra pJaKkop ^ {jiikoxprifiaTOi, i.e. (^tXorifioi, ffiiKopiKoi, 5* ^7) 
^ iop jrkeiovs taaip oU ravra orvft</)€p6i, fj KpeiTTov^j ^ &fi<f)<o/* From Shilleto's 
copy of Badham's Philebus^ 1. c.]. 

16. 2, craXaxavcf dc xal o-oXoiKoi] AaX<f>dpPTjg dens fjp (roKoiKorcpos apBpu- 
iros T^ rpmrt^y Xen. Cyrop. VIII 3. 21. 

18. 3, iratrt yap dpayKoiop^ ra ire pi rov bvparov kcu dbvpdrov irpoo'XP^o'Bai] 
Vide ne dpayKoia (aut to) Ar. scripserit In I 3. 4, Trpoa-xp&prai be ttoXKokis 
K€U TO, ytpofitpa dvapxpyrifrKOPTes Koi ra p-iKKopra irpoeiKaCopres accusativus 
cum participiis coniungitur. In Xenoph. AgesiL xi 1 1, «cai ro p^(iK6<l>pop 
(t^ p^yak6<j>popi Schneider) ov avp vfipei dXKa avp yp(6p.ij ixp^ro. 

19. 21, €1 eweipaa-ej Koi cnpaie] *if he courted, he also succeeded.* 
19. 24, avpp€(l>€'i] avw€<t>€i Cobet, Var. L. p. 134. 

21.13, rd dfhrifjLoa'L€vp,€Pa'\ Vid. Thucyd. Ill 113. 13, IV 92.4. Brj- 
fioa-ieveip, publicare, Xen. Hellen. I 7. 10. 

21. 14, dyap».»&ycai} 'in excess/ ut servetur 6 irapcLkoyia-pos* 

22. 3, Tols KplPOVa-lP fj OVS dTTobeXOPTCu] 23. 12, supra I 7. 28, § 01 KpiP0PT€S 

$ OVS ovToi Kpipovtri. 

22.3, \€Kr€0P=\€ytip del, itaque postea c(vai...(rvmy»v. 

22.8, <rvpPovkevoPTeg de] potuit addere (post de) ^ dirorpeiropres* Cf. 
I 3.6, II 18.4. Vid. nos ad Plat. Protag. 331 E. ["Minus negligenter 
scripsit, nam ovp^ovkevop^p fj irporpenopres fj drrorpeTroPTes, quanquam alibi 
(e. g. I 3.6,11 18.4) (rvp^ovXeveip opponitur dnorpeireiv,^ Extracted from 
a long note on Protag. 1. c. [to dpopoiop fj] to op^iop,'] 

22. II, exTrai] passivum est ut § 16. 

23. 6, npoelro'] Plat. Gorg. p. 520 C, #coi npoea-Bai ye dijVov Trjp evepyeaiap 
dpev p,iarBov...el TrpooiTo avT^ 6 iraidorpiPrjs, D, ravn/y t^p evepyetrlop 
TTpoea-Bcu, Xenoph. Anab. VII 7'47> dXXd p,rip oti a-oX 86^ei diroBovpai 
iriareva koL top xP^vop bM^eip ae, /cat ovtop ye tre ovxi dpe^eaBai Toifs ao\ 
wpoep,epovs evepye<riap bpavTa troi eyKokovPTas. 

23. 7> TovTo Tis ap etneiep^ rts fijrcicv Bekk. ap eiireiep A". An dpTeiweiep? 

23. 20, ovx ipa KTavaxri] icavaxTt Cobet Nov. Lect. p. 391, "ufai TV(f>\S 
tfjXop legendum esse Kapoxri, ne senarius in prima sede habeat creticum." 
Quidni ovk * * \ ipa icrdpao'i k,t.\, 

25. 10, ap ovTCDS i\.vBr}'\ ap ovraxrl XvOg, Cf. infra ap Xvajj, 


r I. 6, <l)aPTaaia] Gataker ad Antonin. i § 7, p. 8. 

2. 3, fj irepl [\iap] fiiKpSp] *or if one speak about very trivial matters.' 


2.8^ ovK etrriv] Cf. Ethic. Nicom. Ill 1.8, ^via d* uras ovk tariv 
dvayKatrBfjpai, dWa fiaKKop dnoBaveTeov. 

2. 13, a>iko aXKov icvpior€pov] QuintiL X 1.6, cum sinf aliis aliaaut 
tnagis propria, 

3. 4, tvax\uiL\ Lob. ad Phryn, p. 375 {&paifia 3 codd. Bekkeriani). x^<^pov 
aifia Soph. Trach, 1055, decolorem Cicero vertit Tusc. li 8. 20. Sed vid. 
Eur. Hecub. 129. 

3. 4, cfl-trctxMrfta r&v vo\kuxv\ Dem. Philipp. 41 § 5 ad q. 1. Sauppius 
citat de Rhod. Libert, p. 193 § 12 et locum nostrum. Errat Hemsterh. ad 
Lucian. Nigrin. 23, Tom. I p. 63. Eadem sententia est quae in Taciti 
Annal. xiv 57 et xvi 22. t^povpiov mi.yi(TQr\ *KTakmm\ (Thuc. II 32); itaqae 
*KTQkavTi]v firiTcix^a-fia rfjs AoKpibos appellat Diodor. XII 44. 

5. 4, iroTc] Dem. de fals. leg. § 260. 

7' 7» y^] Eth. Nic. V. 10=8. 3 noWa yap. 

9. 8, €k66ime€ <os] €l(r€\66pT€s b* eiy Cobet Var. Lect. p. 3^^» Si 
aeque ip vfup (i.e. roU diKafrrais Aphob. i.Si3§ i) et ircp* vpXv § 2, et i 
contr. Stephan. iioi § i, alibi, dicitur ; quidni aeque dicatur ctr v/tar et <os 
vp,a9 ? Vide etiam ne ikdovres possit defendi Aphob. 1. c. cts b^ vfias Toifs 
ovdev r&v ijp,er€pti>p dxpifiSs iwiarafiepovs iKifKv$€P. 

II. 6, Spdrrei ae] Cobet Nov. Lect. p. 655 "Quid igitur erat quod 
diceret quum Oparrei <r€ videretur dicere? Nempe Qpdmis et, e Thressa 
natus es, ut satis Aristoteles ipse confirmat addens, ci /A4...€tyai.'' 

II. 13, fiva>9ra] luscitiosum (Gell. iv 2). Arist. xxxi Probl. 8, hia rl 
o\ p.vci>irfs fiiKpa ypdiipjora ypaxfiovai ', Stottop yap ro fifj o^v opapras iroieip 
tpyop 6^ 6p<ovT<op' nor^pop on /xcyoXa (jyaiperm ra fiiKpa iap § iyy^s' oi be 
TTpoa-dyoPTeg ypd(f)ova'iP *f ^ 8ui to avpayoprag ra Pkitfiapa ypa<f)eip; cf. 1 5 
et 16... [From Shilleto's older copy]. 

II. 14, o Kap7ra£iog,,,Topy\ay<o} "In Iceland, the reindeer were intro- 
duced by the Danish Government about the middle of the last century ; 
but they are understood to have proved a nuisance instead of a benefit. 
They have not the wolf to check the tendency of their population to 
exceed the means of subsistence, and they have multiplied so as to 
devour the summer pastures on which the inhabitants depend for their 
cattle; and having been allowed to run wild they are of no use." Laing, 
Norway p. 418. 

14. 6, tuav p.^ €vBifs &amep "Evpnrlbris, dXX* ip ra vrpoXoy^ ye ttov] An 
»<nt€p "Evpnribrjs ip r^ irpo\6y<^ dXX' ipT& irpoiopri ye ttov? 

19. 1, cirixaXiccvety] " auditoris animum sibi conformare et conciliare," 
— ^velut " incude formare." [From Shilleto's older copy.] 

IS— 2 



The references are to Book, Chapter, and Section. 

a 2. 4* refers specially to the note; 

p 7. 4n^ indicates the notes in small print at the foot of the page. 

a/, for apud denotes words and phrases quoted by Aristotle. 

dyaBop (defined) a 6. 2 

v«p\ rod yitiCovos dyaBov a J, I 

rh 6fio\oyovfi€va dyaBa a 6. 1 7 

Tois dyaBSs {v, /.) r^ovcrt /3 1 1. 2 

*AyaBwv /3 19. 13 ; 24. 10 

dyafUvos \eyttv y 7. 3 

Siyav P 12. 14; 13. I 

dyan-ay Appendix (A) voL I p. 294; 

/3 23.8 
dyanaaBai a II. 1 7 

TO dyaTTTjTOP o 7* 41 

ro7s Kcuca dyyeXkovaip ofyylf^oprai /3 2. 20 
*Ayr)a'L7ro\is ip AcXt^oiff /3 23. 12 

HyKvpa Koi Kptfiaarpa y 1 1. 5 

SypmoTOP j8 24. lo ; y 8. 2 

&ypaff>o£ a 10. 3; 13.2,11; 15.8 

iraph TO. Sypa<f>a dtMua 
dypoiKia rjBovg 

dypoiKoi ypofJLOTvnot 
dytoy^p {tov pofwv) 

dyoyc£ iroXircKol 

y 16.9 

P 21.9 

a 6, 15 


a 15. 10 


y 1.4 
09. 21 

avToi£ dyavi{€a-Bai rots irpdypaxriv y I. 5 

dyooycoTiieif y 12. I 

ciyttPiOTiic^ dper^ roO vaparot a $,14. 

d8id<f)opa a 12. 35 

dbid<t>Bopoi a 15. 17 

TO dbiKcip (def.) a 10. 3 

dbiKfi(TBai (def.) a 13- 5 

r6 dd(K€t(r^ai pJSKKoP rj dbiKtiv a 7. 22 

dbiiajtrai y 2. 10 

dBUrjpa o 3* 9 

ddticiffiara a 13* I 

ddiKi/fiara (def.) a 13* 1 6 

dbiK&p x^^p^v apx^tP P 24. 9 

ddfoptOTOp a I3> 14 

dddkcaxS y 12. 6 

daoXccrxta /3 13. 12 ; 22. 3 ; y 3. 3 

ddoffiv a 12. 16 

ddvyaroy etntip /3 2. 7 

d€iKiCeuf /3 3- 16 

dcXXoTrodo)!' BvyaTp€s iinrtfy apudy 2. 14 

d(jfiioi dBiK€Uf a 12, 2 

drjSts y 8 . 2 ; 9. 2 

dBdvarop opyfjp /i^ (jyvKaaat Bprftos coy 

^z/. 21. 6 
*ABripaU>vs ip *ABriPaiois iiraivtiv 

a 9. 30 ; y 14. II 




*A0rjva7oi'Ofii^p^ fjMpTvpiixp' a 1 5* ^3 
arr€i<rafi€v<ov *A0, npos *Ejrldavpov 

*A^i;OT7<r« /9 23. 11 

01 *A$iivfj<n prfToptt y 17. lO 

rh 3l0\a rt^i; a 9. 1 6 

iffka XapJ^avovo'i 7 !• 4 

aBpoa Kardaraais a II. I 

advpiia ap, y 3. 2, 4 

Aiycvijraf kcll Ilorcdaiarav /3 22. 7 

ro ei^ 6<fi6(iKym£ tlvai aib& /3 6. 18" 

mdwff 09.20; /3 6. l" 

ociciai viopj&Tmv /3 8. 9 

/3 16.4 
a 12. 26 

o Aifiav 6 2o0o«cXcovff y 1 6. II 

Alvfo-i^rifjLOS a 12. 30 

edvfrbf /3 25. 7 

alviypari y 2. 12 

alviyfjuiTfobri j3 21. 8 

alvirroPTai ii€Ta(f>opa y 2. 12 

ra cu -QViy ii€va y 1 1. 6 

€V ]jviyp.€vap y 2. 12 

(roiroff) €ic rov ft^ rovro rovf avrovs act 

alpiiaOai /3 23. 19 

atpovra a 5. 12 

AZo-iW y 10.7 g 

Altrxlvrjg (Socraticus) y 16. 10 

al(rxpOK€pbtia ^ 6. 5 

alfTXpokoytlv ovBeva y 2. 13 

aivxyvrf (def.) /3 6. 2 

altrxvtnjs d^iovs ^ 3. 17 

aicrxvvnyXa ^8 6. 21 

o2(rxvi^Xoi a 12. 19 ; /3 12. 10 ; 13. 10 

ai<rxvvriKa /3 6. 1 1 

aicrxwoyrac /3 2. 22 ; 6. I 

Aio-coTTCiot Xoyoc /3 20. 2 

Ato-fiOfTOff j3 20. 5, 6 

atrciv. . .dn-airctv /3 6, 7 

atria 17 tv;^ ipi&p a 5« 17 

r$ ama /3 24. 1 1 

(rofros) ro Xeyetv tj)!* atrtoy row Tra- 

pado^ov fi 23. 24 

otrtop a 7. 12 

(rojTos) OTTO row atrtou /3 23. 25 

OKftdCei /3 14- 4 

oKfidCoPTig 14* I 

dxiidCovTos a 5. 1 1 


^ 12.2 

dicoXao'/a (def.) 



. /3 6. 13 

dfr* dicoXao'taf 

/3 6.4 


/3 23.I 


a 10.4 

dicoXov^ct dcxo>ff 


otr rt/i^ dKo\ov$€i 

a 9. 25 



{roTTos) c/c rov aKokovBovvros 

P 23. 14 



dtcpaaia a lO. 4; 12.12 

dt' aKpatricof P 19. 19 

d«eparctff a 12. 12 ; /3 12. 3 

dxparcvrtjcd ^ 16.4 

dKplpcia y 12. 5 

ro dxpiPtf a 2. 4 

Xoyov aKpiPfj y 1 7* 12 

ra dKpiprj irtpitpya y 12. 4 

/ii;re daaffitis fi^re oKpiptU a lO. 19 

d«cpt/3oXoy€t(r^ai a lo. 13 

aKpi^oKoyriTtov y I. lO 

dicpiPoXoyia a $, 1$ 

aKpifias diapi$firj(raa6<u « 4* 4 

oKptPSs opw a 7* 18 

dxpoar^y ^laBelval irat a 2. 3 

Trpoff (jyavXov oKpoanjp y 14* 8 

frpoff x^'P'^ dicpo«ifJL€Voi a I. lO 

dier^y arevoiropov ap, y 3. I 

dicvpop a 15. 22 

dXa^oyciay a 2. 7 

dX.a(ov€ias /3 6. 1 1 

'AXcfavdpoff (Paris) a 6. 25 ; j3 23. 5, 12 

cV r^ 'AXc^dp^ /3 23. 8 ; 24. 7 

Tov *AXxatov a 9. 20 

o{ dn 'AXxt/Stddov /3 15*3 

r^ vrpoff dXif^ctav /3 6. 23 

f; dc Xvo'iff <f>(uvofi€pti dXX' ovk dXi/^^f del 

/3 25. 9 
dXrfBeuoPTiov tov (fipoviiuav /3 6. 17 

'AXictdd/iaff /3 23. 1 1 ; y 3. 1, 2, 3, 4 

iv T^ Mco-cn/vtaicf *AXictddfuxff 

a 13.3; ^ 23. I 

'AXxtj^ov dfroXoyor 7 16. 7 

dXXo a 15, 18 

Trap aXXrjXa rh hfcofria iiaXiera <l)a[- 

V€a-6ai 7 2. 9 

{rotros) c/c rwu irpos ^XXiyXa P 23. 3 



SXXipf tmoT^nriP rrfs buikiKriKfjs a 2. 21 
T»v SKkap (with superlative) 


dKoyurrartpoi /3 17. 6 

Skimop a 5. II 

Skvpop fifkos ap. y 6. 7 

SKvtop a 2, 18 ; /3 2$. 14 

dKoTFtKa /3 20. 6 

&fJM \rytip c/Sodifev y l6»9 

dfjMfyraytiP y 2. lO 

dfiapT€ip dXXd fi:fj ddiictip a 12. 14 

dfiofmjiJM y 15. 5 

d/JMfmjftaTa (def.) a 13. 16 

(roiror) ro cV r»p dfiaprrj&iprtip mn;- 
yopeu' /3 23. 28 

"Anaait ^ 8. 12 

dfiiXtuu a II. 4 

dfiirtxoprip ^ 4. 16 

dfivTfTop 7 2. 10 

d/i0//3oXoff a 15. 10 

<2/i^i/3oXoiff y S* 4 

TO d/i^tdof €(y a 2. 4 

dfi<lH(rPiJTrja-i£ a 13. lO 

dfi<f>ia-Prfin^(T€ig y 16. 6 

Wfpt rcrropoy j} dfi<l>iO'fiijrrja'ks y 17*1 
dfi<l>ia'PrfTriiriiJLOig a 6. 18 

dfA<l)iarprjnf<rai€p 05*6 

wpos TO dfjL(t>i(rPrfTovfirpa airoyrav y 15. 2 
^v consopitum a i. 5" 

dy with opt. after certain particles. Ap- 
pendix (D) voL II p. 336; ^20.5 ; 
-Si' and -loy, verbs ending in, a 2. 18* 
dvo^oX^ y 10. 7 w 

dval^oKri xpopov a 12. 8 

dpafiokfi xpopios a 12. 8 

aviiPok^ ofioiop y 9* 6 

al €P Tois diOvpdfi^is dvaPoXai y 9- I 
dprl t£p dpTi(rrpo(l>»p dva/9oXdf y 9* 6 
dpayta-Ocu a 4* 3 

opayKoiop p 25. 9, 10 ; y 15. 3 

ro dpayicaiop \v7njp6p a II. 4 

dyayxeua a 2. 1 7 

dyayxaia ȣ cirl ro yroXv a 2. 1 4 

dpayKoiciP /3 25. lo 

fi^ dpoyKoUop ijdop&p a 10. 9 

di' dpdyiajp a 12. 1 4 

yrdXiV dyad(dtt0-i i^ ^S* 3 

\aas dpoidijs 

vdyra dyoipei 
dyaipci avpBijiaiP 
apaip€lp rdpovrLa 

ap. y II. 3 

a IS- 33 
a 15.21 

/3 18. 1 

dyacpciy rolv c^^p^y ra rcicya /3 21. II 

dycXj/ff y 17-15 

sroXXa dpjjpriM dUcua o 14* 5 

dpoiprriKa /3 8. 8 

dyoiorxvyr/a P 3* S 

dvaurxypTia (def») /3 6. 2 

dptu(rxyPT(tp y 1 1- 3 

dyaitr^^wrovo-iy 6. I 

dpaia-xypToi fi 13. lO 

(roirof ) vapa to dvainop »g alrwp ^ 24. 8 

dpcLKa^lp top OKpoan^p a 1. lO 

dpakaP6pr€g a 13. 4 

roy dvdXyijroy irpaop a 9. 28 

dyoXoyia /9 9* 1 1 

fi€Ta(f)opa KOT dyoXoy/ay y lO. 7 ^ 

(/icra^opal) al icar* dvakoyiap y 10. 7 a 

dpokoyop y 7* 2 

dydXoyoy exoturip o 7- 4 

viroKtLfjJpois irpayfiatrip dydXoyoy y 7. 1 

(ron'Of) ex rou dyaXoyov ravra of/x- 

fiaiveip /3 23. 17 

c«c rov dydXoyoy 7 2. 9 ; 4, 4 

r^ff dydXoyoy , y 10. 7 n 

€P r^ dydXoyoy y 4* 3 

rots dpdkoyop*:Tais dpdkoyop y 6. 7 

dyaXvruic^ff €iri<rriiujs a 4* 5 

d^Xoy 17/uy Koi Tovra ck roy dya- 

XvTucmp et sim* 

a 2.8, 14; /3 25. 12, 14 

ipTols dyoXt/riKoIf diopiorai a 2. 18 

avapaxeo'dai a 12. II 

dva^ypvvai y 17* 6 

dpap,vfja'(U yl9. 2 

c^ dyaftyi^o-ccDS y 19. 1 

diro dyaydpioff /3 6. 13 

*Ava$ay6pa9 /9 23. 1 1 

'Ayo^oydpidov iaft^€loy yio. 7^ 

'Ayo^oydpidov yepopTopapuf. y 12. 3 

ro *Apa^plipidov rh intupovpxpop y 1 1. 8 

dpo^iais KOKonpayiaig /3 9- I 

dydiroXty a 7. 12 

dyairavo-ctff all. 4 

dpamipia /3 8. lo 

dyairyci a 2. 1 8 



dvatrKevd^civ /3 24. 4 

Kmnfs dvda'<r€i ap,y i,\o 

difatrTp€<f>€<r$ai /9 6. 27 

dvaax^Tos y II, 8 

dvaTpcyjrcurt rds oKkorpias vavs /3 23. 1 1 

four varieties of dvriKttfitva (note) 

fi 19. V 


/3 6.2S 




i9 9.iS 


a 5.6 

dvbpia (def.) 



