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Full text of "Richardson's southern guide; a complete handbook to the beauty spots, historical places, noted battlefields, famous resorts, principal industries and chief points of interest of the South.."

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Richardson's Sportsmen's Guide. 
Richardson's Guide to Mexico. 
Richardson's South American Guide. 
Richardson's City Guides. 

No traveler's grip complete without them. 

For sale on all news stands and trains, or sent post- 
paid on receipt of price, by 

MONARCH BOOK COMPANY 

PUBLISHERS, 
121-127 Plymouth Place, CHICAGO. ILL. 



^. 



RICHARDSON'S 

outhern Guide 

A COMPLETE HANDBOOK TO 

The Beauty Spots, Historical Places, Noted 

Battlefields, Famous Resorts, Principal 

Industries and Chief Points of 

Interest of the South. 

INCLUDING DETAILED INFORMATION REGARDING 

The Leading Cities, their Hotels, Restaurants, Places of 

Amusement, Stores, Prominent Buildings, Parks, 

Drives, Street Car Systems, Etc., Etc. 



WHAT TO SEE AND HOW TO SEE IT 

This Guide is one of a series which will cover every point on 

the Western Hemisphere that has anything of 

Interest to the Tourist and Traveler. 



FOR SALE AT ALL NEWS STANDS AND BOOKSTORES 



PubUshed and Sold by 

MONARCH BOOK COMPANY 

121-127 Plymouth Place 

CHICAGO 






I wo -Juoit^ rtWcvcw I L 

AUG 14 lyo:^ I j 






Copyright 1905 

BY 

F. H. RICHARDSON 



All Rights Reserved 



PREFACE. 

The publishers take pleasure in presenting to the traveling 
public their New Southern Guide. This work is intended to 
be a handbook for travelers — a constant companion to he 
used by them in their trips through the South. Tours may- 
be planned, routes laid out and every point of interest 
seen and appreciated by means of this "Guide of Guides.^* 

The author, Mr. Frank H. Richardson, visited every im- 
portant place mentioned and, at great expense, collected 
valuable data of interest both to the tourist and the pros- 
pective settler. In the preparation of the Guide the author 
received a great deal of help from city and state officers, 
private individuals, commercial bodies and railroad officials, 
without whose co-operation and assistance the production of 
a work of this magnitude would have been impossible. In 
this connection the author wishes to express his obligations 
to the general passenger agents of the Queen & Crescent 
Route; Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis; St. Louis, Iron 
Mountain & Southern; International & Great Northern; 
Texas & Pacific and Florida & East Coast Railways; the Sea- 
board Air Line and the St. John 's River Line. 

Great care has been taken to make the Guide as correct 
as possible considering the changing conditions of the coun- 
try. Advertisements have been religiously excluded on the 
ground that their acceptance would, in a measure, prejudice 
the users of the book. As the first object of a traveler 
visiting a strange city is to find a good stopping place, the 
author has endeavored to enumerate, not only the first- 
class hotels, but the best of the cheaper houses. To this ia 
appended a list of leading restaurants. 

7 



CONTENTSo 

Page. 
ROUTE 1. CHICAGO TO JACKSONVILLE 

A. Via Cincinnati, Chattanooga, Atlanta and Macon 17 

B. Via Knoxville, Asheville, Spartanburg, Columbia and 
Savannah 51 

C. Via Nashville, Chattanooga, Atlanta and Macon 67 

ROUTE 2. CHICAGO TO NEW ORLEANS 

A. Via St. Louis, Little Rock and x\lexandria 102 

B. Via Little Rock, Texarkana and Marshall, including 
Hot Springs 124 

C. Via Cairo and Memphis 128 

ROUTE 3. CHICAGO-ST. LOUIS TO GALVESTON 

Via Little Rock, Texarkana, Marshall, Longview, Pales- 
tine and Houston 132 

ROUTE 4. CINCINNATI TO NEW ORLEANS 

A.. Via Lexington, Chattanooga, Birmingham and 
Meridian 138 

B. Via Louisville, Nashville, Birmingham, Montgomery 
and Flomaton 169 

ROUTE 5. CINCINNATI TO LOXHSVILLE 

By Boat 182 

ROUTE 6. CINCINNATI OR COLUMBUS TO JACKSON- 
VILLE. 

Via Radford, Roanoke, Lynchburg, Columbia and Sa- 
vannah 183 

ROUTE 7. CINCINNATI TO LAREDO 

A. Via Louisville, Memphis, Little Rock, Texarkana, 
Marshall, Longview, Palestine, Austin and San An- 
tonio 185 

B. Louisville to Memphis via Paducah 191 

C. Via Chattanooga, Meridian, Jackson, Vicksburg, 
Shreveport, Marshall, Longview, Palestine and San 
Antonio 1^3 

9 



10 CONTENTS. 

ROUTE 8. ST. LOUIS TO JACKSONVILLE 

A, Via Lexington, Chattanooga, Atlanta and Macon. .. .205 

B. Via Cairo, Nashville, Chattanooga and Atlanta. .. .210 

ROUTE 9. ST. LOUIS TO EL PASO 

A. Via Little Rock, Texarkana, Marshall, Dallas and Ft. 
Worth 214 

B. Via Texarkana, Sherman and Ft. Worth 214 

ROUTE 10. CHICAGO-ST. LOUIS TO LAREDO 

Via Little Rock, Texarkana, Longview, Palestine, Austin 
and San Antonio 218 

ROUTE 11. NEW YORK TO NEW ORLEANS 

A. Via Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, Lynchburg, 
Roanoke, Knoxvillc, Chattanooga, Birmingham and 
Meridian 237 

B. Via Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, Lynchburg, 
Spartanburg, Atlanta, Montgomery and Mobile 246 

C. Via Philadelphia, Harrisburg, Hagerstown, Roanoke, 
Chattanooga and Meridian 264 

D. Via Philadelphia, Washington, Shenandoah Junction, 
Roanoke, Chattanooga and Meridian 270 

ROUTE 12. NEW YORK TO TAMPA 

A. Via Philadelphia, Washington, Richmond, Raleigh, 
Columbia, Savannah, Jacksonville and Silver Springs.. 271 

B. Via Philadelphia, Washington, Richmond, Charleston, 
Savannah and Jacksonville 345 

C. Via Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, Charlotte, 
Columbia, Savannah and Jacksonville , 355 

ROUTE 13. JACKSONVILLE TO MIAMI. 

Via Ormond, Daytona, Titusville and Palm Beach 359 

ROUTE 14. JACKSONVILLE TO SANFORD 

Via St. John'a River Steamers 378 

ROUTE 15. JACKSONVILLE TO NEW ORLEANS 

Via Pensacola, Mobile and the Southern Gulf Coast Re- 
sorts 380 

ROUTE 16. SAVANNAH TO MONTGOMERY 
Via the Seaboard Line 384 



CONTENTS. 11 

ROUTE 17. MIAMI OR KEY WEST TO HAVANA 
By Steamer 388 

ROUTE 18. MONROE TO RUTHERFORDTON AND THE 
CHIMNEY ROCK COUNTRY 

Via the Seaboard Air Line 396 

ROUTE 19. EL PASO TO NEW ORLEANS 

A. Via Fort Worth, Dallas, Marshall, Shreveport and 
Alexandria 400 

B. Via Houston and San Antonio 414 

ROUTE 20. RICHMOND TO OLD POINT COMFORT 

A. Via Williamsburg and Newport News 419 

B. The James Eiver Trip 440 

ROUTE 21. ROANOKE TO NORFOLK 

Via the Norfolk and Western Eailway 442 

ROUTE 22. DENVER TO NEW ORLEANS 

A. Via Pueblo, Trinidad, Fort Worth, Dallas, Shreveport 
and Alexandria 443 

B. Via Fort Worth and Houston 446 

ROUTE 23. KANSAS CITY TO NEW ORLEANS 

Via Osawatamie, Yates Center, Coffeyville, Fort Smith, 
Little Rock and Alexandria 449 

ROUTE 24. ATLANTA TO SAVANNAH 

Via Macon 456 

Savannah, the City of Opportunities 460 

Shreveport, Louisiana 465 



TO OUR PATRONS. 

Our aim\<is publishers of RICHARDSON'S GTHDES ia 
betterment of the service, and to that end we invite the 
co-operation of our readers. Have you any suggestions to 
offer for their improvement? Possibly you may have noticed 
inaccuracies, natural to a production of great magnitude. 
If so, kindly point them out. For instance, we cannot abso- 
lutely guarantee the correctness of hotel rates. They are 
quoted as they were given us at the time of publication, but 
may have changed since then. Patrons are therefore re- 
quested to send in the name of any hotel that refuses to 
grant rates as scheduled in the GUIDES. 



ABBREVIATIONS. 

In order to shorten the work certain abbreviations have 
been used, most of which are found in the following list: 

Alt. — Altitude — elevation above the sea level. 

M. — Mile — miles. 

N.— North; N. W.— Northwest. 

S. — South; S. W. — Southwest. 

E.— East; N. E.— Northeast. 

W.— West; S. E.— Southeast. 

Blk. — City square. 

Bldg. — Building. 

Ft.— Feet. 

Mt. — Mountain. 

Ry. — Railway. 

St.— Street. 

Ave. — Avenue. 

A. P. — American plan. 

E. P. — European plan. 

$1.50 — 2 applied to hotel rate means $1.50 to $2 per day. 

Cor. — Corner. 

Bet. — Between. 

P. C. means that the institution it is applied to has tele- 
phone connections. 

Pop. — Population. 

P.— Page. 

0pp. — Opposite. 

Adm. — Admission. 

R. — Route. 

Wk.— Week. 

Mo. — Month. 

* is a mark cjf commendation; when applied to a hotel 
it has a relative meaning, signifying that it is good in its re- 
spective class. 

** is a mark of special commendation. 

(15 M.) — Figures in parenthesis following name of place 
indicate its distance from starting point, 



18 



SPECIAL ROUTES. 

The giving of advice regarding routes to be taken in 
going to the South is a difficult undertaking, since the 
South is an immense stretch of territory, which may be 
entered from many different ways. Then, too, the route 
depends a great deal on the locality one starts from. In 
a general way, however, it may be said that in going to 
points in N. or S. Carolina, Virginia, Georgia or Florida, one 
will do well to take the Seaboard Air Line out of Wash- 
ington, except when the Asheville country and W. North 
Carolina is to be reached. For this section the Southern Ry. 
is the best. From Jacksonville to Tampa, the Seaboard 
takes you past Silver Springs, which together with the 
Oclawaha river, are the best sights in Florida. Moreover, 
it is much cheaper to see them from this end than via the 
Atlantic Coast Line, since the whole river trip must then be 
included (p. 352). For the East Florida Coast there is no 
choice, the Florida East Coast Line (p. 359) being the only 
line available. The person traveling from New England 
States to New Orleans or Mobile will find the Queen and 
Crescent and its connection, the Southern, out of Washington 
best (E. 11 A, p. 237). The line is direct, the service ex- 
cellent and the time fast. 

From Chicago to the S. E., the -wTiter recommends either 
one of two routes, viz., the Queen & Crescent (1 A, p. 17) 
or the Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis (R. 1 C, p. 67). 
The Queen & Crescent connection out of Chicago is either 
the Big Four (111. Cent. 12th St. Depot) or the Monon 
Route (Dearborn St. station), connecting with the Queen 
& Crescent at Cincinnati and with the Southern at Chatta- 
nooga and thence thro\^gh Atlanta and Macon, or there is 
choice of the route from Hickman via Asheville (p. 53), 
Spartansburg (p. 66), Columbia (p. 321) and Savannah 
(p. 326). The service via this route leaves little to be de- 
sired. The N. C. & St. L. through Florida train leaves 
Chicago via the Chicago & Eastern Ills. Ry. (Rock Island 
Depot, cor. La Salle & Van Buren Sts.), connecting with the 
Dixie Flyer from St. Louis at Nashville (p. 72). This line 
passes through the most hotly-contested country of the Civil 
War, Murfreesboro (p. 83), Monteagle (p. 87), Chattanooga 
(p. 38), Ringold (p. 90), Dalton (p. 90), Kenesaw (p. 92), 

15 i 



le EOUTES. 

Atlanta (p. 95), Maxjon (p. 50), etc., being along the way. 
The service is first-class. 

From St. Louis to Florida the Dixie Flyer of the N. C. 
& St. L., leaving St. Louis via the Illinois Central Ry., con- 
necting with the N. C. & St. L. at Martin, offers splendid 
service through an exceedingly interesting country. There 
is nothing better from St. Louis to Florida, and much that 
ia not so good (R. 8 B, p. 210). 

From Chicago to New Orleans, the quickest route, if time 
is the only consideration, is the Illinois Central. There is, 
however, a route (E. 2 A, p. 102) that costs no more in fare 
and takes one through the length of the states of Arkansas 
and Louisiana — the least-known part of the United States 
and a section of great interest. Those to whom time is not 
the chief consideration should go to New Orleans via this 
route, which leaves Chicago via the Wabash (Dearborn St. 
station), connecting with the Texas & Pacific at Alexandria. 
Look over these routes and decide for yourselves. There ia 
nothing can be said against the service or time of the 111. 
Cent. Ry., but by going the other way you see the cream of 
both Arkansas and Louisiana. 

From Cincinnati to New Orleans, take the Queen & Cres- 
cent. Time fast — service excellent. 

Regarding the route from the West, there is little advice 
that can be given, except that those passing through St. 
Louis or Chicago will do well to have their tickets made to 
read from these points, as per our recommendation. Tour- 
ists going south, via the Colorado Southern from Colorado to 
New Orleans, should route via Texas & Pacific from Fort 
Worth. From Chicago and St. Louis to Mexico, the author 
advises the Iron Mountain and International & Great North- 
em Rys. (R. 10, p. 218), which take you through Austin, 
San Antonio and some of the best scenery in old Mexico. 



SCALPERS' TICKETS. 

The only advice the writer can give is to let them alone. 
Of course, you may save a few dollars, but at the risk of 
having the ticket taken up and of being subjected to great 
inconvenience and possible delay. The game is hardly worth 
the candle. If you do get through all right you will have 
had enough worry over the matter to fully balance any 
saving you may have accomplished. Therefore, get a regular 
ticket from the authorized railway agent, especially if you 
are not an experienced traveler. 



ROUTE 1. CHICAGO TO JACKSONVILLE. 

A. Via Cincinnati, Chattanooga, Atlanta and Macon. 

Big Four, Queen & Crescent and Southern Eailways. 
(1,128.6 M.) Fare $27.55. Sleeper $6.50. 

Koute 1 B, see P. 51; Koute 1 C, see P. 67. 

This route, known as the "Queen & Crescent,** takes one 
through some very interesting cities. The train is called 
the "Chicago-Florida Special,'* and consists of the latest 
and most modern equipment, running observation and din- 
ing cars, and drawing-room sleepers from Chicago, Indian- 
apolis, Toledo, Cleveland and Columbus via the Big Four 
directly tlu'ough to Jacksonville and St. Augustine. At Lex- 
ington, a through sleeper from St. Louis is attached (E. 8 
A, P. 205). 

Passing out of the Twelfth Street Illinois Central Depot, 
the train skirts the lake front to Grand Crossing (9i.{> M.), 
where it leaves the lake and curves to the south. Between 
Grand Crossing and Harvey we cross a network of rail- 
way lines, these being the trunk lines which bend around 
the south end of Lake Michigan and extend to the east. 
At and near Matteson (28 M.) the Michigan Central and 
the Elgin, Joliet & Eastern lines are crossed. Moneo (34 M.) 
lies on the watershed between Lake Michigan and the 
Mississippi. At Manteno Eock Creek is crossed. Kankakee 
(56 M.), on the Kankakee river, is an industrial and rail- 
way center of considerable importance. Here the Cleveland, 
Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis and the Indiana, Illinois & 
Iowa Eys. are crossed, and at St. Anne (66 M.) the main 
line of the Chicago & Eastern Illinois Ey. 

At Iroquois (82 M.) the train passes over Iroquois river, 
and at Sheldon (85 M.) we cross the line of the Toledo, 
Peoria & Western Ey. At Swanington (105 M.) another 
line of the Chicago & Eastern Illinois Ey. is crossed, and at 
Templeton (112 M.) junction is made with the Lake Erie & 
Western Ey. Before entering Lafayette, our train crosses 
the Wabash river. 

LAFAYETTE, INDIANA (130 M.). Population 22,160. 

Hotels— Lehr, cor. 5th & Main Sts. A. P., $2.50-4.00 per 
day. Hines, 205-11 Main St., A. P., $2-2.50 per day. Bram- 
ble House, car. 3rd St., A. P., $1.25-1.50 per day, $4-5.00 per 
week. 

Restaurants — Jamieson's Cafe, 429 Main St. Gillians' 
Cafe, 520 Main St. Kramer 's, 225 Main St. American Chop 
House, 212 N. 5th. 

17 



18 CHICAGO TO JACKSONVILLE. 

Furnished Rooms— 225 Main St., 405 Columbia, 429 Main 
St. Prices 25 cts. to $1.00 per night, $2-7.00 per week. 

Banks — Merchants' National, cor. 4th & Columbia; First 
National, 316 Main St.; National Fowler, cor. 4th & Colum- 
bia; Taylor, 300 Main St. 

Theaters — Grand Opera House, Columbia St., bet. 6th & 
7th. Prices according to attractions. 

Eailway Express Companies — American, 315 Columbia, P. 
C. Bell No. 125; United States, 23 N. 4th, P. C. Bell No. 114; 
Pacific, 411 Columbia, P. C. Bell No. 19. 

Telegraph Companies — Western Union, cor. 4th & Colum- 
bia, P. C. Bell No. 100; Postal, cor. 3rd & Columbia, P. C. 
Bell No. 118. Oliice hrs., 7 a. m.-ll p. m. Sunday, 9 a. m.- 
3 p. m., 11 a. m--6 p. m. 

Livery— S. O. Taylor, 63-65-67 S. 3rd St., P. C Bell No. 
101-Harrison 101; single rig $1.50 half day, $2.00 a day, 
evening $3.00; double rigs, $3.00 half day, $4.00 a day. 
Seegers Transfer Livery Co., cor. 4th S. St., P. C. Bell No. 
102-Harrison 102; rates the same as Taylor's. 

Railway Ticket Offices — Wabash E. E., Erie St., bet. 
Ferry N., P. C. Bell No. 131-Harrison 379; C. C. C. & St. L., 
Second St., bet. South & Alabama., P. C. Bell No. 88-Har. 
382; Interurban, Indianapolis & N. W. Traction Line, 16 N. 
3rd St., P. C. Har. No. 32; Lake Eric & Western, Second St., 
bet. South & Alabama, P. C. Bell SS-Har. 382. 

Scalpers' Offices— David Eosenzwerg, 130 N. 5th St., P. C. 
Bell. No. 130. 

Billposters and Distributors — Lafayette Bill Posting Co., 
cor. 4th & South Sts., P. C. Bell No. 102-Har. 102. 

Trunk Factory & Repairs — Joseph W. Dealy, 130 N. 3rd St, 

Laundry— Citizens' Steam Laundry, 223 N. 5th, P. C. No. 
254. 

Men's Furnishings — McCarthy Hat Co., 414 Main St. 

Largest Department Store — Lyoel & Hene Co., 323-29 
Columbia St. 

Post Office — Cor. 4th & Cherry Sts. General delivery and 
stamps, open 7 a. m.-7 p. m. Sundays, 9-10 a. m. M. O., 
open 8 a. m.-5 p. m. Carrier window, Sundays, 9-10 a. m. 

Public Library— Cor. 5th & South Sts. 

See City Directory— Churches, p. 36; clubs, p. 223-233; 
commercial bodies, p. 44; secret societies, p. 39; public halls, 
p. 38; office bldgs. or blks., p. 38. (Two of the clubs, or- 
ganized for commercial purposes, are: The Merchants' 
Ass'n, sec'y, E. K. Curtis; Lafayette Com'l Club, sec'y, I. 
J. Baines.) 

Leading Local Industries — Wagon works; Sterling Elec- 



LAFAYETTE— INDIANAPOLIS. 19 

trie Works; Henry Taylor Lumber Co.; Schwab Safe & 
Lock Co. 

Lafayette lies on the S. bank of the Wabash river, at 
the head of steam navigation and it is essentially indus- 
trial, having many manufacturing plants. The lines of the 
Wabash By. and the Chicago, Indianapolis & Louisville Ry. 
cross here. Seven miles to the N. lies the battleground of 
Tippecanoe, where General Harrison (old Tippecanoe), in 
1812, defeated Tecumseh at the head of the Miamis and 
Shawnees. Purdue college (700 students) teaches agricul- 
ture, engineering and other practical branches. At Alta- 
mont (133 M.) junction is made with the Lake Erie & 
Western Ey., which extends to Indianapolis, via Frankfort. 
At Clarkshill (146 M.), the line of the Toledo, St. Louis & 
Western Ey. is crossed. At Colfax (151 M.) we cross the 
line of the Terro Haute & Indianapolis Ey. At Lebanon 
(167 M.), the Chicago & S. E. Ey. is crossed. Just before 
entering Indianapolis (194 M.), we pass over the West Fork 
White river. 

INDIANAPOLIS.— Population, about 200,000. 

Hotels^-Grand, A. P., $2-5 per day. Spencer House, A. 
P., $2-3 per day. The Denison, A. P., $2.50 up, E. P., $1 
up. Hotel Morton, E. P., $1 up. 

Indianapolis, besides being the capital and principal city 
of Indiana, is a railway center of much importance, there 
being some fourteen lines radiating to all points of the 
compass. It lies on the W. branch of tho White River, in 
the center of a wide plain. Aside from the fact that In- 
dianapolis has an extensive live stock business and manu- 
facturing products to the extent of many millions of dollars 
annually, its chief attraction is the^ residence section, with 
its beautiful homes, shade trees and well kept lawns. The 
'^State Capitol Building is a large structure surmounted by a 
dome, erected at a cost of $2,000,000. The County Court 
House is also an imposing edifice. E. of the capitol liea 
Monument Place, in which is the *Soldiers' & Sailors* Monu- 
ment, 285 ft. in height, by Bruno Schmidt, of Berlin. One- 
half M. N. of the monument is the State Blind Asylum, an 
inspection of which will be of considerable interest. Tele- 
phone visiting hours before going out. On a hill to the E. 
of tho city is the United States Arsenal. The State Deaf 
and Dumb Asylum also lies to the E. The Propylaeum, a 
building of unique design, is owned and controlled by a 
Btook company of women; it is used for literary purposes. 
One-half M. to the W. of the city lies the State Insane Asy- 



20 CHICAGO TO JACKSONVILLE. 

lum; two M. to the N. is Crown Hill Cemetery. The stock 
yards and many large industrial plants lie on the opposite 
side of the river to the S. "W. 

Leaving Indianapolis, junction is made with the Clev., 
Cin., Chicago & St. L. Ey. at Fairland (214 M.). At Shelby- 
ville (221 M.), one of the Pennsylvania Ey. lines is crossed. 
Eeaching Greensburg (242 M.) we cross the Clev., Cin., Chi. 
& St. L. Ey. Just beyond Lawrenceburg Junction (283 M.) 
we enter the State of Ohio, soon thereafter reaching the N. 
bank of the Ohio river, which is followed, paralleling the 
lines of the B. & O. Ey. to Cincinnati. 

CINCINNATI, O. (305 M.) —Population 370,000. 

Depots— Central Union, 3rd & Central Ave., Big Four, 
Queen & Crescent, B. & O. S. W., Kentucky Central, Cin- 
cinnati Northern, Chesapeake & Ohio, Pennsylvania. Cor. 
Pearl & Butler Sts., Pennsylvania Lines and Norfolk & 
"Western, Louisville & Nashville, Cincinnati, Hamilton & 
Dayton; C. H. & D., Erie Ey. and Cine, Chicago & Louis- 
ville. Court St., cor. Court St. & Broadway, Cincinnati, 
Lebanon & Northern. 

Hotels — (High class) Burnet House, Vine St. near 3rd 
St., A. P. only, $3-5 per day; Gibson House, cor. Walnut & 
4th Sts., E. P., $1.50 up, with bath $2 up; Grand Hotel, 
cor. 4th & Central Sts., A. P., $3 up, E. P., $1.50 up; Alms, 
cor. McMillan & Alms Place (family hotel); Emery, en- 
trance in Arcade, Vine, bet. 4th & 5th Sts., E. P., $1-2; 
Honing, Vine St., above 4th, E. P., $1-2.50; Sterling, cor. 
6th & Mound Sts., A. P., $2 up, family trade a specialty; 
Munro, 7th St., bet. Vine & Eace Sts., men only, E. P., $1-2; 
Palace, cor. Vine & 6th Sts., A. P., $2-3.50, E. P., $1 up; 
St. Nicholas, cor. 4th & Eace Sts., E. P., $2 up, with bath, 
$2.50 up. (Medium) Bristol, cor. 6th & Walnut Sts; Denni- 
Bon House, cor. 5th & Main Sts., E. P., 75 cts. up; Gerdes, 
W. 5th, bet. Elm. & Plum, E. P., 50c-$1.50, theatrical spe- 
cialty; Hoemer's, No. 17 W. 12th St., A. P., $1.25, E. P., 
50 cts. up; Oxford, cor. 6th & Eace Sts., E. P., 50c-$1.00; 
Eand, No. 19 W. 5th, E. P., 50c-$l, by wk., $3.50 up; Strat- 
ford, Walnut, bet. 6th & 7th, E. P., 50c-$l, theatrical a spe- 
cialty; Stag, 418 Vine St., men only, 75c-$1.25. (Cheap) 
Columbia, cor. Elm & Longworth, all rooms 25c., free bath, 
modern; Standard, 6th, bet. Vine & Walnut, men only, E. 
P., room 20-25C. 

Furnished Rooms— In addition to the E. P. hotels given 
(see Hotels), furnished rooms, many for light housekeeping, 
are located all over the city. The Cincinnati Enquirer has 



CINCINNATI— FACTS EEGAEDING CITY. 21 

a complete list in its want columns, especially on Sunday. 
Many rooms may be found on 8th St., bet. Main St. and 
Garfield Park. 

Restaurants— (High class) St. Nicholas, cor. 4th & Eace; 
Majestic, 526 Vine St.; The Stag, 418 Vine St.; The Gib- 
son, 419 Walnut St. (Medium) The Manhattan, 17-21 W. 
5th St., excellent; Martin's, 539 Walnut St.; Delicatessen, 
514-16 Vine and 319 Walnut St. Here, as elsewhere, restau- 
rants may be found in nearly every block. But the above, 
according to their class, the writer can recommend. 

Banks— First National, 4th & Walnut Sts.; Third National, 
101 W. 4th St.; Fifth National, cor. Vine & 4th Sts.; Market 
National, cor. Plum & 4th Sts.; Atlas National, 518 Wal- 
nut St.; Citizens' National, cor. 3rd & Walnut Sts.; Equit- 
able National, Union Trust Bldg.; Farmers' & Traders' Na- 
tional, cor. 6th & Madison Ave.; Merchants' National, cor. 
4th & Vine Sts.; Newport National, cor. 5th & York Sts., 
and many others. 

Theaters — Grand Opera House, cor. Vine & Opera PL, 
seat, cap,, 1,700, prices 25c to $1.50, high class, best in city; 
Heuck's Theater, Vine, bet. 12th & 13th Sts., seat. cap. 
1,700, prices 15c to 75c, high class, musical, comedy and 
melodrama; Walnut St. Theater, Walnut St., bet. 6th & 
7th., seat. cap. 1,700, prices 15c to $1; Auditorium, used 
mostly for conventions and home talent, cor. Elm & 7th; 
Columbia Theater, Walnut, bet. 6th & 7th, seat. cap. 1,700, 
prices 25e to $1; Lyceum Theater, 427 Central Ave., seat. 
cap. 1,527, prices lOe to 50c, melodrama; Eobinson's Opera 
House, cor. 9th and Plum; Buckeye Theater, 1213 Vine St., 
concert hall, drinks served, adm. free. 

Railway Express Offices— Adams, 416 Main St., P. C; 
American & Great Northern Cos., 16 E. 4th St., P. C; Wells 
Fargo Co., 415 Walnut St., P. C; United States & Western 
Cos., 210 E. 4th St., P. C; Pacific Exp. Co., 423 Main St., 
P. C; Northern Pac. & Northern Exp. Cos., 16 E. 4th St., 
P. C; Southern & Southern Ohio Cos., 133 E. 6th St., P. C; 
Canadian Exp. Co., 415 Walnut St., P. C; Cin., Georgetown 
& Portsmouth Exp. Co., 413 Sycamore St., P. C; Dominion 
Exp. Co., 210 E. 4th St.; Glove Exp. Co., 423 Main St. 

Telegraph Cos.— Western Union, cor, 4th & Vine St., P. C; 
Postal Tel. Co., 23 Fountain Sq., P. C. Messenger service— 
A. D. T. at Postal, O. M. T. at Western Union, same phones. 

Livery Stables— Gaunthers, 209-211 E. 6th St., P. C, 
rates very reasonable; F. Zunestein. 

Ry. Ticket Offices— Big Four, cor. 4th & Vine Sts., P. C; 
Louisville & Nashville, cor. 5th & Vine Sts.; Pennsylvania 
Lines, cor. 4th & Walnut Sts., P. C; Eock Island and Frisco 



22 CHICAGO TO JACKSONVILLE. 

Systems, 407 Walnut St., P. C; Queen & Crescent Route, 
Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton, cor. Walnut & Fountain 
Sq., P. C; Monon Route, same as C. H. & D., P. C; Mo. 
Pacific, International & Gt. Northern, Denver & Rio Grande, 
Iron Mountain, and Texas Pacific offices, 419 Walnut St., 
P. C; Chesapeake & Ohio, 426 Walnut St., P. C; Baltimore 
& Ohio, 426 Walnut St., P. C; Union & Southern Pacific 
Cos., 531 4th St., P. C; Norfolk & Western, 45 E. 4th St., 
P. C; Burlington Route, 436 Walnut St., P. C; Illinois 
Central, 423 Walnut St., P. C. 

Men's Furnisliings— The Model, 116 E. Canal St. 

Department Stores — John Sillato & Co., cor. 7th & Race; 
The Fair, cor. 6th & Race. 

Post Office — Government Square, 5th St., Main to Walnut, 
Gen. Del. & Stamps, 7 a. m.-9 p. m.; M. O. Dept., 9 a. m.-5 
p. m. Sundays, Stamps, Gen. Del. & Carriers, 9.30-10:30 a. m. 

Public Library— Vine St., bet. 6th & 7th. 

Chamber of Commerce — Cor. 4th & Vine, Mr. C. B. Murray, 
executive secretary. 

Churches, p. 2476; Clubs, p. 2489; Secret Societies, p. 2515; 
Public Halls, Office Bldgs., Blocks, Etc., p. 270. See City 
Directory on pages given. 

City Directories of all cities may be seen at the Post Office 
or at the office of the Williams Directory Co. 

Leading Local Industries — Shoe manufacturing, carriage 
manufacturing, clothing manufacturing and machine tool 
manufacturing are the four very large industries, employ- 
ing about 29,000 persons. Also large soap works and litho- 
graphing plants. One of the largest trunk line railway 
centers in the country. Very large tobacco and hardwood 
lumber market. Many industries of minor importance. 

Places of Amusement — One of the main resorts is *Chester 
Park, reached via Chester Park car, cor. 5th & Walnut Sts., 
or by Avondale line, from 5th & Main Sts., fare 5c. Go by 
one line and return by the other. Amusement resort. Gen- 
eral adm. to grounds, 10c. Adm. to attractions within 
grounds, 5-lOc. Free Vaudeville, miniature Railway, Figure 
Eight, Bathing (fine beach), etc., etc. Excellent place, 
suitable for ladies and children. Another amusement place, 
Coney Island, opens June 8th, closes Sept. 1st. Reached by 
boat, 10 M. up the river; fare 25c, including admission to 
the grounds, or via electric line, fare 10c; adm. to grounds 
15c. Admission to attractions within grounds, 5-lOc. Free 
Vaudeville. Usual attractions found at park resorts, in- 
cluding The Chutes. Nice place, suitable for ladies and 
children. Another popular resort is The Lagoon. This 
resort lies on the Kentucky shore a short distance below 



CINCINNATI— FACTS REGARDING CITY. 23 

Covington. Boarding a ''Lagoon" car, fare 5c, cor. 4th & 
Vine Sts., we ride over the Suspension Bridge into and 
through Covington, and on down the S. bank of the Ohio to 
the grounds (time 20-25 min.). Genl. adm. to grounds 10c. 
Boating, Bathing, Scenic Ry., Dancing, Music, Vaudeville 
and other similar attractions; 5-lOc adm. Drinks served in 
club house. Nice place; suitable for ladies and children. 
Bathing, at the resorts or at the beach. Take Bellevue car 
from Gov't Square for latter, fare 5c. Good sand beach. 
Room and suit, 25c. "Over the Rhine" WlUert's, is a popu- 
lar, high grade beer garden. Vine & Clifton car from Foun- 
tain Square, fare 5c. 

The City of Cincinnati has considerably more than the 
average to offer to the tourist and traveler in the way of 
points of interest. It lies in a sort of cove, or amphitheater, 
bounded on the S. by the Ohio river and on the other three 
sides by precipitous hills of considerable height, which lend 
to the scene a touch of the picturescLue that is very pleas- 
ing. The location is in almost the extreme S. W. corner of 
the State, being but a few miles from the W. State line, 
and at the northern apex of the state of Kentucky. Cin- 
cinnati is the chief commercial center of Ohio, a great trunk 
line railway center, and one of the natural gateways to the 
South. There is lots of life and hustle here, the streets 
being constantly crowded. There is a strong tendency 
toward the building of sky-scrapers, caused by the surround- 
ing hills limiting the amount of level ground available 
along the river. There are a number of 15-16 story build- 
ings. The same causes operate to congest the downtown 
streets to a very considerable extent, and to confine business 
operations to a comparatively small space. The street car 
system, when one comes to consider the difficulties to be 
overcome, is surprisingly complete, and one may reach any- 
desired part of the city, either downtown or in the resi- 
dence section among the hills, for a 5c fare. It is neces- 
sary, in order to reach the residence section, to elevate 
the street ears several hundred feet on ' ' inclines. * ' The cars 
have two trolley poles, for the reason that the * ' full metallic 
circuit" is used and the current, instead of passing from 
the motor to the rails, does not reach them at all, but re- 
turns to the dynamo through the extra trolley wire. Cin- 
cinnati has exceptionally good hotel accommodations, easily 
accessible by street car from all depots, and the stranger 
will be well cared for. The rates are very reasonable, con- 
sidering the class of entertainment furnished. 

*A Short Walk— The tourist who has but a short time to 
remain in the city may, in a walk that will consume but 



24 CHICAGO TO JACKSONVILLE. 

11^-2 hours, see many things by following these directions: 
Go' to Fountain Square (any one will direct you) where will 
be seen the *Tyler Davidson Fountain (P. 24), N. along 
Vine St. past the Public Library (P. 26) to 7th St., W. 
(left) on 7th. to Plum St., passing, cor. 7th & Elm, the 
Auditorium (admirably arranged for small conventions), 
No. 206, the Free Employment Bureau, No. 215, the Oscar 
Ehrcott Vocal School. Cor. 7th & Plum we will see (left) 
the *St. Paul's Cathedral (Episcopal) (P. 25). Turning N. 
(right) on Plum we see, cor. Plum & 8th, the **St. Peter's 
Cathedral (P. 25). Opp., facing it, the Jewish Synagogue 
(P. 25), and opp. (N.) the City Hall (P. 25). Continuing 
N. past the City Hall to the first bridge over the canal (P. 
25), v/e turn E. (right), cross the canal, walk one block to 
Elm, N. (left) on Elm to 13th, where is the *Odeon Music 
College, Music Hall and Washington Park (P. 26). Back 
S on Elm to 8th and E. (left) through Garfield Park (P. 
26) to Main St., noting No. 21 W. 8th (P. 26) as we pass. 
S. (right) on Main to 4th, passing the Government Building, 
cor. Main & Government Square (P. 26), W. (right) on 4th, 
past the sky scrapers and Chamber of Commerce (P. 26). 

This walk can be made in two hours with a hasty 
examination of the things named, and will show a goodly 
part of the business section too. It may be made in an hour 
if no stop is made. 

Points of Interest — The center about which Cincinnati 
affairs revolve is the ^Fountain Sctuare. This is a sort of 
clearing house for the street car system, practically all 
street car lines centering here and ''looping" the square. 
It is not really a square at all, but a widening of Fifth St., 
between Vine and Main, the east half between Walnut and 
Main being known as Government Square. In the center of 
Fountain Square is the *Tyler Davidson Fountain, presented 
to the city in memory of Tyler Davidson, by Henry Pro- 
basco, under whose direction it was built. It contains 24 
tons of bronze, obtained by the melting of old cannons 
purchased from the Danish government. The design was 
from the drawings of August Von Kreling. The rim of the 
circular basin, on which the fountain stands,^ is of dark 
porphyry from Weisenstadt in Upper Franconia, there be- 
ing 85 tons of this stone. The main figure is surrounded 
by four groups of statuary in bronze. The design, as a 
whole, has high artistic merit; it is unique and beautiful. 
Each hand of the central figure is pierced by 430 water 
holes, as follows: Little finger 30, ring finger 47, middle 
finger 37, fore finger 46, thumb 22, palm 248. The city 
provided the esplanade on which the fountain stands at a 



CINCINNATI— FACTS EEGAEDING CITY. 25 

cost of $75,000; the fountain itself cost $105,000. There is 
an underground cooling chamber, lined with 2,000 feet of 
pipe, for holding ice. On the Esplanade will be noticed a 
small flower market. This cannot be removed without 
causing the title to the property to revert back to the 
original owners. The Esplanade is lined with trees, which 
lend a touch of nature to the scene, Fountain Square pre- 
senting a quaint and pleasing appearance, especially at 
night. 

**St. Peter's Cathedral, cor. Plum and 8th Sts., is one of 
the things that every visitor to the city desires to see. 
The building is 200 by 91 feet and displays two distinct 
types of architecture, the portico being Greek, with the 
roof supported by 18 freestone columns 3% ft. in diameter 
by 33 ft. in height. The walls are of Dayton marble, 
and the basement of blue sandstone. The *altar is of 
Carrara marble, with two angles on either side, the work 
of Hiram Powers. Opposite the altar is a pipe organ, 
with 44 stops and 2,700 pipes. There are several paintings, 
valuable boith from ^ an artistic and historic standpoint, 
among them being **'''St. Peter Liberated By An Angel," 
taken from the Spaniards during the Peninsular War and 
presented by Cardinal Feschi, uncle of Napoleon I, to Bishop 
Fenwick. The building was begun in 1839 and consecrated 
in 1844. Seating capacity 1,600, cost $244,000. Open to 
visitors. In the spire, which is built entirely of stone, 
surmounted by a large stone cross, is a chime of 13 bells, 
presented in 1850 by Reuben R. Springer, which strikes the 
quarters with four strokes and plays a tune every third 
hour. 

Immediately facing the Cathedral is the Jewish Syna- 
gogue, a structure of considerable beauty. Opposite the 
Cathedral, north, is the City Hall, an imposing stone build- 
ing in the Romanesque style of architecture a full block 
in length. In it are located all the city offices. One block 
south (cor. Plum and 7th) will be seen *St. Paul Cathedral 
(Episcopal), a structure presenting a somewhat startling 
style of architecture, the wide arched entrance being flanked 
by two square towers set diagonally to the opening. These 
towers, although the church bears evidence of considerable 
age, have never been finished. The interior is very pretty, 
and the edifice is worth a visit. 

Passing through the center of the city is^ the Canal, 
which connects Lake Erie with the Ohio River. It is 
240 miles in length and carries considerable commerce. 
It lies about 10th St. and may be encountered by walking 
north on any street east of Plum. *Music Hall is reached 



26 CHICAGO TO JACKSONVILLE. 

by street car, fare 5 cents; it is, however, but a short 
walk from the heart of the city. It contains an immense 
auditorium, seating 3,617 persons, an ideal place for con- 
ventions and much used for that purpose. It is the third 
largest of its kind in the country, the Metropolitan of New 
York and the Auditorium of Chicago alone leading it. 
There is an immense pipe organ, one of the finest in the 
world. The stage is 112 ft. wide by 52 deep, the proscenium 
being 72x55 feet. The building was completed in 1878 
and cost $346,612. Adjoining Music Hall on the south is 
the Odeon College of Music, in light brick. The building 
contains dormitories, accommodating about 80 pupils, a 
well fitted music-hall, which is, in fact, a small opera house, 
a pipe organ, etc., etc. There are several other colleges 
of music in this vicinity, the city being quite a musical 
center. 

In Garfield Park, which is a widening of 8th St., between 
Vine and Elm, will be seen an equestrian statue of William 
Henry Harrison, by L. T. Eebiso, and a statue of Garfield, 
by Niehaus. East of Garfield Park, at No. 21 W. 8th St., 
is the three-story flat-roofed brick house in which, on the 
afternoon of November 21st, 1864, T. Buchanan Eead wrote 
the poem, "Sheridan's Ride." A bronze tablet, set in the 
facade of the building, commemorates the event. It is now 
a rooming house. The Public Library is on Vine St., between 
6th and 7th. The building is in the Eomanesque style of 
architecture and houses over 250,000 volumes. Those inter- 
ested in such matters will find the library worthy an in- 
spection. 

The ^Suspension Bridge, which spans the Ohio and con- 
nects Cincinnati with Covington, a sister city across the 
river, is owned by a private company, and a toll of 5 cents 
is charged foot passengers. Passengers on street cars only 
pay 5 cents, though no transfers are given. The bridge has 
been changed from a suspension to a combination suspen- 
sion-truss bridge. The distance between the towers is 1,057 
ft.; height of towers, with turrets, 230 ft.- The large cables 
contain 10,360 small wires. The roadway is 103 ft. above 
low water mark. The bridge was built under the direction 
of John A. Eoebling, in 1865; cost $1,800,000. There are 
four other bridges over the river. 

The Chamber of Commerce Building is a massive stone 
structure in the Eomanesque style, located cor. 4th and 
Vine Sts. The Government Building is five stories in 
height, built of gray stone. It extends along Government 
Square from Main to Walnut Sts. It cost Uncle Sam 
$5,500,000 and houses the Post Ofl&ces, two Federal Courts, 



CINCINNATI— FACTS REGARDING CITY. 27 

the Custom House and various government offices. Consid- 
erable interest centers about the ^Hamilton County Court 
House, cor. Main St. and Court Place, and the jail in its 
rear, from the reason that it was here the mob which held 
sway for three days, in 1884, surged and fought while the 
court house burned, and the streets ran red with, blood. 
The riot was brought about by the dilatory methods of the 
courts in dealing with criminals. The drug store of F. 
Kinzbach, cor. Court Place and Walnut St., was piled with 
dead. Hundreds were killed and wounded, and when at last 
peace was restored, the old court house, which occupied the 
site of the present structure, was in ruins, having been 
burned by the mob, partly in revenge for those killed in 
the first assault on the jail. 

**A walk through one of the markets on Saturday evening, 
or early any morning, will be very interesting. There is a 
large one on Pearl St., and on alternate days on 6th St., 
between John and Race, and in Court Place, between Vine 
St. and the Court House. Great loads of market-garden 
produce are exposed for sale, and the housewife comes with 
her basket to buy the day's provision. The scene is, at 
times, very lively, and is always interesting. 

The Eden-Zoo line of the street railway has many things 
to show. Boarding an ''Eden-Zoo" car on the south side 
of Fountain Square, we soon arrive at one of the sights 
peculiar to Cincinnati — the *Mt. Adams Incline. There are 
several of these inclines, but this one is the best. The car 
runs on a platform and is elevated 300 ft. in a distance 
of 1,000. Occupy a seat near the rear of the car while 
the ascent is being made, or else stand on the back end of 
the incline platform and watch the view unfold like a 
scene from fairyland as the car rises. At the top of the 
incline we will leave the car and visit the *Rookwood Pot- 
teries, which lie just to the left of the building at the 
summit. The Pottery buildings are in the English half- 
timber style and stand on the crest of a hill, so that a fine 
view is had of the city and surrounding country to the 
south. The Potteries are open to visitors from 9 a. m. to 
4 p. m., and the wares displayed are of extraordinary 
beauty. The factory may be inspected and practically the 
whole process of making is shown. The wares are of 
worldwide fame and have taken many medals, while almost 
all museums of note have purchased specimens. Leaving 
the Potteries, we see across the car tracks a large brick 
building on the crest of the hill, the Monastery of the Holy 
Cross. 

A short walk (10 minutes) along the street ear tracks 



28 CHICAGO TO JACKSONVILLE. 

will take us to the **Art Museum, standing on an eminence 
in Eden Park. The building is of stone and is handsome 
and imposing, though not large. The arrangements of the 
exhibits and light is remarkably fine and reflects great credit 
on Mr. J. H. Gest, the director in charge. Open week days, 
9 a. m.; Sundays, 1 p. m. Closes 6 p. m. in summer, 4 p. m. 
in winter. Admission, 10 cents, Saturdays and Sundays; 
other days, 25 cents. Permanent collection of paintings, 
sculpture, metal-work, textiles, ceramics, and other objects, 
illustrating the history of art in all its phases from pre- 
historic to modern times. The Art Academy, the teaching 
department of the museum, occupies a separate building 
and gives instruction to over 400 students annually, mostly 
in drawing, painting and modeling from life. It is sup- 
ported by endowment, has low tuition fees and gives money 
scholarships to students. 

As before stated, the Art Museum is in *Eden Park, the 
finest in the city. The grounds are very uneven, gravelled 
roadways and footpaths winding in and out among timbered 
hills and lawns. On the summit of the hill, opposite the 
Museum, is the Water Tower, from the top of which a 
magnificent view of the city, the Kentucky hills, the curve 
of the river, as well as several surrounding towns and cities, 
is to be obtained. Admission to tower, 10 cents; elevator 
takes you up; open 9 a. m. to 5 p. m.; Sundays 10 to 6. 
Telescope and field glasses (free). The park is 200 acres 
in extent and is lovely. The street car from here will take 
you to the Zoo, through a charming residence section of the 
city. Here will be found one of the best collections of 
wild animals in the country, as well as some beautiful 
specimens of landscape gardening. The Zoo is a very 
popular resort. Band concerts in the afternoon (2 p. m.) 
and evening (8 p. m.) in summer. Admission, 25 cents; 
children, 15 cents. One may return to the city from the 
Zoo by the Mt. Auburn line, through an entirely different 
part of the city, and down some very steep grades, passing 
the steel water works towers on the way (right). A very 
pleasant street car ride is through Walnut Hills, via the 
Gilbert A v. line from Government Square; fare, 5 cents. 
Elsinore Tower, one of the entrances to Eden Park, will 
be seen (right) as we pass up Gilbert Av., while in Mc- 
Millan St. we will see (left) the Old People's Home. Corner 
Woodburn and Madison Eoad is the St. Francis de Salles 
Cliurcli, one of the finest specimens of Gothic architecture 
in the West. Its bell is so large it is the largest in the 
United States; it cannot be rung. At the "Loop" we 
change to a Vine-Norwood car and return to the city. On 



CINCINNATI— FACTS EEGAKDING CITY. 29 

corner Gilbert Lane we notice (left) the Theological Semi- 
nary, presided over for 20 years by Dr. Lyman Beecher, 
father of Harriet Beecher Stowe. Here Mrs. Stow© wrote 
Uncle Tom's Cabin, which immortalized her name and had 
much to do with bringing on the Civil War. 

*Spring Grove Cemetery is reached by Chester Park car, 
cor. 6th and Walnut Sts.; fare, 5 cents. The entrance and 
Chapel is in the Gothic style. The beautiful grounds are 
600 acres in extent, but a carriage waits at the gate and 
for 15 cents will take one through the best parts. The 
Fleischmann Mausoleum and Dexter Chapel are especially 
w^orthy of note, the former costing $60,000. The Cincinnati 
University is reached by Clifton-Elm or College Hill lines; 
fare, 5 cents; located in Burnett Woods, a city park of very 
fine natural forest. The buildings are in modern Eenais- 
sance. The Cincinnati Observatory is reached by East End 
or Madison Road cars; fare, 5 cents. Before you go out, 
get a permit from the clerk of the university board at the 
City Hall to look through the big telescope. Price Hill, 
reached via the Warsaw line, offers some fine views of the 
city, and a good example of engineering skill may be 
noted in the method of surmounting the heavy grades. Re- 
turn via the Elberton Av. line, *Fort Thomas, an active 
United States military post, may be seen by taking a Fort 
Thomas car at Government Square; fare, 5 cents. The ride 
is a charming' one, and the grounds at the fort are very 
pretty. From this place one gains an extensive view of 
the Ohio Valley. This is one of the best car trips in the 
city. 

When purchasing your ticket, arrange for a stop-over privi- 
lege at Cincinnati. You will not regret it. Our train is 
here transferred to the Queen and Crescent Route, which 
will have charge of it as far as Chattanooga. 

LEAVING CINCINNATI. 

The trains of the Queen & Crescent Route leave the Cen- 
tral Union Station, in Cincinnati, cor. Central Ave. & 3rd 
St. From the station our train passes under the N. ap- 
proach of the Chesapeake Bridge over the Ohio river, 
through what was once the basin of the V/hite Water Canal 
to Mill Creek Valley, in the W. part of the city. The drab 
colored bridge (% M.), we pass under, is the one on which 
we shall presently cross the river, the road making a com- 
plete loop to attain its summit. Just after passing under 
this bridge we see (left) one of the inclines on which the 
street cars are elevated to the summit of the bluff. The 



30 CHICAGO TO JACKSONVILLE. 

Cincinnati Southern Ry. Bridge, on which we cross the river, 
was built in 1877; it is 3,822 ft. long. The Kentucky state 
line extends to low-water mark on the Ohio side. Looking 
up the river (left) a view is had of the Chesapeake & Ohio, 
and, beyond it, the Suspension Bridge. At the S. end of the 
bridge is Ludlow, Ky. (308 M.) Pop. 3,500, which has the 
Q. & C. and Pullman repair shops. Crossing a bridge 1/2 M. 
beyond Ludlow, notice (right) the Lagoon, a pleasure resort 
visited by Cincinnati and Covington people. The gravel 
formation along here marks the S. end of the glacial de- 
posits. The road winds up through the Kentucky hills passing 
the suburban towns of Crescent Springs (312 M.) and Er- 
langer (315 M.), from which station the summit of the 
ridge is followed for a considerable distance. The wagon 
road, frequently crossed, is the old Covington-Lexington 
pike, the stage road of olden days. 

At Buffington (317 M.) are the Ke-o-me-zu Springs, said 
to possess medicinal qualities. There is a small hotel here, 
and full information about the water may be had by ad- 
dressing the hotel proprietor at Buffington, Ky, Near Wal- 
ton (326 M.) (carriage), are the Big Bone Springs, strongly 
impregnated with sulphur and salt. It was here that Mrs. 
Mary Inglis, the first white woman to tread Kentucky soil, 
was held captive by the Indians. She made her escape from 
the Big Bone Springs in 1756, and tramped through the 
wilderness to her old home in W. Virginia. Williamstown 
(344 M.), is a county seat, and quite a political center. 
From here to Rogers Gap, a distance of 19 M., we pass 
through a very broken region known as Eagle Hills. An 
occasional tobacco field will be seen, and the farms are 
very much on the "up and down'* order. Note the peculiar 
rock clay formation of some of the Ey. cuts. Passing 
Rogers Gap (368 M.), the country changes to rolling land, 
and we are in the far-famed Kentucky Blue Grass Region. 
Kinkaid (371 M.), a small station, is the birthplace of 
Gen'l Geo. M. Palmer. At Georgetown (375 M.), connec- 
tion is made with the Frankfort & Cincinnati By., formerly 
the Kentucky Midland, extending to Paris on the E. and 
Frankfort on the W. Junction, also, is made with the Ver- 
sailles-Lawrenceburg branch of the Southern Ey., connect- 
ing for Louisville. 

Georgetown was incorporated by the legislature of Vir- 
ginia in 1790; its first house was erected in 1775. it has 
a spring of most excellent water, so large that it supplies 
the city. Twelve miles from Georgetown is the famous 
city of Lexington.. 



THE CITY OF LEXINGTON. 31 

LEXINGTON, KENTUCKY (387 M.) 

Population, 36,369 (Census 1900). Street cars from station 
reach hotels, fare 5c. 

Hotels, High Grade — Phoenix Hotel, cor. Main & Lime- 
stone Sts., A. P., $3-4; E. P., $1 up. Hotel Leland, 114 W. 
Short St., A. P., $2-2.50; E. P., 75c up. Hotel Eeed, 321 W. 
Short St., A. P., $2; E. P., 75c up. Lexington Hotel, service 
is poor for prices charged. 

Restaurants, High Class — Phoenix Cafe, 116 S. Limestone 
St. Eoyal Cafe, 109 S. Limestone St. Davis' Restaurant, 
118 N. Limestone St. Women's Exchange, 109 N. Mill St. 
The first two are high class, the third is medium and the 
fourth cheap. 

Banks— First National, 215 W. Short St. Second National, 
123 Cheapside. Central National, cor. W. Short & N. Upper 
Sts. Fayette National, cor. Main & Upper Sts. 

Opera House — Lexington Opera House, N. Broadway. 
Only one in city. Prices according to attraction. 

Hallway Express Offices — Adams, 128 E. Main St., P. C. 
Southern, 123 E. Main, P. C. 

Telegraph Go's.— Postal Tel. Co., 103 E. Main St., P. C; 
open 7:30 a. m. -11 p. m. Western Union, 114 E. Main St., 
open except 2:30-6:30 a. m. Both offices close 12-2 Sundays 
and open later and close earlier. 

Messenger Service at both Telegraph offices. 

Livery— G. D. Wilson, 118 E. Vine St., P. C. 

Railway Ticket Offices — Queen & Crescent Route and 
Southern Ey., Ill E. Main St., P. C. Chesapeake & Ohio, 
Phoenix Hotel, 110 E. Main St., P. C. Offices of other rail- 
ways at their depots. 

Scalpers Offices — None. 

Trunk Repairing— W. H. Thompson, 139 W. Main, P. C. 

Men's Furnishing — Graves, Cox & Co., 126 W. Main St. 

Steam Laundry — Lexington Steam Laundry, 139 E. Main 
St., P. C. 

Department Store — ^Kaufman, Straus & Co., 322 W. Main 
St. 

Postofflce — Cor. Main & Walnut Sts. Gen. Del. & Stamps, 
open 7-9; M. O. Dept., 8:30-5; Sundays, Gen. Del., Stamps 
and Carrier, open 12:15-1:15 p. m. 

Public Library— 155 Market St. 

The following Institutions may be found on indicated 
page of city directory: Churches, p. 15-19; Clubs, p. 26, 27; 
Secret Societies, p. 21-25; Public Halls, buildings, etc., p. 14. 

Leading local industries — Breeding of fine horses, Hemp 
raising. Tobacco growing and Whiskey distilling. 



32 CHICAGO TO JACKSONVILLE. 

Lexington lies on comparatively level ground and is of 
interest as one of the old-time Kentucky cities. The toTni 
was formed on the day the battle of Lexington was fought 
and was named in commemoration of that event. It 
may be reached by the Queen & Crescent Eoute from Cin- 
cinnati or all southern points; by the Louisville & Nash- 
ville, the Chesapeake & Ohio, the Southern Ey., or the Kiver 
Steamers. 

Points of Interest — The one thing that makes the city of 
more than passing interest is the fact that it is the metrop- 
olis of the famous Kentucky Blue Grass Eegion which is 
in turn the center of the blooded-horse interests of the 
country. 

Within a radius of a few miles of Lexington are the most 
prominent thoroughbred stock farms of America, while the 
trotting and saddle horse interests of the section can scarce- 
ly be said to take second place to the runners. Of the vari- 
ous show places among the stock farms the most prominent 
is Elmendorf, the magnificent estate of Mr. James B. Hag- 
gin, which lies six miles north of Lexington and can be 
reached by the interurban cars of the Paris and Lexington 
Traction Line. On this estate Mr. Haggin has erected a 
half-million dollar mansion, which he calls Green Hills. Its 
broad acres afford pasturage to more than a thousand 
thoroughbreds, the best strains of English and American 
blood and worth hundreds of thousands of dollars. Among 
the stallions are such stars of the turf as the peerless Sal- 
vator, holder of the world's record at a mile and greatest 
race horse of his day; Kindley Mack, the only horse that 
ever won both the Brooklyn and Suburban Handicaps; Ben 
Holliday, Waterboy, Watercolor, Longstreet, imported Order, 
imported Bathampton, George Kessler and others. Mr. Hag- 
gin is constantly beautifying his grounds and is making 
the place one of the handsomest of this or any other sec- 
tion. 

About four miles west of the Haggin estate is Walnut 
Hall, the farm of Mr. L. V. Harkness, regarded by many as 
the most beautiful place in Kentucky. It is devoted en- 
tirely to trotting horses, and, though established but com- 
paratively recently, has sent such fast ones as Fereno and 
Walnut Hall down the circuit. At the head of the stud here 
is Moko, full brother to Bumps. 

Between Elmendorf and Walnut Hall lies Castleton, the 
noted breeding establishment of Messrs. James E. and 
Foxhall Keene. In the Keene Stud are embraced more 
noted mares than in any other stud in America. And 
while not large, the great horses that it has produced, in 



THE BLUE GRASS EEGION. 33 

proportion to its size, is unsurpassed by any other breeding 
establishment in the world. Kingston, Ben Brush, Com- 
mando, Disguise II., imported Voter and St. Leonards are 
the stallions. The brood mares include the dams of Ham- 
burg, Delhi, Cap and Bells, Couroy, Tenney, Banquet, Com- 
mando and many others almost equally great. 

And nearby, also, is the Senorlta Stud of Capt. S. S. Brown 
of Pittsburg'i the home of Troubadour, Blue Wing, Garry 
Kemiann and other noted horses. 

The stock farms of this region are too numerous to men- 
tion in detail, but among the most prominent might be 
named the Hamburg Place of John E. Madden, lying on 
the Winchester Pike, about four miles East of Lexington, 
which has sent to the turf numbers of prominent horses, 
and, just opposite it, the famous Patchen Wilkes' Trotting 
Farm, home of Patchen Wilkes, J. J. Audouboun, and Peter 
the Great. McGratMana Stud, Col. Milton Young's famous 
farm, is on the Newton Pike, two miles south of the city 
limits, while scattered around in various sections are the 
Beaumont and La Belle farms of Hal P. Headley, the 
Spendthrift Stud of 0. H. Chenault, the Oakwood Stud of 
C. F. McMeekin, and many others. 

In Woodford County, a very fertile section of the Blue- 
grass, twelve miles West of Lexington, is the famous Wood- 
turn Farm of the late A. J. Alexander, and near it the re- 
nowned Nantura Stud of the Harpers, where Tenbroeck and 
Longfellow lie buried. Not far removed is the Hartland 
Stud of J. N. Camden, Jr. 

Bourbon County has Eunnymede and Raceland Studs, home 
of Sir Dixon and other great horses, and each of the other 
surrounding counties its place of interest to a horseman. 

Ashland, the home of Henry Clay, a mile from Lexington, 
is now the stockfarm of T. C. McDowell, great-grandson of 
'•rThe Great Commoner." The house is preserved much as 
it stood in Clay's lifetime. 

Many of the stockfarms lie on or near the interurban 
trolley lines, but the most convenient and the most delight- 
ful method of access is to drive to them from Lexington. 
The splendid turnpikes, with which the region abounds, are 
probably the best roads in America. It is well worth while 
to come to this section from any part of the country to see 
both the beauty and fertility with which nature has lav- 
ished it and the splendid horses which only the Blue Grass 
can produce. 

In and near the city are a number of things of consid- 
erable interest. At the N. W. cor. of 2nd & Mill Sts. will 
be seen the house where the mother of John Morgan, of 



34 CHICAGO TO JACKSONVILLE. 

guerrilla fame, lived. It was at this house that he visited 
her while the city was in the hands of the Union troops; 
his capture meant speedy death. The house is the same 
and is kept in excellent repair. Jefferson Davis at one time 
lived in the house on the N. W. cor. of Limestone & High 
Sts. The home of the great statesman, Henry Clay, where 
he lived up to the time of his death in 1852, is known as 
*' Ashland," and lies on the Eichmond Pike, E. from the 
city, y-2 M. from the limits. In Cheapside St., opp. the 
Court House, is a statue in bronze, by Edward V. Valentine, 
of John C. Breckenridge, erected by the Daughters of the 
Confederacy in his memory, in 1887. Six M. S. E. from 
the city is a "battle field where was fought a hard but in- 
decisive battle of the Civil War. 

The Elms, 1 M. out on the Harrisburg Pike, is a fine 
specimen of the old-fashioned style of southern architec- 
ture. Russel Cave, 6 M. out on Russel Cave Pike, is a 
small cavern from which flows a very large spring of water. 
Bryan Station Spring, on the Bryan Station Pike, is where 
the early settlers were hemmed in by the Indians in early 
days. The house occupies the site of the old fort. Beck 
House, cor. High St. & Avers Ave., is another specimen of 
the old style southern home. The Kentucky State University 
is located at Lexington, and the Morrison Chapel of that 
institution was the old Transylvania University at which 
Jefferson Davis studied and graduated, reached by N. Broad- 
way car, fare 5c. The Kentucky State College, reached by 
S. Limestone car, fare 5c, is one of the most thorough en- 
gineering schools in the country. Its graduates are found 
filling some very important government and other positions. 
The race-course of the Kentucky Association, recently put 
in condition for a renewal of racing, is of interest from the 
fact that its history is interwoven with that of many of the 
m.ost important racing events of America. Its fall race 
meets were of national importance. Eeached by Chestnut 
St. car, fare 5c. The grounds of the Kentucky Horse Breed- 
ers* Ass*n and Fair Grounds, where are held, in the fall, 
the largest racing meets in America, are reached by S. 
Broadway car, fare 5c. A charming drive is over the boule- 
vard, 3 M., to the city reservoirs. Fine fishing, but privileges 
owned by Lexington Fishing Club. 

Lexington Cemetery, Jefferson St. car, fare 5c., is a beau- 
tiful place, and here are buried many men of national fame: 
Henry Clay, General John Morgan, General John C. Breck- 
inridge, Lieutenant McKee and Wm. T. Barry, the states- 
man, being among them. The Henry Clay monument, in 
stone, is a fine piece of work. The Eastern Kentucky Luna- 



POINTS OF INTEREST NEAR LEXINGTON. 35 

tic Asylum, Jefferson St. car, fare 5c., houses over 1,000 un- 
fortunates. It was the first of its kind west of the Alle- 
jifheny Mountains. The Lexington & Eastern Ry. extends 
about 125 M, east and taps a very rich mineral, oil and 
lumber country. The country is quite hilly and the 
scenery is very beautiful. There are some things 
of more than passing interest on the line of this railway. 
Indian Fields, 33 M., was a rendezvous for immense herds 
of buffalo, elk and deer in the early days, and the trails they 
made can still be seen. One of them runs near the depot at 
Indian Fields station, and is visible from the train. In 
sight of this station was built the first block house in this 
section. The old Indian fort at Indian Fields is still in a 
good state of preservation, and from it one may get a 
splendid view of the Kentucky range of mountains. There 
are a number of Indian mounds about here, some of which 
have been opened and many priceless relics found. Catlie- 
cassa (Black Hoof) the Shawnee chief who preceded Te- 
cumseh, wag born in this fort. It is claimed that Daniel 
Boone spied the Blue Grass fields of central Kentucky from 
Pilot Knob, which overlooks Indian Fields. Daniel Boone 
and Thomas Goff built an immense enclosure for capturing 
deer at Oil Spring, one M. from Indian Fields station. 

*Natural Bridge, 57 M., is the sight of the trip. IT lies 
on Graning Block (Red) River. A picnic ground has been 
provided here on the shore of a beautiful little lake. The 
bridge forms the connecting link between two nearby moun- 
tain summits. It is 40 ft. thick by 50 broad and forms 
an arch 100 ft. in the clear. A fine view may be had from 
its crest. A complete camping outfit may be obtained for 
a small charge. Torrent, 5 M. beyond the Natural Bridge, 
is a summer resort with an excellent hotel, rates $2 day, by 
wk. $10.00. Accommodations for 100 guests. Music, etc. 
There are some beautiful waterfalls in the vicinity as well 
as mineral springs, saltpeter caves, etc. In fact it is a 
very interesting and beautiful place, where a week may be 
passed without lack of amusement. It is a great resort for 
hay fever sufferers. There are large lumber, oil and min- 
eral interests along the line of this road. The round trip 
fare to Torrent is $3.70 and, as a side trip from Lexington, 
it can be recommended. 

From Lexington the train runs to the S. to Wilmore 
(404 M.), where the Blue Grass country is left behind. 
Three M. S. of the station the train enters a tunnel, emerg- 
ing on the bluffs of the Kentucky river. These limestone 
bluffs are some 200 ft. in height, forming a canon through 
which the river flows. It was in this vicinity that Daniel 



36 CHICAGO TO JACKSONVILLE. 

fioone made his headquarters in the pioneer dajs. Boone's 
cave, near the bridge, is said to have been used by him as 
a hiding place from the Indians. The burial place is at 
Frankfort, Ky. Perryville and Kichmond both had a touch 
of the war, Camp Nelson (Federal) being located but a few 
miles up the river. General Nelson, from whom the camp 
takes its name, commanded the troops about here, his op- 
erations extending E. to Cumberland Gap and S. to E. 
Tennessee. There is now a National cemetery at Camp Nel- 
son. 

The Kentucky river is crossed on the first cantilever 
bridge erected in this country. It is 1,138 ft. long and 280 
ft. above the bed of the river. Cost, $404,373. The stream 
entering the Kentucky above the bridge is the Dix Eiver. 
Crossing the river all the land visible on the S. bank W. 
of the Ky. for two M., belongs to the Shaker Community, 
whose village, Pleasant Hill, may be seen to the N. W. The 
Palisades at High Bridge (408 M.), is a great camp-meet- 
ing ground and camping-out place. At Burgin (414 M.), 
junction is made with the Southern Ry. of Kentucky. Har- 
rodsburg, established by Capt. James Harrod, a companion 
of Daniel Boone, in 1774, the first permanent settlement in 
Kentucky, lies 7 M. from Burgin. Six M. from here we 
cross the old Wilderness Road, cut through by Daniel Boone 
from Cumberland Gap to Harrodsburg to iDring colonists 
through. At Danville (422 M.), is Center College (Presby- 
terian), founded in 1819. James Birney, the first free soil 
candidate for President of the IT. S., was bom here. It 
was here the ten conventions which separated the state from 
Virginia, were held. At Junction City (426 M.), are the 
Lienetta Springs. 

King's Mountain tunnel is 3,984 ft. long, piercing the 
hill to a depth of 1,287 ft. Just N. of Somerset (466 M.), 
the battle of Dutton's Hill was fought, while the battle of 
Mill Springs, where the Confederate general, Zollicoffer, was 
killed, and Generals Garfield and Thomas first came into 
prominence, was fought 15 M. to the S. W. The point at 
which we cross the Cumberland river is the head of steam 
navigation. Looking down the stream from the bridge the 
junction of the main river and south fork may be seen, 
Burnside (473 M.), was General Burnside's base of supplies 
during the East Tennessee campaign. His army came in 
over the road which parallels the Ry. as far as Winfield 
(509 M.) On the hill above the station some of the old 
Burnside fortifications still remain. From here a beautiful 
trip may be made bv steamboat to Butler's landing, 143 M. 
below. 



THE ROUTE TO CHATTANOOGA. 37 

Passing through a tunnel we enter Sloan's valley, where 
there are several caves, one forming a passage through the 
hill to the banks of the river. From Alpine (481 M.) to Oak- 
dale (559 M.), the road passes through the Cumberland coal 
fields, following from IlDlancl, the dividing ridge of the two 
forks of the Cumberland River. One M. West from Beaver 
Gap is Natural Bridge, reached bv bridle path from the gap. 
It is a sandstone arch 20 ft. thick, 30 ft. in height in the 
clear and spans 60 ft. The view from its summit is very 
beautiful. Cumberland Falls lies 13 M. from Cumberland 
Falls Station (487 M.), reached by a conveyance which runs 
daily in season (Mav 15-Nov. 1st), fare $1.00. Daily mails. 
There is an excellent hotel at the falls; rates $2 day; wk. 
$10. No charge for boats, bathing, bowling, dancing or 
mineral springs water. Games, music, etc. Has ^ four 
springs, iron sulphur, magnetic and magnesia. Full infor- 
mation by addressing the Cumberland Falls Co. Cumberland 
Falls is a fine place for relaxation and rest. Hunting and 
fishing good. Falls 60 ft. high, 150 wide. Very picturesque 
scenery. One M. from the Falls, on the road to Williams- 
burg, "is Anvil Rock, from the summit of which is a superb 
view. State Line (506 M.), near Isham station, is marked 
by a large sign, Kentucky-Tennessee. Note the view (left) 
on emerging "from the second tunnel after leaving Helen- 
wood (520 M.), also the small * 'home-made" mill below the 
track, capacity 8 bushels of corn per day. Near Bobbins 
(527 M.), is a very large paving-brick plant. The town of 
Rugby lies 8 M. E. from Rugby Road station (529 M.), 
The settlement was made by the English colonists under the 
leadership of Thomas Hughes, who wrote **Tom Brown's 
School Days." Very picturesquely situated. Oil fields 
around it. 

As the train reaches and passes along the Emory river 
Rome very beautiful scenery will be enjoyed. At Harrl- 
man Junction (563 M.), the Southern Ry. to Knoxville and 
Asheville is crossed (R.) At the S. end of the bridge 
(second crossing of the Emory river just after leaving Har- 
riman Junct.), notice the coal veins standing up out of the 
ground. Two M. to the S. of Spring City station (588 M.), 
lies Rhea Springs, an old, well-known summer resort. The 
waters of these springs have great curative properties. 
There is a large hotel here. At Dayton (605 M.) are several 
blast furnaces. The long bridge just beyond Hixon (634 
M.) spans the Tennessee river. Length, 1,804 ft.; height 
above river, 63 ft. South Chickamauga Creek is crossed 1 
M. beyond the Tennesse river bridge. Just below its mouth 



38 CHICAGO TO JACKSONVILLE. 

Sherman crossed his troops for the attack on Missionary 
Ridge. 

At Boyce Station (639 M.) connection is made with the 
W. & A. Ry. This station is on the extreme N. end of 
Missionary Ridge and the left wing of the army during the 
battle, Nov. 25th, 1863, was on the hill above the station. 
At the southern Ry. tunnel 1 M. beyond Boyce, was the 
heaviest fighting of the battle of Missionary Ridge. The 
train passes in sight of, and in fact through, the battle 
field. The Confederates were on the crest of the ridge 5 
M. south froin Boyce. The train now enters Chattanooga. 

*-CHATTANOOGA, TENN. (643 M.) —Population, 60,262. 

Depots — Union Depot, opp. Ill W. 9th St. Used by Nash- 
ville, Chattanooga & St. Louis Ry., Western Atlantic Ry., 
Southern Ry. and Chattanooga Southern Ry. Central Sta- 
tion, used by the Queen & Crescent Route, the Atlanta, 
Knoxville and Memphis branches of the Southern Ry., and 
the Central of Georgia. 

Hotels, High Class— *The Read Hotel, 109 W. 9th (opp. 
Union depot), E. P., $1 up. Cafe in connection. Staunton, 
cor. Market & Hotel Sts., A. P., $2.50-4; E. P., $1-2; 1/2 
blk. of Central station. New Southern, cor. Chestnut & 
Carter Sts., A. P., $2-3; 2 min. walk from Union depot. 
Merchants', cor. Chestnut & 8th Sts., A. P., $2; E. P., 
50e. up. Williams House, upstairs, cor. 9th & Market, E. P., 
only, all rooms 50c. Per wk. $3.50. Stag (men only), E. 
P., $1-2. *Lookout Inn, top Lookout Mt. (see p. ). Fine, 
high grade resort hotel, Russell House, A. P., $3-5; wk., $15- 
25. 

Restaurants, high class — Gass Bros., 132 Market St.; 
*Read House Cafe, cor. Broad & 9th St. Medium priced, 
Hardy Restaurant, Market St. cheap. Burt Restaurant, 721 
Cherry St. 

Furiiislied Rooms — Williams Hotel (see hotels). 

Banks— First National, cor. 9th & Market Sts. Chatta- 
nooga Nat., cor. 9th & Market Sts. Citizens', cor. Broad 
& 9th Sts. Chattanooga Savings, cor. 8th & Cherry. Bank 
of Chattanooga, cor. Broad & 8th Sts. 

Theaters — New Opera House, -cor. Market & 6th Sts. 
Prices according to attraction. Seating capacity, 1,632. 
Olympia (see Olympia Pk.). 

Ry. Express Offices — Adams and Southern Co.'s, 36th Wl. 

9th St. P. C. 

Telegraph Offices— Postal, 28 W. 9th St., P. C. Open all 
the time. Western Union, No. 4 W. 9th St., P. C. Open all 
the time. 



CHATTANOOGA— FACTS ABOUT THE CITY. 39 

Messenger Service — At both Tel. offices. 

Livery — Chickamanga Stables, cor. W. 8th & Chestnut 
Sts. Good service. Eates very reasonable. P. C. 

Legal Hack Rates — The maximum price to be charged by 
driver to any place in the city limits, 25 cents for each 
passenger; fifty pounds of baggage free; trunks, 25 cents. 
Charges per hour — First hour, $1; each additional hour or 
part of an hour, 25 cents. 

Railway Ticket Offices — Queen & Crescent Eoute, 103 W. 
9th St., P. C; Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis, cor. 9th 
& Market Sts., P. C; Southern Ey., Ill W. 9th St., P. C; 
Central of Georgia, 12 W. 9th, P. C; Western Atlantic Ey., 
cor. 9th & Market, Chattanooga Southern Ey. at Union de- 
pot. 

Scalpers* Oflfices — None. 

Trunk Factory & Repairs — McKinley Trunk Factory, 702 
Market St., P. C. 

Steam Laundry — Star Laundry, 813 Chestnut St., P. C. 

Men's Furnishing — Glenn & Shaw, cor. 9th & Market Sts. 

Department Stores — Miller Bros., cor. 7th & Market Sts.; 
D. B. Loveman & Co., cor. Market & 8th Sts. 

Postofiice — Cor. A & 11th Sts., Gen. Del. open 7:30 a. m.- 
9 p. m. Stamps same, M. O. dept., 9 a. m.-5. M. Gen. Del., 
Stamps and Carrier, open Sundays 9:30-10:30 a. m. 

Public Library — New building now in course of erection 
on cor. Georgia Ave. and 8th St. Full list will be found of 
the following institutions on page of city directory indi- 
cated (1904 directory): Churches, p. 11; Societies, Clubs, 
etc., p. 19. Secret Societies, p. 16. 

Chamber of Commerce — 825 Broad St., 0. W. Holbrook, 
Secretary. 

Leading Local Industries — Pipe foundries, furnace, plow, 
furniture, pump and stove factories, boiler works, etc., etc. 

Chattanooga lies in a picturesque setting of timber-clad 
mountains and hills and might be described as a brooch 
set on the breast of nature. The city is of considerable im- 
portance as a railway center and manufacturing point, 
while about it clusters an intense civil war interest since it 
was the scene of three fierce battles, two of which were 
fought within sight and sound of her streets. Her National 
Cemetery, National Park-Battle Field and Lookout Moun- 
tain are known throughout the civilized world, and while 
the city itself, though a very pretty one, has nothing of more 
than passing interest, her immediate surroundings aire 
among the sights of a lifetime — especially the grand and 
magnificent views. Noted travelers have said that Europe 
has nothing finer than the panoramic view from the top of 



40 CHICAGO TO JACKSONVILI/E. 

Lookout Mountain, and the writer can testify that nothing 
in America surpasses it. The city lies at the Moccasin 
Ben of the Tennessee river on comparatively level ground, 
Chattanooga Creek, of historic fame, winding through her 
suburbs. The locating points are: Lookout Mountain 8., 
Missionary Eidge E., Cameron Hill W. and the Tennessee 
river S. The street car system is very complete, reaching 
all points, except the National Park and Lookout Mt., for a 
5c. fare. Those two cost 40 & 60c. round trip respectively. 
The main thoroughfares are Market and 9th Sts. 

Points of Interest — The ^Locomotive "General,** which 
was stolen by the Andrew raiders during the Civil War with 
the intention of burning the bridges along the line of the 
railway, has been permanently located in the Union Depot 
train shed, where it may be seen by all. Tablets are at- 
tached giving the history of the raid. War Museum, cor. 
Broad & 8th, basement First Nat. Bank, Adm. 25c. Excel- 
lent collection of war relics. Note Confederate P. O. 
stamps, printed on wall paper. Scouts' war maps, Eagle 
made of minie balls, tree section with bayonet buried in 
wood, etc., etc. 

Site of Military Prison, cor. Market & 4th Sts.; Site of Ft. 
Wood, Gen. Grant's headquarters, battle of Lookout Mt., 
Oak St., car fare, 5c. Orchard Knob, Oak St. car, fare 5c., 
Gen. Grant's headquarters for a short time. Several monu- 
ments there. Sherman Heights, Boyee St., car at 9th & 
Market Sts., fare, 5c. Vallombrosia, Riverview, car fare, 5c. 
Eiverview, Eiverview, ear fare, 5c. Chickamauga Creek, 
across which the pickets of the opposing armies swapped 
tobacco for coffee, in the edge of the city, crossed by Look- 
out Mountain lines, fare, 5c. Site of stone fort, cor. Market 
& 11th street. Site of another old fort, junction Montgom- 
eiy Ave. & Eossville Pike. Site of Crutchfield House, cor. 
Chestnut & W. 9th Sts. Kote tablets in main entrance 
(left) of Read Hotel; also one on right in front of Union 
depot and on Postoffiee gi'ounds. 

The *National Cemetery, 85 acres in extent, is reached by 
a Chicamauga Park car from cor. 9th & Market Sts., fare 
5c. The park lies to the left of the station 100 yds. and 
one may easily walk through it, in fact, that is the best 
way to see it. The grounds are rolling and timbered with 
forest trees, mostly oak. There are 13,379 bodies buried 
here, of which 4,928 are unknown, and about 255 are of men 
who died at Chickamauga Park during the Spanish-American 
war. Full information about the cemetery and those buried 
there may be had at the superintendent 's office, on the slope 
of the hill above the main entrance. Entering the grounds 



THE NATIONAL CEMETERY. 41 

through a stone portal and passing up the hill via the center 
road, past the ivy covered cemetery office and superintend- 
ent's residence, we enter a section (right) where the green- 
sward is dotted with the small white stones of the nation's 
dead. 
' *■ The neighing troop, the flashing blade, the bugles stirring 

blast, 
The charge, the dreadful cannonade, the din and shout are 

past. ' ' 
Under the spreading branches these white stones pierce 
the green turf in great semi-circles, usually with a cap- 
tain's stone in the center or at the apex, which gives one 
the queer impression that he still, in death, marshals his 
forces to meet the enemy. Turning right and passing down 
the hill to section A (the section number will be seen on 
the tall square stone in center of each section) and on down, 
skirting along the right edge of the graves, we encounter, 
near the road, the fine monuments of James Morris, M. D., 
inscribed, *'He gave his life for suffering humanity," and 
Dr. J. H. VanDeman. Turning left along the lower road, 
note the beautiful ivy-covered wall (right) and read the 
small iron tablet (left). The sentiment expressed by these 
tablets is very beautiful. This is the best part of the ceme- 
tery, and at the end of this section of graves are several 
fine monuments. It is on the farther edge of this section 
that, turning in (left) we see the Spanish war graves. 
Farther on (100 yds.) across a small valley will be seen the 
** Andrews' Baiders'* Monument, an oblong block, sur- 
mounted by a perfect model in bronze of the locomotive 
<* General" (P. 40). On it are the names of those who 
took part in the raid, several of whom sleep here. Ascend- 
ing the hill, bearing to the left, we pass the ivy-covered 
speaker's stand on the hill-crest, the flag, and down the 
other side to the tall shaft of the 14th Army Corps. Having 
seen the best parts of the grounds we may now wander at 
will, and in doing so, remember that under every stone lies 
the remains of a soldier, for Uncle Sam has, at enormous 
expense, gathered the bodies from far and near and tend- 
erly laid them to rest in this beautiful spot. 

**Lookout Mountain, pre-eminently Tennessee's show- 
ground, offers views which for picturesque beauty can be 
equaled in but few of earth's places. The mountain is 2,300 
ft. above sea level and 1,700 ft. above Chattanooga. From 
its summit may be had glimpses of seven states, and the 
eye is bewildered by the extent and diversified beauty of the 
panorama before it. The fare to the summit is 35c one 
way; 60c round trip. After 4 p. m. a rate of 35c round tnp 



42 CHICAGO TO JACKSONVILLE. 

is made and on Sundays the round trip is 35c. The cars 
run every half hour. On the summit there is a very large 
and high grade hotel, the Lookout Inn; A. P., $3-5; wk,. 
$15-25. The building is very large, stands at the head of 
the incline in a commanding, position and the writer can 
testify that its cuisine is excellent. 

Boarding a "Lookout Mountain" car at 9th & Market 
Sts., note the Central Station (right) just before crossing 
the railway tracks. Crossing tracks and turning right and 
left note Chattanooga Brewery (right) and the Wakemen 
Distillery at its rear. Farther on note public school (left). 
The tall stacks seen some distance away (right) are those 
of manufacturing plants. Leaving the city behind we cross 
Chattanooga Creek (Federal-Confederate picket line) and 
have Lookout Mountain in front. On right, at brow of hill, 
note Point Hotel, where we will presently arrive. The two 
tall shafts below it, in line, are the Iowa and New York 
monuments, in memory of those who fell in the ' ' battle 
above the clouds." Here we get a fine view of the ^incline. 
Arriving at its foot, we find a queer car, evidently built to 
''fit an emergency." The floor of this car resembles a stair- 
case, the grade at the top being so steep that one could not 
stand but for those steps. The length of the incline is 4,850 
ft. The cars are attached to two wire cables IVi inch in diam- 
eter and are pulled up by a steam hoisting engine, making 
the ascension in about 10 minutes . Guides will be found 
at the top, who will take you about for 25c, and it is cheap 
enough. Ascending, note (right) the old military road, 
built by GenT Bragg in 1S63. We cross it several times in 
the ascent. The bridge we pass under is on the county road. 
The Hooker battlefield lies 300 yds. to the right of the stone 
station, more than half-way up. The battle was not fought 
on the summit, but half-way down. Note the small trolley 
wire for signals and light; also the tremendous grade near 
the top. Arriving at the summit we board the waiting car, 
which takes us around the crest of the mountain to Point 
Hotel (now closed) at the summit of the old incline. 

Some of the *vlews on this ride are charming and the 
rounding of "High Bluff" on the trestle is rather exciting, 
as the track is high in the air, with seemingly nothing be- 
neath. Leaving the station on this ride, note stone build- 
ing (left) y2 M. It is a church, and back of it is the town 
hall. There are about 400 persons living on the summit. 
The line passes through the old camping grounds of Gen'l 
Stevenson's army (Confederate). At Sunset Park, note the 
old house down the hill (left) 200 yds. It was the Confeder- 
ate Hospital. Just beyond, (left) near the track, are the 



LOOKOUT MOUNTAIN. 43 

old Confederate rifle pits. Arriving at Point Hotel we 
ascend the stairway to **Point Rock. On the way up note 
the two bronze tablets. At the head of the stair (right) is 
the place where the Union troops scaled the rock on rude 
ladders. An officer fell from the crag which juts out in 
front of the head of the stair and was killed. It is called 
Roper's Rock, that being the name of the officer. Passing 
around the point, note the Umbrella and Table rocks, also 
the tablets erected here. 

As we step out on the point there is a gasp of delight 
at the beautiful scene that greets the eye. Xo description 
can ever do justice to the wondrous loveliness of the pano- 
rama spread out before the vision of the spectator. Far away 
to the north, if the day be clear, the blue outline of the 
Cumberland Mountains may be seen, while nearer are the 
peaks of the Sand and Raccoon ranges. Beneath, lies the 
city of Chattanooga, appearing, in the distance, like a toy 
village. In front is Mission Kidge, to the left green, tim- 
bered hills and, most beautiful of all, Moccasin Bend, be- 
tween the city and the mountain, where the river makes 
a wide curve, forming an almost perfect outline of a human 
foot, enclosing within its confines bright green fields and 
vivid patches of vegetation of varying tints. 

Fi'om Point Eock, Orchard Knob, the site of Ft. Wood, the 
tower and monuments on Missionary Eidge and all the his- 
toric landmarks in the city are visible. Xote the stream 
which winds a serpentine course across the plain to the right 
of the river. It is Chattanooga Creek, and marked the 
dividing line of the two armies. It was here the pickets 
of the opposing forces indulged in friendly banter with 
each other, even *' swapping" coffee for tobacco, during the 
lull in hostilities. Immediately below us, on the mountain 
side, is the Hooker battlefield. The slate roof house was 
General Walthall's headquarters. It was almost destroyed 
by a shell fire concentrated on it from Moccasin Bend. The 
battlefield is 1,200 ft. above the river. The monuments are 
those of New York, Illinois (small square one) and Iowa. 
On the morning the conflict raged, the fog lay thick in the 
valley, as is frequently^the case here, and while the roar 
of battle could be heard and an occasional flash seen, no 
further sign of the terrible struggle was evident. In the 
afternoon it cleared up, but the battle was over, the Fed- 
erals having captured the mountain. 

Passing up over the hill from Point Eock we see two 
cannon, with which the Confederates commanded the river, 
though they would not reach the town. Farther up are two 
"Long Tom" guns. The government is building a beautiful 



44 CHICAGO TO JACKSONVILLE. 

stone entrance to Point Park, above which is the *War Mu- 
seum (Adm. 10c). There is an excellent collection hero, 
and the place is worth a visit. Note the old Confederate 
flag to the left of the door — one of the first made. The 
following objects are of more than passing interest: Table 
and chair, used by General Thomas, on Snodgrass Hill. It 
was on this table he wrote his orders, spread his maps, etc., 
while directing the battle which raged about him; key to 
military prison in Chattanooga, herb packages from Chica- 
mauga battle field hospital, circular hand-bill issued and 
signed by Gen. John Morgan, and so on through a long list. 
From the ^observation tower on the top of the Lookout Inn 
another very fine view is to be obtained. From here one 
may see miles in all directions, almost 100 M. to the N. 
There is a fine drive on the summit of the mountain, reach- 
ing many points of interest. Some of the things not men- 
tioned are. Sunset Rock, a short distance from the hotel, 
from which some indescribably beautiful sunset effects are 
to be seen; Rock City (2^2 M. from the hotel). Natural 
Bridge (1 M.), Leonora Springs and Lulah Lake and Falls 
(7 M.), the latter being a beautiful waterfall, 130 ft. in 
height. The view from Lookout Mountain is worth many 
miles of travel, and one may spend weeks in the vicinity 
most delightfully. 

**Chlckamauga National Park — The best way to see the 
Park is to get a carriage (see Livery Stables), for the 
reason that it will, in the end, cost you no more than to go 
there by street car and you will, in addition, have the beautiful 
drive over Missionary Kidge. The round trip to the Park, 
via street car, is 40c, and the rates for carriages at the end 
of the line are $1.25 a person for a three hour trip about the 
grounds, or 50c per hour per passenger, for a less time. 
The knowledge of these drivers concerning historic points, 
however, is meager, they being nearly all young men; on the 
other hand, the Lhickamauga Stables will furnish drivers vfho 
are thoroughly familiar with all the places and objects of 
interest; rates, for 2 or 3 persons, $5.00; for party of 4 or 
5 persons, $6,00; 6 or more $1 each; horse and buggy, $3.50. 
These prices include driver. If you go by car, take Chicka- 
mauga Park car, cor. 9th & Market Sts. 

The National Park comprises about 13 square M. of terri- 
tory. It is situated 9 M. south of the city, and is of intense 
interest from the fact that here was fought one of the 
fiercest struggles of the Civil War, that many of the scars 
of battle are still visible. The government has expended a 
vast sum of money in preserving and, as far as possible, re- 
storing the field to the condition it was at the time of the 



THE NATIONAL PAEK. 45 

battle. Having secured a rig, we start out Market St., 
passing the Postoffice Buildiiig (left) cor. Market & Georgia 
Ave. At the cor. of these two Sts. was the old stone fort 
used during the war. The Tennessee river, in 1867, was so 
high that steamboats passed up Market St. to the old 
Crutchfield House, which stood where the Eead Hotel is now, 
and there took on passengers. Cor. Market & Union (right) 
is the Central Station; across the tracks a half block (left) 
is the Stanton Hotel. To the right is Lookout Mountain. 
Turning from Market E. (left) into Montgomery and from 
Montgomery S. (right) into Eossville pike we see (right) 
at the corner, the site of the old Fort Neglie, held by both 
armies at different times. It was of earth and has been 
entirely removed. 

About 3 M. out, on the Rossville Pike, will be seen the 
Watkin's Farm (right). On the brow of the hill here, just 
below the grove of trees, will be seen the remains of the 
Confederate earthworks. This was a line of breastworks 
7 M. long, connecting the Confederate positions on Lookout 
and Missionary Ridge. The same will also be seen close to 
the road (left). Beyond this, i/^ M., are the buildings of the 
Eichardson estate, which cost $1,500,000, and sold after his 
death for $16,000. Rossville Pike, over which we are passing, 
witnessed terrible scenes, after the battle of Chickaniauga 
Women abandoned their children along the road, wounded 
died in its dust, cannon were dragged over its horrid length 
by blood-stained troops, while the scream of wounded horses 
mingled with the curses, yells, shouts and prayers of half- 
crazed humans. Lookout E.oad, over which Hooker fol- 
lowed the Confederates after their defeat at Mt. Lookout, 
enters Eossville Pike % M. before reaching Eossville. 

The end of the street-car line marks the Tennessee-Geor- 
gia line, the name of the pike here changing to Lafaytte 
Road. The name of the village is Eossville, Georgia. Just 
beyond the state line will be seen an iron tablet describing 
the movements of Hooker's column, while beyond this 
are other tablets describing Green's and Geary's movements. 
The road crossed at this point is the Valley road from 
Chicamauga battlefield, over which Rosecrans retreated to 
Rossville Gap, as did Thomas later, at night. Thomas 
formed in Eossville Gap, but Eosecrans w^ent on to Chatta- 
nooga. About 300 yds. further on, is seen (right) the only 
house that was then standing in Eossville — the John Ross 
house. It was Geu'l Thomas' headquarters after the battle. 
John Eoss, the ov/ner, was chief of the Cherokee nation. 
Back of the house is a large spring, the McFarland spring. 
Just beyond here is Rossville Gap. Two months after the 



46 CHICAGO TO JACKSONVILLE. 

battle of Chicamauga, Hooker passed from Lookout Moun- 
tain over the road to the left up Missionary Ridge to attack 
the Confederates in their new position — they had retreated 
from Mt. Lookout. As inferred above, the road forks at 
the entrance to the gap, Lafayette road continuing to the 
right. In the fork, stands the handsome Iowa monument. 
The hill between the roads is called Battery Hill, being 
named by Gen'l Thomas from the fact that on it were 
posted his batteries. Some shot-scarred trees may still be 
seen about here. 

Passing on up through the gap we descend into Chica- 
mauga valley, v/here lies the park battlefield. After enter- 
ing the valley, notice (left) a tablet pointing the way to 
McAfee Church. General Gordon Granger was sent to hold 
the road at this church, so that the Confederates could not 
slip around and fall upon Chattanooga, but hearing heavy 
firing he left the position, without orders, and, guided by 
the sound of guns, hurried to the relief of Gen'l Thomas,^ ar- 
riving just in time to save him from defeat. The two iron 
tablets, farther on, commemorate this exploit, while one by 
the side of the nearby Georgia stone tells the Confederate 
side of the story. Eead them. Just beyond the crest of the 
hill, notice the monument erected by the state of Tennessee, 
in memory of Forrest's cavalry. Cloud Spring, a short dis- 
tance from the road (right), at the foot of the hill, was 
the site of the Federal hospital. Here will be seen the 
magnificent nev/ garrison, designed to accommodate 1,500 
cavalry troops. The entrance to the park proper will be 
recognized by the fence, just inside of which is the crossing 
with the Eead Bridge road, which leads (left) to the point 
where the battle commenced. The monuments (right-left) 
mark the position of the Indiana troops. The field to the 
right is "McDonald's Field" and the cannon are both 
Confederate and Federal, the latter being farther away and 
pointed toward us. All the cannon in the park are the same 
used in the battle, although the mounting has been changed. 
Note tablet (left) at entrance. The tablets, seen at various 
places, give full information as to the movements of the 
troops, but there are so many of them, and so many monu- 
ments as well, that it would be useless to call attention to 
all of them in this work. The tablets with a white border 
describe the movements of the Union troops; those bordered 
with red tell of the Confederate movements. During our 
war with Spam, Camp Thomas was established in the park 
as a station for mobilizing troops. Over 60,000 men were 
camped here, and the death list was very high. 

The cannon (right) ^ M. farther on, mark a Confederate 



CHICAMAUGA BATTLEFIELD. -47 

aitillery line. In the fork of the Alexander and Lafayette 
roads is the beautiful Kentucky monument, commemorating 
the deeds and dead of Kentucky heroes who fought on both 
sides. Bead the bronze tablet on its side. Turning left in 
the Alexander Bridge road we see many battle-scarred trees. 
The two monuments, just beyond the branching of the roada 
(right), stand on what was the *' barricade line" of the 
Union troops, so called from the fact that trees were 
chopped down and a barricade formed from them. The 
ground in front of this position was a very hell. Note the 
bullet-marked trees. The open field seen to the right, in 
front, is the Kelly field, around the farther end of which 
we shall presently pass. At a point just beyond, where are 
four large monuments and a road branching off (left), the 
square markers show the line of the 14th Army Corps (Fed- 
eral) Gen'l Thomas commanding. Note the tree just to the 
left; there are a dozen cannon-ball wounds, all on one side, 
made by Union guns. Over the hill (left), just out of sight, 
Gen'l Helm of Ky., supposed to be Lincoln's brother-in-law, 
and Gen'l Colquitt of Ga. were killed. Four field ofPicers 
of each side met death near here. Each has a monum.ent 
in the form of a pyramid of shells. The 10th "Wis. regiment 
lost 211 out of 240 men, see monument (right) surmounted 
by soldier holding flag. Read tablet on its rear. Note the 
beautiful Pennsylvania monument, with color bearer, and 
just beyond the red granite Wisconsin stone. There are treea 
at this point with their whole tops shot away. Turning 
right, past the upper end of Kelly's field, notice Acting 
Brigadier-General Edward A. King's shell monument. The 
old Kelly house, a little farther on, across the field, was the 
Union hospital. This field was hotly contested, there being 
seven open charges by both armies across its blood-soaked 
length. The Federals were finally driven back across La- 
fayette road to Snodgrasa Hill. 

The guns (left) are those of the Indiana battery. Turn- 
ing left on the Lafayette road we encounter (left) Poe's 
field. Note shell pyramid and tablet (right), marking Gen'l 
Thomas' field headquarters on Sept. 19th; also artillery line 
(right) just beyond, commanding Poe's field. See the shot 
marks in the metal of the guns. The 14th Ohio infantry 
monument is here, and the bronze relief on its face pictures 
the battle at the rail fence, which ran along at this point. 
Note the opposing line of 21 Confederate cannon. Drive 
around and see the *magnificent shaft (about 60 ft. in height), 
erected in the S. end of Poe's field by the state of Georgia 
**to the lasting memory of all her sons who fought on this 



50 CHICAGO TO JACKSONVILLE. 

tower give the losses sustained by both sides in the battle 
of Chattanooga. About 100 ft. beyond is the magnificent 
monument erected by the state of illinois. The lone cedar 
tree, between it and the tower, stood in front of Gen'l 
Bragg 's headquarters. Beside the monument will be seen 
the remains of an old Confederate earthwork. Bragg re- 
tired down the old Bird's Mill road and went S. into Geor- 
gia. A half mile farther on, note the splendid Ohio monu- 
ment, with surrounding tablets; also the Lewis Collier 
mansion on top of an eminence in front, and the Kansas 
monument as we turn down the hill on the old Bird's Mill 
road, now McCallie Ave. 

LEAVING CHATTANOOGA. 

The Southern Ry. carries us from Chattanooga to Jack- 
sonville. At Cobutta (670 M.) junction is made with a 
short branch line from Cleveland, Tenn., and we enter the 
State of Georgia. Rome (723 M.) is one of the principal 
cities of N. Ga., being a manufacturing town of consider- 
able importance, and something of a railway center, with 
lines radiating to all points of the compass. We now pass 
near several battlefields. (See E. 8 B, P. 210, which parallels 
this line to the left 5-20 M.) At Rockmart (745 M.), junc- 
tion is made with the Seaboard Air Line, running to Carters- 
ville, Birmingham and other points. At Austell (778 M.), 
junction is made with the Atlanta-Birmingham branch of 
the So. Ey. Near Chattahoochee (788 M.), the Chattahoo- 
chee river is crossed, and shortly thereafter we enter At- 
lanta (797 M.), the capital city of Georgia (P. 95). 

Leaving Atlanta, we continue to the S. E. At McDon- 
ough (825 M.), junction is made with the Columbus branch of 
the So. Ry. At Flovilla (848 M.), a short line extends to tho 
right to Indian Springs (The Wigwam, A. P., $2.50). From 
Cork (852 M.) to Macon, our line follows the course of tho 
Ocmulgee river (left), crossing the Powaligo near Berner. 
Macon (885 M.), is a railway center, lying on the W. bank of 
the Ocmulgee river; it is frequented to some extent as a winter 
resort. One of the principal industries of the city is tho 
handling of cotton, many thousands of bales being shipped 
annually. The Wesleyan Female College (400 students), 
founded in 1836, is located here. The Baptists also have a 
scat of learning here, called Mercer College (250 students). 
Andersonville (60 M.) (P. 3S4) may be reached from Macon 
by the Cent, of Ga. branch line to the S. From Macon our 
line crosses the Ocmulgee river and follows its course to 
West Lake. At Empire (932 M.), the Wrightsville & Ten- 



MOEKISTOWN—LAND OF THE SKY. 51 

nille R. R. is crossed. Eastman (943 M.), is patronized to 
some estent as a winter resort. At McEae (9G3 M.), we 
cross the Seaboard Air Line (R. 16) and continue S. E. with 
the Little Ocmulgee river on our left, passing over the 
Ocmulgce river near its confluence with the Little Ocmulgee 
beyond Lumber City (980 M.). At Jesup (1033 M.), we 
connect with the Atlantic Coast Line for Savannah to the 
E. and Thomasville via Waycross to the W. From here our 
train follows the tracks of the Atlantic Coast Line to 
Jacksonville, crossing the Atlantic & Birmingham R. R. at 
Kortense (1052 M.), the Satilla river between Hortense and 
Nahunta, and the Columbus branch of the Atlantic Coast 
Line at Nahunta (1063 M.), joining the Jacksonville-Way- 
croBS branch of the Atlantic Coast Line at Folkstonj (1087 
M.). Just beyond the latter town St. Mary's river is 
crossed, and we enter the State of Florida at Callahan 
1108 M.), where the Seaboard Air Line is crossed. There 
is nothing further of special interest until we reach Jack- 
sonville (1128 M.) (P. 331). 

B. Via Knoxville, Ashevllle, Spartanburg, Columbia and Sa- 
vannah. 

Big Four, Queen & Crescent, and Southern Railway. 
(1234 M.) Fare $27.55. Sleeper $6.50. 

For Chicago to Harriman Junction, see Route 1 A, P. 17. 

At Harriman Junction (564 M.) the train is transferred to 
the Southern Ry., which bends abruptly to the N. to Clinton 
(595 M.), beyond which the Clinch river is passed, the 
track curving southward to Knoxville (616 M.) (P. 244). 
Between Knoxville and Asheville there is some very beau- 
tiful scenery. From Knoxville, the line extends N. E. to 
Morristown (658 M.). 

MOERISTOWN, TENN. Population 4,000. 

Banks — First National and Merchants National. 

Hotels— Virginia House, A. P., $2 per day; $8-10 per 
week. Capps House, A. P., $1 per day; $7 per week. 

Restaurants — Spark 's. 

Railway Express Company — The Southern. 

Telegraph Company — Western Union. 

Telephones—Local and long distance. 

Railways — Southern; Knoxville & Bristol. 

Livery — Brown & Rucker. Rates reasonable; hacks, $2.50 
per day. 

Laundry — Morristown Steam Laundry, P. C. No. 126. 

Commercial Body — Morristown Board of Trade; R. F. 
Taylor, secretary. 



52 CHICAGO TO JACKSONVILLE. 

Leading Local Industries — Cold storage plant, knitting 
mills, flour mills, woolen mills, wagon works. 

Points cf Interest — Hot Springs (40 miles), beautiful 
mountains and valley scenery. 

Leaving Morristown, the route swerves sharply to the S., 
passing over the Tennessee river near L-eadvale (670 M.). 
Ascending the W. slope of the Great Smoky Mts., the state 
line of N. Carolina is passed just before reaching Paint 
Bock (702 M.), from whence we descend into the beauti- 
ful *French Broad valley, where lies the little village of 
*not Springs (707 M.), in a valley 1 M. in diameter, sur- 
rounded by mountains 4,000 ft. high. Hot Springs is noted 
for the medicinal quality of its water, as well as its delight- 
ful climate. 

The Springs, temperature 84-104 deg., are claimed to be 
beneficial in the treatment of rheumatism, gout, nervous 
prostration and skin and blood affections. Round Top, 
alt. 1,840 ft., across the river to the N., commands a fine 
view, and may be ascended in a half hour. There are many 
pleasant walks among the hills, but the drives are limited 
to the floor of the valley. (Mountain Park Hotel; rates 
$4-6 per day; $21-42 per week. The Stone House furnishes 
cheaper and fairly good accommodations; rates $1.50 per 
day; $5-10 per week.) From Hot Springs the line continues 
along the banks of the French Broad through French Broad 
valley past Marshall (723 M.) to Asheville. We are now in 
what is known as 

**THE "LAITD OF THE SKY.*» 

The section of country known as the ''Land of the Sky** 
lies in Vv^estern North Carolina. Asheville is its metropolis 
and. cominercial center. It may be described as a plateau 
some 225 M. long by 25 broad, to the W. of which rise 
the Great Smoky Mts., marking the W. boundary of Ten- 
nessee, while on the E.. is the main range of the Blue Eidge 
Mts. The Nantahala, Balsam, Black, Cowee and other 
spurs of the main range cross it, and are, in some instances, 
higher than the main range, an alt. of over 6,000 ft. often 
being attained. These spur ranges divide the plateau into 
many picturesque valleys, affording a great diversity of 
scenery, so that in crossing it there is a panorama of con- 
stantly changing beauty. Several steep, rapid rivers tra- 
verse the section, flowing westward through the Great 
Smoky Mts., finally emptying into the Mississippi. The 
Little Tennessee, French Broad, Tuckaseigee, Swannanoa and 
Pigeon are the principal ones, and some of them, notably 



THE CITY OF ASHEVILLE. 53 

the Tuckaseigee, furnish excellent trout fishing. The moun- 
tains are covered to their summits with a heavy growth of 
timber, which softens the outline. The rich coloring lends 
an added charm, making a scene of subdued loveliness. The 
average altitude of the plateau is about 2,000 ft.; the nights 
are cool; while there is seldom excessive heat during the 
day. The one who would not be pleased with this charm- 
ing country would be, indeed, hard to suit. Tlie climate is 
quite dry, and the days are usually bright, there being but 
few in which outdoor exercise may not be enjoyed. There 
are many resorts, but the principal one, and the one which 
is the natural base from which to make excursions into 
the surrounding country, is *Asheville (745 M.), population 
about 15,000 (with suburbs 20,000), altitude 2,265 ft. 

ASHEVILLE, N. C, Population 15,000, with Suburbs 

20,000. 

Hotels— High class: **Battery Park Hotel, located in cen- 
ter of city in park of 25 acres, 100 ft. elevation above city 
proper. Large, roomy frame bldg. (300 rooms), 5 minute 
walk from business section. Splendid view from its veran- 
das (P. 54). In every way is an excellent house. Rates 
$4 day up, $21 up wk. *The Manor, Albemarle Park, on 
St. car line 1 M!. from business section; in a beautiful park. 
Rates (summer), $3 day up, wk., $12.50 up; (winter) $4 
day up; $17.50 wk. up. *Kenilworth Inn, 2 M. out, near 
Biltmore. On st. car line, fare 5c. Located in extensive 
park. Large, roomy house; well furnished. Rates, $4-5 
day. Spec, rates by week. Margo Terrace, cor. S. Broad & 
Haywood Sts. Nice house in pretty grounds, on car line; 
10 minute walk from business section. Rates $3 up per 
day; special by wk. ^Victoria Inn, on car line, 1 M.^from 
business section; fare 5c; nice grounds. Rates $2.50-3 per 
day; $12.50-17 wk. Special rates to parties. Medium priced: 
Hotel Berkley, cor. Patton Ave. & Lexington. Rates, $2-3 
day; $12.50 wk. up. No grounds. The Oaks, cor. Oak cc 
Woodfin Sts., on car line, fare 5c, ^4 M. from business sec- 
tion. Rates $1.50-3 day; $7.50-15 wk. Swannanoa Hotel, 
S. Main St. Rates $2-2.50 day. 

Restaurants — High class: None. Medium priced: Theo- 
bold Cafe, No. 28 Patton Ave. ITneeda Dairy Lunch, 19 S. 
Main St. Cheap: Woodlawn Cafe, 36 S. Main St. 

Furnished Rooms — Scattered; some on Haywood St. be- 
yond Auditorium. Lots of boarding houses at all prices. 

Banks— Battery Park Bank, No. 15 Patton Ave. Blue 
Ridge National, 53 W. Court Sq. 



54 CHICAGO TO JACKSONVILLE. 

Theaters — The Auditorium, cor. Haywood & Flint Sts. 
Seats 2,000. Prices according to attraction; usually 25c- 
$1.50. Opera House, Patton Ave. Seats 800; prices ac- 
cording to attraction. 

Railway Express Office— Southern, S. Main St., P. C. 

Telegraph Offices— Western Union, 51 S. Main St. Mes- 
senger service. P. C. 

Livery— Patton & Stikeleather, 104 Patton Ave., P. C. 
Eates very reasonable. 

Legal Hack Rates — 25c per passenger inside city limits. 

Railway Ticket Office— Southern, at station, Patton Ave., 
opp. Postoffice, P. C. 

Trunk Repairs — Kesterson, 68 Patton Ave. 

Steam Laundry — Asheville Steam Laundry, 43 W. College, 
P. C. 

Men*s Furnishing — M. V. Moore, No. 11 Patton Ave. 

Department Store— G. A. Mears, 145 S. Main St. 

Postoffice— Cor. Patton Ave. & Haywood St. Gen. Del. & 
Stamps, 8-6; Sundays, 5-6 P. M.; Money Order, 8-5; Carriers, 
Sundays, 5-6 P. M. 

Public Library— On E. Court Sq. 

Churches, p. 384; clubs, p. 387; secret societies, p. 386; 
public halls, office bldgs., etc. — See City Directory. 

Board of Trade— Cor. Haywood & Flint, W. F. Eandolph, 
secretary. 

Asheville lies on high ground, at the junction of the French 
Broad and Swannanoa rivers, and is a beautiful little city, 
with charming surroundings. It is visited by many southern 
people in summer for its comparative coolness (average 
temperature, 72 deg,), and by many northerners in winter 
for its comparative mildness (average temperature 39 deg.). 
It is a city of fine residences, although its business blocks 
are rather modest. Its streets are paved with brick and 
are very clean, and it is blessed with an excellent street 
railway system. The center of the business section is Court 
Square, from the S. Side of which the street ear lines 
radiate. The main business streets are S. Main and Patton 
Ave. One of the principal points of interest is Battery 
Park Hotel, so-called from the fact that it is built on the 
site of a fort in which there was a large battery in war 
time, one rather sharp skirmish having occurred in front 
of its walls. No signs, however, of the fort are visible. The 
hotel is set in the middle of Battery Park, covering 25 
acres. The verandas of the hostelry afford a magnificent 
view over the valley, with the Great Smoky Mts. as a back- 
ground. 

Asheville affords many charming walks and drives, as well 



POINTS OF INTEREST ABOUT ASHEVILLE. 55 

as excursions to nearby railway points. Femihurst (pri- 
vate property, open Thursdays and Saturdays only), over- 
looks the junction of the French Broad and Swannanoa 
rivers, has beautiful grounds and is worth a visit; Biltmoro 
car line, fare 5c, and walk about 1-3 M. Richmond Hill, 
2 1/2 M. N. W. Gouche's Peak, 3 M. N, and Elk Mt., 5 M. N., 
afford fine views. There are bridle paths through the hills 
reaching nearly all the mountain summits, and horseback 
riding is in great favor. Literally there is no end to the 
delightful excursions to be made in this way, as there aro 
few fences to interfere. *Mt. Mitchell (alt. 6,710 ft.), lies 
18 M. to the E.; it is the highest mountain E. of the Rockies. 
One may drive to its base in a carriage via Black Mountain 
Road, and climb its steep sides, or reach the summit on 
horseback; or take the Southern Ry. to Black Mountain 
Station. The ashes of Prof. Elisha Mitchell, who lost hia 
life in measuring its altitude, and for whom the mountain 
was named, rest on the summit. Near the top is a cave 
where many spend the night. From the summit of Mt. 
Pisgali, alt. 5,755 ft., 18 M. S. W., a fine view of the French 
Broad Valley is had. It is best reached on horseback. Ac- 
commodations may be had at the farmhouse near the base. 
Craggy Mt. (alt. 6,030 ft.), lies 14 M. to the E., and is best 
reached on horseback. *Chimney Eock (P. 398), reached by 
-carriage road, is a charming side trip. *Hot Springs (P. 52) 
is accessible by rail. 

The *Blowing Rock Country (P. 357) may also be visited 
from here as well as Hendersonville (P. 59), and the 
**Sappliire Country (P. 61). *Waynesville (28 M.) is a 
charming side trip, the scenery being delightful. (Hotels: 
Eagle's Nest Inn, A. P., $2.50 a day. Spec, by wk. White 
Sulphur Springs Hotel, A. P., $2.50 wk. The Kenmore, A. 
P., $2.) The scenery about Waynesville is exceedingly 
rugged and picturesque. Eagle's Nest Inn, 6 M. out (car- 
riage) lies on a mountain side and commands a fine view. 
Tryon (P. 66) is but 43 M. away via the Southern Railway. 
Swannanoa, Highlands and many other points of more or 
less interest may also be reached. In fact, there is an end- 
less list of excursions available from Asheville. 

Points of Interest about Asheville — The Vance Monument, 
in Court Sq., a tall stone shaft, was erected in honor of 
the late Senator Zebulon Vance, whose home was here. He 
was a man whom the people of the state idolized for his 
rugged honesty. He filled many offices of trust, one of 
which was Governor, and played an important part during 
the reconstruction period after the war, being one of those 



56 CHICAGO TO JACKSONVILLE. 

Southern men who enjoyed the confidence of President Grant. 
His ashes rest in Eiverside Cemetery, Munford car, fare 5c. 
The Ostrich Farm, reached by the Woolsey (N. Main St.) 
car line, fare 5c, has 25 birds; adm. 25c. It is quite in- 
teresting; visitors are welcomed between the hours of 9 and 
5. Riverside Park, reached by the Eiverside St. car line, 
fare 5c, lies some distance from the city, on the French 
Broad Eiver, and is quite a popular resort in summer, hav- 
ing boating, dancing and various amusements. Adm. free. 
Eowboats are rented by the hour. **Suiiset Drive has many 
superb and enchanting views along its course. Leaving 
Court Sq., at the N. W. cor., we turn into College St., noting 
the County Court House (right), with its five large columns 
in front. Following the paved street and street car line, 
note (right) large building well back, the Asheville Female 
College, cor. Charlotte & Woodfin Sts., where our carriage 
turns at the point where the car tracks leave the paving; 
note (cor. right) the Mission Hospital, with Orplians* Home 
adjoining. 

Farther on we enter beautiful Albemarle Park, in which 
is the Manor Hotel and its cottages, and drive through the 
beautiful grounds, circling around to the left past the hotel, 
up the hill, and around to the right, coming out where we 
entered. Turning, right, we continue, still following the car 
line. Notice, where we bend to the right, stone base, shin- 
gle-side house, on the hill, right; it is the residence of the 
president of the Atlantic & N. Carolina Ey. The grounds 
opp. are the golf links and park of the Swannanoa Country 
Club; the bldg. (left of track) being their clubhouse. At 
the crossing of old ry. grade take the road to the right. At 
the point where there are two or three signs, with road 
coming down the hill beside ours, turn sharply around (left) 
and take this road. At crossing where distance signboard 
is, go up hill (left), noting Outlook Park (no adm.), which 
was a pleasure resort when the street car line ran up here. 
Signboard will tell where to turn toward the summit of 
Sunset Mt., from whence a wide and very beautiful view 
is to be had. Eeturning to where we turned off for the 
summit, take the Locust Gap Road (see sign). There is a 
fine view from the point of the mountain, ^; M. from the 
fork of the road, with the Elk Mts. in the foreground and 
the Craggy Mts. in the distance somewhat to the right; far- 
ther on, % M., may be seen Happy Valley. The large build- 
ing in the distance is the Biltmore mansion, with Kenilworth 
Inn nearer. At the point where the Mt. Meadows sign is 
seen in the fork of the Mt. Meadows-Locust Gap Eoad, the 
depression (left) is Beaver Dam Valley (beautiful view). 
Take upper road (left) continuing about 1 M.j here is one 



POINTS OF INTEKEST ABOUT ASHEVILLE. 57 

of the most beautiful views imaginable, the whole stretch 
of Beaver Dam Valley, with its diversity of coloring, its 
farms and surrounding mountains, unfolding to view like a 
gigantic map. The mountains in the background are tho 
Great Smoky Mts., which mark the Tennessee state line. 
Farther on (Vt M.) we get another fine view (right). This 
time it is Haw Creek Valley, with the Blue Ridge Mts. in 
the rear. The main valley is the Swannanoa, but the smaller 
coves between the spurs have distinguishing names. The old 
Washington Stag© Road passed up the Swannanoa Valley, 
and in Indian times, when this was a frontier, forts and 
blockhouses extended through its length. 

Reaching *Mountain Meadows Inn, we find a well-kept 
little hotel, high up on the mountain side, with a magnifi- 
cent view from its wide veranda. The house has pressure 
water, baths, etc. (Rates, A. P., $2-3 a day, $8-15 a wk.) 
No flies, and it is a delightful place to enjoy nature, moun- 
tain climbing, air, and scenery. Another *excellent drive 
is to follow the Sunset (Mountain Meadows) Road, until 
the point below Overlook Park is reached, where the obser- 
vation tower is (on the hill above us); keep straight ahead 
on the right-hand road, turning around (left) i/4 M. beyond, 
and keeping straight ahead at first cross-roads. At the 
point where ten roads meet and cross (Beaucatcher Gap), 
turn up hill (left) on road almost opp. stone gateway (with 
telephone pole on its left); % M. farther on, turn right-left 
along fence. Just beyond this point there is a grand view 
of the city and valley. A little farther, note the bungalow 
of Dr. S. W. Battle (right), with view of Swannanoa Valley 
(left). Circling around the bungalow (right) at foot of 
hill turn almost around (left). The building seen farther 
on (right) across valley is Kenilworth Inn, where we pres- 
ently wall be. Biltmore is seen farther away. Passing be- 
tween two houses, where is a U. S. mail box, we take left- 
hand road and soon arrive at Kenilwortli Inn, an immense 
structure on an elevation, surrounded by wide lawns. It is 
a handsome building, and the views from its upper windows 
are extensive. 

Driving past its front we circle down the hill to the left, 
entering the Swannanoa Drive, and are soon in the village 
of Biltmore, on the Vanderbilt Estate. Crossing the (right) 
cor. of Biltmore Road & Lodge St., to our left is the office 
of the estate, a two-story brick. The village is owned by 
the estate, its entire population being tenants; even the rail- 
way depot was built by Mr. Vanderbilt. Back one block 
(right) from cor. of All Souls Crescent and Village Lane is 
the Clarence Barker Hospital, built by Mr. Vanderbilt, in 
honor of his friend, Mr. Barker. Turning back towards 



58 CHICAGO TO JACE:S0NVILLE. 

Ashevilie, we cross the bridge and turn left on the first 
road. The glass roof bldgs., seen (left) on the estate, are 
the truck garden and nursery forcing houses. Shrubs and 
trees, of which thousands are planted yearly, are started 
here. The residences on the hill to the right are owned by 
the estate and are rented furnished ready for housekeeping. 
Eeaching the point where there is an iron bridge over the 
ry., turn right. The hillside we are now passing over was a 
bare, ugly mass of gullies when Mr. Vanderbilt purchased 
the land. It is now a mass of vegetation. The row of pinea 
along the crest of the hill marks the boundary line of the 
estate. Note entrance to Fernihurst (see sign left), open 
Thursdays and Saturdays only; also the Victoria Inn, far- 
ther on, left. It sets on the summit of the hill, has a fairly 
good view, and is commodious, well furnished and com- 
fortable. Leaving here for the city, note (right) Home In- 
dustrial School and Normal and Collegiate Institute, a short 
distance beyond the Inn. These two rides are perhaps the 
best of many that can be had. Bridle paths and roads run 
in every direction. 

Street Car Rides — The best two car rides are the 
trip to Riverside Park, and that via the Charlotte St. line. 
Taking the Eiverside Park car at Court Sq., note, after 
passing the Battery Park (left), the new Auditorium (right), 
just beyond which (left), is the Margo Terrace Hotel in 
very pretty grounds. Beyond here we turn (right) into 
Munford Ave.; note the large, beautiful residence of J. E. 
Rummough (100 yds. right on summit of hill), where the 
road curves somewhat; passing the curve beyond safety 
switch on top of hill, ahead (right), see the buildings of 
the Military School. Eiverside Park is quite a popular 
resort in the season, and has boating, dancing, merry-go- 
rounds, etc. It lies in a valley on the French Broad river. 
The Charlotte street car line follows the route of the Sunset 
Eoad Drive, for description of which see (P. 56). 

**Biltmore Estate — The best way to see the estate is by 
carriage. The stables will furnish' a driver who is familiar 
with the grounds, and the charge is quite reasonable. Of 
course one may go on horseback or awheel, even afoot, but 
as the estate is very large, the latter way is impractical. 
The estate is charming, but simply as a drive there are 
others very much better in this vicinity. In order to drive 
through the estate passes must be secured at the office in 
Biltmore, charge as follows: 1 horse vehicle, 2 persons, 
25c; 2-horse vehicle, 5 or less persons, 50c; driver counts as 
one; add 1 person 10c; add 1 horse 25c. Wheel or foot pas- 
senger, ^ 10c. Biltmore village, where the entrance to the 
estate is, may be reached by Biltmore car, fare 5c. The 



FACTS REGARDING HENDERSONVILLE. 59 

house you cannot see, except a distant rear view, if its 
owner, Georg^e W. Vanderbilt, is at home. It stands on a 
terrace 700x300 ft,, and commands a fine view. It is of 
Indiana granite, in French baronial style, and cost, together 
with the estate, something like $4,000,000, although no one 
knows the exact figure. R. M. Hunt was the designer. Next 
in interest are the farming operations, which are on a 
very large scale. In the piggery are blooded swine; in the 
hennery will be seen representatives of the most "swagger" 
families in poultrydom; in the kennels are fine specimens of 
thoroughbred dogs. The dairy, a large, model plant, is quite 
interesting. The superb herd of Jersey cows is a iDeautiful 
sight. The truck gardens are full of interest. Aside from 
the beauty of the place, this is about all there is to see. 
Taking everything into consideration, tho ''Land of the 
Sky" is one of the most thoroughly charming sections of 
the United States, and those who pass Asheville on their 
Southern trip make a mistake. It has a heavy winter 
patronage from the north. Leaving Asheville the line ex- 
tends S. E. to Hendersonville (767 M.). 

HENDERSONVILLE, N. C. Population 2,900. 

Situated on the Lexington-Charleston (S. C.) main line 
of the Southern Ry. and the eastern terminus of the Transyl- 
vania Ry. Both roads use the same depot. 

Hotels — * Wheeler Hotel, open in summer; large frame 
building situated in beautiful grounds just out of the busi- 
ness section of the city. Rates, $2,50-4 day; wk., $12.50-25; 
*Imperial Hotel, fronts Main St., in business section; open 
in season; no grounds. Rates, $2-3 per day; wk., $12-17.50. 
Blue Ridge Inn, fronts Main St., in business section of city. 
No grounds; coal oil lamps in many rooms; rooms small. 
Rates, $2-2.50 per day; wk., $10.50. 

Restaurants — Hendersonville Cafe, the only one. Fairly 
good. 

Furnished Rooms — None in summer. 

Boarding Houses — The Oakley, Flemming Ave., per day, 
$1.50, per wk., $8-10; "Wanteska Inn, Main St., per day, $1- 
1.50, per wk., $6-10; The Wilson Cottage, West Aspen St., 
per day, $1.50, per wk., $7-10; Carolyn Cottage, Washington 
St., per wk., $6-8; Smith Villa, West College St., per day, 
$1.50-2, per wk., $7-10; Maple Grove, Washington St., per 
day, $1-1.50, per wk., $5-8; Shadv Nook, West Shaw Creek 
St., per wk., $7-10; Park Place,* North Main St., per day, 
$1-1.50, per wk., $5-7; West Broad St., per day, $1-1.50, per 
wk., $7-10; Ripley House, Main St., per wk., $7-10; Kentucky 
Home, West Shaw Creek St., per wk., $6-8; Arlington House, 



60 CHICAGO TO JACKSONVILLE. 

Main St., per day, $1.50-2, per wk., $7-10; Pine Grove Lodge, 
North Main St., per day, $2, per wk., $10. 

Opera House — In City Hall, seats 500. 

Banks — Bank of Hendersonville the only one. 

Express Co. — Southern, at depot. 

Western Union Tel. Co. at Imperial Hotel; messenger 
service. 

Livery — ^Kentucky Stables, W. College St., P. C; rates 
reasonable. 

Ticket offices at depot. 

Steam Laundry — J. M. Stepp's Laundry. 

Men's Furnishings — ^F. Z. Morris & Co., Main St. 

Postoffice— Cor. Main & College. Open 7:30-7:30; M. O. 
Dept., 9-5; General Delivery open on arrival of mails. No 
carriers. 

Churches — Baptist, Episcopal, Catholic, Presbyterian and 
Methodist. 

Public Library — City Hall. 

Club— Ottaray Club. 

Secret Societies — Mason, K. of P. and Odd Fellows. 

Board of Trade — J. M. Walldrop, Secretary. 

The city is located in a great basin, entirely surrounded 
by the Blue Ridge Mts. It is well supplied with fine resi- 
dences and has many charming drives to offer. The alti- 
tude is 2,252 ft. It was incorporated in 1853. Henderson- 
ville is surrounded by a fair farming country; the principal 
crops are apples, cabbage and potatoes, which are raised in 
large quantities. There are no especial points of interest 
and no mineral water, but the situation is charming. The 
business part of the city is practically all on Main St., 
which is wide and presents a very pleasing appearance. 
One of the best drives is out Broad St. to the park, passing 
to the left of the club house at the park, and on up the 
mountain, through pine trees, winding in and out, turning 
to the right up the hill on the road which branches off just 
before the main road turns to the left. At the place where 
the road bends to the left, with a clear space (left), stop 
at the edge of the road and enjoy the beautiful scene. The 
high peak, seen a little to the left at the horizon, is Sugar 
Loaf Mountain. The ridge at the horizon is the main Blue 
Ridge range. On the way up much mountain laurel is seen, 
and in June, it is a mass of sweet-scented bloom. We may 
continue on to the summit of the range to an observation 
tower, affording, on a clear day, an unsurpassing view. Ee- 
turning, when the point where we left the main road is 
reached, turn right, we passing (300 yds.) a magnificent 
spring at the edge of the road (right). Turning right, at 
the intersection of our road with another, and left at a log 



THE SAPPHIRE COUNTRY, 61 

house, we return to the city. The whole trip is about 4 M. 
long. 

Another pretty drive is out the Flat Rock Road to the 
"Flat Rock Country." The high peak seen (right), at the 
horizon as we go out, is Pinnacle Peak. The Flat Rock 
country, some 5 M. in extent, is thickly populated with 
beautiful summer homes of people from the seaboard. Many 
pretty lakes are passed on this drive, which is one the 
writer can recommend. The nights are generally cool, as 
the city lies on a ridge of the mountains, and Hendersonville 
is a favorite resort for Southern people. Bill Nye's home 
is 12 M. distant, and his ashes rest in Calvary Church ceme- 
tery. The stream which runs by the town is the Ochlav/aha 
River. There is a small cataract called Lambeth's Fall, 4 
M. out on the Crab Creek Road; Ransieur's Shetland Pony 
Breeding Farm is 2 M. out on the Willow Creek Road. 

Sugar Loaf Resort — This resort is 14: M. from Henderson- 
ville. Can drive out and back the same day. Rates: Parties 
of 5, $1 each round trip; smaller parties higher per person; 
$1 per person (parties of 5) each way if round trip is not 
made in one day; small but good hotel ($2 day, wk., $8). 
The resort is on the summit of Sugar Loaf Mountain, is de- 
lightfully cool, and from it there is one of the finest views 
in the eastern mountains. Mr. J. Williams, of Henderson- 
ville, will give further and full information. 

From Hendersonville the Transylvania Ry. extends west- 
ward to 

**THE SAPPHIRE COUNTRY. 

The stretch of country known as the Sapphire region lies 
somewhat S. ^Y. from "The Land of the Sky," there being 
a dividing range of mountains betv/een. It is reached by the 
Transylvania Railroad, connecting with the Asheville-Spar- 
tanburg main line of the Southern. The distance from Hen- 
dersonville to Brevard is 21 M., and from Brevard to Lake 
Toxaway is 20 M. There is nothing of especial interest 
along the line of the Transylvania Railroad until Brevard 
is reached. In this little city, which lies in a small valley 
surrounded by mountains, will be found *Franklin Hotel, a 
modern resort hotel, open in summer; fully equipped with 
electric lights, hot and cold water, and sanitary plumbing. 
Rates, $3-5 per day, $12.50-25 wk. Elevation, 2,250 ft. 
There are other cheaper hotels, express, telegraph, livery 
(rates reasonable), good stores, long distance 'phone, etc. 
There are a number of splendid drives around the city, 
reaching such points of interest as Connestee Falls (6 M.), 
Glencannon Falls (3 M.), Looking Glass Falls (9 M.), David- 



62 CHICAGO TO JACKSONVILLE. 

son Kiver Drive (6 M.), Deer Farm (2 M.), Caesar's Head 
(16 M.). There are ample and good livery accommodations, 
and the tourist who visits this little city will find plent}^ of 
amusement. 

Leaving Brevard, we find the terminus of the railway at 
Lake Toxaway, where, to the right of the depot, across an 
arm of the lake, will be seen **Toxaway Inn, a large, roomy 
and commodious building, in a most beautiful natural loca- 
tion on a peninsula jutting out into the lake, it being some 
20 ft. above the surface of the water, and something like 
200 ft. from it on three sides. The building is a four-story 
frame, with very wide verandas running almost entirely 
around. The interior is beautifully fitted up. One enters 
a large, commodious office, at one side of which is a wide, 
open fireplace, the lining of which it would be well to notice, 
as it is of soapstone. At one end of this office is the dining 
room, while at the other, removed some distance, in an end 
of the building with three sides open, is the ballroom, large 
and airy, with a maple floor. The rooms of the Inn are ex- 
cellent, being of good size and well lighted. Of the cuisine 
the writer could not judge, as the hotel was closed for the 
winter at the time of his visit. It is, however, but fair to 
suppose that it is of the best in a house of this class. The 
rates of this hotel are $3.50-6 per daj'-, $17.50-35 wk. Eleva- 
tion, 3,100 ft. The lake is supplied with rov/boats and 
naphtha launches. The rowboats are rented at a sliding 
scale — $5 for the first week, $4 for the second, and $3 for 
the third. The small launches, which hold four persons, 
rent for $1.50 per hour. The large launch, holding 25 per- 
sons, $5 per hour. This lake, like all the other Sapphire 
lakes, is very irregular in shape, being something like 3% 
M. in length and not very wide. One can spend hours 
rowing about on its placid surface, varying the journey with 
exploring expeditions along its shores, and find some new 
charm at every moment. 

^Amusements of various kinds, such as bowling, tennis, 
pool, billiards, golf, etc., are provided, the bowling alley 
occupying quite a large building by itself. 

There are a great many points of interest and drives in 
the Sapphire Country, and it is the writer's intention to 
treat them all from one central point, the Sapphire Inn. A 
proper allowance being made, the directions given for 
reaching points of interest from Sapphire Inn will serve for 
the other two hotels as well. It is difficult to locate the 
points of interest very closely, for the reason that the 
country is very wild, and there are so many roads and trails 
that it would be almost impossible to give directions that 
would be of any value, except in some few instances; besides, 



THE SAPPHIRE COUNTRY. 63 

the people at the hotels, and the liverymen, will fnrnisli fuU 
information in regard to any particular trip. From Toxa- 
way Inn to Sapphire Inn is 11 M., the drive being made in 
from one hour and a, half to three hours. The drive is a 
beautiful one, the road being excellent, winding in and out 
among the hills, through wooded aisles and great forests 
that are as yet untouched by the hand of man. 

