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Richardson, The Architect 


The Cincinnati 

Chamber of Commerce 




Southern Regional 
i^ibrary Facility 




Il.,>i,,i^l,,„ M, nihil A- I'o I 

Richardson, the Architect 


The Cincinnati 

Chamber of Commerce 


Richardson's Letter Seal 

The Cincinnati 



Albany, City Hall 24 

Albany. Senate Chamber IS 

Ames Memorial Library 18, 20, 21 

Ames Town Hall, Xortli Haston, Mass.. 20 

Ames, F. L. Gate Lodge 23 

Ames. I'". L. Wholesale Store, Boston.. 25 
Allegheny County Court House and Jail. 30 

Arches, Details of Fourth Street "4 

Arches, Details of Vine Street 112 

Astronomical Observatory 114 

Bank Rooms TS-TS-""^* 

Ban(|uet, Fall Festival Directors 86 

Brattle Street Church Tower 13 

■'Bridge of Sighs," Pittsburgh 30 

Brnokline, Drafting Room 39 

Brooklino, Richardson's Library 29 

Building Committee, B. M. C. . IDMO.S 

Business Men's Club Quarters 111(1-1(1/ 

Cliaml>iT of Commerce Building 36, 40 

Chamlier of Commerce. Exchange Hall. 6,'> 
Chimney Piece, North Easton Library.. 18 

Cincinnati College S0-S2 

Corner Stone of Chamlier 62 

Construction Views 56. 57, 73 

Delegation to Louisville, Ky 86 

Drafting- Room, Brookline 39 

Eagles, Carved 41, ,S), I0'» 

Emblem of B. M. C 99 

Entrance to Chamber of Commerce.... 61 

Entrance to Fifth National Bank 60 

Exchange Hall, 1890 65 

Exchange Hall, Banquet 86 

Exchange Hall from Gallery 67 

Exchange Hall. Record Service 95 

Exchange Hall, Rostrum 66 

Fifth National Bank, Interiors 78, 7'* 

Fourth Street, 1833 and Later.. 43. 45, SO, 51 
Fourth and \'ine. Corners, Views. .47-49. 85 

Gate Lodge, North Easton, Mass 23 

Glencairn Restaurant 76 

Harvard Law School. .Austin Hall 26, 27 

Hercules, Star Cluster 123 

Historic Views, Fourth and Vine 43-51 

"In Medieval Garb" Richardson 35 

Letter Seal, H. H. R 3 

Louisville & Nashville R. R.. 
General Freight Office 77 

Marshall Field Wholesale Store. Chicago 33 

Maxwell Tribute 98 

Monogram H. H. R 32 

Nebula, Great Spiral 116 

Xebula, Network, in Cygnus 127 

Oak Leaves and .-Xcorns, Carving, 
Trinity 17 

Observatory Design, Garlier iS: Wood- 
ward 6, 114 

Ol^lcers Long in Service of 'Change. . .94-96 

Puri.s. Scliool of Imuc .\rls 11 

I'hocni.x Insurance Olfice, later. 

Smith lV Nixon Hall 82 

I'ike's Opera House, l''xterior 48, 50 

Pike's Opera House, Interior 83 

"Pink Milford" Quarries. Milford, Mass., 54 

Pittsburgh Court House and Jail 30 

Presidents of B. M. C 101-109 

Presidents of C. of C 68-72, 87-93 

Provident Savings Bank & Trust Co... 75 

IJuarries, Granite. Mill'urd. Mass 54 

Real Estate Managers 68-72 

Record Service, Exchange Floor 95 

Reflector, 60-inch, Mt. Wilson, Cal 119 

Richardson. Henry Hobson 2 

Richardson, "In Medieval Garb" 35 

Richardson with Friends at Zoo 53 

Richardson's Drafting Room, Brookline. 39 

Richardson's Library, Brookline 29 

Roof Construction 73 

Roof Dormer. Fourth Street 109 

Rostrum of 'Change 66 

Senate Chamber, Albany, State Capitol, 18 

Sever Recitation Hall, Harvard 22 

Smith & Nixon's Hall, Exterior 82 

Star Cluster in Hercules 123 

Store, Wholesale, .\mes, Boston 25 

Store, Wholesale. Marshall Field. 

Chicago 33 

Superintendents of Chamber of Com- 
merce 94 

Tablet in New Excliange Hall 63 

Taylor, William Watts, Portrait 110 

Telescope, Photographic 11'' 

Town Hall, North Easton, Mass 20 

Trinity Church. Boston 14, 15 

Union Central Life Insurance Co. 

Building 8S 

Union Savings Bank & Trust Co. 

Quarters 75 

U. S. Post r)ffice and Customs House... 45 

\'ine Street Arcade of Arches, Details.. 112 

ArehMecTuTB S8 
Urbin Planninc 

How Richardson Developed His Romanesque 
Style of Architecture. 

Hy De I.isi.e Stewart. Pages 9 35 

Richardson and the Cincinnati Chamber 
of Commerce Building. 

By A. O. El/.nek. 36 39 

The Building, 

Historical Sketch of Its Inception, Its Erection, 
Its Dedication, and Its Destruction. 

By George Stuart Bradijury. 40-85 

Happenings and Activities in the Chamber 
of Commerce Building 1889-191 i. 8693 

By Charles B. Murray. 

Officers Long in the Service of 'Change. 


The Business Mens' Club Quarters, 

1903- 191 1. 99109 

The Preservation of the Granite Arches 
and W^alls after the Fire. no 113 

Thirty Years Progress in the New x'\stronomy, 

Plans for the Observ atory and Home of the 
Cincinnati Astronomical Society. 

Bv DeI.isle Stewart, President. 1 14-128 



Dedicated to the 
Re-Erection of the Richardson Arches 




Design of Observatory, by Garber & Woodward, Architects. 

Announcement: The jiurposes of this Bnokict arc 

To Provide fur the re-erection oi the i;reat Window Arches and other val- 
iiahle parts of the former Chamber of Commerce Building the crowning speci- 
men of Henry Hobson Richardson's Romanesque style of Architecture, and 
for so many years the pride and admiration of its owners, its occupants and 
all residents of Cincinnati. 

To Provide also, that these beautiful Arches shall fcjrm the walls of such 

Astronomical and .Vstrophysical Obser\atory and Home of the Society as is 

now required to carry out the specific jiurposes of its organization and of its 

Articles of Incorporation, namely : 

"Promoting the study of astronomy and the allied sciences; the 
advancement of knowledge in related lines of research; the estab- 
lishing and maintaining of astronomical and astrophysical instruments, 
equipments, real estate and buildings in the city of Cincinnati or its 
vicinity; and for the purpose of securing and administering trust 
funds for the permanent endowment of the astronomical and astro- 
pliysical researches of the Society and its members." 

To Provide further, for the securing the complete eqtiipment of powerful 
Photographic Telescopes, Spectroscopes, and all modern aids to scientific 
celestial research, for this Observatory. 

To Provide finally, the Permanent Endowment Fund, the income from 
which shall supplement the General Expense Fund, so that the Society may 
conduct its popular astronomical work and its scientific researches upon such 
ample, solid financial basis, as the leading American Observatories possess, 
a basis, worthy also of the historic astronomical interest of o\er seventy 
years on the part of citizens of our City, and in keeping with the new life, 
wide-spread interest and wonderful progress of the last few decades in the 
ennobling study of the Heavens. 


DeLisle STEw^^RT, President. 

Wm. C. Cooder, Vice-President. 
Dr. C. T. P. Fexxel, Trustee. ^Iurr-W M. Shoemaker, Secretary. 

Joseph T. Harrison, Trustee. Dr. C. T. P. Fenxel, Treasurer. 

Dr. R. C. Heilebower, Trustee. 
RoiiERT C. Johnston, Tmstee. 
Alfred Kxight, Trustee. 
Clair H. X'ortox, Trustee. 


To the Union Central Life Insurance Co., inircha.--crs of tlie Chamber of 
Commerce site, and to Henry Harig & Co., contractor.s for the removal of the 
walLs, the Astronomical Society is indebted for the gift of the granite arches 
and valuable wall material, for its careful handling from the walls, and for 
hauling and loading the same on the flat-cars at the Plum Street yards at 
their own expense. 

To the President of the Chamber, ^Ir. Walter A. IJraper, to the Municipal 
Art Society, thru its late lamented President, I\Ir. William Watts Taylor, 
and its other officers, to Air. G. H. Gest, Director of the Art Museum, and 
especially to Alessrs. Garber & ^^^oodward. architects, who after months of 
eftort and repeated conferences with these other officials finally secured the 
preservation of this choicest specimen of architecture, we wish here to express 
our full appreciation. 

To the Cincinnati Frog & Switch Co., who have allowed the Society the 
free use of a large storage lot. wc have been and still remain under deep 

To the Donors, more than four hundred in number, who with the Muni- 
cipal Art Society met the total cost of the freight and handling of the granite, 
and have joined in the later parts of our plans, we also express our indebted- 
ness. Without their timely interest and assistance, the saving of the Richard- 
son arches would have been out of the question. 

To Mr. A. O. Elzner, pupil of Richardson and Cincinnati architect, to 
Air. Charles B. Alurray, Superintendent, and Mr. George S. Bradbury, Chief 
Clerk of the Chamber for so many years, whose life-long association with 
and deep affection for the old building have added interest and historical 
value to important sections of this booklet, the Society can but express its 
great obligations. Air. Robert J. H. Archiable. Doorkeeper and Custodian of 
Exchange, has aided us effectively in the search for photographs. Former 
Presidents and many members have furthered our plans for the preservation 
and later restoration of the arches of their old home. 

We wish to thank all Officials of the Chamber of Commerce and Business 
Men's Club for their assistance and co-operation in the preparation of this 

Houghton Alifflin and Company, Boston, \-ery gladl}" granted permission 
to reproduce the Portrait of the Architect and other illustrations, from Airs. 
A'an Rensselaer's "Richardson and His ^^'orks," from which also the material 
for the biographical sketch is largely drawn. "The American Architect" of 
New York has also allowed the use of several illustrations of his buildings 
from their Alonographs as well as one showing the Exchange floor in 1890. 
Our thanks are due to both of these Publishers. 

We are indebted to Air. A. O. Kraemer, Rombach & Greene, and Air. 
Wm. R. Biddle, and others, for many photographs of historic interest, and 
to Garber & Woodward, architects, for designs of the future Observatory. 
Special mention should be made of the Cincinnati Process Engraving Co. for 
their extreme care in preparing the half-tones, of The Chatfield & Woods Co., 
as dealers in fine papers, and of The Sullivan Printing \\'orks Co. for valued 
assistance in publishing this Booklet. 

The Cincinn.ati Astronomical Society. 



Caal Oehonct, mg« 

Gut m Freed, kdi 

■■4'u»LiCi" otn. 


GEOfiGE F DiETEfiLf, pBt". Roberta Colieo. i 
William T. JOHNSTON, tacas. 

TkOmaiC.ROmIll Aaminh S^hoea 

JAMES P. 0«(T.).i 
HENflr M, SROuSE. icc'- 




June 9, 1914. 

L. If MEBBlE. hom. 



ruke-asiAO AAEHT 
■ elE address COMMERCE" 


The Board of Dlreotorn of the Cin- 
cinnati Ohamber of Commerce and Uerchanta' Exchange, at a 
meeting held on June 2, 1914; passed the following resolu- 

WHEREAS, In former years the Chamber of Commerce caused 
the Masterpiece of Richardson's Romanesque Architecture 
to be erected as its Commercial Home, and the same re- 
mained a prominent and beautiful adornment of our City, 
the pride of our members and of all our citizens, until 
its untimely destruction; and 

WHEREAS, the Cincinnati Astronomical Society has saved the 
great outer arches of this former Chamber of Commerce Build- 
ing, and now undertakes to re-erect them, virtually un- 
changed, as the walls of a building for scientific purposes; 
therefore be it 

RESOLVED , That the Board of Directors hereby expresses its 
hearty approval of a plan, which involves the preservation, 
in the permanent form which they deserve, of the most strik- 
ing architectural features of the building. 


How Richardson Developed His Romanesque 
Style of Architecture. 

By DeLisle Stewart. 

When, in December, 1884, after years of waiting and careful financial 
planning, the Chamber of Commerce of Cincinnati was ready to receive 
designs for its new commercial home, one of the architects who was asked 
to submit competitive tlrawings for the proposed structure was H. H. Rich- 
ardson, of Boston, ^^'hen all the designs were displayed and compared, Rich- 
ardson's was accejited. It is proi)er, in beginning the acc(.)unt and history of 
this liuilding. to take up briefly the life and career of thi^ man, to whom the 
Chamber, through its Real Estate Committee, entrusted the complete planning 
of its permanent home. 

< )n September 29, 1838. a son was born to Henry Dickerson Richardson 
and Catherine Caroline Priestley Richardson, at Priestley's plantation, St. 
James Parish, Louisiana. This was Henry Hobson Richardson. Pure English 
blood flowed in the \eins of both parents. The father, coming to New Orleans 
from Port Royal, Bermuda, at the age of ■sixteen, entered into business as a 
cotton merchant with the firm of Hobson and Company The mother was 
a granddaughter of the famous Doctor Joseph Priestley, the discoverer of 
oxygen, who. a refugee from a mob in Birmingham, England, fled, after the 
burning of his house and laboratory, to France in 1791, and later settled in 
Pennsylvania. His son, \\'illiam Priestley, moving from Pennsylvania to 
Louisiana in 1801. engaged in the raising of sugar-cane and became wealthy, 
worth se\'eral hundred thousand dollars: \\ illiam's daughter, Catherine Caro- 
line, born at the Priestley Plantation, married Henrv Dickerson Richardson, 
and was at the plantation when their first son. Henry Hobson, our future 
architect, was born, in 1838. 

About a year later, in 1839, Cincinnati saw the organization of its Chamber 
of Commerce: for in the Cinciiniati Dailv GiLCcttc of October 14. 18,i9. was 
printed the call, signed by seventy-six business men and firms, for a meeting 
of the merchants to be held in the hall of the Young Men's Mercantile Library 
Association Tuesday evening, (.Jctoljer l^th; <'n that evening and at an 
adjourned meeting on the following Tuesday exening. C)ctober 22nd. the 
Chamber of Commerce and Bciard of Trade was organized 

Boyhood and Education. 

The Richardson family li\ecl in Xew i )rle;ins. and Itcnry's boyhood was 
spent there ; at seven }ears he attended a public school for a few months, but 
after that was sent to the private school nf Mr. George Blackman. where liis 
systematic education was carried on until a vear after his father's death in 

A special early aptitude for drawing led his father to phu-e him under the 
best drawing master in the city : his exceptional ability in m;ithematics was 
a delight to his instructors and ]irophetic of the future. 


Cincinnati Astronomical Society 

We nia\ picture this Louisiana household, of recognized \vorth. honored 
in the coniniunil_\- and of ample means, combininiij' the business outlook of the 
cotton merchant of New Orleans, with a close touch cm the affairs of great 
sugar plantations forty miles or so west of the city, where suninu-r-tinu- and 
winter holidays were spent. Four chil Iren, I lenr\-, William, a younger 
brother, and two sisters, grew up in tlii-> licune of culture and abundance. 
Henry was a healthy, happy lad, fond of outdoor life, excelling in the 
sports, later becoming a good horseman and an expert at the foils; he loved 
music, playing the f^ute, enjoyed the society of ladies, and was particularly 
neat and tasteful in his dress. 

An armv life was in prospect at first and a cadetship at West Point sought, 
but an impediment in his speech rendered him unfit for military service. 
Instead, a year was spent at the I'niversity of I^ouisiana, and he then went 
to Cambridge, Mass., to prepare for Harvard under a private tutor. Altho 
ahead in mathematics and fluent in [•'rench, he was back in the classics, which 
delaved his entrance; he matriculated with the class of '59, His college life 
was not unusual ; he did good average work, excelling notably in mathematics. 
Fellow-students recall him as unusuallv handsome, of genial, .social nature, 
fond of fine ckithes, making friends readily and loyal to tlu'ni, energetic and 

Architecture wa-^ his choice as a profession; when he so decided is not 
known, tho he inclined toward civil engineering on leaving his .Southern 
home for college. In his senior year he was pleased to learn that his step- 
father had decided to send him to Europe for a short time to study architec- 
ture : right after commencement he set sail with two classinates for a summer's 
travel in England, Scotland and Ireland, and liy early fall was in Paris pre- 
paring for entrance to the Ecolc des Beaux Arts. 

. Studies and Life in Paris, 1859-65. 

Entrance to this school is by rigid oral examination ; candidatt-s must 
be presented or vouched for by some one of the commissioned artists whose 
studios or ateliers are within or close by the school. Richardson joined the 
atelier of .M. Andre and almost immediately tried the entrance examinations; 
passing in some subjects, but failing in the stiff ciuestions of descriptive 
geometry, his entrance was delayed until the next fall. Steady preparatory 
work occupied him all this time; of the one hundred and twenty candidates 
sixty only were accepted, and he was eighteenth in rank among these. The 
examinations were public, entirely in French, and lasted a full month. 

The school is so organized that all the students attend the various general 
lectures covering the theoretical subjects; but the practical work is done at 
the ateliers. Subjects are announced in the main competition room of the 
school, but are studied and elaborated in the \ arious ateliers, whose members 
compete among themselves; and then the designs from all the ateliers are 
shown in general competition in the exhibition galleries of the school. So 
a double rivalry is excited — each student against those in the same studio; 
each studio against all the rest, to bring prizes and honors to their group, to 
their instructor and patron. Self is here forgotten and a generous helping 
hand given wherever it will count for success. Into such a strenuous, boister- 
ous, rough-and-tumble, yet cheerful and fraternal life Richardson entered in 
the atelier of M. Andre ; his choice of architecture as a profession was a serious 

Richardson's Romanesque Architixture 

one, and he devoted himself to it most earnestly. Money coming in regular 
remittances from New Orleans allowed him to live with ease and put all his 
etiforts into his studies. 

Civil War ; No Remittances ; Self-Support. 

The outbreak of the Ci\il \\ ar in .Vmerica hrout'lit about a complete re- 
versal of fortune ; remittances became irretrular, then ceased entirely. More 
modest quarters were taken and every sacrifice made to continue his studies. 
A brief trij) to Boston in 1861, with the ]:>rotests of his many friends against 
his going South, and no architectural work in sight in the North, caused him 
to return to Paris early in 1862 ; encouraged, also, by the family of Miss Hay- 
den, to whom he had become engaged during his college course, he was re- 

Mi iij' ■ 


E. I.. D, 

lCon)li'';y of A. Lincoln Fechliehner.] 

School of Fine Arts, Paris. Ecole des Beaux Arts. Founded in 1648; nationally 
recognized in 1793. Reorganized under present name in 1815. 

solved to continue his education at the licole des Beaux ,\rts at whatever sac- 
rifice, to support himself by draughtsman's work in architects' ofifices, yet 
retain his connection with M. Andre's atelier and its ci>ntests as closely as 
possible. Thru this teacher Richardson secured a position with M. Labrouste, 
one of the chief government architects, under wb-om he designed a very im- 
portant Hospital for Incurables, with acconunodations for 2.000 patients, at a 
total cost of $2.(X)0,000. This designing was his day work at l.abrouste's 
house, and as best he ciiuld he studied and worked evenings with his fellows 
at the studio. Two or three times a week he sought instruction in painting 
at the studio of M. Leperre to complete that side of his artistic eilucation. 
That he met all expectations in this outside employment is certain, as he took 
part in very responsible construction work, that of various railroad stations 
under Hittorf, as well as the designing of the Legislati\'e Hall, residence for 
the Emperor and a palace for the Governor of Algiers. By this stress of 
doubled effort, by this practical training, was laid the foundation of future 
success ; a maturity of mind, an enthusiasm for and devotion to his profession, 
grew upon him, which in his former cnre-free circumstances were unknown. 

Cincinnati Astronomical Society 

The siege of New Orleans. wIktc liis nidtlK-r ami >istcrs wi-rc. wcit^hecl 
very heavily upon him, tlm he was powerless to aid them in any way ; his 
mother in her letters heggcd him to stay in Paris and continue his studies. 

Three years and a half of this intense struggle for his educatinn and to 
meet his expenses brought him to the time for his return home, in ( fctolier. 
1865. Instead of a brief six or eight months of study which his stepfather's 
letter inentidiied in 1839, Richardson spent six and a h.ilf \ears in preparatii in. 

"A Chance" in America. 

The Xiirih, and Xew ^'cirk rather than I'oston, was his choice as a start- 
ing point. Here he sought work; his tine library gathered at college and in 
the early Paris days had already been sold, and he was without money. A 
brief partnership with a Piruoklyn liuildcr was dissolved after a few weeks; 
with his few books he occupied a small back parlor in a private home, working 
on such designing as he found t" dn. .\'e\\ s "\ lii^ mother's death came at this 
trying time; fellow artists befriended him: thru it all he was conluleiit of his 
abilitv to succeed when the chance shniild cniiie. 

A classmate, Mr. Rumrill, obtained permission f(ir him U< --ubmit designs, 
along with several well-known architects, for a Unitarian Church tn be built 
at Springtield, Mass. Much iip])iisition arose in the btiilding committee mer 
entrusting such imiiortant work to an untried man — one v.'ith no independent 
practice, no special training in church designing, and no American practical 
knowledge of building. Nevertheless the intrinsic merits of his plans carried 
the day; he himself was in Springfield, and in hi-- impatience tn learn the com- 
mittee's decision, was awaiting it in an outer room. When it was told him he 
burst into tears and exclaimed, "That is all 1 wanted — a cluuicc." 

And a chance was all he needed. Almost immediately he was commis- 
sioned to build the Boston and .\lhany Railroad Station at Springfield and 
shortly after the Grace Episcopal Church, West Medford. Mass In January, 
1867, he married Miss Hayden and the\- resided at Clifton, Staten Island. 

While at work on these fir>t three commissions he occupied a room in the 
offices of Mr. Littell, architect, in Trinity Ihiilding, on Broadway In < )ctol)er, 
1867, he entered into partnership with Mr. Charles Gambrill, an architect of 
well-established reputation, with ot¥ices at '> llanover Street and later at S7 
Broadway. In just two years he had reached sell-sujjport, Ijeing then twenty- 
nine vears of age. His partner was especially helpful in business experience 
and practice, yet the artistic and creative talent of Richardson was not ham- 
pered l,)y this association; for ele\en years the lirm name of (kimbrill it Rich- 
ardson was employed. 

First Traces of a New Style. 

"It would not cost me a l)it of trouble to Iniild French buildings that 
would reach from here to Philadel])hia, but that is not what I want to do," 
was his frequent remark in these earliest New York days. Completely familiar 
with the French styles tho he was. his bold and self-reliant nature chose rather 
to work out some style peculiarly and \itally American. Xot all at once, but 
step by step, were fotmd the forms and materials for his use. 

Altho we may pick out the bold use of rock-faced granite in the Boston 
and Albany Railroad Station at Springfield as a hint of that feeling for "big- 
ness" so characteristic later ; or cite the novel use of boulders in the walls of 
the West Medford Episcopal Church as a proof of his artistic ability ; or see 
in the Agawam Bank of Siiringfield a foretelling of his later use of round 

Richardson's ko.\iANKs(juE Architecture 

arches: or in the Worcester High School, with its many colors of brick and 
tile and slate, a reflection of Richardson's love of color and decoration ; yet 
it is not initil we come to his Brattle Scjuare Church tower (now First Baptist 
Church), Boston, that we realize the direction of his progress. 

Brattle Street Tower 

In the tower of this church, commissioned in 
July, 1870, we find Richardson's first approach to 
Romanesque work. This scjuare, lofty tower, re- 
sembling an Italian canijianile in outline, rests 
upon fotir piers, supporting four great round- 
arches; with slightly accentuated corners, and 
broken only by a few narrow window openings, 
the tower rises well beyond the gable of the 
church to very large belfry windr)ws, also round- 
arched ; next a slightly projecting cornice, then 
a frieze of ^culjituied figures round the finir 
sides ; a line of small arches, seven to a side ; a 
little space of solid wall. and. over all, the roof 
cornice, sloping roof and tall finial. The orna- 
mental frieze, after models by Bartholdi in Paris, 
was a happv idea of Richardson's, and was carved 
bv Italian workmen after the stones were in place. 
The joyotis Wedding service, at the moment of 
the placing of the ring, shows in the photograph. 
The parents bringing their infant fur Baptism. 
boys and girls receiving the Coiiiinitiiion. the 
peaceful Death of the aged grandfather, are 
shown in the other three jianels. Their 
material is a light colored st(ine, and the 
angel's trumpets are gilded. The r<>nf is of red 
tiles. The tower and church are built of a warm 
yellow-tinted pudding-stone which is streaked 
with darker iron-stains that relieve monotony and 
accent the trimmings The ^vhole color effect is 
both rich and animated. 

.\n arcade of round arches fcirms a \-estibule 
adj<jining the ground floor of the tower : the large 
church windows are round-arched, ton, making 
not less than five separate uses of the mund arch 
in the one building. 

Besides its importance as the first work 
showing Richardson's use of Romanesque forms. 
this tower has always been a favorite with the 
people of Boston : beautiful and impressive of it- 
self, a charm is added in the sculptured frieze. 

In the Hamden County Court House, at Springfield. Mass.. several 
Romanesque features were employed — the loggia, a balcony, the cornice 
pierced as in some Tuscan fortified palace, forked battlements .•uul. with 
especially good effect, a strong batter or slope to foundation courses in the 
rear. These new features were favorably commented upon, and as a whole the 
Cotirt Hottse made a deep imjiression. 


Old Brattle Street Church Tower 

Now First Baptist Ctiurcti. Boston. 

Commonwealth Ave.. Clarendon St. 

Gained in competition 1870. 

CiNCixxATi Astronomical Socikty 

in the North Church, his fourth Springfield ]iuilding, begun in June, 1872, 
the Romanesque spirit speaks even more strongly Severe siniplicit\ was pre- 
scribed from the funds available, so that elaborate ornamentation is lacking. 
The ri)und arch is everywhere used — in main windows, roof dormer, tower 
openings, doorways and long upen vestibule. The tower changes very neatly 
from square to octagonal for the spire; a small round turret attaches itself 
to the one free corner of the tower and ends in a secondary spire. Red 
meadow sandstone gives color to llic cluu\-li and <i)ire as well. 

Trinity Church. Boston 

Tile I'.rattle Street Church Tower, with its sculptured frieze, had been so 
admired and appreciated by the Boston public that when Trinity parish con- 
cluded to move from its historic Sumner Street site to Copley Square, Rich- 
ardson was selected as one of the architects to submit designs for the proposed 
new' edifice. A number of the most distinguished architects of the country 
were invited tii coin])cte. 

[tv,„;.'-.j. of lloushlo}-. Mifilhi b- Co.] 

Trinity Church from the Southeast, near Copley Square, Boston. The Chapel. Brattle Street 
Designs accepted in 1872. Completed and consecrated February, 1877. Church Tower. 

Yellowish-gray granite ashler, trinuned with red Longmeadow sandstone. 
Tower roof red-tiled. Lower roofs gray slate. 

The unusual size and costliness of the new Trinity, the conspicuous site 
wdiich had been chosen, and the fame of its pastor, Rev. Philliixs Brooks, all 
heightened Richardson's appreciation of this opportunity; his designs, pre- 
pared with the utmost care, embodied to a very great extent the Roman- 
esque spirit, and used wdth particular advantage the irregular form of the 
building lot. Their acceptance in July, 1872, was a marked professional vic- 
tory for a young man with but five years' practice. 

The triangular lot, bounded by three streets, called for a dififerent design 
than the usual long nave and dominant entrance-front : instead, a more com- 
pact ground-plan, a pyramidal mass, a tower equally conspicuous from all 
points of view, were plainly to be desired. The southern Romanesque type 


Richardson's Romaxes()ui-; Architecti're 

which Richardson had been gradually making his own as we have seen, sup- 
plied the very design required ; so very skillfully were the different needs met 
that Trinity looks as if the situation had been chosen expressly that it might 
show up to the best advantage. 

In the cities of Auvergne, in Central France, during the Eleventh century, 
the central tower had been so developed in size as to become, as it were, the 
main church, presenting the general outline of a pyramid, the apse, trancepts, 
nave and chapels forming the base to the obelisk of the tower. In meeting the 
recjuirement of a tower equally prominent from three sides and thus central 
over the bod}- of the church, the Au\ergnese plan was adopted. The tower 
was made the prominent feature and the other parts grouped about it as the 
central mass. 

[Courlfsy ot Houghton, Mi/ftni o^ Co I 

Interior of Trinity Church, looking eastward. Frescoes and all wall decorations 
by John LaFarge. Woodwork in black walnut. 

The Back Bay district is filled ground, and the preparation of this lot 
before any of the stone foundation could be laid, called for the driving of piles 
thru thirty feet of gravel fill and a quantity of alluvium, down into the solid 
stratum of clay. Forty-five hundred piles were driven to permanently sup- 
port the foundations. Two thousand of these were driven into the space nine- 
ty feet square, under the center of the church, reserved for the tower founda- 
tion piers. Concrete was filled in between the tops of the piles to a depth of 
two feet, preventing any lateral motion. On stopping the drainage pumps 
four feet of tide water covered the piles, so the timbers ought to last indefi- 



111 t)ctuber, 1873, the contract was made with Norcross Brothers, Worces- 
ter. Mass.. for the masonry and cari)cnter work, and steady progress was made 
from that date nnder the constant testing and experimentation of Richardson. 
New quarries were opened to get a granite of the correct color and free from 
seams in even the largest blocks. P)y the close of 1874 the great granite 
pyramids, thirty-five feet square .it tlic l:ase. seven feet square at the top, and 
seventeen feet high, for the foundations of the four corner piers of the central 
tower, were linished. Four high derricks, also resting on these bases, were 
in place initil the last stone of the tower was lai<l in July. 1876. The roofs 
were soon put on and the interior work pushed to completion. 

An incident of that time, recalled just lately liy Mr. O. W . X'orcross, 
illustrates one phase of the architect's n;iturc. During the erection one of the 
most prominent men of Boston, who was ;i member of the building committee, 
accused Mr. Richardson of changing his mind during the progress of the 
building. Richardson replied: "Certainly: 1 will change my mind every five 
minutes for a better thing. 'i"h:il is wh;it ynu are pa_\ing me for." 

Constantly Improving His Designs. 

Richardson kept working over his iik'a> .iml designs, and the original 
drawings would hardly be recognized in the ci pnipK-lcd building. In the 
centr;il tower ]ierhai»s the greatest variations are found. Its first design had 
ne\er really pleased him. and he kept studying o\er its form without finding 
a satisfactory solution. One day while ill in bed he was looking over some 
photographs sent him by his friend La Farge, for ]X)Ssible suggestions. The 
instant he saw the tower of the old cathedral at Salamanca he exclaimed, 
"This is what we want." That gave him the idea, and within a short time the 
final designs were in the hands of the contractors. ( )iily l)y such incessant, 
painstaking revision of design, and by tiie rejection and rebuilding of unsatis- 
factory parts until they came up to his ideals, was the success of Trinity 

The compact ground-plan, altho not new in America, had been untried 
in so large a church. Trinity showed that great architectural beauty and right 
ecclesiastic effect could be secured by its use. (piite as well as with tlie "long- 
drawn aisle." In extreme length, west to east, it measures one hundred and 
sixty feet ; across the trancepts one hundred and twenty feet : from center to 
center t)f the four great piers fifty-twii feet. It has seats for fifteen hundred 
people. From the ground line to the highest stone in the building is one hun- 
dred and fifty feet, and to the topmost point of the finial is two hundred and 
eleven feet. 

A Color Church. 

To the impression of pleasing nia^siveness and grandeur in jjroportions 
is added the element of contrasting colors. Yellowish-gray Dedham granite 
laid up in rock-faced ashler contrasts w-ell with the reddish-brown Long- 
meadow freestone for trimmings and cut-stone work. Surface decorations of 
alternating squares and other geometric figures in dark and light stone, like 
the mosaic work of earlier centuries, enliven some parts of the w^alls. The 
gray slate of the lower roofs is relieved by red terra-cotta trimmings, and the 
tower roof is covered with semi-glazed red Akron tiles. All these colors har- 
monize and give brightness and life to the exterior. The panel of oak leaves 
and acorns, near the western entrance, gives an idea of the naturalness of the 


Richakuson's Romanesque Akchitectire 

stone-carvers' work in enriching the exterior. Kvans & Tombs, Boston, were 
much encouraged and brought out as modelers and carvers in wood and stone 
by Richardson. 

Several panels of fish and flowers, painted by John La Farge, were ex- 
hibited in 1865. and so admired by Richardson that he exacted from the artist 
a promise to do decorative work for him in the first important building at 
his disposal. In 1876 La Farge was called on to redeem his promise and 
undertook not only to design the interior decorations and supervise the work, 
but made himself responsible for all exjienditures. purchasing the colors and 
emplo}"ing all assistants. Shortness of time and lack of funds allowed only 
the tower and side-walls to be adorned with figures, while the vaulted ceilings 
and other parts were plain tinted. With the large unbroken wall spaces at 
his disposal, with complete freedom from classical restraints, with true artis- 
tic enthusiasm and great self-devotion, it is not strange that the frescoes pro- 
duced a decided impression with the public and were thought to be unsur- 
passed in this country at that date. The prevailing color of the interior walls 
was red. while the four great piers were a dark bronze-green, with gilded 
capitals and bases. Oriental decorations of many colors in geometric designs 
fill ceiling spaces and form borders about the windows and the numerous 
arches. Inside as well as outside Trinity deserves the name given it by its 
architect — "A Color Church." 

