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Full text of "Rhynchota .."

THE FAUNA OF BRITISH INDIA 

INCLUDING 

CEYLON AND BUllMA. 

Published uxder the authority of the Secretary of 

State for India in Council. 

EDITED BY W. T. BLANFORJ). 



VERTEBRATES. 

MAMMALIA. By W. T. Blanford, F.R.S. 

Pyj. i-xx. 1-617, and 109 woodcuts. Price £1. 

BIRDS. By Eugene W. Gates, F.Z.S., and W. T. 
Blanford, F.R.S. 

Vol. I., jJp- i-xx, 1-556, and 163 woodcuts. Price £1. 

Vol. II., pp. i-x, 1-407, and 107 woodcuts. Price 15s. 

Vol. III., 7;i^j. i-xiv, 1-450, and 102 woodcuts. Price 15*. 

Vol. IV., j9p. i-xxi, 1-500, and 127 woodcuts. Price 15s. 

FISHES. By Francis Day, CLE. 

Vol. I., ^oy). i-xxviii, l-.54b, and 164 woodcuts. Price £1. 
Vol. H., pj). i-xiv, 1-510, and 177 woodcuts. Price £1. 

REPTILIA AND BATRACHIA. By G. A. Boulenger, 

Pp. i-xviii, 1-541, ami 142 luoodcuts. Price £1. 



UNIFORM JJITH THE ABOVE. 
INVERTEBRATES. 

BUTTERFLIES. By Lieut.-Col. Bingham. 

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Price £1. 

MOTHS. By Sir G. F. Hampson. 

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HYMENOPTERA. By Lieut.-Col. Bingham. 

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RHYNCHOTA. By W. L. Distant. 

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LONDON: 
TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 



pip"/ 

THE FAUNA OF BRITISH INDIA, 



INCLUDING 



CEYLON AND BURMA. 



Published undeu tee authority of the Secretary of 
State for India in Council. 

edited by lt.-col. c. t. bingham. 



RHYNCHOTA.-Vol. III. 

IHETEROPTERA-HOMOPTERA) 

BY 

W. L. DISTANT. 



LONDON: 

TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 



CALCUTTA AND SIMLA : 
THACKEH, SPINK, & CO. 

BUEMA : 

MYLES STANDISH & CO., 
RANGOON. 



BOMBAY : 

THACKER & CO., LIMITED, 

BERLIN : 

R. PRIEDLANDER & SOHN, 

U CARLSTRASSE. 



1906. 



AIiEKE ji FLAMMAM, 




PRINTED BY TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, 
RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 



PREFACE. 



With the conclusion of this tlie third volmue of the 
Rhynchota^ the account of the Indian insects belonging to 
that Order is carried to the end of the family Fulgoridse. 
The preparation of this volume has been an arduous piece 
of work, as the insects described in it are obscure and 
little known. More especially does this apply to the 
forms included in the Fulgoridse. The admirable classifi- 
cation of this family initiated by Stul and continued by 
Dr. Melichar, of Vienna, left untouched a large amount of 
material that had to be examined and worked out. 

Though it is hoped that the present volume will throw 
much additional light on the natural sequence and affinities 
of the minor groups of this family, it must yet be borne 
in mind that the work as a whole is primarily designed 
for collectors in India as an aid to the identification of 
insects, which, though probably numerous enough in that 
country and of economic importance, have not been much 
collected or observed. This point the Author, Mr. Distant, 
has again and again referred to in the following pages. 

This is the first volume of the Handbooks on the Fauna 
of British India published since the death of Dr. Blanford, 
under whose Editorship the series was initiated and carried 
on for over twenty years. The many obituary notices that 
have appeared in the publications of the learned and scientific 



IV PREFACE. 

societies fully testify to the great value of the work clone 
by him during a long and strenuously productive life, and 
to the loss that science has sustained by his death. To 
few^ however, will that loss be personally so great as to 
those who under his direction were working for the Fauna 
of India series. 

As his successor it will be my endeavour to carry on the 
work on the lines laid down by him. 

In conclusion I may add that previous to Dr. Blanford's 
death the sanction of the Secretary of State for India had 
been accorded to the preparation of the following volumes, 
in addition to this one on the Rhynchota now published. 
Three volumes on various groups of Beetles, a second 
volume on the Butterflies, and a volume on the Land-Shells 
of India. 

The last-mentioned work had been undertaken by Dr. 
Blanford himself and a portion of it prepared. The un- 
finished MS. is now in the hands of Col. Godwin-Austen, 
who, as Blanford^s intimate friend and co-worker with him 
on the Mollusca of India, has kindly undertaken to complete 
the volume. 

Quite lately also sanction has been accorded to the 
preparation of a volume on the Phytophagous Beetles by 
Mr. M. Jacoby, the well-known specialist on that group. 

Of these various volumes of the Series, a half-volume on 
the Longicorn Beetles and the volume on the Butterflies 
will, it is hoped, be ready for publication in the current 
year. 

C. T. BINGHAM. 

February 1906. 



SYSTEMATIC ODEX. 



Order RHYNCHOTA 



Page 
1 



Suborder Heteroptera .... 1 



Fam. 17. Anthocorid^. 



Subfam. 1. Anthocorirxs . . 



1 



1. Ostorodias, Disf 2 

1. contubernalis, Dist. . . 3 

2. Aruulplius, Dist -J 

1. aterrimus, Dist 3 

3. Amphiareus, Dist 4 

1. fulvescens, IValk 4 

4. Lippomanus, Dist 5 

1. hirsutus, Dist 5 

5. Euspudjeus, Hettt 5 

1. funebris. Motsch 6 

6. Sesellius, Dist G 

1. parallelus, Motsch. . . 7 

7. Odontobracbys, Fieb 7 

1. niger, Fieb 7 

8. Tripbleps, Fieb S 

1. tantilus, Motsch 8 

Subfam. 2. Microjyhysince . ... 9 

1. Pachy tarsus, Fieh 9 

1. crassicornis, Fieh 9 

2. Cyrtosternum, Fieb 10 

1. flavicorne, Fieb 10 

Fam. 18. Polyctenidjg .... 11 
1. Polyctenes, Westiv. Sf 

Gir/lioli 11 

1. lyrce, Waterh 11 



Page 

Fam. 19. Pelogonid.^ .... 13 

Subfam. 1. Pelogonince 13 

1. Pelogonus, Latr 13 

1. marginatus, Latr 14 

Subfam. 2. Mononychince .... 14 

1. Mononyx, Laj) 14 

1. serratus, Montand. . . 15 

2. iudicus, Atkins 15 

3. grossus, Montand. .... 10 

Fam. 20. Nepid^ 17 

1. Laccotrepbes, Stal 17 

1. mbustus, Stal 18 

2. ruber, Liim 18 

3. maculatus, Fabr 19 

2. Rauatra, Fabr 19 

1. elongata, Fabr 20 

2. cbinensis, Mayr .... 21 

3. feana, Montand 21 

4. filiformis, Fabr 21 

0. sordidula, Dohrn .... 22 
6. gracilis, Dall 22 

3. Cercotmetus, Amy. Sf Serv. 23 

1. fumosus, Dist 23 

2. pilipes, Dai: 23 

Fam. 21. Naucorid^ 25 

Subfam. 1. Cheirochelincs .... 25 

1. Cbeirocbela, Hope 26 

1. feana, Montand 26 

2. assamensis, Hope .... 26 

2. Gestroiella, Montand. . . 27 

1. limnoeoroides, Moti- 

tand 27 



STSTF.MATIC INDEX. 



Subfam. 2. Laccocorince . . . . 

1. Diapliorocoris, Mont and. . 

1. puuctatis«imus, Kirby . 

2. Heleocoris, StSl 

1. strabus, Moyitand 

2. breviceps, Montand. . . 

3. bergTotbi, Montand. . . 

4. Ifeviceps, Montand. . . 

5. elong-atus, Montand. . . 

6. indicus, Montand 

7. obllquatus, Spin 

8. ? acuta, Spin 

3. Ctenipocoris, Montand.. 

1. asiaticus, Montand. . 



Page 
28 

28 
28 
29 
29 
29 
30 
30 
31 
31 
31 
32 
32 



Subfam. 3. Naucorince 33 

1. Thurselinus, Dist. . . . 
1. o-reeui, Dist 



Fain. 22. Belostoiiatid^^ . 

1. Nectocoris, Mayv 

1. stall, Mayr 

2. Sphserodema, Lap 

1. anuulatum, Fahr. . . . 

2. rusticum, Fahr 

3. molestum, Duf. 

3. Belostoma, Lai/)- 

1. indicum, Lep. ^' Serv. 

Fain. 23. Notonectid.e . . , 
Subfam. 1. Notonectina^ . . 



33 
33 

34 

34 
35 
3o 
35 
36 
36 
37 
38 

40 
40 



1 


Notonecta. Linn 


40 




1. montandoni, L'^irk 


41 




2. olauca, Linn 


41 


2. 


Euithai-es, Spin 


42 




1. indica, Fabr 


42 




2. marpinata, Fieh 


43 




3. lineatipes, I£orv 


43 




4. templetoui, Kirby . . . . 


43 




5. triangularis, Guer 


44 


3. 


Anisops, Spin 


44 




1. sardea, Herr.-Schdff. . 


45 




2. fieberi. Kirk 


46 




3. niveus, Fabr 


46 



Page 

Fam. 24. Ooiuxid.^ 49 

1. Corixa, Geoffr 49 

1. liieroglypliica, Llnf. . , 49 

2. Micronecta, A7r7t 50 

1. striata, Fieb 50 

2. haliploides. Ilorv 50 



Suborder Homoptera 



Subfam. 2. Pleince 46 

1. Plea, Leach 47 

1. liturala, Fieb 47 

2. frontalis, Fieb 48 

3. pallescens, Dist 48 

4. buenoi. Kirk 48 



Fam. 1. Cicadidj: . . . 



55 



Subfam. 1. Cicadince. ....... 58 



Div. 1. Polyneuraria .... 

1. Platypleura, Amy. S)- Serv. 

1. bufo, Walk 

2. macldnnoni. Dist 

3. polita, Walk 

4. cervina, Walk 

5. basialba, Wall; 

6. coelebs, Stal 

7. watsoni, Dist 

8. westwoodi, Stal 

9. basi-viridis, If'alk. . . 

10. sphinx, Walk 

11. capitata, Oliv 

12. bampsoni, Dist 

13. atBuis, Fabr 

14. octoguttata, Fabr 

15. audamana, Dist 

16. nobilis, Germ 

17. insignis, Dist 

18. badia, Dist 

19. assameusi^i, Atkins, . . 

2. Pycna, Amy. S,- Serv. . . . . 

1. repauda, Zmw 

3. Angamiaua, Dist 

1. tetlierea, Dist 

4. Polyneura, Westiu 

1. ducalis, Westw 



5 



Div. 2. Tacuaria 

1. Tosena, Amy. 4* Serv. . . 

1. mearesiana, Westw. 

2. melanoptera, WJiite 

3. montivaga, Dist. . . 

4. dives. West 

5. spleudida, Dist 



58 

58 

59 

60 

61 

61 

62 

^2 

63 

64 

64 

65 

65 

66 

66 

67 

68 

69 

70 

70 

70 

71 

71 

72 

73 

73 

74 

74 

75 
76 
76 

77 



Div. 3. Cicadaria 78 

1. Eihana, Dist 78 

1. mixta, Kirby 79 

2. germaua, Dist 80 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Page 

2. Cryptotympana, Stal .... 80 

1. corviis, IFii/k 81 

2. edwardsi, Kirk 82 

3. intermedia, S'i(/?i 82 

4. acuta, Siffn 83 

5. recta, Walk , , 83 

6. limborgi, Dist 84 

7. iusularis, Dist 85 

8. vesta, Dist 85 

9. exalbida, Dist 86 

10. -\-aricolor, Dist 86 

Div. 4. Uundubiaria .... 87 

1. Leptopsaltria, StSl 89 

1. tubero&a, Sif/n 89 

2. samia, JFafk 90 

3. audamanensis, Dist. . 90 

2. Purana, Dist 91 

1. tigriua, JJ'alk 91 

2. tigroides, Walk 92 

3. morrisi, Dist 92 

4. guttularis, Walk 93 

3. Duudubia, Ami/. ^- Scrv. . 94 

1. mannifera, Linn 94 

2. eniaaatura, Dist 95 

3. iutemerata, Ifalk 96 

4. Cosmopsaltria, Stal .... 96 

1. oopaga, Dist 97 

2. fe«, Dist 98 

3. andersoni, Dist 98 

5. Haphsa, Dist 99 

1 . uicomache, Walk 99 

2. Telitaris, Dist. ...... 100 

6. Platvlomia, Stal 100 

1. aiiiicta, Dist 101 

2. vibraus, Walk 101 

3. similis, Dist 102 

4. larus, Walk 102 

5. nagarasingna, Dist. . . 103 

6. umbrata, Dist 103 

7. assamensis, Dist 104 

8. radha. Dist lOo 

9. saturata, JJ^alk 105 

10. ficulnea, Dist 106 

7. Meimuna, Dist 107 

1. tripurasura, Dist 107 

2. tavovauti, Dist 108 

3. gamameda, Dist 108 

4. durga, Dist 109 

5. silhetaua, Dist 109 

6. microdon, Tf7tlk 110 

8. Pompouia, Stal Ill 

1. fusca. Oliv Ill 

2. lactea, Dist 112 

3. intermedia, Dist 112 



.Page 

4. solitaria, Dist 114 

5. thaiia, If'alk. 114 

6. siu'va, Dist, 115 

9. Aola. Dist 115 

1. biudusara, Dist 115 

2. scitula, Dist 116 

10. Oncotvmpaua, Stal 117 

1. obniibila, Dist 117 

2. expansa, IFalk 118 

3. melanoptera, Dist. . . 119 

11. Mata, Dist 119 

1. kama, Dist 120 

Div. 5. L all ugad aria .... 120 

1. Lahugada, Dist 121 

1. dohertyi, Dist 121 

Subfam. 2. Gceanina' 122 

Div. 1. Cicadatraria 122 

1. Emathia, StRl 123 

1. Eegrota, Stal 124 

2. Rust'ia, Stal 124 

1. dentivitta, Walk 125 

2. tigriua, Dist 125 

3. Terpnosia, Dist 126 

1. psecas. Walk 126 

2. stipata, Walk 127 

3. confusa, Z)<s< 128 

4. ransonneti, Dist 128 

5. clio, Walk 129 

6. abdullah, Dist 129 

7. uiadhava, Dist 130 

8. collina, Dist 130 

9. maculipes, Walk 131 

10. ganesa, Dist 131 

4. Cieadatra, ^4/???/o# 132 

1. sankaua, Dist 132 

2. xantes, Walk 133 

3. striata, Walk 134 

5. Sena, Dist 134 

1. quajrula, Fall 135 

2. rugipeuuis. Walk 136 

3. acberi, Dist 136 

6. Calcaguiuus, Dist 137 

1. picturatus, Dist 137 

2. nilgiriensis, Dist 138 

7. Gudaba, Dist 138 

1. margiuata, Dist 139 

8. Khimbya, Dist 139 

1. evanescens, Walk 139 

2. cuneata, Dist 140 

3. sita, Dist 141 

4. dimiuuta, Walk 141 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Pa^e 

9. Lethama, Did 141! 

1. locusta, Walk 142 

10. Basa, Dist 143 

1. singularis, Walk 143 

Div. 2. Gseanaria 144 

1. Gpeaiia, Amy. ^- Serv 145 

1. uiaculata, iJiiinj .... 145 

2. stellata, Walk. ' 14(; 

3. sulphurea, Hope .... 147 

4. atkiusoni, Dist 147 

5. festiva, Fahr 147 

2. Balinta, Dist 148 

1. octonotata, Westw. . . 148 

2. tenebricosa, Dist 149 

3. delinenda, Dist 150 

3. Talainga, Dist 150 

1. binohaiui, Dist 151 



Div. 3. Mosaniiiaria 



151 



]. Moganiiia, Amy. Sf- Scrv. . 152 

1. conica, .Genu 152 

2. cyanea, Walk 153 

3. fimebris, Stal 153 

4. effecta, Dist 153 

5. obliqiia, Walk 154 

G. A^iridis, Siyn 154 



Subfam. 3. Tibicininoi 154 



Div. 1. Hiiechysarii 



155 



1. Graptolettix. StSl 155 

1. guttatus, Stdl 156 

2. tlioracicus, Dist 156 

2. Iluechys, Amy. ^- Serv.. . 157 

1. sangainea, De Geer . . 157 

2. thoracica, Dist 158 

3. luematica, Dist 158 

3. Scieroptera, Stdl 158 

1. splendidula, Fahr 159 

2. crocea, Gucr 160 

3. fumigata, Stdl 160 



Div. 2. C a r i n e t a r i a 



160 



1. Karenia, Dist 160 

1. ravida, Dist 1(51 



DiA 



Tib 



1 c 1 }i a r 1 a 



162 



1 . Paharia, Dist 162 

1. lacteipeiinis, Walk. .. 1()2 

2. casyapte, Dist 163 

3. reticulata, Dist 164 



Page 

Div. 4. T a p b u r a r i a 164 

1. Abroma, Stal 165 

1. maculicoUis, Giier 165 

2. bengaleusis, Dist 166 

3. nubifurca, Walk 166 

2. Lemuriana, Dist 166 

1. apicalis, Germ 167 

3. Paiika, Dist 168 

1. simiilata, Dist 168 

Div. 5. Parnisaria 168 

1. Quintilia, Stdl 169 

1. subvitta, Walk 169 

Div. 6. Chlorocj^stai'ia . . . . 170 

1. Kumanga, Dist 170 

1. sandaracata, Dist 170 

Div. 7. Melampsaltaria . . 171 

1. Melampsalta, Amyot .... 171 

1. musiva, Germ 172 

2. contiuuata, Dist 172 

3. literata, Dist 173 

2. Pauropsalta, G-'ofZ. cS'i'Voc/.c/. 174 

1. exequata, Dist 174 



Fam. 2. Fui.gorid^^ 175 

Subfam. 1. Fulyorince 178 



Div. 1. Laternariaria . 



i: 



1. Pyrops. Spin 179 

1. dolirni, Stdl 180 

2. chineiisis, Dist 181 

3. cheimelli, Dist 182 

4. affinis, Westw 182 

2. Fulgora, Linn 182 

1. candelavia, Linn 183 

2. viridirostris, Westa\ . . 185 

3. spinolte, IVestw 185 

4. lathbuii, Wvi. Kirby . . 186 

5. conuectens, Atkins. . . 186 

6. oculata, Westw 187 

7. pyrorhyncha, Don. . . 188 

8. karenia, l)isf 188 

9. maculata, Olir 189 

10. delesserti, Gui-r 189 

11. audamauensis, Dist. . . 190 

12. rogersi, Dist 190 

13. clavata, Wvstw 191 

3. Saiva, Dist 192 

1. gemmata, Westw 192 

2. uodata, Dist 193 

3. bullata, Dist 194 



SVSTEMATIC INDEX. 



IX 



Page 

4. g-Littulata, JVestw 194 

■'). cardinalis, IJufl 195 

C). coccinea, Walk 195 

7. insularis, Kirby 196 

•S. virescens. Westiv 196 

4. Alcathous, Stal 197 

1. fecialis, IStM 197 

Div. 2. Apliauaria 198 

1. Homalocepliala, S^nn. . . 199 

1. festiva, Fahr 199 

2. Limois, Stal 20U 

1. westwoodi, Hope .... 200 

o. Apliana, Guer 201 

1. fariuosa, Weber 201 

2. nicobaiica, Stal 202 

'■). atoinaria, Weber .... 203 

4. pulchella, Guer 203 

5. variegata, Guer 204 

6. caja, Walk 204 

7. dimidiata, Hope 205 

4. Lycorma, Stal 205 

1. imperiali?, White ... 205 

2. puiiicea, Hope 206 

3. delicatula, White 207 

4. iole, Stal 207 

5. Euphria, Stal 207 

1. aurantia, Hope 208 

2. apicata, IJist 209 

3. submaculata, Westio. . . 209 

4. consanguinea, Dist. . . 210 

5. burmanica, l)ist 210 

(j. relata, JDisf 210 

7. dissimili.s, Dist 211 

8. aniabilis, Hope 211 

6. Kalidasa, Kirk 212 

1. saDguinalis, Westw. . . 212 

2. nigro-maculata, Gray . 213 

3. paiilinia, Sir/n 213 

4. albiilos, Walk 214 

5. dives, Walk 214 

7. Gebeona, Stal 214 

1. Sylvia, Stal 215 

8. Polydictya, Gaer 215 

1. basalis, Gaer 216 

2. negrito, JJist 217 

3. aftinis, Atkins 217 

4. tricolor, IJ^estiv 217 

5. krisna, Kirk 218 

6. pantheriha, Gerst 218 



Subfam. 2. EurybrachydincE . 

1. Eurybrachys, Guer. . . . 

1. lepelletieri, Guer. . . . 

2. venusta, Stal 



219 

220 
220 
221 



3. luanifesta. Did 221 

4. apicata, iJ/st 222 

5. spinosa, Fabr 222 

0. tomentosa. Fabr 222 

7. apicalis. Walk 223 

8. dilatata, Walk 224 

9. rubriciucta, IJ'alk. . . . 224 

2. Ancyra, White 225 

1. appendiculata, White . 225 

2. histrionica, Stal 226 

3. Messeua, Stal 226 

1. pulverosa, Hope 226 

2. uebulosa, Stal 227 

3. punctifera. Walk 227 

4. radiata, I)ist 228 

5. crudelis, Westio 228 

0. sinuata, Atlciiix 220 

4. Nicidus, Stal 229 

1. fusco-nebulosus, Stal. . 230 

5. Thessitus, Walk 230 

1. insiguis, Westw 231 

2. nigro-notatiis, Stdl. . . . 231 

6. Loxocephala, Scliaum. . . . 232 

1 . seruginosa, Hope .... 232 

2. decora, Walk 233 

3. castanea, Dist. ..... 233 

7. Nesis, StSl 233 

1. tricolor, Walk 234 

2. versicolor, Dist 234 

8. Frutis, Stal 234 

1. pulchra, Gray 235 

9. Purusha? 

1. reversa, Hope 236 

Subfam. 3. Dictyop/iarince . . 236 

1. Dichoptera, Spi)i 237 

1. hyalinata, Fabr 238 

2. hanipsoni, Dist 239 

3. uubila, Dist 239 

2. Pibrocha, Kirk 240 

1. egiegia, Kirby 240 

3. Aluutia, Stcil 241 

1. ramosa, Melich 241 

4. Dictyopha.ra, Germ 241 

1. uigrimacula, Walk. . . 242 

2. iiilgiriensis, Dii<t 242 

3. pallida, Don 243 

4. sauropsis, Walk 244 

5. walkeri, Atkins 244 

6. lineata, Do72 245 

5. Putala, Melieh 246 

1 . rostrata, Melich 246 

2. maculata, Dist 247 

6. Miasa. Dist 247 

1. smaragdilinea, Walk. . 248 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Page 

7. Udiigama, Melich L*49 

1. splendens, Geym 249 

8. Centromeria, Stal 250 

1. speilinea, Walk 250 

2. cephalica, Dist 251 

3. "V'iridistigma, Kirhy . . 251 

4. siuuilata, TJist 252 

9. Dictyophariua, Melich. . . 252 

1. viridissima, Melich. . . 253 

2. cousanguiuea, Dist. . . 253 

10. Symplana, lurhi/ 254 

1. viridiuervis, Kirl)i/. . . . 254 

Subfam. 4. Cixiince 255 

1. Oliarus, Stdl 256 

1. walkeri, Stdl 256 

2. stigma, Motsch 257 

3. tabrobaiieusis, Melich. 257 

4. caudatus, Wall; 258 

0. fusconebulosiis, Di.s^. . . 258 
6. punctipeunis, Dist. . . 259 

2. Cixius, Latv 259 

1. pilifer, Melich 260 

3. Anila, Dist 260 

1. fuligiuosa, Dist 261 

4. Iviuera, Dist 261 

1. semihyalina, 7)i>^ 261 

5. Kirbvana", 3Ielich 262 

1. pagana, Melich. ...... 262 

6. Mundopa, Dist 263 

1. cingalensis, Dist 263 

2. greeui, Dist 264 

3. niyittpe, Di.st 264 

4. dohertyi, Dist 265 

5. fasciata, Dist 255 

7. Ptoleria, Stdl 265 

1. arcuigera, Stdl 2(36 

8. Barma, Dist 266 

1. Aixevsii, Dist 266 

9. Cbroneba, Stdl 267 

1. pallifrons, Stdl 267 

10. Melandeva, Dist 268 

1. ocellata, Bist 268 

11. Brixia, Stdl 269 

1. uubila, Walk 270 

2. meander, Walk 270 

3. tortricifoniiis, Kirhy . . 271 

4. albomaculata, Dist. . . 271 

5. Havomaculata, Dist. . . 272 

Subfam. 5. Trajmluchitue . . . . 272 

1. ITiracia, }\alk. ' 273 

1. walkeri, Siyii 274 

2. Karna, Dist 274 

1. karenia, Dist 275 



Page 

3. Tambinia, Stdl 276 

1. laiiguida, Stal 276 

2. inconspicua, Did 277 

3. debilis, Stdl 277 

4. maculosa, Dist 277 

5. rufoornata, Stdl 278 

6. atrosiguata, Dist 278 

7. capitata, Dist 278 

4. Ossa, Motsch 279 

1. dimidiata, Motsch. . . 279 

5. Stiborus, Melich 280 

1. viridi.*, Melich 280 

6. Leusaba, Walk 280 

1. rulitarsis, Kirtiy 281 

7. Stacota, Stdl ..." 281 

l.breviceps, Walk 282 

8. Epora, Walk 282 

L subtilis, Walk 283 

9. Baruna, Dist 283 

1. albosiguata, Dist 284 

10. Paruzelia"; Melich 284 

1. psvlloniorpha, Melich. . 285 

11. Gen.? 

1. meliciiari, Dist 285 

Subfam. 6. Achilinee 286 

1. Faventia, Stdl 286 

1. pustulata, Walk 287 

2. Vekunta, Dist 287 

1. tenella, Melich 288 

2. punctula, Melich 288 

3. Kinnara, Dist 289 

1. ceylouica, Melich 289 

2. fuluata, Melich 289 

3. albiplao-a, Dist 290 

4. Magadha,'l>isi 290 

1. tiavisigua, Walk 291 

2. nebulosa, Dist . 291 

5. Taugiua, Melich 291 

]. bipunctata, Melich. . . 292 

6. Kosalva, Dist 292 

1. flavostrigata. Dist. . . 293 

7. Usara, Dist. 293 

1. lineolalis, Dist 294 

Subfam. 7. Derhina- 295 

1. Pbenice, Westw 296 

1. moesta, Westiv 296 

2. superba, Dist 297 

3. punctativentris, Kirby . 297 

4. furcato-vittata, Stdl '. . 298 

2. Pamendauga, Dist 298 

1. rubilinea, Dist 299 

3. Jada, Dist 299 

1. uitagalensis, A'irh/ . . 300 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Page 

4. Zoraida, Kirk oOU 

1. pterophoi'oides, Weshv. 300 

2. cumulata, Walk 301 

3. ceylonica, Kirby .... 301 

4. laukaua, Kirby 302 

T). ruliveua, Disi 302 

6. obsoleta, Kirby 303 

7. motschoulskyi, Dist. . . 303 

8. gilva, Dist 303 

9. egregia, Melich 304 

10. lic.ta, Did 304 

5. Drona, Dist 305 

1 . caruosa, IVestw 305 

2. pennata, Dist 306 

6. Interamma, ^]'alk 306 

1. I'ubrofasciata, Melich. . 306 

7. Vivaha, Dist , 307 

1. facialis, Dist 308 

8. Kermesia, Ulelich 308 

1. albida, Melich 308 

9. ^'isia, Melich 309 

1. atroveuosa, Ijeth 309 

2. albovenosa, Dist 310 

10. Kamendaka, Dist 310 

1. spectra, Dist 311 

2. fuscolasciata, Dist. . . 311 

11. Rhotana, Walk 311 

1. fuscoiasciata, Dist. . . 312 

2. triiuaculata, Dist 312 

3. vitriceps, tital 313 

4. iridipeiiuis, Melich. . . 313 

5. albata, Melich 313 

0. veuosa, Dist 314 

12. Vinata, Dist 314 

1. nigricornis, Stdl 314 

2. nivosa, Dist 315 

13. Uevadanda, Dist 315 

1. pectinata, Dist 316 

14. Geu. ? 

1. crenatonervosa,7l/oi«'7i. 316 

Subfam. 8. Lophopince 317 

1. Elasmoscelis, Spin 318 

1. platypoda, Kirby .... 318 

2. Pitamb'aia, Dist 319 

1. radians, Kirby 319 

2. interniijta, Dist 320 

3. undulata, Dist 320 

4. sinviata, Dist 321 

3. Corethrura, Hope 321 

1. fuscovaria, Hope .... 322 

4. Bisma, Dist 322 

1. greeiii, Dist 323 

5. Lacusa, Stdl 323 

1. fuscofasciata, Stdl .... 324 



Page 

6. Serida, Walk 3,24 

1. latens, Walk 325 

7. Zaiiiila, Walk 326 

1. lycuides. Walk 326 

2. aberraus, Kirby 326 

3. perpusilla, Walk 327 

8. Brixioides, Kirby 327 

1. carinatus, Kirby .... 328 

9. Jivatma, Dist 328 

1. metallica, Dist 329 

10. Kusunia, Dist 329 

1. carinata, Dist 330 

11. Varma, Dist S30 

1 . trideus, Dist 331 

12. I'adauda, Dist 331 

1. atkinsoni, Dist 332 

Subfam. 9. Issiuce 332 

1. Caliscelis, Lap 334 

1. eximia, Stdl 334 

2. Augila, Stdl 335 

1. bingiiami, Dist 336 

3. Tatva, Dist 336 

1 . bufo, Dist 337 

4. Bralimaloka, Dist 337 

1. bowringi, Dist 337 

5. Jaganuata, Dist 338 

1. chelonia, Dist 338 

2. maculata, Dist 339 

6. Tetrica, Stdl 339 

1. fusca, Stdl 340 

2. bifasciata, Dist 340 

3. viridimixta, Dist 340 

7. Hvsteropterum, Amy. ^• 

Serv 341 

1. subfasciatum, Melich. . 341 

2. fusculum, 31elich 342 

8. Sariuia, Melich 342 

1. illibata, Melich 343 

2. elongata, Melich 343 

3. cretata, Dist 344 

9. Givaka, Dist 344 

1. hampsoni. Dist 345 

10. Vishnuloka, Dist 345 

1. promiiiLila, Dist 345 

2. cuneata, Dist 346 

11. Iladha, Melich 346 

1. acuminata, Melich. . . 347 

12. Devagama, Dist 347 

1. rana, Dist 348 

2. venosa, Dist 348 

13. Narayana, Dist 349 

1. rusticitatis, Dist 349 

2. sellata, Melich 350 



SYSTEMATIC IjS'DEX. 



Page 

3. piceipeuni.'^, Dist 350 

4. uiubrosa, Disf 350 

14. Samantiga, Dist 351 

1. abdominalis, Z)/*/ 351 

15. Sivaloka, Dist 3.52 

1. limacodes, Dist 35:2 

•2. bipai'tita, Di'it 353 

IG. Sudasina, Dist 353 

1 . testudo, Dist 353 

17. Lusaiida, Stal 354 

1. fissioeps, Stal 354 

18. Tonga, Kirk 355 

1. westwoodi, Si(/)i 355 

19. FJavina, StcU . .'. 35(i 

1. srranulata. StcJl 357 

■2. striata, Dist 357 

20. Nilalohita, Dist 358 

1. curculioides, Dist 358 

21. Hemisphajrius, Schaum . . 359 

1. rufovarius, JJ'al/i 359 

2. testaceus, Dist 360 

3. virescens, Dist 360 

4. secundus, Melich 360 

5. scliaumi, StSJ 361 

6. nilgiriensis, Dist 361 

7. reticulatus, Dist 361 

8. eloDgatus, Dist 362 

9. bipustulatus, Walk. . . 362 

10. dubius, Bull 362 

11. herbaceus, Kirbi/ . . . , 363 

12. venosus, Dist 363 

22. Hemispba3roid(;s, Melich. . 364 

1. aBEeouiger, Melich. . . 364 

2. liueatus, Melich 364 

23. Pterilia, Strll_ 365 

1. ceylouensis, Stal .... 365 

2. signata, Dist 366 

3. piceata, Dist 366 

24. Pterygoma, Melich 366 

1. nasuta, Melicli , 366 

25. Gen.P 

1. pectiuipennis, Gucr. . . 367 

26. Egropa, Melich 3(i8 

1. inusta, Melich 368 

Subfam. 10. Ricaniina- 369 

Div. 1. Ricauiiuaria 369 

1. I'ocbazia, Amy. S) Sen:. . 370 

1. inteirupta, JValk 370 

2. confiisa, Dist 371 

3. angulata, Kirhij 372 

4. fuscata, Fahr 372 

5. striata, Kirhy 374 

6. guttii'era, Walk 374 



Page 

7. atkinsoiii, Dist 374 

8. triaugularis, Dist 375 

2. Ricania, Germ 375 

1. feuestrata, Fabr 376 

2. marginalis. Wall: 376 

3. speculum, Walk 377 

4. miteseens, Dist 377 

5. siimilans, Walk 378 

6. bicolorata, Dist 378 

7. zebra, Dist 379 

8. stupida, Walk 379 

9. stigma, Walk 380 

10. pulverosa, Stal 380 

11. distincta, Melich 381 

12. apieali-s Walk 381 

13. spoliata, Melich 382 

14. fumosa, Walk 382 

3. Ricanoptera, Melich 382 

1. iuculta, Melich 383 

2. mellerborsi, StSl .... 383 

3. polita, Melich 384 

4. opaca, Dist 384 

4. Euricania, Melich 385 

1. ocellus, Walk 385 

5. Privesa, Stal 386 

1. delecta, Melich 386 

2. coniinis, Dist 386 

Div. 2. X g o d i u i a r i a . . . . 387 

1. Detya, Dist 387 

1. fuscoiiebulosa, Dist. . . 388 

2. Varcia, StM 389 

1. hemerobii. Walk 389 

2. iireeni, Kirbi/ 390 

3. kaudviaua, Dist 390 

4. similata, Melich 391 

3. Pisacha, Dist 391 

1. naa-a, Dist 392 

4. Pucina, StPd 392 

1. pellucida, Guer 393 

5. Gsetulia, Stal 394 

1. nigrovenosa. Melich. . . 394 

6. Gen. Y 

1. promiuens, Walk 395 

7. Lasonia, Melicli 395 

1. liirkaldyi, Melich 396 

Subfam. 11. Flatin(e 397 

Div. 1. Phromniaria 397 

1. Phromnia, StSl 398 

1. margiuella, Oliv 398 

2. tricolor, White 399 

3. rubicunda, Dist 400 



SrSTEilATIC INDEX. 



4. flaccida, ll'a/k 4(J0 

0. inoutiAaga, Dist 401 

6. viridula, Atkins 401 

7. inornata, If '"Ik 402 

8. deltotensis, Xirbi/ .... 402 

9. intacta, Walk. [ 402 

2. Anggiva, Dist 403 

1. typica, Dist 403 

3. Dauavara, Dist 404 

1. teunentina, ll'nik 404 

2. latipennis, Kirhy .... 405 

4. Chatuibuja, Dist 405 

1. comma, Walk. ..... 400 

5. Lecbasa, Stdl 407 

1. dentifrous, Gui'r 407 

Div. 2. C erj'iiiari a 407 

1. Cerynia, StSl 408 

1. maria, White 408 

2. Copsyrua, StSl 409 

1. maculata, Guer 410 

3. Hansenia, Kirk 411 

1. glauca, Kirhij 411 

4. Bytliopsyrna, Melich 412 

1. circulata, Guir 412 

Div. 3. Flataria 413 

1. Phvllyphanta, Amy. S; 

Serv 414 

1 . andamanensis, Z><s^. .. 414 

2. albopimctata, Kirbij . . 415 

3. sinensis, Walk 415 

4. angulifera, Walk 416 

2. Pulastya, List 417 

1. acutipenuis, Kirhy . . . . 417 

3. Salnruis, Stal 418 

1. margiuellus, Gitei: . . 418 

2. uniformis, Dist 419 

4. Pulaba, Dist 419 

1. contracta, Dist 419 

5. Lawaua, Dist 420 

1. conspersa, IValk 420 

2. radiata, Dist 421 

3. bicarinata, Dist 421 

G. Scarpantina, Melich 422 

1. bimaculata, Dist 422 

2. modesta, Dist 423 

7. Colobestbes, Amy. i>) Serv. 423 

1. faleata, Guer 424 

8. Daksha, Dist 425 

1. marginata, Walk 425 

9. Satapa, Dist 426 

1. sicula, Dist 426 

2. granulosa, Dist . 427 



Paee 

10. Flata, Fahr 427 

1 . ocellata, Fabr 428 

2. feiTugata, Fabr 429 

Div. 4. Nephesaria 429 

1. Melicbaria, Kirk 430 

1. quadrata, Kirhy 431 

2. lutescens, Walk 431 

3. lactitera, Walk 432 

2. Hilavrita, Dist 432 

1. trimaculata. Dist 433 

2. fatua, Melich 433 

3. Xepbesa, Amy. S; Serv. . . 434 

1. coromandelica, Spin. . . 434 

4. Crvptoflata, 3Ielich 435 

l.Vultularis, Walk 435 

5. Nakta, Dist 436 

1. stoliczkana, Dist 436 

6. Unnata, Dist 437 

1. intracta, Walk 437 

7. Tejasa, Dist 438 

1. umbrata, Dist 438 

8. Ory.xa, Melich 43!) 

1. truncata, Linn 439 

Div. 5. Selizaria 440 

1. Seliza, Stc°l 440 

1. vidua, Stal 441 

2. feiTLiginea, Walk 441 

3. partita, Melich 442 

4. truncata, TJ'alk 442 

5. nigropunctata, Kirhi/ .' 443 

2. Gomeda, Dist * . . 443 

1. abdominalis, Kirby . . 444 

3. Farona, Melich 444 

1. fuscipehnis, Melich. . . 445 

4. Ketu.nala, Dist 446 

1. bisecta, Kirhy 446 

5. Anaya, Dist 447 

1. mesochlora. Walk. . . 447 

2. spectra, Dist 448 

6. Gen.? 

1. ambrosa, Melich 448 

2. albicosta, Melich 448 

3. proxima, Melich 449 

Div. 6. Flatoidesaria 449 

1. Atracis, Stal 450 

1. indica, Walk 450 

2. munita, Melich 451 

3. emersoiiiana, Walk. . . 451 

4. nietueri, Stal 452 

5. consaugainea, Dist. . . 453 

6. erosipenuis, Stdl .... 453 

7. moelleri, Dist 454 



SYSTEMATIC I^DEX. 



Pase 

8. pei'])lexa, Walk 455 

9. liimalaviiua, Disf 455 

10. cretacea, Disf 456 

11. fimbria, TValk 457 

12. insularis, JDist 458 

13. conspurcata, Melich. . . 458 

14. iusurgens, Melicii .... 458 
•2. Flatoides, Guer 459 

1. servus, Mclicli 459 

0. Gaja, Dist 460 

1. definitiva, Dist 460 

2. inconspicua, Kirbij . . . . 461 

0. facialis; i'/'^;^. ." 402 

4. subtilis, Melich 462 

4. Bocliara, Dist 463 

1. parva, Kirhy 463 

2. iiebulosa, Dist 464 

5. Gen. ? 

1. lyncea, Fahr 464 

Subfam. 12. Delphacince .... 465 

1. Parauda, Melich 466 

1. globiceps, Melich. . . . 466 

2. Pimdaluoya, Kirk 4(57 

1. ernesti, Kirby 467 

2. simplex, Kirby 468 

3. simplicia, Dist 468 

3. Upacbara, Dist 469 

1. stigma, Dist 469 

4. Purohita, Dist 470 

1. cervina, Dist 470 

5. Sogata, Dist 471 

1. dobertvi, Dist 471 

6. Toya, Dist 472 

1. atteauata, Dist 472 



Page 

7. Kilaparvata, Dist 473 

1. greeui, Dist 473 

S. Kalpa, Dist 474 

1. aculeata, Dist 474 

9. Sardia, Melich 475 

1. rostrata, Melich 475 

10. Orchesma, Melich 476 

1. marginepunctata, Me- 
lich , 477 

2. sereudiba, Melich 477 

11. Smara, Dist 478 

1. festiva, Dist 478 

2. atrata, Dist 479 

12. Dicranotropis, Fieh 479 

1. nigTopunctatuSjJ/oiJsc/i. 480 

13. Liburnia, Stal 480 

1. fumipennis, Melich. . . 481 

2. veiiosa, Motsch 481 

3. minutula, Melich 482 

4. alboguttata, Melich. . . 482 

5. albicollis, Motsch 483 

6. frontalis, Alelich 484 

7. psylloides, Leth 484 

8. unistrigosa, Motsch. . . 485 

9. sordescens, 3Iotsch. . . 486 

10. pallidula, Melich 486 

11. Havida, Melich 487 

12. albomarginata, Melich. 487 

13. f urcifera, Horv 487 

14. marginalis, Motsch. . . 488 

15. coloratus, Motsch 488 

14. Mestus, Motsch 489 

1. morio, Motsch 489 

2. testaceus, 3Iotsch 490 

15. Eodelpbax, Kirk 490 

1. serendiba, Kirk 491 



Page 70. 

., 90, 

., 108. 

., 112. 

., 115. 

:, lis. 

., 128. 

„ 167. 

„ 171. 

., 188. 
222. 

." 243.' 

, 279. 



ERRATA. 

Line 9 from top for " t. xi." read " t. ii." 
124 & 131. Date of J. A. S. B. liii is 1885. 
Line 16 from bottom for •' ganameda," read gamameda." 
„ 3 " - - - 

„ 20 

„ 16 

„ 19 

„ 18 



for "xiv," read " xv." 

for "xiv," read " xv." 

for " V," read "vi." 

for " ransonetti," read ransonneti.' 

for "( 1864)," read"(IS34)." 
18 & 20 from bottom for "(1825)," read "(1857)." 
7 from top for "Ivii," read " Tii." 
4 ., bottom for " 324," read " 683." 
13 „ „ for " 13," read " 134." 

26 „ „ for "xi," read "ii." 



top 



Order RHYNCHOTA. 

Suborder HETEROPTERA. 

Family ANTHOCORIDiE. 

This family comprises a number of small insects, and is allied to 
the Capsidge, from which it may be at once separated by the 
structure of the hemelytra, which contain an embolium. 

Very little is still known as regards the species of British 
India. Dr. Eeuter, who published a monograph of the family 
in 1884, included only two species from our fauna with which he 
was acquainted, though he referred to two others described by 
Motschulsky and three by Fieber, which he had not seen. Of 
these latter five little-understood species, four are now figured in 
the following pages. AValker described three species : of these 
one belongs to the family Lygseidse, and the other two represent 
one species. 

In framing the synopsis of the following genera I have adhered 
to Eeuter's classification in subfamilies ; if I have not followed his 
other divisional characters, it is for the reason that my available 
material is insufficient either in quantity or condition to discriminate 
the smaller characters on which he relies. Besides which, this 
series of volumes is intended for the use of Indian naturalists 
rather than to serve the purposes of a universal monograph. 

Sy7io2^sis of Subfamilies. 

A. Eostrum three- jointed ; tarsi with two or three 

joints Anthocorince. 

B. Eostrum four-jointed ; tarsi with two joints . . Microphysina;. 

Subfamily I. ANTHOCOEIN^. 

Anthocorina, Rent. Act. Soc. Set. Fenii. xiv, pp. 557, 558 (1885). 

For the discrimination of this subfamily I rely chiefly on 
Eeuter's first-mentioned character, viz. the three-jointed rostrum. 
As regards the tarsi, I recognize both those with two and three 
joints, and not only those with three joints as restricted in his 
diagnosis by Eeuter. 

YOL. III. B 



ANinOCOBlD.!:. 



Si/nopsis of Genera. 

A Antennse wboUy, or with the apical joints, 
longly pilose or setose. 

a. Anterior femora broadly thickened, spinose 

beneath ■' •. Ostokodias, p. 2. 

b. Anterior femora not prominently iucrassated. 
«. Head Ion"- and slender, longer than breadth 

including eyes Arnulphus, p. 3. 

6. Head about as long as breadth including 

eyes. 

«'. Body above more or less longly pilose 

or setose. 

n^. Anterior margin of pronotum about 

half the width of posterior margin ; 

lateral margins of corium a little 

convex Amphiareus, p. 4. 

P. Anterior margin of pronotum about 
one-third the width of posterior 
margin ; lateral margins of corium 

concavely sinuate Lippomanus, p. 5. 

b'. Body above neither prominently pilose 

nor setose Euspud^us, p. 5. 

B. Antenufe neither pilose nor setose. 

a. Anterior and posterior femora strongly in- 

crassate and spinose beneath Sesellius, p. 6. 

b. Anterior femora, only, thickened and spinose [p. 7. 

beneath ' Odontobrachys, 

c. Femora neither thickened nor spinose Triphleps, p. 8. 



Genus OSTORODIAS. 

Ostorodias, Dist A. M. N. H. (7) xiv, p. 219 (1904). 

Type, 0. contuhernalis, Dist. 

Distribution. N.W. Himalayas. 

Elongate, subdepressed ; head broad, not columnar, about as 
broad (including eyes) as long ; antennae four-jointed, first joint 
moderately thickened, not reaching apex of head, second joint 
thickened, about as long as head, third and fourth sliorter, sub- 
equal in length and longly setose ; rostrum robust, three-jointed, 
first joint not quite reaching base of head, second joint about 
as long as first, but more slender, third joint short, about reaching 
anterior coxae ; eyes subprominent ; pronotum with a narrow 
obsolete anterior collar and a raised central longitudinal carination, 
on each side of which the surface is laterally deflected and dis- 
tinctly foveate, anterior mai'gin about half the width of posterior 
margin, which is concavely sinuate ; scutellum long, subtriangular 
with two profound basal foveas at base ; corium with the margins 
Bubparallel, the cuneus large and semicircular; membrane with 
four subparallel veins ; tarsi apparently three-jointed, as can be 
seen from three indifferent specimens ; anterior femora broadly 
thickened, spinose beneath. 



ARNULPHUS. 



1472. Ostorodias contuberiialis, Bist. A. M. N. H. (7) xiv, p. 219 
(ino4). 

Black ; coriuai sordidly strami- 
neous, cuneus pale piceous, mem- 
brane smoky hyaline ; apices o£ 
femora and the whole of the tibiae 
and tarsi dull stramineous ; head 
and pi'ouotum obscurely punctate, 
the latter faintly transversely stri- 
gose ; scutellum obscurely punctate ; 
hemelytra finely tomentose ; other 
structural characters as in generic 
diagnosis. 

Length 3^ millim. 

Hah. N.W. Himalayas {E. P. 
Stehhing, Brit. Mus.). 

In galleries of the beetle Poli/- 
grajihus sp. in spruce-fir (Stebbing). 




Fig. 1. 
Ostorodias contubernalis. 



Genus ARNULPHUS. 
Arniilphus, Dist. A. M. N. II. (7) xiv, p. i'20 (1904). 

Type, A. aterrhav.s, Dist. 

Distribution. Burma. 

Elongate, subdepressed ; head somewhat long and slender, 
longer than breadth including eyes ; rostrum three-jointed, first 

and second joints incrassate, first short, 
second much the longest, third slender, 
about reaching the anterior coxae ; an- 
tennae four- jointed, finely hirsute, first 
joint shortest, second, third, and fourth 
joints almost subequal in length ; pro- 
notum with a wide anterior collar, 
before which it is also medially con- 
stricted, anterior about half the breadth 
of posterior margin, which is strongly 
concavely sinuate ; scutellum mode- 
rately gibbous at base ; membrane with 
three (perhaps four) longitudinal veins ; 
femora moderately incrassated ; tarsi 
two-jointed ; cuneus somewhat large 
and prominent. 

1473. Arnulphus aterrimus, Dist. A. 

, , ^'S- 2. M. N. II. (7) xiv, p. 220 (1904). 

Arnuljjhus aterrimus. 

Shining black ; corium brownish- 
ochraceous, the cuneus black ; legs, antennae, and lateral margins 

b2 




4 ANa?HOCOEID.i:. 

of corium finely hirsute ; head, pronotum, and scutellum glabrous ; 
apical area of scutellum trausverseh' strigose ; apices of the in- 
termediate and posterior tibiae aud the tarsi stramineous ; other 
structural characters as in generic diagnosis. 

Length 4 millim. 

Hob. Burma ; Karenuee. 



Genus AMPHIAREUS. 
Amphiareus, Dist. A. M. N. H. (7) xiv, p. 220 (1904). 

Type, A. fulvescens. Walk. 

Distribution. Ceylon ; Burma. 

Subelougate, setose ; head anteriorly ])roduced, columnar, about 
as long as bi'eadth including eyes ; rostrum three-jointed, first 
joint very short and thickened, second joint much the longest, 
third shorter, longer than first and reaching the anterior coxae ; 
antennae four-jointed, setose, first joint shoi't, moderately thick- 
ened, not reaching apes of head, second joint longest, moderately 
thickened, third and fourth joints short and slender, subequal in 
length ; pronotum profoundly constricted near middle, anterior 
area glabrous, posterior area punctate, anterior margin about 
half the ^ndth of posterior margin, which is concavely sinuate ; 
scutellum broad, transversely excavate at base ; hemelytra longly 
pilose, the lateral margins slightly ampliately rounded; mem- 
brane apparently with three veins ; legs slender ; tarsi two- 
jointed. 



1474. Amphiareus fulvescens, Walk. 
(Xvlncoris) Cat. Het. v, p. 160 
(1872) ; Leth. ^- Sev. (Cardiaste- 
thus?) Cat. Gen. Hem. iii, p. 250 
(1896). 
Xvlocoris fumipennis, Walk. Cat. 
'Het. v,p. 160 (1872) ; Leth. S,- Sev. 
(Cardiastethus?) Cat. Gen. Hhn. 
iii, p. 250 (1896). 

Either pale stramineous, unicolorous, 
or with the head, pronotum, and apical 
area of the corium pale testaceous- 
brown ; anterior area of the prono- 
tum glabrous, posterior area punctate ; 
membrane dull fuliginous-hyaline ; 
hemelytra finely pilose, more strongly 
so on the apical areas ; other struc- 
tural characters as detailed in generic 
diagnosis. 

Length 2i millim. 

Hah. Ceylon (Thivaites, Brit. Ifus.) ; Burma; Bhamo. 




Fig. 3. 

Amphiareus fulvescens. 



EUSPUD.EUS. O 

Genus LIPPOMANUS. 

Lii^pomanus, Dist. A. M. X. H. {7) xiv, p ■221 (1904). 

Type, L. hii'sidus, Dist. 

Distribution. Burma. 

Subelongate, depressed, hirsute ; head about as long as breadth 
including eyes ; rostrum three-jointed, reaching anterior coxae, 
first joint not quite reaching base of head, second longest ; antennae 
hirsute, with the first joint not nearly reaching apex of head, 
second longest, third and fourth more slender ; pronotum some- 
what flat, with a transverse constriction near middle, the anterior 
only about one-third the width of posterior margin, which is 
strongly concavely sinuate ; scutellum strongly constricted near 
middle ; coriura with the lateral margins somewhat strongly 
concavely sinuate on basal halves ; membrane with four longi- 
tudinal veins ; femora only moderately incrassate ; legs hirsute or 
finely spinulose ; tarsi two-jointed. 



1475. Lippomaniis hirsutus, Did. A. M. X. H. (7) xiv, p. 221 
(1901). 

Head, pronotum, and scutellum 
black ; head in front of eyes piceous- 
brown ; antennae ochraceous, the first 
joint piceous ; corium ochraceous, 
with an arched transverse medial 
fascia crossing apical area of clavus, 
and the apical area including cuneus, 
fuscous ; membrane pale fuscous, the 
inner and apical margins paler; body 
beneath piceous, lateral margins of 
abdomen, the legs, and rostrum ochra- 
ceous ; pronotum, scutellum, and clavus 
with scattered punctures ; corium in- 
distinctly and finely punctate ; pro- 
notum with a broad distinct ridge in 
front of the transverse impression ; 
scutellum transversely ridged at base, 
foveately depressed on disk ; cuneus 
ill-defined. 

Length 3 millim. 
B(ib. Burma : Karennee {Feci) ; Tenasserim : Thagata {Fea). 




Fig. 4. 
Lippomanus hirsutus. 



Genus EUSPUDJEUS. 

Euspudaeus, Rent. Act. Soc. Sci. Fenn. xiv, pp. 559 & 565 (1885). 

Type, E. funebris, Motsch. 

Distribution. Ceylon. 

Body depressed, oblong-ovate ; head (collar excepted) with eyes 



ANTHOCORID^ . 



as broad as long ; aiilennse slender, first joint passing the apex o£ 
head, second joint linear and pilose, remaining joints in type 
mutilated ; pronotum horizontal, anteriorly levigate, centrally 
longitudinally canaliculate, posteriorly with two large fovese 
medially confluent, and with a very obsolete apical annuliform 
constriction situate between the angles, laterally and basally 
sinuate ; hemelytra shining, coarsely punctate, cuneus levigate ; 
membrane provided with four distinct subparallel veins ; meta- 
sternum with a central medial carination ; posterior coxiB 
subcoutiguous. 



1476. Euspudaeus funebris, MoUch. (Antliocoris) Bull. Soc. Mosc. 

xxxvi{3)p. S8 (186.3); Beitt. (Espu- 
dfeus) Act. Soc. Sci. Fenn. xiv, p. 566 

■■ "" '' ' (1885). 

Above black, beneath pitch-black : an- 
tenna?, rostrum, apex of head, and the 
legspiceous-testaceous; hemelytra greyish- 
stramineous, bases of corium and clavus, 
margins of scutellum, claval suture, and 
apex of cuneus broadly black ; rostrum 
extending to the middle of the meso- 
sternum, first joint extending to middle 
of eyes ; antenna? with the second joint 
about three times longer than the first, 
its apex a little obscure ; scutellum with 
the apical area depressed, transversely 
strigose, basal area levigate. 

Length 4^ millim. 

Hah. Ceylon. 

By the kindness of Dr. Yngve Sjii- 
stedt, of the Stockholm Museum, I have been able to figure the 
specimen on which Dr. Eeuter founded his genus. 




Fig. 5. 
Eusimd(eu» fnnehrii 



Genus SESELLIUS. 
Sesellius, Dist. A. M N. H. (7) xiv, p. 221 (1904). 

Type, ;S^. pamZZeZ^s, Motsch. 

Distribuiion. Ceylon. 

Elongate, depressed; head a little longer than breadth between 
eyes ; rostrum three-jointed, long, passing anterior coxa? ; an- 
tenna; ^^•ith the first joint considerably thickened and not reach- 
ing apex of head, a little longer than breadth between eyes, 
which are only subprominent ; third antennal joint considerably 
shorter than second; pronotum depressed, with an obsolete 
narrow anterior collar, transversely excavate on disk, lateral 
margins moderately sinuate and narro\\ed anteriorly, posterior 
margin moderately concavely sinuate ; hemelvtra * A\-ith their 



ODOyTOBRACHYS. 7 

margins parallel ; membrane with a small basal cell and three 
veins ; anterior and posterior femora very strongly incrassated, 
and spinulose on their under surface ; tarsi three-jointed. 

Owing to the specimen described being in a carded condition, 
the structure of the sternum cannot be ascertained. 




Fig. 6. 
Sesellius parallelus. 



1477. Sesellius parallelus, 3Iotsch. (An- 
tliocoris) BkII. Soc. Mosc. xxxvi 
(3) p. 89 (1863) ; Reut. Act. Soc. 
Sci. Fenn. xiv, p. 717. 

Shining, piceous or piceoiis-black ; 
rostrum, tibiae, tarsi, and basal area of 
corium stramineous ; membrane shining 
stramineous on basal, greenish-fuscous 
on posterior area ; pronotum more or 
less transversely strigose, corium very 
fiuely and palely pilose ; other struc- 
tural characters as in generic diagnosis. 

Length 2.| millim. 

Hah. Ceylon {Lewis). 



Genus ODONTOBRACHYS. 

Odontobrachvs, Fieb. Wien. ent. Monafschr. iv, p, 261 (1860) : Eur. 
Hem. p. 38 (1861). 

Type, 0. niger, Eieb. 
Distribution. British India. 

Wings provided with a hamus in the cell. Pronotum without 
an anterior constriction ; rostrum short, reaching the mesosternum, 
apparently three-jointed, first joint occupying a third part of the 
length of head ; antennae tliick, cylindrical ; 
pronotum trapeziform, laterally curved ; 
anterior femora broad, beneath medially 
provided with a small tooth, and between 
this and apex denticulate, posterior femora 
not anteriorly denticulate ; hemelytra 
coriaceous ; membrane apparently with- 
out veins ; tarsi subclavateaud apparently 
two -jointed. 

147S. Odontobrachys niger, Fieb. Wien. 
ent. MonatscJir. iv, p. 270, pi. vi. 
fig. L (1860). 

Fig. 7. Piceous-black, shining ; antennae, ante- 

Odontohrachi/s niger. rior tibiae, and all the tarsi flavous, poste- 
rior tibiae piceous ; abdomen beneath 
moderately punctate ; hemelytra flavo-fuscous, margins blackish- 




8 ANTHOCOEID^. 

fuscous ; membrane fusco-flavous ; rostrum flavous, first joint and 
base of second joint fuscous. 

Length 2^ millira. 

Hah. "India." 

By the kindness of M. Joanny Martin, Fieber's type is here 

figured. 

Genus TRIPHLEPS. 

Tripbleps, Fieb. Winu ent. Monatschr. iv, p. 266, pi. vi, fig. P (1860) ; 
id Eur. Hem. pp. 39 & 140 (1861) ; Rent. Act. Sue. Sci Fenn. 
xiV, pp. 611 & 643 (1885). 

Type, T. Icevujatus, Fieb., a Palaearctic species. 

Distribution. Apparently almost universal. 

Body ovate or oblongly ovate, somewhat shortly and slightly 
pubescent ; prouotum without or with a very obsolete anterior 
constriction or collar ; rostrum not passing the anterior coxse ; 
metasternum between coxae broadly rounded ; membrane with 
three veins ; antennae short, second joint not longer than breadth 
of head between eves. 



1479. Triphleps tantilus, Motsch. (Anthocoris) Btdl. Soc. Mosc. 
xxxvi (3) p. 89 (1863) ; Reid. Act. Soc. Sci. Fenn. xiv, p. 718 
(1885). 
Triphleps indicus, Rent. Act. Soc, Sci. Fenn. xiv, pp. 645 & 655 

(1885). 

Piceous-black ; corium and legs stramineous ; antenna? strami- 
neous, basal joint usually more or less stramineous ; cuneus and 
inner angle of corium sometimes very palely 
fuscous ; membrane pale subhyaline ; abdomen 
beneath brownish-testaceous ; head between 
eyes slightly broader than long ; first joint of 
antennae not reaching apex of head, second joint 
not longer than breadth between eyes; pronotum 
punctate, granulately punctate on posterior area, 
with a very obsolete narrow collar at anterior 
margin, which is less than one-half the breadth 
of posterior margin, which is strongly concavely 
sinuate ; apical area of scutellum transversely 
pj„ 8 strigose ; corium coarsely punctate, the cuneus 

Triphlejx tantilus. almost levigate ; rostrum reaching the anterior 
coxae. 

Length 1| to 2 millim. 

Hab. l^en^aX {Copenhagen Mus.). Ceylon; Puudaluoya ((?ree}i). 

Dr. Meinert very kindly forwarded me the type of Renter's 
species for comparison. 




PACHYTAESUS. 9 

Subfamily 11. MICROPHYSIN^. 

Micropliysina, Rent. Act. Soc, Set. Fenn. xiv, pp. 658 & 723 (1885). 

I recognize this subfamily by the characters of a four-jointed 
rostrum and two-jointed tarsi. 

One geuus alone can now be enumerated, and that with some 
hesitation, as the condition of the type of Pachytarsus, Fieb., kindly 
forwarded to me from the Paris Museum for examination, was 
somewhat imperfect in respect to the characters relied on for the 
subfamily. 

Genus PACHYTARSUS. 

Pachytarsus, Fieb. Wien. ent. Monatschr. iv, p. 262 (1860) ; id. 
Eur. Hem. p. 37 (1861); Rent. Act. Soc. Sci. Fenn. xiv, p. 757 
(1885). 

Type, P. crassicornis, Pieb. 

Distribution. British India. 

Wings provided with a hamus in the cell. Pronotum with an 
anterior annuliform transverse stricture ; tarsi robust, short ; 
rostrum reaching the apex of the prosternum, four-jointed, first 
joint short ; antennae with the third and fourth joints distinctly 
thickened ; mesosternum convex, anteriorly between coxae acutely 
prolonged, posteinorly narrowed, rounded and impressed, nearly 
bilobate ; metasternum nearly semilunar, margin convex ; embolium 
narrow; membrane with three veins equally distant from one 
another ; tarsi apparently two-jointed, but type specimens not in 
sufficiently good condition for exact determination. 

1480. Pachytarsus crassicornis, Fieb. Wien. ent. Monatschr. iv. 
p. 269, pi. vi, t]g. E (1860). 

Piceous-black ; hemelytra sordidy fla- 
voiis, behind embolium to interior angle 
of corium fuscous ; membrane unicolorous, 
fusco-fuliginous ; antennae piceous, mode- 
rately setose, apex of last joint whitish ; 
rostrum fuscous, apex of second joint 
and the whole of third joint flavescent ; 
femora and tibiae fuscous ; tarsi some- 
times, apices of anterior femora and the 
anterior tibiae flavous. 

Length 2^ millim. 

Hah. " India orientalis.'' 

I am greatly indebted to M. Joanny 
Martin, of the Paris Museum, for the 
pjg g opportunity of figuring the type of this 

Pachytarsus crasdcornis. species. 




10 ANTHOCORID-^. 

Geuus CYRTOSTERNUM. 

CjTtosternum, Fieb. Wien. ent. Mo?iatsc/u: iv, p. 265 (1860) ; id. 
Eur. Rem. p. 39 (1861). 

Type, C.jlavicorne, Fieb. 

DistrUmtion . Oriental Region, 

Mesopeetus arched posteriorly and sloping off, deeply indented 
behind ; raeta]3ectus short, broad, heart-shaped ; arched with a 
marginal ridge; pronotum broadly trapeziform, broadly concave 
behind, lateral margin sharpened and depressed, in front some- 
what Avidened ; membrane with three nervures ; head beneath 
arched. {Fieh.) 

1481. Cyrtostermim fiavicorne, Fieh. Wien. ent. Monatschr. p. 270, 
pi. vi, fig. (1860). 

Pitchy brown, antennae, tibice, and joints of the tarsi yellowish ; 
femora brown, base and apex yellowish ; corium dirty yellow ; 
emboliura and triangle of the cuneus brown ; membrane brownish- 
yellow, (Fieb.) 

Length " f line." 

Hah. India. 

This genus and species are only known to me by the above short 
descriptions, and the proper location is therefore quite enigmatical. 
Mons. Joanny Martin, of the Paris Museum, informs me that the 
type is no longer to be found in that collection, and it is therefore 
perhaps better to regard it as lost. 



rOLYCTENID.i:. 11 



Family POLYCTENID^. 

Polyctenidse, Westtv. Thesaur. Entom. p. 197 (1874). 

The taxonomic position of this small family is almost still suh 
judice. It is founded on the genus Pohjctenes (Westw. & Giglioli, 
Quart. Journ. Microsc. Sc. iv, p. 25, 18G4), which was placed in 
the Dipterous family Nycteribiidae. Westwood subsequently, in 
founding a family for its reception supra, regarded it as represent- 
ing aberrant Anophira or Lice. Waterbouse (Trans. Ent. Soc. 1879, 
p. 309) considered its affinities to be with the Dipterous family 
Hippoboscidfe, but subsequently (Trans. Ent. Soc. 1880, p. 320) 
agreed with Westwood as to its inclusion with the Rhynchota. 
Sharp (Camb. Nat. Hist, vi, p. 561, 1899) considers that " there 
does not appear any sufficient grounds for removing these parasites 
from Hemiptera-Heteroptera '' — a view in which I concur, and 
have placed the Polyctenidse at the end of the genera composing the 
Gymnocerata. Mr. Champion, ho\\ever, has not included a 
(ruatemalan specimen described by Waterbouse in his enumeration 
of the Heteroptera of Central America. 

These insects are parasitic on Bats. Westwood's diagnosis has 
been abbreviated by Sharp as follows : — 

" Proboscis-sheath three-jointed, tarsi four- join ted, antennae 
four-jointed. Tegmina quite short, of one consistence." 

The species have been recorded from both the Eastern and 
Western Hemispheres. 

Genus POLYCTENES. 

Polvctenes, Westio. Sf Giglioli, Quart. Journ. Microsc. Sc. iv, p. 25 
(1864) ; Westw. Thesaur. Entom. p. 198 (1874). 

Type, P. molossus, Westw. & Giglioli, found on a Chinese 
species of Bat. 

Distribution. Pound in both the Eastern and AVestern Tropics 
but present knowledge very slight and imperfect. 

Antenna? four-joiut^d, a little longer than the head, first joint 
incrassated, angulated above near base and provided with long 
setae, its apical area setose, the second, third, and fourth joints 
decreasing in length, the third joint beyond base outwardly 
provided with long setae ; rostrum shorter than head, three- 
jointed, first joint a little dilated at base ; tarsi at apices sometimes 
provided with a spinulose pulvillus. 

1482. Polyctenes lyrae, Waterh. r/-.^..S'.1879,p.311, t. ix,ff. 1 & 2. 

" Uniform pale pitchy-yellow. The anterior portion of the head 
smooth and shining, with three or four stiff bristles on the margin 



12 



POLTCTENID^. 



near the posterior angles. The antennse apparently with two 
small joints at the base, the third joint very long, compressed, 
concave, or channelled on the inner side, the fourth joint about 
two-thirds the length of the third and more slender, the fifth 
joint elongate, fusiform. The anterior portion of the head below 
with five or six cultriform spines placed obliquely near the posterior 
angles. The posterior portion of the head above smooth and 




Fig. 10. — Foli/ctenes lyrcB. 

shining, with a ridge on each side of the disk ; the ridge which 
margins the sides anteriorly turns away posteriorly for The hind 
angles, and is set with stiff bristles which increase in length 
as they approach the hind angles ; the basal margin is closely set 
with short cultriform spines. This portion of the head is concave 
below, A\ith the anterior margin set with cultriform spines, the 
sides with stiff bristles which become longer posteriorly ; at the 
posterior angle there is a conical process which terminates in 
a very long stiff bristle. The prothorax above has short stiff 
hairs scattered over the surface, the basal margin has a row 
of cultriform spines which are pitchy in colour. The dorsal 
plates of the mesothorax are studded with minute hair-bearing 
tubercles. The abdomen is sculptured in the same manner. The 
prothorax is concave below on each side, so that the anterior legs 
are entirely hidden in the cavity when retracted ; the prosternum 
is elongate-ovate, with a mesial impressed line." 

Length 3*5 millim. 

Hah. Madras Presidency ; Secunderabad. 

This species was found on a Bat forwarded to the British 
Museum from the above locality. I have thought it better to 
reproduce Mr. Waterhouse's minute description. Mr. Knight 
has made original drawings from the type. 



PELOGONID.E. 13 



Family PELOGONID^. 

Pelogonida, Stal, Hem. Afr. iii, p. 170 (1865), 
IMonouycliida, Stal, torn. cit. p. 171. 
Galgulidae, Stal, Eji. Hem. v, p. 137 (1876) *. 
Pelegonidae, atite, vol. i, p. xxxvii. 

Body short and broad ;-head very broad, with prominent eyes ; 
ocelli present ; posterior legs thin, and formed for running. 

Synopsis of Subfamilies. 

A. Body oval ; rostrum long and slender ; ante- 

rior legs normal Peloijonina;. 

B. Body broadly ovate ; rostrum short ; anterior 

legs raptorial Mononychince. 

Subfamily I. PELOGONIN^. 

Body oval ; head prominently depressed anteriorly ; eyes 
reniform ; rosti'um long, slender, somewhat incrassate at base. 

Genus PELOGONUS. 

Ochtherus, Latr. Ge7i. Crust. Ins. iii, p. 142 (1807). 

Ochtheva, Beryr. Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1890, p. Ixvi t. 

Pelogonus, Latr, torn. cit. iv, p. 384 (1809) ; Burm. Handh. ii, 1, 
p. 202 (1835) ; Fieb. Gen. Hydroc. p. 14, t. 1 c (1851) ; Herr.-Sch. 
Wanz. Ins. ix, p. 23, t. 290, ff. A-F (1853) ; Stdl, Hem. Afr. iii, 
p. 170 (1865) ; ChamjJ. Biol. Centr.-Amer., Rhyn. ii, p. 344 (1900). 

Type, P. marginatns, Latr. 

Distribution. Probably distributed in all the larger zoo- 
geographical regions. 

Body moderately depressed ; head, including eyes, a little 
narrower than the anterior margin of the prouotum and ante- 
riorly truncately deflected ; rostrum reaching the posterior coxae ; 
antennae short, four-jointed, inserted beneath the eyes ; pronotum 
transverse, sexangular, the lateral margins laminately ampliated 
and moderately rounded, its basal margin before scutellum con- 
eaveiy sinuate ; scutellum broad, triangular : hemelytra totally 
covering the abdomen ; legs moderate in length and slender. 

* The generic name Galgulus, on which this family name is constructed, is 
preoccupied, and therefore Telogonus, being the oldest remaining genus, must 
be used in the formation of ihe family name. 

t Dr. Bergroth, in seeking to revive the name Ochthera, states that Ochtherus 
is only preoccupied ; whereas (cf. Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1890, p. csix) it has been 
pointed out that the reverse is tlie case, Ochthera having been used for Diptera 
(1802). Latreille himself very rightly sank the names to prevent confusion, and 
the genus is properly known as Felogonus. 



14 PELOGONIDJ,. 

Champion, who has examined many specimens of Central- 
American species, states : — " The males have the seventh ventral 
segment split down the middle, leaving the terminal genital 
segment exposed, and they are very apt to be mistaken for the 
opposite sex." 

1483. PelogonilS marginatus, Latr. (Acanthia) Hist. Ins. xii. p. 242 
(1804) ; id. (Ochtheriis) Gen. Ins. iii, p. 143 (1807) ; Aini/. ^ Sero. 
(Pelogonus) Hem. p. 409 (1843); Fieb. Eur. Hem. p. 103 
(1861) ; Sm, Hem. Afr. iii, p. 170 (1865) ; Montand. Ann. 
Mils. Civ. Gen. xxxvii, p. 365 (1897). 

Pelogonus caffer, Stdl, Ofv. Vet.-Ak. Fork. 1855, p. 46. 

relogonus iudicus, Guer. Rev. Zool. 1843, p. 113. 

Piceous-black ; apical margin of head, 
basal two joints of antennae, lateral 
and posterior margins of pronotum (the 
last variable in width), lateral spots to 
corium (of which the basal is elongate 
and the others transverse, sometimes 
obsolete), anterior margins of the ante- 
rior acetabula, legs, and sometimes small 
marginal spots to abdomen beneath, stra- 
mineous or ochraceous. 

Length 4 to 6 ; breadth 2| to 3| 
millim. 

Hah. India {fide Guerin). Burma ; 
Karennee (Fea). — Cochin - China {Coll. 
^^S 11- Distant). South Africa. Central Europe. 

Peloffonus marffinaius. rj.^^ specimen figured is a variety from 

Burma, collected by Fea and enumerated by Montandon. 



Subfamily II. MONONYCHIN^. 

Mononychinae, Montand Bull. Sac. Sci. Bucarest, vni, p. 392 (1899). 

Body broadly ovate ; head vertical, triangular ; eyes sub- 
reniform ; rostrum short, four-jointed ; anterior legs raptorial, 
their femora inerassate ; tarsi heteromerous, anterior tarsi single- 
jointed, posterior tarsi with two joints. 

Genus MONONYX. 

Monouyx, La]). Fss. Hem. p. 16 (1832) ; Amy. Sf Serv. Hem. p. 425 
(1843) ; Fieb. Gen. Hydr. p. 12 (1851) ; Stkl, Hem. Afi: iii. p. 171 
(1865) ; id. En. Hem. v, p. 138 (1876) ; 3Iontand. Bull. Soc. Sci. 
Bucarest, viii, p. 394 (1899). 

Type, M. 7-aj)toruis, Fabr., a Neotropical species. 
Distribution. jVeotropical, Australasian, and Oriental Regions. 




MOITONYX. 



15 



Hemelytra provided with a distinctly developed membrane ; 
j)ronotum at bas-e before sciitellum distinctly coucavely sinuate, 
its posterior angles rounded or obtuse; mesosterunm posteriorly 
and the metasternnm elevated, compressed, the elevation a little 
acuminate ; lateral margins of the hemelytra not sinuate and not 
completely covering the abdomen. 



1484. Mononyx serratus, Monfand. Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. xxxvii, 
p. 36o (1897) ; id. Bull. Soc. Sci. Bucarest, viii, p. 396 

(1899). 

Fuscous-brown ; lateral margins of the pronotum, femora 
(excluding apices), and a spot at base of anal segment ochraceous ; 

head strongly tuberculous, with three 
robust dentiform tubercles on an- 
terior margin ; pronotum with the 
disk gibbous, transversely impressed 
behind middle, and with fine 
longitudinal cariuations, the lateral 
margins much depressed and am- 
pliated, their margins subconvex, 
carinate and obtusely dentate ; scu- 
tellum with a distinct discal semi- 
circular ridge, its apex somewhat 
tuberculous; corium finely granulose, 
with a few scattered tubercles ; con- 
nexivum segmentally sinuate and 
subdentate. 

Length 8 to 9 ; breadth between 
pronotal angles 6 to 7 millim. 
Hah. Burma ; Karennee {Fea). 

Montandon's type, by the courtesy of Dr. Gestro, is here 
figured. 




Fiff. 12. 
Mononyx sciraiics 



1485. Mononyx indicus, Atkins. J. A. S. B. 1888, p. 345 ; 3Iontand. 
Bull. Soc. Sci. Bucarest, viii, p. 897 (1899). 

Brownish-ochraceous tinged with greyish ; head and pronotum 
irregularly tuberculate ; lateral margins of the pronotum some- 
what roundly dilated, the margins obsoletely broadly crenulate ; 
scutellum subconvex, with a somewhat large tubercle at each basal 
angle and at the apex ; corium finely granulose and with some 
small scattered tubercles ; membrane concolorous ; connexivum 
with the posterior segmental angles slightly promiuent, and, as 
described by Atkinson, sometimes black; coxae and femora yellow- 
testaceous, tibiae and tarsi darker in hue, apices of the femora and 
tibise piceous. 

Length 9 to 10 ; breadth between pronotal angles 7 millim. 

Hah. Sikhim. 

An abundant species. 



16 PELOGONID^. 

1486. Mononyx grossus, Montnnd. Bull. Soc. Sci. Bucarest, viii, p. 398 
(1899). 

Fuscous-brown, lateral margins of the pronotum and exposed 
connesivum testaceous-bro^^"n ; lateral margins of the pronotum 
ampliately dilated, somewhat rounded, its angles subconvex and 
projecting beyond the base of the corium, a strong transverse 
impression near base, two longitudinal ridges connected ^^ith an 
anterior transverse ridge, and two small foveations on disk ; two 
discal tuberculous callosities between eyes ; scutellum a little raised, 
granulose, with a longitudinal foveation on each lateral area : 
corium distinctly convexly ampliated near base, after which it is 
obliquely and almost straightly narrowed to apex, finely granulose 
along the veins. 

This species may be at once recognized and differentiated from 
the two previously described by its greater width, the ampliated 
margins of tlie pronotum, the convexly ampliated basal margins of 
the corium, different discal structure of the pronotum, &c. 

Length 11 to 12 ; gi-eatest breadth 8 to 8^ millim. 

Hah. Assam; Noa Dihing {Chennell). — Tibet; Mou-pin 
{A. David.). 



:n^epid-1e. 17 



Family NEPID^. 

Nepida, Stal, Hem. Afr. iii, p. 185 (1865). 

Body oblong or elongate ; lieacl small, moderately prominently 
produced before eyes ; rostrum short, three-jointed ; antennae 
short, three-jointed, inserted under the eyes ; hemelytra more or 
less complete ; abdomen Mith apical long filiform appendages ; 
legs sometimes very long, anterior legs raptorial ; tarsi consisting 
oi a single joint. 

The jNepidse are widely and generally distributed, and are 
popularly known as " water-scorpions." 



Si/)iopsis of Genera. 

A. Body oblong, or elongately subovate ; pro- 

notum about as long- or a little shorter than 
broad, its anterior margin about twice as 
broad as bead Laccotbephes, p. 17. 

B. Body very long and narrow; pronotum slender, 

very much longer than broad ; bead, in- 
cluding eyes, broader than anterior pronotal 
margin. 

a. Anterior femora about as long as pro- 

notum ; coxae very long .... = .,. Raxatea, p. 19. 

b. Anterior femora considerably shorter than 

pronotum ; coxae somewhat short Cercotmetus, p. 23. 



Genus LACCOTREPHES. 

Laccotrephes, Stdl, Hem. Afr. iii, p. 186 (1865) ; id. Hem. Fahr. i, 

p. 134 (1868). 
Nepa (part.), Ferrari, Ann. Hofmus. Wien, iii, pp. 162 &; 163 (1888). 

Type, L. fabricii, Stal, an Ethiopian species. 

Distribution. Ethiopian, Oriental, and Australasian Eegions. 
Also found in China and Japan. 

Body oblong or elongately subovate ; pronotum about as long 
as broad, sometimes a little shorter than broad, a little sinuately 
narrowed anteriorly, where it is about twice as broad as head and 
behind which it is profoundly concavely sinuate, its base in front 
of scutellum also strongly concavely sinuate, transversely con- 
stricted behind middle, between which and anterior margin are two 
discal longitudinal rugosities; scutellum slightly longer than broad; 
membrane complete, reticulately veined ; legs of moderate length, 
anterior femora incrassate and beneath longitudinally sulcate, the 
anterior tibiae a little shorter than the femora. 

The species of this genus appear to have a wide distribution, and 

YOL. III. C 



18 



NEPIDjE, 



are subject to considerable variation in colour and minor struc- 
tural characters. Ferrari subjected tlie genus to a rigorous 
revision, and proposed the recognition of many distinct species, 
which I at least, and Montandon also, have been unable to 
differentiate. Considei'able value has been placed on the ab- 
dominal appendages for tlie differentiation of species, but these 
are of a very fragile character and seldom complete in Museum 
specimens, A good superficial differential character appears to 
exist in the colour of the upper surface of the abdomen, and 
this taken in a broad and not too narrow sense is undeniably 
helpful. 

With a considerable number of specimens passing through my 
hands, including Montandon's cotypes and identified species, I 
cannot recognize more than three species as found in British 
India. Their size, combined with the colour of the abdomen 
above, apart from other structural characters, renders their 
separation a matter of little difficulty. 



148' 



Laccotrephes robustus, Stdl, Ofv. Vet.- Ak. Fork. 1870, p. 706: 
Ferrari (Nepa), Ann. Jiofmus. Wien, iii, p. 182 (1888) ; 3Ion- 
tand. Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. xxxvii, p. 376 (1897). 

Tar. pfeiferiae, Ferrari (Nepa), Ann. 
Hofmus. Wien, iii, p. 187 (1888) ; 
Montand. Ann. 3Ins. Civ. Gen. 
xxxvii, p. 376 (1897). 

Tuscous or piceous ; abdomen 
above sanguineous or subsangui- 
neous, its apex fuscous ; femora 
very obscurely palely annulate ; 
wings vitreous, with a slightly bluish 
tinge ; abdominal appendages about 
equal in length to, or a little longer 
than, the body ; hemelytra sub- 
parallel. 

Length 36 to 44 ; breadth between 
post, pronotal angles 12 to 12^ 
millim. 

Hah. Naga ' Hills {Chennell). 
Burma ; Karennee (Feci). — Siamese 
Malay States (Skeat Exped.). Perak 
{colJ. Dist.). Philippines {Semper). 
Fig. 13. — Laccotrephes rohus/ns. 




1488. Laccotrephes ruber, Linn. (Nepa) 3his. Lud. Ulr. p. 165. 2 
(1764) ; Mayr, lieise Nov., Hem.j,. 188 (1866) : &tal (Lacco- 
trephes), ILejn. Fahr. i, p. 135 (1868) ; Montand. A^in. Mus. 
Civ. Gen. xxxvii, p. 376 (1897). 

Nepa giossa, Fahr. Ent. Syst. iv, p. 62. 5 (1794) : Ferrari, Ann, 
Hofmus. Wien, iii. p. 177 (1888). 

Nepa flavoveuosa, Dohrn, Stett. ent. Zeit. xxi, p. 409 (1860) ; 



EANATKA. 19 

Ferrari, Ann. Hofimis. Wien, iii, p. 184 (1888) ; IJist. (Lacco- 

trephes) A. M. N. H. (7) xiv, p. G3 (1904). 
Laccotrephes japoiiensis, Scott, A. M. N. H. (4) xiv, p. 450 

(1874) ; Ferrari (Nepa), Aim. Hofmus. Wien, iii, p. 175 

(1888). 
Nepa eusoma, kohlii, deutata, Ferrari, Ann. Hofmus. Wie^i, iii, 

pp. 179, 180, 183 (1888). 
PNepa dubia, Ferrari, Ann. Hofmus. Wien, iii, p. 181 (1888). 

A smaller and narrower species than L. rohustus, in colour 
generally fuscous, sometimes piceous ; abdomen above reddish- 
ochraceous, usually with a central longitudiual fuliginous fascia, 
the apex brownish-ochraceous, sometimes, but rarely, with the 
whole disk suffused with fuliginous ; wings vitreous ; abdominal 
appendages a little longer than the body ; hemelytra subparallel. 

Length 30 to 35 ; breadth between post, pronotal angles 7 to 
9 niillim. 

Bab. Sind (Vienna Mus.). Kashmir (Fliirjel). Naga Hills 
(Doherti/). N. Khasi Kills (Chennell). Kangra Valley {Dudgeon), 
Bombay (Dixon). Calcutta. Ceylon {Lewis). Burma ; Bhamo 
{Fea). — China {Vienna Mus.). Formosa (Brit. Mus.). Japan 
{Leivis). 

1489. Laccotrephes maculatus, Fabr. (Nepa) Syst. Ent. p. 602, 5 
(1775); StSl (Laccotrephes), Hem. Fabr. i, p. 135 (1868); 
Ferrari (Nepa), Ann. Hofmus. Wien, iii, p. 187 (1888) ; 
Montand. Ami. Mus. Civ. Gen. xxxvii, p. 377 (1897). 
Nepa griseus, Guer. Iconoqr. Reyne Anim., Ins. p. 352, pi, Ivii, 
tio-. 7 (1829-1838) ; Ferrari, Ann. Hofmus. Wien, iii. p. 185 
(1888) ; Montand. (Laccotrephes) Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. xxxvii, 
p. 377 (1897). 

Fuscous or griseous, pubescent ; abdomen above fuscous or 
fuscous-brown, its apex paler, somewhat griseous; femora (except 
in griseous varieties) with obscui'e fuscous shadings ; wings 
vitreous, with a distinct bluish tinge ; abdominal appendages a 
little longer than the body ; hemelytra slightly ampliated. 

Length 15 to 20 ; breadth between post, pronotal angles 4| to 
5 millim. 

Hah. Bengal {Vienna Mus.). Assam {Chennell). Calcutta 
Tanks {Ind. 3Ius.). Bombay (Leith 4' Dixon). Ceylon ; Colombo 
{Leivis). Burma; Teiuzo, Ivarennee {Fea). — Borneo {Vienna 
Mus.). 



Genus RANATRA. 

Ranatra, Fabr. Si/st. Hki/n;/. p. 108 (1803) ; StSl, Hem. Afr. iii, 
p. 189 (1865) ; Mayr, Reise Nov., Hem. p. 189 (1866). 

Type, R. Jiliformis, Fabr. 
Distribution. Almost universal. 

Body very long and narrow" ; head including eyes broader than 
anterior margin of prouotum ; eyes very prominent ; prouotum 

c2 



20 



UEPID.5:. 



elongate, the posterior area Midened and elevated, its base pro- 
foundly sinuate ; hemelytra complete, membrane reticulately 
veined ; legs slender, anterior legs a little incrassate ; anterior 
coxae long, longly extended beyond the apex of the head ; anterior 
femora beyond middle armed with one or two spines, and more 
than twice as long as the tibiae ; abdominal appendages usually 
ong. 

De la Torre Bueno (Canad. Entomol. xxxv, pp. 235-237) has 
recorded the stridulating properties of an American species of 
this genus (R. quadridentata, Stal), and states that the sound is 
produced by both adults and nymphs. 



1490. Eanatra elongata. Fabr. Skrivt. af Naturh. Selsk. I, i, p. 228, 
2 (1790) ; id. Ent. Syst. iv, p. 65. 3 (1794) ; Mat/r, Reise Nov., 
Hem. p. 191, tab. v. fig-. 58 (1866) ; Stal, Hem. Fabr. i, p. 136 
(1868). 

Griseous ; anterior area of the pronotum and head very palely 
castaneous ; posterior area of sternum, abdomen, and legs ochra- 
ceous ; posterior tibije and tarsi infuscate ; anterior area of 




Fig. 14. — Eanatra elongata. 

pronotum with an obscure fuscous centi*al linear fascia ; abdomen 
above fuscous, its lateral margins pale ochraceous ; metasternum 
with a subtriangular process which is centrally longitudinally 
foveately sulcate ; abdominal appendages longer than the body. 



EANATEA. 21 

Length excl. abdom. append. 41 to 45 ; length abdom. append, 
about 47 millim. 

Hah. Kashmir {Vienna Miis.). Calcutta {Ind. Miis.). Bombay 
{Leitli 6,- Dixon). Nilgiri Hills {Hampson). 



1491. Ranatra chinensis, Mm/r, Verh. z.-b.Ges. Wien, xv,p. 446 (1865) ; 

id. Beise JS'oi:, Hem. p. 191, tab. v, fig. 59 (1866) ; Kirk. Sr 
Montand. Entomoloqisti 1901, p. 51 ; Montand. Bull. Soc. Sci. 
Bticarest, xii, p. 102 (1903). 

Ranatra valida, Stal, Hem. Fabr. \, p. 136 (1868). 

Ranatra pallidenotata, Scott, A. M. N. H. (4) xiv, p. 451 (1874). 

Allied to R. elongata, but darker in hue ; hemelytra and poste- 
rior tibiae and tarsi fuscous ; abdomen above black, connexivum 
ochraceous ; anterior area of pronotum broader and shorter ; 
metasternum with a subtriaugular process, not foveately sulcate as 
in R. elongata, but with a distinct central linear carinate elevation. 

Length body excl. abdom. append. 39 to 46 ; length abdom. 
append, about 43 millim. 

Hah. Burma; ^■axQxwieQ {Fea,fide Montandon). China. Japan 
{Lewis). 

1492. Ranatra feana, Montand. Bull. Soc. Ent. Ital. xxxv, p. 23 

(1903). 

Body robust, yellowish brown, brilliant, much paler beneath ; 
hemelytra blackish on the lateral margins, jellow on the disk, the 
apex of the membrane not extending quite to the apex of the 
fifth abdominal segment ; abdominal appendages longer than 
the body. 

This species — which I have not seen — is described by Mon- 
taudon as differing from R. elongata in the more robust shape, 
the eyes proportionally less developed, the hemelytra a little longer, 
the femora posteriorly more robust, the metasternal process very 
elevated on a median line and not in form of a plate as in 
the Fabrician species, and the anterior femora not toothed near 
their apices. From R. chinensis it differs by the shorter 
hemelytra, which in Mayr's species cover the base of the sixth 
abdominal segment, the dentation of the anterior femora is also 
different. 

Length excl, abdom. append. 46 ; length abdom. append. 
56 millim. 

Hah. Burma; Mandalay {Fea). 



1493. Ranatra filiformis, Fahr. Sh-ivt. af Naturh. Selsk. i. i, p. 228. 
3 (1790); id. Ent. Syst. iv, p. 64. 1 (1794) ; Stdl, Hem. Fabr. 
I, p. 135 (1868). 

Dull obscure brownish -ochraceous ; head and anterior area of 
pronotum pale castaneous ; posterior area of sternum, legs, and 



22 KEPID^. 

abdominal appendages pale ochraceous ; abdomen above pale 
ocliraceous with a central longitudinal fuscous linear fascia ; 
metasteriial process a little convex posteriorly, produced towards 
the posterior coxae ; posterior pronotal angles with an inner 
incision wliicb maizes them rather longitudinally prominent ; eyes 
veiy prominent ; intermediate and posterior legs obscurely fus- 
cously annulated, anterior legs a little less prominently annulate. 
Length excl. abdom. append. 27; length abdoin. append, about 

23 milinn. 

Hah. Quetta, Karachi, Behar. Sibsagar {Brit. 2Ius.). Tranquebar 
(CojjenJwgen Mas.). Bombay (DLvon). — Job ore. Philippines. 

<g»^ 1494. Ranatra sordidula, Dohm, &tett. ent. Zeit. xxi, p. 409 (18G0). 

Fuscous ; /'posterior areas of pronotnin and sternum, abdomen 
beneath, anterior legs, and intermediate and posterior femora 
dull ochraceous ; abdomen above ochraceous-brown, more or less 
centrally longitudinally fuscous ; metasternal process ovate, a 
little foveate, with a central longitudinal carinate line ; other 
characters generally as in R. JiUformis, from which it is at once 
separated by the different structure of the metasternal process, 
darker coloration, and different colour of the legs and upper 
surface of the abdomen. 

Length excl. abdom. append. 22 to 24; length abdom. append, 
about 20 millim. 

Hab. Calcutta Tanks {Ind. Mus.). Ceylon {Green) ; Colombo 
(Leivis). — Penang. Siam {Flower). 

1495. Eanatra gracilis, DaJl. Tr. E. S. 1849, p. 10. 

" Linear-elongate, ferruginous brown, obscure ; head with an 
acute tubercle between the eyes ; scutellum with two small pits 
on the disk towards the apex ; elytra reaching beyond the base 
of the apical segment of the abdomen ; caudal setse short, rather 
longer than the head and thorax together, slender, very slightly 
pilose externally; abdomen beneath keeled, the keel not continued 
beyond the base of the posterior legs : prosternum with two 
longitudinal furrows ; legs very long and slender, subpilose ; 
anterior thighs with six very faint teeth beneath at the base ; the 
four posterior tibiae and tarsi simple." {Dallas.) 

Length excl. abdom. append. 34 miUim. 

Hah. Bhutan. 

M. Montandon (Bull. Soc. Sci. Bucarest, xii, p. 110) considers 
that this species may be identical with, and take priority of, 
R. parmata, Mayr, Eeise JN'ov., Hem. p. 192, tab. v, fig. 60, a, h 
(1866), which was described from Java. R. gracilis may be at 
once distinguished from any of the preceding species here 
enumerated by the shortness of the abdominal appendages, which 
are only about the length of the head and pronotum together. 
I have not seen the species. 



CEECOTMETUS. 



23 



Geuus CERCOTMETUS. 

Cercotmetus, Amy. i>,- Serv. Hem. p. 441 (1843); Stal, Hem. Afr. 
iii,p. 186 (I860); Montand. Bull. Soc. Sci. Bucarest, xii, p. 107 
(1903). 

Type, C. asiaticus, Amy. & Serv., from Java. 

Distribution, Oriental and Malayan Regions. 

This genus differs from Banatra by the shorter coxfe, and by 
the length of the anterior femora, which in Gercotmetas are con- 
siderably shorter than tlie pronotum ; the abdominal appendages 
are short, but this is a character found in soiue species of Banatra, 
as, for example, B. gracilis, Uall. 



1496. Cercotmetus fumosus, Dist. Entomologist, 1904, p. 278. 

Uniformly somewhat dark fuscous ; head with a pointed tubercle 
between the eyes ; hemelytra not reaching the apex of the fifth 
abdominal segment, the coriaceous portion with some amount of 
brownish-ochraceous pubescence ; abdominal appendages mutilated 
in type; abdomen beneath strongly keeled, the keel continued 

on sternum as far as anterior 
coxte ; prosternum with two long 
deep furrows ; intermediate and 
posterior tibiae and tarsi inwardly 
moderately but prominently pilose ; 
pronotum as long as intermediate 
femora. 

By the last character this 
species is to be distinguished from 
G. asiaticus, in which the inter- 
mediate femora are longer than the 
IH'onotuin ; from G. pilipes, DalL, 
it is separated by the much less 
longly pilose inner margins of 
the intermediate and posterior 
tibife and the darker colour ; 
the central carination of the body 
beneath only reaches the anterior 
margin of the metasternum, \^hich 
also separates it from G. com- 
positus, Montand. 

Length excl. abdom. append. 
47 millim. 

Hah. Ceylon {Green, Brit. 
Mvs.). 




Fig. 15. — Cercotmetus fumosus. 



1497. Cercotmetus pilipes, Hall. (Pianatra (Cercotmetus)) Tr. E. S- 
1849, p. 2, pi. ii, iig. 6 ; Montand. Bull. Soc. Sci. Biicaresti 
xii, p. 110 (1903). 

" Linear-elongate, yellowish-brown, opaque ; head small, with a 



24 XEPiD.r. 

tubercle on the vertex between the eyes ; elytra not reaching the 
apex of the penultimate segment of the abdomen, with the 
coriaceous portion covered with very small hairy tubercles ; 
caudal setae very short, not more than one-fourth the length of 
the body, broad, compressed, and strongly pilose externally ; 
abdomen beneath strongly keeled, the keel continued upwards 
along the sternum, disappearing about the centre of the meso- 
sternum ; prosternum with two long deep longitudinal furrows 
extending its whole length ; legs somewhat robust and pilose ; 
anterior thighs and tibiae very short ; intermediate and posterior 
tibiae and tarsi furnished on the inner side with a double row of 
long yellow hairs."' (DaUas.) 

Length excl. abdom. append. 41 ; length abdom. append. 
9 millim. 

Hah. Bhutan. 

I have not seen this species, which is apparently distinct from 
any other yet described by the border of long yellow haii's to the 
intermediate and posterior tibite and tarsi. 



NAUCORID.i:. 25 



Family NAUCORID^. 

Naucoridse, Fieb. Eur. Hem. p. 32 (1861) ; Stdl, En. Hem. v, p. 141 

(1876). 
Aplielochira3, Fieh. Eur. Hem. p. 32 (1861), 

We have already {ante. vol. i, p. xxxvii) given the salient 
characters of this family. The species are truly aquatic and swim 
freely both in fresh and stagnant water. None of them appear 
to carry their eggs on their back, a practice common to the 
following family Belostomatidce. 

Synopsis of Subfamilies. 

A. Head more or less prominent and rounded 

in front of eyes, beneath ^^ith a profound 
excavation in which is inserted the base of 
rostrum. 

a. Pronotum anteriorly strongly concavely ex- 

cavate or sinuate, its posterior angles 

more or less acuminate CJieirocheUnce. 

B, Head broad, not prominently produced in 

front of eyes. 

b. Pronotum. anteriorly either not, or ob- 

tusely or prominently broadly sinuate, its 

posterior angles not acuminate. 
a. Gula short, neither tumid nor tectiform . . Laccocorince. 
h. Gula long, tumid or tectiform Naucorince. 



Subfamily I. CHEIROCHELIN.^. 

Cheiroclielinse, Montand. Ann. Mtis. Civ. &'e?i. xxxvii, p. 367 (1897). 

Head more or less prominent and rounded in front of the eyes, 
beneath with a profound excavation in which is inserted the base 
of the rostrum ; eyes longer than broad ; pronotum strongly con- 
cavely sinuate at its anterior mai'gin between the region of the 
eyes, the posterior lateral angles more or less acuminate ; the 
anterior femora very strongly dilated. 

Synopsis of Genera. 

A. Pronotum with the lateral margins concavely 

narrowed anteriorly ; greatest breadth of 
abdomen less than, or about equal to, its 
length Cheirochela, p. 26. 

B. Pronotum with the lateral margins convexly 

narrowed anteriorly ; greatest breadth of 

abdomen considerably exceeding its length. . Oestroiklla, p. 27. 



26 



JJ'AUCOKID.^, 



Genus CHEIROCHELA. 

Cheirocliela, Hope, Trans. Linn. Soc. xviii, p. 442 (1841) ; Jlontand. 

Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. xxxvii, p. 368 (1897). 
Chirocliela, Fieb. Gen. Hydr. p. 17 (1851). 

Type, C. assamensis, Hope. 

Distrihution. Oriental Eegion. 

Body depressed, elongate-ovate ; head strongly and broadly 
produced in front of eyes, which are much longer than broad, 
beneath with a deep excavation containing the base of the rostrum, 
posteriorly convexly elongated at base between the eyes ; pro- 
notum transverse, its anterior margin concave before the basal 
prolongation of the head, its anterior lateral angles elongately 
and its posterior angles transversely acuminate ; scutellum broad, 
subtriangular ; hemelytra not covering the whole of the abdomen, 
coriuro completely roiinded and hiding connexivum for about half 
its length and then obliquely attenuated ; abdomen broad, de- 
pressed, the lateral posterior segmental angles more or less 
spinously produced; anterior femora very strongly dilated, anterior 
tibiae and tarsi confluent and curved ; intermediate and posterior 
tibisB clothed beneath with lou'r thick hairs. 



1498, Cheirochela feana, Montand. Ann 
p. 370 (1897). 
Dark fuscous-brown ; 
inner margins of eyes, 



Mus. Civ. Gen. xxxvii, 



lateral and anterior margins of head, 
lateral margins and posterior angles of 
pronotum, transverse subbasal fascia 
to scutellum, basal dilated margin of 
corium above and beneath, lateral mar- 
gins and inner spots to connexivum, 
lateral margins of prosteruum, inter- 
mediate and posterior femora, and bases 
of intermediate and posterior tibiae, 
brownish -ochraceous ; body beneath 
shortly pilose and greyish-brown. Pro- 
notum granulose, with transverse striae 
on centi-al anterior area, the posterior 
lateral angles strongly produced and 
with a transverse subbasal furrow ; 
corium rugose; membrane not reaching 
apex of abdomen. 

Length 24| to I26| ; breadth between 
pronotal angles 13 millim. 

Hah. Burma ; Karennee (Fea). 

The type, by the courtesy of Dr. Gestro, is here figured. 

1409. Cheirochela assamensis, Hojje, Trans. Linn. Soc. xviii, p. 442, 
tab. xl, tio'. 9, a, b. c, d, e, f (1841) ; Fieb. (Chirochela) Gen. 
Hydr. p. 18 (1851). 
Cheirochela biriuanieusis, Montand. Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. xxxvii, 
p. 369 (1897). 

Smaller than G. feana, with the posterior pronotal angles more 




Fig. l(j. — Cheirochela fcai 



GESTROIELLA. 



27 



straightly and laterally, not backwardly produced; anterior femora 
considerably less dilated ; corium much less rugose and with its 
anterior marginal area a little less convex, apex of membrane 
narrower and less broadly convex ; colour and markings very 
similar. 

Length 22 to 23 ; breadth between pronotal angles 9 to 9^ millim. 

Hah. Assam {Oxford Mus.). Burma ; Karennee (Feci). 

By the kindness "of Prof. Poulton of Oxford and Dr. Gestro of 
Genoa, T have been enabled to compare the types of Hope and 
Moutandon and to establish their common identity. 

Genus GESTROIELLA. 

Gestroiella, Montand. Ann. Mm. Civ. Gen. xxxvii, p. 371 (1897). 

Type, Gr. limnocoroides, Montand. 

Distribution. Burma. 

Subrotundate ; head rather longer than the breadth between 
eyes, which are elongate and posteriorly immersed in the anterior 
lateral margins of the pronotnm, rounded in front and posteriorly 
elongated, its central basal margin truncate ; pronotum broad, 
its lateral marginal areas ampliated, its posterior angles acuminate, 
its posterior margin ridged ; scutelknn broad, subtriangular ; 
hemelytra with the membrane obsolete, the longitudinal suture 
very distinctly notched beyond middle, the basal area marginally 
convexly rounded and covering abdomen, and then obliquely 
narrowed to apex exposing connexivum, the segments of which 
are bispinous ; anterior femora in the male strongly dilated and 
concavely sinuate anteriorly ; anterior tibi£e strongly arcuate 
and internally broadly dentate beyond middle, intermediate and 
posterior tibiae internally clothed with line long hairs. 

1500. Gestroiella limnocoroides, Montand. Ayin. Mus. Civ. Gen. 
xxxvii, p. .371 (1897). 

Above fuseous-bi'own, with three longitudinal fascia? to head 
and two irregular discal fascise to pro- 
notum dull castaneous; body beneath 
pals brown, legs beneath and mottlings 
to their upper surface pale castaneous ; 
body depressed, longer than broad ; 
pronotum with a series of transverse 
striag behind the posterior prolongation 
of head ; scutellum transversely ridged 
anteriorly ; hemelytra, excluding lateral 
marginal areas, subverrucose ; con- 
Fig. Ti. -Gestroiella nexivum strongly spinous. 

limnocoroides. Length 17 to 19 ; greatest breadth 

13i to 14i milUm. 

Hah. Burma ; Karennee {Fea). 

Montaudon's type is here figured. 




28 NAUCORID.B. 

Subfamily II. LACCOCORINtE. 

Laccocorinpe, 3Iontand. Verh. z.-b. Ges. Wien, xlvii, p. 435, 1897. 
Laccocoiaria (part.)? ^t°'h ^"- Hem. v, p. 142 (1876). 
Eostrum short; anterior margin of pronotum not or only 
obtusely sinuate ; gula sliort, neither tumid nor tectiform ; eyes 
in some genera outwardly laminately marginate, sublobate ; anterior 
tarsi variable. 

Siino])sis of Genera. 

A. Ej^es with an external process between their 

outer margin and the anterior angle of the 
pronotum. 

a. Eyes anteriorly divergent Diaphorocoris, p. 28. 

b. Eyes anteriorly convergent Heleocobis, p. 29. 

B. Eyes without external process Ctenipocoris, p. 32. 

Genus DIAPHOEOCORIS. 

Diaphorocoris, Montcmd. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. xli, p. 61 (1897) ; id. 
Verh. z.-b. Ges. Wien, x\yu, p. 436 (1897). 

Type, D. 2)unctatissimus, Kirby. 

Distribution. Ceylon. 

Body oblong ; head large and broad, eyes very divergent, over- 
hanging the anterior margin of the pronotum, with a triangular 
external process occupying the space between the middle of the 
eye and the anterior angle of the pronotum ; pronotum transverse, 
a little longer than the median line of the head, more than two 
and a half times broader between the lateral angles than medially 
long ; scutellum very large ; claval suture a little shorter than 
scutellum ; membrane well developed, valvular ; connexivum 
almost invisible above ; anterior femora moderately thickened, the 
tibise straight and the tarsi two-jointed ; labrum transverse, rounded 
in front ; mesosternum tumid before the intermediate coxse. 

1501. Diaphorocoris punctatissimus, Kirbi/ (Naucoris?), J. Li7in. 

Soc, Zool. p. 125 (1891); Montand. 
(Diaphorocoris), Verh. z.-b. Ges, Wien, 
xlvii, p. 445 (1897). 

Diaphorocoris notatus, Montand. 
Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. xli, p. 61, 1897. 

Keddish-testaceous, very thickly punc- 
P\ tured ; lateral areas of pronotum, outer 
^IS^Pi process to eyes, and basal lateral mar- 

gins of corium, with a detached central 
'K\ "VmWf"' J" ^^^^^ ^^ same, ochraceous ; body beneath 

u ^SBPw i| and legs almost entirely ochraceous. 

'' A strong peculiarity of this species is 

its thickly punctate upper surface ; the 
pjt, 18 eyes are black, and the posterior margin 

Biaphorocori^punctatissimiis. of the pronotum and the whole of the 
scutellum more or less piceous ; the 
scutellum is finely granulose, with its apex paler; membrane 
piceous. 

Length 7 to 74 millim. 




HELEOCOEIS. 29 

Hah. Ceylou ; Pundahioya (G^r€(?w). 

Found on wet rocks by running water {E. E. Green). 

Genus HELEOCOEIS. 

Heleocoris, Stdl, En. Hem. \, pp. 142 & 146 (1876) ; Montand. 
Verh. z.-b. Ges. Wien, xlvii, p. 436 (1897). 

Type, H. ohliquatus, Spin.* 

Histi'ibution. Very widely distributed ; at present recorded from 
all the principal zoological regions excepting the Nearctic and 
Australasian. 

This genus is to be primarily separated from the preceding one 
{Diapliorocons) by the structure of the eyes, which are subparallel 
and slightly converging anteriorly ; disk of the prouotum regidarly 
and uniformly convex ; connexivum posteriorly visible; the corium 
a little obliquely narrowed from above middle to apex ; membrane 
small. 

1502. Heleocoris strabus, Montand. Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. xxxvii, 
p. 372 (1887) : id. Verh. z.-b. Ges. Wien, xlvii, p. 447 (1897). 

Head and pronotum fuscous ; three spots on anterior margin 
of head, the process beyond eyes, 
and the lateral margins ot the pro- 
notum more or less ochraceous, the 
last with some small fuscous spots ; 
hemelytra and scutellum piceous, basal 
lateral margin of corium and exposed 
connexivum ochraceous ; body beneath 
and legs ochraceous, a spot on each side 
of head beneath piceous ; abdomen 
brovvnish-ochraceous, lateral margins of 
the hemelytra abruptly and strongly 
sinuate behind the embolium, where it is 

Y\g.\9.— Heleocoris strahiis. truncately cut ; lateral posterior angles 
of the pi'onotum obliquely truncate ; 

eyes anteriorly converging their whole length ; claval suture as 

long as the scutellum. 
Length 11 millim. 
Hah. Tenasserim ; Thagata {Fea). 
Montandon's type, by the courtesy of Dr. Gestro, is here figured. 

1503. Heleocoris breviceps, 3Iontand. Ann. Sac Ent. Eel;/, xli, p. 55 
(1897) ; id. Verh. z.-b. Ges. Wien, xlvii, p. 447 (1897). 

Body oval in form, widened at middle and about equally 
attenuated both anteriorly and posteriorly; yellow, with brown 




* Stal made H. ohliquatus, Spin., the type of his genus, from a specimen he 
thiis identified in the collection of Signoret. Montandou, who has since 
examined this specimen, doubts its being Spinola's species. In that case I 
would propose that H. strabus, Montand., be considered the type of Heleocoris. 



30 IfAUCORIDiE. 

impressions and spots on bead, pronotum, embolium, and underside 
of body; legs entirely yellow ; scutellum and beiiielytra brownish. 
Inner margins of eyes parallel, ui form mucli enlarged; scutellum 
blackisb-brovvn ^vith the disk narrowly yellow ; hemelytra broun ; 
embolium largely yellow, the yellow tint fading at its inner 
margin ; intraocular area of head marked on each side by two 
small foveations, situate one before, the other near the anterior 
portion of the inner margin of the eyes ; abdomen beneath largely 
blackish with its apex yellowish. 

Length 9'5; breadth G".5 millim. 

Huh. "Indes orientales " {Coll. Signoret). 

1504, HeleOCOris bergrothi, Montand. Verh. z.-h. Ges. Wien, xlvii, 
pp. 447 & 452 (1897). 

Largely oval ; palely yello^^■ \vith bro\\n points forming indistinct 
spots on the head and pronotum ; scutellum black with its apex 
yellow ; hemelytra blackish-brown with the embolium largely 
yellowish ; eyes as long as broad, their inner margins parallel ; 
intraocular area of head with two small somewhat rounded con- 
colorous foveations on each side, one situate a little in front of 
the middle of the inner margin of eye, the other placed more 
anteriorly ; a lozenge-shaped spot formed of small brown points 
on the vertex and base of head, from which anteriorly emerge two 
lines of brown points ^^•hich do not reach the anterior margin of 
the head ; pronotum transverse, the lateral margins arcuate, the 
lateral posterior angles acute, the surface densely and finely 
punctate, granulose, somewhat finely transversely wrinkled ; scu- 
tellum very finely granulose, black, with a yellow V-shaped discal 
spot ; connexivum, body beneath, and legs entirely pale yellowish. 

Length 9-7 ; breadth OS millim. 

Hah. Utakamand. 

150.5. Heleocoris Iseviceps, Montand. Terh. z.-b. Ges. Wien, xlvii, 

p. 448 (1897). 

0\al, yellowish, a little ochraceous \vith brown punctures and 
spots forming distinct shadings on head and pronotum ; scutellum 
black ; hemelytra brown, with the outer margin of the embolium 
yellowish ; intraocular area to head marked on each edge by a 
faint longitudinal finely punctured depression at inner margin of 
eye ; head smooth on the anterior half, largely brown on all the 
median portion longitudinally to its anterior margin ; claval suture 
a little longer than half the length of the scutellum ; pronotum 
with its lateral margins nearly straight, slightly arcuated, the 
posterior angle somewhat rounded ; scutellum finely and densely 
granulose, with the lateral margins obtusely but distinctly sinuate 
before the middle. 

Length S ; breadth 5 millim. 

Hah. Tenasserim. 



HELEOCORIS. 31 

150G. Heleocoris elongatllS, Montand. Ann. Soc. Ent. Behj. xli, p. 59 
(1897) ; id. Vevli. z.-b. Ges. Wien, xlvii, p. 440 (1897). 

Elongately oval, of a clear yellow tint densely punctured with 
black on the head and pronotum ; scutellum and hemelytra brown 
with the emboliuin largely yellowish ; lateral margins of the intra- 
ocular area to head marked on each side by three small dark 
depressions placed longitudinally at inner margins of eyes ; head 
finply and densely punctured and granulose to the extremity, more 
or less punctured with brown, but without the longitudinal median 
brown spot as in H. heviceps : claval suture a little longer 
than half the length of the scutellum ; body beneath entirely 
yellow; pronotum with the lateral margins very slightly arcuated, 
nearly straight, the lateral posterior angles rounded, not prominent 
behind, the posterior edge straight ; embolium of hemelytra a 
little enlarged, yellow at base and along the outer margin, the 
yellow margin bisinuated at its inner edge by t\^"o brown spots ; 
membrane dark brown, well developed, largely valvular; con- 
nexivum yellow, with a straight transverse brown fascia on the 
nosterior margins of the segments. 

Length 8; breadth 4| millim. 

Hab. " Indes orientales " (Stocl-holm 21us.). 

1507. Heleocoris indicus, Montand.Verh. z.-b. Ges. Wien, xlvii, p. 450 

(1897). 

Oval, flavescent with brown punctures more or less dense 
forming small ill-defined shadings on the head and pronotum ; 
scutellum and hemelytra dark brown, a median longitudinal line 
to the scutellum and a large portion of the embolium }'ello\^ish. 

Differs from H. elongatus by its more oval and less elongate 
form ; the claval suture nearly as long as the length of the scu- 
tellum ; underside of body entirely yellowish ; pronotum with the 
lateral margins nearly straight, very slightly arcuated, the pos- 
tei'ior angles subtruncate ; embolium of the hemelytra yellowish, 
with a medial brown spot on its inner margin and another spot 
at its apex ; conuexivum yellow, very narrowly darkened on the 
outer edge of the posterior angles of each segment. 

Length 8| ; breadth 5| millim. 

Hah. Madras Province ; Bellary (Paris Mns.). 

1508. Heleocoris obliquatus. Spin. (Xaucoris) Ess. p. 54. 4 (1837) ; 

Stal (Heleocoris), En. Hem. \, p. 146 (1876). 

" Size of Naucoris maculata, Fabr. (a Paloearctic species). Head 
and pronotum regularly spotted with grey or black ; the last pro- 
portionally shorter and wider; scutellum black, its apex pale; 
hemelytra black, outer margin pale near base • underside of body 
and legs pale. Pronotum not distinctly bordered with a marginal 
furrow, the posterior angles terminating obliquely." (iSpinola.) 

Hah. Bombay. 

This must be considered, at least for the present, a species of 



32 NArCOMD^. 

doubtful position iu generic classification. I do not know it, nor 
am I aware of any collection that contains an authentically identified 
specimen. 

1509. Heleocoris (?) acuta, S^nn. (Xaucoris) Ess. p. 55. 5 (1837). 

This is auother species of doubtful location, the male of whicli is 
described by Spinola as resembliug by the colours above, the male 
of the preceding species M. ohlicpiahis, but differing notably by the 
shape of the pronotum, which is not pei-ceptibly '* reborde," with 
no marginal furrow, the posterior angles acute ; while the body is 
a little longer and broader. 

JN'o dimensions given in the description. 

Hah. Bombay {Du])ont). 

Genus CTENIPOCORIS. 

Ctenipocoris, Montand. Ann. Mas. Civ. Gen. xxxvii, p. 373 (1897) ; 
id. Verh. z.-b. Ges. Wien, xlvii, p. 436 (1897). 

Type, C. asiaticus, Montand. 

Distribution. Burma. 

Body oval ; head moderately convex above the eyes, converging 
anteriorly, but the external process beyond them, as in the two 
preceding genera, practically wanting ; scutellum very large, much 
broader than long, claval suture little more than half the length 
of scutellum ; liemelytra completely covering the abdomen, mem- 
brane well developed ; anterior femora dilated, the tarsi two- 
jointed, the intermediate and posterior tibiae armed with long 
strong spines. 

1510. Ctenipocoris asiaticus, Montand. Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. xxxvii, 

p. 374 (1897). 

Head and pronotum ochraceous ; scu- 
tellum and hemelytra piceous, margins 
of the last ochraceous ; body beneath 
greyishly piceous ; head beneath, lateral 
areas of prosternum, rostrum, legs, and 
central longitudinal fascia to abdomen 
— not reaching base — ochraceous ; head 
with two small central spots on anterior 
areas, inner margins of eyes, and an 
oblique spot before them piceous ; 
Fig. 20. pronotum with a subbasal transverse 

Ctenipocoris asiaticus, piceous line and with a few small spots 
of the same colour ; posterior lateral 
margins of the scutellum narrowly, obscurely ochraceous ; claval 
suture margined with obscure ochraceous ; spines to the inter- 
mediate and posterior tibia? brownish. 
Length 7 to 8 inillim. 
Hah. Burma ; Karennee {Fea). 
Montaudou's type is here figured. 




THUESBLIXUS. 33 



Subfamily III. NAUCORIN^. 

Naucoraria, StcV, En. Hem. t, p. 141 (1876). 

Mesosternum lougitudinally tumid or obtusely tectiform ; meta- 
sternum moderately elevated ; pronotum at base about one-third 
broader than the length of head aud pronotum together ; head 
large, broad and long ; pronotum anteriorly profoundly sinuate 
for the reception of the head, its anterior angles somewhat lougly 
anteriorly produced and extending to, or nearly to, the middle of 
the eyes, which are anteriorly more or less convergent ; body sub- 
oval or ovate. 

Genus THURSELINUS. 

Thurseliuus, Dist. Entomolocjist, xxxvii, p. 259 (1904). 

Type, T. r/reeni, Dist. 

Distribution. Ceylon. 

Body ovate, moderately convex ; head very large, almost as 
long as pronotum, rather more than one-third broader between 
eyes than long; eyes elongate, mu(?h narrowed, and slightly con- 
verging anteriorly ; labrum rounded, reaching base of second joint 
of rostrum ; pronotum scarcely broader than base of hemelytra, 
only slightly narrowed anteriorly, its anterior angles not reaching 
the middle of eyes ; scutellum short, about twice as broad at base 
as long ; hemelytra complete ; mesonotuui medially carinately 
longitudinally elevated ; anterior femora ampliated, inwardly 
notched towards base. 

Differs fi'om Macrocoris * by the much larger and broader head, 
anterior angles of pronotum not reaching the middle of eyes, 
shorter and broader scutellum, &c. 

1511. Thurselinus greeni, Dist. Entomologist, xxxvii, p. 259 (1904). 

Ochraceous ; scutellum brownish-ochra- 
ceous ; eyes black ; basal area of pronotum 
with some longitudinal piceous lines ; 
body beneath and legs uniformly ochra- 
ceous ; membrane clouded with pale fus- 
cous ; head almost as long as pronotum, 
its anterior margin convex, with a some- 
what flattened central basal space ; pro- 
notum transversely striate near anterior 
Fio-. 21. margin, very finely and obscurely punctate, 

Thurselinus greeni. the lateral margins slightly rounded, a 

little narrowed anteriorly, but almost sub- 
parallel ; scutellum very finely granulose, broadly subtriangular ; 
connexivum piceous at segmental incisures. 
Length 6 millim. 
Hah. Ceylon ; Keshewa {Green). 

* A genus represented by a species from Madagascar. 
TOL. III. D 




34 BELOSTOMATID^. 



Family BELOSTOMATID^. 

Belostomides, Duf. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1863, p. 374. 
Belostomiden, Mayr, Verh. z.-b. Ges. Wien, xiii, p. 339 (1863); id, 

torn. cit. xxi, p. 399 (1871). 
Belostomatida, Stal, Hem. Afr. iii, p. 178 (1865). 

Body more or less depressed; head, in front of e_yes triangularly 
or conically produced ; rostrum short, three-jointed ; abdominal 
appendages short ; legs natatorial, the anterior legs raptorial, the 
anterior coxse inserted, in the anterior area of the prosternum. 

These water-bugs have long been known from the peculiar 
sexual characteristic of cariyiug their eggs in a cemented form on 
their back, or upper surface. This was till recently supposed to 
be a female habit, and it had been authoritatively asserted that 
she placed them on her back by the aid of her ovipositor. This 
has now been experimentally disproved by Miss F. W. Slater 
(' American Naturalist '), and the male is the egg carrier, the eggs 
beiug apparently forcibly attached to him by the feuiale (abstract, 
' Zoologist,' 1900, p. 93). 

Synopsis of Genera. 

A Posterior tibiae aud tarsi not promiuently 
compressed. 

a. Head moderately conically produced aud 

tumid above ; membrane well developed . Nectocoris, p. 34. 

b. Head subtriangularly but not eouically pro- 

duced ; membrane somewhat small .... Sph^rodema, p. 36. 
B. Posterior tibias and tarsi prominently am- 

pliately compressed Belostoma, p. 37. 



Genus NECTOCORIS. 

Nectocoris, Mai/r, Verh. z.-b. Ges. Wien, xxi, p. 432 (1871). 

Type, iV. stedi, Mayr. 

Distribution. As at present known — Oriental, 

Body small, depressed, elougately subovate ; head moderately 
conically produced in front of eyes, centrally tumid, profoundly 
sulcate at inner margins of eyes ; rostrum with the second joint 
longest ; pronotum with the lateral margins straight, a little ampli- 
ated, the posterior margin truncate, anterior margin moderately 
sinuate before base of head : scutellum subequilateral ; hemelytra 
with the outer areas moderately convexly ampliate, membrane 
complete, longitudinally veiued ; anterior tarsi with two claws. 




SPH^BOBEMA. 35 

1512. Nectocoris stSli, Mayr, Verh. z.-b. Ges. Wien, xxi, p. 432 

(1871). 

Ochraceous, variegated with fuscous ; 

legs ochraceous, femora more or less 
spotted or suffused with fuscous, the ante- 
rior tibicB with three fuscous annulations ; 
head with the disk distinctly ovally tumid, 
but depressed before the inner margins of 
eyes ; subbasal ti'ausverse impression to 
pronotum medially subobsolete, but pro- 
found at each end ; claval suture almost 
as long as scutellum ; embolium of hem- 
elyti'a a little paler in hue. 
Fig. 22. Length 11 to 12 millim. 

Nectocoris stall. Hah. Burma ; Kaugoon {Fea). 



Genus SPH^RODEMA. 

Sphferodema, Zap. Ess. Hem. p. IS (1832) ; Montand. Bull. Soc. Sci. 

Bacarest, ix, p. 264 (1900) ; id. torn. cit. xii, p. 120 (1903). 
Diplonychus, Amy. Sf Sere, {nee Lap.) Hem. p. 436 (1843) ; Mayr, 

Verh. z.-b. Ges. Wien, xxi, p. 43o (1871). 
Appasus, Amy. Sf Serv. Hem. p. 430 (1843) ; Mayr, Verh. z.-b. Ges. 

Wien, xxi, p. 433 (1871). 
Nervinops, Duf Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1863, p. 398. 

Type, /S. annulala, Fabr. 

Distribution. Ethiopian, Oriental, and Australasian Regions, and 
Southern and Eastern Palaearctic Regions. 

Body depressed, more or less ovate or subovate ; head before 
eyes subtriangularly but not conically produced ; rostrum with 
the second joint longest ; pronotum trapeziform, the anterior 
margin moderately sinuate, posterior margin subtruneate, lateral 
margins nearly straight and moderately ampliate ; scutellum sub- 
equilateral ; hemelytra with the membrane distinct but sometimes 
very small, outer area moderately convexly ampliate ; anterior 
femora incrassate, tarsi two-jointed ; anterior tarsal claws two, 
sometimes very short. 



A. Body very broad ; greatest expanse of hemelytra together almost 
equal to their length ; head as long as breadth bettveen eyes. 

1513. Sphaerodema annulatum, Fabr. (Nepa) Syst. Rhyng. p. 106 
(1803) ; Duf. (Sphferodema) Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1863, p. 397 ; 
Mayr, Verh. z.-b. Ges. Wien, xxi, p. 434 (1871). 

Sphaerodema rotundata, Laj). Ess. Hem. p. 18 (1832). 

Belostoma marginata, Gray, in Griffith's Animal Kinyd., Insect. 
ii, p. 248, tab. xciii, fig. 4 (1832). 

Ochraceous or ochraceous-brown, the lateral margins of the 

d2 



36 BELOSTOMATID^. 

pronotum and the embolium of the henielytra ahvays paler in hue; 
abdomen beneath with its disk shining, its sublateral margins and 
the disk of the stex-num greyisbly opaque ; head about as long as 
space between eyes, which are elongately obhque ; pronotum 
thickly finely punctate, with a central longitudinal and a subbasal 
transverse discal incised line, two subanterior discal foveations ; 
scutellum and corium thickly and very finely punctate ; membrane 
small ; embolium convexly ampliate with its outer margin a little 
reflexed. 

Length 21 to 22 ; greatest breadth of hemelytra 16 to 
17 millim. 

Hah. Sind. Silhet. Calcutta Tanks {Ind. Mus.) 



B. Greatest expanse of Jiemeh/ira together shorter than their length ; 
head shorter than breadth between eyes. 

a. Anterior tarsal claws short. 

1514. Sphaerodema rusticum, Fabr. (Nepa) Si/st. Bhym/. p. 106 

(1803) ; Buf. (Neninops) Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1868, p. 399 

(part.) ; Mayr (Diplouychus), Verh. z.-b. Ges. Wien, xxi, p. 438 

(1871). 

? Nepa plana, Sulz. Abgeh. Gesch. d. Lis. p. 92, tab. x, fig. 2 

(1776). 
Var. marginicoUis, Duf. (Appasus) Ann. Soc. Fnt. Fr. 1863, p. 393. 

Ochraceous or ochraceous-browu, the 
lateral and basal margins of pronotum and 
the embolium always paler ; body beneath 
and legs concolorous, ochraceous ; head 
shorter than breadth between eyes, which 
ai'e obliquely converging ; pronotum, scu- 
tellum, and corium very thickly and finely 
punctate; membrane small; anterior tarsal 
claws short. 

Length 15 to 16 ; greatest breadth 

Fig. 23. 9 to 9^ millim. 

Sjiharoderna rusticum. Uab. liomhay(Leit7i). Ceylon; Colombo 

(Coll. Dist.). Burma; Mandalay, Teinzo 

(Feci). — Siam ; Malay Peninsula. Sumatra. Java. PhiHppines. 

China. Australia ; Queensland (Coll. Dist.). 

The specimen figured represents the var. marginicoUis, Duf. 



b. Anterior tarsal claivs moderately long. 

1515. Sphaerodema molestuni, Duf. (Appasus) A7m. Sac. Fnt. I). 
1863, p. 395 ; Mayr (Diplonychus), Ferh. z.-b. Ges. Wien, xxi 
p. 437 (1871). 
Nei'vinops rusticus, Duf. Ann. Sac. Fnt. Fr. 1863, p. 399 (part.). 




BELOSTOMA. 37 

Diplouvclius subrliombeus, Mayr, Verh, z -b. Ges, Wien, xxi, 
p. 437 (1871j. 

A little broader than /S. rusticum, head shorter and broader, 
posterior angles of pronotum a little more obtuse and less acute, 
antei'ior tarsal claws longer. In the Montandon collection of 
Belostomatidae acquired by the British Museum there is a cot_ype 
of Dufour's species S. molestum, and another determined by Mayr 
as his S. siihrhomheus, which I cannot separate, and which are 
evidently conspecific, differing only in size, the last being 
smallest. 

Length 13| to ITj millim. 

Hab. Kashmir ( Vienna Mus.) : Calcutta Tanks {Ind. Mus.). — 
Malacca {Coll. Sir/n.). 



Genus BELOSTOMA. 

Belostoma, Latr. Gen. Crust, et Ins. iii, p. 144 (1807) ; Amy. 8,' Serv. 

Hem. p. 427 (1843); Fieb. G-n. Hydroc. p. 21, t. 2 D (1851); 

Duf. Ann. Soc. Ent. Ft: 1863, p. 379 ; Stdl, Hem. Afr. iii, 

p. 182(1865); Mayr, Verh. z.-b. Ges. JF^eji, xxi, pp. 402 & 422 

(1871). 
Belostomum, Burm. Handb. Ent. ii, 1, p. 195 (1835), 
Amorgius, Stal, Hem. Afr. iii, p. 179 (1865). 

Type, B. indicum, Lep. & Serv. 

Distribution. Eastern Palaearctic and the other great zoo- 
geographical regions. 

Body very large, narrowly ellijjtical ; head before eyes a little 
conically produced, and between the eyes narrow ; rostrum very 
thick, second joint much the longest ; pronotum trapezoidal, 
anteriorly centrally truncate and posteriorly moderately sinuate ; 
scutellum a little broader than long ; hemelytra with distinct 
membrane provided with longitudinal veins ; legs of moderate 
length ; anterior coxae short, not extending beyond the base of the 
presternum ; femora compressed, anterior femora incrassate and 
sulcated beneath ; posterior tibiae and tarsi ampliately compressed ; 
tarsi two-jointed ; anterior tarsi with one claw, intermediate and 
posterior tarsi provided with t\AO. 

These large and widely-distributed insects, though aquatic in 
habit, are more frequently met with on their land excursions. 
They are greatly attracted by light, and are frequent visitors to 
the electi'ic lights now so common on the roads in most civilised 
communities. At Trinidad, where the largest species is found, 
it is known by the name of the " Electric Bug," and in the 
Transvaal I took most of the South-African species {B. niloticum) 
at the lights of Pretoria. Its jH'oboscis is capable of producing 
a very painful puncture, of which I have had more than one 
experience. 

Only one very widely-distributed species is found in the fauna 
of British India. 



38 



BELOSTOMATIDiE. 



1516. Belostoma indicum, Lep. 8, Serv. Encycl Meth. x, p. 272 (1775); 
Aimj. S)- Serv. Hem. p. 429 (1843); Mayr, Verh. z.-b. Oes. Wien, 
xxi, p. 426 (1871) ; Gveeii (Amorgius), Entomologist, xxxiv, 
p. 113 (1901). 

Head, pronotuni, aucl scutellum dark brownish ocliraceous ; 
proDotum with the posterior and lateral margins and some longi- 
tudinal discal fasciae paler ocliraceous ; scutellum with a fascia 
near basal angles, a narrow central line, and the apical area paler 
ochraceous ; hemelytra ochraceous with darker suffusions, of which 




Fiff. 24. — Belostoma indicum. 



the principal ones are on the clavus and discal areas of corium ; 
body beneath of a duller and more opaque brownish hue ; posterior 
lateral margins and apex of abdomen beneath pale ochraceous, 
sternum more or less margined and suffused with the same 
colour ; femora streaked above and more or less banded beneath 
with fuscous. 

Length 62 to 82 millim. 

Hah. Sind {Coll. Dist.) ; Malabar, Bhowani River ; Bombay 
{Leitli Sf Dixon) :, Trivandrum. Ceylon {Green). Burma, North - 
west. District {Coll. Dist.). North Chin Hills ( Watson). Karenuee 
Teinzo {Feci). Tenasserim, Malewoon {Fea). — Malay Peninsula. 
Prov. Wellesley {Distant). Sumatra {Forbes ^- Bode). Java. 
Philippines {Semper). 



BELOSTOMA. 39 

Mr. E. E. G-reen {supra) has given some most interesting facts 
relating to the life-history of this species. From observations 
made on specimens kept in a large glass aquarium, he observed 
that they were sluggish creatures and remain during daytime 
with the tip of the tail projecting above the surface of the 
water, seldom moving unless disturbed. He w^as of opinion that 
the natural food of the species is such large insects or small 
terrestrial animals as fall accidentally into the water ; it will also 
feed upon frogs when it can catch them. Large horny beetles, 
such as Orrjctes, and large grasshoppers were also taken. 

Every fresh specimen that Mr. Green examined was infested 
by a peculiar elongate parasite or water-mite (fam. Hydrachnidse), 
some species of which attack most water-bugs. 



40 NOTONECTID^ 



Family NOTONECTID.E. 

Notonectfe, Fieb. E/njncJiotot/r. p. 45 (1851), 

Notouectidaj, Curtis, Brit. Eatom. i, p. 10, pi. 10 (1824) ; Kirk. Tr. 

E. S. 1897, p. 394. 
Notonectida, StSl, Hon. Afr. iii, p. 190 (1865). 

Eocly oblong, convex ; eyes large ; ocelli absent ; antennae short, 
four-jointed; rostrum three- or four-jointed; scutellum large, 
triangular : anterior legs inserted at the posterior margin of the 
prouotum. 

Synojysis of Suhfamilies. 

A. Posterior tibise and tarsi ciliate ; abdomen 

beneath centrally carinate ; rostrum four- 
jointed ; eyes large and conspicuous Notojiectince. 

B. Posterior tibite and tarsi not ciliate ; abdomen 

beneath not carinate ; rostrum three-jointed ; 

eves small Fleince. 



Subfamily I. NOTONECTIN^. 

NotonectiuEe, Kirk. Tr. E. S. 1897, p. 394. 

The characters for this subfamily having already been detailed, 
it only remains to define the genera, 

Syii02:>sis of Genera. 

A. Pronotum moderately long, not transverse. 

a. Last joint of antennae much shorter than penul- 
timate joint : posterior tarsi not provided 
•with unguiculi * Notonecta, p. 40. 

\>. Last joint of antennae much longer than pen- 
ultimate j oint : posterior tarsi provided with 
unguiculi Anisops, p. 44. 

B. Pronotum short, transverse, its anterior angles 

oveately excavate Enithares, p. 42. 

Genus NOTONECTA. 

Notonecta, izVm. Syst. Nat. ed. x, p. 439 (1758) ; Fieb. Rhynchotogr. 
p 48 (1851) ; Saund. Hem. Heteropt. Brit. Ishls. p. 329 (1892) ; 
Kirk. Tr. E. S. 1897, p. 397. 

Type, N. glauca, Linn. 
Distribution. Practically universal. 

* Unguiculi = hooks of tarsal claws. 



NOTONECTA. 



41 



Head broad, eyes large, iuterocular space varying in breadth 
and shape ; rostrum four-jointed ; pronotum trapeziform, trans- 
verse, strongly convex, anterior margin a little centrally produced, 
lateral margins obliquely straight, the posterior lateral angles very 
slightly subprominent ; scutellum large, almost triangular ; hem- 
elytra complete, meuibrane distinct ; abdomen beneath ciliate on 
lateral areas and at apex, and centrally longitudinally carinate ; 
tarsi two-jointed ; intermediate femora with a prominent tooth 
near apex. 

These insects, commonly known in this country as the " Water 
Boatman," swim on their backs. Their eggs are inserted into the 
stems of aquatic plants. They are extremely predaceous and will 
attack small fish, tadpoles, small frogs, &c., as keepers of aquaria 
have learned by experience. 



1517. Notonecta montandoni, Kirk. A. M. N. H. (6) xx, p. 56 (1897); 
id. Tr. E. S. 1897, p. 417. 

Eyes, scutellum, membrane, and body beneath black ; head, pro- 
notum, legs, and connexivum more or 
less ochraceous ; corium purplish-red, in 
some specimens the clavus is more or 
less irregularly marked with black, and, 
according to the description, sometimes 
" a broad undulatory baud runs across 
the corium,*' which I have only seen in 
specimens from China. Iuterocular 
space very narrow at base and then 
outwardly obliquely divergent, the base 
little more than half the breadth of 
apex. 

Length 15 to 17 millim. 
Hab. Burma: Karennee (Fea) ; Euby 
Mines (DoJierty). — Tibet, Mou-pin 

JVotonecta montandoni. {Paris Mus.). China : Kiang-si {Paris 

Mus.) ; Chang Yang {Pratt). 




1518. Notonecta glauca, Linn. Si/st Nat. ed. x, p. 439 (1758) ; JDist. 
Sec. Yark. Miss., H/upich. p. 13 (1879) ; for full syn. cf. Kirk. 
Tr. E. S. 1897, p. 419. 

A very variable species in coloration, of which many varietal 
forms have been described, one of which is found in British 
India ; this is the variety N. marginata, Miill. Zool. Dan. p. 104 
(1776), which has been thus diagnosed by Kirkaldy {supra) : — 

" Hemelytra bluish-black or dull black ; clavus luteous except 
at the sutural margins ; a longitudinal luteous fascia, varying in 
length, at the base of the endo- and mesocorium ; in many indivi- 
duals there are one or two ferruginous spots near the apical margin 
of the corium." 



42 



NOTONECTID^. 



In this species the breadth and shape of the interocular space 
(notoceplialon and st/nthlipes, Kirk.) cannot be relied on as a 
specific character, if those specimens returned to me by Mr. Kirk- 
aldy himself, labelled " N. glauca,^' are to be relied on. 

Length 14 to 17 millim. 

Hah. Kashmir, Sind Valley (Jide KirTcaldy). — Generally distri- 
buted throughout the Palsearctic Region. 

It was taken by Dr. Stoliczka (var. marmorea, Fabr.) at Tarkand. 



Genus ENITHARES. 

Enithares, Spin. -Ess. Hem. p. 60 (1837) ; Stdl, Hem. Afr. iii, p. 190 

(1865) ; Kh-k. Wien. ent. Zeit. xxiii, p. 95 (1904). 
Bothrouotus, Fieb. Rhjpichofoc/r. p. 46 (1851). 
Enithara, Siyn. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. (3) viii, p. 971 (1860). 

Type, E. indica, Fabr. 

Distribution. Neotropical, Ethiopian, Australasian, and Oriental 
Regions ; also found in China. 

This genus may be easily separated from Notonecta by the 
shorter, transverse pronotum and by the foveately excavate ante- 
rior angles of the same ; this is so apparent a character that minor 
differences may be ignored in this work, which has a faunistic aud 
not taxonomic inception. 



1519. Enithares indica, Fah: /Notonecta) Stjst. Rhjng. p. 103. 7 
(1803); Stal (^mi\\Axe&), Hem. Fahr. i, p. 136 (1S68) ; Kirk. 
Entomol. xxxiii, p. 10 (1900). 
Notonecta abbreviata,- Walk. (MS.) in Tennent's ' Cet/lon' ed. 2, 
i, p. 293 (1859) ; Kirby, J. Linn. Soc, Zool. xxiv, p. 126 (1891) ; 
Kirk. (Enithares) Wien. ent. Zeit. xxiii, p. 109 (1904). 

Head and pronotum ochraceous, basal 
area of pronotum more or less piceous ; 
scutelluu) black, with a curved pale ochra- 
ceous fascia (sometimes almost obsolete) on 
each lateral area ; hemelytra black, basal 
and lateral areas and usually an apical 
spot to corium and apical area of mem- 
brane more or less pale ochraceous ; body 
beneath piceous, lateral margins and legs 
pale ochraceous ; interocular space much 
narrowed at base, ampliated anteriorly. 
Length 8| to 10 millim. 
Hah. Tranquebar. Bombay {Dixon). 
Trivandrum. Ceylon {Green). Andaman 
Islands {de JRoepstorff). — Java, Sumatra. 
Frequents more or less stagnant water, paddv-fields, ditches, 
&c. {E. E. Green). 

Kirkaldy, apparently on the axiom " once a synonym always a 




Fis. 26. — Enithares indie 



ENITHARES. 43 

synonym," sinlis the Fabriciau name, although he states it is 
distinct from Linnseus's species H. indiea, which is a true Noto- 
necta. We cannot follow this — to us — unnecessary alteration. 



1520. Enithares marginata. Fieb. (Bothronotus) Ilhyncliotorj): p. 47 
(1851) ; Kirk. Wien. ent. Zeit. xxiii, p. 108 (1904). 

Luteous ; tegmina subhyaline, a whitish stripe on the terminal 
suture ; wings dirty whitish, basal half blackish-brown ; front and 
middle femora brownish on upperside at base. Elongate ; head 
strongly ])rojecting before the eyes ; neck-groove brownish ; upper 
lip triangular, shortly pointed, with sloping sides ; teginiua strongly 
punctured, covered with very fine granules and with fine long 
hair ; erabolium long, luteous ; a white stripe of thicker substance 
on the terminal suture of the corium ; margin of scutellum and 
terminal edge yellow ; membrane subhyaline, with the usual 
coarse opaque basal pieces present, hinder back and back of the 
tibiaj blackish-brown ; the last tibiae set with whitish hairs, as well 
as the terminal piece and the whitish spots on the lateral margin ; 
underside blackish ; middle keel and connexivum dirty yellow, with 
a brown hind border ; middle tibiae at the end with one tooth. 

