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Rider's 

WASHINGTON 

A Guide-Book for Travelers 



RIDER'S GUIDES 


Ready: 




Rider's 


NEW YORK CITY 


Rider's 


BERMUDA 


Rider's 


WASHINGTON 


In Preparation: 


Rider's 


NEW ENGLAND 


Rider's 


CALIFORNIA 


Rider's 


FLORIDA 


Rider's 


WEST INDIES 



Rider's 

WASHINGTON 

A GUIDE BOOK for TRAVELERS 

with 3 maps and 22 plans 
Compiled under the general editorship of 

FREMONT RIDER 

BY 
DR. FREDERIC TABER COOPER 




NEW YORK 

HENRY HOLT AND COMPANY 
1922 



yi 






Copyright, 1922 

by 

The Rider Press, Inc. 



The contents of this volume are fully pro- 
tected by copyright, both in the United 
States and in foreign countries, and infringe- 
ments thereof will be vigorously prosecuted. 








Printed in the United States of America 




PREFACE 

Following New York, Washington of all our cities is 
most obviously deserving of adequate guidebook treatment. 

Soon after the issuance of "Rider's New York City," 
the first in this series of "American Baedekers," therefore, 
editorial work was begun on the Washington volume. The 
war temporarily necessitated some postponement of plan, but 
actual field work was completed early this 3^ear. 

The problems met with in the preparation of the "New 
York" volume had to be solved again with the "Washington" 
guide in peculiarly accentuated form. New York is in a 
constant state of flux; but the last three years in Washington 
have witnessed an unprecedented growth, with attendant dis- 
location and relocation — all particularly disconcerting to the 
maker of guidebooks. 

The bibliography of Washington is of course extensive, 
but authorities of equal standing disagree astonishingly when 
one attempts to run down specific antiquarian details. Fol- 
lowing the precedent of the New York volume, moreover, 
every endeavor was made to secure information or verification 
of every item at first hand, and this has meant an amount 
of first hand research not easy to appreciate. 

As in the case of "Rider's Bermuda," the actual labor 
of compilation in the present volume has been largely in the 
hands of Dr. Frederic Taber Cooper, to whose painstaking 
enthusiasm and critical sense whatever excellence it may pos- 
sess is largely due. 

The Editor desires, however, to express his indebtedness 
to the many others who have assisted in the work of compila- 
tion, and particularly to: Miss Florence A. Huxley, who 
read much of the volume in proof and also prepared the 
index ; to his sister-in-law, Mrs. Lyman B. Swormsted, 
formerly treasurer-general of National Society of the 
Daughters of the American 'Revolution and a Washingtonian 
of many years standing, who went over the data on the D. 
A. R. headquarters building and gave invaluable advice in 
the annotation of the material on Shops, Clubs, Hotels and 
other sections of the introduction ; to Dr. Herbert Putnam, 
Librarian of Congress, and H. Ft. B. Meyer, Chief Bibli- 
ographer, who assumed responsibility for the correc- 
tion of the material relative to that 'building; to the 
Rand, McNally Co. for their co-operation in the making of 



viii RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

the maps and for the use of two of their floor plans ; to his 
cousin, Mr. Gerrit Smith Miller, Curator of the Department 
of Mammals of the Smithsonian Institution, for most cordial 
assistance in securing co-operation in the correction of the 
great mass of material relating to that institution and its 
various museums ; to Biro. Anthony S. F. M., of the Commis- 
sariat of the Holy Land, for the revision of material relative 
to the Franciscan Monastery; to Dr. William Tindall, for 
many years secretary to the Commission of the District of 
Columbia, and an old iresident and enthusiastic student of 
Washington lore, for his courtesy in reading and revising 
many of the street sections, as well as the historical and other 
general sections ; to C. Powell Minnigerode, Director of the 
Corcoran Art Gallery, who revised the Corcoran data, and to 
Elliott Woods, the Architect of the Capitol, who did the same 
work for that building; to his brother-in-law, Major Stuart 
C. Godfrey, C. E., U. S. A., for suggestions on material relat- 
ing to the War Department buildings; to Lieut. Col. C. O. 
Sherrill, C. E., U. S. A., for reading the White House ma- 
terial, that building being under his jurisdiction; to W. A. 
Reid, Trade Adviser of the Pan-American Union, who read 
proof on the Pan-American Building ; to Miss Ellen M. Brown, 
John Keller, of the staff of the Washington Evening Star, and 
Robert B. McClean, Business Manager of the Consolidated 
Press in Washington, all of whom assisted in the compilation 
of the Preliminary material ; to Herbert P. Williams, who gave 
helpful aid in the collection of material ; to George F. Bower- 
man, Librarian of the Carnegie Public Library of Washington, 
for his unflagging interest and many helpful suggestions as 
well as for the special privileges he extended in the use of 
the library's unique collection of Washingtoniana ; and to 
Leonard C. Gunnell, of the Smithsonian Institution, who 
generously proffered much valuable advice. 

Acknowledgment should also be made of the help received 
from a large number of local histories and monographs {See 
the Bibliography) ; also more specifically to the following 
works, which have been of special service : The two recent 
standard Histories of Washington, by W. B. Bryan and Dr. 
William Tindall, respectively; the Records of the Columbia 
Historical Society, which have been of great aid, especially 
regarding the old residential section; Early Days of Wash- 
ington, by Sally S. Mackall, containing many sidelights on 
early Georgetown history; and Mount Vernon, by Paul Wil- 
stach, a wellnigh indispensable source book of the local history 
of the home of Washington. 



PREFACE ix 

To be a guide-book of genuine and practical use to the* 
traveler it is of course necessary, as was remarked in the 
preface to the "New York" volume, to discriminate, and this 
means not merely to select the good from the bad, but to en- 
deavor to give each proper values. With every effort to 
make just appraisal, error of judgment and differences ot 
opinion are of course natural. It need hardly he said, however, 
that no remuneration of any sort, direct or indirect, has secured 
favorable notice in this guide-book. As in the Baedeker 
series, which has been frankly taken as a model, the better 
class, or especially noteworthy, has been indicated by an 
asterisk [*]. 

The, Editor is still sure "that only one who has attempted 
to compile a guide-book out of whole cloth, as it were, com- 
pletely appreciates the complexity of the task and the infinite 
opportunity for error which it affords. He realizes, therefore, 
the imperfections and hiatuses of this work more clearly prob- 
ably than will its severest critics ; and he will most cordially 
welcome corrections and suggestions from any source for its 
improvement in succeeding editions." That this volume is 
not fully worthy of its sulbject he has no doubt; but it is at 
least offered as a sincere tribute "to the capital city of which 
he, as an American citizen, is justly proud. 

The Editor. , 
Glen Tor-on-Hudson 
May, 1922 



To 

M. G. S. 

Loyal Washingtonian 

With the affection and best wishes 

of the Editor 



ABBREVIATIONS 
USED IN THIS VOLUME 



acad. — academy 

adm. — Admiral 

Amer. — American 

apt. — Apartment 

arch. — architect 

assn. — association 

Bap. — Baptist 

bk. — bank, book 

bldg. — building 

blvd. — boulevard 

bur. — bureau, burial 

cem. — cemetery 

ch. — church 

co. — company, county 

coll. — collection, college 

com . — c o mm od o re 

comm. — commission 

commr. — commissioner 

Cong. — Congregational 

ct. — court 

D. C. — District of Columbia 

dept. — department 

descrip. — description 

dist. — district 

E. — east 

engr. — engineer 

ethnol. — ethnological 

fed. — federal, federation 

gall. — gallery 

H. S.— High School 

Hgts. — Heights 

inst. — institute, institution 

is. — island' 

L.— left 

lbn. — librarian 



lib. — library 

loc. — location 

M. E. — Methodist Episcopal 

med. — medical 

mem. — memorial 

mi. — mile, miles 

mon. — monument 

mus. — museum 

Mt. — Mount 

N. — north 

nat. — national 

p. — page, pages 

P. E. — Protestant Episcopal 

P. S— Public School 

pk. — park 

pi. — place 

pres. — President 

Presb. — Presbyterian 

Pi:. — Point 

R. — right 

R. C. — 'Roman Catholic 

R. R. — railroad 

Ref 'd. — Reformed 

regt. — regiment 

res. — residence 

res't. — restaurant 

S. — south 

sculp. — sculptor 

sec. — secretary 

soc. — society 

sq. — square 

St.— street 

U. S. — United States 

univ. — university 

W. — west 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

♦ 
Introduction page 

I. General Description of Washington xvii 

a. Topography of Washington, xvii; b. The Geology 
of Washington, xx. 

II. The History of Washington xxiii 

III. The Public Administration of Washington . . xxxvi 

IV. Washington Bibliography xxxviii 

Preliminary Information 

I. Arrival at Washington i 

a. At the Railroad Station, i ; b. At the Steamboat 
Docks, 2; c. Division of Material in this Guide 
Book, 2. 

II. Hotels and Other Accommodations 2 

a. General Information, 2; b. Large and Expensive 
Hotels of the First Rank, 3; c. Eastern Section: 
Capitol Grounds Vicinity, 4; d. Central Section: 
Pennsylvania Avenue, 4; e. Residential Section, 5; 
f. Furnished Rooms, 5; g. Suites and Furnished Apart- 
ments, 6; h. Boarding Houses, 6. 

III. Restaurants and Tea Rooms 6 

a. Capitol Grounds Section, 7; b. Central Section: 
Pennsylvania Avenue, 7; c. Residential Section, 8; 
d. Tea Rooms and Cafeterias, 9. 

IV. Urban Travel 10 

a. Surface Car Lines, 10; b. Taxicabs. 20; c. Motor 
Bus Lines, 20; d. Sight-seeing Cars, 21. 

V. Postal Facilities ; Telegraph and Cable Offices . . 22 

a. Postal Facilities, 22; b. Telegraph and Cable 
Offices, 23. 

VI. Theatres, Concerts and Other Places of Entertain- 

Iment 24 

Concerts and Other Musical Entertainments, 26. 

VII. Sports, Games, etc 26 

VIII. Clubs 29 

IX. Shops and Stores 3 l 

X. Churches, Religious Services 33 



xiv RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

PAGE 

XI. Libraries and 'Reading (Rooms 37 

XII. Miscellaneous Services for the Traveller 40 

a. Foreign Ernbaissies and Legations, 40; b. Banks 
and Trust Companies, 42; c. Hospitals, 421; d. Baths, 
Barber Shops, e-tct. 43 ; e. Steamship and Steamboat 
Lines, 43; f. Newspapers and Periodicals, 44. 

XIII. Planning a Washington Stay 44 

a. Distribution oif Time, 44; b. A Fourteen Days' 
Itinerary, 46; c. A Five Days' Itinerary, 49. 

Washington Northwest — The Central Section 

(From the Capitol to the White House') 
I. The* National Capitol 50 

a. History, .50; b. The Building and Its Approaches, 
53; c. The Rotunda and Dome, 60; d. The Supreme 
Court Rooms, 66; e. The Senate Wing, 69; f. The 
Ground Floor, 79; g. The House Wing, 83; h. 
Statuary Hall, 88. 

II. Pennsylvania Avenue from the Capitol to the 

White House 96 

III. The White House in 

IV. Other Buildings in the Executive Grounds 122 

a. The Treasury Building, 122; b. The State, War 
and Navy Building, 126. 

V. The Old Residential Section 131 

(From C Street to Judiciary Square) 

VI. The Modern Shopping District 141 

a. F Street from North Capitol Street to the Treasury 
Building, 141; b. The Section Immediately North of 
\F Street, 149; c. The Section Between F Street and 
Pennsylvania Avenue, 151. 

Washington Northwest — The Residential Section 

(From the Executive Grounds to Rock Creek) 
I. Seventeenth Street South 153 

a. Seventeenth Street from Pennsylvania Avenue to 
Potomac Park, 153; b. The American Red Cross Build- 
ing, 154; c. D. A. R. Memorial Continental Hall, 15s; 
d. The Pan American Union Building, 162. 

II. The Corcoran Art Gallery 171 

III. Lafayette Square 184 

IV. Sixteenth Street to Piney Branch Bridge 195 



TABLE OF CONTENTS xv 

PAGE 

V. New York Avenue from the White House to the 
Naval Hospital 209 

VI. Pennsylvania Avenue from the White House to 
Rock Creek 215 

VII. Other Residential Avenues and Streets 219 

a. Vermont Avenue, 219; b. Connecticut Avenue, 222; 

c. Massachusetts Avenue, 225; d. The Numbered 
Streets East of Sixteenth Street, 230; e. The Num- 
bered Streets West of Sixteenth Street, 234; f. 
I Street, 235; g. K Street from nth Street to Rock 
Creek, 237. 

Washington Southwest and the Mall 

I. The Mall from the Botanic Gardens to Fourteenth 
Street 240 

a. The Botanic Gardens, 241; b. The Grant Memorial 
Monument, 242; c. The Bureau of Fisheries, 245: 

d. The Army Medical Museum, 247; e. The Agricul- 
tural Department Buildings, 252. 

II. The Smithsonian Institution — The Smithsonian 

Building 255 

III. The Smithsonian Institution — The Natural His- 
tory Bui Idling 260 

(The "New" National Museum) 

a. General Description, 260; b. The Vestibule and 
North Pavilion, 263; c. The World War Historical 
Collection, 266; d. The National Gallery of Art, 271; 

e. East Wing — Collection of Paleontology, 280; f. Ex- 
hibits of Ethnology, 288; g. Zoological Exhibits, 303; 
h. Miscellaneous Collections, 310. 

IV. The Smithsonian Institution — The Arts and In- 
dustries Building • • • • 322 

V. The Smithsonian Institution — The Freer Gallery 339 

VI. The Washington Monument 34 2 

VII. From the Monument Grounds to the Army War 
College 348 

VIII. The Lincoln Memorial 353 

Washington Northeast 

I. North Capitol Street 356 

(From the Capitol Grounds to Michigan Avenue) 

II. From the Capitol Grounds to the Columbia In- 
stitute 363 



xvi RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

PAGE 

Washington Southeast 

I. The Library of Congress 369 

a. General Description and Approaches, 370; b. The 
Main Entrance Hall, 375; c. The Mural Paintings, 
377; d. The Rotunda, 398. 

II. From the Library of Congress to the Congres- 
sional Cemetery 403 

a. Washington Southeast, 403; b. The Congressional 
Cemetery, 408. 

III. AnacO'Sitia ._. 4 12 

The Northern and Western Suburbs 

I. Bladenstiurg, Brookland and Vicinity 414 

a. Bladensburg, 414; b. The Catholic University of 
America, 416; c. The Franciscan Monastery, 423. 

II. Georgia Avenue to Takoma Park 430 

III. Connecticut Avenue from Rock Creek Bridge to 
Chevy Chase 440 

IV. Massachusetts Avenue from Rock Creek to the 
District Line 442 

V. The National Zoological Park 444 

VI. The Cathedral of St. Peter and St. Paul 455 

VII. Georgetown 462 

a. M Street and the "Court End," 463; b. Georgetown 
College, 467; c. The Convent of the Visitation, 
473; d. Georgetown Heights, 476; e. Oak Hill Ceme- 
tery 479- 

VIII. Cabin John Bridge and the Great Falls of the 

Potomac 483 

a. Cabin John Bridge, 483; b. The Great Falls of 
the Potomac, 484. 

The Virginia Suburbs 

I. Mt. Vernon 487 

a. History of Mt. Vernon, 491; b. The Mansion 
Home, 498; c. The Grounds, 501. 

II. Arlington Cemetery 504 

III. Alexandria 512 

IV. Pohick Churc'h 523 

Index 



INTRODUCTION 

I. General Description of Washington 

Washington, the Capital City of the United States, and 
according to the latest decennial census the fourteenth largest 
in population,* lies in the 83° 51' N. lat. and 77° W. long., 
calculated at the Capitol, it is 40 mi. distant by rail from 
Baltimore ; 228 mi. from New York; 11 10 mi. from New 
Orleans; and 31 18 mi. from San Francisco. It is situated in 
and coextensive with the present District of Columbia, com- 
prising that portion of the original ten-mile square, N. of 
the Potomac River, which was left after the retrocession 
of the southern portion to Virginia. Its area (including land 
and water)i is approximately 6g>j4 sq. mi. It is bounded on 
the northwest, northeast and southeast by the State of Mary- 
land, and on the southwest by the high-water line on the 
Virginia shore — since the whole width of the Potomac River 
is reckoned territorially within the District. 

a. The Topography of Washington 

Washington is exceptionally fortunate in having 
been almost completely planned in its present form 
before any of its streets were actually laid out (p. xxviii). 
Consequently, unlike London and Paris and the downtown 
portion of New York, no part of it grew up haphazard, pre- 
serving the memory of ancient roads and foot-paths. It is 
the result of an orderly and consistent design, combining the 
simplicity of the rectangular system with the picturesqueness 
of spacious, radiating avenues and splendid vistas. It has 
been variously described as a chess-board overlaid with cart 
wheels, and as Paris superimposed upon Philadelphia. In 
drafting this plan, the natural formation of the locality was 
dleverly utilized to the best possible advantage. The general 
features of the plan were later applied in extending the 
street system over those portions of the District of Columbia 
outside of the original city limits. Towards the north, and espe- 
cially above that part of the city which was formerly George- 
town, is the highest ground within the District. The southern 
section of the city along the Potomac is a low level plain 



* By the census of 1920. the population of Washington was 437-57 1 . 
while that of its nearest rival. Newark, was only 414524. and Cin- 
cinnati 401 247. Recently, however, the population has fallen off con- 
siderably, and the city has probably dropped to 16th position. 



xvlii RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

(p. xxii) ; but towards the east it rises abruptly in a ninety- 
foot terrace, the highest eminence of which, now known as 
Capitol Hill (p. 50), seemed foreordained to be the site of 
the Capitol building, whose noble dome dominates the land- 
scape from every side. Radiating from this center, North 
Capitol, East Capitol and South Capitol Streets, together 
with the succession of parks on the W., known collectively 
as The Mall (p. 240), mark the four cardinal points of 
compass and divide the city into four sections or quarters, 
designated respectively as N. W., N. E., S. W. and S. E. 
(initials which should be added to any Washingon address, 
in order to avoid confusion; if they are omitted, the N. W. 
section is assumed to be meant). 

The streets parallel to North and South Capitol Sts. are 
named from the ordinal numbers : East and West First 
Street, East and West Second Street, etc., the furthest num- 
bered street to the E. being 31st St. and to the W. 26th St., 
within the old City limits. The numbers, however, continue 
in regular order beyond the Anacostia River, to the E., up to 
63d St., at the N. E. cor. of the District, and beyond Rock 
Creek, to the W., up to 52d St., along the E. boundary of 
the Receiving Reservoir Grounds. (Some of the latter streets 
have not yet been cut through.) The streets parallel to East 
Capitol St. and the Mall are named from the letters of the 
alphabet : North and South A Street, North and South B 
Street, etc. It should be noted/ that there is no A Street 
N. W., or A St. S. W., since the Mall occupies the whole 
space between North and South B Sts., W. of the Capitol 
Grounds. Because of the danger of confusion with I St., 
the letter J was omitted; and because of the like possibility 
of mixing up I St. and 1st St., Washingtonians frequently 
write the former "Eye Street." The last lettered streets 
within the city limits are W St., on the N., and V St., on 
the S. (at Buzzard Point, E. of the War College). Beyond 
the Anacostia River, however, the lettered series terminates 
with W St. 

The proposition that has frequently been made of re- 
christening the lettered streets with a series of names (pre- 
ferably of American Statesmen), arranged alphabetically 
after the manner of Boston's familiar Arlington, Berkeley, 
Clarendon, Dartmouth, etc., Sts., has never been seriously 
considered. But the visitor may remain for months in Wash- 
ington without even noticing that this is precisely the method 
followed in the naming of east-and-west streets lying beyond 
North and South W Sts. For instance, going N. on Georgia 



TOPOGRAPHY OF WASHINGTON xix 

Ave. we reach, beyond W St., a series beginning Adams, 
Bryant, Channing, etc., Sts., and ending with Webster St., 
beyond which a f.ccohd series begins with Allison. Buchanan, 
Crittenden, etc., Sts., closing with Whittier St. ; while a third 
series follows, consisting this time of botanical names in 
place of famous Americans, namely : Aspen, Butternut, Cedar, 
etc., Sts., up to Poplar St., in the extreme northern corner of 
the District. Similar series will be found in the section N. 
of Georgetown, in the Benning section, in Anacostia, — in 
short, in practically all the suburban sections. The advantage, 
of course, of this system is that it enables any one, by a little 
calculating, to determine approximately the house numbers 
beyond any given street. Thus, since the first number beyond 
N. W St. is 2200, then the first number beyond Webster St. 
should be 4400, and beyond Whittier St. 6600. In point of 
fact, 'however, some confusion has been caused by the in- 
clusion in some of these series of both an I and a J ; while 
in at least one case the series does not stop with W, but 
includes a Y (Yuma St., in the Tenleytown section). 

The monotony of the chequer-board pattern is, as already 
indicated, broken up by a multitude of small parks and circles, 
from which broad avenues radiate at a great diversity of 
angles. These avenues bear the names of the several states, 
the principal and more central avenues being naturally 
named from the thirteen original colonies, while many of the 
largest and most important western states must be contented 
with representation in the remoter districts. Pennsylvania, 
as the "Keystone State," gave its name to the city's principal 
thoroughfare, and direct line of communication between the 
Capitol and the White House, intersecting at the former 
point with A?eu> Jersey, Delazvare and Maryland Avenues, and 
with projected lines of Vermont and Connecticut Aves., which 
are interrupted by Lafayette Square. Other important points 
of radiation are: Waslii)igton Circle (p. 218), Dupont Circle 
(p. 229), Thomas Circle (p. 228), Mt. Vernon Park (p. 225), 
and Lincoln Square (p. 366). 

What impresses the stranger in Washington, next to the 
continual surprise of new and suddenly revealed vistas, is the 
spaciousness of all the streets and avenues. Of the lettered 
streets., the average width is 90 ft. ; only three are less than 
80 ft., while the widest, North K St., is 147 ft. Of the num- 
bered streets, sixteen range between 100 and 112 ft. N. and 
S. Capitol Sts. are 130 ft. wide, E. Capitol St. and N. 16th 
St., 160 ft. each. 

House numbers were first adopted by the city in 1854, 
and revised in 1869 on the basis of the so-called ''decimal 



xx RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

system," the numbers starting from the central dividing lines 
marked by the Capitol Sts., and starting a new hundred beyond 
each- street crossing. Accordingly even a stranger can readily 
determine the location of any given address : for instance, 
815 North K St. would lie between 8th and 9th Sts., and 
similarly 422 West 4th St. would lie between D and E Sts. 
In regard to the house numbers, it should be noted that 
in the case of the lettered streets the even numbers are 
on the side nearest the Capitol, while in the case of the num- 
bered streets the even numbers are on the side furthest from 
the Capitol. Thus, for example, 304 C St. N. W. is on 
the S. side, while 714 F St. S. E. is on the N. side. The 
numbering of the avenues, while somewhat more confusing at 
first, becomes quite simple if one remembers that there are 
no avenues which run precisely Northeast or Northwest, but 
that they all slant at a small angle with either the lettered 
or the numbered streets. Accordingly the house numbers of 
\he avenues obey respectively the rules for the streets with 
whose direction they most nearly coincide. Pennsylvania 
Ave., for instance, running almost E. and W., has its even 
numbers on the S. side west of the Capitol, and on the N. 
side east of the Capitol, after the manner of the lettered 
streets ; while Connecticut Ave. N. W., running nearly N. and 
S., has its even numbers on the W. or further side, following 
the rule of the numbered streets. 

One last source of confusion is caused by certain streets 
bearing half-numbers, such as 4% St. In such cases the 
house numbers do not begin with even hundreds, but with 
so-many-hundred-and-fifty ; for instance, the building at the 
S. W. cor. of Pennsylvania Ave. and 4^ St. is not No. 400 
but No. 450. 

b, The Geology of Washington 

The District of Columbia lies within that lengthy 
section of the Atlantic coast consisting of a broad 
slope that descends from the Appalachian Mountains to the 
ocean and continues beneath it. This slope comprises two di- 
visions of radically _ different origin, but with an indefinite 
boundary: 1. the higher western portion, known as the 
Piedmont Plateau and underlain by very old rocks which 
have passed through many changes of structure and position; 
2. the Coastal Plain, formed of numerous layers of uncon- 
solidated sediments, sand, gravel and loam, which lie almost 
as originally deposited. 



GEOLOGY OF WASHINGTON xxi 

Accordingly, the geologic formations of the Washington 
district fall into two classes : first, the ancient and highly 
crystalline rocks ; and secondly, the unconsolidated beds of 
the Coastal Plain. The former occur chiefly to the north- 
west and southwest of Washington; the latter lie to the 
south and east. The greater part of the city proper is built 
upon these unsolidified beds. 

The Archaean Rocks. The principal varieties of rock found in or 
near the District of Columbia are as follows: i. Carolina Gneiss, 
occurring northwest of Washington, where it may be seen along the 
gorges of the Potomac. It consists of alternate layers of gneiss and 
schist, varying from dark bluish-gray, when newly exposed, to green 
and yellowish-gray when weathered. 2. Granite Gneiss, of which there 
occurs a large irregular belt between Georgetown and Falls 
Church. This rock is similar in coloring to the Carolina gneiss, but 
it has a fine and uniform texture. It is the result of metamorphism 
of original granite. Complete disintegration of granite gneiss pro- 
duces a stiff red clay. Fine specimens of this process may be seen 
in the deep road cuts between Washington and Chevy Chase (.p. 12). 
3. Diorite and Diorite Gneiss. The largest area in which this rock 
occurs extends N. and S. through Cabin John (p. 15); the second 
largest stretches N. from Georgetown. It is an igneous rock of massive 
texture, of a greenish-gray shading to black, the green being more pro- 
nounced in proportion to the amount of hornblende it contains. The 
fact that it cuts through the Carolina and granite gneiss shows it to be 
the youngest formation of the three. 4. Gabbro and Metagabbro. 
Gabbro is a massive rock shading from dark gray to black. The largest 
area in which it is found is northeast of Cabin John, where metagabbro 
(from dark olive to a lighter green) also occurs. 5. Granite. Three 
different kinds are distinguished in the Washington district: a. the 
granite occurring in the beds ot granite gneiess; b. a series of granite 
dikes that cut into the beds of Carolina gneiss. This granite is com- 
posed almost wholly of quartz and feldspar and is of a very light gray 
tone, weathering almost to white; c. two exposed belts in the basin of 
Rock Creek and the quarries on Broad Branch. This is a coarse aggre- 
gate of quartz and orthoclase feldspar, with plagioclase and biotite. 