The completed Trinity expresses clearly and properly its religious pur- 
pose, with an aspect of dignity and sturdy masculine strength. The whole 
structure shows a vital unity and balance in emphasis — the tower does not 
crush out the lower roofs but dignifies them. To the beauty of its form is 
added the pronounced yet harmonious eftect of contrasting colors. From each 
direction the eye sees a different picture, a varied setting for the one central 
tower : there is no monotony in the rough-hewn surfaces, every hour their 
lights and shadows differ ; a closer look shows details of moderate ornamenta- 
tion, elegant and appropriate. However or whenever one might come upon 
such a building, it would impress and please him. 

On his return from Paris his brother had said he would give him five 
years to stand at the head of his profession. In about that lime he had gained 
the commission to build Trinity Church in competition with the leading archi- 
tects of the country. So his brother's exi)ectation was almost literally fulfilled. 

His own architectural ideas became more definite as the walls of Tr.nity 
rose. His time of experiments is passed, he has found the forms his eager 
brain can fashion and the implements his energetic hands can mold into the 
desired shapes. Xow with this completed example of a new type of archi- 
tecture to his credit, he stands in advance of his profession. Trinity being 
finished, he is a leader. 

Richardson moved his home from Staten Island in 1874 to Brookline, a 
suburb of Boston, so that he could give his constant attention to this work. 
His home became his office also, when in 1877. the partnership with Mr. Gam- 
brill after becoming less strict, ceased. 

Oak leaves and 

stone can-ings. 


RlCHAKnSON's I\()MANI:SQIFIC Architkcture 

Advisory Architect, Albany State Capitol. 

In 1876 Richardson received aj)pi)intment (in an Advisory Board of Archi- 
tects to consider and report ujion the completion of the New York State 
Capitol at Albany. Begun in 18()8, it was less than half finished in 1875. and 
its completion was impossible under its first architect or on tlie ori_L(iiial plans 
which were in a Roman Renaissance style. 

This Board consisting; of h'idlitz, Olmsted and Richardson advised its 
completion in the Romanesque style and later prepared detailed plan> to that 
effect. Altho a return was ordered later by the Legislature, to a modified 
Renaissance style, some interior parts wholly after Richardson's designs 
deserve mention. 

The Senate Chamber as originally planned was one hundred feet long 
by sixty feet broad, with a height of fifty feet. By treating the ends as lobbies, 
divided ofl:' liy massi\"e arcatles, and placing the visitors' galleries above them, 
he reduced the size to one more suitable for the thirty-two senators. These 
changes added greatly to the beauty as well as to the convenience of the 
Cliamlier. The colijr eftects and rich furnishings comljined with the archi- 
tectural scheme make it one of the most individual rooms of modern times. 
The columns are of dark red-brown granite, the capitals of whitish marble 
and the arches of Sienna marble, (iray marble forms the rails and Sienna 
marljle the balusters in the slightly projecting balconies between the columns. 
Panels of Mexican onyx frameil in bands of yellow Sienna marble cover the 
walls on a line e\en with the balconies. The carved oak ceiling-beams have a 
depth of four feet. The use of Romanesc(ue arches for this interior decoration 
is noteworthy. It drew the attention of art circles in England at the time and 
caused favorable comment. It was finished in ISSl. The go\ernor's room and 
the court of appeals room with its gre;it marlde fireplace, are Richardson's 
work also. The design uf his great stairway was completed later but he did 
not live to see it finished. 

The W^inn Memorial Library at W'oburn, Mass., gained in competition in 
March, 1877, was the first of se\eral liljraries for small towns. An art-mus- 
eum is connected with and partly merged into the larger library, but is under a 
separate octagonal pointed roof. Two contrasting materials alternate in the 
stones of the arches, and in the checkered or "]Marquetry-work" decorations. 
Car\-ed stonework and roof ornaments are abundant. This picturesque exter- 
ior shows plainl}- a further study of ;\uvergnese surface-decorations. His 
later libraries were more cunipactlv arranged and less ornate. 

Ames Memorial Buildings. 

A few months later a chance came to design a smaller library at North 
Easton, Mass. This is plainer and the parts group together I)etter. An enor- 
mous single arch Doorway attracts attention, and with a line of five arches 
above it, makes an interesting front. Irregular ashler forms the lower half 
of the wall of the wing and is laid up in pleasing \ariety of sizes and rough 
surfaces. The sloped foundation walls add strength to the general appearance. 
The interior woodwork is in butternut with delicate carving and turned dec- 
oration. The carved Fireplace in the reading room is a wonderful piece of 
work, displaying native leaves and fiowers, and indicating the Memorial pur- 
poses of the building. 


CixcrxNATi Astronomical Socikty 

Oakes and 01i\cr Ames were leadin.y: sh(i\el manufacturers of Nurtli 
Easton and Boston, whcj became interested in 1805 in the buildinjj; of tlie 
Union Pacific Railway across the continent. Oakes Ames as a National Con- 
iijrcssman from 1863 to 1873, was a member of llu- Cuinmittee i in Railroads. 
In 1864 President Lincoln urged Mr. Ames tn put ilirii the rcail. and after 


(/) g 

T3 O 

.2 o 

" c 

n 0, -o 


^ . c 

t3 O O 

o ■= t 

1^ o 

weighing,' the matter nearly a year he decided ti > Imilil it. He put in a million 
of his own money and pledged all tlie remainder ut his resources for that jnir- 
pose. His friends in and out of C<ingress were urged to join him. Oliver 
Ames became President <if the Railroad and by their united energy and 
resources, and finally bv almost the sa'-rilice nf tlieir business, the road was 

RiciiAKD'-dN's l\c)\iANi:s(.)rF, Akciiitecturk 

pushed to completion. 'I'lic rails !,niin!^' west from ( Hiialia ami coming east 
from San Francisco were joined at 1 'romc mtory, L'tah, and tlic last spike was 
driven May 10, 1869. 

The Union Pacil'ic is their real monnment, yet an enormous tjranite Pyra- 
mid was erected in their honor, at Sherman, Wyoming, the highest ])oint on 
the line; on two of its faces are medallions, executed hy St. Gaudens, rejire- 
sent Oakes and ( )li\er Ames. Richardson designed this monument, the 
Library just described, and a Memorial Town Hall as well. 

The Town Hall, commissioned in April, 1S79, was erected Ijy the .\mes 
family as a second memorial in their native town to these same men. The 
lower story is of light-colored Icjcal granite trimmed with the darker Long- 
meadow stone, like the Library. The second story is of red brick, with a ])art 
of the north end of wood. The arcade of five large arches with unu^u.-illy 
short shafted columns, makes an im])osing feature along the front. 

The stone balcony projecting out o\ er the end of the arcade, a hav or 
semi-tower with stone roof, and round-arched windows make the south end 
very attractive. Arches outlined in Ijrick over some second story windows 
here take the place of I^ongmeadow trimmings. The minor car\ed st<ine 
decorations include lea^■es, flowers, fruit, birds and animal faces, and modest 
geometric flesigns. 

Massive Arched 


Ames Memorial 


Dark Longmeadow 

[Courtesy of 
Anii'rifdii Arfhileci] 

The unusual character of the lot on which the Town I lall antl Lilir;irv 
are built, \ery une\'en and with numerous granite ledges, brought al)Out 
an interesting piece of landscape gardening. By the aid of Mr. F. L. Olmsted, 
these natural difficulties were transformed into added attractions. Retaining 
walls, flights of steps and sidewalks are kept subordinate, and thus help dis- 
play rather than conceal the granite ledges. Richardson did not overlook this 
chance to give a novel setting to his building. 1 lis success in this is undoubted. 

Octagonal Tower ; Signs of Zodiac in Frieze. 

The northeast corner of the Town Hall is its best ; the octagonal tower 
starting from a rough ledge of rock with battered foundation, rises thru both 
stories and is crowned with a ]>ointed roof of stone. The nearly unbroken 
wall of the first story buttresses the arcade of arches and supplies space 
within for the ascending stairway. Above, each exposed tower face has a very 
tall, narrow window with its u])[ier section round-.arched. 

Cincinnati Astronomical Socii-ty 

The Signs of the Zodiac form the panels of the Frieze, arranged by Calen- 
dar months. The flowing Urn of Aquarins, the Waterman, its wavy sym- 
bol ^ , and Jaii'y make the panel close in l)y the roof, 'i'lie li\ely open- 
mouthed I'ish of Pisces, its symbol X , and Feb. are next, and join with 
the Head of Aries the Ram T , and March, in ornamenting the southeast face. 
The angry Head of Taurus, the Bull, H . for .If'ril. and the chubby Boy-faces 
of the Twins Castor and Pollux of Ccmiiii. n , and May, follow on the east 
side. So from left around to right, thru the circle of the Signs, 55 , Si , 
"i; , ^ _ ti\, , / , we come to the Sea-goat, Capricornus, ^J , for Dec. 
Here the frieze reaches the sloping roof again. l'ni(|ue decorations; 
vet apjiropriate as typifying the imjjortance of the calendar months in civic 
affairs. They may also express someone's personal interest in traditional 

ICilir/.-ty nf Ilnuvh>.<,u. M-f'Iiit i- Co) 

Sever Recitation Hall, Harvard College. Commissioned 1878. Deep red brick 
with lighter Longmeadow stone trimmings. Dignified massive building. 
No strong Romanesque features. 

From the street below, this tower forms a beautiful picture, with fore- 
ground of rough ashler retaining-wall, stray boulders and weatherworn 
ledges. With its setting of arches to left and arched windows to right and 
in contrast with the darker brick of the building, it stands out an architectural 
gem. Only one with true artistic spirit could compose such a picture. 

Sever Recitation Hall, Harvard. 

In 1878 l^^ichardson designed Sever Hall, a classroom and recitation build- 
ing, located in the college yard along with many older rectangular structures 
of red brick and some showy semi-Gothic later ones. Unable without discord 
to introduce strong Romanesque features, he contented himself with very few 
moderate uses of them. 

The material is red brick tending to crimson, with minor trimmings of 
lighter Longmeadow stone. The brick is laid up six courses of "stretchers" 
to one of "headers," .giving life and variety to even plain stretches of wall. 

Richardson's RoMANES(,>iiE Ar( hitectuhk 

The roof is of red tiles and the few ornaments are carved in brick of a slightly 
different hue. The doorway with its round-arch is only moderately empha- 
sized by the roll-mouldings of brick. Two half-towers, midway from center 
doorway to either end, relieve the rectangular look. The windows are all 
square topped and so grouped as to avoid monotony. It is a well-])lanned, 
compact, useful building, not monumental in idea or ornate. Its size and 
harmonious colors give a strong impression. 

Richardson was particularly pleased that his Alma Mater selected him 
for this work. For college ties and friendships seemed intensified with him 
thru long absence and struggle, and he often spoke of how college life had 
widened his possibilities and enriched him with friends. 

Rustic Gate Lodge, for Mr. Frederick L. Ames, at country-seat, North Easton, Mass. 
Fantastic field boulders form the walls. Cut stones of many colors make up the great arches. 

Gate Lodge at North Easton. 
Popular attention was attracted toward a curious rustic Gate Lodge at 
the country seat of JMr. Frederick L. Ames, more than to some other of Rich- 
ardson's works. One New York architect said he "would rather have had the 
credit for having built this Gate Lodge than any other building in this coun- 
try." Still another comment on it was, "Fantasy of a Titan." Of all the 
boulders that could be gathered together, there were none too big. too rough, 
or too abnormal to claim a place in its walls. Porches, alcoves, balconies are 
alike odd and irregular. Ashler about the windows and doors is made as 
inconspicuous as possible. A refinement is given to the whole building by the 
enormous arches that span the roadway. Cut stones of many colors, all of 
local origin, make up their graceful curxes. Within are rooms of the lodge 
proper, a suite of bachelor apartments and storage rooms for plants in winter. 
The owner was widely known for his interest in horticulture, outside of his 
manufacturing business. 

Cincinnati Astronomical Sociktv 

City Hall at Albany. 

What an a])t expression of ci\ic aullinrii) ihe great tower of this City 
Hall is! J low stron<j in outline, how diLjiiiticd in hearinj^, how simjjle and 
plain, yet how beautiful ! 

1 he commission to builil this was gained in conipetiliun in .\o\enil)er, 
1880. The site was a favorable one, with a slope toward the rear of the lot. 
The triple arched entrance, with arched balcony alcove, centers the ornamenta- 
tion in the front. Tlic front roof dormer shows the checkered and geometric 
designs so characteristic of .\uvergnese surfaces. The same contrast of light 

i( llUrlCSy "I Iln!t:JUn}t, 

City Hall at Albany. Commissioned 1880. Strong, free use of Romanesque 
features. Striking contrast in massing of light and dark stone. 

and dark stone is brought out emphatically in the tower, whose upper one- 
third is of dark material. Two secondary turrets are dark-roofed also. The 
lighter mass of the tower, from the suggested clock-faces downward, is made 
a very useful adjunct r)f the building as a storage vault for documents and 

A covered arched bridge leads from the sei)aratc jail in the rear directly 
to the rooms of the court. Foimdation walls show the characteristic batter. 

The interior was less ornamented than Richardson wished, but the lack 
of funds enough for the completion made this necessary. Throughout there 
is shown a strength and natural freedom in the use of Romanesque features. 



Ames Wholesale Store, Boston. 

Occuiix int;- a broadly rounded ci;)rn(.'r at Bedford and Kint^ston Streets, 
Boston, Kicliardson erected a wholesale store for Air. I'rederick L. Ames. It 
was a costly l)uilding. matle entirely of Lonqrieadow stone, and so unlike 
other commercial blocks as to merit attcntinn. .Xbnut one-fourth of the 
structure, to the right, does not show in tlie ]ihotograi)h. It was conmiissioned 
in March, 1882. 

1 < ^'/trlr^y of Hntisliton. MirTlin c-^ Co \ 

Ames Wholesale Store 

Bedford and Kingston Streets, Boston. Commissioned March, 1882. Longmeadow stone. 

Costly and monumental. Resembles in features our later Chamber of Cotmnerce. 

The lowest arcade has tivc large arches and three small doorway arches, 
and extends two floors in heiglit. 'i'he next arcade has thirteen arches and 
also covers two floors. Aljove tiiis is the third arcade of twenty-six small 
arches separated by single and grouped columns. Tiic prominent roof- 
dormers, a large central one witli three leaser cines at eacli side, shciw striMigly 
against the sky-line. Moder.ate car\ings enrich the capitals and arches. 

In appearance tlie Jniilding has nmre of the munumental look th;in nt the 
commercial. Its resemblance tn nur later Ciiamber of Commerce may be 


Cincinnati Astronomical Sociktv 

Austin Hall, Harvard Law School. 

A second time Kicliardsdii was called upon by ids Alma Mater to con- 
struct a college building, .\ustin Hall was a memorial to Samuel Austin, 
creeled bv his brother ivhvard fur the i.;iw School. It was commissioned 
in February, 1881. 

The central part is of two stories, with plain roof. This has a frontage 
of 116 feet, with a depth of 48 feet. A rear two-story section, 80 by 55 feet, 
contains the large lecture room below and large reading-room above. One- 
story wings 50 by 48 feet are added at each end of the central section for 
smaller lecture rooms. These make tiie extreme length of the building 216 
feet. The interior needs control the e.xterior form completely. 

Reversing his usual plan, Richardson used dark Longmeadow sandstone 
for the ashler and trimmed it with a pale-yellow Ohio stone. Blue stone was 
also introduced into the mosaic patterns for variety. Sufficient light stone 

)/ Amerirtin :\r< hitrct[ 

Detail of Stone-carving of Entrance to Harvard Law School. 
Capital of columns to left of central arch. 

trimming was used to enli\en the otherwise severe outlines. Large carved 
panels with marquetry work make particularly striking decorations for the 
end walls of the lecture rooms, the Harvard seal with significant leaves and 
flowers lieing cut in the lighter-colored stone. 

The entrance porch, with three large finely carxed arches resting on 
multiple columns, draws instant attention. Chiseled scrolls in great variety, 
human faces, animal forms and grotesque figures cover capitals atid roll- 
mouldings of the arches. A small monogram, H. H. R., interlocked with com- 
passes and enscrolled triangle, is placed at the left of these arches. To their 
right the half-round tower breaks the straight line of the front. Small arches 
give a Romanesque touch to the second-floor windows of the tower and facade. 

The liberal use of light-yellow Ohio stone in the triminings puts a con- 
trast and life into .Vustin Hall which is not fdund in Sever Hall nearby. 


l\IIHAKIlS(l.\'s l\0.\l ANICS(,IUE A l< (11 Ili-.CITK K 

Pen-Picture of Richardson. 

Air. Cass Gillicrt. arcliitcct, was a student at the Massacliusetts Institute 
of Technology in the winter of 1879, and tells of his first glimpse of the man: 

"I remember one day descending the interminable stairway from tlie attic 
of the old Rogers Hall and about half-way down encountering a man of 
swarthy complexion and huge proportions mounting the stairs. 1 remember 
an impression of a flaming note of color in a large red and yellow necktie that 
looked as tho it were trying to escajie from his waistcoat and set lire to the 
building. He was a man of such extraordinary appearance that my attention 
was arrested at once, and I wondered what he could possibly want in the 
building. As we passed he stopped me and with a singularly charming voice 
and manner asked some simple question, and I guided him to Professor Ware, 
who occttpied a little room in the building adjacent to the library, where I 
learned that my companion was the then already famous Henry Hobson 

K ■'ttrlt-sy of Amt-ncatt Architecll 

Entrance to Austin Hall, Harvard Law School. Commissioned 1881. Dark Longmeadow stone 
with light yellow Ohio stone trimmings. Blue stone also used in the mosaic patterns. 

House-Office and Studio, Brookline. 

The simple old-fashioned dwelling, w ith ,in acre or more of well-shaded 
grotmd about it, became his permanent home at Brookline. No idea of a 
partnership appealed to Richardson after the New York offices were closed. 
First one untxsed front room served as his office ; then that room and the 
library-room. With more assistants and draftsmen, a separate office was built 
out beyond the library-room ; additions were made to this tending back 
parallel to the kitchen-wing of the house, like a series of mere low working- 
cells or "coops" opening out into a long passageway. Finally a large and 
sumptuous library was added at the far end, and the space included between 
house, office and new library was eventually rncifed in and lighted from above, 
thus completing the establishment. 


Cincinnati Astronomical Society 

At the very first home and nftUf were inseparable, assistants passinj^ lliru 
the livinjj rooms wlieii necessary. Later there was more of separation, but 
the ctmgcnial "home-atmosplicrc" remained. Kven when his offices held over 
a score of helpers, from boyish novice to tr.iined artists, he was on the most 
sympathetic terms with them all. While in Paris he had met with a serious 
accident which still caused pain, .-ind dften .ittacks of a clironic disease kept 
him at Imnie nv actually contiueil tn his bed. 1 le Ljradually became \ery stout. 
and his weight was an obstacle tt) l)odily exertion. These were added reasons 
for ha\iiisj his otlice near his home. 

His own spirit and eiiert,fy ])er\aded the whole i^rnup of workers, and 
each interpreted and embodied his "chief's" ideas, so that the oiUpiit was 
clearly Richardson's own. Not like an ordinary office, it was more like those 
medieval home-studios of sculptor-])ainters where master and pii])ils worked 
together, ^\'hen designs for a com])etitioii were nearly due. work was at the 
highest pitch, and men stayed late or even ;ill nigiit to jiiish the tasks thru. 
\\'hen a coveted prize had been won, his look of trium])h was reflected in 
e\ery face aliout him. 

How intensely he labored ! The journeys which he took to see the 
progress on his buildings meant nights of traxel in cars and days of dealings 
with committees and clients, and in acti\e sui)erinlendence of construction. 

European Journey in 1882. 

To be away from the multiplied calls of l)usiness, as well as to consult 
certain London specialists about his health. Richardson took the one long 
vacation of his life in the summer of 1882. W ith Rev. Phillips Brooks, two 
other friends and iMr. Jaques, a young man from his own office, he visited 
London, Paris, Southern France and the North of Italy. Then the architect 
and his only, took a flying trip thru Central and Northern Spain to study 
many Romanesciue monuments away from the lieaten track of tourists. 

London ])hysicians pronounced his heart sound and his disease not neces- 
sarily fatal. This allayed his fears, and the doctors' minute and careful in- 
structions were soon disregarded. Air. Brooks was a tremendous traxeler, 
and Richardson would not be outdone. After leaving Paris they visited 
thirty-three towns in thirty-two days, traveling day or night as needed to 
make connections. Stops of several days were luade at Genoa, Florence and 
\'enice. Litense heat forliade a visit to Rome. Richardson's strength and 
endurance seemed incredible. They were out for a vacation and intended to 
get the fullest enjoyment out of it. The remarkable height of two ol his com- 
])anions and his own rotundity excited at times a little loo luuch jjopular 
attention — and they told of one day wdien the street urchins asked "if the 
dwarfs were not coming too." 

The knowledge and mastery which Richardson had heretofore gained of 
the Romanesque forms and features had come from the study of books and 
jjhotographs. Now in these Southern climes he was seeing how others with 
dispositions like his own had embodied these same features, lie was learning 
how men from the Kle\enth Century on had worked out ])roblems that he 
had thought of as new. 


Richardson's Romaxesquk Architkctlre 

The months of July, August and September were packed full of sight- 
seeing, study of all kinds of early and later architecture, visits to artists, curio- 
shops, art galleries, and renewing of acquaintances at Paris. He returned 
more fully convinced than ever of the value of the Romanesque features to 
American architecture. Also he was convinced of the freedom and greater 
opportunity- enjoyed by his profession here than in Europe. His health was 
benefitted and a real rest secured from the varied experiences of the summer. 

An incident of the trip shows the tactful kindliness of his nature: In 
one of the Italian studios they saw a piece of statuary which Mr. Brooks 
admired very much and yet was reluctant to purchase on account of its 
jirice. Air. Richardson urged him to oljtain it, and, determining to do so, he 
revisited the studio, only to find that an American had purchased it the day 
before. His disappointment was great. Ijut he made up his mind to forget it. 
Upon Mr. Brook's return he found the wished-for statue in his lilirary, ]jre- 
sented bv his friend. Mr. Richardson. 

Richardson's Library at Brookline. Commodious and sumptuous, filled with 
books, photographs and beautiful objects. Great table in center, twelve- 
feet square. Huge fireplace. "Everything big." 

Cathedral Drawings, Albany. 

While on his vacation in Eurojie he had agreed to compete in designs for 
the proposed Episcopal Cathedral at All)any. Altho ideas and materials may 
have been gathered in his summer's travels, it was nearly December Ijefore 
the actual drawings were begun. The whole office force then put four months' 
work upon the nine very large drawings which were submitted. There was 
a resemblance to Trinity in the square central tower and general massing of 
the parts, with the many additional requirements of a cathedral fully met. 
The expense of carrying out these plans seems to have largely caused their 


J I 



F *T3Mlis 


Richardson's Romanesque Architecture 

The story is told of Imw, when llicsc drawings were being completed, he 
asked his chief draftsman what material he was proposing to use for the roof 
of the central tower. His draftsman responded : "Stone, Mr. Richardson ; 
that, of course, is the finest material." Richardson stood a long time gazing 
at the drawing, and doubtless realized that upon his decision rested success or 
failure in the competition ; that if stone were used it would probably cause 
the rejection of the design on acciiunt of the expense. He was, however, too 
true an artist to match his chances of winning against the artistic compromise 
that he would have to make in order to win, and so, after a few minutes of 
thoughtful consideration, leaning lovingly over the design, he raised his head 
and said, "\"ery well, Mr. A., make it stone :" and as Mr. .\. years afterward 
told Mr. Cass Gilbert, who quotes the incident, he had no doubt that Mr. 
Richardson at that moment realized that the opportunity to carry out the 
greatest design of his career had lieen relinquished because of his fiilelity to 
the artistic considerations involved. 

So thoroughly was he now imbued witli the \irtues of his adopted style, 
that it was onlv in the \erv slight pointing of the main arches that he varied 
from the precedents of the Romanesque art in these cathedral drawings. 

The Pittsburgh Court House and Jail. 

On Sunday, [Ma}- 7, 1882, the old Court House at Pittsburgli was nearly 
destroyed by fire. The County Commissioners at once planned for a new^ 
Court House. In April, 1883, they sent letters to many architects with the 
printed report on the required liuilding. In Septemlier, 1883, they offered 
$2,500 to each of five architects for plans. Richardson was selected as the 
fifth architect on September 28th, and immediately began to work on the 
designs which were due Januar}- 1, 1884. Thirty days later, on January 31st. 
he was selected as the architect and given until July 1 to prepare the detailed 
plans of a Court House and separate Jail, to cost not exceeding $2,250,000. 

By calling back former pupils to aid hi> full corps of assistants, he had 
thirty men in all working on the detailed plans. That no time might be lost 
he arranged to have their meals served in the dining-room adjoining, and with 
his aids worked day and night to be ready for the letting of the contracts. 
The plans were in Pittsburgh and submitted on July 1st. The sealed bids for 
construction were ready by August I'lth, and on September 11th, Xorcross 
Brothers were awarded the contract for Court House and Jail of pink Milford 

The ground-plan is a rectangle 209 feet frontage by 301 feet in depth, with 
an inner court-yard, 70 by 145 feet, having corridors giving access to all the 
rooms. The first floor contains the county offices. Eleven court rooms and 
the large law-library occupy the second floor. Minor court rooms and clerks' 
rooms use the third floor, and some attic s])acc. A requirement of all the light 
possible for the offices was met by making the window openings large, and 
receiving light from the court-yard as well. Ledges and cornices on which 
soot might collect were expressly undesirable, so that the exterior is strik- 
ingly plain. 



Pure Romanesque features arc used — entrance arches, secuml ami tliinl 
story arched-windows, roof dormers, and, doniinatincf all, the f^reat square 
tower risintj far above the sloi)inyf roofs. Fi\-c Moors of this tower arc fding- 
vaults for ])ulilic docunu-nts. reaolu-cl hy ek'\alors. Altho made n--c of in this 
way, the ornamental and artistic \alue of this tower is far beyond its utili- 
tarian. It apjiropriatel}- ex])resses the authority of law ,iud ihe place of jus- 
tice in the community. It ,s;i\'es a linish to the whole -iructnre. When the 
design was sulmiitted, a iiostile critic likened the tower to a "grain elexator" 
on top of an otherwise beautiful building, and said it would destroy the archi- 
tectural effect. How untrue this criticism ])ro\ed, was >lio\\n in ]io])ular 
ap])roval of it and in its being co])ied almost unchanged, in three other places 
before its own completion. It conxincingK- shows the creati\e character of 
Kich.ardson's talent. It seems a prophecy and forerunner of today's sky- 
scr.-qiers in the arrangement of its surface decorations. It rises o\-er 2.50 feet 
in height abo\e the street. 

A street at the rear of the Court House is spanned by a massise arched 
bridge leading to the jail. .More se\'ere in treatment w illi fewer wall o|)enings, 
the Jail is strongly Romanesepie — fortress- like in its austerity. 

The precarious state of Richardson's health is slmun in an understanding 
with the County Commissioners that in case of his death the completion of it 
would be put into the hands of his executors and not of strangers. 

The Court House w.'is the largest of Richardson's buildings, massive and 
imposing, plain and sensible in all its arrangements. Its corner-stone was laid 
October 13, 1885, forty-nine \ears after the corner-stone of the preceeding 
Court House had been laid. It was dedicated September 24, 1888, on the 
Centeiuiial of the founding of Alleghen\- Connt\-. 

Marshall Field Building, Chicago. 

This wholesale store building was commissioned in April, 1885, and if 
com]i;ired with his other business structures shows ])rogress toward sim- 
plicity in design. It covers an area .S25 feet l)y 190 feet and has a height of 125 
feet. The material is red Missouri granite in the lower parts and red sand- 
stone above. The lower arched windows einbrace several floors. Double the 
number of arches make the second line. The uiii)ermost i:)i)enings are not 
arched but ha\e twice the number below and are eft'ectively grouped. The 
roof is not visible. Decoration is sparing vet enough to reliex'e bareness. It 
is a massix'e lousiness block and shows well the adaptabilitv of the Romanesque 
arch to windijw openings of such buildings. The color effect is very Ijeautifnl. 


ifci;^r.'..:..'3i'5— •.•J..:rJJ,i,'i.;;i,rj;j ^ 

Monogram H. H. R., Harvard Law School. fSee pane 26] 

Richardson's Romanesque Architi.cture 


11 n II 

^M M Aa 21 31 2i ?T i^ 9 ^ .^ -) 

[l curtesy of Marshall Field c' Co.] 

Marshall Field Wholesale Store Building, Chicago. Commissioned April, 1885. 
Red Missouri granite below, rock-faced. Cut red sandstone above. 

Cincinnati Chamber of Commerce. 

In June, 1885, Mr. Richardson gained by competition the commission to 
build the Cincinnati Chamber of Commerce. How the Architect conceived 
the plan and had the designs worked out by his artists, will be told in the 
next few pages by one of his pupils, Mr. A. O. Elzner, who himself aided in 
preparing the sketches at Brookline. Details of the building project and a full 
description of the Chamber are given in the Historical Sketch by Mr. George 
S. Bradbury, Clerk of the Board of Real Estate Managers during the erection, 
as well as Chief Clerk of the Chamber during the entire existence of the 
Building. So that it only remains here to speak of the Cincinnati building 
as the crown of Richardson's Romanesque work. To its preparation he 
brought his ripest experience ; in purpose, there was added to the purely 
commercial requirements, the artistic and monuinental possibilities which Mr. 
Richardson prized so highly. In his treatment he made central the great and 
dignified hall where the merchants should assemble, provided upper and lower 
floors for revenue, and clothed it all in an outer garb of beautiful arcades of 
arches and massive towers, expressing solidity, repose, symmetry, dignity, and 
a moderate adornment : most worthily has it been called a masterpiece of 


CixciNNATi Astronomical Socikty 

In tracing- the (IcxclnpuK'nl nf lii> Ki im:iiK-s(|iR- style in these puhlio 
Iniihlintjs, the most important ha\e been described and illustrated. Several 
otlier li!)raries. a dozen or more railway stations, mostly on the Boston & 
Alban\ Raih-dad, and nxer t\\ent_\- residences were also of his desiy-n. but a 
briel' sketch like this cannot include them in detail. 

Disease at Last is Victor. 

Richardson had a line ])hysi(|ue and \ er_\- strcm^;' cnnstitntinii as a yimiii,' 
man. h'^llnwing his return fruin I'aris he was in the best of health for several 
\ear.v, ii'ainin^- graduall)' in weight. As a chronic disease developed later, he 
was kept at home or even in l^ed at times. Finally he became so very fleshy 
that line wondered how he could possibly get abmit as In- did. \\-[ his most 
di>tincti\e characteristic was his immense energy and \ italit_\ nnt ahjnc 
ph_\^ical, but an intense mental activity as well. 

flow he did enjov life! 11 i^ linine was a nn ist hospitable one. I'Viend^ 
and guests were constantly at his table. "This is the way 1 rest" he used to 
sav when his table was filled with guests and con\-ersati(in was at its height. 
Mis Monday night dinners for assistants and former ])upils kept all in tnuch 
with each other. He was a frequent \ isitMi- in iH.stnn homes, giving great 
pleasure and fully enjoying these friendships. J-A en in his many hurried trips 
to other cities he planned in advance, to meet old friends. 

Yet for several years he had been under the constant care of physicians 
and knew that his days might be short. His recovery after serious attacks 
was rapid and his full strength returned promptly. In the autumn of 1885, 
however, gravest fears were felt, and i m his recovery, journeys and social 
visits were forbidden. In March, 188f), a sever attack of tonsilitis came on and 
was followed by a renewal of his chronic troulile. Early in .'\pril he went to 
New York and on to Washington for a rest "as an itualid" but became so ill 
that he returned home. I'nr two weeks he was conlined to his room with great 
pain and restlessness, but never lost his spirits or hope, and kept up his inter- 
est in the work going on below in the offices. Even on the day of his death, 
April 27, 1886, he talked confidently to his doctor of his tasks, and of his wish 
to live at least two \ears more to complete the work begun. His passing away 
toward midnight was without pain, and peacelul. 

The shock to his friends was very great and his loss seemed to the public 
like a national misfortune. His chise friend, Dr. Phillips Brooks conducted 
the funeral service in Trinity Church, lie had not yet reached the age of 
forty-eight, being taken away in the \ery prime of life. 

The completion of his unlinished contracts went on without delay in the 
hands of his pupils and executors, Messrs. Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge, who 
carried out faithfully the plans of their master and teacher. The Pittsburgh 
buildings and Marshall Field wdiolesale store, Chicago, were about half fin- 
ished. The Chamber of Commerce designs had received their final revision at 
his hands, and the first bids for construction were awaited: the old Post- 
oflice was still standing, Init its remo\al ])egan about a month after his death. 



Stimulus to American Architecture. 

The perioil in which he bej^aii his work was (iiie utterly lacking in a style 
fit for ])roniiiient or public buildings, and one when the call for such buildings 
was especially great. The rapid growth (if towns and cities in America called 
for larger municipal buildings, and the few which he Iniilt intliienced the con- 
struction of scores, if not hundreds, of others. 

The American public was unbiased toward any other style and free to 
accept that which he worked out. He did in America what would have been 
impossible in Euroj^e. His work touched a popular chord and there was 
hardly a town or hamlet intu which his fame had net gone, and his loss felt. 