a 11.23 

^ApdpoKKfjs 6 Utr6fvs 

/3 23. 22 





dpeyicKi^ovs * 

04. II 


P 13- H 


a 10.4 



drro dvt\€V0(pias 

^ 6. 5, 7 




II. 29 

dv€V Tvxris 

as. 15 

dP€)(€a'$(U ddlKOVfJL€POP 

a 13.18 

Tois dpOpairipois avyyiypwrKeip enifiKeg 

a 13. 17 

rap dpBpamipcap 

a 5. 10 

ttlrias dvOpioniKas 



qp» a 1 1. 4 


y 14.9 

dpUfi€Pai, . JmreiPOfiipai 

a 4. 12^* 

dpofw\oyovfi€Pa fi 22. 15"; 

23. 23 {dts) 




P 10.6 


y 15. 10 


74.4; 5-2 

dpTaTTodidopcu dUaiop 


rrjp lOTjp dpTairodidova-ip 

/3 2. 17 



dpT€Vfroi€ip TOP €viroiij(raPTa 

a 13. 12 



TCL irpoS TOP dpTldlKOP 

y 13. 3, 4 

€P Tj dvTid6<r€i (Isocr.) 

y 17. 16 

dpriBeais 7 9* 9 > 1 1. lO 

^cvdci; dpTiBea-eig 

79. 10 


y 15. 2, 3 

X«f iff dpTiK€ifiePTj a 

9.37; 7 9. 7 

dpTiK€tfjL€P<ot 07.18; y 

10. 5 ; 1 1. 9 










y 13.3; 17.16 




apud y 3- 3 


04.31; 5-8 


y 13. 3, 4 

cf dpTiirapaPoKtjs 

y. 19. 5 





oi dpTlTTOlOVflfPOl TaVTTfS 













o I. I 



dpTioTp6<f>ois dpxai^p ttoiijtSp y 9* I 

dpTi,av\\oyiC€(r6(u 25. 2 ; y 17. 15 







6 *ApTi<l)apTos UXij^imros /3 2. 19 

*Ayr(0(3y Trotiynf r 

6. 27 

€K Tov MrXedypov roG 


23. 20 




a II. 13 


y II.5 

<t>pfip dpWflOTOS 

op, y 15. 8 


y2.I2; 3.3 

TOV ((TOV d^iovp 

a 13. 16 


02.4; 9. I 



c ^ « >>/ 

y 2. I 

dopioTOf atr/a 

o 10. 12 


22. II 

dopioTop nXapq. 

y 14.6 

TOP dvayydkoPTfUP 

y 16. 10 





djraSeis Bix»s 




diraib€v<ria vXovtov 




iriBaP90T€povs,,,Tovs aircudevTovs 022.3 
ujreuT€w>»»aiTfip 6. 7 

diraiTov(nv 7 5- 2 

a7raAXayi)y (dts) a lO. 18 

anaWoTpiSfrcu <> 5* 7 

mraWorpiatriVy doa-ip km vpa<nv 05.7 

fiOKpav diraprap 
aTrceraa'Oai ircpi to duuuop 
rf dir€ipavT^ 
di* OTTfipiav 

t6 airtipop 
ajreipoi "xtip^vos Bappovtrt 
a direx^WovTcu tols €\6po7s 


y 10. 2 

a 10.4 
a II.3 


a 13. 13 


y 8. 2 ; 9. 2 


y 8. I 

y 8. 1 ; 9. 3 

a 6. 29 



a7riaT€ip iraai 

73.4; 8.1 


a 2. 13 

a 9.29 

y 16.2 

OTrXovf d Kptnjf 

a 2.4", 15; 6. 1 ; 7. 21,22 ;0 18. i; 19.26 
TO, awXas dyoBd a 9> 17 

oTrXttff (opp. to avT^) a ?• 35 

cnrXttff (opp. to avT^) a 1 5. 12 

diiK&s elntlp a 1 3. 1 4 

dno' and de-, verbs compounded with, 

a I.I p. 3 


d7ro0aXc(v dairida 
tSp K€ucwp ajTopokas 
dirodeiKTiKos (\6yos) 

dirod€iKTtKov Xoyov 

cTTcXoyov r<Sv aTrobfiKTiKap 


aVodfififf 25. 14 ; y 13. 2 

an-dd€t|tff prjTopiK^ €v6vfirjfui o 1. 1 1 
OTTodcfair' 01/ ToO cifrovroff 21. 1 5 

a7ro3€xoyTai 13. 16; 23. 12 

dnMdofitp 9. 2 

d7roblbofi€P TCLs Kpiatig a 2. 5 

07. 17; 6. 14 

a 6. 4 


a 8. 6 

y 13.3 

y 17.12 

durobtdopat to dUaiop 


xdpiP fA7 dnobibovirip 



dirihoiKap aXX* ovk wboiKap 


dvodoBrjo'ofjitvos {avvb€(rfws) 
TO difoBvria-KfiP kukop 


fuucpq, diroKOfimirBaL 


irpof dn6\av<r IP 









dnoaT€prja-ai vapaKoraB^Kriv 
oi iroXKcucis dn'or€rvx>7'cdr€ff 



rj Tov KvpLOv dTr6<l>curis 


air6<j)6eyyLa IlirraieoS 





Ta carra 

HakXoP oTTTOfievoi Kara Tponop 

airmBfp a II. 16; 15. 16; 6.23 

djTUfioTOP 17. 16 

eVApyei fyiiiovTai 81^ op gp popog Tt6p 

a 14.4 

waw€p dpyvpoypafitup 6 Kpin^s a 1 5. 7 

cV 'Apct^ iroyy a I. 5 

dprrrf (defined) a 9. 4 

dptTif I. 5 

a 1.7" 

y 5- 2, 5, 7 


a 15.28 


y 5.2 

y 12.2^ 

23. 12 


y 8. 6 

a 5. II 

a 5- 7 ; 9. 23 

a 3' 3 
a I. II 

a II. 4 

y 135 
y 10. 7/ 

a 10. 17 

a 7. 5ni 


a 12. II 


a 3. 3 
05.14; 6.27 

21. 16 


21.2, 15 

a 8. 2 



21.8; y 11.6 

y 1.2 



a II. 5 
a 2. 20 



dptTTf fiff dp€Tfjs fiei(ap 


pjprf dpcTtjg 
ir€p\ dperfjs Koi Kaxiag 
Tas Tov {Ttofiaros dperdg 
ntpaiverai dpiBp.^ vdvra 

a 7.16 
a 13.12 

a 9. 5 
a 9. I 

y 8.2 

'Api<rT€iBrjv 23. 7 ; y 14. 3 

^Apiarnnros irpos IlX<ira>va /9 23. 1 2 

apiara r&v rpayiKav 7 3* 4 

dptaremv d^iov<r6ai 7 9* 7 

dpiaTOKparia a 8. 4 

dpiaroKpariag riXos a 8. 5 

apioTov pjtv vbfop ap, a 7* 14 

'Api(rTo(t>dinis y 2. 15 

'ApioTo^<Dy p 23. 7 
'ApfioBios KcA *ApioToytiT€»v 

fl 9- 38 ; i3 23. 8 ; 24. 5 

dpfiovia rrjs <l>mvrJ£ 7 1*4 

XcjcrtK^ff dppjovLas de6p.€vo£ 7 8. 4 

ro dp/ioTToy /3 9. 1 1 

appvBpov y 8. 1 

ro &ppvBpLOV diripavTov y 8. 2 

€v dpruurpms 
dpxaiav yXmrrav 
<os ^ApxiXcutp 

dpxqp (homonym) 

^PX27 X^^P^^ ddUav 
apXtKOV TO (fipovflv 

a 12.6 

7 5-4 
a 2.17 

i3 9.9 
/3 23.8 

a 7. 12* 

a II. II 

7 "-7 

i9 24.9 

a II. 27 

'Apxt^oxo* ^ 23. II ; y 17. 16 

*ApxvTas 7 !'• 5 

do-eXy^f oiKia a 1 5. 1 3 

rais daijfiais (jxovals y 2. 1 1 

da-Oeprjs irtp\ aluias a 12. 5 

a<riWa qfi. a 7. 32 

dants <l>iaKrf "Aptos y 4* 4 

da-rtia y lO. I 

Ta oareta y II.6 

daTpayakla'€ig a II. 15 

daTvy€LTOPas KaradovkovaBai a 3. 6 

ao-vXXoyioToy a 2. 18 ; /9 25. 12 

dcrvXXoyioTODy a 2. 13 

17 dcrvvdcrof r^s Xc^ccdp y 19. 6 

d<rvydcra y 6. 6; 12. 2r, 4 

wpo£ da-<0Tiap 

TOP aaayrop Ik^vBipiOP 



TTfpi Tap drexpop nioTecup 



> / 



Tfjp da-vpi^6€iap Tov diKoXoyciv a 9. 38 
acr^aXfiar opog « 5* 7 

dcr^oXeoraror o pios « 5* 4 

a 9.29 

draaBaXiap ap. y 3- 2 

dreXfCTTOff y 18. I 

{fLT^Xy^^ TrioTtis) PoyLOi pAprvpfs ovP' 

OfJKai pda-apoi opKOS a 15* 2 

a 2. 2 


a 15. I 

y 1.7 




a 13. 12 


a^. 12 

(tTpmros (* invulnerable ') 22. 12 

drra a 2. 1 1 

'Arrtica <^(dtrui y lo. 7^ 

*Attik6s ndpoiKog 21. 1 3 

*Attiko\ p^Top€£ y II. 16** 

aTvxvf^fo^ (def.) a 13. 16 

drvxVfM 715-3 

ailf^adcr 7 3* 3 

TOV avBddrf p,€ycLkovp€jnj a 9. 29 

(XvXrjTiKal Traidial a II, 1 5 

av^av6p.€POP 7 2. 3 

av^fip fj Ka6(up€ip a 15. 20 

av^fip KoL pxiovp 26. I 

av^rjfrai leal ra9r€(y(i3(rat y 19. I 

av$tl(Ti£ y 12.4; 17. 2 

av^rja-is cVin^Seiordn; rotr ewideiicri- 

Koi£ a 9* 40 

av(rjT€OP a 1 5. 21 

t£p av(rjTiK£p a 9. 38 

avrdpiceia Ca>fJ£ a 5* 3 

avTapK€aTaTO£ << 5* 4 

avTopKeoTcpop a 7. lO, 1 1 

avrdpKQX ^X^^^ a 6. 2 

avrod/daicroff ^7' 33 

avTOicdpbdXa y 14. 12 

ai;roiira0ddXoff y 7> 2 

Avro/cX^ff P23.12 

avTOKparap oTparriyog 20. 5 




/SeXrtOTOf avTos avrov ap» a 1 1. 28 

rwv «ff avTov /9 2. I p. II*; avroi y I. 3 
air^ Aya6ov a 7*3> aur^...avr^ <> 7*35 
avrSiv ^pya ra riicva a 1 1. 26 

afro ravroiucrov a I. 2 

avrovfyyol a 12. 25 ; j3 4. 10 

avTo<t}V€s eTTiicriJTOi; x<i^cn'orepov a 7* 33 
avToxOopas ^ $• S 

avxtiTjpbg y II. 13 

d<f)aip€a'6ai rov avXkoyiafiop /3 21. 2 

T^y Xaptp 7' 5 

a<fi€afL^€W (fiva-ip twos a 4*6 

dcjyaviCew to irddos y 17. 8 

d<l)€\iJ£ y 9' 5 

dcjiertoi y 8. 5 

&<ti€T0g ap,y II. 2 

ci(^' ^atn'ov /3 25. 4 
ro a(l>6ovop tov awaviov ptlC^v a 7> 14 

d0iXort/iot j3 9. 15 

TO, d<tipobi(na ^ 12. 3 

d^pobl.fTUL(<OVT€S /3 6. 21 

a0vXaicrot a 12,21 

d<fivk(ucTa {bis) a 12. 5 

a(t)o:>piafi€vrjs €7ri<rnjnrjs a I. I 

yevovs d<l)a>pi(rp^pov a I. 14 

d<f)(opia'fi€ViOP TTcpi Kpipeip a I. 7 

dxapioT€iP /3 8. I 

'AxtXXevff )3 2. 6; 3. 16; 24. 6; y 4. i ; 

17. 1 1 

circumy top *A;^iXX6a ^ 22. 12 

'A^cXXea rTratyoOcriy a 3* 6 

*Axi^^o.''Op,rjpos irpo€KpLP€P 06.25 

&x^P^^ (fieXof) y 6. 7 

Sixopbot <^opfMy£ y 1 1. 1 1 

dyfriKopoi /3 12. 4^ 

ayjrvxa a 9. 2 

ra ayjtvxO' ^t^^X"* Xeycty y 1 1. 2 

€pya(€0-6(U papavtrop t^x^^ 




^aptlq. {(fxupS) 

y 1.4 




a 2. 2 

ai Pdaavoi fiapTvpicu Tipig 

a 15.26 


a 8. 4 

Pa<riKfV£ (king of Persia) 

/3 8. II 

TToXecDv PoKrCKfis pofiovs 



y 12. 2flr 

(roiroff) ei iptb^x^To ^cKtiop SKKtui — 

a-KOTTfiP P 23. 26 

pekTurros avTog avTov dp- a 1 1. 28 

^iq. a 10.7, 14 

ro pr^ piaiop rjbv a II. 4 

r^j' BiaPTOg viroBi^Ktjp ^ 1 3. 4 

o pios 6 pjer da<f>a\€iag fjbiaros a 5. 3 

PXaia-dirig /3 23. 15" 

^Xda^nipos /3 23. 1 1 

pafiBfia a 21. 15 

Po^0€tai /3 5. 17, 18 

cf iXoTTovap porjBrjpaTcap y 2. 8 

fioriOrjTiKhp a 1 3- 12 

Porjmu TTiP 'EXXada ap, y lo. Jg 

Bo(Q>roi;s y 4* 3 

iSovXcrai (of tendency or aspiration) 

/3 23, 7- 
Pov\€va'as,,.Pov\€va'dp€P'}s ^^7* ^3 

pov\€vriKov£ )3 5* 14 

/3ovXi;(rcff dya^ov (ip€^ig a lo. 8 

Pov\^a-€<os OTfp^'iop ^ 4* 3 

PovXrj<Tis,..€m6vpia ^ 19. 19" 

roi) dtKaiov PpaPevTrjs 6 diKCUTTi^s a 15. 24 
Ppadvrrjs yrfpaag <> 5* ^5 

PpaxvKcoikoi TrepioBoi y 9* 6 

Bpva-dP y 2. 13 

^6>/xoXo;((a.../3fi>/ioXoxof y l8. 7 

yoXa Xcvjcov «^. y 3. 3 

ydfiot dia<t>€poPT(£ /^ 9* 1 1 

yap {ndmlich) fig 5 ; II, 2 ; 22. 3 

ro ytyopos dvayKriP e^ei y 17' 5 

ri yryovdr. ..tTrianjTop Koi Tots pAprtaip 

y 17. 10 

yeirpi&p a 9. 30 

oudcv ytvrovias xaXcirorfpov ^l^. j3 21. 15 

ra ycXota i7dea a 1 1. 29 

yeXoioy ip dpxi tottcip y 14. 9 

irepl TOP y(Xo(W...c(di7 yeXotWy l3. 7 

yeXoicoff y 16. 4 

o yeXttff rov iJdecDi' a 1 1. 29 

cZy yeXcora Trpoaycip y 14. 7 

FcXav a 12. 30 

y€Pos y 7. 6 

yei/os idiop d<fi<api.(TpApop a 2. 1 ;cf. a 1. 14 

ycwy rc5i/ opop^Tap y 5« 5 

rpta yeyjj r«v Xoycoy « 3« 3 

ytppaioTOTos 6 ^^Ktiotos /3 23. 8 




tSp ytpoPTcav 

ra ycvora 


dfrb yeafyyiag 

yfjpas Kokdfiriif 

yiyv€<r6ai Kal VTrdp\ei>v 

yiyv€a-$(u, « .€ivat 


at 'yXcorrat ayv&T€s 
VXavKiAV 6 Tijios 
yvrja-iOTTfs air ap<f>oiy 
yycodt iravTov 
yptofirj (jjJpos iv^iifjpaTos) 

yp<oiiri (def.) 

yv10p.11 ''i oplarg 


i9 23. II 

a II. 5 
a 2. I 

ap, y 10. 2 

a 5. 17 

i9 7.4ni 

y2.5; 3.2,3 

y 10.2 

y 1. 3 

fl^. /3 21. 13 

P 20. 1 

21.2, 15 

a 15. 5, 12, 17 

yvtopn Tjj apioTfj KpiV€iP /3 25. 10 

yvtop£us ;^pi;aTco» y 17. 9 

ypfopSv P 26. 5 

yv<apjoKoy€iv 21. 1, 9 ; 21. 16 

ypwpoXoyicu vrcpi 


yl.9; 3. 1,4; 7. II; 

Topyiov iyKtStfuov 

Topyiov €ls TTjp x^^'^^^^ 
ra irapa ypdppa O'Kappara 

ypa^uc^ Xef iff 
ypa(f)6p£voi Xdyoi 
ypwra, ».yp\m6rrig 
ov poi ra Fvyeo 
TO, Kara yvpaiKas <t)av\a 