Coastal Plain Formations. These are locally of far more 
importance and interest than the Archaean rock formations 
above treated, because they form more than three-quarters 
of the area of Washington, inclusive of much of the sur- 
rounding territory. One important fact should be noted : 
that in the geology of this region the strata from the 
Archaean down to the close of the Mesozoic period are lack- 
ing. There are no traces of Permian, Triassic or Jurassic 
remains. The unsolidified Cretaceous beds rest directly upon 
the Archaean rock. Geologists distinguish nine distinct layers 
of these unsolidified deposits, separated, with one exception, 
by long periods of erosion. The separate layers are not of 
uniform extent, and nowhere do all nine occur superimposed; 
indeed, as will presently be shown, a large portion of the 
older city rests upon only two layers of deposit with the 
underlying Archaean rock. Yet all nine formations occur 



xxii RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

within the District and exposures o-f them may be seen with 
comparatively little trouble. 

i. Potomac formation (Early Cretacecras) . This consists of clays 
and sand occurring separately and in all proportions of mixture. It 
occupies the surface over a large part of the Washington district. In 
the terraces along the Potomac, it is overlaid by the Later Columbia 
formation (see below), and in the high terraces W. of Alexandria and the 
north portion of Washington by earlier members of that formation. 
To the E. it passes beneath the later Cretaceous and Neocene forma- 
tions. It lies directly on Archaean rock; thickness, o to 650 
feet. It overlies the greater part of the N. W. region beyond Florida 
Avenue. 2. Matawan (later Cretaceous). These are deposits of black 
argillaceous, carbonaceous sands and contain abundant molluscan fossils. 
There are excellent exposures in road tefute from Buena Vista, 
to the R. R. cut at Collington, and on the road from Good 
Hope to Twining (p. 413). 3. Monmouth formation (later Cretaceous). 
Brown sands, varying in thickness from to 25 ft. Found in a small 
area near Collington, N. E. of Washington. 4. Pamunky formation 
(Early Eocene). Sands and marls of a bluish or greenish black. De- 
posits varying from o to 120 ft, in depth are found over a wide area 
E. of Washington where they are 1 for the most part overlaid by Chesa- 
peake or Lafayette formations. 5. Chesapeake formation (Miocene). 
Fine buff sands, clays and diatonaceous deposits, from o to 80 ft. in 
depth. Most of its area is overlaid by Lafayette formation. It occupies 
the greater part of the high plateau S. of Washington. Small masses 
underlaid the Lafayette gravels at Soldiers' Park (p. 432), and between 
Georgetown and Tenleytown. Good exposures occur in the road cuts halt 
a mile north-northwest of the Naval Observatory (p. 442) and in the 
road cuts about Upper Marlboro. 6. Lafayette formation (Pliocene?). 
Gravels, sands and loams on an extensive plain 20 to 30 ft. 
in thickness. It covers the high, wide plains S. E. of Washington 
and caps the elevated area at the Soldiers' Home, and the ridge extend- 
ing from W. of Georgetown to Tenleytown. The deposit is mainly quartzite 
gravel and loams, but contains some boulders. 7. Earlier Columbia 
formation (early Pleistocene). This is a deposit of gravels and loams 
found on the higher terraces, with an almost uniform thickness of 20 ft. 
-Occurs along the terraces of the Potomac, Rock Creek, Anacostia and 
Patuxant Valleys. The most extensive deposits are W. of Alexandria 
and in Mount Pleasant (p. 13), and adjoining upper portions of the 
city of Washington. In the N. portion of the city and up the valley 
of Rock Creek these formations have an average altitude of almost 100 
ft. The most extensive exposures are at the head of 16th St., in the 
upper part of the hollow S. of Anacostia, along Fort Foote Road and 
in old gravel pits on the Southern R. R., E. of Springfield station. 
8. Later Columbia formation (early Pleistocene). These deposits occur 
in the lower terraces of the Potomac and its larger branches. About 
the city of Washington the more extensive Columbia terrace levels are 
respectively 40 and 90 ft.; the Capitol stands; upon the western edge 
of a prominent outlier of the 90-foot terrace. This formation consists 
of : a. a lower series of gravel, containing a heterogeneous mixture of 
pebbles, boulders, and irregular masses of crystalline rocks packed in 
brown sand and grading up into: b, a brown or buff massive loam. The 
finest exposures are in the street and R. R. cuts in the E. and N. W. 
sections of the city. See especially Pennsylvania Ave. extended, E. of 
the Anacostia River. Thickness, 25 ft. 9. Post-Columbia formation 
(Recent Pleistocene). This formation occurs mainly below tide water. 
To the S. and W. of the Mall a large area has* been filled in from this 
alluvial deposit in the river bed, part of which constitutes Potomac 
Park (p. 352). 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON xxiii 

II. The History of Washington 

The city of Washington has a unique history among 
the capitals of the modern world. Unlike other cities, it 
is not the result of a slow growth and development from 
some original modest village, but like Queen Dido's fabled 
Carthage, a bold creation with its first stately government 
buildings rising spectacularly in the midst of forests, swamps 
and unploughed fields. In the years immediately following 
the Revolutionary war, the United States had no permanent 
Capital. It was not until 1783 that the idea of creating a 
separate national district in which to erect a central seat of 
government was first suggested, as a consequence of a serious 
riot in Philadelphia. A band of mutinous soldiers of the 
American army entered the city on June 20th of that year, 
marched to where the Continental Congress then held its 
sessions, and with threats of violence demanded arrears of 
pay. The pacific guardians of the Quaker city professed 
themselves unable to cope with the situation, and Congress 
was obliged to retreat to Princeton, N. J. This insolent 
treatment was felt deeply by the members and they agreed 
that the seat of government should be removed to some 
spot beyond danger of a repetition of the occurrence. Four 
months later the first public proposal to acquire territory 
for a National Capital was heard in Congress in the form 
of a motion introduced by Elbridge Gerry of Mass., recom- 
mending the Potomac region, near Georgetown, as one of the 
sites worth considering. 

This resolution was carried on Oct. 7th, but subsequently 
amended, and later repealed in April, 1784. For four years 
the plan remained practically in abeyance through opposition 
due to sectional jealousy. In Oct., 1784, Congress appointed 
Commissioners authorized to lay out a District on the Dela- 
ware ; and in Jan., 1785, similar ineffectual efforts were made 
to locate the District on the Potomac. The first decisive step 
was taken when the authority to acquire land for a Federal 
City was embodied in the Constitution of the United States 
(adopted in Sept., 1787), article I, sec. 8, clause 16, which 
gives power to Congress to "exercise exclusive legislation in 
all cases whatsoever, over such district, not exceeding ten 
miles square, as may, by cession of particular states and the 
acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the Government 
of the United States." The above clause in the Constitution 
fixed definitely the size of the new District. Appreciating the 
advantage of having the Capital within its limits, Maryland, 



xxiv RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

through its legislature Dec. 23d, 1788, offered to Congre:s 
"any district (not exceeding ten miles square) which con- 
gress may fix upon and accept for the seat of Government 
of the United States." 

This precipitated, in 1789, a stormy debate in Congress. 
The North and the South each desired to secure the loca- 
tion of the Capital within its limits. New York, Phila- 
delphia. Germantown, Havre de Grace, Wright's Ferry and 
Baltimore each had its partisans. The passage in Sept., 1789, 
of a resolution to the effect that the proposed Capital ought 
to be situated in Pennsylvania on the Susquehanna, gave 
grave offense to the South; and the friction engendered was 
second only to that aroused by a measure proposed by Alex- 
ander Hamilton, then Secretary of the Treasury, involving 
ths, assumption by the Government of the debts contracted 
by the several states while prosecuting the War of Indepen- 
dence. The southern states, fearing an increase of central 
power, opposed this measure, which was finally defeated by 
two votes. The tension resulting from these two debated 
questions, of assumption of debts and location of the National 
Capital, led to whispered threats of secession and a dissolution 
of the Union. 

Washington had from the first eagerly espoused the 
scheme of creating what he himself chose to name the "Fed- 
eral City.'' and it was largely through his personal influence 
that the project had been so persistently brought up. The 
final amicable settlement, however, of the future Capital's 
location on the Potomac was due to a compromise effected 
by Hamilton and Jefferson, by which Jefferson agreed to 
persuade two of the southern congressmen to vote in favor 
of the Assumption measure, in return for which Hamilton 
guaranteed that the North would withdraw its opposition to 
a southern location. 

In accordance with this agreement two of the Potomac 
members changed their votes, ithe Assumption bill was passed 
and on July 9th, 1790, an act was adopted, popularly known 
as the "Residence Act," because it provided for a permanent 
residence for the United States Government. 

The chief provisions of this Act were: 1. "That a district of terri- 
tory, not exceeding ten miles square, be located as hereinafter directed 
on the river Potomac, at some place between the mouths of the Eastern 
Branch and the Connogochegue, be, and the same is hereby accepted 
for the permanent seat of the Government of the United States"; 2. 
It authorized the President to appoint three commissioners to determine 
the location of the proposed district, survey its territory and determine 
its boundaries; 3. These commissioners were further empowered "to 
accept such quantity of land as the President shall deem proper, and 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON xxv 

according to such plans as the President shall approve, shall prior to 
the first Monday of December, 1800, provide suitable buddings for 
Congress, the President and the public offices. " 

In point of fact the present site of the Capital city, in 
the lower portion of the District, was Washington's personal 
choice. When a boy he had seen and admired it while riding 
across country; later, while serving under Braddock, he had 
camped on the hill where the Naval Observatory (p. 442) 
now stands, and his surveyor's instinct had quickly grasped 
the possibilities of this natural spacious amphitheater, lying 
between the heights on the north and the widening Potomac 
en the south. 

The site in question was originally the centre of the 
territory occupied by the Powhatan Indians, a powerful sub- 
tribe of the Algonquins ; and it was here in the council house, 
situated at the foot of what is now Capitol Hill (p. 50), 
that the various Algonquin tribes periodically assembled. The 
first white men to explore the Potomac are believed to have 
been Spaniards, on the strength of certain references in early 
Spanish records to various expeditions in the years 1566-70, 
to places identified with this locality. These Spaniards named 
the Chesapeake the "Bay of St. Mary," and the Potomac 
the "Espiritu Santo." Probably the first Englishman to explore 
this region was Captain John Smith, who in his description 
gave the Indian name of the river as Patawomecke. It was 
not, however, until near the close of the 17th century that 
the first permanent colony was established within the territory 
of the present District of Columbia, consisting of a company 
of Irish and Scotch settlers. One of these early proprietors. 
Francis Pope by name, called his place Rome, and named 
the little stream at the foot of his hill the Tiber. According 
to tradition he was a visionary man and predicted that a 
greater capital than Rome would sometime occupy the hill, 
and rule over a great and flourishing country in the new 
world. 

The poet Tom Moore, who spent a week or more in Georgetown in 
1804, has whimsically satirized these local traditions in the following 
lines: 

"In fancy now, beneath the twilight gloom, 
Come, let me lead thee o'er the second Rome, 
Where tribunes rule, where dusky Davi bow. 
And what was Goose Creek once is Tiber now; 
This embryo Capital, where fancy sees 
Squares in morasses, obelisks in trees 
Which second-sighted seers, even now adorn 
With shrines unbuilt and heroes yet unborn." 

The name Tiber remained attached to the stream, although it usually 
appears as Goose Creek in the reports of the first commissioners. It 



xxvi RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

flowed S., crossing the present line of Pennsylvania Ave. at a point 
marked by W. 2d St., flowing thence westerly along N. B St. until it 
joined the Potomac. This portion of the Tiber was utilized as part of 
the Washington Canal, which in course of time became an open sewer, 
and finally, about the middle of the century, was covered over, forming 
the beginning of the city's sewerage system. 

Washington's first step under the authority invested in 
him by the Residence Act, was to pay a personal visit to the 
proposed site of the national capital, accompanied by Jefferson 
and Madison; his second step was to appoint as the com- 
missioners required by the Act, Thomas Johnson and Daniel 
Carroll of Maryland, and David Stuart of Virginia. 

Thomas Johnson (1732-1819) was an old friend of Washington, 
who had served under him in the war, and later was appointed by him 
a judge in the Supreme Court (while still acting as commissioner). 
David Carroll (1756-1829) was a Representative from Maryland and 
brother of John Carroll, the first Bishop of Maryland and founder of 
Georgetown Academy, now Georgetown University (p. 467). Dr. David 
Stuart was Washington's family physician, who married the widow of 
John Parke Custis, the son of the President's wife. 

These commissioners proceeded, in accordance with the 
Act of Congress, to run "certain lines of experiment . . . tor 
the purpose of determining the location of a part of the terri- 
tory of ten miles square," and with the approval of Wash- 
ington ran the lines so as to include a certain area to the south 
of the Potomac. On March 3d, 1791, Congress adopted an 
amendment authorizing the inclusion of this portion of Vir- 
ginia, containing the town of Alexandria ; but it was provided 
that none of the public buildings should be located on the 
Virginia side of the Potomac. Washington thereupon issued 
a proclamation fixing the boundaries of the District as 
follows : 

"Beginning at Jones' Point, being the upper cape of Hunting Creek, 
in Virginia, and at an angle in the outset of 45 degrees west of north, 
and running in a direct line ten miles, for the first line; then beginning 
again at the same Jones' Point, and running another direct line at a 
right angle with the first, across the Potomac, ten miles, for the second 
line; then, from the terminations of the said first and second lines, 
running two other direct lines, of ten miles each, the one crossing the 
Eastern Branch aforesaid, and the other the Potomac, and meeting each 
other in a point." 

Of the two states within whose boundaries the land 
required for the future District was situated, Virginia had 
already passed an act, Dec. 3d, 1789, consenting to the cession 
of such land as might be required by the national government. 
Maryland followed suit, Dec. 19th, 1791. They ceded only 
their state sovereignty. The ownership of the land was to 
remain vested in the individual owners, with the exception 
of such part of the property as the United States should buy 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON xxvii 

as needed for government purposes. Consequently one of 
the first duties of the commissioners was to learn what 
terms they could make with the private owners of the land. 
They found that, while there were altogether 19 original 
proprietors, there were only four principal landowners : 
Daniel Carroll (usually called "of Duddington," to distin- 
guish him from the commissioner of that name), David 
Burnes, Samuel Davidson and Notley Young. The holdings 
of the last two named were comparatively unimportant. Car- 
roll, however, had a large patrimonial estate called Carrolls- 
burgh, situated along the Anacostia River or Eastern Branch, 
and including the present Capitol Hill. His country seat, 
Duddingtom Manor, foecarme later a prominent feature 
in the social life of the city. David Burnes, the second 
largest holder, was an illiterate Scot, whose rude log cabin 
survived until comparatively recent years, half hidden by the 
opulent Van Ness mansion (p. 170), the home of his only 
daughter Marcia. Burnes, a justice of the peace and a 
tobacco planter in a small way, proved the most stubborn of 
all the land-holders. He owned a large part of the land covered 
by the present city, including the sites of the White House 
and Treasury Building. Even Washington was at first unable 
to do anything with "obstinate Mr. Burnes," who resented the 
idea of having "a Capital at his front door" ; but finally 
brought him to terms by bluntly informing him that the Gov- 
ernment needed his land and was going to get it one way or 
another in spite of him. 

After Burnes capitulated, Washington was able to an- 
nounce the terms of the sale (March 31st, 1791) : The original 
owners agreed to convey to the Government, free of cost, 
such portions of their farms as were needed for streets, parks 
and other public reservations ; and to sell such land as was 
needed for Government buildings and public improvements at 
$125 per acre. The remaining land was to be laid out in 
building lots and apportioned equally between the Federal 
Government and the original owners. 

"In this way, without advancing a dollar and at a total cost of 
$36,000, the Government acquired a tract of 600 acres in the heart of 
the city. The 10,136 building lots assigned to it ultimately proved to 
be worth $850,000 and now represent a value of seventy million dollars. 
Shrewd financier as he was, it is doubtful if Washington ever made 
another so good a bargain as that with Burnes and his neighbors." 
(Rufus Rockwell Wilson, in Washington the Capital City.) 

The task of planning the Federal City was entrusted to 
Major Pierre Charles L' Enfant, a French engineer, kinsman 



xxviii RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

of D'Estaing, who had come to America in the train of Lafay- 
ette and had fought in the Revolution. 

It was L'Enfant who, at the age of 22, drew the plans for Ft. 
Mifflin, on the Delaware, famous for its gallant and successful resist- 
ance. His skill as a designer of fortiiications attracted the attention 
of Washington and won him the appointment of Chief of Engineers, 
with the brevet of Major of Engineers. Later, at Washington's request, 
he designed the insignia of the Society of the Cincinnati. 

During the spring and summer of 1791, L'Enfant elabo- 
rated his designs for the projected city. With prophetic fore- 
sight, he decided to plan a Capital worthy not only of thirteen 
states and a three million population, but of fifty states and 
a population of half a billion. Jefferson, thanks to his service 
abroad, was the only member of the Cabinet then possessing 
in some degree a continental breadth of artistic vision; yet 
even he seems to have wanted the city laid out in a monoton- 
ous system of squares. For when L'Enfant, in April, 1791, 
wrote to Jefferson for plans of the principal cities of Europe, 
in the hope that they would "suggest a variety of new ideas," 
Jefferson furnished the maps, with the comment that they were 
"none of them comparable to the old Babylon revived and 
exemplified in Philadelphia." L'Enfant temporized with a 
checker-board ground plan; but this he overlaid with a multi- 
tude of broad avenues intersecting the streets at acute angles, 
thus making poissiible the city of splendid vistas as it exists 
to-day. 

It was Washington's personal desire that the Congressional build- 
ings should be located at a distance of a mile or more from the 
Executive Mansion. L'Enfant, accordinglv, chose the broad plateau in 
the eastern section as the site for the Capitol, and located the other 
public buildings more than a mile northwest, up the proposed Pennsyl- 
vania Ave. John Adams, then Vice-President, vigorously objected on 
the ground that all the public buildings should centre around the 
Capitol. Washington, however, defended L'Enfant's scheme on the 
ground that, if the Legislative and Executive Branches were located 
close together, the latter would be so annoyed by the former that they 
could not complete their business, unless at home. 

Almost from the first, friction arose between L'Enfant 
and the city commissioners. Daniel Carroll's enmity was first 
incurred because, without consulting the engineer's plans, he 
began the erection of a large brick house directly in the 
middle of the future New Jersey Ave. This enraged 
L'Enfant, who promptly had his workmen tear the building 
down, — an act which brought a reprimand from Washing- 
ton, ordering the re-erection of the building (although wisely, 
not this time on the line of the avenue). A more serious 
cause for friction was L'Enfant's refusal to make public his 
plans when, in October, the Commissioners, wishing to raise 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON xxix 

money, advertised the sale of lots. They took the ground 
that the value of the lots, and consequently, the amount of 
money raised, would depend largely upon their situation in 
relation to the projected public buildings. L'Enfant, on the 
other hand, contended that if his maps were published, spec- 
ulators would seize upon the choicet locations and perma- 
nently destroy the best vistas with crowded blocks of shanties. 

Washington promptly authorized the dismissal of the en- 
gineer with the incidental comment : 

"Men who possess talents which fit them for peculiar purposes are 
almost invariably under the influence of untoward dispositions, or a 
sottish pride, or possessed of some other disqualification by which they 
plague all those with whom they are concerned. But I did not expect to 
meet with such perverseness in Major L'Enfant." 

L'Enfant continued to live in the neighborhood of Wash- 
ington until his death in 1825, a disappointed and prematurely 
aged man. For some years he made his home with his friend, 
Dudley Digges, at the latter's Manor House, Chellum Castle, 
near Bladensburg. There, for nearly a century, his remains 
lay in an unmarked grave, until their removal in 1909 
(p. 508) to a plot in the National Cemetery at Arlington. In 
his later years he repeatedly petitioned Congress, without suc- 
cess, for real or fancied arrears of pay. There seems ground 
for believing him inadequately compensated, since all that he 
received for his plans, involving many months of surveying, 
was $2500. 

L'Enfant was succeeded by his assistant, Andrew Ellicott,. 
a Pennsylvania Quaker, and later in life Professor of Mathe- 
matics at West Point. Ellicott retained practically all the 
essential details of L'Enfant's plans. 

The work of building the city, which under the Residence 
Act was to ibe ready for occupancy before the first Monday 
in December, 1800, proceeded slowly. The money advanced 
by Maryland and Virginia was soon exhausted, and although 
Congress authorized loans, money was scarce and hard to 
obtain. Washington made a personal application to the 
Legislature of Maryland, which made the needful appropria- 
tion on the condition that the commissioners should add their 
individual guarantee. The work thereafter was rapidly pushed 
forward and, on June 15th, 1800, the commissioners reported 
the public buildings ready for occupancy. At this time only 
the northern section of the Capitol building was finished. 
Nevertheless, in Oct., 1800, the Government, including 
official records, furniture and the minor officials, arrived in 
a "Packet-sloop." The next day the high officials drove into 



xxx RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

town. In November the 6th Congress assembled in the one 
completed wing of the Capitol. As might have been foreseen, 
accommodations were sadly inadequate. Sec. Wolcott, writing 
to his wife, said, "I do not perceive how the members of 
Congress can possibly secure lodgings, unless they will con- 
sent to live like monks Jn a monastery, crowded ten or twenty 
in one house." 

John Cotton Smith, writing in 1800, says, "Our approach to the 
city was accompanied with sensations not easily described . . . Instead 
of recognizing the avenues and streets portrayed in the plan of the 
city, not one was visible, unless we except a road, with two buildings 
on each side, called the New Jersey Ave. . . . Between the President's 
house and Georgetown a block of houses had been erected, which then 
bore, and may still bear, the name of the six buildings. There were 
also two other blocks, consisting of two or three dwelling houses, in 
different directions, and now and then an isolated wooden habitation — 
the intervening spaces, and indeed the surface of the city generally, 
being covered with scrub-oak bushes on the higher ground, and on 
the marshy soil either trees or some sort of shrubbery . . . The roads 
in every direction were muddy and unimproved." 

Under such conditions, adverse and ironical criticism was 
inevitable ; and for several years Washington continued to be 
known by various disparaging epithets : such as "Wilderness 
City," "Capital of Miserable Huts," "City of Streets without 
Houses," "City of Magnificent Distances." There was much 
agitation, both in and out of Congress, for a removal of the 
seat of Government to one of the older established cities. 
The advocates of such a movement came to be popularly 
known as "Capital Movers." 

Meanwhile, in these first ten years, the long series of 
experiments in local government had already begun. The 
original commissioners served nearly two years without salary, 
until March 4th, 1793, when on the recommendation of the 
President they were awarded a salary of $1000 each yearly, 
an amount raised later to $1600.00. These commissioners and 
their successors continued to rule Washington until 1802, 
when on May 3d, Congress granted the city its first charter, 
and provided for its government by a Mayor, to be appointed 
annually by the President, and by an elected council of twelve 
members. This charter was amended in 1804, and again in 
1812, the chief change being a provision for the election of 
the Mayor by the members of the Council. 

The war of 1812 had caused little local apprehension, 
Washington being regarded as too small and unimportant to be 
chosen as a point of attack. Consequently the city found 
itself quite unprepared when the news first came, in June, 
that thirty-five hundred seasoned soldiers, under Gen. Robert 
Pvoss, were embarking at Bermuda to join Cockburn's block- 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON xxxi 

ading squadron in Chesapeake Bay. The chief blame for the 
Capital's unpreparedness rested with Armstrong, Secretary 
of War, whose whole management of the subsequent crisis 
revealed a monumental incapacity, which justified his later 
peremptory dismissal by Madison. "The British," Armstrong 
insisted, "would never be so mad as to make an attempt on 
Washington, and it is therefore totally unnecessary to make 
any preparation tor its defense." 

In spite of Armstrong, some feeble and abortive prepara- 
tions were made. A military district was created, including 
the District of Columbia, Maryland and part of Virginia, 
and placed under command of Gen. William H. Winder, then 
recently returned from captivity as prisoner of war in Canada. 
On assuming command Winder found, to his consternation, 
that, although thirteen regiments of militia had been drafted 
from Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia, it was on con- 
dition that they should not be called upon for service until 
the enemy appeared. Winder protested fruitlessly ; and the 
Government did not awake to the seriousness of the situation 
until August 20th, when a mounted courier brought the 
news that General Ross, with thirty-five hundred men, had 
effected a landing at Benedict's on the Potomac, only forty 
miles below Washington, and had been reinforced by a 
thousand marines from Cockburn's squadron, now under 
Cochrane. Belated efforts resulted in a nastily gathered army 
amounting to approximately six thousand men. Of these 
there were barely nine hundred regulars to meet the English 
force of forty-five hundred veterans. The latter, under Ross, 
had pushed forward until, on August 24th, they reached a 
fork in the road, one branch of which ran northward to 
Bladensburg, and the other westward to the Eastern Branch 
of the Potomac, crossed opposite Washington by a bridge. 
The main defense, under Winder, had been concentrated 
1 to defend the Eastern Branch bridge. But, discovering Ross' 
j feint movement was designed to hide his real purpose, Winder 
hurried on to Bladensburg, before which he occupied a com- 
manding position in a rising field, but unfortunately with a 
lack of confidence both in himself and his troops. The latter 
; were, for the most part, raw recruits facing for the first time 
I almost equal numbers of seasoned soldiers and marines. 
The American forces broke and fled in the face of a fusil- 
lade of Congreve rockets. The only part of the American 
army which showed real bravery was that of Barney's 
marines, who cut wide gaps in the British column, but were 
! eventually surrounded and compelled to surrender. But they 
I had taken a tribute of more than two to one. 



xxxii RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

Meanwhile the President and demoralized heads of the 
departments had fled from the city, the panic-stricken Secre- 
tary of the Navy giving his ill-advised parting order to burn 
the Navy Yard, thus destroying Commodore Barney's flo- 
tilla of gun-boats. The British forces reached the Capitol 
grounds at 6 p, m. That night they burned the Capitol (more 
than half the Congressional Library being destroyed (p. 369) ; 
the White House; the Treasury, State and Navy Buildings 
and a number of private edifices, including the office of the 
National Intelligencer, whose editorials had especially aroused 
the resentment of Cockburn. The flames were put out, dur- 
ing the afternoon of August 25th, by one of the severest 
thunder-storms in the city's history. This storm, amounting 
to a cyclone, together with the rumor that an American army 
of twelve thousand was advancing from Virginia, resulted in 
the withdrawal of the British that same evening. 