Altho the classic styles have come forward into prominence with passing 
years, displacing his tnedieval type, yet the effects of his inspiring career 
remain in our national architecture. No man ever came nearer to perpetu- 
ating his name in an architectural style than did Henry Hobson Richardson in 
his Romanesque style. 

The Boston Society of Architects passed resolutions a few days after his 
death, which fittingly characterize his life: 

"In his brilliant career, which is now brought ti i a close, we recognize 
the rare union of well nigh all the qualities on which true success in the prac- 
tice of architecture depends. He had the instinct for form, proportion and 
color, the genius for orderly arrangement an<l ])icturesque grouping of parts; 
and in addition to all this power, he had an extraordinary force and energy of 
character, which enabled hiiu to use his gifts to their utmost advantage, to 
despise the pain and weakness of an insidious and fatal disease, and to work 
with unflagging zeal and efficiency up to the last day of his life. 

"His gifts and his courage, brightened by a remarkable intellectual vivac- 
ity, made him the most interesting and cmnmanding personality which the 
profession in America has ever known. He died in the full maturity and vigor 
of his power, but not before his fame was assured l)y the monuments which his 
genius had raised on every hand." 


Favorite Portrait. 

'In Medieval Garb." 

[Courtesy of 
American Architect] 


Cincinnati Asthonomicai. Sociktv 

li "nil' . \' i'f Kid,n!:> Art ('-> , Ctju inuntt] 

The Cincinnati Chamber of Commerce, Vine Street view. The fine proportions 
and symmetry of the building are shown to advantage in this photograph. 
It was taken from the east at the distance of the Harrison building, and across 
the sites of the old Pike's Opera House and Seasongood building. Con- 
struction sheds of the Sinton Hotel appear in the foreground. Date, 1905. 



By a. O. Elznek 

The oUi Clianilicr ni Ciminiorce ISuildiny. which was -lestn ived In- i'lre, 
was the work of 11. 11. Richardson, architect, of Boston. 

Mr. Richardson died just after the completion of the drawings and speci- 
tications — in fact, hefore the bids for the construction were received ; aufi, 
therefore, did not live to see the erection of this buildinj^, which has been called 
his masterpiece, at least one of se\eral \vhich rank perhaps equally great with 
this one. 

The story of the conception of this design might be made an interesting 
nne: The building committee that was charged with the task of selecting an 
architect resorted to competition, having in\ited the leading architects of 
Cincinnati, as well as Mr. Richardson, wdio at tliat time had reached practically 
the zenith of his fame and was easily accounted the foremo-^t architect of the 

^Ir. Richardson at once attacked the problem with his characteristic dis- 
regard of precedent. The motif of the design was so bold and so simple, and 
yet so stately and dignified, that it challenged to the utmost his ingenuity to 
jiroduce a plan which wrndd reconcile the commercial requirements of the 
building with the artistic sjiirit nf the design, which was cost upon such a high 
plane of excellence that sucli a reconciliatii.m at first seemed almost hopeless. 
Some of his friends, fearing that the success of t!ie competition might be en- 
dangered by his determined insistence upon sacrificing valuable floor space 
to the stern recjuiren:ents of his design, ])re\ailed upon him, in fact to submit 
an alternative scheme which, according to their ideas, would more fully satisfy 
the demands of the commercial element. This he tlid most reluctantly, and 
was correspondingy elated when notified of the acceptance of his real design. 

The question in\olved in this imint \\-as one which called for square 
towers instead of the Ijeautiful round ones, as well as tiie other one of tlis- 
pensing with the strong l)attcr or outward sloping face of the foundations, a 
feature wdiich imparted the wonderful sense of st.aliilitv to this massive struc- 

It has been charged tiiat Richardson took the niotit of tiii^ design from 
some well-known ancient buildings and was not fairly entitled to the credit 
for originalit}-. There is altsolutely no justificati in in tliis cliarge, as there is 
no truth in it. There was no building anywhere which couhl lia\c >er\ ed as 
a model. In fact, if we were to try to fnid any p.articular -onrce of insjMration 
we would be more apt to look among the aqueducts of the ancient Romans, 
which stretched across the valleys in m;iiestic -ircides. In these cases tlie 
scheme of design chefly consisted of large, massive arches Ijelow, surmounted 
by a tier of smaller ones, and these in turn being crowned bv an ;ircaile <if still 
smaller arches. Even so, it cannot be strictly claimed the a(|ueduct -served 
as an exact model, which, in fact, they did not; their inspiratii>n had chietiv 


Cincinnati Astronomical Socikty 

to do with the sense of solidity aiul dignity and repose, all i>\ which arc <|iiali- 
fications demanded by such an organization as a Chamber of Cdnimerce, rep- 
resenting, as it does, the solid and substantial business interests of a city. 

A t'haniber of Coninierce is an institntiim ciitirch different frum anv 
iithers in a niuniciijality : and it was kichardsim's aim, therefore, U> design a 
building which wnuhl ha\e an unmistakable indi\idualitv <if its own. reflecting 
as far as jjossible llie characteristics of the special uses to \shiih it wnuld serve. 
This should be the aim of all good architecture; 'ind it i> unfortunate to note 
that it too often ha])]iciis that a design is ad<iptc(! for a public building with- 
out reflecting in any way the ])articular characteristics (il its purj)! >>(_■, and that 
it might be easily mistaken for any nne nf a dnzen or nmre uses r.athcr than 
the one for which it was intended. 

Mr. kich.ardson's first skettli Uiv thi' C'li.imber uf Cmnnicrcc was just as 
simijle as the design itself, lie used a <)-l'. pencil and d;islu-il (<i( a little free- 
hand sketch on a letter sheet. It only took him a few minutes tn do this, and 
this was turned o\-er to his designers to develop into the beautiful building 
which was finally e\cil\ed. (.)f C(.)ursc. this was done under his cnustant per- 
sonal suijervision, and only such men could accomplish this as had been trained 
by him in all the wonderful details of the Romanesque style which he made 
his own. Many sul)secpiently tried to cupy this style of his and, naturall\ . pm- 
duced nothing but weak iniitations. No one e\er succeeded as well as he did ; 
and, consequently, after Itis death, this beautiful Richardsduian Romanestpie 
was buft'etcd about by a great band nf iniitaturs until it tinallv succumbed and 
died from sheer exhaustic m. 

As much as we might admire the Kunianesque which Kich.ardson devel- 
oped so beautifully, it is not this .ilunc which established his pusitioii nf 
supremacy. His great distinction rests iqjun the fact that he went back to 
first princijiles in design. It will be remembered that he studied many years 
in the world-renowned Kcole des Beaux Arts, in I^aris. When he returned 
to this country and Ijegan the j)ractice of his profession in the late si.xties, he 
found the architecture in a woeful plight. The pure styles, namely the (ireek 
and the Roman, and e\'en the ('.othic, h.ul been used and cast aside. Nonde- 
script styles were being exi.iKed, and the so-c;iIlcd Queen Anne was rapidly 
coming into fax'or. (irand mixtures of ;ill kinds were producing nothing but 
discord and chaos, until finally the jiublic ;ind the architects themselves realK' 
did not know to do next or where to turn for ins])iration. It was at this 
juncture that Richardson appeared on the horizon and reasserted the original 
princi]des of design which have [prevailed in .all pure styles from the beginning 
and will continue to do so. lie showed that they are equally ap])licable to all 
styles and demonstrated this by their successful a])plication to the 

It was this which lent the great ch.arm to hi< buildings, more so the 
actual details of ornamentation \\\t\\ which they were embellished. In f.ict, 
his designs were such that as a rule ornamentation could be omitted without 
seriously affecting design, a fact which in itself constituted anqjle proof i.if 
the great value of fundamental ])rinci])Ies. It is the force of such example 
that set architects to thinking and ser\ed as a "beacon light to lead them out 
of the wilderness,"' as it were. 


Dksu'.nixi'. tii:; C'h.\mhi;k hk Commerce 

:^hl,ii:. MilfUii >y Co.] 

The great Drafting Room at Brookline. 
Mr. Richardson seated. Mr. E'.zner drawing C. of C. designs. "The Coops." 

In a few years after his death the World's Fair at Chicago presented a 
wuiulerful opportunity for architects to utilize and apply the lesson which 
Richardson had taught Iheni, namely, that i;i k id design of all kinds is based 
upon fundamental principle--. It may be asserted that Intt fur this lessoti, the 
World's Fair would ne\ er ha\e achieved the fatne w hicli it did architecturally 
til such a proniiunced degree. The influence whiclt tliis h;id. subsequently, 
upon the entire artistic dexeh ipment <if this comitry, not only in the field of 
architecture, but in all the arts, was s( i w'des])read and so positi\e that one 
halts in amazement at the cimtemplatii mi nf the influence which cine man ma_\- 
e.xert, single-handed, in the natinn's artistic de\ eli ipment. 

That is the position that Richardson occupies, and that is why we should 
preserve most reverently the memory of the old Chamber of Commerce lUiild- 
ing, which, while it may ha\e failed to a cert.iin extent, as has been claimed, 
to serve the strictly commercial requirements, nevertheless rejiresented a 
powerful factor in shaping the artistic destinies of the American peoiile. 


CixcixNATi Astronomical Society 

[Photo, by Rombach &* Croenc] 
The Chamber of Commerce, 1904. View from the Northeast. 


Chamber of Commerce Building 

1889-191 I 

An Historical Sketch 

The Story of 





^ % .«3! 

Prepared and Compiled Bv 


Former Chief Clerk of the Chamber of Commerce, who served as Clerk of the Board 
of Real Estate Managers during the Erection of the Building. 

Its Inception and Achievement. 

The erection of this beautiful edifice, dedicated to the uses of the Cin- 
cinnati Chamber of Commerce and Merchants' Exchange, was the crowning 
realization, long deferred, of the hopes and aspirations of its members. 

For more than twenty-five years before its erection, the spirit of its con- 
ception and achie\ement was alert and growing, and activities to this end 
were gathering strength and energy, which idtimately crystallized and found 
expression in the completion of this noble and inspiring structure. 

A history of the building would be incomplete without a passing refer- 
ence to the awakening or the inception of the undertaking, which had its 
definite origin as far back as the early si.xties. IndeecL the ambitiotis project 
of a building and a permanent home, while it was _\et but a dream, long ante- 
dated this period, for we read in its charter of incorporation of March, 1850, 
the expressed rights "to acquire, hold and possess, occupy and enjoy, by gift, 
grant, devise or otherwise, all such real estate and other property as may be 
necessary and convenient for the support and transaction oi business of said 
Chamber of Commerce," from which we may draw the inference that the 
framers of "-he charter of 1850 had the project and the future erection of a Ituild- 
ing in their thotights. 


CiNxiN'NATi Astronomical Society 

But let us glance througli the records of tin- t'liamlier of Commerce. 
As early as 1866 it is \\rittcii that: 

"An acknowKclm'd iicci'ssity for better rooms for the occupancy 
of the Chamber of Commerce lias l)eeii a traditional snl)ject with suc- 
cessive boards for a long time. Public-spirited members, acting as com- 
mittees, devoted a great deal of time and labor in the effort to find a 
place for the erection of a suitable building, but their diligent work has 
failed at least of present success. It is lioped, iiotwilhstaii<ling the 
discouragements encountered, that the matter will not be allowed to 
rest here, but that something creditable to the wealth, enterprise and 
taste of the members may yet be achieved in the way of a building." 

Again in lWi9, when the work >ii obtaining snt'ticient sul)scri])tioiis toward 
a building project met w itii f.iiliire, the re])ort of the Hoard of Officers of date 
Septemlier S, 1S69. says: 

"It is a work, however, which the members of the Board hope 
their successors will not lose sight of, and that in due lime we shall 
have a place of meeting which will not be a discredit to tlie i)n1)lic 
spirit and enterprise of the community which we represent." 

On October 20, 1869, a lire in the College lUiilding drove the Chamber of 
Commerce to seek other f|uarters, and. s])eaking of tlii^ niisfortnne, the rejjort 
of the Board r)f Officers, vSe])tember, 1870, expresses the hojic th.nt 

"This calamity, which caused us some temporary inconvenience, 
would result in a revival of an effort on the part of our mcml)ers to 
provide a Iniildiiig expressly for the use of the Chaml)er which sliould 
in every way be adapted to its wants — be in keeping, in style, with the 
wealth of our community, and commensurate with the progress of the 

Tlf:: Secretary's report of September 12. 1S76, says: 

"The imperative and growing need of a Chamber of Commerce 
and Merchants' Exchange Building must l)e apparent to all interested in 
this body. It is hardly necessary to call attention to the inadequate 
proportions and the general imperfections of our present quarters 
(Smith & Nixon's Hall) except for the purpose of keeping alive the 
interest that has been manifested in favor of a new building. The lease 
on the premises now occupied expires January 1, 1880, or within three 
. years and four months, and it is to be hoped that active measures will 

be inaugurated looking to the erection of an appropriate building at an 
early day, and that they will l)e successfully carried out." 

And so it is re\ealed by the records that through the inter\ening years 
from 1866 to 1S8,\ an eveiitfid, stirring ])eriod in its iiistor\-, when the Cham- 
ber of Commerce reached the zenith of its prosperity and influence, the 
achievement of a building a permanent home for the organization — was 
ever present in the min<ls ;ind hearts of it> members. As the years advanced, 
with the growth of the organization, there were increasing activities to this 
end, stimulated by its growing need of additional space and facilities for 
its dail)- sessions. I''r(_iin l)eing a tenant of leased rptartcrs the Chamber would 
l)ecome the possessor of its own pro])erty, an<l these aims and ideals were 
marked with a steadfastness of purpose and a spirit of determination which 
recognized no failure. 

These were the dominating purposes and the cherished hopes which 
animated the members througli the passing years, atid gave impetus to the 
movement which subsecpiently led to comjdete and triumphant success. 


History oi-' Chamber oi' Commerce Building 

The completed building — a masterpiece of architecture — was dedicated 
January 29 and 30, 1889. The architect of the huihlin;^ was the eminent and 
noted H. H. Richardson, of Brookline, Mass., and it may properly be called 
his postliumous or last important work. His death occurred April 27, 1886, 
before the work of erection had begun. The firm of Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge 
succeeded to his business and were appointed by the Board of Real Estate 
^Managers the architects of the building to carry out Air Richardson's design. 

The Chamber of Commerce Building was not erected primarily as a 
purely commercial enterprise: while the important matter of revenue was 
not disregarded in its construction or design, yet the ciuestion of dollars and 
cents was not insistent nor \-ital in either its conception or its purpose. The 
dominant motive of its builders and projectors was, first, to meet the necessi- 
ties of the Association and to provide the Chamber of Commerce with a per- 
manent home which, in its physical and architectural attributes, should be 
commensurate with the dignitv and commercial standinc of this great bodv of 

[L\'lir!r\^y v' KntnlKjih L^ Groe»e\ 

Fourth Street, looking west from Vine, about 1833. From an early painting. 
Home of Caleb Bates. First Presbyterian Church. 
Home of Dr. Shotwell. Home of Reuben Springer. Unitarian Church. 

merchants and business men, which then embraced a membership of nearly 
2,300. a!id, at the same time, by the blending of art with utilit}-, to con- 
tribute to the architecture of the city a structure which should reflect its 
purpose and be at once a credit to its builders and a source of pride and admir- 
ation to our citizens — and that this was accomplished in its fullest sense and 
meaning is a matter of history. 

The responsibilities and obligations of an undertaking of this magnitude 
were serious and difficult of solution ; the financial program in this, as in all 
enterprises of its kind, was a leading question. How it could be successfully 
financed, the selection of a suitable location, the character and scope of the 
building, were matters of importance which invited careful and intelligent 
decision. That these requirements were wisel\- and ably administered is 
attested by the results attained ami by the enthusiastic approval of the mem- 
bership of the Chamber and the public at large. 


Cincinnati Astko.nomicai, Sociktv 

And iKiw. with tlu' ci iinplction (if l\\\> liiu' edifice, uitli the pride c ii jkis- 
sessit)ii in their hearts, the devotion and loyalty of its memljers were rewarded, 
and the dreams and amliitions of years had lieconie an acconi])lishetl reality. 

The Site of the Building — How It Was Acquired. 

Tile ^riiiind u]i<iii which the ImildiiiL;^ was erected was the site nl the old 
Post OlTice and Custom House, at the southwest corner of h'ourth and \'ine 
Streets, having a frontage of 100 feet on r'"<nirth Street. 130 feet on \ine Street, 
and 100 feet on Burnet Street, "being part of lots mnnliered 212 and 21.i on the 
original ])lan of said city of Cincinnati, heretofore conveyed t<i the United 
States l)y Mary Ward Shotwell, Josej)!! S. I'.ates ;iiid w'fe, and William Con- 
clin and wife, in separate parcels by deeds duly recMrih-.! in the land records 
of Hamilton County, State of Dhio," This \alualile properly was ])urchased 
from th'i United States (knernineiit in 1879 at the \ cry luw price of $100,000, 
a valuation fixed by a coniniissioii of prominent citizens ajjpoiiited li\ the 
Secretary of the Treasury, Hon. John Sherman, to apjiraise the \ahic ol the 
propert;' and rejKirt to him at what ])rice it should he sohl to thi> (."li:im- 
ber. This commission was composed of Messrs. Aljihonso Taft, \\ illiani S. 
Grocsbcck, Christian Moerlein. William Dennisoii and John W . v'^te])henson. 

-Xegotiations with the (jo\enimeiit for the purclirise of this ])roperty 
began in Februarw 1879, when tiie .\ssociation on the 14tii day of that luonth, 
adopted a resolution, which authorized the api)ointmerit of a committee of 
five, which included the President of the Ch.inihcr. t^ \ isit Washington, to 
confer with the Secretary of the Treasury, ;uid to procure if possible the 
necessary legislation favorable to the sale of the Post Office property. This 
committee was composed of President ^\'illiam N. Holjart. M. E. Ingalls, 
Richard Smith, Benjamin Eggleston and Thomas vSherlock. Their mission to 
Washington ha\ing been successful, and the sale having been authorized by 
joint resolution of Congress wdiich was passed by the Senate, February 20, 
1879, by the House of Representatives, February 22, 1879, and signed by the 
President of the United States, l''ebrnary 27, 1879, and the \aluation of the 
property having been appraised by the commission, the negotiations were 
thcren])on approved by the Chamber, which on March 17. 1879, passed a reso- 
lution authorizing M. E. Ingalls, Richard Smith, Briggs Swift, Theodore 
Cook and William .\. ilobart a committee to conclude a contract with the 
Secretary of the Treasury in liehalf of the Chamber for the purchase of the 
Post CJffice propert}- at a [jrice not to exceed $100,000. (Jf this committee, 
appointed to \isit \\ ashingtoii, Messrs. Ingalls, Swift and Cook were unable 
to attend, ;ind as a substitute for them .Xmor .Smith, Jr., and S. II. Burton were 
appointed. In its negotiations this committee reached an agreement with the 
Secretary cif the Trea^ur_\- on the l)asis of $100,000, with the condition .added, 
that if Congress, in the meantime, should disajjprove of the sale at the aj)- 
praised value, the agreement would become null and void. 

As no unfavorable action was yet taken by Congress, the Secretar\- of the 
Treasury was notified in vSeptemlier, 1880, that the Chamber was ready to 
enter into a formal cijntract, and in December, 1880, I'resident Henry C. Urner 
and Richard Smith visited Washingtcpii on behalf of the Chamber, "to aid in the 
completion of the contract which, before their return, was signed by the 
Secretar_\- of the Treasury, i in the ]iart of the ( ic ixernment. and subsec|uently 
by the President of the Chamber of Commerce." Under the terms of this 
contract, $40,000 in four-per-cent (jovernmenl l)onds were deposited bv the 
Chamber with the Secretary of tiie Treasury in 1881 to lie held as securit\- for 
the faithful ])crformance of the contract. 


History of Chamber ok Commkrck Building 

The terms and c(iniliti<in-> of purchase were ex])resse(! in the afuresaid con- 
tract, which was dated December 10, 1880 Funnal possession of the jjroijerty 
was given when the Government entered ujjon the occupancy of the new Post 
Office and Government Ruildini:; in Fifth Street, and a deed was executed to 
the Chamber of Commerce 1)\ l);iiiiel Ab-iiiniiiL;, then Secretar\- of the Treas- 
ury, hearing date December 12, 1885. 

ICopyrri^h! l>l?nlr. hy Rombach b' Croetn-, hy ^f'rdul />(-rwivsiOHl 

United States Postoffice and Customs House, corner Fourth and Vine Streets, 
Completed 1857, Demolished 1886. Corinthian Style. James R. Wilson, Architect. 

In the selection of a .site for the jiroposed building, it may be of passing 
interest to relate the activities which antedatcii the purchase of the i'ost ()ftice 
property. In August, 1878, a published notice appc.ired in the daily press 
that the Board of Officers of the Chamber would receive ])roposals for the sale 
or lease of property suitable in size and location for tiie erection of a Chamber 
of Commerce building, the retjuirement being the jiroperty offered should 
be located within the business territory boiuided 1)\- Main Street on the east, 
Plum Street on the wot. Sixth Street on the north, and Third Street on the 
south. In resjmnse to tiiis ad\ erti>enient ten proposals were received for sites, 
as follows : 


Cincinnati Astrumimicai, Socucty 

Proposals for Site — August, 1878. 

No. 1— lohn Shillito— Offers the Premises ;il 1{)M()5 W . I'mirlli 

Street, measurino- 70 x 150 feet, valued at .-^i id nilO.OU 

Mr. ShillitM will donate Jimido.OO 

$ ,S0.(X)0.(X1 

Ground rent at ,S4.(K)() ])er ;innuni, valued at 6()()(H).0() 

Total $Mo.(H)l)00 

No. 2— D. K. Este Estate— S. W. Cor. Fifth and \ine Streets: 

100 feet on Vine Street liv S4l/, feet on i'iilh Street $oUU,UUU UU 

Additional 40 feet on i'if'th .Street 60.000.00 

Total $360,nnn.on 

No. .1 — Pike's Opera House — Lease nf Premises for 5 \'ears ;it 

per annum ,$ 8..S00.00 
Space — 128'/x70j/> and fi>ur (.'unnniltee Rooms. 

No. 4 — 1). T. Wright— East side ^f I'lhii and I'.enliani Allev— 

UKI X _'t)0 '(20,000 square leet ) '. . .$ 05,UUU UU 

No. 5 — Arlington Hotel — Fifth Street between Main and S\-ea- 

more, 94J^ x 99>4 (9,384 square feet) ! . . .$ 75.000.00 

No. 6 — |. K. Smith — North side of Fourth Street, between .Main 

and W alnut, perpetual lease (\?,.\M square feet) $100,000 00 

Cash Payment 33,000.00 

Total $133,000.00 

No. 7— J. H. Barker— S. W. Cor. Fourth and h'.Im Streets, 100 feet 
on Fourth, 168 feet on Elm, 135 feet on .\Ici''arland, con- 
taining 19,740 square feet $130.()0()()0 

No. 8 — National Theatre — East side of Sycamore, north of 'iMiird, 
100x204 (approximately 25,000'square feetj. 

Lease with privilege of purchase at 8% on Ijasis of. . .$ 75,000.00 

Stibject to ground rent, $800 per annum, value 13.333.00 

Total $88^333700 

nr will sell at ($20,000 ea si i, hal.ince in 10 pay- 
ments of $5,000 each ;it 7 per cent i)er annum j.. 70,000.00 

Ground rent 13,333.00 

Total $83,33100 

or will sell .at ($.30,(XX) cash, balance in 5 aimn.-il 

])ayments at '> per cent per annum j $ 65,000.00 

Ground rent J^3,333.()0 

Total $78,333.00 

No. 9 — Robert Cooper — S. ^\'. Cor. Seventh ;ind Lodge, 154 feet 
on Seventh bv 100 feet on Lodge (ai)proximately 16,000 
square feet) .' .' $ 70,000.00 

No. 10 1). K. Este Estate — S. \V. Cor. Fourth and Sycamore, 
100 feet on Fourth bv 90 feet on Sycamore, annual ren- 
tal, $3,600, value ....'. $ 60,000.00 

N. W. Cor. Sixth and \'ine Streets, prominently mentioned, but 
no proposition made, 100x200 (20,000 s<|uare feet). 
Reported term,s — ground rent of $14,000 per annum, 

\-alue (withotit jirivilege of purchase) $233, 333. (X) 


History of Ciiammi.u hi' C(immi:rct. Building 

( )f the foregoing proposals that of tlie southwest corner of Fourth and 
Ehii Streets, having a frontage of 100 feet on Fourth Street, 168 feet on F,Im 
Street and 135 feet on McFarland Street, at a valuatirni of $1,30,000, met with 
the greatest favor, and subsequently, after extended consideration and con- 
ferences with the owners, the purchase of this site was unanimously approved 
bv the Bnard of Ofificers December 3, IN/X, .-nul rccnmmeiided to the Associa- 
tion Januarv 29, 1879. While action on this proposition was pending, the 
Post Office site at Fourth and \'ine Streets came into prominence, in view 
of its ultimate abandonment by the ('iii\crninent upon completion iif the new 
Post Office and Federal l.niilding. A resolution presented to the Chamber 
Februar\- 14, 1879, authorized the appointment of a committee of five mem- 
bers, including the President, to visit Washington for the jiurixise of opening 

{Photo, by Kraenu) 1 < ; ( 
The northeast corner of Fourth and Vine 1894. 
Cincinnati Gazette, 1856, later, Hammond Building to 1902. Present Ingalls Building erected 1003. 

the negotiations with the Goxernment w hich ultiniatch' led to the ])urclia'^e ol 
the site at Fourth and \'ine Streets, as before related, and superseded the ttu"- 
ther consideration of the Fourth and Flni Street site. The action of the Board 
in favoring the site at Fourth and J^lm Streets carried with it the appointment 
of a committee of leading members ein])owered to consult architects and 
secure plans and estimates for a new building forthwith, and sul.isequently 
another committee was appointed to prei)are a financial plan and to take into 
consideration the legal aspects of the case — whether its present charter g;ive 
the Chamber of Commerce authority to purchase land and erect a building 
and to finance it by the issuance of stocks or lionds, if the same should be 
necessary. From these preliminary steps ma_\- be traced the zeal, the earnest- 
ness, the activity and, indeed, the possibility of a building at l-'ourth an<l l'".lm 
Streets, which, it may safely be said, was only prexented Ijy ftjrtuitous cir- 
cumstances and the wisdom and foresight of influential memlters. 


Cincinnati Astkuxumic.m. Socikty 

After tin- riianiliiT nf (.'kiiiiiutcc liad iuiivliaM.'il the l'«i>l ( )rrKc lot. wliirli 
was admittedly the most central, valuable and attractive site in the city, a 
Icadiui,^ real estate investor and capitalist had pmposed to erect or remodel a 
building on the site at the northwest corner of Sixth and Vme Streets, with 
the rights of perpetual occupancy by the Chamber of adequate premises tree 
of rent, in exchange for the relinquislimenl and transfer of its contract with 
the L'nited States Government for the property at Fourth and \ine Streets. 
'Phis proposition was not seriously considered as it was not in li.innony with 
the sjjirit which had prevailed among the members in the years past, nor in 
strict faith with the Government, which had yielded out of special considera- 
tion to the Chamber of Commerce as a semi-public body, representative of the 
commercial and industrial interests of Cincinnati and the nhi., V.illry, and 
one of the leading and most influential organizations i.if the country. 

[ Flwto. hy Krili-nli-r Art Co.] 

The southeast corner of Fourth and Vine, 1889. Sprague (1854) later called 
Seasongood Building on corner. Pike's Opera House. Chamber of Commerce 
rented Pike auditorium from November, 1881 to January, 1889. 

The proposal to enlarge the site accpiircd at l''cjurlh and \'ine Streets l)y 
the purchase of an additional i5 feet adjoining the property on the west at a 
valuation of $175,000 was recommended to the .Association, but this was 
unpopular and was defeated by a vote of members taken May 19, 1884. 

As an historical side-light upon the growth and prosperity of early Cin- 
cinnati, and the value of real estate in the vicinity of Fourth and \'ine 
Streets, we quote from the preface of a siuall volume entitled, "Cincinnati in 
1826," edited by B. Drake and E. D. Mansfield — Printed by ^Morgan, Lodge & 
Fisher. Cincinnati. The preface says — 

"The almost unexampled rajiidity with which the late humble village of 
Cincinnati has advanced to the rank and oinilence of a city, has excited a wide- 
spread and increasing interest throughout the countrw in relation both to its 
actual condition and the future prospects." 


History ov Chamber of Cummkrck Building 

The article states that the square l>ouiuled b}- Third and Fourth Streets 
and \'ine and Race Streets, upon which Judge Burnet resided, could be 
obtained for about $25,000, and advances the opinion that "no one can doubt 
that in ten years it may be sold for double that sum." 

The population of Cincinnati in 1826 was 16,230. 

The Financial Plan. 

The nucletis of a building fund originaU-d from the ordinary accumu- 
lations, in the ten years prior to 1879, at which date there were assets of 
$40,000, invested in U. S. 4% reg. bonds. These were deposited with the 
Government in 1881 as security for the purchase of the Post Office prop- 
erty, and when, in 1885, the Secretary of the Treasury was ready to execute 

Ronihiicli ^' Groeiiel 

The northwest corner of Fourth and Vine. 1904. Eckstein Building, Erected 1856, 

later called Big Four and Western Union Building. German National Bank erected 1905. 

Shadow of Chamber of Commerce shows roof turrets. 

a deed for the lot at Fourth and \'inc Streets, the bonds were sold b_\- 
the Government and the proceeds, $49,125, apj)Iied to the purchase price. 
But it was not until 1882 that a successful financial jilan was devised, 
under which an ample fund was raised to begin the ])reliminary and active 
construction of the building. By the end of the fiscal year, .\ugust ,il, 1886, 
this fund had grown to the generous proportions of $491,649.99, which in- 
cluded $100,000 paid for the real estate at Fourth and \'ine Streets. 

The financial plan formulated to raise the necessary building ftmd was 
devised and prepared by Henry C. Urner, then President of the Chamber of 
Commerce, and was based upon the issuance of Certificates of Membership 


Cincinnati Astr(in(imic.m, Sociktv 

t(i all in(li\i(lual members of record who wished to participate in the iilaii. 
'i'his ])rovision was incorporated in the constitution as amended March 14, 
1882, and, hrietly stated, pro\ idi-d thai ti i ,dl prr-rnl nuMnhers ;it that date wli" 
wished to accept the conditions of tiie plan, a Certillcate of .\lend)ershi]) would 
be issued uiion the ])ayment of $100, if ap])lied for within two in<inths from the 
passage of this amendment : to others admitted tn nicndier^liip brtwecn M.arch 
14, 1882, and January 1, 1S8.\ the initiation fee \\i>uld be $250: between Janu- 
ray 1, 1883, and January 1, 1884, the initiation fee would be $500. an<l thereafter 


1 l'lu>l(K hv Hfimbiic'i it Groene] 

South side of Fourth Street, near Vine, in 1890. Pike's Opera House, Home of Chamber 
of Commerce, 1881-89. Distinctive, cast'.e-like Chamber of Commerce. 

The fact that the Certilicates of .\lend)ership thus ])ro\ided for. were trans- 
ferable from one ])erson to another, if didy elected, inii)arteil to the certificate 
a marketable or salaljle \alue, and gave members the right to sell and transfer 
their certificates, if they should wish to retire, and the annually increasing 
amount of the initiation fee from $100 to $250, to $500. and to $1,000, gave a 
financial advantage to the purchasers of certificates at $100 o\er those who 
came after, and this provision was a stimulus wdiich brought into the Chamber 
a large number of members. W ith the exce|)tion of a small ntimber, nearl\- 
all members of the Chamber at the date March 14, 1882, availed themsel\-es 
of the opportunit}- to ])urc]iase certificates at $100. There was a large influx 



of new members during the remainder of 1882 at the initiation fee of $250, and 
at the increased fee of $500, effective January 1, 188.3, there was a single mem- 
ber taken in at that price before the By-Laws were again revised and amended 
March 13, 1883, whereb>- the admission to membership I)y the payment of an 
initiation fee was eliminated. This, in effect, was a ])ractical limitation of the 
membership, as thereafter members were admitted only by transfer of certifi- 

Under this certificate plan the meml)ersliip of tiie Chaml)er f)f Commerce 
increased from about 1.175 on September 1. 1881, to a total of 2,275 on March 
13, 1883, of which number 2,184 were certificate members ami 91 non-certifi- 
cate members. It mu>t be stated the certificate jilan was not com])ulsory. 

[I'ho'.n. by Kraemir Art Co.] 

Fourth Street, looking west from Vine, in 1Q02. 

Through this successful plan, and the accumulations from annual dues 
and other sources of re\"enue, the assets and resources of the Chamljer. during 
the period of four years, increased from $44,301.22 on August 31, 1881, to 
$438,448.77 on August 31, 1885, and $491,(49.99 on August 31, 1886, which 
included $100,000 paid the United States Go^. ernmont for the Post Office 

The foregoing embraces the financial program that brought \itality and 
success to the building enterprise. Besides the immediate resources here men- 
tioned, the funds were materially increased from the earnings and investments 
of the accumulated moneys unemployed before the building operations began. 