Passing over a dam (1 M.) and looking down (left) be- 
low the dam will be seen an iron spring, the waters of which 
have considerable strength. Some five miles out note the 
sign (left) beside the road, reading *"Horse Pasture Falls." 
Down the road to left (1 M.) is a series of cascades, three in 
number, the lower one being the Falls, which is something 
like 70 ft. in height. It is not a perpendicular fall, but is 
much more beautiful than it would be were it a straight 
drop, the Horse Pasture River plunging over a rough granite 
face, the water flying high in the air over. its whole surface. 
At the end of the wagon road, at the foot of the hill, take 
the right hand trail which leads up the hill, as you stand with 
your back to the river. From the lower fall there is a trail 
which leads along the bank of the upper cascades, from 
which you will reach the starting point over a trail which 
loads up from the other side. 

Some distance before reaching Sapphire Inn a small sign 
(left) will be noticed beside the road, reading "•'""Tlie Nar- 
rows.'* This trail leads back to the Horse Pasture River, 
some 200 yds., where we emerge on a foot-bridge, imme- 
diately over a cascade in a rocky gulch some 15 ft. in 
width. The river here, by reason of the V-shaped bed, 
plunges down with little volume; the water at the foot of 
the cascade looks like carded wool, while in the other direc- 
tion the cascade is quite rugged. The Narrows may be 
reached from Sapphire Inn by a walk of from 20 to 30 min- 
utes, 

*Sapphire Inn — This is the smallest of the Toxaway 
Company hotels, and is located in the least desirable place, 
if any place in this charming country can be said to be any- 
thing but desirable. The house, however, is somewhat lower 
in rates, and has a more homelike air than the three larger 
ones, and is for this reason preferred by some. It is con- 
siderably quieter, also, as it is only equipped to care for 
some fifty guests, while the others house a great number. 
While the location is very pretty, there is nothing of espe- 
cial interest in it, but it lies within walking and riding dis- 
tance of a great many charming places. This hotel remains 
open through the winter season, the location being the 
warmest of any in the Sapphire Country. Rates, $2 day; 
$10-15 wk. Elevation 3,300 ft. 



64 CHICAGO TO JACKSONVILLE. 

On beyond Sapphire three miles by wagon road (con- 
siderably shorter by foot-path) is the **Fairfield Inn. This 
hotel occupies the most beautiful location, from an artistic 
standpoint, of any resort hotel the writer has ever seen. 
The building is frame, three stories high, surrounded by a 
natural forest, with a lawn sloping down some 200 ft. to 
the water of Lake Fairfield, the surface of the water being 
50 ft. below the hotel. Across the lake (i/4 M.) and almost 
immediately in front of the hotel, rises Bald Rock (height 
1,200 ft.). To the right of Bald Eock is a hill, slightly less 
in altitude, covered with bright-hued foliage, through which 
peep forth great boulders and ledges. To the rear and side 
of the hotel are timber-clad mountains. It is impossible to 
more than suggest the beauty of this scene. The rates of 
Fairfield Inn are $3-5 day; $12-50-25 wk. Elevation 3,300 ft. 

One of the features of both this hotel and Toxaway Inn 
are the open fireplaces on the verandas. If the evening be a 
trifle cool, fires are built in the fireplaces, the ruddy glow 
of which lends great enchantment to the scene. There are 
rowboats on Fairfield Lake, but no launches. There is a 
sandy "bathing "beach and a bath house, bowling alleys and 
various amusements. Golf links have been provided a half 
mile away, between Fairfield and Sapphire Inns; the course, 
however, is very rough. There are ample and good livery 
accommodations to be had at either of the Inns, the rates 
being quite reasonable. Saddle horses are $2.50 per day, 
$1.50 half day; surries, $6 per day, $3 half day; single 
"buggies, $4 per day, $2 half day; team and huggj, $6 per 
day, $3 half day. 

An estimate of the time required to reach various points 
of interest from Sapphire Inn is given, in order that the 
livery rates may be computed: Mount Toxaway, % day; 
Whiteside Mountain, 1 day; Whitewater Falls, ^^ day; 
Horse Pasture Falls, % day; Highlands, 1 day; Cashier's 
Valley (on th© way to Whiteside Mt. and Highlands), % 
day; Panthertown and Tuckeseegee Eiver (made only on 
horseback), 1 day. 

The drive to the top of *Mount Toxaway is one which 
should by no means be omitted, since it is from that point 
that the best view of the Sapphire Country is to be obtained. 
The road leaves the main road a short distance from Sap- 
phire Inn (see sign), on the Lake Toxaway side. There is 
no danger of missing the road, as you have only to follow 
the main artery of travel. Reaching the summit (over 5,000 
ft.) we find a small Inn on the highest point, called The 
Lodge. This is not intended for permanent guests, but for 
the purpose of serving meals and accommodating parties 
who desire to remain on the mountain over night. Rates, 



THE SAPPHIEE COUNTEY. 65 

$2 day. On the top of this building is an observation plat- 
form from which a magnificent view of the entire Sapphire 
Country is to be had. Portions of North. Carolina, South 
Carolina, Georgia and Tennessee may be seen, and it is 
claimed that portions of other States are visible, though 
the writer is somewhat doubtful about this. But be that 
as it may, the view is certainly a grand one. Toxaway Inn 
and Lake Toxaway are in view, and form a sight fair to 
look upon in their setting of emerald-clad hills. The sharp 
peak to the S. W. is Chimney Top Mountain. Just to the 
right of it is Cow Mountain. The rugged, square-looking 
peak beyond, a trifle to the right of Chimney Top, is White- 
side Mountain. The high range on the opposite (N.) side of 
the Inn is the Balsam Eange. A little to the right of it, in 
the distance, is Mount Pisgah. The sharp peak just to the 
right is Tuckeseegee. T doubt if there is a wider or more 
splendid view in Carolina than from the summit of Mount 
Toxaway. Leaving the summit, we start down over the 
road we came up, turning to the left at the first branch road, 
which will lead us (Vo M.) to the "East side,'' from which 
we get a beautiful view of Lake Toxaway and a somewhat 
more detailed view of the mountains on that side and the 
valley below. It is worth while to go down to the East 
end, as it is very beautiful. 

*From Sapphire Inn to Whiteside Mountain is a long drive 
over a beautiful road, winding in and out among the hills, 
disclosing some very picturesque views on the way. Enter- 
ing Cashier's Valley we turn in on the Eavenel toll road 
(toll for horseman, 25c; buggy, 40c; surrey, 60e). From 
here it will be almost all up hill to the summit of White- 
side Mountain. A short distance from the toll gate we will 
pass around a point where there is a very fine view of White- 
side on the opposite side of the valley. The large rock jut- 
ting out is called "The Devil's Courthouse." Beyond this 
is a ledge of rock over which, in the wet season, there are 
several cascades of water. Further on (3 M.) notice a 
magnificent view (left). The bare rock across on the fur- 
ther mountain is Bald Rock, at the foot of which is Fair- 
field Lake. Nearer is Laurel Mountain; Chimney Top is 
also in view to the right. The high mountain in the dis- 
tance, to the right of Bald Eock, is Mount Pisgah, near 
Asheville, Just beyond here take the left hand road to go 
to the *top of Whiteside, the other leading to Highlands, 
some six miles further on. We cannot drive all the way up, 
but the walk is not difficult and the view from the summit 
it very fine. On one side the mountain drops away in a 
sheer ledge of rock 1,500 ft. in height. From the summit 
of this great ledge the view is worth all the trouble of the 



66 CHICAGO TO JACKSONVILLE. 

trip were nothing else to be seen, but, as a matter of fact, 
the whole trip is delightful. 

Another charming trip, which must, however, be made on 
horseback, is over a *pony trail into tbe Tuckeseegee country. 
Turning up the mountain on the road which leads to the 
main road, just above the road near the dam at the foot of 
Fairfield Lake, we pass up over the mountain, coming 
finally, just under the top of Bald Eock, to a fork in the 
trail. Take the left hand trail, which leads up to the top 
of Bald Rock, from whence another splendid view is to 
be had. Returning to the fork of the trail, take the other, 
which will lead you into the wildest and most rugged sec- 
tion of the Sapphire Country, a section yet untouched by 
the hand of man, there being no wagon roads — nothing but 
pony trails. The Tuckeseegee, which will be reached from 
these trails, is a most excellent fishing ground, mountain and 
California trout being there in plenty. You may make this 
trip in one day, or you may stretch it out for several days, 
finding something new to see each day. There is little dan- 
ger of your getting lost, since all these trails lead some- 
where, and by following them you will sooner or later come 
to some human habitation, although it is possible that if 
you go too far, and branch too often, you may not come out 
exactly where you expect. 

The *trip down to Whitewater from Sapphire Inn, over 
the Walhalla carriage road, is also a very beautiful one, 
the Whitewater Falls being a series of cascades, three in 
number. The two upper cascades are something like 200 
yds. apart, the lower one being Yg M. further. The total 
drop is som.ething like 370 ft. If one is looking for a place 
to spend a vacation, where the altitude is such that the 
nights are cool and the days comfortable, with both fishing 
and (to some extent) hunting, amid surroundings of pictur- 
esque beauty, with amusements of various kinds, and hotel 
accommodations of a high grade, the writer knows of no 
place superior to the Sapphire Country. 

Beyond Hendersonville our train enters the picturesque 
Saluda Gap and descends swiftly through a narrow gorge. 
It will be well here to sit on the left side of the train, as 
there are many *fiLne views, best seen from that side. Around 
this region are many rhododendrons, which are very beau- 
tiful when in bloom. Some distance bevond The Gap, Tryon 
(788 M.), is passed (Pop. 400, Oak Hall Hotel, A. P., $3). 
It is a pretty little village, patronized somewhat as a 
resort. Beyond Tryon the state line of South Carolina is 
crossed and we enter Spartanburg (815 M.) (Pop. 12,395, 
Spartanburg, A. P., $2-2.50), making junction with one of 
the main lines of the So. Ey. (R. 11 B), and with a line 



SPARTANBUKG-JESUP. 67 

extending southward to Augusta. Spartanburg is a thriving 
little place in a district of iron and gold mines and mineral 
springs. From Spartanburg the line extends to the S. E., 
joining a short branch line at Lockhart Junction (836 M.), 
another one at Union (843 M.), crossing the Atlanta branch 
of the Seaboard Air Line at Carlisle (856 M.), and the 
Broad River near its confluence with one of its branches at 
Herbert (863 M). The course of this river is followed all 
the way to Columbia (909 M.), the capital city of South 
Carolina (P. 271). 

From Columbia our train goes almost due S., bending, 
however, a little to the W., crossing Black Creek, a tribu- 
tary of the Edisto River beyond Thorne, making junction 
with a branch line of the Southern Ry. to Batesburg, at 
Perry (941 M.); crossing the S. fork of the Edisto River 
beyond Springfield (950 M.); the Augusta-Charleston line 
of the Southern at Blackville (961 M.); the Seaboard Air 
Line at Barnwell (971 M.); the Big Salkehatchie beyond 
Barnwell; the Charleston & Western Railway at Allendale; 
the Seaboard Air Line near Lena (1,005 M.); 
finally joining the Atlanta Coast Line at Hardeeville, be- 
yond which the Savannah River is crossed, and we enter 
Georgia, shortly thereafter arriving at Savannah (1,062 M.). 
From Savannah, we run over the tracks of the Atlantic 
Coast Line toward the S. W., crossing the Little Ogeechee 
River at Andersonville, the Seaboard Air Line at Burroughs 
(1,074 M.), and the Ogeechee River a little beyond. At 
Doctortown (1,115 M.), we pass over the Altamaha River. 
At Jesup (1,119 M.), the Southern Ry. from Macon is 
crossed. From Jesup to Jacksonville, see R. 1 A, P. 51. 

C. Via Nashville, Chattanooga, Atlanta and Macon. 

Chicago & Eastern Illinois; Louisville & Nashville; Nash- 
ville, Chattanooga & St. Louis; Central of Georgia; Georgia, 
Southern & Florida, and Atlantic Coast Line Rys. (1,088 
M.); fare, $27.55; sleeper, $6.50. 

Leaving Chicago from the Rock Island depot, comer of 
Van Buren and La Salle Sts., our line crosses many of the 
eastern trunk lines in and near the city. Along our route 
are Harvey and Chicago Heights, both of which are con- 
nected with Chicago by suburban service. At Momence 
(50 M., pop. 2,500, Central House, $2), the Indiana, Illinois & 
Iowa R. R. is crossed, and a branch line of the Chicago & 
Eastern 111. diverges to the right. At Watseka (77 -M, pop. 
3,000, Iroquois Hotel, $2), we cross the line of the Toledo, 



66 CHICAGO TO JACKSONVILLE. 

trip were nothing else to be seen, but, as a matter of fact, 
the whole trip is delightful. 

Another charming trip, which must, however, be made on 
horseback, is over a *pony trail into th© Tuckeseegee country. 
Turning up the mountain on the road which leads to the 
main road, just above the road near the dam at the foot of 
Fairfield Lake, we pass up over the mountain, coming 
finally, just under the top of Bald Kock, to a fork in the 
trail. Take the left hand trail, which leads up to the top 
of Bald Eock, from whence another splendid view is to 
be had. Returning to the fork of the trail, take the other, 
which will lead you into the wildest and most rugged sec- 
tion of the Sapphire Country, a section yet untouched by 
the hand of man, there being no wagon roads — nothing but 
pony trails. The Tuckeseegee, which will be reached from 
these trails, is a most excellent fishing ground, mountain and 
California trout being there in plenty. You may make this 
trip in one day, or you may stretch it out for several days, 
finding something new to see each day. There is little dan- 
ger of your getting lost, since all these trails lead some- 
where, and by following them you will sooner or later come 
to some human habitation, although it is possible that if 
you go too far, and branch too often, you may not come out 
exactly where you expect. 

The *trip down to Whitewater from Sapphire Inn, over 
the Walhalla carriage road, is also a very beautiful one, 
the Whitewater Falls being a series of cascades, three in 
number. The two upper cascades are something like 200 
yds. apart, the lower one being Ys M. further. The total 
drop is something like 370 ft. If one is looking for a place 
to spend a vacation, where the altitude is such that the 
nights are cool and the days comfortable, with both fishing 
and (to some extent) hunting, amid surroundings of pictur- 
esque beauty, with amusements of various kinds, and hotel 
accommodations of a high grade, the writer knows of no 
place superior to the Sapphire Country. 

Beyond Hendersonville our train enters the picturesque 
Saluda G-ap and descends swiftly through a narrow gorge. 
It will be well here to sit on the left side of the train, as 
there are many *fine views, best seen from that side. Around 
this region are many rhododendrons, which are very beau- 
tiful when in bloom. Some distance beyond The Gap, Tryon 
(788 M.), is passed (Pop. 400, Oak Hall Hotel, A. P., $3). 
It is a pretty little village, patronized somewhat as a 
resort. Beyond Tryon the state line of South Carolina is 
crossed and we enter Spartanburg (815 M.) (Pop. 12,395, 
Spartanburg, A. P., $2-2,50), making junction with one of 
the main lines of the So. Ey. (E. 11 B), and with a line 



SPARTANBUEG-JESUP. 67 

extending southward to Au}?usta. Spartanburg is a thriving 
little place in a district of iron and gold mines and mineral 
springs. From Spartanburg the lino extends to the S. E., 
joining a short branch line at lK)ckhart Junction (836 M.), 
another one at Union (843 M.), crossing the Atlanta branch 
of the Seaboard Air Line at Carlisle (856 M.), and the 
Broad River near its confluence with one of its branches at 
Herbert (863 M). The course of this river is followed all 
the way to Columbia (909 ISI.), the capital city of South 
Carolina (P. 271). 

From Columbia our train goes almost due S., bending, 
however, a little to the W., crossing Black Creek, a tribu- 
tary of the Edisto River beyond Thorne, making junction 
with a branch line of the Southern Ry. to Batesburg, at 
Perry (941 M.); crossing the S. fork of the Edisto River 
beyond Springfield (950 M.); the Augusta-Charleston line 
of the Southern at Blackville (961 M.); the Seaboard Air 
Line at Barnwell (971 M.); the Big Salkehatchie beyond 
Barnwell; the Charleston & Western Railway at Allendale; 
the Seaboard Air Line near Lena (1,005 M.); 
finally joining the Atlanta Coast Line at Hardeeville, be- 
yond which the Savannah River is crossed, and we enter 
Georgia, shortly thereafter arriving at Savannah (1,062 M.). 
From Savannah, we run over the tracks of the Atlantic 
Coast Line toward the S. W., crossing the Little Ogeechee 
River at Andersonville, the Seaboard Air Line at Burroughs 
(1,074 M.), and the Ogeechee River a little beyond. At 
Doctortown (1,115 M.), we pass over the Altamaha River, 
At Jesup (1,119 M.), the Southern Ry. from Macon is 
crossed. From Jesup to Jacksonville, see R. 1 A, P. 51. 

C. Via Nashville, Chattanooga, Atlanta and Macon. 

Chicago & Eastern Illinois; Louisville & Nashville; Nash- 
ville, Chattanooga & St. Louis; Central of Georgia; Georgia, 
Southern & Florida, and Atlantic Coast Line Rys. (1,088 
M.); fare, $27.55; sleeper, $6.50. 

Leaving Chicago from the Rock Island depot, comer of 
Van Buren and La Salle Sts., our line crosses many of the 
eastern trunk lines in and near the city. Along our route 
are Harvey and Chicago Heights, both of which are con- 
nected with Chicago by suburban service. At Momence 
(50 M., pop. 2,500, Central House, $2), the Indiana, Illinois & 
Iowa R. R. is crossed, and a branch line of the Chicago & 
Eastern 111. diverges to the right. At Watseka (77 -M, pop. 
3,000, Iroquois Hotel, $2), we cross the line of the Toledo, 



68 CHICAGO TO JACKSONVILLE. 

Peoria & Western Ry. At Milford (88 M.) a branch of the 
Iroquois Elver is crossed, and at Milford Junction, a short 
branch line to Freeland diverges to the E. (left). At Cisua 
Junction a short line to Cisna Park diverges to the W. 
(right). At Koopeston (99 M., pop. 24,000, Cunningham 
Hotel, A. P., $2), the Lake Erie & Western Ey. is crossed. 
At Eossville Jmiction (105 M.) a branch line diverges to the 
S. E. (right). The Attica-Bloomington line of the Illinois 
Central is crossed at Alvan (111 M., pop. 16,354, Plaza Hotel, 
A. P., $2-3; Aetna House, A. P., $2 up; Saratoga Hotel, E. P., 
50 cts. up). It is a railway and industrial center of con- 
siderable importance, there being seven lines of railway radi- 
ating therefrom. Continuing southward our train enters 
Indiana, and crossing the Wabash Eiver we come to the 
city of 

TERRB HAUTE (178 M.). Population 60,000. 

Hotels— Terre Haute, 7th & Wabash Av., A. P., $2.50-4 
per day; Filbeck Hotel, N. E. cor. 5th & Cherry Sts., A. P., 
$2-2.50 per day; Union Hotel, 328 N. 9th St., A. P., $1.25- 
1.50 per day, E. P., 50c.-$l per day; $1.25 a day to theatrical 
people; Wabash Avenue Hotel, 2ncl & Wabash Av., N. E. cor., 
E. P., 25c.-$l. 

Restaurants — Union Depot, 9th bet. Sycamore & Spruce; 
Delmonico, 639 Wabash Av.; W. L. McPeak, 627 Wabash 
Ave. 

Furnislied Rooms— 414 N. 6th; 218-220 N. 6th; 516-518 N. 
9th, prices 25-50c per night, $1.25-2 per wk. 

Banks — First National, 511-513 Wabash Ave.; National 
State, 431 Wabash Ave.; Vigo County National, 624 Wabash 
Ave.; McKeen & Co., 530 Wabash Ave.; Terre Haute Sav- 
ings, 533 Ohio. 

Theaters — Grand Opera House, N. 7th, cor. Cherry, seat, 
cap. 1,400, prices 25c-$2. 

Railway Express Offices — Adams, 629 Wabash Ave., P. C, 
24, both; American, 650 Wabash Ave., P. C, 29, both; Na- 
tional, 650 Wabash Ave., P. C, 29, both; Southern, 629 
Wabash Ave., P. C, 24, both; Southern Indiana, 708 Wabash 
Ave., P. C, 21, old; United States, 21 S. 5th, P. C, 23, old-572 
new. 

Telegrapli Companies— Postal, 672 Wabash Ave., P .C, 
119 Old-118 New; Western Union, 630 Wabash Ave., P. C, 
32 Old-New. Office hours, Postal, 7 A. M.-12 P. M., Sundays, 
7 A. M.-ll P. M.; Western Union, open all hours. 

Railway Ticket Offices— Vandalia Line, 654 Wabash Ave., 
P. C, 37 Old-New; C. C. C. & St. L., 710 Wabash Ave., P. C, 
112 Old-New; C. & E. L, 674 Wabash Ave., P. C, 22 Old- 



THE CTTY OF VINCENNES. 69 

New; E. & T. H., 674 Wnbasli Ave, P. C, 22 Old-New; 
Southern Indiana, 708 Wabash Ave., P. C, 21 Old-512 New. 

Scalpers' Offices— Louis D. Smith, 673 Wabash Ave., P. C, 
6 New. 

Trunk Factory and Repairs — V. G. Dickhout, 24 S. 7th. 
Laundry— Columbian, 1027 Wabash Ave., P. C, 329 Old- 
New. 

Men's Furnishings — Foulkes Bros., 631 Wabash Ave., P. 
C, 44 New. 
Department Store— L. B. Boot Co., 617-621 Wabash Ave. 
Post Office — S. W. cor. 7th & Cherry, Gen. Del. & stamps 
oi>en 7 a. m.-7:30 p. m. Sundays 9-10 a. m. M. O. open 8 
a. m.-5 p. m. Carrier window Sundays 9-10 a. m. 
Public Library— 119 N. 8th. 

Churches — p. 30; clubs, p. 52; secret societies, p. 59; 
public halls, p. 48; office buildings or blocks, p. 48. See City 
Directory on pa^es ^iven. 

Commercial Club — Commercial Club; Sec'y, W. H. Duncan. 

Leading Local Industries — Glass Factories; Iron & Steel 

Works (2); Breweries; Vandalia R. E. Shops; American 

Car & Foundry Co.; Merchants Distillery; Standard Wheel 

Co.; T. H. Paper Co. 

Livery— S. J. Fleming & Son, 807 Wabash Ave., P. C, 205, 
both, sales reasonable; Jas. Sonles, 514-18 Olive St., P. C, 
115 New, reasonable. 

Street Cars and Local and Long Distance Telephones. 
Terre Haute lies on the E. bank of the Wabash River, and 
is one of the commercial and industrial centers of the State, 
being an important railway point. Steamboats, also, make 
connections there to Vincennes, further down the river. 
Terre Haute has many fine buildings and several educational 
institutions. Proceeding southward from there, about 20 M. 
to the right, our train leaves the Wabash River and crosses 
the Illinois Central Ry. at Sullivan (204 M., pop. 4,500, 
Coffman House, $2, A. P.). Swerving somewhat to the S. W. 
we again draw near the Wabash River below Gravel Pit, 
and enter Vincennes (235 M.). 

VINCENNES, IND. Population, 14,000. 

Hotels — Grand, 3rd & Busseson, A. P., $2-3 per day; Com'l 
rate, $2-3 per dav; Union Depot Hotel, 7th & Wabash Ave., 
A. P., $2-3 per day; Boog Hotel, 30 4th St., A. P., $2 per 
day. 

Eestaurants — Pierce Big Gem, 25 2nd St.; Gattona Club 
and Cafe, 12 3d St. 

Furnished Rooms — Mrs. Ferdinans, Buntin St. bet. 4th & 
5th; Mrs. Rosa Fyfe, 5th & Main. 



70 CHICAGO TO JACKSONVILLE. 

Banks — First National, Main St.; Second National, Main; 
German National, Main; People's Trust Co., Main. 

Theaters — McJimsey, 2nd & Busseson, seat. cap. 1,250, 
prices 25c-1.50. 

Railway Express Offices — Adams, Union Depot, P. C, 
Main 43; American, 514 Main, P. C, Main 61; United States, 
Union Depot, P. C, Main 84. 

Telegraph Companies — Postal, 209 Main, P. C, Main 87; 
Western Union, 19 N. 2nd St., P. C, Main 89. Office hours, 
6 a. m.-8 p. m. Sundays, closed. 

Livery— Simpson's Transfer Co., Ill N. 3rd St., P. C, 28. 
Single rig, $2-3 per day; double rigs, $2-5. 

Railway Ticket Offices — Union Depot, 7th & Wabash Ave., 
P. C, Main 51. 

Bill Posters and Distributors — Vincennes Bill Posting Co., 
41 Busseson, P. C, 399 W. 

Trunk Factory, Repairs — Louis Elnere, 122 Main. 

Laundry — Ivory Steam Laundry, cor. 1st & Main, P. C, 
Main 192. 

Men's Furnishings— Sam & Ike Lyons, 228-230-232 Main, 
P. C, Main 159. 

Largest Department Store — Flint Homes' Department 
Store, cor. 1st & Main. 

Post Office — 28 2nd St. Gen. Del., stamps open 6 a. m.- 
10 p. m. Sundays 9-10 a. m. M. O. open 8 a. m.-6 p. ra. 
Carrier, Sundays, 9-10 a. m. 

Public Library — City Hall, cor. 4th & Main, Eooms 10-14. 

See City Directory — Churches, 12-13; clubs, 18; secret so- 
cieties, 15. See City Directory on pages given. 

Commercial Club — Board of Trade — Sec'y, H. P. Willis. 

Leading Local Industries — Glass Factories; Straw Board 
Factories; Furniture Factories; Canning Factory; Car 
Works; Distillery; Plow Works; Edge Tool Works; Sewer 
Pipe Works; Pearl Button Factory; National Eolling Mills; 
Street Cars and Local and Long Distance Telephones. 

Amusements — Electric Park and Theater, 1 M. from depot, 
fare 5 cts. Best people in city patronize this. Adm. free 
to grounds; Theater, 15 to 25 cts. Drinks served. Harmonic 
Park, 2 M. from depot. Fare 5 cts. Band in afternoon; 
dancing in evening. Drinks served. 

Vincennes is another industrial and commercial center, 
containing manufacturing institutions, some of them of 
considerable size. It lies on the E. bank of the Wabash 
River and has steamboat transportation on the Wabash, 
as well as six radiating railway lines. Passing out of Vin- 
cennes to the S., we cross the White Eiver between Decker 
and Hazleton (250 M.) and the Patoka River just bevond 
Patoka (256 M.). At Princeton (260 M.) the line of the 



MADISONVILLE-HOPKINSVILLE-NASHVILLE. 71 

Southern Ey. (K. 8 A) is crossed, and at Mt. Vernon Junc- 
tion, the Evansville & Torre Haute Ey. diverges to the 
right. Continuing southward, junction is made with the 
Evansville «S: Terre Haute Ey. at Straight Line (282 M.), 
near which Pigeon Creek is crossed. At Evansville (285 M.' 
pop. 59,007, St. George Hotel, A. P., $3 up; Eushton House', 
A. P., $1; Acme Hotel, E. P.) lies on the N. bank of the 
Ohio Eiver and has six lines of railway. Our train is now 
placed in charge of the Louisville & Nashville Ey. Crossing 
the Ohio Eiver, we enter Kentucky, passing through Hen- 
derson (296 M.), where the Illinois Central Ey. (E. 7 B) is 
crossed, traveling southward to Madisonville (334 M.). 

IMADISONVILLE, KY. Population 6,000. 

Hotels—Lucile, $2 per day, $10.50 per wk.; Belmont, $1 
per day, $4 per wk. 

Restaurants — Bon Ton. 

Banks— Marten's; Kentucky Bank & Trust Co.; Hopkins' 
County. 

Railway Express — Southern. 

Telegraph Companies — Western Union. 

Railway Companies — L. & N. 

Theater — Marten's Opera House. 

Livery Stable— Barnhill & Hibbs, P. C, 29; rates $2.50 
per day. 

Steam Laundry— Madisonville, P. C, 254-2. 

Leading Local Industries— Einecke Coal Co.; Victoria Coal 
Co.; Eoyal Coal Co.; Madisonville Wagon Works; Jones 
Buggy Co.; Spring Lake Ice Co.; Local and Long Distance 
Telephone Connections. 

The next town we encounter is 

HOPKINSVILLE, KY. (380 M.). Population 10,000. 

Hotels— Latham, A. P., $2.50-3.50; Yancey, W. 7th St. 

Restaurants — E. 7th St., 25 cts. 

Banks— City Bank; Bank of Hopkinsville; Planters' Bank 
& Trust Co. 

Theater— Hallen 's Opera, Main St. 

Railway Express Offices— Southern and American. 

Telegraph Companies— Western Union and Postal Tele- 
graph Co. 

Livery Stables— C. H. Layne, 9th St., P. C, 530. Eates, 
single rigs, first hr., $1; double rigs, first hr., $1.50. 

Railway Ticket Offices— Illinois Central and Louisville and 
Nashville, both on 9th St. 

Steam Laundry— Calls— Metcalf, 7th St. 



72 CHICAGO TO JACKSOX\aLLE. 

Men's Furnisliings — A. H. Anderson, Main St.; P. C, 317. 

Department Store — A. H. Anderson, Main St. 

Post Office— 9tli St. 

Public Library — Main St. 

For churches, clubs, etc., see City Directory. 

Leading Local Industries — Forbes Mfg. Co. 

Here the line, which until now has trended almost due S. 
from Chica2:o, bends to the S. E., crossing the Louisville &: 
Xashville line at Guthrie (394 M.,'pop. 1,500, Hotel T^Tiitlow, 
A. P., $2-3). The line continues S. E. to Springfield (412 M., 
pop. 1,000), joining the main line of the L. & X. at Edge- 
field (431 M.), thereafter entering Nashville (445 M.). 

*NASIiVILLE, TENN. Population About 100,000. 

On lines of the Xashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis, Louis- 
ville & X'ashville and Tennessee Central (Harriman Eoute) 
Evs. 

Depots — All trains except those of the Tenn. Central enter 
the Union Depot, on Broad St. Cars take you to hotels, 
fare oc. Tenn. Central trains enter T. C. Depot on Front St. 
"Walk up on Broad St. for cars about 3 blocks. Two blocks 
farther takes you up town where the hotels are. 

Hotels— High Class: The *Dunean, cor. Cherry & Cedar 
Sts., A. P., $3-5. Best in city. Maxwell Hotel, cor. Church 
& Cherry Sts., E. P., $1-2. Too high priced for the service 
rendered. Ttopia Hotel, 206 X\ Cherry, E, P., $1; with 
bath, $1.50. Good rooms. Excellent cafe in connection. 
Tulane, cor. Church & X'. Spruce Sts., A. P., $2-2.50. Cheap 
Hotels: Commercial Hotel, cor. Cherrv & Cedar Sts., A. P., 
$1.25-1.50. 

Restaurants— High Class: *Dorider & Sidebottom, 513 
Church St. Utopia, 206 X\ Cherry. Fascon's French Ees- 
taurant, 419 Union St. Medium Priced: The Gem. Hob- 
son's Cafe, 342 X. Cherry St. Cheap: There are several of 
the '^Pappa's Places,'^ all cheap restaurants. 

Furnished Rooms— X^. Cherry St., bet. Church & Broad 
Sts. 

Banks — First X'ational, cor. Union & X. Cherrv; Fourth 
X'ational, 234 X. College; American Xational, 225 X. College; 
Merchants X'ational, 310 X. College. 

Theaters— The Vendome, 615 Church St., high class; seats 
1,800; prices 25c-$1.50; higher for large attractions. Grand 
Opera House, Church, bet. Cherrv & Summer; stock house; 
seats 1,650; prices 10-50c. The Biiou, Cherry St.; seats 
about 1,600; popular prices; nice house. 

Railway Espress Offices— Adams and Southern Cos., both 
417 Union St., P. 0. 



THE CITY OF NASHVILLE. 73 

Telegraph Offices — Western L^'nion and Postal on opp. 
corners of Church & College. Always open. Messenger 
service and P. C. at both. 

Livery — Waldorf Stables, 515 Broad St., P. C, rates rea- 
sonable. 

Eailway Ticket Offices — Nashville, Chattanooga & St. 
Louis, 406 Church St., P. C. Tennessee Central, 204 Cherry, 
P. C. Louisville & Nashville, 202 Cherry, P. C. 

Scalpers — None. 

Trunk Repairs — Carson & Forman Tnmk Factory, 609 
Church St., P. C. 

Steam Laundry — Nashville Laundry, 218 Front St., P. C. 
Work done in one day. 

Men's Furnishings — Cooper & Huddleston, 217 N. Cherry. 

Department Store — Nashville D. G. Co., cor. Summer & 
Union Sts. 

Post Office — Cor. Broad & S. Spruce Sts. Gen. Del. & 
stamps, 7-10; Sundays 10-11. M. O. Dept., 9-10. Stamp 
window after 5 p. m. Carrier windows Sundays 10-11 a. m. 

Public Library — Cor. Spruce & Union Sts. 

Churches p. 61; Secret Societies, p. 64; Public Bldgs., 
Halls, etc., p. 49. See City Directory on pages named. 

Leading Local Industries — Saws mill (22), wood working 
plants, iron for eastings, flour mills, stove foundries, fertilizer 
works. Very large distributing point for commodities of all 
kinds. 

Nashville lies on somewhat hilly ground on the S. bank 
of the Cumberland river. There are 8 lines of railroads 
radiating from it; also steamboat transportation. It is on 
the main line of Florida travel from Chicago and St. Louis, 
via the Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis Ey., and has 
considerable to offer to the tourist. The city is fast becom- 
ing a commercial center. It is covered with a most excellent 
*street car service, and any part of the city may be reached 
for a 5c fare. The transfer system deserves mention. The 
cars of all lines center at College & Dedrick and pass through 
a building the full length of the block. You ride into this 
station, and there you get off and take the car of any other 
line desired; or you may pay a fare at the entrance, and 
take any desired car, as they all come here. Outside the 
transfer station you may transfer in the usual way. 

Points of Interest — Leaving the union depot note below, 
at right of entrance, two large alligators in a cement tank. 
You may pass down through the train shed for a close view 
if desired. The *Capitol BuiMing should be the first point 
visited, because from the dome one gains a view of the city 
and surrounding country. The Capitol Bldg. is situated in 
the square bounded by Cedar, Vine and Gay Sts. and Park 



74 CHICAGO TO JACKSONVILLE. 

Place, the grounds being elevated some 30 ft. above the 
surrounding property, and much more than this above the 
city proper. The stru^cture is massive and solid, the columns 
being of Tennessee marble and the walls of limestone. In 
viewing the bldg., it must be remembered that its corner 
stone was laid July 4th, 1845, and that it was completed in 
1857. At that time it was the finest state capitol in the coun- 
try. It is 112 ft. in width by 239 in length, the extreme height 
to tip of dome being 206 ft. 7 in. Both exterior and interior 
are severely plain, strikingly so to us, accustomed to the 
magnificence and prodigality of modern architectural decora- 
tion; but for all that there are few of the palaces of today 
that will weather the storms of half a century with hardly 
a visible mark as this has done. 

In the grounds to the S. will be seen the *bronze eques- 
trian statue of General Andrew Jackson, by Clark Mills. 
Near by is the monument, under which rests the ashes Of 
President James K. Polk and his wife, who died just at the 
time of his election to the Presidency. Entering the bldg., 
the main point of interest will be the **State Library on the 
second floor (50,000 volumes, including some very rare 
works). Here will be seen life-size oil painting of ''Old 
Hickory" Jackson and his wife; Abraham Lincoln, Jefferson 
Davis, Mrs. James K. Polk (one of Pres. Polk now being 
painted), Gen'l Robert E. Lee, Gen'l Forrest, Gen'l Thomas, 
and many others. There is a copy, in oil, of the last portrait 
taken of Napoleon I, the original of which is in the museum 
of the State Historical Society in the Carnegie Library (P. 
76). You may *ascend to the dome of the Capitol for a view 
of the city, but by calling a porter, and giving him a fee, 
you will be able to get out on the top of the dome, where 
the "world will lie at your feet." Arriving at the top, seat 
yourself on the slope of the roof squarely in front of the 
flag pole; you are 403 ft. above the river; the bare hill in 
front (% M.) and a trifle to the right is the site of old 
Fort Negly, which was manned by Union troops in war times. 
The old earthworks still remain. The stone bldg., in line 
with the fort, closer in (^4 M.) is the Post Office and Custom 
House, while still nearer, a little to the left, the bldg. with 
large marionettes on its roof is the Jewish Ssmagogue. The 
large six-story brick building in the foreground is the Polk 
Flats, occupying the site of the old Polk residence. Just 
to its right is the new Carnegie Library (P. 76), while still 
farther to the right are the yards of the Terminal Co., lead- 
ing to the Union Depot. To the left of the Union Depot, on 
top of a hill (1 M.) is the city reservoir. The hills to the 
right in the distance are a part of the "Highland Rim.*' 
Looking well to the right the bldg. at the edge of the city, 



IN AND ABOUT NASHVILLE. 75 

with two square towers, is University Hall of the Vander- 
bilt University (P. 76). The building to the left with one 
tower is Science Hall of the same seliool. Farther to the loft 
and farther away, among the trees, is the Roger Williams 
Institute (colored); still farther to the right (Vi M.) on 
hill (1^4 M. distant) is Belmont College for young ladies. 
Looking slightly to the right will be seen a bldg. with many 
columns — the Parthenon (P. 76) in Centennial Park, 

Moving 14 around the dome we will be looking W.; the 
bldg. with a tall smokestack^ between two hills at the edge 
of city, contains the shops of the N. C. & St. L. By. Looking 
N. W. (right) the large bldg. with many windows and tower 
C^/j M.) is Jubilee Hall, the home of the famous Jubilee 
singers. This bldg., with the three large ones scattered to 
the left, constitute the Fisk University (colored). Straight 
over the oblong university bldg., in the distance (7 M.), is 
the Tennessee States Prison (P. 77), in West Nashville. Fol- 
lowing the line of the street which runs one block from the 
Capitol bldg. to the right (1 M.) on the hill, is the St. Cecilia 
convent. Nearer on the same St. are the Tennessee Cotton 
Mills. 

Moving around the dome i/l, looking N., we face N. Nash- 
ville, with Sulphur Springs in the foreground, at the right 
end of which note the Athletic Park (base ball grounds). 
At the foot of the capitol grounds note the new Jewish Sjma- 
gogue with two square towers. 

Moving around the dome ^4 we face E. The two tall 
smokestacks near the river mark the light and power plants. 
The red brick building with tower to right, nearer, is the 
City Hall, to the left of which (gray bldg. with columns) ia 
the Court House in the public square (P. 76). The Cumber- 
land river here runs due N. To the right on bluff at bend 
of river is the City Hospital. Standing in front of the trap 
door in roof of dome and looking over the Castner Knott 
Bldg. (see sign) to top of hill we see the University of Nash- 
ville and Peabody Normal School (P. 77). The bldg. sur- 
mounted by domed tower and gilt cross, one block from cor. 
of capitol grounds, is the Catholic Cathedral, to the rear of 
which (1 blk.) is the small domed tower, on cor., of the 
Duncan Hotel. Coming down, note the stone stairs, and how 
they interlock in the wall. Also, note the flags (rotunda of 
2nd floor) of the First Tennessee regiment and the Philip- 
pine insurgent flag. 

In the city there are several points that will be of in- 
terest. *The Maxwell Hotel, a large, rambling, old build- 
ing, in course of construction at the time, was seized by the 
Federals and used as a military prison. It is commonly 
thought, in Nashville, that it was Gen'l Zoollicoffer's head- 



76 CHICAGO TO JACKSONVILLE. 

quarters, but the facts are that the General's headquarters 
were in the building still standing at No. 312 High St., the 
hotel being used for a prison. The names of some of the 
prisoners can yet bo seen carved in the stone window sills 
in some of the upper room. *The Carnegie Library, cor. 
Spruce and Union Sts., opened during the summer of 1904, 
is well worth a visit, the more so that it contains the museum 
of the Tennessee State Historical Society. This handsome 
bldg.^ cost $100,000. The library has over 23,000 volumes, 
and it is maintained by a yearly guarant}^ of $10,000 from 
the city. The Court House, in Court House Square, is of 
interest from the fact that it occupies the site of the log 
fort built by James Eobertson, the founder of the city. This 
fort was attacked in 1792 by 400 Indians, but they were re- 
pulsed by the settlers. The structure stood until replaced 
by the present bldg. in 1835. In the surrounding square, 
Gen'l Sam Houston and Andrew Jackson have matched wits 
in political argument, and it was here that President Polk 
commenced his law studies. 

^Centennial Park lies just beyond the Vanderbilt Univer- 
sity. Broad St. car, fare 5c, takes you to the gate. Entering, 
see in front the shaft, surmounted by globe, which marks the 
site of the Women's Bldg. of the Tennessee Centennial Ex- 
position (1897), which .was held in this Park. To its right 
notice the beautiful ornamental fountain. Passing to right, 
through arbor, past the History Bldg. (left) and the Par- 
thenon (left), the former the History and the latter the Art 
Bldg. of the Exposition, we arrive at the gi*eat slab of gray 
granite, directly in front of the Parthenon. This slab (see 
bronze plate), commemorates the Exposition. From here a 
*most impressive view of the Parthenon is to be had. The 
structure is a perfect reproduction of the Parthenon at 
Athens.^ Passing to the right, note the tall gray granite 
shaft, in memory of James Eobertson and his wife, the 
founders, in 1770, of Nashville. Bronze tablets give the 
history. The public (free) bath house is just beyond. The 
park grounds are prettily laid out in shrubs and flowers. 

From the Park it is but a short walk back along the st. ry. 
to the *Vanderbilt University on West End Ave., Broad St. 
car, fare 5c. The Vanderbilt family has endowed the Uni- 
versity with over $1,000,000. The grounds contain 76 acres 
of beautiful lawns, dotted with trees and shrubbery, inter- 
spersed with many magnolias. In front of the central 
building. University Hall, is an heroic sized bronge statue 
of Cornelius Vanderbilt, by Moretti, a present from the citi- 
zens of Nashville. Facing University Hall, the building to 
the left is Science Hall, beyond which is Wesley Hall (Theo- 
logical Dept.), while still farther to the left, in cor. of 



IN AND ABOUT NASHVILLE. 77 

jsjroimds, is Engineering Hall. In the rear of University Hall 
is Kissam Hall, the new dormitory. 

*Tlie Penitentiary, W. Nashville car, fare 5c, lies in W. 
Nashville, 7 M. from the city. On the way out note (left) 
Centennial Park, the N. C. & St. L. shops (left), as well as 
the many manufacturing plants (right & left). The prison 
bldg. is a large gray structure, fronted by a beautiful lawn 
and flower garden. White prisoners are confined in the right 
wing and colored convicts in the left. There are 400 cells 
in each wing. The women's cell-house is in the farther left 
hand cor. of the enclosure. At the time of my visit there 
were 967 inmates. About 1,600 can be accommodated. IT. 
S. prisoners are also kept here. There is a charge of 10c for 
showing visitors through, and the hours are 7 a. m. to 5 
p. m. every day, including Sundays. It will be noticed that 
the prisoners wear caps of various colors. Those wearing 
blue caps are 1st class, and may receive two visits and two 
letters per month; checked caps are 2nd class and may re- 
ceive one visit and one letter per mo.; white caps are 3rd 
class and can receive no visits or letters. The white caps 
are scarce. The convicts are rented out to contractors, the 
state being paid a nominal sum per day per man, and the 
convict is paid a very small sum for all goods made over a 
certain amount each day. There is a large foundry, employ- 
ing about 100 men, the product of which consists of stove- 
castings and hollow ware. There is also a very large shoe 
factory, a paper "box factory, a harness shop, etc. The sys- 
tem has the advantage that it teaches the convict a trade. 
The women's cell-house is fronted by a beautiful lawn and 
flower garden and the rooms are clean and white. The whole 
prison, in fact, is a model institution. 

There is a small war museum in the Frank Cheatham 
Bivouac of Confederate Veterans, 2nd floor, rear, Chamber 
of Commerce Bldg., Church St., below Cherry. The Univer- 
sity of Nashville and Peabody College, cor. Market & Lind- 
sey Ave., Fairfield ear, fare 5c, has 1,300 students. The 
grounds are 16 acres in extent, but poorly kept. Notice the 
stone bldg'. in center, covered with ivy. It was built in 
1853 and is in an excellent state of preservation. The Fisk 
University, Jefierson St. car, fare 5c, is interesting as the 
home of the famous Jubilee Singers. It is an extensive seat 
of learning for colored people. The school buildings were 
built with the money made by the Jubiee Singers on their 
tours, and the property is now valued at $300,000. There is 
no endowment. The Ward Seminary (400 students), Spruce, 
near Church St., was founded by Dr. Ward in 1865. It is one 
of Nashville's best known schools. There are several other 



78 CHICAGO TO JACKSONVILLE. 

colleges of more than local reputation (see City Directory 
for further information). 

The First Presbyterian Church, cor. Church & Sumner Sts., 
is worth a visit. The first structure was buit on the site in 
1812. The present building was erected in 1851, at a cost of 
$51,000. The interior is beautifully finished in Egyptian 
style. Christ Church (Episcopal), cor. Broad & McLemore 
Sts. (Broad St. car, fare 5c), is one of the finest churches in 
the city. St. Mary's Cathedral, eor. Sumner & Cedar Sts., 
built in 1842, is a fine structure. There are over 100 churches 
in the city. The old *Oity Cemetery, Cherry & Oak Sts. 
(Cherry & College car, fare 5c), is very interesting. It has 
great trees and vines and reminds one of an old-world burial 
place. Many notable men rest here — ^James Robertson, 
founder of the city (see shaft, Centennial Park), Judge 
George W. Campbell, twice secretary of the Treasury under 
Madison, twice U. S. Senator and Minister to Eussia; G-en'l 
F. K. ZoUicoffer and many others. **Mt. Olivet Cemetery, 
one of the most beautiful in Tennessee, is on the Lebanon 
Pike, 1 M. southeast from the city (Fairfield Ave. car, fare 
5c). Thousands of Confederate dead rest here, and a hand- 
some monument has been erected to their memory. Admis- 
sion to the grounds by ticket (free), obtained from Thos. 
Callender, 307 Cherry St.; Sunday visiting is restricted to 
lot owners. 

The Central Asylum for the Blind is 7 M. out the Mur- 
freesboro Pike; erected 1851; about 400 inmates. Masonic 
Widows and Orphan's Home, on the Galletin Pike, opened in 
1892. The Tennessee School for the Blind is on Fillmore 
St., near Nance; established 1844. Large, handsome bldgs.. 
surrounded by beautiful grounds. It is just to the rear of 
the LTniversity of Nashville. Adjoining it is the City Hos- 
pital, on a bluff overlooking the river. In the rear of the 
Maxwell Hotel is the old Masonic Temple; part of it is now 
used as a theater. Cumberland Park (Spruce & Glendale car, 
with transfer, fare 5c), is a racing park with a very fast 
mile track; large club house and grand stand; many horses 
v/inter here. Racing meets in the spring; Cumberland Derby 
the principal event. Glendale Park, 6 M. out (Spruce & Glen- 
dale car, fare 5c), amusement park; adm. free; roller 
coaster, ** house of trouble," dancing, etc.; small zoological 
collection. Nice place to spend an evening. Fort Negly 
(Spruce & Glendale car, fare 5c). Tell conductor to let you 
off at the fort. The old earth works, laid out in the form of 
a star, are still to be seen. There was some artillery firing 
from this fort, but no actual fighting around it. It is on top 
of a small hill to the left, and 2 blocks from the line. The 
Belle Meade Stock Farm is known all over the world as the 



IN AND ABOUT NASHVILLE. 79 

breeding place of some of the finest "horses ever foaled. It 
consists of 5,000 acres of blue grass land, enclosed by 22 M. 
of stone fence. Its location is 6 M. from the city at Harding 
Station, on the N. C. & St. L. Ey.; it is also reached by the 
Harding Pike — a splendid road. The house is one of those 
old-fashioned southern homes with great columns in front, 
extending to the top of the second story. Gen'l W. H. Jack- 
son owned it until the time of his death. The dairy interests 
of the farm are very extensive. 

During the war the city was the seat of extensive opera- 
tions, and in the surrounding hills the battle of Nashville 
was fought, in which it is estimated that Hood lost about 
5,000 men and Thomas about 3,000 men. The National Ceme- 
tery lies 5 M. north, on the line of the L. & N. Ey. There 
are 16,533 Union soldiers buried there, 4,701 of whom are 
unknown. Each grave is marked by a plain slab, the graves 
being symmetrically grouped. The *view from the summit 
of the hill is fine. *The Hermitage, the old home of Andrew 
Jackson, and the place where his ashes rest, is 1% M. from 
Hermitage Station on the Tennessee Central Ey., or 11% M. 
from Nashville. It may be reached by carriage, or automo- 
bile, over a most excellent road. The place has historic in- 
terest, because for years it was the home of Andrew Jack- 
son, and from the fact that here is the tomb of the great 
statesman and his wife, who passed away just after learning 
that her husband had been elected to the Presidency. The 
Hermitage is worth visiting, not only for its romantic in- 
terest, but for the stately beauty of the place. In 1890, 
several patriotic ladies of Nashville formed an organization 
similar to the Mt. Vernon Association, and induced the state 
to purchase the property; the old house, with 27 acres of 
land, was given to this association, and the remainder, 425 
acres, was loaned to the Confederate Veterans Assn. for a 
Soldiers' Home for a term of 25 years. 

The Nashville battlefield, is difficult of access, but those 
who wish to see it may do so. The starting point of the 
fight may be reached by carriage, and a goodly portion of 
the field viewed, but to go over the entire field entails walk- 
ing a goodly distance through fenced and cultivated land. 
Leave Nashville on the Nolensville Pike via carriage; just 
after crossing the L. & N. Ey. look back (right) and see 
Cumberland Park race track. The Nolensville Pike is an ex- 
tension of S. Cherry St. Turn in (left) at *'Hill Crest," 
the first gate (see name on mail box) after crossing L. & N. 
Ey. Passing up over the hill in the field, we cross over the 
N. C. & St. L. Ey. On the right is a deep rock cut through 
which the track passes. In this cut the Federal troops 
formed on the morning of the battle. Passing across the 



80 CHICAGO TO JACKSONVILLE. 

bridge vre arrive at the entrance to Hill Crest, the beautiful 
home of Mrs. James S. Eobinson, known in history as the 
Eaines Place. Facing the entrance we see where the Fed- 
erals came out of the cut to the right and moved to the 
right (opp. side of ry.) up over the hill to attack Cheatham, 
who was in position on Eidley's Hill (1 M. S.)- From Hill 
Crest we return to the Pike. ^ On summit of first hill see in 
the distance (right) the hills upon which the main battle 
was fought on the following day. The lower hills (at foot of 
main hills front) was where Hood gave w^ay and the battle 
broke. Eeaching the Pike, we turn left and ascend to sum- 
mit (1 M.) of Ridley's Hill. Standing under a locust tree 
to left of road, just where it begins to dip downward, we are 
on the Confederate line of battle, which extended along the 
hill crest at right angles to the road. The Federals ad- 
vanced through the field (left) from the direction we have 
been coming. They were met with a withering musketry and 
artillery fire and lost 820 men, most of whom fell in the de- 
pression in the field through which the main charge was 
made. Their opponents did not lost a man. Gen. Cheatham's 
headquarters was in the Greenfield house at foot of hill, i^ 
M. farther on; it is located (right) some 150 yds., a trifle 
beyond and to the rear of a small country store. 

*A Nice Side Trip out of Nashville is over the Tennessee 
Central Ry. to Dunbar's Cavern and Idaho Springs, 314 M. 
from Clarksville. Leaving Nashville, we see the new Gov- 
ernment Locks at Fox Bluff (left), known as ''Lock A." 
Between Nashville and the Lick will be noted the Harpeth 
Shoals, which, in ordinary stages of the river, are too shal- 
low for steamboats. The Idaho Springs and Dunbar Cavern 
are reached by a 3^2 M. drive from Clarksville, the charge 
being $1 per person, for the round trip. Large parties at 
about half the above rate. 

CLABKSVILLE, TENN. Population 10,000. 

On the main line of the Tenneesee Central and the Bowling 
Green-Memphis line of the L. 85 N. Ry.; Nashville, 56 M.; 
Bowling Green, 63 M. 

Hotels — Arlington, 2 blks. up from depot, A. P., $2. Frank- 
lin Hotel, cor. Franklin St. & Public Square, A. P., $2. 

Restaurants— *MichePs, No. 108 2nd St.; Price's, 131 
Franklin St.; Winter's, 119 Franklin St. 

Banks — First National, cor. Franklin & 2nd Sts.; Northern, 
cor. Franklin & 2ud. 

Theater— Elder '3 Opera House, Franklin St. Seats 800. 
Prices 25c-$1.50. 



CLAEKSYILLE AND ENVIEONS. 81 

Eailway Express Offices — Southern, cor. 3rd & Commerce, 
P. C. Adams, same address, P. C. 

Telegraph — Western Union, Public Sq., P. C; open 7-6; 
Sunday, 8-10 a. m., 4-6, 7-8 p. m. 

Livery— Shelton & Son, 118 3rd St., P. C. Eates low. 

Railway Ticket Offices — L. & N., cor. Commerce & 4th Sts., 
P. C. Tenn. Central, Public Sq., P. C. 

Steam Laundry — Mercantile, S. 3rd St., P. C. 

Men's Furnishings — Eankin & Ferguson, Franklin St. 

Dept. Store^— None. 

Post Office — Cor. Commerce & 2nd Sts. Gen. Del., 7-6:30. 
Sundays, 10-11. M. O. Dept., 8-6. Carriers' Window, Sun- 
days, 10-11 a. m. 

Commercial Body — Clarksville Business Men's Assn. 

About 3 M. from Clarksville (carriage) lies *Idaho Springs. 
There are a number of springs here, but the two main ones 
are about 15 ft. apart, one being very strong in sulphur, the 
other equally strong in iron. The sulphur spring may be 
smelled for some distance; in taste it is similar to the cele- 
brated West Baden water. A mixture of the clear water of 
the two springs produces a liquid the C^lor of ink. Eheuma- 
tism, kidney troubles and many other maladies yield to their 
curative powers. The location is Ideal; it has one of the 
best natural sites for a summer hotel the writer ever sav/. 

*Dunbar Cavern lies about 3% M. up the valley. The 
cavern has a most imposing entrance; the high stone bluff 
forms an angle and, overhanging the opening, makes a 
natural roof for the dancing pavilion laid in the mouth. 
The cavern is known as a blowing cave, a current of air 
constantly issuing from it. The temperature is SS** Far., and 
in the coVe in front of the cavern, as well as some distance 
down the valley, it is astonishingly cool, even on the warmest 
day in summer. It is an ideal place for children suffering 
from summer com.plaint. Many Clarksville mothers take 
their children there and camp out. The cavern is said to 
be 12 M. in extent, but this is an exaggeration. However, it 
has several large and splendid rooms, hundreds of feet in 
length, 30 to 40 ft. broad and 20 to 40 ft. high. The adm. to 
the cavern is 50c. Near the entrance (left) is the room 
where (supposedly) **01d Man Cherry'* made silver dollars 
in competition with Uncle Sam. Pullman Ave. has a roof re- 
markably like that of a railway coach. At one place there 
is a formation startlingly like a gigantic lizard, 14 ft. long; 
at another is an "inverted boat." Independence Hall has 
some excellent stalactite formation, and the ''ocean ripples" 
on the cavern floor are wonderful. There is excellent mineral 
water and the place would be a great resort did it not lack 
transportation and hotels. There is a hotel at the springs 



82 CHICAGO TO JACKSONVILLE. 

($1.50 per day; wk., $7), but it is little more than a country 
house. Fare from Nashville to Clarksville, $1.70; from Van 
Blarcome PI. (W. Nashville, W. Nashville car, fare 5c) $1.40. 
Bloomington Springs, Nashville, 80 M., lies on the Tennes- 
see Central Ry., 2 M. from Double Springs Sta. Hack meets 
all trains; fare to hotel, 25c. Hotel at Springs ($1 day; mo., 
$25; special rates to families). Further information may be 
had by addressing Stone & Garnet, Bloomington Springs 
Hotel, Bloomington, Tenn. The analysis of the water is as 
follows: (One gallon contains in grains) sodium carbonate, 
4.48 calcium carbonate 7.08, magnesium trace, calcium sul- 
phate 27.60, sodium sulphate 8.32, sodium chloride 8.88, iron 
albuminate oxide 9.10. Total 65.46. 

The Red Boiling Springs lies 25 M. from Carthage, a sta- 
tion 86 M. from Nashville on the Tennessee Central Ry., and 
25 M. from Hartzville, on the Chesapeake & Nashville, con- 
necting with the L. & N. at Gallatin. The carriage fare to 
the Springs from either place is $2.50, the hack running daily 
in summer. There are several hotels, the place having been 
known as a health resort for 50 years. The Red Boiling 
Springs Hotel is open the year round, rates $1 ; wk. $7. The 
"red water" has undoubted curative properties for kidney 
and bladder troubles, while the "black water" operates on 
the stomach and liver. There is very pretty scenery and the 
usual amusements, such as bowling, etc. For further infor- 
mation address Mr. S. S. Kemp, Red Boiling Springs, Tenn. 
The analyses of the two waters are as follows: Red Water 
(one gallon contains in grains): Sodium chloride 10.725, 
sodium carbonate 1.030, calcium carbonate 9.641, calcium 
sulphate 15.363, magnesium sulphate, 7.973, alumina .118, 
ferrous oxide .084, silica .583, organic and volatile matter 
2.313, total 47.830. Black water: Silica and soluble matter 
1.166, sodium chloride 38.162, calcium chloride 2.162, mag- 
nesium sulphate 16.362, calcium sulphate 51.795, calcium car- 
bonate 20.187, ferrous oxide 1.650, alumina .483, total solids 
131.967. 

Monterey, on the Tennessee Central Ry., pop. 1,000, Nash- 
ville 108 M., is a resort with excellent hotels, one of which, 
the Park Hotel, is open the year round ($8-12 per wk.). The 
Cumberland makes special rates for the summer. Address 
Jessie F. Miller, The Cumberland Hotel, Monterey, Tenn. 
Hotels are about a half mile from the station. The surround- 
ing scenery is very pleasing, and there are no mosquitoes. 
In a park at the station is Standing Stone, one of the old 
Indian monuments used to mark lines of neutral hunting 
grounds. It is the only relic of the kind in the country. 
Walton road was the first improved highway through the 
Tennessee mountains. It was over this road that Andrew 



THE CITY OF MURFREESBORO. 83 

Jackson traveled to AVashington in the olden days. Other 
points of interest are Summerville Heights, Raven Cliff, 
Robin's Roost, Mineral Ridge, Brady Falls and the Natural 
Bridge. 

Leaving Nashville for Chattanooga there is little of in- 
terest until Murfreesboro is reached. Levergne (461 M.), 
passed on the way is, however, one of the oldest settlements 
in the country; about 200 ft. from the depot, on the Nash- 
ville side, will be seen a house with the mark of a cannon 
ball on it. The hole made by the ball has been stopped up, 
but the unpainted boards show the place. At Murfreesboro 
was fought one of the *heaviest battles of the war, called by 
the Federals **Stone*s River" and by the Confederates 
"Battle of Murfreesboro." 

MURFREESBORO, TENN. (477 M.). Population 5,000. 

On the main line of the N. C. & St. L. Ry.; Nashville, 32 
M.; Chattanooga, 119 M. 

Hotels — Rutherford Hotel, $2 per day. Only good one in 
the city. 

Murfreesboro lies on Stone's River and is quite old, be- 
ing founded about 1800 to 1805. The town, built on the site 
of Black Fox Camp, an Indian village, was named in honor 
of Col. Hardy Murfree, one of the early settlers. It was the 
temporary State Capitol from 1819 to 1825. The city centers 
about a public square, in the center of which is the County 
Court House (built in 1859). Note the eight massive iron 
columns, four on either side of the Court House, 3^/^ ft. in 
diameter by 33 ft. in height. These columns are hollow and 
several bullet holes will be seen in them, some of which are 
filled with putty, but all are visible. Notice, over center 
window, under veranda, on E. side, bullet holes in brick work. 
There was a cannonball hole in the right upper corner, but 
it has been effaced. In front of the court house is a hand- 
some monument surmounted by a bronze figure, in honor of 
the Confederate dead. Gen'l John Morgan was married in 
the Jordan Hotel building. The one-storv brick bldg., S. 
E. cor. Spring & Cottage Sts,, was the headquarters of Gen'l 
Eosencrans. The ^battlefield is, however, the principal point 
of interest, and it will be necessary to hire a carriage to 
reach it, unless one happens to be an enthusiastic pedes- 
trian. The charge is $1.50 for one; $2 for two and $3 for 
three persons, which includes driver, and is cheap enough, 
as the trip takes us over many miles. 

Leaving the city, v/e pass out via the Nashville dirt road. 
After crossing Stone's river, note at cor., (3 M.) where we 
turn to the left, tablet marking the position of McNair's 



84 CHICAGO TO JACKSONVILLE. 

right wing, Dec. 30, 1862. McCook's division came through 
the field from the right of the barn and joined McNair. The 
Confederates lay farther up the road in the direction we are 
traveling. Attacking McNair and McCook they drove them 
back (right) 3 M. across the fields. Turning next cor, 
(right) note in field beyond cor., 300 yds. from road (left), 
large frame structure, the Ridout house, with two cannon- 
ball holes through it, fired from Union guns. At the point 
where the road stops and branches right and left, straight 
ahead in the field, which was lightly timbered then, Capt. 
Barnard sent his artillery horses to water and while they 
were away the Confederates came along and captured the 
guns. Turning to the right here and following the lane, the 
fields to the right were the scene of heavy fighting, the Fed- 
erals retreating slowly before the advancing foe, but con- 
testing every inch of the ground. The house to right (1 M.), 
near the road, with large chimney on each end, was the hos- 
pital, the stake corral was used for horses. Turning right 
just beyond this house, see (left) close to fence, just beyond 
turn, tree through which a camion ball passed. Many men 
were killed in the field within the shade of the branches of 
this tree. The Federal battery was for a time posted on the 
crest of the hill, a trifle to the left of the road. The Con- 
federates attacked this position, coming from the fields to 
the right. 

Turning into a lane, through a gate (right) just beyond 
this hill, and following it to its end, we arrive at the "Hard- 
ing House," The old house was burned some years since, 
and the new one stands somewhat back of the former site. 
Note the bullet hole in left gate post and how it split the 
post. In the parlor will be found a square piano v/ith its left 
back leg shot off, although the leg has been put back in place. 
There were five wounded soldiers in the room at the time 
this occurred. The Federals made a stand on the high ground 
here, their artillery being across the road and the house 
therefore was between the lines of battle. Note across the 
fields (right as we come from house) tall, bare tree which 
marks the place where Gen'l Sill fell. Notice tree near cor. 
of house split by cannon ball. Returning to main road and 
turning right, first house (left) is the Blandon House, in the 
front yard of which eleven Federal soldiers were killed. 
Notice trees scarred by cannon balls. From this point to the 
place where we turn (left) there was particularly fierce fight- 
ing, almost every big tree showing marks of the battle. 

Turning (left) we pass over an exceedingly rocky road, 
following the Federal line of retreat as they were forced 
back on Thomas, who was stationed at the Point now occu- 
pied by the National Cemetery. This position was stormed 



BATTLEFIELD OF MURFEEESBORO. 85 

several times, but could not be carried, 14 M. being about as 
close as the Confederates ever got to it. Crossing the Pike 
and ry., we note that Gen'l Van Cleave 's headquarters were 
at the ry. opp. the cemetery. Hazen held a position on the 
ry. nearer town (we will see it later), which was maintained 
throughout the struggle. The Confederate forces swung 
around to the rear of Thomas and Hazen, endeavoring to 
prevent their retreat over the Nashville Pike. Following 
the road to the ford see, after turning right, two signs on 
hill (left) near the road, m.arking the position where Eose- 
crans concentrated 52 guns. The advancing Confederates 
were simply mowed down by the concentrated fire of this 
great battery. It was this that broke the Confederate lines 
and gained the Federals the victory. Returning towards 
town we turn, right, after crossing the ry., and go down to 
the National Cemetery, % M. Just before reaching it see, 
on "-ight, tablet marking spot where Gen. Garsche was killed, 
a part of his head being carried away by a cannon ball. 
Note the first four stones in a row in front of a cypress 
tree. The last one marks a grave wherein are said to lie 
the bodies of 11 men. Down this pike, 1 M., Rosecrans had 
his headquarters for a time. We may either drive or walk 
through the cemetery, entering one gate and coming out the 
other. The cemetery contains 6,151 dead, including 2,333 
unknown. There is a monument surmounted by a bronze 
eagle in the center, and the grounds are very prettily laid 
out, the square stones marking the unknown dead. Return- 
ing to the city, via the Pike, note (^^ M.) (left) sign 
"Hazen's Brigade** and large monument at its rear near 
ry. Gen'l Hazen held this position all through the fight, 
the ry. cut forming a natural breastwork. The surrounding 
land was called '* Hell's Half Acre." A little further on 
see tablet just inside of fence (right) marking site of 
Cowan's house, burned during the battle by order of the 
Confederate commander. A little farther on note tablet 
(left) marking Gen'l Bragg's headquarters. Crossing the 
bridge over Stone's River note the breastworks of Fortress 
Rosencrans. This was the lunette of the inner works. Note 
beyond bridge, ^ M. (left) small house, back of store front 
bldg. This was the home of John Bell, who ran for the 
Presidency against Lincoln in 1860. Just beyond this the 
red earth cut passed through was the outer line of defense 
of Fortress Rosencrans; 300 yards beyond see (left % M.) 
large brick bldg. in fields. This is the home of "Charles 
Egbert Craddock** (Miss Mary Murfree) the authoress. The 
large three-story brick building seen at the edge of town (a 
little to the left) is Soule College, used as a hospital in war 
times. From Murfreesboro the route follows the general 



86 CHICAGO TO JACKSONVIKLE. 

line of retreat of Bragg 's army, as well as that of the ad- 
vance of the Federals under Grant. The next point of in- 
terest will be 

TULLAHOMA (514 M.). Population 3,000. 

On main line of N. C. & St. L. Branch line leaves main 
line here for Sparta (61 M.). 

Hotels — Hurricane Hall, near depot (left), ($2 per day; 
wk., $10.50). Eureka Hotel, 2 blks. from depot ($2 per day). 
The former is a large, rambling building, rather comfortable 
but poor service, the latter a new brick building, good ser- 
vice. 

Restaurants — No good ones. Meals at hotels, 50c. 

Furnished Rooms — Scarce. 

Southern Express at depot. 

Western Union Telegraph at depot. 

Opera house now building. 

Livery — W. E. Marshall, rates low, P. C. 

Steam Laundry— The Model, P. C. 

Good fishing 7 or 8 M. out; squirrel hunting and quail in 
season. 

The altitude of Tullahoma is 1,070 ft. and the nights are 
always cool. It has, in the past, been quite a local resort on 
this account, and because of the mineral waters of its springs, 
which lie 6 M. away. These waters are sulphur-magnesia 
and are very effective in the curing of stomach and bowel 
troubles. The place has dwindled of late, however, on ac- 
count of there being places where equally good waters are 
available with better accommodations. It is a very pleasant 
little town, and has some interest, as it was here that Bragg 'a 
main army camped during the winter of 1862. It was also in 
the line of march of Grant's army. Gen'l Bragg 's headquar- 
ters were on Jackson St. (building removed), and the army 
was encamped all about the place. It is known to many as 
"Bragg's Clearing," from the fact that the timber was cut 
away by the soldiers. 

Following Jackson St. out to the Public School, and turn- 
ing to the right (% M.) a Confederate cemetery will be 
found, in which lies about 400 "boys in gray,'* mostly un- 
known. Several Federal soldiers rest in the city cemetery, 3 
M. out on the Manchester road. Col. Starr, a very popular 
Confederate officer, received his death wound here. In the 
outskirts of the city will be seen the remains of fortifications 
and breastworks. There are two waterfalls 6 or 7 M. out, 
the Eutledge fall being some 75 ft. in height and of con-' 
eiderable volume. Mineral water will be furnished for use 
at the hotels if desired. 



MONTEAGLE AND OTHER PLACES OF INTEREST. 87 

Leaving Tullahoma we soon arrive at Cowan (531 M.)» 
where there is a branch line to Tracy City, 27 M. The sum- 
mer resort, Monteagle, is 14 M. out on this branch. 

Leaving Cowan for Monteagle, the train follows the main 
line for about 2 M., after which it branches to the right and, 
making a loop, crosses over the main line at the mouth of 
the tunnel which connects middle and east Tennessee. As 
the train mounts the slope of the range, some very fine views 
(left) are had of the valley far below. Note the little 
rustic arbor beside the track about 7 M. out. On the top 
of the hill, hidden from sight, is St. Mary's Home for 
Destitute G-irls (Episcopal). At Suwanee (8 M.) is the 
University of the South, an Episcopal school, with 600 stu- 
dents. The buildings which lie out (left) some distance, are 
of stone and very imposing. The university owns 10,000 
acres of land. We are now on a level plateau on the summit 
of the Cumberland range at an altitude of 2,000 feet, and 
will soon arrive at **Monteagle, Tenn. 

MONTEAG-LE, TENN. Permanent Popnlation, Small (Cliau- 
tauquan Resort). 

Hotels — The Monteagle, large and roomy; rates, $2 per 
day, wk., $8-10. The Assembly Inn (closes in winter), $2 
per day, wk., $10-12. 

Boarding Houses, both in the village and in the Monteagle 
Assembly grounds. Rates $5-8 wk. 

Southern Express and Western Union Telegraph at depot. 

Telephone connections with outside points. 

liivery — Mankin Bros. Carriages, $1 per hour. 

0pp. the depot (left) is the Monteagle Hotel, a two-story 
frame bldg. some 350 ft. in length, back of which lies the 
grounds of the Monteagle Assembly and Summer Schools, 
"the Chautauqua of the South." There are about 150 acres 
enclosed, in the center of which stands the Auditorium, seat- 
ing 3,000 persons, while scattered about it are school bldgs., 
music and elocution halls, and many residences and cot- 
tages of those who come here to spend the summer and at- 
tend the platform entertainments, lectures and schools, 
which continue throughout July and August. The hotel ac- 
commodations are excellent and ample, so that this is a de- 
lightful place to visit or in which to spend a vacation. There 
are many nice drives and fine views. The best views are 
had from Cooley's Rift, Bragg 's View, Forrest's Point, War- 
ren's Point, Payne's Point, Duncan's Point and Alpine 
View. Bragg 's View and Forrest's Point are historic places. 
The road over which Bragg's army retreated is still to be 
seen near the village. 



88 CHICAGO TO JACKSONVILLE. 

Several places, of more or less interest, are reached on 
foot, horseback or by carriage, viz.: Winston's Cascade, 
Bridal Veil Falls, Cherokee Park, and the Fiery Gizzard 
Cave. The Saltpeter Cave is about 6 M. away, at the base 
of the mountain, and is reached on horseback over a very 
bad road. It is a dry cavern and has many miles of under- 
ground corridors. The Confederate government made salt- 
peter here during the war. The Fiery Gizzard Cave is some 
10 M. away. Its entrance is imposing and from it flows a 
river 30 ft. in width by about 1 ft. in depth. As far as it 
has been explored, some 3 M., there are no stalactite for- 
mations, but at the point where the exploring party turned 
back it was as lofty and grand as near the entrance. In 
many places the cavern is 100 ft. in width and nearly that 
distance to the vaulted roof. The echoes produced by the 
slightest sound are most wonderful. 

What is really the greatest attraction Monteagle possesses, 
however, is the **Wonder Cave, lying in the valley 3 M. 
away, reached by an excellent roadj carriage fare per per- 
son 50c. Admittance to cavern $1. The stalactites in this 
cave are marvelously beautiful. It is recommended that 
ladies wear stout shoes, short dresses and caps, although 
the cave is remarkably clean. The temperature is 54 de- 
grees. Eight here let the writer say a word to the tliougLt- 
less. In entering a place like this there is an almost 
irresistible desire to break off "just a little specimen." 
Eesist the temptation. It is against the state law and there 
is a heavy penalty for this sort of vandalism. Look and 
admire but keep your hands off. The cave v/as discovered 
in 1897 by Wm. S. Fitzgerald and was purchased in 1898 
by R. M. Payne, proprietor of the Monteagle Hotel, who is 
its manager. It is of considerable extent, having many 
rooms and chambers and four distinct stories; entrance is 
made by boat over the Mystic River, an underground stream 
that flows the entire length of the cavern, some 5 M. After 
riding for about 100 yards, we arrive at the landing and 
pass along the shore of the river, seeing on the left some 
exceedingly strange formations, resembling stalactites, con- 
sisting of fantastically shaped rocks pendent from the roof, 
reaching almost to the floor, with narrow passages winding 
between, formed by erosion. The formation is repeated 
farther, on a much larger scale. Some distance beyond this 
we see (right) Niagara and the Cataract of the Nile, in 
stone. Coming to a great mass of boulders we mount the 
"Giant's Stair," pass the "Crystal Dome," to the rear 
of which is the Grand Amphitheater, irregular in width and 
some 200 or more ft. in length. There are some immense 



THE WONDER CAVE OF MONTEAGLE. 89 

broken stalagmites on which we may mount and get an 
impressive view of this great hall. To the right we pass 
into Statuary Hall and see a sight to be remembered for a 
lifetime. It is in very truth a Hall of Statuary. There is 
nothing like it. Columns both standing and pendant are 
everywhere, all of white calcite formation. Some are tall, 
some are short, while some reach up and join the roof, form- 
ing beautiful fluted columns. It resembles the ruins of some 
old world city as we picture them in our dreams. The 
Lab3n:intli is, in itself, entirely beyond description. One 
climbs through narrow passages and small chambers, liter- 
ally crowded with the most beautiful stalactite formations. 
Here are the G-ardens of the Fairies; there the King's 
Chamber, with the private apartment of the Queen; the 
Coral Chamber is different in appearance from the others 
and exceedingly interesting, as are Ghost Chamber, Fat 
Man's Misery, Cathedral Hall, Bridal Chamber and Weep- 
ing Bride, but the most impressive of all is Dantes' Inferno. 
Here is evidence of a tremendous disturbance that probably 
took place ages ago. Immense columns have been forced 
from their connection vv^ith the roof above. Some are broken 
and tossed about in groat confusion, others remain standing 
at varying angles. These grim giants, together with the 
overhanging roof and the shadowy recesses, with figures 
half defined in the gloom, resemble the pictures of the 
Inferno. The effect is -marvelous. In visiting this cave you 
will be interested beyond all expectation. There are other 
and larger caverns but none, unless it be the caverns of 
Luray, that can compare with the Wonder Cave for beauty 
and grandeur. 

Leaving the cavern, note in front, some 200 yards from 
the bluff, an old house. It is 120 years old, having been 
built when this territory was a part of North Carolina. 
The pear trees near it are over 100 years old. Portions of 
the old stage road from Nashville to Alabama are seen be- 
tween Monteagle and the cave. It was over this road that 
Gen'l Bragg retreated with his heavy wagons and artillery. 
This cavern is vforth the trouble of a trip from the mainline 
even if a stop is not made at charming Monteagle. 

Leaving Cowan on the main line the train climbs the slope 
of the Cumberland range. Note the view to the left. See 
how the Tracy City branch leaves the main line to the right 
half way up, and then crosses over at the mouth of the 
tunnel. This tunnel is 2,200 ft. in length and passes under 
the crest of the Cumberland range. At Shell Mound Station 
(574 M.) notice the hole, almost opp. station (right), at base 
of hill {^2 M.). This is the entrance to Nickerjack Cave, 



90 CHICAGO TO JACKSONVILLE. 

Borne 2 M. in extent, and the home of many bats. There 
are several large mounds about here composed of shells, 
supposed to have been formed by the Indians. We are now 
about entering **Chattanooga (596 M.) See P. 38. 

Leaving Chattanooga the train passes Lookout Mountain 
(right). Note the Point Hotel, Lookout Inn and the Incline 
Ry. (P. 42). A view of Missionury Ridge is also had (right). 
Just after leaving the station the gray stone structure (left) 
is the Federal Bldg. Farther out the large brick bldg., 
some distance from the track (left), is a college for col- 
ored people. On the right (4 M.) is seen Olympic Park, an 
amusement resort. Four M. beyond GraysviUe (613 M.), 
about 15 ft. from track (right), will be seen the gray-stone 
monument, erected by the ry., which marks the spot where 
the engine ** General'* (P. 40) was recaptured. The story 
of the capture of this engine by the Andrews raiders and 
the exciting chase which resulted in its recapture reads like 
a romance. Just beyond depot at Ringgold (618 M.) note 
(right), at edge of right-of-way, two dark-colored frame 
bldgs., used as federal headquarters. Note, beside the track 
(right), V2 M. from Einggold, monument erected to Gen- 
eral Ireland and others who fell in the battle of Einggold. 
The ravine through which the ry, passes leaving Einggold 
was the scene of some hot fighting, the Confederates (Cle-. 
burners division) being posted in it and on the steep ridges 
above. Hooker advanced and was met by a hot musketry 
fire, supplemented by an avalanche of boulders rolled down 
the mountain. He was repulsed and for the time being 
checked. 

Passing through the tunnel, 1,400 ft. long, which pierces 
the Eocky Face range, and above the mouth of which were 
posted Confederate batteries, we see, beyond, the Rocky 
Face Range to the right. Bragg crossed the mountains into 
this basin, while Sherman passed around to the right. At 
Eocky Face station the log structure (right), 5 ft. from 
track near depot, with stone chimney, was a block house. 
Leaving Eocky Face station (1 M.), note the road running 
up the farther side of the range of hills (left) that extends 
out to the track. This was a military road constructed for 
the purpose of taking military supplies and artillery to the 
summit of the mountains. This road leads to a small but 
very prolific farming section on the top of the range. At 
Dalton (634 M.) connection is made with the Georgia di- 
vision of the So. Ey., which extends from Chattanooga to 
Brunswick. 

Hotels— Hotel Dalton, $2 per day; wk. $8-10. Hotel 
Horan, $1 per day; wk. $5. 



BATTLEFIELD OF DALTON. 91 

No good restaurants. 

Bank — First National. 

Dalton Opera House. 

Southern Express and Western Union Telegrapli at depot 
(both roads use the same depot). 

Livery — F. J. Bryan, good service, rates very reasonable. 

Steam Laundry— None. 

Phone connections with outside points. 

Dalton is a place of considerable historic interest. The 
freight house is ono of the nine brick bldge. left after the 
war, the Federals tearing the rest down and moving the 
material to Chattanooga to build winter huts and chimneys. 
On the corner diagonally across from Hotel Dalton is a 
large hole filled with rubbish, which marks the site of a 
three-story brick hotel, burned by Gen'l Sherman. Sixteen 
M. from the city, on the Spring Place road, is Fort Mountain, 
on the summit of which is an old fort, supposed to have 
been built by De Soto. It may be reached from Eed Clay 
Station on the So. Ey., or by carriage. Passing out on the 
Spring Place road (take carriage or walk — distance, 1% M.) 
50 ft. before reaching first turn in road, after leaving the 
city, see in field, now a peach orchard, an old line of breast- 
works, 5 M. long, thrown up by Gen'l Johnston's array 
(Confederate) to protect Dalton. It was at this point that 
the Federal line was attacked and forced back to the fort 
on top of the hill above the city. The fighting was doiie in 
the field that will be on our right as we return to the city. 
There were about 500 negro soldiers in the fort, who were 
captured and turned over to Genl Wilson, who was camped 
further out on this road near the river. 

Returning to the city turn to left on the road just before 
reaching the foot of the second hill and ascend to the point 
of the bluff overlooking the city. See high point in the 
range across the valley, with a lower point close to it on the 
right. The depression between these points is Dug Gap, 
thrcaigh which passes the Dug Gap road. This was the 
scene of quite a battle, the Confederates being posted on 
the summit of the range for i/4 M. on either side of the 
gap. Sherman's men advanced from the opposite side of the 
mountain but were repulsed with heavy loss. Immense rocks 
were rolled down the slope on the Union troops. The chest- 
nut poles used to pry up these boulders may be seen just 
where they were dropped nearly a half century ago. Look- 
ing across from the depot, will bo seen on the opp. hill the 
earthworks of the old fort, where the negroes w^ere cap- 
tured (this may also be seen from the train, left). On N. 
Hamilton St., in town on the left, as one v^ralks out from 



92 CHICAGO TO JACKSONTILLE. 

the business part of the city, note the large two-story frame 
building, with outside chimne3''S. This was Gen'l Forrest's 
headquarters, winter of 1863-4. The two-story frame with 
outside chimneys, cor. Waugh and Pence Sts., was Gen'l 
Jolmston's headquarters. There is good trout fishing and 
hunting. Deer, 'coons, possums and bear are found in con- 
siderable numbers in the Blue Eidge Mts., IS to 20 '^L from 
Dalton. The scenery is very beautiful. At Fort Mountain 
there is a Gold Mine being worked which, it is claimed, has 
shipped pay ore; there are also some active silver mines at 
the same place. 

It was from Dalton that Sherman practically commenced 
his famous *' march to the sea." Gen'l Johnston's army of 
60,000 men was then encamped in the Dalton basin, and issu- 
ing forth, gave battle; Sherman, however, turned the Con- 
federate flank and obliged his antagonist to fall back on 
Resaca. Leaving Dalton, 4 M. from Tilton (643 M.), we 
begin to see (right) the battlefield of Resaca. From here to 
Resaca the field to the right was all fought over, much of 
it being directly across the ry. line, the Confederates beings, 
for a time, sheltered in the cuts. This battle was charac- 
terized by furious charges and counter charges. There was 
a desperate struggle between Hood's and Hooker's corp 
late in the afternoon, in which Hooker lost 1,G43 men and 
Hood considerably less. Entering Resaca (649 M.), note 
on the hill (left), 300 yds. from track, the old fort, in a 
remarkably good state of preservation. Leaving the station, 
note (right) near the track close to the Oostanaula River, 
which is crossed here, the large house standing on a 6-ft. 
elevation; the elevation is the remains of another fort. 
After the battle Johnston evacuated Resaca. Leaving Car- 
tersville (685 M.) we cross (IMi M.) the Etowah River, 
and begin the ascent of Altoona Pass, in which there was 
a desperate struggle between Gen'l Corse (Federal) and 
Gen'l French (Confederate), the latter making a desperate 
attack in two redoubts on the ridge above the ry. The 
battle was fiercely v/aged from 8 a. m. till 1:30 p. m., the 
Confederates driving their opponents from the outer ditches 
and parapets into the redoubts overlooking the ry. cut. After 
a furious combat the ammunition of the Confederates gave 
out and learning that Cox's division of Sherman's army was 
approaching, they retired. Entering the pass, note (right), 
4 M. from Emerson (690 M.), at the summit of the pass, 
Lone Grave, which lies about 10 ft. from the track (right), 
surrounded by an iron fence. It is the last resting place 
of an unknown Confederate soldier, and is cared for by 
the section hands. Kennesaw Station (formerly Big Shanty) 



MARIETTA AND KENESAW BATTLEFIELD. 93 

(704 M.) was where the Andrews Raiders captured the 
"General" and began their memorable exploit. A. monu- 
ment (right, nearly opp. depot) marks the spot where the 
engine stood when it was taken. The eating house where 
the passengers and crew were at breakfast was on the same 
side, but has been removed. Approaching Marietta, note 
Keunesaw Mountain (right). 

IkiAEIBTTA, GA. (713 M.) Population 5,000. 

Hotels — *Biltmore, cor. Church St., 4 blks. from depot, 
$2 per day. The Kennesaw, adjoining depot, $2 per day; 
wk. $10. 

Bestaurants — None. 

Furnished Rooms — at private houses — uncertain. 

Bank — First National, S. W. cor. Public Sq. 

Theater — People's, seats 650. Prices according to attrac- 
tion. 

Southern Express — At depot, P. C. 

Telegraph Companies — Western Union, up stairs, near cor. 
of Public Sq., P. C. Postal, in Kennesaw Hotel, P. C. 

Livery — Anderson's, rates very reasonable. 

No trunk repair shop or steam laundry. 
. .Men's Furnishings — T. W. Eeed. 

No department stores. 

Public Library, on Church St. (small). 

Leading Local Industries — Paper mills; chair factories; 
marble works; good farming country; cotton and corn the 
principal crops. 

Marietta is the southern terminus of the Atlanta, Knox- 
ville & Northern Ey., which uses the N., C. & St. L. depot. 
It was here that the Andrews Raiders (p. ) boarded the 
train as passengers, the engine of which they captured. 
The interest about Marietta lies in the battlefields and the 
Confederate and National cemeteries. The Confederate Cem- 
etery is a part of the city burial place (N. end), % M. 
south on the Powder Springs road. There are about 3,000 
Confederate soldiers resting here, few of whom are known. 
Each grave is marked with a neat stone. The National 
Cemetery is % M. from the Public Sq., on Washington Aye. 
It is entered through an imposing stone arch, the Superin- 
tendent's office being just to the right of the entrance. 
The grounds slope sharply from the center in all directions 
and the white stones, which mark each of the 10,338 graves 
(2,978 unknown), dot the lawns everywhere. The lawns 
are shaded by great oaks, and in summer there is a profusion 
of flowers, so that the place is fair to look upon. The 



94 CHICAGO TO JACKSOJS^VILLE. 

battlefields lie from 2 to 7 M. from the city. Get a rig 
(see livery), and drive out. Leaving Marietta on tlie 
Cassville road, note, cor. Church and Dobbs St., the beautiful 
Baptist church, built of Georgia marble. Note the resi- 
dence, with great columns in front, cor. Kenuesaw and 
Holland, and further out the charming old southern home, 
opp. the marble wks. We are on the old Chattanooga- 
Atlanta stage road, over which there was once very heavy 
traffic. We soon see Keimesaw Mt. on the left, but there 
was little fighting on this side. The battle began where the 
marble wks. are, Logan's corps attacking the Confederate 
right, which lay at this point. Some distance beyond the 
marble works, at the foot of a hill, we pass a house (right) 
with outside chimneys. The hills in front, to the right and 
left, were occupied by the Federals. It must be remembered 
that the Union army was 100,000 strong, while tlie Con- 
federates numbered about 55,000, and the line of battle was 
a long one, extending (left) on this ridge down past Ken- 
ncsaw Mt., the Confederates opposing on the mountain side 
and in the valley. During the battle the gun w^adding and 
shells set fire to the dry grass and there was grave danger 
that the wounded Federals would be burned alive. To the 
everlasting honor of the Confederates they, seeing this hor- 
rible state of affairs, called a truce in the battle in order 
that the Union men might remove their injured comrades. 
This, it seems, occurred along the valley above our road an<l 
about opposite the house above mentioned. There are many 
Confederate rifle pits and breastworks still remaining on 
Kennesaw Mt. 

At Kennesaw Road Forks (see sign) keep to the left. 
The valley was fiercely contested for a mile beyond this 
point. In the gap in the mountain (small depression in the 
summit) there was a terrible struggle. Keep to the right 
at the next fork (1 M.) and 300 yds. beyond note breast- 
works (Federal) in timber at right angles to road. At 
top of hill, where there is a house with outside chimney 
(left), back 150 ft., cor. of rail fence to left, just as we 
start dov/n hill, note rifle pits (right) and breastworks 
crossing the road. Batteries were stationed i/4 M. in fields 
(left). About 7 M. from the city we pass (left) on the top 
of a small hill, a one-stor}^ house with a chimney on each 
end and two doors in its front and a small log hut opp. 
(right) at roadside; 200 ft. beyond we pass down the hill 
and over a small culvert, and take the road branching left 
through the field, and begin the ascent of Pine Mt. Enter- 
ing the timber some distance, we turn up the hill (left) on a 
road which passes just to the left of large oak tree with 



THE CITY OF ATLANTA. 95 

a charred sear on the left side near the bottom. The tree 
sets in the fork of a road^ which is little more than a 
track, but which will lead us to the summit where, at its 
end, we will find a tall, thin white marble shaft marking the 
spot where Gen'l Polk (Confederate) was killed by a can- 
non ball. There is a good view here, with many Confed- 
erate rifle pits and breastworks in sight. 

*Cheatham's Hill — Leaving the city on the Dallas road 
we come to a place (3 14 M.) where a cross road turns to the 
left. Small log hut on cor. (right) and a house with stable 
close to the rear on the hill (left). Turning left, we pass 
over the first hill and take the branch road (left) at the 
foot of the next hill, passing up and through the yard of 
the house at the summit and on into the field, following 
the road, which bends to the right. Some earthworks and 
rifle pits will be noticed in the field, just as we start down 
the first hill, and also on top of the next knoll. The hill in 
front is Cheatham's Hill, round which we pass to the right 
and haf-way up its side. A little more than opp. the big 
ditch in the side of the hill on opp. side of valley we will 
see (left), 50 ft. from road, the mouth, of a tunnel. This 
tunnel was made by Union soldiers for the purpose of blow- 
ing up the earthworks just above. The work was done in the 
night, but for some reason was abandoned. Just above will 
be seen a large tablet marking the spot where Col. McCook 
received his death wound. One may easily reconstruct the 
picture here, the earthworks being perfect. The Federals 
occupid the opp. hill (now a field), Cheatham's Hill being 
the Confederate position. The Federals stormed the hill 
with tremendous loss. Passing on down the hill we como 
to a farmhouse in the field. The field to our left here was a 
shambles, it being claimed that 1,000 Federals were killed 
here in a space of 8 minutes. The Confederates finally 
retreated along the line of the hills to the N. towards Ken- 
nesaw Mt. Leaving here, it will be well to retrace our steps 
since the way ahead is difficult. From Marietta to Atlanta 
there is little of interest. 

ATLANTA, GA. (733 M.) Population 115,000. 

Depots — There is now under construction a new Union 
Depot, cor. Mitchell and Madison. The trains of all roads, 
at present, enter the old Union Depot. All the street cars 
center in a small triangle formed at the cor. of Marietta 
and Peachtree and cars may be taken here to any part of 
the city. 

Hotels — High Class: The *Piedmont, cor. Peachtree and 
Luckey Sts.; A. P., $3 per day up; E. P., $1.50 up. Kimball, 



96 CHICAGO TO JACKSONVILLE. 

cor. Pryor and Wall (opp. Union Depot), A. P., $2.50-5j 
E. P., $1.50-3. Hotel Argon, No. 175 Peaehtree St., A. P., 
$2.50 up; E. P., $1.50 up. Medium Priced: The Marion, 
N. Pryor, bet. Peaehtree and Ivy Sts., A. P., $2-3. 

Restaurants — High Class: Durand's (see City Directory). 
McDaniePs Kestaurant, 21 E. Alabama St. Medium Priced: 
Vomer's, No. 29 Broad St.; Folsom's, No. 17 Viaduct PI. and 
No. 22 Marietta St. Cheap: There are plenty of them 
everywhere; Virginia Eestaurant, No. 7 Broad St. 

Furnished Rooms — On Forsyth St., up and down from 
the Piedmont Hotel, $2.50-5 wk. 

Banks— Atlanta National, 22 Whitehall St.; Fourth Na- 
tional, No. 10 Decatur; Third National, Empire Bldg., 27 
Marietta; Lowcry National, cor. Pryor St. and Edgewood 
Ave. 

Theaters — Grand Opera House, 125 N.Pryor St., seats 2,700, 
high class, prices 25c to $1.50. The Bijou, Marietta St., 
stock and melodrama, seats about 1,600, prices 25-50c. Star 
Theater, 34^^ Decatur St., vaudeville, seats 1,200, prices 
15-50C. 

Railway Express Companies — The Southern, 28 E. Wall, 
P. G. 

Telegraph Companies — ^Western Union, No. 26 W. Ala- 
bama, P. C; Postal, No. 12 S. Broad St., P. C. Messenger 
service at both offices. Both offices open all the time. 

Livery— Milan & Miller, No. 33 Ivy St., P. C; single rig, 
$3 day; carriage with driver, $7 day; $4 half day. 

Legal Hack Rates — Must be posted in hack. It shall be 
unlawful to charge for one trip within the city limits for 
one-horse vehicle 25c per person; two-horse vehicle, 50c 
per person; $25 fine for refusing to pay hackman. Drivers 
under 18 years of age prohibited. Hackman prohibited from 
refusing to take passenger when not already engaged. 

Railway Ticket Offices — All at cor. of Pryor and Wall ex- 
cept Seaboard Air Line, which is 116 Peaehtree. Will be 
moved when new Union Depot is completed. 

Trunk and Trunk Repairs — Pinnacle Trunk Co., 62 Peach- 
tree St., P. C. 

Men's Furnishings — Whitehall, Eisman & Weil, No. 1 S. 
Whitehall. 

Steam Laundry— Guthman 's, 130 Peaehtree St., P. C; ex- 
cellent quick service. 

Post Office— Cor. Forsyth and Marietta Sts.; gen. del. 
7-midnight; M. O. dept. 9-9 (at stamp window after 6 p. m.); 
gen. del. and stamps, Sunday, 9-10:30 a. m.; carriers' window, 
9-10:30 a. m. 

Public Library — Cor. Forsyth and Carnegie PI. 



THINGS TO SEE IN ATLANTA. 97 

Chamber of Commerce — Cor. Pryor and Hunter Sts., Wal- 
ter G. Cooper, Sec. 

Churches — p. 320; secret societies, p. 327; clubs, etc., p. 
324. See City Directory on pages given. 

Atlanta is a beautiful city, yet contains but little of 
interest. There was some very heavy fighting here during 
the war, the city being practically wiped off the map. 
There are many lines of breastv\rorks scattered about but 
that is about all. The *Capitoi Bldg. is perhaps the main 
attraction. This structure is situated in the block bounded 
by Washington, Hunter and Mitchell Sts. and Capitol Ave. 
The building is of cut limestone and is very imposing. The 
interior is pleasing, as the rooms and rotunda are all large 
with very high ceilings. It is constructed entirely of 
Georgia material. Note the marble wainscoting on lower 
floors. It was commenced in 1884 and finished in 1889; 
cost nearly $1,000,000. Its total height to tip of Goddess of 
Liberty statue on the dome is 252 ft. On the 3rd floor, 
in the rotunda, will be found an excellent fruit, vegetable, 
cotton and forestry exhibit; in the opposite end a geological 
exhibit. Visitors may ascend to the dome, free, and get 
a fine view of the city. At the summit is a platform pro- 
tected by a high railing. Facing the sky scraper, one is 
looking about north, the city not lying at the points of 
the compass. Standing in this position, looking well to 
the left, at edge of city (1 M.), the four brick bldgs. (3 
large, 1 small) are those of the Atlanta University. The 
light brick bldg. (300 yds. left of gas tank, % M.) is the 
new Union Depot. The bldg., 3 blocks down street, with 
square clock tower, is the County Court House. The yel- 
low eight-story bldg. in front is the Bciuitable Bldg., and the 
tall yellow bldg. straight over it is the Piedmont Hotel. 
To the right of the Equitable Bldg., at the edge of the 
city (11/4 M.) is Piedmont Park, the bldgs. seen being those 
of the Cotton Exposition (1895). Moving two sections of 
the balustrade to the right and looking left of the iron 
smokestack of St. Ey. Power House and Lighting Plant m 
the foreground, we see a large square bldg. with many 
windows, one of Atlanta 's public schools. The gray stone 
bldg. in front, quite close, with a tall slim tower, with 
loopholes, is the County Jail. The two tall smokestacks m 
front (V' M.) mark the cotton mills. Well to the right, 
2 M. out from city, the bldg. with peaked roof and one 
smokestack is the U. S. Prison. Following the Im© or ^]^^ 
street running to right, a little (1 block) to its right (iy2 _M. 
out), the bldg. with a tower is Clark University. M:oving 
to right, two sections of the balustrade, we look S. W. ihe 



98 CHICAGO TO JACKSONVILLE. 

yellow bldg. with a dome, a little to the right (^ M.), ia 
the Jewish Orphans' Home. Straight over it (i/^ M.) are 
the Southern Ry. shoiDS. Farther away over the shops 
(5 M. out, you may not be able to see it) are the U. S. Bar- 
racks, where one regiment of regulars is quartered. Moving 
two sections to right we see three large brick bldgs., 
straight in front at edge of city — Spellman University. The 
view from the dome is well worth the climb if the day be 
clear, and you will need no guide. You can not possibly 
fall, as the platform is well protected. 

The State Library, on the 2nd floor of the Capitol, has 
30,000 volumes, mostly law books, but a good selection of 
miscellaneous works and ancient history of the state. The 
library publishes law books at cost. Leaving the Capitol, 
note the two cannon from Santiago. Diagonally acrosa 
from the Washington and Mitchell cor. of the Capitol 
grounds, see on cor. a square three-story bldg. This waa 
one of the few bldgs. left standing after the war. The 
third story was recently added. Going to Washington and 
Hunter cor. of the grounds and walking y^ block towards 
the city on Hunter St., note (right) the two-story bldg. 
with double-deck porch. This, and the square brick struc- 
ture, cor. Washington and Waverly PI., were the only 
buildings that escaped destruction. 

Grant's Park — Take E. Hunter car, at Triangle, cor. Mari- 
etta and Peachtree Sts.; fare 5c. A very pretty piece of 
natural forest, with a small zoological collection, small 
lagoon with ducks and swan, and a cycloraraa of the batte 
of Atlanta (adm. 10c. ). Note left of entrance old breast- 
works. At top of hill, back of Zoo, will be seen quite 
a novelty in the shape of an old fort with a cannon and 
ammunition wagons standing just as the soldiers left them. 
They have never been moved. Some Stone Work dealera 
have erected a monument in the fort to advertise their 
stone, and as an especially enterprising afterthought, very 
unusual for Atlanta, a wooden sign sets forth the fact that 
Generals McPherson and Walker were killed about y^ M. E. 
of the fort. The woodwork of the guns has almost rotted 
away. There was no fighting at this fort, except perhaps 
an occasional skirmish, but about a mile to the east was a 
very hell. At the State Capitol Bldg. is a statue, in 
marble, of Benjamin Harvey Hill, by Alex. Doyle. Mr. Hill 
was a noted man, being a member of the Provisional Con- 
gress of the Confederate States, '61- '65; Congressman, '75- 
'78; Senator (U. S.), '78- '82; born 1823; died 1882. 

In front of the Federal Bldg., cor. Fors^^th and Marietta 
Sts., ia a monument in bronze to Henry W. Grady, journalist, 



THINGS TO SEE IN ATLANTA. 99 

orator, patriot — an excellent piece of work. Two camion 
are placed in front of this figure, with coin slots and a 
sign inviting contributions to help Atlanta build monuments. 
McPherson's Monument, Decatur car, fare 5c. Be sure 
and take ** Decatur/^ not the ''Decatur Street," car. Note 
(left) Oakland Cemetery on the way out. Get off at Bell 
St. (about 3 M.), walk over narrow bridge, up hill ^4 M., 
to cross road, turn right on cross road 100 ft., crawl under 
fence (left) and take path through timber. Just before 
(^ M.) cross fence is reached, climb fence (left) and fol- 
low path up hill to monument, which is simply a cannon on 
end, on a cheap sandstone base, with inscription half cov- 
ered with dirt, ''McPherson. " It marks the spot where he 
fell in battle. There was fierce fighting about here but 
there seems to be no way of locating anything. You may 
now take the road in front of the monument (right, as you 
approached the monument) and follow it straight ahead 
% M. to Soldiers' Home car line. Beaching car line, walk 
100 ft. (right) to rear of small store. Cars stop here. There 
is a well in front of the store. The Confederate Soldiers' 
Home is 1 M farther out on this line, fare 5c. Ponce de Leon 
Park, Peachtree, Ponce de Leon, or Pine St. car, fare 5c., 
opens July 4th and closes with cold weather. A nice place 
to spend an evening. Vaudeville theater, adm. 15-50c; 
chutes, roller coaster and all kinds of amusements, 5-lOc. 
Adm. to grounds free. 

Federal Prison, S. Pryor car, fare 5c, out 3 M., is an 
interesting place. Visitors are admitted Mondays and 
Thursdays, 2 to 4 p. m. No charge. 

To reach Ft. McPherson, take E. Point car, fare 5c. One 
regiment is quartered here. Grounds are free to visitors. 

Atlanta seems to be a city intent wholly on money-making. 
There is almost no attention paid to beautifying the city 
or to conveniences for strangers. With the exception of a 
few iron plates set in the curbing, there are practically no 
street signs, which makes it extremely awkward for the 
visitor. 

Leaving Atlanta via the Central of Ga. Ky., we arrive at 
Macon (see E. 24, P. 456). From Macon (836 M.) our train, 
under the charge of the Georgia Southern & Florida Ky., 
speeds directly southward through unimportant stations and 
a rather uninteresting country to Vienna (892 M.), where the 
Atlantic & Birmingham Ey. is joined, its tracks being paral- 
leled to Cordele (901 M.). 



Lef 



100 CHICAGO TO JACKSONVILLE. 



COEDELE, GA. Population 5,500. 

Banks — Cordele Nat'l; Citizens'; Merchants' &, Farmers. 

Hotels — Central; $2 per day. Suwanee; $2 per day. Greer 
House; $1 per day. 

Restaurants — A. L. Powell's or City Bakery. 

Railway Express Companies — Southern Express. 

Telegraph Companies — Western Union. 

Local and long distance telephone connections. 

Sports — Quail in season; fine hunting. 

Opera House — Cordele^ seat. cap. 650. 

Livery — ^Frank E. Williams. 

Laundry — Columbia Steam Laundry. 

Leading Local Industries — Farming, cotton and corn. 

Cordele lies in the center of a good farming country, and 
is something of a rialway center, having seven diverging 
lines. From this city our line bends somewhat to the S. E., 
joining the Hawkinsville & Florida Southern Ry., which 
diverges to the N. At Tifton (941 M.), we connect with the 
Atlantic Coast Line Ey., the Tifton & N. E. Ey., which 
extends N. to Abbeville, and the Tifton, Thomasville & Gulf 
Ey., which extends southward via Moultrie to Thomasville 
(P. 101). From Tifton to Jacksonville, we follow the tracks 
of the Atlantic Coast Line Ey., our course as far as Way- 
cross being a little S. of E. Just before reaching Willa- 
coochee (971 M.), the Allapaha Eiver, a tributary of the 
Suwanee Elver, is crossed. A little further on, at Pino 
Bloom (972 M.), we cross the Ocilla, Pine Bloom &, Valdosta 
Ey., a short line extending N. W. to Lax, and S. W. to 
Allapacoochee, its tracks paralleling ours to Leliaton (972 
M,). Near Millwood (994 M.), one of the tributaries of the 
Satilla Eiver is crossed. The next thing of interest is 
Waycross. 

WAYCROSS, GA. (1013 M.) Population 9,000. 

Hotels — Phoenix and Virdic, A P., $2; com'l rate $2; 
May House and Southern, Elizabeth St., A. P., $1. 

Restaurants — City, Elizabeth St.; Depot Eestaurant. 

Fui-nished Rooms — Beaton House, Stevenson St., prices 
25c up, per night. 

Banks — Bank of Waycross, Plant Ave.; First National, 
Plant Ave. 

Theaters — Bailey, seating capacity 600, prices 50c.-$1.50. 

Railv/ay Express Offices — Southern, at Depot, P. C. 

Telegraph Companies — Western Union, P. C. 193; Postal. 



FACTS ABOUT THOMASVILLE. 101 

Livery — Virdie, P. C. 200; single rig $1 per hour Lott & 
Jones, Lott Lane, P. C. 39; single rig $1 per hour. 

Railway Ticket Offices — Union. 

Bill Posters and Distributors — Charles F. Kramer. 

Trunk Factory — Boss Furniture Co., Plant Ave., P. C. 73. 

Laundry — Wilson Steam Laundry, Lott Lane, P. C, 9. 

Men's Furnishings — Waycross Clothing Store, and H. C. 
Seaman, 4 Elizabeth, P. C. 48. 

Department Store — Youmaur Mercantile Co., Pendelton St. 

Post Office — Marie and Lott; gen. del. and stamps open 
6 a. m.-6 p. m.; Sundays 9:30-10 a m.; M. O. open 8 a. m.- 
6 p. m.; carrier window Sundays 9:30-10 p. m. 

Churches — p. 5; clubs p. 1; commercial bodies p. 1; secret 
societies p. 5. See City Directory on pages named. 

Local and long distance telephone system. 

Commercial Club — E. P. Peabody. 

Leading Local Industries — Cigar Factories; car factory; 
turpentine plant; foundry; U. S. syrup experiment station; 
novelty wood works; pump factory. 

A branch line of the Atlantic Coast line extends west- 
ward from Waycross to Montgomery, Ala. Six M. from 
Waycross on this line is Ruskin, the seat of a cormnunistic 
industrial society of about 250 members, Vv'^hich has been 
fairly successful. Thoniasville lies 104 M. westward from 
Waycross on this line. 

Thoniasville is a very popular winter resort, located on 
a plateau covered with pine forests. Among its attractions 
are many walks and drives (Paradise Park, Glen Arvern, 
etc.), and very fair hunting. Its water supply comes from 
an artesian well 1,900 ft. deep. Scattered around the town 
are many orchards of the ''Le Conte" pear. 

THOMASVILLE, GA. Population 5,300. 

Hotels— Piney Wood, Broad and Smith Ave., A. P., $5-10 
per day. Mitchell House, Broad and Jackson, A. P., $4-6 
per day; com'l rate, $2-3.50 per day. Musmy, Broad and 
Jefferson, A. P., $2-4 per day; E. P., $1-1.50 per day; com'l 
rate $2-2.50 per day. Brighton, Broad, A. P., $1.50-2 per 
day, $10-12.50 per week. 

Restaurants — Musmy Bldg., Broad and Jefferson Sts. 

Banks — Citizen Banking & Trust Co., 122 Broad; Bank of 
Thomasville, 104 Broad; Thoniasville National, 109 Broad. 
. Theaters — Thompson Opera House, Jackson and E. R., 
seating capacity, 800, prices 25c-$l. 

Railway Express Offices — Southern, 115 N. Broad, P. C; 
Southern, at Depot, P. C. 



102 CHICAGO TO NEW ORLEANS. 

Telegraph Companies— Western Union, 124 Broad, P. C. 19; 
Postal, 1U5 Broad, P. C, 190. 

Livery — Kentucky Stables, S. Broad, P. C, 60; single rig 
$2 first hour, additional hours 50c; double rigs $3 first hour, 
additional hours $1; com'l rate $2 per hour, $4 per day. 

Eailway Ticket Offices— Atlantic Coast Line, 111 N. Broad, 
P. C, 155. 

Bill Posters and Distributors— T. L. Spence, 110 S. Broad, 
P. C, 65. 

Laundry — Thomasville Steam Laundry, 125 N. Crawford, 
P. C, 67. 

Largest Department Store — Neel Bros., S. Broad. 

Post Office — Cor. Jackson and Madison; gen. del. and 
stamps open 7:30 a. m.-5:30 p. m.; Sundays 9-10 a. ni.; M. O. 
open 8 a. m.-4 p, m.; carrier window Sundays 2:30-3 p. m. 

Public Library — 116 S. Crawford. 

Street Car System — None. 

Telephones — Local and long distance. 

Men's Pumishings— Taylor cV: Watson, 10 W. Broad, P. C, 
154. 

From Waycross our line bends sharply to the S. E. passing 
the Okefenokce Swanij), a vast tract of marshy land which 
lies some 5-10 M. to the right opposite Racepond (1U32 M.) 
At Folkston (1046 M.) wo join the Jcsup cut-otf branch of 
the Atlantic Coast Line, and a little further on we cross 
the St. Mary's River and enter Florida, crossing the Sea- 
board Air Line at Callahan (1,068 M.). Nothing further 
of interest attracts us until we reach Jacksonville (1,088 M.) 
(P. 331). 



ROUTE 2. CHICAGO TO NEW ORLEANS. 

A. Via St. Louis, Little Rock and Alexandria. 

Wabash Ry., Iron Mountain Route, Texas & Pacific Ry. 
(1,118 M.) Fare, $23. Sleeper, $6. 

Leaving Chicago we cross many of the trunk lines enter- 
ing the city, pass to the S. W., cross the Rock Island at 
New Lenox (33 M.), the Michigan Central at Steele (34 M.), 
and the Elgin, Joliet & Eastern at Brisbane (35 M.). At 
Horse Creek (56 M.) we cross the Kankakee River. At 
Essex (01 ^f.), we cross the Seneca branch of the Big Four 
Ry. At Reddick (67 M.), the Ind., 111. & la. Ry. is crossed. 
At Scovel, a branch line of the 111. Cent, is encountered; 
at Forrest (93 M.), the Toledo & Peoria Western, and at 



THE CITY OF DECATUK. 103 

Elsk, the 111. Cent, are crossed. At Gibson City (113 M.), a 
railway center with six radiating lines, junction is made 
with the Lake Erie & Western and the Illinois Central lines. 
At Mansfield (132 M.), and Monticello (146 M.), we cross 
respectively the lines of the Big Four and Illinois Central. 
At Bement (153 M.), our line swerves to the W. to 

DEOATUE, ILL. (173 M.) Population 30,000. 

Hotels— Decatur, 100 N. Main St., rates, A. P., $2-3 per 
day. St. Nicholas, 100 S. Main St., A. P., $2.50-3.50 per 
day; E. P., $1-2 per day. New Brunswick, Main and Wood 
St8., A. P., $1.25-1.50. New Walston, E. North, $1-1.25 per 
day; $6-7 per wk. 

Restaurants — High Class: Greiders' Cafe, 135-139 E. Main 
St.; Strouse, 238 N. Main St. Medium: Boone's, 138 E. 
Prairie Ave. Best Cheap: Andrews, 113 E. Main St. 

Furnished Rooms — The Arcade Apartments, three doors 
N. of Decatur House on N. Main St., 60c and $1 per night; 
$3 up per wk. 

Banks — Millikin National, cor. Water and Main Sts.; 
Citizens* National, 162 Merchant St.; National Bank of De- 
catur, 203 N. Water St.; Burrows, 203 S. Park St. 

Theaters — Powers Grand Opera House, 150 S. Water St., 
Beating capacity, 1,600; best and only one; 25c to $1. 

Railway Express Offices — American, 100 E. Prairie, 314 
Old, 14 New. Adams, 230 N. Main St., P. C. Pacific Co., 
135 E. Prairie Ave., P. C, 374 Old. Southern Express Co., 
230 N. Main St., P. C. United States Co., 349 N. Main St., 
P. C. 

Telegraph Companies — Postal, 117 E. William St., P. C, 
293 Old, 593 New. Western Union, 110 E. William St., P. C; 
office hrs., 7 a. m. to 2 p. m.; Sundays 9 to 12. A. D. T., 110 
E. William St., P. C. Postal, 117 E. William, P. C. 

Livery — Davis, 140 S. Main St., P. C. Single rig, first hour, 
$1; additional hours, 50c; double rigs, first hour, $1.50; addi- 
tional hours, $1. 

Railway Tickets — Wabash at depot, P. C. Illinois Central, 
depot, P. C. C. H. & D., 349 N. Main and depot, P. C. Van- 
dalia, I. C. depot, P. C. 

Bill Posters and Distributors — ^J. F. Given, 150 S. Water 
St., P. C, New. 

Trunks and Repairs — Decatur Trunk Factory, 308 N. 
Water St., P. C, Old. 

Steam Laundry— Model Laundry, 147 S. Water St., P. C. 

Men's Furnishing— Ottenheimers', 258-60 N. Water St., 
P.O. 



104 CHICAGO TO NEW OELEANS. 

Department Store — Linn & Scruggs, 100-122 S. Water St. 

Post Office — 333 N. Water St.; general delivery and stamps 
open wk. days 7 a. m. to 7 p. m.; Sundays 9 to 10; M. O. 
window open 7 a. m. to 7 p. m.; carrier window opea Sun- 
days 9 a. m. to 10 p. m. 

PulDlic Library — i47 N. Water St. 

Cliurclies, clubs, commercial bodies, secret societies, public 
halls, office buildings or blocks, etc., see City Directory. 

Commercial Club — Decatur Club, Sec 'y, James K. Stafford. 

Leading Local Industries — Mueller Mfg. Co.; Faries Mfg. 
Co.; Wabash Car Shops; three large coal shafts. 

Amusements — Fairview Park, picnic grounds and dancing; 
take Fairview Park care, fare 5c. Baseball park and race 
track, take Water St. car, fare 5c. 

From Decatur our line extends to the S. W., junction being 
made with a line to Springfield at Boody (182 M.). At 
Taylorville (202 M., Pop. 2,048, The Antlers, A. P., $2) we 
cross the line of the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern By. 
The next point of importance is Litchfield (234 M., Pop. 
6,000, The Litchfield, A. P., $2) ; here we cross the line of the 
Big Four, the Jacksonville & St. Louis, and the Illinois 
Central Eys. Our line enters St. Louis (286 M.) by way 
of the Merchants' Bridge, erected in 1889-90, at a cost of 
$3,000,000, a steel truss structure, with three spans, each 
70 ft. in height and 500 ft. in length. Our train passes 
through about three M. of the city, principally a manufactur- 
ing section, before entering the magnificent new Union 
Depot. 

Special attention is directed to the train shed of the 
Central Union Depot, the largest roof in the world. The 
depot, itself, is a magnificent structure. In the upper story 
is a lunch counter, dining room and hotel accommodations, 
and a waiting room devoted exclusively to ladies. 

ST. LOUIS, MO. (286 BI.) —Population 750,000. 

Hotels — * Southern Hotel, Broadway and Walnut St., 1,000 
guests, E. P., $1.50 and up; A. P., $3 and up. *Planters' 
Hotel, Fourth and Pine Sts., 1,000 guests; E. P^, $2-4. Ham- 
ilton, Hamilton and Maple Aves., 1,000 guests; E. P., $2-4. 
*Lindell Hotel, Six;th St. and Washington Ave.; 1,000 
guests; E. P., $1.50 and up. Jefferson, 12th and Locust Sts.; 
1,500 guests; E. P., $2.50 and up. Hotel Stratford, S. E. 
cor. Eighth and Pine Sts.; 200 guests; E. P., $1.50-2. *Hoff- 
man House, Locust St. and Compton Ave.; 200 guests; E. P., 
$2-4. West End Hotel, Vandeventer Ave. and West Belle 
PL; 300 guests; E. P., $1.50-4; A. P., $3 and up. New St. 



ST. LOUIS— ITS CHIEF POINTS OF INTEREST. 105 

James Hotel, Broadway and Walnut Sts.; 400 guests; E. P., 
$1-2.50; A. P., $2-3.50. Merchants, 12th and Olivo Sts.; 300 
guests; E. P., $1 and up. Heitkamp's New Hotel, 1115 
N. Tenth St.; 320 guests; 50c-$l. 

Kcstaurants — American, Sixth and Olive Sts. Broadway 
Cafe, 203 N. Broadway. Breitling Cafe, 411 N. Broadway. 
Caesar's Cafe, 210 N. Sixth St. Colonial Cafe, Grand and 
Morgan Sts. Cherokee Garden, Iowa and Cherokee Sts. 
Creamerie, 606 Washington Ave. Epstein's, 517 St. Charles 
St. *Faust's, Broadway and Elm St. Horn's Cafe, 704 
Pine St. Laclede Hotel Cafe, Sixth and Chestnut Sts. 
Koemer's, 408 Washington Ave. Lippe, Eighth and Olive 
Sts. *Lindell Hotel Cafe, Sixth St. and Washington Ave. 
Louisiana Cafe, Seventh and St. Charles Sts. Mandel's 
Cafe, 716 Olive St. Masters', 203 N. Seventh St. McTague'a 
Cafe, Ninth and St. Charles Sts. Milford's, 209 N. Sixth St. 
Philip Mohr, Ninth and St. Charles Sts. Melsheimer's, 206 
N. Third St. Moser Hotel Cafe, 821 Pine St. ^Planters' 
Cafe, Fourth and Chestnut Sts. Priester's Cafe, 302 Wash- 
ington Ave. *Eosier Hotel Cafe, Thirteenth and Olive Sts. 
Sehraps, 623 Locust St. St. Nicholas Cafe, Eighth and Lo- 
cust Sts. Sprague Delicatessen, 716 Broadway, 718 Olive 
St. *Southern Hotel Cafe, Broadway and Walnut Sts. 
Stilwell Catering Co., 921 Olive, 1013 Olive, 1214 Olive St. 
Ward & Hopkins, 411 N. Eighth St. White's, 313 Pine St. 
Women's Noonday Club, 418 N. Sixth St. 

Railway Ticket Offices— B. & O. S. W., 524 Olive St. C. 
B. & Q. (Burlington), Globe-Democrat Bldg., cor. Broadway 
and Olive. Canadian Pacific, 315 Chestnut St. Central 
Georgia, Houser Bldg. Chicago & Alton, Carleton Bldg., 
cor. Sixth and Olive Sts. Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul, 
Houser Bldg., cor. Eighth and Olive Sts. Chicago, Peoria 
& St. Louis, 204 N. Fourth St. Chicago & Northwestern, 
505 Olive St. Rock Island, cor. Ninth and Olive. Colorado 
& Southern, Century Bldg. C. C. C. & St. L. (Big Four), 
cor. Broadway and Chestnut Sts. Cotton Belt, Equitable 
Bldg., 909 Olive St. Grand Trunk, LaClede Bldg. Great 
Northern, Carleton Bldg. Illinois Central, Missouri Trust 
Bldg., 308 N. Broadway. Kansas City Southern, Houser 
Bldg., cor. Eighth and Olive Sts. Louisville & Nashville, 
208 N. Broadway. L. H. & St. L., 208 N, Broadway. Mex- 
ican Central, Houser Bldg., cor. Eighth and Olive Sts. Mex- 
ican National, Houser Bldg., cor. Eighth, and Olive Sts. 
Missouri, Kansas & Texas, Wainwright Bldg., cor. Sixth and 
Olive Sts. Mobile & Ohio, Fullcrton Bldg., 518 Olive St. 
Missouri Pacific, Missouri Pacific Bldg., cor. Sixth and 
Olive Sts. Nashville, Chattanooga & St. L., Merchants' 



106 CHICAGO TO NEW ORLEANS. 

Exchange. Northern Pacific, Commercial Bldg., cor. Eighth 
and Olive Sts. Plant System, Houser Bldg., Eighth and 
Olive Sts. Seaboard Air Line, Merchants' Exchange. 
Santa Fe Eoute, 107 N. Fourth St. Southern Pacific, Cen- 
tury Bldg., cor. Seventh and Olive Sts. St. L. & Hannibal, 
Houser Bldg., Eighth and Olive Sts. St. L. & San Fran- 
cisco, Commercial Bldg,, cor. Eighth and Olive Sts. Iron 
Mountain, Mo. Pacific Bldg., cor. Sixth and Olive. Southern 
Ey., Chemical Bldg., 719 Olive. Pennsylvania Lines, cor. 
Seventh and Olive. Toledo, St. Louis & Warsaw, 104 N. 
Fourth St. Vandalia Lines, Century Bldg., cor. Seventh 
and Olive Sts. Wabash, Lincoln Trust Bldg., cor. Eighth 
Bind Olive Sts. 

Baiiway Express Companies — Adams, 407 N. 4th St. 
American, 417 N. 4th St. National, 708 Washington Ave. 
Pacific, 412 N. 4th St. United States, 521 N. 4th St. Wella 
Fargo, 709 Olive St. Southern, 407 N. 4th St. 

Mississippi Eiver Steamboat Lines — Calhoun Packet Co., 
foot of Pine St. Chester, foot of Locust St. Columbia 
Excursion Co., foot of Chestnut St. Columbia Packet, foot 
of Washington Ave. Diamond Joe, office and wharf foot 
of Washington Ave. Eagle Packet Co. (St. Louis to Grand 
Tower), foot of Vine St. Illinois Eiver Eagle Packet Co., 
foot of Vine St. Lee Line (U. S. Mail), foot of Olive St. 
Missouri Eiver, St. Louis S: Herman Packet Co., foot of 
Washington Ave. St. Louis Ste. Genevieve, Chester and 
Grand Tower Packet Co., foot of Vine St. 

Theaters — Century, Ninth and Olive Sts; rates and rules 
same as Olympic. Columbia, Sixth and St. Charles Sts.; 
vaudeville; rates 15c to $1. Crawford, Fourteenth and 
Locust Sts.; stock company; rates 10, 20 and 30c. Grand 
Opera House, Market and Sixth Sts.; combination; rates 15, 
25, 35, 50, 75c and $1. Grand Music Hall, Olive and Thir- 
teenth Sts.; special attractions. Havlins, Walnut and Sixth 
Sts,; rates same as Grand. Imperial, Tenth and Pine Sts.; 
rates 15 to 75c. Olympic, Broadway and Walnut Sts.; high 
class attractions; rates subject to change at any time, usu- 
ally 25c to $1.50. Odeon, Grand Ave., near Finney; special 
attractions. Pickwick Theater, Washington Ave., near Jef- 
ferson; special attractions. 

Public Gardens — Delmar Garden, Delmar Blvd., near City 
Lim.its. Eclipse Park, Virginia Ave. and Primm St. Forest 
Park Highlands, Berthold Ave. and Sublett Ave. Fair 
Grounds and Eace Track, Grand Ave. and Natural Bridge 
Eoad. Grand Avenue Park, Grand Ave. and Meramec St. 
Hashagen's Park, Grand Ave. and Meramec St. Ice Palace, 
Channing and Cook Aves. Koerner's Garden, King's High- 



ST. LOUIS— ITS CHIEF POINTS OT INTEREST. 107 

way and Arsenal St. Kamp's Park, Thirteenth and Utah 
StB. Mannion Park, 8000 S. Broadway. Suburban Garden, 
Irving Ave. and N. Market St. Shaw's Garden, 50 acres. 
Tower Grove and Flora Blvd. 

Legal Hack Rates — One-horse vehicles: One mile, each per- 
son, 25c; second mile, one or two persons, 25c; additional 
quarter mile, one or two persons: One stop for not more than 
five minutes, no charge; second stop, for each ten minutes 
or fraction, 10c; packages too large to be carried inside, 
each, 10c; services within three miles of Court House, per 
hour, one or two persons, 75c; additional quarter hour, 20c; 
services outside three-mile limit, first hour, $1; additional 
quarter hour, 25c; services while waiting, per hour, 75c. 
Two-horse vehicles: On© mile, each person, 50c; additional 
mile, one or two persons, 50c; additional hour, $1. Between 
midnight and 6 o'clock a. m., double above rates. Rates 
must be kept posted in the vehicle. Passengers should notify 
when starting if they desire to use the vehicle by the hour; 
otherwise the driver may assume that be is hired by the 
mile. 

A Few Points About St. Louis — St. Louis has a population 
of 750,000, f.nd is the great manufacturing and wholesale 
center of the central Mississippi Valley region. Its site 
was selected by Pierre LaClede Liguest, who left New 
Orleans on August 3, 1763, for the purpose of establishing 
an Indian trading post in the north, the governor-general 
of the territory of Louisiana having granted the Maxent, 
LaClede & Co., of New Orleans, which firm he represented, 
in this venture, the exclusive control of the fur trade with 
the Missouri and other tribes of Indians as far N. as the 
river St. Peter. Landing in the curve in the river where the 
Eads bridge now stands, he decided it should be the site of 
the post, and the wisdom of his selection is confirmed by 
the fact that from the small frontier's station it has since 
developed into one of the greatest commercial centers of 
the country — St. Louis. He returned to Fort Chartres, 
where the party had left their stores and goods, and by 
reason of a severe winter was unable to return, and it was 
not until Feb. 14, 1764, that Auguste Chouteau, then in his 
fourteenth year, arrived at the site in charge of an expedi- 
tion of thirty men, which LaClede had placed at his com- 
mand. This band of hardy pioneers at once proceeded to 
clear the site of the post. 

The first buildings, which were log cabins, stood on the 
block now bounded by Washington Ave. and St. Charles St., 
Broadway and Sixth St. For the first years of its existence, 
the growth of the city was very slow, and in the year 1800, 



108 CHICAGO TO NEW ORLEANS. 

after a lapse of tliirtjr-six years, it did not contain 1,000 
people. In 1822 it had about 5,000, after which time it began 
its real growth and moved forward with great strides until 
now, only the cities of New York, Chicago and Philadelphia 
outrank it. For many years it was the center of a vast 
steamboat trade, the Mississippi River then being the main 
artery of commerce. The railroads, however, have sup- 
planted the great fleet of river steamers, until now but a 
remnant of them remain in active service. The heart of 
the business district of the city lies in the section bounded 
by Franklin Ave. on the N., Market St. on the S., and 13th 
St. on the W., Washington Ave. being the principal whole- 
sale street. Broadway extends a total distance of twenty- 
two miles, fifteen of them being under the name of Broad- 
way. Broadway and Olive St. are the two main retail 
streets of the city. St. Louis has been fortunate in the 
adoption of a sensible system of house numbering, each block 
containing 100 numbers, so that a stranger may always 
calculate how many blocks away the desired number lies. 
For instance, if he is on the 300 block and desires to reach 
912 on the same street, he will know that the number lies 
six blocks away. The numbers on E. and W. streets start 
at the river, the first block being 100, the street running 
N. and S. parallel with the river are divided at Market St. 
as far W. as 28th St. and from LaClede Ave., a continua- 
tion of Market, further W, The block numbers from 100 
up N. and 100 up S. from those streets. 

Street Railway System — On the street railroad one fare 
of five cents carries one from any point in the city to the 
city limits, transfers must be asked for at the time fare is 
paid. Children under twelve and over five, half fare, the 
conductor issuing a half-fare in exchange for a nickel. 
There are two lines of Street Railwaya in the city, viz.: The 
Transit Co. and the St. Louis & Suburban Co. Transfers 
from the line of one company cannot be used on the lines 
of the other. 

**Shaw's Garden — The Missouri Botannical Garden, fa- 
mous throughout the world as Shaw's Garden, has an area 
of 50 acres and is one of the beauty spots of the country, 
being a bower of shrubbery and bloom in which are to be 
found the most rare botanical treasures in America, this 
garden is well worthy of a visit. 

**Parks — Forest Park, on the east half of which lies the 
Exposition grounds, contains 1,374 acres, and is the second 
largest municipal park in America. It is unsurpassed in 
natural beauty and has miles of hard gravel roadway with 
beautiful foot paths and roads winding in and out among 



ST. LOUIS— ITS CHIEF POINTS OF INTEREST. 100 

its hills. Tower Grove Park has some very line examples of 
landscaping and contains many fine statues. Lafayetto 
Park is on the S. side and is reached by the Park Ave. 
cars. It contains a statue of Wasliington by Houdan, the 
sculptor. Benton Park, O'Fallon Park, LaCIede Park, St. 
Louis Park, Carondeiet Park, Cornpton Hill Beservoir Park 
and Carr Park each have their points of interest, they be- 
ing the breathing spots of the great city in which the public 
find their recreation. 

Summer Gardens (Where Vaudeville and Opera are given) 
— Delmar Garden, Delmar Blvd., W. of city limits; Suburban 
Park, cor. Irving Ave. and N. Market St.; Forest Park High- 
lands, Berthold and Sublett Aves.; Koemer's Garden, cor. 
of King's Highway and Arsenal St.; West End Heights, opp. 
S. W. cor. World's Fair Grounds; Uhrig's Cave, cor. Wash- 
ington and Jefferson Aves.; Hashagen's Park, cor. Grand 
Ave. and Meramec St.; Mannion Park, 8,000 S. Broadway; 
Eclipse Park, cor. Virginia Ave. and Primm St.; Lemp's 
Park, cor. 13th and Utah Sts. 

Race Tracks — Fair Association, cor. Grand Ave. and Nat- 
ural Bridge Ed.; Delmar Blvd., W. of St. Louis limits; St. 
Louis County, on Wabash and Suburban Rds.; Kinloch Park 
Station, cor. Union Ave. and Natural Bridge Ed. 

Suburban Places — Lake Coeur on the Meramec Highlands, 
is within forty minutes' ride of the city. The route passes 
through some very beautiful scenery. There are very many 
attractive suburban places about St. Louis, among them 
Piasa Bluffs, Webster Groves, Clayton and Kirkwood. 

*The Eads Bridge — This great bridge is known ail over 
Am-erica. It was built by sinking caissons through beds of 
quicksand to a solid rock bed. The bridge and the ap- 
proaches cost $10,000,000, It is what is known as a double- 
deck bridge, the upper roadway being crossed by wagons, 
street cars and foot passengers, below which runs the rail- 
road tracks and over those tracks has passed a large part 
of the immense commerce between the E. and S. W. in days 
gone by as well as many millions of passengers. The toll 
for foot passengers and wheelmen is 5c. Also 5c in addi- 
tion to street car fare for passengers. 