During this three-weeks' campaign the damage done by the 
British troops to public and private property amounted to up- 
ward of three million dollars, including the valuable cargoes 
taken from the seventy-one vessels captured in the harbor of 
Alexandria. Plans were soon under way for repairing the 
damage done to the Capitol city; and one of the first acts of 
Congress, at a special session held in September, 1814, was to 
appropriate $500,000 for rebuilding the White House and 
the Capitol, notwithstanding the strenuous opposition of the 
"Capital Movers." The White House, restored by Hoban, 
was again open to visitors January 2d, 1818. The Capitol, 
first under Latrobe and then under Bulfinch, was not com- 
pleted until 1830. In 1820 the city government was once more 
modified by a new charter providing for the election of a 
Mayor biennially by popular vote. The government estab- 
lished under this charter continued with but little change 
until 1 87 1. 

In 1846, by the desire of the inhabitants and at the re- 
quest of the State of Virginia, Congress retroceded the thirty 
square miles south of the Potomac originally acquired from 
that state. This section contained the city of Alexandria, for 
the inclusion of which within the District, Congress had passed 
a special amendment, at the earnest desire of President Wash- 
ington. 

Down to the inauguration of President Lincoln, the Cap- 
ital remained a quiet, retired place of slow though steady 
growth, its periods of gay activity during the sessions of 
Congress giving place to prolonged intervals of stagnation 
during the recesses. Active opposition to the Capital's loca- 
tion had long since given place to a nation-wide indifference. 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON xxxiii 

With the outbreak of the Civil War the lethargy of the nation 
toward the Capital vanished over night. At the close of 
the first day's bombardment of Ft. Sumter (April 12th, 
1861), Leroy P. Walker, the Confederate Secretary of War, 
boasted that before May 1st the Confederate flag would float 
over the Capitol. The answer of the indignant North was 
to transform Washington into a great military post. The 
plains around it were shortly crowded with camps, sheds and 
trains ; and every available building in the city had been 
requisitioned by the Government. In a few months the 
population increased from 61,400 to nearly quarter of a 
million, an average maintained throughout the war. A cor- 
respondent of the London Times, returning to the Capital 
in July, 1861, after an absence of only three months, con- 
cludes as follows a vivid account of the marvellous change 
wrought : 

"To me, all this was a wonderful sight. As I drove up Pennsyl- 
vania Avenue I could scarcely credit that busy thoroughfare — all red, 
white, and blue with flags, filled with dust from galloping chargers 
and commissariat carts; the sidewalks thronged with people, of whom 
a large proportion carried sword and bayonet; shops full of life and 
activity — was the same as that through which I had driven the first 
morning of my arrival. Washington now, indeed, is the Capital of 
the United States." 

Throughout the war Washington remained the center of 
military activities. Here armies were officered and mar- 
shalled; here also were the principal hospitals for the wounded, 
and the chief depots of military supplies. During the war 
the city was frequently threatened by Confederate armies, 
but was only once in real danger. This was in July, 1864, 
shortly after the Battle of the Wilderness, and at the be- 
ginning of Grant's nine-months' siege of Petersburg. To 
create a diversion in the rear of Grant's army, Gen. Jubal 
A. Early, with part of Lee's troops, was sent up through 
the Shenandoah Valley and across the Potomac. There was 
great alarm in Washington, then protected by less than five 
thousand soldiers ; while Gen. Lew Wallace, then command- 
ing the Middle Department (the territory included between 
Washington and Baltimore), had at his disposal barely three 
thousand men when, on July 9th, he opposed Early's passage 
of the Monocasy River, less than thirty-five miles from the 
Capital. Wallace was defeated after an all day battle, with 
a loss of one-third of his forces. On July nth Early's troops 
appeared before the defenses of the city. But the loss of a 
day in the Battle of the Monocasy had thwarted his purpose, 
giving time for reinforcements to arrive; and within the 
fortifications of Washington there was an armed force of 



xxxiv RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

sixty thousand men. By nightfall, on July 12th, Early's 
forces were in full retreat. 

The greatest tragedy in the city's history occurred on the 
night of April 14th, 1865, when President Lincoln was 
assassinated at Ford's Theatre by the actor John Wilkes 
Booth, (p. 145). 

Washington had hardly recuperated from the saddest 
funeral procession it ever witnessed when, on May 23d and 
24th, it was the scene of an impressive spectacle of widely 
different character, the greatest military display that had 
ever taken place in America — the review of the Federal 
veterans by President Johnson. Marching sixty abreast, it 
took six hours on the first day for Meade's army, and seven 
hours for Sherman's on the second day, to pass in review. 

In 1871, another experiment in city government was tried 
when, on Feb. 21st, an Act was passed to the effect that on and 
after June 1st the corporations of Washington and Georgetown 
should cease to exist, and that the entire District of Columbia 
should constitute a single municipality. This new regime, 
known as the Territorial Government, consisted of a Gov- 
ernor, a Secretary, a Board of Public Works, a Board of 
Health, a Legislative Assembly, and a Delegate in the House 
of Representatives. Under this form of municipal govern- 
ment began what is known as the "Renaissance of Wash- 
ington." 

The first Governor was Henry D. Cooke, who filled the of- 
fice! from March, 1871, until September 13, 1873, when he was 
succeeded by Governor Alexander R. Shepherd, who from May, 
1871, until he became Governor had been Vice-President and 
the executive officer of the Board of Public Works. 
Governor Shepherd was a remarkable man, whose great 
services to the city of his birth, repaid at the time by base 
ingratitude, have since been amply recognized. He under- 
took, and carried out, one of the most comprehensive schemes 
of municipal improvement ever conceived, completing in a 
space of three years work which had been delayed for three- 
quarters of a century. Briefly stated, his improvements in- 
cluded: 1. The construction of a sewerage system, which, 
by the end of 1875, embraced a total length of one hundred 
and twenty-three miles ; 2. A water system, consisting of one 
hundred and thirty-three miles of mains and pipes ; 3. The ex- 
tension of the gas-mains, and erection of three thousand public 
lamps ; 4. The regrading of a large portion of the city streets, 
including the paving of one hundred and eighty miles, and 
more than two hundred miles of sidewalk ; 5. The planting 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON xxxv 

of twenty-five thousand shade trees of many species, to whioh 
the city to-day owes a large part of its beauty. 

Improvements undertaken on so vast a scale were cor- 
respondingly costly, and the territorial debt was increased 
from $3,000,000 in 187 1 to $20,000,000 in 1875. Within less 
than four years the Territorial Government had become in- 
solvent, and a committee appointed to investigate, reported 
that it had proved "a failure — being too cumbersome and 
too expensive," adding! that there was no remedy short of 
its abolition." Shepherd was driven from office by the abolition 
of the office of Governor, and, meeting with financial reverses, 
removed to Mexico, where he soon acquired another fortune. 
In later years he returned to receive a royal welcome, and 
after his death to be honored by a public statue on Pennsyl- 
vania Ave. (p. no). 

Next followed the Temporary Commission Government 
(1874-78), consisting of three members to be appointed by 
| the President, with the consent of the Senate. This in turn 
1 gave way to the Permanent Commission Government, which 
i was established by an act passed June nth, 1878, and cur- 
rently known as the "Organic Act" of the District. (See sec- 
I tion on Municipal Government, p. xxxvi.) 

On July 2d, 1881, Washington was shocked by the 
, second assassination of a President of the United States, 
I when James A. Garfield was shot while passing through the 
i former station of the Baltimore and Potomac, R. R!. (p. 244), 
( by Charles J. Guiteau, a disappointed office-seeker. Garfield 
died September 19th, and his body lay in state in the Rotunda 
of the Capitol September 22d and 23d. Guiteau was tried in 
I the old City Hall (p. 137) and subsequently hanged. 

On June 2d, 1889, there occurred the most recent, and 
1 probably the highest, of the many floods which have inun- 
I dated the lower part of the city. One of the main channel- 
! spans of the Old Long Bridge was carried away, and on 
J Pennsylvania Ave. and adjacent sections the water rose to 
the level of the horse-car platforms. 

In March, 1894, Jacob S. Coxey with his self-styled 
"Army" of the unemployed, began their widely heralded 
march upon Washington. On April 29th, Coxey and three 
hundred of his followers arrived and were permitted to par- 
ade ; but when they attempted to make speeches from the steps; 
of the Capitol, they were arrested, and the three leaders re- 
ceived jail sentences of twenty days each. 

By an Act of Congress, dated February nth, 1895, Con- 
gress decreed that Georgetown "should no longer be known 



xxxvi RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

as the city of Georgetown, but should constitute a part of the 
city of Washington." 

During the Spanish-American war a military rendezvous 
was maintained at Camp Alger, situated just south of Fort 
Myer. 

On October 3d, 1899, Washington witnessed a military 
parade in honor of Admiral Dewey, Victor at Manila in the 
Spanish- American war (the equally impressive funeral pro- 
cession of Admiral Dewey took place January 20th, 1917). 

On September 6th, 1901, the whole country was galvanized 
by the news of the assassination of President McKinley by 
Leon F. Czolgosz. McKinley lay in state in the Capitol. But, 
owing to a then recent statute forbidding the draping of pub- 
lic buildings in Washington, there was no black on the Capitol 
or White House. 

III. The Public Administration of Washington 

The power of determining the manner in which the Dis- 
trict of Columbia should be governed, was vested in Congress 
by a clause in the eighth section of the first article of the 
Constitution of the United States: "To exercise exclusive 
legislation in all cases whatsoever over such districts (not 
exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular 
States and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of 
the Government of the United States." Under this authority 
three successive forms of government have been tried. In 
1802 Washington was formally chartered with a municipal 
government on the old English plan, including a Mayor and 
Common Council. In 1871 this was succeeded by a terri- 
torial form of government, with a Governor and delegate in 
Congress (see History, p. xxxv) . This in turn gavel place to 
the present form of government by a Board of Commis- 
sioners, established under Act of Congress, approved June 
11, 1878. 

Under the first section of the Act it is provided that all 
the territory which was ceded by Maryland for the per- 
manent seat of Government, should continue to be known as 
the District of Columbia, and should continue to be a mun- 
icipal corporation, the government of which should be vested 
in three Commissioners, having in general equal powers and 
duties. Two of these Commissioners are appointed from 
civil life by the President, and confirmed by the U. S. Senate 
for a term of three years each, and until their successors are 
appointed and qualified. To be eligible they must have been 
actual residents of the District for three years previous to 



PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION OF WASH, xxxvii 

their appointment, having during that period claimed resi- 
dence nowhere else. The third Commissioner is detailed from 
time to time by the President from the Engineer Corps of 
the U. S. Army, and must be selected from among the Cap- 
tains or officers of higher grade who have served at least 15 
years in the Engineer Corps. While serving as Commis- 
sioner such officer shall not be required to perform any other 
duty. 

These three Commissioners are in a general way vested 
with jurisdiction covering all the ordinary features of munic- 
ipal government, performing both legislative and executive 
functions. They are also ex officio the Public Utilities Com- 
mission of the District of Columbia. Their duties as defined 
by the Act are : to apply revenues ; to take charge of Dis- 
trict records and moneys; to investigate annually and report 
upon charitable institutions ; to make police, building and coal 
I regulations; to abolish and consolidate offices; to prescribe 
' time of payment of taxes, etc. ; to perform the duties of the 
; Board of Police, Board of Health and School Trustees; to 
exact just and reasonable rates for gas; and to report annu- 
ally an account of their proceedings to Congress. 

Residents of the District of Columbia are deprived of the 
franchise. During the Congressional session of 1916-17 this 

1 question of the right of the citizens of the District to vote 
was brought forward by the Shepard bill, the purpose of 
which was to establish prohibition throughout the District, 

1 the liquor interests and the advocates of District franchise 
alike seeing in it an opportunity to seek for an amendment 

I granting the District at least the right of referendum. The 

I amendment was defeated. 

The expenditures of the District of Columbia are based 
i upon estimates annually prepared by Commissioners and sub- 
l mitted to Congress through the Secretary of the Treasury. 
J In so far as it approves of these estimates, Congress makes a 
proportionate appropriation out of the U. S. Treasury, the 
remainder of the amount needed being levied upon taxable 
property and privileges within the District (exclusive of gov- 
ernment property). At present the proportions are 40 per 
cent out of the Treasury and 60 per cent from taxation. 

There are three Municipal Departments: namely, the 
Fire Department, Health Department and Metropolitan Police, 
all under control of the Commissioners. Other important 
j functions are delegated to a number of special Boards, re- 
porting directly to the Commissioners, and including among 



xxxviii RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

others the Board of Charities, Board of Education, Board 
of Medical Examiners, Board of Plumbing, Minimum Wage 
Board, Trustees of the Public Library, etc. 

The District Judiciary, known as "the Supreme Court of 
the District of Columbia," includes a Chief Justice and five 
associate Justices, and occupies what was formerly the City 
Hall. From the decisions of this court appeals are taken to 
the Court of Appeals of the District of Columbia, consisting 
of a Chief Justice and two associate Justices (see p. 138). 

IV. Washington Bibliography 

In the widest sense, a bibliography of Washington would 
make a volume in itself. The lives of all the Presidents and 
leading Statesmen, the intimate diaries and letters of count- 
less sojourners in the Capital City; the casual impressions of 
scores of foreign-visitors all add their side-lights to the social 
and political history of Washington. In a narrower sense, 
however, the standard histories, descriptive volumes and 
special monographs on Washington are relatively few as com- 
pared with most world Capitals; and those likely to interest 
the average visitor can be summed up in little space. 

History. Two recent authoritative works are : Dr. 
William Tindall's Standard History of the City of Washing- 
ton (1914) and W. B. Bryan's History of the National Capital, 
From its Foundation through the Period of the Adoption of 
the Organic Act (2 vols. 1914-16). Dr. Tindall, for many 
years secretary of the District Board, has made his 600-page 
volume especially valuable as a history oif the local municipal 
government. Mr. Bryan's work is especially valuable for its 
full treatment accorded the origin and early development of 
the Capital City, his first volume covering only the period 
down to the close of the War of 1812. Other works of a 
popular form are : C. B. Todd's The Story of Washington, 
the National Capital (1889) ; R. R. Wilson's Washington, the 
Capital City (2 vols., iojoi) ; and C. H. Forbes-Lindsay's 
Washington, the City and the Seat of Government (1908). 
The student who wishes to go directly to the earlier sources 
will find a mine of interesting details in the following pioneer 
works : Observations on the River Potomack, the Country 
Adjacent and the City of Washington, dated 1793 and written 
by Tobias Lear, George Washington's private secretary; A 
Description of the District of Columbia, by David B. Warden 
(1816), and Jonathan Elliot's invaluable little history of The 
Ten-Mile-Square (1830). For the middle period much of 



WASHINGTON BIBLIOGRAPHY xxxix 

value is to be gleaned from A Picture of Washington, pub- 
lished in 184 1, and written by George Watterson, Librarian 
of Congress, 1815-29. For the closing decades of the 19th 
century the Centennial History of the City of Washington 
(1892) is a mine of information regarding the military, mer- 
cantile, manufacturing and transportation interests, the press, 
schools, churches, societies, etc., together with much biograph- 
ical matter, and abundant illustrations. Other works deserv- 
ing mention are : Joseph V. Varnum's Seat of Government of 
the United States (1854); C. A. Townsend's Washington 
Outside and Inside (1874); The National Capital, Past and 
Present, by Stilson Hutchins and J. W. Moore (1885); Pic- 
tures of the City of Washington in the Past (1898), by S. C. 
Busey; and A History of the City of Washington, its Men 
and Institutions, edited by A. B. Slauson. 

Among the monographs covering special epochs, mention 
I should be made of John Melon Stahl's The Invasion of the 
1 City of Washington; a Disagreeable Study in and of Mili- 
! tary Unpreparedness (1918); John S. Williams' History of 
the Invasion and Capture of Washington (1857); also, from 
> the British standpoint George R. Glieg's Campaigns of the 
j British Army at Washington and New Orleans in the Years 
I 1814-15; for early Georgetown history Early Days in Wash- 
| ington (1899), by Sally S. Mackall, is a delightfully readable 
j and fairly accurate record. For the history of Mount Vernon 
( there can be no substitute for the painstaking, exhaustive and 
thoroughly reliable monograph by Paul Wilstach, Mount 
I Vernon (1916); and Potomac Landings (1921), by the same 
j author, is equally satisfactory for the many historic associa- 
tions along the Potomac River. Lastly, the Records of the 
! Columbia Historical Society, already numbering 24 vols., are 
' full of matter regarding the local history of buildings, institu- 
j tions, residential sections, biographies, etc. It includes such 
important papers as the "Diary of Mrs. William Thornton," 
, "The Capture of Washington by the British" and "Unwel- 
j come Visitors to Washington," Aug. 24, 1814, by M. I. 
Weller and J. Elwell ; also an almost completed series of 
papers on the Mayors of Washington. 

Description. Among the volumes written in lighter vein, 
and dealing with the picturesque side of the Capital City, its 
social life and famous men and women, the choice is so wide 
that the specific mention of a few is largely a personal selec- 
1 tion. The following are distinctly readable : Francis E. 
Leupp's Walks About Washington (1915) ; Mary Smith Lock- 



xl - RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

wood's Yesterdays in Washington (2 vols., 1915) ; Mrs. Mary 
S. Logan's Thirty Years in Washington (1901), a 752-page 
volume of life and scenes in the Capital; and Mrs. Harriet 
Monroe's Washington, its Sights and Insights (1903). To 
these should be added Ten Years in Washington (1882), by 
Mary Clemmer Ames, who further defines her work as "In- 
side Life and Scenes in the Capital as a Woman Sees Them." 
Of a purely descriptive nature are two articles on Washing- 
ton, written respectively by former President William Howard 
Taft and by Viscount James Bryce, which appeared in the 
National Geographic Magazine in the years 1913 and 1915. 
Recent volumes dealing especially with the social life of 
Washington, include : Mrs. E. N. Chapin's American Court 
Gossip (1887); an anonymous volume, "by the Widow of an 
American Diplomat," entitled Intimacies of Court and Society; 
an Unconventional Narrative of Unofficial Days (1912) ; and 
The Sunny Side of Diplomatic Life, 1875- 1912, by Lillie 
Greenough Hegermann-Linden crone (1914). 

Guide Books. Of the strictly formal guide book type, 
one early pioneer volume which deserves mention is Bohn's 
Handbook of Washington (1852), containing numerous en- 
gravings of buildings most of whioh have since disappeared; 
Washington and its Environs, edited "by De B'. Randolph 
Keim, is a slim red-covered, Baedeker-like little volume, new 
editions of which appeared almost annually for about 20 
3^ears, down to the late 8o's, and are a useful storehouse of 
miscellaneous details for that period. In recent years the 
tourist has had to depend upon the two paper-covered popular- 
priced handbooks put out respectively by the Rand, McNally 
Company and the B. S. Reynolds Company, to which has 
recently been added an up-to-date little pamphlet entitled, 
Historical Self-Guide to Washington, published by the Wash- 
ington Guidebook Company. Two special handbooks of dis- 
tinct value are: The National Capitol; its Architecture, Art 
and History, by George Cochraine Hazelton, Jr. (1907), and 
Handbook of the New Library of Congress, by Herbert 
Small (1901). No bibliography would be complete without 
mention of Charles Moore's recently published biography of 
Daniel H. Burnham, the distinguished architect who did more 
than any other single man to carry forward the Art Com- 
mission's plans for beautifying Washington, and the record of 
his efforts to this end is fully given in these two ample 
volumes. 

Fiction. Washington has never been especially popular 
with novelists as a background for their stories, perhaps 



WASHINGTON BIBLIOGRAPHY xli 

because a very large social element is transient and migra- 
tory. Yet the list begins as early as 1822 when George Wat- 
terson published what was probably the first novel laid in 

the District, The L Family in Washington, a story told 

in a series of letters, and followed, in 1827, by The Wanderer 
in Washington. Another early novelist of the Capital, was 
Mrs. Samuel Harrison Smith, whose What is Gentility? — a 
story of Washington society — was published in 1828, and the 
proceeds given to aid the Washington City Orphan Asylum. 
The most prolific of Washington writers was Mrs. E. D. E. N. 
South worth, who, for nearly half a century, averaged one 
novel a year, many of which were laid in the City itself or 
in Bladensburg and other suburbs. Retribution (1843) is 
said to be the first serial story written in America. 

Among comparatively recent novelists who have laid their 
scenes in Washington, should be mentioned Mrs. Frances 
j Hodgson Burnett, author of Through One Administration 
(1883); Mrs. Gertrude Atherton, Whose Senator North 
(1900) stands out prominently among her earlier works; and 
' David Graham Phillips, who invaded the Capital City at least 
once with Josiah Craig. Democracy: an American Novel, 
\ issued anonymously in 1880, was justly esteemed at the time 
1 as a realistic picture of political life at Washington, in which 
( numerous Senators and foreign diplomats were skilfully por- 
j trayed. Other novels of about the same period include: Julia 
Magruder's Across the Chasm (1885); Albert G. Riddle's 
j Alice Brand (1875) ; J- J- Wheelwright's A Child of the Cen- 
tury (1887), and a series of stories by J. W. De Forest, 
including Justine's Lovers (1878) and Playing the Mischief 
(1875). It should be remembered also that at least the con- 
cluding chapters of Robert Grant's Unleavened Bread, and 
several episodes of Sinclair Lewis' Main Street are enacted 
in the Capital City. And lastly, there are: The Enchanted 
Canyon (1921), by Honore Willsie, where the scene alter- 
nates between Washington and the Grand Canyon of the 
Colorado; and The Wings of Time (1921), by Elizabeth N. 
Hepburn, in which practically the whole story is enacted 
within the District limits. 



PRELIMINARY INFORMATION 

I. Arrival in Washington 
a. At the Railroad Station 

All passengers entering Washington by railroad now 
arrive at the Union Station (p. 358). It contains an Infor- 
mation Desk, where time-tables, information concerning routes, 
connections, etc.; may be obtained free of charge. Hand lug- 
gage and parcels may be left in the Parcel Room (entrance 
from Grand Concourse, W. of main doorway) at a charge of 
ioc. per day for each article. Uniformed porters are on hand 
to carry portable luggage and give all kinds of assistance. A 
porter will accompany the traveller to street car or taxicab 
and see hinx safely started in the right direction. A small fee 
I is expected, varying according to the service rendered. Within 
1 the main station are telegraph offices both of the Western 
f Union and Postal Telegraph Cable Co. 

For the benefit of the traveller from abroad or others unused to 

American, conditions it> may be added that railroad tickets should be 

1 purchased at the regular ticket office in the station or at one of the city 

I ticket offices, since any tickets offered at reduced rates by 

■ unofficial agents, called "scalpers," may be counterfeit or sold under 

'1 illegal conditions. Children under five years of age, when accompanied 

I by an adult, travel free. Children between five and twelve are charged 

half fare. Any child, however, occupying a seat in a parlor car must 

pay at least a half fare. Tickets purchased one or more days in advance 

should be stamped with the date of intended departure. Unused tickets 

will be redeemed by the railroad under certain specified conditions. If 

stop-over privileges are desired, this fact should be mentioned when the 

ticket is purchased. 

Incoming Baggage. On all through trains, when ap- 
proaching the city, a uniformed agent for one of the transfer 
! companies passes through the cars and will take checks, give 
a receipt and deliver baggage to any part of Washington, 
i Payment may be made either in advance or upon arrival of 
the baggage. If the visitor has not made such arrangements 
on the train he may apply at the office of the Union Transfer 
Co. at N, W. corner of main Waiting Room. 

Taxi-cabs may be procured at W. end of station. Electric 
cars of several different lines (see p. 10), passing within 
convenient distance of all the principal hotels, pass the Plaza, 
stopping in front of the main South Entrance to the Union 
Station. 

Travellers from abroad will find further general information regard- 
', ing purchase of tickets, checking of baggage, etc., in Rider's New York 
City. 



2 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

b. At the Steamboat Docks 

Passengers arriving in Washington by any of the Potomac 
River steamboat lines are landed at the wharves at the foot 
of 7th St. S. W., almost two miles S. of the residential section. 
There are, however, several electric car lines running N., the 
most convenient being the 7th St. line marked "Chevy Chase," 
which brings the visitor in a few minutes' run to Pennsylvania 
Ave., where he may transfer E. or W. to the hotel of his 
choice. 

c. Division of Material in This Guide Book 

To aid the traveller in the use of this guide, Washington 
has been divided into the following sections : I. Washington 
Northwest — The Central Section, embracing that portion of | 
Washington Northwest included between the Capitol and the j 
White House, and containing the principal business centres, 
the leading theatres and a majority of the hotels frequented 
by transient visitors; 2. Washington Northwest — The Resi- 
dential Section, including in a comprehensive way all the dis- 
trict N. and W. of the White House, and containing the homes 
of prominent Washingtonians, the foreign Embassies and 
Legations and the prominent social clubs; 3. Washington 
Southwest and the Mall, the latter the oldest and most import- 
ant unit in the city's system of parkways, and containing, with 
the sole exception of the Corcoran Gallery, all the important 
art collections and museums (the rest of Washington South- 
west, except for Washington's most extensive playground, 
Potomac Park, on its western boundary, is a rather dreary 
waste of old-fashioned dwellings, warehouses, railway tracks 
and wharves) ; 4. Washington Northeast, containing the homes 
of the thrifty middle class, but with little of the first import- 
ance to attract the casual tourist save the Union Station 
through which he arrives and departs ; 5. Washington South- 
east, of much the same general character, its one important 
building being the Library of Congress; 6. the Northern and 
Western Suburbs, particularly Georgetown ; 7. the important 
Virginia Suburbs, particularly Mt. Vernon and Alexandria. 