Cincinnati Astronomicai, Socikty 

In order to make further financial provision for the cwin|)Ktii m of tlic 
building-, the Association, at a special meeting held December 24, 1880, author- 
ized the Board of Real Estate Managers to issue bonds of the Chamber of 
Commerce to an amount of $150,000 to bear four per cent interest, redeem- 
able after ten years, and payable in twenty years from date of issue, rnder 
this authcjrity, the bonds were issued, bearing date January 1, 1888, and w ere 
sold at par, yielding $150,000, and accrued interest. The bonds were issued in 
denominations of $500 each, signed by Levi C. Goodale, President, and W il- 
liam R. Hutton, Secretary, and bore the countersignature of Henry C. Irner 
as the Trustee, to whom the mortgage upon llu- C'li.iiuher of Commerce build- 
ing ;ind lot, was executed, as security for the holders of the bonds. 

While by the issuance of the bonds, sufficient funds were raised to practi- 
cally COm[)lete the building, there yet remained the necessity (^f meeting the 
cost of carxing and furnishings, which had not been included in the original 
estimates; and to provide for this emergency the Board of Real Estate .Man- 
agers, together with the President and Vice-Presidents, were authorized in 
March. 1889, to negotiate loans of $75,000, which was known as the I'"lo;iting 

Additional to the foregoing resources, the building fund was further 
increased by a bequest of $5,000 from the estate of the late James A. Frazer, 
a \'alued member of the Chamber and a leading merchant of our city. This was 
held in trust until the building was begun, and yielded $6,661.35. Mr. Frazer 
died July 22, 1879. in recognition of his public spirit and generosity, the 
Board of Directors, in 1881, procured a life-sized portrait painting of him, 
which for thirty years adorned the walls of the Chamber, it was destroyed 
by the fire of January 10, 1911. A similar portrait of Josiah Lawrence, a char- 
ter member of the Chamber of Commerce of 1839, and a prominent merchant 
and manufacturer of his day, which also hung in the Ivxchange Hall for many 
years, was seriously damaged by the fire. 

I'rior to this period of financial success, which we have here briefly 
re\ iewed, the question of finances and the failures to raise sufificient funds for 
the purposes of erecting a building, had been for years the main cause of 
repeated discouragement. In the year 1868 a subscription fund was started, 
with the ever-present hope of a new building in view, when the aggregate of 
$100,000 was subscribed, and here the project was temporarily dropped. 
Again in 1869, when the Chamber was rendered homeless by fire, a new 
l)uilding was agitated, and a subscription list opened that reached the hand- 
some total of $225,000, to which the Chamber of Commerce itself sul)scrihed 
$20,000, but this also failed for want of further support. 

During the period immediately after the Chamber had purchased the Post- 
office property there were several unsuccessful attempts to improve the 
financial status, in \-iew of the approaching necessity ot providing funds to 
meet the payment of the Ijalance of the contract when it should become due 
the Government. In April, 1879, a j)lan was devised for the soliciting of sub- 
scriptions from members in amounts not less than $100, each member so con- 
tributing to be entitled to an annual rebate of $6 on his dues to the Chamber, 
but this plan did not meet with general approval. Another plan was devised 
in 1881 whereb}- it was sought to raise additional funds to pay for the Post- 
office lot by a form of assessment against each active member, the amount of 
$2.50 monthly for a period of eighteen months, but this plan was voted down 
by the Association ; and thus it was one failure after another, until the cer- 
tificate plan of March 14, 1882, was established and led to ultimate financial 


History of Chambkr of Commkrck Building 

The Competition for Plans. 

The securing of designs ami plans lor the lunliling was accomplished by 
a conipetitii:>n. governed by uniform speciticatiuns and rec|uirements. Six 
architects, all eminent in the profession, were selected and invited hy the 
Board of Real Estate Managers to submit plans, for which comjiensation was 
made. The selected architects were James W. McLaughlin, .'^anniel llanna- 
ford, and A. C. Nash, of Cincinnati; II. H. Richardson, of Brocikline, Mass.; 
George B. Post, of Xew York City, and Burnham & Root, of Chicago, to each 
of whom $500 was to be paid. Architects from (ithcr cities were admitted to 
the competition U])on the same terms and conditions as the selected architects, 
with the exception that they were not to be compensated for the ])lans thus 

I ( oiir/rsv of Mrs. II. C. Lrnrr] 
H. H, Kii-haril-on 
O. Von Mohl Pitts H.Burt Eilw . Giiepiier W in.Wortliiiistoii K. J. Hortoii M r. Sliepli'V. Ho.~tiiii 
\V.\V. Taylor A. . I. Clark Reubeti H. Wardor Sir A. T."i;oshom 

Henry C. (Truer Leopold Markbreit Herman (i<»epi>er .Uihn Chtireh 

Henry P. Bnyileii .lohn L. stettinius ciKi-. L. Miti-hell .lohn V. Li wi- 

Richardson with Cincinnati friends at the "Zoo" Club House. Annual dinner of 
the Hengstenberg Lunch Table, in May, 1885. 

submitted, unless selected as the most meritoricius. These architects who 
entered the competition were Charles Crapse}-, I'Mwin Anderson, ami 11. E. 
Siter, of Cincinnati ; Samuel J. F. Thayer, F. M, Clark, .\. C. l-"\ erett, and E. M. 
Wheelwright, all of Boston: Bruce Price, of Xew N'ork City, and .\1. ]■'.. Beebe 
& Son, of Buffalo, N. Y. 


Cincinnati Astroxomkai. Socikty 


History of Chambkr of Commkrce Building 

There were in all thirteen separate sets of designs and plans entered in 
the competitiiin, which clijsed June 1, 1883, of which number two were juint 
designs, one submitted by Messrs Anderson and Siter, of Cincinnati, and the 
other by Messrs. Everett and Wheelwright, of Boston. All of these designs 
were of great merit and uriginality, and, including the successful Richardson 
design, were displayed on the floor of "Change f<ir the inspection of members 
and citizens. 

The scheme and scope of the ci.impetition is expressed in the published 
circular issued by the Board of Real Estate Managers, under date December 
17, 1884, from which the following extracts are taken. 

Besides the general conditions already mentioned, the circular pruxidcil 
that the designs submitted shall embrace ground and floor plans, elevations 
of three sides of l;)uilding, longitudinal and transverse sections, scale j/^-inch 
to the foot, the drawings to be in black lines without shading or coloring. 

"Each design must provide for the construction of a building of 
fire-proof materials of the most improved kind (except doors, door and 
window frames and flooring may be of wood and iron shutters may 
be dispensed with), and must include all modern conveniences. 

"The total construction, including sidewalks, heating and ventila- 
tion and elevator machinery and appliances, must not e.Kceed $500,000. 

"The main hall to be as large as possible after reserving space for 
corridors, offices and other supplemental rooms. The size of the main 
hall is of the first importance. 

"All architects who intend to enter into competition must notify 
the Clerk of the Board of such intention, on or before the 15th day of 
January, 1885, and all designs must be placed under seal in the hands 
of the Clerk of the Board, on or before the 1st day of June, 1885, when 
the designs will be opened and compared. 

"Each design must bear some distinctive mark that will not indi- 
cate the name of tlie person submitting it and shall be accompanied by 
a sealed envelope bearing the same mark and containing the name of 
the author, to be opened only after the Board shall have canvassed 
the merits of all designs submitted and made its decision as to which 
one is the most satisfactory. 

"An explicit description of the proposed building must accompany 
each design stating materials to be used, with such other information 
as will enable the Board to obtain trustworthy estimates of the cost of 
construction and must include a detailed estimate of the cost by tlie 
author of the design." 

In defining the question of compensation, the circular says: 

"If any design submitted shall be approved and adopted by the 
Board as satisfactory, tlie person suljmitting the same shall receive, in 
lieu of the $500, hereinbefore provided, tlie sum of $2,000 therefor, 
or at the option of the Board, he sliall i)e appointed Architect of tlic 
building. Should the successful competitor be appointed Architect of 
the Iniilding, he shall be paid for performing the duties incident to that 
office, the compensation usually paid according to the Rules of the 
American Institute of Architects." 

The circular closes with this paragraph : 

"Except as suggested in the foregoing, the Board of Real Estate 
Managers has avoided forming any plan of its own as to the proposed 
building, and has no suggestion to make. It prefers to leave the whole 
subject to the untrammeled taste and intelligence of the competing 
architects. In comparing designs and in reaching a conclusion as to 
their relative merits, consideration will be principally given to the 
quality, size, appearance and appropriate character of the building for 
the purposes for which it is intended; together with its cost and the 
opportunities afforded for rentals in the parts not required for tlie 
uses of the Chamber of Commerce. The Board will be glad to confer 
with any architect intending to submit a design, but such conference 
is not obligatory on the part of architects." 



The Richardson Design Selected. 

'JMic sck-ctctl ami siK-ccssful design was that sul)niiltcd liy 11. 11. Richard- 
son, of Brookline, Mas.s., one of the most renowned and distinijuished archi- 
tects of the profession. The selection of the Richardsdii design attracted 
considerable professional interest thrcin,<;hiuu the i'ciuiitr\ in architectural 
circles, and the buildinj^-, when completed, was the subject dI pictorial articles 
and critical study by well-known writers on art and architecture. Of this 
design we will let Mr. Richardson himself speak. l''rom a letter to the Board 
of Real Instate Managers, which accompanied Mr. Richardson's design and 
])lan, in explanation anil analysis of it, we cjuote the following extracts: 

Early Stage of Construction, 1887, Showing Great Derricks. 

■■>!. riniln.l 

"Tlie plan of the building is strictly utilitarian, the aim being to 
obtain the greatest practical advantages for its distinctive purposes 
that can be had within reasonable limits of outlay. In considering 
what is reasonable in this respect, the structure has been regarded as 
one of permanent character, and the probal)ilities of an enlarged popu- 
lation and an advancing standard of civilized requirement have not 
liecn overlooked. 

■'.\s to light, tlic object has been to make as large window space 
as shall be consistent with due stren.gth of walls, and liy resorting to 
special expedients, of which the result will be that the great hall and 
all the ofticcs receive Hoods of light, while not a single room in the 
building lacks direct ligiu througliout the outer walls, in excess of 
ordinary rules. 

"As to architectural effect, with the atmospheric difticulties of 
the locality in view, the design lias been to provide a building the char- 
acter of which should depend on its outlines, on the massing and 
accentuation of the main features representing its leading purposes, 
and on the relation of the openings to the solid parts. Although, 
under your requirement, as great preponderance of openings is neces- 
sary, the intention has been to produce that sense of solidity requisite 
in dignified, monumental work, l)y a careful study of the piers and by a 
perfectly quiet and massive treatment of the wall surfaces. 


History of Chambkr of Commfrcf. Bi-ri.Dixr, 

"The construction is fire-proof througliont. The outer walls are 
of Longmeadow brown stone, backed with lirick, except in tlic l)ase- 
ment. where the walls are of solid red granite. 

"A free treatment of Romanesque has lieen followed throughout 
as a style especially adapted to the requirements of a large civic Iniild- 
ing: for while it maintains great dignity, together with a strong sense 
of solidity, it lends itself at the same time most readily to the require- 
ments of utility, especially in the matter of light. To strengthen this 
feeling of dignity, and to express the civic character of the building, 
the corners have been emphasized, and a monumental treatment fol- 
lowed throughout. The drawings are so complete that a further 
description of the exterior seems unnecessary. 

"An alternative design is submitted whicli has practically the 
same arrangement throughout as the first design. This design does 
away with the round towers on the corners, and lirings the walls out 
to tiie limit of the lot. By this means the area of the great hall is 
increased, giving with its lobliy an area i>f 11.184 square feet." 

(,. (lurii, I'holo.] 

Construction. Completion of the Great Arches, 1887-1888. 

It is noted that Air. Richardson's design contemplated the use of Long- 
meadow brown stone for tlie tip])er superstructure and red granite in the 
basement walls, hut in the sul)>e(|ucnt sijeciticatii iiis X.h\> \va-~ ciianged and 
granite was substituted for the exterior walls thrnughout, the "pink Milford" 
granite being used instead of the brown stone. In the selection of the pink 
Milford granite, the Board was assisted in reaching this decision by a trip to 
Pittsburgh to view the new dainty l)iiildings in that cit_\- then being built of 
this beautiful granite. 


CiNCixxATi Astronomical Socikty 

111 the altcriiati\ c ili'siLjn referred tn, the ecirners of tlie luiililini;' were 
treated in a squared-tower etteet, hut it is known tliat Mr. 1\i>har(lsc)n'.s artistic 
preference was for the design witli the round corners, and il was this design, 
one of great heauty and liannoiiy, which was cliosen h_\ tiie Hoard of i'ieal 
Estate Managers, June 8, 1885, hy unanimous vote. 

In his address at the Dedicatory ICxercises, January 30, hSS'^ .\lr. I lenry C. 
L'riier, in speaking of tlie Richardson design, said: 

"In di-cidin.i; upun the character ijf the IniiUliiig, tlic matter of 
first necessity was to provide for the utilitarian purposes to which 
it was to be applied. Principal of these was a proper provision lor 
a great hall for tlic daily sessions of the Association and apartments 
for its other uses. .Spaces were also to lie provided from wliich rents 
could be derived. After suitable provision for tliesc purposes had been 
made in the design, it was the intention to construct a Ijuildin.y of 
enduring materials, wdiich should assure it against the accidents tlial 
ofttimes work to the destruction of l)uildings, and to build in such 
massive mold that it should resist, as far as possible, the assaults of 
time itself. Added to these considerations ivas the desire tliat in its 
arcliitectural form and proportions tlie building should lie of noble 
simplicity in outline, rich in adornment, suitalde and serviceable in 
.genuine vital art. clear in its structural expression, and jiractically 
representative of the uses and purposes of the organization wliich built 
it, and that it should stand for all time as a suitable contributicju to 
the architecture of the city from its chief commercial organization, 
whose members had been so largely the cause of tlie city's prv)sperity — 
a prosperity in which tliey have abundantly sliared. 

"This was the problem to whicli the architect addressed himself 
W'ith the enthusiasm and compelling will of genius. In conversation 
he many times said to me that tlie designing of tliis building presented 
to liim more interestin.g architectural features than had l)een in any 
work which he had ever undertaken. He had. he said. desi,gned many for public use and for private use, but never had he had such 
a task ))eforc him of joining those uses, and of constructing an edifice 
which should not only be adapted to both, but which should show by- 
its exterior its chief inner purpose, which was to be, as he expressed 
it, the home of a great civic organization. 

"How well he carried out these thoughts, and in what noble pur- 
pose they have culminated, the liuilding itself will tell more eloquently 
than can any human tongue long after we who today celeiirate its 
completion by dedicating it to practical use shall have passed away." 

A Short Description of the Building. 

A descriptioti of the Intilding from the purely artistic or technical stand- 
point will be left to the pen of tlie j)rofessional architect, and in the limits of 
this sketch we will make but brief reference to the physical structure, as it 
a])peals to the layman and the ])assing admirer. 

In its general treatment and etteet it was massive and monumental, with 
outer walls of great depth, built of rough hewn granite, rising eight stories 
above the street le\el. and terniin;iting in a tall-])ointed roof of red tile, whicli 
ascended sharply to a height of 75 feet above the eaves, the rounded tower 
ctifects at the four corners of the building being treated iti the same manner 
with lower conical roofs. Rising above the cornice were five dormer win- 
dows on the Vine Street front, and a single and larger dormer window 
on each of the Fourth Street and Burnet Street fronts. The dominating 
feature (jf the exterior of the bnililing was the clusters or arcades of .grace- 
fully arched windows, three stories in height, a group of five on the Vine 
Street elevation of the building, and a group of three each on the Fourth 
Street and Btirnet vStreet elevations. These sujierli arched windows were 
surmotmted by a dotil.ile story of smaller arched windows, jdaced in pairs over 


History of Chamber of Com.mkrck Brii.inxG 

each of the main arches lielow. and were Hanked (in either side l)y tlie niunded 
corner towers, the walls of which, from the second to the fifth floor level, were 
void of window openings — a feature which lent to the whole an imposing efifcct 
of strength and dignity. The granite of which the building was constructed 
was from the quarries of Xorcross Brothers, and was known technically as 
Worcester granite, or "pink Milford," owing to its delicate tinge of that color 
on its freshlx" cut faces. The building was richly embellished with i-arvings 
above the lines of the second floor, mainly on the arches and capitals of the 
large window clusters on the Fourth Street and \'ine Street elevations, and also 
on the smaller window o])enings above the fifth floor. The large durmer win- 
dows on the Fourth Street and Burnet Street fronts were ornamented with 
eagles carved in granite, two on each dormer. The stone carving was done by 
Evans & Tombs, of Boston {sub-contracti>rs), from original designs by the 
architects, and cost in the aggregate $29,780.60. But a description of this 
kind, and indeed even photographs of the building, give but an inadequate 
and superficial idea of its quiet beauty and impressiveness. It should be seen 
to be fidly grasped and appreciated. 

Of its interior we will speak but briefly. Below the Fourth Street level 
there was a basement, divided into two large rooms, the front room extending 
under the Fnurth Street sidewalk, known as the Restaurant, and the rear one, 
known as the Bank Room, facing on \'ine and Btirnet Streets. Below this 
was the subbasement, in the south half of which was located the power and 
electric plant. The main entrance to the building was at the extreme west 
of the Fourth Street front, a few steps above the sidewalk, and (ipened into a 
roomy corridor 22 feet wide, from the center of which rose the main staircase, 
and on either side of which were located the elevators. This main corridor 
ran throtigh to Burnet Street by a descending stairway, and was intersected 
midway by a broad corridor leading from the \ ine Street entrance of the 
building. The first floor was divided into two large rooms, one north nf the 
Vine Street entrance and one to the south, both i <i \\hich had interior connec- 
tions into the main corridors. On the second flnur v.-as the E.xchange Hall, 
the meeting place for the daily sessions of the Merchants' Exchange. This 
great room was approximately 65 feet wide by 135 feet long, and a height of 
50 feet from floor to ceiling, and to this floor space was added an entrance 
lobby or approach 22 by 33 feet. (Jpening frt)m the Exchange Hall, and con- 
necting with it, were the executive offices of the Chamber, committee rooms, 
lavatories, cloak room, etc., and o\erlooking the whole, through an arcade 
of polished granite arches, was a ptiblic, or \isiti.irs', galler_\-. Immediately 
over the Exchange Hall were three floors of oftices, frmn the fifth to the sev- 
enth floor, inclusive — scxenteen moms on each flcicir, arranged arotmd a 
central area or light well, and aboxe these the attic le\el. j\ uniciue feature 
of the building was the method <if suspending the three upper floors, including 
the ceiling of the Exchange Hall, from iron trusses — fourteen in number — 
which carried the interior C(_in>truction of these floors. By this means the 
grand Exchange Hall was kejjt cntirelx' free of cohunns or other obstructions. 
On top of these trusses, \\hich spanned the building from east to west, was 
built the iron construction on which rested the tile roof. The dormer windows 
admitted light to the attic, and on the west slope of the roof was a large 
glass skylight. 



An open area or li,L;lit well, facing to the west, apprnximatin.i;- 22 l)y 40 
feet in size, admitted li,i;lu and air tn the interior ronnis and stairway halls 
above the frinrth floor. 

The l)nildini4' \\;is steam-heated and ])rovided with an elaborate s\steni 
ol \entilation. operated liy ;i lartje rotary Ian in the attic dri\en by an electric 
motor, which forced fresh heated air thronfjjh ducts to the main parts of the 
building-, 'IMie outside air su])]die(l to the fan was cleaned and i)uriiied by 
passing tliron!,di large cloth bags and tlien heated o\ er steam coils. 

The Supervising Architects — The Construction of the Building. 

The tirni of ."^heijley, (!<: Coolidge, of i'.oston, all of whom were con- 
nected \vith Air. Richardson's office, succeeded to his business after his death 
in April, 1886, and were ap]iointed the official architects of the building, to 
carry out Mr. Richardson's ])lan. 

[Photo, by Rombiuh & Croene] 

Entrance to Bank on Fourth Street, August, 1906. 

Mr. .\. I ». l'",lzncr. of L'incinii.ati, at that time in the ser\ice of .\Ir. Rich- 
ardson, had much to do with the pre])aration of the working plans and was 
appointed by him to sn])er\ ise the erection ol the building. Ujion completion 
of the foundations .\lr. h'Jzner decided to enter U])on the practice of his pro- 
fession, and was succeeded li_\- .Mr. I). C. Hale, who as representative of the 
architects was in constant attendance u])on the work until its coni])letion. 


History of Chamber of Commerck Buildin'g 

On the completion of the working plan^ and specifications in January, 
1886, proposals for the erection of the biiihling as an entirety and for the dif- 
ferent branches of the work were in\ited. and opened May 17, 1886. but as 
the lowest of these largely exceeded the estimates, the bids were deemed 
unsatisfactory by the Board and were rejected. That the work might jiroceed 
without further delay, bids were taken for the excavations and foundations, 
including the demolition of the old Post Office building. This wurk was 
awarded to Patrick Murray, a local contractor, at SviO.ZSl, which aniovuit was 
later reduced by changes in the specifications. 

While this work was progressing, proi)osals were again in\ited, and 
received December 21, 1886, for the erection of the entire superstructure above 
the foundations, and the contract for this work, not including the stone carv- 
ing, was awarded under date of Januar\- 1. 1887, tn tlie firm of Norcoss Broth- 
ers, of Worcester, Mass., at their bid of $526,446, the contract calling for the 
completion of the building in eighteen munths fmni the date they were given 

Main Entrance. To Corridors, Stairways and Elevators. 

The active work on the foundations began May 31. 1886, with the demo- 
lition of the abandoned Post Office building. This work and the laying of 
the massive foundations were completed and ready for the superstructure 
about May 1, 1887, when the contractors for this work took charge. The 
corner stone was laid June 18, 1887, and tliat date the work atlvanced 
rapidly, and the building was completed and thrown open to the members 
and the public on the occasion of its dedication, January 29 and 30, 1889. 
The period of actual construction of the building and fotmdations approxi- 
mated two years and eight months. There were no serious delays or inter- 
ruptions on account of strikes or other disturbances. 


CixcixxATi Astronomical Socikty 

The Corner Stone — The Copper Box. 

The corner stone of the building, aruinul wliich is clustered the seuliincnt 
and traditions of the structure, was laid on Saturday, June 18, 1887, at 11 :3(1 
a.m. There were no fcjrmal exercises prepared for the occasion. In the 
absence from the city of President nicken!("ii)er b'ir^t \ ice-President Levi C. 
Goodale officiated as rejiresentative of tlie P.nard of Directors, and Messrs. 
llenrv C. Trncr and janu- M. ('.lemi, nicnibcrs (if the Real Estate i'.d.-ird, 
and Colonel Sidney D. .Maxwell. Superintendent c.f the Chamber of Cnni- 
merce, were the of^ciats in attenrlance. 

The corner stone was laid in the extericir wall of the round corner ot the 
building, facing Fourth and \'ine Streets, and immediately under the -.ill 
stone of the center window, and was just above the sidewalk Ie\el. The stone 
measured 4 feet long, 2 feet 8 inches high, and 2 feet 8 inches in the wall, and 
into the top of the stone a hole was cut, 14 inches square by 10 inches deep, 
to receive the copper box. On the outside face of the stone was a chiseled 
panel, into which the date had l)een cut in Kouian lettering. 

MHIMPii." " . --W: .'■ l*dir:^ 

aiP-^.» -^j 










The Cornerstone. 

Following the tire of lanuary 10. 1911, the Chamber of Commerce ]iarted 
with its ownershij) in the pro]ierty. and the building was demolished to make 
way for another strncture to be erected upon the site b}- the Union Central 
Fife Insurance Company, into which new building the Chamber of Commerce, 
bv virtue of an agreement with company dated Julv 15, 1911, took per- 
manent quarters tjn the second and third floors, under a form of lease termin- 
able at the o])tion of either ]:)arty to the agreement at tlie end of any ten-year 
period, upon the pa\nieiit by the lnsur;ince Company to the Chamber of 
Commerce the sum of SOOO.OOO, the lixed value oi the leasehold. 

']"he corner stone was removed from the walls of the old building Thurs- 
day laniiarv 18, 1912. and the copper bo.K imbedded in it for nearly twenty- 
live years was taken out intact. The box measures 13j2 by 13>i by 9)-2 
inches, and contains annual reports and ])rinte(l documents of the Chamber, 
records of an historical character, jiapers and documents of the time relating 
to the commercial and linancial ;icti\ities of the city. 


HisTORV 01-" Chambkk (IF C(iMMi:i«'K BriLiHXG 

To preserve this xaluahle relic tdr all time, the eci])per Ixix, with its con- 
tents tindisturbed, was subsequently placed in a niche built in the walls of the 
present Exchange Hall of the Chamber of Commerce, cm the second floor of 
the new building of the Union Central Life Insurance Ccim[)any. where it 
now reposes. Its resting place is marked with a brdiize tablet apprdpriately 

[Phnln. by L.mglfy] 

Bronze Tablet on wall of Exchange Hall. Contains Copper Bo.\ from old Corner -stone. 

Design by C. J. Barnhorn. 

The Cincinnati Price Current. Mr. Charles B. .Murra\. eilitur .and pro- 
prietor, in its weekly issue of Januar_\' 24, 1889. in cunnnentinL; upnn the then 
approaching dedication of the building, said : 

"Tlie membership of the Cincinnati Chamber of Commerce may 
congratulate itself on securing so desirable a place for its business 
purposes, as also upon the comparative ease with which the necessary 
funds were secured, and tlie moderate encumbrance of indebtedness 
remaining to burden the future. Not only is the building an eminently 
desirable one for its utility of arrangement, but it is a grand monument 
of the progressive enterprise of a thrifty community, and as such 
it will lie contemplated with special pride tiy every citizen. The mem- 
bership of the Chamber represents every interest of importance in this 
great cominercial and manufacturing center, not alone confined to 
industrial callings, but embracing the political and economic elements, 
art and music, and everything that goes to make it a thoroughly liberal 
and representative institution in the community." 


CiN'cixNATi Astronomical Socikty 
l-'oUowing arc the proi^Tains of the dcdicati iry exercises: 

Tuesday Evening, January 29, 1889, 8 to 11 O'Clock. 

Pronu-nade Concert by tlie C'iiicinnati t'lraiid ( )rchestra, Michael Brand, 
Conductor, lleld in the I'.xchan.i,^' ll;ill of the New lUiilding. 

Wednesday Morning, January 30, 1889. 

Procession of Alenihers frcni I lie ( )ld Exchange to the N'ew Pinilding, 

lU O'clock A. :\I. 

Musical Program hy the Orchestra, from 10 to 11 O'Clock A.M. 

Formal Exercises of Dedication, held in l-'xchange llall. 

at 11 O'clock A. Al. 

Call to Order By President Thomas Morrison. 


Prayer By Rev. B. W. Chidlaw. D.D. 


Address B_\- llem-y C. I'rner, on hehalf nf ihe Board 

of l-ieal Estate Managers, on |)eli\ering the Keys of the New Building. 


l-vesponse and Reception of the Ke_\s 

B\- Thomas .Morrison, President of the Chamljer of Coiumerce. 

Dedicatory Hymn (wurds composed by Col. Sidney D. .Maxwell), 

.\ir, "Old Hundred" Orchestra and Audience. 

( )ration By General I-'.d ward E. Noyes. 

Address of Welcoiue to \'isiting Representatives from i >ther Commercial 

Bodies B\ Ih in. Amor ."^m it h, jr.. .\la\ <>r of Cincinnati. 

Addresses by X'isiting Delegates. 


Wednesday Evening, January 30, 1889. 

Banquet at Scottish Rite Cathedral, 8 O'Clock ]'. M. 

Program of Toasts. 

Toastmaster, C. M. HoUoway. 

The Cincinnati Chamber of Commerce 

Response by President Thomas Morrison 

The Northwest Response by Mr. John Johnston, of Milwaukee 

The South Response by Mr. George S. Kinney, of Nashville 

The West Response by Mr. Charles H. Dodd, of Portland, Oregon 

New York Response by Mr. B. S. Clark, of New York 

Chicago. .Response by Mr. George F. Stone, Secretary, Chicago Board of Trade 

Baltimore Resiionsc by Mr. William S. Young, of Baltimore 

St. Louis Response by .Mr. .Alex. Euston, of St. Louis 

After the regular program of toasts, Air. J. C. Kl.itider. being called upon, 
extended greetings froiu the city of Philadel])hia. and there were also brief 
informal remarks by General Alichacl Ryan, lion. Samnel E. Hunt, Ex-Gov- 
ernor R. B. Bullock of Georgia, Col. L. C. \\'eir. Chairman Banquet Com- 
mittee, and Air. E. N. Roth, of the St. Nicholas 1 Intel, the b.-mquet caterer. 


History of Chamber of Commkrce Building' 

The Dedication of the Building. 

O God. our Father, now we raisu 
Our hearts to Thee, in grateful praise, 
For all the mercies from above, 
Which Thou hast sent us in Thy love. 

In all this house, help us to see 
How Thou dost frame our destiny: 
And let Thy benediction come. 
And rest upon this business home. 

Within these walls of strength and grace, 
Alay honor find a dwelling place; 
May justice reign; may truth abide; 
May right prevail and wisdom guide. 

Hear us. our Father, as we pray 
For blessings on our work to-day; 
Bless membership and guest, and lie 
Our help throughout eternity. 

Words Composed by Sidney D. Maxwell. 

Exchange Floor, 1890. 

lCuurli-s\ of Anu-rkiiii Ai-chiU,t. .V. I'.l 

The dedicatory exercise.'^ which marked the completion and opening of 
the new Iniilding began with a promenade concert and reception to members 
of the Chamber of Commerce and invited guests on the evening of Tuesday, 
January 29, 1889, and continued the next day, Wednesday. January 30, with 
formal ceremonies of dedication, which took place in the Exchange Hall, 
commencing at 11 a.m., this having been preceded by a procession of mem- 
bers who marched from former quarters in the Pike Building, headed b\- a 
band of music, to the new building. The dedication concluded the s;ime 
evening with an elaborate banquet held in the large dining hall of the Scot- 
tish Rite Cathedral, on Broadway. 

While marked with simplicity and dignity, the dedication of the building, 
taken in its entirety, was withotit question the most elaborate and imposing 
function of this character which had ever taken place in the history of Cin- 
cinnati. At the evening reception and promenade concert a large and notable 
gathering of people was present. On this memoraljle occasion the gre;it 


CixcixNATi Astronomical Socikty 

buildiiii^ was lij^hled frDiu within l)y its Ihousaiuls of electric lii,rhts, and with- 
out by reflectors and calcium lights placed on the surroundinsf buildincfs. The 
entire arrans^emcnts were admirably planned and executed ; the interior deco- 
rations and illnminatit)n of the fi;raiul Exchange Hall were brilliant and beauti- 
fid. It was an event in the commercial and social life of Cincinnati, a scene of 
great animation and beauty, and one which was deepl\- impressed U])on the 
memory of those who were present. 

The singing of the hymn was an iniprcssi\c e\ent. The air was familiar 
to all. It was a grand chorus of two thousand male voices, such an one as is 
heard but once in a lifetime. A melody, made sacred by many generations' 
use, not only filled the spacious hall and its approaches, but swept in great 
volume to the crowded thoroughfares below, and the passing throng paused 
to listen, and the windows of the adjacent buildings were suddenly peopled 
with interested hearers, as the business men of a great city solemnly recog- 
nized God in his dealings with men, and invoked his blessing on the work of 
their hands ami <in themselves. 

1 lidniiiril. 'i'tmcs ."^Inr.] 

Rostrum of 'Change, Chas. W. Roth, Presiding. Lincoln Celebration, Feb. 12, 1909. 

The declicatorv (leli\ere(l by General Ivdward 1'". Noyes, of Cin- 
cinnati, formerly Governor of Ohio — distinguished soldier and diplomat — was 
of exceptional beauty and eloquence. His ojjening remarks with reference 
to the building and its destiny, had a singular a])pri ipri.nteness to our subject, 
and we c]Uote them in full : 

"Wc are assembled to formally dedicate to the uses for wliich 
it was intended this magnificent Palace of Industry — this Temple of 
Trade and Commerce — to be devoted henceforth to the business inter- 
ests of Cincinnati. We rejoice in a buildin.a; ample in its proportions, 
massive in its structure, perfect in its adaptation, beautiful and .i?rand 
in architecture — at once a monument to its patrons and builders and a 
pride to all our citizens. 

"May the hand of time be tenderly laid upon it, and the fingers of 
the years touch it trently; may no earthquake shatter its walls; may no 
violence assail it; may it be spared the consuming fires; and may it 
remain a joy and a blessin.g to the .generations whose Inisy feet will 
pass in and out its portals long after we who are here today shall have 
been called to rest with the fathers." 
The dedication of the building was attended by rejaresentatives from the 
leading Chambers oi Commerce and Boards of Trade, and by delegates from 
cities and States, besides many eminent and distinguished guests. Numerous 
letters and telegrams of congratulation were received, froin the President of 
the L'nited States, the President and X'ice-President-elect. Cabinet members, 


History ok Chamkek ok Commkrck Biiujixc 

Senators. Congressmen, (rovernors of several Stales. Ivxcliange officials, 
absent friends, and distinguished civilians from all parts of the comitry. 

Great credit must be gixen to the Executive Committee in general charge 
of the dedication, as well as to the sul)-c(immittees, fcir the success and eclat 
of this notable occasion. The Executive Cnmmittee was composed cif the 
following members: Charles 11. Flach, Chairman. 

L. H. Brooks. Luther Parker. 

.\. T. Cidshorn. Thomas Morrison. 

W illiam Henr\' Davis. Lowe Emerson. 

Charles Fleischmann. 