Length "3| hnes." 

Hah. " Hinteriudien " (Dr. Heifer). 

I have not seen this species. 



1521. Enithares lineatipes, Horv. Term. Fiizeteh, xii, p. 39 (1889) ; 

Kirk. Wien. ent. Zeit. xxiii, p. 103 (1904). 
sp. ?, JDist Sec. Yark. Miss., Ehynch. p. 13 (1879). 

Palely testaceous or flavous-testaceous ; interocular space with 
two central fuscous spots and a smaller one a little before base ; 
scutellum with a triangular spot at each basal angle, and some- 
times \^ith a large central somewhat rounded spot, black ; hem- 
elytra dull brownish-ochraceons ; abdomen beneath fuscous, the 
lateral margins and central carination paler ; femora longitudinally 
linearly fuscous ; eyes large, their outer margins projecting a 
little beyond the anterior angles of the pronotum ; the face with 
four distinct impressions ; lateral pronotal margins strongly 
convex. 

Length 11 millim. 

Hah. Himalaya (il/«s,iV«i.i/oJi(/rois). Jhelam Valley (StoliczTca) ; 
Tenasserim ; Plapoo {Fea). 

1522. Enithares templetoni, Kirhy (Notonecta), J. Linn. Soc, Zool. 

xxiv, p. 126 (1891) ; Kirk. (Enithares) Entomol, xxxiii, p. 10 
(1900) ; id. Wien. ent. Zeit. xxiii, p. 102 (1904). 

Very closely allied to E. lineatipes, but with the lateral margins 
of the pronotum much less convex and more sinuate, the face less 
distinctly impressed. 



44 NOTONECTID.'E. 

Head and pronotum pale oehraceous ; anterior margins of 
interocnlar space, anterior angular foveations to pronotum, and 
sometimes basal area of pronotum, more or less piceous ; scutellnm. 
pale oehraceous, with a large central triangular basal spot and a 
spot at each basal angle black ; corium pale dull oehraceous, the 
claval, inner, and apical areas and a posterior elongate submarginal 
streak black ; membrane black ; body beneath and legs oehra- 
ceous, the abdomen more or less fuscous ; lateral pronotal margins 
obliquely sinuate. 

Length 10 to 12 millim. 

Hah. Bombay {DLvon). Ceylon {Green). — Siamese Malay States. 



1523. Enithares triangularis, Guer. (Notouecta) Icon. Rcgn. Anim. 
iii, p. 354 (1844) ; Kirk. (Enithares) Entomul. xxxiii, p. 10 
(1900) ; id. Wien. eni. Zeit. xxiii, p. 99 (1904). 
Notonecta simplex, Walk. MS. in TennenCs 'Ceylon,' ed. 2, 
vol. i, p. 292 (1859) ; Kirby, J. Linn. Soc, Zool. xxiv, p. 125 
(1891). 

Somewhat closely resembling E. templetoni, but larger, the 
lateral margins of the interocular space more regularly curved and 
less suddenly narrowed at base ; pronotal lateral margins more 
straightly oblique, less sinuate- 
Head and pronotum pale oehraceous, the eyes and some con- 
fluent spots on anterior area of pronotum fuscous ; scutellum 
oehraceous, a large basal triangular spot connected with a spot at 
each basal angle black ; corium oehraceous, inner margin and 
apical area of clavus, apical area and a posterior submarginal 
elongate streak to corium, black ; membrane black, sometimes 
paler at base ; body beneath and legs oehraceous, abdomen more 
or less fuscous. 

Length 14 to 15| millim. 

Hah. Nilgiris (Paris Mus.) ; Trivandrum (Coll. Dint.); Trichi- 
nopoly. Ceylon (Green). 



Genus ANISOPS. 

Auisops, Sjnn. Ess. Hem. p. .58 (1837); Fieb. Rhynchotoc/r. p. 57 
(1851); Sm, Hem. Afr. iii, p. 191 (1865); Kirk. Wien. ent. 
Zeit. xxiii, p. Ill (1904). 

Type, A. niveus, Fabr. 

Distribution. Distributed throughout the principal zoo-geogra- 
phical regions *. 

This genus is allied to Notonecta by the non-transverse pronotum, 
thus differing from Enithai^es. Prom Notonecta it is distinguished by 



* Kirkakly bas recently proposed a new geuus, Buenoa, for the reception of 
the Neotropical species. 



ANISOPS, 



45 



all the tarsi being provided with claws, and in having the last 
joint o£ the antennae longer than the penultimate joint, characters 
reversed in Notonecta. 

Three species, according to present knowledge, are found in 
British India. 



1524. Anisops sardea, Herr.-Schiif. Wanz. Ins. ix, p. 40, fio-. 904 
(1852) ; Kirk. Wien. ent. Zeit. xxiii, p. 114 (1904) et syu." 
Anisops nivea, >Spin. nee Fabr. Ess. Hem. p. 58 (1837). 
Anisops productiis, Fieh. Rhynchotogr. p. 60 (1851); Stdl, Hem. 

^/^r. iii, p. 191 (1865)... 
Anisops uatalensis, Stal, Ofv. Vet.-Ak. Fork, xii, p. 89 (1855). 
Notonecta naunla, Walk. Zoologist, p. 2381 (1870). 
? Notonecta alba, Forskal, Descr. Anim. Orient, p. xxiii (1775). 

Pale stramineous, eyes black ; hemelytra sordid-grey. Male 
with a long, triangular, obtuse apically-pointed cephalic pro- 
jection, which is absent in the female. In both sexes there is a 




Fig. 27. — Anisops sardea. 



distinct foveate impression near each basal angle of the scutellum ; 
the interocular space is very narrow at base. 

Length 6 to Ih millim. 

Hah. Bombay {Heifer). Burma: Minhla (Comotto). — Widely 
distributed in 8. Palaearctic and Ethiopian Regions. 

The sexes Aary much in size, some females being larger than 
small males. Kirkaldy, who seems to have examined a large 
number of specimens, gives the dimensions as : c? Q-lOg, $ 7|- 
8| millim., but I have seen no Oriental specimens that approach 
that size. 

The two specimens here figured were collected by Capt. Comotto 
in Burma. 



46 NOTO^TECTID.i:. 

1525. Anisops fie"beri, KirTz. Entomologist, 1901, p. 5; id. Wien. ent. 
Zeit. xxiii, p. 116 (1904). 
Anisops inveus, Fieb. Rhynchotogr. p. 60 (1851), 7iec Fuhr. 

Almost indistinguishable from ui. sardea, except in the male 
sex, in which the cephalic projection is much shorter, less angu- 
late, and more truncate anteriorly. 

Length, c? , 5 millim. 

Hah. " Distributed over Brit. India " (Jide Kirl-aldy). Ceylon 
{Coll. Dist.). Celebes. 

I possess only one male specimen of this species, which was 
collected in Ceylon. It is pi^obably anything but rare, but has 
escaped the attention of collectors. 



1526. Anisops niveilS, Fahr. (Xotonecta) Syst. Fnt. p. 690 (1775) ; 

Kirk. (Anisops) Ann. Soc. Fnt. Fr. 1899, p. 105 ; id. Wien. 

ent. Zeit. xxiii, p. 118 (1904). 
Notonecta ciliata, Fcdn: Ent. Syst. Siqypl. p. 524 (1798). 
Anisops hvalinus, Fieb. Abh. bolim. Ges. Wiss. (5) vii, p. 482 

(1851). ' 
Anisops ciliatus, Stdl, Vet.-Ak. Handl. vii, 11, p. 137 (1868). 
Anisops pelluceus, Gerst. Van der Decken's Reise, iii, 2, p. 424 

(1873). 
Anisops scutellaris, de Carl. Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. xxxv, p. 123 

(1895). 

This widely-distributed species is larger in size than the two 
preceding, and differs also by the absence of the cephalic pro- 
tuberance in the male. In colour it is very similar ; the head 
and pronotum are palest, the scutellum pale ochraceous, and the 
hemelytra more or less shaded with pale fuliginous ; the pronotum 
has usually two fuliginous spots both on the anterior and posterior 
margins, though these are sometimes partly and often entirely 
absent, and the same remark applies to t\^o fuliginous spots at the 
base of the scutellum ; the interocular space has a distinct central 
longitudinal incised line. 

Length 10 to 12^ millim. 

Hah. Bombay (Z^w'om). Probably generally distributed through- 
out British India. Burma : Bhamo(Fe«). — Widely distributed in 
the Ethiopian Region. 



Subfamily II. PLEINtE. 

Pleida, Stal, Hem. Afr. iii, p. 192 (1865). 
Pleiuse, Kirk. Tr. E. S. 1897, p. 395 ; ante p. 40. 

Of these minute insects we know comparatively little. Of the 
genus Plea four species are here enumerated, a totally inadequate 
record for British India, and one which will be "considerablv 
augmented when more attention is paid to the collection and 
observation of these small creatures. 



Genus PLEA. 
Plea, Ze«c/*, Tr.Linn. Soc. xii, p. 11 (1817) ; Saimd. Hem. Het. Brit. 

Islds. p. 329 (1892) ; Kirk. Wien. ent. Zeit. xxiii, p. 120 (1904). 
Ploa, Stephens, Cat. Brit. Ins. ii, p. 354 (1829). 
Ploea, Dougl. ^' Scott, Cat. Brit. Hem. p. 61 (1876). 

Type, P. minutissima, Fabr., a Palaearctic species*. 

Distribution. Palaearctic and Oriental Regions ; probably more 
widely distributed. 

Body not quite twice as long as wide ; head broad, eyes 
widely separated ; rostrum three-jointed ; pronotum rounded 
anteriorly, lateral margins short, base considerably posteriorly 
produced ; scutellum small, triangular ; tegmina short, deflected 
posteriorly and with no distinct membrane, a small portion is 
divided by a suture near the exterior basal angle, which by some 
entomologists has been regarded as homologous to an embolium; 
legs simple, tarsi two-jointed. 

1527. Plea liturata, Fieb. Abh. bdhm. Ges. Wiss. (5) iii, p. 297, tab. 11, 
figs. 4-6 (1845). 

I only know this species by Fieber's description and figure, 

both of which are repro- 
duced : — " Front with two 
short dashes, eyes brown ; 
a small black spot near 
each latei'al angle and a 
similat' one at central base 
o£ pronotum ; corium with 
a triangular transverse 
fascia and a brown spot 
at the apex. Dirty yel- 
lowish punctured with 
brown ; two short brown 
dashes on middle of front 
between eyes ; pronotum 
near the anterior margin 
with two transverse callosities, the shoulder-angles and a pro- 
tuberance on the middle of the hind margin with a small black 
spot ; scutellum dirty yellow, with two longitudinal stripes broad 
at base and transverse behind ; tegmina posteriorly almost per- 
pendicularly truncate, rather more highly arched behind than 
before, and a brown band with blackish dots in punctures ex- 
tending to terminal angle of clavus, broad before the middle of 
outer border, internally oblique and triangularly narrowed ; apex 
of tegmina with an almost quadrangular brown spot ; underside 
brownish-yellow ; legs yellowish-white." 
Length about 2 millim. 
Hab. " Ostindien " (Br. Heifer). 

* M'Gregor and Kirkaldy (Tr. Perthshire Soc. 1899, p. 5) have proposed, 
for what they consider valid reason in the vexed questiou of priority in 
nomenclatiu-e, that this species should be renamed P. leacki. I have, however, 
here retained tlie well-known name. 




Fig. 2%.— Plea liturata. 



48 XOTONECTID^. 

1528. Plea frontalis, Fieb.Ahh. I6hm. Ges. Wiss. (5) iii, p. 296, taf. 1, 

ff. 36-39 (1845) ; Kirk. Wien. ent. Zeit. xvii, p. 1-41 (1898) ; 
id. torn. cit. xxiii, p. 128 (1904). 

This is another species I only know by Fieber's description and 
figures. 

"Front witb three sbort dashes, two spots on back of 
neck, eyes reddish-brown ; scutellum yellowisli-white ; clavus 
with a brown spot in the terminal angles ; posterior half of corium 
apparently covered with brown dots. On the vertex two pale 
brown approximate oval spots ; on the front two pale brown 
dashes, between which and somewhat lower is a shorter one ; 
terminal joint of the sheath of the rostrum black, basal joint 
brown ; eyes flattened, reddish-brown ; pronotum and scutellum 
unspotted like the tegmina, with shallow punctures, the inter- 
mediate spaces smootii, almost as if polished, hairless ; tegmina 
rather higher arched behind than in front ; in the terminal angles 
of the corium a little yellowish-brown spot ; the posterior half of 
tegmina appears brownish, caused by dots in punctures ; tegmina 
obliquely truncate behind, and with a series of fine brownish dots 
in the ' gutter ' near the raised marginal keel, the margin hidden 
by the overarching projecting sides ; underside pitchy-brown ; 
legs yellowish-white, apices of tarsi brown." 

Length 2 millim. 

Hah. " Ostindien" {Dr. Heifer). Bengal, Pondicherry, Burma; 
Rangoon (fide KirJcaldy). — Cochin-China {fide Kirlrddy). 

1529. Plea pallescens, sp. n. 

Above pale stramineous, the central posterior disk of pronotum 
apparently discoloured ; pronotum and corium coarsely punctate ; 
scutellum much less or little punctate and more ochraceous in 
hue ; basal margin of head narrovtly black ; front practically un- 
spotted ; body beneath piceous, legs pale stramineous ; base of 
pronotum centrally slightly gibbous, the posterior pronotal margin 
carinate. 

Length 1| millim. 

Hah. Calcutta Tanks. 



1530. Plea buenoi, KirJc. Wien. ent. Zeit. xxiii, p. 128 (1904). 

Strongly rather coarsely but not reticulately punctured, pale 
yellowisli, rather fuliginous ; head with a very short longitudinal 
streak almost like a spot on the front, and with two very small 
spots near the front end of the streak ; head between the eyes 
about as broad as the eyes. 

Length 1*8; breadth 1-1 millim. 

Hah. India; ^o\\(X\Q\ievYy {Coll. Kirlcaldy). 

I know nothing more of this species than the description which 
is here translated from the German in which it is published. 



CORIXID.i:. 



49 



Family CORIXID.^. 

Cbrisides, Atny. Sf Serv, Hem. p. 444 (1843). 

Corisee, Fieb. Eur. Hem. p. ±2 (1861). 

Corixina, CorIxid=e, and Sigaridae, Dour/J. S^- Scott, Brit. Hem. 

pp. 49 & 50 (1805). 
Sigarida, Stdl, Hem. Afr. iii, p. 193 (1865). 

Body depressed ; head broad, as broad or broader than the 
thorax ; ocelli none ; rostrum short, concealed ; antennae short, 
inserted under the margins of the head ; thorax transverse ; 
heDielytra complete ; legs natatorial, the posterior setose ; anterior 
tarsi one-jointed. 

SijnOjpsis of Genera. 

A. AntemiEe four-jointed; scutelluni covered. . . . CoRiXA, p. 49. 

B. Antennae three-jointed ; scutellum not covered Micronecta, p. 50. 

Genus CORIXA. 

Corixa, Geoffr. Hist, abrey. Ins. p. 477 (1762) ; Burm. Handb. Ent. 

p. 186 (1'835). 
Corisa, Amy. ^- Serv. Hem. p. 445 (1843). 
Sigara, Fahr. Syst. Ent. p. 691 (1775), part. 

Type, C geoffroyi, Leacli, a Palasarctic species. 

Distribution. Almost universally distributed. 

The salient characters, as given in the generic synopsis (siqrra), 
will suffice here for purposes of identiiication. The genus is 
probably of world-wide distribution. 



1531. Corixa hieroglypMca, Duf.Hem. p. 86, ff. 85-87 (1833); Fieb. 
Eur. Hem. p. 93 (1801) ; Scnoul. Hem. Het. Brit. Islds. p. 334 
(1892) ; Kirk. Entomoloyist, 1898, p. 3. 

Frontal impression of the male very deep, extending between 
the eyes in a well-defined arch ; greenish 
or yellowish-grey ; pronotum with seven 
or eight transverse black lines, which 
are finely rastrate ; clavus rastrate, 
thickly mottled with short irregular 
black lines, the base pale ; corium not 
rastrate, punctured, with short trans- 
verse fragmentary dark markings ar- 
ranged in three or four series ; legs 
entirely pale ; palae of S straight on the 
anterior edge, regularly curved on the 
posterior. 

Length 5| to Qh millim. 

Hah. Assam ; Khasi Hills {fide Kirhaldy). North Bengal {Brit. 
2Bis.). Bombay {Brit. Mus.). Yarkand (Stoliczka). — A common 
Palsearctic species, and also found in North America. 

VOL. III. E 




Corixa Ideroylyphica. 



50 



COKIXID^. 



Genus MICRONECTA. 

Micronecta, Kirk. Entomolo(jist, 1897, p. 260. 

Sigara, Fabr. Ent. Syst iv, p. 59 (1794), part. ; id. Syst. Rhyng. 
p. 104 (180.3), part.' 

Type, M. mimitissima, Linn., a Palsearctic species. 

Distrihution. PaliBarctic and Oriental Regions. Probably much 
more widelj^ distributed. 

This genus, long known ujider the name of Sigara, is at once 
distinguished from CorLva by the exposed scutelluui and the three- 
jointed antennae. In distriljution it is probably cosmopolitan. 



1532. Micronecta striata, Fieb. (Sigara) (nee Fabr.) Abh. k. hohm. 

Ges. Wiss. V, 8, p. 292, taf. 1, ff. 22-24 (1844) ; Kirk. (Micro- 

nectal Entoviologist, 1898, p. 3. 
Corixa albifrons, Mutsch. Bull. Soc. Nat Mosc. xxxvi, p. 94 (1863). 
Corixa ovivora, Wesfw. Proc. Ent. Soc. 1871, p. iv ; Kirk. 

(Sigara) Entomologist, 1897, p. 238. 
Sigara siva, Kii-k. Entomologist, 1897, p. 240. 

Head pale yellow, somewhat dis- 
coloured afc base ; pronotum with the 
anterior and posterior margins and a 
central transverse line black ; hemelytra 
with longitudinal black lines ; body 
beneath and legs uniformly pale yellow. 
Length 3 to 4 millira. 
Hah. Calcutta {hid. Miis.). Madras 
Presidency ; Canara. Ceylon {Coll. 
Horvath). 

Mr. N. Annandale, in forwarding me 
specimens of this species from Calcutta, 
wrote : — " In October they flew to my 
lamp in numbers every day, evidently coming from a ' tank ' a 
few hundred yards away. Now (NoAember) they are far less 
numerous. Tlie interesting point is that my rooms are at the top 
of a house three stories high, and that therefoi-e these insects 
must have a lofty flight. I have not seen them at the tanks or 
the stoi-y below, where I dine about once a week." Under the 
name of Corira ovivora (mjira) they were reported as destructive 
to the ova of fishes. 




Pig. 30. 

Micronecta striata. 



1533. Micronecta haliploides, Horv. Ann. Mus. Nat. Hung, ii, 
p. 594 (1904). 

Oblong-ovate, convex, whitish-testaceous, shining ; head a little 
broader than pronotum, anteriorly moderately jiroduced, vertex 
levigate, medially distinctly longer than it is on each side near eyes, 
and with a medial minute basal fuscous tubercle ; pronotum short. 



MICRONECTA. 51 

with a transverse interrupted medial fuscous line, anterior and 
posterior margins somewhat acute, nearly parallel, lateral margins 
almost none ; scutellum ferrugineo-testaceous ; liemelytra with 
the margins broadly testaceous-white ; scutellum (clavvis excepted) 
griseo-testaceous, strongly and remotely blackly punctate ; costal 
margin palely flavo-testaceous, before and behind middle obso- 
letely blackly speckled ; subcostal " fossula '' long, nearly ex- 
tending to apex of hemelytra ; apex of right hemelytra marked 
with two small black arcuated spots ; posteror tibiae above 
exterior margins, posterior tarsi, and sometimes a percurrent 
line above black. 

Length 2^ millim. 

Hah. Ceylon ; Colombo {Mus. Hongrols). 






.....N^?^^'- 



Cn\0 






e2 



52 HOMOPTEEA. 



Suborder HOMOPTEEA. 

The principal distinguishing characters of the Homoptera have 
ah'eady been described in our introduction to the whole order 
Rhynchota (vol. i. pp. xxv & xxxvi), and it is unnecessary to 
allude further to them here. Our knowledge of the diiferent 
families composing the suborder is much less complete at present 
than our information respecting the Heteroptera. Of the Cica- 
didae we have ample collections, and those of contiueutal India 
and Ceylon are adequately repi'esented, though we may expect 
many undescribed species to be eventually discovered in the 
eastern confines of our faunistic area and in the islands of the 
Indian Ocean. The Fulgoridse are fairly well known as regards 
the genera and species of the larger and more showy insects, but 
among the subfamilies which comprise the smaller and more 
obscure species vei-y much remains to be done. The Membracida3 
are less known and worked than the Fulgoridae, and a similar 
remark applies to the Cercopidas ; while the Jassidse are practi- 
cally unworked and unrecorded, and probably will prove to be the 
most extensive Family of the Homoptera. 

A-s regards structural characters aud the terms used in referring 
to them, the Introduction has already dealt with most ; those 
specially or exclusively applicable to the Homoptera are when 
necessary supplied with diagrams and explanatory details as 
introductions to each of the families as we come to them in these 
pages. 

The classification of the Homoptera is still an open question, 
and great diversity of opinion exists as to the number of Families 
to be recognized in its division. Westwood (Modern Class. Ins. 
ii. p. 418) with excellent judgment and caution divided the 
Homoptera into three main divisions, viz. : — 

1. TniMERA. Tarsi 3-jointed; antenna3 minute, setigerous ; 
wings areolate. 

2. DiMEKA. Tarsi 2-jointed ; antennae moderate, filiform, 
5-10-jointed; wings subareolate. 

3. MoNOMERA. Tarsi 1-jointed ; antennae 6-25-jointed ; wings 
not areolate. 

Atter an interval of nearly sixty years, Shai'p (Cambr. Nat. 
Hist. vi. p. 544) practically adopts this division, though he does 



HOMOPTERA. 53 

not absolutely follow it, and points out again that the Dimera 
consist of Psyllidae, Aphidae, and Aleurodidae, and the Monomera 
of Coccidae only. These last two divisions are usually grouped 
together under the names of either Phytop7it7iir-es ov Sternorhyncha, 
and the first, with which we now only deal, may be still known 
as Trimera*, or, as written by others, the " Auchenorrhynchous 
Homoptera," 

The division of this section of the Homoptera into families has 
produced much diversity of opinion among entomologists, and it 
seems necessary to repeat that as these Ehynchotal volumes are 
faunistic and not taxonomical in their aim, it is vninecesary to 
enter into a purely classificatory discussion. 

Westwood recognized only three families, Cicadida?, Fulgoridse, 
and Cercopidfe. Stal's division included four, Sti'idulantea, Cer- 
copida, Jassida (including Membracida), and Fulgorida, in which 
view he is supported by so good an authority as Hansen. Most 
modern writers consider the Membracidse a distinct family, and 
thus recognize five families in all, a course with w-hich I fall in 
line. It may be mentioned that Pascoe (A. M. N. H. [5] ix. 
p. 442) proposes thirteen families; and Edwards (Hem. Horn. 
Brit. Islds.), excluding Psi/Uina, enumerates fifteen. 

Hansen (Eatomol. Tidskr. 1890, p. 19) has written an excellent 
memoir on the four families he recognizes as belonging to this 
section, founded on considerations drawn principally from the 
structure of the antennae and legs and from the position of the 
spiracles. As much of this valuable informa*:ion is based on 
minute and microscopical investigation I have added his observa- 
tions to the descriptions of the different families, and for the 
synopsis relied more largely on Stal, who was again the pioneer 
in this field, and whose work enabled the Homoptera to be 
adequately understood. In treating the Membracidae as a distinct 
family, I, in common with other authorities, differ from the views 
of Stal and Hansen, though possibly on morphological grounds 
these authors may be quite right in relegating the Membracids to 
a subfamily of the Jassidae. 

Si/nojjsis of the Families of the Homoptera. 

A. Ocelli three, placed on disk of vertex. 

a. Antennae composed of a short basal joint, sur- 

mounted by a hair-like process divided into 
about five joints ; anterior femora incrassated 
and generally spinose beneath ; abdomen in 
males with a sonorous apparatus on each side of 
base Cicadidae. 

B. Ocelli two (rarely three or entirely absent). 

b. Ocelli placed beneath or near the eyes, usually 

in the cavities of the cheeks. 

* This is a not perfectly constant character, as in some Cicadas the tarsal 
joints are only two. 



54 HOMOPTEEA. 

a. Antennfe very variable in form, placed beneath 

the eyes, usually of two joints terminated by 
a very fine hair. 
a', Prouotum neither armed nor unusually 

developed Fulgoridae. 

c. Ocelli placed between the eyes. 

b. Antennae inserted in front of and between eyes. 
a^. Pronotum prolonged backwards into a hood 

or process of variable form Membracidae. 

d. Ocelli (occasionally absent) placed on vertex. 

a^. Pronotum not prolonged beyond base of 
abdomen. 

c. Posterior tibiae armed with one or two spines, 

and with a cluster of spinules at apex Cercopidae. 

e. Ocelli placed on front margin of head, usually 

almost in a line with front of eyes. 

d. Posterior tibi-e with a double series of spines 

beneath Jassidae. 



CICADIDiE. 



55 



Family CICADID^. 

Stridulantes, Latr. Fam. Nat. E'egne An. p. 426 (1825) ; Amy. Sf 

Serv. Hem. p. 4oS (1843). 
Stridulantia, Bunn. Haudh. i\, 1, pp. 102 & 170 (1835) ; Stal, Hem. 

Afr. iv, p. 1 (1866). 
Cicadidc-e. Westw. Intr. Mod. Class. Ins. ii, p. 420 (1840) ; Dist. 

Mon. Orient. Cicad. p. 1 (1889). 
Cicadariae, Pack, {nee Latr.) Guide Stud;/ Ins. ed. v. p. 533 (1876). 

Ocelli three in number and placed on the disk of vertex of head; 
antennae short, inserted close to eyes and composed of seven 
joints*; head short, broad, and transverse, terminating beneath 
in an elongated rostrum composed of three joints ; thorax large ; 
pronotum short and ti'ansverse, with two oblique discal incisures 
or furrows on each side ; mesonotum (by some writers referred 
to as scutellum) very large and terminating posteriorly in a small 
basal cruciform elevation (which has sometimes been termed 




Fig. 31. — Vlatylomia radha, Dist. 



Body. 



Tcgniina and Wings. 



1. 


Front of bead. 


6. 


Abdomen. 


10. 


Costal membrane. 


16. 


Ulnar areas. 


o 


Vertex of head. 


/. 


Face on liead 


11. 


Costal area. 


17. 


Apical areas 


3. 


Pronotum. 




beneath. 


12. 


Costal vein. 


18. 


Postcostal 


4. 


Mesonotum. 


8. 


Rostrum. 


13. 


Radial vein. 




area. 


5. 


Cruciform elevation. 


9. 


Opercula. 


14. 


Basal cell. 


19. 


Clavalarea. 


ba 


. Tympanal coverings. 






15. 


Radial area. 


20. 


Clavas. 



* This includes the two joints of the peduncle or basal joint ; the flagellum 
consists of five joints, and, according to Hansen, on the underside of the first 
and second joints there is a very large number of sensory organs, and on the 
last three joints he has found a few of the smaller examples of these organs. 



56 CIOABTDiE. 

the metathoracic cross); abdomen consisting of six segments 
and an anal appendage ; anterior femora incrassated and nearly 
always more or less spino.se beneath ; tegmina and ^vings usually 
hyaline, sometimes opaque, their venation distinct and usually 
furcate in ramification, but occasionally reticulate. To these cha- 
racters may be added those given by Hansen, viz.: no empodium: 
second pair of abdominal spiracles placed in a transverse ventral 
furrow, looking anteriorly and medianly ; third to seventh pairs 
placed in the sternites, not in the pleura. 

The terms used in subsequent descriptions for structural details 
are explained in the accompanving figure (p. 55). 

The Cicadidte possess a distinctive attribute in their loud stridu- 
lation, which is, however, confined to the males. Xenarchus long 
since wrote, " Happy the Cicadas's lives, for they all have voiceless 
wives."' The sound given forth varies in intensity, but is scarcely 
to be described as a musical production ; it has been differently 
described by travellers in various parts of the world as resembling 
a rail\vay-\\'histle, a knife-grinder, razor-grinder, &c., while some 
field-naturalists maintain that the noise is distributed \\ith the 
power of a ventriloquist, and that it is difficult to locate the 
insects by their cries ; the writer's experience, however, both in 
the Ethiopian and Oriental Eegions, scarcely confirms this hypo- 
thesis. The structure and mechanism of the sound-producing 
apparatus liave been studied and described by a number of ento- 
mologists and other naturalists, of whom we may mention the 
names of Eeaumiu', Goureau and Solier, Duges, Landois, Maj^er, 
Carlet, and Jno. C. Gallon. Of these perhaps Carlet has given us 
the best information, or at all e^'ents the foundation on which others 
have worked. The sound-producing apparatus is covered beneath 
by two flaps, which, as pointed out by AVestwood, are, " in fact, the 
dilated sides of the metasternum ; " these have been sometimes 
incorrectly referred to as " drums," but are really covering-flaps, 
or, as they are generally called (and in this volume alluded to), 
opercula. These structures in shape, length, and direction fre- 
quently afford the most reliable dift'ereutiation for species, and in 
the Dundubiaria exhibit the most striking variety. The real drums 
or tympana are laterally situate near the upper surface of the base 
of the abdomen, and are either concealed by tympanal coverings 
as in the Cicadime, partially concealed as in the Gseaninaj, or 
completely exposed as in the Tibicininte. The females are pro- 
vided with a strongly developed ovipositor, by which they are 
enabled to pierce the branches of trees and there deposit their 
eggs, which in some cases amount to a very large number. 

The Cicadas are victims fo many enemies and are apparently 
defenceless creatures. Among their persecutors may be mentioned 
species of Mantis (Orthoptera), spiders, dragon-flies, hornets, 
wasps, AsiUdcr (Diptera), and many birds ; they have also been 
found to be devoured by trout both in Japan and iNew Zealand, 
and are used as food by some of the primitive races of mankind. 
In India, as I am informed by Mr. E. M. Dixon, they afford pre}'^ 
to the Lesser Kestrel {Tinmmculus cenchris) and the Shikra {Astur 



CICADID.'E. 57 

badms), whilst a certain number are also killed by the Ashy 
Drongo (Dicninis longicaudatus) and the Jungle-Crow (Corvns 
mncrorhynchus). Their worst enemy, however, accordiug to my 
informant, appears to be a lizard {Calotes versicolor), which kills 
and devours a large number. 

Probably about one thousand species have been described from 
various parts of the world, but a complete synomymic catalogue 
on which I have been long engaged is not yet com]:)]eted. In 
Britain we possess one species, and tiiat a rare insect, but in the 
Tropics, and especially the Eastern Tropics, they are abundant. 
Their life-histories are" little known, and should prove to be of the 
most interesting character, for of one Nearctic species, Tihicina 
septendecim, it seems to be conclusively proved that in its imma- 
ture condition it lives beneath the surface of the ground for a 
period of some seventeen years, during which it feeds on roots, &c., 
aud that it has but a short life as a perfect winged insect. 

Some considerable difference in generic arrangement will be 
found in the enumeration of the Cicadidfe in this volume and in 
my ' Monograph of the Oriental Cicadida;.' This has been brought 
about, or rather necessitated, by a thorough revision of all the 
known genera, aud an attempt to fix their true characters from 
an examination of the structure of their original types. I have 
constructed synopses of all tlie genera I have seen (and I have 
been able to examine most) from all parts of the world, and 
these have have been published in the 'Annals and Magazine of 
jN'at. Hist.' during the last two years. 

• The Cicadida} in my view may be divided into three distinct 
subfamilies : — 

A. Tympanal coverings present. 

a. Tympanal coverings entirely concealing tym- 
panal orifices Cicadina'. 

aa. Tympanal coverings imperfect, more or less 

exposing orifices Gceanince. , 

B. Tympanal coverings absent Tihicinince. 

These characters are fully shown in the following illustration : — 

Fig. 32. 



rJf^ 






/. 2. 3. 

1. Bunduhia intemerata, Walk. With lympanal coverings 

complete Cicadincp. 

2. Terjmosia ffccnesa, Dial. With tympanal coverings rudi- 

mentary Gaanince. 

3. Qiiintilia suhvittata, Walk. With tympaiml coverings 

entirely absent Tibicinince. 



58 CICADID.E. 

Subfamily I. CICADINtE. 

Cicadinee, Dist. Mon. Orient. Cicad. ^. 3 (1889). 

This subfamily, recognized by the complete covering of the 
tympanal orifices by the tympanal flaps, has a world-wide distri- 
bution, but is more strongly represented in the Eastern than in 
the AVestern Hemisphere ; it is also in the first that the genera 
containing the most gigantic species occur, illustrated in this 
fauna by Cri/ptoti/uqxma, Platylomia, and Pomponia. These genera 
are not found in the Ethiopian Region, and it is only in Madagascar 
M'here a similar development in size and colour occurs ; with the 
exception of this island, the Oriental and Malayan Eegions may 
be accepted as the headquarters of the Cicadinse. 

Division POLYNEURARIA. 
Polyneiiraria, Dist. A. M. N. H. (7) xiv, p. 293 (1904). 

Lateral margins of the pronotum ampliated, and more or less 
angularly produced. Head (including eyes) about as wide or 
wider than base of mesonotum, or sometimes little more than 
two-thirds of its width ; costal membrane of tegmina sometimes 
much arched and dilated, the apical areas usually eight in number, 
but in a few genera smaller in size and much more numerous ; 
tegmina varying in hue from pale hyaline to dark opaque. 

Synopsis of Genera. 

A. Tegmina with eight apical areas. 

a. Head (including eyes) about as wide or 

wider than base of mesonotum ; not 
frontally produced, more or less truncate 
and deflected in front of eyes ; costal meu> 
brane of tegmina not prominently dilated 
nor arched at base Platypleuba, p. 58. 

b. Head (including eyes) only about or little 

more than two-thirds the width of base 
of mesonotum ; costal membrane of 
tegmina prominently arched at base and 
dilated Pycxa, p. 71. 

B. Tegmina with numerous, always more than 

eight apical areas. 
a. Tegmina semihyaline, only more or less 
reticulately veined on apical area ; opercula 

not quite reaching middle of abdomen . . Angamiana, p. 72. 
Tegmina opaque ; venation on apical half 
dense and furcate ; opercula not extending 
beyond basal segment Polyneura, p. 73. 

Genus PLATYPLEURA. 

Platypleura, Amy. Sj- Serv. Hem. p. 465 (1843) ; Stdl, Hem. Afr. iv, 
pp. 2 & 9 (1800) ; Atkins. J. A. S. Beng. iv, p. 144 (1860) ; Dist. 
Mon. Orient. Cicad. p. 19 (1889). 

Subgen. Oxypleura, Amy. Sf Serv. Hem. p. 409 (1843). 



PLATYPLEURA. 59 

Siibgen. Pcecilopsaltria, Stal, Hem. Afr. iv, p. 2 (1866) ; Dist. Man. 
Orient, dead. p. 5 (1889). 

Type. Genus Flatypleura, P. stridula, Linn. ; a S. African species. 

Subgen. O.iyplfnra, O. clara, Amy. & Serv. ; an Ethiopian 

species. 
Subgen. Pcecilopsaltria, P. octogiittata, Fabr. 

Distribution. Ethiopian, Oriental, Malayan, and Eastern Palse- 
arctie Regions *. 

Body robust, somewhat short; abdomen in male about as long as 
space between apex of head and base of cruciform elevation : head 
broad, truncate anteriorly, including eyes a little or scarcely broader 
than base of raesonotura, ocelli about twice and sometimes thrice 
the distance from eyes as from each other, face moderately convex 
not prominent above ; pronotum with the lateral margins ampliated 
or laminately medially angulate ; anterior femora not prominently 
spined ; metasternum with a central elevated plate-like process, 
which is centrally sulcated and posteriorly somewhat sinuately 
truncate ; tympana practically concealed by the tympanal flaps or 
coverings ; opercula in male short, broad, their apices more or less 
convexly rounded ; tegmina and wings either hyaline or more 
or less opaquely coloured, tegmina with the basal cell a little longer 
than broad ; the costal membrane only moderately dilated or arched 
at base, apical areas eight in number. 

Oxypleiu-a, Amy. & kServ., merely includes species with hyaline, 
non-opaque tegmina and wings: Pcecilopsaltria,^{ti\.,'L have hitherto 
regarded as distiiict from PJatypleiira by the slightly greater width 
of the head including eyes, but I now think that difference alone 
is too slight for generic separation ; it may, however, be stated 
that the generic form described by Stal is more dominant in the 
Oriental Region, while the character of typical Platyphura is a 
marked feature in the Ethiopian species. 

I. Head including eyes a little wider than base of mesonotum. 

a. Breadth hetween pronotal anr/les greater than space between 

apex of head and base of cruciform elevation. 

b. Tegmina and wings hyaline, the first sometimes more or less 

spotted. 

c. Pronotal margins medially angularly produced. 
d. nostrum extending to half the length of abdomen. 

1534. Platypleura bufo, Walk. (Oxyplem-a) List Horn. \, p. 27 (1850) ; 
Atkins. (Platvpleura) J. A. S. Beng. liii, p. 216 (1885); id. 
J. A. S. Beng. Iv, p. 149 (1886) ; Dist. (Pcecilopsaltria) Man. 
Orient. C'icad. p. 5, t. viii, f. 20 a, h (1889). 

Head and pronotum brownish ochraceous ; head with two some- 

* Goding and Froggatt have recently described a species from Northern 
Australia as belonging to Platypleura. They, however, describe it as similar to 
the Madagascar species P. guttidcda, Sign., which I place in my genus Yanga. 



60 CICABIDiE. 

what broken black transverse fascias, the first at anterior margin 
of front, the second between eyes ; pronotum with the posterior 
margin much paler, the lateral margins a little darker, two central 
lines on disk and the incisures black ; mesonotum purplish-brown, 
with two small central anterior obconical spots and the lateral 
areas black ; abdomen piceous, segmental margins pale castaneous, 
tympanal coverings and apex brownish-ochraceous ; sternum and 
legs brownish-ochraceous ; opercula pale with their disks piceous ; 
tegmina and wings hyaline slightly tinged with ochraceous, veins 
brownish-ochraceous ; tegmina with costal membrane and area, 
base including basal cell, and extreme base of wings brownish- 
ochraceous. 

Length excl. tegm. 29 ; exp. tegm. 86 ; breadth between pronot. 
angl. 19 millim. 

Hah. " East India " {Inglis, Brit. Mus.). 

I only know this species by the unique type in the British 
Museum. 

P. bnfo is to be recognized by the great breadth of the 
pronotum. 

aa. Breadth between jpronotal angles about equal to space between 
apex of liead and base of cruciform elevation. 

dd. Rostrum onln just passing posterior coxce. 

153-3. Platypleura mackinnoni, Bist: Tr. H. S. 1904, p. 667, pi. xxix, 
f. 1 a, h. 

Head and pronotum ochraceous ; head with the lateral margins 
of front, face (excluding basal spot), anterior lateral margins of 
vertex, and a broad transverse fascia bet\^een eyes (including the 
area of the ocelli) black ; pronotum with the basal margin strami- 
neous, its disk, with a central longitudinal fascia (much broadened 
at base), and the incisures, black ; mesonotum pale castaneous, with 
two anterior, fused, obconical spots, on each side of which is a 
longer obconical spot, and a large cuiwed basal spot with its apex 
prolonged, black ; basal cruciform elevation pale castaneous with 
its central area black ; abdomen black, apex and margins of the 
tympana ochraceous ; legs, rostrum, posterior margins of abdominal 
segments and apical segment (more or less) ochraceous ; tegmina 
pale talc-like, the venation ochraceous on basal half, piceous on 
apical area, extreme basal area piceous : wings pale hyaline, the 
venation ochraceous, about basal tliird piceous streaked with 
ochraceous. 

J . Opercula almost meeting interiorly, their lateral and poste- 
rior margins obhque, their apices reaching the base of the second 
abdominal segment. 

Length excl. tegm., S & ? , 25 ; exp. tegm. 75; breadth 
between pronotal angles 14 millim. 

Hah. Mussooree : Dehra Dun (P. W. MacUnnon, 18/6/1903). 



PLATYPLEUBA. 



61 



1536. Platyplenra polita, IFalk. (Oxypleura) List Horn, i, p. 29 
(18.jO) ; B/ifL Cisf. Entom. \, p. 196 (1874) ; Dist (Poecilo- 
psaltria) Mon. Orient, dead. p. 7, tab. i. f. 16, a, b (1889> 

Head, pronotum, and mesouotum brownish-oc-hraceous ; head 
with some spots on front and a broken transverse fascia between 
eyes blacJv ; pronotum witli one or two central spots and the 
incisures black ; mesonotum Avith four obconical spots (of which 
the two central are shortest), a central lanceolate spot, and two 
small spots in front of cruciform elevation black ; abdomen black, 
with the tympanal coverings, posterior margins of most of the 
segments, and a spot on each side of anal segment ochraceous ; 




Fig. 33. — Platypleura polita. 

head beneath, sternum, legs, and opercula ochraceous, a narrow 
, fascia between eyes, and interior area of opercula, black ; abdomen 
beneath as above, but more castaueous than black ; tegmina and 
wings pale hyaline, the veins brownish-ochraceous ; tegmina with 
transverse veins at bases of apical areas, costal membrane and 
area, and sometimes other spots as shown in the above figure, 
fuscous-brown. 

Length excl. tegm. 23 ; exp. tegm. 70 ; breadth between pronotal 
angles 12 to 12| millim. 

Hah. Karwar, Canara, Trivandrnra. 



CO. Fronotal margins subtruncate, not medially angulale. 

1537. Platyplenra cervina, Walh. List Horn, i, p. 16 (1850) ; Atkins. 
J. A. S. Bentj. liii, p. 217 (1885); Dist. (Pcecilopsaltria) Mon. 
Orient, dead. p. 8, tab. v, f. 12 a, h (1889). 
Platypleura straminea, Walk. List Horn. \, p. 17 (1850). 

Brownish-ochraceous, lateral and posterior margins of pronotum 
and abdomen a little paler, and mesouotum a little darker in hue ; 
mesonotum with two obscure central anterior obconical spots ; 
tegmina and wings hyaline strongly tinged with pale ochraceous, 
the veins of both and costal membranes and area of tegmina 
ochraceous ; transverse veins at bases of third, fourth, fifth, 
seventh, and eighth apical areas to tegmina margined with pale 
fuscous, and sometimes a small spot of the same colour on the 



62 CICADID.I. 

longitudinal veins to the second and third apical areas ; lateral 
pronotal angles a little ampliate, but subtruncate, not medially 
angulate. 

Length excl. tegm. 18 ; exp. tegm. 50 ; breadth between pronotal 
angles 9 inillim. 

Hah. North Bengal (Miss Campbell, Brit. Mus.). 

Apparently a scarce species ; my own collection contains one 
unlocalized male specimen. 

bb. Teqmina and winr/s h)/aline, hut tvith hasal areas of hoth 
more or less opaque. 

. Pronotal margins ampliated, hut not medially angulate. 

1538. Platypleura basialba. Walk. (Oxvpleura) List Horn, i, p. 26 

(IS.jO) ; Butl. (Platypleura) Cist. Ent. i, p. 191 (1874) ; Atkim. 
J. A. S. Bern/. Iv, p. 147 (1886) ; Dist. (PcBcilopsaltria) Mon. 
Orient. Cicad. p. 9, tab. viii, f. 19 a, b (1889). 

Head olivaceous, base of front, anterior margins of vertex, and a 
narrow fascia between eyes black ; pronotum pale tawny brown, 
lateral and posterior margins paler, a short central discal line, two 
posterior small central spots, incisures, and edge of lateral margins 
black ; mesonotum pale brown, with four obcouical spots (the two 
central ones shortest), a central lanceolate spot, and two small 
rounded spots in front of cruciform elevation black ; abdomen 
above black, the tympanal coverings and segmental margins pale 
olivaceous ; body beneath and legs pale ochraccous ; a somewhat 
imperfect fascia between eyes, crossing base of face, black ; abdo- 
men beneath veiy strongly greyishly pilose, more or less shaded with 
piceous ; tegraina and wings hyaline ; tegraina with the venation, 
costal area and membrane, and basal cell pale olivaceous, basal 
third pale obscure fuscous with a central cretaceous fascia ; wings 
with nearly basal half blacl^, and tlie veins brownish ; body above 
and beneath more or less greyishly pilose. 

Length excl. tegm. 21 ; exp. tegm. 62 ; breadth between pronotal 
angles 11 millim. 

Hah. North Bengal {Miss CampheJl, Brit. Mus.) ; Dehra Dun 
{MacTcinnon) ; Mhow (Forsayeth, Brit. Mus.). 

c". Pronotal margins medially a)igulate. 

1539. Platypleura coelebs, Stdl, Tr. E. S. (3) i, p. 573 (1863) ; Atkins. 

J. A. S. Benq. liii, p. 313 (1885); Dist. (Poecilopsaltria) Mon. 
Orient. Cicad. p. 12, tab. i. f. 12 a, b (1889). 

Head ochraceous ; front (excluding a central spot), lateral margins 
of vertex, and a transverse fascia between eyes black ; pronotum 
pale castaneous, lateral and posterior margins stramineous ; meso- 
notum castaneous, with four large obconical spots (the two central 
ones smallest), a central lanceolate spot, and two small spots in 
front of cruciform elevation black ; abdomen black, the posterior 
segmental margins and tympanal coverings ochraceous ; head 



PLATTPLEUEA. 



63 



beneath, sternum, legs, rostrum, and opercula ochraceous ; a 
transverse fascia between eyes, inner margins of eyes, and apex 
of rostrum black ; abdomen beneath castaneous, posterior seg- 
mental margins and apex ochraceous ; tegmina hyaline or talc-like, 
about basal half creamy opaque, shaded with pale fuscous, and 
more or less defined by an indistinct curved pale fuscous fascia, 
costal membrane and area and the veins dark ochraceous, trans- 
verse veins at bases of second, third, fourth, fifth, and seventh 
apical areas slightly inf uscate ; wings stramineous for about two- 
thirds their area from base, outwardly margined with fuscous, 
remaining area pale hyaline, the veins dark ochraceous ; rostrum 
passing postez'ior coxa3. 

Length excl. tegm. 22 to 23 ; exp. tegm. 64 to 68 ; breadth 
between pronotal angles 11 millim. 

Hah. iJeccan {Coll. Dist.). China; Chusan {Ind. Mus.). 

bbb. Tegmina and wings with the base of first and the wliole of 
second opaque. 

c^. Pronotal margins amjyliate, very obtusely medially angulate. 

d'. Rostrum reaching middle of abdomen. 

1540. Platypleura watsoni, Bist. (Pcecilopsaltria) A. M. X. H. (6) 

XX, p. 18 (1897). 

2 . Head, pi'onotum, and mesonotum brownish-ochraceous ; head 
with transverse margin to front, a spot above base of antennae, 
area of ocelli, and transverse fascia connecting same with eyes 
black ; pronotum with incisures and two central fasciae black ; 
mesonotum with four obconical spots (the central two shortest), a 




Fig. 34. — Platypleura watsoni, § . 

central lanceolate spot, and two small spots in front of cruciform 
elevation black ; abdomen piceous, ochraceously pilose, segmental 
margins ochraceous ; sternum, legs, rostrum, and opercula dull 
ochraceous ; face with the central sulcation and a transverse fascia 
between eyes black ; abdomen beneath as above, but not ochra- 
ceously pilose ; tegmina talc-like, veins brown, brownish at base, 
with three irregular transverse brown fasciae enclosing rounded 
creamy spots, a double row of outer marginal spots situate on 



6i CICADID.^E. 

longitudinal veins to apical areas ; wings stramineous, the apical 
margin and a transverse fascia before apex dark castaneous, these 
castaneous markings enclose a large subapical stramineous spot. 
Eostrum reaching apex of second abdominal segment. 

Length excl. tegm., § , 22 ; exp. tegm. 62 ; breadth between 
pronotal angles 10 millim. 

Hab. Burma, North Chin Hills (Watson). 

d". Rostrum just passing posterior coxa;. 

1541. Platypleura westwoodi, Stal, Tr. E. S. (3) i. p. 571 (1863); 

Dist. (Pcecilopsaltria) Mo7i. Orient, dead. p. 15, tab. i, f. 18 a, b 
(1889). 

Body olivaceous, thickly greyishly pilose ; head with a narrow, 
obscure, black fascia between eyes ; pronotum with the incisures, 
two small central posterior spots, and outer edges of lateral 
marginal areas black ; mesonotum with four obcouical black spots, 
the central spots shortest, a central lanceolate spot and two small 
rounded spots in front of cruciform elevation black ; basal abdo- 
minal segmental margins black ; head beneath M-ith an obscure 
black fascia between eyes ; tegmina semihyaline, basal third pale 
fuscous, the base and basal area paler, the last with three fuscous 
spots, costal membrane and area green, venation brown or fuscous, 
a broad curved fascia crossing beyond cell, a large triangular sub- 
apical patch, and broad outer marginal spots fuscous, the last with 
paler centres ; wings bright ochraceous, basal and apical areas 
(connected on posterior margin) castaneous, two greyish spots on 
outer margin, one near apex, the other near anal angle. 

Length excl. tegm. 25 ; exp. tegm. 76 ; breadth between pronotal 
singles 15 millim. 

Hah. Ceylon {Green). 

c'. Pronotal marrjins distinctly medially angaJate. 
d^. Rostrum onhj just pKissiny posterior coccce. 

1542. Platypleura basi-viridis. Walk. List Horn. i. p. 18 (1850) ; 

Dist. (Pcecilopsaltria) Mon. Orient. Cicad. p. 8, tab. ix, f. 6 a, b 

(1889). 

Head and thorax above brownish-ochraceous ; head with a large 
spot on each side of front and a transverse fascia between eyes 
black ; pronotum with the lateral and posterior margins stra- 
mineous, a discal augulated spot, two small spots at centre of 
posterior margin, an oblique spot behind eyes, the incisures and 
edge of lateral margins, black ; mesonotum with four obconical 
spots (the central ones shortest), a central lanceolate spot, and four 
small basal spots, black ; abdomen black, tympanal coverings and 
posterior segmental margins ochraceous ; body beneath and legs 
dull ochraceous ; central sulcation to face, an irregular fascia 
between eyes, and apices of rostrum and tarsi black ; tegmina 



PLATYPLEUEA. 65 

hyaline, basal third semi-opaque, veius and costal membrane 
brownish, the last with two blackish spots, basal cell brownish 
with a darker spot, a curved fascia crossing near base, followed 
by a more waved macular fascia, a dark and outwardly concave 
macular fascia crossing beyond end of radial area, an oblique 
fascia on the transverse veins at bases of apical areas extending 
to half the breadth of tegmina, and a double series of small 
obscure spots at apices of longitudinal veins to apical areas, dark 
brownish ; wings ochraceous, margins broadly, especially at apex, 
dark brownish, with a pale marginal cretaceous spot at apex and 
centre of posterior margin. 

Length excl. tegm., c5" , 18 ; exp. tegm. 52 to 55 ; breadth between 
pronotal angles 10 millini. 

Hah. Bombay Prov. ; Karwar {^Ind. Mus. and Coll. Dist.). 

1543. Platypleura sphinx. Walk. List Horn. \, p. 13 (1850) ; Atkins. 

J. A. H. Benq. liii. p. 213 (1885); Dht. (Poecilopsaltria) Mon. 
Orient. Oica'd. p. 13, tab, viii, f. 16 a, b, c (1889). 

Body pale tawny-brown, shortly and palely pilose ; head with 
two transveri5e brown fasciae ; mesonotura with four obconical 
spots, the inner two very short, the outermost very long, a central 
longitudinal spot, and two small spots in front of the cruciform 
elevation, fuscous-brown ; tegmina hyaline, talc-like, basal area 
pale tawny-brown, with the greater part of the radial area and 
three discal spots hyaline, veins and costal membrane and area 
pale tawny-brown, a broken oblique fascia at end of ulnar areas 
and anteriorly continued to apex, and elongate spots at apices of 
longitudinal veins to apical areas, pale tawny-brown ; wings pale 
tawny-brown, the veins much paler, above basal half of anal area 
and a broad central fasciate spot pale obscure stramineous, a creamy- 
white spot on posterior and apical margins. 

Length excl. tegm., <5 , 16 ; exp. tegm. 46 ; breadth between 
pronotal angles 8 millim. 

Hah. North Bengal (Camphell Sf WarivicTc, Brit. Mus.); Mhow 
(ForsayetJi, Brit. Mus.). 

1544. Platypleura capitata, Oliv. (Cicada) Unc. Meth. v, p. 754. 34, 

tab. cxii, f. 10 (1790) ; Stdl (Poecilopsallria), Berl. ent. Zeit. x, 
p. 169 (1866) ; Dist. Mon. Orient. Cicad. p. 18 (1889). 

Oxvpleura subrufa, Walk. Lid Horn, i, p. 25 (1850) ; Atkins. 
(Platypleura) J. A. S. BeiKj. liii, p. 216 (1885); Dist. (Poeci- 
lopsaltria) Mon. Orient. Cicad. p. 9, tab. i, f. 1 a, b (1889). 

Stoll, Ci(j. f. 103. 

Head and pronotum brownish-ochraceous ; head with base and 
lateral margins of front, anterior margins of vertex, and transverse 
fascia between eyes black ; pronotum with the posterior and lateral 
margins stramineous, edges of lateral margins and a small obscure 
central discal spot black ; mesonotum pale castaneous, with four 
obconical spots (the two central shortest), a central elongate spot, 

TOL. III. r 



66 CICADID^. 

and two small spots in front of the cruciform elevation black ; abdo- 
men black, with the posterior segmental margin castaneous, tympanal 
coverings brownish-ochraceous ; body beneath, rostrum, sternum, 
opercula, and legs ochraceous ; central sulcation to face, and an 
irregular fascia between eyes, blaclv ; abdomen beneath castaneous, 
the posterior segmental margins paler ; tegmina hyaline, with about 
basal third opaque, base, a subbasal oblique fascia, and a shorter 
transverse fascia near middle umber-brown, space between these 
fasciae obscure creamy-white, veins and costal membrane brownish- 
ochraceous, transverse veins at bases of apical areas infuscated, and 
some elongate spots on apices of longitudinal veins to apical areas 
fuscous ; wings dark umber-brown, with a central obscure creamy 
fascia not reaching posterior margin, apical margin, and a spot on 
posterior margin creamy-white. 

Length excl. tegm, 28 ; exp. tegm. 75 ; breadth between pronotal 
angles 14 millim. 

Hah. " [Southern India "' {Coll. Dist.). Cejdon; Colombo (Leivis). 

1545. Platypleura hanipsoni, Bist. (Poscilopsaltria) A. M. N. H. 

(5) XX, p. 226 (1887) ; id. Mon. Orient. Cicad. p. 11, tab. i, 
f. 8, a, b (1889). 

2 . Head pale ochraceous, front with basal and linear black 
markings, vertex Avith a transverse fascia between eyes and a 
linear spot near its anterior angles ; pronotum greenish-ochraceous, 
its lateral and posterior margins reddish-ochraceous, a central 
longitudinal fascia (widened anteriorly and posteriorly), the inci- 
sures, and outer borders of lateral marginal ai'eas black ; meso- 
notum greenish-ochraceous, with four obconical spots (the central 
two smallest), a central lanceolate spot, and two rounded spots in 
front of cruciform elevation black ; abdomen above and beneath 
black ; face black, the transverse striations ochraceous, a black 
fascia between face and eyes ; sternum ochraceously pilose ; abdo- 
minal segmental margins and anal appendage ochraceous ; legs 
castaneous, streaked or spotted wiVa piceous and ochraceous ; 
tegmina hyaline, venation brown, basal third opaque, with darker 
transverse markings and a black streak in basal cell, a double 
irregular series of spots crossing at near middle, a fascia at bases 
of upper apical ai^eas, and a few small subapical and marginal spots 
dark brown ; wings brownish-ochraceous, paler at apex and very 
pale across centre, with a white marginal spot near anal angle ; 
veins brown. 

Length excl. tegm. 23 ; exp. tegm. 70 ; breadth between pronotal 
angles 13 millim. 

Hab. Nilgiri Hills, northern slopes, 3500 and 5000 feet 
{Hampson). 

1546. Platypleura affinis, Fahr. (Tettigonia) Syst. Rhyng. p. 37. 22 

(1803) ; Germ. (Cicada) in Thon, Ent. Arch, ii, 2, p. 1 (1830) : 
Stdl (Poecilopsaltria), Mem. Fabr. ii, p. 4 (18G9) ; Atkins. 



PLATYP-LEURA. 67 

J. A. S. Beng. liii, p. 211 (1885) ; Dist. Mon. Orient. Cicad. 

p. IS (1889). 
Platypleiira nicobarica, Butl. A. M. N. H. (4) xix, p. 311 

(1877) ; Atkins. J. A. S. Beng. liii, p. 213 (1885) ; Dist. 

(Poecilopyaltria) Mon. Orient. Cicad. p. 12, tab. i, f. 3, a, h 

(1889). 
Var. Platvpleura distincta, Atkins. J. A. S. Beng. liii, p. 233 

(1885). ' 

Head, prouotuiu, and niesonotum browuish-ocbraceoiis ; anterior 
margin of front, a broad fascia between eyes, and edges of tbe 
dilated pronotal lateral margins black ; mesonotum with four 
obcouical spots (the two central spots shortest), a central lanceolate 
spot, and two small spots in front of the cruciform elevation 
black ; abdomen black, the posterior segmental margins ochra- 
ceons ; head beneath, sternum, legs, and rostrum ochraceous ; a 
narrow fascia between eyes, central snlcation, aud posterior margin 
of face black ; abdomen beneath dark castaneous, the segmental 
margins ochraceous ; tegmina with about basal half ochraceous 
aud opaque, with two spots on costal membrane, a spot in basal 
cell and two in radial area dark brown ; apical half of tegmina 
pale hyaline, a fascia not quite crossing beyond radial area, an 
oblique fascia crossing the apices of the upper three ulnar areas, 
and an irregular double series of spots near apices of longitudinal 
veins to apical areas brownish-ochraceous ; wings ochraceous, 
the outer margins and a transverse discal fascia dark brown, a 
creamy spot on posterior margin. 

• The var. distincta, Atkins., differs by tbe somewhat smaller and 
less intense black markings on head and thorax, aud by the wings 
having the subapical discal fascia fused with outer margin. 

Length excl. tegm. 25 : exp. tegm. 76 ; breadth between pronotal 
angles 14| to 15 millim. 

Hah. jNicobar Islands. 



d*. nostrum reachincj base of abdomen. 

1547. Platypleiira OCtoguttata, Fabr. (Tettigonia) Ent. Syst. Suppl. 
p. 515. 22-23 (1798) ; id. Syst. Bhyng. p. 39. 33 (1803j ; Coqueb. 
III. Icon. Ins. i, p. 34, t. 9, f. 1 (1799) ; StSl (Poecilopsaltria), 
Berl. ent. Zeit. p. 168 (1886) ; Dist. Mon. Orient. Cicad. p. 10, 
tab. i, f. 5, a, b (1899). 
Oxypleura sanguiflua, Walk. List Horn, i, p. 24 (1850) ; id. Ins. 
Saund. Horn. p. 2 (1858). 

Head ochraceous, margins of front, a transverse fascia between 
and a spot behind the eyes black ; pronotum pale castaneous, the 
posterior and lateral margins ochraceous, two very small central 
black spots, aud the edges of the lateral margins sometimes black 
or piceous ; mesouotum ochraceous, with four large obconical spots 
(the two central shortest), a central lanceolate spot, and two spots 
(souietimes fused) in front of the cruciform elevation black ; 
abdomen black, shortly greyishly pilose, posterior segmental 

r2 



68 CICADID^. 

margins and tympanal coverings dull ocbraceous ; body beneath 
and legs dull ocbraceous ; abdomen thickly greyishly pilose ; a 
transverse fascia between ejes and central sulcatiou to face, some 
sternal spots, basal areas of opercula, and apex of rostrum black ; 
tegmina hyaline, about basal half opaque, veins and costal mem- 
brane brownish -ocbraceous, the last with two brown spots, a basal 
patch, a broad transverse fascia at about one-third from base and 
a waved fascia united to it at apex of radial area, transverse veins 
at bases of apical areas, and a series of small spots near apices of 
longitudinal veins to apical areas dark chocolate-brown, space 
between basal fascise and a spot near apex of radial area creamy- 
white ; wings dark chocolate-brown, with basal sanguineous rays, 
and the outer margin (not extending to anal angle) pale white 
hyaline. 

Yar. a. "Wings with a subcostal ocbraceous patch. 

Var. 6. AVings ocliraceous, the outer area only chocolate-brown^ 
and the sanguineous rays entirely absent. 

Length excL tegm. 24 to 26 ; exp. tegm. 73 to 85 ; breadth 
between pronotal angles l-tmillim. 

Bah. Pan jab ; Wazeerabad (Hearsay); North Bengal {Camp- 
hell) ; Kaina Tal {Stockh. IIus.). Mussooree {Maclinuon) ; Eaj- 
pootana ; Mt. Aboo (Ind. Mus.). Jodhpoor and Sambalpoor 
{Ind. 31us.). Karachi (Ind. Mus.). Bombay (Leith). Ivarvvar 
(Coll. Dist.). Comihatove (Walhottse). JN'ilgiri Hills (Hampson). 
Shivarai Hills (Bidie 4' Morris). Mhow (ForsayetJi, Brit, Mus.). 
Ceylon (Green). 

A very variable species. 

bbbb. Tegmina and ivings u'holly ojiaque ; irronotal margins 
medially angidate ; rostrum reaching base of abdomen. 

1548. Platypleura andamana, Dist. Tr. E. S. 1878, p. 174 ; Atkins. 
J. A. S. Beng. liii, p. 1*14 (1885) ; Dist. (rcecilopsaltria) Mon. 
Orient. Cicud. p. 17, tab. i, f. 9, a, b (1889). 

Tawny-brown, pubescent ; head with a spot on each side of 
front and a transverse fascia between eyes black ; pronotum with 
two small central posterior spots and the incisures black ; meso- 
notum with four obconical spots (the two central smallest), 
a central lanceolate spot, and two small spots in front of cruciform 
elevation black ; abdomen black, posterior segmental margins dull 
ocbraceous and strongly and palely pilose; body beneath and legs 
brownish-ochraceous ; tegmina brown, opaque with pale semi- 
opaque markings, especially on apical half, basal third thickly 
covered with pale pubescence and containing five dark brown 
spots — two in radial area, one at base of third and two in fourth 
ulnar area, remainder of tegmina less pubescent with numerous 
greyish-white spots, the most prominent being a transverse series 
at end of apical area and a waved series commencing about middle 
of upper ulnar area, where they are very distinct beneath, a double 



PLATTrLETTRA. 69 

series of small brown spots near apices of longitudinal veins to 
apical areas, a dull whitish spot on inner angle of outer margin ; 
wings very pale castaneous, with dark brown outer margin and 
suffused darlv brown discal streaks. 

Length excl. tegm. 22 to 24| ; exp. tegm. 76| to 84 ; breadth 
between pronotal angles 14 millim. 

Hab. Andaman Islds. {De Roepstorff). 

II. Head including eyes not, or scarcely, broader than base of 
mesouotum ; pronotal margins medially augulate. 

a. Rostrum passing base of abdomen. 

1549. Platypleura nobilis. Germ. (Cicada) in Thon, Ent. Arch, ii, 2, 
p. 2 (1830); iStal (Platvpleura), Ofv. Vet.-Ak. Fork. 1862, 
p. 479; Atkins. J. A. S. Beni). liii, p. 215 (1885) ; Bist. Man. 
Orient. Cicad. p. 21, tab. i, f.'l3, a, b (1889). 

Cicada hemiptera, Gner. B'elang. Voy. Ind. p. 500 (1S34). 

Platypleura seiuilucida, Walk. LiM Horn, i, p. 20 (1850). 

Platypleura gemina, Walk. List Horn, i, p. 21 (1850). 

Head, pronorum, and mesonotum brownish or greenish-ochra- 
ceous ; head with the inner margins of eyes and a broken fascia 
between them black ; pronotum with a central longitudinal 
line, the incisures, and outer edges of dilated pronotal areas 
black ; mesonotum with four obconical spots (the two central 
shortest), a central lanceolate spot, and two small spots in front 




Fig. 35. — Vlatypleura nobilis. 

of cruciform elevation black ; abdomen greenish or brownish- 
ochraceous, the segmental margins black ; body beneath ochraceous ; 
central sulcation to face, fascia between eyes, some sternal spots, 
metasternum at base of opercula, and apex of rostrum black ; 
tegmina with about basal half creamy-ochraceous, opaque ; two 
spots on costal membrane, basal cell, three spots in radial area, a 
large spot on claval area, and a broad oblique fascia commencing 
at end of radial area fuscous ; apical half pale hyaline, with a 
subapical oblique waved fascia and a series of small spots near 
apices of longitudinal veins to apical areas fuscous ; wings dark 
fuscous-brown, with anal area and nearly apical third pale hyaline. 



70 CICADID,!. 

dislv usuall}' but. not always with a costal and central oblique 
ochraceous fascia. Opercula in male internally overlapping. 

Length excl. tegin. 15 to 17; esp. tegm. 50 to 60; breadth 
between pronotal angles 10 to 10| millim. 

IJi(h. Assam; Garo Hills (C/i<?ii»c??). Samagooting (/»(/. il/its.). 
Munjpoor {Irid. Mus.). Burma ; Tavoy (Coll. Dist.). — Sumatra. 
Java. 

aa. nostrum oiily just jJCissimj posterior corvee. 

1550. Platypleura insignis, Bisf. J. A. S. Beng. xlviii, p. 39, t. xi, 

f. -1 (1879); id. Mon. Orient. Cicad. p. 22, tab. i, f. 15 (1889). 

Allied to P. nohilis, but body griseously pubescent ; tegmina pale 
hyaline, w ith the venation, costal membrane and area, radial ai-ea 
(excepting almost apical half), and a large basal patch extending 
to about one-third from base fulvous, griseously pubescent ; the 
radial area is hyaline from about centre (where it is dariiest) to 
near apex, w hich is narrowly fuhous and has a fuscous spot ou its 
outer margin, a double series of small spots near apices of longi- 
tudinal veins to apical areas, and an irregular series of small spots 
at apices of ulnar areas, black ; wings pale hyaline, the venation 
fulvous, and with less than basal half black. 

To be separated from P. Qwbilis by the smaller dark basal areas 
of the tegmina and wings, the rostrum only just passing posterior 
coxae, and the opercula in male less inwardly overlapping. 

Length excl. tegm. 15 ; exp. tegm. 45 : breadth between pronotal 
angles S| millim. 

IJah. Burma ; Karen Hills (Doliertt/). Upper Tenasserim 
(Limbor(j). 

aaa. nostrum reachincf base of anal segment. 

1551. Platypleura badia, I)ist. Ann. 3Ius. Civ. Gen. xvii, p. 453, 

t. iv. f. 6. a, b (1888) ; id. 3Ion. Orient. Cicad. p. 23, tab. vii. 
f. 15, a, b (1889). 

5 . Allied to P. insi<fnis, but differing by the opaque markings 
to the tegmina being fulvous-brown ; the wings have the opaque 
coloration extending further from the base, where it is simply 
pale fulvous ; body fulvous brown ; structurally distinct by the 
length of the rostrum, which reaches the base of the anal segment. 

Length excl. tegm. 16 ; exp. tegm. 48 ; breadth between pronotal 
angles 8j millim. 

Hab. Tenasserim ; Houngdarau Valley (Fea). 

aaaa. Rostrum reachivj to about middle of abdomen. 

1552. Platypleura assamensis, Atl-ins. J. A. S. Benq. liii, p. 212 

(1884). 
Platvpleura repanda, var. assamensis. Dist. Mon. Orient. Cicad. 
p. 20, t. i, f. 11, fl, Z»(18S9). 



PYCNA. 71 

Head, pronotum, mesonotum, tympanal coverings, sternum, 
rostrum, and legs pale olivaceous-brown ; abdomen black, the 
segmental margins olivaceous ; opercula piceous, their margins 
pale olivaceous-brown, sparingly ochraceously pilose above, more 
thickly so beneath ; head with the area of the ocelli, a discal, 
central, triangular spot and the incisures to pronotum, four ob- 
conical spots (the two central much the shortest), a central 
lanceolate spot, and two small rounded basal spots to mesonotum, 
black ; tegmina with more than basal half pale brownish, opaque, 
with darker spots and markings, radial area grey at base and 
hyaline at apex, a hyaline spot in loA^er apical area, and an obscure 
hyaline spot near the base of third and centre of fourth ulnar 
areas, an oblique broad fuscous fascia crossing bases of first to 
fifth apical areas, some small apical spots and still smaller fuscous 
spots at apices of longitudinal veins to apical ai'eas ; wings ochra- 
ceous, outer margins (particularly broad at apices) castaneous 
brown ; apical margin to anal area hyaline. 

Length excl, tegm., c? & $ , 20 to 21 ; exp. tegm. 60 to Go milhm. 

Hah. Assam; Margherita(i5o/iert?/) ; N. Khusi Hills (C/<gmie?Z) ; 
Naga Hills {Dolierty). 

Genus PYCNA. 

Pycna, Amy. S,- Serv. Hem, p. 463 (1843) ; Dist. A. M. N. H. (7) 
xiv, p. 208 (1904). 

Type, P. striv, Brulle ; a species found in Madagascar. 

Distribution. Ethiopian and Oriental Eegions, and received from 
China. 

Allied to Plaii/pleura, from which it differs by the much 
narrower head, which (including eyes) is only about, or little more 
than, two-thirds the width of base of mesonotum ; the costal 
membrane of tegmina is also prominently arched and dilated at 
base. 

1553. Pycna repanda, Litm. (Cicada) Si/st. Nat. i, 2, p. 707. 17 (1767) ; 

Olii\ Enc. Meth. v, p. 754 (1790) ; Germ. i,i T/ion, Ent. 

Arch. \i, 2, p. 2 (18.30) ; Fabr. (Tettigonia) Sj). Ins. ii, p. .321. 16 

(1781) ; Atkins. (Platvplaura) J. A. -S'. Beng. Iv, p. 150 (1886) ; 

Bisi. Man. Orient. Cicad. p. 19, tab. i, f. 7, a, b (1889). 
Platypleura phaL-enoides, Walk. List Horn, i, p. 4 (1850) ; Atkins. 

J. A. S. Bemj. liii, p. 211 (1885). 
Platypleura interna, Walk. List Horn, iv, p. 1119 (1852). 

Head, pronotum, and mesonotum greeuish-ochraceous ; head 
with a spot on each side of base of front, a transverse fascia 
between eyes, and some spots on disk of vertex black ; pronotum 
with a central longitudinal fascia (widened posteriorly), incisures, 
and anterior borders of dilated lateral margins black ; mesonotum 
with four obconical spots (the two central shortest), a central 
lanceolate spot, and two spots in frout of cruciform elevation 
black ; abdomen above and beneath blackish, ochraceously pilose. 



72 



CICADID.i;. 



I 



posterior segmental margins ochraceous ; head and sternum beneath 
thickly yellowishly pilose, longitudinal sulcation and some trans- 
verse striatioiis to face black ; legs pale castaneous, femora with 
dark spots ; opercula black, their outer margins narrowly ochra- 
ceous ; tegmina with basal half opaque, greenish-ochraceous ; two 
spots or; costal membrane, two in radial area and one beneath its 




Fig. 36. — Fycna rcpanda. 

apex, and a large irregular fascia crossing beyond radial area — 
enclosing some semihyaline spots — fuscous-brown ; apical half 
hyaline, venation greenish-ochraceous, a large subapical fasciate 
spot and a double series of small spots near apices of longitudinal 
veins to apical areas fuscous ; wings ochraceous, apical area and 
apex of anal area dark castaneous, outer margins pale hyaline. 

Length excl. tegm. 21 to 23 ; exp. tegm. 68 to 78 ; breadth 
between pronotal angles 12 to Vik millim. 

Hah. Kashmir Valley {Leech). North Bengal (Camphell). 
Darjiliug [Ltd. J\Ius.). Assam ; Margherita and Xaga Hills 
{Dolieriy). Khasi Hills (Chennell). Sikhim (Coll. Dist.). Sylhet 
(StainsfortJi). Seebsagar (Lid. Has.). Burma; Kakhien Hills 
{Fea). ' 

Genus ANGAMIANA. 



Angamiana, Dist. A. M. N. H. 
Orient, dead. p. 100 (1892). 



(6) V, p. 284 (1890) ; id. Mon. 



Type, A. ce.tJierea, Dist. 

Distrihution. Oriental Eegion and Southern China. 

Head small, including eyes much narrower than prouotum and 
narrower than base of mesonotum, ocelli much wider apart from 
eyes than from each other, front much depressed ; pronotum 
longer than mesonotum, its lateral and posterior margins very 
broad, the first strongly ampliated and obscurely angulated : 
abdomen longer than space between apex of head and base of 
cruciform elevation, above with its lateral areas oblique ; tympanal 
orifices completely covered ; opercula broad, obtusely angulated, 
not reaching the middle of abdomen ; tegmina semihyaline, with 
the apical third more or less reticulately veined, the apical areas 
numerous, generally t\\elve or thirteen in number. 



POLTNETTBA, 



73 



1554. Angamiana setherea, Dist. A. M. N. H. (6) v, p. 235 (1890) ; 
id. Mon. Orient. Cicad. p. 100, tab. xiii, f. 1, «, h (1892). 

Bod}- black ; abdomen greyishly tomentose ; exes castaneous ; 
margins of pronotuni and an abbreviated central line to same, 
posterior margin oE metaiiotum, head beneath (excluding face), 
sternum, and opercula pale greenish-ochraceous ; legs and rostrum 
black ; tegmiua semihyaline and of a pale shining bronzy hue, thy 
venation darker and either ochraceous or greenish, the costal 
membrane and area pale greenish, the extreme base and the 




Fig 37. — Angamiana aiherca. 

veins enclosing the postcostal area black, the veins enclosing the 
two upper apical areas, terminal vein of lower ulnar area, and 
outer margin dark brouzy ; wings pale bluish-green, becoming 
bronzy towards apex, the outer margin dark brouzy ; rostrum 
about reaching posterior coxae. 

,; Length excl. tegm., S 46, $ 40 to 42 ; exp. tegm., d & $ , 124 
to 132 millim. 

Hah. Assam ; Naga Hills {Dolierty). 



Genus POLYNEURA. 

Pohneura, fVestio. Arcan. Entom. i, p. 92 (1842) ; Amy. Sf Serv. 
Hem. p. 460 (1843) ; Dist. Mon. Orient. Cicad. p. 23 (1889). 

Type, P. daccdis, Westw. 

Distribution. Oriental Region, 

Head including eyes about as wide as base of mesonotum, but 
narrower than prouotum, ocelli further apart from eyes thau 
from each other, front obliquely depressed ; prouotum longer 
than mesonotum, its lateral margins ampliated and medially 



74 



CICADID^, 



shortly angulate ; abdomen longer than space between apex of 
head and base of cruciform elevation ; tympanal orifices completely 
covered ; opercula short and broad ; meso- and metasterna cen- 
trally sulcata ; legmina opaque with the venation dense and 
furcate, reticulate towards apex, all the areas numerous and 
ill-defined. 

1555, Polyneura ducalis, IVestw. Arcan. Entom. i, p. 92, t. xxiv, f. 2 
(1842) ; A7ny. &f Serv. Hem. p. 460 (1843) ; Atkins. J. A. S. 
Bern/, liii, p. 211 (1885) ; Dist. Mon. Orient, dead. p. 23, tab. 
ii, f." 7, a, b (1889). 

Body above and beneath black, beneath somewhat strongly 
greyishly tomentose ; anterior lateral margins of vertex of head, 
margins of pronotum, and sometimes two discal spots to mesonotum 
ochraceous ; femora reddish, their bases and apices and the tibiae 




Fig. 38. — Pohincura ducalis. 

and tarsi black, in some specimens the coxae are also reddish ; teg- 
mina opaque, brownish, the venation, costal membrane and area, 
claval margin and a subcentral transverse line or narrow fascia 
ochraceous, before this Hue the ground-colour is darker in hue : 
wings ochraceous, in some specimens with paler irrorations ; 
rostrum reaching the posterior coxae. 

Length excl. tegm. 35 to 37 ; exp. tegm. 100 to 110 millim. 

Hab. Nepal (Bardivicl-e) ; North-western Province, Eanikhet 
(Ind. Mks.), Mussooree {Maclcinnon). Sikhim and Assam {Ind. 
Mus.). Darjiling {Coll. Dist.). Burma; Kangoou (Coll. Dist.). — 
Se-Tchouen {Paris 2Ius.). Chinese Tibet {Coll. Dist.). 



Division T AC U ARIA. 
Tacuaria, Dist. A. M. N. H. (7) xiv, p. 300 (1904). 
Lateral margins of the pronotum convex, but not angularly 



TOSENA. 



75 



produced, sometimes simply moderately convex or anteriorly sub- 
ampliated and somewhat toothed ; tegmina and wings more or 
less opaquel}' coloured ; in one species, Tosena sj^lendida, Dist., 
the tegmina with hyaline spaces. 

This division takes its name from the genus Tama, Amy. & 
Serv., represented b_y a single very large and representative species 
at present known only from the Malayan Kegion. The Tacuaria 
comprise only three genera — the one already mentioned, Tosena 
found in our region, and Qraptopsaltria apparently confined to 
China and Japan. 

Genus TOSENA. 

Tosena, Atmj. 8^- Serv. Hem. p. 462 (1843) : Stal, Hem. Afi: iv, p. 3 
(1866) ; Dist. Mon. Orient. Cicad. pp. 4 & 25 (1889). 

Type, T. fasciata, Fabr., a Malayan species. 

Distribution. Ox'iental and Malayan Eegions. 

Head (including eyes) equal in width to base of mesoiiotmn, 
about as long as pi'ouotum, front prominent but obliquely depressed, 
ocelli twice "the distance from eyes as from each other ; prouotum 




Fiar. 39. — Tosena mearesiana. 



as long as mesonotum, lateral margins more or less ampliated and 
more or less distinctly toothed ; abdomen in male long, very much 
longer than space between apex of head and base of cruciform 
elevation, somewhat convex above, tympanal orifices covered ; 
metasternum elevated ; opercula in male short and broad ; anterior 
femora strongly spined beneath ; tegmina and wings opaque, the 
first with eight apical areas. 



76 CICADID.li. 

A. Tefjmina and tvings o/)ctque. 
a. Tcgmlna tinifonnh/ blacl- ; wings reddisli-ocliraceous. 

1556. Tosena mearesiana, Westic. (Cicada) Arc. Ent. i, p. 9S, t. xxv, 

f. 1 (1842); Amy. Sf Serv. (Tosena) Hem. p. 463 (1843); 
Atkins. J. A. S. Bemj. liii, p. 217 (1885) ; Bist. Mon. Orient, 
dead. p. 26, t. ii, f. 3, a, b (1889). 

Body and legs black or dark fuscous ; ocelli and ejes pale cas- 
taueous ; posterior margins of pi'onoturn and mesonotmn, posterior 
lateral margins of metanotum, usually a small spot ou each side of 
face, and a large spot on posterior lateral margins of presternum 
ochraceous ; tegmiua black, opaque ; wings reddisli-ochraceous, 
the venation, posterior margins, and anal areas fuscous ; rostrum 
extending to between the inner margins of the opercula in male, 
A\"hich are broad and widely separated. 

Length excl. tegm., S ^''^ to 5S, $ 40 to 43 ; exp. tegm., S 132 
to 142, 2 130 to 133 millim. 

Hah. tSikhim {Ind. Mus. cj- Coll. Bist.). 

Westwood only gave the habitat " Himalaya "' in his original 
description. 

aa. Tegmina more or less blacl-, crossed hij a tvhite fascia. 
b. Wings hlaclc. 

1557. Tosena melanoptera, White (Cicada (T.)), A. M. N. H. xvii, 

p. 331 (1846) ; Atkins. (Tosena) J. A. S. Benrj. liii, p. 217 
(^1885) ; Bist. Mon. Orient. Cicad. p. 27, t. ii, f. 5, a, b (1889). 
Var. albata, Bist. (Tosena) Tr. E. S. 1878, p. 175; id, 3Ion. 
Orient. Cicad. p. 27, t. ii, f. 4, a, b (1889). 

Head, pronotum, mesouotum, sternum, legs, and opercula 
black ; posterior margins of pronotum and mesonotum, posterior 
lateral margins of metanotum, abdomen above and. beneath, including 
tympanal coverings, ochraceous ; base of abdomen above, a spot 
OJi second segment, and base and a double segmental series of 
spots to abdomen beneath, black; tegmina and wings black, opaque, 
the first crossed by a broad transverse white fascia. 

Var. a. Apices of femora ochraceous ; margins of tympanal 
coverings black. 

Var. b. Tympanal coverings wholly black. 

Var. c. albata, Dist. Tegmina and ^^ings with greyish ray-like 
longitudinal fasciae. 

Length excl. tegm., d 58 to 62, $ 43 ; exp. tegm., S 140 to 
155, 5 130 millim. 

Hab. N.W. Himalaya (C'o?Z.2)isg. Slkhim {Ind. 21 as.). Dar- 
jiling (StockJi. J]Ius.). Assam; JS". Khasi Hills (ChenneU). Syl- 
het {Brit. Mus.). Seehsagav {Ind. Mus.). Burma; Bhamo (Fm). 



TOSENA. 77 

1558. Tosena montivaga, Dist. Mon. Orient. Cicml. p. 28, t. xiii, 

f. 6, a, b (1889). 

c? . Body and legs black ; head with the ej^es and the lateral 
margins and anterior angles to vertex, and two small spots on 
anterior margin of prouotum, ochraceous ; lateral and posterior 
margins of pronotuni, lateral margins and a large basal patch to 
mesouotum pale greenish or greenish-ochraceous, the basal patch 
with two small black spots ; apical area of abdomen greyish-tomen- 
tose ; face, a spot connecting face with ej^es, lateral margins of 
prosternum, apices of femora and coxal spots ochraceous ; tegmina 
Ijlack, venation and costal membrane and area pale greenish, an 
oblique white fascia almost completely crossing beyond radial area; 
wings black ; rostrum reaching base of abdomen. 

5 . Differing from the male in having the transverse fascia to 
tegmina broader, and the abdomen uniformly black, not greyish at 
apex. 

Length excl. tegm., S 51, $ 41 ; exp. tegm., ^ 130, $ 128 
millim. 

Bah. Assam : Naga Hills {Doherty). 

bb. Wings red, with apex black. 

1559. Tosena dives, Westiv. (Cicada) Arc. Ent. i, p. 98, t. xxv, f. 2 

(1842) ; Amij. S^- Serv. (Tosena) Hem. p. 464 (1843) ; Atkins. 
(Gfeana) J. A. 6'. JSeiu/. liii, p. 221 (1885) ; Dist. (Tosena) 
Mon. Orie7it. Cicad. p. 29, t. iii, f. 10, a, b (1889). 
Hueclivs transversa. Walk. Li^t Horn., Siqijyl. p. 40 (1858); 
Atkins. J. A. 8. Bewj. liii, p. 219 (1885). 

Body and legs black ; apex of face castaneous ; tegmina black,^ 
the venation, costal membrane, and a transverse fascia crossing at 
apex of radial area and terminating on posterior margin at lower 
apical area, reddish-ochraceous ; wings pale sanguineous with 
about apical third black ; face very globose ; rostrum extending 
to between inner angles of opercula. 

Length excl. tegm., J , 24 to 25 ; exp. tegm. 66 to 73 millim. 

Hah. Sikhim {hid. Mas. ^ Coll. Dist.). Darjiling (StocJcJi^ 
Mus.). 8ylhet (Siainforth). 

A species apparently with a very limited distribution. 

B. Tegmina and icings semi-opaque. 

1560. Tosena splendida, Bid. Ent. Month. Mag. xv, p. 76 (1878) ; 

Waterh. Aid to Ident. Ins. t. cxlvii, f. i (1884) ; Atkins. J. A. S. 
Beng. liii, p. 217 (1885) ; Dist. Mon. Orient. Cicad. p. 30, t. ii, 
f. 6, a, b (1889). 

Body above black ; front of head with a reddish spot at each 
basal angle ; eyes, two small spots on vertex, four large spots to 
pronotum (two' on disk and one at each posterior angle), and two- 



78 cicadidjE. 

spots on disk of mesonotum pale ochraceous ; bod_y beneath and 
legs black ; lateral margins of face, a wide central annulation to 
femora, and a central discal series of subtriangular spots san- 
guineous ; tegmina and wings (where not obscured by dark 
markings) hyaline, exhibiting varied opaline lustre, which in some 
lights is found to be ornamented with close and regular series of 
transverse darker striae ; tegmina narrowly at base and with the 
costal membrane shining black, venation bright flavescent, and for 
two-thirds from base broadly margined with shining black, a series 
of shining black marginal spots on apices of longitudinal veins to 
apical areas, claval area pale greenish ; wings pale greenish, apical 
third shining black, enclosing a submargiual series of pale opaline 
spots. 

Length excl. tegm., d 45 to 47, $ 44 ; exp. tegm. d" & $ 122 
to 127 millim. 

Hah. Assam; ]Naga and Khtisi Hills (Cheiinell). Lushai country 
{Ind. 2his.). Burma; Akyab (Co/?. Bist.) ; Arakau Yoma. 



Division CICADARIA. 
Cicadaria, Blst. A. M. N. H. (7) xiv, pp. 329 & 425 (1904). 

Lateral margins of the pronotum more or less convex but not 
toothed ; tegmina and wings hyaline or clear as in many species 
of the genus Cicada, or semi-opaque, as represented in the genus 
Cri/ptoti/mpana ; head broad, and (including eyes) always a little, 
and generally considei'ably, wider than the base of mesonotum. 

Synopsis of Genera. 

A. Metasternum not or very slightly elevated, and 

not provided with a posterior process ; length 
of head more than half the breadth of space 
between eyes ; face usually very prominent ; 
lateral margins of pronotum without an anterior 
lobe KiHANA, p. 78. 

B. Metasternum elevated at middle and furnished [p. 80. 

with a posterior process directed backward . . Cryptotympana, 



Genus RIHANA. 

Eihaua, Dist. A. M. N. H. (7) xiv, p. 42G (1904). 

Cicada, subgen. Chremistica, Stal (part.), OLfv. Vet.-AJc. Forh. 1870, 

p. 714, note. 
Cicada, subgen. Cicada, Stal (part.), torn. cit. 
Cicada, subgen. Diceroprocta, Stal (part.), torn. cit. 

Type, R. ochmcea, "Walk,, known at present from China and 
Formosa. 

Distribution. Nearctic, Neotropical (including Antillean), and 
Oriental (including Malayan) Eegions ; also found in Madagascar. 



EIHANA. 79 

Head distinctly longer than half the breadth between eyes, and 
(including eyes) wider than base o£ mesonotnm ; front more or less 
prominent, its lateral margins in line with lateral margins of 
vertex ; eyes oblique, longer than broad ; pronotum a little nar- 
rowed behind eyes, about or almost as long as mesonotum in front 
of cruciform elevation ; abdomen not, or scarcely, longer than 
length between apex of face and base of cruciform elevation ; 
other characters generally as in Cicada. 

1561. Rihana mixta, Kh-by (Dundubia), /. Linn. Soc, Zool. xxiv, 
p. 128 (1891). 

Body above black ; head with basal and apical spots and lateral 
fasciate lines ochraceous, vei'tex with an ochraceous spot on each 
side of ocelli and its lateral margins ochraceous ; pronotum with 




Fig. 40. — EiJiaua inixta. 



a central fascia and the margins ochraceous or greenish-ochraceous; 
mesonotum with two central obeonical spots only denoted by their 
ochraceous margins, the lateral margins (often connected with the 
apices of the obeonical spots) ochraceous ; abdomen with a large 
white pubescent spot behind base of tympanal coverings ; head, 
sternum, and legs ochraceous ; abdomen beneath reddish-ochraceous ; 
transverse strife to face, spot between face and eyes, anterior legs 
with the base of coxae, under surface of femora, tarsi, and most of 
the tibiae black, intermediate and posterior legs much less marked 
with black ; tegmina and wings hyaline, the venation, except near 
base, fuscous ; tegmina with extreme base, basal cell, costal mem- 
brane and area ochraceous. 

Length excl. tegm. 30 ; exp. tegm. 97 millim. 

Hah. Ceylon {Green). 

This species is very closely allied to the Malayan E. viridis, 
Fabr., of which I have hitherto treated it as a synonym. It is a 
larger insect, judging from the type in the British Museum, 



80 CICAUlDvE. 

and should it prove (when more material is available for study) 
to be scarcely a distinct species, it is at all events a distinct local 
race. 

1562. Rihana germana, Dist. (Cicada) Anii. Mns. Civ. Gen. xxvi, 
p. 457, t. iv, f. 3, a, b (1888) ; id. Mon. Orient. Cicacl. p. 97 
(1892). 

Body above dull reddish-ochraceous or greenish-ochraceous ; 
head with a broad anterior niargin to front, inner margins of eyes 
and a fascia between them, black ; pronotum with two central 
fasciate lines anteriorly diverging towards eyes, anterior margin 
and inner edge of posterior margin, black ; mesonotum with four 
obconical spots (the outermost longest and inwardly ochraceous) 
and a central lanceolate fascia black ; abdomen with the segmental 
margins black, the lateral areas and anal segment distinctly ochra- 
ceously pilose ; body beneath and legs pale reddish-ochraceous ; 
sternum and lateral abdominal areas ochraceously pilose ; apex of 
rostrum black and just passing the intermediate coxa3 ; tegmina 
and wings hyaline, the venation olivaceous ; tegmina with the 
costal membrane green, postcostal area black ; opercula rounded 
posteriorly, not overlapping inwardly and not reaching base o£ 
abdomen. 

Length excl. tegm., d , 30 ; exp. tegm. 85 millim. 

Hah. Burma ; Teinzo (Feci) — Penang Hills {Flower). Siam 
Malay States ; Biilsit Besar (Annandcde). 



Genus CRYPTOTYMPANA. 

Crvptotympana, Stdl, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. (18Gl)p. 613; id. Hem. 
Afr. IV, p. 6 (1866) ; Dist. Man. Orient, dead. p. So (1891). 

Type, G. pustulata, Fabr., a Malayan species also found in China 
and Japan. 

Distribution. Oriental Eegion, Malayan Archipelago (probably 
not extending eastwai'd beyond the Philippines), and the extreme 
eastern portion of the Palsearctic Region. 

Head broad, more or less transversely truncate between the 
eyes, including which it is a little broader than the base of meso- 
notum, its length only slightly more than half the breadth between 
eyes, ocelli about twice the distance from eyes as from each 
other, front slightly prominent ; pronotum about as long as meso- 
notum, its lateral margins oblique, the posterior angles a little 
ampliate; abdomen in male about as long as space between apex 
of head and base of cruciform elevation, the tympanal orifices 
concealed by the tympanal coverings ; opercula in male well 
developed, varying in shape and size ; metasternum elevated at 
middle and furnished with a posterior process directed backward ; 
anterior femora strongly spined beneath ; tegmina hyaline or semi- 
opaque, basal cell longer than broad ; apical areas eight. 



CllTPTOTYMPANA. 



81 



A. Tegmina with transverse veins at bases of second and third 
apical areas not infuscated. 

a. Tegmina ivith hlaclc basal coloration extending beyond basal cell. 

b. Opercula in male about half as long as abdomen, their outer 
margins inivardly oblique, their apical margins concavely 
oblique to apices, ivhich are obtusely angulate. 

1503. Cryptotympana COrvus, Walk. (Fidicina) List Horn, i, p. 80 
(1850) ; Atkins. J. A. S. Beng. liii, p. 231 (188-5) ; StSI (Crypto- 
tympana), Ofv. Vet.-Ak. Fork. 1802, p. 483; Dist. Mon. Orient. 
Cicad. p. 8?; t. X, f. 11, a, b (1891). 
Fidicina invarians, Walk. his. Suund., Hoin. p. 11 (1858). 

Body above black ; lateral margins of pronotum ochraceously 
pilose : mesonotum Avith the outlines of two central obconical 
spots ; head beneath, sternum, legs, and rostrum blackly, thickly 
greyishly pilose ; a spot at basal margin of face, femora and pos- 
terior tibiae (excluding bases and apices), and opercula (excluding 




Fig. 41. — Cryptotympana corvus. 

basal areas) reddish-ochraceous ; abdomen beneath thickly darkly 
ochraceously pilose, with a broad central black fascia ; tegmina 
and wings hyaline, the venation ochraceous and fuscous ; tegmina 
with the costal membrane ochraceous, its edge black, postcostal 
area black, basal cell and less than basal fourth (excluding vena- 
tion) black ; wings with less than basal third black. 

Length excl. tegm., J , 45 to 47 ; exp. tegm. 117 to 130 millim. 

Hab. Sikhim (Coll. Dist.). Darjiling (Stockh. Mus.). Sylhet 
{Brit. Mus.). Assam {Ind. Mus.) ; Naga Hills {Doherty). Nilgiri 
Hills {Hampson). 



82 CICADID.I. 



aa. Tegmina ivitli blach hasal coloration not extending 
beyond hasal cell. 

e. Oj)ercida in male reaching ijenidtimate ahdominal segment, 
inner marc/ins straiglit, not overlapping, apical margins 
strongly concavely sinuate, their apices curved imvards. 

1564. Cryptotympana edwardsi, Kirk. J. Bomb. N. H. Soc. xiv, p. 55 
(1902). 

■ Allied to C. corvns, but differing principally by the size and 
shape of the opercula in male, ^vhich reach the penultimate abdo- 
minal segments ; the abdomen beneath is uniformly ochraceous, 
black at base and apex, but Avithout the central black longitudinal 
fascia ; mesonotum with four dark distinct obconical spots and a 
similar central lanceolate spot ; front \\\i\\ a central longitudinal 
line, pronotum with a similar line on its anterior area and 
its posterior margins ochraceous ; tegmina with the black basal 
area not extending beyond basal cell, and M'iugs narrowly black 
at base. 

Length excl. tegm. 46| ;- exp. tegm. 115 millim. 

Hah. " India " {Coll. Edwards). 



CO. Ojiercida in male about half as long as ahdomen, their Older 
margins rejlexed, very slightly oblique, their apical margins 
straightly not concavely oblique. 

1565. Cryptotympana intermedia, Sie/n. (Cicada) Hev. May. Zool. 
1849, p. 407, t. X, f. 2 ; Stal (Cryptotympaua), Ann. Soc. Ent. 
Fr. 1861, p. 613; Atkins. J. A. S. Beny. liii, p. 231 (1885); 
Dist. Man. Orient. Cicad. p. 88, t. xi, f. 1, a, b (1891) ; Melich. 
Horn. Faim. Ceylon, p. 6 (1903). 
Fidicina immaciilata, Walk. {7iec Oliv.) List Horn, i, p. 90 (1850). 

Body above blaclv or dark castaneous ; mesonotum with two 
obscure central obcouical spots and the basal cruciform elevation 
castaneous ; tympanal coverings dark castaneous ; body beneath 
black, somewhat thickly greyishlv pilose (excepting the central 
disk of abdomen) ; femoral and tibial streaks, posterior tibiae 
(excluding bases and apices), and the opercula ochraceous ; teg- 
mina and wings hyaline, the venation ochraceous ; tegmina with 
the costal membrane and postcostal area ochraceous, extreme basal 
costal edge black, basal cell and basal patch (excluding venation) 
brownish-ochraceous or black ; wings with about basal fifth 
brownish-ochraceous. 

Length excl. tegm., c?, 44 ; exp. tegm. 127 millim. 

Hah. North Bengal (Brit. Mus.). Mussooree {Macl'innon). 
Ceylon, Matale {Green); Dambula, Mikintale, Nalanda {fide 
Melichcir). — Java ( iide Signorct). 



CEYPTOTYMPANA. 83 

B. Tegmina ivith transverse veins at bases of second and third 
ajiical areas infuscatexl. 

b. Teymina ^vith hlacl- basal coloration extending to about end of 

basal cell. 

d. Opercida in male more than hcdf the length of abdomen, outer 
margins slighthj concavely sinuate, inner margins overlapping, 
apical margins concavelg and obliquely sinuate to apices, 
ivhich are sidxicutcly angidate. 

1566. Cryptotympana acuta, Sign. (Cicada) Rev. Mag. Zool. 1849, 

p. 409, t. X, f. 3, a ; Stdl (Cryptotympana), Ann. Sac. Ent. 

1801, i, p. 613 5 liist- Mon. Orient. Cimd. p. 88, t. xi, f. 8, a, b 

(1891). 
Cicada vicina, Sign. Rev. 3Lag. Zool. 1849, p. 410, t. x, f. 4 ; Stal 

(Oiyptotvmpana). Ann. Soc. Ent. 1861, i, p. 613 ; Atkins. 

J. A. S. Beng. liii. p. 2.30 (1885). 
P'idicina nivifera, Walk. List Horn, i, p. 80 (1850) ; id. torn. cit. 

h-, t. i, f. 2 (1852). 
Fidicina bicolor, JValk. torn. cit. iv, p. 1121 (1852). 
Fidicina timorica, Walk. J. Linn. Sue, Zool. x, p. 91 (1867). 

Body above dark castaneous or black ; eyes and ocelli ochraceous ; 
mesonotum with two central obscure obccnical spots, followed on 
each side by a longer fascia and with a curved fascia in front of 
' the cruciform elevation ; abdomen with a large greyish-white 
fascia on each lateral area occupying three segments behind the 
tympanal coverings ; body beneath dark castaneous, sternum 
thickly greyishly pilose ; opercula ochraceous ; apical abdominal 
segment and anal appendage ochraceous ; tegmina and wings 
hyaline, venation ochraceous and fuscous ; tegmina with costal 
membrane ochraceous, the postcostal area black, base as far as 
extremity of basal cell (excluding venation) irregularly black ; 
transverse veins at bases of second and third apical areas inf us- 
cated ; wings with less than basal third (excluding venation) 
black. 

Length excl. tegm. 36 to 43 ; exp, tegm. 102 to 130 millim. 

Hab. Bhnta,n Dua.YS (Jicle Atkinson). — Java. Borneo. Lombok. 
Philippines. Timor. 



dd. Opercula in male about half the length of abdomen, outer 
margins concavely sinuate, inner margins overlapping, and 
thence concavely and obliquely divergent to apices ivhicli are 
subacute. 

1567. Cryptotympana recta, Walk. (Fidicina) List Horn, i, p. 79 
(1850) ; Stdl (Crvptotympaua), Of v. Vet.-Ak. Fork. 1862, p. 483 ; 

g2 



84 cicADiD.i:. 

Atkins. J. A S. Beng. liii, p. 230 (1885) ; Bist. Mon. Orient, 
dead. p. 89, t. X, f. 10, a, h (1891). 

Body above black, sparingly ochraceously pilose ; eyes castaneous ; 
mesonotum with two very obscure central obconical spots ; body 
beneath black, sternum and lateral areas of abdomen thickly 
greyishly pilose ; opercula ochraceous ; legs black, intermediate 
tibiae and posterior femora and tibite castaneous, streaked with 
black; tegmina and wings hyaline, venation ochraceous or fuscous ; 
tegmiua with the costal membrane ochraceous, its extreme basal 
costal edge black, postcostal area black, transverse veins at bases of 
second and third apical areas darkly inf uscate, basal area to slightly 
beyond basal cell (excluding venation) black ; wings with less than 
basal third black. 

Length excl. tegm., c? , 41 ; exp. tegm. 110 millira. 

Hah. Sylhet (Brit. 31us.). Assam; North Khasi iiiWs {CJieimell). 
Nilgiri Hills {Hampson). 



ddd. Opercula in male short and suhovate, inner margins not over- 
lapping, apical margins oblique to apices wJiich do not extend 
beyond basal abdominal segment, outer margins slightly 
oblique. 



1568. Cryptotympana limborgi, Bist. A. M. N. H. (6) i, p. 296 
(1888) ; id. Mon. Orient. Cicad. p. 91, t. x, f. 7, a, b (1891). 
Cryptotympana recta, Bist. {nee Walk.) J. A. S, Beny. xlviii, 
p. 40,'t.ii,f. 4(1879). 

Body above olivaceous-brown, sometimes blackish-olivaceous ; 
liead with the lateral striations to front and a transverse fascia 
between the eyes black ; pronotum with two central, oblique, 
black fasciae, its posterior and lateral margins olivaceous, the 
anterior margin narrowly black ; mesonotum with four anterior 
central obconical spots (the two central spots largest), and a small 
oblique fasciate line on each side near base, black ; abdominal 
segmental margins and inner area of tympanal coverings black ; 
abdominal lateral areas greyishly pilose ; body beneath olivaceous- 
brown ; anterior tibiae and tarsi, apices of intermediate and pos- 
terior tibiae and the tarsi black : opercula in male olivaceous with 
their inner margins broadly black ; lateral areas of abdomen 
beneath ochraceously pilose ; tegmina and wings hyaline, venation 
ochraceous or fuscous ; tegmina with costal membrane olivaceous, 
the postcostal area black, basal area to about end of basal cell 
(excluding venation) piceous or black, transverse veins at bases of 
second and third apical areas infuscate; wings (excluding venation) 
narrowly piceous or black at base. 

Length excl. tegm., (5 , 32 ; exp. tegm. 95 milJim. 

Uab. Tenasserim (Limborg) ; Myitta (DoJierty). 



CRTPTOTYMPAHA. 85 



bb. Tegmina ivitJi only extreme base black or jnceous. 

e. Ojiercida in male slightly overlaj^ping at inner margins, obtusely 
and broadly angulated at apices which do not extend beyond 
basal abdominal segment. 

1569. Cryptotympana insularis, Dist. A. M. N. H. (5) xx, p. 416 
(18S7) ; id. Mon. Orient. Cicad. p. 91, t. xi, f. 2, a, b (1891). 

S. Body short and broad; head, pronotum, and mesouotum 
dark oHvaceous, eyes and ocelli ochraceous, front with lateral black 
caringe ; pronotum with a pale central longitudinal impression, the 
incisures somewhat dark ; mesonotum with four anterior obconical 
spots, of which the two central ave largest, and a transverse spot 
in front of cruciform elevation dull dark castaneous ; abdomen 
above dark brownish-olivaceous, the segments palely pilose : body 
beneath olivaceous ; face with a central, longitudinal, levigate, 
ocliraceous fascia ; rostrum piceous and almost reaching the pos- 
terior coxae ; abdomen beneath brownish-ochraceous ; legs with 
anterior femora dark ochraceous, their apices and the anterior 
tibiae and tarsi piceous ; intermediate and posterior femora brownish, 
trochanters piceous, tibiae ochraceous with their apices and the 
tarsi piceous, posterior tarsi with a central ochraceous annulation ; 
tegmina and wiugs hyaline, with a slight fuscous tiage, both 
narrowly dark fuscous at base ; tegmina with the venation and 
costal membrane olivaceous, transverse veins at bases of second 
and third apical areas distinctly infuscate. 

Length excl. tegm., S , 3(5 ; exp. tegm. 115 millim. 

Hab. Andaman Islands ; Port Blair (Meldola). 



C. Tegmina witJi only the extreme base piceous or black, the 
transverse veins at bases of second and third apical areas 
infuscate. 

ee. Opercida in male not extending beyond basal abdominal 
segment, their apices someiuhat truncately rounded, their inner 
margins meeting but not overlapping. 

1570. Cryptotympana vesta, Dist. (Cicada) Tr. E. S. 1904, p. 673, 
pi. XXX, f. 4, a, b. 

Head black, a central line to face and anterior narrow margin 
to vertex ochraceous ; pronotum castaneous, its posterior margin 
and a central longitudinal fascia margined with black, ochraceous ; 
mesonotum black, two central, discal angulated fasciae with a spot 
between them, and the basal cruciform elevation, ochi'aceous ;, 
abdomen above black ; body beneath and legs pale ochraceous, 
greyishly pilose ; opercula and anal segment bright ochraceous ; 



86 CICADIDJE. 

apices of tibife and tarsi piceous ; tegmina and wings pale hyaline, 
the venation ochraceous towards base and fuscous towards apex ; 
tegmina with the costal membrane ochraceous to apex of radial 
area and tlience piceous, the basal cell and narrow bases of both 
tegmina and wings piceous ; opercula about half the length of 
abdomen, their lateral margins somewhat strongly oblique; rostrum 
about reaching the posterior coxae. 

Length exel. tegm., cJ 58, § 22; exp. tegm., S 8*^, 2 
70 millim. 

Hah. Bombay (2i. 3J. Divon). 

This species greatly resembles the genus Cicada, and I was so 
misled by the general similarity that I originally described it in 
that genus, not having searched for the metasternal process. 

eee. Siw.cies at present only Icnoiun to ivriter bj/ female specimens : 
description of opercula therefore imp>ossible. 

1571. Cryptotynipana exalbida, Dist. Mon. Orient, dead. p. 92, 
t. xiii, f. 12, a, b (1891). 

5 . Head, pronotum, and mesonotum castaneous, abdomen 
black ; head \\\i[\ lateral striations to front and the vertex black, 
eyes ochraceous ; pronotum with two central fasciate spots 
anteriorly widened, a transverse linear mark at front of anterior 
margin, hinder edge of posterior margin and a short transverse 
central fascia to same black, anterior halves of lateral margins 
cretaceously tomentose ; mesonotum with four central obconical 
spots (of which the central two are shortest), abroad lateral fascia, 
a central lanceolate spot, and two small spots in front of cruci- 
form elevation black ; abdomen sparingly griseously pilose ; body 
beneath black; sternum and lateral areas of abdomen thickly 
griseously pilose ; face castaneous, its transverse striations and 
longitudinal sulcation and space between face and eyes black ; 
coxal spots black ; legs castaneous, anterior and intermediate 
tibiae and tarsi black, intermediate tibife with a subbasal castaneous 
annulation, apices of posterior tibiae and bases of posterior tarsi 
black ; anal appendage with an ochraceous spot on each side ; 
tegmina and wings hyaline, venation ochraceous and fuscous ; 
tegmina with costal membrane ochraceous, postcostal area black, 
basal cell ochraceous, its upper half black, extreme basal area and 
a broad claval streak black ; wings narrowly black at base. 

Length excL tegm., $,32; exp. tegm. 95 millim. 

Hab. Sikhim {Coll. Dist.). Ni?giri Hills {Hampso7i). 

1 have not seen the male of this species. 



D, Tegmina to about end of basal cell only moderately infnscate. 

>72. Cryptotympana varicolor, Dist. A. M. N. H. (7) xiv, p. 430 
(1904). 

$ . Body browuish-ochraceous : pronotum with two inwardly 



DUNDUBIARIA. 87 

curved obconical black spots and two more obsolete black oblique 
spots on each lateral area between the incisures, but not extending 
to the posterior margin ; mesouotum with a large pale greenish 
discal spot, its base truncate and resting on the cruciform eleva- 
tion, anteriorly divided into three angular prolongations which 
about reach the anterior margin ; lateral areas of the sternum 
somewhat pale greenish. Tegmiua and wings hyaline, bases of 
both brownish oehrac?ous ; the tegmina with the costal membrane 
and area, the basal cell, the greater part of the venation, and the 
margins of the transverse veins at bases of second and third apical 
areas brownish ochraceous. 

Lengtli of head about half the width between eyes, and 
including eyes considerably broader than base of mesonotum ; 
rostrum passing the intermediate coxas ; body beneath finely 
pilose ; anterior femora armed with two long spines beneath. 

Length excl. tegm., $ , 31 ; exp. tegm. 102 millim. 

Hah. Ceylon {Green). — Sumbawa Island (Paris Mtis.). 



Division DUNDUBIARIA. 
Dundubiaria, Dist. A. M. N. H. (7) xv, p. 58 (1905). 

Lateral margins of the pronotum distinctly angulated or 
toothed ; tegmina and wings hyaline, sometimes spotted, but 
never opaque ; opercula in male varying very much in length and 
shape, and in some genera reaching tlie maximum of development. 

This division is a very homogeneous one, but, at the same time, 
one of the most difficult to analyze genei"ically. It is composed 
almost entirely of Oriental, Malayan, and Australasian species, 
though a few are derived from the extreme east of the Palsearctic 
Kegion, which, as is well known, possesses strong Oriental affinities. 

Synopsis of Genera. 

I. Second and third ventral segments in male with 

distinct lateral tubercles ; opercula short. 

A. Head (including eyes) considerably narrower [p. 89. 

than base of mesonotum LT'.rTOPSALTiiiA, 

B. Head (including eyes) as wide as base of meso- 

notum ; head as long as space betAveeu eyes. Pukana, p. 91. 

II. Ventral segments without tubercles ; opercula 

short, or sometimes very long, and very variable 
in shape. 

C. Front of head large and convex, about twice 

as broad at its base as the length of the 
anterior margins of the lobes of vertex ; 
rostrum scarcely reaching the posterior coxse. Dundubia, p. 94. 

D. Front of head not twice as broad at base as 

length of anterior margins of the lobes of 
vertex ; rostrum reaching, sometimes passing, 
the posterior coxae. 



88 cicadid.t;. 

a. Opercula long-, at least reaching centre, and 
sometimes apex of abdomen. 
b. Abdomen short, about as long as space 
between apex of head and base of cruci- 
form elevation. 
a. Head as long as breadth between eyes. 
«'. Opercula iu male broad, either just 
or longly passing middle of ab- 
domen, well separated and not 
overlapping, more or less concavely 
situate on each side at basal area, 
their apices rounded or obliquely [p. 96. 

truncate Cosmopsaltria, 

aa. Head much shorter than breadtli 

between eyes. 

«-, Opercula in male broad, their inner 

margins contiguous, nearlj' equally 

broad throughout, their apices 

broad, the outer margins very obso- 

letely sinuate Haphsa, p. 99. 

bb. Abdomen considerably longer than space 
between apex of head and base of cruci- 
form elevation. 
h. Head about as long as breadth between 
eyes. 
c. Pronotum measured centrally almost 
as long as mesonotum excluding 
cruciform elevation, its lateral mar- 
gins alwaj'S distinctly, strongly, and 
generally acutely toothed. 
(i^. Opercula elongate, concavely sin- 
uate on each side near base, their 
apices rounded or obtusely acute, 
occupyinglateral abdominal areas, 
and always well separated at [p. 100. 

their inner margins Platylomia, 

li. Head distinctly shorter than breadth 
between eyes. 
cc. Pronotum measured centrally dis- 
tinctly shorter thau mesonotum, its 
lateral margins moderately dentate, 
a'. Opercula obliquely divergent. 

sometimes very short Meimuna, p. 107. 

aa. Opercula always short and transverse. 

d. Abdomen in male longer than space 

between apex of head and base of cruci- 
form elevation. 
d. Tympanal coverings of normal shape 

and size Pomponia, p. 111. 

e. Abdomen in male short, about as long 

as space between apex of head and base 
of cruciform elevation. 
cV . Tympanal coverings of normal shape 

and size Aola, p. llo. 

d-. Tj'mpanal coverings very globose and 
projecting beyond the lateral margins 
of the abdomen. 



LEPTOPSALTBIA. 89 

c. Lateral margins of tympanal coverings 

convex; tegmina not more than [p. 117. 

three times longer than broad .... Oxcotympana, 

f. Lateral margins of tympanal coverings 
sinuate, their posterior angles only 
projecting beyond abdominal mar- 
gins ; tegmina more than three 
times longer than broad Mata, p. 119, 



Genus LEPTOPSALTRIA. 

Leptopsaltria (part.), Stal, Hem. Afr. iv, p. 5 (18(36) ; (part.) id. Berl. 
ent. Zeit. x, p, 170 (1866) ; id. (part.) Dist. Mon. Orient. Cicad. 
p. 31 (1889). 

Type, L. tuberosa, Sign. 

Distribution. Oriental and extreme eastern portion of the 
Palaearctic Eegion. 

Head (including eyes), considerably narrower than base of meso- 
notuni, ocelli not quite twice the distance from eyes as from each 
other, front somewhat conical and subprominent ; pronotum with 
the lateral margins moderately ampliated and more or less 
distinctly toothed or angulated ; gense internally at apex near 
base of lorse furnished with a tubercle or tumescence ; abdomen 
moderately long and robust ; anterior femora distinctly and 
robustly spined ; rostrum extending beyond the posterior coxoe ; 
tympana covered ; opercula short ; second aud third abdominal 
segments in the male furnished with a well-developed tubercle near 
each lateral margin ; tegmina and wings hyaline ; venation 
normal, tegminal apical areas eight in number. 



a. Ojjercula in male small, wide apart, longitudinal, their 
aj^ices broadly convex. 

1573. Leptopsaltria tuberosa, Siyn. (Cicada) Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 
1847, p. 299; Stdl (Leptopsaltria), Bei-l. ent. Zeit. x, p. 170 
(1866) ; Dist. Mon. Orietit. Cicad. p. 34, t. viii, f. 7, a, b (1889). 

Body above brownish-ochraceous ; head with some lateral 
curved fasciae to front, some oblique fasciae to vertex, area of 
ocelli, and basal margin piceous or black ; pronotum with two 
central longitudinal lines, the anterior margin, edge of lateral 
margin, and a spot near each lateral area piceous ; mesonotum 
with a narrow central longitudinal fascia, on each side of which is 
a short curved fascia followed by a short triangular spot on 
anterior margin, a broad oblique fascia on each lateral area uniting 
with a large triangular spot in front of cruciform elevation, and a 
fascia on each lateral margin uniting with the previous fascia at 
base, piceous ; abdomen with the segmental margins piceous ; 
body beneath and legs ochraceous, abdominal tubercles blackish ; 
tegmina and wings hyaline, the venation brownish ; tegmina with 



90 



CICADID.E. 



the costal membrane brownish, a small blackish spot at base of 
upper ulnar area, transverse veins at bases of second, third, fifth, 




Fig. 42. — Leptopscdtria tuherosa. 

and seventh apical areas infuscated, and a subiiiargiual series of 
small fuscous spots on longitudinal veins to apical areas. 

Length excl. tegm., c? -7 to 32, $ 23 ; exp. tegiu., S 72 to 
79, $ (one spec.) 84 millim. 

Hab. Sikhim {Coll. Dist.). Assam ; Khasi Hills {lad. 2Ius.). — 
Java {CoU. Dist.). Japan {Bruss. Mas.). 

aa. OjKi'Cida in male small, moderately/ separated, sidAransverse, 
their ajnces ohliquely subiruncate. 

1574. Leptopsaltria samia, Walk. (Dundubia) List Ham. i, p. 77 

(1850); Atkins. J. A. S. Beng. liii, p. 225 (1888); Dist. 
(Leptop.saltria) Man. Orient. Cicad. p. 32, t. viii, f. 11, a, b 

(1889). 

Body above brownish-ochraceous, tinged with greenish ; allied 
to L. taberosa, which it much resembles, but differing by the more 
produced trout of head, the less sinuate lateral margins of the 
pronotum, more apicall}' broadened abdomen, and different shape 
of the opercula. Mesonotum with two short central anterior 
curved lines, on each side of which is a small spot, followed by a 
broken narrow fascia on each lateral area and two small spots in 
front of basal cruciform elevation, black. 

Length excl. tegm. 26 ; exp. tegm. 76 millim. 

Hah. "North India" {Wanvick, Brit. Mus.). Sikhim {Coll. 
Dist.). 

aaa, Ojjercula in male wide apart, oblique, their apical 
marghis obliquely subtruncate. 

1575. Leptopsaltria andamanensis, Dist. A. M. N. H. (6) i, p. 370 

(1888) ; id. Man. Oricmt. Cicad. p. 34, t. x, f. 12, «, b (1889). 

Body above reddish-ochraceous ; ocelli shining reddish ; pro- 
notum with the middle of the anterior margin and the whole of 



PURANA. . 91 

the posterior margiu (widest at centre) piceous ; mesouotuiu with 
two blackish marginally marked obconical spots at anterior margin, 
and a greenish fascia near each lateral rimrgin ; abdomen with 
the segmental margins piceous ; body beneath ochraceous, the 
abdominal tubercles blackish ; legs mutilated in specimen de- 
scribed ; tegmina and wings hyaline, the venation fuscous ; tegmina 
with the costal membrane brownish-oehraceous, a small costal 
fuscous and ochraceous spot at base of upper ulnar area, the 
transverse veins at the bases of second, third, and fifth apical 
areas infuscated, and a series of small fuscous marginal spots near 
the apices of the longitudinal veins to apical areas ; rostrum with 
its apex piceous and just passing the posterior coxse. 

Length excl. tegm., c5',2] ; exp. tegra. 58 millim. 

Hab. Andaman Islands ( Wuod-JIason). 



Genus PURANA. 
Parana, Dist. A. M. N. H. (7) xv, p. GO (1905). 

Type, P. tigrina. Walk. 

Distrihitioii. Oriental and Malayan Regions. 

Head (including eyes) as wide as base of mesonotum and as 
long as space between eyes ; face prominent and convex, its base 
almost at right angles fo the anterior lateral angles of vertex ; 
pronotum narrowed anteriorly, its lateral margins angiilated or 
toothed ; mesonotum much longer than pronotum ; abdomen 
moderately conical above, gradually attenuated posteriorly, in male 
considerably longer than the space between the apex of head and 
base of cruciform elevation, tubercles on the second and third 
ventral segments large and prominent ; opercula small; tympanal 
coverings in male broader at base than long ; rostrum reaching or 
a little passing posterior coxie ; tegmina and wings hyaline. 



a. Opercula sinall, ivide apart, apices convcxly angiilated. 

1576. Purana tigrina, Walk. (Dundubia) List Horn, i, p. 69(1850); 
Atkins. J. A. 8. Beny. liii, ^. 224 (1885) ; Bid. (Leptopsaltria) 
Mon. Orient, dead. p. 35, t. x, f. 6, a, b (1889). 

Head and thorax above green ish-ochi'aceous ; abdomen brownish- 
oehraceous ; head with the frontal margins, the area of the ocelli, 
inner margins of eyes, and a spot on each lateral area of vertex 
black ; pronotum with anterior margin, two central longitudinal 
lines, and the outer incisures black ; mesonotum with a central 
longitudinal fascia, followed on each side by a short curved fascia, 
ti broken irregular fascia on each lateral area, and two small spots 
in front of cruciform elevation black ; abdominal segmental 
margins black : sternum, legs, and opercula greenish-ochraceous ; 
abdomen beneath pale ochraceous, the tubercles, a spot near base, 



92 



CICADIDiE. 



and the apex black ; a transverse spot between face and eyes, 
a small spot at apex of face, and the apex of rostrum black; 
tegmina and wings hyaline, venation brownish-ochraceous, fuscous 
towards apical areas: tegmina with costal membrane brownish- 




Fig. 43. — Ptcrana tigrina. 

ochraceous, a small ochraceous spot near base of upper ulnar area ; 
transverse veins at bases of second and third apical areas broadly 
infuscated, and some small faint fuscous marginal spots near apex. 

Length excl, tegm., 6 , 24 to 27; exp. tegm. 68 millim. 

Hah. Malabar {Biit. Mus.). Trivandrum {Fer(jusso7i).— Tibet ; 
Tsekou {Paris Mus.). Malay Peninsula ; Province Wellesley 
{Distant). 

aa. Opercnia small, wide apart, apices convexly rounded. 

1577. Purana tigroides, Walk. (Duudubia) Ins. Sannd., Horn. p. 5 
(1858) ; Dist. (Leptopsaltria) Mon. Orient, dead. p. 35, t. xii, 
f. 18, «, 6(1889). * 

Closely allied to the preceding species (P. tigrina), but struc- 
turally differing by the shape of the opercula ; the species is also 
smaller in size; the transverse vein at the base of the second 
apical area is much less oblique, and the face is less transversely 
striated with black. 

Length excl. tegm. 22 ; exp. tegm. 60 miilim. 

Hah. "Hindostau" {Brit. Mus.). — Borneo {Paris 3Ius.). 



b. Opercxda ivide apart, and someivhat irregularly 
rectangidar in shape. 

1578. Purana morrisi, Dist. (Leptopsaltria) Mon. Orient. Cicad. p. 101, 
t. XV, f. 19, a, b (1892). 

Body above ochraceous ; head with margins of front (excepting 
apex), anterior angles of vertex, and reticulate markings covering 
the whole of vertex black ; pronotum with two central longi- 



PURANA. 93 

tudiaal fasciae, widened anteriorly and augulated posteriorly, and 
the incisures, piceous ; mesonotuin with a central longitudinal 
fascia, on each side of which is a short oblique fascia, followed by 
a large irregularly curved submarginal fascia, the anterior angles 
of the cruciform elevation, and two small spots in front of same, 
black ; abdomen with the segmental margins, the last segment and 
anal appendage (both above and beneath), and an obscure marginal 
series of spots on each side piceous or black ; body beneath and 
legs very pale ochraceous ; an oblique fascia between face and 
eyes, transverse fascite to face, under surface and spines to 
anterior femora, sternal spots, a transverse central fascia at base 
of abdomen, and abdominal tubercles black ; tegmina and wings 
pale hyaline, the venation ochraceous and black ; tegmina with 
costal membrane, and a spot at base of upper ulnar area, pale 
ochraceous ; transverse veins at bases of second and third apical 
areas infuscated, and a series of faint fuscous marginal spots at 
apices of longitudinal veins to apical areas ; rostrum reaching 
latitude of first pair of abdominal tubercles. 

Length excl. tegm., c? , 10 ; exp. tegm. 55 millim. 

Hah. Madras Province, Shivarai Hills {Morris). 

c. Opercida broad, transverse, nearer tof/eiJier than in preceding 
species, inner margins oblique, apices subtruncately rounded. 

1579. Purana guttularis, Walk. (Cicada) List Horn. Sup2)l. p. 29 
(1858) ; Stal (Leptopsaltria), Berl. mt. Zeif. x, p. 170 (1866) ; 
Atki?is. J. A. S. Beng. Hii/p. 227 (1885); Bist. Man. Orient, 
dead. p. 37, t. xii, f. 20, a, b (1889). 

Body above dull ochraceous ; head with anterior curved strise 
to front, marginal and transverse lines at anterior angles of vertex, 
margins of ocelli, and an oblique spot at inner margins of each 
eye black ; pronotum with the anterior margin, two central 
longitudinal lines united posteriorly and outwardly emitting an 
angulated line, and the incisures black, the posterior margin 
distinctly pale ochraceous ; mesonotum with a central line, the 
margins of two anterior obconical spots, faint traces of a broken 
lateral fascia on each side, and two small spots in front of cruci- 
form elevation black ; abdominal segmental margins piceous or 
black ; body beneath concolorous, the abdominal tubercles black ; 
striatious to face, excluding lateral and apical areas, piceous ; 
tegmina and wings hyaline, venation ochraceous or fuscous ; 
tegmina with costal membrane and a spot at base of upper ulnar 
area pale ochraceous ; transverse veins at bases of second and 
third and sometimes fifth apical areas, and small spots at the 
apices of longitudinal veins to apical areas, fuscous. 

Length excl. tegm., 6 & ? , 19 to 20 ; exp. tegm. 60 millim. 
Hah. Burma {Brit. Mus.). — Nias Island {Modigliani). Borneo ; 
Sarawak {CoU. Dist.). Philippines {Semper). 



94 CICADID.E. 



Genus DUNDUBIA. 

Dimduhia, Amy. Si- Serv. Hem. p. 470 (1843); Stdl, Hem. Afr.iv, 
p. 5 (1866) ; Bist. Mon. Orient. Cicad. p. 38 (1889). 

Type, B. mannifera, Linn. 

Bistribufioii. Oriental and Malayan Eegions ; also found in 
North Australia. 

Body long and robust : head somewhat triangularly elongate, 
about as long as pronotum, the front large and convex, about 
twice as broad at its base as the length of the anterior margins of 
the lobes of vertex, ocelli a little farther apart from eyes than 
from each other; pi-onotum almost as long as mesonotura, the 
lateral margins not prominently ampliated but distinctly toothed ; 
abdomen a little longer than space between apex of head and base 
of cruciform elevation ; tympana completely covered ; opercula in 
male long and extending beyond middle of abdomen ; rostrum 
scarcely reaching the posterior coxae ; anterior femora spined ; 
tegmina and wings hyaline, the first with the venation normal, 
the apical areas eight in number, and the basal cell twice as long- 
as broad. 



a. Opercula in male reaching penultimate abdominal segment, 
concavely simiate on each side near base, and thence convexly 
ampliated, especialhj on inner margins, apnces narroived and 
obtvselij rounded. 

1580. Dundubia mannifera, Linn. (Cicada) Mus. Ad. Fried, p. 84 

(1754), excl. syn. ; Stal, Berl. ent. Zeit. x, p. 170 (1866) ; 

Bist. Mon. Orient. Cicad. p. 39, t. iv, f. 17, a, h, and var. 

10, a, h (1889). 
Tettigonia vaginata, Fabr. Mant. Ins. ii, p. 266 (1787). 
Cicada viresceus, OHv. Enc. Meth. v, p. 747 (1790). 
Dundubia immacula, Wall;. List Horn, i, p. 50 (1850). 
Dundubia nigrimacida 4' sobiia, Walk. he. cit. p. 63. 
Dundubia varians, Walk, {nee Germ.) TValk. lac. cit. p. 48. 
Fidiciiia continis, Walk. J. Linn. Soc, Zool. x, p. 92 (1807). 
Sfoll, C'iff. f. 35. 
Vcir. teipsichore, Walk. (Cephaloxys) List Horn, i, p. 239 (1850) ; 

Atkins. (Mogannia) J. A. S. Beng. hii, p. 2-33 (1885); Bist. 

(Dundubia) Mon. Orient. Cicad. p. 39, t. xii, f. l,a,b (1889). 

Body green, pale ochraceous, or green and dark ochraceous ; 
abdomen above with some small lateral black spots, which are 
most distinct in the paler-coloured specimens ; tegmina and wings 
pale hyaline, the venation and the costal membrane of tegmina 
pale brownish or ochraceous ; rostrum just passing the inter- 
mediate 00X36. 

The var. terpsicliore, Walk., differs only from the typical foi'm 
of the species by the somewhat shorter opercula, by a slio-]i 
bronzy tinge to the apices of the tegmina in the male, and by the 



DUNDUBIA. 



95 



obsolete central mesonotal spots being outwardly margined with 
black. 

Length excl. tegm., J 30 to 45, 5 27 to 35 ; exp. tegra., d" & 
$,85 to 115 millim. 

Hah. Sikhim. Assam ; Naga Hills {Ind. Mus.), N. Khasi 
Hills (Chennell). Sibsagar (ivu/. 2Ius.). Burma; Bhamo (i^^rt). 




Fig. 44. — Duudtibia mannifera. 

Moulmein {Ind. Mas.). Teuasserim (Lwiborr/); Myitta Valley 
{Doherty). — Malay Peninsula. Sumatra. Java. Borneo. Celebes. 
Philippines. China. 

This is a most abundant species and found throughout [the 
East. 



aa. Opercida in male very narrow and extendiny beyond middle of 
abdomen, slightly curved outivardly, concave on each side near 
base, the ajnces broadly convex. 



1581. Dundubia emanatura, Dist. A. M. JV. H. (6) iii, p. .51 (1889) ; 
id. Mon. Orient, dead. p. 41, t. viii, f. 3, a, b (1889). 

Head and thorax above either greeuish or ochraceous ; abdomen 
brownish-ochraceous ; head with a narro'w, reticulated, transverse 
black fascia between the eyes enclosing the ocelli, and a black 
spot at the anterior lateral angles of the vertex, eyes brownish ; 
pronotum with narrow, black, lateral marginal fasciae ; body 
beneath and legs ochraceous ; apices of posterior tibia? infuscated ; 
tegmina and \vings pale hyaline, the venation pale greenish- 
ochraceous ; rostrum reaching the intermediate coxse ; in the 
female type the abdomen has a black lateral marginal fascia on 
each side. 

Length excl. tegm., J , 26 ; exp. tegm. 72 millim. 

Hah. Karwar (Atkinson). JN^ilgiri Hills {Hampson). 

The black lateral margins to the pronotum and the narrow 
opercula in the male render this species very distinct. 



96 cicadid.t;. 

aaa. Opercula in male elongate and narroiv, reacldng penultimate 
abdominal segment, their basal areas inivardly curved, their 
apical areas long, slender, acutelg j^'^^'^^^'^^^ ^'^ apices. 

1582. Dundubia intemerata, Walk. J. Linn. Soc. Zool. i, p. 84 
(18."i6): Atkins. J. A. S. Benq. liii, p. 224 (1885); Dist. Mon. 
Orient, dead. p. 42, t. iv, f. \,a,h (1889). 

(^ fBody green, ocbraceous, or with the abdomen above ochraceous ; 
ocelU red ; eyes dark castaneous or fuscous ; rostrum, coxje, tarsi, 
and apices o£ tibise ochraceous ; apex of rostrum and the tarsal 
claws black ; tegmiaa and wings pale hyaline, their extreme bases, 
venation, and costal membrane of the first greenish-ochraceous ; 
rostrum about reaching the posterior coxae, a character belonging 
to the following genus {Cosmo psaltria), but the structure of the 
head is of the strictly Bundubian character. 

Length excl. tegra., c? 28 to 30, $ 26 to 28 ; exp. tegm., 
S 78 to 85, $ 74 to 78 millim. 

Mab. Assam ; Margherita (Dohertg), Khasi Hills (Ohenncll), 
Sibsagar (Ind. Mas.). Teuasserim ; Myitta Valley (DoJierty). — 
Malay Peninsula. 

Mr. Annandale states that at certain seasons this Cicada forms 
a regular article of diet among the Siamese inhabitants of 
Patulung, who capture it by the following peculiar method : — 
" Immediately after the sun had set several of the natives 
gathered in an open space, round a fire of brushwood or a number 
of tox'ches fastened to stakes stuck in the ground, and commenced 
to clap their hands in unison, observing a regular time and 
rhythm. Very soon, if they were fortunate, the Cicadas flew out 
from the undergrowth of the surrounding orchards and jungle, 
and alighted on the persons of their captors, who had no difficulty 
in picking off the insects." (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1900, p. 859.) 

Genus COSMOPSALTRIA. 

Cosmopsaltria, Stdl, Hem. Afr. iv, p. 5 (1866) ; id. Berl. ent. Zeit. 
X, p. 170 (1866). 

Type, C. doryca, Boisd., from Papuana. 

Distribution. Oriental and Malayan Regions ; also recorded 
from Corea and Japan. 

Body moderately long and robust, head as long as breadth 
between eyes, and including eyes as wide as base of mesonotum, 
with the front not twice as broad at base as anterior margins of 
the lobes of vertex, lateral margins obliquely continuous to front 
or very slightly sinuate ; pronotum about as long as head, its 
lateral margins scarcely ampliated, but distinctly toothed or 
angulated ; mesonotum slightly longer than pronotum ; abdomen 
short, about as long as space between apex of head and base of 
cruciform elevation ; tympana covered ; opercula in male broad, 
either just or longly passing middle of abdomen, well separated 



COSMOPSALTKIA. 



97 



and not overlapping, more or less concavely sinuate on each side 
at basal areas, their apices rounded or obhquely truncate ; rostrum 
reaching, sometimes passing, the posterior coxae ; tegmina and 
wings hyaline ; greatest breadth of tegmina about a third ot" 
length ; venation normal ; basal cell much longer than broad. 



A. Eostrum almost reaching apex of first ahdominal segment. 

a. Opercula in male almost reaching ajiex of fourth abdominal 
segment, concavely narroived on each side near base, thence 
ividened to apices^ which c{,re rounded and situate on abdominal 
margins. 

1583, Cosmopsaltria oopaga, Dist. Tr. E. S. 1881, p. 640 ; Atkins. 
J. A. S. Bern), liii, p. 227 (1885); Bist. Man. Orient. Cicad. 
p. 46, t. V, £ b, a, b (1889). 

Head dull ochraceous ; posterior lateral margins of front black, 
the two basal ocelli surrounded with black which extends to 
posterior margin ; pro- and mesonota pale olivaceous, the first 
with a central loncitudinal ochraceous fascia with its mai-gins 




Fig. 45. — Cosmopsaltria oopaga. 

black and united posteriorly ; mesonotum with two anterior 
black-margiued obcoihcal spots, on each side of which is a small 
spot, an anterior latei*al fascia, a curved basal fascia, and a spot on 
each anterior angle of cruciform elevation, black ; abdomen dull 
ochraceous inclining to olivaceous, laterally sparingly greyishly 
pubescent and with an indistinct lateral series of fuscous spots ; 
body beneath and legs pale ochraceous or olivaceous, bases of 
tibiae, apices of anterior and intermediate tibiae, and the anterior 
and intermediate tarsi black ; tegmina and wings hyaline, the 
venation olivaceous with fuscous intervals. 

Length excl. tegm., c? , 39 ; exp. tegm. 96 millini. 

Bob. Burma {Coll. Dist.). — Siam. 
YOL. Ill, u 



98 CICADIB.iE. 

B. Rostrum reaching posterior coocce. 

b. Opercula ill male reaching apical abdominal segment, concavely 

narroii^ed at base, thence ividened and moderutelji convex to 
apices, which are rounded and situate on lateral abdominal 
areas. 

1584. Cosmopsaltria fese, Dist.Mon. Orient. Cicad. p. 101, t. xv, f. 20 

(1892). 

Body above brownish-ochraceous and uxoderately pilose ; head 
with a spot at apex of front and the anterior angles of the vertex 
ochraceous ; pronotuni with narrow anterior margin, a narro\A- 
ceutral longitudinal fascia, and broad posterior and lateral margins 
ochraceous ; extreme hind margin nai-rowly black ; mesonotum 
with two obscure obconical spots at anterior margin (which are 
outwardly margined with black) and a large obscure marginal fascia 
on each side pale castaneous ; cruciform elevation ochraceous ; 
body beneath and legs pale ochraceous ; face brownish-ochraceous; 
anterior and intermediate tibise and tarsi black, the tibiae streaked 
with ocliraceous ; tegmina and wings pale hyaline, venation 
ochraceous and blackish, mostly blackish ; tegmina with the costal 
membrane ochraceous with a ceutral black line ; postcostal area 
ochraceous ; extreme base narrow^ly ochraceous. 

Length excl. tegm., c? , 45 ; exp. tegm. 122 millim. 

Hab. Burma ; Karennee (Fea). 

C. liostrum reaching yniddle of first abdominal segment. 

c. Opercula in male reaching base of last abdominal segment, 

strongly compressed at base, then m^uch u'idened and convex on 
each side, their apices narroiued and obtusdy angulate and 
situate on lateral abdominal margins. 

1585. Cosmopsaltria andersoni, Dist. A. M. N. H. (5) xi, p. 170 

(1883) ; id. Moil. Orient. Cicad. p. 46, t. v, f. 0, a, b (1889). 

Head, pronotum, and mesonotum olivaceous ; head with the 
lateral margins of front, area of ocelli, and a small spot on each 
side of same black ; pronotum with a central longitudinal 
ochraceous fascia margined with black, widest anteriorly and com- 
pressed about centre, and with a small curved black line behind 
the eyes ; mesonotum with two anterior obconical spots margined 
with black, on each side of which is a small discal streak, a long 
curved black spot on each side of base, and anterior angles of 
cruciform elevation black; abdomen dull dark ochraceous; body 
beneath and legs pale ochraceous ; subapical annulatious to anterior 
femora, upper surfaces and apices of anterior tibiae, bases and apices 
of intermediate and posterior tibiae, tarsi, apex of rostrum, and 
apical portion of last abdominal segment black ; tegmina and wings 
hyaline, the first with costal membrane and basal portion of 
venation ochraceous, remaining venation either black or olivaceous, 



IIAPHSA. 



99 



and a black claval streak ; wings with the veins black or ochraceous, 
outer claval margin and inner claval streak fuscous. 

Length excl. tegm. 32 ; exp. tegra. 88 millim. 

Hah. Tenasserim ; Mergui {Anderson). — Cochin China. 

Genus HAPHSA. 
Haphsa, Dlst. A. M. N. H. (7) xv, p. 64 (1905). 

Type, H. tiicomacJie, AV^alk. 

Distribution. Oriental Eegion and Yunnan. 

Head (including eyes) about as broad as raesonotuin, con- 
siderably shorter than breadth between eyes, lateral margins 
obliquely sinuate from eyes to apex ; pronotum distinctly shorter 
than mesonotum, subacutely toothed before middle of lateral 
margins ; abdomen short, not longer than space between head and 
base of cruciform elevation ; tympana covered, tympanal flaps 
about as long as broad ; rostrum reaching or passing the posterior 
coxae ; opercula in male broad, their inner margins contiguous, 
nearly equally broad throughout, their apices convex, their outer 
margins very obsoletely sinuate ; tegmina and wings hyaline. 

1586. Haphsa nicomache, Walk. (Dundubia^ List Horn. \, p. 67 
(1850) : Atkins. J. A. S. Bertq. Hii, p. 224 (1885) ; Dist. (Cosmo- 
psaltria) Man. Orient. Cicad. p. 57, t. iv, f. 12, «, b (1890). 
Cicada delineata, Walk. his. Saund., Horn. p. 17 (1858). 

Head, pronotum, and mesonotum ochraceous ; head with lateral 
striae to front, two large transverse spots on lateral margins of 




vertex, and the area of the ocelli black ; pronotum with two 
central longitudinal black lines united posteriorly, the incisures 
and transverse spots on lateral marginal areas black ; mesonotum 
with three central discal lines united posteriorly, on each side of 
which is a small anterior spot, a broad lateral fascia containing a 
small ochraceous spot, and two spots in front of the cruciform 
elevation, black ; abdomen black, the segmental margins, some 
latei-al spots, and the tympanal coverings more or less ochraceous ; 

11 2 



100 CICADIDiE. 

body beneath and legs ochraceous ; transverse striae to face, a 
fascia between face and eyes, and apical area of abdomen black ; 
tegmina and wings lij^aline, venation oehraceous or fuscous, 
teginina with the costal membrane oehraceous, the postcostal area 
and transverse veins at bases of second and third apical areas 
iufuscate. 