II. Hotels and Other Accommodations 

a. General Information 

In Washington the great majority of hotels are run on 
the European plan, and there are comparatively few where a 
fixed weekly rate for room and meals may be obtained. In 



HOTELS AND OTHER ACCOMMODATIONS 3 

fact, there are few hotels that make any reduction by the 
week or month in their charges for rooms. In choosing a 
hotel the visitor naturally considers the two questions of 
expense and location. The most expensive hotels are all 
situated on or near the upper end of Pennsylvania Ave., 
within a few squares of the White House. Moderate priced 
hotels, however, may be found in this section as well as in 
the lower Pennsylvania Ave. and Capitol grounds neighbor- 
hoods. The problem of location depends, as in other cities, 
upon the length of the visitor's proposed stay, and the pur- 
pose of his visit, whether for business, for social reasons or 
merely for sightseeing. For a prolonged stay, there are obvi- 
ous advantages in being near the residential section ; but for 
the tourist with only a few days at his disposal, location in 
; Washington makes far less difference than in most cities of 
1 similar size. A large majority of the hotels extend along the 
I scant mile-and-a-half stretch separating the Capitol and the 
I White House, or cluster around these two extremes ; the prin- 
' cipal sights of the city are similarly distributed, and in 
j almost equal proportions ; and whichever location is chosen, 
I the intervening length o<f Pennsylvania Ave. must be traversed 
many times. The visitor who is a good pedestrian will find 
ithat a hotel at some midway point offers the advantage of 
s being within practical walking distance of the great majority 
,of points he wishes to visit. 

For further general information regarding American hotels, the 
stranger in this country is referred to Rider's New York City. 



b. . Large and Expensive Hotels of the First Rank 

*New Willard. (PI. I— A2) N. W. cor. Pennsylvania Ave. and 14th 
St. (378 R.) The oldest and most widely known of the large hotels, 

I and, like its predecessor, the Old Willard, much patronized by 
members of Congress. Vice-President Coolidge resides here. For 

I description see pp. no, 149. (R. Single $3. With B. $5. Double $5. 
With B. $7. Suites $17 up.) (See restaurants, p. 8.) 

*Shoreham. (PI. II— D4) N. E. cor. 15th and H Sts. (250 R.) For 
description { see p. 230. (R. Single $3. With B. $5. Double $5. Witli 
B. $7.) (See restaurants, p. 8.) 

*Washington. (PI. I— A2) N. E. cor. Pennsylvania Ave. and 15th St. 
(500 R. 500 B.) (R. Single with B. $5. Double with B. $8. Suites 
$20 up.) (See restaurants, p. 8.) 

Raleigh. (PI. I— B2) N. E. cor. Pennsylvania Ave. and 12th St. 
( (450 R.) Patronized by Government officials and foreign diplomats. 



4 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

For description see p. 106. (R. Single $3. With B. $4. Double $4. 
With B. $5. Suites $12 and up.) (See restaurants, p. 7.) 

*Wardman Park Hotel, Connecticut Ave. and Woodley Road. 
(1500 R. 1500 B.) Suburban residential hotei, overlookingf Rock Creek 
Park. Largely patronized by Congressmen, Government Executives and 
foreign diplomats. Prices on application. 

c. Eastern Section: Capitol Grounds Vicinity 

Congress Hall. (PI. I— E4) New Jersey Ave. betw. B and C Sts. 
S. E. (225 R.) Fo^ description see p. 405/ (R. Single $2.50. With 
B. $3. Double $4. With B. $5. Suites $6 up. American plan: Meals 
$3 per day.) 

Potomac. (PI. I— E 4 ) N. W. cor. New Jersey Ave. and C St. S. E. 
(75 R.) For description see p. 405. (European plan: R. Single $2. 
With B. $4. Double $3. With B. $4.50. American plan: R. Single 
$4. With B. $5. Double $7. With B. $9.) (See restaurants, p. 7.) 

George/ Washington Inn. (PI. I — E4) S. W. cor. New Jersey Ave. 
and C St. Sw E. (100 R,)/ (R. Single $2. With B. $2.50. Double $3. 
With B. $3.50. Suites $6.) (See restaurants, p. 7.) 

Driscoll. (PI. I— E3) N. E. cor. B and 1st Sts. N. W. (105 R.) 
Faces the Capitol Grounds. (R. Single $1.50 up. With B. $4. Double 
$3.50 up. With B. $6. Suites $9. Weekly rates upon application. 
American plan: $4 up per day.) (See restaurants, -p. 7.) 

New Winston. 1st St. betw. Pennsylania Ave. and B St. N. W. 
(90 R.) (European plan: R. Single $2. With B. $2.50. Double $3. 
With B. $4. American plan: Two meals $1.25;, Three meals $2 per day 
in addition to price of room.) 

Capitol Park. (PI. I— E2) North Capitol and E Sts. (150 R.) 
Conveniently near the Union Station. (R. Single $2.50. With B. $3. 
Double $4. With B. $5. With twin beds $6.) 

Continental. (PI. I — E2) North Capitol St. cor F St. (175 R.) 
Faces on Union Station Plaza (R. Single $2. With B. $3. Double $3. 
With B. $5.) (See restaurants, p. 7.) 

d. Central Section: Pennsylvania Avenue 

National. (PI. I — C3) N. E. cor. Pennsylvania Ave. and 6th St. 

(300 R.) An historic old house that has entertained many famous 

people. For history see p. 100. (R. Single $2. With B. $3. Double 
$3. With B. $5. Suites $6 up.) (See restaurants, p. 7.) 

St. James. (PI. I— C3) S. E. cor. Pennsylvania Ave. and 6th St. 
(126 R.) For description see p. 100. (R. Single $1.50 up. With B. 
$4. Double $4. With B. $5. Suites $5 to $7.) (See restaurants, p. 7.) 

Howard. S. W. cor. Pennsylvania Ave. and 6th St. Rates upon 
application. 

Metropolitan. (PI. I — C3) 615 Pennsylvania Ave. (175 R.) For 
description see p. 100. (R. Single $1.50 up. With B. $3. Double $3. 
With B. $6.) 

Harrington. (PI. I — B2) S. E. cor. nth and E Sts. (R. Single 
$2.50. With B. $3.50. Double $4. With B. $5. With twin beds $6.) 
(See restaurants, p. 8.) 

Sterling. (PI. I— A 2) S. E. cor. 13th and E Sts. (100 R.) (R. 
Single $2. With B. $3. Double $3. With B. $4.) (See restaurants, 
p. 8.) 



HOTELS AND OTHER ACCOMMODATIONS 5 

New Ebbitt. (PI. I—A2) S. E. cor. 14th land F Sts. (p. 149.) 
(R. Single $2. With B. $3.50. R. Double $4. With B. $6.) (See 
restaurants p. 8.) 

Occidental. (PI. I—A2) 141 1 Pennsylvania Ave. (R. Single $2 up. 
With B. $3 up. 

e. Residential Section 

Lafayette. (PI. II— C3) S. E. cor. 16th and I Sts. (200 R. 200 B.) 
(R. Single with B. $4 and $5. Double with B. $6 to $8.) (See res- 
taurants p. 8.) 

Bellevue. (PI. II— D3) N. E. cor. 15th and I Sts. (102 R.) 
(R. Single $2. With B. $3. Double $3. With B. $5.) 

Franklin Square. (PI. II— D3) N. W. cor. 14th and K Sts. (150 R.) 
(R. Single $2.50. With B. $3. Double $3.50. With B. $5. Suites 
$14.00.) (See restaurants p. 8.) 

New Hamilton. N. E. cor. 14th and K Sts. (310 R. 310 B.) A 
thoroughly modern eleven-story hotel overlooking Franklin Sq., and 
now nearing completion. Terms on application. 

Portland. (PI. II— D3) Vermont Ave., 14th and M Sts. (250 R.) 
Select family hotel patronized by Congressmen, (p. 220.) (R. Single 
with B. $4. Double with B. $6. Monthly rates upon application.) (See 
1 restaurants p. 9.) 

Lee House. 15th and L Sts. (250 R. 250 B.) A new hotel, 
j opened in May, 1922. (Rates from $3.50 per day up.) (See 
! restaurants p. 9.) 

Everett. 1730 H St. (38 R.) (R. Single $2. Double $3 to $5.) 

Bancroft. (PI. II— C3) 18th and H Sts. (60 R.) Quiet family 
hotel; moderate prices (R. Single, $1.50. With B., $2.50 up. R. Double, 
( $3.50. With B., $4.50 up. American plan: $22.50 per week. With B., 
$25. For two persons, $40 per week, or $45 with B.) 

Powhatan. (PI. II — C4) N. E. cor. 18th St. and Pennsylvania Ave. 
(300 R.) Large modern hotel recentlv enlarged. (R. Single, $3. With 
I B., $4. R. Double, $4. With B., $5.) 

Richmond (PI. II— C4), 17th and H Sts. (90 R.) Small familv 
hotel. (R. Single, $2.50. With B., $3.50. R. Double, $4.50. With 
B., $5.50.) 1 (See restaurants p. 9.) 

Grafton, (PI. II — C2), Connecticut Ave. and De Sales St. American 
plan. Prices on application. 

Logan, 13th St. and Iowa Circle. (R. Single, $1.50. R. Double. 
with B. $3. up.) 

Gordon, (PI. II— C3), 16th and I Sts. (R. Single, $3. With B., $4. 
Other rates on application.) 

f. Furnished Rooms 

Furnished rooms are advertised in the daily papers and 

by signs in windows. The prices vary considerably in diff- 

1 erent sections of the city, being naturally much cheaper in 

1 the older sections around Judiciary Square (p. 137), or S. 

of Pennsylvania Ave. beyond 17th St., than in the fashionable 

residential section N. of Lafayette Square, where signs are 

rarely displayed. Owing to the great exodus of Government 

employees since the close of the war, there is at present [1922] 

an abundance of vacant rooms, and on some of the quiet old 

blocks below 6th St., every third or fourth house has rooms 

to rent. In this neighborhood it is possible to get a large 

1 sunny room with steam heat for $6 to $8 a week. 



6 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

g. Suites and Furnished Apartments 

Visitors expecting to make a somewhat extended stay in 
the city may find it advantageous to take a furnished apart- 
ment. In Washington, however, apartment houses, especially 
of the moderate-priced sort, are not plentiful ; and even in 
the fashionable residential section there is likely to be small 
range of choice, and small advantage in cost over a suite of 
rooms in a residential hotel. A significant evidence of the 
lack of available apartments or private houses at a reasonable 
rental is the fact that today no less than 193 members of 
Congress find it advantageous to live in hotels. 

h. Boarding Houses 

Good hoard can he obtained in Washington at a cost rang- 
ing from $12 to $20 a week. A list of boarding houses may 
be obtained from the Young Women's Christian Association 
and from the daily papers. In choosing location, the <N. W. 
section of the city (i. e., N. of the Mall, and W. of North 
Capitol St.), is preferable from the standpoint of accessibility. 
Before engaging board a clear- understanding should be reached 
as to what is included. Light, heat and service, and the use 
of the bath are usually given. 

III. Restaurants and Tea Rooms 

Apart from the big hotels, restaurant life in Washington 
is rather disappointing to the cosmopolitan visitor. As a 
social factor there seems to be no place in the Washingtonian 
scheme of life for the large show restaurant offering music, 
dancing and cabaret entertainment. The small foreign table 
d'hote restaurant, French, Italian or Spanish, which in London 
or New York is encountered in various unexpected nooks 
and corners, is almost equally unknown here. The vast 
increase in the city's population during the temporary activi- 
ties of the World War, did produce a demand for a greater 
number of eating houses ; but these were for the most part 
of the dairy-kitchen and cafeteria type, clean, economical and 
expeditious. The only notable change wrought by war con- 
ditions is an influx of small tea rooms, neat, quiet and artis- 
tically furnished, many of which serve luncheon and dinner. 
Most of these, however, are in the Lafayette Square neigh- 
borhood. The sightseer, with limited time, and therefore 
obliged to eat in whatever section he chances to be, must often 
choose between a hotel and a Greek restaurant of the dairy- 
kitchen type. 



RESTAURANTS AND TEA ROOMS 7 

In .the following list the tea rooms have been grouped 
separately ; but no attempt has been made to divide the hotel 
and independent restaurants otherwise than geographically. 

a. Capitol Grounds Section 

Public Restaurant in Capitol. A restaurant open to 
the general public in the basement of the House Wing, 
Room No. 31. A la carte. ^Congressional Library Res- 
taurant. Situated in the attic story (reached by elevator). 
A la carte; reasonable prices. Hotel Potomac. (PI. I — E4) 
New Jersey Ave. and C St., S. E. A la carte and table 
d'hote: breakfast, 75c; dinner, $1. George Washington 
Inn. (PI. I— E4) New Jersey Ave. and C St., S. E.. A la 
carte; also table d'hote dinner, $1. Colonial Dining Room. 
Congress Hall. (PI. I— E4) New Jersey Ave., betw. Band 
j C Sts., S. E. A la carte and t. d'h : breakfast, $1 ; lunch, $1 ; 
dinner, $1.25. American Dining Room (capacity 250 guests) ; 
J European Dining Room. Hotel Driscoll. (PI. I — E3) 
J N. E. cor. B and 1st Sts. A la carte; also table d'hote din- 
I ner, $1.25. New Winston. 1st St., near B St. Club Break- 
fast, 25c. to 75c ; luncheon, 75c. ; dinner, 75c. and $1 ; also 
a la carte. Capitol Park Hotel. (PI. I— E2) North Capitol 
! and E Sts. A la carte. Dining Room and Grill. Prices moder- 
ate. Hotel Continental. (PI. I — E2) cor. North Capitol and 
' F Sts. T, d'h dinner, $1 ; club breakfast, 35c. to 65c. Dining 
1 Room and Cafe. Grace Dodge Hotel. (PI. I— E2) E St., 
near North Capitol St. A la carte (men not received above 
'entrance floor). Dining Room, Tea House and Roof 
Garden. 

b. Central Section: Pennsylvania Avenue 

Metropolitan Hotel. (PI. I — C3) Pennsylvania Ave., 
betw. 6th and 7th Sts. A la carte only. National Hotel. 
(PI. I — C3) Pennsylvania Ave. and 6th St. A la carte 
only. St. James Hotel. (PI. I — C3) S. E. cor. Pennsyl- 

1 vania Ave. and 6th St. A la carte; also club break- 

1 fast at popular prices, and t. d'h. dinner. Harvey's. 

\&. E. cor. Pennsylvania Ave. and nth St. (p. 103). No longer 
in the social centre, yet still the oldest and best known of 
Washington's few restaurants'. Dining Rooms, Grill, Ban- 
quet Hall, Private Rooms, etc. Raleigh Hotel. (PI. I— B2) 
N. E. cor. Pennsylvania Ave. and 12th St. A la carte only. 
Banquets and private dinner parties a specialty. Besides large 
dining room on main floor, there is a spacious Banquet 

1 Hall, a Rathskeller and Grill Room in the basement, and 



8 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 



en 



a Roof Garden (open in summer). Sterling Hotel. (PI. I — A2 
S. E. cor. 13th and E. Sts. A la carte; also Fried Chicken 
Dinner, 12 noon to 9 p. m., $1. Harrington Hotel. (PI. I — B2 ) 
S. E. cor. nth and E Sts. Club breakfasts, 60c. to $1 ; T. d'h. 
luncheon, 75c; dinner, $1.25; also a la carte. New Ebbitt. 
(PI. I— A2) S. E. cor. 14th and F Sts, A la carte only; 
Grill Room in ibasement, with separate entrance from 14th 
St. New Willard. (PI. I— A2). A la carte only. Most 
noted hotel in Washington for public and private dinners, 
official banquets, etc. The famous dinners of the Gridiron 
Club are given here. There is a recently opened Cofeee 
House in basement. 

Washington Hotel. (PL I — A2), Pennsylvania Ave. 
and 15th St. A la carte; also table d'hote in Grill: Break- 
fast 75c; luncheon, $1.00; dinner, $1.50. Besides the main 
dining room, on S. side of lobby, there is a Spanish Garden 
on E. side; also on ground floor the Salon des Nations, 
in gold and blue, with private boxes along the walls for 
diners, leaving the center free for dancing. The wall panels 
contain murals with typical scenes from the Allied coun- 
tries, and from three of the neutrals, Holland, Spain and 
Switzerland. There are also Grill or Buffet and a Soda 
Room. Upon the enclosed roof are a Ball and Conven- 
tion Room, with seating capacity of 400; also a Sun Parlor, 
opening upon an unenclosed roof which in summer is also 
used for dancing and dining. Wallis Restaurant, 12th St. 
betw. F and G Sts. ; also branch on 12th St., opposite Ral- 
eigh Hotel. Moderate prices. No smoking. New England 
Restaurant, 9th St. near F St. Luncheon, 60c. ; dinner, $1.00 ; 
also a la carte. Sea food a specialty. 

c. Residential Section 

*Ra usher's. Connecticut Ave. at S. W. cor. of L St. 
The Delmonico of Washington. Favorite resort for leading 
social events, wedding breakfasts, coming-out parties, 
college reunions, etc. *Shoreham Hotel. (PI. II — D4) N. W. 
cor. of 15th and H Sts. One of the leading hotel restaurants _ 
of Washington. Many select private dinners, club ban- 
quets, etc., are given here. A la carte only. Grill in 
basement. *Lorraine. 1407 H St. Small but select. Fre- 
quented by cosmopolitan visitors, members of legation 
staffs, etc. A la carte only; excellent cuisine. Lafayette 
Hotel. (iPil. II— C3) N. E. cor. of 16th and I Sts. T. d'h. 
luncheon. $1.00; table d'hote dinner, $1.50; also a la carte. 
Franklin Square Hotel. (PI. II— D3) N. W. cor. 14th and K 



RESTAURANTS AND TEA ROOMS 9 

Sts. Club breakfast, 50c, 75c. and $1 ; t. d'h. luncheon, 75c ; t. d'h. 
dinner, $1.50; also a la carte. Portland Hotel. (PI. II — D3) 
14th and Vermont Ave. Club breakfast, 35c, 50c. and 65c. ; 
t. d'h. luncheon, 75. ; t. d'h. dinner, $1 ; also a la carte. 
Everett Hotel. 1730 H St. T. d''h. dinner, $1 ; also a 
la carte. Hotel Powhatan. (PI. II — C4) A la carte. Roof 
Garden in summer, open from 5 p. m. until midnight, with 
music and dancing. Richmond Hotel. (PI. II — C4) 17th 
and H Sts. T. d'h. luncheon. 50c.; t. d'h. dinner, $1. Sunset 
Inn. 140 1 Massachusetts Ave. Club breakfast, 25c. and 50c. ; 
t. d'h. dinner, 70c. ; Sundays, 85c. Lee House. 1.5th and L Sts. 
A la Carte. Pompeiian Dining-Room. 

d. Tea Rooms and Cafeterias 

Most Washington tea rooms of the better class are within 
j a short radius of Lafayette Square, and constitute a recent 
1 innovation, few of them antedating the World War. Some 
i are open only for luncheon and tea ; others serve dinner at 
' reasonable prices. 

*Lotos Lantern. 723 17th St. A la carte luncheon, afternoon tea. 

j Curios for sale. *Copper Bowl. 520 nth St. Cafeteria luncheon; tea. 
4 to 6 p. m. Cinderella Tea Garden. 615 14th St. A la carte luncheon; 

', t. d'h., 5.30 to 8 p. m., $1.25. The Wisteria. 1427 F St. Club breakfast, 

I 35c. and 50c; dinner, 6oc. Tintern Tea Room. 730 17th St. A la carte; 

\ club luncheon 45c. Brazilian Coffee House. 526 nth St. A la carte; 

! t. d'h. dinner, 65c. Peter and Paul Tea Room. Connecticut Ave., \V. 
side, above L St. A la carte; t. d'h. dinner, $1. Brown Tea Pot, 
1147 Connecticut Ave. Noah's 1 Ark, 924 17th St. T. d'h. dinner, $1 ; 
also a la carte. Gentlewomen's Tea Room. (Conducted by the 
Women's Industrial Exchange.) 1624 H. St. Ye Coffee Shoppe. 1710 I 
St. T. d'h. dinner, $1. Greenwich Inn. 1653 Pennsylvania Ave. A la 
carte; also t. d'h. dinner, $1.00. Danish Rose Tea Room. 1622 H St. 
A la carte; t. d'h. dinner, $1.25. Specialty, Danish pastry. Brown 
Betty Tea Room. 734 15th St. Blue Mill Tea Room. 019 15th St. 
Childs' Restaurant. 1423 Pennsylvania Ave. One of the well known 
national chain of restaurants by this name, pioneers of the dairy 
lunch type. Bellevue Farms Lunch. 1334 G St. T. d'h. dinner and 
a la carte, 60c. United Cafeteria. 1008-10 F St. Self service. Martha 
Washington Inn. N. E. cor. Connecticut Ave. and Q St. House of 
the White Peacock. 810 17th St. Flag and Drum Inn. 822 Con- 
necticut Ave. Blossom Inn (Cafeteria). 1315 New York Ave. Allies 
Inn (Cafeteria). G St., W. of 17th St. Old Museum Lunch Room. 
In Arts and Industries Building. Reasonable prices. A great con- 
venience to sightseers in that locality. 



io RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

IV. Urban Travel 
a. Surface Car Lines 

The Washington trolley lines, constituting the chief mode 
of urban transport, are practically monopolized by two cor- 
porations : i. The Washington Railway and Electric Co.; 2. 
The Capital Traction Co. The majority of the lines conducted 
by these companies operate within the District limits ; a few 
of these extend over the boundary line into Maryland. All 
the other lines operating within the city limits are through 
lines to points either in Maryland or Virginia. 

Each of the two companies operating within the District 
limits gives free transfers to all its intersecting lines, but not 
to the lines of the rival company. 

The uniform rate on all lines within the District, includ- 
ing first and second transfers, is eight cents. On all lines 
passengers may purchase metallic tokens at the rate of six 
tokens for 40 cents. These tokens are interchangeable on all 
lines of both companies within the District limits. 

A few lines of these companies extend beyond the Dis- 
trict limits into the State of Maryland : e. g. the lines to 
Chevy Chase and to Glen Echo Park. In the case of these 
lines an extra fare is charged beyond the District line and 
must be paid in cash, the tokens being valid only within the 
District. 

CAPITAL TRACTION COMPANY 

This company operates the following Lines : 

1. Pennsylvania Avenue Lines. Four separate routes, 
all covering the same section of Pennsylvania Ave., from the 
Peace Monument to 19th St. N. W. : 

Line A: operates between 36th and M Sts. N. W. 
(Georgetown) and 17th St. and Pennsylvania Ave. S. E. 
Route: east on M St. to Pennsylvania Ave., thence southeast 
on Pennsylvania Ave. to 15th St., south on 15th St. to Penn- 
sylvania Ave., thence again southeast on Pennsylvania Ave. 
to Peace Monument, thence south on 1st St. to B St. South, 
east on B St. to Pennsylvania Ave., southeast on Pennsylvania 
Ave. to 17th St. S. E, Car signs: eastbound, "17TH AND 
PA. AVE. S. E."; westbound, "GEORGETOWN." 

Passing: Washington's Headquarters, Washington Circle and Statue. 
Department of Commerce, U. S. Railroad Administration, Interstate 
Commerce Commission, State, Army and Navy Building, White House, 
Treasury Building, Lafayette Square^ leading hotels and theatres, 
Municipal Building, Post Office Department, Centre Market, Botanic 
Gardens, Capitol, Library of Congress, Congressional Cemetery. 



URBAN TRAVEL n 

Line B: operates between 36th and M Sts. N. W. and 
8th and F Sts. N. E. Route : same as Line A to Peace 
Monument, thence north on 1st St. to C St., east on C St. 
to Delaware Ave., southeast on Delaware Ave. to Union Sta- 
tion Plaza, east irom Plaza on California St. to 2d St. N. E., 
north on 2d St. to F St., east on F St. to 8th St. Car signs : 
eastbound, "8TH AND F STS. N. E." ; westbound, 
"GEORGETOWN." 

Passing: Same points of interest as Line A; also Senate Office 
Building, Columbus Monument and Union Station. 

Line C: operates between Potomac Park (18th St. and 
Virginia Ave.) and 8th and F Sts. N. E. Route: from Poto- 
mac Park terminal, north on 19th St. to Pennsylvania Ave., 
thence southeast on Pennsylvania Ave. to Peace Monument, 
thence over same streets as Line B to F and 8th Sts. N. E. 
Car signs : eastbound, "8TH AND F STS. N. E." ; westbound, 
"POTOMAC PARK." 

Passing: Same points of interest as Line B. 

Line D: operates between 26th and Pennsylvania Ave. 
N. W., and 17th St. and Pennsylvania Ave. N. E. Route: 
south on 26th St. to F St., west on F St. to 17th St., north on 
17th St. to Pennsylvania Ave., thence over same streets as 
I Line A. Car signs: eastbound, "17TH AND PA. AVE. 
S, E." ; westbound, "26TH AND PA. AVE. N. W." 

Passing Department of Interior Building and same points of interest 
as Line A. 

2. Fourteenth Street Lines. Five separate routes, 

three of which cover the Pennsylvania Ave. section from 

15th St. to the Peace Monument. 

Line A: operates between 3300 14th St. (Park Road) and 

36th and M Sts. N. W. (Georgetown). Route: south on 14th 

St. to New York Ave., southweston New York Ave. to 15th 

St., thence west on Pennsylvania Ave. to Rock Creek Bridge 

1 and via M St. to 36th St. terminal. Car signs : southbound, 

1 "GEORGETOWN"; northbound, "PARK ROAD." 

Passing: Thomas Circle, Franklin Sq., Treasury Department, White 
House, Lafayette Sq. and points of interest mentioned above under 
Pennsylvania Ave. Line A. 

Line B: operates between Park Road and 26th and G Sts. 

N. W. Route: same as Line A to Pennsylvania Ave. and 17th 

St. N. W., at which point cars run west on G St. to 26th St. 

Car signs : southbound, "26TH AND G 1ST." ; northbound, 

\ "PARK ROAD." 

Passing: Same points of interest as Line A to 17th St.; also 
Department of Labor and Y. M. C. A. 



12 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

Line C: operates between 4700 14th St. N. W. (Decatur 
St.) and Union Station. Route: south on 14th St. to New 
York Ave., thence west on New York Ave. to 15th St., south 
on 15th St. to Pennsylvania Ave., southeast oh Pennsylvania 
Ave. to the Peace Monument, north on 1st St. to C St., east 
on C St. to Delaware Ave., thence southeast on Delaware 
Ave. to Union Station. Car signs : southbound, "UNION 
STATION"; northbound, "DECATUR." 

