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Author of the Early History of Narragansett 



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Xvkc /between, Kingstturfv and East Qr eenrrlch 
Remains of Habitations **■• v 


Of the numerous French settlements in America, those 
in Canada, Maine, and some others, probably had their 
origin in the love of enterprise and adventure. But the 
motives which produced the settlements in Rhode Island, 
Massachusetts, and the Southeastern States were, in a great 
measure, religious. The reformation which took place in 
the sixteenth century was attended with almost unceasing 
wars and civil convulsions. The principle of tolerating all 
religious opinions to the utmost limit consistent with the 
preservation of public morality and order, was then almost 
unknown. Religion was regarded by all governments as a 
part of the machinery of state, and to attack the established 
church was of course rebellion against the powers that were. 

The Lutheran reformation soon spread over Europe. In 
France the protestants were generally known by the name 
of Huguenots. The origin of this name is not certainly 

In 1562 the dissensions between the two religious parties 
in France had arisen to such a height that an open war broke 
out between them. The Catholic party for the greater 
part of the time from the beginning of the troubles until 
the repeal of the Edict of Nantes and the expulsion of the 
protestants from France, had the advantage of having all the 
power of the civil government exerted in their favor. The 
war continued with more or less violence until 1572, when 
the leaders of the protestant party having been invited to 
Paris on pretense of bringing about a general reconciliation, 
the ever memorable massacre of St. Bartholomew took place. 
In this massacre seventy thousand protestants, including 
almost all the leaders of the party, fell victims to the bloody 
spirit of religious persecution. 


The Catholics in France and at Rome celebrated this event 
with thanksgivings and jubilees, and medals were struck to 
commemorate their victory. 

This massacre took place in the reign of Charles the 
Ninth, and during the remainder of his reign the conscien- 
tious protestants enjoyed no rest. Henry the Third, who 
was supposed to favor protestantism, was assassinated in 
1589. Henry the Fourth succeeded, and quiet was restored 
to the nation for a time. 

Henry the Fourth, who before his coming to the throne of 
France had been King of Navarre, had been educated a pro- 
testant, and was naturally inclined to favor their cause. On 
his accession, from motives of policy, the greater part of 
his subjects being attached to the Church of Rome, he made 
a public profession of the Catholic religion, but he was of 
too enlarged a mind to lend himself to be the instrument of 
oppression to any party and to endanger the peace of France 
and the stability of the government, by a vain endeavor to 
produce a uniformity of religious opinion. 

In the year 1598 he published the celebrated Edict of 
Nantes, so called from the city of Nantes where it was 
signed. By this a free toleration was granted to the protes- 
tants in matters of religious opinion ; the offices of the state 
were made accessible to them; funds were allowed them for 
the maintenance of their worship ; and for a further secur- 
ity to them against the malice of their persecuting foes 
and against any sudden change of policy in the govern- 
ment, certain cities were assigned to them as places of 
refuge and defence. 

The giving to the protestants the control of certain por- 
tions of the kingdom seems inconsistent with all modern 
notions of religious freedom. It may have been justified by 
the turbulent state of the times. But it laid the foundation 
of much of the subsequent troubles. 


During the whole of this prince's reign the terms of the 
Edict were faithfully adhered to. He perished by assassin- 
ation in 1610, and with him the hopes of the protestants for 
security in time to come. 

During the succeeding reign of Louis the Thirteenth, the 
Edict of Nantes was several times solemnly reaffirmed, and 
the confirmation by Louis the Thirteenth, dated March 12, 
1615, is especially remarkable for its expressions of liberal- 
ity and toleration of religious differences. 

Had the protestants been governed by wise and moderate 
councils, their fate might have been different. But they 
bitterly assailed Henry the Fourth, for his change of relig- 
ion, and they suffered themselves to become the victims and 
tools of ambitious nobles whose only motive was to obtain 
power in the state for themselves. The ambition of the 
nobles to control the government was, for several genera- 
tions, the source of almost constant civil war, and although 
religion was generally the pretext, yet it was sometimes 
merely a pretence, and frequently not unmixed with politi- 
cal motives. Louis the Thirteenth laid siege to Rochelle, 
which had become practically almost independent" , and it 
was compelled to surrender in 1629. But even then the 
free exercise of their religion was guaranteed to them by 
the Edict of Grace, signed by Cardinal Richelieu, f 

But the strength of the Huguenots as a party was now 
broken, and in 1685 Louis the Fourteenth, under the influ- 
ence of the clergy, repealed the Edict of Nantes. The 
open profession of the reformed religion was prohibited, 
the ministers of the reformed faith compelled to leave the 
kingdom, and a series of persecutions commenced which 
drove away from their country a large proportion of the 
reformed ; in effect, all those who preferred the enjoyment 

*Weiss's History of the French Protestant Refugees, i,, 48. 
tWeiss's " " " " " i., 48. 50. 


of their own religious opinions to compliance with the re- 
ligion of the state. This was a blow to the prosperity of 
France from which it was long in recovering. The perse- 
cuted fled to England, Holland, Geneva, Brandenburgh and 
America. The number has been variously estimated ; 
sometimes as high as a million. They were not of the 
poorer or more ignorant classes of society. They com- 
prised within their ranks a large portion of the wealth, in- 
telligence, and enterprise of the country, and were gladly 
welcomed by the nations to which they fled, as a valuable 
acquisition not only to their numbers, but to their intellect- 
ual resources and manufacturing industry. 

Those who settled at New Rochelle in the State of New 
York, in New York city, on the James River in Virginia, 
on the Santee River and in Charleston, South Carolina, came 
over during the troubles which preceded and followed the 
revocation of the Edict of Nantes, and from the same mo- 
tives which prompted the settlements made in Massachusetts 
and Rhode Island. Among their descendants were many 
who took an active part in our American Revolution, and 
who were otherwise distinguished as statesmen or public 
benefactors. It will suffice to mention the names of Jay, 
Laurens, Manigault, Marion, and Boudinot. 

Within a few years after the repeal of the Edict, the set- 
tlement in Massachusetts was made by about thirty French 
families. They received a grant of ten or twelve thousand 
acres of land in the township of Oxford, from the proprie- 
tors of the township, and there they continued to live and 
the settlement flourished until about 1696, when, harassed 
by attacks from the Indians and the settlers, they were scat- 
tered over the country. Most of them went to Boston. 
As they had fled to this country for the sake of religious 
opinion, it may naturally be supposed that after their arrival 
here, they would maintain and respect the ordinances of re- 


ligion. While at Oxford they maintained a minister of their 
own sect, and when they had removed to Boston they built 
and for a long time supported a church in which services 
were performed in their vernacular tongue. Here, as else- 
where, they and their descendants were of respectable con- 
dition in society, and some have left behind them good and 
great names which will long be remembered. For a more 
particular account of this settlement reference may be made 
to a very able and learned Essay on the History of the 
French Protestants, by Rev. Abiel Holmes of Cambridge.* 

♦Massachusetts Historical Collections, volume xxii. 


Pa a2 Colli n 


J) ech an/jit. 






B erf in, dillarvndt. 






Maize l6_Brtav 



The freat ~R<&d thxt 
~P citer j4yiza*jJ>t 

-Mkyrrt Senior 
SDelvtid Junior 
JDsLuid rSvrwr 

SzacAiel Carre Jfirvistr* 
Xoiu.5 Al*ire 


G rasilisr 








htffovu. lots that tesuis to the yreatfrUurmtto tAe-waxftoBoston, 

MlUrrepoiu IXgb'st 

La terrepewZ 'ervUe 

Le Breton 

Le Viy, 




AbrauTn foirrtePfot 

JLa Veue Cjlay 


T&ry/ S'mnr 

*4 rna, 







October 12, 1686, Richard Wharton, Elisha Hutchinson, 
and John Saffin, a committee of the so-called Proprietors of 
the Narragansett Country, made an agreement with Ezechiel 
Carre, Peter Le Breton, and other French emigrants, for the 
settlement of a plantation in the Narragansett Country, to be 
called Newberry, but subsequently the location was changed 
on account of its remoteness from the shore, and by another 
agreement, dated November 4, 1686, the proprietors or 
Bay Purchasers agreed to convey to the emigrants a tract in 
the township of Rochester,* "above ye Long Meadow Kicka- 
meeset about Capt. John fones his house wherein Each Fam- 
ily yt desires it shall have one hundred acres of upland in 
two Divisions viz A house lott Containing twenty Acres 
being twenty Rods broad in ye front laid out in due ord* 
wth Street or high way of Six Rods broad to run between 
ye sd lotts upon wch they shall front. Secondly yt ye 
Second division to make Sd hundred acres of upland shall be 
laid out on ye Western Side of ye Sd house lotts as near as 
ye Land will bear yt all ye Sd Meadow wth yt wch lieth 
Adjacent between ye Southern Purchase & a west line yt is 
to run from John Androes Northern Corner above ye Path 
shall be divided into one hundred parts each one to have his 
proportion according to ye quantity of Land he shall take 
up & Subscrib for yt there shall be laid out for ye Sd Mr. 
Ezechiel Carre ye pr. sent Minister one hundred and fifty 
acres of upland & meadow in ye same manner proportiona- 
ble Gratis to him & his heires forevr & one hundred acres 
of upland & meadow proportionable to an Orthodox Protes 
tant Ministrey & fifty acres of like land towards the main- 

*This was the new name given to Kingstown, in June, 16S6, bv the 
Government of Dudley, the predecessor of Andros. See Early History 
of Narragansett, page 106. 



tainance of a Protestant School master for ye Town f orevr ' ' 
The copy of the agreement is signed by Wharton, Hutch- 
inson, and Saffin, and deeds were to be executed when the 
terms were complied with. The names of the French set- 
tlers who signed the counterpart were probably the same as 
those which appear on the plat, viz. : 

William Barbret 
Paul Collin 
Jean Germon 





Petter Ayrault 

Magni Junior 

Magni Senior 

Dauid Junior 

Dauid Senior 


Ezechiel Carre, Ministre 

Louis Alaire 



Le moine 
Abraum tourtellot 
La Veue Galay 

Targe Junior 

Targe Senior 








Le gendre 
Bertin dit Laronde 


Moize le Brun 

Le Breton 
La Vigne 
Jean Julien* 

*In presenting these names, we have faithfully followed the manu- 
script copy which has been furnished us from the British State Paper 
Office, both as to the division of words or the use of capitals. Errors 
may possibly have arisen in transcribing, but they must have oc- 
curred before the document reached us. 


It is impossible from the plat to locate the place of settle- 
ment exactly, but the tradition in the Mawney family and in 
the neighborhood points to the Mawney farm and the land 
around and north of the Briggs corners, so called, as being 
the site of it. On the northerly part of the Mawney farm in 
the southeast corner of East Greenwich, is a place by a spring 
which has always been known as the French orchard. Here 
are the remains of foundations of cabins or huts, shell banks, 
etc. , and in my youth there were the remains of trees said to 
have been planted by the French. Whether this was so or 
not, the place is well identified as having always gone by that 
name, and the country around it has always been known as 
Frenchtown. The land is now owned by Robert G. Mawney. 

At a place south of the road leading east from the Briggs 
corners after crossing the river, are also the apparent remains 
of cellars, or foundations of small houses, where was proba- 
bly another collection of dwellings, as they would naturally 
at first build their temporary habitations near each other for 
mutual assistance and protection. 

The highways upon the French plat do not agree with any 
highways upon the East Greenwich plat, which is the one by 
which the present titles to land there are held. 

Dr. Ayrault in his memorial, says that the English ran 
two highways through his land, and that Thomas Matteson 
fenced in a part of it, and Samuel Bennett and William 
Weaver built upon it, and from the position of these names 
upon the East Greenwich plat, the probability is that Dr. 
Ayrault' s land was at the Johnson four corners, next north 
of the Briggs corners. 

Dr. Ayrault says that the settlement consisted of forty- 
five families, and that they soon built twenty-five houses and 
a church. They had laid out lots for a church and a school 
and a lot for the minister, Ezechiel Carre. They began to 
improve their land, then a wilderness of woods and rooks, 


and seem to have been suffered to remain there without any 
serious difficulty for several years. When subsequently war 
broke out between France and England, the French settlers 
were, by resolution of the General Assembly, of March 3, 
1689-90,* allowed to remain unmolested on their taking an 
oath to comply with the conditions prescribed in the King's 
Proclamation of War. 

In the summer of 1687 the English settlers mowed the 
grass on the bog meadows, and Governor Andros made an 
order for the division of it, one-half to the English claimants 
and the other half to ' ' the French families there, who being 
strangers and lately settled, and wholly destitute and have 
no other way to supply themselves. ' ' f Dr. Ay rault does 
not mention this in his memorial. 

But about two years after this, more serious troubles be- 
gan between them and the English inhabitants, which led to 
the breaking up of the settlement and the removal of nearly 
all. Dr. Ayrault states that two familes removed to Boston 
and the rest to New York, but it is well known that the Le- 
moines (Mawneys) and Targes (Tourgees) remained there, 
and Dr. Ayrault himself remained in East Greenwich for 
several years afterwards and finally removed to Newport, 
and was one of the first promoters of the foundation of the 
Episcopal Church there. $ 

To a person unacquainted with Rhode Island history, it 
may seem strange that any dissension should arise between 
the English settlers, many of whom had been driven from 
Massachusetts on account of their religion, and a number of 
French settlers who had been obliged to leave their country 
for the same cause. They were alike, protestants and all, 
contending for the largest liberty of conscienee. 

*R. I. Colonial Records, iii., 264. 

tMassachusetts Historical Collections, third series, volume vii., 
182. Early History Narragansett, 220. 
+See Arnold's Rhode Island, volume i., Appendix G. 


But there were land speculators and rings in those days 
as well as now, and then as now some of the leaders stood 
high in the church. 

The charter of Rhode Island of 1663 had secured to Rhode 
Island certain limits. But for all the outer borders of their 
territory they had for many years to contend with Connec- 
ticut and Massachusetts. It was not until 1746 that Rhode 
Island gained possession of the eastern portion of their char- 
ter grant ; the western portion, and especially the Narragan- 
sett country, was the subject of continual conflict; Rhode 
Island did not acquire peaceable possession of it until 1707; 
the boundary was not actually settled until the decision of 
the King in council in 1728. 

This conflict of jurisdiction gave rise to great confusion in 
claims to lands. 

In June and July, 1659, Major Humphrey Atherton and 
his associates, afterwards known, sometimes as the Atherton 
company, and again as the Bay Purchasers, purchased from 
the Indian sachems two large tracts of land, Quidneset and 
Boston Neck. These were called the northern and southern 
purchases. They included some of the most valuable lands 
in the west part of the Colony, both from quality of soil and 
from their advantageous situation, on Narragansett Bay. 

This company consisted at first of Major Humphrey Ath- 
erton, of Massachusetts, John Winthrop, Governor of Con- 
necticut, Richard Smith, Sen., and R. Smith, Jr., of Wick- 
ford, William Hudson and Amos Richardson, of Boston, 
and John Tinker, of Nashaway.* Major Atherton had 
been employed by Massachusetts in negotiating with the In- 
dians, and having been for several years superintendent of 
the praying Indians, he had thus acquired an influence with 
them. They made offers of land to Roger Williams to in- 

* Potter's Early History of Narragansett, 269, 58. 


duce him to become one of the company, but he refused 
and informed them that their purchases were illegal.* It 
will be seen that the company was so formed as to combine 
different influences, and included besides persons from 
Massachusetts and Connecticut, some from Rhode Island. 

