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Printed by Hazell, Watson <S> Viney, Ld London ana Aylesbury. 









O INCE my father's sudden passing away in Jerusa- 
^ lem, in the spring of 1899, a wish has often been 
expressed for some record of his life. A period of ill- 
health, necessitating several months at home, while 
my husband was continuing his mission work with 
Dr. R. A. Torrey in America and Canada, seemed like 
a call to attempt the fulfilment of that wish. Remem- 
bering how my father shrank from anything in the 
nature of eulogy, I have told the story as simply as 
possible, knowing that facts will give the best insight 
into his character, and desiring that what is told may 
be stimulating and suggestive in a practical way. It 
is sometimes the case that those who shine in the eyes 
of the world are seen to least advantage in the candid 
light of home ; but much as my father was loved out- 
side, it was in his home that the genuineness of his 
Christianity was most fully revealed, and the private 
side of his life is therefore invaded with an object. 




From generations back he had learned to care deeply 
for family unity and affection, and there is no doubt 
that his life and work were greatly influenced by the 
strenuous example of his father and grandfather. For 
this reason it seemed well to give a brief sketch of their 
lives and activities, and thus to introduce some flavour 
of the vigorous Quaker atmosphere into which my 
father was born. The key-note of his life was love ; 
he was a genius in the art of loving. His love for God 
gave balance and sanity to his love for his fellow-men, 
and was the root of the true humility which was pro- 
bably his other most striking characteristic. 

His religious work, philanthropy, or business occupa- 
tions were never separated into cut-and-dried sections. 
Through every part of his life he sought opportunities 
of bringing souls to God through Jesus Christ. This 
did not hinder but rather helped him to pay wise and 
thorough attention to what is sometimes termed the 
secular side of things, and he threw himself with en- 
thusiastic ardour into everything which he undertook. 
There is not a day when the thought of him fails to up- 
lift and encourage me in all that is best, and the desire 
to share this helpfulness with others has made the 
preparation of this book not only a labour of love but 
of delight. 


My warmest thanks are due to the many friends who 
have provided me with reminiscences, letters, and in- 
formation of various kinds, and to others who have 
given kind permission to use illustrations. 


Moor Green, 

Birmingham, 1906. 




CADBURY ANCESTRY (ll66 1 794) .... I 



(1768 1860) 12 

JOHN CADBURY, THE FATHER (l8oi 1 889) . . 27 

boyhood (1835 18 43) 39 


SCHOOLDAYS (1843 l ^S I ) 5 I 


YOUNG MANHOOD (1851 1860) 77 

life's responsibilities (1861 1868) .... 108 




THE USES OF SORROW (l868 1871) . . . . 131 



HAPPY HOME-LIFE (1871 1883) *57 



NEW VENTURES (1878 1882) 184 



MOSELEY HALL (1883 1891) 213 



(1883 1891) 231 






UFFCULME (1892 1896) . . . . . 254 

BOURNVILLE AGAIN (1892 1898) 263 


WEDDINGS AND HOME DOINGS (1896 1 898) . . 277 


PUBLIC SERVICE (1892 1898) 294 


GOSPEL TEMPERANCE (1892 1898) . . . 304 


HOLIDAYS AND TRAVEL (1892 1898) . . . . 318 












THE LAST JOURNEY (1899) 398 





INDEX 43 8 


richard cadbury ....... Frontispiece 



TO GEORGE II., I7S7 * 8 



















MARRIAGE IN 1871 . . . 142 










VILLAGE GREEN, 1 885 2l6 














SAID, 1897 324 









THE FIRST GRANDCHILDREN, 1899 . . . . 390 









IN turning over the leaves of a biography, there is 
generally to be found on its opening pages some 
record of family history, and the doings of earlier 
generations. The moulding forces at work on a char- 
acter are always worth studying for the light they 
throw upon it ; and so it comes that when a man's 
life-story is made to pass before us, and for the time 
his interests become ours, we like to push back the 
curtain of the past, and make out the figures of the 
generations in the background, till they fade into 
the dim mist of uncertainty 

The life of Richard Cadbury is especially bound up 
with the past history of his family for an added reason, 
for it is to his untiring efforts and patient research 
that the present knowledge of it is due. In a life 
overflowing with work and activities of all kinds, he 
found time to compile a book which is now valued as 
one of the family's greatest treasures. It is a large, 
solidly bound volume, entitled The Cadbury Pedigree, 
and contains the details of family history, which were 



thus collected for the first time in comprehensive 
form. From early manhood to the last year of his 
busy life, Richard Cadbury studied the records of his 
ancestors with thoroughness and affection. From 
the registers of many a country village, from wills at 
Somerset House, Court of Chancery papers, or old 
Quaker records, by an extensive correspondence, 
and by personal investigation up and down the counties 
of Devon, Dorset, and Somerset, a mass of informa- 
tion and illustration was brought together to form this 
unique and fascinating volume. It is the source 
from which we extract nearly all that is of interest in 
these early chapters. The " Family Book," as it is 
familiarly called, is a veritable museum of genealogies, 
maps, original ink and water-colour sketches, sil- 
houettes, prints, photos, paper clippings, ancient 
signatures and letters, and many other interesting 
documents, all of which are thickly scattered over a 
ground-work of closely written matter in his own 
beautiful handwriting. Clearness, precision, and artis- 
tic instinct are evident in the careful arrangement 
of this store of varied material. Upon the first page, 
beneath a coat-of-arms and motto, stands a short 
introduction, requesting Richard Cadbury's successors 
to continue the chronicle of family history. 

The name " Cadbury " is of British origin. Cath 
or cad means a " stronghold" ; burg, softened into 
bury, a " hill." 

The name occurs several times in the south of 
England North and South Cadbury in Somerset, 
Cadbury in Devon, Cadbury near Clevedon, Cadbury 


near Yatton, Cadbury Banks in Worcester, south of 
Malvern ; each of these places presents exactly the 
same feature, an isolated hill-top of oval shape, more 
or less strongly trenched and fortified with earthworks. 
Of these the best known is Cadbury Castle, the steep 
fortress-crowned hill overshadowing the little village 
of South Cadbury, Somerset, a few miles south of 
Castle Cary. Here stood (according to many authori- 
ties) the far-famed Camalot. Phelps's History and 
Antiquities of Somerset states that 

This fortress has been the subject of historical notice by 
our early writers on antiquities some ascribing it to the 
Britons, others to the Romans. On examining the castle 
itself, no doubt can be entertained as to its origin, and that 
it was the work of the Belgic-Britons ; being one of a chain 
of forts communicating through the country. . . . This camp 
must have been nearly impregnable before the introduction 
of artillery, and was occupied first by the Belgic-Britons, 
next by the Romans, and probably by the Saxons. 

The historian Leland tells us l : 

At the very south ende of the chirch of South Cadbyri 
standith Camallate, sumtyme a famose toun, or castelle, apon 
a very torre or hille, wunderfully enstrengthenid of nature. . . . 
This top withyn the upper waulle is xx acres of ground and 
more, and hath bene often plowid and borne very good corne. 
Much gold, sylver, and coper of the Romain coynes hath been 
found ther yn plouing, and lykewise in the feldes in the rootes 
of this hille, with many other antique thinges, and especially 
by este. Ther was found in hominum memoria a horse shoe 
of sylver at Camallate. The people can telle nothing ther, 
but that they have hard say that Arture much resortid to 

About eight miles north of Exeter is another 
1 In his Itinerary, vol. ii. 46. 


Cadbury, of which nothing is now left but a few cottages, 
with whitewashed walls and thatched roofs, built on 
the side of the hill. The church which is at the foot 
of the " bury " has been evidently of some importance, 
for as far back as 1291 it gave its name to a deanery. 
In the Doomsday Book it is described as 4C XIEerra 
(lEtllelmt lie Poiilei Catltiune." Within the ancient 
entrenchment on the top of the hill Sir Thomas 
Fairfax encamped with his army in the year 1645. 

The surname of Cadbury was no doubt derived from 
these western villages, and every known family bear- 
ing the name can be traced to one of the three counties 
of Somerset, Devon, or Dorset. The Dorsetshire 
family living in and around Wareham almost certainly 
were descended from the Somersetshire stock. 

The first recorded instance of the name is that of 
William de Cadeberi of Cadeberi, Somerset, where he 
had lands under the Lords of Newmarch in the reign 
of Henry II. in 1166; and from this year onwards for 
four hundred years, there is mention in various docu- 
ments of thirty-three Cadburys, all of whom lived in 
the south of England and mostly in the south-west. 

A very brief reference to a few of these must suffice 
for our present purpose. In 13 14 an entry appears 
in a Latin document of Johannes Cadbury, who fell 
among the slain in the battle of Bannockburn. 
William le Mareschal of Cadbury received the King's 
(Edward III.'s) pardon for rebellion at Wallingford on 
March 28th, 1327. William Cadbury lived at East 
Stoke Mont acute (Somerset), and at the end of the 
fourteenth century married Margaret, daughter of 


Sir Robert Latimer of Pulham, Dorset. Thomas 
Cadbury 2 is returned among the gentry of the county 
of Kent in the twelfth year of King Henry VI. (1434), 
and at his death gave by his will 3 lands to maintain 
one lamp for ever in the church of St. George, Canter- 

During the fourteenth and fifteen centuries five 
Cadburys were incumbents in various Somersetshire 
livings, and as late as 1690 other members of the 
family served the Church of England in the capacity 
of minister and churchwarden. 

In February, 1604, a grant of pardon was issued by 
the Privy Seal to Richard Cadbury and others for 
piracy, 4 and from 1655 to 1680 several letters and 
papers appear from Humphrey Cadbury to the Naval 
Commissioners, Samuel Pepys, Captain Deane, and 
others. He says in one of these, " I have been a mast- 
maker at Deptford and Woolwich since the Reforma- 

Early in the sixteenth century a Nicholas Cadbury 
and his wife Eleanor made for themselves a home at 
Wareham, in Dorset. It was from this home that Sir 
William Pitt took his wife, Edith Cadbury, who was 
born in 1567 and died in 1633. The Cadbury coat-of- 
arms, quartered with that of the Pitts, is to be found 

1 Sir Robert Latimer was grandson of William Lord Latimer 
of Corby, Northants. In 1896, Jessie, eldest daughter of 
Richard Cadbury, married Rev. T. G. Clarke, rector of Corby. 

2 Fuller's Worthies of England, vol. i. 514. 

3 Halsted's Kent, vol. iii. 715. 

4 Calendar of State Papers, doquet February 9th and 14th, 


on the funeral certificate of Sir William Pitt in the 
Herald's College, and over the recumbent figures of 
himself and his wife, on the family tomb in the church 
of Stratfield-Saye a few miles south of Reading. 
Beneath is the motto, "Visunita fortior." It is this 
coat-of-arms and motto which Richard Cadbury has 
placed over his introduction in the Pedigree Book. 
The motto especially is of interest, as it was adopted 
and handed on by Richard's grandfather, Richard 
Tapper Cadbury, and is characteristic of the family. 
Generation after generation, a remarkably strong 
unity of affection bound its members together in 
loyalty to one another, and in the aim of extending 
God's kingdom upon earth. There is no doubt that 
this family unity added much to the force and 
influence of their individual work. 

On June 16th, 1557, the register of the parish of 
Uffculme records the interment of William Cadbury 
of that parish, and from this point onwards, to the 
birth of Richard Cadbury, the Family Book gives 
father and son for ten generations. For over two 
centuries the life of the family was centred around 
the little towns of Uffculme, Culmstock, and Hemyock, 
on the banks of the River Culm, which flows from the 
Blackdown Hills into the green valley of the Exe, a 
few miles above Exeter. At one time there were 
many prosperous woollen mills along the course of the 
river, and some members of the family appear to have 
been interested in the woollen trade. 

James of Hemyock, born 1633, married twice and 
had a large family. His eldest son, James, alone appears 


to have lived to have children, and from him are 
descended in two branches all the members of the 
family at the present time. The eldest son, James 
(the third in succession), went to live at Halberton, 
Devon, and founded an offshoot of the family, which 
settled in London, 1 and of which all male heirs are now 
extinct. Mark, John, and Robert, brothers of James, 
became members of the Society of Friends early in the 
eighteenth century, and from this point it is easy to 
trace the family history in fullest detail through the 
well-kept records of that religious society. In 1725 
the above-mentioned John married Hannah Tapper 
of Exeter, the following being a copy of the marriage 
certificate : 

Whereas John Cadbury of Burlescomb in ye county of 
Devon, Wool Comber, son of James Cadbury of Hemyock of 
the said county, Yeoman ; and Hannah Tapper, daughter of 
Richard Tapper of ye city and county of Exon, Wool Comber, 
have declared their intention of taking each other in marriage 
before several meetings of the people of God, called Quakers, 
in ye city and county of Exon, according to the order used 
among them, whose proceedings therein, after a deliberate 
consideration thereto (with regard to the righteous law of 
God, and example of His people recorded in the Scriptures of 
truth), were approved by the said meetings, they appearing 
clear of all other, and having the consent of the parents and 
all persons concerned. Now these are to certifie, to all whom 
it may concern, that for the full accomplishment of their 
said intention, this 29th day of the fourth month, called June, 
in the year 1725, they, the said John Cadbury and Hannah 
Tapper, appeared in a publick assembly with the aforesaid 
people and others met together at a meeting, appointed on 

1 Elizabeth Cadbury, the last of the name of this branch, 
died at Halberton, Devon, on December 31st, 1905, in her 
ninetieth year. 


purpose at a publick meeting-place, in the city of Exon ; and 
in a solemn manner he, the said John Cadbury, taking the 
said Hannah Tapper by the hand, did openly declare as 
followeth : 

" Friends, in the fear of God, and in the presence of 
this assembly, whom I desire to be my witnesses, I take 
this my Friend, Hannah Tapper, to be my wife, promising, 
with God's assistance, to be to her a loving and faithful 
husband, until by death we are separated." 

Or words to that effect ; and then and there in the said as- 
sembly, the said Hannah Tapper did in like manner declare 
as followeth : (A repetition of the same words, transposing John 
Cadbury for Hannah Tapper and husband for wife) ; and the 
said John Cadbury and Hannah Tapper, as a further con- 
firmation thereto, did then and there to these presents set 
their hands ; and we whose names are hereunto subscribed, 
being present amongst others at the solemnising of their said 
marriage, and subscribing in manner aforesaid as witnesses 
hereunto, have also to these presents subscribed our names 
ye day and year above written. 

John Cadbury and Hannah Cadbury. 
Richard Tapper and Hannah Tapper. 
Thomasine Cadbury. 
Richard Tapper, junr. 
Mark Cadbury. 
Henry Cadbury. 
Leah Tapper. 
Rachel Tapper. 

Below these follow a number of other names of Friends 
who were present. 

Through this marriage the Cadbury family was 
brought into very close touch with the apostle of 
Quakerism. Hannah's father, Richard Tapper, was 
one of George Fox's companions in persecution, and 
a small Bible which belonged to him passed into the 
possession of his great-grandson, Richard Tapper 


Richard Cadbury's copy in the Family Book of 
the miniature by Harry Gruth, 1737 page p. 


Cadbury, of Birmingham, who in turn left it to his 
eldest great-grandson, Richard Tapper Cadbury of 
Philadelphia, U.S.A. It is inscribed, in the hand- 
writing of the elder R. T. Cadbury, as follows : 

This Bible just two hundred years since belonged to my 
great-grandfather Richard Tapper, whose name is written in 
it. This dear ancestor was one of the converts of George Fox, 
and was imprisoned with others in Exeter gaol in 1693, as 
related in Besses' Sufferings of Friends, and I doubt not this 
relic was his companion. Many impressive passages are marked 
in it that denote a pious and serious mind. The Bible contains 
a chronicle of his family that I could not otherwise obtain. 

John, the wool-comber of Exeter, and his wife 
Hannah, had five children, all of whom died in infancy, 
except their son Joel, who was born in 1732. An old 
silver snuff-box, in the lid of which is a beautiful little 
miniature of Joel, when a child, was amongst Richard 
Cadbury 's special treasures. The miniature is painted 
by Harry Gruth, portrait-painter to George II. about 
1737. Joel became a serge-maker in his native town 
of Exeter. He married twice, Sarah Fox of Falmouth, 
and Sarah Moon of Bristol. John, the eldest son, an 
accountant at Teignmouth, had no children ; Joel, the 
second, a stockbroker and silk mercer in London, 
married Frances Brewster Fry, and had two little girls, 
both of whom died young ; a younger brother lived 
only eighteen years. The fourth son, Henry, emi- 
grated to America, married, and died at the age of 
forty-six, lamented by his comrades in the new land. 
An obituary notice states : 

It would be difficult to find in the western country a man 
who had the various powers of pure modern English more 


completely at command than Henry Cadbury ; in anecdote he 
was rich and overflowing, in satire keen. 1 

Again in a large family one son only remained to 
continue the name, in this case the youngest, Richard 
Tapper Cadbury (Richard's grandfather), whose re- 
moval from Exeter to Birmingham in 1794 marked 
the eventual disappearance of the Cadbury family 
from the south of England. 

On his mother's side many of Richard Cadbury's 
forebears were settled for generations in the hill- 
country to the north of Lancashire, and the whole 
of his ancestors, with one exception, up to and 
including his sixteen great-great-grandparents, were 
members of the Society of Friends. On both 
sides he regarded them with reverent affection, and 
when he received copies of one or two old Barrow 
portraits for his " Family Book," he spoke of these 
ancestors as " Those without whose love we should 
have had no existence." 

At the beginning of the eighteenth century the 
Society of Friends was at the zenith of its power. 
Fox was but few years dead, and a very large number 
of his followers had shared with him the abuse and 
imprisonment that formed so large a part of the be- 
lievers' heritage ; they had also drunk deeply of the 
wine of the kingdom that flowed freely in these 
days of persecution. While the Church was often 
content with the formalities of worship, these simple 
believers claimed, each for himself, the direct guidance 

1 The Supporter, Chillicothe, Ohio, April 28th, 18 13. 
8 See Appendix. 


and indwelling presence of the Holy Spirit. Spurgeon 
says of Fox : " He expected that God would speak 
to him, commune with him, cheer him, guide him, 
comfort him, chide him, and uphold him. He had 
inward communication from God, in the strength of 
which he went his way to suffer and to serve with all 
his heart and soul and strength." 

The Church of England monopolised the patronage 
of court and parliament, and included within its fold 
almost all the great of the land ; to be a Nonconformist 
was not only to endure the hardness of bodily perse- 
cution, but to be disfranchised from the privileges of 
civil life. The Quaker faith stood for reality, and 
the many converts that were joining on every hand 
were soldiers pledged to active service, ready to 
sacrifice all worldly glory in the personal devotion to 
a Heavenly King. 

For two hundred years and more Richard Cadbury's 
ancestors had been sturdy adherents to this faith. 
The temptation is strong to linger over the records of 
their lives, and to reproduce many of the incidents 
collected in the pages of the Family Book. This 
unique manuscript volume would provide ample matter 
for a book in itself, and some day another hand may 
attempt to do justice to it ; for our present purpose 
we must content ourselves with this brief reference 
to the early Cadbury family. 

* Chas. H. Spurgeon' s address on George Fox, Headley 
Bros., London. 


FATHER (1768 1860) 


Joel and Sarah (Moon) Cadbury of Exeter, and 
was born on November 6th, 1768. His mother must 
have been a fine woman, judging by her portrait ; and 
the father, whose silhouette is also in the Family 
Book, has very decided features under his cocked hat. 
He was a conveyancer, and has the bag-wig of the 
legal profession. From a letter written by Richard 
Tapper Cadbury when he was seventy-three years 
old, we can gather something of his reverent boyish 
affection for his mother : 

Sarah was the name of my dear and revered mother, known 
little indeed by the more recent generation, but whose memory 
is precious to me, and whose pious example and precepts are 
in my thoughts most days : indeed, I think I may say they were, 
under Providence, the stay of my youth, the guide of my 
manhood ; and her happy close, the result of such a life, the 
hope and comfort of my old age. I cannot dwell on her 
affectionate demeanour, her wisdom and her piety, without 
emotion. To these she added a most animated and cheerful 



mind. It was her lot to pass through many baptisms and 
trials. She never repined, but bent to the storm, and arose 
from it calm, resigned, and dignified. At a very early period 
she inculcated the love of virtue and true piety, endeavouring 
to elevate the mind above everything that was grovelling, 
mean, or low, and the avoidance of all society where these 
qualities were perceptible. It was not by any settled plan 
that my dear mother inculcated her advice and precepts ; but 
when she felt the subjects, she impressed them timely and in 
short emphatic tones, that indelibly fixed them on the heart, 
the truth and correctness of which was proved by time and 

The type of character formed in her son, by the 
influence of the mother in that Exeter home, was 
handed on as a heritage to his successors amongst 
others, to his grandson Richard. 

Young Richard Tapper Cadbury left Exeter as a boy 
of fourteen, riding on the top of a coach to Gloucester, 
where he served an apprenticeship to a draper. Moving 
to London, he lived for several years with Jasper and 
Ann Capper, linen-drapers, of Gracechurch Street. 
During this time, when about twenty-four years old, 
he had an idea of going to America ; perhaps the 
glowing accounts of the country contained in his 
brother Henry's letters may have helped to draw his 
thoughts across the ocean. Some of his friends 
dissuaded him from his purpose, and in 1794 he 
started a drapery business in Birmingham, in partner- 
ship with Josh. Rutter. Two years later, on 
October 5th, he was married to Elizabeth Head, of 

A couple of letters preserved in the Family Book 
give us glimpses of that long-ago wedding day. The 


first is from the bridegroom's father, who was pre- 
vented from being present at the marriage : 

Exon, October 12th, 1796. 
My dear Son and Daughter, Richard and Elizabeth 
Cadbury, I have felt ineffable satisfaction in the prospect 
of my beloved son being indissolubly united to a most amiable 
young woman, for whom I felt a paternal affection when I 
first saw her, and whom I now have a right to salute as my 
daughter. Whilst writing I feel fervent aspirations to the 
Giver of every good and perfect gift, for your comfort in this 
transitory life, having engrafted in your minds true and un- 
dented religion, without which all other things are vanity, 
and with which all the events of human life are sweetened. 
I had a great desire to have attended your union, but could 
not bring it about with convenience ; but my wife more than 
made up for the deficiency. 

Your affectionate father, 
Joel Cadbury. 

The other letter is from Richard Tapper's brother 
Joel, the silk mercer of Gracechurch Street, London, 
to the youngest sister, Sarah Moon (afterwards Mrs. 
Samuel Cash). 

Ipswich, October 5th, 1796. 
Dear Sally, I steal a few minutes from breakfast, just 
to iniorm thee (though I have much to be done this morning) 
that Benjamin and Maria arrived here last evening about 
8 o'clock, and we all supped together here, except John. 
Although this morning is not ushered in with ringing of bells 
and instruments of music, it refreshes us with its charms, and 
there is plenty of harmony in all our minds. Dick [the 
bridegroom] and myself are just returned from the walk we 
took yesterday morning. The tide is out this morning ; 
everything is arranged for the day, and we are to have a grand 
dinner. I intend to send this to-day, and after meeting or 
dinner I intend to write more. We do not seem all hurry here, 
but all seems smooth and comfortable. . . . 


Copdock Elf, 5 miles from Ipswich. 
Here we are, all assembled to dinner, and I write now just 
before dinner, with a room full of Friends in grand talk. 
We went to meeting in two coaches, with Benjamin's 
phaeton and Joshua's chaise. After two Friends had preached, 
up got Dick and spoke extremely well, and Betsy did her part 
feelingly and very audibly. After they had spoken, a solemnity 
covered the meeting, pleasing to be felt. Betsy and Dick 
are very well and cheerful. The company were as follows : 

Mother and myself ; 

Aunt Head and John ; 

Dick and Betsy ; 

Benjamin and Maria [here follow more names]. 

There were a few others unknown to thee. 

8 o'clock, evening. 
We are just returned from dinner ; a most sumptuous 
dinner it was, flesh, fish and fowl, game, hare, etc. The 
dinner was excellently served, well dressed, plenty of sauce, 
trifles, etc. Betsy has conducted herself with great composure, 
firmness, and sweetness. 

We are now just going to sit down to supper. All has been 
good humour, without excess of it or any extremes. . . . My 
mother is very well, and looks remarkably well. Benjamin 
is full of frolicks and roguery as usual. 

Dear Sally, thy affectionate brother, 

J. C. 

The Birmingham home, into which Richard Tapper 
Cadbury and his wife settled for the first three years 
of their married life, was in the Old Square. At 
that time it was a quadrangle of handsome and 
symmetrical blocks of houses, the enclosed space 
forming a garden, with shrubs and flowers, and 
stretches of green turf, surrounded by an iron 
railing. In this home their first three children 
Sarah, Benjamin Head, and Joel (the founder of the 
American branch of the Cadbury family) were born. 


In 1800 the family moved to a new home at No. 92, 
Bull Street. Up to that date the building had been 
used as an inn, but Richard Tapper Cadbury altered 
it, and had a part of it suitably adapted to his business 
as a silk mercer and draper. There were in all ten 
children, five sons and five daughters, whose long 
lives covered a century of Birmingham life. The 
youngest daughter, Emma, afterwards Mrs. Gibbins, 
who became a well-known figure in Birmingham, 
lived until 1905. She was one of the last to be seen 
in the dignified old Quaker costume, which added 
to the queenliness of her presence. The unusual age 
to which the members of this family lived is worthy 
of record. Richard Tapper Cadbury himself lived 
to be ninety-two. Only two of his children died 
young. The fourth little daughter lived but for three 
short years, and the youngest boy, Jesse, died when 
thirteen years old. The ages of the others were as 
follows : 

Sarah (Barrow) 



Benjamin Head 



Joel (of America) 






John (father of Richard Cad- 




James (of Banbury) 






Emma Joel (Gibbins) 



This made an average age amongst the eight of over 
eighty-one years. 

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In 1812, when the youngest little girl was a year 
old, Richard Tapper Cadbury took a country house 
in Islington Row. His children revelled in this rustic 
life. The older sisters, Maria and Ann, lived there 
to attend school, but when their schooldays were 
over they often went to town to help their mother. 
The younger children spent most of their childhood 
in the country home. On the opposite side of the 
road were cottages with pretty gardens, and across 
the fields old Edgbaston Church could be seen. A 
short walk away was the Five Ways Turnpike, from 
which the highroad led into the town. 

Broad Road, as it was then called, was a lonely 
country thoroughfare, bordered by trees and hedges. 
There were a few large houses, Bingley Hall, the 
home of the Charles Lloyds, with its beautiful avenue 
where the Prince of Wales's Theatre now stands ; and 
further on the home of the Berry family, which is now 
the Children's Hospital. Most of the way there were 
only cottages, standing away from the road in their 
gardens. After dark, people wanting to go out of 
town met together for mutual protection, and walked 
as far as the turnpike at the Five Ways, carrying their 
lanterns. Richard Tapper Cadbury and his wife 
were very frequently of the number, and often spent 
the nights in the country with their younger children, 
sometimes even staying for a few days. 

They often used to invite friends, needing a little 
fresh air and rest, to go and stay at the house in 
Islington Row; and at the quarterly and monthly 
meetings of the Society of Friends, the hospitable 



Quaker and his wife entertained parties of guests to 
dinner at Bull Street, assisted by their large family 
of sons and daughters. 

In 1818, Jesse died, leaving a terrible blank in the 
life of his youngest sister and playfellow. His short 
life was so full of loving happy faith in his Saviour, 
that Thomas Evans included a sketch of it in his book 
entitled Examples of Youthful Piety, which was pub- 
lished in Philadelphia in 1846. 

Long years afterwards, when Richard Cadbury 
built the beautiful almshouses at Bournville, one of 
the first inmates was an elderly woman who had been 
a servant in Richard Tapper Cadbury's family. Among 
her treasures is a slate which had belonged to little 
" Master Jesse." Thus are the tender memories of 
the old days linked with the present. 

In 1823, Richard Tapper Cadbury's eldest child, 
Sarah, married John Barrow of Lancaster, and the 
journeyings to and fro between the two households 
became very frequent. Coaches left the Hen and 
Chickens Hotel at 6 a.m., and only by travelling on 
till late at night could they reach Lancaster in the day. 
Sometimes the journey would be broken at Pendleton, 
near Manchester, where they stayed at the house of 
John Wadkin, a great friend of Richard Tapper 
Cadbury. Mrs. John Wadkin was a sister of Mrs. 
George Barrow of Lancaster, so their daughter Candia 
was a first cousin of the young Barrows. The knot 
of relationships was eventually very closely drawn, 
when three of Richard Tapper Cadbury's children, 
Sarah, Benjamin Head, and 'f John, were married 


respectively to John Barrow, Candia Wadkin, and 
Candia Barrow. 

Many of the coaching stories are forgotten, but the 
general facts are still remembered. The cold, wet, 
and great misery of the outside seats, the cramp and 
stuffiness of the inside, the rapid changing of horses 
at the post-houses, and the queer travelling com- 
panions that were thrust on to each other for many 
hours in very limited space these things could 
never be forgotten by those who went through 

In 1830 an incident occurred which illustrates 
Richard Tapper Cadbury's loyalty to principle, even 
in face of personal loss. It was in connection with a 
trusteeship in which his father, Joel Cadbury, of 
Exeter, had been concerned. Money had been ad- 
vanced out of the principal for educational purposes, 
but on the expiration of the trust the full original 
sum was demanded. Rather than submit the case 
to Chancery, Richard Tapper Cadbury replaced from 
his private purse the amount already expended. His 
generous action so roused the affectionate admiration 
of his stalwart sons and daughters that they resolved 
to present him with some tangible sign of their feeling, 
in accordance with the quaint, dignified ways of the 
time. They purchased a silver snuff-box, and had 
the following inscription engraved on the lid : 

To commemorate the settlement of Pearce's Trusteeship 
of 34 years' continuance, in which Richard Tapper Cadbury 
overcame injustice and malevolence by liberality and for- 
bearance, on the 15th day of 1st month, 1830. From his 
dutiful children. 


This little episode gives a charming peep into the unity 
and love that pervaded that large family, in which 
both parents and children strove to encourage and 
uplift each other in all that was good. " Noblesse 
oblige " was surely the motto they lived by- 

During these years the business in Bull Street had 
been prospering. Fashion must have been tyrannical, 
for when the huge gigot sleeves, stuffed with feather 
pillows, began to be worn, Richard Tapper Cadbury 
had to have his shop door widened to admit the ladies. 
Elizabeth Fry was one of his customers. Her journal 
tells how in her early married life she ventured to 
establish a system of Bible reading among her husband's 
employes. She may have known of Richard Tapper 
Cadbury's habit of assembling his workpeople, down 
to the youngest errand-boy, for a Scripture reading 
every Tuesday morning. To do this, even weekly, 
was remarkable in those days. 

The windows of the shop were dressed with 
beautiful silks, draped over tall Oriental jars. The 
firm suffered much from depredations, their goods 
being so valuable. After repeated losses, notice 
was given that the next thief caught should be 
vigorously prosecuted. Very soon a woman was 
found carrying off a roll of costly silk under her cloak. 
Given in charge, she was tried at the assizes, and 
Richard Tapper Cadbury attended the trial, when 
she was convicted. A grandchild remembers him tell, 
with deep feeling, how overwhelmed he was when he 
heard the judge pronounce sentence of death. " I 
had never realised what it would be," he said. u I 


was appalled ; and at once, without delay, I posted 
to the Home Office, got the woman reprieved, and her 
punishment changed to transportation." The interval 
between trial and execution was often so short in 
those awful days, that all his speed was probably 
needed to bring the reprieve in time. The severity 
of the punishment was out of all proportion to the 
crime committed, and this incident makes one realise 
how recently British law has emerged from a system 
which was not only cruel and unjust, but tended to 
increase the very evils that it aimed at repressing. 

In those days, before the dawn of the temperance 
movement, there was a great deal of sociable taking 
of wine, and at the end of the shop a part was curtained 
off, where customers were asked to go and get refresh- 
ments. With such customs surrounding him, it is 
all the more interesting to notice the force of character 
which enabled Richard Tapper Cadbury to shake 
himself free, and become one of the earliest enthusiasts 
in the cause of temperance. It was at first most un- 
popular, but that could not hinder the fine old Quaker 
from throwing his whole heart into it, the moment he 
was convinced. He was among the first to pledge 
himself against the use of " ardent spirits." Later 
on the seven men of Preston came to the town, and were 
invited to visit at his home. From them he learnt 
many facts regarding the evils of intemperance, and 
his strong sense of justice and earnest desire for 
personal and national righteousness were deeply 
touched. Owing finally to the persuasion and coura- 
geous example of his son John, who had already 


taken a bold stand, Richard Tapper soon gave 
up taking either wine or beer, and discountenanced 
the use of all intoxicating drinks during the last 
twenty years of his life. His wife before long also 
joined the ranks of the total abstainers. In spite of 
the remonstrances of medical and other friends, who 
predicted the most serious consequences from rigid 
abstinence at his advanced period of life, Richard 
Tapper Cadbury steadfastly adhered to his resolution, 
and used to say that he believed it had done much 
towards ensuring to him the blessings of a healthy 
old age. 

In 1832, having already retired from business, he 
gave up his house in the town and removed to Cal- 
thorpe Road (now No. 58), in Edgbaston. By this 
time the children were scattered. Sarah had married 
John Barrow and was living in Lancaster. Benjamin 
Head, with his wife Candia (Wadkin), settled into 
the old home in Bull Street, and took over his father's 
business. John had for eight years been carrying 
on a tea and coffee business in Bull Street, and was 
in this year married to Candia Barrow of Lancaster. 
Joel had already been in America for sixteen years, 
and he too was married and settled in a home of his 
own in Philadelphia. The family at Calthorpe Road 
now consisted of three daughters, and James, who was 
in business with his brother Benjamin. 

The new garden was a great joy to them all. Flowers 
and fruits flourished, and the peaches, which attained 
great perfection on the walls, took a prize when ex- 
hibited at the Botanical Gardens' Show. 


The last twenty-eight years of Richard Tapper 
Cadbury's life were spent in this home. Most of the 
time only Maria and Ann were left with their parents ; 
for James married Lucretia Sturge (a sister of Joseph 
Sturge) and went to live in Banbury ; while Emma 
was married to Thomas Gibbins, of Birmingham. 

The death of Richard Tapper Cadbury's wife pre- 
ceded his own by nine years. Up to the very end, 
the energetic old man took a keen interest in the career 
of every member of his large family circle. Every 
Friday the sons and daughters living in Birmingham 
met at their parents' house for dinner, and they and 
the grandchildren could always find easy access, for the 
door key was hung outside where they could reach it. 
By means of letters and occasional visits he kept in 
close touch, also, with those of his family in Banbury 
and Lancaster, and further away across the Atlantic. 

While still a young man, with the weight of a large 
and growing business on his shoulders, and a com- 
parative stranger in the town, Richard Tapper Cadbury 
had thrown himself heartily into public life. He 
was an Overseer of the Poor in the disastrous year 
1800 ; bread was then is. lo^d. the quartern loaf, 
and such was the distress, that no fewer than twenty- 
two distinct poor rates, it is said, were levied within 
twelve months, aggregating 13s. 6d. in the pound. 
On the termination of his year of office he became 
one of the Guardians of the Poor, and soon won a 
reputation for activity, regularity, soundness of 
judgment, and high integrity. In 1822 he accepted 
an appointment on the Board of Commissioners, the 


then ruling authority in Birmingham, and was elected 
Chairman in 1836. He maintained this position till 
1851, when the Board was dissolved by Act of Parlia- 
ment, and its responsibilities and authority handed 
over to the newly constituted Town Council and 
Mayor. During the long period in which he held office, 
the town increased at a rate that was without pre- 
cedent in the provinces, the population having 
trebled in the interval. The work and authority of 
the Commissioners necessarily involved very serious 

The final meeting of the Board, held on the last day 
of 1 85 1, is described as a very interesting scene. The 
venerable Chairman, who was then in his eighty-third 
year, presided ; his colleagues, all of them staid men, 
had reached middle age some of them had left it far 
behind them. With one or two exceptions every 
Commissioner was present, and there was a degree of 
quietness almost amounting to solemnity in the pro- 
ceedings. The last recorded minute of a body, which, 
for nearly a century, had controlled the affairs of the 
town, is an appreciative tribute to the work and worth 
of their Chairman. " The Commissioners present at 
this, the last of their meetings, desire to. express to 
their venerable and much-respected Chairman the 
gratification they feel that his health has been in such 
a measure continued to him as to enable him to preside 
up to the very close of his duties. They offer him 
their grateful thanks for his uniform courtesy and 
kindness, and review with deep interest the services he 
has rendered, during the long period he has acted as 



one of the Commissioners of the Birmingham Street 

Richard Tapper Cadbury's active work did not cease, 
however, with this severance of his official relation 
with the public life of the town. He was Chairman 
of the " Birmingham Fire Office " up to the time of 
his death. The General Hospital and Dispensary, 
the Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb, the Blind Asylum, 
the Infants' School Society, the Eye Infirmary, and the 
Children's Hospital, still benefited by his interest in 
their welfare. 

He was one of the earliest promoters of the Birming- 
ham Auxiliary of the Bible Society (the first formed 
in the provinces), and to the close of his life he felt a 
deep and anxious interest for the wide circulation of 
the Holy Scriptures without note or comment. In 
addition to these labours, he took an active part in the 
efforts for bringing about the suppression of the slave 
trade, and the abolition of slavery. 

Richard Tapper Cadbury was the subject of the first 
biographical sketch in the first number of Edgbastonia, 
a Birmingham magazine, inaugurated in May, 1881. 
At its close, the writer adds : 

To within a few weeks of the close of his life, his figure was 
a familiar one in our streets. He adhered to the formal 
simplicity of " cut " characteristic of the attire of the members 
of the Society of Friends, but was always carefully, and even 
smartly, dressed : his tightly fastened coat having invariably 
a flower in its button-hole. Few people met him without 
raising the hat in token of respect. He was greatly esteemed 
by his co-religionists, over whom his influence was so geat 
that, amongst them, he was usually spoken of as " King 
Richard." His death occurred when he was in his ninety- 


second year, and he was buried in the simple graveyard of 
the Friends in Bull Street ; the shops in the thoroughfare were 
closed as the funeral cortege passed, as a mark of respect for 
a man who had been one of its principal traders before its 
then oldest inhabitant was born. 

One of his contemporaries, in a descriptive sketch, 
says : 

His commanding presence, his great capacity, and his 
clearness of thought and speech more than justified the 
prominence he had attained. That he was very dignified 
in his bearing, bold in speech and action, somewhat dogmatic 
perhaps in manner, and occasionally obstinate in enforcing 
his own views, was generally admitted. But these qualities 
were more than counterbalanced by his unvarying courtesy 
and undeviating kindness, which made him very popular 
with all classes of his fellow citizens. Indeed, it is the lot of 
few men to retain, as he did, his influence over his fellows 
to the very last days of an unusually prolonged life. 

A notice that appeared in one of the public journals, 1 
at the time of Richard Tapper Cadbury's death in 
March, i860, closes thus : 

In concluding this sketch, we can hardly pass over the 
happiness that existed in Mr. Cadbury's domestic relations ; 
diffusing as he did by his bright and cheerful tone and con- 
sistent example, by his uniform kindness and sympathy, an 
attractiveness which drew to him as a centre, not only his own 
children, but his numerous grandchildren, who always found 
ready and easy access to him, and enjoyed the privilege of 
sharing in his affections, and listening to his valued counsels, 
the fruit of prolonged experience. At the close of his life he 
had the privilege of witnessing his numerous surviving children 
and forty grandchildren and great-grandchildren closely 
united in one unbroken bond of unity and affection. Thus 
passed away from us an honoured citizen, a beloved parent, 
and a Christian man. 

1 Aris's Gazette. 



JOHN CADBURY was born in Bull Street, 
Birmingham, on August 12th, 1801. He was 
the third son and fifth child of Richard Tapper 
Cadbury. His brother Joel, two years older than him- 
self, was his special companion in boyhood. Both were 
high-spirited, warm hearted and affectionate, and 
their father thought it well to develop their energy. 
Joel was therefore sent out to his Uncle Warder in 
Philadelphia, when about fifteen ; and a year later 
John was sent to be apprenticed for seven years in the 
grocery business, to a Friend at Leeds named John 
Cud worth. Whilst there he was introduced into a 
circle of the Society of Friends, and made many 
friendships amongst them. Being fond of music, he 
learnt to play the German flute. At that time the 
study of music was not considered consistent with the 
principles of Friends, on account of its very usual 



connection with various forms of worldly amusements. 
Later on, in deference to his father's wish, John gave 
up his favourite recreation, though he loved to hear 
music all his life. This fact is characteristic of the 
man who fearlessly stood alone, if need be, in any 
matter where his conscience was concerned, but who 
was always ready to yield, in matters of personal 
preference or enjoyment, to the conscientious scruples 
of others. 

His aunt, Sarah Moon Cash, gives a word-picture of 
him at this time : 

John is grown a fine youth ; he possesses a fine open coun- 
tenance, is vigorous in body and mind, desires to render himself 
useful in the business or in any other way ; he possesses a 
strong, athletic form, with energetic powers of mind ; he 
appears very amiable, but his character is not yet formed. 

From Leeds he was sent by his father to London, 
for a year's experience in the bonded tea-houses ; 
and in 1824, when he was twenty-three years old, 
came the venture in Bull Street. With character- 
istic liberality and brevity his father had placed 
some money at his disposal, telling him that with 
that he must sink or swim, as he had a family of ten 
children to care for. To John's credit be it said, he 
used his capital so wisely that he never had occasion 
to ask his father for further help. 

In the conduct of his business as a tea and coffee 
dealer, he was as shrewd as he was painstaking. He 
was amongst the first tradesmen in the town to intro- 
duce shop fronts with plate-glass windows in mahogany 
frames. People would often come for miles to see 


them. He was particular to have his windows bright 
and attractively arranged, as well as clean. The 
passer-by in the early morning might often see the 
master himself superintending and helping in the task. 
His industrious attention to business compelled the 
admiration of his neighbours, and more than one was 
known to say, " That young man is sure to get on." 

That he was a man of some " presence and spirit " 
may be gathered from an incident of the old coaching 
days told to his son Richard, who has recorded it in 
the Family Book : 

He was travelling in the mail-coach to London ; when they 
were a few miles past Dunchurch a wheel came off the coach. 
In this dilemma he at once volunteered to return to Dunchurch, 
where he ordered a post-chaise and four to be sent on to the 
coach, and a chaise and pair for himself and the only other 
passengers. So they dashed off first with the chaise and pair, 
and by " putting on the official " every one made way for 
them. If the toll-man did not at once open the gates, John 
Cadbury threatened to report him, as they were bound on 
" King's business." At the towns they passed through they 
ordered a post-chaise and four to be ready for the mail which 
followed, and a fresh pair of horses for themselves, and thus 
they went about seventy-five miles to London. Such was the 
speed at which they travelled that they were only an hour and 
a half behind the time. Nothing was paid for on the road, 
every one making way for them, but not without some opposi- 
tion, which, however, a little judicious threatening dispelled. 
On his arrival he at once made his way to the Post Office, 
where he received the thanks of the authorities. 

In the March of 1826 John Cadbury married Priscilla 
Ann Dymond, of Exeter. She was a sister of Jona- 
than Dymond, the author of Essays on the Principles 
of Morality, a book which has passed through ten 


editions in England, and has also found much favour 
in America. John Cadbury was a frequent visitor 
in the family at the time the Essays were being 
written. Most of the work was composed by 
Jonathan Dymond while at his desk, during business 
hours, and in the evening he would take the sheets 
he had written, and read them over to his future 
brother-in-law for approval. 

After barely two years of married life, Priscilla 
died, and John Cadbury was left lonely in his new 
home. The sorrow, which in some natures leads to 
self-pity and lessened usefulness, was the means, in 
his case, of leading him out into a fuller activity for 
the good of others. 

The year following his wife's death saw his first 
visit to Ireland, in the service of the Society of Friends. 
He went as companion to his father-in-law, John 
Dymond, of Exeter, who was visiting Ireland on a 
religious concern. 

Two later visits were paid to Ireland in the same 
Christian service. In 1835 he accompanied Samuel 
Capper, and again in 1842 he shared the memorable 
gospel journey with Robert Charlton. 

In 1830 John Cadbury entered on his career of 
public work. He was appointed to the important 
position of clerk of the Monthly Meeting of Friends 
in Birmingham. In the same year he was elected a 
member of the Board of Commissioners, of which his 
father, Richard Tapper Cadbury, was then Chairman, 
and he himself often presided at the meetings. Later 
on, he was Chairman of the committee appointed to 


the delicate and onerous task of conducting a Bill 
through Parliament, for the transfer of the powers and 
property of the Commissioners to the Corporation. 

For some time the two bodies had held co- jurisdiction 
in the town, but when the Bill was carried into law 
the affairs of the borough were managed by a single 
authority. But for the devoted and prompt services 
of John Cadbury in London while the Bill was before 
the Parliamentary Committee, a measure of a different 
character would have been passed. He was associated 
in this work with Arthur Ryland and H. M. Griffiths, 
who won over to their view of things Mr. Spooner and 
Mr. Muntz, at that time the Parliamentary repre- 
sentatives for Birmingham. In their report laid 
before the Commissioners they concluded : 

Thus it will be seen that we have successfully maintained 
the principle of local self-government, and effected some 
important improvements without obstructing the progress of 
the Bill. 

During these years John Cadbury took a leading part 
in seeking to remedy the smoke nuisance, which was 
then a serious evil in the town. He also vigorously 
condemned the barbarous practice of employing 
climbing boys for sweeping chimneys. One day he 
paid a visit to Hagley Hall, accompanied by a scien- 
tific chimney-sweeper, to show the practicability of 
cleansing chimneys without the employment of boys. 

He used to tell racily of that visit in the dark 
hours of the early morning. He watched to see 
that the machine was effectively used, and, before 
leaving, asked the cook for water to wash his hands, 


who sharply observed, she had never before been 
asked to set a wash-basin for a sweep ! 

Although the chimney-sweepers as a body were 
opposed to the movement, he had the courage to call 
a meeting of sweeps in the Town Hall, when he con- 
vinced them that the new system would be an ad- 
vantage, even from the point of view of their own 
monetary interest. To encourage a start he himself 
bought a number of machines, and set master-sweeps 
up with them. Legislation was at length carried 
prohibiting the employment of climbing boys. 

In 1832, he was appointed one of the Overseers of 
the Poor, who had indeed reasons for thankfulness 
when John Cadbury joined the Board. To this work 
he applied his Christian principles in so energetic 
and practical a manner as often to arouse a good deal 
of unpopularity amongst the officials. 

Up to this time it had been the practice of the 
Overseers and the principal officers to dine together 
weekly, and once a month there had been a special 
dinner, called the " Chairman's Dinner." These 
dinners were paid for out of the rates. John Cad- 
bury was amazed on attending one of them, soon 
after his election, to find the table laden with the 
choicest dainties. Outside he saw a crowd of cold 
and hungry paupers waiting for relief, and shivering 
in the cold. It was the first meeting of the annually 
elected Board of Overseers, and as the members were 
preparing to adjourn to the Board Room, the clerk 
observed, " You will excuse me, gentlemen, but before 
you go to your duties, I should advise you each to take 


a glass of brandy." Indignant before, John Cadbury 
was now thoroughly roused, and at the next meeting 
of the Board, with the help of a Mr. Henry Knight, 
he so plainly showed the illegality and iniquity of the 
system that it was abandoned. 

Another instance of his keen sense of duty and 
fearless nature occurred in connection with the out- 
break of Asiatic cholera in England, which caused 
widespread panic : 

When it reached Bilston which it ravaged fearfully the 
Birmingham Overseers, as a precaution, took a detached house 
in Bath Row then quite outside the town for a cholera 
hospital. Happily it was not required for living patients, 
but the body of only one person who died of cholera in Bir- 
mingham a Bilston man was taken there. As no one of 
his friends came forward, the parish authorities were applied 
to in reference to his burial. Every one was panic-stricken, 
and the Overseers could get no one to undertake the funeral. 
A parish coffin was provided, but the difficulty was to get 
any men to put the body in it, and carry it to St. Thomas's 
Church for burial. Mr. Cadbury and his friend Knight under- 
took to attend the funeral officially, but they were in great 
perplexity about bearers. At length some men were found 
who, upon promise of very liberal pay, consented to act, 
upon conditions that there should be no pall, and that they 
should be allowed to smoke all the way to the church. This 
was conceded, but another difficulty arose. The clergy were 
all alarmed, and declined to officiate. At length Mr. Cadbury 
induced one to volunteer. The parties accordingly met in 
Bath Row, and were preparing matters, when the clergyman 
came to Mr. Cadbury, and asked if he " thought there would 
be any impropriety in commencing the service as soon as the 
procession started," urging that it would be safer, as he could 
get the service over by the time the grave was reached. This, 
too, was conceded, and soon the curious sight was seen of a 
surpliced clergyman with open book proceeding at full trot 
along the road gasping out the burial service, while at his 



heels was an uncovered coffin, borne by four men, each with 
a pipe in his mouth, followed by Mr. Cadbury in a broad- 
brimmed hat and flowing Quaker frock-coat, and by Henry 
Knight, his nose and mouth muffled up in a large blue scarf. 1 

Thus John Cadbury employed the four years of 
his loneliness. At the end of that time the cloud 
lifted, and the sun shone again. 

In visiting Lancaster during the time of his sister 
Sarah's engagement, he had met Candia Barrow for 
the first time. A niece remembers his ardent de- 
scription of her when recalling those days : " I loved 
her the first moment I set eyes on her ; she was not 
sixteen. She had beautiful eyes, and her dark hair 
curled all over her head." In some way the two 
young people drifted apart, but after the years of 
intense loneliness which followed the brief period 
of his first marriage, John Cadbury 's heart turned 
with a new hunger to the love of his boyish days. 
He was married to Candia in 1832. She was the 
fifth child and eldest daughter of George Barrow, 
a foreign merchant, and the owner of several ships 
which traded principally with the West Indies. He 
was a prosperous man, and his ships would often lie, 
three abreast, the entire length of the quay on the 
Lune, while waiting to discharge or receive their 

George Barrow's home, Bowerham, was on the out- 
skirts of the town, surrounded by fields. From the 
look-out which he had built he could command a 
view of Morecambe Bay, and through his telescope 

1 Edgbasionia. 


watch his ships making for the mouth of the river 
or at their moorings on the quay. In the distance 
the mountains of the lake district might be seen, 
robed in mists or clothed in sunlight. 

John Cadbury often told his children of the long 
coach rides between Birmingham and Lancaster, and 
of how their mother would stand at her father's gate, 
listening for the horse at the end of Bowerham Lane. 
He would tell them, too, of the wedding day, and of 
how, as they drove away from the bride's old home, 
the long sprays of the wild rose brushed in at the 
carriage windows from each side of the drive, scattering 
their fragrant white petals over the bridal pair. He 
regretted having to take her away from the sweet 
country to the town home in Bull Street, but she 
always said how glad she was to be near him all 
day long. 

The eldest son, John, was born in the Bull Street 
home, but Edgbaston was the birthplace of the other 
five children. 

As early as 1832, the year of his marriage with 
Candia Barrow, John Cadbury had become a pledged 
total abstainer. Always abstemious, and realising 
to some extent the horrors which follow in the wake 
of alcohol, he was influenced by the visit of the men 
of Preston to see that in a matter of such vital im- 
portance half-measures were useless, and he must 
take his stand definitely against the great curse. 
From this time forward he worked whole-heartedly, 
and with unflagging energy, in the cause of temperance, 
loyally seconded by his wife. 


The first annual meeting of the Birmingham 
Auxiliary Temperance Society, of which John Cadbury 
was one of the founders, was held on July ist, 1833, 
at the Friends' Meeting House in Bull Street. In 
recognition of his labours in connection with this 
movement, and as a mark of the esteem of temperance 
workers, he was presented with an illuminated address, 
which bore the following inscription : 

To Mr. John Cadbury this humble memorial of gratitude 
is respectfully presented by the total abstinence members of 
the Birmingham Temperance Society, as a sincere token of 
their high esteem for his ceaseless and unwearied exertions 
on behalf of so great and glorious a cause. 

The presentation took place in the newly erected Town 
Hall in the year of his son Richard's birth. 

It must not be thought that his outspoken principles 
cost John Cadbury nothing ; but when once he felt 
convinced of God's will in any matter, he was immov- 
able. His views had at first been considered un- 
necessarily strong and advanced by his father, who, 
however, finally became convinced that John was 
right, and took his place alongside in the fight. 

During these years of public activity, John Cadbury 
was paying full attention to his business. The tea 
and coffee shop had been opened at 93, Bull Street, 
Birmingham, as already stated, in 1824. About 1835 
he rented a warehouse in Crooked Lane, where he first 
experimented in making cocoa and chocolate with 
pestle and mortar. In 1847 the Great Western Railway 
Company took down these premises, and John Cad- 
bury removed to Bridge Street. About this time his 


brother, Benjamin Head, entered into partnership 
with him for a few years, the firm thus taking the 
well-known title of " Cadbury Bros." Two years 
after the move to Bridge Street, in November, 1849, 
the shop in Bull Street was handed over to Richard 
Cadbury Barrow, a nephew of the two partners. 
They did not immediately abandon the tea department 
of their business, but gave increasing attention to the 
manufacture of cocoa and chocolate, which finally 
absorbed their whole trade. As soon as they were 
old enough, first Richard, and then George and Henry, 
joined their father in the business. 

In the year 1855 a crushing sorrow shadowed John 
Cadbury's life, for his wife, Candia, died. He was 
prostrated by the shock of her loss, and about the 
same time was taken ill with a severe attack of 
rheumatic fever, from which he never entirely 

In 1861 he handed over the business to his sons, 
Richard and George, and spent the later years of his 
life, as far as his health would allow, in religious and 
philanthropic work. 

John Cadbury loved all his children devotedly, and 
amongst his other interests he always realised that 
they were his first responsibility. Three of his sons, 
John, Edward, and Henry, preceded him to the Better 
Land, but he lived to see Richard and George in 
homes of their own, with their children around them. 
His faithful and devoted companion to the end of 
his life was his only and dearly loved daughter, 
Maria. She never left his side, and although she 


married a few years before his death, she continued 
to live on with her husband in the old home. 

On May nth, 1889, John Cadbury died, in his eighty- 
eighth year. He was buried in Wit ton Cemetery, and 
the throng around the grave-side, including numerous 
deputations, showed how much he was reverenced 
and beloved. As the crowd gathered around the 
grave, there were a few moments of eloquent silence, 
broken only by the twittering of the birds in the 
neighbouring shrubbery. During the funeral service, 
William White, an old friend and fellow worker of 
John Cadbury, closed a powerful address by saying 
that he could remember the time, forty years ago, 
when scarcely any active form of philanthropy in 
Birmingham did not claim John Cadbury 's pecuniary 
help and energetic personal support. In every effort 
for the good of his fellow townsmen, social, moral, and 
spiritual, their departed Friend was always to the 

BOYHOOD (1835 1843) 


RICHARD CADBURY was born on August 29th, 
1835. By all that a man owes to heredity, 
he came into the world nobly equipped, and the 
atmosphere of his boyhood was fragrant with the 
memories of past generations. His mother's home 
in Lancaster, with its happy associations, was a large 
factor in his early life. It will be remembered that 
before his father married Candia Barrow, his Aunt 
Sarah had settled into a Lancaster home as the wife 
of John Barrow. Through this double marriage the 
family ties between Barrows and Cadburys were closely 
cemented, and, as might be expected, the two house- 
holds of young cousins saw a great deal of each other. 
Candia's children often visited Lancaster, and the 
south mail which brought them from Preston was 
stopped to set them down at the end of Bowerham 
Lane, just below their uncle's gate. Many were 
the expeditions paid by merry parties of the 
young people to the farms owned by their Grand- 



father Barrow on the Yorkshire border. On one 
of these farms, Scalemire, which passed at his death 
into Candia's possession, she and her husband and 
children spent some delightful holidays. 

It is interesting to notice that Richard Cadbury's 
life, together with his father's, exactly spans the 
nineteenth century, while his own is practically coin- 
cident with the reign of Queen Victoria, who was 
crowned when he was two years old, and was married 
a couple of years later. The marvellous changes that 
revolutionised modern life and ushered in a new era 
were in their transition stage during his boyhood. 
Some of the greatest achievements which the world 
has yet seen were to be found in the application of 
science to the practical business of life, and greatly 
affected the development of a commercial career such 
as that of Richard Cadbury. 

" From the beginning of history down to the opening 
of Victoria's reign, men had been travelling the earth 
in just the same way ; that is to say, they were drawn 
by horses on the land, and conveyed by sailing vessels 
on the rivers and on the seas. Now came the steam- 
ship and the railway. Up to this time men had com- 
municated with each other by messengers on foot or 
on horses, camels, ostriches, or by carrying birds. 
Now the electric telegraph was stretched across the 
land and under the ocean. It is not too much to 
say that no such sudden and complete change was 
ever made in the business ways of men during the 
whole history of the world." ' 

1 Illustrated London News, " Life of Queen Victoria." 


When Richard Cadbury was two years old, the 
Grand Junction Railway from Birmingham to Man- 
chester, the first railway in the Midlands, was opened. 
A year later, on August 27th, 1838, the first train 
puffed on its way from Birmingham to London. 

Amongst the names of Birmingham citizens who 
figured on the managing committees of the new 
railway companies were those of Richard's grandfather, 
Richard Tapper Cadbury, and William Chance, Samuel 
Beale, Joseph Shorthouse, and John and Joseph 

In the spring of the year 1835 preparations were 
being made by John Cadbury for a move from the 
town house in Bull Street to Edgbaston, and Richard 
was born in the temporary home at 17, Frederick Road. 
Before Christmas the father and mother, with their 
two baby boys, had settled into the house in Calthorpe 
Road, which was to be the family home for many years. 
It faced down St. James's Road, and was almost 
cottage-like in appearance. Although too small with- 
out considerable alteration, its country surroundings 
decided John Cadbury to take and enlarge it, laying 
out the garden to his own taste. His wife, who was 
exceedingly fond of gardening, shared with him in all 
the plans, now as at all times lifting the home burdens 
that he might not be hampered in his business and 
public affairs. 

The first child born in the new home was Richard's 
only sister, Maria, on March 13th, 1838. A year later 
came George, on September 19th, 1839 > tnen a baby 
boy who only lived three days. On March 31st, 1843, 


Edward was born, and two years later, on July 17th, 
1845, the youngest son, Henry. 

" The thought of this dear old home," wrote 
Richard's sister, " brings bright memories." House 
and garden were full of charms, and the children were 
taught from babyhood to love Nature and all living 
creatures. In the garden was a small pond of water, 
with a rockery island and fountain in the centre, 
round which all kinds of ferns luxuriated. These 
were under the special care of Richard and his mother. 
Flowers and fruit, trees and fields, were rich sources 
of study and enjoyment for the young folks. 

11 Many were the games we had on the square lawn 
[runs Maria's description]. Our father measured 
round it twenty-one times for a mile, where we used 
to run, one after another, with our hoops before break- 
fast, seldom letting them drop before reaching the 
mile, and sometimes mile and a half, which Richard 
generally did. How rosy we were, seated round the 
breakfast-table ready for the basins of milk provided 
for each child, with delicious cream on the top and 
toast to dip into it. Our father went for a walk each 
morning, starting about seven o'clock, taking his dogs 
with him, and we were often his companions. The 
roads round Edgbaston were very countrylike then, 
with rambles across fields, and pools of water where 
the dogs enjoyed a swim. One pretty walk was across 
the fields to Ladywood House, now in Vincent Street, 
in the midst of the town. We returned home to 
breakfast punctually at eight o'clock. The family 
Bible Reading followed, and by nine o'clock our father 

U- 1*3 

Showing Richard Cadbury's parents, and original sketch of his boyhood home. 


was ready to start for business. I can picture his 
rosy countenance, full of health and vigour his 
Quaker dress very neat with its clean white cravat. 
Our dear mother was always ready to see him off 
with a parting kiss. At nine o'clock the school bell 
rang, before which we generally had a run in the 
garden, and the boys a game on the gymnastic poles 
of various kinds, one as high as a ship's mast, up 
which they all learned to climb. Richard was par- 
ticularly clever in performing various antics on the 
bars. Our natural longing for music was so far en- 
couraged that we were allowed to buy Jews' harps 
with our pocket-money. These we thoroughly enjoyed, 
having learned several Scotch airs from hearing our 
mother sing them. We loved* to listen to the sweet 
lullabies, with which she hushed the babies to sleep. 
Our father had two musical boxes in a special drawer 
in a bookcase. It was a great treat to us when he 
wound these up for our pleasure. Our grandfather 
and grandmother and aunts Maria and Ann lived not 
far from our house, lower down in the Calthorpe 
Road. Many are the happy memories of running in 
to see them. The door key was hung outside, where 
we were allowed to find it. I can picture grandfather, 
standing before the dining-room mirror, very upright, 
seeing that his cravat was neat and coat collar well 
pulled up, and gloves ready, before starting to town ; 
a piece of honeysuckle or southernwood or some 
sweet-scented spray put into the buttonhole of his 
coat. We only knew our dear grandmother as aged 
and infirm, so cannot speak of the time, when, as we 


have been told, her life was full of activity at home 
and amongst the sick and poor. We used to run into 
the fresh kitchen in the summer time to find our aunts 
in their clean morning dresses of print, and tall, white 
caps, busy getting up their muslins. 

" Our mother had a busy homelife with her five 
boys and one girl. She was a lovingly watchful and 
affectionate wife and mother, seldom visiting from 
home. Although of a retiring disposition, she had a 
sound judgment, and was not easily moved, when she 
saw a thing to be right. She was gentle but firm 
with her children, and they were all devotedly fond 
of her. She had a great dread of exaggeration. My 
father has told me, that when he was going to a public 
meeting to speak, she used to warn him, when telling 
an anecdote, not to embellish, but to keep to the 
true facts. She and our father taught us to speak 
respectfully and pleasantly to all in their employment, 
for they liked those who lived with them to feel their 
house a home. The hymn, ' Speak gently,' was one 
my mother wished us to learn by heart when children, 
and I believe it had a wonderful influence upon us. 
We can never forget the tiny room where our mother 
used to retire, and where she gained much heavenly 
wisdom and strength with the Bible before her. I 
never remember our parents threatening us with a 
punishment they did not intend to carry out, or 
punishing hastily or in a temper. 

" First Day was a happy one. We were taken to 
Meeting as soon as we were old enough. When ready 
to start we would come down to father, and, standing 


by his side, he made Gray's Elegy with its illustrations 
very attractive, drawing interesting lessons from it. 
In one picture a bigger boy had broken the wheel of 
his little brother's cart to tease him. Another sturdy 
little fellow defends and sympathises with the small 
child. Our father's lessons from that picture were 
never forgotten, and our eyes filled with tears when 
he talked to us about it. We always thought the 
kind, sturdy boy was like our brother Richard. 

" In the old meeting house in Bull Street an aisle 
went up the centre, the men sitting on the left-hand 
side and the women on the right. My five brothers 
sat in a row on the second form from the top, father 
facing them from his seat below the minister's gallery, 
while I sat by my mother. We were brought up from 
childhood to go to Bull Street Meeting on a Fourth 
Day morning, so we had only afternoon school that 
day. Our father also closed his place of business in 
Bull Street for an hour or two, so that he and several 
young men Friends in his employ could attend Meeting. 
He provided coffee and light refreshments in a sitting- 
room above his shop, where grandfather and grand- 
mother and other members of the family could gather 
for social intercourse when Meeting was over. Our 
home was one of sunshine, our parents doing all they 
could to make us happy, and the consistency of their 
own lives was a great help in forming the characters 
and tastes of their children. Home was the centre of 
attraction to us all, and simple home pleasures our 
greatest joy." 

When quite a baby Richard's life hung one night 


on a very slender thread, and he owed its preserva- 
tion to the tender devotion of his mother. After 
the fashion of those days a leech had been applied to 
the soft little arm to alleviate some ailment, and it 
drew the blood from a vein or artery, which began 
flowing so freely that his life would soon have ebbed 
away had not his mother kept her finger pressed upon 
the spot for hours, until the arrival of the doctor in 
the morning. 

Richard's first lessons were with a governess at 
home, named Martha Heath. He and his brother 
John were devoted to her. She lived quite near their 
home in Frederick Road. One day, when Richard 
was about three years old, an active little fellow, 
with fair curly hair, his grandfather came unexpectedly 
upon him, toddling alone across the road, and took 
him home. It was discovered that the little lad had 
slipped out of the house unnoticed, and was on his 
way to visit his " dear governess." In a home so full 
of beautiful Christian influences, it was very natural 
that Richard's mind should turn with simple directness 
to the things of God, for as soon as he was old enough 
to understand anything he had been told of the love 
of Jesus. His little heart was very tender, and one 
day, when he was about five years old, he ran to his 
own small bedroom, and kneeling down, asked the 
Lord to forgive him and be his own Saviour. This 
incident might never have been known ; but long 
years afterwards, when one of his own children, at 
the age of twelve, confessed Christ during a series of 
mission meetings Richard Cadbury had arranged for 


his work at Upper Highgate Street, he had a talk and 
prayer with her in the inquiry room. It was then 
that he told her of his own experience as a little lad 
of five. 

When about six years old Richard attended a 
well-known Friends' boarding school in Birmingham, 
under the care of William Lean. His cousin, Thomas 
Barrow, a boy several years older than himself, came 
from Lancaster to attend the same school for some 
months. During this time Thomas lived at his 
cousin's home. He recalls the kindness of his aunt, 
and remembers " the lawn on which so many 
benevolent, school, and other happy gatherings, took 

In searching for information about these childish 
days, a bundle of old letters was discovered carefully 
packed away in a quaint Chinese chest, which con- 
tained some of Richard Cadbury's special treasures. 
Mysterious influences seem to steal from them, blotting 
out the thoughts and the things of the present, and 
building up again in imagination a picture of that 
long-ago home, until the figures of father and mother, 
with their five sturdy boys and gentle daughter, 
become as real as any living acquaintance. Most of 
them are those which Richard or his brother John 
received at school. To turn over the faded pages, 
some written closely in the firm handwriting of the 
father and mother, and some in large sprawling letters 
by the little brothers and sisters, is almost like 
touching and speaking to those who have long ago 
passed to the other Country, or the childhood figures 


of those who are now grey with years. As you read 
you are transported from your own life and surround- 
ings, and become for the moment the shadow of 
Richard at home and at school. You laugh with him 
over the bits of fun and the home jokes ; you thrill 
with the tenderness of family affection ; you sorrow 
with him in the loss of his relations and companions ; 
you share his interests of all kinds ; and at last you 
find that you know him, in a way that nothing else 
but those old letters could have brought about. 

The way they have been preserved is also an inci- 
dental side-light upon his character, and shows how 
his methodical habits had their root in his early child- 
hood. Carefully folded and arranged in neat bundles 
of a year at a time, they take up so little space that 
it is not until they are opened out you can realise all 
they contain. It would be impossible and unwise 
to reproduce them in their entirety, but a few sentences 
culled from some of them are sufficient to fill in the 
picture. Not many of Richard's own letters are to be 
found among them, but the first is one of these. It is 
dated 1842, and written to his brother John, who had 
already gone to a boarding school in Charlbury : 

My dear Brother, I have got a railway train, first, second, 
and third-class carriages, with an engine and tender ; this was 
a present from my dear papa. [It will be remembered that 
railways had only been in existence about five years.] Wilt 
thou send me a letter with some sweet violets for dear mamma ? 
she is so fond of them. Grandmother sends her love to thee. 
I got some pictures and send some of them to thee, they are 
so pritty. 

I am thy affectionate brother, 

Richard Cadbury. 


His father and mother had begun their married 
life as total abstainers, and brought their children up 
in the same way. Maria has again supplied some 
reminiscences : 

It was not easy in those early days of the Temperance 
Society for our parents to give up offering wine and other 
spirituous drinks to their friends, for it was looked on as a 
mark of want of hospitality, and even the family circle did 
not at first approve of it. Our parents both worked hard in 
visiting the families of drunkards ; and we always liked going 
with either of them. Our father signed the pledge with Joseph 
Livesey at the first meeting he held in Birmingham in 1832. 
He built a room for temperance meetings, and had them 
sometimes filled with drunkards. Two splendid men arose 
from these meetings, who became very attractive platform 
speakers in the cause of total abstinence. They were both 
Birmingham blacksmiths, Thomas B.arlow and John Hocking. 
These meetings made a great impression on our childhood, 
and amongst them we can remember the large temperance 
tea-parties our father gave in the Town Hall year by year at 
Easter. We sat amongst the people, and were allowed a cup 
of tea and a piece of plum cake like the others, afterwards 
taking our places behind father on the platform. 

A letter from Maria to her brother John in March, 
1842, says : 

Last Second Day Richard and Charlotte and I went to the 
temperance meeting at the Town Hall to tea, and we heard 
father make a speech. 

It was in this year that Richard's father travelled 
through Ireland as companion to Robert Charlton, 
who was visiting on a religious concern. Already, in 
the year of Richard's birth, John Cadbury had accom- 
panied his kinsman Samuel Capper on a similar concern, 
and during that journey in 1835 the two Friends held 



their meetings in a tent, which they carried about 
with them. Some of their meetings were much dis- 
turbed by the influence of the priests, who incited the 
people to throw stones at the Friends, and to do all 
they could to prevent the erection of the tent. So 
great was the opposition that they could not find men 
who dared paste up the notices of the meetings, and 
were forced to do it themselves ; but notwithstanding 
these annoyances they had large and solemn gather- 
ings. Robert Charlton's meetings were often held 
in brewers' yards, which were quite deserted and the 
machinery rusty, owing to the previous exertions of 
Father Mathew in the temperance cause. John Cad- 
bury wrote an interesting tract on the subject on his 
return to England, which was widely circulated. It 
was to this visit that the mother referred in her letter 
of June 8th, 1842, to John : 

I expect thy father will leave us for Ireland on the 18th of 
this month. Grandfather Cadbury had a party of his grand- 
children yesterday, twelve in number. They were very happy, 
and they say it was a pretty sight ; the six little ones under 
five years old were in high glee, thy little brother George not 
the least happy of the group. 

SCHOOLDAYS (1843 1851) 


IN August, 1843, a few days before his eighth 
birthday, Richard joined his brother John at 
Charlbury School. The head mistress of the school 
was Maria Palmer, an excellent woman, but a very 
strict disciplinarian. At times the two boys, who 
were accustomed to so much love and happiness at 
home, would have felt home-sick and lonely if it had 
not been for the kindness of the assistant mistress, 
Mary Lamb, whom they loved devotedly. 

Charlbury was a little country town, about three 
miles from Enstone. Here the schoolboys from 
Birmingham got off the coach and were taken by a 
carrier's or other conveyance to Charlbury. The 
coach drive was very enjoyable in summer, through 
Stratford-on-Avon and Shipston-on-Stour, and the 
school was delightfully situated, with Lord Churchill's 
park and the Wychwood Forest near for walks and 
excursions. On Sundays the boys attended 3, pleasant 



Meeting, composed of kindly, old-fashioned Friends, 
who invited them to dinner now and again, giving them 
roast pork with Yorkshire pudding cooked under it, 
and allowed them to wander at will about the beautiful 
old-world gardens until time for the afternoon Meeting. 
There is an amusing incident of these days, supplied 
by a schoolfellow of Richard's : 

" The summer holidays were over [he writes], and a 
new suit of clothes for little John Cadbury, which had 
not been sent home in time, was forwarded to him at 
Charlbury School. It was early in August, and the 
luscious gooseberries in the Edgbaston home garden 
were ripe. The clothes had been packed in one of 
the long, narrow hampers, used for fish, which were 
usually very flimsy, and the good father, always want- 
ing to share home pleasures with his boys at school, 
filled the basket up with gooseberries. I have often 
fancied their mother expostulating with her husband 
on the danger of mixing ripe fruit and new clothes in 
a fish hamper, as I have not the slightest doubt she 
would, dear, thoughtful woman that she was. As the 
hamper had to travel fifty miles on the top of the 
coach, and had then to be carried three miles on the 
back of the unfortunate country postman, you can 
imagine what happened. The postman, poor man, 
said the juice had been running down his back all 
the way, and his coat was soaked through. The con- 
dition of the new suit of clothes was something tragic, 
and I believe they had to go into the wash-tub. It was 
very comical, and Maria Palmer and Mary Lamb laughed 
so heartily over it, that it was fixed on my memory." 


A letter from John Cadbury to his boys, dated 
August 1 8th, 1843, seems to refer to this : 

My dear John and Richard, Your dear mother gathered 
for you a basket of fine, ripe gooseberries, which were sent 
by coach yesterday ; we hope you and your schoolfellows 
have enjoyed them by this time. I am glad to say your 
mother is very finely. Edward grows fast ; Maria and George 
delight to be with him. They are very well and often talk 
of you. Next week I expect they will go to school in Bath 
Row to a Friend, and your cousins Joel and Mary are to go 
to the same school. We were very glad to hear that you were 
both comfortably settled and happy. I am sure you will be, 
if you use your best efforts to please your governess, and in 
all things do as she wishes. In the basket will also be found 
light waistcoats for John, which mother thinks will be very 
pleasant wear this hot weather. I still intend paying you a 
short visit, perhaps next month, and as the time draws nearer 
shall write the exact time. In all things love one another 
be kindly affectionate to one another. Our dear love to you 
both. Your dear grandparents, uncles, and aunts are well, 
and send their love. 

In December their mother wrote to them : 

We have not in the least forgotten you, and altho' so long 
a time has elapsed since we wrote to you, you have been 
daily, almost hourly, in my thoughts, but I have deferred 
writing in the hope that we could form some plan for your 
being accompanied home this day week, which time we are 
all anticipating with great pleasure. We have had the boys 
from W. Lean's school to see us ; they all speak kindly of dear 
Richard, and remember him with pleasant feelings. I hope 
that both he and John may obtain the same feeling from your 
present schoolfellows, by kindness and forbearance, and a 
suppression of wrong passions. 

Again she wrote (January 27th, 1844) : 

My very dear Boys, John and Richard, Do you ever 
think of your absent parents, and brothers and sisters, since 


you left them ; or ever look at the paper mother left, to keep 
you in mind of some of your duties ? I can assure you we all 
think and talk about you. I should like to know what is your 
favourite game of play now, what you amuse yourselves with 
in the evening, and what books you are reading. If I have 
set you too much to accomplish in one letter, you may either 
each take a part or leave something for another time, and 
tell me if you can read this letter entirely yourselves. 

Strangely enough, a paper in Richard's neat, rather 
cramped, schoolboy hand was found quite separately 
from the bundle of old letters, and must be a memory 
copy of the paper of duties spoken of by his mother. 
It is headed, " A mother's affectionate desire for 
her precious child," and runs : 

Every morning before you leave your room wash your- 
selves clean, brush your hair very tidily, also your teeth, put 
your clothes on neatly let your hearts rise to God in grateful 
feelings for preserving you through the night, desiring that He 
will be with you through the day, to keep you from every 
wrong thought and action, preserving you in love to each 
other, and to all in the house and everywhere. These feelings 
will help you through all your difficulties and trials, remem- 
bering that His Almighty eye is upon you and sees all your 
strivings, and hears all your prayers to conquer that cruel 
and selfish spirit, which is always ready to crush all our good 
desires. January 15th, 1844, Richard Cadbury, Junr. 

The return home of the two boys was always a 
joyful event. Their sister writes : 

" It was a real gala day to my brother George and 
myself when John and Richard came home for the 
holidays. I remember one summer day our standing 
at the nursery window, with large crimson peonies in 
our hands, watching for the coach which brought them 
home from Charlbury, as the railway was not then 


completed. We had happy holidays, and enjoyed 
working in our own gardens ; we liked helping to 
gather fruit, also to top and tail gooseberries and 
shell peas, seeing who could fill a basin first. The 
boys were allowed to make supplies of pop, and very 
good it was, with a piece of bread and cheese." 

During the autumn of 1845, Richard, who was not 
strong at the time, was at home for a few months, 
attending meanwhile a school in the Wheeley's Road 
for the little boys and girls of Friends. He wrote to 
John (September 28th, 1845) : 

My dear Brother, We are very much obliged for thy 
kind letters, which thou hast sent us. On Fourth Day I and 
father went to Dudley Monthly Meeting ; we went there in a 
good-sized car and two horses. After Meeting we went to 
dinner at Edward Williams ; we went all round his garden, 
and there was a beautiful pond with some gold-fish in it ; he 
has two little girls, and I met them carrying three little puppies, 
which were very pretty ; after dinner we went to John Wil- 
liams, where there was a great many little children running 
about. After we had been there a little while we went to see 
Dudley Castle, and went all about it. We met a man on the 
way that told us something about it ; after that we went to 
tea at R. H. Smith's. After tea we got ready and jumped on 
the car and came home to Birmingham. I sent thy letters 
off to George and Maria on Third Day. I very often think of 
thee and wonder how thou gets on. I went with Charlotte 
this morning to the other garden, and we picked up all the 
apples that had fallen. I remain, / 

Thy affectionate brother, 

Richard Cadbury. 