Passing: Thomas Circle, Franklin Square, Treasury Building, Wil- 
lard's Hotel, Municipal Building, Post Office Department, Hotel Raleigh, 
Centre Market, Botanic Gardens, Capitol Grounds, City Post Office and 
Columbus Statue. 

Line D: operates between 5500 14th St. N. W. (Colo- 
rado Ave.) and Navy Yard. Route: same as Line A to 
Peace Monument, thence south on 1st iSt. to B St. South, 
east on B St. to Pennsylvania Ave., southeast on Pennsylvania 
Ave. to 8th St., south on 8th St. to Navy Yard Gate. Car 
signs: southbound, "NAVY' YARD"; northbound, "14TH 
AND COLORADO AVE." 

Passing: Same points of interest as Line C to Peace' Monument; 
also Garfield Monument, Capitol, House Office Building, Library of 
Congress and Marine Barracks. 

Line E: operates between Takoma Park (Laurel and 
Aspen Sts.) and Navy Yard. Route: south on 3d St. to Ken- 
nedy St., west on Kennedy St. to 14th St., then south on 14th 
St. and over same route as Line D to Navy Yard. Car signs : 
southbound, "NAVY YARD"; northbound. "TAKOMA 
PARK." 

Passing: Same points of interest as Line D. 

3. Chevy Chase Lines: Two routes covering same section 
from Chevy Chase Lake to 14th and U Sts. 

Line A: operates between Chevy Chase Lake, Md., and 
Potomac Park (18th St. and Virginia Ave.). Route: south- 
east on Connecticut Ave. to Calvert St., east on Calvert St. 
to 1 8th St., south on 18th St. to U St., east on U St. to 
14th St., south on 14th St. to New York Ave., southwest on 
New York Ave. to 15th St., west on. Pennsylvania Ave. to 
19th St., south on 19th St. to Potomac Park; returning over 
18th St. to F St., east on F St. to 17th St., and north on 17th 
St., rejoining the route above given. Car signs: southbound, 
"POTOMAC PARK"; northbound, "CHEVY CHASE 
LAKE." 

Passing: Chevy Chase Circle., Bureau of Standards, Carnegie Insti- 
tution, Cleveland Park, Zoological Park, Thomas Circle, Franklin Square, 



URBAN TRAVEL 13 

Treasury Building, White House, State, War and Navy Building, De- 
partment of Commerce, Interstate Commerce Commission, Department 
of the Interior and new Navy Building. 

Line B : operates 'between Chevy Chase Lake, Md., and 
7th St. wharves (some of the northbound cars stop at Rock 
Creek Bridge). Route: same as line A to U and 14th 
Sts., thence east on U St. to Florida Ave., southeast on Flor- 
ida Ave. to 7th St., south on 7th St. to Water St., south on 
Water St. to the wharves. Car signs : southbound, "7TH. 
ST. WHARVES"; northbound, "CHEVY CHASE" or 
"ROCK CREEK BRIDGE." 

Passing: Bureau of Standards, Geophysical Laboratory, Zoological 
Park, Baseball Park, Public Library, Patent Office, Public Lands Office, 
Centre Market, Smithsonian Institution Grounds, Army Medical Museum, 
Old Arsenal and War College. 

4. Florida Avenue Line: operates between Stephenson 
Monument (Pennsylvania Ave. and 7th St.) and Navy Yard 

j Gate. Route : north on 7th St. to T St., east on T St. to 

I Florida Ave., southeast on Florida Ave. to 8th St. N. E., 

! south on 8th St. to Navy Yard Gate (iM St. S. E.). Car 

1 signs: north and eastbound, "NAVY YARD"; west and south- 

{ bound, "7TH AND PA. AVE. N.W." 

Passing: Public Lands Office, Patent Office, Publiq Library, Old 
Central High School, Base Ball Park, Gallaudet College and Navy Yard. 

5. New Jersey Avenue Line: operates between Rock 
I Creek Bridge (20th and Calvert Sts. N. W.) and Navy Yard 
\ Gate (8th and M Sts. S. E.). Route: east on Calvert St. 

to 18th St., south on 18th St. to U St., east on U St. to 
Florida Ave. to New Jersey Ave., southeast on New Jersey 
Ave. to Massachusetts Ave. to Union Station, thence south- 
west on Delaware Ave. to B St. N. E., east on B St. to 1st 
St., south on 1st St. to B St. S. E., east on B St. to Penn- 
sylvania Ave., southeast on Pennsylvania Ave. to 8th St., 
south on 8th St. to Navy Yard. 

Passing: Base Ball Park, Government Printing Office, City Post 
Office, Union Station, Senate Office Building, Capitol, Library of 
Congress and House Office Building. 

WASHINGTON RAILWAY AND ELECTRIC COMPANY 
This Company operates the following Lines : 
1. Mt. Pleasant Lines: Four separate routes all fol- 
lowing the same course from Mt. Pleasant to Connecticut 
Ave. and 17th St. 

Line A: operates between Park Road terminal and 14th 

St. N. E. Route: Westward on East Capitol St. to 1st St., 

' north on 1st St. to B St., west on B St. to Delaware Ave.. 



14 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

north on Delaware Ave. to C St., thence west on C St. to 
New Jersey Ave., northwest on New Jersey Ave. to D St., 
west on D St. to 5th St., north on 5th St. to F St., west on 
F St. to 14th St., north on 14th St. to H St., west on H St. 
to 17th St., north on 17th St. to K St. and Connecticut Ave., 
northwest on Connecticut Ave. to California St. and Columbia 
Road, then north on Columbia Road to intersection of 16th, 
Harvard and Mt. Pileasant Sts., thence along Mt. Pleasant St. 
to terminus at Park Road and 17th St. 

Car signs: Eastbound, "LliNCOLN PARK"; westbound, 
"MT. PLEASANT." 

Passing: Lincoln Park. Capitol, Senate Office Building, Union 
Station, Columbus Monument, City Post Office, Old City Hall, Pension 
Office, Cosmos Club, Lafayette Square, Old St. John's Church, Decatur 
House, Dupont Circle and (corner of Columbia Road and Harvard St.) 
east entrance to Zoological Park. 

Line B: operates between Mt. Pleasant (Park Road 
terminal) and 13th and D Sts. N. E. Route: Eastbound 
cars run south from Park Road on Mt. Pleasant St. to 
Columbia Road, southwest on Columbia Road to Connecticut 
Ave., southeast on Connecticut Ave. to K and 17th Sts., 
south, on 17th St. to H St., east on H St. to 14th St., south 
on 14th St. to F St., east on F St. to 5th St., north on 5th 
St. to G St., east on G St. to Massachusetts Ave., southeast 
on Massachusetts Ave. to Plaza, southeast from Plaza, on 
Massachusetts Ave., to C St. N. E., east on C St. to 13th St., 
north on 13th St. to terminal at D St. Westbound cars run 
west on D St. to Massachusetts Ave., thence on same route 
as Line A. Car signs: westbound, MT. PLEASANT"; 
eastbound, "13TH & D STS. N. E." 

Passing: Stanton Sq. and Greene statue; also same points of interest 
as Line A. 

Line C: operates between Mt. Pleasant (Park Road 
terminal) and 1st and E Sts. S. E. Route: northbound cars 
run from E St. S. E. north over 1st St. to B St. N. E., west 
on B St. to Delaware Ave., north on Delaware Ave. to Union 
Station Plaza, thence northwest on Massachusetts Ave. fol- 
lowing same course as preceding lines. Car signs : northbound, 
"MT. PLEASANT"; southbound, «'iST & E STS. S.E." 

Passing: House Office Building, Capitol, Library of Congress, Senate 
Office Building; also same points of interest as preceding lines. 

Line D: operates between Mt. Pleasant (Park Road 
terminal) and Potomac Park. Route : northbound cars run 
from Virginia Ave. north on 18th St. to F St., east on F St. 
to 17th St., north on 17th St. to Connecticut Ave., thence over 



URBAN TRAVEL 15 

same course as preceding lines. South-bound cars return by 
same route to 17th St. and Pennsylvania Ave., thence west to 
19th St., south on ioth St. to Virginia Ave. and southeast 
on Virginia Ave. to terminal. Car signs : northbound, "MT. 
PLEASANT"; southbound, "POTOMAC PARK." 

Passing: New Navy Building, Department of Interior, State, War 
and Navy Building; also same points of interest as preceding Mt. 
Pleasant lines. 

2. Brookland-Cabin John Line. Route: westbound 
cars run from Randolph St. south on 12th St. N. E. to 
Monroe St., east on Monroe St. to Michigan Ave., southeast 
on Michigan Ave. to North Capitol St., south on North Capi- 
tol St. to Massachusetts Ave., northwest on Massachusetts 
Ave. to G St., west on G St. to 5th St., south on 5th St. to 
F St., west on F St. to 14th St., north on 14th St. to H St., 
west on,H St. to 17th St., north on 17th St. to Connecticut 

' Ave., northwest on Connecticut Ave. to P St, west on P St. 
j to 36th St., south on 36th St. to Prospect Ave. (Georgetown 
' terminal), thence west over private right of way to Cabin 
, John Bridge. Eastbound cars return over same route to Pros- 
I pect Ave. terminal, thence east to 35th St., north on 35th St. 
I to O St., east on O St. to Wisconsin Ave., thence east on Dum- 
1 barton St. to 28th St., north on 28th 'St. to P St., rejoining 
I the same route to Brookland. Some eastbound cars cover the 
I whole route; others stop at intermediate terminals as indi- 
I cated by the car signs: eastbound, "BROOKLAND" and 
* "N. CAP. & W"; westbound, "GEORGETOWN," "GLEN 
I ECHO," "CABIN JOHN" and "LITTLE FALLS RD." 

Passing: Catholic University, Trinity College, Soldiers' Home, 
I Filtration Plant, Glenwood Cemetery, Sibley Hospital, Government 
i Printing Office, City Post Office, Pension Office, Patent Office, New 
Ebbitt, New Willard, Shoreham, Cosmos Club, St. John's Church, 
Decatur House, Army and Navy Club, British Embassy, Georgetown 
I Hospital, Georgetown University, Palisades of the Potomac, Chesapeake 
j & Ohio Canal, Glen Echo and Cabin John. 

3. Georgia Avenue-Ninth Street Lines. Four routes 
J all covering the same section over Georgia Ave., 9th St., B St., 
1 Missouri Ave. and 4 T A St. 

Line A: operates between Forest Glen and Water St. 
wharves. Route : southeast from Forest Glen, passing Na- 
tional Park Seminary, Woodside and Silver Springs to 
Georgia Ave. at District Line ; thence south on Georgia Ave. 
to Florida Ave., west on Florida Ave. to 9th St., south on 
9th St. to B St., east on B St. to 6th St. and Missouri Ave., 
southeast on Missouri Ave. to 4^ St., thence south to P St., 
west on P St. to Water St. terminal. Car signs: southbound, 
j "WHARVES"; northbound, "FOREST GLEN." 



16 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

Passing: Walter Reed Hospital, Brightwood, Soldiers' Home, Howard 
University, Baseball Park, Public Library, Patent Office, Center Market, 
New National Museum and Army War College. 

Line B: operates over same route as Line A with 
northern terminal at Georgia and Eastern Aves. (District 
Line). Car signs: northbound, "EASTERN AVE."; south- 
bound, "WHARVES." 

Line C: operates between Water St. wharves and 
Soldiers' Home. Route : from Soldiers' Home Gate east on 
Upshur St. to Georgia Ave., thence south over same course 
as Line A. Car signs: northbound, "SOLDIERS' HOME"; 
southbound, "WHARVES." 

Line D: operates between Takoma, Anacostia and 
Congress Heights. Route : from Takoma west on Butternut 
St. to Georgia Ave., thence south over same course as Line A 
to 4Y 2 St., thence south on 4Y 2 St. to Maryland Ave.*, north- 
east on Maryland Ave. to B and Canal Sts., southeast on 
Canal St. to E St., east on E St. to 4th St. S.iE., south on 
4th St. to G St., east on G St. to nth St., south on nth St. 
to Anacostia Bridge, across the bridge to Nichols Ave., and 
south on Nichols Ave. to Anacostia terminal at Talbert St. ; 
cars continue on Nichols Ave. to Congress Heights, and 
thence west on Portland St. to Steel Plant. Car signs : north- 
bound, "TAKOMA"; southbound, "ANACOSTIA," "CON- 
GRESS HEIGHTS" or "STEEL PLANT." 

Passing: Same paints of interest as Line A to 4^ St.; also Pro- 
vidence Hospital, Garfield Park, Marine Barracks, Navy Yard and St. 
Elizabeth Hospital for Insane. 

4. Fourth Street Line: operates between Steamboat 
wharves (M and Water Sts. S. W.) and W St. and Georgia 
Ave. N. W. Route: northwest on Water St. to nth St., 
north on nth St. to Virginia Ave., northwest on Virginia 
Ave. to B St., west on B St. to 14th St., north on 14th St. 
to G St. N. W., east on G St. to 5th St., north on 5th St. 
to New York Ave., northeast on New York Ave. to 4th St., 
north on 4th St. to Florida Ave., east on Florida Ave. to 
3d St, north on 3d St. to Elm St., west on Elm St. to 4th St., 
north on 4th St. to W St., west on W St. to Georgia Ave. 
Car signs: northbound, "LEDROIT PARK"; southbound, 
"WHARVES." 

Passing: Bureau of Engraving and Printing, Agricultural Depart- 
ment Building, Washington Monument, Municipal Building, Hotel 
Willard, Patent Office, Pension Office, St. Mary's- R. C. Church, Con- 
vention Hall, Freedmen's Hospital and Howard University. 

5. Monroe-Eleventh Street Lines. Three routes all 
covering same section of nth St. from Monroe St. to F St. 



URBAN TRAVEL 17 

Line A: operates between Monroe St. N. W. and 
14th and Water Sts. S. W. Route : south from Monroe St. 
terminal on nth St. to E St., west on E. St. to 14th St., south 
on 14th St. to Water St. Car signs: northbound, "11TH ST. 
N.W."; southbound, "14TH & WATER" or "BUREAU 
ENGRAVING." 

Passing: New Central High School, Garfield Hospital, Agricultural 
Department, Washington Monument and Bureau of Engraving and 
Printing. 

Line B: operates between Monroe St. terminal and 
9th and F Sts. N. W. Route : same as Line A to F St., thence 
east on F St. to 9th St. terminal. Car signs : northbound, 
"11TH ST. N.W."; southbound, "9TH & F ST." 

Line C: operates between Monroe St. terminal and 
4*A St. and Missouri Ave. 

6. Eleventh Street Line: operates between nth 
and Monroe Sts. N. W. and Congress Heights. Route: 
Southbound cars run from Monroe St. terminal south on 
nth St. to F St., east on F St. to 9th St., south on 9th St. 

[ to B St. S. W., east on B St. to 6th St., south on 6th St. 

to Missouri Ave., southeast on Missouri Ave. to 4^4 St. 

Car signs: northbound, "11TH ST. N. W."; southbound, 
I "4 J /2 & MO. AVE." 

Passing: Central High School, Garfield Hospital, Patent Office, 
Center Market, National Museum, and Public Gardens. 

7. Columbia Line: operates between 15th St. and New 
York Ave. N. W. and 15th and H Sts. N.E, and District 
Line (near 63d St. and Eastern Ave.). Route : from 15th St. 
terminal, cars run northeast on New York Ave. to Mt. Vernon 
Sq., thence southeast on Massachusetts Ave. to 4th and H Sts., 
thence east, on H St. to District Line at 15th Sit. N. E. ; thence 
east on Benning Road, crossing the Anacostia River to Kenil- 
worth Ave., and north on Kenilworth Ave. to Deane Ave. 
At this point some cars continue N. to Kenilworth ; others 

1 diverge E. on Deane Ave. to District Line and station of 
Chesapeake Beach R. R. Car signs : westbound, "TREAS- 
URY" ; castbound, "15TH & H, N. E.," "KENILWORTH," 
or "DISTRICT LINE." 

Passing: Masonic Temple, Public Library, Government Printing 
Office, Benning and Chesapeake Junction. 

8. Bladensburg Line: operates between 15th and H 
Sts. and Berwyn, Md. Route: from H and 15th Sts. N. E., 
along the historic Bladensburg Coach Road to Riverdale and 
Berwyn. Car signs: northbound, "EASTERN AVE. & 



18 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

BLADENSBURG RD.," "BERWYN," or "RIVERDALE" 
southbound, "15TH & H STS. N. E." 

Passing: Mt. Olivet Cemetery, National Training School for Boys, 
Bladensburg Duelling Grounds and old villages of Bladensburg and 
Riverdale. 

9. Maryland Line: operates between 15th and G Sts. 
N. W. and District Line, Riverdale, Berwyn and Laurel, 
Md. Route: from terminus at 15th and G Sts., east on G 
St. to 5th St., thence north on 5th St. to L St. and New- 
York Ave., northeast on New York Ave. to 1st St. N. E. 
and Eckington Place, north on Eckington Place to R St., east 
on R St. to 3d St., north on 3d St. to T St., east on T St. 
to 4th St., north on 4th St. to W St. and Rhode Island Ave., 
thence northeast on Rhode Island Ave. to District Line and 
over private tracks to Mt. Ranier, Hyattsvile, Riverdale, 
Berwyn and Laurel. Car signs: westbound, "TREASURY"; 
eastbound, "MT. RANIER," "RIVERDALE," "BERWYN" 
or "LAUREL." 

Passing: Patent Office, Pension Office, Convention Hall, Mt Ranier, 
Lord Baltimore Mansion, Maryland Agricultural College and Normal 
Institute. 

10. Georgetown - Tenleytown - Rockville Lines. Two 

routes, both of which traverse the same section of Wisconsin 
Ave. to junction with Massachusetts Ave. 

Line A: operates between Wisconsin Ave. and M St., 
Georgetown and Rockville, Md. Route : northward on Wis- 
consin Ave. to District Line and beyond, passing through 
Tenleytown and Somerset. Car signs : northbound, "SOM- 
ERSET" or "ROCKVILLE"; southbound, '^GEORGE 
TOWN." 



. 



Passing: Naval Observatory, National Domestic Science School, 
Cathedral of St. Peter and St. Paul, Bureau of Standards, Somerset, 
Edgemoor and Alta Vista. 

Line B: operates between M St., Georgetown and 
Massachusetts Ave. at District Line. Route: north on Wis- 
consin Ave. to McComb St., west on Mc'Comb St. to Massa- 
chusetts Ave., thence northwest on Massachusetts Ave. to Dis- 
trict Line. Car signs : northbound, "AMERICAN UNIVER- 
SITY," and "WESTERN AVE."; southbound, "GEORGE- 
TOWN." 

Passing: Naval Observatory, Cathedral of St. Peter and St. Paul 
and American University. 






URBAN TRAVEL ig 

WASHINGTON AND OLD DOMINION RAILWAY 

This company operates two lines as follows : 

i. Bluemont Division: operates between Georgetown 
terminal at 36th and M Sts., and Bluemont, Va. Route : via 
Aqueduct Bridge, Rosslyn, Va., Bluemont Junction, Falls 
Church, Leesburg and intermediate stations. 

2. Great Falls Division: operates between Georgetown 
terminal and Great Falls of the Potomac. Route: via Aque- 
duct Bridge, Rosslyn, Va., Cherrydale, McLean and interme- 
diate stations. 

IV A SHINGTON- VIRGI NJA RA IL WA Y 
This company operates two lines as follows : 

1. Mount Vernon Division: operates between Washington 
terminal at Pennsylvania Ave. and 12th St., and Mount Ver- 
non terminal opposite North Gate Lodge (p. 487). Route: 
from starting point on D St., S. on 12th St. to C St. ; thence 
W. on C St. to Ohio Ave., S. W. on Ohio Ave. to 14th St. 
S. on 14th St. to Potomac Park; thence S. W. through 

I Potomac Park to Highway Bridge (crossing the Potomac 
River), reaching Arlington Junction, Va., Four Mile Run, 
Hume, Riverside and Mount Vernon. 

2. Falls Church Division, Branch A: operates between 
Pennsylvania Ave. terminal at 12th and D Sts. and Fairfax, 
Va. Route : same as Mount Vernon Division to Arlington 
Junction ; thence through Hatfield, Columbia, Nauck, Alex- 
andria County Court House, Clarendon, Vienna, Oakton and 
intermediate stations. 

Branch B: operates between Rosslyn, Va. (via Long 
Bridge from Georgetown), and Fairfax. Route: via Arling- 
ton, Fort Myer, Radio and Hatfield, thence same as branch A. 

WASHINGTON, BALTIMORE AND ANNAPOLIS ELECTRIC 

RAILROAD 

This company operates two lines as follows : 
1. Baltimore branch: operates express trains every half 
hour between Washington terminal at New York Ave. and 
14th St. and Baltimore terminal at 103 North Liberty St., 
cor. Marion St. and Park Ave. Running time 85 min. Free 
transfers to pasisengers arriving in Washington to all lines of 
the Washington Railway and Electric Companies. 



20 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

2. Annapolis Branch: operates hourly trains between 
Washington terminal at 14th St. and New York Ave., and 
Annapolis terminal, opposite Naval Academy Gate. 

b. Taxicabs 

Ta.x-icabs are to be found at the Union Station and at all 
the large hotels and public cab stands throughout the city. 
They can be ordered by telephone from any point. The two 
largest taxicab companies are the Federal Taxicab Co. (office, 
212 13th St. N. W. ; telephone number, Main 8000) and Ter- 
minal Taxicab Co., Inc. (office, 1231 20th St. N. VY. ; telephone 
number, North 1212). At the stations and hotels the taxicabs 
are under the direction of a "starter" who may be consulted 
concerning the amount of fare. A table of rates is posted in 
each taxicab, and the fare can be roughly computed before- 
hand by reckoning ten blocks to a mile. 

Taxicab Rates. For the first half mile or any fraction thereof, 50c; 
each additional quarter mile, 10c Articles of 'luggage, suit cases, 
steamer trunks, etc., 10c. each. Several taxicab companies advertise a 
schedule lower than the legal rates. For example, the Brown and 
White Cab Co. (Main 430) charges 30c. for first one-third mile, and 
ioc. for each additional one-third mile. 

c. Motor Bus Lines 

The establishment of urban omnibus lines by the Wash- 
ington Rapid Transit Co. (office, 14th and Buchanan, Sts.) is 
a recent innovation, and has acquired a prompt popularity 
because these busses form a connecting link between the shop- 
ping centre and certain portions of the residential district less 
readily accessible by the car lines. Visitors will find that by 
taking these busses from Pennsylvania Ave., between 8th and 
12th Sts., they will save considerable time in reaching points 
on 1 6th St. above Scott Circle, the Scottish Rites Temple, 
Meridian Park, the Harvard St. entrance to the Zoological 
Park, etc. The fare is 8c, payable on entry. Four routes are 
in operation ('March, 1922), and others are projected. 

1. Pennsylvania Ave.-Buchanan St. Line. Route: 
from Market Space terminal (Pennsylvania Ave. and 8th St.) 
westward on Pennsylvania Ave. to 12th St., north on 12th St. 
to Massachusetts Ave., northwest on Massachusetts Ave. to 
16th St., north on 16th St. to Buchanan St., east on Buchanan 
St. to terminal at 14th St. 

Passing: Post Office Department, Raleigh Hotel, Scott Circle, Car- 
negie Institution, iFrench Embassy, Congressional Club, Meridian Park, 
Jeanne d'A'rc Statue and Piney Branch Bridge. 



URBAN TRAVEL 21 

2. Pennsylvania Ave.-Petworth Line. Route: from 
Market Space terminal (Pennsylvania Ave. and 8th St.) over 
same course as Line 1 to Harvard St., thence east on Harvard 
St. to 13th St., north on 13th St. to Park Road and New 
Hampshire Ave., thence northeast on New Hampshire Ave. 
to terminal at Grant Circle, Petworth. 

Passing same points of interest as Line i. 

3. Potomac Park-Buchanan St. Line. Route: from 
terminal at Navy Department Building eastward on B St. to 
17th St., north on 17th St. to H St., east on H St. to 16th St., 
N. on 16th St. to Buchanan St., E. to 14th St. terminal. 

Passing: Pan-American Union, Continental Memorial Hall, Ameri- 
can Red Cross, Corcoran Gallery, State, Army and Navy Building, 
Court of Claims, Decatur House, Lafayette Sq., St. John's Church, 
Russian Embassy, Scott Circle;^ also same points of interest as Line I. 

4. Potomac Park-Petworth Line. Route: from ter- 
minal at Navy Department Building eastward on B St. and 
over same course as Line 3 to Harvard St., thence east on 
Harvard St. to 13th St., north on 13th St, to Park Road and 
New Hampshire Ave., thence northeast on 'New Hampshire 
Ave. to terminal at Grant Circle, Petworth ; returning over 
New Hampshire Ave., 13th St. and west on Columbia Road 
to 16th St., thence over same route as above given. 

Passing same lines of interest as Line 3. 

SUBURBAN MOTOR-BUS LINES 
i. Washington - Alexandria Line. These omnibuses- 
start from S. E. cor. of 12th and D Sts., and run on a ten 
minute headway throughout the day. Fare, 15c. 

2. Washington - Baltimore - Annapolis Line. These 
omnibuses start from Pennsylvania Ave. and 8th St. (Market 
Space), running some 20 miles into Maryland along the Balti- 
more and Annapolis highway. Usually four trips a day. 

3. Marlboro Line. Route: from 8th St. and Pennsyl- 
vania Ave. southeasterly to Marlboro, iMd., about 16 miles. 

d. Sight-Seeing Cars 

The Sight-seeing Automobiles occupy in Washington a 
rather prominent position. There are many rival lines, the 
majority of which offer three different trips, covering in each 
case approximately the same territory: Tour A. "Seeing 
Washington" ; on this trip cars run daily every hour, from 10 
A. M. until 4 P. M. during the winter season, and from 9 
A. M. to 5 P. M. between Apr. 15 and Sept. 15, making the 
circuit of the principal points of interest within the city limits. 
Uniform price, $1.00; Tour B: Personally conducted trip 



22 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

through the public buildings ; one trip daily, except Sundays, 
usually at 10 a. m. Price, including fees, $1.50; Tour C: a 
suburban excursion usually including the northwest residential 
section of Washington, the National Zoological Park, George- 
town, Ft. Myer and Arlington. Some lines make two week- 
day trips at 1 and 3 'P. M. ; others make only the 3 P. M. trip. 
Sundays, three trips: 10 (or 11) A.M., 1 and 3 P.M. Price 
$1.50; Tour D: Some lines offer a personally conducted tour 
to Alexandria and Mt. Vernon. Cars start daily, except Sun- 
days, at 10 A. 'M., the round trip occupying four hours. Price 
(including guide and admission fees) $3.00. 