Subsequently Wharton, Saffin, Edward Hutchinson, and 
others, became interested in the purchases, f 

But the trouble about the Frenchtown lands grew out of 
another transaction. The commissioners of the United 
Colonies had undertaken to impose a fine upon the Indians 
in the jurisdiction claimed by Rhode Island, and on non- 
payment, had sent a military force and compelled the Narra- 
gansett sachems to execute a mortgage, September 29, 1680, 
of their whole country to them. J The Indians not paying 
the fine, the Atherton company paid it for them, and the 
sachems made a new mortgage of the whole country to the 
company, conditioned to pay the money in six months. On 
the expiration of that time two sachems, with some other 
Indians, in September, 1662, delivered formal possession by 
turf and twig, to the Atherton partners. How much the 
Indians knew of the effect of these proceedings may be im- 
agined. It was nothing but a mere farce. 

The Rhode Island Legislature afterwards, in 1672, con- 
firmed the Boston Neck and Quidneset purchases, § but they 
never acknowledged the validity of this mortgage. If these 
lands were within the limits of the Rhode Island charter, as 
they were afterwards decided to be, then all these proceed- 
ings were wholly void. The Atherton claim had been re- 
jected by Governor Andros, and the Atherton company had 
petitioned the English government for a grant of land to 

* Roger Williams's Letter to Major Mason. See Early History of 
Narragansett, page 162. 

t Early History of Narragansett, 269, etc. 
X Early History of Narragansett, 60, 234. 
§ Early History of Narragansett, 214, 77. 


include the land they had sold to the French. But it does 
not appear that they ever obtained it. * 

It was under their claim to hold the Narragansett country 
by this mortgage, that the Atherton company had made the 
grant to the French settlers in 1686. 

Nine years before this time, in October, 1677, the Legis- 
lature of Rhode Island had made a grant of this territory 
and established a township, then and still known as East 
Greenwich, f and it was platted out to the settlers. % 

These facts are sufficient to enable us to account for the 
subsequent troubles. 

On the 22d of April, 1700, we learn from the Colonial 
Recordsg that a court of enquiry had been held in Kings- 
town to enquire into* a riot there, and that Dr. Ayrault's 
son Daniel and several Englishmen were fined for participa- 
tion in it. The General Assembly afterwards set aside a 
part of the proceedings as illegal. But Dr. Ayrault was 
tried before the General Court of Tryals at Newport, Sep- 
tember 3, 1700, for nuisance and was ordered to open the 
highways, meaning of course the highways as laid out by 
the English settlers. Dr. Ayrault says, that they opened 
the highways through his land in two directions. This fart 
seems to aid us in identifying the Johnson four-corners, as 
the location of the land he occupied. 

* Arnold's Rhode Island, i. 505, 507. 

t A resolution of the Rhode Island Legislature to establish the 
Greenwich settlement had been passed at an earlier date, but in Octo- 
ber, 1677, a special grant of the township was made to certain persons 
by name. Peleg Sanford and Benjamin Speere were appointed to sur- 
vey it. John Smith, of Newport, was afterwards appointed in place 
of Speere. In 1700, the original plat being lost, a copy was proved 
and established by the General Assembly. The plat now in existence 
bears date 1716, and was made by William Hall, surveyor. R. I. Col. 
Rec, vol. ii., 574, and vol. iii., 7, 26, 51, 403. 

X Potter's Early History of Narragansett, pp. no, ill. 

§R. I. Col. Rec, iii., 413. Potter's Early History of Narragansett, 


In 16 87, a French protestant visited New England, and 
examined the country with a view to ascertain and report 
upon its advantages for settlement. Some of his letters 
were published for the first time in the Bulletin Historique 
of the Societe de l'Historie du Protestantisme Francais, in 
February, 1867. They were translated by E. T. Fisher, 
and published in the Liberal Christian, a newspaper published 
in New York, and since re-published in a quarto pamphlet, 
at Brooklyn, New York, in 1868, under the title of "Report 
of a French Protestant Refugee in Boston, 1687." 

He made a visit to the French settlement in Rhode Island, 
but unfortunately the letter written in December, 1687, in 
which he gave an account of it, is lost. In another letter, 
November, 1687, he briefly mentions it thus: "There are at 
Narragansett about one hundred persons of the faith. M. 
Carre* is their minister." 

This is all the information we can obtain in regard to the 
settlement. Several families remained in Rhode Island 
without being disturbed : two families at least in the very 
neighborhood where the strife occurred : thus showing that 
the trouble did not grow out of their nationality. In a sub- 
sequent part of this memoir, we shall give an account of 
several of the families of the Frenchtown settlement, and of 
some other French settlers in Rhode Island. 

It is with great difficulty that their descendants can now 
be traced, so great have been the changes and corruptions 
of the names. Two or three such have already been noted, 

*A sermon by M. Carre was printed at Boston in 1689, under the fol- 
lowing title, "The charitable Samaritan, a sermon on the tenth chap- 
ter of Luke, verses 30-85. Pronounced in the French Church at Bos- 
ton, by Ezechiel Carre, formerly Minister of Rochechalais, (sic) in 
France, now Minister of the French Colony on Narrraganset, trans- 
lated into English, by N. Walter." This title is taken from the Brinley 
Catalogue. The little volume found its way from the Brinley sale to 
the Library of Congress- 


for instance, Le Moine became Money and still later Mawney; 
Ganeaux became Gano; Daille became Daily or Daly; 
Targe became Tourgee. Many others might be shown, but 
these suffice to explain the difficulty in following them. 
Upon the breaking up of the Narragansett settlement, many 
of the settlers went to the southern states. Among those 
who probably thus again emigrated were Pierre Collin, 
Daniel Jouet, Moyez Le Brun, Daniel Le Gendre, Louis de 
St. Julien, and Legree. 








Whereas there was Articles of Agreement made & Con- 
cluded Between Richd Wharton Esqr Elisha Hutchinson & 
John Saffin ye Committee for ye propriety of ye &arra- 
ganstt Country and Ezekiell Carre Peter Berton & othrs 
french Gentlemen their friends & Associates whose names 
are thereunto Subscribed Bearing date ye 12th day of 
Octor last Concerning ye Settlement of a Place called New- 
berry Plantations in ye Narraganstt Country wch upon Sec- 
ond Consideration in regard of ye Remoateness of ye same 
from ye Sea they have by ye Mutual Consent of ye Sd 
Committee declined ye Settlement of ye Sd Planta- 
tion & ye Sd Master Ezekiell Carre Master Berton in be- 
halfe of themselves & othrs their friends & Associates who 
have hereunto Subscribed are now Come to & have made a 
new Agreemt In manner and forme following this 4th day 
of Nouembr 1686 Annoqr R R S Jacobi Secundi Anglia & 
Secundo Viz 

Imprimus That ye Sd Richd Wharton Esqr Capt Elisha 
Hutchinson & John Saffin ye aforesd Committee do by these 
Prsents Couenant Grant & Agree to & wth ye Sd Ezekiell 
Carre Peter Berton French Gentlemen their friends & As- 
sociates who have hereunto Subscribed to lay out A meet <£ 
Considerable tract of Land in ye Township of Rochester* 
above ye Long Meadow Kickameeset about Capt John fones 
his house wherein Each Family yt desires it shall have one 
hundred Acres of upland in two Divisions viz A house lott 
Containing twenty Acres being twenty Rods broad in ye 
front laid out in due ordr wth Street or high way of Six 
Rode broad to run between ye Sd lotts upon wch they shall 

*See note, page 13. 


front Secondly yt ye Second devission to make ye Sd hun- 
dred acres of upland shall be laid out on ye Western Side 
of ye Sd house lotts as near as ye Land will bear 
yt all ye Sd Meadow wth yt wch Heth Adjacent be- 
tween ye Southern Purchase and a west line yt is to 
run from John Androes Northern Corner above ye 
Path shall be divided into one hundred parts each 
one to have his proportion according to ye quantity of Land 
he shall take up & Subscrib for yt there shall be laid out for 
ye Sd Mr Ezekiel Carre ye p r sent Minister one hundred & 
fifty acres of upland & meadow in ye same manner propor- 
tionable Gratis to him & his heires forevr & one hundred 
acres of upland & meadow proportionable to an Orthodox 
Protestant Ministrey and fifty acres of like land towards the 
Maintainance of a Protestant Schoolmaster for ye Town 
forevr yt for Every hundred Acres of Land be it upland or 
meadow laid out in forme af oreSd each one shall pay pay unto 
ye Sd Comittee or Assignes twenty pounds in Currant 
money or in goods answrable to their satisfaction yt those 
yt are not able to do or se cause at prsent to pay for their 
Land they shall have three years time for payment at ye rate 
of twenty-five pounds per hundred acres laid out as 
aforeSd & So According to Proportion for wt Land they 
shall take up & Subscribe for & in Case they doe not pay 
wthin the tearme of three years each one shall pay interest 
for ye Same at ye rate of Six per cent & for wt 
money any one shall pay sooner it shall be abated accord- 
ingly yt untill ye Sd Meadow be divided those yt inhabit 
first on ye place in AforeSd Shall have the Benefitt of Im- 
provemt & likewise of ye undivided Lands Adjacent untill 
they be othrwise disposed yt upon payment of ye money for 
ye Land as aforeSd & Leagall Deeds shall be Given Signed 
& Sealed by ye Sd Committee to Each one According to his 
Proportion of Land Granted in Wittness whereof the Parties 



within mentioned have each for themselves Interchangable 
Sett their hands & Seales the day and year above written 

Signed Sealed & Delivered 
by Mr. Hutchinson & Saffin 

In the presence of 
Walter Steuen Junr 
Lodowick Updick 
John Gore 
Alexander Huling 

Richard Wharton ( . ) 
Elisha Hutchinson ( . ) 
John Saffin ( . ) 

A true Coppy Extracted out 

of ye Originall & Compaired 

Octor ye 13th in ye year 1692 

By me John Heath ConservaU* 

[Indorsed] Coppy of Mr Wharton &c agreemt with Ezekiell 

Carre &c for Settleing a town in the Narraganst 



The Complaint & Remonstrance of Petter Ayrault In Hab- 
itant in ye French Town in Narraganstt of Some lregulari- 
ties & Inhumanities Proceed upon him July 23th 1700 by 
Some of ye Inhabitants of ye Town of East Greenwick in 
Said Narraganstt Vizt 

That upon ye 23th f Sd July, there Came unto my house 
in Sd French Town after Sun Sett a great number of ye 
town of Greenwick mixt wth some of Warrwick & Chante- 
cutt who told me yt ye Court on ye othr side ye River wch 
was keept at ye house of Pardon Tillinghast in Sd Town 
desired to speak wth me I told them I was unwilling to go, 
out of my house so late at night who Replyed we have a 
Warrant & if you will not go fairly we will force you. Upon 
wch I asked them for a Sight of their warrant & to Read 
ye same to me wch ye Utterly Refused & putt ye same in 
their Pocketts notwthstanding I was very Importunate wth 
them to give me a Coppy of their warrant for my mony 
w«h they absolutely Refused & Instantly laid their hands 
upon me & dragged me to ye River Side & aft^wards ovr sd 
river & placed me in their Court as they Called it at yt time 
of Night where I was Interrogeted by them or most of them 
of Sd Court my Reply to them was I was a Stranger & Un- 
drstood not English & therefore desired I might have an In- 
terpreter they told me I should have one, on ye Morrow Soe 
they left me & my Son DanH at liberty upon Samll Bennetts 
word yt I would answer it Next day wch accordingly I did 
& Gave bond for my appearance to the next Court lett it be 


Consid r ed yt I was Sett upon In my own house at yt Unsea- 
sonable time wth a Warrant wch they were ashamed to read 
or give a Coppy of In fine my wife an aged Woman of Sixty 
years of Age Infirm &|Sick Could not by all her Cryes & 
Teares perswade them to Disiste but Contraywise did Strike 
& flung hir on ye Pavement. -where she Continued Some 
time for dead all wch I Conceive is not only UnNaturall & 
Inhumaine & against all Law & Reason wch I Submit to a 
further Determination. 

Pierre Ayrault 
Augusst 5th 1700 

Allso ye Most Notorious & 111 behaviour of Samll Davis 
& Abner Spencer to my Son Daniell Ayrault who they found 
at my house ye Same time I was fetcht away & wthout cause 
for ye same they tooke my Sd Son & Puling him out of my 
house took by the head Feet carried him along some Part of 
the way to said Tillinghast spoken of & flinging down on the 
Stones Pulling him a long Giving him no reason for their so 
doing and bringing him before their Court so called lett him 
goe whose Complaint of Injustice to them no notice was 
taken of, thus are we endangered of being ruened & De- 
stroyed by Such lawles persons So I have great cause to seek 
releiff therein 

Pierre Ayrault 
August: 5:1700. 

Newport August: 7: 1700 Doctor Pierre Ayrault appeared 
before us whose names are here Under written whose are 
Commissionated to hear and Enquire into ye Irregularityes 
Cmomitted in ye Colony of Rhode Island & Provide Planta- 
tions & Sd Ayrault haveing made his Complaint of Injustice 
done him and haveing on the other Leafe Given it Under his 


hand did upon his Corporall Oath before us aver it to be 

ye Reall Truth. 

Francis Brinley ^ 
Peleg Sanford V Commissions 
Nath Coddington J 
[Indorsed.] true Coppy of Pierre Ayrault Complaint of 

abuse receivd 

July 23: 1700. 




May it Please yor Excellency 

I Lately made bold to Lay before yor Excellency by Peti- 
tion Some part of my grivances & wrongs done me on my 
lands purchased in ye Narraganstt Country in ye Town of 
Rochester of ye propriers thereof & have here given a short 
and true Remonstrance of myself & Distressed Country peo- 
ple Settlemt & ye sever H Occur ances and Passages they & 
myself past thro there 

Upon the fourth day of Nouembr 1686 Richard Wharton 
Esqr &c & on our part our Ministr Ezekiel Carre & Peter 
Berton agrees for a Sertain parsell of Land in Sd Narragan- 
stt Country for Settling A Town thereon of an hundred 
acres apiece to a family wch was done & Compleated or sev- 
rell allotments laid out & a Coppy of ye Articles I make bold 
to prsent yor Excellency wth, & wth a true Coppy of ye Piatt 
of or severll Settlemt & Allotment as Laid out & we was 
there Settled by ye then Propriers & Goverment who gaue 
us oath of Alleagance we being about forty five five familys 
building about twenty five houses wth Some Sellars in ye 
Ground Setting up or Church & it being a very wilderness 
Country fild altogether wth wood & stones & no former Im- 
provements made thereon yt or Labour charge & trouble 
was great but we had A Comfort we could then In joy or wor- 
ship to God & had ye Governmts Protection to us in or Im- 
provemts no prson disturbing us on our Labour no P r tend- 
ing any claime to any of ye soile but they purchases of Sd 
Lands by whom we were Setled we paying all takes to the 


Government as was laid on us we peaceable Injoyed our 
Lands and Improvements wthout any thing of ye least moles- 
tation Under the then Goverment 

The then Govermt being Removed we was then taken 
Undr ye Govermt f ye Colony of Rhode Island &c who 
seemed to treat us civelly also at ye first not Molesting us & 
upon ye 20 of February 16g they Generll Court past an Act 
yt we should be Sent for to Warwick by Majr John Green 
one of the Assists whereby it should be signified unto us his 
Majties Pleasure of an Act of Indulgance unto such french- 
men as we, yt we Should be required to take ye Oath of Al- 
leigance to his then prsent Majty wch according to Sd Genii 
Court Act we were sent for to Warwick & Gave or oath of 
Alleigance & had his Majties Act of Indulgence read to us & 
a Promise of our Protection from Sd Govermt Undr or Lib- 
ertys & Propertys 

But the obseruance of Sd Act of Indulgence & ye Protect- 
ing of us in or libertys & Propertys wee continued not two 
years Undr Sd Govermt before we were molested by ye 
Uulgar Sort of they People who flynging down of or fences 
laying open our Lands to ruen Soe that all Benefitt thereby 
we were Deprived thereof (ruen looked on us in a Dismall 
State or wives & children liveing in fear of ye threats of 
many unruly prsons) & wt Benefit we Expected from or Lands 
for Subsistance was destroyed by Secretly Laying open or 
fences by night & day & wt little we had prserued by flying 
from france we had laid out undr ye then Improvements 
looked so hard upon us to see ye Cryes of or wives & Child- 
ren Lamenting their sad ^fate flying from Persecution and 
Comeing Under his Majesties Gracious Indulgance And by 
ye Governmt promised us yet we Ruened & when we Com- 
plained to the Govermt we could have no relief altho some 
would a helped us we Judge If by their Patience they could 
a Born Such 111 Treatments as they must expect to a meet 


w th by ye Unruly Inhabitants their Settled also many of ye 
English Inhabitants Compassionating or Condition would a 
helped us but when they used any means therein they were 
Evilly treated so yt these things did put us then upon looking 
for a place of Shelter in or Disstresed Condition & hereing 
yt many of or Distressed Country people had been protected 
& well treated in Boston & Yorke some of or principale per- 
sons went to Boston & York to seek out new Habitations 
where ye Govermtts had Compassion of them & gave them 
relief, & help to their wives & Children Subsistance 
only two familys moveing to Boston & they rest to 
New York & their bought Lands some of them & had 
time given them for payment & so was they all forced away 
from their Lands & houses orchards & vineyards taking some 
small matter from some English people for somewt of their 
Labour thus Leaveing all habitations some people got not any- 
thing for their Labour & Improvemts but Greenwich men 
who had given us ye disturbance giting on ye Land so Im- 
proved in any way they Could & soon demolished & puld 
down or Church. 