The father enjoyed having his children with him 
in his Christian work, and their religious teaching was 
always made a pleasure to them. It was their mother 
who gave them their first simple instruction from 


Mamma's Bible Lessons, Peep of Day, and afterwards 
Line upon Line, the latter being a great favourite. 
Their father also gave them Scripture lessons, generally 
in connection with the morning Bible reading. The 
ist and 23rd Psalms, 5th chapter of Matthew, the 
14th and 15th chapters of John, and the Lord's Prayer, 
were some of the chief passages thus given to learn by 
heart. During the months that Richard was at home 
he seems to have felt strongly in his childish way his 
responsibility towards the younger brother and sister. 
John had gone to school at Hitchin, and the two 
youngest brothers were quite babies in the nursery, 
so his special care and thought was for Maria and 
George, a little pair of seven and eight years old. 
Richard himself was eleven at this time, and there 
are sacred memories of happy Sunday afternoons 
which the trio spent together. A small room opening 
out of their mother's bedroom looked on to the garden, 
and there the three would gather, while Richard read 
aloud parts of the little book, Line upon Line, to 
them. After talking over the lesson, a short time 
would be spent in prayer. It seemed sometimes as 
if they came together to the very borders of heaven ; 
and especially when the big brother would pour out 
his boy's heart in prayer, the atmosphere of heaven 
seemed to fill the little room. In bright, warm weather 
these Sunday talks took place out of doors in the 
summer arbour. 

A visit to his mother's farm, Scalemire, helped to 
complete Richard's convalescence, and in the spring 
of 1846 he went to the boarding school at Hitchin, 



under the care of a kindly though strict master, 
Benjamin Abbot. He was alone for a while, as John 
hurt his leg, and took Richard's place as the invalid 
at home. Richard's first note from Hitchin is to be 
found amongst the old letters. It is dated March 20th, 

My very dear Parents, I am sorry that I have not wrote 
to you for so long. I am very much obliged for your kind 
letter. I have been to a lecture twice ; one was about Beth- 
liem and the other about Jerusellm. I can tell you the boys' 
names, but not in their ages and not where they come from : 
[here followed a list of twenty-four names]. There is one day 
scholar, G. Latchmore, and two of master's sons, Arthur 
Abbot and Aston Abbot. I feel very comfortable, and I 
think John will when he has been here a little while. I am 
very much obliged for Maria's note, and I intend to send her 
one in return for it. Please give my dear love to all. I 

Thy affectionate son, 

R. Cadbury. 

This must have crossed with his father's letter, 
written on March 23rd : 

My dear Richard, Thy sister is anxious her letter should 
go. I will therefore add a few lines to tell thee that thy dear 
mother, sweet little Henry and Edward, also George, Maria 
and John, are well, and all have much love to send thee. John 
goes to W. Lean's at seven in the morning and stays all day. 
His leg is fast getting well. We hope to hear from thee very 
soon ; thou canst tell us who are thy playfellows, who sleeps 
in thy room, how thou manages with thy lessons, and whether 
thou feels happy and settled. We often talk about thee, and 
when we sat round the fire last evening, each repeating a few 
verses, and then a little serious conversation and reading, our 
hearts overflowed in affectionate remembrance of thee ; yes, 
my dear boy, it may be said the greater the distance from us, 
the closer the tie of love and solicitude. Be a good boy, be 


diligent and very attentive, strive in all things to spare giving 
thy master trouble, " Remember thy Creator in the days of 
thy youth." 

The enclosed note from Maria is also there, and its 
last sentence reads : 

I am much obliged to thee for reminding me of saying my 
prayers morning and evening, 

Thy affectionate sister, Maria. 

In those days the school terms were half-years, 
and it was not as easy as now to arrange for country 
and seaside visits during the holidays. Maria gives 
a reminiscence of these times : 

" Our favourite seaside place was the village of 
Blackpool. The quiet cottage on the shore where we 
stayed, on the south side, called Bonny's Cottage, had 
the greatest charm. We ran wild, and built wonderful 
castles on the shore. I remember an unusually fine 
castle, which John and Richard built, and how active 
George was helping them. They made an erection 
of stones, and I was employed with the two younger 
boys, getting clay to fasten them together, mother 
also helping me to make a gay flag, which was fastened 
on to a long pole and placed on top of the fortress. 
The Blackpool seas were then, as now, very boisterous, 
and the boys were determined, if possible, to build a 
castle that could resist their strength, and they suc- 
ceeded ; theirs was the only one on the shore that 
stood after a heavy sea, but some mean-spirited boys 
went and cut down their flag-staff." 

Richard must have longed for the sights and sounds 


of the sea, when his mother's letter from Blackpool, 
dated June ist, 1846, reached him at Hitchin : 

My very dear Richard, I wrote a few lines to thee on 
Seventh Day morning with something like a promise that thou 
should hear from us from this place, where thou hast spent 
so many happy hours. We are staying at the inn on the 
shore, and find it most clean and comfortable. This morning 
all is life and bustle on the beach. The donkeys and donkey- 
carriages are thickly clustered on the sand waiting for employ. 
The bathing is mostly over, but I can see five machines at 
work, and the little boat busily engaged in carrying passengers 
out to have a sail. Thy dear father enjoyed a bathe this 
morning out of a boat which they took for some distance into 
deep water, where he could dive and swim to any extent, and 
he has been glad of his breakfast and a rest since. We have 
not found many shells, but a few sea eggs, and we shall save 
one for thee. We have a pleasant sitting-room upstairs, 
looking on to the sea, with a fine expanse of water before us, 
bounding the distant horizon, and 'studded with little boats, 
gliding smoothly along with their white sails. The donkeys 
have just been joining in concert their musical eloquence, a 
sound thou wilt remember often greeted thy ear in this place. 
There are a great many handsome houses built at both ends 
of the place, fronting the beach, since we were here, and the 
railway now brings us to the back of the town. We intend 
spending to-morrow at Scalemire. I shall think of thee and 
thy happiness in leaping over the rocks after the little lambs ; 
it was this season of the year, only earlier. 

The autumn of that year saw John and Richard 
together again at Hitchin School, and the extracts 
which follow reflect what was going on during this 
period. From their mother (July 30th, 1846) : 

I do not doubt you are now getting to regular school em- 
ployment, and will feel more settled, and there will be less 
time for mischief. Never look cross or out of temper. Take 
all in good part and it will be impossible to tease you long, 
but if you make a noise or show anger they will persevere in 


vexing you. It is bad for us to have too smooth sailing, and 
we are apt to forget the source from whence all our blessings 
are derived, and you still have many. How different would 
it be, if you had no home to come to in the holidays, and no 
one there to love you. 

July 31s/, 1846. On Second Day your dear grandparents 
will have been married fifty years, and we all intend dining 
together. Their old age is rendered more happy by having 
all their children to comfort them. Oh, that my dear 
children may also live to be a comfort to their parents in 
declining years. 

Richard must have been at home again for a short 
time at the end of that term, for there is a letter from 
him to John, dated November 23rd, 1846, in which 
he says : 

My very dear Brother, Thou art having great advan- 
tages in being at school, whilst I have so very little schooling, 
that I fear thou wilt get a long way before me, especially in 
Latin. I have been out this morning with notes, to invite 
some friends to meet Joseph Sturge and his bride to tea at 
our house. Our little dog " Trim " very often goes out with 
father and me before breakfast, and on Sixth Day morning 
we had a violent storm of wind and rain, which frightened 
him so much, that he ran howling to a person's door, and laid 
with his dirty feet upon the step, which so enraged the 
gardener, that he kicked him up like a football, which almost 
drove him out of his senses, and he ran into the very next 
house, making a dreadful noise, so as to frighten all the neigh- 
bourhood, so that we were obliged to carry him all the way 
home. The same day I had another disaster, that of taking 
my kitten to town to live ; when she came out of the basket, 
she came spinning out like a top, and continued to whirl for 
some time, and then lay down as if she were dead, but she has 
recovered, and has settled down quite well ever since. Accept 
a great deal of love for thyself, from thy affectionate brother, 

Richard Cadbury. 

P.S. Please do not forget to give my love to Master and 


Mistress Dina Abbot, and any of the boys that would like to 
have it. 

The Christmas holidays came and went, and the next 
letters are full of allusions to the famine and distress in 
Ireland. One from Maria, on February 4th, 1847, says : 

I am sorry I could not write to you before, because I have 
been making clothes for the poor Irish. 

From their mother (February 12th, 1847) : 

My dear John and Richard, Since I last wrote we have 
been gratified and cheered by receiving several letters from 
you. We have thought of our dear Richard in his walks 
during the winterly, snowy weather we have had for more 
than a week. The thermometer has been 12 below freezing. 
. . . Your snow-mound is, of course, preserved, and shows 
its sides of black ice tipped with snow. [This was a wonderful 
snow pyramid made by John and Richard in the garden at 
Calthorpe Road. It roused great admiration, especially from 
the boys' grandfather, who got Richard to make him a drawing 
of it.] We are still engaged in sending off money and clothes 
to Ireland. I wish they may reach the most destitute. Many 
benevolent people in that country are giving up their time to 
assist the poor wretched sufferers. May we who are spared 
such distress endeavour to cultivate thankful hearts to Him 
from whom all our blessings flow, by endeavouring to live up 
to His precepts and divine will. I have often thought of 
you with prayerful desires that you might be permitted to 
have your minds rightly engaged in Meeting to seek for 
renewed strength to do your duty, remembering that nothing 
can prosper without the blessing of the Almighty upon it, 
and that whatever we do, we should do all to His glory. We 
know not how soon we may be called to account for our 
thoughts and actions in Meeting as well as elsewhere. 

Your affectionate mother. 

From their father (March 4th, 1847) : 

My dear Boys, A basket goes to-day to the care of W. 
Manby, to be forwarded to you, I hope to-morrow, by the 


carrier. It contains two drums of figs, and another drum, 
the largest, contains oranges at the top, and the cake at the 
bottom, which I have cut up for you ready for use, and you 
must therefore be careful how you open it. The fourth drum 
also contains oranges, and in the string at the top of one of 
them is a small parcel for John from his mother, brother, and 
sister. Now I should think if you divide one drum of figs 
amongst the boys it will do, and then perhaps you can give 
to your particular friends part of the rest. We were pleased 
to receive John's note and commend him for not being made 
the tool of others to do what is wrong let others do what 
they may, but do you, dear boys, in all things do what you 
know to be right. Let boys do their own wrong deeds, you 
do right not to be made the cat's-paw of any. We all keep 
finely, and all send their love to you. Write as soon as you 
get the basket, and tell us how you get on with its contents. 

Your affectionate father. 

In April of this year one of the boys' schoolfellows, 
Newman Bradley, was suddenly taken from their 
midst by death. The event made a deep impression 
upon Richard's tender and sensitive heart, as the 
following sentences from his mother's letter show : 

My heart turns towards you with the most tender affection, 
thankful that you are still spared when one amongst your 
little family is taken, and he as likely to have many years 
added to the few that were gone, as any of you who remain 
to learn this lesson of the uncertainty of time, and the im- 
portance of making the best use of it. ... I desire this 
affliction may be blessed to you all, and help to fix your affec- 
tions more firmly upon the joys that never die. Maria wrote 
before we received the intelligence from dear Richard, or her 
little heart would have responded to his in his trouble. 

Their father wrote a few days later : 

My dear Boys, We read both your letters with much 
interest, giving us some particulars respecting the illness and 
death of your schoolfellow, Newman Bradley. Pear boy, we 


have a pleasant recollection of him, and earnestly hope he 
was one of those who remembered his Creator in the days of 
his youth, and that the change for him is a glorious one. We 
desire that this event may prove instructive to each one of his 
schoolfellows, and that you may be induced to be more 
watchful in word, thought, and action, seeking daily by prayer 
to walk humbly, truthfully, and justly before your fellowman 
and in the sight of that Omniscient Being, whose eye is ever 
over the workmanship of His wonderful hand. We shall now 
be glad to hear from you again with an improved report of 
Richard's cold and cough, and we rely on your being very 
careful not to wear wet or damp shoes. The garden begins 
to look pleasant a few nice showers and warm sun have 
brought up the seeds, and the trees are bursting into blossom. 
Your brothers and sister greatly enjoy running in the garden, 
none more thoroughly than Henry, wjio is an amusing, en- 
gaging little fellow, and as merry as a cricket. Many shops 
are now shut in High Street, and will shortly be pulled down 
to allow the Oxford and Birmingham Railway Tunnel to go 
under ; the warehouse we expect will be sold next week, and 
immediately taken down and removed. 

The roof is off my old warehouse [he wrote again, on 
May 13th, 1847], and the men are fast pulling it all to the 
ground, and other houses in the neighbourhood are coming 
down. We are now comfortably settled in our new quarters. 

June 10th, 1847. My dear Richard, We have received 
thine and dear John's letters, and read with interest your 
account of your nice garden, which shows the care and at- 
tention you have given to it, and if you will only persevere in 
taking every possible care of the gardens of your minds, and 
see that no ill weeds grow there, or if they do, very early to 
pluck them up by the root, then indeed shall we and you have 
cause to rejoice together. 

Richard was a great favourite among his school- 
fellows, and made a few close friends amongst them. 
He was remarkably vigorous, and there were few boys 
who were his match in muscle, but he was not physi- 
cally strong. His father therefore arranged that, 


instead of having lessons before breakfast with the 
other boys, he should take long rambles in the country. 
He had a great love for natural history, and many of 
his schoolfellows remember the wonderful objects of 
interest he would bring back with him from these 
morning walks, and the collections he made of butter- 
flies, birds' eggs, and other things. It was the story 
of eyes and no eyes. All through his life Richard's 
powers of observation were on the alert, and he threw 
so much energy into his natural history pursuits that 
the interest of all the family circle was aroused. 
Among the letters is one even from America, from his 
cousin Joel, whom he had never seen : 

My dear Cousin, Hearing thou was interested in the 
collection of English insects, moths, and butterflies, I thought 
a few specimens from our country would not be unacceptable, 
though the manner of preserving them be different from that 
practised by you. I hope it will not debar them from entrance 
into thy collection. Thy loving, but unknown cousin, 

Joel Cadburv. 

Although a keen collector, Richard was a most 
gentle, tender-hearted boy, a lover of all living crea- 
tures, and never willingly caused them pain. He was 
always a protector of the smaller boys from being 
bullied, and hated to see a dumb creature tormented. 
Indeed, it was a characteristic of his life from be- 
ginning to end to champion the weak and the op- 
pressed. One of his old schoolfellows, Caleb R. 
Kemp, writes of those days : 

" In common with all others who knew him, I saw 
his useful life develop, and was thankful for the 


large-hearted support he gave to good objects. His 
unselfishness in the midst of abundance was most 
teaching. I was at school with him at Benjamin 
Abbot's at Hit chin, and he was a good-tempered and 
very pleasant schoolfellow. He was not in strong 
health, and did no work before breakfast, but took 
a country walk instead. In after-life our paths 
seldom crossed, but when we met he was always the 
same genial, pleasant friend, and would talk of our 
boyish association." 

Another, John Edward Wilson, says : 

" I heard at once from my schoolfellows, that when 
Dick Cadbury returned to school I should find him 
a most capital fellow. This I did indeed ; he was a 
most lovable boy, so gentle and so true. He always 
seemed on the look-out to help any one, and the 
depth of his character endeared him in an unusual 
degree to his schoolfellows. He was anything but a 
prig, and had great influence, although not one of the 
older boys. He seemed especially to think of and 
care for his older brother, who, owing to poor health, 
seemed to need a tender friend and brother. I never 
heard a word against him." 

Canon Head of Clifton, Bristol, writes : 

I was at school with Richard Cadbury and his older brother 
John, and bright, stalwart fellows they were. Dick was 
especially good at games and lessons. I cannot remember 
any particular incident in his school life, but I remember him 
very well. His bright and happy way, and his sunny dis- 
position, marked him out among the other boys who were 

Richard was taught by his parents to look upon 



the early morning walks as a privilege, which he loyally 
endeavoured not to presume upon. 

I find by thy master's letter [wrote his mother, August 3rd, 
1 847] that he is so kind as to find a companion for dear Richard 
in his morning walks. Now I am anxious my dear boy should 
show his gratitude by endeavouring to do all his kind care- 
takers wish him to do, and still to feel that he is the responsible 
person, when out ; not to do anything they may disapprove 
of, and to return at the right time. His good conduct in this 
respect has gained him their confidence, and now I hope he 
will keep it with his increased privilege. 

Their father wrote on August 7th, 1847 : 

We hope Richard's walks will, now he has a companion, be 
more enjoyable to him, but be sure not in any way to presume 
or encroach on the liberty so allowed. We very often wish 
we could send you a basket of gooseberries, which are still 
most abundant and in perfection. The accounts of the harvest 
are most promising. Bread is again lower, Sd. instead of io$d. 
for the loaf weighing 4% lbs. . . . The election took place the 
day after you left. There was a great bustle and much 
excitement ; Muntz and Scholefield were elected by a large 
majority, much to the mortification of the rejected candidate, 
Richard Spooner, and his supporters. 

From the mother on August 9th, 1847, came an 
amusing home picture : 

Poor Trim [the fox-terrier] has had an accident. In peeping 
under the large gates a dog outside seized his nose, and would 
not loose his hold until severely flogged. Trim has recovered 
from it, but is much annoyed with it. He has a walk most 
mornings with your dear father. 

I trust, my dear boys [she wrote, a month later], that you 
are improving in spelling, but my Johnny spells the verb " to 
hear " the same as the adverb " here." Tell me if I do wrong 
in naming this. I think father will have something to tell 


you, when he writes next, about the warehouse and manu- 
factory. It is George's birthday on First Day, eight years old. 

Thy affectionate mother. 

What tender courtesy lay in that hint about wrong 
spelling. It was no wonder that these parents were 
treated with love and reverence by their children. 
From the father (September 25th, 1847) : 

We continue to have the boys in turn from W. Lean's on 
First Day, and they enjoy standing under the apple-tree whilst 
I shake it. I often wish you could share with them, but hope 
you can buy apples cheap in the town ; a little fruit is good 
for you. 

From the mother (November 2nd, 1847) : 

It is a great pleasure to us to find the time passing so quickly 
away with you, because it looks as if it was well and pleasantly 
employed. I trust you may have equal pleasure in looking 
back upon it, and in being able to think, " Well, this half-year 
I have conquered my difficulty over that last ' cannot ' in 
arithmetic ; I will now try ' Can ' in my writing, spelling, and 
Latin grammar." Remember dear Grandfather Barrow's 
motto, which he happily carried into practice : " Whatever 
is worth doing at all is worth doing well " ; it will save you 
many a trouble in after life. 

This became a favourite motto with Richard Cad- 
bury ; his children often remember him quoting it. 
From the father (January 4th, 1848) : 

My dear Boys, I do not like you to be without a penny 
in your pocket, and also wish that you should now and then 
buy a few apples and pears, which with you are so cheap and 
when ripe are so wholesome. John will be interested to 
know that O'Brien, the leader of the rebels in Ireland, is taken, 
and now in prison, but the other leaders are still unfound. 
There has been a second conflict, the rebels led on by a young 
man named German, and some lives lost. It is among the 


mountains, at a place I well remember for its wild mountain 
scenery and the uncivilised state of the people. They have 
robbed the mails more than once. The corn is ripe and only 
wants cutting and carrying. Bread and flour have risen in 

Soon after John and Richard returned to school 
after the summer holidays of 1848, their mother wrote 
to them : 

Whilst sitting this evening with your father by the nursery 
fire, my thoughts seem drawn towards you in tender affection, 
in the remembrance of the very happy time we have so lately 
passed together in so much love and harmony. It has 
strengthened the unity of our little family circle, and evinces 
itself on your part in the overflowing of love towards us all in 
your sweet little notes and letters. The first from dear John 
we received after tea last evening, with the welcome tidings 
of your safe arrival ; the others before Meeting this morning : 
all of which gave great pleasure. Your dear grandfather has 
made many inquiries and seems much interested to hear 
about you. Many families around us are in trouble from 
various causes, and how much have we as a family to be grate- 
ful for. Not a murmur ought to escape our lips, but thankful- 
ness should fill our hearts to the great and merciful Giver 
of all our blessings. 

Second Day afternoon. Your ferns are well cared for ; the 
dear children have great delight in remembering your requests, 
and in fulfilling them. Everything reminding them of you 
is treasured ; they love to think and talk of you, and George 
and Maria spent yesterday (Sunday) afternoon in their little 
room, as when Richard was with them. I think their separa- 
tion from you has united them more to each other, sympathis- 
ing in their mutual loss. All send their dear love to you. 
Accept the dearest love of your affectionate mother. 

From the father (August 14th, 1848) : 

We very often recur to your visit home, and remember 
with comfort the good resolutions intended to be kept by you 
on your return to school. If you are laughed at for doing 






what is right you ought to be able to bear it. It is better far 
than being commended for doing that which is wrong. You 
will know how your father has been ridiculed hundreds of 
times for being a teetotaller, so being encouraged, my dear 
boys ought not to be ashamed to do what they know to be 
right. Do not fail to read your Bible daily in retirement. 
God's blessing will attend it. 

On October 22nd, 1848, he wrote : 

The longer I live, the more I am attached to the principles 
held by the Society of Friends, and I am anxious my dear 
children should never be ashamed of openly and honestly 
speaking and acting as Friends ; and whoever may ridicule 
you for so doing are unworthy of your notice or intimacy. 

During the Christmas holidays the first meeting 
of the Birmingham Friends' Reading Society was 
held on January 10th, 1849.' J onn Cadbury was 
the first President, and arranged to have the social 
gathering in his works at Bridge Street, which were 
decorated as befitted a gala occasion. The first four 
or five annual meetings of the Reading Society were 
held in the same place, and Richard Cadbury has 
preserved some reminiscences of them in the Family- 
Book : 

The rooms were decorated with evergreens, and there were 
many interesting collections of curiosities and pictures dis- 
played, which were lent by Friends for the amusement of the 
evening. After an address from the President, the rest of 
the business was condensed as much as possible, so that it 
might be a time of social intercourse and recreation. Part of 
the evening was spent in scientific experiments, such as the 
electric light, which was invented about that time. There 
were also readings of poetry and original papers. White and 
Pike had a printing press in the room some of the evenings, 
and printed cards in commemoration. 


John and Richard returned to school in the middle 
of January. Their mother wrote (January 20th, 1849) : 

Your notes received to-day did indeed greatly cheer us. I 
called in upon your dear grandmother soon after you left. 
She seemed to feel a great deal in parting with you, feeling 
sensible of the great uncertainty of ever seeing you again. 
Her life seems to hang on a very slender thread. Your dear 
grandfather called in yesterday, anxious to hear of you. I 
hope you will remember to name them particularly in every 
letter you write to us. We cannot expect to retain them much 
longer with us at their advanced age. The children often 
speak of you, and lament your loss, but I trust if your time 
is properly occupied at school you will never have cause to 
regret being there. 

The summer holidays passed, and on August 12th, 
1849, Richard received a letter from his mother : 

My Richard has so much enjoyment in cricket playing, but 
I trust he will be careful not to do too much at it, for experience 
has taught us that much violent exertion does not suit him, 
but brings on headache, &c, which will unfit him for the 
employment for which his stay at school is intended. This 
object I wish you both to keep in mind as the primary one in 
your sojourn and separation from us : the storing of your 
minds with all the instruction you can gain. Habits of 
industry and perseverance are quite essential to a man of 
business, and if these are not brought out in school habits 
I fear there will be little prospect of obtaining them in after 
life. Yet I do not desire that the things of time should be 
to the exclusion of the contemplation of things eternal, but 
that we may be preparing under the Divine Hand for the joys 
of His presence, where the conflicts and cares of the world 
can never enter, but where all is joy and love and peace. The 
two important habits of industry and perseverance will not 
be a hindrance in the good cause, but may be helpful in 
securing times of quiet contemplation and reading and prayer. 
All you do, try to do well, not for the praise of man but for 
the ease of your own conscience. Do not condemn my letter 
as prosy and uninteresting, but take it as from one who loves 


you dearly, and who loves to serve and help you in the right 
way if I can. Your affectionate mother. 

August 28th, 1849. My very dear Richard, This is to 
meet thee upon thy attaining thy fourteenth birthday ; as we 
cannot meet to congratulate thee upon the event we must be 
satisfied to do so by writing, and be assured we all feel most 
affectionately interested with warm desires for thy progress 
in the right path. I do not know whether thou continues thy 
practice of lying down each day ; if thou does I think it would 
afford thee a quiet opportunity of reading over the text for the 
day in the little book Aunt Benjamin gave thee ; it might 
sometimes be a help and strength to thee to do right. Thy 
fern is putting out its fronds most beautifully, and the one we 
brought from Scalemire two years since is looking strong and 
well. I intend to mark it, that we may more easily find it 
another time. Thou hast our united and affectionate wishes 
for thy future happiness and good. 

During the autumn of this year England was 
scourged by a terrible epidemic of cholera. The 
common-sense of the parents in matters of illness 
may be seen by a few words written to little John 
some years before by his father : 

I hope thy fear about fever is an exaggerated one. The 
best preservation against it is great cleanliness, uniform 
cheerfulness, and what is particularly important, not to think 
or trouble about it. These are the causes, it is said, why doctors 
do not take it, the latter reason especially. 

But this outbreak of cholera was more serious than 
an ordinary mild epidemic, and the mother wrote on 
September 13th, 1849 : 

So thankful to hear that you were " both quite well," for which 
I assure you I felt truly thankful, and my heart almost leapt 
for joy when I read it. With thankful feelings I can report 
the same of all our family and families, and indeed all north 
of the town ; at least, the medical men at the hospital say that 


we have not any more illness than is usual here at the time of 

September 22nd. Yesterday was kept as a fast by the 
people of Birmingham, to thank the Almighty for His goodness 
in sparing them from cholera, and to pray for His continued 
preservation from this fearful visitation. I should think all 
places of worship were open, the shops closed, and all business 
suspended. We have indeed cause for great thankfulness 
in being so lightly dealt with. May we live more continually 
in the remembrance of it. 

September 31s/. I am anxious to tell thee how much thou 
hast claimed our thoughts and best desires for thy right and 
proper decision upon a subject of much importance to thy 
future engagements in life, and we feel pleased thou art allowing 
the subject to rest upon thy mind and taking time to consider 
it. I expect it has induced thee into very serious feeling, 
and I trust thou wilt endeavour to seek best guidance and 
direction in coming to the conclusion, that wherever thy lot 
nay be cast, His preserving power may be over to keep thee 
rom all evil and thy heart united to Him, acknowledging 
Him in all thy ways, that He who has thus preserved and 
blessed thy dear father, may bless and preserve thee, my dear 
boy, until the time when He shall see right to take thee to 
Himself. To live in His favour and in the fear of losing it is 
certainly our greatest good. 

In November of this year, John Cadbury divided 
his business, and although at first he did not entirely 
relinquish the tea and coffee part of it, he now paid 
chief attention to the manufacture of cocoa. The 
shop in Bull Street was handed over to his nephew, 
Richard Cadbury Barrow, who left Lancaster to reside 
in Birmingham, and plans were made for young John, 
on leaving school, to join his cousin. 

The mother wrote to her boys on November 5th : 

We are expecting your cousin Richard Barrow back from 
Lancaster on Second Day. The cotton trade remains very 
bad. I think he is glad he has something better to look 


towards. It is difficult to tell how the iniquitous quarrel of 
the Emperor of Russia with the Turks will end, but we know 
there is a superintending Providence in these things, and we 
must hope that God will prevail over evil. 

; \ What does dear John say to helping Cousin R. C. Barrow 
in Bull Street ? [wrote the father, ten days later]. We are 
now preparing for him in earnest. A new front is to be put 
into the shop, and the whole place inside and out is to be 

The spring of 1850 saw John making a start in 
business, while Richard returned alone to school at 
Hitchin : 

My very dear Richard [wrote his mother, on March 16th], 
Thy note arrived in due course, and it is very cheering to hear 
of thee so regularly. Our hearts often warm in affectionate 
feelings towards thee, and we trust thou art making the best 
of thy time at school, doing everything as perfectly and well 
as thou can, remembering thy opportunity of gaining know- 
ledge may be very short. Thou wilt remember how very 
useful thou found some part of thy little store last vacation, 
when thou gave us so pleasant a specimen of thy perseverance. 
We are very glad to find also that thou joins thy companions 
in play with the same enjoyment and spirit as ever. 

Malvern, with its grassy hills and wooded valleys, 
its keen breezes and sparkling springs of water, was 
always a favourite resort of the Cadbury family. The 
father and mother, who, with John and the other 
children, were at Malvern in the April of this year, 
did not forget Richard away by himself at school, as 
the following letters from his mother show (April 9th, 
1850) : 

Father now hopes John may be well enough to return 
with him next week to go into Bull Street entirely. . . . 
Edward and Henry are in great delight with the beautiful 


flowers they find sweet violets and primroses in abundance, 
Henry running from one bunch to another, not knowing which 
to admire most, culling them and bringing them home in 
the full glee and happiness of his little heart. 

April 2.0th. Thy brother John has written thee a long 
letter, descriptive of this pleasant place, and we often think 
and say how much we should enjoy to have thee with us here ; 
but we trust thou art in a place of greater profit to thyself, 
and that thou art more prepared to help thy dear father, 
which I know you are both looking towards with great pleasure. 
He is anxious thou should perfect thyself in French, and in 
every other way he wishes thee to study thy improvement, 
mentally and bodily. 

Other letters tell how things were going on at home. 
From his father (May nth, 1850) : 

My dear Richard, Thy sweet sister, constant to her 
promise, has written her weekly letter to thee, and no doubt 
keeps thee informed of the various incidents of home. We 
are all in good health since our return from Malvern. Edward 
and Henry came home tanned with the sun and wind, and I 
rejoice also to add that none derived more benefit than John, 
who is now apparently strong and well, and is thoroughly 
settled at the shop, and very fully occupied. Cousin Richard 
is very kind to him, and I believe John is not only happy, 
but becoming much interested in the business. 

On August 29th, 1850, Richard was fifteen years 
old. A few days later he received a letter from his 
father : 

My dear Richard, We were not unmindful of thy birthday 
on Fifth Day, and many were the good wishes that passed our 
lips, none more affectionately desiring thy happiness than 
thy father and mother. Fifteen years have soon rolled over, 
time passed that can never return. The time to come none 
can tell beyond the present moment, so that we are called on 
to " Let the day's work keep pace with the day " to-morrow 
may not be ours. Eternity stands before us, so that, my 


dear boy, we are most anxious thou should in every way im- 
prove the moments as they speed along. We have a parcel 
waiting to send thee. I continue to take Trim and Sappho 
a walk in the morning, much to their joy and benefit. 
Sappho very kindly, a few days ago, pulled Trim up by his 
neck, and carrying him into the pond, gave him several dips 
and then let him go ; it amused us all very much. We begin 
to think how pleasant it will be to have thy help to work with 
and for us. John is very steady at his post in Bull Street. 
The garden is still gay with flowers of every hue. Yesterday 
we cut a delicious melon, and have an ample supply of fine 

September 10th. A parcel containing thy birthday cakes 
is sent off to-night. (Presents also from John, George, Maria, 
and Edward. ) It also has a nice copy of the Holy Scriptures 
enclosed, which is a joint present from thy father and mother. 
We trust it may prove a lasting comfort, pleasure, and profit 
to thee in the best sense. A little time spent each day in its 
private perusal cannot fail to do good, and we desire to en- 
courage thee through every discouragement to persevere in 
this habit of daily reading, and silently meditating on what 
thou reads. The mind is thus often attracted to the divine 
source from whence alone all good must come. " Seek and 
ye shall find ; ask and ye shall receive " ; these are blessed 
promises, and may be realised this day as much as at the time 
they were given forth by our adorable and blessed Redeemer, 
but we must all remember He is alone the way, the truth, and 
life. Thy affectionate father. 

During the autumn gas lamps were being put for 
the first time along the Edgbaston roads, and hansom 
cabs were being introduced into Birmingham. Maria 
wrote on November 2nd : 

I suppose thou knew we were going to have lamps in Cal- 
thorpe Street and all the streets and roads about here. Yester- 
day George and I went to town in one of those London cabs. 
It looked very curious, seeing no man in front. 

In the following summer of 185 1, Richard, now 


almost sixteen years old, left school, and prepared to 
help his father in the business at Bridge Street. Be- 
fore settling down, his father wished him to have 
the pleasure and education of a visit to Switzerland, 
and he therefore accompanied Arthur J. Naish, a 
Friend. The tour is remembered as a most delightful 
one, but there is no record of it, except one or two 
references among the old letters. These show that 
his parents evidently expected Richard to write them 
a daily message when away on a holiday. It was 
probably one of the things which helped to train him 
in prompt letter- writing. He was also taught to share 
his pleasures with others, and a letter from his father 
on August 21st says : 

Thy dear mother hopes thou wilt be very observant of 
everything worthy of notice ; also be prepared to be a guide 
to us on our next visit to the Continent. 

The close of this Swiss tour marked the end of 
Richard's free and happy boyhood, and from this time 
forward he began to prepare for the responsibilities 
and duties of older life. 

YOUNG MANHOOD (1851 1860) 


AT the time when Richard Cadbury left school, 
his father and his grandfather were both deeply 
immersed in civic duties, and in philanthropic and 
religious interests. About this time his sister Maria 
left home for two and a half years of boarding school 
at Lewes, under the care of the three stately sisters, 
Mary, Myriam and Josephine Dymond. The ordeal 
was a formidable one for the little girl, whose chief 
companions had been her five sturdy brothers, and 
it would be difficult to say which felt the separation 
most. Letters to her from the two youngest boys 
give flash-light glimpses of the home. One from 
Henry mentions his brother Richard : 

JT; The holidays are very near, and I want thee to come home. 
Thy garden is getting on very well, and the ferns on the 
rockery are going on nicely. Richard brought some home 
from Lancaster, and put them on the island in the pool. 

Richard had settled to work in his father's business 



at Bridge Street with characteristic energy and 
devotion. There was much to learn, and to a young 
man of his temperament a merely superficial know- 
ledge was not enough. 

The productions of the firm were beginning to gain 
A a recognised position among the manufactures of 
Great Britain. In 1849 the second meeting in Birming- 
ham of the British Association had been held during 
September, and at the same time an exhibition of 
local arts and manufactures was opened at Bingley 
House, in Broad Street. The old house had been 
specially adapted, and large temporary buildings 
were erected on the grounds for the exhibition. It 
proved very attractive, and on November 12th Prince 
Albert visited it, spending nearly three hours in exa- 
mining the contents, with which he expressed his 
great satisfaction. No. 18 of the catalogue reads : 
" Chocolate, Cocoa, and Chicory, in various stages of 
\ manufacture, contributed by Cadbury Bros., Bridge 
Street, Broad Street, Birmingham. " The success of 
the exhibition led to the building of a permanent 
hall, which still stands as then erected, and bears 
the old name of Bingley. 

From a description of the works at Bridge Street 
' in 1852, when Richard Cadbury was seventeen years 
old, we can gather some idea of his early business 
impressions. On the ground floor of the factory were 
the store-house, the roasting ovens, the " kibbling 
mill," and other machinery ; while above was the 
packing room, where all was light and cheerful. The 
score or more of girls, who worked under the direction 

p _ 

X w 


a B 


of a forewoman, wore a kind of industrial uniform, their 
ordinary dresses being exchanged during work hours 
for a clean holland washing-frock. Some weighed 
the cocoa, or packed it ; others wrapped the " homeo- 
pathic " and other special makes in tinfoil, or filled 
the boxes with " bonbons," or helped the forewoman 
to count and sort the orders. Everything was scru- 
pulously clean, and the busy hands and bright faces 
made the work-room a happy place. Care was taken 
., to employ girls of good moral character, and no oppor- 
tunity was neglected of influencing them in the best 
things, endeavouring to teach them habits of order 
and pleasant manners which might reach beyond their 
work hours to their homes and families. Once a week 
during the summer they were given a half-holiday, 
and twice a week they left work an hour earlier than 
usual to attend evening school. Some of the men 
had learnt a steady habit of saving, and with nearly 
all, from the mere force of quiet example in their 
masters, teetotalism was the rule. Reproof was not 
often needed, but when given, it was more as an appeal 
to the better feelings than a demonstration of anger. 
Such were the conditions under which John Cadbury's 
son received his training. 

Sometimes there were pleasant breaks in the routine 
of business, as in May, 1853, when Richard attended 
the Friends' Yearly Meeting in London, and sent 
home daily reports. 

My very dear Richard [wrote his mother on May 22nd], 
We much enjoy thy accounts of your proceedings, and feel it 
very kind of thee to keep us thus informed, for be assured our 


affectionate thoughts often turn towards thee, and we shall 
be truly glad to encircle thee again in our little family compact. 
I am glad you attended the Temperance meeting, and that so 
many Friends were there. Dear Richard, I hope much good 
seed is being sown in thy mind which may spring up and bear 
a hundredfold at some future day. How little we are apt 
to think of the influence of example, or of the utterance of 
our sentiments upon those who surround us, for good or for 
evil, or how far they may descend upon future generations not 
yet in being. How needful, therefore, that our minds should 
be imbued correctly, and that we should seek wisdom from 
the Most High. 

At this time Benjamin Head Cadbury was connected 
for some years with his brother John in the business, 
and it was during their co-partnership that the title 
of Cadbury Bros, was first used for the firm. In 
November, 1853, they received a royal appointment 
as Cocoa and Chocolate Manufacturers to the Queen. 

When John Cadbury was away from home, a good 
deal of responsibility fell upon Richard's shoulders ; 
but his father reposed great confidence in him, as can 
be seen in a letter from Southport, dated June 7th, 1854, 
to Richard and his brother George, who was still 
attending William Lean's school in Birmingham : 

We greatly enjoyed the receipt of the beautiful flowers you 
sent us, showing that home in this respect has pretty strong 
attractions. . . . Dear Richard's business letter was very clear 
and satisfactory, and I am glad to find that in every depart- 
ment you go on agreeably and encouragingly. 

After three years' steady work in the business, 
Richard had another delightful visit to Switzerland 
in the summer of 1854. This time, as well as Arthur 
Naish, his companions were the Rev. J. J. Brown 


and a Mr. Scott. The journal letters he wrote to his 
parents on this journey, as well as one or two from 
his father, have been safely preserved, and give a 
vivid account of their travels. 

Up till the winter of this year John had continued 
with his cousin, Richard Cadbury Barrow, in the shop 
in Bull Street ; but by degrees it became clear that 
his health was not equal to the strain of office 
and indoor life. When once or twice he fell into 
serious faints it was seen that a change must be 
made, and his father determined that he should learn 
farming, and live as much as possible in the open air. 
He was sent, therefore, to Brinsop Court, in Hereford- 
shire; and, although not far away from home, his 
departure was the flitting of the first bird from the 
old home nest. 

For some years past the mother had been failing in 
health, and it was a delight both to her and to her 
family when Maria, who was nearly seventeen years 
old, left school at Christmas, 1854, and was able to 
relieve her mother of many of the home burdens. 
She had only been at home for a month or two when 
sorrow fell like a crushing blow, leaving a blank in the 
lives of husband and children, which nothing could 
ever quite fill ; for in March, 1855, the mother passed 
into the presence of the Saviour, whom she had loved 
and served so faithfully. It was one of the greatest 
griefs of Richard's life, for she had been so much to 
him a friend and companion, as well as mother. In 
his boyhood they had spent many a happy hour 
studying botany together, and it was chiefly from 



her that he gained his love and knowledge of ferns 
and plants. In the later years he had been with her 
on many an errand of mercy. Modest and retiring 
as she was, she never shrank from anything, however 
formidable, which she felt the Lord had given her 
to do, and one of her last acts was systematically to 
visit numbers of public-houses, speaking to the men 
and women inside, and giving away tracts and 
pamphlets. An echo of her kindness was received 
more than fifty years after her death from an old 
gentleman, who had received encouragement from 
this tender-hearted woman. He wrote to George 
Cadbury : 

In my youth I have worn clothing that your brothers John 
and Richard and yourself had left off, your dear mother taking 
care to clothe me, a poor orphan lad. To this day I can see 
her smile, and her gentle hands wrapping up parcels for me, 
and still hear her speaking to me words of kindness. I fol- 
lowed the dear one to her grave when in my twenty-first year ; 
now I am in my seventy-second. 

It has been well said : 

" The mother is and must be, whether she knows 
it or not, the greatest, strongest, and most lasting 
teacher her children have. Other influences come and 
go, but hers is continual ; and by the opinion men 
have of women, we can generally judge of the sort of 
mother they had." 

Certainly this was true of Richard Cadbury and 
his mother, for her influence was one of the most 
potent in his whole life. There is no doubt that his 
chivalrous courtesy towards all women, and his 


championship of those who were oppressed and wronged, 
owed its impulse to his mother's life and her training 
through his boyhood. He never forgot her. She 
was the inspiration of many of the causes which he 
undertook in later life. Her framed portrait, sur- 
rounded by those of his three brothers, John, Edward, 
and Henry, hung to the very last in his dressing-room, 
where they still remain. On the back of hers are 
written in his own hand some verses which he com- 
posed : 


From gentle bowers among the flowers 

The sweetest perfumes rise ; 
My mother's love thus gilds the hours 

Of memory's changing skies. 

Our childhood's day has passed away, 

Yet not our childhood's dream ; 
The vista of its chequered way 

Is like a silver stream. 

Can Heaven bestow a warmer glow 

Of sunshine from above, 
A purer, holier pledge below 

Than in a mother's love ? 

About the time of her death John Cadbury was 
seriously ill with rheumatic fever, and from this 
time forward became a good deal of an invalid, often 
having to be away for long periods to undergo hydro- 
pathic and other treatments. Maria did her best to 
fill the mother's place to him and her brothers. It 
was a heavy burden to fall upon the shoulders of the 


young girl, but she rose to the occasion bravely, leaning 
hard upon the never-failing power of God. The ill- 
health of his father also added greatly to Richard's 
responsibilities, as except for the occasional help and 
advice of his Uncle Benjamin, he had to bear the 
weight of the business alone. His brother George 
had by this time left school, and was at York, learning 
the tea trade. 

August 29th of the year 1856 brought round 
Richard's twenty-first birthday. It happened that, 
unavoidably and to the sorrow and regret of all the 
family, he was alone at home at the time of this im- 
portant event. John was away on the farm at Brinsop, 
Edward and Henry at school in Nottingham, and his 
father, Maria, and George were at Southport. How 
lovingly he was remembered by all can be traced in 
the big budget of letters which reached him on the 
morning of his birthday. Parts of them were as 
follows : 

From John, Stoke Hill (August 25th, 1856) 

Dear Brother, Thy letter, with details of various intended 
preparations to celebrate both thine and Cousin Sarah's 
birthday, is most truly interesting. Much as I should like to 
join you, I think I must defer my visit till father returns, or 
otherwise I should most certainly have come to Birmingham 
over-night to join your party. I hope this may reach you on 
the right and proper day, when with the usual compliments 
to thee, let me include Cousin Sarah, and wish you both many 
glad returns and a long and happy life. How easily we pass 
from childhood over that bridge of years, from all the dreams, 
when we used to picture with so much wonder what it would 
be like, to the realities of manhood with the world before us. 
How precious is the one dear parent we have left. We will 


yet trust and hope to see him restored amongst us, and to 
enjoy many long years of his experience. 

From his father, Southport (August 2jth, 1856) 

My dear Richard, This is intended to meet thee on the 
29th of the present month, being thy twenty-first birthday, 
an interesting and eventful period to all who are permitted to 
attain to it ; and in reviewing the course and events of thy 
life, from thy birth to the present time, it affords me the 
truest pleasure and comfort to contemplate thy uniform 
virtuous and amiable conduct. It is difficult to express all 
the feelings of the mind on such an occasion as this, but I can 
assure thee we are all most anxious to convey to thee the near 
interest we feel on thy account, and we should like thy twenty- 
first birthday to be one of great enjoyment to thee. I much 
approve of thy proposal to have a day's excursion with thy 
cousins in commemoration of it, and I wish it to be carried 
out in a generous and liberal way, and of course wholly at my 
expense. I am sorry I have been unable to present thee with 
some useful and valuable memento of my affection on thy 
birthday. It is my wish for thee to possess a cabinet, suitable 
to contain thy specimens of butterflies and other objects in 
which thou takes an interest. I wish thee to order one 
according to thy own taste ; I wish it to be good and hand- 
some. And now, dear Richard, in contemplating the present 
with the future, I see the important and increasingly re- 
sponsible position thou must necessarily hold in the business 
as well as in the family. I believe thou art not insensible to 
both, but as my own restoration to health is uncertain, I wish 
to encourage thee quietly and steadily to place thyself in my 
position, so as to be able with confidence to assume the im- 
portant standing of a master. It is important for thee at all 
times to appear respectably dressed. I will not say more on 
this point, but conclude with the earnest and serious hope that 
neither business nor pleasure, or any other lawful pursuit, may 
interfere with the performance of thy civil and religious 
duties, so that the day's work may truly be said to keep pace 
with the day. Thou hast my entire confidence, and thou 
knows thou possesses the warmest love and affection of thy 
tenderly attached father. 


From Maria, Southport (August 28th, 1856) 

My own dear Brother, Although we are all absent from 
thee, do not for one moment think thou art forgotten by any 
of us, especially on so memorable a day as to-morrow, thy 
twenty-first birthday. It is a great pleasure to us to think 
that part of the day is to be spent at grandfather's. We have 
talked and thought of you much to-day, and hope you will 
all enjoy the excursion, and that the day will be clear and 
fine ; the view then I should think would be extensive from 
the summit of the Wrekin. Had George and I been at 
home, how we should have enjoyed to join the party ! Thou 
wilt be pleased to hear that dear father really does seem to 
be benefiting under the water cure, and at times is so lively 
and cheerful. 

Other letters are before us from George and Aunt 
Ann at Southport, and two delightful schoolboy- 
epistles from Edward and Henry at Nottingham, all 
showing how warmly Richard was loved. 

In the autumn plans were being made to buy John 
a farm of his own. On September 20th, 1856, the 
father wrote : 

My dear Richard, We have had several letters from John 
this week, which have interested us very much, and I am 
quite in hopes that there is a possibility of his obtaining the 
first refusal of a first-rate farm. The dear fellow writes with 
much considerate feeling lest he should put me to serious in- 
convenience by finding the necessary money, and evinces a 
cheerful willingness still to postpone taking a farm. I have 
therefore this morning written him very explicitly, assuring 
him that I shall be prepared to supply the needful money for 
him to take a farm when a suitable one offers, and I have 
further assured him that his brothers and sister with myself 
are unitedly most desirous of doing all we can to forward his 
settlement in life. . . . We have bright, animated notes from 
thy dear grandfather ; the buoyancy of his spirit enables him 
to move and get about quite to admiration. I shall rejoice 
to share in his instructive company again. My brother, 


Benjamin H. Cadbury, informs me that the work has com- 
menced in Crooked Lane. I am much interested in its pro- 
gress, and hope thou wilt find time frequently to visit it, and 
shall expect a report from thee on its progress in a few days. 

Thy dearly attached father. 

In the summer Richard received an urgent invita- 
tion from his friend and schoolfellow, C. W. Dymond, 
to spend a holiday with him at Dartmoor. As his 
father was again ill and away from home, Richard 
could not desert his post of duty at the business, 
and was unable to go. C. W. Dymond wrote on 
August 8th, 1857 : 

Dear Richard, I was very sorry that thou wast under the 
necessity of giving up going with us to Dartmoor. We took 
five days for a ramble round the borders and through the 
centre of the moor. . . . Many of the views we obtained were 
remarkably fine, and some of the scenery of the interior of 
the moor wild and solitary in the extreme. ... I often wished 
thou had been with us, for thou would have enjoyed it so much. 
It is very pleasing to hear that John has now got a farm of his 
own. He will no doubt do well, as he seems to take great 
interest in farming. It will be a very pleasant place for you 
to visit now and then during the summer. 

Thy affectionate friend, 

C. W. Dymond. 

The well-known and old-established school of William 
Lean was closed in the autumn of 1857, on his retire- 
ment. Eleven of the old scholars, among whom were 
Henry Newman, J. H. Shorthouse, Samuel Price, 
Richard Cadbury Barrow, and Richard Cadbury, sent 
out a circular to all the old scholars suggesting a 
testimonial to be given to William Lean and his wife. 
At the end of the circular, a copy of which was found 
in the Chinese chest, are the words, " Subscriptions 


may be forwarded to Richard Cadbury, Junr., Bridge 
Street, Birmingham," and pinned to it are the papers 
containing lists in his neat handwriting of all the old 
scholars, with entries of their subscriptions, and of 
those to whom he wrote more than once in order to 
obtain a reply. 

The presentation of a handsome purse of gold to 
William Lean, and of a davenport of walnut wood, 
fitted up with stationery, to his wife, took place on 
December ist, and the report of it is fastened together 
with the other papers. 

It is a curious coincidence that, at the very time 
this chapter was being written, several Friends were 
searching for a complete list of the names and 
addresses of those who had attended this school ; and 
thus the old records, so carefully made and kept, 
served a useful purpose once again. 

In spite of the cares and responsibilities which rested 
upon his young shoulders, Richard Cadbury managed 
to enjoy life thoroughly. He was one of a circle of 
young men Friends who shared in the delights of out- 
door sports and country excursions. They were taught 
to love and study nature, and to enjoy real fun ; and 
it would be impossible to find a greater contrast between 
the healthy intelligence of these young people, and 
the restless craving for excitement which is to be found 
amongst so many brought up in the baneful atmosphere 
of modern worldly amusements. One of the things 
which this energetic party of young men used to do 
was to take long summer walks in the dewy freshness 
of the very early morning. Most of them were in 


business, and therefore had to fit in these excursions 
in the hours before breakfast. Many are the tales 
they have told of their adventures. They would 
meet, first at one house and then another in 
turn, and, while every one else was asleep, would 
be let quietly in, and congregate in the deserted 
kitchen, where a store of provisions had been put 
ready the night before. What fun would ensue, as they 
toasted their own bacon or fried sausages, and made 
toast and coffee before setting out ! Even the dark- 
ness of the winter mornings was not able to keep them 
from, their early excursions. Indeed, the frosty 
weather, when skating was to be had, was the keenest 
time of all. Richard was an enthusiastic and skilful 
skater. There are many reminiscences of his prowess 
on the ice. One of his sisters-in-law writes, " He 
used fairly to dazzle us with his skating." 

George, who was often one of the party, says of his 
brother : 

He was passionately fond of skating, and, when a young 
man,frequently rose at five o'clock so as to be on the ice before 
the dawn of day, and thus have two hours' exercise before 
going to business in the city. Only those who have made 
this effort know the exhilaration of skating in the early 
morning, and watching the light gradually break and the 
beauty of the sunrise. He was fond of athletic exercises, and 
was always captain of the football and hockey team that 
played at Edgbaston fifty years ago, being an exceptionally 
good player at both games. Amongst those with whom he 
played was the late J. H. Shorthouse, author of John 
Inglesant, and other men who have since become well known. 
In later years he often longed, amid the pressure of business, 
for more time in which to engage in the exercises and games 
of his youth and early manhood. 


An amusing incident is supplied by Samuel Price, 
who was one of the skating fraternity. Although the 
reservoir at Edgbaston was the place where they most 
often enjoyed their favourite recreation, the large pool 
at the foot of the Edgbaston Hall grounds offered 
temptations which could not be resisted. One winter 
there was an exceptionally long hard frost, and during 
part of the time the moon was full. With the frosty 
ground crunching beneath their feet, the young 
fellows made their way to the borders of Edgbaston 
Park ; they climbed over the palings, taking care 
not to break or injure them, and were soon skimming 
over the frozen pool in the moonlight. Their sur- 
reptitious visits continued, and as they grew bolder 
they used to go in the early mornings as well. Some- 
times when it was dark they burned coloured fires on 
the ice. This led to the detection of their pranks, and 
old Lawyer Whateley, who lived at the Hall, set to 
work to put a stop to them. One morning he sent 
a man down to the pool to take the young men's names, 
and to request them not to come again. Now it 
happened that Lawyer Whateley was a friend of that 
stately and dignified old Quaker, Richard's grandfather. 
The similarity of the names at once struck Mr. Whateley. 
He well knew, of course, that it was a young man who 
had been skating ; but he wrote a letter to Richard 
Tapper Cadbury, who was nearly ninety at this time, 
saying he was sorry that his old friend had taken 
the trouble to climb over his palings to skate, as he 
would have been glad to let him in by the gate at any 
time. The idea of the old gentleman climbing over the 


palings was very amusing, and evidently half in 
fun; but Richard Tapper Cadbury took it quite 
seriously, and wrote to say how surprised he was that 
his friend, John Welshman Whateley, should think 
him capable of such a piece of ill-manners. Needless 
to say, this was the end of the stolen visits to Edgbaston 
pool, for Richard's grandfather, though not without 
a keen sense of humour and sincere love for his grand- 
children, was a strict disciplinarian, and had a great 
sense of the proprieties. 

During this same winter another incident occurred, 
which showed Richard Cadbury's alertness in an 
emergency. As they were skating together upon the 
reservoir, the same Friend who supplied the preceding 
story was practising the out side-edge backwards. 
Not being careful enough to notice where he was going, 
he glided right into the middle of a lightly frozen space, 
above one of the springs. It might have been a serious 
accident, but Richard, with his quick vision, saw what 
had happened, and in a moment was skimming towards 
the spot, knotting two handkerchiefs together as he 
sped along, and calling to the others to follow him. 
He lay full length on the ice and worked his way to- 
wards the broken edge, giving directions to the next 
who skated up to do the same, and hold on to his heels. 
The knotted handkerchiefs were seized, and with a 
little struggling their wet and half-numbed comrade 
was rescued from his perilous position, and escorted 
home at a run. Some idea of the coldness of the 
morning may be gained from the fact that, by the time 
he reached home, his clothes were as stiff as boards. 


A detailed account of a long boating and camping 
expedition up the River Wye, entitled " The Log of the 
Seagull," is to be found in the first volume of the 
records of the Friends' Essay Society. The Log 
abounds with humour and incident, and is freely 
illustrated by pen-and-ink sketches, many of which 
were contributed by Richard, who was with the 
expedition part of the time. A letter from his 
father runs (July 20th, 1858) : 

My dear Richard, We received thy " despatch " this 
morning, for such we find would be the correct phraseology 
of reports received from the exploring boating-party. We 
suppose thou hast commenced thy share of the toil, and should 
like to have a few lines after a night or two's bivouacking under 
the tent. All is going on comfortably in the home circle, 
and our old friend " business " is on the even tenor of its way. 
John has enjoyed your visit, and is progressing well with his 
hay. Thy account of his crops is satisfactory. I am glad 
he was able, so pleasantly, to give your party a helping hand. 

One of Richard's chief companions of those days, 
J. W. Shorthouse, says of him : 

As a boy he was strong and a very fast runner, and many 
pleasant games at cricket and hockey I have had in his com- 
pany in Joseph Sturge's field. We sometimes had great 
fun at his father's house in Calthorpe Road, especially on one 
occasion, when we had a bonfire and fireworks there, attended 
by Friends generally. He also went with us on boating 
expeditions, notably in the year 1858, when we arranged one 
on the Wye from its mouth to Hay. His brother John was 
then farming in Herefordshire. The best sketches illustrating 
the account of this expedition were done by Richard Cadbury, 
who had much artistic taste. As a boy and a young man 
he had the same characteristics as in later life, great deter- 
mination to take his full share of any work that had to be 
done, and a desire to make things pleasant for all who were 


working or playing with him. I should not think he ever said 
an unkind word to any one. Before he had a First Day school 
class of his own he often took mine when I was prevented, 
and he was much valued as a substitute by other teachers 
also. We all felt we got in him a better man than ourselves, 
and he was so good-natured that he seldom declined. 

Another Friend, Charles Lean, says : 

We never met without the cheery " Well, Charles," and 
kind inquiries. As to years ago, I chiefly remember our games, 
and always envied his bold wheeling round the gymnastic 
pole. We and others enjoyed together in their season cricket, 
football, skating, bathing, bonfires, and fireworks at his father's. 
We attended debates at the Friends' Reading Society and a 
Bible Class at Bull Street. In all he was thorough and deter- 
mined, and a good example to any one. 

These last two letters show that Richard's energies 
were developing along lines of Christian work, in which 
he took the most sincere and earnest delight. From 
the very first it was a joy to him to be face to face 
with a class or company of men, who would reverently 
search the word of God with him for the truth and 
for practical guidance in the affairs of everyday life. 
Although in the position of teacher, he always drew 
out the men themselves, making them feel that, while 
willing and ready to impart to them the knowledge 
he had already gained, he put himself alongside of them 
as a learner. 

It was when he was about twenty-three years old 
that he made his third tour in Switzerland, which was 
perhaps the most adventurous of any. His father had 
again been very ill, and was at Southport with Maria. 

Richard had been steadily working away at Bridge 
Street, and his father felt he had well earned another 


trip abroad. There are no letters in the bundle de- 
scribing this journey, but many remember the stories 
of terrible climbs and exciting adventures, and Richard 
wrote a descriptive diary for his father, profusely 
illustrated with sketches made from rough drawings 
on the spot, and coloured and finished at home. One 
of the climbs which he made with his guide, who 
became his devoted friend and admirer, was the 
Col de Geant, and was one of the earliest ascents of 
this mountain. One of his sketches represents a 
precipitous rock, up which he and the guide, roped 
together, were cautiously and laboriously climbing, 
cutting steps as they went. On the summit of the 
rock stood a young chamois, looking down on them. 
Richard scarcely cared to talk much about this adven- 
ture, which both he and the guide realised to have 
been full of danger. Other pictures show them roped, 
and crossing snowfields or cutting their way along 
ledges of ice. There is one of the Hospice of St. 
Bernard, with an account of the visit to that place, 
telling of the little garden where the monks tried to 
grow some cabbages, and succeeded in getting one 
about the size of a walnut. A rather ghastly sketch 
shows the Mortuary, with the dim outlines of silent 
figures lying within, where those who had lost their 
friends on the mountains went to try and recognise 
them among these frozen and disfigured remains. 

The family at home were almost horrified when 
they knew of some of the dangers Richard had passed 
through, and it was a relief to them, when he became 
engaged a few years afterwards, to know that he had 


an added reason to hold him back from such risky 
adventures. It was most characteristic that on this 
tour, which was always marked out in Richard's 
memory as one of the most delightful he ever made, 
he so economised in the matter of personal comforts 
that on his return home his appearance took every one 
aback. He was gaunt and thin, though hardened 
and in robust health ; his clothes were shabby and 
threadbare ; his boots had hardly any soles left on 
them : but he was radiant and in the highest spirits, 
and, moreover, had in his trunk a present for every one. 
In the summer of i860 a party of four of the American 
cousins John Warder and his wife Caroline, and 
Joel Cadbury and his sister Sarah came over to 
Europe to visit their English relations, and to see 
something of the Continent. A large family gathering 
was arranged on August 16th, at which the American 
visitors met as many as possible of their English 
cousins. Richard, who would vividly remember the 
historic gathering that had taken place seven years 
earlier at his grandfather's home, designed a card to be 
given to each person present, in commemoration of the 
evening. A floral spray, circled by a wreath of olive- 
leaves with fruit, surrounded a bundle of sticks and 
the motto, " Felices ter et amplius quos irrupta tenet 
copula." Below are two verses of his own composition : 

Thrice happy they whom love entwines in memory's wreath 

"Tis better far when joy combines than any earthly treasure ; 
Columbia's star shall brighter glow, and Albion fairer seem, 
Now that our kindred feelings flow in one unbroken stream. 


Heaven's choicest gifts blend all in one, as dew-drops in a 

Or as when streamlets meeting run in union each bright hour ; 
So may the olive round us be an evergreen of love, 
And may each branch of parent tree unite in Heaven above. 

A few weeks later the four American cousins, with 
Richard Cadbury, his Uncle James, of Banbury, and 
his cousin Martha Gibbins, set out for a tour through 
France and Switzerland, described in the following 
letters : 

Hotel de Lille et d'Albion, Paris. 
September 13th, i860. 
Dear Father, I have just received thy letter, which 
arrived about mid-day. We had a splendid passage over from 
Folkstone, with scarcely a cloud on the sky, and the scene as 
we left the white cliffs of Albion was indeed very beautiful. 
The sea was quite an emerald green colour, and the atmosphere 
so clear that we could distinctly see the small crescent of the 
moon and Venus, a brilliant object a little to the right, although 
the sun was shining brightly. We saw also many seagulls, 
some of which came close to the bows of the vessel. On our 
arrival at Boulogne we saw as usual some of the universal 
French soldiers, with their red peg-top trousers, their hands 
as if fastened into their pockets. We got our luggage through 
the Douane without much trouble, and put up at the Hotel 
de Paris, as we were just too late to get off by the 10.30 train. 
We then strolled about the town, and saw its beautiful cathe- 
dral, with some rather extraordinary crypts underneath, 
covered with rough paintings, this part being all that remained 
of the old cathedral which was battered down with cannon. 
We had some capital fun. Uncle James found many that could 
speak some English, but it did not much matter whether or 
no he gave it them, and some curious scenes we had between 
signs and words until we undertook to help him out. We left 
by a train at 5.30, and arrived in Paris at 11.0 after a very 
pleasant ride, and with plenty to keep us merry. We are 
very comfortably located here, John Warder, Joel, and I in 
one room, and Caroline, Sarah, and Martha Gibbins in a most 


elegantly furnished apartment, where we are now all writing 
our letters. We have had a very busy day ; Uncle James 
and myself got up at half-past five to explore the district, 
and walked through the gardens of the Tuileries, in which 
the flowers were most luxuriant long beds covered by one 
mass of plants and scarcely one that was not in flower ; 
among the trees further on were quite a forest of chairs, 
where the people congregate in the evenings. We then 
passed on to the Place de la Concorde, and had a peep 
through a telescope at the planet Venus, showing it about the 
size of the moon, and not more than one-half lit by the sun, 
thus ]) . We went on to the fruit-market, two or three 
times the size of Covent Garden, and quantities of the most 
delicious fruit ; we bought about 1 20 greengages, which have 
been most acceptable during the day. 

We met the rest of the party at breakfast at nine o'clock, as 
we thought they ought to have a good night, and started at 
ten, the first part being what uncle and I had seen before 
breakfast, with the exception of the fruit-market. The Louvre 
really cannot be described with justice. From the immense 
courtyard enclosed within it we could look with amazement 
upon the magnificent range of architectural beauty around us. 
The high buildings of which it is composed seem an elaborate 
display of columns, statues, and carved stone work. We 
made our entrance into the museum, and were soon lost 
amongst paintings of the very highest order, and think we 
did not walk less than a mile in viewing them Raphaels, 
Caraccis, Murillos, and thousands of others. We really could 
hardly tell how to leave, they were so enchanting ; we had no 
time to see the sculptures. At about three we went into a small 
restaurant, and had a good dinner for a franc each, sitting in 
a kind of trellised balcony, covered with creepers. We gave 
the waiter sundry commands in French and English, Uncle 
James at last giving in with the latter. I don't know what 
folks will think of us, for we laugh so much. After this we 
went to the Hotel de Ville, and were taken over all the state 
apartments Napoleon's reception-room, and the splendid 
ballroom where he gave that ball that we read of some time 
ago in the papers. From thence to the Cathedral of Notre 
Dame ; the carved stone- work in front was particularly curious 
and beautiful. We then walked to the column of Julliet 


(formed out of cannon melted down), where we all got into a 
diligence and went for three or four miles along the principal 
boulevards of Paris to the Madeleine ; this we found was just 
closed, but we shall see it to-morrow if we have time. After 
some tea at our hotel and some writing, we have just been all 
along the Champs-Elysees and Place de la Concorde by gas- 
light a very fine sight, with thousands of lights making it quite 
a fairy scene ; we then went for a mile and a half along some 
of the finest boulevards, to see the cafes and restaurants 
and shops of all kinds, dressed out with a taste such as only 
Parisians can show. Excuse so rough and poor an epitome 
of what we have been witnessing, but it is impossible in so 
short a time to do justice to it. Cousins wish to join me in 
dear love to thee and all at home, and I remain, 

Thy affectionate son, 

R. Cadbury. 

Macon, September 15th, i860. 
My dear Father, We arrived here this morning at 4.30, 
after a comfortable ride from Paris ; Uncle James and I did 
not take beds, as we thought we had had enough sleep, but have 
enjoyed a bath and a walk round the town. The River Saone 
is wide here, but its banks are flat and uninteresting. We 
bought two bunches of grapes, quite \ lb. each, for id. (4 sous), 
which were delicious. Yesterday we made our way at ten 
o'clock to the Jardin des Plantes, which disappointed us very 
much ; certainly nothing to compare with our Zoological 
Gardens, either in plants or animals. We took a cab from here 
to the Pantheon, from the top of which we had a splendid 
panoramic view of Paris, and it was interesting to consult our 
map, to trace all the public buildings and gardens. The beauti- 
ful gardens of the Luxembourg were close to us, and here we 
walked to next. The arrangement of trees, flowers, and 
marble statues is much finer than anything I have ever seen 
before. The pictures in the palace are mostly by French 
artists ; several amongst them of Rosa Bonheur's best paint- 
ings. We were much surprised here, as in the Louvre, to 
notice so many artists copying the pictures, and one-half of 
these ladies ; but the latter were not so much masters of the 
brush as the former, excepting in miniatures. By this 
time we were somewhat hungry, and made a descent upon a 


patissier's, which was a salutary change, and then turned 
our steps to the Hotel Cluny, an ancient palace, the rooms 
of which were decorated with a very remarkable collection 
of antiquities. There were some of the best productions of 
Palissy, the potter, and the most beautiful tapestry I ever 
saw, quite equal to a good painting. There were a great 
quantity of exquisite carvings in wood and ivory, and curiosi- 
ties of all kinds, mostly connected with the kings of France. 
This was to me the most interesting of anything that we have 
seen in Paris, and was a good finish to the day's sight-seeing. 
We returned to our hotel in time for a table d'hote at half-past 
five ; and this was quite a novelty to cousins, being the first 
we have yet had, and they were thoroughly tired out before 
we got through it. Uncle James amuses us very much, in 
asking for potatoes with his beef, and stale bread instead of 
new, clean plates after cheese for dessert, etc. ; but we are all 
settling down to thorough French life, and he enjoys it as 
much as any of us. He went with me both mornings in Paris 
about six o'clock to wander through the streets, which were 
thronged with people, and to the markets, where we regaled 
ourselves upon pears, peaches, and greengages ; we bought 
eight splendid peaches, for is., which we took home for break- 
fast with the others. We also saw the Billingsgate of Paris, 
with exactly the same scene as in London, only that the 
clamour was in a foreign tongue, and they employ women who 
sit on high desks to take account of what is sold, and receive 
the money. I think we certainly had far the best of it, for 
the mornings were so fresh and cool, and the people more 
astir than in the middle of the day. It has begun to rain a 
little this morning, but think it will clear up. We shall spend 
a quiet day in Geneva to-morrow, reaching there about ten this 
evening. Since writing the above, uncle and I have been out 
again, and crossed to the other side of the river, where there is 
a large fair ; and as there is a little rain all the people have 
umbrellas up, forming quite a curious scene, as they are all 
colours, a quarter of them bright scarlet. They were selling 
quantities of pears and apples in long sacks, grapes, peaches, 
nectarines, and one part of it was a sort of corn-market sacks 
of all kinds ranged in long rows with the sellers at the back 
doubtless for the small farmers which this country abounds 
in. The carts are all drawn by bullocks and cows, and form 


an interesting sight wending their way to market. The women 
almost all wear the curious chimney hat with broad flat brim. 
I must now close this, as we are going to have dinner, and 
then on to the station for Geneva. Farewell, with dear love, 

Thine very affectionately, 

R. Cadbury. 

In answer to this letter his father wrote (September 
19th, i860) : 

My dear Richard, We are much gratified to receive thy 
letters, the last from Macon. The summary of your pro- 
ceedings is clear, full, and very interesting. We are also 
much indebted to Brother James for his lovely impressions 
and truly interesting details of what you are seeing. I only 
hope you have not been too adventurous ; but I think I can 
trust thee, and thy Uncle James will, if needful, check or 
refrain from any apparent risk, so I make myself happy, 
though I regret to read of another fatal accident on the Alps. 
It is dear George's twenty-first birthday. He has been quiet 
and thoughtful and very pleasant. His relatives have been 
kind in remembering him, and he is in possession of valuable 
and useful presents. ... I send our united love to each 
one of your interesting company, and I can assure you 
that we shall be truly happy to welcome you safe back, a 
pleasure we are warmly anticipating. Accept a full share of 
love thyself from thy attached father. 

No wonder he felt somewhat anxious, with the 
memory of Richard's daring adventures of two years 
ago fresh in his mind. The journal letters continue : 

Chamounix, September 18th. i860. 
Dear Father, We are boxed in here this afternoon by 
some rain, and we are therefore spending a few hours in writing 
home. We received thy acceptable letters, and also one from 
Cousin Elizabeth, to whom please give my dear love and 
thanks. It is very interesting to me to go over ground that 
I have been over before, and I think that its beauties are doubly 
fixed upon the memory, and far more appreciated for doing 


so. From Matron to Geneva we passed by the railroad through 

the magnificent valley at one end of the Jura range, often 

with precipitous rocks on one side, and a beautiful sloping 

mountain on the other, laid out in cornfields and vineyards. 

We spent the next day (First Day) very enjoyably at Geneva. 

Cousins Sarah, Martha, and I went to the English church, and 

had a very practical sermon preached us ; the others stayed 

at the hotel and sat together for a time of quiet devotion. 

When we returned we all set out for a walk, and visited the 

cemetery, which is prettily laid out. Calvin's tomb is simply 

a small stone, with the initials marked upon it at the foot 

of the grave. This was his particular wish, that no tombstone 

should be raised over his grave. We also saw the tomb of Sir 

H. Davey, and some few other notables. We then followed 

the beautifully blue and clear Rhone to its junction with the 

Arve ; there is a little promontory that runs out for some way 

between the rivers, and so narrow that you can place your 

hands at the same time in both. The Arve was very much 

swollen, as was the Rhone, by the quantities of rain that had 

fallen upon the mountains, and a gentleman told us that the 

Rhone was two feet higher than the day before ; the junction 

of the muddy waters of the Arve with the clear ones of the 

Rhone was very curious. In the evening, after a table d'hote 

at five, we went to the poste restante for your letters, which only 

opens at 6 p.m. on a First Day, and very much enjoyed reading 

some of them together aloud; after which we had another 

stroll by starlight through the town, and on to a new pier 

or breakwater, that they have built opposite to the town. 

We ordered for the morning a carriage with three horses for 

Chamounix, and we were all ready for them at seven o'clock. 

The country through which we passed it is very difficult to 

describe ; we were all exceedingly charmed by its beauty and 

grandeur the little Swiss chalets dotted about among corn 

fields and meadows, which extended for some miles, and 

backed by some grand rocky peak towering up among the 

fleecy clouds that clung to it. The quantity of fruit-trees 

and fruit was really something wonderful plums of six or 

seven descriptions, apples and pears, and all of them open 

to any one who likes to take them ; for instance, we would 

drive our carriage under a plum-tree, and then, taking hold 

of the stem, shake a deluge of them upon us ; we really got 


so many that we did not know what to do with them, and I 
am sure I never ate more in my life at one time. Some of 
them were particularly delicious, and we did so wish we could 
import some of them over to you. The latter part of the 
way was amongst pine-forests and very steep, so that we had 
to walk a great part of the way. Joel and I walked the last 
nine miles, and enjoyed it extremely, and as each snowy peak 
came into view, ribbed with its glaciers, every step seemed to 
add to the magnificence of the scene. The Glacier des Boissons 
seemed as if it poured its white frozen torrent in our path, and 
was a beautiful object. We are stopping at the same hotel 
(La Couronne) that George and Richard C. Barrow stopped at, 
and find it very comfortable. This morning we procured 
four mules and three guides, and were all ready by eight o'clock, 
not at all discouraged by the rain which had fallen through 
a great part of the night. We made quite a remarkable 
appearance, uncle, John Warder, Joel, and I having on our 
light coats strapped round the waist and trousers tucked 
into our boots; cousins were all wrapped up well in shawls, 
and we all felt in splendid spirits. It took us two hours to 
arrive at the Montauvert, and as it cleared up and the sun 
shone brightly before we got half-way, the views down in the 
valley below us and the mountains on the other side were 
beautiful. We made arrangements with the guides to have 
our mules taken to the other side of the glacier, so that 
we might cross it, and have them ready for us. This 
we easily accomplished, and all much enjoyed it, and it gave 
us a fair idea of what glaciers really are. The view from 
the Chateau, where the ice breaks up, is very fine, showing 
the exquisite blue colour that is the great charm of glacier ice. 
We intend going up the Flegere to-morrow if nothing prevents 
us in reference to weather, etc. I hope to write you again 
from Interlaken, or perhaps before this. There has been a 
great deal of talking, and I am afraid this is much discon- 
nected. With dear love to all, I remain, 

Thy affectionate son, 

R. Cadbury. 

Thun, September 23rd, i860. 
Dear Father, I believe that my last letter was posted 
at Chamounix, since which time we have been through a great 


deal of the most charming Alpine scenery. Last Fourth Day- 
was very wet and heavy, clouds hanging on the mountains, 
so we decided instead of ascending the Flegere to go straight 
off to Martigny ; we got five mules, one of which was for 
the luggage, and commenced our day's journey, as the one 
before, in soaking rain. It soon, however, cleared up, and 
we had a favourable day. We stopped for dinner at a 
little hotel, facing the beautiful fall of the Barbarme, which 
dashes down the mountain and sends the spray on all 
sides. The single path runs most of the way on the side of 
the mountain, and the peeps into the deep valley with the 
river foaming below were very fine ; it is, however, finest near 
the summit of the Tete Noire, where the valley widens and 
deepens, and the river finds a channel down the valley and 
gorge of the Trient into that of the Rhone. At the summit of 
the Forclay we had to have our tickets viseed for the Vallais ; 
it seemed a curious thing to be stopped there, almost on the 
verge of the eternal snow. The last five or six miles cousins 
joined us on foot, being thoroughly tired of riding, and the 
guides took us by a short cut through fields and orchards, 
and I should think we had such a run as they never had 
before ; but really the mountain air gives you such life and 
strength that you become almost like the chamois. We 
slept that night at Martigny, and hired a large carriage to 
take us to Leukerbad in the morning. It was rather a dry 
ride the first part, along the valley of the Rhone ; but directly 
we turned into the valley of Leuk the scenery was most 
magnificent. As cousins say, each day the views are grander 
than the former. This was the valley that Arthur Naish and 
I walked down at midnight on our last tour together, and it 
was very interesting to see in reality what I had only con- 
jectured at before. Some of the little villages situated on 
the sloping sides of the mountains, and half hidden in orchards, 
and the white steeple of its little church, formed a pic- 
turesque scene, and just as evening's twilight crept over the 
landscape, they rung a peal of fine bells, completing the en- 
chantment. Leukerbad itself is situated at the very end of 
the valley, and is quite hemmed in by precipitous rocks. 
Over these is the pass of the Gemmi, and it being a splendid 
morning (Sixth Day) we got the necessary mules and guides 
and set off at eight o'clock The path is so narrow, and winds 


so much among the cliffs, that no part of it can be seen from 
the bottom. We found it very steep, but it was more difficult 
in proportion for the ladies on mules than for us ; but all labour 
was amply repaid as the distant scenery gradually extended 
and everything below us appeared in miniature. There had 
been a great deal of snow the night before, and the last half- 
mile the ground was covered with it, and on the summit above, 
7,000 feet high, the snow was some four or five inches deep. 
We could see from here most of the snowy peaks of the Monte 
Rosa Range the Matterhorn, Weisshorn, etc. reminding me 
of my late trip amongst their snows and valleys. The descent 
of the pass was extremely beautiful, and grander than any we 
have passed, as we had snowy mountains on each side of us. 
We picked some of the holly fern, just where I obtained that 
which is growing on our rockery, to bring home with us for 
Cousin Martha. The mules went with us as far as Kandersteg, 
where we got return carriages to Interlaken. The scenery 
was thoroughly Swiss. The people seem to take great pride 
in their cottages almost all of them with the woodwork 
carved, and in some cases quite elaborately. We took up our 
quarters at a capital hotel, the Belvedere in Interlaken, and 
as we had missed one day at Chamounix we determined to 
make up for it here, so I arranged for carriages and mules 
to take us in the morning over the Wengernalp. We drove 
as far as Lauterbrunnen, and sent the carriages to meet us at 
Grindelwald, while we made the tour of the Wengernalp to 
that place. My ideas in connection with Lauterbrunnen were 
very pleasant ones, and I was not at all disappointed, as it 
lies amongst the most beautiful valleys. The peasant girls 
also wear a very pretty dress, one of which I was tempted to 
buy, and will bring home with me. About a quarter of a mile 
from here is the Staubbach (or Dust Fall), the most beautiful 
waterfall I have seen in Switzerland. It falls over a pro- 
jecting ledge of rock 950 feet above the valley, and it is im- 
possible to describe with justice the beauty of the feathery 
arrows of water that shoot from the summit, gradually dis- 
persing themselves, till they all fall in a misty cloud to the 
bottom. On each side of the main fall was a slender stream 
of water that seemed as if hung in mid-air, for its tiny current 
was almost all dissolved into mist before reaching the bottom ; 
but the finishing touch was an exquisite rainbow at the bottom 


of the main fall, extending in a right angle from the rock, the 
colours being as vivid as I ever remember seeing in a rainbow. 
We were quite sorry to leave the scene, but we had a long day's 
work before us, and could not stop longer. The ascent of 
the pass is at first very steep, and a tremendous pull it was ; 
but we seem always repaid for hard work, and so it was here 
in the view spread out before us. The echoes among the rocks 
are particularly grand in these mountains. In two or three 
places on our route people were stationed, who lived in some 
of the little chalets and blew a large Alpine horn, I should 
think six feet long, which resounded from hill to hill, 
sometimes in its reverberations equalling the notes of an 
organ. The most magnificent scene was in store for us 
at the summit, as we faced nearly the whole range of the 
Oberland. The Great and Small Giant, the Jung-Frau, 
Silberhorn, and other snowy mountains were all at our feet ; 
their glaciers and snowfields seemed quite close to us. This 
is also the best place to see avalanches, of which we saw at 
least eight or ten while we were there. It is quite awe-inspiring 
to hear the distant thunder of the masses of ice as they break 
off from the side of the glacier, and are at once dashed into 
powder among the rocks ; and here you may judge of real 
distance, as all you can see is a small dusty cloud rushing down 
the mountain side. I have not time to describe more, ex- 
cepting to say that we had a delightful ride back to Interlaken, 
well satisfied with our day's work. We went some of us to the 
English chapel to service in the morning (First Day), and had 
a stroll to the Lake of Brientz ; in the afternoon we took the 
steamer on the Lake of Thun to Thun a most delightful and 
memorable farewell it was to the Alps, as we watched the 
shadows gradually steal up their snowy sides, which were 
tinged with the most lovely pink or roseate hue ; and when 
the last rays had left the highest peak, the atmosphere above 
them partook of the same pinky colour, throwing out in bold 
relief the snowy mountains, which now appeared of the purest 
whiteness. In a few minutes the moon with the planet Mars 
shone with a silvery light in the heavens, and were reflected 
in the mirrored waters of the lake, which shone like polished 
steel. Farewell for the present, with dear love, 

Thy affectionate son, 

R. Cadbury. 


Folkstone, September 27th, i860. 
Dear Father, I write a few lines to say that I expect 
to be home to-morrow evening at 8.30 or 12 midnight. We 
had a comfortable passage across last night, with very few 
sick on board, the two nights before have been rough, and 
nearly the whole of the passengers, above 200, sick, so we 
have much to be thankful for in so far ending our journey 
in safety. Daniel P. Hack [who afterwards married Martha 
Gibbins] wrote a pressing invitation for all of us to go round 
by Brighton, and we have thought it best to accept it, and 
therefore go that way this morning, getting there at 1.30, and 
leave to-morrow at 3.30 or 5. Farewell then for the present. 
With very dear love from, 

Thine affectionately, 

R. Cadbury. 

Fully occupied with pleasures and activities the 
years had thus been rolling swiftly by. Richard 
was now twenty-five. The days of sheltered boy- 
hood and of careless youth lay behind him, and 
he stood upon the threshold of the wider interests 
and the graver responsibilities of manhood. The 
older generation was passing away. In the spring 
of 1859, humanity, and the Society of Friends 
in particular, had to mourn the loss of Joseph 

Soon after him another well-known figure in Birming- 
ham passed from sight, for on March 13th, i860, 
Richard Tapper Cadbury died, leaving behind him a 
large circle of children, grandchildren, and great-grand- 
children, some in England and some in America, to 
whom he was the chief link which bound them to one 
another and to the memories of the past. With the 
snapping of that link the past receded, and his grand- 
children seemed plunged into a new present, with 


changed conditions and fresh claims. He had been 
loved and honoured by them all, for although in 
many ways a representative of the old school, he 
was remarkable for the warmth and kindness of 
his heart. 