The majority of the Sight-seeing Automobile Companies, 
of which a list is given below, run during the winter season 
glass-enclosed and wel'l-heated touring cars. 

Congressional Sight Seeing Car, 103 Pennsylvania Ave. 
Gray Line Sight Seeing Tours, 1417 Pennsylvania Ave. 
Red Star Sight Seeing Company, 501^4 14th St. 
Royal Blue Line Sight Seeing Co., 1237 Penn. Ave. 
Green Line Sight Seeing Tours, 2 F St. 

V. Postal Facilities; Telegraph Offices 
a. Postal Facilities 

The Washington City Post Office (p. 357), at 'Massachusetts 
Ave. and North Capitol St., is open day and night. The 
Money Order Office is open daily from 8 A. M. to 9 P. M., 
except Sundays and Holidays. The Registry Section is open 
continuously, and here Money Orders may be obtained on 
Sundays and Holidays ; also at night after the Money Order 
windows are closed. The General Delivery Windows (for 
"Poste Restante" letters) are open daily from 7 A. M. to 
midnight, except Sundays. The Parcel Post Section for the 
reception of Parcel Post mail is open continuously. The 
Retail Stamp Windozvs are open, week days, from 7 A. M. to 
11 P. M. ; Sundays from 10.30 A. M. to 2 P. M. At other 
times stamps in small quantities may be obtained at the 
Registry Division. The Wholesale Stamp Department is open 
from 8.30 to 4.30 P. M. daily, except Sundays and Holidays. 

Besides the Government Post Office District, the city is 
divided into about thirty Postal districts, each served by a 
Branch Post Office, designated by local names : 

Anacostia Station, 2018 Nichols Ave., S. E. ; Benning Station, Ben- 
ning Rd. and Anacostia Ave.: Brightwood Station, Georgia and Colo- 
rado Aves.; Brookland Station, 12th and Monroe Sts., N. E.; Central Sta- 
tion, 15th and H Sts., N. W. ; Columbia Rd. Station, 1775 Columbia Rd., 
N. W. ; Congress Heights Station, 400 Nichols Ave., S. E.; Connecticut 



POSTAL AND TELEGRAPH 23 

Ave. Station, 1220 Connecticut Ave.. N. W.; 11th St. Station, 514 nth 
St., N. W.; F St. Station, 800 F St., N. W.; Florida Ave. Station, Con- 
necticut and Florida Aves.; 14th St. Station, 1400 14th St., N. W. ; 
Friendship Station, 4511 Wisconsin Ave., N. W. ; Georgetown Station, 
31st and M Sts., N. W.; Langdon Station, 24th and Douglas Sts., N. E. ; 
Navy Dept. Station, 19th and B Sts., N. W.; Northeast Station, 703 
Maryland Ave., N. E. ; Park Rd. Station, 1413 Park Rd., N. W. ; 
Park View Station, Warder and Newton Sts., N. W. ; Pennsylvania 
Ave. Station, 1716 Pennsylvania Ave., N. W.; Randle Highlands Station, 
2500 Pennsylvania Ave., S. E.; St. James Station, 484 Pennsylvania 
Ave., N. W.; 7th St. Station, 11 18 7th St., N. W. : Seat Pleasant 
Station, 63d & Eastern Ave., N. E. ; Southeast 1 Station, 640 Pennsyl- 
vania Ave., S. E. ; Southwest Station, 416 7th St., S. W. ; Takoma Park 
Station, 6818 4th St., Takoima Park, D. C. ; Treasury Station, U. S. 
Treasury; Truxton Circle Station, 1538 N. Capitol St.; U St. Station, 
U St. betw. 14th and 15th Sts.; Walter Reed Station, Walter Reed 
Hospital; Woodley Rd. Station, Wardman Park Hotel; Woodridge Sta- 
tion, 2103 Rhode Island Ave., N. E. 

Letter Boxes (painted green when outdoors) will be 
found at conveniently brief intervals, affixed to lamp posts, 
or within many of the large office buildings and hotels. 
Schedules of the time of collecting are posted on all of the 
letter boxes. There are only three deliveries a day, on week 
' days, both in the business and residential districts (six deliv- 
eries to the leading hotels). No letters are delivered on 
Sundays, except "Special Delivery" letters. There are from 
eight to twenty collections on week days, varying in the dif- 
ferent districts ; three collections on Holidays, and two on 
Sundays. 

(For postal rates and other general postal regulations, see Rider's 
New York City, pp. 45-47.) 

b. Telegraph and Cable Offices 

For details regarding the Telegraph service of the 
United States the foreign visitor is referred to Rider's New 
York City, p. 47. The Washington services of the two principal 
companies are as follows : 

Western Union Telegraph Company: main office, 1.401 
V St. N. W. ; branch offices, 613 and 900 Pennsylvania Ave. 
N. W. ; 705 15th St. N. W. ; 1213 Wisconsin Ave. N. W. ; 
United States Capitol (in corridor leading to House Wing) ; 
1 104 Connecticut Ave. N, W. ; 7th St. at corner of F St. 
N. W. ; 1420 Columbia Road N. W. ; House Office Building. 
New Jersey Ave. and B St. S. E. ; Union Station, facing 
Plaza at Delaware and Massachusetts Aves. N. E. ; Colo- 
rado Building, cor. 14th and G Sts. N. W. ; New Willard 
Hotel, Pennsylvania Ave. and 14th St. N. W. ; Woodward 
Building, 1731 15th St. N. W. ; also in all the principal Gov- 
ernmental Departments. 



24 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

Postal Telegraph-Cable Company: main office, Evans 
Building, 1422 New York Ave. N. W. ", branch offices, F St. 
corner of 8th St. N. W.; Woodward and Lothrop, F St. 
corner of nth St. N. W.; 1128 Connecticut Ave.; 1249 Wis- 
consin Ave. N. W. ;. United States Capitol (in Senate base- 
ment) ; Union Station; National Hotel, corner Pennsylvania 
Ave. and 6th St. N. W. ; and in all Government Departments. 



VI. Theatres, Concerts and Other Places of 
Entertainment 

Washington is exceptional among world Capitals in its 
relative dearth of high-class playhouses. It has no permanent 
local stock companies, and is dependent upon brief engage- 
ments (usually one-week stands or less) of companies on 
tour. It is significant that two of the best built modern 
houses in the city, the Belasco and Keith's, are wholly given 
over to vaudeville. 

Poll's Theatre (PI. II— -D5), Pennsylvania Ave., E. side, 
betw. 14th and 15th Sts. High-class drama, musical comedy, 
etc. iSeating capacity, 1900. 

The prices of seats vary from week to week according to the 
character and importance of the production. The following prices 
represent the maximum scale for a high-class musical show. 

Evenings, including Saturdays: Box seats, $3.85; orchestra, $3.36; 
orchestra circle, $2.75; balcony, first four rows, $2.20; next three 
rows, $1.65; remaining rows, $1.10; second balcony, first four rows, 
83c; remaining rows, 58c. Saturday matinee: Box seats, $2.75; 
orchestra, $2.20; orchestra circle, $2.20; balcony, first four rows, $2.20; 
next three rows, $1.65; remaining rows $1.10; second balcony, 55c. 
Thursday matinee: Box seats $2.20; orchestra and orchestra circle, 
$1.65; balcony, first four rows, $1.65; remaining rows, $1.10; second 
balcony 55c. 

New National Theatre (PI. I— A2; p. 107), 1325 E St. 
High-class drama, opera, musical shows, concerts and lectures. 

The following prices represent the usual scale for the average 
dramatic show: Evenings and Saturday matinee: Box seats, $3.30; 
orchestra, $2.75; balcony, $2.20, $1.65 and $1.10; gallery, 55c. Wed- 
nesday matinee: Box seats, $3.30; orchestra, $2.20; balcony, $1.65 and 
$1.10; gallery, 55c. 

The following is the maximum scale for special productions, musical 
reviews, etc.: Evenings: Box seats, $4.40; orchestra, $3.30; balcony, 
$2.75, $2.20 and $1.65; gallery, $1.10 and 55c. Saturday matinee: 
Box seats, $3.30; orchestra, $2.75; balcony, $2.20 and $1.65; gallery, 
$1.10 and 55c. Wednesday matinee: Box seats, $3.30; orchestra, $2.20; 
balcony, $1.65 and $1.10; gallery, 55c. 

Shubert-Garrick Theatre (Pi. I— C2), S. E. cor. 7th and 
F Sts. High-class drama. Seating capacity, 961. 






THEATRES AND CONCERTS 25 

Average prices: Evenings, including Saturday: Lower box seats, 
$2.75; upper box seats, $2.20; loge seats, $2.20; orchestra, $2.20; 
balcony, rows A to D, $1.65; rows E to H, $1.10; rows I and J, ^sc. 
Matinees: Lower box seats. $2.20; upper box and loge seats, $iT6s ; 
orchestra, $1.65; balcony, rows A to H, $1.10; I and J, 55c. 

New Capitol Theatre (PI. I — B2; p. 104), Pennsylvania 
Ave., E. side, betw. 10th and nth Sts. 

Evenings and Sunday matinees: Box seats, $1.25; orchestra, rows 
1-14, $1.10; rows 15-18, 85c; remaining rows, 75c; balcony, 55c. 
Sunday evenings and holidays: Box seats, $1.65; orchestra, rows 1-14, 
$1.10; remaining rows, 83c; balcony, rows 1-10, 55c; remaining rows, 
28c. Weekday matinees: Box 9eats, 85c; orchestra, 55c; balcony, 28c. 

Shubert-Belasco Theatre (PI. II — D4; p. 187), Madison 
Place, facing Lafayette Square. Vaudeville. 

Evenings, Monday to Friday: Box seats, $1.65; orchestra, $1.10; 
mezzanine $1.10; balcony, rows 1-5, 83c; remaining rows, 55c; gallery, 
28c. Saturday, Sunday and holiday evenings: Box seats, $1.65; 

orchestra and mezzanine, $1.65; balcony, rows 1-5, $1.10; remaining 
rows, 83c; gallery, 28c. Matinees: Monday to Friday: Box seats, 
$1.10; orchestra and mezzanine, 55c; balcony, 39c; gallery, 28c. 
I Matinees: Saturday, Sunday and holidays: Box seats, $1.65; orchestra 
and mezzanine, $1.10; balcony, rows 1-5, 83c; remaining rows, 55c; 
gallery, 28c. 

Keith's Theatre (PI. II— D4), S. E. cor. 15th and G 
Sts. Vaudeville. 

Evenings and holiday matinees: Box seats, $2.20; orchestra, rows 
A to K, $2.20; rows L to T, $1.65; rows U to W, $1.10; mezzanine, 
rows A to C, $1.10; rows, D to I, 83c; balcony, rows A to F, 55c; 
* rows G to K, 39c. Matinees: Monday to Friday: Box seats, $1.10; 
orchestra, rows A to F, $1.10; rows G to T, 83c; rows U to W, 55c; 
Mezzanine, rows A to C, 55c; rows D to I, 39c; balcony, 28c. 
Matinees: Saturday and Sunday: Box seats, $1.65; orchestra, rows 
A to F, $1.65; rows D to T, $1.10; rows U to W, 83c; mezzanine, 
rows A to C, 83c; rows D to I, 55c; balcony, rows A to F, 39c; rows 
G to K, 28c. 

Gayety Theatre (PI. I— B2), 511 9th St. Burlesque. 

Evenings: Monday to Saturday, and holiday matinees: Box seats, 
$1.25; orchestra, $1.25; balcony, rows A to G, 75c; rows H. to M, 
50c. Sunday and holiday evenings: Box seats, $1.25; orchestra, $1.25; 
balcony, rows A to J, 85c; rows K to M, 55c. Matinees: Monday 
to Saturday: Box seats, $1.10; orchestra, rows A to N. 75c; rows 
O to Y, 50c. ; balcony, rows A to. G 50c; rows H to M, 30c. Sunday 
matinees: Box seats, $1.25; orchestra A to N, $1.10; rows O to Y, 
75c, balcony, rows A to G, 50c; rows H to M, 30c. 

Cosmos Theatre (PI. I — B2), 919 Pennsylvania Ave. 
Vaudeville. 

Evenings and Saturday, Sunday and holiday matinees: Orchestra, 
65c; balcony, 40c. Matinees: Monday to Friday: Orchestra, 40c; 
1 balcony 25c. 



26 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

There are in addition a considerable number of Motion 
Picture theatres at popular prices, usually ranging between 
20c. and 6oc. Among those centrally located are the following : 

Loew's Columbia Theatre, cor. of F and 11th Sts. 
Loew's Palace Theatre, cor F and 13th Sts. 
Crandall's Theatre, cor. E and 9th Sts. 
Crandall's Metropolitan Theatre, 934-36 F St. 
Crandall's Savoy Theatre, 14th St. and Columbia Road. 
Hippodrome, 9th St. and New York Ave. 
Regent Theatre, cor. U and 18th Sts. 
Circle Theatre, 210S Pennsylvania Ave. 

Concerts and Other Musical Entertainments 

Washington has no high-class concert hall or other audi- 
torium reserved exclusively for musical entertainments. Con- 
certs of the higher grade are usually given at the National 
Theatre (p. 107), mornings or afternoons and Sunday eve- 
ning. These concerts are regularly advertised in the daily papers 
with notice where tickets may be purchased (seldom at theatre 
box office). Other halls often used for concerts are that of 
the New Masonic Temple, New York Ave. and 13th St., and 
the auditorium of the Central High School (p. 431). 

VII. Sports, Games, Etc. 

There is an abundant variety of sports practiced within 
the District of Columbia; and the casual visitor will not only 
have ample opportunities for watching his favorite games, but 
facilities for participating in them as well. In all sports within 
the District the color line is rigorously drawn. 

No account of sports within the District would be com- 
plete without mention of the Racquet Club (p. 30), which 
promotes all kinds of sports. This club has indoor tennis 
courts, racquet courts, gymnasium, swimming pool, etc., and 
resembles the New York Athletic Club both in its appoint- 
ments and its standing with regard to local athletics.^ A 
stranger visiting Washington, if armed with a letter of intro- 
duction to a member of the Racquet Club, would find easy 
access to any favorite sport. Strangers not so armed and 
desiring information about sports, would do best by consulting 
the sporting department on any daily paper, which will gladly 
give such information by phone. 

Athletics. Gymnasiums: The Y. M. C. A., G St. betw. 
17th and 1 8th Sts.; the Y. W. C. A., 14th and G Sts. and the 
K. of C. Hall, 916 10th St. Track Athletic meets, both 



SPORTS AND GAMES 27 

indoor and outdoor, occur at various times during the year, 
colleges and clubs being the participants. There is no regular 
schedule. 

BasebalL The Washington American League Baseball 
Team plays at American League Park (p. 430), 7th St. and 
Florida Ave. (when not on the road), from April 15 to Oct. I. 
There are about a dozen amateur leagues in the District, which 
play in various fields, their schedules of games extending from 
May 1 to Sept. 1. Four of the Diamonds used by these teams 
are on the Ellipse behind the White House; four others are 
on the Washington Monument grounds; and still another is on 
the grounds of the Railroad Y. M. C. A. adjoining Union Sta- 
tion on the E. Any one can attend these games free of charge ; 
there are, however, no seats. There are also semi-professional 
teams which play at Union Park, 15th and H Sts. N.E. every 
Sunday, from May 1 to Oct. 1. From late March to June 
there are college games, played on Georgetown University 
Field, 36th and O Sts. ; Catholic University Field, 7th St. and 

[ Michigan Ave., N. E. and at Gallaudet College Field, 7th St. 

' and Florida Ave., N.E. 

Bowling. A prominent sport in Washington. Thirty 
leagues play matches from Oct. to June. There are many 
public alleys where nominal fees are charged. 

Boxing. This sport is forbidden within the District, and 
so strictly is the law enforced that it is not even permitted to 
demonstrate blows on the stage. The only boxing to be seen 
nearer than Baltimore is at the Service bouts at Fort Myer, 
across the river in Virginia. An admission fee is charged, the 
proceeds going to the Army Athletic Association. 

Canoeing. One of the leading sports in Washington dur- 
ing the summer. All the canoe clubs are located along the 
Potomac River, W. of Rock Creek. The principal clubs are 
the Washington Canoe Club, the Colonial Canoe Club, the 
Raccar Canoe Club and the Sycamore Island Canoe Club. And 
there are numerous smaller ones. The Washington Canoe Club 
is a member of the Chesapeake-Delaware Division of the 
American Canoe Association and has a famous four. 

Fencing. The Washington Fencing Club holds public 
matches with teams from other cities. 

Football. A leading sport in Washington. College games 

are played here during the season by Georgetown University 

(at American League Park, 7th St. and Florida Ave., N.E.). 

i by George Washington University, Gallaudet College, the Cath- 



28 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

olic University and the University of Maryland (the last 
named being considered a District of Columbia institution 
since most of its students are graduates of Washington High 
Schools). The Washington Professional Foot Ball Club, 
member of the American Professional Foot B'all Association, 
plays every Sunday during the season at American League Park. 
There are also various semi-professional teams. 

Soccer Football is represented by the teams of the National 
Capital Soccer Association — namely, the Washington Soccer 
Club, the Rangers, the Hibernians and the Harlems. These 
clubs plays double-headers on Sunday afternoons on the Monu- 
ment Lot Field, near Washington Monument. There is no 
admission fee because this is a Government reservation. Soc- 
cer is a new game in the District, and is coming into promi- 
nence. The men who play it are a cosmopolitan set, including 
men from the Legations. 

Golf. There are golf courses at the Columbia Country 
Club, Chevy Chase, Md. ; the Chevy Chase Club; the Bannock- 
burn Golf Club, Conduit Road, near Glen Echo, Md. ; Kirkside 
Golf Club, Chevy Lhase, Md. ; the Town and Country Club, 
Georgia Ave. and Crittenden St.; the Washington Golf and 
Country Club, Jewell Station, Va. (on Washington-Great Falls 
Electric Ry.) ; the Congressional Golf Club; the Indian Spring 
Golf Club, near Silver Spring, Md. ; and the Potomac Golf 
Club (playing on the Municipal course in East Potomac Park). 
Except Chevy Chase Club, these clubs extend usual club 
courtesies. All Caddies are negroes. 

There are two nine-hole Municipal courses, one in Easi 
Potomac Park, the other in West Potomac Park, open prac- 
tically eleven months in the year. Fee 25 cents. Clubs can be 
rented at these Municipal courses, and lessons can be obtained 
from the professionals in charge. Reached by electric line, 
and public autos, also by packet boat from foot of 7th St., S. W. 

Polo. This game is fostered by the War Department, 
and Army tournaments are held spring and fall. 

Swimming. There is a Tidal Basin Bathing Beach, a 
public beach in the Basin in Potomac Park. W. of Washington 
Monument; a small fee is charged. The bathing houses (open 
8 A. M. to sunset, June to Oct.) are well equipped,_ and suits 
and lockers can be rented. The influence of the tide is felt 
six miles above Washington, but the water is not salt. There 
are also Municipal pools (June to Oct., 6 A. M. to sunset) 
at 17th and B Sts., N. W. ; no charge. At all of these bathing 
places there are special hours for women, and separate days 
for negroes. 



CLUBS 29 

Indoor Swimming. The Central Y. M. C. A., 1736 G St., 
has a public pool; fee, 25 cents. There are bathing pools at 
the Catholic University and the Central High School (p. 431) 
where oontests are held during winter. The pool at the 
Central High School is open to the public during July and 
Aug. under the Community Centre Organization, an institu- 
tion of long standing in the District, under which the public 
has the use of the High Schools for entertainments. 

Tennis. The Washington City Tennis Association in- 
cludes the Dumbarton, Chevy Chase and Columbia Clubs. 
Matches are played on the courts of the Dumbarton Club 
(Wisconsin Ave. and R St.) every Saturday from May through 
Sept. The Suburban Tennis League is organized annually, 
comprising from eight to ten teams. Matches take place 
every Saturday all over the District, and are open to the public. 
The Departmental Tennis League, composed of from eight 
j to ten teams recruited in the Government Bureaus, play weekly 
■ matches. For dates and location see daily papers. 

There are some 40 Municipal Courts in Potomac Park, 
for the use of which permits must be obtained from the 
i Superintendent of Public Buildings and Grounds (a Federal 
officer). Courts open 6 A. M. to sunset; no- charge. 

Trap Shooting. The Washington Gun Club, affiliated 
with the American Trap Shooting Association, has its range 
on Benning Road, adjoining the Potomac Electric Power 
Station. Shoots are held every Saturday throughout the year, 
and also on holidays. The club promotes many inter-city 
matches. Many prominent men of Washington are members, 
and the club's slogan is ''Visitors Welcome." 

Yachting. The two chief clubs are the Capital Yacht 
Club (exclusive), at foot of 9th St., S. W., and the Cor- 
inthian Yacht Club, on the W. bank of the Potomac, S. of 
Highway Bridge. Races are held 20 mi. below ^Washington, 
where the Potomac, which is only a mile wide at Washington, 
broadens out to nearly five miles. 

VIII. Clubs 

Clubs play a prominent part in the social life of 
Washington; yet while the number of important clubs is un- 
usually -large, in proportion to population, organizations of a 
distinctly political nature are conspicuously absent. The chief 
clubs, to which, of course, strangers may obtain access only 
(through introduction by a member, are given in the follow- 
ing list. 



3 o RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

Metropolitan Club (PI. Ill— E3), N. W. cor. 17th and 
H Sts. (557 res. members ; 784 non-res.; 22 diplomatic; 38 
hon.) ; is, and always has ibeen, the moist prominent social 
club in Washington. Racquet Club (Pi. Ill — D3), 16th St., 
betw. L and M Sts. (600 res. members; 700 non-res.); a 
modern athletic club on the lines of the New York and Boston 
Racquet Clubs, composed of the younger men of Washington, 
and socially quite important. A special feature is a large num- 
ber of rooms where members may put up their friends. Cosmos 
Club (PI. II— D4), S. E. cor. H St. and Madison Place, a club 
of world-wide renown with membership consisting largely of 
men of professional distinction in science, art or letters: (See 
p. 188.) University Club (PI. II— D3), N. W. cor. of 15th 
and I Sts. : Membership limited to college graduates ; has a 
women's Annex with dining room for wives of members. A 



eekly 



very active club, giving frequent dinners, dances and w 
lectures. The local Harvard, Princeton, Yale, etc., Alumni 
Associations, having no club rooms, hold their reunions 
here (p. 220). City Club (PI. Ill— E3), N. W. cor. Connecti- 
cut Ave. and I St.: Membership includes a majority of the 
prominent Washington business men. National Press Club 
(PI. Ill — E3), 15th and G Sts.: Membership limited to men; 
but there are women's evenings, and there is a roof garden 
where women may dine on these evenings. Gridiron Club. 
This club has no club house, hut gives at the New Willard 
(PI. I — A2), the most famous club dinners given in the 
United States, (see p. iio). Two distinguishing rules which 
affect the character oif these dinners are: 1. "Reporters are 
never present" ; 2. "Ladies are always constructively pres- 
ent" — thus insuring freedom of speech and refinement. The 
membership is limited exclusively to newspaper correspond- 
ents. Arts Club of Washington (PI. Ill — E2), 2017 I St.: A 
small club of men affiliated with one or another of the arts. 
Army and Navy Club (PI, III — E3), N. E. cor. Connecticut 
Ave. and I St. : An old established club for officers of 
the two services ; strong social prestige. Riding and Hunt 
Club, 226. and P Sts. ; has a large tanbark ring where mem- 
bers ride in winter. Congressional Club (Pl.ilH — D3 — 'No. 29), 
New Hampshire Ave. and U St. : The leading women's club 
of Washington ; membership limited to wives of Senators, 
Congressmen and Judges of the Supreme Court (see p. 207). 
Women's City Club (PI. Ill — E3), 22 Jackson Place: 
Has same general interests as the Men's City Club. 
American Association of University Women, No. 1634 
I St.; Soaial center "for the college and university 



SHOPS AND STORES 31 

women of America ('see p. 233). The Alibi Club, at 1806 
I St. A small club (40 members), formed by a limited group 
of socially prominent Washingtonians, chiefly college men, 
because "poker was not permitted at the University Club." It 
is mainly a dining club, and has an interesting collection of 
poems and other contributions written by visitors. Three 
organizations which have rapidly come to the front in civic 
matters are : The Rotary Club, the Kiwanis Club and the Lions 
Club, all three of which are composed of men who get together 
for the purpose of improving the community in which they live. 
The numerous country clubs of Washington and vicinity 
include : 

Chevy Chase Club situated at Ohevy Chase, Md. 
(1916 members, both sexes) : One of the oldest and most 
exclusive country clubs. Golf course over-crowded for com- 
fort. Columbia Country Club, also at Chevy Chase, Md., 
(both sexes) : Reputed to have a better golf course than 
1 the Chevy Chase Club. Congressional Country Club : This 
I recently organized cluib of which Herbert Hoover is a prom- 
inent officer, has just acquired [1922] a 406-acre tract in 
I Maryland, and three golf courses, with a total of 45 holes, are 
in course of construction. The membership while including 
many Congressmen is not confined to them. Pierce-Mill Club, 
Great Falls, Md : Small membership. Montgomery County 
■ Club, furthest out of any of the clubs; dinners, dances, trap 
I shooting and tennis ; but no golf. Dumbarton Tennis Club, 
Wisconsin Ave. and R Sts. : Exclusively for tennis. 