An Interesting Tablet — The Southern Hotel occupies the 
site of the stockade which was, in 1769, the headauarters of 
St. Ange, the French governor of Louisiana, and in the 
Hotel corridor vnll be found the tablet which marks the 
burial place of Pontiac, the chief of the Illinois Indians. At 
the S. E. corner of Walnut and Main Sts. stood the old 
government house, in which the transfer of the upper Louis- 
iana territory was made to the United States on March 10, 



110 CHICAGO TO NEW OKLEANS. 

1804. Between Second and Third Sts., on Walnut, will bo 
found the old i'rench. Catholic Cathedral which was finished 
April 19, 1775. On the blocks on either side of the en- 
trance of the Court House, which stands on Broadway, be- 
tween Market and Chestnut Sts., were sold the last slaves 
which were offered at j)ublic auction west of the Missis- 
sippi Eiver. The statesman Thomas Benton made one of his 
famous pro-slavery speeches from the steps of this Court 
House. Florissant, a suburb of the city, reached by electric 
cars, is an old French settlement antedating by several 
years the founding of St. Louis. St. Louis was the starting 
point of the old Santa Fe trail and the outfitting point of 
the thousands who traveled the old path toward the setting 
sun. At Second and Arsenal Sts. is seen the United States 
arsenal erected by the government in 1828. The Jefferson 
Barracks lie just south of the city limits. These barracks 
have much of historical interest of the time of the Civil 
and Mexican wars. The home in which General U. S. Grant 
was married to Miss Julia Dent still stands at the corner 
of 4th and Cerre Sts. General Grant hauled the logs with 
w^hich to construct his home into the city over the gravois 
road, a crooked street in the southern part of the city. 
Where Olive intersects wuth Channing and Lindell Aves. is 
the exact spot where w^as situated the Confederate strong- 
hold, Camp Jackson, which was captured by Federal troopa 
under General Lyon, w^ho marched there from the arsenal. 

River Trips — The steamboat companies run excursions by 
day and night, above and below the city, at 25 and 50 cents 
for the round trip. More extensive trips are made at stated 
intervals. Leaving time of steamers for points up and 
down the river can be ascertained from the newspapers. 

At St. Louis we change to the St. Louis, Iron Moun- 
tain & Southern Ry., which will take us to Alexandria. 
Leaving St. Louis, our train passes southward toward Jef- 
ferson Barracks (296 M.), which may be seen on the hills 
to the right. Our course onward to De Soto is through a 
hilly country, well adapted for fruit growing, apples, pears, 
etc., flourishing. Sulphur Springs (309 M.) is a resort in 
a small way. At Eiverside (312 M,), the Mississippi River & 
Bonne Terre Ey, diverges to the left, tapping the Platte 
River lead mining section, one of the richest mining dis- 
tricts in the country. . The ore is decimated lead, lying in 
beds mixed with blue limestone rock. The rock is crushed 
and the metal separated by washing. These mines are of 
much interest. At Silica (318 M.) are located large glass 
works. From Silica we pass on to 



DE SOTO-POPLAR BLUFF. Ill 



DE SOTO, MO. (328 M.) Population 7,000. 

Hotels — The Commercial, Main St., A. P., $2-2.50; E. P., 
$1-1.50. The Arlington, E. Main St., A. P., $2-2.50; E. P., 
$1-1.50 (usually best menu at the latter house). The Acme, 
N. Main St., A. P., $1; E. P., 75c-$1.25. De Soto House, 
Main and Jefferson Sts., A. P. $1-1.25; $4-5 a wk. 

Restaurants — Depot, Main St. Mrs. Margot, Boyd and 
Main Sts. 

Furnished Rooms — Cor. 2nd and Easton Sts. 

Banks — The People's Bank of De Soto, N. W. cor. Main 
and Easton Sts. The Jefferson County, S. W. cor. Main and 
Easton Sts. The German-American. 

Theaters — The Jefferson, bet. Main and 2nd, Easton St., 
seating capacity, 1,100; first-class; prices, 25c to $1. 

Railway Express Offices — Pacific Express Co., passenger 
depot, P. C. 

Telegraph Companies — Western Union, ry. depot, P. C. 

Livery— F. Matthes & Co., 2nd and Clement Sts., P. C; 
single rigs, first hour, 25c; additional hours, 25c; double rigs, 
first hour, 50c; additional hours, 35c. 

Railway Ticket Offices — Main St. Office, center of city, 
only one. 

Bill Posters and Distributors — ^Leon Herrick, 2nd and E. 
Clement Sts., P. C. 

Steam Laundry — ^Fountain Steam Laundry, N. Main St., 
P. C. 

Men's Furnishing Store — Henry Lederer, Main St. 

Department Store — H. Hornthal, Main St. 

Post Office — 2nd and Easton Sts.; general delivery and 
Btamps open wk. days, 7 a. m. to 7 p. m.; Sundays, 9 a. m. 
to 10 a. m.; M. O. window open 7 a. m. to 7 p. m.; carrier 
window open Sundays, 9 a. m. to 10 a. m. 

Public Library — E. R. Y. M. C. A., Main and Boyd Sts. 

Churches, clubs, commercial bodies, secret societies, pub- 
lic halls, office buildings or blocks, etc., see City Directory. 

Commercial Club — De Soto Commercial Club, Sec'y, J. L. 
Farley. 

Leading Local Industries — Iron Mountain R. R.; general 
car and repair shops; flour mills; no street car system; 
has local and long distance telephone. 

Sports — Fine fishing on Big River about 9 M; also 
hunting. 

From De Soto we pursue our course onward to Mineral 
Point (347 M.). Here our line touches the edge of the 
mining section and also taps the Belmont branch of the 



112 CHICAGO TO NEW ORLEANS. 

Iron Mountain route — see further on. At this place, and 
several others in the vicinity, a substance called *'tiff'' is 
found, from which is made a mineral paint. It is used 
largely, also, in the adulteration of paints. The Platte river 
lead district is touched along here. Onward to Leeper 
(419 M.), we advance thro'ugh the Ozark Hills — miscalled 
"mountains." This is one of the finest fruit belts in the 
entire country. The soil is a yellow mulatto and red, under- 
laid with rich red land and is heavily impregnated with iron, 
which imparts a splendid flavor and color to the fruit. 
Peaches, pears, grapes, small fruits and early varieties of 
apples do finely. It has been demonstrated that fully $300 
can be realized from an acre of land, which in its undevel- 
oped state costs from $2-4. At Bismarck (361 M.), the 
Belmont branch, diverges to the E. (left) to Belmont (120 
M.), lying on the Mississippi Eiver opposite Columbus, Ky. 
Con»eetions can be made via this line, for Cairo, 111. This 
branch taps a country very similar to that between De Soto 
and Leeper, as far as Laflin, except that Bollinger and 
Wayne counties are great pear growing regions. Beyond 
Laflin the great Mississippi bottom lands are encountered, 
formerly known as swamp lands, which were a pesthole 
of malaria. These lands have been drained, and are now 
quite healthy, the soil being phenomenally rich, as high 
as 120 bushels of shelled corn having been obtained from 
an acre. The Poplar Bluff-Cairo branch of the Iron Moun- 
tain, which leaves the main line at Poplar Bluflf, also taps 
this section, crossing the Belmont branch at Cliarleston. 
This region is settling up rapidly, its lands being some of 
the richest in the country. Some very fine timber grows 
in these bottoms. We now come to the city of Poplar Bluff 
(452 M.), lying on the bank of the Black River, the waters 
of which are very clear. It is of considerable commercial 
importance, having some very large woodworking plants. 
Mr. L. M. Palmer, of New York, owns an immense tract 
of land and operates a large heading and stave factory. 
He also owns and operates 25 M. of steam railway, used 
.both for the hauling of logs and for freight and passenger 
traflie. The Williams Cooperage Company hag a large 
plant for the making of whisky kegs and barrels. There is 
a large spoke factory, and many other manufacturing insti- 
tutions are turning out various products of wood. The 
Wright-Balton-Belt-Acker Company has a very large depart- 
ment store here, which is advertised as twenty-two stores in 
one. Many millions of dollars are invested with lumber and 
woodenware as a basis. 

Leaving Poplar Bluff, the character of the country 



NEELYSVILLE-CORNING-NEWPOHT. 113 

changes. To Little Rock, Ark., the route is through a 
timbered region more or less rolling, some of it being very 
rich, and some, rather poor. If this section lay in the state 
of Illinois it would long ago have been cleared of its 
timber. But while the growth is small, comparatively, it 
is for the most part thick, and requires hard labor to clear 
it, but hard labor and the natives are not on the very best 
of terms. Therefore, much land that otherwise would raise 
fine crops lies idle. 

Neelyville, (467 M.), a small village, ships annually 500 
bales of cotton and considerable corn, being surrounded by 
rich lands. Four M. beyond Neelyville a tall post is seen, 
left, about 10 ft. from the tracks, which marks the boundary 
line between Missouri and Arkansas. We whirl past and 
are in the land of **The Arkansaw Traveler,'^ one of the 
least known and most misunderstood states in the Uuion. 
The country is rough and undeveloped now, but the day is 
not far distant when Arkansas will rank as one of the 
richest commonwealths in the sisterhood of States. There 
are fine opportunities for the investment of capital on every 
hand, and the northern man with money at his command 
will be welcomed with open arms. 

Corning, (478 M.), pop. about 1,500, ships 4,000 bales of 
cotton annually, and is the proud possessor of a stave mill. 
Just beyond Corning we cross over Lake Corning. This 
sheet of water is literally alive with fish of many kinds; 
but, before attempting to practice the angler's art in 
Arkansas, it will be well to ascertain the laws of that State 
on fishing. Beyond Lake Corning Black River is crossed on 
a steel bridge, and we come to Hoxie, (512 M., pop. about 
500, Boas Hotel, $2.), where we cross the Kansas City, 
Memphis & Birmingham Line of the 'Frisco System. The 
land around Hoxie is quite rich, much cotton, some corn, 
and a large quantity of melons being raised. The lumber 
industry is largely represented here. The village is a freight 
division of the Iron Mountain Route, and its yards may be 
seen to the left, leaving the station. Passing out of Min- 
turn, (518 M.), a large stave works can be seen, left. Alicia, 
(525 M.), ships annually 1,000 bales of cotton, and has saw 
mills, a spoke factory and shingle mills. The land along 
here is quite rich, heavily timbered, and rather difiicult to 
clear. It lies high, is level and well drained. Much is held 
in large tracts for speculative purposes, and this, of course, 
operates to retard development. Swifton, (530 M,), ships 
about 1,200 bales of cotton a year. It is surrounded by 
small sawmills. Land sells at from $1.50 to $30. per acre. 
Tuckerman, (538 M.), pop. 6-700, ships about 7,000 bales of 



114 CHICAGO TO NEW ORLEANS. 

cotton yearly. Land is valued at from $10. to $40. per acre. 

NEWPORT, (548 M.), population 4,500. 

Banks — Bank of Newport; Arkansas Bank & Trust Com- 
pany; First National. 

Hotels— New Hazel, A. P., $2-$3 day; $10-$15 week. 
Comm'l rate $2-$3 day. Hotel Creighton, A. P., $2-$3 day; 
$10-$15 week. Com'l rate same. Discount to Theatrical, 
10%. J. D. Cook Hotel, A. P., $1 day; $4 week. 

Restaurants — Riley Mayhan 's. 

Railway Express Companies — Pacific & Wells Fargo. 

Telegraph Companies — Western Union. 

Telephones — Local & Long Distance. 

Railways — St. Louis; Iron Mountain & Southern; Chicago, 
Eock Island &; Pae. 

Opera House — Newport Opera House, seat cap. 1,000. 

Livery — Hobgood & Robinson, P. C. 

Rigs for Commercial Travelers — $3. 

Laundry — Newport Laundry Co., Phone 97. 

Commercial Body — Newport Club, S. M. Stuckey. 

Newport is surrounJed by the exceedingly rich White 
river bottom lands. Some 75,000 bales of cotton are shipped 
from here annually. The town has a cotton seed oil mill 
and some sawmills. Land ranges from $5 to $50 an acre 
and the timber will frequently pay for the clearing of the 
land, even in some instances leaving a substantial residue. 
It may be said that this is a prevailing condition in many 
river bottom sections of the State. Much exceedingly rich 
land can be bought for from $2 to $10 per acre the timber 
paying, or more than paying, for the labor of clearing. 
After such lands are cleared they easily rent at $4 to $8 
an acre and when it is borne in mind that the clearing of 
the land adds to its value it will readily be seen that there 
is a fine chance here for the investment of capital. 

From Newport the White river branch of the Iron Moun- 
tain route diverges to the W., (right), following the course 
of the White river and tapping some exceedingly rich coun- 
try. 

Leaving Newport via this line one finds rich agricultural 
lands bordering as far as Batesville, (25 M.). From Bates- 
ville to Wails Ferry, (42 M.), is a rolling, hilly country 
dotted with pine timber, while beyond Walls Ferry the 
region becomes very rough and hilly until Cotter (120 M.), 
is reached. Along this line, and especially in the territory 
S. W. from Cotter, boundless mineral wealth is to be found. 
Many strikes of high-grade lead and sine ore have recently 



OLYPII ANT— BALD KNOB— LITTLE EOCK. 115 

been made, and the section is attracting the attention of 
capitalists and investors. Much of these lands may still be 
secured at very reasonable prices, there being thousands of 
acres of undeveloped territory. This section affords some 
very picturesque views as the scenery is often beautiful. 
The White Biver By. is now in operation as far as Yellville, 
(132 M.), but it will shortly be completed to Carthage, Mo., 
affording direct connection from Newport to Joplin. 

From Newport, onward in our course, the White river 
(navigable) is crossed on a 4-span steel bridge. Twenty-five 
M. up this river at Batesville, (See White river branch), the 
government has put in locks at an expense of over three 
hundred thousand dollars, thus very considerably increasing 
the navigable length of the river. 

Olyphant, (555 M.), is a small place, where some eight 
to ten years ago the southbound express train of the Iron 
Mountain Boute was held up at the depot by desperadoes, 
and the conductor of the train shot and killed. Bradford, 
(564 M.), pop. about 300, ships about 500 bales of cotton 
annually, has some sawmills, and land thereabout is worth 
from $1-10 per acre. This village is in a rather poor section. 
Eussell, (569 M.), a small hamlet, is in a region that pro- 
duces considerable corn, cotton and strawberries. The land 
averages about $10 an acre. At Bald Knob, (574 M., pop. 
about 700, Bussel House $2, opp. depot — lunch counter ad- 
joins depot), the Memphis branch of the Iron Mountain 
diverges to the left, (B. 7 P.) It has two saw mills, and 
its products are cotton and some strawberries. The land 
immediately thereabout is rather poor. It is better five or 
six miles out. This is not the Bald Knob of train-robber 
fame. 

Judsonia, (578 M., pop. about 650), produces tomatoes 
and strawberries, and ships about 1000 bales of cotton 
annually, as well as four cars of lumber per week. It has 
large stave mills. Land varies from $5 to $20 per acre. 
Just beyond we cross the Little Bed river, on a steel bridge. 
At Higginson, (585 M., pop. about 200), we cross a branch 
line of the Choctaw, Oklahoma & Gulf By. Gardner, (501 
M.), is surrounded by what looks to be very good land, but 
it is covered with a heavy growth of small timber. Bcebe, 
(598 M., pop. about 1,500), is surrounded by good land, and 
Bhips about 10,000 bales of cotton annually. Strawberries 
and small fruits are successfully raised here. There are 
large hardwood lumiber mills to the right. Land is valued 
at $2 to $10 per acre. Austin, (606 M.), produces small 
fruit — pears — and some cotton. Land in this section, how- 
ever, is too low for anything but fruit. The land averages 



116 CHICAGO TO NEW OKLEANS. 

about $5 an acre. A short distance beyond Austin is seen, 
(left), a large nursery, which ships trees throughout the 
Southwest. Cabot, (609 M.), pop. 500-600, produces some 
cotton and corn. It is surrounded by a good trucking coun- 
try. Apples, pears and peaches do well. Land sells at from 
$5-20 an acre. Fort Smith Crossing, (630 M.), lies imme- 
diately across the Arkansas river from Little Kock. Here, 
to the right of the train, will be seen the Gt. Baring Cross 
Ey. shops, where the repair and construction work of the 
Iron Mt. Ey. is done. We now pass over the Arkansas river 
on a steel bridge and arrive at 

'^LITTLE EOCK, ARK., (631 M.), pop. about 65,000. 

Little Eock is on the lines of the Iron Mountain, Choctaw, 
Oklahoma & Gulf E. E. and St. Louis & S. W. (Cotton Belt); 
also has river transportation via the Arkansas. 

Hotels— Pratt Hotel, Iron Mt. Depot, A. P., $2.50. Capital 
(to be replaced soon with modern hotel), cor. Markham & 
Louisiana Sts., A. P., $2.50-4. Gleason's European Hotel, 
216 2nd St., E. P., $1-2. Merchants Hotel, 204 W. 2nd St., 
E. P., $1 up. Metropolitan Hotel, 515 Louisiana St., E. P., 
75c-$l. Grand Central, A. P., $1.50. 

Restaurants— Merchants, 106 Main St. Fallstaff, 104 W. 
Markham, The Model, Markham nr. Main St., meals 25c. 
The Star, Main, bet. Markham & 2nd St., meals 25c. 

Furnished Rooms — Signs out on Markham and on Main, 
bet. Markham & 2nd. Many at top of hill, on Markham, 
above Iron Mt. depot. Eates, $2 wk. up. 

Banks — State National, 503 Main St. Gorman National, 
Exchange National, Bank of Com-merce and ten others. 

Theater — Capital Theater, 217 W. Markham; seats 1,500; 
prices according to attraction. 

Railway Express Companies — Pacific, Main, bet. Markham 
and 2nd, P. C. Wells Fargo, P. C. 

Telegraph Companies — Postal, 122 Main St.; open 6 a. m.- 
midnight; Sundays same, P. C. Western Union, cor. Main 
and 2nd Sts.; open all the time, P. C. A. D. T. service. 

Livery — Arkansas Stables, 206 Louisiana St., P. C; rates 
reasonable. 

Railway Ticket Offices — Union Ticket Office, Iron Mt., 
Little Eock & Hot Springs Western, Little Eock & Ft. 
Smith and Gould lines, cor. Markham & Louisiana Sts., P. 
C; Choctaw, Oklahoma & Gulf, 211 Main St., P. C. 

Steam Laundry— Frank 's Laundry, 308 W. 3rd St., P. C. 

Men's Furnishings — Couen's, 210 Main St. 

Department Store — Blass, Gus & Co., 312-318 Main St. 



THE INDUSTRIES OF LITTLE ROCK. 117 

Commercial Body — Board of Trade, George R. Brown, 
Secretary. 

Secret societies, churches, cluhs, etc., see City Directory. 

Post Office — 2nd St., Center to Spring. Gen'l Del. open 
719; Sundays 9:30-10:30. Carriers' window Sundays, 9:30- 
10:30. Reg. Dept., 7-9; M. O. Dept., 9-5. 

Leading Local Industries — Cotton compresses (6, one very 
large), cotton seed oil mills (6), cotton machinery plants (3), 
furniture factories (3), cooperage plants (5, 3 for export 
trade), sash and blind factories (7), brick plants (3, includ- 
ing 1 sand brick), large trunk factory, granite and stone 
quarries (3), ice factories (5), stave and hoop plants (8), 
large chair factory, basket works and many smaller indus- 
trial plants. Iron Mt. shops employ 700 men. 

Little Rock (City of Roses) lies on the bluffs of tlie Ar- 
kansas river, which is navigable to its doors. The site is 
somewhat hilly, though not enough so to be disagreeable, 
being rather on the rolling order. One who expects to find 
anything else than a m.odern- up-to-date city, will be dis- 
appointed, for Little Rock is fast forging to the front as 
one of the progressive cities of the South. It does not owe 
a cent of indebtedness. The improvements of Little Rock 
are paid for and it can **look the whole world in the face, 
for it owes not any man,*' truly a remarkable thing in this 
day of bonds and debt. The principal retail street of the 
city is Main, which extends at right angles to the river, 
at the lower end of which a splendid steel bridge spans the 
Arkansas, connecting the city with Argenta, where are lo- 
cated the great Baring Cross Ey. shops and many in- 
dustrial plants, as well as some colleges. The name of the 
city is derived from the fact that here was the first rock 
seen by the early French settlers above the mouth of the 
river. They named the place Petite Roche, which, trans- 
lated, means Little Rock. Grand Roche, or Big Rock, is a 
precipitous bluff 1 M. above the city. 

Little Rock is just beginning to blossom forth with 
modern up-to-date business blocks and skyscrapers. A ten- 
story office bldg. is now under way and several new solid, 
substantial blocks have recently been completed. In the 
past it has been behind the times in this respect. The streets 
are paved with homemade brick, granite blocks and asphalt. 
The residence section is handsome, running m^ore to many 
comfortable, nice homes than to palatial palaces. It has no 
startling '* points of interest," but has several things worth 
seeing. To begin with, the old State House is on Markham 
St., near Louisiana. It is a rambling old structure, erected 
in 1833, and totally inadequate for a State Capitol bldg. 



118 CHICAGO TO NEW ORLEANS. 

In the Secretary of State's office on the second floor is a 
portrait in oil of Robert Crittenden, the first territorial 
secretary, who killed Congressman Conway in a duel re- 
sulting from some political quarrel. When the writer visited 
this office, he saw a rifie which had been presented to David 
Crockett by the young Whigs of Philadelphia. It is one of 
the old style weapons with a long, heavy barrel and an 
immense bore. On the back, inlaid in gold, is the inscrip- 
tion, ''Presented to David Crockett by the young men of 
Philadelphia;" and near the muzzle is a gold arrow with 
the words ''Go Ahead." In the old fashioned slim stock 
is a silver capped cavity for flints, the gun having been 
originally a flint lock. In the ground floor office of the 
Bureau of Mining, Manufacturing and Agriculture, is a most 
excellent mineralogieal, fruit, forestry and general agricul- 
tural collection. There is little else of interest here. 

The Highand Park car gives one a beautifunl street car 
ride to the park (4 M) and passes some things of interest. 
On cor. 11th and Wolf Sts. is the Philander Smith College, 
to the rear of which is the Colored Deaf Mute Institute. 
Leaving the car here and walking (right) two blocks on 
Battery St., we get a nice view of the State Insane Asylum 
across the valley. In the valley between are many wood- 
working establishments. If we continue on by the Highland 
Park line we will pass near the Insane Asylum and get nice 
views along the way. Before visiting the Asylum call them 
up by 'phone and ask about visiting days and hours. The 
new State Capital Bldg. is reached by the Pulaski ear, 
fare 5c. It is now (January, 1905) just well started. Its 
cost will be about $1,500,000. The outer walls will be of 
a coarse native marble, and the interior finish will have 
much of the finer grades, of which the State has a rich 
store. The bldg. will be 437 ft. long by 120 and 220 ft. in 
width, the extreme height to tip of dome being 235 ft. 
The dome will be 70 ft. in diameter. The structure, as 
planned, will be a handsome one and a credit to the State. 
The site is that of the old State Penitentiary. Much of the 
work will be done by convicts. At the cor. of 5th and 
Main Sts. is the seven-story, red brick Masonic Temple, 
to the rear of which, across 5th St., is the splendid new 
three-story, red and brown brick Y. M. C. A. bldg. At the 
cor. of Rock and 8th Sts. (E. 9th St. car, get off at Rock, 
walk one blk. left) is the old Albert Pike residence, set in 
extensive grounds. Pike was the father of Scottish Rite 
Masonry. In the center of City Park (E. 9th St. car, fare 
5c.) is the old U. S. Arsenal which was captured by the 



AN UNDEVELOPED COUNTEY. 119 

Confederates during the war and recaptured later by the 
Federals. It is a two-story brick. 

City Park is largo and has handsome lawns and drives; 
music Tuesday and Friday evenings in summer. At tho 
cor. of Scott and 8th Sts. (E. 9th St. car^ fare 5c, get off 
8th and Main, walk eight blks. right) is the *Albert Pike 
Consistory, erected and furnished at a cost of $82,000. Tho 
bldg. is of yellow brick with an imposing front. Tho 
interior is sumptuously fitted up, the stage, where the degree 
work is given, being one of the most complete of its kind 
in the country. The room is a beautiful one and the light 
effects of the stage are said to be wonderful. This bldg. 
will be of great interest to the Masonic visitor. The highest 
degrees are conferred here, even to the 33d degree. At 
the head of Center St. (Main St. car, fare 5c, get off at 
18th, walk two blks. right), is the Arkansas School for the 
Blind. ( 'Phone about visiting hours.) The institution is 
not large. The new penitentiary is reached by drive (4 M. 
W, 'Phone about visiting days and hours). On Lincoln 
Ave., just above the Iron Mt. depot, in a splendid location 
overlooking the Arkansas River, is the Maddox Seminary 
for Girls (175 students), a preparatory school and collego 
chartered under the laws of the state. The Power plant, 
near the river bank, half way bet. the Iron Mt. depot 
and Main St., is worth an inspection as embodying the latest 
up-to-date methods in plants of this kind. There are other 
things of minor importance and the visitor will be well 
entertained while he remains in the city. As a jobbing 
and manufacturing center, Little Rock is becoming a star of 
considerable magnitude in the constellation of southern 
cities. 

The line of the Iron Mountain Route, Little Rock to 
Alexandria (293 M.), passes through what is, to a great 
extent, a new and undeveloped country, the farming re- 
sources of which can hardly be overestimated. The country 
to Pine Bluff is hilly and poor, but from there to Columbia, 
a distance of 181 M., the land is very flat and rich. It 
cannot strictly be called sv/ampy, yet nearly all of it would 
be better for drainage ditches, for, in wet times, water 
remains on the surface to a great extent. River levees 
also are needed, as some portions of it are liable to overflow. 
With all its disadvantages, this section is, or will be when 
properly developed, a magnificent fruit and farm section, 
that will add greatly to the wealth of the nation and inci- 
dentally provide comfortable homes for thousands. ^ In some 
eections, land is now very cheap, while in others it cannot 
be bought except at high figures. It is mostly timbered, 



120 CHICAGO TO NEWi OELEANS. 

and in many places clearing the land will pay for it. Below 
Columbia, with the Ouchita Eiver as a dividing line, the 
land becomes hilly and is covered with pine, that below 
OUa being the famous *'long leaf.'* This land is valuable 
principally for its timber, though some parts of it are quite 
rich. A trip through here will be of much interest to those 
interested in development of the country, and it will be an 
eye-opener as to the resources of much maligned Arkansas. 
Leaving Little Eock, the train skirts along the banks of 
the Eed Eiver, passing under (left) the city bridge, past 
the Iron Mountain freight bridge, stopping at the E. Little 
Eock depot, passing the splendid steel Choctaw Ey. bridge 
(three spans and draw), and (right and left) many oil mills 
and mfg. institutions. The line as far as Pine Bluff runa 
through a rather hilly poor country, covered with small 
timber. At one time the timber was heavy, but the sawmill 
men have changed that. The Arkansas Eiver runs 2-4 M. 
to the E. (left), its bottom land being very rich. The sta- 
tions along here do not amount to much. Wrightsville 
(644 M.), a small hamlet, has a saw mill; Woodson (649 M., 
pop. Ill) ships some cotton; Farrells (650 M.) has a large 
saw mill and ships lumber; Redfield (655 M.) has a fine 
farming section of bottom land tributary, 11/^-2 M. E. (left), 
and ships considerable cotton and cottonseed; Kearney has 
a saw mill with a logging ry. 9 M. in length; ships lumber; 
and Jefferson Springs ships stave bolts, ties and some cotton. 
We now arrive at 

PINE BLUFF, AUK. (674 M.) Population 25,000. 

Hotels — Hotel Trulock, cor. Barique and Cort Sts., A. P., 
$2.50-3 (always considered best). Arlington, 3rd Ave., A. P., 
$2-2.50 per day; E. P., 75c-$l per day. Brookhill, cor. 3rd 
and Alabama, E. P., 50-75c per day. Pacific Hotel, 309 3rd 
Ave., A. P., $1-1.25 per day; $5 per week. 

Restaurants — ^J. O. Keiff, 123 Main. The Mint, Main and 
3rd Ave. (high class). Pacific (medium), 309 Third Ave. 
The German Kitchen, 127 Main (best cheap). 

Banks — Merchants' and Planters', cor. Barique and Main. 
Citizens' Bank, cor. Second and Chestnut. Bank of Pine 
Bluff, cor. Main and Second. People's Saving Bank & Trust 
Co., cor. Barique and Chestnut. 

Theaters — New Elks Theater, 310 Second Ave., seating 
capacity 1,100, prices $1-2 (high class). 

Railway Express Offices — Pacific, cor. Chestnut and Fourth 
Ave., P. C. No. 20. 

Telegraph Companies — ^Western Union, 114 W. Barraquet 



PINE BLUFF AND OTHER TOWNS. 121 

St., P. C. 3. Postal, 119 W. Barraquet, P. C. 441. Office 
hours, wk. days, 7 a. m.-12 p. m. Sundays, same. 

Livery — Beelen Bros., E. Court, P. C. 76. Single rig, 
$1.50 first hour; additional hours, $1; double rigs, $2 first 
hour; additional hours, $1. 

Railway Ticket Offices — St. S. L. S. W., cor. Alabama and 
Third Ave. St. L. I. M. & S., cor. State and Fourth. 

Bill Posters and Distributors — Charles Senyard, cor. Sec- 
ond and Chestnut, P. C. 160. 

Laundry — ^American Express Laundry Co., 218 Barraquet, 
P. C. 146. 

Gents' Furnishing Store— Kastor & Bluthenthal, 202-204 
Main St., P. C. 147 New, 122 Old. 

Largest Department Store — Dreyfus Big Store, 105-117 
W. 2nd and 126-128 Main. 

Post Office — Cor. Fourth and Main; gen. del. and stamps 
open 8 a. m.-6 p. m.; Sundays 11:30 a. m.-12:30 p. m.; M. O. 
open 8 a. m.-5:55 p. m.; carrier window, Sundays, 11:30 
a. m.-12:30 p. m. 

Street Car System — Electric. 

Telephones — Local and long distance. 

Commercial Club — Board of Trade, Sec'y> H* N". Atwood. 

Leading Local Industries — Railway shops; foundries and 
machine shops; oil mills; furniture factories; compresses; 
veneering plant; lumber concerns, etc. 

Leaving Pine Bluff we see various plants (right and left), 
and (1^ M.) left, a large brick oil mill, and ^ M. further 
on a large hardwood saw mill. Immediately after leaving 
the city, the train passes through a belt of cypress timber, 
which is rather low and swampy. Note the peculiar *' flare" 
to the lower portion of the trees; they gain in diameter in 
the lower 2 to 3 ft. of their length. This is a peculiarity 
of the cypress tree. Passing the timber (1Mj-2 M.), we enter 
a section of splendid land, but it lies very flat. It may, 
however, be drained fairly well into tributary streams, 
which enter the Arkansas lower down. Under proper cul- 
tivation it raises % to 1 bale of cotton to the acre, some- 
times even more. Here cotton is indeed king, little else 
being raised, though it is said to be a splendid fruit country; 
some corn is also raised. Fairfield (680 M.) is a hamlet 
surrounded by cotton fields. 

Tamo ships about 1,000 bales per year; Grady (696 M.) 
about 500 bales of cotton, 125 cars stave bolts and 75 cars 
of cypress shingles, and Dumas (714 M.) 1,500 bales of 
cotton and 3 to 4 cars of rough hardwood lumber per wk. 
Walnut Lake (717 M.) ships 2,000 bales of cotton, 50 cars 
cotton seed, and has been a heavy lumber shipping point, 



122 CHICAGO TO NEW ORLEANS. 

but the timber is now mostly cut out. Land ranges from 
$6 to $30 per acre. Winchester (722 M.) ships about 5,000 
bales of cotton, 50 cars of seed and 50 to 60 cars of rough 
lumber per year. Land is very cheap around here and very 
rich, some of it being reported as raising fully 1^ bales 
to the acre. 

Entering Tillar (726 M.), a large oil mill is seen (left). 
This place has a large cotton gin (right, beyond depot), 
a saw and shingle mill, and ships 4,000 bales cotton, 300 
cars lumber and 750 cars shingles per year. McGehee 
(733 M.) (eating house, meals 50c) is a small place where 
a branch line to Arkansas City (12 M.) diverges to the 
left (E.). At Arkansas City, junction is made with the 
Miss. Eiver & N, W. and Yazoo & Miss. Valley Rys. From 
McGehee to Dermott the line runs through a timbered sec- 
tion which is rather swampy, though, it is said, that all the 
land can be drained. Dermott (740 M., pop. about 1,000) 
is the best town S. of Pine Bluff. It is supported by a 
farming community and lumber industries. About 3,000 
bales of cotton are shipped per year and 50 cars per month 
of shingles, lumber, staves, etc. There are two saw mills, 
stave factory, shingle mill, etc. Land sells for $10 to $25 
per acre. A branch line from here extends to Arkansas 
City. 

Blissville (749 M., pop. about 200) has a large saw mill, 
shipping about two cars of lumber per day; there is a 
handle factory and planing mill; not much farming. Chicot 
Lumber Co. owns 200,000 acres of land about here. Morrell 
(752 M., pop. about 100) is surrounded by good farming 
land and ships much cotton. It has a shingle mill and one 
cotton gin. Peaches, pears and plums do exceedingly well. 
At Montrose (755 M.) the Mississippi Eiver, Hamburg & 
Western R. R. is crossed, a local road about 50 M. in length. 
One thousand bales of cotton are shipped from here annu- 
ally. Good surrounding land^ $25 to $45 per acre. 

Portland (761 M., pop. about 1,500) has some very nice 
buildings and is a fine little town. Ships about 1,200 cars 
of lumber and 8,000 to 10,000 bales of cotton per year. 
Splendid land about here, improved property being worth 
$100 per acre. There is an oil mill and a cotton gin, large 
saw mills, fine hunting and fishing; deer and turkey very 
plentiful; game and other fish in Chicot Lake, 12 M., 
Borub River, 12 M., and Bayou Bartholomew, ^^ M., the 
latter being, also, a running stream. 

Wilmot (774 M.) is a substantial little town of 1,000, 
with several brick business blocks. It ships 5,000 bales of 
cotton annually. Land averages about $125 per acre. There 



PINE BLUFF AND OTHER TOWNS. 123 

is an oil mill, several cotton gins and saw mills. Goad deer, 
duck and Quail hunting. Bonita (780 M.) is surrounded 
by good land, $10 to $20 per acre. Ships about 3,000 bales 
of cotton annually. Between Bonita and Jones, we cross 
the line and enter Louisiana. Mer Rogue (798 M., pop. 800) 
is surrounded by a splendid farming country, the land aver- 
aging about % bale to the acre. It is the freight division 
of this line, and we get a fresh engine here. From 1 to 3 
cars of lumber per day and about 7,000 bales of cotton 
per year are shipped from this point. Deer and wild turkey 
are plentiful and a few miles out there is fishing (no game 
fish) in the Boeuf Eiver and lakes, 4 to 12 M. away (camp 
out). The Mississippi River is 50 M. to the E. (left), and 
eo level is the country that, in times of great floods, its 
waters have been known to come within sight of the town. 
This will, of course, be remedied by levees, but it happens 
only once in a long term of years. The soil is very rich 
and a splendid farming country surrounds the city. Col- 
linston (806 M.) ships 3,000 bales of cotton annually. Fine 
farming lands, mostly held for speculation, selling for $10 
to $50 per acre, surround the town. The New Orleans & 
N. W., connecting for Natchez (o\vned by Iron Mt. Ry.), 
is crossed here. There is deer and turkey hunting, but no 
fishing. We now pass several small stations, with good 
land surrounding, arriving finally at Monroe (826 M.), 
(P. 204) where the Queen & Crescent (R. 7 C) is crossed. 

Eosco (841 M.) is the center of a splendid farming 
section, land being very high. It ships 1,500 bales of cotton 
annually. Riverton (851 M.) is a freight division of the Ey. 
Columbia (855 M., pop. 1,000) lies on the S. bank of the 
Ouachita (pronounced Washita) River, and is supported by 
a very rich farming section. This land never overflows. 
It is the seat of Caldwell Parish (county). South of the 
Ouachita River we enter the pine lands, saw milling being 
the principal industry. Down as far as 011a the timber is 
"short leaf"; inferior to the **long leaf" found below 
011a. Clarks (862 M., pop. 1,500) has immense saw mill 
interests, the investment in equipment and lands represent- 
ing over $2,500,000. Twenty cars of lumber per day can 
be shipped. There is a logging ry., 15 M. in length, here. 
OUa (873 M., pop. 450) is the dividing line between the 
short leaf and long leaf pine regions, the latter being found 
from here clear down to Alexandria. There is a saw mill 
of about 50,000 ft. per day capacity. There is a good farming 
section in Little River bottom, 2 M. away. All the land 
between Columbia and Alexandria is high and does not 
overflow. Rochelle (884 M., pop. 450) has a saw mill of 



124 CHICAGO TO NEW ORLEANS. 

about 100,000 ft. daily capacity. The city lies at the head 
of the navigation of Little Eiver. Boston Spur (pop. 500) 
has two saw mills, each with a daily capacity of about 
80,000 ft. Between Boston and Pollock (left) is a water 
tank station called Antonia, which has the finest water in 
the state, partly spring and partly well. Pollock (906 M., 
pop. 1,500) has a saw mill of 150,000 daily capacity, owned 
and operated by the Gould estate. The creeks near this 
place are of spring water and afford fine fishing, having 
perch of all varieties and black bass. Fourteen M, S. E. 
from Pollock is Catahoula Lake, 15 M. long by 5 M. broad, 
on which is splendid duck and goose hunting, during Dec, 
Jan. and Feb. There is said to be the best hunting here in 
the state, outside the rice fields. Must camp out. Twenty 
M. E. from Pollock lies Sulphur Springs, a resort with two 
hotels and strong sulphur waters. Reached by carriage 
from Pollock. Fare from Pollock about $2. Secure full 
particulars about this place by addressing the manager of 
the hotel. Sulphur Springs, Ark. Simms (pop. 200) has a 
saw mill of 60,000 daily capacity. This hamlet lies on the 
water shed bet. the Red and Little Rivers. There is a 
logging ry. 7 M. long here. At Tioga (917 M., pop. 500) 
the Louis Werner Saw Mill Co. operates a large mill, cut- 
ting 80,000 ft. per day. Just before entering Alexandria, 
we cross the Red River on a steel drawbridge. Entering 
Alexandria (924 M.) (P. 412), we are at the S. terminus 
of the Iron Mountain and will take the Texas & Pacific 
Ry. for New Orleans. 

For Alexandria to New Orleans (1,118 M.) (see R. 19 A.). 

B. Via Little Eock, Texarkana and Marsliail, Including Hot 

Springs. 



Iron Mountain, Texas & Pacific and Little Rock and Hot 
Springs Western Ry. (1,221 M.) Fare, about $25.00. 
(90 day ticket from Little Rock to Hot Springs, $3.05.) 

From Little Eock (631 M.) the train runs through tim- 
bered country to Benton (654 M.), the seat of Saline County, 
whence the Little Rock and Hot Springs Western Ry. 
branches to the W., right, to 



THE CITY OF HOT SPRINGS. 125 



**HOT SPRINGS, ARK. (30 M.), Population 12,000. 

On the Hot Springs & Western Ry. (connecting with the 
Iron Mountain By. at Benton, 31 M. away), and the Choctaw, 
Oklahoma & Gulf (branch line from Little Rock). 

Hotels — * Arlington, cor. Central & Fountain, A. P., $4-8; 
cap. 500. *Eastman, Reserve Valley, Spring & Cottage, A. P., 
$4-8; cap. 1,000. *Park, Malvern Ave., A. P., $4-8; cap. 500. 
*Maje8tic, Park Ave., A. P., $3 up; special summer rates; 
cap. 500. Great Northern, E. P., $1 up. Imperial, A. P., $2. 
Navarre, E. P., $1 up. Pullman, A. P. and E. P. St. Charles, 
A. P., $2-3. The Rockafellow, A. P., $2 up.; E. P., $1 up. 
The Waukesha, A. P., $2 up. United States, A. P., $1-1.50. 
Waverly and Bath House, A. P., $2-3.50. 

Restaurants — (High Class): Frisby's, 420 Central Ave.; 
Eveland's, 512 Central Ave.; Merchants, 606 Central Ave. 
(Medium, meals 25c): Hildreth's, 802 Central Ave.; The Q. 
T., 192 Central Ave.; Silver Moon, 604 Central. (Meals 15c) : 
Pritchett's, 628 Central Ave. 

Fumislied Rooms — A great many places, prices ranging 
from 50 cts. a night upward. 

Banks — Arkansas National, Central St. Security, Central 
St. 

Theater — Auditorium, 1st class; seats 2,000; prices 10-20- 
30-50-75 cts. 

Railway Express Offices — Little Rock & Hot Springs West- 
ern, Valley St., P. C. 52. Rock Island, Benton St., P. C. 141. 

Telegraph Companies — Western Union, Central Av. Postal, 
Central Av.; office hrs., wk. days, 6 a. m. to 12:20 p. m.; 
Sundays same. A. D. T., Western Union. 

Livery— Cooper Bros., Malvern Av.; rates variable. Ken- 
tucky Stables, 134-9 Fountain St., or Happy Hollow; rates 
variable. 

Bill Posters and Distributors— J. F. Head, Grand Opera 
House. 

Steam Laundry— Craighead, Valley St. 

Men's FumisMngs— Strauss & Co., Central St. 

Department Store — Duffie & Co., Central Ave. 

Postofflce — Benton St. Gen. del and stamps, open wk. 
days, 7 a. m. to 5 p. m.; Sundays, 10 a. m. to 11 a. m.; 
M. O. window, open 7 a. m. to 5 p. m.; carrier window, open 
Sundays 10 a. m. to 11 a. m. 

For Churches, Public Halls, etc., see City Directory. 

Commercial Club — Business Men's League, Secretary, Mr. 
Cooley. 

Street car system and local and long distance telephones 
are operated. 



126 CHICAGO TO XEW ORLEANS. 

Hot Springs lies in a canon of the Ozark Mts., 660 ft. 
above the sea, being for the most part strung out along 
the canon bed, but spreading at the upper end in the form 
of a fan. The surrounding mountains reach an altitude of as 
much as 1,450 ft. The claims regarding the curative powers 
of Hot Springs are fully justified. 

In Hot Springs, Ark., is found the only example in this 
country of a health resort conducted by the general govern- 
ment of the United States. Not only does the government 
own and dispense all the water from the Hot Springs, but it 
has gone much farther and established a hospital there to 
which it sends the very sick of both army and navy, to re- 
ceive the treatment and proved benefit of the hot waters. 

The United States owns all of the springs and a reserva- 
tion surrounding them of 1,000 acres, over which it has 
exclusive sovereignty. Every bath house using the water 
must pay a license to the government, and must subject 
itself to the rigid rules which the government makes. It 
throws every protection around the sick, and its ownership 
and endorsement is sufiicient guarantee of the virtues of the 
waters. 

There are forty-four springs, all flowing from a small 
tract not three acres in extent, on the western slope of Hot 
Springs Mountains. Beginning at the base of the mountain 
almost at a level with the creek bed and extending a distance 
of 250 feet up the face of the mountain these most remark- 
able waters flow through openings in the solid rock. 

The curative qualities of the waters lie far more in their 
natural heat and gases than in the minerals they contain, 
although some of the minerals in solution are very beneficial 
in some cases; and the U. S. Government experts have re- 
cently discovered radium emanations. 

By bathing at a natural temperature of from 98 to 100 
degrees and taking the water internally in large quantities 
and at a much higher temperature it has a wonderfully 
stimulating effect upon all the excretory organs, the skin, 
blood, liver, kidneys, etc., thus forcing them to throw off 
the elements of disease and making them channels for the 
expulsion of the deleterious matter of the system. 

Every modern facility is now provided by the railroads 
for reaching Hot Springs. Through solid trains are run in 
twice a day on the two roads entering Hot Springs from 
St. Louis and Memphis, while the through sleeping car lines 
take a far wider radius — Kansas City, Chicago and Cin- 
cinnati sending in sleepers every day from December to 
June. There is no difficulty in getting to Hot Sprlng3 
from any part of the country. 



ARKADELPHIA— THE ATHENS OF THE SOUTH. 127 

Hot Springs is very fortunate in hotel accoinmodaliang, 
having all grsdes. The Arlington is a fair sample, and the 
Eastman, Park and Majestic are similar, except that the 
latter being cheaper has no ball room and lacks other 
minor features. The Arlington is a red brick structure 
with a very large and handsome lobby, wide corridors on 
all floors, good-sized, well furnished rooms, unsurpassed 
bathing facilities and faultless cuisine and service. 

Aside from the health resort features of the place, Hot 
Springs is exceedingly pleasant and is a pleasure resort well 
adapted to Southern people in summer. The days are very 
warm, even sultry sometimes, but the nights invariably are 
cool and pleasr.nt. 

In attractiveness and climatic conditions it can well vie 
with many frequented Southern points. For amusement 
there are gold links, 1 M. race track operated under the 
rules of the Western Jockey Club, a theater which has high- 
grade attractions, driving and horseback riding over the 
mountains. Whittington Park, at the end of the Malvern 
St. car line, is quite popular and has a summer theater, base 
ball grounds and the arena of the Hot Springs Athletic 
Ass'n, which seats 2,500, and where athletic sports and con- 
tests are held. At the end of Whittington Ave. car line is an 
ostrich farm with many birds, adm. 25c. The Thousand 
Dripping Springs (5 M. E.), Hell's Half Acre (31/2 M. E.), 
Ouachita River (4-6 M. S.), The Gulpha (E. side Hot Springs 
Mt.), are among the curiosities and things worth visiting. 
Southward from Benton is Gifford, pop. about 1,500. This 
has one of the largest saw mills in the state. Malvern 
(674 M.), pop. 1,600 (Commercial Hotel, A. P., $2), has six 
saw mills, pottery, screen and door factory, pressed brick 
plant, and ships some cotton. Here a branch line of the 
Choctaw, Oklahoma & Gulf Ry. extends to Hot Springs. 
Southeast of Malvern is 

ARKADELPHIA, ARK. (696 M.), Population 4,000. 

Hotels— Hall House, $2; $10 per wk. Spencer House, A. 
P., $1.50; $5 wk. 

Banks — Citizens' and Commercial. 

Restaurants — Bob Whitlow. 

Railway Express — Pacific, P. C. 

Telephones — Local and long distance. 

Railways — St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern. 

Bill Poster— Nathan A. Fisk. Box 325. 

Opera House — Grisham; prices according to attraction. 

Livery — Good, reasonable rates, P. C. 

Laundry— Arkadelphia Steam Laundry, P. C. 



128 CHICAGO TO NEW ORLEANS. 

Leading Local Industries — Machine shops, flour mill, saw 
mill and laundry. 

Arkadelphia, the ** Athens of the South," has a Baptist 
College, 400 students, and a Methodist College, 200 students. 
It lies on the Washita, or Ouachita River. 

Qurdon (712 M.), lies in a lumber district point. The 
Gurdon & Ft. Smith line now (1905) in process of con- 
struction, extends to the N. W., and a branch line diverges 
to the S. W. (left) to Camden. Prescott (727 M.) and Bm- 
mett (743 M.) has some lumber interests. Hope (743 M.), 
pop. 2,500 (Barlow House), is the highest point on the Iron 
Mountain route in Arkansas. It has large cotton, lumber 
and brick interests. Fulton (757 M.), pop. about 1,000, has 
a saw mill and a stave mill; just beyond it the Red River 
is spanned by a steel drawbridge, and the train approaches 
Texarkana (776 M., P. 214). 

Transfer is now made to the Texas & Pacific Ry., which 
extends to New Orleans. Leaving Texarkana a number of 
unimportant towns are passed. Prom Atlanta, Tex. (800 M.) 
the train soon enters Jefferson (827 M.), pop. 3,500 (Excel- 
sior Hotel, A. P., $2). It is the seat of Marion County. 
The M., K. & T. diverges N. W. Next is Marshall (843 M.). 
From Marshall to New Orleans (1,221 M.), (see R. 19 A, P. 
400). 

C Via Cairo and Memphis. 

Illinois Central Ry. (923 M.) Fare, $23. Sleeper, $6. 

Out of Chicago our line trends S. W., crossing many of the 
eastern trunk lines between Chicago and Harvey, the Michi- 
gan Central at Matteson (28 M.), the Elgin, Joliet & Eastern 
Ry. just beyond Bradley (54 M.), and at and near Kankakee 
(56 M.) the lines of the Ind., 111. & la. and the Big Four. 
At Gilman (81 M.), we pass over the lines of the Toledo, 
Peoria & Western Ry. From this point the St. Louis line 
of the Illinois Central diverges to the right from the m.ain 
through New Orleans route outlined herein. At Paxton 
(103 M.), we cross the line of the Lake Erie & Western, 
and at Rantonl (114 M.), the Williamsport-Bloomington line 
of the Illinois Central. Champaign (128 M.) (R. R. restau- 
rant) is the seat of the Illinois University (1,600 students) 
and the junction of the Danville-Decatur branch of the 111. 
Cent, line, also the Bloomington-Danville Big Four line. At 
Tolono (137 M.) the Decatur-Danville branch of the Wabash 
Ry. is crossed. At Tuscola (150 M.) junction is made 
with the Chicago & Eastern 111. Danville line, and at Areola 
(158 M.) the Deeatur-Terre Haute line of the Terre Haute 
& Indiana Ry. is passed. At I't/Eattoon (172 M.) the lines 
of the Illinois Central and the Big Four are crossed, and 



DYERSBURG AND COVINGTON. 129 

at Effingham (199 M.) our line joins the St. Louis-Torre 
Haute branch of the Terro Hauta & Indiana Ry., and a 
short branch of the Illinois Central to Newton. At Edge- 
wood (214 M.) we cross the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern 
line, bending somewhat more to the S. W. and continuing 
to Odin (244 M.), where junction is made with the St. 
Louis-Vinccnnes branch of the B. & O. Southwestern. Cen- 
tralia (252 M., R. R. restaurant) is the center of a very rich 
fruit growing country. 

From Centralia our line leads due south, crossing the St. 
Louis line of the Louisville & Nashville Ry. at Ashley 
(267 M.), and the Wabash, Chester & Western Ry. at Tama- 
roa (280 M.). At DuQuoin (228 M.) we cross the line of the 
St. Louis-Eldorado branch of the 111. Cent. Carbondale 
(308 M.) is quite an industrial center. Anna (329 M.), near 
Jonesboro, is a city of considerable importance as a cotton 
and fruit market. At Ullin, the Cairo branch of the Chi- 
cago & Eastern 111. Ry. is crossed. From Mounds (356 M.) 
a short branch line extends to the left to Mound City (4 M.), 
and we enter Cairo (365 M.) (P. 211). Beyond Cairo we pass 
Bardwell (378 M.) and Clinton (292 M.). Crossing the Ohio 
river we enter the state of Kentucky and join the Memphis- 
Paducah branch of the Illinois Central at Fulton (406 M.). 
Our line forks here, the branch which we follow bending 
sharply to the S. W. and entering the state of Tennessee. 
At Rives (420 M.) we cross the Cairo main line of the 
Mobile & Ohio Ry. Continuing to the S. W. we enter 

DYERSBURG, TENN. (450 M.) Population 4,500. 

Banks — First National Bank of Dyersburg; Citizens' 
Bank; Bank of Commerce. 

Hotels — Stevens Hotel; rates per day, $2; wk., $14; com- 
mercial rate, $2. Easley Hotel, per day, $1; wk., $6. 

Restaurants — Vaughan's Cafe; Cook's Lunch Room; Blue 
Front. 

Railway Express Companies — American Express Co. 

Telegraph Companies — Postal Telegraph, Western Union 
Telegraph. 

Telephones — Local and long distance. 

Railways — Illinois Central R. R. 

Opera House — Georgia Opera House, seat, cap., 1,500. 
Prices according to attraction. 

Idvery — Booke's Livery Stable, P. C. 

Laundry — Dyersburg Steam Laundry, P. C. 

Commercial Body — Merchant's Exchange, J. F. Hamilton. 



130 CHICAGO TO NEW OELEANS. 

Leading Local Industries — Store factories; oil mill; flour 
mill; cotton gins; spade factory; saw mills. 

Points of Interest — Oil mill; artesian well. 

Pishing — Excellent. 

A short branch line here diverges to the W. (right), to 
Tiger Tail, 16 M. Thence, our course continues S. W. 
through Ripley (474 M.), a little beyond which is encoun- 
tered the little city of 

COVINGTON, TENN. (488 M.) Population 2,787. 

Banks — Farmers' Union Bank; Farmers' Merchants' 
Bank. 

Hotels — Hotel Linds; rates, per day, $2-2.50; wk., $12.50- 
14. Crofford Hotel; rates, per day, $2; wk., $10.50-12. 
Commercial Hotel; rates, per day, $1; wk., $5-6. 

Restaurants — Standfield Restaurant. 

Railway Express Companies — American Express Co. 

Telegraph Companies — Postal Telegraph Co. 

Telephones — Local and long distance connection. 

Railways — Illinois Central. 

Opera House — ^Paine's Opera House, seat. cap. 750, prices 
according to attraction. 

Livery— M'cFadden & Shelton, P. C. 

Leading Local Industries — Cotton mills; Covington Oil 
Mill Co. 

Fishing — Good. 

Memphis is the next place of importance (P. 186). 

From Memphis to New Orleans the Illinois Central has 
two routes: one, via the Yazoo & Mississippi Valley E. R. 
to Vicksburg, and the other, the I. C. main line. Our train 
bends to the S. E. to Hernando (550 M.), crossing Coldwater 
Eiver near Coldwater (559 M.). At Sardis (578 M.) a short 
railway extends to the W. (right) to Carriere. At Bates- 
ville (587 M.) the Tallahatchie Eiver is crossed. Grenada 
(628 M.) lies on the banks of the Yalobusha Eiver, and we 
here join the route which we left at Fulton. At Winona 
(651 M., population 3,000, Staffords-Wells Hotel, $2) the 
Southern Ey. is crossed. Winona is patronized to some 
extent as a summer resort. Below Vaiden (661 M.) we 
encounter the Big Black Eiver, down the west bank of 
which we follow for a long distance. At Durant (681 M.) 
a branch line of the Yazoo & Mississippi Valley E. E. 
extends westward. At Aberdeen Junction, just beyond, the 
Columbus branch of the Illinois Central joins our line. 
Near Way we cross and leave the Big Black Eiver. One- 
half M. from this station is a summer resort called Allison's 



FEOM COVINGTON TO NEW OKLEANS. 131 

"VVells. Conveyance meets all trains during the season, and 
one can be telephoned for at other times. There is a two- 
story frame hotel, ceiled in rooms, verandas above and 
below, with detached cottage bldg., pavilion, etc., lawns 
shaded by moss-draped trees. Bates $2 per day; $10 wk.; 
$35 for 4 wks.; season, June 1 to Oct. 1. Below is given 
an analysis of the water at these wells, showing number of 
grains per gallon: Silica, 5,722; potassium phosphate, 1,540; 
sodium chloride, 10,640; sodium sulphate, 3,135; calcium 
sulphate, 81,537; magnesium sulphate, 35,656; aluminum 
sulphate, 61,506; iron sulphate, 12,439; iron oxide, 2,028; 
total, 214,203. 

Contiuuing southward we pass through Canton (716 M.) 
to *Jackson (P. 194). From Jackson we follow the 
course of the Pearl Kiver southward some distance, bending 
away from it at Byram, and continuing to Hazlehurst (773 
M.). Two miles from this station are located Itowe's Wells. 
Hacks meet all trains during the season. The location of 
the Wells is pleasing. The hotel stands on a slight eleva- 
tion, surrounded by an open lawn. Pool rooms, tennis, etc., 
afford amusement. Hot and cold sulphur bath facilities 
will be found here. Rates, $2 per day; $10 wk.; $18 for 2 
wks.; $32 mo. Season, May 1 to Oct. 1. Below is given 
an analysis of the waters, showing number of grains per 
gallon: Sodium chloride, 28.6924; magnesium chloride, 
10.6138; sodium sulphate, 12.8453; potassium sulphate, 2.6826; 
magnesium sulphate, 11.0221; calcium sulphate, 28.9017; 
aluminum sulphate, 4.7237; ferrous (iron) sulphate, 0.2915; 
potassium sulphate, trace; sodium crenate-, 1.0994; silica, 
2.7992; total, 103.6717. 

Ten miles S. W. from Hazlehurst (hack meets trains 
during the summer season) is located Brown's Wells. The 
accommodations consist of whitewashed cottages built of 
rough boards and arranged in a semicircle. These cottages 
are surrounded by a growth of trees. There are several 
wells, the waters of which vary in their medicinal prop- 
erties. Rates, $2 per day; $10 wk. Open all the year. 
W^rite, Manager Brown's Wells, Brown's Wells, Miss., for 
further particulars. 

Southward from Hazlehurst our line leads through Brook- 
haven (794 M.), McComb (818 M.), Magnolia (825 M.), and 
we enter the state of Louisiana just beyond Osyka (835 M.). 
Approaching New Orleans we cross the outlet of Lake 
Maurepas, and skirt around the shor*? of Lake Pontchar- 
train to the left. 



132 CHICAGO-ST. LOUIS TO GALVESTON. 

ROUTE 3. CHICAGO-ST. LOUIS TO 
GALVESTON. 

Via Little Rock, Texarkana, Marshall, Longview, Palestine 

and Houston. 

Wabash, Iron Mountain, Texas & Pacific and International 
& Great Northern Kailways. (1,155 M.) Fare, $32.60; 
sleeper, $7. 

From Chicago to Little Eock, see (E. 2 A, P. 102). 

From Little Eock to Marshall, see (E. 2 B, P. 124). 

From Longview to Palestine, see (E. 10, P. 218). 

From Marshall to Longview, see (E. 19 A, P. 400). 

Leaving Palestine (957 M.) (P. 219), via the International 
& Great Northern Eailway, for Galveston (right) are great 
shops of the railway, and (left) opp. are its General Offices. 
Farther on (right) V4, M. is a cotton compress. Elkhart (969 
M.), pop. 500, is surrounded by several hundred acres of peach, 
apple and plum orchards. Formerly 3,500 bales of cotton 
were annually raised, but the boll weavel caused destruction. 
Grapeland (981 M.), pop. 600, ships cotton, potatoes, peaches 
and plums. Crockett (994 M.), the seat of Houston Co., has 
heavy shipments of potatoes, cotton and fruit. Quite a 
quantity of pears are raised. At Woodard (left) are coal 
mines, the black diamonds lying 38 ft. deep — rather poor 
lignite. Lovelady (1,006 M.), pop. 800, is surrounded by a 
good fruit country and ships 3,500 bales of cotton. The soil 
is a sandy loam underlaid with gummy clay, also some black 
loam. Sugar cane grows well here. Vegetables are a favor- 
ite crop. At Trinity (1,020 M.), pop. about 800 (Holland 
House, $2), junction may be made with a short line. Mo., Kas. 
& Tex. to Colmesneil. It is a railroad town, but the sur- 
rounding country raises potatoes and cotton. Just before 
entering Riverside (1,027 M.) the Trinity Eiver is crossed 
by a steel bridge. This town ships 1,000 bales of cotton and 
lumber from 4 saw mills. The peach industry is started. At 
Phelps (1,039 M.) a spur of the I. & G. N. runs to Huntsville 
(8 M.), which has one of the State Lunatic Asylums and the 
Sam Houston (State) Normal School for girls and boys (500 
students). The track from Conroe (1,067 M.) to Houston, 
about 32 M., has not a curve. 



HOUSTON AND ITS INDUSTRIES. 133 



HOUSTON, TEX. (1,106 M.), Population 67,000. 

Hotels — Eiee, A. P., $2.50-5 a day. Bristol (Logan & 
Brazos), Bristol, cor. Travis & Capitol Sts., A. P., $2-4. Bur- 
nett, Fannin, cor. Capitol St. Tremont, Tremont, Congress & 
Milan Sts., A. P., $1.50-2 a day. 

Restaurants — The Ruby, Franklin & Main Sts. Colby's, 
Main St., near Preston. Japanese, Congress & Fannin Sts. 

Furnished Eooms — Cor. Congress & San Jacinto Sts. Cor. 
Main & Capitol Sts. Cor. Preston & Milam Sts. Prices from 
10 cts. to $1 per night, and from $1 to $5 a wk. 

Banks — First Nat., Main St. Houston Nat., Main St. 
Commercial, Franklin St. Merchants, Main St. 

Theaters — Houston, Fannin, near Preston; seats 1,600; 
prices, from 25 cts. to $2. Empire, Congress, nr. Austin; 
seats 600; prices, 10, 20 and 30 cts. Standard, Prairie, nr. 
Milam St.; seats 400; variety, 10 cts. to $3. 

Eailway Express Offices — Wells, Fargo & Co., cor, Franklin 
& Fannin Sts., P. C. Pacific, Main St., nr. Franklin, P, C. 
American, Main St., nr. Franklin, P. C. 

Telegraph Companies — "Western Union, Main St., nr. Frank- 
lin, P. C. Postal, Main St., nr. Franklin, P. C; office hrs,, 
wk. days open day and night, Sundays included. A. D. T., 
etc. service, 1013 Texas Ave., P. C. 

Livery — Denny & Westall, Texas Av. & Caroline St., P. C. 
Rates: Single, per hr., first hr. $1, add. hrs. 50 cts; double, 
first hr. $2, add. hrs. $1. "Wilson's Hack Line, Main & Capitol 
Sts., P. C. Rates: Single, first hr. $1, add. hrs. 50 cts; double, 
first hr, $2, add. hrs. $1. 

Railway Ticket Offices — Southern Pacific, Main & Franklin 
Sts., P. C. Houston & Texas Central, 202 Main St., P. C. 
Houston, East & West Texas R. R., 202 Main St., P. C. Mo., 
Kas. & Tex. (''Katy"), 211 Main St., P. C. Santa Fe, Rice 
Hotel, P. C. Galveston, Houston & Northern, 204 Main St., 
P. C. 

Scalpers' Offices — ^Wolf Bros.^ Main, nr. Prairie, P. C. H. 
Alexander, Turf Exchange, P. C. 

Bill Posters and Distrilsutors — Houston Bill Posting & Dist. 
Co., 1202 Preston St., P. C. 

Trunk Repairs — Central. 

Laundry— Model, 1107-9 Prairie, P. C. 

Men's Furnishings — Lipper, Riam, Cawthorn and Morris 
Bros., Main St., P. C. 

Department Store — Houston Department and Levy Bros., 
Main St., Congress & San Jacinto. 

Post Office — Fannin & Franklin Sts. Gen '1 del. and stamps 
open wk. days, 8 a. m. to 7 p. m. Sundays, 9 to 10. M. O. 



134 CHICAGO-ST. LOUIS TO GALVESTON. 

window open 8 a. m. to 4 p. m. Carrier windov^r open Sun- 
days 9 to 10. 

Public Library — Yes. 

For Churclies, etc., see City Directory. 

Commercial Club — Business League, Sec'y, Geo. W. Brown. 

Leading Local Industries — Oil refineries, cotton compresses 
and rice milling. 

Points of Interest — Highland Park, 2 M. out. Take Hous- 
ton Av. car on Main St., fare 5 cts. Boating, dancing and 
theater. Admission to theater, 10, 20, 30 cts. Drinks served. 
Eestaurant and hotel on grounds. Band music in the even- 
ing. Suitable for ladies. 

Houston is a great railway center and largely commercial. 
The site is quite level and the streets are fairly wide, many 
of them being well paved. Houston has some excellent busi- 
ness blocks, beautiful churches, etc. It has water connec- 
tion with the Gulf, and the government is spending large 
sums to improve this. It has vast lumber and cotton interests 
and an extensive manufacturing and wholesale business. 
Main St. is the principal retail thoroughfare, and has many 
handsome stores and up-to-date business establishments. The 
Carnegie Public Library is a splendid building in Italian 
renaissance style. The exterior is of gray pressed brick 
trimmed with Bedford limestone. It has 1,000 volumes, 500 
pamphlets and 4,000 public documents, also files of Texas 
newspapers dating back to 1834; and the reports of the 
Masonic Grand Lodge from 1856 are nearly complete, fur- 
nishing interesting matter pertaining to the history of Free 
Masonry in Texas. The library is open from 9 a. m. to 10 
p. m.; Sundays, for 6 hrs. 

Leaving Houston for Galveston, the course leads over a 
level and rather marshy country. Near Webster (1,127 M.), 
left, are rice fields. The Japanese who live here are meeting 
with such success in this industry that they are extending 
their field of operation each year. At Virginia Point (1,148 
M.) the train passes over Galveston Bay on a wooden trestle 
2.8 M. long. In most places the water is shallow. 

Land is reached at Galveston Island but a short distance 
from the city. Entering Galveston (left) are' the large 
drab-colored grain elevators at the Southern Pacific docks, 
which, it is claimed, are the largest in the world owned by 
one company. 



GALVESTON— BUILT ON THE SAND. 135 



GALVESTON (1,155 M.), Population about 35,000. 

On the Int. & Gt. Nor., Santa Fe, Gal., Houston & Hender- 
son, Gulf & Interstate and Mo., Kas. & Tex. Rys. 

Hotels— Tremont, 513-523 Tremont St., A. P., $2.50-3.50. 
Grand, 2012 Post Office St., $2-2.50. Washington, 2220 Me- 
chanic St., A. P., $2; E. P. also. New City, cor. 25th & Post 
Office Sts., A. P., $1.50. Atlantic, 2414 Church St., A. P., $1. 

Eestaurants— The Elite, 2208 Market St. The Pickwick, 
2214 Market St 

Furnished Eooms — Girardin House, cor. Market & 24th 
Sts.; rooms 50c-$l; spec, by wk. Cor. 24th & Post Office Sts. 
No. 2514 Church St. No. 1515 Church St. Cor. 25th St. & 
Eosenberg Ave. 

Theater— Grand Opera House, 2018 Post Office St. Prices 
based on play. 

Eailway Express Offices — American, 213 Tremont, P. C. 
Wells Fargo, 313 Strand, P. C. Pacific, 2301 Strand, P. C. 

Telegraph Offices — Western Union, 2121 Strand, P. C; mes- 
senger service. Postal, 2107 Strand, P. C; open all the time. 

Livery— J. H. Bolton, 2110 Post Office St., P. C. Kates 

Eailway Ticket Offices— Int. & Gt. No., 301 Tremont, P. C. 
Mo., Kas. & Tex., 307 Tremont, P. C. Santa Fe, cor. Tremont 
& Mechanic Sts., P. C. Galv., Houston & No., 403 Tremont 
St., P. C. Galv., Houston & Henderson, 2324 Strand, P. C. 
Gulf & Interstate, Tremont, bet. B & C. 

Scalpers — None. 

Trunk Eepairs— E. H. John, 2220 Market St., P. C. 

Steam Laundry— The Model, 2326 Post Office St., P. C. 

Men's Furnishings — Cowen's, 2121 Market St. 

Department Store — Garbade, Eiband & Co., 2201 Market St. 

Post Office — Cor. Church & 25th Sts. Gen. del. open 8 to 6; 
Sundays, 9:45-10:45 a. m. M. O. Dept., 9 to 5. Eeg., 9 to 6. 

Commercial Body — Galveston Business League. 

For a full list of the Churches, Clubs, Secret Societies, 
Blks., etc., see City Directory. 

Galveston lies on the E. end of Galveston Is., and is laid 
out like a checkerboard. The site is perfectly level, and 
the city is literally "built on the sand.'* The island is 
separated from the main land by Galveston Bay, and the 
narrowest point is where the railways cross, the distance here 
being about 2^4 M. from shore to shore. The city possesses 
much interest because of the flood of 1900. Very few build- 
ings were seriously injured in the business section of the 
city, the damage occurring in the poorer section along the 
sea front. The major portion of the wreckage was caused 



136 CHICAGO-ST. LOUIS TO GALVESTON. 

by the light frame buildings floating from their foundations 
and, swept by the fierce current, striking other larger build- 
ings, causing them to topple. A swath was cut along the sea 
front in the poorer section, the wreckage gradually sweep- 
ing back toward the city till it formed an immense wall, 
which served as a protection against further serious damage. 
It was a night of awful terror, and the water was from 
three to ten feet deep everywhere. Some substantial build- 
ings in the business part were wrecked by the wind, but 
they have nearly all been rebuilt, and now few traces are 
left. The total area of Galveston Bay is 450 sq. m., and 
along the outer side of Galveston Island is an immense sea 
wall of crushed granite, sand and cement. The outer portion 
curves toward the sea and is built on a foundation of piles 
driven down 44 ft. The slope on the shoreward side is 200 
ft. wide, furnishing space for a fine boulevard and driveway. 
Formerly the general level of the city was about that of 
the Bay, but it is now 10 ft. higher. This sea wall is one 
of the features of the city, and a most important one, too. 

The surf here is fine. As there are bathing facilities, to 
bring a bathing suit will be quite an fait w^hen visiting the 
wall. Immediately back of it, on the sea front, was where 
much damage was done and great loss of life occurred, some 
of the bodies being buried so deeply in the debris that they 
were not found for months; and there is not the shadow of a 
doubt that many still repose deep in the sands. 

Broadway is the handsomest residence street, being parked 
in the center and embowered in shrubbery and oleanders. 
The street car ride via the E. Broadway line is pleasant, 
and passes through the best residence part of the city. On 
the cor. M & 21st Sts. (all beach lines, fare 5c) is 'the 3- 
story, yellow brick Orphanage Home, which was almost de- 
stroyed by the storm, but rebuilt by a fund raised by Wm. 
E. Hearst, of New York. The Rosenberg Library, cor. Tre- 
mont & Sealy Ave., is open 9-5; Thursday, 9-9; Sundays, 2-5. 
The building and its contents represent an investment of 
$200,000, and it has a permanent endowment fund of $400,- 
000. This magnificent library was erected and endowed 
from a fund provided by Henry Eosenberg in his will. He 
was a merchant and banker of the city, and deserves much 
praise, because he unostentatiously gave away hundreds of 
thousands of dollars, the recipients of his bounty often not 
knowing the giver. He also built many public water foun- 
tains about the city, and a splendid public high school bldg.; 
in fact, he was quite a philanthropist. The library was 
erected in 1893-4, and has now 13^000 vols, and about 2,500 
pamphlets. It is probably the best constructed librarv build- 
ing in the South. On the upper floor is a lecture hall. The 



POINTS OF INTEEEST IN GALVESTON. 137 

city has a Public Library of about 8,000 vols, and 2,000 
pamphlets, open 8 hours per day. The Ball High School has 
a library, open 6 hours wk. days, of about 1,500 vols, and 
500 pamphlets, and the Court of Civil Appeals has a library 
of about 9,000 law books. 

Central Park, on Winnie St., bet. 20th and 21st Sts., Winnie 
& Ave. H car, fare 5c, is a very pretty but small park in 
the heart of the city, situated bet. the Ball High School on 
the W., a 2-story stuccoed brick with central dome, and the 
yellow brick, granite-trimmed, 4-story County Court House 
on the E. On the N. is the 3-story Court of Appeals build- 
ing. At the cor. of 21st & Church Sts., near Central Park 
(same car) is St. Mary's Cathedral, erected in 1847. The 
service of this church was at one time in French. There are 
three towers, the one to the rear being surmounted by a 
heroic figure of St. Mary. At the cor. of E. Broadway & 
14th St. is a most handsome home, its beauty consisting in 
the blending of color in stone and tile. 0pp. it is the Sacred 
Heart (Catholic) Church, adjoining which is St. Mary's Uni- 
versity. At the cor. of Market and 8th Sts. (Market St. 
cars, fare 5c) is St. Mary's Infirmary, just N. of which is 
Breckenridge Hall, the State Medical College Trained Nurses ' 
quarters. It is the 3-story, square, red-roofed bldg., cor. 8th 
& Strand. 0pp. it is the 3-story, gray, stuccoed brick John 
Sealy Hospital. Across the street from this (on Strand) is 
the large, handsome, 4-story tile roof building of the Medical 
Branch of the University of Texas (P. 224). 

The Docks are always an interesting sight, as ships of all 
nations enter the port. The crews afford endless amusement 
to the inland visitor. There are 30 ft. of water in the harbor 
channel. The government dike, on which is the building of 
the Galveston Boating & Yacht Club, is out 1,200 ft. and is 
constructed of piling backed by sand. The Quarantine 
Station is at the extreme right end of the dike, and back of 
it is the fumigating barge. The extreme end (left) of the 
dock is occupied by the So. Pacific Ey., the largest privately 
owned dock under single ownership in the world. **Misqueto 
Slip" is where the market garden boats tie up, and it is a 
curious sight. At times between 50 and 100 of the little 
craft are in the slip. Aside from surf bathing, which is 
excellent, there is good fishing. Five M. out on the north 
jetty one may stand, either on the jetty or pier, and fish in 
30 ft. of water for jack fish, red fish, sheepshead, sea trout, 
mackerel, pig fish, June fish (called sea bass in the Pacific), 
and an occasional pompano, king fish and rock fish. Tarpon 
abound. The fishing is good for 9 months of the year, and 
then the fish seek the bay and are found in abundance on 
the numerous shell reefs. The lakes on the island and 



138 CINCINNATI TO NEW OKLEANS. 

around the shore of the mainland abound in ducks and geese 
in season. There are numerous lakes in which wild celery 
grows, and in season the waters are at times literally black 
with ducks feeding on the celery. On the prairies are jack 
snipe, plover, quail and prairie chicken. 

There is a "Seeing Galveston car" which leaves the cor. 
of 21st & Mechanic Sts., fare 25c, Sundays at 11 a. m. and 
3 p. m. The trip includes many of the sights. Excursion 
steamers make trips on the bay, charge 75c. At the foot of 
20th St. are found launches for hire. Fare for a party of 
6 or more for a trip on the bay, 50c each. ''Less nomber 
higher gare. " A steam yacht leaves the cor. of 19th St. & 
Bay several times Sundays (fare 75c, meals to be had on 
boat), taking fishing parties to the fishing pavilion 5 M. 
away. Bait and tackle can be had at the pavilion. Bath 
houses are located principally at the S. end of 23rd, 24th 
and 25th Sts., and are reached by all beach cars. Trips 
may be made to Fort San Jacinto, on the E. end of the 
island, by carriage or bicycle along the E. beach. The U. S. 
Lighthouse, on Bolivar Point, is open to visitors on Mondays, 
Wednesdaj'-s and Saturdays; reached by ferry or small har- 
bor craft. The XJ. S. Life Saving Station is on the channel 
at the E. end of the island, near the torpedo casemate and 
the State Quarantine Station. All are reached by Bolivar 
ferry or small craft. Fine driving can be had on the beach, 
which extends for many miles along the S. side of the island. 
The city is healthful, its water supply coming from artesian 
wells. A visit to Galveston will prove enjoyable. 



ROUTE 4. CINCINNATI TO NEW 
ORLEANS. 

A, Via Lexington, Chattanooga, Birmingham and Meridian. 

Queen & Crescent Ey. (830 M.) Fare, $21. Sleeper, $5. 
For Cincinnati to Chattanooga (See K. 1 A), (P. 17). 

Leaving Chattanooga, the line follows down the west side 
of Lookout Mt., there being very little of interest until 
Birmingham, Alabama, is reached. At Atalla (425 M.), a 
line is crossed connecting with the Southern at Huntsville, 
to the N., and with Eome, Atlanta, etc., to the E. Beyond 
Springville (453 M.), the Cahawba Mts. lie to the right. 



AN INDUSTEIAL CITY. 139 



BIRMINGHAM, ALABAMA. 

Population (including sulDurbs) about 125,000. 

Union Depot — Morris Ave., bet. 19th & 20th Sts. Trains 
of all roads enter it. Leaving main entrance, walking right, 
first cor. (left) is Metropolitan Hotel. Walking left from' 
depot entrance to first cor., turning right and walking one 
blk. (on 19th St.), Hotel Morris is on cor. right. Opera 
House Hotel is to the left on opp. side of Cross St. (1st Ave.) 
St. Nicholas and Hotel Hillman straight ahead 1-2 blks. 
(left.) 

Railways — Searboard Air Line, Queen & Crescent (Ala. 
Grt. So. Ey.), Louisville & Nashville, Southern Ey, 'Frisco 
System, Central of Ga., 111. Central, Birmingham Mineral, 
Birmingham Belt Ey. and Birmingham Southern Ey. 

Hotels— Hotel Hillman, cor 4th Ave. & 19th St., E. P., 
$1.50-5. Large, high class house. Metropolitan hotel, cor. 
Morris Ave. & 20th St., E. P., $1-2. Cafe in connection. 
Hotel Morris, cor. 19th St. & 1st Ave., E. P., $1-2. St. 
Nicholas hotel, 214 19th St., E. P., $1 up. Florence hotel, 
cor. 19th St. & 2nd Ave., A. P., $2-2:50. Colonial hotel, 209 
N. 21st St., A. P., $2-2.50, E. P., $1-1.50. Opera Houso ho- 
tel, 1824 1st Ave., E. P., 50c-$l. 

Restaurants — High class: Hillman Cafe (see Hotel Hill- 
man); Paul's Cafe, 215 N. 19th St.; St. Nicholas (see St. 
Nicholas hotel), medium priced; Dairy Depot, 310 N. 19th 
St.; Easonville Creamery, 303 N. 20th St.; Albert Res- 
taurant, 213 N. 20th St., meals 25c; Ellis Eestaurant, 2016 
2nd Ave, meals 25c; Gelder's Eestaurant, 110 N. 20th St. 

Furnished Rooms — Could not locate any good ones except 
in European hotels. Few signs out. 

Banks — First National, cor 2nd Ave. & 20th St. Alabama 
National Bk., 2001 1st Ave. Traders' Nat. Bk., 301 N. 
20th St. American Trust & Savings Bk., 1923 1st Ave. 
People's Savings & Trust Co., 1907 2nd Ave. Birmingham 
Savings and Trust, 112 N. 20th St. 

Theaters — Jackson Theater, 1710 2nd Ave., best in city. 
Prices according to attractions. Bijou Theater, 1700 3rd 
Ave. Sometimes has vaudeville. Prices according to at- 
tractions. 

Ry. Express Co.'s — Adams Express, in Union depot; P. C. 
Southern Express Co., 1910 Morris Ave., opp. ITunion depot. 
Bell P. C. 

Telegraph Offices— Postal Tel. Co., No. 13 N. 20th St. 
Open all the time. P. C, Messenger service. Western Union 
Tel. Co., 1919 1st Ave. Closed 1:30 a. m.-6 a. m. P. C, 
Messenger service. 



140 CINCINNATI TO NEW ORLEANS. 

Livery— Palace Stables, 1700 2nd Ave., P. C. Fiess & 
Sons, 1810 4th Ave., P. C. Eates reasonable. 

Ry. Ticket Offices— Seaboard Air Line, 1923 1st Ave., P. 
C. Queen & Crescent (Ala. Grt. Southern), 1925 1st Ave., 
P. C. Central of Ga., 1921 1st Ave., P. C. Southern Ey., 
cor. 1st Ave. & 19th St., P. C. 'Frisco System & Eock Island, 
1903 1st Ave., P. C. Louisville & Nashville, Union Depot, 
opp. 19th St., P. C. Scalpers' Offices: Autlman's, No. 9% 
N. 20th St., only one in city. 

Steam Laundry — Empire Laundry, 1819 2nd Ave., P. C. 

Men's Furnishings — Klotz & Goldman, 1st Ave., bet. 19th 
& 20th Sts. 

Department Stores — Loveman, Joseph & Loeb, 19th St., 
bet. 2nd and 3rd Aves. Drennan & Co., 2nd Ave., bet. 20th 
& 21st Sts. 

Trunk Factory & Repairs — Magic City Trunk Factory, 
219 20th St. 

Postoffice— Cor. 2nd Ave. & 18th St. Gen. Del., 6-9; 
Sundays, 9:30-10:30; M. O. Dept., 9-5; Eegistry, 8-9; Carriers, 
Sunday, 9:30-10:30. 

Public Library— In City Hall, 10,000 vols. There is also 
a library for colored people, 1,500 vols., in Slater's School 
bldg. Law Library, 2,200 vols., in Court House. 

Commercial Body — Commercial Club, J. B. Gibson, sec. 

Churches, Clubs, Secret Societies, Halls, Bldgs., etc., see 
General Index in city directory (any hotel or drug" store). 

Leading Local Industries— ^Coal mining (12,000,000 tons 
annually); iron smelting (1,750,000 tones anually) ; machine 
shops, sash, door and blind factories, pipe foundries, sewer 
pipe (clay) factories, steel works (very large), brick plants, 
large cotton factories, flour mills, oil mills, engine works, 
furniture factories, cement works, fertilizer factories, and 
many others. 

Facts About Birmingham — The city of Birmingham lies 
in Jones Valley, with hills on the N. and S. The business 
section lies in valley proper and is level, the residence 
portion being mainly on higher ground, the location to the 
S. being very fine. It is a wonderful city in some respects, 
h.aving sprung into existence since the year 1871. It hardly 
seems possible that 33 years ago the site of the metropolis 
was a desolate tract covered with timber and brush, but 
such was the condition. The town is laid out squarely, 
the streets being wide and well paved. The strees run N. 
and S. and the avenues E. and W. There are several fine 
office buildings, that occupied by the First National bank 
being perhaps the best. Birmingham is surrounded by a 
number of suburban towns of from 1,000 to 10,000 popu- 
lation, which properly belong to it, and the whole section 



FROM GALVESTON TO MERIDIAN. 141 

is covered with a network of railways. The street car 
system and service is excellent, extending to all parts of 
the city, and any point may be reached by paying five cents. 
The best car ride in the city is via the Lakeview car. Lake. 
view is a pretty little sheet of water lying just below tha 
buildings of the Country Club, at which are the golf links 
of the city. Returning (left) is the St. Vincent Hospital 
at the S. end of 27th St. (Highland Ave. car, fare 5c.), 
and the Killman Hospital, with Binningham Medical 
College adjoining, cor. 20th St. & Ave F. Oak Hill Cemetery 
is reached by N. Highland car (fare 5c.) A nice street 
car ride, which shows much of the E. part of the city is via 
the Avondale car. Leave the car at Avondale Park; walk 
(right) to pavilion in park; there is a beautiful spring. 
Leaving park entrance, cross street car line and walk two 
or three blocks to East Lake line, taking car to East Lake, 
which is a very pretty resort (closed in winter), with boat- 
ing, bathing, vaudeville theater, roller coaster, etc., admis- 
sion free. Return on same line to junction with Gate 
City line in Woodlawn, thence by that route back to city — ■ 
total fare, 20 cents. The N. Ensley St. car line extends 
through the W. end of the city to Thomas, where there 
is a battery of 1,000 coke ovens, and on to Pratt City (popula- 
tion about 7,000), where (right some distance) are very 
large coal mines. From here the car goes to Ensley, which 
has great steel works and iron furnaces. Visitors are not 
admitted, but a view may be had of the works by walking 
up the hill (right from the car tracks). 

One of the nicest carriage rides about the city is out 
through Pickwood Place (reached also by Loop & Idlewild, 
carfare 5c.) ; passing the Bessemer Rolling Mills, which em- 
ploy 500 men (S. Bessemer or Rolling Mill loop car, fare 
5c.), and into *Glen Iris, a beautiful natural park containing 
some charming homes. One may drive in and circle through 
it and pass out, continuing on through Cullom Place, a de- 
lightful residence section (reached by 20th St. loop, or Roll- 
ing Mill loop car, fare 5c.); and turning up to 12th Ave., 
which between 18th and 20th Sts. is known as Bankers' 
Row. This is a fine residence street, from which a fine view 
is had of the business section of the city. At Highland 
Ave. one enters 20th St. and drives out to Lakeview, *a 
most charming ride. The streets wind around the face of 
the hill in a constant succession of curves, and they are 
lined with fine residences. North Birmingham may_ be 
reached by carriage, driving out 19th St. and turning into 
Huntsville Ave. at edge of city (or by N. Birmingham car, 
fare 5c.) It is a manufacturing suburb, there being furnaces, 



142 CIXriNWATI TO NEW ORLEANS. 

boiler "works, knitting mills, soilpipe works, cement works, 
etc. 

Tho essential characteristic of Birminpfhnm is in<Uistry, 
and the number and size of its manufacturing institution3 
are astonishinjr. You will find factories in the city, the 
suburbs, the fields, even in the "woods. The remarkable 
railway facilities and proximity to coal and raw material 
make Birmingham the Pittsburp of the South. 

Around Birmiup^ham is a ]>orfect network of railways, 
many of whieli a''o crossed and recrossed as we leave tho 
city. At Mobile Junction (405 ^L), the road connects with 
a line of tlie Soutliern Railway to Mobile via Marion Junc- 
tion. At Woodstock (r)10 M.) is connocted with another 
branch line of tho Southern Ry. At Tuscaloosa (n.?7 M.), a 
line of tho Mobile Sc Ohio for ^NFontpomery to the E. and 
Colombus, ^liss.. to the "\V., is crossed. Tusealoosa lies at 
the head of navij,'ation, on the Black Warrior River, and is 
tho site of the T'niversity of Alabama (.^00 students). At 
York Stn.tion (GOG ^f.), a line extends eastwar<l to Sebua and 
>ront^"iuory. Just beyoml Cuba (G1.3 'M.). tho ^tississippi 
state line is crossed, and we soon come to Meridian (634 M.) 

MERIDIAN, IVnSS. 

Population about 20,000. 

Situate<l on the lin(^s of the Quo<>n &' ^'roaopnt (Alabama & 
Trroat Southern, Xe^v Orleans & X. W. and Alabama & Virks- 
burp) and Mobile &- Ohio Rys. Trains rome in on opp. 
sides of the same depot. Business section and hotels on 
the Queen & Crescent side from 1 to 3 blks. from depot. 
(lood restaurant opp. depot. 

Hotels— Southern Hotel, 508 23rd Ave., A. P., $2.f)0-.1. 
Grand Ave. Hotel, eor. 22nd Ave. Sz 2nd St., A. P., $2 day. 
Kinibrell's European Hotel. 22nd Ave., bet. 4th & ;i1h Sts.. 
E. P., 50e; cafe in connection. Planters' Hotel, cor. 2.')th 
Ave. & Gth St., A. P.. $1.2.5 day, $7 wk.; monls 35c. "Rooms 
of this house are all named aft'^r states. 

Restaurants— *Elmires. 2204 1st St. *The Gem. 2200 4th 
St. Kimbreirs Cafe, 22nd Ave., bet. 4th & 5th Sts. Weid- 
man's Cafe, 2308 4th St. 

Banks— First Xat. Bk.. cor. 23rd Ave. & 5th St. Southern 
Bk., cor. 23rd Ave. & 4th St. Union Bk. & Trust, cor. 23rd 
Ave. & 4th St. 

Opera House — Grand Opera House, 5th St., bet. 22nd il- 
23v(l Avcs. Seats 1,322. Prices accordingin to attractions. 

By. Express — Southern. 100 22nd Ave., P. C. 

Telegraph Offices — "Western Union. 4th St., open 7 11 
every day. P. C. Messenger service. Postal Tel. Co.. 23rd 



THE CITY OF MEEIDIAN. 145 

Ave., open 7-11, Sundays 8-10 a. m.; 6-10 p. m., P. C. Mes- 

eengers. 

Livery — Thornton's stables, 520 25th Ave., P. C. Eatea 
reasonable 

Ry. Ticket Offices — At depot. 

Steam Laundry— Troy Laundry, 2321 4th St., P. C. 

Men's FuTxiisMngs — Arky's, cor. 22nd Ave. & 5th St. 

Department Store — Marks, Eothenberg & Co., cor. 22nd 
Ave. & 6th St. 

Postoffice— Cor. 22nd Ave. & 8th St. Gen. Del. open 8-6; 
Sundays, 8-9 a. m.; M. O. and Registers, open 8-6. 

Public Library— 4th St., bet. 23rd & 24th Aves. 

Commercial Body — Board of Trade. Look in general in- 
dex, city dirof'tory (any hotel or drug store), for full list of 
Churches, Secret Societies, Clubs, etc. 

Mieridian is located in the upland cotton belt. The busi- 
ness section is level but the residence portion is on rolling 
land. There is a total lack of street signs and, in the 
business section at least, practically no house numbers, 
which makes it very awkward and disagreeable for the 
stranger. The streets are paved with some sort of macadam 
or gravel. There are many substantial business blocks and 
the streets are of fair width, but rather dirty. The sur- 
rounding farming community is fairly prosperous; the prin- 
cipal crop being cotton, of which Meridian handles about 
100,000 bales annually. The city contains 1 cotton and 3 oil 
mills, 3 fertilizer factories, 1 soap factory, 8 woodworking 
plants, 2 hay press factories, a pants and overall factory, and 
several minor plants. The E. Mississippi Insane Asy- 
lum is located here, at the end of the Asylum St. car 
line, fare 5c, the main building being a three story brick 
structure, surrounded by nice grounds; 500-600 patients. 
The cotton warehouses are near the depot and will be of 
interest to the northern visitor. The writer does not advise 
a stop at Meridian as the city seems to have very little to 
offer to the tourist. 

Leaving Meridian, our line parallels the Mobile line of 
the Mobile & Ohio as far as Enterprise. At Vossburg (670 
M.), the road cuts through a range of foothills. At Laurel 
(690 M.) two intermediate lines to the N. and W. are joined, 
and at Hattiesburg the Gulf & Ship Island railway is 
crossed, extending to Jackson (89 M., P. 194) on the N. and 
Gulfport (70 M., P. 261), on the S. The Mobile, Jackson 
& Kansas City Railway to Mobile is also connected with, 
and the Leaf River crossed. At Oklahola Station (730 M.) 



144 CINCINNATI TO NEW ORLEANS. 

we cross Big Black Creek. A.t Lumberton (746 M.), a line 
from Columbia, Mississippi on the W., connects with the 
Gulf & Ship Island R.y. at Maxie, and is crossed on the E. 
There is nothing further of any particular interest until 
just beyond Nicholson (786 M.), where the Pearl River is 
crossed' and we enter Louisiana, crossing W. Pearl River 
some distance beyond. Near Pearl River Station, where a 
short line connects extending W. to Covington, La., Lake 
Pontchartrain is crossed, on what is one of the longest 
railroad trestle bridges in the world, seven miles of its 
length being over the water. This lake is 40 M. long by 25 
M. wide, and has considerable of historic interest. (See 
New Orleans.) Five M. beyond the lake we enter the city 
of New Orleans (830 M.). Carriages will be found at the de- 
pot, Vv'hich is a goodly distance from the heart of the city, 
or, by walking toward the rear of the trains one or two 
blocks, a street car line is encountered, which will take us 
to the city, fare 5c. 

NEV>^ ORLEA^TS, LOUISIANA. 

Populatioii, about 300,000. 

Depots — New Orleans & North Eastern (Queen & Cres- 
cent), cor. Press & Dupine Sts. In E. part of citj^ nr. river. 
Walk to Second St. car tracks (2 blks.) back of train and 
take Clio car, fare 5c, to down town section and hotels. 
Take Clio car to go to it, from down town, fare 5c. Texas 
& Pacific, Thalia St. & river, Tchoupitoulas car, fare 5c. 
Louisville & Nashville, head of Canal St. Peters Ave. car, 
fare 5c. Southern Pacific and 111. Central, Union station, 
cor. Howard Ave. & S. Rampart St., Peters Ave. car, fare 
5c. N. O., Ft. Jackson & Grand Isle, Algiers, opp. Canal St. 
ferry, Peters Ave. car and Canal St. ferry, fare 5c. each. 
N. O. & Southern, cor. St. Claude & Elysian Fields, Clai- 
borne car, fare 5c. Pontchartrain Ry., Elj^sian Fields & 
River, Levee & Barracks car, fare 5c. East Louisiana, cor. 
Press & Royal Sts., Levee & Barracks car, fare 5c. N. O. & 
Wiestern, Basin & Canal Sts., Prytania car, fare 5c. 

Hotels— *St. Charles Hotel, St. Charles, bet. Common & 
Gravier Sts. Very large, high class house, A. P., $3 up; E. 
P., $1.50 up.; A. P., with bath, $4.50 up.; E. P., with bath, 
$3 up. *Cosmopolitan Hotel, 126 Bourbon St., E. P., $1.50 
up; large, high class house. *Hotel Bruno, cor. Daupine & 
Iberville Sts., E. P., $1.50 up. New and excellent house. 
Hotel Grunewald, 127 Baronne St., E. P., $1 up; with bath, 
$2 up. Commercial Hotel, cor. Royal & Iberville Sts., excel- 
lent house, E. P., $1 up; with bath, $2 up. St. Charles Man- 



FACTS ABOUT NEW OELEANS. 145 

Bion, 822 St. Charles St., E. P., 75c up. Park View Hotel, 
624 Camp St., E. P., 50c up. 

Restaurants — ^Cosmopolitan Restaurant (see Cosmopoli- 
tan hotel). *St. Charles Restaurant (see St. Charles hotel). 
*Grunewald Cafe (see Hotel Grunewald). Lamoth'g, St. 
Charles St., bet. Canal & Common. Brasco's, Gravier St., bet. 
Carondelet & St. Charles. Old Hickory (Jack Meyer's), over 
Eamo's, cor. Gravier & Carondelet. Maylie's, cor. Poydras 
and Dryades Sts. Tranchina's, at West End Lake Pon- 
chartrain. Astredo's, at West End, Lake Ponchartrain. 
Janssen's, No. 718 Canal St. Fabachers, cor. Royal & Iber- 
ville Sts. Hotel d'Louisane, 721 Iberville St., near Royal 
St. The above are all high class places. Those who wish 
cheaper but good service, will find plenty of places on 
Royal, bet. Canal & Iberville Sts. An excellent meal may 
be had for 25c. Oysters at 10c per dozen raw. Begue% 
823 Decatur St., is a small but noted cafe (P. 153). 
*Antoine'3 restaurant, St. Louis St., near Royal (P. 157), is 
a place noted for its fine French cooking. In fact the whole 
business section is covered with cafes and restaurants, many 
of them excellent. 

Specialties— Sazerach 's (cocktails). Royal St., near Canal. 
Ramos (gin fizz), Gravier and Carondelet Sts. Old Ab- 
sinthe House (Absinthe anisette), Bourbon and Bienville Sts. 
French Market (cafe noir), River front and Jackson Square. 

Furnished Rooms — Around the cor. Royal & Bienville 
sts. are many, some on Daupine bet. Canal & Iberville. Signs 
out all over city. Rates, $2-10 wk. 

Banks — Commercial Nat. Bank, cor. Common & Caronde- 
let Sts. Germaine Nat. Bank, 620 Canal St. Louisiana Nat. 
Bank, 616 Common St. N. O. Nat. Bank, cor. Camp & Com- 
mon Sts. State Nat. Bank, 403 Royal St. U. S. Safe De- 
posit & Savings Bank, 207 Camp St. Whitney Nat. Bank, 
615 Gravier St. 

Theaters — Tulane, Common & Baronne Sts., combination 
house, best in city, seats 1,728; prices 25c-$1.50; higher for 
large attractions. Crescent, Common & Baronne Sts. (Cres- 
cent and Tulane are side by side), combination house; seats 
2,000; prices 15c-$l. *St. Charles Orpheum, St. Charles St., 
near Poydras St., vaudeville (high class), seats 2,743; 
prices 10c-75c. Grand Opera House, 919 Canal St., stock 
house, seats 1,800, prices 20c-$l. Greenwall, cor. Iberville & 
Daupine Sts., stock house, seats 2,171, prices 10c-$l. New 
and excellent house. Elyseum, cor. Elyseum Fields, Ace & 
Burgundy, quite a distance out. French Opera House (P. 
157), cor. Bourbon & Toulouse Sts., prices 15c-$1.50; French 
drama and vaudeville. 



146 CINCIN:NrATI TO NEW ORLEANS. 

Ey. Express Cos. — Soiitliorn Pacific and Pacific Exp. Cos., 
726 ' Union St., P. C. American Exp. Co., Union, near St. 
Charles St., P. C. Wells Fargo Exp. Co., cor. Camp & Com- 
mon Sts., P. C. 

Telegraph Cos. — Postal, cor. St. Charles & Gravier Sts., 
P. C. Messengers. Western Union, cor. St. Charles & Gra- 
vier Sts., P. C. National District Tel. Co., messenger serv- 
ice; Gravier, near St. Charles, P. C. 

Livery— Johnson & Son Co., 2729 Prytania St., P. C. About 
the best in city. 

Baggage Transfer — N. O. Transfer Co., 840 Common St., 
P. C. 50c for single trunk from any depot up to 44 bike, 
from Canal St. Less in proportion for two or more pack- 
ages (75c for two). 

Legal Carriage Rates — For carriages drawn by two horsei, 
any distance not exceeding one mile, or twelve squares, for 
one or two persons, $1 each. 

For every such carriage, hired by the hour, $3 for tha 
first hour, and $2 for each succeeding hour, or fraction 
thereof, for the use of the entire carriage. 

For cabs, or carriages, draAvn by one horse, any dis- 
tance not exceeding one mile, or twelve squares, for one or 
two persons, 75 cents each, and for each succeeding mile or 
less, 50 cents. 

For every such cab, or carriage, hired by the hour, $2 
for the first hour, and $1.50 for each succeeding hour, or 
fraction thereof, for the entire cab or carriage. 

These rates apply from sunrise till midnight. From 
midnight till sunrise, the rates shall be fixed by agreement, 
but in no case shall double the rates be exceeded. 

All public vehicles are compelled to carry numbers on 
their lamps. 

Ry. Ticket Offices — N. O. & Northeastern (Queen & Crea- 
cent), 211 St. Charles St., P. C. Texas & Pacific, 207 St. 
Charles St., P. C. Seaboard Air Line, 223 St. Charles, P. C. 
Santa Fe, 223 St. Charles, P. C. So. Pacific, 227 St. Charles, 
P. C. Mobile & Ohio, 229 St. Charles, P. C. Rock Island & 
'Frisco Systems, 720 Common St., P. C. Cent, of Ga., Mo., 
Ks. & Texas and C. M. & St. P., 718 Common St., P. C. 
Port Arthur Route (Ks. Cy. Southern), 710 Common, P. C. 
Southern Ry., 704 Common, P. C. Louisville & Nashville, 
cor. St. Charles & Common Sts., P. C. 111. Central, cor. St. 
Cliarles & Common, P. C. 

Postoffice — Custom House bldg., cor. Canal & Decatur 
Sts. Gen. Del. 7-9; Sundavs, 10-12 a. m.; Reg. Bept., 9- 
G; M. O. Dept., 9-5, and at Gen. Del. until 9 p. m.; Carriers 
window Sunday, 10-12 a. m. 



NEW ORLEANS AND ITS ENVIRONS. 117 

Scalpers' Offices— Barnett & Kelsko, 110 St. Charles St 
P. C. Meglelig's, 113 St. Charles, P. C. ' 

Steam Laundry — Crescent City Steam Laundry, 423 Ba- 
ronne St., P. C. 

Men's Furnishings— Kranz Bros., 815 Canal St. Terry & 
Juden Co., Ltd., 135 Carondelet St. 

Department Stores— D. H. Holmes, 819 Canal St. (large). 
Maison Blanck, Dauphine & Canal (large). Leon Fellman, 
Carondelet & Canal (large). J. S. Dreyfous, 716 Canal St. 
(large). 

Trunks and Repairs — Magic City Trunk Co., P. C. 

Public Libraries — Fisk Free Public Library, cor. Camp St. 
& Lafayette Square, take Magazine car, fare 5c. Howard 
Memorial Library, cor. Camp St. & Howard Ave., take Pry- 
tania car, fare 5c. 

Commercial Bodies— N. O. Progressive Union, 311 Ba- 
ronne St., H. M. Mayo, Sec. 

Churches, Clubs, Halls, Buildings, Secret Societies, etc., 
see general index in front of city directory, any hotel or 
drug store for full list. 

Leading Local Industries — ^Fertilizer factories, furniture 
factories, cotton mills, oil mills, iron bed factories, cotton 
batting and mattress factories, iron foundries and sugar 
mill plants, rice mills, sugar refineries (very large), lumber 
mills (large), oyster beds (very large), cane sugar, rice and 
tobacco plantations, etc., etc. Immense imports and exports. 
Approximate value of exports, $150,000,000; value of im- 
ports, $30,000,000. Duty collected, $10,000,000. 

Facts About the City — New Orleans is, in many respects, 
a quaint old-world metropolis. The city lies on low, level 
land and extends over a wide stretch of territory although 
much of it is compactly built — even crowded. The streets, 
in the older section of the city, are very narrow and dirty. 
The sewers are open and, especially in some parts of the 
older sections, ** smell to Heaven,'* but for all this New 
Orleans is remarkably healthy. The town lies in a bend 
of the river and is laid out in the shape of an immense fan. 
There is no *' checker board'* plan about New Orleans; as 
one approaches the river, new streets come in to fill the 
space occasioned by the spreading of the **fan.'* Canal 
street is the center of eversrthing as well as the main re- 
tail street of the city. It is a broad, handsome thorough- 
fare, lined with the best retail stores of the city. All street 
cars center on Canal street and any car of any line may be 
caught between the Custom House and Rampart St. There 
are 12 M. of water front and dockage along the river and 
the smaller Ocean steamers enter the port. One very con- 



148 CINCINNATI TO NEW ORLEANS. 

fusing thing is the fact that the streets in the down-town 
section change names in crossing Canal St. St. Charles St., 
for instance, is Royal St. on the opp. side of Canal. Most 
of the street corners have signs, though some have not. 
The paving in the older section ia in wretched condition. 
The city is now working to improve the sewerage and pav- 
ing, and is expending $18,000,000 for this purpose, but 
owing to the lowness of the site (12 ft. above the water line), 
it will be a gigantic undertaking. 

The population of New Orleans (prounounced N'Warlina, 
accent on the **war'')> is very cosmopolitan, there being a 
heavy Creole element and many Italians, French, Slavs, 
Austrians, etc. The newer part of the city is laid out in 
wider streets and is much better paved and cleaner, though 
for that matter, the whole city is susceptible of improvement 
iu the latter respect. The blocks are small, being, as a gen- 
eral thing, but 300 ft. square. The street numbers run from 
one up each way from Canal St., there being 100 numbers 
to the block, so that one knows that No. 715, for instance, 
is 7 blks. from Canal St. Streets running parallel with 
Canal are numbered from the river. 

Any street car, no matter where you take it, it will eventu- 
ally bring you to the heart of the city on Canal St. The 
street names are picturesque and in keeping with this odd 
city. Here are a few samples: Good Children St., Craps 
St., Ant St., Piety St., Tchoupitoulas St., Jena St., Music 
St., Austerlitz St., Chartres St., Camp (formerly Campo de 
Negros), Eampart St. (once the line of the rampart defend- 
ing the city), Bourbon St., Orleans St., Elysian Fields, and 
so on through an endless list of peculiar names with more or 
less historic interest attached to almost every one. 

Some Ancient History— In 1682 Chevalier Robert de la 
Salle explored the Mississippi river and took possession of 
the country, naming it Louisiana, in honor of King Louis 
XIV of France. The territory claimed comprised prac- 
tically all that W. of the Mississippi river and N. to Canada, 
not already claimed by Spain. In 1699 Iberville, a French 
Canadian, with his brother Bienville, ascended the Mississip- 
pi to the Red river where they separated. The former en- 
tered Bayou Manchac, discovering several lakes, one among 
them being Lake Pontchartrain, which he named in honor 
of Count Pontchartrain of France. He also discovered Bay 
St. Louis, named in honor of Louis IX and started a set- 
tlement at Biloxi, then an Indian village. 

Bienville, in the meantime, descended the river, meeting 
an English ship looking for a spot on which to locate an 
English colony. He informed the Englishman that the 



INTERESTING HISTORY. 149 

country was already in the possession of France, whereupon 
the latter sailed away. The spot was named Le IDctour Ang- 
lais (English Turn), by which it is known to this day. 
Later, Bienville joined his brother, and Biloxi not proving 
suitable, in 1718 they determined to seek a new location, the 
result being the selection of the site of a deserted Indian 
village, called Tchoutchouma. The new settlement was 
named New Orleans in honor of the Due d' Orleans, after- 
wards Louis XVI of France. The colony was not removed 
until 1723, from which year the history of the city dates. 
The city was swept away in the year of its founding by a 
terrific hurricane and had a narrow escape from abandon- 
ment. In 1743, many French gentlemen brought their fami- 
lies over and settled the colony which was then under the 
rule of Marquis de Vaudreuil, who, as governor, instituted 
a court called **Le Petit Versailles." State dinners, court 
balls and formal ceremony were the order of the day, and 
with his administration began the aristocracy which, later, 
made the city famous. In 1757 France ceded the territory 
to Spain. This was bitterly resented by the colonists who 
deported the Spanish governor on his arrival and, rising in 
revolution, declared the independence of the territory. Thia 
was the first declaration of independence in America. 

Spain sent a fleet to reduce the territory, which was quick- 
ly accomplished. The leaders were sentenced to be hung, 
but the public hangman refused to carry out the sentence 
and, it is said, cut off his arm rather than obey his orders. 
The result was that Lafreniere, the leader, with his asso- 
ciates, was shot in Place d'Armes, now Jackson Square. The 
city was then made a dependency of Cuba. Don Luis Unzaga, 
the next Spanish governor, however, won the colonists, mar- 
ried a Creole lady and the differences were wiped out. In 
1788 a fire destroyed the greater portion of the city and it 
was built up almost as it is today. In 1803 the territory 
was re-ceded to France and shortly afterward was purchased 
by the United States. There are a world of things connected 
with the city's past which are of interest, but too voluminous 
for this work. The most important have, or will in the 
descriptive matter be touched upon. Eight here let me say 
that the prevalent idea that a Creole is a person with an 
admixture of colored blood is wrong. A Creole is a native 
of Louisiana, of French or Spanish ancestry. 

Seeing the city: One cannot ''do" New Orleans in a 
day. It will take at least three days to see it even very 
hastily or a week to see it right. One may see the older 
sections after a fashion from a carriage, but the only satis- 
factory way is to walk. The following routes are some- 



150 CINCINNATI TO NEW ORLEANS. 

what winclmg, bnt with care they may be very easily fol- 
lowed and will show you about all there is worth seeing. 

**A Walk Through the Old Quarter, Including the 
"V^Hiarves: As a starting point, we will take the cor. of 
Canal and Baronne Sts., where are seen the illuminated 
signs of the Tulane and Crescent theaters stretched across 
Canal. The st. entering Canal opp. is Dauphine St., on the 
cor. of which we see the Maison Blanche, a large department 
store, adjoining which (left) is the Grand Opera House. 
Walking E. (right as we face the opp. side of the St.), on 
the right side of the street, note center of blk., across the 
St. the gi-eat dept. store of D. H. Holmes, which has entrances 
on four sts., opp. which is the Mecheca office bldg., 9 stories 
high, yellow brick, iron trimmed, adjoining which is the 
bldg. of the Doston club, composed of the 400 of the city. 
Note, just beyond, the large dept. stores of Swartz & Son 
and L. Fellman. The first st. crossed is Carondelet, looking 
down which (right) is the Hennen 12 story bldg.; just be- 
yond is the Cotton Exchange, with figures at the cornice. 
Opp. it (left) is the tall bldg. of the Hibernia Bank & Trust 
Co. The next st. crossed is St. Charles (Eoyal on the other 
Bide of Canal st.), looking down which we see (right) the 
large brick St. Charles hotel bldg., one of the largest city 
hotels in the S. Passing on, note across the st., cor. Camp 
& Canal, the 6 story Godchaux bldg. We pass (right) at this 
cor. the 7 story Morris bldg., the first high bldg. erected in 
the city. At the next cor. we cross Canal St. to the immense 
gray granite Custom House, which occupies a whole square. 
This great pile of hewn stone was commenced in 1849 and is, 
even now, not completed. Its cost to date is $4,412,551. Its 
walls are four feet thick and would be hard to batter down 
even with a modern gun. The river originally came almost 
to its lower end, a portion of which was built on the site 
of the country house of Bienville. In the olden days a 
email wooden custom house stood about where the farther 
(river) cor. of the present bldg. stands. It was burned in 
the great fire of 1788 and a new one, much larger, was 
erected covering much of the present site. The corner stone 
of the present structure was laid by Henry Clay in 1847. 
The foundation is of alternate layers of concrete and cypress 
timbers, to which, it is said, some cotton bales were added. 
The Metropolitan Police had their headquarters in the bldg. 
during the "Carpet Bag War" and were here besieged by 
the '* White League" (P 151). 

Passing into the bldg. at the main entrance, half way 
down its length, we ascend the marble stairway in the 
gplendid *Hall, copied from that of the famous Keuilworth 



INTERESTING HISTORY. 151 

Castle, and, passing between the elevators and through the 
door at their rear, we find ourselves in the **magnificeiit 
Marble Hall, which is the Customs ofiice and one of the 
finest business rooms in America. Each of the 14 marble 
columns cost $22,200. The walls, like the columns, are of 
marble, imported from Italy. Note, over the entrance 
(ricrht), there are three entrances, the relief figure of Bien- 
ville, founded of New Orleans (1718), and of Jackson, de- 
fender of New Orleans (1815), with seal of state between. 
The caps of the columns are hand carved. The distance from 
floor to skylight is 54 ft. The heavy glass in the floor 
admits light to the engine room beneath. There is an im- 
mense amount of business done in this hall, the receipts in 
a single day having been (Aug. 8, '04) $359,269.73. Inci- 
dentally it might be said that the exports for the year 1903 
were valued, in round numbers, at $148,000,000; imports 
$30,000,000; duty paid on exports $9,100,000. Leaving the 
Marble Hall by the entrance, opp. the one by which we 
entered, we find ourselves in a long hallway and lined with 
offices and, turning to the left, peep into the Circuit Court 
rooms (second door beyond wide place in hallway) and into 
the United States District Court rooms, where Confederate 
prisoners were confined during the Civil war. 

Continuing on our way we again come to the grand stair- 
way and descend to the st. Turning to the left we go on 
to the river, noting the bldgs. of the American Sugar Re- 
finery (left) at second cor., almost opp. which is Liberty 
Sqtuare, with Liberty Monument in its center. This small 
shaft commemorates an important epoch in the history of 
the city. After the war New Orleans suffered terribly from 
a set of adventurous politicians known as "Carpet Baggers,** 
who were in control of the city government. So outrageous 
did their actions become that, finally, the citizens organized 
for self protection, into what was known as the **Wliite 
League,'* the avowed intention being the overthrow of the 
Carpet Bag government. A pitched battle was fought Sept. 
14, 1874, between the White League and the Metropolitan 
police, the latter being backed by 3,000 colored militia, 
which resulted in the rout of the latter, who took refuge 
in the Custom House, and the downfall of the Carpet Baggers 
who were, however, reinstated later by the Federal govern- 
ment, but their power was broken and they soon passed away. 
The names of the White Leaguers who fell in this battle 
are inscribed on the monument. We now pass the L. & N. 
depot (left) and the "sugar and molasses wharf,** covered 
with hundreds of bbls. of sweetness. To the right of the 
ferry bldg., at the water's edge, in front, is one of the 



152 CINCINNATI TO NEW ORLEANS. 

cotton wharfs. No smoking is allowed on the wharfs on 
account of the cotton. 

The small city across the river is Algiers, a part of New 
Orleans known officially as the 5th ward. It was, in the old 
days, called the "King's Plantation" and was inhabited by 
a horde of negroes. It now contains about 15,000 souls. It 
is there that the great shops of the Southern and Texas & 
Pacific Rys. are located, as well as the Naval station with 
its large floating dry docks. Ferry boats run every few 
moments, fare 5c. The Harbor Police station is in the ferry 
bldg. 

Turning to the left on the wharf we will wander down 
part of its 12 M. of length. Note the large Sugar Refinery 
bldgs. (left), back of the sheds which were erected for the 
protection of the sugar and molasses. Notice the unique 
barrel unloaders, which run up the slope at intervals. Just 
across the st. from the Sugar Eefinery Bldgs. is the Sugar 
Exchange, with a clock on its front. This corresponds to the 
Cotton Exchange. There is an immense amount of business 
done in this small bldg. Walking on down the wharf we pass 
through piles of boxes from the New York steamers, some 
of which will likely be in port. Passing the Jackson brev/ery 
(left) some distance beyond we come to the famous ** 'Lug- 
ger Landing," where we will see anywhere from one to two 
dozen oyster luggers tied up to the inclined wharf, with the 
Italian, Austrian and Slav crews loitering about or roasting 
oysters in charcoal braziers. Lugger Landing is a quaint 
and picturesque sight. There are usually a number of 
trans-Atlantic vessels in port. The day of my visit there 
were Porto Eican, Spanish, French and Italian Ocean steam- 
ers loading cotton. These will interest the inland visitor, 
but as some of them tie up farther down it will be necessary 
to diverge from the present trip to visit them. 

Passing on down to the end of the wharf we see (left) 
a large red bldg. with a low, round smoke stack with many 
small holes in it. This is the *U. S. Branch Mint, which 
occupies the site of old Ft. St. Charles (which had a wide 
moat circling the entire square). It was commenced in 
1835, completed in 1838 and cost $327,548. Crossing over to 
it we pass around to the right to its front. Note the four 
columns supporting the portico. From a bar placed between 
the two center ones, Wm. B. Mumford was hung, June 7th, 
1862, for having lowered the Union flag from the pole over 
the bldg. We may enter the upper floor, where we will be 
allowed to witness the process of making money or, if no 
operations are under way, we may see the machinery which 
is immediately in front of us as we go in. The die ma- 



VENDETTA ALLEY AND OTHER FEATURES. 153 

chines, each of which actually stamp out the money at the 
rate of 120 coins per minute, are in the rear room to tho 

left. 

Leaving the Mint we turn to the left and continue on 
through the grounds until we are again almost opp. the 
smoke stack, where we will turn into a narrow, and exceed- 
ingly dirty, street called Galatin St., but commonly knov/n 
as Vendetta Alley. This was the home of the Mafia and 
along its length legend has it that many murders have been 
committed. In years gone by it was lined with cheap con- 
cert halls and was a rendezvous for toughs and thugs. There 
is little doubt that not only have many victims of the 
Italian vendetta yielded up their lives in this narrow, ill- 
smelling lane, but could the bricks of these old buildings 
speak, they would explain the fate of hundreds of sailors 
who have mysteriously * ' disappeared. ' ' 

Passing through its length (2 blks.) we come to the 
famous old *Frencli Market (P. 164), through which we walk 
to its upper end (there are three bldgs.), noting to the 
rijrht of the center of the last bldg., across the st., Begue's 
Eestaurant, a place famous for its eleven o*clock break- 
fasts. These breakfasts are given in the upper story and 
are unique. The meal is served in courses, but there is no 
ceremony and the commonest guest is the equal of the high- 
est. Seats must usually be engaged ahead several days. 
The cooking is superb. There is a sign on the cor. reading 
Eegue's Exchange. At the end of the market we see (right) 
a park enclosed by an iron fence; this is * Jackson Park. 
Passing along its side (left) we enter the gate half-way 
down. The grounds are one blk. in extent and very pretty. 
In the center is an equestrian *statue of Andrew Jackson^ 
in bronze, mounted on a gray granite base. The rows of 
bldgs. (right and left) facing the park are known as the 
Pontalba Eldgs., erected in the early 1800s by Baroness de 
Pontalba, and in the old days they housed many of the 
Spanish grandees. In front we see the *Oatliolic Cathedral, 
with two towers (good interior), to the left of which is the 
Cabildo, erected latter part of 18th century, where, in Span- 
ish days, the Cabildo or governmental council met. Here 
it was that Governor Aubrey, acting for the King of France, 
transferred the territory to Spain. Within its walls, also, 
was made the transfer back to France and also the final 
transfer of Louisiana from France to the U. S. Marquis de 
Lafayette was here welcomed in 1826, and from the portico 
just under the coat of arms President McKinley spoke when 
he visited New Orleans. The old Spanish Calabosa was here 
and its cells may yet be seen at the rear of the police sta- 



154 CINCINNATI TO NEW ORLEANS. 

tion in the cor. (right). On the other side of the Cathedral 
is the State Court bldg. Passing bet. the Cabildo and 
Cathedral the alley opp. (left) the rear of the Cathedral was 
an old slave mart. 

Crossing the st. at end of alley we enter Orleans St. (little 
to the right) and see (right) a bldg. surmounted by a cross, 
which wag the Convent of the Sisters of the Holy Family — 
an order of colored nuns. This building has seen strange 
vicissitudes, having been the scene, in 1817, of the famous 
octoroon balls at which many a quarrel was begun, which 
ended under the dueling oaks (P. 166) with a corpse as a 
finale. Adjoining is a 3 story bldg. housing an orphanage, 
connected with the convent, which stands on the site of the 
old Orleans Theater. The Octoroon ballroom dancing floor 
is said to have been the finest in the world, being of cypress 
three ft. thick. Walking two blks. to cor. Orleans & 
Dauphine see, opp. cor. (left), the House of the Tree of the 
Dead, a two story bldg. with iron lattice on upper portico. 
In the grounds of this house the exiled brother of the Sultan 
of Turkey was stabbed to death, in 1727, by emissaries of 
the Turkish government. From his grave sprung a palm 
tree, long known as the ^^Tree of the Dead." It has long 
since disappeared. 

Passing on, straight ahead on Orleans St.. two blks., we 
enter Beauregard Square, formerly Congo Square, which was 
formerly the place where the Voodoo rite of the "worship of 
the serpent" took place. In slavery days the negroes would 
congregate here and on the adjoining grounds, not then built 
up, and dance the Bamboula or the Calinda. The men at- 
tached bits of tinkling metal to their ankles. The scene 
was wild and picturesque and the whites would assemble to 
see the slaves at their frolic. A cannon was fired at 9 
o'clock from the center of the square, at which signal they 
dispersed, to reassemble the following Sunday afternoon. 
The signal of assemblage was the beating of a cask with two 
large bones. There were wilder orgies held here, however, 
having a more sinister meaning. For many years there lived, 
on St. Ann St., bet. Eampart & Burgundy Sts. (house now 
demolished), a woman, Marie Laveau, who was Queen of the 
Voodoos. She was ns actual a ruler as any sovereign who 
ever sat on a throne and numbered her subjects by the 
thousands. They came from the ignorant and superstitious 
of both sexes and firmly believed in Voodooism and in Marie 
Laveau as its High Priestess. Their object of worship was 
the Grand Zombi, or serpent, the manifestation of which 
was some sort of an image zealously guarded by the Queen 
and kept "in an exquisitely carved box of alabaster in her 



A WALK THROUGH NEW ORLEANS. 155 

own bed-chamber." The Voodoos (corruption from the 
Haytien ''Vaudaux") would meet iu Congo Square, v/hicli 
they believed to be a charmed spot selected by the Grand 
Zombi as his sacred ground, work their spells, and daneo 
the Dance of the Serpent. Many strange tales are told of 
these assemblages. The Serpent Dance was held around a 
boiling caldron, in which were placed bits of alligator skin, 
human hair, linger nails, snakes, and other loathsome things. 
As the flames leaped the wild orgy went on to the rhythm of 
weird music. When the fire died out the collection of objects 
before mentioned was removed from the pot, laid on the 
altar of the Grand Zombi and then distributed among the 
faithful, becoming the "Gris-G-ris" charms with which they 
worked their evil spells. The Voodoo is now spoken of 
lightly, but there was a time when it was a serious matter 
and had, finally, to be suppressed by law. 

Just back of the square, in the parked center of the 
street, was where the mob shot and hung the Italians who 
assassinated Chief of Police Hennessey. Just back of this 
(the bldg. seen in center of the st.) is the Treme Market. 
The old prison stood at the right of the st., just this side 
of it. To the left we get a glimpse of the canal, which con- 
nects all the lakes and bayous. An immense amount of 
local traffic passes over it. This will end our sight seeing for 
this tri}) and we will take a car on Rampart St. in front of 
the park back to the city. 

**A second walk: We will start from the junction of 
Royal and Canal Sts. where the illuminated Orpheum sign 
is seen across Canal St. Leaving Canal on Royal St. we see, 
in the first blk. (left), the Cosmopolitan hotel, and (right) 
cor. Iberville and Royal, the old Union Bank Bldg., now 
occupied by The Royal, one of the best cheap restaurants in 
the city, across the st. from which (right cor.) is the 
Commercial hotel. We now come to the antique furniture 
and *curio stores, that of Hawkins Co., 224 Royal St., being, 
perhaps, the best. An examination of the stock of this 
store will be of considerable interest, though the real prizes 
are mostly gone. 

This is the restaurant section of the city, the street bet. 
Canal and Iberville being literally lined with them. At next 
cor. turn left on Bienville one blk. to Bourbon St., where 
see on cor. (left) the old Absinthe house, erected in 1752, 
became a Cabaret in 1798 and established as the Absinthe 
house in 1826, being the first importer of absinthe from 
Switzerland. On the bar may be seen two small marble base 
water fountains, placed there when the house opened. Note 
how the marble is eaten away. Lafitte is said to have used 



156 CINCINNATI TO NEW OELEANS. 

this hld^. as a hiding place. It was a great resort for the 
Creole planters of the olden days who here met to sip the 
insidious beverage and concoct schemes for the overthrow 
of the new *^ American'' element of the city, discuss political 
matters and lay plans for the capture of runaway slaves. 
The houses about here are all very old. Note the quaint 
overhanging balconies with picturesque iron scroll orna- 
mentations. 

Eetracing our steps to Eoyal St. and turning left, note No. 
403, the first bank organized in the Mississippi valley. The 
old yellow bldg., cor. (right) Eoyal & Conti, now the Mort- 
gage & Conveyance Office, was the old Louisiana Bank, and 
afterwards the Inferior Criminal Court. One may enter and 
see the great folios filled with real estate records. At No. 
417, Paul Morphy, the noted chess player, resided, and died 
in his bath tub. 

We now come to (cor. Eoyal & St. Louis Sts., right) the 
*01d St. Louis Hotel, now called the Eoyal, which extends 
from Eoyal to Chartres St. This is one of the old historic 
landmarks of the city. The present structure was built in 
1841, on the site of one erected in 1835, at a cost of $1,500,- 
000. It was the resort of wealthy planters and slave-holders 
and prominent people visiting the city. It has been in turn 
a hotel, state house, and besieged fortress, the latter when 
the citizens of the city revolted against the oppressive ad- 
ministration of Packard, the radicals being besieged in this 
bldg. for some months. The interior, on the capitulation 
of the garrison, was found in a sad state of ruin. In its 
center is a circular banqueting hall with a domed ceiling, 
in which are frescoes by a nephew and pupil of the great 
Canova. In this hall Henry Clay delivered the only speech 
he made in Louisiana. The famous "Bal Travesti," in 
honor of Henry Clay's visit, was given in the old ball-room 
which fronted on St. Louis St., but the keeper knew nothing 
of the supper served on this occasion costing $20,000. Many 
famous men, among them President McKinley, have been 
entertained here. The rotunda on the lower floor was, be- 
tween the hours of noon and 3 P. M., used as a slave mart, 
and over one of the arches in the banquet hall will be seen 
a name which seems to be that of a slave auctioneer. The 
rotunda was also used as a Chamber of Commerce, Cotton 
Exchange and, on occasion, for political meetings, conven- 
tions, etc. When the State purchased the bldg., in 1873, 
and converted it into a State House, the banquet hall was 
floored over level with the second floor and the upper hall 
thus formed was used as a meeting-place for the State 
Legislature, being so used until the capital was removed to 



A WALI^ THKOUGH NEW ORLEANS. 157 

Baton Eogue. Gen'l Phil Sheridan once, in reconstruction 
days, drove the legislature from this hall at the point of 
the bayonet. The whole bldg. teems with history. 

Different local guide books give conflicting versions of the 
above incidents connected with the bldg., but the above 
seem to be the facts as far as it is possible to ascertain them 
at this late day. The writer has found these books very 
inaccurate. To cite one instance in many: the ** Picayune 
Guide," one of the best local works, says, **the names of 
the (slave) auctioneers may be seen carved in the walls." 
There are no names carved in the walls. The one npane 
that appears is painted. That it was that of a slave 
auctioneer seems probable from the fact that a lady recently 
recognized it as the name of a relative, long since dead, who 
was an auctioneer. There is also some dispute as to whether 
the "Bal Travesti" was given in honor of Henry Clay or 
a separate entertainment was given in his honor later and 
whether the State paid the bill or it was made up by private 
subscription. The bldg. is now (Nov., 1904) disused and 
sadly dilapidated. There is a care-taker who will, for a 
small tip, show you about. 

Leaving the St. Louis Hotel and walking along its front 
on St. Louis St. to Chartres, we see, opp. cor. (left), the 
three story structure with dormer windows built by admirers 
of Emperor Napoleon, it being their intention to rescue him 
from St. Helena, bring him to New Orleans and present him 
with this bldg. as a home. Napoleon died just as the plot 
was about to be sprung. One local guide locates the Napo- 
leon house cor. Custom House (now Iberville) and Exchange 
alley, but this I find to be incorrect. Another locates it at 
No. 124 Chartres St. Turning left a few doors on Chartres 
St. is No. 515, the bldg. said to have been erected as a 
home for Louis Philippe. Retracing our steps to Royal, 
cor. St. Louis, we cross Royal and walk up St. Louis, passing 
*Antonio*9 restaurant, where McKinley was banqueted, 
famed for its fine French cooking, to (1 blk.) Bourbon St., 
where we see (cor. left) the *01d French Opera House 
where most of the Mardi Gras balls have been held. It wos 
in this bldg. that Adelina Patti made her American debut, 
in Le Pardon de Plomerel. Many, in fact most, of the 
v>rorld's famous singers have trilled their notes from the 
stage of this historic house. It was erected in 1860 and 
seats 2,800 persons. Its foyer will accommodate about 1,000 
people. It contains a splendid collection of Mss music and 
quite a few curios. You may not enter it until about 4 
P. M. 

Again retracing our steps on St. Louis to Royal and 



158 CINCINNATI TO NEW ORLEANS. 

turning left we sec at No. 505 (opp. end St. Louis liotel) the 
residence of Mrs. MoUie E. Moore-Davis, the distinguished 
Southern writer. At No. 517 is an entrance with an old 
cannon sunk in the ground on either side. This bldg. wa8 
the Commanderia (headquarters) of the army during the 
Spanish regime. In the next blk., No. 627, we see the old 
Spanish Court House. The curio shop, No. 629, was one of 
the court rooms, the others being on the second floor. Some 
of the prison cells or dungeons may still be seen in the court 
yard at the rear. At the next "cor. (St. Peters St.) the 
bldg. with the sign ''Beauregard Restaurant" over the 
door was the first four story structure erected in IScw 
Orleans. It was built in 1819. This is the "Sieur George 
House" mentioned in one of Cable's romances. Continuing 
on Eoyal St. to Orleans, note half way down the blk. on 
Orleans (left) the Convent of the Sisters of the Holy Family, 
the only order of colored nuns in the U. S. 

Continuing on Eoyal to St. Philip, turn left one blk. to 
Bourbon St., where (opp. cor. right) is a three-story bldg. 
occupying the site of "the blacksmith shop of Lafitte, the 
pirate. From all I can learn Lafitte was not a pirate at all, 
but a smuggler, although he and his band were real enough 
and their deeds were in open defiance of the law. It seems 
that this blacksmith shop was merely a blind. The Creoles, 
who were vastly pleased at getting the smuggled goods so 
cheap, would inform Lafitte as soon as a government vessel 
appeared in the river or there was danger of trouble with 
the authorities, and assist in the hasty hiding of the goods. 
When the officers appeared Lafitte would be hammering 
away at the forge for dear life. There is considerable inter- 
esting historv in this connection, but it is too lengthy for 
this work. Lafitte was finally forced to establish himself 
outside the city in Barataria bay. About this time the war 
with England broke out and the English commander offered 
the Lafittes commissions in the navy, together with large 
sums of money, to allow the British forces to land at the 
smuggler's rendezvous and steal quietly upon the city. This 
Lafitte indignantly rejected and informed General Jackson 
of the offer. He also organized his smugglers into a regi- 
ment, which fought bravely at the battle of New Orleans. 
For this Lafitte was pardoned on his promise to give up 
smuggling, and was received with open arms by the elite of 
the city. 

Turning right on Bourbon to (2 blks.) Hospital and right 
on Hospital to (1 blk.) Eoyal St. we see, opp. cor. (right) 
the Haunted house. If half the stories told of this old bldg. 
are true, and they seem to have a good foundation, it would 



A EOMANTIC STORY. 159 

take one of strong nerves to remain in it alone at night. 
Mme. Lalaurie lived in it in 1831 and, being beautiful, 
wealthy, and accomplished, she was welcomed in the most 
exclusive Creole society of that day. She was descended 
from one of the oldest families of Louisiana and had in- 
herited a number of slaves. For no apparent reason, except 
to gratify some savage trait in her nature, she subjected 
these unfortunates to fiendish cruelties, chaining them to the 
walls of the upper rooms and the dungeons below, even 
starving and torturing them to death. The state of affairs 
within the bldg. finally became known and so enraged were 
the people that a mob stormed her house with the avowed 
intention of lynching her. The tales of the manner of her 
escape are many, but the facts seem to be that she dressed 
herself very elaborately and, in a most unconcerned manner, 
stepped out of the front entrance. Her appearance so 
startled the crowd that it fell back from sheer surprise. 
Bowing to them, with a smile she stepped into the carriage 
which, by arrangement, had just arrived and was whirled 
away, followed with howls of rage. She reached the half- 
way house on Bayou St. John just ahead of them and at once 
boarded a waiting schooner, set sail for Mobile, going thence 
to France, where she became noted for her charities, finally 
being accidentally killed in a boar hunt. For a long period 
the house remained closed, it being said to be haunted by 
the wraith of a little negro girl, one of her victims, who 
fled before her infuriated mistress up the winding stair and 
leaped from the roof into the courtyard beneath. Note the 
door of main entrance. 