THE spring of the year 1861 was the dawn of 
untried experiences for Richard Cadbury. He 
was the first of his family by ten years to pass through 
the portals of married life. He had become engaged 
to a schoolgirl friend of his sister's, Elizabeth Adlington, 
whose brother William had been one of his own school- 
fellows at Hitchin. Elizabeth was a bright, vivacious 
girl, slim and graceful in figure, and with a sweet, 
intelligent face. She was accomplished and well 
informed, a good conversationalist, and had attractive 
manners. She, as well as her future husband, was 
a member of the Society of Friends, and had received 
from her parents a thorough domestic training, being 
particularly skilful with her needle. Her father was 
William Adlington, of Mansfield, a widely esteemed 
citizen and a well-known member of the Society of 



The preparation of a home for his bride was a great 
joy to Richard Cadbury. He took a house in Wheeley's 
Road (No. 17), and devoted most of his spare time 
to beautifying the garden, making there a rockery, to 
which he transferred some of the rare specimens he 
had collected and planted by the pool at his old home 
in Calthorpe Road. There is a letter, dated April 8th, 
i86i,tohis brother Henry, who was at school at Kendal, 
in which he says : 

My little house is beginning to look charming now it is nearly 
completed ; it will, however, find me plenty to do to buy 
furniture for it. I have had a boat-load of rockery put on 
to the bank by the canal, so that I hope to make that respect- 
able before I have done. 

This same month of April saw Richard and his 
brother George installed as heads of the factory in 
Bridge Street. In preparation for this step George 
had joined him a short time before. Thus began the 
long business connection and friendship which lasted 
between the two brothers for nearly forty-five years, 
and grew more firmly and closely knit with each suc- 
ceeding year. Their father's ill-health had for some 
time necessitated his frequent absence from the 
business, and finally he was obliged to retire and leave 
it in the hands of his two sons. It was thirty years 
since he had first opened the shop in Bull Street, 
now in the hands of his nephew, Richard Cadbury 
Barrow, who afterwards became one of Birmingham's 
leading citizens, and accepted the position of Mayor 
in the year 1889. 

During the months of his engagement to Elizabeth 


Adlington, Richard Cadbury had small apprehension 
of the business struggles that were coming. Even 
if he had been fully conscious of them, it is not likely 
that the presentiment of future trouble would have 
turned him from his purpose, and his soul in its depen- 
dence upon God was unafraid in the midst of stress 
and storm. It may have been the glad half -conscious 
hope of passing on his name to a new generation, that 
quickened his interest in matters of family history. 
At any rate, it was during this spring that he first 
spent a short holiday in Devonshire, hunting up the 
records of his ancestors, which he began to put 
together two years later in the Family Book. On 
July 24th the wedding took place in Mansfield ; and 
after the ceremony there was a large family gathering 
at Kingsmill, the home of the bride's parents. 

On settling into their home in Birmingham, Richard 
Cadbury was obliged to put every ounce of energy 
he possessed into the struggle for success in his business. 

The new heads of the firm were quite young men, 
Richard being twenty-five and George twenty-two 
years old. They might well have been daunted by 
the difficulties they had to face, for at this time the 
business was actually losing money. For five years 
they had an uphill fight, and upon Richard the burden 
fell with double weight, as he had a home of his own 
to keep up, and a wife and little ones to provide for. 
Far from being a drag upon him, this was in his case 
an added spur and inspiration for the battle with 
adversity. He and his brother, who loyally worked 
with him in everything, put their shoulders to the 


wheel and pushed like men. Their wholesome training 
in self -discipline, thoroughness, and attention to detail, 
as also the habit of abstinence from alcohol and tobacco, 
and from any pursuits which might weaken their 
physical and moral fibre, stood them now in good 
stead. They depended entirely upon God, to whom 
they entrusted the success or failure of their enterprise. 
While putting their whole energy into the task, they 
were content to follow His guiding wherever it might 
lead. Both brothers had inherited money from their 
mother, and this they threw into the scale as necessity 
demanded. They determined to close the business 
before there was any chance of a single creditor being 
out of pocket. Richard put down the value of every- 
thing which he possessed, not at the price at which 
he hoped to sell it, but at the price it would fetch if 
it had to be sold under the auctioneer's hammer. This 
sound principle he followed through all his business 
career. The first years of loss would have broken 
the courage of a less determined man. In his private 
accounts for that period it appears that his share of 
loss on trading for the first three years was as follows : 

In 1861 . . . . . . 226 15 o 

1862 304 18 7 

1863 20 18 11 

These figures speak for themselves as to the anxiety 
through which he was passing at this period of his 
life. It almost seemed as if the struggle must be 
abandoned, although even at the lowest ebb of the 
tide he was able to look every man in the face, and 


was prepared to pay twenty shillings in the pound. 
His original private capital of 4,000 had been reduced 
to 415 9s. 3^., and there seemed nothing left but to 
give up the business. Plans were being formed for 
George Cadbury to start for the Himalayas as a tea- 
planter, and Richard intended to take up land-sur- 
veying, when in a remarkable way the pluck and 
industry of the brothers were rewarded. The tide 
turned, and in the year 1864 the business began to 
show a small profit, and from this time it went forward 
with astonishing strides. They often expressed in 
after life their great thankfulness for the early diffi- 
culties which they had to face and overcome, regarding 
them not only as a temporal but as a spiritual blessing. 
They never forgot how near they were to closing the 
business. Often during these early struggles Richard 
Cadbury would say to his brother, "If I had a 
few hundreds a year for certain I should love to retire 
and enjoy the country." But when success came, 
both felt that it was their duty, not only to those 
whom they employed, but to a far wider circle, to 
stick to their business, which Richard Cadbury did 
to the very end of his life. Even during the years of 
adversity and of limited resources, his heart was open 
towards the needs of others. While his income was 
but small his giving was always prompted by a liberal 
spirit, and as possessions increased the privilege of 
giving was availed of in proportion. After his own 
family, he felt that his first responsibility was towards 
those who worked for him. They were much more 
to him than a part of the machinery required for 


carrying on the business, and he never considered 
that he had fulfilled his obligations towards them 
when he had paid them their wages. To study their 
comfort and happiness was his delight. In those 
days the hours of work began at 6 a.m. A pint of coffee 
and a bun for the men, and milk and buns for the 
girls were always provided, free of charge, when 
they arrived to their work in the early morning. If at 
any time they worked until after five in the afternoon, 
tea was also given. Some of them remember how 
the two young masters would go personally to see 
that they had plenty to eat, and would send out one 
of the boys to buy watercress for their tea. 

In accounting for the unexpected success which 
had come to them, the persevering labours of the 
brothers themselves must be considered. They 
manufactured a good article in their works, and 
then went out and pushed it among the trade. 
The personal visiting of their customers was a great 
point with them, and was a much more difficult 
undertaking in those days than under the present 
conditions of travel. They worked for long hours, 
and personally superintended every detail of the 
business. Richard Cadbury would often go into the 
warehouse and make up the orders himself, and not only 
in the early days when the hands were few, but even 
in his later years, he would enjoy a busy afternoon 
helping in this way. " He would do anything for 
us," was the verdict of one of the women, who said 
they could not have had a kinder master. Especially 
on his return from one of the business journeys he 



would make a point of seeing that the orders which he 
had obtained were promptly and carefully attended to. 
Meanwhile their father was not forgetting his sons, 
and, in spite of his poor health, gave them a helping 
hand whenever possible. Among Richard's letters 
is one received from his father while on a business 
journey to Glasgow. It is dated July 14th, 1862, 
rather more than a year after the two young men had 
taken over the business : 

My dear Richard, I visit the warehouse twice a day. I 
think thou hast done very well in the business, and I believe 
taken the right steps to secure a future trade. It has also 
given thee an insight into what the other houses are doing, 
and their terms. 

Richard Cadbury's promptness and remarkable 
punctuality was an important factor in his success, 
and an incentive to those whom he employed. To 
encourage punctuality in the early hour at which 
work began, a penny a day was given to the men and 
a halfpenny to the girls, cancelled of course in case 
of unpunctuality. Besides this there was a scheme 
of what the employees called " Pledge Money." 
The temptation to the men and girls to eat some of 
the chocolate they were making was naturally very 
strong, so a penny a day was given to the men and 
a farthing to the girls for not doing this. At the end 
of every three months this punctuality and pledge 
money was paid out, and came as a very welcome 
addition to the wages. One man remembers that 
he was able to buy all his boots out of it. 

Up to the end of his life, exception rare occasions, 


Richard Cadbury was never later than 8.45 in reaching 
his office in the morning. His first task was personally 
to run through all the letters, so that he could gather 
the strings into his hands. He always had an open 
mind to receive and consider fresh suggestions, from 
whatever quarter they might come, and in this way 
encouraged the intelligent co-operation of all who 
worked with or under him. When a decision was 
formed he devoted all his powers in a strenuous effort 
to make the new plan a success. Some men possess 
the power of conception to an unusual degree, but 
spend their time in dreaming of possibilities that 
never get beyond the initial stage. Richard Cadbury 
not only knew how to conceive, but how to carry 
his conception into effect. Underneath all else, the 
secret of his career lay in his assured conviction that 
he was under the care of his Heavenly Father, to 
whom he looked for guidance in all things. Thus it 
was that, even when grey seas and leaden skies were 
round him, he carried with him in his home and 
business a calm and trustful spirit, which bore testi- 
mony to the fact that he had learnt the lesson, " Thou 
wilt keep him in perfect peace whose mind is stayed 
on Thee, because he trusteth in Thee." 

In spite of the care and anxiety through which the 
brothers passed during these five trying years, their 
outward demeanour revealed nothing of it. The 
employees were well acquainted with the position of 
affairs, and at one stage expected any day to hear that 
the works were to be closed. They waited on, however, 
and most of these men before whom there seemed a 


dismal outlook ultimately rose to positions of honour 
and trust, and grew grey in the service. Day after 
day the workers eagerly scanned the faces of their 
employers for some sign of weakness or fear, but there 
were no symptoms of dejection ; no cloud of gloom 
rested upon either face. They took the morning 
Bible readings with their workpeople as cheerfully 
as though they had not a care in the world, and they 
looked bright and happy. This testimony to the 
reality of the faith that was in them made a vast 
impression throughout the works. Their buoyancy 
and courage told on many of the young fellows, who 
were not much given to serious thought. They saw 
that these men were in possession of a secret source 
of strength that they themselves did not know, and it 
led their thoughts into deeper and more serious channels 
than before. They could understand people serving 
God so long as the world went smoothly with them, 
but this was a new illustration of the joy and peace 
which God can give in the midst of trouble. Others 
outside the business were deeply impressed by their 
attitude, and a brother-in-law of Richard Cadbury's 
wrote afterwards to one of his sons : 

Since I have known a little of commercial difficulties, I have 
always been amused at the " Cheeryble Brothers." It was a 
name thy mother dubbed them with, when in fact things were 
anything but cheery. 

Sometimes it was possible to get a few hours from 
business in the afternoon, and then Richard and his 
brother and about twenty of the young men from the 
works would adjourn to the fields, and have a game 


of cricket or football. The two brothers were equally 
enthusiastic in outdoor sports, and this made their 
partnership in business all the more pleasant. Country 
excursions were sometimes planned, and the firm was 
the first to introduce the Saturday half-holiday in 

An interesting feature in a newspaper report of one 
of the cricket matches is that the two partners were 
playing with their men, and scored well in the batting, 
as well as carrying off eleven wickets between them in 
the bowling against the other side, of which the greater 
number fell to Richard. This side-light of the relation 
existing between masters and men in the Bridge Street 
works may be regarded as one of the secrets of their 
success. The brothers always recognised, in practice 
as well as in theory, the importance of identifying 
themselves wherever possible with those whom they 

Although at this time of writing, seven years have 
passed since Richard Cadbury's earthly presence 
moved up and down amongst his workpeople, the 
memory of him is still fresh in the minds of those who 
knew him, and they often say to one another, " If 
Mr. Richard were here he would do so-and-so." Their 
hearts warm as they talk of the old days, and tell how 
glad they always were to see him come into the works. 
His kindness and sympathy with them in trouble made 
them look upon him as a father ; indeed, one of the 
men said, " He was more of a father to me than my 
own was." Once when the father of one of the girls 
had died, Richard Cadbury came up to her and said, 


" Don't feel obliged to come to your work ; just take 
a day at home if you are not able to come. I know 
what sorrow is." This was one of many instances of 
the kind. One of the men said of him, " Mr. Cadbury 
was a man of great force and character. In his business 
affairs he was very persevering, and was always 
determined not to be beaten. He was enthusiastic 
and impulsive, but absolutely just, and in his treatment 
of people was generous to a degree. He had a great 
faculty for discernment, and could always tell what a 
man could do, and placed him accordingly." There 
are many reminiscences of his impetuosity, always 
tempered with such instant forgiving humility that 
tears and smiles are mingled in the telling of them. 

On one occasion he told one of the men to make up 
a quantity of cocoa, and a little later, thinking the 
order had not been carried out, he accused the man of 
not obeying his instructions. The man said he had 
made the order up. " You have not," said Mr. Cad- 
bury. " I have, sir, indeed," replied the man. " I 
tell you you have not," Mr. Cadbury asserted ; and 
then went upstairs to make further inquiries. When 
he came back he put his arm round the man, and said 
how sorry he was for having wrongfully accused him, 
adding in self-reproach, " I will never do it again." 
To this same man's house he often used to go, and 
carried things in his pocket for the children. 

One day he had been giving a scolding to one of the 
men who had happened to do something wrong, and 
seeing him a little later Mr. Cadbury asked, " Come, 
J , what are you looking so gloomy about ? " The 


man's looks apparently told more than speech could 
have done, but they soon changed when the master 
gave him a warm and hearty handshake. He was 
known again and again to cancel accounts, when it 
had been proved to him that the people were in ad- 
verse circumstances through no fault of their own, 
and he was always on the lookout to try and help up 
those who were down. One of the men remembers 
walking home one night with him, when they came 
across a young man lying drunk on the roadside. 
Richard Cadbury insisted on stopping and helping 
the poor fellow along to his home, and for a consider- 
able time afterwards took a deep personal interest in 
him and his family. 

One of the trusted representatives of the firm well 
remembers his first interview with Richard Cadbury, 
which took place in 1874. He had been a grocer's 
boy, and had a great ambition to be connected with 
the firm. The story is best told in his own words : 

After much pestering on my part and marvellous patience 
on theirs, I paid my first visit to Birmingham, and was that 
day engaged as junior traveller, to begin work the beginning 
of January, 1875. I was just leaving the memorable little 
office over the gateway in Bridge Street, overjoyed at my 
success in getting my foot on the rung of the ladder I so longed 
to climb. I impulsively said to Mr. Richard, " I am delighted 
to have at last succeeded, sir, and am giving up a situation 
where I am getting half as much again, believing this will 
eventually be better, it being necessary for me to make more 
money, as I have a family to keep." Remembering how 
boyish I looked in those days, the astonishment on Mr. Cad- 
bury 's face was not to be wondered at. He said to me, " Sit 
down again, young man. A few minutes ago thou told me 
thou was not married, and I thought it hardly likely ; now 


thou speaks of a family to keep. What does thou mean ? " 
" Well, sir," I replied, " it was unnecessary for me to trouble 
you with my private affairs, but my father has left me a 
legacy of mother and five children unprovided for ; that is 
why I am, I believe, making sure of a good thing before giving 
up another situation where I could never get much more than 
at present." The expression on that face, which was to 
become so dear to me, completely changed, and with a kindly 
farewell Mr. Richard said to me, " Ah well, young man, thee 
do thy best, and I do not think the step taken to-day will ever 
be regretted ! " Needless to say, it never has been. 

Many an anecdote is told showing how well he 
understood boyish nature. He often realised the 
innocent motive at the back of what seemed like 
wrong-doing. He never treated the boys and young 
men as if they were machines, but wherever possible 
allowed their spirits and sense of fun to have free play. 
Sometimes on wet days they would get up to pranks 
in the office, and make a great din. One who was 
then among the number remembers how Richard 
Cadbury would go to the office after some crashing 
noise, and throw open the door suddenly, saying, 
" Boys, what are you up to ? What an unearthly 
noise you are making ! " But he was not able to get 
outside the door quickly enough to hide the merry 
smile on his face. He was always in a hurry to get 
home when the hours of work were over, and left 
Bridge Street punctually at 1.30. If he was kept a 
few moments over the time, he would carry off his 
coat, and put it on as he walked along the street. 
Sometimes the boys would play a prank on him by 
turning his coat inside out, and he would be a long 
way down the street before he could get it turned right 


and put on. He always took these jokes in good part, 
and the boys respected his good nature too much to 
do it more than once or twice. 

A friend of Henry Cadbury's was anxious for his 
son to enter the office at Bridge Street, and took him 
to have an interview with the two young heads of the 
firm. Without remembering the actual words that 
were spoken, Edward Thackray will never forget his 
surprise at the tone of the conversation, for it was so 
entirely different from anything he had expected in 
connection with business. Not only was his capability 
for office work inquired into, but the greatest stress 
was laid upon need for pure morals and practical 
Christianity being the basis on which all his work must 
be founded. He remembers Richard Cadbury speak- 
ing most earnestly with his father on these lines, and 
hoping that wherever he might settle, it would be under 
good, Christian influences, and that if it was decided 
for him to come to them, it might be the beginning of 
a life-long connection. This decision was arrived at, 
and when the next morning the young man arrived 
at Bridge Street to enter upon his new duties, Richard 
Cadbury greeted him warmly, taking his hand between 
his own, and speaking to him as kindly as if he were 
his own son. 

At this time the young clerks in the office hap- 
pened to be much rougher than their employers 
had any idea of. There were sweepstakes and secret 
gambling, so that at first the newcomer had a 
hard time of it. But he was soon afterwards joined 
in the office by two other earnest young men William 


Cooper and Charles Price. The three stuck together 
and became great friends. By-and-by the chief 
ringleader of the other set was found to be falsifying 
the books, and had to be dismissed, and in some way 
after that the atmosphere of the office became com- 
pletely changed. It is interesting to know how those 
three young men, who dared to make a stand for the 
right, turned out in later life. All three are earnest 
Christians. Edward Thackray became the confidential 
clerk and trusted friend of the members of the firm. 
William Cooper became their chief agent and repre- 
sentative in Australia, and at the same time a pro- 
minent leader in Christian work. Charles Price 
became the joint partner of a well-known and successful 
business, entering Parliament soon after his retire- 
ment. At the time of Richard Cadbury's death he 
wrote to one of his sons : 

I should like to take this opportunity of saying how very 
much your father has been to me. The nature of my work 
in our firm is very much what his was in yours, and you can 
scarcely realise that almost every day he comes up before me, 
for I feel how greatly indebted I am to him for any business 
qualities I possess. My office training was at Bridge Street, 
and owing to the smallness of the office I came much in contact 
with him, so that his training and advice have been to me more 
than I can acknowledge. 

Edward Thackray's position as head of the office 
was not always an easy one, as he occupied the place, 
to some extent, of buffer between masters and men ; 
but the trust that was reposed in him was a great help 
through his difficulties. On one or two occasions in 
the early days when things had not gone right, " Mr. 


Richard," whom he loved and admired, sometimes 
wrongfully laid the blame on him for what had oc- 
curred. He can remember folding his arms on the 
desk one day and, laying his head upon them, he burst 
into a fit of sobbing, while the master went off like a 
whirlwind to make investigations. Finding the young 
clerk was not the culprit after all, he was back as 
quickly as he had gone, and putting his arms round 
the shoulders of the sobbing boy, comforted and en- 
couraged him as tenderly as if he had been his own 
father. Edward Thackray says he realises now how 
much was due to the alertness and sometimes fiery 
energy of the young master, whom no detail seemed 
to escape, and who seemed to be everywhere at once. 
" I never knew any man who stuck to business like him," 
was his verdict. ' Although always ready to arrange holi- 
days for others, Richard Cadbury was most sparing in 
allowing them to himself, often taking the opportunity 
of bank holidays, when all the rest were away enjoying 
themselves, to have a good day of quiet extra work 
at the books. At times, too, he would curtail his own 
holidays for the sake of giving more time to others. 

The Christmas gatherings for the workpeople were 
times that were eagerly looked forward to all the year 
round. In those days, when the numbers were smaller, 
it was more like a big family party. Every one knew 
every one else, and called each other by their Christian 
names. When there were two or more of the same 
name, or if any one had a name that was not popular, 
the young masters promptly christened them afresh. 
For instance, George William B was known as 


" Arthur," while a man rejoicing in the distinguished 

title of Zachariah S was promptly cut down to 

" Fred." " Jemima " was a new name applied to one 
of the girls. Many a laugh was enjoyed over these 
suggestions, but the new names stuck to their bearers, 
their real ones being scarcely known. Many of those 
left at Bourn ville when their beloved " Mr. Richard " 
was taken from them were still known by the name 
thus adopted in long-ago years. The Christmas 
parties were first held in the works at Bridge Street, 
which were decorated in harmony with the festive 
occasion ; then, as the numbers grew, they took place 
a few times in the Severn Street schools and the 
Priory Rooms ; and the last year before moving away 
from Bridge Street the Christmas party was held in 
the Town Hall. There was always a tea to begin 
with, during which the young employers would go 
round the tables carrying teapots to fill up empty 
cups, and to see that their guests were being well 
attended to, stopping here and there to chat or enjoy 
a joke. In the business meeting that followed, when 
giving reports of the work that had been accom- 
plished during the year, the speeches of Richard 
Cadbury and his brother would be more like a family 
talk ; they never forgot gratefully to acknowledge God's 
hand in all success that was allowed them, and to urge 
their workpeople not only to more strenuous efforts 
in the business, but to more faithful and earnest 
service for God in the year before them. 

As a further illustration of how deep was the interest 
taken by Richard Cadbury in those who worked for 

3 cs 


him, a story is told by one who, as a lad, had been to 
witness a horse-race. When he returned to his work 
on the following day, he had a feeling that the master 
would speak to him on the subject, knowing how 
strongly he felt about it. Watching his employer as 
he came in, he thought that never before had he 
seen him look so sorrowful ; he felt sure that he 
was the cause, and while his heart smote him, his 
will was rebellious, and he was determined to re- 
sent anything that might be said to him. But the 
reproof was not of the kind he had expected. Ap- 
proaching the lad, Richard Cadbury said to him in a 
quiet voice, " Tom, I have been praying for you." 
The words were spoken with so much feeling and 
sympathy that the lad was completely broken down, 
and never from that day forward did he give further 
cause for anxiety. It was the turning-point in his 
life, and, as he afterwards confessed, " it did more for 
me than any advice or sermon I ever heard." 

Meanwhile, in his private life Richard Cadbury was 
passing through sunshine and storm. Rather more 
than a year after his marriage with Elizabeth Adling- 
ton, a little son was born to them on September 27th, 
1862. He was named Barrow, after his grandmother's 
family, which was so closely related to the Cadburys. 
Eighteen months later, the first daughter, Alice, was 
born. Richard Cadbury 's joy and wonder in this 
new experience of fatherhood knew no bounds. It is 
impossible to hear it spoken of by those who witnessed 
it without being stirred by the strong emotions which 
swept over his own soul. As each little one came, he 


took it in his arms with a reverent awe, as though he 
felt himself unworthy of such a gift from God, and 
in all the busy occupations of his life nothing ever made 
him neglect the trust which he felt to be more binding 
and more sacred than any other. 

But these same years brought deep grief as well 
as the new joys. The baby daughter did not live long 
to rejoice the hearts of her parents. While on a 
visit to their uncle, Henry Newman, Alice was taken 
from them. She was only seven months old, but the 
little gravestone in the burial-ground of the Friends' 
Meeting House at Leominster meant an agony of 
sorrow in the hearts of Richard Cadbury and his 

In the autumn of the previous year it had been 
decided for John, who in boyhood days had been 
Richard's special chum and schoolfellow, to leave 
his Herefordshire farm and develop his agricultural 
interests in Australia. The journey was then a 
formidable undertaking, and while greatly wishing 
to go, John dreaded the long sea- voyage, but shrank 
most of all from the parting with his family. He 
reached Brisbane in safety, and after many adventures 
became happily settled. He had only been in Aus- 
tralia about twelve months when sudden sorrow fell 
on the home at Calthorpe Road, for Edward, the 
youngest but one, was taken from them by a short 
illness lasting only a fortnight, in the early spring of 
1866. His death left a great blank in many hearts, 
even outside the circle of relations. Although only 
twenty-two years old, his sunny disposition, his un- 


selfishness and generous heart had gained him many 
friends. An incident that occurred while he was at 
school in Nottingham, and which his brother Richard 
recorded in the Family Book, gives an insight into 
his character. 

He generally had great command over his temper, but once 
one of the younger boys had been taunting him with something 
that aroused his anger. He was about to strike the boy a 
heavy blow, when a man working on the premises was just 
in time to give Edward a push that knocked him over. He 
immediately got up, shook the man's hand, and thanked him 
for having been the means of stopping him in a moment's 

He can hardly be said to have undertaken any 
business of his own, although he was concluding an 
agreement of partnership when illness cut short his 
prospects. His funeral was a time of great solemnity, 
and this and the Meeting afterwards was attended 
by most of his Sunday scholars. His schoolmaster, 
H. Thompson, came all the way from Kendal to be 
present on the occasion. A short article in the Friend 
says of him : 

The remembrance of the departed is precious to many. 
There was an honesty of purpose, and, though possessing great 
muscular strength, a gentleness of disposition, which endeared 
him to many, as a schoolboy and in after years. A class of 
about twenty young men, some very ignorant and rough on 
entering, whom he taught on First Day mornings, were much 
attached to him, and to these his plain and homely but truly 
earnest manner of teaching was peculiarly adapted, and on 
some produced a marked effect. His short career is a stirring 

The news of Edward's death reached John in 


Australia only a few weeks before a sudden attack of 
colonial fever ended his own life. Like his brothers 
in England, he had been at work for the Master, and 
it is again to his brother Richard that we owe some 
knowledge of what he was doing. The Family Book 
says : 

His letters show an earnest desire to alleviate the sufferings 
of those around him. He was almost over-sensitive of the 
levity and wickedness that his business brought him in contact 
with. In a letter written a few weeks before his decease, he 
mentions the case of a young man who lodged with him and 
who drank freely and went out rowing on the Sabbath. He 
had often spoken to him of the danger and wickedness of giving 
way to such practices, urging him to discontinue them, but 
without any lasting result ; the end being that he was drowned 
in one of his Sabbath trips. On February 5th, 1866, he wrote : 
" We have just decided upon the building of our Meeting 
House, the ground and fencing all paid for. It will be capable 
of seating about fifty comfortably, and we may hope that 
when completed there may be real worshippers, not in the 
form but in the life, to offer up their hearts and wills to the 
teaching of our Heavenly Shepherd." John revelled in quiet 
country life, and his letters are full of allusions to nature's 

It is touching to notice the following words in his 
last letter home, dated May 5th, little thinking that 
in three short weeks he was to join his brother : 

It was pleasing to receive further intelligence of the last 
days of dear Edward, confirmatory to my faith that he gently 
sleeps in Jesus, and that rest with Him will indeed be but as 
a moment, until the innumerable host are called to sing for 
ever with the harps of God. ... It makes one almost feel 
that the best, like the early ripe fruit, are garnered in first of 
all from their labours of love. 

The letter was finished in a trembling hand without 


signature, only a week before John passed away ; the 
last words that he probably ever penned being, " I 
dwell much on the 23rd Psalm." 

We can feel with Richard the pangs of grief and loss 
caused by the snapping of these two links with his past 
days of happy boyhood. A shadow lay over his 
own home as well, for his wife was often in failing 
health, so that although the severest part of his business 
struggles was safely over, the comparative freedom 
from this cause of anxiety was succeeded by cares of 
a different kind. One of his wife's sisters, who during 
these years often came from Mansfield to pay long 
visits at her brother-in-law's home, says that she 
never until then realised his great tenderness and self- 
sacrificing love. On October '7th, 1865, a second 
daughter, Jessie, was born, and in the early spring of 
1867 the family was increased by the birth of a second 
son, who was called William Adlington. Before two 
more years had passed, a third boy, named Richard, 
after his father, opened his blue eyes in the home at 
Wheeley's Road. This was on December 21st, 1868, 
and the old year closed with a storm of sorrow, for 
ten days after the birth of the little son the mother 
was taken. New Year's Day dawned upon a be- 
reaved husband, with four motherless little ones, 
none of whom were old enough to realise the sorrow 
that had come to them. Richard Cadbury afterwards 
wrote of his wife : 

Her life was one that left an example to her children 
and others of modesty, purity, and truthfulness ; with but 
little outward show, she was a humble-minded Chr stian, 


acknowledging Christ as her all-sufficient Saviour, in whom 
we believe she has now found perfect rest. 

Bravely, but quietly, he bore his loss, and there 
can be no doubt that it brought to him a rich harvest 
in the deepened consciousness of the nearness and 
reality of the Divine Presence. It is not always easy 
in the time of pain and sorrow to trace the way 
in which our Father is leading, and it may take years 
before it is possible to look back and see that Heavenly 
Wisdom has made no mistake, and that Heavenly 
Love has imposed no unnecessary burden ; but it 
was in a spirit of humble submission to God's will 
that Richard Cadbury set himself to discharge the 
added responsibilities involved in filling the double 
place of father and of mother to his children. The 
lines he wrote years afterwards in his daughter Jessie's 
autograph album are a true picture of the spirit in 
which he bore his sorrows. They are quoted from a 
hymn on " The Will of God," by Faber, one of his 
favourite authors : 

I love to kiss each print where Thou 

Hast set Thine unseen feet ; 
I cannot fear Thee, blessed Will, 

Thine empire is so sweet. 

Ill that He blesses is our good, 

And unblest good is ill ; 
And all is right that seems most wrong 

If it be His sweet will. 

THE USES OF SORROW (1868 1871) 


THE new year of 1869 opened, as we have seen, 
upon a bereaved home.. We can picture the 
young father's yearning tenderness over the little 
ones, who depended so absolutely on his love and 
care, Barrow, a lively boy of six ; Jessie, hardly more 
than a baby, was three ; Willie, not quite two ; and 
Richard, a wee mite of a few days old. In spite of 
outside responsibilities, Richard Cadbury realised that 
his children had the first claim upon him, and every 
moment that he could spare was given to them, or 
to planning for their happiness and comfort. In 
writing of him afterwards his daughter Jessie said : 

His tender love for his children has been ever the same. He 
was everything to our baby lives. I can well remember riding 
on his shoulder, and going to him with our troubles ; he was 
so much to us always. We loved the tales which he told to 
all his children in turn. If only they had been written down 
they would charm many a child, so simple, sweet, and full 
of mischief and fun. It is wonderful when one recalls the 



sorrow he went through, and how he was pressed with business 
and philanthropic work, how he always found time for his 
children. Even on Sunday, though very busy with mission 
work, he never missed giving us those never-to-be-forgotten 
Bible lessons and talks. He often broke down in his tender 
longing that his children should be followers of God. I 
remember now the drawings he made with pencil to illustrate 
a point when he thought it would help us more clearly to 
understand. His tenderness in reproving us when we were 
older, and the remembrance of his gentle sadness when we 
had done wrong, brings tears to one's eyes even now. Perhaps 
the knowledge of his justice, as well as his love for us, was one 
great fact that made him such a real friend to his children. 
Amongst so many of us there were, of course, different dis- 
positions, as well as a great variety of ability ; yet he never 
showed partiality, and we felt that the same real love existed 
for each. To be enwrapped in our father's tender embrace 
made one feel it was worth while braving anything. 

During this time, when Richard Cadbury was in 
dire need of an older woman's sympathy and experi- 
ence, he made the acquaintance of a gentle-hearted 
and practical-minded widow lady, Mrs. Wilson. Her 
husband had died seven years before, and had left 
her with six children, three boys and three girls. She 
was thus well versed in the knowledge of motherhood, 
and gladly gave her help and advice to her young 
acquaintance. The shadow of grief which had fallen 
upon his own life only served to deepen Richard 
Cadbury 's natural though tfulness for others. It was 
not his nature to sit and brood, for trouble as well as 
joy spurred him to greater activity. His passionate 
devotion to his own children, and his joy in fatherhood, 
was but a special phase of his great love to all children. 
One of the things which grieved his tender heart 
almost more than anything else was the sight of a 


child in pain or misery. He always longed that 
children should have a real child-life, and not be 
burdened before their time with care and responsibility. 
In walking to and from his home in Wheeley's Road 
to the factory in Bridge Street, he had to pass through 
a district which already had begun to be thickly 
populated. Day by day, as he walked through some 
of the back streets, he would notice'the children playing 
in the gutters little toddlers running about the roads 
in imminent danger of the traffic, and babies being 
dragged about and nursed by children hardly bigger 
than themselves. Often as he spoke of these things 
his eyes would fill with tears, and his voice would 
break, and as he played with his four little ones in 
their safe and sheltered home, his heart would go out 
to the hundreds of neglected, uncared-for children in 
the city streets. 

His was a heart in which sympathy was always 
trying to take practical shape, and little by little a 
plan developed in his mind, founded on what he 
knew and had seen of the creche system already 
established on the Continent. He had spoken of it 
to his wife, and they had both had it strongly on 
their minds, since the pressure of business cares 
had somewhat lifted, to do something for the better- 
ment of suffering humanity. It was in double memory 
of her and of his mother that he determined to carry 
the plan into actual being. God had prospered him, 
and an increase of comfort and means always implied 
to him an added opportunity for helping others. He 
talked the matter over with his friend, Mrs. Wilson, 


and decided to found a small creche as an experiment, 
with an eye to future development if it worked well. 
He looked about for a house in a suitable position, 
and succeeded in finding an empty corner-house in 
Bishopgate Street, which he rented. He then com- 
missioned his friend to find a suitable matron, being 
anxious to make the scheme helpful in every direc- 
tion. A poor widow, with five children, who was in 
great distress, was recommended for the position. 
Assured that she was honest and sober, Richard 
Cadbury at once supplied her immediate wants, rented 
the house, and set Mrs. Dyson to clean it out thor- 
oughly. She was full of gratitude and delight at thus 
being able to maintain her independence. Having 
watched in this preliminary interval to see how much 
real interest she had in the scheme, and how she 
managed her own children and her home, Richard 
Cadbury felt satisfied that he had found the right 
woman to act as matron. 

At first the day nursery was opened with only five 
children ; but it quickly grew, and a good deal of 
public interest was aroused by the new experiment, 
resulting in similar homes being opened in Birmingham 
and London and other places. 

Richard Cadbury took the most intense personal 
interest in the work, and visited many of the homes 
of the children. Mrs. Dyson would point out to him 
cases of special distress, in which it was his joy to be 
able to help. Both now, and as long as he remained 
in Edgbaston, his own children would often go down 
to T see the little ones at the creche, and were taught 


to share with them their toys and games. For weeks 
before a seaside holiday they would save up empty 
match-boxes, to be packed with shells for the children 
at the day nursery. 

Richard Cadbury was always trying to plan devices 
for the safety and care of the children. One of these 
was a large square cradle, hanging and swinging from 
the ceiling, which would hold quite a large number 
of babies at once. He had numbers of different- 
sized benches made for the varying sizes of the 
children. Another contrivance was an arrangement 
like little sheep-pens all along one wall of a room, 
for the children who were just beginning to toddle 
a long, low wooden fence, parallel with the wall, and 
divided across its length, so that in each partition a 
small child could play about safely, without any risk 
of getting near the fire or into other perils of babyhood. 
The babies were always bathed and kept beautifully 
clean. This cleanliness occasionally roused astonish- 
ment during the first months amongst the owners of 
the children. One day a girl, coming for her sister's 
baby, could not at first distinguish it from among the 
others ; it was so changed from the dirty, ill-kempt 
little mortal that had been brought in the morning. 
At last she discovered it, and picked it up, exclaim- 
ing, " My ! Yer own mother won't know yer ! " 

A mothers' meeting was started on Wednesdays, 
under the care of Mrs. Wilson, in which it was sought 
to lead the women to Christ, and to show them how 
to apply their Christianity on the lines of good home 
management and total abstinence from intoxicating 


liquors. A mission meeting was also opened on 
Sunday evenings at eight o'clock, the mothers and 
fathers of the children being especially invited. 
Richard Cadbury took a great personal interest in both 
of these meetings. He usually gave the gospel address 
on Sunday evenings, and sometimes visited the homes 
of the women, to get into touch with their husbands. 

About three years after the creche had first been 
opened, its founder took the adjoining house, throwing 
both into one, to allow for increased accommodation. 
By degrees the importance and value of the work 
so commended themselves to public confidence, that 
Richard Cadbury felt the time had come to share 
the responsibility with others. A brief appeal was 
therefore issued, resulting in the formation of a 
committee, which first met on November 19th, 1873. 
From this time public annual meetings were held, 
at which reports were given. The Family Book con- 
tains the account of the first annual meeting, as 
given in The Daily Post. It was held in the com- 
mittee-room of the Town Hall, under the presidency 
of the Mayor, at that time Mr. Joseph Chamberlain. 
He strongly advocated the " wider establishment of 
such institutions, on the simple and judicious lines 
adopted by the founder of this day nursery, Mr. 
Richard Cadbury." 

The same day nursery, now moved into Bath Row, 
still carries on its quiet and useful work, and was the 
forerunner of many others. 

Meantime Bridge Street was claiming a full share 
of Richard Cadbury's attention. We have already 


spoken of his skill in drawing, and of the various ways 
in which he was able to make use of it for the pleasure 
and instruction of others. About this time he was 
able to turn it to practical account. From the very 
beginning of his connection with the business his 
artistic talent was in requisition. During these early 
years it was he who designed the labels and adver- 
tisements. In many of the former his choice of 
proportionate size of lettering and arrangement of 
colour and general design was such that many of the 
original labels are still in use. 

Much ingenuity was required in the early days to 
devise new features that were likely to be attractive. 
Up to this time there had been little attempt to beautify 
the boxes in which chocolates were sold. Richard 
Cadbury conceived the idea of having boxes with 
pictures, instead of mere printed labels. He took 
great pains to seek out the best pictures or coloured 
designs that he could procure for the purpose. The 
choice was not a large one, and this led him to make 
his own designs, painting them in his spare moments 
at home. At a time when there was nothing of this 
nature on the market, they caught the public fancy, 
and did much to popularise the articles manufactured 
by the firm. The first were painted in the autumn 
of 1868. Many of them were sketched at this time, 
and in the years that followed, from his own children, 
who were delighted to be his models and pose for him. 
The first was that of a little blue-eyed girl, in a muslin 
frock, nursing a cat. Many others followed within 
the course of the next few years, and some of them 


recall memories of by-gone childish days in his own 
family. A number of them reflect his tours in Switzer- 
land. Hospenthal, with its flower-spangled upland 
meadows, was a favourite place of his, and it was there 
that the little girl, kneeling among the flowers with 
her arms round the neck of her pet lamb, was painted. 
The Swiss flowers gentians and gentianellas, Alpine 
roses, wild cyclamen and the tinted soldanella, which 
is only to be found along the snow-line speak of his 
enjoyment in botanising. 

Some years after his death a forewoman still em- 
ployed at Bournville, who had been one of the girls 
at Bridge Street in the early days, told how one morning 
he brought to the works a small picture of Swiss 
scenery with snow mountains and blue skies, and a 
brown chalet in the foreground. " Now, Sarah Ann," 
he said, " you may think that sky is exaggerated, 
because we hardly ever see it so blue over here ; but 
I can assure you it is often quite as blue as that in 

By degrees the firm found that, for the sake of 
economy and for other reasons, it was advisable to 
develop various collateral trades, such as the manu- 
facturing of cards, tin and wooden boxes, engineering 
for the repairing of their own machines, and other 
lines. Each new department that was added required 
a great deal of thought and study, and in everything 
the co-operation of their employees was invited and 

One reason of the happy relationship between the 
partners and their workers was to be found in the 

4 Page from the Family Book, skotving some of 
Richard Cadburfs original designs page ij8. 


keen interest taken, not only in moral and temporal 
concerns, but also in the spiritual welfare of the 
people. From the early days a morning religious 
service was conducted by the heads of the firm. 
Following a custom observed in the households of 
Friends, they gathered their workpeople around them 
before beginning the day's work. The services were 
always of the simplest character, consisting of the 
singing of a hymn, in which all joined, the reading 
of a portion of Scripture, generally followed by a few 
words of explanation, and a brief closing prayer. The 
whole occupied, on an average, only about seven or 
eight minutes ; but its influence, and the fact that 
masters and workpeople stood on the same level in 
the presence of the great Master of all, may in no small 
degree account for the harmony that existed between 
them and the fact that there has not been a serious 
dispute in the history of the firm needs no comment. 
The morning service tended to relieve the work of 
the day from the sense of drudgery, and reminded all 
of the source open for the strength needed in the cares 
and duties of life. The memory of some of Richard 
Cadbury's words is still cherished, as he spoke in his 
quiet, unassuming way of the sufficiency of Divine 
Grace for all needs, or of the blessedness gained by 
those who truly wait upon God. They felt that they 
were listening to one who was speaking from his 
own experience, who was himself treading the path 
along which he sought to lead them. His sincerity 
and simplicity left a deep impression. So many sects 
and denominations were represented, that it would 


have been less easy for a clergyman or minister re- 
presenting a particular denomination to take the 
services ; but when conducted by the employers them- 
selves they partook of the character of family worship. 
It was no wonder that, with such influences about them, 
many an earnest Christian worker sprang from the 
ranks of the employees. 



AFTER two years of loneliness, during which he 
strove to be father and mother in one to his four 
little children, God sent into Richard Cadbury's life 
a gleam of sunshine and happiness, which was destined 
to grow brighter and brighter unto the perfect day. 
In the autumn of 1870 Mrs. Wilson's second daughter, 
Emma, who had been living for several years in 
German Switzerland, returned to England, and natur- 
ally visited at the home of Richard Cadbury. She 
entered like a vision into the lonely man's life. His 
heart was filled with a hungry craving for some one on 
whom to lavish its wealth of love, and almost before 
he knew it his affections had begun to twine them- 
selves round the sweet personality of the girl, whose 
own heart was deeply touched by the yearning look 
of sadness on his strong face. She was passionately 
fond of children, and her tenderest sympathies were 
called forth by the little ones, who loved her from 
the very first. Small wonder, for the flower-like face, 
with its appealing blue eyes and frame of waving 



golden hair, would have been hard to resist. It was 
not long before the two were drawn together in a 
bond of strong love, which nothing could break, 
and a new joy had dawned for them both. No 
engagement was made public for some months, but 
the families of each were privately told of their love 
for each other and intention of marriage. 

Richard Cadbury never kept a diary, beyond the 
calendars in which engagements were jotted down. 
Although his correspondence was increasingly large, 
he never accustomed himself, even in later years, to 
employing a secretary or typist, and amongst the 
letters obtainable out of the immense number written 
with his own hand, the majority are too brief to 
reflect much of his own life and thoughts. In this 
dearth of autobiographical matter it was with a 
doubly grateful sense of privilege, that permission 
was accepted to read through the letters which he 
had written to his future wife, during the time of 
their engagement. Up till now no eyes but hers 
had ever seen all the outpourings of his great heart 
to the one who was to share every thought and interest 
of his life. The letters are too sacred to be published 
in full, and much in them that was meant for the eyes 
of one reader only would be quite unsuitable for 
general perusal. A few sentences from one or another 
are sufficient to give a picture of Richard Cadbury in 
his home, his business occupations, and Christian 
work. They also reveal glimpses of the depth and 
reality of his spiritual experiences. On October 22nd, 
1870, he wrote : 

About the time of their marriage in 1871. 


I have felt happier to-day than for a long time. . . . Your 
dear mother seemed not only satisfied but really happy, in 
the thought that we love each other as we do. I have told my 
father and brothers and sister to-day, and they are perfectly 
satisfied with the step I have taken. I can assure you of a 
very warm welcome from them all. 

The next two extracts give a home picture, and 
remind us of his interest in the creche : 

October 2&th. The children were all in the nursery together, 
Barrow doing his best to dress Willie, and Bonny reaching 
out for a frock which he would insist on as being necessary to 
complete his toilet, although quite dressed. Jessie, who 
was glad to receive the last touches up, was enjoying a warm 
fire, and wanted to know all about the morning's bustle. 
Barrow and Jessie went with me to Calthorpe Street to dine, 
and were very happy with some new toys their auntie had 
been buying for them. 

I called at the children's day nursery this evening about 
seven o'clock, and saw the mothers coming for their children. 
It really did one good to see how pleased they seemed on 
finding them so happy and with clean faces too, which is a 
blessing many of them were total strangers to before. 

November 2nd. I think I told you that I could not see how 
it was possible to love you more than I do, but I think now 
I shall love you more deeply as I know you better, and can 
more fully sympathise in your joys and your troubles. 

Barrow and Jessie came downstairs this morning quite 
full of pleasure, to tell me about the two little French dolls, 
Eugene and Marguerite, which you so kindly dressed for 
them, and which are pretty indeed. Is it not sad to be ex- 
pecting to hear of the general bombardment of Paris by any 
telegram ? 1 

Emma Wilson, who had been brought up as a Non- 
conformist, had some years earlier joined the Church 
of England. This will explain many passages which 
occur in the correspondence. 

1 The Franco-German War. 


November 6th. I will strive all I can to make you happy. 
All my enjoyment will be yours, and I do not believe my 
pledge to love and cherish you for ever can be broken by 
anything below. I have begun to read the Church Services, 
and will tell you more when we meet. It is such a comfort 
to me to have the prospect of joining you in worship next 
Sunday. It seems such a bond of union for the soul, to 
worship together the one great Father of all ; and although I 
cannot understand the efficacy of priestly ordinations, yet 
it makes me very happy to think that we can both own the 
one great Sacrifice for sin, through whom alone we can find 
atonement and by whom alone we can approach God's mercy 
seat (Heb. vii. 26-28). 

I went to our first Essay Meeting on Friday. There were 
some capital essays one on "Fashionable Quakers" was 
most spirited. About forty-eight were present, and nine 
essays were read. I shall feel proud to take you some of these 
days, and introduce you in the social gatherings to some 
whom I think you will like. 

The thought of the serious responsibilities which 
lay before her was sometimes a source of anxiety to 
Emma Wilson, but the loving encouragement of her 
future husband smoothed away all fears. 

I feel [he wrote on November loth] how heartily you have 
entered into the thought of fulfilling the duties of a wife, and 
I may also say of a mother of the little motherless ones, and 
I feel assured that God will help you to fulfil your trust. I am 
so glad of your letters, which breathe so much love to me. 
They are like so many stepping-stones across a broad river, 
until I meet you once again in that land of bright and happy 

November 15th. In our conversation together you asked me 
respecting our disuse of ritual service in the Society of Friends, 
and I told you that I thought it might be better not to trouble 
you about such things at present ; but I have since thought 
that perhaps you would be puzzling yourself over it, and 
wondering how as a Christian, professing my entire belief in 
the Scriptures as the Word of God, I could omit them. If it 


would be any comfort to you I will gladly write them down 
for you in a simple way. 1 Religion seems to me such a work 
of God's Holy Spirit in the heart, that although we may re- 
verently thank Him for many ways in which Christ has been 
revealed to us as the only means by which our guilt can be 
washed away, yet these can be of no avail unless blessed by 
the great Giver, and unless we open the door of our hearts 
to receive Him, who has been knocking there until " His head 
is filled with dew and His locks with the drops of the night." 
This is the glorious promise : " If any man hear My voice and 
open the door, I will come in to him and will sup with him, 
and he with Me. " With what j oy , then, shall we open the gates 
for the Lord of Glory to enter in. I shall always think of 
this when I read the beautiful piece we sang together, " Abide 
with me " ; it is so full of that feeling of peace and rest, which 
will rejoice our hearts when other comforts fail, knowing that 
if we will receive Christ He will make His abode with us 
(Johnxiv. 23). 

November lyth. I have just had your letter, and its precious 
enclosure. I do love you more than it is possible to write or 
tell. The children are all very well, and now I hear their 
happy little voices as they are coming down to breakfast. 
May the Lord keep you from every harm, and may He be 
your strong power when discouragements and temptations 
assail you. 

For several reasons Richard Cadbury decided to 
remove into a new home before his marriage. A 
little further along Wheeley's Road, in which he lived, 
was a house which had been Joseph Sturge's home, 
and on the opposite side of the road was a large field, 
well known throughout the town as " Sturge's Field." 
In the days before such a thing as a public park in 
Birmingham was known, Joseph Sturge had allowed 

1 The booklet What is my Faith? published in 1878, was 
first inspired by thus realising the need for a concise and 
simple statement of belief as held by the Society of Friends 
(see Chapter XXV.). 



the public to enjoy the use of this field. But by this 
time it was cut up for building, and new houses were 
being erected on it. They opened upon Wheeley's 
Road, and the gardens ran back to the canal, which, 
as there was then no railway, was double its present 
width, and seemed like a broad river with grassy banks 
and green bushes on each side. It was here that 
Richard Cadbury decided to make his home. 

I have just been with my father [he wrote on November 23rd], 
to look over one of the new houses that are nearly finished, 
on the right-hand side of Wheeley's Hill. Everything seems 
complete and beautifully arranged. Father is anxious that 
I should secure it Do you think you would like the situation ? 

November 26th. I have again been over the house in 
Wheeley's Road, with your dear mother, who likes it very 
much, and thinks you would too. How happy it makes me 
to think of everything nice for you. The children are very well. 
Barrow is getting on nicely with his lessons ; Jessie is lively and 
affectionate ; Willie, " the little brother," is beginning to show 
real progress with his reading ; and Bonny is as sweet as ever. 

December 13th. I have just received your letter. You 
cannot tell what a joyful sensation it is to me to read your 
loving words. They indeed make me long to be better and 
to be worthy of you, for my love for you has made my love 
for better things deeper. 

December 29th. The canal is frozen quite hard. It was a 
great delight to Barrow and Jessie to have a run and slide 
with me as far as the tunnel. Tell me when anything 
troubles you in any way, and do open your heart to me on 
anything that perplexes you or that you want me to tell you. 
I will do what little I can to comfort you in your loneliness, 
and as the days grow longer and the sunshine and fresh vernal 
tints of the trees and grass and bright spring flowers show 
themselves, they will bring many happy thoughts and much 
pleasure in many ways. 

January 2$th. I have never told you how much I admire 
the scrap-book you have made for the children, and which 
has given them a great deal of pleasure already. Some day I 


shall have them round me, and tell them some tales out of it. 
The first picture [a hospital nurse] reminds me very much of 
you ; I do not mean in likeness, but in mind, for you would 
be such a loving nurse. It would almost be worth while to be 
ill to have your loving care and face near. . . . We have been 
buying a good deal of the cocoa that was shipped from Havre 
to Liverpool. Poor France, her troubles do not seem at an 
end at present. 

January 31s/. My brother George was in Liverpool yester- 
day, and bought a large quantity of cocoa that usually goes 
to France. Henry [who had joined his two brothers in the 
business at Bridge Street] is in the Isle of Wight, so I have it 
to myself, and as we are very busy it keeps me close at work. 
I read the collect you spoke of in your letter, and thought 
it a very beautiful one. How often we need to be reminded 
that this is not our rest, and that while we are here temptations 
and trials will be our lot. I am so glad that we can tell one 
another our thoughts without reserve, and feel very jealous 
to disturb your restful and believing" heart ; and yet, dearest, 
I long that the foundation of our faith should be a reality. 
Not that I doubt for a moment that yours is a sure reality 
indeed, I long for your pure spirit and humble faith ; but I 
do at the same time look at the M helps " you speak of with 
some doubt, because I fear we may, to some extent at least, 
rest on them and feel satisfied that we have done something 
ourselves towards our salvation, instead of trusting altogether 
in the Almighty Arm and in the efficacy of the gospel, and 
the new dispensation in which all rites which typify cleansing 
and sanctification have received their full accomplishment 
in the blood shed on Calvary. It is by this alone we can know 
our sins to be washed away. It is the natural tendency of 
man to trust in his own deeds and sacrifices for gaining his 
salvation ; but unless they are the result of a humble and 
contrite heart, they are not acceptable to God. The founda- 
tion of the Romish faith is in great measure one of works, and 
in the display of outward signs and typical rites. We know 
that nations under their control make a far greater show 
of their religion, and are more strict in their discipline than 
any other ; yet the result is gross superstition and darkness. 
You will notice by referring to the " Preface " to the Prayer 
Book, and to the part on " Ceremonies," that the non-necessity 


of any of these rites and ceremonies is fully acknowledged, 
excepting so far as the decent order and godly discipline of 
the Church as at present ordered is concerned, and to stir up 
the dull mind of man to the remembrance of his God. Both 
of these things are very necessary in themselves, but do not 
make such rites binding on the conscience, because the 
gospel of the new dispensation does not require them, and in 
the view of Friends it appears distinctly to deprecate their 
continuance. And although both Friends and the Established 
Church seem to agree on the non-necessity of the outward 
performance of such forms for our salvation, yet the spiritual 
meaning is the same, for by them we know the Christian from 
the unbeliever, and in the keeping of them " we do shew forth 
the Lord's death till He come." Indeed, the Christian cannot 
live without them, for as food is to the natural body, so is the 
" bread from heaven " to the soul. And now, my precious one, 
I do long to know the truth as it is in Jesus, both for yourself 
and for myself. Pray still for me that I may know God's 
will and not my own. Your love and your religious faith 
have drawn me very near to you, and if it be still God's will 
that different paths are chosen for us to the one source of 
everlasting joy, we shall be sure to meet there, and perhaps 
in God's love and mercy He may still see fit to join us in the 
same path, for some steps of our earthly pilgrimage, before 
we meet on that heavenly shore. 

God granted this desire ; and not " for some steps " 
only, but for many years did Richard Cadbury and 
his wife walk along the same path of church fellow- 
ship and worship. For some time after their marriage 
she accompanied him to the Friends' Morning Meeting 
on Sundays, and he went with her to the Church of 
England service in the evening ; but, without the 
least urging on his part, it was a great joy to him 
when, within two years of their marriage, she joined 
the Society of Friends. 

February yth. It is difficult to say when we shall move into 
the new house, for so much has to be done, and the weather 


has been so cold that the men have not done the work they 
would have done. We have not quite decided about making 
a boat-house, for they say that the railway company, who 
have an act for carrying a line along the canal over the other 
side, will make it only half the width, which would spoil it 
for rowing. We have decided to send Barrow to school next 
week. I am so glad that you approve, and Barrow, too, is 
quite pleased with the thought. The woods will soon begin 
to look lovely. There is always such a joyous feeling in 
springtime. The birds wake up to a new life, and all is new 
again. I think I feel something like the birds this year, for I 
never was happier ; a new life seems dawning, and everything 
partakes of the freshness of a brighter and a better day. I 
have been reading the Twenty-seventh Psalm this evening ; 
it is a beautiful one. What a never-failing source of joy 
for the Christian to know that, whatever may befall him on 
this earth, he can trust in One who is able to deliver to the 

February 14th. I have just returned from our first temper- 
ance meeting, and am now sitting down for a quiet hour with 
you. We had both rooms crowded, and some first-rate speeches 
made by working men, interspersed by recitations and songs. 
There were several of the very worst class there, and I quite 
believe that such meetings will do a great deal of good. I long 
for you to be with me, but I believe that even thinking of you 
often strengthens me in desiring to do my best. I expect 
they will want me to take the chair again. Dear little Barrow 
went off to school yesterday ; his lips quivered a little as he 
said good-bye, but he bore up bravely, and in the evening, 
when nurse took some clothes, etc., he wrote me a little note 
to say that he was very happy. There were a lot of valentines 
for the children this morning, and they were much delighted. 
We had about thirty-five among our letters to-day for the 
girls at the warehouse ; some were quite large packages, but 
we kept them all till just before they went, or there would 
have been a great deal of time wasted. As it was there was 
such a rush for them, and excitement, that it was not easy 
for the forewoman to distribute them to the rightful owners. 
A gentleman from one of the Birmingham papers called on 
me to-day to say that the editor was anxious to write an 
article upon my day nursery, as it was almost unknown, 


and he thought it would be very useful to establish several 
of the same kind in other parts of the town. The piece of 
fern you sent me made quite a lovely little valentine, 
with the snowdrops on it. The snowdrop is the emblem of 
consolation. The fern is the " Prickly Fern " (Polyp odium 
aculeatum), and is one of our prettiest species. It is 
almost an evergreen, too, which makes it charming to have 
through the winter ; but to look as bright as the specimen 
you sent, it requires to be in a shady place and a fine 
loamy soil. 

February 21st. I should be quite at a loss without your 
weekly budget. Do you know that I make a point of giving 
up Tuesday evenings especially for you ? And when I am 
writing these letters, I think a great deal more than I write. 
Dear little Barrow has been very happy at school. He 
was very much pleased to go with me to his Bible class on 
Sunday morning. I am so glad he takes an interest in these 
things. Yesterday I attended the annual meeting of the men's 
class I sometimes teach on Sunday. There were about seventy 
or eighty there, and when I was comfortably seated to enjoy 
hearing others talk, I was called upon the first to make a 
speech. I was not prepared, but I said a few words, com- 
mending their report, and then we had some capital addresses 
from other gentlemen, and many of the scholars themselves. 
To-day another class, numbering probably four hundred, will 
meet in the same room at Severn Street. Thank you for the 
little book ; it is very nice to read anything of the kind, where 
the spirit is dictated by a Christian, who would win souls to 
Christ. I wish that all Christians could see alike as to the 
way to worship their Creator ; it does seem strange, but if 
it be God's ordering for some good purpose we cannot now see, 
we must be content. We now only look through a glass 
darkly, but then face to face. It is a certain bond for the 
Christian to know that at the best our worship is imperfect, 
because God's presence is not fully revealed. It is a bond 
because it links every true Christian in the chain of sympathy 
and love. 

February 28th. I have your dear face before me while I 
write. I wish for better words to express how much I love 
you ; there is no one in the world that I love and honour 
so much as you. There is no need of any marriage service to 


pledge me to love and serve you until we are separated (to meet 
once again, we may reverently hope, in a better world), for 
this I have done already in my heart ; but we daily see how 
necessary the public acknowledgment of such a contract is 
before God and before men. 

Jessie was admiring some of her curls this morning, and 
remarked that they would soon look like yours, so you see 
you have another admirer among us. She is such a merry 
little thing. I am sending you a paper giving an account of 
the Continent. It is a good thing that this fearful war is 
over for the present, but what wretchedness and misery will 
be left behind after the troops are cleared away. No earthly 
blessing can replace the loss of fathers slain on the battlefield 
to the poor widows with their little ones, in many cases turned 
out from their homes, and all they had in this world taken 
away and destroyed. I will try and send you the paper 
L' International, as it gives French ideas on the subject. 

March 21st. I cannot tell you what joy it gives me to know 
that you love me so earnestly, and that you can feel the same 
for me, for there is nothing now so dear to me on this earth 
as you and the little ones depending on my care and love. 
I have sent you to-day's paper, because it contains so much 
of interest, including Napoleon's arrival in England and the 
fearful rioting in Paris. 

We do not have any Meeting on Good Friday, because I 
believe Friends generally think that all days are alike holy, 
except those especially appointed in the Bible, as the Sabbath, 
which is to be entirely dedicated to the Lord. I do not think 
we can devote too much time or too many days to good works 
and thoughts, when we consider how short a time our life is 
here, to prepare for an eternal life above ; but there is, I think, 
very likely a danger in man appointing any day for others as 
holier than the rest. 

We are in a glorious state of muddle this evening, in pre- 
paration for a grand move to-morrow. My greatest pleasure 
now is to do what I know you will like me to do. Do you not 
sometimes yourself feel a secret pleasure in giving up some 
little enjoyment to please those you love ? I know that we both 
do, so you need never be afraid of telling me all you think. 

It makes things feel more like a reality now that we are 
really moving, and I try to fancy you as mistress of our little 


domain ; the time is coming very near when I shall have you 
to love and to cherish as my own dear wife. 

March 23rd. I thought you might like to know how we 
managed the move yesterday. . . . Every time I come into 
the house I think of you. It seems like one real step towards 
having you here, to have a home for you. How I long to ask 
you how you would like to have things, and to show you all, 
but " Geduld ! " there is a good time coming, and it has half 
come already, for I fancy you by me continually. The news 
from Paris this evening is fearful ; the nation seems to have 
gone wild. How often I expect you will sit just where I am 
writing this letter now. I have given you all my heart, and 

I have not much else to give you ; but all that I have seems 
to belong to you quite as much as to me. If God blesses us 
with so many good things here below, oh, how we should render 
all the praise and glory to Him for His many mercies, one of 
the very greatest of which is that He has united us in this 
bond of love, which no earthly joy or sorrow can break. 

March 31st. I like a great deal in the little book you so 
kindly sent me, and which I have read through carefully. I 
have made one or two notes explaining what points I cannot 
see with the author ; not that I say I am right and he is wrong. 
There is only one part that I do grieve over, and that is where 
the bread and wine are treated as " holy mysteries," as being 

II the means " by which God's grace is " conveyed " or com- 
municated, instead of being taken as a reminder according to 
the generally accepted meaning of the words, " Do this in 
remembrance of me." I still keep on my meeting on Sunday 
evenings [at the creche] and a good many come, but I often 
feel how unworthy I am. 

April 4th. I have just returned from a Temperance meeting 
at the Town Hall, and heard some most telling speeches from 
good and earnest men two Baptist ministers, a Roman 
Catholic clergyman, and an Archdeacon from the Established 
Church were among the speakers. Father has invited me to 
breakfast with Archdeacon Sandford, who is staying at 
Calthorpe Street. He is such an interesting old man, with a 
long, silvery beard. I do not think I shall be able to go, because 
I take the reading in the mornings for the people at the ware- 
house ; and as they gather over two hundred sometimes, I 
cannot leave it to any one. 


Wilson Sturge has gone to Nantes, and then on to the valley 
of the Loire, where Friends are distributing a large quantity 
of seed to the farmers, who have none to sow their land with ; 
and it is believed that this is the very best means of helping 
them to help themselves in the fearful condition they were 
left in by the war. What fearful accounts there are from 
Paris. I hope you will like the French papers I send you ; 
some of the accounts are most graphic. 

April 18th. I often feel myself very unworthy of your love, 
and expect you will rind a great deal to put up with in me 
and the care of my dear little ones ; but with God's help I 
will strive to make you happy, and to ease you of every care 
that I can. My sister is looking forward with great pleasure 
to being one of the bridesmaids. The children will be near 
home while we are away, perhaps at Castle Bromwich. Barrow 
has had ten days' holiday, which he has much enjoyed, and 
returned to school yesterday. 

April 2$th. I have just finished two more little paintings 
for the oval chocolate boxes, and* intend to do one more. 
Would you like to see them before I send them to be engraved 
from ? 

May 2nd. I have taken Mr. Laundy's Bible class at the 
Friends' Mission Rooms this evening. I do so enjoy having 
a class of men ; they are so intelligent, and enter into the 
interest of the thing so. . . . Farewell for the present, my 
own dear bride, as they say in Switzerland. May the Lord 
keep you as in the hollow of His holy hand. 

May gth. I have been out this evening to a party, but how 
nice it will be when I can have you with me, though I shall 
not care to go very often, for if I have you to love at home, 
other attractions will be very secondary. There are a great 
many children in the day nursery ; one day last week they 
had thirty-eight, and could have had four more. Poor little 
Esther Dyson is still living, and the doctors think she may 
partially recover. It is so delightful to sit by her as she lies 
in bed, and to hear her speak of peace and rest in Jesus. I 
have often thought how comforting it would be if one of my 
own dear little ones was dying, if they could look forward with 
such joy to the blessed change. We so much enjoy the 
delicious green of the young leaves and grass. It is such a 
pretty view along the canal, with the peep through the tunnel. 


The may is just beginning to show itself among the bushes on 
the banks. 

May 16th. I had a very nice little meeting last Sunday 
at the day nursery. Five or six earnest men joined us from 
another place of worship, and three appeared in supplication, 
praying most earnestly for the poor widows, that they might 
have consolation, and for the drunkards, that they might see 
the error of their ways. My reading was the first part of 
the eighteenth chapter of Matthew, where Christ shows His 
disciples that they must be as humble and as pure in spirit 
as a little child. 

May 23rd. Barrow is very happy at school. It is such a 
pleasure to have him at home on Saturday and Sunday, and 
is also a great treat to the others, who cling to him, and think 
much of their " big brother at school." 

I do so like your way of speaking on the points of doctrine 
on which we may differ. Do excuse me, dearest, if I have 
written too positively on any points, for I would be as Paul 
admonishes Timothy to be " the servant of the Lord must not 
strive, but be gentle unto all men, apt to teach, patient." 

June 13th. I was so glad to have your letter on Sunday 
morning, although I did not get it until after Meeting, for I 
took a class at our school at Severn Street, and then Barrow 
and Jessie met me, and we walked down to Meeting together. 
Can you do without me until Monday, do you think ? For 
though I am impatient to see you again, I should be able to 
have my little meeting on Sunday at the day nursery. We 
had such a nice gathering yesterday, that with the prospect 
of being away three or four Sundays, I do not like to leave 

June 16th. I was so exulting in the prospect of coming over 
on Tuesday to see you, when I remembered that it was im- 
possible. Both my brothers, George and Henry, will be away 
on important and necessary business, and I am left alone in 
charge. I fear " patience " is hardly a virtue with me now, 
excepting so far as it is a necessity. I am sure you will do 
very well at housekeeping, and now I tell you that I am not 
going to criticise you at all. Perhaps I shall laugh at you 
now and then, and I am sure you will laugh at me if I begin 
to show you how. I trust God will give me the spirit to pray 
then, as now, very earnestly for you, that you may be kept in 


His holy care and keeping, and that He may make bright the 
prospect before us. In prayer we may rest on the care of One 
who is mighty to save, so that when thoughts trouble us, or 
when even mingled feelings oppress us, it is a great comfort 
to have full trust in the assurance that He will do all things 

July 1st. I am so glad that you have spent such a pleasant 
evening at Mr. Fry's. I saw the two elder boys at Calthorpe 
Street when they were there. Barrow and the eldest boy 
had a game together, and I thought how curious it would be 
if they were to become rivals in the same trade. I fear some- 
times I appear to you much better than I am, but you will find 
a great many faults, a great many " little foxes "; but I 
will strive to overcome them, dearest, and with your love I 
believe I shall. 

July 6th. It makes me very happy to have your faith and 
love, and although we have so much in one another now, I 
believe it will increase as we know more of each other, and 
feel more the oneness of the Christian's hope. I thought 
Dean Stanley's views on this were very beautiful, so have cut 
the piece out for you. Farewell for a short time ; I wish I 
could come in like a fairy, and have a peep at you, but I fear 
I should be sorely tempted to play you some trick if I did, 
besides giving you a kiss in the dark. 

July 13th. Last Sunday was almost, if not quite, the very 
happiest day in my life, and particularly as we sat together 
in church, and sang those beautiful hymns ; shall we not often 
have as happy a time together ? For the whole soul and heart 
seems to join in one aspiration of praise. When we are to- 
gether, dearest, on the ocean of life, there will be many rough 
waves to cross, many stiff gales to encounter ; but if we place 
our trust in the Heavenly Pilot, He will lead us safely into the 
haven of rest and peace. 

The marriage was arranged for July 25th. Emma 
Wilson was the first of her family to be married, 
which added to the importance of the event in 
the eyes of her brothers and sisters. Their great 
friend and adopted aunt, Miss Richardson, of 


Bristol, insisted that the wedding should take 
place at her house, and so it was arranged. Two of 
Emma's brothers were away from home, one in 
Brazil and one in New Zealand ; but her sisters 
Hannah and Alice, and the two youngest boys, John 
and Willie, as well as her mother, were all present to 
share in her happiness. Hannah and Alice Wilson and 
Maria Cadbury were her bridesmaids, and surely the 
sun has rarely shone upon a sweeter picture than that 
wedding group, with its central figures of the fair 
young bride leaning upon the arm of her stalwart 
husband. Richard's brothers, George and Henry, 
were also among the wedding party. They were still 
unmarried, though within a short time both followed 
their brother's example. Richard's father was pre- 
vented from being present, but as the young couple 
passed through Birmingham Station on their way 
to the lakes, where they spent a short honeymoon, he 
went down to meet them, taking a basket of grapes 
from his own hothouse for their refreshment on the 
journey, and a little purse full of gold, which, in his 
courtly way, he presented as a wedding gift to his 
newly made daughter. 

In a few short weeks Richard Cadbury and his wife 
and their four little ones were at home together, and 
the happy routine of everyday life took up its course. 


HAPPY HOME-LIFE (1871 1883) 


IT would surely have melted the most frozen- 
hearted misanthrope to have had a glimpse of 
the peace and joy and love that filled the new home 
at Wheeley's Hill. Then, as in later years, Richard 
Cadbury's home-life preached silent but enduring 
sermons to many who entered it. Simplicity, but 
genuine hospitality, unselfishness, and forbearance, 
earnest ambitions for the good of the world and 
the glory of God, marked that happy Christian 
household. After the sorrows he had passed through, 
it was the beginning of a golden age to Richard Cad- 
bury. In November, 1872, another daughter, who 
was named Edith, was added to the family group, 
and her advent caused great delight amongst the other 

The old family home at Calthorpe Road, in which 
Richard had spent all his boyhood and youth, was 
given up about this time. The years had brought 
many changes, taking away from John Cadbury's 
side first one and then another of the large family 



circle that had for so long filled the old house with 
happiness. The mother had first been taken, and 
John and Edward her first-born and her fourth son 
had joined her on the other shore. Richard, George, 
and Henry were all married, and now only the father 
and his devoted daughter Maria were left. The town 
had gradually been spreading nearer, and many of 
the open fields were covered with houses, and the 
country lanes with their hedges and grassy borders 
were turned into suburban roads, lined with residences. 
The grounds of the Calthorpe Road house had been 
divided, and on the large field which backed on to the 
Harborne Road John Cadbury had built two houses 
with pretty gardens. It was into one of these that 
he and Maria now moved. The garden belonging to 
it was larger than the adjoining one, and included 
some of the orchard trees, under which long ago the 
boys from William Lean's school had been allowed to 
fill their pockets with apples. The pool was there, 
too, the old haunt of Trim and Sappho ; and many of 
the ferns brought by Richard and his mother from the 
farm at Scalemire and other places, and tended with 
so much care, still grew and flourished on its banks 
and rock island. 

With the thoughts of the past stealing round us 
again, it is difficult to shake off the spell, and to realise 
that Richard's eldest boy was now nearly eleven years 
old. He was very anxious to give his children as wide 
an education as possible, to fit them for their future 
responsibilities and duties. He felt that there was a 
particular advantage in the study of foreign languages, 


and the benefit of a time spent in a foreign country, 
if under safe and wholesome influences. A German 
lady, who had for many years been a governess, 
much esteemed and loved in the Gibbins' family, 
was at this time over in England. She had been 
married, but had lost her husband, who left her with 
one little boy ; and for some time had opened her 
home in Stuttgart to take in a few English boys. She 
did not undertake all their teaching, but arranged for 
them to attend daily one of the schools in the town, 
while she saw to the home side of their training. She 
happened to be staying at John Cadbury's while 
Richard and his wife were on a short holiday at Hem- 
yock, in Devonshire, making, further research for 
family history. The father wrote to them on August 
9th, 1873 : 

My dear Son and Daughter, Emily Kolle and her son 
are pleasantly staying with us ; we find them most cheerful 
company. I much want to lay before you the subject that 
has arisen during our intercourse with Emily Kolle. She has 
settled to take under her care the son of Edward Crossfield, 
the son of George Dymond, and also the son of Henry Ellis, 
a first-rate opportunity for these youths to obtain a thorough 
knowledge of the German language, and to be under the 
judicious and motherly care of Emily Kolle. It makes me 
long that dear Barrow should share in this high privilege. 
She considers he is exactly the right age, and would in a year 
or two obtain a thorough knowledge of German, and at the 
same time a sound education at one of the excellent schools 
at Stuttgart. Please do seriously think this matter over 
before you return. 

And so it came about that on his eleventh birthday 
Richard Cadbury's eldest boy sailed with Madame 


Kolle and her son for Germany, taking with him the 
hearts' love of his parents. How impatiently they 
longed for an opportunity to pay him a visit in his 
new surroundings can be well imagined. The follow- 
ing summer the opportunity came, and, accompanied 
by Maria, they journeyed to Stuttgart in the bright 
weather of early June, extending their tour into 
Switzerland as far as Ragatz. It was during the time 
spent on this visit in the valley of Hospenthal that 
Richard Cadbury painted a number of the pictures 
of Swiss flowers and scenes for the chocolate boxes. 
Soon after their return they left their home in 
Wheeley's Road to take the house which John Cadbury 
had built in the Harborne Road, adjoining his own. 
It was a great delight to both to be so near each other, 
and, indeed, the two households were more like one. 

At the close of 1875 the happiness of the family 
circle was again clouded by sorrow, through the 
sudden death by typhoid fever of Richard's youngest 
brother, Henry. It was nine years since John and 
Edward had died, and the diminished family felt this 
added loss keenly. Henry had been married only two 
years, and left behind him a sweet baby girl, only 
three months old. For four years he had been helping 
his brothers Richard and George at Bridge Street, 
where he was universally beloved by the workpeople. 
Some of them have vivid memories of the sad morning 
when the news reached them that Mr. Henry had 
passed away. They tell how all had assembled 
together for the usual morning reading. The hymn 
planned for the day was, " Knocking, knocking, who 


is there ? " They tried valiantly to sing it, but 
failed ; then all sat down. "Mr. Richard " opened 
the Bible and tried to read, but was so overcome with 
grief that he could not go on, and kneeling down, 
buried his face in his hands and wept. His brother 
then tried, but by this time all were moved to tears, 
and the little company settled into a time of quiet 
prayer and re-dedication of themselves to God. One 
of the forewomen says, " We all felt we had lost 
an elder brother." Richard Cadbury wrote of Henry 
in the Family Book : 

During his latter years he often laid stress upon the power 
of the blood shed on Calvary to cleanse from the guilt of sin, 
not relying on any works of his own, but on the atoning 

In January, 1877, a fourth daughter, Helen, was 
born to Richard Cadbury, and eighteen months later 
the family was increased by the arrival of another, 
who was named Margaret, though she was always 
known in the family as " Daisy." Meantime the 
older children had been growing fast. Barrow, who 
was at school in England after his return from Ger- 
many, went to Manchester in 1878 to study for a year 
at Owens College. 

A new educational departure had taken place in 
Edgbaston. Many Nonconformists and others, the 
Society of Friends included, objected to sectarian 
teaching being made part of the school curriculum, 
and Richard Cadbury largely shared in this feeling, 
not caring to have his children taught creeds and 
catechisms with which he could not wholly unite, 


A limited company had been formed, and the High 
School for Girls was opened in January, 1877. Jessie 
Cadbury, now a tall girl of twelve, was among the first 
pupils, and, after a few years at the high school, went 
to the Friends' Boarding School at York ; Willie and 
Richie being meanwhile at Hitchin. 