See also under "Sports, Games, etc." (p. 26). 
IX. Shops and Stores 

Art Dealers. *Veerhoff's Galleries, 1320 F St.; *S. J. V enable, 

1225 G St.; *Moore Galleries, 729 17th St.; Fred C. Hayes Art Co., 

123 1 G St.; Charles B. Jarvis, 1309 G St.; The Antique Shop, 815 

17th St.; Niepold & Sons, 913 F St.; 7. O. Akers, 1142 7th St.; 

1 Miss Jane Bartlett, 1337 Connecticut Ave. 

Book Stores. *Brentano's, S. W. cor. F and 12th Sts,; Pearlman's 
Book Shop, 931 G St.; Lozvdermilk & Co., 1424 F St. (rare books, 
prints, etc.); Rare Book Shop, 813 14th St.; *William Ballantyne & 
Sons, 1409 F St.; C. C. Pursell, 807 G St. 

Boots and Shoes. Arthur Burt Co., 1343 F St.; Edmonston & 
Co., 1334 F St.; Berberich, 813 Pennsylvania Ave.; Rich, N. W. cor. 
10th and F Sts.; Family Shoe Store, 310-12 7th St.; N. Hess Sons, 
Inc., 931 Pennsylvania Ave.; Wm. Hahn & Co., City Club, G St. 

Many other well-known makes of shoes, such as the Cantilever, 
1 Emerson, Hanover, Regal and Douglas have local branches on Penn- 
J sylvania Ave., chiefly between 9th and 10th Sts. 



32 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

Children's Clothing. Kafka, N. E. cor. F and ioth Sts.; Juvenile 
Shop, 1105 Connecticut Ave. 

China and Glass. Dulin & Martin Co., 1215 F St.; Sherratfs 
China Art Shore, 608 13th St.; Tuck Cheong & Co., 342 Pennsylvania 
Ave. See also "Oriental Goods." 

Cigars and Tobacco. G. G. Cornzvell & Son, 1415 H St.; Henry 
T. Offtcrdinger, 508 9th St.; W. H. Warner, 308 9th St.: United Cigar 
Stores Co., 626 14th St.; branches: 1704 Pennsylvania Ave.; S. E. cor. 
7th and F Sts.; 1349 E St.; 707 15th St.; 9th and E Sts.; 1941 14th 
St.; 500 9th St. 

Clothiers and Haberdashers. *Sidney West, Colorado Building, 
N. E. cor. G and 14th Sts.; *Stinetnetz & Son Co., cor. F and 12th 
Sts.; *D. J. Kaufman, 1005-7 Pennsylvania Ave.; Saks & Co., N. W. 
cor. Pennsylvania Ave. and 7th St.; The Young Men's Shop, 13 19-21 
F St.; Raleigh Haberdasher, 1109-n Pennsylvania Ave.; Philip T. Hall, 
141 1 F St.; The Mode, S. E. cor. nth and F Sts.; Parker, Bridge* & 
Co., Pennsylvania Ave. and 9th St.; The Willard Shop, 511 14th St.; 
Meyer's Shops, 133 1 F St. 

Confectioners and Caterers. *Demonet, Connecticut Ave. and M 
St.; *Rauscher's, 1034 Connecticut Ave.;' Brownley's, 1205 G St.; 

1302 F St.; Velati, 609 14th St.; Huyler's, 1119 F St., 617 15th St.; 
John Kolb, 1508 14th St.; Stohlman, 1254 Wisconsin Ave.; Louis Boeck- 
styn's, 2016 14th St.; S. A. Reeves, 1209 F St.; Hubert, Inc., 1803 
Connecticut Ave.; Cinderella Candy Shop, 617 14th St.; Nunnally's, 
1223 F St.; Velati, 620 9th St.; Louise Candy Shoppe, 1616 H St., 
1 7 14 H St.; Martha Washington Candies, 12th St. betw. E and F Sts. 

Drug Stores. Affleck, 15th and F Sts.; F. H. Ridgway, Connecticut 
and Florida Aves.; People's Drug Store. N. W. cor. 7th and Kj Sts., 
S. W. cor. 7th and E Sts.. cor. 7th and M Sts.. 703 15th St.. 1107 
G St., and numerous other branches; Dupont Pharmacy, 5 Dupont 
Circle; Dorman Homeopathic Pharmacy, 1007 H St.; King's, S. E. cor. 
14th and Massachusetts Ave.; Christiana, N. W. cor. 9th and Pennsyl- 
vania Ave.; Tschiffely Bros., 1203 Connecticut Ave.; Liggett' s, 1006 F 
St., 1345 F St., 904" F' St., 1301 F St., 418 7th St., 701 15th St., 
\ 2 Z7 Pennsylvania Ave., 1717 Pennsylvania Ave.: O'Donnell's, 604 9th 
St., 301 Pennsylvania Ave., n 18 F St., 401 E. Capitol St. 

Embroideries and Laces. The Lace Shop, mi F St.; The Em- 
broidery Shop, 827 nth St.; French Lace Shop, 1208 G St.; F. A. 
Zraick, 11 05 Connecticut Ave.; Alice Maynard, 1303 F St. 

Florists. Gude Bros. Co., 1214 F St.; Blackistone, N. W. cor. 
14th and H Sts.; Marche & Co., S. E. cor. 14th and H Sts.; George 
C. Shaffer, 900 14th St.; /. H. Small & Sons, Inc., S. E. cor. 15th 
and H Sts.; Louise Flower Shop, Connecticut Ave. and Ni St. 

Hair Dressers. * Cummins, 1756 M St.; Borden's, 1115 G St.; 
Katie E. Dunn, 517 nth St.; Hepner, 525 13th St.; Rochon, 916 14th 
St.; George & Emile, 920 17th St.; Emile, 121 3 Connecticut Ave.; 
Boston Beauty Shop, 1006 F St.; Desire Bannery, 2412^ 18th St. 

Ladies' Tailors. Pluym's, 1220 Connecticut Ave.; Frank Faust, 
1020 17th St.; M. Pasternak, 1232 14th St.; Paul Leibel, 1215 G St. 

Milliners. Howard) & Deane, 1309 F St.; /. M. Ash, 1217 Con- 
necticut Ave.; /. L. Blout, 710 7th St.; Grimes, 1404 H St.; Young's, 

1303 Connecticut Ave.; Zimmerman, 1307 Connecticut Ave.; Fox-Leary, 
814 17th St.; Maiso-n Libby. 13th and G Sts. 

Opticians. Franklin & Co., 1329 F St.; Frank H. Edmonds, 809 
15th St. 



CHURCHES, RELIGIOUS SERVICES 33 

Oriental Goods. The Pagoda, 1625 H St.; Hekimian Nejib, 15 12 
II St. (Oriental rugs); Suzuki & Co., 614 14th St.; Cuang Wall Yuen, 
318 Pennsylvania Ave. 

Photographers. *Clinedinst Studio, 14th and H Sts. ; * Harris & 
Ewing,i3ii F St.; Brooks Studio, 1329 F St.; J. D y Boyce, 1325 F 
St.; Rice Studio, 1203 F St.; Edmonston's Studio, 1407 J St.; Bach- 
racJi's Studio, 1327 F St.; Towle's Studio, 1520 Connecticut Ave.: 
G. V. Buck, 1 1 13 F St.; Eastland Studio, 1107 F St.; Underwood, 1230 
Connecticut Ave. 

Silversmiths and Jewelers. * Berry & Whitnnre Co., N. W. cor. 
nth and F Sts.; *Galt & Bro., 1107 Pennsylvania Ave.; Salvatore Desio, 
926 F St.; R. Harris & Co., N. W. cor. 7th and D Sts.; Harris & 
Shafer Co., 1308 F St.; Whitemore, Lynn & Alden Co., 122$ F St.; 
Lucios Jezuelry Co., 1307 F St.; Shaw & Brown Co., n 14 F St. 

Souvenirs, Post Cards, etc. "National Remembrance Shop, 503 
14th St.; John F. Jarvis, 2d St. and Pennsylvania Ave.; A. C. Bossel- 
man, 473 Pennsylvania Ave. 

t Sporting and Athletic Goods. A. G. Spalding, 613 14th St.; D. N. 
Waljord, 909 Pennsylvania Ave.; Howard A. French Co., 424 9th St.; 
The Spcrt Market, Inc., 905 F St., 1410 New York Ave. 

Stationers. Brentano's, S. W. cor, 12th and F Sts.; Berry & 
Whitmore, N. W. cor nth and F Sts.; Gait & Bro., 1107 Pennsylvania 
Ave.; R. P. Andrews Paper Co., 727-31 13th St.; Baum Paper and 
Stationery Co., 905 7th St. (crepe paper, etc.); Stocket-Fiske Co., 919 
E St.; Brewood, 12th between F and G Sts.; Copenhaver, 1521 Con- 

t necticut Ave.; Morrison Paper Co., 1009 Pennsylvania Ave.; Brown, 
1 30 1 Connecticut Ave. 

Trunks and Leather Goods. *Becker, 1324 F St.; H. W . Topham, 
1212 G St.; G. A. Kneessi, 1231 G St.; K. Kneessi's Sons, 425 7th St.. 
Lute, 1325 G St. 

Umbrellas and Walking Sticks. Mrs. M. A. Griswould, 411 nth 
St.; French Umbrella Shop, 718 13th St. See also "Clothiers and 
Haberdashers." 

Women's Outfitters. *Stinemetz & Son Co., 1201 F St.; * Julius 
Garfinkle & Co., S. E. cor. F and 13th Sts.; /. M. Giddimgs & Co., 
1510 H St.; Philipsborn, 608-14 nth St.; Kafka. N. E. cor. F aad 
' 10th Sts.; Louvre, 1115 F St., 15 10 H St.; Rizik Br>os., 12 13 F St.; 
Leverton's, n 06 G St.; M. Brooks & Co., n 07-9 G St.; Woodzvard 
& Lothrop, nth and F Sts.; Erlebacher's, 121 o F St.; Frank R. Jelleff, 
j 216 F St.; Palais Royal, nth and G Sts. 

X. Churches, Religious Services 

For the convenience of visitors wishing to attend service 
at churches of their own denomination, the following selective 
list of the more important places of worship is given, the 
denominations being classed alphabetically. 

There are in all about 358 churches in the District of 
Columbia, inclusive of Chapels and Missions. Of these 115 
are for negroes. The principal denominations are represented 
as follows in order of their numerical importance : 

A. White: Protestant Episcopal, 43; Methodist Episco- 
pal, 35; Presbyterian, 27; Baptist, 26; Roman Catholic, 25; 
Lutheran, 17; Methodist Protestant, 8: Methodist Episcopal 



34 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

South, 7; Disciples of Christ, 7; Hebrezv, 4; Society of 
Friends, 3 ; Congregational, 3 ; Reformed, Swedenborgian, 
Unitarian and Universalist, 1 each. B. Colored : Baptist, 
66; Methodist Episcopal, 34; Protestant Episcopal, 7; Fr^j- 
byterian, 3 ; Congregational, 3 ; Roman Catholic, 2. 

The usual hours at which services are held are 11 A. M. 
and 8 P. M. In the following selective list the hours of 
service are given only in the cases where they are at variance 
with the usual practice. Announcement of services at the 
leading churches, together with subjects of the sermons, and 
special musical programs, will be found in the Saturday 
papers, notably in the Evening Star. 

Baptist: First Baptist (p. 201), 16th and O Sts. ; Rev. 
Henry Allen Tupper, D. D., Minister. — Immanuel Baptist 
1 6th St. and Columbia Road; Rev. G. G. Johnson, 
D. D., Pastor. — Calve ray Baptist, 8th and H Sts. ; 
Rev. W. S. Abernethy, D.D., Pastor.— Temple Baptist, 
10th and N Sts. — West Washington Baptist, 31st and N Sts. 
(Georgetown) ; services 11 A. M. and 7.30 P. M. — Metro 1 - 
politan Baptist, 6th and A Sts. N. E. ; services 11 A. M. and 
7.45 P. M.— Maryland Avenue, 14th St. and Maryland Ave. 
N. E.— Fifth Baptist, E St. near 7th St. N. W. ; services 
11 A. <M. and 7.45 P. M. — Kendall Baptist, 9th St. near B St. 
S. W. ; services 11 A. M. and 7.30 P. M. 

Christian: Vermont Avenue Christian Church (p. 221), 
Vermont Ave. north of N St.; Rev. Earle Wifley, D. D., 
Pastor. 

Christian Scientists : First Church of Christ, Scien- 
tist, Columbia Road and Euclid St. — Second Church of Christ, 
Scientist, 8th and F Sts. N. E. 

Congregational : First, 10th and G Sts. N. W. ; Rev. 
Jason Noble Pierce, Minister. — Mt. Pleasant Congrega- 
tional, Columbia Road near 14th St. ; Rev. Walton Amos 
Morgan, Minister. 

Jewish : Washington Hebrew Congregation, 8th St., 
between H and I Sts. ; services Friday 8 P. M., Saturday 
10 A. M. — Adas Israel, orthodox ; services Friday 6 P. M., 
Saturday 8 A. M. 

Lutheran: Luther Place Memorial (p. 221), 14th and N 
Sts. N. W. ; Rev. G. M. Difrenderfer, Pastor. — Epiphany 
(p. 207), 16th and U Sts.; Rev. Charles F. Steck, D. D., Pas- 
tor. — St. Paul, cor. nth and H Sts., N. W., — Atonement. 
North Capitol St. and Rhode Island Ave. — Keller Memorial, 



CHURCHES, RELIGIOUS SERVICES 35 

Maryland Ave. and 9th St. N. E. — Reformation, 2d and B 
Sts. S. E. 

Methodist Episcopal: Metropolitan (p. 134), John Mar- 
shall Place and C St. ; Rev. Harry Dawson Mitchell, D. D., 
Minister. — Wesley Chapel, cor. F and 5th Sts. — Foundry 
(p. 202), 16th and Uhurch Sts.; Rev. Herbert F. Ran- 
dolph, D.D., Minister. — Hamline, 9th and P Sts. ; Rev. Hamil- 
ton P. Fox, Pastor. — Calvary, Columbia Road, between 
14th and 15th Sts. ; Rev. James Shera Montgomery, 
Minister. — Trinity M. E. (formerly Ebenezer; see p. 411), 
Pennsylvania Ave. and 5th St. S. E. ; services 11 A. M. and 
7.30 P.M. 

Presbyterian: First Presbyterian Church (p. 136), John 

1 Marshall Place, between C and D Sts.; Rev. John Brittan 

Clark, D. D., Pastor.— New York Avenue P. C. (p. 231), at 

cor. of New York Ave., 13th and H Sts. — Church of the 

Covenant Op. 223), at S. E. cor. of Connecticut Ave., 18th 

and N Sts.; Rev. Charles Wood, Minister. — Gunton-Temple 

.Memorial, 14th and R Sts.; Rev. Bernard Bras- 

kamp, Pastor. — Gurle.y Memorial, 14th St. and Meri- 

( d'ian Place. — Northminster, nth St. and Rhode Island 

( Ave.; services n A. M. and 7.45 P. M. — Washington 

Heights, Columbia and Kalorama Roads ; Rev. John C. Pal- 

I mer, D. D., Minister; services n A. M. and 7.45 P. M.— 

j Fourth Church, 13th and Fairmount Sts. — West Street Church, 

. P St. near 35th St. (Georgetown) (p. 464). 

Protestant Episcopal: The Cathedral of Sts. Peter and 
f Paul, Bethlehem Chapel (p. 455), Mt. St. Alban, D. C. ; serv- 
1 ices 7.30, 10 and n A. M. and 4 P. M. — St. John's 
Church (p. 195), 1 6th and H Sts.; Church of the Epiphany 
(p. 150), G St. near 14th St.; Rev. James E. Freeman, 
D.D., Rector; services 8 and n A. M. and 4 and 
8 P. M. — Church of the Ascension (p. 227), Massa- 
chusetts Ave. and 12th St.; services 8 and n A. M. 
and 5 and 8 P. M.— St. Thomas (p. 234), cor. of 
1 8th and Church Sts.; services 8, 10.15 and II 
A. M. — St. Paul's, 23d St. near Washington Circle; serv- 
ices 7.30, 10 and n A. M. and 8 P. M. — Church of 
the Incarnation, cor. of N and 12th Sts. ; services 7.30 
and n A. M. and 5 P. M. — St. Margaret's, Connecticut Ave. 
and Bancroft Place; services 7.30 and n A. M. and 8 P. M. — 
t Chris 1 : Church (p. 406), G St., between 6th and 7th Sts. S. E. — 
St. James, 8th St. near Massachusetts Ave. N. E. ; services 
7.30 and n A. M. and 3.30 and 7.45 P. M. — All Souls' Memo- 



36 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

rial, Connecticut and Cathedral Aves. — Church of the Advent, 
cor. of 2d and U Sts. ; services 7.30 and 11 A. M. and 8 P. M. 
— St. John's, Georgetown Pauiish (p. 472), 3240 O St.; services 
7.30 and 11 A. M. and 7.30 P. M. — Christ Church, Georgetown 
Parish (p. 472), cor. of 31st and O Sts.; services 7.30 and 11 
A. M. and 7.30 P. M.—St. Paul's, Rock Creek Parish (p. 436), 
in Rock Creek Cemetery; services 11 A. M. 

Reformed: Grace Reformed Church (p. 231), 15th and 
O Sts. ; Rev. Henry H. Ranck, Pastor. 

Roman Catholic: St Patrick's (p. 147), 10th St., be- 
tween F and G Sts.; Sunday Masses 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 A. ku, 
Vespers 4 P. M. — St. Aloysius (p. 362), North Capitol and I 
Sts.; Sunday Masses 6, 7, 8 and 11 A. M., Vespers 7.30 P. M. 
— St. Matthew's (p. 234), Rhode Island' Ave. near Connecti- 
cut Ave.; Sunday Masses 7, 9, 10 and 11 A. M., Vespers 4 
P. M— St. Paul's, 15th and V Sts. ; Sunday Masses 6, 7, 8, 9, 
10 and 11 A. M., Vespers 7.30 P. M. — St. Stephen's, 
Pennsylvania Ave. and 25th St. ; Sunday Masses 6, 7. 9, 10 
and 11 A. M., Vespers 4.30 P. M— St. Dominic, 6th 
St., between E and F Sts. S. W. ; Sunday Masses 6, 7.30. 9, 

10 and 11 A. M ; ., Vespers 7.30 P. M.—St. Joseph's (p. 365), 
2d and C Sts. N. E. ; Sunday Masses 7, 9 and 10.30 A. M., 
Vespers 4 P. M.—St. Peter's (p. 411), 2d and C Sts. S. E.; 
Sunday Masses 7, -9 and 10.30 A. M. — St. Mary's (German), 
5th St., between G and H Sts.; Sunday Masses 7.30, 9.15 
and 10.30 A. M., Vespers 4 P. M.—Holy Trinity, 36th and O 
Sts. (Georgetown) ; Sunday Masses 6, 7, 9, 10 and 11 A. M„ 
Vespers 7.30 P. M. — Church of the Franciscan Monastery, 
14th and Quincy Sts. N. E. ; Sunday Masses 5.30, 6, 
7.30 and 9 A. M. 

Society of Friends: Friends Meeting House, 181 1 I St.; 
services 11 A. M. 

Swedenborgian : Church of the New Jerusalem (p. 203), 
16th and Corcoran Sts. ; Rev. Paul Sperry, Pastor ; services 

11 A. M. 

Unitarian: All Soulsf Church (p. 232), cor. 14th and 
L Sts.; Rev. Ulysses G. B. Pierce, D. D., Minister. 

Universalist : Church of Our Father, 13th and L Sts. 
N. W. ; Rev. John Van Schaick, Jr., D. D., Pastor. 

The principal negro congregations are: 

Baptist: Vermont Avenue, Vermont Ave., betw. Q and R Sts. — 
Metropolitan, R St., betw. 12th and 13th Sts. — Nineteenth Street, 
19th St., cor. I St. — Florida Avenue, Florida Ave. near 7th St. — Walker 



LIBRARIES AND READING ROOMS 37 

Memorial, 13th St., betw. U and V Sts. Methodist Episcopal: Asbury, 
K St., cor. nth St. — Metropolitan A. M. E., M. St., near 15th St.— 
Mt. Zion, 29th St., betw. Dumbarton Ave. and O St. — Ebenezer, D St., 
cor. 4th St. S.E. Presbyterian: Fifteenth Street, 15th St., betw. I and 
K Sts. Protestant Episcopal: St. Luke's, 15th St., cor. Church St. — 
St. Mary's Chapel, 23d St., betw G and H Sts. Calvary 
Chapel, nth St., cor. G St., N.E. Roman Catholic: St. Augustine's 
(p. 231), 15th St., near M St. — St. Cyprian, 13th and C Sts., S.E. 

XI. Libraries and Reading Rooms 

Washington contains approximately 170 libraries ; and 
owing to the fact that these include the libraries of the 
various Departments of Government, several large Univer- 
sities, the Smithsonian Institution, and other scientific socie- 
ties, it results that the library facilities of Washington are 
unrivaled by any other city in America. The following list is 
limited to the libraries which, to a greater or less degree, are 
open to the public. 

Library of Congress, 1st and B Sts. S. E. Open daily, excepting 
Christmas and the 4th of July. Week days 9 A. M. to 10 P. M., 
Sundays and Holidays 2 to 10 P. M. Resources, 3,000,000 printed 
books and pamphlets, and nearly 2,000,000 other items. For reference 
use the library is free to any reader over sixteen years- of age. The 
classes of borrowers are designated by statute (p. 369). 

Public Library of the District of Columbia, Mount Vernon Square. 
Open from 9 A. M. to 9 P. M. week days, including Holidays (except 
Christmas and the 4th of July). Sundays, 2 to 9 P. M. Resources 
230,000 vols. This is a circulating and reference library, free to all 
persons living in the District of Columbia, and to residents of Mary- 
land and Virginia employed in the District (p. 226). 

State Department Library, in the State, War and Navy Building. 
Open 9 A. M. to 4 P. M. daily except Sundays and Holidays. Re- 
sources, 70,000 vols. Reference library for use of State Department 
and Diplomatic Corps. All others must obtain permission from the 
f Secretary, Assistant Secretaries or Chief of the Bureau (p. 126). 

Library of the General Staff College, in General Staff College 
Building. Resources, 150,000 vols, and pamphlets. Open to the public 
for reference only, from 9 A. M. to 4 P. M. daily, except Sundays and 
Holidays (p. 351). 

Library of the Surgeon General's Office, 7th and B Sts., S. W. 
Resources, approximately 600,000 books and pamphlets. Open to the 
public for reference, 9 A. M. to 4 P. M. daily, except Sundays and 
Holidays. Books are lent to the medical profession '(p. 250). 

Columbus Memorial Library, Pan-American Union, 17th and B Sts., 
N. W. Resources, 45,000 vols. Reference library open free to the 
public, 9 A. M. to 4.30 P. M. daily, except Sundays and Holidays. 
The collection is entirely Latin-American (p. 162). 

Daughters of the American, Revolution Memorial Library, 17th and 
D Sts., S. W. Resources 10,000 vols. Reference library open to the 
public, 9 A. M. to 4.30 P. M. daily, except Sundays and Holidays. 
Specialty, American history and genealogy (p. 155). 

Columbia Historical Society Library, Pacific Building, 622 F St., 
N. W. Resources, 700 vols, and 3500 pamphlets. Open Wednesdays 



38 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

ii A. M. to 4 P. M. from November to May. At other times by 
special appointment with the Secretary. Students of local history 
are welcome to' the use of the library (p. 141). 

Riggs Memorial Library, Georgetown University, 37th and O Sts. 
Resources, 165,000 vols. The use of the main part of, this collection 
is restricted to the students and alumni of the University! (p. 469). 

The Morgan Colonial Maryland and District of Columbia Library, 
Georgetown College (resources, 4000 vols.), is open for reference to all 
investigators of Maryland, Colonial and District of Columbia history. 
Hours 8-1 1 to 2-5 P. M. daily 1 (p.- 467). 

Library of the Catholic University of America, Brookland. Re- 
sources, 132,000 vols. Open to the public for reference daily, except 
Sundays, 9 A. M. to 5 P. M. (p. 416). 

Interstate Commerce Commission Library, 18th and Pennsylvania 
Ave., N. W. Resources, 16,000 vols, and 20,000 pamphlets. Open to the 
public for reference, 9 A. M. to 4.30 P. M. daily, except Sundays and 
Holidays. Specialty, railroad literature and law (p. 216). 

Bureau of Railway Economics Library, 429 Homer Building. 
Resources, 100,000 vols. Open free for reference to any one interested, 
week-days from 9 A. M. to 5 P. M., except Saturdays, when it closes 
at 1 P. M. 

Department of Labor Library (U. S.), Labor Building 17 12 G 
Street. Resources, 80,000 vols. Open for reference to all (investigators 
of social problems, 9 A. M. to 4.30 P. M. daily, except Sundays and 
Holidays. Specialties, Labor, immigration, naturalization, statistics, child 
welfare, housing. 

Civil Service Commission Library, (U. S.), 1724 F St., N. W. 
Resources, about 4200 vols. Reference library open to the public from 
9 A. M. to 4.30 P. M. (p. 153). 

Library of the American Federation of Labor, cor. Massachusetts 
Ave. and 9th St. Resources, 6,000 vols. Intended primarily for the use 
of members, but students and investigators are welcome. Open 9 A. M. 
to 4.30 P. M. daily, except Sundays and Holidays (p. 227). 

Public Documents Library, North Capitol and H Sts. Resources, 
approximately 280,000 vols. Free to the public for reference. Open 
9 A. M. to 4.30 P. M. daily, except Sundays and Holidays. This -. 
library was founded primarily for the preservation of U. -S. Govern- 
ment publications (p. 361). 

Department of Commerce Library (U. S.), 19th and Pennsylvania 
Ave. N. W. Resources, 110,000 vols, and pamphlets. Reference 
library, primarily for the use of the Bureau, but open to any enquirers, 
9 A. M. to 4.30 P. M. daily, except Sundays and Holidays (p. 216). 

Patent Office Library (Department of the Interior), Patent Office 
Building. Law and Scientific Libraries (resources, respectively 6000 
and 80,000 vols.), 1 both open freel to the public for reference, 9 A. M. 
to 4.30 P. M., except Sundays and Holidays (p. 142). 

Library of the Bureau of Education, Pension Office Building, 5th 
and F Sts., N. W. Resourqes, 175,000 vols. Open for reference, 
9 A. M. to 4.30 P. M. daily, except Sundays and Holidays, to all 
persons interested in educational matters (p. 139). 