But I being perswaded by many to stay & haveing fenced 
in fifty Acres of Land purchased & made very good Im- 
provements by a large Orchard Garden & Uineyard & a good 
house was willing to keep my Settlement a bear all outrages 
Comitted Against me wch furthr shall be related to, and as 
many prsons who in their Sickness and Extremity would 
send for me to Administer help unto them wch Under God's 
Goodness I have been a help to raise many from Extream 
Sickness yet have they soon forgot my Labour & rewarded 
me wth Endeavours to root me out of my habitations & by 
flynging down my fences yt I might not have any Subsist- 
ance by my Land these Endeavors not succeeding in all 
their Endeavours and othr Contrivance was against me 

Upon the 25 of Janr 169 i one Giles Pearse & John Smith 


agreed togeathr in a Clandistine manner to gitt me out of 
my habitation & Improvemts & for yt end Sd Pearse sells 
one part of my Land about twenty five Acres to Sd Smith 
in Sd Deed Containing my houses orchards Gardens & most 
part of ye best of my Improved Lands & in Sd Deed was 
allso Comprehended ye habitations to houses & Lands of 
three othi' persons then Liveing on Sd Lands this being 
about tenn years after or Settlements & Improvemts as men- 
tioned Sd deed takeing in Ninety Acres of Lands (as men- 
tioned all w*hin fences & Improvements ) & ye same day 
ye deed was Signed and Sealed & ye witnesses spoken to not 
to Deuvlge their secreed act the same day they went to 
Greenwich both Smith & Pearse before a Justice of ye Peace 
one John Heath & acknowledged it to be their act before 
Sd Justice & ye 27th day of Sd month Sd Justice of ye 
Peace who had ye records of Greenwich placed Sd deed on 
record & Sd Justice herein was privy & Knowing to ye Sd 
Clandistine Acts of Sd Pearse & Smith who certainly knew 
ye sale of ye Land Undr wt Circumstances ye were undr 
After this Sd Smith & Adherance gave me much trouble & 
ye rest of us puling down or fences &> I complained to ye 
Authority neuer could find relief I Keeping my house yt 
ye Could not have any Opportunity to Enter in (to dispossess 
me & these Actiones not takeing Effect for in my distress 
many of Neighbours did Comfort me) yt their would be 
some relief from ye Crown to me & they Propriers of Sd 
Country & then anothr projecet was put in Execution 
against me for as I have declared Greenwich men at their 
pleasure Extended their lines* time aftr time without any 

*Dr. Ayrault complains that the English kept encroaching on them. 
He does not seem to have had the least knowledge that there was a 
dispute as to the title to the lands. So far from encroaching on them, 
there is not the least evidence that the bounds of the grant made to 
the English settlers by the Colony, of Rhode Island were ever changed 
in that neighborhood. Farther east they were changed, and the State 
Records give the particulars. 


authority as I Understand from ye Propriety f Sd Country 
or ye Genii Court & took in at last all ye French Town & 
upon ye 14th f febr U±Z Greenwich & Severll of ye Town 
of Warwick wth a Plat of such a parsell of land wch they 
Called Greenwich Township prsents it to ye Generll As- 
sembly ye Assembly Confirms ye Lands comprehended in 
Sd Plat to be wthin Greenwich Township wth ut Considnng 
yt Greenwich had Intrenched upon ye othr towns adjoyning 
& they haveing ye Jurisdiction soon set to work for my 
Kuen in anoth 1 ' way in wt ye Could 

And as I have now Sd & given an accoutt of my Settlmt 
fenceing & Improvements & so about fourteen years affer 
upon ye 23 of July 1700 two of ye Assists of Warwick 
(viz) Benjn Barton and Benjn Smith came to ye new Town- 
ship of Greenwich wch had Swallowed up all ye french 
Town bringing wth them a number of Warwick & Green- 
wich men & at ye house of one Pardon Tillinghast one 
of ye houses in ye french Town there they held a Court 
of Enquiry as they called it one Capt John Fones wth 
Severll othi's hereing of Sd Appointed Court came to 
Inspect into their Proceedings & Capt John Fones took 
an accott thereof of yt days Proceedall whilest he 
was their wth his oath given to ye same a true 
Coppy Thereof I have allso here laid before yoi' Ex- 
cellency also a true Coppy how I was dealt wth yt 
Evenin aftr Sun Down how there came to my house 
a great Numb 1 * of Greenwich & Warwick people & 
wthout shewing me any warrant for wt they 
Came for draging me Away to their Court house & ye result 
of ye Court ye next day & how by their Plat obtained by 
ye Assembly in ye month of February 1699 before past they 
sett out two highways to run throughy Land & hound me 
in a bond to the next Court wch by ye Gov^s Warrant £ 
othrs Signing wth him afterwards was laid out one of Sd high- 


ways on one Side of my Land ye whole Length thereof Run- 
ing through my orchard ten Rod in wideth destroying my 
orchard part of wch Land one Thos Mattison have since 
fenced in & Improves & ye othr highway they ordred to run 
athirt my Land takeing away about twenty acres of my 
Land ye wch one Samll Bennett & Wm Weaver have built 
thereon & Improves Sd Land so yt of my fifty Acres I haue 
about twenty Acres left me & ye (known highway) or Road 
into ye Country yt all ways was & lay on ye othr Side of 
my Sd Land since Sd Action ye Widow Smith widow of 
ye Sd John Smith herein mentioned have fenced in every 
part thereof setting a house on Part of Sd highway & no 
notice taken thereof thus I can but in a Brief give yor Ex- 
cellency a short Accott of Part of my trouble & Pray all En- 
deavours may be used to give Relief to your Distressed & 
most Humble Seruant 

Pierre Ayrault 
Greenwich August 20: 1705. 

[Indorsed.] Doctor Ayrault remonstrance of his Troubles. 





Narrag:st Att a Court held at ye House of Pardon Til- 
linghast att ye French Town or Plantation so called in Kings 
Province July 23 1700. 

Mr Benjn Barton Assist 
Mr Benjn Smith Assist 
Mr John Spencer Justice 
Mr John Heath Clerke 
Mr Thomas Fry Attorney 

The Jury returned but not by the Sheriff (viz) 
Mr Peter Greene Foreman 
Mr Benjn Greene 
Mr Jabesh Greene 
Mr Amos Stafford 
Mi* Jeremiah Westcot 
Mr Othenell Gorton 
Mr Samll Gorton Junr 
Mr Charles Holdon 
Mr Joseph Stafford 
Mr John Potter 
Mr John Burton 
Mr Thos Burlingham 

The Court being Sate ye Jury was called to take the it- 
Engagements which was Administred unto them (but not 
According to Form of ye Oath nor Engagement to a Grand 
Enquest) wherein they were charged in Bhalfe'of or Souer- 


aigne Lord the King to Enquire into ye High way's yt were 
Stopped & Fenced in but not Nameing ye Town & to make a 
returne to yt Court then Mr Attorney Placeing himself at 
ye Upper End of ye Table at ye right hand of ye Justices 
and Pulled out some papers & Desired ye Justices & Jury 
to take Notice of w* he had to Lay before them then caused 
an Act of an Assembly to be read by ye Clarke wherein was 
granted 5000 Acres of Land to be Laid out in ye Narra- 
ganset Country for ye Settling of an Town & This 5000 
Acres Should be divided amongst Fifty persons whom 
ye Sd Assembly did See cause to accommodate therewth to 
be to them & their heirs & Assignes for evr: Provided they 
did observe ye Prescriptions & Injunctions yt was laid upon 
them by ye Sd Grant & perform ye same accordingly or 
othi'ways to forfiet y e Sd lands Granted then was lead an 
Ordr for ye Laying out ye Lands and Shewed a paper wch 
they called a Platforme of those Lands laid out by them- 
selves wthout form &■ wthout Scale or Compass or ye Sur- 
uayers Name to it or mens to ye divisions Laid out or any- 
thing of Sertainty in it for finding out ye highway but ac- 
cording to wt those weh were ye Evidences given into 
ye Jury w«h they doe Say & Aver to ye wch prsons at 
yt time may be Known to be very Young & at yt time not 
Capable to Know ye bounds nor Concernes of Each Divisions 
as ye lines or bounds then were or where ye highways were 
then ye Sd Attorney read an Ordr of their Town where 
himself was by them Constituted & Appointed to be their 
Attorney & it their behalf to Plead in any of his Majties 
Courts of Judicature in defence of their rights & Priviledges 
then he read a Coppy of a Letter he had Sent unto ye 
Gov*' declaring their pretended agrieuances as yt there high- 
ways was stopped & fenced in by some p'sons & desired their 
might be a Court of Enquiry & a Jury to find out ye high- 
ways & make returne thereof & then he read ye Governs 


Answer to him yt it should be done accordingly then he 
pleaded ye Lands & highways was laid out According to 
Ordr & were recorded in their Booke of records & yt there 
were Evidences yt would Shew unto y e Jury where ye high- 
ways were but I did not see those Evidences Sworne ill 
ye face of ye Court So ye Jury was sent forth & some of 
Greenwich men went wth them then ye Court rise Up ab- 
ruptly & disapated Untill their Dinner was Sett ready for 
them then ye Jury was sent for to go to Dinner wth them 
before they had agreed Upon A Verdict Aft'* Dinner some 
private Consultation wth ye Jury they went out again & 
staid out till Allmost night only I did obserue yt two pisons 
of Sd Jury did come to advise wth ye Justices Privately in 
ye Sd house & Aft r wards returned to their Fellows & neer 
night as before Sd came and delivered their verdict wch was 
as neer as 1 can remember in these words Following (viz) 
Wee the Jury Inquiry for or Soueraigne Lord ye King doe 
find yt Docter Peter Auralt has Presumptiously fenced in 
ye highway according to Evidences Given to us & therefore 
Guilty ye wch Sd Verdict ye Court did accept then did I 
myself make a request unto ye Sd Court to Grant Mee A 
Coppy of Sd Verdict wch I did in behalf of Docti* Peter An - 
rait He being ye Object as I did understand they Pitched 
upon according to Sd Verdict but could not obtain it Neither 
was ye Sd Doct** called for to here ye Play made against him 
nor ye Evidences given in Unto ye Jury nor their Verdict 
when Delivered then ye Court rise up again abruptly & went 
into ye house to Confer about some private Mattrs wch they 
did Intend to Effect wch I wa s not aware of Neithr did I 
think or Imagine any thing of wt they Intended wch aftr my 
Departure they put in Practice as I am Informed but seeing 
ye sun was neer Upon Setting & those of my Company being 
desirous to returne home I went into ye house where ye Sd 
Justices were & took my Leave of them w T ch as 1 do Conjee- 


ture they were glad to here of my departure they sent for 
Sd Doctr Peter Auralt who Early ye next Morning came to 
my house & gave me an accott of their injurious Actions 
against him his son & wife wch their may be sever U Evidences 
yt can testify to ye Truth therefore 

Declared and Attested 
per John Fones 
Newport August :8:1700 

Capt John Fones Came before us whose Names are Under 
Written and Upon his Corporall Oath did declare that 
ye wthin written paper to wch he hath sett his hand unto is 
ye truth And nothing but ye truth Taken as Abovesaid 

Francis Brinley \ 
Peleg Sanford V Commissions 
Nathl Coddington j 

[Indorsed] Capt Fones Euidence about Doctr Perre Ayrault 




The constant attempt of the authorities of Massachusetts 
to interfere in the affairs of Rhode Island, and to subju- 
gate the Indians and the chartered territory of the Rhode 
Island Colony to her jurisdiction, deserve more than a pass- 
ing notice, as they were the cause not only of the troubles 
with the French emigrants, but of most of the early troubles 
and sufferings of our ancestors. We should have had no 
Indian wars with their attendant massacres, but for their 
meddling interference. 

Their attempts to convert the Indians to Massachusetts 
Christianity, were not looked upon with favor by the Rhode 
Island authorities. These attempts were no doubt con- 
sidered here as a part of a scheme to gain favor with the 
Indians and establish authority over Narragansett. Roger 
Williams made many efforts to Christianize the natives, but 
with little success. In one of his letters dated 1654, he 
says: " At my last departure for England, I was impor- 
tuned by the Narragansett Sachems and especially by Nini- 
gret, to present their petition to the High Sachems of Eng- 
land, that they might not be forced from their religion, and 
for not changing their religion to be invaded by war. For 
they said they were daily visited by Indians that came from 
the Massachusetts, that if they would not pray, they should 
be destroyed by war."l Ninigret, on being requested by 
Mayhew, to give him leave to preach to his people, bade him 
go and make the English good first. They said it was too 
difficult for them to understand. 2 The conduct of Christian 

i. Potter's Early History Narragansett, 122, 154, 155. 
2. Neal's New England, London, 1740, v. 1, p. 275. 


nations and people, was then as now, the greatest obstacle to 
the spread of Christianity. 

The ill feeling of the religious people of Massachusetts 
towards the heretics of Rhode Island, was manifested in vari- 
ous ways. When Rhode Island for her own protection 
applied to be admitted into the Confederation of the Colo- 
nies, she was repulsed. The refusal of the authorities of 
Massachusetts to sell powder to the people of Rhode Island, 
is but one example of the prevailing spirit. 1 This may have 
been clone under a pretence of a general law. 2 

They invaded the territory of Rhode Island at pleasure, 
and made constant attempt to get the Rhode Island Indians 
to submit to them. The Rhode Islanders and Indians were 
generally on good terms. The great Indian war of 1676, 
was considered by the people of Rhode Island, as brought 
on by the misconduct of the English themselves. 3 The great 
Sachem Miantonomo had been put to death by the direction 
of the Massachusetts authorities, and under the advice of 
the elders of the church. 4 And the editor of Winthrop is 
obliged to express his condemnation of it. These wars 
against the Indians were conducted with a savag-eness not 
surpassed in more recent times. Their prisoners who were 
not butchered were sold into slavery to the Bermuda, or 
West India Islands. 5 

The Puritans of Massachusetts, the term is used to denote 

i. Coit's History of Puritanism, pp. 295, 524. Benedict's History of 
the Baptists, ed. of 1813, v. 1, p. 466. Arnold's History of Rhode 
Island, v. r. pp. 158, 258. R. I. Col. Rec , v. 1, p. 324; letter of Roger 

2. Ancient Charters and Laws of Massachusetts Bay, p. 133, dates 
in margin 1633, 1637. 

3. Potter's Karly History Narragansett, p. 93; also R. I. Hist. Col., 
(Callender,) v. 4, p. 126, in note. 

4. Winthrop's History of New England, ed. of 1826, v. 2, p. 131. 

5. Coit's History of Puritanism, p. 411. Power's Early Hist. Narra- 
gansett, 28, 80, 83, 84, 94. 


the dominant clergy who governed the colony without regard 
to mere minor differences of opinion, have been held up to 
the world as a set of saints for whom this world was not 
good enough. Let us see. 