P 21. I 

14.2; 18.7 
y 14. 12 


y II. 6 

y 8. 6 

a 11.23 

y 12. 1, 2 /z 

y 12..2 

y 1.7 

04. 12 

fl/. y 17. 16 

y 10. 2 

a 5.6 

ro dat/iovcoy 
BoTTovai rfjs iroK€tos 


TTCpt 6c Tovrwi' 

y 2.10 

i9 23. 8; y 18.2 

a 13.14 

^z^. y 8. 6 

P6.7; 23. 23 

a 4. 8 

a 4- 8 

a 6. 22 

/3 20. 3 


dc /« apodosi 






a I. II* 

a 2. 17 


i3 2I. 13 

y 14 6 

22. 14 

V 17. 13 

a 10.4 

a 12.31 

8. 12 

a 12. 24 



dciXorcpoi pakXop 

deip ddiK€lp €Via 

Heivbp. . .eXccivov 

dccyovf ctirety ^ irpa^at 

bclp&(ns 21. 10; y 16.7; 19.3 

{roTTOs) TO dcipda-fi Karaa-Kcvdieip 

bikrov noKv^pov op* 7 6* 4 

denial a 14. 5 

TO ;i^ hiopxvop a^^W 

hi ovs ro deo-fuon/pioy aKohopi}6rj a 14. 4 
brjXop d€ ' 25. 14 

o Arfpdbrjs 24. 8 

ro drfpriyopeip x<iktir<oT€pop rov diicofc- 

<r^a» y 17. 10 

hrip.rjyopiK.ri y 12. I 

hrjpriyopiKrj Xefiff 7 '2. 5 

ArjpoKpdrris y 4- 3 

hrjpoKparia a 8. 4 

hrfpoKparia fj$€i its oKiyapx^aP a 4. 12 

hrjpoKparias riXos a 8. 5 

ArfpoKpiTOS 6 Xios y 9' " 

ArffjLoa-Bepovs els top hrjpop 7 4« 3 

17 irepi Aripoa-Bevovs hUri 23. 3 

Aripo(r6epov£ irokireUiP irdpTcav top KaKmp 

airiap ap, 24. 8 

hiii 7. 3; ^*« ''oS Xoyov 22. 10 
hijOL yipovs wkovTovpr€g ^ 9* 9 

dm /ie<r<ov y lo. 7 /& 

^4* ctKortfi' diroh€iKPV<np 25. lO 

di' 0...T171' airiay a I, 2 

»f Trpoff iiripovXevopra 8ia0aXXoyTa4 y 2. 4 

hiaPcPkrjpepog a 12. 22 ; 3. 1 3 

€V r^ rirtXoyfp hiapKrjreop y 14. 7 

hiaPfpoiovprai ovhkp 13* ' 

d4a0oXi) a 1.4; 4- 30 

Xvreov irparop t^p hiapo'kijp y 14- 7 

d(ci0oX$ff Karriyopeip 
TTcpi dui0oX$ff 

y 15.9 

y 15.I 








dia3€<ris tvvopos 

a 12.8 


/3i. 5 


a II.2 


a I. 12; y I. 6 

dia^€<rf iff « 

/3 2. II 


a 2. I 


a 7- 31 

dcdoKU y^y Jtai 


23. 18 

{rorros) eic duup€<r€»s 

^ 23. 10 


a I. 10 


a 2. 22; 3.9 

dicypa^/icv ras irporairrcff 

/3 1.9 

Buupovfuva liifiC^ 

a 7. 31 




a 8. I 






«i-9; 713.3, 

5; 16. 1 


a 13. 19 

biJjKpipaToi €P rois noXiriKoTg 

a 8. 7 

o diain/r^f ro €7n€iK€s 6p^ a 13. 19 

duuTTfTrjs Koi pafjLot ravTov ap. y 1 1. 5 

duucaprepovyreg a 4 5. 26 

diaK67rT€(T0ai 7 9* 4 

dioKpiPovp a 8. 7 

diaXa/ScIv €ls ttUff <> 4* 4 

diakcKTiKos a I. 14 

dtoXe/crof V I* 9 

r^ff flaOviag dioXeicrot; 7 2* 5 

diaXvciif /3 4. 32 

di(iKv€iv t6 aa<l)€g 7 3* 3 

duikvoi rakijOij 015.26 

SiaKvovTui iirl fUKp^ a 12.25 

biaKvdcvra 7 4* 3 

diapoia.,,\€(if 71*7 

rj diavoiif,,,T^ OTOfiari a 1 5. 33 

rijy dtavocav ^117 tov Xoyov a 13. 17 

T0y TTCpi T^V dtaVOMV 26. 5 

aTTo duivoias Xcyciv y l6. 9 

diOTre^cvyoreff fi^.iS; 8.4 

diainvxal (iP» 7 6. 4 

diapiBfiovvra a 1 3. 1 3 

diapiOfAija-aaOai aKpifiag o 4* 4 

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cpwff Appendix (A) vol. I p. 293 

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;. I ; 6. 8 


«9 34 


a 12.22 

fvdoKc/if t ra cXfyKTifca 

T»v ivBvfirifAaTav 

P 23. 30 

fv8oKlfJLOVVTl vofita 





€V€py€TiK^ dvvafjus 
(V€py€TiK^s bo^ris 

tvijBtig, . .fcaxoif ^ciff 


fv^vm fcn/^areoy 

"Evdvdi^fiov \6yos 

fvSvfiovfi€Pois €V drvx^cng 


€vBvvas BiBoatriv 
tvBvvas dovvat {pis) 
tv$vva ^\c^rf ris biKota 

€v6vv6fJL€VOS T^£ €(j>OpiaS 


Kar (vdvoDpiav 

(VKaipois XPV^B^^ 
ra €VKa.T€pya(rra 
evKivTjToi vpos opyijv 

y 10. I 
a 15.9 
/3 4, 11 

a 5.8 
y 17. 15 


/3 12.8,9 

P 12.8 


o 9. 20 



y 1.9; 12.2 

/3 3. 12 

o 15.25 

a 5- 3 

/9 2. 20 

/9 19- H 
y io,yn 
y 10. 7^ 
y 10. 7« 
y 18.6 
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7 7.8 

^4. 17 
o 6. 29 

/3 2. II, 12 

/3 4. 12 

o 14,3 

o 12. 19 

o 10. 10 


€hfia$i]s {bis) 




y 3. 7 


7 93 

y 19.4 

o 6. 15 

/3 12.4 

a 12. 34 

7 9-3; 13- 3 

tvvoia /3 I. 5 

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EjfcVft) y((0fJL€rp€7p ovk eTTCOTO/ic'i^ y 4' 3 

y 7.2 
02. 13 
/9 2. 10 

iS 12.7 

o 11.22 

2,25; 4-8 

i3 4.8 

/3 26.5 

o 9. 19 

v(p\ €v6yKo>v avroica/3daXa>f 
c vTrapaKoXovdrjTov 

TO €vnoirfTiKov ijbv 
tvvotrjTiKos tSp oXXcov 
€VTroiriTiKo£ els xpi^fAara 


€vpr)Tai Koc Karaa-KtvafrBri (perf. 
and aor. combined) 

c 9. 38" 


y2.5; 146 

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"Evpmidov diroKpiaris 

Evpmidov ^^Kafirj 

Tr}\€(f)os "Evpimdov 
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fvpvficdcap alBrjp 
€P T^ TTpoKoy^ Teip evfrffiap 


tvtrvpBfTos Xoyoff 
fi€y(0os €vavpoirTop 



€VT€\rj opofuira im\ Trpdyfxara 
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y 15.8 

/3 6.20 

/3 23. 29 

y 2. 10 

op, a 13. 2 

y 12.3 

y II.5 
O I. 12 


7 9-3 
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«5.4, 5 

7 7-2 
P 12. 16 

TOPevXaPfjyjtvxpoPicaieTrL^ovKop a 9. 28 
fvkaPeiTai o 12. 6 



12. 16; 13.15 
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o 6. 29 

/Sis- 3 
■y 10. t 




a 6. 15 

^vxta-Oai. . .TTTODX'fvfi'V 

y 2. 10 

ocftfju [cvcodtar] 

a II. 5 


a 15. 10 

€(f>€i^s a 7. 1 ; pis. 10; 

y 16. 1,2; 17.6 


^4.3I n" 


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fjdovf)s a 6. 7 

c0odta Tov iroXcfiou 

op. y 10.7 c 


y 18.6 

€(p VfllU 


€xf(rd(u Tois Siyjrais 

a II. 10 

ixoyLtvov foTiv ctircty 

y 1.2 





€x6pas {iroirjTiKo) 


fX^povs Tifi<op€7(r3ai 


Tov£ ToU avTo7s ixBpovg P 4-7 

oi €x0poi iiraivovaiv 


dvaip€ip rw €x<Sp»v ra rUva /3 21. 1 1 


/3 20.6 

Cn\os (def.) 

fi II. I 


y 19.2 




/3 4.24 





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/3 6.24 



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a 12.4 

C^JV d^' CT€p<OV 


irpos aWov 


irpos To o'vp.tjxpov 

3 13.9 

irpos TO KoKov 


Tfj iXiridi 

P 12.8 

T^ Ijdei 

/3 12. 12 

tJ ftVljflfJ 

/3 13. 12 

Kara Xoyiafiov 

/3 13.14 

vpos ovs C»aiv 

a 12.28 


a 12. 10 

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«A? II. 13, 15 

^ alternative, prefixed to interrogative 

sentences, /3 6. 27 

^^^ a 1.7 ifiisY\ 6.22,24; 

^ 2. 12; 6. 12 (^/>) 
^di; dia<f)€p€i a lO, II 

i7doin7 (def.) 

T^y ijdoi^v dyadov tivai 
rjBv fiffivfjaBcu irovav 

TO fjbv 

^dvv i8€lP 

ijbea dyadh tipai 


T«y 7}bi<ov (n) 

(rt) r<3v rjbiaTOiv 

rj^va-fiOTi. . .cdeo'/iari 

^^or (ti 7roi€i) 

i^^of ?;(oi/rrr Xoyoi 

9^ei rov Xcyoin'or (note on iftfo9 and 

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lj3ov9 a 2. 4 

17 ^iK^ €K re3y oTjfjLtiov dctfiff y 7* ^ 

iJ^iK^ irtoTiff o 2. 3 

i^^tie^ X/fiff y 7. 1 

fjSiKol Xoyoi (dio TLVCiv ytyvorriu) 

/3 18. i; 21. 16 
ij^ticd (to iv6fi€va inaart^ ^^1) y 16.9 

o Jl. I 

/7^. O 1 1 . 8 

o 5. II 


a II. 8 

a II. 22 

o 11.4" 
a II. 6 

o II. 16 

y 16.8 

/3 2I. 16 

TOV rJIKiOwv xp^o^op 

ifUpq, vpaitTf 

y 17. 12 


1^. o II. 25 

^6. 12 

2. 11; 12.2 




Kara to ^fiurv ovk tvbaifiovtvova'tv 05.6 
i7fic<o0cXta o 14. I 

^p (was defined to be) o 6. 23 ; 7. 7, 8, 28; 

7-5; 13-15; y2.6 

'HpaxXfiocr onfXacf 

ra 'HpoicXciroi; 
ripfpLTifTis opyjjg 
'HpodoTOff (II 30) 

'Hpodorov Bovpiov 
6 TJp^s (pvOfJMs) (r€p.vo£ 


^TTOf Xoyoy KptiTTd iroifthf 

ap, a 13. 2 

rt/. y 6. 7 


22. 6 

7 5.6 



y 9. 2" 

y 8. 4 

a 12,6 

24. 1 1 


r^-iirr i 




rod Kcpbaiveiv 


PS- 17 


p S- 16, 14. I 

i3 5.i8 

a II.2I 


' a II. 18 

a II. 21 

y 2.3 

/3 6. 24 ; 72.3 

a 2. 19 


Bappakeov 17 opyij 
Oappclv, 6dp(Tos 

ra /itXXoyra 

TO Bavpa^dv rfiv 
TO OavpdCeaBcu i^bv 
TO Bavfiaarbv iinOvpryrov 
ijdw TO davpaarov 

G€ay€injs iv i^tyapois 

BeXtiv (for usual prose form iOcXeip) 
€l BeXfis y 16. 3 

^ibovaiBikfi a IS' 32 

roBlXtiv a 15-31 

p€uB€k€i a IS' 32 

p^B€\€i a IS' 32 

p^Bikeiv a 15.30, 32 

BiXtaxriv P 24. 7 

B€iie\ios /3 19- 25 

OeptarTOKKrjs a 15- H 

*B(v, peculiar use of words ending in, 

a II. 16" 

QeobeKrrjs iv t© vopa 
Atas 6 GeodfKTOv 

'AXKp£lL(OVl T^ Q€0b€KT0V 

€K popov TOV 0eo8eicTov 

€KTOv2<OKpdTOV5 TOV QsobiKTOV ^ 23. I3 

7 9-9 
7 II. 6 

7 13. S 
i3 23.28 

7 II. 6 


ap, 7 3. 4 

/3 i3'7 
a 3.2 


^ 23. 6 

^23. 3 

«/. a II. 25 

/3 21. 15 

a II. 15 

/3 23. 17 

/3 23. 20, 24 

P 23. 3^* 

3 23. II 

€v Tols Sfobf KTeiois 

irepl Otobcopov 

ij irpoTfpov Qeobfopov Tfxmj 

TO Qeobdpov 
0€ob<»pov (fxavij 

6 B€<op6s 

Orfpaiovs ditlvai ^[Xittttov 

TOV Qi]firj(TiV diroBavovTos 
€yv(D Brjp Brjpa 


TO Brjpuo8€(TT€pov adiKij/xa pfl^ov a 14. 5 
TOV Brj<rai)pov (vptv « 5 '7 

tpyov BrfTiKOP o. 9. 26 

B\iP€iv a 5. 14 

BopvpovvTM a 2. 10 

iBopv^ritrav fi 23. 22 

BopvPelrai P 23. 30 

itOTaTrXi/TTOvo-t BopvfiovvTes 7 7' S 

Bopv^ovaiv 718.4 

OpaavPovXos ^ 23. 25 

Kovap OpaavfiovKov BpaavPovXov (ko- 

\ei P 23. 29 

7 1.7 

y II. 13 

/3 23. 29 

7 8.4 

a 9. 29 

P 14. I 
op. 7 1 1. 6 

P 23' 27 

Opaavpaxos iv rots ikiois 


'HpobiKos Bpa<rvpaxov 

OTTO Qpaavpdxov 
TOP Bpaa-vv dpdpelop 

TfBpv\ripfpats Ka\ Kolvais yvfopais 

^21. II** 

TO Bpv\0Vfl€P0V 

dta Bvpov Kai dpyijv 
ol Bvpoi 6^€lS 

TO €ni ovpais ttjp vopiav 


a 10. 17 

P 13- 13 

P 12. 9 

op, a 6. 23 

P 21. II 

a 5-9 

€15 TO lapPflOP p€T€pTJ(rCLP 

lapPela (fyBtyyoPTcu. 
tapfios rj Xefif 17 t£p noXkaP 


^idaoup 6 OerraXos 

iarop XP^^^ 



eVl T^ Ibetf <^CKoTipovptvoi 

tbios KCLi Kara pipos 

idtor vopos a 10. 

TO idea dyaBd 

TO, nap* ikdarois Xdia icaXa 


ibia opopMTa 


Upai fls TO Kara <f>va'ip 

7 1.9 

7 8.4 

7 8.4 

a 14. 2 

a 12.31 


y H'7 

a 2. I 


a 15.21 

3; 13-2 
a 6.28 
a 9. 26 

P 22. 12 


/3 23.5 
7 12. 2^ 


a II. 3 







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Tfjv taijv (jioipav) 
'la^/xtoov vayijyvpis 
BqPrfO'iv ^la-fjaffviov 

a 7. 5; 13.9 
/3 16.2 

a 5. II 

-y 10. 7 / 

ap. y 2. 15 

y 16. II 

a 2. II 


/3 2. 17" 

^ 23. 1 1 

jcaiva \iy€iv 



/3 19.14; 23. 18 

yio. 7/; II.7; 17.10; 17,16 {bis) 

(Paneg. §1) y 14. 2 

iv r^ 7ravi;yvpi«c^ y 7» " 

'IcoKparovr 'EXci^f irpooifiiov y 14* I 

wcpi T^ff 'EXc'wjs 'lo-o/epdnyp jS 23, 12 

'laoKpdrris (Evagoras) /3 23. 12 

ioTopiai a 4* 13 

ioTopiKov tSv Trap* aXXotf ^vpriptvav 

a 4* 8 

laxypos a 5' 12 

laxvptis /3 2. 14 

tVxvff (def.) a 5, 12 

ro tctfff «cai ra^a /3 1 3. 2 

'IroXiflSrai /3 23. 1 1 

'l<^t«cpaTi7ff j3 2 1 . 2 ; 23. 8, 1 7 

y 2. 10; 10.7^, ^; 15. 2 

eV tJ rrpoff 'Apfiodiov /3 23. 6 

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*I(l>iKpdTrjs (ef ©v UTT^px* ravra) a 7* 32 

ro rou 'ic^dcporovfj c£ o?(ii>v cts oio^ <i 9* 3 ' 