C. M. Holloway. 

R. .\. Dvkins. 

S. F. Dana. 
Earl \\'. Stimscin. 
L. C. Weir. 
M. E. Ingalls. 
Richard Smith. 
Henrv C. L'rner. 

Richard Dymond. 
Brent .Arnold. 
Sidney D. ATaxwell. 

Courtcsij. D,ni. li. a, 

'Change as seen from Visitors' Gallery 
Looking toward the South Windows. About 1905. 

While niit specially emphasized, there was a dual character tn the dedi- 
catory exercises in that, as well as celebrating the comjiletion and opening of 
the new building, they also marked the virtual comjdetion of the fiftieth aimi- 
versary of the founding of the Chamber of Cnmmerce, which traces its origin 
to the'year 1839. 

A special feature, planned by the Incal railroad companies for the enter- 
tainment of the invited guests and members, was an excursion over the local 
terminals and around the city to points of interest on the various lines, and 
included a visit to Covington and Newport, recrossing the river over the newly 
finished bridge of the Chesapeake & Ohio Railway, thence to Ivorydale and 
return U_) the city. 



|K. jS. Corel 
John Carlisle. 
Elected 1883. Re-elected 1886. 

Served seven years. 

I'hiito by Landy] 
John Kyle "Captain"'. 
Elected 1884. Re-elected 1888. 
Served to date of death, March 20, 
1889. Total service, four years, 
six months. 

W. W. Peabody. 

Pres., 1883-4, 1884-5. Pres.Ex-officio 

of Board. Served two years. 

The Board of Real Estate Managers. 

Tlie ISoard of Real J'^stalc .Managers wa.s 

iTcalfd under the cude of Jj_\-I<aws of the 

Chamber of Cmnmeree adopted March 1.5. 

1SS.1. The Board was composed of five mem- 

)ers, and included the President of the Cham- 

)er, whii was ex-ofiicio the ])residing officer 

I 'I tlu- r.iiard during his term of office, and four 

"ther nieniliers. elected for a term of four }ears. 

iiiK- inenil)(,r being elected annually In lill 

\acancies as they occurred. 

To this P>oard was entrusted ami delegated 

(By-Paws, Article \'I), the 

"General snpcrvisii)n, manaMCiuent and 
control of all matters pertaining to the real 
estate that is or may l)c owned Ijy the Asso- 
ciation and the buildiiifr to lie erected there- 
on (except, after constrnction. snch parts 
i>f said bnilding as may be occupied by the 
Association for its own uses), and of tlie 
Real l*'.statc and Building Fund." 

It was further enipi iwered 

".At its own discretion to procure and 
a|)prove plans lor. and estimates of the cost 
I if, the construction of the bnilding to be 
erected upon the real estate that is or may 
be owned by the .Association." 

And if the estimate of the cost of the btiild- 
ing exceeded the amount of the Building l-'und 
it was the duty of the Board to devise some 
tinancial ])lan for raising the aninunt necessary 
anil submit the same fur the appro\;il (if the 
Assi iciatii 'ii. 

In other words, the entire cuntrol and man- 
agement of the real estate, the securing of 
plans and selection of an architect, the making 
of contracts, the erection nf the building, the 
tinancial affairs of this department, and the 
])ermanent care of the structure after its erec- 
tion were all vesteil in the Board of Real Estate 
Al.anagers. Each member of the Board was 
tmder bond in the sum of $50,000 and served 
without compensation. 

.Vt the annual election in September, 1883, 
the first Board of Real Estate ^Managers to 
take hold under the newly adopted By-Laws 
was elected. Tliis an<l the subsequent Boards 
from 1883-84 to 1890-91. inclusive, were com- 
l)osed as follows : 


History of Chambi-r of Commkrce Building 

The Members of the Board by Years. 

W. \V. Pcab.Kly. President. 
Henry C. L'nier (fi:>ur years). 
John CarUsle (three years). 
A. Hickenlooper (two years). 
Seth C. Foster (one year). 

W. W. Pealiody, President. 
John Kyle (four years). 
Henry C. Urner (three j-ears). 
John Carlisle (two years). 
A. Hickenlnnper (one 3'ear). 

Edwin Stevens, President. 
James M. (ilenn (four years). 
John Kyle (three years). 
Henry C. Urner (two years). 
John Carlisle (one j'ear). 

A. Hickenlooper. President. 
John Carlisle (four years). 
James M. Glenn (three years). 
John Kyle (two years). 
Henry C. Urner (one year). 

Levi C. Goodale, President. 
Henry C. Urner (four years). 
John Carlisle (three years). 
James M. Glenn (two years). 
John Kyle (one year). 

1 888-89 
Thomas Morrison, President. 
*John Kyle (four years). 
Henry C. Urner (tliree years). 
John Carlisle (two years). 
James M. (ilenn (one year). 

Lee H. Brooks, President. 
Samuel Bailey, Jr. (four years). 
C. M. Holloway (three years). 
Henry C. Urner (two years). 
John Carlisle (one year). 

t 1890-91 
Lowe Emerson. President. 
John Grubb (four years). 
Samuel Bailey, Jr. (three years). 
C. M. Holloway (two years). 
Henry C. Urner (one year). 

*John Kyle died March 2(1, 1889, 
C. M. Holloway elected to lill the 

vacancy April 23, 1889. 
fBoard of Real Estate Managers 

abolished May 20. 1891. 


1 H'-njiimin Stitilin] 

Henry C. Urner. 

Elected 1883. Re-elected 1887. 

Served eight years. 

[ Hi'ujiiyniti Studio] 

James M. Glenn. 
Elected 1885. Served four years. 

Andrew Hickenlooper. 
President, 1886-1887. Elected 1883. 
Served two years. President Ex- 
officio for a year. Total service of 
three years. 


[ liiniiimi)! Stlliiio] 

Captain C. M. Holloway, 
Elected April 23, 1889, to fill vacancy 
caused by death of John Kyle. 
Served two years, five months. 

John Grubb. 
Elected 1890, four-year term. Serv- 
ed one year, to the time when the 
Board was abolished. 

Edwin Stevens. 
President, 1885-1886. President Ex- 
officio for the year. 

After the liuililiuL;' was ci uniilcU-d and U-n- 
aiitcd, it was the opinion of the members of 
the J'.oard of 1890-91 that its mission haviny 
been fidTdled. and its duties performed, there 
was no lonj^'er an_\' imjjortant reason for the 
further enntinuance nf the i'mard d Keal 
Instate Manaffers, ith^landinj^- llie \>y- 
Law.s gave the I'.M.ird a iiermanent existence. 
Ibnvever, on its own reeommendation, the 
.\ssociation, at a s|)ecial election held May 20. 
1891. voted to amend the By-Laws, wherel)y 
the P.oard of l\e;il l-'.statc Managers wa.s there- 
after alnilislu'd and its ofliciai existence ended. 

I )f the \ariou> Hoards of Real Estate Man- 
agefN which served through the ])eriod of 
nearly eight years, from ISS,^ to 1891, it is Imt 
justice til reciird tlie iiuahiable ancl distin- 
guislied serxices rendered the Cliamber of 
Commerce by the officials and nieml)ers who 
coiu])osed these Boards. 'i'Jieir i)ainstaking 
and conscientious labors in the interest of the 
Associatimi were marked witii rare fidelity and 
de\-otiiin ti' the trusts and responsii)itities 
which rested ii]iiin them. 

in the exacting .-ind difficult work of the 
Hoard, with its multiplicity of intricate details, 
the greatest h.irmony and unanimity of 
thougjtt and action prevailed. No body ot 
men O'ldd lia\e been actuated by fmcr moti\es, 
;ind none more loyal and <le\'oted to the work 
which had l)een confided to them. They were 
indeed wortlix' of the large measure of jiraise 
and a])])recialion wliich they received. 

('.i\ing ])ul)iic expression of its thanks and 
appreciation of tlie great services of this Pxiard, 
the Chamber of Commerce, at a special meet- 
ing of the membership held .May 21. 1891, 
adopted by unanimous vote the following pre- 
amble and resolution: 

iriiii-i'tis. The Cincinnati Chanilicr of 
Commerce and Merchants' Exchange, ))y a 
vote of tlie .Association on the 20th instant, 
so amoiuU-d its By-La\ys as to terminate, 
on its own recommendation, the existence of 
the Board of Real Instate Managers; tlicre- 

Resolved, That the Cincinnati Chamlicr 
of Commerce and Merchants' Exchange de- 
sires to publicly recognize the ability, fidel- 
ity and courage, with which the various 
Boards of Real Estate Managers, since tlie 
organization of the same in 1883, have per- 
formed their responsible, laborious and dili- 
calc duties. 

Rrsdivcd. That this .Association tenders 
its profound thanks to Henry C. Urner, John 
Carlisle, John Kyle, James M. Glenn, W. W. 
I'eabody, .\. Hickcnlooper, Seth C. Foster, 
Edwin Stevens. Levi C. Goodale, Thomas 
Morrison, Lee H. Brooks, Charles M. Hol- 
loway, Samuel Bailey. Jr.. Lowe Emerson 
and John Crubb, who, either during the 
entire existence of the Board, or in part, 
have lieeii memluTS of the same; together 


Hisnmv ok Chamukk oi' Commkucf. Builuinc 

with Mr. George S. Bradbury, tlie cainiUIe 
and faithful clerk of the Board, for the self- 
sacrificing labors througii which this body 
has been provided with a l)usincss lionic 
W'hich, in its arcliitectural Ijeauty, usefulness, 
and appointments, is consiiicuous among the 
great commercial l)uililings ol the world. 

The Personnel of the Board ; an Appreciation. 

Of the personnel nf tjie Buard of Real 
Estate Managers, most of whom have ended 
their life's work, we make hrief nientiim, 
mainly for the jnirpose of iloiiig honor to the 
meinory of those members of the Iloanl whose 
names are intimately associated with the his- 
tory of the bnilding. 

Conspicnous in the erection of the bnilding, 
from its inception to its completion, stands 
the figure of Henry C. Urner, who was a mem- 
ber of the Board of Real Estate Atanagers dnr- 
ing the entire period of its existence. From 
the initial steps toward the erection of the 
building, through years of uncertainty and dis- 
couragement, Air. Urner was a loyal friend 
and worker for the success of the enterprise. 
When a fund was needed to erect the building, 
after the Chamber had accpiired the site, it was 
Mr. Urner's genius and resourceful mind 
which deviserl and formtilated the financial 
plan, by the issuance of meml)ership certili- 
cates, which plan established a financial stand- 
ing and iTiade possible the early completion of 
the building. 

Mr. Urner was a man of high ideals, of 
cominanding ability and force, of rare artistic 
temperament, and an earnest, aggressive work- 
er in the many important duties and responsi- 
bilities of the Board. He took a deep interest 
and personal pride in the Chamber of Com- 
merce Building, and brought to his task a lo^■e 
and devotion to this great undertaking which 
was so close to his heart. The name of Henry 
C. Urner is indelilily written upon the reccjrds 
of the Chamber of Cijmmerce and its building. 

In fitting recognition of his distinguished 
services to the Chamber, Mr. Urner was unani- 
mously elected to honorary life membership 
September 14, 1888, and in the issuance of 
Certificates of Membershi]) in 1S82, which 
formed the basis of the financial prograni 
which he originated, he was presented \\ith 
the first certificate issued under that system, 
"Xumber 1," in appreciation of this \aluable 

Mr. Urner died A])ril 17, 190S. in the se\- 
enty-ninth year of his age. 

Mr. John Carlisle, who served as a niemhcr 
of the Board of Real Estate Managers from its 
organization in 1883 to 1890, a term of se\ en 
years, through the active period of iirep;ir,-ition 

Seth C. Foster. 

Elected member of Board 1883. 

Served one year, 1883-1884. 

Levi C. Goodale. 
President, 1887-1888. 
President ex-officio for the year. 

[ lifujtiwitl Stiiilio] 

Lowe Emerson. 
President, 1890-1891. President ex- 
officio for one year. 

Cincinnati Astronomical Socikty 

;/• .1/ .s,,m. 
Thomas Morrison. 
President, 1888-1889. President ex- 
officio for one year. 

Lee H. Broolcs. 

President, 1889-1890. President ex- 

officio for one year. 

I Bt'Jijiimitt ^ttiiiiv] 

Samuel Bailey, Jr. 

Elected 1889 for four years. Served 

two years until the abolition 

of the Board. 

ami construction, was tlie titular Secretary of 
the Board ilurint,^ that time. Mr. Carlisle was 
a geiitlenian of ripe judgment, of the highest 
business ability and qualifications, faithful to 
his trust, an earnest, con.scientious worker in 
this field of activity and usefulness. He was 
highly esteemed and resjiected, and recognized 
as a most valuable and efficient member of the 
Board, (jreatly lamented by his friends and 
associates, Mr. Carlisle died .\ugust 31, 1903, 
aged 66 years. 

Mr. James M. Glenn became a member of 
liie Board of Real Estate Managers in Septem- 
ber, 1885, and served with distinction for four 
years, throughout the active period of the 
intilding's construction to its final completion. 
Mr. (ilcnn was an earnest, painstaking, indus- 
trious menil)cr of the Board, who brought to 
his work an enthusiasm and energy which was 
inspiring. He was a man of unusual resource 
and commanded a fund of technical and prac- 
tical inforiuation of building affairs, which 
pro\ed of great advantage and value in the 
erection of the liuildiug. ]Mr. Glenn's services 
to the Chaml)er and the Board were notable 
and jiraiseworthy and reflected great credit 
u|)on the Association as well as upon himself. 
.\s a mark of gratitude and appreciation not 
only for this ser\ice, but for a long and con- 
spicuous identity with the affairs of the Cham- 
ber and the city, he was elected in 1907 to 
honorary life membership. Ripe in years, 
greatly respected as a member and a citizen, 
Mr. Glenn pas.sed away December 4, 1911, aged 
82 years 8 months. 

.\mong the members of the Board who 
ser\ cd continuously during the active erection 
of the building was Captain John Kyle, wdio 
entered the Board in September, 1884, and 
served through one term of four years and had, 
been re-elected to a second term in Septeml)er, 
1888. when he was taken away by death March 
20. 1889. surviving but a few brief months after 
the building was completed. Captain Kyle was 
a sincere, able member of the Board and took 
a just pride in the work to which he had been 
called. He was a wise counsellor, a man of 
fine business attainments, a loyal and faithful 
friend of the Chamber, to which he rendered a 
service worthy of deej) appreciation. 

Of the other members of the Board, all of 
whom served the Chamber of Commerce with 
honor and distinction, we pay our tribute of 
resjiect to the names of Andrew Hickenlooper, 
Seth C. Foster. W. W. Peabody, Edwin Ste- 
vens, Levi C. Goodale, Thomas Morrison, Lee 
H. Brooks, Samuel Bailey. Jr.. C. M. Holloway, 
Li_)we I'jnerson and John Grubb. 


lo. \ju.t'i, rnuto.\ 

The Iron Framework Supporting the Roof. Rises 75 Feet Above the Granite Walls. 

Iron Roof Trusses, From Which Three Floors Were Suspended. 

Cincinnati Astkonomicai, Society 

The Cost of the Building. 

Contracts for Building and P^)undalions (Carving $29,780.60) $590,414.8o 

Architect's Fees and Incidental Expenses 37,072.30 

l'\irniture and Decorations (Sundry Contracts) 17,594.70 

l'',lectric l,ii,dil I'lant and of Buiidiuij: (Contract and ivxtras) 10,941 89 
Cas and Electric l""i-xtures ( Contract and ICxtras ) 10,650.27 

Cost of Building and I'.<|uipnient $672,674.05 

Real Estate (Post Office Lot ) lOO-OOCUX) 

Tcital Cost — Lot. r.uildinu and L(|nipnicnl $772,674.05 


^ff' ^^^ i'^"^ "^ ^^ ^ 


\Plitjlo. by Longlcy. ion] 

Fourth Street Window Arches, showing details of stone-carving. 


Contractors — General Contractors, N'orcross Bros., Worcester, .Mass.; Excavating and 
Foundations. Patrick Murray; Electric Light Plant and Wiring, Brush Electric Co., Cleve- 
land; Gas and Electric Fixtures, Dodd, Werner iS; Co.; Furniture, Fixtures and Decoration, 
Roht. Mitchell Furniture Co.; Carpets, Rugs, Curtains, John ShillitoCo.; Chairs, G. Henshaw 
&: Sons; Stained Glass, \'ollmer iS; Tomoor; U. S. Mail Chute, Cutler Mfg. Co., Rochester, N'.V. 

Sub-Contractors under Norcross Bros. Plumbing, Gasfitting, J. G. Murdock & Co.; 
Marble \\ Ork, James McDonough, Joseph Foster; Plastering, Lawrence (Jrace; Passenger 
Elevators, Hale Elevator Co., Chicago; Steam Heating, Ventilation, F. Tudor, Boston, Mass. 
Boilers, McUvain & Spiegel; Furnaces, Murphy Iron VVorks, Detroit, Mich.; Pumps, Laidlaw 
\- Dunn Co.; Sidewalks, Sidewalk Lights, Chas. Kuhl .Art. Stone Co.; Tiling (Floors), Eureka 
Foundry Co.; Carving (.Stone and Wood), Evans tV Tombs, Boston, Mass.; Speaking Tubes, 
Electric Bells, .\. Becker; Skylights, Witt iV Brown. 

Sub-Contractors Who Furnished Material — Iron-Steel Work, Trusses, Carnegie Co., 
Pittsburg, Pa., .Mitchell, Tranter Cv Co.; Brick, Blair I5rick Co.; Glass, Wm. Glenny &• Co.; 
Building Hardware, J. li. Schroder lV Co., Burditt \- Williams, 
(Elevator Screens), Fred. J. Meyers Mfg. Co., Covington, Ky.; 
Lightning Rods, Cincinnati firm. 


Boston, Mass.; Brass Work 
1- ireprootiing, Chicago firm; 

History of Chamber ok Commkrcf, Building 

The Debt Incurred on Account of the Building. 

The principal obligation of the Chamber directly connected with the erec- 
tion of the building was the bonded debt of January 1, 1888, for $150,000 
Chamber of Ccmimerce bonds, which were issued by authority of the Associa- 
tion, under resolution adopted Decem1)er 24, 1886. They were 4 per cent 
bonds, in denominations of $500 each, and were redeemable at the option of 
the Chamber after ten years from date and payable in twenty years from date, 
or by January 1, 1908; the interest coupons were payable semi-annually on 
January 1 and July 1. The bonds were signed by Levi C. Goodale, President, 
and William E. Hutton, Secretary, and were secured by a first mortgage upon 
the property at the southwest corner of Fourth and \'ine Streets, executed to 
Henry C. Urner as Trustee for the bondholders. The entire issue was sold to 
Albert Netter, banker, of Cincinnati, at jiar and accrued interest. 

\Cimr!t-,y ..' Th,,>. B. Collicrl 

Bank Room Corner Vine and Baker Streets. 

The Union Savings Bank & Trust Co. May 10, 1890, to January 1, 1901. 

The Provident Savings Bank and Trust Company. 

Leased January 1, 1901, for ten years. Moved to Seventh and Vine, Sept. 1010. 

To defray the cost of car\-ing and furui^hinL; of the building, whicli were 
not included in the original estimates and for which no financial provision had 
been made, authority was given by the Board of Directors in March, 1889. to 
increase the indebtedness by temporar}- loans not to exceed in amount S75.000. 
the members of the Board of Real Estate Managers, together with tlie Presi- 
dent and Vice-Presidents of the Chamber, to give promissory notes in their 
individual capacity for this amotnit, which were to be liquidated out of the 
surplus income of the Association as rapidh' as ]ios>ible. This obligation was 
known as the floatinsj debt of 875,000. 

CixcixxATi Astronomical Socikty 

On August 31, 1889. the outstanding lial)ilitics of the Chamber of Com- 
merce were : 

Chamber of Commerce bonds of January 1, 1888, total issue 8150,000 

Floating Debt (Call Loans) 75,000 

Total Debt $225,000 

After this date the floating debt was reduced by amounts of 525,000 in 
1890 and S30,000 in 1891, and paid off by the balance of $20,000 in 1892. 

On August 31, 1892, the remaining liability of the Chamber of Commerce 
was the outstanding bonds of January 1, ISSS, §150.000. And this was the 
only burden of indebtedness left for the future to care for, against which was 
the new building and the lot on which it stood, a property authoritatively 
valued at one million dollars. 

The Glencaim Restaurant. 
The Misses Stewart, Proprietors. 
The North Basement Rooms. 

The Fire of January 10, 1911 — The Destruction of the Building. 

A Valedictory. 

For twenty-two years the building stood, an elucjuent, glowing expression 
in stone of all that is beautiful and dignified in architecture, a credit to the 
enterprise and the spirit of its builders, a monument to the genius of the great 
architect who designed it. 

Overtaken by an untimely fatality, with a destiny unfulfilled, this beauti- 
ful structure, the achievement of years, was partly destroyed by fire and col- 
lapse of the interior, on the night of Tuesday, January 10, 1911, and in an 
incredibly short space of time lay prostrate in ruins. 

For an account of the disaster we quote from the annual report of the 

Secretary dated January 16, 1911 : 

"The fire originated on the seventh floor roar, in the kitchen 
quarters of the Business Men's CU;1>. tenants of the Ijuilding, and was 
discovered about 7:30 o'clock p. ni. Before tlie Fire Department could 
respond, the fire spread rapidly and communicated with the attic or 
eighth floor, which was also partly occupied by the club. In some 
manner the fire here came in coiUact with the vita! parts of the struc- 
tural iron trusses, which held the upper floors of the building in sus- 


History of Chambkr oi- Commkkck Buiuhxg 

pension, and, according to the theories advanced, the trusses, under 
the effect of the great heat to which they were exposed, bent and con- 
tracted sufficiently to draw away from their wall bearings and fall in 
collapse, carrying all before them, seven of the fourteen trusses going 
down in the destruction, together with the roof and the greater part 
of the interior construction. The entire exterior walls, with the excep- 
tion of two dormer windows on the V'ine .Street front, were left 
standing intact. Happily, the office and library of the Chamber, 
located in the Fourth Street end of the liuilding, were untouched 
by fire, and all the important records and valuable collection of books 
and pamphlets were preserved. 

"A deplorable result of the fire was the loss of six lives. Two 
men in the employ of the building, three connected with tenants of the 
building, and one a reporter on a morning paper, were all caught 
in the tailing structure and went down to their doom. 

"The Chamber of Commerce has suffered a heavy financial loss, 
which has not yet been calculated. The building was of magnificent, 
substantial fireproof construction, and the prol)abiIily of its destruc- 

[Coiirtt.i!/ o; Brent Anioltl] 

Office of General Freight Agent, L. & N. R. R. 
Seventh Floor, Northeast Corner, No. 39. 

tion by fire unthought of. As a result the line of insurance was 
relativelj- small compared to the loss suffered. The insurance carried 
on the building was $90,000, on furniture and fixtures $5,000, and on 
boilers and machinery §10.000, an aggregate of $105,000. and the 
destruction of the building will represent a total loss from an insur- 
ance standpoint. 

"The Chamber of Commerce Building was the pride and admira- 
tion of all Cincinnatians. and no local disaster in years has lieen 
accompanied with such universal sorrow and regret as the burning 
of our beautiful building. Its destruction came as a shock to the 
whole community. It was a noble structure, built of enduring granite, 
graceful and massive in outline, enriched with carvings; greatl)' 
admired for its architectural charm, it was acknowledged one of the 
most beautiful and impressive edifices in the country." 

Immediately following the fire the work of removing the wreckage in a 

search of the bodies buried there, went on uninterruptedly, day and night. 

until the last bodv was taken from the ruins the twelfth dav after the fire. 


Cincinnati Astronomical Socikty 

The adjustment of the insurance, based updii a report of experts a]i|Hjiiitc(l 
to jointly represent the underwriters and the Chanil)er in estimaiinn' thi' proi)- 
erty loss, was soon eiTected a> a total loss, and the full .inioinil of tlu- insur- 
ance, $105,000, collected. 

Our story is now soon ended. FolUiwinj;^ the rejiort of an .\d\isory Com- 
mittee, to which had been referred the several (|uestions whicli confronted the 
C'hamher after the fire, as to the final ami wi^csl disposition to he made of the 
property, several alternative propositions were ])repared by this Committee 
and submitted to a referendum xote of the membership, which resulted in an 
expression faxoraldc to the leasinii: of the iiro])iTty, on stipulated terms, to such 
financial interests as would erect a new imildiufi^ u])on the site and provide for 
])erm;incnt ((uarters therein of the Chamber of Commerce, and this was the 
disposition of the properly as finallv eiVected and briefiy rt'l;itcd elsewhere in 
this sketch. 

[From an old Photograph] 
The Fifth National Bank, 1893-1904. 
West half of ground floor front, sublet from C. H. & D. R. R. Whole ground floor 
occupied as Joint Railway Offices under management of C. H. & D., 1889-1894. 

In the carrying out of this a.Ljreement the old building was demol- 
ished to make way for a new one: the stroni; and graceful walls of granite 
were removed, and in a few short months, liy the end of Fel)ruar\-, 1912, the 
Chamber of Commerce Building was no more. 

While in this disposition of the property the (|uestions of finance and 
expediency were strongly emphasized and ]da}ed an imj)ortant part in the 
final determination, yet there was a well defined opposition to the course 
adopted, many members favoring the rebuilding of the structure on modern 
lines, which was held as feasible and pr;ictic;ible from lioth an artistic and 
architectural, as well as a commercial, standpoint. 

History of Chamber ok Commerck Building 

By many members of the Chamber of Commerce and citizens of our city, 
the tearing down of the old building, was jjrofoundly deplored. In the o])inion 
of many loyal members, its removal was considered unnecessary and unwise — 
a seeming disregard of the time-honored traditions of the body, which found 
expression and lodgement in the building, around which clustered the pride 
and affection of its members. 

And thus the Chamber of Commerce P.uildini.;- pa>>ed inlw lii-~tiir\-. 

A Sketch of the Origin of the Chamber of Commerce: Its Meeting Places. 


Tlie Cincinnati Chamber of Commerce had its origin at a meetintr of 
merchants who assembled at the rooms of the Young Men's Mercantile 
Library Association on the evening of October 15. 1839, in response to a pub- 
lished call, signed by seventy-six firms and in(li\'i(luals, a])pearing in the 
Ciiiciiiiiati Pailv Gaccttc of the previous day. '^hi^ wa^ the initial meeting. 

[Photo., Roniback a^ Grm-tu-] 

The Fifth National Bank, August, 1906. 

The bank occupied entire front room on ground floor after April, 1904. Quarters 

remodeled and elegantly finished in marble. 

out of which grew the Cincinnati Chamljer of C\)mmorce. At this meeting a 
temporary organization was eft'ected, and Robert Buchanan. F,sq., was made 
Chairman and Charles Dufifield Secretary. A Committee on Organization 
was appointed, which presented resolutions faxoriiig the formation "of a 
Chamber of Commerce and Board of Trade, tor the purpose of establishing 
uniform regulations and unison of action in the promotion of its mercantile 
interests," and recommending the appointment of a committee of fifteen "to 
draw up a code of regulations for the government of sucli a body." This 
resolution was adopted, and an adjourned meeting was held on Tuesday even- 
ing, October 22, 1839, at 7 o'clock, at which the first Constitution of the 


CiN'cixxATi Astronomical Society 

Chamber was adopted, and on the 29th of October, 1839, an election for the 
first ofificers of the newly formed body was held, which resulted in the election 
of Griffin Taylor, President: R. G. Mitchell, Peter Nef¥, S. I'.. iMudley, John 
Reeves, Thomas J. Adams and Jacob Strader, Vice-Presidents; Henry 
I'tockcy, Secretary, and B. W. llewson, Treasurer — these ofificials to serve 
until the regular annual meeting to be held in the January following. At a 
meeting on the evening of Tuesday. November 5, 1839, by-laws were adopted, 
and the newly fledged Chamber of Commerce was now fully organized and 
ready for business. The first regular annual meeting \\;i> held Januar_\ 14, 
1840, when the foregoing Board of Officers was re-elected, with ilie exception 
of Jacob Strader, who was succeeded l^y Samuel Trevor. 

Tile \'iiung Men's Mercantile Library .Association, furmed .\pril 18, 1835, 
started the ni(i\enient which establi-~liecl the Chamber of Commerce. Men 
must ;u'ti\i' in the ijl)rar\-, fcinneil the cipmniittce en the preamble an.d resolu- 

\Frnm an nJd Painting] 

The Old Cincinnati College Building. 

Erected 1815, Mr. Isaac Stagg, Architect. Burned to the ground January 19, 1845. 

On the Site of the Present Mercantile Library Building. 

Chamber of Commerce organized in Library Rooms here in October, 1839. 

Merchants' Exchange Room opened here May, 1844, by Library Directors. 

tidii. which being signed and pub]i^hed in ()ctciber, 1839, cnnstitutcd the call 
fur tliat lir-t meeting in the l,ibrar_\- rcKims. Tiie Chaml)er of Commerce thus 
organi.'ed. held monthly and cjuarterly meetings, l)ut no dailv sessiotis. 

.\ Mc.Tch;iiU>' E-xchange Room where steamboat arrivals and departitres, 
freight nunements by river, canal and railroads, arrivals at the leading hotels, 
could l)e recorded daily in books kept for the ])itr]KTse, was urgetith- ref|uested 
Ijy ntimerous merchants in the winter of 1843. The Library directors under- 
took the entire management, securing enough subscribers to defra\- tiie added 
expense. May 1, 1844, the Exchange Room was opened in the Library. 
Regular dail}- 'Change hours were not maintained in the next two vears, but 
the records of cominerce were consulted by the indi\idual stibscribers during 
library hours, and were regarded of such high statistical \alue that they were 


HisTnK\ UK Chamber of Commf.rci; Buildinx 

maintained by the directors until September 1. 1846. when thev were trans- 
ferred to the Chamber of Commerce. At this date both bodies had jtist re- 
turned to the Cincinnati College, rebuilt after the fire. 

The first name adopted by the newly organized body was "The Cincin- 
nati Chamber of Commerce." By its charter, under an act of incorporation 
dated March 23. 1850. the official title and name of the organization became 
the "Cincinnati Chamber of Commerce and Merchants' Exchange." and this 
has remained unchanged to the present day. 

[I'lii'lo.. Romb<2th C-' Groi'iif] 

The Cincinnati College. Built 1846. Tom down September, 1902. 

On site of Mercantile Library Building, Walnut Street. 

Home of Chamber of Commerce July, 1846 to October, 1869. 

Additional charter privileges were granted by act of the Legislature, 
April 3, 1866, and the provisions of the Revised Statutes of Ohio relating to 
boards of trade and chambers of commerce (Sections 3827 to SSM. inclusive.) 
were accepted by the Association March 12. 1883. by which acceptance the 
Chamber virtually abandoned its previous charter and became a corporation 
under the laws and constitution of Ohio ; a cojjy of this acceptance was duly 
certified to and filed with the Secretary of State. 

Closely related to this sketch of the formation of the Chamber is the 
story of its various meeting places through a jieriod of fiftv vears. from its 
infancy in 1839 to its achievement of 1889. when its members marched proudlv 
into their own home and building. 


CiNcixxATi Astronomical Society 

'I'hc early meetings of the Chamljcr during- the peridil ni h> forniatinn 
in 1839 and 1840 were held in the rndins of the Young AlenV Mercantile 
Library Association, in the Cullege llnilding, <n\ the east side nt Wahnit 
Street north of Fourth, the Chamber sharing with the Library in the occu- 
pancy of these rooms by the ])ayment of one-third nf the annual rent of $300. 
Here the Chamber remained until lanuary 19th, 1845, wlu-n the College 
Building was destroyed by fire, -\fler the tire the Chamljer took refuge with 
the Mercantile Library Association in tem])cirary quarters on the east side of 
Sycamore street, north of Fnurtli. where it remained until tiie re-erecti<in cif 
the College Building, to whicii it reninvcd July 2i. 1846, again occup\ing 
jointly with the Library the fmnt rooms on the second floor, overlooking 
Walnut Street, to which space the Young Men's Mercantile Library Associa- 
tion had acquired perpetual lease by the p,'iynu-nt nf .$10,000 to the Trustees 
of Cincinnati College. Tn recognition nf the friendlx- and close relationship 
of these organizations, the Library .Xsscicialinn granted tn the (.'hamlier nf 
Commerce tlie use nf the north half nf this room for five years at the nu-rely 
nominal rental of one dollar ])er ;innum. and here it remained until July 7. 
1851. when it moved into a large rear rnmn of the College Building, on the 

fescr' V: 

Cincinnati College Building in 1857. 


Chamber Entrance, 1869-81. 
Now 124-130 E. 4th St. 

seconil floor. This move was made necessar_\- l)y the increasing demands of 
the Library for more sjiace, and here the Chamber of Commerce remained 
until the College Building was again partially destroyed by fire October 20, 
1869, when it took cpiarters in Iloj^kins Hall, at the southwest corner of Fourth 
and Elm Streets, where it remained temporarily until December 27, 1869. 
Leaving Hopkins Hall, the Chamber of Commerce leased quarters in the 
premises known as Smith & Nixon Hall, on the north side of Fourth Street, 
between ]Main and Walnut, and here it remained until November 23, 1881, 
when it moved into larger and more convenient quarters on the second floor 
of Pike's Ujiera House, on the south side of Fourth, between Walnut and 
\'ine Streets, these quarters Ijeing the auditorium, corriflors and adjoining 
rooms t)f that theater, made adajjtable to the uses of the Chamber of Com- 
merce. And here it remained until the completion and dedication of the new- 
Chamber of Commerce Building, Tuesday, January 29, 1889. 