Length excl. tegni. 25 to 28 ; exp. tegm. 78 to 82 niillim. 

Hah. Sikhiin {Ind. Mns. 4' Coll. Dist.) • Kimpti f'alls, Mussooree 
(Maclinnoyi). Assam ; Margberita {Doliertij), Naga Hills {Coll. 
Dist.). 

1587. Haphsa velitaris, Dint. (Cosmopsaltria) A. M. N. H. (6) xx, 

p. 18 (1897). 

In colour and markings very closely allied to H. nicomache, but 
diifering from that species by the greater length of the rostrum, 
which considerably passes the posterior coxa% and not only just 
extending beyond their apex as in Walker's species, the opercula 
in the male are only half the length of the abdomen ; the principal 
colour-difference is found in the dorsal surface of the abdomen, 
which is more castaneous and less black than in II. nicomache. 

Length excl. tegm., c? , 27 ; exp. tegm. 80 millim, 

Eab. Burma; North Chin Hills (T'Toi^sow). 

Genus PLATYLOMIA. 

Platylomia, Stal {vom. nee descript.), Of v. Vet.-Ak. Fork. 1870, p. 708 
note ; Dist. A. M. N. H. (7) xv, p. 65 (1905). 

Type, P. spinosa, Fabr., a Malayan species. 

Distrihution. Oriental and Malayan Eegions ; also found in 
Tonkin and Hainan. 

Head (including eyes) about as wide or a little wider than 
base of mesonotum, about or almost as long as breadth 
between eyes ; pronotum centrally about or almost as long as 
mesonotum (excluding basal cruciform elevation), its lateral 
margins always distinctly, sometimes strongly, and generally 
acutely toothed ; abdomen considerably longer than space 
between apex of head and base of cruciform elevation ; tympana 
completely covered ; rostrum reaching or passing the posterior 
coxc© ; opercula more or less elongate, concavely sinuate on each 
side of basal area, their apices rounded or subacute, occupying 
lateral abdominal areas, always well separated and seldom 
reaching disk ; tegmina and wings hyaline, the venation some- 
times fuscously spotted. 

I use Stal's name for this genus, as the type he proposed {Cic. 
favida, Guor.) is included in it. His description, however, 
cannot be accepted, as, evidently referring to Guerin's figure 
only, he states, " ramo vense ulnaris interioris recto vel leviter 
curvato," a character given by the artist and not found in the 
species. 



PLATYLOMIA. 101 

A. Opercula in male tvith their apices rounded. 

b. Front someivhat (jloboseh/ 2^>'oduced. 

c. Opercula only extending to about half the length of abdomen. 

1588, Platylomia amicta, Dist. (Dundubia) A. M. N. H. (6) iii,p. ol 

(1889) ; id. (Cosuiopsaltviaj Man. Orient. Cicad. p. 43, t. viii, 
f. 4, a, b (1890). 

Body above brovvnish-oehraceous ; head with striae and two 
central longitudinal lines to front, a broad oblique fascia on each 
lateral area of vertex, and area of ocelli black ; pronotum with 
two central longitudinal lines, incisures, anterior margin, and 
inner edge of posterior margin black, posterior and lateral 
margins paler in hue, the last crossed bv an oblique black fascia 
emerging from behind the eyes ; mesonotum with five fascia; 
(one central and longitudinal, two short and directed obliquely 
inward, the largest on each lateral area — not reaching anterior 
margin) and two small rounded spots in front of cruciform 
elevation black ; body beneath and legs brownish-oehraceous; 
femora more or less streaked with black ; tibiae, tarsi, apex of 
rostrum, a spot between face and eyes, and apical margin of face 
black ; tegmina and wings hyaline, the venation fuscous. 

Length excl. tegm., c? , 4b ; exp. tegm. 115 millim. 

Eab. Karwar {Ind. Mus.). 

bb. Front not i^rominenthj globosely jproduced. 

Opercula in male only reaching third abdominal segment; 
tegmina ivitli bases of second and third apical areas infuscated. 

1589. Platylomia vibrans. Walk. (Dundubia) List Ham. i, p. 54 

(1850) ; Atkins. J. A. S. Beixj. liii, p. 224 (1885) ; Dist. (Cosmo- 
psaltria) Man. Orient. Cicad. p. 50, t. iv, f. 2, a, h (1890). 
Dundubia lateralis, Walk. List Horn, i, p. 01 (1850) ; Atkins. 
J. A. S. Bemj. Hii, p. 224 (1885). 

Head and thorax above ochraceous ; head with the lateral 
striations and two spots at apex of front, area of ocelli, a spot at 
anterior angle, and an oblique fascia on lateral area of vertex 
black ; pronotum with two central longitudinal fasciae angulated 
and meeting posteriorly, the incisures, and three small spots on 
each lateral margin black or piceous ; mesonotum with seven 
linear fasciae, the central one longest, sti*aight and longitudinal, 
on each side of this a shorter and inwardly directed fascia, 
followed by a very short one on anterior margin, and a longer 
somewhat broken fascia on each lateral area, and two spots in 
front of cruciform elevation, black; abdomen very pale castaneous, 
the segmental incisures narrowly edged with ochraceous and 
black ; some obscure, irregular, transverse, discal fasciae, and a 
lateral series of segmental spots piceous; tympanal coverings 
dull ochraceous; head beneath, sternum, legs, and opercula 
ochraceous ; transverse striations to face, fascia between eyes 



102 CICADID^. 

and face, apex o£ rostrum, apices of tibiae, and margins of 
opercula (broadest at apices) black or piceous ; abdomen beneath 
very pale castaneous, with some piceous discal spots ; tegmina and 
wings hyaline, venation pale fuscous : tegmina with the costal 
membrane ochraceous, and the transverse veins at the bases of 
the second and third apical areas inf uscated ; abdomen sparsely 
finely pilose. 

Length excl. tegm., cJ , 35 to 38 ; exp. tegm. 85 to 90 millim. 

Hah. Assam ; Margherita {Doherty), Naga Hills (ChenneU). 
Sylhet (Brit. 3It<s.). — Malay Peninsula. 

Opercida in male not reachinr/ 2)enult{mate abdominal segment ; 
tegmina unspotted. 

1590. Platylomia similis. Did. (Dundubia) A.M.K. H. (6) i,p.292 

(1888) ; id. (Cosmopsaltria) Man. Orient, dead. p. 45, t. v, 
f. 10, «,6(1889). 

Head and thorax above pale greenish ; abdomen pale castaneous ; 
head with the area of the ocelli somewhat piceous ; pronotum with 
the edges of the posterior margin and the inner edge of the 
anterior margin black ; mesonotum with a central black longi- 
tudinal linear fascia, on each side of which is a short oblique 
black fascia outwardly margined with ochraceous, followed by a 
small anterior black spot, and with two black spots in front of 
cruciform elevation ; abdomen above with a short, broad, oblique, 
cretaceously tomentose fascia on each side of basal area ; body 
beneath, opercula, and legs pale greenish or greenish-ochraceous ; 
rostrum with the apex black and reaching the posterior coxae ; 
tegmina and \^ings hyaline, the venation greenish-ochraceous, in 
some places black ; costal membrane of tegmina greenish. 

Lengtii excl. tegm., c? , 50 : exp. tegm. 122 millim. 

Hah. Sikhim and Assam {Ind,. Mus.). 

This species above has a strong superficial resemblance to 
r. radlia, Dist., which is described on p. 105. 

Opercida in male someivliat narroiv and reaching penultimate 
ahdominal segment ; tegmina unspotted. 

1591. Platylomia larus, Wall-. (Dundubia) List Horn. Suppl. p. 7 

(1858) ; Dist. (Cosmopsaltria) Man. Orient. Cicad. p. 44, t. v, 
f. 1, a, b, and var. t. iv, f. 13 (1889). 
Cicada — "The Knife-grinder," Emerson Tejinent, Nat. Hist. Ceyl. 
p. 432, fig. (1861). 

Head and thorax above greenish-ochraceous ; abdomen above 
and beneath pale castaneous ; head ^A■ith the lateral areas of 
front, area of ocelli, an augulated fascia in front of eyes, and a 
small spot near inner margin of each eye black; pronotum with 
two central longitudinal, posteriorly connected fasciae, on each 
side of which is a short curved discal fascia, the incisures, and 
edges of lateral margins black ; mesonotum with five fasciae (one 



PLATYLOMIA. 103 

central and longitudinal, two short and angulated, the outer two 
longer, irregular and angularly curved) and two spots in front of 
cruciform elevation black ; abdomen above with some central 
black discal spots ; body beneath, sternum, legs, and opercula 
ochraceous or greenish -ochraceous ; apices of anterior femora, 
bases and apices of anterior and intermediate tibife, bases of 
posterior tibiae, and anterior and intermediate tarsi black ; 
tegmiua and wings hyaline, the venation ochraceous or greenish, 
in some places black. 

Length excl. tegm., d" , 32 to 38 ; exp. tegm. 84 to 100 millim. 

Hah. Bombay (Leith). Nilgiri Hills ; Koonor {ffamj^son). 
Ceylon (Green). 

This is the species figured by Tennent in his ' Xatui'al History 
of Ceylon,' and referred to by him as "The Knife-grinder." He 
describes it as resting high up on the bark of a tree, and making 
the forest re-echo with a long-sustained noise so cui'iously 
resembling that of a cutler's wheel that the creature producing it 
has acquired the highly appropriate name of the " Knife-grinder." 

Opercula in male reaching base of last abdominal segment ; 
tegmina unspotted. 

1592. Platylomia nagarasingna, Bist. (Duudubia) Tr. E. S. 1881, 

p. 635; yl/A-i»,s. ( Diuidubia) J. A. S. Beng. liii, p. 225 (1885) ; 
Dist. (Cosmopsaltria) Mon. Orient. Cicad. p. 44, t. iv, f. 14, a, b 

(1889). 

Body above castaneous ; head with centre of front and an 
oblique fascia on each side of ocelli ochraceous ; pronotum with 
a central fascia and the lateral and posterior margins ochx'aceous ; 
mesonotum with two anterior, central, black-margined obeonical 
spots, basal cruciform elevation ochraceous ; abdomen more or less 
greyishly pilose, with a lateral fascia of greyish pile on each side, 
the apex greyishly tomentose ; body beneath and legs pale 
ochraceous, more or less greyishly tomentose ; anterior tibiae, 
apices of intermediate and posterior tibiae, the tarsi, and apex of 
rostrum piceous ; tegmina and wings hyaline, the venation 
ochraceous or fuscous ; tegmina with the costal membrane 
ochraceous; rostrum reaching apex of posterior coxae. 

Length excl. tegm. 34 to 38 ; exp. tegm.. 88 to 95 milhm. 

Hah. Burma {Bingham). Tenasserim ; Mj'itta (Dohertg). — 
Cochin China. 

B. Operc^da in male with their apiices obtusely angidate. 
Opercula reacliing fourth abdominal segment ; tegmina spotted. 

1593. Platylomia umbrata, Bist. (Cosmopsaltria) A. M. N. H. (6) 

i, p. 293 (1888); id. Man. Onent. Cicad. p. 58, t. v, f. 11, a, b 
(1890). 

Head and thorax above obscure olivaceous ; head with the 



104 



CICADIDiE. 



]ateral margins to front, area of ocelli, and some irregular spots 
on each lateral area of vertex black : pronotum with two central 
fascife (aiupliated anteriorly and posteriorly), the incisures, inner 
edge of posterior margin, and a spot, or spots, near lateral angles 
black ; mesonotum with two black-margined central obconical 
spots, a central lanceolate fascia, and two spots in front of 
cruciform elevation black; abdomen above and beneath largely 
suftused with dull black shadings ; body beneath olivaceous ; a 
central fascia to face, fascia between face and eyes, inner margins 
and apices of femoi'a, and the tibise more or less blackish ; 




Plati/lomia unibrata. 



opercula olivaceous, their basal and apical areas more or less 
piceous ; tegmina and wings hyaline, venation fuscous ; tegmina 
with extreme base, costal membrane, postcostal area, transverse 
veins at bases of second, third, fifth, and seventh apical areas, 
and apices of longitudinal veins to apical areas, fuscous ; rostrum 
just passing postei'ior coxae, with its apex piceous. 

Length excl. tegm., cj' , 46 ; exp. tegni. 120 millim. 

Hah. Sikhim {Coll. DlsL). Assam; Naga Hills {Ind. Mus.). 
Burma ; Bhamo {Fea). 



Opercula just passing posterior margin of penultimate abdominal 
segment ; tegmina unspotted. 

1594. Platylomia assamensis, Dist. A. M. N. H. (7) xv, p. 65 

(1905). 

Allied to P. umhrata, Dist., and differing principally by the size 
and shape of the opercula in the male, which just pass the 
posterior margin of the penultimate abdominal segment, with their 
apices suddenly obtusely angulate ; the tegmiua are sliorter, and 
thus apparently broader, and are without the marginal spots at 



PLATYLOMIA. 105 

the apices of the longitudinal veins to the apical areas and the 
infuscated transverse veins at the bases of fifth and seventh apical 
areas ; the markings of the uiesonotuni are similar to those of 
P. umbrata, but there is also a distinct black elongate spot on each 
lateral area. 

Length excl. tegm., c?, 40 ; exp. tegm. Ill millim. 

Hah. Assam {Atlcinson OolL, Brit. Mus.). 



C. Opercula in male zuifh their apices narrowed, anr/idate, and 
directed outivard. 
Opercula reaching ■pemdtimate abdominal segment ; tegmina 
unspotted. 

1595. Platylomia radha, Dist. (Dimdubia) Tr. E. S. 1881, p. 634; 

Atkins. J.A.S. Bemj. liii, p. 225 (1885); Bist. (Cosmopsaltria) 
Mon. Orient, dead, p. 54, t. iv, f. 9, a, b (1890). 

Body above pale castaneous ; head with the area of the ocelli 
black; pronotum with the lateral and posterior margins and a 
ver}^ narrow anterior margin ochraceous, the first very narrowly 
edged with black, and the second inwardly margined with two 
transverse black spots ; mesonotum with two black-margined 
obconical spots, followed on each side by a small black spot on 
anterior margin, five indistinct black basal spots, three in front of 
cruciform elevation and one on each side of same ; abdomen a 
little darker castaneous, the segmental margins pieeous ; body 
beneath, legs and opercula dull ochraceous ; tegmina and wings 
hyaline, venation pale fuscous ; tegmina with the costal mem- 
brane, basal cell, and claval area dull ochraceous ; extreme base 
of wings and their claval area dull, dark ochraceous ; rostrum 
reaching the posterior coxae. 

Length excl. tegm. 53 : exp. tegm. 124 millim. 

Hab. iSikhim {Ind. Mus.). Assam ; Naga Hills (Doherti/). 
Madras Presidency (Coll. Bist.). Burma ; Teinzo (Fea). 

Opercula in male reaching pemdtimate abdominal segment ; 
tegmina spotted. 

1596. Platylomia saturata, Walk. (Dundubia) List Ham. Snj)}}!- 

p. 6 (1858) ; Bist. (Cosmopsaltria) Mon. Orient, dead. p. 54, 
t.v,f. 17, a, 6 (1890). 
Dundubia obtecta, Walk. {nee. Fabr.) List Horn, i, p. 47 (1850). 

Head and thorax above olivaceous ; pronotum with two central 
longitudinal fascia) (inwardly curved and united posteriorly), the 
incisures, and a small spot on lateral margins black ; mesonotum 
with a central longitudinal fascia connected with two large 
anterior fused spots, a very broad oblique fascia on each lateral 
area, and two spots in front of cruciform elevation black ; 
abdomen shining pieeous, the segmental margins at lateral areas 
somewhat broadly ochraceously pilose ; head beneath, sternum, 



106 CICADID^. 

legs, and opercnla olivaceous, the last with au ochraceous tint ; 
ahdomen beneath ochraceous ; femora with a short black line on 
inner margin ; tegmina and wings hyaline, venatiou ferruginous ; 
tegmina with a bright olivaceous tinge most pronounced on the 
basal half, the extreme base and claval area ferruginous, costal 
membrane and postcostal area fuscous, transverse veins at bases 
of second, third, fifth, and seventh apical areas broadly infuscate, 
and a series of marginal spots at apices of longitudinal veins to 
apical areas ; wings with extreme base and margins of anal area 
ferruginous. 

Length excl. tegm., c? , 40 to 45 : exp. tegm. 106 to 130 millim. 

Hah. Nepal (Bardivicl-e). Eanikhet {Coll. List.). Sikhim 
{Brit. M us.). 'Dav]\\mg{Brit. Mus.). ^y\\\Qt_{Coll.Sign.). Assam; 
Naga Hills {Doherty). 

This is a variable species as regards the tinting of the tegmina, 
which are sometimes clear and not shaded on the basal lialves ; it 
is even apparently more unusually variable in the position of the 
opercnla, which in some specimens examined, probably owing to a 
shrinkage of the abdomen, reach its apex ; in other examples the 
apices of the opercula are much less angularly produced than in 
typical specimens. 

Miss Dendy, who collected specimens of this species at Darjiling, 
which she presented to the British Museum, wrote : " These 
creatures make a noise like a watchmau's rattle in the trees at 
night." 

Opercula in male medially lobate on each side, reaching ^^osterior 
ma7'gin of fourth abdominal segment; tegmina spotted. 

1597. Platylomia ficulnea, Dist. (Cosmopsaltria) Mon. Orient. Cicad. 
p. 102, t. XV, f. 21 (1892). 

Head, pronotum, and mesonotum ochraceous tinged with 
greenish ; abdomen pale castaneous, its upper surface tomentose ; 
pronotum with a narrow anterior margin and two angulated spots 
on posterior margin castaneous : mesonotum with a large, central, 
castaneous angulated spot, commencing at cruciform elevation 
and extending to anterior margin, two ochraceously margined 
obconical spots and the lateral areas olivaceous ; cruciform 
elevation ochraceous, with a white tomentose spot on each side : 
abdomen with some segmental white tomentose spots, the segmental 
margins blackish ; tympanal coverings pale olivaceous ; body 
beneath and legs ochraceous, the tibiae and tarsi somewhat darker 
in hue ; lateral margins of abdomen somewhat whitely tomentose ; 
tegmina and wings hyaline, venation ochraceous and fuscous ; 
tegmina with the basal cell and costal meodDrane ochraceous, 
transverse veins at bases of second, third, fourth, fifth, and seventh 
apical areas somewhat broadly infuscate, a marginal series of 
fuscous spots at apices of longitudinal veins to apical areas, and a 
somewhat indistinct pale fuscous, linear, longitudinal fascia to the 



MEIMUNA. 



107 



apical areas ; claval area pale fuscous ; wings with the margins o£ 
the anal area fuscous. 

Length excl. tegm., d" , 54 ; exp. tegm. 134 millim. 

Hab. Assam {Coll. Dist.). Burma ; Karennee {Feci), Karen 
Hills {Dohevty). 

Genus MEIMUNA. 
Meimuna, Dist. A. M. N. H. (7) xv, p. 67 (1905). 

Type, M. tripurasura, Dist. 

iJistribution. Oriental and Malayan Regions ; Corea, China, 
and Japan. 

Head (including eyes) ahout as broad as base of mesonotum, 
shorter than breadth between eyes, lateral margins obliquely 
continuous to face or very slightly sinuate ; prouotum distinctly 
shorter than mesouotum, its lateral margins distinctly and 
generally acutely toothed before middle ; abdomen considerably 
longer than space between apex of head and base of cruciform 
ele\atiou ; tympana covered, tympanal flaps about as long as 
broad ; rostrum reaching the posterior coxte ; opercula obliquely 
divergent, sometimes very short ; tegmina and wings hyaline. 



A, Tegmina unspotted. 

a. Opercula reacliing fourth abdominal segment, luell separated at 

base, apices obtuse. 

159S. Meimuna tripurasura, Dist. (Dundubia) Tv. E. S. 1881, p. 635 ; 
Atkins. J. A. 8. Beng. liii, p. 225 (1885) ; Dist. (Cosmopsaltria) 
Mon. Orient. Cicad. p. 55, t. iv, f. 8, a, b (1890). 

Head, pronotum, and mesonotum ochraceous ; head with a large 
spot at base and transverse striae to front, two large oblique 




Fig. 48. — Meimuna tripurasura. 

irregular fascise on disk of vertex, and a large spot at inner 
margins of eyes black ; pronotum with two central longitudioal 
fascia?, with a curved discal fascia on each side, and the incisures 



108 CICADldS. 

black ; mesonotum with a central longitudinal lanceolate spot, on 
each side of which is an irregularly black-margined obconical spot, 
follow^ed by a small anterior spot, and a wide submarginal fascia, 
black ; abdomen dull sanguineous, with a central segmental series 
of transverse spots (sometimes very large and subconfluent) and 
lateral segmental series of smaller spots black ; head beneath 
and sternum greyishly pubescent ; abdomen beneatii dull 
sanguineous ; opercula in male pale sanguineous ; legs ochraceous ; 
tegmina and wings hyaline, venation ochraceous on basal, fuscous 
on apical areas ; costal membrane to tegmina ochraceous. 

Length excl. tegm., cJ ? 33 ; exp. tegin. 85 millim. 

Hah. Sikhim {Ind. Miis.). Assam ; Margherita (Dohertij), N. 
Khasi Hills {ChenneU). 

a'. OpercvJa renchinr/ penidthnate ahdominal se[/ment, their 
ojnceii acutelij pointed. 

1599. Meimima tavoyana, Dist. (Dundubia) A. M. N. H. (H) i, 

p. 292 (1888) ; id. (Cosmopsal trial Mon. Orient. Cicad. p. 55, t. v, 
f. 4, a, b (1890). 

Above resembling in size, general hue, and markings M. 
tripurasura., but differing remarkably from that species by the size 
and shape of the opereuhi, which have their apices somewhat 
acutely pointed and reaching the penultimate abdominal segment, 
with their outer lateral margins a little concave near base, convex 
about m.iddle, aud somewhat profoundly concave towards their 
apices, their colour is also pale olivaceous-green. 

Length excl. tegm. 30 ; exp. tegm. 80 millim. 

Hah. Burma {Bingham). Tenasserim ; Tavoy {lad. Mus.). 

a^. Opercula reaching third ahdominal segment; suhtriangidar, 
a little sinuate outwardlg, ohliquelg straight imvardhj, apices 
suhacute. 

1600. Meimuna ganameda, Dist. (Cosmopsaltria) Entomohf/tst, 1903, 

p. 25(J; Melich. Horn. Ceylon, p. 4 (1903). 

c? . Head and pronotum greenish-ochraceous — possibly pale 
green in fresh specimens : head with black striae on each side of 
front, leaving a pale spot at base aud a smaller spot at apex, 
vertex with the area of ocelli connected with a lateral sti'eak 
black ; pronotum with two central lines connected anteriorly, two 
small spots at centre of posterior margin, and the incisures black ; 
mesonotum with a central longitudinal line, on each side of which 
is a shorter and broader curved linear fascia, followed on each side 
by two smaller anterior spots, a linear fascia on each lateral area, 
aud two spots in front of cruciform elevation, black ; abdomen 
brownish-ochraceous, the lateral and basal areas paler ochraceous, 
sparingl}^ greyishly pilose and with a small black spot on basal 
segment; sternum, rostrum, legs, and opercula pale ochraceous; 
abdomen beneath brownish-ochraceous ; basal margin of face 



MEIMUNA. 109 

striated with black, and a black fascia between face and eyes ; 
apices of femora and tibiae more or less piceous ; tegmina and 
wings hyaline, venation ochraceous, here and there tinged with 
fuscous. 

Length excl. tegm., d> 39, 2 31 ; exp. tegm., S HO, § 105 
millini. 

Hah. Ceylon ; Pnndaluoya {Green). 

B. Tegmina with transverse veins at bases of second and third apical 
areas infuscated. 

h. Opercula reachinr/ third abdominal segment, their outer margins 
subparaUel^ imvardly ividest, but not meeting near postei-ior 
coxce,, inner margins oblique, apices obtuseh/ angulate. 

1601. Meimuna durgra, Dist. (Cosmopsaltria) Tr. E. S. 1881, p. 637 ; 

AtJcms. J. A. S. Benq. liii, p. 226 (1885) ; Dist. Mon. Orient. 
Cicad. p. 56, t. iv, f. 6, a, b (1890). 

Head, pronotuni, and mesonotinn dull ochraceous; head with 
an irregular basal spot and the anterior transverse striae to front, 
area of ocelli reaching posterior margin, and two transverse fascia? 
on each lateral area of vertex (the hindermost connected with 
posterior margin) black ; pronotum with a narrow anterior 
margin, a central longitudinal fascia margined with black on each 
side, and a triangulated fascia on each lateral margin pale ochra- 
ceous, the incisures, two short discal fasciae, inner posterior and 
inner and broad angulated outer lateral margins black ; mesonotum 
with a lanceolate central fascia, on each side of which is a shorter, 
broader, and angulate fascia, followed by an anterior elongate spot, 
and a broad sublateral fascia (broken near anterior margin), two 
rounded spots near base, and a smaller one on each anterior 
branch of cruciform elevation black ; abdomen pale castaneous, 
its disk piceous and gradually widening from base to apex, where 
it is entirely piceous ; body beneath, legs, and o[)ercula ochraceous ; 
a fascia between face and eyes, anterior tibiae and tarsi, apices of 
intermediate tibiae and tarsi, and apex of rostrum piceous ; 
opercula in male pale greenish ; tegmina and wings hyaline, the 
venation more or less fuscous ; tegmina with the costal membrane 
ochraceous, and the transverse veins at bases of second and third 
apical areas infuscated. 

Length excl. tegm., c?,33 ; exp. tegm. 98 millim, 
Hab. Assam; N. Khasi Hills {Chennell): Naga Hills {Ind. 
Mus.). 

b'. Opercula reaching fourth abdominal segment., gradually narrowed 
from middle toivards apices, which are obtusely angulate. 

1602. Meimuna silhetana, Dist. (Cosmopsaltria) A. M. N. H. (6) i, 

p. 295 (1888) ; id. Mon. Orient. Cicad. p. 62, t. vi, f. 1, a, b 
(1890). 

Body above shining brownish-olivaceous ; head with two apical 



110 CICADIDiE. 

spots and strige to front, an irregular transverse fascia across 
vertex, and the posterior margins of the eyes black ; pronotum 
with two central longitudinal fasciae with a curved linear discal 
spot on each side and the incisures black, basal margin greenish ; 
mesonotum with a central lanceolate longitudinal fascia, on each 
side of which is a slightl}' oblique obconical spot, followed by a 
small anterior spot, and again by a short broad spot, a long fasciate 
spot on each lateral area, and two rounded spots in front of the 
cruciform elevation, black ; abdomen above with the disk much 
shaded with shining piceous, posterior segmental margins greenish ; 
body beneath very pale olivaceous with a greyish tiuge ; face with 
the apex and a central fascia black; apex of rostrum, apices of 
anterior tibiae, anterior tarsi, and bases and apices of intermediate 
and posterior tibiae fuscous ; tegmina and wiugs hyaline, venation 
brownish ; tegmina with costal membrane and base of upper 
ulnar area ochraceous, transverse veins at bases of second and 
third apical areas iufuscated. 

Length excl. tegin. 28 ; exp. tegtn. 72 millim. 

Hah. 8ylhet. 



b'. Ojiercula reaching jjenultimatii ahdominal segment, suhtrlangular 

in sJuqje. 

]603. Meimuna microdon, Walk. (DunduWa) List Horn, i, p. 55 
(1850) ; Atkins. J. A. S. Bern/, liii, p. 224 (1&85) ; Dist. (Cosmo- 
psaltria) Mon. Orient. Cicad. p. 57, t. iv, f. 16, a, h (1890). 

Head and pronotum ochraceous tinged with olivaceous ; head 
with an apical spot and anterior transverse striae to front, area of 
•ocelli reaching base of head, two transverse fasciae on lateral areas 
of vertex, two small spots near base, and broad posterior margins 
of eyes black ; pronotum with two central longitudinal fasciae, on 
each side of which is a short curved discal fascia, and the incisures 
black ; mesonotum black, with two anterior, discal, oblique fasciae, 
followed on each side by a broad, inwardly oblique, and anteriorly 
notched fascia, posterior margin and cruciform elevation (ex- 
cluding its anterior angles) ochraceously olivaceous ; abdomen 
above black, segmental margins narrowly olivaceous ; body beneath 
ochraceous tinged with olivaceous ; femora beneath, anterior tibiae 
and tarsi, bases and apices of intermediate and posterior tibiae 
and tarsi, striae to face, fascia between face and eyes, margins and 
apex of opercula, and apex of abdomen, piceous or black ; teg- 
mina and wings hyaline, the venation fuscous ; tegmina with the 
transverse veins at bases of second and third apical areas 
infuscated. 

Length excl. tegm., ^ , 30 ; exp. tegm. 90 millim. 
Hah. "North India" (Wallich, Brit. Mus.). Sikhim (CoU. 
Dist.). 



POMPONIA. Ill 

Genus POMPONIA. 

Pomponica, Sfal, Hem. Afr. iv, p. 6 (1866) ; Bed. ent. Zeit. x, p. 171 
(1866) ; Bist. Mon. Orient, dead. p. 68 (1890). 

Type, P. fusca., Oliv. 

Distribution. Oriental Region, China and Japan. 

Head (including eyes) about as wide as base of mesonotum, its 
length about or nearly equal to space between eyes, ocelli much 
farther apart from eyes than from each other, front anteriorly 
convex and slightly prominent ; pronotum with the lateral margins 
moderately ampliate and sinuate, the posterior angles dilated, 
a little shorter than mesonotum ; mesonotum with the disk 
moderately convex ; abdomen in male longer than space between 
apex of head aiid base of cruciform elevation, tympanal coverings 
complete ; opercula in male short and transverse ; rostrum passing 
posterior coxae ; anterior femora spined beneath ; tegmina and 
wings hyaline, the first usually more or less maculate, basal ceil 
longer than broad, apical areas eight. 



A, Tegmina maculate and marginalhj sj)otted. 

a. Ojpercida transverse, their posterior margins oblique, their 
inner angles nearly meeting. 

1604. Pomponia fusca, Oliv. (Cicada) Enc. Meth. \, p. 749, t. cxi, 

f. 3 (1790) ; IStm (Pomponia), Berl. ent. Zeit. x, p. 171 (1866) ; 

id. Of v. Vet.-Ak. Fork. 1870, p. 710; Dist. Mon. Orient. Cicad. 

p. 70, t. vii, f. 10, a, h (1890). 
Dinidubia Ihiearis, ciuctimauus, rainifera, urauia, Walk. List 

Horn, i, pp. 48, 53, & 64. 
Pomponia linearis, Stdl, Berl. ent. Zeit. x. p. 171 (1866) ; Atkins. 

J. A. S. Beru/. liii, p. 228 (1885). 
Stall, Cig. iig. 36. 

Head, pronotum, and mesonotum greeuish-ochraceous : head 
with the anterior margin of front, an irregular central fascia to 
vertex enclosing ocelli, a spot at inner margins of eyes, and the 
anterior lateral angles of vertex dark olivaceous ; pronotum with a 
broad central longitudinal fascia, two large oblique spots on each 
lateral area, and a spot on the lateral margins brownish-olivaceous ; 
mesonotum with a lanceolate central fascia, on each side of which 
is a large obconical spot, followed by a small anterior spot, 
a broad submarginal fascia, two spots in front of cruciform 
elevation and sometimes the whole frontal area of same, brownish- 
olivaceous ; abdomen pale castaneous, sparingly greyishly pilose, 
the segmental margins piceous ; head beneath, sternum, and legs 
pale greenish ; upper and apical areas of face, a spot between face 
and eyes, anterior tibiae, apices of intermediate tibiae, a spot near 
apices of femora, apices of anterior and intermediate tarsi, apex 
of rostrum, and a spot between intermediate and posterior coxae 
dark fuscous ; abdomen beneath dark ochraceous ; tegmina and 



112 ClCADIDiE. 

wings hyaline ; tegraiua \\itli the costal membrane greenish, 
transverse veins at bases of second, third, fourth, fifth, seventh, 
and eighth apical areas infuscated, and a marginal series of small 
fuscous spots at apices of longitudinal veins to apical areas, 
venation ochraceous, in some places black, basal cell and claval 
margins brownish-ochraceous ; wings with venation brownish- 
ochraceous, claval margins darker in hue. 

Length excl. tegm., S > 35 to 50 ; exp. tegm. 87 to 125 millim. 

Bab. Sylhet {Brii. Mus.). i\ssam; Margherita (i)o7jer<?/), Naga 
lYiWs {Ind. Mus.); Sibsagar (/juZ. J/hs.) ; Qaoh-dr {Judge); Nilgiri 
Hills {Hampson). — Malay Peninsula. Java. Philijjpines. Japan. 



a'. Ojpercida inivardly and outwardh/ oblique, their apices broadly 
convex, inwardly nearly meeting. 

1605. Pomponia lactea, I)ist. A. M. N. H. (5) xx, p. 229 (1887) ; 
Mon. Orient, dead. p. 71, t. vii, f. 18, a, b (1890). 

Body above ochraceous, head with the front, the area of the 
ocelli, and a transverse streak in front of eyes reddish-ochraceous ; 
prouotum with the whole disk reddish-ochraceous, and with an 
indistinct central longitudinal fascia, the incisures a little darker, 
and the margins pale ochraceous ; mesonotum obscure ochraceous, 
with two obscure central obcoiiical spots, on each side of which is 
a short anterior linear spot, a broad sublatei'al fascia, and a large 
spot in front of the cruciform elevation, castaneous ; abdomen with 
a broad central castaneous fascia which is outwardly notched 
and channelled, and a latei-al series of small spots of the same 
colour; body beneath and legs ochraceous ; apices of femora, bases 
and apices of tibiiB, tarsi, a spot on apical segment of abdomen, 
and apex of rostrum castaneous ; tegmina and wings hyaline with 
a milky-white suffusion or reflection ; tegmina with the venation 
alternately ochraceous and castaneous, costal membrane and a 
small costal spot at base of upper ulnar area ochraceous ; trans- 
verse veins at bases of apical areas more or less infuscated, a 
marginal series of pale fuscous spots at apices of longitudinal 
veins to apical areas, and sometimes these areas possess pale 
fuscous longitudinal linear suffusions. 

Length excl. tegm., J 30 to 34 ; exp. tegm. 80 to 95 millim. 

Hab. Sikhim (Paris Mus.). — Malay Peninsula. Sumatra. Java. 
Borneo. 



a". Opercida convex, about as long as broad, well separated, their 
inner and outer margins moderately convex, ajpices rounded. 

1606. Pomponia intermedia, Dist. A. M. N. H. {7} xiv, p. 68 (1905). 

Allied to F. impcratoria, AVestw. (a Malayan species), in colour 
and markings, but differing by the length of the third apical area 



POMPONIA. 



113 



to the tegmina, which is shorter than the fourth, while those areas 
are about equal in length in Westwood's species ; the greatest 
width of the tegmina is scarcely more than a third of their 
length ; opercida ochraceous, narrowly margined with black and 
obliquely black at base, in shape and length resembling those of 




Fig. 49. — Pom]30iiia intermedia. 



P. imperatoria. Allied to P. merula, Dist. (from Borneo), by the 
relative breadth and length of tegmina, and by having the third 
apical area to the same shorter than the fourth, but differing 
by the shape and length of the opercula. 

Length excl. tegm., d", 64 ; exp. tegm. 176 millim. 

JIab. Tenasserim, Thaungyin Valley (Bingham, Brit. Mus.). 

The structural differences of the three species are expressed in 
the following synopsis : — 

A. Opercula about as long as broad. 

a. Greatest width of tegmina much more than a third 
of their length. 
h. Third apical area to tegmina about as long as 

fourth P. imperatoria. 

act. Greatest width of tegmina about or little more 
than a third of their length. 
bb. Third apical area to tegmina shorter than 

fourth P. intermedia. 

B. Opercula broader than long P. merula. 

TOL. III. I 



114 CICADID^. 

B. Tegmina almost immaculate, only bases of second and tJiird 
apical areas infuscate. 

b, Opercula very small, inwardly and outwardly oblique, their 
ajjices broadly convex. 

1607. Pomponia solitaria, Dist. A. M. N. H. (6) i, p. 295 (1888); 

id. Moil. Orient, dead. p. 74, t. vii, f. 17, a, h (18U1). 

Body above ochraceous ; head with two linear spots at apex 
and two small spots at base of front, area of the ocelli, a curved 
line before each eye, and two transverse spots on lateral areas of 
vertex black ; pronotum Avith two central lines united at base, and 
a curved lateral marginal line, black ; mesonotum with a central 
longitudinal line, on each side of which is a much shorter oblique 
line, followed by a small anterior spot, a sublateral line, and two 
small spots in front of cruciform elevation, black ; abdomen above 
with the segmental margins shortly palely pilose ; body beneath 
and legs pale ochraceous ; centre of face and apex of abdomen 
]nore or less piceous ; tegmina and wings hyaline, the first with 
the costal membrane and venation ochraceous, the transverse 
veins at bases of second and third apical areas infuscated ; wings 
with venation mostly ochraceous ; rostrum reaching apices of 
posterior coxte. 

Length excl. tegm., d" , ^8 ; exp. tegm. 75 millim. 

Hub. Narkondam Isld. {Ind. Mus.). 

b'. Ojjercula ivith outer margins strongly oblique, apiccd margins 
subtruncate, apices broadly and moderately convex. 

1608. Pomponia thalia. Walk. (Dimdubia) List Horn, i, p. 72 (1850) ; 

Stal (Pomponia), Berl. ent. Zeit. x, p. 171 (1866) ; Dist. Mon. 
Orient. Clcud. p. 75, t. ix, f. 4, a, h (1891). 

Head, pronotum, and mesonotum greenish-ochraceous : head 
with anterior transverse striae to front, area of ocelli with a curved 
linear line on each side, two transverse spots on lateral areas of 
vertex and inner margins of eyes black ; pronotum A\ith two 
central fasciae united anteriorly and posteriorly, tlie incisures and 
a spot at posterior angles black ; mesonotum with a central longi- 
tudinal fascia, on each side of which is a short inwardly-curved 
fascia, a sublateral fascia with its base outwardly curved, and two 
spots in front of cruciform elevation black ; abdomen ochraceous 
suffused with green, with a central black linear spot on each of 
the two basal segments, a marginal series of small black spots, 
and the last two segments more or less broadly maz'gined with 
black ; sternum and legs pale greenish-ochraceous, abdouien 
beneath pale ochraceous ; face with a central longitudinal and 
transverse basal fascia, a transverse spot between base and eyes, 
spots to coxte, subapical spot to femora, bases and apices of tibiae, 
and apices of tarsi and rostrum black ; tegmina and wings hyaline, 
venation ochraceous and fuscous ; tegmina with an ochraceous 



AOLA. 115 

and black spot at inner angle of upper ulnar area, and with 
the transverse veins at bases of second and third apical areas 
infuscated. 

Length excl. tegm., d , 23 ; exp. tegm. 61 millim. 

Hah. Sikhim {CoJl. Dist.), Mussooree {Maddnnon). Darjiling 
■ Stod-holm Miis.). — Tibet {Paris Mus.). 

b". Opercula short., hut placed longitudinally, apices hroadhj 
convex, 

1609, Pompoiiia surya, Bist. Tr. E. S. 1904, p. 671, t. xxx, f. 2, a, b. 

Head and mesonotum piceous, pronotum ochraceous ; head with 
an apical spot to front, lateral margins of vertex, and the ocelli 
ochraceous ; pronotum with two central longitudinal fasciae 
(widened anteriorly and united posteriorly), the incisures, and large 
spots on posterior margin piceous ; lateral margins of mesonotum 
and the cruciform elevation ochraceous ; abdomen brownish- 
ochraceous, greyishly pilose ; body beneath and legs ochraceous, 
greyishly pilose ; tegmina and wings hyaline, venation fuscous ; 
tegmina with transverse veins at bases of second and third apical 
areas infuscated ; rostrum reaching the posterior coxse. 

Length excl. tegm., d 25, 5 21 ; exp. tegm., d & $ 65 to 
<j6 millim. 

Hah. Mussooree (MacJcinnon). 

Genus AOLA. 
Aola, Bist. A. M. N. If. (7) xiv, p. 69 (1905). 

Type, A. hindiisara, Dist. 

Distrihution. Oriental Region. 

Head (including eyes) about as wide as base of mesonotum, its 
length about equal to breadth between eyes; front prominent, 
its lateral margins more or less continuous with those of vertex ; 
pronotum distinctly shorter than mesonotum, its lateral margins 
prominently toothed; abdomen short, about as long as space 
between apex of front and base of cruciform elevation ; tympana 
entirely covered, the flaps broader than long ; opercula short, 
just reaching the first abdominal segment, and not covering the 
lateral margins of the tympanal flaps ; rostrum reaching the 
posterior coxae ; tegmina and wings hyaline, the first with eight 
apical areas and the basal cell longer than broad. 

a. Opercula in male with their outer and posterior margins 
ohlique, their inner angles nearlg meeting. 

1610. Aola bindusara, Bist. (Pomponia) Tr. E. S. 1881, p. 612; id. 

Man. Oricmt. Cicad. p. 76, t. ix, f, 11, a, b (1891) ; Atkins. 
J. A. S. Beng. liii, p. 228 (1885). 

Body above pale ochraceous ; head with lateral anterior strise 

i2 



IIG 



CICADIDiE, 



and two discal spots to front, area of ocelli, and two transverse 
fasciae on each lateral area of vertex black ; pronotum with two 
central longitudinal fasciae united posteriorly (on each side of 
which is a small curved discal fascia) and the incisures black ; 
mesonotum with a central longitudinal fascia with a shorter and 
oblique fascia on each side, followed bj a short linear spot on 




Fig. 50. — Aoia hindusara. 

anterior margin, a somewhat broken submarginal fascia, two 
rounded spots in front of cruciform elevation, and a smaller spot 
on each anterior branch of same, black ; abdomen somewhat 
thickly palely pubescent, with a series of discal segmental 
markings, two spots near lateral margins of fourth and fifth 
segments, and a lateral segmental series of smaller spots black ; 
body beneath and legs pale ochraceous, discal apical area of 
abdomen black ; tegmina and wings hyaline, the first with the 
transverse veins at bases of second and third apical areas slightly 
infuscated. 

Length excl. tegm., 5 ? 30 ; exp. tegm. 87 millim. 

Hah. Burma ; Teinzo {Feci), Karen Hills (DoJierti/). Upper 
Tenasserim (Coll. Dist.). 



b. Opercida in male ivitli their outer and ^iosterior margins 
ohlique, tJieir inner angles ivide apart. 

1611. Aola SCitula, Dist. (Pomponia) Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. xxvi, 
p. 456 (1888) ; id. Mon. Orient. Cicad. p. 74, t. vii, f. 19, a, b 
(1891). 

Head and pronotum ochraceous or olivaceous ; head with 
anterior striae and basal spot to front, area of ocelli, inner margins 
of eyes and lateral margins of vertex black ; pronotum with two 
central longitudinal fasciae united posteriorly (on each of which 
is a short discal line), the incisures, lateral marginal areas, and 
edges of posterior margin black ; mesonotum with a central longi- 
tudinal fascia (on each side of which is a much shorter one, 
followed by a short linear spot on anterior margin), a broad sub- 
lateral fascia, and two rounded spots in front of the cruciform 
elevation black ; abdomen above black, the posterior segmental 



ONCOTYMPAXA. 117 

margins and a short basal lateral fascia ou each side ocliraceous ; 
head beneath, sternum, legs, and opercula ochraceous ; abdomen 
beneath brownish-ochraceous, the base narrowing and the apex 
broadly black ; inner area of eyes and striations to face black ; 
tegmina and wings hyaline, the first with costal membrane and 
basal venation ochraceous, remaining venation fuscous, transverse 
veins at bases of second and third apical areas infuscated. 

Length excl. tegm., cJ , 22 ; exp. tegm. 65 millim. 

Hab. Assam ; Margherita (DoherU/). Burma ; Teinzo (i^c'rt). 
Tenasserim ; Meetan {Feci). 

Genus ONCOTYMPANA. 

Oncotyrapana, Stal, Ofv. Vet.-Ak. Fork. 1870, p. 710. 

Type, 0. pallidiventris, Stal, from the Philippines. 

Distribution. Oriental Region, Malayana (apparently not east 
of the Philippines), China and Japan. 

Head (including eyes) nearly as wide or distinctly narrow'er 
than base of mesonotum, its length about or nearly equal to space 
between eyes ; pronotum considerably shorter than mesonotum, 
its lateral margins a little convex, its posterior angles ampliated ; 
mesonotum large, convex ; abdomen in male short, broad, about 
as long as space between apex of head and base of cruciform 
elevation ; tympanal coverings very globose and projecting beyond 
the lateral abdominal margins ; opercula hi male short, transverse, 
with their disks a little convex ; anterior femora spined beneath ; 
• rostrum passing the posterior coxa3 ; tegmina and wings hyaline, 
the first usually more or less maculate, apical areas eight, venation 
normal. 

A. Head {including ei/es) a little narrower than base of mesonotum. 

a. Rostrum considerably passing the posterior coivce. 

h. Opercula in mcde pale, unicolorous, inivardlg overlapping, 
broadlij and regidarly convex posteriorly. 

1612. Oncotympana obimbila, Dist. (Pomponia) A. M. N. H. (6) i, 

p. 2m (1888j ; id. Man. Orient, dead. p. 81, t. vi, f. 10, a, b 
(1891). 

Head, pronotum, and mesonotum olivaceous ; head with lateral 
strise to front, a transverse fascia between eyes (including area of 
ocelli connected with posterior margin), blacR ; pronotum with a 
broad black central fascia, widened anteriorly and posteriorly, 
containing a central longitudinal broken ochraceous line, and 
margined with pale olivaceous, the incisures, extreme lateral 
margins, and a spot on posterior lateral margins black ; mesonotum 
much suffused with black, as shown in figure ; abdomen black, the 
tympanal coverings olivaceous, with their posterior and inner 
margins black ; body beneath much shaded with black and finely 
greyishly pilose ; opercula in male greyishly olivaceous ; tegmina 



118 



CICADIDiE. 



and wings hyaline, the venation fuscous ; tegniina \Aith the 
transverse veins at bases of second, third, fifth, seventh, and eighth 




Fig. 51. — Oncoiyriipana ohnuhlla. 

apical areas infuscated, and a marginal series of fuscous spots a 
apices of longitudinal veins to apical areas. 

Length exol. tegm., c? , 30 ; exp. tegm. 110 millim. 

Hah. Simla {Tnd. 3Ins.). Tehri-Garwhal {Macl-'innon). 

" In moss on oak-trees " (Madinnon). 



B. Head (including eyes) about as vjide as base of mesonotimi. 

a', liostrum consider ahlij passinri the posterior coerce. 

b', Opercula blade, unicoloroiis, inivardhj overlapphig, hroadhj 
and regularly convex posteriorly. 

1613. Oncotynipana expansa. Walk. (Carineta) Ins. Saund., Horn. 
p. 26 (1858) ; iitdl ( Pompouia), Berl. ent. Zeit. x, p. 171 (1866) ; 
Atkins. J. A. 8. Beng. Iv, p. 176 (1886); Dist. Mon. Orient. 



p. 26 (1858) 

Atkins. J. J 

dead. p. 79, t. V, f. 13, a, b (l891). 



Head, pronotum, and mesonotum greenish-ochraceous ; head 
with lateral strice to front, area of ocelli, an oblique broken fascia 
between ocelli and outer margin of vertex, and a spot at inner 
margins of eyes black ; pronotum with two central angulated 
longitudinal fascige united posteriorly, on each side of which is a 
short curved discal spot, the incisures and a spot ou lateral margins 
black ; mesonotum with two black-margiued central obcouical 
spots, their bases black, ou each side of which is a small anterior 
spot, a broad curved and broken sublateral fascia, a large angulated 
spot in front of cruciform elevation, which has two small discal 
spots and its anterior angles blacli ; abdomen greenish-ochraceous, 
much shaded with black, the apical third and the tympanal 
coverings almost wholly black ; head beneath, sternum, and legs 
greenish-ochraceous, the opercula and abdomen black ; abdomen 
with a marginal ochraceous fascia near apices of opercula ; trans- 



MATA. 119 

verse striae to face, a line between face and e^^es, inner margins of 
eyes, outer margins of prosternum, a central line to rostrum and 
its apex, spots to coxae and trochanters, linear streaks to femora, 
and the apices of tibiae black ; tegmina and wings hyaline, venation 
alternately ochraceous and fuscous ; tegmina with the transverse 
veins at bases of second, third, fifth, and seventh apical areas 
infuscated, and a marginal sei'ies of small fuscous spots near apices 
of longitudinal veins to apical areas. 

Length excl. tegm., d , 26 ; exp. tegm. 88 millim. 

Hah. Sikhim {Ind. Mus.). Eastern Himalayas {Coll. Dist.). 

a^. Rostrum reaching third abdominal segment. 

\y. Opercula piceous, not quite meeting inwardly, posterior and 
lateral margins convex. 

1614. Oncotympana melanoptera, Dist. (Pompouia) Tr. E. S. 1904, 
p. 672, pi. XXX, f. 3, a, b. 

Head, prouotum, and mesonotuin olivaceous-green ; head with 
the anterior margin and a basal triangular spot to front, some 
reticulate lateral markings to vertex, and the area of ocelli black ; 
pronotum with the basal and lateral margins dull ochraceous, 
with two central longitudinal waved black fasciae, widened on 
anterior margin and united posteriorly, on each side of these are 
two oblique purplisli spots and some black marks on the lateral 
areas ; mesonotum with two sets of central obconical spots arranged 
in pairs, a longer obconical spot on each side, four anterior 
marginal spots, and a central lateral and apical spot black ; 
cruciform elevation with its apical angles black ; abdomen black, 
a few obscure ochraceous spots above, and in the male with the 
anterior margin of the second abdominal segment and a spot on 
each side of anal segment white ; sternum, rostrum, and legs 
olivaceous ; transverse marginal striae to face black ; opercula 
piceous ; tegmina and wings hyaline, the first with the costal 
membrane and basal venation olivaceous, remaining venation 
fuscous, transverse veins at bases of second, third, fifth, and seventh 
apical areas infuscated, and a submarginal series of small fuscous 
spots near apices of longitudinal veins to apical areas. 

Length excl. tegm., S & $ , 20 ; exp. tegm. 68 to 70 millim. 

Rah. Mussooree {MacKinnon). 

Genus MATA, no v. 

Type, M. Jcama, Dist. 

Distribution. British India. Java. 

Head (including eyes) about as wide as base of mesonotum, 
distinctly shorter than space between eyes ; prouotum shorter 
than mesonotum, its lateral margins a little convex, sinuate 
before the posterior lateral angles, which are moderately lobately 
produced ; abdomen in male short, about as long as space between 



120 



CICADIDJE. 



apex of bead and base of cruciform elevation ; tympanal orifices 
completely covered, tympanal coverings with their outer margins 
sinuate, the posterior angles only projecting beyond tbe lateral 
margins of the abdomen ; metasternum prolonged in a broad, 
oblong, laminate process between the opercula, which are short, 
transverse, and not extending beyond the base of abdomen, their 
lateral margins visible from above ; rostrum reaching the posterior 
coxas ; anterior femora spined beneath ; tegmina and wings 
hyaline, maculate ; tegmina very long and narrow, more than 
three times longer than broad, with eight apical areas and the 
basal cell longer than broad ; wings with six apical areas. 

1615. Mata kama, Bist. (Pomponia) Tr.E. S. 1881, p. 643; id. Moii 
Orie?it. Clcad. p. 78, t. vi, f. 12, a, b, (1891). 

Head, pronotom, and mesonotum greenish ; head with the lateral 
margins of front, area of ocelli (from which two lines proceed to 
posterior margin of vertex), and two transverse lines on its lateral 
margins black ; pronotum with two central longitudinal much- 
angulated fasciae, between which the colour is ochraceous, followed 
on each side by a short diseal carved line, and some of the 
incisures black, an oblique fuscous spot on lateral margins, posterior 
margin narrowly edged with black ; mesonotum with two black- 
margined obconical spots, a central lanceolate spot, and a linear 




angulate fascia in front of each anterior angle of cruciform eleva- 
tion black ; abdomen castaneous : tympanal coverings pale green, 
fuscous anteriorly, and cretaceous white near lateral margins ; 
body beneatli with the head, sternum, and opercula more or less 
greenish, abdomen castaneous ; central area to face and apex of 
rostrum black ; tegmina and wings hyaline, venation fuscous ; 
tegmina with the transverse veins at bases of second, third, fifth, 
and seventh apical areas infuscated, and a marginal series of 
fuscous spots at apices of longitudinal veins to apical areas. 

Length excl. tegra., J , 18 ; exp. tegm. i^Q millim. 

Hah. Darjiling {CoU. Dist.). Mungphu {Coll Atkinson). — Java. 

Division LAHUGADARIA. 

Lahugadaria, Dist. A. M. N. H. (7) xv, p. 304 (1905). 

In this division the lateral margins of the pronotum are not 
dentate; the tympana are completely covered, the tympanal flaps 



LAHUGADA. 



121 



broader tliau long ; the opercula in the male are short, somewhat 
globose, wider than abdominal margins, and distinctly visible 
from above ; metanotum strongly exposed behind the cruciform 
elevation, and angularly excavated to receive the apex of the basal 
abdominal segment. 

At present I can only include the following genus. 



Genus LAHUGADA. 
Lahugada, Bist. A. M. N. H. (7) xv, p. 304 (1905). 

Type, L. dohertyi, Dist. 

Distribution. At present known only from Assam. 

Head (including eyes) considerably narrower than base of 
mesouotum, its length about equal to space between eyes, its 
lateral margins discontinuous, the lateral margins of front 
being almost at right angles to those of vertex ; pronotum 
almost as long as mesonotum, narrowed anteriorly, the poste- 
rior angles prominent and rounded ; metanotum strongly exposed 
behind the cruciform elevation, angularly excavated to receive the 
apex of the basal abdominal segment; abdomen considerably 
longer than space between apex of front and base of cruci- 
form elevation ; tympana completely covered, tympanal coverings 
broader than long and transversely rugulose ; opercula short, 
somewhat globose, wider than abdominal margins, and distinctly 
visible from above ; rostrum about reaching the posterior coxae ; 
tegmina and wings hyaline, the first with eight apical areas and 
the basal cell longer than broad. 



161G, Lahugada dohertyi, Dist. (Pompoiiia) Mon. Orient, dead 
p. 77, t. xiii, f. 9, a, h (1891). 

Head, pronotum, and mesonotum dark ochraceous ; abdomen 
pale castaneous ; head with the eyes fuscous, the area of the ocelli 




Fig. 53. — Lahugada dohertyi. 

and lateral mai'gius of vertex infuscated ; pronotum with a 
subobsolete central fascia, with a dark spot at base and apex, a 
short discal fuscous streak on each side, the incisures and outer 



122 CICADIDiE. 

margins also iufuscated ; ruesonotum with two small central 
obconical spots, some subobsolete fasciae on each side, and with 
two small blackish spots in front of the cruciform elevation, the 
centre of which is dark fuscous ; body beneath and legs dark 
ochraceous ; apex of rostrum and tarsal claws fuscous ; apical area 
of abdomen castaneous ; tegmiua and wings hyahne, with a shght 
bronzy tinge and unspotted, the venation darlv ochraceous. 

Length escl. tegm., d" , 27 ; exp. tegm. 75 milHm. 

Eab. Assam ; Margherita (Dohertij). 

Subfamily II. G^I^ANIN^. 

Gfeanina?, Disf. A. M. N. H. (7) xv, p. 304 (1905) ; id. ante, p. 57. 

This subfamily includes a number of genera in which the tympanal 
orifices are more or less exposed, the tympanal coverings being 
always present, but in a more or less incomplete condition. 

Division CICADATRARIA. 
Cicadiitraiia, Uist. A. M. N. H. (7) xv, p. 304 (1905). 

In this division the tympanal coverings are rounded anteriorly, 
not angulate, and either comi)letely covering the orifices anteriorly 
and exposing them interiorly or the reverse, or smaller, exposing 
them both anteriorly and interiorly ; the lateral margins of the 
pronotum are not convexly ampliate nor medially angulate ; the 
tegmiua and wiugs are hyaline, sometimes maculate. 

The genera composing this division are confined to the Eastern 
Hemisphere. 

Stjnojisis of Genera. 

1. Abdomen in c? not tubeiculate beneath. 

A. Tympanal coverings narrower, but scarcely 

shorter tlian tympanal cavities, 
a. Head abont as long as pronotum ; lateral 
margins of pronotum straight, not 
ampliate E.mathia, p. 123. 

B. Tympanal coverings both narrower and 

shorter than tympanal cavities. 

a. Wings with live apical areas Rustia, p. 1'2-i. 

b. Wings with six apical areas. 

a. Opercula in J short and transverse, not 
or scarcely extending beyond base of 
abdomen. 
a'. Head more or less deflected anteriorly, 
front not prominent. 
a-. Pronotum distinctly shorter than 
mesonotimi. 
b'. Length of head about equal to 
breadth between eyes ; abdo- 
men in c5' longer than space 
between apex of head and base 
of cruciform elevation. 



EMATHIA. 123 

c. Greatest widtli of tegmina 

only one-third of length, 

broader than wings TERrxosiA, p. 126. 

d. Greatest width of tegmina 

considerably more than one- 
third of length, but scarcely 

broader than wings Sena, p. 134. 

b-. Length of head less than width 
between eyes ; abdomen in S 
about as long as space between 
apex of head and base of 

cruciform elevation Cicadatra, p. 1-32. 

h. Opercula in c? short but well developed, 
at least reaching apex of second or 
base of third abdominal segment .... Khimbya, p. 139. 
bb. Opercula in S extending beyond the 
middle of abdomen. 
aa' . Head not deflected anteriorly, the 
front very prominent. 
aa'-. Pronotum as long as mesonotum. Lethama, p, 142. 
C. Tympanal coverings shorter, but not narrower 
than tympanal cavities; head with the front 
prominent, its lateral margins at riglit 
angles Avith anterior margins of vertex. . . . Basa, p. 143. 
Abdomen in c5' tuberculate beneath on the 
second and third abdominal segments. 

a. Head about as long as half the width 

between eyes ; wings with six apical 

areas Calcagmnus, p. 137. 

b. Head as long as width between eyes ; wings 

with five apical areas Guuaba, p. 138. 



Genus EMATHIA. 

Emathia, Stal, Hem. Afr. iv, p. 8 (1866) ; Bist. Mon. Orient, dead. 
p. 133 (1892). 

Type, E. ivfirota, Stal. 

Distribution. India. 

Head about as long as pronotum, including- eyes about as wide 
as base of mesonotum, vertex longer than front, its lateral margins 
discontinuous, that of vertex not in line with that of front ; 
pronotum a little shorter than mesonotum, its lateral margins 
straight, not am pliate, its posterior angles moderately ampliated ; 
mesonotum with the disk convex ; abdomen short, about as long 
as space between apex of head and base of cruciform elevation ; 
tympanal coverings incomplete, narrower but scarcely shorter 
than the the tympanal cavities, which are thus inwardly exposed ; 
rostrum almost reaching the posterior coxse ; opercula in male 
small, narrow, not extending beyond basal abdominal segment ; 
anterior femora strongly spined beneath ; tegmina and wings 
hyaline, the first with eight apical areas and the basal cell not 
twice as long as broad. 



124 



CICADID.'E. 




Em a th let esq rot a. 



1617. Emathia aegrota, <Sya/, Berl. etit. Zeit. 1866, p. 172; Atkins. 
J. A. >S. Bear/, liii, p. 229 (1885) ; Dist. Mon. Orient. Cicad. 
p. 133, t. xii/f. 3, «, b (189->). 
Tibiceii aureiigzebe, Bid. Tr. E. S. 1881, p. 646; Atkins. J 
A. S. Beng. liii. p. 231 (1884). 

Body above dull dark ocliraceous ; head with narrow marginal 

striae to front and the 
margins of ocelli black ; pro- 
notum with a central longi- 
tudinal sulcation, on each 
side of which is a small fus- 
cous spot at anterior mar- 
gin, and behind which is a 
fuscous spot on posterior 
margin, the incisures also 
fuscous ; mesonotum with 
two short central obconical spots, a long sublateral and somewhat 
broken fascia on each side, and two small spots in front of 
cruciform elevation piceous ; abdomen with the posterior segmental 
margins narrowly and obscurely paler ; body beneath and legs 
concolorous with upper surface ; centre of face, metasternum, 
disk and apex of abdomen, streaks to femora, bases and apices of 
tibiae, and apical joints of tarsi fuscous ; tegmina and wings hyaline ; 
tegmina with costal membrane and basal half of venation ochra- 
ceous, remaining venation fuscous, transverse veins at bases of 
second and third apical areas apical transverse vein to radial area, 
and apical vein to lower ulnar area more or less infuscated, and 
usually a small subapical fuscous spot ; wings with the transverse 
vein at base of upper apical area and the margins of abdominal area 
infuscated. 

Length excl. tegm., c? , 18 ; exp. tegm. 48 millim. 
Hah. Bombay {Dixon), Khandala {Coll. Dist.). 

Genus RUSTIA. 

Ptustia, Sta/, Hem. Afr. iv, p. 8 (1866) ; Bist. Mon. Orient. Cicad. 
p. 125 (1892). 

Type, R. dentivitta. Walk. 

Distribution. Oriental Region. 

Head a little shorter than pronotum, including eyes about as 
wide as base of mesonotum, its lateral margins discontinuous, 
lateral margins of vertex not iu line with those of front, the 
vertical angles globosely produced, eyes somewhat pedunculate, 
ocelli much farther apart from eyes than from each other ; pronotum 
as long as mesonotum, its lateral margins nearly straight, a little 
sinuate, its posterior angles slightly recurved ; abdomen longer 
than space between apex of head and base of cruciform elevation ; 
tympanal coverings very small, both narrower and shorter than 
the tympanal cavities ; opercula in male very small, not covering 
the cavities ; rostrum reaching the posterior coxae ; anterior femora 




BUSTIA. 125 

spiued beneath ; tegmina and wings hyaline ; tegmina with the 
basal cell much longer than broad, apical areas eight, wings with 
five apical areas. 

a. Rostrum reaching the posterior coxce. 

161S. Eustia dentivitta. Walk. (Cicada) Joum. Ent. i, p. 304 (1862); 
Dist. Man. Orient, dead. p. 125, t. viii, f. 14, a, h (1892). 
Paistia pedimculata, Stdl, Berl. ent. Zeit. p. 383 (1866). 
Tar. amussitata. 

Tibicen amussitatus, Dist. A. M. N. H. (6) i, p. 373 (1888) ; id. 
(Rustia) Mon. Orient. Cicud. p. 126, t. xii, f. 16, a, b (1892). 

Body and legs brownish-ochraceous ; head with a fascia on each 

side of front, two central longitu- 
dinal spots to vertex, a spot at inner 
margins of eyes, and the anterior 
angles of vertex black ; pronotum 
with two central longitudinal fascite 
(on each side of which is an oblique 
^Yxg.hb.-Iiudladcntimtta. J^f^f) ^^^ the sublateral margin 

black ; mesonotum with two cen- 
trally united obconical spots and a curved fascia on each lateral 
area black ; abdomen with a faint central longitudinal fascia, and 
the apex above and beneath, more or less blackish ; tegmina and 
wings hyaline ; tegmina with the venation, costal membrane, 
and a series of large marginal spots (sometimes united) on the 
longitudinal veins to apical areas fuscous. 

Var. amussiiata. Tegmina almost unspotted, or with only faint 
traces of the marginal spots ; sometimes with a single apical 
spot. 

Length excl. tegm., c? & $ , 12 to 14 ; exp. tegm. 32 to 40 millim. 
Hab. Mussooree (JIacLinnon). Assam ; Margherita (DoJiertij). 
Burma; B^angoon {CoU. Dist.). — Siam. Cambodia. 

b. Rostrum just iKissing the intermediate coxai. 

1619. Rustia tigrina. Did. (Tibicen) A. M. N. H. (6) ii, p. 325 (1888); 

id. (Rustia) Mon. Orient, dead. p. 126, t, xiv, f. 19, a, b (1892). 

Ochi'aceous ; a transverse fascia between the eyes, a broad 
marginal fascia to pro- and mesonota, a spot on each side of 
cruciform elevation, and two longitudinal dorsal fasciae to abdomen 
dark castaneous or piceous ; body beneath and legs ochraceous ; 
apex of abdomen spotted \\\i\\ black ; tegmina and wings hyaline, 
the first with the costal membrane and basal venation ochraceous, 
remaining venation and au apical spot fuscous ; \\ings with the 
venation fuscous. 

Length excl. tegm.,- J , 13 ; exp, tegm. 31 millim. 

Hah. Kuliuur {Coll. Atkinson). 






126 



CICADID^. 



Genus TERPNOSIA. 



Terpnosia, Dist. A. M. N. H. (6) ix, p. 
Orient. Cicad. p. 138 (1892). 



325 (note) (1892) ; id. Mon. 



Type, T. psecas, Walk. 

Distribution. Oriental and Malayan Eegions, China and Japan. 

Head about as long as breadth between eyes, deflected anteriorly, 
front not prominent ; prouotum distinctly shorter than mesonotum, 
its lateral margins sinuate, with the posterior angles moderately 
lobately produced ; abdomen in male longer than space between 
apex of head and base of cruciform elevation ; tympanal coverings 
both narrower and shorter tlian tympanal cavities ; opercula in 
male short and transverse, usually not or scarcely extending beyond 
base of abdomen* ; anterior femora spined beneath ; tegmina and 
wings hyaline, the first usually more or less maculate, with eight 
apical areas, and the basal cell longer than broad ; wings with six 
apical areas. 

A. Opercula in male not extendinrj beyond base of abdomen. 

a. Tegmina more or less maculate and with marginal sp)Ots. 

a. Tipnj^anal coverings more than half as long as tympanal orifices ; 
opercida in male ivith their posterior margins moderately 
convex. 

1620. Terpnosia psecas, Wall:. (Banduhiei) List Horn, i, p. 65 (1850). 
Poniponia elegaiis, Kirby, J. Linn. Soc, Zool. xxiv, p. 130 (1891). 

Head, pronotum, and mesonotum brownish-olivaceous ; head 




Fig. 56. — Terpnosia psecas. 

with the front, area of ocelli, from which a fascia converges to 
lateral margins of vertex, dark castaneous ; pronotum with two 



Except in T. Qnacidipcs and T. gancsa. 



TERPlSrOSIA. 127 

central longitudinal black fascia? broadly dilated posteriorly, on 
each side of these fascia? and on the lateral and posterior nlai-gnis 
the colour is considerably paler, and the last is marked with three 
black spots ; mesonotum with a central lanceolate fascia, on each 
side of which is an obconical spot, other discal markings, and the 
]atera,l margins black ; abdomen above dark castaneous ; tympanal 
coverings and large irregular segmental spots on each side greyish- 
green ; head, sternum, and legs greyish-green mottled with dark 
castaneous ; opercula greyish-green with their extreme margins 
black ; abdomen beneath shining greyish-green, the segmental 
margins dark castaneous ; tegmina and wings hyaline, the first 
with a slight bronzy tint, the venation somewhat alternately 
fuscous or ochraceous, costal membrane brown, basal cell ochra- 
ceous, transverse veins at bases of first to fifth and seventh and 
eighth apical areas broadly infnscated, and a marginal series of 
fuscous spots at apices of longitudinal veins to apical areas. 

Length excl. tegm., c? , 35 ; exp. tegm. 88 millim. 

Hah. Ceylon {Green). — Java {Brit. Mus.). 

a'. Tympanal coverings less than half the length of tgmpanal orifices ; 
opercida in male with their lateral and posterior ma^-gins more 
or less oblique. 

1621. Terpnosia stipata, Walh. (Dimdubia) i?s^ Ham. i, p. 51(]850) ; 
Dist. (Terpnosia) 3Ion. Orietit. Cicad. p. 139, t. xv, f. 6, a, b 
(1892). 
Dundubia clonia, Walk. List Horn, i, p. 66 (1850). 

Body above greenish-ochraceous ; head with the margins of 
front and apical angles of vertex fuscous, area of ocelli, an oblique 
fascia on each side, and an small spot at inner margins of eves 
black or piceous ; pronotum with two central fascias united pos- 
teriorly, the incisures, a spot on lateral margins, extreme edo-e of 
posterior margin, and a spot on each side of same black ; meso- 
notum with a central linear fascia, on each side of which is a much 
shofter one, followed by a small obconical spot, a sinuated sub- 
lateral fascia, two small spots in front of cruciform elevation, and 
the angles of same black ; abdomen with the posterior segmental 
margins, a broad central dorsal fascia, and macular lateral fasciiB 
very dark fuscous, extreme aj^ex greyish-white ; body beneath and 
legs pale greenish, the abdomen beneath talc-like and semi- 
transparent ; a few sternal spots, the anterior femoral spines, and 
the tarsi more or less fuscous ; tegmina and wings hyaline, the 
venation fuscous or ochraceous ; tegmina with the costal mem- 
brane ochraceous, the transverse veins at bases of second, third 
and fifth apical areas moderately infuscated, and a marginal series 
of small fuscous spots situate on the longitudinal veins to apical 
areas. 

Length excl. tegm., S 33, $ 22 ; exp. tegm., J SO, $ 70 millim. 

Hah. Ceylon ; Kitagala {Green). 



128 CICADID^. 

cr. Tympanal coverinr/s very small and rudimentary ; opercula in 
male with their anterior and posterior margins convexly rounded. 

1622. Terpnosia confusa, Dist. A. M. N. H. (7) xv, p. 306 (1905). 

Body above castaneous-brown, finely greyish pilose ; pronotiira 
with the centre o£ the posterior margin (excluding a medial spot), 
the apices of the lateral margins, and two central curved fasciae 
pale greenish ; mesonotum with the anterior lateral margins pale 
greenish, the margins of two obscure anterior obconical spots and 
the anterior angles of tlie cruciform elevation ochraceous ; posterior 
maro-ins of the abdominal segments narrowly fuscous ; body 
beneath considerably paler in hue than above ; opercula broad, 
transverse, convexly rounded posteriorly, not quite reaching basal 
segment of abdomen ; rostrum just reaching basal abdominal 
segment. Tegmina and wings hyaline, the veins brown or brownish- 
ochraceous ; tegmina with a slight greenish suffusion, a curved 
series of about four small fuscous spots extending from base of 
second ulnar area to inner margin, the bases of the two upper 
apical areas a little infuscated, and a narrow elongate fuscous spot 
at apices of the longitudinal veins to apical areas. Tympanal 
covering very small, the greater part of the tympana being exposed. 

Length excl. tegm., d , 35 ; exp. tegm. 87 millim. 

Hah. "India" {Brit. Mas.); Sikhim (Coll. Dist.). 

This is the species figured in my Mon. Orient. Cicad. (tab. vii, 
. 21) as 2\ psecas. Walk. 

a^. Tympanal coverings more than half us long as tympanal orifices ; 
opercida in male ivith their lateral and j^osterior margins oblique ; 
marginal spots to tegmina sometimes absent. 

1623. Terpnosia ransonetti, Dist. (Pompouia) A. M. N. H. (6) i, 

p. 37:^ (1888) ; id. Mon. Orient. Cicad. p. 72, t. vii, f. 20, a, 
(1890). 
Pomponia greeni, Kirby, J. Linn. Soc, Zool. xxiv, j). 129, t. v, 
f. 11 (1891). 

Head and thorax above ochraceous ; head with two converging 
lines to front, the anterior ai'ea of vertex (enclosing ocelli), the 
hinder margins of eyes, and a small spot at that region black ; 
pronotum with two central longitudinal lines united anteriorly 
and posteriorly (on each side of which is a curved discal spot) and 
the incisures black ; mesonotum with a central longitudinal fascia 
widened at base into a large crescentic spot in front of basal 
cruciform elevation, on each side of this at anterior margin is a 
short curved fascia, followed by a marginal spot, a broad sublateral 
fascia, and an oblique spot on each lateral margin, black ; abdomen 
above brownish-ochraceous and pilose, the segmental margins 
narrowly piceous ; head beneath, sternum, and legs ochraceous ; 
an oval fascia on face, a transverse spot between face and eyes, 
posterior margin of head, a transverse spot on mesosternum, apices 



TERPNOSIA. 129 

of femora and bases of tibiae black ; abdomen beneath brownish- 
oehraceous, its base and apex piceous ; tegmina and wings hyaline, 
with a pale creainy-bluo tint, venation castaneous or fuscous ; 
teginina with a small ochraceous spot at base of upper ulnar area, 
transverse veins at bases of second, third, fifth, and seventh apical 
areas infuscated, and a marginal series of small fuscous spots at 
apices of longitudinal veins to apical areas. 

Length excl. tegra., J , 22 ; exp. tegm. 59 millim. 

Hah. MvLSsoove'd {Maclcinmn). Ceylon {Green) -^ Colombo (Jnt?. 
Mus.). 

In some varieties of this species the marginal tegminal spots 
are absent. 

b. Tegmina iviihout marginal sjjots. 

h. Tympanal coverings not more than a third of the length of 
tympanal orifices ; opercula in male with their outer margins 
convexly oblique, posterior margins obliquely truncate. 

1624. Terpnosia clio, Walk. (Dundubia) List Horn. \, p. 73 (1850) ; 

Dist. (Terpuosia) Mon. Orient. Cicad. p. 141, t. ix, f. 5, a, b 

(1892). 

Head and thorax above greenish-ochraceous ; head with two 
central apical spots to front, a spot at anterior angles of vertex, 
and the area of the ocelli black ; pronotum with two central 
linear fasciae, almost united posteriorly, und the incisures black ; 
mesonotum with a central longitudinal lanceolate fascia, with a 
short curved fascia on each side, a broken sublateral fascia, and 
two small spots in front of cruciform elevation black ; abdomen 
ochraceous, the segmental margins green, lateral margins pale 
ochraceous, anterior margins of the short tympanal flaps black ; 
legs, sternum, and opercula greenish-ochraceous ; striations to face, 
a spot between face and eyes, basal and apical annulations to 
anterior and intermediate femora and tibiae, apices of tarsi, apex 
of rostrum, and basal fascia to the opercula dark castaneous or 
piceous ; abdomen beneath pale ochraceous, its base, apical seg- 
ment, and anal appendage black ; tegmina and wings hyaline, the 
venation ochraceous or fuscous ; tegmina with the costal membrane 
greenish, transverse veins at bases of second, third, and fifth 
apical areas iufuscated, a black spot at basal angle of upper ulnar 
area. 

Length excl. tegm., c5' , 19 ; exp. tegm. 50 millim. 

Hab. Sikhim {Coll. Dist.). Mussooree {Maclcinnon). Burma ; 
Karennee {Fea). Tenasserim ; M. Mooleyit {Fea). 

V . Tympanal coverings not more than a third of the length of tympanal 
orifices ; opercida in male with their margins obliquely rounded. 

1625. Terpnosia abdullah, Dist. Tr. K S. 1904, p. 676, pi. xxx, 

f. 7, a, b. 

YOL. III. K 



130 cicadibji;. 

Body pale ochraceous, with the following black markings, viz. 
two small anterior spots and a spot at each basal angle to front, 
the area of the ocelli, and a line at inner margins of eyes ; two 
central longitudinal lines and the incisures to pronotum ; a central 
line (much widened medially), on each side of this an anterior 
curved line, followed by two angulated spots and a large lateral 
curved spot to n)esonotum, and a small rounded spot in front of 
anterior angles of the basal cruciform elevation ; lateral margins 
of first and an oblique marginal spot to second abdominal segment, 
transverse spots to face, apices of femora, bi-annulations to tibia& 
and tarsi, and base and apex of abdomen beneath. Tegmina and 
wings pale hyaline, the venation ochraceous ; the first with a black 
spot at base of upper ulnar area, and the transverse veins at the 
bases of the two upper apical areas, infuscated ; opercula small 
and obliquely rounded ; rostrum reaching the posterior coxae. 

Length excl. tegm., S ,16 ; esp. tegm. 46 millim. 

Rah. N.AV. India and Sikhim {Brit. Mns.). — Malay Peninsula ; 
Pahung (Craddocl-). 

c. T'ex/viina completely unspotted. 

c. l^jmpanal coverings very small and rudimentary; opercula in 
male narroiv and oblique. 

1626. Terpnosia madhava, Dist. (Pomponia) Tr. E. S. 1881, p. 644; 

Atkins. J. A. S. L'enff. liii, p. 229 (1885) ; Dist. (Terpnosia) 
Mon. Orient, dead. p. 141, t. ix, f. 2, a,b (1892). 

Body above pale greenish ; abdomen on each side with a lateral 
series of three largo oblong spots only denoted by their darker 
green margins, and placed on the second, third, and fourth seg- 
ments, segmental margins narrowly dark greenish, abdominal apex 
greyishly tomentose ; mesonotum with two faint obconical spots ; 
ocelli red ; eyes fuscous ; body beneath pale green ; legs and 
rostrum pale ochraceous ; tegmina and \\'ings hyaline, the venation 
ochraceous or greenish-ochraceous ; tegmina with the costal 
membrane pale greenish. 

Length excl. tegm,, (5 , 22 ; exp. tegm, 55 millim, 

Hab. Assam {Coll. Dist.). 

c. Tympanal coverings very small and rudimentary ; operctda in 
male transverse, tlieir posterior margins suhtruncate. 

1627. Terpnosia coUina, Dist. (Pomponia) A. M. N. H. (6) i, p. 371 

(1888); id. (Terpnosia) Mon. Orie?it. Cicad. p. 142, t, vii, 
f. 12, a, 6 (1892). 

Body above brownish-ochraceous ; head with the margins of 
front and the vertex much suffused with black ; pronotum with 
two central longitudinal fascia?, on each side of which is a curved 
linear spot, and the incisures black ; mesonotum with a central 
longitudinal fascia widened anteriorly and posteriorly, ou each 



TEEPNOSIA. 131 

side of this a short curved fascia, a siiblateral fascia, and two 
small spots in front of cruciform elevation black ; abdomen with 
the segmental margins somewhat broadly black ; sternum, opereula, 
and legs ochraceous ; abdomen beneath brownish-ochraceous; head 
(excluding face) blackish ; bases of tibiae, the tarsi, and basal seg- 
ment of abdomen fuscous ; apical abdominal segment somewhat 
infuscated ; tegmina and wings hyaline, venation fuscous or 
ochraceous, the first with the costal membrane ochraceous. 

Length excl. tegm., d" , IB to 17 ; exp. tegm. 47 to 54 millim. 

Hah. Assam ; Khasi Hills {Iml. Mns.). Burma : Ruby Mines 
(Doherfi/). 

B. Opereula in male extending beyond base of abdomen, their inner 
margins oblique, apices rounded and situate on lateral abdominal 
margins. 

1G28, Terpnosia maculipes. Walk. (Dundubia) List Ham. i, p. 70 
(1850) ; Atkins. J. A. S. Beiuj. liii, p. 224 (1865) ; Dist. (Terp- 
nosia) Mon. Orient. Cicad. p. 140, t. xv, f. 7,a,b (1892). 

Body above dull ochraceous ; head with marginal lines to front, 
linear spots at anterior angles of vertex, area of ocelli, and a small 
spot between ocelli and eyes black ; pronotum with two central 
linear fascise (united posteriorly) and the incisures black ; meso- 
notum with a central longitudinal fascia, on each side of which is 
a short carved fascia, followed by a small anterior marginal spot, 
a broken macular sublateral fascia, and two spots in front of 
cruciform elevation black ; abdomen pilose, with the small tym- 
panal coverings, narrow segmental margins, and lateral segmental 
marginal spots black ; body beneath and legs ochraceous ; coxal 
spots, spots near bases and apices of femora, spines to anterior 
femora, subbasal and subapical annulations to anterior and inter- 
mediate tibiae, apices of tarsi, apex of rostrum, and striations to 
face dark castaneous or fuscous ; tegmina and wings hyaline, the 
venation fuscous or ochraceous ; tegmina with the costal membrane 
ochraceous, the transverse veins at bases of second, third, fifth, 
and seventli apical areas palely infuscated, a series of small fuscous 
marginal spots near apices of longitudinal veins to apical arear, 
and a fuscous spot at basal angle of upper ulnar area. 

Length excl. tegm., c?, 28; exp. tegm. 77 milhm. 

Hah. North Bengal {Miss Campbell, Brit. Mus.). Mussooree 
(^MacTcinnon). 

1629. Terpnosia ganesa, Dist. Tr. E. S. 1904, p. 675, pi. xxx, 
f. 6, a, b. 

Body above brownish-olivaceous ; head with margins of front 
and area of ocelli, on each side of which is an obhque line, black ; 
pronotum with two central longitudinal fasciae, with a spot on 
each side of same, and the incisures black ; mesonotum with two 

k2 



132 CICADID^. 

anterior obconical spots, a straight longitudinal fascia continued 
from between them, a spot at each anterior angle of the basal 
cruciform elevation, and a broad continuous sublateral fascia pre- 
ceded by a small spot on anterior margin black ; abdomen above 
irregularly greyishly pilose, the extreme margins of the first and 
second segments, a central longitudinal spot on first segment, 
broad discal fascia to third segment, two small central spots on 
fourth, fifth, and sixth segments, and lateral marginal spots black; 
body beneath and legs ochraceous, central fascia to face and the 
rostrum stramineous ; apical spots to coxae, and basal and apical 
annulatious to femora and tibite, black ; tegmina and wings hya- 
line, venation fuscous or ochraceous, the tegmina spotted at apices 
of ulnar and apical areas ; rostrum passing the posterior coxse ; 
opercula oblique, not reaching apex of second abdominal segment 
and not meeting inwardly. 

Length excl. tegm., rT , 26 ; exp. tegm. 70 millim. 

Hah. Mussooree (MacJcinnon). 

This species is allied to T. maculijyes, from which it differs by 
the shorter, broader, and more darkly marked abdomen. 

Genus CICADATRA. 

Cicudatra, Anu/ot, An7i. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1847, p. 153 [349], f. 62; 

Fieb. Rev. Mag. Zool (3) iv, p. 42 (1876) ; Dist. Mon. Orient. 

Cicad. p. 133 (1892). 
Cicada, subgen. Cicadatra, Kolenat. Melet. Entomol. p. 9 (1857). 
Tettigia, subgeii. Cicadatra, Stal, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1861, p. 617. 

Type, C. atra. Oliv., a Palaearctic species. 

Distrihution. Palaearctic, just entering British India. 

Head (including eyes) narrower than base of mesonotum, its 
length less than width between eyes, but about as long as pro- 
notum ; pronotum much shorter than mesonotum, its lateral 
margins more or less obliquely straight, its posterior lateral angles 
a little ampliated ; mesonotum convex ; abdomen in male as long 
as space between apex of head and base of cruciform elevation ; 
tympanal coverings both narrower and shorter than tympanal 
orifices ; opercula in male short aud transverse, not extending 
beyond the base of abdomen ; anterior femora spined beneath ; 
tegmina and wings hyaline, the first sometimes a little maculate, 
its greatest width more than a third of length, apical areas eight ; 
wings with six apical areas. 

A. Tef/mina and luings immaculate. 

1630. Cicadatra sankana, Dist. (Tibicen) Tr. E. S. 1904, p. 675, 
pi. XXX, f. 8, a, b. 

S . Head black, anterior margins and three small basal spots 
ochraceous, eyes and ocelli castaneous ; pronotum castaneous, 
lateral and posterior margins and two central spots, both on 



CICAIJATRA. 



133 



imterior and posterior margins (divided by a pale ochraceous line), 
black ; mesonotum and basal cruciform elevation black, the first with 
lateral margins and two anterior obconical spots only delineated by 
their margins ochraceous ; abdomen castaneous, greyishly pilose, 




Fig. 57. — Cicadatra sankana. 

the base and a central longitudinal fascia black ; head beneath, 
sternum, and legs ochraceous ; abdomen beneath castaneous ; 
tegmina and wings hyaline, the venation fuscous or ochraceous, 
their bases narrowly ochraceous ; wings with a small fuscous 
marginal spot near abdominal area ; rostrum scarcely extending 
beyond the anterior coxae. 

$ . Body much darker in hue than in S ; lateral margins of 
abdomen beneath obscurely piceous. 

Length excl. tegm,, S 18, § 20 ; exp. tegm., S -17, $ 52 
millim. 

Hah, Chamasari, 5000 ft. {MacKinnon). — Baluchistan, Ormarah 
{Gumming, Brit. 3Ius.). 

B. Tegmina more or less maculate. 
a. Transverse veins at bases of second and third aj'ical areas of 



tegmina infuscated. 



1631. 



Cicadatra xantes, Walk. (Cicada) List Horn. I, p. 198 (18o0) ; 

Atkins. J. A. S. Beng. liii, p. 230 (1885) ; Stdl (Cicadatra), Ofv. 

Vet.-Ak. Fork. 1862, p. 485 ; Dist. Man. Orient. Cicad. p. 135, 

t. XV, f. l,a,b (1892). 
Cicada subvenosa, Walk. Ins. Saund., Horn. p. 18 (1858). 

Body above ochraceous, rather thickly and shortly pilose ; head 
with the front castaneous, and with an irregular black spot near 
the inner margins of eyes ; pronotum with two central longitudinal 
fasciae, on each side of which is a small spot, and a small central 
spot on posterior margin black ; mesonotum with four obconical 
black spots, the outer ones longest and sublateral ; abdomen very 
thickly greyishly pilose ; body beneath and legs ochraceous ; 
tegmina and wings hyaline and somewhat talc-like in appearance, 
the venation ochraceous ; tegmina with the costal membrane and 
extreme base ochraceous, the transverse veins at bases of second 
and third apical areas palely infuscated. 

Length excl. tegm., c?, 17 ; exp. tegm. 50 millim. 

Hah. "North India" {Warwich, Brit. Mus.). Peshawur {Wat- 
son). " Ind. orient." {Coll. Dist.). 



134 cicADiD.i:. 



b. Transverse veins at bases of second and third ajiical areas of 
tegmhia, and at base of upper apical area to ivings, infuscated. 

1632. Cicadatra striata, IFalk. (Cicada) List Horn, i, p. 206 (1850) ; 
Stal, Ofv. Vet.-Ak. Fork. 1862, p. 482 ; Bist. (Cicadatra) 
Mu?i. Orient. Cicad. p. 135, t. xv, f. 2,«, b (1892). 
Cicada anoea, Walk. List Horn, i, p. 207 (1860). 

S. Head blackish, a spot at anterior angles of vertex and a 
smaller one behind each eye ochraceous ; pronotum dull ochra- 
ceous with a pale central longitudinal fascia margined with black, 
the sublateral and subposterior margins and the incisures black ; 
mesonotum ochraceous, with four obcoiiical spots, the outermost 
of which are longest and sublateral, a large spot in front of 
cruciform elevation, and a small spot on each side of same black ; 
abdomen above black, the posterior segmental margins broadly 
castaneous ; head beneath blackish ; sternum, legs, and opercula 
ochraceous ; coxae spotted with black ; abdomen beneath pale cas- 
taneous, its apex ochraceous ; tegmina and wings hyaline, with 
their extreme bases reddish-ochraceous, venation pale brownish 
or fuscous ; tegmina with the transverse veins at the bases of the 
second and third apical areas infuscated ; wings with the transverse 
vein at base of upper apical area infuscated. 

§ . Head totally black ; mesonotum nearly black, the spots 
having coalesced ; abdomen above darker than in male. 

Length excl. tegm., J , 16 ; exp. tegm. 45 millim. 

Hub. Quetta {Coll. Dist.). North Bengal {Miss CamjjbeU, Brit. 
Mus.). 



Genus SENA. 
Sena, Dist. A. M. N. H. (7) xv, p. 307 (1905). 

Type, S. qucerida, Pall. 

Distribution. Palfearctic and Oriental Regions. 

Head about as long as space between eyes, lateral margins of 
front somewhat at right angles to lateral margins of vertex, eyes 
scarcely projecting beyond the anterior angles of the pronotum ; 
pronotum shorter than the mesonotum, its lateral margins more 
or less oblique, the posterior angles being obliquely dilated ; abdo- 
men longer than the space between apex of head and base of 
cruciform elevation*; tympana largely exposed, the flaps being a 
little shorter and very much narrower than the tympanal orifices ; 
rostrum just passing the intermediate coxae; opercula in male 
small, transverse, not extending beyond base of abdomen ; anal 
appendages large. 



Except ill S. acberi, Dist. 



SENA. 



135 



A. Ahdomen longer tlian space between apex of head and base of 
crnciform elevation. 

a. Tegmina and ivings spotted. 

b. Tegmina and ivings hg aline. 

a . nostrum about reaching posterior codxe. 

1633. Sena quaerula, Pall. (Cicada) Heise, torn, ii, p. 729 (1773); Haffen, 

Stett. eut. Zeit. 1856, p. 38 ; Fieh. (Cicadatra) Bev. Mag. Zool. 

(3) iv, p. 48 (1876) ; Bist. Mnn. Orient, dead. p. 134, t. xii, 

t; 2, a, b (1892). 
Cephaldxys quadrimacula, Walk. List Horn, i, p. 238 (1850) ; 

Atkins. (Mog-annia) J. A. S. Bern/, liii, p. 233 (1885). 
Cicada steveni, Stctl,Ofv. Vet. -Ak.' Fork. 1854, p. 243. 
Stoll, Cig. f. 6. 

Head and thorax above ochraceous or reddish-ochraceous ; head 
with the front and a large broken transverse fascia between the 
eyes black ; pronotuni with two central longitudinal fasciae, which 
are irregular in width, the incisures and a siibmarginal lateral 
fascia black ; mesonotum with four obconical spots (of which the 
central pair are shortest and sometimes fused), a lanceolate spot 
(sometimes absent) in front of cruciform elevation, and a spot on 




Fig. 58. — Sena queer ul a, var. 

each side of same black ; abdomen sometimes ochraceous with a 
discal series of black spots, or altogether black with the ])()sterior 
segmental margins ochraceous ; head beneath, sternum, li^'gs, and 
opercula ochraceous ; the face, sternal spots, shadings to femora, 
tibisB, and tarsi (more or less) black ; abdomen beneath ochraceous, 
in some specimens black with the posterior segmental margins 
ochraceous ; tegmina and wings hyaline, somewhat talc-like in 
appearance, the venation sometimes towards apices ochraceous ; 
tegmina with the costal membrane ochraceous, tlio transverse 
veins at bases of first, second, and third apical areas (sometimes 
only the second and tliird) very darkly infuscated, a small costal 
spot at end of radial area and the upper margin of basal cell dark 
fuscous ; wings with the transverse veins at bases of first, second. 



136 CICADID.'E. 

and third apical areas (sometimes only first and second) broadly 
and darkly infuscated ; rostrum with its apex black and about 
reaching posterior coxae. 

Length excl. tegm. 19 to 32; exp. tegm. 50 to 85 niillira. 

Hah. Quetta {Bnt. Mus.). " North India" {Stevens, Brit. Mus.), 
— Distributed over a considerable portion of the Palaearctic Eegion ; 
Turkestan ; Tashkend. Persia. Afghanistan. 

A large varietal form from Quetta is figured above. 

b'. Tegmina and ivings semi-opaque. 
a". Rostrum just passing intermediate coxa'. 

1634, Sena rugipennis, Walk. (Cicada) Ins. Saund., Hum. p. 17 (1858) ; 
Dist. (Cicadatra) Mon. Orie7it. dead. p. 135, t. xii, f. 7, a, b 
(1892). 

Body and legs ochraceous ; abdominal segmental margins piceous ; 
tegmina and wings talc-like, semi-hyaline, their extreme bases 
ochraceous ; tegmina with the venation ochraceous, but becoming 
fuscous on apical area, costal membrane ochraceous, transverse 
veins at bases of second, third, and fifth apical areas infuscated ; 
wings with the venation ochraceous, transverse veins at bases o£ 
first, second, and third apical areas broadly piceous. 

Length excl. tegm., $ , 30 ; exp. tegm. 90 millim. 

Hah. " Hindostan " {Brit. Mus.). 

Of this very distinct species 1 have only seen the unique female 
type in the British Museum. 

B. Abdomen not longer than space hetween apex of head, and base of 
cruciform elevation. 

b. Tegmina and wings tmspoited, hyaline. 

a^. Rostrum about reaching intermediate coxa'. 

1635. Sena ached, Hist. (Tibicen) A. 31. N. H. (6) i, p. 373 (1888) ; 
id. (Cicadatra) Mo7i. Orient, dead. p. 136, t. xv, f. 3, a, b 
(1892). 

Head black, ocelli red, eyes brownish-ochraceous ; pronotum 
black, with a central longitudinal fascia and the posterior margin 
yellow, and with two large discal reddish spots ; mesonotum black, 
with two faiut yellowish central fasciae extending a short distance 
from anterior margin; abdomen black, the lateral areas and apex 
more or less reddish ; face, sternum, and femora yellow ; a central 
longitudinal fascia to face, head beneath (excluding face), apices of 
femora, the tibiae and tarsi black ; abdomen beneath dull reddish ; 
tegmina and wings hyaline, venation blackish or olivaceous, costal 
membrane to tegmina olivaceous ; rostrum with the apex piceous 
and about reaching the intermediate coxae ; opercula in male yellow, 
short, broad, obliquely rounded and not meeting inwardly. 

Length excl. tegm., J , 25 ; exp. tegm. 72 millim. 

Hah. Kashmir Valley, 6300 feet {Leech). 



CALCAGNINUS. 13'J 



Genus CALCAGNINUS. 

Calcagninus, Dist. Mon. Orient. Cicad. pp. 31 & 13G (1889 & 1892). 

Type, C. 2)icturatus, Dist. 

Distribution. Oriental Region. 

Head (including eyes) about as broad as base oE mesonotum, its 
length about half the width between eyes, ocelli not quite twice 
the distance from eyes as from each other ; pronotum with the 
lateral margins sometimes slightly auipliated and more or less 
distinctly toothed, or nearly straight with only the posterior 
angles ampliated ; abdomen longer than space between the apex 
of head and base of cruciform elevation ; tympanal coverings 
rudimentary, oidy covering the tympanal orifices at base ; second 
and third ventral segments in male furuislied with a well-developed 
tubercle near each lateral margin ; anterior femora distinctly spined 
beneath ; rostrum reaching the posterior coxae; tegmina and ^^•ings 
hyaline, the first usually slightly maculate and possessing eight 
apical areas ; wings with six apical areas. 

a. Lateral pronotal margins straigJit, not ampliated. 

1636. Calcagninus picturatus, Dist. (Leptopsaltria) A. M. N. H. 
(6) i, p. 370 (1888) ; id. (Calcaguinus) Mon. Orient. Cicad. 
p. 136, t. viii, f. 13, a, b (1892). 

Body above brownish-ocliraceous ; head (excluding base) much 

. suffused with piceous, ocelli red, eyes castaneous ; pronotum with 

a central, longitudinal, fuscous fascia, the margins of which are 

black, and \\hich is ampliated anteriorly, and with an oblong 

piceous fascia near each lateral 
margin ; mesonotum with a 
central, longitudinal, lanceo- 
late fascia, on each side of 
which is a curved linear discal 
fascia, a broad sublateral 
fascia, and two spots in 
front of cruciform elevation 
Vig.b^.—Calcagninus picturatus. piceous ; abdomen sparingly 

grevishly pilose, with a double 
discal series and more continuous lateral marginal series of piceous 
spots, base of anal segment also piceous, anal appendage pale 
ochraceous; tegmina and wings hyaline, venation fuscous; tegmina 
with a small ochraceous and fuscous spot at base of upper ulnar 
area, and the transverse veins at bases of second and third apical 
areas infuscated * ; rostrum with its apex piceous and just passing 
posterior coxae ; face discally depressed and somewhat flattened. 
Length excl. tegm., J , 15; exp. tegm. 44: millim. 
Hah. Nilgiri Hills, northern slopes {Hampson). 

* A character omitted by the artist in the above figure. 




138 cicadid;e. 

b. Lateral pronoUd margins a little ampliated and tootlied. 

1637. Calcagninus nilgiriensis, Dist. (Leptopsaltria) A. M. N. H. (5) 

XX, p. 2:^8 (1887) ; id. (Calcagninus) Mo7i. Orient, dead. p. 137, 
t. viii, f. 15, rt, 6(1892). 

Head and thorax above olivaceous-greeu ; head with the front 
broadly raari^ined Mith black, the vertex with a streak behind eyes, 
some irregular anterior markings, and area of ocelH black ; 
pronotum with two central longitudinal fasciae united posteriorly, 
on each side of these a curved discal fascia, and the incisures 
broadly piceous ; mesonotuin with a central longitudinal lanceolate 
fascia, on each side of which is an anterior obconical spot, followed 
by a small spot on anterior margin, a broad sublateral fascia, and 
two spots in front of cruciform elevation black ; abdomen more 
ochraceous in hue, the segmental margins narrowly black, and with 
two discal series of large spots and a marginal series of smaller 
spots on each side piceous ; head beneath, sternum, and legs 
olivaceous-green : anterior margin and two central fasciae to face, 
some irregular spots between face and eyes, base and apex of 
abdomen beneath, apices of femora, tibiae, and tarsi more or less 
piceous ; apex of rostrum piceous and just passing the posterior 
coxai ; tegmina and wings hyaline, the venation alternately black 
and ochraceous ; tegmina with a few obscure black markings at 
base, the costal membrane greenish-ochraceous, an ochraceous and 
fuscous spot at base of upper ulnar area, and the transverse veins 
at bases of second and third apical areas in male, and the three 
upper apical areas in female, infuscated, in some specimens there 
are a submarginal series of small fuscous spots near the apices of 
the longitudinal veins to apical areas, while in some other varieties 
the tegmina are practically unspotted. 

Length excl. tegm., d" & $ ,16 to 22; exp. tegm. 50 to 57 millim. 

Hah. Nilgiri Hills, northern slopes {Hampson). 

Genus GUDABA, nov. 

Type, G. marginata, Dist. 

Distribution. Burma. 

Head (including eyes) about as broad as base of mesonotum, its 
length about equal to the space between eyes, front prominent; 
pronotum about as long as head, its lateral margins obliquely 
straight, its posterior lateral angles augulated ; abdomen somewhat 
cylindrical, longer than space between apex of head and base of 
cruciform elevation ; tympanal coverings very much shorter and 
narrower than tlie tympanal orifices ; second and third ventral 
segments in male furnished with a tubercle near each lateral 
margin, that on the second segment longest; opercula in male short, 
transverse, not passing basal abdominal segment ; anterior femora 
strongly spined beneath ; rostrum about reaching the posterior 
coxae ; tegmina and wings hyaline ; tegmina with eight, wings with 
five apical areas. 



KHIMBYA. 



139 



1638. Gudaba marginata, Dist. (Calcao-nimis) A. M. N. H. (6) xx, 

p. 19 (1897). V o ^ V ; , 

Body and legs ochraceous, apex of abdomen black ; tegmina 

hyaline with a slight ochraceous 
tint, costal membrane and vena- 
tion ochraceous, the outer margin 
somewhat broadly fuscous ; wings 
a little paler hyaline, venation 
ochraceous ; both tegmina and 
wings a little dark ochraceous on 
the claval ai'eas ; opercula in 
male short, subquadrangular. 

Length excl. tegm., c? , 15 ; exp. tegm. 38 millim. 

liah. Burma ; North Chin Hills ( Watson). 




Fig. 60. — Gudaha rnarginaia. 



Genus KHIMBYA. 
Khimbya, Dist. A. M. N. H. (7) xv, p. 307 (1905). 

Type, K. evanesccus, AValk. 

Distribution. British India. 

Head more or less deflected before eyes, its length considerably 
shorter than space between eyes, margins of front and vertex 
subobliquely continuous ; pronotum distinctly shorter than meso- 
notum, its lateral margins sinuate, but not dentate ; abdomen much 
longer than space between apex of head and base of cruciform 
elevation ; tympana imperfectly covered, the flaps shorter and 
narrower than tympanal cavities ; rostrum usually not quite 
reaching posterior coxse ; opercula in male inwardly obliquely 
divergent, extending to about third abdominal segment ; anterior 
femora with at least two spines on their under surface ; tegmina 
variable in breadth, either with the greatest breadth more than or 
equal to a third of their length, apical areas eight, basal cell much 
longer than broad. 



A. Greatest tvidth of tegmina more than a third their length. 

a. Tympanal flails only a little shorter than tympanal orifices, 

a. Opercula in male ovate, narrowing at apices. 

1639. Khimbya evanescens, Walk. (Uundubia) Ins. Saimd., Horn. 
p. 6 (18'58) ; Dist. (Pomponia) Mo7i. Orient. Cicad. p. 72, t. x, 
f. 13, a, b (1890). 

Head and thorax above ochraceous ; head with striae to front, 
area of ocelli, and the whole lateral vertical area black ; pronotum 
with two central longitudinal fascife united posteriorly, a sublateral 
anterior line, and margins of the posterior lateral angles black; 
niesonotum with a central longitudinal fascia, on each side of which 
is a shorter and somewhat inwardly curved fascia, followed by a 
spot on anterior margin, a broken sublateral fascia, and two small 



140 



CICADID^. 



spots in front of cruciform elevation blaclc ; abdomen above tinted 
with testaceous and greyishly pilose, with a discal segmental series 
of spots and a smaller lateral series piceous; body beneath and 
legs pale ochraceous, the abdomen somewhat thickly greyishly 
pilose ; stri« and central sulcation to face, space between face and 




Fig. 61. — Khimhija cvancscens. 

eyes, and apical area of abdomen piceous ; tegmina and wings 
hyaline, the venation and costal membrane to tegmina pale 
ochraceous ; tegmina with the transverse veins at bases of second 
and third apical areas, the longitudinal veins to first and second 
apical areas, and a series of spots at apices of longitudinal veins to 
apical areas piceous ; wings with the inner edges of outer margin 
fuscous. 

Length excl. tegm., (j' , 18 to 21 ; exp. tegm. 45 to 56 millim. 

Hah. Dehra Dun {Macl-imion). Burma ; North Cliiu Hills 
( Watson). 

a . Opereida in male acutely trianr/ular. 

1640. Khimhya cimeata, Bist. (Pomponia) A. M. N. H. (G) xx, p. 19 

(1897). 

(S . Head black with some marginal testaceous streaks to front 
and the same at base ; pronotum ocliraceous, with two central 
longitudinal fasciae, the incisures, and edges of posterior margin 
black, two castaneous spots on posterior lateral angles ; meso- 
notum ochraceous, with a central longitudinal fascia, on each side 
of which is an obconical spot, followed by a small anterior spot, a 
broad sublateral fascia, and two rounded spots in front of the 
cruciform elevation black ; abdomen above pale castaneous, the 
three basal segments posteriorly narrowly ochraceous at the lateral 
margins, posterior segmental margins piceous ; sternum and 
opercula in male pale ochraceous ; face, legs, and abdomen beneath 
brownish-ocln-aceous ; tegmina and wings hyaline, the venation 
either ochraceous or castaneous ; tegmina with the costal membrane 
ochraceous, and the transverse veins at bases of second and third 
apical areas infuscated. 

Length excl. tegm., (5,25; exp. tegm. 66 millim. 

Hah. Burma; North Chin Hills (Hanson). 



KniMBTA. 141 

B. Greatest breadth of teqmuia ahout one-third their lenr/th. 

b. Tympanal flaps almost as long as tympanal orifices. 

h. Rostrum passing posterior coxce, 

1641. Khimbya sita, Hist. (Cosmopsaltria) Tr. E. S. 1881, p. 036; 

Atki7is. J. A. S. Bemj. liii, p. 226 (1885) ; Dist. Man. Orient. 
Cicad. p. 58, t. iv, f. 5, a, h (1890). 

Pale brownish-ochraceous ; head with a central spot which is 
furcate anteriorly and an oblique spot ou each side o£ base o£ front, 
area of ocelli, two transverse spots on lateral areas of vertex, and a 
longitudinal line near inner margins of eyes black ; pronotum with 
two central longitudinal fasciae united posteriorly, with a small 
discal waved line ou each side, and the incisures black ; two 
castaneous spots on each posterior lateral angle ; mesouotum with 
a central longitudinal fascia, on each side of this a subclavate, 
smaller, and suboblique fascia, followed by two linear spots on 
anterior margin, a discal waved irregular fascia on each lateral area, 
and two spots in front of the cruciform elevation black ; abdomen 
with the segmental margins more or less piceous aud with a lateral 
segmental series of piceous spots ; body beneath and legs 
ochraceous and unicolorous, bases and apices of tarsi aud apex ot" 
rostrum piceous ; tegmina and wings hyaline, venation basally 
ochraceous and apically fuscous ; tegmina with the transverse veins 
at bases of second aud third apical areas infuscated, transverse 
veins at bases of first and second ulnar areas fuscous, ochraceous 
at their junction. 

Length excl. tegm. 24; exp. tegm. 73 millim. 

Hob. Bombay {Coll. Bist.). Karwar {Ind. Mus.). 

c. Tyynpanal flaps much shorter than tympanal oriflces. 

h' . nostrum not reaching posterior coxce. 

1642. Khimbya diminuta, Walk. (Dunduhia) List Ihnn. i. p. 74 

(1850) ; id. torn. cit. iv, t. i, f. 1 (1852) ; Dist. (Cosmopsaltria) 
Mon. Orient. Cicad. p. 59, t. xii, f. 14, a, b (1890 j. 

Head aud thorax above dark ochi\aceous ; head much suffused 
with piceous ; pronotum with two central longitudinal linear 
fasciae, on each side of which is a discal curved line, and the 
incisures black, the lateral and posterior margins paler ochraceous 
with somewhat confluent castaneous markings ou each posterior 
lateral angle ; mesouotum with a central sublanceolate fascia, on 
each side of which is a slender obconical spot, followed by a small 
anterior spot and a broad sublateral fascia, and two small spots in 
front of cruciform elevation black ; abdomen above ochraceous, 
much suffused with piceous on disk, the apex and some lateral 
segmental spots also piceous ; body beneath and legs ochraceous ; 
opei'cula dull stramineous ; face with the lateral striations, a spot 
between face and eyes, bases aud apices oE tarsi, and apex of 



142 



CICADID^, 



rostrum piceous ; tegmina aud wings hyaline, venation mostly 
fuscous ; tegmina with the transverse veius at bases of second and 
third apical areas infuscated, and in some specimens with faint 
and small marginal spots at apices of longitudinal veins to the 
upper apical areas. 

Length excl. tegm., c^" , 19 to 20 ; exp. tegm. 50 to 55 millim. 
Hah. Bombay {Dixon). Karwar {Coll. Dist.). Tenasserim ; 
Thaungyin {Bingham). 

Genus LETHAMA. 
Lethama, List. A. M. N. H. (7) xv, p. 307 (1905). 

Type, L. locnsta, Walk. 

Distrihution. British India. 

Head horizontal, as long as space between eyes, not anteriorly 
deflected, front very prominent, margins of front and vertex 
obliquely subcontinuous ; pronotum as long as mesonotum, its 
lateral margins oblique, sinuate, obscurely dentate ; abdomen con- 
siderably longer than space between apex of head and base of 
cruciform elevation ; tympana imperfectly covered, the flaps 
shorter and narrower than the tympanal cavities ; rostrum about 
reaching the posterior cosfe ; anterior femora armed beneath with 
two or three strong spines ; opercula extending to more than half 
the length of the abdomen, situate wide apart and on the lateral 
abdominal areas ; tegmina broad, their greatest breadth more than 
one-third of their length, apical areas eight, basal cell much 
longer than broad. 

1643. Lethama locusta. Walk. (Cephaloxys) List Horn. i. p. 236 
(18.00) ; Athins. (Mogaunia) J. A. S. Beitg. liii, p. 233 (1885) ; 
Dist. (Dundubia) 3Ion. Orient. Cicad. p. 41, t. ix, f. 1, a, b 

(1889). 

Body browuish-ochraceous ; pronotum with the margins paler 




in hue ; mesonotum w ith two obscure obconical spots on anterior 
margin, their outer edges black, and two small dark spots in front 



BASA. 143 

of cruciform elevation ; lateral margins of the abdomen above 
paler in hue and ornamented with a segmental series of black 
spots ; abdomen beneath paler in hue ; head, sternum, legs, and 
opercula ochraceous ; tegmiua and wings hyaline, venation and 
costal membrane of the first ochraceous. 

Length excl. tegm., S 34, 5 30; exp, tegm. 83 millim. 

Hab. Bombay (Leith and Dixon). 

In the specimen above figured the wings possess a short 
supplementary apical area, maldug seven in all ; this is, however, 
purely varietal, and all the other specimens I have examined 
possess six only. 

Genus BASA. 
Basa, Dist. A. M. N. H. (7) xv, p. 309 (1905). 

Type, B. sinr/ularis, Walk. 

Distribuiion. India. 

Head with front prominent and produced, its lateral margins at 
right angles with anterior margins of vertex, its breadth between 
eyes much narrower than base of mesonotum, its length about 
equal to that of pronotum ; prouotum a little shorter tlian meso- 
notum, its lateral margins convex anteriorly and concavely sinuate 
before posterior angles, whicli are anipliated ; abdomen much 
longer than space between apex of head and base of cruciform 
elevation, its lateral areas obliquely de|)ressed above ; beneath with 
the disk some\^hat flat and the marginal areas obliquely directed 
upward ; tympanal flaps shorter, but not narrower, than tympanal 
cavities ; opercula transverse and just passing base of abdomen ; 
antei'ior femora strongly spined beneath near apex ; anterior tibia? 
longer than femora, anterior tarsi more than half the length of 
tibise ; tegmina and wings long and narrow, greatest width of the 
first only equal to a third of length, its basal cell much longer than 
broad, fourth ulnar area much compressed at base of third, apical 
areas eight. 

1644. Basa singularis. Walk. (Dundubia) List Horn. Suppl. p. 7 
(1858) ; Atkins. J. A. 8. Beny. liii, p. 225 (1885) ; Bist. 
(Pompouia) Mon. Orient, dead. p. 72, t. vi, f. 4, o, h (1890). 

Head and thorax above greenish-ochraceous ; head with marginal 
striae to front, area of ocelli, and two transverse spots at apical 
angles of vertex fuscous ; pronotum with two central longitudinal 
piceous fasciae, united posteriorly by a prominent arcuated spot, 
the lateral areas brownish-ochraceons ; mesonotum with four 
somewhat obscure obconical spots, the outermost longest, a bi'oken 
sublateral fascia, a central lanceolate spot, and two spots in front 
of cruciform elevation brownish-ochraceous ; abdomen with the 
tympanal flaps, the central disk, and some obscure lateral spots 
brownish-ochraceous ; body beneath and legs brownish-ochraceous ; 
face, lateral margins of sternum, and opercula (in male) virescent ; 



144 



CICADID^. 



tegmiiia and wings hyaline with a pale bronzy tint, the tegmina a 
little darker, venation oehraceous ; tegmina with the transverse 
veins at bases of apical areas, irregular spots at apices of longi- 
tudinal veins to apical areas, some nebulous apical spots, and a 




Fig. 63. — Basa singularis. 

waved line between bases of second ulnar and eightli apical areas 
brownish-ochraceous ; a series of small fuscous spots on extreme 
margins of both tegmina and wings. 

Length excl. tegm., c? , 22 ; exp. tegm. 72 to 74 millim. 

Hah. Darjiling {Stockliolm Mus.). Sikhim (Pilcher, Brit. 
Mus.). 

Division GjEANARIA. 
Gfeanaria, Dist. A. M. N. H. (7) xv, p. 383 (1905). 

This division, at present represented by three Eastern genera, 
is recognized principally by the following characters : — The 
tegmina and wings are opaque and generally more or less brilliantly 
coloured ; the lateral margins of the pronotum are ne ither 
ampliated nor dilated ; the tympanal orifices are largel}' exposed, 
the tympanal coverings being a little narrower and much shorter 
than the orifices and with their anterior marsius convex. 



Synopsis of Genera. 

A. Tegmina with the venation normal ; apical areas 

eio'ht. 
a. Head longer than pronotum, front somewhat 
porrectly produced. 

a. Greatest breadth of tegmina more than one- 

third their length G^ana, p. 145. 

h. Head not longer than pronotum, obliquely 
depressed in front of eyes. 

b. Greatest breadth of tegmina only about one- 

third their length Balinta, p. 148. 

B. Tegmina with the venation reticulate, ulnar and 

apical areas broken up into many cellular 

divisions Talainga, p. 150. 



g.5;axa. 



145 



Genus G-ffiANA. 

Gasaua. Atm/. S,- i^erv. Hem. p. 463 (1843) ; Stal, Hem. Afr. \\, p.'"4 
(1866) ; Dist. Mon. Orient. Cicnd. p. 104 (1892). 

Type, G. maculata, Drury. 

Distribution. Orieutal aud jNJalayan Regions, and found in 
Eastern China. 

Body long and moderately slender in the male, much shoi'ter 
in the female ; head (including eyes) about equal in width to base 
of mesonotum, longer than pronotiim, front somewhat porrectly 
produced, ocelli about twice the distance from eyes as from each 
other ; pronotum with the lateral margins very slightly convex, 
the posterior lateral angles moderately lobately produced ; abdomen 
in male long, moderately slender, in the female only about as long 
as space between apex of head and base of cruciform elevation ; 
tympanal coverings in male small, both narrower and much shorter 
than the tympanal orifices ; opercula in male small, transverse, not 
passing base of abdomen ; anterior femora strongly spined beneath ; 
tegmina and wings opaque, the first with their outer margins some- 
what con vexly rounded, their greatest breadth more than one-third 
their length. 

1645. Gaeana maculata, I)r?iri/ (Cicada), Im. ii. p. 68, t. xxxvii. f. 1 

(1773); Fabr. (Tettin:onvd) Si/sL -Ent. App. -p. 8Sl (177 o) ; Amy. 

Sr Serv. (Gc-eaua) Hem. p. 464 (1843) ; SfM, Of v. Vet.-Ah. Fork. 

1862, p. 483; Dist. Man. Orient, dead. p. 104, t. iii, f. 17, a, h 

(1892). 
Far. a. Dist. Mon. Orient, dead. p. 104 (1892). 
Far. consors, White (Gaeana) MS., Dist. Mon. Orient, dead. 

p. lOo, t. iii, f. 20, a, b{} 89-2). 




Yicf, Qi.— Gaana maculata, var. coinors 



Body above black ; head with a spot between ocelli and eyes, 
mesonotum with four discal spots, a spot on each lateral margin 
and a spot on each side of cruciform elevation, and abdomen with 

YOL. III. ^' 



146 CICADID.K. 

the apical segmental margin ochraceous ; body beneath and legs 
black ; a spot on each side of face, two small spots on each side of 
mesosternum, and a small s])ot near posterior coxae ochraceous : 
tegmina and wings black ; tegmina greyish-brown towards apex 
and with five ochraceous spots in two transverse series, two near 
base and three about centre ; wings with a broad transverse sub- 
basal patch, follo\\ed by two contiguous spots near costal margin, 
ochraceous, sometimes greyish, and. with a submarginal series of 
greyish-brown spots in apical areas ; rostrum reaching posterior 
coxae ; opercula in male small and widely separated. 

Var. a. Differs from the typical form by having the ochraceous 
markings to the tegmina and wings replaced by pale greenish, the 
upper basal spot of tegmina absent, the lower spot replaced by two 
smaller ones ; both tegmina and wings with a submarginal series 
of small whitish spots, and a small one of the same colour in each 
of the two upper ulnar areas. 

Yar. consors. In this variety the wings have a much larger basal 
patch of either ochraceous or pale greenish ; other markings to 
tegmina and wings as in var. a, except that both basal spots are 
present in tegmina as in typical form. 

Length excl. tegm., cJ 35, $ 33 ; exp, tegm., d" & $ , 90 to 
102 milKm. 

H((h. Sikhim. Assam ; Naga and Kliasi Hills (OJiennell). 
Margherita (Doherty). Samagooting and Dhansiri Valley {Ind. 
Mus.). Burma ; Karennee {Fea). Tonkin. China. 

1646. Gaeana stellata, Walk. (Huechys) Ins.Smmd., Horn. p. 27 (1858) ; 
Atkins. J. A. S. Beng. Iv, p. 154 (1886) ; Dist. (Gajana) Mon. 
Orient, dead. p. 105," t. iii, f. 15, a, b (1892). 
Var. a. Dist. Mon. Orient. Cicad. p. 105. 

(S . Body with the colour and markings of G. maculata, but with 
the abdominal segment beneath somewhat broadly margined 
with ochraceous ; tegmina pale brownish-ochraceous, pale fuscous 
on about apical third, base (including basal cell) blackish, a trans- 
verse series of three large wiiite spots inwardly margined with a 
blackish suffusion near centre, a submarginal series of smaller 
wliitish spots in apical areas, and a still smaller spot in each of the 
three upper ulnar areas ; wings blackish, a little paler between the 
veins, with a pale spob at inner basal margin, a small discal 
ochraceous streak, a series of four or five submarginal whitish 
spots situate in the apical areas, and with the anal area greyish- 
brown margined with fuscous ; rostrum reaching the posterior 
coxfe. 

Var. a. $ . Tegmina with the ochraceous replaced with a hue of 
dark cinnamon, and the fuscous shadings nearly black ; wings jet- 
black, with the pale markings as in typical form. 

Length excl. tegm., c5' , 38 5 , 30 ; exp. tegm., J & $ , 
98 millim. 

Hub. Assam ; Ivhasi Hills {Chennell). Margherita {Dolierty). 



G.EANA. 147 

1647. Gaeana sulpliurea, Hope (Cicada) in Roijle's Illustr. Bot. 

Himal, Introd. p. liv, t. x, f. 2 (1839) ; Atkins. (Gfeaua) 
J.A.S. Benxj. liii, p. 2i^3 (1885); Bist. Mon. Orient, dead. 
p. 105, t. iii, f. 22, «, h (1892). 
Cicada pulchella, Westw. Arc. Ent. \\, p. 34, t. Ivii, f. 1 (1842). 

Body black ; lateral margins of vertex of head continued beyond 
inner margins of eyes, two oblique discal spots on each side of 
pronotum, a transverse series of four linear spots to mesonotum, 
and the margins of anal appendage ochraceous or reddish-ochra- 
ceous ; body beneath and legs black ; a fascia on each side of face, 
sternal streaks, a spot near base of tegmiua, posterior abdominal 
segmental margins (obliterated centrally), and the anal appendage 
ochraceous ; tegmina and wings sulphur-yellow ; tegmina with 
the inner margin of costal membrane, a curved and inwardly 
angulated fascia crossing near middle, and the whole apical area 
(including the upper ulnar area) piceous, costal membrane yellow ; 
wings with the apical area (broadly, and narrowing to anal angle) 
piceous ; rostrum reaching tlie posterior coxae. 

Length excl. tegm., (5,35 to 37, 5 25; exp. tegm., J & 
$ , 76 to 92 millira. 

Hah. Sikhim {hid. 2Ius.). Nepal (Coll. Dist.). Mussooree 
(Maclcinnon). Darjiliug (Stochh. Mus.). 

1648. Gaeana atkinsoni, Dist. A.M.N. H. (0) iii, p. 49 (1889); id. 

Moil. Orient. Cicad. p. 107, t. ix, f. 10, a,b (1892). 

Head, pronotum, and mesonotum black; a transverse fascia 
between eyes, posterior margin of pronotum, the margins of two 
anterior obconical spots and lateral margins to mesonotum, and 
the cruciform elevation ochraceous ; abdomen above and beneath 
ochraceous ; head beneath, sternum, and legs black ; apical half 
of face, a transverse spot between face and eyes, and disk and 
margins of sternum ochraceous ; opercula black, their base and 
outer margin ochraceous ; tegmina black, the venation, a narrow, 
oblique, transverse fascia near base, a straighter and wider trans- 
verse fascia near middle pale ochraceous, two subapical spots and 
a spot in the sixth apical area reddish-oehraceous (these spots are 
inconstant) ; wings bright carmine-red, apical and posterior 
margins and a subapical transverse fasciate spot black ; rostrum 
reaching the posterior coxse. 

Length excl. tegm., S 35, $ 30 ; exp. tegm., J & $ , 80 
to 85 millim. 

Hah. Karwar {Coll. Dist.). Travancore {Coll. Dist.). 



1649. Gaeana festiva, Fahr. (Tettig-onia) Si/st. Rhyng. p. 4L 42 (1803) ; 
Sttd (Gseaua), i>e;'Z. ent. Zeit. x, p. 170 (1866); Dist. Mon. 
Orient. Cicad. p. 106, t. iii, f. 18, a, b (1892). 
Cicada thalassiiia, Guer. ^- Perch. Gen. Ins., Hem. t. 2 (1834). 
Cicada perclieroni, Giicr. Ic. Rhjn. An., hist. p. 3.55 (1838). 

l2 



148 CICADID^. 

G^eana consobrina, White, MS. 

Var. a. Did. Mon. Orient. Cicad. p. 107 (1892). 

Var. b. Dist. torn. cit. t. iii, f. 19, a, b. 

Body above black ; ocelli aud abroad fascia behind eyesreddish- 
ochraceoiis ; margins of proiiotum, four discal fasciiB (of which 
the two central ones are angnlated) to mesonotum, and margins of 
nietanotum greenish-ochraceous ; body beneath and legs black ; 
apical half of face and a spot betv\ een face and eyes reddish- 
ochraceous ; tegmina greenish-ochraceous, the radial area, a 
transverse fascia crossing centre from apex of radial area (near 
Avhieh is a large triangular spot), apex and outer and inner 
mai'gius, and two small spots near base piceous or black, the 
black area at apex is more or less broken and sometimes includes 
a small greenish-ochraceous spot ; wings pale bluish-green, the 
apex broadly black and containing a pale bluish spot, the margins 
more narrowly black towards anal angle ; rostrum reaching the 
posterior coxse. 

Yar. a. Pronotum with a distinct central pale longitudinal 
fascia. 

Var. h. Tegmina and wings A\ith the black coloration much 
incx-eased ; tegmina only exhibiting three irregular and angnlated 
greenish spots, sometimes a small subapical one ; wings with more 
than the apical half black, enclosing three pale bluish spots. 

Length excl. tegm., <S 30, $ 26 ; exp. tegm., S & ? , 76 to 
78 millim. 

Hab. Sikhim {Ind. Mus.). Assam ; south of Brahmaputra 
(CJiennell). Darjiling (StocJch. Mus.). — Sumatra. Amboina. 



Genus BALINTA. 
Baliuta, Dist. A.M.N.H. (7) xv, p. 383 (1905). 

Type, B. octonotata, Westw. 

Distribution. Oriental Region. 

Head (including eyes) about as wide as base of mesonotum and 
as long as pronotum, obliquely depressed in front of eyes ; 
pronotum about as long as mesonotum, its lateral margins sinuate, 
the posterior angles moderatel)' dilated ; abdomen in male much 
longer than space between apex of head and base of cruciform 
elevation ; tympanal coverings both shorter and narrower than 
the tympanal orifices, vv'hich are most exposed inwardly ; opercula 
in male small and transverse, widely separated, and not extending 
beyond base of abdomen ; rostrum reaching posterior coxae ; 
anterior femora strongly spiued beneath ; tegmina and wings 
opaque ; tegmina with their greatest breadth about one-third their 
length and with eight apical ai'eas. 

1650. Balinta octonotata, Westiv. (Cicada) Arc. Ent. ii, p. 34, t. Ivii. 
f. 2 (1842) ; Atkins. (Gasaua) J. A. S. Benq. liii, p. 221 (1885) ; 
Dist. Mon. Orient. C'lcad. p. 107, t. iii, f. 12, a, h (1892). 



balijStta. 149 

Hiiecliys picta, Walk. Ins. Saund., Horn. p. 28 (1858) ; Atkins. 

J. A. S. Bemj. Iv, p. 155 (1886). 
Var. a. Bist. Mon. Orient, dead. p. 108 (1892). 
Var. b. Bist. torn. cit. t. iii, f. 13, a, b. 

Head, prouotum, and mesonotum black ; head with the basal 
margin of front and basal margin of vertex dull dark ochraceoas : 
basal margin and a transverse basal spot to pronotum, lateral 
margins and two central angulated fascia? to mesonotuta connected 
with the cruciform elevation, and the anterior and posterior angles 
of the last dull dark ochraceous ; abdomen reddish-ochraceous 




Fig. 05. — Bcdinfa octonofata. 

with a central black longitudinal fascia ; head beneath, sternum, 
and legs black, margins of face and abdomen beneath ochraceous ; 
abdomen with base, a lateral series of spots, and base of sixth 
abdominal segment black; tegmina dark shining fuscous, the 
costal membrane and venation ochraceous, with four pale creamy 
spots, situate one near base, two about centre, and one near costal 
apex ; wings sanguineous, with the apical and posterior margins 
(not extending to anal area) fuscous. 

Var. a. Basal spot to tegmina obliterated. 

Var. h. Basal spot to tegmina obliterated, and the two central 
spots rej)laced bj a narrow transverse fascia. 

Length excl. tegm., cJ, 25 to :27 ; exp. tegm. 60 to Gl millim. 

IRih. Sikhim {Ind. 3Ius.). Assam ; Margherita {Dolierty). 
Burma (Bingham); Upper Kegions (Coll, Dist.). 



1651. Balinta tenebricosa, Dist. (G?e?in?i) Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. xx\i, 
p. 454, t. iv, f. 2, a. b (1888) ; id. 3Ion. Orient. Cicad. p. 108, 
t. iii, f. 14, a,b (1892). 
Var. a. Dist. torn. cit. p. 108. 

Head and pronotum ochraceous ; head with the anterior margin 
and a basal spot to front, and a broad fascia between eyes, black ; 
pronotum with a broad central longitudinal fascia (which is 
widened and angulated anteriorly and posteriorly), followed on 
each side by two spots, an oblique fascia, a patch at lateral margins, 
and a spot on each side of posterior margin black ; mesonotum 



150 CICABID^. 

and abdomeu black, the first crossed by two discal longitudinal 
ochraceoiis fasciae, the anterior angles of cruciform elevation, and 
a spot on each side of base of same ochraceous ; body beneath 
and legs black ; margins of the face and under surface of the 
femora reddish-ochraceous ; a few obscure sternal ochraceous 
spots ; tegmina dark bronzy-brown, the costal membrane, the 
venation, a costal spot at base of upper ulnar area, beneath vA'hich 
are two discal spots, and a subapical spot ochraceous ; wings 
bluish-black tinged with carmine ; bases of both wings and tegmina 
narrowly carmine-red. 

Var. a. Tegmina only possessing the lower discal spot, the 
other spots obliterated. 

Length excl. tegm., c? , 22 ; exp. tegni. 54 millim. 

Hah. Burma ; Teinzo (Feu). 



1652. Balinta delinenda, Dist. (Gteana) A. 31. N. II. (6) i, p. 291 
(1888) ; id. Mon. Orient. Cicad. p. 108, t. iii, f. 16, a, b (1892). 
Iluechys octouotata, Ti'alk. {nee Wcsho.) List Honi. i, p. 253 
(1851). 

Body aboA'e brownish-ochraceous ; head \Aith the apex of front 
and a transverse fascia extending across area of ocelli black ; 
pronotuin with a central hourglass-shaped fascia, and two large 
oblique spots on each side, black ; mesonotum with a central 
fascia (somewhat similar to that on pronotum) and a large spot on 
each lateral margin black ; cruciform elevation black, its anterior 
angles ochraceous ; abdomen with the posterior segmental margins 
black; body beneath and legs brownish-ochraceous; disk of face 
and a spot before eyes black ; tegmina pale brownish-ochraceous ; 
wings reddish-brown, with about basal third carmine-red. 

Length excl. tegm., c?, 19 ; exp. tegm. 47 millim. 

Ilah. Sylhet {Brit. Mus.). Cochin (^Coll Dist.). 



Genus TALAINGA. 

Talainga, Dist. A. 31. N.H. (G) v, p. 16G (1890) ; id. 31on. Orient. 
Cicad. p. 109 (1892). 

Type, T. biw/harni, Dist. 

Distribution.. Burma, Tonkin, China. 

2 . Head (including eyes) a little narrower than base of 
mesonotum, about as long as breadth between eyes, front globose 
and prominent, shorter than vertex ; pronotum about as long- 
as mesonotum, its lateral margins a little convex, angularly 
incised before posterior angles which are ampliated ; abdomen 
somewhat cylindrical, longer than space between apex of head and 
base of cruciform elevation : Tympanal coverings small and lateral ; 
anterior femora robustly spined beneath ; tegmina talc-like, semi- 
opaque, the apical half with the venation reticulate and forming a 
mass of small cellular areas, sometimes the ulnar areas are crossed 



TALAINGA. 



151 



by transverse veins ; basal cell about twice as long as broad ; 
wings with the posterior margin deeply sinuate near abdominal area ; 
apical areas six, sometimes broken up by transverse veins iuto a 
more numerous and reticulate series. 



1653. Talainga binghami, Dist. A. M. N. H. (6) \, p. 1G7 (1890) ; id. 
Mon. Orient, dead. p. 109, t. xiii, f. 4, a, b, (1&92). 

Body and legs black ; eyes ochraceous, their posterior margins 
pale sanguineous ; pronotum with the lateral margins and a curved 
fascia on lateral areas behind eyes pale sanguineous, posterior 
margin (excepting extreme centre) narrowly ochraceous ; abdomen 
above \a ith the segmental margins more or less greyishly pilose ; 




Fig. 66. — Talainga hivgliami. 

tegmiua talc-like, semi-opaque, creamy-ochraceous, veins black 
and margined with the same colour, the apical halves being 
composed of luimerous small black-margined cellular areas, costal 
membrane ochraceous, basal cell shaded with black ; wings pale 
bluish-green, the venation more or less concolorous, excepting 
that delimiting the more or less reticulate apical areas, margins 
blackish from apex to the sinuation near abdominal area. 

Length excl. tegm., $ , 23 to 26 ; exp. tegm. 70 to 77 millim. 

Hah. Burma ; Karen Hills (Brngham). 



Division MOGANNIARIA 
Moganniaria, Dlst. A. M. N. II. {1) xv, p. 385 (1905). 

Tegmina and wings hyaline, the tegmina spotted or in part 
more or less brilliantly coloured ; body ovate, more or less 
attenuated anteriorly and posteriorly ; head with the front more or 
less triangularly produced : tympanal flaps present, but incomplete, 
the tympanal oritices in part exposed. 

At present I include two genera in this division, one Neotropical 
in habitat, the other {Mogannia) being well represented in British 
India. 



152 ciOADiD.i;. 

Genus MOGANNIA. 

Mogannia, Ainy. Si- Serv. Hem. p. 4(37 (1843) ; Stal, Hem. Afr. iv, 

p. 5 (18G6) ; Bid. Mon. Orient, dead. p. 118 (1892). 
Cephaloxys, Sign. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1847, p. 294. 

Type, M. conica. Germ. 

Distribution. Oriental and Malayan Regions, and found in East 
China. 

Body short, broad, robust; head conically produced, including 
eyes much ]]arro\ver than base of mesonotum, as long or slightly 
longer than pronotam, front as loug or slightly longer than 
vertex ; pronotum narrower anteriorly than posteriorly, the lateral 
margins oblique, not ampliated, the posterior lateral angles a little 
lobately rounded ; abdomen a little shorter or almost as long as 
space between apex of head and base of cruciform elevation ; 
tympanal coverings small and rudimentary : anterior femora 
spined beneath ; opercula in male small, usually obliquely convex 
and not completely covering the cavities ; tegmina with their 
basal halves usually more or less brilliantly coloured, sometimes 
opaque, apical areas eight ; «'ings with six apical areas. 

1654. Mogannia conica, Germ. (Cicada) Thon's Arch. ii. 2, p. 39 

(1830) : Stal (Mogannia), Ofv. Vet.-Ak. Fork. 1862, p. 483 ; 

Did. Mon. Orient, dead. p. 122, t. xiv, f. 18, a, b (1892). 
Mogannia ilhistrata, Amj/. t^- Serv. Hem. p. 467, t. ix, f. 4 (1843). 
Cephaloxys hemelytra. Sign. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1847, p. 295. 
Mogannia indicaiis, iguifera, et avicula, Walk. List Horn, i, 

pp. 249, 250 (1850) ; tom. cit. iv, t. ii, f. v (1852). 
Mogannia recta. Walk. Lid Horn. Siippl. p. 39 (1858). 
Mogannia histrionica, Z7/i/e?-, Froc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Philad. 1862, 

p. 283. 
Mogannia venutissima, Stal, Ofv. Vet.-Ak. Fork. 1865, p. 154. 

Body and legs black, above with a more or less well-defined and 
broken longitudinal, dull ochraceous fascia, extending from front 
of head to apex of abdomen, and generally forming a more or less 
distinct hourglass-shaped fascia on pronotum, in some specimens 
this fascia is very indistinct ; face and disk of abdomen beneath 
brownish-ochraceous, margins of coxae and trochanters pale 
ochraceous ; tegmina pale hyaline ; the basal halves fuscous and 
oemi-opaque, costal membrane and extreme base sanguineous ; 
wings hyaline with their bases narrowly sanguineous. 

Var. a. ignifera. Walk. Body and legs brownish-ochraceous : 
basal opaque coloration of tegmina pale ochraceous, outwardly 
margined with fuscous near costal margin. 

Yar. b. indicans, Walk. = Idstrionica, Uhler. Body black or 
brownish ; tegmina with the basal opaque area coutauiing a trans- 
verse, curved, ochraceous or reddish fascia a little before its apex. 

Var. c. illustrata, Amy. & Serv. Tegmina with the opaque basal 
area outwardly margined with fuscous and with an apical 
ochraceous spot. 



MOGANNIA. 



153 



Vai*. d. The opaque coloration to teginina uniformly reddish- 
ochraceous, occupying nearly the whole of lower apical area and 
outwardly margined «itli fuscous ; lateral and posterior margins 
of pronotum also ochraceous. 

Length excl. tegm., cJ & $ , 13 to 16 ; exp. tegm. 32 to 10 millim. 

Hah. Assam; Khasi Hills (Oheimell); Margherita {Dolierty). 
Tenasserim ; Thagata {B'ea). — Java. Sumatra. Philippines. China. 

The typical form and var. a, according to present knowledge, 
appear to be best represented in British India. 

1655. Mogannia cyaiiea, Walk. List Horn. Suppl. p. 40 (1858) ; l)ist. 

Mo7i. Orient, dead. p. 121, t. xiv, f. 15 a, b (1892). 

Body and legs bright shining indigo-blue ; intermediate and 
posterior coxae margined with dull ochraceous ; tegmina pale 
hyaline, basal half shining ochraceous ; a spot at apex of radial 
area and the venation of about apical half fuscous ; wings pale 
hyaline, the base narrowly ochraceous and the venation more 
or less of the same colour ; the conically produced front of head is 
marginally very strongly pilose. 

Length excl. tegm. 16; exp. tegm. 40 to 44 millim. 

Hah. Assam ; Margherita and N;iga Hills {Doliertij). Burma ; 
Euby Mines {Doherty). — North China. 

1656. Mogannia funebris, Stdl, Ofo. Vet.-Ak.Fdrh. 1805, p. 155; Did. 

Ann. Mas. Civ. Gen. xxvi, p. 455, t. iv, f. 1. a, h (1888) ; id. 
Man. Orient. Cicad. p. 122, t. xiv, f. 17, a, b (1892). 

Bi'assy-black, fascously pilose : tegmina and wings hyaline ; 
tegmina with about basal half black, the basal cell and a fascia at 
apex of the black basal area dull lutesceut. 

Var. a. Agreeing with the typical form, but not possessing the 
pale fascia at apex of black basal area. 

Length excl. tegm. 15 to 19 ; exp. tegm. 34 to 46 millim. 

Hah. Sylhet (StocUi. Mus). Burma ; Bhamo {Fea). 

1657. Mogannia effecta, Dist. A. M. N. H. (6) ix, p. 316 (1892) ; 

id. Mon. Orient. Cicad, p. 122, t. xiv, f. 16, a, b (1892). 
Moganuia eftecta. Walk. MS. 

Body and legs very dark bluish-black; tegmina and wings 

hyahne, the venation fuscous ; 
tegmina with the basal half 
bluish-black, this colour broadly 
margined at base, costal mem- 
brane, claval area, and trans- 
versely just before its extremity 
with sanguineous. 

Var. a. Black area of tegmina 
streaked with pale fuscous, and 

the sanguineous margins to same very dull on costal membrane and 

almost absent on costal area. 




G7. — Mogann ia effecta. 



154 



CICADIDiE. 



Var. b. A-^enation in black ai-ea of tegmina sanguineous and 
coucolorous with the surrounding margins. 

Length excl. tegm. 17 to 19 ; exp. tegm. 42 to 48 millim. 

Hub. Sikhim (Ind. Mus.). Assam ; Naga Hills {Doherty). 
Darjiling {Coll, Dist.) — Sumatra. 

1658. Mogannia obliqua, Walk. List Horn. Suppl. p. 39 (1858) ; 

Atldns. J. A. S. Bemj. liii, p. 282 (1885) ; TJist. Mon. Orient. 
Cicad. p. 119, t. xiv, f. 10, a, h (1892). 

Body above pale greenish or greenish-ochi'aceous ; head with the 
apex of front and the basal area piceous ; pronotum with a central 
triangular black fascia ; mesonotum with a broad black central 
fascia constricted near middle ; body beneath, femora, and anterior 
tibiae and tarsi more or less piceous ; intermediate and posterior 
tibiae and tarsi pale greenish or greeuish-ochraceous ; tegmina and 
wings hyaline, the venation dull ochraceous or fuscous ; tegmina 
with the costal membrane pale castaueous, an oblique transverse 
fuscous fascia extending from end of radial area to apex of lower 
ulnar area (where it is more or less irregularly continued along inner 
margin to base), basal cell, and base slightly suffused with pale 
brilliant ochraceous and greenish ; extreme bases and lower basal 
margins of tegmina and wings sanguineous. 