Richard Cadbury's joy in fatherhood never lost its 
freshness, and his delight in the cluster of children 
that filled his home may be seen in the following 
sentences from letters written to his wife. The first 
was written on February 26th, 1880 : 

I greet thee this morning [he says] with a little cutting from 
a paper that exactly breathes my feelings to my precious 
ones. I have so longed to be with you, and especially in the 
early morning, I feel quite lost without my little Daisy. I 
just want her in my arms with her little head nestling on my 

The verses enclosed are as follows : , , , 

Patter, patter, little feet, ! 

In the room above my head ; 
Not a sound is half so sweet, 
There is music in their tread. 
Happily they trip along, 
Airy, fairy, light, and gay, 
Keeping time to an old song, 
Bringing back a bygone day. 

As I listen to the sound, 
What a vision greets my eye 
Just a wee thing toddling round, 
With its mother standing by. 
Love is light upon her face 
With a beauty most divine ; 
Over all the crowning grace, 
Child and mother both are mine. 


The other was received at Bristol, where his wife 
had gone to bring Jessie home from a visit (Octo- 
ber 28th) : 

I was delighted to have dear Jessie's letter this morning. 
Please to thank her very much for it. Edith was at home 
to welcome me, and very pleasant it was to see her bright 
little face. Upstairs I heard the little ones singing, and there 
they were with nurse round a bright fire, Daisy ready to go to 
bed, a sweet little angelic picture in her nightdress, and full 
of love, and Nellie singing on the floor, with her shoes and 
stockings off, as pretty a picture as you could possibly imagine. 
Yes, I am proud of them all, and as happy a daddy as is living, 
and only want you all about me to complete my bliss. 

Christmas, as may readily be supposed, was a time 
of genuine delight to all the household, especially to 
the younger children, and none of them will ever 
forget their father's appearance year by year as 
Father Christmas. There were also many delightful 
family customs. One of these was the " hot cross 
bun tree," a most original idea. Very early in the 
morning, on a Good Friday, Richard Cadbury would 
steal out into the garden and decorate some tree with 
hot cross buns. Then, when the children were awake 
and dressed, he would take them out into the garden 
with baskets on their arms to gather the wonderful 
crop which had grown during the night, apparently 
from the buds which they had been shown on the tree 
the day before. No other buns could ever have 
tasted quite the same as did those wonderful fruits 
of the " hot cross bun tree." 

It was no wonder that Richard Cadbury was loved 
by all children, especially his own. He was so entirely 


their playfellow and friend that he always had their 
confidence, and yet never forfeited their respect. 
With all his tenderness there was a keen sense of what 
was fair and right in their treatment of each other. 
Any sign of selfishness would meet with his reproof. 
At times he could be very stern, but his children never 
failed to realise the tenderness beneath. His eldest 
son said, " When severe punishment was necessary 
I have known his eyes to stream with tears, and he 
felt it probably much more than we did." 

These years were very busy apart from the increasing 
responsibilities of home, for in 1879 the business was 
moved out to Bournville, and about the same time 
the mission and adult school work at Highgate was 
begun. He also had a certain amount of quiet work 
in hand for the Society of Friends, and his active 
interest in temperance efforts was undiminished. 
His time for recreation was as fully occupied as any 
other, for idleness to him was not rest, but misery. 
From his boyhood he had been passionately fond of 
gardening, and took a great pride in his roses and 
other flowers. He would often be at work in the 
early hours before breakfast and on summer evenings, 
and in his adult school work he tried to inculcate this 
love of gardening and flowers in his scholars. More 
than once he presented each of the men in the morning 
school with bulbs, to be grown in their own homes, 
offering prizes at a show held afterwards to those who 
had succeeded best. At the bottom of the Harborne 
Road garden he built a Swiss chalet, the lower storey 
of which formed a useful shed for gardening tools 





and the boys' old-fashioned high bicycles, while the 
room above, with its green-shuttered windows under 
the overhanging brown eaves, made a delightful 
place for picnics. Most of his painting was done 
during the evenings at Harborne Road, often 
necessarily by gaslight, but this resulted in giving 
to some of his pictures a wonderful depth and brilliance 
of colour. 

His daughter Edith, who was not at all strong, had 
been ordered by the doctor to live by the sea, and in 
1882 was sent to a school at Weston-super-Mare. 

The same year it was decided for Richard, now a 
boy of fourteen, to go to Germany, as his brother had 
done, to live with Madame Kolle at Stuttgart. A 
year before, Barrow and Jessie had been taken by 
their parents to Switzerland, and in 1882 their 
brother at Stuttgart had a visit from them, the three 
making a tour together in the Black Forest. The 
father also kept in constant touch with his boy 
through letters. At the close of one from Nevin, in 
North Wales, to acknowledge a birthday present, 
he said : 

Many thanks, my dear boy, for thy present, which I will 
take great care of. I hope to have many birthdays among 
you all, and always to have your love. 

February 26th, 1879, was tne golden wedding day 
of Richard's uncle and aunt. Fifty years had passed 
since Benjamin Head Cadbury had brought his bride, 
Candia Wadkin, from Pendleton to his Birmingham 
home. Their union had been blessed with a son and 


seven daughters, of whom one had died in childhood. 
It can well be imagined what close friends and play- 
mates these girls and their brother had been with the 
five boys and one girl-cousin in John Cadbury's home. 
By the time of the golden wedding the son Joel had 
been married for some years. The six daughters, 
whose home was still with their parents, had been 
trained to follow their example of Christian devotion 
to the needs of those in poverty and in sin, and to 
the spreading of the gospel of Jesus Christ. Their 
beautiful home-life and their unselfish work for God 
cannot be passed over without mention. Adult school 
work among women, children's Sunday schools, and 
home missions of all kinds, work among fallen women, 
foreign missions, hospital and prison visiting, and 
almost every good cause that could be quoted, claimed 
their constant and unobtrusive labours. The golden 
wedding of their parents was an occasion of general 
family rejoicing, and the following verses were written 
by Richard Cadbury in celebration of the event : 

Full fifty years have passed away 

Since two young hearts were light and gay ; 

And each in confidence confessed 

The love that fluttered in the breast. 

And now a sweeter, holier flame 
Binds earth to heaven in higher aim ; 
Whose souls thus linked in earthly bliss 
Long for eternal happiness. 

Sweet memories linger on the years 

That time has oft bedewed with tears; 

Tears that reflect the sunlit rays 

From Him who filled their hearts with praise. 



Barrow, 1882. William, iS 

Richard, 1876. 


A daily providenceTweTtrace 
In mercies shed with boundless grace ; 
Each year God's sheaves of golden grain 
Have blessed the hours of toil and pain. 

And now with garnered sheaves they stand 
Like pilgrims near the promised land, 
With willing hearts to lay them down, 
For heaven's sure, untarnished crown. 

Richard Cadbury's two eldest sons were now growing 
into young men. Barrow, on leaving Owen's College 
in Manchester, had gone to London for a year, to learn 
business methods and habits, and on his return began 
to help his father in the adult school work. His 
twenty-first birthday was quite an event in the family, 
marking the beginning of the time when Richard 
Cadbury's children were to take their place in the 
world and share its burdens. His wife's family had 
also been growing up fast. Her youngest brother, 
Willie, was almost like one of their own children, 
having lived so much in their home. While quite 
young he had gone as a missionary to Madagascar, 
but in 1882 returned to be married, and to take his 
wife back with him to the foreign field. A long 
letter from Richard Cadbury to his father describes 
their wedding on May 3rd, 1882, and another to the 
bride's mother gives a sympathetic picture of their 
farewell meeting and departure for Madagascar. 



RICHARD CADBURY had the soul of an artist. 
Every part of his many-sided life was tinged 
and brightened by his innate love of beauty. From 
first to last Nature was his familiar friend, speaking 
to him, and through him, of the majesty and love of 
God. In later years the pressure of multitudinous 
engagements left little time to express in literary 
form, or with pencil and brush, the poetry and romance 
which were an inseparable part of him. But the 
beauty of his mind increased, and breathed like a 
heavenly fragrance through his adult school lessons 
and addresses, and his daily words and deeds. To 
the end he revelled in the glory of forest and mountain, 
of sea and sky, of flower and tree ; the innocence of 
happy childhood ; the loveliness of pure womanhood. 
These things filled his soul with such reverent awe 
that his whole being seemed at times to tremble with 
the strong emotions that swept over him. His face 



would glow with pleasure when a little child confided 
in him, or a dumb creature trusted him, or when he 
would stand drinking in the beauty of a flower or 
some fair scene. Sometimes when the birds were 
singing he would say, " Ah, if they knew how I loved 
them, they would come and perch on my shoulder." 
But no look was quite so radiant as when his eyes 
rested on the sweet face of his wife. 

His aptitude in drawing and painting was shown 
when quite a small boy. There are portfolios full of 
his beautiful copies of landscapes and figures, and 
studies of trees and flowers. He had a wonderful 
memory for outline, and was often known in younger 
days to hang a large sheet of paper on the wall, and 
with a piece of charcoal make a bold, rapid sketch 
of Swiss mountains or other scenery. How he applied 
some of his smaller paintings to practical purposes 
we have already seen. His larger water-colours were 
almost all given to his wife, and cover the walls of 
her boudoir. 

Richard Cadbury's interest in the Birmingham 
Friends' Reading Society has been mentioned. His 
presidential address given in 1878 on " Technical 
Education " is a striking indication of how keenly he 
had studied a subject which had hardly begun to 
attract popular attention. It is full of practical 
suggestiveness, and was received with delight, as 
well as some surprise. How much it helped for- 
ward the movement that resulted soon afterwards 
in the establishment of a well-equipped technical 
school for the town cannot be ascertained, but it was 


certainly prophetic. It was printed and published, 
and on August 25th, 1896, nearly twenty years after 
its first appearance, Richard Cadbury received a letter 
from the author of The Producer and Consumer, 
saying : 

I have been reading your valuable essay on " Technical 
Education." I consider it so important that it ought to be 
reprinted for the benefit of the country. It must, I think, 
be very gratifying to you to find your old ideas so largely 
adopted in the present day, and to know how much it has 
tended to the advancement of England's trade. 

The Friends' Essay Society was another interesting 
Quaker institution, providing intellectual entertain- 
ment for social gatherings in place of the dancing 
and card-playing of other circles. John Henry 
Shorthouse, the author of John Ingles ant, was perhaps 
the most prominent of its members. Richard Cadbury 
was secretary of the Essay Society for seven years 
(1875-82) while living in Edgbaston, and never 
resigned his membership. 

His first appearance on the pages of the dignified 
volumes in which the essays were bound was in 
connection with the famous " Log of the Seagull." 
Through all his married life contributions were added 
at various times. Interesting and beautiful as many 
of them are, there is not space enough to reproduce 
them. The subjects chosen reveal his thoughtful mind 
and wide range of interest. It is strange to find that 
his first prose essay was entitled " The Jews," and 
the last, written after his first visit to Egypt in 1897, 
is on " The Jewish Race in Egypt." Both show his 


knowledge of Hebrew and Egyptian history. Educa- 
tion claimed a place in " The Influence of Early Edu- 
cation on After Life " and " Does the Cultivation of 
the Mental Faculties increase Temporal Happiness ? " 
while earnest thought mark those on " Ireland and 
her Wrongs " and " Liberty." The first of these is 
largely historical, the second a study on the nature 
of true liberty. Compulsory education, both secular 
and religious, the legal repression of the liquor traffic 
and drinking customs, the widening of woman's 
sphere, trade unions, and the power of capitalism, 
militarism, ecclesiastical tyranny, and finally the 
privileges and abuses of liberty in religious thought, 
are dealt with in a striking manner. The essay closes 
with the words : 

Perfect liberty is and ever will be like a far-off star ; 
a beautiful world gilded in its own brilliancy ; a Utopia 
impossible to obtain, except in imagination. 

It is like a delicate flower that, when grasped, is crushed in 
our embrace. Never will its untarnished beauty be realised 
in this world, but with victory over the sin that now stains its 
fair white petals it will be worn as an emblem of purity in 

The essays on " Sleep " and " Mercy " teem with 
originality of thought. A number are of a descriptive 
character, including " Half an Hour in James Watts' 
Workshop " ; " Cloisters of the Friars, Hirschau " ; 
" The Roman Villa near Brading " ; and " A Quiet 
Corner in the North Riding." " Michel Eugene 
Chevreul " is a biographical study of the remarkable 
French chemist, an ardent teetotaller, who lived to 
the age of 103, hale and hearty to the end, Richard 


Cadbury always had the old man's photo in a con- 
spicuous place in his library. " Days and Years " 
reveals his keen interest in astronomy, and deals 
with the causes of the changing tides and varying 
seasons. " The Fairies' Sea Cave " is a dainty bit 
of imaginativeness, and fairly dances with innocent 
humour and rhythmic grace. A long comparative 
study on " Nature and Art " so reveals Richard 
Cadbury's habits of observation, and his appreciation 
of colour and form, that we are tempted to quote a 
short extract : 

A prominent feature in nature is, that green constitutes 
the chief colour in those objects upon which we rest our sight, 
and is in its fullest perfection when we need it most. It is 
hardly necessary to be reminded of the pleasure there is when 
spring-time harbingers the light green leaf of grass and tree ; 
and later when the sun is in his zenith, how delicious it is to 
wander under the darker shade of the forest. Green also 
forms the best contrast to bright colours ; the charm that 
flowers have would be lost if they had not the fresh and cool 
background that it affords. The eye thirsts for it somewhat 
in the same way as the tongue for water, and it seems espe- 
cially adapted to rest the optic nerves when the sight is over- 
strained. Green is eminently the colour which God has 
chosen for man, to invigorate his mind and refresh his body ; 
and even those who live in large cities and who love the 
freshness of its natural charms may still apply it in the art 
of decoration. 

With gold it forms one of the prettiest finishes to interior 
decoration, while it adds coolness and cheerfulness to have 
the shutters and sunblinds or the prominent woodwork 
painted an emerald green. It forms at the same time a 
pleasant contrast to the dull reds and smoky browns that are 
all but universal. 

We too often find a total disregard for this nature's 
choicest colour in the laying out of our suburban gardens. 
A border of box or perhaps a row of tiles, surrounding a 


bed of gooseberry trees and cabbages is a work of art (?) for 
the eye to rest on in dreary contemplation. 

Trelliswork produces an effect that represents in a stiff 
form the beautiful intertwining in nature, and whether it be 
placed against the wall or used as a verandah, it is a great 
relief to the broad face of bricks and mortar, and at once invites 
the opportunity for allowing nature also to do her share in its 

White is the emblem of purity, and not only the emblem 
but the test. As purity is essential to health, its introduction 
on this account is important ; it is also indispensable as a 
contrast, and to give value to colour. The delicate tint of 
the skin is always enhanced by the contrast of white, and 
perhaps the loveliest picture we can look on is a beautiful 
woman dressed in pure white. 

Whenever colour is introduced it should be bright and 
pure, to produce a pleasing effect, but never in too large masses 
or in too great variety. The better taste is that bright colour 
should be used only as a relief upon a subdued groundwork, 
because if the sight be arrested by a distinct and pure colour, 
the subdued background will remain in some measure unde- 
fined ; and as a brilliant dash of colour will give charm to 
what might otherwise have been a dull and unattractive 
painting, so a judicious arrangement of colour in dress or in 
an apartment will give a life that it would not otherwise 

The mind becomes cramped by living too much among the 
works of our own creation, and no broad design nor original 
thought can be conceived ; but nature will teach what cannot 
otherwise be learnt, in nobility and power, in grace and 
beauty. It is among the rugged mountains wrapped in grey 
mists, and on the wide ocean and desert, or in the quiet 
valley where flocks are grazing and the distant hills are 
bathed in hazy light, that we drink in and appropriate new 
ideas, which again and again come before us in the everyday 
business of life. 

The essays on " Summer " and " Autumn " are 
gems of word-painting, and weave around you such a 
spell that you bask in the sunshine and fragrance, and 


revel in the abundance of fruits and the glorious colour- 
harmonies of autumnal foliage. Amongst the essays 
appear also some of the poems, which are here repro- 

A long piece, entitled " The Creation," is written 
in blank verse. It was inspired by reading Hugh 
Miller's account of the Mosaic vision, and is full 
of pictures, sometimes giving a sense of space and 
immensity like a Dore engraving. 

Another long poem, entitled " The Fall of Lucifer," 
is in the same style. It pictures the original glory and 
beauty of the " covering cherub," his fall, his efforts 
to tempt the human race to share his sin, and his final 
conquest by the Prince of Peace. Somewhat similar 
in form is the " Ode to Evening " : 

Hail ! glorious evening, harbinger of solemn night. 

Oft have I watched thee, 
As the bright sun, dipping in his sea of light 

Fills full the soul with wonder. 
The dewdrops fresh distilled 
Drink in the light of Heaven 

And hang like lamps among the flowers. 
The daisies shut their rosy leaves, as angels shut 

The lips of cherubs when they sleep. 
The bee flies loaded to its well-stored cells, 
To sleep in dreams till morning wakes with song 

And flowers unfold again. 

The farmer sits beside the ruddy glow 
Of heaped-up embers, in his humble cot, 
While round his chair, his curly-headed boy 
Romps with the playful kitten. 

A welcome waits the labourer from his toil ; 
And home can never be one-half so sweet, 
As when the children cling about his knees 
To hear a wondrous tale of bygone days. 



And now the darkening shadows gently steal . j 

From vale to copse, and up the mountain-side, 
Until the last warm ray has left the highest peak. 
The glorious arch of heaven, bedecked with clouds 
Is bathed by thy lost rays in colours bright ; 

Then fading gently into sombre night, 

The evening star shines as a beacon light. 

From woody glen is wafted softly by 

Melodious song. Then when all nature sleeps 

In peaceful rest, I dream of earth and heaven 

Thoughts rise in harmony and visions fill my soul 

As stars and planets, and beyond them galaxies of stars 

Shine with resplendent beauty in the sky. 

I thought, " Can all these wondrous worlds be formed 

Alone to please man's vision ? " No, they mark 

The wisdom, immortality, and power, 

Of Him who made and holds them in His hand. 

They shine like pathways for the souls of saints 

To fly from bonds of earth to heaven's gates. 

" The Lake " is a differently worded picture of 
similar scenes. Verses in commemoration of the 
American cousins' visit, also " The Two Children " 
and the breezy little piece called " The Homeland," 
were composed before Richard Cadbury's marriage. 


Home, home, we are out on the tack 
For the land so brave and free, 

Where the happiest faces greet us back 
'Tis the fairest land to me. 

I'll seek not you, ye raging waves, 

Ye waters of the sea ; 
For there's not a land that Nature's spared 

So many gifts as thee, 

March 24th, 1857, 


The rest were probably written later, but are for 
the most part undated. 


I passed a wretched labyrinth of homes, 
Where the sweet woodland zephyr never comes, 
Nor rose nor woodbine grow with perfume rare, 
But smoke and close infection taint the air. 

High from the loud and angry cloud below, 
A garret window caught a sunny glow ; 
Oh ! how like hope this gleam of light may be ! 
Dispersing clouds and setting sad hearts free ! 

A little maiden clasped her hands in prayer, 
Seeking in faith and hope God's presence there, 
And asking for His holy hand to stay 
The curse, that led her dearest ones astray. 

Great God, Thou knowest all that dwells within ; 
Wilt Thou, who art too pure to look on sin, 
Be with a trembling heart, amid this shade, 
And listen to a little one who asks Thy aid ? 

Rest, helpless, weary one ! in patience, rest ! 
The battle is the Lord's ; His will is best : 
For He can reign who rules the stormy sea, 
And still the tempter's power, and care for thee. 

God answers all who humbly rest in Him, 
And though the night be long, and hope be dim, 
Morn ushers angels in with radiant wings 
To bear thy sorrow to the King of kings. 

Sweetly reposing, in God's love abide, 
Calm as a placid lake at eventide ; 
Reflecting visions of the heaven above, 
And waking in that realm where all is love. 

Then shall we not, as little children, pray 
That we may be God's messenger to-day ; 
For what we do and what we say may be 
God's beacon-light to set some captive free, 



Lord, I am a little child, 

Full of sin I come to Thee, 
Longing to be reconciled, 

Jesus love and pity me. 

Calm my passions by Thy grace, 

Love me tenderly again ; 
Find within Thy fold a place 

For a wandering little lamb. 

Lord, Thy loving smile I see, 
Yes ! I hear Thy patient voice, 

Saying gently, " Follow Me, 
Come and in My fold rejoice." 

Oh, how happy in Thy love 

Guardian Shepherd, I may be ; 

Willing now Thy love to prove, 
I will come and follow Thee. 


Hast thou heard the skylark singing, till its evanescent lay 
Leaves harmonious whispers ringing, as it soars to meet the 

day ? 
Hast thou stood to watch the eagle, speeding onwards in its 

flight ? 
Till lost among emblazoned clouds, the portals of the night ? 


Beautiful springtime, we welcome thy coming ; 

The dark days of winter are passing away ; 
In mossy banks, flowerets their bright heads are showing, 

And feathered tribes carol thy steps with their lay. 

We welcome thy coming, sweet charmer of nature, 
In embryo waiting thy warm, genial showers, 

To unfold the leaf with the soft breathing zephyr, 

And change the bare woodlands to garlands and bowers. 



When early morn dawns on the eastern horizon, 

A ruby light fringes the curtains of night, 
Till the sun rises forth from the mist to emblazon 

And o'er-spread the earth with his mantle of light. 

Thus April invites with its soft rain and gleaming 
Those fairy-formed beauties in woodlands we love ; 

Each clothed in its glory of colouring seeming 

Like scattered tears dropped from the rainbow above. 

A grassy lane passing through copses and moorland, 

By cornfields and meadows, where troops of lambs play, 

Charms our steps on to revel with Nature's wild garland, 
In ferny nooks shaded by branches of may. 

From each pendant twig is a lustrous gem hanging ; 

The breath of the morning, distilled into dew, 
Which from its white blossoms sweet odour is bringing 

To mingle with that of the violet blue. 

Hard by, in the valley, a rustic bridge crosses 

A clear mountain stream that runs purling along, 

Where a fair country maiden stands combing her tresses, 
And blends her sweet voice with the thrushes' full song. 

Her playmates have left her to search in the forest, 
For flowers to wreathe with the red and white may, 

And now return laden with garlands the choicest, 
To crown her their May Queen in innocent play. 

Thus waits the young springtime, festooned like the maiden, 
The queen of the year in her virgin robes dressed, 

For the sunshiny summer to cherish, who's laden 

With fruits from the flowers her presence has blessed. 


Children of Heaven, the anthem you raise 

On earth is a jubilant echo of praise ; 

Sweetly the strain falleth soft on the ear, 

Angels are telling us Jesus is near ; 

Swiftly they break through the cloud and the gloom, 

Shining as light from their glorious home ; 

Higher to beckon us, children of night, 

Gladly to welcome us, children of light. 


Welcome we give you, bright angels, below, 
Silently striving to comfort our woe ; 
Angels of mercy watch over us here, 
In sorrow or joy, sweet spirits, be near ; 
Come when in anguish and soothe us with calm, 
Come when we joy most and shield us from harm ; 
Guardian angels, we yearn for your love, 
Foretaste of higher and purer above. 

Angel of patience, with gladdening wings, 

Bless every sorrow humanity brings. 

Mother, why weepest thou ? Dry up thy tears, 

Angels are waiting to banish thy fears ; 

Nought hast thou here when God calls thee away, 

Seek thou for glories that never decay ; 

Seek the pearl gates that thy loved ones have found, 

Thank Him that they have reached holier ground. 

Pilgrim of earth, upon life's troubled sea, 
The Angel of Hope thy best pilot will be ; 
Cast in thy anchor when calms would ensnare, 
Press for the harbour when breezes are fair. 
Fear not, but trust on His arm to rely, 
Hope fills thy canvas, the land to descry ; 
Bring others with thee its glories to see ; 
Hearken ! the angels are welcoming thee. 


My hymn is praise, 

My song is love, 

My home is with the blest above ; 

I joy to raise 

My song to Thee 

For all Thy gifts and love to me. 

To Thee, my King, 

Is glory due, 

For ever let my song be new ; 

Oh, let it ring 

In cadence sweet 

For ever where the spirits meet. 


Around Thy throne 

We pray to Thee, 

That peace on all the earth may be ; 

For thou wilt own 

The sinner's sigh, 

And welcome to Thy courts on high. 

Oh, Lamb of God, 

We angels bright 

Would gather in the harvest white ; 

We kiss the rod 

That makes us Thine, 

So may Thy saints in glory shine. 

Come and rejoice, 

Rejoice with me 

To welcome in a spirit free ; 

All in one voice 

An anthem raise, 

Of glory to our God and praise. 

" Finite Man," " A Thing of Beauty," and " In His 
Presence," are three more of his poems. " The 
Golden Wedding " and " My Mother," have been 
quoted in other chapters. 1 

The following lines were sent to his wife as a valen- 
tine, and were headed by a pen-and-ink sketch of a 
standard rose-bush in full bloom, with woodbine 
twining round the stem. 


The beauteous rose spreads fragrance all around, 
But sweeter than the rose thy love to me, 

For as the woodbine climbs to kiss its flowers, 
So is my soul entwined in love to thee. 

Sweet love, my love is thine and thine is mine, 
So shall I ever be thy valentine. 

Pp. 83, 166. 


All through his life he had a strong objection to the 
second verse of our National Anthem, and when it 
was sung he never joined in, but would keep his lips 
pressed together in protest. He wrote one of his own. 


Queen of our sea-girt isle ! 
The earth and heaven smile 

To own thee blessed. 
The empire of thy throne 
Rests in true hearts that own 
Thy sceptre's sway alone, 

Our gracious Queen. 

God bless the just and true ! 
Strengthen our wills to do 

That which is right. 
Honour and peace have met ; 
Justice with mercy set 
Is thy proud coronet, 

Our noble Queen. 

Sweet land of liberty ! 
Still mayest thou ever be 

Noble and free. 
Under one flag we stand, 
True to our Fatherland, 
Joined as a patriot band, 

True to our Queen. 

" The Daisy " and " Life " are among a set oi 
poems which he wrote in an album, with original 
illustrations in water-colour. 


There is a little flower I love 

That drinks in sunshine from above, 

Is watered by the dew, 
Lies nestled in the mossy grass 
And closes when the dark nights pass, 

Its eye of golden hue. 


Its dainty petals, white as snow, 
Are hidden from the winds that blow, 

And fast to each embrace ; 
But early morn soon opens wide 
The ruby lips that, watchful, hide 

Its bonnie little face. 

The welcome, little English flower, 
I fain would offer as my dower 

To thee is love's behest ; 
That thou wouldst flourish at my side, 
And by thy sweetness banish pride 

For ever from my breast. 


Brightly flows the little fountain 
As the light that heralds day, 

Free its song upon the mountain 
As it hastens on its way. 

Rippling now o'er pebbled shallow, 
Laughing as it gaily skips, 

Kissing every bending willow 
With its sparkling, rippled lips. 

Now in sunshine, now in shadow, 
Now a pool of calm delight, 

Bordered by a daisied meadow, 
Mirrored in its bosom bright. 

Soon it meets another river 
Gently running to its side, 

And unites its stream for ever 
In its ambient flowing tide. 

In the breeze, their pennants flying, 
Little barks are borne along, 

Safely guided and relying 

On its current deep and strong. 

Now its clearness dims like shadows, 
On the everlasting hills ; 

But the broader path it follows 
Is refreshed by purer rills. 


With a peaceful calm it lingers 

Till the breakers on the shore, 
Like the white-robed angels whisper, 

" Come and sing for evermore.'" 

The following hymn, which Richard Cadbury wrote 
on September nth, 1876, has since his death been set 
to music by Professor D. B. Towner, and has been 
sung in large mission services in America. 

Christ is thy light, O wanderer, tempest-tossed ; 
Look to the beacon pointing to thy rest. 
Dark is the night and rocky is the coast, 
But sure it shines above the billow's crest. 
Christ is thy light. 

Christ is thy strength, oh, faint and weary soul, 
Thy strife is vain, embrace without delay 
The grace that pleads with thee to make thee whole, 
Who by His blood has washed thy sins away. 
Christ is thy strength. 

Christ is thy guide, O pilgrim, seeking rest ; 
He gently bids thee open wide the door 
For Him to enter in and be thy guest, 
Oh, trust and follow Him for evermore. 
Christ is thy guide. 

Christ is thy hope, oh, cling to self no more, 
No more to hopes which natter and decay ; 
But to the rock that stands the tempest's roar, 
On which thy trembling ark will find a stay. 
Christ is thy hope. 

Christ is thy King, He wore the crown for thee ; 
A crown of thorns, a diadem so meet. 
Oh ! bow before His love that made thee free, 
And humbly cast thy crowns before His feet. 
Christ is thy King. 


NEW VENTURES (1878 1882) 


ONE of the chief contributions of the Society of 
Friends towards the religious life of England 
in the middle of the nineteenth century was the es- 
tablishment of the adult school movement. The Bill 
providing compulsory elementary education was not 
passed till the year 1870, and all over England there 
were large numbers of grown men and women who 
could neither read nor write, and who were thus cut off 
from enjoying a personal acquaintance with the Bible. 
Great numbers were entirely outside any religious 
influence, and beyond the reach of churches and 
chapels. Many who were not actually averse to 
Christianity felt themselves too poor and ragged and 
ignorant to mix with respectably dressed people in 
the ordinary places of worship. The only way to 
bring them to a knowledge^ the gospel was by taking 
it to them, and giving them an opportunity of learning 
to read the Bible for themselves. 



The Severn Street School in Birmingham was 
opened by Joseph St urge and his brother in the year 
1845, when Richard Cadbury was ten years old. In 
spite of its small beginnings, the Severn Street School 
grew during his lifetime to thirty-eight branch schools 
in different parts of Birmingham, numbering nearly 
six thousand scholars on their books. 

One great feature of the movement, and certainly 
one of the secrets of its success, is its elasticity. It 
easily adapts itself to the varying tastes and needs of 
its members. A recent attempt to define its aims 
and work, speaks of it as a " voluntary unsectarian 
democratic brotherhood, which does not concern 
itself with theories, except as they help men in their 
daily lives. Its basis is the practical teaching of 
Jesus Christ. Its text-book is the Bible. It be- 
lieves in helping men, in every department of their 
lives, to live up to the top of their capacity bodily, 
mentally, and spiritually." 

Richard Cadbury's own connection with adult 
school work, which was afterwards to find in him one 
of its chief supporters in Birmingham, began in a very 
quiet and unpretentious way. Most of the earnest- 
minded young Friends were encouraged as soon as 
they were old enough to take some part in the work 
at Severn Street. Richard Cadbury's gift in penman- 
ship found a useful outlet in taking charge for a time 
of the writing section. It should be mentioned that 
the first half of the school, before the Scripture lesson, 
was devoted to the study of reading and writing, in 
which the Bible was used as text-book, and selected 


verses were laboriously inscribed in the copy-books. 
Richard Cadbury's name was never enrolled as a 
registered teacher at Severn Street, but he frequently 
acted as a substitute for others, sometimes taking a 
class in this way for months in succession. As the 
school developed, and the town spread further in all 
directions, it was seen that it would be impracticable 
to draw the scholars to one common centre. In order 
to carry on the work successfully it was necessary to 
organise branch schools, and for this pioneer work 
practical and reliable men were needed. 

In the thickly populated district of Balsall Heath 
no work of the kind existed. About the year 1876 
Mrs. William Lloyd had founded a creche and orphan- 
age in Montpellier Street, where many a little homeless 
and motherless wail received care and comfort. Various 
meetings were held in the same house, and in 1877 
a gospel meeting on Sunday evenings was started in 
connection with the Severn Street Christian Society, 
which had been organised to link together the evening 
services for the adult school men and women. Those 
who belonged to other places of worship were not 
urged to attend, but the numbers of these were 
comparatively small, and the mission meetings not 
only united the scholars, but gave them oppor- 
tunities of turning to account for others what 
they had gained themselves. A branch tract com- 
mittee from Severn Street was also formed at the 
Montpellier Street creche, and they considered the 
idea of starting an adult school in the district. Two 
or three promised Bibles and books, and a school 


secretary was appointed. The next and most im- 
portant thing was to find a teacher, and the men decided 
to ask Richard Cadbury if he would undertake this 
position. After much prayer and careful thought he con- 
sented, and though at first not promising to continue 
permanently, he never left the work, but devoted to 
it the best energies of all the following years of his 

Ten years later, in 1888, he himself wrote a brief 
account of the origin of " Class XV." of Severn Street 
or, as it was also called, " The Highgate Mission " : 

It was started in a small room at Montpellier Street, the 
entrance being in Kyrwick's Lane, near Camp Hill Station, 
through the garden of what used to be a very pleasant country- 
house, used as a creche by Mrs. William Lloyd. In the field 
at the back of the house a long, two-storied shed had been 
erected, the basement of which formed the room in question. 
The ceiling was very low, and the light and ventilation not of 
a superior character. In winter, a small gas-stove was the 
medium of warmth, and owing to the gas-pipes being near 
the surface of the ground, it was often the case that neither 
light nor warmth could be obtained. 

A few Severn Street scholars who lived in that neighbour- 
hood thought a First Day morning school might be estab- 
lished here, as being much more convenient than having to 
walk so far at that early hour, and they asked your present 
teacher to come one Sunday and open the school for them. 
About four old Severn Street scholars were present, and a 
few new ones they had induced to attend ; so after an hour's 
preliminary conference all sat down to the Bible lesson. 

Many initial difficulties had to be overcome, in the way of 
starting the various societies inseparable from school work, 
such as sick club, dispensary fund, savings' fund, etc., and 
more than once in the depth of winter we have sat together 
in our top-coats, with a tallow candle as our only light. Many 
of our new scholars left under the somewhat hard discipline, 
but, notwithstanding all these difficulties, the room was well 


filled with about sixty scholars during the summer months, 
and many a happy hour was spent together. 

We remember with gratitude the kindness and sympathy 
of Mrs. Lloyd, who was always ready to help us in the work. 
Meetings for worship were held on Sunday evenings in the 
same rooms, conducted by the Severn Street Christian Society, 
and these meetings much encouraged those who had made 
a new start in life to continue in the right way. In 1879 it 
was felt that no further development of the class could be 
made in this room, so after much anxious deliberation we 
agreed to make a move to the board schools near Highgate 

God has indeed blessed our work, both in numbers and in 
capacity to work for Him, and we trust that this labour of 
love, begun in His name, may find those able and willing to 
carry it on for many generations. 

Richard Cadbury very often spoke at the gospel 
meetings held on Sunday evenings in the room at 
Montpellier Street. One of the men remembers how 
one freezing, foggy night, about forty-five or fifty had 
assembled for the meeting. " All at once," he said, 
" the gas went out, and we could not see a hand 
before us, so we were obliged to continue by the light 
of a candle. Mr. Cadbury went on just the same, 
and stuck to it well." 

The name of Richard Cadbury's eldest son had 
been enrolled on the register of the school in 1879, 
but it was not until his return from London, two 
years later, that he was able to take up his duties 
as a teacher in the junior school. From that time 
forward he was his father's constant companion and 
helper in the work. The removal of Class XV. in 
1880 brought so large an increase in numbers that 
very soon the Moseley Road Board School, ^which 


backed on to Upper Highgate Street, had to be taken 
as well for the junior section. 

An iron mission-hall in Upper Highgate Street was 
also rented for week-night meetings. What led to 
this is told by one of the scholars : 

After a time we felt that there were too many good men 
with nothing to do, so six of us went out one Sunday night in 
May, about 1880, down to Queen Street, Sparkbrook, and 
began to sing and carry on mission work. In September of 
the same year Mr. Cadbury came down to see us, and we said 
to him, ' Well, sir, what are you going to do now that we 
have a congregation ? " Mr. Cadbury replied, " I will find 
you a place." There was a man in Highgate with a little iron 
hall. Mr. Cadbury went to see this man and rented the hall 
from him. It held about seventy or eighty people, and he 
told us that as soon as we filled it. he would build a bigger. 
Then we set to work to fill the place. We told Mr. Cadbury 
that we wanted some tracts ; he got some immediately, and 
helped us get them ready for distribution. He was like the 
captain of a band of men, ready to work. The consequence 
was that we soon filled the hall. 

It can easily be imagined what time and energy had 
to be put into this adult school work to make it succeed 
as it did. It necessitated Richard Cadbury being a 
great deal away from his home in the evenings, but his 
wife unselfishly seconded him in all his efforts. To the 
preparation of his lessons for the Early Morning School 
he regularly devoted, not only Saturday evening, but 
often other spare moments through the week. His 
reward lay deeper than in the mere growth of num- 
bers, which in itself was a great encouragement. He 
never forgot or neglected his chief object, which was 
to bring men and women definitely to Christ, finding in 
His salvation and the guidance of the Holy Spirit the 


only secret of moral integrity and true Christian 

While entering this fresh field of Christian enter- 
prise, Richard Cadbury was making another new 
venture in connection with the business. The 
success of the firm and the increase in the number of 
employees necessitated an enlargement of premises, 
and made possible the scheme which had long been 
near to the hearts of Richard Cadbury and his brother. 
The thought of a factory out in the country, where the 
workpeople could enjoy the benefits of fresh air and 
beautiful surroundings, led to the decision of aban- 
doning the works at Bridge Street, and moving into a 
new position. It happened most opportunely that a 
small piece of land, situated in a pleasant, healthy 
locality in Worcestershire, near King's Norton, pre- 
sented itself to their notice. On acquiring it, building 
operations were begun at once, and " Bourn ville " 
sprang into being. 

During the last years at Bridge Street, changes 
had taken place in the quality of the goods manu- 
factured. In 1872 the Adulteration of Food Act was 
passed, causing a clear statement to be made of any 
admixture to the pure cocoa. From this time the 
firm discontinued the production of the cheaper 
kinds of cocoa which were so widely used, notably a 
mixture known as " Pearl Cocoa." This meant the 
severance of a very large part of the trade, but it was 
felt to be worth the risk of loss in one direction to be 
able to speak ot the cocoa sold by the firm as " abso- 
lutely pure." 


Similar in many respects, the two Cadbury brothers 
also held the same views on political questions, and were 
always willing to bear reproach and ridicule for taking 
the weaker side pleading the cause of the poor and 
suffering in this and other countries. They believed 
that the teaching of Jesus Christ should be brought 
to bear upon national life, that all war is inconsistent 
with the teaching of the Prince of Peace, and that a 
true follower of Christ should not bear arms and destroy 
a fellow man. One of the last things they did before 
leaving Bridge Street was to contribute towards the 
distribution of relief amongst those who had suffered 
through the Crimean War. A grateful acknowledg- 
ment was received from Lady Strangford, who was 
superintending the Ambulance Relief Hospital at 

The new factory at Bournville was easy of access 
by rail and canal from the great centres of commerce, 
and its admirable natural position rendered it a most 
desirable site. The district was healthy, the air pure, 
and the water good and plentiful. The estate ex- 
tended over about fifteen acres, and the firm decided 
to build the factory on the part nearest the station. 
The work of construction had begun in March, 1879, 
covering about three acres of ground, thus leaving 
plenty of room for extension when necessary. Every- 
thing was arranged with well-studied convenience, 
and all kinds of modern appliances for economising 
labour and time were introduced. The name " Bourn- 
ville" was suggested by the pretty trout-stream 
known as the " Bourn," which flowed through the 


estate, forming the northern boundary of the factory. 
A cricket and football field was provided for the 
men, and a wide playground for the girls, fitted with 
swings and other contrivances for outdoor enjoyment. 
Close by the factory and bordering on | the road 
which ran on the south side of the works sixteen 
semi-detached houses were built, which were inhabited 
by the foremen and others, and though large and 
roomy, with a front and back garden to each, the rent 
charged was only 5s. per week. At the back of 
these houses was an orchard planted with apple, plum, 
pear, and cherry trees, and across the fields beyond the 
" Bourn " widened into a pool, in which an open-air 
swimming-bath was built for the men. 

In the works themselves large dining-rooms were 
provided separately for the men and women, and in 
the kitchen, gas-stoves and cooking apparatus made 
it easy to provide hot dinners in a very few minutes. 
As an illustration we may mention that eighty chops 
could be cooked in about ten minutes. Order and 
regularity prevailed throughout the factory, special 
attention being paid to cleanliness. The old custom 
originated by John Cadbury, of all the workgirls 
wearing washing dresses, was continued. The material 
was provided by the firm, free for the first dress, and 
afterwards at less than cost price, and the girls were 
required to start work in a clean frock every Monday 
morning. It will be seen at once how this helped 
them to keep clean and respectable, only their strong 
white washing frocks being soiled by their work, 
after which they could change back into their own 


unstained clothes, and turn out of the works looking 
as great a contrast as possible to the usually pictured 
type of factory girl. 

It is needless to say how great was the joy and 
delight of the two brothers over the changes which 
Bournville made possible, and how they personally 
entered into every detail of the arrangements. " We 
consider," they said, " that our people spend the 
greatest part of their lives at their work, and we wish 
to make it less irksome by environing them with 
pleasant and wholesome sights, sounds, and conditions." 
The employees shared in the almost boyish delight of 
their masters, and great were the rejoicings when at 
last all preparations were made, and the new premises 
were ready. Some of the forewomen who were still 
at Bournville years after Richard Cadbury's death 
have told how he went down to Bridge Street and 
personally conducted a party of the workgirls to their 
new destination. It seemed almost like the father of 
a family taking his children out for an excursion into 
the country. He bought all their tickets, and as the 
train drew near to Bournville, eagerly pointed out 
landmarks to them. In a state of happy flutter and 
excitement they alighted at the station and walked 
up the lane to the new factory, which was to become 
practically a life-long home for so many of them. It 
was the beginning of many happy years for both 
employers and employed, though neither realised 
then the large development which was to take place. 
When riches increased, Richard Cadbury did not set 
his heart upon them, although he gladly accepted the 

x 3 


measure of prosperity with which God had seen fit 
to reward his industry and perseverance. He always 
spoke of himself as the steward of a trust from God, 
and never as though what he possessed were absolutely 
his own. 

The unselfishness and humility of his character 
seemed to deepen with increasing prosperity. During 
the first year or two at Bourn ville, he and his brother 
and their confidential clerk had their mid-day dinner 
together in their private dining-room, as it was too 
far to go home at noon from Bourn ville. There are 
vivid and amusing recollections of the Spartan sim- 
plicity that was practised. Both the brothers had 
been accustomed to deny themselves luxuries that 
they might be able the more liberally to provide for 
their own dear ones and others, and they continued 
their frugal habits almost unconsciously. The some- 
what monotonous bill-of-fare consisted week by week 
of neck of mutton, which was cut into two pieces. The 
first and larger half was roasted on Monday, cold 
on Tuesday, and hashed or minced on Wednesday. 
On Thursday the smaller portion came upon the 
scene, boiled this time for variety; while the bones 
and any scrag ends that were left furnished the meal 
for Friday. A change was brought about by the 
unexpected visit of their father, unfortunately, or 
perhaps fortunately, on a Friday, when the bones 
happened to be very bare. He was quite concerned, 
and found an argument that immediately prevailed 
with them, by drawing their attention to the fact 
that the young clerk was a growing lad, and needed 


more substantial sustenance. Through all his life 
Richard Cadbury's simple tastes were characteristic. 
He never grumbled about food. Whenever he gave 
thanks aloud, which was not usually his custom, there 
was a ring of sincerity in his voice, and the words 
he often used were : 

Our Father, we thank thee for this food for the body, but 
most of all for that bread which cometh down from heaven, 
even Christ Jesus, which giveth life for evermore. 

Even amid the pressure of business Richard Cadbury 
had time to think of his family, and copies of 
magazines in which the firm advertised, and which 
were sent to Bournville, were forwarded, when suit- 
able, to his boys at school. This is but one of a host 
of similar instances, showing his thoughtfulness in 
little things. 

The windows of the adjoining offices occupied by 
the two partners looked on to a pleasant garden with 
rose-beds and shrubs, a great contrast to the outlook 
of the dingy, cramped little offices in Bridge Street. 
They realised on coming to Bournville that a large 
part of their lives would be spent in these rooms, and 
felt it would add beauty and strength to their work 
thus to arrange them. Richard Cadbury had taken 
great pride in the laying out of this garden, and of 
all the ground surrounding the factory. One day, 
when the works were being built, he found some men 
trying to put an old tree-stump into position in the 
little private garden. He thought it would look well 
in front of the office, overgrown with ivy on the sides. 


He told the men where and how to place it, and stood 
by to watch them do it ; but they did not understand, 
so he pulled off his coat, and taking a crowbar, used 
it to advantage, and very soon had the tree-stump in 
the right position. Sometimes he would take a pick 
or shovel from a navvy employed on the grounds, 
and apply himself to the work for a short time while 
the man had a rest. 

One of the foremen remembers that on going to 
Bourn ville they were troubled a great deal by wasps. 
Richard Cadbury was very anxious that all the wasps' 
nests in the neighbourhood should be destroyed. 
11 I happened to destroy one," said the man, " without 
getting stung. Mr. Richard asked me how I did it. 
I told him that the wasps did not come near me, as I 
was smoking at the time. He said, ' They have a 
better taste than you, Tom.' I said, ' Pardon me, 
sir, but did you ever try to smoke ? ' ' You have 
me there,' he said, ' I did once smoke half a cigar, 
and it made me so ill that I have never tried 
again.' " 

After the firm had been settled at Bournville for 
two or three years, Richard Cadbury was joined by 
his eldest son, Barrow, who had been for a trip 
to America, on completing his training in London. 
They shared the same office for seventeen years, 
and took up much the same branches of the work. 

Richard Cadbury seldom failed to arrive at 
business at 8.25 in the morning. He believed in 
early rising and walking exercise. After half an 
hour spent in the garden, followed by family reading 

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and breakfast, he would start off punctually at ten 
minutes past eight, his wife always going to the 
door to help him on with his coat and see him 
off. Then he would walk with a brisk and vigorous 
step the first half of the way to Bourn ville. A 
stranger might have been struck to see the works' 
letter-van, which had come from town, waiting at the 
corner of Dogpool Lane, in order to give the master 
a lift for the rest of the way. Richard Cadbury used 
jokingly to call it his carriage-and-pair, and would 
never change it for his own carriage in the mornings, 
preferring to walk the first mile, and liking to get a 
chat with the driver, and to glance through some of 
the special letters. Until the last few years he insisted 
on walking back the whole of the two miles at the end 
of the afternoon, and it was only on account of allowing 
a little more time at home, before hastening off to his 
almost daily evening engagements, that he finally 
consented to drive. 

As the morning reading at the works was not until 
nine o'clock, he had half an hour to run hastily through 
the letters, which he would place in a neat pile, ready 
to be attended to when the short service was over. 
The amount of correspondence he would dispose of in 
the course of a few hours was often marvellous to those 
who were able to watch him at work. From his 
earliest days he looked upon careful attention to 
correspondence as one of life's duties. He wrote a 
bold, readable hand, and excelled in rapidity of com- 
position and in accuracy. He knew what ought to 
be said, and expressed himself with clearness and 


precision. How varied his correspondence was few can 
have any conception. He would go systematically 
through the pile of letters from beginning to end, 
dashing off an answer to each with lightning rapidity. 
As a consequence of this method no one but himself 
and the recipient of the letters knew how much kind- 
ness of heart, and frequently more substantial tokens 
of his sympathy, reached those who had ventured 
to appeal to him on matters that were quite outside 
the range of the daily business routine. His extra- 
ordinary promptness in replying to every letter has 
been testified to by many. The secretary of the 
Birmingham Young Men's Christian Association said 
of him : 

He showed a most kindly and loving interest in our work 
for Christ amongst young men in Birmingham. What struck 
me a good deal was his remarkable promptness in replying 
to correspondence. Over and over again, when I have had to 
write to him on association matters by the night mail, I have 
received a reply at noon the following day. Such promptness 
in a man immersed in a huge business, in addition to numerous 
religious and philanthropic agencies, was, I consider, most 

When house-surgeon at the Ear and Throat Hospital 
[wrote another gentleman], I ventured to write to him one 
evening, telling him of our pressing need. By mid-day came 
a handsome contribution, accompanied by a personal note ; 
and thus within twenty-four hours the appeal was sent, re- 
sponded to, and the gift acknowledged. 

The same story is told by all who were connected 
with him in any branch of work that he took up. 
His children also have tender memories of how lovingly 
they were remembered when away from home, when 


the coming of his usually short but graphic and affec- 
tionate letters could be depended on as regularly as 
the posts. 

What Richard Cadbury was to his workpeople is 
difficult to put into words. He was always ap- 
proachable, and they felt to have in him a personal 
friend. Endless anecdotes might be quoted of his 
kindly and thoughtful deeds, especially showing his 
innate reverence for womanhood. The fact of the 
girls at Bournville being his employees seemed in his 
mind to be overshadowed by the fact that they were 
women, and he treated them with the courtesy which 
was his natural bearing towards every woman. Num- 
bers of them remember how, when passing through 
the workrooms, he would often relieve one or other 
of the girls of a pile of boxes she was carrying, and 
deposit them for her, or how he would stand back and 
hold open the door for them. He and his brother 
took particular interest in seeing that the huge dressing- 
room, where the girls changed their street frocks to the 
cotton overalls worn during their work, was comfort- 
ably and suitably arranged. Each girl had a numbered 
hook of her own on one of the many wooden screens, 
and all round the walls over hot pipes were pigeon- 
holes for boots and shoes, so that, coming on a rainy 
morning, the girls could change, and find their boots 
dry again before going home at night. One winter a 
large number of rubber snowshoes were bought and 
sold cheaply to the girls. On a foggy night, when 
Richard Cadbury was walking home, he overtook a 
number of the girls who were doubtful about finding 


their way, and stopped to escort them, until they 
knew where they were. 

At times his boyish fun would break through. In 
one of the large rooms in the works the way out was 
up a flight of steps, and sometimes the girls would 
congregate at the foot a few moments before the 
dinner-hour, ready to make a rush as soon as the bell 
should ring. Once or twice Richard Cadbury hap- 
pened to be passing through just at the moment, and 
would rush up the stairs like a boy, turning round 
with a laugh on his face to say, " I managed to get 
up before you just in time, you see." 

It can easily be imagined what an atmosphere of 
sunshine and brightness he carried about the works 
with him ; indeed, the girls used to look forward even 
to seeing him pass through the rooms. Although the 
hot temper which was naturally part of his energetic 
nature was usually kept under, flashes of it would 
occasionally break through. No one was more alive 
than himself to this weakness, which the grace of 
God so marvellously controlled in him, and when- 
ever an outburst of impatience did show itself, 
the humility and gentleness which followed broke 
everybody down, till, as some have expressed it, 
" We felt we could lie down and let him trample 
on us." 

On one occasion he was going through the works 
with one of the head clerks. They stopped in one 
department to explain something to a forewoman. 
She was slow to understand, and did not seem able to 
grasp the explanation. At Bridge Street, and in the 


early days of Bournville, Richard Cadbury usually wore 
a little black velvet cap, and this was a well-known 
weather-vane through all the works as to whether 
things were going right or not. If it rested upon the 
master's head, everybody knew that things were going 
smoothly and well ; but if it was hastily tucked under 
his arm, it was a sure sign that something was brewing. 
It was now being screwed and twisted in its owner's 
hands. At last a final explanation was given, with 
one or two hasty expressions at the woman's slowness. 
After they had walked on, the clerk, with a fearless 
confidence in the genuineness of his master's Chris- 
tianity, said, " Excuse me, sir, but I think you were 
a little hard on Caroline." Immediately Richard 
Cadbury said, " Was I ? Well, I believe you are 
right ; I will go back and put that straight." He went 
back at once to the forewoman, and shook her warmly 
by the hand, apologising for his hastiness, and en- 
couraging her to try again. 

His impulsiveness often led him to do small things 
that others would not have thought of or have spared 
the time for. Not long after a new traveller had 
taken up his work for the firm, he had rather a bad 
week. He felt discouraged and disheartened, and 
almost expected that he might get a sharp note from 
his employers. To his surprise, towards the end of 
the week he received a kind and spontaneous letter, 
personally written by Richard Cadbury, saying how 
much he appreciated the faithful work he was 
doing, and hoping he would be encouraged to continue 
Still more energetically. This little note banished 


all clouds of discouragement, and the young traveller 
set to work with new vigour. 

The ledger clerk in the office once made a very 
grave error in entering up the books. Richard Cadbury 
used regularly to go into the office and run over the 
entries. The clerk, knowing that such a visit was 
due, ran off and hid behind the door, just in time to 
escape the master as he came through. Instead of 
the explosion of wrath which he expected to see, he 
heard his master say, " Poor fellow ! I think he has 
got too much on hand." Meeting the clerk soon 
afterwards, Richard Cadbury put his hand on his 
shoulder and said, " Frank, I think you have too 
much to do ; I must give you a little help." From 
that time on assistance was provided. 

The spirit of good fellowship that pervaded the 
works found its centre in the intercourse of the two 
partners, and harmony reigned even over their differ- 
ences of opinion. There were many times when their 
views in connection with this or the other business 
matter would come into sharp conflict ; but whenever 
this was the case they would sit quietly down together, 
and thrash the matter thoroughly out, each explaining 
his view of things to the other, until they had finally 
decided upon a line of action to which both could 



DURING the year of 1882 a remarkable crusade in 
the cause of Gospel Temperance was conducted 
in many of the cities of England by an American, 
Richard T. Booth. He seems to have been a man of 
extraordinary magnetism, and wherever he went the 
wave of interest in the temperance cause, especially 
from the Christian standpoint, rose to a tidal 

The present generation knows little of the unpopu- 
larity that had to be faced by the pioneers of total 
abstinence. They had to fight against obloquy and 
misrepresentation ; but it was well worth the battle, 
and those who engaged in it had brave hearts and 
stubborn wills. 

The enthusiasm aroused by the Blue Ribbon Cam- 
paign provided just the stimulus which the cause 



needed, and drew public attention to the evils of 
drinking in a more striking; manner than anything 
had done before. Mr. Booth's outstanding ability 
as a speaker attracted considerable attention, and 
crowds, flocking to the meetings, came under the 
spell of his enthusiasm, and, yielding to his 
pleas, decided to become total abstainers. He had 
been already at work in England for about three 
months before coming to Birmingham. Richard 
Cadbury had always taken a deep personal interest 
in the temperance question, and the alertness 
with which he brought forward the argument of 
indisputable facts was a great strength to the 

He and his brother George eagerly watched the 
Blue Ribbon Campaign, and desired to have the 
benefit of R. T. Booth's presence in Birmingham. 
They felt that here was a unique opportunity for 
uniting Christians of every denomination in a great 
effort for righteousness in the name of Christ. For 
this reason it seemed wiser for a private individual 
to undertake the venture, rather than an official 
representative of any sect, or even of a temperance 

After due consideration, they therefore called in from 
the office at Bourn ville Edward Ward, a man in 
whose Christianity and temperance principles they 
had thorough confidence. They laid the scheme before 
him, saying they felt he was the right man to carry 
it out, and that they were only too willing to give 
him all the ^leisure that he would need. After 


much demur and hesitation on his part, and mutual 
prayer, Edward Ward decided to undertake the 
trust. The first step was to visit R. T. Booth's 
missions in other places. Armed with notes of in- 
troduction from Richard and George Cadbury, he 
visited first Leicester, and then Stockport. Having 
gained this practical experience, the next thing was 
to raise a private guarantee fund, so that he might 
not be blocked at every turn by the question from 
many who would sympathise with the effort, " Yes ; 
but where is the money to come from ? " 

Richard Cadbury went with him to call upon Mrs. 
Avery, the wife of the Mayor,* who kindly consented 
to head the list of subscriptions. Other prominent 
Edgbaston and Birmingham families were visited, 
and their practical sympathy solicited, with the result 
that in a short time a sufficient sum was guaranteed. 
It was important to secure the sympathetic interest 
of the Free Church ministers. Chief representatives 
of each denomination gave their signatures to a 
circular setting forth the scheme. Amongst these 
names were Dr. Dale, of the Congregationalists, 
and William White, of the Society of Friends. 
This circular was printed and sent round to every 
Free Church minister in the city, with an invitation 
to a meeting for free discussion of the scheme. A 
large number met, and gave a warm and hearty 
response. From this point the co-operation of the 
Church of England was enlisted. Richard Cadbury 
and Edward Ward called upon Canon Bowlby, asking 
whether he and his section of the Church of Christ 


would be willing to throw in their lot in this great 
cause with the Nonconformists. The noble-hearted 
churchman gave his entire sympathy, invited all the 
Church of England clergymen of Birmingham to his 
private house, and when they were gathered, said 
that Edward Ward would explain to them the project 
that was being contemplated. It was a nervous 
position for a layman, unaccustomed to public speaking 
on a large scale, to face such an assembly, but he ful- 
filled his mission bravely. With the exception of a 
few dissentient voices, the gathering of clergymen 
was willing to join with the Nonconformists in this 
great work for the city. It was probably the first 
time in Birmingham that the Church of England and 
the Free Churches had publicly united upon a common 
platform, and worked shoulder to shoulder in the 
cause of Christ. 

A general committee was formed, and a united 
invitation sent from the Christians of Birmingham 
to R. T. Booth. Curzon Hall was engaged and re- 
seated, and an office was taken conveniently near. 
The preparations were naturally costly, as, apart from 
the expense of the hall, there was much printing and 
advertising to be done. Richard Cadbury privately 
guaranteed to be responsible for the balance, if any, 
at the end ; and when the time came, cheerfully wiped 
off the accounts by the payment of a large sum. 
Undenominational prayer-meetings were held all over 
the city, and many pledges were taken before the 
mission began. A spirit of great expectation and 
eagerness spread over the whole town. John Cadbury 


offered to act as host to the missioner and his wife. 
Pledge cards were printed, and thousands of little 
pieces of blue ribbon, the badge adopted as a sign of 
total abstinence, were prepared. All was at length 

On Tuesday afternoon, May 16th, Richard T. Booth 
and his wife were given a public welcome. Several 
carriages, filled with supporters of the mission, were 
at the station to meet them, and drove to the Old 
Square, where a triumphal procession was formed to 
parade through the town. 

At this point comes in a characteristic touch in 
connection with Richard Cadbury. The carriage in 
which he had intended to drive with Mr. and Mrs. 
Booth was over-full. In spite of remonstrance, he 
gave the word to go forward, and insisted on walking 

Canon Bowlby and other representatives of the 
churches took part in the procession, which made its 
way down Corporation Street, New Street, High Street, 
and the Bull Ring. It passed finally into the newly 
covered cattle market, which soon overflowed, leaving 
thousands outside. A magnificent meeting was held, 
setting forth the plans and objects of the mission. It 
is difficult to describe the hold which this wonderful 
campaign took on all parts of the city life. It per- 
meated everything. In most of the factories, and in 
shops and private homes, pledge cards were in evi- 
dence. The atmosphere of eagerness and earnest 
vigour in the meetings themselves was intense and 


John Cadbury, by this time advancing in years and 
increasingly feeble, took the chair several times for 
his guest, and spoke at one or two of the meetings. 
His sons Richard and George took no public part, 
though they were helping all the while behind the 
scenes. Richard did a good deal of visiting in the 
homes of the people who came out for Christ, or 
signed the pledge at the Curzon Hall meetings. A 
number of men who had been brought in through the 
mission became members of his adult school, or came 
into permanent touch in one way or another with his 
mission work at Highgate. 

In three weeks the long-looked-for and eagerly 
expected mission was over, but the work was only 
inaugurated, and the effects of it have not yet ceased 
to be felt. Bare figures of statistics can give no 
adequate idea of the moral and spiritual upheaval the 
town had experienced, but they at least indicate some 
of the definite results. More than sixty-six thousand 
persons adopted the blue ribbon badge as a sign of 
their total abstinence. Among this number were some 
who were teetotallers before the mission was held, 
but during the three weeks' campaign over fifty thou- 
sand new pledges were taken. A thorough and lasting 
work had been done, and a vital blow had been struck 
at the drinking customs of the time. 

We have seen how Richard Cadbury threw himself 
into the movement with the earnestness that charac- 
terised his sympathy with every good cause. When 
the mission was ended, and its supporters were in doubt 
as to the continuance of the work, he was quick to 


suggest the formation of a permanent organisation. 
In this way the Gospel Temperance Mission came into 
being. Launched on the crest of a great wave of 
popular enthusiasm, the mission was instituted at the 
proper moment, and at once applied itself to active 
propaganda. It was arranged that the four divisional 
committees in the north, south, east, and west of 
Birmingham, organised for the Blue Ribbon Mission, 
should continue for sectional, and occasionally for 
united efforts, along Gospel Temperance lines. In 
the south division a very influential committee was 
formed, into which the other three were soon merged, 
with Richard Cadbury as chairman and treasurer. 
From the first he did not spare himself, but threw 
much zeal and energy into the work. Missions were 
arranged in churches and chapels of every denomina- 
tion, a large choir was formed, and an efficient band 
of honorary visitors was organised. The honorary 
secretary and superintendent of workers for the time 
writes : 

Mr. Cadbury attended nearly every meeting of the com- 
mittee, and took part in many of the meetings throughout the 
district. His true, earnest piety and deep faith in the power 
of prayer was such as created thorough earnestness in all the 
workers ; thousands of pledges were taken and the signers 
visited. At the Quarterly Visitors' Meetings reports were 
presented, Mr. Cadbury asking visitors to state their difficulties 
and encouragements, and inviting suggestions, which were 
freely discussed. It was pretty generally shown that the 
greatest hindrance to a man keeping his pledge was the very 
unsatisfactory condition of his home-life, and it was felt that 
means should be taken to reach the wives and mothers of the 

Mr. Cadbury suggested the holding of meetings for women 



in the afternoon, and that suitable ladies should be employed, 
who had tact and earnestness combined with a sympathetic 
nature, to have control of the classes formed and visit the 
members to encourage them to make their homes brighter and 
help their husbands and sons to keep the pledge and attend 
to the higher things of life. This work was eminently success- 
ful, and Mr. Cadbury felt that it should not be confined to 
South Birmingham only, but that each of the other divisions 
should have like benefits, and that all should be worked from 
one centre. 

Lady superintendents were soon appointed, and as class 
followed class in quick succession, helpers were engaged to 
assist them, so that a large staff was ultimately appointed. 
The whole financial responsibility was undertaken by Mr. R. 
Cadbury. The work thus begun has gone on to this day, and 
the full tale of its success will only be known in that day when 
all secrets shall be revealed. It has been my privilege to 
follow the career of a number of those who were reclaimed 
in those early days. 

Mr. Cadbury's memory is loved and revered by large numbers 
who received great spiritual good either directly or indirectly 
through his instrumentality, and while we cannot see him, 
his influence is with us still, and we have the joy of knowing 
that he is with that Saviour that he loved so much and served 
so well. I always look back on those days as some of the best 
of my life, and his photo holds an honoured place in my home. 

The first lady worker to be appointed was Miss 
M. C. Brookes. She says : 

In the year 1884, March 3rd, I was introduced to Mr. R. 
Cadbury by the late Mr. David Smith of the Bloomsbury 
Institution. He told me how anxious he was to commence 
some work in the east of Birmingham. The kind way that 
he received me made a lasting impression on my mind. Just 
after that I went to a meeting where Mr. Cadbury was present. 
I was a stranger and did not know any one. He left his own 
friends and came and talked to me, because he thought I 
was lonely. He taught me a lesson in that one act to be 
thoughtful for others. 


Soon after that we began the Women's Meeting at Blooms- 
bury, which is still going on. We started with about forty 
women ; they had nearly all been in the lock-up. Mr. Cadbury 
said, "Look for the worst, and do your best to help them." 

When the band of lady workers numbered about 
six, the need of an organising secretary was realised, 
and the services of Mr. J. M. Goodchild were secured. 
From this time, by a gradual process, the various 
district committees were amalgamated in a central 
organisation. As the work grew more helpers were 
engaged, until no less than twenty were devoting their 
whole time to the carrying on of the women's meetings 
held under the Gospel Temperance Mission. They 
were arranged into five districts, with a superintendent 
in charge of each. The women's meetings were held 
weekly in connection with various churches and 
chapels, and there were also coffee suppers for the 
husbands, drunkards' teas for the outcasts of society, 
indoor missions in winter, and tent missions in summer. 
Savings' clubs and poor funds were started in con- 
nection with the women's work, and every summer 
seaside and country excursions were organised. 

It was another sign of the way in which the work 
of the Blue Ribbon Campaign in the summer of 1882 
had quickened the religious life of Christians in Bir- 
mingham, that the Society of Friends arranged for 
simultaneous gospel missions all over the city during 
the following autumn. One of these was held in 
Richard Cadbury's iron mission-hall in Upper Highgate 
Street, amongst the men of his adult school. Many 
a poor, sinful man and woman was brought to Christ 


in this way, and a permanent mark was left upon the 
work by the establishment of a regular mission meeting 
in the iron room on Sunday evenings. This was in 
addition to the one already established in the Chandos 
Road board schools, and, like it, was affiliated with 
the Severn Street Christian Society. 

MOSELEY HALL (1883 1891) 


THE removal of the works from Bridge Street to 
Bournville, four miles away to the south-west 
of the town, led Richard Cadbury to leave Edgbaston, 
which had so long been a centre for the Cadbury 
families, for a district more within reach of his business. 
He finally decided to lease for a few years the beautiful 
old house and estate of Moseley Hall. An added 
reason for deciding on the new home was the fact that 
it lay almost equidistant between Bournville and 
his adult school at Highgate. Great was the delight 
of the children at the thought of living in the country. 
Their father brought home descriptions of the spreading 
lawns, the trees and woods, the open fields and beauti- 
ful pool, with its tree-shaded island. The tales that 
he told of the rabbits which scuttled across the grass, 
waving their little white " flags of truce," or venturing 



in the evenings to nibble the softer grass upon the 
lawns, so roused the interest of the children that the 
new home was immediately nicknamed " The Bunny 
House." Some of them will never forget the happy 
day when all preparations were at last complete, and 
they drove away, leaving behind the pretty roads of 
Edgbaston, lined with houses and gardens. What 
seemed to their excited fancy an immensely long 
drive brought them at last by the country high-road 
to the village green of Moseley. Round the green 
were low houses and old-fashioned shops, with a 
blacksmith's at the corner, and up a street to the left 
could be seen the square tower of the village church. 
Close by the green, and sloping steeply from the road 
at right angles, was the entrance to Moseley Hall. 
Tall wooden gates, flanked by a little lodge on each 
side, were thrown open under the shade of spreading 
trees, and showed a vista of the long drive, winding 
between woods and fields, down-hill and up again, 
with glimpses of the pool in the bottom of the valley. 
The old house, with its portico of stone pillars, its 
spacious rooms, and long, stone-paved passages, was 
full of mystery and delight to the young folks. It 
was a good specimen of an English house of the early 
part of the eighteenth century. The cellars, much 
older than the rest of the building, stretched under 
the whole length, and the fact that some of them were 
built for prisons and had been used for this purpose 
gave to explorations through them a weird and mys- 
terious charm. 

It was a house full of surprises. In one room was 


a cupboard, with mirror panels ; but when the handle 
was turned, behold ! no cupboard, but a flight of three 
steps leading up to another door, which opened into 
a room. This room had its mystery also. All along 
one wall a handsome cupboard was built, divided into 
several sections. On opening the doors, ordinary 
shelves were revealed, until at last came a door 
behind which was an opening like the entrance to some 
mysterious place. Nothing further could be discovered 
until a secret spring in an adjoining cupboard was 
touched, upon which the floor-board could be raised, 
leaving the door behind it free to open. Then came a 
door of metal lattice- work, which slid aside on being 
unlocked, and a step or two lower you were in a large, 
roomy safe. 

Owing to the thickness of the walls, almost all of 
the rooms leading into one another had double doors, 
which afforded delightful nooks for hide-and-seek. 
The library was lined with bookcases, and apparently 
opened only into the passage. But if you tried 
opening the bookcases all round the walls, you came 
at last to one containing many handsome volumes, 
the bindings and titles of which peeped at you through 
the lattice- work of brass, covering the books in some 
places instead of glass doors. Alas for appearances ! 
for on opening it the whole front of the cupboard, 
book -bindings and all, moved forwards, and revealed 
a sham door. 

The views from the windows were very beautiful ; 
not a house was in sight anywhere. From the dining- 
room, drawing-room, and library you looked across 


a downward slope of lawn and field on to the cool, 
shining waters of the pool, from which the eye rose 
again up a green hillside to the thick belt of trees 
fringing the top of the hill. Above all soared the 
spire of St. Ann's Church. 

Richard Cadbury, with his usual antiquarian interests, 
compiled a charming album with old prints and photo- 
graphs, newspaper cuttings, and other notes, referring 
to the history of Moseley Hall. 

The old estate had been for a couple of centuries 
in the possession of a family named Greaves or Grevis. 
Successive generations squandered the family fortunes, 
and about 1780 Moseley Hall passed into the hands 
of John Taylor, an inventor and successful manu- 
facturer. He was the owner of another estate at 
Bordesley, and soon after entering into the possession 
of Moseley Hall, demolished the old mansion, and built 
a magnificent country house upon its foundations. 
This, however, was not destined to remain long un- 
molested, for in 1791 it was burnt to the ground 
during the disgraceful outbreak of the Priestley Riots. 
Numbers whose only fault was that they were Dis- 
senters suffered through the ignorant fanaticism of 
the mob. They endeavoured to obtain redress from the 
authorities, though every obstacle was placed in their 
way, and to add to the injustice of the case, two years 
were suffered to elapse before the sums awarded were 
paid over. John Taylor proceeded in time to build 
a new hall upon the ruins of the old one. It continued 
to be let to various families, until in 1883 Richard 
Cadbury took it on a short lease. 

%- 1 



Not many months after settling into their new home 
the happiness of Richard Cadbury and his wife was 
increased by the birth, on April 28th, 1884, of a 
daughter, who was named Beatrice. This baby girl 
was the last of their children, and brought with her 
a double portion of sunshine, for Margaret was nearly 
six years old, and all the family were delighted to have 
a baby in the house again. She was everybody's 
pet, and seemed like a breath of the bright spring 
weather in which she was born.. Only three weeks 
earlier the first daughter had made an appearance 
in the home of George Cadbury, and this double event 
caused great rejoicing. In the following August 
Richard reached his fiftieth birthday, and his wife 
and children made it a day of festivity. It was the 
custom on all the children's birthdays to have a cake, 
surrounded by lighted coloured candles, one for each 
year. They insisted that a fiftieth birthday was too 
important an occasion not to be fitly celebrated, so a 
family party was planned. A large iced cake appeared 
on the table, with the name and the date in pink 
sugar, and as fifty candles were too many to go round 
it, a separate board was made, like a circular " Step 
Pyramid," and blazed in glory on a pedestal of its own. 
Do these things seem trivial ? Perhaps ; and yet 
the memory of the strong family affection which lay 
beneath it all is one of the deepest and sweetest things 
in life. 

About this time the work of the Egypt and Palestine 
Exploration Societies was beginning to reveal the 
hidden marvels of the ancient world, and Richard 


Cadbury followed it with the keenest eagerness. The 
study of Egyptology became one of his particular 
hobbies. He made an album of Egyptian history, 
in which he placed all the photos of mummies and 
other discoveries as soon as they could be obtained, 
with extracts of pages taken from histories of Egypt 
and the accounts of Maspero, Mariette, Amelia B. 
Edwards, and others. He collected old books and 
manuscripts, and, amongst other things, studied the 
history of writing and of writing-paper. 

The eight years spent at Moseley Hall were in some 
ways the completest in Richard Cadbury 's family life, 
for, as already mentioned, his youngest child had been 
born soon after going there, and the first marriage, 
that of his eldest son, took place just before leaving 
the Hall. It was not often that all the sons and 
daughters could be at home together, but during 
Christmas and holiday seasons the old house, always 
full of life and brightness, overflowed with happy 

Barrow had entered into the serious business of life, 
sharing his father's work at Bourn ville and Highgate. 
Jessie, after continuing another year or two at school, 
had a six months' visit to America amongst the distant 
but still closely united branch of the Cadbury family in 
Philadelphia. William went to Gloucester to learn 
engineering. Richard returned from Germany to 
an English school. Edith was at boarding school ; 
and the two younger girls, Helen and Margaret, ad- 
vanced to the schoolroom stage, leaving the nursery 
to its new little queen. The lives of the parents were 


thus filled with happy cares within the home circle, 
as well as the multitudinous duties and interests 

In the spring of 1887 George Cadbury's first wife 
passed away, and he was left with three boys and 
two small girls. Richard's deepest sympathies went 
out to his brother in this sorrow, and he did his utmost 
to comfort and help him. When his eldest daughter, 
Jessie, returned soon afterwards from America, he 
gladly spared her for a time to keep house for her 
uncle, and help him care for his five little children, 
keeping in touch by letter, although he saw her con- 
stantly. In sending one to be inserted here, Jessie 
wrote : 

" No one ever had such a father as we. As mother 
says, he was our adviser, our lover, our friend, our 
all. The following letter, dated August 30th, 1887, 
gives some idea of what I mean : " 

Many thanks for thy sweet letter received yesterday. My 
life is made a very happy one, because I know that I have the 
love of all whom God has given me ; and my heart is often full 
of thanksgiving to Him for sparing me a little longer to do 
what I can to prepare your way for the more serious conflicts 
of life, which must come ; but which are only the purifying 
process (by God's grace) to lead us into a purer and holier 
life. We all miss thee very much at home, but feel thou art 
in thy right place, and distance in no way lessens our love 
and prayers for thee. May we be ever kept by this precious 

While Richard Cadbury's children were growing 
towards manhood and womanhood, the older genera- 
tion was fast passing beyond the shadows of age, to 


the light of the world, in which nothing dies or grows 

His uncle, Benjamin Head, only lived for a year after 
his golden wedding day. Another uncle, Joel Cadbury, 
of America, had died ten years earlier, and his aunts, 
Sarah Barrow of Lancaster, and Maria and Ann, had 
also crossed the border-land. 

The years 1888 and 1889 brought to a close the 
useful lives of the last two sons of Richard Tapper 
Cadbury. James, of Banbury, whose wife had gone 
before him, and who had no children, was greatly 
mourned in the town where he had laboured so earn- 
estly for the glory of God. He was followed a year 
later by John, whose death left a great blank in the 
lives of his sons Richard and George and their families, 
but most of all in that of his faithful and devoted 
daughter Maria, who soon afterwards went with her 
husband to live in France for several years. The 
city of Birmingham, which owed much to John 
Cadbury, and more especially the temperance societies 
and workers in all branches of Christian enterprise, 
shared in the sorrow of his bereaved children and 
grandchildren. His faithful work for the Lord had 
continued up to the very last, in spite of ill-health 
and increasing feebleness. Even on the last Sunday 
before he died young men had been entertained to 
dinner according to his usual custom. He had kept 
up the habit, learned from his father, of a regular 
weekly gathering of his children and grandchildren, 
and for the last few years the three families had met, 
week by week, at each of the homes in turn, Harborne 


Road, Moseley Hall, and Woodbrooke. His home- 
going was full of peace and gladness. 

I shall never forget [wrote his daughter Maria] how, a day 
or two before he died, he threw up his arms, his face radiant 
with joy, as if he had been permitted to have a glimpse of 
something heavenly. 

Only the youngest was now left of the first genera- 
tion of the Cadburys of Birmingham, Emma Gibbins, 
whose long life lasted for several years beyond that 
of her nephew, Richard Cadbury. 

It is difficult to separate the different parts of 
Richard Cadbury's life from each other, for they were 
closely intertwined by the one purpose which domi- 
nated them all. In his private life, although he never 
brought the worries or burdens of outside things home 
with him, he did not shut the door behind him for 
selfish seclusion. In all things he was aided and 
encouraged by his wife, who, on her side, kept petty 
household cares from him, and made everything run 
smoothly, that home might be a place of constant 
peace and restfulness. 

Summer and winter, the house and grounds of 
Moseley Hall were hospitably shared with others, 
largely with those whose lives had been placed under 
less favoured conditions, to whom a day in the country 
was like a glimpse of heaven. Sunday schools, men's 
and women's classes, mothers' meetings, bands of 
hope, Christian workers of every variety and every 
denomination, were frequent and welcome guests. 
The larger parties were entertained in the fields, tents 
and booths being erected in case of rain, while the 


smaller ones were invited into the gardens and to the 
house itself. Once every summer a huge temperance 
demonstration was held in the meadows which circled 
the rest of the grounds. Throngs of people from all 
parts of the town streamed in through the two drive 
entrances, several times numbering between twenty 
and thirty thousand. It was a wonderful sight to see 
the great crowds enjoying themselves with no danger 
of any drunkenness. Refreshment tents were scattered 
about, and as a rule several stands were erected for 
open-air Gospel Temperance meetings, at which spirited 
and earnest addresses were given, and pledges taken. 
It goes without saying that Richard Cadbury took 
part in the open-air meetings, and he, with his wife 
and children, went in and out among the people, 
though it was in the smaller gatherings that they were 
able to come into real personal touch with them. At 
one of the demonstrations two friends were talking 
together. One said, " I have not seen Mr. Cadbury." 
The other said, " There he is, helping to carry that 
big tea-urn." The first replied, " That's just like him 
always trying to make some one's burden lighter." 

His children were taught early to share in the work 
of entertainment, and can remember carrying round 
heavy cans of tea as soon as they were big enough, 
or distributing bags of buns and cakes. They played 
games with the children from ragged schools, Sunday 
schools, or bands of hope, and were delighted to look 
after the babies at a mothers'-meeting party. 