Continuing on Hospital to Chartres St., turning right on 
Chartres, we see, middle of the blk., a brick bldg. sur- 
mounted by small wooden cross, erected in 1845 and used as 
a chapel. Adjoining this, set back in spacious grounds, is 
the ^oldest bldg. in New Orleans, erected about 1730, for the 
use of the Ursuline nuns. By applying to the porters lodge 
at the entrance, the sexton will show you through. Tender 
him a small fee if you wish to see the place to the best 
advantage. There is an old lock, formerly on the main 
gate, in the lodge. The cypress shutters on the window over 
the main entrance are about 150 years old and still sound. 
Entering the main hall, note (left) the stairway of heavy 
cypress planks put down with wooden pegs and the hand 
made iron railing; also the painting on the wall at the rear — 
a representation of Father Antonio, the first Catholic Priest 
in New Orleans. Mounting to the top of the main stair, 
note the C3^ress floor, nailed with great iron spikes, and the 
old fashioned hall clock. In the reception room, off the main 



160 CINCINNATI TO NEW OELEANS. 

hall, is some beautiful *worsted and v/ax work, made by 
Ursuline Nuns. On the third floor are the cells of the Nuns, 
but it is not likely you can see them. In the rear court, on 
the portico, are the heavy benches on which sat the slaves 
when they were assembled for instruction and prayer. The 
bld<2^. at the right was the first chapel. One of the buildings 
in the rear was the residence of a Spanish governor. The 
roof of the main bldg. was formerly of tile, but a few years 
since it was changed to slate. In this bldg. are the ancient 
archives of the church, dating back to the Creole days. It 
was used by the Ursuline nuns from 1742 to 1834. In 1831 
it became the State House and the legislature met there. It 
was then presented by the Ursulines to the Archbishop of 
New Orleans, as a residence for the Archbishops of the 
diocese, and was so used until 1899. It is now the business 
office of the diocese and a place for ecclesiastical meetings. 
At the cor. of Hospital and Chartres was the nuns' eeme- 
tery. The bodies of the nuns have been removed, but the 
bones of their slaves still rest under the buildings now 
there. Immediately opp. the porter's Lodge we see a quaint 
old bldg., with four small round columns supporting the 
portico roof. This was the residence of Gen'l P. G. T. 
Beauregard, where the Marquis de Lafayette and Gen'l 
.Jackson were once guests. Continuing to next st. (Ursu- 
line), note (left) one of the very few old Spanish tiled 
bldgs. now remaining, after which turn right on Ursuline 
and walk about 5 blks. to St. Claude St., where we see, opp. 
cor. (right), enclosed by a tight board fence, the bldg. 
which was the headquarters of the polished but bloodthirsty 
Don Alexandre O'EeiUy, whom the French Creoles hate to 
this day. He was sent over by the Spanish King when the 
colonists revolted over the ceding of the territory by France 
to Spain. O'Reilly subdued the rebels and shot several of 
the leaders in the Place de Armes, now Jackson square. 

[Retracing our steps to N. Rampart St. we see in the center 
of the blk. (right) on the farther side of Rampart St. a 
large two-story bldg., standing well out. This was the 
home of the family of Lafitte, the smuggler. Note the great 
fluted columns. "We will now take an Esplanade Belt car 
going out (left), getting Villere transfer. See (right), cor. 
Rampart and Barrack, the Monastery of the Descalced Car- 
melite Nuns, one of the most severe orders in existence in 
America. The nuns wear sackcloth next the skin, have a 
very restricted diet, go barefoot the year round and never 
leave the monastery. Visitors may be admitted to the 
chapel or the reception-room in the court yard and mav 
speak to th© lay sisters and to the cloistered ones, to ask 



THE WAY OF THE CROSS. 161 

prayers, but the latter may not be seen as they are behind 
grated doors draped with heavy black cloth. They bid fare- 
well to friends and all earthly things when they take the 
vow. At the daily matin and vesper service these nuns use 
the solemn, one-keyed Gregorian chant of ancient Rome. 
They never leave the grounds of the monastery. The car 
turns into Esplanade and, at the turn, note (right) St. 
Alecias Convent. We are now passing through the wealthy 
Creole residence section. Leave the car at Villere St. (first 
car track crossed) and take car going right, alight at St. 
Roeh's Ave. and walk left to **St. Roch's cemetery. This 
is one of the unique things of earth. The walls are lined 
with oven-like vaults, built in tiers, each holding a coffin 
and each sealed either with cement or a marble slab. The 
grounds are crowded with odd little stone and brick struc- 
tures, of varying size and shape, some holding a single body, 
some a dozen or more. There are very few graves below 
the ground. 

The curiosity of the place is, however, the **way of the 
cross,** with the quaint chapel as its finale. It will be noted 
that at intervals around the walls are places with images. 
These are "stations, '* The supplicant must commence at 
the beginning and pray at each of these stations in turn and, 
finally, in the chapel. This structure is very picturesque, 
being designed after old German mortuary chapels. It was 
built by a priest as the result of a vow that, should his 
congregation be spared from a prevailing epidemic, he would, 
with his own hands, erect a memorial. The congregation 
offered up prayers and none of them died. The priest built 
the chapel and it soon became a Mecca for the afflicted who 
claimed to be miraculously cured at its shrine. Note the 
crutches by the altar, the standard, bearing wax casts of 
limbs that were cured and the marble * 'thanks** tablets 
that are sold to the beneficiaries by the priests. Also note 
the tapers, burning in the large water pan. Above the 
shrine is a military statue of St. Roeh, with the good dog 
which fed him as he lay sick and abandoned in the forest 
of Munich. Under the altar is a representation of Christ in 
his tomb. 

We may now return to the city by the car line or walk 
down St. Roch Ave. to St. Claude St. and take a Claiborne 
car to Louisa St., where we may examine the St. Vincent de 
Paul cemetery, laid out by the famous fencing master of 
Creole days, Pepe Llula, also an interesting specimen of 
unique burial places. The Claiborne car will take ua to 
the city from this point. 

Down near Jackson Square, at No. 621 Decatur St., is a 



162 CINCINNATI TO NEW OELEANS. 

Btore that is well worth an inspection. The business card 
reads, "G. Seiaccaluga, Wholesale Dealer in Groceries, Ship 
Chandlery, etc., Paint, Oil, Oakum, Hemp and Manilla Eope, 
Italian Macaroni and Vermicelli; Keeps a Complete Assort- 
ment of French and Catalonia wines.'' The business card 
is lived up to and more. I have never seen so large an 
assortment of goods, piled in so small a space. The exami- 
nation of this tumble-down store is, however, a surprise, 
for in it will be found some splendid wines and fine im- 
ported goods. The place is a curiosity and worth more than 
a passing glance. The proprietor, Mr. Seiaccaluga, is a 
pleasant old gentleman, albeit a bit of a *' character,'' who 
has been in business in these small, dingy rooms for 54 
years. 

Exchange Alley, which extends from Canal to Conti St., 
is a street of the old world dropped down in the new. It is 
well worth while to walk its length. It originally ran from 
Canal St. to the old St. Louis Hotel. 

*A Short Walk: Leaving Canal on St. Charles S't. we 
see (right) the St. Charles Hotel, one of the largest city 
hotels in the country. Here are most of the By. Ticket 
offices. Continuing on St. Charles St. the next cor. (Gravier 
St.) is occupied by the Telegraph Offices, beyond which, 
several blks., we come to *Lafayette Square. The red bldg. 
(right), with pretty grounds, opp. cor. park, is the residence 
of Mr. Howard, one of the city's prominent men. Adjoining 
is the City Hall, a marble building, with a noble Ionic 
portico with 10 heavy columns. The building is massive, 
was erected in 1850 and has witnessed some stirring scenes. 
It was here that the regiments departing to the war re- 
ceived their colors and listened to stirring addresses deliv- 
ered from its steps. Here came Captain Bailey, in '62, to 
demand the surrender of the city to the Federal forces. A 
crowd gathered while he was in the bldg. and its front 
entrance had to be barricaded to save the captain from 
their fury. He slipped out the back way unobserved. In 
the main hall, at Mardi Gras, the mayor delivers the keys of 
the city to the ''King of the Carnival" and receives from 
him the title of "Duke of the Eealm." Across the st. from 
it is Soule College. Facing the City Hall is a beautiful 
and unique bust of John McDonogh, the benefactor of the 
public school system of the city. Bronze figures of a boy 
and girl, hand in hand, are seen in the act of laying an 
offering of flowers at the base of the bust. The design is 
beautiful in form and sentiment. In the center of the 
square is the bronze statue of Henry Clay. The figure is 
12 ft. high. This monument formerlv stood on Canal St. 



INTERESTING POINTS OF INTEREST. 163 

facing Royal and was the popular gathering placo for mass 
meetings of citizens. The revolt of '74 was precipitated by 
a speech made at its base, as was also the Mafia lynching. 
At the rear of this monument is one to Benjamin Franklin. 
The City Library faces Lafayette Square, cor. Camp St. 
Among its books is a "Life of Caesar, '* by Emperor Napo- 
leon II, presented by him to the city. 

At opp. end of park is the Presbsrterian Cfhiurch, formerly 
presided over by Dr. Palmer. Continuing on St. Charlea 
St. note, center 2nd blk., the Franklin School Bldg., erected 
in 1844, beyond which, some distance, we come to *Lea 
Circle, in the center of which stands the splendid Robert E. 
Lee monument. The shaft is of stone, fluted, surmounted by 
a heroic figure of General Lee, in bronze, the total height 
being 90 ft. To the right, the bldg. with two towers is tho 
Jewish Synagogue. 

Passing around to the left into Cross St. we pass the 
Ward Memorial Library, a brown stone building erected in 
1887 and opened in 1889; cost $115,000; endowed with $200,- 
000; now has over 35,000 volumes and 13,000 pamphlets, 
including many valuable early maps of America. The style 
is Romanesque. Open 9 A. M. — 9 P. M.; Sundays, 10 A. M. — 

1 P. M. Just around the cor. on Camp St. is a bldg, with a 
flag pole and cannon in front. This is the *Confederate 
Memorial Hall, open 9 A. M. — 5 P. M.; Sundays, 9 A. M. — 

2 P. M. Admission free. Inside will be found many inter- 
esting relics of the *'late unpleasantness.'' Note, in side 
room, the original war telegrams, also photograph of Mor- 
gan's retreat through Cumberland Gap with burning houses — 
a genuine photo. There are many other interesting relics. 
We turn right on Camp St. as we leave the Hall, continuing 
on to (1 blk.) Margaret Place. Here is the *Margar6t 
Monument, in marble, an excellent piece of work. This was 
the first monument erected to a woman in the U. S. Mar- 
garet Haughery was, so far as education went, an ignorant 
woman who could not sign her own name, but she had a 
knowledge that was far above the learning of books — tho 
knowledge that the most humble could, by persevering effort, 
work wonders in the amelioration of human misery. Her 
efforts were directed toward caring for the orphans of the 
city and the annals of New Orleans tell how well her work 
was done. She erected the New Orleans Female Orphan 
Asylum, at the back of the monument. Margaret had a 
funeral such as the city has seldom seen and, almost imme- 
diately afterward, this beautiful tribute was erected to her 
memory. The statue is said to be remarkable for its life- 



X 



1G4 CINCINNATI TO NEW OELEANS. 

like portrayal of the woman as she was. It represents her 
seated, with one of her orphan charges by her side. 

Prom, here we may return to Canal St. by st. car, or we 
may take a Prytania car out through one of the best resi- 
dence portions of the city to the upper (unimproved) end 
of Audubon Park (P. 167), passing, on the way, St. Anna's 
Asylum, an endowed retreat for poor women, the Washing- 
ton St. Cemetery, with the Southern Athletic Ciub opposite, 
where Kilrain and Corbett both trained for their battles 
with Sullivan, the Touro (Jewish) Infirmary and the Julius 
"Weis Home for the Aged and many fine residences. 

*Tlio Old French Market: This^is reached by either the 
French Market or Levee & Barracks car, fare 5c. It is of 
considerable interest, mainly from the cosmopolitan crowd 
one sees. In days gone by, when it was all full of stalls 
and its coffee stands were in full blast, it must have been 
a wonderful sight, but now fully half the stalls are vacant, 
the coffee stands practically a thing of the past and the 
dry goods market almost entirely done away with. Still 
it presents quite an animated appearance in the early morn- 
ing. There are several of the sheds stretching along De- 
catur St. At the lower end is the Fish Market, where many 
kinds of fish, sea-turtles, crabs, etc., are sold. Farther up 
we find stalls of vegetables, fruit and meat, while at the 
upper end o£ the last bldg. are the old coffee stands where 
many used to come to get fine French coffee and hot rolls. 
They are still running after a fashion. The market is open 
every day, Sundays included, 5 A. M. to noon. Sunday 
morning is the best time to pay it a visit. 

The **St. Louis Cemeteries and *City Park. Take Dau- 
phine car on Canal St., fare 5c, and get off at Conti, where 
we see (cor. left) the St. Antonio Di Poda Parrochia Italiana, 
an Italian church known as the ** Church of the Dead,'* from 
the fact that it was originally built for the celebration of 
services for the dead, being, in fact, a mortuary chapel. 
After the Civil War it became a parish church,*^ its first 
pastor being Father Turgis, the chaplain of the famous 
Pointe Coupee (Confederate) regiment. The house at the 
rear was his residence, where the survivors of the old 
regiment used often to gather and swap reminiscences. 
Across the st. from it, the bldg. with towers, now the Troy 
laundry, was the synagogue erected (1822) for the early 
Jewish emigrants. 

Passing along the side of the *' Church of the Dead," on 
Conti St. (one blk.), we come to St. Louis cemetery Wo. 1. 
Turning (right) along the wall we enter at the gate half way 
up its length. Then oven-like vaults are here the same as at 



ST. LOUIS CEMETERY. 1C5 

St. Eoch's (P. 161) and many inscriptions in foreign tongues 
will be seen. At the rear, in a small walled enclosure, is a 
little chapel in which the priests are buried. At the side 
of this enclosure, by climbing over a great pile of trash, 
we may enter a space filled with weeds. In this neglected, 
tumble-down limit is the tomb of Claiborne, the first governor 
of Louisiana, together with that of his daughter and his 
secretary and brother-in-law, Micaja Lewis, who was killed 
in a duel under the famous oaks at City Park Jan. 14, 1804. 
In this space are also the graves of men v/ho fell in "battle 
with the British, whose tombs are laying open with the 
bones exposed to the elements, one of them being that of 
Midshipman Wm. P. Canby, who fell in the battle between 
the U. S. gunboat squadron and British flotilla on Lake 
Borgne, near New Orleans, Dec. 14, 1814. This grave is open 
and can be seen by the tree at the rear wall. As we leave 
his place the low, odd-shaped tomb immediately in front is 
that of the wife of Governor Claiborne and that of her sister. 
Adjoining it is the tomb of Myra Clark Gaines, who laid 
claim to a large part of the territorj'- of Louisiana. The 
fight in the courts, by which she established a part of her 
claim, is a matter of history. There are several Chinese 
tombs in this cemetery. 

Leaving here, turn right to Conti and continue on it along 
the side of the cemetery. We will now be passing through 
the ''Tenderloin" of the city and will have about six blks. 
to walk before arriving at St. Louis cemeteries Kos. 2, 3 and 
4, which occupy adjoining city blks. We will enter the one 
on our left and passing well toward the other end see (left) 
a small, yellow tomb, next one with iron columns. This is 
the grave of Dominique You, one of the famous smuggler 
Lafitte's lieutenants, who played a heroic part at the battle 
of New Orleans. Walking back to the cross aisle and 
turning right see, next the grave with two iron chairs, the 
tomb of Lafitte the smuggler, or pirate as he is generally 
termed. Across the aisle is the handsome shaft of Francois 
Xavier, a judge of the superior court of Louisiana in 1809, 
a very distinguished man who received many honors in his 
day. At the opp. end of the cross aisle will be seen a 
tomb with sculpture in relief, representing the accident by 
which the occupant of the grave lost his life — the explosion 
of the steamer Louisiana. At the wall to the rear of this 
tomb will be seen many open vaults with the bones in 
sight. 

Leaving, we go to Claiborne Ave., the st. at the farther 
side of the cemeteries as we approached them and, turning 
left, walk to (1 blk. be^/ond last cemetery) Canal St., where 
we take a Canal Belt car going out (right) to City Park, 



166 CINCINNATI TO NEW OELEANS. 

passing on the way (right & left) the Firemen's Cemetery, 
Jewish Rest, St. Patrick's Cemeteries Nos. 1, 2, and 3, and 
Greenwood Cemetery. If we so desire we may leave the car 
(conductor will tell us where) just beyond these cemeteries 
and visit the **Metairie Cemetery (below) and then continue 
on out to the City Park. The car stops at the entrance and 
we walk into the park, which is very pretty, but not out of 
the ordinary except for its great moss-draped oaks. Those 
to the right, as we enter, are the famous *dueling oaks under 
which many have yielded up their lives in defense of 
' ' honor. ' ' There was a restaurant across the way, probably 
in the building now there, where ''coffee for one — pistols 
for two" — was the braggart order of both principals. How 
many men have died under these oaks no one knows, but 
the number is probably not to be expressed in two figures. 
There is a lagoon with row boats for rent at 25c per hour, 
swings, a base ball field and a tennis court across the lagoon. 

From here we may continue on out, via st. car or walk, 
through the park to Bayou St. John, across which is the 
Confederate Home with pretty gardens, near which is the 
Louisiana Jockey Club and race track. The club bldg. has 
an imposing entrance, with heavy Corinthian columns. The 
grounds are very pretty. The race track and Home are 
reached from the city by Esplanade or Canal Belt cars. 
The Bayou St. John bridge is near where Bienville made his 
first landing, in 1718. Bayou St. John is an interesting 
sheet of water and it was along its course that the Voodoos 
held their orgies after they had been suppressed at Congo 
square. 

**Metairie Cemetery is reached by Canal Belt car, fare 5c. 
This is New Orleans* best burial jplace and the tombs are 
very fine, as are also the grounds. There is much statuary 
and many beautiful driveways and walks. The tombs are all 
above ground, many of them being massive and costlv. 
Metairie is an interesting and beautiful place to visit. By 
the entrance stands the tomb of the Army of Tennessee, 
with a splendid equestrian statue, in bronze, bv Alex Doyle, 
of Albert Sidney Johnson. Note the marble' statue of ^ an 
orderly calling the roll. Within this tomb sleeps Gen'l P. T. 
G. Beauregard. Toward the farther end is a splendid shaft 
at the tomb of the Army of Northern Virginia. The Wash- 
ington Artillery Monument is another. Near the main aisle 
is a granite monument over the remains of Mr. and Mrs. 
George Nicholson, the latter being known to the literarv 
world as * 'Pearl Rivers." The large granite tomb, some 
distance down the main aisle, in which is a seated figure 



RESIDENCE SECTION OF NEW ORLEANS. 167 

with finger to lips (silence) contains the body of Howard, 
the originator of the Louisiana Lottery. 

Audubon Park, Best Residence Section, etc. Take a St. 
Charles Belt car on Canal St., fare 5c, which passes the Lee 
Monument (P. 163), the Young Men's Hebrew Ass'n, cor. 
Bayou & St. Charles Ave., the Italian Harmony Club (left), 
cor. St. Charles & Jackson Aves. (the swell Jewish club of 
the city), the Convent of the Sacred Heart (right), the bldg. 
being recognized by its many portico pillars. The red brick 
bldg. (left) with small dome is the Jewish Orphan Asylum, 
adjoining which is the New Orleans University, next to 
which is the Jewish Orphan's Home. This line takes us 
through a beautiful residence section, one of the best in the 
city. We leave the car at the Tulane University, estab- 
lished by act of the Legislature from a fund provided by 
Paul Tulane in 1837. There are 20 bldgs. and 6.5 acres of 
grounds. The part seen here is the graduate and academic 
departments. Just beyond the University is Audubon Place, 
lined with fine residences. Crossing the street from here, 
we enter **Audubon Park, where the Exposition of 1884 
was held. The park contains 249 acres, but this is the 
unimproved section. It will be a pleasant walk to follow the 
road through it, seeing, on the way, some of the old ma- 
chinery foundations of the exposition and (left) the State 
Insane Asylum, to the upper end where, at the cor. (left) we 
cross the st. and enter the improved section where, to our 
right, is the State Experimental Farm, used principally for 
sugar cane experiments. Passing through a magnificent 
avenue of live oaks, a duplicate of which it would be hard 
to find in the country, we enter *Horticultural Hall, filled 
with rare plants, shrui3S and trees. Passing out the rear end 
we see (left some 100 yds.) the **Washington oak, a mag- 
nificent tree with a spread of bough of about 150 ft. This 
grand old forest giant was probably here when Columbus 
discovered America. There is a merry-go-round and pony 
carts for the amusement of children. Everything, except 
the two last-named, is free. We may walk (% M.) to the 
river at the rear of the park and see the grain elevators 
and take the ferry over if we so desire. The car at the gate 
will take us to the city, fare 5c. The improved section of 
the park, where we now are, is reached from the city by the 
Coliseum car, fare 5c. 

Auto Rides: A line of Automobiles has been established 
making regular trips to many of the points of interest, leav- 
ing from (near) cor. Canal & St. Charles St. at 10 A. M. and 
2 P. M. every day in good weather. Fare $1. The machines 
are gasoline and carry from 16 to 20 persons. This will be a 



168 CINCINNATI TO NEW ORLEANS. 

fairly good way to see the upper (American) section of the 
city. 

The Chalmette Cemetery — Battle Field and Jackson Bar- 
racks. Daiiphine car line. Below the city lies the historic 
field on which the Battle of New Orleans was fought Jan. 
1, 1815. It is about 1% M. beyond the end of the st. car line 
and there is not very much to see when one gets there except 
a small, though very pretty, National Cemetery and the un- 
finished square stone monument, 60 ft. high, the erection of 
which was begun about 1835. Near the monument is the 
old colonial bldg. which Gen'l Jackson used as headquarters 
during the battle. If one desires to visit the cemetery and 
battle field one may walk down the levee or take a carriage. 
Jackson Barracks is on the way out, it being a small U. S. 
military post near the end of the car line. It is enclosed 
by a heavy brick wall with towers at the corners. The 
entrance is on the river front. 

The Convent of the Ursuline Nuns (P. 160), to which they 
removed in 1824, is also on this line near its end and many 
interesting things are to be seen there, the best being the 
wooden statue of ***Our Lady of Prompt Succor," carved 
early in the 18th century and brought over when the Ursu- 
lines first came. In 1895, occurred the solemn coronation of 
this statue with a crown of solid gold studded with gems, 
presented by the people and costing $20,000. 

The Slaughter Houses are a short distance beyond the 
convent and are of some interest to those who care for such 
things. The afternoon is the best time to visit them. 

There are small steamers which make excursions up and 
down the river in the winter, the fare varying from 25c to 
$1, according to the length of the trip. These excursions are 
very pleasant if the weather is good. 

The St. Ry. runs "Seeing New Orleans" cars daily in 
winter from the cor. of Canal & Camp St., time of departure 
2 P. M. Fare 50c. There is a guide along who points out 
the interesting things and the trip is a good one if your 
sight seeing time is limited. 

West End: Reached by electric express trains from cor. 
Canal & Bourbon Sts. Fare 5c. This is the fashionable 
amusement park of the city. It lies on the shore of lake 
Ponchartrain. The grounds are beautifully laid out. The 
music is furnished by the best orchestra the managers can 
secure and West End will be found a pleasant place to visit 
either in the afternoon or evening. 

There are many points of minor interest about the city 
and tourists will find plenty of entertainment as long as they 
remain within the city's gates. The Mardi Gras festival, 



THE MAKDI GRAS. 169 

held annually in February or March, on Shrove Tuesday, 
is a national event and needs no recommendation. During 
the carnival the city is literally given over to the revelers 
and merriment reigns supreme. The Mardi Gras attracts 
thousands of visitors annually, the various railways making 
special round-trip rates, and on this account it affords an 
excellent opportunity to visit the city and the South. Over 
$200,000 are spent on the spectacular street pageants and 
the costumed balls at the French Opera House (P. 157). 
The first night pageant is that of Momus, which occurs the 
week before Mardi Gras and ends with the ball at the 
French Opera House. Monday at noon Eex arrives at the 
city on his royal yacht, and, accompanied by his Arabian 
bodyguard and the state militia, enters the city and re- 
ceives the keys from the mayor. That night Proteus ap- 
pears on the streets and his ball follows. Next morning 
the Grand Procession occurs, and in the evening Comus 
parades and later gives his ball at the French Opera House, 
while Eex entertains at the Washington Atillery Hall, sit- 
ting in the grotto of State and receiving the people. Just 
before midnight he and his court are driven to the Opera 
House and Comus delivers up the scepter, after which Rex 
and the Queen of Comus lead the Grand March and rule over 
all. The origin of the celebration of Mardi Gras came 
about through the enterprise of a party of young Creole 
gentlemen who returned from college in Paris imbued with 
the carnival spirit of the gay French capital. In 1827 they 
and their friends donned domino and mask and paraded the 
streets of the city and disported themselves as they had 
seen it done in the Latin quarter of Paris. The zest of it 
grew until, in 1872, the first elaborate parade of moving 
floats was attempted, with brilliant success, before the 
Grand Duke Alexis of Russia, then a guest of the city; and, 
except with the hiatus caused by the Civil war, the Mardi 
Gras celebrations have grown more and more elaborate and 
popular, until the annual visiting crowds number between 
75,000 and 100,000 strangers. 

B. Via Louisville, Nashville, Birmingham, Montgomery and 

Flomaton. 

Louisville and Nashville Ey. (925 M.) Fare, $21. 
Sleeper, $5. 

Leaving Cincinnati (P. 20) our train crosses the Ohio 
river to Newport (2 M.), bending to the S. W. 
through the Kentucky hills and crossing the Queen & Crescent 
route at Walton (21 M.). Beyond Worthville (56 M.) we 
pass over the Kentucky River v/hieh enters the Ohio about 



170 CINCINNATI TO NEW OELEANS. 

10 M. to the N. At Lagrange (83 M.) is the .iunction of the 
L. & N. and Lexington lines. At Anchorage (98 M.) a 
branch line extends E. to Shelbyville. Leaving Anchorage 
we soon pass into Louisville. 

LOUISVILLE, KY. (114 M.) Population 230,000. 

Street cars take you from depots to near the hotels. 

Hotels, High, Class — Gait House, cor. First and Main Sts., 
E. P. only, $1-3.50. Louisville Hotel, 622 Main St., A. P., 
$3 up; E. P., $1.50 up (note the Seelback is erecting a 
beautiful new building, cor. 3rd and Walnut Sts., which 
will be the best hotel in city). Medium Priced — Willard 
(The), Jefferson, Center and Green Sts., A. P., $2-2.50; ex- 
cellent house. The Fifth Avenue, 5th St., bet. Green and 
Walnut, A. P., $2-2.50; excellent house. Best Cheap — Eck- 
ert's Hotel, Market^ bet. 6th and 7th Sts. Nic. Bosler Hotel, 
cor. 2nd and Jefferson, A. P., $1.50; E. P., 75c up. 

Restaurants, High Class — American, 431 W. Market St. 
Vienna, 247 4th St. Medium Priced — Merchants', 216 W. 
Main, meals 25c, short order. Cheap — Third Ave. Kestaurant, 
335 3rd St. 

Furnished Rooms — Fifth St., bet. Broadway and Walnut. 
Chestnut St., bet. 4th and 9th Sts. or apply to Y. M. C. A., 
cor. Broadway and 4th Sts. They have list of rooms. 

Banks — First National, 456 W. Main. American National, 
302 W. Main. Bank of Commerce, cor. Main and 5th Sts. 
Bank of Kentucky, 243 W. Main. German Bank, cor. 5th 
and Market Sts. Louisville National, cor. Market and 5th 
Sts., and several others. 

Theaters — New Masonic Theater, 310 W. Chestnut St.; 
very fine house, high class, seat. cap. 1,943, prices 15c to $1. 
Macauley's, 329 W. Walnut St.; high class, seat. cap. 1,900, 
prices according to attraction. Avenue Theater, 544 4th 
St.; melo-drama, high class, seat. cap. 1,400, prices 15c-$l. 
Hopkin's Theater, 133 W. Market St.; vaudeville, being re- 
modeled, high class. Buckingham Theater, 219 W. Jeffer- 
son; burlesque and vaudeville, seat. cap. 1,500, prices 15c-$l. 

Railway Express — Adams, 437 Jefferson, P. C. American, 
419 W. Jefferson, P. C. Hammersmith's, 146 5th St., P. C. 
Southern Exp. Co., 439 W. Jefferson, P. C. National, 437 
W. Jefferson, P. C. United States, 445 W. Jefferson, P. C. 

Telegraph Co's. — Postal, 249 W. Main St., P. C; open all 
hours. Western Union, 301 W. Main St., P. C; open all 
hours. 

Messenger Service — Messenger service at both telegraph 
offices. 



LOUISVILLE AND ITS HISTORY. 171 

Livery — Central Livery, 2nd and Guthrie; prices reason- 
able. 

Railway Ticket Offices — Baltimore & Ohio So. Western, 
348 W. Main, P. C. Central of Georgia, 336 W. Main, P. C. 
Monon Route, 481 W. Market, P. C. Illinois Central, cor. 
4th and Market, P. C. Louisville & Nashville, 400 W. Main 
St. Henderson Route. Southern Ry. Rock Island, R. 83, 
255 4th St. Choctaw, Ok. & Gulf (see Rock Island). Cum- 
berland & Ohio Valley, 417 Equitable Bldg. Iron Moun- 
tain, R. 301, 358 4th St. Chesapeake & Ohio, 257 4th St. 
Chicago & Alton, R. 60, 302 W. Main St. 

Scalpers' Offices— J. T. Macfarland, 622 W. Main St., P. C. 
J. P. Cuneo, 336 W. Main, P. C. 

Trunks and Repairing — Brinkhause & Block, 224 6th St. 

Steam Laundry— Old Reliable, 235 3rd St., P. C. Home 
Laundrv, 319 6th St. 

Men's Furnishings — Apple's, 440 Market St. 

Department Store — ^I-vaufman, Straus & Co., 519 4th St. 

Postoffice — Cor. 4th and Chestnut Sts. Gen. Del., 7-10; 
Sundays, 9-10 a. m.; M. O. Dept., 9-5; Carrier window, 
Sundays, 9-10. 

See general index City Directory for churches, p. 38; 
clubs, p. 43; secret societies, p. 51; public halls, blocks and 
buildings, p. 49. 

Commercial Body — Commercial Club and Board of Trade. 

It is an important manufacturing center, having large 
organ, ax-handle, plow, farm wagon, Kentucky jeans, sole 
leather factories, distilleries, etc. The amount invested in 
factories is $65,000,000; 35,000 people are employed. 

Louisville extends along the south bank of the Ohio 
River for some miles, on a level plateau of the Blue Grass 
Region. It is sometimes called the Falls City, as the Ohio 
River here descends 26 ft., though in truth instead of falls 
there are rapids, which are scarcely visible when the river is 
high. Boats pass them through a canal 2^2 M. long. Louis- 
ville was founded in 1778 by Col. George Rogers Clark, and 
was named in honor of Louis XVI. of France. Its first city 
charter was received in 1828, when its population was about 
10,000. In March, 1890, a terrific tornado cut a swath 600- 
800 ft. wide through the heart of the city, killing 76 persons, 
injuring hundreds, and destroying property worth $3,000,000. 
It is one of the chief gateways to the S. W., and one of the 
largest tobacco markets in the world, handling one-third 
of the tobacco raised in America. The well-known Kentucky 
whiskies form an important commercial interest. In this 
city natural gas is used to a large extent. The streets 
teem with business, and as they are paved with granite 
block they are very noisy. The old-fashioned pumps on 



172 CINCINNATI TO NEW OELEANS. 

many of the street corners are an odd feature. The wells 
are of the ordinary kind and the water is excellent. Con- 
siderable entertainment is offered the visitor by the archi- 
tecture, statuary, churches, parks, etc. Probably the most 
remarkable building is the *Court House, cor. Jefferson and 
Fifth Sts., a massive structure in Greek style, begun in 
1838-9, but not fully completed until 1857-8. In front of 
the main entrance is a bronze statue of Thomas Jefferson. 
The cast was made in Italy, and it was donated to the city 
by Burnheim Bros. Its cost was $60,000. The figure is 
mounted on a bell, and it is a handsome statue. 

Inside the Court House is a *statue of Henry Clay in mar- 
ble, by Joel Hart, which is also very fine. Adjoining the 
Court House on the W. is the City Hall, with a square clock 
tower. The *Christian Church, cor. 4th and Walnut Sts,, 
is a particularly fine specimeut of architecture in the Greek 
style. Diagonally opposite is the new Seelback Hotel, a fine 
building. The spire of *Calvary church, 4th St., bet. York 
and Breckenridge, is worthy of note, being entirely of stone, 
tapering to a point 130 feet in height — a very interesting 
piece of work. The city has an excellent park system. 
^Iroquois Park lies on a level plateau some 600 acres in 
extent, on the summit of what is known loeallj'" as a 
**Knob"; it is reached by a handsome Boulevard Drive, or by 
the 3rd St. line from 4th and Main, fare 5e. The park com- 
mands a fine view of the city and surrounding country and 
the grounds are very pretty. *Cherokee Park is the most 
beautiful one in the city. It lies at the eastern end and 
is reached by boulevard drive and by E. Broadway, E. 
Walnut or E. Jefferson lines from Jefferson St., fare 5c. 
It contains 410 acres of beautiful, beach maple and oak 
groves through which winds the celebrated ''Beargrass" 
Creek which divides the level, sandy plain on which lies the 
city, from the high, fertile, rolling lands beyond. Central 
Park is in the best residence section. Its 20 acres contain 
more than 200 varieties of trees. It provides an immense 
playground for children, Shawnee Park has % M. frontage 
on the river, and here the city maintains a free bathing 
beach and bath houses. If the bather has no suit, one can 
be rented for 10 cts. The beach is heavily patronized by all 
classes. The Country Club, in the E. end of the city, on a 
high bluff, overlooking the river, is not accessible to 
strangers unless properly introduced. It is a beautiful place 
and has a swimming pool which cost $300,000 (old city reser- 
voir). Adjoining it are the grounds of the *IiOiiisviile Golf 
Club, the finest liiilcs in the South, The *Louisville Library, 
which was until recently the Polytechnic Society of Ken- 
tucky, occupies the top floor of a handsome building on 4th 



WEST BADEN AND ITS WATERS. 173 

St., bet. Green and Walnut Sts. It has 60,000 vols, and 
contains the Troost collection of mineral, value $10,000. In 
the main room, **Canorva's Hebe, a splendid piece of work 
in marble for which upwards of $10,000 has been refused. 
The Masonic Widows' and Orphans' Home, cor. 2nd and 
Avery Sts., reached by 2nd St. car from Jefferson St., fare 
5c, was built in 1868, was the first and is the largest 
Masonic Home in existence. The Race Course at Churchhill 
Downs, end of 4th St., 4th St. car, fare 5c, is a beautiful 
place and has seen many hotly contested battles between 
rival thoroughbreds of the famous Blue Grass region. **Oave 
Hill Cemetery should not be missed by the visitor. It lies 
in the E. end of the city, is reached by Broadway Boule- 
vard Drive or by E. Walnut car from Jefferson W. of 2nd 
St., is beautifully platted and at the entrance is a large 
park reservation. A wagonette waits at the gate to take 
one through the grounds, fare 10c. The high portions 
afford a good view. The cemetery takes its name from the 
fact that within the grounds is a cave of considerable 
size. The building seen to the E. is the State Blind Asylum 
(reached by Market St. car, fare 5c), in which is the 
American Printing House for the Blind. Somewhat nearer 
is the Workhouse. Louisville Bridge is 1 M. in length with 
27 steel spans supported by limestone piers and was built 
in 1878-80. It leads to Jeffersonville. There are two other 
bridges, one of which is fully as long but of modern pat- 
tern. The tomb of Ex-President Zachary Taylor, b. 1784, d. 
1850, is near his old home 5 M. E. of the city. There are 
also some suburban car rides, and a very pleasant side trip 
may be made via the Monon Route (80 M.) to West Baden 
and French Lick Springs, Indiana. 

(Eoute continued P. 179). 

WEST BADEN, IND. Resident Pop. Small (resort). 

Chicago, 279 M.; Louisville, 80 M.; Cincinnati, 149 M.; St. 

Louis, 237 M. 

Hotels — The West Baden Hotel, nr. Depot (right). Rates 
$3-5 day. No weekly rates; fine hotel, fine service, water 
free. Colonial Hotel — Short distance from depot, A. P., 
$2.50-5 day, E. P., $1 up; excellent house, good service, 
water free. Ritter House— Nr. depot (left), A. P., $1-2 
day; same by week. Avenue House — Nr. depot (right), A, 
P., $1-1.50; by wk., $6. 

American Express at depot. 

Western Union Tel. at depot. . 

Restaurants — No good ones. 

Furnislied Rooms — None. 



174 CINCINNATI TO NEW OELEANS. 

Postoffice — On the main (and only) street. Open 6 a. m. 8 
p. m. 

Steam Laundry — West Baden Laundry, P. C. 

Railway Ticket Office at depot. 

Ijivery — West Baden Livery. Office at West Baden Hotel 
(P. C.) Rates by the day, half day or drive, very reasonable, 
good service. 

West Baden lies on a branch of the Chicago-Louisville lino 
of the Monon Eoute, 17 M. from Orleans, the point of depar- 
ture from the main line. It is essentially a health resort and 
is rapidly gaining prominence from the undoubted curative 
properties of the waters of its many springs. Just before 
reaching the station of Lost Eriver, S^y M. from Orleans, the 
dry bed of Lost River is crossed. The name is derived 
from the fact that the river sinks into the ground and 
supposedly runs for miles through a series of underground 
caverns, finally reappearing in its bed in the form of a 
large spring. This ride is quite interesting — drive 7 M. 
West Baden is a small village framed by picturesque and 
beautiful timber-clad hills, with little of more than passing 
interest except the Springs from which it takes its name, 
and West Baden Hotel, though there are some very beautiful 
drives and three small caverns, the principal one being 
Mammoth Cavern (not Mammoth Cave), reached by a drive 
of some 5 M. It is 1^700 ft. in length. There is an obser- 
vatory on the summit of Mt. Arie, reached by drive or walk, 
IVo M., from which a good view is had. Archer Cave, drive 
4 M., was once the rendezvous of a desperate band of out- 
laws. The livery runs rigs which make all these points $3 
for party 2-4; $2 party 1-2. West Baden Hotel is a wonder- 
ful building. The structure is circular, being arranged 
around a central **atrium or court 200 ft. in diameter. This 
court is covered with the largest dome without central sup- 
port in the world, being larger than the one at St. Petersburg 
#or the one on the Capitol in Washington. Its construction 
puzzled some of the best architects in the country, who gavo 
it up and pronounced it an impossibilit3\ It was only after 
the American Steel Co. had sent some of their best men, 
who constructed a working model and made many experi- 
m.entg, that it was attempted. The interior of the court is 
charming, having a central fountain, palms, etc., and hun- 
dreds of easy chairs. Around it are ranged a drug store, 
national bank, men's furnishing store, barber shop, fancy 
work bazaar, etc. — in fact the hotel is a small town in 
itself. 

A.mong the conveniences to be found at West Baden are 
a swimming pool (very fine), bath houses at which any 
kind of bath may be had, gaming room for men and ladies. 



THE WEST BADEN SPKINGS. 175 

golf links, ball grounds, covered double-decked bicycle 
track 1-3 M. in length, billiard rooms, bowling alleys, etc. 
The springs, from all testimony have some remarkable cura- 
tive qualities and the writer testifies that the waters are 
strongly impregnated with minerals, for they are noticeable 
by their odor. The following analysis is by the State Geolo- 
gist and is therefore reliable, while the notation as to the 
use of the water is from reliable sources, many of the 
patrons of the springs highly lauding them: 

SPRING NO. 1. 

Analysis by E. T. Cox, State Geologist. 

Parts in Grains in 
One Million One Gallon 

Silicic Acid TSjO .5250 

Oxide of Iron 1.50 .1050 

Sulp. of Lime 191.70 13.4190 

Sulp. of Soda 53.28 3.7296 

Sulp. of Potassa 23.48 1.6436 

Sulp. of Magnesia G19.83 43.3881 

Sulp. of Alumina 77.28 5.4096 

Carb. of Lime 709.43 49.6601 

Garb, of Soda 19.08 1.3356 

Carb. of Potassa 10.71 .7497 

Carb. of Magnesia 671.48 47.0036 

Chloride of Calcium 124.78 8.7346 

Chloride of Sodium 1337.18 93.6026 

Chloride of Mag 195.54 13.6878 

Iodides and Bromides, a trace. 

Total 4042.77 282.9939 

The use of the water from this spring has been very effica- 
cious in the cure of diseases of the kidneys, such as diabetes, 
Bright 's disease and chronic inflammation of the kidneys. 
Also chronic inflammation of the bladder, gravel in its 
incipiency, dropsy; and the water being alkaline, and pos- 
sessing strong diuretic properties, when properly used will 
correct any derangeemnt of the urinary organs. 

SPRING NO. 5. 
Commonly Known as "Blue Mass Springs." 

The most wonderful spring in the country. The^ gaseous 
contents in one imperial gallon are represented in cubic 
inches, viz; 



176 CINCINNATI TO NEW OELEANS. 

Carbonic Acid 11.116 

Oxygen 6.347 

Nitrogen 19.174 

Sulphuric Acid 2.505 

Total 39.142 

Salts in a Wine Gallon. 

Grains 

Sulphate of Lime 130.074 

Sulphate of Soda 38.127 

• Sulphate of Magnesia 33.335 

Carbonate of Lime 22.350 

Carbonate of Soda 11.640 

Carbonate of Magnesia 7.257 

Carbonate of Iron and Alumnia 3.607 

Chloride of Sodium 97.456 

Chloride of Potassium 7.358 

Chloride of Magnesium 11.03T 

Total 362.241 

The spring has been called Blue Mass Spring from its 
resemblance to Blue Mass in its effect upon the liver, stom- 
ach and bowels. The greater proportion of invalids are vic- 
tims of some disease or disorder of the liver. Those leading 
sedentary lives suffer with torpidity of the liver, which 
can only be removed by causing a free flow of bile. Consti- 
pation, one of most common complaints afflicting the human 
race, is treated with the most complete success by the water 
from No. 5 Spring, as hundreds of those relieved here cheer- 
fully testify. Chronic inflammation, or enlargement of the 
liver, jaundice, cirrhosis (a disease of the liver induced by 
intemperance) all yield fo the alterative power of this 
water. E. T. COX, 

State Geologist. 



THE WEST BADEN SPRINGS. 177 

SPRING NO. 7. 

The Greatest in the World. 
The type of cold, alkaline, sulphated saline waters. Has 
a flow greater than all the springs of the valley. 

Grans per 
Analysis. XJ. S. Gallon 

Sulphate of Lime 86.011 

Sulphate of Potassium 843 

Sulphate of Aluminum 2.573 

Sulphate of Soda 28.857 

Sulphate of Magnesia 43.798 

Carbonate of Lime 34.467 

Carbonate of Potassium 635 

Carbonate of Iron 2.945 

Carbonate of Soda 9.687 

Carbonate of Magnesia 32.784 

Chloride of Calcium 7.854 

Chloride of .Sodium 108.318 

Chloride of Magnesia 13.102 

Chloride of Potassium 11.873 



383.747 
Barium, Strontium, Lithium, Bromine, Iodine, Borone- 
traces. 

The gaseous contents is one gallon in cubic inches are: 

Carbonic Acid 8.296 

Nitrogen 18.274 

Oxygen 6.147 

Sulphuretted hydrogen 9.987 

SPRING NO. 3. 

Estimated Salts in a Wine Gallon. 

Grains 

Carbonate of Lime 31.240 

Carbonate of Iron 2.124 

Carbonate of Soda 10.520 

Carbonate of Magnesia 43.460 

Sulphate of Lime 43.627 

Sulphate of Soda 14.406 

Sulphate of Magnesia 53.570 

Chloride of Sodium 127.810 

Chloride of Potassium 12.415 

Chloride of Magnesium 7.753 



178 CINCINNATI TO NEW ORLEANS. 



Gases Estimated in Cubic Inches. 

Carbonic Acid 6.124 

Sulphuric Acid 3.215 

Nitrogen 16.137 

Oxygen 5.465 

This spring contains a greater proportion of iron, and pos- 
sesses more tonic and alterative qualities than any other, 
nnd is more especially applicable in the treatment of anemia, 
chlorosis, nervous debility, wakefulness or insomnia, sick 
headache, neuralgia, hysteria, and many diseases peculiar 
to females. 

There are other springs, but this gives a very fair idea 
of them all. Some are stronger, some weaker, some a trifle 
different, but in a general way they are the same. 

FRENCH LICK, IKD. 

French. Lick lies but one mile beyond West Baden and 
what has been said as to West Baden is largely true of 
French Lick. French Lick Springs Hotel is a large, com- 
modious brick building, beautifully finished and very con- 
venient. There are golf links and the same conveniences 
as are found in West Baden. The village is a trifle larger 
than West Baden, though the hotels at both places are the cen- 
ter of interest. The Springs are very nearly the same as the 
appended analysis shows, and a description of one place 
practically covers both. There is small choice between the 
two and they are within ten minutes brisk walk of each 
other. 

Hotels — *French Lick Springs Hotel, A. P., $3-5; by wk., 
$21-35; with bath, $28 up. Eyau Hotel, A. P., $1-2. Wells 
Hotel, $1.25-2. All are near depot and close together — no 
street numbers. 

Livery — Wells Hotel Livery gives good service at reason- 
able rates. 

American Express at depot. 

Western Union Tel Co. at depot. 

Railway Ticket office at depot. 

PostoSice, near hotels. 

Note — The waters of both West Baden and French Lick 
are very strong and should be taken under the direction of 
a physician, 



ANALlBltS OF FKENCII LICK yPEINGS. 179 



ANALYSIS PLUTO WATER FRENCH LICK SPRINGS. 

Grains per 

Parts per Imperial 

Million Gallon 

Carbonic acid (total) 433.220 

Nitrogen 4.117 

Hydrogen sulphide 34.580 

Silica 24.400 1.708 

Iron and alumina Trace. 

Calcium oxide 703.600 49.352 

Magnesium oxide 387.320 27.112 

Sodium oxide 1,226.900 85.883 

Chlorine 1,065.900 74.550 

Carbonic acid 226.020 18.621 

Sulphuric anhydride 1,573.000 110.110 

The preceding ingredients are combined as follows: 

Grains per 

Parts per Imperial 

Million Gallon 

Silica 24.440 1.708 

Iron and alumina Trace only 

Calcium sulphate 1,708.600 119.602 

Magnesium sulphate 344.200 24.094 

Sodium sulphate 680.000 47.600 

Magnesium carbonate 558.620 39.103 

Sodium chloride 1,995.000 139.650 

Total 4,865.850 347.609 

The water was examined to determine the number of bac- 
teria, the presence of disease-producing bacteria, bacterial 
evidence of sewage contamination. There were no disease- 
producing bacteria, and no evidence of sewage contamina- 
tion. The water was excellent from a sanitary standpoint. 
Very respectfully submitted, 
THE COLUMBUS MEDICAL LABOEATOKY, 

Chicago, 111. 

Leaving Louisville the train passes S. through Shepherds- 
ville (132 M.) to Bardstown Jet. (136 M.), where a branch 
line extends S. E. from Bardstown to Springfield (37 M.). 
At Lebanon Jet. (143 M.), a branch line diverges eastward 
to Lebanon and Knoxville (P. 244). The line now turns 
S. E. crossing Salt Eiver at Booth's (46 M.) and making 
junction with the Illinois Central at Elizabethtown (156 M.), 
pop. 3,500. Shower House, $2. Continuing S. to Munford- 



180 CINCINNATI TO NEW ORLEANS. 

ville (187 M.) the Green Eiver is crossed, and at Glasgow 
Jet. (204 M.), a short line branches to 

**MAMMOTH CAVE. 

Mammoth Cave lies on a branch of the Louisville & 
Nashville Ey. 9 M. from Glasgow Jet. and 99 M. from Louis- 
ville. Mammoth Cave Hotel ($2-3) is situated at the end of 
the railway on Green Eiver, 250 yards from the Cave, and 
at a height of 900 ft. above the sea. 

The visitor may view Mammoth Cave by two routes: The 
Long or Eiver Eoute (20 M., $3), which requires a day, and 
passes Main Cave, the Eotunda, Bottomless Pit (some 200 ft. 
deep), Fat Man's Misery, Eiver Hall, Dead Sea, Echo Eiver, 
and about 6 M. beyond, returning by the Corkscrew, the 
Short or Pits and Domes Eoute (8 M., $2), a trip which 
is often made by travelers on the evening of their arrival 
(7-11), comprising the Eotunda, Main Cave, Olive's Bower, 
Giant's Coffin — the largest detached stone in the cavern, 
over 2,000 lbs. wt., 43 ft. long, and 18 ft. thick— Gothic 
Avenue, Star Chamber, Harrison's Hall, Gorin's Dome, and 
the Labryinth. The Labyrinth is probably the most in- 
teresting portion of the cavern for it includes the Bottom- 
less Pit, Mammoth Dome, Gorin's Dome, Napoleon Dome, 
the Maelstrom and Scylla and Charybdis. Short trips ($1) 
may be made to Chief City and Mammoth Dome, 120 ft. 
high, 540 ft. long and 200 ft. wide. The charges include 
the fireworks necessary to illuminate the rooms, guide serv- 
ice, etc. Lunch is carried along from the hotel for the long 
or river trip. The temperature is 52-58 degrees and the air 
very pure, rendering fatigue less liable. Among the curi- 
osities are eyeless fish and crawfish. 

Mammoth Cave is the largest one known, and was dis- 
covered accidentalljr in 1809 by a hunter. It extends 9-10 
M. below the surface and the length of its various explored 
avenues is about 175 M. After its discovery extensive 
mining operations were instituted to obtain saltpeter from 
the nitrous earth. Evidences of such effort (1811-15) are yet 
visible, the ruts of the ox-carts being as plain as though 
freshly made. Mammoth Cave has never been fully explored, 
but Prof. Shaler has estimated that there^ are fully 100,000 
miles of open caves in the carboniferous limestone in which 
it is located, of which Kentucky has 8,000 square miles. 
These caves were produced by the erosive action of min- 
eralized water and wherever the trickle of water is heard 
it may be known that the sculptor forces are still at work 
carving new and beautiful designs for the delight and 



FACTS ABOUT BOWLING GEEEN. 181 

wonder of future generations who may chance to discover 
them. 

Mammoth Cave is one of the most wonderful places in 
the w^orld. 

Keturning to Glasgow Jet. and proceeding along the 
main route the next place of interest is 

BOWUNO GREEN, KY., 224 M., Pop. 10,000. 

Hotels— Webb 's, 816 Adams, A. P., $1.50-2 per day. Man- 
sard, cor. Main and Center, A. P., $1.25-2 per day. Moor- 
head House, 840 Main, A. P., $1.50-2 per day. New Potter 
House, 338 Main, A. P., $1-1.25 per day; $4.50-7 per v/k. 

Restaurants — B. G. Restaurant, 421 Park PI. 

Furnished Rooms — 932 Vo State, prices 25-50c per night; 
$1.25-2.50 per wk. 

Banks— Citizens' Nat'l, 439 Park PI. P. J. Potter's Sons, 
905 College. Potter, Matlock & Co., 912 State. Deposit & 
Savings, 134 Main. 

Theaters — Potter's Opera House, College St., seats 950. 

Railway Express Offices — Adams, State St., P. C. 14 P. C. 

Telegraph Companies — Western Union, 422 Park PI., P. C. 
Postal, 412 Main, P. C. Oface hours, 7:30 a. m.-8 p. m.; Sun- 
days, 8-10 a. m., 4-6 p. m. 

Livery— Duncan & Bell, 1038 State, P. C. Single rig, $1 
first hour, add., 50e; double rig, $2 first hour, add. hrs., $1. 

Railway Ticket Offices — Louisville & Nashville, Passenger 
Sta., P. C. 345. 

Bill Posters and Distributors — John Gorin, 330-332 Main, 

P. C. 75. 

Laundry— City Laundry, 304 Main, P. C. 

Men's Furnishings— E. Nahm & Co., 420-422 Main, P. C. 

Department Store — Nahm Bros., 438 Main St. 

Postoffice— Cor. Main and Center. Gen. Del. and Stamps, 
open 7:30 a. m.-6 p. m.; Sundays, 9-10 a. m.; M. O. open 7:30 
a. m.-6 p. m.; Carrier window, Sundays, 9-10 a. m. 

See City Directory for full list of churches clubs, secret 
societies, etc. 

Street Car System — Yes. 

Telephones — Local and long distance. 

Leading Local Industries — Handle factory, Hartman Slid- 
ing Blind Factory, Southern Canning factory. 

From Bowling Green the route extends S. W. through 
Franklin (248 M.), crossing the Tennessee State line just 
before entering Mitchellville (254 M.), joining the branch 
line from Holland at Gallatin (273 M.) and the branch from 
Hopkinsville at Edgefield Jet. (289 M.), crossing the Cum- 
berland River at E. Nashville, and entering Nashville (301 



182 CINCINNATI TO LOmSVTLLE. 

M., P. 72). From Nashville the train goes S. W., crossing 
Duck River near Godwin (342 M.), and entering Columbia 
(347 M.), population about 7,000. Bethel House, $2, and 
Hancock Hotel. The Elk Eiver is crossed between Prospect 
(391 M.) and State Line (394 M.), which borders on Ala- 
bama, the first junction place in Alabama being Athens 
(408 M.), pop., 1,600. Commercial House, A. P., $2 up; 
Pepper House, A. P., $2. At Decatur Jet. (420 M.), the L. 
& N. crosses the Memphis-Chattanooga Div. of the Southern 
Ry. and the Tennessee River, thence entering Decatur (422 
M.), pop., 3.114. American Hotel, A. P., $2; Bismarck Hotel, 
A. P., $2. Bending a trifle to the S. E. the line crosses Mul- 
berry Fork of the Black Warrior Eiver near Bangor. It 
swerves around Blackburn Mt. at Reids, and enters Birming- 
ham (508 M., see P. 139). From Birmingham it continues 
southward to Helena (525 M.) where a branch line diverges 
S. W. to Gurnee Jet., and swerving S. E. joins the Talladega 
branch of the Louisville & Nashville Ey. at Calera (541 M.), 
pop., 9,800. Vanderbilt House, $1-2. Beyond this point the 
line trends S. E. through Clanton (563 M.), past Jackson 
Lake, over the Tallapoosa River, and we enter Montgomery 
(604 M., P. 384). Beyond Montgomery the L. & N. extends 
S. W. through a well-timbered, uninteresting country to 
Georgiana (663 M.). A little beyond Garland (671 M*.), a 
branch of the Sepulga River is crossed, and at Plomaton 
(723 M.), junction is made with the Jacksonville-New Or- 
leans branch of the L. & N., which joins the Seaboard Air 
Line at River Junction, Fla., and extends via Lake City, 
Fla., Tallahassee, Pensacola, Mobile, Miss., etc., to New 
Orleans (P. 144). 



ROUTE 5. CINCINNATI TO LOUISVILLE 

BY BOAT. 

Fare, including meals and berth, $3. Round trip, $5. 

The visitor to Cincinnati will find a trip down the Ohio 
Eiver by boat to Louisville of much interest. The boats of 
the Louisville & Cincinnati Packet Co. leave Cincinnati at 
5 p. m. wk. days and 9 a. m. Sundays, the round trip fare 
being $5, including meals and berth; $3 one way. It takes 
about 10 hrs. to make the trip. The boats are commodious 
and have every convenience, from a barber shop up. There 
are card tables, a bar, dining room, etc., etc. Leaving Cin- 
cinnati, the river winds between beautiful hills, covered in 
places by farms and orchards. On the summit of the hill, 



COLUMBUS TO JACKSONVILLE. 183 

some five miles from the city (right), can be seen a large red 
brick building — the Catholic Sisters Home. On an eminence 
some 12 M. below Cincinnati (right) is the grave of William 
Henry Harrison; the officers of the boat will point it out if 
you ask them. 

As one watches the green hills slipping by, the mind re- 
verts to the days when steamboating was in its glory and 
packets raced each other, with ''a nigger squat on the 
safety valve," and when fortunes were lost at the gaming 
tables of the steamers. All this is changed now. The trip 
by boat, while it takes more time, is free from the noise and 
dirt of railway travel, and is exceedingly interesting and 
pleasant. The first town of importance is Lawrenceburg, 
Ind., on the right bank of the river (24 M.), on a slight emi- 
nence. Aurora (28 M.) lies on the hillside (right) in a very 
pretty setting of hills. 

The Cincinnati-Louisville trip makes a delightful excur- 
sion; from the latter place, West Baden or Mammoth Cave 
may be visited. 



ROUTE 6. CINCINNATI OR COLUMBUS 
TO JACKSONVILLE. 

Via Eadford, Roanoke, Lynchburg, Columbia, Savanhah. 

Norfolk & Western and Southern Eailways. (1,397 M.) 
Fare, $24,15. Sleeper, $2.50. Mileage figured from Columbus. 

Leaving Columbus, the first thing of interest is Chillicothe, 
O. (51 M.). Scattered around the city are many Indian 
mounds and circles. Near Piketon (76 M.) is a ''Graded 
Way," which is quite remarkable. Our line now descends 
the Scioto Valley, in which are many remains of the 
"Mound Builders." At Portsmouth (100 M.) junction is 
made with the Cincinnati branch. 

Leaving Cincinnati, via the Cin., Portsmouth & Va. Div. 
of the Norfolk & Western Ey., the line skirts along the 
Ohio Eiver for a short distance, bending to the N. to Idle- 
wild, whence a branch line runs northward to Dayton, our 
line diverging to the E. (right). Batavia (24 M., population 
1,200, Hamilton House, A. P., $1) is the seat of Colemont Co. 
Near Williams, a small tributary of the Ohio is crossed. 
From Sardinia (47 M.), a branch line extends northward 
(left) to Hillsboro (19 M.). 

Continuing to the S. E., at Peebles (72 M.), those inter- 



184 COLUMBUS TO JACKSONVILLE. 

ested in such things may see the famous "Serpent Mound" 
on Bush Creek, Adams Co., seven miles from the station 
(carriage). This mound is in the form of a serpent, five feet 
in height, thirty feet in width at the base, and one thousand 
feet in length, the mouth being open as if in the act of 
swallowing a small mound, lying within its jaws. The tail 
of the serpent lies in a triple coil. The whole combination 
is supposed to represent the Oriental idea of the ** Serpent 
and the Egg.'* It is a very interesting sight and has been 
visited by many scientific men. There is nothing more of 
especial interest until we reach Portsmouth (107 M.), where 
the Columbus line is joined. 

Just beyond Portsmouth the little village of Ironton 
(127 M.) is passed, after which the Ohio river is crossed 
and we enter the state of W. Virginia, just above the junc- 
tion of the Big Sandy with the Ohio. Kenova (139 M.) 
lies at the junction of the rivers. Ascending the Twelve 
Pole River we reach Wayne (164 M.), just beyond which the 
river forks, we following the course of the W. branch to 
Dingess (208 M.), where an abrupt bend is made to the W. 
(right) to Naugatuck (223 M.). Here the line again bends 
to the left, ascending the right bank of the Tug Fork of the 
Big Sandy River. At Naugatuck a wide sweep is made 
around the north end of the Tug Mountains. At Thacker 
(251 M.) the train threads a long tunnel. At Wharacliffe 
(269 M.) we pass the east end of the Cumberland range, 
which marks the junction of Kentucky, West Virginia, and 
Virginia, the three States joining at the river about opposite 
this station. Above laeger (285 M.) the river branches into 
several small forks, the line continuing up the left course of 
one until we reach Welch. Near Cooper (332 M.) another 
tunnel is passed through, the sides of which are of coal. 
At Bluestone (333 M.) a short branch line extends to (1 M.) 
Pocahontas. 

The line now traverses the famous Pocahontas coal fields 
to Bluefield (344 M.), crossing into Virginia near Flat Top 
Yard Station, making junction with the Norton branch at 
Graham and recrossing into West Virginia. At Glen Lyn 
(367 M.) a new river is joined, the course of which is fol- 
lowed to Radford, the peaks of the Allegheny Mountains 
being seen to the right and left, one range being crossed at 
Lurlch (369 M.) and another just beyond Eggleston (391 M.). 
Between Wills (365 M.) and Glen "Lyn (367 M.) we again 
enter the State of Virginia. At Radford (409 M.) junction is 
made with the main line of the Norfolk & Western. For 
New Orleans, see R. 11 A, P. 237; New York or Washington, 
R. 11 A. P. 237. 



CINCINNATI TO LAKEDO. 185 

For Kadford to Lynchburg, see E. 11 A, P. 237 j Lynchburg 
to Jacksonville, R. 12 C, P. 355. 



ROUTE 7. CINCINNATI TO LAREDO, 
TEXAS. 

(City of Mexico Route.) 

A. Via Louisville, Memphis, Little Rock, Texarkana, Mar- 
shall, Longview, Palestine, Austin and San Antonio. 

Louisville & Nashville, Iron Mountain, Texas & Pacific 
and International & Great Northern Rys. (1,368 M.) Fare, 
$37.55. 

Leaving Cincinnati the L. & N. crosses the Ohio River 
into Kentucky, enters Newport (2 M.), pop. 28,000, and turns 
S. W. Independence (13 M.) is the seat of Kenton County. 
Beyond Walton (21 M.) the Queen & Crescent main line 
(R. 1 A, P. 17) is crossed. From Zion (32 M.), the train 
runs almost due S. W. to Louisville, crossing the Kentucky 
River beyond Worthville (56 M.). Junction may be made 
with the Louisville-Lexington branch of the L. & N. at La- 
grange. From Louisville (114 M., see R. 4 B, P. 170), 
the train proceeds to Memphis Junction (232 M.). From 
Memphis Junction is curves S. W. and enters Eus- 
sellville (257 M.), pop. 2,500, the seat of Logan 
County (Forest Home, A. P., $2). A branch runs N. 
W. thence to Owensboro on the Ohio River, and a short 
spur extends S. E. to Adairville. At Guthrie (278 M.), pop. 
1,500 (Hotel Whitlow, A. P., $2-3), the St. Louis, Evans- 
ville & Nashville branch of the L. & N. is intersected. Just 
beyond Guthrie is Tennessee. From Princeton Junction 
(289 M.) a branch diverges N. W. to Graceys, Ky. Clarks- 
ville (291 M.), pop. 9,431 (Arlington Hotel, A. P., $2), lies 
on the Cumberland River and is the seat of Montgomery Co. 

Passing Cumberland River the track parallels it to Cum- 
berland City (313 M.), pop. 1,500 (Central Hotel, A. P., $2). 
Just beyond Danville (334 M.) a short branch diverges N. 
(right) and the Tennessee is crossed; also, at Big Sandy 
(344 M.) one of its tributaries. At Paris (361 M.), pop. 
5,000 (Caldwell Hotel, A. P., $2) the Paducah-Memphia 
Div. of the Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis Ry. inter- 
sects. Paris is the seat of Henry County. At McKenzie (378 
M.) the main line of the N. C. & St. L. ^y. from Atlanta to 



186 THE CITY OF JACKSON. 

Hickman intersects. At Milan (398 M.) the Fulton-Grenada 
Div., via Jackson, of the Hlinois Central Ey. is crossed. 
(Eoute resumed on page 187). 

JACKSON, TENN. (85 M.), Population 20,000. 

Depots — Union, N. Eoyal St. Cars pass hotels. Used 
by Illinois Central and Mobile & Ohio Eys. N. C. & St. L., 
on S. Eoyal St. Cars pass hotel. 

Hotels — New Southern, cor. Baltimore and Liberty, A. P., 
$2-2.50; excellent house. Armour, 106 W. Baltimore St., 
A. P., $2. Library, cor. Church and College Sts., A. P., $1. 

Restaurants — There are no good ones. The Palace, 110 
N. Market; opens into a saloon. The Home, 110 S. Liberty, 
is fair. 

Furnished Eooms — Very scarce. 

Banks — First National, 119 E. Main St. Second National, 
100 S. Liberty St. People's Savings, 101 E. Main St. 

Theater — Marlow, cor. Baltimore and Liberty Sts,; seats 
about 800; prices based on play. 

Railway Express OSaces — American, 104 S. Liberty, P. C. 
Southern, 210 E. Market, P. C. 

Telegraph Offices — Western Union, 206 E. Main St.; open 
8 a. m. to 10 p. m.; shorter hrs. Sunday. Branch office, N. C. 
& St. L. depot, open all the time. Postal, 110 E. Baltimore 
St.; open 8-8; Sundays, 8-10 and 4-6, P. C. 

Livery — G. T. Brown, 110 Main St. P. C; rates very 
reasonable. 

Railway Ticket Offices — At depots. 

Scalpers — None. 

Laundry — Jackson Steam Laundry, cor. Church and Col- 
lege Sts., P. C. 

Men's Furnishings — G. H. Eobertson & Co., cor. Market 
and Main Sts. 

Department Store — Sullivan, McCall & Co., 205 E. Lafay- 
ette. 

Postoffice — Cor. Baltimore and Market Sts. Gen. del and 
stamps., 7-6; Sundays, 9-10; M. O. dept., 7-5:45; carrier win- 
dow, Sundays, 9-10. 

Public Liiarary — Cor. College and Liberty Sts., 5,000 vols. 

Business Men's Club — The Commercial, Secretary, L. 0. 
Sweatman. 

Leading Local Industries — Cotton raising and mills and 
large engine and boiler works. 

Jackson lies on the S, Fork of Forked Deer Eiver, which 
is a small and very crooked stream, not navigable. It also 
is on the Paducah-Memphis branch of the Nashville, Chatta- 
nooga & St. Louis E. E., and on the St. Louis-Mobile main 
line of the Mobile & Ohio E. E. It is a pleasing place. 



IN AND ABOUT MEMPHIS. 187 

In Court House Sq. is a monument commemorating the 
Confederate dead of Madison Co. The old-fashioned house 
with veranda columns, 453 E. Lafayette St., was General 
Oglesby's headquarters for some time during the war. Car- 
negie Library, cor. College and Liberty Sts., recently erected 
at a cost of $31,000, has 5,000 vols. The ''Memphis Con- 
ference'' (Methodist South) Female Seminary, cor. Chester 
and S. Eoyal Sts., instructs about 300 students. Baptist 
University, E. College St., is a large seat of learning. Note 
Adam and Eve Halls. The best street car ride is the High- 
land Park line. The best residence streets are E. Main, N. 
Royal and N. Highland Ave. At Water Works is a flowing 
artesian well, the waters of which are mineralized, and they 
aro said to have curative properties. No analysis is avail- 
able. There is a beautiful drive or auto ride over what is 
known as ** Looping the Loop," a circle of 5 to 6 M., over 
a graveled roadway past cotton mills en route. These mills 
are a revelation to a northern man, or to one who has never 
inspected any. They may be inspected, and the machines 
which take the raw, filthy cotton and produce a finished cloth 
product seem almost human in their ingenuity. It is a sight 
well worth the drive of three miles. Highland Park, on 
Highland Park car, has a summer theater (vaudeville), 
base ball, etc. 

At Humboldt (409 M.), pop. 2,868 (Commercial Hotel, A. 
P., $2) the track intersects the St. Louis-Mobile branch of 
the Mobile & Ohio E. R. Near Bells (421 M.) the S. Fork of 
Forked Deer Kiver is crossed. Brownsville (434 M.), pop. 
3,500 (Pythian House, A. P., $2.50) is the seat of Haywood 
County. The train spans Big Hatchie River at Shepards 
(443 M.), and Loosahatchee River just beyond Gallaway 
(463 M.). National Cemetery (484 M.) is the station for 
Memphis National Cemetery. 

MEMPHIS, TENN. (491 M.), Population 125,000. 

On the Tennessee bank of the Mississippi River about 325 
M. below St. Louis and 386 M. above New Orleans. 

Depots — All trains, except those of the Iron Mountain 
and Cotton Belt Rys., enter the Union Depot from whence 
street cars go either to or within one block of all hotels. 
The 111. Central and Yazoo & Miss. Valley Rys. own a depot 
at foot of Royal St., but enter the Union j3epot also. 

Hotels — High class, Gayoso, Main St., bet. Gayoso and Mc- 
Call Sts., A. P. and E. P. Peabody, cor. Main and Monroe 
Sts., A. P. and E. P. Fransio-li, cor. 2nd and Union Sts., 
A. P. and E. P. Gehring, No. 16 Union St., A. P., $2; E. 
P., $1 up. Isele's (known as Arlington), cor. Main and 



188 CINCINNATI TO LAEEDO. 

Adams Sts., A. P., $2-3. There are no good cheap hotels, as 
they are all adjuncts to saloons. 

Bestaurants — High class, Gayosa Hotel Cafe (see Gayosa 
Hotel). Luehrman's, 296 Main St. Peabody Hotel Cafe 
(see Peabody Hotel). Gaston's Cafe, 33 Court St. There 
seems to be no good medium-priced or cheap restaurants 
in the city. 

Furnished Eooms^ — Plenty of furnished rooms can be found 
on Mam St. S. of Linden St.; all prices, from $1.50 wk. up. 

Banks — ^First National, No. 14 Madison St. State Na- 
tional, cor. Main and Madison Sts. Nat. Bank of Com- 
merce, No. 12 Madison St. Memphis National Bank, 312 
Main St. 

Theaters — Lyceum, cor. Jefferson and 2nd Sts.; high class; 
seats about 1,400; prices, $1-4. Hopkins, cor. Main and Beal 
Sts.; stock and vaudeville; seats about 2,600; prices 10-50c. 
Bijou, Main, near Linden; melo-drama; seats 1,800; prices, 
25-50 cts. 

Eailway Express Offices — Adams, 28 N. Court St., P. C; 
American, 27 N. Court St., P. C; Pacific, 38 N. Court St., 
P. C. Southern and United States, 38 N. Court St., P. C. 
Wells-Fargo, 13 Monroe St., P. C. 

Telegraph. Companies — Western Union, cor. Madison and 
2nd Sts.; open all the time, P. C. Postal, 37 Madison St.; 
open all the time, P. C. Messenger service at both telegraph 
offices. 

Livery — Lockwood Stables, 166 Madison St., P. C. Horses 
by day and half day; rates very reasonable. 

Eailway Ticket Offices — Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis 
Ey., No. 10 Madison St., P. C. 111. Central and Yazoo & 
Miss. Valley Eys., cor. Main and Madison Sts., P. C. Frisco 
and Bock Island Systems, 311 Main St., P. C. Mo. Pacific 
and Iron Mountain Systems, cor. Main and Monroe Sts., P. 
C. Louisville & Nashville Ey., cor. Main and Madison Sts., 
P. C. Cotton Belt Ev., 307 Main St., P. C. Southern Ey., 309 
Main St., P. C. 

Scalpers Office at 313 Main St. 

Trunk Eepairs — S. Levi, factory, 366 Main St., P. C. 

Men's Furnishings — Johnson & 'Vance Co., 303 Main St. 

Department Store — J. Goldsmith & Co., 371-379 Main St. 

Postoffice — Foot of Madison St. Gen. del. and stamps, 
open 7-9; Sundays, 9:30-10:30; M. O. dept., 9-9 (gen. del., 
after 5 p. m.); carrier window, Sundays, 9:30-10:30. 

Public Library — Cossett Library, 24,000 vols., cor. Monroe 
and Front Sts. 

For Churches, Kails, etc., see City Directory. 

Leading Local Industries — Hardwood lumber, cotton rais- 
ing and shipping, cottonseed oil mills, cotton compressing, 



THE CITY OF JACKSON. 189 

woodworking, barrel and stave factory, and coffin factories. 
It is a large grocery distributing center. 

The city of Memphis was laid out in 1819 and incorporated 
in 1830. It is located at a considerable height, on Chickasaw 
Bluffs, overlooking the river. From the brow of the bluff 
the g'-ound slopes gently back, so the business section lies 
on a hillside. The main "business streets are Main and Sec- 
ond Sts., running parallel with the river, and cross streets. 
From the brow of the bluff to the rear of the Federal bldg., 
ft. of Madison St., there is a good view of the river for 
some distance each way. Along the front of the bluff is 
the levee, ano when the river was the chief artery of com- 
merce it was piled with great stacks of cotton bales and 
merchandise of every description; and the wharf resounded 
with shouts and oaths of mates driving negroes who loaded 
and unloaded the boats. Adjoining the levee N. is cotton 
compress No. 1, occupying the site of the Navy Yard, which 
the Government started, but never finished. Memphis was 
ravaged by the war and well-nigh depopulated. It furnished 
the Confederate army with 37 Companies composed of the 
flower of its . manhood. No battles of importance were 
fought in the immediate vicinity except a naval engagement, 
which resulted in the defeat of the Confederates and the 
sinking of many of their vessels, also some belonging to the 
other side. The city was in the hands of the Federals most of 
the time. Down the river is Memphis Bridge, the only one 
spanning the Mississippi below St. Louis, below which is 
President's Island. Twice has Memphis undergone the Yel- 
low Fever scourge, until from death and desertion it was 
nearly vacated, but it recovered and is now the leading river 
city between St. Louis and New Orleans. 

Points of Interest — A \^isit to the Cotton Compress, of 
which No. 1, at the N. end of the levee, is most convenient, 
is interesting to a northerner. The cotton is first baled 
rather loosely on the farms, in great 500 lb. bales, as the 
pressei are not very powerful. After the dealer has bought 
it he sends it to the compress where it is placed between 
the jaws of a powerful press that reduces it about two- 
thirds. Farther up Front St., between Auction and Concord 
Sts., is an old weatherbeaten building with gable toward 
the street. It is Bell Tavern, and was built about 1822. 
Embedded in its wood are many bullets intended to avenge 
wrongs, or prove the courage of the early Southern chivalry. 
It was one of the first taverns of Memphis and was quite 
celebrated. Insignificant as it now looks, Andrew Jackson, 
David Crockett, General Sam Houston, Colonel Thomas Ben- 
ton and other famous men were there sheltered and fed. A 
little further, on the opposite side of the street, is the 



190 CINCINNATI TO LAEEDO. 

Oounty Jail, with a square tower. Court Square is on Main 
St. above Madison, and in it is a bust statue of Andrew Jack- 
son, also a small fountain. The many gray and fox squirrels 
which play on the unfenced lawns and approach one, show- 
ing little fear, furnish much abusement by their antics. 

The Federal Building occupies a commanding site on the 
brow of the bluff at the foot of Madison St. The Cotton 
Exchange, which symbolizes the Board of Trade of the 
North, is situated at the cor. of Madison and 2nd Sts. The 
gallery is open to visitors. The pit is open from 10-2. The 
National Cemetery, which has 14,000 of the nation's dead, 
lies 5 M. out on the Kaleigh Springs car line, fare 10c. Its 
level grounds are well-kept and in the center is a handsome 
monument to the scattered Union dead. Take car at the 
cor. of Main and Madison Sts.; it is a nice ride. The Vance- 
Poplar car takes one through the best residence portion of 
the city. Jackson Mound Park, Kansas Ave. car., 2 M. out, 
is on the river. A large Indian mound has a tunnel so 
one may enter. It was used by Federal troops as an Arsenal. 
The De Soto Oil Mills, where oil is extracted from cotton- 
seed, is 1^2 M. out on the main line. Raleigh, a resort, with 
a large hotel, is out 12 M. on the Ealeigh Springs line, fare 
10c, and the scenery is quite picturesque. The Memphis 
Driving Park (Driving Park car, on Main St. line), is a 
very fast track. It is a charming place and many fast horses 
are wintered there. The old Slave Mart on Adams, bet. 
Main and 2nd Sts., is very interesting. The slaves were 
sold at auction there during slavery. Montgomery Park, 3 
M., East End Line, Main and Madison, fare lOc, is pleasant. 
Excellent hunting and fishing is found a short distance out 
on the Iron Mountain and 'Frisco lines. Full information 
can be gained from the agents of those lines; see ticket 
offices. Commercialism is paramount in Memphis, as evi- 
denced by the almost utter lack of statuary and other adorn- 
ments. Memphis has only one commercial body — ^the Busi- 
ness Men's Club. 

Leaving Memphis — From Memphis the Memphis branch 
of the Iron Mountain Ey. is taken, which crosses the 
''Father of Waters," and at Wynne (537 M.) intersects the 
Helena Branch to Fair Oaks (551 M.). Here it crosses the 
St. Louis Southwestern Ey. and at Martin the White Eiver 
Ey. Beyond New Augusta (569 M.) it spans the White 
Eiver, and trending a little northerly, enters Bald Knob 
(582 M., P. 115), connecting with the main line of the Iron 
Mountain Eoute. From Bald Knob to Little Eock (see 
E. 2 A, P. 102). Little Eock to Marshall (see E. 2 B, P. 
124). Marshall to Longview (see E. 19, P. 400). Longview 
to Laredo (see E. 10, P. 218). 



PADUCAH AND ITS FUTURE. 191 



B. Louisville to Memphis via Paducah. 

Illinois Central Ry. (1,383 M.). Fare, $37.55. Sleeper, 

$7 00 

The Illinois Central extends S. W. from Louisville through 
Princeton (180 M.), pop. 3,500 (Palace Hotel, $2; New Cen- 
tral, $2; Wright's, $1; Palace Restaurant, American Express, 
Western Union and Postal Tel., Illinois Central Ry., Farmers' 
and National Banks, Terry's Livery (rates low), New City 
Laundry, P. C; one flour mill). Near Princeton are Dawson 
Springs. Beyond Eddyville (192 M.) the train spans the 
Cumberland River and enters Grand Elvers (202 M.), and a 
few miles further it crosses the Tennessee River. Thence 
it enters 

PADUCAH, KT. (227 M.), Population about 20,000. 

Hotels— Palmer House, cor. 5th and Broadway, A. P., 
$2.50-3. Lagomarsino, cor. Broadway and 2nd Sts., A. P., 
$2. St. Nicholas, cor. Washington and 3rd Sts. 

Restaurant — Whitehead 's, Broadway, bet. 2nd and 3rd Sts. 

Furnished Booms — Cor. 6th and Monroe Sts.; 50 cts. night; 
^3-3 50 wk. 

Banks — City National, Broadway, bet. 2nd and 3rd Sts. 
American-German National, Broadway, bet. 2nd and 3rd Sts.; 
and others. 

Theater— Kentucky Opera House, 5th St., bet. Broadway 
and Jefferson Sts.; seats 1,423; prices, 50 cts.-$2. 

Eailway Express^ — American, Broadway, bet. 4th and 5th 
Sts., P. C. Adams, 3rd St. bet. Broadway and Kentucky 
Ave., P. C. Southern, 3rd St., bet. Broadway and Kentucky 
Ave., P. C. 

Telegraph Companies — Postal, cor. Broadway and 2nd Sts., 
P. C. Western Union, Broadway, bet. 2nd and 3rd Sts., P. C. 

Livery— Palmer Transfer Co., 413 Jefferson St., P. C; 
rates reasonable. 

IS-ailway Tickets — 111. Central, cor. 14th and Brockman Sts., 
P. C. N. C. & St. L. Ry., cor. 5th and Norton Sts. 

Trunks and Eepairs — Niermann's, 208 Broadway. 

Men's Furnishings — Cor. 3rd and Broadway. 

Department Store — Cor. 3rd and Broadway. 

Steam Laundry— The Star Laundry, 120 N. 4th St., P. C. 

PostofQ.ce — Cor. 5th and Broadway. Gen. del., open 6:30- 
6:30; Sundays, 9-10 a. m.; M. O. dept., 7-5:30; carrier win- 
dow, Sundays, 7-10 a. m. 

For full list of Churches, etc., see City Directory. 

Commercial Body — Commercial & Manufacturers' Asa'n, 
Creo. H. Davis, Secretary, 



192 CINCINNATI TO LAEEDO. 

Leading Local Industries — Lumber, furniture, tobacco, sad- 
dlery, large medicine factory, boat repairing, building, etc. 

Paducah lies on the Kentucky bank of the Ohio Kiver just 
at its junction with the Tennessee Eiver, and a few miles 
below its junction with the Cumberland. It is frequently 
styled the *' Three Eiver City.** Paducah dates as a town 
since 1830, It has considerable importance commercially and 
much tobacco is raised in the surrounding country. Hard- 
wood lumber is one of its industries, and it has several large 
saw mills near by. The site is very level and the streets 
are graveled, though a $300,000 bond issue has been passed 
for street paving. At the foot of Washington St. is the 
Inclined Marine Ry., a series of many wheeled trucks run- 
ning on an inclined track, on which steamboats are lifted 
bodily from the river for repairs; and on which new boats 
are built and lowered into the water. The immensely pow- 
erful screw arrangement for operating the trucks is inter- 
esting. Oak Grove Cemetery (Broadway car) is pretty. 
Hon. Lynn Boyd, Speaker of the House of Eepresentatives 
for several terms in the 'SOs, is buried there. The Custom 
House and Postoffice building, cor. Broadway and 6th Sts., 
is one of Uncle Sam's many fine buildings. The Jewish 
Synagogue, cor. Broadway and 7th Sts., is a queer piece of 
architecture. The Church, St. Francis de Sales, cor. 6th and 
Broadway, has a fine interior. Tho Library, cor. 9th and 
Broadway, one of the Carnegie donations, cost about $75,000 
and has a large and excellent selection of books. It is worth 
visiting. The large shops and the hospital of the 111. Central 
Ey. are located in Paducah. It is noteworthy that the city 
has expended $25,000 in building a hospital in a location 
overlooking the river, to minister to those who cannot pay 
for medical attendance. At the end of the Broadway line 
of the Street Eailway is Wallace Park, a pleasure resort, 
with vaudeville theater, swings, music, etc. Everything is 
free, except the street car fare. Paducah is a pleasant place 
with plenty of enterprise, but not much to interest the tourist, 
excepting the Inclined Eailway. From Paducah the Illinois 
Central extends S. to Memphis, Tenn. (P. 186), passing en 
route, through Mayfield and Fulton. 

MAYFIELD, KY. (251 M.), Population 5,000. 

Hotels — Hall, $2-2.50 a day. Hughes House, $1-1.50 a day; 
$3.50-5 a wk. 

Banks — City Nat. Exchange, First National, Graves Co. 
Banking & Trust Co., Farmers' Bank. 

Restaurant — Blue Front, W. Broadway. 

Railway Express — American Express Co. 



MAYFIELD AND FULTON. 193 

Telegraph Companies — Western Union and Postal Tele- 
graph & Tel. Co. 

Telephones — Local and long distance. 

Railway Offices — I. C. R. R. 

Livery— T. O. Kirksey & Son, P. C. 

Commercial Cluh— Mayfield Com. Club, E. O. Hester, Sec- 
retary. 

Leading Local Industries— Woolen mills, tobacco rehand- 
ling, clothing factories. 

At Fulton the Fulton-Grenada via Jackson Div. of the 
I. C. is crossed. 

FULTON, KY. (273 M.), Population 5,000. 

Hotels— Usona; rates, per day, $2-2.50; per wk., $10.50. 
Depot; rates, per day, $1; per wk., $5. 

Banks — First National. 

Restaurants — R. M. Chowining's Depot Restaurant, D. 
Gholson. 

Railway Express — American Express. 

Telegraph Companies — Western Union and Postal. 

Telephones — Local and long distance. 

Railways — Illinois Central, crossing main line and Louis- 
ville-Memphis line. 

Theater — New Vendome; seats 1,000. 

Livery— J. W. Hurst, P. C. 

Laundry — O. K. Steam Laundry, P. C. 

Commercial Body — Fulton Commercial Club, Secretary, U. 
S. Shacklett. 

Leading Local Industries — Tobacco handling, flour mills, 
division headquarters of Illinois Central R. R. 

Hunting and Fishing — Excellent. 

O. Via Chattanooga, Meridian, Jackson, Vicksburg, Shreve- 
port, Marshall, Longview, Palestine and San Antonio. 

Queen & Crescent, Texas & Pacific and International & 
Gt. Northern Rys. (1,486 M.) Fare, $37.55. No through 
sleeiDer. 

From Meridian (634 M.), via the Shreveport branch of 
the Queen & Crescent, the train passes through a somewhat 
monotouous region timbered with pine and oak. A short 
tunnel is entered 7 M. beyond Meridian. Just before reach- 
ing Chunkey (651 M.), a small hamlet, 200-300, Chunkey 
Creek is crossed. Hickory (656 M.), pop. about 800, was 
named after ''Old Hickory" Jackson, who passed through 
here with his army during the British-American war. Many 
well-to-do Choctaw Indians live around there. Newton 



194 CINCINNATI TO LAEEDO. 

(664 M.), pop. about 1,500 (Hotel Newton, $2 a day), is a 
substantial town supported by saw mills and a farming com- 
munity. The country is timbered and the towns unimportant 
to the capital of Mississippi, 

JACKSON, MISS. (729 M.), Population about 23,000. 

On lines of the Alabama & Vicksburg (Queen & Crescent), 
111. Central, Yazoo & Miss. Valley and Gulf & Ship Island 
Rys. Trains of all roads enter the Union depot on W. 
Capitol St. W. Jackson street cars radiate thence. 

Hotels — *The Norvelle, high class, fine, new building, A. 
P., $2.50-4 day. The Edwards, Court St., near W. Capitol, 
A. P., $2.50-3.50. Lawrence House, Mill St., opp. Union Depot; 
excellent medium-priced house, A. P., $2-2.50. Commercial, 
103-5 N. State St., E. P., 50c; cafe in connection; meals, 35c. 
Green Tree, 114 Eoach St., A. P., $1 day. Price House, 129 
S. President St., $1 day. 

Restaurants— *Three Friends, 222 W. Capitol St., % blk. 
from depot. Shurld's Restaurant, 504 E. Capitol St. Ed- 
wards House Cafe, opp. depot (right). 

Banks— First National, 517 E. Capitol St. Capitol Na- 
tional, 520 E. Capitol St. Jackson, 215 W. Capitol. Mer- 
chants, 131 N. State St. 

Theater — The Century, E. Capitol St.; seats 1,312; prices 
based on play. 

Railway Express Companies — American, 513 E. Capitol 
St., P. C. Adams, 511 E. Capitol, P. C. Southern, 511 E. 
Capitol, P. C. 

Telegraph Offices— Western Union, 509 E. Capitol St., P. 
C; open 8-9; Sundays, 8-10 a. m.-4-6 p. m. Postal, 507 E. 
Capitol, P. C. Messengers both tel. offices. 
. Livery— Capitol City Stables, 119 E. Capitol St., P. C; 
rates reasonable. 

Railway Ticket Offices — In Union Depot. 

Steam Laundry— Jackson Steam Laundry, 400 S. State 
St., P. C. 

Men's Furnishings— Thompson Bros., 230 W. Capitol St. 

Dry Goods — Jones-Kennington, 209 S. State St. 

Postoffice— Cor. Capitol and West Sts. Gen. del., open 8-6; 
Sundays, 9-10 a. m.; M. O. dept., open 9-5; registry, 8-5; 
carrier window, Sunday, 9-10 a. m. 

Commercial Body — Board of Trade. 

Public Library — None. 

For a full list of Churches, Clubs, Secret Societies, Halls, 
Blocks, etc., see City Directory. 

Leaving the depot the Lawrence House is just across the 
street (left), the Norvelle is on Capitol St. (the street at 



OBJECTS OF INTEREST IN JACKSON. 195 

the end of depot), some three blocks distant, on car line. 
The Edwards is to the right one-half block on street at end 
of depot. 

Jackson is pleasantly situated on rather hilly ground. The 
depot is in West Jackson, the main business section being 
near the old Capitol Building, 5 or 6 blocks beyond, on Capi- 
tol St., which is slightly graded, paved with brick and quite 
handsome. The old Capitol is of native rock and was begun 
in 1836 end finished in 1839. The cost was about $500,000. 
At the S. end is a magnificent stone shaft to the Confederate 
dead surmounted by the marble figure of a soldier. In an 
open niche in the base is a life-size marble statue of Jeffer- 
son Davis, surrounded by inscribed marble tablets. 

The New Capitol is to the left of Capitol St., as one as- 
cends the grade from the depot, 2]^ blocks. It is a mag- 
nificent four-story pile surmounted by a handsome dome, 
the outer walls being of limestone. The entrance is imposing 
and leads to a wide, granite stairway. It was finished in 
October, 1903, being three years under construction, and 
cost $1,200,000. The interior design and finish are most 
admirable. The main floor is finished in beautifully polished 
veined white marble, with supporting columns of a most 
perfect imitation of skagliola. This is lavishly used, and is 
so perfect that one not posted would not suspect it to be 
anything but the real stone. It is put on in the form of a 
putty, smoothed, hardened and polished. On the second 
floor much Vermont green marble is used. The dome opens 
to the first floor, and a wide corridor extends lengthwise of 
the building. In the evening when lighted it is fine. Visitors 
are not allowed in the dome. The Governor's office and 
Senate and House Chambers are on the second floor (not 
counting basement). In the basement at one end is the 
*Hall of Fame, a circular room surrounded by twenty-one 
skagliola columns, and containing a good collection of oil 
portraits of the famous men of Mississippi, also historical 
relics, which are mainly in four cabinets. This room is a 
new departure in State Capitols, and is intended as a me- 
morial to the noted men of the State. Among the portraits 
are those of S. S. Prentiss, L. Q. C. Lamar, Jefferson Davis 
and Winthrop Sargent, the first Mississippi Territorial Gov- 
ernor. 

Objects of Interest — A piece of flag which floated over 
Eichmond at the time of its evacuation; a record (in French) 
of the trial of the famous bandit and outlaw, Samuel Ma- 
son; a complete record of the transfer of the Louisiana 
Purchase, kept by Wm. C. C. Claiborne (P. 165); a battle 
flag of the 7th Mississippi Regiment; a picture of Jefferson 
Davis in the suit he was captured in; documents pertaining 



196 CINCINNATI TO LAEEDO. 

to the trial of Aaron Burr, with a letter bearing his signa- 
ture, and the original Mississippi Secession Ordinance (on 
easel). In the opposite end of the basement is the *Hall 
of History, containing historic records of the State. To see 
it apply to the State Historian, K. 112. Newspaper files from 
1806 are kept there. The Capitol grounds occupy four 
blocks. 

Out on the N. State St. car is a city park (left). Leave 
car at the junction of another line on Battle Hill The red- 
roofed, two-story frame building set back in spacious gi-ounds 
is the residence of Bishop Bratton of the Episcopal Diocese 
of Mississippi. To its right some distance is a quaint stone 
chapel containing the tomb of the late bishop of the diocese, 
and a collection of fine paintings and church relics. Just 
beyond is the new $100,000 Deaf and Dumb Institute. At 
the end of the car line is a resort witli a summer theater. 
Taking the car to return one may remain on and pass along 
N. State St., one of the best residence streets, the handsome 
homes showing many fine examples of old style Southern 
architecture. Just before reaching the switch, back some 
two blocks (right) on a hill, is Bell Haven College for girls 
(students limited to 100), and on the corner of Fortifica- 
tion St. (left) is the Deaf and Dumb Institute (75-100 pu- 
pils). Visitors arc freely admitted and it is interesting. Pass 
down one hill (Jewish Cemetery at foot, left), and up an- 
other to the MiJlsaps College (left), a Methodist Institution, 
which has several buildings (and 250 students). Note the 
observatory. 

Pass down the hill to the entrance to the grounds of the 
Mississippi In-^ane Asylum, which is an imposing building 
with a fine ectrance and surrounded by pretty grounds. 
The front portico is supported by Eoman columns. It is 
three stories, 750 ft. long and was erected in 1851. There 
are 1,200 acres of land, about 400 of which are cultivated, the 
patients assisting. The asylum has accommodated 7,369 pa- 
tients since its opening in 1855, of which number 3,170 were 
colored, four annexes to the rear being for them. It is well 
kept and managed. Visitors' days are Monday, Tuesdav, 
Wednesday and Thursday, 1-5 p. m. in summer; 1 to 4 in 
winter. In 1862 the Federal troops were posted around it. 
One of the shots fired by the Confederates struck it, bat tho 
bombardment was discontinued when they learned that it 
was an asylum. Some of the old fortifications still remain. 
_ On Capitol St., opp. Norvelle Hotel, is the Governor's man- 
sion erected in 1839. It was a magnificent building and is 
yet quite imposing. Jackson College for colored people (300 
students) is 1^^ M. from Union depot, in the suburbs. It 



Tllli HISTORY OF VICKSBURG. 197 

has two splenclid slate-roofed brick buildings, and some 
smaller frame ones. 0pp. is Campbell College, also colored, 
with one brick and several frame buildings (125-150 stu- 
dents). Both are endowed. On the cor. of Yazoo and Con- 
fvress Sts., diagonally across from the park, is the two-story 
frame residence of Bishop Galloway, a noted speaker and 
traveler. During the war considerable fighting ensued at 
Jackson, a sharp engagement occurring on the summit of 
Battle HUl. A visit of a day or two, perhaps longer, will 

repay one. -, ^ . ^ 

From Jackson the train penetrates a good farming country, 
cotton being the staple, the land yielding 1 bale to the acre 
under proper cultivation. Bolton (747 M.), (pop. about /50), 
is sustained entirely by the surrounding farmers. The battle 
of Champion Hill *was fought 3 M. from there and many 
were killed. Edwards (756 M.), pop. about 700, is m a fine 
farm community and saw mill district. 

VICKSBURG, MISS. (773 M.), Population about 20,000. 

On lines of the Queen & Crescent (Alabama & Vicksburg 
and Vicksburg, Shreveport & Pacific Rys.), and the Yazoo 
& Miss. Valley Ry., also, on the Yazoo and Mississippi rivers 
with local steamer transportation. Boats run to Natchez 
3 times a wk. Street cars are at the end of the platform, 
Q. & C. depot; Yazoo & Miss. Valley depot is on the levee at 
foot of China St. « ttt i 

Hotels— The Carroll, W. Clay St., bet. Washington & Wal- 
nut Sts., A. P. only, $2.50-4 day. Piazza, Washington St., 
bet. South & Veto Sts., E. P. only, 75c-$2 day. Washington, 
203 N. Washington St., A. P., $1.50-2 day. 

Restaurants— Piazza cafe is as cheap as any and the best 
in the city (see Piazza Hotel). The Royal, 118 Washington 
St. Corte's Cafe, 111 Washington St. 

Furnished Rooms — Piazza Hotel. 

Banks— First National, 314 W. Clay St.; American Na- 
tional, 120 S. Washington St.; Merchants National, cor. 
Washington & Crawford Sts. 

Railv/ay Express Companies — American, 310 W. Clay St., 
P. C. Southern, cor. V\^alnut & Clay Sts., P. C. 

Telegraph Companies— Postal, 123 Washington St., open 
6:30 a. m.-midnight. Sundays, 7 a. m.-9 p. m., P. C. Western 
Union, cor. S. Washington & Crawford, open 7 a. m.-mid- 
night; Sundays, 7 a. m.-9 p. m., P. C Messengers at both 
Tel offices. 

Livery— ^Roche & Lee stables, 507 S. Washington St., P. C. 

Railway Ticket Omces— Up town, Queen & Crescent (Ala. 
& Vicksburg and Vicksburg, Shreveport & Pac), 123 S. 



198 CINCINNATI TO LAEEDO. 

Washington St., P. C. Yazoo & Miss. Vallev, 311 W. Craw 
ford St., P. C. 

Steam Laundry — Troy Laundry, cor. Washington & Jack- 
son Sts., P. C. 

Men's Furnishings — Warner & Searles Co., 122 S. Wash- 
ington St. 

Department Store — Baer & Bro., cor. Washington & China 
Sts. 

Library — A very small one in City Hall, top floor. 

Commercial Body — Board of Trade, Frank H. Andrews, 
Sec 'v. 

Pdstoffice— Cor. Crawford & Walnut Sts. Gen'l del. open 
8-6. Sundays, 10-11 a. m., 5:30 to 6 p. m. M. O. Dept., 9-5. 
Carrier's window, Sundays, 10-11 a. m. 

Vicksburg was founded ,by Eev. N. Vick, and in 182G it 
was platted and a charter obtained. It lies on the Mississippi 
Eiver bluffs. In olden time it was on the main channel of 
the river, which made a great bend to the N., sweeping 
around and past it. But some years since the waters cut 
through the neck of land, which had been constantly nar- 
rowing, and Vicksburg was left about a mile away. Since 
then a canal has been cut through from the Yazoo Eiver to 
the old bed of the Mississippi, so it now has somewhat of a 
river. As one views this little stream, scarce wide enough 
for a steamer to turn in, it is hard to conceive that a river 
90 to 100 ft. deep and V> to % M. wide once flowed there. 
The old channel has been almost entirely filled by sediment 
deposited during the annual high water.*^ 

Vicksburg is not well paved, which is a detriment. The 
main business part is Washington St. (6-8 blks) and inter- 
sections one block each way. Some streets are quite hilly. 
The interest in Vicksburg is largely historical, as it was 
the key to the Mississippi Eiver, and its possession was stub- 
bornly contested in the late war. The efforts of Farragut, 
Porter and Sherman were defied in 1862, but it was finally 
yielded to Grant on July 4th, 1863, after he lost about 9,000 
men in the siege, which lasted 47 days. General Pember- 
ton was in command of the Confederate forces within the 
city. Vicksburg was dubbed the "Gibraltar of the Con- 
federacy," as it is naturally one of the strongest military 
positions imaginable. It is backed by a high range of bluffs, 
which form a strong, natural rampart, and as it is high above 
the river in front it can sweep the surrounding country with 
heavy guns. In olden time, when the steamboat business 
was in its prime, the old levee was very interesting, from ton 
to twenty boats usually lying at the wharf, piled high with 
goods, during the cotton season thousands of bales of vege- 
table wool lying there. But time and tide have worked sad 



A TRIP THROUGH VICKSBUEG. 199 

havoc, and the levee is little more than a mud bank now 
with an occasional boat to awaken the sleeping echoes with 
a hoarse bellow. Then there were many dives of all kinds, 
and it bore a very unsavory reputation. Gazing on the 
deserted scene, the onlooker is prone to think of when it 
palpitated with life; when mates could be heard swearing 
vociferously, and darkies melodiously singing as they 
worked; when steamboats raced with each other, often meet- 
ing disaster and death on the way; when card players 
could be seen, tense and still, playing the game that often 
came to a sudden, tragic end with the sound of a pistol shot 
and the splash of a body in the water. All, all have gone! 
And nature, in sympathizing mood, has striven to remove 
the sad traces, earth and trees covering portions of the bed 
where once flowed a most turbulent river. 

A Trip Through the City; Take the Post Office, cor. Craw- 
ford & Walnut Sts., as a starting point. Looking away from 
the river, opp. cor. (right) is the City Hall. 0pp. (left) is 
the Baptist church. On the left is the Catholic church and 
residence of the priest. Walk down the hill toward the river 
on Crawford St. (1 blk.) to Washington, the main street 
of the city. At the foot of the bluff is the Yazoo River Canal 
aforementioned. Turn right on Washington (1 blk.) to Clay 
St. At the foot of Clay St. is the site of the old steamboat 
landing when this was the main river channel, and steam- 
boating flourished. Turn right on Clay, pass (right) the 
Carroll Hotel (1 blk.) to Walnut St. Opp. cor. (left) is the 
old Presbyterian Church, in the side of which, bet. two rear 
windows, is a cannonball hole, and in the iron stool of the 
last window, piece knocked out by a shell, are relics of the 
siege. One blk. farther on (opp. cor. right) is a frame bldg. 
with an iron smokestack occupying the site of a small lake 
which was well stocked with fish. Adjoining the Presby- 
terian church on Walnut St. is the splendid B. P. O. E. bldg. 
Just across the street on the cor. in front of the church is 
the B. B. (Jewish) Club. Take a Washington car here and 
ride to the Athletic Clubhouse at the S. end of the city. 
Note the standpipe of the city water works. This is Castle 
Hill. Just beyond it, opp. first two-story brick, is Belmont 
St., which runs through what was the burying ground of 
the Federal dead, though the bodies have been removed to 
the National Cemetery (P. 201). It extended along Washing- 
ton St. on either side of Belmont St. At 815 Washington St. 
(left) and vicinity, was one of the many forts. All this 
territory was then an open field. Farther on (right) 1 blk. 
down hill, cor. Speed St., was the old Marine Hospital, 
which was torn down about 1890. Some large oak trees mark 
it. To the right is the Mississippi River ''cut oE" (P. 198), 



200 CINCINNATI TO LAEEDO. 

with the Delta Landing of the Queen & Crescent train ferry- 
across the river on the left bank. All along here, right, 
were breastworks and forts on the point of the bluff. At 
the horizon (left) is a range of high bluffs along which for 
Bome 12 to 15 M. v/ere the landside fortifications. The Na- 
tional Park (P. 202) is along those bluffs. As the car passes 
through a cut beyond here, note on summit of bank (right) 
a mound of earth which was one of the forts. 0pp. this is a 
ravine running down the hill (left) which was a military 
road constructed by the Federals after they had captured 
the city. At the end of the line is the Athletic Clubhouse 
(right) back of which are remains of one of the fortifica- 
tions, with one of the heavy 10-inch guns (dismounted). It 
was those guns which shelled Grant's army and compelled 
him to abandon his scheme of cutting a channel through 
the neck of land which forced the river around past Vicks- 
burg (P. 204). Further down the river, across the railway 
cut, which was then a depression, are other fortifications 
which lined the river bank. It can be seen here how the 
river made the bend which took it past Vicksburg and how 
the dike was thrown across the old channel. There is a 
summer theater, too, where entertainment is given in sum- 
mer. Now board a car and ride back to Belmont St. Walk 
E. (right) on Belmont St. to Cherry St., where Belmont ends 
and turn right. On the left the old residence in spacious 
grounds, with a double deck portico and square columns, 
was Mr. Vick's home. At the junction of East. Ave. and 
Cherry, on each side, were the Federal barracks. The mili- 
tary prison stood back a little from the cor. (right, facing 
the street) and in it the editor of one of the Vicksburg 
papers was confined some time because of remarks disap- 
proved of by the Federal authorities. Turn back on Cherry 
St. towards the city, past the Queen & Crescent depot at the 
foot of the hill (right). At top of hill is an odd but pretty 
specimen of architecture in the residence with great circular 
veranda; beyond, in the same block, is the site of another 
Federal barrack. Across South St., back of the house on the 
cor. (left) is an old yellow 1-story bldg. which was Gen'l 
Logan's headquarters; opp, it is the Holy Trinity church, 
built since the war. On the next cor. (left, Crawford St.) 
is the M. E. church (South), which occupies the site of the 
old church that was riddled with cannon balls. Diagonally 
across the street, on the cor., is the Sisters* Convent and 
School. Next cor. (right) is the Jewish Synagogue, with a 
square tower, beyond which (left) is the courthouse of 
stuccoed brick, which was a target for Farragut's guns. 
The street at the farther (N.) side of the courthouse is 
Jackson St. Turn left on it. Near ground, on the side away 



THE NATIONAL CEMETESY. 201 

from Cherry St., is a round hole, nov/ filled with cement, 
where a cannon ball or shell entered. Walk down Jackson 
(1 blk.) to Monroe; turn right. The brick in the center of 
street marks the old city hail. Pass along Monroe (1 blk.) 
to Mam St. On the cor. (across the street, left) is the old 
bank which was Gen'l A. M. Smith's headquarters (Confed.). 
Ivlain St. was once the principal business street. It has no 
business houses now. Continue down Monroe St. (1 blk.) to 
First East St. This trip can easily be made in three hours. 

During the siege many **boml) proofs" (small caves) were 
dug in the hillsides, a number of which still remain. To 
inspect one of them board a Clay St. car, E. End, and ride 
to the cor. of 5th, N & Grove Sts. Walk into the yard of a 
house on cor. (right) and around the house (right), where 
one is located. Some relics in the way of shells, cannon 
balls, etc., picked up on the battle fields, may also be seen. 
The first residence beyond the City Hall (cor. Crawford & 
Walnut) was the headquarters of Col. McGinnis (Conf.), 
who had charge of all the water batteries. Just beyond 
this, at the cor. of Monroe St., is Dr. Streit's Sanitarium, 
v/'hich was General Pemberton's (Conf.) headquarters. In 
front of it is a small monument which Louisiana erected to 
the dead who fell in the siege. 

Tho National Cemetery — The Federal Government has pur- 
chased land to the rear of Vieksburg and is constructing 
splendid graveled roads and improving it. Many of the 
States have already made large appropriations for the pur- 
pose of properly marking the positions of its soldiers during 
the siege-battle by splendid monuments. The National Ceme- 
tery may be reached by the Yazoo & Miss. Val. Ey., but the 
bettor way is to take a carriage and follow the route as laid 
down in the following: Pass along Washington St. and N. 
on the National Cemetery Road, which runs along the river 
front, or what was the river front. The bluff (right) was 
lined with guns, the high point being known as *' Devil's 
Eackbone.*' 0pp. here was the dueling ground of former 
days. At the bend of the river, where the Federal gunboat 
Cincinnati sunk to oblivion, the Confederate ram Arkansas 
came out of the Yazoo River (the mouth of which was 1^-2 
M. away) and fought through the entire Federal fleet to 
Vieksburg — a plucky achievement. Looking across here the 
canal which has changed the course of the Yazoo River into 
the old Mississippi bed is again seen. It is several miles 
in length. Just before crossing the iron bridge (right) are 
seen on the summit of the bluff, the remains of an old fort. 
National Cemetery is entered by a handsome stone archway. 
It is very hilly, 40 acres by fence measure, but 65 acres by 
reason of the irregular area, and is terraced and beautifully 



202 CINCINNATI TO LAEEDO. 

kept. Buried witbin its walls are 16,834 people, 12,760 of 
whom are unknown. To the left of entrance is a circular 
plot with a cannon on end in its center. This is the sailors' 
burial place. The larger flat stones mark the known, but 
their number shows sad lack of information on the subject. 
At the upper end is the Superintendent's Lodge (register) 
and residence, and a gate through which to leave the grounds. 
Taking the road up tlie hill, at the j»oint of hill (left) are 
seen the remains of the old Edwards' house (brick) which 
was for a time Gcn'l Sherman's headquarters. This road 
marked the Federal lines during the siege. Handsome state 
monuments are now soon at intervals. 

Battle of Cliickasaw Bayou — Earthor on is a fine view of 
the Chickasaw Bayou battlefield (left), where in 1862 Sher- 
man met a bloody repulse. He came down the Mississippi 
Eiver, entered the Yazoo ami disembarking, marched across 
the swamps, crossing the bayou at a point since know as 
''Sherman's Bridge," which is near King's Station on the 
Yazoo «fc Miss. Valley I?y., some 4 M. above Vicksburg. 
King's Station is visible, well up along the foot of the bluff. 
The bridge is to the left beyond view. The Confederates 
were amid the hills and the battle raged all along the hill- 
sides and over the lowlands below. Cannon boomed and 
bellowed, shells screamed and crashed, and men fell by 
hundreds as death's work progressed. The Confederate 
position was too strong, however, and Sherman yielded. 
National Cemetery was a part of the battlefield. The hills 
across the ravine (right) mark the Confederate position 
during the siege, or rather the first part of it, as they were 
gradually driven back on the city. The hills here are the 
upper, or N. end, of the range which was the line of fortifica- 
tions above the city, and have been purchased by the gov- 
ernment as a military park. Some of the monuments en 
route are very beautiful. Now pass down the hill. The 
knobs (right) all served as natural forts for Confederate 
giins, carrying death to many boys in blue. The ravine was 
called Mint Spring Bayou, because of a spring where mint 
grew luxuriantly. The narrow terraces on many of the 
hillsides were cotton rows, incredible as it seems. Where a 
road branches (left) take it, and pass around to the unique 
Massachusetts Monument, which is a bronze figure on a rough 
granite boulder. On the the right, 4 M. from branch-off, is an 
old residence which was a hospital. Shirley House: Drive 
as far as desired on this road, but, returning to the main 
road, continue on. keeping to left at the next road fork, 
and you see, in the distance on the summit of hills, the 
Shirley House (the point aiming for). Cross bridge, pass 
around the bluff to the left and arrive at Shirley House, 



FROM VICKSBURG TO MONROE. 203 

the ** White House of the Siege of Vicksburg" — General 
Grant's headquarters during that awful time. It was in 
ruins, but has been restored by the government and will be 
used as a National Park Museum. Standing in front house, 
facing the way just passed, the hillside (left) was covered 
with rude shacks and shelters, many wholly or partially ex- 
cavated. A trench some 4 feet deep by 8 feet wide was dug 
in front of the house, just missing the front portico, some of 
the dirt being piled on the porch. No traces of it remain. 
The shacks were occupied by the 45th 111. Infantry, which 
afterward led the forces when they entered the city July 
4th, 1863. The house was riddled with bullets and several 
men were killed within its walls and vicinity. It was known 
during the siege as the *' White House,*' and also as the 
** Shirley House" (name of its owner, whose tomb may be 
seen just to the rear of bldg.). A battery of 24-pound 
howitzers (D, 1st 111. Light) was planted in front to the left. 
Its location is on what is known as the Jackson Road, 2^ 
M. from Vicksburg. 

Pemberton Monument: Leaving here, take Jackson road, 
turn right; coming to a deep cut (V^ M.) the road left leads 
(100 yds.) to another historic spot, the Pemberton ^ Monu- 
ment, a cannon set upright marking where the official sur- 
render of the city to Gen'l Grant was made by Gen'l Pem- 
berton, July 4, 1863. Returning to the main road and passing 
through the cut one may turn left on first road, which is 
known as Confederate Ave., and marks the position of the 
Confederate lines, or continue on to the city, passing (right, 
in the valley) the city cemetery, where many of the Con- 
federate dead lie, and the Mississippi Charity Hospital (left) 
with Confederate annex. This is a beautiful drive, in sum- 
mer, and the direction may be reversed if desired by leaving 
the city on Jackson Road. 

Leaving Vicksburg, the train passes under the Washington 
St. Viaduct and down the river with the Yazoo & Miss. 
Valley Ry. yards on the right, over which it crosses by mak- 
ing a wide half circle, backing down to the river and onto 
the great steel ferry boat which cost the Ry. Co. $175,000. 
The row of clustered piling up the bank beside the track is 
for guidance of the boat in making landing during high 
water. On top of the bank (left) is a black sign with white 
letters. This tells the stage of the river, zero being ihe 
low water mark and *'0 1 F'* one ft. above low water mark. 
The river sometimes, strange as it may seem, gets below 
"low water" mark, as the standard adopted for low water 
years ago has since proved far above the point the water 
sometimes reaches now. If desired, leave the car and walk 
out to the front of the boat and watch the passage and 



204 CINCINNATI TO LAREDO. 

Innding or inspect tlio great engines which furnish the 
power. There will bo plenty of time to bonril the train, even 
rifter the landing is made, as it is pulled off in two sections, 
the baggage cars going first. As the boat turns up the 
stream, note the dike thrown across the point where 
the river used to cur^-e past the city of Vicksburg; also, the 
point where the Yazoo now joins its big sister. After the 
now engine is attached, the train speeds westward through 
ono of the richest deltas in tho great state of liOuisiana, 
which will one day be ranked among the leading agricultural 
fltatos of the T'nion. Just beyond Delta (778 M.) is a ditch 
beside the track, with a sign reading ** Grant's Canal" (P. 
202). It is almost filled now with earth and has goodsized 
trees. Beyond, lies a belt of very heavily-draped timber. 
Rayvlllc (828 'SI.) has about 1,000 residents, and is sur- 
rounded by a farming region, from which it dorives support, 
A branch of tbe St. L., iron Mt. & Southern liy. hero inter- 
sects, and the train speeds onward to 

MONEOE, LA. (850 M.), Population al)Out 8,000. 

Hotels— Monroe, 420 Grand, A. P., $2.50-3.50. Calvert 
nouse, :n0 Jackson St., A. P., $2-2.50. Star, .310 Desaini St., 
A. P., $2-2.50; E. P., $1-1.50. Planters', 520 Desaird. A. P., 
$2 day, ].er wk., $5-7. 

Ecstaurants— Star, 31G Desaird St. Planters' (medium), 
520 Desaird St. 

Banks— Ouachita National, 203 Grand. Monroe National, 
cor. Desaird & St. John St, 

Theater— Sugar's Opera House, 525 Desair.l St. Seats 
1.200. Pricps 50 ots-$1.50. 

Eailway Express Offices — Southern and Pacific, 110 Desaird 
St., P. ('. 

Telegraph Offices — TVostern Union, 210 Grand St.. P. C 
Postal Tel., 110 Grand St., P. C. 

Livery— A. M. McWilliams, cor. 3rd & Jefferson Sts., P. C, 
Ivates rather high. 

Railway Ticket Offices — St. L., I. M. & Southern Rv., cor. 
Desaird & St. John, P. C. Queen & Crescent, bet. Walnut & 
2nd St=i.. P. C. 

Trunk Repairs— Wallick 's, 312 Grand St.. P. G. 

Steam Laundry — Monroe, 525 Grand St., P. G. 

Men's Furnishings — Famous Co., 120 Desaird St. 

Department Store — Grand St. 

Post Office— Cor. St. John & St. Ann. Gen'l del., open 8-6; 
Sundays, 10:30 to 11:30. Carrier's window. Sundays, same. 
"SI. O.,' 8-0. 

For list of Clinrchcs, etc., see City Directory. 



ST. LOUIS TO JACKSONVILLE. 205 

Commercial Body — Progressive League, H. D. Apgar, Sec V. 

Leading Local Industries — Sawmill, oil mills, sash and 
blind mfg., large brick and ice plants, molasses and syrup 
works and cotton mills. 

Monroe is an up-to-date town surrounded by fine farm 
lands, and has a very good climate, the winters being ex- 
ceedingly mild. The public schools are excellent. Northern 
people desiring inland winter residence in Louisiana might 
well investigate the claims of Monroe. The Memphis-Alexan- 
dria branch of the St. L., Iron Mt. & Southern Ry. is crossed 
here. 

Just beyond Monroe the train spans the Ouachita Elver, 
which flows S. E. into Red Eiver, and at certain seasons of 
the year is navigable for small boats. The country now 
becomes rather sparsely settled and hilly. At Ruston (880 
M.) the Arkansas Southern Ry. is crossed, at G-ibbsland the 
Louisiana & Northwest Ry. and at Sibley (919 M.) the Louis- 
iana 6: Arkansas Ry. Thence the train rushes on toward 
Shreveport, La. (946 M.). (See R. 19 A, P. 400). From 
Shrcveport to Longview (see R. 19 A, P. 400). From Long- 
view to Laredo (see R. 10, P. 218). 



ROUTE 8. ST. LOUIS TO JACKSONVILLE. 

A. Via Lexington, Chattanooga, Atlanta and Macon. 

Southern and Queen & Crescent Rys. (1,122 M.) Fare 
$25.25. Sleeper, $6.50. J \ > J f 

Passing from the St. Louis Union Station on the St. 
Louis-Louisvillo-Lexington branch of the Southern Railway, 
through the tunnel, over Eads Bridge (P. 109) to E. St. 
Louis, the train swerves S. E. to Belleville (12 M ) 
thence directly E. to Gennantown (41 M.), beyond which 
It passes Shoal Creek. Little interest is awakened between 
St. Louis and 

CENTEALIA, ILL. (64 M.). Population 10,000. 

Hotels—Rexford, L C. Depot, rates, A. P., $2; E. P., 50 
to 75 cts. Lanz, cor. W. Broadway and Chestnut, A. P., $1-2: 
E. P., 50 cts. European, S. Chestnut, A. P., $1 a day. 

Eestauxants— H. &. B., S. Locust St. 

Banks— Merchants » State, T^-oadway. Old Nat., cor. 
Broadway and Locust. 

Theaters— Pittinger Grand, N. Locust St.; seats 1,200; 



206 ST. LOUIS TO JACKSONVILLE. 

prices 25 cts to $1.50. Turner's Hall, S. Walnut St.; seats 
650; not open re^^ularly. 

Railway Express Companies — American, Broadway, at I. 
C. Sta. Southern and Adams, Southern depot, N. Chest- 
nut St. 

Telegraph Companies — Western Union at I. C. depot, P. 
C. Postal, 108 E. Broadway, P. C. 

Livery — I'oston & Williams, cor. Tate and Townsend Ave., 
P. C; rates, single, per day, $2; half day, $1; double, per 
<lav, $3.50; half dav, $2; pole team, $2.50 per day; surrey, 
$,H.50. 

Railway Ticket Offices — At B. R. depots only. 

Bill Posters and Distributors — Jos. E. Ilofter, 404 W. 
Broadway, 1'. C. 109 K. 

Steam 'Laundry — Centralia Steam Laundry, S. Locust St., 

Men's Furnishings — S. P. Sicher & Co., 102 E. Broadway. 

Department Store — P. & D. Mercantile Co., N. Locust St. 

Postoflice — E. liroadway. Gen. del and stamps, open wk. 
days, 7 a. m. to 7 p. m.; Sundays, 8 a. ni. to 11 a. m.; M. O. 
window, open 7 a. m. to 8 p. m.; carrier window, open Sun- 
days, S to 10. no a. m. 

iPublic Library— 5U0 E. Broadway. 

Commercial Club — Betail Merchants' Ass'n; Jas. IT. 
Yingst, Secretary. 

Leading Local Industries — Coal mining, L C. machine 
shops, window glass factory, envelope factory. 

Local and long distance telephones. 

Centralia is an industrial and railway center, with frro 
radiating lines. The Illinois Central main line is now crossed 
and the train thence curves S. E. to 

MOUNT VERNON, ILL. (87 M.), Population 9,000. 

Hotels— J. E. MahalTv, 312 S. 12th St.: rates, A. P., $2. 
Grand. 110-11-12-10 10th St., A. P., $2. (Mtv, 118 10th St., 
A. P., $1. Commercial, 1303 Main St., A. P., $1; $4-6 per wk. 

Restaurants— J. H. Hick, 116 S. 9th St. 

Furnished Rooms — 1312 W. Main St., $4-8 per wk. 

Banks— Ham. Xat., N. E. cor. Public Sq. Third Nat., 
N. W. cor. Sq. Mt. Vernon State & Savings Bank, South 
Side Public Sq. 

Theaters— Grand Opera House, 126-8 9th St.; seats 1,000. 

Railway Express Companies — Adams, 1013 Main St., P. C. 
83 B. Amorican, 904 Main St., P. C. 902. 

Telegraph— Western Union, 1013 Main St., P. C. 83; office 
hrR., 8 a. m. to 8 p. m. wk. days; 1 p. m. to 4 p. m. Sundays. 

Livery — T. N. Milburn, 819 Broadway; single, per hr.. 



MOUNT VERNON AND PRINCETON. 207 

$1.50; add. hrs., 50 cts.; double, first hr., $2; add. hrs., 75 
cts., P. C. 

Eailway Tickets — No uptown office. 

Bill Posters and Distributors — W. E. Griswold, 414 Grand 
Ave. 

Steam Laundry— Miller 's, 510 Broadway, P. C. 

Men's Furnishings — G. F. M. Ward's, 213 Broadway, P. C. 

Department Store — Boston. 

Postoffice— Cor. Public Sq., N. E. Gen, del. and stamps, 
open wk. days, 6 a. m. to 7:30 p. m.; Sundays, 8 a. m. to 1 
p. m.; M. O. window, open 9 a. m. to 6:30 p. m.; carrier win- 
dow, open Sundays, 12 to 1 p. m. 

Public Library — One block from Public Sq., on Seventh 
and Main Sts. 

For Churches, Clubs, etc., see City Directory. 

Leading Local Industries — Car Mfg. Co., Citizens' Gas, 
Electric & Heating Co., tie preserving plant, ax handle fac- 
tory, knitting factory, plow factory, implement factory. 

It has local and long distance telephone systems. No 
street cars. 

Mount Vernon is quite a manufacturing center and has 
seven radiating lines of railway: The Chicago & Eastern 
Illinois is crossed there. From Mt. Vernon the line again 
swerves eastward to Wajme City (104 M.), thence crossing 
the B. & O. Southwestern R. R. at Fairfield (117 M.), the 
Little Wabash River near Golden Gate (125 M.), the Illinois 
Central R. R. at Brown's (138 M.) and the C. C. C. & St. 
L. at Mt. Carmel (150 M.). Just beyond the train spans 
the Wabash River and enters Indiana. Connections may 
be made with the Evansville & Terre Haute R. R. at 

PRINCETON, IND. (161 M.), Population 7,000. 

Hotels— New Princeton, 118 S. Main St.; rates, A. P., $2. 
St. Charles, 118 E. Broadway, A. P., $1. Woods House, W. 
Broadway, A. P., $1. Star, 106 W. State St. 

Eestaurants — (High class) Broadway, 117 W. Broadway. 
Star, 108 S. Main St. (Medium) Frank's, 214 W. State 
(best cheap). Buck Chance, W. Broadway. 

Furnished Rooms— 304 N. Hart, 304 E. Broadway, 323 N. 
West; prices from 50c to $1 per day; $3-6 per wk. 

Banks — People's National, 109 W. Broadway. Farmers' 
Bank, 101 N. Hart. Trust & Savings Co., 124 W. State St. 

Eailway Express Companies — United States Express, 212 
W. Broadway, P. C. Southern Express, 210 W. Broadway, 
P. C. Adams Express, 210 W. Broadway, P. C. 

Telegraph Companies— Western Union, 219 W. Broadway, 



208 ST. LOUIS TO JACKSONVILLE. 

P. C. Postal Telegraph Co., 230 W. Broadway, P. C. 105; 
office hrs., 7 a. m. to 6 p. m. wk. days. 

Livery— Joyce & Co., 230 W. Broadway, P. C; rates, single 
rig, $1 per hr.; $3 per day. 

Kailway Ticket Ofiftces — Evansville & Terre Haute, 35 W. 
Broadway, P. C. Southern, N. Hart St., P. C. 

Bill Posters and Distributors — Kelzer Adv. Co., 212 N. 
Eace St. 

Steam Laundry— W. M. Ford & Co., 306 W. Broadway, 
P. C. 

Men's Furnishings— Alva Levi, 125 N. Hart St., P. C. 

Department Store— Agar Co., 220-22 W. State St. 

Postoffice — 226 W. Broadway. Gen. del. and stamps, open 
wk. days, 7:30 a. m. to 6 p. m.; Sundays, 9 to 11; M. O. win- 
dow, open same; also carrier window. 

Commercial Club — Business Men's Ass'n, Secretary, John 
Tavlor. 

Public Library— 2121/; n. Main St. 

For Churches, Clubs, etc., see City Directory. 

Leading Local Industries — Princeton Window Glass fac- 
tory, Princeton Canning factory, Princeton Coal & Mining 
Co. 

Local and long distance telephone system., E. & P. Trac- 
tion street cars. 

Leaving Princeton another line of the Evansville & Terre 
Haute is crossed at Oakland City (175 M.). From Hunting- 
burg (199 M.) a Louisville, Evansville-St. Louis branch of 
the Southern Ey. extends to the S. From Corydon Jet. (251 
M.) a short line extends S. to Corydon, just beyond which 
is New Albany (268 M.). A little past New Albany the 
trains crosses the Ohio River and enters Louisville (274 
M.). (See E. 4 B, P. 169). Beyond Louisville the train 
soon enters 

SHELEYVILLE, KY. (314 M.), Population about 3,000. 

Hotels — Eav, Public Sq.; rates, A. P., $2 per day. Sani- 
tarium, 29 B. Washington St., A. P., $1-2.50 a day; E. P., 
$1-2. Ross House, E. Washington St.; rates, A. P., $1 a 
day. Keck House, 168 E. Broadway, A. P., $1 a day. 

Eestaurants — Font's, 53 E. Washington St. Schuler & 
Hale, 35 S. Harrison St. 

Furnished Eooms — 29 E. Washington St., 60 N. Harrison 
St., 47 W. Penn St.; prices from 50 cts. per day to $2-3 a wk. 

Banks— First Nat., 37 Pub. Sq. Shelby, 19 S. Harrison St. 
Farmers', 12 S. Harrison St. 

Theater — ^Blessing's Opera House, Public Sq.; seats 500; 
prices, 25 cts. to $1. 



SHELBYVILLE AND CONNECTIONS. 209 

Railway Express Companies — American, 21 S. Harrison 
St., P. C. Adams, 34 S. Harrison St., P. C. 

Telegraph— Western Union, 13% N. Harrison, P. C. 142 
— Citizens'. 

Livery — Wm. Meloy, 35 E. Washington St., P. C; rates, 
single, 1st hr., $1; add. hrs., 25 cts.; double, 1st hr., $1.50; 
add. hrs., 25 cts. Young & Goodrich, E. Broadway; single, 
Ist hr., $1; add. hrs., 25 cts; double, 1st hr., $1.50; add. hrs., 
25 cts. 

Kailway Ticket Offices — Big Four, E. Washington St. (de- 
pot), P. C. P. C. C. & St. L., S. Harrison St. (depot). In- 
dianapolis & Cincinnati Traction Co., 23 N. Harrison St. 
(depot), P. C. 

Bill Posters and Distributors — Chafee & Sons, 47 W. Penn., 

P. C. 

Steam Laundry — Progress, 12 W. Broadway, P. C. 

Men's Furnishings— S. B. Morris & Co., Public Sq., P. C. 

Department Store — O. L. Means, Public Sq. 

Postoffice — 18 E. Broadway. Gen. del. and stamps, open 
wk. days, 7 a. m. to 8 p. m.; Sundays, 9 to 10 a. m.; M. O. 
window, open 8 a. m. to 6 p. m.; carrier window, open Sun- 
days, 9 to 10 a. m. 

Public Library — Broadway and Tompkins. 

For Churches, Clubs., etc., see City Directory. 

Commercial Club — Citizens' Alliance, Secretary, Eev. 
Boetcker. 

Leading Local Industries — Couvey-Bively Co., Table Co., 
Vandegrift Wrench Co., Couvey-Foster Furniture Co., Hodell 
Furniture Co., Couvey-Davis Furniture Co., Sprigle Furniture 
Co., Wardrobe Co., Hamilton Novelty Co., Campbell Furni- 
ture Co., Karmore Desk Co., Hobe & Spohr Co., Shelbyville 
Mirror Co., McLaren Co. 

Street car system and local and long distance telephonea 
are in operation. 

There are no amusements except Sunday ball games. 

At Shelbyville connection may be made with the Louis- 
ville & Nashville Ey. to Lexington, also another branch of 
the L. & N., extending S. via Taylorsville to Bloomfield, 
Ky. The Southern Railway now trends S. E. to Lawrence- 
burg (337 M.), thence due E. to Versailles (348 M.) to Lex- 
ington (361 M., see E. 1 A). From Lexington to Jackson- 
ville (see E. 1 A, P. 17; or E. 1 B, P. 51). 



210 ST. LOUIS TO JACKSONVILLE. 



B. Via Cairo, Nashville, Chattanooga and Atlanta. 

Illinois Central, Nashville, Chattanooga & St, Louis R. R., 
Central of Georgia, Georgia Southern & Florida and Atlantic 
Coast Line. (984 M.) Fare, $25.25. Sleeper, $6.50. 

Leaving the St. Louis Union Depot the train passes 
through a tunnel and over Eads Bridge (P. 109) to 
East St. Louis with its great packing houses and other 
industries. From East St. Louis it bends S. E. to Bellevilla 
(16 M.), thence southeasterly crossing the Kaskaskia Eiver 
near its confluence with Silver Creek, in the vicinity of 
New Athens (31 M.). At Coultervllle (49 M.) the Illinois 
Southern Eailway is crossed, also at Pinckneyville (63 M.) 
the Wabash, Chester & Western R. E. A branch line of the 
Illinois Central extends from here to Murphysboro (23 M.). 
Proceeding en route the train enters 

DU QUOIN, ILL. (73 M.), Population about 5,000. 

Hotels — St. Nicholas, $2 day; $5 wk. New Merchants', 
same rates. New Southern, $1 day; $4 wk. 

Banks — First National, Exchange, Du Quoin Bank. 

Eestaurants — Cafe, New Model. 

Eailway Express — American. 

Telegraph — Western Union. 

Telephones — Local and long distance. 

Eailways — 111. Central. 

Opera House — Neighbor's; seats 700; prices based on play. 

Livery — Word's; rates reasonable. 

Laundry — Du Quoin Steam Laundry. 

Bill Poster and Distributor — Jno. W. Hunt. 

Commercial Body — Du Quoin Business Men's Club, S. C. 
Hatferd, Secretary; W. B. Hall, President. 

Leading Local Industries — Salt works, planing mills, coal 
mines and flour mills. 

Local and long distance telephones are in operation. 

At Du Quoin the Chicago-Cairo main line of the Illinoia 
Central is taken and followed S. to Cairo. At Carbondale 
(93 M.) branch lines of the Illinois Central diverge E. and 
W. Just beyond Ullin the Cache River is crossed. At 
Mound Station (141 M.) — Beechwood P. O. — connections 
may be made with the C. C. C. & St. L., whict extends N. E, 
to Danville (253 M.); thence the train soon enters 



THE CITY OF CAIKO. 211 



CAIEO, ILL. (149 M.), Population about 13,000. 

Hotels— The Halliday, 113-15 Ohio St., A. P., $3-5 a day. 
Illinois, 510 Com'l Ave., A. P., $2. Planters', 411-13 Ohio 
St., A. P., $1. Uncle Joe's, 603 Ohio St., $1. 

Restaurants— Blue Front, 217-19 Ohio St. Gus. Bolto, 613 
Com'l Ave. Tri-State, 712 Com'l Ave. K. C. Maley's, 813 

Ohio St. 

Banks— City Nat., 609 Ohio St. Alexander Nat., 801 Com'l 
Ave. Cairo Nat., 806 Com'l Ave. 

Theater — Cairo Opera House, 606 Com'l Ave.; seats 1,800; 
25 cts. to $1. 