They professed to be driven over here for the sake of 
religious liberty. No such thing. They had that in Hol- 
land. But there they could not lord it over others. They 
could not punish heresy in their flock. And they were 
afraid of being gradually scattered or swallowed up by their 
Dutch neighbors. They came over, as most emigrants go 
to new countries, to better their condition, and they did it. 
Never did any set of men know better bow to reconcile God- 
liness and land grabbing than they did. And as for religious 
freedom, they never allowed it. Mrs. Remans' five verses 
can be enjoyed by those who can substitute their imagina- 
tion for facts, but when she says, 

" They left unstained what there they found 
Freedom to worship God,'' 

a greater falsehood was never put into poetry, and if we 
enjoy religious liberty at the present day, we owe no thanks 
to the Puritans of Massachusetts for it. 

For all the outrages and abominations practiced by the 
Massachusetts government towards the Indians and Rhode 
Islanders, the Puritan clergy must be held responsible. The 
clergy were supreme in the state. No one but a church 
member could vote, or be a magistrate or juror. This of 
course gave the clergy complete control. 1 As a matter of 
course, all the politicians and office holders were very pious 
and very orthodox. If General Butler had been a candidate 
for governor in those days, he would have been obliged to 
play the role of a saint with cropped hair, white bands and 

i. As to the effect of this, see Savage's Winthrop new ed. of 1853, 
vol. 2, 171, 209. 


sanctimonious visage and looked like some of those old min- 
isters whose pictures, for want of something better, used to 
be hung up over the doors and in the recesses of the old Har- 
vard College library. And he would have gained in popu- 
larity by hanging a few Quakers and witches. Everything 
was done under the advice of the ministers. When the 
great Sachem Miantonomo was treacherously taken prisoner 
in a war between him and other Indian tribes, they advised 
his death, and are responsible for the savage manner of its 
execution, and thus in a great measure for the subsequent 
wars and massacres. When they marched into Rhode Island 
to carry out the great Indian butchery of 1676, the first of 
their "Laws and ordinances of war," provided that no man 
should blaspheme the Trinity, on pain of having his tongue 
" bored with a hot iron." 

The Puritan clergy thus taking the lead in politics and in 
war, the Puritan soldiery butchered the Indians in most ap- 
proved modern style. And in treachery they exceeded the 
moderns of the West. One hundred and twenty Indians 
surrendered to Captain Eels on a pledge of protection. The 
government, disregarding the pledge, carried them to Plym- 
outh, and sold and transported them all into slavery. And 
the descendants of those men are probably now slaves in the 
West India Islands, perhaps in Cuba.l When the Indian 
Sachem Canonchet was taken, in order to give the Indian 
allies a share in the barbarities, and thus attach them to the 
whites, "by the prudent advice of the English command- 
ers," the Pequods shot him, Mohicans cut off his head and 
quartered him, Ninigret's men burned the quarters, and his 
head was sent to the council at Hartford. 2 

1. Potter's Early Hist. Narragansett, 8o. Church's Indian War, 
Drake's ed., 1829, p. 52. Morton' Memorial, Davis's ed., 1826, p. 443. 

2. Potter's Early Hist. Narragansett, p. 96. Hubbard's Indian 
Wars, 1803, p, 168. Baylies' Hist. Plymouth, pt. 3, p. 117. 


When King Philip was taken, he was quartered,! and 
the pieces hung on four trees. His head and hands were car- 
ried first to Rhode Island. The Puritans proclaimed a 
thanksgiving on the 17th of August, and on that day his 
head was carried in triumph into Plymouth, and after being 
exhibited through the country, was exposed on a gibbet 
where it remained for thirty years. 2 The prayers of Church 
to save the life of Annawon were disregarded, and he was be- 
headed. Tispaquin, another chief, surrendered on a pledge 
of protection from Church, 3 and he was executed with An- 
nawon, " a dastardly act, " says Baylies, "which' disgraced 
the government, ' ' who thereby basely ' < violated the English 
faith. "4 When Philip's son, a boy of nine years of age, was 
taken prisoner, his case was referred to the clergy for ad- 
vice. John Cotton and Samuel Arnold were for putting 
him to death, quoting texts of Scripture to sustain their 
opinions; others were more merciful; and he was sold as a 
slave and shipped to Bermuda. 5 In the Pequot war the 
male Indian children were sold to Bermuda, the women and 
female children were scattered about among the towns. 6 
Some of the Indians^who fled for protection to Rhode Island, 
were sold for nine years; none were sold for life or sent 
abroad. The Massachusetts authorities complained that the 

1. Church's Indian War, Drake's ed., 1829, p. 125. 

2. Baylies' Hist. Plymouth, pt. 3, 452. Drake's Ed. of Hubbard, v. 
I, p. 272. 

3. As to Church's authority to promise protection, see Baylies' Hist. 
Plymouth, pp. 3, 150; also Church's Indian War, Drake's ed., 1829, 
p. 96. 

4. Baylies' Hist. Plymouth, pt. 3, 183, 184. Church's Indian War, 
Drake's ed., 1829, p. 144. Morton's Memorial, Davis's ed., pp. 453.455. 

5. Baylies' Hist. Plymouth, pt. 3. 190. Morton's Memorial, Davis's 
ed., p. 455. 

6. Hubbard's Indian Wars, ed. of 1865, v. 2, p. 37. Morton's Me- 
morial, Davis's ed., p. 193. Hutchinson's Hist. Mass., v. 1, ed. of , 
P. 307. 


Rhode Islanders had refused to deliver them up on their 
demand, that they might ' l be proceeded against according 
to the covenant."! 

Drake's Indian Chronicle consists of reprints of rare tracts 
and letters written and published during those early times. 
It is valuable, not so much for its exactness of detail, as for 
its exposition of the mixture of piety and savageness which 
actuated the Puritan people; and it gives us some facts ad- 
ditional to those we have. 

Captain Mosely took prisoners a father and son. They 
were examined separately ; the father first. They then ex- 
amined the son, and lied to him by telling that they had 
shot his father and threatened that they would shoot him if 
he did not confess ; and ended by shooting them both. 2 In 
another case they led an Indian to the gallows, flung the end 
of the rope over the post and ' ' hoisted him up like a dog 
three or four times," and finally an Indian stabbed him and 
sucked his blood. 3 

Eight Indians came to Boston on an embassy with a cer- 
tificate from Captain Smith. 4 One of them was taken and 
hanged, because he had killed some one in the war. 5 

In 1637, the Puritan soldiers meeting with seven Pequods, 
killed five of them, and took one a prisoner alive, him u the 
English put to the torture, and set all their heads upon the 
fort. "6 The particulars of this torture are not given. In 
July, 1676, their Mohegan allies asked the English to give 
up to them one of the Narragansett captives to be tortured. 
The English consented. The remainder of the story is too 

i. R. I. Col. Rec, v. 2, p. 249. Knowles's Life of Roger Williams, 
p. 347. Potter's Early Hist. Narragansett, pp. 94, 219. 

2. Drake's Indian Chronicle, ed., 1836, p. 25 ; ed., 1867, p. 149. 

3. Drake's Indian Chronicle, ed. 1836, p. 27 ; ed. 1867, p. 153. 

4. Major Richard Smith, well known in Rhode Island history. 

5. Drake's Indian Chronicle, ed. 1836, p. 30 ; ed. 1867, p. 157. 

6. Winthrop's History of New England, ed. of 1826, v. 1, p. 223. 


horrible to be related here, the curious reader is referred to 
Baylies' History of Plymouth, an excellent authority, pt. 3, 
p. 136. The dead body of the squaw Sachem Weetomore 
being found, her head was cut off and carried to Taunton, 
where it was set upon a pole.l " We cannot," says Judge 
Davis, " peruse without humiliation and disgust the unfeel- 
ing sarcasms with which a reverend contemporary historian 
relates this occurrence. "2 

In the Pequod war, the English attacked and set on fire 
the Pequod fort, and destroyed about four hundred Indians, 
killing some, hewing some to pieces, etc. " At this time it 
was a fearful sight to see them thus frying in the fire, and 
the streams of blood quenching the same. Horrible was 
the stink and scent thereof; but the victory seemed a sweet 
sacrifice and they gave the praise thereof to God, who had 
wrought so wonderfully for them, thus to enclose their ene- 
mies in their hands." 3 

When the Indians took female prisoners at Lancaster, and 
they suffered no wrong, such treatment so surprised the Puri- 
tan savages that they were obliged to account for it by a 
special interposition of God. 4 Baylies in his History of 
Plymouth, says " all accounts concur in representing the 
Indians of New England to have invariably respected the 
honor of women. "5 Whatever of a savage character the 

1. Hubbard's Indian Wars, ed. of 1865, v. I, p. 264. 

2. Morton's Memorial, Davis's ed., p. 451. 

3. Morton's Memorial, Davis's ed., p. 189. 

4. Hubbard's Indian Wars, ed. 1865, v. 2, p. 260. 

5. Baylies' History Plymouth, pt. 3, p. 36. Potter's Early History 
Narragansett, p. 94. Drake's Indian Chronicle, ed. of 1836, p. 81, 
Hubbard's Iudian Wars, p. 117. 

Reference might properly have been made in this connection to the 
treatment of Mary Dyer, who was banished and finally hanged on 
accouut of her religious faith, in the estimation of the Massachusetts 
authorities, the lack of it. The curious scholar is referred to Bishop's 
New England Judged, for an account of these barbarous acts. 


Indians did, was attributed to < < the malicious hatred these 
infidels have to religion and piety." 

In 1646, the Council of the United Colonies, Rhode Island 
not being one, considered the wilful wrongs and hostile 
practices of the Indians, and their entertaining and protect- 
ing offenders, etc., provided that the magistrates of either 
of the jurisdictions may send "some convenient strength of 
English, ' ' and < 'seize and bring away any of that plantation 
of Indians that shall protect, ' ' etc. , < * women and children 
to be sparingly seized, unless known to be someway guilty, 
and because it will be chargeable keeping Indians in prison, 
and if they escaped, they will be more violent and danger- 
ous, ' ' satisfaction is to be again demanded of the Sagamore, 
and if denied, the magistrates are to * < deliver up the Indian 
seized to the party or parties endammaged, either to serve 
or bee shipped out and exchanged for neagers as the case 
will justly beare."l Hazard has modernized the spelling 
into negroes. 

The Commissioners of the United Colonies approved and 
authorized the employment of mastiff dogs against the In- 
dians. 2 

And read the following: " Whereas Mr. Pincheon was 
questioned about imprisoning an Indian at Agawam, whip- 
ping an Indian and freezing of him, the Court is willing to 
pass over Mr. Plums' failings against an Indian." This is 
a vote of the General Court at Hartford, in 16 37. 3 

When we read of such barbarities as we have recited, and 
then reflect that these were the Indians who protected our 
ancestors when they were driven away by the bigoted white 
savages of our neighboring colony, and when we reflect that 

1. Hazard's Historical Collections, vol. 2, page 63. Trumbull's 
Connecticut Records, 1636-65, p. 531. Blue Laws, Andrus'sed., p. 55. 

2. Hazard's Historical Collections, vol. 2. 

3. Trumbull's Connecticut Records, 1636-65, p. 13. 


these wars and brutalities were brought upon them mainly 
because of this kind treatment of our forefathers, an old-fash- 
ioned Rhode Islander may be excused for expressing himself 
in terms of severity. 

And yet within a few years we have had a lecture before 
our Rhode Island Historical Society, ridiculing these our 
benefactors, and justifying the Puritans. Canonicus is rep- 
resented as allowing Williams to "instruct his people in 
Christian decency and behavior, so long as his supply of 
groceries lasted." And this was received with apparent 
gratification and a vote of thanks passed by the Society. 
How long will it be before they join in the annual grand 
blarney celebration at Plymouth, and sing hosannas to the 
Puritans, who whipt, scourged and hung our Quaker and 
Baptist ancestors. 

That the Narragansett Indians were not civilized in the 
Puritan sense is no doubt true. But they were, compared 
with the other tribes, an agricultural people. And we have 
the testimony of Roger Williams to their good and peaceful 
character, (A. D. 1654): that they were "more friendly in 
this than our native countrymen. * * Have they not 
entered leagues of love and to this day continued peaceable 
commerce with us? Are not our families grown up in peace 
among them % " ' 'The Narragansetts as they were the first, 
so they have been long confederates with you; they have 
been true in all the Pequod wars to you * * * The 
Narragansetts had never stained "their hands with any Eng- 
lish blood, neither in open hostilities nor secret murders. 
* * * It is true they are barbarians, but their greatest 
offences against the English have been matters of money or 
petty revenging of themselves on some Indians on extreme 
provocations, but God kept them clear of our blood. * * 
Through all their towns and countries, how frequently do 


many and oft times one Englishman travel alone with safety 
and loving kindness."! 

"Commonly they never shut their doors day nor night, 
and 'tis rare that any hurt is done. "2 That they were cor- 
rupted afterwards by their intercouse with the whites, and 
that they were made more savage by the treatment they re- 
ceived, is doubtless true. 

Governor Hopkins, in his history of Providence, 3 speak- 
ing of the execution of Miantonomo by the advice of the 
Puritan clergy, says: "This was the reward he received for 
assisting them some years before in their war with the Pe- 
quods. Surely a Rhode Island man may be permitted to 
mourn his unhappy fate and drop a tear on the ashes of 
Miantonomo, who, with his uncle Canonicus, were the best 
friends and greatest benefactors the colony ever had. They 
kindly received, fed and protected the first settlers of it, 
when they were in distress and were strangers and exiles, 
and all mankind else were their enemies, and by this kind- 
ness to them, drew down upon themselves the resentment of 
the neighboring colonies." 

The late Chief Justice Staples, one of the most painstak- 
ing and accurate of our antiquarians, who resorted to the 
records for his facts, and not like some modern lecturers to 
the imagination for them, says of him: "If he had not pro- 
tected the first settlers of the State of Rhode Island, proba- 
bly his liberty would not have been deemed inconsistent with 
the safety of the United Colonies. * * He was sacrificed 
because he was more liberal in his views than his Christian 
neighbors, more benevolent in his actions, more catholic in 
his religion. His memory should be embalmed in the grate- 

1. Potter's Early History of Narragansett, pp. 154, 156, 157. 

2. Williams's Key to Indian Language, vo). 1, R. I. Hist. Col., p. 50. 

3. Massachusetts Historical Collections, second series, vol. 9, p. 202. 


ful recollections of every inhabitant of the State of Rhode 

And in another work: 

1 ' The descendants of the first settlers of Providence, 
Rhode Island, and Warwick, should ever remember the 
obligations that their ancestors were under to Miantonomo. 
* * * When there was no eye to pity and no power to 
save in the civilized world, Miantonomo was their friend, 
their protector, their generous benefactor. " 2 

Mr. Savage in his notes to Winthrop, 3 says: 

1 ' With profound regret I am compelled to express a sus- 
picion that means of sufficient influence could easily have 
been found for the security of themselves, the pacifying of 
Uncas and the preservation of Miantonomo, had he not en- 
couraged the sale of Shaomet and Patuxet to Gorton and his 
heterodox associates." 