The little girls and their governess instituted what 
was known as the " Poor Class." They had a list of 

i. Front view. 
2. View from the windows to St. Anne's Church. 


poor homes in Balsall Heath, including several 
widows, a few old couples, and a big family or two, 
which they took under their special care. As there 
was no school on Saturday mornings, the Friday 
afternoon was always given up to visiting the " Poor 
Class." Savings were carefully hoarded for the 
Christmas fund, towards which all the family sub- 
scribed. Every opportunity was taken to earn money 
by picking up apples in the orchard, weeding in the 
garden, dusting their own rooms and making their 
beds, so as to swell the funds. Chocolates and sweets 
were saved, and one of the little girls had a toy chest 
of drawers full of these trophies in her bedroom, which 
would often be counted over and longingly gazed at, 
but were kept uneaten by Spartan efforts. Perhaps 
they grew stale by the time they were given away, 
but there must have been a secret flavour about them, 
absorbed from the childish love that had stored them 
up. At Christmas times the schoolroom at Moseley 
Hall would be a scene of suet-chopping, raisin-stoning, 
cur rant- washing, and other preparations for the making 
of Christmas puddings, which, with groceries and 
other things, were personally delivered at the homes 
of the " Poor Class." The farm cart was lent, piled 
high with holly and evergreen, with which the children 
and their governess decorated the often dingy rooms. 
Once or twice a local chapel was borrowed for a tea- 
party, with a Christmas tree, and a little meeting to 
end up with, at which Richard Cadbury and his wife 
gave their willing help to their children's efforts. 
The pool at Moseley Hall greatly added to the 


beauty of the grounds. There was a big, flat- 
bottomed punt in the boathouse, which could hold 
about fifteen people at a push, and which nothing 
could tip over. Often the boys would run down for 
a dip in the pool before breakfast, and the girls would 
push out in the punt beneath some tree which drooped 
over the water's edge, to read or study or picnic. 
They all loved to row, and great was the pride of the 
younger girls in being allowed to take a heavy boatload 
round the pool during the summer parties. The pool 
was full of fish, and Richard Cadbury was always 
willing to grant permission to anglers to make use of 
it. In winter it was the centre of outdoor attraction, 
and the skating, of which there was plenty during 
those years, was a never-to-be-forgotten joy. It was 
the only large sheet of ice in the neighbourhood, so in 
frosty weather it was thrown open to the public for 
a small entrance-fee, which was given to the funds of 
the Gospel Temperance Mission. What fun it was, 
when lessons were done, or the day's work ended, to 
rush down from the old Hall and join with the merry 
crowd on the ice ! To think of it conjures back the 
ringing music of the skates, the nip of the frosty air, 
the bumps and collisions, the laughter and fun. How 
peaceful and refreshing it was in the quiet of early 
morning to skim over the shining surface, coming up 
to the house for breakfast with a healthy appetite ; 
or at night, when the crowd had melted away, leaving 
perhaps a party of invited relations and friends, to 
glide to and fro by the light of the moon, or flaring 
torches stuck into the piles of snow, or Chinese lanterns 


held aloft, which seemed in the darkness to be moving 
like will-o'-the-wisps on the surface of the ice. 

In the summer-time the woods were the chief glory 
of the grounds. After the first Spring flowers, snow- 
drops, violets, and wood-anemones, were over, came 
the bluebells. No sight on earth can be fairer than 
that heaving sea of azure, glinting in the sunlight, 
which filtered through the roof of green interlacing 
boughs. Richard Cadbury's chief delight in the 
possession of so much beauty was in sharing it with 
others. Sheaves and armfuls of bluebells, smelling 
of summer woods and sunshine, found their way into 
homes in noisy streets and close courts and alleys. 
He would often send little Beatrice and her nurse, 
carrying baskets of them, into the village of Moseley, 
which with the advent of steam-trams was fast losing 
its country appearance. There they were instructed 
to give the flowers away to children, or any one who 
seemed to want them. Not until the bluebells were 
nearly over would he allow them to be trampled on, 
but then he several times invited parties of ragged 
children from the slums, and turned them loose into 
that fairyland of trees and flowers. It would have 
melted a heart of stone to see the procession of little 
figures starting for home, their miserable clothes ragged 
and torn, but their faces shining and radiant with 
happiness, as they hugged their precious armfuls of 
fragrant blossoms. Of all the parties, it was perhaps 
those little ragged children who pulled hardest at 
Richard Cadbury's heart-strings. He seemed as if he 
longed to pick up each of the neglected little waifs 



into his strong embrace, and let them share in the 
happiness and love and protection he was able to give 
to his own children. Sometimes he could hardly 
speak to them for the tears that choked his voice at 
the sight of the little bare shoulders peeping through 
torn frocks ; the thin, starved little faces ; the dirty, 
matted tangle of unkempt hair, from under which 
their bright eyes looked trustfully up into his. 

One of these parties happened to come on a streaming 
wet day. Many of the children had only one garment, 
and perhaps a pair of old boots. The sight of the 
grass was irresistible, and in spite of the rain many 
of them ran about in it, getting soaked through. 
With tears in his eyes Richard Cadbury ran up to the 
nursery, asked his little girls to ransack their toy- 
cupboards, and took out a quantity of things for 
which he set the children to run races in the tent. 
Then, instead of giving them the ordinary tea with 
their buns and cake, he went into the old-fashioned, 
high-ceiled kitchen of Moseley Hall, and himself 
mixed a big red pan full of steaming hot cocoa with 
plenty of milk in it. This was taken out in urns to 
the shivering little crowd, and after enjoying it he 
sent them home. The grounds were also lent for 
flower-shows and many other purposes, always on the 
condition that no intoxicants would be allowed. 

In the year 1889 a Mr. T. Grosvenor Lee, honorary 
secretary of the Birmingham Association for the Pre- 
servation of Open Spaces and Public Footpaths, sug- 
gested to the Birmingham Town Council that an effort 
should be made to save Rednal Hill, a few miles south 


of the town, from being turned into a building estate. 
The k proposal of keeping open this beautiful hill for the 
enjoyment of the public appealed strongly to Richard 
Cadbury, and he immediately subscribed the bulk of 
the money required for its purchase. His spontaneous 
liberality in this matter was repaid to him a thousand- 
fold in the knowledge of the pleasure and refreshment 
it brought to countless numbers of his fellow citizens, 
particularly those of the poorer class. His own 
children always looked forward to a drive with their 
parents to Rednal, and to a picnic on the hill or tea 
in a picturesque cottage. 

. Some men love work and some men love play ; the 
wisest love both. Richard Cadbury was one of these. 
Time never dragged heavily on his hands. He passed 
through sorrow, loneliness, and disappointment, but 
never knew what dulness or ennui meant. There never 
was a moment in his life when he experienced the 
disillusionment of men who have lived for pleasure, 
and find happiness slipping through their fingers. 
The buoyancy, hope, and eagerness of youth remained 
with him to the end. His business and his work for 
Christ and humanity were full of romance to him, 
and he entered into his holidays and rest-times with 
the enjoyment of a schoolboy, making them not only 
invigorating to himself, but full of untold happiness 
to his wife and children, and any other fortunate 
beings who were able to share such opportunities 
with him. At home he still indulged his hobby of 
gardening, going out into the woods before breakfast 
with saw and axe to clear out dead wood, and cut 


down the elder- trees, which he called his " enemies," 
because they choked the growth of other shrubs. 
Sometimes he would spend this early hour in patiently 
teaching the younger children to play tennis, or in 
weeding dandelions out of the velvety lawns. About 
seven o'clock every morning he would make a tour 
of the rooms, knocking at each door, and calling 
out in a cheery voice, " Good morning ! It's time to 
be getting up the sun is shining," or some such 
greeting. He loved all animals, his horses and dogs 
especially, and took a great interest in his little farm. 
There was a green paroquet in the nursery, which he 
always visited on his morning round, taking it out 
of its cage and hiding it under the flap of his coat or 
letting it perch on his shoulder, while he got a tit-bit 
out of the cupboard. The holiday times were filled 
with occupations and interests that had to be crowded 
out in the busier life at home, such as teaching his 
children to make collections of ferns, flowers, mosses, 
fossils, or shells, or in making illustrated albums ; 
while his wife would often read aloud to the little 
company for hours in her musical voice. 

He was always planning how to be able to share 
his advantages most widely with those who had fewer 
than himself. This was seen in the lectures he gave, 
while travelling, and in the notes that he made 
for use in classes, Bible lessons, and addresses, and 
in many other ways. He never gave to anything his 
second best. The motto which he practically lived 
out in all he undertook was, " Whatsoever thy hand 
fmdeth to do, do it with thy might"; but he took 


care first to ask God's guidance in choosing his handful 
wisely. His consistent example will never be forgotten 
by his children, or others who came into close contact 
with him. 

Malvern was still a favourite place for holidays, 
especially in the spring, and all through the years at 
Harborne Road and the early Moseley Hall days the 
annual fortnight's visit to the home of his brother-in- 
law, George Adlington, at Kingsmill, near Mansfield, 
was looked forward to by Richard Cadbury's family 
as a special treat. The farm and the flour-mill and 
the big reservoir provided endless entertainment, and 
the hospitable uncle, and a large circle of cousins in 
Mansfield and Nottingham, had a warm place in the 
hearts of all the children and their parents. 

The Isle of Wight and Devonshire were other happy 
hunting-grounds. Once, in a farmhouse near Ilfra- 
combe, all the party had been regaled upon boiled 
eggs, and Richard Cadbury, in a flash of fun, turned 
the empty egg-shells upside down in their cups, drawing 
on each a Humpty Dumpty with various expressions. 
On visiting the same farmhouse a week or two later, 
the little party were surprised and amused to see that 
row of Humpty Dumpties gazing at them through the 
glass doors of a cupboard, where they were carefully 
ranged along a shelf. 

Richard Cadbury never failed to leave his mark on 
the places which he visited, and although most un- 
assuming, was always doing personal work for Christ. 
At West Malvern he insisted on trading with the local 
shops, and would often do the marketing himself, 


thus getting many an opportunity for a quiet personal 
talk about the things of eternity. When staying at 
places where there was no Friends' Meeting, he and 
his family would attend the Church of England ser- 
vices, or some dissenting chapel. In a small place 
he would make a point of shaking hands with the 
minister, thanking him for his help, and occasionally, 
when invited, he would take part in the service by 
giving the address or reading the Scripturelessons. 

A visit to Kilkee, on the rugged west coast of 
Ireland, was a much-enjoyed experiment. A furnished 
house was taken, and the whole family, with the 
help of the nurse and a kitchen-maid, did all their 
own work. One day in Kilkee Richard Cadburyjcame 
across one of his own firm's letter-fixers putting up 
an advertisement on a shop window. He immediately 
went across and spoke to the man, shaking hands 
with him in his warm, genial way. There are so many 
incidents of this kind that it would not be possible 
to tell them all, but if others would " go and do like- 
wise " there would be more joy and less loneliness 
in the world. 

It was in the autumn of 1891 that his eldest son's 
wedding took place. Barrow had become engaged to 
Geraldine Southall, also a member of the Society of 
Friends, and the festivities for their marriage formed 
the last family event which took place at Moseley 
Hall. Almost immediately afterwards they moved 
into the new home, which was named " Uffculme," 
in memory of the Devonshire village which had shel- 
tered generations of Cadburys in earlier days. 


CHRISTIAN WORK (1883 1891) 


OF all other interests, none was nearer Richard 
Cadbury's heart than his own adult school at 
Moseley Road, and the mission work of all kinds that 
was fast growing up round it. The years at Moseley 
Hall covered a wonderful development in the move- 
ment that had made such a modest beginning at the 
Montpellier Street creche. Two board schools were 
already in use on Sunday mornings, and the iron room 
in Upper Highgate Street had been rented for the 
week-nights as an experiment. Since the Friends' 
mission in 1882 a meeting had also been held there 
on Sunday evenings, in addition to the one in the 
Moseley Road board school, and soon afterwards a 
children's school was started. Altogether, the little 
iron room proved so useful that in 1884 Richard 



Cadbury bought it. The two mission meetings were 
affiliated with the Severn Street Christian Society, and 
overseers were duly appointed for each. Monthly 
overseers' and fellowship meetings were instituted. 

In 1886, eight years after the formation of Class XV., 
the iron room in Upper Highgate Street was found 
inadequate for its many uses, and was moved from 
its position to an open space in Conybere Street, 
and Richard Cadbury built a permanent home for 
his mission work on the site. 

Although always anxious to put others forward, 
Richard Cadbury was the one to whom the men 
looked for guidance and advice. In spite of his 
natural modesty and humility, he never shrank 
from responsibility in this respect. He worked on 
the plan of giving all possible liberty to his scholars 
to express their difficulties and their varying opin- 
ions, though he never yielded an inch on matters 
of principle. As a consequence, he was respected as 
well as loved. 

He was most systematic in the preparation of Bible 
lessons for his class. A glimpse at the closely written 
pages of his notebooks, which stand in a long row on a 
shelf in his library, gives some idea of the time and 
thought devoted to them. A Friend writes, " The 
class always had his most loving care and thought, and 
his earnestness and evident sincerity impressed all who 
surrounded him." Up to the very end of his life he 
would leave home at a quarter past six on Sunday 
morning, and walk the two miles down the Moseley 
Road to Highgate. He met the teachers to breakfast 


at seven o'clock, the school itself beginning at 7.30 
and continuing till about 9.30. Nothing but absence 
from home or illness would keep him away, and there 
is no doubt that his regular and punctual attendance 
was the greatest inspiration to his scholars. He took 
no notice of the weather, hail or fine, rain or snow. 
One of the men remembers a snowy morning with a 
blizzard blowing, when the men who ventured out 
did not expect to find their teacher at school. But 
on their arrival he was there to welcome them, having 
walked down earlier than usual to see that all was 
warm and ready. Another Sunday heavy snow had 
fallen, and at that early hour there had been no traffic 
to make a way through it. One of the teachers who 
also lived up at King's Heath turned back, thinking 
it was not possible to get through ; but Richard Cadbury 
plunged along, often knee-deep in places. Further 
on he found a snow plough clearing the tram-lines, 
and by getting on this was able to reach school in 
good time. Warmly clad and with strong boots on 
his feet, the struggle with the elements had only 
invigorated him. But many of the men were less 
well prepared. Surprised to see him there at all, they 
were still more astonished when he pulled out of his 
pocket a pair of dry socks, and offered these and the 
use of his leggings to those whose feet were wettest. 
Of all other incidents, this seems to have most laid 
hold of the memories of the men. With tears in their 
eyes and a choke in their voice they will tell of his 
loving thought for them. 

" Many times," says one man, " I have gone to him 


with details of distress and suffering deserving young 
men unable to come to class because of shabby clothes 
and unemployment ; and always the same ready 
response, ' Just get what they need, and let me know 
when I can be of assistance.' " 

To a man who had been complaining of his teacher, 
Richard Cadbury wrote : 

You will not find perfection anywhere in this world, nor do 
I think it would be good for us to have no difficulties in life. 
Perhaps those very things you speak of may be a lesson of 
patience for you, and bring out the highest traits of your moral 
and Christian character. I want you also to try and sym- 
pathise with our teachers in the difficult positions they fill, 
and help them in every way in your power. I hope you will 
write or speak very freely to me. 

When one of the men ventured a remark about 
being imposed upon, and having his kindness abused, 
Richard Cadbury remarked, " Ah, Roland, I can see 
through a great deal, but you must never let that 
thought deter you from appealing to me. I would 
rather risk helping some undeserving cases, than miss 
a needy one." 

" Only on Saturday last," writes an old scholar, 
" a friend of mine called, who was formerly with me 
in Upper Highgate Street Choir. 'Oh! 5 he ex- 
claimed, when I mentioned Mr. Cadbury, ' can I 
forget the man who taught me to live ! ' " 

One of the men who had been led to Christ and 
greatly blessed through Richard Cadbury became 
very ill from the effects of a bad sunstroke, and had 
to be taken to the hospital. He was restless, feverish, 
and distressed, calling out in delirium, and the nurses 


hardly knew how to keep him quiet. Richard Cadbury 
took the opportunity of visiting him the following 
Sunday. The change which came over the man as 
soon as he came near was extraordinary. His very 
presence seemed to soothe him. He knelt down by his 
bedside, and holding the sick man's hand, prayed for 
him. Although he could not speak, the poor fellow 
became perfectly quiet and peaceful, and passed away 
soon afterwards. 

One man, who had been in the work some years, 
failed in his business, and was in terrible distress. 
Mr. Cadbury went to him, and kneeling by his side 
said, " Henry, what can I do for you ? " " Sir, give 
me bread for my children." " You shall never want 
a loaf of bread as long as I live," and he fed them, 
paid the rent for seven years, and found the man 
some odd work at 5s. a week. " He saved me, and I 
could have suffered death for his sake," was the grateful 

One of the men who came out for Christ in Upper 
Highgate Street School, through Richard Cadbury's 
influence, said, " I have never had any lessons in 
Mr. Cadbury's own class. I was like Lazarus, I had to 
have the crumbs ; but his life was everything to me." 

Another, who had been an infidel, was led to confess 
Christ. On his death-bed the man was full of joy and 
peace. Almost his last words were, " The life of 
Richard Cadbury is always before me. If I had got 
my time over again, I would be very different to what 
I have been ; but I have got Christ now, and I am going 
to be with Him." 


The work amongst men was by no means always 
smooth sailing. Sometimes those for whom he did 
the most were least grateful and gave him most trouble. 
In such cases his patience was remarkable. " Men 
failed, betrayed him, but his zeal seemed nourished 
by failure and by fall." 

In August, 1884, before the new mission-hall was 
built in Upper Highgate Street, Richard Cadbury 
arranged for a tent mission close by. One night 
there came into the meeting a notorious drunkard and 
pugilist, who went by the name of the Birmingham 
" Tom Sayers." He signed the pledge and kept it, 
and telling his mates that he had changed his name, 
refused to answer to " Tom Sayers." He was invited 
by the workers to the iron mission-room in Upper 
Highgate Street, and attended the Sunday evening 
meetings for two months. One night an announcement 
was given that a special mission would be held in the 
iron room by George Wood, a converted sailor. 
Prayer meetings were held for some weeks beforehand 
on Sunday mornings, to which our friend was invited. 
He came, but felt like an outsider, till, at the close of 
the prayer meeting, Richard Cadbury gave him a good 
grip of the hand, and smiling into his face, said how 
glad he was to see him. That smile won the man's 
love. He attended every meeting of the mission, 
and, before the end of it, came right out for God. From 
that day to this he has been an earnest Christian 
worker, and has brought many of his old companions 
to Christ. With several others he began a " Men's 
Afternoon Bible Class " on Sundays, and took an active 


share in open-air meetings. His teacher's encourage- 
ment helped him over many a hard place, and the 
memory of it inspires him still. 

Richard Cadbury was most considerate of his helpers 
in the work. One of them was for a time under a cloud, 
but said nothing of it, and thought his trouble was 
unnoticed. To his surprise he one day received a 
letter from his teacher : 

Dear James [it ran], I have felt a good deal of concern 
about you lately, and cannot help thinking that there is 
something weighing on your mind. If there is anything that 
troubles you, do let me know, for I have learnt to honour and 
respect you, and would gladly do -anything that I could to 
help you. You know me well enough, that I do not wish to 
pry into any private concern ; but if I can counsel or help you 
in any way, I shall be glad. 

" I thank God for such a life," said this man ; " the 
life of Jesus Christ in him has made me what I am." 
In the early days of the school he always went with 
the men for their annual excursions, which were con- 
tinued for about sixteen years, until the numbers grew 
too large for it to be practicable. One year a greater 
number went than had been expected, and some had 
to go without tea. Some one told Richard Cadbury 
of this, whereupon he opened his black bag and 
brought out some sandwiches, with which his wife 
had privately provided him. " He insisted on giving 
them away," says one of the men. 

Into the special missions, lasting perhaps ten days 
or a fortnight, which he arranged from time to time, 
Richard Cadbury threw all his energy. He used to 
go out with the men to the open-air meetings in all 


weathers. If there was any hesitation who should 
do this or that, he was ready to offer. At one open-air 
meeting it was decided that a bell should be used to 
call the people to the service. The question was, who 
should ring it. " I will ring the bell," said he; "I 
am not ashamed of it." 

Walking down to the mission-hall one day he saw 
a poor woman taking home a barrow of coals. It 
seemed almost more than she could manage, so Richard 
Cadbury insisted on wheeling it home for her. " At 
one of the meetings," writes a worker, " an old lady, 
very poor, had been offering up prayer, and, poor old 
soul, she had not the strength to get up again from 
her knees. We all saw the incident, but no one 
moved to her assistance. Mr. Richard was the one 
to realise the position, and in a moment left the plat- 
form, and running to her, tenderly lifted her to her 

He was an untiring worker in the inquiry-room. 
Once when there was a number of children present, 
many young boys came out for Christ. After the 
service was over, he took these boys into the kitchen 
at the back of the old mission-hall. One of the 
workers found them all kneeling together in prayer. 
Some of those boys are now earnest workers them- 

Howard Nicholson, of London, who frequently con- 
ducted missions at Highgate, writes : 

He always took a most unobtrusive part in the missions in 
which I had the privilege of working with him. I was im- 
pressed most with his simple, absolute faith. Sometimes 

} * 





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1 ^Sp? * < 


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when we felt doubtful about some one who had professed, he 
always took the hopeful view, and this no doubt helped many 
who would otherwise have been neglected. His simple belief 
in God's power to save was most beautiful, and has often 
been an inspiration to me since. 

He took pains to keep in touch with the converts 
after the mission was over. Sometimes he sent round 
a letter to each of them. One dated March 12th, 1885, 
is a typical example : 

My dear Friend, I cannot look back to the events of the 
last few weeks within our little church without a deep feeling 
of reverent thanksgiving and praise. God's grace has fallen 
upon many hearts as the gentle dew, strengthening and re- 
freshing us in our Christian life. I pray that your faith and 
patience in the midst of trials and temptations fail not. Oh, 
my dear friend, if Christ be in the vessel, the waves may beat 
and the storm may rage, but you will hear the words, " Fear 
not ! " above the voice of the storm. I want you to keep very 
close to the Saviour who has breathed peace and joy into your 
soul. Pray that your life may be hid with Christ in God, for 
He is able and willing to keep you from falling. " Beloved, 
now are we sons of God." Our inheritance is not only a 
heavenly one ; it is a present as well as an eternal joy. You 
know something of the indwelling of His presence, and the 
joy of believing. May neither the world nor the things of 
the world rob you of your crown. With Christian love, 

Your friend, 

Richard Cadbury. 

The iron room had been moved from Highgate 
to Small Heath, and became the centre of important 
work under a Nonconformist minister, one of the Gospel 
Temperance women's meetings also being held in it. 
Finally Richard Cadbury gave it entirely over. 

I hereby have much pleasure [he wrote on May 7th, 1888, 
to Rev. Charles Joseph], in transferring to you in perpetuity 


as your own property the iron room known as the Mission 
Room, in Greenway Street, Small Heath, with all that it con- 
tains belonging to me. ... I need not assure you that you 
will take our best wishes and prayers with you in your work 
for Christ. " The harvest indeed is plenteous, but the labourers 
are few." That is to say, " few " who are wholly consecrated 
to Christ. 

The quiet and unostentatious work of the Gospel 
Temperance Mission was spreading like a network 
over Birmingham. The women's meetings had in- 
creased in size and number. From 1883 they were 
held weekly in connection with fifty-one places of 
worship in Birmingham, belonging to seven or eight 
different denominations. The salaries of the lady 
workers were paid from the funds of the Gospel Tem- 
perance Mission, as also the expenses of extra tent 
missions in the summer, and of coffee suppers for the 
husbands of the women in the winter. Thorough 
attention was given to systematic visitation in the 
homes of the people. Many have been won to Christ 
and are leading sober, useful lives as a result. 

In September, 1886, the police court work, which for 
many years had been carried on by the Birmingham 
Temperance Society, was being relinquished for want 
of funds. When Richard Cadbury heard of it he 
said, " No, it must not be given up " ; and forthwith 
undertook to finance it himself, providing the Birming- 
ham Gospel Temperance Mission would undertake 
its management. The work was then handed over, 
and the services of William Gaule, the missionary, 
were retained. Being also a teacher in the early 
morning school at Highgate, William Gaule was in 


constant touch with Richard Cadbury, and grew to 
love him devotedly. 

Towards the end of the period spent at Moseley 
Hall, a new scheme for the furtherance of Gospel 
Temperance developed in Richard Cadbury 's mind. 
Desiring to bring together into closer union with 
each other the various temperance associations in 
Birmingham, he leased a large building in Corpora- 
tion Street as a " Temperance Institute." The 
secretary of the Gospel Temperance Mission became 
also secretary of the Institute, and used one office 
for both purposes, although the accounts were kept 
separate. In this building temperance societies could 
rent rooms and offices at lowered rates, having the 
advantage of being near each other for conference 
on important matters, and sharing the privileges of 
the reading-room, refreshment bar, telephone, and 
other things. The Institute became the home of the 
United Kingdom Alliance, the Band of Hope, the 
Sunday Closing Association, the Church of England 
Temperance Society, the National Vigilance Associa- 
tion, and many others. A large assembly-room was 
available for meetings, and a number of smaller rooms. 
Richard Cadbury also collected with infinite care a 
valuable and in some respects unique library of tem- 
perance books, which was free to all members of the 
Institute, and became much prized as a reference 
library to those studying temperance problems. Any 
total abstainer subscribing five shillings annually to a 
temperance society could obtain a card of membership, 
and thus enjoy all the privileges the Institute afforded. 



In furnishing and fitting up the new building Richard 
Cadbury gave the most loving thought to every detail, 
sending down some of his own pictures and tables and 
bookcases, and personally inspecting everything. His 
letters to the secretary show this, and also that he 
realised how largely success depended on having 
everything well organised at the beginning. 

The opening of the new Temperance Institute took 
place on October 22nd, 1889. Richard Cadbury 
gave a breakfast in the large assembly-room, at which 
were present abou*^ three hundred of the leaders of 
the temperance movement in Birmingham and the 
surrounding district, and a considerable number of 
ladies and gentlemen who were visiting Birming- 
ham for the National Congress. He presided at the 
breakfast, and among the guests were the Mayor 
(Richard Cadbury Barrow) and Mayoress, the Mayor 
of Stafford, the Venerable Archdeacon Farrar, the 
Rev. Canon Bowlby, the Hon. Conrad Dillon, Alderman 
William White, and a long list of the leading clergy 
and ministers, business men, and prominent citizens 
of Birmingham. 

The object of opening that Institute, Richard Cad- 
bury said in his speech, was to strengthen the various 
organisations which were fighting the battle of temper- 
ance in Birmingham, by providing a library of the 
best works of reference on the subject, and by arranging 
for lectures and discussions of a practical character 
during the winter months. They did not wish to 
interfere with the work of any organisation, but to 
concentrate the strength of all, on those occasions 


when unity of action as well as unity of interest was 
necessary. His address concluded with the words : 

I cannot close without noticing the religious aspect of our 
cause, which is to some of us the most important of all. Our 
life here is but a preparation life for the eternal city. As 
pilgrims and sojourners beset with difficulties and temptations, 
it is our duty to put aside all that hinders us in our heavenly 
race. But the religion of Jesus Christ cannot be a selfish one. 
If any effort of ours be the means, by God's grace, of saving 
one soul from eternal destruction, and leading him to the 
Saviour of sinners, we may thank God and take courage. 



THE years at Moseley Hall, which had brought so 
much happiness to Richard Cadbury, filled him 
with a deeper longing to comfort and cheer other lives. 
We have seen how his heart went out to the little 
ragged children of the slums, and he felt double sym- 
pathy for the parents who, even when respectable, 
found it hard to bring up their little ones in health 
and decency. With the street as their only play- 
ground, the constant noise of the town dinning in 
their ears all day, and the stifling atmosphere of their 
often unsanitary homes, it was no wonder if the less 
robust boys and girls fell sick and pined away, even 
when they escaped actual disease. Richard Cadbury's 
heart ached to give them the chance of a week or so 
in the peace and beauty of country surroundings, 
where they would be cared for and have plenty of 
simple food and good air and sleep. After^a time the 



[Photo by Elliott &> Fry. 


thought of founding a children's convalescent home 
somewhere on the outskirts of Birmingham began to 
take shape in his mind. He was very anxious that 
the " institution " element should be absent as much 
as possible, and that it should have for the children 
the charm of a private visit to the home of some one 
who loved them. He and his wife talked over their 
plans, and quietly looked about for a suitable place. 
At last it became clear to them that they could find 
no place so well adapted to the purpose as their own 
home, Moseley Hall. The lease on which Richard 
Cadbury had taken the place had -only a year or two 
to run, and then a decision would have to be come to, 
whether to buy part of it, or move elsewhere, as a 
scheme was on foot for cutting up the whole estate 
for building purposes, unless it were bought. Finally 
it was chosen for the convalescent home. The fact 
of its being within easy reach of the town was an 
added advantage. The next step for Richard Cadbury 
and his wife was the consideration of a new home 
for themselves. Had it been merely a personal ques- 
tion they would have moved several miles out into 
the country, for the town was fast pushing its long 
arms into the direction of Moseley and King's Heath. 
But there was the Sunday work to consider. He felt 
he must be within walking distance of his adult school 
at Highgate, especially as his mission work took him 
two or three times on a Sunday in the same direction. 
He was fortunate enough to find a piece of land not 
far from Moseley Hall, and here he finally decided to 
build his new home. 


The first outside his own family to whom he spoke 
of his proposed scheme was his cousin, Joel Cadbury. 
Then he decided to take his friend, John Henry Lloyd, 
who was much interested in hospital work among 
children, into his confidence. Mr. Lloyd writes : 

It was in December, 1889, that Richard Cadbury told me 
at an Essay Meeting that he wanted a little private conversa- 
tion with me. On December 7th, 1889, he wrote : " Will it 
be convenient to meet me at the Temperance Institute on 
Tuesday, the 10th ? Many thanks for so kindly writing and 
offering to enter into what has lately occupied my thoughts a 
good deal." 

We met at the new Temperance Institute, and he propounded 
his noble proposal to make a gift of Moseley Hall, where he 
and his family had lived so happily, and to purchase the 
house and twenty acres of land for a children's sanatorium. 

The estimated cost of house and land was a large 
sum, but Richard Cadbury was willing to give still 
more " for alterations, hot-water heating, and endow- 
ment for a beginning." Mr. Lloyd continues : 

He took me over every room at Moseley Hall a few days 
after, and a small meeting was held, including Henry Glaisyer, 
George S. Matthews, Joel Cadbury, Joseph Barrows, junr. (a 
Church of England representative of the General Hospital), 
and a Jewish Rabbi, the Rev. G. J. Emanuel. 

After consultation, it was suggested to the Blackwell 
Sanitorium Committee that they should undertake 
a women's and children's sanatorium at Moseley 
Hall ; but they did not see their way to accept it, 
wishing to add a wing for women at Blackwell. 

A Nonconformist minister, who was associated with 
Richard Cadbury in temperance work and other ways, 


sent a reminiscence of the occasion on which he first 
heard of the new plans : 

A large conference was being held in the city, and several 
delegates were hospitably entertained at Moseley Hall. I 
was invited up to join them and to share in the early 
morning devotions of family visitors. After the delegates 
had left for their sessions, and the quiet of a calm morning 
reigned in the grounds, my friend led me on from walk to walk 
in happy converse. At length we entered the conservatory. 
To my glad surprise he told me that his settled purpose was 
to so dispose of the Hall and grounds that it should be a home 
of health and rest at the service of the town ; and further, that 
it should be so given that no burden of furnishing or sustaining 
should be felt. It was so like him, and yet I never saw him so 
humble and joyous. A light was on his face; his eyes had that 
tender expression that those who loved him knew so well ; 
his very voice as he talked was like music. During the 
closing moments of our talk, as we prayed together and silently 
gave praise to God, there came to us a vision of precious 
children, lovingly cared for and happy, which is now the 
actual benediction of Moseley Hall. He saw it there and 
gave glory to God. 

In November, 1890, Richard Cadbury again wrote 
to his friend, John Henry Lloyd, as honorary secretary 
of the Children's Hospital, inquiring whether that in- 
stitution would co-operate with him in the manage- 
ment of a convalescent home. 

At that time there was in connection with the 
Children's Hospital a small convalescent home at 
Arrowfield Top, chiefly managed by Mrs. Bracey and 
Mr. and Mrs. Lawley Parker. After much consulta- 
tion it was agreed to give this up, and to transfer the 
whole organisation as the nucleus of a large home 
at Moseley Hall. Mr. and Mrs. Tomey, the matron 
and her husband, were to take charge, and the 


subscribers were all asked to continue their subscriptions 
to Moseley Hall. Eventually this was arranged, the 
Children's Hospital retaining prior claim to twenty 
beds to represent their old Arrowfield Top. Mr. 
Lloyd says : 

What impressed us all most in everything connected with 
Moseley Hall was Richard Cadbury's great modesty. In 
fact, we might have been those who were conferring the 
favour, rather than he the donor ! I So anxious was he that 
there should be perfect freedom to manage all as best we could. 

I shall be much gratified to know [wrote Richard Cadbury 
on November 6th, 1890], that the committee of the Children's 
Hospital approve of my offer at their meeting on Monday. . . . 
If Mrs. Bracey and Mrs. Lloyd would like to see over the Hall, 
it would give Mrs. Cadbury and myself much pleasure to see 
them or any of the ladies interested in the question, or any 
gentleman of your committee. 

On November 10th, 1890, Mr. Lloyd wrote on behalf 
of the managing committee of the Children's Hospital : 

We have agreed to cordially accept your offer. I need hardly 
say how deeply we feel your generosity, and how desirous 
we are to unite with you in making the very best use of the 
gift for the suffering poor children. I am afraid we shall come 
in upon you like a flood, but almost all the members of the 
committee are sure to want to see Moseley Hall; also some 
ladies. Would 11 a.m. on Friday be convenient to you and 
Mrs. Cadbury ? We do not wish to intrude too large a number 
of the two committees. Do let me know the maximum 
number you can do with processing round the house. 

The same day Richard Cadbury replied : 

I wish first of all to express how deeply I am indebted to 
you for the kind personal interest you have taken in helping 
me to carry through the desire I have so long had, to make 
this place a home for the sick and suffering little children of 


this town and neighbourhood. It seems difficult to realise 
that it is now so near accomplishment. Friday morning will 
suit us very well for those interested to see over the Hall, and 
all that Mrs. Cadbury asks is that you would kindly send 
word about the number you expect to come. 

His further letters to John Henry Lloyd are full 
of careful attention to detail, with the aim of making 
the home a happy and delightful place for the children. 
On October 2nd, 1891, he wrote : 

I think it is time that some one should be appointed to look 
through the Hall to see what alterations will be required. 
All the out-buildings have been thoroughly repaired, and the 
roof and chimneys of the Hall made." as good as new." 

And on November 28th, 1891 : 

I should be very glad for the inspector to examine the 
house at any time convenient to him. . . . We are quite 
prepared for Mr. and Mrs. Tomey to come in on the 15 th. 
The cellar is full of coal, so there will be no need for a supply 
for three months at least. As far as we know there is not the 
slightest reason why the children should not come in at once. 

Shortly before Christmas Richard Cadbury and his 
family moved to Uffculme. A letter written on 
March 8th shows how he kept in the background : 

I cannot fully express how grateful I feel to you for the kind 
interest taken in so many details connected with the success 
of the Children's Convalescent Home. I have purposely 
abstained from attending committees lately, so that you may 
have a free hand in all details or alterations, furnishing, and 
arrangements for opening. All I have seen and heard of 
appears to have been admirably done. The subscriptions have 
been started in a very noble spirit, and I think will induce a 
higher range of subscriptions to follow. It will be well to 
add my name as a subscriber for ^5 5s. [this was the amount 


promised by a number of friends], and then I propose to give 
an annual donation which could come under " A well-wisher," 
or some such term. 

The formal opening of Moseley Hall as a convalescent 
home for children was accompanied with as little 
ostentation as possible. The ceremony took place on 
a Saturday afternoon, when Richard Cadbury himself 
the president of the home handed over the Hall and 
grounds to the Mayor of Birmingham, who accepted 
them on behalf of the trustees and the subscribers, 
and, after a few appropriate words of explanation, 
declared the institution open. Numerous invitations 
had been issued by the committee, and there were 
nearly three hundred ladies and gentlemen present. 
After prayer had been offered by Canon Owen, and 
the letters of apology read, Richard Cadbury, in 
handing over the Hall and grounds, said he felt it 

a very pleasant duty to perform. After having resided 
with his family on the spot, with all its pleasant surroundings 
and memories, he could not express the pleasure it gave them 
all to contemplate what they believed would be a source of 
health and happiness to those for whom it was now prepared. 
He wished sincerely to thank the ladies and gentlemen of 
the committee, who had bestowed so much care and fore- 
thought in starting the institution on a sound and permanent 
footing, and he sincerely hoped a kind response would be 
given to the appeal for further help, so that they might be 
justified in increasing the number of beds for those little 
sufferers for whom a few hours of fresh air and bright sunshine 
were of such value. 

After several more speeches, afternoon tea was 
partaken of, and the company then had an oppor- 
tunity of seeing over the newly appointed home. 


When asked to continue as president Richard Cad- 
bury wrote : 

I shall be obliged by your substituting the name of some 
well-known and influential gentleman in place of my own for 
next year as president. It is necessary for the good of the 
Home that such offices should be taken by others. 

The Home was at first almost entirely for~sickly 
children and convalescents, most of whom were up 
and running about, with perhaps only two or three 
obliged to be in bed. As long as this was the case, 
two of his daughters used to go over on Sunday after- 
noons to hold a simple Bible .class, with plenty of 
hymn-singing, for the children. By degrees it was 
found that the Home would fill a greater need as a 
convalescent hospital, particularly for children to 
recruit after or between operations. This necessitated 
a good deal of rearrangement, especially of the staff, 
but Richard Cadbury warmly gave his consent to 
the change. 

It very much meets my views [he wrote on October 30th, 
1894], that the Home should be used more than it is for suitable 
cases from the hospitals, only that it entails a larger staff of 
capable nurses, and that so few of the best rooms face the 

An outbreak of infectious illness during the next 
year was a great grief to the kind-hearted founder. 

Your letter has quite overwhelmed me [he wrote on 
May 2nd, 1895]. It is very kind of you to write at once. The 
action you have taken in sending for an expert from London 
is the best thing that could be done. If the drains are the 
cause of the fever it can surely be traced and a remedy found. 
It is indeed a mystery to me and to Mrs. Cadbury, as during 


all the years we lived at the Hall none of the household were 
indisposed from any such cause ; in fact, with the exception of 
our younger children having the measles, no one was seriously 
ill during that time. I am so sorry that you should have so 
much anxiety in the matter, and trust the action taken will 
be satisfactory. 

The numerous other letters received by those re- 
sponsible for Moseley Hall do not contain anything of 
general interest, but they show how Richard Cadbury 
continued to enter into every detail that concerned 
the welfare of the convalescent home and its inmates. 
He loved to see as much as he could of the patient 
little sufferers, though it was a pleasure mixed with 
sorrow, for nothing hurt his tender heart so intensely 
as the sight of a little child in pain. His wish that 
the children should feel their stay at Moseley Hall to 
be like a visit to a friend's home was realised, for many 
of the children spoke of going to "Mr. Cadbury's 
home," and learned to love the kind face, a picture 
of which still hangs in the entrance hall. 

On fine summer days the children would be carried 
out on small wicker couches to lie under the shade 
of the trees, and many a little face looked bright and 
happy that would have pined and drooped in the 
close courts of the city. On indoor days the large 
rooms of the old house made cheerful, airy wards. 
An average of about sixty-two children often passed 
through the Home in summer-time, and numbers 
would be waiting to take their turn. Parents and 
friends have often expressed their gratitude at the 
care given to their children. One mother was so de- 
lighted with the change in her child that at the end 


of the month she simply refused to take it out, and did 
not rest till she had found friends able and willing to 
pay for it for another month. In another case a little 
girl had been sent in by the medical missionary. On 
leaving, the poor little maiden had to put on again 
her own miserably shabby clothes, and a lady who 
was there said to the mother, she sometimes won- 
dered whether it did not seem almost cruel to have 
the children for a short time in a beautiful home, 
wearing good clothes, and then send them back to 
their miserable surroundings. The mother exclaimed 
emphatically : 

"Oh, do not say that. I have been a servant in 
good service, but my life since I married has been 
too much of a struggle for me to teach my children 
what real cleanliness and order means. I am so 
thankful for my girl to have a taste of something 
better. It may mean a new start in life for her. I 
thank God for this home." 

A little girl, in sending a subscription to the Christmas 
fund, wrote : 

I have been getting this money together because my father 
and mother and also myself are very grateful for the great 
benefit I derived during my stay with you, and they felt that 
they would like me to do some little thing for the place which 
had done so much for me. I have been well ever since, and 
have not gone back in health at all. 


UFFCULME (1892 1896) 


CHRISTMAS of the year 1891 found Richard 
Cadbury and his family settled into the new 
home at Uffculme. Moseley Hall could be seen across 
the fields, half-hidden in tall trees, in whose topmost 
boughs the colonies of rooks swayed and cawed. 
Since the first days at Moseley Hall the town had 
grown rapidly in all directions, but Uffculme was still 
almost in the country. In spite of his busy life, 
Richard Cadbury had found time to personally plan 
the new home, and supervise the laying out of the 
grounds. The special feature he designed for the 
house was the great hall, built after the style of an 
old-fashioned banquet ing-hall. It took up the centre 
of the house, from back to front, and clear up to the 
height of the roof. Round three sides ran galleries, 
one across the end looking down into a beautiful 
palm-house. At the opposite end of the hall was a 
great window, in the recess of which a sweet-toned 
pipe-organ was built. The hall was so designed that, 
when furnished, it was cosy in spite of its size. 



The wonderful cases of birds, British and foreign, 
looking almost alive in their surroundings of rocks, 
grass, and pools, the collections of butterflies and 
humming-birds, the marble statues, the skins of wild 
beasts, the horns and antlers, and many curios, made 
the hall a veritable museum. Children appreciated 
these things as much as their elders. How they would 
enjoy the delightful pretence of feeding the emu, 
which stood below a palm near the library door. 
In one corner they would discover the sedgewarblers 
on their nest in the tall grasses, in another the harrier- 
hawks feeding their gawky, half-fledged babies in the 
rough nest of sticks and heather, behind which was 
painted such a background of mountain and mist 
that as they looked they seemed transported into 
the Highlands. Here could be found the sacred ibis, 
the spoonbill, with his flat, awkward beak, or the 
wriggly-necked snake-bird ; there could be seen a 
family of merganser ducks enjoying a quiet swimming 
lesson mother merganser sailing along with a couple 
of babies on her back, and father merganser teaching 
the others to push off from the shore. Perhaps the 
favourite of all to the children was the grizzly bear, 
lying on the sofa in the centre of the hall, upon whose 
back three or four small figures could ride at once. 
Then, if you wanted something really alive for a change, 
away you could go into the palm-house, to talk to the 
cockatoo, with his snowy feathers and yellow plumes ; 
or throw ants' eggs to the gold-fish, and watch them 
swim and rush for the dainty morsels. 

Richard Cadbury was never happier than when he 


was going round with a little group of children, showing 
them all these wonders, and telling tales about the 
habits and ways of animals, birds, and insects, that 
made their eyes round with eager delight. The laying 
out of the grounds gave scope to his artistic and 
botanic instincts. The undulations of the land lent 
themselves to beautiful effects. The house stood at 
the top of a hill, which sloped away from it to the 
south-east and south-west, bounded by the railway. 
Behind, on the north side, the ground was level, a 
road running between the house and the fields on 
the other side. The road had been a favourite country 
walk, and, up till a few years previously, only a public 
footpath across the fields. An ancient yew-tree, near 
the coachman's lodge, had been a landmark for cen- 
turies, and a historic trysting-place for lovers, who 
would meet there to pluck and exchange their bits 
of dark evergreen. Richard Cadbury built a wall 
along the road which shut out from the public a 
favourite view across the wide valley to the distant 
Lickey Hills and Rednal. He was most anxious to 
compensate by making the road as pleasant as pos- 
sible, and had trees planted all along the footpath, 
often speaking, when he looked at them, of his wish 
to make a shady walk for those who passed up and 
down. The head gardener has many memories of his 
master's enthusiasm over the garden, and speaks of 
him with affection and deep feeling. He remembers 
being engaged at Moseley Hall. The moment he 
looked up into Richard Cadbury's face, and met the 
searching glance of the kind brown eyes, he was 



impressed with the feeling, " It's no good your ever 
trying to deceive that man." 

The rockeries at UfTculme were Richard Cadbury's 
chief delight, and on the arrangement of these he 
spared no energy. Many a time he would go down 
and work away with the men, guiding and directing 
all the details. A piece of marshy ground at the foot 
of the hill was transformed into two pretty ponds 
at different levels, with a bridge across the little water- 
course that united them. 

Plans for sharing Uffculme with others were as 
keenly entered into by Richard Cadbury and his wife 
as at Moseley Hall. Instead of tents for the summer 
field-parties, a large, open tea-shed was erected in 
the fields across the road, and proved a great con- 
venience. Beginning with the first summer at 
Uffculme, the fields and grounds were continually 
used for parties. 

For the first year or two all the family but the 
eldest son and his wife, who lived in Edgbaston, were 
more or less at home together. William had com- 
pleted his engineering training in Gloucester, and, 
after eight months in Germany, had joined his father 
and brother and uncle at Bournville. Jessie and Edith 
led busy lives, helping their parents at home and in 
the work outside. Plans were being made to set up 
Richard, who was finishing his training, in a well- 
equipped printing business of his own. The three 
youngest girls had years of school and college before 
them. In 1894 a new member joined the family 
circle. Four years earlier Mrs. Cadbury's brother, 



William Wilson, and his wife, had come home from 
Madagascar, bringing with them their two little 
girls and a boy, only a few months old. Little Alec 
was a special pet of the family at Uffculme. In 1894, 
when Dr. and Mrs. Wilson returned to Madagascar, 
they felt it right, in spite of the sacrifice to themselves, 
to leave the three children in England to be educated*; 
and Richard Cadbury and his wife, to the great delight 
of their children, took the four-year-old laddie into 
their home. To Beatrice, who had been a good deal 
the youngest, the advent of this small cousin into the 
nursery was the greatest joy possible, and they 
became almost inseparable companions. 

The years 1892 and 1895 saw the beginning of a 
new generation in the birth of a son and daughter to 
Barrow and his wife. They were named Dorothy 
Adlington and Paul Strangman. When he held 
in his arms his own grandchildren, Richard Cadbury's 
cup of happiness was full to overflowing. His own 
childhood and the early days of his children seemed 
to be renewed in their little lives, and he always loved 
to have them near him. Children were never in his 
way ; their play never disturbed him, however busy 
he was. It was no wonder that he was a great favourite 
with them. They were never afraid of him, but seemed 
to find confidence at once in his merry look and the 
touch of his strong hands. They all instinctively 
loved and trusted him, from his own children and 
grandchildren to the grimy urchin who would shout 
a jovial " 'Ello ! Mr. Cadbury " as he passed along 
the street ; or the tattered little maid whose grubby 


hand would be shyly slipped into his on turning up 
some narrow court or alley. Whenever Dolly and 
Paul were at Uffculme they would trot into the library 
where their grandfather was busy writing. Down 
would go his pen, off would come his eyeglasses, and 
he would gather them into his arms for a loving 
embrace, then deposit them on the rug with a picture- 
book. Later on the old wooden bear might be taken 
from the corner cupboard, and induced by putting a 
" penny in the slot " to turn the handle of his barrel- 
organ, and grind out a tinkling tune. 

One of the pictures in his library was connected 
with a deeply interesting event which occurred in 
September, 1895. King Khama of Bechuanaland, 
with the chiefs Sebele and Bathoen, his private 
secretary Siesa, and the Rev. W. C. Willoughby, 
who was in attendance as interpreter, was on a visit 
to England, for the special object of visiting Her 
Majesty Queen Victoria, and of enlisting her sympathy 
and that of the British Government in his efforts to 
keep his country free from the curse of the liquor 
traffic. The story of Khama is a thrilling instance of 
the miracles that can be wrought by the power of 
Christ. He has been described as "an unaccountable 
outcrop of mental power and integrity," and as Mrs. 
Wyndham Knight-Bruce remarks in her inspiring 
sketch of Khama's life, " Yes, perfectly unaccount- 
able, if you leave out his Christianity." 1 

1 The Story of an African Chief, being the life of Khama, 
by Mrs. Wyndham Knight-Bruce, with a preface by Edna 


It was natural that the heart of such a man as 
Richard Cadbury should be stirred to its depths by 
the advent of this dark-skinned Christian hero, and 
that he should be foremost amongst those who sought 
to honour and support his mission to this country. 
He privately distributed large numbers of The Story 
of an African Chief, and tried in other ways to 
attract people's interest and attention. 

An invitation was sent to Khama and his suite 
from the General Committee of Missionary and Tem- 
perance Organisations in Birmingham, and was ac- 
cepted. The party arrived in Birmingham on Thurs- 
day, September 26th. 

The following morning, Khama and his brother chiefs 
repaired at the early hour of 9.30 to the Council House, 
to receive a civic welcome. Richard Cadbury, who 
was the host of the party for the day, was present 
at the breakfast. In response to the address of 
hearty welcome Khama replied in a dignified and 
touching speech, which deeply impressed all who 
heard it. 

When the proceedings at the Council House were 
over, Khama and the other chiefs were driven to the 
works at Bournville. To the surprise and amusement 
of all, Khama insisted on sitting by the coachman, 
saying that in his own country the best place was 
usually given to the King, and the embarrassed groom 
had to take his place with the other chiefs in the 

At first they walked through the rooms at Bournville 
wearing an air of stolid indifference, but as the many 


and various processes of manufacture were shown and 
explained their features relaxed. The chiefs could 
not restrain their admiration, and, having once uttered 
exclamations of surprise, they let themselves go, and 
during the remainder of the tour chatted away in 
lively fashion. What seemed to impress them 
most was the immense number of workpeople, 
chiefly young women, and the striking cleanliness 

The shipping department interested Khama almost 
more than any other part of the works. Having been 
told that the goods made up there were packed in 
such a way that they would travel uninjured to any 
part of the world, " even to his own country," he gave 
the keenest attention to a parcel which was being 
prepared. The other members of the party passed 
on to another department, but, missing Khama, they 
returned, and found him still intent upon the export 
package. He explained that he had waited to " see 
it finished," perhaps thinking that he would renew 
acquaintance with it in Africa. 

The tour round Bournville being completed, Richard 
Cadbury drove his guests to Uffculme, where his 
wife and family joined in giving them the warmest 
welcome. Mindful of the arduous toils their visit 
to Birmingham necessitated, he arranged that they 
should have a thorough afternoon's rest. It was a 
glorious autumn day, and after luncheon, Khama and 
his friends were taken to bask in the sunshine on the 
sheltered verandah of the summer-house. 

On leaving, each chief was presented with a bouquet 


of flowers, fresh cut from the greenhouse, and a card, 
on which were the following words : 

To the Chiefs Khama, Sebele, and Bathoen 

The household at Uffculme offer you a true welcome ; they 
desire that you may realise the brotherhood and friendship of 
our people, and that you may carry back to Africa a message 
of good-will to their brethren in that far-off land. 

May the God of peace bless and prosper you and your people, 
and grant a favourable result to the object of your mission 
in this country. 

Moor Green, Birmingham. 
September 27th, 1895. 

Richard Cadbury then drove his guests into the 
city, where a reception was held in the Town Hall, 
for which about 2,500 invitations had been sent 
out by the joint committee of the missionary, 
temperance, and peace societies of the city. A large 
audience greeted the appearance of the chiefs with 
enthusiastic cheering. Richard Cadbury occupied the 
chair, and after extending to them a hearty welcome, 
he handed them an illuminated address, expressing 
warm sympathy with their mission to England. 

The meeting was full of enthusiasm, and the speeches 
of the three chiefs touched deep chords in the hearts 
of their hearers. On the following morning Khama 
and his suite left Birmingham, but their visit had 
strengthened and encouraged many to work for 
Christ with redoubled energy. To Richard Cadbury 
it had been a joy and a stimulation to meet with these 
Christian brothers from Africa, whose energies were 
so entirely devoted to the same kind of objects in life 
as his own. 





TN spite of the increase of other claims, Richard 
J- Cadbury's interest in Bournville affairs never 
slackened. His presence at the works could always 
be depended on. As regularly as the clock, he still 
turned up every morning at the corner by Dogpool 
Inn, and drove on in his " chariot," the works letter- 
van, for the old simplicity of habit and manner re- 
mained unchanged. To the last he was the friend of 
all the workpeople, approachable by any of them, 
courteous, and full of sympathy. It was no wonder 
that their love for him deepened with the years. 

Early in 1892, very soon after settling into Uffculme, 
he published a unique book, entitled Cocoa all about 
it, by " Historicus." This was the first complete 



and comprehensive work ever published upon the 
subject. The history and cultivation of the plant 
itself is first treated of ; then follows the history of its 
use as a food, with subsequent chapters on its analysis, 
manufacture, its value as an article of diet, and its 
adulterations. A description of vanilla, and an 
appendix giving further particulars as to the planting 
and culture of cocoa, complete the book. 

Its publication aroused a great deal of interest, and 
Richard Cadbury had taken infinite pains that it should 
be as attractively presented to the public as possible, 
not merely a learned dissertation on a food product 
and its manufacture. Almost every page is illustrated 
with coloured pictures, photographs, and engravings. 
Those which were most admired were the reproductions 
from quaint drawings in a rare work by Philippe 
Sylvestre Dufour, and one from an old Latin book 
on chocolate, allegorically representing . a casket of 
chocolate being handed to Neptune to make known 
to the countries of the world. About three years later 
it became necessary to issue a new edition, which 
contained additional matter and new points of interest, 
culled from " quaint and curious volumes of forgotten 
lore." Richard Cadbury wove the story of its use 
among the ancient lords of Mexico into quite a romance, 
with Montezuma as chief hero. More engravings were 
reproduced from Dufour, De Bry, Squier's Nica- 
ragua, Ogilby's America, and an old book by Bligny, 

In a short introduction to the new edition (1896) 
the author says : 


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Three years ago the writer ventured to place before the 
public some details respecting the cultivation and use of 
cocoa, and he has since been enabled to collect much new, and 
as he believes valuable, information. Few early books treat 
accurately or exhaustively of the subject, but nearly all the 
earlier travellers and settlers refer to cocoa as an important 
article of consumption in South America and Mexico, long 
before it was known in Europe. We owe much to adventurous 
navigators and explorers for luxuries that have now become 
a necessity of civilisation. Waste tracts of rich alluvial soil 
still remain uncultivated, and are likely, if properly utilised 
by generations to come, to be at once means of employment 
and sources of supply ; it is generally admitted that cocoa 
claims probably more attention than any other food product 
throughout the tropical zone in which it nourishes. 

The multitudinous mass of Press notices show 
something of the renewed interest the book aroused. 
" A most entertaining and instructive book " is the 
general verdict. " It is astonishing how much interest 
has been imparted to a homely subject. This work 
will be of value, not only to all interested in food 
products, but to the student of history and to the 
general reader." 

Bournville was becoming quite a little town in 
itself. Many trades were represented in the various 
departments, and the work of building and enlargement 
was continually going forward. Little by little the 
pleasant meadows by the trout-stream were swallowed 
up, but the greenness of the country clung wherever 
possible, to hide the prose of bricks and mortar. Trees 
were planted, creepers trained up the walls, and 
flower-beds and window-boxes added touches of bright 
colour. Inside and outside the factory, everything 
revealed intelligence and artistic taste behind its con- 


trol, as well as the thoughtfulness of kindly hearts. 
Five tall chimneys and some acres of warehouses and 
workshops, divided by streets, connected by bridges, 
and intersected by railway lines, gave to a visitor some 
idea of the extent of the works. But for all this, 
the first impression on passing through the porter's 
lodge was that of entering a garden, welcomed by the 
sweet breath of flowers and the song of birds, for on the 
left was the girls' playground, and beyond it the little 
private garden of the two partners. By degrees 
the firm was able to purchase more of the land sur- 
rounding the factory. This included, on the opposite 
side of the road, an old family mansion standing in 
beautiful well-timbered grounds, the name of which 
was changed from Bournbrook to Bourn ville Hall. 
It was adapted for use as a home for about sixty 
of the workgirls, who lived at a distance. They 
boarded there altogether, or, if they wished it, went 
to their own homes over the Sundays. Richard 
Cadbury took a personal interest in furnishing the 
Hall, especially in the choice of pictures to hang on 
the walls. Part of the gardens were railed off round 
the house and reserved for its occupants, while the 
kitchen garden and vineries were used to provide 
comforts for employees who were ill, for whose care 
two sick nurses were engaged. The rest of the grounds 
belonging to Bournville Hall were made into a re- 
creation ground for the workgirls in general. At 
the back were playing-fields, in a corner of which, 
asphalt tennis-courts were made and a roomy pavilion 
built. Between the fields and the road was a belt of 


fine old trees, and beneath its shade wound pretty 
shrubbery walks, lined with rustic seats. A passage 
was tunnelled under the road, leading straight from 
the works into the beautiful grounds, and on a summer's 
day few prettier sights could have been seen than the 
numbers of white-robed girls who streamed across in 
the dinner-hour to revel in the sunshine of the open 
fields, or sit in groups beneath the shady trees, enjoying 
a picnic lunch. These surroundings had an importance 
beyond the mere comfort and pleasure of the employees, 
for they contributed largely to the general air of 
health and cleanliness which pervaded the whole 
factory, and which are of such importance in the pre- 
paration of any food product. In every department 
order and regularity were preserved, and an earnestness 
of purpose was to be seen amongst the busy workers 
in that monster hive. 

The system of payment adopted was what is known 
as piece work, which was satisfactory alike to the 
workpeople and to the firm. From the first the 
partners encouraged thrift among their people, both 
by example and precept, and fresh impetus was 
given in 1897, by a scheme in honour of the Queen's 
Diamond Jubilee, when a savings fund was established 
at Bourn ville. The sum of one pound was given to 
every employee who had been for three years in the 
service of the firm, and ten shillings to those employed 
for a shorter time, on condition that this should form 
the nucleus of an account opened for each in the new 
savings fund. At the end of the year the amount due 
to each depositor, and interest at 4 per cent., was 


transferred to the Post Office Savings Bank. In a 
few years the money saved by this means grew to a very 
large sum. 

The short service at Bourn ville was still held at 
nine in the mornings, sanctifying and adding inspiration 
to the work of the day. It was felt by all to be like 
a " family reading," though, as Richard Cadbury 
would often say, his " family " was growing a large 
one. His earnestness in the brief addresses he gave 
will never be forgotten by those who heard him. 
Usually he would jot down a few thoughts in con- 
nection with the passage to be read, and the hymn 
chosen for singing. These notes were written at odd 
moments in the day, on various scraps of paper, yet 
for all that neat and legible. After taking the service 
he would place them between the leaves of his " works' 
Bible," which is full of them, scattered over the Old 
and New Testaments, and lying thickest perhaps 
between the pages of the Psalms and the Gospel of 
John. As stated earlier, attendance was voluntary, 
but, as a matter of fact, practically all the employees 
were willing and eager to join in the services, Roman 
Catholics enjoying them with the rest. When this 
came to the ears of the priests, it caused such uneasi- 
ness that finally the venerable Cardinal Newman called 
on the Cadbury brothers to talk over the matter. It 
was explained to him that there was absolutely no 
compulsion, but that they gladly welcomed all who 
wished to share in worshipping God, through the 
common Saviour Jesus Christ. The Cardinal was 
growing feeble, and at the close of their little conference 



the two brothers helped him with respectful courtesy 
to his carriage. Before closing the door Richard 
Cadbury clasped his hand warmly, saying, " Well, 
Cardinal, we are all one in Christ Jesus" ; and although 
not hazarding an affirmative reply, the old man 
returned the pressure of his hand. 

A Friends' Meeting had been established in the 
works soon after moving to Bournville, and was held 
on Sunday mornings in the room then used as the fore- 
women's dining-room. On the other side of the railway- 
line was the thickly populated district of Stirchley, 
which, although surrounded by the country, was full of 
the slum element, and Richard Cadbury and his brother 
began to feel a deep responsibility towards the people 
living there. A mothers' meeting had been begun 
in a simple way, but there was no suitable building 
available for this or the other Christian work which 
had grown around the Friends' Meeting. Neither 
was there any place except the public-houses where 
cyclists or others could get light refreshments. This 
need led Richard Cadbury and his brother to build a 
comfortable and well-arranged Institute on the main 
street of Stirchley, just below Bournville Station. It 
was completed early in 1892, and the opening on 
May 14th is thus described : 

About sixty leading Friends of the district assembled in one 
of the lower rooms of the Institute, between six and half-past 
for a prayer meeting. After a few verses of Scripture had 
been read, about twenty of those present took part in prayer, 
solemnly supplicating that the building which was about to 
be]: opened might tend to the advancement of the Redeemer's 
Kingdom, and be made a blessing to the village. The Friends' 


Meeting House will seat about five hundred persons, and the 
room below will accommodate about two or three hundred 
children. The building contains a coffee-house and class- 
rooms, as well as the two large rooms before mentioned. The 
attendance of the meetings connected with the Society of 
Friends is more than double that of all the other denominations 
of the village combined, so there is not sufficient room in the 
new building, and the board schools will have to be engaged 
on Sunday in addition. 

This led to a great increase in every part of the work. 
The Institute soon became the headquarters of a 
flourishing adult school, with children's Sunday 
schools, temperance societies, savings funds, and 
the many other ramifications of a work along the lines 
of the Severn Street Schools. A mission meeting on 
Sunday evenings was also established in connection 
with the Severn Street Christian Society. Richard 
Cadbury could not leave his class at Highgate on a 
Sunday morning, but often gave the gospel address 
at the evening meeting. A mothers' meeting had 
been held for some years in a small room at the co- 
operative stores, conducted by George Cadbury's first 
wife, and after her death for a short time by Richard's 
eldest daughter. It was now taken over permanently 
by his wife, who was warmly welcomed by those already 
in charge. His son William worked on the committee, 
and took great interest in directing the affairs of the 
Institute ; while his two eldest daughters, Jessie and 
Edith, took an earnest part in the work of the girls' 
club and the Christian Endeavour meeting. George 
Cadbury and his family regularly attended the Friends' 
Morning Meeting on Sundays, and took the chief 


responsibility of the Christian work which was con- 
nected with it. After some years other members of 
the Society of Friends came to live in the district 
surrounding Bourn ville, and shared in the management 
of the work. Any of the inhabitants of Bourn ville and 
Stirchley who cared to attend were welcomed at the 
various meetings, but a great number, especially of the 
teachers and others in responsible positions, were drawn 
from the ranks of the workpeople. This helped to 
strengthen the ties between them and their employers, 
binding them together, beyond their business relations, 
in an effort to spread the gospel amongst the homes 
crowded together below the railway-line, on the out- 
skirts of the factory. 

It was no wonder that the name of Richard Cad- 
bury should be revered, and his opinions on business 
matters trusted, far beyond the limits of Bourn ville. 
A gratifying and practical illustration of this may 
be given. At the close of the year 1894 a spirit of 
dissatisfaction was rife among the employees at the 
extensive alkali works, Oldbury, controlled by Messrs. 
Chance. With the New Year the matter was rapidly 
assuming definite shape, and threatened to crystallise 
into a strike. This was happily averted, owing largely 
to the amicable bearing shown by the employers and 
the reasonable spirit of the men. It was agreed on 
both sides that the whole question at issue should be 
referred to the arbitration of an independent, but 
capable, outsider. After some discussion the names 
of four well-known gentlemen were agreed upon, from 
whom one was to be selected whose decision should 


be accepted on both sides as final. The name of 
Richard Cadbury was among the four, and at once 
commended itself to those most deeply concerned in 
the dispute. The problem bristled with difficulties, 
but Richard Cadbury threw all his energy into working 
out an equitable solution. The extraordinary confi- 
dence placed in his judgment was shown by the 
readiness of masters and men to accept his decision. 
But for this wise resort to arbitration numbers of men 
would have been thrown out of employment, and the 
whole business disorganised. 

It may not be out of place here to record an incident 
that came to light soon after Richard Cadbury's death, 
though it occurred some years before. But for 
information spontaneously volunteered in a letter of 
sympathy, it would never have been known ; for 
Richard Cadbury, with that reticence which was one 
of his distinguishing features, never mentioned it. A 
gentleman interested in a benevolent work appealed 
to him for help, saying that he had already applied 
to the head of a rival firm (mentioning the name), 
from whom he had received the small donation of 
1. He could not help contrasting " this stinginess " 
with Richard Cadbury's well-known generosity. 
Great was the writer's surprise at receiving a 
reply enclosing an exactly similar amount. In his 
letter Richard Cadbury said, that while he entirely 
sympathised with the object of the appeal, " he could 

not allow his friend Mr. to be called ' stingy,' 

as it was quite the reverse of what was true." The 
rebuke told home, and to have acknowledged it so 


many years afterwards was at least a generous recog- 
nition of the lasting impression it had made. 

In the last year of his life Richard Cadbury was 
busy with a new scheme connected with Bournville. 
This was the erection of thirty-three almshouses near 
the new model village. They were originally intended 
to prove of value to the aged employees of the firm, 
who always have first chance amongst other appli- 
cants. The fact that only a small proportion of the 
inmates of these almshouses have had any connection 
with the works is an added testimony to the way in 
which the firm has looked after its own people, making 
it easy for them to live either with their own families 
or elsewhere. While this scheme was going forward, 
Richard Cadbury was also building a large institute 
on the Moseley Road ; but he threw as much interest 
into the new almshouses as though he had nothing 
else on his hands. The houses are built in groups 
of semi-detached one-storey cottages round a quad- 
rangle. As a visitor stands there, an old-world feeling 
of peace and restfulness steals over him. The velvety 
sweep of cool, green grass, surrounded by the low, 
red-roofed houses; the gay flower-beds; the clock- 
tower which stands in the centre ot the quadrangle, 
sleepily chiming the hours as they pass, all seems so 
far removed from the toil and bustle of the work-a-day 
world, that it is hard to realise that within a few 
hundred yards are the borders of an enormous indus- 
trial centre. There could be no more charming retreat 
for men and women who have toiled through the 
years of a long life, than to enter this little haven of 



rest. The age limit was fixed at sixty years and 
over, and the home-like atmosphere is greatly in- 
creased by the fact that married couples could con- 
tinue to live together. The inmates must " possess 
an assured minimum income of (single persons) 5s., 
or (couples) ys. 6d. per week, and not exceeding (single 
persons) fifty pounds, or (couples) sixty pounds per 
annum." Not only the pleasant dwelling, but fire, 
light, medical attendance, and medicine are given free. 
To form a permanent endowment fund for the alms- 
houses, Richard Cadbury built along the adjoining 
roads thirty-eight houses for ordinary residence, which 
are let at rents varying from nineteen to thirty pounds 
a year. 

On every hand there are most engaging proofs 
of his loving thoughtfulness for the frailties of an old 
age which he himself was never to reach. Each little 
house is complete in itself, and there are no stairs 
for the old people to climb. The front door opens 
into a tiny entrance hall, and in every way draughts 
are carefully guarded against. A large open arch 
leads from the sitting-room to the bedroom, and the 
heat from the big stone fireplace radiates to the re- 
motest corner of both rooms, lighting up with a ruddy 
glow the solid oak furniture. Behind the living rooms 
are the usual offices, which are all under cover. Some 
of the houses have small gardens belonging to them, 
and at the back of the quadrangle is a beautiful orchard, 
which originally belonged to Bournville Hall. Richard 
Cadbury specially provided that this should form a 
part of the almshouse property, and should never be 

i. From the road. 
2. The quadrangle. 


built on. It is a delightful place for the old people 
to wander about in, and here, too, are plots of ground 
for their use, in which they can grow flowers and 

Shortly before leaving England for his last journey to 
the East, Richard Cadbury had the joy of personally 
admitting the first six inmates. One house had been 
furnished throughout as a model, and although he did 
not live to see even the first inmates actually settled 
into the almshouses, he took them to see the model 
cottage, and showed them its comforts and conveni- 
ences with eager delight. 

By the end of this year, 1898, six members of the 
Cadbury family were engaged in the business. Barrow 
had shared his father's work at Bournville since 1882, 
and his brother William had also been there for 
eight years, followed soon afterwards by the eldest 
son of George Cadbury, whose second son joined the 
rest not long before the building of the almshouses. 
Owing to a large increase in the business during these 
later years, provision had been made by the two 
senior partners for its reorganisation as a private 
limited liability company. At Richard Cadbury 's 
death it was found that all the details had been care- 
fully thought out beforehand. 

"lit was because Richard Cadbury, foremost among 
the captains of industry of his day, realised that it 
was a far nobler and more patriotic thing to make 
men than to make money, that he won so large a 
measure of popular admiration in his lifetime, and 
has since been mourned with such genuine sorrow. 


[So runs an article in The London Quarterly Review 
for July, 1899, by Hugh W. Strong.] Without any 
well-defined sense of the real nature and extent of 
their communal obligation to this amiable, self- 
denying, unobtrusive Quaker, men have spoken of 
him, gratefully and affectionately, as one of the truest 
philanthropists that ever sought to allay the sufferings 
and promote the happiness of humanity. . . . The 
discharge of the high stewardship of wealth to which 
he held himself called . . . and the devotion of a 
beautifully selfless nature to the educational, social, 
moral, and spiritual elevation of the workmen of his 
own city . . . proclaim Richard Cadbury a leader 
and a prophet, a man among a million." 



THE march-music of old Father Time is irresistible. 
It changes its theme and varies its measure, 
but it never stops, and we must go with it. The 
themes are not so very numerous, after all, and repeat 
themselves again and again while we pass along with 
our contemporaries in the procession of the generations. 
Sometimes the air is played lightly with a sound like 
a lullaby ; at other times it is slow and muffled, for a 
funeral dirge ; and again our feet move faster in time 
to a joyous wedding march. And then at last all 
the mingled sounds grow faint as we, too, pass beyond 
the music of time to the solemn and grander strains 
of eternity. 

The years 1896 and 1897 were marked by marriage 
festivities in tbe Uffculme circle. Richard Cadbury's 



two eldest daughters had become engaged, Jessie to 
the Rev. T. G. Clarke, for many years curate-in- 
charge of St. Philip's Church, Birmingham ; and Edith 
to Arnold E. Butler, a young Friend, also of Birming- 
ham. The first wedding took place at St. Philip's 
in April, 1896. On returning from their honeymoon 
the young couple were welcomed by Richard Cadbury 
and his wife to their new home in Corby, a charming 
Northamptonshire village. For a hundred years and 
more no lady had held sway in the rectory, for the 
last three rectors had been unmarried. The people of 
Corby, therefore, gave a warm welcome to the bride 
and bridegroom who had come into their midst, and 
taking the horses from the carriage, in which they and 
their parents were to drive from the station, pulled them 
through triumphal arches to the doors of their new 
home. It was a happy beginning, but the delight and 
love of the villagers grew deeper when, not much more 
than a year later, the rectory echoed to the unaccus- 
tomed sounds of a baby's voice. The little newcomer 
brought added joy to the home at Uffculme. He was 
named Richard (after his grandfather) Thomas Victor 
Clarke ; and when about a year old a little painting of 
him was sent by his mother to her parents, Richard 
Cadbury hung it in his library, with a miniature of 
little Paul. His letter of thanks shows the loving 
pride of the grandfather's heart : 

Thank you both very much [he wrote] for the lovely 
birthday present received this morning quite safely. What a 
treasure these little gifts of God are to us all. How it makes 
the earth young again ! The picture is excellent, and will 
form a delightful subject to look upon, when I feel tired, and 


always. May God richly bless the lad with all those gifts 
and graces that will fit him for His service. We all join in 
dearest love to you all. 

Your affectionate father. 

Three months after their eldest daughter's marriage 
the silver wedding of Richard Cadbury and his wife 
was celebrated amidst great rejoicing. They had not 
at first intended to have any elaborate festivities, but 
their children and the thousands who loved them gladly 
seized such an opportunity of showing their esteem 
and affection. On Monday, July 20th, the grounds 
at Uffculme were thronged with, over two thousand of 
the employees from Bourn ville, who had been given a 
holiday in honour of the event. When the bride and 
bridegroom of five-and-twenty years ago stepped out 
on to the terrace, they were greeted with ringing 
cheers from the crowd that swayed in a dense mass 
over the sloping lawns. His strong black beard was 
changed to grey, and the golden waves of her hair were 
silver now. Sorrow had swept over them, responsi- 
bilities had increased upon them ; but there had been 
no bitterness, no crushing grief, no despairing heart- 
ache. Hand in hand they had passed through joy 
and pain, together they had worked and lived " each 
for the other, and both for God." They had striven 
for the welfare and happiness of others, and God had 
flooded their own lives with sunshine. The knowledge 
of their perfect love and devotion to one another 
did more, perhaps, to help those whom their lives 
touched, than any of their good and kindly deeds. 
It was an inspiration, a radiant and beautiful example, 


which spoke louder than words. The courtesy and 
reverence which characterised their treatment of each 
other, their absolute faith and loyalty, the unselfishness 
of their united aims, made marriage appear in the 
eyes of all who knew them, most of all their children, 
to be the holy and ideal earthly relationship which 
God intended it should be. They were lovers to the 
end, and as they stood on the terrace that hot July 
day the love-light on their faces told its own tale. 
The strong, well-built figure, and the slim, girlish 
form, clad in silver-grey, looked so youthful and 
vigorous that long years of happy union and service 
seemed to lie before them. A silver epergne was 
presented on behalf of the workpeople, and Richard 
Cadbury was so touched by the evident love that 
accompanied the gift that he found it difficult to 
steady his voice when speaking his own and his wife's 
thanks. Two days later a garden-party was held for 
relations and members of the Society of Friends, and 
on Saturday, the 25th, the actual Silver Wedding Day, 
about 930 men and women scholars from Highgate, 
belonging to Class XV., took their turn in the 

Urged by his children, Richard Cadbury, who never 
liked missing his adult school work, consented to go 
to Malvern with his wife over the Sunday for a minia- 
ture honeymoon. Romance filled the air, and the 
girls insisted that their mother should have a new 
going-away dress, and saw to it that a beautiful 
home-made bouquet and buttonhole were provided. 
Their aunts, Maria Fairfax and Alice^Wilson, two of 



the bridesmaids of long ago, entered into the fun, and 
waited on the bride. Instead of the single-horse 
brougham which had been ordered to drive Mr. 
and Mrs. Cadbury to the station, the open landau, 
with flowers in the lamps, was brought round, 
the men with buttonholes, the horses gay with 
favours, and an old shoe tied to the back of the 
carriage. The drive and the road were thickly lined 
with members of the family and household and 
the Highgate friends, all of whom were provided 
with handfuls of fresh rose-leaves. As the carriage 
drove off with its smiling, happy pair, the level rays 
of evening sunshine irradiated their faces and the 
falling showers of pink and white petals that rained 
upon them. It was late when they reached Great 
Malvern, and the day ended with a long, quiet walk 
over the range to the western side. The brilliant 
moonlight, the balmy air of a summer night, the 
hushed repose of the hills above and the long shadowy 
valley at their feet, were in harmony with their 
thoughts, as they took their way, arm-in-arm, recalling 
tender memories of the Love that had watched over 
them and guided their footsteps through the twenty- 
five years they had journeyed together. 

They returned home on the Monday, and on the 
following day 3,200 of the women from the mothers' 
meetings of the Gospel Temperance Mission came 
to Uffculme to complete the happy festivities in 
honour of the silver wedding. It was characteristic 
that the guests chosen to rejoice with them should 
have included not only their personal friends and 


relations, but the larger circle of friends connected 
with Bournville, the adult school and mission work 
at Highgate, and the Gospel Temperance Mission. 

In the autumn of this same year, 1896, George 
Cadbury's eldest son was married to a Nottingham 
cousin of the Uffculme family, further cementing the 
bond of relationship. 

The following summer Richard's daughter Edith 
was married to Arnold E. Butler in the Friends' 
meeting-house at Bull Street. It was a brilliant June 
day, and all went off as happily as at her sister's 
marriage and on the silver wedding day. The parents 
felt losing their two eldest girls from the home 
circle, but rejoiced so entirely in their happiness, 
that no room was left for selfish regrets. The only 
member of the family who was far away was by no 
means forgotten. This was Richard, the third son, 
who was in South Africa. Finding that his health 
could not stand the strain of indoor work, the printing 
business had had to be abandoned, and after a course 
of study in market-gardening in Jersey, his father had 
bought him a piece of land in Cape Colony, where he 
hoped to combine Christian work with his fruit-growing 
interests. From the time he went out, his father 
never failed, however busy he might be, to write 
him a letter each week, sometimes quite short, but 
never forgotten. 

On the day after their daughter Edith's wedding, 
Richard Cadbury and his wife planned a long day's 
excursion, for the party of guests and relatives, to 
Wynd's Point, the new country home of the Cadbury 


family at Malvern. The Malvern Hills were, to the 
end of his life, one of Richard Cadbury's favourite 
holiday resorts ; the glorious freshness of the air 
which swept across them refreshed and invigorated 
him like nothing else but the air of the Swiss moun- 
tains. For a long while he had admired the beautiful 
spot in which the famous singer, Jenny Lind, had 
passed the last five years of her life. It lay in a 
hollow of the hills, high on the top of the pass 
which crosses the range below the Herefordshire 
Beacon. A disused quarry in one part of the grounds 
forms a rugged background of rock and crag to the 
thick belt of trees which shelter the front of the house 
from the keen winds. Behind the house, the well- 
wooded hillside, enclosed in the grounds, climbs steeply 
to the level of the quarry's height and the top of the 
ridge, from which a magnificent panorama can be 
seen on all sides. Wynd's Point is almost in the 
centre of the range which stretches in a straight line 
northwards past the Wych and the Worcestershire 
Beacon to the bare, abrupt slopes of the North Hill. 
To the south, the hills beyond the Herefordshire 
Beacon are wooded and irregular in shape, curving 
round the edge of Lady Henry Somerset's beautiful 
estate of Eastnor in diminishing undulations. From 
the summer-house above the quarry in the grounds 
of Wynd's Point, you can see, on a fine day, the 
Welsh mountains away to the west, like purple 
shadows on the horizon. Turning towards the east, 
the smoke of Cheltenham rises beyond Bredon, under 
the Cotswolds, and to the extreme right and left 


the square towers of the cathedrals in Gloucester 
and Worcester are silhouetted against the silvery 
cloud of smoke hanging over the towns. 