Eailway Express Companies — Adams, 12 6th St., P. C. 
American, 10 2nd St., P. C. Southern, 10 2nd St., P. C, 
Pacific, 100 2nd St., P. C. 

Telegraph Co. — ^Western Union, 607 Ohio St., P. C; hrs., 
wk. days, 7 a. m. to 12 p. m.; Sundays, 7-12. A. D. T., 607 
Ohio St., P. C. 

Livery— Powers', 1411-13 Com'l Ave., P. C; rates, single, 
$2.50 to $3.50 a day. 

Eailway Ticket Offices — Illinois Central, cor. 2nd and Ohio 
Sts., P. C. Mobile & Ohio, cor. 2nd and Ohio Sts., P. C. 
Cotton Belt, cor. 2nd and Ohio Sts., P. C. Big Four, cor. 
2nd St. and Com'l Ave., P. C. Iron Mountain, cor. 2nd St. 
and Com'l Ave., P. C. 

Bill Posters and Distributors — H. F. Malinski, 906 Wal- 
nut St. 

Steam Laundry — American Steam Laundry, 209 8th St., 

P. C. 

Men*s Furnishings — L. Salmonson & Son, 711 Com'l Ave. 

Postofflce — 14th and Washington Ave. Gen. del. and 
stamps, open wk. days, 7 a. m. to 7 p. m.; Sundays, 9-10; 
M. O. window, open 7 a. m. to 7 p. m.; carrier window, 
open Sundays, 9-10. 

Public Library — 16th and Washington Ave. 

See general index of City Directory for Cburches, Clubs, 
Secret Societies etc. 

Commercial Club— Business Men's Ass'n, Secretary, P. W. 

Barclay. -r r. ^ 

Leading Local Industries — Chicago Mill & Lumber Co., 
Singer Mfg. Co., veneer mills, Cairo brewery. 

Street car system and local and long distance telephones 
are in operation. 

Cairo lies on a low, flat bank at the confluence of the 
Mississippi and Ohio Rivers. It is essentially a manufac^ 
luring eitv, though it has never attained that degree or 
commercial importance which its location led the founders 



212 ST. LOUIS TO JACKSONVILLE. 

to expect. Aside from its connection with war history it 
has not much to attract sightseers. From Cairo the train 
crosses the Ohio Elver on a steel bridge, enters Kentucky 
(Blue Grass State), trends a little east of south and passes 
through V/ickliffe, Bardwell (162 M.), and Clinton (176 M.), 
pop. 2,500; Lowe Hotel, $2. At Fulton (189 M.) the Mom- 
phis line of the 111. Central is crossed (E. 7B), and at Martin 
(200 M.), transfer is made to the line of the Nashville, 
Chattanooga & St. Louis Ey., which is followed to Atlanta, 
Ga. From Martin the train passes S. E., crossing the Mem- 
phis line of the Louisville & Nashville Ey. at McEenzie 
(224 M.), and joining the Memphis line of the N. C. & St. 
L. Ey. at Hollow Rock Jet. (246 M.) 

Between Cairo and Hollow Eock Jet. lies a rolling, tim- 
bered country, dotted with small farms. At Hollow Eock 
Jet. connection may be made with the Paducah line of the 
N. C. & St. L., which runs to Paducah to the N. W. (P. 191), 
through country very similar to that just traversed. Leav- 
ing Hollow Eock Jet., just before entering Johnsonvillo 
(264 M.), the train crosses the Tennessee Eiver on a steel 
bridge of six spans, the total length being about 1,312 ft. 
If fortunate one may see a Tennessee steamboat at the 
wharf (left). 

On the further side of the river near the end of the 
bridge a sharp battle occurred in civil war times, between 
some Federal gunboats and the Confederates who approached 
the river from the opp. side and proceeded to pour a hot 
artillery fire into the boats anchored about where the little 
wharf is now. The crews of the gunboats became demoral- 
ized and the Confederates succeeded in sinking several of 
the boats. They destroyed between one and two million 
dollars' worth of commissary stores. 

At Pond Sta. (296 M.) junction is made with the Clarks- 
ville branch of the Louisville & Nashville Ey., extending 
N. W. from Pond to Clarksville (39 M.). At Dickson (298 
M.) the Centerville branch diverges S. to Allen's Creek (63 
M.). Bon Aqua (11 M.) is a small resort on this line, located 
on the highlands of middle Tennessee, alt., 1,050 ft., which 
opens for the summer June 15. Accommodations are 
furnished by a large frame hotel ($2 a day; $7 a wk. and 
up). The rate depends on the length of time one remains; 
special rates to families. Address Bon Aqua Springs hotel, 
Bon Aqua Springs, Tenn., for full information.^ It has some 
very pretty scenery, nice drives, bowling, billiards, dancing 
pavilion, swimming pool, trout fishing, small game, etc., 
good livery, telegraph, telephone, postoflfice, express, etc. 
Bon Aqua is a very pleasant place to visit for relaxation and 
rest. 



CAIRO AND INTERVENING POINTS. 213 

Beyond Colesburg (301 M.) lies Craggie Hope, a small 
Bummer resort. The water of its springs (Willow Brook) haa 
quite a favorable reputation. The small hotel is said to 
be excellent (rates, $2 a day; $7-8 a wk.; $28-32 a mo.). 
Dancing, swimming and bowliug. Good fishing; boats to 
rent. The Narrows of the Harpeth River are reached by 
an 8 M. drive. Fair livery; rates very reasonable. The 
properties of the water are as follows: Sodium Chloride, 
.10 grains; Potassium Chloride, .10 grains; Calcium Carbon- 
ate, 8.91 grains; Magnesium Carbonate, 2.88 grains; Lithium 
Carbonate, trace; Calcium Sulphate, 1.17 grains; Ferric Sul- 
phate, .22 grains; Ferric Phosphate, trace; Silicia, .59 grains; 
Organic Matter and loss, .93 grains. Total solids in one 
United States gallon, 12.90. 

Kingston Springs (306 M.) is another small summer re- 
sort where many people spend vacations. It is one M. from 
Craggie Hope and quite similar to it. At Newsom Station 
(324 M.) an old stone mill, said to be over 200 years old, 
is almost hidden among the trees (left) on the bank of the 
Harpeth River just beyond the Station House. To the right 
at Harding Station (flag station, train may not stop) among 
the trees opp. the Station House is the mansion house of the 
Bellmead Stock Farm. In summer the tree foliage may ob- 
struct the view. This farm, of national fame, extends on 
both sides of the railway for a considerable distance. As 
Harding is a flag station it is best to have some train em- 
ploye point it cut. Stone fences prevail along here, made 
from loose stones collected from the land. The cost of 
construction is about 25 cents a yard. Approaching Nash- 
ville, on top of the hill 100 yds. from the track (left) is a 
stone building, the St. Mary's Orphan Asylum. Entering the 
city (341 M.) on the left are the shops of the N. C. & St. 
L. Ry., opposite which on the right is Centennial Park (P. 
76) in which is the Parthenon. Just beyond the railway 
shops near the track is a snuff factory (right), a brick build- 
ing with square smokestack. The large building to the S. 
(left) with tall clock tower is the Federal building, post- 
oiEce, etc. On the hillside (left) is the college for colored 
people, comprising two brick buildings, one of which hai 
a square tower (description of Nashville, P. 72). For Nash- 
ville to Jacksonville (see R, 1 C, P. 67), 



214 ST. LOUIS TO EL PASO. 



ROUTE 9. ST. LOUIS TO EL PASO, TEXAS. 

A. Via Little Eock, Texarkana, Marshall, Dallas and Fort 

Worth. 

Iron Mountain and Texas & Pacific Eys, (1,359 M.) Fare, 
$37.80. Sleeper, $8. 

For St. Louis to Little Eock, see Eoute 2 A, P. 102. 
Little Eock to Marshall, see Eoute 2 B, P. 124. 
Marshall to £1 Paso, see Eoute 19, P. 400. 

B. Via Texarkana, Sherman and Fort Worth. Chicago-St. 

Louis-Laredo. 

TEXARKANA, ARK.-TEX. Population, about 22,000. 

Hotels — Huckins House, Front St., A. P., $2.50-5 day. 
Cosmopolitan, State Line Ave., E. P., $2-3.50 day. Bene- 
field, Broad St., A. P., $1.50-2 day. Grand Central, 207 
Oak St., A. P., 50c-$l day; $3-6 week. 

Restaurants — Oyster Bay, 120 Broad. Elmo & Paul, 308 
Broad. Eoso Bud, State Line. 

Banks— State Bank, Broad St. Nat '1 Bk., Pine St. Mer- 
chants ' & Planters', State Line, Foreman Blk. 

Theater — Grand Opera House, Third St.; seats 1,500; prices 
75c-$1.50. Spring Lake Park, seats 500; prices lOc-50. 

Railway Express Offices — Pacific Express, 213 Pine, P. C. 
163. Wells Fargo, 304 State Line, P. C. 213. 

Telegraph Companies — Postal, 211 Pine, P. C. Western 
Union, 102 State Line, P. C, both lines 7; office hours, 6 a. m.- 
9 p. m.; Sundays, 7-10 a. m. and 4-6 p. m. 

Livery — Adams, Maple St. Scott's, Third St. 

Bill Posters and Distributors — Jas. Doyle, Third St. 

Laundry— Ealph Bros., 214-216-218 Elm St. 

Men's Furnishing Store — Brewer & Sanderson, Broad St. 

Largest Department Store — O'Dwyer & Ahern, Broad St. 

Postoffice — State Line Ave.; gen. del. and stamps, open 
8 a. m.-4 p. m. 

Public Library— Front St. 

Street Car System — Yes. 

Telephones — Local and long distance. 

Texarkana is an important manufacturing and railway 
center, having eipht lines of railway diverging in every 
direction. About 1 M. from the city is a plant where rail- 



TEXAEKANA AND CONNECTIONS. 215 

way ties and timber are impregnated with creosote to pre- 
vent decay. Aside from the fact that it is a hustling little 
city, it has not much out of the ordinary to ojffer to the 
tourist. 

Changing from the Iron Mountain to the Texas & Pacific 
and leaving Texarkana over the latter, the Marshall branch 
of the T. & P. is crossed at Transcontinental Junction (495 
M.), population about 300. New Boston (512 M.), popula- 
tion 1,500, is in the center of a fine farming district, and 
ships cotton, potatoes and a great deal of hay annually. 
This section is a fine fruit belt, but not yet developed. Land 
averages about ten dollars an acre. De Kalb (524 M.), popu- 
lation 420, ships cotton, potatoes, lumber, saw logs and ties. 
Oak Grove is in a rather poor section. It has on oil mill 
and ships some cotton. Clarksville (551 M.), population 
3,000 has a large compress (left entering town), and ships 
30,000 bales of cotton a year. The cottonseed product is also 
very large, and 50 cars each of corn and oats are shipped 
per year. It has one oil mill. Land is worth $40 to $75 an 
acre. Detroit (564 M.), population 2,000, ships cotton, has 
one oil mill, two gins, and a pressed brick plant. Land 
ranges from $40 to $60 an acre. The land now traversed 
is not much timbered. Blossom (571 M.), population 1,200, 
ships cotton, bricks and potatoes. It has two oil mills and 
the fruit industry flourishes in this section, 15,000 fruit 
trees having been set out in the fall of 1904. All kinds 
of soil are found, and the prices of land range from $40 to 
$75 an acre for black soil and $2.15 to $18 for sandy loam. 

Paris (581 M.), population about 18,000, is on the Texas 
& Pacific, Frisco and Santa Fe Eys. Merrick Hotel, A. P., 
$2.50-4; Kimball House, A. P., $1-1.50. It was laid out in 
1846 when the country was very sparsely settled, and is the 
center of a fertile farming region. In 1877 the entire busi- 
ness part was swept away by fire, but the town quickly re- 
covered and was built up better than ever. In addition to a 
most excellent public school system it has the Mary Connor 
College for girls, a Catholic Academy, and a Military 
Academy. Paris boasts of two cotton and oil plants, two 
pressed brick plants, one mattress and excelsior factory, 
one flour mill and grain elevator, a wagon factory, and elec- 
trically driven cotton mill and handle factory, a peanut 
plant and several minor manufacturing institutions. Clays 
of several varieties are found near, and many have a rich 
black shale and a limestone that makes better cement than 
lime. There is an abundance of hardwood such as ash, oak, 
gum, hickory, cottonwood, sycamore, locust and bois d'arc. 
Excellent opportunities are afforded for broom and hard- 
wood factories, also a canning plant. Cotton working fac- 



216 ST. LOUIS TO EL PASO. 

tories would also find a good field and be welcome. Land 
ranges from $10 to $25 per acre for unimproved and about 
$20-75 for improved. Brookston (589 M.), population 400, 
ehips cotton^ corn and prairie hay. Petty (596 M.) ships 
cotton and corn. It has an oil mill and three gins. Land 
sells at $40-75 an acre. Wheat averages about 23 bushels 
to the acre. Koney Grove (602 M.), population about 3,000; 
Commercial Hotel, A. P., $2, is the center of a magnificent 
black land belt. Its shipments of cotton amount to 21,000 
bales per year, and to this is added 100 cars of corn and 
about 5,000 tons of cottonseed product. It has one oil mill, 
four gins, one cotton compress, and a flour mill with a ca- 
pacity of 125 barrels per day. Windom (607 M.), population 
500, ships cotton, corn, cottonseed and fence posts. 

Four miles from the latter place is Dodds City (611 M.), 
population 400, and has one cotton gin. Bonham (618 M.), 
population 6,000 (By. eating house, 50 cts.), has one of the 
largest poultry shipping house in the country. This house 
averages 800 dressed turkeys a day and a large number of 
ducks, geese and chickens. Savoy (629 M.) ships 4,000 to 
5,000 bales of cotton annually. At Bells (632 M.), popula- 
tion 700, the T. & P. crosses the Dallas-Dcnison branch of 
the M., K. & T. Ey. North of Bells some distance is a 
splendid fruit section where peaches, apricots, blackberries, 
plums, etc., are successfully raised. Land ranges from $30 
to $80 per acre. At Sliennan Junction (641 M.) a short 
branch line diverges to the right to Denison 7 3-10 M. 

Sherman (644 M.), population 13,000, is quite a railway 
center. The Houston-Texas Central and the Frisco System 
are crossed here, and junction can be made with the M., K. 
& T., Cotton Belt and Santa Fe Eys. Sherman is a fair 
type of the hustling western town. It boasts of the largest 
cottonseed oil mill in the world, also one smaller one. There 
are four oil mills, with a capacity each of 800 barrels per 
day, one cotton compress and minor industries. The sur- 
rounding country is very rich, the soil being black, waxy 
land which yields heavily in wheat. There are several col- 
leges of note, namely, the North Texas Female College, a 
Methodist institution (large) ; the Carburdett College (fe- 
male), maintained by the Christian church; Austin College 
(male), a Presbyterian institution; La Tellier College (male) 
and St. Mary's Academy. Leaving Sherman a fine farming 
section is traversed to Southmayde (654 M.), population 132. 

At Whitesboro (663 M.), population 1,243, El Paso Hotel, 
A. P., $2; New Junction, A. P., $2, a line of the Mo,, Kas. 
8c Tex. Ey. diverges to the N. (right) to Denison, and to the 
W. to Wichita Falls. The Texas & Pacific and Mo., Kas. 
& Tex. Eys. use the same track between j, Whitesboro and 



FKOM DEiNTON TO FOKT WOETH. 217 

Fort Worth. Collinsville (669 M.) is a well-shaded village 
of about 900, with a good tributary farming section. The 
soil consists of sandy loam and black, waxy land. Cotton, 
corn, wheat and oats are raised, and some 6,000 bales of cot- 
ton are annually shipped. Pilot Point (681 M.), population 
3,000, is another little town which ships about 7,000 bales 
of cotton and considerable wheat and corn. It has an oil 
mill and three cotton gins. The country along here remark- 
ably resembles Southern Iowa. 

Denton (699 M.), population about 6,000, is a pretty place 
surrounded by a splendid farming country. Its cotton ship- 
ments amount to about 10,500 bales annually. It has two 
large flour mills, four cotton gins, an oil mill, a pressed 
brick plant and three large potteries. Wheat averages 
about eighteen bushels to the acre, and cotton a little less 
than half a bale to the acre. A good fruit country lies 
tributary; peaches, grapes and melons are successfully 
grown. The country adjacent is partially timbered, mostly 
oak, the timber decreasing southward. Leaving the city 
large pressed brick works lie to the right. In former days, 
when the cattle man was king, vast herds roamed freely 
over this country and the shrill yell of the cowboy mingled 
with the mournful howl of the coyote. Land then was con- 
sidered useless for farming and vast herds of bison roamed 
the grassy plains while the smoke of the Indian tepee rose 
lazily in the balmy air. All this has changed; the farmer 
now holds sway, prosperous towns have taken the place 
of Indian villages, wheat has displaced grass, and the cow- 
boy is but a memory. Just before entering Fort Worth 
the Trinity Eiver is spanned. The main business section of 
the city lies to the right as the train enters. The large 
building with tower, in the distance, is the County Court 
House. 

For Fort Worth to El Paso, see Eoute 19 A, P. 400. 



218 CHICAGO-ST. LOUIS TO LAEEDO. 

ROUTE 10. CHICAGO-ST. LOUIS TO 
LAREDO, TEXAS. 

Via Little Eock, Texarkana, Longyiew, Palestine, Austin 
and San Antonio. 

Wabash, Iron Mountain, Texas & Pacific and International 
and Gt. Northern Rys. (1,367 M.) Fare, $31.25. Sleeper, $8. 
Chicago-Little Rock (See R. 2 A, P. 102). 
Little Rock-Marshall (See R. 2 B, P. 124). 
Marshall-Longview Junction (See R. 19, P. 400.) 

Longview-Laredo via tlie International & Great Northern E-y. 

Leaving Longview Jet. (588 M.), we speed away to the 
S. W. through a country timbered with pine, poplar and 
other varieties of trees, crossing the Sabine River on a steel 
bridge 3 M. from Longview. At Kilgore (600 M.), pop. 300, 
we enter the peach secion. Many orchards are growing 
about here, but few of them as yet (1904) are bearing. The 
soil and climate from here S. is particularly adapted to cul- 
tivation of the peach and a very large acreage is being 
planted. Cotton is also raised in considerable quantities and 
seems to make a very good crop. The soil is a sandy loam 
of fair quality. Land may be had at prices ranging from 
$3.50 to $10 per acre for unimproved timber land to $10- 
25 for improved. It seldom gets cold enough here to form 
more than a thin crust of ice and even that is rare. Overton 
(610 M.), a new town, pop. about 500, is surrounded by 
many peach orchards, and fully 25 cars were shipped in 
1904. Most of the orchards are young. Just a few years 
ago land could be had all along here for almost a song, but 
Texas has begun to realize the worth of its broad acres, and 
the ox team and the ten-inch plow are rapidly yielding to 
modem, improved methods of agriculture and fruit raising, 
and the results have been astonishing to say the least. At 
Troupe (624 M.), pop. about 1,000 (Mitchell House nr. depot, 
$2), is the State Agricultural Experiment Farm, 1 M. to the 
N. W,, which has 120 acres devoted to experimental fruit, 
vegetables, cotton and corn. Fruit and vegetables are the 
main industry and Troupe now ships about 50 cars a year. 
Unimproved land ranges from $5-15 per acre; improved, 
$15-35. The soil is sandy loam with a red clay sub-soil, 
changing below to a red clay. Jacksonville (642 M.), pop. 
about 3,000 (Spear House, $2 day), is a substantial town with 
many brick business blocks, located in the center of a large 
area of old peach orchards, the shipments of peaches amount- 
ing to 350 cars with 250 cars of tomatoes, other vegetables 



PROM Px\LESTINE TO TAYLOR. 21Q 

and fruits. It has an oil mill, a cotton compress (8,000 bales 
shipped annually), a fruit-box factory, a canning factory 
also is contemplated. Many of the older orchards lie near 
the railway and seem thrifty. Land ranges from $1 to $10, 
for unimproved, and $10-75 for improved. The country has 
a large acreage of peach orchards, some 1,200 acres lying 
near the city. The lines of the St. Louis, Southwestern and 
the Texas & New Orleans Rys., the latter for Dallas and 
New Orleans are crossed here. The Jacksonville Commer- 
cial Club, C. A. Lawler, Sec'y, will answer all questions in 
regard to the country and its possibilities. At Prices (653 
M.), is (left) a large saw-niill. Just after leaving this sta- 
tion the Neches Elver is crossed on a steel bridge. It is to 
be noted that the roadbed and bridges of the I. & G. N. are 
excellent, and no matter how swiftly the train runs there 
is little jar or roll. Onward to Palestine the peach belt 
continues and there are most excellent chances for home- 
seekers everywhere. Potatoes do well, but the land is ideal 
for peaches and the trees, if properly cared for, grow fine. 

PALESTINE, TEX. (669 M.), population 11,000. 

International and Gt. Northern from Longview and Mine- 
ola on the N., Galveston and Houston on the S., and Laredo, 
San Antonio and Austin on the S. W., center here. 

Hotels— Davis Hotel, 620 Spring St., A. P., $2 day. Met- 
ropolitan Hotel, 614 Spring St., A. P., $2 day; $8-10 wk. 
Faulkner Hotel, 512 Spring St., A. P., $2 day; $10 wk. 
Sterne Hotel, No. 17 Main St., A. P., $1 day; spcl. by wk. 

Restaurants — Union Depot Restaurant. Redwines' Res- 
taurant, 504 Spring St. 

Banks— First Nat. B.^ 420 Spring St. Palestine Nat. B., 
323 Spring St. N. R. Royal B., 321 Spring St. 

Opera House — Jet. Ave. A and Main Sts. Prices based 
on play. 

Railway Exp. Pacific — Adjoins depot. 

Telegraph — ^Western Union, cor. Main and John Sts. Open 
7-6; Sundays, 7-10 a. m., and 4-6 p. m. Messenger service, 
P. C. 

Livery— Ezell 's Livery, 308 Oak St., P. C. 

Railway Ticket Office at depot. 

Men's Furnishings— Flannigan's, 418 Spring St., opp. de- 
pot. 

Dry Croods— Graham Bros., cor. Oak and John Sts. 

Public Library at City Hall. Y. M. C. A. Library in Y. 
M. C. A. bldg., near depot. 

Palestine is a type of the sleepy old southern town. Its 
residence section is very pretty but the town itself is not 
up-to-date. The soil here is quite red, lending a warm color- 



220 CHICAGO-ST. LOUIS TO LAREDO. 

ing to everything. Until the past few years, the Ry. has 
been the largest part of the city, as its shops are here, but 
of late the adjacent country has developed as a fruit raising 
section, and undoubtedly has a great future. Leaving Pal- 
estine the Trinity River is crossed 13 M. to the S. W., and 
heavily moss-draped trees are seen in the Trinity Bottoms. 
The matter of making this river navigable to Dallas is being 
seriously considered, and as its banks are almost uniformly 
precipitous and well-defined the scheme seems quite feasible, 
even though it is a small stream. Between Oakwoods (687 
M.), pop. 1,300, and Buffalo, pop 700 (Bloom Hotel, $2), 
there is some fine farm land. At the latter place there are 
fully 100 acres of peach trees. 

Marquez (724 M.), pop. 500, lies in an excellent section, 
3-3 14 M. beyond, which the train passes over the Navasota 
River, a small stream, on each side of which are very rich 
bottom lands. Franklin (746 M.), pop. 1,200 (National Ho- 
tel, $2 day), is the seat of Robertson Co. and the center of 
a rich section that heretofore has raised cotton but is now 
devoted to peach orchards. Many farms lie along here and 
the harvests are abundant. At Hearne (759 M.), pop. about 
2,700 (Exchange Hotel, $1 day), is the Houston & Texas Cen- 
tral Ry., Dallas to Houston, and the Hearne & Brazos Val- 
ley Ry., a short local road (18 M. of track). Hearne, the 
center of a cotton section with a compress and two oil 
mills, is surrounded by much good land. At Valley Junc- 
tion (763 M.), (Ry. eating house, meals, 50 cts.), the Fort 
Worth line of the International & Great Northern is crossed 
(Houston, Galveston, Dallas). Just beyond Valley Junction 
the Big Brazos River is crossed by a two-span steel bridge. 
At Milano (779 M.), population 600, (Russell House, $1.50 
a day), the Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fe is crossed, the same 
extending from Galveston into Western Texas. At Rockdale 
(788 M.), population 2,500 (Gill Hotel, $2 a day. Wolf Hotel, 
$2 a day), we cross the Aransas Pass Railway. This is 
a pretty town and the surrounding country is well adapted 
for farming and fruit-growing, as peaches, pears, grapes 
and berries of all kinds flourish. Cotton is one of the staple 
products. Thorndale (801 M.). population 600-700, is on 
Brushy Creek, surrounded by exceedingly rich land. Just 
before reaching Taylor the Missouri, Kansas & Texas R. R. 
is crossed. 

TAYLOR (814 M.), Population about 6,000. 
Banks — First National, City National, Taylor National. 
Hotels — Murphy, rates per day, $2; per week, $10. Clif- 
ton Hotel, rates per day, $1; per wk., $5. 
Restaurants — Ridel. 



THE CITY OF AUSTIN. 221 

Railway Express Companies — American, Pacific. 

Telegraph Companies — Southwestern and Western Union. 

Telephones — Local and long distance. 

Railways— M., K. & T. E. E., I. & G. N. R. R. 

Opera House — Taylor Opera House, seats 1,000. Prices 
based on play. 

Livery — Forward Transfer Co., rates reasonable. 

Laundry — Lilly White Steam Laundry, P. C. 

Taylor is the freight division of the International & 
Great Northern, and is surrounded by good farm lands, cot- 
ton, wheat and corn being the staples. It has a cotton com- 
press, two large oil mills and a flour mill as well as minor 
industries. No fruit has yet been grown in this section for 
E-hipment. Hutto (823 M.), is a village of 800. Eound 
Eock (831 M)., population 1,200 (Smith House, $2 day), is 
the next place to note. A branch line of the I. & G. N. runs 
N. from here to Georgetown. Eound Eock was once a good 
business point but recently lost its prestige, the proximity 
of Georgetown, which is the County Seat and of Austin, 
militating against it. At McNeil (835 M.), the Houston & 
Texas Central is crossed. It has some lime kilns. We now 
enter the capital of the State. 

AUSTIN, TEX. (849 M.), Pop. 23,861. 

Hotels — Driskiil, cor. Brazos and 6th Sts., A. P., $2.50-5 
a day. Avenue, 717 Congress Ave., A. P., $2-2.50 a day. 
Hancock, 109 W. 7th St., A. P., $2-2.50. Sutter, 304-6 Con- 
gress Ave. (opp. depots), E. P., $1 up. Southern, 318 Con- 
gress Ave., E. P., SOcts. Street cars run to all hotels. 

Restaurants— Opera House Cafe, 122 W. 6th St. Hotel 
Sutro Cafe, 304 Congress Ave. Bon Ton (Chinese), 609 
Congress Ave. 

Furnished Rooms — 606 San Jacinto St.; 504 Brazos St.; 
1404 La Vaca; 404 E. 2nd; 308 W. 14th; 3rd fl., 600 Congress 
Ave. 

Banks — First Nat., 600 Congress Ave. American Nat., 
126 E. 6th St. Austin Nat., 507 Congress Ave. State Nat., 
107 E. 6th St. 

Theater— Hancock Opera House, 118 W. 6th St. Seats 
1,000. Prices 25 cts. to $1.50. 

Railway Express— Wells-Fargo & Co., 121 W. 6th St., P. 
C. Pacific, 506 Congress Ave., P. C. 

Telegraph Omces— Postal, 103 W. 6th St., P. C. Open 
7:30 a. m.-2 a. m. Sundavs 8-12 a. m. and 4 p. m. to 1 a. m. 
Western Union, 104 V/. 6t'h St., P. C. Open 7 a. m. to 2 a. m. 
Sundays same. A. D. T. at Western Union Office. 

Livery— Eclipse Stables, 108 E. ^th St., P. C. 



222 CTIICAGO-ST. LOUIS TO LAKEDO. 

Eailway Ticket Offices — Int. & Gt. Northern, 522 Congress 
Ave., P. C. Houston & Tex. Cent., 106 Congress St., P. C. 
Mo., Kas. & Tex., 102 Congress Ave., P. C. 

Scalpers — None. 

Steam Laundry — Troy Laundry, 806 Congress Ave., P. C. 

Trunks and Repairs — Austin Trunk Factory, 611 Congress 
Ave., P. C. 

Men's Furnishings — Harrell & Kloin, 621 Congress Ave. 

Department Store — Raatz & O'Reilly, 416-18 Congress Ave. 

Postoffice — Cor. Colorado and W. *6th. Gen. Del., 8-6; 
M. O. dcpt., 9-5; registry, 8-6; gen. del., Sundays, 10- 
11; carrier's, Sundays snme. 

Austin, the Capital City of the State of Texas, is located 
on the Colorado River, and in the distance can be soon the 
Colorado Mts. The site is quite hilly. The Capitol Bldg. 
occupies a commanding position at the head of Congress 
Ave., in spacious park grounds. It was built by Chicago 
men at a cost of $3,500,000 in exchange for a grant of 
3,000,000 acres of the best land in Texas. It is a splendid 
red granite building, 566 ft. 6 in. long, by 288 ft. 10 in. wide, 
classically designed in the form of a Greek Cross. From 
the grade line to the tip of the statue on the dome is 311 
ft., and it is entirely fire-proof. Entering the grounds 
from Congress Ave. to the right is the magnificent gray 
granite Confederate Monument, erected in 1901, surmounted 
by a bronze figure of Jefferson Davis. Four bronze figures 
at the corners represent infantry, artillery, cavalry and 
sailors. On the sides is a full chronological list of Civil 
War battles. The front space has some very interesting 
figures, among which are the total enlistments, and the total 
dead of each party. The Confederates numbered 437,000 
dead and the Federals 485,216. Across the walk is the 
handsome Firemen's Monument. Nearer the bldg. (right) is 
the beautiful Alamo Monument of red granite, surmounted 
by a bronze figure. It is in the form of an arched stone 
roof supported bv 4 pillars. On the pillars are the names 
of the heroes of ' the Alamo. The entrance to the Capitol 
Bldg. is very imposing and handsome. The interior, aside 
from the senate and house chambers is, however, a little dis- 
appointing, the design being such as to give a rather 
crowded look and the finish being comparatively cheap. 
Entering note (left) a painting in oil of the capture of Santa 
Anna. After being defeated at the battle of San Jacinto 
in which Santa Anna eluded capture, he threw away his 
gaudy uniform and donned that of a private, but in spite 
of his efforts he was captured. The painting depicts him 
brought before General Sam Houston, who lies on a mat- 
tress. Santa Anna is the one in a blue jacket and white 



THE CITY OF AUSTIN. 223 

trousers standing at the foot of Houston's couch. Tlie 
one who has his hand to his ear is ''Deaf" Smith. Gen'i 
Kusk stands by the tree. On opp. wall is a splendid por- 
trait of David Crockett. At the rear (right) is a marble 
statue of Stephen S. Austin, and (left) one of Sam Houston; 
both are by Miss Elizabeth Ney of Austin. In the Gov- 
ernor's public reception room on the 2nd floor is a flag, 
made by the ladies of Austin which was sent to New York 
and sold at public auction to swell the Galveston flood 
victims' fund. Wm. E. Hearst bid it in for $50,000, and 
then presented it to the makers. The curtains of this apart- 
ment cost $750 per window. The Senate chamber, in the E. 
wing, is a lofty glass ceiled apartment. On the walls is a 
collection of oil paintings of prominent Texans. One is a 
large painting of the battle of San Jacinto, in which the 
principals may easily be recognized. The Supreme Court 
Law Library (13,000 vols.)^ is in the N. wing and it has a 
good collection of oil portraits. The heavy, solid columns 
on the portico and the solid granite blocks at the window 
sides are noticeable. The *Hous6 chamber is in the W. 
wing and is a splendid room with an iron-glass ceiling sup- 
ported entirely from above. There are some paintings here 
of more than passing interest, notably the one at the right 
of the speaker's station, a splendid portrait in oil of Sam 
Houston, in his old age. It is an exceedingly life-like de- 
lineation and shows most careful attention to detail. On 
the left of the Speaker's station is a historic painting worthy 
of some study. It represents Stephen Austin in his log 
cabin at San Felipe while commander of Mexican military 
and governor of a province. The colonial surveyor sits on 
the floor drawing a plot of the land on a puncheon so the 
Colonial Land Commissioner, Baron de Bastrop^ who is on 
the left (as we face picture) can issue a patent for it. 
The figure (right of Houston) with a pipe in his hand, is 
Eand Foster, a hunter. Behind Foster is the Colonial Secre- 
tary.^ The face of Simon the cook, is seen at the window, 
waiting to hear the news brought by the courier who, with 
bandage on his forehead, stands across the valley to where 
smoke rises from homes of the settlers which are being 
burned by the Indians. Houston, with a copy of the laws 
of Mexico in one hand, raises his other to grasp his rifle, 
in the rack above his head. On the floor is a compass, 
water gourd, etc. In the W. wing on the first floor, is the 
State Historical Dept. Leaving the Capitol Bldg. the large 
red brick structure in the left cor. of grounds is the land 
office. The large, flat-roofed bldg. with 6 cols, (on the hill 
right), is the Governor's Mansion. To the left of the en- 
trance to the grounds, leaving the mansion, is the 3-story, 



224 CHICAGO-ST. LOUIS TO LAREDO. 

limestone county court house -with sheriff's residence to the 
rear, and adjoining it the county jail. 

The **State Blind Institute, founded in 1856, is in the 
E. part of city and is reached by Blind Institute car, fare 
5e. It may be freely inspected, but it is advisable to find 
out by telephone the days and hours of admittance. There 
are two buildings of brick and one (the oldest) of stone. 
It is to teach the blind, restoring their sight if possible, 
and give them a trade by which, even in their blind state, 
they may earn a living. The methods and modes employed 
are of great interest and the facility with which the pupils 
read with their finger tips is astonishing. The letters are in- 
dicated by a series of raised dots on the paper very similar 
to the telegraphic alphabet. The industrial department is 
also of much interest. 

The Insane Asylum is in the N. end of the city and one 
should take the Insane Asylum car, fare 5 cts. It can be 
visited any day except Sunday and Monday between the 
hours of 9 and 11 a. m. and 1 and 5 p. m. It has 1,200 pa- 
tients and few state institutions are of greater interest. 
The main building is of limestone, erected 1857-61, and 
formally opened as an asylum in the latter year. The ward 
decoration and general air of cheerfulness impress the visi- 
tor. The wards open into large balconies enclosed by wire 
screens. ISTearly all of the ward halls have bright-hued 
carpets and many have pictures. The women's ward is a 
model with its profusion of fancy pillows, pictures and deco- 
rations of various kinds. Two wards have pianos, in the 
room frequented by all, and anyone can use them. To all 
appearances it is a more than ordinarily beautiful home, 
and many of the inmates, by their general bearing and con- 
versation, further this impression. The daugerous wards, 
of course, are not visible. A bowling alley affords amuse- 
ment, and there is a large ball-room with a very fine floor, 
at one end of which is a stage for entertainments of various 
sorts. The swimming pool is 30x60 ft., and there is a 
well-regulated Pasteur Institute for hydrophobia cases. A 
large farm is connected with the institution. The depart- 
ment for colored people is separate from the rest of the 
institution, but exhibits the same care. 

The Stetson Infirmary, Main St. or Belt Line car, fare 5c., 
is a handsome 3-story brick building and is modern and 
up-to-date. The State University (1,400 students), Main St. 
or Belt Line car, fare 5c., lies to the rear of the Capitol 
Bldg. in a commanding position on high ground. The main 
building is a 4-story yellow brick of imposing appearance 
and has a handsome rotunda. The grounds are spacious 
(40-50 acres) and well shaded. Back of the rotunda is the 



THE CITY OF AUSTIN. 225 

University Library of 43,000 vols, and 13,000 pamphlets with 
many Texas newspapers and some old Spanish archives, 
among which are the Bexar archives, consisting of corre- 
spondence and other official documents accumulated at San 
Antonio during the Spanish-Mexican regime. The Swanson 
collection of 3,476 coins and 1846 medals is here, many of 
the coins dating back before the Christian era. They are 
kept in a safe. On the second floor of the handsome new 
Engineering bldg. is a fine collection of Texas minerals 
handsomely arranged. It is open to the public every day 
except Sunday, from 8:30 a. m. to 5:30 p. m. It contains 
the Texas Mineral Exhibit which was awarded a Gold 
Medal at the St. Louis Exposition. Every variety is shown, 
including a complete collection of Texas oils and products 
obtained from them; sulphur, salt, gypsum, cement rocks, 
asphalt, coal, lignite, clays for pottery, fire brick, ordinary 
brick, sewer-pipe, etc., agates, onyx, amethyst, etc., etc. 
The special features of the collection are quicksilver and 
quicksilver ores from Brewster County, polished six-inch 
cubes of all of the building stones in Texas, including the 
opal granite of Llano County, which is not found elsewhere; 
the beautiful serpentines from Gillespie County; the golden 
onyx of San Saba County; the great masses of calcite crys- 
tals from the quicksilver mines in Brewster County; the 
huge quartz crystal, weighing 700 pounds, from Llano Coun- 
ty; the famous meteorite worshipped by the Commanche 
Indians; two beautiful Indian mills from the Chisos Moun- 
tains, Brewster County, and a complete collection of rare 
minerals from Barringer Hill, Llano County. This col- 
lection is by far the most complete and handsome ever 
brought together in Texas. 

About 3% M. from Austin along a road which affords a 
pleasure drive, is the wreckage of a splendid granite-faced 
dam constructed at a cost of $1,500,000, the power house, 
and much of the costly machinery. The Mayor, who was 
a house builder, insisted that the advice of the expert 
engineer to place the foundation deeper was not well 
planned. He overruled. The dam stood for a time and then 
one morning, undermined by the action of the water, it 
collapsed. It is chiefly of interest now as showing the ter- 
rible force exerted by penned-up water. One great section 
of the dam weighing hundreds of tons was moved bodily 
down the stream fully 50 ft. The face of the remaining 
wall (up stream side) shows great fissures. It seems in- 
credible that water could do this. Care should be exercised 
in going on the floor of the old power house, as it is unsafe. 
The lake held back by the dam was miles in length and there 
was a large excursion steamer on its waters, the wreckage 



226 CHICAGO-ST. LOUIS TO LAREDO. 

of whicli is still seen above the dam on the opp. side. 
Austin has not yet recovered from the blow. Not only was 
the dam and machinery gone but a new light and water 
plant had to be provided at once. Some of the power plant 
machinery was available, but many thousands of dollars 
worth of it is still in the old power house. 

Leaving Austin some 3 M. to the right the Cedar Brakes, 
a range of rocky hills covered with cedars are seen. This 
range extends to San Antonio. On the left lies good farm 
land, mostly cultivated, cotton and corn being the staples. 
Manchaca (859 M.), pop. 110, has one cotton gin. Buda 
(863 M.), pop. 250, has one gin and is a very pretty little 
place. Kyle (870 M.), pop. 1,000, has a gin and an oil mill. 
Junction is here made with the Mo., Kas. & Tex. By., which 
parallels our line to San Marcos (879 M.), pop. 2,292. 
San Marcus, which has an oil mill and a cotton gin, a 
U. S. Fisli Hatchery and a State Normal School as well as a 
college for boys and one for girls. Hunter (886 M.), pop. 
100, has a cotton gin and is on the Mo., Kas. & Tex. By. 
New Braunfels (896 M.), pop. 2,097, has two large flour 
mills, one of which has water power, and an oil mill. It 
lies on the Guadalupe Eiver, which provides water power and 
irrigation. Onions are largely raised. Bracken (910 M.), 
pop. 100, is on the Cibolo Creek and has one gin. Wetmore 
(917 M.), pop. 50, has one gin. All the land to the left 
of the train far beyond Austin is excellent for farming 
and is almost entirely cultivated. The work accomplished 
by the Int. & Gt. No. Ry. in improving the country which 
a few short years ago was a wilderness, is wonderful. 
Towns, hamlets and homes by the thousand have sprung 
up, and land that for years was deemed worthless has 
proved of value. The next place is 

SAN ANTONIO (928 M.), population 70,000. 

On the lines of the International & Grt. Northern, So. 
Pacific, San Antonio & Aransas Pass and the Mo., Kas. & 
Tex. Rys. Street cars from all depots extend to the city, 
fare 5c.; except late at night. Take S. P. car for So. Pac. 
depot, I. & G. N. or West End car for Int. & Grt. Northern 
depot and So. Flores or S. Alamo car for Aransas Pass depot. 

Hotels — Hotel Monger, S. E. cor Alamo Plaza, A. P., $3-6 
day. Bexar Hotel, 327 W. Houston St., A. P., $2-4 day. 
Maverie, 326 E. Houston St., A. P., $2.50; E. P., $1 up. The 
Southern, cor. Main Plaza and Dolorosa, A. P., $2.50-3 day. 
This hotel is a rendezvous of stockmen, the plaza at^ its 
front being at one time a great stock market. American 



SAN ANTONIO AND THE ALAMO. 227 

Hotel, cor. Ave. C and 5th St., A. P., $2 day; sped to fam- 
ilies. Mahncke Hotel, 201 E. Houston St., A. P., $2 day. 
The Elite, cor. W. Commercial and Soledad Sts., E. P., $1 
day. Hotel Alamo, 323i/o Alamo Plaza, E. P., 50c-$l; 
A. P., $1.50-2. St James Hotel, 313 E. Houston St., E. P., 75c 
up. Laclede Hotel, 726 W. Commerce (in Mexican section, 
very large house), E. P., 50c up; rooms $2-4 wk. 

Restaurants— The Torreon, 123 Commercial St., Scholtz 
Eestaurant, 117 Losoya St. * * Original Mexican Kestaurant, ' ' 
119 Lasoya St. Hotel Alamo Cafe (see Hotel Alamo), meals 
25c. 

Furnished Rooms — Laclede Hotel, 726 W. Commerce, 222^7^ 
Lasoya St., 211 Houston St. and many other places about 
city — signs out. 

Banks— First National, 107 Main Plaza. Alamo National, 
128 W. Commerce St. City Nat., 202 W. Commerce St. 
Lockwood Nat., 201 W. Commerce St. 

Opera Houses — Grand Opera House, W. side Alamo Plaza; 
prices based on play. Empire Theater, cor. Houston and 
St. Mary's Sts.; prices based on play. Orpheon Family The- 
ater, 405 Houston St.; vaudeville; prices 10-20c. 

Ry. Express — Pacific, 119 W. Commerce St., P. C. Ameri- 
can, 141 W. Commerce St., P. C, Wells Fargo & Co., 120 W. 
Commerce St., P. C. 

Telegraph Offices — Western Union, 142 W. Commerce St.; 
open always, P. C. and messenger service. Postal, 203 W. 
Commerce St., P. C. 

Livery — Palace Stables, hacks or autos, 112 Blum St., P. C. 

Railway Ticket Offices — Int. & Gt. Northern, S. E. cor. 
Alamo Plaza, P. C. San Antonio & Aransas Pass, opp. Men- 
ger Hotel, P. C. Mo., Kas. & Tex., 117 N. Alamo, P. C. So. 
Pacific, cor. Alamo Plaza and Crockett St., P. C. Santa Fe, 
103 W. Commerce St., P. C. 

Steam Laundry — Texas Steam Laundry, 217 Losoya St., 

P. C. 

Men's Furnishings— W. D. Mannen, 506^^ E. Houston St. 

Trunks and Repairs — J. F. Fentiman, 323 Alamo Plaza, 
P. C. 

Department Stores— A. H. Hardie & Co., 214-16 W. Com- 
merce St. 

Postoffice — N. end of Alamo Plaza. Gen '1 del., open 8 a. m. 
to 8 p. m.; Sundays, 8:30 to 10:30; M. O. Dept., 9 a. m. to 8 
p. m.; Registry, 8 a. m. to 8 p. m. 

Public Library — Cor. Market and Casino Sts. 

Commercial Body — Commercial Club, Chas. N. Kigth, 
Socrotary. 

San Antonio, one of the chief cities of Texas, known as 
the ''Cradle of Texas liberty," lies in S. W. Texas about 



228 CHICAGO-ST. LOUIS TO LAEEDO. 

125 M. from the Mexican border on the banks of the San 
Antonio River, and is of a decided Spanish character. It 
was settled between 1690 and 1700 by the Spaniards and 
was partly a presidio or military post and party a mission. 
It was then known as San Antonio de Bexar. The San 
Antonio Eiver, which rises in Crystal Springs, just N, of the 
city, is small, narrow and very crooked. It winds sinuously 
for a distance of 13 M. through the city, and with its small 
tributary, the San Pedro, divides it into three sections. 
Spanning its waters are seventeen large iron bridges. 

San Antonio resembles in shape a horseshoe, the business 
portion representing the toe. To get an idea of it, the best 
way is to ascend to the Mndsome roof garden at the top 
of the G. Bedell Moore Bldg., cor. of Houston and Losoya 
Sts. A splendid view can thus be had and it aids one in 
locating different sections. 

The Alamo is on the E. side of the Alamo Plaza in the 
business section close to the hotels, and it is the point of 
greatest interest. It is of stone, erected in 1718 by the 
Franciscan Monks, when it was known as the Mission San 
Antonio de Velaro; but this name was changed in 1793 to the 
Church of the Alamo, which probably was derived from the 
grove of Cottonwood (Alamo) trees nearby. The structure 
has thick walls and was originally arched over with stone, 
indicated by the pilasters in the interior walls showing the 
foot of the former arch. Just over the entrance was a 
choir loft, otherwise it seems to be about as it was at first. 
As one stands with back to the entrance, to the right in 
former days was a corral for the protection of settlers 
against Indian raids, and for keeping stock. Its walls were 
on a line with the present building and enclosure, the out- 
side or street wall of the Alamo being the original wall of 
the corral. To the left was a long, narrow adobe structure 
for defense and storage, which extended about 200 ft. due 
W. with a space of some 40 ft. between it and the Alamo 
wall. It is supposed that there were one or two towers 
surmounting the Alamo before the roof fell. In 1836 an 
event occurred here which will always figure prominently in 
Texas annals, namely, the ''Fall of the Alamo," and it 
materially changed the building. Texas had revolted against 
certain oppressive Mexican laws, and Santa Anna, with an 
army of about 8,000, was sent to reduce them to submis- 
sion. On the 22nd of February the advance guard of this 
army appeared before the Alamo, which was garrisoned by 
a small force of about 175 under Col. Travis, including 
Colonel Bowie, the inventor of the bowie-knife, and the 
daring David Crockett, ex-Congressman of Tennessee and 
a famed hunter of both man and beast. They held the 



SAN ANTONIO AND THE ALAMO. S29 

Mexicans at bay for twelve days and killed about 2,000, but 
finally, on March 6th, the church was carried by assault and 
they were obliged to yield their lives on the altar of Texan 
liberty, under circumstances of great ferocity. After a 
messenger had been sent out for assistance and had failed 
to return it became apparent to Colonel Travis that the 
end had come. During a lull in the assault, therefore, he 
gathered his men together at one end of the building, and, 
drawing a line with his sword point, gave them the choico 
to surrender or *'die fighting," inviting those who wished 
to fight to cross the line. Tapley Holland leaped the line 
and every man in the garrison followed his example but one, 
from whom we get this tale of heroism. Colonel Bowie vv^as 
lying sick on a cot and he said, "Boys, I cannot come to you, 
but I wish some of you would be so kind as to move my 
cot over there.'' Willing hands obeyed his wish. In the 
corner to the right as one enters is a door bearing a plac- 
ard. The room into which it opens is where the women, 
children and Colonel Bowie remained during the fight, and it 
was there that Colonel Bowie was finally impaled by the 
bayonets of the Mexicans and held up on their sword 
points until the officers ordered them to desist. Just out- 
side of this door in the corner David Crockett madly fought 
his last fight, and was found lying on a heap of dead which, 
it is said, numbered 17. Almost 150 dead Mexicans were 
found within the walls. As one views where Crockett fell, 
imagination is fain to picture the dauntless fighter standing 
in the corner, back to waU, with blood-streaked face, blazing 
eyes and clubbed musket in hand, mowing down the enemy 
pressing toward him, while in the room close by, too fright- 
ened to scream and too benumbed to realize the awful occur- 
rence, the women and children crouch about Colonel Bowie's 
couch. Suddenly is heard a yell of triumph. Crockett is 
down, the enemies are upon him, he is impaled upon the 
cruel bayonet points, and all is over. No, not yet! But 
here the mind draws a curtain shutting out that last horror 
within the walls of the Alamo. After the battle the bodies 
of the slain Texans were taken to where now stands the 
German Catholic church on E. Commerce St., and cremated. 
On the left, as one enters, is another room with a sketch 
over the door, giving its history. Beside this door is the 
mission bell, which it is supposed hung together with two 
others, in a tower of the Alamo. Just back of the bell on the 
wall is an autograph letter bearing the signature of Crock- 
ett. On the walls are two other historic sketches. At the 
curio stand a complete and authentic history may be pur- 
chased. The entire building is full of historic interest. It 



230 CHICAGO-ST. LOUIS TO LAEEBO. 

is open to the public, free, from 8 to 12 a. m., and from 2 to 
5 p. m. on week days. On Sundays it is closed. 

Leaving the Alamo one can best see the business section 
and many of the most interesting points by walking. Turn- 
ing to the right, the N. E. end of the Plaza is approached and 
the splendid three-story Government Bldg. of limestone con- 
taining the postoffice and federal court. The architecture 
is odd and handsome, somewhat on the Spanish order. It 
cost $275,000. To the left on Houston St. is the five-story, 
limestone Maverick Bank Bldg., in which are the general 
offices of the San Antonio & Aransas Pass Railway and 
many lawyers' offices. Passing down the left side of Hous- 
ton St., at the next corner (right) is the G. Bedell Moore 
Bldg., afore-mentioned. Diagonally opposite is the five- 
story red brick Hicks Bldg., occupied almost exclusively 
by physicians, adjoining which is the Orpheon Family The- 
ater, vaudeville. One block further on the right is the 
Bexar hotel, 4-story, opp. which (left) is the New Maverick 
hotel, and V2 blk. beyond (right) is the 5-story, white brick 
St. James, E. P. hotel. Next cor. (right), Nevarro St., is the 
5-story Peck Furniture Co.'s Bldg., opp. which (left) is 
Goggan Bros.* Music House, one of the best in the S. 
Turning right on Nevarro St. to Jefferson St. (1 blk.), we 
pass (left) the Harmony Club Bldg., a high class Jewish 
organization and the beautiful Travis Park M. E. (South) 
Church Bldg., cost $62,000. As we stand on the cor. of Ne- 
varro and Jefferson Sts. we see (right) Travis Park with 
a handsome gray granite Confederate monument in its 
center. To our right, one blk. on Jefferson, is the splendid 
Jewish Synagogue. Back of Travis Park, on the N. E. cor., 
is a quaint Episcopal Church, built in Old English style. 
Returning to Houston St. turn right, continuing 1 blk. to 
the cor. of St. Mary's St., noting (right, on cor.), the 
Independent Order of Odd Fellows Bldg., and cross the San 
Antonio Eiver. Continuing on to (1 blk.) cor. Soledad St., 
we see (left) the Buckthorn Saloon, one of the sights of 
the city. Many ladies view this. It is a saloon, but it is 
a high class one and the collection it has is an excuse for 
any lady, with a proper escort, to enter it. Over the bar 
is an antler with 78 distinct points. It is odd and worth 
seeing. The whole place is lined with antlers of deer, 
moose, elk, etc., and horns of other animals, representing 
almost every country. Turning left on Soledad St. to No. 
132, the Veramendi Palace, an old one-story structure, is 
seen, which was occupied by Gov. Veramendi in olden days. 
Here Col. Bowie won his bride, who was the Governor's 
daughter. The paneled doors in the Veramendi palace 
were hung in 1720. The ballet holes in them are relies of 



SAN ANTONIO AND ITS FEATURES. 231 

past battles. A little beyond on Soledad St. is the old 
County Court House (left), a 3-story stone building, and the 
Nat. Bank of Commerce on the cor. (left), opp. which 
(right) is the Elite Hotel, on the Main Plaza, beautifully 
parked in its center, on the S. side of which is the $600,- 
000 new County Court House, a splendid 4y2-story brown 
stone building. Crossing the Plaza past a triangular 
cactus bed with many queer cacti, W. side of Main 
Plaza, the San Femandino Cathedral, built of stone 
with two towers, is noted; the rear portion of which 
is very old, dating from the 18th century, but the 
front was built immediately atfer the war. The interior 
is in Spanish style. The service is Mexican. To the left of 
the altar is an image of the Christ Child, from Spain. There 
are some large paintings, but none of note. To the rear of 
the Cathedral is Military Plaza, in the center of which is the 
beautiful City Hall, a three-story, lime building, trimmed 
with Texas red granite; its cost was $210,000. Passing 
through it and out on the opp. side on the right is a 
row of one-story structures and about the center is No. 
105, which has a doorway keystone (street door) bearing 
the coat of arms of Austria. This was the Governor's 
••Palace.*' It was erected in 1747 and was occupied, suc- 
cessively, by four Governors, Antonio Cordero being the 
first. He was tried for treason, executed and his head placed 
on a pole where the City Hall now stands. The thickness 
of the walls is unusual. Passing on to the end of these 
bldgs. (cor. of Commerce St.), turning left down Com- 
merce St., crossing San Pedro Creek (P. 233) into a section 
given over mostly to the Mexicans, on the left is the La- 
clede Hotel, a low-priced house with some 500 rooms. Diag- 
onally opposite (right) on the cor. of Laredo St. is a two- 
story frame bldg. at No. 801 W. Commerce St., which 'is a 
Mexican saloon, in the rear of which, in a rude structure, 
is a pit where large sums are wagered on cocks which 
battle in its blood-stained arena. Signs read, *'No Yelling 
Allowed," indicating that the onlookers become excited. 
Continuing on Commerce St. to Market Sq., the handsome 
yellow brick market house with a co^nvention hall, is seen. 
The market is below and above is an auditorium which seats 
4,000 persons. Across the street N. is Milam Sq., in which 
is a handsome granite monument. Across Milam Sq. is the 
splendid 4% -story Santa Rosa (Catholic) Hospital, to the 
left of which is the Catholic Orphanage. Eeturning along 
Commerce St. and after passing Main Plaza, the wholesale 
section is reached, in which also are many retail stores. It 
has many nice stores and some very fine buildings,, but 
nothing else of more than passing interest until the impos- 



232 CHICAGO ST. LOUIS TO LAREDO. 

ing bldg. of the Alamo Nat. Biik. (right) is reached, cor. 
N. Presa. One block to the right from here is Market 
St. and the Public Library, a handsome building of yellow 
brick. The library is complete and has 11,000 vol- 
umes and 2,000 pamphlets. It is open to the public 
12"'{> hours week days and 4 hours Sunday afternoons. 
Adjoining it is the Casino, the oldest German club 
house in the State, erected in 1S54. Eeturning to Com- 
merce St. and turning right on that street San Antonio 
River is soon recrosscd. At the first street beyond (N. 
Alamo) turn left to Alamo Sq., from the other end of which 
this little trip started. This is prettily planned, but has 
tliree features of unusual interest. Just to the S. of the 
music stand (entering the Plaza at the S. end) across the 
walk from the cactus bed is a tree some 4 in, in diameter, 
the bark of which is very rough. This is a cork tree, one of 
the two known to be in this country. On the otlier side 
(N.) of the music stand just to the left close to the walk as one 
stands with back toward the center of the music stand, is a 
green rose bush. Look close for the flowers, while perfectly 
formed, are identical in color with the leaves, and this 
makes it hard to distinguish them. Straight ahead (N.) 
from the center of the music stand, 15 ft. beyond, the 
great palm, is a cottouwood tree with 5 stalks/ which is 
a native of W. Mexico. When mature these trees will 
bear 1,500 lbs. of fine lint, much used in Europe to adul- 
terate silk. 

A Street Car Eide— Take a Government Hill car, fare 5c., 
cor. Houston and Ave. C. The paving on this street is 
noticeable. It is of crushed stone but cannot be told from 
asphalt which it closely resembles. At the cor. of Ave. 
C. and 5th St. is the residence of Mr. Sullivan, reported 
as the richest man in the S. W. Where the car turns 
right (left 2 blks.), is a large yellow brick brewery. Maver- 
ick Park is to the left here. Further is an open square 
(left) with stone buildings on three sides. This is the 
lower post of Fort Sam Houston. The residences around 
the square are those of the officers, and the long building 
in the background is barracks. The long building in an 
enclosure by the street farther on is the Commissary for 
the Dept. of Texas, There are about 25 deer in this en- 
closure. At the end of the line straight ahead is an 
enclosure which is the Upper Post. The large building to 
the right by the entrance is the batchelor officers* quarters, 
and the one to the left by the entrance is the headquarters. 
Wednesdays and Saturdays in summer it is a very popular 
place with San Antonians, as band music is furnished. 
Eeturning, get a transfer and leave the car at Soledad St., 



SAN ANTONIO AND ITS FEATUEES. 233 

taking a San Pedro car there for San Pedro SpriDgs. At 
the first turn left the large, yellow brick building is the Pliysi' 
cians' and Surgeons' Hospital. Just beyond it is the 
beautiful yellow brick Central Christian Church. After the 
car turns right (passing park, left) (left) on the hill (left) 
is Laurel Heights, a rich residence section. After the car 
turns (left) to the right l^^ M. is Ft. Sam Houston, afore- 
mentioned. Farther out are the Int. & Gt. Northern Ey. 
tracks, and at the end of the line is a good view. The 
large, isolated building far out is the Catholic School erected 
recently. Returning, leave the car at San Pedro Park. 
Not far from its entrance (right) is an old Spanish Water 
Way, used to conduct water about the city in olden days 
and built about 75 years ago. The large springs form the 
headwaters of San Pedro Creek. The lakes and springs, 
and there are a number in the park, are remarkable for 
their exceeding clearness. The writer never saw such ab- 
solute clearness excepting at Silver Springs, Fla. Many 
varieties of fish, can be seen, and it is beautiful. The 
grounds, too, are charming. A wading stream is provided 
for children, the water is only about 6 in. deep and hugely 
enjoyed by the little ones. Farther on is a zoo with about 
250 animals; adm. 25c. 

Wonder Chapel — Take a West End car, cor, Houston & 
Alamo Plaza; get off at the first turn (left) after passing 
Int. & Gt. No. depot, which will be Euis St., (show this 
direction to conductor) and walk V-i blk. right to the small 
building on the left of the street with a small cross on th9 
apex of the roof and a figure in a little niche in the gable. 
This is Wonder Chapel. Entrance is free. Very likely a 
Mexican man or v/oman will be found kneeling on the 
floor engaged in devotion. The place is very small, only 
about 12x18 ft. with a 9-ft. ceiling of lumber, and there 
are no seats. Interest centers in the figure of the Savior at 
the end, surrounded by a crude representation of mountains 
on which are herds of x>orcelain toy sheep. The 
image of the Savior on the cross is known to be fully 200 
years old. On the skirt are many hundred metal represen- 
tations of limbs, arms, feet, etc., the belief being that prayer 
made in faith, to this figure, will cure any ill to which 
flesh is heir. When one is cured he, or she, proceeds to 
hang a metal representation of the part that was cured 
on the skirt of the figure, hence it is loaded. Under the 
figure in a grotto is a representation of the Recognition 
of Divinity. The interior is crude and strange. The Mexi- 
can attendant will gladly receive emolument. 

Automobile Course — There is a splendid auto drive over 
30 M. of fine roads. A Golf Linls has been provided and it 



234 CHICAGO-ST. LOUIS TO LAKEDO. 

is claimed to be a most excellent one. At Muth's Garden, 
Gov't Hill car, fare 5c, open air entertainments of various 
eorts are held in summer, such as vaudeville, music and 
plays. 

Hot Sulphur Wells — In the suburbs of the city, reached 
by Nevarro street car, fare 5c, are Hot Sulphur Wells, 1,800 
to 2,200 ft. deep, the waters of which range from 103 to 
106 degrees in temperature. The large bath house and hotel 
($3.50 up) at the well nearest to the city are modern. The 
S. W. Hospital for the Insane (450 patients) is near one 
of the wells, a visit to it being of much interest. It has 
nice grounds and a visit will prove of interest to those who 
enjoy seeing such institutions. The waters of the wells have 
curative powers in rheumatism, skin diseases, syphilis, stom- 
ach trouble, liver and kidney complaints, etc. 

The *' Battle of Flowers," which takes place annually 
on April 21, is quite pleasurable. It is the anniversary 
of the battle of San Jacinto, and in connection with other 
events which it also represents, requires from three to six days. 
The International Fair occurs in October, at which Texas and 
several Mexican States are usually well exhibited. The 
stock show is especially fine. The grounds and buildings 
where the Fair is held are about 3 M. S., and are accessible 
by Aransas Pass Ey. or electric tramway. Eoosevelt's 
Eough Eiders were organized there in 1898. Breckinridge 
Park, with its well-kept roads winding in ami out 'mid 
trees and shrubbery, is beautiful, and much frequented by 
residents and visitors. David Crockett's home (Eiver Ay. 
car) has been destroyed by souvenir hunters. San Antonio 
has a great many parks, schools, etc., also some attractions 
other than those named, though of minor importance. Those 
who include San Antonio in their itinerary will not regret it. 

San Antonio-Laredo Line — The wonders that have been 
accomplished along this stretch of track are many. Four- 
teen years ago it was an arid waste of sun-baked plain with 
nothing but cacti. Owing to the energy of the Interna- 
tional & Great Northern it has been transformed, in places, 
at least, into an immensely productive farming region. The 
change is marvelous where cultivation exists, and the indi- 
cations are that much if not all of the land will soon yield 
abundantly of earth's bounty. Leaving San Antonio, south- 
ward, is Von Ormy (931 M.) on the Medina Eiver, a small 
place of about 100 inhabitants. It has one cotton gin. Lytle 
(951 M.), population 100, is the center of a section capable 
of the highest agricultural development. It lies in an arte- 
sian belt, so abundantly supplied with wells that the water 
seems to be inexhaustible. To the right of the tracks (1,700 
ft.) are the Lytle Coal Mines, 30 to 50 ft. deep, 4 to 6 ft. 



LAEEDO AND THE END OF THE EOUTE. 235 

vein, from whence lignite coal, used mostly for engines, etc., 
is mined. Devine (961 M.), population 900, has good schools, 
two cotton gins and a creamery. Moore (970 M.), population 
215, has some farm lands nearby, and the Int. & Gt. North- 
ern By. has provided a pretty artificial lake. At Pearsall 
(982 M.), population 1,500, are two gins and a college. 
Good farm lands are adjacent, cotton and corn being the 
chief crops. Dilley (998 M.), population 200, has a cotton 
gin and there are "some farm lands. These latter towns are 
all in the artesian belt. Besides being desirable for stock 
the land has special value as irrigation may be had at a 
minimum expense. Large tracts have been taken by parties 
backing emigration schemes. Onions, when properly raised, 
have netted large profits per acre. The yields from melons, 
potatoes, tomatoes, etc., have been satisfaictory, and from 
% to 1 bale of cotton are raised per acre. Cotulla (1,015 
M.), is the County Seat of La Salle County, has a popula- 
tion of about 1,200, and is the center of what will probably 
be one of the garden spots of this section. It now has 
a large farm and truck interests which are rapidly extend- 
ing. La Salle Co. has 1,512 square miles of land, all un- 
dulating; also about 50 artesian wells which produce from 
10 to 100 gallons a minute; the deepest is 500 ft. The 
Nueces Eiver, 1 M. beyond the station, traverses the center 
of La Salle Co., and furnishes much irrigation. It was 
from this river that the Texans forced the Mexicans back 
85 M. to the Eio Grande during the Mexican war. Onioma, 
with intelligent cultivation, net $400 an acre on irrigated 
land, and may net even more. North of Cotulla about six 
miles large sums are being expended for improvements. At 
Artesia (1,028 M.), are fine valley lands, and the artesian 
wells afford some irrigation. Around Encinal (1,043 M.), 
population 700, the land consists of sandy loam. It is a great 
wool shipping point and many Mexicans live there. At Ber- 
muda (1,078 M.), the onion section begins, extending to 
Laredo, truck farms lying along the track. At Sanchez, 
junction is made with the Eio Grande & Eagle Pass Ey., 
a short line which extends to Minora, where coal mines aro 
located. Approaching the borders of Mexico, the land of 
American Dons, lying just over the Eiver Eio Grande, the 
train enters 

LAEEDO, TEX., (1,081 M.) Population 14,000. 

This is the southern terminus of the Int. & Gt. Northern 
Ey. and a junction point of the Mexican National E. E. 
which branches eastward to Corpus Christi. 

Hotels^Hamilton, 1218 Salinas Av.; rates, A. P., $2-2.50 



236 CHICAGO-ST. LOUTS TO LAREDO. 

a day. Exchange, Farragut St., A, P., $1.50. International, 
2019 Farragut St., A. P., $1.50. 

Eestaurants — ^American, 1109 Lincoln St. Wing, Sing 
& Co. 

Fumislied Eooms — At various places. 

Banks — Milmo Nat. Laredo Nat. 

Theaters — City Hall, Market Plaza; seats 600; prices 25 
ct3.-$l. Mexican, Lincoln St.; seats 700; prices 25c to 50c. 

Eailway Express Oflices — Pacific, Lincoln and Salinas Av., 
P. C. Mexican Nat., Lincoln and Salinas Av., P. C. 

Telegraph Companies — Western Union, 410 Flores 
St., P. C; office hrs., wk days, 8 a. m. to 12 p. ra.; Sundays, 
8 to 11 a. m. and 4 to 12 p. m. 

Livery Stables— R. S. Eumsey, 305 Salinas Av.; rates, 
single rig, half day, $2.50; a day, $4; double rig, first hr., 
$1.50; add. hrs., $1 each. 

Railway Ticket Offlces— International & Gt. Northern, P. 
C. Mexican Nat., P. C. Eio Grande & Eagle Pass, P. C. 
Texas-Mexican. 

Bill Posters and Distributors — Sloan's Bill Posting t 
Dist. Co. 

Steam Laundry — Calls — Laredo Steam Laundry, Victoria 
St., P. C. 

Men's Furnishings — I. Alexander, 416 Flores St., P. C. 

Largest Department Store — Aug. Eichten. 

Postofia.ce — Lincoln St.,; general delivery and stamps, open 
wk. days 8 a. m. to 6:30 p. m.; M. O. -window open 8 a. m. 
to 6 p. m. 

Public Library — Laredo Public Library, Convent and Far- 
ragut Sts. 

See City Directory for churches, clubs, etc. 

Commercial Club, Laredo — Secretary J. Mullaly. 

Leading Local Industries — Brick yards, Johnson & JeJ- 
ries-Page Co., bottling works, ice plant, cigar factories, 
cigaret factory, etc. 

Street car system and local and long distance telephones 
are in operation. 

Laredo is a quaint city, half American and half Mexi- 
can, with many adobe structures. There is no man on earth 
who responds more quickly to good treatment, and none 
who resents a slight quicker than a Mexican, and it is 
always the best policy to treat those met during the course 
of travel in a manner at once civil and pleasant. To such 
treatment Mexicans respond quickly. Having a good 
deal of powder, figuratively speaking, in their make-up, 
their ill-will flash cj forth quickly if touched by the fusil 
of incivility. This applies particularly to those on whom 



THE CITY OF ALEXANDRIA. 237 

the traveler is dependent, althougli all Mexicans are more 
or less alike, in disposition. 



ROUTE 11. NEW YORK TO NEW 
ORLEANS. 

A. Via Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, Lynchhurg, 

aoanoke, Knosville, Chattanooga, Birmlng- 

liani and Meridian. 

Pennsylvania, Southern, Norfolk and Western, and the 
Queen and Crescent Eys. (1,338 M.) Fare, $34. Sleeper, 
$8. 

New York to Washington (See E. 12 A, P. 271). 

At Washington (228 M.), the train, which is a through 
one, is transferred from the Pennsylvania Line to the 
Southern. Beyond Washington, traveling S. W., the quick 
observer will note earthworks and rifle pits, vivid reminders 
of the Civil War. The train soon enters 

ALESAi5"DRIA, VA. (235 M.), Population about 15,000. 

Hotels— The Rainwell, rates, A. P., $2-2.50. Fleischman, 
130 Royal St., A. P., $2 up; E. P., $1. Tontine, 307 Cameron 
St., A. P., $2 up; E. P., 75 cts. 

Restaurants — Fleischman, Royal St., S. Louis Brill, 107 
Pitt St., S. Rainwell, 112 Royal St., N. Chas. Zimmerman, 
Market PI. 

Banks — First Nat*l, S. W. cor. Prince and Lee Sts. Citi- 
zens' Nat'l, N. W. cor. Prince and Lee Sts. Alexandria 
Nat'l, N. E. cor. King and Royal Sts. Burk & Hurbert, 
N. E. cor. King and Fairfax Sts. 

Theater— Opera House, 506 King St.; seats 800; prices 25- 
75 cts. 

Eailway Express — Southern, 605 King St., P. C. 

Telegraph Companies — Western Union, 309-11 King St., 
P. C. Postal, 407 King St., P. C. Office hours, 8 a. m.-9 p. 
m.; Sundays, 9-10 a. m.-7-8 p. m. 

liiveiy-^James Patterson, 113 N. Washington St., P. C 
Single rig, $1 per hour; add. hours, 50 cts. Double rigs, 
$1.50 per hour; add, hours, $1. 

Eailway OHices— Southern and Ches. & Ohio, cor. Henry & 



238 NEW YOEK TO NEW OELEi^NS. 

Duke Sts., P. C. Eichmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac, 
cor. Fayette & Cameron Sts., P. C. 

Bill Posters and Distributors — ^J. M. Hill & Co., W. S. 
Harper, Mgr., Opera House Bldg., P. C. 

Laundry — Alexandria Steam Laundry, 208 S. Fairfax St., 
P. C. 

Men's Furnishing Store — Kaufman Bros., 402 King St. 

Postoffice — Cor. Prince and St. Asaph Sts. Gen'l del. 
and stamps, open 8 a. m. to 6 p. m.; Sundays, 9-10 a. m.; 
M. O. window, open 8 a. m. to 6 p. m.j carrier window, open 
Sundays 9 to 10 a. m. 

Public Library— S06 Prince St. 

Churches, Public Buildings, et-c. — See general index City 
Directory, in any drug store. 

Commercial Club — Citizens' Progressive Association, Sec- 
retary, James Bayne. 

Leading Local Industries — Shoe factory, glass works, bot- 
tling works and Fertilizer & Chemical Co. 

Christ Church is where George Washington and Eobert 
Lee attended and the places where they sat will be pointed 
out to visitors. Near Alexandria is a National Cemetery 
with more than 4,000 graves. The old Carlyle House was 
General Braddock's headquarters in 1755. There are some 
old forts outside of the city about 7 to 12 M. Manassas 
(261 M.), the next point of interest, was the scene of the 
first battle of Manassas, better known as Bull Eun (July 
21, 1861). This was the first important engagement of the 
war, and resulted in the defeat of the Federals under Gen- 
eral McDowell by the Confederates under General Beaure- 
gard. The second battle of Bull Eun was fought August 
29-30, '62, on almost the same ground (3 M. right from the 
line), and the Federals under General Pope were again de- 
feated by the Confederates under General Lee. 

The North Fork of the Eappahannock Eiver is crossed 
just beyond Eemington (284 M.). At Culpepper (296 M.), 
the scene of important operations during the war, is another 
National Cemetery. At Eapidan (307 M.), the Eapidan 
Eiver is crossed. This, too, was one of the fields of action 
in war times. At Orange (313 M.) connections may be 
made with the Potomac, Fredericksburg & Piedmont Ey., 
extending N. E. to Fredericksburg, also with a branch line 
S. W. to Gordonsville. At Charlottesville (341 M.) the 
main line of the Chesapeake & Ohio Ey., from Cincinnati 
to Eichmond and Old Point Comfort is crossed. This place 
has a railway restaurant. From Charlottesville to Lynch- 
burg the Blue Eidge Mountains are visible (right). 

At Lynchburg (401 M.), population about 19,000; Arling- 
ton Hotel, A. P., $2-3; Carroll, $3-4, the train is transferred 



ROANOKE-SALEM. 239 

to the Norfolk & Western R. R. Lynchburg is pleasantly 
situated on the S. bank of the James Eiver. It is an in- 
dustrial center and exports tobacco in large quantities. Be- 
yond Lynchburg the train passes through a tunnel and 
ascends the E. slope of the Blue Ridge Mts. The Peaks 
of Otter (alt., 4,000 ft.), are seen to the right. These may 
best be reached by carriage from Bedford (426 M.), an in- 
dustrial town of about 4,000, beyond which to the right is 
the Randolph-Macon Academy with handsome buildings. 
At Blue Ridge (443 M., alt., 1,250 ft., Blue Ridge Hotel, 
A. P., $3), the summit of the range is reached and descent 
begins. Mineral springs are here located. Farther on the 
train enters 

ROANOKE, VA. (454 M.), Population about 22,000. 

Hotels — Roanoke, occupies an entire block at depot. Rates, 
A. P., $2.50-5 a day. Ponce de Leon, Campbell Ave. & 
Commerce, rates, A. P., $2-4. St. James, opposite N. & W. 
depot, rates, A. P., $1.50-2. Stratford, on Jefferson and 
High Sts., rates, A. P., $1-1.50; per wk., $5-7. 

Restaurants — Arlington, Campbell Ave., near Jefferson. 
Catogin's, Salem Ave., near Jefferson. Royal Cafe, Jeffer- 
son St., near depot. 

Furnished Rooms — The Annex, Jefferson St., near depot; 
prices 50c-$l per day; $3-5 per wk. 

Banks — First National, Jefferson St. National Exchange, 
Jefferson St. Century, Jefferson St. People 's, Campbell Ave. 

Theater — Academy of Music, 415 Salem Ave.; seats 1,600; 
class, legitimate; prices, 25c-$1.50. Casino, Mountain Park, 
seats 1,000; class, vaudeville; prices, 25-35c. 

Railway Express Companies — Adams and Southern, Jeffer- 
son St., near Kirk, P. C. 

Telegraph Co. — Western Union, Jefferson St., near Camp- 
bell, P. C; office hours, 8 a. m.-ll p. m.; Sundays, 8-11 a. m., 
4-9 p. m. 

Livery— E. H. Roberts, Henry and Kirk Sts., P. C; single 
rig, $1 an hour; add. hours, 50c; double rigs, $2 per hour; 
add. hours, $1. 

Railway Ticket Office — Norfolk & Western, at depot. 

Scalpers' Offices — ^Pace, Jefferson and Salem Ave. 

Trunk Factory, where repairing is done — Benton's, 105 
Campbell Ave. 

Bill Posters and Distributors — Consolve & Cheshire, 
Academy of Music, P. C. 

Men's Furnishing Store — Payne's, 112 Jefferson St. 

Department Store — Heironimas, Campbell Ave. and Henry 
St. 



240 NEW YORK TO NEW ORLEANS. 

PostofHce — Church and Henry Sts. General del. and 
stamps, open 8 a. m.-7 p. m.; Sundays, 10-11 a. m.; money 
order window open 8 a. m.-5 p. m.; carrier window, open 
Sundays 5-6 p. m. 

For full list of churches, clubs, secret societies, etc., see 
City Directory. 

Telephones — Local and long distance. 

Leading Local Industries — Norfolk & Western Ry. shops; 
iron furnaces, bridge works, 

Roanoke is an important railway center. Connection 
may be made there to Norfolk (P. 432), Winston-Salem, Co- 
lumbus (R. 6), Cincinnati, O., Durham, N. C, Norton, Ky., 
and Hagerstown, Md. (R. 11 C). It has large iron, bridge, 
machine, carriage and other manufactories. Roanoke is 
termed the ''Magic City," because of its rapid growth, 
for in 1880 it had only about 500 inhabitants. A pretty 
drive from there is to Mill Mt., from the top the view is 
quite similar to that of Lookout Mountain, and one sees 
the Roanoke River winding in and out like a silver snake 
in a bower of green. 

Leaving Roanoke the train enters 

SALEM, VA. (461 M.), Population about 5,000. 

Banks — Farmers' National, Salem Loan & Trust Company 
and Bank of Salem. 

Hotels — The Crawford, rates per day, $2; per wk,, $7-10. 
Huff House, rates per day, $1.50; per wk., $5-8.50. 

Railway Express — Southern. 

Telephone Company — Western Union. 

Telephones — Local and long distance. 

Railways — Norfolk & Western Railway Co. 

Opera House — Hall, seats 450. 

Livery — Harvey Cutler & Son, O. G. Lewis. 

Leading Local Industries — Salem Machine Works, Oakey 
Wagon Co., Warden Mfg. Co. 

Points of Interest — Baptist and Lutheran Orphanages, 
Hollins Institute, school for young ladies, eight miles distant. 

Stages run from Salem to Red Sulphur Springs (9 M.; 
hoteC$2). 

From Salem the trains passes to Shawsville (478 M.), at 
which point Allegheny Springs may be reached by stage 
(3 M.). At Christianburg (487 M.), a stage trip may be 
made to Yellow Sulphur Springs (3 M., hotel, $2.50.) Thence 
the train enters East Radford (498 M.), (Norwood Hotel, $2), 
the junction, point of the Ohio division of the Norfolk & 
Western Ry. to Cincinnati and Columbus. E. Radford and 
Radford are located on the New River. 



RADFORD— PULASKI CITY— WYTHEVILLE. 241 

EADFORD, VA. (499 M.), Population 5,000. 

Banks— Radford Trust Company, The First National Bank 

of Radford. ^ ^^^-.^ , tt 

Hotels— West End Hotel, A. P., $2-3 day; $10-12 wk. Ho- 
tel Shere, $2; $10.50 wk. Elmore Hotel, A. P., $1.50; $7-8 wk. 

Restaurants— Mrs. S. J. Mariuss, A. J. Smith. 

Railway Express — Southern Express Co., P. C 

Telegraph. Company — Western Union, P. C. 

Telephones — Local and long distance. 

Opera House— Radford Opera House, seats 400; prices 
based on play. 

Livery— J. F. Martin, P. C. 

Commercial Body — Board of Trade. 

Leading Local Industries— Pipe & Foundry Co.; Va. I. t. 

& Co. 

Continuing southwesterly the tram enters 

PULASKI CITY, VA. (513 M.), Population about 3,000. 

Banks— Pulaski National Bank, O. P. Jordan, cashier. 
The People 's Bank, J. W. Miller, cashier. 

Hotels— Maple Shade Inn, rates, A. P., $2.50-3; per wk., 
$10-12.50. Hotel Bartee, rates per day, $1; per wk., $5. 

Restaurant — Tip Top restaurant. 

Railway Express Co. — Southern Express Co., P. C. 

Telegraph Company — Western Union, P. C. 

Telephones — Local and long distance. 

Railway — Norfolk & Western. 

Opera House— Pulaski Opera House, seats 625; prices based 
on play. 

Livery— Bones Condiff & Co., P. C. 

Leading Local Industries — Pulaski Iron Co., Virginia Iron, 
Coal & Coke Co., Bertha Mineral Co., Pulaski Grovery Co. 
(wholesale). 

Pulaski is in the iron and zinc district and is connected by 
a branch line to the N. W. (right) tapping the Cripple 
Creek District, which has very rich deposits of brown hema- 
tite iron ore. Near Kent (529 M.) Reed Creek is twice 
crossed. Beyond Kent is 

WYTHEVILLE, VA. (534 M.), Population about 3,000. 

Banks — Farmers* Bank, Bank of Wytheville. 

Hotels— Otey, A. P., $2.50; $10 wk. Fourth Ave., A. P., 
$2; $10 per wk. Hancock House, A. P., $1 per day; $5 per 
week. 



242 NEW YOEK TO NEW ORLEANS. 

Restaurants— Fisher 's. 

Railway Express Companies — Southern Express, Norfolk 
& Western, P. C. 

Telegraph — Western Union, P. C. 

Telephones — Local and long distance. 

Railway — Norfolk & Western. 

Opera House — Wytheville, seats 700; rates based on play. 

Livery — Harkrader & White, P. C; rates reasonable. 

Leading Local Industries — Sash, doors and blinds factory, 
woolen mills, foundry and machine works. 

Points of Interest — Chimney Rocks, U. S. Fish hatchery, 
mountain scenery. 

Hunting and Fishing — Excellent. 

Wytheville is picturesquely situated amid excellent moun- 
tain scenery. It has good hunting and fishing and some 
popularity as a summer resort, A fish hatchery established 
by the United States is located there. To the S. (left) the 
Lick Mts. separate the valley into two divisions. Beyond 
Wytheville Reed Creek is again crossed, and the train enters 
Rural Retreat (547 M., alt. 2,575 ft.), the highest point 
on the line. At Marion (561 M.) is the State Insane Asy- 
lum. The south range of the Clinch Mts. (right) is now 
seen. At Glade Springs (577 M.) a short branch line pierces 
the spur of the mountains to Saltville in the valley between 
the two ranges. From Abingdon (590 M.), the train enters 

BRISTOL, TENN.-VA. (605 M.), Population 9,850. 

Hotels— Hamilton, 8 Front St., A. P., $2.50; E. P., $1.50-2. 
St. Lawrence, Front St., A. P., $2; E. P., $1-1.50 per day. 
Bristol Inn, 712 Russell, A. P., $1; E. P., 25c a meal. 

Restaurants — Tip Top Cafe, 126 Front and State. Teneva 
Cafe, 420 State. Dairy Lunch, State St. 

Furnished Rooms — Tip Top Hotel, cor. Front and State, 
near Union Station, prices $1 up per night; $2.50- per week. 

Banks — Dominion National, Lee and State. First Na- 
tional, 2796 State St. Citizens', State and Fifth. 

Theater— Harmeling Opera, State St., seats 1,000; prices 

25c-$l. 

Railway Express — Southern, Union Depot, P. C. 

Telegraph — Western Union, 412 State, P. C. OflBce hours, 
7 a. m.-12 p. m.; Sundays, 3-4 p. m. 

Livery— Thompson 's, Moore & Hart Sts., P. C. Single rig, 
50c per hour; double rig, $1 first hour; add. hours, 50c per 
hour. 

Railway Ticket Offices — Union Ry. Sta., P. C. Southern 
Ry., P. C. N. & W. Ry., Fielding St., P. C. Va. & S. W. 



BEISTOLr-JOHNSON CITY. 213 

Ry., Union Sta., P. C. Holston Valley Ey., Bristol, Tenn., 

P. C. 

Distributors — Walter Lewis, 700 Railroad St., P. C. 

Trunk Factory, where repairing is done — J. W. Mort, 
State St. 

Laundry — Bristol Steam Laundry, Front St., P. C. 

Men's Furnishings — Mitchell, cor. Lee and State Sts., P. C. 

Department Store — Dasser Bros., 507 State St. 

Postoffice — Bristol, Tenn. Gen. del. and stamps, open 7 
a. m.-9 p. m.; Sundays, 3-4 p. m.; M. O. open 9 a. m.-4 p. m.; 
carrier window, Sundays, 3-4 p. m. 

Public Library— Y. M. C. A., 302 5th St. 

For Churches, etc., see City Directory. 

Local and long distance telephone and St. car system. 

Commercial Club — J. B. Peters, Secretary. 

Leading Local Industries — Iron and coal foundries. Col. 
Paper Wks., tannery wks., coal and coke. 

Bristol is on the boundary between Virginia and Tennes- 
see. It is an industrial town and tobacco market. At 
Bristol the Southern Railway again takes charge of the 
train. The scenery still remains beautiful and interesting. 

At Bluff City (616 M.) one of the tributaries of the 
Holston River is crossed, near its headwaters, and a line 
branches via Elizabethton, into N. Carolina. From Bristol 
the train passes to 

JOHNSON CITY, TENN. (630 M.), Population about 5,000. 

Hotels — Arlington, 200 Railroad and Main, A. P., $2-3 a 
day. Piedmont, 100 Railroad, A. P., $2 a day. Lee House, 
186-188 Bufflow, A. P., 75c-$l a day. Carlyle, 496-500 Main 
St., rates not given. 

Restaurants — Star, 100 Main St. 

Bank— City National, 233 Main St. 

Theater — Jobe's Opera House, 110 Main St.; seats 800; 
prices 10c-$l. 

Eailway Express^ — Southern, Railroad St., P. C. 22. South 
& Weston, 2nd Ave., P. C. 74. E. R. & W. N. C. R. R., 
Railroad St., P. C. 36. 

Telephone Company — Western Union, Railroad St., P. C. 
86.; office hours, 8 a. m.-9:30 p. m.; Sundays, 9:30 a. m.- 
4:30 p. m. 

Livery— City Stable, Bufieiow St., P. C. 93; single rig, $2 
per day; double rig, $3 per day. S. R. Taylor, Buff low St., 
P. C. 40; rates the same as City Stable. 

Railway Tickets—Southern, Railroad St., P. C. 22. 

Bill Posters and Distributors— Sou Advertising Co., 110 
Main St. 



244 NEW YORK TO NEW ORLEANS. 

Laundry — Johnson City Laundry. 

Men's Furnishing Store — Thomas Bros., Public Square, 
P. C. 11. 

Largest Department Store — Hart Huston Store, 203 Main 
St. 

Postoflice — 300 Main St. Gen. del. and stamps, open 6:30 
a. m.-7 p. m.; Sundays, 7-8 a. m.-5-6 p. m.; M. O. open 9 
a. m.-4 p. m.; carrier window, Sundays 8-9:30 a. m. 

Public Library — Market St. 

Public Halls— P. 1 

For Churclies, etc., see City Directory. 

Telephones — Local and long distance. 

Leading Local Industries — Standard Oak Verne Works, 
American Box Lumber Co., Johnson City Foundry. 

From Johnson City a side trip may be made on a nar- 
row-gauge railway, the ''Cranberry Stem Winder," through 
Doe River Canon (1,500 ft. deep) up Roan Mt. to Roan Mt. 
Sta. (26 M., Roan Mt. Hotel, A. P., $2), and Cranberry 
(34 M.). Stages run from Roan Mt. Station to *Cloudland 
(12 M., $2, Cloudland Hotel, $2.50 a day or $10-12.50 a wk.). 
This is on the summit, and the highest human abode E. of 
the Rocky Mts. One may look down on the tops of many 
mountains, each of which is over 4,000 ft. high. The view 
is broad and enchanting, and it is considered to be one of 
the best in this region of the picturesque. Cloudland is 
above the timber line and has several hundred acres of 
comparatively level ground, well covered with grass. It is 
connected with Roan Mt. Station by telephone, and is open 
for guests during July, August and September. One may 
make excursions thence over the mountain roads to Hot 
Springs and Asheville. (See P. 53). 

Leaving Greenville (662 M.) the monument of Andrew 
Johnson (1808-75) who resided in this district, is seen on 
the hill to the left. At Morristov/n (694 M.) a branch of 
the Southern extends S. E. to Asheville, N. C. (R. 1 B, P. 51), 
and a line extends N. and W. to Rutledge, thence swinging 
S. W. and again joining the main line at Knoxville. Not 
far out from Rutledge is Bean Station, from v/hich Tate 
Springs, 1^2 M. away in the Clinch Mts., is reached (alt. 
4,200 ft., hotel, $2.50-3.50). It is a quiet resort. 

From Morristown the train soon enters 

KNOXVILLE, TENN. (736 M.), Population about 33,000. 

Hotels — Imperial, cor. Gay and Clinch Ave., rates, A. P., 
$2.50-4.50. Cumberland, cor. S. Gay and Cumberland Ave., 
A. P., $2-3. Haynes House, No. 506 Prince St., A. P., 
$1; per wk., $5. Hackney House, $1; per wk., $5. 



THE CITY OF KNOXVILLE. 245 

Restaurants— J. J. Ashe, 601 S. Gay St. (high class). 
Uneda, Gay St. (best cheap one). 

Furnished Rooms — Prices for furnished rooms vary from 
$1 to $5 per wk. and 50 to 75 cents per night. 

Banks— City National, 520 S. Gay St. Mechanics' Na- 
tional, 612 S. Gay St. Third National, 413 S. Gay St. Knox- 
ville Banking Co., 200 S. Gay St. 

Theater— Staub 's, 800 S. Gay St.; seat, cap., 1,800; prices, 
varying. 

Railway Express — Southern, 607 S. Gay St., P. C. 

Telegraph Companies — Western Union, 202 S. Gay St., 
P. C. Postal TelegraDh, 529 i/o S. Gay St., P. C. 

Livery— Bell & Wagner, 317 Cumberland Ave., P. C; rates, 
single rig, first hour, $1; add. hours, 50 cts; double rigs, 
first hour, $1.50; add. hours, $1. 

Railway Ticket Offices— Southern Ey., 528 S. Gay St., P. 
C. Atlanta, Knoxville & Northern, 525 S. Gay St., P. C. 
N. & N. W. Ey., 600 S. Gay St., P. C. Louisville & Nash- 
ville, 525 S. Gay St., P. C. 

Scalpers' Offices—Charles C. Ward, 306 W. Clinch Ave. 
P. C. 

Bill Posters and Distributors — Southern Bill Posting Co., 
215 W. Cumberland. 

Trunk Repairs— Whittle Spence Trunk Co., 305 S. Gay St., 
P. C. 

Steam Laundry — Star Steam Laundry, 718 S. Gay St., P. C. 

Men's Furnishings— Lieber Bros., 421 S. Gay St., P. C. 

Department Store— M. M. Newcomer & Co., 408 S. Gay St. 

Postoffice — Cor. Clinch and Prince Sts. Gen. del. and 
stamps, open week days 7 a. m. to 9 p. m.; Sundays 9 to 10; 
M. O. dept., 8 a. m. to 4 p. m.; carrier window, Sundays, 
9 to 10 a. m. 

Public Library — Lawson McGee Library, 213 Vine Ave. 

For full list of Chiirches, Clubs, Secret Societies, etc., see 
City Directory. 

Commercial Body — Chamber of Commerce; Secretary, H. 
M. Branson. 

Knoxville has a street car system and local and long 
distance telephones. 

Leading Local Industries — Ry. shops, cotton mills, woolen 
mills and marble works, furniture manufacturers, Scott 
Car Works and several small plants. 

Points of Interest — University of Tenn., Blind Asylum and 
State Insane Asylum. Finest market in the South. Large 
marble quarries. 

Sports — Hunting and fishing. 

Knoxville, one of the principal cities of Eastern Tennes- 



246 NEW YOEK TO NEW ORLEANS. 

see, lies among the foot hills of the Clinch Mts., on the 
banks of the Tennessee River, which is formed by the junc- 
tion of the Holston and French Broad Rivers four miles 
above. Knoxville is in the center of the Tennessee marble 
quarries, from which some 275,000 tons of marble are an- 
nually taken. It has woolen and cotton mills of considerable 
size. The University of Tennessee (500 students) and the 
State Agricultural College are located here. Knoxville haa 
the distinction of having been besieged three times during 
the civil war, but not captured. Fort Saunders, near the 
city, repelled an attack of the Confederates November 29, 
18G3. Among the points of interest are Island Home Park, 
the National Cemetery and Gray Cemetery. From Mary- 
ville 16 M. S. by rail (Central House, A. P., $2), one may 
drive to Thunderhead Peak (alt. 5,500 ft.), the summit of 
which affords a fine view. Ascent, with guide, may be made 
in 6 to 8 hrs. 

Leaving Knoxville the Great Smoky Mts. (alt. 4,000-6,000 
ft.), well known to readers of Chas. Egbert Craddock's 
works, are visible. At Loudon (7G5 M.) the Tennessee 
River is crossed. At Athens (791 M.) (left) is located the 
preparatory department of Grant University of Chattanooga, 
a Methodist institution. A line branches S. E. from here. 
At Charleston (806 M.), the Hiawassee, a tributary of the 
Tennessee River, is crossed. At Cleveland (818 M.) the 
Brunswick, Ga., branch of the Southern Ry. extends S. and 
S. E., via Atlanta and Macon. Crossing Citico Creek be- 
yond Cleveland, a tunnel is entered, and the next town is 
Chattanooga, Tenn. (847 M.) 

The Queen & Crescent By. — Alabama Gt. Southern and 
New Orleans & N. E. Div. — takes charge of the train at 
Chattanooga, and continues to New Orleans (1,339 M.). For 
description, see P. 144. 



B. Via Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, Lynchburg, 
Spartanburg, Atlanta, Montgomery and Mobile. 

Pennsylvania Lines^ Southern Ry., Atlanta and West Point 
and Louisville & Nashville Rys. (1,371 M.) Fare, $34. 
Sleeper, $8. 

New York to Washington (228 M.). (See R. 12 A, P. 271). 

Washington to Lynchburg (401 M.). (See R. 11 A, P. 237). 

Lynchburg to Charlotte (608 M.). (See R. 12 C, P. 355). 

Leaving Charlotte via the Charlotte-Birmingham Div. of 
the So. Ry., the train runs S. W., crossing the Catawba 
River near Belmont (620 M.), Clark's River at Lowell (624 



SPABTANBURG-GEEENVILLE. 247 

M.), and the Charleston & Western Carolina By. at Gastonia 
(630 M.). Near King's Mountain (642 M.), on October 7, 
1780, occurred King's Mt. Battle, in which the Americans 
defeated the British (monument). Turning sharply S. W., 
the train enters S. Carolina near Grover (650 M.). At 
BlacksLurg (655 M.) a branch of the Southern Ry. is crossed, 
and a branch also parallels to Gaffney (663 M.)- Cowpens 
(675 M.) was the scene of a victory by the American forces 
over the British, January 17, 1781. Further on is 

SPAJBTAITBURG, S. C. (684 M.), Population about 13,000. 

Hotels — Spartan Inn, $2-3 per day; $12.50-15 per wk. Ar- 
gyle, $2-3 per day; $12.50-15 per wk. West End Commer- 
cial House, $1 per day; $4-6 per wk. 

Restaurants — Crescent Cafe, Becker's Oyster Parlor. 

Banks — Merchants' & Farmers', First Nat. Bank of Spar- 
tanburg, American Nat., Central Nat., Spartanburg Savings 
Bank, Southern Trust Co. and Fidelity Loan & Trust Co. 

Railway Express Company — Southern Express. 

Telegraph Companies — Western Union and Postal. 

Telephones — Southern, Bell, American; long distance con- 
nections. 

Railways — Southern and Atlantic Coast Line. 

Theater — Spartanburg Opera House, seats 500. 

Livery — Landrum & Mabry, 112, R. E. Cudd, 15; rates, 
$2 per day. 

Laundry — Spartanburg Steam Laundry, 32. 

Commercial Body — Chamber of Commerce, Wm. S. Glenn, 
Secretary. 

Leading Local Industries — Cotton mills, furniture factory, 
broom factory, Reed & Loom Harness Works and wood and 
iron works. 

Points of Interest — Glenn Springs, White Stone Springs 
(8 M.), Blue Ridge Mts. (30 M. away). Good connections 
to Asheville and the Sapphire Country. 

Hunting and Fishing — Excellent quail shooting and other 
small game. 

Spartanburg is an important railway center for the 
Southern Railway; it has four diverging trunk lines: one to 
Asheville, one running to Columbia, Charleston, Jackson- 
ville, etc.; also the one just passed over from Char- 
lotte, and the one to be followed. The Charleston & West- 
ern Carolina Railway extends southward to Augusta, there 
being also a short, independent line extending to the N. 
Quite a number of mineral springs and gold mines are situ- 
ated around here. From Spartanburg the train runs S, 
W. to 



248 NEW YORK TO NEW ORLEANS. 



GREENVILLE, S. C. (715 M.), Population about 13,000. 

Hotels — Mansion House, 218-220 S. Main St., rates, A. P., 
$2 a day. New Winsor, 105 S. Main St., rates, A. P., $1.50-2 
a day. 

Eestaurants — Gem Cafe, Washington St. Dairy Kitchen, 
115 Main St. Chas. Burbage, Washington St. 

Banks — American, Pendleton & Augusta, National 202 
S. Main St., City Nat., 125 S. Main St., People's, 101 S. 
Main St. 

Theater — Grand, 203 N. Lawrence St.; seats 1,068; class, 
combination; prices, 20c-$1.50. 

E-ailway Express Offices — Southern Express, 112 McBee 
Ave., P. C. No. 24. 

Telegraph Companies — Western Union, 112 W. Washington 
St., P. C. Postal, 113 W. Washington St., P. C. Office 
hours, 8 a. m.-lO p. m.; Sundays, 8-10 a. m.-7-8 p. m. 

Livery — L. K. Kelley, Court and Jackson Sts., P. C. No. 
42; single rig, $3 per day; double rigs, $4-5 a day Tanner 
& Wood, W. Washington St., P. C; single rig, $2^50 a day; 
double rig, $4 a dav. 

Railway Ticket Offices — So., 205 S. Main St., P. C. 

Trunk Factory — Repairs — ^Fahnstock Bros., Ill W. Wash- 
ington St., P. C. 

Steam Laundry — Gates & Greenville Steam Laundry, 207 
S. Main St.; 202 College St., P. C. 

Men's Furnishings — Smith & Bristow, 101 N. Main St., 
P. C. 

Department Store — Geo. Barr, So. Main St., P. C. 

Postoffice — So. Main St. Gen. del. and stamps, open 8 a. 
m.-6:30 p. m.; Sundays, 9:30 a. m.-lO a. ra.; 5-5:30 p. m.; 
M. O. window, open 8 a. m.-6:30 p. m.; carrier window, open 
Sundays, 9:30-10 a. m.; 5-5:30 p. m. 

Public Library — 514 W. McBee Ave. 

For Churches, Clubs, etc., see City Directory. 

Street Car System. 

Telephones — Local and long distance. 

Commercial Club — Board of Trade, Sec, A. G. Furman. 

Leading Local Industries — Broom factory, coach factory, 
ice mill, Mallard Lumber & Babbin Co., cotton mills, roller 
mills. 

Greenville lies near the headwaters of Reedy River. From 
here a lino of the Southern Ry. extends S. E. to Belton; 
the C. K. & W'n, a short, independent line, extends north- 
ward to Marietta, and the Charleston & Western Carolina 
extends S. E. to Laurens. Leaving Greenville, the Saluda 
River is crossed bevond Piedmont. 



I 



THE EOUTE FKOM GREENVILLE. 249 

From Easley (727 M.) a short line extends N. W. to 
Pickens. At this point the train trends S. W., crossing 
Little River beyond Calhoun (746 M.). At Seneca (755 
M.) the Blue Ridge Ry. is crossed which extends from Wal- 
halla (9 M. on the North to Anderson, 25 M. on the South). 
Walhalla is the nearest station, 25 M. by carriage, to High- 
lands, alt. 3,815 ft. (Davis Hotel, A. P., $2 up; Highlands, 
A. P., $2.50 up). Much beautiful mountain scenery sur- 
rounds and it has considerable popularity as a mountain 
resort. Beyond Madison (or Fort Madison) (773 M.) the 
train crosses the Chatooga River, one of the tributaries of 
the Savannah River, and enters Georgia (the Empire State 
of the South). At Toccoa (782 M.) a branch of the South- 
ern Ry. extends S. W. to Elberton. Near Toccoa are the 
beautiful Toccoa Falls, 185 ft. in height. At Mount Airy 
(796 M.), population 300 (Monterery, A. P., $2 up), a 
splendid view is had of Yonah Mt., altitude 3,025 ft., and 
the Blue Ridge. 

The line now descends to Cornelia (797 M.), where junc- 
tion is made with a short line to the North via Clarkesville 
(8 M.) to Tallulah. Falls (21 M.) on the Tallulah River. 
Clarksville, population, 700, on this line, alt. 1,480 ft. 
(Groves House, $2; Mountain View, $2; Spencer House, $2) 
is the most convenient point from which to explore the 
Georgia portion of the scenery of the Blue Ridge moun- 
tains. Tallulah Falls, population 300 (Clife House, A. P., 
$2-3.50; Tallulah Lodge). These Falls are 400 ft. high, 
located in a deep gorge of the Tallulah River which cuts 
through the Blue Ridge. To the N. 15 M. are the Falls of 
the Eastatoia. The Valley of the Nacoochee lies 8-10 M. 
to the N. W. of Clarksville. 

Continuing S. W. from Cornelia to Lula (810 M.) a branch 
line of the Southern Railway extends thence S. W. to Athens 
(39 M.). From Gainesville (822 M.), population 4,382 (Ar- 
lington, A. P., $2-2.50; Mountain View House, A. P., $2), 
the Gainesville, Jefferson & Southern Ry. extends S. E., join- 
ing the Atlanta-Augusta branch of the Ga. Ry. at Social 
Circle. From Suwanee (845 M.) a short line extends to the 
S. E. (left) to Lawrenceville, and the Chattahoochee River 
lies a short distance to the right. At Chamblee (862 M.) 
a short branch line diverges N. W. Thence the train soon 
enters Atlanta (875 M.), the capital of Georgia, (P. 95). 

At Atlanta the train takes the line of the Atlanta & West 
Point Ry. At College Park (884 M.), S. W. of Atlanta, is 
the handsome Southern Female College. Fairtoum (894 M.) 
is the county seat of Campbell County. At Newnan (914 
M.), population 3,654, a line of the Central of Georgia ex- 



250 NEW YORK TO NEW ORLEANS. 

tending N. W. to Rome and S. E. to Macon is crossed. 
Newnan is the seat of Coweta County. From Dixie (944 M.) 
the Macon & Birmingham Ry. extends S. E. to Macon. At 
West Point (962 M.) the train crosses the Chattahoochee 
the Gainesville, Jefferson & Southern Ry. extends S. E., join- 
the Western Railway of Alabama. At Opelika (984 M.) 
branch lines of the Central of Georgia Rv. extend to Bir- 
mingham (129 M. N. W.), (P. 139), and to'CoIumbus (28 M. 
S. E.). Columbus has considerable importance as a railway 
and industrial center. 

COLUMBUS, GA. Population 17,614. 

Hotels— Rankin House, No. 1004 Broad St., A. P., $2-3 a 
day; E. P., 75 cts.-$1.50 a day. Racine, 1300 First Ave., 
A. P., $2.50-3. Afflick, 1022V^ Broad St., A. P., $1.50-2. 
Commercial, 9441/2 Broad St., A. P., $1.50; $3.50 wk. 

Bestaurants — Rankin House Cafe, 1008 Broad St., Spring- 
er's Cafe, 104 10th St. Barclay Cafe, 1234 Broad St. 

Furnished Rooms — Springer Cafe, 1004 First Ave., $1-1.50 
per night. 

Banks — Nat. Bank of Columbus, cor. Broad St. and First 
Ave. Third National Bank, 1148 Broad St. Fourth Nat. 
Bank, 1000 Broad St. Merchants' & Mechanics' Bank, 1205 
Broad St. 

Theater — Springer's Opera House, First Ave. and 10th St.; 
seats 1,800; prices, 25 cts. to $1.50. 

Railway Express — Southern Express Co., 1225 Broad St., 
P. C. 

Telegraph Companies — Western Union, 1007 Broad St., P. 
C. Postal Telegraph Co., 1041 Broad St., P. C. Office hours, 
wk. days, 7 a. m. to 11 p. m.; Sundays, 8-10 a. m.; A. D. T., 
1007 Broad St., P. C. 

Livery— Palace Stables, 1231-27 First Ave., P. C; rates, 
single rig, a day, $2.50-5; double rigs, $5-10 a day. Broad 
St. Stables, P. C.; rates, single rigs, $2.50-5 a day; double 
rigs, $5-10 a day. 

Railway Ticket Offices— Central of Georgia, 10 11th St., 
P. C. Southern, 1153 Broad St., P. C. Seaboard Air Line, 
1121 Broad St., P. C. 

Bill Posters and Distributors — T. F. Ridenhour, 514 First 
Ave., P. C. 

Trunk Factory — Repairs — F. C. Staggs. 

Steam Laundry — Calls, Acme Steam Laundry, 1234 Broad 
St., P. C. 

Department Store — Beehive, 1143-5 Broad St. 

Men's Furnishings — ^A. C. Chancelor & Co., 1132-4 Broad 
St., P. C. 



COLUMBUS AND POINTS BEYOND. 251 

Postofilce— Cor. First Ave. and 12tli St. Gen. del. and 
stamps, open wk. days, 8 a. m. to 7 p. m.; Sundays, 11:45-1; 
M. O. window, open 8 a. m. to 5 p. m.; carrier window, open 
Sundays 11:45 to 1. . 

Public Library— None. But access is had to several pri- 
vate libraries. 
For Clubs, Secret Societies, etc., see City Directory. 
Commercial Club— Columbus Board of Trade, Secretary, 
J. C. Coart. 

Leading Local Industries — Cotton factories, iron foun- 
dries, ice factories, clothing factory, fertilizer factories and 
numerous smaller concerns. 

Continuing S. W. from Opelika at Chehaw (1,011 M.) the 
Tuskegee E. K. branches S. (left) to Tuskegee (5 M.), 
where the Normal and Industrial School for colored people, 
about 1,500 students, was founded and is conducted by 
Booker T. Washington. The practical instruction given m 
scientific agriculture is of great value, and proves of in- 
terest to visitors. Andrew Carnegie endowed this institu- 
tion with $600,000 in 1903. Beyond Chehaw the Western 
Ky. of Alabama parallels the Alabama Eiver (right), cross- 
ing a number of intermediate tributaries thereto, and the 
next place of interest is Montgomery (1,050 M.), the capital 
of Alabama (R. 16, P. 386). 

At Montgomery the Louisville & Nashville Ry. assumes 
charge and continues in nearly a straight line southward, 
with little interest, to Greenville (1,094 M.), population 
4,261 (Wilkinson House, A. P., $2), is the county seat of 
Butler County. From Georgiana (1,109 M.) the Ala. & Fla. 
R. R. branches S. E. via Andalusia and Geneva to Grace- 
ville (100 M.). Evergreen (1,130 M.), population 2,400 
(Hotel Evergreen, A. P., $2) is the County seat of Conecuh 
County. Brewton (1,155 M.) is the County Seat of Escambia 
County. At Flomaton (1,169 M.) junction may be made 
with the Pensacola and Atlantic Div. to River Jet., there 
making connection with the Seaboard Air Line for Talla- 
hassee and Jacksonville (R. 15, P. 380), and with a branch 
N. W. via Selma to Myrtlewood. Beyond Flomaton the 
train spans the Escambia River, and further on many 
intermediate streams. At Hurricane (1,213 M.) the waters 
of the Tensaw River are crossed, an island formed by the 
Tensaw and Mobile Rivers, and thence the Mobile River is 
spanned and paralleled to 



252 NEW YORK TO NEW ORLEANS. 



MOBILE, ALA. (1,230 M.) Population 54,000. 

On lines of the Mobile & Ohio, Louisville & Nashville, 
Southern, and Mobile, Jackson & Kansas City Rys., and the 
Muuson Steamship Line to Cuba and Mexico. The trains 
of all roads except the M., J. & K. C. enter the Union 
depot foot of Government St. 

Hotels — *Hotel Bienville, cor. St. Francis and St. Joseph, 
fronting Bienville Sq.; seven-story hotel under excellent 
management; little crowded but remarkably pleasant rooms; 
excellent service; Turkish bath rooms, E. P., $1-2.50; with 
bath, $1.50-2.50; Cafe in connection. New Battle House, 
N. Royal St.; large hotel with good office, E. P., $1 up. 
Southern Hotel, S. Water St., nr. Government St.; excellent 
medium-priced house, A. P., $2-4; E. P., 75c up. Hotel TViud- 
sor, cor. Royal and Conti Sts., E. P., 75c up; cafe in connec- 
tion. Duncan House, No. 75 Government St., A. P., $1.50; 
E. P., 50c-$l; meals 35c. Commercial Hotel, No. 14 N. 
Royal St., E. P., 50c-$l. 

Restaurants — Hotel Bienville Cafe (see Hotel Bienville). 
New Battle House Cafe (see hotel). Hotel Windsor Cafe, 
cor. Royal and Conti Sts. Metzer's Cafe, cor. Government 
and Royal Sts. Schimpf's Cafe, 104 Dauphin St. Some 
cheap places may be found. 

Furnished Rooms — Cam-pbell House, 63 Conti St. and E. P. 
hotels. 

Banks — Central Trust Co., First National, Bank of Mobile, 
City Bank & Trust Co. 

Theaters — Mobile Opera House, 57 S. Royal St., seats 1,300; 
prices based on play. Monroe Park Summer Theater, vaude- 
ville. 

Railway Express — Southern, cor. Royal and Mitchell Sts., 
P. C. 

Telegraph Offices— Postal Tel. Co., 66 St. Francis St., P. C. 
Western Union, cor. N. Water and St. Francis Sts., P. C. 
Mobile & Gulf Tel. Co., 100 St. Francis St., P. C. Messenger 
service at Western Union and Postal. 

Livery — Roche & Son, P. C. 

Baggage Transfer — Mobile Tr. Co., 77 St. Francis St. 

Railway Ticket Offices — Louisville & Nashville, cor. Royal 
and Conti Sts., P. C. Mobile & Ohio, No. 23 S. Royal St., 
P. C. Southern Ry., cor. Royal and St. Francis Sts., P. C. 

Scalper's Office— A. A. Hall, 24 N. Royal St., P. C. 

Steam Laundry — Peerless Steam Laundry & Dyeing Co., 
50-54 S. Royal St., P. C. 

Trunk Repairs — Mobile Trunk Co., No. 68 Dauphin St., 
P. C. 



THE CITY OF MOBILE. 253 

Men's Furnishings — Frank L. Ward. 

Department Store — Hammell & Co., Nos. 7-15 S. Koyal St. 

Libraries — Cathedral Library, cor, Conti and Claiborne. 
Mobile Library, 200 Dauphin. Mobile Public Library, 450 
Conti St. Welche's Circulating Library, 317 Dauphin St. 

Postoffice — Cor. Royal and St. Francis Sts. Gen. del, open 
6-7; Sundays, 9-11; M. 0. dept., 9-5; registry, 8-6. 

For full list of Churclies, Clubs, Secret Societies, Halls, 
Office Bldgs., see City Directory. 

Mobile, the only seaport and largest city of Alabama, 
is on the Mobile River (W. bank) about 30 M. from its 
junction with the Gulf. The broad and quiet streets are 
shaded with magnolias and live oaks and the gardens are 
fragrant with orange flowers and jessamine. The location 
is a level plain with low hills to the rear. The city is rap- 
idly assuming great importance as an exporting point, ships 
of all nations coming to its port. The river, to this point, 
admits ships of over 30 ft. draught, and as a harbor of that 
depth it is unexcelled. The cottonsheds on the wharf are 
very interesting v^hen piled high with thousands of bales 
of the "Southern King." This is a great exporting point, 
especially for cotton, and it is also one of the sailing points 
for Mexico and Cuba, the boats of the Munson S. S. Co. 
plying between Mobile and Havana, and Mobile and Vera 
Cruz. The service is excellent. *Fare one way, including meals 
and berth, $20; round trip, $35. Mobile has not many fea- 
tures of more than passing interest, yet as one of the oldest 
cities in the S., it is worth visiting. The streets are rather nar- 
row in the business section, and generally v\rell paved. The 
main retail street is Royal, and the handsomest one is Gov- 
ernment, which has many fine residences. In Government 
St., at Royal Crossing, is a bronse statue, by C. Buberl of 
New York, of Raphael Semmes,. commander of the fa- 
mous Confederate cruiser Alabama in the Civil War. In 
front of this statue, on cor. (left) is the county court house, 
on the front of v/hich just over the sidewalk, is a "bronze 
plate with the following inscription: "To the glory of God 
and the honor of the illustrious Le Moyne and de Bienville 
Bros., who founded Mobile, the first capital of Louisiana." 

There seems to be considerable conflict in claims as to 
what was the "first capital" of Louisiana. Biloxi claims 
the distinction, and the claim seems well founded, though 
the site was across the bay. It is well worth a visit to 
the city. Go to the top of the Hotel Bienville (see hotels). 
Take elevator to the top floor and walk one flight of stairs. 
From the summer garden one has a splendid view of the 
city. This gives an idea of Mobile. In front of Hotel 
Bienville is Bienville Sq,., a city park where open-air con- 



254 NEW YOEK TO NEW ORLEANS. 

certs are held on Tuesdays and Fridays, weather permitting. 
The six-story Masonic Temple faces Bienville Sq. Monroe 
Park, Marine Broad car, fare 5c, 3 M. south, has summer 
(vaudeville) theater, bowling alleys, etc. The trees are 
moss-draped and there are nice walks and a water view. 

At Pinto Island, reached by small boats, are the Pinto 
Dry Docks, 312x86 ft., weight 3,500 tons, in the construction 
of which 1,200,000 ft. of pine and oak were used. On the 
docks are 10 engines and 10 centrifugal pumps with a ca- 
pacity of 3,000,000 gallons per hour. These docks are inter- 
esting and will repay a visit. Off Monroe Park occurred the 
battle of Mobile Bay. Some of the piling placed to 
prevent vessels entering the bay in war times is yet visible. 
Admiral Dewey was Farragut's Flag Lieutenant during this 
fight. The street car ride to Spring Hill (6 M. W., fare 10c) 
is one of the best in the city. The first thing of interest 
passed is the Providence Infirmary and Convent of the Visi- 
tation, over 70 years old, opposite which, back of a magnifi- 
cent avenue of oaks, is the home of Augusta Evans Wilson, 
the novelist. 

The Mobile & Bay Shore Ry. is crossed at Crichton Sta- 
tion; also farther on is the Mobile, Jackson & Kansas City 
Ey. As the car enters a road after mounting a hill, by 
looking back one gets a view of the city, and on a clear 
day the Gulf 30 M. away. At the end of the line is Spring 
Hill (Hotel, A. P., $9 up per wk.; E. P., 75c-$l per day; 
cafe in connection). This is a pleasantly situated, large, 
frame hotel, well conducted and quite popular. It is strictly 
a resort inn and caters to tourists. The situation is high 
above the city among pine timber. Near here is Spring Hill 
College, incorporated 1836 (300 students), which has hand- 
some grounds. Those who like a quiet place near a large 
city will, no doubt, be suited at Spring Hill. A ride out 
Government St. car line (fare 5c), takes one past the best 
residence part of the city. There is a shell road drive (7-8 
M.) ; along the Bay is the most frequented one. The man- 
ager of the Hotel Bienville will give full information and 
directions as to this drive. 

From Mobile, if one wishes to go to Florida, the Louis- 
ville & Nashville (E.) connecting with the Seaboard Air Line 
for Jacksonville, may be taken. (See R. 15, P. 380). 

From Mobile the L. & N. bends S. W. and enters Missis- 
sippi (Bayou State) some distance beyond Grand Bay (1,255 
M.), reaching the Gulf at Scranton and Pascagoul?i. 



SCEANTON—OCEAN SPEINGS. 255 



SCEANTON AND PASCAGOUIA, MISS. (1,274 M.), Popu- 
lation 2,000. 

Scranton and Pascagonla are to all intents the same. They 
are located on the L. & N. Ey. 100 M. from New Orleans. 

Hotels — The New Scranton, opposite depot, in Scranton, 
$2 a day; $10 a wk. The Cottage-by-the-Sea, in Pascagoula, 
$2 a day; $10 a wk, and the Couret House, $1 a day. 

Eestaurants — Three small ones. Clif's, opp. depot. 

Furnished Rooms — At the Lindenger House. 

Banks — Merchants' Marine and Scranton State. 

Express Company — Southern Express Co. at depot. 

Telegraph Companies — Western Union, at depot, P. C. 
Postal on Kreds Ave., P. C. 

Livery — Blackwell's; rates low. 

Men's Furnishings — Cox's, and stores of all kinds. 

Laundry — Pascagoula Steam Laundry, P. C. 

Churches — Catholic, Episcopal, Lutheran, Presbyterian and 
Methodist. 

Better points may be found elsewhere; though the large 
salt marshes adjacent provide fine duck and snipe shooting 
in season and quail and doves abound in the surrounding 
pine woods. The fishing is excellent, and boats and launches 
may be rented at about $5 per day, including the services 
of one man. There is a queer phenomenon here called the 
"Mysterious Music of Pascagoula." It is a humming sound 
like wind through wires, only more musical, out on the river 
and bay at night. It has never been accounted for by any one. 
The strip of water 5-10 M. wide lying along the Gulf Coast 
from Pascagoula toward New Orleans is Mississippi Sound. 
Practically it is the open gulf, except that a chain of narrow 
islands extends along five to ten miles from the coast, 
serving as a break-water and preventing the surf from 
reaching the main shore. While this has its advantages it 
compels those who desire surf bathing to go to the islands. 
Leaving Pascagoula the train passes by a long trestle over 
several forks of the Pascagoula Eiver just above their 
entrance into Pascagoula Bay, and enters 

OCEAN SPRINGS (1,287 M.), Population 2,000. 

On the L. & N. Ey. Hotels, %-% M. from depot. 

Hotels — Ocean Springs Hotel, a large frame bldg., poorly 
furnished; rates, $2 a day. Shanahan House, $1.50; $7 wk. 
Beach Hotel, open Jan. 1-April 1st and June to ISTov., $2 day; 
$12 wk. Artesian Hotel, $1.50 day; special by wk. French 
Hotel, on the beach, $1.50 day; special by wk. 



256 NEW YORK TO NEW ORLEANS. 

Eestaurant — One small one. 

Furnished Booms at Vahle House and at private houses. 

Banks — Merchants' Marine and Scranton State Bank. 

Southern Express at depot. 

Telegraph — Western Union at Scranton Bank, P. C. 

Theater — Hall. 

Laimdry — Branch of Peerless Laundry of Mobile. 

Small Stores — Can get almost anything wanted. 

Postoffice — Open 7-7; Sundays, 11-12:30. 

Churches — Presbyterian, Methodist, Baptist, Catholic and 
Episcopal. 

Library — None. 

Ocean Springs lies 4 M. east from Biloxi, and 83 M. from 
New Orleans. It is beautifully shaded with great live oaks, 
the boughs almost meeting over the business street. The 
streets are of shell and there are ten M. of such roads in the 
country adjacent. First-class hotel accommodations are lack- 
ing, though one may be very comfortable at the Beach and 
Shanahan House. Ocean Springs borders on the salt water 
stretching back from it about % M., the main business part be- 
ing hy the depot. Ocean Springs is a good place to rest or go 
fishing, as a great variety of fish are available. Boat rent is 
very reasonable. The salt water bathing is excellent, but 
there is not any surf. The bottom is hard and sandy. Around 
on the E. beach road, 1^2 M., are some splendid winter 
homes, that of Mr. Fields, "Deer Lodge," being particularly 
beautiful. At the rear of his residence, which is fronted 
by a fine grove and a rose garden with many varieties of 
roses, is a fine orange grove. In his residence is a magnifi- 
cent pair of elk antlers — as fine a set as there is in the 
country. Opp. Mr. Field's place are the salt marshes where 
in season duck hunting is fine. The country about Ocean 
Springs is timbered, mostly with pine. The Rose orange 
farm, 2 M. north, has 180 acres cultivated orange, pecan and 
fig trees growing. On the border of the Mobile side of the 
town to the left of the Ey. are the Stewart pecan nurseries 
and orchard where splendid nuts as well as variety of 
produce are raised. The farm is owned and conducted 
by Miss Stewart. A nice drive leads straight out past 
O 'Keefe 's liverj' stable to the beach, bending to the right and 
turning down the lane (left) after passing a chicken ranch. 
The place at the cor. is the winter home of Mrs. Benjamin 
of Milwaukee, Wis. The view over the water in front of her 
home is fine. Somewhere near here report places an old 
Spanish fort. The site of the fort was where Iberville first 
founded Biloxi in 1699. 

At Ocean Springs the ocean resort region is reached, and 
the country thence is all very beautiful and quite historic. 



THE FAMOUS TOWN OF BILOXI. 257 

Westward from Ocean Springs the train crosses a long, 
low trestle more than a mile long over Biloxi Bay, passing 
thence into 

BILOXI, MISS. (1,291 M.), Population 7,000. 

On L. & N. Ky. Depot near the heart of the city. Hotels 
3-5 blocks away. Walk to street from depot and turn to 
right. 

Hotels — Hotel de Montrose, near the beach, is a large, 
rambling, two-story house, some grounds; $2.50-3 a day; 
$12.50-17.50 a wk. Francois Hotel, 110 Beach, E. P., $1 day. 
The Beach, 125 Beach, $2 day; $10-12 wk. Bristow, 102 
Beach, $2 day; $9-10 wk. Bay View, 124 Beach, $1.50 day; 
$8-10 wk. Kennedy's, 458 Reynoir St., E. P., 50c-$l day. 

Restaurants — **Francois, 109 Beach Street. Simon- 
son's, 458 Reynoir St. Vincent's, 114 W. Howard Ave. 

Banks — Bank of Biloxi, 110 W. Howard Ave. People's, 
cor. Howard Ave. and Lamouse St. 

Theater — Dukate Theater, 116 W. Howard Av.; seats 7- 
800; prices based on play. 

Express — Southern Express Co. at depot. 

Telegraph Companies — Western Union Tel. Co., 116 W. 
Howard Ave., P. C. Postal Tel. Co., 212 W. Howard Ave., 
P. C. Messenger service at both tel. offices. Same P. C. 

Livery — Bradford's, 119 E. Howard Ave., P. C. 

Steam Laundry — Coast Laundry, 1331 W. Howard Ave., 
P. C. 

Stores — Good stores of all kinds on Howard Ave. 

Library — King 's Daughters ' library. 

Postoffice — 112 Howard Ave. Gen. del., open 8-6; Sundays, 
12-1; M. O. dept., 8-5:30. 

Churches — Catholic, Methodist, Presbyterian, Baptist and 
Episcopalian. 

Biloxi lies on the sound and is very pretty. It is laid 
out in the old French-Spanish style with narrow streets. 
The main street (Howard Ave.) is paved with brick and the 
other streets with shell. The name Biloxi means * 'Broken 
Pot." It is the oldest city on the Gulf coast, as it was 
here that Iberville founded a colony in 1699. Sarvale was 
its first Governor and Bienville its second. In 1708 it had 
300 people. It was then the capital of Louisiana. In 1722, 
however, the capital was removed to New Orleans and Biloxi 
languished, but never quite died, though there was no record 
kept for 100 years. It is only of recent years that Biloxi has 
begun to grow. It is now a charming place with many de- 
lightful homes. Numerous fine drives wind through the 
country, the best being the Biloxi Beach road (P. 259). 



258 NEW YOEK TO NEW ORLEANS. 

There is another one up the beach in the opposite direction 
on a shell road to Back Bay, on the opposite side of which 
was the old Spanish fort Maurepas, where Iberville first 
landed and founded Biloxi (P. 256). This road passes one 
of the oyster canneries and a couple of small ship yards 
where small oyster schooners and small boats are built. 
Continuing out a wagon bridge is crossed (toll, round trip, 
25c for horse and buggy; 5c for foot passengers each way). 
This bridge is over 3,000 ft. long and not wide- enough for 
two teams to pass except at the turn-out places, hence care 
is necessary or trouble ensues. At the opposite end of the 
bridge, back on the water front some 200 ft.^ is a wooden 
cross which commemorates a Mission held on that spot some 
38 to 40 years ago. This drive is very enjoyable, and the 
long bridge is a novelty. 

Oyster Canneries — There are three large oyster canneries, 
an inspection of which is interesting. The one nearest the 
city, though they are all near, is perhaps the best. The sold- 
ering machines seem almost human in their action, and the 
steaming machines where the oysters are cooked are inter- 
esting. The oysters are first unloaded from the vessel into 
iron crate cars, and then run directly into long square iron 
box-like arrangements, the doors at the end are shut, and 
the steam turned on. In a few minutes they are cooked 
and the shells have slightly opened. Then they are dumped 
into long bins, by the side of which stands a crowd of wo- 
men and children, some of the latter apparently not over 7 
or 9 years old. These women and children open the shells, 
pick out the oysters, and drop them into buckets. The pay 
is so much per bucket, and they work hurriedly in order 
to earn as much as possible. It is pitiable to see them 
working in the dirt, for the oysters as they come from the 
ocean are not clean. The canneries, however, as a rule are 
remarkably clean. Outside of the canneries lie hundreds of 
tons of shells. 

Fishing at Biloxi is good, including speckled trout, sheeps- 
head and tarpon the year round, and from July to September 
splendid Spanish mackerel. Eed fish abound in Back Bay 
and green trout in the Tehouticabouffe Eiver (pronounced 
shute-a-ca-buff), which empties into Back Bay. The river 
fishing is about 3 M. away. 

The cemetery on Beach St. is very old, probably dating 
early in the 1700 's, but there are no very old headstones. 
Back about 100 ft. is the grave of Jean Coueve, a Spanish 
fisherman who refused to pilot the British (Packingham's 
fleet) to New Orleans in 1812. Coueve was offered immense 
sums of money for his services, and was even threatened 
with severe punishment unless he consented, but his loyalty 



THE FAMOUS TOWN OF BILOXI. 259 

remained unshaken. He suffered imprisonment in the hold 
of a British vessel until peace was declared. In recognition 
of his patriotic devotion Congress gave him Cat Island. 
Just over the walk in front of the Episcopal rectory which 
adjoins the church, 445 Beach St., stands a tree which has 
a queer freak in the shape of a "ring," or place where the 
great branch divides into two sections for about 16 inches, 
and then rejoins. It is quite a curiosity, and is called the 
*'ring in the oak." Two little 'Hreea" are growing on 
the limb by its sides. At the corner of Main St. and the 
railway are the City Waterworks^ an artesian^ well 800 ft. 
deep, furnishing pressure to hydraulic rams which pump the 
water up into a huge section steel tank high above. Biloxi 
is well shaded with fine trees, and is a delightful place to 
visit, though first class hotel accommodations are needed. 

The Drive to Gulfport — The drive up the beach road to 
Gulfport is charming. Leaving Biloxi by a beautiful avenue 
along the beach with charming residences on the right, the 
lighthouse is passed, also Biloxi Sanitarium, a splendidly 
eauipped place more like a high grade hotel than a sani- 
tarium. Beyond are the Methodist camp meeting grounds, 
which comprise a large number of buildings and is a favorite 
camping place in summer. Further on is a settlement called 
"French Town." Soon a charming old Southern mansion is 
seen fronting the Bay. It is Beauvoir, the former home of 
Jefferson Davis, who lived there from 1870 until his death, 
which occurred in 1896 or 1897. It is now a Confederate 
Veterans' Home, maintained by the sons and daughters of 
the Confederacy. "Beauvoir" is a French name and signi- 
fies "beautiful view." The outlook from the wide front 
veranda over the shimmering waters of the Bay well confirms 
the title. The small building (right) with a large porch was 
Jefferson Davis' office. The Superintendent will gjadly show 
visitors around and if money is contributed it will be used 
to procure little extras, such as tobacco, etc., for the mem- 
bers of the Home. Gifts are not solicited, but are appre- 
ciated by the poor old fellows fast approaching the grave. 
Entering this building one sees the office where Davis wrote 
the "Rise and Fall of the Confederacy," his book shelves, 
student lamp and old sole leather traveling trunks with for- 
eign hotel labels still on them. In the small room to the 
rear he rested on a couch when fatigued. Winnie Davis 
studied her lessons in the little room off the porch, going 
thence to recite to her father in his office. In the panels 
of the mantel are two paintings by her when only ten years 
old. By the door is her little desk shelf. The building to the 
left of the main one is the Hayes cottage where Mrs. Hayes 
(his only living child, who resides in Denver, Colo.) lived 



260 NEW YOEK TO NEW OKLEANS. 

when visiting her father in winter. In the wide, spacious 
hall of the main building are frescoes by a French artist, the 
ceiling looking as though just painted. The two settees 
and center table in the hall were a part of the Davis furni- 
ture. The room to the left was the parlor, and the marble 
mantel is hand made. The portiere and curtain poles are aa 
left by the Davis family. Opposite this, the front room 
(right) was the bed chamber and room of Winiiie Davis, 
and the rear room (left) was a library and sitting room. 
The book shelves, which remain, formerly held Davis' li- 
brary. Opposite (right) was the guest chamber. At the 
end (left) of the rear porch was Davis' bed chamber with a 
bath room adjoining, back of which was that of his wife. 
At the opposite end of the rear porch is the apartment 
formerly used as a dining room, on the mantel of which 
is another painting by Miss Winnie. The room also con- 
tains a solid mahogany dining table. The kitchen and serv- 
ants' rooms were in the rear a little to the right, but they 
were burned some time ago. There are 87 acres of land 
with the mansion house, and the place is very interesting on 
account of the associations clustering around it. Near 
Beauvoir is the summer place of the New Orleans Beauvoir 
Club. Passing along the road about one-half mile Baywood 
is seen, which is the New Orleans Y. M. C. A. summer house. 
This is about 6 M. from Gulfport. From here to Mississippi 
City many magnolia trees are seen among the timber. Ap- 
proaching Mississippi City, which has only 285 inhabitants, 
the Ainiiston House is passed, a large, frame tourist hotel 
about midway betvv^een Biloxi and Gulfport (rates $2-2.50 
a day; $12.50 a week). It fronts the beach and is a quiet, 
homelike place, run by a lady whose chief desire is that her 
guests shall have an enjoyable time. Anyone who wishes to 
get away from town and be where it is quiet should address 
Mrs. F. R. Holbrook, Mississippi City, for further particu- 
lars. Beyond the Anniston House is an old building known 
as the * 'Haunted House,*' which sets up off the ground and 
has square porch pillars. From here to Paradise Point 
(sign on small store), roses bloom abundantly in the season. 
Just beyond Paradise Point the trees meet over the road, 
forming a living archway of green. Turning to the left 
after crossing the railway a two-story brick building is 
noted (left). This was the coimty jail, and adjoining it is 
the old court house. The county seat has been removed to 
Gulfport. Leaving Mississippi City, to the left is where 
a large resort hotel once stood, though it was burned some 
years ago. Thence the road leads through Sorie City 1 M. 
from Gulfport, and into Gulfport. The drive for the entire 
distance affords a fine vievr out over the bay, and is lined 



GULFPOET AND PASS CHRISTIAN. 261 

with residences, some of which are elegant and located in 
spacious grounds generally well shaded with large oak trees. 