The names of the Puritan magistrates and clergy who per- 
petrated these outrages, instead of being damned to ever- 
lasting infamy along with the bigots and persecutors of all 
past ages, are still retained in honor upon the calendar of 
Massachusetts' saints, and an annual ovation performed in 
their memory. If the wealthy Quakers and Baptists of the 
present day had one spark of the spirit of their ancestors, 
or any regard for their memory, they would place a copy of 
Coit's Puritanism, SewePs and Go ugh' s histories of the 
Quakers, and Benedict's History of the Baptists, in every 
school and village library throughout the land. 

It is common to defend the Puritans by saying that their 
faults were those of the age in which they lived. If this is 
a good defence, their defenders should have little to say 
about Archbishop Laud, or the cruelties of Bloody Queen 
Mary or any Catholic persecutions. 

i. Gorton's Simplicity's Defence. R. I. Hist. Coll., vol. 2, p. 166. 

a. Staples' Annals of Providence, 54. 

3. Winthrop's History of New England, ed. of 1853, vol. 2, p. 161. 


That the old Puritans (clergy and all) bought and sold 
slaves may be known to some. But it is not so well known 
that they were probably the first inventors of a fugitive 
slave law. In October, 1636, a treaty was made at Boston, 
with the great Sachem Miantonomo. It contained nine 
articles. But, as the Indians could not understand them per- 
fectly, a copy of it was sent to Roger Williams, in Rhode 
Island, to interpret it to them. This was probably a fair 
specimen of their Indian treaties. It is here referred to for 
the fifth article, ' ' to return our fugitive servants. "1 In 
1643, Massachusetts, Plymouth and the two Connecticut 
colonies made a confederation for mutual defence ; in 1672, 
they renewed it. One of the articles provided that ' ' if any 
servant ran away from his master * * in such case upon 
the certificate of one magistrate in the jurisdiction out of 
which the said servant fled, or other due proof, the said ser- 
vant shall be delivered either to his master or any other that 
pursues and brings such certificate or proof." But this 
solemn agreement it seems was hardly needed, for in the 
letters of a French Protestant Refugee, written in 1687, it 
is said: " You may also own negroes and negresses. There 
is not a house in Boston, however small, that has not one or 
two," some five or six. "Negroes cost from twenty to 
forty pistoles. * * There is no danger that they will 
leave you, nor hired help likewise, for the moment one is 
missing from the town, you have only to notify the savages, 
who, provided you promise them something, and describe 
the man to them, he is right soon found. "2 

Selling into slavery was not confined to the Indians or the 
blacks. In 1659, a son and daughter of Lawrence South- 
wick were fined for ' < siding with the Quakers, and absent- 

i. Potter's Early Hist. Narragansett, p. 21. 

2. Winthrop's Hist. New England, ed. of 1826, vol. 1, 199. 

wsemcb tnfrtiiMtosam is wtoam wla 51 

log themselves from the public ordfaaaeee/'l Not paying 

their fines the county fere ell them 

into Virginia or Kermuda. 

That the negroes were generally humanely treated is very- 
pro Sable, but they had little protection from the Jaws. Dr. 
Belknap^ in J 70 9 -the negro children were considered 

incumbrances, and (ray like popple**" and that 

the . and most effective threat to a negro, was that 

loold be -old to the West Indie m Carolina. 

In the "Body of Liberties :: of Massachusetts. A. D. 
1641, we find it enacted: •'• There shall never be any bond 
slavery, villanage nor captivity among m be law- 

ful capt ;n in ju-r - as will:':, 

sell them -.elves or are sold unto us ; and these shall have all 
the liberties and Christian neagefl which the law of God 
established in Israel requires. '' This legal recognition of 
slave id to be several ;.rlier than can be found 

in the laws of Virginia or Maryland.-^ Of the existent 
slavery in Rhode Island. I have written in another pla< 
The Rhode Islanders apprenticed or sold some of the Indi 
for a term of years in tne great Indian war of 1675-6. 'J 
sold none absolutely. They did in May. 1659, pass a law 
authorizing the sale of an Indian guilty of grand force 
but it was only after conviction and it was the guilty person 
who was to be sold. Even this is not to be justified, but it 
is not quite as bad as when one Indian committed a theft, to 
catch and sell another one 8 

In an act of the Massachusetts Legislature paeeed in 

i. Sewel's History of the QuakeJs, vol. r. p. 278. Hinman's Biue 
laws, p. '7. 

2. Massachusetts Hist. Coll., 1st series, vol. 4, p. 2O0 

3. Hildreth's History of United States, vol. r, p. 67S. 

4. Lecture before the R. I. Hist. Society by the author, February 19, 

5. Rhode Island Colonial Records, vol. 1, p. 412. 


May, 1705, entitled " an act for the better preventing of a 
spurious and mixed issue," etc., it was enacted that if any 
negro or mulatto struck a person of the English or other 
Christian nation he should be severely whipped. To further 
illustrate the spirit of the people, the two following extracts 
from private letters are introduced, the first, from Hugh 
Peters, was written to John Winthrop, from Salem, proba. 
bly about 1645. He says : 

' i Mr. Endecot and my selfe salute you in the Lord 
Jesus. Wee have heard of adividenceof women and child- 
ren in the bay and would be glad of a share, viz. : a young 
woman or girle and a boy if you thinke good. I wrote to 
you for some boyes for Bermudas which I think i* consider- 

The second is from Emanuel Downing, son-in-law of 
Governor Winthrop. It was written in 1637-8. He says: 
' l A warr with the Narragansett is verie considerable to this 
plantation, for I doubt whither yt be not synne in vs, hauing 
power in our hands, to suffer them to maynteyne the wor- 
ship of the devill, which their paw wawes often doe; 21ie. 
If upon a Just ware the Lord should deliver them into our 
hands, we might easily haue men, woemen and children 
enough to exchange for Moores, which will be more gayne- 
ful pilladge for us than wee conceive, for I do not see how 
wee can thrive untill wee gett into a stock of slaues sufficient 
to do all our business for our children's children will hardly 
see this great Continent filled with people, soe that our ser- 
vants will still desire freedom to plant for themselves, and 
not stay but for verie great wages. And I suppose you 
know verie well how we shall maynteyne 20 Moores (negroes) 
cheaper than one Englishe servant. 

" The ships that shall bring Moores may come home laden 

i. Massachusetts Historical Collections, series 4, vol. 6, p. 95. 


with salt which may beare most of the chardge, if not all of 
yt. But I marvayle Conecticott should anywayes hasard a 
warre without your helps. "1 

We have seen that while the hatred of heresy was one 
source of hostility towards Rhode Island, the passion for 
land speculation was another. Roger Williams2 says: "You 
will find the business at bottom to be * * a depraved 
appetite after * * great portions of land in this wilder- 
ness. * * * This is one of the Gods of New England." 
Deeds of immense tracts were obtained from the Indians by 
Massachusetts men on the one hand, and Rhode Island men 
on the other. Sometimes there was a consideration, some- 
times none, and how much the Indians understood of the 
nature of a deed may easily be guessed. For the manner 
in which treaties were forced upon them, and how little they 
understood of them, repeated illustrations can be seen in 
the histories of the times. 3 

The Colonial Magistrates sent for the Indian Sachems at 
pleasure, made charges against them and compelled them to 
sign writings of the effect of which they knew nothing. So 
King Philip was compelled to sign a writing acknowledging 
himself a subject of the English. When at Boston, in 1671, 
he was told that he had done so, he indignantly denied it, 4 
said that it was merely an agreement of friendship and 

Baylies, in his History of Plymouth, gives a character of 
Philip very different from that generally given by the cleri- 
cal historians. 5 

The Rev. Samuel Peters has been very much censured for his 
history of the first colonists of Connecticut. That he ex- 

1. Massachusetts Hist. Coll., series 4, vol. 6, p. 65. 

2. Potter's Early Hist. Narragansett, p. 162. 

3. Potter's Early History of Narragansett, pp. 21, 47, 49, 79. 

4. Hutchinson, 1, 281. Baylies' Plymouth, pt. 3, p. 53. 

5. Baylies' Plymouth, pt. 3, p. 169. 


aggerated the faults and foibles of those whom he considered 
his persecutors, is very probable. He is commonly under- 
stood as representing that they met in solemn meeting and 
voted unanimously — 

1st. That the earth is the Lord's and the fullness thereof. 

2d. That he has given it to his saints ; and 

3d. That we are the saints, 
and accordingly they took possession. 

This is rather an exaggeration of what Peters does say, but 
not much. 1 He says that when the Sachems refused to give 
the land to them, they voted themselves to be the children 
of God, and that the wilderness in the uttermost parts of 
the earth was given to them. Be this as it may, nothing 
better represents the ruling spirit of the Puritans in their 
treatment of the Indians. It represents what was in the 
minds of all the people. It is true as a myth, in the sense 
of the myths of ancient history. The same thing is now 
going on at the West ; except that it is not the fashion of 
the present day to profess any peculiar sanctity. They ask 
no leave of God or any body else. 

Another charge against Peters is, that he represents the 
first settlers as meeting and voting that they would be gov- 
erned by the Laws of God, until they had time to make bet- 
ter ones. What he does say (page 54) is that the Colony 
i i adopted the Bible for its code of civil laws, till others 
should be made more suitable for their circumstances. ' ' This 
was probably founded on some expression in the first Code 
of Connecticut, where it appears that they provided for 
being governed by the rule of the Word of God in cases 
for which they had not provided in their code; 2 or, as Secre- 
tary Hinman states it, ' ' for want of a law in any particular 
case, shall be judged by the Word of God."l 

i. Peters' History Connecticut, New Haven, 1829, pp. 46, 66. 
2. Hinman's Blue Laws, pp. 130,150; also Baylies' History Ply- 
mouth, pt. 2 p. 74. Laws of Plymouth. 


The Rhode Island code of laws of 1647, is a most excel- 
lent one. It contains plentiful references to the laws of 
England, 1 but no reference whatever to the Laws of God. 
But then its authors were heretics. 

The Puritans perhaps were not the first to bribe members 
of the cabinet and government officers. They were very 
cautious and perhaps conscientious as to using such a wicked 
word. But Puritan shrewdness was equal to the occasion. 
Chalmers openly charges them with attempting to bribe the 
officers and influential men of the English government. 2 
The Massachusetts Council, December 31, 1663, appointed 
a committee i \ to improve some friend or friends in Eng- 
land, "3 to obtain information " and prevent all inconvenience 
the best they may. \ ' The General Court, May 18, 1664, 
referring to this, authorized the committee to engage some 
faithful friends in England, at an expense not exceeding 
£400. The General Court had before this in 1661, author- 
ized a committee for managing their affairs at London, to 
remove all obstacles or objections that might lie in their way, 
and their proceedings were to be kept secret unless the Gen- 
eral Court should call for them. 4 In 1682,5 they had au- 
thorized the committee managing their English affairs ' 4 to 
improve any meet instrument for the obtaining ' ' a general 
pardon and continuance of their charter. 

Hereafter Railroad companies will not wickedly attempt 
to bribe members of Congress, they need only improve them. 

Their agents in England, either forged or surreptitiously 
procured before it had passed the proper ordeal, a pretended 

i. Proceedings of First General Assembly of Rhode Island in 1647, 
ed. of Judge Staples. Providence, 1847. 

2. Chalmers' Political Annals, pp. 412, 413, 461; also History of Rev- 
olution of Colonies, vol. 1, p. 132. 

3. Massachusetts Colonial Records, vol. 4, pt. 2, p. 101. 

4. Massachusetts Colonial Records, v. 4, pt. 3, p. 39. 

5. Chalmers' Political Annals, p. 461. 


patent bearing date in 1643,1 giving to Massachusetts the 
government of the Narragansett country, including of course 
the site of our Frenchtown settlement. Of this pretended 
patent Roger Williams says: 2 u The Lord High Admiral 
President said openly in a full meeting of the Commission- 
ers, that he knew no other charter for these parts than what 
Mr. Williams had obtained, for he was sure that charter 
which the Massachusetts Englishmen pretended, had never 
passed the table." For other reasons and authorities, see 
Mr. Aspin wall's pamphlet^ upon this subject. No one pre- 
tends that the government of Massachusetts would procure 
or countenance a forgery. It was a clique of unprincipled 
land speculators acting under the cloak of their name and 
under the garb of piety and hatred of heresy. And this 
was the sort of people who caused a very large part of the 
conflicts and civil disturbances which hindered and delayed 
the peaceable settlement of Narragansett, and of which 
Rhode Island has had most unjustly to bear the blame. 

The feeling produced by these arrogant assumptions, by 
these scourgings, banishings, hangings of our heretical an- 
cestors has not yet entirely disappeared among the older por- 
tion of our country people. And it ought not to, so long as 
the authors of these barbarities are defended and canonized 
as they are. I have in my youth seen elderly people who 
could not speak of the " Massachusetts Presbyterians," as 
they called them without a gritting of teeth. 

We have had a few among our people who have taken 
some pains to justify the memory of our ancestors. The 

1. Miscellaneous State Papers, v. I. Secretary of State of Massa- 

2. Letter to Mason. Potter's Early History Narragansett, pp 37, 
161. See also the documents in Staples' ed. of Gorton's Simplicity's 
Defence, p. 305, 195. 

3. This exhaustive argument was republished by Sidney S. Rider, 
Providence, 1865. A few copies yet remain unsold. 


late Hon. Henry Bull of Newport, was one of the first, and 
latterly, Benedict in his History of the Baptists, the late 
Judge Staples, Governor Arnold in History of Rhode Island, 
Zachariah Allen, Esq., and Professor Diman, have done 
good service in bringing to light the truth on these subjects. 

The conduct of the Puritans and the savage character of 
their treatment of the Indians, will by many be justified on 
the theory that they could not be dealt with in any other 
manner. Whether this excuse is available for a people pre- 
tending to Christianity is doubtful. That after the Great 
Swamp fight both parties acted like savages, is undeniable. 
The Indians had been nearly destroyed in the fight, their 
huts with their women and children, and their stores of pro- 
visions burnt up, and the survivors driven out in the cold of 
mid -winter to freeze and starve. 

On the part of the whites the fury extended even to the 
women. The women of Marblehead, coming out of church, 
fell on two Eastern Indians who had been brought in as cap- 
tives and "very barbarously" murdered them 1 And very 
lately a monument has been erected (as the newspapers say) 
to a woman who tomahawked and scalped ten sleeping In- 
dians and then escaped. The wars with the Eastern Indians 
were going on at the time of Philip's war. 

It is becoming the fashion to erect monuments to the dead 
Indians, now that they are out of the way and can give us no 
trouble. Matthew xxiii., 30; Luke ix., 59: 60. 

I. This occurred in 1677. See Hutchinson's Massachusetts Bay, 
vol. 1, p. 307. 


When, many years ago, the writer was collecting materials 
for the " Early History of Narragansett " published in 1835, 
it was with the utmost difficulty that the materials could be 
obtained for the few pages of family history contained in 
that work. Few families had preserved any family records, 
and few seemed to care about them. And most of the infor- 
mation in that work was obtained from the records with a 
good deal of labor. From one person, the late Thomas B. 
Hazard, of Peace Dale, who died A. D. 1845, at the age of 
90, he obtained a great deal of traditional information about 
Mr. Hazard's own, and other families, which in every in- 
stance he found to be confirmed by the records, when 

Since then the feeling has changed ; every family has 
some one engaged in hunting up its history, and the passion 
has been carried to a ridiculous extreme. Those who get 
up the present fashionable genealogies begin way back in 
English history with an account of all the princes, lords and 
knights who have borne the name or any name similar to it. 
We expect, of course, to find the descendants of some of 
these nobles coming over about 1620, and settling in this 
country. But here comes a sudden break ; and the family 
history begins again generally somewhat in this style : The 

first of the name we find in this country was . A 

few years ago some one published a genealogical table of one 
of our old families, and represented his ancestor as owning 
almost the whole country. Such things as these may flatter 
vanity, but they subject the writers, justly, and sometimes a 
whole family unjustly to censure. 