Kaddirtp a 2. 10 

KaOdpios poixos 7 15* 5 

KaBapiovs /3 4* ^ 5 

Ka6i{ovT€s /3 3. 6 

Ka66\ov, opp. to icoro fx/por 

o 1.7; 2. 15/^r, 18 

Ko^oXou 02.9; 13.13; /3 25.8 

VTTO ro ovro ico^oXov a 2. 19 

Ka06\ov Koi irrpl iKcurrov a 3. 9 

ro Ko^ €Kcujrov kqBoKov a 2. 18 

KaBoKov fifj ovTog KaBokov WircTv /3 21. 10 

icoi, d€ and re a 4. 4" 

jcal...dc a 6. 23"; P 22. 3; 23. 18 

y I- 3, 9 

Kaipoi airioi 

y II. 6 

a 7. 32 


roy Kaipov K€xapifTp,€voi P ?• 3 

Kaxd avpdyd rovs dvBpmTTovs a 6. 20 

KaK01^Btli.,.€VliB(lS /3l2. 7^* 

Kcucoi^BuSy KaKoijBeia /^ 13* 3 

KaKorfBiareop y 15* lO 

KofcoXoyot /3 4. 1 8 ; 6. 20 

KOKOiraBeiv fi 20. 6 

KOKovpyeZ Tropo rovros 7 2. 7 

KaKovpyop a I, 10 

KaKovpyia /3l2. 15; 13. 14 

KQKOvpyiKd j3 16. 4 

a-myMTOs KaKcaa-tai P 7'3t ^* 9 

Ka\c^l1] yrjpas ap, y lO. 2 

KaXXtW a 2. 1 1 ; 4. 31 ; y 2. 10 

KaKKi^Tzovro > 2. 3 

KoXXiTrn-or a 1 2. 29 

KoXXtirirov re^J^ /3 23. 14) 21 

KaXXio-^eVi/r /3 3- 13 

^^JaKklvrpaTo% a 7. 13 ; 14. I ; y 17. 14 

ncoXXoff 05.11 

KoXXor dvdpjoTOi y 2. 13 

DcoXXiUTrtonff ^ 24. 7 

icoXov (defined) a 9- 3 

ro icoXa...dvo yivr\ a(i,f 

/i€ra<f>opa£ dno Kokap y 2. 13 

etrt rois KCLp.wrfjpo'iP 7 9-2 

ico/ixrvX^ /3 21.2 

««»'€* 01.5" 

jcoveov OTpepXoff 

a I. 5 


7 lo- 7 

KapKLPov Mi^dci^ 

P 23. 28 

KopTTci^toff TOP Xoyo 

y II. 14 



Kara (' in the case oP) 


xoro Trjp dX^Beiap 


xorojdXaTrrei oXXi/Xo 



/3 2. 12 


a 15.28 







leoroXXorr c cBol 

09.24; 12.24 


KPTa4iapTev6p€Poi ra p^Xkopra a 9. 40 
KarcufTiKpv 7 '9* 5 

KaranaveaBai ' o 12. 25 



KorafrXrJTTova'i rots aKpoaras 7 7* 5 

KaTmrpavP€iv fi 3» ^7 

KoraaKtvaCfip a 4. 6 ; 1 5 . 2 1 

KaTa(rK€va{€ip roiovrovs /9 2. 27 

Karaa-KevQaeie /3 I.7 

tcaraa-KfvcurBrjvcu a 2,2 

T^v KaraaKtvaaTiKcip /9 26. 3 

learaoToo'tff /3 3* 2 

tarrdaraaiP dBpoay a 1 1. 1 

MaTa<l>p6vija'i9 P 2. 3 ; 1 1. 7 

Kcera<f>povr)TiK6s /3 2. 24 ; 11,7; ^ 5« 2 

iuira<f>papfifr6at ^ 2. 1 7 

9Uira^€vb€(r6ai 015.26 

ftqb'uas KaTa^evd6fi€P<n tig navirofifpoi 

Barrov a 1 5. 26 

KOTfiKjifUpas {rixyw) a 2. 20 

carciirciy /3 S* 7 ; y 15. lO 

KoreX^cZy j3 23. 13 

(X/fu*) KaT€frrpafifuprip V 9- !> 3 

«arci;op«ci;(raja-aff ^/. y 3. 1 

icorexcin ^ 5. 14 

Korr^vyiupoi,, Kara^v^is ^ 13.7 

icanyyopet a 14. I 

narr^opia fl 3« 3 

Trepf Koniyopm W aTToXoytas a lO. I 

KaTOiKTeip€ip /3 20. 6 

KaTourrpop piov ap* y 3. 1 

Karo'pfiovPTfs /} 2. 10 

ey KaTopOci(r€i /J 3. 12 

KarmpBfao'caf a 6. 29 

#caT«p^<»Kfi^ a 9, 38 i /3 5. l8 

Kavvto^ cpdDff /3 25.4 

icaxvTroirroc /5 13. 3 

icaroifioa-aro 015. 28 

K€ip.€POl.,,Tl0€p€POi A 1 5. 23 

Keip.€Povs pofwvs a 1.7^ Kua$<u vifiop 
a 15. 12 
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Kcvoif 7 13.5 

K€pafi€vs K€pafiel Op, fi 4.21; lO. 6 

K€pdaip€ip diro p.iKp£p fj an Qx^xp&p jS 6. 5 
o-vXXoyc(r/ic5v TToXXoy xc^oXam /3 24. 2 
iec<^aXaia>dtfff y 14.8; 1 9. 4 

«ff cV xc^oXm^ jS l6. 3 

KfC^oXiff /3 19. 10 

Kexpi?M<W /3 23. 12 

KfXPOPlKOTtS /3 3. 13 

Kf7^A<rodorov roy Xcirrov y A*3 

Kjj<l>i(r6doTos y 10. 7a,_^^ 

ro KipSviXop bUaiop a 15* 7 

o£ diro KifAtiPos ^S* 3 

rovff icivdvyovr rotr iriirdi/yoi( fiofiOriu-ovras 

ap. y 10.7^6 

Klvbvpos P S'^ 

KtpdvpevTiKos a 9. 29 

Ktvn»mpop a $,12 

lup^trfu y I* 8 

iroia KiPTia-if 1} V^vx'} j8 23. 13 

Kimja-ip Tipa r^£ ^X$^ a 1 1. I 

KXco^y 015.13; y7,2 

icXcirrcrai cJ 7 2. 5 

leXcVrcroA y 7. 10 

tAv leXc^ovra Xa^cly 7 2. 10 

jccjcXffirrcu y 2. lo 

KXeW i^quilibet) /3 2. 2 ; 7 5. 2 

KXctty 7 8. I 

icKrjpovxia fi 6. 24 

icXifp^ diav€fiopTai ras dp-xps a 8. 4 

01; bu, Kktfpoirovs ipx€w P 20. 4 

ry xoiy^ a 5. 6 

ico4i»J a 6. 16 

Kotpop diKxuop a 13. 2 

icoivof PQfjMs a 13. 2 

«eoiyoc ypSfuu /3 2 1. 1 1 

/3 20. I 

/3 22. 12 


icocyac friaT€is 

jcoivos 'Epfifjg 

Toiff Koivovs ofiouis nayr^p a 2. 22 



icoXaicctar oi^ficia 
o «coXa{ };di; 

a 1. 10 

a 13.2 
/3 24.2 


a II. 18 

a 14.3 

KoKcuris Tov ndaxoPTQt iv€Ka a lo. 17 
Kokaais ciKtrSv P 3' S 

leoXXiyo'iy y 2. 12 

KoKopQP ttouIp y 8. 6 

ocl Kokoiog irapa MoXoiov ap, a II. 25 

KOfieof koXSp, €P AoKtbai/topt, 09.26 

KOfuiPTa yll.13 

ij KopaKos T€xvrf /3 34. 1 1 

KOpd(UilK»TfpOt (fivBfios) 7 8. 4 

Kwrpfip y 2. 10 


Korop ex^eiv 


Kpavyrjp KaXXtoTn/s' 




Kpiv€ip Kara (ftpwrjaiv 

oi KpivovTfs 

cVl rois Kpivovai 
(tottos) €k Kpitrcms 

manrep apyvpoyvi&ynov 
oi KpiToi X^'pf-C^VTOI. 


Kpoiaos "AXvp diapdg 

Ta pabia Kpxn\tat 

firj KT€iv€LV TO €/i^V;^OP 

KrripxLTa anapira ikcvdepicaTepa 

KTrfpaToav Koi <rc»p,dTav 




TO, k{kK<^ 

Kwibloii {bis) 

y 2. 2 


/3 23.8 

/3 2.7 

a 12* 30 

ap, y 2. 1 1 

y II.5 

y 14.6 

a 15.6 

a 7« 21 

a 7. 28; 3 23. 12 

a 1.7 

/8 23.12 

a 3.21 /3 18. I 


y I2.S 

a 12. 4 

a 15. 13 J y 16.3 

rt/. y 5. 4 

o 12. 33 

o 13.2 

a 9. 26 


ap* y 3- I 

a II. 15 

i3 2o.4 


«/. y II. 13, IS 

ap, a 9. 20 

«9-33; 7 5-4; 14. 10 

/3 22. 12 
a II. 15 

/3 20.6 

ftvi'f ff ov boKVovTfs Tovs KaBl^ovTas jS 3. 6 
Kvav )3 24. 2 

G Ki/a>y y 10. yg" 

KvpiosaS.2, 3; i5.9,2i;/9io, ll}y2.6 

a 15. 25 


y 2. 2 

y 2.2, 6 

a I. 8 


3.4; i3 25. II 


7 9-7 

/3 9.5 
/36.20; y3.4 

ap, y 2. 10 

KVplOl.,MKVpOl ' 

Kvpia re Kai arvv<6wpa 
ra Kvpia 
Kvpiov 01/op.a 



KvpitoTaros a I. II ; 

€P K€oi\ois Xf^rejff 


K&m}s dpoLcrtrfip 

Xaas dpatb^s ap. y 1 1. 3 

Xa/3€tv (grasp with the mind) /3 22. 4 
Xa^jyruoi 012.5 

Aaxedatfiopioi o 5. 6 

eV AoKcdainopi KopJap kclK&p a 9. 26 

AoKcoy €vdvp6p€Pos y 1 8. 6 

AaKwpiKa d7ro<f)B€ypxira /821.8 

Xair^ai/c(y M^x^tcu y 2. 6 

XetTovpyetv p 22* 17 

X€Xoi8op5(r^oi vtreXafiop Kopipdiot wro 


Xcf tff 17 eV irtpiobois 





tlpopcpTff KaTearapp^vri 


Xe^e«y dptTrj a-atpfj eipoi 

X/f 6t diaBeaBai 

a 6. 24 
)3 26.5 

7 9-7 
y 12.2 

y 12.2 


7 12.6 

y 12.6 

y 1.9 
y 2. I 
y8. I 

TJ Xef f t pcTondePM Koi (rTp€(l)np a 9. 36 

Xeftff opp. to didpoia 

(roTTOf) TTopa r^i; Xe^tv 
XcKTiKrjt dppxtPias Seopcpos 
Acnriprji nepl AaKedaip^pmp 

Af<a8dpas KaTtjyopcip KaWiarpdrov 

« 7. 13 


/3 24.2 

y 8.4 

y 10. 7 a 

^ 23. 27 

/3 23. 25 

Xcdp €7r6pov(r€ 

17 Xif^i; 

\i]6rj di* dpeXeiap 

XTip.-q rot) JleipaUtos 



Xjjo-etv oMj^roi 

X^trrai. . .Tropioral 

Xiyi/retp rwi/ dyaBSp 



dp. y 4. 1 

/3 2. 26 

i8 3.26 

ap, y 10.7^ 

o 12. 10 

a 12, J 

7 2. 10 

o 6. 4 

^ 20. 2 

72.13; 13.5 

A.iKi;^)^(off T&p biBvpap^onomp y 12. 2 




tf/. y II. 3 


y 17.16 


y 16.2 


y 10. 3 

XoyiCftrBai ir6pp»Btv 

a 2. 12 

ItdkaKiag ariiuia 

/3 6.9 

"XoyiKOMS avWcyta-fiave 

a I. II 

ftakcucos a lO. 

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7 10. 7/ 




ap. 7 6. 4 


a 15. 15 

noXvKpdrrjs els tovs fivs 

3 24. 6 

€V T^ TToXtTCt^ Tfj HXaTtDVOS 


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7r\€ov€KT€Lv o 4. 9 ; 16. 5 ; 17. 5 

; 25. 10 

iroXvTrpoa-anop ovpapop 

ap. y 3. 1 

irXrjv ('only') a I. 14; 12. 10 



€V 7r\Tjp<a<r€i 

^3. 12 


a 5. 4, 16 


i3 5.2 


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y 17. 14 

Tovs 7r\i]ai,ov 

a II. 22 



nXouTos dpenj KT^aeas 

a 6. II 


/3 2.7 

irXoVTOS oloP Tlfl^ Ti£ 

/3 16. I 

^aca €pb€ia iroprjpop 


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a 5. 7 

irovrjpcvforBai cTrirpiVtty tokop ap, y lO. 7 

T^ xrXouT^ a eTTcrai Ifdrj 

^ 16. I 


a 6.22 


P 20.4 

dno irovTjpias 

o 13. 16 


a 2. 18 

TTopfvca-dai, . .Pabl^eiP 



y 10. 7 ^ 


y 2. 10 

itoiclv and Ttdaxfiv /3 23 p. 242 n^ 


y 2. 10 

iToiHv (of poems) 

y2. 14 


a 2. 2 

troti;TiJff (Homer) a 7. 31, 33 ; 

; /3 3. 16 



noirjToi \4yovT€s ewjdrj 

y 1.9 


/3 22.3 

noiovvTcs Ti a 1 1. 1 1 ; Trciroti^jcci' a 9. 20 ; 

{tottos) €k tov TTocax^S 

/3 23.9 


/3 3. 16 

* TTOTPUl (TVKrj ' 


TTCfroirjijJvois ovoyuao'i 


irpaypaTcvoPTai a f. 

3,9; 2.5 



npaynaT€vBrjp(u wtpl top Xoy 

ov /3 26. 5 



irpoyyLartvBrjvai -y I. I 
wpaKTLKoi a 12. 2; /3 13. 13 

irpaoi /3 3. I, 12, 13; 5. II 

irpacay /3 3. I 

irpaoTrjs P 3' ^9 17** 

TTpaiSvca'dcu /3 3* I 

vpdvv(ris (def.) ^ 3« 2 

TTpavwe/ca /3 3. lO 

wpaxBrjvat, . .7r€ir/>«x^<w. , .vpaxBri(T€(rBQi 


TO npfTTov y 2. 3 ; 7. I 

TrpeTTOvca (Xcf tr) y 2. I 

7rp«cr/3«T€pot /3 13- I 

VpivOl9 OfJLOlOl 7 4* 3 

TTpo €pyov a 4< 3} ^ 

Trpoayayclv a I. 1 4 

irpoaipciTai. /S 23. 26 

ra frpoaiperd a 6. 26 

vpoaipovpLevoL a lO. 3 

frpoaipovprai nparrtiv ra rois €;^^poTs 

xaica a 6. 26" 

vpoaip€(ris a 1. 14; 9. 32 ; y 16. 8 

7rpoaip€(rip owdrjikovv /3 21. 14 

jcora r^v Trpoaipeaiv a I. 1 4 

irpoaip€a'iv,..irptt^ip a 1 3. 17 

cV 7rpomp€(r€t ?} fjLoxBrfpla a 1 3. lO 

dn-o 7rpoaip€(r€<o£ y 16. 9 

vpoavaKLVtiv y 14* II 

irpooyeXu]/ y 17. 1 4 

irpoat^Xf tv, TrpoavXtoi' y 14. I 

np6^\rifia,.,d7r68€i^ig yI3. 2 

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wpobtbo^da-Bai a 2. 4 

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irpodiaK€x<oprjKms a 12. 29 

iFpobicujvpovra y 1 7. 1 4 

7rpoSi>jyiy(rt9 y 13' 5 

IIpoS(K09 a 5. 10; y 14.9 

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TTpocbpUu A 5* 9 

7rp0€LKd{0VT€S « 3* 4 

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irpoeXofiivov o 13. 7 

9rpo€/i^dXXf o-^ai y 5* 2 

7rpo€(ayK<avicras y 14. 12 

Trpof^OTTaTap yll.6 

TrpoeTTiTrXr/TTetv y 7* 9 

o^e n'pof]\0€V 

TrpoK€ip.€Vov rekos 


tK Trpovolas 


P 5. 22 
a 9. 29 

y 1-5 

y 13.2,3,4 

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P 19. 26 

a 15. 29 
3. 15 

y 14. 1 

y9. 3 

a 14.5 

y 12.3 
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y 14. U ; 16. 4 j 

wpooi^tov a 1. 9 ; y 13- 3>4 ; (def.) 

14. I 
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rpfirovra /3 23. 21 

^poff . y 2. 4 

TTpos oKkov (fjp a 9. 27 

irpos a ToiovToi a 6. 30 

Trpor €p86^ov5 ovyKpiPciP a 9. 3 1 

npos ovs C^criP a 12. 28 
irpos ra oIk€ ica irdBti (absorbed in) 

/3 8. 6 

TFpos Kpirrjp TOP Beapup ^ 18. I 

Trpos TO (nffi<f)4pop ^ 13. 9 

TTpOf rovTo <* 3' 5 

ra vdBr] bi otra ficTopcOsXavres dio^f- 

pov<rL npos. . . /3 1 . 8 

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npoa-^oXrj y 2. 12 

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vpoa-eKTiKos {bis) y 14. 12 

Trpotrc^OTraTav y 1 1 . 6 

frpo(r€7rLKTa(rBcu Tifx^p a 9. 3 1 

TrpocreTrtTrXiJrTeti/ y 7* 9 

/jm) irpocrtpayrav to (jiavcpop y 1 8. 2 

vpocrr)y6p€V(r€ ficrfpiyKas y 4- I 

TTpoa-Bea-is y 2. 12 

irpo(rBrJK(u a I. 3 

7rpo(r«aTaXXaTroi'Ta4 a 12. 4 

TTpocicvwforets « 5. 9** 

irp6(robot /3 22. 5 

vpoaoSovs TTJs TToXecaf a 4. 8 

vpocropi^oprai y 5. 4 




y9. 6 

a 13. lo 

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TO irpoiTTaTrop.cvov 23. 18 

Trpdo-xto-fta 3 19. 10 

TTpofTXP^vTox a3*4» ^io*3 

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Tas Kad* €Ka(rrov yivos iSi'ay irporacreeff 

a 2. 22 

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TTporpe'TTCi 7r04€lV 


eV npoiirapxovTOiV 
a^ia Tciv TTpovTnjpyp.ivuiV 
irpoKfyaaecds bclrai fiovov ij vovrjpia 

Uparayopov cTroyyeX/ia 



a 2. 2 

/3 2I.IS 

a 12.23 


/313. 7 
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3 24. 1 1 
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Ot TTTaXOL P 24. 7 

nu^ayopas 3 23. II 

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7rvp€Tols ix^^i^cvoi a H- lO 

TTvpirrci (Jns) a 2. 18 

irvpixp<^v ^p' 7 3' I 

irupporpixf' ^P' ^ ^5" ^3 

TTtfXoff €? 3 23. 29 

'PaSdfUiv^s Koi naXafiqdrjs 7 12. 3 

padm a 6. 27 

Ta pqbias yiyv6fi€va a 6. 27 
ra paQvpxi a lO. 4, rovr paBufiovs a 12. 19 

pa$vp,i(U a II. 4 

paieei ocic/aff 7 1 1. 13 

pa\l/a>bia 7 ^- 3> ^ 

payffioBovvTa 7 n. 13 

pri6ri<T€Tai iv roT? TTf pi ra tra^i; a 1 3" ^ 
prj^aTa>v...ovofiaT(ov y 2. 2 

prjixoTcov 7 ^* 5 

prjT€Ov x^P*^ a o. 7 

p^rap o ^. ^4 

prjTopiKos P '^•7 

ij pryropiKri dvTi(TTpo(f>os rfj 8iaX.€KTiKfj, a I . I 
cvcKa Kpiarcois »j prjTopiKi] ^ I. 2 

prfTopiKri bvvafii9 irepi cKaarov rov Otoi- 
pTJaai TO €pb€x'P'fvov iriOauov a 2. I 
TO, yivT] TTJs prjTOpucfjs o 2. 22 

yci/iy rpio 03.^ 

Ti)v pr)TopiKr\v otov Trapa(t>v€s rt tiJs 
dioXeKrwc^s a 2. 7 

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poirdXov Tov bt]px)v dp. y 10,7 C 

pvBiioi yl.4, 8. 2 

y 2. 10 

/9 16.2 

a 15. 13 

/3 22. 6 


/3 6. 24 

/3 20.6 

a 9. 20 ; j3 23. II, 12 

y 2.8 

y 2. 6 

ap.y II. 13 

/3 23. 12 




TT]v iv ^aXapxvi vavjiax^caf 
craXTTiyya fieXo^ aXvpov 
^dp,ov KKrjpovx^<^S 

TO (ra(l>fs 


aikivov ovXov 

aep-val deal 


a-€fiv6T€pot 5 papvT€poi ^ 1 7. 4 

j; (r€p.vuTr)s ftoXaie^ Koi fu<rx7fictfv ^a- 

pvnyy 3 17' 4 

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(TT/ftela a 9' ^6 

cri^/xcTa Xvra a 2. 1 8 

ra o'rjp.ela t^s dpeTrjs a 9. 14 

diro oyjpcifov kol \oy[a>v /3 5. 21 

cV Twi/ <rrip.€i<ii)V Stilts 7 7- o 




y 10.7 d 


y 18.7 

crcoX^ 7r(ipdk€L<l>€tv 


€1/ dyopa araBfjvcu 




(rTaSrjvai x<iXieoi)ff 

ap. y 9. 9 


^ 23. 29 


15. 3 

triKLas npoaPo\i]v 

y 2. 12 


P 23. 22 


04. 12 


/3 12.2^ 

'2iii<ovlhr]5 a 6. 24 ; 9. 3 > ^ 

16. 2; y 2. 14 

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ap. y 3. I 

aiwis avrip 

ap. y 3. 2 

a-riprja-is a 7. 