History of Chamber of Commkrcf, Building 

The Primitive Chamber of Commerce of 1835-1837. 

While the organization known as the Chamber of Commerce, the suljject 
of this sketch, is technically the only body of that name and had its actual 
origin as here related, yet, from the testimony now available, it was not, 
historically speaking, the first business organization of the kind established 
in Cincinnati, and it seems proper, as an addenda to our story of the present 
Chamber of Commerce and its liuilding, to refer briefly to the formation of 
that other organizatidu which [ireceded 1839 by several years. That there 
was a trading exchange prior to that year seems from the evidence, which is 
accepted as trustworthy and credible, to have been a fact. 

A letter from the pen of R. ^^'. Lee, dated Sunnyside, Ky., vSejiteniher 19, 
1866, reviews this subject in an interesting manner and throws li,ght upon the 
history of the older organization which seems well authenticated. Mr. Lee 
came to Cincinnati in 1827 and became identified with the pi>rk l)usiness. He 
conceived the necessity and usefulness of an organized business body and 
called a meeting of the packers of that day to consider the formation of a 
Chanilier of Commerce. 

Interior of Pike's Opera House. 
Quarters of the Chamber November, 1881, to January, 1889. 

The meeting was held in the counting room of Miller & Lee, corner of 
Sycamore and East Court Street, in 1835, and was attended by John C. (iroes- 
beck, Aaron G. Gano, William Thoms, 1. X. Row en, William Irwin. Charles 
Duffield, Charles Clark.son, S. S. Schooley, K. J. Aliller and R. W. Lee. Mr. 
Lee relates that the plan was well received at this and subsequent meetings, 
but the project met with difficulty in finding a suitable meeting place in the 
upper part of the city, in the neighborhood of the canal, which in those earlv 
days was an important means of transportation, and the center of the packing 
industry. Mr. Lee reviews the efforts made to secure quarters on the second 
floor of a building occupied by one John Thompson, and used as an oyster 
house, at the northwest corner of Main and North Court Streets, and this 
room, measuring 25 by 90 feet, Thompson agreed to let the pro])osed organi- 
zation use for its meeting place witlmut charge, looking to an enlarged 
patronage of his oyster house as sufficient ci im])ensation . 



From Mr. Lee's letter we (|unte the following;: 

"At the ad.ioiinu-d niortiiiK; at Mr. Cirofsl)(.-cl<'.s CDiiiUing room 
I handed in my report recommending the establishing a Chamber of 
Commerce, with books of record of arrival of boal.s, their cargo and 
prices of produce, etc. The report was seconded and adopted, and 
the name given to the organization was the "Canal Produce F.xchange.' 

"A subscription paper was opened, and over one hundred mer- 
chants joined, each paying $3 per year. This fund furnished news- 
papers and prices current and paid other expenses. Reports were 
made of arrivals of steam and canal boats and their cargoes, arrival 
of hogs, flour and whisky, with sales and prices — in other words, a 
regular Chamber of Commerce was establislied. 

"1 am under the impression that Robert lUichanan, Esq., was our 
first President after we organized; of this 1 am not entirely certain. 
Jones Dulfield, brother of Charley, was our first Secretary. 

"Thus was established the first Chamber of Commerce of Cin- 
cinnati. This organization was kept up during the years 1835, 1836 
and a part of 1837, when the merchants down town thought the place 
of meeting too far north and too far up-town. Mr. Thompson took 
charge of the room, its papers, etc.. collected money to pay ofif all 
demands against the Chamber, and then it ceased to act." 

Carved Eagle. 
The four granite eagles, from the Fourth Street and Baker Street roof dormers, 
were presented to the Park Commission. They are now mounted on piers in 
Eden Park, where the main drive passes under the concrete bridge. 

Whether uur present Chamber of Commerce was tlie direct outgrowlli 
of this earlier body is not defitiitely asserted, although from a similarit\- ni 
names and interests it seems highly probable that, if it was not a direct suc- 
cessor, it was at least closely related to it. From close observation of condi- 
tions it may be safely concluded that out of the "Canal Produce Exchange" 
was evolved that organization of broader scope, of larger interests, of more 
enduring material— the CINCIXN.\TI CHAMBER OF COMMERCE AND 

History of Ciia.mhi;u m' Cummkrci'; Building 



11 East Twenty-Fourth Street 
New York 

Richardson was a man of l)ig 
mind and big figure; everything 
al)Out him was big, but with it all 
his manner was so genial and 
kindly and delightful that visitors 
involuntarily yielded themselves to 
his infectious enthusiasm. He v/as 
one of the greatest personalities 
that I remember to have met. 

Few men have left such an im- 
pression upon their day and gen- 
eration. Trained in the most 
formal architectural school in the 
world, his work always evidenced 
a high sense of organized plan- 
ning and yet was expressed with 
freedom and vitality which was 
anything but academic. 

Richardson's memory is held in 
reverence in England and in 
France, particularly in England, as 
it is in America, and Cincinnati 
does wisely to preserve such frag- 
ment as it possesses of the expres- 
sion of liis genius. 

Very trul}- yours. 


Tanuarv 26, 1914. 

Tliis luiidern skyscraper, a repro- 
duction of the Italian Rennaissance 
style, erected on the site of the 
former Chamber of Commerce, 
represents the progress of Ameri- 
can building methods and business 
requirements during the past three 
decades. • 

Associated with Mr. Cass Gilbert 
in the erection of this building, was 
the firm of Garber & Woodward, 
Architects, of this city. 



[Courtesy of Union Central Life Insurance Co.] 

The Present Home 

of the Cincinnati Chamber of Commerce 

and Merchants' Exchange. 

Quarters Dedicated June 26, 1913, 

Union Central Life Insurance Building. 


Testimonial Banquet to the First Fall Festival Directors, October 16, 1900, 
Exchange Hall, beautifully decorated. 

[Courtesy of Capt. Thos. P. Egau\ 

Large delegation from 'Change and Business Men's Club starting for Louisville, 
Ky., to attend the Fourteenth Annual Convention of the Ohio Valley Im- 
provement Association, October, 1908. 


Happenings and Activities 

in Chamber of Commerce 


Bv Charles B. Murray 
Superintendent of the Chamber iSgi-igi 1 

Fur the ])urposes nf the nii:i\eineiit and 
oJiject which have furnished occasion for scmic 
mention of happenings in the Cincinnati Cham- 
ber of Commerce, to appear in connection with 
specific statements concerning the Xew Home 
of the organization, which the Association 
came into possession of in January. 1889, it i- 
deemed sufficient to limit the record to the 
period covered b}- the life or existence of the 
Building, which came to an unexjiected ending 
in January, 1911. This structure and its par- 
ticular meaning in this community represent 
the prime features of the efifort which this work- 

The Chamber of Commerce Building had 
an individuality of character, among the special 
charms within our city. Not only in its struc- 
tural cliaracteristics, hut in its ]iurposes and 
uses, it stood apart from other notable features 
of the locality. Its purposes represented pro- 
vision for pri.imoting deeds of enterprise and 
impetus ti) the ambitions of the citizens, includ- 
ing advancement of developments in the shap- 
ing of affairs in earlier days. Its uses were 
for accomodating and promoting such pur- 
poses — notably as an Exchange for trade 
operations, with facilities for securing knowl- 
edge of market conditions and of other features 
aftecting the interests of those having relations 
to current acti\ities, locally and ntherwise; 
and also the collection, recording and dissemi- 
nation of information relating to productixe, 
commercial and financial interests in whicli it^ 
members were specifically concerned, and at 
the same time contributing to the general w el- 
fare. Its membership, through deliberations 
and actions of its officials and otherwise, cum- 
manded a position of influence in passing upon 
matters of public nattire. It ser\ed in adjust- 
ment of disputes and dift'erences arising be- 


'Thrn. C .l/,ir,,vn<| 

Joseph R. Brown. 
President, 1891-1892. 

[ /i(' )ijii m i n St It ilio \ 

Brent Arnold. 
President, 1892-1893. 

I Bcnjiimiii Studio 

Michael Ryan. 
President, 1893-1894. 

CiNXiNNATi Astronomical Society 

\ f^crijnmin Studio] 

James M. Glenn. 
President, 1894-1895. 

I l>f->i!u>nin Studio] 

Maurice J. Freiberg. 
President, 1895-1896. 

[ Benjamin Studio] 

J. Milton Blair. 
President, 1896-1897. 

UvccMi its mcnihcrs ami cithers. It acted in 
t'stal)lishiii,<;- ajjjiropriate rules and regulations 
t^nverning business operations, and in efforts 
\i <r the protection of local interests against con- 
ditions of discrimination in transportation fea- 
tures and otherwise affecting this market and 
locality. Its influence was applied to ijronio- 
tion of ])roi)er legislation of nonpolitical nature 
and against ini worthy measures. Its con- 
scrvati\-c stand in all such matters, and readi- 
ness to jcjin in movements calculated to 
adxancc the general welfare, brought the 
C"haml)er of Commerce into high recognition 
and respect among the influential liodies of our 

The l'',xcliangc I (all in the majestic Building 
erected by the Chamber of Commerce afforded 
an assemliling j)lace for discussion upon public 
(|uestions of ])articular importance, and of 
actions incident thereto. It alscj ser\-ed as a 
rcce])tion hall for eminent visitors, whom our 
citizens were delighted to have among them. 
In this Building were elements in the nature of 
uses which promoted fame for our city, encour- 
aged the spirit of progress among our people, 
turni^hed power for inspiratinn in further aims 
in exaltation of industrial endeavors, helped in 
the attainment of a higher ])osition of all the 
essentials which ct.indiine tn create attractive- 
ness in a locality cjf centralization of citizen- 
shi]). and in securing betterment of the moral 
tone of the generation. 

On the completion of the Chamber of Com- 
merce Building our citizens realized the sig- 
nificance of the event, and made an impressive 
and memorable celebration incident to its dedi- 
cation and opening. This occasion was one of 
the most notalde of puldic aft'airs in our city. 
Xo public demonstration in its history has e.x- 
cellcd it in interest, in signiticance, and in bril- 
liance of action in connection with a celebra- 
tion. In this instance jiractically all our citi- 
zens had an interest. 

To speak of happenings within the Chamber 
of Commerce and of incidents connected with 
its efforts and influence, including considera- 
tion of propositions and actions taken, during 
the twenty-two years of occupancy of its Home 
Building, it is neccssar\- in this connection to 

Happenings on 'Chanuk. 1889-1911 

be governed by limitations which dn n(jt admit 
of fullness of specification of such details, not 
all of which would be interesting to introduce. 
but enough can be offered to indicate the com- 
manding position of the organization in such 

From year to year many conventions in 
promotion of the public welfare were attended 
by representatives duly appointed by the 
Chamber of Commerce. As occasions arose 
for co-operation with other bodies in mo\ e- 
ments of worthy nature, actions were taken 
accordingly. Attention was given to calls for 
relief of suffering humanity in a generous man- 
ner. Recognition was given to the principle 
of arbitration in adjustment of international 
disputes. The great w^ork of the Lake Mohonk 
Conferences in this cause was highly com- 
mended, and the accomplishments of the Peace 
Congress at The Hague were cordially en- 
dorsed. The Chamber of Commerce took the 
initiative in many propositions of a progressive 
nature. The Miami and Erie Canal, from 
Toledo to Cincinnati, was the subject of con- 
sideration at different times, and a sur\ey of 
such waterways within the State was urged. 
The abandonment of the canal within the cor- 
poration limits of Cincinnati, and its conversion 
to a driveway, was advocated. The local water 
supply was recognized as a question of special 
importance, and plans for needful improvement 
were considered, the ijbject in view being 
finally accomplished in a highly satisfactory 
manner by the city. The matter of privileges 
to railroads upon the Public I^anding was a 
subject of deep interest and active considera- 
tion. Among other aff'airs of public nature 
receiving consideration from time to time were 
a memorial to Congress to take measures for 
compelling carriers to adopt tmiform bill> of 
lading and uniform classifications of freight : 
questions relating to the interests of the muni- 
cipality in the Cincinnati vSouthern Railway 
lease; protest of citizens against outrages suf- 
fered by Jews in Russia, permitted by that 
government ; tribute to Air. E. A. Ferguson, in 
recognition of his wise and effective devotion 
to the work of securing the construction of the 
Cincinnati Southern Railway; endorsement of 
the plans of the Greater Park League for secur- 
ing to Cincinnati an extension of the park sys- 
tem in a manner to bring enlarged attractions 


l''t'u'himnt Slititi< 

William McCallister. 
President, 1897-1898. 

/'• ■: '■'. nun Studio] 

Robert H. West. 
President, 1898-1899. 

IF. -\; v 
John H. Allen. 
President, 1899-1900. 



!/■. M. .Sowers) 
James T. McHugh. 
President, 1900-1901. 

1 I^t)ir<i7nin Studio] 

W. W. Granger. 
President for 1902. 

[Jirnfiimhi Studio\ 

J. F. Ellison. 
President for 1903. 

and l)i.'nL'li!> in such essentials; i-nlertaiimu'iit 
'il a (k'k'jiatiiin nf S<intli Americans visiting 
|)riiK-i|)al cities of nnr C(jnntry inider guidance 
111' (ifticials of tlie 1 Miiladeliiliia Commercial 
Museum, an institution recognized as of high 
degree of worthiness to iiuhistrial interests in 
ils permanent exposition nature and organized 
service in tnniisliing commercial inlormation ; 
resolutions ia\oring reciprocal comiuereial 
relations with other countries; commendation 
of the \v(jrk of the ( )hio X'alley lm])r<i\enient 
\ssociation in the interest of betterment of 
the Ohio l\i\i'r for navigation pin-])oses. tliis 
organizati<iii lia\ ing had its origin in the 
Chamber of Commerce; action favoring the 
Ciood Roads .Moxement; ado])tion of i)rotest 
against enactment of any bill i)r(jviding for 
sale or abandonment of canals of the State, 
with reci iinniendatii m that a --inily ' if the canals 
as to a(l\isal)ilit_v of enlargement to ]jrovide 
for barge trans])ortation between the Northern 
Lakes and the ( >hio l\i\er. X'arious other 
all.'iirs 111 juiblic coiiccni recei\ed consider;iti<m 
from time to time. The mnniluent contribu- 
tion of half a million dollars for erection of a 
-suitable building for the pur])oses of the (Jhio 
.Mechanics' Institute by Mrs. Mary .M . l"",mery 
was noticed in exjjressions of high apprecia- 
tion. Incident to the coming to oiir cmmtry 
of a large delegation from Japan, designated 
a-- llonorary Commercial Commissioners rc])- 
resenting that country, who made' a tour of the 
I'liited States in the latter part of 1909, the 
(.'hanibcr of Commerce had a rejiresentative 
accompanying it in a large ])art of its move- 
ments east of the Rocky Mountains, and this 
body of representative business men was 
ap]iro]iriately recei\'ed and entertained when 
reaching our city by the (.'hamber of Com- 

The Cincinnati Chamber of C'ommerce in 
.ill its years has acted ])ronii)tly in its efforts 
lor securing relief for suffering humanity from 
disastrous consequences of an unusual nature, 
not only in our own country, but in foreign 
lands. Such actions within the period frcnii 
1SS9 to I'Ml include the following instances: 

1889. — .\.t Louisville, Ky., incident to a 
c\ clone, occasioning great loss of life and prop- 
erty, financial ;iid was declined, but other .aid 

1894. — In Louisiana, for relief of unem- 
ployed, helpless and destitute people, from 
devastating storms among islands and marsh- 
lands below Xew ( )rleans. 


Happenings on 'Chance. 1889-1911 

1895. — Suffering among coal miners in the 
Hocking \'alley region, in (Jhio. 

1895. — Relief of needy farmers in Nebraska 
and Eastern Colorado, from crop failures. 

1897. — Relief of flood sufferers in the T.owcr 
Mississippi \'alley. 

1900.— At Galveston, Te.xas, relief of suft'er- 
ers from a (lulf storm of very great violence 
and losses. 

1901.— At Jacksonville, Florida, for suft'er- 
ers from a great conflagration. 

1902. — Earthcjuake suft'erers in the Islamls 
of Martinique and St. \'incent. 

1903. — At Topeka, Kansas, and elsewhere 
in the ilissouri \'alley, sufferers from floods. 

1906. — Southern Italy, sufferers from eruj)- 
ti(_in of ]\Iount Vesuvius. 

1906. — Suft'erers from storms in Alabama 
coast regions. 

1906. — At San Francisco, Cal.. from earth- 
fjuake and conflagration conditions, and conse- 
quent losses great in extent, inviting aid for 
suft'erers in exceptional degree. The Chamber 
of Commerce contributed a liberal stun to the 
general fund which it received from the citi- 
zens of the city and region and forwarded to 
authorities in charge, in money, large in 
amount, and additionally great quantities cif 

1907. — For local relief of ( )hio River flood 

1908. — For earthquake suft'erers in Italy. 

During the existence of the Chamber nf 
Commerce Building its grand Exchange Hall 
received and welcomed a large number c:>f visit- 
ors of prominence and distinction in the 
world's activities and endeavors, covering a 
wide extent of interests and of connection with 
affairs of civilization, in this and other coun- 
tries. These incidents aft'orded features >>{ 
entertainment and of instruction for member- 
of the Association and of the community. It 
was a meeting place for discussion of ])ublic 
questions and measures, particularl_\- such a~ 
had relation to the interests of the locality ami 
its people. It served in plans of commemora- 
ti\e nature, and social functions. Its most 
distinct instance of this latter kind was incident 
to the completion and dedication of the Build- 
ing. Another, the grand public demonstration 
and banquet in celebration of the founding of 
the city of Cincinnati as an incorporated muni- 
cipality. The banquet and testimonial to the 
Fall Festival Directors in 1901 was a brilliant 

Samuel Bailey, Jr. 
President for'l904. 


H. Lee Early. 
President for 1905. 

[ l^tnjaTniti Studio] 

L. L. Sadler. 
President for 1906. 


Cincinnati Astronomicai, Socikty 

1 lirni.ntlin Slu,lto\ 

W. A. Bennett. 
President for 1907. 

Thomas P. Egan. 
President for 1908. 

; liciljattiu: Stiuli' 

Charles E. Roth. 
President for 1909. 

Members of the Chamber of Commerce 
have not been devoid of enjoyment of occasions 
furnishing opportunities for fun and frolic. 
I pini (le]jarture from the Smith & Nixon Hall 
t(i the Pike Building, in 3881, dignity and 
(k'Cdrnin were set aside. The doings inside the 
hall were at a high pitch when the writer 
arrived at the street entrance, where he was 
greeted by a member who had just emerged 
from within, s;i}iiig, "If you go in }'ou will be 
siirry, and if \i>n don't you will be a coward." 
Later the memljers formed in procession for a 
march to the new (luarters, being decorated 
with Hour and dihcr e\idences of unusual 
nature. Departure from the Pike Hall for the 
New Home, in 1889, w^as orderly, under s])ecific 
arrangements. At the close of each year there 
was generally an irrepressible and uncontrol- 
lable impulse for frolic on 'Change, excepting 
111! occasions where orderly entertainments 
were arranged for. These instances were 
minierous, and generally of entertaining nature. 
« In some occasions printed programs were 
furnished, and the jiroceedings somewhat 
elabdrate and fiin-])ri Mlucing. (Jtiite a niiniljcr 
I if such arrangements and frolics occurred in 
the Exchange Plall of the Chamber of Com- 
merce Building. 

As an illustration of some year-end doings 
in tlie Chamber of Commerce, it may lie men- 
tioned that at the close of 1908, the younger 
members effected plans for an entertainment, 
in tile Kxchange Ilall, which included music, 
roller-skating, and other features of di\'ersion. 
At the opening of the jiroceedings, and actitig 
in accordance with the jdans of the committee 
in charge, some remarks were offered by the 
su])erintendcnt, in which, among other things, 
he said : 

'A\'c have reached the joy season of the 
year, which impels us to take notice. And 
there is nothing in the doings of the human 
family that outranks in merit that which i^- 
done by one for the joy of another. It is also 
the season for forgetfulness of lines of distinc- 
tion between youthful days and those over on 
the declining side of life's career. It is the sea- 
son when persons old in years may throw off 
for tln' time being the mask that Old Time has 
jilaced upon them — so that men and boys may 
mingle and join, come together, in spirit and 
otherwise, all as boys, in sharing in those 
tilings which belong more especially to the 


Happi-.vixcs on 'Chancf., 1889-1911 

sphere of the l)ii_\-s. hut \vh(jse tentacles never 
reach a time of relimiui^hment imtil the day 
of final accounting. * * * 

"We are citizens of a city and localit}' cum- 
bining so much of those elements which pro- 
mote enjoyment, health, and prosperous re- 
ttirns for industrial effort, that we ha^'e a right 
to regard such features of the situation as 
unexcelled in the entire breadth of our great 
country, ilen with life objects in view are 
attracted toward our city, and when once es- 
tablished here rarel_\- remove to other locali- 

■^-■1p^ -^ H* ^ 

"We are ncjw- assembldl in the liall of the 
Chamber of Commerce, an exchange room in 
\\hich important activities of men are dailv 
centered, and which is the home of a bodv 
whose standing for dignity, for influence in the 
aftairs not only of the membership, the citv, 
and locality. 1nit of the State and of the Nation, 
takes rank with the best of organized bodies, 
anywhere. * * * Its service in the gen- 
eral welfare has been distinctive, and will so 
continue. Its characteristics of soberness, of 
earnestness and eliecti\"eness of purpose, its 
solidity, and its position of dignity among the 
influential bodies of the region and of the 
country, are typified in the massive walls and 
impressi\-e architecture of this home, which 
the membership has created. This liuilding: is 
a monument to tlie spirit of enterprise and 
commercial integrit\- displayed by men wiser 
and broader in their understandings of the 
pri\-ileges, ptirposes and infltiences r)f life's ef- 
forts than are those who measure the value of 
results only by the <lollars that can lie secured. 
It is an object lesson, serving to promote an 
uijHfting influence tipon the entire commun- 
ity. * * * 

"It has become the pr(.i\'ince iif tlie speaker 
to give greeting to all who are present, with 
the hope that the pleasure which the ]iromoters 
of this plan for joy have experienced in effect- 
ing the arrangements may be equalled Ijy that 
which will result to those wIkj will share in 
the features of this occasion. It i>. therefore, 
my agreeable privilege to announce that the 
gates to the held of entertainment will now 
open, and the fun witliin these walls will surely 
find its way gratefully to the hearts of all who 
are here — we will not say, be they old or 
young, for the old are young for the moment, 
and the voung are as old as the old.'" 

[Benjitmiu Sttuiio] 

James J. Heekin. 
President for 1910. 

Walter A. Draper. 
President for 1911-1912-1913. 

[ 1^' 'ijiimin StHtiio\ 

George F. Dieterle. 
President for 1914. 


Cincinnati Astronomical Socikty 

[L,L,ul,, l'h„l„ 

William Smith. 
Superintendent, 1854-1871. 

Sidney D. Maxwell. 
Superintendent, 1871-1891. 

Tlu- \\v>\ superiiitfmk'iit wa.s .\li'. .V. i'calnuly, who served Iruiii 184() to 
1849. .\lr. Kichard Smith was superintendent and secretary also from 1849 
to 1854, when his Ijrothcr, William, liecamc tlic superintendent. Mr. William 
Smith was re-elected tn this (irfui- idr sexcntccu successive terms, scv iii;.; until 
Novemljer 1. 1871. 

Mr. Sidney 1). Ma.wvell, hiwyer. a ne\\>pa])er c(irres])on(lent and military 
secretary durins.'; the war, liecame assistant city editor on the Ciiiciiuuiti Cia;:cttc 
in 1868. In 1871, Col. Maxwell was chosen .sui)erintendent of the Chamhcr, 
and was so successful in cunductins^ its affair,s and in advancing jjuhlic enter- 
prises, that he was honored with re-election for twenty consecutive years. 
In addition to tiie endless detail and statistical work of his office, he entered 
fully into the ])roject of the Richardson Imilding, to the sarrificp of liis 
health, and an ox'erstrain resulting therefrom le<l h> his \ciliintary retirement 
in No\ember, 1891. 

The tribute, which the Chamlier. thru a s]iecial committee prepared anil 
caused to be beautifully engrossed in cokirs by a lijcal artist, and presented 
to Colonel Maxwell on his retirement, so truly and clearly sets forth the honor 
and influence c;)f the superintendent's positinu in general, as to merit ])nb- 
lication in fidl. 

Charles B. Murray. 
Superintendent, 1891-1911. 

{ F^<tii'imi): Stndio] 

William C. Culkins. 

Superintendent-Executive Sec'y. 

Elected 1911. 


Officers I.dnc in thk Skrvicf, of Change 

.Mr. Chas. B. Murray, with ten \oars' experience as a ])riMhK-e commission 
merchant, followed by o\-er nineteen ^-ears as editor and [iroprietor of the 
Cincinnati Price Citncnt, also secretary of the Chamber, 1882-86, received the 
unsolicited appointment as superintendent, because of his expert knowledge 
of commerce, trade and crop re]Hjrtings. Fortunate ancl wise was their choice. 
For twenty years he lalmrcd unceasingly, ci intributiii^ his utmost efforts to 
the upbuilding of the Chamber and to its good name at Imme .and His 
duties closed May 15, 1911. 

With the physical changes which the year 1911 brought, fnllcjwing the 
loss of the Chand)er Building, have ci.mie (ither changes in the broadening of 
activities and in ci\ic ser\ice, typified in the natne Executive Secretary, ]jy 
which Mr. William C. Culkins, tho superintendent as well from 1911, is now 
preferably designated. With him are now associated no less than fourteen 
separate heads of de])artments. Experiences of a score of years in newspaper 
work and in civic awakening and betterment. ha\e prcjjared Mr. Culkins for 
leadership in this historic, influential Chamber of Ccminierce. 

ICuiirltsii "i <'lf<ix. li. Minnnil 

The Record Service, northwest corner Exchange Hall. Earlier on fourth floor, 
rear. Iron railing was formerly about open area on upper floors. 

Mr. John R. Morton entered the ser\ice of 'Change in lS(i9, ;is clerk in 
charge of the Department of Finances and Accounts. I lis sor\ ices were 
invaluable thruout the period of large investment of surplus, for the building 
project. His lal)ors were unbroken for o\er twenty-three years, up to his 
death November 4, 1891. at the age of seventy-five years. 

Mr. George S. Bradbury entered the Chamber of Commerce service as 
of^ce assistant in September 1882. Clerk of the Board of Real Estate 

Managers, 1883 to 1890. Promoted to the chief clerkshiji. November. 1891. 
Resigned from the Chamber of Commerce, March 1, 1913, .after a continuous 
service of more than thirt\- vears. 


Cincinnati Astronomicai, Society 

John R. Morton, 
Chief Clerk, 1869-1891. 

\)'iiiiiti; c-* ('(irl\ 

George S. Bradbury. 
Chief Clerk, 1801-1913. 

.Mr. Rcihcrt |. II. .Vrchialik- hci'anic mcssenj^er Ixiy at llci]ikiiis llall, 
I'lHirth and l'",lni, Novcmljcr 2^. lSfi9, (lurinsr the lirief .stay of the Cliaiiiber 
there, lie heeanie cloorl<ee])er at Smith anil Nixon's Hall in 1876, servint.':- five 
years there, eiyht years in the Pike's 0])era House, twenty-two years in the 
Kichardsoii Building, and today is to he found at his desk in the new quarters. 

Mr. (iustav G. Wisser entered the messenger service of 'Change in 
November, 1876. He became recorder uf cotton .statistics in 1881, continuing 
to 1891 in that capacity. .Mimiu 1894 he became clerk of statistics and with the 
reorganization of departinent> in 1912-1,1, Mr. Wisser became chief clerk in 
charge of the statistics. 

In 1882, .Miss Margaret .\. Daly entered the office as stenographer to 
Superintendent Maxwell, at whose suggestion she had learned shorthand 
from Benn Pitman. Ftjr six years at the Pike's Opera House location, and 
during the entire existence of their own building, she remained a \alued 
assistant in the office, answering the constant stream of inquiries, taking care 
of all ordin;iry corresjinndence and the orderly filing of records. To the Com- 
mittees of .\rl)itratiim and .\ppt-als. wlmse hearings, awards and findings she 
reported for years, her accurate knuwledge of the by-laws and methods of ])ro- 
cedure made her services itnaluable No one is more deserving of mention 
here than .Miss Daly, who, tlm never a designated official, served the Chamber 
with marked ability and faithfulness, with rare tact, ever cheerfully, for more 
than thirt\- \ears. She resigned in 1914. 

[Vouiii; c-' Carl] 

Robert J. H. Archiable. 
Doorkeeper and Custodian of Ex- 
change. In the service from 1869. 


{Vonug ir-* Carl] 
Gustav G. Wisser. 
Chief Clerk, Statistical Department. 
Entered the service 1876. Long in the Service of Change 


To THE President of the 

CiNcixNATi Chamber OF Commerce Dec. 7th, 1891. 

AND Merchants' Exchange. 

The committee honored by yciur a|ii>' lintniciit ti 1 prepare a ])a])er ai)pro- 
priate to the resignation of Culimel Sidney IJ. Ma.xwell fmm !iis pusition as 
superintendent, respectfully su1)mits the following report ; 

.\lthough Colonel Maxwell was an appointee of the board of directors, 
honored by their selection for twenty consecutive terms of service, yet liis 
relation to,' and intercourse with, the members of the Cham.ber has necessarily, 
in the discharge of his varied, exacting, perplexing duties, been so close and 
his work so acceptably performed that it is singularly proper that the sever- 
ance of those relations should be noticed by the memlier in a formal wav 

For one who is in an onerous, responsible position an(' ]jerforms his 
duties faithfully, mere money pay i-- nut always full compensation; the ex- 
pressed approbation of those'for whom the services are rendered becomes his 
larger, better, more appreciable ci iii^ideration. 

It is therefore most pleasant to embody in a few words an expression of 
the estimate of the labor that Colonel Maxwell has so efficiently rendered the 
Chamber of Commerce and Merchants' l^xchange and thrnugli it the business 
world at large. 

When twenty years ago he accepted the position then vacated by one who 
had long filled it fa'ithfully, he brought to it habits of work, acquired in trade, 
in study and in journalism, fortified by a high sense of its responsibilities, he 
properly appreciated the opportunities for usefulness the place aflforded,- — 
especially as it related to the current history of the commercial and industrial 
progress of our city, and entered upon his duties with conscientious purpose 
to sustain and promote, so far as came within the scope of his undertakings, 
the high reputatiijn and influence nur association had. 

This ptirpose embodied a sense of the dignity of the i>osition. ^\•ith its oft- 
times judicial characteristics; a steady ]mrsuit of a non-partisan course in 
executing the by-laws of the Chamber governing the Exchange ; a fixed intent 
to make the material aflforded by a well-organized system of statistics useful 
in showing the standing and growth of our city in art, industry and commerce 
— in short a determination to do that which he could in accordance with the 
sentiment so well expressed in the following verse from the appropriate hymn 
he contributed to the dedicatory exercises of this beautiful commercial home: 
"Within these walls of strength and grace 
May honor find a dwc'.ling place: 
May jnstice reign: nu'V truth alndc: 
May right prevail and wisdom guide." 

That he has aimed to act up to the inspiratiim of this sentiment iii the 
discharge of his duties in our behalf needs no declaration from your committee, 
not only is each memlier of the Chaml)er his witness, but there have come to 
him from many directions — from lousiness men at home and abroad, from sta- 
tisticians, from political economists, from legislators, from consuls — testimon- 
ials of high appreciation of his work, which must be not only truly acceptable 
to him but a gratifying assurance that his labors in our midst in the interests 
of commerce, have been well performed. 

In bearing this tribute to the ;iccept;iliility of the ser\ ices of our retiring 
su])erintendent, there reiuains for us to s;iy that his record is ours, and to 
extend our thanks and best wishes for his future ])rosperity, together with 
hopes that our Chamber will not flag in ettorts tn sustain the st.anihird for 
usefulness to which he has contributed so iiuportant a part. 

See next pape - 



5 -o 

^19 2 

o J: .»- ^ — 
■*-. (A 

^ - ^ *2 




[F. .4, Xeuhuiter. Artist] 

The Business Men's Club Quarters 

1903-1911 , 


By J anus A. Grccii. 

Like to the poet's ship of pearl, 

Which still outgrew its narrow walls. 

.So we expanding year by year. 

Kind liere at last these lofty halls. 

They rise in beauty and in strength, 

-Adorned to please the artist's eye. 
With all exacting taste could choose. 

And all unstinted cash could l>uy. 
Xo pent-up Utica for us! 

Plenty of elbow room to spare. 
Plenty of room in which to grow. 

Abundance both of light and air. 

.\bundance. too. of other things 

That to the inner man are dear; 
Hunger and thirst are banished quite 

And in their places rules King Good Cheer. 

This splendid place a symbol is 

Of progress all along the line; 
Xo bushel hides our beaming lights — 

Undimmed forever may they shine. 

Our past is full of good deeds done. 

Our future's full of hope and clieer; 
Oh, may we fight for civic right 

Through every day of every year. 

May, 1903 


The Rotunda of Business Men's Club, 1906. 

The Lounging Room. 

Business Men's Club Quarters, 1903-1911 

Club Beginnings. 