Length excl. tegm., c? & $, 11 to 14; exp. tegm. 44 to 50 
millim. 

Hab. Sikhim {Ind. Mus.). Assam ; Brahmaputra ( Cliennell) ; Naga 
Hills and Margherita {Doherty). Bengal; Muugphoo {Coll. Dist.). 
Burma; Momeit {Doherty). Rangoon and Kareunee {Feci) — Java. 

1659. Mogannia viridis, Sign. (Cephaloxvs) Ami. Sac. Ent. Fr. 1847, 

p. 294: St8l,0fv. iV^-yl/.:. jFoWj. 1862, p.483 ; Z>?V,-^. (Mogamiia) 
Man. Orient. Cicail p. 119, t. xiv, f. 8, a, b (1892). 
Cephaloxys rostrata, Walk. List Horn, i, p. 233 (1850). 

Body and legs virescent, inclining to ochraceous or, in some 
specimens, reddish-ochraceous ; tegmina and wings hyaline, the 
venation olivaceous or ochraceous, usually resembling the hue of 
the body ; tegmina slightly suffused with greenish or ochraceous at 
base, the costal membrane genei'ally reddish-ochraceous. 

Length excl. tegm., c? & $ , 15 to 18 ; exp. tegm. 45 to 47 
millim. 

Hab. Bengal; Mungphoo {Coll. Dist.). Assam; Naga Hills 
and Margherita {Doherty). Burma ; Momeit {Doherty). — Malay 
Peninsula. Java. 

Subfamily III. TIBICININ.E. 

Tibiciuiuee, Dist. A. M. N. H. (7) xv, p. 304 (1905) ; ante, p. 57. 

In this subfamily the tympana are completely exposed, the 
tympanal coverings being entirely absent. 

Tbe genera comprised in the Tibicininse ai-e of universal 
distribution. 



GEAPTOTETTIX. 155 

Division IIUECHYSARTA. 
Huechysaria, Dist. A. M. N. H. (7) xv, p. 481 (1905). 

Tegmiua and wings opaque or semiopaque ; lateral margins of 
the pronotum neither ampliate nor dentate ; ahdomen moderately 
robust but not transverse, longer than space between apex of head 
and base of cruciform elevation ; tympana completely exposed, 
tynapaual coverings entirely absent ; tegmina with the apical areas 
variable in number, either eight or ten, or variably fluctuating 
between those numbers. 

Synopsis of Genera. 

A. Head with the fixce lougitudinally sulcate. 

a. Head (including eyes) narrower than 

base of me,sonotuni. 

a. Tegmiua with ten apical areas, in 

some varieties only nine. 
d' . Head longer than pronotum, front 
produced, but not excavated. 
a^. Mesonotum (including cruciform 

elevation) longer than pronotum. Graptotettix, p. 15-5. 

b. Head (including eyes) as wide as base of 

mesonotum. 

b. Tegmina with eight apical areas, in 

some varieties nine or ten. 
b' . Head about as long as pronotum. 
6'-. Mesonotum (including cruciform 
elevation) scarcely longer than 
pronotum Huechys, p. 157. 

B. Head with the face not sulcate Scieropteka, p. 358. 

Genus GRAPTOTETTIX. 

Graptotettix, Stdl, Hem. Afr. iv, p. 4 (1866) ; id. Berl. eat. Zeit. 
X, p. 170 (1866) ; Dist. Mon. Orient. Cicad. p. 109 (1892). 

Type, G. guttatus, Stal. 

Distribution. Oriental and Malayan Regions. 

Body modei'ately long and robust ; head (including eyes) narrower 
than base of mesonotum, front long, convexly and somewhat flatly 
produced, a little shorter than vertex, the lateral margins of both 
discontinuous ; pronotum a little shorter than head, its lateral 
margins nearly straight, the posterior lateral angles lobately 
produced; mesonotum (including cruciform elevation) longer than 
pronotum ; abdomen longer than space between apex of head and 
base of cruciform elevation; tympana completely exposed, tympanal 
coverings entirely absent ; opercula in male short, broad, not 
extending beyond base of abdomen ; anterior femora strongly 
spined beneath ; tegmina more or less opaque, apical areas usually 
ten, sometimes only nine in number, basal cell much longer than 
broad ; wings semi-opaque or subhyaline. 



156 



CTCADID.'E. 



1660. Graptotettix guttatus, StSl, Berl. ent. Zeit. x, p. 170 (1866) ; 
Bist. Mon. Orient, dead. p. 110, t. iii, f. 21, a, b (1892). 

Head, pronotum, and mesonotum black ; front of head, ocelli, 
and two large oblique spots (sometimes fused) on each lateral area 
of the pronotum bright ochraceous ; mesonotum with two small 
very obscure central obconical spots, and with a large ochraceous 
spot on each lateral area ; abdomen above pale casfcaneous, in some 
specimens tinged with ochraceous; head beneath, sternum, and 




Fig. 68. — Graptotettix guttatus. 

legs black ;" face bright ochraceous ; opercula and abdomen pale 
castaneous ; tegmina fuscous-brown, opaque, the venation ochra- 
ceous ; extreme base, sometimes basal cell, and the costal membrane 
piceous; wings shining, bronzy, semi-opaque, extreme base piceous. 

Length excl. tegm., ^ 30, 5 27 ; exp. tegm., J & 5 , 70 to 
73 millim. 

Hob. Sikhim {Ind. Mus.). Bhutan ; Maria-Basti {Durcl). 
Assam ; Naga Hills (LoJiertj/). 

1661. Graptotettix thoracicus, Bist. A. M. N. H. (6) ix, p. 315 
(1892) ; id. Hon. Orient. Cicad. p. 110 (1892). 

Head, pronotum, and mesonotum bright pale ochraceous ; 
abdomen pale sanguineous : pronotum with the posterior, lateral, 
and anterior (as far as behind eyes only) margins castaneous, and 
with two narrow, jet-black, central, discal, curved fasciae; meso- 
notum with four castaneous obconical fascise, the central pair 
smallest ; abdomen above ochraceous near base ; body beneath 
and legs sanguineous ; head beneath, anterior coxae, and lateral 
margins of sternum ochraceous ; spots to coxae black ; (in the 
specimen described the apex of one posterior femur and its tibia 
is almost black, the other posterior ](dg is uniformly sanguineous) ; 
tegmina and wings semi-hyaline, more or less tinged with casta- 
neous (in the specimen described more so on one tegminum and 
wing than on the other), the venation ochraceous or castaneous. 

Length excl. tegm., J , 28 ; exp. tegm. 75 millim. 

Hah. Burma; ^iomexi {Doliertij). 



nuECHYs. 157 



Genus HUECHYS. 



Huecliys, Amy. S,- Serv. Hem. p. 464 (1843) ; Stdl, Hem. Afr. \y, 
p. 4 (1866) ; Dist. Mon. Orient. Cicad. p. Ill (1892). 

Tj^pe, H. sangidnen, De Geer. 

Distribution. Oriental and Malayan Hegions. 

Body of moderate size, somewhat slender ; head (including eyes) 
about equal in width to base oi: mesonotura, front convexly some- 
what flatly produced, shorter than vertex, their lateral margins 
discontinuous ; pronotum as long as head, its lateral margins a 
little convex, the posterior lateral angles sometimes distinctly 
produced ; mesonotum (including cruciform elevation) scarcely 
longer than pronotum ; abdomen longer than space between apex 
of head and base of cruciform elevation, the tympana completely 
exposed, tympanal coverings absent ; opercula in male small and 
transverse ; anterior femora strongly spined beneath ; face more 
or less longitudinally sulcate : tegmina more or less opaque, apical 
areas usually eight, sometimes nine or ten in number; wings 
semi-opaque or semi-hyaline ; apical areas six. 

1G62. Huechys sanguinea, De Geer (Cicada), Mem. iii, p. 221, 
t. xxxiii, f. 17 (1773) ; Ann/, c^- Serv. (Huecb3's) J£em. p. 465 
(1843) I Dist. Mon. Orient. Cicad. p. Ill, t. iii/f. 2, a, b (1892). 

Tettigonia saHguiuolenta, Fabr. Syst. Ent. p. 681. 15 (1775) ; 
Oliv. (Cicada) Enc. Meih. v, p. 756 (1790). 

Var. a. philfBmata, Fabr. (Tettiijonia) Syst. Rhyny, p. 42. 47 
(1803) ; Dist. Mon. Orient. Cicad. p. 112, t. iii, f. 2, a, b (1892). 

Stoll, Ciq. fig. 62. 

Var. b. 'Bist. Mon. Orient. Cicad. p. 112 (1892). 

Var. c. testacea, Fabr. (Tettigonia) Mant. Ins. ii, p. 267. 23 
(1787); Dist. Mon. Orient. Cicad. p. 112 (1892). 

Stoll, Ciy. f . 41 c. 

Body and legs black ; front and face to head, two large spots to 
mesonotum (sometimes fused and covering the whole disk) and 




Fig. 09. — Huechys sanguinea. 

the abdomen sanguineous, base of abdomen narrowly black ; 
tegmina black, opaque ; wings shining fuscous, sometimes almost 
black, interior of anal area always paler; rostrum passing the 
intermediate coxse. 



158 CICADIDiE. 

Yav. a. p7iila'mata,~Fahr. Differs from the typical form of the 
species in having the tegmina fuscous, not black, and by the wings 
being paler fuscous and more hyaline. 

Var. b. Tegmina black, with greyish-white streaks in the apical 
areas and sometimes in uhiar areas ; wings blackish \Aith greyish- 
white streaks. 

Var. c. testacea, Fabr. Mesonotum nnspotted, uniformly black ; 
tegmina more or less streaked with greyish-white. 

Length excl. tegm., c5' & $,17 to 25; exp. tegm. 43 to 
65 millim. 

Hah. Sikliim {Ind. Mus.). Assam; Brahmaputra (CJiennell). 
Calcutta (fStockh. tf- Ind. Muss.). Burma ; Rangoon : Kakhien 
Hills (Fea). Tennasserim ; Thagata (Feci) ; Myitta {Doherty). — 
Malay Peninsula. Sumatra. Borneo. Timor Laut. China. 

" In the Malay Peninsula this species is diurnal and flies about 
a,mong bushes in the open at midday*' (Aunandale, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. 1900, p. 862). 

1663. Huechys thoracica, Dlst. J. A. S. Bene;, xlviii, p. 39, t. ii, 

f. 8 (LS79): id. Mon. Orient. Cicad. p. 116, t. iii, f. 3,a,b 
(1892). 

Black ; front and face to head, a central hourglass-shaped 
fascia to pronotum, a central and two lateral spots to mesonotum, 
abdomen, and sternum sanguineous ; margins of front, a broad 
central fascia to face, and some sternal spots black ; tegmina pale 
fuscous and semi-opaque ; wings semi-hyaline, slightly tinged with 
fuscous ; the venation dark fuscous ; rostrum just passing the 
intermediate coxae. 

Length excl. tegm., § , 17 to 20 ; exp. tegm. 39 to 50 millim. 

Hab. Burma; Karen Hills and Ruby Mines (Doherty). Tennas- 
serim (Limborg) ; Myitta (Doherty). 

1664. Huechys hsematica, Dist. Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. xxvi, p. 454, 

t. iv, f. 6, a, b (1888) ; id. Mon. Orient. Cicad. p. 116, t. xiv, 
f. 4, a, b (1892). 

Body above and beneath sanguineous ; pronotum with a large 
oblique black spot on each lateral area ; eyes dull ochraceous ; 
legs castaueous ; tegmina pale greyish-brown, with darker suffusions 
along the veins, base narrowly sanguineous ; wings pale bluish- 
grey, with darker suffusions along the veius, bases narrowly 
sanguineous ; rostrum reaching the posterior coxa?. 

Length excl. tegm,, $ , 20 ; exp. tegm. 45 millim. 

Hah. Tenasserim ; Mt. Mooleyit (Fea). 

Genus SCIEROPTERA. 

Scieroptera, Stal., Hem. Afr. iv, p. 4 (1866) ; id. Berl. ent. Zeit. x, 
p. It59 (1866) ; Dist. Mon. Orient. Cicad. p. 117 (1892). 

Type, S. sjplendidula.^ Pabr. 

Distribution. Oriental and Malayan Regions. 



SCIEEOPTEEA. 



159 



Head (including eyes) a little broadei' than base of mesonotum, 
front subconically, flatly produced, shorter than vertex, the lateral 
margins of both discontinuous ; pronotiim longer than head, its 
lateral margins slightly convexly oblique, the posterior lateral 
angles distinctly produced ; mesonotum (including cruciform 
elevation) not longer than pronotum ; abdomen longer than space 
between apex of head and base of cruciform elevation ; tympana 
entirely exposed, tympanal coverings altogether absent ; opercula 
in male small and transverse ; anterior femora strongly spined 
beneath ; face not longitudinally sulcate ; tegmina more or less 
opaque, apical areas eight, basal cell longer than broad ; wings 
hyaline, apical areas six. 



1665. Scieroptera splendidula, Fabv. (Tettigouia) Syst. Ent. p. 681 

(1775) ; OHv. (Cicada) Enc. Meth. v, p. 750 (1790) ; Stal 

(Scieroptera), Beii. ent. Zeit. x, p. 169 (186fc)) ; Dist. Mun. Orient. 

Cicad. p. 117, t. xiv, f. 5, a,b (1892), 

Var. a. cuprea, Walk. (Hueohysj J. Linn. Soc, Zool. x, p. 95 

(1868). 
Var. h. trabeata, Germ. (Cicada) Thon's Arch, ii, 2, p. 39 (1830). 
Var. c. Dist. Mon. Orient. Cicad. p. 117 (1892). 
Var. d. Dist. torn. cit. p. 118. 

Black ; margins and a central fascia to pronotum and meso- 
notum ochraceous ; cruciform 
elevation ochraceous, its cen- 
tral area black ; lateral margins 
of sternum ochraceous ; abdo- 
men and femora (excluding 
apices) reddish - ochraceous ; 
abdomen frequently with a 
central, dorsal, longitudinal, 
black macular fascia ; tegmina 
piceous or very dark fuscous ; 
wings hyaline, very slightly tinged with ochraceous. 

Var. a. cuprea, Walk. Costal membrane of tegmina ochraceous. 
Var. h. trabeata, Germ. Tegmina paler than in var. a ; ground- 
colour of pronotum purplish in place of black; front of head 
marked with purplish. 

Var. c. Tegmina as in var. a, but legs and face uniformly 
ochraceous. 

Var. d. As in var. c, but the tibiae and tarsi blackish ; head with 
the margins of front and the lateral areas of vertex ochraceous. 
Length excl. tegm. 12 to 20 ; exp. tegm. 32 to 53 milUm. 
ffab. Sikhim. Assam ; Margherita (Doherty) ; Khjisi Hills 
(Coll. Dist.). Burma ; Momeit {Doherty). Tenasserim {Coll. 
Disi.).— Java. Borneo. Celebes. China. 

A very variable species ; but the variation does not constitute 
local races ; the only limitation, according to present knowledge, 
beino- the restriction of the form trabeata to Java, but this is 
probably not constant. 




Fis 



Scieroptera sijlcndidulo 



160 ciCADiDii:. 

1666. Scieroptera crocea, Gucr. (Cicada) Voy.' Favorite,'' \, p. 159, 

t. xlv, f. 3 (1829) : id. Voy. ' Coquille; Zool. ii, p. 182 (1830) ; 
Stdl (Scieroptera), Berl. ent. Zeif. x, p. 1()9 (1866) ; Dist. Mon. 
Orient. Cicacl. p. 118, t. xiv, f. 6, a, b (1892). 
Var. a. Did. Mon. Orient. Cicad. p. 118 (1892). 

Closely allied to >S'. splendidula, of which it may ultimately be 
proved to be but another variety, and from which it differs by the 
tegmina being semi-hyaline and very pale ochraceous, with the 
venation darker ochraceous ; face black, with the margins 
ochraceous. 

Var. a. Face altogether pale castaneous ; legs ochraceous. 

Length excl. tegm., S & $ , 15 to 20 ; exp. tegm. 40 to 57 
millim. 

Bab. Bombay (Leith). — Sumatra. Java. Borneo. 

1667. Scieroptera fumigata, Stdl (Huechys), Of v. J'et.-Ak. Fork. 

Idol, p. 244 ; id. (Scieroptera) JJerl. ent. Zeit. x, p. 169 (1866) ; 
Dist. Mon. Orient. Cicad. ^. 118, t. xiv, f. 7 (1892). 

Black : two central lines to pronotum flavescent ; margins of 
pronotum and mesonotum, abdomen and femora testaceous, the 
abdomen with a central, longitudinal, black dorsal fascia ; tibiae and 
tarsi piceoits ; tegmina fuscous or vinaceous-brown, the venation 
and costal membrane dull ochraceous ; wings semi-hyaline, the 
venation ochraceous. 

Length excl. tegm., J" «& $ , 12 to 19 ; exp. tegm. 2S to 43 
millim. 

Hub. jS"orth Bengal {Coll Dist.). Assam ; Margherita {Dolierty). 



Division CABINET ARIA. 
Carinetaria, Did. A. M. N. II. (7) xv, p. 483 (1905). 

In this division the pronotum is distinctly narrowed anteriorly, 
never longer than the mesonotum, sometimes much shorter; the 
lateral pvonotal margins are oblique, not am])liate ; the body is 
more or less robust, narrowed towards head and apex of abdomen ; 
abdomen sometimes very short ; tegmina and wings hyaline, the 
first in a few cases semi-opaque, but usually clear and frequently 
unspotted. 

Only one genus of this division is found in British Lidia, the 
other genera belong to the Neotropical and Ethiopian Regions. 

G-enus KARENIA. 

Karenia, Dist. Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. xxvi, p. 457 (1888) ; id. Mon. 
Orient. Cicad. p. 126, 1892. 

Type, K. ravida, Dist. 

Distribution. Burma and China. 

Head depressed, rounded, a little narro\^er than anterior margin 



KARENIA. 



161 



of pronotum, including e3'es considerably narrower than base of 
mesonotura, front broad, about as long as vertex at area of ocelli ; 
pronotum more than twice as broad as long, longer than head, 
but much shorter than mesonotum, the lateral margins ampliated 
and obscurely toothed ; mesonotum vei"y large, the cruciform 
elevation elongated ; abdomen in male short aud robust, not longer 
than pro- and mesonota together ; tympanal coverings entirely 
absent ; opercula in male small and widely separated ; anterior 
femora strongly toothed beneath ; tegmina and wings hyaline, 
the first M'ith their greatest breadth more than one-third their 
length, apical areas eight, and somewhat short ; wings with six 
apical areas. 

1668. Karenia ravida, Dist. Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. xxvi, p. 458 
(1888) ; id. Mon. Orient. Cicad. p. 126, t. xii, f . 6, a, b (1892). 

Head, pronotum, and mesonotum olivaceous ; head with a 
curved spot at anterior angles of vertex, area of ocelli, and a 
linear spot on each side of same piceous ; pronotum with the 




Karenia ravida. 



centres of anterior and inner posterior margins, the incisures, 
two central fasciae not reaching anterior margin, a short central 
line at anterior margin, a spot on each anterior lateral margin, 
and two spots on posterior margin piceous or black ; mesonotum 
with two central obconical spots, between which is an indistinct 
central longitudinal line, a somewhat effaced broad fascia on each 
lateral area, two spots in front of cruciform elevation, and the 
posterior margin of same piceous or black abdomen above 
olivaceous, much shaded with piceous ; body beneath and legs 
olivaceous ; a spot at base of each antenna, apices of anterior 
femora, tibise (more or less), anterior and intermediate tarsi, and 
apex of abdomen piceous or black ; tegmina and wings hyaline, 
venation brownish-olivaceous, the first with transverse veins at 
bases of second, third, fifth, seventh, aud eighth apical areas 
infuscated, and a marginal series of fuscous spots at apices of 
longitudinal veins to apical areas. 

Length excl. tegm., J , 27 ; exp. tegm. 87 millim. 

Hab. Burma ; Kakhien Hills (Fea). 
TOL. III. ^r 



1 62 CICADID.E. 



Division TIBIGINAIUA. 
Tibicinaria, Blst. A. M. N. H. (7) xvi, p. 22 (1905). 

In this division the abdomen is more or less eyhudrical and 
attenuated posteriorly ; anal appendages usually very prolonged 
and prominent, their lower plate as a rule more longly porrect 
than their upper one : pronotum generally more or less distinctly 
narrowed anteriorly * ; tegmina somewhat talc-like and obscurely 
wrinkled, their greatest breadth always more than one-third of 
their length, both tegmina and wings always prominently 
sanguineous or reddish-ochraceous at base. 

The genera in this division are of a very homogeneous 
character, possess a common facies, and are widely distributed. 
Four genera are at present included in the Tibicinaria, only one of 
which is found in British India. 



Genus PAHAEIA. 
Pahaiia, Dist. A. M. X. H. (7) xvi, p. 25 (1905). 

Type, P. lacteipennis, Walk. 

Distribution. At present known only from the northern districts 
of India. 

Head moderately narrow, its breadth (including eyes) narrower 
tlian base of mesonotum, and about equal to its length including 
crnciform elevation, front prominent, as long as vertex ; pronotum 
much longer than head, convex, laterally depressed, obliquely 
narrowed anteriorly, its posterior angles strongly lobately produced; 
mesonotum strongly deflected on each side ; abdomen in female 
about as long as space between apex of head and base of cruciform 
elevation ; tympana completely exposed, tympanal coverings 
entirely absent ; abdomen beneath with the lateral margins strong!}'' 
recurved and very prominent : anterior femora robust and very 
strongly spined beneath ; posterior tibiae spined on each side for 
about half their length ; rostrum reaching the intermediate coxae ; 
tegmina and wings talc-like in type, obscurely wrinkled, the first 
broad, with the apical areas somewhat short and eiglit in number, 
the b.isal cell about twice as long as broad, narrower at apex than 
at base ; wings with six apical areas. 



1669. Paharia lacteipennis, IValh. (Cephaloxys) List Horn. i. p. 237 
(1850); Atkins. (Mogannia) J. A. S. Beng. Hii, p. 233 (1885); 
Dist. (Tibicen) Mon. Orient. Cicad. p. 129, t. x, f. 5, a, b, t. xii, 
f. 10, a, b (1892). 

$ , Head piceous, thickly greyishly pilose, basal marginal areas 
of front and a small spot on ea«li vertical margin ochraceous ; 

* Except in the Nearctic species Tihicina septcmdecim. 



PAHAEIA. 



163 



pronofcuin ochraceous, thickly greyishly pilose, the oblique incisures, 
two small central basal spots, and inner basal margin black ; 
mesonotum ochraceous, witli four obconical spots (the two inner- 
most smallest), a central lanceolate fascia, and two small spots in 
front of cruciform elevation black ; abdomen black, the posterior 
segmental margins regularly, shortly, greyishly pilose ; head 
beneath, sternum, and legs ochraceous, greyishly pilose, legs less 
pilose ; abdomen beneath with a somewhat pale olivaceous tinge, 




Fig. 72. —Paharia ladclpennis. 

the lateral margins ochraceous with black spots ; tegmiua and 
wings lacteous, semi-opaque, talc-like, the venation mostly fuscous ; 
■ extreme base and costal membrane of tegmina ochraceous. 

Length excl. tegm., 2 , 33 ; exp. tegm. 96 millim. 

Hah. "North India" (Stevens, Brit. Mns.). 

This species is at present known only by the unique female 
type. 

1670. Paharia casyapae, Dlst. (Tibicen) A. M. N. H. (6) i, p. 374 

(1888) ; id. Mon. Orient. Cicad. ji. l28, t. xiv, f. 20; a, h (1892). 

5 . Head black, margins of front, the ocelli, a small central 
basal spot, and the anterior margins of vertex testaceous-red ; 
pronotum testaceous-red, the margins and two central longitudinal 
lines black ; mesonotum black, two central " antler "-shaped 
fascife, the lateral margins, and the basal cruciform elevation 
(excluding anterior augles) testaceous-red ; abdomen above black : 
body beneatli black, somewhat greyishly pilose ; face red, its 
central longitudiual sulcation black ; rostrum black, its base red ; 
legs red, the femora streaked beneath with black ; tegmina and 
wings hyaline, talc-like, finely wrinkled, their bases narrowlv 
testaceous-red margined with piceous, venation piceous, costiil 
membrane of tegmina ochraceous, piceous near base ; rostrum 
reaching the intermediate coxte. 

Length excl. tegm., $ , 35 ; exp. tegm. 90 millim. 

Hah. Kashmir A'alley {Leech). 

M 2 



164 CICABIDX. 

1071. Paharia reticulata, Bisf. (Tibicen) A. M. N. H. (6) i, p. 374 

(1888) ; id. 31on. Orient. C/c«^. p. 128, t.xiv. f. 21,ff, i (1892). 

2 . Head black, apex of front, anterior lateral margins of 
vertex, and a narrow central longitudinal line testaceous-red ; 
prouotum black, the margins and two large contigvious spots on 
each lateral area testaceous-red ; mesonotum black, the margins, 
the cruciform elevation, and two irregvilar subconical spots on 
anterior margin testaceous-red ; abdomen black ; body beneath 
and legs black, somewhat greyishlj pilose ; margins of face, under 
surfaces and apices of femora, tibia? and tarsi (excluding bases 
and extreme apices), spots and other mai'kings to sternum, and 
abdominal segmental margins testaceous-red ; tegmina and wings 
hyaline, talc-like, finely wrinkled, their bases narrowly testaceous- 
red margined ^ith piceous ; costal membrane to tegmina reddish - 
ochraceous ; rostrum reaching the intermediate coxae. 

Length excl. tegm,, $ , 20 ; exp. tegm. 70 millim. 

Hah. Pan jab; Gilgit (CoZZ. i^/s^). 

Division TAPHUBAEIA^. 
Taphuraria, iJist. A. M. N. H. (7) xvi, p. 25 (1905). 

Eyes projecting beyond the anterior angles of the pronotum ; 
pronotum subquadrate, not distinctly narrowed anteriorly as it is, 
with few exceptions, in the Tihicinaria ; abdomen about as long as 
space between apex of head and base of cruciform elevation t ; a 
more or less distinct posterior metasternal process visible in males 
between or at the base of the opercula. 

This division includes a large number of genera very widely 
distributed ; perhaps, but not certainly, absent from the Nearctic 
Eegion. 

Synojms of Genera. 

A. Wings with six apical areas. 

a. Tegiuiiia witli trausver&e vein at base of 
second apical area nearly vertical. 

(I. Front of head a little shorter than ver- 
tex, their margins continuous ; the 
front not produced, and about, or 
nearly, twice broader than long .... Abroma, p. 105. 

a'. Front of liead about as long or a little 
shorter than vertex, their margins dis- 
continuous and almost at right angles 
to each other ; the front prominent, 
not nearly twice as broad as long. . . . Lemuiu.\xa, p. 160. 

B. "Wings with iive apical areas Panka, p. 168. 



* Founded on the Neotropical genus TapJmra. 

■■' Except in the Ethiopian genus Mal((gasia, and in Kcmakia, at present repre- 
sented by a species from New Caledonia. 



ABltOMA. 



165 



Genus ABROMA. 

Tibicen, subgen. Abroma, St&l, Hem. Afr. iv, p. 27 (1866). 
Abroma, Karsch, Berl. cnt. Zeit. xxxv, p. Ill (1890). 

Type, A. guerini, Sign., from Mauritius. 

Distribution. Neotropical, Ethiopian, Oriental, and Malayan 
Regions, and found in New Caledonia. 

Head (including eyes) wider than base of mesouotura, the eyes 
projecting beyond the anterior angles of the pronotum, front of 
head a little shorter than vertex, the margins of both more or less 
continuous, the front not prominently produced aud about, or 
nearly, twice broader than long, ocelli little more apart from eyes 
than from each other ; pronotum about as long as head, the lateral 
margins not ampliated, nearly straight, the posterior angles 
moderately dilated ; mesonotum (including cruciform eleAation) 
about as long as head aud pronotum together; abdomen mode- 
rately robust, the tympana completely exposed ; opercula in male 
short, oblique, passing base of abdomen ; rostrum passing the 
intermediate coxie ; tegmina and wings hyaline, the first about 
three times as long as broad, with eight apical areas, and with the 
transverse vein at base of second apical area nearly vertical ; wings 
with six apical areas. 

1672. Abroma maculicollis, Gi/er. (Cicada) Voi/. ^CoquiUe,' ZooL\\ 183 
( 1830) ; Atkins. J. A. S. Ben,/. liii,p. 230'(188o) ; Dist. (Tibicen) 
Mon. Orient. Cicad. p. 131, t.'xiv, f. 23, a, h (1892). 

Body fuscous-brown or castaneous ; head with the margins of 
front aud vertex, a central hourglass-shaped fascia to pronotum, 
four obconical spots to mesonotum (the central pair shortest) 




ibroiUK iwicuUcoUU. 



fuscous or dark castaneous ; body beneath and legs pale castaneous, 
the face darker, and the anterior marginal area to eyes greyishly 
tomentose ; tegmina and wings pale hyaline, the former with the 
costal membrane pale castaneous ; opercula in male small and 
lobately directed inwards ; the rostrum, passes the intermediate 
coxre. 



^()6 CICADIDtE 

Length excl. tegiu., J & $ , 20 ; exp. togm. 55 to 5G millim. 
Hab. Bengal (Jide Gverln). Ceylon (Green). — Malay Penin- 
sula ; Perak {Doherty). Borneo ; Kiua Balu (WJuteJiead). 

1673. Abroma bengaleiisis, sp. n. 

(f . Body brownish-ochraceous ; head with the apex of front, 
area of ocelli, and a spot at each anterior angle of vertex, prouotum 
with a central longitudinal fascia (widened posteriorly) and the 
incisures, and the niesonotum with four obconical spots (of which 
the two central ones are shortest) castaneous ; posterior margins 
of eyes and posterior margin of prouotum piceous ; cruciform 
elevation stramineous ; abdomen above with its lateral areas 
piceous, a large basal spot on each lateral area, posterior margin 
of apical segment, and the anal ap])endage stramineous ; head 
beneath and sternum longly greyishlv pilose, abdomen more 
shortly pilose; tegmina and wings hyaline, the venation fuscous- 
brown ; tegmina "\^■ith the costal membrane brovvuish-ochraceous ; 
head with the front much broader than long, its width about equal 
to the length of each lateral margin of vertex : tegmina long, 
about three times longer than their greatest width ; rostrum just 
passing the intermediate coxae ; lateral areas of the face oblique, 
strongly transversely striate. 

Length excl. tegm., d" , 17 ; exp. tegm. 58 millim. 

Hah. Bengal ; Kurseong (Coll. JJist.). 

1074. Abroma nubifurca, TVa/k. (Cicada) List Mom. Suppl. p. 28 
(1858) : Stdl (Tibiceu), Oft: Vet.-Ak. Fork. 1862, p. 485 ; Dist. 
A. 31. N. H. (G) ix, p. 325 (1892). 
Cicada apicalis, Kirhy, J. Linn. Soc, Zool. xxiv, p. 131, t. v, f. 1 
(1891). 

Head and thorax above castaneous-brown, abdomen piceous, 
both greyish ly pilose ; pronotum with a central longitudinal 
fascia and the lateral and posterior margins obscurely ochraceous ; 
mesonotum with two small obscure, central, oehraceously-margined 
spots ; bod}' beneath pale fuscous-brown, legs and opercula pale 
ochraceous, the whole greyishly pilose ; tegmina and wings pale 
hyaline, the venation fuscous; tegmina with the costal membrane 
pale ochraceous, a spot at apex of radial area, transverse veins at 
bases of the first and second apical areas, and an apical spot 
fuscous. 

Length excl. tegm., (S & 5 , 12 to 14 ; exp. tegm. 32 to 40 
millim, 

Heih. Ceylon; Iviiniy (Green). 

Genus LEMURIANA. 
Lemuriana, Dist. A. M. N.H. (7) xvi, p. 32 (1905). 
Type, L. (tpicalis, Germ. 



J 



LEMURIANA. 



\6: 



Distribution. Ethiopian and Oriental Regions. 

Head (including eyes) broader than base of mesonotum ; head 
with the front prominent, not twice as broad as long, about as 
long or a little shorter than vertex, its margins and those of 
vertex discontinuous, eyes projecting beyond the anterior angles 
of pronotum, which is about as long as head, its lateral margins 
sinuate, its posterior angles moderately ampliate ; mesonotum 
(including cruciform elevation ) nearly as long as head and pronotuni 
together ; abdomen about as long as space between apex of head 
and base of cruciform elevation ; tympana entirely exposed ; 
opercula in male short, narrow, trans\'erse ; posterior metasternal 
process distinct, in male produced between the inner angles of the 
opercula ; anterior femora strongly spined beneath ; tegmina and 
wings hyaline ; tegmina with the two upper ulnar areas as long as 
the remaining ulnar areas, apical areas eight ; wings with six 
apical areas. 



1675. Lemuriana apicalis, Gei-7n. (Cicada) Tho)i's Arch, ii, 2, p. 44 
(1830) : Silb. JRev. Ent. ii, p. 63 (1864) ; Stdl (Tibiceuj, Ann. 
Soc. Ent. Fr. 1861, p. 618; Dist. Mon. Orient. Cicad. p. 131, 
t. xii, f. 15, a, b (1892). 
Cicada semicincta, Ti'alk. List Horn, i, p. 142 (1850). 

Head above black, sometimes with a castaneous spot on front ; 
pronotum castaneous, with the margins and a central hourglass- 
shaped fascia black ; mesonotum castaneous, with three obconical 

black spots, the central spot 
shortest and bifid ; abdo- 
men black, with a greyish- 
white tomentose spot on 
the lateral margins of both 
the first and second ab- 
dominal segments, and a 
similarly coloured basal mar- 
gin to the sixth and some- 
times also to the fifth seg- 
ment ; body beneath black ; 
the legs pale oehraceous, the femora more or less castaneous above ; 
lateral areas of the sternum oehraceous and greyishly tomentose ; 
margins of the opercula and lateral areas of the abdomen pale 
castaneous. (In some specimens the mesonotum, opercula, and 
abdomen beneath are wholly black.) Tegmina and wings hyaline, 
venation mostly fuscous ; tegmina with the costal membrane 
oehraceous and with an apical fuscous spot. 

Length excl. tegm., cJ , 17 ; exp. tegm. 48 millim. 
Hab. Mussooree (MacHnnon). Bombay {Ind. 2Ius.) ; Karwar 
(Coll. Dist.). 




Fis 



Lemuriana apiccdis. 



168 



cicadid.t:. 



Genus PANKA. 
Paiika, Dl6f. A. M. N. H. (7) xvi, p. 34 (lOOo). 

Type, P. shmdata, Dist. 

Distribution. Ethiopian and Oriental Eegions. 

Head (including eyes) about as wide or a little wider than base 
of ujesonotum, its length not equal to breadth between the inner 
maro-ius of eyes ; pronotum longer than head, its lateral margins 
nearly straight, its posterior lateral angles subdentately produced ; 
abdomen in female a little longer than space between apex of 
head and base of cruciform elevation ; anterior femora strongly 
spined beneath ; tegmina and wings hyaline ; tegmiua with eight, 
wings M-ith five apical areas. 



1670. Panka simulata, Dist. A. 37. .Y. H. (7) xvi, p. 34 (1905). 

Tibicen uubifurca, I)ist. (excl. syn.) Mo)/. Orient, dead. p. 131, 
t. xiv, f. 24, «, b (1892). 

Closely resembling Ahroma 
aahifurca, Walk, (ante, p. 166), 
in fact almost indistinguishable 
from that species save by the 
structural character of the vena- 
tion to the wings, which possess 
only five apical areas. 

Length excl. tegra., $,11 to 

13; exp. tegm. 31 to 38 niillim. 

Bab. Ceylon; ^latate((rreeii). 

This sinuilation or resemblance between species of different 

genera is in the Cicadidae not confined to the above species. In 

South Africa three species of very distinct genera are inseparable 

except for the structural generic characters. 




Fanka dinidatu. 



Division PAENISAEIA*. 
Parnisaria, Digt. A. M. K. If. (7) xvi, p. 203 (1905). 

This is a division or large group of genera allied to the 
Taphuraria, but differing principally by the size and position of 
the eyes, which do not project, or at least not distinctly so, bej'ond 
the anterior angles of the pronotum ; the abdomen is usually short, 
except in a few cases, not longer than the space between the apex 
of head and base of cruciform elevation. 

Only one genus can at present be included m the fauna of British 
India. 



* Founded on the Neotropical genus I'arnit>a. 



QUINTILIA.. 169 

Geiuis ftUINTILIA. 

Tibiceu, subgeu. Quintilia, St&I, Hem. Afr. iv. p. 26 (1866). 
Quintilia, Karsch, Bed. ent. Zeit. xxxv, p. Ill (1890). 

Type, Q. rujiventris, Walk., a South African species. 

Distribution. Ethiopian and Oriental Hegious, also reeorclecl 
from China. 

Head (including eyes) narrower than base of mesouotum, the 
front not prominently projecting, about as broad as length of 
lateral margins to vertex, tlie margins of both more or less con- 
tinuous, vertex a little longer than front ; pronotum about as long 
as head, posterior angles broadly aiiipliate ; mesonotum (including 
cruciform elevation) about as long as head and pronotum together ; 
abdomen moderately robust ; tym pana completely exposed ; opercula 
in male very short and transverse ; rostrum passing the inter- 
mediate coxoe ; tegmina and wings hyaline, sometimes semi-opaque, 
the first about, or nearly, three times as long as greatest breadth, 
basal cell usually about twice as long as broad, apical areas eight ; 
wings with six apical areas. 

1G77. Quintilia SUbvitta, Walk. (Cicada) List Horn, i, p. 222 (18o0) ; 
Atkins. J. A. S. Benq. liii, p. 230 (1885) : Htal (Tibiceii), 6fv. 
Vet.-Ah Fork. 1862", p. 48-j ; Dist. Man. Orient. Cicad. p. 129, 
t. xii, f. 17, a, h (1892). 
Cicada strigosa, Walk. Ins. Saund., Honi. p. 10 (1858). 

Body above black ; head with a small spot on lateral margins of 
vertex and a central spot at base, pronotvim with the anterior and 
posterior margins, a central longitudinal fascia, the incisures 

(sometimes the lateral areas), 
mesonotum with faint outlines 
of the margins of two central 
obconical spots, and the apices 
of the cruciform elevation ochra- 
ceous ; margins of abdominal 
segments and basal area of last 
abdominal segment eastaneous ; 
16.— Quintilia subvitta. body beneath \\ith the lateral 

margins of the face, sternal spots, 
opercula, and disk of abdomen ochraceous ; legs black, considerably 
spotted and streaked with ochraceous ; tegmina and wings hyaline, 
venation mostly fuscous ; tegmina with tlie outer edge of costal 
membrane and extreme base ochraceous, basal cell, a short fascia 
crossing apex of radial area and maculately continued to apex of 
interior ulnar area, transverse veins at bases of apical areas, and a 
small apical spot piceous ; wings with extreme base ochraceous, a 
fascia crossing bases of apical areas, a spot at anal angle, and base 
of anal area fuscous. 

Length excl. tegm., J , 16 ; exp. tegm. 45 millim. 
Hah. Mussooree {MacMnnon). N.W. Himalaya {CoU. Dist.). 
8ikhim {Iml. Mus.). 




170 



CICADID.i:. 



Division CHLOROCYSTARIA*. 
ChlorocYstaria, Dist. A. M. N. H. (7) xvi, p. 212 (1905). 

In this division the abdomen in the males is always more or 
less inflated or dilated, \a ith a central longitudinal dorsal ridge, 
and longer than the space between the apex of head and base of 
cruciform elevation ; the head (including eyes) is a little narrower 
than base of mesonotum ; tegmina always longer than body, their 
greatest width only about a third of their length. 

Only one genus can at present be included in this fauna. 

Genus KUMANGA. 
Kumauga, Dist. A. 31. N. H. (7) xvi, p. 21-5 (1905). 

Type, K. sandaracata, Dist. 

Distribution. Burma. 

Head with the front narrow, about as long as broad, including 
eyes narrower than base of mesonotum ; pronotum narrowed 
anteriorly ; mesonotum (including cruciform elevation) slightly 
shorter than head and pronotum together ; abdomen in male 
longer than the space betA^een apex of head and base of cruciform 
elevation ; tympana entirely exposed ; opercula completely covering 
the sonorous cavities and projecting beyond the lateral margins 
of the abdomen as seen from above ; rostrum reaching the inter- 
mediate coxpe ; tegmina and wings hyaline ; tegmina \^ith eight 
apical areas, seventh and eighth about equally long, basal cell about 
twice as long as broad ; wings with six apical areas. 

1678. Kumanga sandaracata, Dist. (Beetmia) Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. 
xxvi, p. 458, t. iv, f. 4 (1888) ; id. Mon. Orient, dead. p. 151, 

t. vii, f. 0, a, h (1892). 




Kurnanga san da roeata. 



J . Body above, sternum, and legs pale testaceous ; abdomen 
beneath ochraceous ; tegmina and wings hyaline, the venation and 



* Fouuded on au Australian genus. 



MELAMPSALTA, 171 

the costal membrane of the first pale testaceous ; rostrum reaching 
the intermediate coxae. 

Length excl. tegm., J , 30 ; exp. tegm. 72 millim. 

Hah. Burma; Teinzo (Fm). 

1 have seen only one specimen of this species, which is now 
contained in the Genoa Museum. 



Division MELAMPSALTABIA. 
Melampsaltaria, Dist. A. M. N. H. (7) xvi, p. 269 (1905). 

This division is very easily recognised by the distinct venation 
of the tegmina, in which the upper vein of the lower ulnar area 
is more or less fused with the lower vein to the radial area, this 
union being continued for some distance from the apex of the basal 
cell. 

Two genera are found in British India. 

Synopsis of Genera. 

A. Wings with six apical areas Melampsalta, p. 171. 

B. Wings with five apical areas Pauuopsalta, p. 174. 

Genus MELAMPSALTA. 

Melampsalta, Kolenat. Mel. Ent. vii, p. 27 (1857) ; Bull Soc. Naf. 

Mosc. XXX, p. 42o (1857); StSl, Hem. Aft: iv. p. 42 (1806); 

Karsc/i, Bed. ent. Zeit. xxxv, pp. 112 & 123 (1890). 
Melampsalta (Melampsalta), Amyot, Ann, Soc. Ent. Fr. 1847, p. 155 

.^^^- - .... 

Cicadetta, Kolenat. Mel. Ent. vii, p. 19 (1857) ; Bull. Soc. Isat. 

Mosc. XXX, p. 417 (1825). 

Cicadetta (Cigalette), Amyot, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1847, p. 156 [352]. 

Tettigetta, Kolenat. Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. xxx, p. 422 (1825). 

Tettigetta (Tettigette), Amijot, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1847, p. 156 

[352]. 

Type, M. musiva, Germ. 

Distribution. Of almost universal distribution, but apparently 
not found in the Neotropical Kegion. 

Considerable difficulty appertains to the nomenclature of this 
genus. It was first named by Amyot (scarcely described) suj^ra, 
and takes precedence of the name Cicadetta which he nsed in a 
succeeding page. Kolenati described the genus, but had previously 
also described Cicadetta, which, if we take Kolenati as the real 
founder, must have priority. However, I follow Stfd, Karsch, antl 
other writers in giving the name Melampsalta precedence, as given 
by Amyot. I have failed to separate Cicadetta from Melampsalta : 
if we compare the type oi the first, the Cicada montana, tScop., 
with the type of Melampsalta (supra) a difference appears in the 
position of emergence of the upper vein of the lower ulnar area ; 
but much as I endeavoured to thus break up a congested genus, 



172 cicadid.t:, 

my efforts failed, and the diflerence.s became evanescent w hen a 
long series of species was examined. 

Head about as long as pronotum, the front broad, its margins 
discontinuous with the lateral margins of the vertex, which is 
longer than front and is centrally longitudinally sulcate, ocelli 
rather nearer to eyes than to each other, eyes scarcely projecting 
beyond the anterior augles of the pronotum ; pronotum with the 
lateral margins almost straight, the posterior angles moderately 
ampliate ; mesonotum (including cruciform elevation) almost as 
long as head and pronotum together ; abdomen a little longer 
than space between apex of head and base of cruciform elevation ; 
tympana entirely exposed ; opercula in male short, not passing 
base of abdomen ; tegmina and wings hyaline ; tegmina with the 
upper vein of lower ulnar area emitted at some distance from 
base of radial area, apical areas eight, postcostal area moderately 
broad ; wings with six apical areas. 

1079. Melampsalta imisiva, (Ter)n. (Cicada) Tlion's Arch, ii, 2, p. 43 
(IS-)O); .Stal (-Melampsalta), Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1861, p. 019 
Karsch, Ikrl. ent. Zeit. xxxv, p. 123 (1890). 

Melampsalta musiva, var. caspica, Koloiat. Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 
XXX, p. 42o (1857). 

Cicada taniarisca, JValk. Zoohxjist, xxviii, jj. 2403 (1870). 

Head and mesonotum ochraceous, pronotum tinged with testa- 
ceous ; head much shaded with black, especially on vertex, margins 
of front, and in two transverse spots on lateral margins of vertex ; 
pronotum with the margins and a central longitudinal fascia 
ochraceous, the margins of the latter (ampliated anteriorly and 
posteriorly) and the inner margins black ; mesonotum with four 
obcouical spots (the two central ones short, more or less fused, 
outwardly incomplete, and connected with a subtriangular spot in 
front of cruciform elevation) black ; centre of cruciform elevation 
black ; abdomen brownish-ochraceous, greenishly pilose, posterior 
segmental margins ochraceous and with a central series of piceoiis 
or black spots ; body beneath and legs paler than above ; two 
central fascia? to face, space between face and eyes, rostrum 
(excluding base), and shadings to under surface of anterior femora 
piceous or black ; tegmina and wings hyaline, the first with the 
venation more or less fuscous, the costal membraue pale ochraceous 
outwardly margined with fuscous ; wings with the A'enation 
ochraceous. 

Length excL tegm.. J & $ , 20 to 23; exp. tegm. 50 to 57 
milliui. 

Bab. Quetta (Ind. Mas.). — South-eastern Pala^arctic Region. 

1680. Melampsalta continuata, Dist. (Cicadetta) A. M. N. H. (6) i, 

p. 37-J (1888); id. (Melampsalta.) Mon. Orient. Cicad. p. 143, 
t. XV, f. 9, fl, b (1892). 

5 . Head and thorax above dull black, sparingly greyishly 



MELAMPSALTA. 



173 



pilose : head with the anterior margin, tlie ocelli, a central 
linear longitudinal fascia (widened posteriorly) to pronotum, and 

the pronotal margins dull 
ochraceous ; mesonotum with 
two long- longitudinal discal 
fasciae, the lateral margins, 
and cruciform elevation (ex- 
cluding centre) dull ochra- 
ceous ; abdomen above casta- 
neous-bro\^'n, greyishly pi- 
lose, the posterior segmental 
margins paler in hue, their 
extreme edges ochraceous, 
and with an obscure, central, 
narrow, longitudinal black fascia ; body beneath and legs reddish- 
ochraceous ; head beneath and discal area of face black ; tegmina 
and Avings pale hyaline, their bases narro\A ly reddish-ochraceous, 
venation more or less olivaceous ; rostrum reaching the inter- 
mediate coxcB ; face broad and tumid. 

Length excl. tegin., $ , 15 to 18 ; exp. tegin. 38 to 45 millim. 
Hah. Quetta {Colls. Athhis. ^- Dist.). 

Apart from its smaller size and different coloi'ation, this species 
may be distinguished from M. mmiva by the much shorter upper 
apical area to tegmina. 




McIanipsaUc confin uafa. 



1681. Melampsalta literata, Dist. (Cicadetta) A. M. N. H. (6) i, 
p. 375 (1888) ; id. (Melampsalta) 3Ioh. Orient. Cicacl. p. 14o, 
t. XV, f. 8, a, h {im-1). 

5 . Head black, with the lateral and anterior margins narrowly 
ochraceous ; pronotum piceous or dull castaneous, the lateral and 
posterior mai'gins narrowly ochraceous ; mesonotum ochraceous, 

with four obconical black spots (the 
two innermost small and fused), 
a large spot in front of cruciform 
elevation and tlie centre of same 
black ; abdomen above dull black, 
the posterior segmental margins 
narrowly and obscurely dull red- 
dish ; body beneath ochraceous, 
sternum much shaded with dull 
black ; face black, with an anterior 
triangular spot and the lateral margins ochraceous ; abdomen with 
a central longitudinal series of black spots ; legs ochraceous, femora 
and tibia; streaked with piceous ; tegmina and wings hyaline, the 
venation olivaceous or fuscous ; rostrum not extending beyond 
the intermediate coxa.^ 

Length excl. tegm., $ , 12; exp. tegra. 37 millim. 
Bal>. Kashmir Valley, 6300 feet {Leech, Coll. Dist.). 




Fig. 70. — Mi'Iaiiipgalla liUruht. 



174 



CICADIDtE. 



Genns PAUROPSALTA. 

Pauropsalta, God. S^- Fro(/(j. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, 1904, 
p. Hlo. 

Type, P. muerne, "Walk., an Australian species. 

Distribution. Probably widely distributed in the Eastern Hemi- 
sphere, and, according to present knowledge, most largely repre- 
sented in the Australasian Kegion. 

This genus is closely allied to Melampsalta, from which it has 
A'^ery properly been separated by Godiug and Froggatt by the 
venation of the wings, which possess only five, instead of six, 
apical areas. 



1682. Pauropsalta exequata, Dia. (Melampsalta) Mon. Orient. Cicad. 
p. 144, t. XV, f. 11, «, 6(1892). 

2 . Body above dull ochraceous and finely pilose ; head (ex- 
cluding lateral margins of vertex and a spot at base) pieeous ; 
pronotum with a small central dark spot at base, and with a 

central incised line which does 
not reach the anterior margin ; 
mesonotum with a large obconical 
black spot on each lateral area 
and two very small spots in front 
of cruciform elevation ; abdo- 
men with the base narrowly 
fuscous, and with two more or 
less distinct discal longitudinal 
macular fuscous fascia? ; body 
beneath and legs dull ochraceous, with a broad fuscous fascia 
extending from face to apex ot" abdomen ; face fuscous, with the 
lateral margins ochraceous ; apices of the femora, tibia?, and tarsi 
fuscous ; tegmina and wings hyaline, the venation fuscous or 
ochraceovis. 

Length excl. tegm., $ , 14 ; exp. tegm. 37 millim. 
Hah. Assam ; Naga Hills {Doherttj). 




Fig. 80. — Pauropsalta exequata. 



FULGOEIDJE, 175 



Family FULGORID.^. 

Fiilgoi'idas, Ledch, Edin. Eneu. ix (1817) ; Westiu. Mod. Class. Ins. 

ii, p. 427 (1840) ; Fieb. Verh. z.-b. Ges. Wien, xvi, p. 497 (1866) ; 

Atkins. J. A. S. Bemj. liv, p. 127 (1885); Melich. Horn. Faun. 

Ceijlon, p. 10 (1908) ; Hansen, Entomologist, 1903, p. 93. 
Fulgorellfe, Latr. Gen. iii. p. 163 (1807) ; Spin. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 

1839, pp. 133 & 202. 
Fulcrorina, Burm. Handb. Ent. ii, 1, pp. 102 & 144 (1835). 
Fiilgorida, Stdl, Hem. Afr. iv, p. 128 (1866). 

Ocelli two, rarely three or none, one on each gena, third (when 
present) placed on apex of front; gensB reflexed, very often sejDa- 
rated from the front by a i-idge ; tegmina at base with a teo-ula 
which is hidden, but seldom absent ; anterior coxae inserted near 
the sides of the body, very often elongate, posterior pair transverse, 
contiguous, extending to the lateral margins of the body. 

The above characters were those relied upon by Stal, Hansen, 
who microscopically studied the family, or at least some repre- 
sentatives of it, after alluding to the two great divisions of the 
Fulgoridse, in which the subfamily Delphaciiue is distinguished from 
the other subfamilies by the possession of a mobile spur at the 
apex of the posterior tibiae (as pointed out by Stfil), also discovered 
that the sensory organs on the second peduncular segment or 
joint of the antennae are furnished with bristles in the Delphacince, 
but in the Fulgorinoi with lamellar lobes (" blades "), which are 
sometimes feebly, but generally very well developed. 

Hansen is dissatisfied with Stal's division of subfamilies as 
here, and usually by other workers, followed ; but as his criticisms 
are based on minute and microscopical characters, not yet fully 
elucidated, and difficult of apprehension save by advanced morpho- 
logical students, we must await a fuller enunciation of his system 
before attempting to apply it to a purely faunistic publication like 
the present one. The value of Hansen's work is undoubted, but 
its application at present, owing to its incomplete character, is 
impossible. We therefoi-e follow StSl in his arrangement of 
subfamilies, a matter of considerable difficidty as they are ill-detined. 
Sijnopsis of iSnbfamilies. 
I. Anal area of wings reticulated, the ridge 
sepai'ating the front from the genae con- 
tinued on the sides of tlie clvpeus Fahjorince. 

II. Anal area of wings very rarely reticulate, 

when so, the clypeus convex without 

lateral ridges. 

A. Posterior tibiae without a mobile spur 

at apex. 

a. Face broad, transverse, or almost 

equally broad as long, amplified on 

both sides in a distinct angle ; an- 



terior legs compressed, more or less 
dilated ; anal area of wings some- 
times reticulated E«rifhrach)/dina'. 

a'. Face not laterally augidate ; legs very 
often simple ; anal area of wings 
never reticulate, 
b. Clavus very rarely granulate, acumi- 
nate at apex, rarely somewhat 
obtusely but distinctly closed, two 
Aeins remote or veiT remote from 
the apex, sometimes behind middle 
of clavus united in one ; costa 
very rarely dilated ; tegmina 
sometimes abbreviated or connate 
Avith clavus and corium. 
c. Claval vein not reaching apex, 
united with commissural margin 
near apex ; tegmina sometimes 
abbreviated, or connate with 
clavus aud corium, when so, the 
lateral margins of the clypeus 
are carinate. 

d. Face without au apical ocel- 

lus ; lateral margins of the 

clypeus always carinate or 

acute Dietyo]_)harhui:. 

d'. Usually three ocelli, one of 

which is situate ou the apex 

of the front ; frontal ocellus 

very rarely wanting, and if 

so, the sides of the clypeus 

are convex and not carinate . Oiriince. 
c'. Claval vein continued to the 
apex itself, or united with the 
claval suture near apex : teg- 
mina sometimes abbreviated, or 
connate with clavus and corium, 
when so, the lateral margins of 
the clypeus are not cariuate. 

e. Head narrower than the thorax ; 

sides of the clypeus carinate ; 
last joint of rostrum elongate ; 
thorax angularly emarginate 
at base ; tegmina ampliated 
inwardly behind the clavus : 
posterior tarsi with the first 

joint elongate Achiliiw. 

e'. Head narrower than the thorax; 
sides of clypeus without a 
ridge or with an obtuse ridge; 



FULGORID,!". 17'ii 

thorax very often angularly 
emarginate at the base, very 
rarely roundly sinuate, trica- 
rinate ; lateral ridges diverg- 
ing, very often reaching the 
base; commissural margin of 
tegmina straight or rounded 
behind the clavus ; costa 
sometimes dilated, costal mem- 
brane usually transversely 
veined ; first joint of posterior 
tarsi elongate Tropidachince. 

e'-. Plead very often narrower than 
the thorax ; sides of clypeus 
sometimes carinate ; last joint 
of rostrum short or very 
short ; thorax posteriorly an- 
gularly emarginate, ecarinate, 
or furnished with an obsolete 
ridge; costa simple; posterior 
tibiae very often unarmed, 
rarely spinose : first joint of 
posterior tarsi elongate .... Derhince. 

e'*. Head narrower than thorax ; 
sides of clypeus carinate ; 
rostrum short, stout, last 
joint very short ; thorax 
truncate at base, carinate or 
tuberculate on disk ; first 
joint of posterior tarsi robust, 
only moderately long LopJiopince. 

e' Head not or only a little nar- 
rower than the thorax ; 
clypeus very often convex, 
lateral margins very rarely 
furnished with a ridge ; 
thorax truncate at base, 
rarely broadly roundly-sinu- 
ate, without a median ridge 
or with only an obsolete one ; 
mesonotum short, rarel}'^ twice 
longer than pronotum ; teg- 
mina coriaceous or subcor- 
neous, rarely vitreous, very 
rarely flat, more or less 
convex, sometimes very much 
abbreviated ; first joint of 
posterior tarsi short, or mode- 
rately short, very rarely elon- 
gate Isshice. 

VOL. III. N 



178 rULGOEIDiE. 

e'. Head broad or very broad, 
sometimes somewhat nar- 
rower thau the thorax ; sides 
of clypeus very often without 
a ridc^e ; thorax posteriorly 
ronuded, sinuate, without 
ridges, or furnished only with 
an obsolete median ridge ; 
mesonotum very large, long : 
tegmina fiat, ample, or very 
ample ; cosla dilated ; costal 
membrane transversely veined 
or reticulate ; posterior tibi* 
spinose ; first joint of poste- 
rior tarsi short, or somewhat 

short liica)iiina'. 

b'. Clavus granulate, apex sometimes 
subacute and closed, sometimes 
very obtuse and broadly open, 
with two veins separated through 
the entire lengtli or united in one 
near apex; costa dilated, costal 
membrane transversely veined ; 

claval suture distinct .... Fl((t\no\ 

B. Posterior tibiae with a mobile spur at apex. Ddpliucinu'. 



Subfamily I. FULGORIN^E. 

Fulgorides, Amy. Si Sere. Hem. p. 48S (1843). 

Fulgorida, Stal, Hem. Afr. \\, p. 129 (1866); id. Stett. ent. Zeit. 

xxxi, pp. 2'ib k 282 (1870). 
Fiilgorina, Stdl, Of v. Vet.-Ak. Fork. 1870, p. 740. 

As pointed out in the synopsis, this subfamily may be recog- 
nized by having the anal area of the wings reticulated, and the 
ridge separating the front from the gente continued on the sides of 
the clypeus. 

Division LATEUNARIAlilA *. 

This division contains those genera whose species possess a 
strong porrect cephalic process or anterior prolongation of the 
head, often as loug as the remaining portion of the body, but 
sometimes shorter than the abdomen. 

'J'he purpose and structure of this process has occasioned much 
attention and speculation. It was at one time considered to have 
luminous properties, a conclusion promulgated by the well-known 
Neotropical traveller and naturalist, Madame Merian, and after- 
wards supported by Wesmael and Spinola. The eAidence to the 
contrary is, ho\\ever, culminatixe and conclusive. In a paper 

* Founded on the Neotroijical genus Laternaria, Fiibr. 



PYEOPS. 179 

" On a probable Explanation of an Unverified Observation rela- 
tive to the Family Fiilgoridse " (Tr. Ent. Soc. 1895, pp. 429 et seq.), 
I have endeavoured to reconcile these contrary statements of 
trustworthy observers by the suggestion of the sometime and 
infrequent presence of parasite and luminous micro-organisms, as 
have been found to have caused the luminosity of Midges (Chiro- 
nomidse) and Talitrus, a genus of crnstacea (Amphipoda). 

Another purpose of this cephalic process has been predicated by 
Mr. Annandale (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1900, p. 8G7) as a method of pro- 
pulsion, and, to use his words, " if the tip of the nose and the dorsal 
surface of the abdomen were pressed together between the finger 
and thumb and then suddenly released, the insect would not fail 
straight to the ground, but would be propelled for some distance 
through tlie air before doing so ; just as would be the case if a 
piece of A\halebone A\ere treated in like manner." This has since 
been disputed by Mr. Fletcher ('Entomologist,' 1901, p. 50). 

>S>fnopsts of Genera. 

A. Gente before eyes rouuded or rouudly subtrun- 

cate ; apex of face profoundly sinuate ; meso- 
notum not centrally carinate ; cephalic process 
straiglit Pyeops. p. 179. 

B. Genaj before eyes truncate ; apex of face only 

moderately or slightly sinuate : mesouotum 
centrally carinate ; cephalic process more or 
less curved. 

a. Face not laterally rounded near apex : teg- 

mina always nearly completely, or with more 
than apical third, furnished with transverse 
small veins or veinlets, 
(/. Cephalic process gradually, not suddenly, 

narrowed from a little in front of ej'es ; 

tegmina moderately broad, their greatest 

width more than a third of their length, 

their apical margins more or less convexly 

rounded Fulgora, p. 182. 

/;. Cephalic process suddenly narrowed from a 

little in front of eyes ; tegmina somewhat 

narrow, their greatest breadth less than a 

third of their length, their apical margins 

more or less obliquely subtruncate Saiva, p. 192. 

b. Face, laterally, somewhat roundly ampliate 

near apex ; tegmina with only third or apical 
area furnished with remote transverse small 
veins or veinlets Alcathous, p. 197. 

Genus PYROPS. 

Pvrops, Spin. Ann. Soc. Eiit, Fr. 1839, p. 231 ; Ainy. Sf Sero. Hem. 
'p. 491 (1843) ; Stdl, Hem. Afr. iv. pp. 133 & 139 (18G6) ; Atkins. 

J. A. S. Beng. liv, p. 139 (1885) ; Bid. Tr. E. S. 1893, p. 443. 
Zanna, Kirk. J. Nat. Hist. Soc. Bomb. xiv. p. 47 (1902) ; Melich. 

Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 13 (1903). 

Tyi)e, P. tenehrosw', Fabr., an Ethiopian species. 



180 



PULGORID.lE. 



Distribution. Ethiopian and Oriental Eegions. 

In a monographic li.st o£ the species of this genus (1893) I 
■wpote — "To those who maintain that the first described or 
enumerated species of a genus is to be taken as the type of that 
genus, it would appear that a new generic name is required, for 
the first species cited is the Fulgora candelaria, Linn., which is 
luidoubtedly not a Pyi-ops in the sense universally used. However, 
all but some recent Homopterists have followed Spinola's second 
division as typical, and no useful end would be served in disturbing 
the arrangement." Subsequently Kirkaldy (1902) proposed the 
substitution of the generic name Zanna for the group of species 
Avhich had hitherto been represented by the genus Pyrops, a disturb- 
ance in nomenclature for which we can see no adequate reason. 

The characters of Pyrops are as follows : — Head forwardly pro- 
duced in a long process, as long or louger than the abdomen, 
its apex obliquely truncate, behind the eyes furnished with a 
subconical or subtriangular callosity, vertex transversely convex, 
continued to the apex of the process ; eyes small ; second joint of 
antennae short and thick ; pronotum and mesonotum moderately 
transversely convex, not ridged, the pronotum gradually anteriorly 
narrowed, scarcely or very slightly sinuate at base; tegmina 
almost entirely reticulate, valvate or lobate behind the clavus ; 
legs robust, short, the anterior trochanters shortly spinous. 



A. Abdomen above fulvous or ocJiraceous. 

1683. Pyrops dohrni, StSl, Of v. Vet. -Ah. Fork. 1858, p. 449; Dist. 
Tr. E. S. 1893, p. 447 ; Kirk. (Zanna) J. Bomb. N. H. Soc. xiv, 
p. 48, pi. A, f. 3 (1902). 
Pyrops mustelinus, Dist. A. M. N. H. (5) xii, p. 243 (1883). 
Zanna punctata, Melich. Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 14, t. i, f. 3 (1903). 

Body and tegmina above and beneath very pale ochraceous, the 
head, pronotum, mesonotum, sternum, tegmina, and legs minutely 




Fig. 81. — PyrojK dohrni. 

black-spotted ; tegmina with the veins darker ochraceous ; abdo- 
men cretaceously pilose, especially and prominently on the poste- 
rior segmental margins ; anal appendage black, thickly and closely 



PYEOPS. 181 

cretaceously pilose on its lateral areas ; wings pale creamy white, 
the veins pale ochraceous ; femora ochraeeous, annulated with 
black near apex, and with a few small black spots between the 
annulation and base ; tarsi with the apices of the joints more or 
less fuscous. 

Length excl. tegm. 34 ; head 14| to 15 ; exp, tegm. 49 to 55 
millim. 

Hah. Madras Province ; Trivandrum. Ceylon {Green). — Java 
{Coll. Dist.). 

Dr. Melichar {supra) has unfortunately plunged this species 
into the greatest confusion. He has referred to it as punctata, 
Oliv., a well-known Ethiopian species, and one which Olivier 
described from Stoll's tigure, representing a species which Stoll 
stated was from the coast of Guinea. Melichar (mixing two 
African species) also quotes in his synonymy Germar, Gray, and 
iSpinola ; all which three authors give the proper Ethiopian 
habitat. But Melichar goes farther ; he places Pyrops clohrni, 
StSl, as a synonym of Saiva coccinea of Walker (well tignred by 
Ivirkaldy), to which it has absolutely no resemblance. This error 
the difference in coloration alone should have prevented. More- 
over, Stal himself, when he examined Walker's types, stated that 
'•'■ Hotinus coccinena, Walk, = -£foi!<u»s guttlfer, Stal" (Ofv. Yet.-Ak. 
Eorh. 1862, p. 485). 

B. Abdomen above blade. 

a. Head including cephalic process about as long as abdomen 
and only prominently punctate on its basal area. 

1684. Pyrops chinensis, Dist. Tr. E. S. 1893, p. 448. 

Head, thorax, tegmina, and legs sordidly greyish, very slightly 
tinged with ochraceous ; cephalic process with a few black spots, 
more numerous on its basal area, its apical margin ochraceous ; 
thorax somewhat tliickly spotted with black ; abdomen black, more 
or less tinged with cretaceous, the posterior segmental margins 
obscurely brownish ; legs prominently and irregularly spotted 
with black ; tegmina thickly spotted with black, the spots slightly 
larger and more prominent on anterior and apical areas, the vena- 
tion ochraceous ; wings lacteous, the venation pale brownish- 
ochraceous ; cephalic process about as long as the abdomen, its 
apex obliquely truncate and moderately excavate, exhibiting eight 
narrow longitudinal carinse, some of which are much waved and 
become obscure towards base. 

Length excl. tegm. 34 to 35; head 14; exp. tegm. 60 to 65 
millim. 

Hah. Naga Hills (DoAer^y).— China ; Chia-Hou-Ho {Coll. Dist.). 

Besides differing in colour from the preceding species, P. chi- 
nensis may also be differentiated by the more robust cephalic 
process. 



182 fulgoridtE. 

1685. Pyrops chennelli, sp. u. 

Head, prouotum, body beueatb, legs, and tegmina pale ocbra- 
ceous ; head coarsely blackly punctate, sparingly above at base, 
and more thickly so on basal half of each lateral area ; thorax 
above and sternum sparingly blackly punctate ; femora with a 
subapical macular black annulation, the tibia? blackly punctate 
beneath ; abdomen above black, the posterior segmental margins 
ochraceous, abdomen beneath more or less shaded with piceous ; 
tegmina finely spotted with black, the spots a little larger on upper 
half, smaller and denser on the posterior half ; wings lacteous with 
the venation ochraceous ; head including caphalic process about 
as long as abdomen, the central cariuae faint both above and 
beneath, the apex ridged, and \\ith a subapical ridge connected 
with the apex by a longitudinal carina, face strong, marginally 
ridged. 

Length excl. tegm. 25 ; head 10 ; exp. tegm. 47 millim. 

Hab. Assam ; Naga Hills (ChenneU). 

aa. Head including cepludic process longer than abdomen and 
lyrominently punctate nearly tliroughout its entire length. 

168(3. Pyrops affinis, Westiv. (Fulgora) Trans. Linn. Soc. sviii, p. 144, 
t. xii, f. 6 (1841) ; Hist. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1893, p. 448 ; id. (part.) 
Kirby, J. Linn. Soc, Zool. xxiv, p. 133 (1891). 
Pyrops punctata (part.), Walk. List Horn, ii, p. 208 (1851) ; 
id. (part.) Atkins. J. A. S. Beng. liv, p. 140 (1885). 

This species is allied to the preceding (P. chennelli)., from ^^■hich it 
differs by the head including cephalic process being coarsely blackly 
punctate nearly throughout its entire length, and also by being 
considei'ably longer than the abdomen ; the abdomen beneath is 
blackly muculate, not suffused with piceous. 

Length excl. tegm, 27 to 28 : head 12 to 12^ ; exp. tegm. 51 to 
58* millim. 

Hab. Sikhim {Coll. Dist.). 

This species appears to have been originally described and 
figured from one of Gen. Hardwicke's drawings of the baustellated 
insects of Nepaul, now contained in the library of the British 
Museum. 



Genus FULGORA. 

Fulgora, Linn. Si/st. Nat. (ed. xii.) i, p. 703 (1767) ; Stal, Hem. Afr. 

iv, p. 133 (18«6). 
Hotinus, Am7/. ^- Sen: Hem. p. 490 (1843). 
Pyrops, Kirk. J. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc. xiv, p. 47 (1902) ; Melich. 

Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. ii (1903). 

* According to WestwoocVs figure. 



FULGORA. 183 

Type, F. candelaria, Linn. 

DistrihutioH. Oriental and Malayan Eegions, exten ng north to 
China. 

There have been some renewed attempts to supplant the name 
of this well-known and interesting genus, which if there was 
sufficient ground for so doing would still be a misfortune in 
nomenclature. In 1764 Linnreus proposed his genus Lateniaria, 
which Kirkaldy affirms is a synonym of Fulr/ora, Linn. (1767), and 
which he rejects as lacking description. But Linnaeus denoted 
Lateniaria by reference to figures in Merian and Rose!, and fixing 
the type as L. phosphorea^ Linn., afterwards referred to it under 
FnJgora (1867) as laternaria, Linn. It certainly seems pedantry 
to refuse to recognize any old genus fixed by reference to 
good figures, and to put in its place one only insufficiently and 
vaguely described, as was usual in the writings of the early 
entomologists. Moreover, Laternaria represents a genus of 
]Veotropical insects possessing a striking and peculiar facies, not 
in any way to be confused with that of Fulr/ora. I have given a 
synopsis of the species of Laternaria (cf. Biol. Centr.-Amer., 
Ehynch. Horn, i, p. 22, ]883). Fulgora, Linn. (1767), has its type 
in F. candelaria, Linn., the second species previously included in 
Laternaria (1764). Amyot and Serville (1843), not recognizing 
Laternaria, proposed the genus Hotinus and as its type candelarius, 
a course previously adopted by Spinola (1839), when he used the 
same species as the type of the first division of his genus Pyrops. 
. Westwood, Stal, Butler, Atkinson, and the present writer have 
always recognized the genus as Fulr/ora, and by this name there is 
abundant reference to it in natural histor}'^ publications. 

Fulr/ora, as described by Stal, is to be recognized by the "vertex 
nmch broader than the eyes ; liead furnished with a long process, 
rounded or subtetragoual ; genie truncated before the eyes ; front 
slightly sinuated at apex, furnished with 2-3 longitudinal ridges ; 
legs slender ; mesouotum (scutellum of 8tal) slightly cariuate ; 
cephalic process more or less curved." Other characters are given 
in the generic synopsis {ante, p. 179). 



I. Apex of cephalic process not strongly globose. 

A. Wings ocliraceous ivltli the apicrd areas hlach. 

a. Head and cephalic process ochraceoiis, measured from apex 
to eyes as long as from anterior margin of mesonotum to 
abrlominal apex. 

1687. Fulgora candelaria, Linn. (Cicada) Ada Holm. p. 63, t. i, ff. 5 & 
6 (1746) ; id. (Laternaria) Mus. Lud. Ulr. p. 153 (1764) ; id. 
(Fulgora) Syst. Xat. (ed. xii.) i, p. 703 (1767) ; F(d)r. Si/st. Ent. 
p. 673 (1775) ; Oliv. Enc. Meth.Vi, pp. 568 & 593, t. cix, f. 3 (1790) ; 
Oerm. (Flata) Mar/, iii, p. 189 (1818) ; S/mi. (Pyropsj Ann. Sac. 



184 



TULGOBID.^D. 



Ent. Fr. 1839, p. 238 ; Amy. is- Serv. (Hotinus) Him. p. 491 
(1843) ; Weshv. (Fulgora) Tr. Linn. Soc. xviii, p. 138 (1841) ; 
Athins. J. A. S. Ben;/, liv, p. 128 (188o). 

Head (including cephalic process) brownisli-ochraceous above. 
a little paler (especially at base) beneath, minutely spotted with 
white, the apex ochraceous ; pronotum and mesonotum brownish- 
ochraceous, the first Avith two indented discal spots, and 
the latter with four anterior obconical and two oblique discal 
spots, black ; metauotmn, abdomen above, sternum, and legs 
ochraceous, spots to metanotum, lateral segmental spots to abdomen 
above, anal appendage, anterior and intermediate tibia? and tarsi, 
and abdomen beneath black, the last with the posterior segmental 
margins, lateral margins, and sexual organs ochraceous ; tegmina 
piceous, with closely reticulate pale olivaceous venation, with an 




Fig. 82. — Fulgorin cnndelarki. 

ochraceous transverse fascia with pale margins near base, two 
similar fascia) often medially fused near centre, followed by two 
transverse series of spots and an apical cluster of ochraceous spots; 
wings ochraceous, with the apical area broadly black ; cephalic 
process considerably upwardly recurved, its apex a little compressed, 
measured from angle of apex to eyes about as long as from 
anterior margin of mesonotum to abdominal apex. 

Length ceph. process, angle from apex to eyes IG to 20 ; eyes 
to appx abdom. 21 to 25 ; exp. tegm. 65 to 75 millim. 

Ilah. Sikhim, Assam {Ind. Mus.). "Himalaya" {Coll. Dlst.). — 
Cambodia; Hainan: China. 

A lepidopterous parasite in the waxy secretion of this species 
has been described by Prof. Westwood (Tr. Ent. Soc. 1876, 
p. 519). 



FULGORA. 185 

a'. Head and cepliulic process r/reen, meastired from opex to eyes 
OS lonrj as from posterior angle of mesonotum to ahdominal 
apex. 

1688. Fulgora viridirostris. Wcstio. (Ful^orii (Hotina)) Cab. Orient. 

Eld. p. 8. t. iii, f. 4 (1848) ; Atkins. J. A. S. Benff. \W, p. 129 
(1885). 
Fiilo'ora brevirostris. Butl. Proc. Zool. Sac. 1874. p. 97. t. xv, 
f. 1 ; Atl-ins. J. A.S. Beng. liv, p. 128 (1885). 

Head (includiDg cephalic process) green, or in faded specimens 
ochraceous, minutely spotted with Avhite ; prouotum \\ith two 
dark indented discal spots ; mesonotum with four obconical 
anterior spots and an oblique spot on each lateral area (often 
obscure) piceous ; prosternum with a longitudinal black fascia on 
each side ; rostrum piceous : tegmina closely resembling in 
markings those of F. candelaria ; wings ocliraceous, with the apical 
areas broadly black ; cephalic process considerably upwardly 
recurved, its apex a little compressed, measured from angle of apex 
to eyes about as long as space between posterior angle of meso- 
notum and abdomen. 

Length ceph. process, angle from apex to eyes 12 to 15 ; eyes 
to apex abdom. 19 to 21 ; exp. tegm. 65 to 73 millim. 

Hab. Assam; Margherita(/>o7(er<//). Jninuayalley (Maclinnon). 
Burma ; North Chin Hills ( Wat.?on). — Penang {Boivring). 

a''. Head, and cephalic process hlaclc above, ochraceous l>eneath, its 
apex concolorous, meastired from apex to ei/es as long as from 
middle of mesonotum to abdomincd apex. 

1689. Fulgora spinolae. Jf>si?f. (Fulgora (Pyrops)) A.M.N.H. \x, 

p. 118 (1842) ; id. (Fulg-ova (Hotina)) Cab. Orient. Ent. p. 73, 
t. xxxvi, f. 1 (1848) ; Atkins. J. A. S. Beng. liv, p. 129 (1885). 

Head (including cephalic process) ahoveand on lateral areas black, 
minutely spotted \\\i\\ white, beneath ochraceous ; thorax above 
ochraceous or greenish-ochi'aceous, a broad central black fascia 
traversing both pro- and mesonota ; three small spots on each side 
of antei'ior margin, a larger oblique spot on disk of each lateral 
area, and two small posterior spots to mesonotum black ; abdomen, 
body beneath, and legs ochraceous, a black fascia traversing lateral 
areas of pro- and mesosterna ; rostrum, tibiae, and tarsi black or 
piceous ; body beneath greyishly pubescent, with some transverse 
segmental piceous shadings to abdomen beneath ; tegmina and 
wings coloured and marked generally as in the preceding species ; 
cephalic process considerably up\^■ardly recurved, its apex a little 
compressed, measured from angle of apex to eyes as long as from 
middle of mesonotum to abdominal apex. 

Length ceph. process, angle from apex to eyes 16 to 20 ; eyes 
to apex abdom. 20 to 23 ; exp. tegm. 70 to 73 millim. 

Hab. Sikhim, Sylhet, Assam {Ind. Mns.) ; Margherita and Naga 
Hills {Doherty). Mysore {Ind. Mns.). 



186 



FULGORIDJE. 



a^. Head and cepJialic 2»'0cess black above, olivaceous beneath, its 
apex ocJiraceous, measured from ajje.v to eyes as long as from 
posterior angle of mesonotum to abdominal aj^ex. 

1090, Fulgora lathburi, Wm. Kirby, Tr. Linn. Soc xii, p. 4.j0 (1818) ; 
Gncr. Icon. lieyne An.., Ins. t. Iviii, f. 2 (1830-4) ; Germ. 
(Flata) Thou's 'Arch, ii, 2, p. 46 (1830) : AtJdns. (Fulgora) 
J. A. S. Beng. liv, p. 129 (188-5). 

Head (iiidiuliiig cephalic process) above and laterally black, 
minutely spotted with white, beneath pale ochraceous, its apex 
ochraceous ; thorax above ochraceous or greenish-ochraceous ; 
anterior uiargiu and a broad central fascia to proiiotum, a 
broad central maculate fascia, two small spots on each side of 
anterior margin, and a large oblique spot on each lateral area of 
mesouotum black ; abdomen ochraceous, sternum and legs pale 
olivaceous ; a black fascia on each lateral ai'ea of pro- and 
mesosterna ; rostrum, tibite, and tarsi piceous or testaceous-brown ; 
tegmina piceous, with the reticulate venation pale green, somewhat 
closely ornamented with round pale castaneous spots whose margins 
are pale green, the apical spots smallest, and some of the subapical 
spots confluent ; wings ocbraceous, their apical areas largely 
black ; cephalic process considerably upwardly recurved, its apex 
a little globose, measured from angle of apex to eyes about as long 
as from posterior angle of mesonotum to abdominal apex. 

Length ceph. process, angle from apex to eyes 15; eyes to apex 
abdom. 23 ; exp. tegm. 80 millim. 

Hab. Silhet (/Soit't'/^).— China ; Hong Kong (C'o/7. Dist.). 



B. Wings wTiitish or greenish-ivJiite, apical areas piceous 
tviiJi wJiite spots. 

b. Ceplialic process very strongly recurved, blacTc above, olivaceous 
beneath, measured from apex to eyes nearly as long as from 
anterior margin of mesonotum to abdominal apex. 

1691. Fulgora connectens, Atkins. J. A. S. Beny. liv, p. 130 (1885) ; 
id. J. A. S. Beny. Ivii, p. 338, t. xv, middle figure. 

Head (including cephalic process) above and on lateral areas 
black, beneath olivaceous ; thorax black or piceous ; pronotum 
with a very broad, greenish-ochraceous, transverse basal fascia ; 
mesonotum with the anterior angles, lateral margins, and posterior 
angle pale tawny ; abdomen pale brownish-ochraceous, very thickly 
greyishly tomentose at base ; body beneath and legs brownish- 
ochraceous ; rostrum, tibia?, tarsi, and anal appendage black or 
piceous ; tegmina piceous with the reticulate venation pale green, 
crossed on basal half by three broad ochraceous fasciae, followed 
by a series of three spots, two together near costa, the other near 
posterior margin, before apex a series of live spots, three connected 
above and two beneath, and two or three smaller spots on apical 



FCLGORA. 187 

area, the costal membrane is ocliraceous with four black spots and 
there are three blaelc spots on claval ai*ea ; wings white, basal area 
suffused with pale green, apical area black, with five or six white 
spots ; cephalic process very strongly recurved, its apex a little 
compressed, measured from angle of apex to eyes nearly as long 
as from anterior margin of mesonotum to abdominal apex. 

Length cepli. process, angle from apex to eyes 19; eyes to apex 
abdom. 23 ; exp. tegm. SO millim. 

Hah. Burma; Karen Hills (Z?o/i^>-/y). Tenasserim (/»<:?. 3/i(S.). 



b'. Geplialic process moderateli/ recurved, usually some shade of 
fulvous above, olivaceous or ocliraceous beneath, measured, from 
apex to ei/es about ns long as body excludinr/ head. 

1692. Fulgora OCUlata, Westw. Tr. Linn. Sac. xviii, p. 142, t. xii, f. 5 
(1841)*; Atkins. J. A. S. Beng. liv, p. 131 (ISSo). 

Var. a. oculata, Westw. (Fulgora (Hotina) ) Cab. Orient. Ent. 
p. 73, t. xxxvi, f. 2(1848). 

Var. b. subocellata, Guer. (Fulgora) Rev. Zool. p. 183 (1839) ; 
DeJess. Souv. J^oi/. Inde, p. 66, t. xvi, f. 1 (1842). 

Var. c. verhuelli, Atkins. J. A. S. Bent/, liv, p. 132 (1883). 

Head (including cephalic process) fulvous or olivaceous, finely 
spotted with white above, ochraceous or pale olivaceous beneath ; 
head with an obscure piceous spot at base ; body and legs f ulvous- 
ochraceous ; pronotum with two discal oblique spots and a spot 
on each lateral area, mesonotum with six spots (arranged in pairs) 
on anterior margin and a spot on each lateral area, piceous ; 
abdomen strongly cretaceously tomentose ; apices of anterior and 
intermediate femora, anterior and intermediate tibiae and tarsi, 
posterior tarsi and the rostrum piceous or black ; tegmina pale 
olivaceous, finely cretaceously tomentose, sparingly ornamented 
with small fulvous spots with pale margins, those ou costal area 
with wider paler margins, a few transverse linear piceous costal 
spots above radial area ; wings subhyaline, cretaceously tomentose, 
with a centi'al orange-red patch towards costal area and with a 
few cretaceous apical spots. 

This is the typical coloration and marking : the varietal forms 
vary in having the tegmina darker in hue, the ocellated spots 
much larger, and the apices of the wings with a distinct piceous 
background for the cretaceous spots ; cephalic process moderately 
recurved, its apex a little compi-essed, measured from angle of 
apex to eyes about as long as body excluding head. 

Length ceph. process, angle from apex to eyes 21 ; eyes to apex 
abdom, 21 ; exp. tegm. 78 to 88 millim. 

Hah. Nepal. Malabar. — Malay Peninsula. Java. Borneo. 

* 1841 is the date of the vol. in which Westwood's paper appeared. That 
paper, however, was read in 1>^37, and probably was published in the part of 
the 'Transactions' issued in that year or the next. Consequently we consider 
Westwood's name has priority over Giierin's specific name. 



188 FULGORID^. 

C. Wings hhiisJi -green, with ilie anneal area and usually tlie posterior 
margin bJacJf. 

c. Cejyhalic process castaneous, its apex reddisli-ochraceous and not 
compressed hut slightly inflated, measured from angle of 
apex to eyes about as long as from anterior margin of meso- 
notum to abdomincd apex, 

1093. Fulgora pyrorhyncha, Bon. Ins. Ind., Hem. Ivii, f. 1 (1800); 
Westw. Tr. Linn. Sue. xviii, p. 139 (1841) ; Atkins. J. A. S. Ben//. 
liv, p. 133 (1885). 
Fulgora rajah, Guer. Her. Zool. p. 183 (1839). 
Fulgora aaiplectens, AtJdns. J. A. S. Beng. liv, p. 133 (1885). 

Head (including cephalic process) castaneous, with small white 
spots, its apex reddish-oe-hraceous ; pronotum, mesonotiun, sternum, 
and legs dull castaneous ; abdomen piceous, greyishly tomentose ; 
tegmina ochraceous, the cellidar areas formed by the reticulate 
veins (excepting the subapioal area) more or less jnceous, in the 
paler subapical area a transverse series of about four darker spots 
with paler margins and some scattered much smaller spots on 
apical area ; wings bluish-green, the apical and posterior areas 
broadly black, the black coloration extending a little inwardly 
along the veins ; cephalic process moderately recurved, its apex 
slightly inflated, measured from angle of apex to eyes about as 
long as from anterior margin of me.sonotum to abdominal apex. 

Length ceph. process, angles from apex to eyes 22 ; eyes to 
apex abdom. 25 ; exp. tegm. 85 to 91 miilim. 

Hab. India {Governor Holford). — Malay Peninsula ; Perak 
{Coll. Dist.). 

The type described and figured by Donovon is supposed to have 
been acquired by Gov, Holford in Nepal. 



c'. Ceplialie process castaneo^is, its apex concolorous and moderately 
compressed, measured from, angle of apex to eyes (d)out as 
long as from anterior margin of mesonotum to abdominal 
apex. 

1694. Fulgora karenia, Dist. Tr. E. S. 1891, p. 517, t. xx, f. 2, a 
(1891). 

Head (including cephalic process), thorax above and beneath, 
and the femora castaneous; tibiae, tarsi, and the abdomen above and 
beneath piceous ; posterior margins of the abdominal segments 
and base of abdomen above ochraceous ; tegmina black, thickly 
co\ered Avith the reticulated venation which is ochraceous, and 
with the following ochraceous markings — three macular trans- 
verse fascia? on basal half, folloAved by a transverse series of three 
small spots widely separated, a broad transverse fascia near apical 
area, between which and apex are a few small scattered spots ; 
A\"ings very pale bluish-green, the apical and posterior areas very 



FULGORA. 189 

broadly black ; cephalic process moderately recurved, its apex 
slightly compressed, measured from angle of apex to ej^es about 
as loug as from anterior margin of mesonotum to abdominal apex. 

Length ceph. process, angle from apex to eyes 20 ; eyes to 
apex abdom. 24; exp. tegm. 84 millim. 

Hab. Burma ; Karen Hills (DolieHij). Tenasserim (Brit. Mus.). 

c". CejiJialic 2>i'ocess olivaceous or hroioiiish-ocliraceous, measured 
from aiKjle of apex to eyes about as lowj as abdomen. 

1095. Fulgora maculata, Oliv. Enc. Meth. vi, p. .568 (1791) ; Dune 

Nat. Libr. i, p. 284, t. xxiii, f. 2 (1840) ; Atkins. J. A. S. Beiuj. 

liv, p. 134 (1885) ; Melich. (Pyrops) Iloin. Faun. Ceylon, p. 12 

(1903). 

Hotinus fulvirostris, Walh. List Horn. Suppl. p. 41 (1858) ; Atkins. 

(Fulgora) J. A. S. Bemj. liv, p. 134 (1885). 
Stoll, Ci(/. f. 143, «. 

Head (including cephalic process) and thorax above olivaceous, 
the first minutely spotted with white ; thorax above with some 
piceous suffusions and more or less cretaceously tomentose ; ab- 
domen above pale greenish with some darker markings, beneath 
piceous ; sternum ochraceous or greenish-ochraceous ; trochanters 
and legs piceous ; tegmina black, the reticulate venation greyish, 
covered with large cretaceous, tomentose spots arranged in three 
very irregular transverse series on basal half, and more scattered 
and less fused spots ou apical area ; wings dark bluish-green, the 
apical and posterior areas very broadly black ; cephalic process 
moderately recurved, its apex a little compressed, measured from 
angle of apex to eyes about as long as the abdomen. 

Length ceph. process, angle from apex to eyes 14 ; eyes to 
apex abdom. 22 ; exp. tegm. 67 to 82 millim. 

Hab. Coromandel coast {fide Stoll). Ceylon. 

This is the common and dominant species of the genus in Ceylon. 
I am almost certain I have seen a specimen from Trivandrum, 
but cannot now find it in my collection. 

1696. Fulgora delesserti, Guer. Rev. Zool. p. 183 (1839) ; Beless. 
Souv. Voy. Inde, ii, p. 66, t. xvi, f. 2 (1843) ; Atkins. J. A. S. 
Beng. liv, p. 135 (1885). 

Head (including cephalic process) olivaceous-green or brownish- 
olivaceous ; thorax above reddish-brown ; mesonotum with three 
spots on each side of anterior margin, an oblique spot on each 
lateral area, and a spot before posterior angle piceous or black ; 
abdomen, body beneath, and legs ochraceous ; apical area of ab- 
domen beneath, tibiae, tarsi, and rostrum more or less piceous ; 
tegmina black, the reticulate venation olivaceous, ornamented 
with ochraceous spots arranged as follows — three irregular trans- 
verse series on basal half, those on apical area being more scattex'ed 
and less fused ; wings bluish-green, the apical and posterior ai'eas 



190 rULGOKID.T,. 

broadly black ; cephalic process moderately recurved, its apex a 
little compressed, measured from angle of apex to eyes about as 
long as the abdomen. 

Length ceph. process, angle from apex to eyes 15; eyes to 
apex abdom. 2'd ; exp. tegm. 82 millim. 

Hah. A^ilgiri Hills, Malabar. Kavwav (Ind. Mus.). Trivandruin 
(Coll. DlsU). 

c^. Cephalic process hlaclc ((hove, olivaceous beneath, measured 
from angle of apex to eyes a little longer than abdomen. 

1697. Fulgora andamanensis, Bist. Tr. E. S. 1880, p. 152. t. v, 

f. 7, a: Aildns. J. A. S. Bemj. liv, p. 135 (1885). 

■ Head (including cephalic process) above and on lateral areas 
black, finely spotted with white, olivaceous beneath, eyes and 
ridge near their inner margin ochraceous ; thorax above brownisli- 
ochraceous ; pronotum with the anterior lateral margins, two central 
maculate fascia?, aud a spot on each lateral area, mesonotum with a 
broad central fascia, four small spots on antei'ior margin, an elongate 
spot on each lateral area, and two small spots in front of posterior 
angle, black ; abdomen pale ochraceous, anal appendage piceous ; 
body beneath broA^nish-ochraceous ; an elongate spot on each 
lateral area of prosterniun, disk of mesosteraum, latei'al areas of 
metasternum, abdomen beneath, tibite, tarsi, and rostrum more or 
less black or piceous ; tegaiiua black, the reticulate venation pale 
green, ornamented with browuish-ochraceous spots with pale 
margins, arranged in three irregular transverse series ou basal 
half, the spots on apical half more scattered and generally smaller ; 
wings bluish-green, the apical area broadly, the posterior margin 
narrowly black ; cephalic process somewhat strongly recurved, 
measured from angle of apex to eyes a little longer than abdomen. 

Length ceph. process, angle from apex to eyes 16 ; eyes to 
apex abdom. 22 ; exp. tegm. 68 millim. 

Hab. Andaman Islands. 



c'. Ceinhalic process hlaclc or piceo^is, measured from angle 
of apex to eyes about as long as abdomen. 

1698. Fulgora rogersi, &p. n. 

Cephalic process, head, and thorax above piceous, the two latter 
much coA'ered with ci-etaceous pubescence, the cephalic process 
spotted with same on. its basal areas both above and beneath ; 
abdomen greenish or greenish-ochraceous, the segmental margins 
paler and somewhat cretaceously pubescent ; head beneath oliva- 
ceous ; legs piceous ; tegmina for the basal two-thirds black with 
the veins and numerous i-eticulations green, apical third pale 
brownish ochraceous Avith numerous small piceous marks on apical 
area, a number of cretaceous spots with black centres arranged in 



FULGORA. 



191 



transverse series, one near base, two somewhat close together near 
middle, one consisting of three spots only near apex of dark 
coloration, on the pale area an angulated broken series of four 
above and three beneath, and two or three small spots near apex ; 
M'ings bluish-green, with the apical area black ; cephalic process 
much upwardly recurved, its apex robust but not dilated, measured 
from angle of apex to eyes about as long as abdomen. 

Length ceph. process, angle from apex to eyes 18 ; eyes to apex 
abdom. 26 ; exp. tegm. 77 millim. 

Hah. Great jS^icobar {Gilbert Hofjers). 

II. Apex of cephalic process strongly globose. 
D. Whufs imrplisli-ivhitc, the apical area blade, 

1091). Fulgora clavata, Westw. Tr. Linn. Soc. xviii, p. 139, t. xii, f. 1 
(1841) ; id. Cab. Orient. Ent. p. 7, t. iii, f. 1 (1848) ; Atldn^. 
J. A. S. Bern/, liv, p. 130 (1885). 
Hotinus pondei'osus, Stdl, Of v. Vet. -Ale. Fork. 1854, p. 244 ; 
Atkins. J. A. S. Bemj. liv, p. 131 (1885). 

Head (including cephalic process) black, spotted minutely with 
while, its apex strongly globose and shining castaueous ; thorax 
and abdomen above mucli tomentosely suffused with white ; a 
black spot on each lateral area of mesouotum : sternum beneath 
and legs piceous, whitishly tomentose ; abdomen beneath red or 




Fig. S3. — FaUjoru clavata. 



reddish-ochraceous ; tegmina black, more or less cretaceously 
tomentose, nearly always so on basal half, which is ornamented 
with black spots iuconstant in shape, number, and size, the apical 
half is usually black, ornamented with a number of cretaceous 
spots with castaueous centres, also inconstant in size, number, and 



192 rULGOEID.E. 

shape, but becoming smaller near apex ; wings purplish-white, the 
apical area black ; cephalic process robust, globosely chn-ate at 
apex, measured froai angle of apex to eyes a little longer than 
abdomen. 

Length ceph. process, angle from apex to eyes 12 to 14 ; eyes 
to apex abdom. 17 to 22 ; exp. tegm. 62 to 86 millim. 

Hah. Assam ; Margherita (Dohert//), Khasi Hills (ChenneU). 
iSikhim, Sibstigar, Shillong (Ind. Mas.). 

Genus SAIVA, nov. 

Type, S. (jemtnata, Westw. 

IJistribtition. Oriental Region. 

Alhed to Fuhjora, but the cephalic process very slender and 
suddenly narrowed from a little in front of eyes, not gradually 
narrowed as in Fulrjora : tegmina much narrower, their greatest 
breadth less than a third of their length, their apical margins 
more or less obliquely subtruncate, not convex. 

Owing to the slender and fragile character of the cephalic 
process in this genus most specimens arrive in a more or less 
mutilated condition in that respect, thus rendering the differentia- 
tion of the species by this useful and trustworthy character in 
some cases impossible, 

A. Wln(js blmsh-(j)'een, marked and sjpottcd luith hJaclc. 

a. Cephalic process from angle of apex to eyes about as long as 
abdomen. 

a. Cephalic process oblkpiely ascendant. 

b. Apex of cep)halie process slender. 

1700. Saiva gemmata, Wediv. (Fulgora (Hotina)) Cab. Orient. Ent. 
p. 7. t. iii, f. 2 (1848); Atkins. (Fvl'yova) J. A. S. Bemj.Yw, 
p. Vi7 (1885). 
Fulgora curtiprora, Butl. A. M. N. H. (4) xiv, p. 131 (1874) ; 
Atkins. J. A. S. Bemj. liv, p. 136 (1885). 

Head and thorax above dull ochraceous ; a lateral line to 
cephalic process black ; pronotum with a transverse series of four 
black spots, the two central ones indented and surrounded with 
piceous, followed behind by a small concolorous deeply incised spot ; 
mesonotum with four spots on anterior margin (two central and 
one at each lateral angle), a spot on each lateral margin and 
another before posterior angle black ; abdomen black, the lateral 
and posterior segmental margins green, the last inwardly margined 
with grey ; sternum and coxae dull ochraceous ; legs pale casta- 
neous ; tegmina greenish on basal area, reddish-brown beyond 
middle, ornamented with reddish-brown spots, those on basal half 
margined with black, the basal lialf is also covered with a number 
of small black spots, and on the apical half the reticulate areas 



SAITA. 193 

are black or piceons ; wings black ; anal area (excluding apex), 
three oblique subbasal spots, and a transverse series o£ four 
spots (fused in pairs) crossing middle, green ; cephalic process 
suddenly obliquely ascending from a little before eyes, measured 
from angle of apex to eyes about as long as abdomen. 




84. — Saiva gcmmata. 



Length ceph. process, angle from apex to eyes 9| to 11 ; eyes 
to apex abdom. 12 to 19 ; exp. tegm. 46 to 53 millim. 

Hah. Sikhim {Ind. Mus.). Assam ; Ntiga Hills (BoJierfy). 
Khasi Hills (Ind. Mus.). Darjiling (Coll. Dist.). 

hh. Apex of cephalic process moderatehj incrassate. 
1701. Saiva no data, sp. n. 

Head (including cephalic process) pale olivaceous-green, finely 
and sparingly spotted with white, its apex ochraceous, eyes black ; 
thorax above pale olivaceous-greeii ; pronotum with two central 
discal spots and a spot on each lateral area, and mesonotum with 
a spot on each lateral area, black ; abdomen above piceous or black, 
posterior segmental margins green inclining to ochraceous ; head 
beneath, sternum, and leg's olivaceous; abdomen beneath reddish- 
ochraceous ; anterior and intermediate legs with a subapical an- 
nulation to the femora, three aunulatious to tibiae, and the tarsi 
black ; tegmina pale virescent, somewhat thickly covered with 
ochraceous spots margined with black, those on costal membrane 
truncate, incomplete ; wings bluish-green, apical area and posterior 
margin black, the green discal area somewhat largely and cou- 
flueutly spotted with black ; cephalic process with its apex 
moderately nodulose, measured from angle of apex to eyes about 
as long as abdomen. 

Length cepb. process, angle from apex to eyes 10 ; eyes to apex 
abdom. 16 ; exp. tegm. 50 millim. 

Hab. Bombay Province ; N, Kanara, Anmoda (E. Y. Watson, 
Brit. IIiis.). 

AUied in general appearance to S. gemmata, "Westw., differing 
pi'imarily by the nodulose apex to the cephalic process, and also 
by the much paler tegmina, &c. 

VOL. III. O 



194 EULGOKID^. 

aa. Cephalic process almost perpendicularly extended. 

1702. Saiva iDuUata, Dlst. (Fulgora) Tr. E. S. 1891, p. 519, t. xx, 

f. I, a. 

Head with the base pale greenish-ochraceous, the cephalic 
process black ; thorax above pale greenish-ochraceous ; proaotuiii 
with three black spots, the central one largest and somewhat 
duplex; niesonotiim with two central spots on anterior margin, 
two spots on each lateral margin, and a spot near posterior angle 
black ; abdomen above shining black ; face, rostrum, sternum, and 
COX!© ochraceous ; legs red, bases and apices of anterior and inter- 
mediate tibiae, apices of posterior tibiae, and the tarsi black ; 
abdomen beneath black, the apex and posterior segmental margins 
ochraceous ; tegmina greenish-ochraceous, an irregular transverse 
fascia beyond centre and the apical area piceous, the first con- 
taining six, the latter some eight ochraceous spots, the basal area 
somewhat thickly covered with small black spots and with scattered 
larger pale and black margined spots ; wings bluish-green, with 
the apex broadly black, the postttrior margin narrowly of the same 
colour and with discal black streaks and patches ; cephalic process 
recurved and almost perpendicularly extended, measured from 
angle of apex to eyes about as long as abdomen. 

Length ceph. process, angle from apex to eyes 6 ; eyes to apex 
abdom. 12; exp. tegm. 44 millim. 

Ilab. Burma ; Kuby Mines ( Doherty). 

aa. Cephalic process from angle of apex to eyes about as long as 
pronotum and viesonotum together. 

1703. Saiva guttlllata, Westw. (Fulgora (Pyrops)) A. 31. N. If. ix, 

p. 119 (1842); id. (Fulgora (Hotina)) Cah. Orient. Ent. p. 8, 
t. ill, f. 3 (1848) ; Atkins. (Fulgora) J. A. S. Bemj. liv, p. 136 
(1885). 

Head (including cephalic process), thorax above, body beneath 
and legs ochraceous ; apex and central area of cephalic process 
above, central fascia to vertex, and a lateral elongate spot in front 
of each eye, black ; pronotum with a series of four transverse spots 
(^the two central ones largest and elongate), mesonotum with two 
anterior central discal spots and three spots on lateral margin (the 
one near base smallest), basal annulation and apical areas of tibiae, 
and the tarsi to anterior and intermediate legs black ; abdomen 
above ochraceous, the posterior segmental jnargins broadly green, 
with scattered piceous spots ; tegmina rosaceous, the costal mem- 
brane, base of claval area, and the apical area more ochraceous ; 
costal membrane with four imperfectly closed ochraceous spots 
margined with black, apical area with the inner areas of cells 
piceous and with a few pale spots, the remaining area with 
scattered rosaceous spots with black margins ; wings pale bluish- 
green, the apical area, posterior margin, and veins with some 



SAIVA. 195 

scattered spots ou same pieeous or black ; cephalic process short, 
strongly recurved, measured from angle of apex to eyes about as 
long as pronotum and mesonotum together. 

Length ceph. process, angle rrom apex to eyes 3; eyes to apex 
abdoni. 14 ; exp. tegm. 50 millim. 

Hah. " Northern India " (^(^e Westiuood). 

I have an unlocalized specimen in my own collection. 

B. Wintjs more or less sanguineous, apical and sometimes 2^osterior 
margins fuscous or hlaclc. 

b. CepJialic process from angle of apex to eges about as long as 
abdomen. 

1704. Saiva cardinalis, Bnfl. (Fulgora) A. M. N. H. (4) xiv, p. 131 
(1874) ; Atkins. J. A. S. Bemj. liv, p. 138 (1885). 

Head (including cephalic process) green or brownish-ochraceous, 
4ibove somewhat greyishly tomentose, sparingly, minutely, and 
irregularly spotted with fuscous above and on the lateral margins, 
its apex a little infuscated ; pronotum, mesonotum, body beneath, 
and legs green or brownish-ochraceous ; abdomen above pale 
testaceous ; head with three basal spots between the eyes, pro- 
notum with two central spots and one on each lateral area, meso- 
notum with six spots on anterior margin, and one or two ou each 
lateral area black; tegmina pale olivaceous-green, with scattered 
ochraceous spots with black margins, those on costal area imper- 
fectly closed, the apical margin a little fuscous with the spots 
therein rather smaller ; wings purplish-red, the apical margin 
fuscous ; cephalic process measured from angle of apex to eyes 
about as long as abdomen. 

Length ceph. process, angle from apex to eyes 9 ; eyes to apex 
abdom. 15; exp. tegm. 57 millim. 

Hah. Nepal (5H<. ilftts.). Sikhim (JacZ. i/i«*.). Darjiling (Co^?. 
Blst.). 

ub. Cephalic process from angle of apex to eyes about as long as 
abdomen and mesonotum together. 

1705. Saiva COCCinea, fVa/k. (Hotinus) List Ham. Suppl. p. 42 (1858); 
Kirk. (Pyrops) J. Bomb. N. H. Soc. xiv, p. 47, t. A, f. 2 
(1902) ; Melic/i. (part.) IIojii. Faun. Ceylon, p. 12 (1903). 
Hotinus guttifer, Stal, Of v. Vet.-Ak. Fork. 1858, p. 448. 

Head (including cephalic process), pronotum, mesonotum, sternum, 
and legs pale olivaceous-green ; cephalic process with the ridges 
(excluding basal area) black, its apex a little paler ; a lateral spot 
in front of each eye, pronotum with two central spots and a spot 
on each lateral area, mesonotum with six spots on anterior margin 
and one or two spots on each lateral area black ; abdomen above 
sanguineous, lateral margins spotted with white and black, the 

o2 



196 pulgoeidjE. 

base also more or less black ; abdomen beneath red, with the 
segmental margins black; tegmina testaceous, finely greyishly 
tomentose, minutely spotted with piceous, and with scattered 
larger pale red spots which are narrowly margined with black and 
mostly possess a small greyish pupil, costal membrane narrowly 
pale olivaceous-green; wings sanguineous, the apical area and 
posterior margin dark fuscous ; the cephalic process is somewhat 
slender, moderately recurved, and measured from angle of apex to 
eyes almost as long as abdomen and mesonotum together. 

Length ceph. process, angle from a])ex to eyes 11 ; eyes to 
apex abdom. 15 ; exp. tegm. 40 to 43 millim. 

Hah. Ceylon; Kandy ((xiw>i). 

C. Wincjs oehraccous, apical areas and posterior margins 
fuscous or piceotis. 

1706. Saiva insularis, Kirbj/ (Hotinus), J. Linn. Sac, Zool xxiv, p. 132, 

t. vi, f. 4 (1891) : Melich. (Pvrops) Hoi7u Fatin. Ceylon,^. 13 
(1903). 

Head (including cephalic process) fuscous-brown, very sparingly 
palely spotted on lateral areas, somewhat thickly palely spotted 
beneath ; thorax above ochraceous, somewhat thickly fuscously 
puuctate ; pronotum with an oblique impunctate fascia on each 
side and an obscure central discal spot, mesonotum with an obscure 
central longitudinal medial ridge, two rounded spots on anterior 
margin, and some irregular spots on lateral max'gins pale ochra- 
ceous ; abdomen above black, the base a little ochraceous ; body 
beneath and legs ochraceous punctured with fuscous ; tegmina 
reddish-ochraceous, ornamented with small paler spots, which are 
almost abseut on subapical area ; wings ochraceous, apical area 
and posterior margin fuscous, the last becoming piceous towards 
aual angle ; cephalic process mutilated in type. 

Length ceph. process mutilated in type ; eyes to apex abdom. 
15; exp. tegui. 44 millim. 

Hah, Ceylon; J) amhooX {Green). 

D. Wings ivhitisJi, margins concolorous. 

1707. Saiva virescens, Westw. (Fulgora (Pyrops)) A. M. N. H. ix, 

p. 119 (1842) ; id. (Fulgora (Hotina)) Cab. Orient. Ent. p. 8, 
t. iii, f. 5 (1848) ; Atkins. J. A. S. Bencj. liv, p. 138 (1885). 
Hotinus semiannulus, Walk. Cat. Horn. Siippl. p. 42 (18o8). 

Head (including cephalic process) pale ochraceous, minutely 
spotted with white, apex a little piceous ; pronotum, mesonotum, 
body beneath, and legs pale ochraceous ; abdomen above very pale 
virescent ; two spots on mesonotum and the anterior and inter- 
mediate tarsi black ; tegmina dull pale ochraceous, somewhat 
sparingly ornamented with bright ochraceous spots with black 
margins, on margins these spots are mostly imperfectly closed ; 
wings \\hitish with a ^ ery pale virescent tint ; cephalic process 



ALCATHOUS. 



197 



measured from angle of apex to eyes about as long as body 
excluding head. 

Length ceph. process : angle from apex to eyes 14; eyes to 
apex abdom. 14 ; exp. tegm. 45 millim. 

Hab. 8vlbet {Ind. Mns.). North-western Province ; Grarwhal 
{Coll.Dist.). 

In my own and all other specimens examined the ground-colour 
is pale ochraceous, as above described ; in Westvvood's figure it is 
pale virescent, as is probably the case in all fresh specimens. I 
have thought it better to describe only what I have seen, and to 
add this note. 



Genus ALCATHOUS. 

Alcathous, Stal, Tr. E. S. (S) i, p. .577 (1863) ; Atkins. J. A. 
Beng. liv, p. 139 (1885). 



6'. 



Type, A. fecialis, Stal. 

Distribution. British India. 

Head much uarro\^'er than the thorax, protuberant, face some- 
what roundly ampliated near the apex, thence distinctly narrowed 
upwards, tricarinate ; clypeus medially cariuate ; rostrum almost 
reaching abdominal apex ; antennae short, second joint very briefly 
subcylindrical, obliquely tru.ncate at apex ; pronotum medially 
unicarinate, somewhat anteriorly medially produced, the produced 
portion truncate, posterior margin straight ; mesonotuin tricari- 
nate, twice as long as pronotum ; tegmina somewhat ampliated 
. towards apex, which is obtusely, obliquely rounded, longitudinal 
veins rarely furcate, interior simple, only third or apical area 
furnished with remote transverse small veins, irregularly anasto- 
mosed ; wings with more than basal halves without transverse 
veins or A'einlets ; legs moderate in length, anterior femora beneath 
slightly dilated, posterior tibice with five or six spines. 



1708. Alcathous fecialis, Stdl, Tr. E. S. (3) i, p. 577 (1863) ; Atkins. 
J. A. S. Beng. liv, p. 139 (1885). 

Head, pronotum, mesonotum, and sternum browuish-ochraceous, 

thickly, darkly punctate ; 
abdomen above bright red- 
dish -ochraceous, with six 
large black discal spots ar- 
ranged in pairs ; abdomen 
beneath pale luteous, very 
thickly, coarsely, piceously 
punctate ; legs ochraceous, 
annulated with piceous ; teg- 
mina pale ochraceous, the ve- 
nation purplish-red, on basal 
area longitudinal and a little 
spotted with fuscous, on apical third reticulate and unspotted, 
the whole tegmina more or less spotted or inottled with fuscous. 




Fig. 85. — Alcathous fecialis. 



198 FVLGOniDJE. 

the costal area spotted with dark fuscous ; wings orange-yellow^ 
apical area, posterior margin, and a few discal spots near anal area 
fuscous, the apical dark area inwardly margined with pale greyish; 
cephalic process a little recurved, measured from angle of apex to 
eyes about as long as pro- and mesonota. 

Length coph. process, angle from apex to eyes 3 ; eyes to apex 
abdom. 12 ; exp. tegin. 33 millim. 

Bab. South India ( Walhouse, Brit. Mus.). 

Stal, who described the unique type in the British Museum, 
erroneously gave the habitat of this species as " India orient, bor,'^ 



Division APHANARIA. 

This, with the previous division, includes all the genera of the 
subfamily Fulgorinoi found in British India, at least so far as my 
knowledge extends. One genus, Homalocepluda, should probably be 
placed in a new division ; but as it is inadvisable- — at least in these 
volumes — to found a division on a single genus, I have included it 
in the Aphanaria, which is to be distinguished from the Falgoraria 
by the absence of the long recurved cephalic process. In some 
ot' the Aphanaria, as in Eupliria and Kalidasa, there is a slender, 
acute, cephalic protuberance, but this in no respect equals the 
character on which the Falgoraria is divisionally separated. 
Divisions, as used here, are only groups of genera possessing 
a more or less common facies, and are proposed as aids to iden- 
tification, M'ith no pretence to be regarded as constituting 
morphological sections. 

/Spioj^sis of Genera. 

A. Head triangularly produced in front of [p. 199. 

eyes " Homalocephala, 

B. Head not, or not prominently, produced iu 

front of eyes. 
. Face longer than broad. 
a. Anterior femora not ampliated at apices. 
d'. Face strongly ampliated at base and 
considerably broader than clypeus, 
its lateral margins obliquely nar- 
rowed forwardly from eyes LiMOis, p. 200. 

a'-. Face slightly narrowed upward, or with 
the lateral margins parallel, its disk 
with two anteriorly divergent carina- 
tions, and with a central, sometimes 

obsolete longitudinal snlcation ArHANA, p. 201. 

a'\ Face with two parallel discal carina- 
tions, sometimes obliterated behind 

middle Lycorma, p. 205. 

. Anterior femora distinctly ampliate above 
at apices. 
I}'. Posterior tibiae vuiarmed above at base. 
uK Face with two or three parallel 

carinations Eupuria, p. 207. 



HOMALOCEPH^LA. 199 

Jr. Posterior tibise with a tubercle on their 
upper surface at base. 
a'. Face with two obtuse parallel ridges 

which are oi'teu obliterated Kalidasa, p. 212. 

b. Face as long as broad. 

0. Tegmina remotely reticulate Gebenna, p. 214. 

c . Entire tegmina more or less densely 

reticulate Polydictya, p. 21->. 

Geuus HOMALOCEPHALA. 

Omalocephala, Spin. Ann. Soc. JEnt. Fr. 1839, p. 259. 
Homalocephala, Amy. 8f Serv. Hem. p. 492 (1843) ; Stdl, Hem. Afr. 
iv, pp. 133 & 145 (1866) ; Atkins. J. A. S.Beng. liv, p. 141 (1885). 

Type, H. fesiiva, Fabr. 

Distribution. British India. 

Head broad, narrower thau the pronotum, triangularly or 
roundly produced in front of eyes, angularly prominent behind 
the eyes, vertex at least four times wider than the eyes and 
moderately flat, face Hat, broader than the clypeus, its lateral 
margins parallel, clypeus without a niedial ridge ; rostrum reaching 
the posterior coxje ; pronotum truncate anteriorly with a medial 
longitudinal ridge ; mesonotum about twice as long as the 
pronotum ; tegmina with the anterior and posterior margins 
subparallel, the apical mai'gin obscurely obliquely rounded, densely 
reticulate except in costal ai"ea, where the reticulations are obsolete, 
claval vein united with the commissure at the apex of the clavus ; 
wings entire, the veins moderately reticulate on apical area: 
aiiterior and intermediate tibia; as long as the femora. 

1709. Homalocephala festiva, Fabr. (Fulgora) Spec Ins. ii, p. 315 
(1781) ; id. Mant. Ins. ii, p. 261 (1787) ; Bon. Ins. Ind.,Hem. 
t. vii, f. 2 (1800) ; Spin. (Omalocephala) Ayin. Soc. E7it. Fr. 
1839, p. 261 ; Amy. 8f Serv. (Homalocephala) Hem. p. 493 
(1843) ; ArMns. J. A. S. Beng. liv, p. 141 (1885). 

Head, pronotum, mesonotum, body beneath, and legs brownish- 
ochraceous, lateral and apical margins of head black ; abdomen 

above sanguineous ; head be- 
*^"'^ neath, lateral areas of sternum, 



'^S^^^^^^^^i^S^'' ^^^^ posterior acetabulse pale 

^^^^^^^^^^^^^ " ^ ochraceous ; tegmina brownish- 

W^^^^3;l^^^^^ _\^^ /CrX ochraceous, minutely spotted 

^^ f "t ^^'ith black in the reticulate 

Fig. 86.-Ho,mloccjyhala fesfiva. areas, with some scattered pale 

spots, the costal area pale 
greenish-flavescent with five black spots posteriorly margined 
with orange-yellow ; wings sanguineous, apical area pale fuscous 
with the veins darker, the posterior margin greyish ; head longer 
than pronotum, above with a moderate medial longitudinal ridge 
which is continued through the pro- and mesonota. 
Length excl. tegm, 12 ; exp. tegm. 33 millim. 
Hab. Madras (Coll. Dist.). 



200 



rULGOBID^. 



Genus LIMOIS. 

Limois, Stal, Stett. ent. Zeit. xxiv, p. 230 (1863) ; id. Hem. Afr. iv, 
p. 134 (1866) : Athins. J. A. S. Beng. liv, p. 141 (1885). 

Type, L. ivestwoodi, Hope. 

Distribution. Britisli India. 

Head much narrower than tlie pronotum, slightly upwardly 
protuberant ; face with the margins carinate and with two central 
longitudinal ridges or cariuations, narrowed anteriorly, a little 
dilated at posterior angles, elypeus medially carinate, vertex 
ti-ansverse ; pronotum twice as broad as head and slightly longer, 
posteriorly broadly truncate, its lateral angles moderately sub- 
acutely produced, and with a subobsolete medial carination ; meso- 
notum longer than pronotum, with three discal carinations, the 
middle one straight, the others curved ; tegmina elongate, a little 
ampliated towards apices, which are obtusely obliquely rounded, 
the venation beyond base more or less reticulate ; wings much 
shorter than tegmina, sinuate on posterior margins, venation on 
apical areas reticulate ; posterior tibiae with five spines. 



1710. Limois westwoodi, Hope (Lysti-a), Tr. Linn. Soc. xix, p. 133, 
t. xii, f. 3 (1845) ; Stal (Limois), Sfett. ent. Zeit. xxiv, p. 231 
(1863) ; Atkifis. J. A. S. Beny. liv, p. 142 (1885). 

Head, pronotum. and mesonotum olivaceous; apex of pro- 
tuberance to head, two central broken fasciae to pronotum, disk 

of mesonotum (excluding 
ridges), on each side of which 
are three spots on anterior 
margin, and an angulated 
spot on each lateral area, 
black ; abdomen black, the 
segmental margins narrowly 
olivaceous ; body beneath 
and legs piceous or black, 
legs and I'ostrum annulated 
with dull ochraceous ; tegmina with about basal half and costal 
area pale olivaceous, opaque, remaining area hyaline wdth the 
venation fuscous, the whole area with small piceous spots, which 
are largest on the olivaceous area and on the posterior margin a 
little beyond it ; wings with rather more than basal halves 
sanguineous, outwardly concavely margined with fuscous, apical 
area hyaline with the venation fuscous ; the a[)ical and pos- 
terior margins fuscous, and with two or three black spots on the 
sanguineous area. 

Length excl. tegm. 12^ to 13 ; exp. tegm. 47 to 48 millim. 
Hah. Sylhet. 




Limois wcstiuoodi. 



APHANA. 201 



Genus APHANA. 

Aphpeua, Gmr. Voi/. Belaiu/. Ind. Orient, p. 4ol (1834) ; Spin. Ann. 

Soc. E.it. Fr. 1839, p. 210. 
Aphaua, Burm. Handb. Ent. ii, 1, p. 16G (183-5) ; Amy. S) Serv. 

Hem. p. 490 (1843) ; Stal, Steit. ent. Zeit. xxiv, p. 231 (1863) ; 

id. Hem. Afr. iv, p. 134 (18G6j ; AtJdm. J. A. S. Benq. liv, p. 142 

(1885). 
Penthicus, Blanch. Hist. Nat. Ins. iii, p. 171 (1840). 

Type, A. farinosa, Fabi-.* 

Distribution. Oriental and Malayan Regions. 

The name of this genus has caused much discussion. Burmeister 
altered G-uerin's name Aj^hasna to Ajihaaa, a correction \\ hieh has 
usually been and is here considered justified. Blanchard regarded 
both these names as preoccupied by Aphanus, Laporte, and 
proposed that of Penthicas to take its place. This we consider 
unnecessary. 

Head not protuberant, mucli narrower than pronotum, face 
slightly narrowed upward or with the lateral inargins parallel and 
more or less distinctly broadly bisiuuate, disk with two anteriorly 
diverging carinations and with a more obsolete central carination, 
clypeuswith a central, sometimes subobsolete, longitudinal sulcatiou, 
vertex excavate with carinate margins and a central carination, 
the front broadly upwardly ridged anteriorly and laterally ; pro- 
notum broader than head, centrally, longitudinally, prominently 
ridged, its posterior margin trancately sinuate, its posterior angles 
subangidarly arapliate; mesonotum a little longer than pronotum, 
centrally, longitudinally moderately carinate ; tegmina moderately 
broad, the venation on apical areas reticulate ; wings broad, pos- 
teriorly sinuate, the venation of apical areas moderately furcate 
and sinuate ; anterior femora not ampliate afc apex, posterior tibiae 
usually with five spines. 



A. Wim/s luith a green or bluish-green basal ai'ea. 

1711. Aphana farinosa, Weber (Cicada), Obs. Ent. p. 114 (1801); 

Fabr. (Lystra) Si/st. Rhjng. p. 57 (1803) ; Spin. ( Aphasna) Aim. 

Soc. Ent. Fr. 1839, p. 244; Stal (Aphana), Stett. e7it. Zeit. 

xxiv, p. 232 (1863) ; Atkins. J. A. S. Beng. liv, p. 142 (1885). 

Aphaua scutellavis. White, A. M. N. H. xvii, p. 330 (1846) ; 

Westw. Cab. Or. Ent. p. 73, t. xxxvi, f. 3 (1848J. 
Var. saundersii, White, MS. (Aphgena) Walk. List Horn, ii, 
p. 277 (1851), excl. syn. 

Head and pronotum dark olivaceous-green, vertex of head with 



* In selecting the type of this genus we follow Stal, who rightly divided a 
number of structurally diverse insects included in Ajikana, and founded for 
their reception several other genera. 



202 ruLGoniD.^. 

two white tomentose spots ; mesonotum almost entirely tomen- 
tosely white ; abdomen above dark olivaceous-green, much suft'iised 
(especially at base) with white ; head beneath and prosternum dark 
olivaceous ; sternum and legs piceous : abdomen beneath black ; 
tegmina with more than basal half dark olivaceous-green, excluding 
costal area tomentosely white with one or more darker spots, 
its outer margin darker and piceous, apiral area pale brownish- 
ochraceous more or less suffused with white ; wings pale brownish- 
ochraceous ; basal disk dark olivaceous-green outwardly margined 
with piceous and with scattered small white spots, generally, 
but not always, becoming posteriorly testaceous : anal area 
greyish. 

Length excl, tegm. 19 to 20 ; exp. tegm. 52 to 58 millim. 

Hah. Tenasserim ; Tavoy {Boherty, Coll. Dist.). — Malay 
Peninsula. Borneo. Java. Sumatra. 

Atkinson (supra) records the exp. tegm. in this species as 
attaining to 66 millim., but I have not seen such large specimens. 

The above description is of a fresh and unrubbed specimen ; 
the var. saundenii is not found, so far as my experience extends, 
iu British India, and is to be recognized by the wholly testaceous 
and not green basal disk of wings. 

1712, Aphana nicobarica, Stdl, Berl. ent. Zeit. xiii, p. 241 (1869); 
Atlwis. J. A. S. Beng. liv, p. 147 (1885). 

" Sordidly olivaceous-green ; mesonotum, pectus, abdomen, and 
legs piceous ; tegmina before middle aeruginous, sprinkled with 
black, behind middle ochraceous, marked with a mouldy band and 
spots, apical limbus black ; wings black, a very large basal spot 
cnerulean-virescent," 

Length excl. tegm. $ 19 ; exp. tegm. 55 millim. 

Hah. Nicobar Islands. 

" Size of A. farinosa, from which it differs in the head produced 
anteriorly, seen from above equal in length and breadth between 
the eyes, roundly-angulated ; front longer, furnislied with a 
recurved process. Pace rugulose, tumescent at the base and 
with a short median process, compressed, recurved, obsoletely 
tricariuate, the ridges diverging upwards, the median i-idge dis- 
appearing below the middle ; vertex narrowed forwards, obsoletely 
carinate in the middle, lateral margins dilated, elevated ; thorax 
furnished with a raised, acute ridge running through it, strongly 
bi-impressed on the disk, mesonotum tricarinate. The aeruginous 
half of the tegmina covered with minute and often confluent black 
dots, closer at the apex ; apical half ochraceous with the apical 
limbus black, the spots and an anterior band clothed with a white 
powdery substance ; wings black, with a large basal patch extending 
a little beyond the middle cperulean-virescent ; apical margins of 
the dorsal segments of the abdomen green/' 

I have not seen this species. 



APHANA.. 



203 



B. Wi)ir/s without a green or bluish-green basal area ; usually more 
or less sanguineous at base and anal area. 

1713. Aphana atomaria, Wcher (Cicada), Obs. Ent. p. 113 (1801); 
Fabr. (Lyytra) Si/d. lihyng. p. 57 (1803); Sjnn. (Aphsena) 
Aym. ^'oc. Ent. Fr. 1839, p. 248; Stal (Aphana), Stett. ent. 
Zeit. xxiv, p. 232 (1863) ; id. Hem. Fabr. ii, p. 87 (1869) ; 
Atkins. J. A. S. Bemj. liv, p. 143 (1885). 
Aphrena nigni-punctata, Guer. Voy. '■Coquille,' Zool. ii, 2, p. 185 
(1830) ; Amy. S; Sen: Hem. p. 497 (1843). 

Head and pronotuia browiiish-ochraceous, mesonotum more or 
less piceous ; abdomen above saiiguiDeous, its base piceous and 
suifused with greyish-white ; body beneath and legs piceous ; 
tegmina tawny, the basal area purplish, or uniformly tawny as in 




Fig. 88. — Aphana atomaria. 



specimens from British India, witli two prominent black spots on 
costal area, one discal before the apical reticulated area, one on 
claval area, and another more elongate spot at base, a few minute 
pale subobsolete spots on apical area ; wings purplish-red, or pale 
ochraceous with purplish base as in most specimens found in our 
fauna, \^ith a cluster of black spots on basal area, and with a few 
white ones before apical area, which is black with bluish dots, 
posterior area fuscous. 

Length excl. tegm, 15 to 19 ; exp. tegm. 46 to 55 millim. 

Hab. Assam; Noa Dihing (Chennell). Panjab ; Marri (Ind. 
jilus.). — Malay Peninsula. Sumatra. Java. China (Coll. Dist.). 



1714. Aphana pulchella, Guvr. (Aphsena) Voy. '■Coquille,' Zool. ii, 
2, p. 186 (1830); Spin. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1839, p. 249; 
StM (Aphana), Stett. ent. Zeit. xxiv, p. 232 (1863) ; Atkins. 
J. A. S. Benq. liv, p. 144 (^1885). 

Aphana confucius. White, A. M. N. H. xviii, p. 24 (1846). 

Aphana io, Walk. List Horn, ii, p. 279 (1851). 

Aphana nigro-irrorata, Stdl, Ofv. Vet.-Ak. Forh. 1854, p. 244. 

Head, pronotum, mesonotum, and sternum brownish-ochraceous; 
abdomen above sanguineous, beneath with legs piceous, the latter 
annulated with ochraceous ; tegmina pale brownish-ochraceous, 



204 FULGOBID.S. 

basal two-thirds a little purplish, costal margin spotted with 
black and with a few discal black spots, tliose on apical area very 
minute and indistinct, a greyish spot outwardly broadly margined 
with brown near apex of posterior margin ; wings purplish-red, 
spotted with black on basal area and with white on anterior area, 
apex broadly black with bluish dots, posterior margin pale 
fuscous. 

Var. Tegmina paler and more minutely spotted w ith black, the 
apical area with some fuscous suffusions ; wings ochraceous, with 
the base and anal area purplish-red, spotted and marked as in 
typical form. 

Length excl. tegra. 14 to 15 ; exp. tegm. 37 to 42 millim. 

Bab. Sikhim {Ind. Mus.). Assam ; JN'oa Dihing and Khtisi 
Hills (CJiennell). Andaman Islds, {Ind. Mus.). — Java (Coll. Dist). 
China. 

1715. Aphana variegata, Gner. (Aphfena) Toy. Belmui.Ind. Orient., 
Zool. p. 455 (1834) ; id. Icon. lict/ne Anim. t. Iviii, f. 3 (1830- 
34) ; Amy. ^' Serv. (Apbana) Hem. p. 497, t. ix, f. 1 (1843) ; Stdl, 
Stett. ent. Zeit. xxiv, p. '2S2 (1863) ; Atkins. J. A. .S'. Beny. liv, 
p. 145 (1885). 

Penthicus variegatus, Blanch. Hist. Nat. Ins. iii, p. 171, Hem. 
t. xii, f. 4 (1840-41). 

Aplifena basirufa, Walk. List Horn, ii, p. 278 (1851). 

Head, pronotum, mesonotum, and sternum brovvnish-ochraceous 
abdomen above sanguineous, transversely whitishly-tomentose at 
base ; abdomen beneath and legs piceous, legs more or less 
annulated with ochraceous, anal abdominal segment beneath 
sometimes brownish-ochraceous ; posterior acetabulae greyish ; 
tegmina very pale olivaceous, spotted with black, the spots 
becomiug larger towards the apical area, on apical area a few very 
small greenish spots, and the costal area somewhat ochraceous and 
spotted with black; at about commencement of apical area there 
is a greyish spot on both anterior and posterior margins ; wings 
orange-yellow, purpHsh-red on basal area, black at apex, and 
fuscous on posterior margin, some black spots on basal third, 
a few discal minute white spots near middle, and some bluish dots 
on the black apical area. 

Length excl. tegm. 18 to 21 ; exp. tegm. 50 to 62 miUim. 

Hah. ^yXhei {Brit. Mus.). ^\U\\m {Ind. Mus.). Darjihng ( CoZZ. 
Dist.). Burma ; Momeit {Doherty). — Cochin-China. Wumati-a. 
Philippines. 

1710. Aphana caja, Walk. (Aphfena) List Horn, ii, p. 278 (1851) ; 
StM (Aphaiia), Stett. ent. Zeit. xxiv, p. 235 (1863) ; Atkins. 
J. A. S. Bejuj. Hv, p. 146 (1885). 

Head, pronotum, mesonotum, and sternum brownish-ochraceous; 
abdomen above sauguineous, with discal transverse black spots 
and transversely tomcntosely-white at base ; abdomen beneath 
dull red spotted with black; legs olivaceous-brown, more or less 



LYCORMA. 205 

aanulated with pale olivaceous ; posterior acetabulre greyisli ; 
tegmina with about basal two-thirds reddish -ochraceous, irregularis 
spotted with fuscous, about five discal spots being much the 
largest, about apical third fuscous, with pale waved greenish 
suffusious, the principal spots being one on anterior aud one 
on posterior margin ; wiugs ochraceous, sanguineous at base and on 
anal area, the apex black, posterior margin fuscous, some black 
spots on basal half, a few minute white discal spots near middle, 
and some bluish dots on the black apical area. 

Length excl. tegm. 18 to 21 ; exp. tegm. 59 to 62 millim. 

Hah. North-western Province; Garwhal {Coll. Dist.). Sylhet 
{Brit. Mus.). Assam ; Margherita {Doherty). 

1717. Aphana dimidiata, Hope (Lvstia), Tr. Linn. Soc. xix, p. 13-3, 
t. xii, f. 4 (1845) ; Stdl (Aphana), Stett. ent. Zeit. xxiv, p. 232 
(1863) ; AtJdns. J. A. S. Beng. liv, p. 146 (1885). 

I only know this species by the description and figure given hy 
Hope, the first of which is reproduced : — 

"Fuscous: head, thorax, and feet concolorous; basal half of 
tegmina virescent, sprinkled witli numerous minute dull black 
spots, apices sub-orange-hyaliue marked with cretaceous spots ; 
basal half of wings greenish with the posterior part w^hitish, 
spotted black, apices fuscous, irroi'ated wdth virescent spots." 

Length excl. tegm. 14^ ; exp. tegm. 46 millim. 

Hah. Sylhet. 

Genus LYCORMA. 

Lycorma, Stal, Stett. ent. Zeit. xxiv, p. 232 (1863) ; Atlim<^. J. A. S. 
Beny. liv, p. 148 (1885). 

Type, L. impenalis. White. 

Distribution. Oi'ieutal Region and China. 

Head somewhat protuberant, the protuberance very short and 
reflexed ; face furnished distinctly upward, and at the base more 
narrowly, with two parallel obtuse ridges, sometimes obliterated 
beneath the middle ; vertex truncated at base, posterior angles not 
produced ; pronotum finely medially carinate ; anterior femora 
not amplified at apices ; posterior tibiae armed with four or five 
spines ; tegmina and wings generally as in the preceding genus 
A^^Jiana. 

1718. Lycorma imperialis, White (Aphana), A. M. N. H. xvii, p. 330 
(1846) ; Westro. (Aphtena) Cab. Or. Ent. p. 74, t. xxxvi, f. 4 
(1848) ; Stdl (Lvcorma), Stett. ent. Zeit. xxiv, p. 232 (1863) ; 
Atkins. J. A. S. Beng. liv, p. 148 (1885). 
Vnr. placabilis, Walk. (Aphifina) List Horn. Suppl. p. 46 (1858). 

Head and thorax above olivaceous-ochraceous ; abdomen above 
pieeous, the lateral and segmental margms more or less ochra- 
ceous; head beneath, sternum, legs, and rostrum castaneous-browu; 



206 



rULGOEID^. 



abdomen beneath a little paler than above, the ochraceous lateral 
margins broader and containing large segmental piceous spots ; 
tegmina olivaeeous-green, about apical third with the A'enation 
closely reticulate, the small reticulate areas black, the basal two- 
thirds with rounded spots on costal area and with spots or broken 




Lye or ma i i/ ipcr'ud is . 



transverse fascia) black ; wings with about basal half purplish- 
red spotted with black, with a transverse bright bluish-green 
fascia before apical area, which is piceous. 

In the var. j7Zrtc«6t/«s, Walk,, the tegmina are more or less 
testaceous, not green, and with the transverse fascia to the wings 
somewhat greyish-white, not bluish-green. 

Length excl. tegni. 16^ to 21 ; exp. tegm. 54;i to 61 millim. 

Hal). vSylhet. Sikhim (/mc?. il/its.). Assam ; Sadia, Noa Dihing, 
and Naga Hills (Chemiell). Darjiling (Coll. Dist.). 



1719. Lycorma punicea, Hope (Lystra), Tr. Linn. Soc. xix, p. 133, 
t. xii, f. 5 (1843) ; Stal (Lvcorma), Stett. ent. Zeit. xxiv, p. 232 
(1863) ; Atliins. J. A. S. Bemj. liv, p. 149 (1885). 
Aphgena delectabilis, Walk. List Horn. Siqj^Jl. p. 44 (1858). 

Head and thorax above castaneous-red ; abdomen piceous 
head beneath, sternum, and legs castaneous, anterior legs and 
intermediate tibiae more or less piceous : tegmina testaceous, 
excluding about basal fourth the reticulate and other cellular 
areas are black, giving the tegmina a much darker appearance, the 
basal and costal areas with scattered and somewhat large black 
spots ; wings with about basal half purplish-red spotted with 
black, a transverse greyish fascia before apical area, which is 
piceous. 

Length excl. tegm. 12 to 121 ; exp. tegm. 40 to 42 millim. 

Bah. 8ylhet. Assam ; Dikrang Valley (Ind. Mus.). — China. 

Like a small variety of the preceding species (L. imperialis), but 
differing by its much smaller size and by the black cellular areas 
of the tegmina extending over three-fourths of their area. 



EUPHEIA . 



207 



1720. Lycorma delicatula. WJdte (Aphsena), A. M. N. H. xv, p. 37 

(1845); Sfdl (Lycorma), Steft. ent. Zeit. xxiv, p. 232 (1863); 
Atkins. J. A. S. Be>if/. liv, p. ]oO (1885). 
Var. operosa, Walk. (Aphaena) List Horn. Siippl. p. 46 (1858). 

Head and thorax above brownish-olivaceous ; abdomen above 
piceous, much cretaceously tomentose and with the seg- 
mental margins a little ochraeeous ; body beneath and legs 
piceous, anal appendage sanguineous ; tegmina pale greenish or 
greenish-brown, with somewhat large scattered black spots, of 
which about six are situate on the costal area, about apical thii'd 
with the venation closel_y reticulate and the reticulate areas 
piceous, thus giving it a much darker appearance ; wings with 
naore than basal halt" sanguineous spotted with black, a pale 
bluish-greeu transverse macular fascia before apical area, which is 
black. 

Length excl. tegm. 15 to 15^ ; exp. tegm. 41 to 53 millim. 

Hah. Assam ; Sibsagar ? (Jide Atl-insoii). China. 

I include this species on a doubtful locality of Atkinson, though 
there is every probability that it occurs in the confines of British 
India. It is allied to L. imper'udis, from which it differs by the 
little more elevated cephalic process and the smaller spots to the 
tegmina and wings. The var. oj^erom. Walk., diiiers only in 
the more testaceous hue of the tegmina, and the greyish not 
bluish-green macular transverse fascia to the wings. 

1721. Lycorma iole, Stdl, Stett. ent. Zeit. xxiv, p. 234 (1863) ; Atkins. 

J. A. S. Beny. liv, p. 150 (1885). 

" Blackish ; the lateral posterior blotch on the vertex, thorax, 
lateral margins of mesonotum, and the tegmina more or less 
piu'ely green-olivaceous ; the tegmina with 23-28 largish black 
spots, tlie nearly third a]:)ical area black, green-veined ; wings 
coccineous, with 8-10 black spots, piceous behind the middle, and 
there with a shortened fascia green or bluish-green ; anal valvules 
in female sanguineous." 

Length excl. tegm. 17 ; exp. tegm. 52 millim. 

Hah. " India orientalis " (iStocl-hoIm Mas.). 

Closely allied to L. delicatida, but larger (this remark of Stal's 
is evidently based on an examination of small specimens of 
delicatida), cephalic process less prominent, and spots on tegmina 
and wings larger. 

I have not seen this species, and have reproduced Stal's 
description. 

Genus EUPHRIA. 

Euphria, Stdl, Stett. ent. Zeit. xxiv, p. 232 (1863) ; Atkins. J. A. S. 
Beng. p. 150 (1858). 

Type, E. aurantia, Hope. 

Distrihution. Oriental and Malayan Regions. 

Head with a very slender, acute, cephalic protuberance, reflexed 



208 



FULGOBID^. 



or erect ; face distinctly narrowed upward, abruptly narrower at 
base, with two or three parallel elevated ridges ; vertex broadly 
sinuate at base ; pronotum obscurely or scarceh' medially carinate ; 
anterior femora slightly ampliated above at apices ; posterior tibise 
with four spines, unarmed above at base. 

1722. Eliphria aiirantia, Hope (A-plmnii), Tr. Linn. Soc. xviii, p. 443, 
t. xxxi, f. 2 (1841) ; Stcll (E\\yAm&),Stett. enf. Zeit. xxiv, p. 232 
(1863) ; Atkins. J. A. S. Bemj. liv, p. 151 (1885). 
Aphana aurora, Hope, Tr. Linn. Soc. xix, p. 133, t. xii, f. 2 
(1845) ; Stdl (Eliphria), Stett. ent. Zeit. xxiv, p. 232 (1803) ; 
Atkins. J. A. S. Beng. liv, p. 152 (1885). 