16; /3 9.5" 

TO. (TKfkr] pmreiv 


€K tSv OTeprjo'caiP 






a-Kiylfis i 

b2. 14; 4-7 

OT€(f>avinjv oycoi^a 



y 12.5 


/3 23. 25 



arfjXtu 'HpoxXeiai 


aKXrjpa ovofiara 

y7. 10 

2nja-ix6pov irepl ^akdptbos 

^20. 5 

(rK^Tjpa p.dTT€tP 

ap. y 16.4 

^Triaixopos €V AoKpols 

/3 2I.8 

vKuXioy (on health) 

i3 24.5" 


y II. 6 

tTKcmos a $. I ; 6. 1 ; < 

jKOJToi a 9. I 


P 22. 13 

(TKtmeia-BtH, irpos to avr^v 

a I. 10 

tTToix^lov Koi Toiros 

26. I 




a 2.22 


7 4-3 

o-TOix^ia n€pi oyaBov kcu avpxf>€poyros 

a-Kafifiara jrapa ypdp.pu 

/3 II. 6 

o 6. I 


P 2. 12 

TO. crroixeui to tiros 

/3 24.3 



a-Topyrj Appendix (A) vol. i 

p. 292 


P 16.2 

(rToxd(fa-Bai o 6. I ; /3 21. 

15; y 10.6 


«is. 13 

oToxaC^cBcu TOV fitTpiov y 3. 3 ; frToxa- 

tj (ro(tiia TToXkav Koi BavfuuTT&v ijrKmifirj 

(6fi€voi a 5* I 

a 11.27 

crToxa<rTlKoaf tx^uf 

I. II 

€ro(fiurTris a 

I. 14; y2.7 


P 23. 17 


a I. 14 

/AI7 CrTpaT€v6fl€V09 

« 13-3 

rots (Toc^ioTMCoTs \6yois 



I. 5 

\v€l TOP (TO^UJllKOV XuyOV 

y2. 13 


o 15. 10 

(ro(f)umKms airoKpipdfievov 

y 18.4 



2o<t>oK\rjs 0. T. 774, y 14 

.. 6 ; Antig. 


p 4,2s 

912, y 16.9; Antig. 456, 

a 13.2 

TO avyyeves <\)Boveiv 



y 17.16 

avyy4vrj epyo /3 23. 8 ; trvyyevis y 2. 12 

do. (Antig.) 

a 15.6 

uvyy€V€(TT€pos avros 


^o(f)oK\rjs (statesman and orator) 

Ta avyyevrj kcu ofioia iJSca 

a 11.25 

14. 3 ; y 

153; 18.6 

€K raJp avyyfvSv 

y 2. 12 

ToifS (ro(f>oifs eVi rals rf£tv liKovcrloiv Svpais 

crvyyivaarKeiv dvBpfairlvois 

a 13. 16 


/3 16.2 



vopav (ro<l>ci)T€pop 

o 15. 12 

avyyv(6p,ris reuf €<r^ai 

c 12.32 

TO (riTavwT€pov Tov a^Bovov { 






2. 2 

airovhd^tiv kcu. clpiovtvcaBai 

iS 2.24 


ap. y 10. 7 

fTTrovbaCeaBai (formation of 


<ruyK€iTai, ck TpL&v 6 Xoyor 

03- I 

/3 3.7 

avyK^iTcu T€xvrf 

y 1.5 

crirovbaiov VTTokaii^avto'Bcu, 










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avKOfuvtiV KokaOov y II. 1 5 

frvKo<t>avriav (logical deception) j3 24. 10 

TvXXo/Sdi/ri ciirciv a lo. 18 

(TuXXiT^cff a 4. 6* 

rdpavTia ovXkoyi^erai a I. 12 

avWeXoyurfiiva^p npoTifiov a 2. 1 3 

irvXXoyur/iOff a 2. 8, 9 

o TTpo^Tog avXXoyi(rfi6s a 2. 1 3 

<t>aiv6fifvo£ (TtfXXoyKr/ioff a 2. 8 

(rvXkoyio'fAos on tovto €Ktivo a 1 1. 23 

trvXKoyurfiov re kcH (JMivofjktvop (rvWo- 

yicfiop a 1. 14 

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xnJKkoyi(mKas Xeyciv tJ Xcf ci /3 22. 4 

ot ovA^PTts Tovs Kapxfji 



a 12.18 

avfipdXXerai iroXXa 

y 1.2 

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a 2. 4 

' TO, (TVfipePrjKOTa vaBri 

« 2. I 


CI 10.9 

(tottos) dia TO ovfip€PrjK6s 






<rvfiPovkrJ9 lUptf 



04. I 

vvfiPoXa \ey€ip 



); 16.10 

Tcfis avfiPovXevTiKois tipryrai 

a 10. 19 

trvfifitrpop rrfp biaiurpop 


19. 5 






y 18.6 

trvfiiripao'fia /3 21.2 ; 21. 


y 18 

. 2,6(/^r) 


/3 24.2 


7 9.6 

avfiiriin'€af dwo rvx"!^ 


ra trvfiirrafuxra 



a 6, 1 

t; 15-25 

TO <Tvpxf>ipop (equity) 

a 15. 10 

Tov fiSXXop avfi/(f>4po»Tos 


rap aviA<lxp6pTav 

/3 12*12 

{TVPoyiiP a 2. 13; /3 




23. 16 


Y II. 12 



avpayayfjv ipaarrmv 

fi 23. 30 


« 15-33 



21 ; 4.3 

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)3 6,8 




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fjL€Ta avvB^afiov XeyeiP 

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avpBpofxaf {(EKKXrja-iag) 
avp€yyvs (IxuveaBat 

Ta (rvptyyvs »g ravra 
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TO (rVPTj6€S 

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dia avpif0€iap 

fj avp6i]KTj P6fl0£ 

ovpSrJKm Kai avfifioXal 

7r€p\ (TvpBifKap 


avpopap a 4. 8 ; dta iroXX£p avpopop a 2. 1 2 

ra avprtipovra S 2.% 

<nfPTi04pai a 7. 31 

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(roiroff) Th dirfpfjfupop avpriBtPTa Xeyciv 

(rvPTiOS y 2. 5 ; avvrWerai y 5. I 


a I. 10; 15.22 
^8. 14 
^ 6. 27 

a 7' 3 
714. I 

y 12.4 

y 6. 6 

y9. 1 

y 5. 2, 6 

P 4, 12 

/3 4. 12 

ap, y 10, yh 

a 15.32 

PS' I 

y 14. II 

3 7-5 

/3 24. 2 

o 14.3; /3 20.6 

/3 25.8 

/3 4.3 
a II. 15 

a 10. 18 

a II. 19 

a II. 16 

a I. 2 

/3 7.5 
a I. 7 

y 14.I 

a 7. 31 

a 13.2 

a 15,21 

a 15. 20 
a 5. 12 
y 10.6 

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7 6. I 
76.5,6; 15.10; 18.5 

a II. 4 


o 7. 27" 

^ 24. 2; 7 18.4 

a II. 15 

a 13. 10 

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a6. 17; 3 10.4" 

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Tckff (TWTovias Xv7ri;pac 
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(7x5/*a rrjs X/f fwff 24. 2 ; 7 8. I ; lO. 5 
frxnuoL TToXiriJc^ff a 2. 7 

(TXoXS ^ 23. 4 

o-wfeo^ai €« KtvSvv©!' a 1 1. 24 

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^aKparrjs iv t« €Vira<^i^ 7 I4. 1 1 

o Sawcpan/ff €Xe7«^ (Menex.) a 9. 30** 

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afofiaros t(rxvs 

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crnrrfpLa rrjs irdKfoas 

Ta CTfiOTlJptO 

{rci><f>poa'vvri (def.) 


7 16. 8 

/9 20.4 

a 1.3 

«A 7 3-3 
/3 5.20 

a 5. 10 

a I. 12 


a 4. 12 

35. 16 

P 13. 13 
a 9' 9 

aia<f>poavvrj Koi dvdpia veov dperai a 5.6 

rd^is 7 12. 6 


ra^etos 3 26. 5 ; 

raTreitnjv (Xc^ti/) 

raircivoTTyros aijfit'ia fi 6. lO 

rmretvova'Bai vtto tov filov /3l2.Ii; 13-5 

irpoff ToifS TaTr€ivovp.€Vovs iraverot 1} 0P717 


raTTccvittff y 7* 3 

rapax>7 3 !• 2 ; 9* 3 

Xwnj rapaxfobris 3 9* 3 

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re yap (etenim) y 7- 1 1 

rtdeaprjfjxva 7 2. I 

TfBriyfUvop ' y 3- 2 

T€Bpvkrfix€vats Kcu Kotvais yvtofuus 3 2 1 . II 

Tfivfiv 7rpo£ dXiJ^f lav 
TO /ifV dvayKolov r^Kp^piov 


rcKfuzp ical ircpas ravrov 

reKfiripMfi ivQvpXHioTa 

tAos a 3. 5 ; 7 9. 2 ; TfXoff (def.) a 7-3 

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rmp irpos to riXog 
rcXof (tandem) 

TO. iv TcXci TOV PtoV 

7 14.4 
a 7-40 
a 2. 16 
a 2. 17 



qp» y 3- I 

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rerpdyoivov (jSivdpa) 
ra T€Tpdp.fTpa 

a 6. 22 

a 6. I 

a 4. 12 




a 10. 12 
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TOVS VVP T€XJ'oXo7oviTaff 


t\ KOk TToaop kclL iroiop 
TiBfvai ip iiraiptjf 

ri/i7 coflTTTf p df id rtf 
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TO irap* €JcdoT04£ TLfUOP 

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a 9. 28 

7 1.8 

3 19. 13 
7 15. 10 

3 23. 5 J 72. 10 

a I. 10 

a I. II 

a 2. 4 
a 2. 5 

7 10. 7<z 

«^. 7 9. 10 

a 7.21 


05.9; 6.13 


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17 Tifitipla PpaSeta 

rifjMpias rvx*uf 

ro TiiuoptlaBtu i}du 


TO fi€p (supplied) 

ro Ti r/v €ivat et sim, 

iv TOtOVTOlS Kaipois 


TOKoi iirirpiTOi 



<lm»€pop €jc Tav roiriKcw 
€K r<3p roTTiKmv 
iv rots TOfTUcois iKeyofitp 
KoBdirep Koi iv rots roTrticoIr 

a 12. 18 

a II. 9 

a II. 13 

«/• y 4- 3 
a 7. 12 

a 7. 7 n* 


a/, y 10. 7 
y 1.4 

y 12.4 
^ 22. 13 
a 2. 9 
a 1. 12 
a 2. 22 

cV To?s ToiriKois ^ 22. 10; 23. 9, 13 ; 

25.3; 26.4 

rmros, crrotxc^oi' ^ 22. 1 3 » 26. 1 

roiror €k rov fiaXXov jcai frrov ^ 23. 4 

TOTTOV ivOvfirjfioTOS P 22, 13 

TOJTOt 02.22; 5,9; 3.17; 22.1 

a 2.21 
a 1 1. 23 ; y 10. 3 

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TQvro iK€ivo 

r^v TpayiKijv 
7r€p\ rpo<f>fjg 

Tptxjmi dij/Aoo'cai 
o rpoxaios 
rpox^pos pvBfwg 


p Tvirr&v 

Tvpawibos reXoff 
rvxri (def.) 


y 14.6 

y 1.3 

y 10.7 

a 12.8 

a 4. II 


y 8.4 

y 8. 4 

0i6. 2 


«I3. 3 
08.4; 12.9 


P 12.2 

V ''^Xl olria r&v vapa ^vfriM a lO. 13 

1) Tvxj'l dyoBav alria 
dirb Tvx'js 
dia rvx^jv 


6 vPpiCmv oXiyiopfi 

a 10. 12 
a 12. 14 


a 12.26 

o 13.9 

i?pl{€a0ai P 6. 13 

iJ/3ptff 2. 3 

tJ^piff /3 2. 5 (def.) ; 12. 15 ; 23. 8 ; 


rviTTfiv Tox^s iXfvBipovSf tifipiv 24. 9 

v/3p«ff a 12. 35 

ot viot Koi 01 irkovo'ioi vfipiarai j8 2. 6 

v^puTTucd /3 16. 4 

v^ioTUcrf Sid6€<ri9 ^ 8. 6 

i^dov^ fi^ vppKrriK^ ^ 3' 12 

i5y«o froi^oxii a I. 1 4 

vyiacr^^yoi ^ 19* I 

vyuuv€tv apiarrov . ^ 21. 5 

vyioLvovo'iv moTrep UpoBucos Xeycroi 

a 5. 10 

vyUia apiOTov boKti f imu a 6. 10 

vytfto (def.) a 5. 10 

vyuivov a 2. 1 ; P 24. 3 

«A y 3- 3 

a I. 15 


a II. I 


y 1.3 

a 15.26 

vypov idpttra 

cf wrapxTJs 

vndpx^f'Vf €LVfUy yiyv€frBak 

wrapx'ti' — virdp^ai 

wrdpxovo'a <l>vats 
wridei^e wpSros 

vntpakyuv iir dKyovvri 
vnfpdKyovvras rots TTfTrovf/M/ois /3 3« 17 
V7r€p^iv€t,v dUaia o 14* 5 

^neppoX^ o 6. 21 

vvepPoXrj dp€T^? (in good sense) a 9. 29 
iv rah jmepPoXcus cos iv rms dptraig 


Kuff vireppoXijv 
vTTtpPoKal ti€Ta<f>opa\ 
vntpPoXal fietpaKittdcis 
ro vnepixovra rov avrov fieiCovi fieil^a 


a 13. 12 

y II.5 

y 1 1. 16 



vnepoxfj dperrjg 

mtpoxfj 7rX€i6v»v 
vwrx^iv Xoyov 

y 10. ye 

16. 1 




o I. I 





VTToyvioi rj op75 

/3 6. 16 

a 9. 8 

fi 23. 24 

y 16. 10 


i^^tr^lov a 1.7; 3 22. II 

t57roSi}/iaro P 19- lO 

ovx virodiKa ra eticora «« 15* ^ 7 

v7ro5v€rai vwo to <rx5f«» a 2. 7 

iiroB^aeai « 9- 36 

wroBttrii ikarrav 7 ^' 3 

XeyfiiA Trpoff iln-o^co-ev ^ 18. I 

iJTTo^icai « 9- 36 

VTToO^Krj Biavros P ^3-4 

V7roK€ifi4va Trpdyfiara a 1. 12 

Totrmv vfroK€ift€Vcnt ^ 4> 3 

vTTOKftTat a 2. 13; viroK€i€rB<o a II. I 
ivroKopiCeaBat y 2. 14 

iJ7roico/H<r/*&ff y2. 15; 09.29* 

tJ vnoKpi(T€i ^ 8. 14 

TO wcpl T^v vfroKpiciV y !• 3 

viroKpiTiKO, y 12. 2 r ; vvoKpn-iK^ y 1. 6, 8 
viroKpiTiKov ctvai <f)va'€<os 7 1-7 

vnoKpirai y 1-4; 2.4 

viroKpiTiKcrrarrj Q^i^ts) 7 12, 2 a 

v7r6ica4>os ^P^ y 4. 3 

KoXof v7ro\apfiav6fi€VO¥ 7 !• 5 

viroXciirci vieh^uf a 4- 7 

VTToXij^ti' dv<rx€p? ajToXvo-aiTO y IS* ' 
i;7ro/AO»i7 i3 6. 13; y 9. 7 

viro7rrcvo'i»o'i 2. 1 4 

€tf vTTcimuurfjJvov, vwcaTreov y II. IS 

vaT€piC€t j3 23. 30 ; y 10. 4 

cV Tols varepov piy^ijorrai a 12, 2 

v<rr€pov,,,7rp6T€po¥ ^ 19. 6 

ra «V T^ *a/dpy y 7- 1 1 

ov Tovra (jyaivercu <l>ikov<ri Koi fua-ova-iv 

06.23; ^ 1.4 
tf>aivofiivris (emphatic, for <f>avfpas) 

/3 2. 1 ; o 6. 23 

^Mivoficvos <l>tKos 6 KoKa^ a II. 1 8 

dKrj$€s aXXh f^awoyxvov ccfcof 24. 1 1 

*aXapi£ fi 20. 5 

ifiavfpa P 2$. 14 

TO. \[av iv (JMVtp^ fl 12. 5 

Kjuivracria aXaBritrts rit daBtv^s a 11.6** 

(jyavraaia vwtpoxv^ ** II. 14 

^fmvrao'ia « II. lo, 17 » 
/3 2.2; 5.1, 16; 6.14; y T.6 

€19 (jidparya ^ 20. 6 

4>avXoi fl 6. 24 

4»avXXof Tov KVKkoif y 16. 7 

^cvaKiffiy y 5- 4 

KOV OTTO WKpOV ^€p€iy 3 6. 5 

^Beip^crBai a 4. 1 2 

fiyXoCo-^oi. . ical ^ <f)Bov€'iiTBai ^ 4- 2 4 

i^^dvor (def.) /3 9.3; lo- ^ 

<^^o'w)9 y ^9- 3 

<l}BoVOVfl€VOl O. 12. 23 

^Bovtpoi 1 1- 3 

<^t(iXi7*Apeoff 74.4; "-" 