Twenty-four j-ouiig men. not one of them over 
twenty-two years of age, gathered for their first 
called meeting at the Grand Hotel, Saturday, Novem- 
ber 26, 1892, and there founded the "Young Men's 
Business Club" of Cincinnati. An Executive Com- 
mittee of six j-oung men, Frank G. Rush, Andreas K. 
Burkhardt, Robert H. AIcGee. J. E. Zimmerman. 
Frank F. Dinsmore, and J. E. Poorman, Jr., ap- 
pointed at a preliminary meeting, November 12tli. 
with Frank G. Rush, chairman, had met on Novem- 
ber 19th, and had already outlined plans of organiza- 
tion. On November 26th, all those interested met. 
formed the Club and elected permanent officers. On 
December 10th, the first monthly dinner, held in the 
Convention Hall of the Grand Hotel, was attended 
by over si.xty young men and was addressed b\' 
prominent speakers. 

"It is our object to imite the representative young 
men of Cincinnati and vicinity, engaged in the vari- 
ous mechanical, commercial and professional pur- 
suits, for the purpose of becoming better acquainted 
by frequent association; of rendering assistance to 
one another in many ways; and of having discussed 
at our meetings, b}' prominent citizens, such sidijects 
as will lead to our future success, and prepare us to 
take the places destined for us, hereafter, as leaiHng 

Thus reads the first letter inviting other 3"oun,g 
business men to co-operate in the founding" of the 
Club. The originators, who became the first perma- 
nent otflcers. were, Frank G. Rush. President; An- 
dreas E. Burkhardt, first Vice-President: J. E. Poor- 
man. Jr., second Vice-President; Robert H. McGee. 
Corresponding Secrefary; Frank A. McGee, Record- 
ing Secretary; J. E. Zimmerman, Treasurer; Execu- 
tive Committee: Frank F. Dinsmore, L. C. Goodwin. 
Millard W. Mack. Dr. C. G. Smith. R. H. Rahe, 
Chas. T. Greve. 

The Grand Hotel was the place of meeting from 
November, 1892. until October, 1897, when head- 
quarters were changed to the Pike Building. From 
April 1, 1898, to August, 1899, the Hotel Emery was 
the Club home; from August 24th to November ,50. 
1899, the Pike Building was again used; the Her- 
schede Building tlien became headquarters until 
May, 1903, when the rooms in the Chamlier of Com- 
inerce were ready for occupancy. At first, no men 
over thirty years of age were eligible for member- 
ship. In 1896, the Club incorporated "to promote 
the best interests of Cincinnati," and in July, 1899. 
the name was changed to "The Business Men's CIul) 
of Cincinnati." 

George Puchta. 
President, 1901-1902. 

Edwin C. Gibbs. 
President, 1902-1903. 

; HiHsm.lh I'liolo] 

William P. Deppe. 
Chairman, Building Committee. 



\ Studio Grand I 
H. n. Crane, 
Building Committee. 

[SliHli<i CrdHill 

Harvey E. Hannaford, 
Building Committee. 

( Benjamin S(iidio\ 

Harry T. Atkins, 
Building Committee 

Larger Quarters Needed. 

.SiHin aft(,'r llu' flcrsclu-ilc liuililiiiM Ijccanu- the 
Clul) home, the growth in nicniborship made ihc 
search for larger quarters necessary. In President 
Cluircli"s administration, 1900-1901. exhaustive study 
of the question of a new home was made, I'Vom the 
very start of Mr. George I'uchta's Presidency, the 
Building Coniniiltee, with Mr. W. P. Dcppc chair- 
man, began its search for the most favoralile location, 
l-'roni over thirty ])ro])ositions, covering both exclus- 
ive Club ])roperty and leased premises, tlie Commit- 
tee recommended tlie upper floors of the Clianiber 
of Commerce Building. In March, 1902, negotia- 
tions were opened and terms agreeable to both par- 
tics were soon reached. The Board of Governors 
sul)mitted the question of removal to a vote of the 
membership on .\pril 17th. with favorable results. 
The Board proceeded to secure subscriptions to the 
Club bonds, after whicli tlie lease with the Chamlier 
was signed on July 22, 1902. .Actual work was de- 
layed until (_)ctober by legal proceedings in the 
Chamber questioning the validity of the contracts. 
The decisions favored the Clul). Labor troubles 
prevented progress in December and January. How- 
ever, the rooms were complete and ready for the 
dedication exercises May 12 and 1.3. 1903. The 
Building Committee consisted of Messrs. W. P. 
l)e]ii)e, chairman; H. D. Crane, Jas. .\. Collins, H. 1- . 
Hannaford. K. F. Du Brul: with the later addiliMii 
of Mr. J. G. Wright, and Mr. H. T. Atkins, who re- 
placed Mr. Du Brul, whom prolonged absence from 
the city caused to retire. These men, with tiie 
Boards of Governors under Presidents Puchta and 
Gibbs, brought the new quarters to completion. 

Dedication Exercises, May 12-13, lPli3. A recep- 
tion to members, their wives and guests, took place 
Tuesday evening, 7 to 12 p. m. Two thousand at- 
tended, and took part in the promenade walk about 
the rooms, just finished and profusely decorated with 
flowers. Light refreshments were served in the 
main dining room. Wednesday morning, at 11 
o'clock, the procession, marching in four divisions, 
left the Herschede Building and. preceded by a corps 
of police and the Club's band, reached the floor of 
'Change. Here Captain Ellison, President of the 
Chamber of Commerce, welcomed the Club ofticially 
and personally in a few words: "First, as business 
men, for the reason that we believe that in your 
Club we have secured a most desirable tenant in part 
of our building for a long terin of years, a tenant 
that will l)e beneficial to this .Association; second, 
and always and above the first reason, we welcome 
you as friends and as brothers, striving in your or- 
ganization, as we (111 in i>urs, for all that stands for 
the good <'l Cincinnati's prosperity and business 

I'rrsiclciii I'.ihviii C. Gibbs relumed he.irtkit 
th:iiiks |i> President Kllison's warm and cordial wel- 
come: "We fully appreciate the kind sentiment 
whicli causes you to extend to us the right hand of 
good-fellowship on this occasion, and we gratefully 
grasp that hand. How ])eculiarly fitting it is that 
the two foremost commercial bodies of this city 
should thus stand hand in hand. To me the omen 
is most significant, and most clearly predicts the 
forging of a strong bond between us. With mutual 
respect and confidence, we can boldly face the fu- 
ture, feeling assured tlial, as we work together in 
harmony, the increased growth and usefulness of 
each organization must follow. Concerted action on 
the part of two such bodies will accomplish the most 
momentous results. 

ICourU-sy nf Wm. R. fSuldle] 

The Ladies' Dining Rooms. 

The Banquet Room. 


The BilUard Room. 

Courtesy of Henry Gnukiach. Jr.] 

[Courtesy of IVm. K. ISiddlc] 

The Business Men's Club Office, 1906. 


BusixEss Mkx's Club Quarters, 1903-1911 

"We are truly happy to find a permanent home 
in this great building, and sincerely trust that in the 
verj- near future the other commercial organizations 
of that city may also find lodgment under your 
broad and hospitable roof. 

"We are grateful for this reception, and extend 
to you a cordial invitation to now proceed with us 
to our new quarters in the floors above, and join us 
in our dedicatorj- exercises." 

The dedication e.xtrcises began at 12 o'clock witli 
prayer by the sole honorary memlier of the Cluli at 
that time. Rev. Charles Frederick Goss: 

"Our Father, we have climbed above the war of 
traffic in our city streets to make a silence in our 
hearts. We have been prompted to do this by that 
impulse which is common to humanity at all criti- 
cal events, because we are about to take possession 
of a new home for this Business Men's Club, and 
enter upon a new era of its existence. * * * * 

"We desire to see great palaces of industry and 
a reign of temporal prosperity; we long to see com- 
mercial supremacy of the Queen City of the West, 
but more than this and better than this, our hearts 
desire to see that day arrive when Justice may be 
enthroned in our courts. Integrity receive the scep- 
tre in our marts of trade. Righteousness be supreme 
in our city government, and Virtue crowned in our 
homes. To these great ends, first, last, and always, 
we pray that these business men may be consecrated; 
and to them and through them we dedicate these 
rooms, praying that Thou wilt help us to lie true to 
the great trusts of human life. .\men." 

After music. Mr. Deppe, for the Building Com- 
mittee, delivered the key of the new quarters and 
sketched the different steps in the securing of these 
rooms, calling special attention to the proud fact, 
"that the new quarters are the production of our 
own citizens, from the architect to the artists who 
placed the finishing touches on the walls." 

President Gibbs then accepted the key on behalf 
of the Board of Directors. After commenting on the 
faithful work of the Committee, the architects and 
contractors, and on the obstacles overcome, said: 

"Gentlemen of the Club, in accepting, in your 
name, these beautiful rooms, I most heartih' con- 
gratulate you. I feel assured that you will use them 
profitably and enjoy them to the utmost; here — 
"May honor find a dwelling place; 
May justice reign; may truth abide; 
May right prevail and wisdom guide." 

"The opening of these quarters marks an import- 
ant era not onlj' in the life of the Club, but in that 
of our city as well. Xine 3^ears ago, ten young men 
associated themselves together to discuss, at stated 
times, matters relating to the general interests of 
Cincinnati. The wildest dreamer of those ten men 
would not have ventured the prediction that, in nine 
years, the seed thus planted would grow to a menir 
bership of one thousand, and that the modest room 


[HrlLimilh I'l,„l„] 

J. Gano Wright. 
Building Committee. 

^::, ::,: Grand] 

James C. Hobart. 
President, 1903-1904. 

■ '>l!ttiio Grand] 
Thomas J. Moffett. 
President. 1904-1905. 

Cincinnati Astronomical Sociktv 


Albert Bettint;cr. 
President, 1905-1906. 


Edward E. Shipley. 
President, 1906-1907. 

\Stu<iio Grand\ 

Frank H. Shaffer. 
President, 1907-1908. 

tliat tlun iiKi all lluir wants wmild expand tu such 
palatial ]>r(ipiirti(ins. Anil yi-t tln' j^rowth of our 
dull has (inly lifcn in unison with the development 
of (luf city, and thriuiL'.h the puri.ils of our new home, 
winch \\ r toda_\- loi'niail\' open, I can see for us a 
licld of broader usefulness. Cincinnati is on the eve 
of a most glorious dawn. The warm sun of civic 
pride and progrcssivcness will rise ami shine as 
never before, and those who have been the archi- 
tects of the jiast will become tlu- builders of the 

After another piece of music, the V'ice-l'resident, 
\li II. I, \tkins, responded to the motto, "For the 
lloiioi" and ('.lory of Cincinnati." .\fter referring to 
the artistic beauty of their new home, he s.'ii<l: 

"lint .greater and .grander all these material 
surroundings is the sjiirit of ci\ic |iride that 
protnpted and upheld these labors from bcgitming 
to end. This spirit is the bond of our strength and 
union; it has made all our trinttiplis possible — cul- 
minating in the one thought, that no better motto 
could t)e inscrdK'd upon our C'lub b.inner than 'bor 
the Honor and C/lorx' of Cincinnati.' 

" i'he love for our city has ever been the inspira- 
ticni of every effort. Xo call to duty lias been too 
great; no bLbor to Ik- performed too severe in earnest 
eii(lea\'or \\<v i<\n city's welfare. 

"When another decade of our Club's history shall 
havi- passed and the history of unr city shall be 
written, let us hope that a greater Cincinnati, beau- 
tilied ,inil glorilied, sh.ill have reached a higlier 
pl.iiie. because a thousand good fellows, a tlKuisand 
willin.g hearts, a thousand l.>usiness men, at this 
dedication of their new home, as lovers of their city, 
dedicated not only iheir new quarters, but the very 
best of their servici' and .ability 'For the Honor and 
Clory of Citicinnati.' " 

-\ new nation:il song, dedicated to the Club, was 
then read by its author. Prof. W. H. Venable, and 
accottipanied liy a brief patriotic address, national in 
its scope. Then followed the Dedication Foem, com- 
posed and read by James .Albert Creen. 

Moll, Julius h'leishtnatm, Mayor of the city, in 
welcoming other commercial Ijodies, spoke of the 
loyalt}' of the Club t.j the highest interests of the 
cit\', of its share in the recent civic awakening and 
toruard tnovement, and the propriety of celebratin,g 
in this |iublic w'.i\'. the occupation of its new qtiartcTS. 

The or.ation of the day was given by Lieutenant- 
C.overnor Harry 1,. Gordon. He spoke of the civic 
awakening in all great .American cities and of the 
way in which our city is making phenomenal pro.g- 
ress. He urged the Club to be at the front in every 
battle for the city's upbuilding, as in the past. 

.\fter the bancpiet in the evenin.g. ju< D. D. 
Woodmansee spoke on "The City of Cincinnati"; 
Hrin. Theo. E. Burton on "The State of Ohio"; Hon. 
John B. on "The State of Kentucky." 


The Grill Room. 

\Cn,(rl,-iy nf llm, K Hidille\ 


|V(,„/,„ (,v„ii,;| 
C. H. M. Atkins. 
President, 1908-1909. 

A. J. Conroy. 
President, 1909-1910. 

Mlclu, t,>,iii,/i 

Walter J. Wichgar. 
President, 1910-1911. 

Hon. J;>lin I., (irillhlis. ni In(li:ni;ip(ilis. in re- 
sponding to the toast, "The State of Indiana," spoke 
in praise of the architect of the new quarters: 

"I want to congratulate the Business Men's Club 
of Cincinnati upon its magnificent new home. There 
is something in splendid architecture which always 
appeals to us. Tlic architect is too often forgotten. 
He seldom finds his reward in popular applause, liut 
in the consciousness of work, beautifully and sin- 
cerely, and serenely and enduringly done. I want to 
pay my tribute to Mr. Hannaford, who conceived 
tliesc noble rooms, and wlio has made his concep- 
tion so instinctive with beamy and charm." 

His characterization of the people of these mid- 
(\\v Western States, and his eulogy of Abraham Lin- 
coln were unusually fine. He defined the kind of 
patriotism needed in times of peace as that wliich 
will rule our l)ig cities without corruption, specula- 
lion and exploitation. 

".\merica should stand for justice and trutli, for 
mercy and valor, for high resolve and lofty achievc- 
nuiit. It should stand for the purest ideals in priv- 
ate life and public service, asking no questions, 
making no l^argains, and striking no lialances to 
ascertain what a thing will pay, Init anxit)us, only, 
to know if it is right." 

With a unanimous rising vote of tiianks to the 
speakers of the evening, the Business Men's Club 

The Iiigh purpose and resolve manifested in the 
Dedication I'.xercises, given quite in detail above, 
reflect tile real life and spirit of tlie organization 
from its very beginning. The enlarged quarters 
meant increased activity for public good and civic 
betterment. Hundreds of acts, recommendations, 
journeys, deeds of encouragement, relief and sacri- 
fice, to the credit and good name of Cincinnati, fol- 
lowed from the day the Clul) took possession of its 
Home in the Chamljer of Commerce Building. 

-\ synopsis of the leading events in the Roster 
for l911 shows an average of about one important 
matter a week on which the Club declared itself, or 
in wliich it participated. 

Sinking b'und trustees, provided for by an amend- 
ment to the by-laws. September 8, 1905, to receive a 
specified sum from the quarterly dues of members, 
were cancelling in October of each year, a one- 
tenth ]iart of the Club bonds, issued to furnish the 
new quarters, the sum of $4,850 a year. By January, 
1910, the membership was increased from 1,000 to 

In 1910, plans for a merger with tlie Chamber of 
Coninierce. which been in the air for several 
years, took the definite form of a proposition worked 
out by the two boards of directors in conference. 
The combined .Association, with a membership lim- 
ited to 3,000, was to have the name "Chamber of 
Commerce and Business Men's Club," taking over 


Business Mf.x's Club Quaktkks. 1903-191] 

the property and assuming the assets and indelitc-d- 
ness of both organizations. On April 5, 191(1, the 
Chamber of Commerce directors approved the plan. 
A vote by the Business Men's Club stockholders un 
June 14th, gave 809 in favor and 47 against tlie 
merger. Following public meetings on 'Chan.yL- 
June 16th and 17th, a special election by ballot was 
set for June 30th. The campaign was one of wide- 
spread interest and excitement among members tit 
the Chamber of Commerce, and ended with tlie de- 
feat of the proposed merger by a vote of 228 in favor 
and 324 opposed. Total vote, 552. Following this 
decision, on July 1st, the Business Men's Club ap- 
pointed a Committee on New Quarters. 

"It is easy to see, hard to foresee," said Ben 
Franklin. While about 200 members and guests oi 
the West Cincinnati Business Association were hold- 
ing a banquet in the rooms of the Club, Janu.iry 10, 
1911, a flame flashing up from meat broilers in tlie 
kitchen, set fire to greasj' soot in the flue. The 
fierce heat communicated in some way to light 
wooden partitions on the eighth floor and to very 
combustible materials and supplies stored thirt-. and 
in a very few minutes was beyond contrcil. Word 
passed to the banquet room warning everyljody to 
leave the building, was fortunately heeded and every 
guest reached outdoors in safety. Almost witliout 
warning, the hundreds of tons of weight of the sus- 
pended floors caused a giving away of the iron truss 
work, heated by these sudden flames in the attic. 
Twenty minutes after the fire began, came a col- 
lapse of the south half of the interior, carrying down 
everything from roof to basement, but leaving the 
north half almost intact. That six lives on!}' were 
sacrificed, was a marvel, whereas had it happened 
during certain business hours many hundreds niiglit 
have been caught bj- the unforseen danger. 

So January 10, 1911, closes the history of these 
quarters of the Business Men's Club, as tiie turn of 
later events proved. While the loss to the Club, 
above insurance, was about $35,000, the loss to the 
Chamber was far greater, possibly, $400,000, besides 
making" the sacrifice of the entire structure with its 
incomparable architecture and its wealth of associa- 
tion, a possibility. On February 3rd, the Clul) passed 
resolutions of sympathy with the Chamber over the 
loss of their building. Xearly eight years of tlu- 
Club's life and activity center about the upper floors 
of the Richardson Chamber of Commerce. Despite 
the unforseen ending, ma}' the memory of those 
years be ever pleasant ! 



[ lU-njafttht Stttitw 

William E. Hutton. 
President, 1911-1912. 

Fourth St. Roof Dormer Details. 


CiNCixxATi Astronomical Socikty 

iriu.ln. ;.v R„ym„ii,l\ 

William Watts Taylor. 

"Master of Rookwood." 


.\pril 10, 1913. 
Mk. \ )]-.], \^].v. Stewart, President. 

Cincinnati A.'itroiiomical Socict}', 

Dear Sir: 

In response to your suggestion I write tn assure you that the .Mnnici|>.-il 
An ,Si)cietv continues its interest in the jiroject tn use the arche> and nther 
material from the former Chaniher of Commerce in the erection of the pro- 
posed < )l)>er\ atcir\ . ( )nr contrihntion In that rml, made some time ago. mani- 
fested our interest in this matter and oiu' \ iew of the desirahility of ])reser\ ing 
Sfi important a ]iart of this representatix e work of a great architect. 

We are glad to know that the preliminary e\]>ense to linally seriu-e thi- 
material has heen met, and exjiress our cordial interest in your ellorts to carry 
the project to completion. 

It would embody in ;i new structure the most distinctive decoratix'e 
features of the original building and would constitute an important addition 
to our iHiblic architecture here. Yours very truly, 

W. \\". Tam.ok, Pn-sidriit. 


In the intcr\al hulwcen t!ie ?a'e of the L'hanihcr of C'unimcrcc [iroiuTty 
to the L'nicin Central IJfe Insurance Co. in jiil>', 1911, ami the clearinji; oft' (}f 
the site for the new skyscra])er, many attempts were made to have the outer 
walls preserved for re-erecti<in. Amonjj the projects considered were their 
use for a new Y. .M. C. .\. building at I laniiltun, ( )hio, where it was found that 
smaller construction units were recjuired ; a museum in the form of a medieval 
castle in ruins, in the valley apjiroachinsj Eden Park, which failed to secure the 
appro\al i>\ }Jr. Kessler and the Park P)Oard ; Oherlin College, thru Air. Cass 
Gilbert, investigated their adaptation for one of its new Iniildings, Ijut their 
great dimensions and the transportation cost prevented their use : sketches 
were drawn for an entr;incc office at the Zoo constructed fmrn the h'nurth 
Street arches and corner towers, and careful estimates had been made of the 
cost for Mr. Draper and officers of the Alunicijial Art Society; some interior 
jHilished marble bases, ccilunnis and arches were also lieing sought by the Art 
Aluseum; several good suggestions appeared in the public pres--, but the 
difficulty in all cases was the financial one. 

By November, 1911, fiu"tlier delay in reniip\ing the walls l)ecame impos- 
sible, and Harig & Co. found no alternati\'e but to have the upper parts of the 
stonework hauled ti) the Big-Four Railway, to use for purposes of track bal- 
last on their Indianapolis Division. 

About November 20, consultations were begun by officers of the Cincin- 
nati Astronomical Society, with Harig & Co., Garber & Woodward, the Union 
Central Life Insurance Co., Air. W. ^Y. Taylor and Mr. Gest of the Mtmicipal 
Art Society, and Mr. Draper of the Chamber of Commerce, with reference to 
placing all of the great arches and 'ither valuable ])ortions i if the Iniilding, at 
the disposal of the Society for later use as the walls nf an .\stronomical 

Search for downtown vacant lots for storage gave no results except high 
rental prices and risk of cjuick removal in case of sale of the lots. Cost of 
drayage from Fourth and \'ine Streets was first inclndcil in the estimated cost, 
but later Harig & Co. agreed to assume this expense and place the material 
free on board the B. & O. flat cars at the Plum Street yards. This reduced 
the estimated cost from $5,000 or $8,000 down to a much smaller figure, more 
within the range of i)ossibility. The wreckers had by this time reached the 
tops of the largest arches at the southeast corner, and no time could be lost 

Finally, at a meeting (jf the ( )ptiniist L'lub, ."Saturday, 1 )ecember ind. 
Mr. \V. \\ . Taylor, wdio could not bear to see the fine .arches di>appear witlmut 
a last appeal, made an earnest plea for their preservation, and made an offer 
on the part of the Municipal Art Society to subscribe $300 frcim their accumu- 
lated funds, toward the cost of jilacing the material mi a storage Int. In 
response to this offer and ajjpeal, members of the ( )ptimist and Uueen Cit_\- 
Clubs added about $400 more to this <iffer at that time. Except for Mr. Tay- 
lor's timely effort, the plan to store the material would h,i\e failed. 

The Cincinnati F^rog and Switch Co., thru .Mr. Ivl. lleit/.man, manager, 
oft'ered the use of a couple of acres .f their land and of their switches, 
thus completing the ]ilan. < 'n l)eccniber 4th, llarig & Co.'s proposition to 
deliver the granite free on board car.- on the tracks of the B. & (). R. R. in the 

?I2 I ; '■'!' 





Preservation of Granite Arches and Walls After Fire 

city, was accepted on behalf of the Cincinnati Astronomical Society by its 
president, the stone to be shipped to Oakley and arran.o-ements made for i)lac- 
ing it back on the land. Two carloads n\ arch material, alreadv sent to the 
Big-Four R. R.. were recalled from Lawrencebiirg Junction, thru the efl'orts 
of G. P. Smith, chief engineer, and re-shipi)e(l to (Jakley. From December 4, 
1911, to March 15, 1912, 120 carloads of arch and wall material were handled 
and placed on the lot. This was about two-thirds of all the granite in the 

To cover the cost of this work, the donations alxjve mentioned were sup- 
plemented by liberal help from 400 individuals and firms, who were .glad to 
see the fine arches taken care of and plans made for their later re-erection. 
Letters of endorsement were given to the project bv the jiresideiit and directors 
of the Chamber of Commerce, the I'.usiness Alen's Club, and the Cincinnati 
Chapter of the American Institute of Architects. These letters and the promi- 
nent names of early subscribers, heliied decidedlv in securing the entire cost 
of preser\-ing the granite. 




Resolution Adopted by the Cincinnati Chapter, A. I. A., May 19. 1914. 

Whereas, the old Chamber of Commerce designed by 11. 11. Richardson 
was considered one of his masterpieces and embodied a beautiful arcade of 
arched windows on the main floor, and, 

\VherEas, it appears that the Cincinnati Astronomical Societv secured 
the material which was saved from the removal of the old building, including 
these arches along with a sufficient amount nf the ashlar facing surn luiiding 
the same, with the object of inc(jrporating this material in a future building, 
which will be erected for the purpose of an Observatory, the design of which 
is arranged to incorporate and preserve this arcade \ery much along the lines 
of the original design : 

Therefore, be it Rcsolz'cd. That the Cincinnati Chapter of the A. I. A. 
heartily approve and indnrse this project, which, if executed in the proposed 
manner, will serve to restore and perpetuate this beautiful design by so emi- 
nent a master, and be useful and instructive at all times as a splendid piece of 
architecture, ser\'ing as a model for students in the !\(iinanes<|ue st_\ le in which 
this \vork was conceived. 

The old Chamber of Commerce was in its day and gener.-itinn CMUsidered 

bv far the finest example of pure architectural design in the Rumanesque 

school in this country. The Chapter is gratified to know that Cincinnati is 

placed in a position to be able to pdint to at least a partial restoration of this 

work as embodied in the plans nf the Astrtinimiical Society. 


I am sending you herewith a cojiy of the resolutinn adopted b}' the Cin- 
cinnati Chapter of the American Institute nf Architects at their last regu- 
lar meeting. _ Yours very respectfully, 

Jos. G. Steinkamp, Secretary 

Cincinnati Chapter, .\. 1. .\. 
Wednesday, June .\ 1914. 
































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Thirty Years Progress In the New Astronomy 

Plans for the Observatory and Home of 
the Cmcinnati Astronomical Society 

Bv DeLisle Stewart, President* 

"Contemplated as one vast whole, astronomy is the 
most beautiful monument of the human mind, the noblest 
record of its intelligence. — Laf'Iacc. 

When Galileo, in 1609-10, turned his newly-made telescope toward the 
sky and found mountains and valleys on the moon, dark spots upon the sun. 
as also that there were visible discs to the planets hut not to the fixed stars: 
that Venus showed phases like our moon ; that Jupiter had four revolving 
satellites and Saturn a perplexing- tri])le furm — he opened up an epoch in 
astronomy and in human thought and history. His first "optick" had 
about the power of a good opera glass of today, and his best glass later had 
a magnifying power of aliout 32. But larger k-n>e> and l)etter instruments 
followed rapidly, and in varying form and with numerous devices fur e.xact 
measurement, the telescope has continued to re\-eal more details of the forms, 
motions and distances of the hea\-enly bodies. For two centuries and a half 
the human eye at the telescope served as the sole means of recording astro- 
nomical data. The record of its discoveries and triumphs is truly marvelous! 
The refinement with which the ])Ositiiins of the heaxenly bodies are deter- 
mined, their past motic;>ns known, antl their future positions predicted by 
mathematical analysis, is almost beyond belief. 

But the human eye is not perfect. Xo two observers have eyes just 
alike; the right and left eye are unlike in alnmst e\ery jicrson; the state of 
health, amount of fatigue or wcjrry, age, strained jiusitinn in uliserving, all 
are factors in the correctness of one's \'isual rcci ird. A\'onderful as is the 
retina of the human eye, astronomers long Miught a sul)Stitute for it in a 
better recording medium for astronomical data — this substitute was at last 
fc.iund in the sensitive chemical film of the photographic plate. 

From the very first announcement of Daguerre's discovery in 1839, astron- 
omers attempted to make photographs of sun, inoon and lirighter stars, and 
with good success, considering the slowness and inconveniences of the 
early processes. But it was not until the perfecting of the gelatine dry-plate, 
in 1876, and its coming on the market ciimniercially, that the full ad\ antage 
of photography was revealed. 

Celestial Photography a Success with Dry Plates. 

The wonderful comet of 188J. which is remembered the world ii\er for 
its brightness and extensive tail. \\a> photographed at the Cape of Ciood 
Hope, South Africa. Its Ijrilliance was so great in sciuthern latitudes that 
Sir David Gill had a local photographer, Mr. Allis, strap his camera to the 
Observatory telescope and, by keeping the clockwork going, while sighting 
thru the eyepiece on the head of the comet, gi\'e a half-hour exposure. 

"President's Address before the Hh AiiiumI MfOting. -May 15. 19H. at Cincinnati Sufiety of Natnral History 



was encouraging; so he next tried an exposure of three hours. 'J'he resulting 
negative showed the CDUiet uji fuiely, and in addition showed mjriads of 
sharp star-images, from whicli Dr. Gill got the idea of charting the sky 
by lihotography. lie immediately undertook the charting of large regions 
of the southern sky by this new process, measuring the jjositions of the 
stars directly from the plates, and later publishing catalogs of their position 
and brightness. 

Copies of the comet picttire which he sent to Europe were seen by the 
Henri Brothers, of the National Observatory at Paris. The\- were just at 
that time re-charting some majis nf the zodiac near the Milky ^^'ay, where 
the stars are so plentiful. The}- resoK'ed to try ])h(it(>Lrrapliy instead of 
visual methods of registering the positions, and fnuud it a cumplete success. 

In 1SS7. so successful had the new 
])lii itogra])hic method jiroved that an 
International Astro-phott)graphic As- 
sociation was fnrmcd by eighteen lead- 
ing obserx'atories of the wurld. tn 
co-ojierate in ])hotogra])liing the wlmle 
sky and cataloging tlie stars from these 
])lates. v^uitable telesco])es were de- 
\ised. measuring instruments perfected 
and formulae for reduction worked out, 
so that the results wotdd form a har- 
monious and accurate census (jI the 

As truly as Galileo began an epoch 
with his little telescope, just as surely 
did the entrance of the ])hotographic 
plate into astronomy inaugurate an- 
other epoch — a .\'rri' /:")'(;. 

Great Spiral Nebula 

in Constellation of the Hunting Dogs. 

Photo made by G. W. Ritchey 

with 60-inch Reflector, Mt. Wilson, Cal. 

Total exposure of 10 hours, 45 minutes. 

April 7-8, 1910. 

Advantages of Photography in 

The pliotogra])hic ])late lias Ijeen a 
most valuable assistant to the astron- 
omer in his researches for over thirty years because of certain very distinct 
adxantages which it possesses. These advantages deser\e mention. 

1 The e\e tires after a \'ery short time of steady loc iking at any section 
of sky. Not so the plate ; it is tireless ; in less than an hour it records all 
tliat the eye can see in that same telescope. With each additional hour's 
exposure on the same region still fainter detail is adde<l, until with exposures 
of four, six, or even ten or twelve hours, objects absolute!}- invisible to the 
human eye are constantly being revealed. This cumulative power is one 
ad\-antage of the sensitive lilm. 

2 Only a very small section of sky is seen at a time as one looks thru the 
eye])iece ; but the ])hotographic plate frecjuently covers many scjuare degrees 
of sky area in the one exposure. In this way vast regions of the Milky Way 
have been photographed and studied; nebulae of vast extent have been 
discovered which were unsuspected thru the eyepiece. Thousands of stars 


Thirty Years' Progress ix tiik Xi;\v Astronomy 

are recorded in a few hours' work, which would have cost months or years of 
effort by the older methods. In one exposure of five hours in the Bruce 
Photographic Telescope at Arequipa, Peru, fully 400,000 stars recorded their 
impressions on the plate, beside large expanses of nebulous matter in won- 
derful detail. The astronomer's recording power has been increased more 
than a hundredfold by the photographic process. 

3 Between Mars and Jupiter have been found several hundred minor 
planets, or asteroids. The largest is nearly 500 miles in diameter ; they 
vary from that down to a diameter of just a few miles. The visual search 
for them required the mapping of all the stars along the zodiac to form 
charts, and the locating of these moving asteroids among the fi.xed stars 
involved very great labor. For over twenty years this work has fallen to 
the photographic plate, for the moving planets show as "trails" or lines 
among the round images of the stars, and so are readily detected. Even 
when an accurate ephemeris of an asteroid's path is at hand, time is saved 
by having the regii m jilmtographed. It is a ccimmmi experience to search 
several evenings with a visual telescope and finally have to call in the aid 
of the camera, which picks up the asteroid readily in less than an hour's 
exposure. From ten to fifteen asteroids can be obser\ed in one night on 
the plates, whereas from one to five oidy could be located and measured 
visualh'. Their positions are now measured directly from the plates. 

Facility and Quickness of Making the Record. 
This facilit}' w'nh which asteroid charts are taken i-^ but one instance 
of the quickness with which \aluable records are made. In the study of 
sun-spots, with their rapid changes, exposures of a few thousandths-of-a- 
second record the details over the whole disc of the sun ; the numerous 
craters, mountain ranges and flat sea-beds on the moon are readily photo- 
graphed in from one to five seconds. The pencil, no matter how skillful, 
is unequal to this task. The labor has lieen very greatlv reduced bv the 
photographic method and records accumulated on plates such as would 
have been impossible by former methods, or would have required centuries 
to merely record. 

4 Far from being a mere plaything, the sensitive film has proved itself 
a most reliable and accurate instrument of research. Fear was early expressed 
that the gelatine film might shift slightly on the glass in the processes of 
development. This fear has proved groundless : measures taken after repeated 
immersions in the chemicals and prolonged washings show that the film 
returns on drying to its former position, and that such distortions of the 
film are not greater in amount than the one-thousandths part of a millimeter. 
Such accurate star-positions are now derived from the plates that new 
attachments have been devised f<ir meridian circles to eliminate the trouble- 
some "personal equation" affecting all transit observations, and bring them 
again up into equality with the photographic results. 