Savage, in his Genealogical Dictionary, volume 4, page 
144, well says : "Much benefit to thousands of enquirers 


on our side of the ocean may be derived from the wise use 
of a few words in the note of Mr. Hunter, on pages 6 and 
7 of « The Founders of New Plymouth,' edition 1854: 'Mere 
possession of a surname which coincides with that of an Eng- 
lish family, is no proof of connection with that family. 
Claims of alliance founded on this basis are not the legriti- 
mate offspring of laborious genealogical enquiry, but of self 
love and the desire to found a reputation for ancestorial 
honor, where no such honor is really due. ' Well is the 
topic explained in further remarks, founded on experience 
of more than one gross case of indecent pretension. ' ' 

It was formerly very common for sea captains and travel- 
lers to go to the Herald's office, in London, and procure 
coats of arms of some one of their name. These were 
brought home and sometimes framed and conspicuously dis- 
played, and may hereafter perhaps be used as evidence of 
connection with the English family. They are of course 
worth but little. 

There are but two families in this part of the country, 
who to the knowledge of . the writer, can trace their families 
into Europe for many generations before the emigration. 
The family of Dr. John Clarke, the colonial agent, can, upon 
undoubted evidence, go back several generations in England. 
Its representatives are still numerous in South Kingstown 
and Westerly; and the Bernons were of an ancient and hon- 
orable family in Rochelle, in France. 

One great difficulty in tracing by our records, arises from 
having sometimes many of the same Christian name living 
at the same time. In the Reynolds, Gardner, Hazard and 
Babcock families, this is especially the case. In such cases 
the tracing of the title to some tract of land, may aid mate- 
rially. A very complete genealogy of the Brenton family 
can be made from the Land Records of South Kingstown. 

Another difficulty arises from the various removals of 


families from one town to another. In this respect the 
Quaker Records afford great aid as to the members of that 
Society. The general course of emigration was through 
Massachusetts to Portsmouth and Newport, and from thence 
across to the west side of the Bay. The Misquamicott settle- 
ment originated in Newport. The settlers had to pass a 
wilderness, and the name they gave it, Westerly, is signifi- 
cant of the state of the country at the time. 

After the close of our Revolutionary war, and in fact ever 
since, there has been a very large emigration from the Nar- 
ragansett country to the Western States. The greatest num- 
ber of the early emigrants went to Vermont, to the borders 
of Hoosic River in New York, to the Genesee country, in 
which name was then included all the country around the 
small lakes in western New York, to Wyoming and Wilkes- 
barre, and the borders of the Susquehannah River, and to 
Marietta in Ohio. And from thence their descendants have 
become scattered all over the Western States. There was 
also quite a large settlement of French from Rhode Island 
near Chatham Four Corners and Hudson, in New York. 


Le Moine. The christian name of the first Le Moine is 
not given on the plat, but by the tradition in the family, it 
was Moses. The French settlers, according to the family 
tradition, settled around a spring on the present Mawney 
farm, and planted an orchard there, always since known as 
the French orchard, and, within the remembrance of the 
writer, there were trees there supposed to be remains of the 
original orchard. When the settlement was broken up, the 
Mawneys must have remained there; as the name of Peter 
Money is on the oldest plat of East Greenwich known to be 
in existence, and attached to the tract of land which has been 
in the family ever since. The name seems to have been 
first changed to Money, and later to Mawney. The same 
tradition preserves the names of two children of Moses: 
First, Peter; and second, Mary, who married an Appleby, 
of New York. 

Col. Peter Mawney, lived the greater part of his life in 
East Greenwich, but removed to Providence before his 
death, and his will is recorded there. He died in Provi- 
dence, September 9, 1754, aged 65, and is buried, with 
other relatives, in the old North Burial Ground. This 
would make his birth about 1689. 

He was twice married, first to Mary Tillinghast, who 
died February 24, 1726-7, in the 34th year of her age, and 
is buried in the Tillinghast burial ground, next north of the 
Mawney farm; second, to Mercy, daughter of Pardon Til- 
linghast, who survived him, and died in 1761, the widow of 
James Brown, and is buried in the NorttcBurial Ground. 

The children of Col. Peter Mawney were: 

1. Elizabeth, born November 22, 1714, wife of Josep, 


2. Mercy, married Thomas Fry, Jr., December 23h 
1742. In Col. Mawney' s will he mentions his grand- 
daughter, Mercy Fry. 

3. Lydia, married Dr. Ephraim Bowen, June 10, 1746. 
See Bowen, post. 

4. Mary, married James Angell, October 5, 1752, 
grandmother of the late Prof. William G. Goddard. 1 

5. John, born August 11, 1718; died June 13, 1754. 
See below. 

6. Pardon, born October 5, 1753; went to sea and never 
heard from. 

7. Sarah, married Joseph Whipple. Their son Samuel 
was father of the late Hon. John Whipple, Brown Univer- 
sity, 1802, and their son George was grandfather of Joseph 
W. Congdon, attorney at law at East Greenwich. 

8. Amey, married Dr. Samuel Carrew, April 22, 1760; 
died 1762, aged 26; buried in North Burial Ground, 

John Mawney, son of Col. Peter, died before his father, 
and his will is recorded in Providence. He married, Octo- 
ber 29, 1745, Amey, daughter of Robert Gibbs, who is de- 
scribed on his tombstone in the North Burial Ground, as de 
scended from the family of Sir Henry Gibbs, of Dorsetshire, 
England, Amey, wife of Robert Gibbs, was daughther of 

Col. Joseph Whipple, and widow of Crawford. The 

children of John and Amey Mawney were: 

1. Pardon, born at Providence, December 27, 1748; died 
on the homestead, in East Greenwich, given him by his 
grandfather's will, August 6, 1831. He married Experi- 
ence, daughter of Caleb Gardner, of South Kingstown. See 

2. Dr. John Mawney, a physician, sometime sheriff of 
Providence county, and was in the expedition that burnt the 
Gaspee. He died in Cranston, in March 1830, in his 80th 

I. Updike's Narragansett Church, p. 155. 


year, and was buried in the North Burial Ground. He 
married, first, Nancy Wilson ; second, Elizabeth Clarke. 

a. John, married Ruth, daughter of John Gladding, and 
left one child, Elizabeth, who married William A. Cole, and 
now resides in Shakapee, Minnesota. 

I. Mary, daughter of John and Elizabeth, married 
Henry Valentine, A. D. 1807. Their children were, first, 
Maria A. ; second, Edward H. ; third, John M. ; fourth, 
Elizabeth; fifth, Horatio; sixth, Harriet A.; seventh, Alfred 
A., now in New York city. Mrs. Mary Valentine died in 
Brooklyn, N. Y., 1864. Henry Valentine died in 1847. 

c. Susan, born January 5, 1788; married Benjamin P. 
Ware, 1812. He died in 1816. She died October, 1869. 
Of the children, Albert P. Ware, born August 3, 1813, is 
now living in Andover, Massachusetts, and Charles M. Ware, 
born August 23, 1815, is living at Norwich, Connecticut. 

3. Hannah, daughter of John Mawney, married Stephen 
Harris, January 23, 1775. She died at the age of 34, 
leaving one son, Stephen, father of the late Almoran Harris. 

4. Mary died December 25, 1757, aged eleven years. 

5. Nancy died, aged seventeen years. 

Pardon, before referred to, died at East Greenwich, Au- 
gust 6, 1831. His wife, Experience, was born November 
1, 1751; married June, 1772. She died November 28, 
1815. Their children were: 

1. Peter Lemoine, born April 16, 1778; died in Moreau, 
Saratoga county, New York, January 30, 1868. Children: 
First, John G., died at Tyrone, Steuben country, 1837; 
second, Pardon, deceased; third, Horatio, (Geneva, N. Y.); 
fourth, Isabella Ann ; fifth, Sarah ; sixth, Peter, deceased. 
John G. left children: First, Dr. John G., Mazomanie, 
Dane county, Wisconsin; second, Caleb; third, William W., 


Dundee, Yates county, N. Y. ; fourth, Zeruah; fifth, Mary; 
sixth, Sarah; seventh, Robert. 

2. John G., born October 1, 1774, was for many years 
clerk of one of the courts of Kent county. He died 
December 28, 1846. Children: First, Mary ; second, 
William; third, Tabitha; fourth, Benjamin; fifth, Robert G. ; 
sixth, Julia married Ebenezer Hopkins; seventh, John G. ; 
eighth, Harriet, married Oliver A. Weeks, died October, 

3. One unnamed. 

4 and 5. Amey and Nancy born March 23, 1777. 
Nancy died 1787. Amey married first, Capt. William E. 
Tillinghast, of Providence. He died 1817. Second, Elisha 
Atkins, of Providence, and afterwards of Newport, B. U. 
1816. No children. She died October 3, 1864. 

6. Mary, born April 24, 1779; married, July 9, 1810, 
Elisha R. Potter, of South Kingstown, member of Congress, 
1796-1797 and 1809-1815. She died July 26, 1835. He 
died September 26, 1835. Children: First, Elisha R., H. 
C. 1830, second, Thomas; third, Dr. Thomas M., B. U., 
1834, U. S. Navy; fourth, William Henry, B. U. 1836, at- 
torney at law; fifth, James B. Mason, B. U. 1839; sixth, 
Mary Elizabeth. 

7. Moses, born November 4, 1780; married Elizabeth 
Arnold, November 1816; died August 1, 1821. Children: 
First, Robert G. ; second, Hannah, married Joseph R. 
Arnold; third, Elizabeth Ann. 

8. Hannah, born April 13, 1782; married first, Nicholas 
Tillinghast. One son, Edward N., born September 11, 
1805. Married, second, Jeffrey Davis, December, 1824. 
She died Sept. 20, 1860. 

9. Elizabeth Cranston, born July 7, 1784; married 
October 19, 1805, Jeffrey Davis, of North Kingstown. She 
died July 1814. Children: First, Abby, married Thomas 


B. Wilbor, of Coventry; second, George Albert; third, 
William Dean, who married Mary E. Congdon. 

10. Nicholas G., born March 18, 1T86; died August 27, 
1874, on the homestead; unmarried; will recorded at East 

11. Robert Gibbs, born 1788; went to sea in 1811 and 
never heard from. 

12. Caleb, born 1789, died 1790. 

13. Tabitha, born 1791; died 1808. 

14. Samuel Ayrault, born May 8, 1792; married, in 
1816, Phebe Nichols; died January 8, 1866. Children: 
First, Elizabeth, married Edward Wheeler, Auburn, New 
York; second, Maria, married Maynard Chappell, Henrietta, 
New York; third, Isabella Ann, married James G. Maynard, 
Providence, Bureau county, Illinois. 

15. Isabella A., born November 30, 1797; married 
Peter G. Taylor, June 27, 1822; he died at Brooklyn, New 
York, December 20, 1871; she died July 29, 1873. Chil- 
dren: First, Pardon L., born 1824, died November, 1860, 
at Brooklyn, New York; second, Isabella Ann, born 1826, 
married, 1848, George W. Frost, of New Market, New 
Hampshire; third, Amey Elizabeth, born 1831, married 
Walter J. Gilbert. 

The account of the French settlers here given, the locality 
of the settlement and the name of the first emigrant of the 
Mawney family, together with the early history of the fam- 
ily, were taken down by an uncle of the writer from the lips 
of Pardon Mawney a few years before the death of the lat- 
ter, in 1831; and when it is considered that Pardon Mawney 
was born in 1748, and was soon old enough to have con- 
versed with some of the emigrants themselves, and with their 
families, the tradition becomes more than ordinarily relia- 
ble. Pardon Mawney' s grandfather, who died after the 
birth of Pardon, must have been born in 1689, about the 


time of the settlement. And until within comparatively a 
few years there has been very little change in the families 
which have owned the land and lived in the neighborhood. 

Pardon Mawney was for many years in his youth in the 
house of his uncle Gibbs, in Boston, and while there attend- 
ed school. It was during his residence there that Gov. 
Hutchinson's house was sacked by the mob, in August, 1T65; 
and he was present when the furniture was thrown from the 
windows, and picked up among the rubbish a pack of play- 
ing cards representing scenes in the famous Rye House Plot, 
which are still preserved. 


Dr. Ephraim Bo wen, son of Thomas, died 1812, age 96 
years. Married, first, Mary, daughter of Thomas Fenner, 
February 9, 1737-8. Second, Lydia, daughter of Col. Peter 
Money, June 10, 1746. Children by first wife: 

1. Gov. Jabez, born November 17, 1739; died in 1815; 
married, December 19, 1762, Sarah, daughter of Obadiah 
Brown. She died March 17, 1800. 

Children: a. Obadiah, born 1763; died 1793. I. Oli- 
ver, born 1767. c. Mary, born 1772. d. Jabez, born 
1774. e. Henry, born 1776; died 1777. /. Horatio G., 
born 1779; Librarian of Brown University; died March 23, 
1848. g. Another, born 1782. h. Henry, 2nd, born 1785; 
for thirty years Secretary of State of Rhode Island. 

He married, second, Peddy Leonard, May 21, 1801. 

2. Oliver, born November 17, 1742. His son, Oliver, 
Jr. , was father of Mary Demont Bo wen, lately deceased. 

Children by second wife: 

3. Dr. William, born March 8, 1747, married Susan 
Corlis, 1769, died 1832, aged 86 years. Children: a. Eliz- 
abeth, married Thomas Amory, 1799, whose children were: 
Mary; Harriet, married Robert H. Ives; John, Julia, mar- 
ried Rt. Rev. M. A. D'W. Howe; Louise; Anna; Helen, 
married William Raymond Lee; Thomas, b. Sarah, mar- 
ried William S. Skinner, 1816. c. Maria, married Hon. 
John Whipple, B. U., 1802, whose children were: John; 
Maria, married Rev. Francis Vinton; Elizabeth, married 
Prof. William Gammell; Sarah C, married, first, Robert P. 
Swann, of Virginia; second, William H. Potter; Samuel, 
died young; Harriet, married William S. Slater; William. 
d. Harriet, married, 1815, Commodore Charles Morris, 
United States Navy, whose children were: Charles; Har- 


riet, married Rev. Dr. Coolidge; Louise, married William 
W. Corcoran, of Washington; Elizabeth, married Dr. John 
L. Fox; Helen; R. Murray; Dr. William B.; Maria, mar- 
ried Rev. Mr. Duncan; George; Julia, married Dr. Addison. 
e. Dr. William C. Bowen, born June 2, 1T85; died 1815; 
married Rebecca Olney, 1812; had a son William. 

4. Mary, born 1748; unmarried. 

5. Sarah, born 1750; married Thomas Lloyd Halsey. 

6. Lydia, born 1752; married John Innes Clarke, 1773, 
of pilose daughters, Harriet married, 1811, Dr. Robert 
Hare, of Philadelphia and Anna E., married, 1803, Oliver 

7. Col. Ephraim, born 1753; married, first, Sally Angell; 
was in the Revolutionary army, and one of the captors of 
the Gaspee. Children : First, William B., born in 1777, 
died August 26, 1826. Second, Julia, born in 1779; married 
John D.Martin, 1803. Third, Nathaniel, died young. Fourth, 
Sally A., died young. Fifth, Elizabeth, born in 1787; 
married Hon. John H. Clarke, B. U. 1809, afterwards Sen- 
ator in Congress. Mr. Clarke died in 1872. Their son, 
Hon. James M. Clarke, B. U. 1838, was for several years 
U. S. District Attorney in Rhode Island. 