<^t8frta 'ATT«»ca ap, y lo. 7^ 

<^iXavToi vavT€9 « 1 1. 26 

4>[KavT0i /3I3-9 

TO c^iXetv (def.) 4.2, Append. (A) vol. i 

p. 293 
^^tXcio-^oi (def.) all. 17 

<l)iK(LV <&s fjuoT^a-ovras 21. 13 

4)i\4paaTai all. 26 

^tXepyto av€V dytXfvBcpias a 5. 6 

(fiiXeraipos 07. iB; 012.13 

<^iX€Taipm a 7. 18 

*iXj^/xfi)i/ o virojcptT^s 7 ^2. 3 

eWiy <^iXtas 4- 28 

<^iXoyAoto4 13- 15 

<^Ao7c'Xa)T€S 12.16; 13.15 

4)CKoBiK€lv a 12. 35 ; <t>OiobiKos 23. 23 

^iXodofoi V€pi T» lO- 3 

^iXo^ogouo-iv ciri TIM 10. 4 

^eX^i«04 13. 8 

<^*Xo^€04 17. 6 

^[Kos (def.) 4-3 

ica^ avToi' alptros v <^iXo¥ o 6. 12 

6 ^cXoff rmv i}5eW o 1 1. I7 

ToO <^iXov npta-fjJvov o 5. 16 

ddtKOv<ri T&ifS ^tXov£ o 12. 24 

^tXwv c^iXovff 4-6 

01 ^tXot d<^vXaicT04 a 12. 4 

<^lX0i*C€l04 012.13 

<^'Xo4VOff oil. 17 

(^tXcKoXofcfff a II. 26 

^iXokpon^ff P 3" *3 

^iXoKTijTijv Mrjy^tiyov i5iro IIpaTvos 

y II. 13 



0cXoXoyoi /3 23. II 

<l>iKofi:q\a y 3« 4 

<f>ik6v€iK0i /3 4. 12 

01 ^tXoMKOi a 6. 30 ; 10. 4 ; 1 1. 14 ; 

fi 12.6 
^(XoTTomo-^at y 2. 8 

cic ffxXoaoKliiag |3 20. 7 

f^cXorcjcvoc a 1 1. 26 

ot ^(Xorc|AOi a 6. 30 

<l>iK6TifjLos a 11.27; /3 9. 14 

0<Xorifioc ^ 10. 3 

02 cVi <^iXo<ro0t9 ^iXoriftovficyot /3. 2. 13 
(^iXori/MovvrcM • 2. 22 ; 10. 4 

^tXoOcrcir <Jff iu(n]a'0VT€S /3 13. 4 

<j^iXo0iX(M 4. 26; 12. 13 

Of (^CKoxprJiiaroi. a 6. 30; P 12,6 

<l)iKoxpfifLaTia a 7. 1 8 

0o^off (def.) )3 5. I, 13 

o <f>i/ios Jcard^vftr rir coriV /3 13. 7 
<l>op€pa i3 5- 2 

4iofiep6TTiTO£ a 5. 1 1 

<f)oiviKts V€«> vpeirti P 2,g 

ij^iviKodoKTvXos y 2. 13 

<f>oiTciv « 5« 1 7 

</)opa rcf ev roif ycVccriv dvdpmv )3 15. 3 
<^opfityf Six^P^^^ y 1 1. 1 1 

0op/iOff /3 7. 3 

4>opTiK6s iS 21. 15*; y I. 5" 

dca r^v ^QpriKorr^ra t£v aKpoar&v 

/3 2I. 15 
rt (f>poiylaCn \ ap.yl^io 

4>p6inj<ns (def.) « 9- 13; /3 i. 5 

ot <l>p6vifjLOi ay. 21 

^vXaxiy a 8. 5; i3 20. 5 

<f)v\cucfjp aiTtt a 2. 19 

0vXaie$f T^ff Xo^pat a 4, 7, lo 

K^vkaicnipmv a 4. lO 
<f>v\aKTiK6s a 12. 19 ; /3 4. 17 

<^uXoTTonr€ff a 15.21 

^uoret 04-3; IO-7>I3; 13-2 

TO rj <f>v(rfi ayaBa a 9. 1 7 

<f>v(T€i (TvovlkuoTepnv apercu a 9. 22 

icara ^vcriv t/voi a II. 3 

ro icara (f>v(riv rjbv a II. 25 

dta <t>va-iv a 12. 14 

<^i;o-if (the true nature) i^ 15. 3 

0UKe y I. 3 

<fiCivfj...p,€yaKjj.,.fUKp^,..fiea'U Y ^•4 

^c0V7 iraamav r&v pjopl^v futuiruciararop 

y 1.8 

Xafipias ^7.13; y IO.7/ 

XmpiifMinf /3 23. 29; y 12 2^ 

ro xo^^Toy ^i^crcu a 6. 27 

XoXcfTof y 4« 3 ; 14- H Ji^ 

Xdptfg a I5< 15 > y 10.7 a 

X<ipidrffjLO£ /3 23. 17 

Xopii^ wrovpycfi^ iS 7- 2 

a xapioi/yrai roTr ^iXocf a 6. 29 

xaptff (def.) /3 7. 2 ; 4. 29 

fitiC» K€xapi<rfuvois /3 3. 8 

K€XCLpi(rfJL€VOV9 P 3' ^7 

iravbiffiov xapiT-off htnuovpyos ^P*y 3-3 
Xapawa Tov TfKTova y 17. 16 

X^ipovs xal ^TTovf rov K€pbaiV€iv P S'7 
Xik^v /3 23. 1 1 

ro XjXmv€ioy /3 12. 1 4 

XtV^a y II. 6 

Xtrcttv ^ 19. 10 

xXcva^ovo*! ffoi a-Kthrovai /3 2. 1 2 

xXevaorai /3 3. 9 ; 6. 20 

X^fopa Kcu evaifia ra frpaypara ap. y 3. 4 
XoipiXof y 14. 4 

XPVfiOriCeuf a 4. 4 

Xpfi(rB(u.,.K€KT^<r3cn fi 5'7 

i^^XP^H-^^oi (consulting an oracle) 

/3 23. 12 
Xpi;<rfioXoyo« a 15. 14 ; y 5- 4 

XpiJOToi^Srjs /3 21. 16 

XP^(rTo(f>CKia « 5- 4» 16 

Xprjar6<f>iKos a 5. 16 

k€xpovik6t€S P 3' ^3 

Xpoviariop y 17. 2 

XP*^''©* a 3- 4; 7.32 

(rdiroy) f /c row roi* XP^*^^ aKontiv /3 23. 6 
XpovoTpiP€ip 7 3-3 

Xpv<ri^io¥ ap. y 2. 15 

r<5i' xyhi\v 7 '9 3 

roiavn; Xe^tr x^P<> ivBvyJipxrrog j3 24. 2 
Xflapoi' iroirrv y 17. 15 

Xmpitov KTrj<rtg « 5- 7 

Xi/xvof) ^l/OKa^ojUp^ 

y II. 12 


y 2. 10 


/3 23.I 



akiaKtrai ^IrtvdofiapTvpuiif 

a 15. 17 


a 2. 7 

of ^tv^ofiapTvpovvres 

a 14.6 

yi-5; 3-3 

V^iXoi Xoyoi 

y 2. 3, 6 

df Old ror oyuotov 

ap» a 11.2s 


a 3' 3 

»g a¥ tl 

a 7. 28 



mt dir\»s c^YTCiy 

a I. 12; 5.2; 

'^o0a»deiff vonqral 

7 3' 3 

09. 8; 18. I 

^X^ TTOia Kun](ri£ 


tig st7r€ip mrXog 

a I. II 

TO, yjrvxp^ 

7 3. I, 3 

tog cftir€iy 

a 2. I 

TO ylnjxp^P ijivowva-i 


w ctTTf ty icvpia»ran;y 

lx« iriWur TO 

^vxpov iv Tois fura<l>opais 



a 2. 4 

^miua-iui KaT<mKV€iv.„^tiiihif ^^(rBat 

o^dffy tog thros ccirciy 

2. 14 


ȣ ff-cpi cjcaoroF clarciy 


ax^f^v m tlir€w 



a 5. 12 

»g M TO TTokv a 

2,9, 14 (^W), 15 

nSvopatrfiiifQ^s lura^iptw 

02, 12 

TO »g eTrl TO iroKv 

25. 8, 10 

/3 16,1 

rA awtyy^g^.tig ravr^ 




nJore (loosely used) 

22. i6~ 

i!lv€v leoXXovf tipaioit 


c*<rrc (redundant) 

/3 23.14"; 


y 2. 1 


> . t 

t « 


nepAiNeiAi Ae ApieMcjj hanta. 


fallacy of accident /3 24. 6 

'accumulation' (iiroiKodoKci^) « 7- 3^ 

accusative of ' local affection * 

a 13. 10; /3 9. 4 
action 7 !• 2**, 3 

Aeschines {/lurdurbs) 7 i4« 7 

Agathon or Theodectes (?) quoted /3 23. r 
Albania /3 3* 6 

Alexander Aphrodisiensis o 1. 1^ 

aJi^ f935.11 

ambiguity, avoidance of 7 5-4 

fallacy of verbal ambiguity fi 24. 2 

argument from ambiguous terms P 2^.g 
* amplification' a 9. 40; 76. i 

topic of amplification and depreciation 

/3 19. 26 
argument from analogy j3 19. 2; 23. 5, 17 
Anaxandrides 7 4. 4 ; 10. 7 ^; 1 1. 8 ; 12.3 
anger p 2 

antecedent and consequent j3 19. 6 

Antisthenes /3 24. 2 p. 306 n* ; 7 4. 3 

Antiphon's Meleager i^ 23. 5 (?), 20 

aorist and present infinitive <^ 4* 9 


his brevity and obscurity, a 15. 27; 

P 19. 20, 23; 21. 11; 23. 20; 7 I p. I 
exceptionally clear in 7 io§§ i — 6 

carelessness of style 

d 6, 24 {koI ol ^aDXoe) ; /S 18 init. 
quotes memoriter a 6. 24; j8 19. 14; 

21.2; 79.7 
misquotations 7 4. i n^; a 11. 8; 15. 13 
references to his own works, 

iK tQp dfoKvTiKCjy a 2. 8, 14 

iv rots dy, dubpiarat a 2. 18 

i» rots diaXcKTiKMS /3 ^4« 10 

etprjrai iv rots vepl voirirucrjs 

7 i: 10; 2. 2 

rtdedpifraA iw rws repl iroti^ecas {sic 
MSS) 7 2' 5 

iy Tolis fJkedodiKoTs a 2. 10 

diriKpiporrai iy toTs toKitucws a 8. 7 
ix Tu>y TotriKwy a 2. 9; 7 18. 5 

iy ToTs TOTiKdis j8 22. 10 ; 23. 9 

(see Gk. index), 
his (supposed) dislike of Isocrates 

a 9. 38 p. 186**; 7 16. 4 

Plato's metaphorical use of imTeipeiy 

transmitted to Ar. a 4. 12 

uses prep, with case instead of direct 

government of verb a 9. 14 

triple division of * goods ' (of mind, body 

and estate) a 5< 4 


£tk. Nicom. I I init. o 5. i 

JE^A, I 5 (def. of happiness) a 6. 8 

£lA. II 6 init. (def. of virtue compared 
with that in /^Aei.) a 9. 4 

£tA, II 7 (list of virtues, compared) 

a 6. 8; 9.5 

£tA, II 7 {<f>66yoSf yifieais, iirixoitpeKaKia) 

corrected /3 9. 3 — 5* 

£^A. Ill 4 (jSoi/Xiya-is) a 10. 8 

£^k. Ill 9 {ol 0a\(iTTioi)t inconsistency 

discussed i^ 5« 18 

£tA. IV II init. (different treatment of 

irpa&rris) ^ 3* 3 

£tA. IV 12 sub fin. (distinction between 

ApeffKOS and ic6Xa| disregarded in Rhet.) 

/3 6.8 
£tA. V 10 (issue of fact) 7 17. 2 

£iA. and .^A^/. compared as to treat- 
ment of ' pleasure * 06.7 
di^io as to view taken of the virtues 

a 9. 10 
Aristotle's Politics i i init. a 5. i 



Ar. Pol. 1 9 (on * wealth ', more exact than 
Rhet,) a 5. 7 

Pol, II 7 (djuaXtir^i'ai) 7 1 1 • 5 

Pol, II 9 (Spartan women) a 5. 6 

Z'^?/. II 12 (di'o/AdXaKrts) 7 H- 5 

/V/. Ill 5 (/Sdi'aviToi and Brfm) 

a 9. 46, 37 
/*<?/. IV (vii) 16, 17 (prime of life) 

/814. 4 
Pol, VI (iv) 4 differs from Rhet, on the 

subjects of deliberation « 4' 7 

Pol, vii (vi) 4 (dir6 Tiyoi r^Tov) a 11. 16 
accomit of constitutions in Pol, com- 
pared with those in Rhd. a 8. 4 
the Politics compared with Adam Smith's 
Wealth of Nations a 5. 7 n 
Aristotle's IIoXtTeTeu « 4« 13 
two rhetorical uses of the study of 
Politics tt 8. I 
Aristotle's Poet, c. 4 §§ i — 5 (on love of 
imitation) a 11. 23 
Aristotle's Topics, their relation to the 
Rhet, a 7 init.; j8 23 p. 237 
Problem xvili. 3 (examples and enthy- 
memes) a 2. 10 
' art ' independent of result a i. 14 
use of definite article Sw/c/MirT^s (qui est 
apud Platonem) 0.9. 30 n^ 
generic use of article a 7. 13 ; 12. 5 ; 15. 12 ; 

/S4. 7; 21. 6 
attraction of relative and antecedent 

a 2. 11; 5. II 
attraction (ui<rre 0/Xof eZj'at) i^ 3. 4 

auctoritas o 2. 3 

audience, three kinds of a 3. 2 

augment of verbs beginning with 01- ^ 12. 8 
authority of distinguished men /3 25. 7 

Babington, Professor Chur«hiU 7 2. 1 1 ; 8. 6 
Bacon quoted 

•a I. 14; 6. 18; 7.3; 4.31,365 15.12; 

/3 I. 9 ; 2. I ; 10. p. 122 ; 10. p. 123 ; 

12. p. 139; 13.4,7; 

7i-3»9; 2-5 

Macaulay's Essay on Bacon a 5. ion 

Bain's Emotions and Will a 11. 14 ; 

/3 1. 8 ; 2. 6; 5. i ; 6. i ; 8. 2 ; 10. p. 122 

benevolence, inclination to, /3 7 

general benevolence, of Christian origin 

/3 8.2 

Bcntley's Phalaris /3 21. 6 

Biblical quotations^ 

Genesis xxvii. 36 /3 23. 29 ; Matt, xxiii. 
35 a 14. 6 ; Mark 1. 11 (d70in7rds) 
a 7. 41 n^ ; ix. 41 (*cup of water*) 
a 5. 9; II Ep, of St Peter ii. 14 
/3 6. 18 ; I Ep, of St John ii. j6 
/9 6. 18 ; iv. 18 ^ 4. 27 
Blass quoted 

^ 19. 14 ; 14. 6 ; 7 3. 1, 3, &c, 
Bonitz {fndex Aristotelicus, etc) 

o 7. 16 ; /3 22. 16 ; 23. 7, &c. 
Brandis /3 11. 2 n' ; /3 22. 16 p. 235 n; 

25- 3 > «^- 5 
bronze coinage 7 2. 1 1 

brutality ft 14* 5 

Butler, Bishop, /3 19. 2 ; quoted, 8. 9 init,; 

8. 1 1 init. 

calumny 7 I5- 1 

causes of human action, seven in number, 

a 10. 7 

the inference from cause to effect /3 23. 25 

change of choice, argument from /3 23. 19 

characteristics of youth, old age, and 

prime of life /3 eg. 12 — 14 

children, blessing of a 5. 6 


<^ inventiane ii § i xi /3 7. s 

</((f Ow/lcTT^Book I § 32 /3 II. 5; 7 I. 9 n ; 

§ 202 a I. 12 

Book II § 81 7 I. 4 ; § 165 /S 23. 10 ; 
168/9 23.11; 172 /S 23.4; 178/3 1.4; 
186 /3 21. 15; 219 /3 12. 16; 
254 7 II. 6; 255 7 2. 12; 284 
7 II.6 ; 342 a 9. I ; 348 a 9. 38 ; 
321 and 323 7 14, 7 ; 325 7 14. i ; 
336 /S 19 init.; 337 7 12. i ; 342 

Book III § 40 7 5. I ; 149 7 2. 6 ; 
153 7 «• 3 ; 155 and 163 7 2. 12 ; 
161 7 4. 13 ; 175 7 9- 5 ; 207 « 7« 
31 ; 2x2 7 7. 2 ; 213 7 1. 4 ; 216 
Brutus §82/3 21. 10; § 272 j8 21. 7 ; 

§ 258 7 5. 1 
Ora/^r § 40 /3 21. 7 ; 44 a i. 3 ; 55 7. i. 

4; 707 7. 2 ; 81 7 2.6; 87 /3 12. 16; 
88 7 18. 7 ; 117 i3 23. 7 ; 142 /3 23. 3 ; 
145 p 19. 12 ; 172 7 8. I ; 175 7 I. 9 ; 
178 7 9. 6 ; 189 and 193 7 8. 4 ; 202 
7 2.3 ; 208 7 12. 2 ; 209 and 220 



7 8. 1 ; 210 7 7. II ; tiS 7 8. «, 6; 

and 9. 5 

pro Flacco § 9 7 15. 10 

pro MUone % it ^ 23. 25 ; §41/3 23. 26 

/f<? Murma 7 18. 7 ; c. 39 § 83, a 6. 19 

citizenship, conditions of a 5> 5 

Cleon 7 8. I 

♦climax' « 7. 31 

* colours of good and evil ' a 7. 4 n^ 
combination, ^lacy of /^ ^4* 3 
Gomparatiye, double a 7. i8'* ; /3 8. 4 
confusion of expression (substitution of 

author himself for character described by 
him) ^ 3. 17 

confusion of two constructions j8 i . i 

coniugata /3^3>^ 

connective particles 7 5» * 

conquesHo /3 21. 10 

consequence, fallacy of /3 24. 7 

consequents, aigument froqi /9 23. 14, 15 
inference from consequents to antecedents 

P 23. 18 

* contrary* definjcd 7 2. 10 
contraries, arguments from /3 19. i ; 23. 23 
contraries 7 9. 8* 
♦contrary instance* /3 25. 5 
conventional and real facts /3 4. 23 
courage a 9. 8 
'crooked* o i. 5 
cui bono j8 23. 21, 25 
cupping instruments 7 2. 12 

date of the Rhetoric {Schmidt etc) 

/3 20. 3 ; 22. 7, IP ; 23. 6 
dative, difficult u^e of /3 13. 16 

dativus ethicus 015.13 

inference from decision already pronounced 

j3 23. 12 

defective verbs, icecfiaf a i. 7 

^irdrala a 13. 10 

definition, argument from /3 23. 8 

degrees (three) in scale of moral nature 

a 14. 5 
•deliberative branch of Rhetoric, materials 
for a cc. 6 — 8 

delivery 7 1-3 

Demosthenes, his name only once men- 
tioned in the Rhetoric /3 ^4- 8 
Dem. Boeot, de nom, §§ 7, 10 ^ 23. 1 1 
Dem. Callicl, init. /S 21. 15* 
Dem. LepU § 84 i3 23. 6* 

Dem. Tct^ Tw irpbs *AK4iapdpov <rvy$rjKil» 

P 33- 18 
Demosthenes {not the orator) /3 23. 3; 7 4. 3 

demum a i. 7 

detailed description, amplification produced 

by «7-3i 

Dickens 7 10 p. 110 n^; 17. 16 

Dionysius of Halicamassus, quotes Rhet. 

^23-3; 710.7 
4iminutive terminations 7 3* 15 

divisions of the speech 7 i3« i 

♦division*, argument from p 23. 10 

Donaldson a 13. 9 ; jS 9. if 

'dropping' (a pitcher), no exact Greek 
equivalent for a 6. 23 note* 

Dryden /5 15. 3 5 7^*7 

double readings p 23. 4 

ellipse of subjunctive of e&cu (rare) p 25. 9 
ellipse of /xo(/>ay P^'^T 

^mendfitions suggested /3 13. 16; 7 15. 5 
emotion of power a 11. 14 

emulation p 11 init* 

end (/^ begin implies to end) P ^9' S 

Ei^lish diminutives y 2, 1$ 

of enthymemes in general j322;cf. 717.17* 
on envy p 10 init. 