Head, thorax above, sternum, and legs more or less virescent ; 
abdomen orange-yellow, above very thickly clothed with creta- 
ceous pile ; teguiioa pale green with a few obscui'e paler spots, 
and a number of smaller cretaceous spots which are larger and in 
regular series on the costal area ; wings orange-yellow, green at 
basal angle, and with a fev/ scattered cretaceous spots ; tegmina 
with the extreme outer margin and a few small spots on apical 
area of inner margin black, the last are thickly cretaceoiisly 
tomentose in the specimen figured ; beneath both the apical 



"^ 




Fig. i)0. — Eiqj/r/iu auravfia. 

areas of tegmina and w ings are cretaceously tomentose, and the 
obscure pale spots to tegmina above are very distinct beneath. 

In old or rubbed specimens the tegmina are dull dark orange- 
yellow, exhibiting the obscure paler spots, but with all the creta- 
ceous spots obliterated ; the form figured by Hope as aurantia is 
somewhat intermediate in this respect. The specimen figured and 
described above is a fresh specimen. Other specimens have the 
tegmina virescent with some of the longitudinal veins orange- 
yellow ; but this character is purely varietal and often confined 
to only one of the tegmina. 

Length excl. tegm. 19 to 22 ; exp. tegm. 63 to 70 millim. 

Hah. Sikhini {hul . Mus.). Darjiling {Ind. Mus.). Assam ; JST. 
Khasi and Ktiga Hills {Chennell). 



EUPHEIA. 209 



1723. Euphria apicata, sp. u. 

Allied to the preceding species, but with the whole apex of the 
tegmiua pale testaceous, with its inner margin waved and fuscous. 

Body and legs dull dark ochraceous ; tegmiua dull virescent, 
with obscure dull paler spots, which are much moi-e visible 
beneath ; wings pale reddish-orange ; both tegmina and wiugs are 
suffused with pale testaceous beneath, the tegmina on basal area, 
and the Avings more extensively and more maculately so. 

Length excl. tegm., 6 , 21 ; exp. tegra. 70 milhm. 

Hah. Sikhim (Ind. Mus.). 

This description is taken from a single somewhat faded specimen 
in the Indian Museum ; but however the colour may vary in fresh 
specimens, the testaceous apical area of the tegmiua with its 
internal fuscous fascia will render the species easy to distinguish. 
The cephalic protuberance is also considerably more robust than in 
E. auycmtia. 



1724. Euphria SUbmaculata, Westw. (Aphrena) Dime. Nat. Libr. i, 
p. 284, t. xxiv, f. 1 (1840) ; Sfdl (Euphria), Stett. ent. Zeit. 
xxiv, p. 232 (1863) ; Atkins. J. A. S. Bemj. liv. p. 151 
(1885). 
Aphana resima, Stal, Ofv. Vef.-Ak. Forh. 1855, p. 190. 

Head, thorax above, sternum, and legs dull ochraceous ; lateral 
margins of pronotum narrowly black ; abdomen above piceous or 
black, segmental margins ochraceous, the whole more or less 
covered with cretaceous pile ; abdomen beneath dull testaceous, 
abdominal margins piceous ; apices of tibise and the tarsi piceous 
or black, under surfaces of the tibiie more or less virescent ; 
tegmina above dull red, somewhat thickly covered with cretaceous 
fasciate spots, those on costal area more regular and maculate, 
extreme apical margin and some spots on apical area of posterior 
margin black ; tegmina beneath much brighter red, the cretaceous 
spots above only palely visible beneath, but with an additional 
cluster of small cretaceous spots on disk near apex, spots on 
costal area bluish-black ; wings above piceous, anal and posterior 
areas somewhat broadly, and apical margin narrowly, cretaceous, 
the whole surface with somewhat large scattered cretaceous spots ; 
wings beneath as above, but with black spots on basal area, 
and cretaceous spots on apical area, which is also more or less 
suffused with the same colour ; mesonotum either obsoletely or 
very distinctly tricarinate. 

This description is taken from a fresh and bright-coloured 
specimen ; in most others which I have examined, and as in 
Westwood's figure {su])ra), the apical area of the wings is 
brownish-ochraceous. 

Length excl, tegm. 20 to 22 ; exp. tegm. 65 to 76 millim. 

Hah. Sikhim {Ind. Mus.). Darjiling {CoU. Dist.). 

YOL. III. V 



210 FULGOKIBA-. 

725. Euphria consanguinea, sp. n. 

Allied to the preceding species (E. submaculata), but differing in 
the following particulars : — The tegmina above are without the 
cretaceous spots, which are replaced by darker red, narrow, irre- 
gular, transverse fascise ; beneath the bluish-black spots on costal 
area are practically absent ; wings with the black coloration 
confined to about basal fourth ; anterior tibiae and tarsi black. 

Structural specific characters in this and allied genera are 
frequently difficult to discern, and individual judgments as to the 
separation of species must frequently be formed, as in the study 
of Lepidoptera. 

Length excl. tegm. lo| to 20| ; exp. tegm. 52 to 70 millim. 

Hab. Sylhet {Coll Dist.). Assam ; Naga Hills {Dolierty, Coll. 
Dist.). 

1726. Euphria hiirmanica, sp. n. 

Body and legs ochraceous, vertex of head and legs a little 
rosaceous ; apex of rostrum, narrow lateral margins of pronotum, 
anterior tibiae, apices of intermediate and posterior tibiae, and all 
the tarsi black or piceous ; abdomen above more or less covered 
with cretaceous pile ; tegmina above and beneath rosy-red, costal 
margin with linear spots, outer margin (which is irregularly 
maculate) and some small spots on apical area of posterior margin 
black ; subobsolete cretaceous spots on costal and apical areas, 
which are much more distinct beneath ; wings a little more dark 
rosaceous than tegmina, the apex somewhat ochraceous, the anal 
area and somewhat large scattered spots cretaceous-^^■hite above, 
more obscure beneath ; mesonotum somewhat obsoletely tricarinate 
in type, a non-constant specific character in this genus ; cephalic 
process extending backward to about middle of pronotum ; rostrum 
just passing the posterior coxae. 

Length excl. tegm. 21 ; exp. tegm. 72 millim. 

Hah. North India {Brit. Mus.). Burma ; Karen Hills {Dolierty, 
Coll. Dist.). 

1727. Euphria relata, sp. n. 

Head and thorax above ochraceous ; lateral margins of pro- 
notum and margins of mesonotum (excluding posterior angle) 
black ; abdomen above black, thickly covered with cretaceous pile ; 
head beneath, sternum, and legs reddish-ochraceous, anterior and 
intermediate tibiae and tarsi black ; abdomen beneath cretaceously 
pilose ; tegmina above testaceous-red, finely cretaceously pilose, 
the costal, outer, and apical area of posterior marginal areas 
testaceous, the first and last spotted with white, the outer with its 
extreme margin maculately olivaceous-green ; the costal vein and 
a few spots on costal area black ; tegmina beneath purplish-red, 
with a cluster of white spots on apical area : wings above orange- 



EUPIIRIA. 211 

red, with about basal third black, spotted with cretaceous-white, 
especially on black basal area, anal and basal half of posterior area 
greyish ; wings beneath with the basal black area without white 
spots, and the whole apical and posterior marginal areas broadly 
greyish ; rostrum just passing posterior coxae ; mesonotum not 
or very obsoletely carinate. 

Length excl. tegm. 21 ; exp. tegm. 73 millim. 

Hab. Tenasseriin ; Donat Kange {de NicevlUe, Brit. 3I^lS.). 

1728. Euphria dissimilis, sp. n. 

Head sanguineous ; pronotum black, its margins narrowly 
sanguineous ; mesonotum black, a large discal spot and its apical 
angle sanguineous ; abdomen black, the segmental margins san- 
guineous, and more or less thickly covered with cretaceous pile ; 
head beneath, sternum, and legs sanguineous ; anterior femora 
(excluding apex), anterior tibiae (excluding base), apices of inter- 
mediate and posterior tibife, and all the tarsi black; abdomen 
beneath black, the segmental margins ochraceous ; tegmina above- 
thickly and almost uniformly cretaceously tomentose, posterior half 
of costal and the whole of outer marginal areas and some spots 
at apex of posterior margin ochraceous, some black spots on basal 
half of costal marginal area ; tegmina beneath black, with some 
red suffusions, outer area ochraceous, upper apical area cretaceous; 
wings above black, margins, anal area, and scattered spots creta- 
<jeous-white, beneath with the discal spots much more obsolete 
and the cretaceous margins much broader ; cephalic process with 
its apical area piceous; mesonotum not or very obsoletely carinate; 
rostrum with its apical area black, the apex just passing the 
posterior coxae. 

Length excl. tegm. 19 to 2-t ; exp. tegm. 55 to 75 millim. 

Hah. Tenasserim ; Donat Range (de Niceville, Brit. Mus.). 

1729. Euphria amahilis, i/o^je (Aphaua), Tr. Linn. Soc xix, p. 132, 

t. xii, f. 1 (1845) ; Stdl (Euphria), Siett. ent. Zeit. xxiv, p. 232 
(18G-j) ; Atkins. J. A. S. Beng. liv, p. 152 (1885). 
Aphasua lectissima, Walk. List Horn. Suppl. p. 45 (1858) ; Atkins. 
(Euphria) J. A. S. Beng. liv, p. 151 (1885). 

Body and legs brownish-ochraceous ; tegmina dull dark ochra- 
ceous or greeuish-ochraceous, costal area somewhat confluently 
spotted with cretaceous, apical costal, outer, and apical posterior 
marginal areas finely spotted with black, the disk with some some- 
what large and irregular greenish spots, in some specimens obsolete 
except on apical area ; tegmina beneath pale purplish-red, the apical 
area as abo\e with pale spots ; wings with about basal two-thirds 
bright purplish-red, remaining apical area greyish or virescent ; 
central disk of pronotum and anterior disk of mesonotum medially 
finely carinate ; rostrum passing posterior coxae. 

Length excl. tegm. 21 to 23; exp. tegm. 68 to 73 millim. 

p2 



212 



PULGOEIDyE. 



Hah. " Xorth India " {Brit. litis.). Sylhet ; Sikhim {Ind. Mus.). 
Assam ; Niiga Hills {Dolierty). 

Hope's figure {supra) was apparently taken from a A'ery bright 
specimen, with the discal spots on upper surface of tegmiua white, 
and with three transverse spots to pronotum, and one at base of 
vertex, pale ochraceous ; in Walker's type of Jectissima these are 
faintly visible. The species is a variable one, but always to be 
easily recognized by the distinct and beautiful coloration of the 
winsfs. 



Genus KALIDASA. 

Phoronis, Sfdl, Stett. cut. Zeit. xxiv, p. 233 (1863), nom. prfeocc. 
Kalidasa, Kirli. Entomologist, xxxiii, p. 248 (1900), nom. ii. 

Type, K. sanc/uinalis, Westvv. 

Distribution. Oi'iental Region and China. 

Head emitting from the base of the face a long, slendei', mobile, 
reflexed process (in dried specimens easily and frequently muti- 
lated) ; face a little narrower at itvS anterior half, abruptly narrowed 
at base, furnished with t\\"o obtuse parallel ridges, which are often 
obliterated, lateral margins slightly sinuate on posterior half ; 
vertex truncate at base ; pronotum very finely medially carinate ; 
anterior femora distinctly ampliated above near apices ; posterior 
tibite with four spines and with a tubercle on their upper surface 
at base. 



1730. Kalidasa sanguinalis, Westw. (Aphana) A. M. N. H. (2) vii, 
p. 208 (1851); StSl (Phoronis), Stett. ent. Zeit. xxiv, p. 233 
(1863) ; Kirk. (Kalidasa) Entoviohqist, xxxiii, p. 243 (1900) ; 
MelicJt. Horn. Faim. Ceylon, p. 16, it. i, f. 3 (1903). 

Head and thorax above pale testaceous : abdomen above testa- 




Fig. 91. — Kalidasa sanguinalis. 

ceous, thickly cretaceously tomentose ; head beneath and sternum 
pale testaceous ; legs and abdomen beneath pale sanguineous ;. 



XALIDASA. 213 

cephalic process, lateral narrow margins of prouotum, anterior 
tibiae and tarsi black ; tegmiua above reddish-testaceous, covered 
with numerous black spots, which are larger and more regular 
on costal area, outer marginal area broadly ocbraceous, beneath 
as above, but much tomentosely suffused with cretaceous ; wings 
cretaceous-white, the apical area and some obscure, waved, discal, 
broken fasciae pale brownish-ochraceous ; pro- and mesonota 
distinctly finely medially carinate ; rostrum passing posterior coxae ; 
cephalic process extending a little beyond pronotiun. 

Length excl. tegm. 19 ; exp. tegin. GU millim, 

Hab. Ceylon (Green). 

1 731. Kalidasa nigro-maculata, Grai/ (FiUgora ( Apliffina)), Grif. An. 

Kiiiijd., Ins. i\, p. 200, t. xc, f. G ; t. cxxxviii, f. 1, a-c (1832) ; 
Guer. (Aphfena) Voy. Belang. p. 4o7 (1834) ; Westiv. (Aphana) 
Tr. Lmn. Soc. xviii, p. 149 (1841) ; S/ll (Phorouis), Siett. 
ent. Zeit. xxiv, p. 233 (1863); Atkins. J. A. S. Benxj. liv, 
p. 153 (1885). 

Head reddish-brown, cephalic process black; thorax greenish- 
brown ; abdomen above black, segmental margins narrowly yellow 
and more or less cretaceously tomentose ; abdomen beneath yellow ; 
head beneath, sternum, and legs pale castaueous, anterior tibiae and 
tarsi black : teguiina jmrplish-brown, the costal, outer, and apical 
posterior marginal areas olivaceous, the f rst anteriorly margined 
aud the other two reticulated with black ; wings bluish-green, 
• the anal and apical areas and large discal spots black ; pro- and 
mesonota faintly medially carinate ; rostrum extending considerably 
beyond the posterior coxae. 

Length excl. tegm. 21 ; exp. tegm. 55 millim. 

Hah. Andaman Islands {Ind. Miis. 4' ^^^^- Dist.). — Cochin 
China. 



1732. Kalidasa paulinia, Si(;n. (Aph^ena) Ann. Soc. Ent. Ft: 1862, 
p. 123, t. i, f. 6 ; Atkins. (Phoronis) J. A. S. Beny. liv, p. 154 

(1885). 

Head, thorax above, and abdomen beueatli brownish-ochraceous; 
head beneath, sternum, aud legs reddish-ochraceous or pale cas- 
taueous ; narrow lateral margins of pronotum, two small rounded 
spots on posterior area of mesonotum, abdomen above, anterior 
tibiae and tarsi black ; last three segments of abdomen above 
cretaceously tomentose, the segmental margins narrowly ochraceous ; 
tegmiua testaceous-red, the costal, outer, and apical posterior 
marginal areas ochraceous, the first anteriorly margined aud the 
other two reticulated with black ; wings pale fuscous, a little bluish- 
green near base, the anal and apical areas and large discal spots 
piceous ; pro- and mesonota distinctly but finely medially carinate ; 
rostrum considerably passing the posterior coxce. 

Length excl. tegm. 20 ; exp. tegm. 56 millim. 

Hah. Tenasserim {Jide Atkinson). — Cochin China. 



214 rULGOKIDiE. 

Stal preferred to regard A'. pauJima as a colour-variety of the 
preceding species. 1 have followed Signoret and Atkinson in 
treating it as distinct. 

1733. Kalidasa albiflos, JValk. {AiAieena) List Ilom. ii, p. 280 (1851); 
Atkins. (Aphaiia?) J. A. *S'. Be»ff. liv, p. 148 (1885). 

Head above ochraceous; thorax above olivaceous ; lateral margins 
of pronotum narrowly ochraceous and inwardly black ; abdomen 
above black, segmental margins ochraceous, posterior segments 
cretaceously tomentose ; body beueath and legs testaceous-red ; 
anterior and intermediate tibiae and tarsi and sometimes the pos- 
terior tibia) (partly) black ; tegmina piceous, much mottled with 
greyish fasciate-like spots, apical or outer area brownish-testaceous 
and finely reticulate, beneath this area is usually finely greyishly 
tomentose ; wings piceous, the apical, posterior, and anal areas 
greyish-white, in some specimens very pale fuscous-brown, the 
piceous area mottled with bluish-grey irregular spots ; pronotum 
subobsoletely medially carinate, the mesonotum with the cariuation 
practically obsolete ; rostrum very long, reaching the penultimate 
abdominal segment. 

Length excl. tegm. 17 to 20 ; exp. tegm. 47 to 55 millirn. 

Hah. Malabar (Brit. 3his). Bombay {Leith Sf Dixon, Coll Dist.). 

1734. Kalidasa dives, U'a//:. (Aphasna) List Horn, ii, p. 280 (1851) : 
Atkins. rAphaua ?) /. A. aS'. Beriff. liv, p. 147 (1885). 
Euphria (?) walkeri, Atkiiis. J. A. S. Beyuj. liv, p. 152 (1885). 

Greatly resembling the preceding species (K.albiJJos), hut smaller, 
the rostrum longer and reaching the base of the abdominal anal 
appendage ; sternum with piceous suffusion ; tegmina with the 
ground-colour reversed, being pale greenish-testaceous with very 
numerous black spots, many of them fasciate in appearance, apical 
or outer area as in A', alhijfos, and wings scarcely differing from 
those of that species. 

Length excl. tegm. 15 ; exp. tegm. 42 millim. 

Hah. Malabar {Brit. J\h(s.). 



Genus GEBENNA. 

Gebemia, *SY«/. Tr. E. S. (3) i, p. 582 (I860): id. Hem. Afr. iv, 
p. 135 (1806) ; Atkins. J. A. S. Be//;/, liv, p. 154 (1885). 

Type, G. st/h'ia, Stfil. 

Distribution., British India. 

Head moderately broad, a little narrower than the pronotum, 
not protuberant ; vertex transverse, its anterior margin straight, 
posterior margin broadly sinuate ; face subquadrate, moderately 
amplified on both sides at junction with clypeus, median area 
amplified upward, broadly subtruncate at apex, a little gibbous 



POLYDICTYA. 



215 



before apical margin of vertex, not reflexed ; clypeus ecarinate ; 
second joint of antennae transverse, produced upward from inser- 
tion ; pronotnm medially unicarinate, roundly produced at apex 
behind vertex : mesonotum about half longer than pronotnm ; 
tegmina scarcely ampliated hut rounded at apex, costal margin 
straight, longitudinal veins rarely furcate, small transverse veins 
remotely scattered throughout the entire tegmina : wings remotely 
transversely veined beyond the middle ; legs simple ; posterior 
tibiae with four spines, their bases neither spinose nor tuberculate. 




Fig. 92. — Gehenna st/lvia. 



1735. Gehenna sylvia, St&l, Tr. E. S. (3) i, p. 583 (1863); Atkins. 
J. A. S. Benrj. liv, p. 155 (1885). 

Head, thorax above, sternum, and legs ochraceous ; rostrum 
piceous ; pronotnm a little infuscate on each side of central cari- 

nation and with small black 
spots on each lateral area ; 
mesonotum blackly punc- 
tate on disk, some small 
irregular black spots on 
anterior margin, two spots 
on each lateral margin 
before apex, and a central 
line on apex black ; abdo- 
men above black, with 
three longitudinal discal 
fascioe and the segmental margins between them ochraceous ; face 
somewhat thickly blackly punctate ; anterior and intermediate legs 
with the femora spotted and the tibiae aunulated with black ; 
abdomen beneath ochraceous, the lateral margins and transverse 
spots at segmental margins black ; tegmina from base to a little 
beyond middle purplish-red, remotely and irregularly blackly- 
punctate, costal marginal area virescent, apical area subhyaline, veins 
fuscous and with a few subconflnent fuscous spots; wings vitreous, 
palely virescent at base, where they are streaked and apically mar- 
gined with piceous, veins piceous; pronotnm with a medial acute 
central carination, on each side of which is a broad longitudinal 
ridge ; mesonotum acutely medially carinate and with a narrow 
curved I'idge on each side of disk ; rostrum passing the posterior 
coxae ; posterior tibiae with four spines. 

Length excl. tegm. 13 to 17 ; exp. tegm. 39 to 47 millim. 
Hah. " North India '' (Brit. Mus.). Nilgiri Hills {Hampsoyiy 
Coll. Dist.). 

Genus POLYDICTYA. 

Polydictya, Guer. Icon. Reyne Anim., te.rte Ins. p. 358 (1830-4) ; 

Stai, Hem. Afr. iv, p. 135 (1866) ; Atkins. J. S. Bern/, liv, p. 155 

(1885). 
Thaumastodictja, A7/7.-. J. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Sac. 1902, p. 307. 

Type, P. hasalis, Guer. 



216 



FULGOEID.'E. 



Bisti'ihution. Oriental and Ethiopean. Regions. 

Head broad, vertex about four times as broad as the eyes; entire 
tegmiua nioi'e or less densely reticulate ; wings reticulate to near 
base ; anterior tibiae sometimes moderately dilated ; face obtusely 
rounded above, ampliated posteriorly, and distinctly broader than 
tlie clypeus ; tegmina elongate, three or sometimes nearly four 
times longer tlian broad ; spines to posterior tibise variable in 
number. 

Melichar (Homop. Fauu. Ceylon, p. 71, 1903) includes this 
genus in the Eurybrachydiuae, an innovation \\hich I cannot 
follow. 



1736. Polydictya basalis, Gucr. Icon. Hepie A7iim., texte Ins. p. 359 
(1830-4) ; Hoj^e fEiu-vbracliys), Tr. Linn. Soc. xix, p. 13J-, t. xii, 
f. 6 (1845); Sm (Polvdictya), Ofv. Vet.-Ak. Forh. 1862, 
p. 500 ; Athins. J. A. 8. ^Bemj. liv, p. 155 (1885). 

Head, pronotum, sternum, and rostrum brownisli-ochraceous ; 
mesonotum, legs, and abdomen beneath brown or pale castaneous; 
apices of anterior and intermediate tibiae and the tarsi piceous ; 
abdomen above purplish-red ; tegmina above brownish-ochreous, 
the reticulate venation ochraceous,and with a basal, dai'k olivaceous, 
transverse fascia, beneath (excluding apical area) the tegmina have 




Fig. 93. — Polydictya hascdis. 



a pale olivaceous hue ; wings fuscous-brown, basal anal area 
purplish-red, a pale green longitudinal fascia more or less 
margined posteriorly with black at base of costal area ; pro- 
notum with an obsolete discal broad carinatiou ; rostrum reatthiug 
but not passing the posterior coxae ; posterior tibiae with five 
spines. 

Length excl. tegm. 21 ; exp. tegm. 56 to 60 millim. 

Hah. Sylhet {Brit. Mus.). 

Note. Stal (Ofv. Vet.-Ak. Eurh. 1862, p. 500) stated that the 
Bornean P. imiformis. Walk., was a synonym of this species. It 
is, however, quite distinct. 



POLYDICTYA. 217 

1737. Polydictya negrito, sp. u. 

Head aud pronotiimgreenish-stramiueous; inesonotum, sternum, 
and legs bvovvnish-ochraceous, apices ol: the femora olivaceous, 
anterior and intermediate tibiae black, with a broad pale ochraceous 
annulation ; anterior aud intermediate tarsi black ; abdomen 
purplish-red, its dorsal surface black on basal area ; tegmina above 
brownish-ochraceons,the i*eticulate venation ochraceous, the costal 
and claval areas suffused with black, the first with four marginal 
ochraceous spots ; beneath (excluding apical area) the tegmina are 
suffused \\ith indigo-blue ; wings pale fuscous-brown, the reticulate 
venation darker, with two elongate suboblique streaks at base pale 
indigo-blue, the uppermost reaching costal area ; pronotuui with 
a broad, subobsolete, medial carination : rostrum mutilated in 
specimen described ; posterior tibiie with six strong spines. 

Length excl. tegm. 17| ; exp. tegm. 46 millim. 

Hah. Andaman Islands {De Eoepstorff, Coll. Dist.). 

Allied to F. basaHs but smaller, tegmina shorter and indigo-blue 
beneath; anterior and intermediate tibise annulaced ; posterior 
tibite with six spines. 

1733. Polydictya affinis, Atkins. J. A. <S'. Bent/. Ivii, p. 339 (1888). 

Polydictya lervida, Gersf. MT. Ver. Vorpomm. xxvii, p. 25 (1896). 

Head, thorax above, sternum, abdomen beneath, and rostrum 
tawny-yellow ; legs coral-red ; abdomen above witli about basal 
half sanguineous, remainder ochraceous : tegmina above bluish- 
virescent for about basal third, thence very pale fuscous-brown, 
all the reticulate venation ochraceous, or near base greenish- 
ochraceous; beneath (exchiding apical area) the tegmina are more 
or less suffused with pale bluish, somewhat distinctly blackly 
maculate near base ; wings very pale fuscous semi-hyaline, the 
venation fuscous-brown, the base ])urplish-red; pronotum distinctly 
medially carinate on its posterior half ; rostrum passing the pos- 
terior coxsB ; posterior tibise with four spines. 

Length excl. tegm. 16 ; exp. tegm. 55 to 58 millim. 

Hah. Sikhim {fide Atkinson). Darjiling {Coll. Dist.). 

1739. Polydictya tricolor, Westw. (Lystra) Arc. Ent. ii, p. 35, 
t. Ivii, f. 4 (1845); Walk. (Polvdictya) List Horn, ii, p. 290 
(1851); Atkins. (Polydictya?)"/. A. S. Bemj. liv, p. 156 
(1885). 

Head ochraceous, with two piceous spots at base of vertex ; 
pronotum black, with the lateral and posterior margins broadly 
testaceous ; mesouotum black ; abdomen above sanguineous, its 
extreme base narrowly somewhat piceous ; face ochraceous ; a 
large spot to clypeus and body beneath piceous ; legs and 
abdominal anal appendage testaceous-red ; tegmina with nearly 
basal half ochraceous, with two transverse series of black spots, 
the first near base, the second (three in number) at about one- 
third from base, remainder of tegmina uniformly fuscous-brown ; 



218 i'ULGORIDiE. 

•\vings sanfTuineous. apical area broadly fuscous-brown, posterior 
margin Aery pale fuscous ; prouotuni distinctly medially cariuate 
on its anterior half ; rostrum reaching posterior coxae ; posterior 
tibiae with four spines, the one nearest base very short. 

Length excl. tegm, 13 ; exp. tegni. 45 millim.* 

Hah. Assam. Darjiling (0. MiiUer, Coll. Dist.). 

1740. Polydictya krisna, Kirk. (Polydictya) J. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc. 

xiv, 1902, p. 40, pi. A, f. 4 ; id. (Thaumastodictya) ibid. p. 307. 

Head, thorax above, face, clypeus, and rostrum ochraceous ; 
body beneath and legs fuscous-brown ; abdomen above san- 
guineous, its disk slightly fuscous ; the anal appendage ochraceous ; 
tegmina with a little more than basal third stramineous much 
spotted with black, remainder with the close reticulate venation 
ochraceous, the reticulate areas piceous, beneath the tegmina are 
a little brighter than above ; wings sanguineous, the apical area 
(broadly) and the posterior margin pale fuscous with the venation 
reddish-bro«n ; pronotum broadly medially ridged on its anterior 
half ; rostrum reaching or passing middle of abdomen ; posterior 
tibife with five spines t. 

Length excl. tegm. 13| ; exp. tegm. 38 millim. 

Hab. Ceylon ; Ivandy and Pundaluoya (Green). 

The above description and dimensions are taken from a cotype 
kindly sent to me by Mr. Green ; the species seems very closely 
allied to P. pantlierina, Gerst., which I have not seen. 

1741. Polydictya pantherina, Gersf.MT. J'er. T'or/w^^w;. xxvii, p. 26 

(1896). 

Testaceous, some\A-hat shining ; legs black ; tegmina with 
multitudinous black spots, apex somewhat subinfuscate ; wings 
posteriorly sanguineous, apically broadly fuscous. 

Nearer to P. tricolor, Westw., by the less dense reticulation at 
base of tegmina, but widely removed by colour ; vertex with a flat 
and uneven basal prominence ; face convex, A^ery shining, both 
sides with a large thin excavated impression, clypeus only 
deepened at base ; rostrum extending to base of posterior femora ; 
head, pro- and mesonota light yellowish-brown, the former with a 
continuous central keel ; metanotum sanguineous ; legs black, 
intermediate tibiae before apices and posterior legs to a greater 
extent rust-colour ; tegmina extended as in P. tricolor, nearly 
parallel, at the apices obliquely truncated, above dull ochraceous, 

* These cliniensioiis are taken from two sjDecimeiis iu my own collection. 
Westwood's figure represents a much larger specimen, and Atkinson gives the 
dimensions, probably taken from this figure, as 16^ and 5(i-57 millim. 

i' Kirkaldy {»iipra) describes the number of these spines as " 6-7," but. in one 
of his labelled cotypes, kindly sent me by Mr. Green, the number is distinctly 
only five. It may also be mentioned that in Kirkaldy's figure the reticulate 
venation to the wings has been omitted. 



EURTBRACHyDIN.'E, 219 

towards tips more luteous with uumerous larger and smaller dull 
black spots, rather irregularly tessellated, so that the basal third 
appears less maculate, m hile in costal area there are four darker 
and more prominent spots, beneath to three-fifths of length 
more or less bone-yellow, the brown apical area suffused with 
sanguineous ; posterior wings coloured as in tricolor, that is, with 
a decided bow-shaped border of the sanguineous basal area, but 
the brown apical area not blackish, but more umber-brown, caused 
by the light red reticulation on a dark ground-colour : abdomen 
piceous. spotted with sanguineous, the genital appendage rust- 
colour. 

Length excl. tegm. 15 ; exp. tegm. 43 millim. 

Hab. Ceylon (Jide Gerstaeckei). 

I have not seen this species, and have given what seems to be 
the salient points in Gerstaecker's description. 



In the ' lusecta Saundersiana ' (p. 37), Walker has desci-ibed 
a species {Echetra semilutea) to which he has appended the 
locality '• Hiudostan." This is a strange error, for not only is tlie 
specimen labelled " Para," but in his description of the genus 
which he foiuided for the reception of the species he wrote : 
" This genus seems to replace in South America the Asiatic genus 
Dichoptera,''^ 



Subfamily II. EURYBRACHYDINiE. 

Eurybrachydida, StFd, Hem. Afr. iv, p. 129 (1866). 
Eurybrachydina, «SYf?/, O/o. Vet.-Ali. Fork. 1870, p. 753. 
Eurybrachidre, Melich. (part.) Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 66 (1903). 

Anal area of wings very rarely reticulate, if so, the clypeus 
convex without lateral ridges ; posterior tibiae without a mobile 
spur at apex ; face broad, transverse, or almost equally long and 
broad, angularly ampliated on each side ; anterior legs compressed, 
more or less dilated. 

With many of the genera of this subfamily the specific differen- 
tiation is to be chiefly found in the coloration, as is the case with 
the Lepidoptera. The principal structural characters are detailed 
in the generic diagnoses and are very constant, and therefore in 
the specific descriptions ib serves no useful purpose to repeat 
them . 

Synoims of Genera. 

A. Eyes spiuose beneath. 

a. Wings not or scarcely broader than 
tegmina. 
a. Face scarcely or only a little broader 
than prouotum. 
a . Tegmina normal, without an apical 
filamentous appendage ; posterior 
tibiaB with five spines Eurybeachys, p. 220. 



220 FTJLGORID.E. 

ft^. Tegmiua with an apical filamentous 
appendage ; posterior tibise with 

four spines Ancyea, p. 225. 

h. Face distinctly broader than pronotum. 
h' . Tegmina and wings moderately broad, 
the apex of the latter broadly 
rounded ; posterior tibite with six 

spines Messena, p. 226. 

Ir. Tegmina very long and narrow, very 
much longer than wings, the apices 
of which are obtusely subangulate ; 
posterior tibiae with six spines .... Nicidus, p. 229. 
b. Wings broader than tegmina. 

c. Vertex of head distinctly sinuate at 
base ; median longitudinal area of 

winos dilated Thessitits, p. 230. 

(I. Vertex of head either very slightly 
sinuate at base or truncate ; wings 
without a dilated area. 
e. Head (including eyes) about as broad 

as pronotum Loxocephala, p. 232. 

(■' . Head (including eyes) considerably 

narrower than pronotum Nksis, p. 233. 

B. Eyes not spinose beneath Frutis, p. 234. 

Genus EURYBRACHYS. 

Ein-ybrachys, Guer. Voy. Belany. Ind.-Orient. p. 475 (1834) ; 
Spin. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1839, p. 367 ; Stal., Rio Jan. Hem. ii, 
p. 67 (1858) ; id. Stett. ent. Zeit. xxiv, p. 245 (1863) ; Atld7is. 
J. A. S. Bemj. Iv, p. 13 (1886). 

Type, E. lepeUelkri., Gue'r, 

Uistribidion. Oriental and Malayan liegions. 

Wings moderate in size, not or scarcely broader than the 
tegmina; head very broad, slightly prominent before the ej'es, 
geuse narrow, antennae short cylindrical, front about as broad or 
only slightly broader than the pronotum, eyes beneath distinctly 
spinose ; tegmina with the clavus very broad at apex ; posterior 
tibiie with live spines. 



A. Wings white, their apical areas unspotted. 

1742. Eurybrachys lepelletieri, Guer. Voij. Beluwj. Ind.-Orient. 
p. 476 (1834) ; Spin. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1839, p. 369 ; Atkins. 
J. A. S. Beny. Iv. p. 15 (1886). 

Head, pronotum, mesonotum, and abdomen above and beneath 
ochraeeous ; metanotum, base of abdomen, sternum, and legs 
purplish-i*ed ; rostrum, posterior tibiae and tarsi, and transverse 
fascia) to abdomen beneath black ; tegmina greenish-ochraceous 
(in faded or spirit-specimens almost ochraeeous), with a spot at 
base and a transverse fascia near base rosy-red, on apical half 
there are two curved transverse fascias which are more ochraeeous 




EUBYBRACHYS. 221 

and less red, the apical marginal area greyish ; wings creamy- 
white ; vertex with two fove?e, some^\•hat wide apart ; pronotum 

with a transverse series of four 
foveate spots, the two central ones 
somewhat contiguous ; mesouotum 
with four foveate spots, the two 
central ones widest apart ; ros- 
trum almost reaching the posterior 
coxae ; posterior tibiae with the basal 
Pig_ 94 spine smallest. 

Eunjbrachys lepdlctieri. Length excl. tegm. 10 to 11 ; 

exp. tegm. 21 to 25 millim. 
Hah. Bengal, Bombay {Coll. Dist.). Nilgiri Hills (Ham2)Son). 

1743. Eurybrachys venusta, Stal, Stctt. ent. Zeit. xxiv, p. 245 

(1863) ; Atkins. J. A. S. Bemj. Iv, p. 14 (1886). 

Head and pronotum olivaceous-green ; lateral and posterior 
margins of pronotum, mesonotum, metanotum, sternum, and legs 
dull purplish-red ; abdomen ochraceous, apically thickly furnished 
with waxy-white efflorescence, beneath with transverse black 
fasciae ; posterior tibiae moi'e or less inf uscate or piceous ; tegmina 
with about basal half olivaceous -green with paler spots, margined 
outwardly and posteriorly with dull reddish, the same colour at 
extreme base, remaining area of tegmina dull greyish with the 
venation subolivaceous, tegmina beneath \\\i\\ the basal half dull 
. red, remaining area more or less cretaceous, the venation darker ; 
^\ iugs cretaceous-white, the venation very pale ochraceous, extreme 
base sanguineous ; tegmina short and broad, about twice longer 
than broad. 

Length excl. tegm. 9 to 10 ; exp. tegm. 20 to 25 millim. 

Hah. Nilgiri Hills {fide Mil). Travancore {Coll. Dist.). 

1744. Euryhrachys manifesta, sp. n. 

Head (including face) smooth shining ochraceous, vertex with 
two discal indentations ; pronotum ochraceous, its base san- 
guineous ; mesonotum sanguineous ; abdomen ochraceous, its 
base, sternum, and legs sanguineous ; rostrum, posterior tibiae and 
tarsi fuscous ; some transverse discal fasciae to abdomen beneath 
piceous ; tegmina greyish, ^^•ith about basal half (excluding inner 
and extreme costal margins) rosy-red, some\\hat obsoletely spotted 
with ochraceous, the whole of the venation ochraceous ; wings 
greyish white, a little rosy-red on basal area, the venation 
ochraceous ; rostrum robust, reaching the posterior coxae ; abdomen 
broad, its lateral margins prominently convexly waved ; anal 
valves lax'ge, broad, and spatular. 

Length excl. tegm. 9 ; exp. tegm. 22 millim. 

Hah. Nilgiri Hills (Hamjjson, Coll. Hint.). Coonoor (Davison, 
Brit. Mtis.). 



222 FULGORID.i;. 

1745. Eiirybrachys apicata, Dist. Tr. E. S. 189l', p. 281. 

Body aud legs dull sanguineous ; head (excluding eyes) pale 
ochraceous : posterior tibiae a little infuscate ; abdomen (in typical 
specimen) in somewhat mutilated condition, but beneath clearly 
seen to be black with ochraceous segmental margins ; tegmina pale 
olivaceous-green, the extreme base and a broad transverse fascia 
at apex dull purplish-i'ed ; wings pale greyish, with nearly the 
basal half dull purplish-red. 

Length excl. tegm. 8: exp. tegm. IS millini. 

Hah. " India " (Coll. Dist.). 

I only know this very distinct species by a single specimen in 
somewhat mutilated condition, and labelled simply " India," as 
in bygone days was a too frequent practice. 



B. Wings wJiiie, their apical areas tvith hlaclc transverse s]iots. 

1746. Euryhrachys spinosa, Fair. (Cicada) Ent. Syst. Suppl p. 520 
(1798) : Co(pieh. III. li, p. 35, t. ix, f. 4 (1799)"; Fahr. (Lystraj 
Syst. lihyny. p. 58 (1803) ; Spin. (Eurybrachys) Ann. Soc. 
Ent. Fr. 1839, p. 309; Atkins. J. A. S. Beng. Iv, p. 15 

(1886). 

A specimen in my collection, which I identify as this species, 
has the head, prouotum, mesonotum, and abdomen above and 
beneath ochraceous ; about apical half of abdomen above, apex of 
abdomen beneath, metanotum, sternum, and legs purplish-red, 
posterior tibiae and tarsi black ; tegmina virescent, with three 
greenish- white transverse fasciae, the basal fascia shortest and con- 
lined to the posterior half of tegmina, and an elongate transverse 
black spot near apex of posterior margin (Coquebert's figure 
exhibits two transverse spots) ; wings creamy-white, with two 
transverse black spots on apical area ; structural characters 
apparently as in E. lejpelletieri, Guer. 

Length excl. tegm. 8: exp. tegm. 16 millim. 

Hah. Madras {Ooll. Dist.). 

I am in doubt as to the above being the species described by 
Fabricius, but hesitate to describe it as new. It agrees in the 
colour of the tegmina and the absence of apical black dots as 
described by Burmeister, but the posterior tibiaj are black, and 
therefore the legs not wholly red as described by Fabricius and 
tigured by Coquebert. Neither of these authors described the 
wines. 



1747. Enrybrachys tonientosa, Fair. (Cicada) Syst. Ent. ii, p. 324 
(1775) ; id. (Lystra) Syst. Ehyng. p. 60 (1803) ; Amy. ^- Serv. 
(Eurybracbys) Hem. p. 517 (1843) ; Stal, Hem. Fabr. ii, p. 100 
(1869) ; Atldns. J. A. S. Beny. Iv, p. 14 (1886). 



EUEYBRACHYS. 223 

Lystra bimacuiata, Fahr. Syst. E/ii/nr/. p. 60 (1803) ; Stdl 
'(Eurvbrachys), Hem. Fahr. i\, p. 100 (1869) ; Atkins. J. A. S. 
Hem/. Iv, p.'l4 (I88G). 

Eurybrachys fraterna, Stdl, Ofv. Fet.-Alc. Fiirh. 18.")8, p. 450; 
Melkh. Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 67, t. iii, f. 15 (190o). 

Head, pronotuui, aud mesonotum greeuish-olivaceoas ; meta- 
notum, sternum, and legs purplish-red; abdomen fuscous or 
brownish-ochraceous, \\\ fresh specimens studded above with small 
tufts of, and the apex broadly clothed with, white waxy efflo- 
resceuce ; posterior tibise and tarsi black or fuscous ; transverse 
fasciae to abdomen beneath black ; tegmina olivaceous-green, with 
small scattered spots and oblique transverse discal fasciae 
llavescent, the apical marginal area with a double series of small 
shining black spots and a larger spot near apex of posterior 
margin ; va ings creamy-white, with two obliquely transverse black 
fasciae on apical area. 

Length excl. tegm. to 9 ; exp. tegm. 18 to 25 millim. 

Hah. Bombay {Blxon). Nilgiri Hills {Hamjison). Bangalore 
{Cameron). Ceylon {^Green). 

This is a most variable — both in size and coloui* — species to 
identify. Typical aud fresh forms are as above described, and as 
correctly described but inefficiently figured by Melichar (supra), 
whose artist has made the fascia? of the tegmina to appear as 
black ; in some specimens these fasciae are testaceous, in others 
macular and much broken. In faded specimens the tegmina are 
ochraceous, with the fascia? only a little paler and subobsolete. I 
.am satisfied that iomentosa, Fabr., bimacuiata, Fabr., and fraterna, 
Stal, are conspecific ; whether there may not be another closely 
allied species among the other small forms 1 include is at least 
possible, though I think improbable. There appears to be a variety 
with the less concolorous. 



C. Wini/s infascated or fuscoxis, their apical areas tvith a 
transverse ivliite fascia. 

174S. Eurybrachys apicalis, Walk. (Issus) List Horn, ii, p. 368 
(1851); Stal (Eurybrachys) Ofv. Vet.-Ak. Fork. 1362, p. 488. 
Eurybrachys subfasciata, Walk. List Horn, ii, p. 391 (1851); 
Atkins. J. A. S. Bemj. Iv, p. 17 (1886). 

Head and pronotum dull stramineous or ochraceous ; mesonotum 
testaceous or fuscous-testaceous ; abdomen above, sternum, aud 
legs testaceous, or in faded specimens ochraceous ; abdomen 
beneath and posterior tibiae and tarsi black, the first with the 
lateral and narrow segmental margins ochraceous ; rostrum 
piceous ; tegmina pale tawny-brown, sometimes a little darkly 
speckled on basal half, apical area with two ])rominent black 
spots — one on anterior, the other on posterior margin (the 
uppermost sometimes absent) — and a series of minute black spots 



224 ruLGOEiD.T;, 

on the apical marg'mal area ; wings very pale fuscous, the apical 
area black or dark fuscous, containing a transverse white 
fascia. 

Length excl. tegm. 5| to 6| ; exp. tegm. 15 to 18 millim. 

Hah. North Bengal {Brit. Mus.). Bouibay {Dixon). Bangalore 
{Coll. Dist.). Ceylon : Peradeniya {Green). 



1749. Eurybrachys dilatata, Walk. List Horn, ii, p. 392 (1851) ; 
Mt'Iich. Horn. Faun. Ceijlon, p. (i? (1903). 

Yppy closely allied to the preceding species {E. apicalis), but with 
the abdomen above as beneath, viz., black with the lateral and the 
segmental margins ochraceous ; legs less sanguineous and more 
fuscous; thorax above wholly tawny-brown speckled with fuscous; 
base of abdomen ilarrowly sanguineous ; other characters as in 
E. aincalis. 

Length excl. tegm. 7 ; exp. tegm. 14 to 15| millim. 

Hah. Nilgiri Hills {Hampson). Ceylon {Brit. Mus.). Hambantota 
{Green). 

It is quite possible that this is only a varietal form of E. ajricalis. 
Walk., but at pi-esent there is no more reason for that conclusion 
than there is for its specitic distinctness, which at least seems more 
probable. 



1750, Eurybrachys? rubricincta, H'alk. Lis. Saund.,Hom. p. 46 
(1858) : Atkins. (Eurybrachys ?) /. A. S. Beny. Iv, p. IG (1886). 

The tvpe of this species is not now to be found in the British 
Museum, or it may have been sunk as a synonym of some other 
species by Walker himself without published comment. I there- 
fore, under the circumstances, give his original description : — 

" Testaceous, Vertex transverse, short, slightly ai-ched, with a 
brown dot on each side; front flat, smooth, transverse, dilated and 
angular on each side ; face small. Thorax slightly marked with 
brown. Prothorax slightly convex in front, with a slight middle 
keel. Mesothorax with three slight keels. Metathorax bright 
crimson. Legs bright-red ; anterior legs much dilated. Pore 
wings pale luteous, whitish at the tips, with three spotted green 
bands ; some black marks on the veins, three black dots near the 
interior angle, and two black submarginal points. Hind wings 
snow-white with two black spots in front, the second almost 
apical. Male. Abdomen with foliaceous apical appendages. 
Female. Abdomen towards the tip with a mass of snow-white 
filaments."' ( WeiRer.) 

" Length of the body ^h lines ; of the wings ^^> lines." 

Hah. " North Hindostan." 



AIs'CYEA. 225 



Genus ANCYRA. 

Aiicyra, WJiite, A. M. N. H. xv. p. 34 (1845) : Atkins. J. A. S. Benq. 
liv, p. 156 (1885). 

Type, A. appendicuJata, White. 

Distrihvtion. Oriental Region. 

Eyes with a tuberculous spine beneath ; head (inchiding eyes) a 
little broader than the prouotum : anterior margin of front with 
a well-developed ridge ; face oblique, much broader than long, 
\A ith transverse rugose lines ; clypeus narrow ; pronotum slightlv 
broader than mesonotum, witli three discai longitudinal ridges ; 
tegmina narrow in male, much broader in female, distinctly 
notched on posterior margin at claval apex, narrowed at apical 
area in male, and in this sex proAided with a long apical process, 
apical area not narrowed but broadly apically rounded in female 
aud provided with a somewhat short dentate apical process ; 
venation longitudinal, ^^ith very indistinct transverse veinlets ; 
wings in both sexes about as broad as tegmina, elongate, a little 
broadened medially and provided in the female with a short 
robust apical process ; anterior femora compressed, moderate!}' 
dilated ; anterior tibia? strongly dilated, posterior tibi* with four 
spines. 

1751. Ancyra appeiidiculata. White. A. M. X. H. xv, p. 34 (1845) ; 
Westw. Cab. Orient. £nf. p. 74, t. xxxvi, f. 5 (1848) : Dist. 
J. A. S. Bene/, xlviii (2), p. 38 (1879). 

(S . Head, pro- and mesonota, and 
sternum brownish-ochraceous; anterior 
margin of front, margins of pronotum, 
and posterior angle of mesonotum 
narrowly fuscous ; face with margins 
and transverse rugose lines fuscous ; 
legs piceous, more or less speckled with 
pjo. 95 pale brownish ; metanotum and basal 

A/wyra appeiidiciilafa. c^ . half of abdomen sanguineous, apical 
half ochraceous with its dorsal disk 
black ; tegmina shining brownish-ochraceous, the apical appen- 
dages black ; wings black, their apical margins palely fuscous. 

5. Eesembling J , but with the tegmina much broader and 
apically broadly rounded ; aboA e dull purplish-red, with the apical 
area united to a preceding oblique transverse fascia, and a ntmiber 
of small spots on basal half, greyish ; beneath more uniformly and 
brightly purple-red, with the apical margin ochraceous ; wings 
generally as in male, but with a tooth-like apical appendage ; 
abdomen much covered with white waxy efflorescence. 

Length excl. tegm., d" 6, $ 9; exp. tegm., J 20, $ 23 to 
26 milhm. 

-Hah. Burma : Moulmein (Jide Wright) : Tenasserim, Myitta 
(Doherti/). 

VOL. III. Q 




226 



FULGORID.B. 



1752. Ancyra histrionica, Sfal, Stett. ent. Zeit. xxiv, p. 245 (1863) ; 
Atkins. J. A. S. Beng. liv, p. 157 (1885). 

5 . Pusco-ferruginous ; face yellow-ferruginous, adorned with 
five subelevated narrow black bands ; tegmina obscurely ferru- 
gineous, basal part and oblique band behind the middle flavesceut, 
apical callus black, apical appendage f uscescent - ochraceous ; 
abdomen flavesceut (when alive sanguineous ?), apex covered with 
a mouldy puhescence ; feet blackish. Closely allied to A. appcn- 
diculata ; tegmiua, especially behind the middle, broader ; apical 
appendage shorter, fuscesceut-ochraceous not black-f uscolis, apical 
callus smaller ; wings broader aud their apical pi'ocess shorter. 

Length excl. tegm., $ , 11 ; exp. tegm. 20 millim. 

Hab. Burma ; Pegu {Jide Atkinson). — Cambodia. 

I have not seen this species. 



Genus MESSENA. 

Messena, Stdl, Rio Jan. Hem. ii, p. 67 (1858) : id. Stett. ent. Zeit. 
xxiv, p. 246 (1863) ; Atkim. J. A. S. Ben;/. Iv, p. 12 (1886). 

Type, M. pidverosa, Hope. 

Distribution. Oriental and Malayan Eegions, 

Wings somewhat narrow, either not so broad or scarcely 
broader than the tegmina ; head very broad, distinctly angularly 
prominent before the eyes, genae broad, front distinctly broader 
than the pronotum, vertex subequal in length to pronotum, eyes 
beneath distinctly spinose ; tegmina w^ith the clavus very broad at 
apex ; posterior tibia? with six spines. 

A. Wimjs white, with submarriinal black spots. 

1753. Messena pulverosa, ^ope (Eurybrachis), Tr. Linn. Soc. xix, 
p. 134, t. xii, f. 7, a, h (1845) ; fital (Messeua), Rio Jan. Hem. 
ii, p. 67 (1862) ; id. Stett. ent. Zeit. xxiv, p. 246 (1863) ; 
Atkins. J. A. S. Beng. Iv, p. 17 (1886). 
Messena burmanica, Atkins. J. A. S. Beng. Ivii, p. 340 (1888). 

Head and thorax above ochraceous speckled mth brown, aud 
with two small fuscous discal spots on pronotum ; abdomen dull 
sanguineous, apex with a long white coarse pilose appendage 

(easily mutilated aud fre- 
quently absent in cabinet 
specimens) ; face bright 
reddish - ochraceous, its 
margins aud the clypeus 
ochraceous ; sternum and 
legs viresceut, anterior 
legs spotted with b]ack,the 
tarsi and nearly the whole 
of the posterior tibiae 
Fig. 96. — Metit^ena pulverosfa. black; disk of abdomen 

beneath with alternate 
black and ochraceous transverse fascise ; tegmina with about basal 



I 




MESSENA. 227 

half (not reaching costal margin) virescent, with the venation 
darker, remaining area pale greyish with the venation fuscous, 
about three small black spots on virescent area, and two and some 
\evy mucli smaller black spots on apical area ; wings cretaceous, 
with three subapical white spots ; x'ostrum short, piceous, about 
reaching the intermediate coxae. 

Length excl. tegm. 144 to 15 ; exp. tegm. 50 to 55 millim. 

Bab. Sylhet (Brit. Mas.). Malabar {Coll. Bist.). Burma; 
Pal on {Binyliam). 

The type of M. hnnnanica, Atkins., is now contained in the 
collection of the British Museum; it is a faded specimen of 
M. jmlvcrosa in which the basal green coloration of the tegmina 
has become tawny-brown. 

1754. Messena nebulosa, Stdl, Stett. ent. Zeit. xxiv, p. 246 (1863) ; 

Atkins. J. A. S. Beiu/. Iv, p. 18 (1886). 

Head, thorax, sternum, and legs ochraceous ; anterior legs 
spotted with black, posterior tibite (excluding base) piceous, tarsi 
more or less piceous ; abdomen sanguineous, beneath with alter- 
nate discal black and ochraceous transverse fasciae ; head and 
thorax above finely mottled with fuscous-brown ; abdominal anal 
appendage ochraceous ; tegmina very pale tawny-greyish, with 
irregular scattered piceous mottlings on basal half not reaching 
costal area, and three subapical marginal spots and smaller apical 
spots or dots piceous ; wings cretaceous, with three subapical 
black spots ; rostrum mutilated in specimen described. 

Closely allied to the preceding species (J/, pidverosa), Stal 
describes the tegmina and wings as narrower, the former not 
amplified towards the apex, but these differences do not exist in 
my specimens. The differences are principally those of colour, 
but the two species seem undoubtedly distinct. 

Length excl. tegm. 15 ; exp. tegm. 47 to 50 millim. 

Hah. Malabar {Coll. Bist.). — Malay Peninsula. Cambodia, 

1755. Messena punctif era, 7^«/^•. (Eurvbrachys) List Ham. ii, -p. 383 

(1851) ; Bist. J. A. S. Benff. xlviii (2), p. 38 (1879) ; Atki7is. 
op. cit. Iv, p. 16 (1886). 

Body above pale fawn-colour, head and thorax above finely 
mottled with tawny-brown ; body beneath and legs paler and 
more ochraceous, antei'ior tibiae and apical areas of anterior 
femora somewhat thickly speckled with piceous, intermediate 
tibiae outwardly mottled with piceous, tarsi with fuscous annu- 
lations ; abdomen beneath with transverse abdominal segmental 
])iceous fasciae ; tegmina very pale fawn-colour, the venation 
darker and in parts testaceous, the costal and apical areas 
irregularly a little paler, the last ornamented with very small 
piceous spots continued a little along the extreme posterior 
margin, where the largest spot is situate ; wings creamy-white 

q2 



228 FULGomDvii. 

Mitl) pale fu.'^cous suffusion, a transverse black spot near or at apex 
and a smaller one a little before it on posterior margin ; rostrum 
reaching intermediate coxa^. a little fuscous at base ; face very 
sliglitly granulose, with a few transverse narrow linear brown 
spots. 

Length excl. tegm. 10| ; exp. tegm. 37| miliim. 

Hah. Madi'as {Brit. Mvs.). Teuasserim. 



175G. Messena radiata, DM. Tr. E. S. 1892, p. 280, t. xiii, f. 1. 

Head and thorax above ochraceous, Mith irregular darlser 
markings ; face ochraceous, its anterior margin speckled with 
fuscous: abdomen above sanguineous, its lateral margins and 
anal appendages orange-yellow ; sternum and legs pale ochraceous, 
anterior femora and tibise finely spotted with black ; posterior 
tibise (excluding base), rostrum (excluding apex), and posterior 
coxal spots black ; abdomen beneath orange-yellow, the segmental 
margins and apex more or less fuscous ; tegmina with almost 
basal half ochraceous shaded with purplish towards its margins 
and with a few small scattered discal purplish spots, remaining 
area pale grevish-brown, with a central suhapical spot, a spot near 
apex of inner margin, and some very small scattered spots on 
apical margin black ; wings pale greyish, with three subapical 
marginal black spots. 

Length excl. tegm. 12; exp. tegm. 30 miliim. 

Hab. Nilgiri Hills (Nampson). 



B. Winr/s ivliite, witli ilic basal area sanciuineous and witJi 
svhmarfjinal blade spots. 

1757. Messeiia crildelis, Westw. (Eurvbrachvs) A. M. N. H. (2) vii. 
p. 208 (1851) : Kirk. J. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Sac. xiv, p. ol (1902) : 
Melich. Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 69 (1903). 
Eurybrachys westwoodi, Kirhy, J. Linn. Soc, Zool. xxiv, p. 14' i. 
t. vi, f. 1 (1891); Kirk. (Messena) Entomologist, xxxiii. 
p. 294 (1900) ; Melich. (Eurvbraclivs-Messeua) 'Horn. Faim. 
Ceylon, p. 69 (1903). 

Head and thorax above brownish ochraceous with darker 
mottlings, and with two or three small discal piceous spots on 
pronotum ; abdomen above sanguineous \\\\\\ cretaceous pilose 
spots and with a mass of cretaceous waxy efflorescence at apex ; 
bodv beneath brownish ochraceous : rostrum, coxal spots, bases 
of femora, posterior tibite and tarsi, lateral spots and transverse 
discal fascise to abdomen beneath black ; tegmina either greyish- 
white with the veins fuscous and about basal half bluish-green, or 
pale fuscous-brown with the basal half darker, but in this case 
bluish-green beneath, about three discal piceous spots on basal 
area, and smaller spots or dots on apical area, frequently 
a prominent black spot near apex of inner margin; wings 



jSTicidus. 229 

cretaceous white, with about basal third bright sanguineous, and 
with three black submarginal apical spots. 

Length excl. tegiu. 11 to 13 ; exp. tegm. 44 to 55 millim. 

Hah. Ceylon; Kandy, Dambool ((rrde^)- 

WestvA'ood described tlie species from a faded specimen, in 
which the green coloration of the tegmina had become obsolete ; 
Kirby's description applies to fresh specimens. 

C. Winqs rfi-ei/ish, with the upper basal area hJacJc and with 
submarginal black spots. 

I75S. Messena sinuata, Atkins. J. A. 8. Beng. Ivii, p. 3o9 (1888j. 

Head and thorax above pale tawny-brown, irregularly spotted 
nith piceous ; abdomen above aud the mesosternuin sanguineous, 
abdominal apex covered with cretaceous waxy efflorescence ; face, 
prosteruum, legs, and abdomen beneath pale tawny-brown ; face 
and anterior and intermediate legs spotted and mottled \\ith 
piceous ; anterior tibia3 and posterior legs piceous ; abdoinen 
beneath with lateral spots aud transverse discal fascia3 black ; 
tegmina with about basal two-thirds, obliquely narrowing to costal 
margin at about one-third from base, purplish-red, somewhat 
transversely marked by maculate black fasciae, the costal margin 
with small black spots, remaining area pale dull ochraceous 
with clusters of bhack mottled markings on apical area aud above 
the termination of the basal purplish area ; wrings greyish-ochra- 
ceous, a large black longitudinal fascia on the anterior area 
widened outwardly and truncate ly terminating at about two-thirds 
from base, apical area with three submarginal black spots, the 
two uppermost sometimes confluent. 

Length excl. tegm. 15 ; exp. tegm. 36 millim.* 

Hab. Trivandrum (Ferr/mon). Nilgiri Hills {Hampsoa). 



Genus NICIDUS. 

Xicidus, Stal, Ofo. Vd.-Ah. Fork. 1858, p. 451; Melich. Horn. 

Faun. Ceuhn, p. G9 (1903). 
Kandiaua, i)ist. Tr. E. S. 1892, p. 280. 

Type, N. fusco-nebidosus, Stal. 

Distribution. Ceylon. 

Body oblong ; head broad, broader than pronotum, anteriorly 
aud obsoletely angularly rounded, vertex about half as long as 
broad, face much flattened and approaching plaue of sternum, 
strongly angularly produced in front of eyes ; clypeus moderately 
convex ; antennae short, not passing beyond eyes, which are strongly 



* Atkinson gives 46 millim. as the expanse of tegmina, but this is probably 
a misprint. 




230 rULGORIDiE. 

spined ; pronotuin transverse, a little shorter than mesonotum ; 
tegmina very long, about halt' as long again as body, the apex 
a little narrowed, venation reticulate, more obsoletely so at 
base ; wings about as broad as, but one-third shorter than, 
tegmina; anterior tibia? moderately compressed and dilated, 
posterior tibiae with six spines. 



1759. Nicidus fusco-nebiilosiis, Stdl. Ofc. J'd.-A/c. Fork. 1858, 
p. 451 ; Melirh. Horn. Faun. Cet/loti', p. 70, t. iii, f. 14 (1903). 
Kandiana lewisi, JJisf. Tr. F. S. 1892, p. 280, t. xiii, f. 2. 

Body above and abdomen beneath warm ochraceous ; face, ster- 
num, and legs more stramineous ; apices of anterior femora, and the 

anterior tibia? and tarsi, thickly mottled 

with fuscous, intermediate tibia> and 

tarsi less thickly mottled witli fuscous ; 

body above ^^■ith darker mottlings or 

shadings ; tegmina subhyaline, venation 

brownish-ochraceous, with irregular 

uiottHngs and spots of the same colour, 

pjg f)- basal area more fuscously maculate, 

Nicidioifuxco-nehulii^m. aud just before apex the spots become 

almost I'asciate ; wings pale obscure 

ochraceous-browu, the apex greyish preceded by a transverse 

fuscous spot. 

Length excl. tegm. 9 ; exp. tegm. 32 to 3-5 millim. 

Hah. Ceylon (Lewis) ; Kandy ( Green). 

This species appears to be confined to the island of Ceylon. 



Genus THESSITUS. 

Thessitus, Walk. Jouni. Fat. i, p. 307 (1862) ; StSJ, Ofc. Tet.-Ah. 

Fork. 1870, p. 753 ; Atkins. J. A. >S'. Bent/. Iv, p. 12 (■l886). 
Thessita, Stdl, Stett. ent. Zeit. xxiv, pp. 24G-7 (1863). 

Type, T. mortuifoUa. Walk., from the Malayan Region. 

Distribution. Oriental and Malayan Eegions. 

Wings ample, broader than the tegmina; head with the lateral 
angles of the front much produced, vertex distinctly sinuate at base ; 
antennae short, cylindrical ; clavus broad at apex, the two longi- 
tudinal veins separated throughout their whole length ; median 
longitudinal area of wings dilated and with the outer area of 
wings furnished with transverse veins ; posterior tibiae with six 
spines ; anterior and intermediate femora and tarsi somewhat 
strongly dilated ; rostrum reaching the posterior coxae ; anterior 
and anterior-lateral margins of face with two ridges, between 
which the surface is concave ; tegmina with about apical half, aud 
the costal area (excluding base) with the venation, reticulate. 



THESSITTJS. 



231 



A. Vertea^ of head not quite twice broader than long. 
a. Ter/mina rvith the apical margins oblique. 

1760. Thessitus insignis, Westiv. (Eurybracliys) A. M. N. H. ix, 
p. 119 (1842) ; Hope (Eurvbrachis), Tr. Linn. Sac. xix, p. 134, 
t. xii. f. 9 (1845) : Sta/, (Thessita) Stett. ent. Zeit. xxiv, p. 247 
(1863) ; Atkins. (Thessitus) J. A. S. Beng. Iv, p. 19 (1886). 
Var. multicolor, Walk. (Eurvbrachys) /. Linn. Soc, Zool. i, p. 88 
(1856). 

Body and legs bl•o^^•nish-ochraceous ; tarsi and rostrum fuscous ; 
apex of abdomen (in fresh specimens) more or less covered and 
concealed with white waxy efflorescence ; tegmina above pale fa\^'n- 
coloured, about basal half (not wholly reaching costal margin) 




Fig. 98. — Thessitus insignis. 

darker in hue and ornamented A\'ith transverse or oblique black spots, 
outer half of costal and the whole of apical marginal areas with 
minute black spots, tegmina beneath with the outer margins of the 
basal dai-ker coloration broadly eretaceously tomentose ; wings cre- 
taceous-white, apical area with a cluster of black spots, of which the 
inner three are largest and the outer series (of about five) smallest. 

Length excl. tegm. 14^ to IS ; exp. tegm. 54 to Q2 millim. 

Jfab. Malabar {Coll. Dist.). — Pound generally throughout the 
Indo-Malayan Islands. 

The variety or race multicolor, Walk., has the basal area of the 
tegmina virescent or bluish-green, and, so far as my experience 
extends, is confined to the Eastern or Malayan Eegions, and not 
found in British India. 

B. Vertex' of head more than twice broader than long. 
b. Tegmina ivith the ajyical margin obtusely rounded, subtruncate. 

1761. Thessitus nigro-notatus, .S";"*"/ (Thessita). Stett. e)it. Zeit. xxiv, 
p. 247 (1863) ; Atkins. (Thessitus) /. A. S. Beng. \v, p. 19 
(1886). 

Body and legs pale fawn-colour ; vertex of head with the anterior 
margin, two spots on each side before eyes and a central basal 
spot, prouotum with two anterior angulated spots and five small 



232 



rULGORID-E. 



rounded posterior marginal spots, niesonotum with four discal 
spots, of which the two central are largest, face with anterior 
margin and five transverse linear spots, apical spots to anterior 
femora, and spots to anterior and intermediate tibiae, black ; 
posterior tibiae fuscous ; tegmina pale fawn-colour, considerably 
and irregularly mottled with black, apical margin with distinct 
and somewhat large black spots, and with a distinct subcostal 
sanguineous line from base to near middle ; wings greyish-white, 
slightly palely infuscated, with a cluster of black spots on apical 
area, of which the innermost are largest. 

Jjength excl. tegm. 11 ; exp. tegm. '32 to 37 millim. 

Hub. Tenasserim {Jide AtJcinson). — Malay Peninsula. 



Genus LOXOCEPHALA. 

Loxocephala, Scliaum. in Evsch $f Gruber, Ally. Encycl. Wiss. u. 
Kilnste, art. Fula-orellas, sec. 53, p. 71 (1850); Atkins. J. A. IS. 
^'cH^. Iv, p. 12 (1886). 

Type, L. cenujinosa, Hope. 

Distribution. Brit. India. 

Wings ample, broader than the tegmina ; vertex of head very 
slightly sinuate at base or truncated, lateral angles of front less 
produced than in Thessitus ; clavus narrowly open at apex, the 
two longitudinal veins nearly united at middle : wings without a 
dilated area ; head scarcely broader than pronotum ; second joint 
of antennae very briefly subcylindrical ; posterior tibiae \\ith five 
spines ; face with the two antei'ior ridges fused at centre, 
obsoletely continued along lateral margins ; tegmina with the 
transverse venation continued to basal area ; anterior legs more 
dilated than the intermediate legs ; rostrum short, nearly reaching 
the intermediate coxte. 



1702. Loxocephala aeruginosa, Hope (Lystra), Tr. Linn. Soc. xviii, 
p. 443, t. xxxi, f. 1 (1841) ; >Schauni, m Ersch S,- Gruber (Loxo- 
cephala), Ally. Uncycl. Wiss. u. Kilnste, sec. 53, p. 71 (1850) ; 
Athins. J. A. S. Beny. l\, p. 20 (1886). 

Head and pronotum green, meso- 
notum ochraceous ; body testaceous ; 
clypeus, rostrum, and legs sanguineous : 
small marginal black spots on each side 
of sternum ; tegmina very pale tawny- 
brown, basal half ornamented with 
transverse virescent spots, apical margin 
and a large subapical spot black ; wings 
greyish-white, apical area pale tawny- 
brown outwardly, margined with black. 
In many specimens the black apical 
margins to both tegmina and wings are absent or obsolete. 




Fig. 99. 

Loxocephala ceruginom. 



JJESIS. 233 

Length excl. tegiu. S| to 11 ; exp. tegm. 27^ to 40 millim.* 
Hab. S^'lhet, Sikhim (Lid. 2Iiis.). Xorth-west Province ; 

Garwhal (Coll. Dist.). Assam ; Khasi Hills (Chennell). Naga 

Hills (Doherty). 

1 763. Loxocephala decora, Walk. (Eurybraclivs) List Horn, n, p. 382 

(1851) ; Atkins. (Loxocephala) J. A. S. ~Ben<j. Iv, p. 20 (1886). 

Body above ochraeeous, or probably in fresh specimens virescent ; 
a, central line to clypens and the legs sanguineous ; anterior 
margins of vertex, pronotum, and mesonotum, and the dilatations 
of anterior tibiae black ; tegmina pale tawny-brown ; a transverse 
fascia at base, the apical margin, and a diseal transverse streak 
before it black ; wings cretaceous-white, apical marginal area very 
pale tawny-brown, its outer margin and a spot near apex of costal 
margin black. 

Length excl. tegm. 10^ ; exp, tegm. 29 to 32 millim. 

Hah. Sikhim (lad. JIus.). Darjiiiiig (Coll. Dist.). Assam 
(Brit. JIus.). 

1764. Loxocephala castanea, Did. Tr. E. S. 1892, p. 281. 

Body and legs ochraeeous ; anterior margin of front, central 
]Dortion of anterior margin of pronotum, transverse fasciae to 
abdomen above, dilatations to the anterior tibiae, apices of tarsi, 
and base of apical segment of the abdomen beneath black ; tegmina 
bright castaneous, minutely spotted with grey, the apical area 
bright ochraeeous, containing a central black macular fascia and 
with the apical margin also black. 

Length excl. tegm. 10 ; exp. tegm. 28 to 30 millim. 

Hab. Assam ; Margherita and Naga Hills (DoJierty). 

Allied to L. decora, AValk., from which it may be separated by 
the different colour of the tegmina, absence of the black basal 
fascia to same, and also by the absence of the black subapical spot 
to wings and black fascia to mesonotum. 

Genus NESIS. 

Nesis, StaJ, Rio Jan. Hem. ii, p. Q7 (1862) : Atkins. J. A. S. Benij. 
Iv, p. 12 (1886). 

Type, N. tricolor., Walk. 

Distribution. Brit. India. 

Head narrower than the thorax, vertex subsinuate at the base ; 
second joint of the antennae subglobose ; lateral angles of the front 
moderately produced ; tegmina elongate, somewhat narrow, the 
clavus narrowly open at apex, the longitudinal veins nearly united 
in the middle ; wings ample, broader than the tegmina, without a 

* Atkinson (.s«^;r«) gives the diiuensions of this species as " Long, 27j 
broad, 8^ millim." ; but this is clearly a transposition. 



234 



rrLGORID.5 




dilated ai-ea ; posterior tibiae normally with four spines ; anterior 
femora and tibia? distinctly dilated ; clypeus convex. 

This genus, according to present knowledge, is confined to 
British India, and comprises only two species. 

1765. Nesis tricolor. Walk. (Eurybracliys) List Horn, ii, p. 384 

(1851) ; Stal (Nesis), Rio Jan. Hem. ii, p. 67 (18(32) ; id. Stett. 
enf. Zeit. xxiv, p. 248 (1863) ; Athins. J. A. S. Beng. \\, p. 21 
(1886). 
Aphana sanguiuipes, Stal, Ofv. J'et.-AJc. Fork. 1854, p. 245 ; 
Afhius. (Nesis) J. A. S. Bern/. Iv, p. 21 (1886). 

Head above fuscous-brown ; thorax above piceous, densely 

palely ochraceously pilose ; abdomen, 

sternum, and legs sanguineous ; face 

browiiish-ochraceous; clypeus testaceous; 

abdominal apex furnished with long white 

waxy eiflorescence ; tegmina black, with 

scattered pale ocbraceous pilosity, taking 

the form of short fascije or spots, apical 

Fig. 100.— iW.v/s /ricolor. Vive^ fuscous-browu with scattered black 

spots ; tegmina beneath more uniformly 

black ; wings cretaceous- white ; vertex of head distinctly nodidose 

on each side near eyes. 

Length escl. tegm. 9 ; exp. tegm. 27 to 28 millim. 
Hah. " Himalayas '' (t'o7/. Z'/si.). ly\xvo{Coll. Dlst.). Mussorree 
(^Mackinnon). 

1766. Nesis versicolor, sp. n. 

Head, pronotum, mesonotum, face, and legs tawny-brown ; 
abdomen above and beneath pale testaceous, the anal ajjpendnge 
ochraeeous ; sternum ocbraceous ; rostrum (more or less), outer 
dilatations of anterior tibiae, tarsi, and two oblique spots at base 
of anal ap|)endage beneath piceous ; tegmina fuscous-brown, with 
numerous large and irregular dull grey spots on basal two-thirds, 
a subapical transverse fascia and large irregular spots on basal 
two-thirds sanguineous ; apical area witli two transverse series of 
small black spots, the innermost much more discontinuous ; wings 
creamy white. 

Length excl. tegm. 8.^ : exp. tegm. 27 millim. 

Hah. Pan jab ; Dalbousie {Harford, Brit. Mas.). 

Allied to N. tricolor, Walk., from which it may be separated by 
the different colour of the tegmina, which are also a little more 
concavely indented on costal margins before apices, and by the 
more dilated anterior lees. 



Genus FRUTIS. 

Frutis, StSl, Ofv. Vet.-Ak. Fiirh. 1862, p. 488 ; Atkins. J. A. S. Bemj. 
Iv, p. 13 (1866). 

Type, F. pulchra, Gray. 

Distribtition. Oriental and Malayan Eegions, and recorded from 
China. 



jRUTis. 235 

Eyes unarmed beneath ; elavus sonie\^liat acutely closed at a]iex ; 
posterior tibiae usually with six spines ; niesonotum half as long 
again as the pronotum ; antennee short, second joint globose; 
head (including eyes) distinctly narrower than the pronotum, the 
lateral margins of which ai'e subangularly ampliate : anterior 
tibiae moderately dilated : abdomen very broad and robust : 
tegmina a little longer than body, narrower than wings, venation 
considerably reticulate, transverse veinlets often faintly visible, 
but extending to near base. 



1767. Frutis pillchra. Gray (Lvstra), Grif. An. Kingd., Ins. ii, p. 260 
t. xc, f. 5 (iS-d,'2) { StSl (Frutis), Oft: Vet.-Ak. Fork. 1862, 
pp. 488 & 500; Atkins. J. A. S. Bern/. Iv, p. 22 (1886). 
AplifBiia veris-amor, Walk. J. Lijin. Soc, Zool. \, p. 143 (1857). 

Head, thorax above, stern uui, and legs olivaceous-brown ; tibiae 
and tarsi infuscate ; abdomen above and beneath sanguineous, 
with lateral segmental spiracular small tufts of greyish pile ; 




Fig. 101. — Fn(fi!> pulclira. 

anal appendage pale ochraceous, usually broadly covered with 
white waxy efflorescence ; tegmina shining dark virescent, macularly 
a little paler at extreme base, the costal area m.ottled with 
ci'etaceous secretion ; an ont\^"ardly curved ochraceous transverse 
fascia at about one-third from apex, beyond which the colour is 
paler, and before which there is a subobsolete paler oblique fascia ; 
in some specimens the costal and apical areas and basal macu- 
lation are dull ochraceous ; tegmina beneath, with the margin of 
the curved ochraceous fascia, and some scattered spots cretaceously 
tomentose : wings cretaceously opaque, the margins a little paler 
and sometimes slightly ochraceous. 

Length excl. tegm. 19 to 23 ; exp. tegm. 48 to 55 millim. 

Hah. " India" ^fide Gray Sf Atl-inson). — Malay Peninsula: Perak 
(OoU. Dist.). Borneo. 



1^36 



rULGORID-T:. 



17<58. Purusha reversa, Hope (Eurybrachis), Tr.Llnn. .%c.xix,p. 134, 
t. xii, f. 8 (1845) ; Atkins. (?) J. A. K Bemj. Iv, p. 22 (1886). 

"Fuscous-yellow, head and thorax coneolorous; abdomen whitish 
in the middle, adorned posteriorly witli a yellow cottony substance, 
apex shining white ; tegmina fuscous-yellow, tinted subsanguineous 
at the base ; a round white spot at anterior margin, a second 
smaller almost on the middle of the disc, and other very minute 




Fig. 102. — Vuniiliu reversa. 

spots sprinkled about ; basal half of wings whitish, apex irregularly 
irrorated fuscous ; four anterior feet (legs) yello\-\"-fuscous ; tibiae 
more obscui'e; last femora pale testaceous; tibiae blackish." (Hope.) 

Length excl. tegm. 14| : exp. tegm. 34 millim. 

Bah. 8ylhet {fide Hope) . 

This is a very scarce species. I have not seen it, and know of 
no one who has, nor am I aware of the location of the type. By 
the peculiar \\iugs it evidently constitutes an undescribed genus, 
which I propose ]uay be known as Purusha, but wliich I cannot 
structurally diagnose from the above specific description, and for 
the same reason it could not be located in the synopsis of genera. 



Subfamily III. DICTYOPHARINiE. 

Dyctiophoroides, part., <S)^/». Ayin. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1839, p. 283. 
Pseudophanides, •^•Avi., Amy. ^- Svrv. Hem. p. 502 (1843). 
Dictyopharida, Stal, Hem. Afr. iv. p. 129 (1806). 
Dietyopharina, S(M, Ofo. Vet.-Ah. For/i. 1870, p. 744: Atkins. 

J. A. S. Beng. Iv, p. 22 (1886). 
DictyopbaridcT, Melich. Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p, 17 (1903). 

Stal, who is generally followed in the enumeration of these 
subfamilies, thus diagnoses the Dictyopharinse : — Posterior tibiae 
without a mobile apical spur ; sides of face not angulated ; legs 
often simple ; anal area of wings never reticulate ; clavus very 
rarely granulate, acuminate at apex, sometimes but rarely some- 
what obtusely, distinctly closed ; the two veins remote or very 
remote from the apex, sometimes, however, united in one behind the 
middle ; costa seldom dilated ; tegmina sometimes abbreviated, or 
connate with clavus and corium ; fi^ont without an apical ocellus. 



DICHOPTEEA. 237 

Synoj^sis of Genera. 

In this synopsis I have not included the very distinctive 
characters to be found in the structure of the lace, because these 
can be more readily vinderstood and compared by the figures 
supplied. The synoptical characters gixen below are therefore 
siipplementary to the important facial characteristics. 

A. Posterior tibife "with from three to seven 

spines ; pro- and mesonota not sulcate. 

a. Clavus of tegmiua -with a transverse vein. 

a. Head with either a short or moderately 

long- curved cephalic process ; posterior 

tibiffi Avith six or seven spines Dichoptkija, p. 237. 

<i'. Head with a very long porrect cephalic 

process ; posterior tihife with three or 

four spines Pibuocha, p. 240. 

b. Clavus of tegmina without a transverse 

vein. 

h. Tegmina wholly reticulately v^eined Ai.intia, ]>. 241. 

//. Tegmina only transversely veined on 
apical area. 
e'. Anterior femora without a spine. 

d'. Head with a well-developed porrect 
or curved cephalic process. 
e'. Head not sulcate between eyes . . Dictyopuaka, 
e-. Head broadly and deeply sulcata ^p. 241. 

between two strong convex ridges 
situate at inner margins of eyes. . Pltala, p. 240. 
(r. Anterior femora with a distinct blunt 
spine near apex. 
(P. Head with a long, slender, cepjialic 

proce.ss Miasa, p. 247. 

fP. Head not produced in a cephalic 

process Udugama, p. 249. 

r'. Anterior femora with a minute acute 
spine near apex, 
f/'. Head with a short anterior recurved 
process ; lateral ridges to mesonotum 

not forked Centkomeuia, 

d'. Head without anterior recurved pro- [p. 200. 

cess ; lateral ridges to mesonotum 
forked Dutyophauina, 

B. Posterior tibite with a single spine ; pro- and [p. 2-")2. 

mesonota profoundly longitudinally sulcate. . Symplana, p. 2r)4, 

Genus DICHOPTEEA. 

Dichoptera, Spin. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1839, p. 286 ; Stdl, Hem. Afr. 
iv, p. 149 (1866) ; Atki/is. J. A. S. Bencj. Iv, p. 23 (1866). 

Type, B. Injalinata, Fabr. 

JJistribution. Oriental, Malayan, and Australian liegions. 

Head (including eyes) only about halt' the width of the pronotum, 
more or less elongate, sometimes with a distinct cephalic process, 
vertex subquadrate, its lateral margins sinuate, its anterior margin 



238 FULGOMD.i:. 

sometimes lobate, eyes oblique ; pronotuin narrower than meso- 
notum, subangularly produced anteriorly, centrally longitudinally 
ridged, the lateral edges acute, slightly recurved, the posterior 
angles obtusely angulai'ly produced ; mesonotum with three 
discal longitudinal ridges ; abdomen about as long as space 
between apices of vertex and mesonotal posterior angle ; ]30sterior 
tibiae with six or seven spines ; face long, ovate, narrowed towards 
clypeus and with a centi'al longitudinal ridge, gense posteriorly 
very broad ; rostrum long, considerably passing ])osterior coxa? ; 
tegmina and wings considerably longer than abdomen, the tirst 
about one-third longer than the second ; teguiina with numerous 
transverse veins on about apical tliii'd, clavus Avith a single 
transverse vein between the intei'ior vein and the claval suture ; 
some transverse veins on apical area, the anal area never 
reticulate. 

A. Vertex' of head Jciu/er than hvoad. 

a. Vertex of head ceiitrallii lohately produced, its anterior awjles 

suhlohatelil rounded. 

b. Front of head a little and obliqueh/ upivardli/ produced, 
its apex ohtuschj awjutate. 

17G9. Dichoptera hyalinata, Fabr. (Fulgora) Spec. Ins. ii, p. 31.) 
(1781) ; Oliv. Enc. Meth. vi, p. 572 (1791) ; Don. Ins. Ind. t. vii, 
f. .3 (1800); Germ. (Flata) May. Ent. iii, p. 190 (1818); 
Burm. (Pseudophana) Handh. Erit. ii (1) p. 160 (1834) : Spin. 
(Dichoptera) Anii. Sac. Ent. Fr. 1839, p. 289, t. xiii, f. 3; Atkins. 
J. A. S. Beng. Iv, p. 23 (1880). 

Body and legs pale brownish-ochraceous, head and thorax above 
and beneath with numerous bhick punctures, especially prominent 

on disk of mesonotum and 
under surface of head ; 
edges and ridges to head 
and lateral edges to pro- 
notura black ; anterior 
longitudinal lines to vertex 
of head, basal elongate 
spots to mesonotum, cen- 
tral and apical aunulations 
to tibice (obscure on pos- 
-Bk-hoptcra hyalinata. terior tibiiB), rostrum at 

apex and with ap(3X of pen- 
ultimate joint piceous ; tegmina hyaline, venation fuscous irrorated 
with ochraceous, and with a piceous transverse fascia at apices of 
ulnar veins ; wings hyaline, with an apical piceous spot. In some 
specimens the abdomen is marked with a double discal segmental 
series of black spots, as in fig. 103 ; in other specimens these are 
absent. 

Length excl. tegm. 19 to 20 ; exp. tegm. 50 millim. 
Hah. Bengal. Bombay (Leith). Bangalore and Calcutta (Ind. 
Mus.). Ceylon; Tangalla (Green). Andaman Islds. (Coll. Dist.). 




DICHOPTERA. 239 

a'. Vertex of head ceatrally lohately produced, its anterior angles 
suhquadrangulate. 

b'. Front of head strongly almost j^ei'^^endieidarly produced, 
its aj^ex obtuseh/ angidate. 

1770. Dichoptera hampsoni, Bist. Tr. E. S. 1892, p. 278. 
Dicboptera hvaliuata, var. hanipsoui, Melich. Horn. Faun. Ceylon, 

p. 19, t. i, f. 1 (1903). 

Body and legs dull ochraceous ; edges and ridges of head and 
pronotum and longitudinal lines to vertex of head black ; pro- 
notum sometimes with strong discal black saffasions, in other 
specimens these are absent ; mesonotum with the discal area 
strongly blackly punctate posteriorly, with two large pale spots 
with black centres, some large black spots on its lateral areas aud 
small ones on its anterior margin ; abdomen above with a double 
series of large segmental black spots ; head beneath with I'idges 
and edges and a central line to face and clypeus black ; anterior 
and intermediate tibiae with three black annulations; tegmina 
hyaline, the venation fuscous irroratetl with ochraceous, transverse 
fascia at end of ulnar areas less defined than in D. hyalinata, but 
with numerous fuscous mottlings on apical third, and with a basal 
and two discal spots on basal two-thirds, and distinct fuscous 
spots on costal area ; wings hyaline, their apical margins fuscous. 

Length excl. tegm. 20 ; exp. tegm. 53 millim. 

Hah. Xilgiri Hills, ISouthern Slopes (Hampson). Ceylon ; 
Kandy (Green). 

B. Vertex of head as broad as long. 

a'. Vertex of head centrally subquadrangularly produced, its 
anterior angles obtusely angulate, its lateral margins very 
strongly sinuate. 

b'. Front of head moderately apivardly produced, its apex obliquely 

truncate. 

1771. Dichoptera nubila, Dist. Tr. E. S. 1892, p. 277. 

Body and legs bright brownish-ochraceous ; head with the 
edges, ridges, a waved longitudinal spot in front of eyes, truncate 
apex of cephalic process, two central convex longitudinal lines to 
vertex, and a small spot near each anterior angle to same black ; 
pronotum with the lateral edges, central ridge, and some irregular 
discal fasciate markings black ; mesonotum with the ridges, a 
large central somewhat hourglass-shaped fascia, and an outwardly 
quadrangular-shaped fascia on each lateral area black ; abdomen 
above with a double central series of large segmental spots aud a 
broken macular lateral marginal fascia on each side black ; body 
beneath and legs much mottled with black, and tibiae witli two broad 
black annulations ; rostrum at apex aud also apex of penultimate 
joint black ; tegmina obscure hyaline, venation fuscous irrorated 



240 



FULGOKID.^. 



with oc-hraceoiis, a narrow waved transverse fuscous fascia at apices 
of ulnar areas, apical third much mottled with fuscous, especiallv 
beueath costal margin a little before apex, costal area alternately 
fuscous and ochraceous, and with t\vo or three pale fuscous spots 
at about one-third from base : wings obscure hjaliue, venation 
fuscous, the apical mai'gins fuscous. 

Length excl. tegm. 17 to 18 ; exp. tegm. 48 to 49 millim. 

Hah. Assam ; Margherita {Doherty). Burma ; Ruby Mines 
(Dohert)/). — Borneo. 



Genus PIBROCHA. 

Pibrocha, Kirk. J. Nat. Hist. Soc. JJomb. xiv. p. 50 (1902) : MelicJi. 
Horn. Faun. Ceijlon, p. 20 (1903). 

Type, P. egregia, Kirby. 

Distribution. Ceylou. 

Head long, porrect, about as long as abdomen and inesouotum 
together, moderately stout and tricarinate above for about one-third 
its length, then suddenly narro\\ed and sulcate above to near apex, 
^^hich is broadened and clavate ; face with four longitudinal 
carinations, two on each side and meeting anteriorly ; rostrum 
passing posterior coxce ; ocelli distinct ; pro- and mesonota 
longitudinally tricarinate, the first shorter than the second ; 
legs slender, tibiae longer than femora, posterior tibiae with three 
or four spines ; tegmina extending considerably beyond the 
abdomen, the apical third A\"ith ti-ansverse veins ; clavus with a 
single transverse Aein between the claval suture and the interior 
vein, which from that point is bent down and terminates on the 
posterior vein ; wings about one-third shorter than tegmina, 
apical area with a feA\ transverse veins. 

1772. Pibrocha egregia, Kirbi/ (Dictvophora), /. Linn. Soc, Zool. 
xxiv, p. 135, t, V, f. 4 (1891) ; Xirk. (Pibrocha) J. Nat. Hid. 
Soc. Bomb, xiv, p. 51, t. B, f. 2 (1902) ; Melich. Horn. Faun. 
Ceylon, p. 21, t. i, f. 4, a, h (1903). 

Dull brownish-ochraceous speckled with black; posterior angle 
of mesonotum pale greeu : abdomen with pale ochraceous 

suffusions ; body beneath paler 
than above ; femora annul ated with 
fuscous ; tegmina and wings hyaline 
with a pale fuscous tint, the vena- 
tion dark fuscous ; tegmina with 
two shining fuscous spots, one 
stigniatical, the other apical ; wings 
with an apical dark fuscous spot. 

Length ceph. process, angle from 
apex to eyes 7| ; eyes to apex 
abdom. 12; exp. tegm. 28 to 30 
millim. 




Fig. lUi. 
Pihrochu c<irciji<i. 



Hah. Ceylon ; Pundaluoya, Kandy {Green 4' LevAs). 



241 



Genus ALUNTIA. 

Aluutia, Sm, Hem. Afr. iv, pp. 151 & 160 (1866). 
Dendrophora, Melich. Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 21 (1903). 

Type, A. schimperii, Guer., an Ethiopian species. 

Distribution. Ethiopian, Oriental, and Australasian Regions. 

Body oblong ; head longly produced, slender, more or less 
longitudinally, broadly sulcafce above and beneath, obsoletely 
medially carinate beneath from behind eyes and through clypeus ; 
pronotum and mesonotum discally finely tricarinate ; second joint 
of antennae oblong, subcylindrical ; rostrum extending to between 
the intermediate and posterior coxaB ; legs slender, posterior tibiae 
much longer than femora and with about three short spines 
on their posterior halves ; tegmiua moderately long, their apices 
distinctly ampliated, thickly covered with transverse veins, and for 
about basal two-thirds thickly interspersed with short veinlets ; 
clavus without a transverse vein, but the claval veins united 
before middle ; wings transversely veined on apical area. 

1773. Aluntia ramosa, Melich. (Dendrophora) Horn. Faun. Ceylon, 
p. -J-J, t. i, f. .5 (1903). 

Body pale virescent in fresh specimens, in old or dried 
examples pale ochraceous : tegmina very palely virescent, the 
venation darker; wings a little paler than tegmina; head about 

as longas,ora little longer than, 
pro- and mesonota together ; 
pronotum with the lateral 
edges acute, medially finelj' 
tricarinate, the posterior angles 
obsoletely subacute ; meso- 
notum longer than pronotum 
and medially tricarinate. 

Length ceph. process, angle 
from apex to eyes 4 ; eyes to 
apex abdom. 10| ; exp. tegm. 
21 to 28 millim. 

Hab. Ceylon ; Kaudy (Green).— Malay Peninsula (Distant c^'- 
Doliertt/). 

Genus DICTYOPHARA. 

Dictyophara, Germ. Silb. Rev. Ent. i. p. 175 (1833) ; St&l, Hem. 

Afr. iv. p. 154 (1866) ; Atkins. J. A. S. Beng. Iv, p. 26 (1886) ; 

Dist. Biol. Centr.-Am., Rhynch. Horn. i. p. 39 (1887). 
Dictiophora, Spin. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1839, p. 290. 
Pseudophana, Buryn. Handb. Ent. ii, 1, p. 159 (18.36). 
Chanithus, Amy. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1847, p. 160. 
Nersia, Stal, Rio Jan. Hem. ii, p. 62 (1861). 

Type, D. europcea, Linn., a Palaearctic species. 
Distribution. Apparently almost universal. 

VOL. III. E 




Fis. 105.— Altait 



la ramosa. 



242 FULGORID^. 

Body obloDg or oval, somewhat depressed ; head variable in 
size and form, usually porrectly longly produced, the cephalic 
process straight or recurved, vertex and face frequently cari- 
nate ; clypeus centrally longitudinally carinate ; second joint of 
antennae small, subglobose ; rostrum long ; pronotum frequently 
broadly emarginate at base, slightly anteriorly sinuate behind the 
eyes, longitudinally carinate, the carinatious varying from one to 
three ; mesonotum frequently tricarinate ; tegmina extending 
beyond the apex of the abdomen, apical area or sometimes nearly 
apical half with transverse veins, clavus without a transverse 
vein ; wings with a few apical transverse veins ; legs moderately 
long and slender, femora shorter than tibiae, posterior tibiae armed 
with from four to six spines. 

A. Posterior tibice with Jive sjnnes. 

1774. Dictyophara nigrimacula, Walk. (Dictyophora) List Horn. 

ii, p. 318 (1851); Atkins. ^Dictyophara*?) J. A. S. Bemj. Iv, 
p. 28 (1886). 

Head bright testaceous, the longitudinal ridges green, the 
lateral areas and apex piceous, beneath with a central green 
longitudinal carination ; pronotum testaceous, the margins and 
three central cariuae green ; mesouotum testaceous, with a 
transverse piceous spot near each lateral angle of anterior margin, 
three longitudinal carinae and a small spot on each lateral margin 
green ; abdomen above ochraceous, much spotted with black, the 
spots quadrangular, and the most distinct being a double discal 
series, one on each lateral area, and a narrower marginal series ; 
clypeus, sternum, and legs ochraceous ; apical area of clypeus, 
disk of sternum, and longitudinal lines to legs black ; abdomen 
beneath black, lateral margins (broadly), segmental margins 
(narrowly), and base of anal segment ochraceous ; tegmina 
vitreous, the venation fuscous, especially that in apical area, 
stigma fuscous ; wings viti-eous, the venation fuscous ; head 
shorter than abdomen excluding base, broadly longitudinally 
sulcate above, beneath, and on lateral areas; rostrum reaching the 
posterior coxae ; posterior tibiae with five spines ; tegmina and 
wings transversely veined on about basal thirds. 

Length ceph. process, angle from apex to eyes 3| ; eyes to apex 
abdom. 8; exp. tegm. 20 millim. 

Eah. " North India " ( Warwick, Brit. Mus.). 

1775. Dictyophara nilgiriensis, sp. n. 

Pale tawny-brown ; eyes fuscous-brown ; legs longitudinally 
striped with piceous ; pronotum with the margins and three 
central longitudinal carinae flavescent ; mesonotum with a trans- 
verse piceous spot near each lateral angle of anterior margin, and 
with three central longitudinal carinae, a small spot on each 
lateral margin, and the posterior angle flavescent ; apex of 



DICTYOPUAKA. 243 

clypeus, linear stripes to rostrum, and apical spots to abdomen 
beneath piceous ; tegmina and wiugs vitreous, tbe venation 
fuscous ; tegmina with the stigma fuscous-brown ; head robust, 
about as long as abdomen, the disk, lateral areas, and under 
surface broadly longitudinally sulcate, the ridges very prominent 
and six in number, the lateral ridges and those of the under 
surface being close together, above with a short central carination 
between eyes, and beneath with a central longitudinal carina 
which is continued through clypeus ; apex of cephalic process or 
face with a central ridge subacutely rounded above ; tegmina and 
wings with transverse veins on about their apical thirds ; posterior 
tibiae with five spines. 

Length ceph. process, angle from apex to eyes 4| ; eyes to apex 
abdom. 9 ; exp. tegm. 22 to 24 millim. 

Hah. Sikhim {Brit. Mus.). Utakamand {Atkinson Coll.. Brit. 
Mus.). Nilgiri Hills {Hampson). Kangra Valley {Dudgeon). 
Tenasserim : Myitta {Doherty). 

In some (probably fresh) specimens the colour is more virescent 
than tawny-brown, the thorax above reddish-ochraceous, with the 
carina bright olivaceous-green ; the abdomen above is also some- 
times quadraugularly palely tessellate. 

B. Posterior tibice tvith four spines. 
a. Tegmina without dark fascial. 

1776. Dictyophara pallida, Bon. (Fulgora) Ins. Ind. t. viii, f. 2 

(ISOO); Westw. (Pseudaphana) Tr. Linn. Soc. xviii, p. 150 

(1841) ; Atkins. (Dictyophara) J. A. S. Bemj. Iv, p. 27 (1886). 
Plata lyrata, Germ. Thoris Arch, ii, 2, p. 47 (1830) ; Burm. 

(Pseudopbana) Handh. Ent. ii, p. 160 (1835). 
Fulffora graminea, Fabr. Syst. Rhyny. p. 4 (1803) ; Atkins. 

(Dictyophara) /. A. S. Beny. Iv, p. 27 (1886). 
Dictyophora despecta, Walk. List Ho')n.ii,\>.-M4:{l%K>\) ; Atkins. 

(Dictyophara) J. A. S. Beny. Iv, p. 27 (188G). 
Dictyophora albivitta, Walk. List Horn, ii, p. 319 (1851) ; Atkins. 

(Dictyophara?) J. A. S. Beny. Iv, p. 29 (1886) ; Melich. Horn. 

Faun. Ceylon, p. 22 (1903). 
Dictvopliora leptorhina, Walk. List Horn, ii, p. 321 (1851) 

Atkins. (Dictyophara) J. A. S. Beny. Iv, p. 30 (1886). 
Dictyophara percarinata, Kirby, J. Linn. Soc., Zool. xxiv, p. 13 

(1891) ; Melich. Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 24 (1903). 
Dictyophara liastata, Melich. Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 25 (1903). 

This is a closely aUied species in colour and markings to D. 
nilgiritnsis, Dist., but smaller, the cephalic process shorter, and 
the posterior tibiae with only four spines. It is subject to the 
.same amount of colour-variation, dependent on the specimens beiug 
fresh or otherwise, as described in I), nilgiriensis. 

Length ceph. process, angle from apex to eyes 3 to 3| ; eyes to 
apex abdom. Ik ; exp. tegm. 22 to 22| millim. 

Hah. 8ikhim ; Mungphu {Atkinson Coll., Brit. Mus.). N. 
Bengal {Miss Campbell). Bombay {Leith). Nilgiri Hills {Harap- 
son). Calcutta {Ind. Mus.). Ceylon {Green). Burma ; Thavetmyo 

r2 



244 fulgoeidjE. 

(Bingham). Bharao {Feci). Teuasserim ; Myitta {DoJiertij). — 
S.E. Borneo (Dohertif). 

Has been reported (' Indian Mus, Notes,' v, p. 43, 1900) as 
destructive to sugar-cane in tlie^North Arcot district, fSouth India. 
" These insects are seen to perch on the under side of the cane 
leaf, avoiding sun, and on shaded leaves. They are good 
springers. The bug is soft-bodied, and is very easily killed by 
slight handling. These are known to the ryots only since ten 
years. The cane crop when infested gets stunted and damaged. 
These appear when cane is six to nine months old. No remedy 
is known to the ryots. They collectively go by the name of 
Cheeda pnrugii. In Coimbatore the bug is kno^vn as Tliatlioo- 
poocJii and the winged insect as Thaloocu2}Oochi." 

Melichar, in his description of B. percarincUa, describes the 
posterior tibiae as " mit 5 kleinen Zahnchen," but in Kirby's type 
of the species, and in all the specimens from Ceylon w-hich I have 
examined, the spines are only four in number. 

I cannot escape from the conclusion that the species described 
by Eabricius as graminea is only a pale virescent form of this 
species, in which the stigma of the tegmina is only obsoletely 
infuscate. There is a specimen from Calcutta in the British 
Museum which exactly corresponds with the description. 

1777. Dictyophara sauropsis, Walk, (Dictyophora) Joum. Ent. i, 

p. 30(3 (18112) ; Atkins. (Dictyophara) J. A. S. Bemj. Iv, p. 30 
(1886). 

Allied to B. ixdlida, Don., in colour and markings, but with 
the cephalic process shorter, sternum and abdomen beneath more 
or less piceous ; femora more or less annulated with piceous near 
apices ; posterior tibiae with four spines ; tegmina with the 
venation and stigma fuscous. 

Length ceph. process, angle from apex to eyes 2 ; eyes to apex 
abdom. 7 ; exp. regm. 20 millim. 

Hah. Bengal; Dacca.— S.E. Borneo {Brit. Mus.). 

1778. Dictyophara walkeri, Atkins. J. A. S. Bemj. Iv, p. 29 (1886). 
Dictyophora pallida, Walk, {nee Don.) List Horn, ii, p. 320 

(1851). 

Body and legs pale ochraceous, apical half of abdomen above 
virescent ; ridges and a central carina to cephalic process beneath, 
and three central carinse to pro- and mesonata, green ; eyes and 
apex to cephalic process piceous ; tegmina and wings pale creamy 
hyaline, the venation on apical areas of both, and the stigma of 
tegmina, very pale fuscous ; cephalic process robust, upper and 
under surface and lateral areas broadly sulcate ; rostrum reaching 
the posterior coxte ; posterior tibi.'e with four spines. 

Length ceph. jn-ocess, angle from apex to eyes 2 ; eyes to apex 
abdom. 5| ; exp. tegm. 15 millim. 

Hah. "'N. India " {Brit. Mus.). 



DKTYOrilAUA, 



245 




b. Tegmina with longitudinal fuscous fascice. 

1779.' Dictyopliara lineata, Don. (Fulgora) Ins. Ind. t. viii, f. 1 (1800) ; 
TVestw. Ti: Linn. Soc. xviii, p. 147 (1841) ; Atkitis. (Dictyo- 
pliara) J. A. 6'. Ben;/. Iv, p. 26 (1886). 
Fulgora pallida, Grai/, Griff. An. King., Ins. W, p. 260, t. xc, f. 2 

(1832). 
Var. bistriata, Melicli. Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 23 (1903). 

Body and legs ocbraceous ; head with the longitudinal ridges 
either fuscous or spotted with that colour, its extreme apex 
piceous, the ridges between the eyes green ; thorax above rather 
reddisb-ocln-aceous ; pronotuin with the margins and three 

longitudinal carinas (the two outer- 
most oblique) green; mesonotum with 
three longitudinal green cariuse ; head 
beneath with a central green carina 
extending for more than half its 
lenp;th from base, and its lateral 
margins to a little beyond eyes of the 
same colour ; a large basal spot to 
clypeus, lateral areas of meso- and 
metasterna, and lateral margins to 
abdomen beneath black ; legs and 
rostrum finely spotted with black ; apex of rostrum black and 
about reaching posterior coxae ; tegmina and wings pale creamy 
hyaline ; tegmina with two longitudinal fuscous fascise commencing 
at a short distance from base, the uppermost submarginal and 
extending to apex, where it is broadest, the second on inner 
margin widening towards apex, the apices of both fasciae usually 
united ; the cephalic process is shorter than the abdomen, broadly 
sulcate above, beneath, and on lateral areas ; posterior tibia? with 
four spines. 

Length ceph. process, angle from apex to eyes 3 ; eyes to apex 
abdom. 6; exp. tegm. 19 millim. 

IJah. North Bengal and Mian-Mir {Brit. Mus.). Assam; 
Sibsagar {Ind. Mus.). Bombay (Leith). Ceylon (Green). 

The var. bistriata, Melich., seems to differ only by the shorter 
upper fascia to the tegmina. In his description of the posterior 
tibiae, Melichar writes " mit 3 Dornen," but there is a fourth 
basal spine. 



Fig. lUCi. 
Blctgophara. lineata. 



Atkinson (J. A. S. Beng. Iv, p. 27, 1886) has included the D. 
sinica. Walk., in his enumeration of the Indian species of 
Bictgophara. This he has done on what he acknowledges to be a 
doubtful locality, " Assam?" All the specimens I have seen are 
from China, and the species itself may ultimately prove to be but 
a local race of D. pallida, Don. 



246 FULGORID.E. 

Genus PUTALA. 
Putala, Melich. Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 26 (1903). 

Type, P. rostrata, Melich. 

DislrihutiotK Oriental and Ethiopian Regions. 

Head produced in a distinctly elongate somewhat slender 
process, longitudinally salcate above and at lateral areas, broadly 
and strongly sulcate between eyes, where there are two 
strongly convex ridges, one at inner margin of each eye, and 
between them a faint central carination ; face long, gradually 
broadened towards apex, with a central and lateral carination ; 
clypeus with a central ridge, its lateral margins strongly carinate ; 
pronotum anteriorly medially angularly produced, its anterior 
angles subacute, centrally strongly ridged, its posterior margin 
moderately concave ; mesouotum not carinate or tricarinate ; 
abdomen short ; rostrum long, extending to basal area of abdomen ; 
legs moderately long and slender, the femora and tibia? longitu- 
dinally grooved ; posterior tibite with five spines ; tegmina apically 
rounded, claviis without a transverse vein ; stigma broad with 
five veins, apical third with transverse veins ; wings with a few 
transverse veins at apes, 

a, Mesonotum non-carinate. 

1780. Putala rostrata, Melich. Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 26, t. i, f. 8, 
a,b (1903). 

Head lengthened and conically produced before eyes, the 
projection as long as the pronotum and half of mesonotum 
together, a brown longitudinal stripe runs from eyes to its apex ; 
face smooth at base and rather impressed at apex, with a 
central longitudinal ridge ; clypeus rather long and narrow, 
ridged medially and marginally, and like face brownish-yellow, 
its apex dark brown ; eyes brown ; antenna; short ; ocelli present ; 
pronotum medially ridged, two long longitudinal keels on each 
side behind eyes, yellowish-white «ith small brown dots on each 
side, the vertex brown ; mesonotum longer than broad, arched, 
without keels, brown with three longitudinal stripes on front 
margin which are abbreviated posteriorly, its posterior angle 
rusty yellow; tegmina long, narrow, and rounded posteriorly, 
traversed by brown and slightly bronzed veins, several irregularly 
divided transverse veins in apical area ; stigma large and brown, 
with three or four transverse veins ; abdomen yellowish-brown, 
the posterior segmental margins pale, two longitudinal central 
maculate fasciae, and a smaller and more indistinct lateral maculate 
fascia on each side ; abdomen beneath brown, the segmental 
margins paler; legs brownish-yellow; femora black, linearly streaked 
with black or brown ; posterior tibiae with five spines. 

2 . Length 11 ; ex p. tegm. 17 millim. 

Hob. Ceylon (Jldc Melicliar). 



MIASA. 



247 



I have not seen this species, which is, however, figui'ed by 
MeKchar, and I have transcribed what appears to be the salient 
points of his description. 

b. Mesonotum tricarinate. 

1781. Putala maculata, sp. n. 

Head and thorax above brownish-oehraceous, apex and a lateral 
line on each side of cephalic process piceous ; all the ridges to 
head, pro- and mesonota, and the posterior angle of the last a 
little paler ; abdomen above dark castaneous-brown, the posterior 
segmental margins and lateral linear spots ochraceous ; disk of 
sternum and the abdomen beneath piceous; face, base of clypeus, 
sternal lateral areas, coxae, trochanters, legs, and posterior 




Fig. 107. — Putala. viae, data. 

abdominal segmental margins ochraceous ; legs with longitudinal 
piceous lines ; tegmina and wings hyaline, the venation fuscous ; 
tegmina with the stigma and scattered apical maculate markings 
piceous ; cephalic process a little upwardly directed ; posterior 
tibiae profoundly sulcate and armed with five spines. 

Length excl. tegm. 8 ; exp. tegm. 21 millim. 

Hah. Nilgiri Hills (Hampson). Utakamand (Athins. Coll., 
Brit. Mus.). 

Genus MIASA, nov. 

Type, M. smarar/dilmea, Walk. 

Distributioyi. Oriental and Malayan Eegions. 

Body elongate ; head strongly produced in front, thick and 
subglobose to a little beyond eyes, then suddenly narrowed into 
a long straight linear process, which is medially sulcate above 
and beneath ; face elongate, moderately convexly widened 
apically, its lateral margins carinate and with a strong central 
longitudinal ridge ; rostrum long, about reaching the iniddle of 
abdomen; pronotum with the lateral margins moderately laminate, 
their anterior angles rounded, base very strongly angularly sinuate, 
the anterior margin centrally angularly produced and medially 
longitudinally carinate ; mesonotum very obsoletely carinate ; legs 
long and slender ; posterior femora very short, only about half 
the length of the posterior tibiae, Avhich possess about five prominent 



248 



rULGOEID.i:. 



spines ; anterior femora with a distinct blunt spine near apex : 
tegmina long, narrow, much longer than body, about apical third 
with transverse veins, clavus without a transverse vein, inner 
claval vein very short and terminating a little beyond base ; 
wings about one-third shorter thau tegmina, with a few transverse 
veins on apical area. 

This genus is allied to Dictyopliai-oides, Fowl. (Biol. Centr.-Am., 
Rhynch. Horn, i, p. 44, 1900), from which it may be at once 
sejjarated by the non-serrate anterior femora, a character omitted 
in Fowler's diagnosis ; it is also allied to the Ethiopian genus 
Simotettix, Stal, but differs by the non-dilated anterior legs. 

1782, Miasa smaragdilinea, Walk. (Elidlptera) J. Linn. Soc, Zool. i. 
p. 86 (1857) ; id. (Dictyiophora) List Horn. Suppl. p. 318 (1858). 

Ferruginous- brown ; head with cephalic process black above, 
green beneath and on lateral areas, margins of vertex green ; 
face green with the central ridge testaceous ; clyeus black, with 
a broad ochraceous transverse fascia near its base and with two 
small central spots of the same colour ; anterior marginal area 
and posterior lateral angles of pronotum, a broad central fascia 
to mesonotum, and central and lateral fasciae to abdomen above 
pale green or ochraceous ; body beneath black ; lateral areas of 
sternum and legs ochraceous ; anterior tibiae with a prominent 
subapical creamy-white annulation ; posterior margins of sternal 




Fig. lOS. — 3Iiasa smaragdiliiiea. 

segments, metanotum, and posterior abdominal segmental margins 
stramineous ; coxae and trochanters black ; tegmina and wings 
hyaline, the venation ochraceous or fuscous ; tegmina with the 
posterior margin broadly dull ochraceous, the stigma and an 
oblique apical streak fuscous ; wings with an apical fuscous 
spot ; cephalic process as long as remainder of head and pronotum 
together. 



UDUGAMA. 249 

Length ceph. process, Jingle from eyes to apex 2^ • eyes to apex 
abdom. 9 ; exp. tegm. 27 millim. 

Hab. Tenasserim ; Myitta (Doherty).— 'Malacca, ; Mt. Ophir 
{Wallace, Brit. Mus.). 

Geuus UDUGAMA. 

Anaguia, Sfal, Stett. ent. Zeit. xxii, p. 149 (1861) ; id. Heni.Afr. iv, 
pp. 151 k 159 (1806); Atkins. J. A. S. Bencj. Iv, p. 24 (1886), 
nom prfeocc. 

Udugama, Melich. Horn. Fa\in. Ceylon, p. 27 (1903). 

Kareol, Kirk. Entomolor/ist, 1904, p. 279. 

Type, U. splendens, Germ. 

Distrihution. Oriental and Malayan Eegious. 

Head prominent before the eyes, where it is broad and centrally 
and laterally carinate; face elongate, tricarnate; clypeus marginate, 
centrally carinate ; pronotum short, centrally carinate, anteriorly 
obtusely prominent at base of head, and then sinuate to anterior 
angles, which are subacute, posteriorly angularly emargiuate ; 
mesonotum tricarinate ; legs long and slender ; anterior femora a 
little dilated beneath and with a distinct blunt spine near apex ; 
posteinor tibiae with seven spines, one of them at extreme base ; 
rostrum long, passing posterior coxae ; tegmina much longer than 
abdomen, about apical third, with transverse veins, the veins 
considerably bifurcate on apical margin, and a few small transverse 
veins on apical area. 

Melichar has redescribed Stal's genus Anagnia under the name 
of Udugama. As, however, the name Anagnla is preoccupied 
(Walker, 1854), Melichar's is available, and Kirkaldy's proposed 
new name unnecessary. 

1783. Udugama splendens. Germ. (Flata) Thons Arch, ii, 2, p. 48 
(18-'jO); Westw. (Pseudaphana) Tr. Linn. Soc. xviii. p. 151 
(1841); St&l (Anagnia), Stett. ent. Zeit. xxii, p. 149 (1861); 
Atkins. J. A. S. Beng, Iv, p. 25 (1886). 
Udugama exoleta, Melich. Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 28, t. i, f. 7, 
a,h (903). 

Above browiiish-ochraceous, the head and sometimes pronotum 

a little paler ; mesonotum casta- 
neous-brown with the carinations 
flavescent ; abdomen above with 
broad central and lateral macular 
castaneous fasciae, becoming fused 
towards apex ; face ochraceous, 
with lateral longitudinal series of 
small fuscous spots ; clypeus 
ochraceous, its apex castaneous ; 
Fig. 109.— Udiu/ama splend.cns. body beneath and legs ochraceous ; 

sternal spots, basal two-thirds of 
abdomen, mottlings to femora, bases to tibiae, and spines to 
posterior tibias castaneous ; tegmina and wings hyaline, the 




250 FDLGORID^. 

venation fuscous ; tegmina with a large stigmatic spot, the apical 
margin more or less continued on apex of inner margin, and a 
claval streak fuscous ; wiugs with a small fuscous apical streak ; 
rostrum just passing posterior coxae ; posterior tibiae with seven 
spines, the basal one very short. 

Length excl. tegm. 7 to 9^ ; exp. tegm. 20 to 25 millim. 

Hah. Bombay. Ceylon ; Kandy {Green). Burma ; Bhamo 
{Fea). — Java. Philippines. 

Genus CENTROMERIA. 

Centromeria, Stdl, Ofv. Vet.-Ak. Fork. 1870, p. 745 ; Atkins. 
J. A. 8. Beng. Iv, p". 25 (1886). 

Type, G. longipennis, "Walk., from the Philippines. 

Distribution. Oriental, Malayan, and Ethiopian Regions. 

Body somewhat elongate ; head moderately and upwardly 
produced in front of eyes, its apex gradually narrowed, vertex 
acuminate before the eyes ; face elongate, tricarinate, the median 
ridge very strongly produced, the lateral ridge on each side some- 
what obsoletely developed from behind eyes, and between this 
and the carinate margin a very distinct longitudinal groove ; 
clypeus centrally carinate ; pronotum short, with a single central 
carination, posteriorly broadly angularly sinuate ; mesonotum 
tricarinate ; tegmina longer than the body, gradually widened 
towards apex, about apical third with numerous transverse veins, 
veins of the clavus united beyond middle, interior ulnar vein 
bifurcate at about same distance from base, radial vein bifurcate a 
little beyond middle of tegraen ; stigma elongate or oblong, with 
oblique veins ; wings with transverse veins on apical area ; legs 
long and slender, anterior femora with a minute acute spine near 
apex ; rostrum long, passing posterior coxse ; posterior tibiae long 
and spined. 

A. Tegmina and luings Jii/aline, wiiJwut fascice or spots. 

a. Head ivith a distinct cephalic process. 

a. Cephalic process about as long in front of eyes as length from 
anterior margins of eyes to base of head. 

1784. Centromeria speilinea. Walk. (D\cUo^\\o\:?i) J. Linn. Soc, Zool. 
I, p. 84 (185U) ; Atkins. (Centromeria) J. A. S. Beny. Iv, p. 25 

(1886). 

Head above and pronotum reddish-ochraceous ; head with the 
marginal ridges to vertex and a central line to cephalic projection 
green ; a submarginal lateral fascia aud central ridge to pronotum 
green ; mesonotum pale reddish-ochraceous, with the anterior 
lateral margins, the posterior angle, aud the three longitudinal 



CENTKOMERIA. 



251 



ridges green ; abdomen green, its apex greenish-ochraceous ; face 
green, the central ridge purplish ; body beneath and legs pale green 
or greenish-ochraceous ; apices of the femora, apices of anterior 
tibia?, the anterior tarsi, and apex of rostrum black or piceous ; 

tegmina and wings hyaline, 
the venation brownish- 
olivaceous ; tegmina with 
the stigma fuscous ; cephalic 
process recurved, ascending, 
about as long as vertex, 
its apex subacute ; rostrum 
about reaching the apex of 
the second abdominal seg- 
ment; posterior tibiae with 
Fig. WO. -- Cent romena .^peiUiwa, six spines, of which the three 

on basal half are smallest. 
Length excl. tegm. 11 ; exp. tegm. 28 to 29 1 millim. 
Bab. Tenasserim ; Myitta (Doherti/). — Malay Peninsula ; S.E. 
Borneo. 




h. Cephalic process longer in front of eyes than length from 
anterior margins of eyes to base of head. 

1785. Centromeria cephalica, sp. n. 

Body and legs ochraceous, in fresh specimens probably green ; 
tegmina and wings with the venation dull ochraceous ; tegmina 
with the stigma very pale ochraceous ; head prominently produced 
in front and a little upwardly recurved, the marginal ridges very 
prominent and with a central carination which extends only a 
short distance from base ; longer in front of eyes than from 
anterior margins of eyes to base ; anterior femora practically 
without a discernible spine at apex ; posterior tibiae with five 
spines, the basal spine small. 

Length excl. tegm. 9 ; exp. tegm. 23 millim. 

Hab. Nilgiri Hills (Hnmpson). 



b. Head more or less truncate in front, tvii.hout a cephalic proci^ss. 

1786. Centromeria viridistigma, Kirhy (Dictyophora), /. Linn. Soc, 
Zoo/, xxiv, p. 135 (1891); Melich. (Dictyophara) Horn. Faun. 
Ceylon, p. 23 (1903). 

Head above green, disk of vertex and apex purplish-red ; pro- 
notum green, lateral margins and broad posterior marginal fasciae 
(not meeting centrally) purplish-red ; mesonotum green, the 
disk between the central carinae purplish-red ; abdomen above 
green or in some specimens greenish-ochraceous ; face bright 
green, the central ridge purplish-red ; body beneath greenish or 
greenish-ochraceous ; lateral margins of stex'uum purplish-red; 
legs testaceous, bases of femora more or less green ; tarsi piceous ; 



252 FULGOEID^ 

tegmina and wings hyaline, the venation fuscous-brown ; tegmina 
with the stigma greenish, the apical area very slightly infuscate ; 
■head angularly produced, but with no distinct cephalic process ; 
rostrum ])assing the posterior coxae; posterior tibiae with lour 
spines and a minute basal tubercular projection; anterior femora 
with a distinct spine near apex. 

Length excl. tegm. 8 to 9 ; exp. tegni. 20 niillim. 

Hah. Ceylon (Leivis); Peradeniya, Kandy {Green). 

B. Tegmina and luings fasciate and maculate. 

1787. Centromeria simulata, sp. n. 

Head ochraceous, two small central spots on vertex, a central 
longitudinal line to front, two transverse lines on each lateral area 
before eyes, central longitudinal ridge and a transverse subapical 
fascia to face castaneous ; clypeus castaneous ; prouotum casta- 
neous-browu, with a broad central ochraceous fascia ; mesonotum 
castaneous-brown, with the narrow central carination and the 
posterior angle ochraceous ; body piceous, with a double series of 
large discal and a series of smaller spots on each lateral margin 
ochraceous ; body beneath dark castaneous-brown ; rostrum, coxae, 
legs, and some maculate markings to abdomen ochraceous ; an 
apical annulation to anterior femora, posterior femora (excluding 
two apical ochraceous annulations), suffusions to tibiae, and apex to 
rostrum dark castaneous-brown ; tegmina and wings hyaline, the 
venation broun ; tegmina with the stigma, apical margin extending 
to about outer fourth of posterior margin, and claval area fuscous- 
brown ; wings with an irregular elongate fuscous-brown spot on 
outer margin ; head with a distinct cephalic process upwardly 
directed, and about as long as space between outer margins of 
eyes ; rostrum about reaching ])osterior coxae ; vertex of head 
foveate on each side of central ridge between eyes. 

Length excl. tegm. 10 ; exp. tegm. ^1 millim. 

Hah. Assam ; jVIargherita {Atlcinson Coll., Brit. Mus.). 

The markings to the tegmina and wings of this species strongly 
I'esemble those of Udugama splendens, Germ. 

Genus DICTYOPHARINA. 

Dictyopharjna, Melich. Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 2o (1903). 

Type, D. viridissima, Melich. 
Distribution. Oriental Eegion *. 

Head not produced in a cephalic process, a little longer than 
breadth between eyes, rounded in front, carinate medially and 



* This genus will probably be found to include a large number of species 
hitherto treated as forming a section of Biciyopham, and in that case it will 
also have a Neotropical and Ethiopian distribution. 



DICTYOPHA.B1NA. 



253 



laterally ; face three or four times as lono^ as broad, with three 
loDgitudinal ridges which converge towards the clypeus, the lateral 
ridges unite anteriorly in a curve with the central one : prouotum 
slightly arched in front, broadly concave posteriorly, medially 
longitudinally ridged ; mesonotum w'ith three longitudinal cari- 
nations, the lateral ridges somewhat angularly sinuately waved and 
forked, the outer fork short and straight, the inner longer and 
stronger ; tegnrina hyaline, in structure as in Dictyopliora, but 
the costal margin a little more arched, three long veins in basal 
area divided near middle, in apical third numerous transverse 
veins ; stigma long, formed of six veins including the stigmatal 
border ; posterior tibise with six or seven spines ; anterior femora 
with a short acute spine near apex. 



1788. Dictyopharina viridissima, MeUch. Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 26 

(1903). 

Green in fresh specimens, ochraceous in discoloured ones ; 

tegmina and wings hyaline with the venation green or ochraceous ; 

head a little longer than breadfh between eyes, the vertex broad ; 




Fig. 111. — Dictyopharina viridissima. 

rostrum passing the posterior coxae ; tegmina with the apical 
third strongly transversely veined. 

Length excl. tegm. 8 to 11 ; exp. tegra. 24 to 30 millim. 

Hah. Bombay {Brit. Mus.) ; JN^ilgiri Hills {Hampson). Ceylon 
{Green). 



1789. Dictyopharina consanguinea, .sp. n. 

Allied to D. viridissima, Melich., in coloration, but differing by 
the head, in which the vertex is much more elongate and the 
latei'al ridges more sinuate ; the lateral third of the tegmina is 
also very distinctly less transversely veined ; the posterior tibiae 
are also less distinctly spined on their basal areas, where the 
spines are so obsolete as to make them appear less in number than 
in Melichar's species. 

Length excl. tegm. 8 to 11 ; exp. tegm. 22 to 30 millim. 

Hah. Burma ; Myingyan {Bingham, Brit, Mus.). Pegu {AtMn- 
son Coll.). Tenasserim ; Myitta {Dolierty). 



254 FULGOBID^. 

Genus SYMPLANA. 

Symplana, Kirby, J. Linv. Sac, ZooL xxiv, p. 136 (1891) ; Melich. 
Mom. Faun. Ceylon, p. 19 (1903). 

Type, S. viridinervis, Kirby. 

Distribution. Ceylon. 

Head and thorax above broadly and profoundly longitudinally 
sulcate ; head produced in a somewhat upcurved cephalic process 
before the eyes, sulcate above, the edges emarginate ; face long, 
with a central and two lateral carinas, one on each side, the last 
only extending to about middle from apex, and for this distance 
the edges are also carinate, giving the appearance of five carinse as 
described by Kirby ; legs of moderate length, posterior tibiae with 
a single spine placed beyond middle ; tegmina long and slender, 
not apically ampliated, with longitudinal simple veins, on about 
apical fifth with transverse, oblique, and longitudinal veinlets ; 
clavus without a transverse vein ; wings with about two trans- 
verse veins near apex. 

I have followed Kirby and Melichar in enumerating this 
genus among the Dictyopharinci', but I do so with considerable 
doubt and hesitation. 

1790. Symplana viridinervis, Kirbi/, J. Linn. Soc, Zool. xxiv, 
p. 130, t. vi, f. 11 (1891) ; Melich. Hoyn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 19 
(1903). 

Greenish in fresh specimens, ochraceous in older or cabinet 
examples ; the central sulcation to the head and thorax above 
sanguineous ; body beneath and legs a little paler in hue, apices of 

the tarsi piceous ; tegmina sub- 
hyaline, somewhat talc-like, the 
venation ochraceous, the edge of 
inner margin sanguineous, a 
double series o^ transverse a^Rs 
a little before apex, the outeruiost 
straight, the inner series obliquely 
angulate, beyond these transverse 
Fig. \V2.— Symplana viridinervis. series the upper portion of the 

apical area is obliquely and the 
lower portion longitudinally veined ; wings a little paler and more 
hyaline than the tegmina. 

Length excl. tegm. 6 ; exp. tegra. 13 millim. 
Hah. Ceylon ; Pundaluoya {Green). 




Dictyopliara fuminervis, Leth. Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr. 1892, p. 208. 

I ha\e failed to identify this species. The characters given of 
" pronotum unicarinatum " and the posterior tibiae as " quinque- 
spinosis " separate it from any species of Dictyopliara here 
enumerated, and it may belong to another genus altogether. 



cixiintE. 255 



Subfamily IV. CIXIIN^. 

Cixiida, Stdl, Hem. Afr. iv, p. 129 (1866). 

Cixiina, Stal, Of v. Vet.-Ak. Fork. 1870, p. 746 ; Athins. J.A.S. Beng. 

Iv, p.31 (1886). 
Cixiidas, Melich. Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 30 (1903). 

The characters of this subfamily have already been fully detailed 
{ante, p. 176). It is principally distinguished from the Dictyo- 
jpharinoi by the position of the ocelli, of which there are usually 
three, and one of them placed on the apex of the face ; this facial 
ocellus is stated by Stal to be very rarely wanting, and if wanting 
the sides of the clypeus are convex and not carioate. From the 
subfamilies which immediately follow it, it is to be at once dis- 
tinguished by the length of the claval vein, which does not reach 
the apex. 

Synopsis of Genera. 

A. Mesonotum with five longitudinal ridges .... Or^iARiTg, p. 256. 

B. Mesonotum with three longitudinal ridges. 

a. Face broad, longer than broad, more or less 
convexly ampliated or broadened posteriorly, 
centrally and laterally carinate. 

a. Tegmina with the inner margin con- 

tinuous, not widened at its apex. 
a'. Tegmina with costal margin continuous, 
not sinuate. 
(i^. The three longitudinal veins to teg- 
mina not united near middle of 

tegiueu Cixius, p. 259. 

b-. The three longitudinal veins to teg- 
mina united near middle hy two 
transverse veins. 
n^. Vertex of head as long as broad, its 
lateral margins raised and lami- 
nate Anila, p. 260. 

b^. Vertex of head broader than long, 

its lateral margins ridged KuvEEA,p. 261. 

b'. Tegmina with costal margin sinuate 
near middle. 
«". Two series of transverse veins to 

tegmina Kirbyana, p. 262. 

h~. Veins to tegmina longitudinal and 

furcate Mxtndopa, p. 263. 

b. Tegmina with the apical area at inner 

margin more or less posteriorly produced. 

a . Vertex of head with its anterior 

margin truncate Ptoleria, p. 265. 

b' . Vertex of head with its anterior 
margin sinuate and the lateral 
angles prominent Barma, p. 266. 



256 rULGOlMJD-E. 

b. Face broadened posteriorly, but anteriorly 

straiglitly narrowed and produced beyond 

eyes . . '. Chroneba, p. 267. 

c. Face long, narrow, lateral margins strongly 

carinate, narrowed towards clypeus Malandeva, J). 268, 

d. Face long, narrow, lateral margins strongly 

carinate, more or less narrowed and com- 
pressed between eyes Brixia, p. 269. 



Genus OLIARUS. 

Oliarus, Stdl, Berl. ent. Zeitschv. vi, p. ^06 (1862) ; Hon. Afr. iv, 
pp. 164 & 166 (1866) ; Atkt7is. J. A. S. Bnuj. Iv. p. 32 (l886) ; 
Alelich. Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 30 (1903). 

Triopsis (part.), 8ign. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1800, p. 187. 

Type, 0. tvallceri, Stal. 

Distribution. Ethiopian, Oriental, Malayan, and Eastei'n Palm- 
are tic Eegious. 

Head somewhat narrower than the tliorax, angularly einarginate 
at the base, vertex concave, varying in length and breadth ; face and 
clypeus together elliptical, with a distinct median longitudinal ridge 
running through them ; the lateral margins rounded, slightly 
dilated ; face with an apical ocellus ; margins of clypeus ridged ; 
eves slightly or scarcely sinuated beneath ; antenna3 very short, 
inserted beneath the eyes, first joint concealed, second small, some- 
W'hat globose ; pronotum very short, postei'iorly deeply angularly 
sinuate : mesonotum with live longitudinal ridges ; tegmina 
rounded at apices, radial and exterior ulnar veins contiguous at 
their bases, radial and anterior ulnar veins bifurcating before the 
middle of the tegmen ; legs moderately long, posterior tibiae armed 
with two or three spines. 

A. Tegmina witJi the cellular areas ivithout minute setose fuscous spots. 

1791. Oliarus walkeri, StSl (Cixius), Freg. Fug. Resa, Hem. p. 272 
(1859) ; i(h (Oliarus) Berl. ent. Zeitschr. vi. p. 306 (1862) ; Atkins. 
J. A. S. Beny.lv. p. 33 (1886). 

Obscurely testaceous ; face and legs flavous-testaceous ; tegmina 

pale vinaceous-hyaline, veins 
concolorous, remotely punc- 
tured with fuscous beyond 
the middle, the five apical 
transverse veins inf uscated ; 
stigma pale testaceous - 
yellow, in\^ardly narrowly 
fuscous ; head flavous-tes- 
Fig. m.-Olkn-Hs walkeri. taceous, vertex almost twice 

as long as broad, with two 
ridges running forward and converging from the middle ; face with 
the oval clypeus narrowed at base and apex, a single forked ridge 




OLIAEUS. 257 

at the base itself ; thorax testaceous ; pronotum very short, 
posteriorly angularly sinuate ; mesonotum with five longitudinal 
ridges which are paler in colour, and of ^^■hich the lateral pair 
soroewhat diverge towards the apex ; body beneath pale flavo- 
testaceous ; sternum piceous. 

Length excl. tegni. 4 ; exp. tegm. 12 milliin. 

Hah. A. species recorded from the Malay Peninsula and the 
Phihppine Islands, just entering our faunistic area on its south- 
eastern frontier, I am indebted to Dr. Aurivillius for an oppor- 
tunity of figuring it. 

1792. Oliarus stigma, Motsch. (Cixius) Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscxxwi, 3, 

p. 105 (1863); Melick. Horn. Faun. Cei/lon, p. 30 (1903). 

Body above pale castaneous; ridges to head, pronotum, posterior 
margin of mesonotum, and abdominal segmental margins pale 
ochraceous ; body beneath brownish - ochraceous ; abdominal 
segmental margins pale ochraceous, abdominal apex piceous ; 
face (excluding margins and central ridge) castaneous ; legs 
ochraceous ; tegmina creamy-hyaline, the veins fuscous, on about 
basal half and near apex alternately broken with pale ochra- 
ceous : stigma fuscous, ochraceous at base ; the tegmina are also 
ornamented with some irregularly shaped fuscous spots, situate 
two before middle and about six on apical area, and with a 
posterior apical marginal fascia of the same colour, the marginal 
edges of the tegmen also fuscous ; wings hyaline, the venation 
and apical marginal edge fuscous ; medial ridge to face and clypeus 
acute, forked at anterior margin of face; mesonotum with five 
medial longitudinal carinate lines, those on each side of the central 
one converging and not reaching the anterior margin ; posterior 
tibiae with two or three very short spines before middle. 

Length excl. tegm. 5i to 6 ; exp. tegm. 16 to 19 millim. 

Ilab. Ceylon (Green). .: 

1793. Oliarus tabrobanensis, Melich. Horn. Fatm. Ceulon, r». 31 

(1903). ^ 

I only know this species by Melichar's description, of which the 
following appear to be the salient points : — Tellowish-brown ; face 
two and a half times as long as width between eyes, with a trans- 
verse ridge strongly acutely angulated and interrupted in front ; 
fore part of head rusty-brown, on its lower angles there is a 
yellowish-white transverse streak on each side ; antennae piceous ; 
ocelli distinct, pale yellowish, shining ; pronotum narrow, 
posteriorly obtusely angularly excavate, pale yellowish-brown, 
thoracic folds rusty-brown, the outward curved lateral keels 
paler ; mesonotum brown with five rusty-yellow ridges ; tegmina 
hyaline with yellowish veins, which are coloured in places with 
piceous and are set with fine brown granules from which emerge 
short erect brown hairs, on the inside of the yellowish costal vein 

VOL. III. s 



258 



rULGORID^. 



are three piceous longitudinal streaks, but the marginal vein is not 
setosely granulate ; stigma three-cornered, piceous, pale yellowish in 
front, in the apical area are several brown spots, especially on apical 
margin, apical veins mostly brown, transverse veins infuscate, 
closing marginal vein of clavus piceous ; wings hyaline with 
brown veius ; abdomen yellowish-brown with the segmental 
margins paler ; legs rusty-yellow with indistinct darker longi- 
tudinal stripes. 

Length " 6 to 6| millim." 

Hah. Ceylon {Green). 

The type is stated to be in Jvirkaldy's collection, and is therefore 
presumably at Honolulu. 

1794. Oliarus caudatus, Walk. (Cixius) Ins. Saund., Horn. p. 43 
(1858) ; Atkins. (Cixius?) J. A. S. Beng. Iv, p. 32 (1886). 

Body pale castaneous-brown ; ridges to head, pronotum, 
carinations to mesonotum, abdominal segmental margins, and legs 
ochraceous ; fi'ontal area of face (excluding margins and central 
ridge) piceous ; tegmina hyaline, the venation fuscous ; stigma 




114. — Oliarus caudaius. 



fuscous, pale at base, transverse veins on apical areas infuscate, 
and two or three very obscure small fuscous spots at apical margin, 
the longitudinal veins are minutely fuscously setosely maculate : 
wings hyaline, the venation palely fuscous ; posterior tibi» with 
two or three distinct spines, one near middle prominent ; meso- 
notum with five longitudinal carinate lines, those on each side of 
the central one slightly converging and not reaching anterior 
margin. 

Length excl. tegm. 6 ; exp. tegm. 16 to 20 millim. 

Hah, " North Hindostan " {Jide Walker). 



1795. Oliarus fusconebulosus, sp. n. 

Head, pronotum, mesonotum, and sternum very pale castaneous ; 
legs ochraceous; abdomen black; tegmina pale creamy, semi-opaque, 
the veins marked with small fuscous setose spots, three transverse 



cixius. 259 

fuscous fasciae, of which the first, complete and nearly straight, 
is placed a little beyond base, the second curved posteriorly, 
attenuated, and not quite reaching posterior margin, is situate a 
little beyond middle, the third short at apex of stigma, apical 
margin also fuscous ; stigma ochraceous ; wings very pale 
fuliginous and semi-hyaline, a little darker on apical areas ; 
mesonotum with five longitudinal ridges ; vertex of head with a 
distinct longitudinal ridge ; ridges to face and clypeus well 
developed. 

Length excl. tegm. 5 ; exp. tegm. 15 inillim. 

Hah. Burma ; Momeit (Doherti/). 



B. Tegmina ivith the cellular areas thicJcli/ sprinlded ivith minute 
setose fuscous spots. 

1796. Oliarus punctipennis, sp. n. 

Head, pronotum, and mesonotum castaneous or piceous-brovvn ; 
abdomen above brownish-ochraceous, the lateral and apical areas 
piceous ; body beneath, rostrum, and legs brownish-ochraceous, 
the segmental abdominal margins piceous ; disk of face (excluding 
carina) castaneous ; tegmina semi-hyaline with very numerous 
minute setose fuscous spots, both on the veins and in the cellular 
areas ; the venation, stigma, some irregular longitudinal apical 
spots, and the claval and posterior margins fuscous ; wings hyaline, 
the venation fuscous ; mesonotum with five distinct longitudinal 
carinate lines, the central one most pronounced ; face and clypeus 
centrally longitudinally carinate, their lateral margins acute ; 
rostrum very long, its apex reaching the apical abdominal 
segment ; pronotum strongly centrally longitudinally ridged, an 
■oblique carinate line near each lateral margin, and a transverse 
sinuate carinate line connecting them ; posterior tibiae with two 
or three spines, one near middle very prominent. 

Length excl. tegm. 8| to 10| ; exp. tegm. .20 to 25 millim. 
Bah. Sikhim {Ind. Mus.) ; Mungphu {Atkinson Coll.., Brit. 
Mus.). Nilgiri Hills {Hampson). Burma ; Buby Mines and Karen 
Hills {Doherty). 

Genus CIXIUS. 

Cixius, Latr. Hist. Nat. Ins. xii, p. 310 (1803-4) ; id. Gen. Ins. iii, 
p. 1C.6 (1807) ; Stdl, Hem. Afr. iv, p. 164 (18G6) ; Atkins. J. A. S. 
Ben<j. Iv, p. 31 (1886) ; Melich. Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 30 (1903). 

Type, C. nervosus, Linn., a Palcearctic species. 

Distribution. Probably nearly universal. 

Head somewhat narrower than the pronotnui, short, roundly 
sinuated at base, vertex moderately concave, a little narrowed 
anteriorly, its lateral margins strongly upwardly carinate ; face 
longer than broad, gradually somewhat convexly broadened 

s2 



260 



FULG0EID.5:. 



posteriorly, centrally and laterally .strongly carinate, with an 
ocellus on apex ; clypeus continuously carinate with face both 
laterally and medially ; eyes very slightly sinuate beneath ; 
antenna inserted beneath the eyes, second joint small, sub- 
globose ; pronotum very short, posteriorly deeply angularly 
emarginate ; mesonotum tricarinate ; legs moderate in length, 
posterior tibise armed with two or three spines ; tegmiua with the 
lateral margins parallel, interior ulnar and radial veins bifurcating 
to\^■ards apical areas. 



179^ 



CixillS pilifer, Melich. Hom.Faioi. Ccylun, p. 30 (1903). 

Body aud legs ochraceous ; tegmina 
pale tawny-yellow, anterior aud apical 
margins and stigma flavescent, veins 
somewhat thicliiy covered with lougly 
setose granules ; wings pale lacteous, 
the veins a little darker ; eyes more or 
less piceous ; posterior tibite with two 
short spines. 

Leugth inch tegm. 4 millim. 

Hah. Ceylon ; Pattipola {Mus. 
Hon<jrois). 

I am indebted to Dr. Horvath for two 
cotypes of this species. 




1 1 5.— Cixius 2jilife}\ 



Geuus ANIL A, nov. 

Type, A. fuliginosa, Dist. 

Distribution. Burma. 

Head narrower than pronotum ; vertex as long as broad, with 
the lateral margins raised and laminate before and at inner 
margins of eyes, its base concavely emarginate ; face longer than 
broad, truncate anteriorly (where it is narrowest) and concavely 
emarginate posteriorly (where it is broadest), centrally and mar- 
ginally carinate; clypeus moderately convex, obscurely centrally 
carinate, its lateral margins distiuctly acutely carinate ; pronotum 
very narrow, its base subaugularly emarginate ; mesonotum 
tricarinate ; legs of moderate length, posterior tibise with two 
short spines, basal joint of posterior tarsi long ; tegmina moderately 
long, somewhat narrow, apices rounded, claval vein not reaching 
apex, third longitudinal vein bifurcate before middle of tegmen, 
costal area with a single oblique transverse vein, two transverse 
veins terminating the three discal longitudinal veins and a dis- 
located series of transverse veins crossing tegmen before apex ; 
stigma somewhat long, outwardly angularly attenuated ; wings 
broader than tegmina. 

I place this genus in the Cixihia% by the character of the clavai 
vein not reaching apex. 



KUVEEA. 261 



1798. Anila fiiliginosa. 

Body above castaneous- brown, mesonotum somewhat piceous, 
body beneath and legs brownish-ochraceous ; tegmina semi-opaque, 
greyish-brown, with fahginous suffusions, which are mostly traus- 




Fig. 116. — All ila fidit/inosa. 

verse and shown in hgure better than by words, veins somewhat 
thickly covered with setose fuscous granules ; wings semi-hyaline, 
greyish-brown, fuliginous at apices. 

Length excl. tegm. 5 ; exp. tegm. IG millim. 