Col. Bowen married, second, Sarah Whipple in 1794. 
Children: First, Esther; second, George T. ; third, Sarah ; 
fourth, Mary. 

Col. Bowen died September 2, 1841, at his home at Paw- 
tuxet, in Warwick. 
|. 8. Benjamin, born 1755. 

9. Dr. Pardon, born March 26, 1757; died October, 
1826, aged 69 years; married Elizabeth Ward, 1780. Had 
two sons, William, who went South, and Henry, who died 
young; and three daughters, Esther, married Charles W. 
Greene, 1806; Frances, who married Charles W. Greene, 


1813, and Anna E., who married Franklin Greene, and is 
still living at East Greenwich. 

10. Benjamin, born 1759; went to New York. 

11. Ann, born 1762; married Edward Mitchell, 1792. 
Mrs. Mitchell died in Charleston, S. C., in 1855. 

12. Betsey, born 1765; married John Ward, 1792; no 

13. Fanny, 1768; married John E.fMoore, 1789. 

Dr. William Bo wen, Dr. Pardon Bo wen, and Dr. William 
C. Bowen, were all of great eminence in their profession. 
See Thatcher's New England Medical Biography and Dr. 
Usher Parsons' Sketches of Rhode Island Physicians. 


In Mrs. Lee's Huguenots in France and in America,! Dr. 
Pierre Ayrault is spoken of as a native of Angers, in France. 
He will be at once recognized as the author of the memorial 
relating to the breaking up of the French settlement. Like 
the Mawneys and other families, he remained and continued 
on good terms with the neighboring Rhode Island settlers, 
thus showing that the disturbance could have grown out of 
no national antipathy. He probably soon removed to the 
neighboring village of East Greenwich, as more convenient 
for his professional practice. And in 16992 we find him 
joining with others in the foundation of Trinity Church, in 
Newport, where the petitioners are spoken of as " within 
this island." This, however, is not conclusive. In 1704 
Madame Knight, in her journey ings south from East Green- 
wich, on towards New York, speaks of being joined by the 
French doctor. In 1711-12 we find from the records at 
East Greenwich, that Daniel Ayrault sold to David Greene 
his house and nineteen acres of land. This probably was 
the time of the final removal of the family to Newport. 

Peter Ayrault' s will, made in 1705, proved June 4, 1711, 
and recorded in the old parchment book at East Greenwich, 
mentions his wife Frances, and his son Samuel, mariner 
now abroad, giving to the latter a legacy, and giving the 
remainder of his property to his son Daniel, merchant. 

Daniel, the only son of Pierre of whom we have any 
mention, was born about 1676-7 and settled in Newport. In 
the old parchment book of records at Greenwich, we find 
that Daniel Ayrault, with a number of others, received let- 

1. Mrs. Lee's Huguenots, volume 2, page 108. 

2. Arnold's History of Rhode Island, vol. I, p. 559. 


ters of denization July 3, in the thirteenth year of William 
Third, A. D., 1702. He married, May 9, 1703, Mary, 
daughter of and Judith Robineau, and grand- 
daughter of Elias and Susanna Neau, of New York. Their 
marriage contract, dated April, 1703, is given at length in 
Mrs. Lee's Huguenot's in France and America. 1 Daniel 
died June 25, 1764, aged 87 years, 9 months and 17 days. 
She died January 5, 1729, aged 44 years. He married, 
second, Rebecca, widow of Edward Neargrass, in 1745. 
The children of Daniel and Mary were : 

1. Mary, born at East Greenwich, February 16, 1704; 
married James Cranston, 1720-1 ; children, Walter and 
Mary ; married, second, George Goulding, whom she sur- 
vived, and died in 1764. 

2. Pierre, born at East Greenwich, October 4, 1705. 

3. Daniel, born at East Greenwich, November 2, 1707 ; 
married, first, Susanna, Neargrass, in 1735 ; second, Re- 
becca Neargrass, in 1737 ; third, Hart, daughter of Jahleel 
and Frances Brenton, in 1745 ; she died in 1764. He died 
in 1770. Children : a. Stephen, b. Daniel, died young. 
c. Mary, died 1792. Children by Hart Brenton : a. Peter ; 
b. Hart ; c. Rebecca ; d. Martha, born in 1759, died same 
year, and three others who died young. Peter and Hart 
both died unmarried. 

4. Stephen, born at East Greenwich, December 11, 
1709. The births of numbers two, three and four, are on 
record at East Greenwich. 

5. Anthony, born in 1712 ; died in 1726. 

6. Elias, born at Newport, February 13, 1713-14 ; went 
to sea. 

7. Judith, born at Newport, in 1716 ; died young. 

8. Frances, born at Newport, September 2, 1718 ; mar- 

i. Mrs. Lee's Huguenots, volume 2, page 107. 


ried Walter Cranston. March 26. 1747. She died February 
2, 17 

9. Samuel, born in Newport. March 22. 1720 : died 
August 11. 1795, and buried at the Tillinghast burying 
ground, on the farm north of the Mawney farm, in East 
Greenwich. He is described on his tombstone as a mer- 

10. Anthony, died when 4 years old. 

11. Susanna, born June 29, 1723 : died May 3. 1- ■>. 

12. Judith, born December 9, 1725 : died November 
26. 1806 : married Joseph Tillinghast. 

Children of Stephen, fourth child of Daniel and Mary. 
His tombstone gives his age 54. The Mercury of April 22. 
1794, contains a notice of him. He married December 23. 
1740. Ann. eldest daughter of Peter Bours. She was born 
April 2, 1724, and died December 17. 1754. 

Children : a. Frances, baptized 1747 : married, first, in 
1767. Edward, son of Gov. Gideon Wanton : second, John 
Piper, b. Ann. c. Mary, baptized in 1742 : married, in 
1764, George Scott. Mary had one daughter, Ann, who 
married, first, William Robinson : second. Dr. John P. 
Mann. She died in 1541. d. Bathsheba, died young. 

The children of Edward Wanton and Frances, his wife, 
were : First. Stephen A. : second. Sarah : third, Frances, 
married William C. Robinson. Their children were : a. 
Edward W.. born in 1797, died in 1515. h. Stephen A., 
born in 1799 ; married Sarah, daughter of Jeremiah X. 
Potter, 1522 : was Grand Master of Masons, and died April 
7. 1577, in South Kingstown. No children, c. Frances 
W., died vounof. d. George C., died in 1520. e. William 
C. Robinson, born in 1S03 : married Abby B., daughter of 
Josiah C. Shaw. He died in IS 71. 

Mary, daughter of Daniel, 2nd, died 1792. She married 
Benjamin Mason, 1754. Children: Benjamin, Daniel, 


Susan and Mary. Benjamin, last named, married Margaret 
Champlin. Their son, George Champlin Mason, was father 
of George C. Mason, Esq. , now living in Newport. 

InHinman's Records of Wethersfield, Conn., and also in 
the New England Genealogical Register, volume xv. , are 
mentioned several of this name. From the similarity of 
Christian names, they were probably relatives of the Rhode 
Island family. 


The person who, from his standing in his native country 
and his wealth was probably the most conspicuous among 
the French settlers in Massachusetts and Rhode Island, was 
Gabriel Bernon. He was born April 6, 1644, of an ancient 
family at Rochelle, of which city it is traditionary in one 
branch of the family here, he was hereditary registrar. In 
anticipation* of the troubles he fled to London. 1 He landed 
in Boston in 1688. He was one of the principal persons con- 
cerned in the French settlement at Oxford, Massachusetts, 
for which we must refer to the very full account in Massa- 
chusetts Historical Collections.! Quite full accounts of him 
and much of his correspondence are published in the work 
last refer red a to, and also in Updike's History of the Narra- 
gansett Church, and in Mrs. Lee's Huguenots in France and 

In the very full genealogy of the Bernon family, published 
in France, the posterity of Gabriel Bernon are not given. 
But his correspondence with his brother Samuel; with Ben- 
jamin Faneuil, (of Faneuil Hall memory,) who married his 
sister Marie; and with another brother-in-law, Pierre San- 
ceau, all of whom are mentioned in the printed genealogy, 
and which correspondence is now in the possession of his 
descendants, all prove the connection. The genealogy ex- 
tends back to 1545. The Faneuils after coming to this coun- 
try returned and lived in France. 

Bernon and Faneuil and Louis Allaire were concerned to- 
gether in various mercantile operations. He remained in 
Boston about ten years and removed to Newport about 1697. 
He was one of the first petitioners for the establishment of 

i. Massachusetts Historical Collections, vol. 22, p. 69. 


an Episcopal church in Newport, September, 1699,1 
and from this and other similar movements originated the 
English society for the propagation of the Gospel in foreign 
parts in 1702. Bernon's first wife, Esther Le Roy, died in 
Newport, June 14, 1710, aged fifty six years, and her grave- 
stone is still to be seen there. For a short time after the 
death of his wife he resided in Providence, and then began to 
make purchases with a view to trade in Kingstown. In 
those days the great road for travel from Boston to New 
York followed the shore, and was sometimes known as the 
Pequot path. Wickford, or as then sometimes called, Up- 
dike's Newtown, and Tower Hill, were two of the principal 
places of business on it. He purchased of Lodowick Updike 
a wharf lot at Wickford, built a wharf, a warehouse, and a 
sloop. 2 While in Kingstown he was active in support of 
St. Paul's Episcopal, church, of which Rev. James McSpar- 
ran was rector; but about 1719 we find him again settled in 
Providence, where he remained until his death. 

In 1712 he married for his second wife Mary Harris 
daugnter of Thomas Harris, 2nd, and grand niece of Wil- 
liam Harris, the companion of Roger Williams. 

Of the children of Bernon's first marriage, Jane married, 
October 11, 1722, Col. William Coddington, of Newport. 

Esther married, May 30, 1713, Adam Ap Howell, or 
Powell. 3 Their daughter Elizabeth, born in Newport, 
April 8, 1714, married Rev. Mr. Seabury, of New Lon- 
don, whose son Samuel by a former marriage was the first 
English bishop in America. 4 Esther, (daughter of Adam 
and Esther Powell,) was born in Newport, May, 1718.5 

1. Arnold's History of R. I., vol. I, p. 559: vol. 2, pp. 76, 116. 

2. Updike's History of the Narragansett Church, p. 42. 

3. Trinity Church Records, Newport. 

4. Updike's History of the Narragansett Church, pp. 139, 143- 

5. Newport Records. 


She married Judge James Helme, of South Kingstown, and 
died March 22, 1764, in her forty-sixth year. See Helme 
family, post. Mrs. Esther Powell died a widow, October 
20, 1746, aged sixty -nine years, and was buried in the Con- 
gregational burying ground at Tower Hill. 

Marie, another daughter of Gabriel Bernon, married 
Gabriel Tourtellot. See Tourtellot family, post. 

Sarah, another daughter, married Benjamin Whipple, 
November 11, 1722. 

Mr. Bernon' s eldest son Gabriel and four daughters, 
children by his first wife, all came with him to America. 
This son died, unmarried, in early manhood by a shipwreck 
at the mouth of Narragansett Bay. In his will, dated Feb- 
ruary 16, 1727-8, proved in Providence, February 10, 
1735-6, and there recorded, he mentions his former wife, 
Esther, his children, Mary Tourtellot, Esther Powell, Sarah 
Whipple, and Jane Coddington, and four small children by 
his present wife, Mary, viz. : Gabriel, Susanne, Mary, and 
Eve : also his son-in law, Benjamin Whipple. Of their 
latter children, Gabriel died young. 

Susanne, born 1716, married Joseph, son of William 
Crawford, August 23, 1734. 

Mary Bernon, born April 1, 1719 ; died October 1, 1789 ; 
married Gideon Crawford, son of William Crawford. He 
was born January 29, 1709 ; died 1792. Their daughter 
Sarah was the first wife of Capt. Zachariah Allen. Eve 
Bernon died unmarried. 

The location of Bernon' s dwelling house in Providence is 
perfectly well known. 1 It was on the lot of the original 
" Roger Williams Spring," on the west side of North Main 
street, and next north of his great grandson, Gov. Philip 
Allen's house. 

i . Knowles's Life of Roger Williams, p. 431. 



Almost directly opposite Bernon's house was the dwelling 
of Roger Williams, next to which, though at a later day, 
was King's Church, now St. John's. 

G. Bernon House Lot. 

Roger Williams Spring. 

King's Church. 
W.+E. Now St. John's. 

Church Street. 

Roger Williams Lot. 

Gov. Philip Allen's. 

Howland Street. 

At the age of eighty, Mr. Bernon embarked for Europe, 
and while in London, was presented at Court. 

He died in Providence, R. I., February 21, 1736, aged 
92 years, and was buried beneath St. John's Church, which 
owed its origin to him,l and in which a bronze tablet is 
erected to his memory. An obituary notice of him was 
published in Boston. He was a gentleman by birth and 
estate, and in leaving his native land the greater part of his 
estate was necessarily left behind him ; he was a courteous, 
honest, kindly gentleman, behaving himself as a zealous 
professor of the Protestant religion and dying in the faith 
and hope of a Redeemer, and with the inward assurance of 
salvation ; leaving a good name among all his acquaintances, 
and by his upright life giving evidence of the power of 
Christianity in sustaining him through his great sufferings 

i. Arnold, vol. 2, p. 75. 


in leaving his country and a great estate that he might wor- 
ship God according to his conscience. A great concourse of 
people attended his funeral, and listened to an agreeable and 
eloquent sermon from Psalm 39 : 4, preached by the Rev. 
Mr. Brown. 

The family of Bernon is registered in the " Historical 
and Genealogical Dictionary of the families of ancient 
Poitou, ' ' and it is stated there that the name has been known 
and celebrated since the " earliest ages of the French mon- 
archy. ' ' 

Numerous articles of value preserved among his descend- 
ants, go to show the wealth and social standing of Mr. 

For some of the numerous descendants of Bernon, see the 
families of Crawford, Allen, Tourtellot, Helme and Car- 
penter, post. 

As the name of Carre is found in the Bernon genealogy it 
is very probable that Rev. Ezekiel Carre was a relative of 
Gabriel Bernon. 


We find on the Frenchtown plat the name of Abraum 
Tourtellot. He must, therefore, have been in this country 
in November, 1686.1 He was engaged in mercantile pur- 
suits, in partnership with his brother Benjamin, who died 
on a voyage from London to Boston, September 25, 1687, 
and Abraum was administrator of his brother's estate, the 
inventory of which would show a considerable trade. He 
lived at Roxbury, and by his wife, Mary, had two children, 
Gabriel, born September 24, 1694, and Esther, born June 
12, 1696. 

The tradition in the Rhode Island family is that they are 
descended from Gabriel Tourtellot, who was born at Bor- 
deaux, and who married Marie, daughter of Gabriel Bernon, 
with whom he came over from Rochelle. Bernon 's will, 
dated February 16, 1727-8, proved in Providence, Febru- 
ary 10, 1735-6, mentions Mary Tourtellot among his chil- 

They, Gabriel and Mary, had three children, two sons and 
a daughter. He lived at Newport, and sailed from there, 
as master of a vessel, and was with his eldest son, (christian 

name unknown), lost at sea. The daughter married 

Harding. Abram, the other son, settled in Gloucester, and 
was a large land owner there. His mother lived with him 
in Gloucester and died there. He married Lydia Ballard. 
Their children were : 

First, Mary, born March 20, 1721 ; married Mit- 
chell. Second and third, Lydia and Esther, twins, born 
January 24, 1723; Lydia married Thomas Knowlton. 
Esther married Samuel Dunn. Fourth, Abram, born Feb- 

x. Savage's Genealogical Dictionary, vol. 4, p. 315. 


ruary 27, 1725; married Harris, and settled in 

Thomson, Connecticut. Fifth, Jonathan, born September 

15, 1728; married Williams, and settled in Scituate, 

K. 1. Sixth, Benjamin, born November 30, 1730; married 

Ballard, and settled in Vermont. Seventh, Sarah, 

married John Inman. 