GULFPORT, MISS. (1.303 M.), Population 6,000. 

Gulfport is the next place of interest. It is a flourishing 
town, but resembles a village in not having street names or 
numbers. 

Hotels— Great Southern, E. P., $1 up; with bath, $1.50 up; 
dining room in connection; see description farther on. Gulf 
View, fronts beach, A. P., $2 a day; $10 a wk. Johnson 
House, $2 a day. 

Restaurants — Pierce's, and several cheap places. 

Furnished Rooms — Scarce. 

Banks — First National and Bank of Commerce. 

Theaters — One small one. 

Telegraph Companies — Western Union and Postal. 

Livery — Two; rates reasonable. 

Steam Laundries — Two. 

Men's Furnishings — Feitle's. Also stores of all kinds. 

Library — Kings ' Daughters. 

Commercial Body — Progressive League, E. J. Youghans, 
Secretary. 

Churches — Catholic, Presbyterian, Episcopalian, Baptist 
and Methodist. 

Gulfport lies on the Sound which is to all intents the open 
gulf, the only difference being the lack of surf which is 
broken by the islands. It is a great lumber shipping port. 
A pier runs out nearly a mile into the Sound and along its 
right side is a forest of spars, most of the lumber vessels 
being sailing ships, not the small kind, but those that cross 
the ocean. And one will probably see ships from South 
America, Italy, Spain, France and other countries loading 
with the wealth of pine lumber from our shores. The Italian 
sailor in his glory with a dirk stuck in the bright-colored 
sash knotted about his waist, doing the duty of more modern 
suspenders, though its brightness is usually dimmed by dirt; 
or the pink-skinned German direct from his native land. 
At the head of the pier is a pavilion for dancing, etc., 
which is a very nice building. The U. S. Naval stores are 
located just at the lower edge of the city, and out some 2 
M. is a very large cottonseed oil mill and fertilizer works. 
Fishing is excellent in the Sound and in the fresh water 
bayous to the rear of the city, trout, Spanish mackerel, 
pompano, croaker, sheepshead, etc., abound. Boats are for 
rent and a launch is available. There is a large, double- 
decked pleasure barge for excursions and to take parties out 
to the island (13 M.) for surf bathing. Fishing is also found 



262 NEW YOEK TO NEW OELEANS. 

in the bayous of Cat Island, 8 M. away. The drire down 
the beach to Pass Christian, 9^ M., is good. Shell roads 
and streets are being provided as fast as possible, the one 
to Biloxi (see farther on) being fine. The Great Southern 
Hotel provides excellent entertainment. It is a large frame 
structure at the water's edge, with a spacious screened, open 
porch facing the water, a fine dining room, well furnished 
rooms, pleasant office, billiard room and good service. One 
odd feature is an orchestra of young ladies, a really excel- 
lent organization. The Gulf & Ship Island Railway extends 
from Gulfport to Jackson, Miss., with three branches and 
taps a great lumber section, there being over 100 saw mills 
en route. 
The next place of not.e is 

PASS CHUISTIAN (1,313 M.), Population 2,000. 

Hotels — Lynn Castle, % M. from depot, on water front; 
very pretty grounds; excellent house, A. P., $2-2.50 day; $11- 
15 wk. Mexican Gulf Hotel, two blocks from depot, at water 
front; large, well-equipped house, A. P., $14-30 wk.; open 
in winter. Magnolia Hotel, in nice grounds, A. P., $2-3 day; 
$12-15 wk. Many cottages are for rent, mostly by the sea- 
son and generally are contracted for in advance. 

One restaurant. No theater. Postal Telegraph Co., near 
Bank, and Western Union at depot; both have telephones. 
One bank. Southern Express Co. at depot. Four liveries. 
Circulating library. Catholic, Episcopalian and Presbyterian 
churches. Golf Links. 

Pass Christian is scattered along the beach for about two 
M. The beach drive is along a shell road shaded by fine 
trees and is delightful. Bathing piers extend into the water 
all along the beach, and the bathing is good but there is no 
surf. A chain of islands almost out of view separates the 
Sound from the open Gulf. There is one oyster cannery, and 
the sails of the oyster boats, which dot the river, form a 
very picturesque scene. The fishing is excellent; speckled 
trout, sheepshead, Spanish mackerel, flounders, croakers, 
perch, green trout, shrimp, red fish, etc., etc., abounding. 

The hotel accommodations at Pass Christian are better 
than at Bay St. Louis (4 M. further) and it is very pretty, 
though the Bay St. Louis is considered preferable by 
some. Passing over a long creoaoted timber trestle the train 
enters 



PICTURESQUE BAY ST. LOUIS. 26^ 



BAY ST. LOUIS, (1,319 M.), Population 3,000. 

Hotels— Pickwick, A. P., $2 day; $10-12 wk. Tulane, A. 
P., $1.50 day; $10 wk. up; special monthly rates; E. P. also 
if desired. Clifton House, $2 day; $8-12 wk; $30-40 month. 

Restaurants — None. 

Furnished Eooms — Scarce; many cottages for rent, $10- 
50 month. 

Telegraph Companies — Western Union at depot. Postal on 
beach front. 

Livery — None; many hacks and carriages on the streets 
at all times for hire, however; $1 first hr.; 75c for add. hrs; 
special by day; parties may secure tallyho if desired. 

Boats of all kinds are for rent reasonably. 

Public Library. 

Banks — Two. 

Small stores of all kinds. 

Bay St. Louis lies prettily on Mississippi Sound, facing 
the Sound, with Pass Christian opposite and Bay 
St. Louis to the left; also the mouth of the Jordan Eiver 
three M. to the left. It has good public schools, many nice 
homes, shade trees, etc., and 14 M. of splendid shell road 
along the beach, well shaded with fine trees, which afford 
charming drives, consequently driving is one of the principal 
diversions. The whole place is usually picturesque and 
charming. The boat trips are delightful, one of the best 
being up to Rotten Bayou, 5 M., which is surpassingly beau- 
tiful. The St. Stanislaus (Catholic) College occupies fine 
brick buildings on the beach front, with St. Joseph's Con- 
vent adjoining. Crabs are found, also many varieties of fish 
similar to those at Pass Christian. The waters are con- 
stantly dotted with sails of oyster and pleasure craft. 
There are two oyster canneries where the luscious bivalve 
is confined within tin walls and shipped to the markets of 
the world. On the Jordan Eiver (5 M. up) one may in- 
spect the turpentine stills. Bay St. Louis is a delightful 
place. The hotels are quite comfortable, though not high 
class. The Pickwick is the best. The bathing in salt water 
is very good, the bottom being hard sand; but there is no 
surf. Bathing piers extend along the beach every 20-50 ft., 
running out about 100 yards, with a small bath house at the 
end. The water out there is quite clear and about 3-4 ft. 
deep. 

Beyond Bay St. Louis the train enters Waveland (1,323 
M.), the last of the Gulf Coast Eesorts on this line; continu- 
ing westward it spans the Pearl Eiver near Claiborne (1,332 
M.) and enters Louisiana (Pelican State), beyond which 



264 NEW YOEK TO NEW OELEANS. 

it crosses the outlet of Lake Pontchartrain, and traverses 
the peninsula between it and Lake Borgne. Lake Catherine 
opens into Lake Pontchartrain. Dunbar (1,335 M.) was 
formerly known as ''English Lookout," because the British 
army camped there in 1812. It is a popular fishing center. 
Entering New Orleans (1,371 M.) the train passes down the 
center of a wide street called Champs Elysees, which was 
laid out in the olden days by a wealthy Frenchman with the 
intent to make it a rival of the famous street in Paris from 
which it derived its name. His dream fell far short of 
fulfillment, as the street has degenerated until it is now 
little more than a railroad yard. For description of New 
Orleans (P. 144). 

C. Via Philadelphia, Harrisburg, Hagerstown, Roanoke, 
Chattanooga and Meridian. 

Pennsylvania, Cumberland Valley, Norfolk & Western, 
Southern, and Queen & Crescent. (1,393 M.) Fare, $34. 
Sleeper, $8.50. 

For New York to Philadelphia, (see R. 12 A, P. 271). 

At Philadelphia, the train rolls out of the handsome 
Broad St. Station, crosses the Schuylkill and runs to the 
N. W. through W. Philadelphia, passing several suburban 
stations en route — neat little buildings, surrounded by flower 
gardens— to Hartford College (99 M.), an orthodox Quaker 
seat of learning situated in a well-shaded park, to the 
left. Bryn Mawr (100 M., pop. 4,000, Bryn Ivlawr House, 
A. P., $2.50-5) is the scat of Bryn Mawr College for Women, 
300 students. The tower of the main building is seen to 
the right. Near Villa Nova, is the Red Rose Inn, a favorite 
resort of cyclists and people from Philadelphia. At Villa 
Nova (102 M.) is a Eoman Catholic monastery, college and 
farm. To the left is Devon (16 M., Devon Inn, A. P., $4-5), 
a popular summer resort. At Paoli (110 M.), the British de- 
feated the Americans in a battle on September 20th, 1777, 
commemorating which event a monument has been erected. 
Devon was the birthplace of "Mad" Anthony Wayne 
(1745-96). Up to this point we have traveled through a 
section containing many of the suburban homes of Phila- 
delphia people. We now leave this behind and enter the 
"Garden of Pennsylvania," a very rich and highly culti- 
vated farming district. A fine view of the Chester Valley 
is seen to the right as we cross the ridge of an outlying 
spur of the Alleghenies and emerge on the hillside. This 
ridge is followed for some distance, and we then descend 
to the valley to Downington (122 M.) with its lime kilns 
and iron works. The W. Brandywine is crossed at Coates- 



LANCASTER AND POINTS BEYOND. 265 

viile (128 M.) on a bridge 73 ft. in height. Gap (141 M.) 
lies at the summit of the water shed between the Delavi^are 
and Susquehanna, in an opening in Mine Hill. From hero 
our train descends into the Pequea Valley, crossing Cones- 
toga Creek, named after the Conestoga Indian tribe, and 
entering 

LANCASTER, PA. (159 M.) Population 41,459. 

Hotels — Stevens House, cor. W. King and Prince Sts.; 
rates, A. P., $2.50-3 per day. American House, 32-4 N. 
Queen St., A. P., $2 per day. Wheatland, A. P., $2-3 per 
day. Imperial, cor. N. Queen and Chestnut Sts., A. P., 
$2 per day. Realty, 35-7 W. King St., A. P., $1.50 per day. 
Lincoln, 34-6 S. Queen St., A. P., $1.25 a day; $8.75 a wk. 

Eestaurants — Chas. J. Hoster, 125 N. Queen St. Chas. 
A. Wenditz, 210 N. Queen St. Nissley's, 14 E. Chestnut St. 

Fumished Eooms — Mrs. Kendigs, 402 N. Queen St. Hol- 
man House, 318 N. Queen St. 202 N. Prince St. Prices 
50 to 75c a night and $1.50 to $3.50 per wk. 

Banks — Conestoga National Bank, 28 Penn Sq. Lancaster 
Co. National Bank, 23 E. King St. Lancaster Trust Co., 
36 N. Queen St. Union Trust Co., 26 E. King St. 

Theater — Fulton Opera House, 12-18 N. Prince St.; seating 
capacity, 1,500; prices, 25c to $2. Woolworth Roof Gar- 
den, 27 N. Queen St.; seating capacity, 708; prices, 10 to 50c. 

Eailway Express Offices — Adams Exp. P. R. R., cor. N. 
Queen and Chestnut Sts.; Bell P. C. 494 J. U. S. Ex. P. & 
R. R. R., 16 E. Orange St., P. C. 266. 

Telegraph Companies — Western Union, cor. Penn Sq. and 
E. King St., P. C. 396. Postal, 13 Penn Sq., P. C. 399. 
Office hours, wk. days, 7 a. m. to 12 midnight; Sundaya 
8 a. m. to 9 p. m.. A. D. T., 1 E. King St. and 13 Penn Sq., 
P. C. 396-399. 

Livery— Smith 's Livery, 153 N. Queen St., P. C. 282 J. 
Eli Powl, 14 E. Walnut St., P. C. 2; single rigs, first hour, 
$1; double rigs, first hour, $2. Legal hack hire, 25c for 
one passenger and trunk, inside city line. 

Railway Ticket Offices — P. R. R. depot, cor. N. Queen and 
Chestnut St. Phila. & Reading, 540 N. Prince St. Lan- 
caster & Quarryville, 9 S. Water St. 

Bill Posters and Distributors — Lancaster Bill Posting Co., 
16 N. Prince St. 

Trunk Factory — ^Eepalrs — Edward Kreckel, 30 Penn St., 
P. C. 

Steam Laundry — Calls — Lancaster Steam Laundry, 146 E. 
King St., Bell P. C. 388 M. 



260 NEW YORK TO NEW ORLEANS. 

Men's Furnishings— Stauffer & Co., 33 N. Queen St.. Bell 
P. C. 30 M. 

Department Store— H. S. Williamson, 32 E. King St. 

Post Office — Cor. N. Duke and Marion Sts.; general de- 
livery and stamps open, wk. days, 6:30 a. m. to 10 p. m.; 
Sundays, 8-9 a. m.; M. O. window open 7 a. m. to 8 p. m.; 
Sundays, 8-9 a. m. 

Public Library— Y. M. C. A., cor. N. Queen and W. 
Orange Sts. 

Churches, clubs, etc., etc., see City Directory. 

Commercial Club— Board of Trade, Sec'y, J. W. Byrne. 

Leading Local Industries— St ehli Silk Mills, Farnum Cot- 
ton Mills, Banner Cheroot Company, Follmer, Clogg & Co., 
umbrellas, Penna. Soap Co., Champion Blower & Forge Co., 
Penn Iron Co., Hershay Chocolate Co., Hamilton Watch Co. 

Points of Interest — '' Wheatland, '* James Buchanan's 
home; State Normal School; Millersville; Katherine Long 
Park; Williamson's Park. 

Lancaster is a busy industrial town, and an important 
market for farm products and tobacco. Franklin and Mar- 
shall College and the Theological Seminary located here both 
belong to the German Reformed church. The grave of 
President Buchanan is located in Woodward Hall Ceme- 
tery. Inhabitants of this section are largely the descend- 
ants of German colonists. After passing Elizabethtown 
(177 M.), the train enters the beautifully picturesque do- 
files of South Mt. At Conewago (180 M.), we get a fine view 
while crossing Conewago Creek. Beyond this our train 
roaches the west bank of the Susquehanna, which is wide 
and shallow, with many rocks in its bed. Middletown 
(186 M.) is at the mouth of the Swatara River. Its prin- 
cipal industry is the manufacture of iron. At Steelton (192 
M.) are the immense works of the Pennsylvania Steel 
Company, employing about 5,000 men. 

We now come to Harrisburg, the capital city of Pennsyl- 
vania (195 M., population 50,167, Lochiel Hotel, A. P., $3-6; 
Commonwealth Hotel, A. P., $3-6; Columbus, A. P., $1.50 up, 
E. P., 75c; Hotel Russ, E. P., $1 up). The city is situated 
on the E. bank of the Susquehanna River, which is about 
1 M. wide at this point. The Capitol Building is located on 
a hill. It was destroyed by fire in 1897, but has been 
rebuilt and is now large and magnificent. At its W. side 
stands the statue of General Hartranft (1830-89) by Ruch- 
stuhl, erected in 1898. In State St. is a monument to the 
Union dead, 110 ft. in height. In Harris Park is the grave 
of John Harris, the founder of the town, and the stump of 
the tree to which, in 1718, he was tied by drunken Indians, 



LURAY AND ITS CAVEENS. 267 

who intended to burn him alive. Among the bridges span- 
ning the Susquehanna Eiver at this point is a quaint, old, 
covered one, described by Dickens in his American Notes. 
Our train is here transferred to the Cumberland Valley E. E., 
which has charge of it to Hagerstown, traversing the beauti- 
ful and fertile Cumberland Valley lying between the Blue 
Mts., right, and South Mt., left. Wo cross over the Sus- 
quehanna Eiver just below the covered bridge, and go to 
Gettysburg Junction (213 M.). Carlisle (214 M., popula- 
tion 9,626, Hotel Wellington, A. P., $2; ^Mansion (House, 
A. P., $2) is the site of the Government Indian Training 
School, in which Indian children are educated. Carlisle was 
Washington's headquarters during ''The Whisky War," in 
1794. In 1863 the town was captured by General Lee. 
Five M. beyond Greencastle (258 M.), our route crosses the 
famous ** Mason and Dixon Line,'' and we enter Maryland 
(Old Line State). 

We now come to Hagerstown (269 M.), where the Norfolk 
& Western Ey. takes us in charge. Hagerstown lies on the 
Antietam, and was the center of many important military 
operations during the Civil War. Between Hagerstown and 
Shenandoah Junction our train passes through the battle- 
field of Antietam, where General McClellan (Federal) de- 
feated General Lee (Confederate) and forced him back 
across the Potomac (1862). At Shenandoali Junction (292 
M.) connection is made with the Washington Line (see 
E. 11 D, P. 270). W© now begin to ascend the *beautiful 
Shenandoali Valley, within the confines of which many im- 
portant military operations took place during the Civil 
War. The *Valley of the Virginia lies between the Alle- 
gheny and Blue Eidge mountains, including the whole or 
part of the valleys of the Eoanoke, James, New and Shen- 
andoah Elvers. This wag the scene of Stonewall Jackson's 
campaign against Pope, Fremont, Shields and Banks, 1862, 
and the brilliant feats of Sherman's cavalry, 1864. Leaving 
Shenandoah Junction, the Shenandoah Eiver is some dis- 
tance to the left, with the Blue Eidge Mts. beyond. Charles- 
town (297 M.) was where the hanging of John Brown took 
place in 1860 (P. 271). At Riverton (328 M.), we cross the 
Shenandoah Eiver near the joining of the N. and S. branches, 
and follow the S. branch (left). The Shenandoah Valley 
is here split into two divisions by the Massanutton Mts., a 
part of the Allegheny Mts., which we now see to the right. 

The next place of interest is Luray (357 M., ^Mansion Inn, 
A. P., $2; Lavrence, $2). Luray is a small village, pic- 
turesquely situated on the Hawkesbill Eiver, 5 M. from the 
Blue Eidge Mts., and 4 M. from Massanutton Mts. Here 



208 NEW YORK TO NEW ORLEANS. 

cnn be seen the *Luray Caverns, one of the wonders of the 
country, which have perhaps the finest display of calcite 
formation in the world. The Caverns are reached from the 
station by carriage (seat, 35e). Ascending the main street 
of the village to the top of the hill, we see (right) a con- 
ical elevation containing the caves. A guide is at the 
entrance; admission, $1; after 6 p. m., rate higher; also, 
extra charge for lijihting the caves after 6 p. m. A guide 
book may be purchased at the cottage for 25c. Most of 
the formations in the caverns have been given more or less 
appropriate names, and the various objects are frequently 
beautiful, not only in shape but in color. Many of the 
chambers are large and lofty, and small rivers, lakes and 
springs occur at intervals. The temperature of the caverns 
is uniformly 51 to 58 deg. It is explored by roads and 
footpaths, and as it is brilliantly lighted by electricity, a 
visit involves little discomfort or fatigue. Two to three 
hours are usually required to see what is generally shown 
to visitors. The entrance is through a wide and lofty 
corridor. Some of the best things are the "Elfin Eamble,'* 
a large plateau; "Pluto's Chasm," a wide rift in the walls; 
"Hovey's Hall," in wliieh are stalagmites bearing a strik- 
ing resemblance to a statue with sculptured robes; "Giant's 
Hall," which includes several smaller chambers; the "Sara- 
cen's Tent," a beautiful circular fluted stalactite; the 
*' Organ," a series of large irregular shaped pendant stalac- 
tites, some of which give a musical sound when rapped with 
a wand; "Titania's Veil," under which is "Diana's Bath;" 
the "Ball Room;" "Hades;" the cataracts of "Niagara" 
and "Yosemite;" "Petrified Forests;" "Golden Apples of 
Hesperides;" the "Fallen Column," and so on through a 
list that would fill pages. Luray Caverns must be seen to 
be even faintly appreciated. It is a wonderfully beautiful 
sight, and no one will regret a visit to this wonderhouse of 
Nature. Luray is an excellent base from which to visit 
the battlefields of the Virginia Valley campaign. Stony 
Man, one of the highest of the Blue Ridge peaks, is visited 
from Luray, the distance being about 9 M. (carriage). The 
drive shows some magnificent mountain scenery, and at 
Stony Man Camp (Alt. 4,028 ft.) are accommodations con- 
sisting of rustic log cabins and tents. (Rates, .$2 per day; 
$9.50 wk. Season, June 25 to Oct. 1.) For further par- 
ticulars address G. Freeman Pollock, Mgr., "Skyland," 
Page Co., Va. 

Leaving Luray, the scenery of the valley becomes more 
beautiful and picturesque. At Shenandoah (375 M.), are 
iron works and railway shops. Grottoes (398 M., alt. 1,120 



THE NATURAL BRIDGE. 269 

ft., population 600, Hotel Fulton, A. P., $2) is the station 
from which to reach the grottoes of the Shenandoah (Foun- 
tain and Weyer Caverns), which lie one-half M. from the 
line; admission, $1; lighted by electricity; time required 
for exploration^ two to three hours. Here we find both 
stalactites and stalagmites. At Basic (412 M.), we inter- 
sect the lines of the Chesapeake & Ohio Ry. Near Vesu- 
vius (436 M.) are the Crabtree Falls. Near Buena Vista 
(474 M.) we cross the South River. Natural Bridge Station 
(467 M.) lies on the James River, 3 M. from Natural 
Bridge; conveyance meets trains; fare 50c. 

*Tlie Natural Bridge of Virginia is a great monolithic 
arch of limestone, 215 ft. in height, 100 ft. in width, with 
a 90 ft. span crossing the gorge, in which flop's Cedar 
Creek. The situation of the bridge is in an amphitheatre 
surrounded by mountains. Roads and bridle paths have been 
laid out through the neighboring country. A park of 1,800 
acres lies in the immediate vicinity of the bridge, embrac- 
ing several of the surrounding hills. Admission, $1. The 
path to the bridge leads down to the side of a beautiful 
brook, over which are some magnificent old arbor vitae 
trees. From the foot of the bridge the view is very im- 
pressive. On the W. side, some 24 to 26 ft. from the 
ground, will be found the name of George Washington, 
carved in the smooth rock. From here we may ascend the 
path which leads along the bridge up a ravine past Saltpetre 
Cave, Hemlock Island and Lost River to Lace Falls (1 M.). 
The latter, though small, are very pretty. Retracing our 
steps to the gatehouse and ascending to the summit of 
the bridge, we gain some excellent views, Pulpit Rock and 
Cedar Cave being the favorite vantage points. From the 
bridge the path leads along the edge of Eock Rimmon, on 
the top of the right bank of Cedar Creek. On the summit 
of Mt. Jefferson is an observation tower, affording a fine 
outlook over a wide stretch of mountain scenery. Ridge 
Mts. to the E., Peaks of Otter to the S. E., Purgatory Mt. 
to the S., North Mt. to the W., House Mt. to the N., and 
many sm_aller peaks as well as much picturesque and beauti- 
ful couutry are seen from this tower. Hotel accommoda- 
tions at the bridge are as follows: Appledore, rate $3 per 
day, $12-15 wk; Pavilion, $3 per day; Jefferson Cottage, 
$3 per day. 

Our line now follows the James River (right), with the 
Chesapeake & Ohio Ry. on the opposite bank and fine 
scenery on every hand as far as Buchanan (483 M,.), at 
which point the James bends to the right, our line con- 



270 NEW YOEK TO NEW ORLEANS. 

tinuing to the S. W. to Roanoke (508 M., P. 239). For 
Eoanoke to New Orleans (see R. 11 A, P. 237). 

D. Via Philadelphia, Washington, Shenandoah Junction, 
Eoanoke, Chattanooga and Meridian. 

Pennsylvania Lines, Bait. & Ohio, Norfolk & Western, 
Southern Ey. and Queen & Crescent Eoute. (1,393 M.) Fare, 
$34. Sleeper, $8.50. 

For New York to Washington, see E. 12 A, P. 271. 

Leaving Washington via the Baltimore & Ohio l^y., we 
enjoy a good view of the city. Our line runs to the N. W., 
through Maryland to Dickerson (263 M.), where the Poto- 
mac Eiver comes into view on the left. Beyond Washington 
Junction (270 M.), our train passes under a promontory 
of the Catoctin Mts. through a tunnel. From Washington 
Junction a line extends to JTrederickshurg, 15 M., the scene 
of Barbara Frietchie's exploit, immortalized in verse by 
Whittier. Francis Scott Key (1779-1843), the author of ''The 
Star Spangled Banner," lies buried in Mount Olivet Ceme- 
tery, opposite the entrance to which is a monument to his 
memory, erected in 1898 by Alexander Doyle. Further on 
the valley grows narrower and the hills higher. At Wever- 
ton (279 M.), junction is made with a line to Hagerstown 
(P. 2G7). Near this place was the battle of South Mountain, 
September 14, 1862. The scenery around here is very pic- 
turesque. Beyond, we cross the Potomac Eiver, entering W. 
Virginia at Harper's Ferry (282 M., population 1,677, Hotel 
Connor, A. P., $2; Gatrell, A. P., $2; Lake wood House, 
A. P., $1). This little town is finely situated on a point 
of land formed by the confluence of the Potomac and Shen- 
andoah Eivers. The Virginian or Loudon Heights lie on one 
side and the Maryland Heights on the other. This city 
might be said to have been the scene of the beginning of 
the Civil War. John Brown, of Ossawattomie, at the head 
of a party of some forty armed abolitionists, entered Har- 
pers' Ferry by way of the bridge on the night of October 
16, 1859, and took possession of the arsenal (destroyed 
during the Civil War), with intent to liberate the negro 
slaves and use the Blue Eidge as a base of hostilities 
against the slave owners. The slaves did not revolt, how- 
ever, as had been expected, and after two days' fighting, in 
which the Virginia militia was aided by a squad of U. S. 
Marines sent there for that purpose, Brown and his com- 
panions were all either captured or killed. The small engine 
house in which Brown made his last stand (known as John 



JOHN BROWN AND HARPEE'S FERRY. 271 

Brown's Fort) was taken to the Chicago World's Fair, and 
afterwards brought back and placed in a small park on 
the Shenandoah, some 4 M. from Harpers' Ferry. John 
Brown and six of his comrades were hanged, at Charleston 
(P. 267), 7 M. to the S. W. From the top of the promontory, 
300 ft. above the river, a splendid view is had of the 
confluence of the rivers and the gap in the Blue Ridge. Just 
below on the Shenandoah side is Jefferson's Rock. By fol- 
lowing the path along the Shenandoah (far above it) one 
may go to Bolivar Heights, passing Storer College, 1 M., 
en route. The Heights command an excellent view of the 
valley of the Virginia and the Allegheny Mts., 30 M. away. 
The road around the foot of the cliffs affords a very enjoy- 
able drive. To ascend Maryland Heights, ait. 1,455 ft., 
takes 1^3 to 2 hours, by bridle path. We cross the Poto- 
mac bridge and turn to the left, further on taking a some- 
what rough path, to the left. Beyond Harpers' Ferry the 
line leaves the Potomac, and we arrive at Shenandoah 
(290 M.). From Shenandoah to New Orleans, see E. 11 C, 
P. 264. 



ROUTE 12. NEW YORK TO TAMPA. 

A. Via Philadelphia, Washington, Richmond, Raleigh, Co- 
lumbia, Savannah, Jacksonville and Silver Springs. 

Pennsylvania Lines, Washington Southern and Seaboard 
Air Line Rys. (1,194 M.) Fare, $34.45. Sleeper, $8.50. 

This route leads out of New York by ferry to Jersey City 
and from Jersey City due W. to Newark (9 M., population 
246,000, Continental Hotel, A. P., $2-3). Newark lies around 
a bend of the Passaic River, has beautiful parks, handsome 
large buildings and is an extensive manufacturing center. 
At Elizabeth (14% M., population 52,130, Burkley Hotel, 
A. P., $2.50) we cross the Central R. R. of New Jersey. 
Princeton University, or College of New Jersey, was founded 
here in 1746 and transferred to Princeton in 1757. A tablet 
marking its original site was erected in Elizabethton in 1897. 
Menlo Park (24 M.) was the former home of Thos. A. Edison, 
the famous inventor. New Brunswick (31 M., population 
20,000, Mansion House, $3) lies on the Raritan River, and is 
an important manufacturing center. It is the site of Rut- 
ger's College, in view (right), the seat of learning of the 
Dutch Reformed Church, chartered in 1770 — 150 students. 



272 NEW YORK TO TAMPA. 

The bridge erosscd in entering the city spans the Earitan, 
Eiver and the Delaware & Earitan Canal. From Monmouth 
Junction (41 M.) the line to Long Branch diverges to the 
left. At Princeton Junction (47 M.) the line diverges to 
the right, 4 M., to Princeton. 

Princeton College ranks high among the universities of 
the country, and has an attendance of some 1,200 students. 
The buildings stand on a beautiful campus, 225 acres in 
extent. The principal ones are Blair Hall, Nassau Hall, 
Alexander Hall, the Art Museum, the Library (190,000 vol- 
umes), and Marquand Chapel. The Continental Congress 
held its sessions at Nassau Hall from June 16 to November 
4, 1783, and it was here that Washington received the na- 
tion's thanks for his splendid service to the country in the 
Eevolutionary War. Princeton Theological .Seminary is also 
located here (250 students). The Battle of Princeton is a 
part of American history, Washington defeated the British 
January 3, 1777, at Eocky Hill. Four M. north of Princeton 
is the building in which Washington wrote his farewell ad- 
dress to the army in 1783. Five M. southwest of Princeton 
is Marysville School, which ranks high among the educational 
institutions of the country. Our line proceeds to the S. W., 
descending toward the Delaware Eiver to 

TRENTON, N. J. (56.7 M.) Population, 73,307. 

Hotels— Windsor, A. P., $2.50-3.50; Trenton, A. P., $2.50- 
3.50, E. P., $1 up; Barlow's Hotel, A. P., $2-2.50. 

Trenton is the capital city of New Jersey, and is on the 
E. bank of the Delaware Eiver at the head of navigation. 
One of the principal industries is the making of pottery, 
very fine material for which is found near the city. The 
Capitol building is a handsome structure overlooking the 
river. The State Penitentiary and State Lunatic Asylum 
are here and the buildings are large. The Delaware & 
Raritan Canal passes through the city. Here Washington's 
famous crossing of the Delaware was accomplished on De- 
cember 26, 1776. After making this memorable passage he 
surprised and routed the Hessians under General Eall, fol- 
lowing up that success by a battle, June 2, 1777, in which 
he held his ground against Lord Cornwallis. 

Passing over the Delaware Eiver, our train enters Penn- 
sylvania and passes to the S. W., with the Delaware Eiver 
on the left and the Canal on the right, traversing a very 
rich and fertile farming country to Morrisville (58 M.j. 
The French general. Moreau, lived here fro*m 1800 to 1813, 
in a house built by Eobert Morris, tlie banker of the Eevolu- 
tion. Approaching the city of Philadelphia, our line curves 



THE CITY OF TBENTON. 273 

away from the river and cuts through a district with many 

Theaters— Broad St., 261 S. Broad. Arch St., 615 Arch St. 
Academy of Music, cor. Broad and Locust Sts. Auditorium, 
Walnut St. above 8th. Bijou, 209 N. 8th St. Chestnut St. 
Opera House, 1025 Chestnut St. Chestnut St. Theater, 1211 
Chestnut St. Columbia, 526 N. 3rd St. Dime Museum, cor. 
9th and Arch Sts. Eleventh St. Opera House, 17 S. 11th St. 
Empire Theater, 4650 Frankfort Ave. European Museum, 
708 Chestnut St. Forepaugh's, 253 N. 8th St. Garrick, 1330 
Chestnut St. Girard Ave., 625 Girard Ave. Grand Opera 
House, cor. Broad and Montgomery. Italian, cor. 8th St. and 
Washington Ave. Keith's Bijou, 8th St. above Kace. Keith's 
new Chestnut St. Theater, Chestnut above 11th. Kensington 
Family Theater, cor. Frankfort Ave. and Norris St. Lyceum 
Theater, 722 Vine St. People's Theater, cor, Kensington 
Ave. and E. Cumberland St. 

Banks— Bank of N. A., 305 Chestnut St. Camden Nat. 
Bank, cor. Walnut and 2nd Sts. Central Nat., 109 S. 4th St. 
Chestnut St., 431 Chestnut. Consolidation Nat., 331 N. 3rd 
St. First Nat., 315 Chestnut St. Eighth Nat. Bank, cor. 
Girard and 2nd; Fourth St. Nat., 131 S. 4th St. Franklin 
Nat., cor. Broad and Chestnut. Girard Nat., 116 S. 3rd St. 
Merchants' Nat., 324 Chestnut St. Northwestern Nat. Bank, 
cor. Girard and Eidge Aves. 

Railv/ay Ticket Offices— B. & O., 834 Chestnut St. and 
3962 Chestnut. C. B. & Q. (Burlington), 632 Chestnut St. 
Chicago Gt. Western, 521 Phila. Bourse. Chi., Mil. & St. 
Paul, 888 Chestnut St. Chicago, St. P., Minn. & Omaha, 601 
Chestnut St. Chi. & Alton, 711 Hale Bldg. Del., Lacka- 
wanna & Western, 629 Chestnut St. Duluth, S. Shore & 
Atlantic, 629 Chestnut St. Gt. Northern, 836 Chestnut St. 
Houston & Tex. Cent. E. E., 109 S. 3rd St. Pennsylvania 
Lines, Broad St. Sta., 838 and 1411 Chestnut St., and 3962 
Phila. Bourse (4 offices). Seaboard Air Line, 30 S. 3rd St. 
and 1411 Chestnut St. Southern Ey., 828 Chestnut and 32 S. 
3rd St. Chesapeake & Ohio, 632 Chestnut St. Norfolk & 
Western, 1201-16 Arcade Bldg. Atlantic Coast Line, 31 S. 
3rd St. 

Telegraph OfRces — Western Union, cor. 10th and Chestnut 
Sts., P. C. Postal, 1326 Chestnut Sts., P. C. Branches all 
over city. Call up main ofiice for location of branches. 

Railway Express Offices — American (foreign business 
only), 125 S. 5th St., P. C. Adams, 630 Chestnut St., cor. 
Market and 17th St., and 1413 Chestnut St., P. C. United 
States, Main Office, 722 Chestnut St. Branches all over city. 
Call up main office for location of branches. 



274 NEW YORK TO TAMPA. 

Laundry— Elite Laundry, 2012 Poplar St., or 905 N. Broad 
St., P. C. 

Post Office— 9th St., Chestnut to Market. 

Germantown Junction (85 M.) is an important railway- 
center. Entering Philadelphia, we cross and reeross the 
Susquehanna Eiver and get fine views of the city and Fair- 
mount Park. Our train enters Broad St. Station. 

**PHILADELPHIA, PA. (90 M.) Population 1,293,697. 

Hotels — Albemarle, E. P., $2-4; cafe-dining room, summer 
roof garden. The Aldine, 1814 Chestnut St., A. P., $3.50-9; 
E. P., $1-7. Bingham House, Market and 11th Sts., A. P., $3; 
E. P., $1.50._ Bonner's Hotel, cor. 10th and Chestnut Sts., 
E. P., $1-2. Hotel Walton, cor. Broad and Locust Sts., E. P., 
$1.50. Irving Hotel, A. P., $2-3.50. Continental, cor. Chest- 
nut and S. 9th Sts., A. P., $2.50-4; The Imperial, cor. 11th 
and Filbert Sts., E. P., $1. St. James, E. P., $4 up. The 
Windsor, 217-31 Filbert St., A. P., $2 per day and up; E. P., 
$1 and up. 

This city, familiarly known as the ''Quaker City,** lies on 
a wide plain between the Schuylkill and Delaware Rivers, 
9C M. from the ocean. It is eight to ten miles in width and 
twenty-two miles in length. The area covered is about 
130 Sq. M. and it is laid out like a checkerboard. It con- 
tains 1,150 M. of streets, of which about 1,000 M. are paved. 
The city has above 30 M. of water front and is the headquar- 
ters for the Pennsylvania and the Reading Rys., two of the 
largest systems in the East. Its commerce, both by sea and 
by land, is very large and it ranks high as a manufacturing 
center. The great wholesale thoroughfare is Market St., 
running E. and W. between the two rivers; Chestnut St., 
parallel with it on the S., contains the best stores. Broad St. 
is the principal thoroughfare, running N. and S. Spruce, 
Race, Arch, Vine and Pine Sts. are fashionable residence 
quarters to the W., while 8th St. is the ''Cheap John" St. 

The city was founded in 1682 by a Quaker colony under 
William Penn, 1644-1718, but unlike the most of our fore- 
fathers who calmly appropriated the land, he purchased it 
from the Indians. Quite a large number of emigrants were 
attracted to the city, which received its charter from Penn 
in 1701, then having about 4,500 inhabitants. The first con- 
tinental congress assembled in Philadelphia in 1744, and the 
Declaration of Independence was signed on July 4, 1776. 
The Constitution of the United States was drawn up and 
given to the world in 1787. The first president of the United 
States lived here and it was the assembling place of Congress 
until 1797. The city was in the possession of the British 



THE CRADLE OF LIBERTY. 275 

from September, 1777, until June, 1778. The Centennial 
Exhibition, one of the first great exhibitions held in this 
country, took place in 1876 in honor of the one-hundredth 
anniversary of the Declaration of Independence. It was 
visited by ten million people. 

Benjamin Franklin's name is intimately associated with 
the city, he having come here in 1723, at the age of 18. The 
Friends or Quakers still form a very important element in 
Philadelphia, many of the oldest and wealthiest families 
being of this sect. The value of the manufactured articles 
produced annually is colossal, the principal industries being 
the manufacture of locomotives, machinery, ironware, car- 
pets, ships, cotton and woolen goods, drugs, sugar and 
chemicals. 

The city was planned by Penn, himself, who laid out two 
wide thoroughfares running at right angles to each other 
the full length of the city. Broad St. was one and Market, 
formerly called High, the other. He planned an open square 
at their intersection and four other squares, viz.: Logan, 
Franklin, Washington and Rittenhouse, near the outer cor- 
ners of his plot. All other streets were laid out parallel to 
these two, which rule has since been observed in the exten- 
sion of the city, the streets running parallel to Market St. 
being named and those parallel with Broad St. being num- 
bered. In the numbering scheme a new one hundred is begun 
with each block, although there are seldom more than fifty 
numbers to the square. 

In the center of the space formed by the intersection of 
Broad and Market Sts. stands the City Hall, generally 
known as the Public Building, an immense pile with marble 
base and white marble superstructure, begun in 1874. It ig 
486 ft. in length by 470 ft. in breadth, covering an area of 
41/^ acres, making it the largest building, in area, in the 
United States, the capital at Washington covering but 3^ 
acres. Its tower is 510 ft. high, surmounted by a statue, 
37 ft. in height, of Wm. Penn. The style of the building 
is modified French renaissance. Its cost, including the fur- 
nishings, was $27,000,000. One may ascend to the roof (ele- 
vators), from whence an extensive *view of the city is had. 
The dome may also be ascended, but it is necessary to 
secure a special permit from the custodian of the building. 
There are 750 rooms, the S. side containing the quarters of 
the supreme court of Pennsylvania, and other courts. Around 
the building on the broad pavem.ent are statues of General 
Eejmolds, General McClelland, Stephen Girard (founder of 
Girard College), and others. 

On the W. side of City Hall Sq. is the Broad St. Station 
of the Pennsylvania R. R., the train shed of which has a 



276 NEW YOEK TO TAMPA. 

span of over 300 ft. The handsome waiting room contains 
a large allegorical relief, while one wall is covered with a 
mammoth railway map of .the United States. On the N. side 
of City Hall Sq., corner of Broad and Filbert Sts., is the 
*Ma.sonic Temple, an immense granite structure in the Nor- 
man style, erected 1868-73, at a cost of $1,500,000. Its tower 
is 250 ft. high and there is an elaborately carved Norman 
porch. The lodge rooms are finished in seven different styles 
of architecture, Oriental, Gothic, Renaissance, Corinthian, 
Egyptian, Norman and Ionic. On the E. side of the square, 
occupying a full city block, is the famous *Johii Wanamakcr 
Store, in which are employed between 4,000 and 5,000 people. 
On the S. side of the square is the Betz Building, erected in 
1893. At the S. E. corner of the square, entrance on Chest- 
nut St., is the old U. S. Mint Building, admission 9-12 a. m., 
a v/hite marble building with Ionic portico. This mint was 
established in 1792, the present building being erected 
1829-33. A new mint building has been erected on Spring 
Garden St. 

Chestnut St., the one on which the old Mint Building 
fronts, contains many of the finest and most interesting 
buildings of the city. Following it toward the Delaware, 
passing the Mint (left) the S. side pavement is the fashion- 
able promenade of the city. At the corner of 9th St., ex- 
tending on the N. to Market St., is the Post Office, a large 
granite building in the Ecnaissance style; cost, $5,000,000. 
It also contains the U. S. Courts and offices of many Federal 
officers. Between 7th and 8th Sts. (left) is the highly orna- 
mented Union Trust Co. Bldg; many of the newspaper offices 
are in this vicinity. At the corner of Gth St. on the Public 
Library Building is a statue of Benjamin Franklin. In 7th 
St. a little to the N. of Chestnut St. is Franklin Institute, 
in which is a museum, library, etc. 

On the right, between 5th and 6th Sts., is **Independenc9 
Hall, or the old State House, open wk. days 9-4. This is a 
brick edifice erected 1732-5, one of the most interesting build- 
ings in the country. It was here that the Continental Con- 
gress met during the Eevolutionary War, and here on July 
4, 1776, the Declaration of Independence was adopted. In 
1897-8 the building was restored so far as possible to its 
original lines. Passing in at the main entrance, we first enter 
(left) the east room or Independence Hr>ll proper, which was 
the scene of the deliberations of the National Congress of 
Philadelphia. With the exception of a new floor, the room 
is practically in the same condition as when Congress met. 
The old furniture is still there, including the table on which 
the decla-ratlon was signed. Notice the emblem on the back 
of the President 's chair, of which Franklin said he had often 



THE CEADLE OF LIBERTY. 277 

wondered, before the success of the revolution was assured, 
as to whether it represented the rising or the settinsj snn. 
On the wall hangs a facsimile of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, the original being preserved at Washington; also 
a portrait of Washington (by Peale), and of all but twelve 
of the signers of the declaration, etc. 

To the right of the entrance, west room is the State Su- 
preme Couii;, in which arc the original court chairs and the 
portraits of Chief Justices McKean, Allen and Chev/. On the 
upper floor is the Banqueting HaU, the G-oyernor's room and 
the room of the Provincial Council, with many portraits of 
noted and historic men of the revolutionary epoch. We 
find here, too, the painting of Penn's Treaty with the In- 
dians, by Benj. West, and the original charter of the city of 
Philadelphia. Also, suspended from its original yoke, the 
famous *Lil3erty Bell can be seen, which was cracked in 
1835 and since 1843 has never sounded. It was originally 
cast in England, but was recast in Philadelphia. 

Two smaller wing buildings contain relics of the revolu- 
tion. Adjoining to the W. at the corner of 6th St. is old 
Congress Hall, in which Washington was inaugurated in 
1793, and Adams in 1797. To the E. at the corner of oth St. 
is old City Hall, dating from 1791, occupied by the IT. S. Su- 
preme Court, 1791-1800. In front of the State House is a 
statue of Washington by Ba^iley, erected in 1869. Behind the 
State House is Independence Square, an open space four 
acres in area. 

Opposite Independence Hall is the handsome Pennsylvania 
Life Insurance Company Building. On 5th St. just below 
Chestnut is the *American Philosophical Society, which was 
an outgrowth of the Junto Club, founded by Franklin in 
1743; besides, many interesting relics of olden times it 
contains a library of 60,000 volumes. At the corner of 5th 
St. (right) is the white marble Brexel Building in which 
is the Stock Exchange. Visitors are admitted to the gallery 
from 10 to 3. From the roof, to which one may ascend, an 
excellent *view of the city is had. Near by is the Custom 
House, with a Doric portico, erected 1819-24, for the use of 
the first U. S. bank. On 5th St. N. of Chestnut stands the 
♦Bourse, erected in 1895 at a cost of $1,500,000. It contains 
the Board of Trade, Commercial Exchange, and other busi- 
ness organizations. Visitors are admitted to the galleries 
under the huge glass covered hall. There is a restaurant 
upstairs. 

A narrow way diverges to the right between 4th and 3rd 
St8., opposite the Fidelity Safe Deposit Co. Building, leading 
to *Carpenter's Hall, where the first Colonial Congress as- 
sembled in 1774. It contains besides many historical relics, 



278 NEW YORK TO TA3MPA. 

the original chairs used by the congressmen, and an inter- 
esting inscription. Walnut St. parallels Chestnut St. to the 
S., and on this street at the intersection of Dock and 3rd 
Sts. is the Merchants' Exchange, with a semi-circular por- 
tico facing toward the river, near which is Girard Bank, 
built for the first U. S. Bank, and long the property of 
Stephen Girard. Three blocks S., corner- of Pine and 3rd 
Sts., wo find St. Peters' Church, erected in 1758-61. In the 
old churchyard. Commodore Decatur (1779-1820) lies buried. 
In 4th St. S. of Walnut is the *Philadelphia Commercial Mu- 
seum, open week days. Adm. free. It was established in 
1895 to spread knowledge of the products and requirements 
of different parts of the world. The collections here seen 
are quite interesting, samples of raw material and finished 
product being arranged according to kinds and countries. 

Between 6th and 7th Sts., Walnut St. passes Washington 
Square, at the N. W. corner of which are the buildings of the 
Philadelphia Saving Fund Society, erected in 1868 and re- 
built in 1897. The site of the old home of William Penn ia 
now occupied by the building, 133 S. 2nd St. 

Henry George, of single tax fame, was born at 1413 S. 10th 
St. The building has been fitted up as a Memorial Single 
Tax Library and Reading Room. 

At the corner of Locust and 13th Sts., one block S. of 
Walnut, stands the building of the *Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania, founded in 1824, in which is an exceedingly 
interesting historical collection of paintings, autographs, 
relics, etc. In the fireproof room on the ground floor a 
letter of President Lincoln can be seen, and the play bill 
of the Ford Theatre on the night he was assassinated; also, 
the Bradford Almanack, 1686, the first book printed in the 
middle states; many other specimens of Franklin, Bradford, 
and other printers before 1800; a handbill announcing the 
dissolution of the Union, printed in Charleston, 1860; relics 
of Washington, Franklin and Jefferson; the original instruc- 
tions of Penn regardig the Pennsylvania territory; the first 
copy of Poor Richard's Almanack; one of the Stamp Act 
stamps, and the first Bible printed in America. On the upper 
floor will be seen the Tower Collection of Colonial Laws 
down to 1789; relics of Robert Morris; news of the Battle 
of Lexington, passed on to Philadelphia in the manner of 
the "Fiery Cross," April 19-24, 1775, with attestations of 
the persons through whose hands it passed; a letter written 
by Washington; original Mss. of Home Sweet Home and 
the Star Spangled Banner; telescope used by Paul Jones; 
chairs that belonged to Penn; letters and will of John 
Brown; and in the front room will be seen a part of Frank- 
lin's printing press. 



THE CEADLE OF LIBERTY. 279 

At the corner of Locust and 13th Sts. will be seen the 
College of Physicians, incorporated in 1780, in which is an 
exceedingly fine medical library. At the corner of Locust 
and Juniper Sts. is the Academy of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church, a day school for boys, founded in 1785. The *Phila- 
deiphia Library, corner of Locust and Juniper Sts., was 
founded by Franklin and others in 1731. It now contains 
almost 200,000 volumes. There is a collection of relics, 
among them being a clock claimed to have been the property 
of Cromwell, and a part of Franklin's electrical machine. At 
1524 Walnut St. is the home of Dr. S. Weir Mitchall, the 
novelist. The Church of St. Mark, on Locust between 15th 
and 16th Sts., is a very pure example of the early deco- 
rated Gothic style. 

Passing on out Walnut St., we reach the Schuylkill Eiver 
bridge and descending a flight of steps to the right we follow 
24th St. to the Baltimore & Ohio E,y. Station, on the river, 
in Chestnut St. This street we follow eastward, passing the 
Second Reformed Episcopal Church on the right and the 
First Unitarian Church, and the Swedenborgian Church, cor- 
ner 22nd St., on the left. At the cor. of 15th St. are the 
Colonnade Hotel and the Young Men's Christian Association, 
which contains a fine hall. Continuing on this street, we 
come to our starting point at Broad St. We may now turn 
to the left and walk past the City Hall up N. Broad St.; 
or follow S. Broad St., to the right. 

North Broad St. begins at the N. side of City Hall Sq., 
and is 113 ft. in width. Along its upper portion it contains 
many of the finest private residences in the city. At the 
corner of Filbert St. (right) is the Masonic Temple, adjoin- 
ing which is the handsome Arch St. M. E. Church. Opposite 
is the Lutheran Church of the Holy Communion, of green 
serpentine. Nearby (left) is the tall Fidelity Mutual Life 
Association. 0pp. (right) is the Odd Fellows' Temple, a 
handsome building erected in 1895 at a cost of one million 
dollars. On the cor. of Cherry St. (left) is the Pennsylvania 
Academy of Fine Arts, in the Venetian style of architecture. 
Admission free; catalog 25 cts. This Academy was founded 
in 1805, and besides its splendid collections of paintings, 
sculptures, castings, engravings, etc., has an excellent art 
school. Annual art exhibitions are held here each winter. 
Passing on, at No. 145 Broad St. (right) is the Armory of the 
State Fencibles. 

To the left, on Pace St. some distance, opposite the corner 
of Logan Sq., is the *Roman Catholic Cathedral of Sts. Peter 
and Paul, a large structure with Corinthian portico, and 
dome 210 ft. high. The interior has many mural paintings 
and over the high altar is a Crucifixion, by Brumidi, On the 



280 NEW YOEK TO TAMPA. 

S. side of Logan Sq. at the corner of 19th St. is the Academy 
of Natural Sciences founded in 1812, with a Museum; admis- 
sion free; open 9-5; entrance on 19th St. It contains valu- 
able *Collectioiis of Natural History, among which are some 
2,000,000 specimens of shells, the Herbarium, the Peruvian 
Mnmmies, etc. The library contains almost 50,000 volumes. 
On the W. side of Broad St. between Kace and Vine Sts. 
is the Hahnemann College and Hospital, the principal home- 
opathic institution of its kind in the world. At the corner 
of Callowhill St. (right) is the Armory Bldg., beyond which 
we cross over the subway of the Eeading Ry. At the cor. of 
Spring Garden St. (right) is Spring Garden Institute, which 
gives instructions in drawing, painting and the mechanical 
arts, 750 students. Nearby is Apprentices' Library (40,000 
volumes). Opposite are the immense Baldwin Locomotive 
Works, employing 5,000 men, capable of turning out two 
complete locomotives daily. Admission can be had only upon 
application to the offices, and it is likely it will be refused 
unless supported by an introduction. 

Spring Garden St. leads to the W. to the S. end of 
Fairmount Park (1 M.), and to the E. cor. of 13th St. is 
the Philadelphia Normal School for girls; at the cor. of 
Marshall and Spring Garden Sts, is the Assembly Hall of 
the German Society of Pennsylvania, with one of the best 
German librarys in America. Continuing on past Spring 
Garden Institute, at the corner of Green St. is the Boys* 
Central High School, a large structure, and the Sjmagogue 
Rodef-Shalom in Moorish style. Passing onward we come 
to Fairmount Ave., 1 M. from the City Hall. Turning to 
the left (V2 M.) we see the *Eastem Penitentiary, a large 
prison with some 1,200 inmates, which covers 11 acres 
of ground, and is conducted on the ''Individual System,*' 
in which attempt is made by discriminating treatment to 
bring about the reform of the individuals. An inspection 
of this prison may be made by securing a pass from one 
of the Boards of Inspectors, and it will be very inter- 
esting. Further up Broad St., at the corner of Girard 
Ave., is the Widener Mansion, now a free library. 

Turning to the left on Girard Ave. (i/4 M.), we come to 
Girard College, one of the richest and most notable philan- 
thropic institutions in the United States, founded in 1831 
by Stephen Girard, a native of France, for the education 
of white male orphans. Admission may be had by applica- 
tion to the Director or Secretary. No clergymen admitted. 
This institution accommodates about 1,600 boys. Mr. Gi- 
rard 's bequest, which was originally two million dollars, 
has been increased to about sixteen millions. The main 



THE CRADLE OF LIBEETY. 281 

building is an impressive structure in the Corinthian style, 
resembling the Madeleine in Paris. In the vestibule is a 
statue of Stephen Girard by Gevelot, and his sarcophagus. 
There are about a dozen buildings altogether, including 
the school rooms, dormitories, dining halls, swimming baths, 
technical institute and chapel, services being conducted by 
laymen, as Mr. Girard 's will forbade the presence of 
clergymen within the college enclosure. The grounds con- 
tain a monument to pupils who fell in the Civil War. 

Opposite Girard College is the Mary J. Drexel Homo 
and the German Hospital, and to the N. of the College are 
the Women's Medical College and Hospital. South Broad 
St. lies to the S. from the City Hall Sq. Walking S. on S. 
Broad St., at the corner of Sansom St., is the Union League 
Club Building, the principal Republican club of Pennsyl- 
vania, with the Lafayette, Bellevue and Stratford Hotels 
further on, beyond which is the Art Clu"b in the Renaissance 
style, containing exhibitions of paintings, and in which con- 
certs and lectures are given. At Locust St., to the left is 
the Hotel Walton, and to the right the Academy of Music. 
Further on (right) are Horticultural Hall (flower shows) and 
the Beth-Eden Baptist Church. On the cor. of Pine St. 
(right) is the Pennsylvania School of Industrial Art (300 
students), with an Industrial Museum Hall. Between Chris- 
tian and Carpenter Sts. (left), 1 M. from the City Hall, is 
the Ridgway Library, an imposing building, the result of a 
legacy of one and one-half million dollars by Dr. Rush, in 
1869.' It is a branch of the Philadelphia Library and con- 
tains 120,000 volumes, manv intersting relics, and some rare 
books. At the end of S. Broad St., 4 M. from City Hall, 
is the U. S. Navy Yard on League Island. 

The University of Pennsylvania comprises a group of 
large buildings bounded bv Pine St., Woodlands Ave. and 
34th St. (Reached by Market St., Walnut St. or South St. 
cars, fare 5c.) It has an attendance of almost _ 3,000 
students. The Library, which was opened in 1890, is one 
of the most beautiful and convenient library buildings in 
the world and contains 140,000 volumes and many interest- 
ing relies. It is open to the public. South of the Uni- 
versity are located the Blockley Almshouses and the Phila- 
delphia Hospital. North of Market St., between 42nd and 
49th Sts., is the immense Pennsylvania Insane Asylum, situ- 
ated amid large grounds, an inspection of which is very 
interesting. No admission on Saturday or Sunday. Hero 
mav be seen West's picture of *"Christ Healing the Sick. 

Fairmount Park is one of the places Philadelphia is quite 
proud of. It is said to be the largest park in the world, 



282 NEW YORK TO TAMPA. 

having an area of 2,900 acres, extending along the banks 
of the Schuylkill some 4 M., with a narrow strip along the 
Wissahickon, 11 M. long. Its natural beauties are very con- 
siderable. The main entrances are at the end of Green 
St. and Girard Ave., about 3 M. from the City Hall. It 
contains among other things a Zoological Garden, and 
Memorial Hall, which was a part of the Centennial Exhibi- 
tion, 1876, erected at a cost of $1,500,000, containing a 
permanent collection of art and industry (Pennsylvania 
Museum of Industrial Art). Open 9:30; closes about one- 
half hour before sunset. Open from 12 o'clock on Sunday. 
The collection here is very interesting. Some of the popu- 
lar resorts of Philadelphia are Gloucester, reached by ferry, 
famed for its planked shad; Washington Park, near Glou- 
cester, summer (bath, pier, etc.) ; Ijincoln Park, on the Dela- 
ware several miles below the city; Mineral Springs Park, 
Vv'ith various amusements, 15 M. N. E. of the city, Reading 
By. Opposite, E., lies Camden City, reached by ferry, which 
was long the residence of Walt. Whitman, the poet. It is 
an- industrial and commercial city. 

LEAVING PHILADELPHIA. 

Our train leaves Philadelphia from the Broad St. Station, 
crosses the Schuylkill River and runs S. W., with the Dela- 
ware River to the left; the Blockley Almshouses and the 
University of Pennsylvania (P. 281) are seen to the right. 
Chester (103 ISL, population 35,000, Colonnade Hotel, $2.) 
is a thriving cit5\ It was settled by the Swedes in 1643. 
Between the small stations of Lynwobd (107 M.) and Clay- 
mont (109 M.) we cross a small stream and enter the State 
of Delaware. Some distance further on we cross the Brandy- 
wine. 

WILMINGTON (116 M.) Population 80.000. 

Hotels — Clayton House, A. P., $2.50-4 per day; Hotel 
Wilmington, $2 per day. 

Wilmington, the principal city of Delaware, lies at the 
confluence of the Delaware, Christiana and Brandywine 
Rivers. It is extensively engaged in manufacturing, its 
important industries being iron works, carriage factories, 
railway works, ship building (iron and wood), paper works, 
leather and cotton goods. The value of its annual products 
is many millions of dollars. Entering the station we sen 
to the right the old Swedish church, dating from 1698, 
which marks the site of the first Swedish Colony in America, 



THE CITY OF BALTIMOEE. 2^3 

and the first permanent settlement of whites in the Valley 
of the Delaware (1638). The *Glen of the Brandywine, a 
public park, is a beautiful place. The battlefield of Brandy- 
wine (Sept., 1777), in which Washington was defeated by 
the British, lies (13 M.) to the N. W. 

Beyond Newark (129 M.) we cross the famous Mason and 
Dizon line and enter the State of Maryland (Old Line 
State). Near North East Station the Chesapeake is seen 
(left). At Perryville (149 M.) the wide Susquehanna Eiver 
is crossed at its junction with Chesapeake Bay. At Bnsli 
River (161 M.), Bush Eiver, which is really a wide arm 
of the Bay, is crossed, and beyond Magnolia (166 M.), we 
cross Gunpowder Eiver, which at this point is also prac- 
tically an aim of the Bay. Continuing S. W., we enter the 
Union or Charles St. Station of Baltimore. 

BALTIMORE (185 M.) Population 509,000. 

Hotels — Altamont, A. P., $2.50-4 per day, Eutaw Place 
(handsome boulevard); Sherwood, Monument St. near Park 
Ave., A. P., $3 per day up; Howard House, cor. Howard and 
Baltimore Sts., $2 per day; New St. James, cor. Center and 
Charles Sts., A. P., $2.50 per day up, E. P., $1 per day up; 
The Eutaw, cor. Eutaw and Baltimore Sts., A. P., $2.50-5 
per day; The Stratford, Washington PI., A. P., $4 per day 
up, E. P., $1.50 per day up. 

On account of the fact that on Sunday, February 7th, 
1904, Baltimore was visited by a terrible fire which de- 
stroyed the greater part of the city, no attempt will be made 
to give detailed information, since it is now in process of 
reconstruction. The property destroyed represented a value 
of about sixty millions of dollars, 150 acres having been 
burned over. Attention, howevr, is called to *pruid Hill 
Park (700 acres), which was preserved as a private park 
for more than a century before passing into the hands of 
the city. It lies amid hills which afford beautiful and 
picturesque views. Druid Lake, % M. long, is one of the 
reservoirs of the city waterwroks. There is a small zoolog- 
ical collection in the park. In Greenmount Cemetery are the 
graves of the father of Edwin Booth and Mme. Patterson 
Bonaparte. 

Baltimore is an immense manufacturing center, one of 
the largest in the country. It is located on Chesapeake 
Bay, the largest inlet on the Atlantic Coast, with a length 
of "200 M. and a breadth of 15 to 20 M. This Bay receives 
the waters of the James, Brandywine, Gunpowder, Potomac, 
Susquehanna, and other rivers, and is navigable for the 



284 NEW, YORK TO TAMPA. 

largest ocean vessels. It is a favorite resort of sportsmen, 
its oysters, terrapin, fish, and wild fowl having a wide 
reputation. Several summer resorts are located on its shores, 
among them being Bay Eidge (32 M.), Tolchester Beach 
(35 M.) (E. shore). These resorts have good accommoda- 
tions, and in the summer season steamers (see daily papers) 
run regularly to these and other points. A trip on one of 
these steamers is recommended. Old Point Comfort (P. 425) 
may be reached by steamer, and the trip is very pleasant. 
The Gunpowder River affords a pleasant trip and Lake 
Roland, 8 M. by rail, is much frequented. 

Our train leaves Baltimore for Washington from the 
Calvert and Union Stations, passing beneath the N. W. part 
of the city by a tunnel, 1 1-3 M. in length. The country- 
traversed is iiat, and there is very little of interest. At 
Odenton (203 M.), a line extending to Annapolis, the capital 
city of Maryland, is crossed, beyond which, near Arundel, 
we cross the Patuxent Eiver. At Bowie (210 M.), junction 
is made with a branch line extending southward to Upper 
Marlboro and Chesapeake Beach. Navy Yard (225 M.) is 
not a navy yard at all, but a gun foundry, at which large 
quantities of naval stores are made. A little to the N. lie 
the Marine Barracks, where the famous band plays in sum- 
mer every Monday morning at 11 o'clock. Approaching 
Washington, our train traverses a tunnel 300 yards in 
length. A fine view of the capital is had on the right. 

**WASHINGTON, D. C. (227 M.) Population 279,000. 

Hotels — * Arlington, cor. Vermont Ave. and 8th St., opp. 
President's mansion, A. P., $5 per day; Dewey Hotel, L. St. 
near 14th, A. P., $3.50 per day up; Ebbitt House, F. St. 
cor. 14th; Metropolitan, 613 Pennsylvania Ave., A. P., $2.50 
per day up; Kiggs House, 15th and G. Sts., $3-5 per day; 
The Cochran, 14th and K. Sts., A. P., $4 per day up; The 
New Willard, Pennsylvania Ave. and 14th St., E. P., $2 
per day up; The Raleigh, Pennsylvania Ave. and 12th St., 
E. P.; The Shoreham, A. & E. P. 

Restaurants — The European hotels mentioned above all 
have cafes in connection. The Hancock, 1234 Pennsylvania 
Ave., is an odd little cafe with a collection of curios. The 
Loosekam, 1325 F. St.; Harvey, 1016 Pennsylvania Ave.; 
La Fetra's Lunch Rooms, and the Capitol restaurants are 
a few among the great number that can be recommended. 

Theaters— Columbia, 1110 F. St. N. W. New National, 
1325 E. St. N. W., betwen 13th and 14th Sts. Lafayette, 
fronts Lafayette Sq. Academy of Music, cor. D. and 9th 



THE CAPITOL CITY. 285 

Stg. N. W. Chase's New Grand, 1824 Pennsylvania Ave., 
N. W. C' polite vaudeville"). Empire, 9th. and C. Sts. 
N. W., popular prices, 10-50c. Kernan's Lyceum, 1014 Penn 
Ave. N. W. 

Railway Ticket OSices — Atlantic Coast Line, 601 Pa. Ave. 
N. W., P. C. Bait. & Ohio, cor. N. Jersey Ave. and C. St. 
N. W.; cor. 15th St. and N. Y. Ave. N. W.; and 619 Penn. 
Ave. N. W., P. C. Canadian Pacific Ey., 1229 Penn. Ave. 
N. W., P. C. Chesapeake & Ohio Ey., 609 14th St. N. W., 
P. C. Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic Ey., 1229 Penn. Ave. 
N. W. Minneapolis, St. Paul & Sault Ste. Marie Ey., 1229 
Pa. Ave. N. W. Norfolk & Western E. E., 1229 Pa. Ave. 
N. W., P. C. Pennsylvania Lines, cor. 6th & B. Sts. N. W., 
and cor. 15th and 9th Sts. N. W., P. C. Seaboard Air 
Line Ey., 1421 P. A. Ave. N. W., P. C. Southern Ey., 1300 
Pa. Ave. N. W.; 705 15th St. N. W.; 511 Pa. Ave. N. W.; 
and cor. 6th and B. Sts. N. W., P. C. W. Virginia Central 
& Pittsburg E. E., 1517 H. St. N. W. 

Express Ofiaces — Adams Express, 921 Pa. Ave. N. W., P. 
C; and cor. Pa. Ave. and 2nd St. S. E. Southern, 921 Pa. 
Ave. N. W.; and 1425 F. St. N. W., P. C. United States, 
919 Pa. Ave. N. W., P. C; 1217 32nd St. N. W.: 1114 Con- 
necticut Ave. N. W.; 1415 F. St. N. W.; 201 Maryland Ave. 
N. E.; B. & O. Depot; and Treasury Dept. Warehouse, cor. 
New Jersey Ave. and D. St. N. W., P. C. 

Telegraph Omces— Postal, 1345 Pa. Ave. N. W., P. C; 
branches all over city. Western Union, 1401 F. St. N. W., 
P. C; branches all over city. (Call main office to get 
branch office loeaticns.) 

Livery— John Duncan, 3307 M. St. N. W., P. C. James 
BoAven, 627 New York Ave. N. W., P. C. 

Trunks— Repairs— Lutz & Co., 497 Pa. Ave. N. W., P. C. 

Scalpers* Offices— J. Spliedt, 507 Pa. Ave. N. W. Milton 
Beckman, 607 and 1613 Pa. Ave. N. W. Geo. Mays, 611 
Pa. Ave. N. W. 

Laundry— Yale Steam Laundry, 518 10th St. N. W.; 1114 
and 3216 14th St. N. W., and 437 New York Ave. N. W., 
P. C. 

Hack and Cab Tariff — Fifteen squares or less, 25c. per 
person. Each additional five squares, lOe. Between hours 
12:30 and 5 a. m., 15-40c. By the hour, one or two per- 
sons, 75c. Each additional fifteen minutes, 20c. Three to 
four persons, $1. Additional fifteen minutes, 25c. Between 
the hours above mentioned, $1.25-35c. Two-horse hacks, 
one to four persons, per hour, $1.50. Each add. 15 minutes, 
25c. To Arlington, $5. To Soldiers' Home, $5. To the Gt. 
Falls of the Potomac, $20. 



286 NEW YORK TO TAMPA. 

Post Office — Pennsylvania Ave. between llth and 12th 
Sts. 

Clubs, secret societies, churches, office bldgs., asylums, 
hospitals, cemeteries, etc., see City Directory, where a full 
list of all business institutions, such as telegraph companies, 
express offices, livery stables, etc., will also be found. 

Washington is the capital city of the United States. It is 
situated on the bank of the Potomac Eiver at a point 
where the E. branch joins the main river (156 M. above 
Chesapeake Bay, and 185 M. from the ocean). Its area 
is about 10 Sq. M. The city is very beautiful; in fact, it 
is one of the most delightful cities in the Ignited States. 
Its avenues are wide and are lined with fine public buiMings. 
It has many monuments, and well shaded parks. The 
general arrangement is on the checkerboard plan, but there 
are wide, beautiful avenues radiating like the spokes of a 
wheel, with the Capitol Bldg., Lincoln Park, Mt. Vernon 
Park, DuPont Circle, Washington Circle and Station Park 
as the ''hubs" of the system. The Capitol is, of course, 
tho center of everything, the government buildings, with 
the exception of the Library of C'ongress, the Marine Hos- 
pital and the Geodetic Survey buildings, lying to its west. 

The radiating avenues mentioned are lined with trees and 
named after various States, they forming the boulevard 
system of the city. The streets of the checkerboard plan 
running N. and S. are numbered; those running E. and W. 
are lettered according to tho alphabet each way from 
Capitol St. The city is divided into four great sections, 
known as Northeast, Southeast, Northwest and Southwest. 
The dividing lines run straight through the city, centering 
in to the Capitol building, so that all street names and 
numbers have one of these dividing sections as a part of 
their designation. Thus K. St. N. E. means K. St. in tho 
section known as N. E.; 9th St. S. W. means 9th St. in 
the S. W. section. The circles formed, in many instances, 
at the intersection of streets and avenues are a very charm- 
ing feature of the citj'. Pennsylvania Avenue, between tho 
White House and the Capitol, 1 1-3 M,, is the principal 
business thnroughfare. The other important business streets 
arc 7th, 9th, 14th and F. Among the best residence streets 
are Massachusetts Ave., New Hampshire Ave., Connecticut 
Ave., Vermont Ave., and 16th St. 

The present Capitol site was selected by George Wash- 
ington in 1790, a strip of territory 100 Sq. M. in area, known 
as the District of Columbia, being set apart for govern- 
ment purposes; in fact, a government reservation, the terri- 
tory lying between Virginia and Maryland. That part 



THE CAPITOL CITY. 287 

ceded by Virginia was, however, retroceded in 1846, leaving 
the present area of the District of Columbia 65 Sq. M. 
This territory is ruled directlj^ by the President and Con- 
gress through a Board of Commissioners. Its population 
belongs to no state and has no vote or voice either in na- 
tional or local government. The original plan, which was 
prepared by Major L 'Enfant, a French oflBcer of engineers, 
was to make the Capitol the only center of radiating ave- 
nues. This, however, has been to a considerable extent 
modified. The foundation stone of the Capitol building was 
laid in 1793. The seat of government was removed to 
Washington in 1800. The city received its charter in 1802. 
1814 Washington was captured by the British, who burned 
the Capitol building. Up to 1871, when a territorial form 
of government superseded the municipal form, the city 
was in very bad condition. The new government, how- 
ever, instituted reforms which revolutionized the appear- 
ance of the city and rendered it one of the most beautiful 
in the United States. 

Washington is, in no sense, a commercial or manufac- 
turing city. Its prosperity is entirely dependent on its 
position as the seat of national government. It has a vast 
army of government employes, numbering somewhere be- 
tween 35,000 and 50,000. And they, together with their 
families, constitute a large portion of the permanent popu- 
lation. By far the best time to visit Washington is during 
the session of Congress, from the first Monday in December 
to March 4, in the odd-numbered years, and until June, 
July and sometimes later, in the even numbers. The gov- 
ernment offices are open, to the general public between 10 
a. m. and 2 p. m. 

*The Capitol building is, of course, the principal point 
of interest to the visitor. It is located on a hill 90 ft. 
above the river level. Its dome dominates the entire city; 
and it ranks among the most magnificent buildings on 
earth. Its length is 751 ft., its width varying from 121 to 
324 ft. The main building is of sandstone, painted white, 
there being two wings of white marble. It covers an area 
of 3% acres. The main building, which had a low-crowned 
dome, was completed in 1827. The marble wings and the 
present immense iron dome were added 1851-65. Its general 
style is classical, with Corinthian details. The main front 
is toward the east, it being thought at the time of its 
location that the city would spread in this direction. It 
did not, however, but extended to the west, so the rear 
portion of the Capitol building is presented to the main 
portion of the city, as well as to the other government 



288 , NEW YOEK TO TAMPA. 

buildings. *A splendid marble terrace, 884 ft. long, ap- 
proached by two broad flights of stairs, has been constrvicted 
on the west side, thus adding to the beauty of the rear 
view. The dome is 268 ft. 6 in. high, and is surmounted 
by a Statue of Liberty, by Crawford, 19 ft. 6 in. high. 

The total cost of the Capitol structure up to the present 
time has been about sixteen million dollars. It stands in 
a park about fifty acres in extent. Opposite the E. side of 
the Capitol in a plaza is a colossal statue of George Wash- 
ington by Greenough. On the front of the building are 
three porticoes, the main entrance being in the center. To 
the right of the central entrance is a marble group by 
Greenough, entitled ''The Settlement of America." On the 
opposite side is a figure of Columbus by Persico, ''The 
Discovery of America." Immediately above the portico is 
a raised relief, ' ' The Genius of America, ' ' also by Persico. 
Over the N. portico is a group representing "The Civiliza- 
tion of the United States" by Crawford. 

The inauguration of the President takes place on the 
broad steps in front of the main entrance. Visitors may 
inspect the interior of the Capitol between 9 a. m. and 
4 p. m. Guide, 50c. an hour (unnecessary). The bronze 
doors are decorated with reliefs by Kandolph Rogers de- 
picting events in the life of Columbus. They were cast at 
Munich in 1851. To the right and left are statues of Peace 
and War by Persico. Entering the rotunda beneath the 
dome, which is 96 ft. in diameter and 180 ft. high, on 
the walls are seen eight historical paintings — The Landing 
of Columbus, by Vanderlyn; Embarkation of the Pilgrims 
at Delfthaven in 1620, by Weir; Washington Resigning His 
Commission at Annapolis in 1783, by Trumbull; Surrender 
of Cornwallis in 1781, by Trumbull; Surrender of Burgoyne 
at Saratoga in 1777, by Trumbull; The Baptism of Poca- 
hontas in 1613, by Chapman; and the Discovery of the 
Mississippi by DeSoto in 1541, by Powell. 

Immediately above these paintings is a border of frescoes 
by Brumidi and Costagini, representing scenes of early 
American history. The ceiling painting, by Brumidi, de- 
picts the Apotheosis of Washington, the figures of Liberty, 
Victory, the 13 Original States, and other allegorical groups. 
Above the doors are reliefs representing Penn's Treaty with 
the Indians, Pocahontas and Captain Smith, General Boone 
and the Indians, and the Landing of the Pilgrims. The 
rotunda also contains statues of Lincoln by Miss Ream, of 
Jefferson by David d 'Angers, of Hamilton by Stone, of 
Grant by Simmons, and of E. D. Baker by Stone. A stair- 
way at the N. W. corner of the rotunda leads to the Wilis- 



THE CAPITOL CITY. 289 

pering Gallery in the interior of the dome, and to the 
top of the dome, 2681/^ ft., from which one gets a charming 
view of Washington. 

The door on the S. side of the rotunda leads to the 
old Hall of Representatives, now the National Hall of 
Statuary, a semi-circular room containing statues of many 
eminent Americans, each State being allowed space for 
two of her chosen sons. A brass plate in the floor near the 
S. W. corner marks the spot where John Quincy Adams 
fell on February 21, 1848, two days before his death. 

This hall has some peculiar ''Whispering Gallery" prop- 
erties, which, however, are only apparent by the aid of one 
thoroughly familiar with the apartment. 

Leaving Statuary Hall by the corridor on its south side 
we enter the wing wherein meets the House of Representa- 
tives. The Hall of Representatives, during the time Con- 
gress is in session, is open to visitors until noon, at which 
time the House of Representatives meets. The galleries are 
open at all times. It is situated in the center of the 
wing and is 139x93 ft., the height being 36 ft. It con- 
tains desks for 352 members and 4 delegates. To the right 
of the Speaker is a pedestal on v/hich the mace is placed 
(emblem of authority), when the House is called to order. 
To the right is a portrait of Washington by Vandelyn and 
to the left one of Lafayette by Ary Scheffer. The walls 
are adorned by a fresco by Brumidi, representing Wash- 
ington demanding the surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown. 
The galleries seat 2,500, sections being reserved for ladies 
and their escorts, gentlemen, the press, the diplomatic corps, 
and the families of members and officials. The Republicans 
will be found mostly seated on one side of the Hall and 
the Democrats on the other. Arranged around the Hall, 
which is surrounded by corridors giving access thereto, 
are committee rooms in which, as a matter of fact, the 
principal part of the law maldng is done. 

On the wall of the E. stairway leading to the gallery is 
a large painting, by Carpenter, of the Signing of the Procla- 
mation of Emancipation, Sept, 22, 1863, together with 
portraits of Lincoln and his Cabinet. At the foot of this 
stairway is a statue of Jefferson, by Powers, and at its head 
are portraits of Henry Clay and other distinguished men. 
On the W. stairway is a large painting of Westward Ho, 
by Leutze, and a view of the Golden Gate, by Bierstadt. 
At the top is a portrait of Chief Justice Marshall. On the 
upper floor will be found many of the committee rooms. 
Below the House of Representatives in the basement is an 



290 NEW YORK TO TAMPA. 

excellent restaurant, miicli patronized by officials and mem- 
bers. 

The door "on the N. side of the rotunda leads into the 
N. wing of the original Capitol, on the right side of which 
is the Supreme Court Room, which was formerly the Sen- 
ate Chamber. Passing through a corridor to the Senate 
Chamber, we find it to be more highly ornamented but 
smaller than the House of Representatives, its dimensions 
being 113x80 ft., 36 ft. in height. Its general arrangement, 
however, is the same as that of the House. In niches in 
the wall will be found busts of all the Vice-Presidents 
who have presided over the Senate in the past. Immediately 
to the N. of the Senate Hall is the President's Room, highly 
decorated with frescoes and gilding, the Senators' Marble 
Reception Hall and the Vice-President's Room. You may 
visit these rooms when the Senate is in session by obtaining 
a permit of some Senator. At other times, if closed, admis- 
sion may be had by applying to the messengers. 

At the foot of the E. gallery stairway is a statue of 
Benjamin Franklin, by Powers; on the wall is a scene 
entitled "Perry's Victory on Lake Erie, 1813,'* by Powell. 
At the top of the stair are portraits of Calhoun, Clay ancl 
Webster. At the foot of the W. stairway is a statue of 
John Hancock, by Stone. The painting on the wall is the 
"Storming of Cliapultepec, Mexico, 1847," by Walker. A 
restaurant, also, is below the Senate Hall. The basement of 
the building is occupied by storage rooms, committee rooms, 
restaurant, etc. The walls and ceiling of the corridors are 
frescoed and many of the committee rooms are handsomely 
decorated. Admission may be had on application to mes- 
senger. The immense ventilating and heating plant is also 
quite interesting. In the basement below the dome is the 
crj-^pt with forty Doric columns. 

At the S. E. corner of the Capitol grounds stands the 
**Library of Congress, an immense structure in the Italian 
Renaissance style, 470 ft. in length by 340 ft. in width, 
erected 1888-97, at a cost of $6,187,000. The building en- 
closes four courts and a central rotunda, surmounted by a 
gilded dome and lantern. In front of the main entrance 
is a broad flight of steps and a granite terrace. At each 
corner and in the center of the E. and W, facades are 
projecting pavilions. Of the three bronze doors the center 
one represents Printing, the left, Tradition, and the right. 
Writing; the center one being by Fred Maemonnies, and 
the others by Olin T. Warner. 

The immense library contains about 1,100,000 volumes, 
100,000 Mss., 69,000 maps, 366,000 pieces of music, and 



THE CAPITOL CITY. 291 

142,000 prints. And it is capable of accommodating be- 
tween 4 and 5 million volumes. Its use is free to none but 
Members of Congress, and some officials may take books 
from the building. The staff of employes numbers about 
300. Open to visitors 9 a. m. to 10 p. m. Descriptive 
books at the entrance, 10-25c. The interior is magnificently 
decorated with paintings, colored marbles, sculptures and 
gilding, the effect being very imposing. Som.e fifty Amer- 
ican artists are represented in the work. The details of 
this decoration are altogether too numerous for mention. 

The W. entrance opens into the main hall, of white Italian 
marble, with two massive marble stairways richly deco- 
rated with sculpture, and with bronze figures as lamp 
bearers. The height of the ceiling is 72 ft., its colors being 
yellow, green and blue. The vestibule on the W. side of 
the Hall has stucco figures of Minerva and a ceiling in 
white and gold; that on the S. is decorated with paintings 
by Henry O. Walker, representing Poetry, while in the 
N. Arcade are paintings by C. S. Pearce, representing Labor, 
the Family, Kecreation, Study and Eest as factors in 
civilization. The E. Arcade opens from the hall by a 
triple commemorative arch and contains the painting, "The 
Evolution of the Book," by J. W. Alexander. The Lobby 
beyond leads to the Seading Room and contains paintings 
by Elihu Vedder, symbolizing different forms of govern- 
ment. The Librarian's Room is to the left of the E. Arcade. 
In it is a ceiling-painting by E. J. Holslag. The S. W. 
Curtain Corridor (on the side next the court) opens on the 
House of Representatives' Reading Room, beyond which is 
the Periodical Reading Room. The N. W. Pavilion contains 
an interesting collection of maps and charts. Ascending 
to the second floor, we find various corridors splendidly- 
decorated with paintings and frescoes by noted artists. 

From the E. Corridor a short stairway leads to the 
Visitors' Gallery of the Reading Room Rotunda, the best 
part of the whole building. This Hall is 100 ft. in diameter 
and 125 ft. in height, accommodating about 300 readers. 
It is richly decorated with dark Tennessee marble, a red 
marble from Numidia and a yellow marble from Siena. 
The eight massive columns are surmounted by figures of 
Eeligion, History, Art, etc. Along the gallery parapet are 
bronze statues of persons eminent in fields denoted by the 
symbolic figures. The stained glass windows show com- 
binations of the arms of the Union, and various States. 
Within', the piers are iron stairways ascending to the 
lantern, and to the gallery from whence is had a beautiful 
view. The Library is connected with the Capitol building 



21)3 NEW YORK TO TAMPA. 

by a tuniel 6 ft. high, 4 ft. wide and ^ M. long, through 
v/hich, by mechanical arrangement, a member of Congress 
can procure a book from the Library in 3 minutes' time. 
In the basement is a *Reading Room for the blind. 

The broad walk leading north from the Capitol building 
brings us to the Naval or Peace Monument, by Simmons; 
while that to the S. leads to the statue of President Gar- 
field, by J. Q. A. Ward. 

Immediately to the W. of the Capitol building are the 
**Botannical Gardens with conservatories, palmhouses, and 
the Bartholdi Fountain. Passing to the W., thence through 
two small parks and a railway, we come to the buildings of 
the United States Fish Commission (left), entrance on 6th 
St., where the exceedingly interesting process of fish breed- 
ing may be seen; and in which is an aquarium showing 
many varieties of fish. Further to the W., beyond 7th St., 
is the *Axmy Medical Museum, containing a library of 
200,000 volumes and a collection of army and medical sup- 
plies, all exhibits bearing explanatory labels and tablets. 
In the Library are many rare works on medicine, a touch- 
piece used for King's EVil, and other curios. Near this build- 
ing are monuments to Daguerre and Dr. Samuel D. Gross. 
Adjacent on the W. is the **National Museum, a brick 
building 325 ft. sq., containing valuable collections of Nat- 
ural History, Geology and Anthropology. This Museum is 
under the direction of the Smithsonian Institute. Admission 
9-4:30 wk. days. 

To the W. of the National Museum stands the *Sniith- 
sonian Institute. Adm. free; open 9-4:30 wk. days. The 
building is of red sandstone in the late Norman style, erected 
1856, cost $450,000. It has nine towers, the tallest being 
145 ft. in height. In front is a statue of Prof. Joseph 
Henry (1799-1878), the first Secretary of the institution. 
The Smithsonian Institute was founded through a legacy 
of $515,000, by Mr. James Smithson, an Englishman, for the 
* 'Increase and diffusion of knowledge among men." The 
chief purpose of the institution has been to encourage re- 
search and scientific investigation along many lines; princi- 
pally, however, concerning the climate, products and antiqui- 
ties of the United States. It has deposited in the Library of 
CongTess a library of 250,000 volumes and issues three 
series of publications of great scientific value, namely, 
''Contributions to Knowledge," ''Miscellaneous Collec- 
tions," and "Annual Reports." In the Main Hall will be 
found an excellent ^collection of birds, over 9,000 specimens, 
as well as a collection of mollusks. In various rooms about 
the building will be seen collections of insects, marine life, 



THE CAPITOL CITY. 293 

shells, corals, sponges, minerals, etc. The ground floor is 
devoted to a part of the exhibits of the Biological Depart- 
ment of the National Museum. 

Westward from here across 12th St. is, the ^Agricultural 
Department Building, which should be visited by those 
interested in scientific agriculture and horticulture. Con- 
servatories, museum, library, etc., are there, the museum 
being in the wooden building to the right of the briek 
structure; just E. of the main building is the Seciuoia Tree 
Tower, formed of the section of an immense Sequoia, 26 ft. 
in diameter at the base and 300 ft. in height. The Bureau 
of Engraving and Printing lies at the corner S. W. from the 
Agricultural Building and is exceedingly interesting from 
the fact that here the process of the manufacture of paper 
money, bonds and stamps may be viewed from 9 to 11:45 
a. m., and from 12:30 to 3 p. m. 

We have now reached the open park in which is the 
**Washington Monument, the Nation's memorial to the 
father of our country. This monument was begun in 1848, 
work ceasing in 1855, was assumed again in 1877, and com- 
pleted in 1884, at a cost of $1,300,000. The structure is of 
White Maryland Marble, 555 ft. in height, the tallest struc- 
ture of masonry in the world. Its walls are 15 ft. in thick- 
ness at the base and 1 ft. 6 in. at the top. Its roof is in 
the form of a Pyramid, 5 ft. in height, being capped with 
a piece of aluminum. The Monument is open to visitors 
from 9 to 5:30. The elevator runs every half hour, the last 
ascent being at 4:30; or it may be ascended by a flight of 
900 steps. The latter mode, however, is not at all to be 
recommended. From the top a magnificent view is gained 
of the city and its environs. Arlington may be seen to 
the east across the Potomac and, a little removed, the Ob- 
servatory, Soldiers' Home, Howard University, Alexandria. 
If the day is clear, the Blue Ridge Mts. are visible. To the 
S. of Washington Monument are the Propagating Gardens, 
and the Long Bridge, over which the Federal troops marched 
into Virginia during the Civil War. To the west are the 
United States Fish Ponds. Passing up 15th St. we see 
the Executive or President's Grounds on the left and Chase's 
Theater and the Light Infantry Armory on the right. Oppo- 
site Regent Hotel (left) is the *Monument of General 
Sheridan, by Rohl-Smith, erected in 1903, just beyond which 
(left) is the *Treasury Building, which may be visited be- 
tween 11 and 12 a. m. and 1 to 2 p. m. The size of this 
immense structure is 510x280 ft. The U. S. Cash Room or 
Silver Vaults, Redemption Division, and the Secret Service 
Division, with its collection of forged money and portraits 



^94 NEW YOEK TO TAMPA. 

of forgers, are among the interesting things shown visitors. 
A little further to the N. is seen the building of the Depart- 
ment of Justice. At the corner of 15th and H Sts. is the 
Columbian University (1,300 students). 

We are now at the corner of *Lafayette Square, in which 
is a bronze statue of General Andrew Jackson (1767-1845), 
by Clark Mills; the Lafayette Monument, by Falguiere and 
Mercie; the Eoehambeau Monument, by F. Hamar; and a 
statue of Kosciuszko. Just E. of Lafayette Square is Lafay- 
ette Theater, which occupies the site of the building in 
which an attempt was made to assasinate Secretary Seward 
on the same night of Lincoln's assassination ('65). 

Opposite Lafayette Square to the south is the main en- 
trance to the *White House, the residence of the President 
of the United States, a two-story stone building painted 
white, 170 ft. in length by 86 ft. in width. The White 
House was begun in 1792 and occupied by President Adams 
in 1800. It was burned by the British in 1814 and rebuilt 
in 1818. Eecently extensive alterations and additions have 
been made, many features of the original plan being re- 
stored. The public entrance is now in a colonnade to the 
east. A corridor in which are portraits of the mistresses 
of the White House, leads to the staircase which ascends to 
the public rooms. The corresponding terrace on the west 
side connects the house with the executive offices, recently 
erected. The East Room is open to visitors from 10 to 2, 
its size being 80x40 and 22 ft. high. The Reception Room, 
"which contains portraits of the President and many valuable 
gifts from royalty and others, may be seen by special order 
only. All the rest of the building is private. The park 
environs are 75 acres in extent. Public concerts are given 
in these grounds, on the S. side of the building, on Sat- 
urday afternoons in the summer time, by the famous Marine 
Band. And children have the privilege of a romp in the 
park on Easter Day. 

To the W. of the Executive Mansion is the building of the 
State War and Naval Department, 567 ft. in length, 342 ft. 
in width, the N. and W. wings being -occupied by the War 
Department, the E. wing by the Navy Dept., and the S. 
by the Dept. of State. * Jefferson's original draft of the 
Declaration of Independence, together with many other in- 
teresting relics may be seen in the State Dept. The large 
yellow building to the S. of the State building is the old 
Van Ness House, and the gray building to the S. W. was 
General Grant's headquarters during the Civil War. S. W., 
at the cor. of New York Ave. and 17th St., is the new 
*Corcoran Art Gallery, erected and endowed by W. W. Cor* 



THE CAPITOL CITY. 295 

coran. The Gallery is open wk. days from 9:30-4, except 
Mondays, open 12-4; Sundays 1:30-4:30; holidays 10-2. Adm. 
Mon., Wed. and Fri., 25c. Other days, free. Closed July 1- 
Oct. 1. The building is a handsome white marble structure, 
erected '94-7, in the new Grecian style. The semi-circular 
portion of the N. end is occupied by an Art School (>J00 
pupils). The main entrance is flanked by colossal bronze 
lions modeled after those by Canova at the tomb of Pope 
Clement XIII. A catalogue is furnished, 25c., fully explain- 
ing the different objects to be seen. 

Keturning to the Treasury building and following F. St. 
to the E. past the Columbia Theater (right), to 10th St., 
and turning right on 10th in the center of the block (left) 
is the old Ford Theater, in which Presidnt Lincoln was assas- 
sinated. Just opposite (No. 576) is the house in which he 
died. Keturning to F. St. and following it eastward, we see 
the General Land Office (right) between 7th and 8th Sts., 
a splendid building in the Corinthian style. This was for- 
merly the Post Office, but now furnishes quarters for the 
Interior Department. Opposite (left) is the Patent Office, 
really the Department of the Interior, an immens structure 
453 ft. in length by 330 ft. in breadth, the center being of 
stone and the wings of marble. In this building is the 
office of the Secretary of the Interior, the Indian office, etc., 
which may be viewed on application to the official in charge. 
On the upper floor are *four halls, containing a very large 
collection of patents and models, some of the more interest- 
ing of which have been removed to the National Museum. 

Still following eastward on F. St. we come to Judiciary 
Square, at the S. end of which lies the City Hall, to the 
N. of which stands the Pension Office, open 9-4, a vast struc- 
ture of brick 400 ft. by 200 ft., said to be the largest 
brick building in the world. The interior, with its great 
columns, presents an imposing appearance and has accommo- 
dated 25,000 people at an inauguration ball. On B. St., 
between 1st and 2nd Sts., is the Census Bureau, in which a 
large force of clerks constantly are at work. The enumerat- 
ing machines seen here are quite interesting. This Bureau 
is under the supervision of the newly created Secretary of 
Commerce and Labor. Northeast a few blocks from Judi- 
ciary Square, cor. H. and Capitol Sts., is the United States 
Govemment Printing Office, admission 10 to 2, an immense 
12-story bldg., costing two million dollars. The Baltimore 
& Potomac Kailway Station, corner of B. and 6th Sts., im- 
mediately W. of the Capitol Bldg. grounds and a little 
N. W. of the Botanical Gardens^, was the scene of the 



296 NEW YOEK TO TAMPA. 

assassination of President Garfield by Guiteau, July 2, 
1881. 

On Pennsylvania Ave. between 11th, and 12th Sts. is the 
Post Of&ce Building, with a tower 300 ft. in height, which 
accommodates the United States Post Office Department as 
well as the City Post Office. The Dead Letter Museum 
is on the ground floor, open 9-4. At 1312 New York Ave. 
are the *Halls of the Ancients, open 9-6 (adm. 2oc.), erected 
by Franklin W. Smith *'to demonstrate the facility of re- 
constructions illustrative of the art, architecture and do- 
mestic environment of ancient nations." An inspection 
will prove of great interest. 

Leaving here and continuing N. E. on New York Ave. we 
come to Mount Vernon Square, in which is the Public Li- 
brary, a white marble building erected in 1902, containing 
30,000 volumes. Not far away, at 1439 K. St. N. W., is the 
Carnegie Institute, founded in 1902 for the purpose of en- 
couraging investigation, research and discovery, endowed by 
Andrew Carnegie with $10,000,000. 

The new Naval Observatory lies in a park at the end 
of Massachusetts Ave. in the northwest part of the city, 
and will repay a visit by those interested in astronomical 
work. Visitors are frequently admitted on Thursday even- 
ing by special permit from the Superintendent, to look 
through the huge 26-in. telescope. Washington Barracks, 
now used as an artillery drill station, may be reached by 
7th St. car. The artillery drill occurs between 9 and 11 
a. m. and is quite interesting. The reservation contains also 
the Army War College, founded in 1903. And near it is 
the statue of Frederick the Great, presented to the United 
States by the Elnperor William II. 

Washington Navy Yard, reached by M. St. car, lies about 
1 M. to the N. E. Admission 9 a. m. to sunset. There are 
no ships built here, but there is a large gun foundry and 
large quantities of naval stores are manufactured. There is 
also an interesting ^museum. North of the Navy Yard are 
the Marine Barracks, where the famous Marine Band plays 
every Monday at 11 a. m. in the summer. Eight blocks 
to the E. lies the Congressional Cemetery. On the further 
side of the cemetery and to the N. of it are the Female 
Workhouse, Male Workhouse and large Government Insane 
Asylum, Almshouse and Jail. From the jail one may go to 
Lincoln Sq. via Massachusetts Ave. street car and thence 
by street car back to the city. 

The ^Columbia Institute for the Deaf and Dumb lies to 
the N. E. of the city on Florida Ave. A visit to this unique 
institution and an inspection of its work will prove of great 



THE CAPITOL CITY. 297 

interest. Beyond some distance, by the side of the Wash- 
ington branch of the Baltimore & Ohio Ey., lies the Ivy 
St. Race Track, just back of which, on Brentwood Road, is 
Harmony Cemetery. Immediately across the R. R. from the 
race track is Mount Olivet Cemetery. The United States 
Soldiers' Home (750 inmates) lies directly N. from the 
Capitol bldg., 3 M., reached by a *beautiful drive or street 
car on N. Capitol St., passing through Prospect Hill Ceme- 
tery. The Home is situated in a beautiful park which 
affords some fine views and contains the statue of General 
Scott, the founder of the Home, by Launt Thompson. Presi- 
dent Lincoln spent a part of the summers during the time he 
was President at one of the cottages of the Home. 

To the N. of the Soldiers' Home is the National Military 
Cemetery (7,000 dead), which contains the graves of Gen- 
erals Logan and Kearney, adjoining which on the W. is 
Rock Creek Cemetery, where is seen *Saint G-audens' Monu- 
ment of Mrs. Henry Adams. The National Zoological Park 
lies in the N. W. portion of the city and is reached by 
the Rock Creek Electric Road, the cars leaving down town 
on 6th St. N. W. 

Georgetown (W. Washington) lies on Rock Creek and is 
accessible by the Pennsylvania Ave. car line. It is at the 
head of navigation on the Potomac River, and the port of 
entry for the District of Columbia. It contains the build- 
ings of the Georgetown University, a Jesuit institution 
founded in 1789 (650 students), and the Convent of the 
Visitation. In M. St., near the Aqueduct Bridge, is the 
house in which lived Francis Scott Key, the author of * ' The 
Star Spangled Banner." In Oak Hill Cemetery, at the 
N. end of Georgetown, is the tomb of J. Howard Tayne 
(1792-1852), the author of <'Home, Sweet Home." The 
*Waggaman Gallery, 3300 O. St. (Adm. 50c., devoted to 
charity, tickets 1313 Pennsylvania Ave., free Sunday after- 
noons), is open from 11 to 4 on Thursdays, February to 
A.pril. This Gallery, which was formerly private, now be- 
longs to the Georgetown University and contains collections 
of Dutch water colors, bronzes, ivory, carvings, weapons, 
articles of jade, and Japanese porcelain. 

The *Arlington National Cemetery is across the Potomac 
River from the city. It may be reached by carriage ($5), 
or one may go by street car to the Union Station at the 
Georgetown Aqueduct, cross the bridge by omnibus, round 
trip 5c., thence by electric car to the gate. Arlington 
House in the center of the grounds was once the residence 
of George Washington Parke Custis, step-grandson of Wash- 
ington, and later by General Robert E. Lee. From this point, 



298 NEW YOEK TO TAMPA. 

which is 200 ft. above the river, one has a fine view of 
Washington. Near the house are the graves of Generals 
Sheridan and Lawton, Admiral Porter and many other 
famous officers. To the S. is a tomb in which are the 
remains of 2,111 unknown soldiers. In the S. part of the 
cemetery lie buried the sailors who met death in the blow- 
ing up of the Maine, in Havana Harbor in 1898, as well as 
many other victims of the war with Spain. 

**Mount Vernon (15 M.) is reached from Washington by 
steamer, daily from 7th St. S. W. Wharf; leaving time, 
10 a. m. and 2:30 p. m.; 1:45 p. m. in winter. This trip 
gives one two hours at Mount Vernon, arriving at Wash- 
ington at 2:15 and 6:15 p. m. Eound trip, 75 cents, includ- 
ing admission to Mount Vernon. The trip may be made also 
by car, via Alexandria, round trip 50 cents. Taking the 
steamer, we pass Alexandria, Fort Foote, Maryland (8l^ M.), 
an abandoned earthwork of the Civil War, and Fort Wash- 
ington (12 M.), another abandoned fort, of stone. 

Mount Vernon is an old-fashioned wooden building, 96 ft. 
in length, standing on a bluff 200 ft. above the river and 
commanding a line view. The estate Vv^as originally named 
Hunting Creek, and comprised 8,000 acres. It was inherited 
by George Washington in 1752 from his brother, Lawrence, 
who had changed its name to Mount Vernon in honor of 
his former commander, Admiral Vernon. The central portion 
of the building was erected by Lawrence Washington, the 
wings being added by George Washington. The building 
aud 200 acres of laud surrounding it were purchased by the 
Mouut Vernon Ladies' Association in 1859, for some 
$200,000, and have been restored to as nearly as possible 
the condition at the time Mount Vernon was Washington's 
home. 

Ascending from the wharf to the residence we pass the 
tomb of George Washington, a plain brick structure con- 
taining two sarcophagi, in which are the remains of Gen- 
eral Washington and his wife Martha. Within the house 
(admission 25c.) are many interesting relics. The several 
rooms in the building have been restored by different States. 
The room in which Washington died is at the S. end of the 
ground floor. The one in which his wife passed away is im- 
mediately above it. In the coach house is General Washing- 
ton's carriage, and to the W. of the building are seen the 
negro quarters. In the garden are trees planted by Wash- 
ington, Franklin and Jefferson. The Washington & Great 
Falls Electric Ky. trains leave the Union Station at George- 
town, passing the Palisades of the Potomac, Cabin John 
Bridge, one of the largest stone arches in the world (220 ft.), 



POINTS OF INTEEEST IN RICHMOND. 299 

built for the Washington Aqueduct, and Glen Echo Park, 
the headquarters of the Red Cross Society. Tim Conduit 
Road which skirts around the railway is a favorite resort 
of cyclists. Some 5 M. beyond the Bridge are the Great 
Falls of the Potomac. Steamers ply daily between Wash- 
ington and Old Point Comfort (196 M.), leaving from the 
7th St. Wharf at 6:30 p. m., and arriving at 8 a. m.; fare, 
$3; state room, $1 to $3; second-class, $2; berth, $3. Leaving 
Washington, see R. 12 A, for Washington to Richmond. 

EICHMOND, VA. (342 M.) Population 120,000. 

On the lines of the Eichmond-Washington Line, Chesa- 
peake & Ohio, Norfolk & Western (enters on tracks of 
A. C. L.), Atlantic Coast Line, Seaboard Air Line, and 
Southern, and head of Steamboat transportation on James 
River. 

Depots — Richmond-Washington Line, Atlantic Coast Line, 
and Norfolk & Western, corner 7th and Byrd. Two blocks 
from Main St. Chesapeake & Ohio and Seaboard Air Line, 
Main St., corner 15th St. Take car going right as you 
come out and transfer to hotels, fare 5c. Southern Depot, 
corner 14th, near Carv St. Little over one block from Main 
St. 

Hotels — The Jefferson, a magnificent hotel, corner Jeffer- 
son and Franklin Sts. Rates, E. P., $2 per day up. Com- 
mercial rate, $1.50 per day up. The* Richmond Hotel, cor. 
Grace and 9th Sts. Modern house. Fireproof. Rates, E. P., 
$1.50 per day up. With bath, $2 up. Rooms in annex, $1 up. 
High class cafe. Hotel Rueger, cor. 9th and Bank Sts, 
Stag house. Rates, E. P., $1 to $2 per day. Baths, 25e 
extra. Murphy's Hotel, cor. 8th and Broad Sts. Large 
house. Rates, E. P., $1-2.50 per day. With bath, $1.50 up. 
The Lexington, cor. 12th and Main Sts. A. P., $2.50 per 
day. The Powhatan, cor. Broad and lltli Sts. Rates, A. P., 
$2-3 per day; $10.50-15 wk. Gilbert Hotel, cor. Franklin 
and 8th Sts. Rates, A. P., $1.50 per day up; E. P., 50c-$l. 

Restaurants — High-class: Rueger 's, 9th and Bank Sts. 
Richmond Cafe, cor. Grace and 9th. Murphy's Cafe, cor. 
8th and Broad Sts. Medium: Dickinson's, 821 E. Broad St. 
Cheap: Kirkwood's, 404 E. Broad, 804-1208 E. Main Sts. 

Furnished Rooms — On 12th between Broad and Marshall. 

The Principal Banks are: First National Bank, 1104 E. 
Main St.; Planters National, 1200 E. Main St.; Merchants 
National Bank, 1101 E. Main St.; American National Bank, 
1001 E, Main St.; State Bank of Virginia, 1111 E. Main St.; 
City Bank of Richmond^ 1109 E. Main St.; Bank of Rich- 



300 NEW YOEK TO TAMPA. 

mond, 922 E. Main St.; Union Bank, 1107 E. Main St.; Sav- 
ings Bank of Kichmoncl, 1117 E. Main St.; Broad Street 
Bank, 530 E. Broad St. 

Theaters — Academy of Music, 8th, bet. Grace and Fi-anklin 
Sts. Best in city. Prices, 25c-$l. Seats about 1,400. Bijou 
Theater, Broad and 8th Sts. Prices 15c-$l. Seats 1,500. 

Ry. Express Offices — Adams and Southern Cos., both at 
913 E. Main St., P. C. 

Telegraph Offices— Postal, cor. 13th and Main St., P. C. 
Open all the time. Western Union, 1217 E. Main St., P. C. 
Open all the time. 

Livery— Bennett 's Livery, 601 W. Broad, P. C. Rates 
reasonable. Hick 's Livery, 212 N. 2nd, P. C. Rates reason- 
able. Richmond Transfer Co., 819 E. Main St. 

Legal Hack Rates — Carriages: Theaters, $3; marriages, 
$3; receptions, $2.50; Germans, $3; christenings, $2.50; 
funerals, $3.50; train calls, one passenger, 50c; two pas- 
sengers, $1; three or four, $1.50; pleasure riding, $1.50 first 
hour and $1 for each additional hour or fraction thereof. 
Cabs: Calls, one or two passengers, 50c; each additional 
passenger, 25c; theaters, $2; receptions, one passenger, $1; 
two passengers, $1.50; tea party, one hour's duration, $1 ; 
marriages, $2; funerals, $2.50; Germans, $2; calling, shop- 
ping and pleasure riding, per hour, $1. 

Baggage Rates — Trunks, valises, etc., to any point in city 
limits, each 25e. 

Ry. Ticket Offices — Richmond Transfer Co., Union R, R. 
and S. S. ticket agts., 819 E. Main St. Seaboard Air Line, 
830 E. Main St. Chesapeake & Ohio, 809 E. Main St., P. C. 
Norfolk & Western and Atlantic Coast Line, 838 E. Main 
St., P. C. Richmond-Washington Line, cor. Byrd and 7th 
Sts. Old Dominion S. S. Co., 803 E. Main St. Virginia 
Navigation Co., 1202 E. Main St. 

Scalpers' Offices— Still's Ticket Agency, 908 E. Main St., 
P. C. W. R. Harwood, 819 E. Broad St., P. C. 

Trunks and Repairs — Rountree Trunk and Bag Co., 1401 
E. Broad St., P. C. 

Bteam Laundry — New York Laundry, 12 N. 9th St., P. C. 

Men's Furnishings— O. H. Berry & Co., 1017 E. Main St. 
Globe Clothing Co., 701 E. Broad St. 

Department Stores — Miller & Rhoads, 509 E. Broad St. 
Cohen Co., 11 W. Broad St. 

Post Office— I^Lain St., bet. 10th and 11th Sts. Gen. del. 
open 7:30-10; Sundays, 4-5 p. m. M. O. Dept., 9-5:30. Car- 
riers' window, Siiri'lay, 4-5 p. m. 

Churches, secret societies, clubs, etc., see City Directory. 

Leading Local Industries, Etc. — Tobacco, iron, fertilizers, 



POINTS OF INTEREST IN RICHMOND. 301 

paper, flour and meal, boots and shoes, drugs and medicinal 
preparations, baking powder, book publishing, woodenware, 
agricultural implements, sashes, doors and other building 
materials. In round numbers there are about one hundred 
different kinds of industries, over twelve hundred estab- 
lishments, with some $29,000,000 invested capital, which 
employ nearly twenty-nine thousand hands and have an 
annual output approximating $49,000,000. Its annual job- 
bing business, by a recent publication, amounted to over 
$43,000,000; retail trade to about $14,000,000. Exclusive of 
private banks and bankers and four small banks owned 
and controlled by negroes, its five national banks, seven 
state banks, and one trust company, recently made state- 
ments which aggregated as follows: Capital and surplus, 
$6,961,541; deposits, $19,251,540; loans and discounts, $21,- 
491,616; clearances for the year, $208,177,595. For manu- 
facturing purposes the city has an ample coal supply and 
water power of James River, much of which has been 
electrically developed. 

Richmond (altitude 150-250 ft.) lies at the head of navi- 
gation on the James River. Its topography is somewhat 
rugged in places, there being a series of low hills which 
rise on the N. bank of the river to plateaus at the highest 
level. The city of Manchester (about 10,000) lies just 
across the James and is connected by several bridges. 
Richmond is the capital city of the state, county seat of 
Henrico County, and one of the most interesting cities of 
the S. It was the capital of the Confederacy until cap- 
tured April 3, 1865, and around it cluster many memories 
of the past when the history of the country was v^arm in 
the making. The main business streets are E. Main and 
Broad sts. and the cross streets between. The city was 
founded in 1737, the site being west of the home of Powha- 
tan, a famous Indian chief, the father of Pocahontas, who 
saved the life of Captain John Smith. It was made the 
state capital in 1779. The city was defended stubbornly 
by the Confederates, and when finally compelled to evacu- 
ate they set fire to the arsenals and the tobacco warehouses, 
and a large portion of the city was destroyed. There is, 
however, no trace of this left, and Richmond is to-day a 
thriving, hustling city, well and substantially built and full 
of things of great interest from a historic standpoint. We 
will use the front of the city hall, on Broad st., as our 
starting point on our excursions about the city, as it is cen- 
tral and convenient. 

*CaTiltGl Sajaare — Leaving the front of the city hal], pass 
through or around it into the Capitol Square entrance, at its 



302 NEW YOKK TO TAMPA. i 

rear. Turning right we see the heroic equestrian statue of 
Washington in bronze, by Crawford and Kandolph Kogera, 
surrounded by bronze figures of Patrick Henry, George 
Mason, Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Nelson, Jr., Andrew 
Lewis and John Marshall, and by allegorical figures com- 
memorating Colonial Times, Bill of Eights, Revolution, etc. 
Passing this and going out of entrance beyond note St. 
Paul's Church, cor. Grace and 9th r>ts. (open 10 a. m. to 
2 p. m.), inside of which will be seen the pew (right of 
main aisle, see bronze plate on end) in which Jefferson 
Davis was seated when notified by General Lee that ho 
would be compelled to evacuate Eichmond that day. No- 
tice the *Mosaic picture of the Lord's Supper back of the 
altar, and the white marble Baptismal Font in left corner, 
said to have cost $5,000. There are some beautiful stained 
glass windows here and almost everything in the church 
is a memorial to some one. Leaving the church, note, op- 
posite, the new Kichmond Hotel. Ee-entering the Capitol 
Square turn down walk (right) past statue of Kenry Clay 
in marble by T. J. Hart, 1847, which stands in small pa- 
vilion near walk. Note in lower corner (right) square 
brick structure surmounted by open belfry. This is the 
Bell House. It was once a guard house for the state 
soldiers who were used as police about the grounds. It 
contained a bell which acted as fire alarm, and during the 
war its sound of alarm called out every man who could 
shoulder a musket. Passing on around in front of the 
Capitol building we enter through an imposing portico 
with heavy columns and stand in the wide central rotunda, 
in the center of which is Houdon's life size marble statue of 
Washington, for which the U. S. Govt, offered $300,000. At 
the time of the writer's visit the old capitol was being 
overhauled and enlarged by the addition of an cast and west 
wing. In the east wing (right) will be the meeting place of 
the House of Delegates, and in the west wing (opposite end) 
the Senate Chamber. In the north end is an exhibit of the 
agricultural and mineral resources of the state. The old 
Capitol building (central part of present structure) had its 
foundation laid in 1785, being built after a model of 
"Maison Carree," at Nimes, selected by Thomas Jefferson, 
in Paris, in 1785. This model may be seen in the State 
Library. It was in this building that Aaron Burr was 
tried by Chief Justice Marshall for treason, and it was 
here that the State Secession Convention met in. 1861. 
Here, also, the Confederate Congress met. The whole 
building teems with history. There is an old "warming 
machine," made in England in 1770 and presented to 



POINTS OF INTEREST IN EICHMOND. 303 

the Virginia Colony by the Duke of Beaufort. Leav- 
ing^ the Capitol turn left down the hill to the *State 
Library building in lower right corner. Notice the large 
stone building on street below square; it is the Post Oflace, 
in which^ during the war, were the executive offices of the 
Confederacy. Entering the Library building we take the 
elevator to the library floor, where we will find housed in 
comfortable, commodious quarters a collection of intense in- 
terest, consisting of old books, manuscript, portraits in oil, 
maps, curios, etc. Ask librarian to allow you to see 
the **Workes of the Most High and Mighty Prince James, 
by the Grace of God Kinge of Great Brittaine, France 
and Ireland," date 1616, also ^'The True Travels, Ad- 
ventures and Observations of Captain John Smith," 1630. 
There are, also, old state records in manuscript that are 
of great interest. In another room will be seen a case 
of old maps, one bearing date of 1585, another 1608. 
There are quite a number of these maps as well as some 
very old hand-drawn plans, etc., also some very interest- 
ing cases of curios. On the walls will be seen a rare 
old collection of portraits of famous men, done in oil. 
The collections here are worth many miles of travel to see 
were there not another thing in Richmond. There is prob- 
ably not their equal in the entire country and there is not 
the shadow of a doubt about the genuineness of the things 
seen. You may spend all the time you can spare here very 
profitably. 

Leaving the Library by the main entrance we turn- 
right up the hill, noting the governor's residence (right), 
which is private and may not be entered. Turning left 
around the Capitol note (right) the bronze figure of 
Thomas J. Jackson, presented to Virginia by English gen- 
tlemen in 1875, and near at hand the bronze figure (seated) 
of Hunter Holmes McQuire, medical director of Jackson's 
Corps, by W. M. Couper, of New York. This completes 
the round of the Capitol Square, and, being opposite the 
City Hall, a magnificent gray granite structure, costing 
over $1,500,000, we enter it, and, securing the key from the 
watchman, ascend the tower, from whence a *splendid view 
of the entire city, the James river and much of the valley, 
as well as the city of Manchester, across the river, is had. 

*A Short Walk — Leaving the City Hall we pass down (E.) 
Broad st., past the (right) Memorial Hospital, a little be- 
low which, opposite side of street, will be seen a large 
yellow building surmounted by round turret and cross. This 
is Monumental Church, on the site of the Richmond The- 
atre, at the burning of which, 1811, Governor Smith and 



304 NEW YOEK TO TAMPA. 

fifty-nine others lost their lives. Their remains lie under 
the monument seen on the front portico. Notice the paint- 
ing behind the altar. Lafayette is said to have worshipped 
in this church. Turning left on the cross street below 
church (13th st.) note, opposite corner, the Colored First 
Baptist Church, erected 1780, rebuilt 1876, a building the 
colored people can certainly be very proud of. Passing one 
block on 13th vre see the unique building (Egyptian style) 
of the Medical College of Virginia. Turning left around it 
into Marshall st. walk up to 12th and turn right on 12th 
one block, where will be seen (right) the residence of Jef- 
ferson Davis when he was president of the Confederate 
States. It is now a **Confederate museum, open 9-5 except 
Sundays. Admission 25c, except Saturday, free. The iron 
shaft seen in the rear yard was tliat of the famous Merri- 
mac. Aside from the associations of the house as the resi- 
dence of Davis, the museum is of great interest. There ia 
a collection here that is entirely the work of Southern ladiea 
which is wonderfully interesting. Such things as the uni- 
form worn by Gen. Lee when he surrendered to Gen. Grant, 
autograph letters from all the famous generals (and many 
of them), Jefferson Davis' private office and some of its 
furniture, suit worn when he was captured, many of hia 
personal belongings and war relics from all over the South 
are to be seen. The whole building is full of things of 
interest and a whole day may be profitably spent in this 
interesting place. 

Leaving the museum we pass up the street (to our left 
as we come out), noting diagonal corner (right) the Uni- 
versity College of Medicine. Opposite corner of next 
street (11th and Clay Sts.) we see the Valentine Museum, 
open 10 to 5, closed Sundays. Admission 25c, except Sat- 
urday, free. Contains library of old books, Virginia room, 
engravings, sculpture, etc., and Department of Archaeol- 
ogy. Said to be a rare and most valuable collection. 
Did not see it. To true lovers of art the studio of 
Edward V. Valentine, sculptor, at 809 E. Leigh St., will 
prove intensely interesting. It may be most conveniently 
reached from Clay and 9th sts., after passing the Valentine 
Museum, by turning one block to the right, and half a 
block to the left on Leigh st. Mr. Valentine designed the 
recumbent statue of Gen. E. E. Lee at Lexington, that of 
Thomas Jefferson in the Jefferson Hotel, besides many other 
famous effigies of real, mythological and fancy characters, 
and his studio is a rich repository of models. Adult visitors 
are admitted from 10 a. m. to 4 p. m. upon proper applica- 
tion or introduction. Returning by 9th St., note corner 9th 



POINTS OF INTEREST IN RICHMOND. 305 

and iMarshall (left), two story square red brick building with 
ell and two small white porticos. This was the residence of 
Chief Justice Marshall. V/e are now almost back to our 
starting point and have, in this short walk, seen many of 
the points of interest and have covered about one mile. 

*A Drive — There are two practical ways to see the sights 
in the eastern part of the city, viz., by carriage, which ia 
the best, and by street car, which necessitates about a mile 
of walk. If we see it by the latter means, there will be four 
fares to pay, since we will have to break the car trip at the 
Old Stone House, Libby Prison site and St. John's Church. 
National cemetery cannot be reached by car. If we elect to 
take a carriage, we will pass down Main st., noting the 
Chesapeake & Ohio and the Seaboard Depot (left), just 
after passing under the overhead bridge. Beyond this we 
pass through the cheap retail district, where most of the 
foreign population is located. In second block beyond de- 
pot (left) is the Old Stone House, one of the oldest build- 
ings in the city. Passing on out Main to 22nd St., turning 
right on that street one block, we will see the Crystal Ice 
Plant. This building occupies the site of the Libby Prison of 
the Civil War, that is, it occupies the site of its main en- 
trance. The stockade, however, extended along the river for 
some distance. Turning left along the front of the ice plant 
and continuing to 24th st. (two blocks) we see, in two 
large brick buildings on opposite sides of 24th St., the fac- 
tories of the American and Whitlock Tobacco Companies, 
the latter being one of the largest producers of manufac- 
tured tobacco in the country. Turning left between the 
factories one block to Main st. and right on Main we con- 
tinue on out. In front of us is Libby Kill, on the summit 
of which is the *Soldier'3 and Sailor's monument, a magnifi- 
cent round shaft some 60 feet in height, surmounted by a 
bronze figure. From the monument we get a very fine view 
of the James river, with the wharfs in the foreground, the 
city of Manchester across the river. Down the river on 
left bank will be seen the Eichmond Cedar Works, and on 
both sides the works of the Virginia Carolina Chemical Co. 
Note: This point is reached by East Main st. car, but to 
see Libby Prison you must get off at 22nd st. You may 
then walk to Libby Hill and on (14 mile) to Chiraborazo 
Park, where Broad st. car may be taken back to center of 
city, passing St. John's Church on the way. Turning 
left around monument on 29th St. to Broad St. (1 block) 
and right (east) on Broad, we come to Chimborazo Park, 
which was the site of the famous Confederate hospital dur- 
ing the war. Turning right we skirt around park for the 



306 NEW YOKK TO TAMPA. 

sake of the pretty view until we come to a small ■building 
(right) with ''Men's Entrance" and ''Ladies' Entrance" 
over doors, just beyond which, if we desire to visit the 
National Cemetery, we turn down the hill, with the valley 
on our right. The town in this valley is Fulton. Crossing 
the railway tracks at foot of hill we go straight out (1 
mile) to the cemeterv, which is 8 acres in extent, and very 
pretty. There are 6^568 graves here, 868 known and 5,700 
unknown. 

Eeturning to Chimborazo park where we left it, we 

turn either right or left and come to the point where we 

first entered the park. We now drive straight down 

Broad St. to *St. Jolm's Church, bet. 25th and 24th Sts., 

where there will be found a keeper, employed by the city, 

to show us through. (Keeper is there 7 a. m. to 5 p. m.) 

The church was erected in 1741, the front part being added 

in 1830. The oldest tomb is dated 1751. Within the church 

note the Baptismal font about 200 years old and the pew 

from which Patrick Hemry delivered the famous address 

ending with "Give me liberty or give me death." It 

seems that the pew pointed out was really the one in which 

he stood while speaking. In the church yard, near the 

keeper's office, notice between two tall monuments a small 

"bronze marker over the grave of Ebenezer Parker, who was 

courier to Genl. Washington, placed by a committee 

from Lynn, Mass. On the opposite side of the church, 

about 20 feet from main entrance of the old building 

(west side) an iron peg will be seen projecting one inch 

from the sod. This marks the grave of George Wjrthe, 

one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. 

From here the keeper will point out the Old Van Lew House 

(see little further on for its story). There will be other 

things of minor interest among the old tombs. Leaving 

here turn (left) around the church yard (1 block), where 

we will see the old Van Lew residence, in which a lady of 

northern birth, but long a resident of Richmond, cared for 

many Union soldiers who escaped from Libby Prison. It is 

asserted that there was a tunnel from this house to the 

prison, through which the prisoners escaped, but there 

seems to be nothing but legend to support the statement. 

Turning right one block to point of the hill we will have 

a fine view of the business section of the city. Coming 

back to first cross street and returning to Broad street we 

continue on to center of the city. Going up the hill we will 

see (right) first Baptist church (colored) (P. 304), and 

just beyond, the Monumental church (P. 303) and (left) 

the Memorial Hospital. This trip shows us about all there 



POINTS OF INTEREST IN EICHMOND. 307 

is of interest in the eastern end of the city except those 
mentioned in the walk (P. 303), and they may he covered 
by turning right at the First Baptist church, mentioned 
above, and following the line of the walk. 

Drive in the West End — Leaving the City Hall we pass 
up Broad st. west through the best shopping district of the 
city. Note the excellence of the stores and their up-to-date 
show windows. It is a curious thing that almost all of the 
better stores have, up to this time, been on the left side 
of the street, that side being known as the *' right side," 
while the other is styled the ** wrong side.'^ Notice corner 
Adams and Broad streets the brown stone Masonic Temple. 
Turning left past it on Adams street and right at next cor- 
ner we are on Grace st., which, from here out, is one of the 
best residence streets of the city. At the head of Grace St. 
we see the large main building of the Richmond College 
(Baptist, but not denominational in policy). Turning left 
here one block and right on Franklin note the Jewish. Sjma- 
gogue (left) at turn. "We now see and pass the *eq.uestrian 
statue of Genl. Robert E. Lee, a magnificent piece of work 
on a splendid stone base. Arriving at the end of the street 
we turn left, arriving (i^ mile) at the Confederate Home 
(right), one of the largest in the South. Beyond the home 
(% mile) is the City Reservoir park, a very pretty city 
park in which is the city reservoir. Turning (left) at Home 
we go back toward the city, passing the Howitzer monu- 
ment (reached by Clay st. car, fare 5c.). Just beyond we 
reach the magnificent new Catholic Cathedral. Turning 
right at Cathedral, proceeding i/4 mile on Cherry st. and 
looking right at corner, where we see low glass conservatory 
(right), we see the monument to the Confederate dead, a 
rough pyramid of stone. 

We are now at **Hollywood cemetery (reached by S. 
Cherry St. or by Oakwood and Hollywood car on 
either Main or Broad streets, or Laurel street car, fare 
5c.), one of the most beautiful in the country. There 
is a carriage to take visitors through the grounds, a small 
charge being made for the service. Unless our driver is 
well acquainted with the cemetery it will be best to leave 
it at the gate and take the cemetery carriage, as there are 
many points of great interest, such as the Confederate 
Monument, Jefferson Davis* grave, and graves of Pros. 
Monroe, author of the Monroe Doctrine, of President John 
Tyler, of General J. E. B. Stuart, General George E. Pickett, 
of Commodore Maury, of General Harry Heth, of John 
Randolph of Roanoke, of John Y. Mason, Henry A. Wise, 
and a host of other prominent men. The grounds are sur- 



308 NEW YOSK TO TAMPA. 

passingly "beautiful, the roads winding in and out among 
the hills. Note Belle Isle (the plant of the Old Dominion 
Iron and Nail Works) in the river at the foot of the hill 
opposite the cemetery. It vras a prison ground during tho 
war second in historic interest only to Libby Prison; also 
the Tredegar Works, which manufactured many of the mu- 
nitions of the Confederacy. The falls of the James River 
are also opposite the grounds. 

From the cemetery we may return to Franklin street by 
Laurel street, and hare a front view of the Catholic Cathe- 
dral and of Monroe Park, noticing at Jefferson and Franlvlin 
streets *'The Jefferson'' (Hotel), where in the court, sur- 
rounded by beautiful palms, stands the marble, life sized 
statue of Thomas Jefferson, by Valentine, which would 
richly repay examination, and No. 707 E. Fi-anklin, Gen- 
eral Lee's residence (see below). If time permits, at 
3rd street turn to the right, five blocks, to Gamble's 
Hill, to obtain another splendid view of James Eiver, 
the many bridges crossing it, the ruins of tho old State 
Armory, the Tredegar Iron Works and many other indus- 
tries, etc., etc. Near the Holh'wood Cemetery is the State 
Penitentiary. Tou may get full information about time to 
visit it, car to take, etc., by calling up the penitentiary by 
'phone. The Seven Pines National Cemetery is about one 
acre in extent, there being about 1,300 buried there. 
Take Seven Pines car by transfer from any line. Cold Har- 
bor National Cemetery is reached by carriage from Seven 
Pines. The house, No. 707 E. Franklin st., now occupied by 
the Virginia Historical Society, was the residence of General 
Lee and family while he was in command of the Confederate 
armies. There will be other things of minor interest to en- 
gage the attention as long as one cares to linger in this, 
the historic city of the south. 

Battle Fields — During the civil war battles were waged 
all about the city, and one may see the rem.ains of the old 
fortifications at many points. The better plan to see the 
battle fields is to get a carriage with a driver who is well 
posted (stable will furnish one if you explain what is 
wanted), and drive out the Brook road, which leads to the 
Lakeside Club House, where are golf links, boating, bowling, 
etc. The principal attack on the city was made May 15, 
1862, when the Federal fleet made an unsuccessful attempt to 
pass the batteries on Drewry's Bluff, about 7 miles below the 
city on the James Eiver, while General McClellan advanced 
up the peninsula between the York and James rivers and 
invested the city on the north and east. This was followed 
by the fiercely contested but indecisive battles of Seven 



POINTS OF INTEREST IN RICHMOND. 309 

Pines, or as the Federals called it, Fair Oaks (May 31, 
1862), the Confederates attacking McClellan's left wing 
south of the Chickahominy. Owing to the swampiness and 
consequent unhealthfulness of the locality, McClellan's loss 
from pestilence was very great. After General Joseph E. 
Johnston, who was originally in command, was wounded at 
Seven Pines, General Robert E. Lee assumed command of 
the Confederate armies, and, in conjunction with Stonewall 
Jackson, made an attack on McClellan's right wing, which 
was posted at Mechanicsville 5 miles north from Richmond, 
on the Chickahominy river. This was the beginning of the 
famous seven day battle, June 26 to July 2, 1862. Next fol- 
lowed the battles of Gaines Mill, Cold Harbor, Savage's 
Station, Frazier's Farm and Malvern Hill, which were the 
principal engagements. The outcome of all this fighting, 
which cost over 40,000 men, was that the Union armies 
were compelled to retreat to Malvern Hiill, 15 miles south- 
east. They repulsed the Confederates in that battle, but 
soon retreated to Harrison's Landing, on the James. Gen- 
eral Grant on June 3, 1864, attacked the Confederates, who 
were entrenched at Cold Harbor, but gave it up after a loss 
of some 15,000 men. Siege was laid to the city later on, and 
on April 3, 1865, it was evacuated after the various ar- 
senals and great tobacco warehouses had been fired. Much 
of the city was destroyed before the fire could be checked. 
There appears to be exceptionally fine opportunities for 
the investment of capital in Richmond. From it radiate 7 
lines of railway and there is water transportation as well. 
The climate is very equable and violent storms are of rare 
occurrence. There are excellent factory sites and labor is 
plentiful and comparatively cheap. The tax rate is but 
$14 per $1,000, the taxable property being in 1903 $81,624,- 
221, over one-half of which is real estate. The proximity to 
coal fields assures ample supply of steam coal at all times 
and at a reasonable rate, and the water power of James 
River is largely electrically developed. There are few more 
desirable places to live when one takes all things into 
consideration. The educational facilities are unsurpassed, 
and the society of the best. The South is just beginning to 
awaken and come to the front. New markets are being 
produced as the country develops and it is developing with 
amazing rapidity. Lands that but a few years "ago were 
deemed worthless are to-day bringing good prices and rais- 
ing, under intelligent and scientific methods of farming, 
phenomenal crops. For years after the war the country 
lay dormant, the people being impoverished and, to some 
extent, discouraged, the negro being demoralized by sudden 



310 NEW YORK TO TAMPA. 

freedom, and the farming and agricultural interests being 
largely dependent upon his labor. All this is being rapidly 
changed and the opportunities that now exist for intelli- 
gently applied capital are legion. Those of the readers of 
Richardson Guides who have capital to invest will do well 
to investigate this matter carefully, for the next twenty 
years are going to see vast fortunes made by many of those 
who are wise enough to take a hand in the upbuilding of 
the mighty empire of the South. The Chamber of Commerce, 
of Richmond, R. A. Dunlop, Secretary, will be glad to lend 
every assistance to those who desire to act on the above 
advice, and you will find the officers of that body to be wide 
awake, energetic and courteous business men. 

LEAVING RICHMOND. 

Leaving Richmond our train runs duo S., crossing the 
Farmville & Powhatan R. R. at Chester (356 M.), to Peters- 
burg (306 M.), where it curves S. W. through Dinwiddle 
(379 M.), crossing the Nottoway river beyond McKenney 
(389 M.), and the line of the Southern Ry. at La Crosso 
(421 M.), the Roanoke river at Bracey (428 M.), beyond 
which it enters tlie State of North Carolina, joining the 
Portsmouth-Norfolk-Old Point Comfort Line at Norlina. 
(440 M.) 

(Main route continued at ''Leaving Norlina.") 

NORFOLK-OLD POINT COMFORT-POPvTSMOUTH-NOR- 

LINA. 

Seaboard Air Line. 

Leaving Norfolk (P. 432) we cross to Portsmouth via the 
ferry, fare 5c, and leaving the ferry house we cross the 
street (left) to the Seaboard Air Line depot. We pass out 
of the city southwesterly through the manufacturing center, 
continuing to Suffolk (17 M.), crossing the Chowan river at 
Lee's Mill. At Boykins (54 M.) a branch line diverges to 
the S., connecting with the Atlantic Coast Line at Kelford. 
Continuing S. W., the Roanoke river is crossed at Weldon 
(78 M.), also a branch of the Atlantic Coast Line R.y. From 
here we continue almost due W. to Norlina (98 M.*), where 
junction is made with the Richmond main line. 

LEAVING NORLINA. 

Leaving Norlina we pass through Henderson (456 M,), 
where junction is made with a Southern Ry. branch line 
and a branch of the Seaboard Air Line diverges to the right 
to Durham, N. C. (41 M.), at which place are the great 



THE CAPITAL OF NORTH CAEOLINA. 311 

Durham Tobacco Works. From Henderson our train curves 
to the S., crossing the Tar river some distance beyond 
Kittrell (464 M.), and the Neuse river near Neuse Station 
(490 M.), finally entering 

RALEIGH, N. C. (499 M.). Population about 14,000. 