When Jenny Lind and her husband bought Wynd's 
Point the house was little more than a cottage ; but 
they enlarged it, throwing some of the small rooms 
into one, and adding several new portions to the 
building. A long, covered-in verandah was built on to 
the front of the drawing-room, at the end of which 
was a small octagonal nook opening into it through 
a wide arch, and one step lower than the rest. This 
was decorated in white and gold, and was called " The 
Golden Cage," in honour of its mistress. After her 
death in 1887, Wynd's Point was let, furnished as it 
had been, to various people, until it was bought by 
Richard Cadbury and his brother. They and their 
wives entered into a unique arrangement, in order 
that the country home might be more thoroughly 
used than it could have been by either family alone. 
They shared all expense equally, and took possession 
of the place on alternate months, exchanging when 
necessary. When no member of either family wished 
to use it, it was lent by each in turn to their various 
friends and acquaintances. In this way many an 
opportunity occurred of making possible a delightful 
holiday for convalescents after illness, or for tired 
Christian workers after months of toil in the crowded 
city. The peace and quiet, the majestic curves of 
the hills, the glorious outlook over plain and valley 
on either side, the wild life to be studied in birds, 
squirrels, and rabbits, the scent of the gorse, the sound 


of the wind sighing in the trees or sweeping in a hurri- 
cane over the wide expanse all these things made 
Wynd's Point an ideal nature's playground. Its 
associations with the sweet singer who had breathed 
her last within it added a sense of romance to every- 
thing. All the furniture and household adornments 
which had belonged to her were greatly prized by 
Richard Cadbury. It was not until a few months 
after his death that his wife, who was staying at 
Wynd's Point, had the pleasure of meeting Mr. Otto 
Goldschmidt (Jenny Lind's husband) and his son, who 
called upon her. The sight of his old home recalled 
many tender memories to the 'old man's mind, and 
he could hardly bear to look up at the windows of 
the room in which his beloved wife had passed away. 
He spoke of her with the deepest affection, and pointed 
out shrubs in the garden which they had brought 
home from the Riviera, and planted together, and 
told how she had built the summer-house on the lawn 
as a surprise-gift for him, so that he could sit out of 
doors to work at his musical compositions. He was 
greatly touched by the evident reverence with which 
everything belonging to her had been treated, and 
felt a bond of sympathy between himself and Mrs. 
Cadbury in the sorrow and bereavement that had 
come to each. In memory of his visit he sent her a 
beautiful engraving of Jenny Lind, in all the charm 
and loveliness of her young days. 

Wynd's Point proved a great source of refreshment 
to Richard Cadbury through the last busy years of 
his life. 


The hills are white with snow [he wrote on February 4th, 
1898, to one of his daughters]. It was snowing all morning, 
but was fine for Daisy, Beatrice, and Alec, who came this 
afternoon. We went for a walk this evening by moonlight. 
It was gloriously fresh, and on our return we found the roads 
hard with frost. The gorse is yellow with flower, and one 
rose-tree is green with young leaves. I think the rest is doing 
dear mother good. I am thankful to say that I am strong 
and full of vigour ; these fresh winds blow strength into me. 

The home into which Edith Butler and her husband 
had settled was the house in Wheeley's Road, 
Edgbaston, in which she had been born. We can 
fancy the memories called up in the minds of her 
parents every time they entered it, and especially when 
a nursery was established and the little gate at the 
head of the stairs in use again. The baby boy whose 
advent brought about these happy arrangements was 
the fourth and last of his numerous grandchildren 
whom Richard Cadbury had the joy of seeing. It 
was a happy circumstance that he should be the 
one named after his grandfather, Richard Cadbury 

Here we have spoken only of Richard Cadbury's 
home-life and surroundings, but at the same time 
the circles of outside influence and work for God 
were widening in all directions. The wonderful sense 
of restfulness about him was a marvel to all who knew 
how busy his life was. At times he would be somewhat 
burdened by the pressure, but was never low-spirited 
or depressed. His courage always rose in times of 
difficulty, and the uniform cheerfulness of his manner 
carried sunshine wherever he went. He always seemed 


to have time for his home and children, and for any 
who were in trouble and needed his help. No one felt 
that he treated them as one of a number, or that he 
was in a hurry to get to the next. His good nature 
and patience seemed tireless. One thing that ac- 
counted for all this was his power of concentration. 
He seemed to devote his whole energy to whatever 
he had in hand, and for the time being to forget 
everything else. Directly it was finished he would 
leave it, and turn with renewed vigour to the next 
thing engaging his attention. In this way he would 
often get the refreshment of short sleeps. Many a 
time his wife would tuck him up for a quarter of an 
hour on his library sofa, and after perhaps ten minutes' 
sleep he would start out reinvigorated. Only a man 
with a conscience and mind at ease could have done 
this. There is no doubt that, of all earthly things, 
what he most depended upon was harmony and peace 
in his home-life. So long as he knew that he possessed 
the love and confidence of his own little circle, no 
outside worries or anxieties could ruffle more than the 
surface of his happiness. But deeper than all else lay 
the great secret which governed his life. It was an open 
secret, never boasted of, but to be seen and read of 
all men. The verbal expression of it is to be found 
in the words from one of his favourite hymns, which 
always hung in his dressing-room : 

Peace, perfect peace, by thronging duties pressed ? 
To do the will of Jesus, this is rest ! 

Not many of the letters written to members of his 


family have been kept, but all reveal the intimate 
friendship that existed between Richard Cadbury 
and his children, as well as his longing for their spiritual 
welfare. To one of his sons who was away from home 
he wrote : 

Don't forget daily to read a portion of Scripture, and keep 
close, in prayer and in life, to Him who will be thy comfort 
at any time of perplexity and trouble. May God guide and 
keep thee in all thy ways. 

And again : 

We often think of thee, and pray that God will preserve 
thee from all the power of evil. It is a comfort to know that 
there is one Friend ever near, who knows all our need, and will 
shield His children from all harm. 

The same thought appears in a letter to a daughter 
who had just gone to Germany : 

May the Lord guide thee and keep thee in all thy ways. 
Times of trial and temptation and disappointment come to 
us all, but there is a sure refuge and strength in Him, who 
has passed through it for our sakes, and in whom we may 
find perfect peace. 

On November 18th, 1896, he wrote to another 
daughter : 

This is only a little note to send thee my dear love and 
good wishes on thy birthday. How quickly eighteen years 
have slipped away ! It makes me feel quite old to have you 
all growing up into women. Well, it is after all but a little 
space to the end, but God has given us a better hope of the 
glorious land, where no sorrow or temptation shall come. 
Of course, it is not intended that we should be always thinking 
about that, but it is such a perfect rest to know that all is 
well with us, and with all we so dearly love. 


A letter from Egypt to his second son in 1897 
contained another birthday message : 

I wish especially to join with the others in wishing thee a 
very happy birthday, and that thy life may be spared for many 
a year, both for thy own blessing and for the happiness of all 
whom thou may influence for good. This indeed makes life 
worth living, and God has given us so many opportunities for 
making those around us happy that it becomes a duty as well 
as a privilege to do what we can, and this includes the little 
opportunities quite as much as the greater. I often have my 
heart full of praise to God that He has given my dear children 
this spirit. The Nile journey has been a great rest and enjoy- 
ment to me and to us all, and now I long to be at home again 
with you. 

An incident must here be told as a testimony to 
the way in which God hears and answers the believing 
prayer of a fully surrendered soul. During her college 
life one of Richard Cadbury's daughters had happened 
to come into contact with a refined sort of scepticism 
and a subtle attitude of criticism towards Christian 
truth, which, added to an intense agony of soul caused 
by the Armenian massacres, had shaken her hitherto 
unquestioning faith to its foundations. This was 
followed by a state of spiritual paralysis, and a cessation 
of any effort to win souls for Christ. On going to 
Germany to study the language and music, the tempta- 
tion to throw heart and soul into the favourite and 
absorbing pursuit swept aside all graver considerations. 
With her old love for the things of God stifled by the 
mood of almost cynical indifference that was fast 
growing upon her, and with the intoxicating delight 
of her musical studies, it was easy to persuade herself 
that her old moral objections to the stage were prudish 



and the result of ignorance and prejudice. She was 
resolved not to go to the theatre, as some around her 
were doing, without her parents' knowledge, nor 
against their express veto, though it is to be feared 
that her conscience had to be salved with regard to 
their wishes. She had allowed herself to be persuaded 
that her musical education was incomplete without 
attending the opera, and was ready to believe that the 
tone of the operatic stage was purer than that of the 
ordinary theatre. At any rate, she besought per- 
mission to see some of the great operas, determining 
not to indulge too frequently, nor to allow any of her 
ideals with regard to the sanctities of life to be lowered. 
Richard Cadbury's wisdom in dealing with this difficult 
mood was remarkable. He took a course seldom 
followed by men of his intensely strong views on such 
matters. He trusted in God rather than in his own 
right to forbid ; and though his heart was torn with 
sorrow and regret at his daughter's request, he wrote 
her the following letter from Wynd's Point, where he 
was staying : 

Sunday, February 6th, 1898. We have been spending a quiet 
day or two here, mother and I. It has been delightful weather, 
the sun shining brilliantly nearly all day. We have just been 
singing hymns together in the drawing-room. Mother has 
told me of thy chat with her about operas, and I promised to 
write to thee about it. Of course, thou art of an age to judge 
for thyself on such matters, and neither mother nor I wish to 
dictate or lay down our will against thy well-considered 
judgment. Nor do I know sufficient of the character and 
surroundings of such entertainments to go into any detail. I 
have been very happy without anything of the kind, and so 
far our dear children have not only had happy lives, but 


lives which have been untainted with the fascination that 
often draws young girls into worldly life and associations. 
I want thee to feel that we both have every confidence in 
thee, and are quite sure that thou wilt not enter into any- 
thing that thou knows thou cannot ask God's blessing upon. 
This is our safeguard, if we are honest to our convictions 
and make God's written word our rule of conduct. I have 
been reading a lovely little bit from J. J. Gurney, where 
he speaks of conscience as " sitting in the court of every 
man's soul as a judge." When truly guided by the Holy 
Spirit, it is the representative of God in our bosoms, and 
ought to reign supreme over all our actions, bodily and 
mental ; and then he goes on to show how we may dethrone 
Conscience from her throne of " power " by our own wilfulness, 
although " the divine decree which establishes her authority " 
is still in force. I think we realise thy reasons on the question 
of the opera as the means of hearing musical talent, and of 
education, and do not for a moment dispute it. Make it a 
matter of earnest prayer, and God will guide thee aright, and 
rest assured that we shall not judge thee. May the Lord bless 
thee, my darling, with His richest blessings, and make thee 
still ajDlessing to others. With dearest love from us all, 

Thy affectionate father. 

The tenderness and trust that breathed through 
the whole letter entirely disarmed the almost defiant 
expectation of a refusal with which it had been awaited ; 
but after a time the girl's carefully reasoned arguments, 
combined with the hunger for pleasure which had 
taken possession of her half-starved soul, proved too 
strong, and it became only too easy to " dethrone 
conscience by her own wilfulness." Perhaps it would 
have been well had she known of the agony of tears 
and pleading with which her father wrestled in prayer 
for her ; but God knew, and honoured the strong 
faith that left the guiding of affairs in wiser hands 
than his own. No earthly being but his wife, who 


shared all with him, knew what that conflict cost 
Richard Cadbury, but " the Father which seeth in 
secret " rewarded him openly. Out of deference to 
his wishes and the influence of his Christian work, his 
daughter had no intention of attending the theatre 
in Birmingham, but reserved to herself the right of 
doing so during the twelve months she expected to 
live abroad, and on any subsequent visits. Richard 
Cadbury's letters to her show none of the anxiety of 
his loving heart, but God did not disappoint him. 

An unexpected turn of events made it necessary 
for his daughter to return to England many months 
earlier than had been planned, thus removing her 
from immediate temptation, and giving her an oppor- 
tunity of being closely associated with her father 
during the last months of his life. To the glory of 
God it must be stated, that in time Richard Cadbury's 
prayers were fully answered, and the lasting joy of 
the things of God rilled his daughter's heart again, 
leaving no room or desire for the unsatisfying pleasures 
that bring so much spiritual deadness and misery in 
their train. 

Another illustration of his method of dealing with 
this kind of difficulty occurred in connection with 
his eldest son taking up smoking. It was a habit he 
personally disliked as unhealthy and disagreeable, 
and he held strong views about it ; but he did not 
stir up anger or opposition by directly forbidding him, 
though his son well knew that he was troubled about 
it. His father's quiet influence told upon him, and 
the habit was soon dropped. 



During the autumn of 1898 Richard Cadbury's 
son in South Africa became engaged to a half-cousin 
in England, and this new tie seemed to bind him 
closer to all at home. Barrow, Jessie, and Edith, with 
their families, were in constant touch with their 
parents at Uffculme ; while the rest, William, Helen, 
Daisy, Beatrice, and Alec, were all under the home- 
roof, none realising that those months, crowded 
with busy activity, were to be the last in which the 
father's earthly presence should gladden their lives. 
The loving hand of God was weaving the threads of 
family life with bright colours, up to the very edge of 
the dark shadow which lay beyond. It may truly 
be said that the characteristics marking all, and 
especially the private side of Richard Cadbury's life, are 
summed up in the words, " Now abideth faith, hope, 
love, these three ; but the greatest of these is love." 


PUBLIC SERVICE (1892 1898) 


RICHARD CADBURY was keenly alive to the 
privileges and responsibilities of Christian citi- 
zenship. The tendencies which he inherited, and the 
atmosphere in which he had been reared, were all on 
the side of public-spirited devotion to the service of the 
community in which he lived. He was not unfaithful 
to his traditions, although the task of building up a 
huge business, and the time and energy given to mission 
and temperance work, made it impossible for him to 
take a prominent part in city government or in politics. 
With regard to the latter, while realising its impor- 
tance, he shrank in his earlier days from the strife and 
personal bitterness so often displayed on its battle- 
ground. But his interest in temperance reform, his 



desire for religious freedom, and earnest hope that 
war and militarism might yield to the saner methods 
of international arbitration, were among the things 
that held him to a steadfast loyalty to Liberalism. 
He was an ardent admirer of Bright and Cobden, and 
more particularly of Gladstone, although he could 
not unite with him on every point. The granting of 
grocers' licences, for instance, he regarded as a great 
error, believing that it would lead to increased drinking 
among women, as afterwards proved to be the case. 
Through the first half of its political history Birming- 
ham was overwhelmingly Liberal, but vicissitudes 
brought the fortunes of the Liberal Association to a 
low ebb in the eighties. Its treasurer and most 
generous supporter died, its secretary resigned, and its 
future was in a state of suspense. Mr. W. Finnemore, 
who has since been its efficient secretary, remembers 
meeting Richard Cadbury in the street just at the 
time that he was considering whether to accept the 
appointment. They stopped to speak, and Richard 
Cadbury said : 

" I hear there is some chance of your coming to 
the Liberal Association. I am very interested to 
hear it. The work is so difficult and trying that I 
should hesitate to recommend you to do it ; but, 
if you do, I shall be glad to help you, and I can speak 
for my brother also." 

Needless to say [writes Mr. Finnemore], in face of the diffi- 
culties which Liberal work in Birmingham presented, that was 
a most comforting assurance, and he was as good as his word. 
We reorganised the association, and in the first year won 


the first political success that had been achieved, since the 
split in 1886, at a by-election for the ward of Lady wood. 
This delighted Mr. Cadbury very much. He was singularly 
broad-minded as a politician, and for political ends in which 
he believed was quite content to work with men from whom 
on other questions he strongly dissented. . . . Before the 
shadow of the South African War fell across us, the progress 
made in Birmingham was so encouraging that a wide scheme 
of work had been planned. The last communication I ever 
had from Mr. Cadbury was a letter saying how much he would 
like to help. He said he was then making preparations for 
a journey to the East, but asked me to see him immediately 
on his return. Alas ! that time never came, and all good 
works in Birmingham, and many elsewhere, suffered heavily 
by the great loss. 

Richard Cadbury was vice-chairman of the Liberal 
Association in 1889. A glimpse of him is given, in 
November of the previous year, in a newspaper de- 
scription of a Birmingham mayoral reception given to 
Liberals, at which Mr. Gladstone and other repre- 
sentatives of the party were present. " Mr. Richard 
Cadbury of Moseley Hall, another well-known face," 
says the account, " was closely followed by his guest, 
Sir Wilfred Lawson." 

In 1890 he became vice-president, and filled the 
position of president from 1891 to 1897. A letter 
accepting reappointment in 1894 shows the spirit 
which dominated his political ideals : 

I hardly like again to accept the honourable position, in 
which you wish to place me, seeing that I cannot take an active 
part in your proceedings, but as it is the wish of your committee 
I cannot refuse. 

You have my warm sympathy in your battle for liberty, 
equality and brotherhood. Do not be afraid to own Christ 
as your leader, and to look to Him for guidance and strength. 


He was also president of the Deritend Ward Liberal 
Club for four years 1895-98 ; and of the Relief 
Association connected with it, contributing largely to 
the various funds. 

Mr. Cadbury was so generous that he never refused his 
help [writes the secretary], either politically or otherwise, for 
any fund in which he was interested for the welfare of the 
people. He has sometimes sent me as many as twenty notes 
at a time for hospitals or other charities. 

In 1895 Richard Cadbury was asked to stand for 
Parliament. Under the circumstances he finally con- 
sented, if the Liberal Association were unable to 
secure another candidate. This they succeeded in 
doing, and he gave his warmest support to the nominee 
of the party. " He always seemed to have time to 
consult with us," wrote this gentleman, " and made 
it a pleasure to be of service to those who needed 
his counsel." "Mr. Richard Cadbury was true to 
Liberalism right through its darkest days," was the 
verdict of another ; while the gentleman who preceded 
him as chairman of the Deritend Ward said, that he 
" was well-known for his philanthropic large-hearted- 
ness, robust Liberalism, and for everything which went 
to distinguish a great and good man." 

It was to be expected that temperance legislation 
would be one of the subjects engaging Richard Cad- 
bury's special attention. Early in the nineties the 
Bishop of Chester was vigorously carrying forward a 
campaign for the adoption of the Gothenburg system, as 
established in Sweden. This was, briefly, a scheme for 
the municipalisation of the liquor traffic, including the 


provision of model public-houses. Richard Cadbury 
studied the arguments for and against the Gothenburg 
experiment, comparing its results with those of the 
Norwegian Local Option Law of 1877, which, in the 
five towns that adopted it, reduced the consumption 
of alcoholic drinks by 50 per cent, in fifteen years. 
In November, 1892, he was invited by Mr. Joseph 
Chamberlain to meet the Bishop of Chester and others 
at Highbury, the grounds of which, by the way, 
adjoined Uffculme, in order to have a free discussion 
of the whole question. He became more and more 
convinced that the Gothenburg system, however 
inviting it might seem in theory, was founded on 
retrograde principles, and would menace the hopes 
of real progress in temperance reform. His chief 
objections to it, briefly stated, were : that it did 
not strike at the root of the evil of drunkenness ; 
that it could not be proved to have reduced drinking 
in Sweden ; that it did not provide any area free from 
the temptation to drink ; that it did not protect the 
poor, while the rich were able to protect themselves, 
as in suburban building estates ; that the licences, 
being annual, would receive a legalised vitality, and 
be more difficult to repress ; and finally, that the 
effect and influence of passing the trade over to town 
and county councils would be to stimulate it, in order 
to reduce the rates, thus doing away entirely with 
any inducement for decreasing the sale. He studied 
the results of prohibition in the state of Maine, U.S.A., 
and also in Toxteth Park, an important suburb of 
Liverpool, containing over ten thousand houses, and 


soon had at his fingers' ends a long list of unanswerable 
arguments in favour of local option. These proved 
useful ammunition in the fight that raged in 1895 
round Sir William Harcourt's Local Veto Bill, which 
Richard Cadbury championed in the face of bitter 
opposition. The threadbare arguments of his oppo- 
nents, and the old outcry that local power to prohibit 
the trade assailed the liberties of the people, and that 
the law could be, and was, evaded in prohibition 
areas, were child's play against the tremendous logic 
of cool facts which Richard Cadbury poured out in 
his public correspondence. One of the things he 
specially approved of in Sir William Harcourt's Bill 
was that it gave power, independently of restriction, 
to control the character of the public-houses, as well 
as the number, by placing safeguards in the hands of 
the magistrates. He did not live to see the check 
given to progress by the temporary removal of all such 
power from the licensing justices, but we may hope 
that the ideals for which he strove may yet become 
established facts. 

Richard Cadbury regarded the responsibility en- 
tailed by the possession of voting power as a serious 
one, whether for candidates in civic or national govern- 
ment. He was not only faithful in exercising it 
rightly himself, but taught the same principles to the 
men in his school. A Methodist minister gives a 
flash-light picture of him on the occasion of a municipal 
election : 

It was a bitter winter's morning, and the polling day had 
come. It was not fit for a dog to be out sleet, snow, a biting 


wind, and the street slushy and dark at 8 a.m. when the 
polling station opened. I was residing where I could see the 
lighted schoolroom, as the doors opened on the stroke of the 
hour. I could not see an elector anywhere. Wading out, 
feeling sure I should be the first to poll, I saw just entering the 
door of the lighted room the familiar figure of my friend, 
Mr. Cadbury. He was first ! I often recall his earnestness 
and splendid promptness in doing his duty. 

The story of Richard Cadbury's public service on 
the Bench is told in another chapter, as well as one 
side of his struggle against sectarian religious teaching 
in the board schools. A subject to which he devoted 
some of his best energies was that of social purity. 
For many years he was president of the Birmingham 
branch of the National Vigilance Association, and was 
by no means a mere figurehead to its work. We have 
already spoken of his chivalrous attitude towards 
womanhood, imbibed from the beautiful influences 
of his parents' teaching in boyhood. In presence of 
the grave horrors of social evil, he took an undaunted 
stand as champion of the wronged and oppressed. 
There was no subject that gave deeper revelations of 
the latent fire at the heart of his gentle and loving 
nature. He followed with earnest sympathy the brave 
fight of Englishwomen, under Mrs. Josephine Butler's 
leadership, when the country was menaced by the 
Medical Congress at Brussels in 1873, which did its 
utmost to carry out an international scheme for State 
regulation of vice. When the Criminal Law Amend- 
ment Act of 1885 was passed, he realised the great 
responsibility of the National Vigilance Association in 
seeing that it was put into force. 


" Our business," he said, " is to make and keep the public 
acquainted with the nature and provisions of the Act ; to put 
those provisions in force in the interests of the poor and de- 
fenceless ; to protect the wronged when justice requires it ; 
and to punish the real transgressors, who too often get off 

" Many duties rest upon us," he said on another occasion. 
" First, in the training of boys and girls in the way of pure 
thought, pure language, pure literature, and a polite and 
courteous treatment of one another." 

He went on to speak of rescue efforts, the protection 
of girls seeking situations at home and abroad, the 
prevention of the sale and publication of indecent 
literature, the campaign against objectionable posters, 
and other lines of work, closing with the words : 

No doubt we may be called prudish and sentimental by 
some ; but it will not hurt us, nor do we care for their gibes. 
What we do care for is the purity of our young men, and the 
lovable sweetness of our daughters, which can only come from 
a pure heart. 

" I still look on prevention as by far the most hopeful 
method of dealing with such matters," he said at another 
time. " Much is in the hands of parents. Are we doing all 
we can to purify our literature, our entertainments, and 
our homes using every means to raise the tone and taste 
of our young people ? Promiscuous dancing and the drinking 
customs of society are all more or less responsible for this 
sin. Purity and temperance are the handmaids of religion, 
and there is no higher happiness than that which flows from 
their godly companionship." 

Richard Cadbury did more than preside over 
meetings and give addresses, or organise and subscribe 
to the work. He took a personal part in it, following 
up many an individual case. 


On one occasion he heard of a girl who had been 
betrayed by the son of one of Birmingham's most 
wealthy citizens. He at once called upon the father 
of the young man, and calmly but firmly told him 
that, unless his son made ample reparation and pro- 
vision for the girl's future, he would institute a prose- 
cution and himself be responsible for all the legal 
expenses. The result was that the unfortunate girl 
was amply provided for. 

" It is imperative," he said, at one of the annual meetings 
of the association, " upon all leaders of religious thought, and 
especially on ministers of the gospel, to speak frequently and 
pointedly upon the question of social purity. It is naturally 
a delicate subject to deal with, and ought never to be spoken 
of without a deep sense of duty, and with the guidance of the 
divine spirit. ... So long as sin reigns, laws must be made 
and put into force; but far more efficacious are those laws 
which are written within our hearts and consciences. It is 
this higher moral law which we desire should predominate, 
but this can never be accomplished until the unregenerate 
heart is changed, and we become new creatures in Jesus 

Richard Cadbury was deeply conscious of the power 
of the Press in moulding the thought and opinion of 
the nation. He longed to see it the channel of in- 
fluences which should attack such social evils as 
gambling, drinking, impurity, and militarism. Mr. 
Sheldon's book, In His Steps, made a great im- 
pression on him, and an object he had much at heart 
was the establishment of a newspaper that would 
uphold national righteousness, and seek to bring into 
practical effect the teaching of Jesus Christ. He did 
not live to carry out this intention, though his brother, 


George, who knew of it, has since made a practical 
start in the direction of his ideal by excluding from 
the pages of The Daily News, not only advertisements 
of intoxicating liquors, but also all betting news and 




THERE was no part of Richard Cadbury's Christian 
work which did not bring him face to face with 
the evil effects of strong drink. Every year his 
principles with regard to the need for total abstinence 
grew stronger ; yet, while his indignation was often hot 
against all encouragement of the liquor traffic, his 
personal attitude towards those whom he most ener- 
getically opposed may be gathered from a letter sent 
to George Cadbury shortly after his brother's death. 
It came from the chief office of a " High class weekly 
trade journal, devoted to the interest of and circula- 
ting among licensed victuallers, brewers, wine and 
spirit shippers, etc." 

"Though widely separated from you in most things," ran the 
letter, " I hope you will allow me to add my condolence to the 
many you will be receiving from all parts on the death of your 
dear brother, Mr. Richard Cadbury. His simple goodness 
compelled the respect, and even the love, of many who differed 
from him on public questions, and who, in private life, find it 



impossible to follow his noble example. You will find it 
difficult to understand how one such as I am can be touched 
by the death of such a one as he was ; nevertheless, try to 
believe that every word I have here or elsewhere written of 
him is sincere and heartfelt." 

These few words are a wonderful indication of 
Richard Cadbury's character, in which determination 
was tempered with charity. There was no doubt as 
to his convictions, and no wavering in his outspoken 
expression of them. Never for a moment did he turn 
aside from the fight against what he regarded as a 
national curse, and one of the greatest hindrances to the 
gospel of Christ. Not even the calumny that he fought 
for temperance because he was a cocoa manufacturer 
could cause the least diminution in his efforts. It 
was too groundless to have any power of hurting him. 

As the temperance cause grew in popularity through 
the energy of Christian people, the educational side 
of the movement began to develop, and numbers 
threw in their lot with it merely from humanitarian, 
scientific, and economic reasons. This extension of 
influence was a magnificent sign of the awakening of 
the nation to common sense and a higher-toned moral 
attitude towards a question which for so long had never 
troubled the public conscience. At the same time it 
meant the introduction of a variety of methods in the 
manner of combating the evil. There were many who 
did not look beyond the present life, and who had no 
personal acquaintance with the power of Christ to 
break the chains of sin, drunkenness included. This led 
them into a somewhat negative line of procedure. In- 



stead of recognising the need for what has been called 
" the expulsive power of a new affection," substituting 
a new motive force at the centre of a human life, it was 
considered sufficient if people could be induced merely 
not to drink. In a word, the reformation of a man's 
outside circumstances assumed more importance than 
the regeneration of that part which controlled his 
will and desires. 

Richard Cadbury realised that Christ alone could 
effectively save to purity and positive righteousness in 
this life, even apart from the consideration of what 
comes afterwards. He was fully in sympathy with 
efforts to improve social conditions, and was much 
interested in the establishment of coffee-houses and 
in providing places for innocent recreation which 
would be free from the drink. But he had no faith 
in the ultimate results of mere competition with the 
public-houses on their own lines of attraction by 
worldly amusements. While not condemning those 
who differed from him in this respect, he was very 
decided about it in work over which he had personal 
control, and for which he felt responsible. He never 
lowered or confused the ideal for which he strove and 
prayed, which was nothing less than the genuine 
salvation of the whole man soul, mind, and body. 
He realised that to save a man from drunkenness was 
of little use, if he were left a slave to gambling, or 
dishonesty, impurity, or even an ungovernable temper. 

The Gospel Temperance Mission, in which he was so 
deeply interested, passed through a crisis with regard 
to this very question soon after the retirement of its 


first secretary in 1893. For ten years a lofty tone had 
been maintained, and the barrier of righteousness 
upheld. The Temperance Institute had proved a boon, 
and had helped to strengthen all the temperance 
organisations. The large assembly room had been 
well used for various purposes. Richard Cadbury's 
attitude towards theatricals appears in a note dated 
February 16th, 1892. 

" I think," he wrote to the secretary, " the application for 
dramatic entertainments is an objectionable one, considering 
the higher life so many of our people are teaching." 

After 1893 a change came over the central influence of 
the Gospel Temperance Mission, though it did not last 
long enough to seriously affect the work in the women's 
meetings. Almost imperceptibly the religious element 
began to wane, and its place to be taken by the pro- 
vision of various amusements. Finally, theatrical 
entertainments were introduced, though without the 
sanction of the committee. The mission became 
involved in debt. Strife and discord was rampant in 
the ranks of the workers, and everything was chaos. 
Richard Cadbury stepped into the breach and offered to 
carry on the work, provided it was handed over for 
him to administer as he saw fit. This was done. A 
new secretary, was appointed, and one of Richard Cad- 
bury's first acts was to free the mission from debt. 
He then called the staff together at the Temperance 
Institute, and told them of the new arrangements. 
Prayer was offered for divine guidance, and all recon- 
secrated themselves to the work. This was a truly 


touching scene, and will never fade from the memory 
of those who were privileged to take part. Gradually 
things were got into order, and the workers into 

"For this," writes one of them, " Mr. Richard Cadbury was 
entirely responsible, for he was constant in his prayers and 
attentive to every detail. He was never known to grow dis- 
couraged ; in fact, it was he who would cheer the workers on 
to renewed efforts, and his ' Let us pray about it ' was always 
effectual in stilling the troubled mind. Monthly prayer- 
meetings of the staff were held, and at these he was invariably 
present, presiding over one of them the day before he sailed 
on his last voyage." 

His readiness to place himself alongside the other 
workers, as one of them, put heart into their efforts, 
and raised their hope and courage. To one whom he 
engaged to superintend an important branch of the 
work he said, " I always want you to consider that 
in this work we are not master and servant, but 
brothers." He meant what he said, and the testimony 
of that man years afterwards was, " What Mr. Cadbury 
said in our first interview, he carried out in spirit as 
well as in letter." 

"Can you wonder," writes another, " that he 
always got the very best out of us ? He was always 
get-at-able, and his manner was such as to place the 
greatest stranger at perfect ease, no matter what 
social difference there might be." 

As one of the lady visitors said, " Mr. Cadbury's 
presence in the meetings was like a ray of sunshine 
coming into the place." They all felt that he not only 
dealt with their work as a whole, but was keenly 


interested in the individual cases under their care. It 
is an interesting revelation of his thoughtfulness to 
go through the mass of short letters written to the 
Secretary of the Gospel Temperance Mission. Patience 
and consideration for other people's feelings mark every 
line of them. Another noticeable feature was the 
entire confidence he gave to those he placed in re- 
sponsible posts. Unless he found reasons to remove 
them from their position of trust, he loyally upheld 
their authority. There are many instances of this. 
Once an irate lady wrote to Richard Cadbury, roundly 
abusing the secretary. It was one of the occasions 
when the windows of the Temperance Institute, 
which commanded a fine view of Corporation Street, 
were being let for watching a procession. The small 
fee charged was greatly reduced for members of the 
Institute, and the lady was very indignant when 
politely informed that her subscription had ceased for 
some years. Richard Cadbury at once wrote to the 
secretary, saying that while he hoped the lady had 
been courteously treated he was quite right in carrying 
out the rules. 

Another letter shows his kindliness towards the 
lady workers, and how he tried to meet their wishes. 
One of the superintendents, who was in delicate 
health, did not want to relinquish her work, but to 
spend part of her salary in employing a private 
assistant of her own, who would partially relieve 
her. This she did in spite of dissuasion, but Richard 
Cadbury's patient consideration soon prevailed, and 
in a few months' time she resigned voluntarily, without 


a trace of the bitterness which might have been 
caused by peremptory treatment. 

A caretaker who had been for some years allowed 
a commission on the letting of the rooms at the In- 
stitute was dealt with in the same spirit. Fresh 
arrangements having to be made with the growth of 
the Institute : " I think it will be better not to change 

's payments just at this time," wrote Mr. Cadbury ; 

" but towards the end of the year, so that he may 
not feel we distrust him." A man to whom he was 
anxious to give a chance was employed as caretaker 
of the tents during the special summer missions. 

" I had a very satisfactory interview with B yesterday," 

he wrote, " and really think that the man is in earnest. He 
fully acknowledged his mistakes, and his determination to 
cut off from those who have led him astray. I promised him 
that I would carefully consider his case, and see if anything 
could be done for him, if only for partial employment." 

The man's drunken habits made it impossible to 
continue employing him, but fearing this discourage- 
ment might drive him still lower, Richard Cadbury 
gave him private help, paying his rent for months. 

Numberless acts of kindness were never known to 
any one but the giver and the recipient. They can 
be guessed at by the many that have come to light 
from all kinds of sources, but even of these it is only 
possible to mention a few. On one occasion a young 
married couple wrote asking for assistance, as they 
were in very poor circumstances and the bailiffs 
were in their house. Inquiries were made into the 
case, which proved to be genuine. The young man 


was out of work. He had furnished on the hire 
principle, and his payments had fallen behind. 
Richard Cadbury came forward with assistance. The 
claims against the man were met, and money was 
given to him with which to make a fresh start. Both 
husband and wife were most grateful for what had 
been done, and later on, when the tide turned in their 
favour, offered to pay back the money, though that, 
of course, could not be accepted. It is worth putting 
on record that at the present time that man is a town 
councillor, and is prospering in business. 

A young fellow once wrote 'to borrow 3 from 
Richard Cadbury, who replied that he never lent 
money, and at the same time enclosed a cheque 
for 3 ! 

A speaker at one of the temperance gatherings had 
tried to ingratiate himself into his good graces by a 
not very creditable ruse. In speaking of this to a 
friend some days later, Richard Cadbury said, " Did 
you ever hear anything so barefaced in your life ? " 
but went on to say that he had walked home with 
the gentleman, who told him that he had not a penny, 
and that there was no food in his house. He had 
given him what he had in his pockets, wondering 
whether the poor fellow was really as badly off as he 
professed to be. " Find out what his liabilities are," 
continued he, " and let me know." When inquiries 
were made, and he was satisfied that the case was a 
deserving one, he paid the whole debt, without the 
man himself knowing who had done him the good 


A Church of England clergyman who was associated 
with Richard Cadbury in temperance work writes : 

He was a living picture of full consecration. I never saw 
him without the cheerful smile brightening his face. What 
was the spring of his happiness ? His wealth ? No ; for this 
he simply used as a steward, not as its owner. He lived less 
for public favour than any man in his position in the city. 
It was the gladness of a heart always doing the will of a Master 
whom he delighted to serve. He was often heard to say, " I 
wonder why God has given me so much. I do love Him." 
His love for Jesus gradually transformed him until it was like 
having the very Spirit of Christ amongst us. 

A little girl of thirteen, now an earnest worker in 
the Gospel Temperance cause, once went to see Richard 
Cadbury about a bazaar for the Sunday school to 
which she belonged. It was a long walk to Bournville, 
and on the way she asked God to touch his heart so 
that he might give her a sovereign. " Who sent you 
here ? " was his first question, after the girl had 
explained the purpose of her call. " No one," said 
she; "but I asked God, and He directed me here." 
Saying that he could not send her empty away, Richard 
Cadbury asked her to hold out her two hands, and as 
she did so, put a sovereign into her right hand, and 
into her left a shilling and a penny. The sovereign, 
he explained, was for the bazaar, the shilling for herself, 
and the penny for her fare. The little girl never 
forgot this encouragement of her faith. 

It was his custom to offer through the Gospel 
Temperance Mission a free supply of pledge cards and 
temperance tracts to any society too poor to provide 
them. They were also given away to individual 


applicants with a card to hang in the window, intima- 
ting that " The Gospel Temperance Pledge may be 
signed here." 

Four working men, who had organised a total 
abstinence society, wrote : 

We are carrying on the work entirely out of our own pockets, 
without any collections ; and with the blessing of God, we 
intend to be a power for good in this neighbourhood. A friend 
of mine informs me that I have only to ask and you will supply 
me with pledge cards. If this is so I shall be very grateful 
for such assistance. 

Across the bottom is a note to the secretary in Richard 
Cadbury's handwriting : 

I have sent the above 10s., and told him that you would 
supply him with pledge cards, tracts, etc. Ought we not to 
announce this more thoroughly among all temperance societies 
and meetings ? 

In November, 1897, he received a request from the 
director of an amateur dramatic society, for permission 
to give a performance in the Temperance Institute in 
aid of the engineers who were on strike. The incident 
reveals not only Richard Cadbury's determination not 
to rent the rooms under his care for such purposes, 
but also a refreshing touch of humour. The writer of 
the letter says that the 

expenses of hiring scenery and make-ups are to be paid out 
of the receipts, and as the ladies and gentlemen connected 
with my society would give their services free, we think a 
substantial sum could be handed over to the secretary of the 
locked-out engineers. The expenses of such a performance 
would be approximately about $ that is, for scenery, effects, 
and printing. 



Instructing the secretary to decline the request, 
Richard Cadbury added a further note in the form of 
a little sum : 

s. d. 

s. d. 

Hiring scenery, etc. 

5 o o 

Charge of 6d. for 

Cost of cleaning . . 

I IO o 

admission to an 
audience of 260 
(the utmost seating 
capacity of the 
assembly room), 
would balance ex- 

penses at . . 6 10 

6 10 o 

6 10 

This is typical of the practical way in which he 
balanced up the frequent absurdity, from a financial 
point of view, of the entertainments held for charitable 

The reckless way in which debts were sometimes 
incurred often troubled him. In sending a contribu- 
tion towards a struggling church, he once spoke strongly 
on this subject. Being told that it would have been 
impossible to continue its work without getting into 
debt, he replied : 

I am sorry if I cast any reflection on the earnest and good 
work you are doing. I am one with you heart and soul, but 
these debts are such an awful drag on the Lord's work, and 
I contend quite unnecessary, for the Lord will make a way, 
where men are in earnest for His service. A correspondent, 
a splendid worker, this morning says, "Our church is doing 
a good work, but it will be able to do much more when relieved 
of this burden, which is as a millstone round our necks." 
Almost every letter of the kind (and I receive dozens in the 
week) are to this effect. 

Two gentlemen called upon him one day to solicit 


a donation on behalf of a Band of Hope, which had 
got into financial difficulties. They " got a proper 
roasting," as one of them described it; but as they 
were preparing to leave, feeling their mission had been 
a failure, Richard Cadbury called one of them back 
and whispered in his ear, It's all right this time. 
Go on, and I will give you 100." 

The women's meetings, as already stated, were held 
in connection with any church or chapel that wished 
to have them, the workers being supplied by the 
Gospel Temperance Mission, and a small subscription 
was usually paid each year towards the expenses of 
the room. The members of one chapel, which was 
heavily encumbered with a building debt, felt un- 
able to continue their share in the expense of the 
women's meeting, and wrote to Richard Cadbury 
in reference to abandoning it. He replied to the 
mission secretary : 

It would be a great pity on both sides to give up the work. 
It is evident that they could not afford to pay any one to carry 
it on. Would it not be possible for the women to make a 
contribution towards the church, in which I would gladly 
join, besides paying the cost of gas, cleaning, etc., as now. 
I want them to feel our full sympathy in the struggle they are 
making to reduce their debt, which should, of course, never 
have been contracted. 

It was characteristic of Richard Cadbury to en- 
courage the members of the meeting to do what they 
could towards helping their own work ; but even 
more so, that his lion's share of the contribution 
should be referred to as " gladly joining " with 


In times of special distress he would send an extra 
gift to the lady workers. 

" You can spend 10," he wrote to the secretary one hard 
winter, " on my behalf among the ladies, for distribution as 
they may think best among the poor groceries, coal, or 
soup. The calls must be terrible just now." 

This was only one of many similar instances, and big 
bundles of hospital notes found their way into the 
same channels. 

Some idea of the work done by the Gospel Temper- 
ance Mission may be gleaned from the last annual 
report of Richard Cadbury's lifetime, in September, 
1898. Over sixteen hundred women's meetings had 
been conducted through the year by the seventeen 
lady workers on the staff, who had also paid nearly 
forty-three thousand visits in the homes of the people. 
The average weekly attendance at the meetings 
amounted in the aggregate to over nineteen hundred. 
In addition to the regular work, special winter and 
summer missions had been held ; also non-abstainers' 
teas, coffee suppers, and meetings for ballet girls and 
theatrical employes. Two tents were used every day 
during fifteen weeks for the summer campaigns. A 
minister remembers that when the question of these 
tent missions was first brought forward, ten years before 
Richard Cadbury's death, he met the usual objection 
that it would be but a temporary effort, with the 
remark, "But some work can be done in it that will 
last for ever." The tent was bought, and the prophecy 
as to its usefulness fulfilled. Not only were numbers 
brought to Christ year by year, and freed from the 


power of the drink, but many workers were trained, 
and in three of the waste places where the tents stood 
are now permanent houses for the work of God. 

Much more could be told of Richard Cadbury's 
active interest in the work of other temperance or- 
ganisations. He not only attended their meetings 
constantly, but often threw open his grounds at 
Uffculme for summer parties, demonstrations, and 
conferences. A report of one of the meetings of his 
own Highgate Gospel Temperance Society " closes 
with words that truly describe his attitude towards 
all temperance efforts : " The results of this year's 
work should encourage us to aim after our President's 

Greater Faithfulness." 



NO schoolboy ever entered into the enjoyment of 
holidays with keener zest than did Richard 
Cadbury through all the years of his life. Dearly as 
he loved his ordinary work of all kinds, the cares, 
anxieties, and responsibilities which formed a necessary 
part of it were laid aside and left behind whenever he 
started on a holiday. Whittier tells how the " shadow 
on the dial " runs back, leaving in the sunshine of 
eternal youth the genial nature which clings to 
" homely joys and loves and friendships." It was 
truly so with Richard Cadbury. He loved to have, 
not only his wife, but as many as possible of his chil- 
dren around him ; and the thought of thus " being 



wanted " stirs tender memories in the hearts of his 
sons and daughters. Few realise what it means to 
a child to grow up in the knowledge that its love 
and presence are indispensable to the parents' happi- 
ness, and yet this is surely a great heritage. 

North Wales, the coast of Cornwall, Scotland, the 
Yorkshire moors, and of course Malvern, were favourite 
haunts of the family. There were flying visits, too, 
to the home of Richard Cadbury's sister, Maria, in 
Boulogne-sur-Mer. It was from there that he wrote 
to his nine-year-old daughter, Beatrice, in June, 1892 : 

We are so glad to have thy sweet little letters that come 
over the sea to us, and yesterday thy photo surprised us all. 
It was just like a peep through the key-hole to see thee standing 
with thy little stick in thy hand ; I hope not to hurt thy poor 
donkey ! Yesterday we went to the market, and saw lots 
of fish just fresh out of the sea, and some shrimps wriggling 
about, all ready to be boiled. On the sands we saw a poor 
shrimp woman, cold and shivering with being so long in the 
water. She told us that one of her sons was drowned four 
years ago, and that her husband was ill at home. On the 
cliff is a little church they call " Calvary," with a very large 
cross over it that the sailors can look at when they are a long 
way out at sea. Here the poor sailors' wives go to pray for 
their husbands and sons, that God will protect them and 
bring them home again safely. 

Dearest love from mother and thy loving daddy. 

Scraps from a few other letters give glimpses of 
him in holiday surroundings. From the Lizard, 
Cornwall, he wrote to the secretary of the Gospel 
Temperance Mission (August 8th, 1892) : 

I have had you often in my thoughts, and praised God that 
the work goes on with satisfactory results. We are having a 
very happy, restful time here, for which I am truly thankful. 


The weather has been hot and fine up to this afternoon, and 
now I hear the fog-horn booming from the large lighthouse 
opposite our lodgings, to warn ships off a treacherous coast. 
I would that men would hear the gospel message and take heed 
to it as well as these vessels do. 

Twelve months later he wrote from Towyn to his 
Highgate Adult School : 

My dear Fellow Teachers and Scholars, These are 
only a few lines to tell you how often I have thought of you 
during my absence, and how I am looking forward to meeting 
you next Sunday. This is a beautiful place with a long sandy 
beach and view over the sea, looking out to the west, where 
we see the sun sinking down to his rest every night among the 
tinted clouds and sky. Behind us are the mountains, above 
which Cader-Idris rises high into the clouds, more often 
than not having his white night-cap on. Nearly every day 
we have had two services on the sands for children. Mr. 
Josiah Spiers has come from London especially for the purpose. 
He was the first promoter of these children's services, and it 
is a pretty sight to see the children flocking round him from 
digging on the sand to hear something about the love of Jesus. 
Some of them (almost all children of well-to-do parents), 
have never been spoken to about the need of forgiveness and 
salvation, and I am so thankful to say that many have con- 
fessed Christ ; some who came to laugh can now thank God 
that they have found Jesus to be their Saviour. I shall be 
with you in thought and prayer to-morrow morning, and trust 
that God will send you a rich blessing on your labours. 

Yours affectionately, 

Richard Cadbury. 

The summer of 1894 was the occasion of a tour in 
Switzerland with his wife and all five daughters. He 
became known as " the gentleman travelling with six 
ladies," but it was having them all with him that made 
more than half his pleasure. He delighted in showing 
them the scenes of his old adventures, which to the 


younger children, at least, were entirely new. A 
touching incident occurred in an accidental meeting 
with his old guide, who had been his companion on 
many a daring climb in the long-ago days of boyhood. 
When the man recognised him, his joy knew no bounds, 
and in his happy excitement he threw his arms round 
Richard Cadbury's neck and hugged him, with the 
tears running down his cheeks. All were fond of 
singing, and many a time, when resting during a 
long day's excursion, they would make the keen air 
of the Alps tingle with the harmonies of part-songs 
and hymns. 

It is once more the office of the Gospel Temperance 
Mission which affords a glimpse of Richard Cadbury 
in Scotland a year later. He wrote to the secretary 
from Gairloch : 

August &th, 1895. It is interesting to know that all is going 
on well. Our plodding work among the masses will have its 
reward, with faith and patience to persevere. We are having 
a very happy time here, beyond the arena and strife of tongues 
and newspaper articles. Our landlord is a fine specimen of 
a Highlander, in his kilt and native dress a sound Liberal 
and an abstainer. We are close to the sea in a little bay, and 
all around us the mountains covered with heather or timber ; 
I think it is the most beautiful place I was ever in. 

August 10th. There is no public-house in Gairloch, and 
everything breathes peace. No one seems to suspect any one 
else of dishonesty or roguery. I found once we had gone to 
bed with the front door wide open all night, and our landlord 
said there was no fear at all from any one in the neighbourhood. 
I sometimes wonder when all men will thus have faith in one 
another ! Our work is in the right direction, although it 
seems but a trifle amongst the selfishness, distrust, and wicked- 
ness around us. May we have that perfect faith in one 
another, in which alone we shall find strength, in God's name 



to bring light and happiness to those who live in darkness. 
Mazzini says, " We are here on earth not to contemplate, 
but to transform created things, to found, as far as in us lies, 
the image of the Kingdom of God on earth." And another 
writer, " Each word we speak has infinite effects, each soul 
we pass must go to heaven or hell, and this our one chance 
through eternity." 

It is wonderful how bracing the air is here, and there is so 
much to interest in the plants, and flowers ; sea and land birds 
also in infinite variety. The mountains rise from 1,000 to 
over 3,000 feet in height, so that there is plenty of climbing 
to do, and there are lots of boats on the lochs. 

Italy was the scene of travel in the spring of 1896. 
Only the two eldest daughters and Beatrice were 
with their parents at this time, as the other girls 
and Alec were at school and college. The youngest 
son, who had just arrived at the Cape, received a letter 
from his father, dated Florence, March 24th, 1896 : 

We have been hard at work among the beauty of Italian 
lakes, and have seen the white cathedral of Milan ; but what 
interested us more than that, the original picture of Leonardo 
da Vinci " The Last Supper " : then on to Rome, with its 
treasures of the past in the Vatican and St. Peter's, and among 
the ruins of the ancient city, treading on the stones of " Via 
Sacra " over which the Caesars trod, and in which the con- 
quering armies were sent forth to lead back the captive foe. 
We saw the Forum where the great senators spoke, and where 
edicts were promulgated ; the gate of Titus, through which 
the captive Israelites were led with spoils from the Temple 
at Jerusalem ; the Coliseum, where thousands of poor captives 
and Christians died the martyr's death; then on to the " Appian 
Crag," by which Paul was led a prisoner the Mamertine 
prison, in which both Peter and Paul were confined and 
thrust into the " inner prison," a dungeon cut out of the rock, 
beneath the ordinary cells. From Rome we went to Naples, 
and visited the buried cities of Pompeii ; one large mansion 
had only recently been opened, and the mural paintings were 


almost as perfect as when the city was buried the marble 
statues and fountains, even to the old money chest, just left 
as they were found, so that we could walk round the courts, 
and into what had been the garden and fountains. Another 
day we visited Vesuvius, and went to the edge of the smoking 
crater, the guides leading us over the mouth of the crater of 
the last great eruption, from which, here and there, volumes of 
sulphurous smoke issued with a strong, hot blast. We then 
descended the cone, and walked for nearly an hour over the 
last great eruption of lava, about three months ago, standing 
like a mountain to climb over. The heat was still great, and 
through the fissures we could see the red glow. Near the 
centre a stream of lava was still flowing, and I was surprised 
to see it going so fast ; it was about four feet across, and was 
awfully hot. 

Here we are among the beautiful work of the men that 
made Florence Michael Angelo, Dante, Savonarola, Galileo, 
and Delia Robbia, and a host of other great men, who have 
left their stamp on the place and people. 

Three days later he wrote to his sister Maria : 

It was a very fitting close to a cut and dried sermon at 
the English church, to visit the holy precincts of St. Marco, 
close to which is the ancient monastery where Savonarola 
wielded such marvellous power over the destinies of Florence. 
It is now fitted up in part as a museum, but the cells on each 
side of the corridors, each about ten feet square, are empty, 
so far as furniture is concerned, but in every case are adorned 
with beautiful frescoes, mostly by the hand of Fra Angelico. 
The cell at the end of the longest corridor was Savonarola's, 
containing the beautiful portrait by his dearest and most de- 
voted friend Bartolommeo, whose pictures adorn the principal 
galleries of Florence and Rome, and who died with him on 
the burning cross in the Palazzo Vecchio. There were also his 
vestments and coarse horsehair shirt, and the books and 
manuscripts written by him. One could picture the proud 
Lorenzo di Medici pacing about in the cloisters, waiting for 
a message from the holy monk, but who was not so wise as 
Naaman the Syrian, and therefore got no audience. From 
this quiet cell he came at last, when Lorenzo sent for him on 


his deathbed, and was willing to do everything but hand over 
all his autocratic power to a republican government, and so 
died without a blessing. From this cell he formulated all 
those wise laws which he publicly preached in the cathedral, 
and which the people joyfully accepted, and from this monas- 
tery soon afterwards he was taken prisoner, with his friend 
Bartolommeo, by order of that vile Pope Borgia, to be 
tortured and burnt and the crowd who had almost adored 
him, were now ready to stone him to death, on the way to 
his lonely prison. 

We came out, therefore, with saddened feelings, realising the 
apparent hopelessness of all wisdom and power, and even 
whole sacrifice of soul and body for the good of the people and 
for the glory of God, excepting as God will rule and guide and 
deliver men from their sins. May the time be close at hand, 
when Savonarola's life and prayers may be answered. 

The early months of 1897 brought the realisation 
of a pleasure long looked forward to by Richard 
Cadbury. For years he had keenly followed up his 
studies in Egyptology, keeping pace with the work 
of the Exploration Society, and at last the time had 
come to see with his own eyes the marvels of the ancient 
world. Greater still was his eagerness to visit Pales- 
tine, and pass through the scenes amongst which the 
Lord chose to spend His life on earth. On this tour 
he and his wife were accompanied by four of their 
daughters, the eldest being already married. A rapid 
journey across France and Northern Italy, along 
the coast of the blue Adriatic, over the dancing waves 
of the Mediterranean ; and the glamour and fas- 
cination of the East was around them ! Each member 
of the party kept a private diary, and, in addition, 
took turns at writing a detailed journal letter, of 
which typed copies were sent to the various homes of 


the family in England. To read the journal is like 
following Richard Cadbury through those weeks of 
unclouded happiness, and sharing in the exuberance 
of eager delight with which he saw the places, and the 
recently discovered treasures, that were already familiar 
to him from books and photos. Cairo, with its motley 
throngs and gorgeous mosques; the Gizeh Museum, 
with its treasure trove of weird relics, the Pyramids 
of Gizeh, and the patient, majestic figure of the Sphinx, 
gazing across the desert, were the first revelations of 
Egypt. Then came two or three weeks on the Nile, 
as far as the first cataract. Words cannot describe 
the effect on the minds of the six travellers, as day by 
day new wonders were unfolded before them. The 
river itself, on whose bosom glided numbers of pic- 
turesque boats with crossed, wing-like sails, presented 
a continually changing panorama, as did the banks 
on either side. Date palms, tamarind trees, yellow 
mimosa-bushes, and sometimes a purple drapery of 
Bougainvillea ; camels and buffalos ; the creaking 
wheel of a sakieh, or a shadoof worked by a lithe, 
brown-skinned Arab to irrigate the cultivated land ; 
women in coarse blue dresses washing clothes at the 
river-side, or men filling their water-skins ; crowds of 
native pedlars, beggars, or troops of children calling 
for " backsheesh," these were some of the daily 
pictures on which their eyes rested. 

Many were the excursions made, riding across the 
desert on donkeys to visit tombs and temples, brought 
again to human view after being buried for ages 
beneath the drifting sands, which preserved so much 


that might otherwise have been destroyed. Richard 
Cadbury examined everything with minute attention, 
making notes and drawings and taking snapshot photos 
at every place visited. The solemn giandeur of Karnak 
by moonlight was perhaps the scene that impressed 
him most deeply of all. He took a great interest in 
the American mission at Assiut, and his work at home 
was constantly in his mind, overflowing in conversa- 
tions with fellow travellers, many of whom had never 
before heard of an adult school. Their last Sunday on 
the Nile, as no clergyman was aboard the steamer, 
he conducted a short service in the dining-saloon, 
giving an address, in brief outline, on Israelitish 
history in Egypt up to the time of the nineteenth 
dynasty and the Exodus. 

Returning to Cairo, he called on Brugsch Bey, to 
consult him about visiting the Pyramid of Unas, to 
the north of Sakkara, and the treasure cities of Pithom 
and Rameses, as these were not in the beaten track of 
ordinary tourists. Pithom was the last place visited 
before leaving Egypt. On February 26th he wrote 
in the journal : 

Yesterday we made the most interesting of any of our 
excursions, and one that we find is hardly ever made, owing 
to the difficulty of access. It was, however, one of our 
dreams before leaving home to visit Pithom : "And they built 
for Pharaoh treasure cities, Pithom and Raamses. And they 
made the children of Israel serve with rigour ; and they made 
their lives bitter with hard bondage, in mortar, and in brick " 
(Exod. i. 11-14). It is a journey of about twelve miles over 
the desert, and mostly along the fresh- water canal (" Canal 
of Sesostris"). As we turned off into the desert we soon 
discerned the low tumuli which now cover the remains of 


the great city from which the Israelites escaped from their 
taskmasters in Egypt to the Red Sea. The little village of 
Tel-ei-Maskhuta lies in the very centre of Pithom, and the 
sheikh owns the whole of the land. He came at once to 
show us all that was uncovered of the ancient city, and it 
was quite sufficient to repay us a hundredfold. The great 
storehouses were before us with walls at least twelve feet 
in thickness ; the bricks were very large (about twelve inches 
by eight, and about six inches thick), and laid in very hard 
mortar full of small pebbles, of both of which we have 
specimens. There was no " straw " in these bricks, which 
is almost universal elsewhere. No one ever seems to come 
here, so the sheikh let us have some interesting " antiques " 
he had picked up among the ruins two weights, a beautiful 
little copper statue of Anubis, and a small lion-headed 
goddess. We also found the remains of bronze money, and 
some lovely pieces of glass iridescent with age. 

The 3rd of March saw Richard Cadbury and his 
party in Palestine. In his wife's writing are the 
words : 

Our first view of Jaffa, as we stood on the deck of the ship, 
was beautiful. It stands on low hills, dipping into the Medi- 
terranean, and behind the town we could see the plain of 
Sharon, and the hills of Samaria and Judea. 

A day later the journal records : 

Quite suddenly our carriages drove through the Jaffa gate, 
and we were in Jerusalem ! We were all quiet ; our hearts 
were too full to talk, for it seemed so strange and wonderful 
to be in the city of which from babyhood we had heard and 
read and sung. 

The Holy City itself, with Bethany and the Mount 
of Olives, Hebron, Bethlehem, and Jericho, including 
visits to the Dead Sea and the Jordan, occupied nine 
or ten busy days, and then began the never-to-be- 
forgotten camping tour through Palestine. The party 


of six, with their dragoman, two waiters, cook, groom, 
and camp servants, formed a good-sized cavalcade, 
which included horses for riding and a number of 
baggage mules. The camp consisted of five tents- 
three for sleeping, with two folding-beds in each, a 
dining-tent, and a kitchen tent. The first day's 
adventures were more pleasant to look back upon 
than to experience. Towards evening, after riding 
through torrents of rain, the soaked and bedraggled 
little company came in sight of the wet tents 
pitched on a lonely hillside near Bethel, far from any 
human habitation. A small brazier of charcoal, and 
a hot dinner, prepared in some marvellous way by 
the old cook, helped to restore warmth to the numbed 
figures; but it was a terrible night, with thunder 
roaring, lightning flashing, a furious wind tugging 
at the tent-ropes, and the pitiless rain beating on the 
canvas. Morning dawned grey and wild, and all that 
could be done was to ride through the storm to the 
nearest town, Ramallah, where an American Friends' 
mission was established. The travellers camped in a 
Latin monastery, but the missionaries gave them a 
warm welcome, and never did afternoon tea taste so 
refreshing as that provided in the girls' school. The 
work of the mission was so interesting in every way 
that all were glad of the circumstances which had 
driven them back to Ramallah. On the following 
morning (Sunday) they attended the Friends' meeting, 
at which Richard Cadbury gave a beautiful message 
to the people, through an interpreter. He was 
specially interested in the girls' school, and was 




delighted to give a number of wardrobes, which he 
found were needed. 

By Monday the storm had spent itself, and the 
travellers passed through Shiloh, Sychar, Shechem, 
Samaria, and Nain, to Nazareth. About eight hours 
of each day were spent in the saddle, with a long rest 
at noon. The riding was often very rough, across 
open country without roads. Staircases of rock had 
sometimes to be climbed, and rivers to be forded ; but 
the beauty of the scenery and the fascination of its 
sacred associations made the toil a delight. Spring 
flowers were in profusion fields of blue lupin, crimson 
patches of anemones, and clumps of cyclamen in 
every crevice of the rocks. Chameleons and lizards 
darted through the wide stretches of fragrant aniseed, 
and turtles sunned themselves on the rocks by the 
riverside. Sometimes a jackal could be seen slinking 
across the open plain, or packs of them would be 
heard howling at night. Once, when the camp was 
pitched by a great hedge of cactus at Jenin, they 
came close to the tents, filling the night-air with 
their dismal cries. Camels and dromedaries were 
seen yoked with oxen, and the brown goats'-hair 
tents of the Bedawin, with their picturesque groups 
of occupants, became familiar sights of the day's ride. 
Richard Cadbury had his camera, sketch-book, and 
botany-tin always at hand, and each member of the 
party carried a Bible, turning up the references to the 
various places as they went along. 

A couple of days were spent at Nazareth, and then, 
after passing Cana, a short, steep climb brought the 


travellers to the top of the " Mount of Beatitudes," 
from which they looked down upon the blue Sea of 
Galilee. That evening they encamped near the shore 
of the lake, outside Tiberias, and watched the full 
moon rise from behind the mountains of Gilead, flooding 
the still waters with silver. In the balmy night-air 
they stood for a long while by the lake-side, singing of 
Galilee and of the Lord who wrought so many wonders 
upon its bosom and beside its shores. The rainy 
season was not quite over, and two days later another 
of its periodical storms broke upon them, and they 
were forced to take refuge in the Greek monastery of 
Tiberias. Mountains and shore were blotted out by 
the mist, angry gusts of wind lashed the waters of the 
lake into crested waves, till it was easy to imagine the 
peril of any fishing-boat out in the fury of such a gale. 
Richard Cadbury had most interesting conversations 
in French with the old Greek priest, who hung upon 
his words and seemed to love the kindly Englishman 
whom the storm had driven under his roof. 

From Galilee the route lay past Magdala, the 
" waters of Merom," and Caesarea Philippi, to Damas- 
cus. On the way a rocky spur of Mount Hermon 
had to be crossed. A rough, steep climb brought the 
riders to the snowline on top of the pass. Descending 
on the further side, a blustering wind drove them to 
seek shelter by swerving some miles out of the ordinary 
track. This led them past a Druse village, which had 
been burnt down by the Turks a year before, leaving 
the inhabitants in a state of fierce resentment towards 
all strangers. A crowd of children came out of the 



houses with the usual cry for backsheesh, and because 
none was given, they picked up stones from the ground 
and began hurling them furiously at the cavalcade. 
Fearing a worse disturbance if the men of the village 
were aroused, the dragoman put his party to a gallop, 
and the danger was escaped. 

The beautiful surroundings of Damascus, and the 
bazaars and places of interest in the city itself, occupied 
several days, and the end of the camping tour was 
spent amongst the wonderful ruins of Baalbek. Bey- 
rout was next visited, and then came a delightful 
stay at the Friends' mission station, Brumana, on 
the heights of Lebanon. A cousin of Richard Cad- 
bury 's was in charge of the Girls' Home, and he was 
deeply interested in her work, as well as in the hospital 
and other departments of the mission. There is not 
space to tell of the meetings and classes he visited, 
nor of how he enjoyed the insight into Oriental life 
and customs ; but Brumana made a lasting impression 
on his heart and mind. 

The time for departure came all too soon, and it 
meant farewell to Palestine, for a rapid journey by 
sea and land brought Richard Cadbury with his wife 
and daughters safely back to the shores of old England 
and their home at Uffculme. 

On the return voyage he wrote : 

Our last few days were spent at Brumana among our dear 
friends on the Lebanon. It is a lovely spot, and is free from 
the control of the Sultan, although Beyrout and Damascus 
are under his sway. Friends are doing a noble work, both 
there and in the neighbouring villages. Their schools for 


boys and girls and their hospital are full. The latter is far 
too small for the requirements of the people, as it is the only 
one T for the half-million who live on Lebanon. It was so 
interesting to see and hear native Christians take part in the 
meetings, just as we should do in England. Both the meetings 
I attended were full, and great attention was paid to what was 
said. I ventured to speak at both through an interpreter. 
We are returning in health with thankful hearts, having had 
a delightful tour, and one that I hope will be useful to us all. 

The last summer holiday of Richard Cadbury's life 
was spent in Cornwall. Not only were his wife and 
three youngest girls with him, but also his daughter 
Edith, with her husband and baby-boy, whose pretty 
ways delighted the hearts of his grandparents. A few 
lines from an article in a Penzance paper about nine 
months later, when the news of Richard Cadbury's 
death reached Cornwall, show how he was loved by 
all whom he met : 

Many Cornishmen are to-day mourning the loss of one of 
the best and truest men this world has ever known. 

His kindly presence, sunny disposition, and boyish light- 
heartedness endeared him to one and all, and he loved to 
roam over the downs, cliffs, and shore, chatting with villagers, 
coastguards, and fishermen. 

The death of such a man is a national loss, and his life a 
national lesson. Few men exercised a more far-reaching 
influence for good, and amongst the thousands who are mourn- 
ing his loss, none will feel more genuine sorrow than those 
Cornish folk with whom he came into contact during his 
holiday visits to the Lizard district of the old county. 



THE impressions of childhood cannot entirely lose 
their effect on the after-life of any man or wo- 
man, and Richard Cadbury never forgot what he owed 
to his home training. The memory of it, added to his 
natural affection for children, resulted in many a loving 
scheme for their welfare. Some have already been 
spoken of, but none of his gifts was more far-reaching 
in its influence than his presentation of Bibles to 
2 4>73 of the board school children of Birmingham 
and district. The specific reasons which promoted 
this gift will be given further on in his own words, 
but, broadly speaking, his love for the Word of God 
and his belief in its authority, made him desirous that 
it should be in the hands of every boy and girl old 
enough to read it. 

The offer was made through the various school 
boards towards the end of 1896, and was accepted 



with gratitude. The only dissentient voice was that 
of a Roman Catholic priest. The members of one of 
the boards were considering the presentation of the 
Bibles to 3,785 children under their care, when Father 

C raised an objection. As a Catholic, he said, 

he had, of course, the greatest respect, honour, and 
reverence for the Holy Scriptures. At the same 
time, he was utterly opposed to putting into the 
hands of children under the age of thirteen or fourteen 
years an open Bible for indiscriminate reading. It 
was not a fit and proper thing that a book even like 
the Holy Scriptures should be read by children from 
the first chapter to the last. 

Much more in the same strain was said, the speaker 
concluding with the remark, that if it was determined 
to have speeches made on the occasion of handing 
over the Bibles, he would make it his business to see 
the parents of the Roman Catholic boys and girls, 
and ask them to keep their children away during 
the distribution. 

That was the only discordant note that mingled 
in the chorus of hearty approval and thanksgiving 
with which the gift was received. The teachers were 
no less pleased than the scholars. 

" I feel," wrote one head master to Mr. Cadbury, " that I 
cannot let the day go by without writing to tell you with 
what enthusiasm and gratefulness the boys and girls of the 
school received your gift of beautiful Bibles this morning. 
Had you been here in our large hall, you would have been 
thrilled at the pleasure manifested by the children. It was 
grand. The children have asked me to thank you for them, 
and this I do with all my heart." 


In each Bible was a slip, on which was printed this 
message : 

I present you with a copy of the Holy 
Scriptures, in the hope that you will read 
a few verses every day. May the grace of 
the Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, 
and the communion of the Holy Ghost, be 
with you all ! 

Your friend, 

Richard Cadbury. 

Below were the verses : 

Jesus said, " I am the way, the truth, and the life : no man 
cometh unto the Father, but by Me " (John xiv. 6). " Search 
the Scriptures ; for they are they which testify of Me." 

The gift to the children evidently created a desire 
for its extension, for soon afterwards Richard Cadbury 
issued the following printed letter : 

It seemed hardly complete that the teachers and pupil 
teachers should not have received a copy of the Scriptures, 
and I fear many were disappointed. I am therefore prepared 
to give a copy with marginal notes to all who would care to 
accept one. I am deeply sensible of the need of every teacher 
being imbued with the Spirit of Christ and His teaching, so 
that His light and life should be reflected through them on 
the children under their care. 

In each of the Bibles presented as a result of this 
were the words : 

Dear Friend, In asking you to accept 
this copy of the Holy Scriptures, I realise 
the responsible position of the teachers. 
No doubt you often feel the need of a closer 
fellowship with Christ and of the teaching 
of the Holy Spirit, so that His life and 


light may be reflected through you on the 
children under your charge. His own 
Word is, "I am the light of the world : 
he that followeth Me shall not walk in 
darkness, but shall have the light of life." 
Richard Cadbury. 

Others were eager to participate in the good things, 
and the chief superintendent of the Birmingham 
School Board wrote : 

" May I take the liberty of asking if my staff could be 
included in your generous gift of Bibles ? I am sure 
it would be very much appreciated." 

Across that letter in Richard Cadbury's handwriting 
are the words, " I have replied, saying I would send 
all the staff a Bible. It should be, of course, the best." 

In some cases a scholar or a teacher was overlooked, 
and whenever the omission was brought to the notice 
of Richard Cadbury and this was invariably done 
by the disappointed persons themselves he gave 
instructions that Bibles should be sent. 

The delight with which they were received on every 
hand gave great satisfaction to the warm-hearted 
donor, who felt amply repaid for his outlay of time and 
money in the knowledge that the message of truth 
had found an entrance into so many hearts and homes. 

Acknowledgments, couched in the most grateful 
language, were sent to Richard Cadbury by the 
thousand. They took various forms. In some cases 
a letter was drawn up on behalf of a class or a school 
and signed by all the recipients ; in others the head 
master or head mistress replied on behalf of the entire 
school : but the method generally adopted was for the 


children themselves to write and thank their friend 
for his gift. 

A teacher told of the Bibles being received " with 
sparkling eyes " ; another expressed the disappoint- 
ment of the children at not receiving them from the 
hands of Richard Cadbury himself, going on to say : 
"Of all your liberal actions, I believe this, though 
you may not actually see it, will be the most far- 
reaching in its good results." 

" If you could only have seen the bright looks with 
which the girls received their Bibles, you would, I 
feel sure, have been repaid," said one writer ; and it 
was also a teacher who wrote, " We have reason to 
know that your kind gifts have been welcomed in 
many households even in homes where indifference to 
the teaching of the Bible had hitherto been the rule." 

The masters in a boys' school wrote as follows : 

Such a tangible expression of your Christian interest in our 
spiritual welfare fills us with the warmest appreciation and 
admiration of your spontaneous generosity towards us. That 
a great responsibility rests with teachers is unquestionable. 
It lies within their scope to influence for good or bad the soft, 
impressionable tendrils of childhood, warping them into a 
godless indifference to all the wonders of the Bible and its 
holy teaching, or stimulating them to climb to heights of 
purity and integrity. Your own example of Christian benevo- 
lence will always remain locked up in our memories as one of 
our most treasured possessions ; and we truly and sincerely 
wish you every happiness and a long lease of health and 
strength to enable you to carry on your many noble and 
praiseworthy works of good. 

A girls' school, in acknowledging " the beautiful 
books and your kindness," invited Richard Cadbury 



to pay a visit to the place. " We may tell you," ran 
the letter, " that if ever you come to Aston and have 
the time to spare, all our teachers and all the girls 
will be pleased to see so kind a friend, and we should 
feel honoured by such a visit." 

These extracts are typical of the contents of hundreds 
of other letters. They show how near Richard Cadbury 
came to the hearts of teachers and scholars alike by 
means of his gift. All felt that in him they had a 
friend who was interested in their spiritual as well 
as their temporal welfare, and therefore they valued 
the Bibles as they would have appreciated nothing 

But it was the letters from the children themselves 
that were most precious to Richard Cadbury. Some 
of them, of course, bore the stamp of a parent's dic- 
tation ; but in the majority of cases the little ones had 
been left to give expression to their own feelings, and 
some of them displayed amazing originality in doing so. 

Almost every one of the youthful correspondents 
promised to act on the advice to read a portion of the 
Bible daily. " We think you must love little girls 
very dearly," said one writer, with truly childlike 
sweetness, " and we will promise to strive earnestly 
day by day to read a few verses, as you desire." 

There was doubt in some of the young minds as 
to the correct way of addressing their friend. One of 
them who apparently thought that one so kind should 
bear a high-sounding title, wrote to him as " Sir 
Richard Cadbury, Esq." ; while another, not knowing 
his address, sent his letter to " Richard Cadbury, 


Esq., Donor of Bibles to Board School Children, 
Birmingham." It does not need to be added that the 
postal authorities had no difficulty in finding " the 
donor of Bibles." 

The children's thanks came from a full heart, and 
they gave expression to their feelings with wonderful 
naturalness and simplicity a simplicity that was 
sometimes very touching. One boy, twelve years 
of age, said he would read a bit of the Bible every day, 
and he hoped he would have it when he was an old 
man. A little Jewess also promised to read the Bible 
daily, and hoped that all who had received the gift 
would do the same. Then she added, " I hope it 
will please God to spare you, dear Mr. Cadbury, to 
see us grow up good men and women. I have often 
heard of your great kindness to old people and to little 
children like myself." Thanking him " over and over 
again," she signed herself, " Your grateful little 

One boy thought that Richard Cadbury would be 
" surprised to receive a few lines from a little boy 
like him " ; while another added the text at the con- 
clusion of his note, " He that hath pity upon the 
poor lendeth unto the Lord ; and that which he hath 
given will He pay him again." 

A twelve-year-old boy, " son of my widow mother," 
said that his " poor dead father was a firm believer 
in the Bible, and died a Christian man, and, with 
God's help and my Bible, I hope to do the same." 

It would have been very strange if, among so many 
letters, there had not been some full ol the unconscious 


humour that so frequently marks the writings of 
children. Richard Cadbury must have had many 
a quiet laugh as he read what his juvenile friends 
said to him. For example : 

I heard a boy say that you only gave them [the Bibles] 
away for an advertisement ; but I soon told him that you were 
too good a man for that, and that you had no need to advertise, 
as your name was made years ago. 

It was a boy who wrote thus, but the following 
was received from a little girl : 

Third standard have not any Bibles, but I hope they will 
get into fourth next year and try and get one. I hope you 
will keep your pockets quite full of money for them, or else 
I shall be very disappointed, and I think the children will 
too. Mother says they never had such luxuries in the olden 
days, so that we ought to think ourselves very lucky girls. 

Equally amusing was the letter of a little fellow 
who said that his sister, " who is in third standard, 
is rather sorry as she has not a Bible or cholate. I 
hope you are quite well," he proceeded, volunteering 
at the same time the information that " I feel 
quite well, and all the family feel quite well." The 
conclusion of the letter was in perfect keeping with 
the rest " So this is the end of my little letter, so 

The letters of thanks were read by Richard Cadbury 
with tears and smiles, and were put away among his 
treasured belongings. Such gratitude, he thought, 
deserved some recognition, and this reply was issued : 

I thank you for your letter, and am so glad to hear that you 
are pleased with the Bibles. We have just returned from a visit 



to Palestine, and have trodden in the very steps of Jesus and 
His disciples, starting from Joppa, along the plain of Sharon 
and over the Judean hills to Jerusalem; and then visited 
Bethany, Jericho, Bethlehem, Jacob's Well, Sychar, Nazareth, 
Nain, Samaria, and the Sea of Galilee, Caesarea Philippi, 
Damascus, and many other places, which made everything 
so real that we read of in the Bible. Many of the old cities 
are now laid waste, and the people are very dark and 
ignorant; but here and there we found the missionaries of 
Jesus teaching them the good old way. It was so nice to 
hear little Syrian boys and girls reading the Scriptures and 
singing hymns in their Arabic tongue, and some in our dear 
old English language. 

May a blessing rest on your reading.' 

Your sincere mend, 

Richard Cadbury. 

Even such a gift as the presentation of Bibles 
created a good deal of discussion, and some people, 
as they always do, looked for a motive that was not 
free from selfishness. In a printed paper, issued " for 
private circulation only," Richard Cadbury offered 
the explanation. His statement was as follows : 

In reply to the question that has been asked, What induced 
me to distribute Bibles to the children of our board schools ? 
it is this : " For some years past I have seen the great difficulty 
of allowing indiscriminate religious teaching, which must be 
dangerous and unsatisfactory ; while on the other hand, a 
carefully supervised plan of religious teaching would necessitate 
a religious test being placed upon those who are appointed to 
be teachers, and this would involve much more serious ob- 
jections. The difficulty really lies in this latter question. 
For our board schools to be made an arena in which sectarian 
dogmas and catechisms may be taught in place of the pure and 
simple teaching of the Holy Scriptures is a position to be 
resolutely avoided and condemned. No prophecy of the 
Scripture is of any private interpretation, for " the prophecy 
came not in old time by the will of man, but holy men of God 
spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost." 


My desire is that every child should read God's own message, 
and that God should be His own interpreter so far as board 
schools are concerned. It would give me the greatest satis- 
faction, not only for selected portions of Scripture to be read 
in our board schools, but that they should be committed to 
memory without comment from the teacher. 

The Bible in the possession of the children would then be 
an incentive to make themselves familiar with the names and 
order of the books of the Old and New Testaments, and their 
relation one to the other in the way of history, of prophecy 
and the fulfilment of prophecy, of the revelation of God's 
purposes to man, of the origin and power of sin, of the need of 
repentance, and of God's means of salvation. 