Epicharmus a 7. 31 ; /3 21. 6* 

epideictic branch of rhetoric, materials for 

a 9 

episodes 7 17. 11 

epithets 7 ^-p; 3-3 

Umititig epithet;; 7 6. 7 

equity a 13. 13; 15. 10 

ethical character of the speech caused by 

<pp6vrifris, dpenj and cvyota /^ i • 5 

euphemisms a 9. 28, 29 

Euphron (Xen. HeU. vii 3) p 23. 3 

Euripides 714.6; 15.8 

his answer to the Syracusans p 6. 20 

his style 7 i, 9 p. 12 ; 2. 5 

"Eur, Androm, {rj9v fUftPTJaOai irbv<av) a 11. 8 

Hec, 864 p 21. 2 

HippoL 612 {^pprpf dvcSfioTos) 7 i5' 8 ; 

a 15. 33* 

HippoL 989 /3 22. 3 

Iphig, Aul, 80 7 1 1. 2 

Iphig, Taur* 727 7 6. 4 

1162 7 14. 10 

If 86 {iiikv€Virai) a i. 1 1 

Medea 294 — 296 /3 21. 2, 6, 7 



Eur. Orest, 234 

a 11.20 

Troades 969 




105 1 



a 1 1. 28 




/3 21.2 


7 a. 10 


/S23. I 



exa^eration, &llacy of 


'example' (irapoScty/ua) 

/3 20.2 

eye, the seat of shame, love, &c. 

/3 6. 18 

&bles |9 30. a 

£act, topic of /3 19. 16 

fallacious inference of the audience 7 7. 4 
fallacies, logical /3 44 p. 301 — « 

fallacy from the omission oiwhen and ^^ze^ 

/3 24.9 
enumeration of rhetorical fallacies /3 24 
fallacies, verbal /3 34 p. 301 

on fear fi 5 

forensic branch of rhetoric a 10 — 15 

formal and material proofs f3 23 p. 237 

a fortiori /3 19. 3, 4 

the Franks bad neighbours /3 21. Z2 

friendship a 5. 16; /3 4; 12.3 

Gaisford a 4. i ; 9. 2 (p. i2on.) ; 12. 30; 

/3 2. 14 n^, &c« 
Garrick 7 t^* 3 

gender, change of, in antecedent and rela- 
tive o I. « 
generalisation (illicit) /3 21. 10 
genitive absolute 7 19* ^ 
genitive absolute for case after verb 

/3 8. 11; 23.30 

genitive case plural with ri omitted, used 

for the direct predicate in apposition to 

the subject, e. g. rw rfdiotp {ri) a 1 1. 4 

genuineness of the third book of the Rhet. 

/3 26.5 

^ptus and species 02.21 

Goldsmith (* talking age*) /3 13. 12 

Gorgias, Elean Speech 7 i5« 11; irony of, 

7 7. 1 1 ; 3. 4 ; his metaphors, 7 3* 4 ; 

Olympic speech, 7 14. 2 ; his poetic style, 

7 I. 9; his sayings, 7 3* 4; 17* n ; 18. 7 

greater to less, argument from /3 23. 4 

Hamilton, Sir William a 10. 8 

happiness, analysis of 05 

Herodotus I i 7 9. 2 ; II 141 ^ 24. 6 n. ; 

III 14 /3 8. 12 

Herodotus and Sophocles 7 i^- 9 

high*mindedness a 9. 1 1 

'history' a 4- 7> 13 

Hobbes /3 4< 3 n^; 8. 2; 10 p. 122 

Homer, quoted or referred to, 
Iliad 1 1 7 14. 6 ; 82 /3 2. 7 ; 255 a 6. 90 ; 

356/32.6; 477 7^- 10 

II 160,176,06.22; 196/32.7; 29806.22; 

557 « 15. 13; 671, 672, 673 7 i^- 4 

IV 126 7 ii« 3 
VI 484 a II. 12 
IX 385, 388, 390 7 II. 16; 522 7 9-9; 

588—59007. 31; 644/32.6 

XI 54^—3 7 9"; 573 7 "• 3 

XII 243 /3 21. II 

XIII 587, 799 7 ". 3 

XV 542 7 " 3 

XVI 59 /3 2. 6 

XVIII 98 03.6; 109 o II. 9, /3 2. 2; 

309/321. II 

XX 164, 442, 445 7 4. I 

XXI 168 7". 3 

XXIII 108 o II. 12 

XXIV 54 /S 3. 16 

I I 7 14*6 

IV 204 7 17.6 

VI 327 7 14. II 

IX 504 /3 3. 16 

XI 597 7 "-3 

XIV 26 /3 3. 6; 214 7 la 2 

XV 399, 400 o 11.8 

XIX 361 7 16. 10 

XXII 347 o 7. 33 

XXIII 263 et seqq. 7 16. 7 
Homer's metaphors 7 "• 3 
Homer and the Chians /3 23. 11 

Salamis and Athens o 15. 13 

Horace A. /'. 156 seq. /3 6. 12; 12 init. 

A, P, 169 seq. /3 13 init.; § 13. 6, 

7i 8» 9. 15 

impersonal use of avppe^et et sim» p 19. 24 

improbability, antecedent /3 23. 22 

incentives and deterrents, argument from 

considering /3 23. 1 1 



inconsistency between outward profession 
and real feeling, argument from, ^ 33. 16 
indignoHo /3 21. 10 

of * righteous indignation' p 9 init. 

induction /3 20. 2 ; 23. 1 1 

argument from similar inflexions /3 23. 2 
intendere and remittere a 4. 12 

interpolations a 15. 26 

•interrogation* 7 18. i 

interrogatives without copula ^ 21. 15 

'Introduction to Aristotle's Rhetoric' cor- 
rected 01.10; 15.8; /3 20. 7; 713.3 
inventio a 2. 3 

Iphicrates, on himself, a 7. 32; 9.31; on 
his son, /3 23. 17; on CaUias, 7 2. 7; on 
Chares, 7 10. 7 ; on Epidaurus, 7 10. 7 ; 
on the Thebans and Philip, jS 23. 6; 
Speech against Aristophon, /3 23. 7 ; 
against Harmodius, /3 23. 6, 8; against 
Nausicrates, 7 15* 2 
irregularity of construction (superfluous o9f 
in resumption) /^ 9* 1 1 


Aristotle's (supposed) ill-will towards 

a 9. 38 p. 186"; 7 16. 4 
his 'philosophy' /5 20. 7 

his withdrawal from practice in law- 
courts a 9. 38* 
his digressions 7 17. 11 
V€fl dvTid6<r€Ui (§§ 141 — 9) 7 17. 16 

(§§ 217—220) /3 23. io« 
Archidamus § 50 7 17. 17 

Evagoras § 45 09. 36 

§§65—^9 /S23. i2;24. 2 

irp6; WiO^ow § 19. 14^ 

ZAs&n 7 14. 1 ; /3 23. 12 

de Face 7 17. 10 

Panathenaicus § 32 09. 36 

Panegyricus 7 17. 10 

/'tf»<r- §§ i» 35» 4i> 48, 72> 89, 105, 

149, 181 and 186, all quoted in 7 9. 7 ; 

Paneg. §§ 96 and 186 in 7 7. 1 1 ; 14. 2 ; 

§ 151 (irpocr/cvi'oDi'rcs) 05.9**; § 172 

7 10. 7*. 
Philippus, §§4"-7i «3» 72— 78 in 7 17. 

i6»;/%j/. §6i, 711. 7; §75, 1 10.5; 

§ 127, 7 II. 2 



fallacy of language 

a I. 7 

/3 24. 2 

relations of different kinds of law . 013 
legal issues {dfi^aprjTii<F€is) a 1,6; 3. 6; 

13-95 7 1^-6 

Lessing quoted /3 8. 1 

lexicographical notes 
in Book a 
AKa^peia a 2. 7 ; d^aXa/Seti^ i. 10; airXws 
(four senses) 2. 4 ; aTodiddpot i. 7; airo- 
f'ci^i)' I. 1 1 ; St^ri I. 11; SjSva<r$cu 9. 36; 
i^ inroyvlov 1.7; ^ir2 1.7; 4.6; ^ri 
(verbs compounded with) 13. 9 ; ^taro- 
"Xrjs 15.22; ^iTiffJcorety 1.8; fyyop 
3.12; '^dri 1.7; ioTopia 4.8; «:i)/)(Of 
2.4; 6doiro(62i^ I. 2; v\^ I. 14; ffv€v- 
OTiav 2. 18; «-o\trticc6repos I. 10; 
vpayfiarei^caOaL 1.3; ^ropela 2.10; 
(rvi'dX\a7/bux .. ffvpBijKaL ... avfifidXaui 
1. 10; 4. 11; ToiovTos (such as above 
described) 5. 6 
in Book /3 
dvadiddpaL j8 15. 3; dTorv/btrai'ifcu' 5. 14; 
arj/LKopos 12.4; pXalffwris 23. 15; ^oi^ 
Xerat 23. 7 ; ZvvaaOai 5.1; c&rifMepla 
2.12; Kar e^^i/w/j^av 2. 9; iin^peacfios 
2. 2 ; OpvXeiif 21. II ; ice0aX2s 19. 10; 
ir6XoiKos 16. 2; o'T/)677uXos 21. 7 ; avKo- 
ijMVTla 24. 10; tpdpay^ 20. 6; 0o/)d 

in Book 7 

diarpipaX 717. 10; ivSdaifios 14. i ; ^^aX- 

Xd^at 2. 2 ; ^/ryoi' 5. 6; p.6ovpos 9. 6 

liberality a 9. 10 

fondness of like for like a 1 1. 25 

Lucretius I 716 — 733 7 5-4 

III 53 /317.6 

the ludicrous a 1 1. 29 

Lycophron 7 3. i ; 9. 7; 17. ii** 

Lysias /3 23. 6n.; 23.19; 7 19. i" 

Lysias contra Eratosth, ult. 7 19. 6 

Ora/. Funebr, 7 la 7* 

magnificence in expenditure a 9. 12 

Martial XII 51 /3 12. 7 

on maxims j3 21 init. 

memoria technica /3 8. 14 n^ 
metaphor from strings of the lyre a 4. 12 

metaphors 7 cc. 2 — ^3; 10.7 

confusion of metaphor 7 2. 9" 

J. S. Mill 7 10. 6 

argument from mistakes /3 23. 28 

Montaigne quoted /3 2. 13 



popular morality a 13. 12; /35.8 

(justice no advantage) a 7. 2 a 

{rpArrciy tA rots ix^pots KaK^ a 6. 26 

motives for wrong-doing a 10. 5 

Munio, correction suggested by ci 7* 41 

inference from names 

/3 23. 29 


7 16 

description by n^^atives 


variation of n^;ative, with no 


difference of sense 


neuter article with collective 



/3 9.3 

neuter dual with singular verb 

a 2. 19 

neuter plural with singular verb 

/3 6.27 

characteristics of noble birth 


'odd/ of striking excellence, 

a 6. 28n^ 

characteristics of old age /3 13* i~ 15 

omission of ' subject' 


arguments from opposites 

/3 23. I 


7 5-4 

* parable' /3 so. 4n 

paradoxical declamations /9 24. 6 

parallelisms of expression 7 9* 9 

parenthesis 7 5* 7 

argument from parts to whole /3 ^3. 13 
abnormal formation of the passive voice 

a 12.22 
Appendix (B) vol ip. 297 J /^ 3- 7; 7 i. 3 5 

patience (T/wdriys) /3 3 

perfect imperative passive a 11. 29 

Pericles, funeral oration, a 7. 34; 7 10. 7a; 

on Aegina 7 10. "jd; on the Saraians, 

and Boeotians 7 4. 3 ; on Lampon, 

'7 18. l; degeneracy of his family^ 


the period and its construction 7 9 

peroration 7 19 

physical theory of heat applied to human 

passions /3 12. pp. 139, 145; 13. 7 

Pindar {ipurrw fiiv vStap) a 7* 14 

/jM. IV (v) 20 717.11* 

O/. VI13 /5i2.6 

II 82 (146) (Cycnus) /3 22. 12 

on pity p 8 


Apoi. c. 15, 27 c p 23. 8; 7 18. 2 

Euthyd. 274 iTTMKbTti a 1. 8 

Corgias 463 £ /3 23; 469 B a 7. 22; 

484 E a 11.28 
Menex, 235 D a 9. 30; 7 14. 1 1 

Phaedrtis 231 D, 241 £ 7 7. ii; 266 D 
7 13* 5; 267 c (7ywfioXo7(a) /3 21. i; 
338 D7 7. II 
Prafytgoras 339 B 711.2 

Republic 469 D, 488 A, 601 B 7 4-3 

Aristippus on Plato /3 23. 12 p. 265 

on impractical philosophers p ii.i 

analysis of pleasure a 11 

pleasure of learning a .1 1. 23 ; 7 9. 8 

plural for singular 7 ^* 4 

plural (esp. of proper names) used in gene- 
ralised sense p 22. 3 
Plutarch on characters of youth and old 
age p 12, pp. 139 and 145 
' posting' defaulters P ^S' ^S 
encomiums on poverty jS 24. 6, 7 
characteristics of power /3 1 7 
prepositions ix- and ffw- separable in sense 
from verb with which they are com- 
pounded /3 4. 12 
use of preposition with its case instead of 
the direct govenunent of the verb a 9. 14 
prime of life P ^4-4 
the 'probable improbable' /9 24. 10 
arguments for probability of future events 

P 19' «3 

on propriety of style 7 7« i 

'universar modes of rhetorical proof p 20 

the prophetic office 7 17. 10 

del KoXoibs vaph. KoKotJ^ a 11. 25 

aXd rhv 6/iowy a z i. 25 

*ATTucbs vdpMKos /3 2|. 12 

iyvta 5^ Brjp Brjpa a 11. 25 

hf o^akfjws elvai aldC* /3 6. 18 

iirl 06pais rfiv ifSfUa» a 6. 22 

ijfXt^ "^XiKa ripwei a i r. 25 

^X^vct dMs d4oPT<u /3 23. 22 

Kciv dxb ¥€KpOV <l>ip€iv P^* $ 

6 KapTrddun rhv \ay6> 7 11. 14 

Kai^nos ipiin /? 25. 4 

Kfpafieds Ktpapjd /3 4. 21 ; 10. 6 

Kouf^s 'Epfirjt /9 24. 2 

fiijiroT eu (pSetp yipoyra a 15. 14 

Mvamf Xela a 1 2. 20 
piprios, OS waripa Krelvai ircudas Kara- 

Xe/irei a 15. 14; /3 21. ii 

6 ripf doKW tftipuv 7 1 3> 3 



wdvTtaf Trepl wdvra - a 9. 4 

vpwpdffcbti BetTou. fi6vov ^ woprjpia 

a 12. 13 
rd Kaxd ffwdyet roi^ dpSpdnrovt a 6. 10 
rd <FT4iJi^v\a detrai iXalov /3 33. 22 

TO ^\os vplatrdai koX rods dXas /3 23. 15 
TO ffiryyevis ydp KoX <p0ov€u> MffTarai 

Punch quoted a 12. 19 

punctuation 7 S« 6 ; 8. 6 

puns /9 23. 29; 7 II. 6 — 8 

purity of language 7 5- * 


Institutio Oratoria u I'j.ij 7 i* 5 

III 3. 4 7 I. 7; 6. 26 j8 24. 3; 6. 34 
/3 23.21; 7.25 09.28; 7.23 09.30; 
8.8 714.1,12; 8.22—26 j3i9init.; 
S.62 713. 5; 63 7 12.6; 9.4 7 17. 11; 

9-5 7 i3-3»4; 7 i7'H'*9''^^ « 9- 35 

IV I. 5, 6, 37 7 14. 7 ; 72 7 14. 8 ; 2. 31 

7 16. 4 ; 5. 6 /3 1. 3 

V proem, i o i. 3 ; 10. 17 p 12. i ; icx, 

30> 31 P «3- 29 ; lo- 4^ iS 23. 6 ; 10. 55 
/8 23. 13; 10.73 /323§ip.239, 23§ii; 
10. 74 p 23. 14, 29; 10. 78 /3 19. 12 ; 
^ 23. 3 5 10. 85 iS 23. 2 ; 10. 86—93 
/3 23. 4; 10.94 /3 23. p. 238; 12. 8 
7 17. 7; 12. 10 p 23.7 

VI I. a 7 19. 6; 3. 22 — 112 7 18. 7; 
3.29 72.13 

VII 4. 44 p 24. 3 

VIII 2. 14 7 5. 2 ; 3. I 7 7' « ; 3» "—14 
7 Ji«- 1 ; 3- 37 7 7. 9 ; 3- 89 7 10. 6 ; 
5. 4 /3 21. 2; 5.8 /3 21.9 

IX 4. 45 7 8. I 
4. 124 7 9. 5 

XI 3. 8 7 12, 2 

XII 52 7 14. 8 

rectum... curvum (metaph.) a 1. 5 

argument from 'mutual relation of notions' 


retaliation o 12. 17 ; /S 5. 8 

retort p «3- 7 

rhetorical artifices ci I4« 5 

rhetorical definition of friendship a 5. 16 
rhetorical proofs, threefold division o 2. 3 
rhetoric, relation to dialectics a 1. 1 ^ ^ ; 


rhetoric, triple division of o 3. 1 

rh3rthm in prose 


La Rochefoucauld 

a II. 29; 7 18. 7 

/3 4.3 

John of Salisbury quoted o i. 2 

Greeks measured Jrom 'the object seen, to 

themselves, a 11. 16; 15. 17 

self-control • o 9. 9 

universality of self-love « 1 1 . 26 

sense-construction /3 5. 13 n^ 

virtues of the number seven /S 14. 4 


Ant, and Chop. II 5 /?2. 20; As you 

like it^ II 7. 143 — 166, 156 p 12 init.; 

21. 9; Cymb, II 5. I j3 21. 10; Ham, 

I 2. 146 p 21. 10; III I. 59 7 2. 9; 

Hen, IV, I I. 84 7 16. 10; Hen, IV, 

p. II. I I. 100 ^ 2. 20; John I 1. 187 

P 2. 26 ; yulius Caesar III 2 02.4; 

III 2. 174 p 8. 16; III 2. 221 7 3. 4; 

IV 3. n6 ]8 3. 5 ; Lear iii 2. 4 7 3. i ; 

IV I. 3 i9 5. 14; V3. 230 j3 8. 6; Mac- 
beth I 7. 60 o 4. 12 ; V 5 j8 2. 20 ; V 8. 4 
/3 4. 9 ; V 8. 19 75.4; Merchant of 
Ven, IV 1.209 o 12.31; Merry Wives 

I 3. 49 7 2. 10; Mids, N, D, V 1. 250 
j8 4. 9; Richard II, I 3. 131 P 10 init. ; 

II I. 73 p 23. 29 ; Romeo and Juliet, 

V 1. 68 /3 5. 14; Tempest iv 1. 152 o 7. 
31 ; Timon III 2. 49 /? 6. 7; Troilus 
and Cressida I 3. 241 /3 6. ii, 

Shakespeare's clowns P^^'9 

on shame p 6 

Sir Philip Sidney at Zutphen 

05.9; 7-3«; ^7-3 
fallacy from the 'sign' p 24. 5 

significant names p 23. 29 

objection from similars p 25. 6 

simile 7 4 

Simonides, on Corinth, a 6. 24; epigrams, 
« 7» 3* 5 9» 31 ; dtnjp rerpdytopos, 7 11. 2 ; 
answer to Hiero's wife, /3 16. 2; Olym- 
pic ode, 7 2. 14 
'size' mentioned among personal advan* 
tages a 5* 4 

Dr Smith's Biographical Dictionary, supple- 
mented p 12. 14; 23. II, 22; 7. II. 13 
Adam Smith's Wealth 0/ Nations compared 
with the Politics o 5. 7 n. 