On the lines of the Seaboard Air Line (main line) and 
Southern Eys. Both roads use one depot, which is three 
blks. from business section. St. cars do not reach it at pres- 
ent. Take hack or turn right from entrance and left at 
cor. and walk up past park three blks. 

Hotels — *The Yarboro, Fayetteville St., near Martin; large 
and excellent house; rates, A. P., $2.50 per day up. The 
Park, cor. Martin & McDowell, one block from depot; ex- 
cellent house; rates $3-5 per day. Capitol Inn, cor, Fay- 
etteville & Morgan Sts.; rates, A. P., $1.50 per day. 

Restaurants — Yaraborough Cafe, excellent; Yarboro Hotel, 
Giersch's Cafe, 216 Fayetteville St. 

Furnished Rooms — Scattered over city. No signs out. 

Bank — Commercial & Farmers. 

Theater — Academy of Music, cor. Martin & Salisbury Sts. 
Seat cap., 900. Prices 25c-$2. 

Railway Express Company — Southern, 108 Fayetteville St., 
P. C. 

Telegraph Companies — Postal, 305 Wilmington St., P. C; 
open 7:30-11; Sundays, 9-11 a. m. and 7-10 p. m., P. C; 
Western Union, 309 Fayette St.; open 7:30-11; Sundays, 
8-11 a. m., 4-6 and 7-9 p. m., P. C. Messengers at both 
telegraph offices. 

Livery — Eobbins' Livery, 325 Wilmington St., P. C. Rates 
reasonable. 

Legal Hack Rates— 25c per person inside the city limits. 

Railway Ticket Offices — Both Seaboard and Southern in 
Yarboro Hotel Bldg., P. C. 

Scalpers — None. 

Laundry— Oak City Steam Laundry, 216 Fayetteville St.; 

P. C. 

Men's Furnishings— Cross & Linehan Co., 234 Fayetteville 

St. 

Department Store — Sherwood, Higgs & Co., 203-5 Fayette- 
ville St. 

Post Office— Cor. Fayetteville & Martin Sts. Gen. Del., 
open 8-9; M. O. window, 9-5. Gen^ del. and carriers, Sun- 
days, 2:30-3 p. m. 

Public Library — Cor. Hillsmoro and Salisbury Sts. ^ 

Churches, secret societies, clubs, etc., see City Directory. 

Leading Local Industries — Spinning factory, gingham 



312 NEW YORK TO TAMPA. 

mills, plaid and white goods factories, underwear factory, 
hosiery mills, cotton seed oil mills, fertilizer wks., sash, 
door and blind factory, foundry and plow works, office fur- 
niture and flour mills. 

Ealeigh, alt. 363 ft., is the state capital of North Carolina, 
and lies 157 M, S. of Richmond and 175 M. S. W. from 
Norfolk, on the main branch of the Seaboard Air Line. It 
is a beautiful town in which visitors find considerable 
interest. It was laid out in 1792, shortly after the Revo- 
lutionary w^ar, the first Court House being built in 1800 on 
the site of the .present one (erected 1835). The old bldg. 
still stands, having been removed to the S. E. cor. of Wil- 
mington & Davie Sts. The State Capitol bldg. will be the 
first point to be inspected. It stands at the head of Fay- 
etteville St. (main business st.) in the heart of the city. 
The bldg. is of cut granite, and was erected at a cost of 
$330,684 in 1833, on the site of the old Capitol bldg., which 
was destroyed by fire. The structure shows little or no evi- 
dence of its 71 years of life. It is quite small for a 
State Capitol, measured by the needs and standards of to- 
day, and the State is planning a large addition. On the 
grounds in front will be seen a heroic sized bronze statue 
of Zebulon Vance (p. ) ; on the S. side is a bronze statue of 
Washington; on the W. is a magnificent monument to the 
Confederate dead, a gray granite shaft some 60 ft. high, 
surmounted by a heroic bronze figure. 

Across the street, cor. Halifax & Edenton, will be found 
the **State Museum on the 2nd floor. This Museum is most 
excellent, and is, alone, worth a stop over in Raleigh. A few 
of the many objects of absorbing interest are: The com- 
plete skeleton of a large wMle, suspended from the ceiling 
in the first room; the mineral, fruit and other collections 
in the next rooms, and in the last one, the war relics. Note, 
in the latter room, the fragments of Canova's Washington, 
ruined by the fire which consumed the old Capitol. Lafayette 
visited Raleigh for the express purpose of viewing this 
magnificent work, which was conveyed from Rome by a U. 
S. war vessel. See picture on the wall, by its side, showing 
the statue as it originally was. There is a series of old 
pictures on the wall (right as we face statue) illustrating 
the landing of our forefathers on Roanoke Island in 1583. 
Notice DeBry's geography (1590), with its crude ma.ps. In 
one of the cases are deeds, free papers, passes, etc., for 
slaves, and in a cor. will be seen one of the first hand power 
cotton gins. Note the excellent collection of colonial relics. 
Look at the $25 rabbit skin hat and $550 coat, also the 
Indian relics; also the last flag that floated over Appomat- 



THE CAPITAL OF NOETH CAEOLINA. 313 

tox. Among the relics is a **Ooiifederate Geography that 
will, if you can induce the custodian to take it from the 
case in order to read selections from it, be a revelation of 
the intense feeling of those times. A valued treasure is an 
autograph letter of Paul Jones. But one could cover pages 
in enumerating the interesting objects in the museum.. 

Adjoining the museum is the State I*av7 Library, with 
15,000 volumes. Upstairs in the *General Library are many 
old and priceless manuscripts, which may be inspected. The 
street car system of Ealeigh is very poor and does not nearly 
cover the city, so the best way to see the city will be to get 
a carriage. The National Cemetery, in which 1,210 Union 
dead (572 unknown) are buried, is reached by going out 
New Berne Ave. to the Confederate Home, turning right on 
its farther side and going straight ahead Vi M. to the 
cemetery. The grounds are not large, but are very pretty, 
there being magnolia trees, shrubbery, flowers and lawns. 
The Confederate home passed on the way out has about 150 
inmates. Corner Blount and Edenton Sts. is the Baptist Col- 
lege (300 students). Outside the city limits in the N. E. sub- 
urbs is St. Augustine College for colored people, which has 
several large and substantial bldgs., accommodating about 
300 students. The Governor's Mansion, owned by the State, 
is at the cor. Blount and Jones Sts. It is a three-story 
red brick with pretty grounds. In the yard, cor. N. Blount 
and North Sts., will be seen *trees that are well worth view- 
ing. The largest is a white oak which has attained won- 
derful size, and is probably 300 years old. At the head of 
N. Wilmington St., reached by Blount St. car, fare 5c., is the 
Peace Institute for Girls, with beautiful grounds. Note the 
beauty of the front view of the bldg. It was headquarters 
for the Medical Dept. of the Confederacy for the State dur- 
ing the war. Another tree that is worth seeing is the Red 
Oak, cor. N. Wilmington and E. North Sts. It is gigantic 
and very symmetrical. Hillsboro St. offers a delightful 
street car ride or a charming drive. It is one of the best 
residence streets of the city. Notice, 1 M. out the St. 
Mary's (Episcopal) College (150 students). Opposite it is 
the beautiful old Cameron residence. Just beyond (right 
some distance) will be seen, among the trees, the tower of 
the Methodist Episcopal (South) Orphanage. 

Continuing on this street to W. Ealeigh (some 2 M.) we 
see (left) the State Agricultural College (540 students). 
The last bldg. of the College (on the street) is the textile 
bldg., where the working of cotton from the opening of the 
bale to the finished cloth is taught. The small ivy-covered 
bldg. with square tower is the horticultural bldg., adjoining 



314 NEW YOKK TO TAMFA. 

which is Pullcn hall, seating 1,000. An inspection of the 
collc'g(> will be of great interest. Just beyond it is the 
State Fair Grounds. 

*PuUen Park is reached by the Hillsboro street lino of 
the street ry., fare 5c. It lies just across the ry. back of 
the Agricultural College and one may pass through the col- 
lege grounds, passing around the main bldg. to the left and 
down the hill on the road which passes through lines of 
trees to the right of the athletic field, turning to the left 
until main road is reached, then to right and across the ry. 
One may also drive into and around the park. There is a Zoo 
of some proportions and the grounds are very pretty. The 
house in which President Andrew Jackson was born, which 
originally stood up town, has been removed to the park. 
The State Insane Asylum may be reached (2 M.) by taking 
the Insane Asylum road, which is a continuation of Fayette- 
ville St., south. The grounds are very pretty. The Hills- 
boro St. car line takes one within about three blks. of the 
State Penitentiary, which lies along the Seaboard Air Lino 
tracks. One may enter and inspect it, but it is not by any 
means a model institution. The convicts are mostly rented 
to contractors. 

Leaving Raleigh our train turns more to the S. W. and 
joins the Greensboro line of the Southern Ry. at Gary 
(509 M,), crossing two tributaries of the Cape Fear, one 
on each side of Moncure (530 M.), and the Greensboro- 
Fayetteville branch of the Southern Ry. at Sanford (542 M.). 
From Cameron (553 M.), a short line diverges to the right to 
Carthage. The country now is a long stretch of pine forests 
and not of much interest. The next point of importance is 

SOUTHERN PINES, N. C. (568 M.) Population about 70*0. 

Hotels — Piney Woods Inn, rates, $2-4 per day; $15-30 wk. 
Large frame bldg. on summit of hill at edge of village. 
Southern Pines Hotel, $2-1 per day; $9-12 wk. 

There are no restaurants, but a few cheaper hotels and 
boarding houses; cottages and flats may be rented ready 
for housekeeping, the rates on the latter ranging from $50 
to $600 for the season. The better class of these flats and 
cottages are equipped with hot and cold water, baths, heat, 
and every modern convenience. The water supply is excel- 
lent. One bank, Southern Express and Western Union Tele- 
graph Co. at depot. Livery rates very reasonable. Good 
stores. Small opera house, with attractions occasionally. 
Episcopal, Baptist, Catholic and Congregational churches. 
K. of P., Odd Fellows, Masons and United Workmen have 
lodges. Long distance phcne connections. 



SOUTHERN PINES AND OTHER RESORTS. 315 

Southern Pines (alt. 625 ft.) lies on the main line of the 
Seaboard Air Line, 68 M. S. from Raleigh, N. C There 
IS nothing very beautiful about the place nor are there 
any points of interest or beautiful scenery near it, but its 
climatic conditions has the unqualified indorsement of a host 
of people who have tested its hospitality in the past. It 
IS the natural stopping place between the North and South, 
being strictly a winter resort. The average temperature of 
the winter months is 54 deg. Fah., and it has had but two 
light snows in several years. It must not be imagined 
that the verdure remains green for, aside from the pines 
and evergreen growth, it does not. That the climate is to 
be commended is, however, proven by the fact that several 
very wealthy men have selected it as their home. There 
are no strictly high-class hotels, but the Piney Woods Inn 
and the Southern Pines Hotel provide very comfortable 
accommodations. The change from the climate of the N. to 
that of the S. is very severe if the journey be made straight 
through, but by stopping here for a week it is somewhat 
mitigated. Consumptives will not be received at the hotels, 
but there are ample and very excellent sanitarium accommo- 
dations with every appliance known to modern science 
at hand for the treatment of pulmonary troubles. The 
writer knows of no place E. of the Rocky Mountains that 
affords such quick relief in these cases as Southern Pines. 

The Niagara, Van Lindley and other great fruit farms 
lie 11^-3 M. from the town, and are well worth a visit, since 
here will be seen fruit farming on an extensive scale and 
a strictly scientific basis. The Niagara farm ships from 
12,000 to 15,000 crates of fruit annually. The soil is very 
sandy, but responds amazingly to commercial fertilizer and 
scientific treatment, the net earnings of at least one farm 
being over $50 per acre (average for several years). There 
is a great opening in this section for the fruit grov^-er. The 
State Experimental Farm lies out about 3 M., visitors being 
welcomed. This is a large institution with much of interest. 
An excellent cycle path leads to it. A trolley line extends 
to *Pinehurst, 6 M. away, fare 15c., round trip 25c. 

Pinehurst is a very popular winter resort with most ex- 
cellent hotel accommodations. Like Southern Pines, it has 
no scenery or natural points of interest, the principal recom- 
mendation being the climate. Consumptives are not received 
here, the whole place belonging to the Pinehurst Company, 
which rigidly enforces the above rule. The following in- 
formation about hotels, etc., is taken from the circular issued 
by the company: 

Hotels— Carolina, $4 per day and up; Holly Inn, $3 per 



316 NEW YOKK TO TAMPA. 

day and up; Berkshire, $2 per day and up; Harvard, $2 per 
day and up. 

Boarding Houses — Magnolia, $8 per wk. and up; Con- 
cord, Lenox, Arlington, $8 per wk. and up; Pine Grove, $8 
per wk. and up; Lexington, $6 per wk. and up. 

Rooms — Cedars, rooms, $3 per wk. and up. Board may be 
had at the Casino at $5.50 per wk. 

Apartment Houses (for the season) — Beacon, suites No. 1, 

2 and 3, 2 rooms and 3 large closets, each, $120; suite 4, 

3 rooms and 3 large closets, $180. Dartmouth, suites No. 1, 

2 and 3, 2 rooms and 3 large closets, each, $120; suite No. 4, 

3 rooms and 3 large closets, $180. Marlborough, suites No. 
1, 2 and 3, 2 rooms and 3 large closets, each, $100; suite No. 
4, 3 rooms and 3 large closets, $150. Tremont, suits No. 1, 

2 and 3, 2 rooms and 3 large closets, each, $100; suite No. 4, 

3 rooms and 3 large closets, $150. Palmetto, 10 suites of 2 
rooms each, rent per suite, $G0 to $70. 

Cottages (for the season) — (Heated by stoves or fire- 
places) — Arbutus, 7 rooms, $325; Beech, 7 rooms and bath, 
$400; Elm, 7 rooms, $300; Hale, 3 rooms, $200; Hazelwood, 
10 rooms, double-house, 5 rooms each, rent of each, $150; 
Ivy, 4 rooms, $250; Juniper, 4 rooms, $250; Laurel, 5 rooms 
and bath, $325; Maple, 7 rooms, $325; Plymouth, 8 rooms and 
bath, $500; Persimmon, 3 rooms, $200; Sycamore, 4 rooms, 
$250; Walnut, 7 rooms and bath, $400. (Steam heated) — 
Craddock, 7 rooms and bath, $500; Cypress, 7 rooms and 
bath, $550; Dogwood, 5 rooms, $350; Hawthorne, 9 rooms 
and bath, $700; Honeysuckle, 3 rooms, $250; Mistletoe, 10 
rooms and bath, $700; Mystic, 12 rooms and bath, $1,200; 
Oaks, 8 rooms and bath, $650; Eose, 7 rooms and bath, $500; 
Waldheira, 9 rooms and bath, $700; Woodbine, 5 rooms and 
bath, $350; Yucca, 4 rooms and bath, $350. 

The Pineburst School — Combines under one management, 
and furnishes instruction in college preparatory, grammar 
and primary grades. Parents who wish to have their cliil- 
dren with the-m in the south during the winter will find here 
an opportunity for them to pursue their home studies with- 
out interruption. Studies elective. Private tutoring. Pre- 
paratory department, $15 per wk, $50 per month; grammar 
department, $2 per wk., $8 per month; primary department, 
$1 per wk., $4 per month. 

Golf — The Pinchurst Golf Links are the finest in the 
South; an 18-hole course of 5,600 yards and a 9-hole course 
of 2,300 yards. Season tickets, $15; monthly tickets, $8; 
weekly tickets, $3; daily tickets, 75c. 

Shooting Preserves — The Pinehurst Shooting Preserves 
comprises some 35,000 acres. The birds have never been so 
plentiful in the early autumn as this year. Guides take 



HAMLET-WILMINGTON. 317 

well trained dogs from our kennels for the use of guests 
who do not bring their own dogs. The charge for boarding 
a dog at the kennels is $1.50 per wk., $5 per month. The 
charge for a guide is $3 per day. The charge for shooting 
privilege on the Pinehurst Preserves is waived this season. 

The management has provided every possible convenience 
and comfort for its patrons. The Carolina and the Holly 
Inns were personally inspected by the writer; they are 
comfortable and cheerful houses with good sized and very 
pleasant rooms. The Carolina is as good a hotel as can be 
found anywhere, and is fully equipped with every modern 
convenience. There is a poultry farm, an extensive dairy, a 
piggery, and a kennel for the purpose of furnishing dogs 
for the use of the guests who desire to hunt on the pre- 
serves of the Company; fine pointers and setters are for 
sale. The climate is very dry, exceedingly healthy and 
very mild in winter. It will be well to write or wire for 
accommodations since, large as are the hotels, they are at 
times taxed to their limit. The Aberdeen & Ashboro con- 
nects Pinehurst with the Seaboard Air Line at Aberdeen 
and with the Southern Ey. at High Point. The Seaboard 
runs a daily parlor car to Pinehurst from Washington and 
sleeper two or three times a wk. Trolley car connects with 
all Seaboard trains at Southern Pines. The Golf links 
here are as good as will be found in the South. The amuse- 
ments are many and include trap shooting, lawn tennis, 
limiting, horseback riding (roads are too sandy for driv- 
ing), dancing, etc. No liquors are sold in Pinehurst — it 
must be brought along if desired. There are telephone and 
telegraph connections, a good general store and livery stable. 
Name of P. O., Pinehurst, N. C. 

Leaving Southern Pines, we trend S. W. to Aberdeen 
(572 M.), where the Aberdeen & Ashboro Ey. is crossed, 
which extends to the N. W. via Ashboro, connecting with the 
Southern Ey. at High Point, to Hamlet (596 M., excellent 
railway hotel, $2, meals 50c.). 

HAMLET TO WILMINGTON. 

(Main route continued P. 319.) 
From here a branch of the Seaboard Air Line diverges to 
the S. E. (left), crossing a branch of the Atlantic Coast 
Line at Maxton (24 M.) and the main line of the same 
road (E. 13, P. 359) at Pembroke (32 M.) ; passing through 
Lumberton (43 M.), the seat of Eobeson County, and beyond 
Allenton (48 M.), spanning the waters of the Lumber Eiver, 
the route extending through a low, flat, timbered country 
with little of interest. The Cape Fear Eiver flows along a 



318 NEW YOEK TO TAMPA. 

short distance to the N. (left). From Armour (89 M.) 
this route continues to 

WILMINGTON, N. C. (110 M.) Population 25,000. 

On the Hamlet-Wilmington branch of the Seaboard Air 
Line and the Wilmington-Weldon branch of the Atlantic 
Coast Line. Distant 110 M. from Hamlet, where junction 
is made with the Seaboard Air Line. St. cars, fare oc, 
from both depots. 

Hotels— The Orton, 109 N. Front St., A. P., $2.50-3.50 per 
day. Colonial Inn, cor. 3rd and Market Sts., A. P., $2-3 
per day; $11-18 wk. Bonitz Hotel, 121 Market St., A. P., 
$1-1.50 per day; $5 wk. 

Restaurants — Del Mbnico, 119 Front St., medium priced. 

Banks — People's Savinj^^s, 115 N. Front St. Murchison 
Natidiial, cor. Front and Chestnut. 

Express Companies — Southern, 109 Chestnut St., P. C. 

Telegraph Companies — Postal Telegraph Co., No. 15 Prin- 
cess St.; o})cn 7-niidni}Tht; Sundays, 9-11 a. m., 7-10 p. m. 
Western Union, 211 N. Front St.; open 7-midnight; Sundays, 
7-1 and 3-11. 

City Livei-y— 108 N. 2nd St. Eates reasonable. 

Railway Ticket Offices — Seaboard, 255 Front St. A. C. L., 
at depot, head of l>ont St. 

Wilmington Opera House — Cor. Princess and 3rd Sts. 
Seats about 1,200. Prices, 25c. -$1. 

Men's Furnishing — W. H. Curran, 117 Front St. 

Department Store — J. H. Rehder & Co., 615 N. 5th St. 

Post Office — Cor. Front and Chestnut Sts. Gen. del. open 
7-7; M. O. Dept. open 8-5; gen. del. and carriers, Sunday, 
9-10. 

Leading Local Industries — Exporting of cotton and truck 
farms. There is a Chaml)er of Commerce. 

The city is a very pretty one and has ample and good 
hotel accommodations, but it is a little off the line of travel. 
There is not much out of the ordinary to see, but the steam 
boat trip down the James Eivcr to the ocean, which takes 
about 5 or 6 hours, is a nice one, there being much of his- 
toric interest along the way. The drive to the Sound, over a 
road as smooth as a billiard table, lined and canopied b.y 
trees, is most delightful. Near the Sound the trees arc 
laden with gray moss, hanging from the branches in great 
clusters. At the cor. of Market and 3rd Sts. is a largo 
two-story residence, opposite the church, the headquarters of 
Comwallis when in Wilmington. A tree, standing on a 
point of the left bank some distance down the river, is 



THE CITY OF CAMDEN. 319 

visible from Market St. dock; it is called tlie **Dram Tree," 
because in slavery days, when the slaves rowed their mas- 
ters up to Wilmington, they were rewarded with a dram 
of liquor at this point. Nigger Head Point, opp. the city, 
derived the name from the fact that in a race war, a negro's 
head was hoisted on a pole here as a warning to other 
offenders. On the ocean shore, 9-10 M. from Wilmington, 
reached by street car, fare 35c. round trip, is a fine bathing 
beach with two hotels, the Seashore Hotel, 460 rooms, 
rates $2.50 per day, $12.50 wk., large frame structure, and 
the Ocean View Hotel, rates $2 per day, $10 wk. Fine surf 
bathing and fishing may be had in the Ocean and Sound. 
Launches, sail and row boats are at hand, the rental being 
quite reasonable. Excellent artesian water is available for 
all needs. Mosquitoes are unknown. The season is June 1st 
to Sept. lst-15th. No shade for about a mile. Atlantic 
View Inn is back on the Sound, 2 M. from the beach. Shade 
is plentiful here. It is a rough old house, but looks quite 
comfortable; rates, A. P., $2 per day, $10 wk., $35 mo.; 
children, 2-10 yrs., and servants, half price. Street car line 
to beach and to the city. 

From Hamlet a branch line also diverges westward (right) 
to Atlanta, Ga. (323 M., p. 95). Continuing along our 
route from Hamlet we pursue a southwesterly course to 
Osborne, just beyond which we enter the State of S. Caro- 
lina, crossing the Great Pedee River at Cheraw (615 M.), 
where a branch of the Atlantic Coast Line connects. From 
here all along to Columbia our train goes almost due S. W., 
connecting with a short branch line to the N. (right) at 
McBee (643 M.), crossing the Lynch Creek near Newman 
and a branch of the Southern Ry. at Camden, from whence 
also a branch line extends S. to Sumter. 

*CAMDEN, S. C. (667 M.) Population about 6,000. 

On the main line of the Atlantic, Seaboard and branch 
lines of the Southern Ry. and Atlantic Coast Line. Rich- 
mond, 326 M.; Columbia, S. C, 33 M.; Savannah, 175 M. 

Depots— Seaboard, 1 M. from town. A. C. L. and South- 
ern i/o M. from town. Hacks meet trains. No street cars. 
No street numbers. 

Hotels— Court Inn, resort hotel, rates about $4 per day up. 
Kirkwood Inn, about $4 per day up. Hobkirk Inn, $3-5 
day up ($3 rooms very small). No weekly rates. These 
hotels are all high-class resort houses. The grounds of the 
Hobkirk are very pretty. Reduced rates for servants. 
There are a number of high-class boarding houses, $10 wk. 



320 NEW YOKK TO TAMPA. 

up. The hotels and boarding houses, in season, are gen- 
erally full to overflowing, so accommodations should be 
arranged for ahead. These hotels are about 1% M. from 
the business section of the city. 

Down-Town Hotels — The Workman House, $2 per day up. 
Camden Hotel, $1 per day. 

Restaurants — No good ones. 

Furnished Eooms — None. 

Bank — Commercial Savings & Trust. 

Theater — Oper?. House, seat, cap., 700; prices, 25c.-$l. 

Railway Express — Southern, P. C. 

Telegraph Offices— Postal, Rutledge St., near Broad St.; 
open, 7-9; Sundays, 9-10 and 7-8, P. C. Western Union, 
Rutledge St. near Broad St.; open, 8-8; Sundays, 9-10 and 
4-6. 

Livery — Garland's stable best; P. C; rates low. 

Railway Ticket Offices — At depots. 

Men's Furnishings — W. H. Zemp. 

Department Store — None. Good general stores. 

Post Office— Open, all depts., 8:30-6. 

Public Library — Cor. DeKalb and Main Sts., up stairs. 
Small charge for books. 

Churches — Methodist, Presbyterian, Baptist, Episcopalian 
and Catholic. 

Secret Societies — !Masonic, K. of P. 

Camden is a beautiful old place with wide streets and 
blocks M: M. square. It contains many old-style southern 
residences and the streets are lined with beautiful shade 
trees. It has the sleepy air of the old southern city and 
is a fine place to go just to rest. It is wholly a winter 
resort, the hotels being closed in summer, and draws its 
patronage almost entirely from the northern people, the 
greater number being New Englanders. The city lies in the 
heart of the great Sand Hill region of South Carolina at 
an altitude of about 180-200 ft. By reason of the extreme 
porous character of the soil it is remarkably dry, fogs and 
heavy dews being rare; and mold is seldom seen. Such is 
the character of the subsoil that driving is good immedi- 
ately after a rain. There are many fine drives and ample 
livery facilities are at hand. The forests of long-leaf pine 
about the city are supposed to add to the healthfulness of 
the region. The effect of the climate on throat and lung 
diseases in their incipient stages is excellent, while catarrh 
and asthma are greatly benefited. Camden is the oldest 
inland town in the State, being settled in 1760 by a colony 
of Quakers from Ireland. It was named in honor of Lord 
Camden. There is some Revolutionary history clustering 



FACTS EEGARDING COLUMBIA. 321 

about the town and near it were fought several skirmishes, 
and the battle of Camden. One engagement took place in 
the vicinity of the present site of the Hobkirk Inn, in 
the grounds of which will be seen two old cannon, supposed 
to have been used in the Revolutionary War. In front of 
the old Presbyterian church, on DeKalb St., will be seen the 
DeKalb monument, in memory of General DeKalb, who fell 
in the battle of Camden, the corner stone of which was 
laid by Lafayette, March 8, 1825. Lafayette walked from 
the gate to the church, along a flower-strewn walk, and spoke 
briefly from the portico. 

Leaving Camden, we cross the Wateree River at Lugoff 
(674 M.) and a branch of the Southern Ry. at Dents, arriv- 
ing at 

COLUMBIA, B. C. (702 M.) Population albout 40,000. 

On the main line of the Seaboard Air Line, Atlantic 
Coast Line, Southern Ry. and Columbia, Newberry & Laurens 
Ry. It has 9 lines of track out of the city. Richmond, 
560 M.; Savannah, 142 M. 

Depots — Trains of all roads, except Seaboard, come in 
at Union Depot on Main St. Seaboard depot on Gervais St. 
Street cars pass both. 

Hotels — Jerome, cor. Lady and Main Sts., A. P., $2.50 
per day up. The Wright, 1444 Main St., A. P., $2.50 per 
day. The Columbia, 1531 Main St., A. P., $2.50-3.50 per 
day. Caldwell, 1552 Main, is cheap house. 

Restaurants — High-class, none. Medium, The Crescent, 
1538 Main St., is best; The Parlor, 1538 Main St. 

Furnisiied Rooms — No signs out. 

Banks — Carolina National, 1417 Main St.; National Loan 
& Exchange Bank, cor. Washington and Main Sts.; Palmetto 
Banking & Trust Co., 1321 Main St.; Bank of Columbia, 1549 
Main St.; State Bank, 1530 Main St. 

Theater — The New Columbia, cor. Main and Gervais Sts. 
Combination house. Seat, cap., 1,550. Prices, 25c.-$1.50. 

Railway Express Company — Southern Exp. Co., 1210 Tay- 
lor St., P. C. 

Telegraph Companies — Western Union, 1429 Main St., 
P. C; open 8 a. m.-l p. m.; Sundays, 8-10:30 a. m. and 
4 p. m.-l a. m. Postal Tel. Co., 1311 Main St.; open 8-11, 
P. C, Messenger service at both telegraph offices. Same 
'phone. 

Livery— Martin's Stables, 1115 Washington St., P. C. 
Rates reasonable. 

Legal Hack Rates — 25c. per person within city limits. 

Railway Ticket Offices — Seaboard Air Line, 1323 Main St., 



322 NEW YOEK TO TAMPA. 

P. C. Southern Ey., 1513 Main St., P. C. Atlantic Coast 
Line, 1549 Main St., P. C. Columbia, Newberry & Laurens, 
P. C. 

Scalpers — None. 

Steam Laundry— Star Laundry, 1801 Taylor St., P. C. 

Men's Furnishings — M. L. Kinard, 1523 Main St. 

Department Store — The Alliance, on Gervais St. 

Trunk Repairs — W. F. Striglitz, 1508 Main St. 

Post Office— Cor. Main and Laurel Sts. Gen. del., 8-6:30; 
M. O. Dept., 8-5; Sundays, gen. del., 4-5 p. m.; carriers, 
8-9 p. m. 

Chamber of Ccmmerce — 3rd floor cor. Main and Gervais. 

Public Library — In City Hall, cor. Main and Gervais. 

Churches, secret societies, clubs, see City Directory, in any 
hotel or drug store. 

Columbia, the capital city of South Carolina, has trebled 
its population in the past few years. It was almost wiped 
off the map during the war, being burned to the ground 
by Sherman's army, but all marks of the desolation of the 
past have been swept away and there is today a thriving 
metropolis of some 40,000 souls. The city is very proud 
of a splendid 12-story ofi&ce building, at the cor. of Main 
and Washington Sts. When any one gives you a direction 
it is ten to one that the ''Sky Scraper" will be the starting 
point. The city has fine wide streets and is laid out in 
regular squares. There is, however, a vexatious lack of 
street signs, and in many instances, house numbers. Co- 
lumbia deserves special investigation by those who are look- 
ing for a chance to invest capital. The field is very prom- 
ising. 

Points of Interest — Taking a *' River" car going toward 
the Capitol on Main St., turning on Gervais St., we see 
(right), at first cor., a two-story yellow bldg., which was 
for years Columbia's leading hotel, built on the site of one 
burnt by Sherman's troops. This bldg. has sheltered many 
distinguished men in the days gone by. A little farther on 
we pass the depot (right) of the Seaboard Air Line, and 
through the ry. yards just beyond we see (right) a long 
red brick bldg. with a sign reading ** State Dispensary." 
It will be remembered that the saloon business of South 
Carolina is under State management and this is the central 
depot from which the branch dispensaries all over the State 
are supplied. By securing a permit at the office adjoining 
the bldg. we may go through it. A certain amount of 
contraband liquor will be seen, the State seizing all goods 
not bearing the State stamp. The system seems to operate 
fairly well and it certainly yields a very large revenue. 



FACTS REGAEDING COLUMBIA. 323 

In the ^'DispensarieSj'* liquor is sold only in the original 
package and it is against the law to break the seal on the 
premises. The goods bottled by the State are all guaranteed 
to be of a certain standard of purity, but goods bottled 
elsewhere are also handled, on which there is no guarantee. 
The profit to the State is over $500,000 per year. The ware- 
house is of great interest, from the fact that it was the 
Coiufederate Mint in war times. It was then a one-story 
bldg., and it was here that all the Confederate money was 
made. 

Just beyond here (1 blk.) we see the immense Columbia 
mills, where ducking, used mostly in the making of govern- 
ment tents, sails, etc., is manufactured. We may not enter 
the mills unless a permit is secured, which is difficult, but the 
water-power plant, in the low bldg. beside the river, may 
be seen. The canal, which furnishes the power, is 3 M. long. 
The river below is the Congaree. The Glass Works are 
worthy of inspection; reached by Fairgrounds or Union 
Station car, fare 5c.; get off at Blossom St. and walk (right) 
down under the ry. bridge (Seaboard Line); 2 blks. be- 
yond the works will be seen (left), beside the ry. tracks. 
From here we may walk out past the Fertilizer Works and 
the Great Cotton MiUs; the latter may be peached by the 
Fair Grounds car from up town, fare 5c. These mills are 
very large, the Olympia, the one with two square towers, 
being the largest under one roof in the world. It is 200x560 
ft., four stories in height, and has 102,000 spindles. Around 
the mills is what is known as the "Mill District," with a 
population of about 12,000. It has a fire department, water 
works, police system, schools, etc.; in fact, all the features 
of a great city. The district also has oil mills, fertilizer 
works and a distillery, it being a distinctly manufacturing 
section. One cannot enter the cotton mills, however, so no 
detailed description is given. 

On the corner of Sumter and Pendleton Sts. will be seen 
the South Carolina College (250 students), quite an old seat 
of learning. (Union Station car, from Main St., fare 5c., 
and walk 2 blks.) The buildings are large and some are 
quite imposing. In the campus is a monument to the Sol- 
diers of the Mexican war. The college has a very fine 
library. On the way out note, opp. the Capitol, Trinity 
Church (cor. Gervais and Sumter Sts.), with a very old 
churchyard in which, under the large oak tree near the 
fence, is the grave of Wade Hampton. The Epworth St. 
car line passes through one of the best residence streets, 
as do the'Blanding St. and Waverly lines. Fare on each, 5c. 
The residence of Wade Hampton, 1816 Senate St., is seen 



324 NEW YOEK TO TAMPA. 

by taking Epworth line car to Barnwell St. and walking 
one blk. right and ^2 blk. left. Cor. Pickens and Plain 
Sts. is the Methodist Female College. Cor. Blanding and 
Pickens Sts. (Blanding St. or Waverly cars, fare 5c.) is the 
Theological Seminary, founded in 1828, opp. which is the 
Presbyterian College for Women, in beautiful grounds 4 
acres in extent. At the end of the Waverly car line is the 
Benedict Institute and Allen University, large seats of 
learning for colored people. Cor. Elmwood Ave. and Bull 
St. are the extensive grounds and buildings of the State 
Hospital for the Insane, founded in 1822. Visitors admitted, 
9-12:30 and 2:30-5, except Sundays. 

The State Penitentiary is best reached by carriage, 
the time to visit it being in the afternoon. It lies 
in the western part of the city. From the sum- 
mit of Arsenal Hill, just to the rear of the post oflfice, a fine 
view, many miles in extent, may be had. The Governor's 
Mansion, on Eichland St., is reached by the cemetery car. 
It stands in very pretty, somewhat extensive grounds. On 
plain St., bet. Sumter and Marion Sts., stands the old Bap- 
tist Church, in which the convention was held, which, in 
1860, drafted the Articles of Secession. Sherman's men 
intended to burn it, but were deceived and burnt the Metho- 
dist church on the corner just back of it instead. 

The point of greatest interest, however, is the **State 
Capital at the head of Main St., facing the business sec- 
tion. At the entrance of the grounds is a white 
marble, granite base Monument to the Confederate 
Dead, surmounted by a life-size figure in marble. To 
the right **is a monument which deserves more than passing 
notice. It is in memory of the men o fthe Palmetto Kegi- 
m.ent who fell in the Mexican War in 1847. It is topped 
by a Palmetto tree made entirely of copper, but so perfect 
in workmanship and coloring that it can hardly be told from 
a genuine tree. To the left is a bronze Statute of Washing- 
ton, by J. M. Gunthermann. The building itself is of cut 
granite, the imposing porticoes and approaches on either 
side as well as the dome being recently added. On the W. 
side are several cannon ball marks, great chunks of broken 
stone, one shattered window ledge and ornaments beneath 
and several star-shaped discolorations, show where cannon 
balls struck the solid granite walls. These shots were fired 
by Sherman's batteries from across the river. Entering 
the building on the main floor (up the steps) note to left of 
the entrance in the rotunda, is a *marble tablet in the wall 
reciting the act adopted in Convention by which the State 
seceded from the Union^ with the signatures of the members 



FACTS EEGAEDING COLUMBIA. 325 

of the Convention. Notice to the left of this, in the corner 
is *a tablet bearing the copper coffin plate found in the 
grave of James Glen, Linlithgow, Scotland, Governor of 
S. Carolina, who died in 1777. On the opp. side of the ro- 
tunda are two tablets, one of which is in memory of Emily 
Geiger's famous ride during the revolutionary period. 

On the third floor is the museum of war relics. In the 
**Sscretary of State's office on the lower floor, are objects 
of intense interest which are freely shown to visitors. There 
are the original treaties with the Indians with the signature 
of the Indian Chiefs and their wives — the wives all signed 
with the mark of the serpent — bearing date of 1675. There 
is a State document bearing the bona fide signature of 
V/ashington, and many other old documents among which 
are some showing that bounties were paid to soldies in the 
Revolutionary War, the payment being negroes. The origi- 
nal document of secession is to be seen and the bust of the 
Governor who called together the Secession Convention. The 
great Mace of State as well as the Sword of State are here. 
Also other objects of great interest, among them the 
State records back to 1672. As before said the city of 
Columbia offers exceptional opportunities for the investment 
of capital, as in fact, does the whole State, and I would 
call attention to the last pages; of this book in which this 
matter is set forth by the State Government fully and fairly. 
Those who are interested in Columbia investment matters 
can get any desired information by addressing the Secretary 
of the Chamber of Commerce. 

From Columbia we cross the Broad river and take a 
course due S. to Savannah, crossing the N. Fork of the 
Edisto river at N. (733 M.). and the S. Fork beyond Hix 
(745 M.), also crossing the Augusta-Charleston line of the 
Southern Ry. and a branch of the Atlantic Coast Line ex- 
tending northward via Sumter and S. E. through Barnwell, 
at Denmark (754 M.) Just beyond Roby our line crosses 
the Big Salkehatchie River and at Fairfax (780 M.) the 
Charleston & Western Carolina Ry. Some distance beyond 
the waters of the Coosawhatchie River is crossed, and be- 
yond Lurand (790 M.) a branch line of the Southern Ry. 
The Savannah river is the next object of interest, which is 
crossed some considerable distance beyond Garnett (840 M.) 
Entering the State of Georgia and continuing southward 
with the Savannah river 5-20 M. to the left, there is nothing 
of particular interest until we reach 



326 NEW YOEK TO TAMPA. 

SAVANNAH, GA. (844 M.) Population about 70,000. 

(See, also, P. 459). 

Savannah, Ga. ( M.). Population about 70,000. On the 
Seaboard Air Line, Atlantic Coast Line, Central of Georgia 
and Southern Eys., and the terminus of two ocean steam- 
ship lines to Boston, New York, Philadelphia and Balti- 
more, also on the Savanna river 18 M. from the ocean. 

Attention is called to the article on Savannat (P. ). 

Hotels— The De Soto, cor. Bull and Liberty Sts. Raio^ 
A. P., $3.50 per day up. (This is a large and very excellent 
hotel; 350 rooms, in the center of city). Pulaski, cor. Bull 
and Bryan Sts., A. P., $2.50-3 per day. The Screven House, 
cor. Bull and Congress Sts., A. P., $2-3 per day. Central, 316 
W. Broad St., $1-1.50 per day. 

Eestaurants— The Hicks, 21 W. Congress St. Best in the 
city. No high class restaurants here. Market, under city 
market, cor. Barnard and Congress Sts. Meals, 25 cts. 

Furnished Rooms — Few signs out. Look in Savannah 
Morning News for list. 

Banks — National Bank of Savannah, 10 E. Bryan St. Mer- 
chants' National, 104 E. St. Julian St., Citizens' of Savan- 
nah, 17 Drayton St. 

Theater — Savannah Theater, 222 Bull St. Seat. Cap., 
1,500. Only one in city. Prices based on play. 

Eailway Express Offices— The Southern Exp. Co., cor. Bull 
and Bryan Sts., P. C. 

Telegraph Companies — Western Union, Nos. 1 and 3, Bull 
St. Open 7 a. m. to 2 a. m. Sundays, 7-11, P. C. Postal 
Tel. & Tel. Co., 101 E. Bay St. Open 7 a. m.-l a. m., Sundays, 
8:30-11, P. C. Messenger service at both offices, P. C. 

Livery — Carson's Stables, cor. Broughton and Abercorn 
Sts. E. C. Gleason 's Stables, 104-8 E. Bryan St., P. C. Eatea 
reasonable. 

Legal Hack Bates — One person anywhere in city limits, 
one continuous ride, 25 cts. To O. S. S. Co., wharves, 50 cts. 

Eailway Ticket Offices— Seaboard Air Line, 7 Bull St., P. 
C. . Atlantic Coast Line, cor. Bull and Liberty Sts., P. C. 
Southern Ry., cor. Bull St. and York Lane, P. C. Central 
of Georgia, cor. Bull St. and Congress Lane, P. C. 

Trunks and Bepairs — I. H. Friedman & Co., cor. Bull and 
York, P. C. 

Steam Laundry— The E. & W. Laundry, 307 Bull St. 

Men's Furnishing Store — Metropolitan Clo. Co., 3 W. 
Broughton St. 

Department Store— Adler 's, 1-7 Broughton St. 

Post Office — Corn. Bull and York Sts. General delivery, 



SAVANNAH AND ITS HISTORY. 327 

open 8-7; Sundays, 10-11. M. O. window, 9-5. Carrier win- 
dow, Sunday, 10-11. 

See City Directory in any hotel or drug store, for a list 
of churches, clubs, etc. 

Commercial Club — Chamber of Commerce, Sec'y, W. J. 
Donlan. 

Leading Local Industries — Cotton compressing and ship- 
ping; sash, blind and door factory; exporting of lumber, 
turpentine, resin, iron and steel, phosphate rock, cotton 
manufactured goods, and a host of other articles. (See 
P. 459). 

Telephone System — Southern, Bell and Georgia. 

Savannah lies on a bluff 40 ft. hight, on the S. side of the 
Savannah river, 18 M. from the ocean. The river is amply 
deep to allow steamers to ply direct from the wharves to 
New York and other ocean ports. There are many miles of 
dockage, the wharves being extensive. The cotton compresses, 
which reduce bales of 500 lbs. to one-quarter their bulk, 
and the docks, when piled with thousands of cotton bales, 
are very interesting. Indian St. car, fare 5 cts. The annual 
shipments of cotton amount to about 1,200,000 bales valued 
at $60,000,000. 

Savannah was founded in 1734 by General Oglethorpe, 
to whom it owes much of its present beauty. The first 
colonists were largely Englishmen of good family who had 
been imprisoned for debt, and they engaged in the produc- 
tion of wine and silk as General Oglethorpe thought the 
silkworm would thrive. Their efforts with silk proved rather 
successful. Tom-0-Chi-Chi, the Chief of the Yamacraw In- 
dians, sold the land desired, and proved a faithful friend to 
the whites. His name has been perpetuated by a monument 
in Wright Sq. 

The city is surpassingly beautiful. Several of the East 
and West Streets are very wide with parks in the center, 
while Bull, Barnard, Montgomery, Abercorn and Habersham 
streets running N. and S. have parks every few blocks, which 
are considerably wider than the streets. Shade trees grow 
in abundance. Hotel accommodations are ample and of the 
best; the De Soto is one of which any city might be proud. 

Broughton and Congress Sts. are the principal retail 
streets of the city. Making a special trip to see them, 
leave the docks, walk up Bay St., the principal wholesale 
thoroughfare, to **Bull St. Turn S. (right) on it soon arriv- 
ing at Johnson Sq., in the center of which is a monument 
to Gen'l Nathaniel Greene of Revolutionary fame, erected 
in 1829. At the farther cor. left (Congress and Bull Sts.), 
is Christ Church the interior of which is fine. In the build- 
ing at the N. E. cor. of Bull and Broughton Sts. the Ordi- 



328 NEW YORK TO TAMPA. 

nance of Secession was passed on Jan. 1st, 1861, temporarily 
severing Georgia from the Union. The next square is 
Wright and handsome Federal bidg (right) which houses the 
postoface and the U. S. Court. To the left of the Square 
the yellow building with columns is the County Court House, 
erected in 1889-91. In the center of the Square is Gordon 
Monument, erected by the Central of Georgia Ry. in mem- 
ory of its first President. By its side is a *rough granite 
boulder with a bronze plate, erected to the memory of the 
aforementioned Tom-0-Chi-Chi, who owned the site of Sa- 
vannah. To the right (west) on State or York St., two short 
blocks, is Telfair PI. At the cor. of State and Barnard Sts. 
is *Telfair Academy (adm. 25c.) which contains an excel- 
lent collection of paintings and other objects of art and 
history. To the left opp. is Trinity Church. Eeturn to Bull 
St., pass southward across Oglethorpe Ave., which is very 
wide and parked in the center, and one block beyond enter- 
ing Chippewa Sq. On the left is Savannah Theater, the old- 
est theater in America, where Joseph Jefferson played in a 
stock company when young. In this square are bust statutes 
of Generals Bartow and McLaws by C. J. Zolney of New 
York. Walk E. (left) on either street from this Square to 
^Colonial Park Cemetery in which are many tombs dating 
back to the eighteenth century. As it is in the center of 
the city it has been opened as a public park and it is a pretty 
place. Turn right on Abercorn St. (beside cemetery), walk 
one block to Liberty St. and the Convent of St. Vincent de 
Paul also *the Catholic Cathedral. Eeturn to Bull St. on 
Liberty St., which is very wide and prettily parked through 
the center, at the cor. of Liberty and Bull Sts. is the mag- 
nificent De Soto Hotel. Turn left on Bull St. and continue 
one block to Madison Sq., v/hich has a monument erected to 
*Sergeant Jasper of Revolutionary fame. A bronze tablet 
records his deeds. The figure is in bronze by Alex. Doyle 
of N. Y. The yellow bldg. (right) with upper bow windows 
and high iron fence inclosure is the one used by Gen'l 
Sherman as his headquarters while in Savannah, which wag 
the eastern terminus of his famous ''March to the Sea." 
Beyond, enter Monterey Sq., which has a handsome stone 
monument to Count Pulaski. The Count was one of the 
foreign noblemen who cast lot with the Colonists during tho 
Revolution. He fell in the siege of Savannah in 1779. A 
short distance beyond enter charming Forsyth Park where, 
grouped about a central fountain are magnoUas, palmctfcoH 
and much semi-tropical vegetation. At the farther end of 
Forsyth Park is the parade ground with a monument to the 
Confederate Dead in the center. This trip from the docks 
to the parade ground is not more than 2 M. in length and 



SAVANNAH AND ITS HISTOEY. 329 

shows the best of the downtown sights. The *Hennitage is 
a fine example of one of the old **befo' de w^ah'^ plantations, 
from the fact that many of the old slave huts are standing 
and there are ruins of many others. The *drive out is 
beautiful. There are no finer roads anywhere than the 
shell roads about Savannah. For driving and automobiling 
they are unsurpassed, and Savannan has hundreds of 
machines of all kinds. Leave the city on the Bay City 
Ed., an extension of W. Bay St., by the smooth, level high- 
way between truck farms with many manufacturing plants 
along the river, one-half M. to the right. To the left one and 
one-half M. from city the two-story brick house marks 
Jasper Springs, the scene of the daring rescue of Ameri- 
can prisoners by Sergeant Jasper and a companion from 
a considerable body of British (reached by West End line 
of St. Ry., fare 5c.) Just beyond here (% M.) turn right on 
road lined on each side by a row of trees leading up to 
the Hermitage (I/2 M.) Approaching the Hermitage note 
(left) the ruins of a row of small brick slave houses yet 
standing beside the road. They are one-story, with fireplace 
chimney at one end and are little more than huts. Facing 
the end of the road is the old Mansion house, now rapidly 
decaying, though apparently intact. Back of it is the 
river and in front is a splendid avenue of live oak trees 
of great size, fantastically draped in gray moss which hangs 
down in great ''strings" and bunches, producing an inde- 
scribable scene. One can here reconstruct past scenes and 
fancy pickaninnies playing in the open space and the crowds 
of negroes singing in the moonlight shadows of the trees. 
It is vastly interesting and a visit will not be regretted. 
It can be reached by the W. end line and a walk of about 
half a mile. Return to the main road, continue along the 
beautiful way as far as desired, but, returning to the city, 
take the right hand road at the fork, passing (right) Lincoln 
Park (a resort for colored people), just back of it is old 
Tenbroeck Race Track, now abandoned. Entering the city 
past the Central of Georgia yards farther on is its depot 
with St. Patrick's Church opposite. **Bonaventure Ceme- 
tery: This beautiful place is reached either by the Thunder- 
bolt car (fare 10c) or by carriage, passing en route the 
links of the Savannah Golf Club. 

(See Thunderbolt Shell Drive). As a burial place it has 
little interest, but it is a lovely place and appeals strongly 
to the artist and lovers of nature. Its avenues are arched 
by great live oaks a hundred years old, from every branch 
of which hang ropes of gray moss. Here Commodore Tatt- 
nall, author of the expression, "Blood is thicker than 
water," is buried. 



330 NEW YORK TO TAMPA. 

Thunderbolt (4-5 M.) is reached by street car (fare 10c), 

or by carriage. Taking a carriage (though the points of in- 
terest on the way are all passed by the car line), pass out 
Thunderbolt road by the Coliseum (right) where the bicycle 
races are held; V2 M. farther on arc the Golf Links. The 
shell road, winding in and out among the trees, is smooth 
as a billiard table, and the drive is delightful. At the first 
fork of the road take the right hand one and at the next 
forks the left. The right hand road here leads to Isle of 
Hope (also reached by Thunderbolt car) which is a resort 
very similar to Thunderbolt. On the way the en- 
^ trance to Bonaventure Cemetery (left) is passed, which one 
* may enter if not already visited. Follow the road to the 
grounds (left— private) of the Savannah Yacht Club, soon 
after entering Thunderbolt. This place is famed for its 
**dinners of oyster and fish which are brought fresh from 
their domain and prepared for the table as desired. There 
is a pretty Casino at the farther end of the place where 
meals and liquid refreshments are served. In summer there 
is a vaudeville theater here as well as amusements of 
various kinds. The fishing is very fine, naptha boats being 
available. Thunderbolt has been visited by some of the 
most prominent men in the country. 

Returning, turn left at first road near Yacht Club and 
(1 blk.) right into Dale Ave., another charming drive pass- 
ing (right) Stiles park, a resort for colored people, and, 
further on (left) the State Fair Grounds in which is a very 
fine race track. Farther on, entering the city, on the left 
are two two-story frame buildings side by side, which were 
used by the Government as hospitals during the Spanish 
War. There are many points which may be visited from 
here at most of which fishing is fine. Among these might be 
mentioned Thunderbolt, 4-5 miles; Isle of Hope, 6 miles; 
Montgomery, 8-9 miles; White Bluff, 11 miles. 

From these points various fishing grounds are reached. 

Tybee island, 18 miles from city, reached in 45 minutes 
by Central of Ga. Ry; round trip, 40c. 

Fort Screven, at the northern end of the island, is an 
U. S. military post, with heavy coast defense guns, etc. 

Tybee is quite a popular seaside resort and has good 
surf bathing. Tybee hotel fronts the beach 100-150 ft. from 
the water. Rates, $2.50 up day; special by week. The beach 
is good and safe for children. Tybee has some points of 
historic interest: Martcllo Tower, at the N. end of the 
beach, was erected about 1812 and used for defense purposes 
in those days. Near it is the Tybee lighthouse which visi- 
tors may inspect in the day time. The ocean view from the 
summit is very fine. The stone wall across the river marks 



SAVANNAH AND ITS HISTOEY. 331 

"Bloody Point," the lower end of Daufuslde Island, where 
in olden days was a massacre of Indians. From this point 
the Federals embarked when Gen^l Gilmore moved his bat- 
teries by night to Tybee, and planted them within range of 
Ft. Pulaski, then Savannah's chief defense from attack by 
sea. In the bombardment which followed the fort was 
battered down and evacuated by the Confederates. Bullets 
and fragments of shells are still found west of Tybee, espe- 
cially near the Lazaretto Creek railway bridge. 

In Savannah Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin, crude 
at first, but teeming with rich possibilities. The first ship- 
ment of cotton was made in 1764, when eight bags were con- 
signed to Liverpool. The first steam vessel crossed the 
Atlantic from Savannah's wharves to Liverpool in 1819. 

The well-known John Wesley preached in Savannah for 
several years, and it is claimed the first Sunday School waa 
established there. 

Altogether Savannah will afford much entertainment to 
those who enter its gates. 

Leaving Savannah the Atlantic Coast train runs S .W., 
crossing the Ogeeehee Eiver and just beyond, entering Bur- 
roughs (856 M.). The scars frequently seen on the pine trees 
en route are marks of the turpentine workers who op- 
erate extensively in the Southern pine woods, A gash is cut 
in the tree, forming a sort of wooden pocket about 1 ft. from 
the ground; then at intervals a chip is cut some % in. deep by 
y2 in. thick. This process is continued until the tree ceases 
to give remunerative returns. The period sometimes ex- 
tends over fully three years. It takes many thousands of 
trees to furnish sufiicient material to operate a paying plant. 
But given a sufficient quantity of good timber, the turpentine 
business is one of the best paying in the South and many 
fortunes have been made therefrom. At Darien Junction 
(887 M.) we cross a short line extending to Darien on the 
S. E. The waters of the Altamaha Eiver are spanned at 
Cox (897 M.). At Everett (904 M.), the Macon-Brunswick 
line of the Southern Ey. is crossed. Passing Thalman Jet. 
(911 M.) the Columbus-Brunswick branch of the Atlantic 
Coast Line is crossed at Bladen (915 M.)- Going southward, 
spanning the Satilla Eiver at Woodbine (933 M.) beyond 
Kingsland (946 M.) the state of Florida is entered. 

At Yulee (959 M.) a branch of the Seaboard Air Line ex- 
tends to Bernandina on the coast. Thence little of interest 
arises until the train enters 

JACKSONVILLE, FLA. (983 M.) Population, about 45,000. 
Seaboard Air Line, Fla. East Coast Line, Ga., Ala. & 



332 NEW YORK TO TAMPA. 

Southern Atlantic, Atlantic Coast Line Rys, and Clyde line 
of Ocean steamers for all northern ports. 

All trains enter the Union Depot on W. Bay St. Business 
section lies up Bay St. ^2 M. to right as you come out of 
depot. Street cars to hotels, fare 5c. No extra charge for 
ordinary hand baggage. 

Hotels — The Windsor, Hogan St., bet. Monroe and Duval. 
Large brick structure fronting on a very pretty city park, 
A. P., $3 up. Generally full in season. Securing of ac- 
commodations very uncertain. The Aragon, Nos. 5-19 E. 
Forsyth, large frame hotel, A. P., $2.50-5. The Duval, cor. 
Forsyth and Hogan Sts., A. P., $2.50 up. The Windle, Nos. 
15-19 E. Forsyth St., A. P., $2-3; E. P., 75e-1.50. Hotel Vic- 
toria, 208 Main St., A. P., $2 up; E. P., 75c up. St. George 
Hotel, cor. Forsyth and Julia Sts, A. P., $1.50; E. P., 50-75c. 
St. Charles Hotel, 938 W. Bav St. (nr. Union Depot), A. P., 
$1.50-2. Alexandria Hotel, 818 W. Bay (nr. Union Depot), 
A. P., $2; E. P., $1. Prospect House, 521 Bay St., E. P., 
50e-$l day; wk., $5-7. 

Restaurants — Fried 's Cafe, No. 11, Hogan and Wolfe's 
Cafe, cor. Bay and Bridge, are the two best. Gilbreath's, 
223 Bay St., is medium-priced, and Vienna Cafe, 123 Main 
St., cheap. 

Furnished Rooms — 130 Forsyth St., No. 14 E. Adams, Nos. 
318 and 310 Newman St., Belmont Hotel, 317 W. Bay St., 
etc. Signs are out in many places but they are scattered. 

Banks — Atlantic National, cor. Bay and Main Sts.; Nat. 
Bank of Jacksonville, cor. Forsyth and Laura Sts.; Fla. Bank 

6 Trust Co., cor. Forsyth and Laura Sts.; Commercial Bank, 
cor. Bay and Hogan Sts. 

Theater— Duval Opera House, Main St. Seats about 1,200. 
Prices according to attraction. 

Ry. Express— Southern Exp. Co., 126 Bay St., P. C. 

Telegraph Offices— Western Union, 100 Bay St., P. C. 
Open all the time. Postal Tel. Co., 50 Main St., P. C. Open 

7 till midnight; Sundays same. Messenger service at both 
telegraph offices. 

Ijvery— Melson 's Stables, 322 W. Forsyth St., P. C. Rates 
reasonable. 

Legal Hack Rates — Each person within city limits, less 
than 2 M., 25c. Child under 5, no charge; 5-12, half rates. 
Transferring trunk or other package, 2 M. or less, 25c. Sec. 
614-615 City Code. 

Ry. Ticket Offices — Seaboard Air Line, 200 W. Bay St., 
P. C; Florida East Coast Line, 226 Bay St., P. C; Southern 
Ry., 106 Bay St., P. C; Atlantic Coast Line, 138 W. Bay St., 
P. C; Central of Georgia, 224 W. Bay St., P. C; Ga., So. 
& Fla., 201 W. Bay St., P. C; Louisville & Nashville, 206 



A FEW FACTS ABOUT JACKSONVILLE. 333 

W. Bay St., F. C; Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis, 212 
W. Bay St., P. C; Clyde Line (steamship), 204 W. Bay, P. 
C; Mallory Line (steamship), 214 W. Bay, P. C; Merchants' 
& Miners' (steamship), 208 W. Bay, P. C. 

Scalpers* Offices — Irwin's, 124 Bay St. 

Trunks and Eepairs — Fla. Trunk Mfg. Co., 329 W. Bay 
St., P. C. 

Steam Laundry — The Eico Laundry, 32 W. Forsyth, P. G. 

Men's Furnishings— Standard Clo. Co., No. 19 W. Bay St. 

Largest Department Store — Kohn, Furchgott & Co., cor. 
Bay and Hogan Sts. 

Postoifice — Cor. Forsyth and Hogan Sts.; gen. del,, open 
8-8; Sundays, 11-12; M. O. Dept., 8:30 to 8 (after 5 at stamp 
window); carriers, Sunday, 10:45-12:30. 

See City Direct-ory for full list of churches, clubs, secret 
societies, etc., any hotel or drug store. 

Leading Local Industries — Large wholesale grocery dis- 
tributing point; Consolidated Naval Stores Co. (very large.) 
Many very large saw-mills and lumber-working concerns, 
large shipping and exporting point. 

Jacksonville lies on the bank of the St. Johns river 22 
miles from its mouth on land sloping gently upward, the 
highest point being 32 feet above the river, the general 
average being about 15 ft. The river up to this point is 
navigable for Ocean steamers and the government is now 
about to deepen the waterway to the Ocean, making it 24 ft. 
The main business streets are Bay and Forsyth, running 
parallel with the river, and Main running at right angles. 
Bay St. bends considerably, but altogether the city is laid 
out very regularly. It was first settled by Lewis Z. Hogans 
in 1816, the location being called Wacca Pilatka by the 
Indians, meaning * ' Cows crossing over. ' ' Its early British 
name was Cow Ford. Being laid out as a town three years 
after the territory has been ceded to the U. S., it was named 
Jacksonville, after Gen'l Andrew Jackson, the first terri- 
torial governor. On May 3rd, 1901, the city was well nigh 
wiped off the map by a fire which laid in ruins every build- 
ing within an area of 146 blocks. All public records, both 
city and county, were destroyed. From the ruins, in three 
short years, has been built a city that Florida may well be 
proud of — a city of beautiful business houses and homes. No 
other city of equal size in the country that can boast of so 
many really beautiful business blocks — not large, but beau- 
tiful small ones. The hotel accommodations are extensive, 
but the leading houses are frequently crowded in season, so 
if you wish to stay at one of the leading hotels it will be 
well to engage rooms ahead. It has many smaller, unpre- 
tentious houses which furnish good facilities, so entertain- 



334 NEW YOEK TO TAMPA. 

ment of some sort is available. Jacksnoville has not much 
to show in points of interest, but for fine drives, pretty parka 

etc., it is very much in evidence. 

*A short walk through the business secion of the city 
is of interest and will not consume more than 1-2 hours at 
most. Starting at cor. Forsyth and Hogan Sts. the Govern- 
ment building (Postoffice, etz.), is seen. This is a mag- 
nificent three-story building covering half a block. It is 
built of cut Georgia marble, the old part of which was 
constructed in about 1895, at a cost of $250,000, while the 
addition is just being completed, cost, $250,000. Passing E. 
on Forsyth at the next cor. (Forsyth and Laura Sts.), (left) 
is the cutstone building of the National Bank of Jackson- 
ville, opp. which is the beautiful white marble building of 
the Mercantile Exchange Bank, cost, $50,000. On farther 
(1 blk.) we turn N. (left) on Main St. (7 blks), (left) to the 
Victoria hotel on Adams St., opp. which is the Board of 
Trade building of cut stone, cost, $55,000. Turning E. 
(right) on Adams St., at the cor., next blk. (Ocean and Ad- 
ams Sts.), is the two-story yellow brick City Hall, opp. 
w^hich (left) is the Fire Dept. headquarters. Pass on one 
block note (cor., left), to the new Public Library of cut 
stone, just erected at a cost of $50,000. Turn N. (left) 
on Ocean St., where, adjoining the rear of the Library 
building, is the First Presbyterian church, a stone structure. 
Nice residences are here and (down the street 1 blk. left) 
is Massey Business College building. Turn E. (right) on 
Monroe St. to (1 blk.) Newman St. and N. (left) to (8 blks.) 
Duval St., on the cor. is the McTyerie Memorial M. E. (S.) 
church (1890) in Moorish style. It has very nice stained 
glass windows, but the interior otherwise is very plain. Oak- 
land street car reaches this point. Turn E. (right) on Duval 
St. and at the head of Market St., is St. John's (Episcopal) 
church (not yet completed). Turn S. (right) down Market 
St., on the left is a q[ueer frame house with stone columns. 
In the next block (Monroe and Adams Sts.) is the yellow 
brick County Court House, opp. it (right) is the I. O. O. F. 
building and adjoining is the armory of the State National 
Guards, with a quaint tower. Pass on to the car tracks on 
Bay St., in front of one of the lumber docks where, doubtless, 
sailing vessels can be seen loading. Turn W. (right) on 
Bay St., pass down through the retail section of the city, 
side excursions may be made to the docks (1 blk.) by any 
of the side streets. The stores are fine and many of them 
are worth examination, notably the department store of 
('Ohen Bros, (right) and the jewelry store of Greenleaf & 
Oosby (right). At Hogan St., turn N. (right) past the 
starting point to the Windsor Hotel, and into the beautiful 



THROUGH FLORIDA. 335 

Heining park around which are grouped several fine church 
bldgs. On Church and Ashland Sts. just above (N. of the 
park), are many beautiful residences. 

The *Ostrich Farm is reached by Fairfield car, fare 5c, or 
by drive on the shell road, distance 1 M. Adm., 25c. It is 
worth visiting and has about 140 birds of all ages from 
2-3 mos. up. There is also a Zoo of considerable propor- 
tions. The birds and animals look clean and well cared for. 
A pair of adult Ostriches are worth about $2,000 in this 
country, the duty being $500 apiece. They attain their full 
growth and become adults at (male) 4 years of age, (female) 
3 years. They are fed on corn, alfalfa, wheat, oats, chop, 
bran, etc. There are some superb plumes for sale at the 
farm at prices that are very reasonable. Shells of ostrich 
eggs may also be purchased. 

*Itiverside — Reached by Riverside car, fare, 5c. This 
section lies over the viaduct. Eiverside Ave. is worth a 
visit. It is lined with great trees and beautiful residences. 
Eiverside park is also beautiful. The Main street car line 
runs out for a long distance bet. two *rows of Palmetto 
trees and stops at the *City Water Works which is beside 
the tracks in which is a flowing artesian well in a charming 
park. It is an altogether delightful place and the car ride 
should be made. **The shell road, or ''ten-mile drive," 
is a delightful auto or carriage ride, out Main St., turning 
right on Woodlawn Ave. past the Woodlawn and Evergreen 
Cemeteries (reached by Main St. car, fare 5c), and right 
into Talleyrand Ave., at Phoenix park (also reached by 
Main St.. car, fare 5c), after which the river is followed 
back to the city, passing the Ostrich farm. The road is 
smooth and in most places bordered (sometimes arched) 
with trees, and it winds in and out in graceful curves, ad- 
ding greatly to the charm. It is an ideal auto drive. 

The Ship Yards of the Merrill-Stevens Engineering Co., 
are reached by the Bay St. car, fare 5c. They are extensive 
and interesting. The ships are lifted out of the water by 
apparatus designed for that purpose. Visitors are at lib- 
erty to inspect the yards. The Women's Club building is 
on Duval St, near Main St. 

A short visit, at least, in Jacksonville, is advisable. 

The change from the N. to the S. is severe, hence by 
making the visit when entering Florida one become some- 
what climatized before penetrating further into the new 
climate. 

The Beaches— On the Florida East Coast Line, 14-16 M. dis- 
tant, are San Pablo and Atlantic Beaches, the latter 
lying a short distance N of Pablo. The beaches are very 
fine and there are ample hotel accommodations, rates, $2 day 



336 NEW YORK TO TAMPA. 

and up. At Atlantic Beach the Continental Hotel, a large 
resort house, furnishes excellent entertainment at $3 up, 
A. P., and there are other cheaper houses and cottages 
where very reasonable board may be had. At Pablo Beach 
the Ocean View hotel and some smaller houses and cottages, 
furnish entertainment reasonable or expensive as desired. 

Mayport, some 2-3 miles N. of Atlantic Beach, is quite a 
resort for fishermen. It has some small hotels, and very 
fine fishing. This is where the government is putting in 
jetties. At both Atlantic and Pablo the beaches are sloping, 
sand-packed and very fine. 

Leaving Jacksonville the Seaboard runs westward through 
pine forests to Baldwin (1,002 M.), where the Tallahassee 
branch (E. 15, P. 380) diverges to the right. Here it curves 
to the S. At Starke (1,027 M.) a branch line diverges to 
the W. (right) and at Hampton (1,034 M.) the main line of 
the Georgia Southern & Florida is crossed. At Waldo 
(1,039 M.) a branch of the Seaboard diverges to the right 
via Gainesville to Cedar Key on the West Coast. 

Gainesville (14 M.) Population, 5,000. Brown House, 
$2 up; Magnolia Hotel, $1.50; telegraph, telephone, good 
library and all conveniences. Gainesville is an excellent 
hunting and fishing point. One or two miles away is a largo 
lake. It lies in the center of a prosperous small fruit and 
farming secion. 

Cedar Key (71 M.), population, 1,500; Palmetto House, 
E. P.; Schlemmer House, $2. Telephone, telegraph, and all 
conveniences. This is a great oystering point and one of 
the best places in Florida for fishing and duck and goose 
hunting in season. The Key lies about 1 M. out from 
shore, the railway extending to it. 

At Hawthorne (1,054 M.) a branch of the Atlantic Line 
is crossed, extending from Palatka on the E. via Gainesville 
to Live Oak (P. 381) on the N. W. Between Hawthorne 
and Citra lies a section dotted with large lakes. Lochloosa 
Lake is to the right at Lochloosa Station (1,060 M.), and 
at Island Grove (1,004 M.) a w^ide arm of Lake Mcintosh 
is sj)anned. From Citra (1,066 M.) a branch line of the 
Atlantic Coast Line extends W. (right) to Oaklawn. Loch- 
loosa, Island Grove, and Citra, population of the latter 300, 
Mansion House, A. P., $2.50-3, are excellent centers for 
hunting and fishing, particularly tiie last two. Continuing 
southward through pine forests one of the most unique points 
of the trip is seen at 



SILVEE SPEINGS. 337 



SILVER SPRINGS, FLA. (1,083 M.) Population 300. 

In purchasing a ticket take care to get stop-over privileges 
for Silver Springs Junction. Silver Springs is a short dis- 
tance off the main line. One train a day goes through the 
Springs. 

**Silver Springs (1,083 M.) is 100 M. S. from Jacksonville 
on the main line at the head of the Ocklawaha river trip (P. 
352). It has a comfortable hotel^ the Brown House (A. P., 
$2; $8 wk. The fare is country style, plenty to eat and an 
occasional wild turkey to add variety. There is long dis- 
tance telephone connection but no stores or anything but 
the hotel. The Springs, which are 1-8 M. long and 50 to 100 ft. 
broad, are 200 ft. from the hotel, and are one of the won- 
ders of the country. Nothing like them exists elsewhere. 
The waters are very clear and every little detail can be seen 
35 ft. below the surface, for it offers no more resistance to 
vision than the air on a clear day. In it may be seen 
all the colors of the rainbow, green and blue predominating, 
and such colors. There is some element in the water which 
stains metal or other substance thrown into the springs and 
lends the luster and sheen of a pearl. In fact it often seems 
that below is a magnificent pearl, though no real pearl ever 
exhibited such magnificent blending of colors. Various sized 
fish may be seen at any time far beneath and in many places 
a lovely vegetable growth. Scattered about are deep places 
where many springs boil up, belching fine particles of peri- 
winkle shells which, however, do not in the least ''rile" the 
water but settle back and simply disappear. Mr. Brown 
has a boat with plate glass bottom, and by taking it the 
wonders of the springs are best seen, for the gasoline launch 
disturbs the surface so much that the effect is ruined. The 
sight through the bottom of this boat is like a kaleidoscopic 
view of fairyland or an elaborate stage setting in 
a moonlight scene with many shiftings thereof. Words 
cannot flatter the beauties of the springs. Travelers 
to Tampa, via the Seaboard Air Line, should see 
them. A *launch trip may be made to Conner's Orange 
Grove on the Ocklawaha River, 14 M., cost, $5. Boat will 
carry 10 persons. There is good shooting (small game and 
wild turkeys) here, and fine fishing as the inlet all the 
way to the river (9 M.) is as clear as a spring, and the fish 
are in plain view as they nibble at the hook. There are 
many alligators in summer, but they are not much seen 
in winter. Hackmen may try to extort $1-2 for the 
trip to Ocala where connections are made to Silver Springs, 
but it is wise to investigate, for usually one may go on the 



338 NEW YOEK TO TAMPA. 

Seaboard Air Line train, fare 15-20c. The Springs may be 
reached from Ocala (6 M.) either by the Seaboard Ry. or by 
carriage. 

Ocala (1,089 M.) is an important inland commercial center 
and a town of considerable wealth. Population, 5,000. Ho- 
tels — Ocala, E. P., 75c-$1.50; Cafe in connection. Montezu- 
ma, A. P., $2, special by wk. Restaurants — Ocala Cafe. 
Central National Bank, Monroe-Chalmers Bank and Com- 
mercial Bank, Opera House, Public Square, prices according 
to attraction. Southern Express Co., Western Union Tele- 
graph, cor. Broadway and Main Sts., open 7-8, Sundays 8-10 
and 4-6. Messenger service, P. C. Martin's Livery, rates 
reasonable. Ocala Steam Laundry, P. C. Men's Furnish- 
ings, Snyder's. Department Store, H. B. Masters & Co. Pub- 
lic Library, Merchants' block. Leading local industries, 
turpentine stills, phosphate mining, saw-mills, cold storage 
plants, ice factories (ship much ice), cotton gins, lime kilns, 
foundry and machine shops. Surrounded by fine farming 
country, principal crops, long cotton, oats, corn, velvet beans, 
peas and fine stock. Central point for Eustis and Mcintosh 
lake country. There is not much in Ocala to interest one 
if not a fisherman or a hunter. The fishing is on Ocklawaha 
River (7-15 M.) or on Crystal River, Crystal River or Homo- 
sassa Stations of the Atlantic Coast Line Ry., both of which 
have hotel accommodations. Ocala has an excellent 9-hole 
Golf Link. From Ocala to Wildwood the Seaboard Line 
traverses a great truck region, watermelons and cantaloupes 
growing largely. Belleview (996 M.) en route, is settled 
mostly by northern people, and Dallas (1,006 M.), has a large 
saw-mill out 2 M., and Suramerfield (999 M.) has many truck 
farms. 

WILDWOOD, FLA. (1,011 M.) Population, smaU. 

Hotel — The Colonnades, A. P., $2; special by wk. or month. 

Wildwood is a small hamlet on the Seaboard mainline and 
the terminus of the Florida Heights branch line. The Colon- 
nades Hotel offers very good board at a moderate price. It 
has the Southern Express, Western Union Telegraph, Livery, 
with reasonable rates, and very good general stores. The vil- 
lage has nothing to interest and is rather rough looking. 
Very good quail and partridge and some deer are found in 
the surrounding country, 5-7 M. away. Small lakes are 
scattered around, offering more or less good fishing, and 
on the shores of Withlacoochee River, 7 M. out (P. 340), are 
most excellent fisliing and hunting. Wildwood has one place 
well worth viewing, namely. Monarch Orange Grove, about 
1^-2 M. from town. It is surrounded by a regular jungle, 



WILDWOOD-ORLANDO. 339 

many forest trees grow right in the grove and were left as 
a protection against frost. This orchard, about the iniddle 
of November, is a goodly sight. It has 45,000 trees, covers 
about 850 acres, and is then loaded with ripe fruit, the yellow 
oranges and grape fruit contrasting beautifully with the 
dark green foliage. The grove has some giant oak trees, 
one of which is noteworthy. For those who want a quiet 
place with moderate charges, fair hunting and fishing. Wild- 
wood is well adapted. At Wildwood a branch lino to the 
Florida Heights country leaves the main line. 

WILDWOOD-ORLANDO LINE. 

The first place of note on the Wildwood branch line is 
Tavares (22 M.), which shows the effects of a **boom" 
indulged in years ago by a large brick opera house just 
back of the Seaboard depot that was never opened, and 
there are not enough people within 15 M. to fill its spacious 
auditorium. Tavares is of no importance except that one 
may there take a branch of the Atlantic Coast Line and 
reach Eustis, 3 M. to the N., on the shore of Lake Eustis, 
which connects with Lakes Harris and Dora, and a chain of 
smaller ones. One may go by boat many miles and 
hunting in the duck season is very fine. Good fishing is had, 
too. At Eustis is the St. George Hotel, but it cannot be 
recommended. A new inn has been built in the center 
of an orange grove which promises very good entertainment. 
It opened in January, 1905. From Tavares the Tavares, 
Apopka & Gulf Ey. exten'ds S., connecting with the A. C. L. 
Ey. at Clermont, Killarney and Oakland. This road skirts 
Lake Apopka, a large sheet of water 8-10 M. in diameter. 
The A. C. L. from Tavares skirts Lake Eustis to Ft. Mason, 
where it turns W., then S. W., passing near Lake Griffin 
and joining the Seaboard at Leesburg. From Tavares the 
Seaboard extends S. E. through a pine timbered country to 
Zellwood (33 M.), where Mr. Laughlin, a Pittsburg iron man- 
ufacturer, has a very fine winter home. It is, hoverer, not 
visible from the train. Good fishing and hunting are here 
and accommodations can be had at the boarding-house. Apop- 
ka (41 M.) is a nice, quiet place for hunting and fishing, the 
place being near the N. E. shore of Lake Apopka (1-2 M.). 
The hotel rates are $2 day, special by wk. Eldridge Livery, 
rates reasonable. Some Woodworking plants are here, one of 
which is a veneer establishment. Little of interest appears 
until the Florida Height country is reached. The country 
known as Florida Heights surrounds Orlando (P. 353). Winter 
Pr.rk (P. 353) and Maitland (P. 353), consisting of rolling 
pine-clad land on the crest of the divide or watershed 



340 NEW YOEK TO TAMPA. 

of Florida. The section comprises about 200 sq. miles and 
is dotted with many clear lakes. Orlando is the metropolis 
of the section. 

From Orlando the branch extends N. E. to Lake Charm, 
70 M., which has excellent fishing, hotel accommodations 
are at Oviedo, 1 M. away. Lake Charm is small, but Lake 
Jessup, 1-2 M. to the N., is 6-7 M. long by 1-2 M. wide. 

Eeturning to the main line at Wildwood the line carries 
us S. to Coleman, which has large cyross shingle mills and 
a 500-acre truck farm. Panasoffkee (1,020 M.), lies at the S. 
end of Lake Panasoffkee (1x6 M.) on the N. side of which 
grows very fine cypress timber. This lake has an outlet on 
the W. side 5 M. in length, emptying into Withlacoochee 
River which is navigable to the Gulf flOO M.). Along this 
outlet and the river is some of the best agricultural land 
in the State. All kinds of game and fish arc plentiful. Up its 
course some 20 to 25 M. N. W. of Dunnellon, is 
the Gulf Hammock country (headquarters for several hunt- 
ing clubs), which is densely timbered and full of game, 
such as deer, a few bears, wild turkeys, etc. Conveyances 
are obtainable at Dunnellon from whence the A. C. L. 
Ey. branches to Ocala. From Panasoffkee the train soon 
enters Sumterville Junction (20V_> M.), from whence a 
branch extends to Sumterville (1,023 M.), a small place of 
little importance. Bushnell (1,026 M.), has very large truck- 
ing farms and saw-mille and is the largest tomato shipping 
point of Florida. The farmers are up-to-date and practice 
irrigation. Land can be had for about $25 an acre. Dade 
City (1,047 M.), is a fine clay farming section, and tobacco, 
vegetables and fruit are extensively raised. At Plant City 
(1,072 M.) junction is made with the Tampa line of the 
Atlantic Coast railway. Strawberry raising is practiced 
extensively, and there is considerable vegetable growing. 
At Turkey Creek (1,077 M.) the Fla. West Shore ling 
branches to the S. W. to Braiclentown, in the Manatee coun- 
try, which is a new section opened up in the past few 
years by the Seaboard Air Line, and promises much as a 
resort and as an agricultural region. 

Braidentown— La Chalet Hotel, A. P., $3; $18-21 a week. 
Leon Hotel, $2; special weekly. Wayman House, $2. Park 
House, $1.50. The Inn, $1. It is reached from the station. 
Manatee (44 M.), and is the principal metropolis of this 
section. It lies on the S. shore of the Manatee Eiver, which 
at this point and for some seven M. above is really an 
arm of the sea, being salt water and quite wide. At a point 
about 7 M. above it narrows down to a small river, and as 
such reaches almost due E. about 18 M., where it divides 
and extends IsT. E. and S. E. some 5 M. to its sources, in 



BRAIDENTOWN SAEASOTA. 341 

small lakes. Along its entire length is excellent fishing, tar- 
pon being found in the wider part. 

Sarasota (55 M.), pop. 300, lies on Sarasota Bay. The 
place is assuming prominence and is destined to play an 
important part in the development of the country. Belt- 
haven Inn, A. P., $2.50. De Soto House, $2 up. Those 
searching for a climate mild and even in winter, and who 
desire at the same time to be by the salt sea without the 
roughness of the open ocean, where there is good fishing 
and hunting, should be satisfied here. The hotels are not 
pretentious but are quite comfortable, and the rates are 
moderate. The greater number of visitors, however, rent 
cottages and set up temporary establishments. There are 
some things of historic interest attaching to Manatee River. 
From Braidentown to its mouth it is lined with cabbage 
palms which lend a tropical aspect to the river. On the 
banks, however, hidden by palms, is a structure of sand 
and palms, erected by the Spaniards in the long ago, so 
long that its date has been lost in the mists of the past. 
General Harney had his headquarters within its wall during 
one of the Seminole wars. The frontiers of Edgemont, 
where the government now keeps 300 soldiers, lies a little 
further out near the lighthouse. A launch conveys one 
from Braidentown to Anna Maria Key, just off the river 
mouth where there is excellent surf bathing. Parties fre- 
quently go out and indulge in the sport. On the banks of 
the Sarasota Bay and the river are Indian Mounds which, 
like Lincoln's rathole, will ''bear investigation." A little 
to the E. of Manatee, at the junction of Braiden Creek and 
Manatee Kiver, is the ruin of ''Manatee Castle," an old 
residence. The history of the place does not appear to be of 
very much interest aside from the fact that it withstood 
two assaults by Indians in 1855-6, and was the home of 
one of the earliest settlers. But the jungle of palms and 
oaks surrounding and below it, on the banks of the river and 
creek, is exceedingly pretty and are a source of pleasure to 
the visitor. The tarpon fishing at Sarasota is better than 
at Braidentown. The country has great possibilities as a 
farm and fruit section. Oranges and citrous fruits of all 
kinds grow well. Vegetables are already shipped in large 
quantities. There is much very fine land in a good loca- 
tion which may be had at low prices, and anyone who 
contemplates locating in Florida will do well to thoroughly 
investigate this country. The water is excellent, and it 
is, perhaps, as healthful as any portion of the State. Full 
and complete information may be had free by writing to 
the General Passenger Agent of the Seaboard Air Line Ey., 
Portsmouth, Va. The literature furnished by this office 



342 NEW; YOEK TO TAMPA. 

is like all railway advertising, couched in very rosy terms. 
Still, in the main, the statements are true, and as a country 
to make a home in the Manatee region offers as good an 
opportunity as any part of Florida. 

iVom Turkey Creek the main line leads eastward to the 
metropolis of the southern W. Coast. 

*TAMPA, FLA. (1,059 M.) Population, 38,000, including all 

Suburbs. 

On main line of the Seaboard Air Line and Atlantic 
Coast Line Rys. and P. & O. Steamship line to Key West 
and Havana, also steamers to Sarasota. 

Hotels — Tampa Bay Hotel, just across the river, Tampa 
Heights car, A. P., $5; special rates by wk, is an immense, 
sumptous hotel accommodating 1,000 guests (P. ). As it 
has recently been sold some changes may be made. De Soto 
Hotel, cor. Marion and Zack Sts., A. P., $2.50-3; special by 
wk. Almeria hotel, cor. Franklin and Washington Sts., A. 
P., $2.50; special by wk. Southern hotel, E. P., $1-1.50. 
Palmetto hotel, cor, Florida Ave. and Polk St., E. P., 50c 
and up. Arno, Comm, 1 house, E. P., $1, cor. Twigg and 
Tampa Sts. (just as good rooms can be had at nearby 
rooming houses for half the price). 

Restaurants — Stacey's Restaurant, cor. Tampa and Zack 
Sts., good, medium place. Southern Cafe (see Southern 
hotel). Tampa Dining room, cor. Madison St. and Fla. Ave. 
(fur. rms. also). People's Restaurant, 916 Franklin St., 
15 and 25c meals. 

Furnished Rooms— 810i^ Franklin St., 9121/2 Franklin St., 
Marshall House, 101% S. Franklin St., near S. A. L. depot, 
Palmetto House, 801 Florida Ave., 105 Zack St., 915 Franklin 
St., 6031/^ Franklin St. and many other signs out. Prices, 
$2.50 wk. up. 

Banks — ^First National, cor. Franklin and Madison Sts. 
American National, cor. Franklin & Zack Sts. Exchange 
National, cor. Franklin and Twigg Sts. Citizens' Bank, 
cor. Franklin and Zack. 

Opera Houses— Tampa Bay Casino, near Tampa Bay Ho- 
tel, prices based on attraction. Spanish Casino (Ybor), 
prices based on attraction. 

Railway Express— Southern Exp. Co., cor Lafayette and 
Tampa St., both P. C. Telegraph Co.'s. Western Union, 316 
Franklin St., open 7-11:30; Sundays, 7-8. Messenger service. 
Both P. C. 

Livery— Hobbs & Cook, cor. Marion and Polk Sts. Both 
P. C. Baggage transfer also; trunks 25c. 

• Railway Ticket Offices— Seaboard Air Line, 310 Franklin 



THE CITY or TAMPA. 343 

St. Both P. C. Atlantic Coast Line, 510 Franklin, both P. 
C. P. & O. Steamship tickets, 510 Franklin St., both P. C. 

Laundry — Tampa Steam Laundry, cor. Tampa and Twigg 
Sts. Both P. C. 

Postoffice — Cor. Florida Ave. and Twigg St. Gen'l del., 
7:30-6; Sundays, 8-9. M. O. Dept., 8-5. Kegistry, 7:30-6. 
Carriers, Sunday, 8-9. 

Board of Trade, Leading Local Industries — Cigar making 
(167,630,000 made in 1903). 

Tampa lies on slightly rolling land on Hillsboro Bay, an 
arm of Tampa Bay at the mouth of Hillsboro Eiver. The main 
business street of the city is Franklin St., which runs parallel 
with the river, or nearly so, in the downtown section. The 
business part is well and substantially built and there are 
some good residence sections, but the great bulk of the resi- 
dence city is made up of rather cheap cottages built on the 
company plan, i. e., whole rows all alike, in which live the 
employes of the numerous great cigar factories. This is 
mainly, however, in the outlying sections. The city is 
composed of three sections known as Ybor, W. Tampa and 
Tampa, Ybor being really one of the wards of the city. 
It has, however, a distinct business section of its own as 
has "W. Tampa. Electric cars connect, fare 5c. There is a 
very good St. Ey. system, but the service is not frequent 
enough. The population is very cosmopolitan, many national- 
ities being represented. There is a large Cuban contingent 
and Tampa says they make a splendid class of workmen. 
The soil on which the city stands is very sandy. There 
is much brick paving and the city has issued $300,000 bonds 
for more. Surrounding the city are many miles of good rock 
road and driving is good. Hyde Park Ave. (Tampa Heights 
car, fare 5c), is one of the best residence streets. The 
show place of the city is the *Tampa Bay hotel and its park, 
reached by crossing the Lafayette St. river bridge. Tampa 
Bay hotel was the pet project of Mr. Plant of the Plant 
Ey. system, and it is said that he expended $3,000,000 on 
it before he died. It certainly is one of the finest hotel prop- 
erties in the country, if not in the world. The furnishings 
alone cost $200,000. The building is of red pressed brick 
4 stories high and is surrounded by a park beautifully laid 
out and filled with tropical vegetation, flowers and 
palms. The *conservatory should be seen. The main parlor 
is a most sumptously fitted room. The hotel has deteriorated 
since Mr. Plant died, and has just been sold for a fraction 
of its cost. What the new owner will do is a matter of 
conjecture. At Ballast Point, Port Tampa city car, is an 
amusement park, with music hall, dancing pavilion, bathing, 
fishing facilities, etc., adm. free. At the foot of Franklia 



844 NEW YOEK TO TAMPA. 

St. the grove of old, moss draped oak trees occupies the 
site of old Ft. Brooke. The frame building (right) was 
the officers' quarters which is all that is left of the fort. 
At the end of the street at Bay Front (fine view of bay) 
just a little to the right the small frame building occupies 
the site of the small fort mounting 15 guns during the Civil 
War. This park of trees was the site of the Indian village 
near which De Narvaez, who led the first expedition which 
landed in 1528. De Soto landed 4 M. to the W. on old 
Tampa bay in 1537. The Government building, cor. Florida 
Ave. and Twigg St., is a magnificent structure of marble, 
brick and stone, being one of the best appointed Govern- 
ment buildings in the country. Its cost was $365,000. The 
cigar manufacturing carried on here is of interest from its 
magnitude, 167,630,000 being made in 1903, which produc- 
tion has been materially increased since. Most of the fac- 
tories, some of which occupy handsome brick buildings, are 
in Ybor (pronounced Ebor) and W. Tampa. Some 5 M. to 
the W. on old Tampa Bay is a very wide (1 M. at low tide) 
flat beach, where one can catch crabs. It is very shallow 
when the tide comes in and it is a splendid place for children 
to play in the sand and water. There is nothing but the 
beach. One part of it is called Frazier's Beach. Tampa is 
very healthful and is much patronized in winter, its ac- 
commodations being good and its climate even and mild. 
Those who wish to spend the winter in the S. where 
conveniences of a city are at hand will find Tampa has 
many superior features. There are several nice drives over 
rock roads, notably out Nebraska Ave. to Sulphur Springs, 
5 M. to the N., down bay front Tampa to Fort Tampa, 9 M. 
Steamers ply from Tampa to St. Petersburg on the opposite 
side of the bay, or one may go to Port Tampa by electric car 
and thence to St. Petersburg bv steamer. 

*St. Petersburg, Fla., population 2,000. Hotel Detroit, A. 
P., $3 up; Paxton, $2.50 up; Huntington House, A. P., $2.50 
up, lies on the W. shore of Tampa Bay, is beautifully situated 
and a most excellent fishing point. It has considerable de- 
served popularity as a winter resort. From here a branch of 
the Atlantic Coast line extends northward, touching a num- 
ber of resorts. Belleair (17 M.) to the N. on this line, Hotel 
Bellevue, A. P., $3.50 up, is a winter resort which over- 
looks Clearwater Bay. There is excellent shooting and 
fishing, a bicycle track, yachting, etc., for amusement. Suth- 
erland (27 M.), San Marino Hotel, A. P., $2-4, is a very 
pleasant resort. Tarpon Springs (32 M.) lies on the Gulf 
Coast near the mouth of Anclote river which at this point 
is really an arm of the sea. One the Anclote, 3 M. to the W., 
is Sponge Harbor, from whence a large quantity of sponges 



FEEDEEICKSBURa AND THE WILDERNESS. 345 

are exported annually. These points may also be reached 
via the Atlantic Coast line from Lacoochee (P. ), or 
via the same line from Sanford (P. 371). 

B. Via Philadelphia, Washington, Richmond, Charleston, 
Savannah and Jacksonville. 

Pennsylvania Ry., Washington Southern Ry. anf[^ Atlantic 
Coast Line. (1,273 M.) Fare, $34.45. Sleeper, $8.50. 

For New York to Washington (See R. 12 A, P. 271). 

Leaving Washington our train crosses the Long Bridge 
over which the northern troops marched into Virginia during 
the Civil War, from whence we have a view of Arlington 
House (right), which was once the residence of George 
Washington Parke Custis, step-grandson of Washington, and 
afterwards the residence of General Robert E. Lee, the 
noted Confederate general-commander, who married Miss 
Custis. Entering Virginia our course lies around the right 
bank of the Potomac to Alexandria (234 M., P. 237) and 
Quantico (261 M.), where we leave the river and skirt 
**The Wilderness," an unattractive and barren region, 
which was the scene of one of the fiercest struggles of the 
Civil War (1863-4). 

FREDERICKSBURG, VA. (282 M.) Population 5,068. 

Hotels — Exchange, Main St., A. P., $2. Dannehl, at depot. 

Restaurants — Glenwood, Main St. 

Furnished Booms — Prices, 25 to 75c per day. 

Banks — National, cor. George and Princess Anne Sts.; 
Conway-Gordon & Garnett Nat., cor. Commerce and Princess 
Anne Sts. 

Theaters — One on Main St., seats 750, prices 25c to $1,50. 

Railway Express Office — Adams, Main St., P. C. 

Telegraph Companies — Western Union, Main St., P. C. 
Postal, Commerce St., P. C. 

Livery— E, K. Wheeler & Henry Deane, C. St. and George 
St.; single rig, first hour, $1; add. hours, 75c; double rig, 
first hour, $1; add. hours, 75c. 

Railway Ticket Offices— R. F. & P. R. R., No. 50 C. St., 
P. C. 

Bill Posters and Distributors — Goldsmith & Kaufman, 
Main St. 

Steam Laundry — Fredericksburg Steam Laundry, Main 

St P C. 

Men's Furnishings — ^B. Goldsmith & Son, Main St. 
Post Office— Main and Hanover Sts.; general delivery and 



346 NEW YORK TO TAMPA. 

stamps open wk. days, 8 a. m. to 6 p. m.; Sundays, 12:30 
to 1:30; M. O. window open 8 a. m. to 6 p. m. 

Churches, clubs, etc., see City Directory. 

Commercial Club — Fredericksburg Business Men's Asso- 
ciation, Sec'y, E. W. Stearns. 

Leading Local Industries — Kenmore Shoo Co., Washington 
Woolen Mills, Hunters' Foundry, silk mills, Landram Wagon 
Works, Virginia Shirt Co., Fredericksburg Milling Co., Mor- 
rison Spoke Works, Virginia Excelsior Mills, Pedea Excel- 
sior Mill. 

Fredericksburg lies on the Rappahannock River, and was 
founded in 1727. It was the scene of a hotly contested bat- 
tle in 1862, the Confederates under General Robert E. Lee 
defeating the Union troops under Burnside. The National 
Cemetery on Marye's Heights contains about 15,000 graves. 
A largo Confederate Cemetery is also located here. Eleven 
M. to the W. is the scene of the battle of Chancellorsville 
(May 2-4, 1863), in which "Stonewall Jackson" was mor- 
tally wounded. The Union troops were repulsed in this bat- 
tle with a loss of about 17,000 men. A little to the S. is 
Spottsylvania Court House, of historic fame, the center of 
some of Grant's operations in 1864. The battles of the 
Wilderness raged about this little town almost continu- 
ously during the month of May, 1864. The losses of the two 
armies exceeded 60,000. George Washington lived near 
Fredericksburg during his childhood, and his mother died 
there in 1789. A monument has been erected to her mem- 
ory. From Fredericksburg a line extends to the W. through 
Orange and Charlottesville. Continuing southward, we ])ass 
Guinea (294 M.), where Stonewall Jackson died. At Doswell 
(319 M.) we cross the Chesapeake & Ohio Ry. Ashland 
(326 M.) is a favorite resort of Richmond people. Near here 
Henry Clay was bom. It is also the seat of Randolph- 
Macon College (126 students). Passing onward, we enter 
Richmond, the capital of Virginia (343 M.) (P. 299). From 
Richmond our line continues due S., crossing the Farmville 
& Powhattan R. R. at Chester (356 M.). The next place 
of note is 

PETERSBURG, VA. (366 M.) Population 21,800. 

Hotels— Chesterfield, E. P., per day, $2-2.50; per wk., 
$10-12. Imperial, A. P., $2-2.50. Shirley, A. P., $1.50-2; 
$9-10 per wk. 

Restaurants — Westover-Chesterfield. 

Banks — Petersburg Savings & Insurance Co. Petersburg 
Banking & Trust Co. The National Bank. 



HISTOEIC PETERSBURG. U1 

Railway Express Companies — Southern. 

Telegraph Companies— Western Union and Postal, P. C. 

Bailways — SealDoard Air Line; Atlantic Coast Line. 

Opera House — Academy of Music, seat, cap., 1,200. Prices 
according to attraction. 

Livery— O. W. Mattox, Bollingbroke St., P. C. 132; single 
rigs, first hour, $1.50; add. hours, 50c; double rigs, first hour, 
$2.50; add. hours, 50c. 

Steam Laundry— Petersburg Steam Laundry, P. C. 

Railway Ticket Offices — Atlantic Coast Line, Washington 
St. Seaboard Air Line, Market St., P. C. Norfolk & West- 
ern, 2nd St., P. C. 

Bill Posters and Distributors — R. L. Bowman, Bank and 
Market Sts., P. C. 289. 

Steam Laundry — Petersburg Steam Laundry, 42 N. Syca- 
more St., P. C. 

Men's Furnishings— Jno. T. Pace, Y. M. C. A. Bldg., 
P. C. 

Department Store — A. Rosenstock & Co., Sycamore St. 

Post Office — Cor. Union and Tabb Sts.; general delivery 
and stamps open wk. days 7 a. m. to 6 p. m.; Sundays 4:30 
to 5:30; M. O. window open 7 a. m. to 6 p. m.; Carrier 
window open Sundays 4:30 to 5:30. 

Churches, clubs, offices, etc., see City Directory. 

Commercial Club — Chamber of Commerce and Y. M. B. A. 

Leading Lopal Industries — ^British American Tobacco Co., 
Continental Cigar Co., Seward Trunk & Bag Co., Steam 
Silk & Dye Works, J. B. Worth Co., E. E. Titus Foundry, 
Petersburg Rim & Veneer Works. 

Points of Interest — Crater Battlefield, Central State Hos- 
pital, Normal School, Blandford Cemetery, Ferndale Park, 
Central Park. 

At Petersburg we cross the main line of the Norfolk & 
Western Ry., the Seaboard Air Line (R. 21, P. 442), diverging 
to the S. W. from this city. Near here are seen the remains 
of many old earthworks and fortifications. Continuing 
southward we reach Emporia (406 M.), a railway center of 
some importance, where we cross the Norfolk line of the 
Southern Ry. Just before we enter Pleasant Hill (418 M.) 
we enter the state of N. Carolina. At Gary (423 M.) we 
intersect the Norfolk branch of the Seaboard Air Line, 
just beyond which we cross the Roanoke River. Our line 
now enters a region of pine forests which seems almost 
endless. At Pender a branch of the railway diverges to the 
S. E. (left). We are now passing through a region where 
there is very little of more than passing interest. The 



348 NEW YOKK TO TAMPA. 

country is flat and there is nothing to see but the pine 
trees. 

At Eocky Mt. (464 M.) junction is made with the Nor- 
folk line of the A. C. L., from which a line extends from 
Tarboro to Plymouth, on Albemarle Sound. A line also ex- 
tends W. through Nashville to Spring Hope. At Wilson 
(479 M.) the Goldsboro-Wilmington line diverges to the 
left, our route continuing S. W. to the right. At Selma 
(505 M.) we intersect a line of the Southern Ry. to 
Ealeigh, and at Smithfield (509 M.) the Atlantic & N. 
Carolina Ey. diverges to the left to Beaufort on the At- 
lantic Coast. At FayettevUle (554 M.) we cross Cape Fear 
River and intersect the Greensboro line of the Southern Ry. 
and a line of the A. C. L. to Wilmington (P. 318). At Parks- 
ton (567 M.) a branch line diverges to the S. W. At Pem- 
broke (585 M.) the Wilmington branch of the Seaboard 
Air Line (P. 317) is crossed. Beyond Rowland. (596 M.) we 
enter the state of S. Carolina. Passing Hamer (600 M.) 
we cross the Little Peedee River. At Latta (512 M.) a 
branch line extends northward to Clio. At Peedee (623 M.) 
the Wilmington Loop Line joins ours. 

Our train now bends to the W. to Florence (636 M., pop- 
ulation 5,000, Central Hotel, $2), from whence lines extend 
westward to Sumter and northward through Darlington to 
Wadesboro, connecting with the Seaboard Air Line. We 
now turn sharply to the S. (left). Just beyond Kingstrea 
(674 M.) the Black River is crossed, and at Lane's (684 M.) 
we intersect a line to Georgetown, 37 M., a quaint old 
seaport. At Monks Corner (708 M.) a line diverges to the 
right to Sinkler Mill. At Ashley Junction (733 M.) a cut-off 
branch connects with the Savannah line at Johns Island. 
The Florida Limited train takes this cut-off and does not 
enter Charleston. From Ashley the main line extends 
on into 

CHARLESTON, SOUTH CAROLINA (738 M.) 
Population 56,000. 

Hotels — St. John, Meeting and Queen Sts., A. P., $3 up per 
day. Argyle, Meeting and Hasell, A. P., $2.50-4. Pavillion, 
King St., A. P., $1.50-2; E. P., 50c-$l. National House, 
Meeting St., A. P., $1; $5 wk. 

Restaurants — Riddoek & Byrms, Commercial Club; Palace 
Cafe, King St. 

Furnished Rooms — Carolina House, Meeting St. near Mar- 
ket; prices 50c-$l per night; $3-5 wk. 

Banks — Bank of Charleston, Broad St. First National, 



CHARLESTON AND ITS HISTORY. 349 

East Bay. Germania, Broad St. Peoples National, Broad 
St. 

Theaters — Academy of Music, seat, cap., 1,450, prices, 
25c-$l, King and Market Sts. 

Railway Express Offices — Southern, Hasell St., P. C. 

Telegraph Companies — Western Union, East Bay, P. C. 
Postal, Broad St., P. C. Office hours 7 a. m.-l p. m.; Sun- 
days 8 a. m.-12 p. m. 

Livery — Charleston Transfer, Pinckney St., P. C; single 
rig, $1.50 first hour; add. hours, $1; double rigs, $2 first hour. 

Railway Ticket Offices — Southern, 217 Meeting, P. C. 
A. C. L., Meeting and Hayne, P. C. 

Scalpers* Offices — Union Ticket Office, cor. Meeting and 
Hasell, P. C. 

Bill Posters and Distributors — Charleston Bill Posting and 
Distributing Co., 227 King St. 

Trunks and Repairs — J. S. Pincknssohn Bros., cor King 
and Huntworth Sts., P. C. 

Laimdry— Jet White Laundry, 229 King St., P. C. 

Men's Furnishings — J. L. David & Bro., King and Went- 
worth, P. C. 

Post Office — Broad and Meeting Sts.; gen. del. and stamps 
open 7 a. m.-6 p. m.; Sundays 9-10 a. m.; M. O. open 8 a. m.- 
5 p. m.; carrier window, Sundays, 9-10 a. m. 

Churches, clubs, etc., see City Directory. 

Commercial Club — Commercial Club, Sec'y, Jas. S. Simons. 

Leading Local Industries — Export, cotton, rice, lumber, 
fertilizer, bagging and canning factories. 

Charleston, the largest city in South Carolina, is one of 
the principal seaports and exporting points of the southern 
states. It lies on a narrow promontory formed by the 
confluence of the Cooper and Ashley Eivers,^ some six 
miles from where they join the ocean. Its residences are 
embowered in flowers, trees and some tropical vegetation. 
Its harbor is land-locked, and admits vessels of 24% ft. 
draught. It is a very old city and was formed by a body of 
colonists under Col. Sayle, sent out by the lords proprietors 
to take possession of the Carolinaa in 1699. They first set- 
tled on the W. bank of the Ashley River at Port Royal, 
but soon changed to the present site of Charleston, which 
they named in honor of Charles 11. Numerous Huguenot 
emigrants came to the settlement in 1865-6, and in 1755 
twelve hundred exiles from Acadia were added. During the 
Revolutionary War Charleston repelled an attack on Sulli- 
van's Island (1776), and after a glorious defence, was cap- 
tured by Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

The Civil War proper began at Charleston with the bom- 



350 NEW YORK TO TAMPA. 

bardment of Port Sumter, April 12-13, 1861, and the city 
was several times attacked by the Federals during the war 
and was finally evacuated in February, 1865. In 1886 the 
city was wrecked by an earthquake, which rendered about 
nine-tenths of its buildings unsafe. Property valued at 
over eight millions was destroyed and many persons were 
killed. There are a few traces of this terrible catastrophe 
still to be seen. Charleston handles a great deal of cotton 
and rice, and before the war was the chief cotton shipping 
port of the United States. Near the Ashley Kiver exceed- 
ingly valuable beds of phosphate have been discovered. 
The annual value of the exports of the products of this 
commodity amount to some six or seven million dollars. A 
visit to the mines is very interesting. 

Following Meeting St., which is the principal wholesale 
business street, from the railway station toward White 
Point, we pass the Charleston and St. Charles Hotels, the 
market (left, best seen 6-9 a. m.), and the circular church 
(left). At the intersection with Broad St. is seen a group 
of public buildings, the court house and handsome granite 
post ofiice bldg. to the right, the city hall, in which are 
some very interesting portraits, and *St. Michael's church 
(built 1752-61) to the left. This church was struck six times 
by the Federal cannon during the siege of Charleston, was 
damaged by a cyclone in 1885, and nearly destroyed by an 
earthquake in 1886. Its tower commands an extensive *view, 
and has a set of chimes. In the churchyard near the iron 
^ate on Broad St. is the tomb of a brother of Arthur Hugh 
Clough, with an epita^ph by the poet, who spent part of his 
childhood in Charleston, where his father was a cotton 
merchant. Immediately in front of the city hall is a 
statue of Wm. Piatt, the right arm of which was broken 
by a British cannon ball in 1780. The statue was erected 
in 1770. Further along on Meeting St. we pass many 
houses set in jessamine, m3rrtle and roses. 

The street ends at *White Point Garden, shaded with 
splendid live oaks, with a fine view across the Ashley River. 
In this garden is the Jasper monument, commemorating a 
gallant act in the defence of Fort Moultrie (June 28, '76). 
Near this is a bronze bust of Wm. Gilmore Simms (died 
1870), and a round tower made of blocks of phosphate. 
To the E. extends the Battery, a wide esplanade 500 yds. in 
length, giving a fine view of the harbor and its forts. On 
the island opposite the Battery is Castle Pinckney, and fur- 
ther out is Fort Ripley, while Forts Moultrie and Johnston 
are opposite each other on Sullivan's Island (left) and 
James Island (right). Modern fortifications have been 



CHARLESTON AND ITS HISTORY. 351 

erected on Sullivan's Island. A company of U. S. troopn 
were stationed there in 1897, for the first time since the 
Civil War. Fort Sumter occupies a small island in the 
center of the harbor. The first shot of the Civil War was 
fired by the Citadel cadets from a battery planted on 
Morris Island. The shot was directed against a ship taking 
reinforcements to the Union troops in Ft. Sumter, January 
9, 1861. On April 12, Fort Moultrie and the other batteries 
opened fire on Fort Sumter, which had been occupied by 
Major Anderson with a small body of Union troops. After 
a fierce bombardment the Union flag was hauled down on 
April 13. In 1863, a Federal fleet invested the harbor and 
began a bombardment of the city and forts, which lasted 
almost without intermission until the city was evacuated 
in '65. Morris Island had to be abandoned, but Forts 
Sumter and Moultrie repelled all attacks. A small steamer 
plies between Custom House Wharf and Fort Sumter, the 
round trip requiring 1^/^ hours; fare $1. 

Returning along East Bay, passing the old post office, 
we come to the new white marble Custom House, from the 
rear of which is to be had a good view of the harbor; a 
visit may be paid to one of the cotton compresses nearby 
(no smoking). Returning to Meeting St., take a street car 
to Marion or Citadel Sq., in which is a statue of John C. Cal- 
houn, the famous S. Carolina statesman. On the N. side 
of the Sq. is the S. Carolina Military Academy, known as 
"The Citadel,'' the cadets of which fired on Fort Sumter. 
To the N. of the street, 3 M. from the City Hall, street 
car, fare lOc, lies *Magnolia Cemetery, shaded by splendid 
moss-draped live oaks. In May and June many magnolias, 
azaleas and camellias are in bloom; some of these live oaka 
are of great size. 

The visitor who goes to Charleston in the months of 
March or May should by all means visit *the gardens of 
Magnolia (12 M., railway or steamer), on the Ashley River, 
in which is a gorgeous display of azalea bushes, which are 
15 to 20 ft. high and a huge mass of beautiful coloring. 
The magnolias and live oaks are also very fine. The Church 
of St. James Goosecreek, a relic of 1711, lies in the center 
of a forest 1 M. from Otranto Station (15 M.). Otranto 
was the residence of Dr. Garden, after whom Linnaeus 
named the gardenia. Near the church is a farm known 
as *The Oaks, with a magnificent avenue of live oaks, 200 
years old. Trolley cars run from Charleston to Chicora Park 
(7 M.), fare 20e, and via Mt. Pleasant and Sullivan's Island 
to the Isle of Palms (10 M.), a resort on the Atlantic Coast, 



352 NEW YORK TO TAMPA. 

fare 25c. Osceola, tho Indian chief, died v.hile in captivity 
at Fort Moultrie, and is buried on Sullivan Island. 

Leaving Charleston (or Ashley Junction, see P. 348) our 
line extends S. W. through a somewhat marshy district tim- 
bered with moss-draped cypress and oak, crossing the Edisto 
River just beyond Ponpon (773 M.). A little past Ashepoo 
wo cross the Ashepoo River and come to Green Pond (784 
M.), where a branch line diverges to the right to Water- 
boro. Beyond Salkehatchie the Combahee river is crossed. 
At Yemassee (798 M.) we intersect the Charleston & West- 
ern Carolina line for Augusta, and at Hardeeville (828 M.) 
a line of the Southern Ry. northward from Barnwell, cross- 
ing the Savannah River beyond Sandy River Station, swerv- 
ing to the left thence until we reach Savannah. (853 M.). 
From Savannah to Jacksonville, see (R. 1 A, P. 17). From 
Jacksonville (P. 331) our line extends due S., following the 
W. bank of the St. John's River (P. 378) from Orange Park 
(1,038 M.), where we skirt around Doctors' Lake, an olT- 
shoot of the St. John's River, to Magnolia Springs (1,052 
M.), a somewhat popular resort (Magnolia Springs Hotel, 
$4 up). We pass onward to Green Cove Springs (1,054 M., 
population 900, Clarendon Hotel, $4; St. Elmo, $4). Sulphur 
springs are here, and it was once quite popular, but not much 
patronized now. 

Nothing further of importance occurs until we reach 
Palatka (1,079 M.). (See P. 379 and 365.) This is the 
point of departure for what is known as "The Oclawaha 
River Trip;" steamer daily, Palatka to Silver Springs. 
By making this trip from Palatka, however, one is com- 
pelled to pay quite exorbitantly for a sight of this won- 
derful river and Silver Springs. The round trip is by 
water going and either water or rail returning. The time 
required is two days and the fare is about $12. This river 
is a strange and wonderful sight and well worth seeing. 
But it is much better and more cheaply seen from the 
Silver Springs end of the route. Below the junction of 
Silver Creek and the Oclawaha River, 9 M. from Silver 
Springs, one has seen practically all there is to see, the river 
thence being simply a repetition. For further information 
see Silver Springs (P. 337). South of Palatka our line 
crosses the St. John's River at Buffalo Bluff (1,096 M.). 
Orange groves are now seen along the way. Lake George 
(P. 379) is 4 M. to the W. At De Leon Springs (1,120 M.) 
we touch the eastern end of Dexter Lake. At De Land 
Junction connection is made with a short branch line to 
De Land, 4 M. At Enterprise Junction (1,136 M.) our line 
is joined by the Titusville-Sanford line of the Florida East 



BEAUTIFUL ORLANDO. 353 

Coast line (E. 13, P. 370), which uses the Atlantic Coast 
Line tracks to Sanford. Some two miles beyond Enterprise 
Junction w^e cross the St. John's river, at the outlet of Lake 
Monroe, and skirt around its W. bank to Sanford (1,149 M.) 
(P. 371). 

South of Sanford our line follows through a district 
with many lakes, to Altamonte Springs (1,162 M., popula- 
tion 150, Altamonte Hotel, $3), a very pleasant winter resort, 
beyond which (2 M.) lies Maitland (Park House, $2.50), 
lying in the midst of a group of lakes, the water of which 
is clear and pure. The land is rolling in character and 
there are many charming homes. Two milec beyond this 
our train arrives at Winter Park, (1,167 M., population 
502, Rogers House, $2-2.50; Seminole Inn, high-class resort 
hotel.) This is a resort where many wealthy people have 
built winter homes. The region is covered with fine timber 
and charming lakes dot the country all aroimd. The 
water is pure, and as a health resort Winter Park is most 
excellent. Hunting and fishing abound. It must be noted, 
however, that large game, such as deer, etc., are not to be 
found close to the towns, nor is it very plenty; still deer 
may be found som.e distance from the cities, almost any- 
where in the state. Quail and small game are plentiful 
and the whole of Florida is a fisherman's paradise. 

ORLANDO (1,172 M.) Population, 4,500, 

Is on the main line of the Atlantic Coast Line and the 
Wildwood-Lake Charm line of the Seaboard Air Line. 

Hotels — San Juan — a large and excellent house on the 
main street of the town near depots, A. P., $3 and up; 
$15 wk. up; Tremont, A. P., $2-3. Special by wk.; Darrow, 
A. P., $2 up; $8 wk. up. 

Restaurant — San Juan Hotel Cafe. 

Bank — State Bank of Orlando. 

Express Company — The Southern Express at the A. C. L. 
depot. P. C. 

Telegraph Company — Western Union. P. C. 

Livery- — Hyer & Palmer. Rates reasonable. P. C. 

Ticket Oiiices — At depots and on the main street. 

Steam Laundry — Orlando Laundry, P. C. 

Men's Furnishings — Jerome Palmer. 

Department Store — ^Hammond & McQuay. 

Women's Club — (Social) Rosalind, to which visitors may 
be elected. 

Leading Local Industries — Machine and boiler factory, 
strawberry and orange growing. 



354 NEW YORK TO TAMPA. 

Orlando is one of the prettiest towns in the state. Its 
climate is excellent, vegetables growing the year round in the 
open air. There are many moss-draped oak trees of great 
size, and the rides and drives are unsurpassed for loveliness. 
The fishing is excellent and the quail hunting fine. The 
hotel accommodations are very comfortable, especially the 
entertainment furnished by the San Juan. For a beautiful 
inland place where it is quiet and restful and where at the 
same time one is in touch by railway, telegraph and tele- 
phone with the great commercial centers of the country, 
Orlando has few equals. 

The town is the seat of Orange County and lies 35 M. from 
the Atlantic and 70 M. from the Gulf. The whole surround- 
ing region is covered with pine forests and dotted with 
lakes, one of which, Lake Lucerne, lies within the town. 
It is a small but beautiful expanse of water. The altitude 
of Orlando is 120 ft. and its claims as a winter resort are 
being recognized more and more as time passes, by those who 
prefer an inland place. The church home and hospital (Epis- 
copal) is located here and cares for people from all over the 
United States. Dr. Harris' Sanitarium (general hospital) 
has its location in Orlando. 

Kissimmee (1,190 M., population 1,500, Kissimmee Hotel, 
$2.50 up. Lake House $2, Park Hotel $2, Graves House $2) 
is a good hunting center. It is the headquarters for the 
Disston or Okeechobee Company, which has done much to 
reclaim the marsh land to the S. The town lies at the N. 
end of Tohopekaligaand, 4 M. W. from East Lake. These 
two lakes are a part of a chain of lakes connected by the 
Kissimmee river and the canal. From here a short branch 
line diverges to St. Cloud, where considerable sugar-cane is 
raised. 

From Kissimmee our line curves almost due W. to Lough- 
man (1,201 M.), where it goes S. E. to Haines City and then 
westward to Bartow Junction (1,217 M,). At this place 
a line to Punta Gorda and Fort Myers is crossed. This 
branch extends almost due S. through a chain of lakes and 
low, swampy land, following for the most part the course of 
a series of small rivers or creeks, all of which finally join, 
forming Peace river, on the shores of which lies Punta 
Gorda (1,291 M., population 860, Dade House, $2.50; the 
Punta Gorda, $2.50) ; from thence it extends to the S. E. 
about 25 M. through a lake-dotted region, crossing the Ca- 
loosahatchie River to Fort Myers, the southernmost west 
coast railway station (population, 1,500; Roj^al Palm Hotel, 
$4; The Inn, $2). Both Punta Gorda and Fort Myers are 
important fishing and hunting centers, and are also patron- 
ized to some extent as winter resorts. The Roval Palm, for- 



GEEENSBOEO-HIGH POINT. 355 

merly Fort Myers Hotel, which was originally erected and 
furnished at a cost of over $100,000, has recently been im- 
proved and is under new management. It is first-class in 
every respect. It is located in a beautiful park with some 
tropical vegetation and is near the water front. There are 
orange trees here over 100 yars old. 

Continuing from Bartow Junction, our line extends west- 
ward through a network of lakes, crossing the W. Coast Line 
of the A. C. L. at Lakeland (1,231 M.), joining a short 
branch line S. at Winston (1,235 M.), crossing the main 
line of the Seaboard Air Line (E. 12 A, P. 271) at Plant City 
(1,241 M.), arriving at Tampa (1,272 M., P. 342). 

C. Via Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, Charlotte, Co- 
lumbia, Savannah and Jacksonville. 

Pennsylvania Lines, Southern Ev. and Seaboard Air Line. 
(1,041 M.) Fare, $35.45. Sleeper, $7.50. 

From New York to Washington (228 M.) (See E. 12 A, 
P. 271). 

From Washington to Lynchburg (401 M.). (See E. 11 A, 
P. 237). 

At Lynchburg (401 M.) the James Eiver is crossed, 
travelling S. W., and the Staunton Eiver near Clarion (424 
M.). At Franklin Junction (439 M.), a branch line diverges 
W. (right) to Rocky Mount, connecting with a line of the 
Norfolk & Western Ey. At Chatham (449 M.), is the county 
seat of Pittsylvania Co. At Danville (466 M.), pop. 16,520 
(Hotel Burton, A. P., $2.50-3.50) junction may be made with 
both the Eichmond and the Norfolk branches of the 
Southern. Just before entering Danville the Dan Eiver 
is crossed and shortly thereafter the State of N. Carolina 
is entered. Continuing slightly to the S. W. the train enters 

GREENSBORO, N. C. (515 M.), Population 15,000. 

Hotels— Guilford, S. Elm St.; rates, A. P., $2.50-3 a day. 
Benbow, S. Elm St., A. P., $2.50-3. McAdoo, S. Elm St., No. 
130, A. P., $2. Clegg's, at depot, S. Elm St., A. P., $2-2.50; 
per wk., $10-12 to $14. 

Restaurants — City (meals and lodging), 342 S. Elm St. 
Clegg's, at depot. 

Furnished Rooms— 342 S. Elm St., 124 Buchanan St. Prices, 
25 to 50 cts. 

Banks— City National, 235 S. Elm St. Loan & Trust Co. 
Bank. Five and Ten Cent Savings Bank. 

Theaters— In City Hall, cor. Gaston and N. Elm St.: seats 
1,400. 



356 NEW YOEK TO TAMPA. 

Railway Express— Southern, 472 E. Market St. 

Telegraph Companies — Western Union, S. Elm St. Postal, 
ofTlce hrs., 7 a. m. to 10 p. m. wk. days and Sunday's. 

Ixivery — Vanstory Livery Co., P. C; rates, single, first 
hr., $1; add. hrs., $1; double, first hr., $2-5; add. hrs.. $2-5. 
Tatum & Taylor, 111V.-15 Depot St., P. C; rates, single, first 
hr., $1; add. hrs., $1; double, first hr., $2; add. hrs., $2. 

Railway Tickets — Southern. 

Bill Posters and Distributors— James West, 330 S. Elm St. 

Steam Laundry— Diek 's, 111 E. Market St.. P. C. 

Men's Fumisliin.?s — Vanstory, S. Elm St. 

Department Store — Harry Belk, S. Elm St. 

Postolflce— Cor. S. Elm and E. Market Sts. Gen. del. and 
stamps, open wk. days, 8 a. m. to 6 p. m.; Sundays, 8-9 a. m.- 
1-2; M. O. window, open 8 a. m. to 6 p. m. 

Public Library— In City Hall, cor. of E. Gaston and N. 
Elm Sts. 

For Churches, Clubs, etc., sec City Directory. 

Loading Local Industries — Cigar, shoe and furniture fac- 
tories. 

At Greensboro junction may bo made with a line to the 
W. (right) via Winston-Salem (26 M.), a manufacturing 
center of considerable importance, to Wilkesboro (103 M.). 

From Greensboro the train enters 

HIGH POINT, N. C. (530 M.), Population 6,500. 

Hotels — Elwood, rates, per day, $2-4; per wk., $10-20. 
Bellevue, $2-3. 

Banks — High Point National, Commercial National. 

Restaurant — A. J. Fraley. 

Railway Express — Southern. 

Telegraph Companies — Western Union, Postal. 

Telephones — Local and long distance. 

Railways — Southern, Aberdeen & Ashboro. 

Opera House — Hall; seats 600. 

Livery— E. B. White, P. C. 

Laundry — E. P. Ingram, P. C. 

Hunting — Excellent. 

Leading Local Industries — Furniture mnnufactuTing, sash 
and blind factories, tobacco factories, machine shops, street 
car manufacturing company, buggy factories, glass factory. 

At High Point junction may be made with the Aberfleen 
& Ashboro Pv., exending S. E. Continuing S. W. Lexington 
is passed (547 M.), pop. 1.500 (March Honp.e, A. P., $2), 
the county seat of Davidson Co. Beyond Holtsburg (5.57 
M.) lies the Yadkin Piver. Salisbury "(5G4 M.), pop. 12,000 
(Central Hotel, A. P., $2.50-5; Mt. Vernon, $2), is the county 



THE ROUTE CONCLUDED. 357 

seat of Roan County. A branch line of the Southern Ry. 
extends N. W. to Statesville, and thence branches to Tay- 
lorsville (N. W.) and Newton (S. W.), also Asheville. A 
branch line extends also, via Albemarle, to Norwood. 

Passing westward on the Salisbury-Morristown Div. of the 
Southern'' (via Asheville), several small tributaries of the 
Yadkin River are crossed. Statesville (26 M.) is the junc- 
tion point of lines to Taylorsville and Charlotte. 
Near Catawba (38 M.), the waters of the Catawba River 
are spanned. Beyond Newton (48 M., alt. 1,070 ft.), the 
main Blue Ridge comes into view on the right, and various 
spurs are seen in the distance to the left. Hickory (58 M., 
alt. 1,140 ft., Hickory Inn, A. P., $2-3, meals 75 cts.), is a 
junction point for a narrow guage extending N. E. to Lenoir 
(20 M.), with a short line thence to Nelson and another to 
Collettsville, a short distance W. of Lenoir. Lenoir, pop. 
1,500 (Commercial Hotel, A. P., $2; Oak Grove House, A. 
P., $1.50), is the point from whence to reach the Blowing 
Rock Country by carriage or by stage 22 M., over roads 
which though rough are bordered by charming views. 

The stage fare is included in the railway ticket if pur- 
chased to Blowing Rock. The Green Park Hotel, % M- be- 
yond the Blowing Rock, is in the best location, and is as 
good as any; rates, A. P., $2 a day and upwards. There are 
two others, however. Blowing Rock is about 100 ft. high 
with overhanging top. From its lofty summit a magnificent 
view is gained over the valley, some thousand feet 
below. The veranda of the Green Park Hotel also 
affords a magnificent view. The roads around here are level, 
and for such rough country very good. The drive from 
Blowing Rock to Boone is a fine one, and so is the Linville 
Drive, with Grandfather's Mountain as a side trip. The 
average altitude of this section is about 4,200 ft., some peaks 
being as high as 6,000 ft. Those who want to leave the 
beaten track of travel and enjoy beautiful mountain scenery, 
will derive satisfaction here. Blowing Rock village is the 
highest incorporated town east of the Rockies. Snowbirds 
are seen there all summer. 

Leaving Hickory the large State Lunatic Asylum is seen 
(left). Morganton (79 M., alt. 1,185 ft.), pop. 3,000 (Moun- 
tain Hotel, A. P., $2; Morgan, A. P., $2), is the seat of Burke 
County, which is traversed by many small tributaries of the 
Catawba River. At Morganton and at Old Fort (111 M., 
alt. 1,450 ft.) the train enters the true mountain district, 
ascending a beautiful gorge, the walls of which are over- 
grown with rhododendrons (blossom in June). The many 
tunnels, loops, ridges and cuts present quite a railway en- 
gineering problem. At one point four sections of the line 



358 NEW YORK TO TAMPA. 

lie zigzag one above the other on the mountain side. At the 
head of the gorge a long tunnel is entered, beyond which is 
the plateau of Western North Carolina, "Land of the Sky." 
About 2 M., good road, from Black Mountain Station (125 
M.) is Montreat (Hotel Montreat, A. P., $3), beautifully 
situated at the headwaters of the Swannanoa, which forms 
a convenient starting point for the ascent of Mount Mitchell 
(P. 55) and many other peaks. Passing through Biltmore 
(139 M., P. 58) one gains a good view of the village, a 
short distance beyond which is Asheville (141 M., P. 53). 

From Salisbury to Charlotte the track curves, forming 
a gigantic letter S., passing through Concord (587 M,). the 
county seat of Cabarrus Co., pop. 9,500 (Leland Hotel, A. P., 
$2). Charlotte (G08 M.), pop. 18,000 (Buford Hotel, A. P., 
$2 up; Central, A. P., $2-3), is the county seat of Mecklen- 
burg County, and one of the most important manufacturing 
centers in the State. The train here crosses the Monroe- 
Chimney Rock branch of the Seaboard Air Line (R. 18, P. 396) 
and connects with the branch of the Southern Ry. via Spar- 
tansburg to New Orleans. Thus far the route has been that 
taken by the New Orleans trains, but it now diverges to the 
left via Charlotte-Jacksonville Div. of the So. Ry., and some 
distance beyond Pineville (618 M.) the train enters S. Caro- 
lina. Beyond Fort Mill (625 M.), the Catawba River is 
crossed, also a branch of the Southern Ry., extending S. E. 
via Camden (P. 319), and N. W. via Rock Hill and York- 
ville. From Fort Mill the line proceeds S. W. to Chester 
(052 M.), pop. 5,500 (Nicholson Hotel, A. P., $2.50; Colton, 
A. P., $2), where a line of the Carolina & Northwestern Ry. 
extending northward is joined. Chester is quite a railway 
center. Beyond Chester is Winnsboro (679 M.), pop. 2,000 
(Duval House, A. P., $2), the county seat of Fairfield county. 
From Winnsboro the line proceeds to Dents and thence to 
Columbia, S. C. (717 M.). 

For a description of the region from Columbia to Jackson- 
ville (see R. 12 A, P. 271); Jacksonville to Tampa (see R. 
12 A, P. 271, or 12 B, P. 345). 



OLD ST. AUGUSTINE. 359 

ROUTE 13. JACKSONVILLE TO MIAMI, 

FLA. 

Via Onnond, Daytona, Titusville and Palm Beach. 

Florida East Coast Line Ey. (366 M.) Fare, $11.00. 
Sleeper, $5.50. 

Leaving the city of Jacksonville via the Florida Last 
Coast Line the train traverses a flat country sparsely tim- 
bered with pine trees and palmetto bush,, to St. Augustine, 
37 M. S. E. 

ST. AUGUSTINE, FLA. Population about 5,000. 

On Florida East Coast Main Line, depot ^ M. from 
business section and hotels. No cars; carriage, 25c per per- 
son; baggage transfer, 25c a piece. 

Hotels — Ponce De Leon, A. P., $5 day up; opens about 
Jan. 15, closes about April 15. The Alcazar, large tourist 
hotel with casino and annex, beautiful park (very fine); 
opens about Nov. 25, closes about May 1, A. P., $4 up; special 
weekly rates; rooms only in Alcazar Annex; rates not 
quoted. The Grenada, a nice house, pretty grounds, A. P., 
$2.50 up; special weekly and family rates. St. George Ho- 
tel, a very nice house, A. P., $3 up; $17.50 week. The Val- 
encia, open Nov. 1-May 30, A. P., $2.50-3; no weekly or fam- 
ily rates. Florida House, open all the year, A. P., $3 up; 
$12 wk. up. Spear Mansion, open all the year, nice grounds, 
A. P., $2 up; $10 wk. up. Magnolia, open Dec. 1-May 1, 
A. P., $3-5; special weekly rates. The Teahan House, open 
all the year, A. P., $1.50 up; special weekly rates. The 
Monson House, open all the year, A. P., $1.50 up; $10-18 
wk.; excellent medium-priced house. Chautauqua House, 
A. P., $2 up; E. P., also; rates not quoted; special family 
rates. Lynn's Arcade, E. P.; rates not quoted. There are 
about 15 other small houses from $1.50 a day up to $2 a day; 
some of them, most in fact, boarding houses. 

Restaurants — The Lynn Cafe, cor. St. George and Treas- 
ury Sts. is a fair medium-priced place. 

Furnished Rooms may be had over Lynn's Cafe and at 
a few other places scattered over the town — signs out. 

Banks — ^First Nat'l and People's Bank for Savings. 

Theater — Genovar Opera House, seats 600; prices based on 
play. 

Express Company — Southern, cor. Cordova and Cathedral 
PI. 



360 JACKSONVILLE TO MIAML 

Telegraph Companies — Western Union, Bishop Blk., St. 
George St.; open Jan. -May wk. days, 7 a. m.-ll p. m.; Sun- 
days, 8 a. m. to 10 p. m.; May-Jan. wk days, 8 a. m. to 8 
p. m.; Sundays, 10 a. m. to 2 p. m., P. C. Postal in Vail Blk. 

Messenger Service — At telegraph office, P. C. 

Livery — St. Augustine Transfer Co., P. C; rates high; 
cheapest, $1 an hour. 

Railway Ticket Office — At depot of Fla. East Coast Line. 

Men's Furnishings — N. W. Davis & Co. 

Dry Goods Store — Surprise Co., cor. King and Bay Sts. 

Public Lihrary — On Hospital St. 

Board of Trade — Not active. 

Postoffice — Cor. Plaza. General delivery, open 8 a. m. to 
6 p. m.; Sundays, 12 to 1; M. O. dept., 8 a. m. to 4 p. m.; 
carriers, Sundays, 12 to 1. 

St. Augustine, the oldest city in the United States, is sit- 
uated on an inlet of the Atlantic Ocean, opposite Anastasia 
Island. In its gardens and squares are seen palmettoes, 
date palms, orange and citron trees, banana trees and the 
beautiful and fragrant magnolias. The climate is temperate, 
averaging about 70 degrees for the year, and 58 degrees 
in winter. The oldest streets are only 15 to 20 ft. wide, 
and some of the old Spanish houses, built of coquina, which 
is a kind of limestone, have projecting balconies, which, it 
is reported, were to afford shade. 

The Plaza De La Constitucion is in the center of the 
city and to the eastward are the sea wall and the Matanzas 
where one may see the Island of Anastasia. In the center 
of the Plaza (Square) is a monument in honor of the Spanish 
Liberal Constitution (1812) from which the name is de- 
rived. The Old Market, wrongly known as the Slave Market, 
lies to the East. The Confederate War Monument and the 
Roman Catholic Cathedral are northward. This Cathedral 
was completed in August, 1797, after five years' of work. 
It was burned in 1887, and rebuilt on an enlarged scale, 
the old design being followed largely. Henry M. Flagler 
(the Standard Oil magnate who has large interest in rail- 
ways) paid a large portion of the $80,000 required, though 
he is a Presbyterian. Father Michael O'Eeilly, an Irish 
Priest, was its originator. The interior of the building is 
pleasing and the organ is a fine one. On one of the four 
bells comprising the chimes is the inscription, ''Saucte 
Joseph, Oro Pro Nobis A. D. N., 1G89," thus proving it to be 
the oldest in the country. These bells are never rung now. 
The Episcopal Church is southward. The Postoffice is opp. 
the W. side on St. George St. This is a very old building 
and was formerly called ''The Governor's Palace." 