Abram, son of Gabriel, married, second, January 29, 
1743, Hannah Corps, a widow, whose maiden name was 
Case. They had five children : 

1. Stephen, died young, of small pox. 

2. William, married Phebe Whitman, of Providence, 
and settled in Gloucester. Had eleven children: a. Mary. 
b. Hannah. c. William, married Lydia Eddy; children: 
Cyrus, Amasa R. , now living, Abradia, John and Lydia. d. 
Barbary. e. Nancy. /. Sarah. #and h. Hope and Mercy. 
i. Whitman. j, Amey. k. Abram. 

3. Jesse, married Angell ; setted in Mendon, 

Massachusetts ; ten children. 

4. Daniel, married Urana Keech, and lived and died in 
Gloucester. By his first wife, he had three children: a. 
Jesse, who was Judge of the Court of Common Pleas. He 

married Steere. They had twelve children; among 

them was my old friend and schoolmate, Jesse S. Tourtel- 

lot. b. Jeremiah, c. Dorcas, who married Captain 

Aborn, of Pawtuxet. Their son Robert lives in New York. 

5. Anna, married first,— Jones ; no children; sec- 
ond, Ebenezer White, who had six children: a. Nancv. b. 
Esther, c. Nabby. d. Sally, e. Frances and /. Mary, 
who was the second wife of her cousin Jesse, and he was her 
second husband. 

Abram, the son of Gabriel, married for his third wife, 
Williams. No children. 


Gideon Crawford emigrated from Lanark in Scotland, and 
settled in Providence about 16T0. He married Freelove, 
daughter of Arthur Fenner, 1687; he died 1702; his grand- 
son, Joseph, born 1712, married, 1734, Susanne, daughter 
of Gabriel Bernon. Their children were: First, Sarah; 
second, Joseph; third, Freelove, married John Jenckes ; 
fourth, Susanne, married Samuel Nightingale; fifth, Mary, 
married Dr. Amos Throop; sixth, Candace, second wife of 
Capt. Zachariah Allen; seventh, Esther; eighth, Lydia; 
ninth, Anne, born in 1759; married Capt. Zachariah Allen, 
(third wife). . She died in 1808. He died in 1801. 

The children of Capt. Zachariah Allen and his third wife, 

1. Zachariah, died young. 

2. Lydia, born in 1782, married, in 1804, Sullivan 
Dorr, of Boston. She died in 1859. He died in 1853. 

3. Ann, died unmarried in 1859. 

4. Philip, B. U. 1803, married, in 1814, Phebe, daugh- 
ter of Benjamin Aborn. He was Governor of the State, 
and Senator in Congress. He died in 1865. Mrs. Allen 
died in 1864. 

5. Candace, died in 1860, unmarried. 

6. Zachariah, born September 15, 1795. B. U. 1813. 
Married, May 1, 1817, Eliza Harriet Arnold, daughter of 
Welcome Arnold. She died August 30, 1873, aged 76. 
Mr. Allen received the degree of LL. D. from Brown Uni- 
versity in 1851. 

7. Crawford, B. U., 1815, married, June 5, 1838, Sarah 
Senter, daughter of Rev. Nathan B. Crocker, D. D. He 
died April 22, 1872, aged 74. 


Rowse Helme, died 1712; his will is on record in Kings- 
town; his son, Rowse, married Sarah Niles, and died 1751. 
His children were : First, James, see post; second, Sands, died 
1738; third, Rowse; fourth, Nathaniel; fifth, Benedict; sixth, 
Simeon; seventh, Benedict; eighth, Silas; ninth, Sarah ; 
tenth, ; eleventh, Oliver; twelfth, Samuel. 

James Helme, born 1710; married Esther Powell, grand- 
daughter of Gabriel Bernon, in 1738. Mr. Helme was 
elected Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, in 1767, and 
was a Judge of that Court for many years, and held other 
important offices. Their children were: First, Esther, born 
1740, married Capt. Francis Carpenter, 1767 ; their son 
was Willett Carpenter, lately deceased ; second, Powell, died 
1780, single; third, Rowse J., who was an attorney at law, 
an account of him is given in Updike's Memoirs of the 
Rhode Island Bar ; fourth, Sarah ; fifth, Elizabeth; sixth, 
James, see post ; seventh, Adam, died unmarried; eighth, 
Samuel, born 1755, for many years Clerk of the Court in 
Washington county. His son, Powell, married Elizabeth 
Kenyon, was for many years clerk of the Supreme Court in 
Washington county, and Town Clerk of South Kingstown, 
and died October 20, 1861; ninth, Sarah; tenth, Gabriel, 
died single; eleventh, Nathaniel. 

James Helme, son of Judge James, was born 1749-50, 
married Sarah Clarke, 1777 ; he died 1824, in South Kings- 
town. Their children were : First, James, who had chil- 
dren : a. James, now living at Woonsocket, married Elmira 
Allen, of Franklin, Massachusetts. 

b. Sarah, married George Rickard, of Providence. They 
had seven children, of whoni four are now living : 1. Sarah ; 


2. James H., married Abby S. Weld of Woonsocket ; 3. 
George Silas, married Penina Jackson, of Woonsocket ; 4. 
Elizabeth Estelle. 

c. Mercy P., married James B. Ay res, of Yates county, 
New York. They had two children : 1. Martha Wanton, 
married, 1st, Sanford W. Kress, of Yates county ; 2nd, 
Jacob Tremper. 

d. Jonathan Perry, married Mary, daughter of William 
James, of Providence. Had three children, only one now 
living, Anna P., married Leonard O. Smith, of Franklin, 
Connecticut, and is now living in Philadelphia. 

e. Adam Helme, married Ann Cory, living in South 
Kingstown. Children : Mary E. ; Hittie Ann ; Adam 

The other children of James, son of Judge James, were : 
Second, John, who married Susan, daughter of Elisha R. 
Gardner, and left two daughters : Mary, who married John 
Wilbur, of Fall River ; Ann, who married Thomas Nason, 
of Woonsocket. After Mr. Helme' s death, his widow 
married Rev. Israel Washburn, a Methodist clergyman. He 
died at Middleboro', Massachusetts, in 1864. 

Third, Bernon, for many years clerk of the Court of 
Common Pleas in Providence County, died 1826 ; married 
Elizabeth Olney, 1811. Had two children ; James Powell, 
who died 1825, aged eight years ; and Mary, who died sin- 

Fourth, Nathaniel, B. U. 1819 ; died 1822, unmarried. 
Was an excellent classical scholar, and for several years In- 
structor in the classical school at Little Rest, now Kingston. 

Willett Carpenter, before named, married Elizabeth, 
daughter of Joseph Case and sister of the late Dr. Benja- 
min W. Case, of Newport. He inherited the large estate 
on Boston Neck, which had belonged to the Willetts and 
owned it at the time of his death. His children were : 


Howell H., and Rev. James H. Carpenter, of Wakefield, a 
clergyman of the Episcopal Church. On the Willett farm 
was the residence of Theophilus Whale or Whaley, sup- 
posed to be one of the regicide judges. 1 

I. For full account of the Willett family see Stiles' History of the 
judges ; Thomson's History of Long Island, and Updike's History of 
the Narragansett Church. 


Francis Ganeaux came from Guernsey and settled at 
New Rocbelle, where he died at the age of 103. The name 
was soon Englished into Gano. Stephen, son of Francis, 
had several children, of whom Daniel married Sarah, 
daughter of Nathaniel Britton, of Staten Island, and re- 
moved to Hopewell, New Jersey. Their children were : 
First, Daniel ; Second, Jane ; third, Stephen, died young : 
fourth, Susanna ; fifth, Rev. John Gano, born at Hopewell 
July 22, 1777, ordained in 1754. He lived for some time 
at Frankfort, Kentucky, and died August 10, 1804. He 
married Sarah, daughter of John Stiles. Children : a. 
John, died in 1764. h. Daniel, born November 11, 1758. 
c. Peggy, born in 1760. d. Rev. Stephen, born December 
25, 1762 ; settled over the First Baptist Church, in Provi- 
dence, in 1792. e. Sarah, born February 4, 1764. f. 
John S., born in 1766. g. Isaac Eaton, h. Richard Mont- 
gomery, i. Susanna, k. William. 

Sixth, Nathaniel; seventh, David; eighth, Sarah. 1 

Rev. Dr. Stephen Gano was thrice married, first to Cor- 
nelia Vavasour, October 25, 1782. Of their children, Cor- 
nelia V. married Rev. John Holroyd. Margaret H. mar- 
ried Rev. David Benedict, well known as the author of the 
History of the Baptists. 

Second, married Mary Talmadge, August 4, 1789. Of 
their children, Sally S. married Rev. Peter Ludlow. Maria 
T. married Rev. Henry Jackson. Clarissa A. married, 
first, Newton Robbins, and second, James Ludlow. 

Third, married Mary Brown, July 18, 1799. Their only 
child, Eliza Brown, married Joseph Rogers. 

i. Benedict's History of the Baptists, vol. I, pp. 485, 550, and vol. 2, 
p. 306. Memoir of Rev. John Gano, New York, 1806. 


The tradition of this family, as given me by the late Judge 
William Mar chant, is that three brothers came over from Ba- 
yonne, in the time of the persecution, one of whom settled 
at Cape Cod, one at Barnstable and one at Martha's Vine- 
yard, from which latter place Capt. Huxford Marchant, a 
sea captain, removed to Newport. His son, Henry, was 
educated for the bar and began the practice of the law in 
Newport, in which he attained great eminence. He was for 
several years a member of the first Continental Congress, 
and was one of those who signed the Articles of Confedera- 
tion when adopted. He was Attorney General of the State. 
Like many others attached to the new government, he had 
to leave Newport while it was in the possession of the British. 
He purchased a farm in South Kingstown and lived there 
for a time. 1 He received the degree of LL. D. from Yale 
College in 1792, and died in 1796, at which time he held the 
office of United States District Judge. 

His son, William Marchant, graduated at Yale, 1792. He 
resided for a time in Newport and afterwards in South 
Kingstown, where he died. He held the offices of Judge of 
the Supreme Court, the Chief Justice of the Court of Com- 
mon Pleas, and member of the State Senate. He died Jan- 
uary 21, 1857, aged eighty-two years. His son Henry was 
for a long time a manufacturer in Pawtucket and died in 
May, 1865. William, son of Judge William, is now living 
on the homestead farm in South Kingstown. 

i. See an account of his life in Updike's Memoirs of the Rhode 
Island Bar. 


On the plat the name of this family is spelled Targe. In 
the old deeds and wills of the family in North Kingstown it 
is generally spelled Tourgee. After the breaking up of the 
French settlement the family remained in North Kingstown, 
but just over the Greenwich line in the immediate neighbor- 
hood of the proposed settlement. It seems from the plat 
that a father and son were among the settlers. The tradition 
as preserved in the family, gives the names of Peter and three 
sons: Peter, John and Philip. Professor Tourgee of the 
Boston Conservatory of Music, gives me the following, ob* 
tained from the records at Wickford. Children of Peter: 
First, Thomas, born December, 1722; second, Philip, born 
October, 172 A; third, Elizabeth, born 1728; fourth, Peter, 
born February, 1733; fifth, John, December, 1735„ 

John died 1812. His son Jeremiah, born December, 
1778 and died 1867. His son, Ebenezer, born in Warwick, 
1809, died October, 1878, was father of Professor Eben 
Tourgee, of Boston. 


This family was of French descent, and was connected 
with the Hillhouse and Brenton families, and in Narragan- 
sett with Matthew Robinson. 1 Augustus Lucas, the first 
emigrant, married Marie Lefebvre, daughter of Daniel Le- 
febvre, of Garhere, January 6, 1696, at St. Malo, in Bre- 
tagne. She died February 12, 1698, at Newport. He 
married, second, at Bristol, Barsheba Elliot, September 21, 
1704. Their daughter, Barsheba, was born August 27, 
1708, and died, the wife of Matthew Robinson, at Kingston, 
December 21, 1775. 

i. Potter's Early History of Narragansett, p. 296, and Updike's Epis- 
copal Church in Narragansett, pp. 280, 505, 506, and the notices of 
Matthew Robinson and Augustus Johnson in Updike's Memoirs of 
Rhode Island Bar. 


In 1742 Dr. Dutee Jerauld, then about thirty years old, 
came from Medfield, Massachusetts, and settled in East 
Greenwich, and died in July, 1813, aged 91. His parents 
were Huguenot refugees. His father was a physician. One 
of his daughters married Samuel Pearce. Their son, Hon. 
Dutee J. Pearce, resided in Newport, and was a very able 
lawyer, Attorney General of the State, member of Congress 
for twelve years, and acquired considerable influence there. 
See Dr. Greene's History of East Greenwich, and Dr. Par 
sons' Sketches of Rhode Island Physicians. 


Lewis Ginnado emigrated from France and married in 
Newport. He died in Exeter, Rhode Island, near Chap- 
man's Mills, May 23, 1795, aged 79. His wife, Sarah, 
died in 1801. His daughter, Esther, married Gideon Free- 
born. Daniel, his son, lived and died near Mumford's 
Mills. A lot of land there is still known by his name. 

Daniel Ginnado' s will was proved in South Kingstown, in 
February, 1816. In it he mentions his children, Samuel 
H., Lewis, Daniel, Joseph D., Susanna Sherman, Dorcas 
H., and Peggy. 

The will of Daniel Ginnado, 2nd, was dated December, 
1817, and proved in South Kingstown, January, 1818. He 
mentions his wife, Sally G. Ginnado, son, Samuel Slocum 
Ginnado, and nephews, Daniel and Alfred. 


Besides the families of whom we have given some account 
above, there are other families of French descent: The 
Levalleys, in Warwick; Jacques, Jaquais, Jacowaise; Le 
Baron; Geoffroy; Tarbox; Bardine, sometimes English from 
Bourdille. 1 Andrew Nichols emigrated from Ireland, and 
married a French wife of the name of Petrel, and the late 
John T. Nichols* Sr., of Kingston, was their grandson. 
Louis Alaire, whose name is on the Frenchtown plat, was 
probably a relative of Bernon % s.2 

Of the Frenchtown settlers, the following, probably, went 
South: Collin, Jouet, Moize Lebrun, Legendre, St. Julien, 
and Legare.3 

For the documents from the British State Paper Office, 
including the map, we were indebted to the courtesy of Gen. 
Schenck, while minister at the Court of St. James. A re- 
duced copy of this is prefixed. The other plat is reduced 
from the old plat of East Greenwich, and gives the lots as 
they were held by the settlers under the Rhode Island title. 

We are indebted to several ladies and gentlemen for as- 
sistance and contributions; and more especially to Sidney S. 
Rider, for the great pains he has taken in contributing in- 
formation and in making the statements, dates, etc., exact. 
Still, no doubt, errors will be found, as for instance, on page 
61 it is related that a company of French settled at Chatham 
Four Corners, in New York: the word French is an error 
for Friends, and was not discovered in time to be corrected; 
and again on page 19, the name Legree should have been 

i. Massachusetts Historical Collections, volume 22, page 81. 

2. Bernon Family, and also Savage's Genealogical Dictionary. 

3. Mrs. I^ee's Huguenots in France and America, volume 2.