Hab. Burma ; liuby Mines {Dohertij). 

I received two specimens of this species from Mr. Doherty. 



Genus KUVERA, uov. 

Type, K. semihyalina, Dist. 

Distribution. Oriental Kegion. 

Head narrower than pronotum, vertex broader than long, its 
lateral margins ridged and strongly concavely excavated for the 
reception of the eyes ; face subquadrate, only slightly longer than 
broad, its lateral margins ampliately acutely recurved, and with a 
central ridge not reaching anterior margin ; clypeus with a central 
ridge, and its lateral margins distinctly acutely carinate ; pro- 
notum very short, with a prominent central ridge, its base 
angularly emarginate ; mesonotum \ery large, tricarinate ; legs 
somewhat long and slender, posterior tibiae with two spines, 
posterior tarsi with the basal jonit very long ; tegmina with their 
apices somewhat conically rounded ; costal membrane broad, 
without transverse veins, lower basal longitudinal vein forked, 
three discal transverse veins beyond middle, and a curved 
irregular series of transverse veins before apex, dehniog two sets 
of cellular areas, the apical areas numerous and continued to 
stigma ; claval vein not reaching apex. 

1799. Kuvera semiliyalina, sp. n. 

Vertex of head and pronotum ochraceous ; mesonotum and 
abdomen castaneous-brown, posterior margins of metanotum 
ochraceous ; body beneath castaneous-brown ; anterior and lateral 
margins of face and the legs brownish-ochraceous ; tegmina and 



262 



FL'LGORID^. 



wings pale semi-hyaliue, the venation mostly pale fuscous; 
tegniina crossed before middle by a curved, slightly broken. 




Fig. 117. — -Kiivera scmihyaJina. 

macular fuscous fascia ; stigma piceous, inwardly margined \\ith 
ochraceous. 

Length escl. tegni. 5; exp. tegm. 16 millim 

Hah. Burma: Euby Mines (Z>o7j^rf?/). 



Grenus KIRBYANA, nom. n. 

Kirbya, Melich. Honi. Faun. Ceylon, p. 37 (1903), nom. prfeocc. in 
Lepid. & Dipt. 

Type, A', pagana, Melich. 

Distribution. Ceylon. 

Head with the semi-globular eyes narrower than pronotum ; 
face rather longer than broad, elongate, quadrangular, smooth, 
carinate at sides and middle, at anterior margin angularly 
indented, longer than breadth between eyes, nearly as long as 
clypeus, expanded and broadest at clypeus; clypeus large, carinate 
at middle and sides ; ej^es longly oval, slightly concave beneath ; 
antennae short, second joint strongly cylindrical ; ocelli distinct 
near anterior margins of eyes ; pronotum very narrow, scarcely 
half as long as the vertex ; mesonotum nearly twice as long 
as pronotum and vertex together, tricarinate ; tegmina placed 
vertically, apical margin slightly convex ; three discal longitudinal 
veins, of which the upper and lower are forked ; two series of 
transvei'se veins in middle and apical areas, the latter much more 
complete ; abdomen laterally compressed ; legs simple ; posterior 
tibipe not spiued. 



1800. Kirljyana pagana, Melich. (Kirbya) Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 38, 
t. ii, f. 1 a, b, c. 

Body laterally compressed ; vertex, middle of pronotum and 
mesonotum yellowish, outer sides or vertical ridges bordered with 
brown, at the end of vertical ridge, but on its inner side, a small 
brown spot ; face yellowish marbled M"ith numerous brown 
blotches, middle carina paler, lateral ridges with two pale spots ; 
clypeus yellow with indistinct brown stripes ; ocelli ruby-red ; 



MTTNDOPA. 



263 



tegmina yellowish-brown, in middle of costal margin a large pale 

marginal spot round which the 
corium is darker-coloured, the 
veins and costal and apical 
marginal veins white ; all the 
veins with black granules, as 
well as costal margin, which is 
white until it runs into thu 
apical marginal vein, black 
spots at the apices of apical 
veins, a series of larger black 
spots are found on the claval 
vein and also on the inner 
bifurcating veins ; abdomen 
and legs yellowish-brown, the tibite longitudinally striped with 
brown. 

Length " $ , 5^ millim." 
Hab. Ceylon ; Peradeniya {fide MelicJiar). 

I only know this genus and species from Melichar's descrip- 
tions and fisfures. 




Fig. 118. — Kirhyana imgana. 



Genus MUNDOPA, nov. 

Type, M. chujalensis, Dist. 

Distribution. Oriental and Malayan Regions. 

Head considerably narrower than pronotum, lateral margins ol' 
vertex ampliately raised and apically subacute, giving the anterior 
margin an appearance of concavity, and possessing a central apical 
ridge ; face elongate, moderately posteriorly ampliate, with a 
central longitudinal ridge, and the lateral margins strongly carinate, 
clypeus with a central ridge, base of head transversely sinuate ; 
pronotum very small with prominent lateral ridges ; mesonotum 
tricarinale : legs of moderate length, femora moderately thickened,, 
posterior tibi^ unarmed, basal joint of posterior tarsi long ; 
tegmina broadened towards apex, their costal margins moderately 
arched and convex on basal areas, and then distinctly slightly 
concavely sinuate near to or a little beyond middle, all the 
venation (excluding cellular terminations) longitudinal, those on 
apical areas mostly bifurcate ; wings broader than tegmina ; a very 
distinct basal ocellus to face. 

The Bornean species described by Walker as Cixiiis dotaius 
belongs to this genus. 

In superficial appearance Mundopa has much in common with 
the Neotropical genus Bothriocera, Burm. 



1801. Mundopa cingalensis, sp. n. 

Body above piceous ; head, pronotum, body beneath, and legs 
ochraceous ; sternum and abdomen more or less suffused with 
brown or piceous-brown ; face and clypeus piceous, with their 



264 



FULGORID^. 



lateral margins ochraceous ; tegmiiia very pale stramineous, 
extreme basal area and the apical area (excludiog apical margin) 
very pale fuscous, the iuner disk of the fuscous apical area is also 




Fig. 119. — Mandopa ciiiffalciisig. 

much paler, stigma piceous ; wings pale fuliginous, with paler 
streaks at base of costal margin and on outer area ; vertex of 
head a little piceous anteriorly, where it possesses a short, robust, 
medial ridge ; prouotum posteriorly very strongly angularly 
emarginate ; basal ocellus to face pron)inently distinct. 

Length excl. tegm. 3; exp. tegm. 10 millim. 

Hab. Ceylon; Bogawautalawa ( (xreen). 

1802. Mundopa greeni, sp. n. 

Body above piceous, ridges to head and pronotum ocliraceous ; 
body beneath piceous, the carinate marghis to face and the legs 
ochraceous ; tegmiua pale obscure stramineous, a very broad 
apical margin and a narrower costal area fuscous- brown, extreme 
costal and apical margins ochraceous ; wings very pale fuliginous, 
with darker suffusions on apical and anal areas ; vertex of head 
with the central ridge extending from apex to about one-fourth 
from base, where it joins an obscure transverse ridge, its lateral 
margins very strongly upwardly laminately carinate ; pronotum 
very narrow, posteriorly strongly, somewhat concavely emar- 
ginate ; abdominal segmental margins above palely obscurely 
ochraceous. 

Length excl. tegm. 3 ; exp. tegm. 10 millim. 

Hah. Ceylon (Gree7i, Brit. Mus.). 



1803. Mundopa myittse, sp. n. 

Body piceous or brownish-piceous ; legs ochraceous ; head and 
pronotum testaceous ; tegmina fuscous-brown, the interior disk 
from beneath radial vein ochraceous ; wings fuliginous-brown ; 
vertex of head with the central ridge extending from apex to about 
one-fourth from base, where it joins a very prominent transverse 
ridge, which is somewhat centrally finely sulcate ; lateral vertical 
margins strongly upwardly laminately carinate, their edges a little 
reflexed ; mesonotum strongly longitudinally tricarinate, the 
lateral carinre converging anterioi'ly. 



PTOLEEIA. 265 

Var. The tegmiiia almost iiijiforml_y fuscous-browu, the basal 
ochraceous coloration being practically absent. 
Length excl. tegm. 2k ; exp. tegm. 10 niillim. 
Hab. Tenasserim ; Myitta {Doherty). 



1804. Mundopa dohertyi, sp. u. 

Body and legs ochraceous, abdomen (excluding base) piceous ; 
tegmina very pale ochraceous, semi-opaque ; extreme margins (ex- 
cluding base of posterior margin) pale fuscoas, a little darker on 
costal margin ; wings pale hyaline ; apices of raised lateral margins 
to vertex of head very acutely prominent, the disk with a central 
ridge continued from apex to a transverse ridge between the eyes ; 
mesouotum prominently tricarinate; tegmina distinctly sinuated 
before middle of costal margin. 

Length excl. tegm. 3 ; exp. tegm. 8^ milhm. 

Hah. Tenasserim ; Myitta (Doherty). 



1805. Mundopa fasciata, sp. n. 

Head and thorax above pale castaneous-brown ; abdomen above 
piceous ; body beneath and legs ochraceous ; anterior area of face 
and eyes piceous-brown ; tegmina semi-opaque greyish-white, the 
veins darker ; stigma piceous. from beneath which a pale fuscous 
fascia crosses the tegmen ; wings somewhat imperfect in specimen 
described, but apparently with a pale fuscous streak in both the 
costal and anal areas ; tegmina with the costal margin distinctly 
concavely sinuate near stigma. 

Length excl. tegm. 2 ; exp, tegm. G millim. 

Hab. Tenasserim ; Myitta (Doherty). 

Mr. Doherty sent me a single specimen of this small but 
distinct species. 

Genus PTOLERIA. 

Ptoleria, Stal, Berl. e?it. Zeitschi: iii, p. 321 (1859) ; Melich. Horn. 
Fazin. Ceylon, p. 36 (1903). 

Type, P. arcuiyera, Stal. 

Distribution. Ceylon. 

Body moderately compressed ; head truncate, vertex transverse, 
its apex truncate, its lateral margins moderately elevated, medially 
carinate, before eyes somewhat prominent ; face concave, narrowed 
anteriorly, above clypeus on both sides moderately posteriorly 
ampliate, medially carinate throughout its entire length, its 
margins dilated ; clypeus tricarinate ; eyes beneath subsinuate ; 
ocelli two ; pronotum short, angularly arcuated ; mesonotum large, 
convex, tricarinate ; tegmina more than twice as long as the 
bod^, apical area distinctly broadest, apex obliquely rounded, 



266 



FULGOEIDiE. 



veins longitudinal, three principal, of these the central longest 
and before middle furcate, on apical area a nearly continuous 
series of transverse veins ; legs short, posterior tibiae unarmed, 
posterior tarsi with the basal joint much tlie longest. 



1806. Ptoleria arcuigera, Stal, Berl. ent. Zeitschr. m, p. 321 (1859) ; 
Melkh. Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 37, t. i, f. 9 a, 6 (1903). 

Testaceous - white ; lateral 
areas of the mesonotum, small 
minute scattered spots to teg- 
miiial veins, and an arcuated 
subangulate fascia beyond middle 
occupying the whole breadtli of 
tegmina and internally convex, 
upper surface of abdomen (ex- 
cepting incisures), lateral narrow, 
short fasciae to clypeus, small 
basal and apical spots to femora, 
and basal and apical annulations 
to anterior tibiae fuscous. 
"Length 3|-; cum tegm. 6 millim." 
Hah. Ceylon. 

I only know this species by the descriptions of Stal and 
Melichar, and the figures given by the last writer, which are here 
reproduced. 




Fig. 120. — Ptoleria arcuigera. 



Genus BARMA, nov. 

Type, B. diuersa, Dist. 

Distribution. Oriental and Malayan Eegions. 

Head a little narrower than pronotum, front strongly emarginate 
anteriorly, vertex with a transverse im]>ression between the eyes 
and a longitudinal carination ; face obliquely concave, widened 
posteriorly, centrally longitudinally ridged, the ridge bifurcate at 
anterior margin ; clypeus with a central carination, the lateral 
margins also ridged, face obliquely truncate before clypeus, head 
truncate at base ; pronotum shoi-t ; mesonotum with three longi- 
tudinal ridges ; tegmina very broad, their apices obliquely rounded, 
a little arched at base of costal margin, veins of radial and outer 
ulnar areas bifurcating near their bases ; legs of moderate length ; 
posterior tibiae with a short spine near middle. 

The Bornean species C/^rtHs /n?>i(s. Walk., must also be included 
in this "enus. 



1807. Barma diversa, sp. n. 

Head, thorax, and legs ochraceous ; abdomen piceous, with a 
transverse greyish line above near base ; tegmina greyish, semi- 



CHEONEBA. 267 

opaque, much suffused and spotted with pale fuscous-brown, most 
prominently so across middle and on apical area ; wings mutilated 
in sj)ecimens described, similar in coloiu' and markings to tegmina, 
but apparently becoming more fuscous towards anal area ; anterior 




Fig. 121. — Barilla diversa. 

angles of head above prominent and robust, vertex longitudinally 
carinate and transversely so between the eyes ; mesonotum tri- 
cariuate ; tegmina very broad, their maximum breadth greater 
than that of w iugs ; face Aery strongly truncate before clypeus. 

Length excl. tegm. 3 ; exp. tegm. 11 niillim. 

Hah. Tenasserim ; Myitta {Dohertij). 



Genus CHEONEBA. 
Cbroneba, Stdl, Berl. ent. Zeitschr. m, p. 320 (1859). 

Type, C. palliffons, Stal. 

Distribution. Ceylon. 

Head above and before eyes compressed, produced, and elevated, 
vertex narrow, long, the lateral margins carinate, medially foli- 
aceously elevate : face and vertex compressed, the first with its 
base narrowed, beyond middle posteriorly distinctly ampliated, 
apex strongly straightly narrowed, its margins acute, medially 
carinate throughout its entire length ; clypeus medially carinate, 
its lateral margins elevated, continuous with margins of face ; 
ocelli placed beneath eyes ; pronotum short, angulate, tricarinate, 
the lateral carinse most pronounced, diverging ; mesonotum obso- 
letely tricarinate ; tegmina longly passing apex of abdomen, 
apical area distinctly broader and sublobate, the longitudinal 
veins posteriorly divided into two series by transverse veins ; 
posterior tibise M'ith a single spine before middle. 



1808. Chroneba pallifrons, Stdl, Berl. ent. Zeitschr. iii, p. 3i>0 (1859) ; 
Melich. Horn. Favn. Ceyloji, p. 40, t. iii, f. 1 a, h (1903). 

"Above black, beneath with legs yellowish-white; abdomen 
beneath fuscous, segmental margins pale ; apical area of meso- 



268 



rULGORID.E. 



notum triangularly produced, two spots to clavus (one subbasal, 
Ibe other apical), a small subapical spot, and another larger costal 




Fig. 12'2. — Chnjuvha jM'.Uifnnt^. 

spot beyond middle of tegmeu flavous, the last divided by two 
transverse black lines "' {St&l). 

" Length 4^- ; cum tegm. 6 niillim." 

Ilab. Ceylon. 

I do not know this species, and have copied Stal's description 
and Melichar's fissures. 



Genus MELANDEVA, uov. 

Type, M. ocellata, Dist. 

Distribution. Oriental Region. 

Head much narrower than the pronotmn, sides of the vertex 
broadly, upwardl}', laminately, convexly produced considerably 
above each eye, where they form an acute angle, and continued as 
margins to face, which is long, very concave, narrowed towards 
i-lypeus, the margins very finely carinate, and exhibiting a very 
distinct median ocellus ; clypeus short, medially carinate ; pronotum 
short, medially carinate, its lateral margins moderately laminately 
convex ; mesonotum centrally tricariuate ; abdomen above with 
a central longitudinal ridge ; rostrum passing the posterior coxaj ; 
legs moderately long and slender, longitudinally grooved, posterior 
tibiae without spines ; tegmina somewhat broad and ampliated 
towards apices ; stigma long with transverse carinae, costal mem- 
brane without transverse veins, apical and ulnar areas about 
equally long ; wings very much broader than tegmina. 



1809. Melandeva ocellata, sp. u. 

Head, pronotum, body beneath, and legs ochraceous : abdomen 
castaneous-brown, its segmental margins above and beneath 
ochraceous ; face with two pale piceous streaks on its upper half ; 
extreme margins of process to head and face and the longitudinal 



BEIXIA. 



269 



ridges to legs pale piceons ; tegmina creamy-white suffused with 
pale fuscous, the venation dark fuscous, a little paler on apical 
area ; the stigma fuscous, ochraceous at base and apex ; the apical 
areas mostly pale fuscous, a few scattered, short, waved, fuscous 
spots, three in costal membrane, four in broken sequence beneath 
it, and two on central disk of ulnar areas, claval area palely 
infuscate, near outer angle of posterior margin is a large rounded 




Fisr. 123. — Mchindcva occllafa. 



piceous spot with an ochraceous outer margin and a white central 
papillate spot ; wings pale fuscous with greyish-white suffusions. 

Length excl. tegm. 9| ; exp. tegm. 80 millim. 

Hah. Assam ; Khasi Hills {Brit. Mus.). Burma ; Momeit 
{Dohertij). 



Genus BEIXIA. 

Brixia, Sidl, Ofv. Vet.-Ak. Fork. (1856) p. 162 ; id. Hem. Afr. iv, 
pp. 166 & 173 (1866) ; Atkins. J. A. S. Beng. Iv, p. 33 (1886) ; 
Melich. Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 33 (1903). 

Triopsis (part.), Sign. Ann. Soc. Fid. Fr. 1860, p. 187. 

Type, B. natalicola, Stal, from 8. Africa. 

Distribution. Ethiopian and Oriental Eegions. 

Head much narrower than the prouotum, vertex narrow, com- 
pressed, narrow er by half than the eyes, passing over into the 
face, which is long, gradually narrowed upward, much compressed 
between the eyes, without or with a very obsolete medial ridge, 
but with lateral margins strongly carinate, an ocellus at the apex ; 
clypeus with a median ridge and its lateral margins carinate ; 
eyes sinuated beneath ; antennae inserted beneath the eyes, first 
joint exserted, second longer than thick ; pronotum very short, 
angularly emarginate at base ; mesonotum tricarinate ; tegmina 
gradually but distinctly ampliate towards apices, radial and 
exterior ulnar veins united near their bases ; legs of moderate 
length, simple, posterior tibiae unarmed. 

I have followed Stal's description of his genus. 



270 rULGORID^\ 

A. Tegmina tuitJi the veins minutely setosehj maculate. 

1810. Brixia nubila, Walk. (Cixius) List Horn. Suppl p. 80 (1858) ; 

6'^5/(Bnxia), Of v. Vet.-Ak. Fork. 1862, p. 487; Eirby iC\-d\x&) , 
J. Linn. Soc, Zool. xxiv, p. 137, t. v, f. 13 (1891) ; Melich. 
(Brixia) Hoin. Faun. Ceylon, p. 33 (1903). 
Brixia subfasciata, Stdl, Berl. ent. Zeitschr. iii, p. 320 (1859). 

Kirbv has giv^en such a minute description of this species that 
I reproduce it here : — 

" Brown ; orbits, some lines on the thorax, and the incisions of 
the abdomen (narrowly) whitish; leo;s testaceous; tegmina light 
brown, varied with black and subhyaline markings ; all the 
nervures white and marked with single or double rows of black 
spots, from each of which proceeds a single hair ; at the extremity 
of each uervure, just before the margin, which is whitish, the 
extreme outer edge being brown, stands a distinct white spot ; 
the principal subhyahue or whitish markings are firstly two large 
and one small space on the costa separated by darker spaces, and 
followed by a large stigma-like mark, which is light brown edged 
with pale at each extremity, the first of these, which sometimes 
coalesces with the second after crossing the first nervure, runs 
down in a point half across the tegmen ; below and beyond its 
lower part stand some black markings, and there is another on the 
inner margin, surrounded with a clear space ; beyond this is an 
oblique clear spot rather below the middle of the tegmen, and a 
smaller one near the inner margin, separated by a black spot ; 
beyond the third vitreous spot on the costa a blackish line, 
forming a slight curve towards the base, runs nearly to the inner 
margin, it is bordered on the outer concavity with pale ; beyond 
this is a conspicuous oblique black spot on the inner margin, and 
two small black spots (sometimes connected into a short, slightly 
zigzag line) about the middle of the tegmen ; between the stig- 
moidal spot and the tip of the tegmina is a large dusky space, 
with a white dot near its upper edge, and its inner side Jiarrowly 
edged with pale ; beyond it is a white band, more or less divided 
in two by an oblique spot opposite the hind margin, but not quite 
eixtendiug either to the costa or the inner margin ; wings iridescent 
subhyaline, with brown nervures." 

Length excl. te;j;m. 4 to 4| ; exp. tegm. 10 to 12 millim. 

Hab. Ceylon ; Pundaluoya ; Bogawantalawa {Green). 

1811. Brixia meander. Walk. (Cixius) List Horn, ii, p. 319 (1851); 

8tal (Brixia), Of v. Vet.-Ak. Forh. 1862, p. 487 ; Atkins. J. A. S. 
Beng. Iv, p. 34 (1886). 

Somewhat closely allied to the preceding species {B. nuhila) ; 
tegmina with similar setose black dots to the veins ; tlie transverse 
fasciate-like space crossing tegmen just before middle narrower 
and more or less continuous to inner margin, more outwardly 
oblique in direction, with its margins much more angularly 
Avaved. 



BRIXIA. 



271 



Beyond this pi'omiiient differential character the other points 
of distinction are too small to be adequately described by words. 

Length excl. tegin. 4 ; exp. tegm. 12 millim. 

Hah. " East India " (5r?7. J/«s.). Ceylon; Puttalam (&'ree>i). 

The typical specimen labelled " East India " was from the 
collection made by Archdeacon Clerk. 

B. T'egmina with the veins not minutely setosehf maculate. 

1812. Brixia tortriciformis, Kirht/, J. Linn. Soc, Zool. x\iv, p. 138, 
t. V, f. 12 (1891) ; Melich. Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. .'34 (1903). 

Body above brownish ; pronotiim tricarinate, these carinas, the 
inner edge of the two interocular carinse, and an oblique lateral 
fascia on each side of pro- and mesonota yellowish-white ; body 
beneath and legs very pale ochraceous ; marginal and central area 
to face and suffusions near apex of abdomen black or piceous ; 




Fio-. 124. — Brixia tortriciformis. 



legs with fuscous lines ; tegmina very pale ochraceous, subhyaline, 
with paler suffusions and fuscous markings as in figure (suj^ra), 
which affords a better description than can be expressed in words ; 
wings very palely infuscate, the veins darkly fuscous ; in this 
species the veins of the tegmina are not setosely maculate. 

Length excl. tegm. 4 to 4| ; exp. tegm. 12 to 14 millim. 

Hab. Ceylon ; Nawalapitya, Kandy (Green). 

1813. Brixia albomaculata, sp. n. 

Body above dark brown ; head, pronotum, and abdominal 
segmental margins dull ochraceous ; body beneath dull ochra- 
ceous ; the legs and transverse fasciae to abdomen dark brown, 
legs linearly streaked with ochraceous ; tegmina very pale 
fuscous-brown with creamy-white markings, of which there are 
four spots in radial area, a large triangular spot beneath its basal 
half, a transverse fascia from its apex to inner margin of tegmen, 
a claval longitudinal streak, a somewhat large irregular patch on 
apical area (containing a pale fuscous spot), a triangular spot near 
apex of costal margin, and two transverse spots near apical 
margin ; commencing near apex of inner margin is a longitudinal 



272 ruLGORiD^. 

waved fuscous spot containing four small pale spots, three of 
which are pearly-white and one ochraceous, costal and apical 
margins narro^wly (broadly from end of radial area to apex) 
umber-brown ; wings very pale fuliginous, the venation fuscous ; 
pronotum centrally carinate ; mesonotum tricariuate ; basal ocellus 
to face very distinct. 

Length excl. tegm. 7; exp. tegm. 20 millim. 

Hah. Bombay {Brit. Mus.). 

1814. Brixia flavomaculata, sp. n. 

Head and thorax above ochraceous ; disk of mesonotum and 
dorsal surface of abdomen castaneous : body beneath and legs 
ochraceous ; tegmina pale tawny-yellow with white and fuscous 
markings ; basal half of radial area white with a subcentral fuscous 
spot, an oblique spot beneath and before middle of radial area 
and a claval streak white, a transverse white fascia inwardly 
margined with fuscous crosses tegmen from end of radial area, and 
on upper half between this and apex are two short oblique fasciae, 
both inwardly margined with fuscous, one directed outward, the 
other inward, beneath these a few longitudinal greyish-«hite spots, 
an apical oblique white fascia inwardly margined \\'i\\x fuscous, and 
three subapical white spots : near end of inner margin there is a 
somewhat large oblique fuscous spot containing two small ochra- 
ceous spots, followed by a fuscous spot on apical margin ; wings 
palel)^ infuscate,the venation fuscous; pronotum centrally carinate; 
mesonotum tricarinate. 

Length excl. tegm. 5| ; exp. tegm. 20 millim. 

Hah. Assam ; Margherita (Atkinson Coll., Brit. Mits.). Khasi 
Hills (Brit. Mus.). 



Subfamily V. TROPIDUCHINiE. 

Tropiduehida, Stai, Hem. Afr. iv, pp. \m k 186 (1866). 
Tropiduchina, Stdl, Ofv. Vet.-Ak. Fork. 1870, p. 748 ; Atkins. J. A. 

S. Bern,. Iv, p. .37 ("1886). 
Tropiduchidfe, Melich. Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 11 (1903). 

Head more or less narrower than the pronotum ; sides of clypeus 
without a ridge or with only an obtuse ridge ; pronotum tricari- 
nate, usually angularly emarginate at base, seldom roundly sinuate ; 
commisural margin of tegmina straight or rounded behind the 
clavus ; costal area sometimes dilated ; costal membrane often but 
not invariably transversely veined, as apparently regarded by 
Stal. 

The principal distinguishing character of this subfamily from 
the Achilina' is, in my estimation, the nou-carinate lateral margins 
of the clypeus ; the basal joint of the posterior tarsi is always 
more or less elongate. 



HIRACIA. 273 

Si/nopsis of Genera. 

A. Body elliptical, convex ; tegmina coriaceous. 

a. Face not longer than broad, convexly am- 

pliated near base Hiracia, p. 273. 

b. Face considerably longer than broad, not 

convexly anipliated near base Karna, p. 274. 

B. Body neither elliptical nor convex ; tegmina 

not coriaceous. 

a. Vertex of head broadly produced in front of 

eyes and apically rounded ; including eyes 
only a little narrower than pronotum. 
a'. Pronotum posteriorly profoundly emargi- 
nate ; apical areas of tegmina with trans- 
verse veins Tajibixia, p. 276. 

//. Pronotum not posteriorly profoundly emar- 
ginate ; apical areas of tegmina without 
transverse veins. 
«'". Face longer than broad ; posterior tibiae 

with two spines Ossa, p. 279, 

h'. Face broader than Jong ; posterior tibise 

with three spines Stibokus*, p. 280. 

b. Vertex of liead (including eyes) considerably 

narrower than pronotum. 
«'. Tegmina long and narrow, with two series 
of transverse veins enclosing apical and 
subapical areas. 
a'-. Tegmina hyaline. 

a'\ Costal membrane without transverse 

veins Leusaba, p. 280. 

P. Costal membrane with widely sepa- 
rated transverse veins Stacota, p. 281. 

c\ Costal membrane with numerous ob- 
lique veins Epora, p. 282, 

b-. Tegmina opaque. Costal membrane 

without transverse veins Baruna, p. 283. 

h'. Tegmina short and broadjirregularly veined , Paruzelia, p. 284, 



Genus HIRACIA. 

Iliraeia, Walk. J. Linn. Soc, Zool. \, p. 154 (1857) ; Stdl, Hem. 
Aft: iv, p. 188 (1866) ; u'itkins. J. A. S. Beng. Iv, p. 40 (1886), 

Type, H. ignava, Walk., from Borneo. 

Distribution. Oriental and Malayan Regions. 

'■ Body elliptical, convex ; head with the borders hardly elevated; 
vertex conical, with three distinct keels ; front and face with three 
distinct keels, the former obconical, excavated next the face, 
which is lanceolate ; prothorax full twice broader than long, 
narrower in front, with five keels ; mesothorax triangular, acumi- 
nated, with three keels ; fore wings acuminated, with nuuierous 
rugulose veins and transverse veinlets." {Wall-er.) 



* I have not seen this genus, and only know it by Dr. Melichar's description. 
VOL. Ill, T 




274 FUIGOEID.i:. 

1 give "Walker's description of this genus for two reasons : firstly, 
because it is evidently on that and Walker's figure that Stal in- 
cluded Hiracia in his TropiducMna ; and secondly, because the only 
species recorded from British India is one described and figured 
by Signoret, which I have not seen, and which may or may not 
be strictly congeneric. 

1815. Hiracia walkeri, Si(jn. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1861, p. 57, t. ii, 
f. ^,a,b; Atkins. J.^A. S. Bene/. Iv, p. 40 (1886). 

" Tellowish-grey with two black patches on the tegmina ; head 
weakly angular in front with a median keel 
on the face ; vertex grooved, with the 
margins strongly carinated, posterior margin 

IM\\\WJft "11 concave ; pronotum angular, rounded in front, 

i]\\M|^)|j jl furnished with a great number of small 
W\\Wu/W 11 tubercles along the anterior margin and on 
its disk, and a median transverse impression ; 
mesonotum weakly tricarinate ; tegmina with 
veins without anastomoses but faintly reti- 
Fie 1"''5 culated in the intervals, a median triangular 

Hiracia walkeri. black spot towards costal margin, and an 

oblong spot behind towards the internal 
margin ; abdomen yellowish, shorter than the tegmina ; legs 
yellow, very long ; posterior tibite furnished on the external sides 
with seven spines, a character which serves to separate this species 
from H. igiuiva, "Walk." (Sir/noret.) 
Length 7 millim. 
Hah. '■^ India" {Jide Signoret). 

In his description Signoret refers to his illustration as " fig. 4 '" ; 
it is, however, correctly lettered on his plate as " fig. 3." 



Genus KARNA, nov. 

Type, K. Tcarenia, Dist. 

Distribution. Burma. 

Head (including eyes) narrower than pronotum ; A^ertex long, 
horizontal, medially and marginally carinate, its anterior margin 
rounded ; antennae inserted beneath the eyes, second joint short, 
robust ; face long, tricarinate, the margins also finely carinate, 
the sublateral carinse not quite reaching base, which is angularly 
emargiuate before clypeus, its apex rounded, the apical margin 
strongly carinate ; clypeus with a strong medial carination, its 
lateral margin deflected and simple; rostrum reaching the inter- 
mediate coxfe ; pronotum almost as long as vertex, strongly 
medially tricarinate, its posterior margin strongly concavely emar- 
giuate, beyond the lateral carinas obliquely deflected ; mesonotum 
triangular, its disk tricarinate, and between the lateral caringe, 
which are rounded and meet anteriorly, the surface is moderately 



KARNA. 



275 



concave ; tes;raiiia coriaceous, on each side roundly oblique, the 
veins strongly elevated and more or less broadly reticulated by 
the presence of oblique and transverse cross-veins, especially on 
apical area, between the veins they are also distinctly punctate ; 
legs moderately long and robust, prominently longitudinally 
grooved, the anterior and intermediate tibia? ampliated and cen- 
trally cariuate ; posterior tibiaj with two strong teeth at base ; 
posterior tarsi witli the basal joint moderately long and robust ; 
posterior femora with a short strong apical spine. 

This genus is allied to Hiracia, from which it differs bv having 
the face considerably longer than broad and not convexly am- 
pliated posteriorly, the vertex much longer than broad, &c. It 
also possesses affinities with the Mexican genus On/uia, Stfd. 

1816. Kama karenia, sp. n. 

Body pale testaceous, with darker speckles and punctures ; 
tegmina with two obliquely transverse piceous lines, the first near 
middle, the other on apical area, and possessing two longitudinal 
branches running posteriorly, one on disk, the other near costal 
margin ; anterior area of face, clypeus, and prosternum (excluding 
lateral margins) more or less piceous ; abdomen beneath finely 




riff. 126. — Kama karenia. 



mottled with piceous ; legs brownish-ochraceous with pale 
mottlings, apices of tarsi piceous ; apices of the tegmina subacute, 
their lateral margins distinctly sinuate near middle ; legs more 
or less strongly pilose ; posterior tibiae with two strong teeth at 
base, and posterior femora with a strong apical spine (not shown 
in figure). 

Length 14 millim. 

Hah. Burma ; Karen Hills {Doherty). 



276 PULGORID.i;. 

Geuus TAMBINIA. 
Tambiiiica, Stdl, Bed. eiit. Zeitschr. iii, p. 31G (1859). 

Type, T. languida, Stfil. 

Distribution. Orieutal and INIalayau Eegions. 

Body short ; head a little narrower than the pronotum, the 
vertex produced and apically rounded, its margins reflexed, and 
with a central longitudinal carination ; face very strongly recli- 
nated, nearly horizontal, between and behind eyes with the margins 
subparallel, before eyes subangulate, base rounded, beneath for 
more than half of length medially more or less distinctly carinate ; 
clypeus triangular, convex, its margins not carinate : ocelli obso- 
letely situate between the eyes ; antenna short ; pronotum a little 
anteriorly produced, posteriorly profoundly emarginate, tricariuate, 
the lateral carinas oblique ; mesonotum tricarinate, the lateral 
carinae converging anteriorly, the central carina abbreviated 
])Osteriorly ; legs of moderate length, posterior tibia? bispiuose ; 
tegmiua about one-third longer tlian the body, subparallel, their 
apices rounded, four longitudinal veins extending for about two- 
thirds from base, the lirst very near costal margin, fourth beyond 
middle furcate, at about one-third from base obliquely divided 
from seven short longitudinal veins, constituting short cellular 
areas divided by transverse veins from longer and more numerous 
apical areas in which many of the veins are furcate. 

The exact location of this genus is differently regarded. 
Melichar (Hom. Faun. Ceylon) places it. .in the Cixiince, but Stal, 
its founder, clearly by implication (Ofv. Vet-Ak. FiJrh. 1870, 
p. 750), refers it to the TropiducMncc, where 1 leave it. 

A. Head rounded, hut not prominently narrowed anteriorly. 

a. Vertex of head longer than sjjace between eyes. 

a. Face about tivice as long as broad, the central carination 
evanescent posteriorly . 

IS 17. Tambinia languida, Stdl,Berl. ent. Zeitschr. iii, p. 317 (1859) ; 
Melich. Horn. Fau?t. Ceylon, p. 39 (1903). 

Pale virescent, the mesonotum some- 
times tinted \Aitli ochraceous ; basal two- 
thirds of tegmina semi-opaque, apical 
third semihyaline, paler in hue, the 
venation A'irescent ; wings pale semi- 
hyaline, the venation virescent ; body 
beneath more or less tinted with ochra- 
ceous ; legs virescent ; apices of spines to 
posterior tibiae fuscous ; vertex of head 
a little longer than space between eyes ; 
,„ j.^-}'~'- ., face almost twice longer than broad, 

■^ the central longitudmal carmation be- 

coming evanescent posteriorly ; base of pronotum acutely angularly 
emarginate. 

Length inch tegm. 7 to 8 millim. 
Hah. Ceylon {Green, Brit. Mus.). 




TAMBINIA. 277 

1818. Tambinia inconspicua, sp. n. 

Body and legs ocbraceous, apical half of abdomen moderately 
iufuscate ; teguiina of a very pale tawny hue, the venation pale 
fuscous ; wings pale hyaline ; vertex of head longer than space 
between eyes, the central and lateral carinations very prominent ; 
carinations to both pro- and mesonota well pronounced ; posterior 




[ 
Fig. \28.^Tar/ihi)iia incons^picua. 

tibiae armed with two spines ; face about twice as long as broad,, 
its central carination becoming evanescent tovvai'ds base. 

Length excl. tegm. 4| ; exp. tegm. 13 millim. 

Hah. Burma (Stocl'hohn 31 ns.). 

Dr. Aurivillius kindly forwarded me this unnamed species for 
description. It is allied to T. languida, 8tal, from which it is to 
be distinguished by the shape and structure of the head as shown 
in the figures of the two species. 



aa. Vertex of head about as lomj as hroad. 
a. Face a little longer than hroad, carination to face ]ier current. 

1819. Tambinia debilis, 8tal, Berl. ent. Zeitsch: iii, p. 317 (1859) ; 

Melich. Ham. Faun. Ceylon, p. 39, t. i, f. 18, a (1903). 

Pale virescent ; mesonotum frequently tinted with ocbraceous ; 
tegmina semihyaline, virescent on claval areas ; body beneath and 
legs virescent, more or less tinted with ocbraceous ; apices of 
spines to the posterior tibia) fuscous ; vertex of bead about as 
long as breadth between eyes ; face about one-third longer than 
broad, the central carina extending throughout its entiz-e length ; 
pronotum moderately angularly emarginate at base. 

Length inch tegm. 6 to 7 millim. 

Hah. Ceylon (Green, Brit. Mus.). 

1820. Tambinia maculosa, sp. n. 

Pale virescent ; tegmina with ttie venation darker green, the 
claval area very pale brownish, the apical area a little paler in 
hue and more or less marginally suffused with very pale brown, 
the most prominent spots being one on costal margin at about 
one-fourth from apex, and one farther from apex and nearer inner 



278 FULGOKID^. 

inargiu ; wings pale creamy-hyaline ; head above about as long as 
broad, moderately narrowing anteriorly, with a central longitudinal 
carinatiou ; face longer than broad, central carination percurrent ; 
apices of spines to postei'ior tibiae slightly fuscous. 

Length 5| ; exp, tegm. 11 millim. 

Hah. " India " {Brit. 3Ius.). 

a-. Face about tiuice as long as broad, carination jier current. 

1821. Tambinia rufoornata, Stdl, Berl. ent. Zeitschr. iii, p. 317 (1859) ; 

Melich. Horn. Fau?i. Ceylon, p. 39 (1903). 

Pale virescent, apical areas of tegmina hyaline ; a suffusion on 
each side of head before eyes, the posterior margin of pronotum, 
cai'iuse to mesonotum, and commissural margins of tegmina more 
or less rufous-red ; a subbasal spot to tegmina near clavus and 
the oblique division on tegmina between corium and membrane 
very pale fuscous ; vertex of head scarcely longer than broad ; 
face nearly twice as long as broad, the central carination percurrent 
throughout its entire length ; apices of spines to posterior coxse 
fuscous. 

Length inch tegm. 7 millim. 

Hab. Ceylon ; Maskeliya {Green). 

a^. Face about as long as broad, its central carination obsolete. 

1822. Tambinia atrosignata, sp. n. 

Pale virescent, the apical areas of tegmina hyaline ; two black 
elongate spots near bases of sutural mai-gins of tegmina ; obUque 
division between corium and membrane marked with several 
fuscous spots ; body beneath and legs more ochraceous and less 
virescent ; head with the vertex about as broad as long; face about 
as broad as long, scarcely perceptibly longitudinally carinate ; 
pronotum with its lateral angles prominent, its posterior margin 
moderately angularly emarginate. 

Length inch tegm. G millim. 

Hcd>. Ceylon ; Peradeniya {Green). 

B. Bead gradually narroived to apex. 

1823. Tambinia capitata, sp. u. 

Head and thorax above virescent ; body beneath and legs 
yellow'ish -green ; tegmina with their basal two-thirds very pale 
yellowish-green and semi-opaque, their apical thirds hyaline ; 
vertex of head a little longer than broad, gradually and moderately 
narrowed to apex ; face nearly twice as long as broad, the cen- 
tral carination continued throughout its entire length, concavely 
narrowed beyond middle ; pronotum posteriorly acutely angularly 
emarginate. 

Length incl. tegm. fi millim. 

Hab. Tenasserim ; Myitta {Doherty). 



OSSA. 279 

Genus OSSA. 

Ossa, Motsch. Bull. Soc. Xat. Mose. xxxvi, 3, p. 106 (18G3_) ; MelicJi. 
Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 49 (1903). 

Type, 0. dimidiata, Motsch. 

Distrilnition. Ceylon. 

"Horizontal and enlarged form of CLvias, but the anterior 
halves of the tegmiua of a cartilaginous consistence, shiniug, not 
transparent ; head horizontal, depressed, about four distinct 
superlicies, vertex produced as an obtuse cone and margined ; 
face very horizontal, very depressed, elliptical, the margins 
prominent and with a medial longitudinal carination ; ocelli 
absent; rostrum robust; antennje inserted laterally under the 
eyes ; posterior margin of head truncate at about middle of 
eyes and hidden in a kind of forked hood, which is produced 
laterally just beyond the middle of the pronotum, having the 
posterior angles dilated and reflected ; thorax much larger than 
head, triangular, tricarinate ; scutellum very small, triangular ; 
tegmina ampliated at about middle, their apices rounded, veins on 
the anterior cartilaginous area strongl}^ elevated, the cellular areas 
very long, nearly concave, veins on the posterior transparent 
area less elevated, all longitudinal; body beneath elougately oval; 
legs not longer than the tegmina, posterior tibiae armed with two 
spines." (IlutscJioidshj.) 

1824. Ossa dimidiata, Motsch. Bull. Soc Nat. JIosc. xxxvi, 3, p. 107, 
t. xi, f . 23 (1863) ; Melich. Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 49, t. ii, f. 10, a 
(1903). 

" Elongate, dilate, tectiform, depressed, shining, green ; head 

and sutures of the thorax 
subochraceous ; tegmina pos- 
teriorly hyaline, triangular, infus- 
cate, apex paler ; face, eyes, 
body beneath, and legs slightly 
white; head triangularly arcuated, 
depressed, longitudinally tricari- 
nate, posteriorly between eyes 
straightly truncate, covered with 
furcate hood, laterally at base of 
tegmina much prolonged, hood 
medially widely tricarinate ; 
Y'lg. 1-12.— Ossa dimidiata. pronotum broader than head, 

triangular, posteriorly arcuated, 
medially tricarinate, the carinae anteriorly arcuately united ; meso- 
notum minute, triangular ; tegmina towards middle distinctly 
ampliated, posteriorly subparallel, subhyaline, anteriorly coriaceous, 
shining, with the veins elevated, the suture canaliculate, longi- 
tudinally tricarinate." {JlotscJioulsl'y.) 
Length " 2| lin." 

Hcdj. Ceylon ; Patannas Mount (Jide Motsch.). 
I have not seen this species but have reproduced the original 
description of Motschoulsky, and the figure as given by Melichar. 




280 ruLGOEJu.i:. 

Genus STIBORUS. 
Stibonis, Melich. Horn. Fattn. Ceylon, p. 50 (1003). 

Type, S. viridis, Melich. 

Disfrilmtion. Ceylou. 

Very much resembUng Ossa, but with the face broader than 
long, whereas in Ossa the face is longer than broad ; posteiior 
tibiae with three spines. 

As Dr. Meliehar has not figured the type of this genus, and as 
I have unfortunately been unable to see a specimen, I have 
thought it best to give only his differential characters from the 
allied genus Ossa. 

1825. Stiborus viridis, McUch. Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 50 (1903). 

Green, face with three black spots, situate one on each anterior 
angle, and one at the upper frontal border of the upper end of 
the middle ridge ; tegmina hyaline with green veins ; abdomen 
and legs green ; apices of claws and spines brown. 

Length, cJ & 2 , 7 millim. 

Hah. Ceylon ; Pei-adeniya {fide Meliehar). 

My only knowledge of this species is from the short description 
given by Dr. Meliehar. 

Genus LEUSABA. 

Leusaba, Wall: J. Linn. Soc, Zool. \, p. 144 (1857) ; StSl, Hem. 
Afr. iv. p. 188 (1866) ; Melich. Horn. Farm. Ceylon, p. 28 (1903). 

Type, L. marginalis, "Walk., from Borneo. 

Distribution. Oriental and Malayan Regions. 

Head narrower than pronotum, vertex subquadrate with its 
margins carinate and the disk modei'ately concave ; face ampliated 
posteriorly, centi'ally and marginally ridged, its anterior mai'gin 
slightly rounded, its basal margin subtruncate ; clypeus centrally 
ridged, its lateral margins simple ; pronotum slightly longer than 
vertex, its anterior margin roundly produced, its posterior margin 
angularly etnarginate, with four longitudinal carinse, the two 
central contiguous, and one oblique on each lateral area ; meso- 
notum tricarinate, the lateral cariuse conAorging anteriorl}^ : legs 
rather long and slender, especially the posterior ones, of which the 
tibia; have two long spines on their apical halves ; posterior tibiae 
with the basal joint moderately long ; tegmina apically broadened, 
of the three basal longitudinal veins the lowermost is alone forked, 
two slightly oblique series of transverse veins dividing six subapical 
areas and a series of many apical areas, some of the longitudinal 
veins to the latter bifurcating towards their apices ; wings short 
and somewhat narrow. 

Meliehar, from the absence of transverse veins to the costal 
membrane, regards this genus as belonging to the Dictyopharhw: ; 
but this is not an exclusive character to the Troinducliina', and it 
appears evident, as St?d opined, that Leus(d>a belongs to the 
latter subfamily. 



STACOTA, 281 

182G. Leusaba rufitarsis, Kirhj (Stacota), J. Linn. Soc, Zoo/, xxiv. 
p. 134 (1891). 
Leusaba margiualis, Melich. {nee Walk.) Horn. Faun. Ceylon. 
p. 29, t. i, f. 10, a, b (1903). 

Body and legs somewhat dark virescent ; a trausverse fascia 
to vertex of head, anterior and lateral margins and central ridge 
to face, two central ridges to pronotum, ridges to mesonotum, and 
sometimes the apices of the spines to posterior tibire sanguineous- 




Fig. 130. — Leiisaha rufitarsis. 

red ; a black spot on anterior coxae, and legs more or less 
streaked with black : tegmina and wings hyaline, the venation 
piceous ; tegmina with the extreme base dull virescent with two 
black spots. 

Length excl. tegm. 9 ; exp. tegm. 2G millim. 

Hah. Ceylon ; Kandy, Pundaluoya {Green'). 

Melichar {supra) has regarded this species as synonymous with 
the Bornean L. mare/inalis, Walk., but the relative lengths of the 
apical and subapical areas to the tegmina will readily divide the 
two species. 

Genus STACOTA. 

Stacota, Stal, Berl. e?it. Zeitsclir. iii, p. 324 (1859) ; Melic/i. Annal. 
Ji.-k. naturh. Hofmus. p. 325 (1898). 

Type, S. breviceps. Walk. 

Distrilmtion. Ceylon. 

Head narrower than pronotum ; vertex longer than broad, its 
anterior and lateral margins and a central longitudinal line cari- 
nate ; face longer than broad, obliquely narrowed before middle 
towards clypeus, centrally and laterally carinate ; clypeus centrally 
carinate, its lateral margins simple ; pronotum shorter than vertex, 
anteriorly somewhat conically produced, posteriorly subangularly 
emarginate, tricarinate, the lateral carinae oblique ; mesonotum 
tricarinate, the lateral carinse anteriorly converging ; legs rather 
long, posterior tibise witli two spines : tegmina ampliated towards 
apex, costal membrane with somewhat widely separated transverse 



282 



VUJjGO-RIBJE. 



veins, of the three basal longitudinal veins the lower only forked, 
two series of transverse veins dividing eight subapical and many 
apical areas, one of the longitudinal veins to the latter bifurcate 
towards apex ; wings short and somewhat narrow. 

In his description of the type of this genus, Walker states that 
the vertex is " more than twice broader than long,"' but this is 
entirely incorrect. 

Both Stal and Melichar have placed Stacota in the JRiccmiince, a 
course not followed here, by reason of the structure of the head. 

1827. Stacota breviceps, Walk. (Dictyophora) List Horn. Siqjpl. 
]). 08 (1858) ; StcV (Stacota), Ofi\ Vet-Ale. Fork. 1862, p. 487 ; 
Kirbi/, J. Linn. Soc, Zool. xxiv, p. 134 (1891) ; Melich. Annal. 
k.-k. nnturh. Hofmus. p. 326, t. xiv, f. 16, a, b (1898) ; id. 
Horn. Faim. Ceylon, p. 86 (1903). 
Stacota coniptella, Stal, Berl. ent. Zeitschr. iii, p. 325 (1859) ; Kirhy, 
J. Linn. Soc, Zool, xxiv, p. 134 (1891). 

Body and legs virescent in fresh specimens, ochraceous in older 
and discoloured examples ; anterior and lateral margins and central 
carination to vertex, central and lateral carinse to face, central 
carination to elypeus, aud the mesonotal carina? more or less red ; 




Fig. 131. — Stacota tjveviccps. 

abdomen above with a central maculate fascia aud extreme 
segmental margins red ; tegmiua and wings hyaline, the venation 
ochraceous ; tegmina wiih the venation somewhat thickly covered 
with minute setose darker spots, which in some specimens, as the 
one here ligured, are scarcely visible. 

Length excl. tegm. 6 ; exp. tegm. 18 millim. 

Hah. Ceylon ; Pei'adeniya, Kaudy, Puudaluoya, Heuaratgoda 
(Green). 

Genus EPORA. 

Epora, Walk. J. Linn. Soc, Zool. i, p. 145 (1857) ; Stal, Hem. 
Afr. iv, p. 188 (1866) ; Melich. Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 48 
(1903). 

Type, E. suhtilis, "Walk. 

Distribution. Oriental and Malayan Eegions. 
Head narrower than pronotum ; vertex considerably shorter than 
broad, its lateral and anterior margins ridged ; face longer than 



BAEUNA. 283 

broad, laterally and eeutrallj ridged, its lateral areas slightly 
obliquely narrowed immediately before clypeus, which is strongly 
centrally ridged ; pronotum A^ery jiarrow, its lateral areas strongly 
oblique, deeply angidarly emarginate posteriorly, all its margins 
carinate and with two contiguous central carinations ; mesonotum 
tricarinate ; legs moderately long and slender, posterior tibiae with 
three spines ; tegmina a little ampliated apically, the costal 
membrane Avith numerous obliquely transverse veins, two series of 
transverse veins considerably beyond middle, dividing numerous 
subapical and apical areas ; wings short and somewhat narrow. 

1828. Epora SUbtilis, Walk. J. Linn. Soc, Zool. i, p. 14G, t. vii, f. 3 

(1857). 

Body and legs virescent ; tarsal claws piceous ; tegmina very 
pale virescent subhyaline ; wings hyaline ; eyes pale castaneous- 
brovvn ; in some specimens the legs are distinctly paler than the 
body. 

Length excl. tegm. 5i ; exp. tegra. 17 millim. 

Hah. Ceylon ; Bogawantalawa {Green). 

Melichar (Hom. Faun. Cey- 
lon, t. i, f. 11) has figured a 
species as Ej)ora subtilis, which 
if compared with Walker's 
figure will at once prove that 
two species have been con- 
fused with scarcely any cha- 
racters in common ; in fact 
¥ig. 132. —Epora suhiilifi. it is doubtful if they are 

congeneric. In Melichar's 
figure the transverse veins to the costal membrane of the tegmina 
are straight, there is no regular division of the subapical and 
apical areas, the shape of the pronotum is totally different, and so 
apparently is that of the head. 

Genus BAR UNA, nov. 

Type, B. alhosirjnafa, Dist. 

Bistribution. Ceylon. 

Head narrower than pronotum ; vertex a little broader than 
long, its margins carinate, its disk concave, with a slight central, 
longitudinal ridge ; face long, its lateral areas moderately oblique, 
centrally and laterally strongly carinate ; clypeus centrally carinate, 
its lateral margins simple ; pronotum scarcely longer than vertex, 
tricarinate, its posterior margin concavely angularly emarginate ; 
mesonotum tricarinate ; legs moderately long and slender, posterior 
tibiae with about three spines ; tegmina long and narrow, their 
apices somewhat conically rounded, costal membrane without 
transverse veins, of the three basal longitudinal veins the upper 
and lower forked, two series of transA'erse veins, the first nearly 




284 



rULGOBID.i:. 



straight, the outermost convex, dividing the apical and uhiar 
areas, the former distrihuted around the apical marginal area ; 
wings short and narrow, 

1829. Baruna albosignata, sp. n. 

Body ahove and face pale greyish-flavescent ; central carination 
to vertex, cariuations to face, central carination to clypeus, central 
carination to pronotum and a longitudinal fascia on each lateral 
area to same, central carination to mesonotum and a spot or fascia on 
each lateral area to same, a central macular fascia and a broad 




Fig. 133. — Baruna alho^lgnafa. 

lateral fascia on each side of abdomen purplish-red ; body beneath 
more or less suffused with piceous ; legs piceous, apices of femora 
and bases of tarsi pale flavescent ; tegmina fuscous, the apical area 
piceous, costal membrane slightly paler, and a large pale greyish 
spot beneath apex of radial area, claval area greyish ; wings 
hyaline, the venation pale fuscous. 

Length excl. tegm. 4^^ ; exp. tegm. 14^ millim. 

Hah. Ceylon; Tan galla (Greoi). 

Genus PARUZELIA. 
Paruzelia, Mclich. Horn. Faun. Ceylon^ p. 51 (1903). 

Type, P. iisijllomorplia, Melich. 

Distribution. Ceylon. 

Head (including eyes) narrower than pronotum ; vertex pro- 
jecting beyond the eyes, flat, straight, on its anterior area medially 
finely ridged ; face strongly curved downward, twice as long as 
broad, narrowed above, widened towards clypeus, with a fine central 
ridge extending to middle, lateral margins carinate ; clypeus broad, 
shortly triangular, not ridged ; rostrum short, extending to middle 
coxae ; antennae inserted just beneath eyes, very short, second joint 
shortly oval ; ocelli present, very small but distinct near lower 
margins of eyes ; pronotum with posterior margin obtusely deeply 
angularly emarginate ; mesonotum almost broader than long, 
slightly flattened on disk and tricarinate, the lateral calcinations 
beyond middle concavely bent inwardly and unit-ed with apex of 
central ridge ; tegmina peculiarly resembling the form in PsyUida', 
shortly oval, hyaline, apical margin concave between the apical 
veins, so that it appears strangely angular ; clavus short and broad ; 



PARUZELIA. 



285 



of the three basal lougitudinal veins the third is forked, and they 
are connected by several trans vere veins which constitute irregu- 
larly formed celkdar areas ; wings hyaline, broad, short ; legs 
simple, posterior tibite with two spines. 

I include this genus in the Tro]nducIiince on Melichar's authoi'ity, 
and have given what I hope are the salient points in his description. 

1830. Paruzelia psyllomorpha, Melich. Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. o\, 
t. iii, f. 2,a-c{imi). 

" Body yellowish-brown, vertex yellowish-white in middle with a 
fine longitudinal line which forms a short fork; face with the 

sides yellowish, the marginal 
ridges more or less dark yellow, 
and with an oblique reddish- 
brown transverse streak, upper 
half dirty yellow set with fine 
diverging yellow hairs ; clypeus 
resembling face ; eyes brown ; 
antennas yellowish ; pronotum 
with several indistinct rusty- 
yellow spots, which give a mar- 
bled appearance to its surface ; 
mesonotum brown, the longi- 
tudinal ridges paler, a large 
brown spot on side borders, a 
paler marginal spot before apex ; 




Fig. 134. 
Paruzelia psyllomorpha. 



tegmina hyaline, the veins brown and decorated with brown spots, 
which coalesce but are here and there separated by red veins ; 
wings hyaline, with a broad transverse band at middle ; thorax 
and abdomen piceous ; legs pale yellowish ; posterior tibiie with a 
dark annulatiou before middle. 

" Length, <3 1 ^h', expanse 8 millim.'' {Melicliar.) 

Hah. Ceylon ; Henaratgoda {fide Melkliar). 

I have reproduced Melichar's description and figures. 



The following species must be included in the Trojnduchince, but 
its genei'ic position cannot be stated with any certitude, as I am 
unable to see any of Dr. Melichar's cotypes. 

1831. Gen.? melichari, sp. n. 

Epora subtiHtis, Melich. {nee Walk.) Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 48, 
t. i, f. 11, a-e (1903). 

I have already pointed out (ante, p. 283) the confusion which 
attaches to this species, but I refrain from reproducing the figure, 
as its generic position can only with accuracy be determined by the 
examination of a specimen. As Dr. Melichar has given both 
Ceylon and Bombay as its habitats, it is more than probable that 
an example at least will be procured from India or Ceylon in time 
for insertion in an appendix to these volumes. 



286 ruLGORiD.!. 



Subfamily VI. ACHILIN^. 

Achilida, SfM, Hem. Afr. iv, pp. 130 & 181 (1866). 

Acliilina, Stdl, Of v. Vet.-Ak. Fork. 1870, p. 478 ; Atkins. J. A. S. 

Beng. Iv, p. 36 (1886). 
Acliilidre, Melich. Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 11 (1903). 

Head narro^^'er than the pronotum ; lateral margins of the 
clypeus carinate ; apical joint of rostrum elongate ; pronotum 
angularly emai'ginate at base ; tegmina ampliated behind the clavus, 
which is very rarely granulate, acute at apex, which is distinctly 
closed, claval vein continued to the apex or united with the claval 
suture near apex ; posterior tarsi with the basal joint elongate. 

This subfamily is closely allied to the Trojyidachince, from which 
it can always be distinguished by the carinate lateral margins of 
the clypeus. 

Synoj)sis of Genera. 

A. Face promineutly produced before eyes. 

a. Clypeus small, less than half the length of face. Faventia, p. 286. 

b. Clypeus about as long as face Vekuxta, p. 287. 

B. Face not, or very slightly, projecting before eyes. 

a. Clypeus abovit, or nearly, as long as face. 

a'. Face anteriorly eniarginate Kinnara, p. 289. 

//. Face anteriorly convex or truncate, not 
eniarginate. 
a'-. Face only about half as broad as long, 

anteriorly truncate Magadha, p. 290. 

d-. Face nearly three-fourths as broad as long, 

anteriorly rounded Tangina, p. 291. 

b. Clypeus only about lialf as long as face ; pos- 

terior tibiae with two short spines ; tegminal 

stigma undeveloped Kosalya, p. 292. 

c. Clypeus more than half as long as face ; pos- 

terior tibiae with a single small spine ; teg- 
minal stigma very strongly developed Usana, p. 293. 



Genus FAVENTIA. 

Faveulia, SfSl, Henu Afr iv, p. 181 (1866) ; id. Ofo. Vet.-Ak. Fork, 
1870, p. 748. 

Type, F. piistidata, Walk. 

Distribution. Oriental and Malayan Regions. 

Head narrower than the pronotum ; vertex short, subquadrangu- 
lar, centrally ridged and laterally carinate, the spaces between the 
carinations foveate ; face long, prominently produced in front o£ 
eyes, a little ampliate posteriorly, centrally strongly ridged, the 
lateral margins carinate ; clypeus small, less than half the length 
of face, with its lateral margins distinctly carinate and centrally 



VEKUNTA. 



28^ 



finely ridged ; pronotum narrow, its base strongly, deeply einar- 
ginate, tricarinate, the lateral carinae curved inwardly and meeting 
anteriorly ; mesonotum finely ti-icarinate ; legs moderately long 
and slendei', posterior tibise with a single spine : tegmina mode- 
rately ampliate at apical areas and inwardly arapliate behind the 
clavus, radial vein and the lower longitudinal vein furcate, two 
series of transverse veins, the first about three in number, situate 
beyond middle and connecting the longitudinal veins, the second 
series more numerous and couvexly continuous before apical 
margin ; wings broader than tegmina. 

1832. Faventia pustulata, Walk. (Cixius) J. Linn. Soc, Zool. i, p. 87 
(IBoG) ; StSl (Faventia), Berl. ent. Zeitschv. x, p. 392 (1866). 

Body and legs umber-brown ; foveations to vertex and two small 
spots at base of mesonotum black ; tegmina dull greyish, the apical 
areas darker, the venation very pale ochraceous, excluding apical 




Fig. 135. — Faventia. pustulata. 

marginal areas sprinkled with small fuscous spots, with a few larger 
piceous spots, of which the most prominent are one at apex of 
claval area, one on disk before middle, and another at base ; 
wings fulighious, the venation fuscous, and with a small distinct 
discal greyish spot ; there is also a prominent black spot on each 
side of the prosternum ; the central and lateral ridges of the face 
are piceous-brown and its anterior margin truncate. 

Length excl. tegm. 8 ; exp. tegm. 22 millim. 

Hah. Tenasserim ; Myitta (Doherty). — Singapore (Bi-it. Mus.). 



Genus VEKUNTA, u. nom. 

Temesa, Melich. Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 40 (1903), nom. prEeocc. 
(Moll). 

Type, V. tenella, Melich. 

Distribution, Ceylon. 

Head with eyes narrower than pronotum ; face quadrangular, 
flattened at the sides, scarcely keeled, straightly projecting a little 
in front of eyes, the anterior margin divided from the vertex by 



288 



FULGOEID.E. 



a sharp trausA'ei'se ridge aud narrower than at base ; vertex some- 
what long, narrowed anteriorly and concavely excavate between 
the prominent outer margins ; clypeus triangular, ridged medially 
and laterally, the central ridge slight ; eyes semicircular ; autenna? 
very short, second joint thickened and shortly oval ; ocelli absent ; 
prouotum very narrow, posteriorly very strongly emarginate ; 
mesonotum as long as broad, scarcely keeled ; tegmina narrow, 
base of costal margiu curved inward, two lougitudinal veins in 
corium, outer one forked near base and the second before middle, 
outer branch united with first longitudinal vein by a transverse 
vein, several transverse veins in apical area, outer forked branch 
in clavus granulated at base; wings as long as tegmina ; posterior 
tibiae unarmed. 



1S33. Vekunta tenella, Melkh. (Temesa) Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 41, 
t. iii, f. U,a,b,c (1903). 

"Head, pronotum, and antennse 
pale yellow ; mesonotum orange- 
yellow ; eyes black ; face rather 
darker ; vertex thickly covered 
with yellow warts ; tegmina hya- 
line, dirty brownish-yellow, apical 
area smoky-brown, costal margin 
rather paler aud set with ex- 
tremely fine granules ; wings 
slightly fuliginous with dark veins ; 
abdomen aud legs orange-yellow, 
the latter paler." (MelicJiar.) 
Length, d , 5k millira. 
Hab. Ceylon ; Peradeniya (fide 
Melicliar). 

I only know this genus and 
species by Melichar's figures and 
descriptions ; I have re])roduced the first and endeavoured to 
give the salient points of the latter. 




Pig. 136. — VcJcuiita tenella. 



1834. Vekunta punctula, Melich. (Temesa) Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 41 
(1903;. 

" Similar to T. tenella, and only distinguished by the neck of 
the vertex having a deep triangle in which the flattened warts are 
absent ; on each side of the outer areas of the presternum is a 
large black spot, which is wanting in T. tenella ; other characters 
as in that species." (Melichar.) 

Length 5| millim. 

Hab. Ceylon, Negombo (fide Melichar). 

I have no personal knowledge of this species. 



KINNAEA. 



289 



Genus KINNARA, n. nom. 

Pleroma, Melich. Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 41 (1903), iioin. praeocc. 
(Spong-. et Ins.). 

Type, K. ce)/Ionica, Melich. 

Distribution. Ceylon. 

Head short, much narrower than pronotum, the anterior 
margins of face slightly projecting beyond eyes and giving the 
appearance of lateral angulations to vertex, which is concave with 
its margins carinate ; eyes with their posterior margins concavely 
emarginate ; face narro^Aest between eyes, anteriorly emarginate, 
ampliated towards middle, and then a little narrowed to clypeus, 
centrally practically non-carinate ; clypeus nearly as long as face, 
centrally and laterally carinate ; pronotum narrow ; mesonotum 
moderately convex and very obsoletely tricariuate ; legs of moderate 
length, posterior tibice not spined ; tegmina somewhat narrow, 
their apical margins rounded, a small distinct indentation on costal 
margin beyond middle, beneath which there is an apparently sac- 
like area, lower longitudinal vein furcate, a series of transverse 
veins before apical area, and two transverse discal veins just beyond 
middle, apical areas numerous, about ten in number: wings a 
little wider than teermina. 



1835. Kinnara ceylonica, Melich. (Pleroma) Hutn. Faun. Ceylon, 
p. 42, t. i, f. 12, a, b, c (1903). 

Head, thorax above, body beneath, and legs flaveseent ; meso- 
notum more rufous in hue ; 
eyes and apex of abdomen 
black ; tegmina pale flaves- 
eent, more or less greyish 
on apical half, a small cre- 
taceous spot at the costal 
indentation ; wings very 
pale fuliginous, with the 
venation fuscous ; in some 
specimens there are short, 
ray-like, very obscure pale 
fuscous spots in the apical 
areas to the tegmina, but 
these are not of a constant 
character. 

Length excl. tegm. 3 to 3| ; exp. tegm. 10 to lOh millim. 

Hah. Ceylon; Peradeniya ((xj^ew). 

I have reproduced Melichar's figure in order that the structural 
characters of his genus may be more readily understood. 

183G. Kinnara fumata, Melich. (Pleroma) Ho^n. Faun. Ceylon, p. 42 
(1903). 

" Above and beneath smoky-brown ; head small ; vertex very 
short, margins leaf-hke, raised, and passing off into the raised 

VOL. III. u 




Fig. 137. — Kinnara ceylonica. 



290 FULGORID^. 

margins of the face ; ocelli at the clypeal suture, large, glassy, 
distinct ; face not ridged ; clypeus with a very prominent central 
ridge; eyes black; antennae small, placed close to lower margins of 
eyes ; ocelli close to anterior margins of eyes ; pronotum extremely 
narrovA', ribbon-shaped ; mesonotum large, convex, flattened off at 
tip, with three strong pai'allel longitudinal ridges ; tegmina some- 
what long, rounded off behind, fuliginous, with a slight bronzy 
lustre, a small white spot on costa at the extremely slight 
indentation ; venation piceous ; wings fuliginous ; underside and 
legs dull brown. 

" Length 5 millim." (MelieJuir.) 

Hah. Bombay District ; Matheran Mt. {fide Meliclmr). 

I have not seen this species. 



1837. Kinnara albiplaga, sp. n. 

Head, thorax above, body beneath, and legs flaveseent, the meso- 
notum somewhat rufous; abdomen more or less infuscate; tegmina 
pale fuscous-brown, the venation darker, a large basal patch neither 
reaching radial vein nor posterior margin and almost reaching 
middle of tegmen, a small subtriangular spot at costal indentation, 
and some small discal spots on apical area greyish-white ; wings 
milky-white, the venation a little darker ; eyes black ; antennae 
rufous ; structure as in K, ceijlonica. 

Length excl. tegin. 3 ; exp. tegm. 10 millim. 

Hah. Ceylon; Maskeliya ((?ree»i). 



Genus MAGADHA, nov. 

Type, M.flavisigna, Walk. 

Distribution. Oriental Region. 

Head narrower than the pronotum ; vertex truncate anteriorly, 
concavely sinuate posteriorly, with the lateral margins strongly 
ridged, the disk foveate, containing a central ridge which does not 
reach more than halfway from base ; face long, about twice as 
long as broad, a little ampliated posteriorly, the lateral margins 
acutely laminately ridged and upwardly reflexed, and with a strong 
central longitudinal ridge ; clypeus about as long as face, with the 
lateral margins laminately ridged and with a strong central 
longitudinal ridge ; last joint of the rostrum elongate ; pronotum 
somewhat conically produced anteriorly, angularly emarginate 
posteriorly, tricarinate, the lateral carinse oblique; mesonotum 
tricarinate ; legs of moderate length, first joint of posterior tarsi 
elongate ; tegmina long, somewhat narrow, their apices rounded 
and deflected at apical area, ampliated inwardly behind the clavus, 
basal two-thirds of venation longitudinal, closed by a few trans- 
verse veins, crossed, a little before apex, by a regular series of 
transverse veins ; wings broader than tegmina. 



TANQTNA. 



291 



1838. Magadha flavisigna, Walk. (Cixius) List Horn, ii, p. 348 
(1851). 

Head and thorax above ocbraceous ; a large subquadrate discal 
spot to mesonotum dark castaneous, this spot is more obscurely 
extended on each side beyond the lateral carinae ; abdomen above 




Fig, 138. — Magadha flavisigna. 

and beneath castaneous ; sternum and legs ochraceous, face and 
sternum suifused and legs aunnlated with browuish ; tegmiua dull 
creamy, semi-opaque, much mottled and spotted with pale fuscous- 
brown, the veins mostly minutely spotted with fuscous, those on 
apical area stramineous and very distinct ; wings pale fuliginous. 

Length excl. tegm. 54 ; exp. tegm. 18 miUim. 

Hah. " North India "{Brit. 21us.). 

My knowledge of this species is Cunfined to the unique type. 

1830. Magadha nebulosa, sp. n. 

Body above and beneath piceous ; legs brownish, apices ol 
femora and extreme bases of tibiae ochraceous ; teginina fuliginous, 
opaque, with somewhat large fuscous spots on costal, apical, and 
basal inner marginal areas, darkest to about two-thirds from base, 
where the whole surface is minutely speckled with ochraceous, 
the apical third a little paler, and the apical marginal veins pale 
creamy-white and very distinct, the whole of the remaining vena- 
tion thickly speckled with minute pale ochraceous spots ; wings 
very pale fuliginous with the veins fuscous, and in some lights 
exhibiting an opaline lustre ; face finely speckled with ochraceous ; 
clypeus much suffused with ochraceous ; anterior femora with a 
subapical ochraceous annulation. 

Length excl. tegm. 4 ; exp. tegm. 15 millim. 

Hah. Ceylon; Maskeliya ((rremj. 



Genus TANGINA. 
Tangina, Melich. Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 44 (1903). 

Type, T. hipunctata, Melich. 

Distrihution. Ceylon. 

" Head (including eyes) only slightly narrower than prouotum, 
vertex as long as broad, very slightly narrowed anteriorly, rounded 
off at front margin, its sides ridged ; face one and a half times as 

u2 



292 



FULGORID^. 



long as broad at tip, almost quadrangular, very little narrowed 
towards vertex, directed downward, horizontal, finely keeJed at 
sides and middle ; clypeus triangular, keeled at sides and middle ; 
antennae placed beneath eyes, second joint almost globular ; 
pronotum half as long as face, tricarinate, lateral keels curved 
outward, its disk flattened ; mesouotum about four times as 
long as pronotum, tricarinate ; tegmina long, parallel at sides, 
posteriorly ampliate and rounded, three longitudinal veins in 
corium, the innermost forked near middle, two transverse veins 
near middle and several transverse veins in apical area, forming an 
irregular line ; costal membrane broad ; a forked vein in clavus ; 
wings small, wider than tegmina; legs simple; posterior tibiae 
with a small spine before middle."' {Melicliar.) 



1840. Tangina bipunctata, McVwh. Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 44, t. ii, 
f. 19, a, b, c (1903). 

" Pale yellowish ; in front of face between the ridges two black 
longitudinal streaks, and at apex of vertex near border of face 
two black quadrangular spots, which are separated by the yellow 

middle ridge and are sometimes 
absent ; eyes brown ; face, clypeus, 
and antenuffi pale yellow ; on the 
thorax ai'e two broad longitudinal 
brown fasciie, which run parallel 
from the posterior margins of the 
eyes across the pronotum and meso- 
notum, but are sometimes only 
slightly developed; tegmina hyaline, 
somewhat yellowish, traversed by 
slender yellowish veins, a large 
black spot in first apical area, tlie 
transvei'se veins deliminating this 
area black, and preceding it in the costal membrane are two oblique 
brownish streaks ; wings hyaline ; sternum pale yellowish, a lai-ge 
black spot at sides of prosternum ; abdomen pale yellowish, above 
and at apex beneath often orange-yellow ; legs pale yellow, apices 
of spines and claws brown." (JUelichar.) 
Length, c5' & $ , 5 millim. 
Hah. Ceylon ; Peradeuiya (fde Meliclmr). 




Fig. 139. — Tangina bi-jmnctata. 



Genus KOSALYA, nov. 

Type, K. flavostrigata, Dist. 

Distribution. Burma. 

Head narrower than pronotum ; vertex narrow, deflected, some- 
what continuous with face, its margins carinate, and with a distinct 
central ridge ; face longer than broad, medially slightly ampliate 
and then narrowed to clypeus, laterally and centrally ridged ; 
clypeus about half as long as face, with a strong central ridge, and 



USANA. 



1^93 



with its lateral margins distiuetly acutely cariuate : pronotuui 
short, very strongly angularly emarginate at base, centrally 
tricariuate ; mesonotum very long, about twice as long as vertex 
and pronotum together, tricarinate ; legs moderately long and 
slender, posterior tibiae with two short spines, posterior tarsi with 
the basal joint very long ; tegmina apically moderately widened, 
distinctly ampliate behind the clavus, claval vein reaching apex, 
middle basal longitudinal vein forked, two transverse veins near 
central disk, and an incomplete subapical series of transverse 
veins ; wings considerably wider than tegmina. 

1841. Kosalya flavostrigata, sp. n. 

Head, pronotum, and mesonotum pale sanguineous ; central 
ridges to vertex and pronotum, eyes, and six spots to mesonotum (of 
which the largest is on anterior area, divided by the central ridge) 
black ; abdomen above dull castaneous ; body beneath and legs 




Fig. 140. — Kosalya flavostrigata. 

ochraceous ; face anteriorly moderately piceous ; apex of abdomen 
beneath piceous, anal appendage black ; tegmina fuscous, the 
veins darker, costal membrane and claval area flavescent ; wings 
pale fuscous, the veins darker. 

Length excl. tegm. 6 : exp, tegm. 18 millim. 

Hah. Burma; Ruby Mines (Do/terij/). 

Mr. Doherty sent me only a single specimen of this brightly 
coloured species. 

Genus USANA, nov. 

Type, U. lineolalis, Dist. 

Distribution. Tenasserim . 

Head (including eyes) narrower than pronotum ; vertex strongly 
tricarinate, a httle narrowed anteriorly ; face half as long again 
as clypeus, a little ampliate posteriorly, centrally and laterally 
carinate ; clypeus subtriangular, its lateral margins finely cariuate 
and with an incomplete central ridge ; pronotum short, centrally 
tricarinate, its posterior margin strongly subangularly emarginate ; 
mesonotum very large, three times as long as pronotum, with 
three strong discal straight carinations ; legs moderately long, 
posterior tibiae with a small spine before middle, posterior tarsi 



294 



FULGOEID^. 



with the basal joint elongate ; tegmiua moderately long and 
narrow, ampliate behind clavus and at posterior margin of apical 
area ; stigma long with coarse raised transverse veins, a distinct 
series o£ transverse a eins a little before apical margin delimitating 
the range of short apical areas, the longitudinal veins bifurcating ; 
wings a little broader than tegmina. 

1842. Usana lineolalis, sp. u. 

Body above ferruginous - brown ; the carinae to vertex, pro- 
notum, and mesonotum flavescent, those to mesonotum very slightly 
margined with piceous ; abdomen with the base and segmental 
margins flavescent ; eyes and spaces between the carinae of vertex 
piceous ; body beneath and legs very pale ochraceous ; tegmina 




Fig. 141. — TJgana lineolalis. 

pale fuliginous-grey, with darker mottlings, especially on apical 
area ; stigma black with six raised coarse transverse white veins, 
upper half of apical margin fuscous ; wings fuliginous, the venation 
fuscous. 

Length excl. tegm. 4 ; exp. tegm. 14 millim. 

I/ab. Tenasserim ; Myitta {Dohevty). 

Mr. Doherty sent me a single specimen of this species. 



The following genera and species have been described, but not 
figured, by Dr. Melichar, and beiug unable to see a cotype of 
either of them, I have quite failed to obtain a clear impression of 
their position in the Achilince. I can, therefore, merely draw 
attention to them, and trust that by the time an Appendix 
appears in the next volume I may have been able, by the help of 
my indefatigable friend Mr. E. E. Green, to have examined 
specimens to which these descriptions refer. 

Gordia oculata, Melich. Horn. Eaun. Ceylon, p. 43 (1903). 
Epirama consj)erriata, Melich. torn. cit. p. 45. 
Paratangia notata, marginata, etjimhriolata, Melich. torn. cit. 
pp 46 & 47. 



DERBIN^. 295 



Subfamily VII. DERBINJE. 

Derbida, Sm, Hem. Afr. iv, pp. 130 & 192 (1866). 

Derbina, Stal, Ofv. Vet.-Ak. Fork. 1870, p. 750 ; Atkins. J. A. S. 

Bencj. Iv, p. 41 (1886). 
Derbidfe, Mdich. Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 11 (190-3). 

Head (including eyes) generally narrower than the pronotum ; 
clypeus with the lateral margins sometimes carinate ; apical joint 
of rostrum either short or minute ; pronotum posteriorly angularly 
emarginate ; clavus usually as in AcJiilince ; posterior tibiae seldom 
spinose ; basal joint of posterior tarsi elongate. 

These extremely fragile insects are of a homogenous character 
and the subfamily is easily recognizable ; the usually narrow 
vertex and face and the short apical joint of the rostrum are 
characters which may be relied on, while the genex*a are well 
marked and readily separated. Although in some genera con- 
siderable aberrance in form from other subfamilies of the Fulgoridse 
is apparent, Stal evidently exhibited his usual insight in placing 
the Derhino' where he did, and I follow his arrangement. 

Synopsis of Genera *. 

A. Aiiteiiufe of ordinary or moderate length, not 
abnormally developed. 

a. Wings not more, or sometimes less, than half 

the length of tegmina. 

a. Mesonotuni tricarinate. 

a' . Second joint of autennte only a little 
longer than head. 
a^. Face rounded, but not angularly, 
laminately projecting. 

a^. Olypeus longer than face Phenice, p. 296. 

6^. Clypeus shorter than face Pamendanga,p.298. 

b". Face angularly, laminately projecting. Jada, p. 299. 
b' . Second joint of antenme about as long 

as head and thorax together Zoraida, p. 300. 

b. Mesonotum smooth, non-carinate Drona, p. 305. 

b. Wings moderately ample, considerably more 

than half the length of tegmina. 

a. Head longiy produced in front of ej-es. 

a . Head not compressed and laminately 

produced beneath Intekamma, p. 306. 

b' . Head compressed and strongly lami- 
nately produced beneath Vivaha, p. 307. 

b. Head not, or only slightly, produced in 

front of eyes. 
a'. Costal membrane of tegmina distinctly 
arched and dilated. 



* Beyond the synoptical characters liei'e given, the structural characters of 
the face as delineated in the figures representing each genus may be studied 
with advantage. 



298 ruLGORiD.^. 

a'. Tegmina with eight or nine apical 

areas Kermesia, p. 308. 

b'-. Tegmina with only about five apical 

areas NisiA, p. 309. 

b'. Costal membrane of tegmina neither 

distinctly arched nor prominatelj' 

dilated. 

a'^. Tegmina with numerous short apical 

areas continued round apex on 

posterior margin of costal area .... Kamendaka, p. 310. 
h'. Tegmina with apical areas moderately 
long and not continued round apex 
on posterior margin of costal area . Riiotana, p. 311, 
B. Antennfe abnormally developed. 

a. Antennae with the second joint very long 

and incrassate Vinata, p. 314. 

b. Antennae with the first and second joints 

globose, remaining joints prominently pro- 
duced and longly pectinate Devadanda, p. 315. 



Genus PHENICE. 

Phenice, Westiv. Tr. Linn. Soc. xix, p. 10 (1845) ; StB, Ofv. Vet- 
Ak. Fork. 1856, p. 163; id. Hem. Afr. iv, pp. 193 & 195 (1866) ; 
Atkim. J. A. S. Bemj. Iv, p. 41 (1886) ; Melicli. Horn. Faicn. 
Ceylon, p. 54 (1903). 

Assa'mia, Buckt. Ind. Mzis. Notes, iv. p. 1 (1896). 

Proutista, Kirk. Entomolo(jist, 1904, p. 279. 

Type, F. fritillaris, Westvv., a "West-African species. 

Distribution. Ethiopian and Oriental Regions. 

Head much narrower tlian the pronotura, seen from the side 
more or less rounded anteriorly, shghtly compressed and narrowly 
prominent in front of eyes, vertex and face very narrow ; clypeus 
loDg, tricarinate ; eyes posteriorly sinuate beneath ; ocelli none ; 
second joint of antenna varying in length and shape ; apical joint 
of rostrum very minute ; pronotum short, posteriorly deeply 
angularly emarginate ; mesonotum and pronotum finely tri- 
carinate ; tegmina elongate, gradually amplified from base to 
middle, thence somewhat convex, and again narrowed upward, 
much longer than the wings; clavus short; radial vein forked, 
uhiar vein emitting inwardly obHque longitudinal branches 
towards the commissural margin, these branches united by a 
transverse vein ; legs slender, posterior tibiae sometimes spinose. 

Kirkaldy (supra) has proposed a new name {Proutista) for a 
A^■e]l-known synonym, Assamia, Buckt, 

1843, Phenice moesta, Wesfw. (Derbe (Phenice)) A. M. N. H. (2) vii, 
p. 209 (1851) ; Stal (Phenice), Ofv. Vet.-Ak. Fork. 1870, p. 750 ; 
Atkins. J. A. S. Benq. Iv, p. 41 (1880) ; Melich. Hojn. Faun. 
Ceylon, p. 54, t. ii, f.'ll (1903). 
Assamia dentata, Buckt. Ind. Mus. Notes, iv, p. 1, t. i (1896). 

Body black ; vertex of head and face, central carina to clypeus, 



PHENICB. 297 

eyes, autennse, central fascia to pronotum, carinas to mesonotum, 
posterior margin of metauotum, central maculate fascia to abdomen 
above, anal appendage, rostrum, and legs stramineous ; tegmina 
black, with paler greyisli -white spots, consisting of a somewhat 
continuous series on costal area, two prominent on apical margin, 
and the largest in oblique discal series; wings fuliginous, the 
venation fuscous. 




Fig. 142. — Fl/cmce rnoesta. 

Length exel. tegm. 2h to 3 ; exp. tegm. 13| to 14 miHim. 

Hah. Assam ; Dibrugarb {fide Bucldon). Bombay {CoU. Dist.). 
Ceylon {Ycrhury) ; Puttalam, Minikoi (Green). 

The Kev. C. Dowding, of Dibrugarb, Assam, found this insect 
in considerable numbers on the underside of the leaves of a kind 
of palm-tree. Mr. Green has also recorded it as frequenting the 
leaves of a sycamore in Ceylon. 

1844. Phenice superlja, sp. n. 

Head, thorax above, sternum, and legs brownish-ochraceous, 
the latter two a little paler ; abdomen sanguineous ; tegmina 
fuliginous, the venation sanguineous, the costal, apical, and inner 
margins ornamented with larger irregularly-shaped greyish-white 
spots, basal area a little paler ; wings pale fuliginous, the venation 
fuscous ; body somewhat convexly gibbous ; mesonotal carina) 
distinct ; clypeus strongly tricarinate ; rostrum robust, its apical 
joint minute and piceous ; antennte with the second joint long, 
roundly incrassate, pale ochraceous, granulate on basal area ; legs 
more or less deeply longitudinall}'' grooved. 

Length excL tegm. 5 ; esp. tegm. 26 millim. 

Hab. Assam ; Khusi Hills (Brit. 2Ius.). 

1845. Phenice piuictativentris, Kirb,/, J. Linn. Soc, Zool. xxiv, 

p. 144, t. V. f. (1891); Melich. Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 55 
(1903). 

Vertex of head more or less pale virescent, eyes brown ; 
pronotum and mesonotum very pale dull ochraceous ; abdomen 
pale testaceous, with a double series of black spots on each side 
of its upper surface ; body beneath and legs very pale dull ochra- 
ceous ; tegmina semihyaline, a broad longitudinal subcostal fascia 



298 ruLGOEiD^. 

posteriorly margined with well separated ray-like linear spots, 
elongate marginal suffusions on posterior margin, some small 
apical marginal spots, and a series of obliquely transverse diseal 
spots pale fuscous-brown ; wings pale fuliginous, semihyaline, the 
venation fuscous ; the narrow face is very strongly longitudinally 
ridged between the eyes ; central cariuation to clypeus robustly 
prominent ; second joint of antennae robust, somewhat long and 
cylindrical, stramineous ; tegmina with the inner margin straight, 
and gradually ampliate to about middle, whence it is distinctly 
convexly ampliate to lower apical angle ; costal membrane broad, 
M'ith what appear to be one or two transverse veins before middle. 

Length excl. tegm, 3 ; exp. tegm. 13 to 14 millim. 

Hah. Ceylon ; Pundaluoya {Green). 

1846, Phenice furcato-vittata, StM (Derbe), Ofv. Vef.-Ak. Fork. 
1855, p. 191 ; id. (Pheuice) torn. cit. 1856, p. 163 ; Motsch. 
(Derbe) Bull Soc. Nat. Mosc. 1863, p. 113 ; Meh'ch. Horn. 
Faun. Ceylon, p. 65 (1903). 

" Fuscous, narrow face and the legs flavous ; tegmina white, 
hyaline, apex subglaucous, a fuscous bifurcate vitta at apex, 
medially emitting a ramus ; wings fuscous ; abdomen fulvescent." 
{StaX.) 

Length of body 4 ; exp. tegm. 13 millim. 

Hah. Cevlon {fide Motsclwulslcy). — Java {Stdl). 

Neither Kirby, Melichar, nor myself have seen a Ceylonese 
example of this species, and it is included in this enumeration 
solely on the authority of Motschoulsky. 



Genus PAMENDANGA, nov. 

Type, P. ruhilinea, Dist. 

Histrihution. Tenasserim. 

Head (including eyes) very much narrower thanpronotum; vertex 
narrow, triangular, widened posteriorly, its apex a little prominent ; 
face narrow, laminate, convex, centrally carinate ; clypeus shorter 
than face, centrally strongly carinate ; antennae inserted beneath 
eyes, second joint moderately long and incrassate ; pronotum very 
narrow and very strongly angularly eraarginate postei'iorly, 
centrally longitudinally and laterally transversely carinate ; meso- 
notum large, tricarinate ; legs long and slender, posterior tarsi 
with the basal joint moderately thickened ; tegmina broadened 
before middle, a little convexly narrowed to apex, which is truncate, 
costal membrane with indistinct obliquely transverse veins, a 
broken series of diseal transverse veins in longitudinal sequence, 
apex of costal margin and upper half of apical margin with 
ol3liquely transverse veins ; wings moderately long and narrow. 

Allied to Jada, from which it differs by the much less and 
conically produced face, broader tegmina and wings, the latter 
also shorter. 



JADA. 299 

1847. Pamendanga rubilinea, sp. n. 

Body and legs pale ocbraceous ; a curved fascia on underside of 
eyes ; disk of sternum and abdomen beneath more or less suffused 
with dark castaneous ; tegmina semihyaline, venation brownish, 
in some places like the transverse veins fuscous, some irregular 
fuscous suffusions, which are most prominent at base, lower 
medial urea, in radial and beyond radial ai-ea, centi'e of lower 




Fig. 143. — Pamendanga ruhilinca. 

postcostal vein bright carmine-red ; wings semihyaline, more or 
less suffused with fuscous, palely on apical area, aud deeply fasciate 
on anal area. In some, perhaps fresher, specimens the pronotum 
and posterior angle of mesonotum are virescent and the basal area 
of the abdomen stramineous ; on the costal margin of tegmina 
beyond middle there are five minute carmine-red spots. 

Length excl. tegm. 4 ; exp. tegm. 16| millim. 

Hah. Tenasseriiu ; Myitta {Doherty). 



Genus JADA, nov. 

Type, J. nitagalensis, Kirby. 

Distribution. Ceylon. 

Head (including eyes) considerably narrower than pronotum ; 
vertex very narrow, produced and curved do\^nward considerably 
in front of eyes, its central area sulcate ; face laminately angularly 
projecting ; clypeus large, tricarinate ; antennae inserted beneath 
the eyes, seconcl joint of moderate length, robust ; pronotum about 
as long as eyes, posteriorly strongly subangularly emarginate, 
obsoletely tricarinate ; mesonotum large, convex, strongly tri- 
carinate ; legs moderately long and slender, posterior tibiae with a 
single spine, posterior tarsi with the basal joint very long ; tegmina 
strongly subangularly sinuate before middle of costal margin at apex 
of costal membrane, which is somewhat abruptly discontinuous, 
the postcostal area much ampliated towards apex and containing 
three transverse veins, the first short and slightly oblique, the outer 
two longitudinally curved, the upper longitudinal vein with a trans- 
verse vein above at a little beyond middle, and beneath emitting 
long, curved, oblique veins to posterior margin, about two trans- 
verse veins on disk, and about the same number beyond radial 
area ; wings nearly half as long as tegmina. 



300 



FULGORTDiE. 



1848. Jada nitagalensis, Kirby (Derbe?), J". Linn. Soc, Zool xxiv, 
p. 142, t. V. f. 3 (1891). 

Tawny-yellow; A'ertex of head, thoracic carinations, and face 
nearly pure white ; apices of the tarsi black ; tegmina pale tawny- 
brown, the veins yellow with whitish semihyaline spots or fascise, 
one oceu])yiug nearly the whoh? area of costal membrane, three in 




Pig. 114. — Jada iiiiai/a/cjisis. 

postcostal area, one beneath costal membrane and another beneath 
base of postcostal area, and about twelve others of various sizes 
scattered from base to apex ; wings semihyaline, the venation 
broadly tawny-yellow. 

Length excl. tegui. 4 ; exp. tegm. 18 miilim. 

Bab. Ceylon (Ycrh 11 ri/); Nitagaia {Gree:i). 

Dr. Melichar (Horn. Faun. Ceylon, t. ii, f. 14) has figured a 
species as Thracla nitagalensis, Kirby, which is neither congeneric 
nor conspecific with Kirby's species. 



Genus ZORAIDA. 

Thracia, Westiv. Tr. L. S. xix, p. 10 (1842) ; Melich. Horn. Faun. 

Ceylon, p. 55 (1903), nom. prseocc. (Moll.). 
Zoraida, Kirk. Entomologist, 1900, j). 242, n. uom. 

Type, Z. sinuosa, Westw., a West-African species. 

Distribution. Ethiopian and Oriental Kegions. 

Head much narrower than pronotum, vertex triangularly narrow 
between the eyes : face linear, narrow ; clypeus long, tricarinate ; 
eyes moderately sinuate beneath ; antennae with the second joint 
very long ; apical joint of rostrum minute ; pronotum short, tricari- 
nate, the lateral carinse obsolete ; mesonotum obscurely tricarinate ; 
legs slender, posterior tibia3 with a distinct spine ; tegmina elon- 
gate, their apices truncate, a little sinuate at posterior margins, 
clavus short, the obliquely transverse veins divided by a longi- 
tudinal discal series of eight transverse veins, thus demarcating 
twelve or thirteen apical areas ; Mings very short. 

1849. Zoraida pterophoroides, Westto. (Derbe (Thracia)) A. M. N. H. 
(2) vii, p. 210 (1851); Melich. (Thracia) Horn. Faun. Ceylon, 
p. m (1903). 

Head, thorax, and legs very pale ochraceous ; anterior femora 
somewhat testaceous ; abdomen whitish on basal, pale ochraceous 



ZOEAIDA. 



301 



on apical area, more or less infiiscate on lateral areas ; tegmina 
pale semihyaline, the costal area widening a little before apex, 
basal suffusion, the discal transverse veins,' and some small spots 




Fig. 145. — Zoraida pterojjhorolde-i. 



near apices of longitudinal veins at apical margin fuliginous- 
brown, remaining venation a little paler brown ; wings subhyaliue, 
the venation very pale brown. 

Length excl. tegm. 4| to 5 ; exp. tegm. 26 millim. 

Hah. Kangra Valley (Dudr/eon). Ceylon; Vevademya (Gnen). 
Upper Burma ; Katha {B'mgham). 

1850. Zoraida cumulata. Walk. (Thraciaj ,/. Linn. Soc, Zool. x, p. 139 

(1868) ; Melicli. Horn. Faun. Ceijlon, p. 56 (1903). 

Body above dark tawny-brown, the thoracic carinations flaves- 
cent; body beneath and legs ochraceous ; eyes black; tegmina 
pale fuscous, the costal and apical areas greyish, with numerous 
small fuscous spots, and with a large subelongate fuscous spot at 
apex of costal area, all the veins minutely spotted with fuscous, 
the posterior margin alternately grey and dark fuscous, some of 
the grey interspaces minutely spotted with fuscous, a linear vein- 
like fascia commencing near base, obhquely extending to posterior 
margin at about one-third from base, and then obliquely, out- 
wardly, upwardly recurved to near middle of tegmen, piceous ; 
wings absent in specimen described, but, according to A¥alker, 
"brownish, less than half the length of the tegmina"; antennae 
with the second joint incrassate, long, and prominent ; tegmina 
long and narrow, widened from before middle to apex, which 
is truncate, the anterior and posterior margins subparallel. 

Length excl. tegm. 5| ; exp. tegm. 27 millim. 

Hah. Ceylon ; ICaudy and J^fawalapitya (Green). — Amboina, 
Bouru. 

1851. Zoraida ceylonica, Kirby (Thracia), J. Linn. Soc, Zool. xxiv, 

p. 143 (1891) ; Melich. Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 56 (1903). 

Vertex of head stramineous ; pro- and mesonota pale dull 
ochraceous ; sternum and legs ochraceous, lateral areas of pro- 
sterna greyish-white ; abdomen testaceous, more or less piceous 



302 FULGORID.T. 

at base and apex ; tegmiaa very pale fuliginous, semihyaline, the 
Aenation pale fuscous ; costal membrane and postcostal area red, 
pale ocbraceous for a short distance at a little beyond base, apical 
margin fuscous, with the apices of the veins ocbraceous, the veins 
of the upper apical area i*ed, a fuscous spot at the bases of 
the upper two apical areas, and another fuscous spot beneath 
about middle of costal area ; wings very small, fuliginous, sub- 
liyaline, the venation and the apex fuscous ; the narrow face 
strongly ridged between eyes ; central cai'ination to clypeus 
prominent ; second joint of antenna? very long, moderately in- 
crassate, pale ocbraceous, testaceously granulate ; tegmina broadly 
ampliate on posterior margin at about one-third from base, their 
apical margins truncate. 

Length excl. tegm. 4; exp. tegm. 26 to 27 millim. 

Hob. Ceylon {Yerhury Sf Green). 

As Mr. Kirby remarked, this species is allied to Z. ephemeralis. 
Walk., from New Guinea ; I have also another allied species from 
Borneo. 

1852. Zoraida lankana, Kirby (Thracia), J. Linn. Soc, Zool. xxiv, 

p. 143 (1891) ; Melich. Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 57 (1903). 

Head and mesonotum brownish-ochraceous ; pronotum stra- 
mineous ; abdomen above and body beneath and legs brownish- 
ochraceous ; abdomen above with lateral brown spots, anal 
segment more or less bright red ; tegmina semihyaline, the vena- 
tion fuscous-brown, costal vein red, costal area ocbraceous and 
from about end of basal third to apex containing a series of pro- 
minent brown spots, apices of the veins at apical and posterior 
margins minutely infuscate, and the same remark applies to the 
bases of the veins beneath the costal membrane, the obliquely 
transverse discal veins and those at apex of radial area also 
moderately infuscate, and a fuscous spot at apex of claval area ; 
Avings very short and small, very pale fuHginous, the veins darker; 
second joint of antennae very long, ocbraceous, slightly incrassate 
at apex, where it is distinctly red, and the whole very finely and 
minutely speckled with red ; carinse to face and clypeus very dis- 
tinct ; tegmina distinctly finely serrate on basal third of costal 
margin. 

Length excl. tegm. 4 ; exp. tegm. 22 to 25 millim. 

Hah. Ceylon ; Nawalapitya ( Qreen). 

1853. Zoraida rufivena, sp. n. 

Body above tawny-grey, beneath with legs very pale ocbraceous ; 
margins of vertex, cai-inations to mesonotum (of which the two 
outermost are outwardly curved and do not reacli anterior margin), 
posterior margin of mesonotum, and a central longitudinal line to 
abdomen above greyish ; upper surface of abdomen near middle 
obscurely suffused with piceous ; tegmina greyish subhyaline 



ZOEAIDA. 303 

tinged with pale brownish between the veins, which are red and 
somewhat closely spotted with pale fuscous, costal area with small 
closely arranged fuscous spots extending beyond middle, after 
which there is an elongate piceous spot, and an elongately oblique 
subcostal piceous spot a little before apex, posterior margin from 
about one-third from base greyish with pale fuscous spots, apical 
margin with two transverse series of small fuscous spots, those of 
the inner series minute and placed close together, the transverse 
discal veins and an oblique discal line before middle piceous, 
extreme edge of basal costal margin greyish-white ; wings short, 
pale fuliginous, the veins fuscous ; second joint of antennae 
moderately long, robust, dull ochraceous. 

Length excl. tegra. 4 ; exp. tegm. 20 millim. 

Hab. Ceylon; Perandeniya (ft-eew). 

1854. Zoraida obsoleta, Kivby (Thracia?), J. Linn. Soc, Zool. xxiv, 

p. 144, t. Y, f. 7 (1891) ; Melich. (Thracia) Horn. Faun. Ceylon, 
p. 57 (1903). 

Body above dark fuscous-brown ; body beneath and legs ochra- 
ceous ; tegmina and wings pale semihyaliue, bases of both fuscous- 
brown, tegmina with a prominent piceous spot near end of claval 
area ; eyes fuscous-brown ; thoracic carinations somewhat slight ; 
tegmina broadened at about one-fourth from base and moderately 
ampliated to apex, the posterior margin very slightly convex, the 
apical margin truncate ; wings very short, not reaching anal angle 
of tegmina. 

Length excl. tegm. 4 ; exp. tegm. 24 millim. 

Hah. Ceylon; Pundaluoya, Maskeliya (Gree/i). 

1855. Zoraida motschoulskyi, sp. n. 

Vertex of head and thorax above very pale luteous, eyes 
browuish-ochraceous ; abdomen above castaneous, its base and disk 
stramineous, the anal appendage testaceous ; body beneath and 
legs stramineous ; tegmina and wings subhyaline, venation stra- 
mineous ; tegmina with the costal area stramineous, and near apex 
exhibiting a piceous bifurcating venal spot, to which is attached, 
and of the same coloiir, the transverse vein at the base of the 
adjoining apical area, a piceous spot near middle of anal margin ; 
second joint of antennae ver}^ long, its apex inf uscate ; mesonotum 
obsoletely tricarinate ; vertex of head somewhat triangular ; teg- 
mina ampliated at about one-third from base, their apices ti-uncate ; 
wings short, almost reaching apex of anal angle. 

Length excl. tegm. 4 ; exp. tegm. 24 millim. 

Hah. Ceylon, Maskeliya {Green). 

1856. Zoraida gilva, sp. n. 

Body above fulvous-brown, apex of abdomen ochraceous ; body 
beneath, antennae, and legs pale stramineous ; tegmina and wings 
semihyaline, the venation very pale ochraceous, tegmina w-ith a 



304 fulgorid.t:. 

small black spot near apex of claval area ; antennae with the 
second joint very long, pale ochraceous, stramineous at base ; eyes 
fulvous-brown ; thorax above somewhat pale, the anterior lateral 
margins testaceous, the disk fulvous ; tegraina broadened at about 
one-fourth from base and ampliate towards apex, which is sub- 
truncate ; wings short, about reaching anal angle of tegmina. 

Length excl. tegm. 3| ; exp. tegn). 24 millim. 

Hah. Ceylon ; Bogawantala^a {Green). 

18.57. Zoraida egregia, Mdich. (Thracia) Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. o8, 
t. ii, f. 18, a (1903). 

" Body rusty-yellow : head and eyes distinctly narrower than 
prouotum ; vertex and face whitish-yellou- ; clypeus broader than 
face, longly triangular, convex, tricarinate ; eyes black ; prouotum 
in middle very narrowly and on the sides more broadly pale 
yellow ; mesonotum convex, a little longer than broad, rusty- 
yellow, above and covering the three longitudinal ridges are three 
lougitudinal white fascite, sometimes the lateral margins are also 
whitish ; tegmina very long, narrow, rounded at apices, hyaline, 
of a yellowish colour, veins thickened and rusty-yello\\', the outer- 
most longitudinal vein forked before middle, the branches parallel, 
enclosing a long narrow cell, the outer branch sending several 
oblique white transverse veins to costal vein, which is also white, 
the inner fork running bifurcately into the apical tip, and emitting 
before this two branches to costal margin, the second longitudinal 
vein runs parallel with the first to apical margin, \A'ith the inner 
fork of which it is connected about the middle of tegmen by a 
strong, short, brown-bordered transverse vein, from this lougi- 
tudinal vein several branches run obliquel}" across the corium to 
the margins of the wings and are connected with brown-bordered 
cross-veins ; a forked vein in clavus ; wings small ; abdomen 
rusty -brown, margins of dorsal segments rusty-yellow, two distinct 
black spots on the fourth dorsal segment near posterior margin ; 
thorax and legs pale yellow ; posterior tibiae with one small spine." 
{Melicltar.') 

Length 9; esp. tegm. IG millim. 

Hah. Ceylon ; Henaratgoda {fide 3Ielichar). 

I have no personal knowledge of this species, 

1858. Zoraida ficta, sp. n. 

Thracia nitacraleiisis, Melich. {nee Kirby) Horn. Faun. Ceylon, 
p. 59, t. ii, f. 14 (1903). 

The species described and figured by Dr. Melichar as T. nitagal- 
ensis, Kirby, is apparently a true Zoraida, and represents a species 
allied to Z. cunndata, Walk., from ^^•hich it appears to be princi- 
pally distinguished by a series of dark spots for more tbau half 
the length of the costal area, and by two large transverse dark 
spots on the apical area. 

Length, $ , 14 ; exp. tegm. 23 millim. {fide Melichar). 

Hah. Cevlon. 



DKONA. 305 

The species is said to be founded on a single example contained 
in the Colombo Museum, and I defer describing it till a specimen 
has reached my hands. 

Genus DRONA, nov. 

Type, D. caniosa, AVestw. 

Distribution. Oriental Region. 

Head much narrower than prouotum ; vertex elongate, narrow, 
laterally strongly ridged between eyes and distinctly projecting 
beyond them ; face very narrow and laterally ridged ; clypeus 
large, tricarinate, the lateral carinoe somewhat obscure ; rostrum 
robust, the apical joint minute ; pronotum narrow, posteriorly 
strongly subaugularly emarginate ; mesonotum large, moderately 
convex, neither pronotum nor mesonotum carinated ; abdomen in 
the male furnished apically with a pair of long, forceps-like, anal 
appendages ; legs of moderate length, more or less distinctly 
longitudinally grooved, posterior tibiae nob spined ; tegmina long, 
ample, obliquely narrowed at inner margin from about middle to 
base, apical margin truncate, costal membrane with an oblique 
transverse vein near middle ; upper ulnar area very long, ex- 
tending from radial area to near apex, with a transverse vein near 
middle and five short veins on and around its apical margin, 
beneath it a longitudinal series of obliquely transverse veins, the 
apical areas long ; wings very short and narrow. 

1859. Drona carnosa, JTesiJ^i;. (Derbe (Phenice?)) A.M.N.H. (2) 
vii, p. 210 (1851) ; Atkins. (Pbenice) J. A. S. Beng. Iv, p. 42 

(1886). 

Head, thorax, and legs testaceous-red, tibiae and tarsi more 
or less infuscate ; abdomen shining black ; tegmina very pale 




t 
Fig. 146. — Brona eariiosa. 

fuliginous-hyaline, extreme base and costal membrane pale 
ochraceous, the latter with its margins prominently piceous ; 
venation piceous ; wings hyaline, the posterior margins fuscous. 

Length excl. tegm. 3.^ ; exp. tegm. 20 to 21 millim. 

Hah. "North India "' (5ri^. Mus.). 

The type or a cotype of this species, labelled by the late 
Prof. Westwood, is in the British Museum, and from it the 

VOL. III. X 



306 TVLGOniDJE. 

above figure has been made. The only variable character I have 
observed is in the colour of the prominent anal appendages, which 
are either totally black, or testaceous with their apices black. 

1860. Drona pennata, sp. n. 

Body and legs flavescent ; face as seen between eyes san- 
guineous ; abdomen beneath with three prominent basal black 
spots (one central and one on each lateral margin) ; eyes piceous ; 
tegmina semihj'aline, the venation flavescent, basal third of 
extreme costal margin and apical third of inner margin to costal 
area fuscous, the apical half of costal area flavescent ; wings 
semihyaline, base orange-yellow with, a posterior black spot, apical 
t\\o-thirds semihyaline, with the posterior margin and an oblique 
discal fascia fuscous. 

Length excl. tegm. 3 ; exp. tegm. 14 millim. 

Hah. Tenasseriiii ; Myitta (DoJierti/). 

Of this distinct and beautifully marked species I possess only 
one specimen, and that in somewhat inditt'ex-ent condition ; I can, 
therefore, only describe the colour-characters. 

Genus INTERAMMA. 

Interamma, Walk. J. Linn. Soc, ZooL x, p. 118 (1867) ; Melich. 
Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 60 (1903). 

Type, /. ascendent, Walk., from the Island of Morty. 

Bistrihution. Oriental and Malayan Eegions. 

" Body slender ; head cultriform or extremely compressed and 
dilated vertically, as long as the thorax, with two edges above 
and with one edge beneath; eyes prominent ; antennae cylindrical, 
more than half the lengtli of the head, forked at the base, third 
ioint very shoi't; pronotum short, arched; mesonotum not keeled ; 
legs short, slender ; tegmina and wings narrow ; tegmina with an 
irregidar submarginal line of transverse veins." (Walker.) 

I have only copied Walker's short and imperfect generic 
diagnosis, because I believe more than one genus is included in 
the species he enumerated. The two specimens of the Ceylonese 
species here included are mutilated in the cephalic process, A^hich 
prevents exact generic identification, and I have therefore followed 
Melichar in regarding the species as belonging to the genus 
Interamma, 

1861. Interamma I'ubrofasciata, Melich. Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 61, 

t. ii, f. 8 (1903). 

Dark stramineous ; head and pronotum much suffused with 
sanguineous ; mesonotum with the lateral margins and three 
central longitudinal fascise sanguineous ; tegmina with the base 
of costal margin, the posterior margin, an ii-regularly oblique 



TIVAHA. 



30: 



transverse fascia before middle commeuciug beneath the costal 
membrane, and the apical area (obliquely rounded to apex) 
sanguineous ; in some specimens the apical area is subhyaline, 

with its margins and venation 
:'; sanguineous, in others the inter- 

cellular spaces are fuscous-brown ; 
tegmina with three prominent 
longitudinal veins, of which the 
upper and lower are bifurcate, 
the apical area with numerous 
transverse veins, forminga number 
1 of somewhat small cellular areas, 
of which about the upper apical 
four are longitudinal, followed 
by six medial oblique areas, and 
again by about five posterior, 
marginal, shorter, and moderately 
Fig. U7.—Liferamma ruhrofasciata. oWique areas, the costal margin is 

distinctly concavely emarginate 
before apex; wings creamy-white, the venation somewhat pro- 
minent. 

Length with tegm. 12 millim. 
Hah. Ceylon; Kandy (G^r^m). 




Genus VIVAHA, nov. 

Type, V. facicdis, Dist. 

Distribution. Oriental Eegion. * 

Head (including eyes) much narrower than pronotum, the vertex 
longly produced in front of eyes into a broadly laminate process, 
very narrow and centrally sulcata above, laterally very broad and 
flattened, its apex rounded, its margins carinate, face small and 
marginally carinate ; rostrum mutilated in the two specimens 
available for description ; pronotum very short, basally deeply 
angularly emarginate; mesonotum tricarinate ; legs moderatelv 
long and slender ; tegmina considerably ampliated towards apex, 
the costal margin a little convex, the apical margin truncate, a 
little obliquely angulate anteriorly and posteriorly, the posterior 
margin concavely sinuate before the commencement of the apical 
area, the lower longitudinal vein furcate beyond its middle, 
oblique veins on lower half of apical area separating five distinct, 
long, oblique, cellular areas, followed by about four shorter ones, 
there are also four apical marginal areas ; ^^•ings shorter and a 
little narrower than tegmina. 

This genus is founded on the examination of two specimens, 
both of which, as regards the condition of face and clypeus, leave 
much to be desired. The extraordinary cephalic process is its 
principal distinctive character. 



x2 



308 



FULGORTD.i:. 



1862. Vivaha facialis, s]). n. 

Head ochraceous, its vertex and margins testaceous-red; thorax 
tjstaceous-red ; abdomen and legs stramineous ; tegmina flaves- 
eent, a narrow' linear basal fascia, a broader oblique fascia near 




Fig. 148. — Vivaha facialis. 

middle, posterior margin, and the apical venation more or less 
purplish-red, the apical cellular areas somewhat vitreous ; wings 
pale creamy-hyaline. 

Length excl. tegm. 5 to 6 ; exp. tegm. 16 millim. 

Hab. Andaman Islands {Brit. Mus.). Tenasserim ; Myitta 
(Doherty). 



Genus KERMESIA. 
Kermesia, Melich. Horn, Faun. Ceylon, p. 52 (1903). 

Type, K. albida, Melich. 

Distribution. Ceylon. 

Head (including eyes) narrower than pronotum ; vertex and 
face continuous, their lateral margins strongly cariuate and parallel 
to clypeus which is strongly centrally ridged ; rostrum with the 
apical joint minute ; pronotum narrow, with all its margins 
strongly ridged and with a strong central cariuation ; mesonotum 
somewhat obscurely tricarinate, the carinations confined to the 
anterior area; legs of moderate length, posterior tibiae with a 
single spine ; tegmina short and broad, apically ampliated, the 
costal margin somewhat strongly sinuate, costal membrane broad 
with a single transverse vein, two series of transverse veins, the 
first before middle connecting the longitudinal veins, the second 
deliminating eight or nine apical areas ; wings a little narrower 
than tegmina. 

A genus to be easily recognized by the shape and venation of 
the tegmina. 



1863. Kermesia albida, Melich. Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. o3, t. i, 
f. 14, a, b (1903). 

Body and legs pale tawny, abdomen more or less cretaceously 



KISIA. 



309 



tomentose; tegmina and wings creamy-\^ hite ; tegmiiia much 




wrinkled, radial and claval veins thickened and prominent; apices 
o£ tarsi infuscate. 

Length excl. tegm. 3 ; exp. tegm. 13 millim. 

Hah. Ceylon; Peradeniya (G^iren). 

Genus NISI A. 
Nisia, Melich. Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 53 (1903). 

Type, N. atrovenosa, Leth. 

Distribution. Oriental Region. 

Dr. Melichar diagnoses this genus as follows : — " Similar ^to 
Kermesia by structure of head, but especiall}^ differs by the 
narrower tegmina and by the direction of the strongly prominent 
and thickened veins in the apical area, which number only five,, 
and of which the second and fourth are forked ; in Kermesia 
these veins are always eight or nine, partly simple and partly 
forked terminal veins ; other characters as in Kermesia." 

Of the above characters, from the material before me, I cannot 
describe the fourth apical vein of the tegmina as forked, at least 
in the specimen I identify and figure as N. atrovenosa, Leth., 
which Melichar gives as the type of his genus. 

1864. Nisia atrovenosa, Leth. (Meenoplus) Ann. Mus. Genov. xxvi, 
p. 466 (1888) ; Melich. (Nisia) Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 53 
(1903). 

Body and legs very pale ochraceous ; vertex of head with the 
carinse piceous and very finely grauulose, the space between them 




Fiij. 150. — Nisia airovcnosa. 



profoundly concave ; lateral carinate margins of face piceous : 
tegmina greyish with a slight ochraceous tint, the venation 



310 rULGOEID.E. 

piceous, the central trausverse veins on apical area distinctly 
cretaceous, the exterual suture to clavus arcuate and distinctly 
granulose ; wings creamy-white, the venation darker ; tegmina 
with the first and second apical veins bifurcating, the other apical 
veins simple. 

Length excl. tegm. 2 ; exp. tegm. 8,4 millim. 

Hah. Trincomalee {ficU Melichar). Ceylon, Peradeniya (Green). 
— Nias Islands, 

1865. Nisia albovenosa, sp. n. 

Head and pronotum very pale ochraceous ; mesouotum pale 
castaneous-brown, the carinations and posterior margins flaves- 
cent or very pale ochraceous ; abdomen pale castaneous-brown, 
discally more or less suffused with cretaceous pile; face greyishly- 
flavescent ; clypeus and legs very pale ochraceous ; sternum pale 
bro\^nish, abdomen beneath piceous-bro\^n ; tegmina with the 
venation white, the cellular areas pale brown with whitish spots, 
these spots being most promineut on apical margin and discal 
area, the basal areas nearly totally white, the external claval 
suture white and. granulose, followed by two curved fuscous- 
brown linear fascia, their interspace tlaveseent ; wings creamy- 
wliite, the venation darker ; apical area of tegmina with three 
series of bifurcate veins, thus bringing up the number to six 
instead of five * ; costal membrane broad. 

Length excl. tegm. 2i ; exp. tegm. 9 millim. 

Hah. Ceylon ; Pundaluoya (Green). 

Genus KAMENDAKA, nov. 

Type, K. spectra, Dist. 

Distribution. Ceylon. 

Head (including eyes) very much narrower than pronotum ; 
vei'tex projecting beyond the eyes, souiewhat flat, conically 
rounded anteriorly, and at the apex the upper margins of the 
face appear as two angulations, its base angularly emargiuate ; 
face as seen beneath the flattened vertex very narrow to between 
eyes and then broadened to clypeus, which is a little convex, 
apical joint of rostrum minute ; pronotum very narrow, strongly 
centrally angulate ; mesouotum large, more than four times 
longer than pronotum, very obsoletely carinate ; legs moderately 
long, posterior tibiae not spined, basal joint of posterior tarsi 
elongate; tegmina elongate, its margins parallel, the apex ob- 
tusely angulate, the apical margin oblique, the longitudinal veins 
bifurcating posteriorly and delimitating, a number of irregularly 
shaped subapical areas, a regular series of transverse veins before 
apical margin defining numerous short apical areas, some trans- 
verse veins beyond middle of costal membrane ; wings ample, 
only a little shorter and slightly broader than tegmina. 

* Generic divisions in these Honioptera most not be based on too rigid 
characters in venation. 



EIIOTA^^\. 



311 



1866. Kamendaka spectra, sp. n. 

Body and legs very pale dull llaveseent, above cretaceously 
tomentose in fi-esh specimens, frequently with the toraentosity 
rubbed, and then appearing as ochraceous ; tegmina creamy- 
white, opaque, with two very pale fuscous-brown transverse 




Fig. 151. — Kuiiiradalai spectra. 

fasciae, the first near middle, the other subapical, a more distinct 
small fuscous spot at about centre of posterior margin, the 
extreme apical margin slightly infuscate ; wings creamy-white, 
unspotted, the veins very slightly yellowish. 

Length excl. tegm, 3 ; exp. tegm. 11 to 12 millim. 

Hah. Ceylon; Maskeliya (Green). 

1867. Kamendaka fuscofasciata, sp. u. 

Body and legs pale ochraceous ; vertex of head tomentosely 
white with dark fuscous lateral fasciae united with eyes which are 
of the same colour ; mesonotum with broad fuscous lateral fasciae, 
its posterior angle greyish ; tegmina semi-opaque, cretaceous-white, 
with a bi'oad longitudinal slaty-brown fascia extending from base 
to apex, and situate much nearer to the posterior than to the 
anterior margin, apex with two small black spots ; wings creamy- 
white, a little iridescent. 

Length excl. tegm. 2| ; exp. tegm. 10 millim. 

Hah. Ceylon ; Maskeliya {Oreen). 

Genus RHOTANA. 

Rhotaua, Walk. J. Linn. Soc, Zool. \, p. 160 (1857) ; Melich. Horn. 

Faun. Ceylon, p. 61 (1903). 
Genestia, Stdl, Ofv. Vet.-Ak. Fork. 1858, p. 450. 

Type, R. latipennis, Walk., from Borneo *. 

Distribution. Oriental and Malayan Regions. 

Head (including eyes) much narrower than pronotum ; vertex 



* This species is wrongly numbered on Walker's plate (J. Linn. Soc, Zool. i, 
t. -viii, 1857). In his description of the plate he refers the species to fig. 2, 
whereas it is represented by Cg. 1. 



312 



FULGOBID^Ti. 



narrow, triangular, its margins strongly carinate and continuous 
with the narro\^■ frontal edge of the much laminately compressed 
produced face, the carinate margins of which are widely divergent 
posteriorly ; clypeus long, the margins strongly ridged ; rostrum 
robust, somewhat short, the apical joint minute ; pronotum narrow, 
tricarinate, its lateral angles angularly produced, its posterior 
margin strongly angularly emarginate ; mesonotum somewhat 
obscurely tricarinate : legs of moderate length, basal joint of poste- 
rior tarsi elongate ; teginina ampliated to apex which is angularly 
truncate, the costal membrane dilated and a little arched, upper 
apical veins bifurcate near extremities, radial area very short and 
broad with a transverse vein before its apex, middle longitudinal 
vein centrally and obliquely transversely bifurcating ; wings mode- 
rately long, but narrower than tegmina. 



A. Winr/s Sj^otted ivitli hlacl:. 

1868. Ehotana fuscofasciata, sp. n. 

Body and legs very pale tawny-yellow, above more or less 
cretaceously tomentose, apical area of abdomen beneath infuscate ; 
eyes piceous-broun ; tegmina subhyaline, talc-like, Avith iridescent 
lustre, the venation flavescent, becoming pale fuscous towards 
apex ; three large irregularly shaped spots in costal membrane, 
some varied suffusions on basal half, and a curved and waved 




Fig. 152. — Uliotana fuseofasciata. 

fascia extending from apex to posterior margin at about two-thirds 
from base, very pale fuscous ; upper apical veins sanguineous ; 
wings hyaline, with a large and small black spot placed close 
together near middle of posterior margin ; a very slight and sub- 
obsolete pale fuscous suffusion on disk. 

Length excl. tegm. 3^ ; exp. tegm, 14 millim. 

Hah. Ceylon ; Maskeliya {Green). 



1869. Ehotana trimaculata, sp. u. 

Body and legs pale ochraceous, mesonotum (excluding the carina- 
tions) infuscate ; tegmina subhyaline, talc-like ; costal membrane, 
basal area continued along posterior margin and connected with 



EHOTANA. 313 

costa at end of radial area and with apex by means of a transverse 
.subapical fascia, flavescent, apical margin slaty-grey ; A\ings pale 
greyish-brown, three transverse gre} ish-white spots on anal area 
and three prominent black spots at apex of anal area posteriorly 
flavescently margined. 

Length excl. tegm. 3| ; exp. tegm. 14 millim. 

Hah. Ceylon ; Calboda {Green), 

A single specimen of this distinct species has been sent me 
by my very helpful friend Mr. E. E. Green, to whom the 
elucidation of this entomological fauna is so much indebted. 
Minute structural characters, such as appertain to species, in 
these delicate and fragile insects are scarcely to be described 
without the examination of a series of specimens. 



B. Wings unsj^otted. 

1870. Rhotana vitriceps, StSl (Genestia,), Of v. Vet.-Ak. FdrhASoS, 

p. 450 ; Melich. Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 02, t. iii, f. 9, a (1903). 

" White, mesonotum (excluding carinse) and veins to tegmina 
fuscous, areolae to veins moderately infuscate ; costa medially 
whitely farinose." (Stdl.) 

Length, S,3; exp. tegm. 12 millim. 

Hab. Ceylon (Jlde Stdl). 

I have not seen this species, and have given StaFs description. 
Melichar's figure hardly conforms to this diagnosis, and it seems 
that either one or the other of these authors has been a little 
inexact. 

1871. Rhotana iridipennis, Melich. Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 62 (1903). 

" Similar to E. vitriceps., Stal ; body pale reddish ; eyes brown ; 
tegmina hyaline, glassy, strongly rainbow-like, iridescent, nervures 
yellow to reddish-yellow, in places dark yellow, transverse nervures 
faintly margined with brownish, the veins and margins are dull so 
that they strongly project from the iridescent cells ; apical margin 
extremely finely margined with red ; abdomen and legs reddisb- 
yellow." {Melichar.) 

Length, " $ , 5 millim." 

Hah. Ceylon (Nietner, Berlin litis.). 

I only know this species from the above description. 

1872. Rhotana albata, Melich. Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 62 (1903). 

" Body white ; mesonotum slightly yellowish ; tegmina milky- 
white with yellowish-white veins, transverse veins broad, faintly 
margined with brownish, but the margins separated from the 
yellowish transverse veins by a pale zone on both sides, apical 
marginal vein blood-red ; abdomen and legs yellowish-white." 



314 l-ULGORID.E. 

"Larger than R. vUrkeps, Stfil, and to be recognized by the 
milky-white tegmina." {MeUchar.) 
Length, " c? , 7 to 7^ millim. 
Hah. Ceylon ; Pattipola {Budapest JIus.). 
I have not seen this species. 

1873. Rhotana venosa, sp. n. 

Body and legs very pale tawny-yellow, the tibite slightly iufns- 
cate ; coxae with small fuscous spots ; niesonotum moderately 
rufous ; eyes piceous : tegmina obscure hyaline with a slight 
tawny tint, the veins tawny-yellow, but becoming bright red on 
the apical area and beneath the apical half of the costal membrane ; 
wings obscure hyaline with the veins yellowish-brown ; both wings 
and tegmina exhibit much iridescent lustre. 

Length excl. tegm. 34 ; exp. tegm. 13 millim. 

Hah. Tenasserim : Myitta (DolierUj). 

The late Mr. Doherty sent me two specimens of this well- 
marked species. 

Genus VINATA, n. nom. 

Eraua, Walk. J. Linn. Soc, Zool. i, p. lol (1857); Stal, Oft: Vet.- 
AJi. Fork. 18o8, p. 449; Melich. Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. GO 
(190-'j) (nom. prseocc. Aves). 

Type, V. operosa, Walk., from Borneo. 

Distribution. Oriental and Malayan Eegions. 

Head a little produced in front of eyes : vertex nearly as bi'oad 
as long, subparallel, its posterior margin angularly sinuated, 
medially carinate, its lateral margins raised and carinate ; face 
strongly reclinated, distinctly ampliated posteriorly, medially 
carinate, the carina obsolete towards apex, the lateral margins 
elevated ; clypeus triangular, its margins subreflexed ; eyes 
moderate in size, beneath subsinuate ; ocelli two ; antennae long, 
first and second joints incrassated, subdepressed, cylindrical, basal 
joint short, second longest ; pronotum nearly twice broader than 
head, tricarinate, the carinse continued in the mesonotum, which is 
nearly twice as long as the pronotum ; tegmina moderately elongate, 
their apices rounded, the longitudinal veins elevated, apically 
furcate, and with two series of transverse veins on apical area ; 
wings nearly as long as tegmina ; legs of moderate length. 

1S74. Vinata iiigricornis, StSl (Eraua), Of v. Vet.-Ak. Forh. 1858, 
p. 449 ; Melich. Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 60 (190o). 

Piceous-brown ; body beneath, legs, cai'inae to head, pro- and 
mesouota, and a raised undulating transverse line on each anterior 
lateral area of mesonotum testaceously flavescent ; anterior disk 
of face fusco-testaceous ; tegmina sordidly testaceously flavescent, 



DEVADANDA. 



315 



the longitudinal veins minutely spotted with fuscous, numerous 
oblique narrow fuscous fasciae, the apical and subapical cellular 




Fig. 153. — Vinata nigricorni,<. 

areas mostly fuscous, the costal membrane ]n'ominently, alter- 
nately, obliquely flaA-escent and fuscous ; wings fuscous ; legs 
and antennae piceous. 

Length excl. tegm. 5 ; exp. tegm. 13 milliin. 

JIah. Ceylon ; Kandy (Green). 

1875. Vinata nivosa, sp. n. 

Bod}'' castaneous-brown, legs very m uch paler ; margins and 
carinations to vertex of head and pronotura ochraceous ; antenna3 
piceous-brown ; tegmina umber-brown, witli numerous short white 
oblique striae, these are particularly distinct and somewhat wide 
apart on costal membrane ; stigma orange-yellow, extreme apical 
area more fuliginous in hue, the veins yellowish, and practically 
without the white striae, but having on its anterior margin, just 
beyond the stigma, about three ochraceous spots, beneath which is 
a dark fuscous streak ; wings (imperfectly seen) dark fuliginous 
with their apices very pale fuliginous ; posterior tibiae with two 
spines, a very short one near base and a longer one near middle. 

Length excl. tegm. 4| ; exp, tegm. 12 millim. 

Hab. Assam (Brit. 3Ius.). 



Genus DEVADANDA, nov. 

Type, D. j)cctiaata, Dist. 

Distribution . Tenasserim. 

Head (including eyes) much narrower than pronotum, longiy and 
broadly laminately produced in front of eyes ; vertex very narrow 
with its lateral margins strongly ridged, slightly broadened apically 
and triangularly widened between the eyes, apically convexly con- 
tinued to face, which is similar in structure to vertex ; antennae 
inserted some distance beneath the eyes, long and of aberrant 
structure, first and second joints short and globose, remaining 
joints prominently produced and bearing very long pectinations ; 



316 



FULGOEIDjE. 



pronotum short with a strong central carination and posteriorly 
profoundly angularly eniarginate ; mesouotuni obsoletely ti'icari- 
uate ; legs moderately short and slender ; tegmina somewhat 
narrow, apically widened, the longitudinal veins bifurcate, a few- 
transverse veins a little beyond middle, and a curved transverse 
series of transverse veins a little before apical margin, which 
are discally globosely thickened and delimitate some large and 
prominent apical veins. 



1870. Devadanda pectinata, sp. n. 

Head with the broadly laminate areas 
brownish-grey, the vertex and face 
orange-red ; pronotum and mesonotum 
piceous, the marginal ridges of the first 
and a broad central fascia to the latter 
orange-yellow ; legs orange-yellow, the 
femora brownish ; antennse piceous- 
brown ; tegmina piceous-brown, narrow 
basal area and veins on apical area 
purplish-red, oblique veins on posterior 
half of costal area orange-red, the sub- 
apical cellular areas somewhat paler 
fuliginous than the remainder of the 
tegmen. 

Length inch tegm. 5 millim. 

Hah. Tenasserim : Myitta {Doherty). 




Fig. 154. 
Devadanda pectinata. 



1877. Gen.? crenatonervosa, Motsch. (DerbeP) Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc 
xxxvi (3) p. 113, t. ii, f. 25 (1863) ; Kirby, J. Linn. Soc.Zool. 
xxiv, p. i42 (1891). 

" Elongate, compressed, carinate, nigro-piceous ; vertex of head, 
central area of mesonotum, and legs palely brownish-testaceous ; 
tegmina strongly fuliginous sublucid ; mesonotum with the 
lateral carinas somewhat silvery-white ; tegmina with the veins 
piceous and crenulately elevated ; head transverse, posteriorly pro- 
foundly excavate, anteriorly abruptly, concavely truncate ; vertex 
quadrangular, tricarinate ; eyes oblong, convex, beneath moderately 
sinuate ; antennae with the first joint globose ; thorax transverse, 
quadrangulate, tricarinate, anterior margin somewhat narrowly 
whitish." {Motschoulslcy .) 

" Length 2h lin. ; lat. tegm. 'i lin." 

Hah. Ceylon ; Mts. of Nura-Ellia {fide Motschouhlcy). 

I can only call attention to this species by giving the salient 
points of Motschoulsky's description ; I have failed to identify it 
with any specimen that has passed through my hands ; the figure 
given is only helpful, certainly not satisfactory. 



LOPHOPiN.i:, 317 



Subfamily VIII. LOPHOPIN^. 

Lophopida, Stal, Hem. Afr. iv, p. 130 (1866). 
Lophopiaa, Atkins. J. A. S. Beng. Iv, p. 42 (1886). 
Lophopidse, Melich. Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. II (1903). 

Head narrower than pronofcum ; rostrum short, stout, with 
the apical joint short ; pronotum usually truncate at base, as 
described by Stal, but sometimes coucavely sinuate or angularly 
eraarginate, carinate or somewhat tubercular on disk ; basal joint 
of posterior tarsi robust and moderately short. 

I take the most distinguishing character of this subfamily to be 
the robust or incrassate basal joint of the posterior tarsi, and it 
apparently contains two sections, denoted by the more or less 
dilated anterior tibiae, and the reverse. Stal's chai'acters are 
rather too restrictive. 

Siinopsis of Genera. 

A. Anterior tibife more or less prominently 

dilated. 

a. Vertex of head prominently produced 

in front of eyes. 
a. Anterior tibipe foliaceously ampliate . Elasmoscelis, p. 318. 
h. Anterior tibiae prominently', but not 
foliaceously, ampliate. 
a' . Tegmina about twice as long as 

broad Pitambara, p. 319. 

b'. Tegmina nearly three times longer 
than broad. 
«". Base of face appearing above and 

in front of apex of vertex Corethrura, p. 321. 

i". Base of face not appearing in 

front of apex of vertex Bisma, p. 322. 

b. Vertex of head not or only very slightly 

produced in front of eyes Lacusa, p. 323. 

B. Anterior tibiae not or only very slightly 

dilated. 

a. Base of face appearing in front of apex of 

vertex Serida, p. 324. 

b. Base of face not appearing in front of 

apex of vertex. 

a. Vertex of head longer than broad. 

a' . Vertex of head very lougly porrect, 
forming a cephalic process about as 

long as the abdomen Zamila, p. 326. 

b'. Vertex of head not porrect, only a 
little longer than pronotum. 
a~. Face with its lateral margins lami- 

nately convexly produced Brixioides, p. 327. 

6^. Face with its lateral margins cari- 
nate, but not laminately convexly 
produced Jivatma, p. 328. 

b. Vertex of head about as broad or broader 

than long". 



318 FULGORID.i:. 

a'. Teguiiua uormal, smooth, not sub- 
coriaceous. 
a-. Prouotum posteriorly obtusely 

emarginate '. '. KrsuMA, p. 329. 

i-, Prouotum posteriorly strongly an- 
gularly emarginate Varma, p. 330. 

V . Tegmina subcoriaceous Padanda, p. 331. 



Genus ELASMOSCELIS. 

Elasmoscelis, Spin. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. viii, p. 388 (1839) ; Stdl, 
Hem. Afr. iv, p. 200 (1866) ; Melich. Horn. Fmm. Ceylon, p. 64 
(1903). 

Type, E. cimicoides. Spin., an Ethiopian species. 

Distribvfion. Ethiopian and Oriental Regions. 

Head (including eyes) much narrower than pronotum ; vertex 
moderately produced in front of eyes, narrow, its lateral margins 
laminately elevated, centrally divergent or excavate at apex ; face 
much longer than hroad, amphated posteriorly, its lateral margins 
(except on posterior area) laminately dilated and with two cari- 
nations on each of their under surfaces ; clypeus tricarinate ; eyes 
beneath moderately sinuate : antennae short and situate just 
beneath eyes ; legs of moderate length, the anterior tibiae strongly 
foliaceously dilated, the posterior tibias with three spines, the 
posterior tarsi with the basal joint incrassate ; pronotum short, 
medially tuberculously carinate ; mesonotum obsoletely tricarinate ; 
tegmina moderately broad, their anterior and postei'ior margins 
subparallel, basal longitudinal veins strongly bifurcating posteriorly, 
the apical area containing many longitudinal veins, costal 
membrane broad, indistinctly transvei'sely veined. 



1878, Elasmoscelis platypoda, Kirb?/, J. Linn. Soc, Zool xxiv, 
p. 148, t. vi, f. 3 (1891) ; Meltck. Horn. Fmm. Ceylon, p. 64, 
t. ii, f. 2,a,b (1903). 

Head with the vertex very pale ochraceous with some oblique 




Fig. 155. — Elaaoitoscelis 'plaiypodu. 

transverse black lines,' eyes brown ; pronotum black with a trans- 
verse testaceous fascia on each side ; mesonotum black, its central 



PITAMBAEA. 319 

posterior margin testaceous ; abdomen above piceous-brown, its 
base, narrow segmental margins, and a broader apical fascia 
ocbraceous ; face witb its anterior area ocbraceous, its posterior 
area black, the latter with some yellowish spots ; clypeus black, 
its central carination testaceous and with a yellow spot on each 
side ; body beneath piceous, the meso- and metasterna ocbraceous ; 
anterior and intermediate legs piceous spotted with ocbraceous, 
posterior legs ocbraceous spotted with piceous ; tegmina piceous- 
brown, oblique transverse fasciae to costal area, small spots on 
posterior margin, an elongate and a smaller spot on apical margin, 
and a discal spot before middle greyish-white ; wings fuliginous ; 
anterior tibiae strongly foliaceously dilated. 

Length excl. tegua. 4; exp. tegm. 13 millim. 

Hah. Ceylon {Green). 



Genus PITAMBARA, uov. 

Type, P. radians, Ivirby. 

Distribution. Oriental Kegion. 

Head (including eyes) narrower than pronotum ; \ertex mode- 
rately produced in front of eyes, moderately broad, its lateral 
margins a little laminately elevated, its disk somewhat concave : 
face much longer than broad, strongly angularly ampliated pos- 
teriorly, its lateral margins (except on posterior area) laminately 
dilated, and with two carinae on each of their under surfaces ; 
clypeus tricarinate ; eyes beneath slightly sinuate ; legs of moderate 
length, the anterior tibiae moderately, not fohaceously dilated, the 
posterior tibiae somewhat dilated with a single spine, the posterior 
tarsi with the basal joint incrassate ; pronotum and mesonotum 
as in Elasmoscelis ; tegmina somewhat short and broad, costal 
membrane broad (excluding base), distinctly obliquely transversely 
veined. 

Distinguished from Elasmoscelis by the broader vertex to head, 
the more angularly posteriorly ampliated face, the much broader 
tegmina, and the moderately but not foliaceously dilated anterior 
tibiae. 

1879. Pitambara radians, A7;% (Elasmoscelis ?\ j: ira?j. Soc.,Zool. 
xxiv, p. 149, t. vi, f. 2 (1891) ; Melich. (Elasmoscelis) Horn. 
Faun. Ceylon, p. 65, t. ii, f. 2, a (1903). 

Head with the vertex, face, and clypeus ocbraceous, eyes brown ; 
pronotum and mesonotum piceous ; abdomen piceous, its basal 
area more or less ocbraceous ; legs pale ocbraceous spotted with 
piceous ; tegmina pale umber-brown on basal area, where it is 
somewhat thickly marked with greyish-white transverse spots, 
darker brown on upper apical area, costal and apical marginal 
areas white, divided by transverse brown fasciae, the white inter- 
spaces narrowest on basal costal area ; wings fuliginous ; anterior 



320 



FULGORID^. 



tibia? moderately dilated \\ith two piceous annulatious ; tegmiiia 
slightly dilated behind clavus, the costal margin prominently 
arched at base, its apical margin subtruucate. 




Fig; IbQ.— PKaiii^mra radians. 

Length excl. tegm. -i ; exp. tegm. 13 millim. 
Hah. Ceylon: Pundaluoya, Colombo (G'rem). 
Found on Bamhusa. Larva with two long spiral caudal appen- 
dages formed by a white A\axy secretion {E. E. Green). 



18S0. Pitambara interrupta, sp. d. 

Head Avith vertex, face, and cly])eus ochraceous, vertex with 
the lateral margins, an anterior central line, and two central 
oblique linear spots black ; pronotum black, centrally and laterally 
ochraceous ; mesonotum black ; abdomen piceous, its base and the 
segmental margins (narrowly) ochraceous ; legs ochraceous, more 
or less spotted with piceous ; tegmina piceous on basal area, more 
brownish and paler on apical area, where it is crossed by broad 
transverse irregular piceous fasciae, spots on basal portion of costal 
membrane, a large subtriangular spot on middle of costal margin 
extending to centre of tegmen, and the apical margin greyish- 
white, in the latter there are two oblique fuscous lines, interrupted 
and not meeting inwardly ; wings fuliginous, their basal areas 
greyish-white ; anterior tibia; moderately dilated, ochraceous, \\\i\\ 
two subbasal piceous annulations, posterior tibiae moderately 
dilated with a single spine ; apical margins of tegmina rounded, 
at base of costal margin distinctly arched. 

Length excl. tegm. 4 ; exp. tegm. V2. miUim. 

Hah. Tenasserim ; Myitta {Doherty). 

1881. Pitambara imdulata, sp. n. 

Head with the vertex, face, and clypeus ochraceous, lateral 
margins and a central abbreviated line to vertex and two central 
lines to face piceous ; pronotum ochraceous with a large piceous 
spot on each side behind eyes ; mesonotum piceous ; sternum and 
legs ochraceous, bases and apices of posterior tibiae piceous ; 
abdomen beneath piceous, the segmental margins ochraceous ; 



CORETHRURA. 321 

tegminii piceous-brown, tlie basal portion of costal meinbraiie aud 
a large discal spot «ith a small piceous centre ochraceous, a broad 
apical margin and some transverse costal rays beyond the ochra- 
ceous area greyish-white, in the pale apical marginal area there is 
a transverse, undulated piceous line ; wings greyish-white, ba.sal 
markings and a broad transverse fascia before apex fuscous-brown : 
anterior tibiae moderately dilated ; posterior tibias with a somewhat 
long submedial spine ; posteiior femora fuscous-brown A^itli their 
apices ochraceous. 

Length with tegiu. 7 millim. 

Hab. Burma; Karen Hills (Z>o/t^r^^). 

Mr. Doherty sent me a single specimen of this very distinct 
species. 

1882. Pitambara sinuata, sp. u. 

Head with vertex, face, and clypeus ochraceous, vertex with a 
central and tM o submarginal black lines ; pronotum black, with the 
lateral areas, posterior margin, and three central fascite ochraceous ; 
mesonotum black ; body beneath aud legs ochraceous, anterior and 
intermediate legs annulated with fuscous, posterior femora and 
bases and apices of posterior tibiiB more or less fuscous ; tegmina 
dark piceous-brown, costal membrane ochraceous beyond middle 
with obliquely transverse piceous lines, apical margin broadly 
greyish-white containing a siniiated transverse piceous line ; wings 
fuliginous with greyish suffusions ; anterior tibiae moderately 
dilated ; posterior tibiae with a spine beyond middle. 