'social contract' o 15* '21 

Socrates' Apologia (Theodectes) /3 23. 13 



Socrates, Archelaus /3 23. 8 ; his family de- 
generated, fi 15-3; the *Socratic dia- 
logues,' 7 16. 8; Soar, and Mdetus 
/3 23. 13; 7 18.2 

Socratic illustrations from mechanical arts 

P 20. 4 

solution of rhetorical fallacies fi 25 init. 

sophistical answer 7 18. 4 


'Axaiwy avWoyoi and oi^dct*vov /3 24. 6*^ 

Soph. Ajax 114 (Hermann on) /3 10. 3 

Soph. Antig. 223 7 14. 10; 450 seq. a 15. 6; 
456a 13. 2; 688 — 7007 17. 16; 9127 16. 9 
Oed, Tyr, 774 7 14. 6 

Teucer ^«3«7; 7 iS-9 

7Vr<? ^ 23. 29 

Sophocles, the great storehouse of Greek 

idiom /3 10. 2* 

his sobriety of style 7 2. 10 

Sophocles and Herodotus 7 16. 9 

Sophocles (statesman and orator) 

« I4-3J 715.3; 18.6 

degrees of somid 7 1.9;. 2. 13 

speech characteristic of man 7^*9 

Spengel a i. 12; 2.6, 8; 

/3 I.I p. 2; 18 init; 18. 4; 23 init; 

23. 3 p. 244; 23. 4, 15, 18, 20; «6. 5; 

7 7. 6; 18. 5, 6&C. 
Spenser 7 3« ^ 

spes, sperarCf {^oces mediof) j8 8. 7 

squaring the circle /3 19- 5 

stock subjects of Athenian dedaimers 

/3 22.6 

Stoics /3 8. 2 ; ^ 10 p. 122 ; ^ 1 1 init; 7 2. 3 
Stasinus, Cypria a 15. 14; /3 21. 11 

style appropriate to the three branches of 
rhetoric 7 12. i 

substantive taking the case of its verb 

a 7.32; /3 4. 3ini; ^^.^ 
removal of suspicion fi 23. 24 

faults of taste 7 3* i 

Theodectes, Ajax j8 23. 20, 24 ; on Socra- 
tes /3 23. 13, 18 ? ; Alcmaeon /3 23. 3 ; 
Orestes /3 24. 3 ; Urov vdfiov /5 23. 11, 17 
Theodorus (the rhetorician) 

/3 23.28"; y 11,6; 13. 5 

Theodorus (the actor) 7 '• 4 

Dr W. H. Thompson quoted 

/9«3-9; 7 3- ^4; 17- "5 18. 7,&c. 
Thrasymadras p 21. 10"; 23. 29 ; 

7 I. 7; 8.4; II. 13 
consideration of time, argument from 

Timotheus (the Dithjrrambic poet) 

7 4.4-r II. TI 

* trade,' Greek contempt for « 5- 7 
travels round the world a 4. 1 3 

* two sides to every question ' /^ 8. 4 
tyrants and body-guards a 2. 19 

arguments from universal consent 

P 23. 12; p. 264ni 

Vahlen quoted a 13. 2 ; 

/3 18 init; 18.2; 22.16; 24.2; 25.3; 26.5; 

7 3. ii 3 J 7- io» &c- 
valgus and variis P ^3*^5 

velle p 23. 7 

via et ratione a i. 2 

Victorius (Vettori) a 7. 10 ; 

^9.4; 21.13; 23. 18; 

7 2. 8; II. 6,&c. 

analysis of virtue and vice a 9 

vivadty of style 711 init. 

Waller quoted 

7 1.9 

characteristics of wealth 

/Si. 6 


72.8; II. 3 


78. I 

practical wisdom 


quick wit allied to madness /^ 15* 3 
wonder, the origin of learning o ii. 21 
different degrees of wrong-doing a 11. 21 ; 
12.14; 13-16; 14. i; 7 15. 3 
characters of wrong-doers and their in- 
tended victims a 12 
motives to wrong-doing a 10. 5 

Xenophanes a 15. 29 ; p 23. 18 ; 24. 27 
Xenophon, Hellen, iv 7 /3 23. 12 ; Hellen* 

VII 3 /3 23. 3 ; (KaXX/as) 7 2. 10 
characteristics of youth p \i, 3 — 16 

Zeno (?) a 12. 10 

zeugma a 4. 6n; 9. 38 p. 184 

TA eAAinH eniTcAeTN hAy. 



October, 1877. 







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within reach of a large number of students. . 
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graph Bible. It is an attempt, and a success- 
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Authorised English Version, not (let it be 
marked) a revision, but an exact reproduc- 
tion of the original Authorised Version, as 
Published in i6zz, minus patent mistakes, 
'his is doubly necessary at a time when the 
version is about to undergo revision. . . To 
all who at this season seek a suitable volume 
for presentation to ministers or teadiers we 
earnestly commend this work." 

The Student's Edition of the above, on good writing paper^ 
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This edition will be found of great use to those who are engaged in 
the task of Biblical criticism. Two Vols. Crown Quarto, cloth, gilt, 
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in parallel Columns on the same page. Edited by J. Scholefield, 
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ex editione Stephani tertia, 1550. Small Oflavo. 31. (id. 


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discovered, and edited with an Introduction and Notes, and a 
facsimile of the MS., by Robert L. Benslv, M.A. Sub-Librarian 
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College, Cambridge. Demy Quarto. Cloth, lar. 

"Edited with true scholarly complete- 
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"Wer sich je mit dem 4 Buche Esra 
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*' It has been said of this book that it has 
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if by the Bible we understand that of the 
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and if the Second Book of Esdras can be 
fairly called a part of the Apocrypha. .... 

These learned pages are inscribed by their 
author *'To my fellow- workers in the Revision 
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passed from one version to another, from 
Coverdale downwards, with no thorough or 
critical review on the part of translators, is in 
a condition so unsatisfactory and so unworthy 
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tent and so zealous as Mr Bensly.*' — Satttr- 
day Review, 



comprising Pirqe Aboth and Pereq R. Meir in Hebrew and English, 
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bridge University Manuscript of the Mishnah * Jerushalmith', from 
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"The 'Masseketh Aboth' stands at the 
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is of ancient date, claiming to contain the 
dicta of teachers wno flourished from b. c. 200 
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of course^ in aoubt. Mr Taylor's explana- 
tory and illustrative commentary is voy full 
and satisfactory." — Spectator. 

" If we mistake not, this is the first pre- 
cise translation i»to the English language 
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tion of the TaJmud. In other words, it is 
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neglected portion of Jewish literature being 
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in an ordinary critical edition. . . The Tal- 
mudic books, which have been so strangely 
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derstanding of the Bible. . . The Sayifigs of 
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ly, and, moreover^ of a scholarship unusually 
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future work in the same direction ; the Tal- 
mud is a mine that will take years to work 
out" — Dublin University MagaMene, 


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libros quinque adversus Hsereses, versione Latina cum Codicibus 
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Gnosticorum prolusione, fragmenta necnon Graece, Syriace, Armeniace, 
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edidit, Prolegomenis Versione Notulis Indicibus instruxit Gulielmus 
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**Froin 'Collections and Notes' 1867 — 
1876, by W. Carew Hazlitt (p. 340), we learn 
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each with the autograph of Humphrey Dyson, 
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of Occasional Forms of Prayer, but it had 
been lost sight of for 200 years.' By the 
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valuable volume, containing in all 25 distinct 
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following pages the two Forms of Prayer 
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m- 1. L J. _L - I I -^ -' mm II !■ 1 - "1 '1- - —I 


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'* Of all the products of the Cambridge 
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atmosphere of divine philosophy, luminous 
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He was one of those rare thinkers in whom 
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*' It is necessary to vindicate the dist'nc- 
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others carried the religious and civil struggle 
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TuLLOCH, Rational Theology in England 
in the x-jth Century, 

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delivered in the University of Cambridge, by John Hey, D.D. 
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OBEEE Ain> LATIN CLASSICS^ ftc. (See also pp. 18-20.) 


with Introductions and English Notes, by F. A. Paley, M.A, Editor 
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John's College, and Public Orator in the University of Cambridge. 

Part I. containing Contra Phormionem, Lacritum, Pantaenetum, 
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"The fame of Mr Paley as one of the 
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book amonff the Head Masters of our Public 
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It contains, in the small compass of 2^ pa|^, 
six of the speeches of the great Athenian 
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ancient world We gather from the 

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Part II. containing Pro Phormione, Contra Stephanum I. II.; 
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" the edition reflects credit on 

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•'In this volume we have six of Demo- 
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very carefully edited. The notes are very 
full and minute, and the introductions to the 
speeches will reward careful study." — i/J^rc- 

"To give even a brief sketch of thejye 
speeches \_Pro Phormione and Contra Ste^ 
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limits, though we can hardly conceive a task 
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ing ;4f read with the notes and comments 
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Demosthenic Athens and Attica 

It is long since we have come upon a work 
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Demosthenes*."-^a/«n&> Review., 

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THE RHETORIC. With a Commentary by the late E. M. Cope, 
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Syndics of the University Press by J. E. Sandys, M.A., Fellow and 
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new edition, much enlarged and improvedi 

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by H. A. HOLDEN, LL.D. Head Master of Ipswich School, late Fellow 
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literally translated, by the late E. M. CoPB, Fellow of Trinity College, 
Cambridge. Demy 0<5lavo. 5J. 



containing the Sanskrit Text in Roman Characters, followed by a 
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to derived words in Cognate Languages, and a sketch of Sanskrit 
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With a Metrical Translation, Notes and Introduction, by E. H. 
Palmer, M.A., Barrister-at-Law of the Middle Temple, Lord 
Almoner's Professor of Arabic and FelloM^ of St John's College 
in the University of Cambridge. 3 vols. Crown Quarto. 

VoL I. The Arabic Text. Paper covers, lor. td,\ Cloth 
extra, \^s. 

Vol. II. The English Translation. Paper covers, 105. 6^.; 
Cloth extra, 15J. 

*' Professor Palmer's activity in advancing 
Arabic scholarship has formerly shown itself 
in the production of his ei^cellent Arabic 
Ql^ammar, and his Descriptive Catalogue of 
Arabic MSS. in the Library of Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge. He has now produced an 
admirable text, which illustrates m a remark- 
able Ananner the flexibility and graces of the 
language he loves so well, and of which he 
seems to be perfect master.... The Syndicate 
of Cambridge University must not pass with- 
out .the recop;nition of their liberality in 
bringing out, m a worthy form, so important 
an Arabic text It is not the first time that 
Oriental scholarship has thus been wisely 
subsidised by Cambridge.'*— /xMfiMw Mail. 

** It is impossible to quote this edition writh- 
out an expression of admiration for the per- 
fection to which Arabic typography has been 
brought in England in this magnificent Ori- 
ental work, the production of which redounds 
to tbe imperishable credit of the University 
of Cambridge. It may be pronounced one of 
the most beautiful Oriental books that have 
ever been printed in Europe : and the learning 
of the Editor worthily rivals the technical 
get-up of the creations of the soul of one of 
the most tasteful poets of Isl&m, the study 
of which will contribute not a little to save the 
honour of the poetry of the Arabs^ Here 
first we make the acquaintance of a poet who 
gives us something better than monotonous 
descriptions of camels and deserts, and may 
even be regarded as superior in charm to al 
Mutanabbl." — Mythology among the He- 
brews (.ff«^/. Transl.), p. 194. 

** Professor Palmer has produced the com- 
plete works of 6eh&-ed-din Zoheir in Arabic, 
and has added a second volume, containing 
an English verse translation of the whole. 
He thinks, and we believe rightly, that this 
is the first time a translation of the entire 
works of an Arabic poet has ever been pro- 
duced in England ; and he has done his work 

well. It is a difficult problem how to trans- 
late an Extern poet. A prose version is 
generally unreadable ; and if verse be chosen. 
It is still hard to give any notion of the 
movement of the original. Professor Palmer 
has. we think, grappled successfully with the 

problem It is time the English public 

altered their views about Oriental poetry. A 
fair translation has enlightened them about 
Omar Khayydm and Persian poetry; and 
now Professor Palmer's very able rendering 
of Behd-ed-dfn should show them that they 
have been under an illusion about Arab 
poetry. It is very different from Persian ; in 
some respects not so fine ; but it is certainly 
worthy of careful study. Aad Behd-ed-dfn 
is a good specimen of the later style of Arab 
poetry. It is only fair to add that the book, 
by the taste of its arabesque binding, as well 
as by the beauty of the typography, which 
reflects great credit on the Cambridge Uni- 
versity Press, is entitled to a place in the 
drawing-room." — Times. 

** For ease and facility, for variety of 
metre, for imitation, either designed or un* 
conscious, of the style of several of our own 

poets, these versions deserve high praise 

We have no hesitation in saying that in both 
Prof. Palmer has made an addition to Ori- 
ental literature for which scholars should be 
grateful ; and that, while his knowledge of 
Arabic is a sufficient guarantee for his mas- 
tery of the original, his English compositions 
are distinguished by versatility, command of 
language, rhythmical cadence, and, as we 
have remarked, by not unskilful imitations of 
the styles of' several of our own favourite 
poets, living and dead." — Saturday Revinu, 

"Zoheir is exhibited by Mr Palmer as a bold, 
lively, and versatile writer, who casts an un- 
expected light on the varied moods of thought 
and feeling that could gain popularity among 
intelligent men at Cairo m the thirteenth 
century of our aera." — The Guardian. 

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Volume I. By Sir W. Thomson, LL.D., D.C.L., F.R,S., Professor of 
Natural Philosophy in the University^of Glasgow, Fellow of St Peter's 
College, Cambridge, and P. G. Tait, M.A., Professor of Natural Phi- 
losophy in the University of Edinburgh; formerly Fellow of St Peter's 
College, , Cambridge. New Edition in the Press, 

By Professors Sir W. Thomson and P. G. Tait. Part I. 8vo. cloth, <^, 

*' This work is designed especially for the 
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versities, the mathematical methods being 
limited almost without exception to those of 
the most elementary geometry, algebra, and 

trigonometry. Tyros In Natural Philosophy 
cannot be IJctter directed than by being told 
to give their diligent attention to an intel- 
ligent digestion ofthe contents of this excel- 
lent vade vucum." — IroK. 


By P. G. Tait, M.A., Professor of Natural Philosophy in the Univer- 
sity of Edinburgh ; formerly Fellow of St Peter's College, Cambridge. 
Second Edition. Demy 8vo. \i^. 


By Joseph Fourier. Translated, with Notes, by A. Freeman, M.A., 
Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge. Demy Octavo, i6j. 

*' Fourier's treatise is one of the very few 
scientific books which can never be rendered 
antiquated by the proeress of science. It is 
not only the first and the greatest book on 
the physical subject of the conduction of 
Heat, but in every Chapter new views are 
opened up into vast fields of mathematical 

"Whatever text-books may be written, 
giving, perhaps, more succinct proofs of 
Fourier's different equations, Fourier him- 
self will in all time coming retain his unique 
prerogative of being the guide of his reader 
mto regions inaccessible to meaner men, how- 
ever expcxt."— Extract /ram Utter of Pro* 
/essor Clerk Maxwell, 


Edited by W. Whewell, D.D. Demy Octavo. Js. 6d. 

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OF ULPIAN. (New Edition, revised and enlarged.) 

With a Translation and Notes, by J. T. Abdy, LL.D., Judge of County 
Courts, late Regius Professor of Laws in the University of Cambridge, 
and Bryan Walker, M.A., LL.D., Law Lecturer of St John's 
College, Cambridge, formerly Law Student of Trinity Hall and 
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" As scholars and as editors Messrs Abdy of Gaius and Ulpian from the Cambridge 
and Walker have done their work well. University Press indicates that the Universi- 
For one thing the editors deserve ties are alive to the importance of the move- 
special commendation. They have presented ment, and the fact that the new edition has 
Gains to the reader with few notes and those made its appearance within four years from 
merely by way of reference or necessary the original production of the book, should 
explanation. Thus the Roman jurist is encourage the Syndics to further efforts in the 
allowed to speak for himself, and the reader same direction. The auspices under which 
feels that he is really studying Roman law Messrs Abdy and Walker produce their book 
in the original, and not a fanciful representa- are a guarantee that it is a scholarly and 
tion of it. — Atfunaum. ^ accurate performance; and Mr Abdy's prac- 

" The number of books on various subjects tical experience as a County Court Judge 

of the civil law, which have lately issued from sui)plies a link between theory and practice 

the Press, shews that the revivafof the stud^ which, no doubt, has had a beneficial effect 

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late Regius Professor of Laws in the University of Cambridge, and 
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Law Lecturer of St John's College, Cambridge ; late Fellow and 
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Trinity Hall. Crown Odlavo, i6s, 

" We welcome here a valuable contribution Instead of a general historical summary in 

to the study of jurisi)rudence. The text of the form of an Introduction, we And a num- 

the Institutes is occasionally perplexing, even ber of disquisitions on various points, partly 

to practised scholars, whose knowledge of historical and partly purely legal, in the 

classical models does not always avail them Appendix at the end. We conceive that 

in dealing with the technicalities of legal these short essays, treating olpatriapptestas^ 

phraseology. Nor can the ordinary diction- marriage, adoption, and the like, will be of 

aries be expected to furnish all the help that much service to the student, as presenting, 

is wanted. This translation will then be of in a compendious form, yet not too scantily 

great use. To the ordinary student, whose to be useful, that which would otherwise 

attention is distracted from the subject>matter have to be gleaned with labour from a large 

by the difficulty of struggling through the surface. The new book is also distinguished 

language in which it is contained, it will be by another special^ feature ; an ' Ansuysis of 

almost mdispensable." — Spectator. the Institutes' is given, in a tabular fonn, at 

'* The notes are learned and carefully com- the beginnine. . .The 'Analysis' is, undeni- 

piled, and this edition will be found useful ably, a useful addition, and the authors de- 

to students." — Law Times. serve credit both for the idea and for thQ 

*• Dr Abdy and Dr Walker have produced style of execution." — A then^um. 
a book which is both elegant and useful. . . 


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Some Account of the Studies at the English Universities in the 
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** In pleasing contrast with the native his- 
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"Von nicht geringem Werthe dagegen sind 
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lungen namlich der in Nep&l ublichen Musik- 
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A. Webkr. 
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Rev. E. H. Plumptre, D.D., Professor of Biblical Exegesis, Kin^s 

College, London, 
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