I ask for the earnest prayers of every minister of the gospel, 
every teacher in our Sunday schools, parents, and all who are 
interested in the living power of the Holy Spirit, that God 
may bless His own message of salvation to the children of our 
Birmingham board schools. 

Richard Cadbury. 

Uffculme, Moor Green, 
January ist, 1897. 

It will thus be seen that he foresaw many of the 
difficulties that have since arisen in connection with 
religious training in public schools. His own position 
is explained in his statement, and there is no doubt 
that, had his policy been generally adopted, we should 
have been free from the wrangles and bitterness that 
set church against church. 

It would be interesting, if only it were possible, 
to follow the course of such a large distribution of 
Bibles, but that is one of the things that belongs only 
to God. Traces of them, and of how they are treasured, 
are constantly being found, and a letter received by 
Richard Cadbury's wife while these reminiscences 
were being written, nine years after the Bibles had 


been given, is an indication of some of the results. 
It is written by a Christian worker : 

You will be glad to hear of some of the Bibles so kindly and 
generously given by your revered husband in 1897. It is a 
pleasure to say that I have found several in Hall Green, and 
in each case I believe the recipient valued the gift highly ; 
the mothers upon whom I have called testifying to that 

The promise earnestly and sincerely made by such 
a vast number of children must have resulted in habits 
of Bible-reading and meditation upon spiritual things ; 
and if all who made the promise were true to it, there 
must be many happy lives that are being lived for 
God and the good of their fellows. 



(1892 1898) 


RICHARD CADBURY'S services to his native 
town brought him the honour of an added 
responsibility, when in the year 1892 he was appointed 
a Justice of the Peace for Birmingham. This appoint- 
ment caused much satisfaction to many who knew 
and valued his public spirit, and warm congratulations 
poured in upon him from all directions. The magis- 
terial work which he undertook was conscientiously 
performed, and he was seldom missing on his day at 
the courts. He entered whole-heartedly into his new 
duties, feeling that they opened up another channel 
of influence for God. 

He was first appointed to deal with the school 
board cases, which came before the court every Thurs- 



day morning, this being often chosen as a probationary 
course for a new magistrate. It brought him face 
to face with distressing instances, where the poor, 
half-famished mothers were compelled to go to work, 
and leave the children to look after themselves. 
Sometimes the children had been intentionally kept 
from school to look after younger brothers and sisters, 
sometimes they had played truant without the know- 
ledge of their parents. In either case a breach of the 
law had been committed, and the mother was com- 
pelled to attend the courts. Genuine poverty and 
distress always deeply touched Richard Cadbury's 
heart, and it was a severe trial to him to have to pass 
punishment on any one. Whether the women who 
had been summoned were personally to blame or not, 
he had no option but to fine them, although in many 
a deserving case he privately refunded from his own 
pocket the amount which, as a magistrate, he had 
been obliged to impose as a fine. 

It was impossible to judge on the spot of the causes 
which had led to the summons, but a ready instrument 
for distinguishing between genuine and undeserving 
cases was at hand in the Gospel Temperance Mission 
and the police court work which formed a branch of 
it. William Gaule, the veteran police court mission- 
ary, dealt personally with a number of the cases, 
while others were handed over to the secretary of the 
Gospel Temperance Mission, and he in turn gave the 
name and address to the lady superintendent whose 
mothers' meetings were nearest the home to be visited. 
No pains were spared to find out the exact condition 


of each case dealt with in this way, and whilst a check 
was put on the distribution of indiscriminate charity, 
a means was also found, by which kindly advice could 
be rightly given, and the way opened for speaking of 
Christ and His love. 

It was often suggested to Richard Cadbury that he 
should abandon this part of his public duties, and 
turn to another department, but he never saw his 
way to make a change. On one occasion, when a 
friend had been urging him to sit in another court, 
his reply was characteristic : " No, I cannot do that ; 
although it is extremely heart-rending, I feel I can 
be of use in making the burden lighter to bear. I 
will stay where the poor women are." 

Now and then he would go round the lock-up with 
William Gaule, but his susceptibility to the suffering 
of others, through sin or whatever cause, called out 
so much sympathy in each case that he would be 
almost exhausted after a morning spent in this way. 
On one occasion he had been round seeing the pris- 
oners, entering cell after cell. There was hardly one 
in which his composure did not break down, as with 
tears in his eyes, and love in his tone, he would plead 
with each occupant and speak of Christ. They were 
just going to leave the gaol, when he noticed that one 
door had been passed over. " Why are we not going 
in there ? " he said. " Is it empty ? " " Oh no, sir," 
replied William Gaule ; " but, indeed, I cannot let you 
go into that cell ; the most desperate character in 
the whole place is in there. Even the warders are 
afraid, and not one of them will venture in alone." 


" Why, that is the man above all others that I want 
to see," said Richard Cadbury. " I cannot pass him 
by." William Gaule still tried to dissuade him, saying 
the man was really dangerous, and he could not allow 
any risk. " Never mind," was the reply ; "let us see 
him." It may here be explained that William Gaule 
was so entirely trusted by all the prison officials 
that he was allowed to carry a master-key with him, 
which would open the door of any cell, a unique 
privilege and one that was never abused. Together 
the two entered the cell. The prisoner was sitting 
on the end of his bench, and looked up with a fierce 
expression on his face as the door opened. 

William Gaule had hitherto been the only man who 
could get on friendly terms with him. " I have 
brought one of the magistrates to see you," he said. 
" I don't want to see him," was the snarling reply. 
The rebuff, however, was not heeded by Richard Cad- 
bury, who walked straight over to the man and sat 
down by his side. Taking one of his hands in his 
own, he quietly said, " Do you know that you are 
my brother ? " The man looked astonished. A 
change passed over him immediately at this kindness 
of word and touch. He listened with respect and 
attention while Richard Cadbury talked to him of 
Christ, the Almighty Saviour from sin. As he listened 
a great transformation came over the poor, unhappy 
prisoner. The gloomy scowl lifted from his face like 
clouds from a hill-top, and in its place came a bright, 
hopeful look. The three men knelt and prayed 
together on the stone floor of the cell, and as Richard 


Cadbury shook hands with the poor fellow at parting 
the tears welled from his eyes. The man was changed 
from that day. " Instead of being a tiger, he became 
a saint," was the verdict of one of the warders, who 
had learned the never-to-be-forgotten lesson of the 
power of love to change and win even the hardest 
heart. Richard Cadbury never saw the man again, 
for he was sentenced to transportation for life, which 
was carried into effect very shortly afterwards, in 
spite of all the efforts of William Gaule to procure a 

Richard Cadbury paid special attention to the 
subject of licensing and temperance. His energy on 
these lines roused fierce opposition. 

" Mr. Cadbury's presence on the licensing bench," wrote an 
angry correspondent, " was a scandalous intrusion, and is 
bound to interfere with the cause of justice. It is nothing 
less than a discreditable attempt to bring about the objects 
of the Local Veto Bill, without the necessity of a poll." 

The kind of insinuation which would have damped 
the ardour of a man with less courage, or less pure 
motives, is shown in another attack 

It goes without saying that Mr. Cadbury would, if he could, 
substitute the sale of his own product instead of beer, in every 
licensed house in the country. If the licensing bench is to 
be thrown open to gentlemen with the narrow, fanatical views 
on the licensing question which Mr. Cadbury is known to hold, 
what security will the trade have of meeting with fair play, 
when their business takes them to the transfer session ? 

On one occasion, a deputation representing the 
United Temperance Organisations of the city, at a 
meeting of magistrates over which the Mayor presided, 


was introduced by Mr. Richard Cadbury, who said 
they represented not so much any particular organisa- 
tion as the ratepayers, who were interested in the 
social and moral well-being of the city. He then read 
a remarkable memorial, giving ample reasons for a 
reduction of licences. 

There were some among the magistrates, notably 
Mr. Arthur Chamberlain, who nobly responded to this 
appeal, and strove to diminish the power of the great 
curse, though it was natural that antagonism should 
be aroused amongst those interested in the drink 

In the year 1897 the licensing committee of the 
magistrates seriously discussed the question of sending 
children to fetch drink from the public-houses. This 
was a subject which touched one of the deepest chords 
in Richard Cadbury' s heart, and he threw all his 
interest and energy into the effort for getting the 
law passed. 

Mr. Richard Cadbury [says a newspaper report] whose 
wide inculcation of temperance principles never takes the form 
of reckless denunciation of the " Trade," but who always 
employs the more effective medium of calm argument and 
reasoning persuasion supplied his brother magistrates with 
an interesting and most instructive array of facts as to the 
preventative measures taken by Continental and American 
authorities, to the end that child-life may be protected from 
a virulent cause of moral contamination. 

The attempt of the child-lovers was successful, and 
within a few months a law was in force throughout 
the Birmingham district, forbidding children under 
thirteen years of age to fetch beer from the public- 


house. Richard Cadbury's joy and delight was un- 
bounded, and on October 27th, 1897, he wrote to his 
daughter in Germany : 

We have also been successful in carrying the resolution, to 
stop children "under thirteen being sent to the public-house 
for their fathers' beer. 

It was natural that, as a magistrate, Richard Cad- 
bury should take an increased interest in the welfare 
of the city police. Before the time of his appointment 
he had been in touch with Christian work among 
them. Mr. J. T. Wilson writes : 

I have known Mr. Richard Cadbury for several years, and 
came in contact with him many times in connection with 
Christian and temperance work, before I drew his attention 
to our Police Mission, which had been founded in 1878, 
and carried on for some years for the moral and spiritual 
uplifting of the policemen, in an unostentatious way. The 
only help I ever sought from him until 1891 was the privilege 
of using the mission-hall, in Upper Highgate Street, for a 
meeting of constables and their wives once a week. This 
he readily gave. In 1891, when the old public offices in 
Moor Street were abandoned for the New Victoria Law 
Courts, we found it necessary to seek some central rallying- 
point for our work. For a long time previously we had 
prayed for guidance, and God opened what seemed to be 
a useful door for us in Easy Row, in the premises about 
to be vacated by the Y.W.C.A. To acquire the lease of 
this place (which had been offered to us) and adapt it for a 
Police Institute, where temperance and religious work could 
be carried on for policemen and their families, and where 
facilities could also be provided for physical exercise, mental 
cultivation, and social intercourse and recreation, meant for 
us the undertaking of financial obligations to which we had 
hitherto been strangers. I sought help and advice from 
Mr. Cadbury, who received me cordially and listened with 
evident interest to what I had to say regarding our past efforts 


and future plans for the welfare of our civic force. At last 
he said, " What a splendid work, and a fine field for doing 
good. I will fetch my brother, and you shall tell him about 
it." Suiting the action to the word, he fetched Mr. George 
Cadbury into his room, the result being a promise of help 
from both, in the form of substantial annual subscriptions, and 
a desire expressed by Mr. Richard to be kept informed of the 
progress of our work. 

After this interview I was often a visitor to Bournville, 
warmly welcomed by the friend, who never seemed to tire of 
giving advice j and practical help. He knew how difficult it 
was for policemen to live up to the Christian ideal, and that 
in many quarters they met with discouragement. He had a 
conviction that no effort ought to be spared for the moral and 
spiritual elevation of such responsible public servants, exposed 
as they are to subtle temptations. Encouraged by his genial 
sympathy, and generous promises of help from other friends, 
including 40 from policemen themselves, we adapted and 
opened the premises at 17, Easy Row, as a Police Institute, 
though they were unsuited for much development in our 
work. When this became so apparent as to become a real 
hindrance, I talked the matter over with Mr. Richard Cadbury, 
and he encouraged me to launch out on a scheme for building 
a comprehensive and up-to-date institute. After spending 
a good deal of time and thought on the subject, a meeting of 
constables and their wives was called. They were enthusiastic, 
and promised among themselves over 160 towards a new 
building. Shortly afterwards, the Bishop of Coventry, who 
was our president, Alderman William White, myself, and 
others sought an interview with Mr. Richard Cadbury, which 
took place in the magistrates' room at the Victoria Law 
Courts. After explaining our project, Mr. Cadbury advised 
us to " strike out boldly," secure a prominent site, and do the 
thing thoroughly, promising to give 1,000 to start us. 

On June 27th, 1898, the foundation-stones of a 
new institute were laid, one by the Hon. Mrs. Fiennes 
(now Mrs. Stock), the foundress of the Police 
Mission, and one by Richard Cadbury. Instead of 
the usual trowel, each was presented by Dr. Knox, 


the Bishop of Coventry, on behalf of the trustees 
and council, with a silver inkstand shaped to 
represent a police constable's helmet, the feet in 
the form of handcuffs connected by chains, and the 
pen-racks being formed of truncheons. 

As the work of building progressed, it became clear 
that if the whole scheme were carried through, a much 
larger expenditure would be necessary than at first 
calculated upon. Since Richard Cadbury's promise of 
1,000 had been made towards the carrying out of 
the scheme as a whole, it was felt due to him that, 
before taking upon themselves the responsibility of 
curtailing it, the council should consult his wishes 
on the matter. Sir James Sawyer and others met 
him again at the law courts, and the Bishop of 
Coventry briefly stated the position of affairs. Richard 
Cadbury looked across to the secretary and asked, 
" How much more will be required to enable you 
to carry out the whole design and complete your 
scheme ? " "I cannot say what the exact amount 
will be, but I feel sure not less than 2,500." He 
then replied to the deputation as a whole, " Gentle- 
men, I am greatly impressed by the need of this 
institute, and am very anxious that the plans you 
have formed for its future usefulness should be carried 
out in their entirety. Go on and complete it, and I will 
provide the amount which you are likely to require." 

After this meeting the Bishop of Coventry wrote 
to him, enclosing a resolution of thanks : 

You will not thank me for trying to express what can after 
all be most inadequately done the sense of our indebtedness 


to you ; so I will leave that alone. But you will be pleased, 
I think, to hear that we intend to try and raise for furnishing 
and maintenance a sum equal to that for which you have 
made yourself responsible. I trust that you may be long 
spared to see good fruit of this, and of your many other 
enterprises for the good of your fellow citizens. 

In January, 1899, as Richard Cadbury was going 
abroad for some months, the secretary wrote to inform 
him that so far it had not been necessary to ask him 
for any of the money promised, as up to that time 
all the builder's demands had been met by moneys 
in hand ; but that probably before his return their 
resources would be exhausted, and they would be 
glad to know to whom they might apply in case of 

Richard Cadbury replied (January 31st, 1899) : 

I have given my son an order to pay on your demand - 

on account of the Police Institute, so that will be all right. 
The building is beginning to show some progress. Thank 
you for the Hebrew letters, which we may be able to make 
use of. With kind regards and trusting for God's blessing 
on your work. 

This was the last communication they had from 
him, for during the following week the whole city 
was plunged into grief by the sad intelligence that 
Richard Cadbury had received " the home-call " with 
startling suddenness in Jerusalem. 

Those having the responsibility of the new institute 
were naturally placed in a peculiar position by this 
sad occurrence, but Richard Cadbury's sons generously 
honoured their father's promises, and the trustees were 
relieved of a great anxiety. 



" No account of dear Mr. Cadbury's generous interest in the 
work for the general uplifting of the constables would be 
complete," writes Mr. Wilson, " which dealt only with the 
financial assistance he so lavishly rendered. He laid himself 
out to do all in his power to cheer and encourage the 
workers by his sympathy and wise counsel, and to uphold the 
constables in the conscientious discharge of their unpleasant 
duties. It is not too much to say that, but for his consistent 
sympathy and generous support, the work would in all pro- 
bability have collapsed, or, at any rate, could never have 
successfully achieved what by God's blessing it has done, or 
attained the present stable position which it now occupies 
amongst the beneficent institutions of the city, and words 
fail to express my sense of indebtedness to one whose memory 
will ever be a cherished possession. It was an honour to 
have known him, and a tower of strength to have had him as 
a guide, counsellor, and friend." 

Of his many acts of kindness to individual con- 
stables, one example must suffice. A comparatively 
young police-constable was placed on duty in plain 
clothes for more than a year in order to watch the 
operations of those pests of the streets, the book- 
makers. Being incorruptible at their hands, he was 
exceedingly alert and successful in locking these 
bookmakers up and getting them punished. After a 
year of work in this capacity, in which he beat the 
record of any other officer in dealing with the fraternity, 
they brought a charge against him of having received 
a bribe from them. Those who knew the circum- 
stances, the man they charged, and the unscrupulous 
supporters his enemies were able to rally to their 
support from inside the force, were convinced of the 
vile conspiracy of the whole thing and of the constable's 
innocence. However, he was called upon to resign 


owing to this calumnious report. The case was brought 
to Richard Cadbury's notice, and, after carefully investi- 
gating the details of it, he was convinced of the con- 
stable's innocence, and determined that no pains or 
expense should be spared to clear him if possible. 

Efforts to get justice done were not relaxed for 
about three months, during which time Richard 
Cadbury regularly supplied the amount of the perse- 
cuted constable's weekly salary. When nothing more 
could be done, and the poor fellow at last decided 
that he must return to his former employment in the 
far north, Richard Cadbury paid the whole expense 
of the removal of his household goods and himself 
and family to Northumberland, and gave him sub- 
sistence money to tide him on till he obtained work. 

Happily the purity of administration to-day is such 
that it would be less easy for such a discreditable act 
of injustice as this to be perpetrated. 



THERE can be no true estimate of Richard Cad- 
bury's power and influence over others, of his 
unselfish deeds and generous acts, which leaves out of 
account the clearness and depth of his religious con- 
victions. His strength for work was sustained by 
the firmness of his hold upon the divine realities. 
To him they were as real as the light of day, and to 
the cultivation of them he gave his steadfast and 
systematic attention. His whole life was actuated 
by a single purpose, the glory of God. This was the 
reason of its practical usefulness. He was no mere 
nominal Christian, content with a place on a list of 
church membership. He was a living member of 
the Church of Christ, having a sense of true brother- 



hood towards all other believers in Jesus, of any 
denomination or none. But he believed in solidarity 
and organised church-life, and the ideal of the Society 
of Friends was the nearest expression he knew of 
Christian fellowship and worship to that revealed in 
the New Testament. He felt intensely that true 
religion must enter into and influence every detail, 
however small and trivial, of everyday affairs. He 
rejoiced, therefore, in the insistence laid by Friends on 
the need for Christian principle to permeate all the 
issues of home and family life, and the choice of pure 
and innocent recreations ; the continual exhortations to 
strict integrity in all business transactions ; the stress 
laid upon Christ's teaching on such questions as war 
and oaths. He prized the opportunities for undisturbed 
congregational worship, without human leadership or 
prearrangement, which a Friends' Meeting afforded. 
They were to him times of Holy Communion, in which 
he humbly partook of the Body that was broken and 
the Blood that was shed for the sins of the world. 
At the same time, he realised that the gospel must be 
proclaimed by other methods as well, and was ready 
to co-operate with any in which Jesus was uplifted. 
He believed in the priesthood of all believers, and yet 
that there is but " One Mediator between God and 
man, the Man Christ Jesus." He was fully aware 
of the danger of giving a mere intellectual or formal 
assent to a creed as the test for admission into any 
fellowship of Christians, but he also felt the distinct 
need of being able to give a reason for the hope that 
was in him, and of having some simple, straight-forward 


statement of it, based entirely on the authority of 
the Scriptures. 

He believed the Bible to be the authentic message 
of God to mankind, containing the only complete and 
reliable plan of salvation for this world and the next. 
It was not his nature to spend much time in contro- 
versy, but he was fully aware of the dangers of a good 
deal that is politely termed " higher " criticism. 

A hint of his attitude towards mere argumentative- 
ness appears in a reminiscence written by his cousin, 
Theodore Nield, of Leominster : 

Beside his unfailing kindness, no one who crossed his path 
from time to time could fail to note the radiance of his 
face, which could spring from nothing else than a deep-seated 
and constant joy. And it needed no long intercourse with 
him to see that this perennial brightness, far beyond that 
of most who had fewer burdens to bear, was the result of a 
singular and simple directness in his way of approaching 
duty not as a thing to be got round if possible, but rather as 
a thing he had to do as a matter of course, which was certain 
to bring its own blessing with it. That was his open secret. 
And how could any man, even the worst, do other than honour 
and love him ! 

He cared little for argument or controversy. I remember 
how one evening I tried to rouse him to a discussion by telling 
him, with playfully affected alarm, that some statement 
he had made had upset all my most elementary theological 
conceptions. And I well remember his smile, which passed 
from his face to that of each of the little group, and there 
seemed nothing more to say. 

My remembrance of him when I was at UfTculme just before 
he went to the East is that of a gracious and happy man. 
He spoke of things as making way for his long journey, during 
which he hoped to see more of some of his family than the 
many engagements would allow him to do at home. 

Richard Cadbury never underrated the value of 


scholarship ; but he did most sincerely regret the 
unworthy use that was sometimes made of it. He 
did not tremble for the Bible when exposed to the 
brightest rays of the scientific searchlight, for he 
knew that truth has nothing to fear from truth ; but 
he trembled for the too credulous followers of certain 
intellectual superiors, who treated theories as facts. 
There is practically no written record of his views on 
these points, but a brief letter to a young Friend in 
London sufficiently indicates his general position 
with regard to them. The young man had been much 
troubled by the tendencies of a " summer school," 
in which, under the name of Bible study, much time 
and ingenuity had been given to the familiar attempts 
to prove such things as the " myths " of Hebrew 
patriarchal history, the " mistakes " of Moses, or the 
" allegory " of Jonah. On writing to Richard Cadbury 
he received the following reply : 

There are many things to discourage us as Christian workers, 
but we have one hope and one calling. To quibble over 
questions that raise doubts and fears is worse than loss of 
time. Surely our calling is clear to preach Christ and Him 
crucified. The Jews are quite able to defend their own 
Scriptures, as they did when Dr. Colenso attacked them years 
ago, and God is also His own interpreter to the soul that 
earnestly seeks the truth. May the Lord keep you humbly 
but steadfastly in the truth. 

Sometimes those who appear to treat the Bible 
with the most flattering respect, give a skilful twist 
of their own to its teaching, and thus lead the way 
to open infidelity. For this reason Richard Cadbury 
took a great interest in circulating the Bible itself, 


feeling that, under the blessing of God, it was its own 
best protector against the open onslaughts of its 
enemies, and the more covert and insidious attacks 
of its hidden foes. The work of the British and 
Foreign Bible Society particularly appealed to him, 
and he was a warm supporter of it. 

The fact that the Society of Friends does not use 
some of the ritual practised by other Christians has 
sometimes given an impression of negativeness to 
outsiders. Richard Cadbury's faith was by no means 
of a negative cast, and he wished to show that the 
true doctrines of Quakerism are positive Christianity. 
The Book of Discipline of the Society of Friends is 
too large for popular usefulness in this respect. He 
therefore drew up, with earnest prayer for guidance, 
a concise statement for publication. There is an 
individuality and originality in the title of the little 
pamphlet that at once bespeaks for it a candid 
consideration " What is my Faith ? By a member 
of the Society of Friends." Brief and suggestive, it 
arouses attention without challenging criticism. 
When it first appeared in 1878, the Friends' Quarterly 
Examiner for July in that year said : 

This is another small pamphlet of fifteen pages, containing 
a brief exposition of Christian truth as held by Friends, given 
mostly in the words of Scripture. It forms a short and 
reasonable summary, well adapted for placing in the hands 
of inquirers as well as of our own members. 

It was immediately found to fill a need, and was so 
largely used that three subsequent editions were 
necessary during Richard Cadbury's lifetime. It 


was also translated into Arabic, Hindi, and Japanese. 
In the preface of the last two editions, issued in 1891 
and 1896, he wrote : 

In publishing this edition, the author commends it to the 
prayerful consideration of all who desire to know the truth 
as it is in Jesus Christ. 

The Society of Friends have no written creed beyond the 
authority of the Holy Scriptures, and they believe them to 
be the only written authority that man can rely upon as the 
revealed will of God ; and that no custom, opinion, creed, 
or religion can be of any value that does not accord with them. 

On the question of the necessity of outward sacraments, 
the Society of Friends differ from many of their Christian 
brethren, believing that they were but types of the great 
sacrifice, and of Christ's cleansing blood. They claim to be 
in Christian fellowship with all true believers ; in no way 
condemning those who construe as a command of Christ the use 
of material elements ; at the same time believing that their 
use has a tendency with worldly people to satisfy them, 
by resting upon the form rather than upon the substance. 
This was very early shown in the history of the Church. 
(See 1 Cor. x. 20-23, R.V.). 

The fact of the apostles and early Christian Jews having 
continued these rites, as well as that of circumcision, after 
the Crucifixion and Resurrection of Christ, is not very sur- 
prising, as we find that Paul did not at first realise the non- 
necessity of his use of outward baptism (1 Cor. i. 14-8), nor 
did Peter at first realise the baptizing power of the Holy Spirit 
on the Gentiles (Acts xi. 15, 16). 

The ancient fathers encouraged the performance of outward 
ordinances ; but the extracts given from some of their writings 
show that they felt the growing tendency was to rely too 
exclusively upon the outward form as necessary to salvation. 
" Saint Augustine in his time complained that they [rites 
and ceremonies] were grown to such a number, that the 
estate of Christian people was in worse case concerning that 
matter than were the Jews ; and he counselled that such yoke 
and burden should be taken away. . . . For as those be 
taken away which were most^abused, and did burden men's 


consciences without any cause, so the others that remain are 
retained for discipline and order ; which (upon just causes) 
may be altered and changed, and therefore are not to be 
esteemed equal with God's Law." (See " Of Ceremonies," in 
the Book of Common Prayer.) 

The pamphlet is arranged in a series of questions 
and answers, and concludes with the words : 

I desire to examine myself as before God, who knoweth 
the secrets of the heart, and to ask in faith for the doctrines 
of His grace to be made manifest in my soul ; and if I fail to 
realise them fully now, through the infirmity of the flesh, 
that I may be enabled to bear with patience the yoke of Christ, 
and to know His strength to be made perfect in weakness ; 
not laying for myself any other foundation of faith or of 
works than that already laid which is the only sure founda- 
tion " Jesus Christ and Him crucified." 

If the value of a creed may be tested by its results, 
the life of Richard Cadbury, with its many-sided and 
unceasing work for God and humanity, can leave no 
doubt as to the genuineness and virility of his faith. 
That he himself was not satisfied with his own attain- 
ments is only a further proof of the loftiness of his 
ideal. He was pressing towards the mark, for the 
prize of the high calling of God in Christ Jesus. 

The Society of Friends is organised on a plan of 
democratic self-government. It knows no class dis- 
tinctions of clergy and laity, and the work of the 
ministry is entirely separate from the responsibility 
of church government. As there is no pre-arrange- 
ment of service, so also there is no human leader to 
preside over a regular Friends' Meeting. All meet 
on a religious equality as brethren, to worship God. 


Christ Himself is the only Head of the Meeting, and 
the Holy Spirit the director of the worship. Thus, 
while the gift of those who have given proof of their 
power in the ministry is in due time publicly recorded, 
all are free, under the guidance of the Holy Spirit, 
to take vocal part. Richard Cadbury was never a 
glib or fluent speaker, but whenever he spoke in Meeting 
it was " with great concern, and the message was one 
which he had much upon his mind." One Friend 
writes : 

I not unfrequently met Richard Cadbury in connection 
with our mission meetings, and always was conscious of the 
help of his presence and sympathy. Indeed, I do not know 
that I can more accurately express just the feelings I had than 
in the words applied to a woman Friend : " When she comes 
into one of our Meetings for worship the spiritual temperature 
is distinctly raised." That is exactly what I felt with Richard 
Cadbury ; there was a holy savour about him not easily 
described, but very distinctly felt. 

Another says : 

In my youth he used to sit on the side form at Bull Street 
Meeting close to me, and I was invariably impressed with 
his reverent earnestness in worship. Occasionally, and later 
more frequently, he used to speak or offer prayer, often with 
some nervousness, but always with much depth of feeling. 

At Bull Street [writes another Friend] we always felt that 
his simple, trustful prayers were a great help to us, and we 
missed him much when circumstances took him away to other 
Meetings. He was a real power in our Meeting, though so 
humble and unassuming. What he has done for his fellow 
townsmen and for all good causes he was able to help is known 
to all men. Would there were more like him. 

The responsibilities of pastoral care and discipline 
in the Society devolve upon two bodies composed of 


men and women Friends, appointed by the Monthly 
Meeting. The Elders are especially responsible for 
maintaining order in the Meetings for worship, and for 
encouraging a right vocal ministry. The Overseers 
have the care of the individual members and attenders 
of the congregation. Richard Cadbury was ap- 
pointed an Elder in the winter of 1888-9, and he was 
faithful in discharging his duties in this respect, 
although his multitudinous engagements prevented 
him from attending as many of the business meetings 
of the Society as he would have liked. In his mission 
work, and in the individual work for God which he 
did wherever he went, he always realised that the first 
necessity was to bring men to Christ for personal 
salvation. But, as already mentioned, he recognised 
the importance of regular Christian fellowship, and 
from the first aimed at establishing a Friends' Meeting 
in his mission centre at Highgate, as soon as oppor- 
tunity offered. It was not until the last few years of 
his life that his desire could be carried into effect. At 
first he met in a simple way at eleven o'clock on Sunday 
mornings with some of the chief workers, and a few 
of the more earnest men out of the adult school. 
Then, as more attended, and learned to value the 
quiet opportunity for waiting on God, he made appli- 
cation to the Monthly Meeting, and the " Moseley 
Road Meeting of the Society of Friends " was officially 
recognised and registered, with its own Preparative 
Meeting for the proper conduct of congregational 

One of the last things Richard Cadbury did before 


starting on his last journey to Egypt was to gather 
together a typical little library of Friends' books. 
He took great pains in discriminating between readable 
books and those which would merely lie upon the 
shelves. He designed a little cabinet for the library, 
and presented it to the Moseley Road Meeting. Had 
he lived longer his intention was to have circulated 
similar sets of books to many of the smaller Meetings 
in the kingdom. 

He took a keen interest in the work of the Friends' 
Foreign Mission Association. It has been mentioned 
before that his wife's youngest brother, William Wilson, 
who like Mrs. Cadbury had become a Friend, was a 
medical missionary in Madagascar. His cousin Caro- 
line, also, one of Benjamin Head Cadbury 's daughters, 
had charge of a girls' training home in Syria, and 
these ties deepened his sympathy with the work. In 
his mind the claims of home and foreign missions were 
indivisible, and although the former was his own 
sphere of personal activity, both had an equal share 
in his appreciation and prayers. 

The Pemba Industrial Mission specially appealed 
to him. During 1896 an agitation had sprung up in 
England, with regard to the question of slavery 
amongst the native tribes under the protection of 
British rule. It was natural that the Society of 
Friends should be to the fore in endeavouring to 
awaken the conscience of the nation to the burden 
resting upon it. As a result of the agitation through- 
out the country and in Parliament, the legal status 
of slavery in the islands of Zanzibar and Pemba was 


abolished in 1897. This was good so far as it went, 
but the difficulty was in making it work. The greatest 
need lay in the provision of free employment, coupled 
with the preaching of the gospel of Christ. It was 
with this double motive that the Friends' Industrial 
Mission was established in Pemba. The question was 
discussed in the Yearly Meeting of the " Meeting for 
Sufferings " in London, and in the late autumn of 
1896 two Friends Theodore Burtt and Henry Stanley 
Newman went out to prospect, and to see if a shamba 
(estate) could be obtained. On receiving their report 
in the spring of 1897, it was decided to purchase the 
estate and put the scheme to a practical test. 

With what we know of Richard Cadbury's large 
heart and wide sympathy, it is easy to imagine the 
eager interest with which he followed the whole of 
this movement. One morning two Friends from the 
Birmingham Committee called on him at Bournville, 
and with joy and delight he promised 1,000 to start 
the work with. One of them said afterwards that he 
had never gained 1,000 for any purpose in so short 
a time. Towards the end of July, Banani, an estate 
of about three hundred acres, was purchased. The 
climate is bad for Europeans, and two of the first 
missionaries died at their posts. Frequent furloughs 
are necessary, and both the sacrifices on the field, 
where they are heaviest, and the faithful efforts 
of those at home who organise and support the 
carrying on of the work, have borne good fruit. 
"It is certain that Richard Cadbury, if he were still 
with us," writes a Friend, " would be thankful for 


the privilege which God gave him of enabling 
others to carry out such a Christlike work." 

The terrible massacres of Armenian Christians by 
the Turks in 1895 and 1896 stirred to their depths the 
strong emotions of Richard Cadbury's loving heart. 
He took part in the agitation which aimed at spreading 
accurate information of the awful facts, so as to claim 
the sympathies of the people of England, and also 
gave liberally to the National Relief Fund. One of 
the many papers referring to this says : 

There seems no end to the munificent benefactions of Mr. 
Richard Cadbury, and if all successful manufacturers and 
commercial men turned their accumulations of profit to such 
noble uses, the cry of the socialist against the capitalist would 
never have been heard. 

How the hearts of the Armenians themselves were 
touched by his sympatlry was to be experienced later. 
The work of the Peace Society, and the question of 
international arbitration, were essentially in harmony 
with Richard Cadbury's Quaker or, one is inclined 
to say, his Christian principles, as a follower of the 
Prince of Peace. In 1897 he was appointed President 
of the Birmingham Peace Society, and devoted some 
of his best energies to its work during the remainder 
of his life. He did not live to see the outbreak of the 
iniquitous war which English politicians forced upon 
South Africa, and which plunged both countries into 
untold sorrow and disaster. But he was full of appre- 
hension at the turn affairs were taking, and threw all 
the weight of his influence into the scale of arbitration. 
His convictions were well expressed in the words of 


a resolution passed unanimously by a meeting of 
Birmingham Arbitrationists, on June 4th, 1897, over 
which he presided : 

This committee is of opinion that there is no question in 
dispute between the English and Transvaal Governments, 
which may not, if dealt with in a spirit of justice and con- 
ciliation, be settled by arbitration. That a war between 
England and the Transvaal, involving, as it might, the up- 
rising of the Dutch and native races of South Africa, would 
be a deplorable crime, would strengthen European suspicion 
of England's honesty, and indelibly stain her national flag. 

The portrait of Richard Cadbury hangs by request 
in the chief offices of the Peace Society in London, 
and is an inspiring reminder of the man who both 
in trade and international disputes worked for the 
gentler and more reasonable methods of arbitration 
as opposed to the barbaric arguments of force and 
violence. Dr. Evans Darby says : " He took a great 
interest in our society, and was always ready to 
support our work " ; and Mr. W. Randal Cremer wrote 
to one of Richard Cadbury's daughters : 

So many noble attributes were happily blended in his char- 
acter that it is difficult to say whether I most admired his 
kind, gentle nature, his generosity, high-souled aspirations, or 
his earnestness of purpose. When I heard of his untimely 
death, I shared your grief at his loss. The example of his life, 
however, still abides with us. 



(1892 1898) 


THE adult school at Highgate, which occupied 
so large a share of Richard Cadbury's work and 
thoughts, nourished in a remarkable way during the 
last years of his life. His home at Uffculme was very 
little further from the school than Moseley Hall had 
been, and regularly every Sunday morning he might 
have been seen walking down the Moseley Road at 
an early hour, when few people were astir and the 
roads were quiet and deserted. He took as little 
notice as ever of the weather ; summer or winter, 
wet or fine, it made no difference to the sturdy figure 
that tramped the two miles through it. A brother-in- 
law who often accompanied him on a Sunday morning 
when staying at Uffculme, treasures the memory of 

369 24 


the talks they would have on the way, speaking of 
them as " apostolic conversations." A clergyman who 
used sometimes to pass him in the early hour says 
how he was struck by Richard Cadbury's uniform 
cheerfulness : " His face would light up when we 
met in Christian service, so that it was perpetual 
sunshine to be with him." Many a time in bad weather 
it encouraged the men to turn up at school in good 
time, knowing that the friendly smile and hearty 
handshake would greet them. A pleasant pen picture 
of the work appeared in one of the daily papers 
in February, 1893. It was one of a series on the 
social and religious life of the city, and belonged 
to a special section on " Adult Sunday Schools in 

The largest of these [says the writer], and perhaps the most 
highly organised, is Class XV. of the Severn Street School a 
branch which is under the superintendence and fostering 
care of Mr. Richard Cadbury in the Moseley Road Schools. 
A kindly invitation to visit this school came at an opportune 
moment. Though it entailed unusually early rising, I sat 
down at seven o'clock to breakfast in one of the class-rooms 
with the teachers, a pleasant, unconstrained gathering over 
which Mr. Cadbury, the host, presided. This gentleman 
has for years set an example of punctuality and regularity 
of attendance at the school, and has ever been foremost in 
initiating or aiding all its various useful institutions. Break- 
fast over, a move was made to the main schoolroom, where the 
pupils were gathered together to open the proceedings with 
a hymn, followed by a short Bible reading and a prayer by 
Mr. Cadbury. Then they bustled off to their various class- 
rooms, to sit down to their copybooks, their writing from 
dictation, or in copying verses of Scripture, or in the reading 
classes. Very diligent and painstaking pupils they all were. 
No need for sharp reproofs or calls to order. Anything 


savouring of coercion would be fatal at once. A strongly 
marked feature of the whole gathering was its thoroughly- 
democratic spirit. Discipline in the ordinary sense of the 
term there was none ; yet there was perfect order. The term 
" schoolmaster " would be out of place, because there is no sense 
of mastership. Teacher is the word, whether for the super- 
intendent of the school or for the junior member of the 
teaching staff. Here is fully realised the doctrine which is 
usually but a theory, of the " brotherhood of man," the 
essence of true socialism and of true religion. The relation- 
ship in which the teacher stands to the pupil is most aptly 
likened to that of an elder brother. Doubtless this harmonious 
state of things was not produced at the outset ; it has been 
evolved by experience. "Sanctified common sense" has 
taught those who are working in this great movement the 
right means of reaching the men at whose welfare they are 
aiming. The teachers have learned to understand and to 
appreciate the spirit of their pupils. It is no wonder that at 
first the young men who diffidently undertook the work 
shrank from the difficulties which inexperienced men would 
anticipate in dealing with a school of grown men of the roughest 
type those who had been always regarded as the class least 
amenable to law and order. But trust in the men themselves 
has been the principle which has led to success. There is no 
desire on the part of the pupils to break from the routine of 
the establishment, and the work upon which each man is 
engaged is not a task, but a labour of love. It is a sight 
indeed affording food for satisfaction to see great rugged- 
faced men, with their hands stiffened by their daily toil, 
earnestly labouring over the letters they are putting together 
in their copy-books. They all came cleanly and respectably 
dressed, and on the secretary being asked whether the men 
always looked so respectable, " Not when many of them 
first came," was the reply ; " but they never attend long before 
a marked improvement is to be seen in their appearance. 
They soon become more careful about the condition of their 
clothes and about personal cleanliness. We have actually 
had them come here, occasionally, under the influence of 
liquor." " And do you turn them away when they come in 
that state ? " was the natural question to ask. " Oh, no ; we 
let them sit down with the rest, and do our best with them ; 


but we have to use great care and patience." " Are you able 
to say that you have reclaimed permanently any habitual 
drunkards, because some people contend that such men are 
never really reclaimed ? " " Yes, we have a class almost full 
of such men there (pointing to one of the class-rooms). It 
is the drunkards' class, and the teacher you see there in- 
structing them was himself once a great drunkard. He has 
now been for many years a most consistent and earnest 
Christian man, and his success with men who have given way 
to drink is remarkable." 

In preparing for his Sunday class Richard Cadbury 
was always most painstaking and careful. It was a 
part of the programme of the class that the superin- 
tendent should give a brief address at the close. 
Occasionally the ordinary sectional teaching would be 
dispensed with, and all the scholars would meet in one 
of the larger rooms, for what was known as a " general 
lesson." This was always looked forward to as a time 
of great interest. The notes for many of Richard 
Cadbury's addresses were found neatly packed away 
in a drawer of the library at Uffculme. They are 
but fragments of what was really said.. His plan 
seems to have been to select his topic, then to look 
up other passages from the Bible which bore upon it. 
These would be jotted down on a slip of paper, together 
with any leading thoughts, and occasionally an illus- 
trative extract, an historic incident, or a scientific 
fact. The outline of one of these addresses, delivered 
in the summer of 1896, is here picked out from the 
rest. It will serve to show his way of work, and may 
help to recall to some who heard it the lesson 
given on that summer morning. But it will be 
agreed by all who heard his teaching that there was 


something in the tones of his voice, and the sweet 
persuasiveness of his manner, which gave a charm to 
his address that the printed page can never reproduce. 

LIGHT (Gen. i. 3, also 13 and 14). " The earth was without 
form and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep." 
Covered with water and thick clouds full of confusion and 
emptiness : a picture of the heart of man without God, 
unregenerate, without life, without hope, and dead in tres- 
passes and sin. " The Spirit of God moved upon the face 
of the waters." God is the fountain of life to quicken the 
dead. Thus with the children of Israel ; read Deut. xxxii. 
IO,! 1 1. " Fluttereth over her young " the same word used 
here as in Genesis. Then comes God's first creation on the 
earth light. As evil is always connected with darkness, 
so light is always the attribute of God. " God is light, and in 
Him is no darkness at all." " He that doeth truth cometh 
to the light, that his deeds may be made manifest." Job 
beautifully describes the joy of morning light to the world, and 
how it discovers wickedness even as clay is turned to the seal 
(Job xxxviii. 12-14). But whence comes this dayspring from 
on high that searches the inmost recesses of the heart ? What 
this light was that God created, man cannot fathom ; for it 
was before the sun, the moon, and the stars were created. 
A mystery to the man of this world, but to the eye of faith 
no mystery, for God is light. Light is a trinity, in nature as 
well as by grace. Light is divided by the prism into three 
primary colours red, yellow, blue ; but combined and 
undivided, pure light. 

In illustration of this point, Richard Cadbury 
prepared a small cardboard disc, coloured in sections 
with the three primary colours, and made to revolve 
so as to show the result of the combination. 

Red the heat-giving principle ; yellow the luminous, or 
light-giving principle ; blue the power of chemical action. 
None can exist without the other, the three are one, the one 
is three. Plants will live and grow luxuriantly under the 


influence of red and yellow rays ; but no fruit without the 
blue rays. The trinity is incomplete, and only when the blue 
is added is it perfect. 

Light carries with it an invisible agency, always in action ; 
and the more it is looked into, the more strikingly does it 
illustrate the agency of the Holy Spirit upon the heart of 
man. Thus, (i) God the Father is light (yellow). He is 
all, and combines all in transparent light. " He that sat 
on the throne was to look upon like a jasper and a sardine 
stone ; and there was a rainbow round about the throne." 
(2) God the Son, the love of God revealed to man (red). (3) 
God the Holy Spirit is the quickening, life-giving, fruit-bearing 
principle (blue). 

What, then, is known of this light and heat that comes to 
us in a tangible form ? The sun is undoubtedly the main source. 
Moonlight is only the reflected light of the sun, as is also the 
light from the planets. (The luminous atmosphere of the 
sun, whose flames are calculated to be 72,000 miles in height.) 

Perhaps some may not full understand the position of our 
earth (which is one of the sixty planets) in regard to the sun. 

In the original notes some figures are given, which 
need not be reproduced here, illustrative of the rela- 
tive distances and positions. 

Then follows a brief account of Herschel's great 
telescope, with its strong penetrative power and its 
wide range of vision. 

He found that when some of the stars came into the field 
of his glass they shone with such brightness that the eye 
could not stand the blaze of light. " The entrance of Thy 
word," said the psalmist, " giveth light." What a beautiful 
and helpful thought is that which is derived by the psalmist 
from the consideration of the starry world : "As the heaven 
is high above the earth, so great is His mercy towards them 
that fear Him " ; ** For as the heavens are higher than the 
earth, so are My ways than your ways, and My thoughts 
than your thoughts." The consideration of facts like these 
gives greater significance to the words of Him who said, 


" I am the light of the world ; he that folio weth Me shall not 
walk in darkness, but shall have the light of life." 

In the adult school movement, as in so many other 
branches of Christian work, a tendency began to 
develop here and there to over-emphasise social needs 
at the expense of the spiritual. No one was more 
interested than Richard Cadbury in plans for the 
moral and physical uplifting of his fellows in the 
school work, which found expression in savings' funds, 
sick and benevolent societies, dispensary funds, am- 
bulance classes, musical bands, angling and swimming 
clubs, summer parties and excursions, football and 
cricket clubs, and all kinds of athletics. In fact, he 
was for many years the president and enthusiastic 
supporter of the well-known Dolobran Athletic Club, 
encouraging the men and boys in the schools to take 
advantage of its classes. The memory of the glowing 
health and vigour which he owed to the athletic 
habits of his own youth made him realise the benefit 
of physical training for many of his scholars, whose 
days were spent in close factories amid the din of 
machinery. Nor was the educational side neglected 
in Richard Cadbury' s work. But he took a lofty 
view of the best aims and possibilities of an adult 
school, putting the needs of the soul in the first place 
of importance A pamphlet which he drew up for the 
help of his teachers and fellow workers shows this. It 
was often reprinted, and largely used for distribution. 

Dear Friends, The object of our classes is to induce the 
earnest study of the Scriptures, which are God's revealed will 
to man. 


It is to bring those who are living a worldly life to a serious 
thought of eternity, and the need of preparation through a 
consecrated life. 

It is to reclaim the fallen and to lead them to the Lamb of 
God, who taketh away the sin of the world. 

It is to encourage those who are growing up into manhood 
to be strong in the power of God's might. 

It is to draw into fellowship and communion those who are 
fighting the battle of life, and who need the strength of a 
united brotherhood. 

It is that God's name should be exalted in the world, that 
His kingdom may come, and that His will may be done on 
earth as it is in Heaven. 

Our classes for men and women are conducted on the 
broadest Christian principles. 

The Holy Scriptures are our only creed, the basis of our 
discussions, and our only final authority. 

It is on this understanding that the seekers after truth are 
encouraged to take part, and have a right to express their 
opinions on all subjects brought before them. 

We desire that what we profess before men should be 
brought into practical bearing in our lives, and that our 
allegiance to God should be proved by our love to our fellow 

We hope that the list of institutions connected with our 
work will commend itself to you, as we keep in mind the im- 
portance of striving to make life happy and useful, while 
desiring above all that the aim before us shall be a sure and 
certain hope of eternal life. 

This is a high and holy calling ; the work and responsi- 
bilities are great, but our sufficiency is of God, and our 
expectation is unto Him through our Lord and Saviour Jesus 

The many letters from Richard Cadbury which 
have been kept and treasured by some of the teachers 
and chief workers in the Highgate schools and mission 
are full of his loving and thoughtful care for every 
part of it. Once when some change had been made 


in the arrangements of the Men's Adult School, he 
wrote from London : 

My dear Friends and Fellow Workers, I have felt 
anxious as to the result of the alterations we have made in 
our morning school, and wish to express to you all my desire 
for nothing that will in any way divide our interests and the 
fraternal union that has bound us together for so many years. 
My prayers will be with you as you meet together, that you 
may be guided in the right path, and that the spirit of love 
and condescension may keep you from a thought of evil one 
of another. I shall probably be in one of the London early 
morning schools on Sunday. Your brother in Christ. 

When the children's schools were first opened, 
Richard Cadbury often went down to Highgate on 
Sunday afternoons ; but with his work in the early 
morning school, attendance at the Friends' Meeting 
at eleven o'clock, and the conduct of the evening 
mission meeting at Highgate, Bournville, or elsewhere, 
it was too much to continue regularly. On one 
occasion he wrote to the children's school teachers : 

Although I have found it very difficult to come often, it 
is not that I do not feel a deep interest in the good work. The 
next generation is our hope for the future, and if we do not 
inculcate the principles of real Christian life into their young 
hearts, and love for religious freedom under the banner of 
Christ, we cannot expect any better result than the deplorable 
condition of the churches at the present day. May Christ 
be our watchword for 1898 ! 

The Women's Early Morning School shared in his 
loving interest, and the lady who for many years has 
been its faithful superintendent writes : 

Mr. Cadbury always paid the most courteous and chivalrous 
attention to the ladies who were helping in his mission work. 


After the Sunday evening meeting he always insisted on 
carrying my bag to the station, and would usually run ahead 
and get my ticket. He often used to go with the open-air 
meetings to gather people into the special missions, and was 
always ready to help in the inquiry rooms. He showed 
continual kindness in helping people to get a change or a 
holiday. Those to whom he gave his confidence he trusted 
implicitly. I often remember him saying, " You have only 
to say it is a genuine case," and out would come his cheque- 

When this lady wished to join the Christian Society, 
which had become practically a mission branch of the 
Society of Friends, Richard Cadbury wrote to her : 

I am so glad to see that you are taking a little rest. It is 
positively necessary to retire from the whirl of life's duties 
at times, not only to rest our body and mind, but to realise 
that to do God's work with all our minds and all our heart we 
must have times of quiet, or we cannot know true communion 
and the grace and strength it brings. It will be a very sweet 
and happy service on my part to propose your name as a 
member of our Christian Society, trusting it may not only 
be a help to others, but a real strength to you in your Christian 

A sentence from another letter shows the personal 
interest taken by Richard Cadbury and his wife in 
the work of the women teachers : 

" Thank you for your very kind letter, which makes me feel 
my own deficiencies," was the humble-minded opening. " If 
it would be quite agreeable to you and your teachers, my dear 
wife and I would be delighted to entertain them at our house 
next week. Please do not for a moment hesitate to say no 
if you see any objection to it. I may also say it will give us 
great pleasure to look forward to a periodical visit, say once 
in six months, if you like to arrange it." 

Special gospel missions were planned at regular 


intervals, for Richard Cadbury looked on them as a 
harvest-time in which to reap the results of persevering 
labour of weeks and months. 

" It has been a very busy time for me," he wrote to one of 
his daughters in 1897 " most evenings occupied at home or 
away to the full. Soon comes our week's mission, which we 
are looking forward to with much hope and prayer." 

About three weeks later a letter to his son in South 
Africa says : 

We have just had a very successful mission at Highgate, 
about one hundred and fifty coming out for Christ. Oh, how 
important it is that our peace should be made with God. It 
is a joy to the soul that nothing earthly can give ; and it is a 
great comfort to me to believe that if we never meet on earth 
again, we shall (by God's grace) meet where there is no parting, 
and where sin cannot harm us. 

This was written about sixteen months before 
Richard Cadbury's last journey to the East, and was 
strangely prophetic, for he did not live to see his son 
again. Another reference to a special series of mission 
meetings says : 

We had a glorious meeting last evening about twenty or 
thirty genuine conversions, as far as I could tell. 

Richard Cadbury's first journey to Egypt and 
Palestine was quite an event to the people at High- 
gate, as well as to himself, for he had never before 
been away from his school for so long a time as three 
months in succession. A grand welcome meeting was 
arranged in the Highgate Board Schools to greet Mr. 
and Mrs. Cadbury and their family on their return. 


" I received your kind letter at Beyrout, from which place we 
sailed a week ago," Richard Cadbury wrote from London, in 
accepting the invitation. " We are very thankful to have re- 
turned home again safe and sound. It has been a delightful 
tour, full of incident and adventure. I am so glad to hear 
of the continued progress of our work at Highgate, and my 
heart is full of gratitude to our Heavenly Father for His 
preserving care." 

This public welcome, at which Richard Cadbury 
and his wife were presented with an illuminated 
address, assuring them of the continued esteem and 
devotion of all connected with the Highgate work, was 
a spontaneous act, and was a genuine sign of the love 
and friendship which bound the scholars, teachers, and 
workers to their leader. All that he had learned and 
enjoyed on that journey was shared with them, and 
through the next winter he gave a much-appreciated 
series of lantern lectures. 

The many organisations which benefited by 
Richard Cadbury 's help and interest were legion. 
There is not space to do more than mention a few of 
them, such as the Young Men's Christian Association, 
the Medical Mission, the British and Foreign Bible 
Society, the Police Mission, the Peace Society, hospi- 
tals, and many other institutions. His belief in the 
power of prayer led him to be deeply interested in 
the " World-wide Circle of Prayer," which began in 
Birmingham on January ist, 1896. Its object was 
to unite believers of every denomination, who could 
agree to pray for " the increased manifestation of the 
Holy Spirit's presence in all Christians, and fuller 
blessing upon all Christian work in all lands." The 


invitation to unite as " all one in Christ Jesus " bore 
an interesting list of signatures, including the Bishop 
of Durham, Rev. Hugh Price Hughes, Dr. McLaren, 
Rev. F. B. Meyer, Rev. Hudson Taylor (China Inland 
Mission), Dr. Clark (Christian Endeavour), J. R. 
Mott (S.V.M.U.), Rev. John McNeill, Richard Cadbury 
(Friends), and many others, representing almost every 
denomination of Christians. 

The " Friends' Tract Association," and especially 
its colportage work in England and Ireland, claimed 
his liberal support ; and in his mission at Highgate 
Richard Cadbury always encouraged the distribution 
of carefully selected tracts. Amongst the many 
earnest Christians of other denominations whom he 
delighted to help was the Methodist minister, Rev. J. 
Odell, who carried on for sixteen years a successful 
training home for young evangelists. This work not 
only owed its financial support largely to Richard 
Cadbury, but both superintendent and students looked 
to him for personal counsel and encouragement. 

" He grew into my heart and life as no other friend had ever 
done," wrote Mr. Odell. " The void remains, and no one has 
filled his place. He was never ' the patron,' but always the 
brother, the comrade in the work. It was this beautiful, 
Christlike spirit that endeared him to all who sought his aid." 

Many a good Christian man, who was overworked 
and underpaid, experienced Richard Cadbury 's prac- 
tical sympathy. A minister in one of the Midland 
towns, who had been toiling for years without means 
of taking a much-needed rest, was encouraged to 
confide in him. As a result, the broken, over- 


burdened man was enabled at once to take a long 
holiday, from which he returned to his work with 
renewed strength and vigour. Such instances might 
be multiplied, but we must turn to the Highgate 
work once more. 

Before his first visit to Egypt and Palestine, 
Richard Cadbury had begun to plan a new scheme 
for drawing into a central home the hydra-headed 
organisation which was fast outgrowing even the 
two board schools and the mission-hall in Upper 
Highgate Street. A piece of land was secured, fronting 
on to the Moseley Road, and on this was to be built 
a magnificent institute, devised by the busy brain 
and loving heart, which were at the same time planning 
the beautiful almshouses at Bourn ville. 

The last annual report of Class XV. which was 
ever read by Richard Cadbury shows the state 
of the work up to October, 1898. The attendance at 
the Men's Morning School averaged 463, and added 
to this was an average of 69 for a branch school which 
had been started at Bordesley Green. A large Bible- 
class for men on Sunday afternoons numbered an 
average attendance of 263. The figures for the 
Women's Morning School and afternoon Bible-class were 
respectively 187 and 130. Over a thousand children 
were in the schools every Sunday afternoon, and about 
two hundred people gathered to the evening mission 
meetings. The report also tells of a Christian En- 
deavour Society, Band of Hope, Temperance Society, 
Mothers' Meeting, Tuesday night Bible-class, Friday 
night Bible-class, and many other sub-divisions of 

i. Front Entrance. 
2. Lecture Hall. 


the work. By this time the new building, which was 
to be known as the " Friends' Hall and Institute, 
Moseley Road," was nearing completion. Richard 
Cadbury took an almost boyishly enthusiastic delight 
in watching it grow into shape. The front part of the 
building stood a little back from the road. On the left 
of the entrance portico was a bright, pleasant refresh- 
ment-room, connected with which was the caretaker's 
house ; on the right a large room solidly furnished in 
oak as a reading-room, or for holding smaller meet- 
ings. Above, with three handsome oriel windows, the 
lecture hall, capable of seating about four hundred, 
stretched across the whole width. A long passage 
above and below opened into a number of small class- 
rooms, of which there were, in all, thirty-seven. On 
the ground floor, the broad passage ended in a square 
crush hall, from which opened men's and women's 
cloak-rooms. A turn to the right brought one to the 
chief feature of the building, the large assembly hall, 
which was built to hold two thousand. It was well 
lighted, with a platform at one end and a broad 
gallery at the other, with a narrower gallery along 
each side of the hall. These, both above and below, 
were fitted with roller screens, by means of which a 
dozen or more class-rooms could be quickly formed. 
Beneath the assembly hall was a magnificent gym- 
nasium, fitted up as the new home for the Dolobran 
Athletic Club through the week, and to be used for 
children's schools on Sunday. In the basement were 
also the huge store-rooms, containing about three 
thousand sets of crockery, for mammoth tea-parties, 


and in connection with the gymnasium were bath- and 
dressing-rooms. At the back, separate from the rest 
of the building, was a charming little house for the 
secretary to live in. In all the arrangements nothing 
was considered insignificant by Richard Cadbury, who 
personally superintended every detail. 

Sending a budget of letters to be looked through, 
the architect, Mr. Ewen Harper, said : 

They show Mr. Cadbury' s great anxiety to have the buildings 
at Moseley Road and Bournville completed before leaving 
for his last visit to the Holy Land. To me his death was the 
losing of one whose life and example were an inspiration to 
do nobly and faithfully. 

Many details cannot be given, but a little must be 
said of the decorations chosen with so much care and 
thought for the assembly and lecture halls. On 
November 5th Richard Cadbury wrote : 

I am enclosing the texts chosen for the assembly hall. . . . 
They should not be written in unreadable lettering, but should 
be distinct and clear. The capital letters might be ornate, so 
long as they are readable. 

The texts chosen are painted on the walls above the 
galleries, along each side of the hall. They include 
Luther's " Gospel in miniature," invitations to accept 
Christ, the " Golden Rule," and others all of them 
special favourites of Richard Cadbury 's. The references 
to them, which were placed with each text, are 
John iii. 16 ; Isa. lv. 6 ; Isa. ix. 6 ; Heb. xv. 8 
John xv. 4, 5 ; Matt. v. 28 and 1 Pet. v. 7 
John i. 1, 14 ; 1 Cor. iii. 11 ; Rev. iii. 12 ; Rev. hi 
20 ; Rev. xxii. 17 ; Matt. vii. 12 ; Ps. xc. 12 

i. Assembly Hall. 
2. Gymnasium. 


Matt. v. 44 and xxiii. 8 ; Ps. xc. 17 ; Exod. xii. 13. 
Over the platform, upon an arched, recessed back- 
ground, is painted a beautiful design of lilies, sketched 
by Richard Cadbury himself, with the words, " Con- 
sider the lilies of the field " ; and on the outer 
edge of the arch is the text, " I am the Way, the 
Truth, and the Life ; no man cometh unto the 
Father but by Me." 

Further letters are full of detailed instructions for 
the design in the recess over the lecture-hall platform. 
It was a picture of the heavens, showing the moon 
and the earth, and the " Great Bear," with the star 
pointing to the pole star in " Ursa Minor." Across 
the bottom of the recess were the phases of the moon, 
and round the arch the twelve signs of the zodiac ; 
while above all were the words, " The heavens declare 
the glory of God." 

The same minute attention was paid to every part of 
the building, as in the choice of the chairs and seating 
arrangements, the fitting up of the gymnasium, and 
so on. 

By Christmas-time Richard Cadbury had the de- 
light and satisfaction of seeing the beautiful institute 
ready for use, although many minor points still had 
to be attended to. It was twenty years since Class XV. 
had made its humble beginning under his care. 
Through all the changes time had brought, he had 
been its faithful friend and shepherd, and now had 
prepared a permanent home, in which it could grow 
and flourish. 




FROM the earliest recollections of childhood, 
Christmas Day was the crowning day of the 
year in Richard Cadbury's family. The very air 
seemed electric with a feeling of affection and good-will, 
and an anticipation of delightful surprises that marked 
it out from all other days. The happiest and brightest 
of all was that which dawned on December 25th, 1898. 
Uffculme was full to overflowing, and the merriment 
began early in the morning with the discovery of the 
well-filled stockings which hung by every bedside. 

According to a custom which had prevailed since the 
old days at Harborne Road, the young people of the 
house gathered before breakfast outside the mother's 
and father's door, and sang carols. Most of them 
were a special series, reserved for this occasion, which 
the older girls had learnt in the nursery, tunes and 
all, from the lips of their Irish nurse. The beautiful 
German hymn, " Stille Nacht, heilige Nacht ! " had 



been added to the list, which invariably closed with 
a rousing chorus, " Merry Christmas to all." Then 
for a moment Richard Cadbury's happy face appeared 
at the door, and rattling all over the floor came a 
handful of coppers. A lively scramble followed, after 
which the coppers were solemnly divided, the youngest 
having the largest share. At about eight o'clock all 
the household gathered in the hall for prayers. 
After a Christmas hymn Richard Cadbury read in 
his reverent, thrilling voice the story of Christ's birth, 
from the second chapter of Luke. It brought to the 
minds of those who had visited Palestine with him 
in 1897 vivid memories of the little Eastern village 
of Bethlehem, overlooking the green stretch of valley 
where the shepherds watched their flocks so long ago. 
Then all knelt, and Richard Cadbury prayed, drawing 
hearts closer together, and making each one feel the 
nearness of the Heavenly Father's love and presence, 
and the joy of Christmas-tide. In a few moments 
the merry party were thronging towards the breakfast- 
room, where the mother, whose birthday it was, was 
led in triumph to her place as queen of the day. By 
her chair was a tiny Christmas-tree and a pile of 
presents, and in the middle of the table was her birth- 
day cake. 

Richard Cadbury's second daughter, with her hus- 
band and baby son, were staying at the old home, and 
at the close of breakfast there came a knock at the 
door, where little Dickie appeared in the nurse's arms, 
wrapped in his tiny pink dressing-gown ; he had come 
to give his grandparents a kiss on his first Christmas 


Day. About ten o'clock a procession was made amidst 
great excitement to the schoolroom, all the servants 
and people from the lodges joining the rest of the 
household to share in the distribution of Christmas 
presents, which were stacked on, beneath, and around 
the schoolroom table. Not a child in the room entered 
more fully into the fun than Richard Cadbury, who 
was radiant at seeing every one so happy. He 
treasured the simplest little gift that fell to his share, 
because of the love that lay behind it, for love was 
the one earthly possession upon which he depended. 
About half-past twelve the other Christmas guests 
began to arrive. His brother, George Cadbury, 
brought a large contingent, consisting of his wife 
and nine children. Three of his cousins, daughters 
of Benjamin Head Cadbury, who had been the special 
playmates of Richard and his brothers and sisters 
in their childhood days, and who had remained 
closely and affectionately in touch through all the 
long years, also joined the family circle on this 
happy day. He had five of his own eight children 
round him, but the eldest son and daughter, and 
the youngest son on his farm in Cape Colony, were 
lovingly remembered, though they could not join 
with the rest at Uffculme. The eldest son and his 
family were kept away by a visitation of whooping- 
cough. Dolly, being Richard Cadbury 's only grand- 
daughter, was a special pet of his, and he wrote to 
her and her little brother, Paul, a delightfully playful 
Christmas letter, half revealing the hitherto unrealised 
fact, that " Grandfather Cadbury " and the wonderful 


old Father Christmas who visited Uffculme each year 
were one and the same. When the news came three 
months later from Jerusalem that their grandfather 
had gone to heaven, Dolly, at least, was old enough 
to understand why the dear old Uffculme Father 
Christmas could never come back any more. 

By one o'clock all the guests had arrived, and a 
party of thirty-four sat down to an old-fashioned 
Christmas dinner. When they streamed into the hall 
afterwards, the fun was at its height, and the air 
rang with laughter. After a while the mother of 
the house called to the children, " Hush ! don't 
you hear the front door bell ringing ? " The hum 
of merry voices stopped, and in the pause sounded 
the distant whirring of an electric bell. Then came 
excited cries of, " It's Father Christmas ! " " Father 
Christmas has come ! " and a general stampede 
towards the entrance hall. A thudding noise, like 
some one banging a stick on the ground, was to 
be heard outside. When the door was opened, 
there stood dear old Father Christmas in his long 
red cloak and hood, his humped back covered with 
snow, his long white beard flowing, his aged hand 
trembling as he leant on a stout, knotted stick, while 
over his shoulder lay a knobbly sack with toys peeping 
out of the top. 

Amidst joyful cries of greeting, the children led 
him reverently and affectionately into the hall towards 
a comfortable chair. In a few moments he stood, 
leaning on his stick again, in the centre of a 
large group which had formed round him, including 


the servants, who had also come into the hall. In 
front of him stood the children, whom he subjected 
to a little examination of their behaviour through the 
year, which some of them answered in slight trepida- 
tion as the thought of various misdemeanours crossed 
their minds. But Father Christmas only encouraged 
them all to try still harder to be good children through 
the year that was coming. Then he said, " But 
where are my little Dolly and Paul ? I can't see 
them anywhere, and isn't there a little boy called 
Victor ? " After their absence had been explained 
he said, " Well, I shan't forget them." Then he 
caught sight of Dickie, who was looking at him 
from his mother's arms with big wondering eyes. 
" Why, who's that little 'un ? " he cried. " He 
must be new since I was here last year, isn't he ? " 
The baby boy was given a first kiss from Father 
Christmas, who then began telling the children of 
his home at the north pole, and the long journey, 
first on an iceberg and then in a reindeer sledge. 
" How old am I, children ? " he asked. But the 
children could not tell. " Don't you know what year 
it is ? " " Yes, Father Christmas, it's 1898," came 
from some of the bigger boys. " Well, don't you 
see, I am just as old as that nearly two thousand 
years old ; a good age, eh, Grammercy ? " said the 
disguised Richard Cadbury, turning to his wife's 
mother, whom he often called by this pet name. 
Then he began telling the children how he was born 
eighteen hundred and ninety-eight years ago, far 
away over the sea, in Bethlehem, and that in a little 


while he would be going back there again. It was 
strange that he should have spoken to them like 
this, in a way he had never done before, identifying 
his origin with the birth of the Babe of Bethlehem, 
the story of which always filled his loving heart with 
tender emotion. It brought to mind the sweet German 
legend of the Christ-child, which now seemed fused 
into the character of Father Christmas in a new and 
unthought-of light. 

" But now, come, I must take you to the Christmas 
tree, as I have some more visits to make," he said, 
leading the way to the study. When the door was 
opened a low cry of wonder and admiration burst 
from every one's lips, for there against the dark ruby 
window-curtains, on a table spread with a snowy 
cloth, stood the most lovely Christmas-tree they had 
ever seen. It seemed the very emblem of purity and 
brightness. The upper side of every branch was 
covered with sparkling white snow, and the whole tree 
dripped with silver streamers, to represent icicles, 
which glittered in the rays of numerous white candles. 
From the top shone a silver star, and white and silver 
ornaments twinkled among the branches. Not a touch 
of colour anywhere, save the dark green of the tree 
itself ; the very pot in which it stood seemed to shoot 
out points of fire from its tinsel covering. Presently 
Father Christmas drew attention to a pile of parcels 
lying on the floor. Putting them into the mother's 
care for distribution, he now said he must have his 
dance with the children before saying good-bye. They 
joined hands in a large ring and danced round, Father 


Christmas as spry as any of them, in spite of his humped 
back and heavy weight of years. Then each rosy face 
was raised for a farewell kiss from under the red hood. 

They crowded to the door, and called " good-bye " 
as they watched the well-known, bent figure start 
off down the drive ; but how little any of them realised 
that it was a real farewell for ever to the Uffculme 
Father Christmas, and that they should never again 
see the dear form in its long red cloak and hood. No 
presentiment of the terrible sorrow that was so soon 
to come cast any cloud on their gladness, as they 
turned back to the study. Richard Cadbury slipped 
in amongst them so quietly that the children, whose 
attention had been fully occupied, never noticed his 
absence. After a last look at the tree in its shimmering 
glory of white and silver, the children trooped upstairs 
with their treasures to the nursery corridor, and their 
elders dispersed for an hour's rest. 

At six o'clock the quiet which had fallen over the 
house was again broken by merry voices, as one after 
another gathered in the hall, and, at the sound of the 
gong, turned towards the dining-room to partake of 
that comfortable meal known as " high tea." This 
over, a space was cleared in the hall for round games, 
in which Richard Cadbury and his wife joined as 
heartily as any of the children. 

After a time all gathered round the organ to sing 
some Christmas hymns, and then came the bustle of 
goodbyes. When the rest of the family came back 
into the hall from seeing their guests oif, they found 
Richard Cadbury hard at work, picking up the debris 


from crackers, and carrying off chairs and rugs to their 
accustomed places. After such an occasion as Christ- 
mas Day, when the house had been full of people, he 
would often remind his children of those who had been 
working doubly hard for their pleasure all day, and 
that it was worth while to save them one added piece 
of work, never pausing to think whether he himself 
was tired. It was these constant little acts of unselfish- 
ness that made his home-life so beautiful and full of 
sunshine. Inspired by his example, the others set 
to work also, and in a few moments all was restored 
to order, so that, when the tired servants came upon 
the scene, they found that no further labour was 
needed. Was it any wonder that the whole household 
loved him devotedly, even down to the kitchen-maid, 
who felt rewarded for the hardest day's toil, when she 
happened to pass as he came into the house in an 
evening and received his cheery greeting ? So ended 
his last happy Christmas Day on earth ; and what to 
some might seem a prosaic close, gives but one more 
illustration of the secret power of a life, in which thought 
of self had no place, but which was devoted for his 
Master's sake to simple and incessant service for others. 
Although the day was always kept for family 
reunion, Richard Cadbury did not forget his many 
friends who had less of this world's goods than 
himself, and Christmas-time was one of the busiest 
seasons of the year in providing for their pleasure. 
Amongst many others, the people at Bournville, 
and those connected with his varied mission work, 
had special claims. The works' party, at which 


about two thousand of the employes and as 
many as possible of the travellers and members 
of the Cadbury families were present, was never 
happier or more successful, and to the Highgate 
people this Christmas brought a special reason for 
rejoicing. The new Friends' Hall and Institute, on 
the Moseley Road, although not entirely complete in 
every detail, was more or less ready for use, and the 
large assembly hall was finished. A formal opening, 
which never took place, was planned for May, but on 
December 27th Richard Cadbury had the joy of 
welcoming his adult scholars and the members of the 
various branches of his Highgate work to the new 
home which he had prepared for them." Tea was 
provided in the gymnasium, and was partaken of by 
about sixteen hundred, who then gathered in the large 
hall above. When Richard Cadbury and his wife, 
who had received and shaken hands with all their 
guests, appeared on the platform, they were greeted 
by hearty cheers, which seemed as though they could 
not die away. With their parents were Barrow 
Cadbury and his wife ; Edith Butler and her husband, 
who had been taking an earnest part in the Highgate 
Adult School since his marriage ; William Cadbury, 
with the three youngest daughters and Alec, and a 
number of relations and friends interested in the 
work. When Richard Cadbury rose to speak he was 
met with another storm of applause, and after it had 
at last subsided he said : 

In wishing you all a happy new year I do so with 
heartfelt thankfulness for the blessings we have all received 


during this closing year of 1898, and with a sure hope that 
God will bless us in the future as we look to Him to guide us 
in the new and increased work and responsibilities that lie 
before us. This is not a formal opening to the public, but a 
Christmas welcome to all who have for a longer or shorter 
period worked with us through the past twenty years. 

It is in no sectarian spirit that we have welcomed the help 
of those who are willing to join with us in bringing in the 
wanderer and the outcast, in reforming the drunkard, and in 
holding forth the lamp of hope, faith, and charity to all who 
have not accepted God's means of salvation. Nor is it our 
desire to compete with other Christian chujches and public 
bodies in building this house and institute for the people ; 
but we believe that the homes of our artisans will be brighter 
and better for the influences brought to bear upon their moral 
and religious life in this place. Recreations and amusements 
are necessarily part of our social life, and one of the great 
problems of the day is to solve the question as to the best 
means of keeping them free from contamination of the 
moral character. 

Our work is to train the young into habits of industry, 
and to inculcate in them pure and holy thoughts, to stimulate 
social and intellectual intercourse among those growing into 
manhood and womanhood, so that their ambition shall be to 
encourage mutual respect for one another and to place love 
on its highest throne, by gentleness, by good report, by manly 
courage, by cultivating the mind, by earnest work, and by 
sanctified dedication to God's service. 

We claim no superiority in these matters over others who 
are working on the same lines, but wish to emulate all in zeal 
and consecration. One great principle governs the children 
of God ; that they are one in Christ. Some say and think 
that unity is impossible ; well, if they think so they do not 
believe in Him Who said " that they all may be one as Thou 
Father art in Me, and I in Thee, that they also may be one in 
Us." It is on this principle alone that the men of the world 
will be won for Christ, and until the churches recognise this 
unity of believers there will be no great ingathering of the 
people. The reason is not far to seek ; it is because the 
churches will be brought into sympathy with one another, for 
although they may differ from one another in outward forms, 


they will acknowledge Christ as the great Shepherd of His 
sheep, who says, "And there shall be one fold and one 
Shepherd.' ' 

Ours is a humble attempt to build upon the one foundation, 
without reference to creed or hierarchical pretensions. The 
Bible texts on these walls proclaim allegiance to the doctrine 
of the priesthood of believers and of the divinity of Christ. 

We look forward to the new year for increased opportunities 
and zeal for His kingdom, and devoutly ask for His guidance 
and blessing upon all that is undertaken in His name. 

A presentation was then made ot which Richard 
Cadbury had not the slightest previous suspicion, 
and which had been subscribed for by the men, women, 
and children connected with the work. It took the 
form of a table and reading-desk, a large armchair, 
and eight other chairs for the platform, all in solid 
oak, with the monogram " R. C." and the bundle of 
sticks which he had chosen as the motto of the in- 
stitute engraved on each. The loving words with 
which the presentation was made, the genuine devotion 
that beamed in the eyes turned towards him, and that 
thrilled in the renewed cheers which greeted his rising, 
stirred a tumult of emotion in him. He seemed 
overcome by the gratitude with which his great gift 
had been received ; it had not occurred to him to 
expect it, and perhaps never before had he realised 
the depth of passionate affection which his long years 
of unassuming service had earned from his fellow 
workers and scholars. After a few words of thanks 
his voice shook and broke, and he asked his wife to 
finish for him. The whole gathering seemed like a 
family party, and she came forward with a face glowing 
with happiness at seeing him so truly appreciated. 


She told them how grateful she was for the love they 
bore her dear husband, who was a man worth loving. 
She had lived with him more than twenty-seven years, 
and the longer he lived the sweeter he grew. After 
thanking them again and again for their gift, her 
gentle voice became more serious as she expressed her 
hope that a great work would be done there long after 
she and her husband had gone from them ; and that 
the building might tumble down, if a time should ever 
come when it was not fulfilling its mission and doing 
work for the glory of God. 



THE first weeks of the New Year were filled to 
overflowing with work and engagements of all 
kinds, and with preparations for the three months' 
holiday, in which another tour through Egypt and 
Palestine was planned. Richard Cadbury was in 
harness up to the last day. One of the striking things 
in his life was his continual readiness for the home- 
call, whenever it might come, although he never dwelt 
morbidly on the thought of death. It was his habit 
to be neat and methodical, but before leaving home 
for any journey he always took extra care in arranging 
his papers and belongings, both at home and at 
Bournville, in such order, that in the event of his death 
as little trouble as possible might be given. Before 
this journey in 1899 the thought often seemed to be 
in his mind, and several remember him saying, " If 
I should not come home again. . . ." But the 



radiance and gladness of his life seemed deeper than 
ever during those busy weeks. The completion of 
the Moseley Road Institute and the Bournville alms- 
houses was a great delight to him, and both were 
formed into public trusts as Moseley Hall had been, 
though these were entirely in the hands of his family 
and members of the Society of Friends. 

The plans for changing the constitution of Cadbury 
Brothers into a limited liability company were ready, 
and his own affairs in connection with the works 
prepared for a long absence. For two or three Sundays 
in the January his adult school and other classes had 
met in the new institute ; and in -a letter dated Janu- 
ary 22nd he said, " We had six hundred and fifty- 
three men at school this morning, which was a very 
satisfactory beginning." 

On January 29th, the last Sunday before his depar- 
ture for Egypt, he gave an address to the whole 
school, which was thus described by a reporter of the 
Birmingham Weekly Mercury. The subject was " The 
Silence of God " (1 Kings xix. 11, 12) : 

He was interesting from the first, speaking with clearness, 
though his voice showed symptoms of wear ; without manner- 
isms or deadly commonplaceness ; with a cultured style and 
evidences of imagination and instinctive love of the sublime 
and beautiful in nature. He spoke of the still small voice ; 
of the silence of God. We should know more of God's silence 
in proportion as we knew more of the working of the Holy 
Spirit of God. That Spirit must have been felt by us in prayer, 
or we should have no faith in its efficacy. As we sang of the 
stars and the firmament our thoughts went back to the dawn 
of creation, when the Spirit of God brooded over the face of 
the waters silently. Sin came into the world and the silence 


of God was broken. In the temple of Solomon we saw a 
wonderful symbol of the silence of God. Every piece of wood 
was hewed into shape before it came to the builders. No 
sound of axe or hammer was heard there. All was done in 
silence. On the other hand, we knew that when the temple 
was destroyed it was done with axes and hammers. The 
world was full of noise and sin. For his part, he humbly 
desired that we might return to the quiet and peace associated 
with a purer form of earthly life. Passing along the history 
of time, there was the Flood. Again the silent eye of God 
looked on. We need to realise the power of sin, and the 
power of the Evil One, who goes about seeking whom he may 
destroy. We all knew this ; the difficulty was to apply it to 
ourselves. This could be done by the Spirit of God in our 
hearts. We must not rely upon each other, but on ourselves. 
Thus might we find grace and help in every time of need. 
Elijah for the moment lost faith. The voice of conscience 
came to him, the voice of God, " Where art thou, Elijah ? " 
In like manner the voice of God had found out Adam. We 
wanted the voice of God in our hearts and consciences. When 
the still small voice was heard, the prophet wrapped his face 
in his mantle. 