Length Mith tegm. 7 millim. 

Ilah. Teuasserim, Mvitta (Doherf}/). 



Genus CORETHRURA. 

Coretlirura, Hope, Tr. Linn. Soc. xix, p. 135 (1845) ; Stdl, Hem. 
Afr. iv, p. 200 (1866) ; Atkhis. J. A. S. Bewj. Iv, p. 43 (1886). 

Type, O. ftfscovaria, Hope. 

Distrihutlon. Oriental Eegiou. 

Head (including eyes) considerably narrower than pronotum : 
vertex somewhat long, its anterior angles prominent, base of face 
appearing above as a short cephalic process ; face long, ti'uncate on 
each side before anterior prolongation, gradually sinuately ampliate 
posteriorly, and then obliquely narrowed to clypeus, 1:he lateral 
margins moderately carinate and with two central longitudinal 
ridges enclosing a narrow concave space ; clypeus with the lateral 
margins carinate and with a strong central longitudinal ridge ; 
pronotum tricarinate, the lateral carinations curved, meeting 
anteriorly and forming a convex plate, which is produced between 
the eyes; mesonotum tricarinate; legs of moderate length, 
ampliately subfoliaceous on each side, posterior tibiae with three 
spines, posterior tarsi with the basal joint incrassate ; tegmina 

TOL. III. T 



322 



riTLGOKID.i:. 



moderately am])]iate, their apices broadly rounded, moderately 
produced behind elavus, costal membrane with oblique transverse 
veins, the basal three longitudinal veins forked, apical veins 
numerous and close together ; wings slightly wider than tegmina. 

1883. Corethrura fuscovaria, Hope, Tr. Linn. Soc. xix, p. lo."i, t. xii, 
f. 60 (1845) ; Atkins. J. A. S. Beng. Iv, p. 43 (1886). 

Body above fuscous : abdomen apically provided with a sub- 
ochraceous appendage, which is sometimes longer than the whole 
body ; cainnations to the pro- and mesouota distinctly paler in 
hue ; body beneath and legs pale brownish-ochraceous ; pronotum 




Fig. 157. — Corcfl/riira fuscov«ria. 

with the lateral areas somewhat greyishly pubescent witli two or 
three fuscous spots ; tegmina pale dull brownish-ochraceous with 
scattered greyish pubescence, about three distinct fuscous spots in 
costal membrane, some darker brownish-ochraceous discal spots 
beneath costal membrane, and various suffusions of the same 
colour on apical area, one before apical margin irregularly lineate : 
wings fuliginous, a little darker ou apical and anal areas. 

Length excl. tegm. 12 ; exp. tegm. 30 millim.* 

Hah. Sylhet {fide Hope). Burma ; Ruby Mines (DoJierti/). — 
Malay Peninsula; Perak {Coll. Dist.). 

Genus BISMA, nov. 

Type, B. greent, Dist. 

Distribution. Ceylon. 

Head narrower than pronotum ; vertex loug, narrow, projecting 
beyond eyes, strongly ridged on each side, its disk concave ; face 
very long, somewhat narrow, widened posteriorly, strongly ridged 
on each side, centrally concave ; clypeus centrally and medially 
finely carinate ; pronotum centrally tricarinate, the lateral carinae 
converging and uniting anteriorly ; mesonotum tricarinate ; legs 



* Atkinson, supra, gives the dimensions as respectively 19 and 68 to 59 millim., 
which is evidently an error. 



LAC USA. 



323 



moderately slioi't and robust, the anterior and intermediate femora 
and tibicG compi-essed and dilated on each side, posterior til:»iap 
thickened and armed with two strong spines; posterior tarsi 
with the basal ]oint much thickened ; tegmina long, their apices 
angularly rounded, costal margins slightly sinuate beyond middle, 
basal longitudinal veins forked at their apices, where there are 
three short contiguous series of transverse veins, costal membrane 
with oblique veins, and a number of transverse veins on apical 
area ; wings broader than tegmina. 

18s4. Bisma greeni, sp. n. 

Body above eastaneous-brown ; lateral ridges to vertex of head, 
central carinate areas to pro- and mesonota, and abdominal lateral 
and segmental margins ochraceous : face beneath dull castaneous. 










Fig. l.')8. — JjUiim (/rceni. 

the marginal areas spotted with ochraceous ; body beneath and 
legs castaneous, the legs more or less spotted and annulated with 
ochraceous, posterior tibife ochraceous with their apices and the 
bases of the spines piceous ; tegmina with about basal half 
brownish-ochraceous mottled with fuscous, outer half paler and 
less mottled ; a broad curved piceous fascia crossing near middle, 
and tMO broad oblique fascite on posterior area, wliich are united 
on posterior margin, the outermost connected with the apical 
margin by a short longitudinal fascia; wings pale fuliginous 
with the apical and posterior margins fuscous. 

Length excl. tegm. 9 ; exp. tegm. 24 millim. 

Hah. Ceylon; Kandy (&'/wn). 



Genus LACUSA. 

Lacusa, Stdl, BerJ. ent. Zeitschr. \i, p. 309 (1S62) ; id. Hem. Afr. 
iv, p. 199 (18G6) ; Atkins. J. A. S. Bemj. Iv, p. 42 (1886). 

Type, L. fuscqfasciata, Stal. 
Distribution. Oriental Region. 

Head narrower than the pronotum : vertex rather long, its 

t2 



324 



vuLGOiai).!:. 



iiiargins ciiriuate, and vvitli a fine central ridge w hich is bifurcate 
anteriorly; face rather long, a little ampliate posteriorly, the 
lateral margins carinate, and a sublateral ridge, on each side; 
eiypeus centrally and laterally carinate ; prouotum truncate at 
base, rounded anteriorly behind the vertex, tricarinate ; mesouotum 
tricarinate; legs of moderate length, anterior legs sti'ongly dilated, 
foliaceous, posterior tibiae trispinose, gradually slightly dilated 
to\\ards the apex, posterior tarsi \\ ith the basal joint very robust ; 
tegmina somewhat ample, anterior and posterior margins parallel, 
broadly round at apex, costal membrane obliquely transversely 
veined ; wings slightly narrower than tegmina. 

18&5. Lacusa fuscofasciata, stal (Elusmuscelis :- ). Ofv. Vet. -Ah. 
Fork. 1854, p. iM8; I'd. (Lacusa) Beii. ent. Zeitsckr. vi, p. 30*.t 
(1862) ; Afldn.s. J. A. S. Bvmj. Iv, p. 42 (lc;86). 
Cixius eminens, Walk, Ins. Saund., Horn. p. 42 (1858). 

Piceous ; head, pronotum, mesonotum, and tarsi A'ery pale 
testaceous, face and mesonotum infuscated; clypeus and anterior 
legs piceous, the latter speckled with luteous, intermediate and 
posterior legs luteous, the posterior tibi;e apically piceous ; teg- 
mina very pale ochraceous, semi-opaque, the venation sparingly 
and finely spotted with piceous, costal membrane with some linear 




Fig. 150. — Lciriif^a /n^cofufcia/a. 

oblique piceous spots, disk crossed by three broad piceous fascite, 
the first oblique before middle, the second and third oppositely 
oblique and united at posterior margin, apical margin either 
completely or maculately piceous ; wings semihyaline, the apical 
and posterior margins pale fuscous. 

Length excl. tegm. 5 to 5^ ; exp. tegm. 16 to IG.V millim. 

Hah. "Hindostan" {fde WaU-a-). Burma; Euby Mines, 
Momeit {Doherft/). 



Genus SERIDA. 

'Serida, Walh: J. Limi. Soc. Zool. 1, p, 158 (1857). 

Type, .S^. latens, Walk. 

iJistrilmtion. Oriental and Malayan Eegions. 
Head (including eyes) narrower than pronotum ; vertex longly 
produced in front of eyes, its lateral margins strongly ridged, 



SERID.V. 



325 



centrally obscurely ridged, its anterior lateral angles slightly acute, 
the base of the face as seen above appears as a further elongation 
of the vertex, and is there distinctly centrally sulcate ; face long, 
centrally concave, with two strong central longitudinal carinations 
and the lateral margins concavely sinuate, reflexed and strongly 
carinate to within a short distance of the apex : clypeus small, 
the margins moderately and the central disk faintly carinate ; 
pronotum short, anteriorly centrally conically produced, \\-here it 
is tricarinate, its posterior margin concave ; mesonotuni large, 
tricarinate ; legs of moderate length, posterior tarsi with the basal 
joint strongly incrassate ; tegmina moderately broad, the costal 
margin slightly convex, behind the clavus distinctly ampliated, 
apical margin truncately rounded, costal membrane broad, with 
many slightly oblique transverse veins, basal longitudinal Aeins 
strongly bifurcating beyond middle, the apical area being thus 
provided with a somewhat close series of longitudinal veins ; 
wings moderately broad, with a double sei'ies of transverse \eins 
on apical area, 

1880. Serida latens, n'aUc J. Linn. Soc, Zool. i, p. 158 (l8o7). 
Lerida ferveiis, Walk. torn. cit. pi. vii, f. 8 *. 

Body and legs browuish-ochraeeous, the carinations to head, 
pronotum and mesonotum, and the abdomen above (excluding 
the posterior segmental margins and some small discal spots) paler 
ochi-aceous ; tegmina pale and somewhat bronzy-brown, the 




Fio;. 1(50. — Scrkla laten.<. 



venation on basal half minutely spotted with fuscous, costal area 
with oblique fuscous lines, an angulated linear fascia on apical 
margin preceded by several broken transverse linear fasciie, which 
are also fuscous ; wings pale fuliginous, somewhat shining, the 
apical area included l)y the transverse veins distinctly darker 
in hue. 

Length excl. tegm. 7 ; exp. tegra. 20 millim. 

Hah. Tenasserim ; 'My itta, (Dohetti/). — Borneo (Brit. JIus.). 



* Walker has figured his S. laiens under the name of Lerida fcrvens. 



326 ruLGORiD-i:. 

Genus ZAMILA. 

Zauiila, 11'all: Jouni. Eni. i, p. 304 (1862). 

Microchoria. Kirby, J. Limi. >Soc., Zool. xxiv, p. 147 (1891) : Melivh. 
Horn. Faun. CeijlotK p. 63 (1903). 

Tvpe, Z. hjeoides, Walk. * 

Distrihution. Oriental Region. 

Head long, produced in a porrect cephalic process, tricarinate 
above, laterally somewhat broadly flattened and very obsoletely 
upturned at apex, each lateral area marked with a curved carinate 
line extending from clypeus to about middle, where it is continued 
truncately across the upper surface and above which it is only 
centrally carinate ; face broadly longitudinally excavate between 
t\vo lateral somewhat laminate ridges ; clypeus with central and 
marginal ridges, the latter being somewhat obsolete ; antennse 
placed beneath eyes, the second joint strongly subglobose ; pro- 
uotum somewhat narrow, centrally tricarinate. its anterior margin 
concavely excavate on each side behind eyes, lateral margins 
obliquely straight, lateral angles shortly subacute ; mesonotum 
tricarinate; legs moderately short, posterior tibije with two spines, 
posterior tarsi with the basal joint long and subglobose ; tegmina 
long, somewhat narrow, their apices truncately rounded, costal 
membrane with numerous transvei'se A'eins, apical area transversely 
veined ; wings scarcely or only slightly wider than tegmina. 

1887. Zamila lycoides. Wall-. Joum. Ent. i, p. 30-"5. t. xv, f. 2. 

(1862), 

Shining brownish-ochraceous ; cephalic process above castaneous; 
body beneath and legs a little paler ; tegmina brownish-ochraceous, 
the costal membrane and apical area infuscate, in some specimens 
the costal membrane concolorous, some minute brown spots 
varying in number on anterior disk ; wings brownish-ochraceous. 
the apical area infuscate or concolorous with numerous minute 
bro-\\ n spots ; posterior femora with a prominent spine near 
middle. 

Length incl. tegni. 14.3 millim. 

Hah. " India " {Brit. J/?(*.).— Siam {Brit. Mm.). 

The Siamese type from the Pascoe Collection is now in the 
Xational Collection, which also contains another example labelled 
" India " ; both are in an unset condition. 

1888. Zamila aberrans, Kirbi/ (^licrochoria). J. Linn. Sac. Zool. xxiv, 

p. 14S. t. V. f. 10 (1891) : Mdich. Horn. Faun. Cei/Um, p. 63, 
t. ii, f. 13, a (1903). 

Body and legs ochraceous ; lateral areas and under surface of 
cephalic process much paler ; tegmina very pale tawny-yellow, 



* In his description of this species, Walker lias i-eferred to his fig. 3 
instead of fig. 2 of pi. xv. s/ipra. 



LlilXIOIDES. 



327 



opaque, apical area speckled witli minute fuscous spots and with 
two short transverse fuscous lines near apical margin ; wings 




Fig. 161. — Zamila aherra/is. 

greyish, slightly suffused with very pale fuliginous ; disli of meso- 
notum between the carina? brown : cephalic process above the 
medial transverse ridge with the central longitudinal cariuation 
very distinct. 

Length excl. tegm. 7^; exp. tegm. 16 millim. 

Hah. Ceylon, Pnndaluoya (Green). 

1889. Zamila perpiisilla, Walk. (Pyrops) List Hum. ii. p. 269 (1851). 

Body and legs ochraceous, paler beneath than above : tegmina 
yellowish -white, semi-opaque, the apical area and outer claval 
margin speckled with minnte black spots ; wings pale hyaline ; 
the dorsal ridge to cephalic process is much less prominent in 
front of the central transverse ridge than behind it. 
Lengtli excl. tegm. 9 : exp. tegm. 18 millim. 
Hah. North Bengal (Miss Campbell, Brit. Miis.). 



Genus BRIXIOIDES. 

Brixioides, Kirhij. J. Linn. Soc, Zool. xxiv, p. 139 (189 T 
Ham. Faun. Ceylon, p. 'Zh (lUOo). 



Melich. 



Type, B. carinatus, Kirby. 

Bistrihution. Ceylon. 

Head narrower than the pronotum, antennae inserted below the 
hinder part of the eyes, ocelli undetected ; vertex with its lateral 
margins a little laminately raised at inner margin of each eye, its 
disk foveate and centrally carinate ; face with its lateral margins 
laminately convesly produced, long, narrow, a little wider pos- 
teriorly ; pronotum centrally tricarinate, its lateral angles some- 
what acute : mesonotum tricarinate ; legs moderately compressed, 
posterior tibioe with a prominent medial spine and widened 



32S 



FULGOKIJ^.li. 



posteriorly ; posterior tarsi with the basal joint strongly globose ; 
tegniiua subopaque, the apical margin oblique, costal membrane 
with numerous transverse carinate lines, apical area transversely 
veined ; Avings a little broader than tegmina, subhyaline, some 
transverse veins on their apical areas. 

Mr. Kirby, in describing this genus, stated that he considered 
it of doubtful position, though he placed it in the Ciccvince. 
Melichar (supra) has also placed it in that subfamily. The 
swollen first joint of the posterior tarsi was apparently overlook(n!, 
or its proper location would have been detected. 

18!)0. Brixioides carinatus, Jv/V/;?/, J. Linn. Soc, Zoo!, xxiv, p. i40, 
t. V, f. 9 (1891) ; Melich. Jlom. Faun. Ceylon, p. 35 (1903). 

Head and pronotum ochraceous ; head with a broad black 
central fascia with a medial ochraceous line ; pronotum with the 
area between the three central ochraceous carinations black, the 
lateral areas alternately and linearly black and ochraceous ; meso- 
notum with the area betA\een the three central ochraceous 
carinations purplish-brown, its lateral area alternately ochraceous 
and purplish-brown : abdomen above piceous-brown, with two 
longitudinal pale fascia? and the segmental margins ochraceous ; 




1G2. — Brivioidcs cro-iii'/fiis 



body beneath and legs stramineous, much linearly marked and 
spotted with black, margins of face and anterior femora obliquely 
lined, two narrow oblique fasciae on each side of sternum, anterior 
tibiae and remaining legs spotted or annulated, black ; tegmina pale 
ochraceous, semi-opaque, on basal half and below radial area the 
veins much spotted ^ith brown and with two more prominent 
piceous spots, oblique brown narrow fascia? crossing costal mem- 
brane, three of them near apex continued to near posterior angle, 
where there are a few- small piceous spots ; wings subhyaline, 
slightly palely infuscate on disk. 

Length excl. tegm. 4^; exp. tegm. 131 millim. 

I fab. Ceylon ; Pundaluoya (Green). 

Genus JIVATMA, nov. 

Type, J. metallica, Dist. 

Distribution. Oriental and Malayan Regions. 
Head (including eyes) a little narrower than pronotum ; vertex 
moderately ]jroduced in front of eyes, centrally and laterally finely 



KUSUMA. 



329 



ridged, face not projecting beyond it as iu Se}-icl<( ; face longer 
than broad, iinely centrally and sublaterally ridged, the sublateral 
ridges rounded and meeting anteriorly, the lateral margins a little 
refiexed and strongly carinate ; clypeus shorter than face, obscurely 
and laterally carinate ; pronotum narrow, tricarinate, anteriorly 
a little centrally conically produced ; mesonotum large, tricarinate ; 
legs of moderate length, posterior tarsi with the basal joint 
incrassate ; tegmina moderately broad in structure and venation 
generally as in Serida, wings differing from that genus by the 
absence of the double series of transverse veins to the apical 
area. 



ISUl. Jivatma nietallica, sp. n. 

Body and legs brownish-ochraeeous ; the carinations to head 
and thorax and the lateral and segmental margins to abdomen 
above paler ochraceous ; mesonotum with t\\o central longitudinal 
piceous fascia) ; tegmina pale greyisli-hyaline. the claval and apical 




Fig. h'y'o. — Jiratina nic/Kl/ica, 

areas dull ochraceous with some irregular narrow pale fuscous 
strife, several transverse piceous fasciae before apical margin, one 
of which is moderately broad, the basal longitudinal venation with 
minute fuscous spots ; wings greyish hyaline, the venation and 
the postei'ior and apical areas dark fuliginous. 

Length excl. tegm. 5 ; exp. tegm. IG millim. 

Hah. Tenasserim, Myitta (Doherfi/). 



Genus KUSUMA, nov. 

Type, K. carinata, Dist. 

Distribution. British India. 

Head (including eyes) a little narrower than pronotum ; vertex 
broad, the anterior and lateral margins upwardly carinate, its disk 
concave, with an obsolete central longitudinal ridge ; face longer 
than broad, a little aiupliated anteriorly, centrally and niarginally 
ridged, its anterior margin moderately convex, its posterior margin 
subtruncate ; clypeus subtriangular, broadly laterally and centrally 



330 



laaGORiB.Ti. 



ridged ; antenufc inserted beneath eyes, second joint strongly 
globose ; pronotuin about as broad as head, very strongly tri- 
carinate. its anterior margin subtruncate, its lateral angles 
moderately obtusely angularly produced ; mesonotum tricarinate ; 
legs somewhat short, the posterior tibia? with two spines, the basal 
joint of the posterior tarsi strongly incrassate ; tegmina somewhat 
elongate, their apices conically rounded, costal membrane with 
transverse veins, of the three discal longitudinal veins the upper 
and lower are bifurcate, two series of transverse veins, one before 
apical area irregularly transverse, the other on apical area strongly 
oblique ; wings slightly wider than tegmina. 

1892. Kusuma carinata, sp. n. 

Body and legs ochraceous ; tegmina creamy, subopaque ; base, 
an irregularly transverse fascia beyond middle, and an oblique 
narrow fascia on apical area pale fuscous-brown ; wings hyaline ; 




Fig. 1G4. — KiisKina carinata. 

carinations to pro- and mesonota ver}^ pronounced and promi- 
nent ; spines to posterior tibije very distinct ; head with the 
vertex distinctly concave ; disk of pronotum between the ridges 
concave. 

Length excl. tegm. 4 to \\ ; exp. tegm. 13 millim. 

Hah. " India " and Bombay {Brit. 2It(s.). 

Two specimens are contained in the National Collection, one 
probably from North India, the second properly localized as froni 
BoinbaA'. 



(Jen us VARMA. 

Type, V. fervens, Walk., from Borneo. 

Distribt'tion. Oriental and Malayan Regions. 

Head a little narrower than pronotum ; vertex narrow, trun- 
cately rounded in front, the margin upwardly acutely reflected ; 
face considerably longer than broad, a little ampliated posteriorly, 
centrally and lateivally robustly carinate, the lateral areas moderately 
oblique ; clypeus centrally ridged, its lateral margins simple ; 
pronotum very narrow, laterally oblique, posteriority very strongly 
angularly emai'ginate, centrally and marginally strongly ridged ; 
mesonotum tricarinat(> and longer than pronotum and vertex 



l'ADA>^DA. 



331 



together; legs moderately sliort, posterior tibia? witli two strong 
spines, posterior tarsi with the basal joint perceptibly thickened ; 
rostrum short, robust, apical joint short ; tegmina somewhat broad, 
apically truncately rounded, of the three basal longitudinal veins 
the uppermost and lowermost are bifurcated, crossed by an almost 
straight series of transverse veius beyond middle, and by a similar 
outu ardly convex series a little before apical margin, costal mem- 
brane with oblique transverse veins ; wings a little narrower than 
tegmina. 

1893. Varma tridens, sj). n. 

Body and legs brownish-ochraceous ; tegmina flavescent, a 
costal suffusion before apex, and three contiguous apical marginal 
fasciae fuscous ; wings fuliginous, a little paler at basal area ; 
abdominal segmental margins a little paler in hue; carinations to 




Fig. 165. — Vxruia iridciis. 

head, pronotum, and mesonotum concolorons or \ery sliglitl\ 
paler than the discal coloration ; posterior tibiae pale ochrace- 
ous, the spines very distinct ; carinations to face and clypeus 
concolorous. 

Length excl. tegm. 5 ; exp. tegui. 14 millim. 

Huh. Ceylon. Armarapura, Kandy {Green). 



Genus PADANDA. 

Type, P. atlinsoni, Dist. 

Bistrilmtion. British India. 

Head (with eyes) about as wide as pronotum, the vertex shorter 
than pronotum, subconically rounded, centrally and marginally 
carinate : face about twice as long as clypeus, its margins parallel, 
centrally and sublaterally carinate, the sublateral carinae anteriorly 
curved inward and fused, the lateral margins also carinate ; clypeus 
tricarinate ; antennae inserted considerably below eyes, the second 
joint short, globose ; pronotum slightly longer than head, strongly 
laterally and medially carinate, its anterior margin elongately 
convex, its posterior margin angularly emarginate ; mesonotum 
longer than pronotum, strongly tricarinate, the lateral carinations 
upwardly curved inward but not quite meetiug ; legs of moderate 
length, the posterior tibite with four spines, one very near base ; 



332 



rULGORID-i:. 



posterior tarsi Avith the basal joint sliort and incrassate ; tegmin 
subcoriaceoLis, subvertically placed, apical areas with many trans- 
verse veins, the longitudinal veins distinctly raised. 



1S04. Padanda atkinsoni, ^^p. n. 

Head, face, thorax and tegiuina 
pale ochraceous ; body beneath 
and legs brownish-ochraceous ; 
pronotum with a small impressed 
fuscous spot on each side of the 
central carination : tegmina with 
the reticular venation on the apical 
areas in places castaueous, the 
costal membrane moderately broad, 
the longitudinal veins distinctly 

yellow ; apices of the anterior and intermediate tibiae and apices 

of the tarsi piceous. 

Length inch tegm. 7 millim. 

Ilah. Sikhim ; 3Iungphu (Atlinson Coll., Brit. Jlas.). 




Subfamily IX. ISSINzE. 

Inmin, StSi, Hem. Afr. iv, p]). V-'A) & -202 (18(36). 

Issina, Stal, Of v. Vet- Ah. Fork. (1870) p. 7oi; A f kins. J. A. S. Bemj. 

Iv, p. 43 (1886). 
IssidfTe, Melich. Horn. Faun. Ceijlon, p. 72 (IQO-'!). 

Head uot or only a little narrower tlian the jjronotum ; clypeus 
generally convex, its lateral margins seldom ridged ; pronotnui 
trinicate at base, sometimes but rarely broadly roundly sinuate, 
either without a median carination or with only an obsolete 
one; mesouotnm short, rarely twice longer than pronotiun ; 
tegmina coriaceous or subcoriaceous, rarely vitreous, seldom tlat. 
usually more or less- convex, sometimes very much abbreviated ; 
basal joint of posterior tarsi short or of moderate length, very 
rarely elongate. 

In many respects the Isslno; are closely allied to the Enr//- 
hracliydhuv, some authorities placing the two in sequence to one 
another, and others treating them both as representing one sub- 
family. Although I have not followed either of these courses, 
there is very much to be said in their favour, but at present there 
is a divergence of view as to the divisions of the Fulgorida^ and 
their )]atural sequence, while the question is without sufficient 
data for final decision. 

Sijiiopsis of Geneva. 

A. Auterior legs foliaceously dilated. 

a. Tegmina considerably shorter than abdomen. Caliscelis, p. 334. 

b. Tegmina longer than abdomen Auc^ila, p. 335. 



issiNE. 333 

B. Anterior legs normal, not foliaceousl}' dilated, 
a. Tegmina deflected, in an oblique or vertical 
position to the body, not convex ; poste- 
rior tibite ^\•ith one or two spines. 
(I. Teg-mina narrowed and rounded at apices. 
c' . Head not porrectly produced in front 
of eyes. 
a-. Clypeus transversely striate. 

a^. Face longer than broad, centrally 

and sublaterally carinate Tatva, p. 306. 

/>'. Face as broad as long', only cen- 
trally carinate BRAHirALOKA, 

/;-. Clypeus not transversely striate. [p. o\M . 

(i\ Face centrally carinate. 

rt*. Vertex angularly produced in 

front of eyes Iagannata, p. 338. 

b^. Vertex not angularly produced 

in front of eyes Tetbica, p. 3->9. 

U\ Face centrally and laterally cari- 
nate. 
a^. Sublateral carinations almost 

percurrent 11ystki{opti<:rum. 

b^. Sublateral carir.ations only com- [p. 341. 

mencing- at about middle of 

lateral margins Sarima, p. 342. 

b' . Head porrectly produced in front of 
eyes. 
«". Face centrally carinate, not promi- 
nently narrowed anteriorh' Giv.vka, p. 344. 

Ir. Face non-carinate, prominently nar- 
rowed anteriorly Visiixuloka, p. 345 

b. Tegmina anipliated and obliquely truncate 
at apices. 
a' . Head not prominently produced in 
front of eyes. 
«'-. Face about as broad as long. 

«'. lace distincth' centrally lami- 

nately produced at base Radha, p. 340. 

i'. Face normal, not laminateh' pro- 
duced. 
«'. Inner margin of tegmina 

straight Devagvma, p. 347. 

b^. Inner margin of tegmina cou- 
cavely sinuate, convexly am- 
pliate behind claval area .... Narayana, p. 34'.*. 
b'-. Face broader than long. 

(i'. Inner margin of tegmina straight . Samantiga, p. 3">1. 
h''. Inner margin of tegmina dilated 

at claval area Sivaloka, p. 352. 

c". Face longer than broad Sudasixa, p. 353. 

//. Head prominently produced in front 
of eyes. 
a-. Apex of head broad, strongly notched Lx's.a^nda, p. 345. 
b'-. Apex of head narrowed and acute . . Tonc^a, p. 355. 



334 ruLGORi-D.^. 

b. Tegmina convexly oblique, longer than 

broad ; posterior tibije with five spines. 

a. Face about half as long again as broad . . Flavina, p. 350. 

b. Face twice as long as bi-oad Xilaloiiita, p. 358. 

c. Tegniina globose, without a claval suture. 

a. V&ce distinctly separated from vertex . . IIemisph-EKIus, 
/>. Face not distinctly separated from vertex [p. 3o9. 

but passing gradually into its surface . . Hemisph.^roidks, 

d. Tegmina broadly transverse, only moderately [p. 31)4. 

oblique. 
a. Head not produced in front of eyes .... Pteuilia, p. 3(35. 
h. Head strongly and acutely produced in 

front of eves Pteeygoma, i). 300. 



Genus CALISCELIS. 

Caliscelis, Lap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. ii, p. :?51 (1833) ; Melich. (excl. 

svn.) Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 72 (1903) ; Hon-. Ann. Mas. Nat. 

ilmiff. 1904, p. 378. 
^lejonosoma, Costa, Cenni znolotjici, Annnar. Zooloff. 1834, p. 80. 
Cailiscelis, StSl, Hem. Afr. iv, {\ 203 (1860). 
Caloscelis, Ficb. Cic. Rev. et Mag. Zool. 1875, p. 359: Melich. dead. 

Mitt. -Far op. p. 35 (1890). 

Type, C honeUii. Latr., a Palsearctie species. 

Distribution. Palsearetic and Oriental Eegions *. 

Head (including eyes) about as wide as pronotuin ; vertex with 
its margins ridged, and \^ith a transverse ridge between the eyes ; 
face nearly perpendicular, a little rounded towards clypeus, witli 
three longitudinal keels ; antennae inserted before the eyes ; 
rostrum reaching the posterior coxae ; pronotuni broader than 
long, anteriorly rounded, posteriorly concave, sometimes \\\t\\ a 
slight unddle keel ; mesonotum acutely triangular, with three 
faint longitudinal keels, tlie lateral keels curved ; tegmina shorter 
than abdomen, obliquely truncate posteriorly, clavus fused with 
corium ; anterior femora and tibia) strongly foHaceously auipliated ; 
posterior tibia? with a single spine. 



1895. Caliscelis eximia, 67a/, Berl. ent. Zeitschr. iii, p. 323 (1859). 

Very pale ochraceous ; vertex a little produced in front of 
eyes ; pronotum with a medial carination, much shorter than 
mesonotum . 

(5 . Face about one-third longer than greatest breadth, medial 
carination percurrent ; costal area of tegmina, a broad lateral 



* Buriueister (Handb. Ent. ii, p. 159, 1835) has induded a South-American 
species in this genus, but Dr. Horvatli has stated that it is not congenei-ic 
with Caliscelis. 



AUUILA. 



335 



fascia on each side of body, and the anterior legs piceous, inter- 
mediate and posterior legs more 
or less mottled ^^"itl^ piceous, 
anterior femora beneath and ante- 
rior tibiie on eacli side (outwardly 
more than inwardly) roundly 
foliaceously ampliated. 

2 . A little larger than male, 
unicolorous, irrorated with fus- 
cous ; face about one - fourth 
longer than greatest breadth ; 
anterior femora beneath and 
anterior tibia? on each side mode- 
rately dilated, less so than in 
male. 

Length, J 3^, § 4 millim. 

Hab. Ceylon (Stocl-holm 3Jus.). 

1 am indebted to Dr. Auri- 
villius, of Stockholm, for the opportunity of figuring this species. 




Fig. 167. — Caliscelitt exiniia, c?. 



Genus AUGILA. 
Augila, Stdl, Ofv. Vet.-Ak. FiJrh. 1870, p. 754. 

Type, A. sulciceps, Stal, from the Philippines. 

Distribution. Oriental and Malayan Regions. 

Body elongate, subcompressed, abdomen slender; head (including 
eyes) a little naiTower than pronotuui, compressed and porrectly 
produced in front of eyes, its apex moderately rounded, and from 
it issues a slender filamentous appendage *, above longitudinally 
concave ; face with the lateral margins strongly broadly ridged ; 
eyes elongate ; pronotum truncate at base, anteriorly produced 
between eyes, obtusely tricarinate ; mesonotum nearly twice as 
long as pronotum, bicarinate ; tegmina elongate, narrow, apex 
obliquely rounded, anterior and posterior margins parallel, radial 
and upper longitudinal veins united near base, the former shortly 
furcate at apex, apical area reticulately veined ; wings a little 
wider than tegmina, with a few transverse veins on apical area ; 
antei'ior legs elongated, the femora and tibiae foliaceously dilated ; 
posterior tibiae with a single spine placed beyond middle, 

I have followed Stal in placing this strange genus in the Issince ; 
there appear to be a number of interesting characters that can 
only be studied and described when material can be spared for 
dissection. 



'^ This structural character is neilher figured nor described by StSl, and 
was probably mutilated wlien he acquired his Pliilippine type of the genus. 



336 



rULGOEIDTE. 



189G. Augila bingliami. sp. n. 

Head, pi'ouotum, and mesonotum black ; vertex of head (ex- 
cludmg base and apex) dull greyish, a longitudinal spot at centre 
of face and a central fascia to clypeus dull greyish ; abdomen 
ochraceous, the lateral margins and apex broadly pieeous : anterior 
legs pieeous, apices of the dilated tibire ochraceous, intermediate 




Fig. 168. — Augiht hhiijhahd. 

and posterior legs brownish -ochraceous ; tegmina and wings 
livaline, the veins fuscous, apical area of tegmina and the claval 
ai'ea pieeous ; at base of abdomen above there are two smooth 
longitudinal tubercles. 

Lengtli excl. tegm. 6 ; exp. tegm. 13 millim. 

Hah. Tenasserim. Ataran Valley (Bhir/Juun, Coll. Dist.). 



Genus TATVA, nov. 

Type, T. hvfo, Dist. 

Distribution. British India. 

Head (including eyes) onl}' very slightly narrower than pro- 
notum ; vertex quadrangular, foveate and granulose, its margins 
strongly ridged, its posterior margin angularly excavate ; face 
longer than broad, a little ampliate posteriorly, granulose, cen- 
trally, laterally, and sublaterally carinate, the sublateral carinations 
united anteriorly and inwardly curved posteriorly ; clypeus 
soijiewhar short, triangular, finely centrally carinate near its 
base, and laterally transversely striate ; eyes wdth their posterior 
margins truncate, antenna? inserted a little beneath them; pro- 
notum uarro\A-, its posterior margin truncate, anteriorly broadly 
angulate ; mesonotum small, triangular ; legs of moderate length, 
posterior tibiae with two spines ; tegmina short, subcoriaceous, 
broadly arched at base and moderately ampliate behind clavus, 
narrowed to apex, which is angularly rounded, strongly trans- 
versely reticulate on about apical third, obsoleteiy transversely 
reticulate on remaining area ; winss about or almost as long as 
tegmina. semiliyalinc. 



BRAHMALOKA. 



337 



1897. Tatva bufo, sp. n. 

Body and legs pale browuish-ocliraceous ; vertex of head with 
two small fuscous spots at base ; tegniina obscure talc-like, sub- 
coriaceous, the venation ochraceous, two obscure broken oblique 
fuscous fasciae on each tegmen, and some transverse fuscous spots 

on each claval area ; wings semi- 
hyaliue, very pale fuliginous, the 
venation fuscous ; vertex of head 
granulose, with a faint central 
longitudinal carination ; face granu- 
lose, speckled with pale fuscous ; 
clypeus ochraceous, its lateral ai'eas 
(WV\f //f''/ ill^U'^'l !l ^ obliquely striate; apices of tibiae 
^^\}w//w tVrSJW'il piceous ; tegmiua with a number of 

small cells on apical area ; pronotum 
sparingly palely granulose, its mar- 
gins strongly ridged and with a 
faint central longitudinal carina- 
tion ; mesonotum with two short ridges near each anterior angle, 
between which the colour is dull castaneous, two small spots of 
the same colour on disk. 
Length o^ millim, 
flah. Bombay (Brit. 2Ii(s.). ' 




Tafva hufo. 



Genus BRAHMALOKA, nov. 

Type, B. Iiowrinr/i, Dist. 

Distribution. Assam. 

Head (including eyes) as broad as pronotum ; vertex broader 
than long, truncate anteriorly, moderately concave, its edges 
carinate ; face about as broad as long, centrally straightly finely 
carinate and submarginally convexly carinate, the lateral margins 
also slightly ridged, the basal margin truncate, not concave, a little 
emarginate before clypeus ; clypeus laterally transversely obliquely 
striate; pronotum about as long as mesonotum, anteriorly angu- 
larly medially produced, posteriorly truncate, with a central tine 
longitudinal carination; mesonotum tricarinate ; legs short and 
robust, posterior tibias with two spines ; tegmiua with the margins 
parallel, not ampliated towards apex, apical margin truucately 
rounded, longitudinal veins prominent, more or less transversely 
veined over their whole area, costal area very broad, transversely 
A'eined, a series of transverse veins near apex defining an apical 
marginal area containing a few longitudinal veins. 



1898. Brahmaloka bowringi, sp. n. 

Body, legs, and tegmiua browuish-ocliraceous; face discally 
suffused with piceous; the oblique lateral striae to clypeus casta- 
neous ; apex of rostrum piceous ; abdomen castaneous-brown 

VOL. III. Z 



338 fulgokid.t:. 

with transverse ochraceoiis segmental fasciae, anal appendages 




Fig. 170. — Ilrahmalola bou-ruigi. 

ochraceous : posterior tibiae with two rnbnst spines ; eyes piceous. 
Length inch tegiu. 5 millira. 
Hah. Assam; Cac\\^v {Boivrinrj, Brit. Mvs.). 



Genus JAGANNATA, nov. 

Type, -/. clielonki. Dist. 

Distribution. British India. 

Head (including eyes) about as wide as pronotuui ; vertex some- 
what angularly produced in front of eje^^, a little longer than 
broad, slightly narro\^ed posteriorly ; face about as long as 
greatest width, very indistinctly and obscurely centrally carinate, 
its basal margin truncate with the lateral angles slightly acutely 
prominent, obliquely widened for about two-thirds its length 
and then obliquely narrowed to clypeus which is directed inward : 
antenna short, inserted beneath eyes ; pronotum about as long 
as mesonotum, anteriorly subtriangularly produced, its posterior 
margin truncate and with a faint central longitudinal carination ; 
legs of moderate length, posterior tibia3 unarmed ; tegmina widest 
and arched near base, narrov/ed posteriorly, the longitudinal veins 
bifurcate, the surface covered with indistinct transverse veins, the 
basal disk slightly globose, but not prominently so as seen from 
above. 

1890. Jagannata chelonia, s-p. n. 

Very pale flavescent with fuscous markings ; vertex of head pale 

tlavescent with the anterior mar- 
gin and anterior lateral angles 
piceous ; eyes fuscous-brown, 
their basal margins ochraceous: 
face pale flavescent, anterior 
area pale fuscous-brown and 
slightly granulose, the ante- 
rior and lateral margins at 
this area piceous with small 
promhient tubercles, on poste- 
rior disk some pale fuscous- 
brown suffusions ; clypeus 
base pale flavescent ; anterior and intermediate 




TETRICA. 339 

tibia) distiuctlv piceously biannulate, the femora much more ob- 
scurely so ; posterior legs mutilated in type ; tegmiua pale 
flavescent with some f'aiut fuscous shadings, one or two verv 
small piceous spots at apical end of posterior margin and a linear 
series of very obscure fuscous spots on disk, the longitudinal 
veins distinctly raised. 

Length iucl. tegm. 5| millim. 

Hah. Tenasserim ; Myitta (DoJierti/). 

1900. Jagannata maculata, sp. n. 

Pale creamy-wliite more or less suffused and spotted with 
fuscous ; vertex of head with a piceous spot on the anterior lateral 
angles and a small black spot at about middle of lateral margins ; 
eyes very pale fuscous-brown ; face with the anterior area very 
pale fuscous-brown and slightly grauulose, some central suffusions 
of the same colour to posterior disk, and the whole of the anterior 
and lateral margins spotted with black, most prominently so 
anteriorly ; anterior and intermediate femora and tibia? obscurely 
piceously biannulate ; pronotum piceously spotted at each lateral 
area, and with a central somewhat sanguineous carinate line ; 
mesonotum with five large fuscous spots, four on anterior margin 
and the other one near posterior angle, and with a distinct central 
sanguineous carinate line ; tegmiua creamy-Avhite, with a large 
fuscous patch or irregular spot on the apical area, a smaller patch 
or spot on claval area, some minute spots of the same colour 
scattered on basal area, and a series of small but more piceous 
spots on inner margin. 

Length inch tegm. (! millim. 

Hah. Tenasserim : Myitta {Dolierty). 

Besides the above strong difFei'euces in colour and mai'kings 
this species may be separated from J. chelonia by the much less 
raised longitudinal veins to the tegmina. 

Genus TETRICA. 

Tetrica, Stdl, Hem. Afr. iv, p. 208 (1866) ; Atkins. J. A. S. Be.ivj. 
Iv, p. 46(1886). 

Tj'pe, T. fasca, Stal. 

Distribaiiou . Oriental and Malaj-an Regions. 

Eody oval or suboblong ; head with eyes as broad as pronotum, 
not prominently produced in front of eyes ; vertex transverse, 
somewhat concave, its margins strongly ridged, with a more or less 
distinct central carination and with the anterior lateral angles 
distinctly prominent ; face almost equally long as broad, a little 
ampliated posteriorly, with a central medial ridge sometimes be- 
coming evanescent posteriorly, the lateral margins acute and a 
little reflexed, lateral margins of the clypeus ridged ; pronotinn 
short, anteriorly and triangulai'ly produced, its base truncate, its 
margins ridged and with a more or less well-developed central 

z2 



li-iO FULGORTD^'E, 

cariiiation ; inesoriotum about as long as pi'ouotum, somewhat 
convex ; iegs moderately short and robust, posterior tibicie with 
two spines ; tegmina slightly narrowed behind the middle, at apex 
very obtusely rounded ; radial vein forked at base, two lower 
longitudinal veins forked near middle ; wings broad, deeply 
emargiuate at apex*. 

1 am indebted to Dr. Aurivillius, of Stockholm, for allowing me 
to see a cotype of this genus, the T. macuUpennis, Stal, from the 
Philippines. 



1901. Tetrica fusca, StM, Of v. Vet.-Ak. Fork. 1870, p. 757, uote; 

Atkins. J. A. S. Benr/.'lv, p. 47 (1886). 

" S • Fuscous, subcompressed, legs pallesceut ; eorium and 
clavus obsoletely palely sprinkled on disk ; vertex twice broader 
than long ; face nearlv equally long and towards the apex broad, 
furnished with a single, distinct, obtuse ridge running through it, 
continued through the clypeus ; tegmina someuhat broad, gradually 
somewhat amplitied from base to near middle, thence distinctly 
nari-owed." (Sttd.) 

Length inch tegm. 5| millim. 

Hab. Burma (Jide Stal). 

I have given Stal's description of this species, for although I 
possess a specimen from Mergui which I beheve is conspecitic, 
I cannot be certain \\ithout seeing the type. 

1902. Tetrica bifasciata, sp. n. 

Brownish-ochraceous ; face with the antei'ior and latei'al margins 
very narrowly black, the central carinate line testaceous and with 
a curved pale fascia on each side before clypeus, which is also pale 
with its lateral areas darker ; legs with paler longitudinal streaks ; 
tegmina brownish-ochraceous with two transverse castaneous 
fasciae, between which there is a large pale costal spot, longi- 
tudinal veins slightly raised and pale brownish ; eyes castaneous. 

Length inch tegm. 5| millim. 

Hab. Teuasserim ; Myitta (DoJiertij). 

1903. Tetrica viridimixta, sp. n. 

Brownish-ochraceous with pale viresceut suffusions ; face 
mottled with brown, between which there is a triangular pale 
flavescent spot before clypeus giving the appearance of the 
posterior margin being triangularly emarginate ; clypeus laterally 
piceous ; anterior and intermediate femoi'a and tibias obscurely 



* I am extremely doubtful whether this is a constant character, although 
stated as so by Stul. 



HYSTEEOPTEEUM. 



34 



fuscously biannulate ; vertex in fresli specimens a\ ith a virescent 
tint ; pronotum with the anterior area and a spot at base 
ochraceous or pale virescent ; mesonotiim with the posterior angle 




Fig. 172. — Tc/rica viral imixta. 

virescent ; tegmina brownish ochraceous, the venation with a 
virescent tint, a pale virescent spot on ba.sal costal area, and a 
large pale longitudinal suffusion beyond middle of costal marginal 
area. 

Var. The virescent tint obsolete, and the whole submarginal 
costal ai'ea of tegmina pale flavous-virescent, the basal spot and 
longitudinal suffusion being united. 

Length inch tegm. millim. 

Hah. Tenasserim ; Myitta (Dohert)/). 

Genus HYSTEROPTERUM. 

Hvsteropternm, Avri/. S,- Serv. Hem. p. 519 (1843) ; Fieb. Cic. Rtv. et 
'^Mng. Zool. 1875, p. 365; Melich. Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 76 (1903). 

Type //. immaculatum, Fabr., a Paleearctic species. 

Distribution. Palaearctic and Oriental Regions. 

Head (including eyes) as wide as pronotum ; vertex quadrangular, 
about as broad as long, its anterior margin slightly angularlv 
produced in front of eyes, its lateral margins ridged ; face scarcely 
longer than greatest breadth, posteriorly moderately amnliate, 
centrally and sublaterally carinate, the sublateral carinations curved 
and meeting at anterior margin ; legs moderately short and stout ; 
pronotum a little shorter than mesonotum, truncate ' posteriori}^ 
and subangularly produced anteriorly, faintly centrally carinate ; 
mesonotum with its anterior margin ridged and somewhat widely 
tricarinate ; tegmina placed vertically, narrowed to apices which 
are rounded, the upper two longitudinal veins forked at about one- 
third before their apices and excluding basal area with numerous 
faint subobsolete transverse veins. 



1904. Hysteropterum subfasciatum, Melich. Horn. Faun. Ceylon, 
p. 78 (1903). 

Pale brownish-ochraceous ; tegmina with two oblique piceous 



342 



FULGORID.i;. 



fascioe; vertex o£ head smooth, a httle concave; pronotuin with a 

.series of very small pale fuscous 
tubercles on its lateral margins, 
central carination distinct ; meso- 
iiotum pale chocolate-brown, the 
lateral angles and apex much paler, 
the carinatious distinct, its anterior 
margin distinctly finely ridged ; 
legs a little spotted and streaked 
with fuscous ; tegmina with the 
longitudinal veins raised, obsoletely 
mottled with paler coloration. 

Var. Paler and more concolorous 
than the typical form (siqira) ; 

tegmina without the piceous oblique fascite ; mesonotum paler and 

more concolorous. 

Length inch tegm. 5 millim. 

Hab. Ceylon ; Trincomali (Mas. Ilongrois). 

I have again to acknowledge my obligatiou to Dr. Horvath, of 

the Budapest Museum, for allowing me to examine and figure a 

typical example of this species. 




Fig. 173. 

H[/sfcroptcn(m snhfasciu! i',:i. 



1905. Hysteropterum fusculura, MeJkh. Ilom. Faun. Ceylon, p. 77 
(1903). 

" Tellowish-brown ; vertex of head twice as broad as long, in 
front straightly truncate, augulated and deepened above ; face 
distinctly longer, widened and rouudtid to clypeus, with a distinct 
central percurreut carination ; face unicolorous, brownish ; pro- 
notum as long as vertex, anterior margin obtusely angularly 
produced, posterior margin straight, deepened above into a groove 
with several smooth granules ; mesonotum with three indistinct 
longitudinal carinatious ; tegmina moderately long, broadly 
rounded off behind, with three longitudinal veins, the outer 
forked at base, and the other two forked at middle of corium, the 
veins connected by numerous paler transverse veins ; wings 
fuliginous ; bodv beneath and legs brownish-yellow." {Melicliar.) 

Length 5 millim. 

Hah. Ceylon {Mm. Berlin). 

I have failed to apply the above description to any specimen 
which has hitherto passed through my hands. 



Genus SARIMA. 

Sai'ima, Melicli. Horn Fcutii. Ceylon, p. 78 (1903). 

Type, S. illihata. Melicti. 
Distribution. Ceylon. 

Head (including eyes) as wide as prouotum ; vertex subquadran- 
gular, its base angularly emarginate, its margins ridged and with 



SARIMA. 343 

a subobsolete central carinate line ; face somewhat shortly ampli- 
ated and rounded posteriorly, before clypeus distinctly sinnate, 
basal and lateral margins ridged, a fine central longitudinal 
carinatioi], and two anterior central carinations which commence 
at about middle of lateral margins and are rounded inwardly and 
connected at a little before basal margin ; clypeus short, robust ; 
pronotum somewhat short, its base truncate, anteriorly angularly 
produced, with a somewhat faint median cariuation ; mesoiiotum 
obsoletely tricariuate ; legs of moderate length, posterior tibia? 
with two spiues ; tegmina subcoriaceous, the longitudinal veins 
distinctly raised, and between them a nnmber of more indistinct 
transverse veins, the costal margin a little angularly produced 
before middle, the costal membrane broad ^ith an inner curved 
vein enclosing a semicircular maculate space, the tegmina are placed 
vertically and they are rounded at apices. 

] 90G. Sarima illibata, yrelich. Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 79 (1903). 

Head, thorax, and tegmina dark umber-brown ; lateral and 
posterior margins and central carina to vertex of head paler and 
more ochraceous ; extreme lateral margins of tegmina ochraceous, 
and the costal membrane around and beyond the semicircular dark 
maculate area greyish-flavescent, some scattered obscure fuscous 

spots sometimes becoming somewhat 
confluent on apical areas; body beneath 
and legs pale ochraceous ; abdomen 
beneath with a central discal piceous 
maculate fascia ; the vertex of head 
has two anterior transverse and two 
smaller posterior impressions; eyes 
black, ochraceous at extreme base ; the 
margins of pronotum, especially its apex, 
and more faintly the central carinate 
Pig_ 174.— &/■////« illihalu. line, are dull ochraceous ; the cari- 
nations to mesouotum are obsolete 
and do not quite reach the posterior margin ; the transverse sub- 
obsolete veins between the longitudinal veins of tegmina are 
somewhat regular, but on the costal area or membrane there are 
three or four above the semicircular maculate area, and they 
become again distinct a little beyond middle. 
Length inch tegm. 5 to G| milhm. 
Hah. Ceylon ; Kandy, Pundaluoya {Green). 
I have to thank Dr. Horvath, of Budapest, for allowing me to 
see a cotype of this species, which is figurec above. 

1907. Sarima elongata, Mdic/i. Horn. Faun. Cti/lon, p. SO (1003). 

Allied to 'S'. Ulihata, but with the body longer and narrower, 
pale yellowish or greenish-brown ; vertex ratlier broader, with 




344 FCLGORID.E. 

t\\o concavities ; face scarcely longer than breadth at clypeus. 
rather narrowed bet\^'een eyes, finely and thickly punctured, not 
marked, greenish-yellow or yellowish-brown, with a central ridge 
extending to its middle and a transverse ridge running close 
below its basal margin and parallel to it, the ends curved down 
near outer borders of the face, narrow space between this trans- 
verse ridge and the facial margin dark brown ; tegmina rather 
long and narrow, semitransparent, transverse veins in hinder area 
thicker, in the front half only some isolated transverse veins 
other characters as in S. illihata. 

" Length 6 to 6| millim." 

Mab. Ceylon (Jide Melkliar). 

Among the specimens which have passed through my hands, I 
have not found one that definitely agrees with the above diagnosis ; 
I have therefore reproduced what 1 believe are the salient points 
from Dr. Melichar's description. 

190S. Sarima cretata, sp. n. 

Head, pronotum, mesonotum, and tegmina castaneous-brown ; 
body beneath and legs yellowish or pale virescent ; vertex of head 
and face either virescent or very pale testaceous-brown, the latter 
with the central carination becoming evanescent before apex ; 
tegmina with the base obliquely pale ochraceous, at about centre 
of costal area a large semihyaline whitish spot outwardly narrowly 
margined with pale ochraceous and from the end of the spot to 
the apex the costal area is pale ochraceous ; on the disk of each 
teo-men there are a few prominent cretaceous tomentose spots, 
of which the principal are three in transverse curved series a little 
beyond the middle, and a cluster of smaller and more obscure 
spots on apical area ; sides of face and the abdomen beneath 
rather strongly virescent ; other characters resembling those of 
aS'. illihata. 

Length inch tegm, 5k millim. 

Bab. Ceylon ; Pundaluoya (Green). 

Genus GIVAKA, nov. 

Type, G. hampsoni., Dist. 

Distribulion. British India. 

Head (including eyes) about as wide as pronotum ; vertex 
moderately porrect, somewhat longly and triangularly produced in 
front of eyes, with an obsolete median carination, the lateral 
margins distinctly ridged ; face somewhat obliquely convex, 
narrowest at base, widened posteriorly, smooth, margins slightly 
ridged, with a fine central median carination ; clypeus semiglobose ; 
legs moderately short, posterior tibiae with two spines ; pronotum 
short, convexly arched anteriorly, truncate posteriorly, faintly 
centrallv cariuate ; tegmina placed in an obliquely vertical position, 
narrowed to apices, which are truncately rounded, costal margin 




VISHNULOKA. 345 

obliquely arched to about one-third from base, thence almost 
obliquely straight to apex, costal membrane transversely veined, 
about apical half coarsely transversely veined, remaining area more 
obsoletely marked with transverse veins, second and third longi- 
tudinal veins strongly forked near middle, on tlie upper and lower 
longitudinal veins beyond middle there are several distinct ovate 
cellular areas. 

Allied to the Palaearctic genus Mycterodus, Spin. 

1909. Givaka hampsoni, sp. n. 

Pale brownish-ochracpous, spotted and marked with fuscous ; 
vertex of head testaceous, the lateral edges piceous ; face testaceous, 
the lateral edge piceous except at a])ical areas, central carination 

a little darker except at base and 
apex, its lateral areas a little 
oblique, anteriorly somewhat in- 
curved ; pronotum and mesonotum 
pale brownish-ochraceous; tegmina 
pale brownish-ochraceous, with a 
large irregidarly transverse dark 
fuscous patch on basal area, and 
an irregularly obliquely longitudi- 
nal similarly coloured patch on 
Fig. \1').—Ginika hanqmni. apical area, the longitudinal veins 

and the transverse veins on apical 
half strong and prominent ; abdomen beneath with a central 
longitudinal segmental series of large piceous spots, and a series 
of small indented spols at lateral segmental margins. 
Length inch tegm. 8 millim. 
Hab. Nilgiri Hills {Hampson). 



Genus VISHNULOKA, nov. 

Type, T". prominula, Dist. 

Bistrihution. British India. 

Allied to Gival-a, but differing in the following characters : — The 
face is convex and smooth, without any carination, much narrowed 
anteriorly, the vertex is long and porrect, the lateral margins 
broadly, roundly prominent; the second longitudinal vein to 
tegmina is forked near apex, the lo\^er longitudinal vein forked 
near middle, the bifurcations meeting on margin and thus 
apparently forming an elongate cellular area, transverse veins less 
strongly marked than in Givaka. 

1910. Vislmuloka prominula, sp. n. 

Pale ochraceous, tegmina with fuscous markings ; vertex of 
head longly porrect and acuminate, the lateral margins broadly 
prominent and finely transversely wrinlded ; face moderately con- 




346 FULGOBID.5:. 

vexl_y rounded, very finely transversely striate, its lateral margins 
narrowly flasescent ; pronotum granulose ; mesonotuni imperfectly 

seen through typical speci- 
men being pinned ; tegmina 
with a slightly oblique longi- 
tudinal piceous fascia, which 
commences near middle of 
costal margin and terminates 
at apex and is inwardlj^ 
strongly excavate, extreme 
edge of basal half of costal 
margin piceous and the costal 
Fig. 17G. — Vishiiuloka proiiilHula. membrane at this region pale 

testaceous ; body beneath and 
legs pale ochraceous, the abdomen more or less infuscate centrally 
and laterally, the spines to the posterior tibia; concolorous. 
Length inch tegm. ]0 millim. 
Hah. iSikhim ; Mungphu (Atkinson, CoU. Dist.). 

1911. Vishnuloka cuneata, sp. n. 

Ochraceous ; tegmina marked with piceous ; vertex of head very 
pale brownish-ochraceous, obsoletely wrinkled, the apical area 
and a central line pale ochraceous, two piceous si)ots at apex; face 
pale brownish-ochraceous, the lateral and apical margins broadly 
fiavescent, a short central line of the same colour immediately 
before cly])eas and continued through it ; pronotum and meso- 
notuni pale brownish-ochraceous, both more or less coarsely 
granulose, the granulations to the latter principally arranged on 
the lateral margins ; mesonotum with a subobsolete central cari- 
nation ; tegmina with a discal longitudinal piceous fascia on 
posterior half, wdiich is irregularly excavate on each side ; body 
beneath and legs ochraceous ; abdomen more or less suffused with 
fuscous ; tibiae somewhat distinctly fuscously bi-annulate. 

Lengtli inch tegm. 9 millim. 

Hah. Tenasserim ; Myitta {Doherty). 

Vertex of head slightly shorter and distinctly less acuminate 
than in V. jjromimda, colour-markings also diff'erent. 

Genus RADHA. 
lladha, Melkh. Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 7G (1903). 

Type, li. acuminata., Melicb. 

Distrlhution. Ceylon. 

Head with eyes about as broad as pronotum ; vertex triangularly 
produced in front of eyes, moderately concave, its margins slightly 
raised and reflexed ; face almost as broad as long, distinctly 
forwardly, centrally, laminately produced at base, transversely 
depressed before middle, the lateral margins, particularly on 
posterior halves, prominently ridged ; clypeus ridged at base ; 



DEVAGAMA, 347 

antennag short, inserted just beneath eyes ; prouotum short, 
depressed before the raised mesonotum, its posterior margin 
truncate, its anterior margin convex; mesonotum raised, its 
anterior margin suddenly deflected before the depressed pro- 
notum ; legs moderately short and robust, posterior tibite not 
spined; tegmiua short, broad, ampliated posteriorly, costal margin 
angularly rounded, apical margin truncate, the "principal veins 
distinctly raised, a number of less distinct transverse veins on 
apical area, the central sutural margins of the tegmina for about 
halfway from base broadly reflexed and forming a longitudinal 
groove. 



1912. Eadha acuminata, Melich. Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 70, t. iii, 
f. (3, a (190:J). 

Ferruginous-brown ; head with the mai-gins of vertex and base 
of face piceous ; eyes dull ochraceous, thickly speckled with 

piceous ; uiesonotuni a little paler in 
hue, its lateral margins and anterior 
lateral angles ferruginous - brown ; 
sternum and abdomen beneath pale 
ochraceous ; a prominent spot on 
each side of mesosternum, the abdo- 
minal segmental margins, and each 
lateral area of the anal segment 
piceous-black ; coxaj ochraceous ; 
femora ochraceous, thickly speckled 
Fig. \Ti.-l!adha aramhiuta. «/' siifi^sed with ferruginous-brown, 

their apices paler ; tibiaB more or less 
ferruguious-brown ; tegmina dull ochraceous, on apical area much 
suifused with fuscous, on basal half with an irregular broad dark 
ferruginous-brown fascia, which is posteriorly and upwardly 
reflexed into a discal spot, a spot of the same colour at the apices 
of the raised sutural margins, and another on each side of base 
behind the apex of mesonotum. 
Length inch tegm, 7 millim. 
Hah. Ceylon : Nalanda {Mus. Hongrois). 

Dr. Horvath has kindly enabled me to examine and figure this 
species. 

Genus DEVAGAMA, nov. 

Type, D. rana, Dist. 

Distribution. British India. 

Head broad, including eyes as wide as pronotum ; vertex quad- 
rangular with a transverse ridge before anteriormargin, its posterior 
margin moderately concave, its lateral margins ridged, and a central 
ridge in front of the transverse ridge ; face a little concave at ante- 
rior margin, laterally posteriorly a little anipliate and rounded, 
centrally carinate, and with a curved discal sublateral carination 




848 



PULGOEID.'E. 



on each side : pronutum with its posterior margin truncate, 
anteriorly subtriangnlarly produced and with a central hnigi- 
tudinal ridge ; mesonotum centrally slightly longer than prouotum 
Mith a central ridge, the margins of both pro- and mesonota 
carinate ; abdomen short and robust: legs moderately stout and 
long ; tegmina placed vertically, strongly ampliated posteriorly, 
the apical margin somewhat obliquely truncate with many trans- 
verse veins, some of which are obscurely visible ; a distinct sei'ies 
of short apical veins, ^^hich are continued round apex on posterior 
edge of costal area. 



1013. Devagama rana, sp. n. 

Bodv and legs brownisb-ochraceous, head and thorax a little 



paler 



hut 



eyes concolorous ; tegmina very pale ochraceous 
with a slight virescent tint, 
finely but sparsely speckled 
with fuscous, a few of the 
discal spots being promi- 
nent, the costal membrane 
pale bright ochraceous ; teg- 
mina a little convex on each 
side : tibiae somewhat short, 
broad, and longitudinally 
sulcate ; autennffi inserted 
beneath the eyes, the second 
joint short and globose. 




Fig. 178. — Dei'cir/mna rana. 



Length inch tegm. 4 millini. 

Hah. " India " {Brit. Mus.). 

The specimen on which this genus and species are founded is 
without a precise locality beyond the one given above ; it was 
derived from the collection once made by the Entomological 
Societv of London. 



1914. Devagama venosa, sp. n. 

Pale brownisb-ochraceous ; apices of femora, bases and apices 
of anterior and intermediate tibiae, and apices of anterior tarsi 
castaneous-brown ; disk of abdomen beneath castaneous-brown, 
the segmental margins piceous ; tegmina with both the longitudinal 
veins and the transverse veins on apical area very strongly i-aised 
and prominent, and a few somewhat large but obscure piceous 
^pots on the apical area ; vertex of head with two basal spots 
and a curved piceous line on each side of disk connected trans- 
versely a little before apex ; pronotum with t\\ o transverse narrow 
tubercles on disk. 

Length inch tegm. 5 millim. 

Hah. Nilgiri Hills {Hampson). 

A species to be recognized by the very prominent venation of the 
t emiiina. 



NARAYANA. 



349 



Genus NARAYANA, nov. 

Type, JV. rusticitatis, Dist. 

JJlstrlhution. British India. 

Head short, bro.id, including eyes as wide as pronotum ; vertex 
broader than long, with a central median line, the anterior margin 
a little concave ; face large, abont as broad as long, slightly 
ampliately rounded towards clypeus, its margins carinate, its 
surface somewhat transversely \A'rinkled, with a variously shaped 
and more or less developed central discal tubercle, a subtnarginal 
cariuation on each side truncately connected before anterior 
margin and more prominently ti'ansversely connected before 
clypeus ; eyes globose, very slightly sinuate posteriorly, antennae 
inserted beneath them ; pronotum sjiort, anteriorly subangularly 
produced, posteriorly truncate ; legs moderately short and stout ; 
tegmina vertical, short and broad, costal margin moderately 
convex, apical margin wide and obliquely truncate, the longi- 
tudinal veins raised and sparsely furnished with small tubercles, 
on apical half a number of well-defined transverse veins, iinier 
margins concavely sinuate, convexly ampliate beyond claval area. 

1915. Narayana rusticitatis, sp. n. 

Head (including face) and the pronotum dull virescent, the latter 
less virescent and more brownish ; mesonotum brownish-yellow 
with a very slight virescent tint ; body and legs brownish- 
ochraceous sprinkled \\ith fuscous ; tegmina brownish-ochraceous, 
the venation a little darker and tinted with virescent at base ; 




Fig. 179. — Narayana rusticitafis. 

face virescent, the extreme lateral margins black, the disk between 
the submarginal carinations palely fuscous, with a central ovate 
depressed tuberculosity, from which two diverging carinate lines 
proceed anteriorly, above and beneath the fuscous disk the surface 
is strongly transversely wrinkled ; vertex medially depressed ; 
pronotum obscurely centrally carinate ; tegmina somewhat strongly 
depressed at the region of the clavus, on the raised margin behind 
which there is a prominent transverse tubercle, the apex of the 
inner margin convex, the colour of the tegmina is pale brownish- 
ochraceous, much darker on about basal halt", especially on its outer 



350 ruLGORii).?:. 

margin and at claval area, a number of small fuscous tubercles 
arranged on tbe veins ; legs strongly suffused or sprinkled with 
brownish-ochraceous. 

Length inch tegm. (i milhm. 

Hah. Ceylon; Peradeniya (G'/'^ch). 

1916. Narayana sellata, Mdich. (Hysteropterum) Hom.Fcam. Ceylun. 

p. 77, t. iii, f. 8 (1903). 

Olivaceous-green with piceous or black marks aud shadings ; 
face w ith the disk between the submarginal carinations moderately 
concavely depressed, tbickly sprinkled with brownish-oebraceous, 
the central tuberculosity narrow, longitudinal, the lateral margins 
and the carinatiors bright olivaceous, only very sligbtly trans- 
versely wrinkled ; eyes piceous ; vertex olivaceous ; pronotum 
posteriorly dull ochraceous and with its lateral margins sjmringly 
spotted with fuscous ; mesonotum with a large quadrangular basal 
transverse ochraceous spot slightly raised and with a distinct 
posterior ridge ; tegmina virescent, the venation dark olivaceous 
shaded with black at inner areas, a small olivaceous tubercle 
on convex margin behind clavus, the longitudinal A'eins sparsely 
ornamented w ith small olivaceous tubercles ; legs ochraceous, 
sprinkled with uniber-brown. 

Length inch tegm. 5| millim. 

Hah. Ceylon; Kandy ((/rceu), 

1917. Narayana piceipennis, sp. n. 

Ochraceous ; eyes, suffusions to tegmina, and legs piceous ; face 
obscurely grauulose, the disk between the sublateral cariuations 
sprinkled with fuscous-bro\A"n, posteriorly before clypeus with two 
transverse series of piceous spots, discal tuberculosity practically 
obsolete ; clypeus with tliree longitudinal fuscous-brown fascia; ; 
vertex, pronotum, and mesonotum pale ocbraceous; tegmina shining 
piceous with ochraceous suffusions, particulai'ly beneath the costal 
area, where the ochraceous coloration almost predominates, there is 
also a distinct ochraceous spot on the costal margin where it is 
concave, and a very obscure piceous tubercle on basal costal margin 
where it is convex ; anterior and intermediate femora and tibitc 
piceous, the apices of the former and the bases of the latter 
ochraceous ; posterior legs streaked with piceous. 

Length incl. tegm. bh millim. 

Hall. Ceylon ; Kandy (^Grcen). 

1918. Narayana umlbrosa, sp. u. 

Pale umber-brown, shaded and marked v\ ith ]Hceous and piceous- 
brown ; head with the vertex much shaded with piceous-brown 
excepting near apical margin, very concave with the lateral 
margins laminately raised on each side above eyes and spotted 
with piceous-brown : face thickly mottled with piceous-brown, 
the basal margin coiicave, its lateral angles prominent, with a 



SAMA^'TIGA. 



351 



distinct central carinatioii becoming evaueseetit posteriorlv, and 
practically terminating on a somewhat A^ell-defined transverse 
ridge situate a little before clypeus ; clypeiis and legs thickly 
mottled Avith piceous-brown ; coxte, apices of posterior femora, 
basal abdominal segment, two discal spots and posterior margin of 
second abdominal segment pale ocbraceoas, remainder of abdomen 
beneath iimber-brown, obscurely centrally and laterally piceous- 
brown ; pronotum and mesonotum mottled with piceous-bro\\ ii ; 
tegmina umber-brown with a broad irregular transverse piceous 
fascia a little beyond base, and the costal area largelv suffused 
with the same colour, the venation coarsely distinct and marked 
with a few small tubercles, the inner margin very strongly con- 
cavely sinuate and beyond the claval area strongly convexlv 
gibbous. 

Length incl. tegm. 6| millim. 

Hah. Nilgiri Hills (Hampaon). 



Genus SAMANTIGA, nov. 

Type, S. ahdominalis , Dist. 

Distrihution. British India. 

Head (including eyes) a little wider than pronotum ; vertex 
transverse, broader than long, the margins strongly ridged, its 
disk concave, with a central obsolete carination, base of face seen 
in front of vertex ; face a little broader tiian long, slightly ampliate 
posteriox-ly, with a very distinct central carination, and a narrow 
subobsolete linear submarginal carination on each side connected 
transversely a little before basal margin; clypeus non-carinate; 
eyes large, slightly sinuate posteriorly before the insertion of the 
antennae ; pronotum a little shorter than the mesonotum, anteriorly 
subtrianguiarly produced, its posterior margin truncate ; tegmina 
broad, a little ampliated posteriorly, costal margin obliquely straight 
to a little before middle, whence it is straightly deflected to apex, 
apical margin somcAAhat couvexly truncate, some transverse veins 
before middle giving the appearance of a distinct radial area, 
a distinct transverse submarginal vein enclosing a narrow apical 
marginal area : legs moderately short and robust, posterior libice 
not spined. 

1910. Samaiitiga abdominalis, 

sp. n. 

Body, tegmina, and legs pale 
ochraceous ; abdomen beneath 
with a broad central maculate 
piceous fascia ; face very finely 
an dobsoletely granulate ; vertex 
with a small obscure fuscous 
spot on each side ; pronotum 
with, a transverse discal series 
with two larger obsciu-e 




Samantiga abdominal it<. 



of three small tubercles ; mesonotum 



352 



I-'ULGORID^'E. 



tubercles ; teginin;i with many very obscure transverse veinlets 
which become more infrequent towards base, the longitudinal 
veins distinctly raised. 

Length incl. tegm. 6 millim. 

}[ah. Xilgiri Hills {Ilamjjson). 



Genus SIVALOKA, nov. 

Type, >S. Kmacodes, Dist. 

Distribution. British India. 

Head (including eyes) as wide as pronotum, the vertex a little 
broadened at apex, its margins distinctly carinate, the basal margin 
<if face visible in front of vertex ; face much broader than long, 
distinctly centrally carinate, its basal margin slightly concave, 
])Osteriorly concavely excavate before clypeus, which is not per- 
ceptibly carinate ; pronotum about as long as mesonotum, its 
posterior margin slightly convexly truncate ; legs moderately short 
and robust, posterior tibiae not spined ; tegmina placed vertically, 
much widened apically, the apical margin truncate, costal margin 
gibbous near middle, thence straight to apex, inner margin convexly 
dilated at claval area, the disk a little inflated, appearing as a 
projection when viewed from above, somewhat prominently trans- 
versely veined on about apical two-thirds, a distinct subapical 
transverse vein defining a submarginal apical area, which is crossed 
bv a few lonsfitudinal veins. 



]i)2(>. Sivaloka limacodes, sp. u. 

Vertex of head, pronotum, and mesonotum dull ochraceous ; 

face, body beneath, and 
legs castaneous, the tibiae 
and the posterior femora 
ochraceous ; abdominal seg- 
mental margins beneatli 
ochraceous ; tegmina shin- 
ing ferruginous - brown ; 
vertex of head a little 
anteriorly suffused with 
brown, the margins very 
palely distinct ; face with 
a medial transverse line 
and some very small submarginal spots ochraceous ; clypeus with 
Its lateral areas a little piceous ; tegmina slightly darker on basal 
area, the longitudinal veins distinctlv raised; lej 
sulcate. 

Length excl. tegm. 7 millim. 
JIah. " India " (Brit. JIus.). 




Fig 181. — SuYfloht limacodes. 



5gs distinctly 



SUDASIXA. 353 

19lU. Sivaloka bipartita, sp. n. 

Body and legs brownish-ochraceous ; Lace pale ochraeeous, its 
basal margin brownish-ochraceous and with a broad transverse 
curved piceous fascia crossing its disk ; a piceous spot on each 
side of pronotum, and a piceous apical annulation to the anterior 
femora ; abdomen beneath more or less suffused with piceous : 
tegmina with about basal lialf pale brownish-ochraceous, the 
apical half pale castaneous-brown, inwardly margined with piceous, 
a piceous claval streak and a few small spots of the same colour on 
basal marginal area, costal area at about middle broadly pale 
flavescent or subhyaliue ; pronotum with, a transverse series of 
three small tubercles on disk ; mesonotum with a pale raised curved 
and broad line between the lateral margins, centrally connected 
with the anterior margin by a narro\\ er and only slightly raised 
pale line ; central carination to face becoming obsolete posteriorly. 

Length inch tegm. 6 millim. 

Hah. Tenasserim ; Myitta (Doherfi/). 



Genus SUDASINA, nov. 

Type, S. testudo, Dist. 

Distribution. Cej'lon. 

Head (including eyes) a little wider than pronotum ; vertex a 
little widened anteriorly, Mith two distinct maculate indentations 
near base, the margins finely carinate and with a central raised 
longitudinal line, the base of face slightly visible in front of vertex, 
\\ hich gives the latter the appearance of being angularly produced ; 
face longer than broad, its basal margin concave, almost perpen- 
dicularly straight to clypeus which is placed at right angles to it, 
disk of face irregularly subrugulose, very slightly ampliated near 
middle ; pronotum about as long as mesonotum, its anterior 
margin angularly convex, its posterior margin truncate ; tegmina 
strongly ampliated towards apices, apical margin convexly truncate, 
costal margin very strongly sinuate, its disk a little inflated and, 
viewed above, giving the appearance of a lateral protuberance, a 
number of transverse veins on about apical two-thirds and a 
distinct submarginal apical transverse vein defining a subapical 
area, which is crossed by a few longitudinal veins, all the longi- 
tudinal veins distinctly raised and somewhat sparsely covered with 
minute tubercles ; legs mutilated in typical specimen. 



1922. Sudasina testudo, sp. n. 

Yei'tex of head, face, clypeus, pronotum, and mesonotum 
ochraeeous, more or less thickly sprinkled with castaneous ; body 
beneath ochraeeous, more or less suffused with brownish ; legs 

VOL. III. 2 A 



354 



rULGORID.i;. 



mutilated in typical specimen ; tegmiua castaneous-brown ; iuner 
margins of tegmina near base of medial suture bright ochraceous ; 
teo-mina on apical margin with five small ochraceous spots, the costal 
margin minutely speckled with ochraceous and at the concave 




Fig. 182 



sinuation pale ochraceous, longitudinal veins distinctly raised and 
sparsely finely tuberculate. 

Length inch tegm. 64 milhm. 

Hah. Ceylon; Vwu^nhioyix {Green, Brit. Mas.). 



Genus LUSANDA. 

Lusauda, Stal, Berl. ent. Zeitschr. iii, p. 3i32 (1859) ; Melich. 
Faun. Ceylon, p. 73 (1903). 



Horn. 



Type, L.Jissicejys, Stal. 

Distribution. Ceylon. 

" Body compi-essed ; head produced, vertex transverse ; face 
strongly produced, conical, its apex fissured ; ocelli none ; pronotum 
and mesonotuui flat, the latter longer than the former ; tegmina 
pendent, obliquely subtriangular, at the commisural junction some- 
what concave, apex broad, obliquely truncate, coriaceous, sparingly 
reticulate ; posterior tibiae with two spines." {Stal.) 



1923. Lusanda fissiceps, Stdl, Berl ent. Zeitschr. iii, p. .322 (1859) ; 
Melich. Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 73, t. iii, f. 5 (1903). 

" Sordidly pale flavescent suffused with fuscous ; 
genaa, frontal sinus, and anterior legs fuscous, 
minutely irrorated with paler coloration ; anterior 
coxa3 and trochanters white, medial coxae with 
their bases darkly fuscous ; tegmina granulate, 
spotted with fuscous." {Stal.) 

" Length inch tegm. scarcely 7 millim." 

Hah. Ceylon. 

I have not seen this species and have there- 
fore copied Stal's description and reproduced 
Melichar's figui-e. 




Fig. 183. 
Lusanda Jissicepi>, 



TONGA. 



Geuus TONGA. 

Cyrene, Westtv. Arc. Ent. ii, p. 35 (1843) ; Atkins. J. A. S. Beng. 

Iv, p. 48 (1886) ; Melich. Wien. ent. Zeit. xx, p. 177 (1901) ; nom. 

pi'Eeocc. (Pisces). 
Tonga, Kirk. Entoniolo(jist, 1900, p. 242, n. nom. 

Type, T. guitulata, Westw., a Sumatrau species. 

Distribution. Orieutal and Malayan Eegious. 

" Body short, stout, abdomen compressed ; head with a conical 
long porrect cephalic process, acute at apex, carinate above at the 
sides, ridges obliterated before the apex, posteriorly extended to 
the pronotum, eyes large, lateral, emarginate beneath, ocelli none ; 
anteuuse small, inserted below the eyes ; pronotum as long as the 
mesonotum, disk impressed in the middle with two points ; tegmina 
coriaceous, opaque, homogeneous, convex, broad, anterior margin 
sinuate, rounded at the apex, posterior angle acute, veins a little 
ramose ; legs short, robust, posterior tibia? \\itli three spines ; abdo- 
men truncated at the apex, ending in two lobes, funished \\ith a 
slender erect appendage, concave at the apex." ( Westiuood.) 

The above is practically a copy of Westwood's description, and 
is given because I have not seen the only species recorded from 
British India, while the shape of the eyes is differently described 
in the generic and specific diagnoses. 

1924. Tonga westwoodi, Sign. (Cyi-ene) Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1862, 
p. 124, t. i, f. o, A, B, C ; Atkins. J. A. S. Beng. Iv, p. 49 (1886) ; 
Melich. (excl. syn.) Wien. ent. Zeit. xx, p. 180 (1901). 

" Brownish-yellow' ; a whitish-yellow line extends from the tip 
of the head to the end of the tegmina, which have several dots of the 
same colour on the disk and are granulate though the whole length. 




Fig. 184. — Tonga westwoodi. 

so as to have the appearance of being shagreened ; head once aud 
a half longer than broad (including the eyes), black at the extremity 
and with a whitish-yellow median band, a little elevated, sides 
carinate ; face concave at the base and grooved, quadricarinate 
towards its upper third, the two median ridges reaching the 

2 a2 



356 frLGORiD.E. 

extremity ot' the head, whereas the t^^-o lateral I'idges proceed 
obliquely upward, contour the head, and lose themselves in the 
latei-al edges of tlie vertex towards its upper third ; rostrum short, 
not extending beyond the posterior coxie ; eyes not emarginate, 
oval ; pronotum thrice broader than long, rugose, especially 
towards the anterior and posterior borders, with an elevated whitish- 
yellow band and on each side a sunken spot ; posterior margin 
truncated straightly, anterior convex with a strong emargination 
below the eyes ; mesonotum triangular and remarkable for a ridge 
or rather transverse fold near the anterior margin and very 
distinct from it, this fold appears a little below the latter and 
extends from one humeral angle to the other and also a little below ; 
tegmina concave, shell-shaped, with the posterior angle acute, the 
anterior margin convex, rouuded, a little coucave on reaching the 
])osterior angle, posterior or sutural margin straight and whitish, 
the entire surface shagreened, veins numerous and branched towards 
the tip, several whitish dots on the disk ; wings transparent, 
liyaline ; abdomen reddish-yello\\', compressed : legs brownish- 
yellow ; posterior femora with two lateral spines to^^"a^ds the 
extremit)\'"' {Svjnoret.) 

Length excl. tegm. 14 ; exp. tegm. 22 millim. 

Hah. Burma? (fide Atlinsou). — Cochin China. 

Melichar {supra) has included in the synonymy of this species 
the Cyrene fusiformis. Walk., and its synonym Chalepus ancono- 
pTioroidcs, AValk., both of which belong to the genus CJialejms and 
appertain to the family Cercopidte. He also includes the C. obtusata 
of Noualhier, \\hich seems clearly to be also a species of Chalej_ms 
or an allied genus. 

Genus FLAVINA. 

Flaviua, St?d, Ofv. Vet.-Ak. Fdrh. 1861, p. 201) : Mem. Afr. iv, 
p. 206 (1866) • Atkins. J. A. S. Bern/. Iv, p. 41: (1886). 

Type, F. gi-amdata, iSttil. 

Distribution. Oriental Eegion. 

Head (including eyes) distinctly narroA\er than the pronotum ; 
vertex subquadrate, its margins ridged ; face about one and a half 
times as long as broad, a little rounded before clypeus, centrally 
carinate, but the carination obliterated before clypeus and with a 
subbasal transverse angulated ridge, between which and the basal 
margin are two foveations ; clypeus non-carinate ; pronotum an- 
gularly produced behind the vertex, the base truncate ; mesonotum 
slightly louger than the pronotum, with a central carination, less 
than twice as long as broad ; legs long, posterior tibiae with five 
spines ; tegmina a little longer than the abdomen, the costal 
margin slightly convex, the radial vein bifurcate near base, the 
upper longitudinal vein bifurcate near apex, the second longi- 
tudinal vein bifurcate before middle, the two latter united before 
middle by a distinct transverse veinlet ; longitudinal veins 
prominent, and between them a number of obscure veinlets, thus 
rendering the whole surface faintly reticulate. 



rL.VYINA, 



357 



1925. Flavina graimlata, St?d, Ofv. Vet.- Ah. Bh-h. 1861, p. Ln2; 
Atkins. J. A. S. Bcn<i. Iv, p. 45 (188(3). 

Pale dull yellowish-testaceous, above with a slight dull viresceiit 

tint ; anterior angles of 
vertex and basal angles of 
face piceous ; face with the 
lateral margins minutely 
spotted Avith pale ochra- 
ceous ; pronotum granu- 
late, especially on lateral 
margins and posterior 
area ; mesonotum with a 
central carination, on each 
side of which is an oblique, 
elongate, foveate, tuber- 
cular line ; tegmina with 
the basal halves of inner 
margins on each side of 
longitudinal suture closely 
and prominently spotted 
with black, other distinct 
black speckles or spots are 
found principally on the 
outer and inner longitu- 
dinal veins ; medial and 

apical annulations to anterior and intermediate femora, subbasal 

uunulations and apical areas of anterior tibi?e, and streaks to 

posterior femora fuscous-brown. 
Length inch tegm. 7 to 8 millim. 
Hah. "India" {Brit. J/(ts.); Mussooree {Maclcinnon). 
I have not seen the type of this species, but think I have 

correctly identified it. 




Fig. 185. — Flavina (jnoiulata. 



1926. Flavina? striata, sp. n. 

Dull ochraceous with a strong virescent tint ; vertex with the 
margins ridged and with a distinct central carination ; face with 
the carinations very distinct, a piceous spot on each side of the 
central carination immediately beneath the fusion of the sublateral 
carinse, both the sublateral and central carinfe have a centx\al 
piceous line which renders them duplex in appearance ; pronotum 
crossed by a number oE longitudinal granulose striations ; meso- 
notum with the central carination distinct and with a brownish 
raised cariuate line on each lateral area ; tegmina with the veins 
prominent, for the most part fuscous, and here and there orna- 
mented with small piceous spots ; posterior tibi£e with three spines. 

Length inch tegm. 5 millim. 

Hah. Tenasserim ; Myitta (Z)o7t(?;-i_y). 

I have included this species, for the present, in the genus 
Flavina, despite the posterior tibiiB possessing only three spines 



358 



rULGOEID.T. 



and some very minor points of difference in the venation of the 
tegmina ; in other characters the species is congeneric, and apart 
from the spines on the posterior tibice may at once be separated 
from F. granulata by the longitudinally striate pronotum. 

Genus NILALOHITA. 

Type, N. curculioides, Dist. 

Distrihution. Burma. 

Head (including eyes) distinctly narrower than pronotum, vertex 
subquadrate, its margins ridged; face about twice as long as 
broad, its base strongly angularly emarginate, a little ampliately 
rounded before clypeus, centrally carinate, the carination becoming 
evanescent before its apex, and with a subbasal transverse an- 
gulated ridge ; clypeus large and broad, non-carinate ; pronotum 
anteriorly angularly produced behind vertex, its posterior margin 
truncate ; mesonotum slightly longer than pronotum (the question 
as to a central carination undeterminable, owing to the typical 
specimen being pinned at that section) ; legs long, posterior tibise 
with five spines ; tegmina a little longer than the abdomen, about 
twice as long as broad, the costal margin straight or somewhat 
concavely sinuate, radinl vein bifurcating at a short distance from 
base, upper longitudinal vein bifurcating near apex, between the 
longitudinal veins which are prominent are situate a number of 
irregular veinlets which give the tegmina a reticulate character. 

The Issus hneatus, Walk., from Borneo, is included in this 
genus. 

027. Nilalohita ciirculioides, sp. n. 

Brownish-ochraceous ; vertex to head with the ridges (especially 

the lateral ones) somewhat 
strong!}^ prominent, its disk 
transversely striate ; face and 
clypeus smooth, shining black, 
their margins ochraceous (dis- 
continuous on clypeus) ; pos- 
terior femora, apical areas of 
anterior and intermediate 
femora, basal annulations and 
apical areas of anterior and in- 
termediate tibiae, and suli'usions 
to abdomen beneath pale cas- 
taneous ; tegmina reticulately 
subcoriaceous, Avith a few 
scattered piceous spots, base 
of costal area and the trans- 
verse reticulate veinlets pale 
ochraceous; pronotum coarsely 
granulate in each basal lateral 
area, its lateral margins very finely spotted Avith fuscous : the 




Fif. 186. — Nil(floJ//k( curcuUoidc^ 



HEMISPH.EltlUS. 359 

spines to posterior tibia3 loug and concolorous ; tibiae prominently 
longitudinally sulcate. 

Length ind. tegra. 11 millim. 

Hab. Burma ; Euby Mines (Dohert)/). 



Genus HEMISPH^RIUS. 

Hemisphserius, Sc.haum, in Ersch cV Gruher Allq. Enc. Wissensch . 
Kiinste, \, p. 71 (1850) ; SfM, Hem. Afr. iv, p. 203 (1866) ; Atkms. 
J. A. S. Bcncj. Iv, p. 44 (1880) ; Melich. Horn. Faun. Ceylon, 
p. 74 (1903). 

Type, H. coccineUoides, Barm., from the Philippines. 

Distribution. Oriental and Malayan Regions. 

Apical joint of rostrum longer than thick, oval, oblong, or 
elongate ; tegmina entirely convex, distinctly or obsoletely veined, 
sometimes the venation is apparently absent ; clavus and corium 
counate, no claval suture ; body depressed ; vertex narrower than 
eyes or subequal in breadth ; pronotum truncate at base, sinuate 
behind the eyes, the sides behind the eyes hardly visible from 
above ; posterior tibiae bispiuose ; anterior femora simple. 

These insects have a strong superficial resemblance to the 
Coccinellidae, or " lady-bird " beetles. It is probably owing to 
the well-known variation existing in some of the species of those 
Coleoptera, that a similar amount of variability has been suspected 
in these Homoptera. I do not think this exists in anything like 
the extent predicated by some writers, and in most eases, where I 
have been able to examine a fair series of specimens, a usual 
amount of specific constaucy is observable. 



A. Face iinicolorous, witliout Jonfjitudinal fascic. 

1928. Hemisphaerius rufovarius, Walk. List Horn. Stqjpl. p. 95 
(1858) ; Atkins. J. A. S. Beng. \\, p. 44 (1886). 

Head (including face), pronotum, and mesonotum testaceous ; 
t\vo spots at base of face (seen from above in front of vertex), 

pronotum (excluding a central 
fascia), central fascia, and a large 
oblique spot in each lateral angle 
to mesonotum pale ochraceous ; 
tegmina very dark ochraceous, the 
lateral margins from a little beyond 
base broadly flavescent ; clypeus 
black ; body beneath and legs 
^ _ ^ apparently ochraceous, but im- 

p- J3-- perfectly seen, owing to the typical 

Hc,nwpTi(Brius rufovarius. specimen being in a carded con- 

dition ; tegmina finely granulose, 
much more obsoletely so on flavescent margin ; eyes fuscous, their 




'AGO ruLGORiD^i;. 

iuner margins ochraceous ; mesonotum somewliat obscurely 
'Arinkled, its central fascia moderately ridged. 

Length incl. tegm. 4^ millim.* 

Hab. Burma (Brit. 31 us.). 

1929. Hemisphserius testaceiis, sp. n. 

Testaceous-red ; vertex of head with the anterior margin 
virescent ; face testaceous-red, its apical margin ochraceous or 
virescent ; clypeus black ; pronotum with transverse virescent 
spots ; mesonotum with a central fascia and the basal lateral 
angles virescent ; tegmina testaceous, their inner, apical, and 
costal margins somewhat broadly ochraceous with a virescent tint, 
their surface finely granulose ; body beneath and legs ochraceous 
with a virescent tint, posterior femora streaked with piceous. 

Var. Tegmina with a short curved virescent fascia near base of 
costal area. 

Length incl. tegm. 4.4 millim. 

Hab. Tenasserim ; Myitta (DoJierti/). 

1930. Hemisphserius virescens, sp. n. 

Pale virescent ; head, pronotum, and mesonotum with an 
ochraceous or very pale testaceous tint ; vertex of head with the 
anterior margin dark virescent ; face unicolorous, clypeus black ; 
pronotum with transverse dark virescent spots ; mesonotum wdth 
a central fascia and the basal angles dark virescent; tegmnia pale 
virescent, unicolorous, finely granulose ; body beneath and legs 
greenish -ochraceous, the tarsi piceous ; inner margins of eyes 
beneath piceous. 

Length incl. tegm. 5 millim. 

Hah. Tenasserim ; Myitta (Dolierty). 

This species, save in its distinct coloration, is allied to the 
preceding species H. testaceiis. It is, however, larger, and there 
is nothing to denote that such diverse forms, of which I possess 
a series of each, can, or should, be considered conspecific 

1931. HemisphaerillS secimdus, Melich. Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 7-5 

(1003). 

Body, legs, and tegmina pale virescent ; eyes brownish ; a 
lateral, linear, marginal spot on each side of face before clypeus, 
a spot on each side of mesosternum, apical margin of clypeus, bases 
of antei'ior femora, and a spot at apices of all the femora black ; 
vertex of head with its lateral margins rather tuberculously ridged ; 
face practically coucolorous, its extreme lateral margins slightly 
more intensely virescent ; apical lateral areas of clypeus a little 



* Walker has given the dimensions of the species as "Length of the body 
1| hne; of the wings 4 lines"; this is quite inapplicable to the type specimen. 



HEMispir.TiRir.s. 361 

bi'ownish ; pi-onotum with a distinct ceutral cariuatiou ; meso- 
iiotum faintly transversely striate, «ith a short prominent 
longitudinal carination on each side of disk ; tegmina verv finely 
granulose. 

Length incl. tegm. o millim. 

Hah. Ceylon ; Anuradhapura, Mihintale {Miis. Honrp'ois). 

Dr. Horviith, of Budapest, has kindly enabled nie to see a 
cotype of this species. 

B. Face with a medial red fascia. 

1932. Hemisphserius schaumi, Stal, Of v. Vet. -Ak. Fork. 186-j, p. 191 ; 

Melich. (excl. syii.) Horn. Faun. Coi/loii, p. 74 (1903). 

" Sordidly flavescent ; face flavo-virescent, \^ith a medial red 
fascia : hemelytra sordidly subhyaline, the anterior costal margin 
black, a small spot at base of suture, and two siibmedian sub- 
curved oblique llavous lines." (StdJ.) 

A very variable species in coloration, the ground-colour of the 
tegmina (excluding margins) dull ochraceous or frequently black, 
the margins, however, and the oblique line and spots always pale 
virescent ; anterior margin of mesonotum black ; anterior tibise 
more or less spotted and streaked with piceous ; face with a single 
central red fascia. 

Length incl. tegm. 5 to 6 millim. 

Hah. Ceylon ; Maskeliya (Green). 

1933. Hemisphserius nilgiriensis, sp. n. 

Head, pronotum, mesonotum, body beneath and legs pale 
ochraceous ; head with the disk of vertex testaceous and with a 
few black dots, sometimes wholly black ; face somewhat narrow, 
with a very broad central longitudinal red fascia ; clypeus with 
two red fasciae ; mesonotum testaceous, with three large pale 
ochraceous spots ; hemelytra flavescent, the venation close, promi- 
nent, somewhat reticulate, a moderately broad sublateral fascia 
terminating at a little before apex on inner margin, a broader 
central transverse fascia, from Avhich there posteriorly bifurcates a 
short oblique fascia to suture, black ; body beneath speckled A\ith 
fuscous, legs more or less streaked with piceous or black. 

Length incl. tegm. 4 millim. 

Hah. Nilgiri Hills (//«;»psou). Utakamand (.liHus. Coll., Brit. 
Mus.). 

1934. Hemisphaerius reticulatus, sp. n. 

Pale ochraceous, varying in depth of tint ; head with the vertex 
]iale testaceous, with a few piceous spots ; face with a central 
fascia and the lateral margins testaceous ; clypeus with two longi- 
tudinal fascia? testaceous ; pronotum with the margins black, 
sometimes wholly of that colour ; tegmina with the venation very 



362 rL'LGORiD.i:. 

dense and somewhat closely reticulate ; legs more or less streaked 
with piceous or black, bases of the anterior and intermediate 
tibiae black ; posterior tibiae ^^ith two black spines. 

Length inch tegm. 4^ millim. 

Hab. Nilgiri Hills {Hampson). Utakamaud and Kotagiri 
{Atlcins. Coll., Brit. Mvs.). 

The closely reticulate venation of the tegmina is a distinctive 
character of this species. 

1935. Hemisphserius elongatus, sp. w. 

Very pale flavescent ; vertex of head with the disk piceous ; 
face with a central red longitudinal fascia; tegmina with about 
posterior third tawny-grey inwardly margined \\'\t\\ umber-brown, 
an oblique piceous fascia commencing near apical angle of meso- 
notuui and terminating on costal margin at commencement of the 
tavny-grey area, claval area tinted with tawnj-brown, and a 
costal submarginal piceous line which does not extend to base : 
body beneath more or less suifused with fuscous ; vertex of head 
very strongly foveately excavate ; body elongate. 

Length inch tegm. 5 millim. 

Hah. Utakamand {Atlcins. Coll., Brit. Mus.). 



C. Face iviiJi tivo longitudinal red fascia:-. 

193G. Hemisphserius bipustulatus, Wall-. List Horn. Suppl p. 95 

(l.^os). 
HemisphcT?rius schamni, Melich. (part.) Horn. Faun. Ceylon, yi. 74 
(19U3). 

Head (including face), pronotum, and meson otum pale ochra- 
ceous ; face with two sublateral red fasciae ; tegmina very dark 
oehraceous, their posterior lateral margins very broadly palel}- 
Havescent, their antei'ior lateral margins with two black marginal 
lines ; body beneath and legs oehraceous, tegmina finely granulose. 

Vertex a little narrower and face narrower at base and more 
distinctly ampliated near middle than in B. schaumi; markings of 
the hemelytra and face also distinctive. 

Length iucl. tegm. 5 millim. 

Hcd:). Ceylon (Claiming, Brit. 21ns.). 



1937. Hemisphserius duhius, Butl. A. M. N. H. (4) xvi, p. 97. t. iv. 

f. 17 (l.s7r)). 
Hemisphforius scliaumi, Melich. (part.) Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 74 
(190.3). 

Allied to H. hipustulatus, but with face a little broader betv een 
eyes, and the granulosity of the tegminal surface much more 



hemisph.t:ritjs. 363 

pronounced ; iu colour principally^ differing by the presence of a 
very large and broad oblique black fascia commencing on eacli 
tegmen at base of sutui'e, curved at their apices and terminating a 
little beyond middle of disk and a little before costal margin, an 
irregular black spot on each side of suture before middle and a 
smaller spot before apex. 

Length inch tegm. 5| millim. 

Iluh. Ceylon ; Earaboddo (Nietner, Brit. Mus.). 



D. Face with two linear hlacJc fascice. 

193b. Hemisphaerius herbaceus, Kirln/. J. Linn. >Soc., Zool. xxiv, 
p. 147 (1891). 
Hemisphaerius schaumi, Melicli. (part.) Ho)n. Faun. Ceylon, p. 74 
(1903). 

" Green, finely punctured ; face with two parallel black lines, 
widest in the middle, and separated by a yellowish stripe ; tegmina 
green, finely punctured, slightly transparent and reticulated, base 
of costa with two parallel rufous-brown lines, and a very narrow- 
yellowish edging continued round the rest of the tegmina, except 
on the inner margin ; pectus, pleura, and abdomen A\ith blaclv 
stripes, those on the abdomen transverse ; legs green, lined with 
black ; tarsi testaceous, claws black." (Kirby.) 

Length inch tegm. 54 millim. 

Hah. Ceylon ; Pundaluoya (Green). 

I have copied Mr. Kirhy's description, which adequately 
diagnoses the species. He also remarks : — " The black stripes on 
the face distinguish this s])ecies from any other known from 
Ceylon." Dr. Melichar has placed it as a variety of //. schav.mi, 
but it differs from that species not only by the differently coloured, 
but between eyes narrower face, differently marked tegmina, &c. 



1939. Hemisph£eriiis venosus, sp. n. 

Ochraceous, tegmina and legs marked with piceous ; eyes pale 
ochraceous ; face somewhat narrow, especially between the eyes, 
its lateral margins flavescent, sublateral margins black, central 
fascia red, its disk finely transversely striate ; clypeus red, its 
lateral margins black, its margins at base flavescent ; legs more or 
less streaked with piceous ; tegmina with the veins reticulate, 
prominent, and very distinct, a broad curved piceous fascia crossing 
basal area, widest at inner and narrowest at costal margin, at about 
middle it is connected with posterior margin by a short and 
straight fascia, thus enclosing an ochraceous spot, on apical area 
some irregular piceous shadings which are mostly linear, at bases 
the tegmina are distinctly strongly impressed. 



364 FULGoraD^. 

Vai'. Tegmina only exhibiting faint and narroM^ traces of the 
piceous fasciae. 

Length inch tegni. 54 millira. 

Bah. Tenasserim ; ]\Jyitta {Dolierty). 

The principal structural character distiuguishing this species is 
found in the prominent venation of the tegmina. 



Genus HEMISPH^ROIDES. 

Hemisphseroides, Melich. Hum. Faun. C'ci/lon, p. 7-"i (1903). 

Type, //. (meoniger, Melich. 

Distribution. Ce5dou. 

" tSemicircular, similar to IlemispJwrius, but with the face not 
separated from the vertex but passing gradually into its surface, 
which is arched, vertical, narrowed between the eyes, expanded 
below to clypeus and j^erfectly smooth : clypeus broadly triangular, 
placed horizontally and at right angle to surface of face ; eyes 
very flat ; pronotum very narrow, band-like, broadest in the 
inicldle and greatly narrowed at the sides ; mesonotum large, tri- 
angularly convex, not keeled ; tegmina semicircular, strongly 
arched ; posterior tibire with two spines." (MeUchai'.) 

1040. Hemisphaeroides aBiieoniger, Melich. Horn. Faun. Cei/hn, 
p. 7-3 (1903). 

Piceous, shining ; a central fasci- 
ate line to mesonotum, continued 
for a short distance along sutural 
margins of tegmina, pale castaneous- 
brown ; eyes dull pale ochraceous ; 
posterior margin of pronotum 
narrowly pale castaneous-browu : 
body beneath and legs (indistinctly 
L^io- IbS seen in carded specimen) naore or 

Bc„>/.<p}t(sro/det< (si/ro»u/n: less ocliraceous ; tegmina very finely 

granulose ; face unicolorous. 
Length inch tegm. 4 millim. 
JIab. Ceylou : Nalanda (J\Iu.s. Hojitjrois). 

I have figured and described a cotype kindly forwarded to me 
by Dr. Horvath, of Budapest. 

1941. Hemispliseroides lineatus, Melich. Horn. Faun. Ccijlon, p. 76 
(1903). 

Head and face reddish-ochraceous, smooth, shining, posterior 
margin of the latter black ; clypeus very pale ochraceous ; eyes 
very pale ochraceous, more or less suffused with piceous ; pronotum 
reddish-ochraceous ; mesonotum black, with a pale ochraceous 
central longitudinal fascia ; tegmina black, with the folloxA'ing pale 




rxEKiLiA. 363 

ochraceoLis markings — narrow costal marginal and submarginal 
fasciae, three discal fascia? emerging from a common stem at base, 
the central one apically forked, not extending beyond commence- 
ment of apical area, the innermost terminating at about centre of 
sutural margin ; tegmiua very finely graniilose. 

Length incl. tegm. 4 millim. 

Hah. Ceylou ; Nalauda (J/«s. //o^r/ro/s). 



Genus PTERILIA. 

Pterilia, St&l, Berl. ent. Zeitschr. iii, p. 3i^2 (1859) ; MeUclu Horn. 
Faun. Ceijlon, p. 80 (1903). 

Type, P. ceifloncnsis, Stal. 

Distribution. Ceylon. 

Body ovate, transverse ; head (including eyes) a little narrower 
than pronotum, vertex slightly prominent in front of eyes, trans- 
verse, on each side subcarinately elevated ; face oval, base pro- 
foundly sinuate with three central longitudinal carinations, the 
two lateral carinations curved inwardly, strongly posteriorly and 
less strongly anteriorly, the central carination acute : clypeus 
convex ; pronotum transverse, posterioi'ly sinuately truncate, 
anteriorly angularly produced between the eyes; mesonotum about 
as long as the pronotum ; tegmina broad, moderately obliquelv 
deflected, ampliate, broader than the abdomen, subcoriaceous, 
venation somewhat coarse and reticulate, the costal membrane 
narrow at basal area, more or less excavately sinuate, its apex 
obtusely angulately produced ; posterior tibia with two spines. 

1942. Pterilia ceylonensis, Stdl, Bed. ent. Zeitschr. iii, p. 322 (1859) : 
Melich. Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 81, t. iii, f. 4, a (1903). 

Head, pronotum, mesonotum, and 
tegmina olivaceous - brown ; bodv 
beneath and legs pale testaceous- 
brown ; vertex of head with the 
lateral areas piceous ; face pale oliva- 
ceous, the central carination per- 
current but less developed behind 
middle, the areas between the sub- 
lateral carinations and the outer edges 
sprinkled with piceous ; clypeus with 
Fig IS^.—Fierilia ceylonensis. ^^^ whole central area piceous ; legs 

annulated with piceous ; tegmina with 
the costal margin much angularly excavate, the costal membrane 
subhyaline with the transverse veins olivaceous-broA\'n, the disk 
with the basal area greenish, the remaining area more or less 
testaceous-brown, but with all the veins olivaceous-green. 
Length incl. tegm. 10 to 12 millim. 
Hah. Ceylon; Kandy (Green). 




366 FULGORID.i;. 

1943. Pterilia signata, sp. u. 

Closely reseuabling P. ceylonensis, but differing in the following 
characters ; — The margin of the costal membrane is considerably 
less angularly excavate ; the central carination to face almost 
obsolete behind middle; tegmina (excluding costal membrane) 
coucolorous, with some small but prominent black spots, of which 
the principal are three pairs arranged on each side of the median 
suture, and three more spots placed wide apart but in longitudinal 
series on the disk of each tegmeu ; legs annulated with piceous, 
the posterior femora nearly wholly piceous. 

Length iucl. tegm. 10 millim. 

Hah. Ceylon ; Kandy and Galagedara {Green). 

1944. Pterilia piceata, sp. n. 

Head \\it\\ the vertex olivaceous, the anterior margin narrowly 
and the lateral areas broadly piceous ; face much sprinkled and 
mottled with piceous, the carinations piceous, the central carination 
percurrent but less developed behind middle ; clypeus piceous, its 
latex'al margins ochraceous ; pronotum and mesonotum piceous ; 
legs piceous, slightly mottled at parts with ochraceous ; tegmina 
piceous, an obscure costal spot before middle and a large elongate 
costal spot behind middle, which almost reaches apex, ochraceous, 
costal membrane hyaline with the transverse veins piceous, the 
venation of the tegmina is wholly piceous except on the posterior 
ochraceous costal spot, where it is virescent ; the lateral elevations 
of the vertex of head are very prominent and subacute. 

Length inch tegm. 11 millim. 

Hah. Ceylon; Kandy (Crreen). 

Genus PTERYGOMA. 

Pterygoma, Melich. Horn. Faun. Veijlon, p. 81 (1903). 

Type, P. nasuta, Melich. 

BistribiUion. Ceylon. 

" Ver}^ like PleriUa, but distinguished from that genus by the 
front of the head, which is drawn out at an acute angle, before its 
apex there is an angularly broken or interrupted transverse ridge, 
a similar ridge at back of neck with the corners directed forward ; 
the front angles of face are not produced into a point as in 
Pterilia ; at base of mesonotum there is a transverse keel con- 
necting the short lateral keels together ; tegmina as in Pterilia, 
but the callosities in clavus absent ; posterior tibite with two 
spines.*' {Melichar.) 

1945. Pterygoma nasuta, Melich. Horn. I aim. Ceylon, p. 81, t. iii, 

f. 7 (190;J). 

" Dirty greenish-brown irregularly spotted with black, upper 
part of vertex as well as underside of projection of face thickly 



PTERYGOMA. 307 

sprinkled with black, becoming almost unicolorous black, on sides 
of face the black sprinkliugs coalesce into larger 
spots ; a large black spot on each side of meso- 
notum ; tegmina greenish-browu, veins brown to 
black, cells in places tilled up with reddish- 
brown, the costal membrane hyaline, traversed 
by simple or in places forked veins, which as well 
as the costal margin itself are set with erect 
gTeenish hairs, similar erect bristles are also 
FitJ. 190. visible on the head ; wings black, thickly irregu- 

Fterygoma namta. larly reticulate ; legs spotted and striped with 
black." {Melichar.) 
Length, c?, 11 millim. 
Hah. Ceylon, 

I have not seen this species, and can only reproduce 
Dr. Melichar's description and figure. 




11J46. (xen. ? pectinipennis, Gaer. (Issus) Voif. Belanq. Ind. Orient. 
p. 475 (1834) ; Spin. Ann. Soc. Bnt. Fr. \n\,'-^. 347 (1839) ; 
Atkins. (Issus ?) J. A. S. Bemj. Iv, p. 47 (1886). 

" Luteous, spotted with black ; head transA'erse, anteriorly tri- 
spinose, one obtuse point in front of each eye and one forming a 
prolongation of the vertex ; tegmina anteriorly dilated, luteous or 
ochraceous-yellow, with some small tubercles and short transverse 
streaks black ; wings bruuneous ; body beneatii yellow variegated 
with black ; legs flavescent ; the anterior margin of the tegmina 
is spinose, it comprises a limbus outside the radius as broad as the 
external flap of the wing, about half a line, transparent, vitriform, 
or like an exceedingly fine plate of talc, furnished throughout w ith 
oblique veins (parallel to each other) contrasting in colour and 
substance with that of the limbus itself ; these veins when the 
limbus is injured stand out like the teeth of a comb and give a 
peculiar appearance to the insect ; the face is ascendiug, and is 
divided from the base to the upper margin into three facettes 
which form between them obtuse angles ; the median increases 
from below upwards and reaches the vertex, and is divided by a 
longitudinal ridge which descends from above and loses itself 
towards the middle of the face ; the two interior facettes rise a 
little higher than the median, but without converging above it, 
they bend outwards and in an acute and prominent point above 
the eyes ; vertex broader than long, concave, margins gently 
raised, anterior bisinuate, posterior weakly emarginate ; median 
lobe of pronotum broad, I'ounded." {8j)inoln.) 

Length lU ; exp. tegm. 23 millim. 

Hah. Bengal. 

I have not seen this species. 



36S 



rULGOEID.E. 



Genus EGROPA. 
Egropa, Melich. Horn. Fmin. Ceylon, jj. 82 (1903). 

Type, E. inusta, Melich. 

Distribution. Ceylon . 

" Vertex o£ head twice as broad as long, not passing the eyes, 
broadly rounded in front and divided by a sharp keel from base of 
face, posterior niargiti straight, lateral margins short, diverging in 
front ; eyes semicircular, prominent ; face rhomboidal, at clypeus 
half as broad as base, the lateral margins slightly curved inward, 
disk of face consisting of two planes inclined toward each other, 
the upper disk almost vertical and compressed in a semicircular 
arch, the lower disk almost horizontal, on a side view there is a 
distinct prominence at the middle of the upper facial margin : 
clypeus broad and shortly triangular ; rostrum extending to middle 
coxce ; antennte passing eyes, basal joint very short, second joint 
nearly three times as long as broad, cylindrical ; pronotum rather 
longer than vertex, broader than head, anteriorly broadly rounded, 
posteriorly straight, at lateral margins obliquely truncated, disk 
arched with a shallow transverse depression ; mesonotum one- 
third longer tlian pronotum, sharply triangular, above Hat or 
slightly arched ; tegmina like parchment, trans^'ersely arched and 
owing to the costal margin being slightly impressed at base and 
laminately overlapping in\^ardly is slightly directed downward, 
the tegmina are also rounded apically, veins in corium verj^ indis- 
tinct; legs short and strong, posterior tibiae unarmed." (Melichcir). 

Dr. Melichar has placed this genus at the end of the Issino', and 
states that it belongs to the " Subtrib. Tettir/oritctrini,'' to which, 
however, no reference is given. 



1947. Egropa inusta, Melich. Horn. Faun. Cci/lon, p. 82, I. iii, f. 1:5, a 
(1903). 

" Body olive-green ; tegmina very finely sprinkled with red 




Fig. 191. — Egropa inusta. 

dots and speckles, giving them an appearance of being coloured 
reddish-broM n : front margin of vertex darker and behind it 



EICANIIN.!::. 369 

extremely narrowly impressed, so that the margin of the face 
appears somewhat raised ; face dirty green to brownish to above 
the protuberance, beneath pale green, both the zones sharply 
defined ; antennae yellow ish-bi'own ; eyes brown ; tegmina finely 
wrinkled and punctured, provided with an indistinct pale transverse 
band situate a little beyond middle, and margined with a reddish 
line on each side, a rather paler spot with red speckles near base : 
wiugs smoky brown, traversed by dark veins ; abdomen olive- 
green ; legs greenish-yellow or dirty brownish-yellow, apices of 
spines to posterior tibia) rusty-brown."' (Melichcn'.) 

" Length 5 ; breadth of tegm. 2^ millim." 

Ifab. Ceylon ; Peradeniya (fide Melichar). 

I have not seen this species. 



Subfamily X. RICANIINiE. 

Ricaniida, StcV, Hem. Afr. iv, pp. 131 & 219 (1866). 

Eicaniina, Stal, Ofi: Tef.-AJc. Fdrh. 1870, p. 764; Atkins. J. A. S. 

Benff. Iv, p. 49 (1886). 
Ricaniidas, Melich. Monoqr. Ann. Hofinus. Wien, xiii, p. 197 (1898) : 

■id Horn. Fmm. Ceylon, p. 83 (1903). 

Head broad or very broad, sometimes a little narrower than the 
pronotum ; lateral margins of clypeus frequently not ridged ; 
prouotum posteriorly roundly sinuate, either ^\■ithout carinations 
or with only a central one ; mesonotum very large and long ; 
tegmina flat, more or less ample, costal area dilated, costal mem- 
brane transversely veined or reticulated ; posterior tibise spinose, 
basal joint of posterior tarsi somewhat short. 

Dr. Melichar has monographed the liicaniince, and has thus 
considerably aided our study of the subfamily ; he, however, had 
not examined Walker's types, and has surcharged his synonymy 
with many distinct species described by that writer. Stal in 1SG2 
examined Walker's tj^pes and published an excellent ci'iticism on 
them, which was by,, some regarded as extreme; Melichar, how- 
ever, without the opportunity of seeing those types, has gone 
farther, and in many cases too far. 

Division BICANIINARIA. 
Ricanini, Melich. Ann. Ilofmus. Wien, xiii, p. 204 (1898). 

Face broader than long, or as broad as long ; sides of clypeus 
not ridged. 

Synopsis of Genera. 

A. Longitudinal venation to tegmina somewhat 
dense, the veins placed close together, 
a. Apical margin of tegmina longer than inner 

margin Pochazia,ji. 370. 

VOL. III. 2 B 



370 fulgorid.t:. 

b. Apical margin of tegmina about as long as 

inner margin Ricania, p. 37o. 

c. Apical margin of tegmina mucb shorter than 

inner margin Peivesa, p. 38(i. 

B. Longitudinal venation to tegmina less dense 
than in sect. A, the veins moderately well 
separated. [p. 382. 

a. Four vein^i emitted from basal cell of tegmina. Ricanopieka, 

b. Three veins emitted from basal cell of tegmina. Euricania, p. 385. 



Genus POCHAZIA. 

Pochazia, Amy. ^- Serv. Hem. p. 528 (1843); Stdl, Rio Jan. Hem. 
ii, p. 70 (1858) ; Melick. Ann. Hofmus. Wien, xiii, p. 20G (1898). 

Type, P. fasciata, Fabr., an Ethiopian species. 

Distribution. East Palaearctic, Ethiopian, Oriental, and Malayan 
Eegions. 

Head (including eyes) as wide as pronotum, vertex broad and 
narrow ; face broader than long, with central and sublateral cari- 
nations, which frequently become evanescent posteriorly; clypeus 
not marginally ridged ; pronotum narrow, centrally ridged ; nieso- 
notum very long, with five carinate lines, the central one straight, 
on each side of which is an inwardly and anteriorly curved line 
which converge somewhat closely togetlier on anterior margin, and 
each outwardly bifurcating near middle in a straight longitudinal 
carination to, or near, anterior margin ; tegmina strongly ampliated 
apically, broad, triangular, the apical longer than the inner margin, 
the longitudinal veins much furcate, two ti*ansverse lines formed 
by transverse veins on apical areas where the veins are close, 
numex'ous, longitudinal, and in many cases furcate, the interior 
longitudinal vein emitting many ramifications ; posterior tibia> 
with two spines. 



A. Tegmina and unngs witJi pah medial transverse fascice. 

1948. Pochazia interrupta. Walk. List Horn, ii, p. 428 (1851), nee 
J. Linn. Soc, Zool. i, p. 91 (1856) ; Stdl (Ricania), Ofv. Vet.- 
Ak. Fork. 1862, p. 491 ; Atkins. J. A. S. Bemj. Iv, p. 56 (1886) ; 
Melich. (excl.syn.) (Pochazia) An7i. Hufmns. Wien, xiii, p. 210, 

nee fig. (1898). 

Body piceous-black ; base of abdomen and legs more or less 
piceous-brown ; tegmina piceous-brown, centrally crossed by a 
broad oblique white fascia, which extends fi'om the inner margin 
for about three-fourths across tegmen and is then between its apex 
and the costal margin followed by a subquadrangular white spot, 
on extreme apical margin are some very minute and scarcely 
noticeable pale spots which extend for about one-third the length 
from posterior angle, two dark transverse lines formed by trans- 
verse veins on apical area, the innermost very irregular, and a 



POCHAZIA. 



371 



similar sliort curved diseal line ; posterior wings with a broad 
obliquely transverse white fascia near middle ; pronotum with its 
margins ridged and with a central carination ; mesonotum with five 
carinations, one central and percurrent and two diseal and curved, 
the latter at about middle connected with anterior margin by a 
straight carinate line (these carinations are imperfectly shown in 
the figure) ; face with a central percurrent carination, and with a 




Fig. 192. — Vocliazia interrupt a. 

short anterior sublateral carinate line on each side ; posterior 
tibifB with two strong spines ; tegmina with the apical margin 
almost obliquely straight, apex not produced. 

Length excl. tegm. Tj to 8 ; exp. tegm. 13 to 15 millim. 

Hah. Malabar {^Brit. Mns.). — Siamese Malay States (Annandale 
tf- Robinson). 

Dr. Melichar (supra) has included the Celebesian P. inclyta. 
Walk., as a synonym of this species. This is incorrect ; the 
Celebesian insect, apart from its different markings, may be dis- 
tinguished by the distinct falcate apices of the tegmina, a character 
long since pointed out by Wallace as appertaining to Celebesian 
Rhopalocera. Melichar's figure also does not apply to AValker's 
typical form of the species. 



194U. Pochazia confusa, sp. u. 

Pochazia iuteiriipta, Melieh. {nee Walk.) Ann. Hofmus. Wien, 
xiii, t. ix, f. 15 (1898). 

Body above and beneath piceous-black ; legs piceous-brown, 
tibiae a little paler; tegmina piceous-brown with the following 
white markings — a broad transverse fascia just beyond middle of 
tegmen commencing on inner margin and terminating at about 
one-fourth of its length from costal margin, above which and 
usually distinctly separated is a subtriangular spot also not reach- 
ing costal margin and preceded by a very small costal spot, and 
three or four elongate widely-separated spots on apical margin ; 
wings piceous-brown with a broad central oblique transverse 
white fascia ; mesonotum with five carinations, one central and 
percurrent, with an oblique diseal carination on each side not 
reaching posterior margin, its apex straightly connected with the 
anterior margin ; pronotum distinctly centrally carinate ; face with 

2b2 



372 ruLGOBiD.i. 

the central carination short, scarcely reacliing middle; tegmina 
with the apical margins ohliquely straight. 

Var. Body and legs nmher-brown ; face \\ ith a large central 
piceous spot. 

Length excl. tegm. 9 : exp. tegra. 34 millim, 

Hab. Assam ; Marglierita (BoJieriif). Burma ; Karen Hills 
(Dohertj/). — Japan (Brii. 3Ivs.) 

The Japanese form constitutes the variety ahoxe described. 

1950. Pocliazia angulata, K/rh/ (Ricania), J. Linn. Soc, Zool. xsiv, 
p. 152 (ISiU); Melich. (Podiazia) Ami. Hofmus. Wien, xiii. 
p. 211 (1898) ; id. Horn. Fcnm. Ceyhm, p. 83 (1903). 

Head and thorax piceous-hlack, abdomen piceous-bro^\■n, legs 
testaceous ; tegmina piceous-brown, crossed beyond middle by an 
oblique strongly angulated white fascia commencing near inner 
margin, very strongly angulated at a little beyond middle and then 
]larro^\■ly continued towards but not reaching apex, a transversely 
elongate, subangnlate white spot on costal margin at about two- 
thirds from base ; wings piceous-brown with a subangulate trans- 
verse M-hite fascia extending across disk for about three-fourths 
from costul tow ards anal margin ; face with a ver}' fine central 
carination becoming evanescent posteriorly, and with very indistinct 
short !-ublateral carinations ; mesonotum very elongate, the carina- 
tions as in i)receding species ; tegmina with the costal margiji 
strongly convex on basal area, thence distinctly concave before 
apex, apical margin nearly obliquely straight, apex a little con- 
vexly angulate. 

Length excl. tegm. 8; exp. tegm. 24 to 2S millim. 

Ilah. Ceylon; Pundaluoya and Peradeniya (6Vf«i). 



B. Terj'inina and winr/s without medial transverse fasciae ; tegmina 
xisuaJly more or less ixdely maculate, sometimes with only a pale 
spot on costal manjin. 

1951 . Pochazia fuscata. Fair. (Cicada) Ent. Si/sf. iv, p. 28 (1794) : 
i(t. (Flata) Ent. Syst. Siqjpl p. 518 (1798) : Stdl (Eicania, 
Pochazia), Hem. Fabr. ii. p. 104 (1879); Afkins. (Pticania) J. 
A. S. Beny. \\, p. 53 (1886). 

Pceciloptera autica, West^v. Orif. An. Kinyd., Ins. ii, p. 260. 
t. xc, f. 4, t. cxxxviii, f. 4 (1832). 

Ricania obscura, Guer. Voy. Be/any. Ind. Orient., Zool. p. 466 
(1834) ; (V7. (Eurvptera) torn, cit., Atlas, t. iii, f. 6 (1834) ; StSl 
(Pochazia), Ofr. Vet.-AK: Flirh. 1865, p. 160 ; Melich. (nee Fabr.) 
Ann. Hofmus. Wien, 1898, p. 212; Matsum. (nee Fabr.) Fttt. 
Kachr. xxvi. p. 211 (1900). 

Head, face, and thorax above piceous-black : abdomen and legs 
testaceous, the latter paler ; tegmina piceous-brown, with a pale 
ilavescent elongate spot on costal margin at about two-thirds from 
base, sometimes the apical margin for about three-fourths of its 



POCHAZIA. 



373 



length from posterior angle towards apex narrowly pale flavescent 
divided by the dark veins ; wings piceous -brown, unicolorous. 




Fig. 193. — I'uvhazia j'mcata. 



Var. Tegmina unicolorous and with a dark olivaceous tint. 
Mesonotum carinated as in the preceding species ; face with a 
distinct central earination, the short sublaterai carina? obsolete. 

Length excl. tegm. S to 10 ; exp. tegm. 32 to 39 millim. 

Ilab. Tranquebar, Madras (Coll. Dist.). Burma ; Karen Hills 
{Doherty). Tavoy {Coll. Dlst.). Hsipaw (de Ificeville). Tenas- 
serim ; Myitta {Dohertj). — Malay Peninsula. Siunatra, Borneo. 

Melichar, followed by !Matsumura, has confused the synonymy 
of this species. It was carefully described by IStal in his ' Hemi- 
ptera Fabriciana/ who added as a synonym his Pocliazia ohscura = 
Ricania ohscura, Guer. As (luerin tiguj-ed his species, there is no 
great problem in identification. As regards the ohscura, Fabr., 
under which name Melichar has enumerated the species, Stal has 
also (supra) described the type, which was from Amboina, and 
gives this character for the tegmina : " ante medium et medio 
pallido couspersis et ti'ansversim pallido-lineolatis, fascia angusta 
insequali pone medium sita membrauaque costse obscurius fuscis, 
margine hujas imo pallido, lineola transversa obliqua pone medium 
marginis costalis albidis," and also the expanse of the tegmina as 
only 15 millim. Subsequently Melichar (.si{^j7'«) placed the fuscuf a, 
Fabr., iu the genus Mindura, and gives a figure of it, which appears 
to me to be quite inapplicable. 

I have still a considerable impression that the species described 
by Guerin as ohscura u ill ultimately prove to be distinct from 
that described by Fabriciiis as fascata. I possess but few speci- 
mens of the latter compared with my series of the former, but, 
from what T have seen, fiiscata has brown tegmina, costally spotted 
with pale flavescent, and more concavely sinuate before apex than 
is the case with the unicolorous olivaceously-tinted tegmina of 
Guerin's ohscura. The Poclmzla fumata, Amy. & Serv., from Java 
is possibly conspecific. 



374 ruLGiOMD.E. 

1052. Pocliazia striata. Kirhy (Kicania), J. Linn. Soc, Zool. xxiv. 
p. 15;] (1891); Mclieli. (rocliazia) jinn. Hofmus. Wten, xiii, 
p. 215, t. ix, f. 4 (1898) ; id. Horn. Faun. C'ef/lon, p. 8.:5_(1903). 
Pocliazia antigone, A7/Vi-. J. Nat. Hist. Soc. Bomb, xiv, p. 52 
(1902). 

Head and ])ronotiun clioeolate-brown. face and abdomen testa- 
ceous, legs ochraceous ; tegmina piceous-brow n, costal and apical 
areas more or less piceous. and crossed by two narrow piceous 
fasciae a little beyond middle, an elongate pale flavescent spot on 
costal margin near middle; wings more fuliginous, unicolorous. 

Var. Tegmina witli two whitish spots, one near middle of inner 
transverse fascia, the other near apex oi:' outer transverse fascia. 

Face with a short central carination which scarcely reaches 
middle ; tegmina strongly concave before apex, which is obtusely 
augulate. 

Lengtii excl. tegm. 7 to 9 ; exp. tegm. 32 millim. 

I fab. Ceylon; Kandy, Haragama (&Vt'fw). 



19.");j. Pocliazia guttifera, Walk. Li.^t Horn, ii, p. 427 (1851) ; StcV 

(Ricania), Ofc. I'et.-Ak. Fork. 1862, p. 491 ; Atkins. J. A. S. 

Ben;/. Iv, p. 57 (1886) : Melich. (I'ochazia) Ann. Hofnms. 

IVitn, xiii, p. 210. t. ix, f. ^'I (1898) ; id. Horn. Faun. Ceylon, 

p. 83 (1903). 

Iiicauia stygia, Stal, Ofc. Vet.-Ak. Fiirh. 1870, p. 766. 

Head (including face) and thorax above piceous-black ; abdomen 
piceons-brown, the segmental margins dull ochraceous; legs piceous- 
brown, the tibiae ochraceous ; tegmina piceous-brown, with a large 
pale flavescent elongate costal spot beyond middle and witli three 
prominent white spots, one on disk near middle, the other two 
larger, somewhat elongate, and situate wide apart on apical margin: 
wings piceous-brown, unicolorous. 

A'^ar. a. Tegmina with the apical mai'ginal spots entirely^ absent. 

Var. />. Tegmina possessing the upper apical marginal spot, but 
w ith the lower marginal and discal spots absent. 

Face with the central carination extending to its middle, the 
sublateral carinatious distinct, slender, and extending to near 
apex ; tegmina with the apical margin moderately rounded. 

Length excl. tegm. 8 to 9 ; exp. tegm. 30 to 34 millim. 

Hah. Syliiet (Brit. Mns). Sikhim ; Mungphu (Brit. Mvs.). 
Assam; Margherita {Doherty). Darjiling {CoU. Dlst.). Burma; 
Karen J Tills {Doherty). Upper Tenasserim {Coll. Disf.). 



1954. Pochazia atkinsoni, sp. n. 

Body piceous ; legs browii, tibiie ochraceous ; tegmina pal<^ 
piceous-brown, apical margin very broadly pale flavescent, and 



ETCANIA. 375 

with two large pale flavescent spots, oue elongate on costal margin 
beyond middle, the other rounded on disk ; wings pale piceous- 
brown, the posterior maroin narrowly pale flavescent ; face cen- 
trally a little gibbous, the central carination strong and almost 
percurrent, sublateral cariuations obsolete ; tegmina with the apical 
margins nearly obliquely straight, costal margin only moderately 
concave beyond middle. 

Length exel. tegm. 11 ; exp. tegm. 37 millim. 

Hah. Sikhim ; Mungphu (Atl-inson Coll., Brit. Mus.). 

Oi this very fine and strikingly marked species I have seen only 
one specimen, which constitutes the type, and is in the collection 
of the British Museum. 



1955. Pochazia triangularis, sp. n. 

Head (including face), pronotum, and mesonotum pale umber- 
brown, abdomen above and body beneath and legs ochraceous ; 
tegmina pale brownish-ochraceous, a transverse greyish-white spot 
on costal margin a little beyond middle ; wings pale brownish- 
ochraceous ; tegmina very short and broad, subtriangulur, costal 
margin arched at base, a little coucavely sinuate beyond middle, 
apical angle obtusely acute, apical margin nearly straight, much 
longer than inner and almost as long as costal margin ; face with 
a central carination not extending beyond middle, sublateral cari- 
nation obsolete. 

Length excl. tegm. 8 ; exp. tegm. 23 millim. 

Hah. Ceylon {Atkinson Coll., Brit. 3fus.). 



Genus RICANIA. 

IJicania, Genu. Maq. Ent. iii, p. i'21 (1818) ; .Stdl, Bio Jan. Hein. ii, 
p. 70 (1858) ; Hem. Afr. iv, p. 221 (1866), part.; Fieb. Rev. Mar/. 
Zool. (3) ii, p. 340 (1875) : Atkins. J. A. S. Beng. Iv, p. 50 (1886), 
part. ; Melich. Ann. Hofmus. Wien, xiii, p. 218 (1898). 

Type, R. fenestrata, Fabr. 

Distribution. East Palsearctic, Ethiopian, Oriental, Malayan, 
Australasian, and ^STeotropical Eegions. 

Head (including eyes) as wide as pronotum, vertex broad and 
narrow' ; face broader than long, with central and sublateral cari- 
nations, the iirst usually evanescent posteriorly, the latter similarly 
evanescent but also sometimes practically obsolete ; elypeus with 
the lateral margins not ridged ; pronotum and mesonotum as in 
Pochazia ; tegmina small, moderafelv ampliated. triangular, the 
apical margin as long or a little shorter than the inner margin, 
longitudinal veins furcate, the tirst and second near their apices, 
the third emitting many ramifications ; two transverse lines on 
apical area formed by transverse veins ; posterior tibise bispinose. 



376 



FULGORID.^. 



A. Teijmina prominently palely maculate. 

1956. Ricania feuestvata, J^air. (Cercopis) Syst. Ent. \t. Q>^S (1775); 

id. Hem. Fahr. ii, p. 105 (1869) ; Melich. Ann. Hofmus. Wien, 

xiii, p. 222, t. ix, f. 13 (1898); id. Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 84 

(1903). 
Cicada hvalina, Fabr. Syst. Ent. App. p. 832 (1775) ; id. (Flata) 

Syst. Myng. p. 51 (1803) ; Stdl (Eicauia), Ofv. Vet.-Ak. Fork. 

18(32, p. 489 : Atkins. (Ricania) J. A. S. Beny. Iv, p. 51 (1886). 
Flatoides orientis, IVulk. List Horn, ii, p. 417 (1851). 
Stoll, Ciy. fig. 102. 

Head (including face), pronotum, mesouotum, and sternum 
piceous-black ; abdomen testaceous ; coxae, legs, and a transverse 
linear spot at apex of face pale testaceous ; tegmina piceous-brown 
or piceous-black, with a large upper central discal spot united to 
the costal margin by a smaller spot (these spots sometimes distinctly 




Fig. 104. — Blcaiiia fcncdratu. 

separated) and two large elongate spots on apical margin very pale 
flavescent or greyish-white ; wings a little paler than tegmina, 
with a pale subcostal central streak : face with a distinct almost 
percurrent central carination. 

Length excl. tegm. 7 ; exp. tegm. 21 millim. 

Hah. Trivandrum (Coll. Dist.). Ceylon; Kandy, Peradeniya 
(Green). Frequents Aristolochia (E. E. Green). 

The darkest specimens I have seen are from Ceylon. 



1957. Ricania marginalis, Walk. (Flatoides) List Ham. ii. p. 409 
(1851). 
Eicania speculum, MelicJi. (part.) Ann. Hofmns. Wien, xiii, p. 223 

(1898). 

Head (including face), pronotum, mesouotum, and sternum 
piceous-black ; abdomen testaceous ; coxae, legs, and usually a 
transverse spot at apex of face pale testaceous ; tegmina piceous- 
black, with a small central upper discal spot, a large siibtriangular 
spot on costal margin beyond middle, two large elongate spots on 
apical margin (the lowermost marked with piceous), between these 
spots about three minute marginal spots, and a similar one near 



IIICANIA. 377 

apex, very pale flavesceut or greyish-white : wings fuliginous, with 
a series of minute pale marginal spots not reaching anal area. 

This species seems to vary in the amount of dark coloration 
contained in the lower pale marginal spot to tegmina. 

Length excl. tegm. G to 7 ; exp. tegm. 20 to 24 milliui. 

Hah. Burma ; Tavoy {Coll. Dist.). Tenasserim ; Myitta {Do- 
herty). — Borneo. 

A rather common Bornean insect, incorrectly recorded by 
Walker as from Africa. 

The Flatoides guitatus, Walk., from China, may prove to be a 
varietal form of this species. 

1958. Ricania speculum. Walk. (Flatoides) List Rom. ii, p. 406 (1851); 

Stal (Eicauia), 0/v. Vet. -Ah. ForJi. 1870, p. 765; Atkins. J. A. 

S. Bemj. Iv. p. 54 (1886) ; Melich. (part.) Ann. Hofinus. Wien, 

xiii, p.':223(1898). 
Flatoides teuebrosus et perforatus, Walk. List Horn. ii. pp. 406 

407 (1851). 
Ricania malaya, Stal, Ofv. Vet.-Ak. Fork. 1854, p. 247. 

Head (including face), pronotum, mesonotum, and sternum 
piceous-black ; abdomen piceous-brown ; legs pale testaceous ; 
tegmina piceous-bro\\n, with three spots beyond middle (in- 
constant in size) — two on upper disk and one on costal margin — 
and two elongate spots on costal mai'giu very pale flavescent or 
greyish-\\"hite ; wings fuliginous with the venation darker ; eyes 
ochraceous ; in some specimens the abdomen is apically prolonged 
in a mass of white waxj' or cottony excrescence. 

Var. The two pale spots on apical margin of tegmina, more 
especially the lower one, spotted or sufFused with piceous-brown ; 
in a few specimens, also, of the three upper discal spots the two 
uppermost tend to coalesce. 

Face with the central carination fine and posteriorly evanescent. 

Length excl. tegm. 6 to 7 ; exp. tegm. 21 to 25 millim. 

Hah. Assam ; Margherita {Doherty). Xilgiri Hills {Hampson). 
Tr'ivandrum {Coll. Dist.). Ceylon; Kandy {Green). Burma; 
Bhamo {Fea), Euby Mines {Doherty). Tenasserim ; Myitta 
{Doherty). — Borneo. Philippines. Java. Southern China. 

Dr. Melichar, presumably without seeing the types, has included 
in the synonymy of this species Flatoides yuttatus, Walk. (China), 
marginalis. Walk. (Borneo, nee Africa), liicania rujifrons, Walk. 
(Waigiou), specidaris. Walk. (Flores), 'posterus. Walk. (Borneo), 
and Flatoides designata (Siam), a course I am unable to follo\^-. 

1959. Ricania mitescens, sp. u. 

Pronotum and mesonotum piceous (head mutilated in specimen 
described) ; abdomen above, body beneath, and legs pale testaceous, 
the legs a little paler ; tegmina pale umber-brown ^nth a large 
whitish costal spot at about two-thirds from base, and a broad 



37S rt'LGortiu.E. 

irregular whitisli apical margin, uot reaching apex and broken at 
about one-third from outer angle of posterior margin ; wings 
fuliginous with the venation darker ; the tegmina are convexly 
arched from base to beyond middle, and thpu slightly sinuate 
before apex ; face indescribable, owing to mutilated head in type- 
specimen. 

Length excl. tegm. 7?; exp. tegui. 26 millim. 

Hah. Mergui {CoU. Dist.). 

B. Tegmina ivWi pale transverse fascia', and often palehj 
maculate. 

19(>0. Ricania simulans. ]]'alk. (Pochazia) Lid Horn, ii, p. 431 
(18ol); >Stdl (Kieania), Ofr. Vet.-Ak. Fork. 18G2, p. 491: 
Atldris. J. A. 8. Benq. Iv, p. ."56 (1886); Melicli. (excl. syii.) 
Ann. Hofnms. Wien', xin,^. 224, t. ix, f. 21 (1898). 

Head, pronotiim, abdomen, and body beneath pale testaceous- 
bro\A-n ; legs ochraceous ; margins of vertex of head, lateral 
margins of face, clypeus, posterior margin of mesonotum, and 
base of abdomen and anal appendage ochraceous ; tegmina pale 




Fig. 195. — Uicania Mmulans. 

dull castaneous ; base of costal margin, a basal patch, and greater 
part of claval area ochraceous ; a triangular costal spot beyond 
middle, a transverse discal fascia before middle, and a broken 
irregular transverse fascia on apical area very pale flavescent, the 
veins on apical area prominent and the interspaces between them 
a little paler ; wings pale fuliginous, apical areas broadly a little 
darker. 

Length excl. tegm. 4| ; exp. tegm. 13| milliin. 

Hah. "North In^ia'^ {Warwicl, Brit.~Mus.\ 

Dr. Melichar has included in the synonymy of this species 
Flatoides episcopus, Walk. (China and Japan), and Ricania episco- 
pcdis, Stal (China and Formosa), a course I cannot follow. 

1961. Eicania bicolorata, sp. n. 

Head (including face), sternum, pronotum, and mesonotum 
piceous-black ; abdomen and legs testaceous ; tegmina piceous- 
brown with a very broad transverse fascia, which is suddenly 
narrowed on costal margin, convex inwardly, and angulated 



KICANIA. 379 

outwardly, greyisb-^vbite, two large spots of tbe same colour 
occupying nearly tbe wbole of tbe apical margin, tbe uppermost 
almost connected with tbe apex of costal margin by a series of 
minute wbite spots ; wings greyisb-wbite, the outer margin broadly 
fuliginous, containing at extreme edge a series of minute transverse 
wbite spots ; face witb a central carination not extending beyond 
middle, sublateral cariuations obsolete ; abdomen above with 
ti'ansverse paler fascia\ 

Length excl. tegm. 7 ; exp. tegm. -!1 millim, 

JIah. Utakamand {Brit. Mus.). 



ISK)!'. Ricania zebra, sp. n. 

]iody and legs pale tawny-brown, mesonotum sometimes piceous- 
brown ; tegmina pale umber-brown, costal membrane dark umber- 
brown, its extreme edge ocbraceous and inwardly dentated, a dark 
umber-brown transverse fascia margined on each side witb greyish- 
white near middle, beyond this another transverse greyisb-wbite 
fascia which is preceded and followed by a greyisb-wbite line, 
extreme outer margin greyisb-wbite, inwardly dentated, a small 
black subcostal spot at anterior end of tbe dark transverse fascia ; 
wings pale ochraceous-brown ; face w ith a distinct percurreut 
central carination, on each side of which are two other earinations, 
the outermost longest, more distinct, and curved. 

Length excl. tegm. 4 ; exp. tegm. 14 millim. 

Hah. "India"' {Brh. Miis.). Assam: Margherita (Atli)ison 

a>n., Brit. ]\Ihs.). 



C Tegmian iirilcohrous, ivith oalij a sinr/le, sometimes two, j^^xde 
costal or subcostal S2)0ts. 

l!'6."). Ricania stupida, IFalJ.-. (Flatoides) Joum. Limi. >Soc.,ZooL_i, 
p. ]o7 (1857) ; Melich. (Iiicania) Ann. Hofmus. Wien, xiii, 
p. 23L t. X, f. 24 (1898). 
Ificania flabellum, Noual/t. Bull. Mtts. Hist. Nat. 1896, p. 2oG ; 
Melich. Ann. Hofmus. Wien, 1898, p. 225, t, x, f. 10; Noualh. 
^- Mart. ' Mission Pavie,' iii, p. 181, t. xi, f. 11 (1904). 

Body above umber-bi-own, beneath and legs ocbraceous ; tegmina 
umber-brown, the costal and apical areas distinctly darker, the 
basal third irrorafced with small paler spots, a narrow transverse 
fascia crossing tegmen beyond middle marked by a distinct wbite 
spot at apex of radial area and again by a small ocbraceous spot 01a 
costal margin, two transverse ocbraceous lines on apical area, tbe 
innermost emitting a curved similar line directed inwardly, a 
distinct prominent black spot near apex ; wings pale fuliginous, 
the venation darker, and witb tbe interspaces between tbe veins on 
apical area with longitudinal obscure greyish fasciae ; face with very 
tine but distinct central and sublateral carinate lines. 