The micrometer, which formerly was used only at the eye end of the 
equatorial to measure the directions and distances of stars in the field of 
view, now forms a part of the specially devised jNIeasuring Instrument, with 
which the precise positions of stars and nebulae are read off from the plates. 
So faithfully and accurately are the objects found to be registered on the 
plates, that the precision of the results is limited by our own lack of >kill 
in measurement, rather than by any errors in the plates. 

Cincinnati Astronomical Sociktv 

5 The i)Iatcs form a permanent record and liislory nf the sky. Ivicli plate 
is numbered, the exact times and all the nther conditions of the exposure 
are recorded. A card-index makes every ])late accessible lor examination, 
and frequentlx a luuidred or more plates, taken durinji^ the past thirty years, 
can be compared to trace the history of some new star, some strikinj"^ \ariable. 
some j)eculiar asteroid, or a newly discovered satellite of Saturn or Ju])itcr. 
While some discoveries are made from the immediate examination of a i)late, 
yet by far the greater ])art result from its later study. Some negatives taken 
l)y Rutherford from 1870 to 1880 on wet-plates ha\ e been measured, after st) 
many years, at the Columljia Uni\ersity Observatory with extremely \ aluable 

6 Photographv allows the fullest possible use to be made of all clear 
weather in the taking of exposures. It avoids largely the making of difilTCult 
measures under physical discomfort, and tran>fers that w i irk to the comfort- 
able obser\atory measurement-room and laboratory. I'.conomy of ctTort 
also restilts, for parts of the examination work are handled by day-workers 
with regular office hours, and other part^ 1)\ the night-observers during spells 
of clotidv weather. Many women are occupied with this careful examination 
and measurement of plates who could not endure the >train of night-work. 
Deserved fame has come to some of these women who have made s])ecial 
studies of new or \arial)le stars, or in classifying s])ectra and I'ataloging the 

So Completely ha\e these many ad\ant;iges been realized among astron- 
omers that nearly all of the old-established observatories ha\e adopted the 
l)hotograpbic methods. New observatories, made ]Kissil)le thru a revival of 
interest in the science, have been eipiipped in ,iii unexpectedly liberal niamuT 
with the newest, most improved and largest |)hotographic telescopes and 
cameras that opticians and instrument makers could dc\'ise. We could not 
now return to the ])urel_\' \isual nietliod. if we wished, an_\ more than we 
could now be satisfied with ("..ilileo's ]iriniitive telescope. 

The Spectroscope and a New Science — Astro-Physics. 

The same qualities which ha\e made the >ensiti\ e film so \;iIuabK' in 
recording the positions and relative brightness of the stars, ha\e made it 
indisi)ensal)le in the new science of .Astro-l'hysics. .\bout 1850 it was ])osi- 
ti\'ely declared by August Comte that it would be impossible for us ever 
to determine the nature of the heavenly bodies: that, whether compcjsed of 
matter like that which forms the earth or of some difi'erent kind, we might 
si)eculate Ijut we ciiuld nexer know. In 18<i0 Kirchhofi' identified the bright 
rays of terrestrial substances with similar dark lino in the si)ectrum of the 
sun, and. with Bunsen, he inaugurated spectrum analysis. So the light Ironi 
sun and distant star has lieen made to yield its secrets, on passing thru a 
simple wedge of glass, anil the bouiKJle^^ nni\i.Tse has become one with our 
earth in its known elements. Chemistry, physics and astronomy h;i\v all 
found in the spectroscope a powerful weai)on of research. New element- 
have revealed themselves in our miner.als. in our atmos])here. .•ind in the 
light of the stars thru its use. 

Astronomy, up to this point, had, of necessity, been concerned with tlu- 
positions of the stars, their motions under the laws of gra\itation, and with 
the study of the form and structure of the universe — the W 1 lb", 1\ 1'. and 


Thirty Vkars' Prik'.rkss in tiik Xi:\v Astronomy 

WHITHER of the star^ ; nnw came its first cliance to determine tlie nature 
of the heavenly bodies— WHAT the stars RlvMJ.Y ARK. That which had 
remained secret and had seemed past finding out, now began to be revealed. 
For this spectroscope, which sorts out the colors of light and arranges them 
in order by their wa\-e-lengths, cares not whether the light-source be in the 
close-by laboratory, or, across the span of millions of miles, in the sun, or 
even that it has journeyed hundreds of years to reach us from far-distant 
stars or nebulae: all it asks is that the sample of light be enough to analyze. 

The 60-inch Reflector of the Mt. Wilson Observatory. 

Photographs taken with this telescope have revealed details of nebulae, star-clusters 

and sky-regions, hitherto unknown. 

So rajjidly did this new lield de\elo]i that the phrase, "the 
new astronomy," came into use as reflecting the rejuvenatin 

1(1 and the 
effects of 
Astro-Physics. Several Astro-Physical observatories were planned l\v the 
new scientists and built l)y wealthy supporters to whom these new lines 
appealed; new periodicaN, like "Astronomy and Astro- I'liysics." later "The 
Astro])hysical Journal." arose to keep pace with the jirogress ; our own 
countrv was foremost in its investigators, in their equipment, and in their 
financial and jiopular support: to our largest, most active and representative 
body of specialists in these fields belongs tiie name "The Astronomical and 
Astro-Phvsical Societv of America." 

Cincinnati Astronomical Society 

Photographic Plate Again Proves Its Value. 

Just as i1k- photographic ])latc registers all the stars o\cr a large area in 
one exposure, so it records all the detailed lines of the spectrum when put in 
the place of the eyepiece of the spectroscope. Thus hundreds of lines rc])re- 
senting the various wave-lengths of star-light arc caught on the tilm, and 
alongside of them are recorded lines made by light from some one of our well- 
known metals for comparison, and this plate serves for accurate measures 
of the star-spectrum in the same way that chart plates serve for positions. 
Special microscopes for measuring spectra are now made by several instru- 
ment makers, and are in use in many oljscrvatories. 

To the spectroscope erjuipped with the recording iiholograjihic plate- 
must be credited some enormous advances made in these recent decades. It 
used to be that only during the total solar eclipses could observations be made 
of the solar jirominences and other phenomena. Total eclipses continue to 
be observed, even at the expenditure of months of time, journeys of thousands 
of miles, and with all kinds of telescopes, cameras and spectroscopes. The 
wonderful corona requires all the observation possible and full ijhotogra])hic 
records, for no two artists sketch its streamers alike. But some of the obser- 
vations, as of prominences, are now made on any clear day with a spectro- 
heliograi)h, which combines the telescope, the i)anoramic camera and the 
spectroscope. Mono-chromatic light, coming from some one prominent spec- 
trum line, alone reaches the plate. Tlius one substance, like hydrogen or 
calcium, can be singled out and the ])latc made to record the location of that 
substance wherever it occurs on the sun's surface ai that instant of exposure. 
By adjusting the spectroscope for a line from some other substance that, too, 
can be taken by itself. The sun has been studied as never before, and the 
advance in solar physics is marxclous. W'liat we learn ai)out the sun helps 
in the study of the stars, whicji an- but more remote suns. 

Star Colors and Their Spectra. 

The more conijjlcte mapping of the stellar spectra upon ])lates contirnied 
the earlier classification by star colors and showed up a mass of detail w hich 
the eye could not grasp. The eye's range of sensitiveness from red t(j violet, 
was extended into the ultra-violet by the normal drv-plate, and \-arious dyes, 
added to the film, permitted the red section of the spectrum to be recorded. 
The color qualities of the plates themselves were carefully studied and 
exhaustive tests applied. 

\\liite and bluish-wdiite stars, like \'ega, Rigel and the Pleiades, showing 
a strong helium spectrum, and like Sirius with hydrogen lines, form the first 
type; yellowish stars, like our sun Caijcllu, Arcturus and Canopus, with many 
fine metallic lines as well as the hydrogen, form the second type; these two 
types include over ninety per cent of all the stars. Orange-red stars, like 
Antares and Betelgeuse, showing heavy aljsorption bands, form a third t\j)e. 
They are few in number and include some variables. Some very faint dee])- 
red stars, showing dark bands due to carljon alisorption, form a fourth type. 
Nebulae, unmistakably gaseous, precede the star t}pes. Detailed comjiarison 
shows about twenty subdivisions to all these groups, with nian\- ])ecidiar stars 
requiring minute study. 

I'Vom the brighter stars the classification has l)een carrieil to tjie fainter 
ones and studies made of the distriliution of the various types and their loca- 
tion near to or away from the Milky Way. The Harvard Observatory has 
made this one of its special fields of stud\- Needless to say, visual observa- 
tions have largely ceased, and entire dejiendcnce is now placed on the photo- 
graphic records. So has the light of each .'•'tar been made to tell us the secrets 
of its constitution and physical state. 


Thirty Years' Progress in the Xkw Astronomy 

"Motion-in-the-Line-of-Sight" Radial Velocity. 

Another triumph has been scored l)_v the combined spectroscope and ])late, 
called ui'w the spectrograph. It is knowti tliat in sound the pitch of an 
approaching locomotive whistle is higher than of a receding one. More sound 
waves per second beat upun the ear as the whistle comes toward one than 
when it is going away. So with light. As a star is approaching, more vibra- 
tions reach us in a given time and the whole spectrum is shifted toward the 
violet end ; or shifted toward the red end when the star is receding, as fewer 
vibrations per second then reach us. This shifting can be detected <mi the 
negative and accurately measured. How rapid the increase in acctiracy has 
been is shown in the statement of Dr. Frost, Director of Yerkes Observatory, 
that while the uncertainty of any one determination was five miles in 1888-89, 
in 1912 it was about one-sixth of a mile If a velocity has been stated in 
1888-89 as fifty miles a second, it w'as really anywhere between 45 and 55 
miles ; now, if stated as fifty miles, it is somewhere between 49.8 and 50.2 
miles, an increase of thirty times in accuracy. This uncertainty is equivalent 
to one ten-thousandth of an inch on the plate. The idea of being able to 
detect a motion to us or from us is wonderfu' enough in itself; Init to reach 
such refinement in accuracy is convincing proof of the value of the photo- 
graphic plate in scientific research. 

In 1895 Dr. Keeler, of Allegheny Observatory, showed by the spectri_>- 
scope that the rings of Saturn are composed of separate meteoric particles and 
not of solid sheets of material. The spectrum lines declared by their displace- 
ment that the outside of the ring was moving 10 miles per second, wdiile the 
inside moved 12'.) miles per second. If solid the outside would, of course, 
move the faster. Keeler's discovery verified the mathematical theory in a 
novel way and took rank among the important steps in astronomical progress. 
The varying velocities of all parts of the sun's stirface and the clottd belts of 
the brighter planets are now investigated by this method. 

(jrowing out of these "motions-in-the-line-of-sight," or radial velocities, 
of the stars has come the discovery of spectroscopic binaries, a type of close 
dottble-stars with one star in rapid rotation about the other. They were dis- 
covered thru an alternate widening and narrcjwing of the lines of the star- 
spectrum — widening when one star is coming and the other receding, narr(_)w 
when one star swings past the other across our line of vision-. \Miere the 
components are imequal in brightness the broadened lines are brighter first 
on one side, then on the other. If one passes directly in front of the other, an 
eclipse occurs twice in each revolution and the star is a variable. Algol, "the 
Demon Star," known to vary in brightness, but unexplained for over a century, 
was foimd to have a dark or in\isible companion, which passed in front of 
the bright component and dimmed its light partly for nine hotirs out of a 
complete rotation period of sixty-nine hours. The radial motion of the visible 
star was thus led to betray the presence of a companion mass which gives off 
no light of its own. Nearly all these binaries recjuired the spectroscope for 
their discovery, for the com])ijner.t stars could not be separated visually. 

New Light on Old Researches. 

From the time Avhen Edmun.l Halley suspected the "proper motions" of 
some of the brighter stars, previous to 1718, the subject has been one of large 
interest to all astronomers. Such motions coidd only be detected by exact 
measurement of the angular distance from neighboring stars, and finding that 
these distances were changing. The Cincinnati Observatory has devoted its 
energies largely to this research for many years. The motions thus fotmd 
were in dift'erent directions on the celestial sphere and all at right-angles to 
the line drawn from the star to us. Xo motion toward us or from tis was 
discoverable by the "proper-motion" observers ^^"hen that most remarkable 
achievement of modern science the measurement of radial velocities, was 
effected by the spectroscope, the resulting motions along the line drawn from 


the star U' us, lUtcd in witli tlic "])ni])cr-iui itiMiis" already ulilainccl, and cuni- 
hined witli them to give the actual motions in space. Thus a l)y-i)ro(luct nl 
spectroscopy has proved of inestimable help in completing the older pro1)leni. 

From these combined results, giving the actual motions in space, discov- 
ery has been made that the moving stars fall into two main groups or star- 
streams, coming from widely separated regions of infinite S])ace, anil ahnul 
alike in chemical composition and in their motions. 

Still more recently it has been found that the dilVcrciit >])ectral ty])es 
jiavc different velocities, as the helium stars move thru space at the rate of 
four miles per second, hydrogen stars six miles, and solar stars about twelve 
miles jier second. Thus the hottest young stars ap])ear !■• \U'i\c slowest. ,ind 
cooler and older stars more ra]) That s])eed seem> in dexelop witii tlu' 
increased age of the star leads tn new s])cculations and place-- an iniTcased 
\'alne upim the sjicctrnscnjjic results. 

The Stereoscope. Zeiss Stereo-Comparator. 

The stereoscope is now applied to the examination of chart plates. Two 
negatives on the same region taken several years apart are placeil in the Zeiss 
".'^tereo-comparator" and the star images brought into coincidence so they 
match. All the stars form one common held except such as have moved — 
the excejnional ones showing motion appear ])rojected in front or to the rear 
by the stereoscopic action. Their displacement can then be measured directly, 
without the need of reducing the positions of the thousands of stars which 
have no motion. The whole solar system is known to be inoving away from 
Sirius and in the direction of \'ega in Lyra at the rate of about a million miles 
a day, or twelve miles a second. Chart jjlates, taken on the same regions 
tweh'e to fifteen years apart, can now throw light u\>"\\ tlii^ problem of the 
solar motion when examined stereoscopically. Here aNo ph' itogra]ihy has 
come to aid in the solution of a very old |)rol)lem. 

Comet Photography and Halley's Comet. 

The lield-glass is ii>uall\ more satisfat'tory to use in looking at a comet 
than a very ])owerful telescope. It takes in a large area of sky and shows all 
of the comet at one time. The large telesco])e shows but one ])art at a time 
and is best for a study of details, as of the nucleus. In the same way the 
camera or photographic telescope has i)ro\ed its sujjcriority in depicting 
comets, because of the large area covered by the pl.ate. The telescope "fol- 
lows" on the comet itself, and tlie stars come out as trails, as the comet is 
moving among the stars, .since 1<S,S2 exery ])Ossible chance to secure comet 
negatives has been utilized, and much progress made in the study of the rajiid 
changes in the tails, and in their com])osition as re\ealed thru the spectroscope. 
Some comets, faint to the e}e, are strong in actinic rays and photogra])h finely. 
J^opular interest has always been aroused by the discovery of a new comet 
or the return of a periodic one. Dr. E. E. Barnard, now of the Yerkes Observ- 
atory, has been especially ]irominent in comet photography. 

The changes are so ra]iid in the shape and in the condensation of a comet's 
tail that plates taken in succession show large <lif'ferences, and those on suc- 
ceeding nights often show complete transformations. In planning to secure 
all possible observations of Halley's comet on this recent return the fullest 
co-operation was urged ujion ol)ser\ers the world over. Often the whole time 
for taking the plates at any one >tation was only twenty to thirty minutes 
between the rising of the comet and tlu- dawn, which would log the plates: 
so that to secure an uninterrupted record of its changes would have required 
sixty or more stations around the glol)e. each taking a plate daily. The advan- 
tage of numerous instruments well distributed is self-evident. As a result 
there were very few hours in those months of its close proximity to the sun 
when some camera was not being exposed on the comet. It was lorighter, had 
a greater extent of tail, and was longer \ i^ihlc than in 18,vt. FJe-discovered at 

Thirty \'i:ahs' Phuc.kkss in the Xi:\v Astkonumv 

Heidelberg on Wolf's photographic plates, Ilalley's cnmet was iiiiilcr ohscrxa- 
tion over four months earlier in its journey than in 1835, owing to the ])hoto- 
graphic method and the present superior telescopic equipment, i'riccless 
records were tiuis secured which are being studied with care and patience. 
Cyanogen lines were re\ealed by the spectroscoiK'. Recent discoveries in 
radiation pressure and enianatinns gixe special \aluc tii all C(pnu-t phennniena. 

I /Vic. /I. . G. II'. R,hil,-y\ 

The Globular Star-Cluster in Hercules. 

Over 60,000 separate stars show in the original negative. Total exposure of eleven 

hours on three nights, June 6, 7, 8, 1910. 


Stellar Photometry and Variable Stars. 

A rapid sketch nf the New Astrnnomy wnuld be incumplcte without a 
menticiU of studies in the brightness of the stars. As sunn as photographs 
began to be taken of sky regions the \alue nf the plate as a recorder of the 
relative brightness of stars was ap;)arent. The brighter the star and the longer 
the exposure, the larger its image is on the plate, luirly measures of bright- 
ness were based on the diameters of these images. Refractors and reflectors 
presented separate problems in the character of their star images. It was 
immediately recognized that the plate, with its sensitiveness to color so difier- 
ent than the eye, called for a photographic scale of magnitutles. Such a scale 
has been gradually perfected and connected for comparison with visual stand- 
ards. Some errors affecting visual observations ha\e met their solution thru 
the minute study of this photographic magnitude problem. \\'e know more 
about the human eye today because of these comparisons with the plates. 

In the study of variable stars the plate has proved of inestimable value. 
Up to 1885 there had been only al)out 250 such stars discovered visually. 
Since that date not less than 1.500 have been detected on the photographs. 
By bringing together several ]dates on a region and carefully examining them 


CixciNXATi Astronomical Socikty 

ni.iiiy chans^cs in brightness have ai)])eare<l. I'^nmi the s])ec-tra showing bright 
hydrogen lines Mrs. Fleming discovered over 125 long-period variables on 
IJarvard plates, and on gl<>l)nlar-cluster i)hotograi)hs IVofessor Bailey has 
found over 500 stars whose l)rightness changes regularly. A\'ithin a few 
hours some cluster variables go thru an increase and decrease of from two 
to six times in brightness. Hundreds of new variables connected with nebulae 
are now known, the variation of each l)eing checked on several different ])lates. 
While most stars shine with constant light, these variables form the 
exceptions. Many can be ohserxed \isually with small telescopes. A variety 
of photometers have been devised for accurately measuring their changes in 
brightness. By means of a polarizing eyejiiece or a sliding wedge of neutral 
tinted glass the light of the star is made to ecjual a coni])arison star (ir an arti- 
ficial point of light in brightness. .\ graduated circle rjr scale attached is 
read oft' and the figures reduced to decimals of magnitudes. The light-curve 
and period of each variable is worked out with exactness, and studies made to 
account for the light-changes. X'ariable star discovery has helped to add 
new life and interest to our science. The sun has even been foimd to be vari- 
able in its radiations to the amount of ten ])er cent, and within a ])eriod of a 
few days. \'ariable star research, visual anrl jihotographic, ])hotometric and 
spectroscopic, seems to have only begun. It is a field of great ])riiniise 

Satellites of Saturn and Jupiter Discovered. 

In 1898 several plates of Saturn were taken at Arequipa, Peru, on which 
\\ . \[. Pickering discovered a ninth satellite, which he named Phoebe. Allho 
lost track of for a few years, images of this satellite were found on over forty 
plates later — its existence confirmed and its orbit found to be retrograde. 
Evidences were wholly ]}hotogra])hic. until it was seen b\^ Dr. Barnard in the 
Yerkes 40-inch. In 1905 a tenth satellite was found on the same Saturn plates 
by Mr. Pickering. 

On ])lates taken at Lick Observatory Mr. Perrine discovered, in 1904-05, a 
sixth and a seventh satellite of Jupiter, both faint and remote from the jilanet. 

An eighth satellite of Jupiter was discovered on plates taken at Green- 
wich Observatory in 1908 by Melotte, making the fifth new satellite whose 
discovery- and observation was due solely In the photographic plate. 

Planetary Detail and Double Stars Still To Be Mastered 

The eye still serves best in depicting the surfaces and feature^; of the 
planets. To magnify the image enough to give a good size on the plate and 
secure the finer details meets with this oljstacle — lack of the planet's li.ght. 
The disturbances in our air cause frequent blurriness alternating with 
instants of good seeing. devices for eliminating the times of dis- 
turbed seeing and exposing the plate only during instants of great steadiness 
have been tried by Ritchey and others. Some jirogress has resulted, but com- 
plete success is still lacking. 

Micrometer measures of close doul)le-stars is still visual work. The size 
of all star images being greater on the negative than in the eye-piece makes 
the close pairs merge into a single image. ,\n enlarging lens near the focus 
causes loss of light and unduly prolongs exposure. For the present this work 
is well left to the visual observer. 

Observatories South of Equator. Desert and Mountain Stations. 

.\ development in branch stations of old-established observatories is an 
interesting phase of recent years. Of the 225 principal observatories of the 
world, we find about 130 in pAirope and 65 in America, mostly near large 
cities where the science has recei\ed most encouragement and has found 
governmental or private support. Stars within forty or more degrees of the 
South pole of the sky could not be studied except by going to South Africa, 


Thirty Years' Progrkss ix the Xew Astroxomy 

Australia or South America. So observatory parties, supplied with instru- 
ments, have erected temporary stations on those continents or chosen perma- 
nent sites after careful tests of climatic conditions. About 20 observatories are 
now located in the Southern Hemisphere. Harvard has the Arequipa Station, 
in Peru, and one in Eg>"pt. Lick has its branch near Santiago, Chile. The Car- 
negie Institution has its work at San Luis, Argentine. Ann Arbor, Mich., has 
a joint director with the La Plata Observatory, Argentine, using similar instru- 
ments at both stations. From these stations, located at high altitudes and in 
desert climates, are sent home the develoijed jjlates which form the basis for 
research and measurement. A slightly different form of co-operation is shown 
in the reduction of Lick Observatory plates on Eros by Mr. Hinks at Green- 
wich. At Helsingford, Finland, in 60 degrees north latitude, plates are being 
taken of the north pole of the sky for measurement at the Columbia Universitv 
Observatory, Xew York. Dr. ^Barnard, of Yerkes Observatory, spent several 
month in Southern California photographing the ]\Iilky-\\'ay with the Bruce 
doublet whose permanent location is at Lake Geneva, ^^'is. The instances 
cjuoted show how observers living in less promising regions are able to com- 
plete their researches with plates made under the choicest climatic conditions 

!More and better astronomical work can be done in any localitv what- 
ever with the help of the photographic plate than can possibly be done without 
it. Wherever it has been given a fair trial it has met the requirements, and 
nowhere could the critical tests applied have been more severe than in the 
researches of the Xew Astronomy. In addition to the better results obtain- 
able by photographic instruments used locally, there is the advantage to be 
derived from brief expeditions with the instruments for special material, as 
well as the opportunity to secure plates for comparative study from obser\-a- 
tories in the most fa^•ored climates in the world. 

Why This Review of Astronomical Progress? 

In brief, we have seen that the photograj>hic plate is an untiring recorder 
of starlight ; that it maps large areas at a time : that myriad stars, the nebulae 
and the comets are quickly recorded ; that moving asteroids and satellites make 
trails which are readily detected ; that the sensitive film forms a basis for the 
most accurate and exacting measurements : that the plates form a permanent 
record and history of the sky ; that photography secures fuller advantage of 
all clear weather and a more economical division of observatory labors. 

The new-born science. Astro-Physics — made possible by the combined 
spectroscope and sensitive jilate — reveals the unity in composition of stm, 
far-off star and nebula with our own earth ; the spectro-heliograph has created 
a new solar-physics : the varying colors of the stars signify the stages in their 
evolution : radial motions are discerned and accurately measured ; actual 
motions of stars in space are thus derived in combination with ''proper motion" 
results ; hence, star-streams are discovered and velocity in space mcreasing 
with star-age : further, the stereoscope has been adapted to detect the motions 
of stars, and to assist in the comparative study of plates. 

Separate, yet related, liranches of the new science are comet study : dis- 
covery of nebulae, spiral or of great extent ; Milky-Way photography and 
study ; photometry and extensive variable star discovery ; novae, or new stars ; 
eclipse expeditions ; southern and mountain stations ; plate measurement with 
special instruments ; constant temperature devices for mirrors and spectro- 
scopes : chemical and physical related researches ; co-operative plans, between 
observatories or world-wide. Almost without limit these new sriecial ■sections 
have arisen in the past thirt)- years 

Why this review? With all this wonderful progress in astronomy and 
Astro-Physics going on in all parts of our own country, has not the time come 
to establish some branches of the photographic and spectroscopic astronomy 
near Cincinnati? It is a matter of pride and admiration that in all of these 
new researches American astronomers and astro-physicists have been in the 


Cincinnati Astkono.mkai. Sociicty 

forefront. Many of these researches are hut hcLiun, and lu-w (lc|iartnu-iits are 
constantly arising. Is not Cincinnati to ha\e its jiarl with other localities in 
extending astronomical study with instruments of these most modern designs? 
The Cincinnati Astronomical Society, in presenting this hrief review of prog- 
ress in the New Astronomy to the men and women of this city, feels certain 
of an affirmative answer to these questions 

Localities differ in their way of encouraging the new .--cience, as a glimpse 
at the I<ick Observatory, Chicago, .Allegheny, Washington, Harvard anil Mt. 
Wilson and other places shows. Old institutions encourage it in some places 
and new ones are formed in other cities. It was thought that the local 
Obserxatory could extend its ])recise star-position W(irl< into ])hotograpliic 
plate measurement, as a natural dexelopment. But in 1910, the decision was 
reached by those in charge of the city Observatory that nothing whatever of 
the photographic or newer lines was to be undertaken or encouraged. This 
decision was definite and and ,ill chance for a reconsideration was abso- 
lutely refused. T'"ortiniatel_\-, with this decision of the existing Observatory to 
limit itself to work largel\- computational and in continuance of its historic 
programs of proper-motion in\estigation, an entirely separate and independnit 
basis was found on which to conduct these new researches. 

Popular Astronomical Society for Unoccupied Fields. 

The Cincinnati Astrcjnoniical Society, to bring togetlier those interested 
in the science, was thus planned It was soon organized and became duly 
incor]Kjrated in 1911. In all its efforts froiii the beginning it has kept con- 
stantly in \iew the establishment of these newer branches of astronomical 
activity in this vicinitv. W'hh entire freedom to undertake such researches 
without encroaching in the least on the present work of the city institution, 
there is every good reason why the plans of the Society should receive careful 
consideration, and why such encouragement should be given as will am])ly 
])rovide for the establishment .and proper ni.aintenance of the ])roposed new- 

.As the present CJbservatory, maintained by city taxation since 1872, has 
not in over forty years been the recijnent of any large endowments, it is con- 
fidently believed there is room for a separate privately endowed Astron- 
omical Observatory in this vicinity. Especially when, as in some other 
cities, an active Society is maintained in close touch w^ith the general ])ublic 
and working in lines of general interest. .Among the descendents of the 
hundreds of members of that early Cincinnati .Vstronomical Society, in exist- 
ence from 1842 to 1872. there certainly are to be found many men and women 
of means to whom Astronomy appeals. Some wdio hesitate about giving 
endowments to a municipal institution, will no doubt decide favorably in 
regard to an independent association, incorjiorated under the laws of the State 
of Ohio for these definite jiopular ;ind scientific purposes. 

Popular Features of Society Work. 

Having its lieginnings in a series of illustrated .-\stronomical talks at the 
rooms of the Cincinnati Society of Natural History, the monthly meetings 
ha\e always included illustrated talks or papers on the programs. The in- 
formal meetings promote the acquaintance of those interested in our science, 
and a freedom to ask questions and relate interesting and helpful experiences 
has grown year by year. An increasing number of members \-olunteer to 
prepare papers and illustrate them with slides. 

Popular public lectures have been secured and have proved an interesting 
feature. Dr. E. E. Barnard displayed his beautiful Comet and .Milky-Way 
photographs at the Christ Church Pari-h llou-^e. Miss i\lary Proctor gave 
"Other Worlds Than Ours" in the gymnasium of the Ohio Mechanics' Insti- 
tute. Dr. John .A. Brashear gave his "Photography of the Heavens" in the 
Emery .Audilorinni. Mr. B. R. Baumgardt has given "An Evening with the 


Plans kuk Sociktv OBSKl<v.\Tl)l(^■ 

Stars" at the EmerN- Audili iriuni. and a year later at the Cliainher of Com- 
merce Hall. 'J'hese lectures ha\e been most enjoyable events in the life of 
the society, and ha\e acquainted us with the wonderful pros.^ress made by 
our American Ol)servatories in the new astronomy. vSimilar lectures </iven 
before prominent clubs, organizations and churches accjuaint an increasin<< cir- 
cle of Cincinnati people with the new phases of our science. With a larger 
lecture fimd more popular lectures and talks can be given in clul)s and schools. 

The Great Network Nebula in Cygnus. 

Made with 60-inch Reflector, Mt. Wilson, Cal. Exposure, 10' , hours, July 2, 3, 

4, 1910. Filaments of gaseous matter amid countless suns in the Milky-way. 

A large number of our members own telescopes and keep track of the 
constellati<:)ns and the motions of the planets, watch for sunspots and look up 
comets. Some have even made telescopes for themsehes and have descrilied 
before the society the processes of grinding the lenses and mirrors, ha\e told 
how the mirrors are silvered, and liow the mountings were constructed. (Jthers 
have been encouraged tn purchasL- telescopes by the Committee on the Mak- 
ing and Purchase of Instruments. Each telescope generouslv shared with 
friends and neighbors, forms a center of interest in our stu<ly of the star-. 
Facilities for instrument making by members will tind ])lace in our new build- 
ing, where under the direction of the experienced committee, greater progress 
can be made than by each member wdrking se])aratel}'. 


Cincinnati Astronomical Society 

Choice of Permanent Location. Meteorological Conditions 

The first consideratinii in selecting a permanent site for astroiKniiioal 
work near Cincinnati is to take adxantage of the prexailing winds. Westerly 
winds — due west, sotithwest and northwest — accompany nearly all of our clear 
weather, blowing the smoke, dust and fog eastwardly. Whenever, on the 
other hand, the wind blows strongly from the east the "seeing" is almost 
without exception poor. So that such times are ])ractically worthless for 
observation. The choice of location thus takes us un<iuestionably to the 
west of the city — to the district of the AX'estern Hills h'ogs in the Ohio River 
valley would prevent the choosing of a tract too close to the river. A site 
somewhat north of west will thus present the most advantages on meteorologi- 
cal grounds. 

A Protective Zone. 

The second consideration for permanence is the securing of a large area — 
100 acres or more — so protected Ijy the natural features of the location, as 
to a\iiiil later encroachment 1)}- residences and made streets, which with their 
lights aiul dusl, would injure the astronomical value of any location. This is 
of the utmost importance : the eye at the telescope must often be shaded 
from the light before it can catch the faint details of comet or nebula, which 
it is to measure. So also the photographic plate, so sensitive to faint star- 
light, mtist be shielded fmni all rays of electric and incandescent gas lights. 
Detrimental as city illumination is to visual work, it is fatal for the photograph 
researches. A protective cone, furnished by the topography of the locality 
and the large size of the tract, is absolutely necessary. Kntire control of all 
lighting within this zone must be retained by the society Such observatory 
reservation commanding a broad view of some beautiftil valley will become 
one of the attractions of Hamilton county. In these times of rapid transit 
and auto travel, a few miles out of town will not mean isolation, but will in- 
volve less than an hour's trip by machine or traction to a magnificent \iew- 
point, to a building unique, architectically and historically, and to the open 
and hospitable home of an inspiring science. 

Knowing the wonderful recent developments in our knowledge of the 
stars, thru the photographic, spectroscopic and similar methods, every one 
who has at heart our local scientific advancement will gladly and effectively 
encourage the Cincinnati Astronomical Society in establishing some branches 
of the new astronomy in this vicinity. The formation of the society, the inter- 
est in its regular meetings, and its successful popular lectures would all have 
been impossible without public encouragement. In a far larger way, our 
plans for a home for the society, the choice tract of the ground for a perma- 
nent site, the very best obser\ator_\- possible here, adequate instruments of 
modern type, and funds by wdiich these will be maintained and fully utilized, 
deijend upon public a])preciation and eftective encouragement. 

The beautiful arches and walls frdui the most notable piece of architecture 
our city has e\-er had, now await re-erection, after a period of temporary 
storage. As the crown and masterpiece of Richardson's Romanesf|tie style 
in .\merica, they deserve permanent preservation in this tiseful and inspiring 
form. We are confident that the thousands of Chamber of Commerce mem- 
bers and merchants who sought livlihood and gained fortune within its walls, 
the many prominent business men who made their club home beneath its roof, 
together with the host of citizens who admired and loved its beautiful arcades, 
its rough hewn foundations and massive towers, and whii pointed them out 
with just pride to guest and stranger alike — that all these will join with the 
Cincinnati Astronomical Society in re-erecting the arches as the walls of 
our new Astronomical and Astro-physical Observatory. 






Socieiy ^^ 737. ^SCS* 

Date Due 


J t.. X 





DEC 2 


J AN 4 



Library Bureau Cat No 1137