Did we realise the solemnity of the presence of God ? Were 
we there to worship ? It is a solemn thing to stand in that 
silent presence. We should do well to have more silence in 
our worship, to let the Lord come in. We had enough of 
the voices of men in the world, and in our daily avocations. 
The wisdom of men was nothing when compared with the 
wisdom of the Lord. 

Thus did Mr. Richard Cadbury hold forth, his manner 
quiet, and even modest ; his tone and general style that of a 
level-headed citizen whose religious faith was real, whole- 
hearted, and immovable. The people sat very still, giving 
to every word the most respectful attention. 

The same evening he took the mission meeting at 
the Bournville and Stirchley Institute, and the follow- 
ing night presided over a mass meeting for men in 
the Central Hall, Corporation Street, at which Dr. 
Thomas Savage gave an address on social purity. 


Moseley Hall, the Police Institute, and his work at 
the law courts were amongst the things that received 
his attention during the last days at home. On the 
morning before his departure he met the workers of 
the Gospel Temperance Mission at their monthly 
prayer-meeting, and the same evening a family dinner- 
party took place at Uffculme, which he had to leave 
early for a meeting. Coming home that night, he 
threw his hat in the air, and said to his wife, " And 
now, hurrah for a long holiday ! " 

The following afternoon, February 2nd, a large 
family party gathered at New Street Station to speed 
the travellers on their way. There were seven of 
them this time, as, besides his wife and three youngest 
daughters, Richard Cadbury took with him his second 
daughter Edith, and her husband, whose baby-boy 
was left in the loving care of his grandmother Butler. 
It was a great wrench for the young mother, but she 
was anxious for her husband to take advantage of 
such a tour in the East, and especially in Palestine. 

The special incident which marked the journey 
across Europe was a visit to Richard Cadbury's sister 
Maria and her husband at Boulogne-sur-Mer. Again 
a journal letter, written by each in turn, carried news 
of their doings to the family at home. A smooth 
voyage from Brindisi to Port Said, and a long day's 
journey by rail along the Suez Canal to Ismailia, and 
from there across the desert, brought them to Cairo. 
It seemed familiar after the visit of two years before, 
but was full of fresh interest. A week was busily 
occupied in seeing the mosques and museums, Old 



Cairo and Rhoda Island, the Pyramids and the Sphinx, 
where an experiment in camel-riding was made. 

The month of Ramadan, during which no Mohamme- 
dan may eat, drink, or smoke between sunrise and 
sunset, was over on February nth, much to the relief 
of Richard Cadbury, who could not bear to see the 
donkey-boys and men of all classes going without 
water through the hot days. One day, as the party 
were standing on the piazza of Shepheard's Hotel, a 
figure in a flowing cloak rushed up the steps, and 
seizing Richard Cadbury's hand, showered kisses upon 
it, turning to the other six with a similar salute. It 
was Raschid Mouhany, the Nile dragoman of two years 
before, who had hurried to Shepheard's the moment 
he heard that the Cadbury party was there. 

On Tuesday, February 14th, the Nile journey began 
again, under Raschid's guidance once more, as far as 
the first cataract. The following Friday a private 
excursion was planned to Tel-el- Am arna, as Richard 
Cadbury wanted to see a remarkable pavement recently 
discovered by Mr. Flinders Petrie He describes the 
day's doings in the journal : 

This has been a record day for us, as we have accomplished 
our long-looked -for visit to Tel-el- Amarna. We started before 
dawn, but had hardly proceeded a mile before we were en- 
veloped by a thick fog ; the wind had changed, and instead of 
the rough crested waves the river was now unruffled. It was 
unfortunate for our party, as we had to cast anchor for two and 
a half hours, until the sun had dispelled the mist, and when we 
landed it was 10.30 instead of eight o'clock. The usual 
crowd of persistent children were waiting for backsheesh 
and followed us on our journey. Palm-trees and corn-fields 
formed a narrow belt between the river and the desert, on the 


borders of which lay in desolation the once proud city of 
Tel-el- Amarna, built by the last king of the eighteenth dynasty. 

Amen-hotep III. was captivated by the beauty of the 
Mesopotamian princess Tai, and she quickly used her influence 
to educate her little son (the future King) in her own faith, 
so that when his father died there was no one besides the 
priests to dispute their will. But this was sufficient to compel 
him to establish a temple to the sun's disc away from Thebes. 
The Egyptians worshipped Amen-Ra, the hidden sun, after 
his setting, while he was pursuing his passage through the 
unseen world, which embodied the doctrine of the resurrection. 
The Asiatics worshipped the full orb of light, so that, when 
Amen-hotep IV. came to be king, he took upon himself the 
name Khun-en-Aten, ** The Radiance of the Solar Disc." 

On the low mounds upon which we were standing once 
stood the most gorgeous palace Egypt had ever seen. Its 
walls and columns were decorated with coloured glass and 
gold, and inlaid with precious stones, and its statuary is said 
to have closely rivalled the finest examples of Greek sculpture. 
Of this very little is to be seen on the spot, but a brick building 
covers a most wonderful painted pavement, on which are 
represented water-plants with the lotus-flower in bud and in 
full bloom, and a great variety of birds and fishes, equal in 
execution to the best examples of modern art; and what 
perhaps is more surprising, the colours are nearly as fresh 
as if just painted. A few fragments of broken columns of 
white marble show the exquisite character of the work of 
these ancient sculptors. We walked with mingled feelings 
over the wreck of the great city, especially over that part on 
which stood Aten-Ra, " The House of the Royal Rolls." Three 
hundred clay tablets were found about ten years ago with 
cuneiform inscriptions, which have proved to be part of the 
correspondence beween the court of Egypt with Babylon, 
Assyria, and the vassal princes in Canaan, one or more being 
from Ebed-Tob, the vassal king of Jerusalem. From here 
we walked over about two miles of open desert to the rock 
tombs. High up on the cliffs is a stratum of hard limestone, 
and into this the great men of Khun-en-Aten's court cut and 
ornamented their last resting-places. The first we visited 
was for the king's treasurer, Huia. Two fine lotus-pillars 
supported the roof ; the pillars and walls had been covered 


with pictures and hieroglyphs, but sadly damaged by the 
ceaseless wreck of ages. The door of the tomb exactly faced 
the sun at noon, and on each side of the entrance the king is 
represented holding the solar disc ; inside was a picture of 
the temple solar disc, etc. 

Another tomb to which we scrambled along a narrow path 
was dedicated to Ra-Meri, a great statue of whom stood right 
at the back of the tomb perhaps sixty feet from the entrance, 
but the sun shone right on to his disfigured portrait. Khun- 
en-Aten was represented in his chariot, with runners and 
soldiers. Another represented him followed by his children, 
also in chariots, and a picture of the palace with its gardens 
and fountains. We had our lunch in Huia's tomb with our 
crowd of followers outside the iron gate like a pack of 

No time was left to visit the southern group of tombs, 
which were a mile and a half distant, and so we missed 
our visit to the tomb of the King's Canaanite Prime Minister 
Tutu, which has a wonderful hymn to the Sun God, " The 
creator of all things heaven, mankind, animals, birds, flowers ; 
our eyes are lightened by his beams ; he is the Lord of time, 
the creator of years, months, and days." 

The king's own tomb is up a wild ravine cut deeply into 
the rocks, like the tombs of the kings of Thebes. The end 
of his reign was sad and terrible, as his enemies wreaked a 
savage vengeance on his mummy, scattering it to the winds 
before it was fairly in its last resting-place, and nothing now 
remains but some scattered fragments of his granite sarco- 
phagus ; all his treasures and the rich ornaments of his temple 
and palace were carried away to adorn the sanctuary of Amon 
at Thebes. The king had surrounded his person and court 
with Asiatics, and consequently it became a war to the death 
between Egypt and Asia. Thus a new king and a new 
dynasty arose, "which knew not Joseph," and the oppression 
and expulsion of the Israelites naturally followed. 

Our walk back over the desert was hot in the extreme. We 
had to cross the river, and our ferry was full of men and two 
donkeys, so we had to crush into the dirty boat and crew 
as well as we could. We unloaded some men and the two 
donkeys on an island, and soon after stranded on a sand-bank, 
from which, after much shouting and men plunging into the 


water to pull her off with ropes, we at last cleared ourselves, 
and were then landed on the far side one after the other in the 
arms of two men. The railway station was three miles away, 
and we reckoned that we had only forty minutes to do it in ; 
fortunately we had about half an hour longer, so had time to 
cool at the railway station after a steaming hot walk, for we 
did not relish the idea of spending the night in the native 
huts. (Another writer in the journal tells of Richard 
Cadbury's rapid pace, and of how even the Syrian guide 
remarked, M Master walk very fast.") 

We took first-class tickets, and wished afterwards we had 
not, for a thick layer of dust covered these unused compart- 
ments, and although the cushions were shaken and the backs 
beaten, small streams of dust continued to fall on us all the 
way to Assiut, which we reached at six o'clock. Our boat 
had not arrived, but through the courtesy of the captain of 
the Rameses the Great, which was on her way back to Cairo, 
we gladly availed ourselves of a wash and brush up, and a 
good dinner with the passengers of that boat. Ours arrived 
at 8.30, and we were very glad to get into our own quarters 
safe and sound. 

On the Sunday Richard Cadbury was asked to 
read his paper on " The Jewish Race in Egypt," a 
revised edition of the one written two years earlier, 
and permission being given to use the dining saloon, 
he arranged a service between 10.30 and 11.30, and 
an hour of informal hymn-singing in the evening, 
which was much appreciated by the other passengers. 

Denderah, Luxor, and Karnak were again visited, 
and from here he wrote the following letter to the 
teachers of the Severn Street and Priory Children's 
First Day School Union : 

February igth, 1899. My dear Friends, I expect to be 
in Palestine on the date of your annual meeting (March 27th), 
at which I hoped to have been present, so venture to send this 
note to say that I do not forget your work of love for Christ's 


kingdom among the children who look up to you for example 
as well as knowledge. May you have grace and wisdom, and 
the power of the Holy Spirit to guide you and to teach you 
all that will bring them to Christ. We are in a land of wonders, 
and hope to reach the second cataract, a thousand miles up the 
Nile. Our rulers have a difficult task in hand to teach these 
wild Arab and negro races. Truth and honesty they know 
little or nothing about, and they enjoy the freedom of their 
wild life. The children are in continual motion, leaping and 
skipping, shouting and singing, laughing and showing their 
white teeth as they beg for backsheesh, and with no clothing 
beyond a black dress thrown over their shoulders, and with 
four or five necklaces of coloured and golden beads over their 
necks, and hanging over their brown skins. Can you fancy 
training such a class of youngsters ? Well, we may hope 
some day that God will put it into the hearts of perhaps the 
very children you are teaching to come away from England 
and its luxurious homes to teach them godliness and cleanliness. 
For the love of God in Christ Jesus, our Saviour and their 
Saviour, is strong enough to save even the worst of sinners. 

You have a great work before you, a work and responsibility 
that is growing every year, and as you are faithful in conse- 
crating your lives and your talents to God's service, He will 
give you a rich reward. 

I commend you to the work you have in hand for Christ's 
little ones, to His holy care and keeping. 

Yours faithfully, 

Richard Cadbury. 

His letters written during this journey were full of 
thoughtful gratitude, expressed over and over again 
towards those, especially his elder sons, who were 
bearing the home burdens in his absence. 

From Thebes another private excursion was planned 
across the river to the tomb of Mer-en-ptah, the 
Pharaoh of the Exodus and son of Rameses the Great, 
among the tombs of the kings in the desolate valley 
of Bab-el-Moluk. Richard Cadbury was intensely 


interested in the portrait of " the first-born " son of 
Mer-en-ptah, who died on the night of the Passover 
in Egypt. He took rubbings of the head with its 
side-lock of hair, denoting the first-born son. They 
then saw the great shaft, eighty feet deep, where the 
mummies of dead Pharaohs were found, from the 
conqueror of the Shepherd Kings to the Pharaohs 
and high priests of the twenty-first dynasty. It was 
discovered by watching the movements of an Arab 
who knew the secret, and was bringing articles of 
great historical value into Cairo. The mummies, which 
now form some of the greatest treasures of the Gizeh 
Museum, had been deposited in this shaft for security 
by the priests when Cambyses was raiding and 
destroying every monument and statue that he could 
wreak his vengeance upon, in an attempt to 
obliterate the name and history of the Egyptian 
people. The. small tomb of Rekh-Ma-Ra in the 
necropolis of Thebes was another point of special 
interest to Richard Cadbury. It was built in the 
shape of a headless cross, ' which was also the 
symbol for offerings made on altars in the tombs 
belonging to the old empire. In the tomb of Mera, 
for instance, he noticed this sign on an alabaster 
altar before the statue, with a religious inscription 
to Osiris, the great lord of the nether world. 

They believed in a future life [he wrote in the journal], 
but their dreamland of eternal bliss was that described in 
the tomb of Unas, a land of continual pleasure, corres- 
ponding with earthly hopes, when the spirit should again 
return to animate the mummy so carefully hidden and 


But Christ became the head of the Cross by His life, death, 
crucifixion, and resurrection, thus making death the way of 
life to all who believe on Him. 

How wonderful that the emblem of life used on all Egyptian 
monuments, ?-, became the emblem of resurrection to all 
who believe on Him. 

Esneh, Edfu, and Kom Ombos were visited on 
the way to Assouan and the first cataract. The 
wild appearance of the Bishareen, and the pitiful 
sight of the convicts working in chains under a 
blazing sun, attracted the attention of the little 

On February 27th an interesting ceremony took 
place in Assouan the laying of the foundation stone 
of the first church in the Soudan, which was per- 
formed by the Duke of Connaught, who, with the 
Duchess and their two daughters, was passing through 
on the return journey from Khartoum. 

This time the tour of the Cadbury party was ex- 
tended to the second cataract, which necessitated a 
change of boats at Assouan. The difference in the 
scenery further up the Nile was very striking. Richard 
Cadbury wrote : 

It is difficult to realise that we are in the land of Cush 
(Egyptian) Ethiopia (Bible) and in the great Nubian desert ; 
the Nile winding through its scorching rocks and sands as the 
one great giver of good, and adored as such by its ancient 
inhabitants. Centuries have passed since the eunuch of Queen 
Candace returned to preach (as we believe) the gospel of 
Christ to her people when " Ethiopia stretched out her hands 
to God " ; but times have changed, and a once prosperous 
people are now without the knowledge of Christ since 
Mahomet AH, the murderer of the Mamelukes, devastated the 
land and killed all who opposed his religious crusade with 


fire and sword. It is now still and desolate, and although 
palm-trees and a narrow strip of cultivated land fringe the 
river banks, the people are rarely seen. 

The descriptions given in the journal of places 
visited on this part of the journey are so full of interest 
that one longs for space to tell of them. Dendur, 
and Korosko, where from a hill-top they watched 
the sun rise, and looked across the desert road to 
Berber, along which Gordon went on his last ex- 
pedition to the Soudan, were full of fascination for 
Richard Cadbury, as was also the cliff temple of Abu 
Simbel, which was visited a second time on the 
return voyage. Everywhere he was busy taking 
rubbings, sketches, and photos', and making notes 
for future lectures, and for his adult school lessons 
and addresses. 

Abousir, by the second cataract, was the southern- 
most point reached, about a thousand miles away 
from the Mediterranean, and in the wilds of the 
sun-baked desert. At Wady Haifa they found on 
going into a store a magnificent lion cub, seven 
months old, tied up with a piece of cord like a dog. 
He was as playful as a kitten, and greatly delighted 
Richard Cadbury and his family. His wife wrote in 
the journal : 

We are all in the best of health, and enjoying everything 
thoroughly. I wish you could all see father ; he is most 
enthusiastic, taking rubbings and drawings wherever he can. 
Every one comes to him for information, and he is looked on 
as " the Egyptologist " on the boats. He joins in everything 
that is going on, and chats with all. He is called all sorts of 
names by the natives, such as " Mr. Cook," " Father," 
" Baron," and so on. 9 


Returning to Assouan, the travellers were much 
interested in the barrage then in course of construction, 
on which about five thousand men were employed. 
Keneh, with its goolah trade, Luxor, and Abydos were 
full of fresh attraction. In Luxor Richard Cadbury 
purchased some special treasures to add to his collec- 
tion of Egyptian relics. Instead of waiting till he 
reached home, he immediately made neat labels for 
each, and fairly trembled with eagerness as he showed 
them to some of his fellow travellers. 

On March nth Assiut was reached again, and 
Richard Cadbury was anxious to revisit the American 
Mission in which he had been so interested two years 
before especially the hospital, which he heard was in 
great need of financial aid. His party drove in two 
carriages through the dirty streets, which were so 
narrow that, as they passed, the people had to run 
into the houses to make room. The hospital was 
composed of two native houses joined together. A 
plot of ground had already been bought, on which to 
erect a new building ; but this had to wait till suffi- 
cient funds could be raised. On entering, they found 
themselves in a small courtyard, into which the out- 
patients' department opened. A number of patients, 
mostly with bad eyes, were sitting waiting for the 
doctors, who were engaged in an operation. Although 
everything was beautifully clean, there was no proper 
drainage system, and Richard Cadbury remarked on 
the horrible smell in one part of the courtyard, 
though no one thought any more about it at the 
time. It was touching to see and hear how the work 


of the missionaries was appreciated, and how their 
loving care for the bodily needs of their patients 
gained an entrance to their hearts, and opened the 
way for speaking of Jesus and His love. Richard 
Cadbury gladly helped the work, which had his 
warmest sympathy, by a generous donation towards 
the building fund. 

On this journey, as on all others, he had no hesita- 
tion in showing his colours, and succeeded in getting 
many a quiet talk with one or other of his fellow 
passengers. There were some whose whole life seemed 
to be given up to pleasure-seeking and mere earthly 
enjoyment, and towards such he felt the responsibility 
of even a short acquaintance, looking upon it as an 
opportunity for drawing their minds and souls to 
higher things. The humble, gentle-spirited way in 
which it was done could never be resented, and he was 
universally beloved. Indeed, the kind of attractive 
power that seemed to emanate from him during these 
weeks was so striking that the others of the party 
often spoke of it among themselves. One gentleman 
who was taking a dahabieh for shooting, and whose 
whole life seemed to have been spent in travelling 
and sport, followed him everywhere with an almost 
wistful, unconcealed affection. With a suspicious 
break in his voice he said to Richard Cadbury 's wife 
at parting, " Your husband is the j oiliest old chap I 
have ever met ! " 

The day after visiting the hospital at Assiut Richard 
Cadbury complained of a sore throat, which grew 
worse on reaching Cairo. His daughter Helen then 


sickened also, and for a few days both were very ill. 
He was most anxious to push on to Palestine, for fear 
of hindering the others from enjoying the camping 
tour, and the doctor, who said it was a case of the 
usual complaint known as " Nile throat," advised the 
journey, saying the fresher air would help restore 
the two invalids. They seemed to grow a little better, 
and Richard Cadbury's wife wrote from the Messageries 
steamer between Port Said and Jaffa on March 16th : 

For two days we were very anxious, as you may imagine, 
and did not know what course to take. . . . Now I am able 
to report convalescence, as you will know, or we should not 
have been able to move. I have told you everything, so that 
you may know what we have been going through, and rejoice 
with us in their recovery. 

The effort of the journey was very great, and the 
dust from the cargo of cement, with which the steamer 
was laden, aggravated the condition of the sore throats. 
In spite of the beautiful weather, the two days' drive 
from Jaffa to Jerusalem was a trying time, though no 
one dreamt of danger. The memory of Richard 
Cadbury's patience and beautiful unselfishness through 
those days of pain and weariness and discomfort can 
never be forgotten. He could eat nothing, for even 
the milk which he swallowed caused intense agony ; 
he could hardly speak, and yet there was never a 
sign of complaining or impatience. He would even 
try to carry things, and relieve others of their burdens, 
and was so gentle, so humble, and so Christlike, that 
the hearts of his little family party clung to him as 
never before. 


At Jaffa they were met by Khalil S. Gandour, the 
excellent and faithful dragoman who had directed 
their camping tour through Palestine two years 
earlier, and whose kind care and attention could be 
relied on at every turn. His devotion to Richard 
Cadbury was very touching, and the reality of his 
affection has been proved in subsequent years. 

Jerusalem was safely reached on the evening of 
Saturday, March 18th. The youngest daughter's 
throat also had a touch of the illness, which even 
here was considered to be blood-poisoning. In spite of 
great prostration, the disease, afterwards found to be 
diphtheria, seemed to yield to drastic treatment. On 
the Sunday and Monday, Richard Cadbury, weak as 
he was, made out lists for the three who were quite 
well, of places he wanted them to see. As he could 
not speak easily, he wrote his desire that they would 
not stay in the hotel on his account, and that he 
was especially anxious that his son-in-law should not 
miss the wonderful sights, which to him alone were 
entirely new. 

By Tuesday evening, March 21st, he, as well as his 
daughters, seemed really better, though he was much 
weaker than they. Good news, too, had come from 
England. Mr. and Mrs. Butler's baby son had been 
dangerously ill during this same time, and the sad 
tidings had caused added sorrow and anxiety to the 
party of travellers, especially to his parents and 
grandparents. Tuesday brought a telegram saying that 
the extreme peril was over, and all sought their rest 
that night with upspringing hope, and happy plans 


for a quiet month in camp near Bethlehem, instead 
of the tour through the country. Some purchases 
had been made in preparation for this, and Richard 
Cadbury looked forward to a quiet drive the next day. 
His faithful wife had never moved from his side, in 
spite of his desire that she should take a walk with 
the others. On this night they read the Bible together 
as usual, and the last words of his prayer were a 
thanksgiving for his little grandson's restoration to 
health; and so he sank to sleep. 



THE blow fell swiftly and suddenly. The quiet 
repose, which seemed so like sleep, was in reality 
a state of unconsciousness. In the hush of night, as 
his gentle wife watched beside him, Richard Cadbury 
opened his eyes. She saw them brighten with a 
joyous surprise; and a radiance of heavenly light 
spread over his face as he sat up with lifted hands, 
and gazed upon some glorious sight that was hidden 
from her. In that solemn moment she knew that he 
could never come back to earth again, and, before the 
children could be summoned, his Christlike spirit 
had entered with gladness into the presence of his 
Lord. There was no farewell, no agony of parting 
to cloud his sudden joy, and of the shadow which fell 
on those who loved him we cannot speak. None but 
God can ever know the depth of grief into which the 
faithful heart which had beaten in unison with his 
for twenty-eight years was plunged that day ; but 



her courage and trust in God, not only in that awful 
hour, but through the long years of loneliness, can 
never cease to be an inspiration to their children and 
many others : 

It seemed but the opening of a door 

The drawing back of a curtain's fold 

The brave, true life in a moment o'er, 

Earth's paths exchanged for the streets of gold. 

We thought of his help through years to be. 

Our loss is deep, yet we offer praise 
Thy grace, dear Lord, Thou hast let us see, 

In his life and work through many days. 

We seem to stand near the open door 

To feel a draught of the purer air, 
Another has passed the threshold o'er 

The Home seems nearer now he is there. 

All through the Wednesday the bells of the English 
church played " Thy way, not mine, O Lord," and 
the tender sympathy shown by many around them, 
especially by Dr. Wheeler and the nurses of the hospital 
for the Jews, could not have been greater. When the 
Armenian patriarch heard the sad tidings, he immedi- 
ately sent a plaited palm-branch in memory of the 
loving gift of their brother in Christ at the time of the 
massacres of his people three years before. It can 
scarcely be imagined what a shock the news gave to 
those left in England, for the first tidings of illness did 
not reach them till afterwards. The journal letters 
were full of life and brightness, and one received in 
England just before the telegraph wires carried their 
message of sudden sorrow, was written by Richard 


Cadbury himself. He told of the visit to Abu 
Simbel : 

The sun had set when we anchored at Abu Simbel, and the 
after-glow had faded away, so that we could only see in the 
shadow of the rocks a faint outline of the mammoth statues 
that guarded the celebrated temple of Rameses the Great. . . . 
Originally steps led up from the river to the great portal. 
These have long ago disappeared, and we had to climb a 
steep, sandy path to the level of the temple floor, and then 
had, for the first time, a full view of the massive seated figures 
that guarded the temple. One has partly fallen, and its 
debris looks like a small stone quarry ; the other three still 
sit in their original beauty (for their faces are still grand and 
beautiful), towering sixty-six feet above our heads. We 
entered into a large hall cut out of the solid rock, with six huge 
pillars, each having a standing figure 'of Osiris as Rameses, 
like sentinels inside the temple. On one of the walls is a 
wonderful picture of his victories in Kadesh on the Orontes, 
showing the tents for the soldiers, the surrounding scenery, 
and the battle in which he slays and captures his foes. There 
are several rooms leading out of the large hall, one of which 
is unfinished : the artist's drawing is made, the sculptor's 
tool has followed over some of the lines, and then the half- 
finished piece is left for ever ! It would form an unwritten 
drama to know the reason why. 

For the sake of the thousands who loved and revered 
Richard Cadbury, it was decided that the funeral 
should be in England, in spite of the many difficulties. 
The delay and anxiety, the formalities to be gone 
through, and the sorrow of the long, sad journey 
cannot be described, though the reverent kindness 
shown everywhere was extremely touching. From 
Marseilles right across France the national flag was 
thrown over the sacred burden by order of the authori- 
ties, as a mark of honour and of protection. It was 



not until Friday, April 7th, that the sorrow-stricken 
party, who had been met at Marseilles by Richard 
Cadbury's two elder sons, reached Birmingham, and 
re-entered, numb with a speechless grief, the beautiful 
home at Uffculme. The household servants shared 
with the family in the pain of bereavement, for they 
had lost one upon whom they looked more as a friend 
than a master. 

During the interval of sixteen days, letters and 
telegrams of sympathy had poured in by hundreds 
from all parts of the world. Rich and poor, old people 
and little children alike felt his loss. The city of 
Birmingham was stirred to its depths. " Mr. Richard 
Cadbury's death remained the chief topic of conver- 
sation in Birmingham yesterday," said one of the 
daily papers on March 25th. Others reported " wide- 
spread grief and sorrow," " a great shock of surprise," 
" a profound sense of sorrow amongst all classes," 
" all Birmingham thrown into mourning by the sad 
and startling news," "it is impossible to over- 
estimate the gravity of the loss the city has sustained," 
and many similar expressions. While the public 
mentions of him are far too numerous even to name, 
some of the testimonies they contain are too beautiful 
and too true not to be repeated : 

Universal regret was evinced at the removal of the great 
philanthropist a friendly, sympathetic soul, a rare and 
beautiful character, and above all a Christian. . . . He literally 
went about doing good. 

Such men are England's glory, and help to redeem us from 
that selfish materialism which too often afflicts our prosperity. 


The State has lost much, and Nonconformity in particular 
has suffered. 

All creeds and classes have lost a friend. 

The loss of such a man is irreparable. 

Birmingham mourns for a man who has been a true son to 
her, a lover of his kind, a large-hearted benefactor a name 
to be written down in her story with letters of gold. 

If this was the general feeling in the city, how much 
deeper was the grief felt by the thousands who had 
personally known and loved him, even outside the 
circle of his relatives and intimate friends. " There 
is sorrow in hundreds of homes in Bournville," wrote 
one "sorrow keen, full of tenderness and gratitude." 
A letter sent to one of the papers further exemplifies 

Will you permit me, as one who has been employed for a 
long period of years by the firm of which Mr. Cadbury was the 
senior member, to bear my witness to his great worth and 
goodness. In business life he was an object-lesson to all his 
people. Punctual, alert, quick to understand the bearing 
of any subject brought before his notice, giving attention to 
small details, as well as deciding large issues in connection 
with a gigantic concern in these and many other respects 
he was a model business man. His energy and buoyancy 
of spirit were contagious, and gave impetus to the despatch 
of business, which was felt through all departments. His 
cheery smile and pleasant word will long live in the memory 
of the firm's employes. When occasion called for reprimand 
and censure, he did not fail to administer them ; but if at any 
time it were shown to him that his judgment had been hasty 
and not well founded, no one could have been more ready to 
make amends. He was approachable by all, and the youngest 
boy or girl employed at Bournville felt this, and knew that 
" Mr. Richard " would listen to anything they desired to say. 
For obvious reasons I suppress my identity, and with a 


faltering hand I place this tribute on the grave of a kind and 
considerate employer. 

The resolutions of sympathy which were passed by 
various bodies would make much too long a list to be 
inserted in full, but they show how widely he was 
esteemed and revered even by some whose interests 
and opinions he did not share. Various federations 
of Free Church Councils, places of worship, Sunday 
schools and bands of hope, temperance leagues and 
societies of every kind, all the school boards of the 
city, unions of teachers and education leagues, 
political committees of Liberals, Liberal-Unionists, 
and Conservatives alike, magistrates, police courts 
and district councils, and hospitals, including the 
London Temperance Hospital, were among the many 
who publicly recorded their sense of loss. Similar 
resolutions were also passed by the Birmingham 
Board of Guardians, the Birmingham Police Mission, 
the Birmingham Y.M.C.A., the Commercial Travellers' 
Christian Association, the National Vigilance Society, 
the Old Age Pension Conference, Servants' Homes, 
the Cannock Chase Miners, and the Handsworth 
Engineers, athletic clubs and cricket clubs, and many 

He was referred to as the " prince of philanthro- 
pists," a " princely benefactor," " one of the most 
notable and lovable persons in the community " ; 
but the most beautiful element in the testimonies to 
his personality was that they went far deeper than 
mere generosity. In fact, almost every mention of 
his liberal gifts was accompanied by some such ex- 


pression as " he did good by stealth," " a most modest 
man," " benevolent work done in secret," " his liberal 
and unostentatious gifts," " anxious to avoid pub- 
licity and show." 

His money gifts [said one], great as they were, were not the 
chief of his gifts to Birmingham. His noble life and the high 
ideal he set before men, the great example he gave of devotion 
to duty and of care for the welfare of his fellow men these 
were gifts of priceless value to the community in which he 

His character [writes another] was one of almost wonderful 
simplicity. He seemed able to make himself at home with 
older and younger persons; thousands can testify to the 
cheeriness of his welcome, and the entire absence of anything 
like patronage. 

Others speak of " his useful and blameless life," 
" his stainless career," " the blameless simplicity of 
his character," and one, speaking of Sheldon's book, 
says : 

Here was an Englishman who humbly realised all, and 
more than all, of the American pastor's dreams. Mr. Cadbury's 
life, when written, might be entitled " In His Steps, or What 
would Jesus do." 

Another writes : 

No doubt Victor Hugo had such a master in mind when 
he drew the saintly Mayor in Les Miserables. He had the 
happy knack of attracting to his service men with ideals, and 
inspiring them with his own enthusiasm. His personal 
magnetism was wonderful. 

He had no ambition [ran another testimony] save that of 
leaving the world somewhat better than he found it. Generous 
in sentiment and of a guileless mind, not even the disappoint- 
ment that attended many of his charities in the least disturbed 
his faith in his fellow men, or decreased his earnest interest 


in their welfare. Deeply religious as his nature was, there 
was a sanity and breadth about his views which redeemed 
them from mere sectarianism. 

The secretary of the Birmingham Y.M.C.A. wrote : 

He was the soul of honour in all his dealings with his fellow 
men, a man whose word could be implicitly relied on. His 
great desire seemed to be, not to accumulate money for the 
love of it, but as a means of benefiting his fellow men. 

The following tribute came from an unexpected 
quarter, The Licensed Victualler : 

It may seem out of place in these columns to refer to the 
death of an eminent Quaker of deep religious convictions, who 
was also an earnest teetotaler, and opposed to every form of 
gambling. Mr. Richard Cadbury was, however, an exceptional 
man, transparently sincere in all things, and while holding 
his own opinion with the utmost tenacity, tolerant to all 
those who differed from him ; his charity was boundless. I 
was once his near neighbour and saw a good deal of him and 
his family, and was impressed with his infinite gentleness 
and unobtrusive worth. Birmingham loses in him one of her 
noblest sons ; but the result of his work in that great city 
and beyond its borders will be seen for many generations. 

A few sentences must be quoted from some of the 
numerous letters received by Richard Cadbury's 
family : 

How many share this grief with you in greater or less degree 
it is impossible to imagine. Your great-souled brother, with 
his strong, open hand and philanthropic propensities, belonged 
to all who love God and their fellow men ; and truly was he 
loved by multitudes who never saw him. 

The blow is so great to the Lord's work that we can hardly 
yet grasp all its meaning. We cannot but sympathise with 
his own near relatives, yet it is the loss to the Church, the 
loss to mission work, the loss to so many forward movements 
that is so bewildering. There was something so winsome in 


the beautiful simplicity and humility of Richard Cadbury 
that it was always a delight to meet him, and his memory 
will be fragrant in the thought of very many. 

There are so few Richard Cadburys in the world that we 
can ill afford to lose one. Like John the Baptist in prison, 
my faith at times totters as I ask, " What will the Church do, 
what will philanthropy do, what will every other good cause 
or organisation do, which exists to make the world brighter 
and better, when men like Richard Cadbury drop from the 
ranks and pass on ? " May Elijah's mantle fall upon many 
Elishas of the same family with a double portion of the spirit 
of God. Depend upon it, Richard Cadbury, "being dead, yet 

I have always had such an admiration for his character and 
great kindness of heart, that I as well as others, feel we are 
the poorer for his loss. Of few can jit be said so truly, that 
the world was a little better because he had been born. I 
should think it might be said of him that he never said, or 
did, or even thought an unkind thing. 

He walked so closely with God, that all who came under 
his influence felt the power of his true-hearted goodness. 

We feel we have lost in Mr. Cadbury a very dear friend ; his 
simple faith and complete trust in his Saviour has often been 
a great help to me when I have thought about him. 

He was the friend of all and the foe of none. His noble 
character and influence will always live in our hearts, and 
many will thank God for his Christlike example and loving 

These extracts have been taken from the letters 
of those who knew him well, but many expressions 
of sympathy and esteem came from others who had 
known him but little or not at all. 

I had scarcely ever spoken a word to your father [came in 
a note received by one of Richard Cadbury's sons], but there 
was such beautiful humbleness about him, that I have always 
admired him and wished to know more. I can think a little 
what his loss must be. 


The director of a large firm wrote to George 
Cadbury : 

He was unknown personally to us, but our esteem for you 
both must excuse the intrusion of offering our tribute of 
respectful sympathy. 

A prominent Birmingham citizen said : 

I think the whole city and very many beyond it were shocked 
at the calamity, for it seems nothing less, in the removal of 
one so deeply honoured and so much beloved ; it was always 
a bright and happy moment to me when I could get a shake 
of the hand and a few kind words from him. 

It was a well-known medical man who wrote the 
following : 

I entertained a great respect and regard for your father- 
he was so earnest, thoughtful, and generous ; our city has lost 
one of its most unselfish citizens, and many will lose regretfully 
a personal friend. 

And it was also a doctor who said : 

I shall never forget his happy and dignified welcome to the 
guests, when he handed over his old home, Moseley Hall, to 
the city as a convalescent home for children. His entire 
being seemed to overflow with sunshine and peace. I can 
never make the round of these wards, full of tiny suffering 
inmates, without remembering that inaugural day. 

The funeral took place at Lodge Hill Cemetery, 
Selly Oak, during the afternoon of Saturday, April 8th. 
From every part of Birmingham and the surrounding 
districts, and from many another city besides, streamed 
a great throng of people, bound together by one im- 
pulse, to show their love for the friend who had gone 


from them. The grief of a multitude has something 
in it that touches the heart strangely, and here on 
every face genuine grief was plainly to be read. There 
were poor, and middle-class, and well-to-do people, 
some making their way on foot and some in carriages. 
It was bitterly cold, though at times between the 
clouds and hailstorms the sun shone brightly. The 
grave was at the top of a beautiful knoll, with a wide 
outlook towards the city and the distant Lickey and 
Clent Hills. 

Love was shown even in the preparation of the last 
resting-place. The earth of the grave was covered 
entirely with moss, in which freshly cut maidenhair, 
violets, and pelargoniums were blooming. Alderman 
White, who for so many years had been linked in close 
friendship with Richard Cadbury, was seen standing 
close by the grave, talking with the Bishop of Coventry 
in reverent undertones. About three o'clock a deep 
hush fell over the vast throng, which numbered more 
than ten thousand people, as the bereaved little com- 
pany drew near with their sacred burden. The funeral 
service, held in the manner of the Society of Friends, 
was exceedingly simple. For about ten minutes an 
icy wind had been blowing, and the hail came down 
in white sheets : but as the coffin was being lowered 
the sun came out from behind the clouds, and as the 
voices of the multitude swelled in the hymn, " Peace, 
perfect peace," a lark seemed to rise from beside the 
very grave, and, soaring into the air, greeted the warm 
sunlight with an outburst of melody. When the 
singing died away Alderman White read from the 


Scriptures St. Paul's glorious words on life, death, 
and immortality. 

The wind blew a spray of green from the grave. 
" That there bit o' green that has blown out of the 
grave," begged a middle-aged woman in a low tone ; 
" I should like to say as I got it." Some one picked 
up the spray and gave it to her. " I will put it in my 
Bible," she said, and there were tears in her voice. 

Another old friend of Richard Cadbury's led in 
prayer, and then the silence which fell was broken 
by the voice of George Cadbury : 

" Thanks be to God, who giveth us the victory 
through Jesus Christ our Lord." His voice trembled, 
but grew stronger as he continued. " Some of us have 
been helped by the life and faith of our departed 
brother, some of us have been helped by his words, 
some of us by his prayers, when he seemed to come 
into such close union with his God and Father. We 
are suffering from his loss, but we can rejoice for him. 
. . . The secret of his fruitful life was his abiding in 
Jesus Christ. . . . May we who are left for a little 
longer walk in still closer union with each other." 

One more prayer and another hymn, and the Bishop 
of Coventry pronounced the benediction. The simple 
and touching ceremony was over, and the crowd 
dispersed quietly and reverently. 

The veteran temperance lecturer, Richard Coad, 
who had known and worked with Richard Cadbury 
for twenty years, noticed a poor widow weeping 

1 The list of the deputations present at the funeral is given 
in the Appendix. 

Pf *M* 


bitterly by the grave-side as the throng was dispersing. 
" He was the best friend I ever had, and to many 
more like me," she said ; " and though I live in 
Worcester, I felt I must come here to-day." 
In writing of his friend Richard Coad said : 

His life motto seemed to be to loose the bands of wickedness, 
to undo the heavy burdens, and to let the oppressed go free ; 
to break every yoke, to deal his bread to the hungry, and to 
bring the poor that were cast out to his house. Surely it is 
true of him, " he that turneth many to righteousness shall 
shine as the stars for ever." 

That scene by the grave-side stirred many a heart 
to longings for better things. 

A sceptic has just said to me [wrote a gentleman to George 
Cadbury], there must after all be something in a religion that 
enables a man to stand by the grave of his own brother, and 
tell thousands of people of the help they have received from 
the life, words, and prayers of the departed. 

Another aged Christian wrote to him : 

His devotion to his Bible and to God, as you mentioned 
on Saturday at the grave-side (for though my age and in- 
firmities forbade my being present, I read with eagerness the 
reports in the papers), must have fitted him as a guide in the 
tremendous responsibilities of having the rule of numbers of 
men. To you the loss is not merely in relationship, close as 
that tie is, and endeared by harmonious intercourse ; but in 
your business relations also you will miss his wise counsels. 

The letters that came through the days and weeks 
that followed were full of the same deep love as those 
already received, and shared in the sorrow and loss 
of those who were nearest to Richard Cadbury. Yet 
in all there was a note of triumph and thanksgiving 


for the beautiful life which God had lent to the world 
for nearly sixty-three years. 

And now he rests : his greatness and his sweetness 

No more shall seem at strife ; 
And death has moulded into calm completeness 

The statue of his life. 

And round his grave are quietude and beauty, 

And the sweet heaven above, 
The fitting symbols of a life of duty 

Transfigured into love ! 



IT is only when life is viewed from its further end 
that a true perspective can be gained of it, 
and we learn to understand what things were of lasting 
value. It is surprising to find how often the small 
things seem the greatest when looked at from this 

Richard Cadbury's earthly presence had passed 
away, and to those who loved him it was impossible 
that the void should be filled. But his work was 
not done. As the still surface of some pool is ruffled 
by a falling stone, which disappears from sight, but 
leaves ripples which widen and expand till they touch 
the shore, so the influence of his life and work con- 
tinues to spread long after he has gone from our sight. 
There was no need of any monument to keep his 
memory alive in the hearts of his fellow citizens, but 
at Bournville 1 and amongst the people who centred 

1 The following December, 1899, instead of holding the 
usual Christmas gathering at the works, a small book, entitled 
A Threefold Chord, containing selected texts for each day in 



round the new Friends' Institute in the Moseley 
Road, which he had founded, there were many who 
had a natural desire for some memorial which could 
recall to them his face and form, to inspire them and 
those who followed after them, and which could be 
handed on to succeeding generations. At both places 
subscriptions were spontaneously raised, and as a 
result there stands in the girls' dining-room at Bourn- 
ville, and in the crush hall at the institute, a bust 
of pure white marble, each of which is the work of 
Thomas Brock, R.A. The old workers at Highgate 
love to see his face as they pass in and out to their 
meetings and classes. It is like a silent welcome 
from the friend who worked with them shoulder to 
shoulder for so many years, and new members or 
children who had not known him are reminded of 
the man whose loving heart founded the work. One 
of the men once said : 

His shadow is before me day by day, and it lifts me up so 
that I feel I cannot go wrong. I love his memory, and when 
I gaze on the statue in the institute, I could kiss the marble 
with deepest love, because I know of the hundreds of persons 
living now who would have been in misery if it had not been 
for Richard Cadbury. All children loved him ; they would 
catch hold of his coat as he went along, and he would stop 
and pat them on the head and talk to them. He gave us 
encouragement to do our best, and we always felt we could 
go to him, because he received us with such a kind smile. He 
made me begin to pray, because I thought he must be right, 
if he could live as he lived, and it was he who led me to the 
feet of Christ. 

the year, was given to each of the workpeople at Bournville. 
Inside the cover were the words : "In loving memory of the 
late Richard Cadbury, with best wishes for the year 1900." 


The new institute provided so much room for 
expansion that the work has advanced with giant 
strides since its founder was called from it. Many 
of those who were trained in the infants' classes and 
children's schools during his lifetime are now amongst 
the teachers and workers. 

Many a far-off place in other lands has been touched 
by the influence of the Highgate Adult School, and the 
memory of Richard Cadbury brings cheer in the midst 
of loneliness. 

Mr. Edward Smith, president of the Midland Adult 
School League, who was visiting Canada in 1902, 
found traces of his work in the wilds of the Rocky 
Mountains. On September 24th, he wrote a letter 
for publication in One and All, the adult school 
magazine, which contained the following incident : 

I have spoken at several meetings, but until yesterday have 
not met with an adult school man. We went to Glacier, a 
splendid spot in the Selkirk, where the C. P. Railway have 
a good hotel; in fact, there is nothing there but the hotel. 
Carrying up my luggage, I heard the porter puff, so I offered 
to lend him a hand, when, seeing the word Bournemouth on 
the luggage, on an old hotel label, he said : " Ah, I have been 
there ; that is a pretty place." " Did you live there ? " 
" Oh no, I lived in Birmingham." " Did you know of any 
adult schools ? " said I. It was a sight to see his face. 
M Oh, yes ! I went to the Friends' School at Moseley. I shall 
be glad to show you my certificates, etc.," and so he did. 
His name is Clarke ; he is employed by the C. P. Railway Co., 
as caretaker of the hotel, and his son is porter during the 
season. ... I have accumulated many interesting facts to 
help men who may want to come out. British Columbia 
has a great future. 

Both the Clarkes wish to be remembered to friends at 
Moseley. They prize much the certificates with the views 


Moseley Hall, ambulance medals, etc., and the jubilee 
photo of Mr. and Mrs. Richard Cadbury. 

In the Gospel Temperance Mission the memory of 
him is also a continual inspiration. It was one of the 
superintendents on the staff of lady workers who sent 
some lines, which are at least a sign of the loving 
remembrance in which he is held : 

R emembered still ! memories of thee 

I nspired me with greater zeal to labour on for 

C hrist ; to extend His kingdom and glorify 

H is name. Truly thy works follow thee. 

A 11 thy kindly words and wise counsels still 

R emain. Thy presence ever brought gladness, always 

D oing good for thy fellow man ; to uplift and 

C heer the sad such was thine 

A im while here on earth; these memories can never 

D ie. Years may pass, change and decay must come; 

B ut the influence of thy gentle, 

U nselfish life, and noble deeds lives on. 

R evered and loved by all who knew thee. 

Y ea : thou art, indeed, remembered still ! 

At the new Police Institute the constables with 
their wives requested permission to place a memorial 
tablet in their assembly hall at their own cost. The 
tablet was placed in position in time for the opening 
ceremony on October 25th, 1899, when it was unveiled 
by Richard Cadbury's old friend, William White. 

In the almshouses at Bournville his picture hangs 
in the little meeting-room above the text, " Inasmuch 
as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my 
brethren, ye have done it unto Me," and the old 
people look upon it with grateful emotion when 
they gather there. His kindly face greets the visitor 


who enters the door of Moseley Hall, and both here 
and at the almshouses Richard Cadbury's birthday 
is commemorated every August, for his wife sends to 
the children and the old people a huge iced birthday 
cake with his name upon it. 

In numbers of homes scattered over many countries 
his name is revered and loved, and at Jerusalem, where 
his last hours upon earth were spent, a permanent 
reminder of him is to be found. A new wing to the 
English Mission Hospital for the Jews was built in 
his memory by his wife and eight children. It is 
called " The Richard Cadbury Ward," and contains 
not only a ward for the Jewish patients, but one or 
two small rooms which are at the disposal of British 
or American visitors to Jerusalem, who may need 
them in times of illness. They have already proved a 
boon, and the following letter, received by Richard 
Cadbury's wife from a prominent Scotch minister, is 
one instance out of many : 

Cadbury Ward, the English Hospital, Jerusalem, 
April 3rd, 1903. 

Dear Madam, Travelling partly for health and partly for 
pleasure, I fell ill here in Jerusalem. The weather happened 
to be cold when I arrived, and a severe chill took a somewhat 
dangerous form. On inquiring for an English physician, I 
was directed here, and by him was advised to take advantage 
of the ward which you have so generously erected. I have 
received every attention from the doctor, the matron, and 
the nurses ; and, indeed, the comfort of the place after months 
of hotel life helped me to the desired recovery. I leave to-day 
to continue my journeyings, but it does not seem right to 
withhold from your knowledge the grateful feelings which 
I have tried to express here. I have been travelling alone, 
and it is not cheerful to be alone and ill in a hotel ; all the more, 



therefore, I desire to convey to you my warm appreciation of 
the benefits which your ward confers. There is a fine saying 
in the Jewish Talmud which I should like to quote : " The 
wine is the Lord's, but we give thanks to the cupbearer." 

The salary of a nurse for the Jewish patients, who is 
called the " Richard Cadbury nurse," was also endowed 
by this memorial fund, and a life-size portrait hangs 
in the hall of the " Cadbury Ward." 

In his own home everything speaks of him, and 
year by year, as he would have wished, it is used for 
the benefit and pleasure of others. Words are poor 
things with which to try and express what he is to 
his own children, but the thought of him is one of 
the most potent forces in their lives. 

If through these pages he, being dead, may yet speak 
of the Saviour whom he loved and served, this book 
will have succeeded in the sole object for which he 
would have been willing that it should be written. 


AMONG the many bodies and institutions who 
appointed deputations to attend Richard Cad- 
bury's funeral were the following : 

Severn Street, Class XIV. (George Cadbury's class). 

British and Foreign Bible Society- 

Moseley Hall Convalescent Home. 

Gospel Temperance Mission. 

Police Court Mission. 

United Kingdom Alliance. 

United Kingdom Alliance (Birmingham Auxiliary). 

Birmingham Band of Hope Union. 

Midland Temperance League. 

Sunday Closing Association (Midland District). 

Workhouse Drink Reform League. 

Worcester Diocesan Church of England Temperance Society 

Birmingham Temperance Society. 

Temperance Social Union. 

National Vigilance Association. 

Birmingham Sunday School Union. 

Birmingham Council of the Evangelical Free Churches. 

West Midland Federation of Evangelical Free Churches. 

National Temperance League. 

Birmingham Peace Society. 

Moseley Road Wesleyan Cricket Club. 

Lozells Street Wesleyan Mission. 

The World-wide Circle of Prayer. 

Birmingham Young Men's Christian Association 

Birmingham Medical Mission. 

Birmingham Town Mission. 



National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children. 

Children's Hospital. 

National Liberal Federation. 

Birmingham Liberal Association. 

Allotments Association. 

North Worcestershire Liberal Association. 

King's Norton District Council. 

Birmingham School Board. 

Birmingham and Midland Education League. 

Birmingham Board of Guardians. 

Sir Josiah Mason's Orphanage. 

Deritend Ward Relief Association. 

Messrs. T. Cook & Sons. 

The Salvation Army. 

The Bournville Mothers' Meeting. 

The P. S. A. 

Sherbourne Road Board School. 

Bordesley Ward Liberal Association. 

The original number of thirteen stewards was augmented 
by a couple of hundred assistant stewards from Bournville 
Works and Moseley Road Adult School, who lined the lane 
from the chapel to the grave. 

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W S 


Abbot, Arthur, 57 

Astor, 57 

Benjamin, 57, 65 

Dina, 61 
Abousir, 409 
Abydos, 410 
Adlington, Elizabeth, 108 

George, 108 

George (junr.), 229 

William, 108 

Adult School Movement, 184 

Adulteration of Food Act, 190 

Africa, 262, 293 

Albert, Prince, 78 

Appendix, 435 

Arts' s Gazette, extract from, 26 

Armenian Christians, Massacre 

of, 367 
Arrowfield Top, 247 
Assiut, 326, 410 
Assouan, 408, 410 
Australia, 126, 128 
Auxiliary Temperance Society, 

Avery, Mrs., 205 

Baalbek, 331 

Balsall Heath, 186 

Banbury, 23 

Barlow, Thomas, 49 

Barrow, Candia, 19, 22, 34, 39 

George, 34 

John, 18, 19, 39 

Barrow Joseph, 246 

Richard Cadbury, ^7> 72, 81, 
87, 109, 242 

Sarah, 220 

Thomas, 47 
Bathoen, 259 
Beale, Samuel, 41 
Bechuanaland, 259 
Belvedere, 104 
Berber, 409 

Besses' Sufferings of Friends, 9 

Bethany, 327, 341 

Bethlehem, 327, 341, 414 

Beyrout, 331 

Bilston, 33 

Bingley Hall, 17, 78 

Birmingham, 10, 13, 15-20, 22, 
35, 36, 41, 47, 49, 51, 55, 72, 
75, 78, 80, no, 117, 119, 134, 
145, 149, 156, 165, 185, 205, 
206, 209, 220, 221, 240, 242, 
245, 250, 260, 262, 278, 292, 
295, 296, 300, 418, 425 

Birmingham Weekly Mercury, 

Blackdown Hills, 6 
Black Forest, 165 
Bligny, 264 
Blue Ribbon Campaign, 203, 

204, 211 

Mission, 209 

Booth, Richard T., 201-3, 206, 





Boulogne, 3, 19, 401 

" Bournville " established, 190 

description of, 191, 202 
Bowerham, 34, 39 
Bowlby, Canon, 205, 207, 242 
Bracey, Mrs., 247, 248 
Bradley, Newman, 62 
Brazil, 156 

Breedon, 283 
Brientz, Lake of, 105 
Bright, John, 295 
Brighton, 106 
Brindisi, 401 
Brinsop Court, 8 1 , 84 
Brisbane, 126 
Bristol, 9, 65, 156, 160 
Brock, Thomas, 430 
Brookes, Miss M. C, 210 
Brown, Rev. J. J., 80 
Brugsch Bey, 326 
Brumana, 331 
Brussels, 300 
Burlescomb, 7 
Burtt, Theodore, $66 
Butler, Arnold E., 278, 282 

Edith, 286 

Mrs. Josephine, 300 

Richard Cadbury, 286 

Cadbury, Alec, 293 

Alice, 125, 126 

Ann, 16, 17, 23, 220 

Barrow, 125, 131, 143, 146, 
149, 150, 153-5, 159, 161, 165, 
167, 218, 230, 257, 275, 293 

Beatrice, 217, 225, 258, 286, 
293, 319, 322 

Benjamin Head, 15, 16, 18, 
22, 37, 84, 165, 220 

Bros., growth of, 78, 80 

Castle, 3 

Dorothy, 258, 259 

Edith, 5 

Edith, 157, 163, 165, 218, 257, 
270, 277, 293, 332 

Cadbury, Edward, 37,42,53,73-5, 
83, 84, 86, 126, 128, 158, 160 

Eleanor, 5 

Elizabeth, 7 

Emma, 16, 23 

George, 41, 50, 53-6, 67, 72-5, 
80, 82, 84, 86, 100, 108, 112, 
147, 155, 156, 158, 160, 204, 
205, 208, 217, 219, 270, 275, 
282, 303, 304, 351, 388, 426 

Helen (Nellie), 161, 163, 218, 


Henry, 8, 9, 13 

Henry, 37, 42, 63, 73-5, 83, 84, 
86, 109, 121, 147, 155, 156, 
158, 160 

Humphrey, 5 

James (of Banbury), 16, 22, 
23, ,96, 220 

James, 6, 7 

Jesse, 16, 18 

Jessie, 129-31, 143, 146, 151, 
162, 163, 165, 218, 219, 257, 
270, 277, 293 

Joel (great-grandfather of 
Richard Cadbury), 9, 19 

Joel (of America), 15, 16, 22, 
26, 95, 220 

Joel (of London), 9, 12, 13 

Joel, 166, 246 

John, 7, 8 

John (of Teignmouth), 9 

John (father of Richard Cad- 
bury), at 92, Bull Street, Birm- 
ingham, 16, 18 ; married to 
Candia Barrow, 22 ; business 
in Bull Street, 22 ; birth and 
parentage, 27 ; apprenticed 
to J. Cud worth, Leeds, 27 ; 
business in Bull Street, 28, 36, 
S7 ; married Priscilla Ann 
Dymond, 29 ; death of wife, 
30 ; public life, 30-3 ; married 
Candia Barrow, 34 ; birth of 
eldest son, John, 35 ; temper- 



ance principles, 35, 36 ; birth 
of second son, Richard, 37 ; 
other children, 37 ; death of 
wife, Candia, 37 ; last days, 
37 ; death and burial, 38 ; 
further references, 41, 49, 50, 
69, 72, 83, 156-8, 206, 208, 220 

John (junr.), 35, 37, 52, 
54-7. 59, 65, 72-5, 81-4, 86, 
92, 126-9, J 6o 

Maria, 16, 17, 23, 220, 280 

Maria, 37, 41, 53-6, 75, 77, 81, 
8 3. 8 4 93, 156, 158, 160, 220, 
319, 323 

Nicholas, 5 

origin of, 2 

Paul, 28, 259 

Pedigree, The, 1 

Richard, 5 

Richard, 129, 131, 143, 162, 
165, 218, 257, 282 

Cadbury, Richard, ancestry, 1-1 1 

Birth, 39, 41 ; hereditary in- 
fluence, 39 ; great progress and 
development in commercial 
life of country, 40, 41 ; home 
life, 42-6 ; school at Birming- 
ham, 47 ; school at Charl- 
bury, 5 1 ; school in Wheeley's 
Road, 55 ; boarding-school 
at Hitchin, 56, 59 ; physical 
weakness, 63 ; schoolfellows' 
opinion, 64, 65 ; fifteenth 
birthday, 74, 75 ; left school 
and joins business in Bridge 
Street, 76 ; tour in Switzer- 
land, 76 


. Starts his business career, 78 ; 

early business training, 79 ; 

holiday in Switzerland, 80 ; 

death of his mother, 8 1 ; her in- 

fluence on him, 82, 83 ; poem, 
" My Mother," 83 ; business 
responsibility, 84 ; twenty-first 
birthday, 84 ; outdoor amuse- 
ments, 88, 89 ; escapades at 
Edgbaston Hall, 90 ; skating 
incident, 91 ; Christian work, 
91 ; third tour in Switzerland, 
93 ; adventures, 94 ; return 
home, 95 ; visit of American 
cousins, 95 ; tour through 
France and Switzerland with 
American cousins, 96 ; letters 
from abroad, 96-106 ; death 
of his grandfather, 106 


Became engaged to Elizabeth 
Adlington, 108 ; preparation 
of home for his bride, 108 ; 
in partnership with brother 
George at head of Bridge 
Street business, 109 ; wed- 
ding, no; business difficulties 
and anxieties, 110-2 ; care 
for employees, 113; business 
methods, 114, 115 ; trust 
in God, 115, 116; influence 
over workpeople, 116; re- 
lations between masters and 
men, 117; affection of em- 
ployees, 117, 118 ; anecdotes, 
120; his impulsiveness, 118, 
123 ; Christmas gatherings, 
123 ; method of reproving an 
employee, 125 ; birth of son 
Barrow, 125 ; birth of daugh- 
ter Alice, 125 ; death of Alice, 
126 ; parting with John, and 
death of brother Edward, 126 ; 
death of John, 128 ; home 
troubles, 129; birth of daugh- 
ter Jessie, son William Ad- 
lington, and son Richard, 
1 29 ; death of wife, 1 29 ; 



establishment^ a creche, 1 34 ; 
enlargement of creche, 1 36 ; 
skill in drawing turned to 
account, 137 ; custom of 
having morning service, 139 

Renewal of friendship with 
Emma Wilson, 141 ; engage- 
ment to Emma Wilson, 142 ; 
decided to remove into new 
home, 145 ; extracts from 
letters to his future wife, 
14355 ; eldest boy, Barrow, 
sent to school, 149 ; moved 
into new home, 152 ; married 
E. W., 155 ; settled in new 
home with wife and children, 

156 ; birth of daughter Edith, 

157 ; education of children, 
159; trip to Germany, 160; 
removal to Harborne Road, 
160 ; death of Richard's bro- 
ther Henry, 160 ; birth of 
daughters Helen and Mar- 
garet, 161 ; Christmas and 
other customs, 163 ; removal 
of business to Bourn ville, 164 ; 
interest in temperance work, 
164 ; tour in Switzerland, 165; 
love of nature, 168 ; artistic 
talent, 169 ; address on 
technical education, 169, 
170 ; secretary of Essay So- 
ciety, 170 ; essay subjects, 
170-3 ; extract from " Na- 
ture and Art," 172, 173 ; 
poems, 174-83 

Interest in educational ques- 
tions, 184-9 opening of 
Severn Street School, 185 ; ac- 
cepts office as teacher at adult 
school, 187 ; account of origin 
of " Class XV.," 187, 188 ; 

extension of premises, 188, 
189 ; manufacture of " Pearl 
Cocoa " abolished, 190 ; de- 
scription of business life at 
Bournville, 191-202 ; his view 
of increased prosperity, 194 ; 
thoughtfulness for boys at 
school, 195 ; arrangement of 
private office and grounds at 
Bournville, 195 ; personal at- 
tention to correspondence, 
197 ; incidents of life at 
Bournville, 200-202 ; interest 
in and work for temperance 
cause, 203-12 ; Gospel Tem- 
perance Mission inaugurated, 
209 ; mission work and re- 
sults,^ 10-2 


Removal to Mose'ley Hall, 
213; description of new home, 
214-6 ; birth of daughter Bea- 
trice, 217 ; fiftieth birthday, 

217 ; interest in Egyptology, 

218 ; joined in business by eld- 
est son, 218; family arrange- 
ments, 218 ; death of sister- 
in-law, 219 ; other bereave- 
ments, 220 ; life at Moseley 
Hall, 221-30 ; favourite holi- 
day resorts, 229 ; wedding of 
eldest son, 230 ; mission work, 
231 ; temperance work, 240 ; 
opening of Temperance In- 
stitute, 242 ; decision of turn- 
ing Moseley Hall into a 
convalescent home, 245 ; re- 
moval to new home, " Uff- 
culme," 249 ; formal opening 
of Moseley Hall as a con- 
valescent home, 250 ; de- 
scription of new home, 254 ; 
second son, William, joins the 
business at Bournville, 257 ; 



entertains King Khama of 
Bechuanaland, 260 


Publication of Cocoa all about 
it, 263 ; growth of Bourn- 
ville, 265, 266 ; thrift among 
employees encouraged, 267 ; 
institute built at Stirchley, 
269 ; growth of Christian 
work at Stirchley, 270 ; 
scheme for erection of alms- 
houses, 273 ; marriage of 
daughter Jessie, 278 ; silver 
wedding celebration, 279 ; 
wedding of second daughter, 
Edith, 282 ; purchase of 
Wynd's Point, 284 ; work 
for God, 286 ; wise dealing 
with children, 291, 292 ; poli- 
tical views, 295 ; public work, 
2 95-302 ; temperance legis- 
lation, 298 ; work in connec- 
tion with the National Vigil- 
ance Association, 300 ; tem- 
perance work, 305-7 ; tour 
in Switzerland, 320 ; in Italy, 
322 ; visit to Palestine, 324 
return to Uffculme, 331 
holiday in Cornwall, 332 
gift of Bibles to Board School 
children, 333 ; to pupil 
teachers and teachers, 335 ; 
Justice of the Peace, 344 ; 
dealings with prisoners, 346, 

347 ; temperance legislation, 

348 ; President of Peace 
Society, 367 ; work in adult 
schools, 369 ; outline address 
for Sunday school class, 373 ; 
public welcome on his return 
from Palestine, 380 ; Christ- 
mas festivities, 386 ; pre- 
paration for a second tour 
through Egypt and Palestine, 

398 ; leaves Birmingham, 401 ; 
extract from journal, 402 ; 
excursions in Egypt, 407 ; ex- 
tract from journal, 408, 409 ; 
illness, 412 ; reach Jerusalem, 
412; death, 415; funeral 
arrangements, 417 ; funeral 
ceremony, 424 
Cadbury, Richard Tapper (of 
Birmingham), 8, 12, 26 

Richard Tapper (of Philadel- 
phia), 8 

Richard Tapper (grandfather 
of Richard Cadbury), parent- 
age, 1 2 ; summary of life, 1 3 ; 
married E. Head, 13 ; life at 
Old Square, Birmingham, 1 5 ; 
life at 92, Bull Street, Birming- 
ham, 16 ; life at Islington Row, 
17 ; death of son Jesse, 18 ; 
marriages, 18; anecdotes, 19, 
20; temperance principles, 21, 
22 ; removal to Edgbaston, 22 ; 
death of wife, 23 ; closing 
days, 24 ; review of public 
life, 23-5 ; extract from 
article appearing after death, 
25, 26 ; committee work, 41, 
90, 91, 106 

Robert, 7 

Sarah, 15, 16, 18, 22, 95 

Thomas, 5 

Thomasine, 8 

village, 4 

William, Adlington, 129, 131, 
143, 162, 218, 257, 270,275,293 

William le Mareschal of, 4 
Cadeberi, 4 

William de, 4 
Caesarea, Philippi, 330, 341 
Cairo, 325, 326, 401 
Calendar of State Papers, 5 
Cana, 329 

Cape Colony, 282 

Capper, Jasper and Ann, 1 3 



Capper, Samuel, 30, 49 
Cash, Sarah Moon, 28 
Castle Bromwich, 1 5 3 
Chamberlain, Arthur, 349 

Joseph, 136, 298 
Chamounix, 100, 102, 104 
Chance, William, 41 
Charlbury, 48, 51, 54 
Charlton, Robert, 30, 49 
Cheltenham, 283 
Cholera, outbreak of, 33, 71 
Christmas parties for employees, 

123, 124 
Church of England Temperance 

Society, 241 
Clark, Dr., 381 
Clarke, Rev. T. S., 278 

Richard T. V., 278 
Coad, Richard, 426, 427 
Cobden, 293 

Cocoa all about it, 263 

Constantinople, 191 

Cooper, William, 122 

Corby, 278 

Cotswold Hills, 283 

Creche, 134, 136, 152, 186, 187, 

Cremer, W. Randal, 368 
Criminal Law Amendment Act, 

Crossfield, Edward, 159 
Cudworth, John, 27 
Culm, River, 6 
Culmstock, 6 

Daily News, The, 302 

Post, The, 136 
Dale, Dr., 205 
Damascus, 330, 331, 341 
Dante, 323 

Darby, Dr. Evans, 368 
Dartmoor, 87 
Dead Sea, 327 
Deane, Captain, 5 
De Bry, 264 

Delia Robbia, 323 

Denderah, 406 

Dendur, 409 

Deptford, 5 

Dillon, Conrad, 242 

Doomsday Book, 4 

Dudley, 55 

Dufour, Philippe Sylvestre, 264 

Dunchurch, 29 

Dymond, C. W., 87 

George, 159 

John, 30 

Jonathan, 29, 30 

Josephine, 77 

Mary, 77 

Miriam, 77 

Priscilla Ann, 29, 30 
Dyson, Esther, 153 

Mr3., 134 

East Stoke Montacute, 4 

Edgbastonia, extract from, 25, 34 

Edna Lyall, 259 

Educational questions, 161, 169, 

Egypt, 289 

Egypt and Palestine Explora- 
tion Societies, 217 

Ellis, Henry, 159 

Emanuel, Rev. G. J., 246 

Enstone, 51 

Essays on the Principles of 
Morality, 29 

Evans, Thomas, 18 

Examples of Youthful Piety, 18 

Exeter, 6, 13, 29, 30 

Exploration Society, 324 

Faber, 130 

Fairfax, Sir Thomas, 4 

Falmouth, 9 

Family Book, the, 2, 69, no, 

127, 128, 136, 161 
Family motto, the, 6 
Farrar, Archdeacon, 242 



Father Matthews, 50 
Fiennes, The Hon. Mrs., 351 
Finnemore, W., 295 
Flegere, 102, 103 
Florence, 322, 323 
Folkestone, 106 
Fox, George, 8-1 1 

Sarah, 9 

Friends' Essay Society, 170 

Quarterly Examiner, 360 

Reading Society, 69, 169 
Friend, The, 127 

Fry, Elizabeth, 20 

Frances Brewster, 9 

Mr., 155 

Fuller's Worthies of England, 5 

Gaerloch, 321 

Galilee, Sea of, 330, 341 

Galileo, 323 

Gaule, Wm., 240, 345-8 

Genealogical table, 437 

Germany, 160, 161, 165, 218, 

257, 289 
Gibbins, Emma, 16, 221 

Martha, 96, 106 

Thomas, 23 
Gilead, 330 
Gizeh Museum, 325 

pyramids of, 325 
Glacier des Boissons, 102 
Gladstone, W., 295, 296 
Glaisyer, Henry, 246 
Glasgow, 114 
Gloucester, 218, 257 
Goldschmidt, Otto, 285 
Goodchild, J. M., 211 

Gospel Temperance Crusade, 

Mission, 209, 211, 224, 

240, 241, 281, 306, 307, 309, 
315, 316, 319, 321, 345, 432 

Gothenburg system, 297, 298 

Gray's Elegy, 45 

Griffiths, H. M., 31 

Grind el wald, 104 
Gruth, Harry, 9 

Hack, Daniel P., 106 

Halberton, 6 

Halsted's Kent, 5 

Harcourt, Sir Wm., 299 

Harper, Ewen, 384 

Head, Canon, 65 

Elizabeth, 13 

Heath, Martha, 46 

Hebron, 327 

Hemyock, 6, 159 

Herald's College, 6 

Highgate Mission, the, 187 

High school for girls opened, 

Himalayas, 112 
History of Moseley Hall, 216 
Hitchin, 56, 59, 65, 108, 162 
Hocking, John, 49 
Home at Edgbaston, description 

of, 42, 43 
Hospenthal, 138, 160 
Hughes, Rev. Hugh Price, 381 
Hugo, Victor, 421 

Ilfracombe, 229 
Illustrated London News, 40 
In His Steps, 302 
Interlaken, 102, 104, 105 
Ipswich, 13 
Ireland, 30, 49, 61, 67 
Ismailia, 401 

Jacob's Well, 341 

Jaffa, 327, 412, 413 

Jenin, 329 

Jericho, 327, 341 

Jersey, 282 

Jerusalem, 327, 341, 353, 412 

John Inglesant, 89, 170 

Joppa, 341 

Jordan, River, 327 

Joseph, Rev. Charles, 239 

Jungfrau, 105 



Kandersteg, 104 

Karnak, 326, 406 

Kemp, Caleb R., 64 

Kendal, 109, 127 

Khama, King, 259, 260-2 

Kilkee, 230 

Kingsmill, no 

Knight, Henry, 33, 34 

Knight-Bruce, Mrs. Wyndham, 

Knox, Dr., 351 
Kolle, Emily, 159, 160, 165 
Korosko, 409 

Lamb, Mary, 51, 52 
Lancaster, 18, 35, 39, 72 
Latchmore, G., 57 
Latimer, Margaret, 4 

Sir Robert, 5 
Lauterbrunnen, 104 
Lawson, Sir Wilfred, 296 
Lean, Charles, 93 

W., 47, 53, 57, 67, 80, 87, 88, 

Lebanon, Mount, 331 
Lee, T. Grosvenor, 226 
Leeds, 27 
Leicester, 205 
Leominster, 126, 358 
Les Miser ables, 421 
Letters from 

Author of The Producer and 
Consumer, 170 

Bishop of Coventry, 352 

Candia Cadbury, 50, 53, 
59-62, 66-8, 70-4, 79 

Canon Head, 65 

Charles Price, 122 

Dymond, C. W., 87 

Henry Cadbury, 77 

Howard Nicholson, 238 

Joel Cadbury, 14 

Joel (junr.), 14, 15 

Joel (of America), 64 
John Cadbury, 53, 57, 61-3, 

66-9, 71, 73-6, 80, 85, 86, 
92, 100, 114, 159 
John Cadbury (junr.), 84, 

Lloyd, J. H., 248 
Maria Cadbury, 49, 58, 61, 

Richard Cadbury, 12, 13, 48, 
55 57> 60, 96, 98, 100, 102, 
106, 109, 143-55, J 62, 163, 
165, 219, 234, 237, 239, 
248, 249, 251, 278, 286, 
288-90, 314, 315, 319-23, 
353. 377-8o, 406, 417 
Scotch minister, a, 433 

Liberal Association, 295-7 

Licensed Victualler, The, 422 

Lickey Hill, 256 

Lind, Jenny, 283-5 

Line upon Line, 56 

L' International, 151 

Liverpool, 298 

Livesay, Joseph, 49 

Lizard, The, 319 

Lloyd, Charles, 17 

John Henry, 246, 247 

Mrs. J. H., 248 

Mrs. W., 186-8 

"Log of the Seagull, The," 92, 

London, 7, 134, 167 

Quarterly Review, The, 276 
Lune, River, 34 

Luxor, 406, 410 

Macon, 98 

Madagascar, 167, 258, 365 

Magdala, 330 

Maine, U.S.A., 298 

Malvern, 73, 229, 280, 281, 283, 

Manchester, 161 
Mansfield, 108, no, 129, 229 
Marriage certificate of John and 

Hannah Cadbury, 7 



Martigny, 103 
Matter horn, 104 
Matthews, George S., 246 
McLaren, D., 381 
McNeill, Rev. John, 381 
Meyer, Rev. F. B., 381 
Michael Angelo, 323 
Montauvert, 102 
Monte Rosa, 104 
Montezuma, 264 
Moon, Sarah, 9, 12, 14 
Morecambe Bay, 34 
Mott, J. R., 381 
Muntz, Mr., 31, 66 

Nain, 329, 341 

Naish, Arthur J., 76, 80, 103 

Nantes, 153 

Naples, 322 

National Relief Fund, 367 

Vigilance Association, 241, 

"Nature and Art," extract 

from, 172, 173 
Nazareth, 329, 341 
Newman, Cardinal, 268 

Henry S., 87, 126, 366 
Newmarsh, Lords of, 4 
New Zealand, 156 
Nicaragua, 264 
Nicholson, Howard, 238 
Nield, Theodore, 358 
Norwegian Local Option Law, 

Nottingham, 84, 127, 229 

Oberland, 105 
Odell, Rev. J., 381 
Ogilby's America, 264 
Oldbury, 271 
Olives, Mount of, 327 
One and All, 431 

Palestine, 324 
Palmer, Maria, 51, 52 
Paris, 96, 1 5 1-3 

Parker, Mr. and Mrs. Lawley, 

Peep of Day, 56 
Pemba Industrial Mission, 365 
Pendleton, 18, 165 
Pepys, Samuel, 5 
Petrie, Flinders, 402 
Philadelphia, 218 
Pithom, 326 
Pitt, Sir William, 5 
" Pledge money," 114 
Poems by Richard Cadbury : 

" A Child's Hymn," 177 

"An Allegory," 182 

" A National Anthem," 181 

" Angel's," 178 

"Angel's Song, The," 179 

"A Valentine," 180 

"Daisy, The," 181 

"Fragment," 177 

" God's Messengers," 176 

"Homeland, The," 175 

"Hymn," 183 

"My Mother," 83 

"Ode to Evening," 174 

"Spring," 177 

"Verses," 95, 166 
Pompeii, 322 
Port Said, 401 
Preston, 39 
Price, Charles, 122 
Samuel, 87, 90 
Priestley riots, 216 
Producer and Consumer, The, 1 70 
Pulham, 5 

Ragatz, 160 

Ramallah, 328 

Rameses, 326 

Reading, 6 

Rednal, 256 

Reminiscences of 

Brookes, Miss M. C, 210 
Cadbury, George, 90 
Jessie, 131, 219 



Cadbury, Maria, 42-5, 54, 58 

Clergyman, a, 312 

Employee, an, 119 

Finnemore, Mr., 295 

Friends, three, 363 

Hon. Sec. of Temperance 
Mission, 209 

House Surgeon at Ear and 
Throat Hospital, 198 

Lean, Charles, 93 

Lloyd, J. H., 246, 248 

Methodist minister, a, 299 

Nonconformist minister, a, 

Secretary of Y.M.C.A., 198 

Shorthouse, J. H., 92 
Rhone, River, 101, 103 
Richardson, Miss, 155 
Riviera, 285 
Rome, 322, 323 
Royal appointment of Cadbury 

Bros., 80 
Rutter, Josh., 13 
Ryland, Arthur, 31 

Sakhara, 326 

Samaria, 329, 341 

Sandford, Archdeacon, 152 

Saturday half-holiday insti- 
tuted, 117 

Savonarola, 323, 324 

Sawyer, Sir James, 352 

Scalemire, 40, 56, 59, 71, 158 

Scholefield, Mr., 66 

Scott, Mr., 81 

Sebele, 259 

Severn Street Christian Society, 
186, 188, 212, 232, 270 

School, opening of, 185 

Shechem, 329 

Sheldon, Mr., 302 

Shiloh, 329 

Shipston-on-Stour, 51 

Shorthouse, J. H., 41, 87, 89, 92, 

Siesa, 259 
Silberhorn, 105 
Small Heath, 239 
Smith, David, 210 

Edward, 43 1 

-R. H., 55 
Society of Friends, 7 
Somerset, Lady Henry, 283 
Southall, Geraldine, 230 
Southport, 80, 84, 93 
Sparkbrook, 189 
Spiers, Josiah, 320 
Spooner, Richard, 31, 66 
Spurgeon, Chas. H., 10, 11 
Squier's Nicaragua, 264 
Stafford, Mayor of, 242 
Stanley, Dean, 155 
Stirchley, 269, 271 
Stockport, 205 
Story of an African Chief, The, 

Strangford, Lady, 191 
Stratfield-Saye, 6 
Stratford-on-Avon, 51 
Strong, Hugh W., 276 
Sturge, John, 41 

Joseph, 23, 41, 60, 92, 106, 
i45 185 

Lucretia, 23 

Wilson, 153 
Stuttgart, 159, 160, 165 
Sunday Closing Association, 

Supporter, The, 10 
Switzerland, 76, 93, 96, 138, 

141, 153, 160, 165 
Sychap, 329, 341 

Tapper, Hannah, 7, 8 

Joel, 14 

Leah, 8 

Rachel, 8 

Richard, 7, 8 
Taylor, John, 216 

Rev. Hudson, 381 

44 8 


Technical education, 169 

Tel-el-Amarna, 402 

" Temperance Institute " 

started, 241 
Tete Noire, 103 
Thackray, Edward, 12 1-3 
Thebes, 407 
Thompson, H., 127 
Threefold Chord, A, 429 
Thun, 102, 105 

Lake of, 105 
Tiberias, 330 

Tomey, Mr. and Mrs., 247, 249 
Towyn, 320 
Trient, River, 103 

Unas, Pyramid of, 326 
United Kingdom Alliance, 241 

Vesuvius, 323 
Victoria, Queen, 40, 259 
Visit of American cousins, 95 

Wadkin, Candia, 19, 165 

John, 18 
Wallingford, 4 

War, South African, 296 
Ward, Edward, 203-6 
Warder, Caroline, 95 

John, 95 

Wareham, 4, 5 

Weisshorn, 104 

Wengernalp, 104 

Weston-super-Mare, 165 

Whateley, 90, 91 

What is My Faith ? 145, 360 

Wheeler, Dr., 416 

White, Wm., 38, 205, 242, 351, 

425. 432 
Whittier, 318 
Wight, Isle of, 147, 229 
William, Edward, 55 
"Will of God, The," 130 
Willoughby, Rev. W. C, 259 
Wilson, Alice, 156, 280 

Emma, 141, 143-5 

Hannah, 156 

John, 156 

John Edward, 65 

J. T., 350 

Mrs., 132, 133, 141, 258 

William, 156, 258, 365 
Wilton Cemetery, 39 
Woolwich, 5 

Wrekin, The, 86 
Wychwood Forest, 51 
Wye, River, 92 

York, 84 

Zanzibar, 84 


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