OLD ST. AUGUSTINE. 361 

Taking the Alameda (King St.) along the S. side of the 
Plaza a group of handsome up-to-date buildings is seen. On 
the right is the Ponce do Ixeon Hotel in Spanish Renaissance 
style, designed by Carriere & Hastings. It is 520 ft. long, 
380 ft. wide (facade) and its tov/ers are 185 ft. high. It 
is of concrete, with brick and terra cotta trimmings and 
red tiled roofs. It encloses an open court and the interior 
of the central dome or rotunda, with its four galleries, has 
fine adornments of marble, carved oak and allegorical paint- 
ings. Ponce de Leon is an exceedingly fine hotel. 

St. George's St. is one of the most interesting thorough- 
fares in the city. It extends from St. Francis Barracks on 
the S. to the City Gate on the N. The City Gate consists 
of two 20-ft. pillars with ruins of coquina wall adjoining. 
Two sentry boxes are located on the inner side of the but- 
resses. The wall formerly defended the city and the gate 
was built about 1804 to replace the wooden gate used prior 
to that date. The wall was 10 ft. thick and 30 ft. high, 
with wooden platforms or banquettes on the inner side for 
soldiers with small arms, and the gateway consisted of heavy 
iron bound doors. The space between the pillars is 12 ft. 
and the approach was by means of a drawbridge over a moat. 
The present approach is of stone and modern. Lines of 
foi'tifications extended from this gateway eastward to the 
moat of Fort San Marco and westward to San Sebastian 
Eiver were fortifications protected at intervals by redoubts, 
batteries and a ditch that could be flooded at high tide. In 
olden times these walls and gateways often sheltered people 
fleeing from enemies, and witnessed many thrilling occur- 
rences. Near this gateway is the old Huguenot Cemetery 
(left) and on the S. side of Ocean St. northward is the 
Spanish Cemetery and the ruins of the first chapel in St. 
Augustine. Not far distant to the E. from City Gate is 
Fort Marion, at the N. end of the sea wall. The fort was 
first built by Menendez and was of wood, octagonal in shape, 
with walls filled with earth. The intrenchments were built 
v/ith fascines, also filled with earth, and faced with logs. 
The present fort dates from about 1690 and is the only ex- 
ample of medieval fortification on this continent. The de- 
signer was Marachal de Vauban, a famous French engineer. 
The great structure of coquina rock with surrounding de- 
fences covers more than twenty-two acres. On three sides 
of the fort lies the glacis, a mound. A "bridge (formerly a 
drawbridge) leads from the S. E. side over a part of the 
moat to the Barbacan, a defense surrounded by a moat, di- 
rectly in front of the sally-port or entrance to the fort 
proper, which it is designed to guard. The Arms of Spain 
are carved in the stairway wall of the barbacan. A second 



362 JACKSONVILLE TO MIAMI. 

bridge (part of which originally was a drawbridge) leads 
from the barbacan across the moat to the sally-port. This 
was defended by a heavy barred door termed the portcullis. 
Over the portcullis on the outer wall is an inscription bear- 
ing the Arms of Spain, with a globe and cross above it and 
the Maltese cross and a lamb below. Translated the in- 
scription reads: <'Don Ferdinand VIL, being King of Spain, 
and the Field Marshall Don Alonzo Fernando Hereda, being 
Governor and Captain-General of this place, San Augustin 
of Florida, and its province, this fort was finished in the 
year 1756. The works were directed by the Captain-En- 
gineer, Don Pedro de Brozas and Garay. '* The labor was 
performed by Apalachian Indians and convicts from Mexico 
and covered a period of sixty years. The moat, 40 ft. wide, 
around the fort was much deeper once and had a cement 
floor and automatic tide gates to keep it full of water. The 
barbacan walls are several feet below those of the main fort. 
Cross the temporary wooden bridge and pass through the 
portcullis, entering the sally-port. The groove on its inner 
side of a heavy door sliding on a track can be plainly seen. 
On the right. Rooms 1 and 2 were the dining room and 
kitchen. On the left, Room 1, was the office of the Com- 
mandant, and has a small fireplace. Rooms 2-3 were for 
the staff and other officers of the garrison. Room 4, with 
raised dais, was originally a court room and from it two 
Seminole Indians, Coacoochee and Talums Hadjo, escaped 
by so starving themselves that their emaciated forms would 
pass between the bars of their prison. The three niches 
near the door were cut by prisoners so they could climb up 
and look out of the windows. R. 5 has the only remaining 
original Spanish lock on the door, which is a very curious 
relic. To manipulate it two keys were required and each 
one was held by a separate keeper. Rooms 5-8 were for 
the general use of the garrison and for storage. From No. 
9 an opening leads to the old magazine, an inner cham- 
ber. We now come to the chapel, used for services as 
late as the Civil War. In 1875 it was a schoolroom for 
Western Indians confined there. Note the insets in wall 
for Holy Water bowls. Room 15 was the treasury room. 
No. 20 was probably a chamber of torture, as it is claimed 
that the six notches on the wall (right) held crosses (all 
pu-nishment was meted out under the cross). There is no 
other evidence visible that this was the purpose of this 
room, but the presence of the dungeons back of it render it 
very probable. There are three of the dungeons, one of 
which it is claimed was the execution chamber. This, how- 
ever, seems to be pure imagination. They were probably 
used as prisons only and that seems bad enough when one 



OLD ST. AUGUSTINE. 363 

sees the dark, musty, foul-smelling,' illy-ventilated places. 
To be confined in such a place for long would make death 
welcome. Beyond this is a small dungeon in which were 
found some small fragments of bone and a staple with three 
links of chain attached, also the remains of a fire. The bone 
was too far decayed to determine whether it was human. 
There are human bones in the fort, but they did not come 
from this chamber. Rooms 22-23 were hospital rooms. Un- 
der the stair are two small rooms used for the guard. As- 
cending to the summit of the parapet or terreplein, a good 
view is had, especially from the watch tower. Below, on the 
water side, note the hot shot furnace erected in 1844. In the 
walls of the N. and S. bastions are bullet holes m.ade when 
executing prisoners. There are many unfounded tales told 
about the old fort, but nevertheless it is intensely interest- 
ing and well worth a visit. 

The Sea Wall begins at the water-battery of the fort and 
extends % M. southward. It was begun in 1690 and then 
extended to a point opposite the plaza. The United States 
government built the present one at a cost of $100,000. The 
outer face is ten ft. high and the coping is three ft. wide. 
It now extends to St. Francis or U. S. Barracks, which are 
on Marine and St. Francis Sts., and worth visiting. A little 
S. of the barracks is Military Cemetery in which are buried 
Major Francis L. Dade and 107 of his men, massacred Dec. 
28, 1835, near Ft. King. Just beyond the cemetery is Alicia 
Hospital. Opposite the barracks on St. Francis St. is what 
is called THE 0U5BST HOUSE IN THE UNITED STATES 
(adm. 25 cts.). The Museum on Bay St. (adm. 25 cts.) is 
one of the oldest buildings in the city and is used by the 
St. Augustine Historical Society. The back room was the 
first jail in the city. It has a varied and interesting collec- 
tion. The old Spanish map of St. Augustine is a fine piece 
of work. Treasury St., beside the Museum, is the narrowest 
in the city. 

Aiiastasia Island extends from the inlet in front of the 
city to Matanzas Inlet, 18 M. The lighthouse on the island 
is a round tower 165 ft. high which cost the U. S. $100,000. 
Every three minutes the lantern throws its rays 19 miles 
seaward. It cost $16,000. This structure was erected in 
1872-3, and replaced the old Spanish lighthouse; the coquina 
ruins are on the shore to the N. E. The new building has 
255 steps leading to the summit. The coquina quarries, a 
stone formed of a soft collection of shells, sand and shell 
fragments of various colors firmly cemented by action of 
rain water percolating the mass, are located on the island. 
This stone hardens on exposure to the air and sun, and Fort 



3G4 JACKSONVILLE TO MIAML 

Marion, the City Gates, the Sea "Wall and the old houses of 
the town are constructed of it. 

Drives — There are several fine drives, one of which is the 
Moultrie Drive (6 M.) between rows of palmetto trees. 
Those to Moultrie Point and the one on Anastasia Island to 
Crescent Beach are charming. The drive *' around the 
horn," which encircles the city is a pleasant one. Fish, 
oysters and game abound, and the beautiful harbor affords 
the pleasures of sailing and rowing. 

The Beaches — The beach is hard, clean and extends for 
miles, inviting the bicyclist and pedestrian, and the fine 
bathing beaches on the island are reached by steam road 1'/^- 
2 M. The bathing is excellent, and every convenience is 
at hand. The Casino and baths at the Alcazar hotel are 
splendid. All kinds of baths are provided. 

History of St. Augustine. 

Juan Ponce de Leon, in 1512, landed near the site of St. 
Augustine in search of the Fountain of Youth (since dis- 
covered in large quantities by resort hotel-keepers, judging 
by their advertisements). He named the country Florida 
in honor of the day on which he landed, Palm Sunday 
(Pasque Florida). Selooe, an Indian village, was then lo- 
cated there. In 1564 a party of Huguenots under Eene de 
Laudonniere, landed near the same place, but soon departed 
to the St. John's Kiver. Philip II. of Spain, resenting in- 
vasion by outsiders, sent Don Pedro Menendez de Avilo to 
drive them from his dominion. This party landed at Selooe 
on Sept. 8, 1565, became friendly with the Indians and built 
Fort San Augustine. In fulfillment of their object they 
destroyed Fort Caroline and massacred the inhabitants. In 
revenge Admiral Jasper Coligny assumed command of an 
expedition against Menendez, but his ships were partially 
wrecked and the survivors, about 350, surrendered to the 
Spanish and were cruelly slaughtered. Their burial place 
is unknown. During the next one hundred years St. Augus- 
tine led a very troubled existence. Sir Francis Drake, on 
one of his buccaneering trips, landed there in 1586, and 
partly burned what is now known as Fort Marion, which 
he found deserted. He discovered twelve brass cannon and 
£2,000. In 1638 the Indians attacked the whites, killing 
many who failed to get inside of the fortifications. Capt. 
John Davis plundered it in 1665. Gov. Moore, in 1702, cap- 
tured and held it three months. James Oglethorpe, of 
Georgia, in 1740, uBsuccessfully besieged it by erecting one 
battery on Anastasia Island, the remains of which and the 
marks of the cannon balls, are reported as yet visible. It 



PALATKA AND THE OCKLAWAHA RIVER. 365 

also suffered many other vicissitudes. In 1763 Spain yielded 
Florida to England, but secured control of it again within 
twenty years. Florida became part of the United States 
in 1821 on the payment of $5,000,000, and Gen. Andrew Jack- 
son was the first governor. Its fame as a winter resort dates 
from then, though it was not largely frequented by North- 
erners until the close of the Seminole war in 1842. 

Pages would be required to relate the events which have 
occurred in St. Augustine since its origin: The Indian 
revel and massacre, the Corsair ship, the methods of the 
inquisition, the Huguenot fleet and, in strong contrast, the 
Spanish Cavalier tenderly singing to his ladylove 'neath the 
palm trees in the moonlight. 

Leaving St. Augustine. 

Leaving St. Augustine the road bends S. W. from the 
Ocean. After passing through Hastings (54 M.), the center 
of a rapidly developing potato country where in 1903 1,700 
acres yielded 65,000 bbls. of potatoes, which sold at an 
average of $3-3.50 per bbl., it enters E. Palatka (62 M.). 
From here one may take a branch line to Palatka (3 M.), 
which is the starting point for St. John's — Ocklawaha River 
Trip. 

PALATKA, FLA., Population 3,400. 

On Florida East Coast Line^ Atlantic Coast Line and So. 
terminus of Ga., So. & Fla. Ry. Union depot all roads. Street 
car to hotels, fare 5c; hacks 25c. 

Hotels — No high class houses. Arlington, Lemon St., cor. 
3rd., A. P., $2 up; special rates by wk. Saratoga Hotel, 1st 
St., A. P., $2.50 up; excellent house, best in city, $9-12 wk. 
The Graham, A. P., $2-2.50 day; $10.50 wk. There are some 
$1.25 day houses and boarding houses. 

Restaurant — 225 Lemon St. 

Bank — Putnam National, No. 5 Lemon St. 

Express Company — Southern. 

Telegraph — Western Union, 18 S. Front St. 

Livery — Walton, rates reasonable. 

Ticket Offices — A. C. L, Ry and river boats at city drug 
store, cor. Lemon and Front Sts. Other roads enter Union 
depot. 

Laundry— 105 S. Front St. 

Men's Furnishings — Burnside Clothing Co. 

Board of Trade— F. H. Hafer, Secretary. 

Public Library on Front St. 

Postoffice — Foot of Lemon St. 



366 JACKSONVILLE TO MIAMI. 

Leading Local Industries — Large cypress saw mills, shin- 
gle mills, large sash, door and blind factory and tank fac- 
tory. 

Palatka has a nice climate, is a quiet place and has good 
fishing, but there are many more desirable places in Florida. 

Steamers for the St. Jolin's-Ocklawaha River trip leave 
daily in season. From Palatka the boat ascends the St. John's 
Eiver 25 M. and then follows the Ocklawaha between banks 
lined with moss-draped cypress trees and palmettoes to Sil- 
ver Springs. The scenery is unusual and the trip 
is full of beauty, weirdness and novelty. The river is ex- 
ceedingly crooked, there being many places where looking 
ahead it seems to stop abruptly at a mass of trees and moss, 
but it is only an abrupt bend in the river. There are alligators 
but they are seldom seen, as they do not appear much in 
winter and they slide off a log so silently that it is hard 
to catch a glimpse of them. The scene at night is strikingly 
fantastic and wild, by torch light. A visit is usually paid 
to an orange grove at Conners, and this, in itself, is a charm- 
ing diversion. From Palatka the Fla. East Coast Line bends 
to the left (S. E.) through a flat country dotted with saw 
mills and turpentine stills until Ormond is reached. 

Ormond (105 M.) is a small hamlet on the Halifax Eiver 
(properly a bayou) 1 M. from the Ocean. It has the West- 
ern Union Telegraph, Southern Express, long distance tele- 
phone, small stores, postoffice, livery, etc., and across the 
river is the Ormond Hotel, a large high-grade hostelry, A. P. 
$5 up, which furnishes the life of the town; small but very 
pretty grounds surround the hotel. The Inn is $3 up. The 
smaller houses are as follows: The Grenada, A. P., $2 day; 
$10 wk. The Eiver View, A. P., $2; $8-10 wk. Mildred 
Villa, high-class boarding house, $2.50 day; $10-15 wk. Eose 
Villa, open Nov. 1 to May 1, A. P., $2.50; $10-15 wk. There 
are a number of cottages also. Launches and boats of all 
kinds are for hire. Here the automobile races start, the run 
being down the finest beach in the world and past Daytona. 
Beyond Ormond five miles the train enters 

DAYTONA, FLA. (110 M.), Population 2,000. 

Hotels — The Eidgewood Hotel, Eidgewood Ave., A. P., 
$3 up; special by wk., has a roof garden and a sun parlor. 
It is the largest hotel in the city and is in a splendid lo- 
cation. Hotel Des Pland, cor. Magnolia and Palmetto, A. P., 
$3 up; $17.50 up wk.; good house. The Palmetto, Beach 
St. (on water front), is the oldest house in the city, A P 
$2.50-3; $14-21 wk. The Tourist, 216 Palmetto Ave., E. P.] 
$4-8 a wk. Parkinson House, cor. Eidgewood and Mag- 



DAYTONA AND ORMOND BEACH. 367 

nolia, A. P., $2.50-3; $15-18 wk. The Grand Atlantic, open 
Dec. to May, A. P., $2.50 up; special by wk. The Oaks, 
open Nov. 1-June 1, A. P., $1.50-2; $8-12.50 wk. The Ben- 
nett House, open Dec-May, A. P., $2.50 up; special by the 
wk. City Hotel (Com'l), Beach St., $2 day; no weekly 
rates. Fountain House, Beach St., E. P., $2.50-3.50; special 
weekly rates. Troy House, Volusia St., in 3rd blk. from 
depot, A. P., $1.50 up; $8-12 wk. There are several other 
hotels and boarding houses and rooms for light housekeeping 
are at times available. 

Restaurants — Two small ones on Beach St., near P. O. 

Banks — Merchants', 210 Beach St., is the only one. 

Opera House — None. 

Express Company — Southern, at the depot. 

Telegraph Office— Western Union Tel. Co., 210% Beach St.; 
open 8-8; Sundays, 8-10 a. m. and 4-6 p. m. Messengers. 

Livery — Geo. A. Foye, cor. Palmetto and Live Oak Sts., 
P. C; rates reasonable. 

Railway Ticket Office — At depot. 

Men's Furnishings — Aultman's, 200 Beach St. 

Dry Goods— F. T. Peck, 202 Beach St. 

Postoffice — Cor. Beach and Magnolia Sts. Gen. del. 7:30- 
7; Sundays, 1-3:30 p. m.; M. O., 8-6. 

Daytona, on the Halifax River, is accessible only by the 
Florida East Coast Line. The town is charmingly located. 
It faces the river along which Beach, the business street, 
extends. The river is about % M. in width and from the 
bridges which link Daytona with Seabreeze, the fishing is 
excellent. The streets are simply narrow lanes cut through 
the palmettoes and other trees. They are paved with rock 
and shell, perfectly hard and smooth and afford ideal drives 
for carriage, automobile or wheel. It is a cyclist's paradise 
and a dream of pleasure to the auto enthusiast. Ridgewood 
Ave. is the best residence street. It is lined with great 
trees, oak and palmetto, from which depend masses of gray 
moss hanging in ropes and festoons, sometimes almost to 
the ground. The branches interlock across the street and 
for blocks one drives through a green-gray tunnel which has 
an appearance both fantastic and weird, causing one to 
think he has strayed into fairyland, so queer, unreal and 
beautiful does it all appear. Peeping from the roadside are 
beautiful homes and hotels on either side. 

Crossing one of the bridges to Seabreeze (1 M.), the 
Ocean appears, and one of the finest beaches that exist any- 
where. 

The Beach — This is the far-famed Automobile Race Track, 
commonly called the Ormond Course, which extends from 



368 JACKSONVILLE TO MIAMI. 

Ormond to Seabreeze^ a distance of about 7 M. "When the 
tide is out there is a stretch of about 300 ft. of sand, sloping 
just a little, clear of shells, smooth as a billiard table, and 
so hard that tires of the heaviest automobiles make no 
impression at all. This extends unbroken for miles up and 
down the shore. The rollers break beautifully on the shore, 
and to travel by carriage, wheel or automobile along the 
Daytona-Ormond Beach in the light of the moon is a pleas- 
ure not soon forgotten. 

SEABREEZE, Population 400. 

Hotels — **The Clarendon Inn, $3 up; special by wk. This 
house is quite large and fronts on the surf in a commanding 
location on the lower stretch of the Automobile Kace Course. 
A fishing pier runs out from it and an extensive view of the 
beach and surf is had. Behind it is a beautiful Boulevard 
lined with rows of palmettoes and stone urns. The Colon- 
nades, open all the year, A. P., $3.50-5; special by wk.; an 
excellent house. The Ocean House, on the beach, A. P., $8- 
10 wk. The Whitehouse (Goodall, 1 M. from Seabreeze), 
private board, and The-Breakers-By-The-Sea Cottages (Sea- 
breeze), open June to Oct., A. P., $2; $8 wk. up. Winter sea- 
son, Dec- June, $3; $15 up wk. 

There is a nice opera house in Seabreeze. The telephone 
line along the beach is for the timing of races. The Tomoka 
River is reached by launch (22 M.), and it is a charming ex- 
cursion. Spruce Creek, reached by launch (22 M.), is a 
splendid black bass fishing ground and a favorite resort for 
anglers. The fish caught in the surf at Seabreeze are trout, 
pompano, yellow tail, cavalle, whiting, drum, sheepshead, 
etc.; in the fall there are many sea trout. Florida is 
a paradise for fishermen, having over 600 varieties of fish. 
Launches, row and sail boats are for hire, also automobiles 
and carriages of all descriptions. At Daytona one may 
enjoy fishing, hunting (deer), boating, bathing, riding or 
automobiling. Other places have greater fame, but few are 
better. Leaving Daytona the train travels S. E., part of 
the way being through a palmetto scrub region. 

Port Orange (115 M.), a small village on the Halifax 
Eiver, is popular with some on account of the abundance 
of fish and game. Experienced guides and dogs may be 
hired reasonably. 

Hotel — Port Orange House, A. P., $2 day; $10 up wk.; 
$16 up wk. for two persons occupying one room. 

New Smyrna (122 M.) is a pretty place on the W. bank of 
the Indian Eiver, 4 M. S. from New Smyrna inlet light and 
one from the Ocean. Hotel — Ocean House, open Dec-May, 






SEABEEEZE AND NEIGHBORING RESOKTS. 369 

A. P., $3;- $15 wk.; $60 mo. It was settled in 1769 by 
Dr. Andrew TurnbuU, who engaged in the cultivation of 
sugar cane and indigo. The walls of some of his old build- 
ings still remain. It has graded schools for those who wish 
to winter in Florida and have their children, continue study. 
There are miles of splendid shell roads shaded by moss-draped 
oaks, magnolias and palms. One of the best drives is to 
Hawks' Park (3 M.), either along the shore or by the in- 
terior road. The Wheeling is perfect. The orange groves 
are numerous. About 1^2 M. from the city is the Old Span- 
ish JMission Euin, vine-clad and very old. Its history is purely 
conjectural. Some of the old wells dug by Turnbull, walled 
with coquina, still furnish excellent water. The remains of 
drainage ditches dug by him are to be seen and some of them 
still serve the purpose for which they were originally in- 
tended when dug in the eighteenth century. On the beach 
(1 M., reached by shell road and toll bridge) are splendid 
bathing and driving, the latter extending for miles up and 
down the beach at low tide. There are other smaller hotels 
and boarding houses, and New Smyrna is a pleasant place 
for one who wants comfort and quiet for hunting, fishing, 
surf bathing, etc. Ponce Park, an angling resort of con- 
siderable importance, is reached from here by carriage drive 
5 M. Iiake Helen (21 M.) is reached by branch line from 
New Smyrna. 

Hotels— Park Hotel, A. P., $2.50; $12 wk. Pacetti House, 
A. P., $2; $10 wk. Harlan hotel, A. P., $2.50-5 day; $10-18 
wk. It is very pleasantly situated overlooking one of the 
small, clear lakes. Fine artesian water, tennis, billiards, 
pool, bowling and boating. Hotel Webster and Healthful 
Rest, A. P., $2 up; $10 Vv^k; special rates by month or sea- 
son. They are located on a knoll overlooking two lakes, 
and have tennis, croquet and boating (free); good wheel- 
ing. The location is in a forest of pines and it is claimed 
to be very healthful. The lakes abound in fish. Pigeons, 
quail and wild turkey abound in the woods, also some other 
game. 

About 1 M. S. from Lake Helen Station is an unique 
Settlement of Spiritualists (the Southern Cassadega Assem- 
bly).^ According to their belief the spirits selected this 
location because its psychic and magnetic currents were fa- 
vorable, thus enhancing the spiritual and mediumistic de- 
velopment. Many of the faith and many who are not, as- 
semble here to practice or study spiritualism and for quiet 
and rest. 

Orange City farther out on the branch line from New 
Smyrna is visited by quite a number who prefer the inland 
to the coast. It is a pleasant little place among low hills. 



370 JACKSONVILLE TO MIAMI. 

The water is very pure, there being a mineral spring ship- 
ment is made of much of the waters. Cottages can be rented 
at reasonable prices. The life here is very home-like. 

Hotels — Palmetto Cottage, A. P., $1.50-2 day; special by 
wk. Freeman House, A. P., $2; $6 wk. East Lawn, open 
Nov. 1-May 15, A. P., $2; $8-10 wk. Twin Oaks Cot- 
tage open Nov.-May, A. P., $2; $7 up wk. 

DeLand, Fia., 5 M. from Orange City by carriage over 
shell road or via the Atlantic Coast Line Ey. 

Hotels — Hotel Putnam, open Dec-May, A. P., $2-3; spe- 
cial rates by wk., mo. or season; write to engage rooms. La 
Villa, open all the year, A. P., $2; $7-9 wk. The De Leon 
Spring, formerly known as the "Spring of Perpetual 
Youth," lies a short distance N. of here on the A. C. L. Ey., 
and there are some quite large lakes here. 

Eeturning again to the main line and leaving New Smyrna 
the train passes Hawks park (125 M.), a good hunting 
and fishing point (Bay View House, A. P., $2.50, special by 
the week; furnished shore cottages to let by D. E. Mar- 
shall, E. 1, No. 24 Park PI., Nev/ York.) Oak Hill (128 M.), 
is also a good hunting and fishing place (H. S. Barker board- 
ing house; write him for accommodations, A. P., $1.50; spe- 
cial by week.) Ducks, snipe ^aud water fowl are plentiful. 
Guides with decoys and dogs are available. 

Titusville (155 M.), population about 700, is the next place 
of note (Hotels, Indian Elver, open all the year, A. P., $2.50; 
$10-15 a week). One bank, livery, rates reasonable; small 
stores, no steam laundry. Night train passengers will not 
find anyone from the hotel to meet them. There are some 
boarding houses at $1.50 per day up; special by the week. 
Titusville is a small and quiet village with little attraction 
except hunting and fishing. It is on the banks of the In- 
dian Eiver, and is quite a pretty place. There are several 
places along the East coast, however, which are much bet- 
ter in every way. From Titusville a branch line of the 
Florida East Coast Line extends N. W. to Sanford (47 M.), 
there making connection with the Atlantic Coast Lino 
which extends thence via Orlando to Tampa. Orlando is a 
beautiful town. Connections may be made at Orlando with 
the Seaboard Air Line to Tampa. 

From the East to the West Coast considerable inconven- 
ience is experienced owing to the necessary train connec- 
tions. Leaving the Florida East Coast Line at Titusville 
the branch line bends N, W. to Sanford through a fine 
orange growing section, large and fine groves bordering the 
first few miles of the road, though but a few of them can be 
seen from the train. 



SANFORD— WEST PALM BEACH. 371 



SANFORD, Population 2,000. 

On Tampa main line of the Atlantic Coast Line from 
Palatka and Jacksonville; branches connect with Seaboard 
Air Line at Orlando and Tavares. On the Titusville-San- 
ford branch Fla. East Coast Line and head of navigation 
of the Clyde Line river steamers from Jacksonville (P. ). 
Union Depot right in city. 

Hotels— Sanford House, open in winter season only, A. P., 
$2-2.50 J special by wk.; large frame hotel, fairly good house. 
Wilton House, open all year, A. P., $2; special by wk. Pico 
Hotel, opp. Union Depot, A. P., $2j special by wk.; E. P. 
if desired; rates not quoted. 

Restaurants — Pico Eestaurant, best. Eoyal Cafe, meals 
25-35C. 

Few furnislied rooms are available in private houses. 

Banks — First National B. 

Southern Exp. office, opp. railway station. 

Ticket office in depot. 

Western Union Tel. Co. 

Livery — Hand Bros., best; rates reasonable. 

Men's Furnishings — Frank's, on First St. 

Dry Goods — Hettinger's, on First St. 

Postoffice— Gen. del., 7-8; M. O. dept., 8-4:30; Sundays, 
8-9 a. m. and 7-8 p. m. 

Public Library, Churches of all denominations, long dis- 
tance telephone connections and good schools. 

Sanford is on the St. Johns Eiver, in the center of one 
of the best truck growing sections in the state; has con- 
siderable fishing interests. In one year it shipped 450 cars 
of vegetables. Many bring their yachts and start out on 
fishing excursions on the river, which is very wide. The 
climate is good and there are many nice drives. 

DeLand and the De Leon Springs are situated a short 
distance N. from here on the main line of the Atlantic 
Coast Line. The A. C. L. extends S. to Tampa, Punta 
Gorda and Fort Myers, the latter being the southern- 
most point reached by rail on the W. coast. Connections may 
be made with the Seaboard Air Line for Tampa by going to 
Orlando (23 M.), as before stated, or to Traveres (P. 339, 30 
M.). Lake Charm is also reached from here via same route 
(19 M.). 

Proceeding en route from Titusville several small stations 
are passed, and between City Point (170 M.) and Cocoa (174 
M.) (left) in a high board enclosure is an Orange Grove. 
Many trees are seen beyond the fence also in Cocoa when 
leaving the station (left). Cocoa is a small town on the 



372 JACKSONVILLE TO MIAMI. 

Indian Kiver where traffic is conducted with many small 
towns and settlements on Merritt's island. Fishing and 
liunting are good and grape fruit, oranges, etc., are plenti- 
ful. (Hotel, Thomas Cottage, open all the year, A. P., $1.50; 
special by wk. or month. Cocoa House^ $2; special by wk.) 
Eockledge (176 M.), the next station, is also on the Indian 
Eiver but here it is narrow and washes a perpendicular 
ledge of rock which gives the place i'-z name. (Hotel, White's 
Cottage, open Nov. l-April 15, A. 1'., $2; $10-12 wk. Eock- 
ledge Hotel and Cottages, A. P., C-J.SO up; $15-25 wk. The 
Plaza, open Dec-May, A. P., $2.50 up.) Located in orange 
grove. Excellent hunting and iishing exists about Eockledge 
and many pleasant excursions may be made by carriage and 
by river. Orange gr'^-c^ ".bound and pineapples are grown. 
At Fort Pierce, along the river will be found game (duck, 
quail, snipe, plover and water fowl), in abundance. It is a 
great fishing point, espeeiall for tarpon. Wild cats, deer 
and turkey are also on the hunter's list. (Hotels, Fort 
Pierce, open all year, A. P., $2.50 up; special weekly rates.) 
There are several boarding houses at about $1.50 day; $8-10 
wk. The train here enters the pineapple section, passing for 
miles through pineapple plantations. Accommodations may 
be had at any of the stations and hunting and fishing is 
good anywhere. The next place of importance is West 
Palin Beach (299 M.), from whence Palm Beach is reached 
by crossing Lake Worth, on a bridge Vo M. long. 

WEST PALM BEACH, FLA. Population 2,500. 

Lake Worth is really a bayou or inlet of the sea, the con- 
necting link being some 5 M. to the N. Between West 
Palm Beach and Palm Beach proper, is a ferry and toll 
bridge, the fare by each being 5c or a book of 40 passages 
for $1. West Palm Beach is where the business houses are. 
It lies on the shore of the lake with a fine view of Palm 
Beach in the foreground. No street cars. Hotels ^^ M. 
Hacks meet trains, fare 25c. 

Hotels — The Palms, on Narcissus St., fronting the lake, 
A. P., $2-3; special wk. Hotel La Grange, Narcissus St., 
fronts lake, A. P., $3; special by wk. Park Cottage, open 
all year, close to the lake front, A. P., $2-3, special rates for 
season or by wk. The Commercial, open all the year, A. P., 
$1-1.50; special by wk; baths, gas light. Minaret Cottage, 
Olive St., A. P., $1-2; $7-10 wk. 

Several boarding houses are scattered around. 

Restaurants — No good ones. 

Furnished Rooms — At private houses and Kinzie Hotel, 
cor. Olive and Clematis. 



TEOPICAL PALM BEACH. 373 

Banks — Bank of Dade Co., only one, cor. Olive and Cle- 
matis. 

Southern Express Office — Narcissus St. 

Western Union Tel. Office — Jefeerson blk. 

Livery — Campbell & Carter, Clematis Ave., P. C. 

Ticket Office at depot. 

Stralin's Steam Laundry — P. C. 

Men's Furnishings — Anthony Bros., cor. Olive and Cle- 
matis. 

Dry Goods — Branning Bros., Clematis Ave. 

Postoffice— Narcissus St. Gen. del., 7:45-6; M. O. dept., 
8-5:30; genl. del., Sundays, 8:45-10 a. m. 

Board of Trade — H. P. Banning, Secretary. 

PALM BEACH, FLA. 

Palm Beach, across the lake, is purely a resort with only 
a few business houses to supply the needs of the guests of 
the hotels. The immense Hotel Eoyal Poinciana and the 
"Breakers" are here and the place is beautiful beyond 
compare. The strip of sand on which Palm Beach is located 
is but ^^-% M. across from the lake to the ocean and it is 
literally covered with a most wonderful tropical growth, 
there being a representative of every tropical palm, tree 
and plant that will grow in the climate. There is a pre- 
dominance of the cocoanut palm, and as these trees bear prac- 
tically all the time, fruit always is ripening. 

Hotels — The Eoyal Poinciana, A. P., $5, also E. P. and up, 
an immense frame building painted yellow. It accommo- 
dates 1,200-1,500 guests, is 5 stories in height, and must be 
fully 700 ft. in length. It stands near the lake front sur- 
rounded by a most beautiful park in which flowers bloom 
the year round. The cocoanut grove in front is used as a 
wine garden and the scene, in the evening, under the myriad 
of lights is inspiring. The cocoanut trees, the velvet lawn 
surrounded by flowers and backed by an immense building 
outlined in light, the richly dressed men and women stroll- 
ing about or seated around dainty wine tables with the twink- 
ling stars over all, present a gay picture of enjoyment. 
From the Poinciana to the ocean, 14 M., are two magnificent 
avenues, one of cocoanuts and one of Australian pines. They 
have few equals and no superiors. To the right of these 
avenues is the starting point of the magnificent Golf Links. 
The Breakers Hotel, A. P., $4 up, second in size only to the 
Poinciana, lies to the left of the end of these avenues at the 
ocean side. It is, also, an immense yellow frame building, 
recently built to take the place of the one burned. To the 
right of the avenues at the ocean side is the casino, a splen- 



374 JACKSONVILLE TO MIAMI. 

did bathing pool of salt water. The beach is not good, the 
water being deep and there being little surf, hence the surf 
bathing is not good. This is the only point in which Palm 
Beach lacks. A pier runs out into the water about 500 ft., 
where one may fish. Admission is charged. Hotel Palm 
Beach, just N. from Royal Poinciana, A. P., $3 day up. The 
Hibiscus, N. from Hotel Palm Beach, A. P., $2.50, has a 
high grade restaurant in connection and is a very com- 
fortable house. 

A walk or wheel ride along the pathway by the lake front 
past the palatial homes of America's millionaires, is one 
not soon forgotten. Nothing that can please the eye has 
been omitted and one can well imagine it is the very tropics, 
so profuse are the palm and other tropical growth. Riding 
out on Ponsietta St. S. from West Palm Beach one passes 
acres and acres of pineapples and, by going back into the 
fields, grape fruit and orange groves^ may be seen. There 
is one field of pineapples 40 acres in extent some 2 M. out. 
Much of the pleasure of life at Palm Beach is derived from 
the water. There are launches, sail and row boats for rent 
and fish abound in the bay and ocean. In rowing or sailing, 
account must be taken of the tide which runs quite swiftly. 
Up the river 5 M, is the Ocean Inlet, where, in calm weather, 
one may go out on the broad Atlantic, but the novice should 
be very careful, for wind and storm may arise suddenly. 
At the mouth of the inlet is anchored the "House Boat,*' 
where parties go in the evening. All kinds of liquors may be 
had here, or one may try cards for luck. Nothing could be 
more lovely than a sail on the lake by the light of a full 
moon. Palm Beach is all that is claimed for it and more. 
It is a vision of loveliness. It will be well to engage hotel 
accommodations ahead, as the hotels, though very large, are 
frequently unable to accommodate guests. People of mod- 
erate means will find West Palm Beach much cheaper, and 
within 10 min. of what Palm Beach proper contains. The 
hotels are small but fairly comfortable, all things considered. 

Munyon's Island — Seven M. up the lake lies Munyon's 
Island (Munyon's Hotel), a resort much patronized by an- 
glers. The fishing all about the island is of the best. The 
hotel is of good size and near the water. 

MIAMI, FLA. (366 M.) , Population about 5,000. 

On the Fla. East Coast Line, Havana, Key West and Nas- 
sau steamship lines. 

Hotels — The Eoyal Palm, a very large resort hotel in beau- 
tiful grounds, fronting a beautiful park; frame building, A. 
P., $5 and up per day. Hotel Biscayne, good house; no 



MIAMI AND VICINITY. 375 

grounds; in business section, cor. 12th St. and Ave, B, A. P., 
$3 up; $20 wk. The Everglade, cor. 14th St. and Ave. C, 
A. P., $2.50 up; special by wk, or mo. The San Carlos, cor. 
11th St. and Ave. B, A. P., $2.50 up; special by wk. or mo. 
The Southern, cor, 11th St. and Ave. B, A, P,, $2; $10-12 wk. 
The Palm Hotel, cor, 11th and Ave. B, A. P., $2.50 up; special 
by wk. or mo. The Gautier, open all year, 900 Ave. C; win- 
ter rate, $2 up; summer rate, $1.50 up; special by wk. or mo. 
Bay View House, opp. passenger station, A. P., $2j special 
by wk. 

Eestaurants — No good ones. 

Furnished Rooms — 1014 Boulevard. 

Banks — First National (safety deposit boxes) — Cor. 12th 
St. and Ave. C. Fort Dallas National Bank, cor. 12th St. and 
Ave. D. Bank of Bay of Biscayne, 1202 Ave. D. 

Opera House — None (hall with stage). 

Railway Express — The Southern, 1207 Ave, D, P. C. 

Western Union Telegraph — 1208 Ave. D, P. C; open 6 a. 
m.-midnight; Sundays, 6-9:30 a. m. and 5:30-midnight; mes- 
senger service. 

l2very — Granger's livery, cor. 11th St. and Ave. D; rates 
reasonable, P. C. 

Ticket Office at depot. 

Miami Steam Laundry — 908 Ave. D, P. C. 

Men's Furnishing — Burdine's, 318 12th St. 

Postoffice— 1223 Ave. D. Gen. del., 8:30-5; Sundays, 9-10; 
M. O. dept., 8:30-5; Carriers, Sunday, 9-10. 

Boats to rent Royal Palm Dock, canoes 25c hr.-$l day; 
dories 50c hr.-$2 day; launches $2 hr.-$15 day. 

Miami is a beautiful place on Biscayne Bay some 2 M, 
from the ocean. The water of the bay is clear as crystal and 
the fishing therein is excellent, there being nearly 100 varie- 
ties of fish. Spanish mackerel is very plentiful in the surf 
outside and in the bay, also sea bass. As a fishing point 
Miami has few superiors. Sailing on the Bay is delightful, 
though there is much shallow water. The city itself is very 
pretty, being full of tropical vegetation and bright-hued 
foliage. The streets are paved with a stone which, when 
crushed down, is almost as smooth as asphalt, and the 
wheeling is most excellent, Automobiling and driving are 
fine, though the roads are a trifle uneven for high speed. 
The cocoanut tree is in abundant evidence, and there are 
many stately royal palms scattered about, while a few 
banana trees and occasional bunches of fruit may be seen. 
The Eoyal Palm Hotel Park is very beautiful and contains 
many cocoaniits and royal palms. There is bathing on Eoyal 
Palm Beach, but to get to the surf one mr.st go by msaiir^- 
of a launch, over the bay to the ocean. 



376 JACKSONVILLE TO MIAMI. 

There are some charming drives available, the best being 
out the Everglades Road, returning via Peacock Inn. To 
take this drive leave the city on Ave. D, cross the bridge and 
turn (right) on the rock road (^4 M.). Go straight out to 
the second saw mill on the right (nr. rd.). This mill may 
have been removed, but one can see where it was. Just be- 
yond this take road (left) which leads through the timber 
and follow it straight for about 3 M. past a house en- 
closed by rock fence at cross roads until the rock road is 
reached. Turn short around (left) (the rock road comes in 
at an angle) and follow it past some orange and grape fruit 
groves until a gate (right), with a pump beside it, is reached. 
This is the home of Kirk Munroe, the writer, and a beautiful 
place it is. If permission is had to pass through it 'tis well 
to send tlie carriage on to Peacock Inn. Pass through the 
grounds, but do not touch anything; go out by the lower 
gate, turn to the right, leave the lower gate and follow the 
wall a short distance, then turn (left) on short path to the 
famous Mangrove Spring, where Sampson's blockading fleet 
secured its drinking water. This spring is half filled with 
the roots of cue of those curious Mangrove trees. The 
water is clear as crystal and one usually can see fish in its 
depths. It is Mr. Munroe*s bathing pool in which he says 
be enjoys a plunge every morning. 

Leave the spring, follow the fence past the gateway to, 
and through a turnstile, into a jungle. Some distance be- 
yond the turnstile (right) are some magnificent royal palm 
trees and a bamboo thicket (very curious). It is well when 
leaving the lower gate of Mr. Monroe's place to walk down 
to the wharf on the water front. The water is very clear, 
the view fine, and the fishing unsurpassed. Note the Yacht 
Club Bldg. setting out in the water (left) by the shore. Be- 
yond the palms spoken of pass through another gate and 
enter the grounds of 

Peacock Inn, which lie on the water front in a beautiful 
and secluded nook about 5 M. from Miami; rates, A. P., $2.50 
up; $14-20 wk. single; $25-35 double. A bus runs in season, 
fare 50c; also reached by boat. 

Peacock Inn is an ideal place for those seeking quiet and 
seclusion amid beautiful surroundings. Leaving the Inn 
any one will point out the road — the one along the water 
front — it should be followed straight to town. Much of the 
way is through a jungle, the "Hammock** country. The 
drive is very beautiful. Bring your wheel along when yon 
come to this country by all means. They are checked free 
on the Fla. East Coast Line. 

Fishing and Hunting — There is excellent fishing in thr» 
bay and ocean and, in fact wherever there is water. All 



MIAMI TO NASSAU. 377 

kinds of boats are for rent; as the prices for sail and row 
boats are very reasonable, the sport may be enjoyed by 
those of moderate means. The hunting is fair, small game, 
such as quail, etc., being plentiful. Surf bathing is rather 
inaccessible, as it is across the bay 2 M., but the small 
beach by the hotel is very good. Miami is one of the three 
best places in Florida on the ocean. 

From Miami steamers of the Florida East Coast Steam- 
ship Company ply to Nassau in the Bahama Islands, to Key 
West and to Havana, Cuba. For a description of the Key 
West and Havana trips see E. 

The round trip fare from Jacksonville to Miami by rail- 
way, thence by steamer to Key West is $33.20. From St. 
Augustine it is $32.00. From Jacksonville to Havana the 
round trip fare is $54.20, and from St. Augustine it is $51.70. 
A return ticket may be secured via Tampa by paying an ad- 
ditional sum. 

In case one travels from Jacksonville to Tampa, thence 
taking the steamer trip and desires to return via Miami, the 
same concession may be obtained on the return ticket. 

The trip from Miami to Nassau, Bahama, Is., (145 M.), 
can be made between the months of January and April. A 
fine steamer of the Florida East Coast Steamship Company 
plys tri-weekly, leaving in the afternoon; fare, $18.50, in- 
cluding berth and meals; the time required is 16 hours. 
Ticket can be secured at Jacksonville for this trip by paying 
about $27; round trip fare about $42. 

As the steamer enters the harbor the city of Nassau liea 
to the right on New Providence Is., backed by a chain of 
hills. Hog Island lies to the left, the harbor being in the 
channel between the two. The water is remarkably trans- 
parent. Eow boats meet the ship and usually it is great sport 
to watch the small negroes dive for pennies thrown overboard 
by the passengers. Their dexterity is wonderful. They 
usually catch the money before it reaches bottom, and if 
several coins are thrbwn over at once they go 20 ft. to the 
ocean bed and get them all. They may be plainly seen 
at that depth. After the baggage is examined one lands 
in a portion of King Edward's dominion. 

Hotels — Colonial, A. P., $5 up; special weekly rates; a 
very large tourist hotel fronted by pretty grounds. Eoyal 
Victoria, A. P., $4 up; special weekly rates. Victoria An- 
nex, E. P. only; rates not quoted. There also are other 
smaller, medium-priced hotels. The stores are good. Many 
furnished cottages are for rent, $10 wk. up; $24 wk. up. 

The roads and streets are of coralline rock, in fine condi- 
tion, and wheeling, automobiling and driving are enjoyable. 
The architecture to one from the United States is quite 



378 JACKSONVILLE TO SANFOKD. 

novel, and the tropical growth is profuse. The greatest 
curiosity is the ''Lake of Fire," some 2 M. eastward. This 
is a genuine novelty. The water seems strongly impregnated 
with phosphorus, and on a dark night it glows decidedly 
when agitated, but it must be visited on a dark night to be 
appreciated. As one rows over its surface the water drip- 
ping from the oars looks like drops of molten silver. A 
negro boy swimming in the lake appears to be an animated 
silver statue, and when he emerges his wool gleams with 
luminous globules — a very comical sight. The fish are out- 
lined with the same mystical light. Water thrown into the 
air drops back, emitting flashes of light as it strikes the 
surface. 

Old Fort Charlotte on the bay front W. of the city is in- 
teresting. It is a large structure, and very old. Around it 
are the excellent Golf Links of the Florida East Coast Golf 
Club. Forts Fincastle and Montague are in Nassau, and are 
quite interesting. Near them is the Queen's Stairway, 60 
ft. long, cut from solid rock and leading up to Fort Fincastle. 
At the foot is a passage through the rock 50 ft. wide and 
several hundred feet long. Nassau has much to interest 
the visitor. 



ROUTE 14. JACKSONVILLE TO SANFORD. 

Via St. Johns' Elver Steamers. 

(198 M.) Fare one way, $3.75. Eound trip, $7.50. Time, 
18 hrs. one way; 35 hrs. round trip. 

Steamers of the Clyde Line, river boats, leave Jackson- 
ville daily in winter, and Tuesdays, Thursdays and Sundays 
at other seasons, for Palatka, Sanford and way landings; 
time, 18 hours; round trip, 35 hours; fare one way, $3.75; 
round trip, $7.50; distance, 198 M. TYTe St. Johns Eiver is 
really more of a series of lakes, % to 5 M. in width, than a 
river. In these lakes there is little or no current, but in the 
stream proper between the lakes it is surprisingly rapid. 
The scenery is peculiar; it has a great deal of sameness, 
and yet it is different with each view. There is something 
to claim the attention almost every daylight moment of the 
trip. The banks are lined with moss-draped trees, cabbage 
palms, canebreaks, swamps, everglades, with an occasional 
magnolia, orange groves and farm-housos nestling in a mass 
of semi-tropical foliage. There are occasional alligators 
to be seen, if it be warm, but one must watch sharply to catch 
sight of them. They will be seen, if at all, on some fixed 



THE EIVER TEIP. 379 

object at the water's edge. The day the writer made the 
trip we were fortunate enough to see two, the result of good 
luck and a sharp lookout. One peculiar and exceedingly 
pleasing feature of the river is the quantity of water- 
hyacinths which dot its surface. You will see banks of 
them lining the shore or groups floating about the river; 
they add a picturesqueness to the scene which greatly en- 
hances the pleasure of the trip. These plants are in no way 
fixed to the earth; the roots are a mass of silky fiber which 
feed upon the water; the flowers are purple in color. The 
river is exceedingly crooked and, between the lakes, quite 
narrow with many turns, where the engines have to be 
stopped and the boat allowed to drift around the bend. The 
river is divided into lakes, as follows: Leaving Jackson- 
ville it is a river for 108 M. until Lake George is reached. 
We then enter and pass through Lake George, 15 M. long 
by 10 M. wide. Between Lake George and Lake Beresford, 
which is 5 M. long by 4 M. wide, are 35 M. of river. The 
river extends 30 M. further before Lake Monroe, 7 M. long 
by 6 M. wide, is entered, on the right of which lies Sanford, 
the terminus of the line, opposite which is Enterprise, which 
has a large frame resort hotel (A. P., $2-2.50 per day; $10-15 
wk.); this hotel, the Brock House, is at the water's edge 
near the steamboat landing, and can be recommended as a 
quiet, inexpensive place. It, at one time, was very popular, 
but the East Coast resorts enticed many of its patrons 
away. General Grant, General Sherman and many prominent 
men have stopped here. There is fine fishing (black bass), 
good shooting with wild turkey, quail, and some deer as 
game. Several mineral springs are close to the hotel, the 
water being magnesia with some chlorine. It has a general 
store, livery (rates very reasonable), gasoline launch and 
row "boats (free to guests to cross the lake), the launch 
carrying 10 to 20 persons and renting at $8 per day. Enter- 
prise is also on the Titusville-Sanford line of the Florida 
East Coast Line (P. 370). The principal points passed are: 
Black Point (10 M.); Orange Park (A. C. L. Ey. Station; 
14 M., right); Mandarin, once the winter home of Harriett 
Beecher Stowe (15 M., left); Magnolia Point, one of the 
highest bluffs on the river (about 20 ft.) (24 M., right) 
Mouth of Black Creek (24 M., right), navigable 7 to 10 M. 
Magnolia Springs (28 M., right), a somewhat popular resort 
Green Cove Springs (30 M., right), once popular but not 
much patronized n,ow; sulphur sr»ring there; Hogarth's 
Landing (39 M., left); Picolata (45 M., left), an old Spanish 
settlement, and Palatka (75 M., right). (See P. 352.) One 
may go from Jacksonville to Palatka via the East Coast 
Line and take steamer there if preferred, or the train for the 



380 JACKSONVILLE TO NEW ORLEANS. 

N. may be taken here on the return journey (P. 359). Leav- 
ing Palatka, the river narrows and becomes more crooked, 
and the growth becomes more tropical in appearance. Welaka 
(100 M., left) occupies the site of an old Spanish and Indian 
settlement, and it is about opposite the entrance to Oekla- 
wha River (P. 352). Fort Gates (106 M., right) is a beautiful 
winter home with a palm park. At the head of Lake George 
is a small lighthouse on Volusia Bar. Volusia (135 M., left) 
is near. Aster, just beyond (right), is named for the Astors, 
who, it is said, still own property there; terminus A. C. L, 
branch line; also Tavares (P. 339) and Leesburg. St. Francis 
(148 M., right) is a splendid fishing and hunting center, 
quail, etc., and some deer being found; guides, dogs, etc., 
are to be had; boarding house rates are $1.50 to $2 per day. 
The mouth of the Kissimmee River is seen, right (175 M.). 
Above this we enter Lake Monroe, and are soon in Sanford, 
the terminus of the trip. The river is navigable, for 
launches only, some distance above Sanford, and hunters and 
anglers at times go up to Lake Harney. It is badly choked 
with water hyacinth farther up its course. The trip from 
Jacksonville to Sanford is well worth taking; one can leave 
the train at Palatka, take the steamer to Sanford, and the 
train there, connecting with the East Coast main line at 
Titusvillo again if so desired, or the same thing canj be 
done with the Atlantic Coast Line to Tampa; or one can 
take the A. C. L. Ry., Sanford-Orlando (fnre 70c.), and there 
take the Seaboard Air Line Branch (P. 339), connecting with 
the main line for Tampa at Wildwood, Or, the operation 
may be reversed coming N. on either of the railways. 



ROUTE 15. JACKSONVILLE TO NEW 
ORLEANS. 

Via Pensacola, Mobil© and the Southern Gulf Coast Resorts. 

Seaboard Air Line and Louisville & Nashville Rys. (614 
M.) Fare, $19.35. Sleeper, $3.50. 

From Jacksonville (P. 331) the Seaboard Air Line is taken 
to Eiver Jet., where change is made to the Louisville & 
Nashville Ey. for New Orleans. Beyond Jacksonville some 
distance little use seems to be made of the land except to 
manufacture turpentine from, the pine trees, a large turpen- 
tine farm being^seen. Between Baldwin (19 M.) and Mc- 
Clenny (28^ M.) the line crosses the Jacksonville South- 
western which extends from Jacksonville to Newberrv with 



THE SUWANEE EIVEK. 381 

a sboft spur to Anderson and connects with the Georgia 
Southern & Fla. and Atlantic Coast Lines to the S. At 
McClenny and at Glen St. Mary (30 M.) are very large 
nurseries, from which trees are shipped in carload lota. 
Seven M. beyond Olustee (47 M.) the train passes directly 
through the battle field of Olustee, and some graves can 
be seen to the right near the line. The battle was fiercely 
waged on each side of the road, and it is said the can- 
nonading was BO heavy that almost all the timber was 
killed. ^ At Lake City (60 M.) the Seaboard is crossed by 
the main line of the Georgia Southern & Florida Ey., ex- 
tending from Valdosta to Palatka, and the branch of the 
A. C. L. from Lake City Junction joins here. The State 
Experiment Station, Agricultural College and State Univer- 
sity are here. Near by at Alligator Pond, on the Ga. So. & 
Fla. Ey. are good fishing, and small game hunting. Hotel 
Blanche furnishes good accommodations. Eates, $2 a day; 
$12 a wk. Live Oak (82 M.) is a town of about 4-5,000 
population. Here one of the Atlantic Coast Line main 
stems is crossed and the Suwanee & San Pedro, and the 
Live Oak & Gulf Eys. terminate, the latter is a short lum- 
ber road to Peek (20 M.) on the Suwanee Eiver. On the 
right are two very large saw-mills. 

From Live Oak a side trip can be made to Branford, some 
24 M. distant via the Atlantic Coast Line. From there 
small steamers ply the lower Suwanee Eiver to its mouth, 
about 35 M. The scenery is reported as excellent, and the 
fishing good. Above Branford 4 M., at New Troy is a very 
peculiar spring 50 ft. in diameter and 200 ft. deep, the 
waters of which are quite blue. 

About 4 M. beyond Peacock (91 M.) just before entering 
Ellaville (95 M.), the Seaboard crosses Suwanee Eiver, made 
famous by that quaint old negro melody, known and sung 
wherever is heard the American tongue — ''Way Down 
Upon the Suwanee Eiver." The stream is shallow and quite 
picturesque, and when not flooded it is as clear as a crystal. 
Madison (110 M.) is the next point of importance, with 
about 3,000 pop., and is situated in the center of a fine 
cotton country. It has the largest "long" cotton gin in the 
S. The Valdosta So. Ey. extends N. to Valdosta, Ga., some 
30 M. Onward to Tallahassee is a splendid cotton country. 
At Greenville (124 M.) the South. Georgia Ey. is crossed, 
and seven M. beyond, the Aucilla Eiver is crossed. At Drifton 
(138 M.) a branch of the Seaboard Air Line runs to Monti- 
cello (pop. 1,500), about 4 M. to the N., connecting 
with the A. C. L. for Thomasville, Ga., where their main 
line is tapped. Monticello is somewhat of a resort. In 
Lake Miccosukee, nearby, is fine fishing. The Partridge 



382 JACKSONVILLE TO NEW ORLEANS. 

House ofifers good entertainment; rates, $2.50; special by wk. 
Loyd (147 M.) has a good railway eating house. Arriving 
at Tallahassee, as the business section is 1 M. from both 
depots, take a hack; fare 25c. 

Tallahassee, Fla. (165 M.), is on the Seaboard Air Line 
Ga., Fla. & Ala., Tallahassee & S. Eastern and Carabelle, 
Tall. & Ga. Eys. The distance is short between the depots. 

Hotels — The New Leon, McCarthy St., is the best in the 
city; rates, A. P., $2.50 up; $14 wk. up. Bloxham Hotel, 
Monroe St.; rates $2 day; $10 wk. 

Roger's Restaurant — Best one. 

No Furnished Rooms. 

Banks — First National, Monroe St. Capitol City Bank, 
Monroe St. 

Southern Exp. Co., 215 Monroe St. 

Monroe's Opera House. 

Western Union Tel. Co. 

Hancock's Livery — Eates reasonable. 

Chinese Steam Laundry — McCarthy St. 

Street Cars — None. 

Public Library — McCarthy St., nr. Monroe. 

Board of Trade — Yes. 

Tallahassee is situated on a hill which rises 280 ft. above 
the sea and the red clay soil is uncommon in this part of the 
State. Though for years and years it has been the capital 
city, and though it is surrounded by a fine farm region, yot 
it has only about 5,000 inhabitants. The streets are lined 
by great oak trees with graceful draperies of the pendant 
gray moss_ which is one of the characteristics of Florida. 
In the spring time when the roses are in bloom the gardens 
are like a dream of beauty. In McCarthy St. is a very 
pretty park which has a live oak tree whose branches 
spread fully 150 ft. The principal buildings are the Capitol, 
Court House and W. Florida Seminary. The Capitol was 
first built by the Federal Government as a territorial capi- 
tol and has since been added to from time to time. It is not 
pretentious. The W. Florida Seminary buildings are all 
frame except the main one which is of red brick and quite 
fine. In the Episcopal Cemetery lie the remains of the 
son of the King of Naples, Prince Archille Murat, who 
married a Virginian and lived about 2 M. distant. Pleasant 
drives can be taken and the followers of Izaak Walton can 
find plenty of fish in the nearby lakes, of which there are 
several. Wakulla Spring, which is 106 ft. deep and very 
transparent, is 15 M. S. It can be seen by going out on 
the branch line to St. Marks, getting oft at Wakulla Sta. 
and then going by boat or carriage 4i/l> M. 

From Tallahassee the Seaboard trends N. W. through 



TALLAHASSEE— PENSACOLA. 383 

Quincy (189 M.), the county seat of Gadsden County, to 
Eiver Junction (209 M.), which has a curious railway sta- 
tion on trestle work above the Apalachicola Eiver. A 
branch of the Atlantic Coast Line extends N. E. from here 
to Climax, Ga., where it joins the main A. C. L. to Savannah 
via Thomasville, Waycross, and other points. Connection 
can be made also with steamers of the Apalachicola 
Eiver. From Eiver Junction the Louisville & Nashville is 
taken, which spans the Apalachicola Eiver (formed by the 
Flint and Chattahoochee) at Chattahoochee Eiver Landing 
(211 M.), and continues westward through a lake-dotted 
region, crossing the Chipola Eiver at Marianna (235 M.)- 
Between Caryville (271 M.) and Westville (273 M.) the 
Choctawhatchee Eiver is crossed. Westville is the county 
seat of Holmes County. De Funiak Springs (291 M.), popu- 
lation 2,000, Hotel Chautauqua, A. P., $2, is some pat- 
ronized as a winter resort. At Crestview (320 M). junction 
is made with the Yellow Eiver Ey., extending N. E. At 
Milligan (324 M.) the Yellow Eiver is crossed. Milton (350 
M.), population 1,203, City Hotel, A. P., $2, lies on the 
Black Eiver near its confluence with East Bay, and is the 
county seat of Ssnta Eosa County. Beyond Gait City (352 
M.) the train passes by a bridge 3 M. long over the waters 
of Escambia Bay, fine marine views lying on the left, to 
Escambia (361 M.), and thence it skirts along the shore 
of the Bay to Pensacola (369 M.), population 17,477, Hotel 
Escambia, A. P., $2.50 up; Merchants, A. P., $2.50 upj Man- 
hattan, A. P., $2; Southern, A. P., $2 up. Pensacola is an 
exporting point, and an inspection of its shipping interests 
will prove an agreeable diversion. It is an excellent place 
from whence to make hunting and fishing excursions, sea 
fish and oysters existing in numbers. Small steamers ply 
to Ft. Barancas, Ft. Pickens, Ft. McEae and the Navy 
Yard. From Pensacola the L. & N. goes northward with 
the Escambia Eiver on the left to Flomaton (412 M.). 
From Flomaton to New Orleans, see E. 11 B (P. 247). 



384 SAVANNAH TO MONTGOMERY. 

ROUTE 16. SAVANNAH TO MONT- 
GOMERY. 

Via the SeaTjoard Air Line. 

(340 M.) Fare, $10.20. Sleeper, $2. 

Passing westward from Savannah the Seaboard branch 
to Montgomery crosses the Central of Georgia Line at 
Meldrim Junction (nV2 M.), also the Little Ogeechee River 
and, beyond at Cuyler (20 M.), the Ogeechee River, which 
joins the Cannouchee some 15 M. to the S. (left) and empties 
into Ossabaw Sound 20 M. below Savannah. At Pem- 
broke (32 M.), pop. about 200, and Claxton (49 M.), pop. 
about 400, are minor industries. Hagan (51 M.) has three 
large saw mills near, and a logging railway 25 M. long. 
Just before reaching Ohoopee (68 M.) the Ohoopee River 
is crossed. Ohoopee is a small hamlet with two large saw 
mills and a cotton gin. Lyons (75 M.) is a nice place with 
1,500 inhabitants. It is in a fine farming section and has 
two cotton gins. Mt. Vernon (92 M.), pop. 700, has a tur- 
pentine still and large saw mills near it. The Ochwalkee 
River is crossed 1% M. before reaching Ochwalkee (95 M.). 
Much timber is rafted down the Ochwalkee River. 

Helena (115 M.) and McRae are practically one and have 
about 2,000 to 3,000 inhabitants. These towns have an oil 
mill, novelty works and cotton gins, and are in a good farm- 
ing country. Just before entering Abbeville (139 M.) the 
trains spans the Ocmulgee River, which with the Little Ocmul- 
gee and the Oconee forms the Altamaha River that flows into 
Altamaha Sound. Abbeville is an important point with hard- 
wood saw mills, ginnerv, oil mills, etc. River steamers ply 
from here to Ocilla (33'M.), where the Tifton & N. E. R. R. 
(Atlanta to Birmingham), makes connection. 

At Cordele (168 M.) the Georgia Southern & Florida is 
crossed, and a line S. W. to Albany enters. The Flint River, 
which joins the Apalachicola at the S. W. corner of the 
State, is crossed % M. before reaching Huguenin (179 M.). 
The next town of importance is De Soto (186 M.), pop. 200; 
there is considerable sugar cane raised in the vicinity. At 
Americus (199 M.) the Central of Georgia, from Albany 
(S.) to Macon (N.) is crossed. The surrounding country is 
fine cotton land. 

Eleven M. N. from here, on the Central of Ga. Ry., is his- 
toric Andersonvillo Prison of Civil War fame. In May, 1890, 
the site of the prison and the surrounding land was pur- 
chased by the Government and converted into a Park. The 



ANDERSONVILLE— NATIONAL CEMETEEY. 385 

National Women's Eelief Corps has charge of the prop- 
erty and are pledged to care for and improve it. The area 
of the ground is 81 acres, and it includes all the surrounding 
forts and earthworks. These forts are well preserved and 
are shaded by young forest trees. Accommodations at very 
reasonable rates may be had at the home of the caretaker, 
though room is limited; meals are 50c. The beautiful flag 
which floats from the pole was the gift of the Prisoners of 
War Ass'n of Connecticut. The archway at the entrance 
was presented by W. R. C. No. 9, of the Dep't of Kansas, 
and No. 172, Dep't of Massachusetts. Providence spring, 
in a neat, open, stone building, was named by the prisoners 
because it appeared during an electrical storm at a time 
when great suffering existed. No doubt it saved many lives, 
as the only water supply was that of the creek which was 
contaminated by the filth and offal of the stables along its 
banks above the prison. Its sacred water now flows from a 
carved fountain of marble. There are two fine monuments, 
those of Ohio and Massachusetts. 

The National Cemetery (N. about Vi M.) contains 25 
acres, and includes all the ground in which the dead of An- 
dersonville Cemetery were buried. The remains lie as con- 
signed by the Confederates. A marble headstone has been 
placed at each grave, and unconscious of the loving care 
bestowed on their tombs, thus sleep those who died in the 
squalor and wretchedness of Andersonville prison pen. There 
are about 13,710 graves — 991 unknown. About 600 of the 
unknown were taken from the battlefield around Macon. 

From Americus the Seaboard line passes to Plains (210 
M.), pop. 700, which is in the center of a fine cotton belt. 
Preston (220 M.) is the seat of Webster Co. Kinchafoonee 
Creek is crossed 2 M. beyond this station. 

At Eichland (228 M.), pop. 1,500, the Ga. & Ala. R. R. 
from Columbus (N.) to Albany (S.) is crossed. Oil mills, 
gin, peach and fruit raising are some of the industries; cot- 
ton and grain of all kinds are raised. Lumpkin (236 M.), 
pop. about 1,500, is the seat of Stewart Co. Surrounding 
it is high, rolling country; there are several hundred acres 
of peach orchards; gin and water-power flour mills comprise 
the industries. Omaha (257 M.) — town l^/^ M. left— lies on 
the Chattahoochee River which forms the western boundary 
of Georgia. The land is low and very rich. The river is 
crossed, 14 M. beyond, on a steel draw bridge 1,565 ft. long 
and 23 ft. above the water, and Alabama is entered. The 
country is now low and flat, the soil resembling prairie land. 
Cotton and corn are grown. From Pittsview (267 M.), pop. 
700, the country remains low and flat. At Hurtsboro (284 



386 SAVANNAH TO MONTGOMERY. 

M.) the Central of Ga. (Columbus to Union Springs) is 
crossed. 

MONTGOMERY, ALA. (340 M.), Population about 31,000. 

On the Seaboard Air Line, Western Ry. of Alabama, Cen- 
tral of Georgia, Mobile & Ohio, Atlantic Coast Line, Talla- 
hassee & Montgomery and Louisville & Nashville (branch 
line). The Alabama River is navigable to Mobile. Trains 
of all roads enter the Union depot. Leaving the depot turn 
(left) to first street and take the cars up town 4 or 5 blocks. 

Hotels — Glenmore, cor. Perry St. and Madison Ave., A. P., 
$2.50-3. Merchants', 105 Bibb St., E. P., 75 cts.-$1.50. Ar- 
lington, 1416 Perry St., E. P., $1. Clancey's, cor. Bibb and 
Commerce Sts., E. P., 75 cts.-$1.50. Magnolia, 313 Dexter, 
A. P., $1.50. The Dexter, a new, high-grade hotel. 

Restaurants — Ellis, 11 N. Perry St., short order; meals 
25 cts. Acme, 12 S. Court, short order; meals 25 cts. Ho- 
gan's, 20 N. Perry. Roch, 24 N. Perry. Fitzpatrick 's, on 
Dexter Ave. 

Furnished Rooms — 223 Dexter Ave.; 118i^ Montgomery St. 

Banks — First National, 14 Commerce St. Fourth National, 
24 Commerce St. Merchants' & Planters '-Farley Nat., cor. 
Court Sq. and Dexter Ave. American National, 34 Com- 
merce St. Union Bank & Trust Co., 10 Commerce St. 

Theaters — Bijou, 212 Bibb St., seats 1,100; combination 
house; prices 15-50c. Montgomery, 21 N. Perry St., seata 
1,300; combination house; prices 25c-$l. 

Express Companies — Southern Exp. Co., 113-115 Bibb St., 
P. C. 

Telegraph. Co. — ^Western Union, cor. Bibb and Commerce 
Sts., P. C; closed 2-6 a. m.; same hours Sunday; messengers. 

Livery — Haygood Livery, 16 N. Lawrence, P. C; rates 
reasonable. 

Railway Ticket Oifices — Seaboard Air Line, No. 6 Com- 
merce St. Central of Ga., No. 4 Commerce St. Atlantic 
Coast Line, No. 16 Commerce St. "Western of Ala., No. 8 
Commerce. Mobile & Ohio, cor. Commerce St. and Court Sq. 

Steam Laundry — Capital City Steam Laundry, 219 Mont- 
gomery St., P. C. 

Men's Furnishings — Alex. Rice, Nos. 8-9 Court Sq. Cap- 
itol Clo. Co., Court Sq. 

Department Store — The Fair, 16-22 Court Sq. 

Public Library — Cor. Perry and Adams Sts. 

Postoffice — Cor. Dexter Ave. and Lawrence St. Gen. del., 
7:30-8; Sundays, 9-10 a. m.; M. O. dept., 9-5; registry, 8-6; 
carriers, Sunday, 9-10. 

Commercial Body — Commercial and Industrial Association. 



THE CITY OF MONTGOMERY. 387 

For full list of churches, clubs, secret societies, halls, busi- 
ness blocks, etc., see City Directory. 

The leading local industries are cottonseed oil mills, (4); 
fertilizer wks. (3), cotton mills (3), hardwood factories (3), 
veneering works (2), sash, door and blind factories (2), 
planing mills (4), carriage factories (3), cracker and candy 
factories (3), cotton compresses (3), barrel factory (1), 
boiler works and foundry (2), pants factory (1), brewery, 
distillery, syrup factory, and several small plants of various 
kinds. 

Montgomery is the capital and third city of Alabama, 
situated on the high left bank of the Alabama at the head 
of navigation. The business section, though, is quite level. 
It lacks street signs and numbers, the latter particularly 
in the business section, making it very difficult for a stranger 
to find what he wants. The residence part of the city is 
on rolling ground, the site being ideal. One noticeable 
feature of Montgomery is the colored section, where there 
are many comfortable homes. The City Hall has an audi- 
torium M^hich it is claimed seats 7,000 people. Street cars 
of all lines pass through Court Square, the center of the 
business portion of the city. The Court St. and Union 
Depot line (5 cts.) passes through the best residence part 
of the city. The Water Works System is worth inspection. 
The water is obtained by compressed air pumps from ar- 
tesian wells 900 to 1,500 ft. deep, and it is very pure. By 
getting a permit from the city waterworks office (city 
building) ascent to the summit of the water tower may be 
made and a magnificent view gained of the city and sur- 
rounding country. Only those with strong nerves should 
try this, as the spaces between the steps of the stairs are left 
open. 

Picket Springs, Picket Springs car (5 cts.), is a very pleas- 
ant resort with vaudeville, tennis, boating, etc. The ride 
out there is delightful. The Capital City Gun Club has its 
grounds there, adm. free. Electric Park is the fashionable 
resort; take Electric Park car (5 cts.). Admission is free. 
Vaudeville, etc., amuse one. 

The Capitol Building is at the head of Dexter Ave. (6 
blks. from Court Sq.) on high ground. Plans are on foot 
to enlarge the grounds, making them about double. The 
building is three stories, of plastered brick, in the form 
of a cross surmounted by a small dome, and was the first 
capitol of the Confederacy. At the N. front is a magnificent 
monument to the Confederate dead. In front of the build- 
ing is the flag pole, a spar of the famous Merrimac, pre- 
sented to the State by Hobson. From the front portico 
Stephen Douglas delivered a speech in 1860. Entering, a 



388 .MIAMI TO HAVANA. 

bras8 star is seen which marks where Jefferson Davis took 
the oath of office as President of the Confederate States of 
America, Feb. 18, 1861. In the State Treasurer's office in 
a case is the Bible used on that occasion. In the rotunda 
are relics of the late war. On the first floor is a mixed 
library of 30,500 volumes. The Confederate Senate met in 
the senate chamber on the second floor, and on this floor 
(left) is the room of the State Historian in which is a fine 
collection of oil portraits of famous men. On the third floor 
is a room containing a set of furniture from Jefferson Davis' 
home at Beauvoir, near Biloxi, Miss. The Convention which 
seceded Alabama met in the Hall of Representatives on 
Jan. 7, '61, and a lithograph copy of the ordinance of 
secession (Jan. 11, '61), may be seen in the library. One 
may ascend to the dome if desired. At the corner of Lee 
and Bibb Sts., in the heart of the city is an old building 
with a heavy cornice which was for a time the home of JeS'- 
erson DavisI On the second floor of Clancey's hotel he had 
an office. 

In the outskirts of the city (Oak Park car, 5 cts.) is 
Highland Park, a splendid natural oak grove with drives. 
En route at the corner of Ripley and Jackson (right) is the 
St. Marguerite (Sisters of Charity) Hospital-Sanitarium, a 
large and excellent institution. It is a four-story brick 
building with nice grounds. On Thurman St., S. Jackson 
and Stone St. car, fare 5 cts., is the State Kormal and 
Academic Industrial School for colored people, and at the 
rear are very large conservatories and floral gardens. The 
Carnegie Library, cor. Perry and Adams Sts., is a beautiful 
building in the French Renaissance style; cost, $50,000, and 
has a yearly maintenance fund from the city of $5,000. 



ROUTE 17. MIAMI OR KEY WEST TO 
HAVANA. 

By Steamer — Fla. East Coast S. S. Co. 

To Key West, 165 M. Fare $8.75. 

To Havana, 240 M. Fare $21.00. 

The trip from Miami to Key "West, or to Havana, Cuba, 
is delightful. The Florida East Coast Steamship Company 
runs a large steamer three times a week to Key West (165 
M), fare $8.75, including berth and m.eals; time required, 
18 hours. It also runs a boat twice a week to Havana (240 
M.), fare $21, including berth and meals; time consumed 
16 hours. Between Miami and Key West the boat closely 



KEY WEST AND FLORIDA STRAITS. 389 

follows the reefs, sometimes within and sometimes without. 
The water is quite transparent, and it is very amusing to 
watch the finny tribe in their evolutions beneath the sur- 
face. The scenery is tropically beautiful, and the trip 
possesses a full quota of novelty. 

KEY WEST. Population 17,000. 

Hotels — The Island City, open all the yearj rates, A. P., 
$3; by wk., special. The Jefferson, $3 up. Cripe, A. P. 
and E. P., $1.50-2.50 a day, with restaurant in connection. 

Key West is situated on one of the most southwestern 
of a chain of reefs or keys extending from Miami, and it is 
the seat of Monroe County, Fla., which embraces all of the 
Florida Keys. These reefs are of coral formation, and the 
name of Key West arises from the Spanish words ''Cayo 
Hueso" (Bone Island), derived from the finding of numerous 
human bones there by Spanish mariners. The vegetation is 
entirely tropical, flowers blooming the year round. The 
temperature ranges from 50 to 96 degrees in summer and 
about 70 'degrees in the winter. Many of the inhabitants 
are Cubans, who are chiefly engaged in cigar factories which 
abound, producing more than 150 million cigars annually. 
As many Americans reside there the customs and archi- 
tecture possess both American and Cuban characteristics. 
Sponge fishing, turtle catching and deep sea fishing are the 
chief industries. Key West has a fine harbor and as the 
Southern Navy headquarters are located there, war vessels 
are seen almost constantly. During the Spanish-American 
war it was the rendezvous of Sampson's squadron and the 
newspaper fleet. 

Beyond Key West lies Florida Straits ninety miles wide, 
and the gulf stream is encountered, but as the steamer 
draws near Havana the waters grow calm and the harbor 
affords shelter. The entrance from the ocean is narrow, 
scarcely more than 300 yards wide, extending half a mile, 
then broadening and spreading out into several square miles. 
No fresh water rivers empty into it, and with such a nar- 
row entrance, little rise or fall of tides, and the sewerage 
constantly pouring into it, the water becomes very foul. 
Efforts have been made to overcome this, however. 

HAVAITA, CUBA. Population over 200,000. 

Reached by steamer from Miami, Fla., New Orleans, La., 
Tampa, Fla., and Punta. 

Depots— United Rys. of Havana, Pardo & Colon Park, 



390 MIAMI TO HAVANA. 

Western Ey. of Gorda, Fla,, Havana Ltd., on Christian St., 
Marianoa & Havana Ry., Paseo & de Tacon. 

Hotels — Inglaterra, A. P., $4.50, and E. P., cor. Pardo and 
San Rafael. Louvre, E. P., Consulado and San Rafael. Flori- 
da Hotel, A. P., $3, No. 28 Obispo. Washington Hotel, A. P., 
Prado, nr. Central Park. Pasaje, A. P., $4, 95 Prado, near 
Central Park. United States Hotel, A. P., Amistad and 
Dragones Sts. Mascotte Hotel, A. P., $2.50, No. 35 Ofieios. 
Isle de Cuba, A. P., $2, No. 45 Monte St. Roma, A. P., No. 
16 Monseratte. Tacon. (These rates are U. S. cur- 
rency.) 

Theaters — Payret, Prado, near Central Park. Tacon, cor. 
Prado and San Rafael. Albisu, cor. San Rafael and Zulueta 
Sts. Cuba, 60 Neptune St. Marti, cor. Dragones and Zu- 
lueta Sts. Chinese, No. 35 Zanja St. Lara (men only), No. 
142 Consulado St. 

Postoffice— At the foot of O'Reilly St. 

Custom House — Foot Teniente Ray St. 

Cable Office — Cor. Ofieos and Murralla Sts. 

Coach Tariffs — To any point within the limits bounded 
by Belascoin St., 20 cents for one or two persons; 30 cents 
for three. Belascoin to Infanta, 25 cents; three 35 cents. 
For every stop addition must be made of the price of origi- 
nal drive. By the hour, $1.25. After 11 o'clock p. m. all 
coach and street car fares double. These prices are in 
Spanish silver. 

In Cuba all prices are based on Spanish silver, which av- 
erages in worth about 65 cents on the U. S. dollar. The 
denominations are as follows: 

Centavo, one cent (Spanish); Dos centavos, two cents 
(Spanish); Un Pesado, twenty cents (Spanish); Dos Pesado, 
forty cents (Spanish); Uno Peso, $1 (Spanish). 

Havana, the principal city of Cuba, presents a truly cos- 
mopolitan and metropolitan scene. Its streets are narrow 
and paved with granite and other block, so there is much 
noise. On these narrow streets are stores as fine as any of 
Par?s or New York, though they are not large, for they' 
deal in specialties after the European custom. The curio 
stores are on O 'Rcilly and Obispo streets. The theaters 
are very fine, the Tacon being the third largest in the 
world. The main street of the city is the Prado which, 
with a succession of parks, extends from the water opposite 
Morro Castle on the harbor, almost across the city. In 
these parks music is given by a military band usually three 
times a week. The Parque Central (Central Park) is one 
of the parks and the fashionable center. Near it arc the 
most attractive portions of the city, most of the best 
buildings — theaters, principal hotels, etc. Fronting it is the 



POINTS OF INTEREST IN HAVANA. 391 

Inglaterra, Cubans best hotel, and the Tacon Theater, already 
mentioned. The hotels follow the Cuban habit of serving 
coffee, fruit, bread and butter in the morning, and breakfast 
from 11 to 1. 

Fully four-fifths of the houses are one story and everything 
tends to coolness and comfort. The windows are open, 
guarded by light iron railings, and the heavy wooden doora 
are usually ajar. The floors are of marble, tile, or polished 
wood, uncarpeted, and in the center of the building is a 
court with flowers, palms, vines and fountains. The home 
of the wealthy Cuban is usually unpretentious from the 
street, as the front faces the court, and the rear of the 
building is next to the street, although some are built with 
wide verandas supported by columns and a flat roof sur- 
rounded by a railing. The Cubans pay much attention to dress. 
The gentlemen Lave underwear of lisle or silk and suits of 
silk, drill or linen. The ladies have many soft tissue-like* 
fabrics, and as they gather at the band concerts in their 
light draperies and Spanish mantillas, their languorous 
beauty and dreamy dark* eyes are liable to prove alluring to 
the masculine visitor. 

The people of Havana are kind and generous, affable and 
hospitable. They think more of being happy and having 
a good time, than of being rich. The health of those in 
Havana and the island generally is very good. There are 
fewer practicing physicians in Havana than in a small 
American town. 

The ladies do not leave their houses in the heat of the 
day and when shopping they do not leave their carriages, 
and are accompanied by a servant. 

Points of Interest — As one enters fairly into the harbor 
Monro Castle is seen and (right) across the way, its 
neighbor. La Punta; from the hills behind Morro, frowns 
Cabana Castle. Morro or Cabana may be visited by boats, 
obtainable at the wharves near the Custom House for $1 
per hour. All along the shores of the harbor lie great ware- 
houses for sugar and tobacco. The Recogidas, or Women's 
Prison, is on Compostella St., between Conde and San Isidro. 
In this prison was confined Miss Cisneros, whose thrilling 
escape was one of the romantic episodes of the period pre- 
ceding the war with Spain. Between Conde and Isidro 
Sts. is Atares Castle, which may be visited by boat or the 
Jesus del Monte car, fare 5 cts. Boat hire is 1 peseta. At 
the cor. of Emperado and San Ignacia Sts., in the lower 
part of the city, is the old Cathedral, of gloomy exterior 
and small architectural beauty. The interior is decorated 
by a profusion of color. In this church is the valut in 
which rested what was said to be the remains of Columbus, 



392 MIAMI TO HAVANA. 

and the tomb from which his ashes were removed to Madrid 
in 1898, is at the foot of O'Reilly St., fronting Plaza de 
Armes. The removal of his supposed remains from their long 
resting place was one of the last oflS.cial acts of Spain in 
abandoning rule in Cuba. 

In the Plaza de Armes are four gardens with a statuo of 
Ferdinand VTII. in the center, also some very fine palms. 
The Cliurch of St. Augustine, cor. Amargura and Cuba Sts., 
was erected in 1608, and has a fine collection of oil paint- 
ings. The famous Albears statue is in Albears Park. The 
San Alejandro Academy, on Dragoncs St., bet. St. Nicholas 
and Manrique, contains a collection of paintings by old 
Dutch and Spanish masters. The Principe Castle and Pyro- 
technic Bldg., where ammunition was made, are reached by 
green car marked ''Castillo del Principe," which crosses 
the Prado and stops at the fort; fare 5 cts. St. Augustine's 
Chapel, for English-speaking Catholics, is on the cor. of 
Margura and Aguiar Sts. Quinta de los Molinos, the Gover- 
nor General's summer palace, is on Carlos Tercera Ave.; 
take Castilla del Principe car, fare 5 cts. The Botanical 
Gardens are on Carlos Tercera Ave., take Castillo del Prin- 
cipe car, fare 5 cts. The Colon Cemetery, where the Maine 
victims are buried, is reached by Vedado car to 12th St., and 
a short walk, fare 15 cts. 

El Vedado is a beautiful suburb of Havana. Cars leave 
the station on Zulueta St. every half hour, fare 10 cts., and 
pass en route the Santa Clare Battery. Cars stop at the 
Almendares River where the line of forts, known as the 
**Chorrera Batteries," begins. Cojimar is a favorite resort 
and bathing place. Stages run from Guanabacoa, fare 10 
cts. Marianao is the fashionable seashore resort for the 
residents of Havana. Train leaves Concha Sta., round trip, 
50 cts. One may enjoy most pleasant drives about the city, 
along the water front to the harbor entrance, or the avenues 
of the city, or out to the Cristobal Colon Cemetery, and 
thence to the Summer Palaces and Botanical Gardens, thus 
gaining a view of the country adjacent. 

This is only a faint outline of what Havana has for the 
enjoyment of the visitor, as its attractions and those of its 
environs are many and will fully occupy one for several 
days. 

Cuba, the greatest island of the West Indies, lies just 
within the north torrid zone and in latitude, climate, physi- 
cal characteristics and resources resembles the Philippines, 
Puerto Rico and Hawaii. Its entire length from Cape Maysi 
to Cape San Antonio is 760 miles. Its area is about the same 
as that of England. Its population is about 1.700,000. The 
year is divided into two parts, the wet and the dry season, 



HISTORY OF CUBA. 393 

the wet season extending from May to October, though 
rain falls every month. In the wet season, however, rain and 
thunder storms occur almost daily. The easterly trade 
breeze prevails. Hurricanes may be encountered between 
August and October, but they are rare. A central mountain 
chain extends through Cuba and the island is divided into 
three mountainous groups, the interior of each comprises 
exceedingly fertile lands. It is also divided into what is 
called ''Vueltas," of which there are four, and these di- 
visions are most used in reference by the Cubans. In these 
interior plains the climate is very pleasant, somewhat the 
same as that of the temperate zone, the characteristics of 
the torrid zone being found in the low lands along the 
coast. About foar-fifths of the area of Cuba are comprised 
in the low-lands which are rich in tropical growth. Owing 
to the topography of Cuba, its rivers are necessarily short; 
however, they carry a great volume of water because of the 
heavy rainfalls. Cuba is wonderful for its subterranean 
caves, and many of the rivers become lost in the ground. 
It has few lakes, and virtually is surrounded by islands, 
reefs, keys and banks, making navigation difficult. Where 
the shore is not surrounded by natural breakwaters a high 
and bold outline is seen, which furnishes many harbors. 

The following is taken from a publication of the Central 
of Ga. Ry., and seems so pertinent and correct that it is 
given verbatim. It was intended for the use of soldiers in 
the late war and applies more particularly to those who will 
remain for a considerable time in the Island, but the sug- 
gestions will be found valuable no matter how short a time 
one is there: 

*'The worst place for foreigners on their arrival in Cuba 
is the coast, and the important cities are generally located 
along the worst part of the coast. It is^ better to arrive 
in a cool season, and even then the heat will necessitate the 
changing of all woolen garments for those of linen or cot- 
ton. The sickly or indolent appearance of the whites of 
the country is soon acquired, activity and spirits diminish, 
the body becomes heavy, and the skin becomes covered with 
abundant perspiration, due to anaemia, all of which shows 
that the person is becoming acclimated. This peried will 
not usually exceed a year, during which time one should 
guard against any excess of work or pleasure, late evenings, 
bodily or mental fatigue, exposure to the sun, or rapid cool- 
ing off, or any cause that might produce illness. Exposure 
to the sun in an unhealthy country may bring on fever, 
which generally assumes the character of yellow fever; sud- 
den cooling off is also the cause of many diseases. When 
the skin is covered with perspiration, it should not be ex* 



394 MIAMI TO HAVANA. 

posed to a draft of cold air, nor should clothes saturated 
with water or perspiration be left on, but should be changed, 
if possible, the body being first wiped dry and rubbed with 
cane brandy or rum. 

** Exercise on foot, horseback, or in a carriage is necessary 
for one who is visiting this land for the first time, but only 
in the morning and evening; washing and bathing are also 
very good, first in tempered and after in a few days in 
cold water; baths should not be taken after hard work, and 
the best time is the morning or at noon, after the body has 
been at rest. 

"While ready perspiration is one of the essentials to the 
preservation of health, danger also lurks in it, for when in 
such a condition, a few moments in the shade, exposed to a 
breeze, will bring on a cold more quickly here than in any 
other place outside the tropics. If it is noticed that the 
perspiration is stopping on a warm day, a physician should 
be consulted immediately, and also in the case of giddiness, 
headache, etc. 

''Cotton garments are much better than those of linen, 
for they absorb less perspiration and render the skin le&s 
susceptible to chills. 

"As to food, the visitor should neither imitate the sober 
habits of the Creole, nor continue the diet observed at home, 
but he should adopt a medium, and use wholesome and nu- 
tritious meats, and the salt and fresh water fish that 
abounds in those regions. He should not disdain the vege- 
tables and plants which the Creoles do not like. It is also 
well to use certain condiments, such as pepper, cloves, all- 
spice, cinnamon, and others that heighten and flavor food 
and aid digestion; though used, they should not be abused. 
The moderate use of certain tropical fruits to which north- 
erners are accustomed, such as oranges, lemons, limes and 
pineapples, is advantageous without question, but there are 
hosts of others, mostly of a soft, squashy nature, and a 
sweet sickish taste, such as the mango, sapote, alligator 
pear, etc., that it is wise to avoid. The combination of al- 
cohol with them is almost deadly, and here, on its native 
heath, it is well to let the banana alone. 

"Persons from the north are always anxious to taste 
Cassava bread. It is wise, therefore, to warn those not 
fully acquainted with the poisonous character of the root 
from which it is made not to try experiments in this direc- 
tion, unless satisfied that the product is made by some Cuban 
who is familiar with the substance that is being dealt with. 

"Excess in eating and drinking should be avoided, as it 
produces intestinal disorders whict result in grave diseases. 
The slow and continuous use of alcohol causes a marked 



HISTORY OF CUBA. 395 

deterioration in the constitution, being one of the greatest 
obstacles to acclimatization; it diminishes the appetite and 
retards acclimatization. However, a little rum mixed with 
water is a stimulating and wholesome drink, especially on 
hot days. Soft drinks and lemonade are not good, as they 
cause a kind of plethora which turns into diarrhoea. Fruits 
produce the same effect, and it is necessary to be careful of 
the least indisposition which tends toward diarrhoea. 

''In Cuba the slightest wounds on the legs or feet quickly 
ulcerate. A scratch which might be cured by two or three 
days' rest turns into an ulcer from continual niarching and 
friction, and a soldier is soon unfitted for service. 

* * The following suggestions regarding health will be found 
useful: 

"Never start out early in the morning without having 
taken at least a cup of coffee, but do not eat heartily at that 
time. I * 

One need feel no alarm, however, for with reasonable care 
it is clear that no inconvenience will be incurred. 

Cuba Historically. 

Cuba was discovered by Christopher Columbus, October 28, 
1492, shortly after his discovery of San Salvador. It was 
first named Juana after Prince John, the son of Ferdinand 
and Isabella, and when he died it was called Fernandina. 
Later it was termed Santiago in reverence of the patron 
saint of Spain. In proof of piety the inhabitants afterward 
changed its name to Ave Maria. But in spite of all these 
changes the old Indian name Cuba clung to it and secured 
permanent foothold. In 1511 Don Diego, a son of Colum- 
bus, fitted out an expedition of 300 men under Diego Vel- 
asquez, which landed at Baracoa, situated on the eastern 
extremity. This was the first permanent settlement at- 
tempted. Santiago de Cuba and Trinidad were founded by 
Spaniards in 1514. The cultivation of sugar cane and to- 
bacco was begun in 1580, and shortly after slavery was 
introduced. 

There were several revolts from Spanish rule, the prin- 
cipal one being in 1827-29, but they were successfully com- 
bated by the Spaniards, whose rule remained supreme until 
the late Spanish- American war. In 1845 there was a serious 
revolt of the sugar plantation slaves, and about 1,400 persons 
were convicted and punished. The slavery question probably 
prevented the purchase of Cuba for $100,000,000 by the 
United States under Polk's administration. In 1868 a re- 
bellion broke out which lasted ten years, in which were 
perpetrated most horrible outrages by the home guards. As 



396 MONEOE TO EUTHERFOEDTON. 

the audience was coming out of a theater, from a play by 
Cubans, the guards poured volley after volley upon them. 
This is only a faint illustration of what the people suffered 
at their hands. Many governments of the Western hemi- 
sphere recognized the Cubans as belligerents during this war. 
Slavery was finally absolutely abolished by law, Coolie 
or Chinese workmen taking the places of the slaves. In the 
fall of 1894, the last and successful revolution was begun, 
which by the blowing up of the United States battleship 
Maine in Havana Harbor, February 15, 1898, involved the 
United States in the war with Spain. After an occupancy 
of Cuba by the U. S. for some period, the Cubans finally 
became a free nation, privileged to stand among the nationa 
of the world. 



ROUTE 18. MONROE TO RUTHERFORD- 
TON AND THE CHIMNEY ROCK 
COUNTRY. 

Via the Seaboard Air Line. 

(104 M.) Fare $8.70 round trip. 

This route is in the nature of a side trip from the Sea- 
board Air Line Eailway. (E. 12 A, P. 271.) The Seaboard 
sells tickets which include the stage fare from Eutherford- 
ton to Chimney Eock (19 M.) and return. 

At Monroe, N. C, a branch line of the Seaboard Air Line 
extends N. _W. to Eutherfordton, N. C. (104 M.) There is 
but one train daily each way. Several towns of importance 
are passed. Charlotte, N. C. (24 M.) (P. 358), one of the 
principal manufacturing points of the state, has large cotton 
cloth mills, cotton mills, clothing factories, large machine 
shops, etc. Mt. Holly (35 M.), on the banks of the Catawba 
Eiver, has large cotton mills. Lincolnton (55 M.), on the 
S. fork of Catawba Eiver, has 7 large cotton mills. Junc- 
tion is made here with the Carolina and N. W. Ey., an inde- 
pendent Hue running from Chester, S. C, to Lenoir, N. C. 
On this line is some very beautiful scenery. The river 
is crossed just after leaving the station. About 2 M. 
beyond Waco (68 M.) a fine view is had of King's Mt., of 
revolutionary war fame. It was here that General Ferguson 
(British) said: '*This is the King's mountain and God Al- 
mighty cannot drive me from it. '^ His army was driven 
from it, but he gave up his life in the struggle. A monument 
commemorates the battle. The next point of interest is 



SHELBY— CLEVELAND SPKINGS. 397 



SHELBY, N. C. (76 M.), Population 2,500. 

Shelby is on the Eutherfordton branch of the Seaboard 
Air Line and the Ohio Biver and Charleston branch of the 
Southern Ey. 

Hotels— Shelby, $2 day. Central, $2 day. Former the 
best house. 

Restaurants — None. 

Southern Express, P. C. 

Western Union Telegraph, P. C. Long distance, P. C. 

Livery — W. H. Blanton; rates reasonable, P. C. 

General Stores. 

Postoffice — Open 7-7. 

Leading Local Industries — Cotton mills and oil mills. 

It is a fair farming country, but has much rather poor 
land. Cotton, corn and wheat are the principal crops. 

Out 2V2 M. from Shelby are Cleveland Springs, the waters 
of which are quite strong. There are several of them, the 
main ones being of white and red sulphur, lithia and iron. The 
altitude is 1,000 ft., and the location is pleasing. The hotel 
is a large brick three-story building on the brow of a small 
hill overlooking the Springs below. There is nothing espe- 
cially fine about the place, but it is surrounded by large 
forest trees and apparently is comfortable. Bowling, dan- 
cing, music, lawn tennis and some nice drives may be en- 
joyed. King's Mountain (P. 396) is in sight 14 M. away. 
The hotel is equipped with electric lights, hot and cold baths, 
pressure water, etc. Hacks meet all trains in season; fare 
25 cts. Hotel rates, $2 a day; $9-10 a week. 

Analysis of Cleveland Springs — White Sulphur Springs: 
One gallon of water contains 4.80 cubic inches Sulphuretted 
Hydrogen Gas and Carbonic Acid, 4.50 grains Carbonate of 
Lime, 18.70 grains Sulphate of Lime, 4.80 grains Muriate of 
Lime, 7.65 grains Muriate of Magnesia. Iodine or Red Sul- 
phur Spring: One gallon of water contains 4.22 cubic inches 
Sulphuretted Hydrogen Gas and Carbonic Acid, 3.12 grains 
Carbonate of Lime, 17.42 grains Sulphate Lime, Iodine and 
Magnesia. Chalybeate Spring: One gallon of water contains 
12.50 grains Carbonate of Protoxide of Iron, 1.50 grains 
Carbonate Lime; traces of Sulphate Lime and Magnesia. 

Patterson, a small resort 4 M. from. Shelby on the Southern 
Railway is 1 M. from Patterson Springs Station.^ It is not 
much patronized. A hotel is located at the Springs but it 
takes only a few boarders. No hack service is at hand. The 
water is strongly impregnated with sulphur. At Sutherford- 
lon (104 M.) the line ends, but it makes connection with 
the Southern Railway for Asheville, or with the stage line for 



398 MONEOE TO EUTHEEFORDTON. 

Chimney Eock. The stage runs to accommodate Seaboard 
Air Line passengers holding Chimney Eock tickets. 

Tlie Trip to Chimney Rock. 

CTiimney Eock lies in a beautifully picturesque gaf) of the 
Blue Eidge Mts. 19 M. from Eutherfordton. The Seaboard 
Line sells tickets through to the Eock and return, utilizing 
the hack line for the Eutherfordton-Chimney Eock portion 
of the journey. The toad is not of the best but the drive is 
a pleasant break in the railway journey, and the natural 
beauty of the Gap through the beautiful North Carolina hills, 
notwithstanding the roughness, will render it enjoyable. The 
stream crossed on an iron bridge is Coal Creek, which 
empties into Broad Eiver. A number of persimmon trees 
grow along the road, also walnuts, chestnuts and chinqua- 
pins, the latter apparently a small chestnut, being similar in 
taste, growth and color. The persimmons are not ripe until 
frosted. The mountains further on (right) beyond the town 
are the South Mts. — part of the Blue Eidge range. Tyron 
and Hogback Mountains (left) are in a spur of the Blue 
Eidge. The stream that appears on the left, and which 
must be forded three times and followed to Chimney Eock, 
is Broad Elver. Quite a distance from the place where an 
iron bridge is passed, at the foot of a small hill, is a little 
store (left). At the top of the hill is a beautiful 
mountain view. The mountain directly in front is Harris' 
Pinnacle of Bald Mt., which lies just to the right of Chim- 
ney Eock. Farther on (1 M.), note, right, the picturesque 
bend in Broad Eiver. Nearing the Gap here the road begina 
to grow very rough, and the scenery very picturesque. 

The first hotel is the Logan House, which lies in a charm- 
ing valley 1% M. below Chimney Eock (rates $1.50 a day; 
$6 a wk.; $20 a mo.) Entering the Gap proper. Chimney 
Rock Inn (rates $5 a wk.) is passed at the bridge which is 
crossed to mount to Chimney Eock. A little farther up is 
Mountain View Inn, which is the best one in the Gap both 
as to location and service (rates $1.50-2 a day; $7 a wk.). 
This Inn sets almost squarely in front of the rock, and ia 
in plain view of the waterfall (310 ft. high). The view 
from its veranda is charming. Its service, like that of all 
hotels, is of the country style, but it is good and deserving 
of recommendation. About 1^/^ M. farther up is Esmeralda 
Inn, a good house but not so well located (rates, $2 a day; 
$10 a wk.). There are other inns farther up but they are 
too far away from the best part of the scenery. Many peo- 
ple who come from Hendersonville frequent Esmeralda Inn 
as it is nearer. 



THE CHIMNEY EOCK COUNTRY. 399 

Up the Cliimney — ^Leaving Mountain View Inn go to 
Chimney Rock Inn and engage a guide, paying 25 cents 
therefor. One may only get on the Chimney and Alpine Way 
with a guide, as a locked gate intercepts. The climb up is 
a stiff one as the trail is a regular Colorado mountain trail. 
Arriving under the Chimney, pass through the gate. Two 
paths are' soon seen, the one to the left leading up the Chim- 
ney while the other leads up around the sheer face of the 
rock wall of Point Lookout to the top of the waterfall, 
and is called Alpine Way. Take that path first. It is very 
steep and rough, but perfectly safe, though there are one 
or two places which may try the nerves. Ground Hog Slide 
is one of them. It is passed on a narrow board footpath. 
It is a smooth, bare rock which slopes downward from the 
wall several hundred feet, the angle being about 50 degrees. 
Fat Man's Misery will try the patience of those who are 
not slender. Passing through Buzzard's Eoost, which ia 
overhung by Cataract Rock, toward Point Lookout, a fine 
view is gained of the canon beneath, the Hickory Nut Falls, 
and the surrounding mountains. The height of the Falls by 
measurement is 310 ft., the wall being nearly perpendicular. 
Thence one may pass on (about 2 M.) to the head of the 
Falls and up over the mountain to Point Lookout, where 
the most extensive view is gained. The height of Point 
Lookout above the floor of Mountain View Inn is 1,160 ft., 
altitude of the Inn 1,070 ft., altitude of top of Point Look- 
out 2,870 ft., height of Chimney Rock 250 ft., diameter 60 
ft. The Gap is in what is known as the isothermal belt, 
where, owing to some peculiar condition, it never freezes, 
nor does the dew fall. One may go around to Chimney Bock 
from Point Lookout. 

Returning to the parting of the ways and taking the other 
path, ascent to the summit of Chimney Rock is made by a 
short climb, mostly up stairways. Facing Little Round 
Top, which is the small peak just above and a little to the 
right of Mountain View Inn, the stretch of valley before 
one (right and left) is Hickory Nut Gap. To the left in the 
point of the canon or gap is Bear Wallow Mt., to the right 
of which is another high peak — Little Pisgah. The mountain 
directly across the canon (back of Mountain View Inn) is 
Bald Mountain with Harris Peak straight ahead on the sum- 
mit. Rumbling Cave is around the point of the mountain 
(right). About 30 years ago this whole mountain was agi- 
tated for quite a period, the convulsions occurring sometimes 
twice a day and sometimes once a week. The phenomenon 
puzzled the scientists, and no satisfactory explanation was 
ever offered. The range which forms the horizon, right, ie 
Cherry Range. On a very clear day Eing's Mountain is 



400 EL PASO TO NEW ORLEANS. 

visible. It lies straight down the valley and is tlie most 
distant point in view. The panorama of mountain peaks 
and valley from the chimney is very beautiful, the landscape 
being of many hued green. Looking backward through the 
Gap (a trifle to the left when one turns around), if it be 
clear the view extends over into South Carolina. 

The Pools — A very queer but interesting freak of nature 
is the Pools. They lie about 1% M. or perhaps not quite so 
far, from Mountain View Inn. There are three of thera, 
situated in stairlike fashion in the bed of a small stream, a 
short distance apart. A little waterfall of but a few feet 
in height lunges into each one, but that the action of these 
falls should have worn out the solid granite in this fashion 
seems absurd. The Pools are 6-10 ft. across, round iu shape 
and varying in depth, the upper one bein;^- about 10 ft., the 
middle ouo some deeper, and the lower, about 90 ft. A 
pretty little vista is seen looking up the Creek from the 
Upper Pool. There are two small caves, one of them 
tumbling Cave, is just around the point of Bald Mt., while 
the other. Bat Cave, is on the left of the canon above 
Esmeralda Inn. Esmeralda Cabin is a rock formation re- 
Bembling a cabin. 

The trip to Chimney Eock is a good one. It is some 
trouble to get there, but mountain climbers will be in their 
element. Nice views, good living, quiet, sociability and 
rest reward the visitor. Telephone connection may be had 
with Rutherfordton, Asheville and Hendersonville, and 
through them with the outside world. As there is no barber 
shop bring your razor along. There is a small general 
store but no good cigars or tobacco can be procured. Mail 
should be addressed to Bat Cave, N. C, care of the hotel 
you intend to stay at. From Chimney Eock to Henderson- 
ville the road, except the first 8 M., is good. The road to 
Asheville is not good. The distances are as follows: Ruth- 
erfordton, 19 M.; Hendersonville, 17 M., Asheville, about 
20 M. 

ROUTE 19. EL PABO TO NEW ORLEANS. 

A. Via Fort Worth, Dallas, Marshall, Shreveport and Alex- 
andria. 

Texas & Pacific Railway. (1160 M.) Fare $29.90. Sleeper 
$7.00. 

Leaving El Paso, Th6 Texas & Pacific trends S. E., fol- 
lowing the course of the Rio Grande to Fort Hancock. 
Thence it proceeds to Sierra Blanca (92 M.) where the 
Southern Pacific for San Antonio and New Orleans (R. 19 B, 



WEATHERFORD TO FORT WORTH. 401 

P. 414) intersects. To the right the Quitman Mts. are seen. 
Pecos (213 M.) is the seat of Pecos County, one of the largest 
in Texas. It is the southern terminus of the Pecos Valley 
Ry., which extends N. to Roswell, following Pecos River and 
tapping an agricultural section. Proceeding en route, Pecos 
River is spanned and the train enters Barstow (220 M.), the 
seat of Ward County. Odessa (286 M.) is the seat of Ector 
County. Midland (306 M.) is the seat of Midland County. 
Salt Lake, a square sheet of water, lies some 5 M. to the S. 
(right). Stanton (325 M.) is the seat of Newton County. 
Thence the train crosses Girauds Creek, a tributary of the 
Colorado River and enters Big Spring (346 M.) the seat of 
Howard County. Just beyond Colorado (383 M.), pop. 1,500 
(St. James Hotel, A. P. $2), the seat of Mitchell County, the 
Colorado River is crossed some 20 M. from its source in the 
hills to the N. Sweetwater (411 M.), pop. 1,000 (Oriental 
Hotel, A. P. $2), is the seat of Nolan County. Abilene (452 
M.), pop. 5,000 (Adams Hotel, A. P. $2), is the seat of 
Taylor County. At Cisco (498 M.), pop. 2,000 (Hartman 
House, A. P. $2), the Texas Central extending to Stamford 
on the N. W. and Waco on the S. E. is crossed. From 
Thnrber Junction (537 M.) eastward to Weatherford the line 
extends along over hills more or less covered with a shrubby 
growth, the good land lying about 5 M. out on either side. 

WEATHERFORD, TEX. (578 M.), Population 6,500. 

Hotels— Carson & Lewis, W. Side Sq., E. P., $2 a day. 
Montfort, W. Church St., E. P., $2 a day. Kirksey Hotel, 
N. Main St. 

Restaurant — CMedium) Club, N. Side Sq. and one on N. 
Main St., at No. 204. 

Banks — Citizens' National, Main and Sq. Merchants & 
Farmers, Main and Sq. First National, Fort Worth St. and 
Square. 

Theater — Haynes Opera House, W. S. Sq.; seats 600; 25 
cts. to $1. 

Railway Express Offices — Pacific, N. Main St. Wells Fargo 
& Co., N. Main St. 

Telegraph Company — Western Union, over Cit. Nat. Bank, 
P. C. 36; office hrs., wk. days, 8 a. m. to 8 p. m.; Sundays, 9 
to 4. A. D. T., 322 Yard Ave., P. C. 166-3. 

Livery — Putman & Son, Palo Pinto; rates, single, 1st hr., 
$1; add., 50 cts., P. C, 47. W. R. Turner, Ft. Worth St.; 
rates, single, 1st hr., $1; add. hrs., 50 cts., P. C, 111. 

Railway Ticket Offices— Texas & Pacific, P. C. 150. W. 
M. W. & N. W. Ry., at T. & P. depot, P. C. 150. Santa Fe, 
P. C. 26-2. 



402 EL PASO TO NEW ORLEANS. 

Bill Posters and Distributors — Will P. Shirley, Yard Ave., 
P. C. 166-3. 

Trunk Repairs — Weatherford Machine & Foundry Co., 
Water St. 

Laundry — Weatherford Steam Laundry, P. C. 135-3. 

Men's Furnishings — Chas. Barthold, Main St. 

Department Store — Baker, Paston & Co., York Ave. 

Postofflce — E. S. Public Sq. Gen. del. and stamps, open 
wk. days, 8 a. m. to 6 p. m.; Sundays, 2-3; M. O. window, 
open 8 a. m. to 6 p. m.; carrier window, open Sundays, 2-3. 

Commercial Club — Board of Trade, Secretary, Jas. Wilson. 

Leading Local Industries — Cotton mill, forty-ton ice plant, 
flour mill, three cotton gins, cottonseed oil mill, compress, 
three machine shops and foundry. 

No street cars; local and long distance telephones are in 
operation. 

Weatherford lies on the summit of a small hill, alt. 1,000 
ft., and is built around a public square in the center of which 
is a handsome graystone county building. It has 44 M. of 
graveled streets, affording splendid riding and driving. The 
Weatherford Mineral Wells and Northwestern Ey. extends 
N. W. about 21 M. to Mineral Wells. 

From Weatherford the line runs through a sparsely settled 
and more or less timbered region, the better farming land 
lying some distance out. In the past this was all used for 
grazing but the Texans have awakened to the fact that it is 
**just as good'* for farming as for pasturage and tilled 
fields are now seen. Nearing Fort Worth an isolated group 
of houses is seen off to the left, Arlington Heights, a new 
suburb. Also to the left and right lie some of the better 
residence sections of that city. 

FORT WORTH, TEX. (547 M.), Population about 35,000. 

On the lines of the Texas & Pacific, Houston & Texas Cen- 
tral, 'Frisco, Mo., Kas. & Tex., Fort Worth & Denver City, 
Int. & Gt. Northern, Rock Island, Cotton Belt and Santa Fe 

Rys. 

Trains of all roads except the Santa Fe and one other 
enter the Texas & Pacific Union Depot at the foot of Main 
St. (street cars to all parts of the city in front). Restau- 
rants are on Main St. near it. In the station is a cafe and 
eating house. The Santa Fe depot is a short distance away. 
Street cars lie two blocks in front of it. 

Hotels— Worth, 805-9 Main St., A. P., $2.50-5. Delaware, 
cor. Main and W. 4th St., E. P., $1-2; cafe in connection. 
Metropolitan, 911-19 Main St. Rosen, 1402 Main St. (near 



FOET WORTH AND ITS SIGHTS. 403 

depots), A. P., $2; E. P., 50c. up. Richelieu, cor. Main and 
15th Sts., A. P., $1-1.25 (near depots). 

Restaurants — Metropolitan Hotel Cafe (see Metropolitan 
Hotel). Johnson's Restaurant, 1412 Main St. Delaware 
Hotel Cafe (see Delaware Hotel). Mason's Cafe, 1004 
Main St. On Main street are restaurants of all kinds. 

Furnished Rooms — All along Main St.; signs out; from 
$2.50 wk. up. 

Banks — American Nat., cor. Main and 16th Sts. Farmers' 
& Mechanics Nat., cor. Main and W. 7th Sts. Ft. Worth 
Nat., 514 Main St. State Nat., 500 Main St. Stock Yards 
Nat., Exchange Bldg., N. Ft. Worth. Traders' Nat., 401 
Main St. Western Nat., 1015 Main St. 

Theater — Greenwall Opera House, cor. 3rd and Rusk Sts.; 
only one in city; seats 1,214; prices based on play. 

Railway Offices — American, 910 Main St., P. C. Pacific, 
109 W. 7th St., P. C. United States, 111 W. 7th St., P. C. 
Wells-Fargo, 708 Main St., P. C. McVeigh Exp. (Interur- 
ban to Ft. Worth), 1625 Main St., P. C. 

Telegraph Companies — Postal, 812 Main St., P. C; open 
7:15 a. m.-l a. m.; Sundays, 8 a. m. -midnight. Western 
Union, cor. Main and 4th Sts., P. C; open 7 a. m.-2 a. m.; 
Sundays, 8 a. m.-2 a. m.; messenger service. 

Railway Ticket Offices — Tex. & Pac, cor. Main and 6th 
Sts., P. C. Int. & Grt. No., 809 Main St^ P. C. Houston 
& Tex. Cent., 811 Main St., P. C. Santa Fe, 710 Main St., 
P. C. Cotton Belt, 512 Main St., P. C. Rock Island, cor. 
5th and Main Sts., P. C. 'Frisco System, cor. Main and 8th 
Sts., P. C. Mo., Kas. & Tex., 906 Main St., P. C. Ft. Worth 
& Denver City, 811 Main St., P. C. 

Steam Laundry — Acme Steam Laundry, cor. 8th and 
Throckmorton Sts., P. C. 

Men's Furnishings — Washer Bros., cor. 8th and Main Sts. 

Department Store — None. 

Dry Goods — Parker & Lowe D. G. Co., cor. 7th and Hous- 
ton Sts. 

Trunks and Repairs— Pollock Trunk Co., 908 Main St., P. C. 

Postoffice — Jennings Ave., cor. Texas Ave. Gen. del., open 
7:30-7; Sundays, 10-11; M. O., 9-5; registry, open all the 
time; carriers' window, Sundays, 10-11. 

Public Library — Jennings Ave., near City Hall. 

Commercial Body — Board of Trade, B. B. Paddock, Secre- 
tary. 

Fort Worth dates from the close of the Mexican war when 
Major Arnold was sent into Northern Texas with a detach- 
ment of soldiers to protect the settlers from the Indians. 
He established a military post, but no fort was ever built. 
The old barracks stood on the brow of the bluff at the 



404 EL PASO TO NEW ORLEANS. 

head of Houston St., but a considerable portion was over 
the river on the flats. The location is slightly rolling and 
the main part is on the bluff of the Trinity River. Fort 
Worth is the home of many wealthy stockmen and there 
is a remarkable percentage of very fine residences. The 
business portion is not up to the standard expected on view- 
ing the evident wealth exhibited by residences. It is a 
great railway center, and is and has been almost from its 
inception one of the centers of the great stock raising indus- 
try which formerly was the ** backbone" of Texas affairs. 
It is an active business center and a progressive city. Main 
St. and Houston St. and the cross streets between are the 
principal ones. At the head of Main St. is the Court House, 
a handsome structure of red granite erected in 1893-95; cost 
$450,000. It is one of the finest county buildings in the 
West. Just in the rear is the County Jail. On Jennings 
Ave. is the Federal Building, a handsome S% brown stone, 
opp. which is St. Patrick's Church, erected in 1888. Near 
here, on the same street, is the City Hall, a splendid ,3-story 
gray stone structure with a square tower. The Public Li- 
brary, a red brick 2-story structure, erected in 1901, is al- 
most opp. it. The library contains about 13,000 volumes. 
On the second floor is a small but excellent collection of 
ancient fireanns and some paintings, one of which is a small 
painting of Christ, by Murillo. Perhaps the greatest point 
of interest in the city is the packing houses which are 
reached by Stockyards car, fare 5 cts. The yards are quite 
large. Swift and Armour each having an establishment. The 
whole process of butchering is here conducted on a large 
scale. Summit Ave. car, cor. 7th and Main Sts., fare 5 cts., 
passes through the best residence portion, in which are the 
homes of cattle kings, many of whom are very wealthy and 
some are millionaires. 
From Fort Worth the line proceeds through a rather com- 
monplace country to 

DALLAS, TEX. (516 M.) , Population about 50,000. 

On lines of the Texas & Pacific (depot cor. Pacific Ave. 
and N. Lamar; Gulf, Colo. & Santa Fe depot cor. Commerce 
and Murphy) ; Houston & Texas Central depot junction H. 
& T. C. and T. & P. tracks) ; Mo., Kas. & Tex. (depot Pacific 
Ave., bet. Market and N. Jefferson Sts.); Texas & New 
Orleans (depot same at H. & T. C). 

Hotels — Oriental, cor. Commerce and S. Ackard Sts., A. P., 
$3 day up. St, George, 244 Main St., E. P., 75 cts. up; with 
bath, '$2 up. Imperial, 321 Main St., E. P., $1-2. Arlington, 



THE UP-TO-DATE CITY OF DALLAS. 405 

337 Main St., A. P., $1.25-1.75. Bodessa, 363 Elm St., 50 
cts.-$l; by wk., $2-5. 

Restaurants— Elite, -291 Main. Del Monte, 298 Mam. 
Coney Island, 216 Main. Lang's, 332 Main. 

Furnished Rooms — On Pacific Ave., above 5 points; on 
Live Oak St., and at Rodessa Hotel; $2.50-4 wk. 

Banks — American National, City National, Gasten Na- 
tional, National Bank of Commerce and others. 

Theaters — Dallas Opera House, cor. Main and St. Paul; 
prices based on play. Bush Temple, 3071/2 Elm St.; seats 
881; stock house; prices, 10-20-30 cts. 

Railway Express Companies — United States, 261 Main, P. 
C. Wells-Fargo & Co., 263 Main, P. C. American, 277 Elm, 
P. C. Pacific, 217 Elm St., P. C. McVeigh (Ft. Worth 
Interurban Exp.), 217 Elm St., P. C. 

Telegraph Company — Western Union, 197 Main St., P. C; 
open all the time. Postal, 243 Main, P. C; closed 2-7 a. m.; 
closed Sundays 1-8 a. m. 

Livery — Oriental Livery, 237 Commerce, P. C; rates rea- 
sonable. 

Railway Offices — Texas & Pacific, cor. Main and Murphy 
Sts., P. C. Houston & Tex. Cent., 271 Main St., P. C. Cotton 
Belt, cor. Commerce and Lamar, P. C. Chicago, Rock Island 
& Gulf, 332 Main St., P. C. Santa Fe, 246 Main St., P. C. 
'Frisco System, cor. Main and Ackard Sts., P. C. Big Four 
and Chicago & Grt. Western, 257 Main St., P. C. 
Scalpers — On Main St. 

Trunks and Trunk Repairs — ^Wilkins Trunk Co., 275 Elm, 

P. C. 

Men*s Furnishings— Burk & Co., cor. Main and Paydras Sts. 

Department Store — Sanger Bros., cor. Main and Lamar Sts. 

Postoffice — Cor. Main and Ervay Sts. Gen. del., open 8-7; 

Sundays, 9-11; M. O. dept., 9-5; carriers' window, Sunday, 

9-10 a. m. 

Public Library — Cor. Commerce and Howard Sts. 
Commercial Body — Commercial Club, John G. Hunter, Sec- 
retary. 

Dallas is one of the foremost cities of Texas and very 
pleasant. It lies on land that is just undulating enough to 
afford drainage. The business section shows many fine 
blocks and wide, well paved streets. The whole place looks 
''prosperous," the residence section being remarkable for 
its almost universal showing of comfortable, well-kept homes. 
From the dome of the Court House a splendid view of the 
city is had; adm. free; open from about 8 a. m. till dark. 
Main and Elm Sts. are the main retail streets along^ which 
are many fine stores. The city is a little lacking ^ in 
paving in the residence districts, but this is being remedied. 



406 EL PASO TO NEW ORLEANS. 

There are many nice rides, but they are only in the resi- 
dence section and require no specific directions. Go out 
Main or any of the prominent streets and drive around at 
will. 

Prominent Buildings — The Court House is at the cor. of 
Main and Market streets, and is of brown sandstone and 
granite, with a square central tower; cost about $350,000. 
*View from tower. The City National Bank, cor. Main and 
Murphy Sts., white brick and stone, is one of the best ap- 
pointed bank buildings in the West. Good interior, Corinth- 
ian columns in front. The Elks' Club Bldg., Main St., bet. 
Ervay and St. Paul Sts., is handsomely constructed of stone 
and yellow brick and it is charmingly furnished and ar- 
ranged. The Federal Building, cor. Ervay and Main Sts., 
is built of yellow stone and is of good size. Many of the 
structures would be a credit to a city twice the size of 
Dallas. 

Ervay and McKinney street car lines take one through 
the better residence districts, fare 5c. On Bryan St. (Bryan 
St. car, fare 5c.) is the St. Paul (Catholic) Sanitarium, a 
most excellent institution. On the Bryan street car line is 
the handsome building of the Ursaline' Convent (P. 168) set 
in spacious grounds. At the end of the same line, Garrett 
Ave., near Koss Ave., is the Episcopal College for girls; the 
main building is of stone 4 stories high. The State Fair 
Grounds and Cycle Park are reached by the Main St. and 
Commerce St. car, fare 5c., and are worth visiting. The 
grounds are quite pleasing, and there is a small Zoo. The 
city has purchased the place and made a park of it, but the 
fair building and race tracks are maintained and the State 
Fair and Spring Eace Meets are still held there. The attend- 
ance at this fair has been as high as 275,000. There are 
117 acres, and a % and 1 M. track. Opposite the Fair 
Ground Park is Cycle Park with a summer treater. Aiken's 
Park, on E. Ervay St., Ervay street car, fare 5c., has a 
Confederate monument. Firemen's monument, and pretty, 
though small, grounds. The Public Library, cor. Commerce 
and Howard Sts., was opened in 1901 and cost $50,000. It 
has about 16,000 vols., a collection of French literature 
brought over from France some 50 years ago, and a fine 
collection of public (U. S.) documents. At the right of the 
entrance is a rapid fire naval gun captured at Manila by 
Admiral Dewey. The Del Monte Cafe, 108 Fields (men's 
entrance on Main) with its private dining rooms, fitted in 
the style of different countries, is worth an inspection. There 
is nothing of startling interest to the tourist in Dallas, but 
it is a pleasure to visit there. The people are warm and 
cordial, and the city is delightful. Its climate in winter is 



FEOM TERKELL TO MAKyiiALL. 407 

quite mild, though there is an occasional ''norther" or cold 
wind that approaches suddenly. Uncomfortably cold weather 
is rare. 

From Dallas the train proceeds E. through some unim- 
portant stations. Just before entering Terrell, on the left 
is the Teras State Lunatic Asylum (about 1,500 patients). 
The Texas Midland is now crossed. It is owned by Hetty 
Green, but managed by her son, who is owner of the Green 
Demonstration Farm (350 acres), 1^2 M. S., where the gov- 
ernment conducts agricultural experiments. 

TERRELL, TEX. (484 M.), Population 8,000. 

Hotels — Shelby, Moore Ave. and Virginia St., A. P., $2 per 
day. Grand Midland, 402 East Grove, A. P., $2. Mansion, 
S. Virginia and Broadway, A. P., $1 per day. 

Restaurants — French Cafe, 212-214 E. Moore Ave. Rus- 
sell's, 210 E. Moore. Ben Young's, 103 W. Moore. Phillips 
Bros., 109 E. Moore. 

Furnished Rooms — Mrs. J. E. Boonevilles, 120 N. Cather- 
ine. Mrs. Nora Grady's, Adelaide and College. Mrs. N. S. 
Boatwright, 406 College. Prices, 35-75 cts. per night; $2-3 
per wk. 

Banks — First National, E. Moore Ave. and Catherine St. 
American National. 

Theaters — None. 

Railway Express Offices — Pacific, Union Depot, P. C. 
Wells Fargo & Co., Union Depot, P. C. 

TelegTaph Companies — Western Union, S. Virginia and 
Broadway, P. C; office hrs., all day to 10 p. m.; Sundays 
the same. 

Livery — The Fair Stable, cor. Francis and Nash Ave., P. 
C; single, $1.50 per hr.; $3 a day; double, $2 per hr.; $3-3.50 
per day. T. J. Brown, 306 E. Broadway, P. C; rates the 
same as The Fair Stable. 

Railway Ticket Office— Union Depot, P. C. 

Bill Posters and Distributors— Midland Billposting & Dis- 
tributing Co., 316 E. Moore Ave., P. C. 

Laundry— Terrell Steam Laundry, 301 N. Adelaide, P. C. 

Men's Furnishings— The Famous Co., cor. Moore Ave. and 
Adalaide, P. C. Overton, Gilmore & Co., 105 E. Moore Ave., 
P. C. 

Department Store — The Fair, cor. Francis and Moore Ave. 

Postoffice — Cor. Moore Ave. and Virginia. Gen. del. and 
stamps, open 8 a. m. to 6:30 p. m.; Sundays, 9-10 a. m.; M. 
O., open 8 a. m. to 6.30 p. m.; carrier window, Sundavs, 
9-10 a. m. y . > 

Public Library— Cor. High and Francis. 



408 EL PASO TO NEW ORLEANS. 

For Churches, Clubs, etc., see City Directory. 

Street Car System — None. 

Telephones — Local and long distance. 

Leading Local Industries — Oil mill, foundry and machine 
works, Texas Midland E. E. shops. 

Will's Point (C92 M.), pop. 1,337 (Harris House, $2 per 
day), is a good business place, and is the center of a fine 
farming community. Between it and Edgewood (699 M,), 
a farm village, is the famous Texas black prairie lands, the 
soil of which is exceedingly rich and productive. Fruitvale 
is so named from the fruit trees planted, and it is expected 
that eventually it will be one of the fruit centers of Texas. 
Grand Saline (710 M.), pop. 1,700, is the terminus of the 
Texas Short Line, which connects with the M. K. & T. at 
Albia, Texas. The three salt wells here produce heavily. 
Salt water is pumped up and evaporated. Mineola (723 M.), 
pop. 4,000-5,000, N. W. terminus of the Troupe br. of the 
Int. & Gt. Northern Ey. (Ey. eating house), is surrounded by 
a farming community, has one cotton compress, and one box 
factory. Hawkins (740 M.) is a fishing and hunting point. 
About 1 M. S. away are lakes in which good trout fishing 
exists, and small game such as squirrels, duck, geese, etc., 
may be hunted, in season. At Big Sandy (746 M.) connection 
may be made with the Cotton Belt Ey. for Waco, Texarkana, 
etc. It has a canning factory. Adjacent are thousands of 
acres of young peach orchards; and vegetables, especially 
tomatoes, which have a very fine flavor, prove profitable. 
Gladewater (756 M.) has a big sawmill, and is surrounded 
by a farming community. At Longview (768 M.) junction 
may be made with the Int. & Gt. Northern for San Antonio, 
Laredo, etc. (E. 10, P. 218), that being its N. E. terminus. 
The town and junction have about 6,000 people, and good 
farms and peach orchards lie adjacent. It is the seat of 
Johnson Co. The T. & P. freight division is there. Lansing 
(775 M.) is in a pine belt region. Hallville (779 M.), pop. 
about 500, has a canning factory and is in a fine fruit and 
vegetable region. 

From Hallville the train soon glides into 

MARSHALL, TEX. (368 M.), Population 10,000. 

Hotels — Ginocchio, N. Washington Ave., A. P., $2.50 a day. 
Capitol, 204 E. Houston Ave., A. P., $2-2.50. The Elgin, 
T. & P. depot, A. P., $2. National, 501 N. Washington Ave., 
A. P., $1; per wk., $5. 

Eestaurants — J. T. Terry, 209 E. Austin. 

Furnished Rooms — Mrs. Conley's, S. Washington Ave., 803 



THE CITY OF SHKEVEPORT. 409 

E. Bowie, and 306 E. Houston Ave.; prices, 50 cts. to 75 cts. 
per night and $3 to $4 per wk. 

Banks — First National and Marshall National. 

Theaters— Marshall Opera House, S. Public Sq.; seats 700; 
prices. 50 cts. to $1. 

Eaiiway Express Offices — Pacific Express, T. & P. depot, 
P. C. American Express, N, Washington Ave., P. C. 

Telegraph— Western Union, N. Public Sq., P. C; office 
hrs., 8 a. m. to 8 p. m.; Sundays, 8 to 10 and 4 to 6. 

Livery— C. J. Cocke & Co., S. Bolivar, P. C; rates, single, 
per hr., first hr., $1.50; double, first hr., $1.50; add. hrs., $1. 
C. H. Spellings, Public Sq., P. C; single, first hr., $1.50; 
double, first hr., $1.50; add hrs., $1. 

Railway Ticket Offices — Texas & Pacific, T. & P. depot. 
Texas Southern, S. Public Sq. 

Bill Posters and Distributors — Johnson & Honeycutt, E. 
Greenwood Ave., P. C. 

Steam Laundry— Will & Ellwoods, W. Houston Ave., P. C. 

Man's Furnishings — ^Joe Weisman & Co., N. Washington 
Ave., P. C. 

Department Store— Joo Weisman & Co., N. Washington 

Ave. 

Postoffice — E. Houston Ave. Gen. del. and stamps, open 
wk. days, 8 a. m. to 6 p. m.; Sundays, 10 to 11; carrier win- 
dow, open Sundays, 10 to 11 a. m. 

Public Library— 260 y^ E. Austin Ave. 

Commercial Ciub — Merchants' Commercial Association. 

For Churches, Clubs, Commercial Bodies, etc., see City 

Directory. -», , i. 

Leading Local Industries — Sloan Lumber Co., Marshall 
Cottonseed Oil Co., Marshall Compress Co., Walter Pierce 
Oil Co., Arkansas & Texas Consolidated Ice & Coal Co., 
Marshall Car Wheel & Foundry Co., Texas & Pacific R. R. 
shops, Texas Southern R. R. shops. 

Marshall is the county seat of Harrison Co., and the metrop- 
olis of a prosperous farming region which produces much 
fruit, principally peaches. The soil is a sandy loam or clay. 
From Marshall the train trends S. E. through small town8 
and a timbered country to 

SHREVEPORT, LA. (326 M.), Population about 20,000. 

(See also P. 465.) 

On the lines of the Texas & Pacific, Cotton Belt (St. Louis 
& S. W.), Queen & Crescent (Vicksburg, Shreveport & 
Pacific), Kansas City Southern, Missouri, Kansas & Texas, 
Houston & Shreveport and Louisiana Railway & Naviga- 
tion Co. 



410 EL PASO TO NEW ORLEANS. 

Union depot, cor. Louisiana St. Street cars to all hotels; 
fare 5c. Trains of all roads except the last named enter 
here. 

Hotels — Caddo, 217 Milam St., A. P., $2.50-3; large and 
very good house, in center of business section. The Inn, 
621 Milam St., A. P., $2.50-3; good house. Phoenix, cor. 
Texas and Market Sts., A. P., $2-2.50; good, medium-priced 
house in the heart of the business section. The Milam, 517 
Milam St., A. P., $1-1.25 day. Serwick, cor. Texas and 
Market Sts., E. P., 75c up. Glenn, cor. Milam and Louisiana 
Sts., E. P., 50c-75c; meals 25c. 

Restaurants — No good ones. The New York restaurant is 
the best. 

Furnished Rooms — A number are on Louisiana St. (street 
depot is on). Also on Milam near Louisiana St. 

Banks — First Nat., cor. Milam and Market Sts. Com'l 
Nat., cor. Milam and Market Sts. Shreveport Nat., 516 
Market St. La. Bank & Trust Co., cor. Milam and Spring 
Sts. 

Railway Express Offices — American, 207 Milam St. Pacific, 
617 Market St., P. C. Southern, 205 Market St., P. C. 
Wells-Fargo & Co., 517 Market St., P. C. 

Opera House — Grand Opera House, cor. Texas and Edwards 
Sts.; seats 1,250; prices based on play. 

Telegraph Offices — Western Union, 116 Milam St.; open 
7 a. m. to 2:30 a. m.; Sundays, 7 a. m. to midnight, P. C; 
messengers. Postal, 128 Milam St., open 7:30 a. m. to mid- 
night; Sundays, same, P. C. 

Livery — McWilliams, Spring and Travis Sts., P. C; rates 
reasonable. 

Railway Ticket Offices — Q. & C. (Vicksburg, Shreveport 
& Pac), 615 Market St., P. C. Texas & Pacific, 509 Market 
St., P. C. Cotton Belt (Houston & Shreveport), 218 Milam 
St., P. C. Mo., Kas. & Tex. and Kas. Cy. So., 215 Milam 
St. La. Ey. & Nav. Co. at depot near bridge. 

Trunk Repairs — Shreveport Saddlery Co., P. C. 

Steam Laundry'' — Excelsior Laundry, 617 Milam St., P. C. 

Men's Furnishings — Jordan & Booth, cor. Texas and Ed- 
wards Sts. 

Dry Goods — Dreyfuss Dry Goods, 312 Texas St. 

Public Library — People's Library, Crockett St. Small 
charge for its use. 

Postoffice — Cor. Marshall and Texas Sts. Gen. del., 7 to 
6; Sundays, 10 to 11 a. m.; M. O. dept., 9 to 5; carriers', 
Sundays, 10 to 11. 

Commercial Body — Progressive League. A. R. Holcombe, 
Sec'y, M