Length excl. tegm. 5 ; exp. tegm. 19| to 20 millim. 



380 FrLGOEID.^. 

Hah. Assam and Burma {fide Melicliar). Ceylon {Brit. JIus.). 
— Cambodia. Java. Borneo. Philippines. 

Dr. Melichar's figure of B. stiqnda does not represent the 
typical form. 



19G4. Ricania stigma, IJ^alk. (Flatoides) List Horn, ii, p. 410 

(1851). 
llicania albomaculata, Uhler, Proc. U.S. Xiit. 3fus. xix, p. 277 

(189G). 
IJicania simalata, Melich. Ann. Hofnnis. Wien, xiii, p. '2-\7 (1898). 
Pochazia obscura, Melich. (part.) Ann. Ilofniits. Wien, xiii, ]). ^1:3 

(1898) ; Matsmn. (part.) Ent. Aachricht. xxvi. p. 211 (1900). 

Head, pronotum, and mesonotum brownish-ochraceous or 
piceous-brown, abdomen testaceous, legs pale ocbraceous ; tegmina 
brownisb-ocbraceous or piceous-bro\Mi, disk slightly irrorated with 
small pale spots, a large pale flavescent or greyish-white spot ou 
costal margin a little beyond middle, and a small black s])ot near 
apex ; wings pale fuliginous, the venation darker. 

Var. a. Body uniformly pale brownish-ochraceous. 

Var. b. Body and tegmina uniformly pale brownish-ochraceous, 
the latter with the usual pale costal and black apical spots. 

Var. c. Tegmina resembling typical form in colour, but with tlie 
black apical spot absent. 

Face with a central carination becoming evanescent posteriorly, 
and with a very short sublateral carination on each side. 

Length excl. tegm. 7 to 1) ; exp. tegm. 18 to 2(3 millim. 

Hab. Upper Assam {Lid. 2hts.). Nicobar Islds., Camorta {Coll. 
Dist.). Tenasserim ; Myitta {Dolierty). — Borneo. Japan. 

This seems to be an abundant species in Japan, where it 
represents the darkest form of the species, and I possess a long 
series collected by Mr. Lewis in that country. In Japanese 
examples the black apical spot to the tegmina is either very 
obsolete or entirely absent. The type of It. similata, Melich., is 
in my own collection. The very pale form (var. b) is from the 
Nicobars. 



1965. Ricania pulverosa, Sfil, Of v. Vet.-Ak. Fdrh. xx. p. 162 (ISe.j) ; 
Atkins. J. A. S. Bemj. Iv, p. 61 (1886) ; Melich. Ajin. Hofnius. 
Wien, xiii, p. 240, t. xi, f. 14 (1898). 

Llead (including face), pronotum, aud mesonotum piceous- 
black ; body beneatli and legs testaceous ; tegmina piceous-brown, 
the costal margin ocbraceous with transverse black spots from 
base to a little beyond middle, where there is a large pale flavescent 
or greyish -white spot marked by two central transverse lilack 
lines, tW'O small similarly coloured spots near apex, where there is 
also a minute costal black spot ; wings fuliginous. 

Var. Body and tegmina umber-brown ; disk of tegmina with 
two obscure transverse piceous fasciae. 



IIICANIA. 381 

Eace \\itli au anterior transverse ridj^e, to whicli are attached a 
ceutraland two sublateral carinations whicli scai'cely extend beyond 
middle. 

Length excl. tegm. 4 to 7 ; exp. tegm. 14 to 20 millim. 

Hah. Assam; Khasi Hills {Coll. Dlst.), Ma.vg\\Qv\tsi {Doherty). 
Burma ; Karenuee {fide Melicliar). Tenasserim ; Myitta {DoJiert]/). 
— Cambodia. 

Melichar has placed the Flatoides nivisignatus. Walk., as a 
synonym of this species ; it is, however, perfectly distinct. 



1966. Eicania distincta, McUch. Hon,. Faun. Ceyhn, p. 84, t. ii, f. 7 
(190.3). 

Head (including face), pronotum, and mesonotura piceous-black, 
head and pronotum sometimes castaneous ; abdomen piceous, the 
segmental margins flavescent ; sternum (more or less) and the legs 
ochraceous ; tegmina pale piceous-bro^^-n, with a subquadrate costal 
pale flavescent or greyish-white spot beyond middle, the costal 
membrane distinctly darker in hue and the apical area also mode- 
rately iufuscate ; wings pale fuliginous ; face with a very distinct 
central earination not extending beyond middle, sublateral carinatioii 
very short and obsolete. 

Length excl. tegm. 5| to 7 ; exp. tegm. 14 to 10 millim. 

Hah. Ceylon ; Peradeniya, Kandy {Green). 

Allied to R. nivisir/nata, Walk. 



D. Tegmina iinicolorous, witJiout pale costal S2:)0t$, sometimes vjitli 
transverse darker fascia'. 

1967. Ricania apicalis, Walk. (Pocbazia) List Horn, ii, p. 431 (1851) ; 
Stal (Ricania), Of v. Vct.-Ak. Fork. 1862, p. 491; Atkins. 
J. A. S. Beny. Iv. p. 55 (1886) ; Melich. Ann. Hofmus. Wiex. 
xiii, p. 229 (1898). 

Pronotum and mesonotuni more or less piceous-black ; head, 
abdomen above, body beneath, and legs pale testaceous, the legs a 
little paler ; tegmina pale brownish-ochraceous with a somewhat 
bronzy tint, a small black spot near apex, from which to near outer 
angle of inner margin there is a more or less well-defined dark 
fascia, between the transverse veins to costal membrane the colour 
is a little darker, making the veins appear prominent, and from 
end of radial area to posterior margin is a transverse darker fascia, 
sometimes very ill-defined : wings pale ochraceous, the posterior 
margin distinctly darker ; face with well-defined central and sub- 
lateral carinations, the first practically percurrent, the latter not 
extending beyond middle. 

Length excl. teem. 5; exp. tegm. 17 millim. 

Hah. Assam ; Margherita {Doherty). Sikhim {fide Athinson). 
Govegaon {Jayaler, Brit. Mas.). 



^^S'2 fllgorid.t:. 

1968. Ricania spoliata, Mdicli. Ann. Ilofntus. ll'ieu, 1898, p. :.'o4, 

t. X, f. iM ; id. (llicania (Recanula)) Hon}. Faun. Veylon, p. 84 
(1903). 

" Body black, face and clypeus yellowisli-brown, frontal keel 
distinct, lateral keels semicircular ; pronotuin and niesonotum 
black, the latter with the usual carinations : tegmina brown with 
two yellowish transverse fascioe, between which is a black yellowish- 
margined spot, the first fascia before middle has a sharp zigzag 
border and is sprinkled with ci'etaceous scales, which, moreover, 
form a transverse line, towards the outer side this fascia is 
evanescent, the second fascia beyond middle consists of two 
large irregular spots, a \A"hite oblique streak at end of radial area, 
angular yellow spots on costal margin at end of transverse veins, 
on apical margin the yellow spots are minute and rounded ; wings 
very pale fuliginous, darker at posterior margin ; legs yellowish- 
brown." {Melicliar.) 

" Length excl. tegm. 5 ; exp. tegm. 18 millim." 

Hah. Ceylon {fide Meliclmr). 

1969. Eicania fumosa, IValh. (Flatoides) Li>^t Horn, n, p. 414 (1851) ; 

Stal (Kicania), Ofv. Vet.-Ak. Fork. 1862, p. 491 ; Atkins. 
J. A. S. Bcng. lv,"p. 55 (1886); Melich. Ann. Hofmns. Wien, 
xiii, p. 230 (1898). 
Ricania proxima, Melich. Ann. Hofmns. Trie?/, xiii, p. 226. t. xi, 
f. 22 (1898). 

Body ferruginous ; mesonotum piceous ; legs ])ale testaceous : 
tegmina uniformh^ piceous-brown, the venation a little darker and 
prominent ; wings a little paler than tegmina ; tegmina short and 
broad, their greatest breadth only a little shorter than their length, 
costal margin distinctly sinuate beyond middle, apex broadly 
rounded ; face tricai'inate, a central and two sublateral carinations 
which do not extend beyond middle. 

Length excl. tegm. 34 ; exp. tegm. \2^ millim. 

Bab. Assam ; Margherita {Atlcinson Coll., Brit. Mus.). — .Siam. 
South Sumatra {Coll. Dist.). Java, Celebes. 

This small species was only known to Walker by an unlocalized 
type in the British Museum. Atkinson appears to have correctly 
identified an Assamese specimen as representing it. 

Genus RICANOPTERA. 

Ricanoptera, Melich. Ann. Hofmus. Wien, xiii, p. 253 (1898). 

Type, R. inculta, Melich. 

Distribution. Ethiopian, Oriental, Malayan, and Australasian 
Regions. 

Head, pronotum, and mesonotum generally as in the two 
preceding genera; tegmina more elliptical, apical longer than 
the inner margin, first and second longitudinal veins emitted 
from a common stalk at upper end of basal cell, third strongly 



RICANOPTERA. 



:}83 



forked at a .short distance from base, an inwardly curved line 
crossing disk before middle and formed by transverse veins, two 
transverse lines on apical areas also formed by transverse veins, 
numerous transverse veins in clavus ; posterior tibiae with two 
spines. 



1970. Ricanoptera inculta, Melich. Ann. Hofmus. Wien, xiii, p. '2M, 
t. xiii, f. 1 (1898). 

" Body reddish or rusty-brown, surface of thorax sometimes 
yellowish-brown ; face nan-owed towaixls clypeus, carinations very 
indistinct ; pronotum centrally carinnte ; mesonotum with three 
longitudinal carinations bifurcate anteriorly, the inner bifurcation 
not connected with the inner carination ; tegmina and wings 
liyaline, transparent, slightly discoloured with vinous-yellow and 
with brown speckles, longitudinal veins placed wide apart, the 
transverse veins between them on disk few and irregularly placed, 
forming two ti'ansverse lines before apical margin, the outer one 
parallel to margin, the inner one waved, on disk an angulated line 
formed of transverse veins with the apex turned towards base ; 
abdomen yellow, brownish above ; legs pale yellow ; tips of the 
spines black." (Melichar.) 

Length excl. tegm. 8 to 9 ; exp. tegm. 24 to 28 millim. 

Hab. Assam ; Margherita (Doherty). (Ireat Nicobar {fide 
Melicliar). 



1971. Eicanoptera mellerborgi, StSl (Ricauia), Ofv. Vet.-Ak. Fork. 

1854, p. 247; Atkins. J. A. S. Ben,/. Iv, p. 52 (1886); Melich. 

Ann. Hofmm. Wien, xiii, p. 255, t. x, f. 15 (1898). 
Flata fenestrata, Fabr. Si/st. Rhijncj. p. 51 (1803) ; Atkins. (Ricania) 

J. A. S. Beng. Iv, p. 51 (1886). 
Flatoides discalis. Walk. J. Linn. Soc, Zool. i, p. 89 (1857). 
Ricauia fabricii, Stal, Hem. Fabr. ii, p. 104 (1869). 

Body and legs testaceous-brown, darker above than beneath ; 

tegmina hyaline, the whole basal and marginal areas fuscous- 
brown, extreme edges of 
costal and apical margins 
with minute flavescent 
spots, two hyaline spots 
on costal margin beyond 
middle, and usually three, 
sometimes only two, on 
apical margin ; wings hya- 
line, the venation piceous- 
brown and the outer 
margins broadly fuscous. 
(This is the form described 

by Walker as discalis and which is here figured.) 

Tegmina hyaline, minute flavescent marginal spots as in form 




Fig. 196. — Itieanoptera meUerhorc/i. 



384 ruLGoniD.T:. 

discalis. Walk., but with the fuscous-brown areas much reduced 
aud brokeu, the hyaline space being thus much enlarged both 
inwardly and outwardly and on basal area crossed by a narrow 
oblique fuscous-brown fascia ; face with a central and two sub- 
lateral carinations, becoming more or less evanescent posteriorly. 

Length excl. tegm. 5 j to 6 ; exp. tegm. IS millim. 

Bab. Burma (Jide Atl'iiison). Tenasserim ; Myitta (DoJicriif). 
Mergui (Coll. Disf.). — Malay Peninsula. Java. Sumatra. Borneo. 



1972. Ricanoptera polita, Melich. Ann. Hofmus. Wioi, xiii, p. 25f). 
t. ix, f. I'.j (lt<98;. 

" Body reddish-brown ; face, abdomen, and legs paler ; pro- 
notum aud mesonotum as in li. meUerhorgi ; tegmina hyaline, 
vitreous with a yellow-brown pattern consisting of two transverse 
fascia^ of which the subapical one emits two processes to the apical 
margin, thus defining three large rounded hyaline marginal spots, 
the first of these near apex is larger than that near the posterior 
angle, four rounded hyaline spots on costal margin ; wings vitreous, 
posterior margin slightly tinged with brown. This species resembles 
R. meUerhorgi, but is larger, the costal margin flatly arched, before 
the apex almost slightly sinuate, less rounded at apex, veins of 
tegmina coloured with brown in vitreous portions, whereas they 
are white in R. meUerhorgi ; also the white dots at the apices of 
veins on apical margin are wanting, and there are only minute 
marginal spots to be seen in the brown coloration on apical margin.'' 
(Melicliar.) 

Length excl. tegm. 7 ; exp. tegm. 23 millim. 

Hah. Little Nicobar {fide Melichar). 



1973. Ricanoptera opaca, sp. n. 

Body piceous ; face, clypeus, and legs dull brownish-testaceous : 
vertex of head mottled with brownish-ochraceous ; tegmina 
opaque, piceous or piceous-brown, costal margin spotted \\\t\i 
ocbraceous, a small subquadrangular white spot at end of radial 
area, on disk a large greyish-white irregular spot followed by 
mottlings of the same colour which extend to near base and along 
the inner area, on the upper outer area of the large spot is a very 
distinct rounded black spot, the two transverse lines on apical area 
are sometimes brownish-ochraceous, and their interspace much 
suflused with the same colour, in other specimens the apical area 
is piceous aud the transverse lines faintly visible ; wings pale 
fuliginous, sometimes a little paler near base aud on anal area : 
face with the carinations fine but distinct. 

Length excl. tegm. 44 ; exp. tegm. 15 millim. 

Hah. Ceylon : Madulsima {Green). 



EUniCAXIA. 



3Sl 



Genus EURICANIA. 
Euricania, Melich. Ati/i. Hofmus. Wien, xiii, p. 258 (1898). 

Type, E. ocellus. Walk. 

Distribution. East Palaearctic, Oriental, Malayan, and Australasian 
Eegions. 

Head, prouotum, and mesonotum generally as in the preceding 
genera ; face with the sublateral carinae very short ; tegmina 
somewhat elliptical, first longitudinal vein furcate before middle, 
second and third very short, arising from a common stem at lower 
end of basal cell, both shortly after their emergence connected by a 
transverse vein, transverse veins on disk enclosiag a number of 
irregular cellular areas on basal half, two transverse lines formed 
by transverse veins beyond middle, the innermost much angularly 
waved; wings short, with two transverse veins a little beyond 
middle, several of the longitudinal veins forked near apices ; 
posterior tibise with two spines. 



1074. Euricania ocellus. Walk. (Pochazia) List Horn, ii, p. 429 
(1851): Atkim. (Kicania) J. A. S. Ben</. Iv, p. 55 (1886), 
part. : Melich. (Euricania) An7i. Hofmus. Wien, xiii, p. 260. 
t. ix, f. 24 (1898). 
riatoides facialis, Walk. List Horn. Supnl. 1858, p. 100 j 3Ielic}i. 
(Euricania) Ann. Hofmus. Wien, xiii, p. 260 (1898). 

Head, pronotum, mesonotum. and sternum piceous-black : 
abdomen above piceous-brown, abdomen beneath and legs 

ochraceous ; lateral mar- 
gins of face and the whole 
of clypeus ochraceous : 
tegmina hyaline, costal 
area (maculately broken 
beyond middle and near 
apex), apical and inner 
margins, a subapical trans- 
verse line, a short broad 
fascia a Kttle beyond middle 
(only extending about half 
across tegmen and con- 
taining a pale hyaline 
spot), preceded by a slightly curved linear suffusion, piceous- 
brown ; wings hyaline, the venation and posterior margin piceous- 
brown ; face ^ith a central carination becoming a little evanescent 
posteriorly. 

Length excl. tegm. 5| ; exp. tegm. 20 to 22 millim. 
Hab. Assam; Margherita (Do/if r^/). ^ikhim (fide Melichar). — 
China {Brit. Mus.). Japan. 




Fig. 197. — Eiiricunia ocellus. 



VOL. III. 



386 



FULGOIlID.i:. 



Geuus PRIVESA. 

Privesa, Stal, Rio Jan. Hem. ii, p. 70 (1858) ; MelicJi. Ann. Hof)nus. 

Wien, xiii, p. 282 (1898). 
Dechitus, Walk. Journ. Ent. i, p. 311 (1862). 

Type, P. Icevifrons, Stfil, from Madagascar and Mauritius. 

Distribution. Ethiopian, Oriental, and Australasian Regions. 

Head (including eyes) about as broad as pronotum, anterior 
margin rounded in front of eyes and with a transverse subconvex 
ridge between eyes ; face broader than long with a central cari- 
nation ; clypeus centrally ridged ; pronotum centrally ridged ; 
mesonotura with three longitudinal carinations, the lateral ones 
anteriorly inwardly forked ; tegmina near apex or near apical 
area with a transverse series of irregular transverse veins ; longi- 
tudinal veins emitted from tlie basal cell, the third furcate ; 
posterior tibiae bispinose. 



1975. Privesa delecta, Melich. Ann. Ilvfmm. Wien, xiii, p. 285 (1898). 

"Eace narrowed to clypeus, yellowish-white, smoothly flat, 
middle ridge distinct, almost extending to apex, lateral ridges 

indistinct, a narrow transverse brown 
fascia at upper frontal margin, at 
suture of face and clypeus is an 
indistinct brown central spot and on 
both sides of it another brown spot ; 
clypeus yellowish-white with a cen- 
tral ridge ; pronotum with a longi- 
tudinal ridge, on each side of which 
is a compressed point ; mesonotum 
rusty-brown, sometimes paler on disk, 
with three longitudinal I'idges, the 
lateral ones shortly forked in front, 
the inner fork united with the central 
ridge before anterior margin ; tegmina 
pale yellowish, with blackish-brown spots and three liyaline costal 
spots, the first and third almost of equal size, the central one 
largest ; apical margin sprinkled with very small pale speckles ; 
wings vitreous, posterior margin fuliginous ; sternum and legs 
pale yellowish." (MelicJinr.) 

" Length excl. tegm. 6| ; exp. tegm. 19 millim." 
Hab, Bombay (Paris Mus.). 

I am indebted to Prof. Bouvier, of the Paris Museum, for the 
opportunity of figuring this species. 




198. — Privesa ddceta. 



1976. Privesa confinis, sp. n. 

Body and legs pale castaneous-brown ; mesonotum more or less 
sufiused with piceous, sometimes principally denoted by a large 



DETYA. 387 

central and sublateral spot, in other specimens nearly completely 
piceous ; tegmina ochraceous, with two snbbasal costal spots, a 
large triangular fascia commencing about middle of costal margin, 
its apex extending to about middle of tegmen, the apical margin, 
outer margin of basal cell, and a curved discal line on basal area 
umber-brown, the basal interspace of the brown triangular fascia 
appears as a large greyish costal spot, and the area bet\\een the 
triangular fascia and the apical margin is also greyish with the 
veins brown, the apical margin is also inwardly traversed by a 
sinuated greyish transverse line ; wings very pale fuliginous with 
the venation fuscous ; the basal ridge of the face is distinctly 
visible above the anterior margin of the vertex ; face unicolorous 
pale castaneous, obscurely finely obliquely wrinkled, the cari- 
nations distinctly prominent, the central one evanescent posteriorly, 
the subliiteral ones very short ; clypeus a little paler, with two 
central longitudinal castaneous fasciae. 

Length excl. tegni. 5; exp. tegm, 16 millim. 

Ilah. Sind Valley (Stolkzka). 



Division NOGODINIARIA. 

Nogodini, Melich. A7in. Hofnms. Wien, xiii, p. 204 (1898). 

Eace distinctly longer than broad, or as broad as long, the sides 
of the clypeus always ridged. 

Synopsis of Genera. 

A. Head (includiug eyes) as broad as, or very slightly 

narrower than, prouotiuii. 

a. Tegmina ampliate, not more than twice as long 

as broad. 

a, Tegmina with three veins from near upper 
end of basal cell ; claval vein terminating 
near to, or a lictle beyond, middle of claviis. Di<:tya, p. 387. 

h. Tegmina with two veins from near upper 
end of basal cell ; nlaval vein terminating 
before middle of claviis V arcia. p. -"JSy. 

b. Teo'miiia more than twice as long as broad. 

a. Pronotum very convexly produced anteriorly, 

almost reaching anterior margin of eyes . . Pisacha, p. o9l. 

h. Pronotum only moderately convexly pro- 
duced anteriorly, scarcely extending 
beyond base of eyes Pucina. p. ."y^. 

B. Head (including eyes) distinctly narrower than 

pronotum . . . , G^etulia, p. 394. 

Genus DETYA, nov. 

Type, D fusconehulosa, Dist. 
Distribution. Oriental and Malayan Regions. 
Head (including eyes) about as broad or very slightly narrower 

2 c 2 



388 



rULGOElD.i:, 



than pronotum ; vertex much broader than long, tlie margins 
ridged ; face nearly twice as long as broad, slightly ampliated and 
rounded towards clypeus, Avhich is moderately ridged centrally 
and laterally ; eyes placed obliquely; pronotum narrow, con vexly 
produced between eyes, its posterior margin concave ; mesonotum 
large, long, tricarinate, the lateral carinatious anteriorly incurved 
and nearly meeting near anterior margin ; posterior tibiae with 
three and sometimes with a small fourth subbasal spine ; tegmiua 
with the basal cell emitting three veins near its upper end, claval 
vein united to posterior claval margin near or a little beyond 
middle, costal membrane obliquelj" transversely veined, beyond 
middle thei*e are a number of transverse veins forming some^^"hat 
short cells, a continuous subapical marginal line formed of trans- 
verse veins on basal area, and above clavus four longitudinal cells, 
the second with a transverse vein near its apex ; wings with the 
second and third longitudinal veins emitted from a common stem, 
a few transverse veins beyond middle, and the apices of the veins 
on apical margin furcate. 

1977. Detya fusconehulosa, sp. u. 

Body and legs ochraceous; face \\ith the lateral margins, a spot 
on each side of base, two spots l:)efore clypeus, and a double 




Fig. I'JO. — Detya fasconchulosa. 



oblique discal series of minute spots black, a brown linear sub- 
marginal spot on each side beyond middle ; clypeus with black 
margins and a central piceous line, neither of which reach a])ex : 
pronotum with two central piceous spots ; mesonotum with two 
broad central fasciae, outwardly notched posteriorly, and an angu- 
lated spot on each anterior lateral area piceous ; tegmina hyaline, 
the venation fuscous-brown, costal membrane with three large 
transverse piceous spots, the first near base, the other t\\o (closer 
together) beyond middle, the transverse veins at apices of longi- 
tudinal veins infuscate, a very narrow transverse fascia crossing 
tegmen beyond middle, the apical margin somewhat broadly and 
irregularly and the inner margin more narrowly fuscous-brown, 
the apical margin is much broken and thus encloses several large 



YAROIA. 



389 



hyaline spots ; wings liyaliue, the venation and outer margin 
narrowly fuscous-brown . 

Length excl. tegm. 9^ to 10 ; exp. tegm. 30 to 32 millim. 

Hah. Burma ; Karen Hills {Dohertij). Tenasserim ; Myitta 
{Boherty). — Borneo. 

Genus VARCIA. 

Vavcia, Sfdl, Ofc. Vet.-Ak. Forh. 1870, p. 760; Melicli. Am/. Hofmus. 
Wien, xiii, p. 315 (1898). 

Type, V. nigrovittata, Stal, from the Philippines. 

DistrihiUioii. Neotropical, Oriental, and Malayan llegions. 

This genus possesses most of the general characters of the 
genus Sassida, from which it principally differs by the venation 
of the tegniiua, only two longitudinal veins being emitted from 
upper end of basal cell, and these wide apart, the transverse 
veins to the costal membrane are wider apart and less oblique, 
and the claval vein unites with the posterior claval margin before 
middle, and is united a little before its apex with the claval suture 
by a ti'ansverse vein. 

1078. Varcia hemerobii, IJ'alk. (Ricania) i«si JTom. ii, p. 425 (1851) ; 
>Sfdl (Mindiua), Ofr. Vet.-Ak. Fork. 1862, p. 491; Atkins. 
J. A. S. Bern). Iv, p. 62 (1886) ; Melich. Ann. Hofmus. Wien, xni, 
p. 303 (1898) ; Kirk. (Sassula) Entomolof/isf, xxxiii, p. 10 (1900) ; 
Melich. Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 85 (1903). 

Body and legs pale brownish-ochraceous ; face somewhat 
creamy-white, with two oblique discal black macular fascia and 




Fig. 200. — Varcia hrincrohii. 

with the basal area more or less suif used with piceous, three small 
elongate brown spots before clypeus ; clypeus with two narrow 
longttudinal brown fascia?, between which there is a shorter discal 
brown line; pronotum more or less suffused with pale brov/nish, 
sometimes with two oblique pale brownish fasciae; mesouotum 
with two discal fascins meeting anteriorly and usually two spots on 
each lateral area piceous ; abdomen above with transverse piceous 
fasciifi ; tegmina hyaline, the venation fuscous-brown, some of tlie 



390 lULGOHIDjt. 

transverse Aeins to costal membrane pale ocliraceous and a distinct 
ochraceous spot a little beyond middle, on each side of which the 
colour is distinctl}- fuscous-brown and outwardly continued round 
apex along apical margin to near posterior angle as a marginal 
fascia broken near apex by a yellowish spot, a submarginal brown 
spot near middle of apical mai'giu and some suffusions on inner 
marginal area of the same colour ; wings hyaline, the venation 
and a very narrow marginal border fuscous-brown. 

Length excl. tegm. 10 ; exp. tegm. 30 to 32 millim. 

Hah. Malabar {CoU. Dist.). Ceylon; Kandy (6'ref>i). Tenas- 
serim ; Myitta (Dohcrty). — Malay Peninsula. Borneo. Talaut. 

1970. Varcia greeni, Kivhy (Xogodiua), J. Limi. Soc, Zonl. xxiv, 
p. 158, t. V, f. ]o'(1891); MelicJi. (Varcia) Ami. Hofrnus. 
Wieti, xiii, p. 320 (1898) ; id. (Sassida) Horn. Fmtn. Ceylon, p. 85 
(1903). 

Body and legs ochraceous ; face very pale ochraceous, its lateral 
margins narrowly black, rather more than basal half pale fuscous- 
brown, where the subhxteral margins, a central and two oblique 
discal lines are very pale ochraceous ; clypeus of the same colour 
with a central piceous line, its lateral margins narrowly black; 
vertex anteriorly and sublaterally narrowly piceous ; pronotum 
with two oblique fascioe transversely connected at base piceous : 
mesonotum Avith two broad longitudinal piceous fascia) promi- 
nently outwardly notched a little behind middle and a piceous 
spot near each anterior angle ; abdomen above with transverse 
central piceous spots, some sternal spots and a lateral line on each 
side of abdomen piceous ; , tegmina hyaline, the venation fuscous- 
brown, a spot at base of costal area, the inner vein to costal 
membrane, and the claval suture more or less ochraceous, a large 
piceous stigmatical spot containing a small pale ochraceous spot, 
a spot at apex and the apical and inner margins fuscous-brown, 
the apical margin prolonged inwardly near middle and the inner 
margin near outer angle ; wings hyaline, the venation and their 
outer margins (not reaching anal area) fuscous-brown. 

Length excl. tegm. 8| to 9 ; exp. tegm. 25 to 28 millim. 

Hah. Ceylon; Deltota, Peradeniya (6rreen). 

1980. Varcia kandyiana, sp. n. 

Body and legs brownish-ochraceous ; face ochraceous with the 
lateral margins narrowly black, the ridges prominent, the lateral 
areas somewhat obscurely linearly suffused with very pale brown ; 
clypeus with the lateral margins narrowly black, but becoming 
evanescent towards apex and with a central piceous carinate line : 
vertex ochraceous with the margins narro\A ly black ; pronotum 
and mesonotum broMiiish-ochraceous, both with a central ochra- 
ceous line, the latter with two curved longitudinal black fascise 
which almost meet near anterior margin ; abdomen above with 
transverse black fascite : tegmina hyaline, the venation piceous. 



PISACHA. 391 

crossed beyond middle by a continuous transverse fascia, between 
it and apical margin a broken macular transverse fascia, and the 
apical margin (excluding apex) fuscous-brown, two piceous spots 
enclosing a small brownish-ochraceous space beyond middle of 
costal area, a fuscous marginal spot at apex, and a piceous spot 
beyond middle of claval area ; wings hyaline, the venation and 
outer margin (not reaching anal area) fuscous-brown. 

Length excl, tegm. 8j to 9 ; exp. tegm. '21 millim. 

Hah. Ceylon; ^LanAx {Green). 



19S1. Varcia similata, Melkh. (Sassula) Horn. Fnim. C'ei/lou, p. 86 
(1903). 

" Very like >S'. lcii'h)jl, Melich. (from Cochin China), only differing 
because the face with the exception of keels (which are pale 
yellow) is entirely brown-coloured with two pale spots between 
marginal and lateral keels, the upper one small, the lower one large 
and somewhat round, on the outer side ot: lateral keels a row of 
dark dots are observable M'hich are lost in the ground-colour : 
margins of front and clypeus black, on middle of central keel of 
clypeus is a black dash and on side of head a large brown spot, 
wanting in S. l-irhiii ; tegmina vitreous, apical margins extremely 
faintly coloured with pale yellow, a dark spot in apical area of 
clavus and two black marginal spots bounding the pale yellow 
stigma on the costal margin, costal membrane broader than costal 
cell, traversed by 15-16 transverse veins, in costal cell two 
yellowish- white transverse veins, remaining a eins black ; in clavus 
there is one transverse vein, several transverse veins near apex, 
and sometimes a transverse vein joining both branches of the fork 
which is inconstant ; wings slightly darkly bordered posteriorly, 
a forked vein in anal area ; abdomen and legs as in /S. I'irbyV 
(Melichar.) 

" Length, $ , 15 ; exp. tegm. -J4 millim.' 

Hab. Ceylon ; Henaratgoda (^de Melicliar). 

I have had no opportunity of seeing this species. 



Genus PISACHA, nov. 

Type, P. narja. Dist. 

Distribution. British India. 

Head (including eyes) about as wide as pronotum ; eyes rotun- 
dately elongate, placed behind vertex and on each side of the 
protruding pronotum ; vertex broader than long, its lateral margins 
laminately ridged : face much longer than broad, its basal margin 
centrally angularly sinuate, moderately pronounced central and 
sublateral longitudinal ridges becoming evanescent posteriorly^ 
and with two central curved contiguous caringe before clypeus 
which is centrally ridged ; pi'onotum strongly convexly produced 
in front, its posterior margin strongly concave ; pronotum long. 



392 fulgorid.t;. 

with three central carinse, the central one faint, the two latera 
ones strong, curved anteriorly and meeting hefore anterior 
margin ; legs strongly sulcate, posterior tibiae with two spines 
near apex ; tegmina more than twice as long as broad, apical 
margin rounded, costal membrane narrow with numerous trans- 
verse veins and connected with the upper longitudinal vein from 
about middle by six or seven transverse veins, first and second 
longitudinal veins with a common origin at upper end of cell, 
third emitted immediately below them, third strongly bifurcate, 
its upper fork connected with second vein by a transverse vein, on 
apical area the veins are reticulate, terminating at a broad apical 
margin, where the veins are longitudinal, somewhat numerous, and 
many forked ; clavus with six or seven transverse veins between 
the suture and its longitudinal vein ; win^s about as broad but a 
little shorter than tegmina. 

1982. Pisacha naga, sp. u. 

Body and legs dark brownish-ochraceous ; face with the ridges 
a little paler, the lateral margins and two discal oblique and pos- 
teriorly united lines black ; clypeus 
with a piceous fascia on each side of 
central ridge ; vertex testaceous, \\itli 
the lateral margins and a central 
fascia pale ochraceous ; pronotum tes- 
taceous, its lateral margins and a 
central fascia pale ochraceous, some- 
what narrowly piceous at anterior 
■Fig.20h-Fiscwh>»affa. i^^^rgin ; mesonotum testaceous be- 
tween the carmations, ot which the 
central one is pale ochraceous and the lateral ones black ; abdomen 
above with darker transverse fasciae; tegtnina hyaline, the venation 
piceous-brown, a large siibtriangular oblique spot near apex extend- 
ing from costal margin to about middle of tegmen piceous, apical 
margin (excluding apex) broadly luscous-brown, inwardly piceous- 
brown ; vvings hyaline, the venation and posterior margin (not 
reaching anal area) fuscous-brown. 

Length excl. tegm. 10; exp. tegm. 28 millim. 
Hab. Assam ; 'Naga Hills (DoJiertij). 



Genus PUCINA. 

Puciiia, StS.l, Hem. Afr. iv, p. 221 (188G) ; id. Berl. ent. Zeitsclir. x, 
p. 393 (1866) : Atkim. J. A. S. Beng. Iv, p. 63 (1886) : Melich. 
Ann. Hofmus. Wien, xiii, p. 329 (1898). 

Type, P. 2ieUiicida, Guer. 

Distribution. Oriental and Australasian Regions. 
" Clavus without transverse veinlets ; head not prominent 
before the eyes, vertex transverse ; clypeus convex, without 




PUCINA. 



:393 



lateral ridges ; teginiiia gradually slightly amplified towards tlie 
apex, furnished towards the apex with oblong areolas arranged in 
two series and with many areolas less regularly arranged on disk, 
ulnar and radial veins forked somewhat before the middle of the 
corium ; anterior tibioe hardly longer than the femora and tro- 
chanters, posterior tibia) bispinose." (>Stcd.) 



1983. Pucina pellucida, Guer. (Cixius) Vot/. ' Coquille; Zool. W, p. 189 
(1830) ; id. Icoti. lik/n. Anitn., Ins. p. 358, t. Iviii, f. 4 (1843) ; 
Spin. (Ricaiiia) Ami. Sue. Ent. Fr. 1839, p. 401; SW 
(Pucina), Bcrl. ent. Zeitschr. x, p. 393 (1866) ; Atki7is. J. A. S. 
Beng. Iv, p. 63 (1886) ; Melich. Attn. Hofmus. Wien, xiii, 
p. 329, t. xiv, f. 15, a, b (1898). 

" Head yellowish with three ridges ; face three times longer 
than broad, strougly margined and with a median ridge : vertex 




3 '"^ 4 U 5 

Fig. 202. — Pucina pcllucicla. 



broader than long, disk flat and horizontal, margins elevated, fine, 
anterior margin obtusely angular, its tip extended a little beyond 
the eyes, posterior margin angularly einarginate ; thorax varied 
with green and brown, also the abdomen, M'hich is shorter than 
broad ; tegmina and wings ti'ansparent, veins brown, with a brown 
triangular dot on the anterior marofin of each tegrmen and near its 
apex, radial vein weakly arcuate, subradial straight, rejoining the 
radial towards the second third on the anterior margin, the inter- 
mediate space with eight transverse subparallel veins and divided 
into nine fairly large cellules, of which the seven intermediate are 
as broad as long, the two extreme longer than broad, the adjoining- 
space between the radial and cubital veins divided iiito two large, 
narrow, elongate cellules by a complete ti"ansverse vein ; legs 
yellowish, tarsi brown, posterior tibia? with two lateral spines." 

Length 6; exp. tegm. 16 millim. 

Hah. Bengal \ficle Guer.). — Java (fide Guer.). Australia (fide 
Jlelichar). 

I have not seen this species, and have reproduced the figs. 1 
and ti from Melichar ; 3, 4, and 5 from Gueriu. 



394 



PULGOEIDiL-. 



Genus G-ETULIA. 

Gaetulia, Stal, Stett.ent. Zeit. 18G4, p. 54; MeUch. Ann. Hofmvs. 
Wien, xiii, p. 327 (1898). 

Type, G. plenipennis, Wfilk., from Central Amei'ica, 
Distrihution. Neotropical and Oriental Eegions. 
Head (including eyes) considerably narrower than pronotum, 
a little prominent before eyes, base of vertex profoundly sinuate ; 
face much longer than broad ; clypeus medially and laterally finely 
carinate (>Stfd, however, states that the lateral margins are not 
carinate) ; pronotum short, strongly eonvexly produced between 
eyes, centrally ridged ; mesonotum large, tricarinate, the cari- 
nations subparallel ; tegmina moderately ampliated, two longi- 
tudinal veins emitted from upper end of basal cell and widely 
separated, costal membrane with the transverse veins well separated, 
only a little oblique, three longitudinal cells on basal area, after 
wJiich the surface is more or less broadly reticulated by numerous 
transverse veins, which also form a continuous subapical marginal 
line. 



inS4. Gaetulia nigrovenosa, Melich. Ann. Ilofnms. Wicn, xiii, p. o28, 
t. xiii, f. 18 (1898). 

Body and legs ochraceotts ; face with two sublateral longittulinal 
black lines (sometimes, as in the specimen here figtired, entirely 
absent) ; a small anterior lateral black spot on each side of meso- 
sternum ; vertex of head with two central piceous lines (in some 
specimens obsolete) ; pronotum and mesonotum palely testaceous, 




Fig. 203. — Gatul'm nigrovcnma. 



the first with the margins and a central carinate fascia pale ochra- 
ceous, the latter with three longitudinal fascise and its lateral 
margins pale ochraceous, the central fascia more or less margined 
with piceous ; abdomen above with transverse discal and lateral 
fasciate black spots, the largest of which is discal and subapical ; 
abdomen beneath with transverse piceous fascise ; tegmina and 
wings hyaline, tlie venation fuscous, the first with a sitbtriangular 



LASO>'IA. 395 

costal fuscous spot near apical area and a small fuscous spot 
(sometimes absent) above middle of apical margin. 

Length excl. tegm. 5^ ; exp. tegm. 16 millim. 

Hab, Assam ; Marglierita {Doherty). Darjiling {fide Melichar). 
Tenasserim ; Myitta (Doherty). 



1985. Genus ? prominens, lVcM\ (Ricania) Im. Sanml., Horn. p. 48 
(1858) ; Atkins. J. A. S. Beng. Iv, p. 57 (1886) ; Melich. (gen. ?) 
Ann, Hofmus. IVien, xiii, p. 341 (1898). 

" Dull testaceous ; head forming on each side a large vertical 
compartment, in which the eye and the antennae are seated ; 
vertex transverse, very short, mostly covered by the pronotum ; 
face with transverse blackish marks, very much longer than broad, 
with elevated borders and with three slight keels, the middle one 
shortened, the pair converging towards the face (clypeus '?), where 
they are connected : face (clypeus ?) lanceolate, keeled ; pronotum 
very convex along tlie fore border, with two slight keels ; meso- 
notum M ith a brown interlined disk and with two blackish dots on 
each side ; metanotum and abdomen dark brown, the latter with a 
pale testaceous stripe on each side ; legs testaceous ; femora slightly 
streaked with black ; wings greyish-vitreous, exterior and interior 
borders brown, veins black ; tegmina with brown marks along 
the costa and with a few brown marks elsewhere, and with an 
irregular whitish subapical band ; stigma whitish, veinlets regular 
along the costa and along the exterior border, where they are 
mostly forked ; discal veins and veinlets irregular, the latter 
numerous; wings with very few veinlets." {WaJlcer.') 

" Length, body 4 ; wings 12 lines." 

Hah. «ylhet {fide Wullcer). 

I have "been unable as yet to find this species in the National 
Collection. Its long face clearly locates it in some genus belonging 
to the Nocjodiniaria, but the " two keels " to the pronotum is a 
disturbing factor. 

Genus LASONIA. 
Lasouia, Melich. IJoni. Fami. Ceylon, p. 87 (1903). 

Type, L. JdrJccddyi, Melich. 

Distribution. Ceylon. 

" Head with eyes as broad as pronotum ; vertex not extending 
beyond eyes, broader than long, roundly curved in front, its 
margins ridged ; face longer than broad, slightly curved downward, 
rounded on sides and ridged to clypeus, on upper margin straight, 
medially ridged ; clypeus somewhat long, triangular, arched, not 
ridged ; eyes large, semicircular ; ocelli absent ; antennae very 
short ; pronotum a", long as vertex, produced in front, somewhat 
laminate between eyes, posteriorly straight, its disk smooth, indis- 
tinctly ridged ; mesonotum short, triangular, broader than long, 
■with an oblique curved ridge which does not extend to posterior 
margin of pronotum ; tegmina narrow, four times as long as 



396 ruLGORiD.i:. 

broad, rounded oft' at apices, costal cell from base to middle very 
narrow, theu strongly and gradually expanded, occupying the 
whole apical extremity and passiiig over into the sutural cell, 
costal cell without transverse veius at base, traversed in middle by 
short transverse veins placed wide apart, and in the broad apical 
area by thick single transverse veins a\ liich are setose, three longi- 
tudinal veius emerge from base, the outermost forived near base 
and foi-ming a long subcostal cell pointed before and behind, 
second longitudinal vein united by an oblique transverse vein to 
inner branch of first vein and strongly forked at end, third vein 
simple and weaker than the other two, all these veins smooth and 
not setose, in the cells are a few delicate transverse veins, in clavus 
oue forked and numerous transverse veins ; wings rather shorter 
than tegmina, tip of middle longitudinal vein decidedly notched, 
six simple longitudinal veins connected together by numerous 
transverse veins ; posterior tibia? with two spines.'" {Melichar.) 

I only know this genus by Melichar's description and figure of 
the typical species. Its describer places it in the Ricaniinw, 
which, judging from the short mesonotum and the narrow tegmina, 
seems an uncongenial ])Osition. I therefore enumerate it at the 
end of the subfamily, but have refraiiied from placing it in my 
synopsis of genera. 

198G. Lasonia kirkaldyi, Melifli. Horn. Faun. Cci/lou, j). 88, t. ii, 
f. 9, «(]90;3). 

" Brown, spotted with black, a large, smooth, circular, black 
hump on the face below margin, this protuberance has a circular 

ridge which joins the front 
marginal ridge, on both sides 
a black longitudinal spot, 
from the lower margin of the 
circle a central ridge com- 
mences and reaches base of 
clypeus ; eyes brown ; an- 
tenna) yellowish-brown ; ver- 
Fig. 20i.-Laso>, ia Urh,h7>/i. ^^x slightly keeled and spotted 

with black as well as pro- 
notum and mesonolum ; tegmina hyaline, Aeins brown, irregular 
small and large brown spots in cells which rest on veins and leave 
the middle of the cells free, in middle cell are two transverse spots 
on the upper and lower transverse veins, at apical area a brown 
spot, apical margin with small curved transverse veins ; wings 
hyaline, vitreous, with black veins ; abdomen browni, posterior 
margins of dorsal segments black ; legs yellowish-brown, femor;i 
longitudinally striped with brown, apices of spines to posterior 
tibiao black."' (Melichar.) 

"Length, 5 5 12 ; exp. tegm. 22 inillim.'" 
Hab. Ceylon (Jide Melichar). 
I have not seen this species. 





]L.VL'IX.1£. liQ\ 



Subfamily XI. ELATING. 

Flatida, StdJ, Hem. Aft: iv, pp. 131 & 235 (1866). 

Flatina, Stcll, Ofc. Vet.-Ak. Fovh. 1870, p. 771 ; Atldns. J. A. S. Bcng. 

Iv, p. 63 (1886). 
Flatidae, MelicJi. Ann. Hofmus. Wien, xvi, p. 179 (1901). 

" Clavns granulate, its apex sometimes subacute and closed, 
sometimes very obtuse and broadly opeu, with two veins separated 
througbout the entire length, or united in one near apex ; costa 
dilated, costal membrane transversely veined ; claval suture dis- 
tinct ; anal area of wings not reticulated ; posterior tibia) without 
;i mobile spur." {Stal.) 

The granulated clavus is an unfailing structural test as to the 
position of the beautiful insects which iind a place iu this sub- 
family. Dr. Melichar has recently {su2ira) written a monograph 
on the Flatince, and though Homopterists must be grateful to him 
for the referential character of his work, he has unfortunatel}' 
surcharged his pages Mith an incorrect synonymy, which greath^ 
detracts from their permanent value. 

In enumerating and describing the not inconsiderable number of 
genera found in British India I have found certain characters 
which can be used in divisional separation, and though no morpho- 
logical value can be, or is, claimed for them, it is thought they 
will enable those into whose hands this Look may fall, especiallv 
residents in British India, to more readily understand the generic 
classification. 



Division PHltOMNIAlUA . 

In this division the tegmina have their apical margins (including 
the apical and posterior angles) more or less convexly rounded, 
and are as broad or a little broader than the winsrs. 



8iinoi)sis of Genera. 

A. Teguiina with the costal membrane broader 

than the radial area. 

a. Tegmina tiat, nearly twice as long as broad . Phromnia, p. 398. 

b. Tegmina convex, only about one-third longer 

than broad, obliquely deflected before 

clavus Anggira, p. 403. 

B. Tegmina with the costal membrane narrower 

than the radial area. 

a. Vertex of head as wide at base as at apex ; 

clypeus not transversely carinate Danavaua, p. 404. 

b. Vertex of head broader at apex than at base ; 

clypeus transversely carinate on basal area . Ch.vtuubuja, p. 40"). 



398 



fulgomd.t:. 



Genus PHROMNIA. 

Pliroumia, Stdl, liio Jan. Hem. ii, p. 08 (1858) ; id. Hem. Afr. iv, 
pp. 235 & 239 (180G); Atkins. J. A. S. Bern/. Iv, p. 04 (1806). 

Flata (part.), A^mj. S,->Sen: Hem. p. 521 (1843) ; Melic/i. (pait.)^;;«. 
Hofmus. Wten, xvii, p. 203 (1902). 

T\'pe, P. limbata, Fabr., an Etliiopian specie.'^. 

TJistribntion. Ethiopian, Oriental, and ]Malayau Eegions. 

Body compressed ; head (including eyes) A'ery nuich narrower 
than the pronotuui ; vertex oblong, its lateral margins strongly 
ridged, its anterior margin concavely sinuate, considerably extend- 
ing beyond the eyes ; face with two longitudinal ridges ; clypeus 
long ; antennae elongate, rounded, second joint much longer than 
first ; pronotum obliquely transverse, narrow, anteriorly produced 
to between eyes, trioarinate, the area of the cariuations a little 
raised and shield-like ; mesonotum convex, obscurely tricarinate ; 
posterior tibiae generally bispinose ; tegmina ample, longer by half 
than broad, as broad as wings, apical inargin rounded, costal 
membrane broad with closely arranged transverse veins, four 
longitudinal veins from base, the second very strongly bifurcate 
from near middle, beyond their apices, which extend to a little 
before middle of tegmen, the venation is densely longitudinal, with 
a distinct line formed by transverse veins before apical margin, 
some transverse veins on disk, and transverse veins on basal area 
excluding central disk ; wings with oblique longitudinal veins on 
apical costal area, some of the longitudinal veins bifurcate near 
apical margin. 



IDS'; 



Phromnia marginella, Olio. (Fulgora) Enc Meth. vi, p. 575 
(1791); ,sm (Phromnia), Ofv. Vet.-Alc. Fork. 1802, p. 490; 
Atkins. J. A. S. Bene/. Iv, p. 05 (1886) ; Cotes, hid. Mus. Notes, 
ii, p. 95, t. xvi, f. 2 (1891) ; Melich. (Flata) Ann. Hofmus. Wien, 
xvi, p. 205 (1901). 

F'lata limbata, Htdton, J. A. S. Bene/, xii, p. 898 (1843). 

Body and legs brownish-ochraceous, in fresh specimens much 



-^jfr3-,?rT-TircwT-.^_^ 




Fig. 20t). — I'hruiHiiia uiargindla. 
clothed with a white cottony pubescence ; pronotum and legs more 



PHH.OMNIA. 399 

or less tiuted witli pale green ; apices of the tibite and tarsi black ; 
apex of iirsfc and whole of second joint of the antennae black ; 
tegmina pale greenish, the venation more olivaceous-green, and 
the costal margin sanguineous, on the under surface they are 
considerably cretaceously tomentose ; wings exceedingly pale 
bluish-green ; the face is strongly bicarinate ; the central cari- 
natiou to pronotuni bifurcating before anterior margin. 

Var. Tegmina pale tawn^-yellow, the costal margin dark tawny- 
brown. 

Length excl. tegm. 12 to 14 ; exp. tegm. 4S to 50 millim. 

Hab. Assam; Noa Dehing Valley {GJienneU). Sikhim (^Lid. 
Mils.). DarjUmg (Jide Melichar). Ceylon; Kandy (Green). Te- 
nasserim ; Mergui (Coll. Dist.). 

I have received both the typical and varietal form from Ceylon. 
According to Capt. Hutton(si?;2"'fO' ^™i^ observations on the insect 
made at Mnssooree, the white sugary secretion which it produces 
is only obtainable throughout the dry weather from Januarv to 
June, as it is washed au ay by the first heavj^ rain that falls upon 
it. The eggs hatch iu December, and the larvae cluster like sheep 
upon the food-plant. They feed by sucking the juices of the 
leaves, and moult several times, gradually increasing in size until 
the setting-in of the rainy season in June, when winged imagos 
begin to emerge, Mr, R. II. E. Thompson noticed that in Garhwal 
the natives eat the sugary secretion and call the insects Dharheri, 
i. e. " sheep," on a,ccount of their habit of clustering together and 
jumping away when disturbed. Mr. W, P. Thomas ascertained 
that the Koorkoos and other ti'ibes in the jS^arsingpur district of 
the Central Provinces kno\v the insect, but make no use of the 
sugary secretion, which they say has a narcotic effect when eaten. 
In this district the insects were found on the green succulent 
coppice-shoots of Elceodendron rocvhurgliii. 



1988. Phromnia tricolor, WJdte (Pceciloptora, Flatida), A. M. N. H. 
xviii, p. 26 (1846) ; Stal (Phromuia), Of v. Vet.-Ak. Forh. 1862, 
p. 490; Atkins. J. A. S. Bern/. Iv, p. 65 (1886); Melich. (Plata) 
Ajin. Hofmus. JVihi, xvi, p. 208 (1901). 

Body ochraceous, abdomen strongly cretaceously tomentose ; 
legs greenish, the tibiae darker; head with the lateral ridged 
marg'ins greenish ; pronotum and mesonotum very finely sprinkled 
with black ; tegmina pale greenish, more or less cretaceously and 
tomentosely finely maculate, the costal and claval areas palely 
sanguineous and also cretaceously maculate ; the under surface of 
the tegmina is more cretaceously tomentose than above ; wino-s 
pale lacteous much suffused with ci'etaceous ; general structural 
characters as in P. margiiiella. 

In some specimens the ground-colour of the tegmina is reddish- 
ochraceous with nearly the whole basal area sanguineous, in other 



400 rULGOllID.E. 



examples tlie ground-colour is olivaceous-green with only the costal 
area sanguineous ; rubbed or faded specimens do not exhibit the 
cretaceous maculation. 

Length excl. tegm. 18 to 15 ; exp. tegm. 51 to 60 millini. 

Hah. Assam; Khasi Hills (Chennell). Naga Hills {Ind. Mus.). 
Sylhet. Burma ; Bhamo (Jide Melicliar). — Siam. 



1989. Phromnia rubicunda, Dist. A. 31. N. H. (5) xi, p. 171 (1883) ; 
Atlin^. J. S. Beni/. Iv, p. 65 (1886) : Waterh. Aid Ident. Ins. 
ii, t. clii, f. 1 (1882-90). 
I'lata floccosa, Mclich. (part.) Ann. Hofmus. Wien, xvi, p. 208 
(1001). 

Body and legs tawny-ochraceous ; disk of mesonotum shining 
ocbraceons ; antennte black ; anterior and intermediate tibite and 
tarsi black ; tegmina dull dark testaceous-red becoming somewhat 
paler to^^■ards apex, irregularlj- spotted with cretaceous-white, more 
particularly so on basal and less on apical areas ; \Aings white, 
cretaceonsly tomentose. 

Length excl; tegm. 13; exp. tegm. 62 millim. 

Hah. Mergui {Anderson, CoU. Dist.). 

Apart from the peculiar coloration of this species, it may be 
distinguished by the long and apically convex tegmina, which are 
obliquely rounded at both apex and posterior margin. Dr. Melichar 
includes rubicunda as a synonym of P. Jloccosa, Guer. ; had he 
consulted the figure, to Avliich he does not refer, such a misunder- 
standing would have been impossible. 



199U. Phromnia flaccida, WaUc. (Flata) Ins. Saund., Horn. p. 50 

(18.J8). 
Pliromiiia liamifera, W(dk. J. Linn. Soc, Zool. x, p. 181 (1869) ; 

Melich. (Flata) Ami. Ilofmtis. Wien, 1901, p. 211. 
Flata floccosa. Melich. (part.) Ann. Hofmus. Wien, xvi, p. 208 

(1901). 

Body and legs tawny-yell o\\" ; antennae with the second joint, 
sometimes both joints, black ; anterior and intermediate tibise and 
tarsi black : tegmina tawny-yellow, very pale tawny-brown, or 
pale greyish-brown, with two discal oblique fasciic commencing 
near middle and united a little before apex and a subbasal fasciate 
tx'ansverse spot above clavus (sometimes absent) darker and more 
brownish, in some (probably fresh) specimens the upper surface 
of the tegmina is much cretaceonsly tomentose ; the anterior and 
intermediate tibiae vary in being « holly black, or black with their 
bases tawny-brown. 

Length excl. tegm. 13 to 16; exp. tegm. 44 to 60 millim. 

Hah. " Ostindien"' {fide JlelicJiar). —Ja\a, Borneo, Sumatra. 

Dr. Melichar has treated this species as a synonym o'i F. floccosa, 
Guer. : it, however, does not differ from P. hcmiifera, ^yalk., which 
he enumerates as a distinct species. 



PHROMNIA. 



401 



1991. Phromnia montivaga, I)ist. Tr. E. S. 1892, p. 284, t. xiii, f. 5. 
Flata floccosa, Mclich.inecGuer.) Ann. Hofmus. Wien, xvi, p. 208, 
t. i, f. 9 (1901), cxcl. syn. 

Head and thorax above reddish ; abdomen and legs pale ochra- 
ceous ; eyes, antennae, anterior and intermediate tibia? and tarsi, 
and the posterior tarsi black ; tegmina ochraceous, reddish- 
ochraceons on disk of basal half and clavus, the costal area and 
the apical half thickly powdered with greyish tomentnm, the basal 
disk very sparingly so, the apical margin and a double curved 
discal fascia on outer half very pale fuscous and very indistinctly 
seen through the tonientose covering, a black central spot near 
base ; wiugs greyish-white. 

Length excl. tegm. 13 ; exp. tegm. 50 millim. 

Hah. " Ostindien" (Melichar). — Borneo ; Kina Balu Mt. 

I include this species in the fauna of British India on the 
authority of Dr. Melichar, \\ho has figured it as P.floccosa, Gucr. 



1992. Phromnia viridula, Atkim. (Cerynia) J. A. S. Benq. Ivii, p. 340 
(1888) ; Melich. (Flata) Ann. Hofinus. Wien, xvi, p. 212 (1901). 

Body and legs greenish-ochraceous, abdomen thickly cretaceously 
tonientose ; legs with the anterior and intermediate tarsi piceous ; 
tegmina virescent, a little ochraceous at base, two black linear 
spots with bluish-grey margins on disk, the first near middle of 




Fig. 206. — Fhroiiuiia ririclula. 



posterior area, the other nearer apex, apical margin continued to 
near middle of posterior margin very narrowly black ; wings 
cretaceous-white ; antenna) with the second joint black, its base 
greenish-ochraceous. 

Var. Tegmina very pale ochraceous with a slight virescent tint; 
the two black discal spots very small, the uppermost minvite and 
witliovit pale margins ; the narrow dark marginal edge to the 
tegmina brownish, not black ; wings lacteous, not cretaceously 
tomentose. 

Length excl. tegm. 11 to 12; exp, tegm. 45 to 50 millim. 

IJah. Sikhim {fide Melichar). Bombay ; Poena {Atkinson). Tri- 
vandrum {Coll. Dist.). 

VOL. III. 2 B 



402 i?ULGOiiiD,i:. 

1993. Phromnia iiiornata, Jf'alk. (Flata) List Mom. ii, p. 438 (1851) ; 

Stal (Phroiiinia), Ofc. Vet.-Ak. Fork. 1872, p. 490 ; Atkins. J. 
A. S. Ben(/. Iv, p. 66 (1886) ; Melich. (Flata) Ajin. Hofmus. Wien, 
xvi, p. 213 (1901). 

Body and legs pale ochraceous ; antenure with the basal joint 
ochraceous, second joint black with its base ochraceous, or in some 
specimens with the whole of the second joint and the apex of the 
tirst joint black ; anterior and intermediate legs with the apices 
of the tibiae more or less piceous or black, and their tarsi of 
the same colour ; tegmina uniformly pale ochraceous ; wings 
milky-white ; pronotum with the central caruaation continuous, 
not bifurcating before anterior margin, which is centrally sinuate, 
the lateral discal carinations oblique, the anterior angles rounded. 

Length excl. tegm. 12 ; exp. tegm. 42 to 45 millim. 

Hah. Assam ; Marghei'ita {Doherty). Darjiling {Coll. Dist.). 
Burma; Momeit {Doherty). Tenasserim {Brit. Mas.). 

1994. Phromnia deltotensis, Kirby, J. Linn. Soc, Zool. xxiv, p. 155 

(1891) ; Melich. (Flata) Ann. Hofmus. Wien. xvi, p. 214 (1901). 
Phromnia mari>iuella, Kirk, (part.) J. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc. 
xiv, p. 53 (1902). 

In colour and general appearance indistinguishable from the 
pi'eceding species, F. inomnta, and only, as far as I can discern, 
differing from that species by the ridges of the pronotum, which 
ia P. deltotensis have the two lateral discal carinations not oblique 
but straight and concavely sinuate near middle, and by the anterior 
margin of the pronotum being scarcely sinuate. 

Length excl. tegm. 12 ; exp. tegm. 45 millim. 

Hab. Ceylon ; Deltota, Kandy {Green). 

This species seems to be quite confined to Ceylon and is very 
liable to be overlooked and placed under P. inornata. 

1995. Phromnia intacta, Walk. (Flata) List Horn, ii, p. 435 (1851) ; 

Stal (Phromnia), Ofo. Vet.-Ak. Fork. 1862, p. 490 ; Atkins. J. 
A. S. Beny. Iv, p. ^m (1886) ; Melich. (Flata) Attn. Hofmus. 
Wien, xvi, p. 213 (1901). 

" Body pale stramineous ; antennae long, stramineous, third 
joint black, much longer than the second ; pronotum almost 
truncate-conical on the disk, somewhat impressed in front, tri- 
carinate, ridges produced through the mesouotum ; abdomen 
obconical, not longer than the pronotum ; legs tawny, anterior 
tarsi and tips of the anterior tibias and of the posterior tarsi black ; 
tegmina dingy white, veins white ; wings milky- white." {Walker.) 
Pronotum with the central carination distinctly bifurcate near 
anterior margin, which is depressed, the lateral discal carinations 
very slightly oblique. 

Length excl. tegm. 12 ; exp. tegm. 47 millim. 

Hah. Wylhet {Brit. Mus.).—^ovth. Borneo {Coll. Dist.). 



AKGGIEA. 403 

The last three species are so closely allied tbat the following 
synopsis may be useful : — 

A. Anterior margin of pronotum strongly centrally sinuate. 

a. Central carination to pronotum percurreut, not ante- 

riorly bifurcate inornata. 

b. Central carination to pronotum bifurcating a little 

before its apex Intacta. 

B. Anterior margin of pronotum not diatinctly sinuate . . . . deltoteiisis. 



Genus ANGGIRA, nov. 

Type, A. ti/pica, Dist. 

Distribution. British India. 

Head (including eyes) much narrower than pronotum, the vertex 
obliquely anteriorly widened, its lateral margins laminately raised, 
and with a distinct central carination ; face longer than broad, the 
lateral margins laminately ridged and distinctly strongly sinuate 
before apex; clypeus long; posterior tibias obscurely spinose ; 
pronotum with its anterior margin truncate and extended between 
eyes and with a distinct central carination ; mesonotum large, 
moderately convex, tricarinate ; tegmina short, ampliate, apical 
margin rounded, costal membrane broader than radial area, coarsely 
transversely veined, reticulate near base, radial area with more or 
less reticulate transverse veins and remaining area of tegmen also 
transversely reticulate, the longitudinal veins prominent ; the 
tegmina are also distinctly convex and sensibly depressed beneath 
the lower longitudinal vein ; wings a litte narrower than tegmina, 
anal area with a few obsolete transverse veins, the two lowermost 
distinct. 

This genus has a strong superficial resemblance to Danavara, 
from which it may be separated by the relative widths of the 
costal membrane and radial area and the different structure of 
the face. 



1996. Anggira typica, sp. u. 

Head (including face) and pronotum dull green ; mesonotum, 
abdomen above, body beneath, and legs ochraceous, tarsi more or 




Fig. 207. — Anggira fgpica. 

less piceous ; tegmina pale olivaceous-green, the costal margin pale 
brownish-ochraceous, the apical margin narrowly darker olivaceous ; 

2d2 



404 FULGOEID.I. 

wings creamy-Avhite with the venation virescent ; prouotum with 
a globose elevation a little before each lateral area ; mesonotnm 
A^'ith the lateral carinatious more pronounced than the central one ; 
abdomen robust ; tegmiua strongly arched at base ; lateral margins 
of prouotum angularly truncate. 

Length excl. tegm. 10 ; exp. tegm. 30 millim. 

Hah. S. India ; Trivandrum {Coll. D'lSt.). 



Genus DANA VARA, nov. 

Type, D. teanentina, Walk. 

Distribution. Oriental Kegion. 

Head (including eyes) narrower than pronotum ; vertex broader 
than long, almost situate in front of eyes, its lateral margins lami- 
nately upwardly ridged ; face moderately broad, its lateral margins 
laminately ridged, obsoletely medially cariuate ; clypeus somewhat 
long, more distinctly medially carinate than face ; posterior tibiae 
with two spines near apex ; pronotum longer than vertex, tri- 
carinate, the carinate area raised and continu.ed to between e3^es ;, 
mesonotnm moderately large, convex, and obscurely tricarinate ; 
tegmina short, broad, about as broad or a little broader than 
Avings, apical margin (including apex) rounded, costal membrane 
nari'ower than i-adial area, with transverse veins, many of which 
are furcate, a little narrowed medially, radial area with oblique 
somewhat Midely separated transverse veins with some faint 
connecting veinlets, the radial vein very robust and j^rominent, 
beneath which the tegmen is somewhat densely longitudinally 
furcately veined, behind clavus thickly and moderately couvexly 
produced; wings about as broad or very little narrower than 
tegmina, a few transverse veins near upper apical area, and most 
of the louuitudinal veins becoming outwardly furcate. 



1997. Danavara tennentina, Wall;. (Pceciloptera) List Horn. Sujypl. 
p. 11 (1858) ; Kirhij (bcarpanta), J. Linn. Soc, Zool. xxi\-, p. 15-3 
(1891) ; Melich. (part.) Ami. Hnfnius. Wien, xvi, p. 241, t. ii, 
f. 5 (1901) ; id. Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 89 (1903). 
Elidiptera emersoiiiaua, Teniieni, Nat. Ifist. Ceylon, p. 433, fiu'. 
(1861). 

Prouotum, mesonotmn, and legs virescent ; head and body 
beneath ochraceous or greenish-ochraceous ; mesonotum with a 
central dark line, the margins and two discal longitudinal fascite 
ochraceous ; margins of metanotum eretaceously pubescent ; teg- 
mina pale green, in some places, eretaceously tomentose, the 
venation, especially the prominent radial vein, paler in hue ; two 
obscure transverse oblique irregular eretaceously tomentose fasciae 
beyond middle, tlie innermost medially enclosing a brown spot, a 
small piceous discal spot beneath radial area, and a brown spot on 



CHATUREUJA. 405 



apical margin a little above posterior angle ; wings cretaceously 
white. 

Length excl. tegni. 7 ; exp. tegm. 30 millini. 

Hah. Cevlon. 




Fig. 208. — Banavara ioinciifina. 

I only know this species by the unique type in the British 
Museum, which was collected by Sir Emerson Tennent. Mr. Green, 
in his many collections, has not sent me a specimen. 

1998. Danavara latipennis, Kirhj (Scarpanta), J. Linn. Soc, Zool. 
xxiv, p. 153, t. vi, f. 9 (1891). 
Scarpantia tennentina, Kirk, (part.) Entomoloqist, 1900, p. 295 ; 
Melich. (part.) Ann. Bofmus. Wien, xvi, p. 241 (1901). 

Body and legs pale ochraceous, unicolorous ; tegmina saffron- 
3^ellow, with a minute brown spot on radial vein near base, three 
elongate purplish-brown linear spots in longitudinal series com- 
mencing beyond middle of disk and terminating on apical margin, 
and a few minute speckles ot" the sa,me colour on basal area beneath 
radial vein ; wings pale cretaceous-white. 

Length excl. tegm. 6| ; exp. tegm. 29 milhm. 

Hah. Ceylon; l\^Vid.Y {Green). 

Kirkaldy and Melichar {supra) have strangely included this 
species as a synonym of D. tennentina, Walk., A^ith which it has 
little in common. Apart from its altogether different coloration, 
the radial vein is much less thickened and pronounced than in 
Walker's species, tlie tegmina not evenly rounded on apical portion 
of costal margin, but there more or less angularly sinuate, the 
oblique veins in radial area very much less connected, &c. 



Genus CHATUEBUJA, nov. 

Type, C. comma, Walk. 

Distrihution. Oriental (according to my present knowledge). 

Head (including eyes) much narrower than pronotum ; vertex 
broader than long, obliquely widened anteriorly, its lateral margins 
strongly ridged, almost situate in front of eyes ; face broad, its 



406 



FULGOEID^i:. 



lateral margins strongly ridged, and subobsoletely medially eari- 
nate ; clypeus long, obsoletely medially carinate, distinctly finely 
obliquely carinate on each side of anterior disk ; posterior tibiae 
very obsoletely spined ; pronotum continued to between eyes, 
where it is convex and slightly centrally sniuate, central carination 
obsolete ; mesonotum large, convex, obsoletely tricarinate ; tegmina 
broad, apically rounded, including both apical and posterior angles, 
costal membrane narrower than radial area, transversely veined, 
many of the veins furcate ; radial area with oblique veins reticu- 
lately connected, longitudinal veins beyond basal area more or less 
obscurely transversely reticulate, the transverse veins forming 
two ill-defined transverse lines on apical area ; clavus above claval 
vein transversely veined, beneath the vein thickly granulate ; 
wings about as broad as tegmina, with transverse and transversely- 
oblique veins in anal area. 

To be distinguished from Flatosoma, Melich. (type P. signoreti, 
Melich.), by the different shape of the face, venation of wings, &c. 



1999. Chaturbuja comma, JFa/k. (Poeciloptera) List Horn. 11. p. 447 
(1851); Stdl (Scarpanta), Of v. Vet. -Ale. Fork. 1862, p. 490 ; 
Atkins. J. A. S. Beng. Iv, p. i)7 (1886). 

Body and legs pale ochraceous ; apices of tibiae and tarsi more 
or less piceous ; tegmina saffron-yellow, with two short transverse 




Fig. 209. — Cliaturhija co)u~iua. 

piceous lines, the first above clavus, the second and longer on disk 
beyond middle, sometimes a cluster of minute piceous speckles 
above the lowermost linear spot, but these are inconstant, and in 
the type specimen are found on one tegmen and not on the other ; 
wings cretaceous-white. 

Length excl. tegm. 10 ; exp. tegm. 44 millim. 

Hah. Hylhet {Staviforth, Brit. Mus.). 

Melichar (Ann. Hofmus. AVien, xvi, p. 245, t. vii, f. 14, 1901) 
describes and figures a species in his genus Flatosoma as F. comma, 
"Walk., which is not that species and is probably not congeneric 
with it. The British Museum possesses an undescribed species 
from Borneo which exactly agrees with Melichar's figure. 



lech.t:a. 401 



GeDus LECH^A. 



Lechfea, Stal, Hem. Afr. iv, p. 236 (1866) ; id. Berl. ent. Zeitschr. 
p. 393 (1866) ; Atkins. J. A. S. Bern/. Iv, p. 66 (1886) ; Melich. 
Ann. Hofmm. Wien, xvi. p. 232 (1901). 

Type, L. dentifrons, Guer. 

Distribution. Oriental aud Malaj'an Eegious. 

" Tegmina furnislied towards the apex with one or two rows of 
transverse veinlets or with veinlets irregularly scattered through- 
out, and with very many or several longitudinal veins forked at 
the apex, the longitudinal veins at the apex rarely simple, if so 
the tegmina furnished with a single row of veinlets near the apex 
body cylindrical or compressed ; tegmina strongly decumbent 
face (seen from the sides) and gense produced in the middle 
tegmina very ample, gradually somewhat amplified towards the 
apex, near which it is furnished with a regular arched row of 
transverse veinlets which begins behind the apex of the clavus ; 
costal area transversely veined, some of the veins anastomosed." 
(Stal.) 

I only kno\\" this genus from its description, aud have therefore 
been unable to place it in the generic synopsis. It seems to belong 
to the division Phromniaria. 

2000. Lechaea dentifrons, Guer. (Poeciloptera) Icon. Reyn. Anim. p. 360 
(1843); Stal (Lecheea), Berl. ent. Zeitschr. x, p. 393 (1866); 
Melich. Ann. Hofnms. Wien, xvi, p. 233, t. iii, f. 2, a, b, c (1901). 

" Body dull yellow with an orange spot on each edge of the 
mesonotum ; face produced and enlarged towards middle, the 
edges strongly carinate, I'etlexed near the vertex, with the most 
produced portion furnished with two tubercles which (seen from 
above) form, with the angles produced by the carinations, four 
well-developed teeth ; antennae inserted beneath the eyes, the 
second joint protruding a little beyond the lateral carination ; 
tegmina slender, yellow, rounded, a little more darkly coloured 
near base ; wings white ; legs concolorous with the body, the 
anterior and intermediate femora aud the tarsi black," {Guerln.) 

Length, body, 15 ; exp. tegin. 51 millim. 

Hab. Malabar ( fide Guerin). — Borneo. 

I have not seen this species. 



Division CERYNIABIA. 

The Cerymaria agree \^ ith the Phrohiniaria in having the tegmina 
with, their apical margins (including the apical and posterior angles) 
more or less convexly rounded, but differ in their being more elon- 
gate and narrower than the wings. 

In the four genera here enumerated, the costal membrane of the 
tegmina is broader than the radial area. 



408 FULGoniD.i:. 



Sijno2?sls of Genera. 

A. Face longer, sometimes considerably longer, 

than broad. 

a. Clypeus with two longitudinal lidges on 

basal area Cerynia, p. 408. 

b. Ulypeus without two longitudinal ridges 

on basal area. 
a'. Costal membrane slightly broader than 

radial area, the latter with a few 

transverse veins Copsyrxa, p. 409. 

//'. Costal membrane much broader than 

radial area, the latter witli many 

transverse veins Hansknia, p. 411, 

B, Face about, or almost, as broad as long . . Bythopsykxa, p. 412. 



Genus CERYNIA. 

Cerynia, Stal, Rio Jan. Hem. ii, p. 68 (1862) ; id. Hem. Afr. iv, 
p. 235 (1866) ; Atkins. J. A. S. Bemj. Iv, p. 64 (1886) ; Melich. 
Ann. Hofmus. Wien, xvi, p. 218 (1901). 

Type, C. alhata, Stal, from Malacca and adjoining Malayan 
islands. 

Distrihution. Oriental and Malayan llegioiis. 

Head (including eyes) narrower than pronotum ; vertex elongate 
A\ith the lateral margins laminately elevated, transversely ridged 
a,t base, moderately produced in front of eyes ; antennse with the 
lirst and second joints subequal in length, the latter a little apically 
thickened ; face convex at base, the lateral margins laminately 
elevated ; clypeus long, with two curved longitudinal ridges on 
basal area ; pronotum tricarinate, the carinate area forming a 
raised plate which is continued convexly between the basal margins 
of the eyes ; mesonotum convex, tricarinate ; tibiae strongly sulcate, 
posterior tibiae long, curved, unarmed, tegmina moderatel}'' am- 
pliate, only slightly longer and a little narrower than \viugs, their 
apices rounded, costal membrane broad, narrower at base, and 
somewhat thickly transversely veined, longitudinal veins emitted 
from end of basal cell, waved and furcate, apical area crossed by 
two lines formed of transverse veins apparently dividing two series 
of numerous narrow longitudinal cells, clavus finely granulate, 
claval vein almost reaching apex ; wings broader and a little 
shorter than tegmina. 



:^001. Cerynia maria, White (Pceciloptera), A. M. N. H. xviii, p. 25, 
t. i, f. 3 (1846) : Dist. J. A. S. Beng. xlviii, p. 38 (1879) ; id. A. 
M. N. H. (5) xi, p. 172 (1883) ; Atkins. J. A. S. Bern/. Iv, p. 64 
(1886) ; 3Ielick. Ann. Hofmus. Wien, xvi, p. 220, t. xi, 1". 13 (1901). 

Var. a. Flata completa, Walk. List Hom. ii, p. 436 (1851). 

Var. b, Flata tenella, Walk. f.c. p. 437; Stal (Cerynia), Of v. Vet.- 
Ak. Fork. 1862, p. 490. 



COPSYBNA. 



409 



Var. c. Cervina rosea, Atkins. J. A. S. Benr/. Iv, p. G4 (1886). 
Var. d. lutesceus, Melich. Ann. Hofmus. Wien, xvi, p. 220 (1901). 

Body and legs very pale ochraceous, the anterior and inter- 
mediate tibiae and tarsi more or less black ; anteniue more or less 
speckled with black ; pronotum a little paler with a very slight 
bluish tint ; tegmina very pale bluish-grey and more or less 




Fig. 210. — (Jerjinia maria. 

greyishly tomeutose, with a small ochraceous spot near base and 
three short blaclv hues on posterior apical area, tlie lower one at 
right angles to the two u])permost ; wings a little paler than tegmina 
and more transparent. 

Var. completa, Walk. Tegmina with a somewhat large san- 
guineous spot near base, the black lines more pronounced, longer, 
the uppermost nearly crossing disk. 

Var. tenella. Walk. Tegmina with a somewhat large sanguineous 
or luteous spot near base, but the black lines less pronounced than 
in the var. compJeta. 

Var. rosea, Atkins. Tegmina with a roseate tint ; sanguineous 
spot and black lines as in var. completa. 

Length excl. tegm. 7 to 10 ; exp. tegm. 30 to 36 milHm. 

i/rt5. Sylhet. 8ikhim. Assam ; Margherita (Z)o7ier^/). Darjiling 
and Trivandrum (CoIL Dist.). Burma ; Karen Hills (Doherty). 
Mergui. Tenasserim ; Myitta (Doherti/). — West China {Pratt). 
Sumatra {fide Jlelichar). 



Genus COPSYRNA. 

Copsvrna, Stdl, Rio Jan. Hem. ii, p. GO (1862) ; id. Hem. Afr. iv, 
p. 237 (1866) ; Atkins. J. A. S. Bern/. Iv, p. 81 (1896) ; Melich. 
Ann. Hofmus. Wien, xvi, p. 223 (1901). 

Paramelicbaria, Kirk. Entomologist, 1903, p. 78. 

Type, C. macidata, Guer.* 
BistributioH. Oriental and Malayan Regions. 
Head (including eyes) narrower than the promotum, vertex 
with the lateral margins laminately elevated ; face very slightly 



* Mr. Kirkaldy proposes the new name Paramelicharia, type macidata, 
Guer., because previously, as type for Copsyrna, " I had fixed it as iincoidcs, 
Oliv." As Stal, however, had named the type for liis own genus, Melicliar seems 
to have foHowed the only course open to Jiiui in adopting it, as I also 
necessarily do. 



410 



rULGORTD^. 



ampliated posteriorly, the lateral margins strongly ridged ; clypeus 
long Avith two faint oblique longitudinal carinations at basal area ; 
antenna; with the second joint short ; posterior tibiae very finely 
spiued ; pronotum longer than vertex, anteriorly subconically 
produced between the eyes, posterior margin moderately concave ; 
mesonotum large, somewhat raised, the disk flattened and defined 
by the lateral carinations, central carination to both pronotum 
and mesonotum obsolete ; tegmina elongate, considerably narrower 
than the wings, apical margin (including apical and posterior angles) 
rounded, costal membrane very slightly broader than radial area, 
transversely veined, a few transverse veins in radial area, longi- 
tudinal veins strongly furcate and on apical area numerous, a 
subapical transverse line formed by transverse veins defining a 
close series of marginal longitudinal cellular areas ; wings much 
broader than tegmina, a few transverse veins near apex, many of 
the longitudinal veins furcate on outer area. 



2002. Copsyrna maculata, Gucr. (Pceciloptera) Toy. Belamj. p. 470 

(1834) ; Icon. Miyn. Anim., Ins. t. Iviii, f. 7 (1838) ; Spin. Ann. 
Soc. Ent. Fr. 183U, p. 425 ; Stdl (Copsyrna), Rio Jan. Hem. ii, 
p. 69 (1862) ; Melich. (part.) An72. Hofmus. Wien, xvi, p. 224 
(1901) ; Jvirk. (Paramelicbaria) Entomolo(jist, 1903, p. 78. 

Body and legs ochraceous, more or less cretaceously tomentose ; 
a central spot on vertex continued to a little beyond middle of 
face, eyes, two spots on pronotum, t\A"o long anterior linear spots 
and four posterior marginal spots to mesontum black ; apices of 




Fig. 211. — Copst/r)ia niaculafn. 



the tarsi piceous ; tegmina creamy-white, extreme base and the 
radial area suffused with ochraceous ; transverse linear spots to 
costal membrane becoming more attenuated beyond basal area, a 
few transverse linear spots to radial area, a number of irregularly 
shaped spots on disk to beyond middle, and tliree subapical linear 
transverse fasciae piceous ; wings creamy-white. 

Length excl. tegm. 11 ; exp. tegm. 26 to 36 millim. 

Hah. Sylhet {Jide Melichar). — Malay Peninsula, Java, Borneo, 
Sumatra- 



HA1^SE>'IA. 



411 



Geuus HANSENIA. 

Hansenia, Kirl:. J. JSat. Hist. Soc. Bomb, xiv, p. 53 (1902) ; id. 
Entomologist^ 1903, p. 79 ; Melich. Ann. Ilofmits. Wien, xvi, 
p. 228 (1901). 

Type, H. glauca, Kirby. 

Distribution. Ceylon. 

Head (including eyes) much narrower than pronotum, vertex 
with the lateral margins laminately elevated ; face longer than 
broad, the margins laminately elevated ; pronotum subconically 
produced anteriorl}^ but not extending to between eyes, centrally 
obscurely carinate ; mesonotum convex, obscurely carinate ; 
tegiiiina somewhat short but narrower than the wings, the apical 
margin rounded, the apex subangulate, costal membrane much 
broader than radial area, thickly transversely veined, radial area less 
thickly transversely veined, the whole tegmen from a little beyond 
base more or less reticulately transversely veined, a subapical 
transverse line formed by transverse veins extending to apex of 
clavus and defining a marginal .series of numerous longitudinal 
cellular areas ; wings broader than tegmina, an oblique vein near 
apex of anal area, two transverse veins near apex, and some of the 
longitudinal veins furcate on outer area. 

2003. Hansenia glauca, Kirbi/ (Pceciloptera) J. Linn. Soc, Zool. 

xxiv, p. 154, t. vi, f. IJ: (1891) ; Kirk. CHansenia) Entomologist, 

1903, p. 79. 
Hansenia pulverulenta, Melich. Ann. Hofmits. Wien, xvi, p. 229, 

t. ii, f. 3 (1901) ; Kirk. J. Nat. Hist. Soc. Bomb, xiv, p. 54 

(1902) ; 3Ielich. Horn. Fatm. Ceylon, p. 88 (1903). 
Hansenia kirbyi, Melich. Ann. Hofmus. Wien, xvi, p, 229 (1901). 

Head, pronotum, sternum, and legs very dark olivaceous, almost 

black ; head, pronotum, and 
mesonotum sometimes yel- 
lowish, the latter with two 
large blackish spots ; abdo- 
men and under surfaces of 
postei-ior tibite pale ochra- 
ceous, abdomen above with 
some transverse dark spots ; 
tegmina pale or dark viola- 




Fig. 212. — Hansenia (jlmica. 



ceous, the apical marginal area always paler and more promment 
when' the tegmen is dark violaceous ; wings greyish with the 
venation darker ; the body and especially the tegmina are always 
cretaceously tomentose. 

Length excl. tegm. 9^ to 10 ; exp. tegm. 33 to 35 millim. 

Rah. Ceylon ; Pundaluoya {Green). 

Some confusion has arisen in the identification of this species. 
Kirkaldy {supra) stated that it was synonymous with the Neotro- 
pical species described by Guerin {Ormenis imlverutenta). In this 
error he states {vide Entomologist, 1903, p. 79) he was followed 



412 



ruLGOiiiD.i:. 



by Melichar, who, however, in another part of his monograph 
{torn. cit. xvii, p. 70) again enumerates it under its proper gei)us 
Ormenis. 

Mr. Green has recorded that it sometimes covers the leaves of 
certain Eatjenin trees upon which the harva feeds, and when 
disturbed flies out in clouds. 



Genus BYTHOPSYRNA. 

Bythopsyrna, Melich. Ann. Hofmus. Wien, xvi, p. 224 (1901). 
Copsyrna, Kirk. Entomologist, 190-3, p. 78. 

Type, B. circulata, Guer. 

Distribution. Oriental and Malayan Regions. 

Head (including eyes) much narrower than ])ronotum ; vertex 
broader than long, the lateral margins laminately elevated, trans- 
versely ridged near base and a little widened anteriorly ; face 
longer than broad, its lateral margins laminately ridged ; pronotum 
rounded anteriorly, where it is finely centrally sinuate, its posterior 
margin concave ; mesonotum long, tricarinate, the area of the 
cai'inations forming a flat process ; tegmina somewhat elongate, 
a little narrower than the wings, the apical margin (including 
apical and postei'ior angles) rounded, costal membrane broader than 
the radial area and closely transversely veined, radial area reticu- 
lately veined, longitudinal veins furcate at a short distance from 
base, on apical area the longitudinal veins are very numerous and 
in many cases are furcate on the apical margin ; wings broader 
than tegmina. 

2004. Bythopsyrna circulata, Guer. (Poeciloptera) Icon. Recjn. Anim., 
Ins. p. u61 (1838); Melich. (Bvthopsvrna) Anii. Hofmus. Wien, 
xvi, p. 225, t. ii, f. 6 (1901). 
Pceciloptera dianthus, White, A. M. X. II. xv, p. 36 (IBl-j). 

Body and legs ochraceous, a central spot to vertex, which is 
sometimes continuous, with a central fascia to face, lateral margins 




Fig. 213. — Bythopsyrna circulata. 

to face (sometimes broad, sometimes extremely narro\\ ), eyes, two 
spots to pronotum, six spots to mesonotum, anterior and inter- 
mediate legs, and the tarsi of the posterior legs black or piceous ; 
tegmina creamy-white, extreme base sufi'used with ochraceous, 



FLATAJIIA. 413 

costal, apical, and posterior inargius (broken near middle of eosta), 

a carved longitudinal discal fascia, and an apical submargiual 

curved fascia black ; wings creamy-white. 

Length excl. tegm. 10 to 16 ; exp. tegm. 39 to 57 millim. 
Hah. Malabar {Brit. Mas.). Burma; Momeit (Dohei-t >/).-- 

iSumatra, Java. Borneo. 

The Malayan forms are a little darker in hue, with the black 

fasciae to the tegmina broader and less dislocated on costal 

marfrin. 



Division FLATARIA. 

I propose this division for a series of genera which have the 
apical margins of the tegmina trimcate and not rounded; the 
posterior angles of the apical margins are also always more or less 
subacutely produced. 

The Flataria are principally represented in the Ethiopian and 
Oriental Regions. 

iSi/aoi>sis of Genera. 

A. Head with the vertex more or less sub- 

acutely produced. 

a. Tegmina about, or nearly, twice as broad 

as long. 

a. Radial vein not emitting a longitudinal 

vein. 
a'. Costal membrane about as broad as 

radial area, the hxtter reticulately 

veined I'hyllypha.nta, p. 414. 

b'. Costal membrane narrower than 

radial area, the latter obliquely 

reticulately veined Pulastya, p. 417. 

b. Radial vein emitting a longitudinal 

vein at a short distance from base . . Saluenis, p. 418. 

b. Tegmina considerably less thau twice as 

broad as long Pulaha, p. 419. 

B. Head with the vertex broadly and mode- 

rately subconicallv produced Lawana, p. 420. 

C. Head with the vertex short, anteriorl}^ 

truncate or angularly truncate. 
a Costal membrane of tegmina smooth, not 
granulose. 
(t. Vertex of head about half as long as 
broad. 
(/'. Costal membrane of tegmina nar- 
rower than radial area .... Scarpantina, p. 422. 

li' . Costal membrane of tegmina slightly 

wider than radial area Colobksthks, p. 423. 

h. Vertex of head less than half as long 

as broad Daksha, p. 425. 

r. Vertex of head very narrow, almost 
only appearing as a transverse ridge 

iu front of pronotum Flata, p. 427. 

b. Costal meinbraue of tegmina granulose . Satapa, p. 420. 



414 



FULGOETD.I. 



Genus PHYLLYPHANTA. 

Pliyll.ypliauta, Amy. Sf Serv. Hem. p. 522 (1843) ; MelicJi. (part.) 
Ann. Hqfmus. Wien, xvii. p. 54 (1902) ; KirJi. Ilntomohgkt, 1903, 
p. 79. 

Cromna, Walk. J. Linn. Soc, Zool. i. p. 85 (1857) *. 

Type, P. producta, Spin., from the Malayan Archipelago. 

Distribution. Oriental aud Malayan Regions. 

Head (including eyes) a little narrower than pronotum ; vertex 
somewhat longly and subacutely produced in front, centrally ridged, 
its lateral areas oblique ; face longer than broad, smooth, its base 
angularly narrowed, its lateral margins slightly ridged ; clypeus 
moi'e or less obliquely striate on its lateral areas ; pronotum 
extending before the anterior margins of eyes, strongly centrally 
carinate, obhquely deflected on each side ; mesonotum long, 
obliquely deflected on each side, tricarinate ; posterior tibiae 
bispinose ; tegmina as broad or slightly broader than wings, 
apically ampliate, the costal margin arched and convex, the apical 
margin truncate, its posterior angle angularly or subangularly 
produced ; costal membrane about as broad or slightly narrower 
than radial area, the former somewhat closely transversely veined, 
many of the veins furcate, the latter reticulately veined, all the 
tegmen more or less transversely reticulate except on apical margin, 
where the veins are shortly longitudinal defining a marginal series 
of elongate cellular areas ; clavus transversely veined above the 
claval vein, beneath it coarsely granulate ; wings with one or two 
transverse veins near apex, many of the longitudinal veins 
furcate. 

2005. Pliyllyphanta andamanensis, sp. n. 

Body beneath and legs virescent with an ochraceous tint, tarsi 




Fig. 214. — Phi/llyphanta andamanensis. 

ochraceous ; head with the vertex centrally longitudinally paler, 
central carination to pronotum, carinations and anterior margin 
to mesonotum also paler in hue; face, body beneath, and legs a 

* Melichar (supra) has included Cromna, Walk. (J. Linn. Soc, Zool. i. p. 85, 
1857), as a synonym of Phylliji>hanta, but shortly after, in his Monograph 
(p. 58), he treats it as a distinct genus, incorrectly giving the type as C. per- 
acuta, Walk., which is really the type of Co/yar, Kirk. 



PHYLLYPHAJTTA. 



415 



little paler than above ; tegmina viresceut, the extreme costal 
margin a little ochraceous ; \^'ings creamy-white ; eyes fuscous- 
brown and situate on each side of the produced prouotum, the 
lateral areas of which are distinctly rugose or subgranulose ; 
mesonotum obscurely transversely striate between the longi- 
tudinal carinations, the lateral areas smooth ; face smooth, very 
faintly, obscurely, and abbreviately carinate ; tegmina with the 
radial and basal longitudinal veins a little prominent, the claval 
granulations very coarse. 

Length excl. tegm. 11 ; exp. tegm. 32 millim. 

Hah. Andaman Islands {Coll. Dist.). 



2006. Phyllyphanta albopunctata, Kirhy, J. Linn. Soc, Zool. xxiv, 
p. 150, t. vi, f. 5 (1891); Melich. (Pliyma) Ann. Hofmiis. Wien, 
xvii, p. 47 (1902). 

Head (including face), thorax above, and legs dark viresceut ; 
abdomeu, anterior angle of face, and the clypeus brownish- 
ochraceous ; tegmina virescent, the cellular areas more or less 
greyishly tomentose, particularly so near the radial vein, and 
more prominently so and forming two narrow discal fasciae, 




Fig. 215. — PliyUyplumta alhopimctata. 

the innermost oblique and situate a little beyond middle, the 
other near apical margin, the extreme costal and apical margins 
palely testaceous ; wings creamy-white, the venation a little 
darker ; vertex of head directed a little obliquely upward, the face 
smooth ; lateral areas of prouotum very faintly and sparingly 
granulose ; mesonotum almost smooth between the longitudinal 
carinations ; tegmina with the radial and basal longitudinal veins 
moderately prominent. 

Length excl. tegm. 11 ; exp. tegm. 30 millim. 

Hob. Ceylon {Green). 

2007. Phyllyphanta sinensis, Walk. (Pceciloptera) List Horn, ii, 
p. 451 (1851) ; Stdl, Of I). Vet.- Ah. Fdrh. 1862, p. 489; Atkins. 
(Flata) J. A. S. Beng. Iv, p. 7G (1886) ; Melich. (Phyllyphauta) 
Ami. Hofnms. Wien, xvii, p. 56 (1902). 
Pceciloptera cereris, Stdl, Ofv. Vet.-Ak. Fork. 1854, p. 247. 

Head, pronotum, and mesouotum virescent; margins and 



416 



ruLGOiiiD.i:. 



central carination to pronotum darker green; mesonotiim between 
the earinations pale testaceous, the latter and the lateral areas 
darker green ; abdomen, face, body beneath, and legs pale greenish- 
ochraceous ; teginina creamy-white with the venation Aery pale 
ochraceous, the costal membrane and apical area more virescent, a 
series ot" very small fuscous spots on apical margin extending to 
apex of costal margin and to apical third of posterior margin ; 
wings creamy-white; lateral areas of pronotum sparingly granulose; 
mesouotum between the longitudinal earinations smooth ; tegmiua 
with the radial and basal longitudinal veins scarcely or not 
prominent. 

Length excl. tegm. 8 ; exp. tegin. 22 millim. 



TJi^^^^^ 




Fig. 21G. — lVnjUyi)hanta shicnsis. 

Huh. Assam (fide Melichar). Ceylon; Yatiyantota {Green). 
Burma ; Ruby Mines (Doherti/). — Penang. Siam, Cochin China. 
Cambodia. Celebes (Coll. Dist.). China. 



2008. Fhyllyphanta ? angulifera, 7f "«//.■. (Cromna) Ins. Saund., 
Horn. p. -j7 (1858J : Atkins. (Flata) J. A. S. Bern/. Iv, p. 70 
(1886). 

" Testaceous varied with green ; head elongate, acutely conical ; 
face with elevated borders, not keeled ; face lanceolate ; thorax 
flat in the disk, \Aitli a slight ridge along each side ; pronotviin 
transverse, slightly arched ; tegmiua green, slightly testaceous 
along the interior border, with few veins and very few transverse 
veinlets in the disk ; marginal veinlets numerous, moderately 
long; costa convex for two-thirds of the length from the base, 
very slightly concave from thence to the tip, which is rectangular 
like the interior angle, exterior border straight ; wings white." 

" Length of the body 2 lines ; of the wings 5 lines."' (Wallcei-.) 

Hah. " Hindostan." 

I have not seen this species. 



PrLASTYA. 



417 



Genus PULASTYA, nov. 

Type, P. acutipennis, Kirby. 

Distribntion. Oriental and Malayan Regions. 

Allied to Phi/lh/pJianta, but diffei'ing by the much less produced 
vertex of head and by the tegmina having the costal mem- 
brane considerably narrower than the radial area, the latter 
having distinct oblique transverse veins which are reticulately 
connected. 



2009. Pulastya acutipennis, Ei'rbi/ (Phyllyphanta), J. Linn. Soc, 

Zool. xxiv, p. 156, t. vi, f. 6 (1891). 
Phyllyphanta dubia, Kirhy, torn. cit. p. 157. 
Flata cormitipeums, Kirk. J. Nat. Hist. Soc. Bomb, xiv, p. 53 

(1901) ; Melich. (Phyllyphanta) (part.) Ann. Hoftnus. Wien, 

xvii, p. o5, t. iii, f. 10 (1902). 

Body more or less virescent, legs pale ochraceous ; head, pro- 
notum, and mesonotum with a central longitudinal pale castaneous 
fascia which contains a central darker line ; tegmina pale virescent, 
becoming somewhat pale tawny towards apical area, most of the 
cellular areas very obscurely centrally greyish, the posterior margin 




Fig. 217. — Pidastya acutipennis. 



from a short distance from base to end of claval area pale brownish, 
aud thence to outer angle finely spotted with pale brownish ; wings 
creamy-white. 

Length excl. tegm, 8 to 9 : exp. tegm. 25 to 26 millim. 

Hah. Ceylon; Maskeliya, Kaudy ((7r6c?i). Tenasserim ; Myitta 
{Dohertij). 

Kirkaldy proposed the name of cornutipennis for this species, 
considering it was congeneric with acutijjennis, Walk., a species of 
Phylhiplicmta, and therefore was clearly preoccupied. In my view 
the two species belong to different genera, and hence Kirby's name 
stands. 

yoL. III. 2 E 



418 



FULGORID.li. 



Genus SALURNIS. 



Sahimis, StdJ, Ofc. Vet. -Ah. Fori. 
Hof/mis. Wien, xvii, p. 40 (1902). 



1870, 



MelkJi. Ann. 



Type, S. granulosa, vStal, from the Philippines. 

Distribution. Oriental and Malayan Regions. 

Head (including eyes) a little narro\^-er than pronotum, vertex 
moderately conically produced; face a little longer than broad, a 
little posteriorly and more strongly anteriorly narro\\'ed ; pronotum 
strongly subconically produced ; mesonotum long, tricarinate ; 
posterior tibiae A\ith one spine near apex ; tegmina about as broad 
as the wings, apically ampliate, costal margin rounded, apical 
margin truncate, its posterior angle more or less acutely produced ; 
costal membrane narrower than radial area, the first transversely 
veined, the latter obliquely reticulate, radial vein forked and 
emitting a longitudinal vein at a short distance from base, two 
lower longitudinal veins transversely united befoi'e middle, the 
whole tegmen more or less transversely reticulate, upper area 
of clavus transversely veined, lower area granulose ; wings with 
two transverse veins near apex, some of the longitudinal veins 
bifurcating out^\"ardlv. 



2010. Salurnis marginellus, Gucr. (Ricauia) Voij. * La Coqnille,' Zool. 
(2) p. 192 (1830) ; id. Icon. Regn. Anim., Lis. t. 58, f.6 (1843) ; 
id. Voy. Belaiitj. Ind. Orient, p. 467 (1834) ; Atkins. (Flata) 
J. A. >S'. Beng. Iv, p. 69 (1886) ; Melich. (Salurnis) Ann. Hofmus. 
Wien, xvii, p. 41, t. v, f. 6 (1902). 
Poeciloptera fimbriolata, St?d, Ofi: Vef.-Ak. For/i. 1854, p. 247 : 
id. (Phyllyphanta) t. c. 1865, p. 159. 

Head, pronotum, sternum, and legs ochraceous, abdomen dull 
greyish-brown ; head, pronotum, and mesonotum with two central 




Fig. 21S.— Saluiviis riiarginellus. 



contiguous castaneous lines, outwardly margined \vith paler cas- 
taneous ; face with the basal angle pale castaneous ; tegmina 



PULAHA. 419 

yellow or greenish-yellovA-, the margins pale castaneous-brown, 
the posterior margin spotted, and a distinct spot at end of davus, 
the cellular areas finely greyish, and giving the appearance of what 
Stal described as " subtiliter granulata"; wings cretaceous-white ; 
in some specimens the mesonotnm is narrowly bilinentely pale 
castaneous and gives indication of anotber more obscure linear 
fascia on each lateral area. 

Length excl. tegm. 7 ; exp. tegm. 20 to 22 millim. 

Hah. Sikhim {fide MelicJiar). Great Nicobar (Coll. Dist.). 
Tenasgerim ; Mvitta (Z>o7(er^?/).— Malay Peninsula. Borneo. China 
(fide MelicJiar).' 



2011. Salurnis miiformis, sp. n. 

Body and legs pale brownish-ochraceous ; tegmina greenish- 
ochraceoiis, basal half of costal membrane and the claval area 
a little darker and more brownish, extreine apical margin and 
outer thii-d of posterior njargin uarrowl}' pale testaceous, claval 
granulations brown ; wings creamy-white ; vertex of head a little 
conically and upwardJy produced ; pronotum with an obsolete 
centi-al carination ; mesonotum distinctly tricarinate ; abdomen 
above with some white cottony excrescence at base ; tegmina with 
the apical margin a little sinuate, the posterior angle shortly sub- 
acutely produced, radial vein emitting the first longitudinal vein 
at a short distance from its base, radial area strongly obliquely 
i-eticulate. 

Length excl. tegm. 8 ; exp. tegm. 26 milhrn. 

Hab. Burma ; Karen. Hills (Dohertii). 



Genus PULAHA, nov. 

Type, P. contracta, Dist. 

Distribution. British India. 

Head (including eyes) a little narrower than pronotum, vertex 
conically produced in front of eyes ; face much narrowed at base, 
less narrowed towards clypeus ; pronotum scarcely broader than 
vertex, anteriorly concavely produced, centrally carinate : meso- 
notum tricarinate ; tegmina short and broad, less than twice 
as long as broad, costal margin arched and rounded at base, apical 
margin truncate, the posterior angle acutely produced, costal 
membrane a little broader than radial area, the first obliquely 
transversely veined, its basal area rugosely reticulate ; longitudinal 
veins strongly bifurcating, clavus coarsely granulose ; posterior 
tibiae bispinose. 

2012. Pulaha contracta, sp. n. 

Body, legs, and tegmina uniformly ocliraceous ; costal membrane 

2e2 



420 



FULGOEID^. 




Fig. 219. — Pulaha contracfa. 



as seen from above when tegmina are closed appearing as a basal 

lateral projection ; meso- 
notum with the area of 
the cariuations forming an 
ovate slightly raised pro- 
cess ; in ,some specimens 
the costal area of the 
tegmina is distinctly pale 
virescent ; basal area of 
costal membrane and the 
clavus coarsely granulose, 
all the longitudinal veins 
to tegmina prominent and 

slightly raised, and more or less transversely reticulate towards 

apical area ; legs somewhat short and stout. 
Length inch tegm. 7 millim. 
Hab. Nilgiri Hills (Hamjjson). 

Genus LAW AN A, n. nom. 

Phyma, Melich. Ann. Hofmus. If'ien, xvii, p. 43 (1003), prseocc. Col. 

Type, L. Candida, Fabr., a Malayan species. 
Distribution. Ethiopian, Oriental, Malayan, and Neotropical 
Eegions {fide Melichar). 

Head (including eyes) narrower than pronotum ; vertex broadly 
subconical, moderately upwardly and forwardly produced, non- 
carinate, smooth, the basal lateral margins laminately elevated; 
face moderately convex, basally centrally very obscurely carinate, 
the lateral margins broadly laminately ridged, the apex slightly 
and the base more distinctly narrowed ; pronotum about as long as 
vertex, centrally carinate, the anterior margin cax'inate, a little 
sinuate, and produced to anterior margins of eyes, posterior margin 
strongly concave; mesonotum tricarinate; posterior tibiae obscurely 
spinose ; tegmina narrower than the wings, somewhat elongate, 
apically ampliate, costal margin rounded, apical margin truncate, 
its posterior angle subacutely produced, costal membrane nearly as 
broad or very slightly narrower than radial area, the former some- 
what closely transversely veined, the latter reticulately veined, two 
longitudinal veins emitted beneath radial vein, both forked before 
middle, nearly the whole disk transversely reticulately veined, the 
outer area of the posterior margin with close short oblique veins, 
upper area of clavus sparsely transversely veined, lower claval area 
finely granulose ; wings considerably veined in anal area, two 
transverse veins near apex, several of the longitudinal veins 
bifurcate outwardly. 

2013. Lawana conspersa. Walk. (Colobesthe.?) List Horn, ii, p. 440 
(1851); id. (Poeciloptera) Ins. Saund., Horn. p. 51 (1858); 
Atkins. (Flata) J. A. S. Bemj. lv,p. 72 (1886) ; Melich. (Phyma) 
Ami. Hofmus. Wien, xvii, p. 46, t. iii, f. 14 (1902). 

Body and legs dull ochraceous ; tegmina creamy-white or very 



LAWANA, 



421 



pale ochraceous, somewhat thickly sprinkled with small irregular 
fuscous spots, sometimes many of the short reticulate veins being 
of that colour, which give a narrow fasciate appearance, but are 




Fig. 220. — Lawana covspcrsa. 

not constant in character ; wings creamy-white, distinctly wider 
than the tegmina. 

Length excl. tegm. 10 to 14 ; exp. tegm. 33 to 45 millira. 

Ilab. Sylhet ; Assam {Brit. Mus.). Sikhim. Calcutta {Ind. 
Mus.). Darjiling {Coll. Dist.). Ceylon {Coll. Dlsf.). Burma; 
Karen Hills {Dohertij). — Japan {Coll. Dist.). 



2014. Lawana radiata, sp. n. 

Body and legs ochraceous (abdomen mutilated in typical spe- 
cimen) ; tegmina greyish with a faint roseate tint, and with two 
orange-3'ellow linear fasciaD radiating from base, the uppermost 
extending along radial vein, the other directed almost along inner 
claval margin, apical margin with its posterior angle distinctly 
palely roseate ; wings creamy-white ; vertex of head broadly 
conical ; face smooth, the lateral margins distinctly broadly ridged, 
the base broadly subcouical ; pronotum very indistinctly centrally 
carinate ; mesonotum with the longitudinal carinations well pro- 
nounced ; posterior tibiae very obscurely spinose ; tegmina with 
the posterior angle strongly somewhat broadly angularly produced, 
the posterior margin moderately concavely sinuate, apical angle 
somewhat rounded, venation fine, radial vein most pronounced. 

Exp. tegm. 47 millim. (abdomen mutilated). 

Hah. Cachar {Atkinson Coll., Brit. 31us.). 



2015. Lawana? bicarinata, sp. n. 

Body pale virescent, legs pale ochraceous ; tegmina pale virescent, 
apical margin (including apical angle) and outer third of posterior 
margin finely piceously maculate ; wings creamy-white ; vertex 
somewhat strongly conically produced ; eyes brown ; face convex, 
the lateral margins broadly ridged, the base narrowly conically 
produced ; pronotum with two central carinations ; mesonotum 
long, distinctly triearinate ; abdomen above pale greyish-virescent ; 



422 EULGOUID.E. 

tegmina with the apical angle moderately rounded, aj^ical margin 
straight, posterior angle shortly subacutely produced ; clavus 
coarsely granulose beneath claval vein. 

Length excl. tegm. 8 ; exp. tegm. 23 millira. 

Hah. Bhutan {Coll. DisL). 

This species, here included in Z«?yrt/!rt, differs in typical generic 
characters by the bicarination of the pronotum ; as I have, how- 
ever, only a "single specimen, and the thorax is rather compressed, 
I have placed it provisionally in the genus. 



Genus SCARPANTINA. 

Scarpantina, Melich. Ann. Hofmus. Wien, xvi, p. 243 (1901). 

Type, ^S. stigmatica, Melich., from Borneo. 

Distribution. Oriental and Malayan liegions. 

Head (including eyes) much narrower than pronotum ; vertex 
broader than long, a little widened anteriorly, centrally carinate 
and with the lateral margins laminately ridged ; face only slightly 
longer than broad, non-carinate, a little narrowed towards clypeus, 
which is somewhat long ; pronotum anteriorly subconvex, produced 
to about middle of eyes, tricarinate, beyond the carinate area 
broadly longitudinally furrowed behind eyes ; mesonotum long, 
convex, tricarinate, the carinations obliquely transversely united 
near anterior margin ; posterior tibise bispinose ; tegmina apically 
ampliated, about as broad as wings, costal margin arched and convex, 
apical margin truncate, angularly produced at posterior angle, 
costal membrane uaiTower than radial area, the former somewhat 
closely transversely veined, the latter more sparingly obliquely 
veined with some of the veins fui-cate, radial vein somewhat 
thickened and prominent, second longitudinal vein strongly fur- 
cate at a short distance from base, the whole area below radial 
vein more or less transversely reticulate, on apical margin the 
veins are shortly furcate, upper area of clavus transversely veined, 
lower area soniewhat coarsely granulose ; wings with two trans- 
verse veins on apical area, many of the longitudinal veins 
furcate. 



2016. Scarpantina bimaculata, sp. u. 

Body and legs ochraceous, the posterior legs greenish-ochraceous, 
the abdomen above more or less greyishly tomentose ; tegmina 
virescent, the margin very slightly and narrowly pale ochraceous, 
the radial vein distinctly greyish, two oblique slightly waved 
greyish fascise on disk, the innermost just beyond middle and 
narrowly reflected toward base along the lower longitudinal vein, 
the outermost on apical area, each fascia near its middle enclosing 
or nearly enclosing a small but prominent fuscous spot, a series of 
widely separated small fuscous linear spots beneath radial vein 



COLOBESTHES. 



423 



and some similar spots scattered above clavas, some faint greyish 
sutfusious on central disk near base, and some similar faint 




Fig. 221. — Scarpaniiiia biiiiacidata, 

suffusions on apical area ; wings cretaceous-white, slightly and 
narrowly ocbraceous at extreme base. 

Length excl. tegm. 10 ; exp. tegm. 34 luillim. 

Hah. S. India ; Trivandrnm {Brit. Mas. <5' Coll. Dist.). 



2017. Scarpautina modesta, sp. u. 

Body and legs pale ocbraceous, apices of the tarsi piceous ; 
tegmina pale yellow, with short scattered fuscous linear spots 
beneath radial vein and above clavus, two larger fuscous spots on 
ceutral disk of apical area, some very minute scattered fuscous 
spots at base and near apical margin, the extreme margins very 
faintly and narrowly pale ocbraceous ; wings cretaceous-white. 

Length excl. tegm. 9 ; exp. tegm. 32 millim. 

Hah. S. India ; Trivandrnm {Brit. Mus.). 

Beside the very different colour and markings which distinguish 
this species from the preceding (»S'. bimaculata), the tegmina have 
the radial vein concolorous and less prominent, and the posterior 
angle of the apical margin is slightly less produced. 



Genus COLOBESTHES. 

Colobesthes, A?ni/. cV Sen: Hem. p. .j22 (184.')); 
Hofmus. JVie72, xvii, p. 42 (1902). 



Melich. Ann 



Type, G. falcata, Guer. 

Distribution. Oriental and Malayan Regions. 

Head (including eyes) a little narrower than pronotum ; vertex 
about half as long as broad, obliquely widened anteriorly, the 
anterior margin bi'oadlv subtruncate ; face convex, a little narrowed 
posteriorly, the lateral margins very broadly ridged, a strong 
central earinatiou not extending much beyond half its length, its 
apex attached to a very obscure transversely curved ridge, and 
on each side followed by an obscure discal curved carination ; 
pronotum about as loug as vertex, centrally sinuate at anterior 
margin, which extends to the latitude of the middle of eyes, centrally 
somewhat obscurely carinate ; mesonotum tricarinate ; posterior 



424 



rULOOKID.i;. 



tibia) bispinose; togmina about as broad as tlio \vin<;s, apically 
auipliated, tbc costal margin a little rounded, the apical margin 
truncate willi tbc posterior angle subacutely produced, costal 
membrane sliglitly wider tban radial area, tbe former somewhat 
closely transversely' veined, tbe latter obliquely subreticulate, 
two longitudinal veins emitted beneath radial vein, the lower one 
forked at a short distance from base, tbe ujiper one bifurcate at 
about one-third from base, nuist of tbe tegmen is obscurely trans- 
versely reticulate, a distinct line formed of transverse veins near 
apical margin defining a marginal series of narrow longitudinal 
cellular areas : w ings with two transverse veins on apical area, 
many of the longitudinal veins bifurcating outwardly. 

2018. Colobesthes falcata, Ouer. (ro?ciloptera) Toy. Belanff. p. 4G9, 
t. iii. f. ■") (^18:;4): Spin. A)i)i. Soc. E7it. Fr. 18;59, p. 430; 
Ami/. vS- Serv. (Colobesthes) Him. p. ol>3 (1843) ; Atkins. (Flata) 
J. A. S. Beng. Iv, p. 71 (1886) : Melich. (Colobesthes) (part.) 
Ann. IIofm7/f!. Wien. xvii, p. 43 (1902). 
Colobesthes albiplaua, Walk. J. Linn. Soc, Zool. i, p. 92 (1857). 

Body and legs dull ochraceous : tegmina creamy-white, pale or 
dark virescent and sometimes fawn-coloured (the last probably due 
to discoloration), in the darker-coloured tegmina there is usually a 
discal cretaceous spot beyond middle, and the anterior and apical 




Fig. 222. — CoIobestTies falcata. 

niargins and tbe outer half of posterior margin at the area of the 
short oblique veins ochraceous ; Avings creamy-white. 

Length excl. tegm. 16 to 20 ; exp. tegm. 50 to 56 millim. 

Hah. Burma {fide .4/Z-i»«o3i).— Malay Peninsula. Sumatra. 
Java. Borneo. 

The produced posterior augles of the tegmina vary in length and 
development, the specimen figured above showing the minimum in 
that direction. 

Melichar has included in the synonymy of the above the species 
described by Walker as Pcecilopiera culdita = P. plana, AV^alk., 
which is not congeneric, an error the more strange as Walker has 
referred to a figure given by Stoll as representing his P. addita. 



DAKSHA. 



425 



Genus DAKSHA, nov. 

Type, D. mnrr/inata, AValk. 

Distribution. Oriental and Malayan Regions. 

Head (including eyes) considerably narrower than pronotum; 
vertex short, very much broader than long, its anterior margin 
moderately obliquely angular on each side, centrally cariuate, its 
lateral margins ampliately striated ; face longer than broad, slightly 
convex, its lateral margins prominently laminately ridged, with a 
central carination extending for about half its length froui base 
and followed on each side by an obscure curved carination, \\hich 
meet anteriorly and posteriorly, thus enclosing the distinct central 
one ; clypeus long with a central carinate line ; pronotum con- 
siderably longer than vertex with a distinct central carination, on 
each side of which the disk is anteriorly obliquely channelled, its 
posterior margin strongly concave ; mesonotum long, tricarinate ; 




Fig. 223, — DaJcsha marglnata. 

posterior tibiae with a moderately long robust spine ; tegmina 
ampliated at apical area, where they are as broad as wings, the 
costal margin a little rounded, the apex almost subacute, apical 
margin sinuately truncate, posterior angle acutely produced, costal 
membrane about as wide as greatest breadth of radial area, the 
former somewhat closely transversely veined, the latter obliquely 
reticulate, two longitudinal veins emitted from lower end of cell 
beneath the radial vein, both strongly furcate, the first near, the 
second before middle, all the veins distinctly transversely reticulate 
on middle disk, much less distinctly so on apical area, where the 
veins are close and longitudinal and mostly furcate on apical 
margin, clavus transversely veined above the claval vein, beneath 
it granulose, about outer half of posterior margin obliquely trans- 
versely veined ; wings with a few discal transverse veins, apical 
portion of anal area distinctly obliquely veined. 



2019. Daksha marginata, Walh. (Colobestbes) J". Limi. Soc, Zool. i, 
p. 92 (1857j ; Atkins. (Flata) J. A. S. Bemj. Iv, p. 73 (1886) ; 
Melich. (Nephesa) Ajin. Ilofmus. Wien, xvii, p. 106 (1902), 

Body and legs pale ochraceous ; pronotum obscurely virescent ; 



426 



'FULGORTD.E. 



tegmina very pale greenish-grej', their extreme margins ochraceous 
and the outer lialf of the posterior margin at the area of the 
obHque veins ochraceous, sometimes a small fuscous spot or 
fuscous suffusions on the posterior angulate prolongation of the 
apical margin ; wings creamy-white ; pronotum with the anterior 
central excavation subtriangular, traversed by the central carinatiou 
and with its lateral margins obscurely ridged ; mesonotum with 
the lateral cariuations curved inwardly before aiaterior margin, the 
area enclosed by the carinations slightly testaceous. 

Lei]gth exci. tegm. 10 ; exp. tegm. 40 millim. 

Hah. Burma {fide Atldnson). — Malay Peninsula. Borneo. 



Genus SATAPA, nov. 

Type, S. sicula, Dist. 

Distribution. Ceylon. 

Head (including ej'es) a little narro\\er than pronotum ; vertex 
much broader than long, its anterior margin a little roundly 
truncate ; face about as broad as long, centrally and marginally 
carinate ; pronotum scarcely as long as vertex, centrally carinate, 
posterior margin angularly emarginate; mesonotum very obscurely 
tricarinate ; legs short, posterior tibioe not spined ; tegmina short:, 
not twice as broad as long, costal margin strongly convexly arched 
and a little sinuate before apex, apical margin strongly truncately 
sinuate, the posterior angle broadly subaeutely produced, costal 
membrane about as broad as radial area, sparingly granulose, 
radial vein moderately dilated, all the veins pi'ominent, on apical 
area somewhat transversely reticulate, a submarginal apical line 
formed of transverse nervures defining a marginal series of cellular 
areas, clavus very broad, its basal posterior area very coarsely 
granulose ; wings with, the veins furcate near outer area. 

2020. Satapa sicula, sp. n. 

Head, pronotum, body beneath, and legs brownish-ochraceous, 




Fig. 224. — Sofapa sinda. 

mesonotum and abdomen above darker brown ; tegmina pale 
tawny-brown, the venation fuscous, an elongate greyish spot 



PLATA. 427 

extending from near apex 'of costal margin to about middle of 
tegn)en,this spot is outwardly margined with fuscou:^, the tegraen 
is a little suffused \vith fuscous at base and beyond middle ; wings 
greyish, veiy slightly tinged with pale fuliginous, the veins fuli- 
ginous ; margins of vertex finely ridged ; eyes piceous ; tegmina 
with the costal membrane sparingly coarsely graiuilose, posterior 
basal margin of clavus broadly obliquel}'' thickly granulose, the 
surface of the teginen is not flat but a little unevenly inflated, the 
claval connnissure being very pronounced and the clavus medially 
obliquely gibbous. 

Length excl. tes'm. 4 ; exp. tegm, 1?> millim. 

Bah. Ceylon: Vuttalam (Green). 

202] . Satapa granulosa, sp. n. 

Body and. legs very pale tawny-brown : tegmina pale tawny- 
brown, obscurely greyishly tomentose, especially on the veins 
which are very prominent, costal membrane and posterior basal 
margin of clavus very coarsely granulose, the disk very unevenly 
inflated, the costal membrane and clavus obliquely divergent, the 
first deflected, the latter reflected, apical margin distinctly darker 
brown between the veins ; \iings greyish-white, the venation pale 
brownish. Differs from 8. sicida in having the posterior angle of 
the tegmen a little less produced and outwardly recurved, the 
apical angle considerably less rounded, the costal margin less 
regularly convex and distinctly sinuate near middle : in the type 
specimen, which is here described, the apex of the abdomen is 
furnished with a long white cottony appendage. 

Length excl. tegm. 5 ; exp. tegm. 15 millim. 

Bab. Bombay (CoU. JJist.). 



Genus FLATA. 

Llata. Fabr. Eid. Sijst. Suppl jjp. 511 & 517 (1798); Stdl (part.), 

Hem. Aft: iv. p. 241 (18G6). 
Cryptoflata, Melich. (part.) Ann. Hofmm. ll'icn, xvii, p. 19 (1902). 

Type, F. ocellata, Fabr. 

Distribuiion. Oriental, Malayan, and Ethiopian Regions. 

Head (including eyes) a little narrower than pronotum : vertex 
broad and very narrow, almost appearing as a transverse ridge in 
front of pronotum ; face a little longer than broad, centrally 
anteriorly carinate, the lateral margins moderately ridged; clypeus 
subtriaugular ; pronotum somewhat broad, conically produced 
between eyes, centrally carinate ; mesonotum long, tricarinate, the 
lateral carinations obscure ; posterior tibife obscurely spinose ; 
tegmina about or nearly twice as long as broad, the costal margin 
a little rounded, the apical margin truncate, its posterior angle a 
little acutely produced, costal membrane about as broad as radial 
area, the former somewhat closely transversely veined, the latter 



428 



FULGOEID.li:. 



reticulately veined, two longitudinal veins emitted close together 
beneath the radial vein, both furcate, the first at about middle, 
the second before middle, the whole tegmen more or less trans- 
versely reticulate, a distinct subapical line formed of transverse 
veins defining a marginal series of longitudinal areas ; wings with 
two transverse veins near apex, some of tlie longitudinal veins 
outwardly bifurcating. 

2022, Flata ocellata, Fahr. (Cicada) Syd. Enf. p. 682. 1 (1775) ; id. 

(Flata) Ent. Syst. Suppl. p. 517. 2 (1798) ; Spin. (Pceeiloptera) 

Ami. Soc. Ent. Fr, 1839, p. 441; Genu. (liicania) Maq. Ent. 

iii, p. 224 (1818) ; Stdl (Flata), Hem. Fahr. ii, p. 107 (■l869) ; 

Athins. J. A. S. Benq. Iv, p. (i8 (1886) ; Eirh. J. Nat. Hist. Soc. 

Bomh. xiv, p. 53, t. A, f. 6 (1902) ; Melich. (Cryptoflata) Ann. 

Hofmus. Wien, xvii, p. 21, t. iii, f. 19 (1902). 
Pceeiloptera stellaris, Walk. List Horn, ii, p. 453 (1851). 
Pceeiloptera argiolus, Stdl, Ofv. Vet.-Ak. Fork. 1855, p. 191. 
CrvptoHata flavoguttata, Melich. Ann. Hofmus. Wien, xvii, p. 21 

(1902). 

Body and legs pale ochraceous or greenish-ochraceous, the pro- 
notuui and mesonotuni sometimes not concolorous ; tegmina very 
pale virescent, the venation a little darker, interspersed with small 
dull sanguineous spots, extreme edges of costal and posterior 
margins pale ochraceous ; wings creamy-white ; tegmina with the 



Pi^%-^ 




Fig. 225. — Flata ocellata. 



clavus somewhat coarsely granulose, the costal membrane slightly 
cretaceously tomeutose, the apical margin a little sinuate before 
posterior angle. 

Length excl. tegm. 8 ; exp. tegm. 23 millim. 

Hah. Tranquebar. Ceylon; Kandy and Kelani Valley (&V^en). 

I cannot separate the Ceylonese form, described byMelichar as 
■flavoguttata, from typical F. ocellata. Its describer writes : "Very 
like ocellata, but considerably larger (only 2 millim. in length) : 
body pale yellow ; two strong orange-yellow longitudinal stripes on 
pronotum and mesonotum ; tegmina pale yellowish or greenish- 
white with numerous large scattered orange-yellow spots; in 
ocellata the spots are very small and generally exhibit a dark central 
dot : otherwise like ocellata, and perhaps only a variety." 



FLATA. 429 

2023. Flata ferrugata, Fabr. (Fkta) Syst. lihym/. p. 50. 19 (1803) ; 

Sm, Hem. Fabr. n, p. 108 (1869) ; Atkins. J. A. S. Bemj. Iv, 

p. 08 (1880) ; Melich. (Crvptoflata) Aim. Hofymts. Wien, xvii, 

p. '12 (1902). 
Poeciloptera autica, Walk. List Horn, ii, p. 4o6 (1851) ; Atkitis. 

(Flata) J. A. S. Bemj. Iv, p. 73 (1886). 
Poeciloptera indocilis, Walk. Ins. Saund., Horn. p. 65 (1858) ; 

Atkins. (Flata) J. A. S. Beng. Iv. p. 70 (1886). 

I have coQipared the types of both species of Walker {supra) 
with the description given by Stal, who had examined the type of 
the Fabrician species of F. ferrugata, and agree with MeHchar in 
considering theui as conspecific. Stal's description is here repro- 
duced : — " Very palely sabtestaceous flavescent, here and there 
covered with a whitish powdery substance ; wings whitish ; apical 
margins of the last two segments of the abdomen, in $ at least, 
black towards the sides ; very close to F. ocellata, Fabr., hardly 
differing, except in coloration, unless in having the apical com- 
missural angle of the tegmina a little less produced and somewhat 
straight, not distinctly acute ; pronotum with a less distinct single 
median ridge ; head truncate, vertex very obtusely angulated 
anteriorly, concealed by the pronotum ; face a little longer than 
its breadth beneath the middle, gradually slightly amplified from the 
base to beyond the middle, thence on both sides obtusely rounded 
and furnished with an obtuse median ridge running through it, 
slightly impressed on both sides within the lateral margins, not 
tumescent at the base : pronotum with a median ridge." (Stdl.) 

In some specimens the tegmina are virescent, in others suffused 
with ochraceous or flavescent-testaceous, or wholly of that colour, 
or in some virescent specimens the extreme margins of the tegmina 
are dull ochraceous or testaceous. 

Length excl. tegm. 7 to 8 ; exp. tegm. 17 to 26 millim. 

Hah. Tranquebar. Kangra Valley (Dudgeon). Deccan {Day). 
Himalaya {CoU. Dist.). Ceylon ; Maskeliya {Green). 



Division NEPHESARIA. 

Tegmina never twice longer than broad, usually about one and 
a half times as long, the apical margin truncate, but the posterior 
angle not produced ; wings generally as broad, or nearly as broad, 
as the tegmina. 

This division comprises a large number of genera found in all 
the warmer regions of the world and our knowledge of it is at 
present very limited. To it belong many of those small Flatince 
which have a somewhat common facies, but which when the 
venation of the tegmina and other characters are studied are found 
to belong to the most divergent genera. They have been little 
collected, but are as interesting, and deserve as much attention, as 
the Micro-Lepidoptera. 

In British India alone a large collection could be made, and 
these remarks apply also to the preceding and following divisions. 



430 rULGOEID.'E. 

S>fno2)sis of Genera. 

A. Tegmina more or less discally trausversely 

veined. 

a. Tegmiua with two transverse lines formed 

of transverse veins on apical area before 

apical margin Melicharia. p. 430. 

b. Tegmina with a single transverse line 

formed of transverse veins on apical area 

before apical margin IIilavrita, p. 432. 

c. Tegmina without a transverse line before 

apical margin. 

a. Tegmina with an apical marginal series 

of longitudinal cellular areas formed 
by the furcation of the longitudinal 
veins. 
a'. Face tricarinate ; tegmina not cou- 

vexly arched at base, nearly straight. Nephesa, p. 434, 
h '. Face unicarinate : tegmina strongly 

arched at base Cryptoflata, p. 435. 

b. Tegmina without a regular apical mar- 

ginal series of longitudinal cellular 
areas. 
a'. Pronotum twice as long as verte.x: of 
head ; clypeus laterally transversely 

striate Nakta, p. 43(;. 

//. Pronotum a little longer than vertex 

of head ; clypeus not striate Uxxata, p. 437. 

B. "Whole discal area of tegmina without 

transverse veins Tejasa, p. 438. 



Geuus MELICHARIA. 

Melicharia, Kirlc. Entomologist, xxxiii, p. 294 (1900). 

Ormenis, Melich. (part.) Ann. Ilofmus. Wien, x\ii, p. 04 (1902). 

Type, 21. quadrata, Kirby. 

Distrihuiion. Oriental aud, probably, Malayan Eegions. 

Head (including eyes) a little narro\^er than pronotum ; vertex 
mucb broader than long, centrally and laterally strongly carinate, 
a little obliquely broadened anteriorly, the anterior margin trun- 
cate ; face broad with a central carination extending about half- 
way from base, tbe lateral margins very broadly reflexed ; clypeus 
elongate ; posterior tibia? witb two spines, tbe apical one short 
pronotum a little longer than vertex, distinctly centrally carinate 
mesonotuni long, tricarinate ; tegmina about one and a half times 
or nearly twice, as long as broad, the costal margin veiy slightly 
rounded, tbe apical margin truncate, tlie posterior margin nearly 
straight, costal membrane a little wider than tbe radial area, the 
former strongly transversely veined, some of tbe veins furcate, 
the latter more sparingly and somewhat reticulately veined, first 
longitudinal vein emitted from radial vein close to its base, second 
longitudinal vein from upper end of cell, both strongly furcate 
before middle, two transverse lines formed of transverse veins on 



MELICHARIA. 



431 



apical area, the outermost Dearly obliquely straight defining a 
series of narrow longitudiual marginal cellular areas, broadest 
near posterior angle, the inner transverse line less well defined ; 
clavus ^^ith very obsolete scarcely discernible transverse veins in 
its upper area, strongly granulose beneath claval vein ; wings 
broader than tegraina, with two transverse veins near apex and 
some of the longitudinal veins outwardly furcate. 

2024. Melicharia quadrata, Kirby (Pceciloptera), J. Linn. Soc, Zool. 

xxiv, p. ir)4. t. vi, f. 8 (1891) ; Melich. (Ormenis) Ann. Hofmus. 
Wien, xvii, p. 84 (1902) : id. Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 90 (1903). 
Melicharia. sinlialana, 7\.7/7t'. Entomologist, xxxiii, p. 205 (1900). 

Head (including face), thorax above, clypeus, and legs pale 
green ; abdomen, apices of tibise, and the tarsi pale brownish- 
ochraceous ; tegmina pale green, extreme costal, apical, and outer 
third of posterior margins testaceous ; wings creamy-white ; radial 
vein of tegmina strongly sinuate towards base, the venation to 
radial area being subobsolete on basal half ; vertex of head with 
the central and lateral carinations very prominent and acute, the 
lateral angles distinct ; clypeus with two central fasciae formed of 
short oblique testaceous strise ; central ridge to face very 
promiiaent, but scarcely reaching from base to middle, lateral 
margins broadly reflexed ; abdomen above with a short oblique 
black linear spot on each side of apex, anal appendage centrally 
linearly piceous. 

Length excl. tegm. Ih ; exp. tegra. 22 milhm. 

Hah. Assam ; Margherita {Dohertii). Trivandrum {Coll. Dist.). 
Ceylon ; Pundaluoya, Ivandy, Peradeniya {Green). 

2025. Melicharia lutescens. Walk. (Pceciloptera) List Horn. Suppl. 

p. 117 (1858) ; Stdl (Flata), Ofv. Vet.-Ak. Fork. 1862, p. 490 ; 
Atkins. J. A. S. Benfj. Iv, p. '72 (1886) ; Melich. (Paratella) 
Ann. Hofmus. Wien, xvii, p. 122 (1902). 

Body and legs ochraceous ; in fresh specimens the prouotum is 




Fig. 22(5. — Melicharia lutescens *. 
ornamented with t\\ o longitudinal central testaceous fasciae ; 



* In the above figure the transverse veins iu upper claval area appear 
far too prominent, they are practically obsolete. 



432 FULGORlD.i;. 

tegmiiia pale, shining ocliraceous ; wings creamy-white ; the 
mesonotum is somewhat profoundly channelled on each side of 
the central carination ; the face is less acutely centrally carinate 
than in the preceding species {31. quadrafa), but with the clypeus 
marked, though more faintly, as in that species ; tegmina with the 
radial area strongly obliquely transversely veined, the radial vein 
not sinuate- 
Length excl. tegm. 7 ; exp. tegm. 20 to 22 millim. 
Hab. " iS"orth Hindostan " (Brit. iMus.). Bombay (Coll. Dist.). 



026. Melicharia lactifera, Walk. (Poeciloptera) List Horn, n, p. 450 
(1851) ; Atkins. (Flata) J. A. S. Bemi. lv,p. 75 (1886); Melich. 
(Ormenis ?) Ann. Hofmtts. Wien, xvii, p. 98 (1902). 

Ormenis couflicta, Melich. Ann. Hofmus. Wien, xvii, p. 83 (1902). 

Ornienis pallida, Melich. Ann. Hofmus. Wien, xvii, p. 01, t. iv, 
f. 23 (I902j. 

Body and legs pale yello\vish-^^■hite ; tegmina milky-white, 
sometimes a little suifused with pale yellow, more particularly 
at the base and on extreme edge of posterior margin for about 
two-thirds from base ; wings pale milky-white ; face with a short 
distinct central carination barely reaching middle, the lateral 
margins broadly reflexed ; clypeus with brownish obliquely ti-aus- 
verse lines, sometimes very faintly visible ; tegmina about one and 
a half times as long as broad, apical margin sharply truncate, 
apical angle very slightly rounded, the posterior angle almost 
rectangular. 

Length excl. tegm. 5 ; exp. tegm. 21 millim. 

Hah. " North India " {Brit. 3Ius.). Darjiling (Jicle Melichar). 
Ceylon ; Kandy, Tatiyantota {Green). 



Genus HILAVRITA, nov. 

Type, H. trimaculata, Dist. 

Distribution. Oriental Region. 

Head (including eyes) a little narrower than pronotum ; vertex 
broad, narrow, truncate in front, the lateral margins ampliately 
elevate ; face a little longer than broad, centrally carinate for 
about half its length, the lateral margins somewhat broadly 
reflexed ; clypeus strongly centrally cariuate ; pronotum coarsely 
rugosely granulate, anteriorly convexly produced between eyes, 
posteriorly subtruncate, medially sinuate ; mesonotum raised, 
long, obsoletely tricai'inate ; tegmina about one and a half times 
as long as broad, costal and posterior margins subpai'allel, apical 
margin truncate with the apical and posterior angles rounded, 
costal membrane slightly wider than radial area, the first closely 
transversely veined, the latter obscurel}^ subreticulately veined, a 
transverse line formed of transverse veins before apical margin, 
not reaching inner margin, befoi-e which it is followed by a short 



HILAYRITA. 



433 



curved line beginning from near end of elavus, before the trans- 
verse line the disk is for some distance considerably reticulate ; 
posterior tibiae bispinose. 

Differs from Melicharla principally by the shorter tegmiua and 
by the subapical venation to same. 

2027. Hilavrita trimaculata, sp. n. 

Body and legs pale oehraceous, slightly here and there cretace- 
ously tomentose ; tegmina pale tawny-yellow, finely greyishly 
tomentose, with three large brown spots placed in somewhat 
transverse series before middle, the uppermost near end of radial 
area, the lowermost near end of elavus, and the central and larger 




Fig. 227. — Hilavrita trimaculata. 

spot a little nearer base tlian either of Lhe other two, between 
the veins on costal and apical areas the colour is a HttJe darker, 
and so are a number of speckles on basal disk and also the trans- 
verse subapical lines ; wings very pale fuliginous with the veins 
darker ; pronotum very coai'sely rugosely granulate ; radial vein to 
tegmina sinuate and a little prominent, claval suture considerabl}- 
impressed and the elavus n:ioderately obliquely raised and coarsely 
granulose. 

Length excl. tegm. 5 ; exp. tegm. 9 millim. 

Hah. Ceylon (Gi-cen, Brit. Mus.). 

2028. Hilavrita fatua, 3Ielich. (Ormenis) Hu})i. Faun. Ceylon, p. 90 
(1903). 

Head (including face), clypeus, and legs ochraceous ; pi-onotum 
and mesonotum black, greyishly tomentose, their lateral areas 
ochraceous; abdomen ochraceous, more or less transversely blackish 
and greyishly tomentose ; tegmina bluish-black, thickly greyishl}^ 
tomentose, the margins and claval suture pale ochraceous, with 
faint indications of three darker black spots arranged as in preceding 
species {R. trimaculata) ; wings pale greyish-violaceous, the veins 
black ; the tegmina beneath are much less greyishly tomentose 
and more uniformly bluish-black, the costal margin and claval 
suture being very prominently ochraceous. 

Length excl. tegm. 5 ; exp. tegm. 10 millim. 

Hah. Ceylon {Green, Brit. Mas.). 
YOL. III. 2 r 



434 FULGORID.i:. 



Genus NEPHESA. 



Nepliesa, Amy. S)- Serv. Han. p. 527 (1843) ; Stal, Berl. ent. Zeitschr. 
\\, p. 313 (1862) : id. Hem. Afr. iv, p. 237 (1866) ; Atkins. J. A. S. 
Beng. Iv, p. 82 (1886) ; Mellch. Ann. Hofmiis. Wien, xvii, p. 101 
(1902). 

Type, N. rosea, Spin. 

Distribution. Oriental and Malayan Eegions. Ethiopian? 

Head (including eyes) a little narrower than pronotum ; vertex 
broad, narrow, anterior margin truncate, anteriorly a little widened 
on eacli side, the lateral margins ridged ; face a little longer than 
its greatest breadth, ou its anterior area centrally and sublaterally 
carinate, narrowed towards clypeus, which is slightly elevated above 
the plane of the face ; pronotum anteriorly convexly produced, 
with a faint central ridge which is not quite percurrent ; meso- 
notum long, tricarinate ; tegmina more or less elongately 
subtriangular, the margins nearly straight, narrov^'er than the 
wings, costal margin about as wide as the radial area, sometimes 
a little wider, the former closely transversely veined, the latter 
more or less reticulate, the whole surface finely transversely 
reticulate, two longitudinal veins emitted from upper end of 
basal cell beneath the radial vein, both strongly furcate at a 
short distance from base, and ramifying into a series of closely 
arranged longitudinal veins which are closely and furcately 
cellularly arranged on apical margin ; wings with two transver&e 
veins near apex. 



2029. Nephesa coromandelica, spin. (Poeciloptera) Ann. See. Ent. Fr. 
183!), p. 440 ; AtJdns. (Flata) J. A. S. Beng. Iv, p. 74 (1886) ; 
Melich. (Nephesa) Ayin. Hofmus. Wien, xvii, p. 100, t. iii, f. 9 
(1902). 

" c5" , $ . Head, dorsum of thorax, and tegmina grass-green, the 

rest (including wings) of 
,...-„— ^ lighter green, veins 
deeper; second joint of 
the antennae, exterior 
border of the external 
^ flap and of the entire 
x--..^-^ discoidal space of the 

/;.,,/ ^^ , . '^\v' tegmina orange ; third 




:•>- 



joint of the antennae 
Fig. 228.— J\'<r/jAe.sa coromandelica. and its filament, spines 

on tibiae and the tarsi 
black." (S2yinola.) 
" Length 20 ; exp. tegm. 35 milHm." {Melichar.) 
Hah, Coromandel Coast {fide Spinola). — Java {fide Melichar). 
This is a rare species in collections and I have not as yet 
seen a specimen which 1 could absolutely identify with Spinola's 



CRTPTOFl^TA. 



435 



description. Melichar states that the type is in Signoret's 
collection, now contained in the Vienna Museum, so that the 
figure he gives {supra) may be accepted as finally settling the 
question. 

Genus CRYPTOFLATA. 

Cryptoflata, Melich. Ann. Hofmus. Wten, xvii, p. 19 (1902). 

Type, 0. ttnijtunctata, Oliv., an Ethiopian species. 

Distribution. Oriental and Ethiopian Jiegions. 

Head (including eyes) narrower than pronotum ; vertex short, 
broad, anteriorly a little angularly truncate, centrally and laterally 
ridged ; face longer than broad, centrally ridged for about half its 
length from base, lateral margins strongly ridged, con vexly narrowing 
to clypeus, anterior margin of vertex a little prominent above the 
facial base ; pronotum much longer than vertex, centrally pro- 
minently ridged ; mesonotum somewhat long and faintly tri- 
oarinate ; posterior tibiae bispinose ; tegmina nearly twice as broad 
as long, costal margin arched at base, apical margin a little 
roundly truncate, apex subangulate, costal membrane about or 
nearly as wide as radial area, the first closely transversely veined, 
the latter reticulately veined, first and second longitudinal veins 
arising from a common origin at upper end of cell, the upper 
bifurcating near middle, the lower one bifurcating much nearer 
base, tlie whole area more or less transversely reticulate, the veins 
somewhat regularly bifurcate at apical margin, forming a series of 
longitudinal cellular areas, clavus strongly granulose : wings a 
little broader than teirmina. 



2030. Cryptoflata guttularis, Wulh. (Nephesa) J. Linn. Soc, Zool. i, 
p. 160 (1857) ; id. (Poecilopteva) List Horn. Suppl. p. Ill (1858) ; 
Stxll (Flata), Ofr. Vet.-Ak. Fork. 1862, p. 490; Atkins. J. A. 8. 
Beng. Iv, p. 75 (1886) ; Melich. (Cryptoflata) Ann. Hofmus. 
Wien, p. 20, t. iii, f. 21 (1902). 

Body and legs pale ochraceous, more or less cretaceously 
tomentose, especially on the abdomen above and the body beneath ; 




-Cryptoflata guttularis. 

tegmina opaque milky-white, sparsely ornamented with black spots, 
the costal and apical margins obsoletely pale ochraceous ; wings 
milky-Avhite ; head with the vertex medially and centrally strongly 

2 F 2 



436 



rULGUEID.^i. 



ridged, the angles of the lateral margins anteriorly prominent ; 
eyes more or less su