Library of the Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Insti- 
tution. Resources, 40,000 vols, and pamphlets. Reference library for the 
use of the Bureau staff, but privileges are extended to other readers. 
Specialty, anthropology, particularly works pertaining to American aborig- f 
ines (p. 288). 






LIBRARIES AND READING ROOMS 39 

National Museum Library, B St. and the Mall. Resources, 155,000 
vols, and pamphlets. Open to the public for reference, 9 A. M. to 
4.30 P. M. daily, except Sundays and holidays. The collection is 
wholly scientific (p. 260). 

Library of the Department of Agriculture, 12th and B Sts., S. W. 
Resources, 155,000 vols, and pamphlets. Reference library open free 
to the public daily, except Sundays and holidays, 9 A. M. to 4 P. M. 
The collection is strong in agriculture in all its branches, forestry, 
botany, economic entomology, etc. (p. 254). 

Bureau of Fisheries Library (U. S. Department of Commerce), 6th 
and B Sts. S. W. Resources, about 41,000 vols. Open free to the public 
for reference use, 9 A. M. to 4. 30. P. M.,i except Sundays and Holidays 
(P. 245). 

Library of the Geological Survey, Interior Department Building. 
Resources, 150,000 vols, and pamphlets; 37,000 maps. Open to the 
public for reference 9 A. M. to 4.30 P. M., except Sundays and 
holidays. Collection restricted to; geology and related sciences (p. 213). 

Library of the Coast and Geodetic Survey (U. S. Department of 
Commerce), New Jersey Ave. and B St., S. E. Resources, 25,000 vols. 
and pamphlets; 35,000 maps. Reference library for the use of the 
Bureau, but free to any responsible person properly vouched for (p. 405). 

Library of Bureau of Standards, Pierce Mill Road, W. of Connecti- 
cut Ave. Resources, about 22,000 vols. Open to the public for ref- 
erence, 9 A. M. to 4.30 P. M. daily, except Sundays and holidays. De- 
voted exclusively to physics, technology, chemistry and mathematics, 
(p. 44O. 

Library of the Naval Observatory, Massachusetts Ave. and W St., 
N. W. Resources, about 36,000 vols. Open to the public for reference, 
9 A. M. to 4.30 P. M. daily, except Sundays and holidays. This 
library is supposed to contain the best collection of astronomical litera- 
ture in the western hemisphere (p. 442). 

Weather Bureau Library, 24th and M Sts., N. W. Resources, 
52,000 vols, and pamphlets. Open 9 A. M. to 4 P. M. daily, except 
Sundays and holidays. Reference library intended primarily for the 
use of the Bureau, but is open to outsiders engaged in scientific in- 
vestigation (p. 219). 

Library of the Volta Bureau, 1601 35th St. N. W. Resources, 15,000 
vols. Open free to the public, 8.30 to 12 A. M. and 1 to 5 P. M. 
daily, except Sundays and holidays. During June, July and August it 
closes on Saturdays at noon (p. 475). 

Library of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 
Jackson Place. Resources, about 17,000 vols. Open free to the public 
every day from 9 A. M. to 4.30 P. M. except Saturday, when it closes 
at 1 P. M. Specializes in international law and literature of peace and 
war. 

Library of the Supreme Council of the 33d Degree, Scottish Rite 
Temple, 16th and S Sts. Resources, 100,000 vols, and pamphlets. Open 
9 A. M. to 4.30 P. M. Free for reference to any person vouched for 
by a member. Specialty, literature of Freemasonry (p. 206). 

Masonic Library of the Grand Lodge, F. A. A. M., Masonic Temple, 
New York Ave. and 13th St. N. W. Resources about 3500 vols. A 
circulating library of general fiction and Masonic reference works. Free 
to any one on recommendation by a Mason. Hours 10 A. M. to 
8 P. M., Sundays and Holidays excepted (p. 231). 

Mount Saint Sepulchre (Franciscan Monastery) Library, Brookland. 
Resources, about 12,000 vols. Open to the public for reference 
throughout the day and evening (p. 423). 



4 o RIDER-S WASHINGTON 

Christian Science Library, Colorado Building, cor. 14th and G 

Sts., N. W. Statistics not at present [1922] available. Open free to 

the public Sundays, 2.30 to 5.30 P. M., week days, 10 A. M. to 9.30 
P. M., except Wednesdays, when it closed at 7 P. M. 

Carroll Institute Library, 91 2-920 10th St., N. W. Resources, 5000 
vols. A general library and reading-room open free, 9 A. M. to 10 
P. M. daily except Sundays and Holidays. 

Peabody Library Association of Georgetown, 3233 O St., N. W. 
Resources, 9000 vols. Free for reference to the public, 6 to 9 P. M. 
daily, except Saturdays and Sundays. 

Library of the Smithsonian Institution, B and 10th Sts., S. W. 
Resources, 300,000 vols. Scientific and technical books, and explora- 
tions. Open to the public for reference, 9 to 4.30 daily, except Sundays 
and holidays. 

U. S. Soldiers' Home Library, Rock Creek Church Road and Upsher 
St. Resources, about 16,000 vols. Open to the public for reference, 7.30 
A. M. to 8.30 P. M. (p. 432). 

XII. Miscellaneous Services for the Traveller • 

a. Foreign Embassies and Legations 

Argentina — Embassy, 1806 Corcoran St.; Mr. Tomas A. 
Le Breton, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary. 

Belgium — Embassy, 1780 Massachusetts Ave. ; Baron de 
C artier de Marchienne, Ambassador E. and P. (absent) ; Mr. 
F. de Selys de Fans on, Charge d'Affaires. 

Bolivia — Legation, 1707 Massachusetts Ave. ; Senor Adolf 
Ballivian, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary. 

Brazil — [Embassy, 1603 H St. ; Mr. Augusto Cochrane de 
Alencar, Ambassador E. and P. 

Bulgaria — Legation, 1821 Jefferson Place; Mr. Stephen 
Panaretoff, E.E. and M.P. 

Chile — Embassy, 1013-1015 Woodward Building; Senor 
Don Beltran Mathieu, Ambassador E. and P. 

China— Legation, 2001 19th St.; Mr. Sao-Ke Alfred Sze, 
E.E. and MjP. 

Colombia — Legation, 2701 Connecticut Ave.; Senor Don 
Carlos Uribe, Charge d'Affaires. 

Costa Rica — Legation, 2230 California St.; Senor Dr. Don 
Octavio Bieche, E.E. and ALP. 

Cuba — Legation, 2630 16th St. ; Dr. Carlos Manuel de 
Cespedes, E.E. and M.P. 

Czechoslovakia — Legation, 2040 S St. ; Dr. Bedrich 
Stepdnek, E.E. and M.P. 

Denmark — Legation, 434 Southern Building; Mr. Con- 
stantin Brim, E.E. and M.P. 



EMBASSIES AND LEGATIONS 41 

Dominican Republic — Legation, 163 1 Massachusetts Ave.; 
Licdo. Emilia C. Joubert, E.E. and M.P. 

Ecuador — Legation, 1633 16th St. ; Seiior Dr. Don Rafael 
H. Elizalde, E.E. and M.P. 

Finland — Legation, 1041-1044 Munsey Building; Mr. 
Axel Leonard Astrom, E.E. and M.P. 

France — Embassy, 2460 16th St. ; M. J. J. Jusserand, 
Ambassador E. and P. 

Germany — Embassy, 1435 Massachusetts Ave. 

Great Britain — Embassy, 1301 19th St. ; Right Hon. Sir 
Auckland Geddes, Ambassador E. and P. 

Greece — Legation, 1838 Connecticut Ave. ; Mr. George 
Dracopoulos, Charge d'Affaires. 

Guatemala — Legation, 2800 Ontario Road ; Dr. Julio 
Bianchi, E.E. and M.P. 

Haiti — Legation, 819 15th St., Rooms 28-29; Mr. Albert 
Blanchet, E.E. and M.P. 

Honduras — Legation, The Northumberland ; Seiior Don J. 
Antonio Lopez Gutierrez, E.E. and M.P. 

Italy — Embassy, 1400 New Hampshire Ave.; Senator 
Vittorio Rolandi Ricci, Ambassador E. and P. 

Japan — Embassy, 1310 N. St.; Baron Kijuro Shidehara, 
Ambassador E. and P. 

Luxemburg — Legation, The Powhatan ; Baron Raymond 
de Waha, Charge d'Affaires. 

Mexico — Embassy, 1413 I St. ; Seiior Don Salvador Diego- 
Fernandez, Charge d'Affaires. 

Netherlands — Legation, 1800 Connecticut Ave. ; Dr. J. C. 
A. Everwijn, E.E. and M.P. 

Nicaragua — Legation, 2347 Ashmead Plr.ce ; Seiior Don 
Eniiliano Chamorro, E.E. and M.P. 

Norway — Legation, The Wyoming. Colombia Rd. and 
California St. ; Mr. H. H. Bryn, E.E. and M.P. 

Panama — Legation, 2400 16th St. ; Seiior Don J. E. Le- 
fevre, Charge d'Affaires. 

Persia — Legation, 15 13 16th St.; Mirza Hussein Khan 
Alai, E.E. and M.P. 

Peru — Legation, 2726 Connecticut Ave. ; Seiior Don Fed- 
erico Alfonso Pezet, Ambassador E. and P. 

Poland — Legation, 2640 16th St. ; Prince Casimir Lubo- 
mirski, E.E. and M.P. 



42 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

Portugal — Legation, The Wardman Park; Viscount 
d'Alte, E.E. and M.P. 

Rumania — Legation, 1607 23d St. ; Prince A. Bibesco, 
E,E. and M.P. 

Russia — Embassy, 1125 16th St. 

Salvador — Legation, The Wardman Park; Senor Don 
Salvador Sol M., E.E. and M.P. (absent) ; Senor Dr. Don 
Octavio Beeche, Minister of Costa Rica, in charge of Lega- 
tion. 

Serbs, Croats and Slovenes — Legation, 1339 Connecticut 
Ave.; Dr. Slavko Y. Grouitch, E.E. and M.P. 

Siam — .Legation, 2300 Kalorama Road; Phya Prabha 
Karavongse, E.E. and M.P. 

Spain — Embassy, 1673 Columbia Road; Senor Don Juan 
Riano y Gayangos, Ambassador E. and P. 

Sweden — Legation, 2249 R St. ; Capl. Axel F. Wallenberg, 
E.E. and M.P. 

Switzerland — Legation, 2013 Hillyer Pi. and 1439 Massa- 
chusetts Ave.; Mr. Marc Peter, E.E. and M.P. 

Uruguay — Legation, American National Building, 13 17 
F. St. ; Dr. Jacobo Varela, E.E. and M.P. 

Venezuela — Legation, 1406 Massachusetts Ave. ; Senor 
Don Santos A. Dominici, E.E. and M.P. 

b. Banks and Trust Companies 

Banks: National Metropolitan Bank, 613 15th St.; Riggs National 
Bank of Washington, 1503 Pennsylvania Ave.; American National 
Bank, 1315 F St.; Columbia National Bank, 911 F St.; Commercial 
National Bank, 700 14th St.; District National Bank, 1406 G St.; 
Federal National Bank, cor. 14th and G Sts.; National Bank of 
Washington, cor. 7th and C Sts.; Washington Southern Bank, 1413 
G St.; Second National Bank, 507 7th St.; Franklin National Bank, 
cor. 10th St. and Pennsylvania Ave.; Lincoln National Bank, cor. of 7th 
and D Sts.; Du Pont National Bank, 1341 Connecticut Ave. 

Trust Companies: Munsey Trust Company, cor. 15th and H. Sts.; 
Washington Loan and Trust Company, cor. F and 9th Sts.; American 
Security and Trust Company, N. W. cor. 15th St. and Pennsylvania 
Ave.; Continental Trust Company, cor. 14th and H Sts.; National 
Savings and Trust Company, cor. New* York Ave. and 15th St.; Unior 
Trust Company, S. W. cor. 15th and H Sts. 

c. Hospitals 

The following is a selected list of the more important 
Washington hospitals : Central Dispensary and Emergency 
Hospital, New York Ave. betw. 17th and 18th Sts. Children's 
Hospital, 13th and W Sts. Columbia Hospital for Women, 



STEAjMISHIP and steamboat LINES 43 

25th St. and Pennsylvania Ave. ' Eastern Dispensary and Cas- 
ualty Hospital, 708 Massachusetts Ave. N. E. Episcopal Eye, 
Ear and Throat Hospital, 1,147 15th St. Garfield Hospital, 
10th St. and Florida Ave. Georgetoivn University Hospital, 
35th and N Sts. National Homeopathic Hospital, 2d and N 
Sts. Providence Hospital, 2d and D St. N. E. George Wash- 
ington Hospital, 1333 H St. Washington Eye, Ear and Throat 
Hosptal, 2517 Pennsylvania Ave. 

d. Baths, Barber Shops, Etc. 

The Washington hotels are for the most part liberally 
1 equipped with private bath rooms, at an average charge of 
; from $1 to $1.50 in excess of the price of room. 

Baths. Hot and cold baths may be obtained at all the hotels. No 

charge is usually made for the use of hotel public baths. Turkish baths 

' may be obtained at the Riggs Lafayette Baths, S. E. cor. 15th and G Sts. 

Barber Shops. Good barber shops are to be found in all the leading 
hotels, in the Union. Station, and in many of the principal office build- 
ings. Many shops employ colored barbers. The Miller Chain of Barber 
Shops, with principal shop under the National Theatre, employs only 
white barbers. Ladies' Hairdressing Parlors are found in the principal 
department store's. (See also Hairdressers, p. 32.) 

e. Steamship and Steamboat Lines 

A. POTOMAC RIVER LINES 

Norfolk and Washington Steamboat Co., office at 7th St. 
Wharves S. W. Daily service between Washington, Alex- 
andria, Old Point Comfort and Norfolk, Va. 

[Potomac River Line (Maryland, Delaware and Virginia 
Ry. Co.), office at 7th St. Wharves IS. W. Weekly service 
(Saturdays) between Washington and Baltimore. 

Mt. Vernon and Marshall hlall Steamboat Co., office at 
7th St. Wharves S. W. Daily service (excepting Sundays) 
between Washington and Mt. Vernon. 

Washington Colonial Beach Steamboat Co., office at /th 

St. Wharves, S. W. To Colonial Beach, Va., July 19 to Labor 

Day, on Tues., Thurs., Sat. and Sun. Round trip $2.00. 

Moonlight trips on Potomac, Mbn., Wed. and Fri., 75c incl. 

war-tax. 

B. FOREIGN STEAMSHIP LINES 

The following are the local offices or agencies of the 
principal foreign steamship lines : 

American Line, 1208 F St.; Atlantic Transport Co., 1208 
F St.; Furness-Bermuda Line, Woodward Building, 731 15th 
St. ; Cunard Line, 517 14th St. ; Fabre Line, Woodward Build- 
ing, 731 15th St.; French Line, 1419 New York Ave.; Holland- 
American Line, 1300 G St. ; Red Cross Linie, Woodward Build- 
ing, 731 I5th St. 



44 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

f. Newspapers and Periodicals 
Newspapers and Periodicals. As a publication center, 
Washington while far from taking a position of leadership 
usually expected of a Capital City, stands somewhat above 
the rank to which it is entitled on a population basis (even 
excluding the large Government plants for engraving, print- 
ing and book-binding). The total number of newspapers 
and periodicals published within the District of Columbia is 
120, or approximately one-tenth the number published in 
New York City. They include 6 daily newspapers, 27 weekly 
periodicals, 5 semi-monthly, 56 monthly, 5 bi-monthly and 
21 quarterly magazines. Among these are only two foreign- 
language periodicals, both monthlies, and both virtually 
bulletins o>f the Pan-American Union. 

The daily papers of general circulation are : the Star 
(evening paper, independent, 2 cents daily, 5 cents Sunday; 
an old family paper, established in 1852, circulation about 
94,000) ; the Post (morning paper, independent, 2 cents daily, 
5 cents Sunday; circulation about 58,000) ; the Times (evening 
paper, 3 cents daily, 10 cents Sunday; the Hearst paper of 
Washington ; circulation about 54,000) ; and the Herald (morn- 
ing paper, independent, one cent daily, 5 cents Sunday; circu- 
lation about 38,000). Newspapers from Baltimore, Phila- 
delphia, New York and other cities, may be bought at 
principal news-stands along Pennsylvania Ave. 

Of the other periodicala published in Washington, there is a group 
connected with the army or navy or both, while another' group (such as 
the Mining Congress Journal, the Journal of the Association of Official 
Agricultural Chemists, etc.), are instances of a growing tendency of 
commercial associations of country-wide scope, to retain their financial 
headquarters in New York, but issue their official organ in the National 
Capital. 

Among other periodicals which find their natural place of publica- 
tion in Washington, should be mentioned: The Federal Employe, the 
Reclassificationist, and various other periodicals concerned with the 
interests of the Government Civil Service; the American Federationist, 
and other labor magazines; the weekly R. F. D. News, and four other 
periodicals for employees of the postal service; the Nation's Business 
(monthly), published by the U. S. Chamber of Commerce. Washington 
is also the home of the National Geographic Magazine, justly known 
as one of the best illustrated of American periodicals. It should be 
noted in conclusion that there is a notable and perhaps rather curious 
absence here at the Capital of periodicals of any sort with strong 
political tendencies. 

XIII. PLANNING A WASHINGTON STAY 

a. Distribution of Time 

Washington is exceptional among the great world Capi- 
tals in the ease and rapidity with which its principal sights 



PLANNING A WASHINGTON STAY 45 

may be seen. Thousands of excursionists find their way annu- 
ally to the Federal City, make a hasty tour of its monuments 
in one of the many sight-seeing cars, are rushed through the 
Capitol, the Corcoran Art Gallery and such of the other pub- 
lic buildings as chance to be open to visitors, and take away 
with them a few indelible memories and the fallacious belief 
that they have toured the city with commendable thorough- 
ness. In point of fact such persons have hardly made a 
beginning. To learn to know Washington, even in a super- 
ficial degree, requires from a month to six weeks. The Capi- 
tol, the White House, the various Department Buildings so 

1 obtrude themselves upon the visitor's attention that he readily 
overlooks the host of other attractions, the many beautiful 
churches, the wealth of public and semi-public libraries, the 

[ various seats of higher education, the countless historic land- 
marks on every street and avenue. Among the less known 
attractions which the visitor cannot afford to miss (and some 
of which are barely mentioned in the cheap popular hand- 
books of the city) are the Cathedral of St. Peter and St. Paul, 
the Franciscan Monastery, the Catholic University, the Scot- 
tish Rite Temple and historic Fort Stevens. 

Another reason why Washington cannot be thoroughly 

i visited in a few days is because of the many restrictions re- 

i garding opening and closing hours, in consequence of which 
sight-seeing is largely limited to week days betwen 9 a. m. 
and 4.30 p. m. No public building in Washington is open 

I evenings, with the sole exceptions of the Library of Con- 
gress, and the Capitol when Congress remains in session. 
No public building is open at any hour, on Sundays, 
with the exception of the Library of Congress, the New 
Museum and the Corcoran Art Gallery (which may be visited 
in the afternoon), and on rare occasions the Capitol, in 
order to accommodate some large visiting delegation. Even 
the Washington cemeteries, with few exceptions, have a rule 
forbidding the admission of visitors on Sunday but this rule 
is not strictly enforced. On the other hand the Washington 
churches, aside from the Protestant Episcopal and Roman 
Catholic denominations, can be seen in the daytime only at 
the hour of the Sunday morning service. 

Notwithstanding its reputation as a "City of magnificent 
distances," Washington, thanks to its central position in the 
original square of the District, exacts a minimum loss of 
time in urban travel. Aside from the suburban excursions 
into Maryland and Virginia, practically every point of in- 
terest to the average tourist can readily be reached by trolley 



46 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

within less than half an hour. Consequently, it is not neces- 
sary for the visitor with a week or more at his command to 
force himself to finish the sights of one neighborhood ex- 
haustively before moving on to the next. It would be, for 
instance, a source of great weariness to spend an entire day 
on the Mall, toiling successively through the Botanical Gar- 
dens, the Aquarium, the Army Medical Museum, the old and 
new National Museums and the Smithsonian Institute. A 
far wiser plan, and the one adopted so far as practicable in 
the following two-weeks' itinerary, is to spend one half of 
each day in in-door sight-seeing, and the other half in some 
out-door ramble, often at the opposite extremity of the city. 

Owing to the capricious nature of the Washington cli- 
mate, the visitor is warned not to assume that a -day of sun- 
shine promises a spell of good weather. Consequently, the 
first pleasant days should be seized upon for the out-of-town 
excursions. It is a mistake, however, to visit Mount Vernon 
on Saturday, when (especially if the weather is good) the 
throngs of tourists are apt to make a leisurely inspection of 
the old Mansion almost impossible. 

Georgetown can, if necessary, be seen in a single visit. 
Inasmuch, however, as several important suburban points 
must be reached through Georgetown, it will be found less 
wearisome to inspect the old town in two or three successive 
visits (see below, 8th and nth Days). 

b. A Fourteen Days' Itinerary 

The following suggested sight-seeing itinerary, which is 
planned for a stay of two weeks, is designed to aid the 
visitor in covering the principal points of interest with a 
minimum loss of time. The order in which these fourteen 
trips are taken may be altered to suit the convenience or pref- 
erence of the individual visitor; but he should carefully study 
the days and hours when the various museums and public 
buildings are open; also in a few cases the free and pay 
days. He should also familiarize himself with the routes of 
the various trolley lines (p. 10) ; for the Washington 
trolley cars zig-zag back and forth, turning corner after cor- 
ner with an unexpectedness quite bewildering to a stranger. 
It should be noted also that the trips marked 5th and 12th 
Days in the present scheme, are the only ones which can be 
satisfactorily taken on Sunday. 

1st Day. Preliminary Ramble down Pennsylvania Ave., com- 
bined with a visit to the Capitol (p. 50), including Ascent of 
Dome, the House Office Building (p. 403), the Old Capitol 



A FOURTEEN DAYS' ITINERARY 47 

Building (p. 364), the Senate Office Building (p. 365), the 
Plaza and Columbus Monument, the Union Station (p. 358) 
and new City Post Office (p. 357)- 

2d Day. Morning: Lafayette Square (p. 184), the 
President's Grounds and the White House (p. m), the 
Treasury Building (p. 122), the State, War and Navy Build- 
ing (p. 126), the Octagon House (p. 209). Afternoon; the 
Corcoran Art Gallery (p. 17 1 ). 

3d Day. Morning : Pennsylvania Ave. from the Peace 
Monument to the Treasury Building, including Central Mar- 
ket (p. 101), Post Office Department Building (p. 104), 
Municipal Building (p. 108), and the Sherman Statue (p. 125). 
Afternoon: American Red Cross Building (p. 154), Memo- 
rial Continental Building (p. 155), Pan-American Building 
(p. 162), Nezv Navy Building (p. 346). 

4th Day. Residential Section, Morning: Si. John's 
Church (p. 195), "Avenue of the Presidents" (p. 195), ex- 
cursion E. and W. on K St. (p. 237), taking in McPher- 

J son Sq. (p. 220), and Farragut Sq. (p. 222); then con- 
tinuing N. on 16th St., passing National Geographic Society 
(p. 199), Scott Circle (p. 200), Foundry Church (p. 202), 

I Church of the New Jerusalem (p. 203), Scottish Rite Temple 
(p. 204), and Meridian Park, with new Joan of Arc and 
Dante Statues. At Harvard St. take Mount Pleasant 
trolley S., via Columbia Road and Connecticut Ave., 
to Dupont Circle; thence walk S. E. on Massachu- 
setts Ave., passing (again) Scott Circle, Thomas Circle 
(p. 228) and Lutheran Memorial Church (p. 221), then 
S. on 14th St., passing All Souls' Church (p. 232), Frank- 
lin Sq. (p. 232) and New Yprk Ave. Presbyterian Church 
(p. 231). Afternoon: Excursion through Shopping Dis- 
trict (p. 141), passing Church of the Epiphany (p. 150), 
St. Patrick's Church (p. 147), Forays Theatre (p. 145), 
the Lincoln Museum (p. 145), Public Land Office (p. 144) 
and Patent Office (p. 142). A visit to the Lincoln Museum 
can be made any evening. 

5th Day. Morning: Arlington Cemetery and Fort Myer 
(p. 504). Afternoon: New National Museum, first visit 
(p. 260). 

6th Day. Morning: Congressional Library, first visit 
(p. 369). Afternoon: Washington Southeast (p. J013), 
including St Peter's R. C. Church (p. 411), Old Christ 



48 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

Church (p. 406), Marine Barracks (p. 406), Navy Yard 
(p. 407), and Congressional Cemetery (p. 408). 

7th Day. Morning: Mount Vernon (p. 487). After- 
noon: Alexandria (p. 512) including Christ Church (p. 514), 
Carlyle House (p. 519), Masonic Lodge (p. 517) and Marshall 
House (p. 521). 

8th Day. Morning: Georgetown, first visit, (p. 462), 
including Georgetown Heights (p. 476), Oak Hill Cemetery 
(p- 479), Tudor Mansion (p. 476), Bodisco House (p. 47°) > 
Convent of the Visitation (p. 473) and Volta Bureau (p. 475)- 
iVfternoon: Cathedral of St. Pieter and St. Paul (p. 455) 
and American University (p. 443). 

9th Day. Morning: Old National Museum (p. 322). 
Afternoon: Catholic University (p. 416) and Franciscan 
Monastery (p. 423). 

10th Day. Morning: National Museum, second visit. 
Afternoon: Smithsonian Institution (p. 255), Agricultural 
Department (p. 252), includling Greenhouses, .Washington 
Monument (p. 342), Sylvan Theatre (p. 348), Paul Jones 
Monument (p. 352) and Lincoln Memorial (p. 353). 

nth Day. Morning: Army Medical Museum (p. 248), 
Aquarium (p. 245), Botanic Gardens (p. 241), Grant Memorial 
(p. 242). Afternoon: Soldiers' Home (p. 432), Rock Creek 
Church and Cemetery (p. 436), Brightwood (p. 438) and 
Fort Stevens (p. 438). 

12th Day. Morning: Ramble through the Old Residen- 
tial Section (p. 131), C St. to Judiciary Sq., passing 
Trinity P. E. Church (p. 132), Metropolitan M. E. Church 
(p. 134), First Presbyterian Church (p. 136), City Hall 
(p. 137), District Court of Appeals (p. 138) and Pension Office 
(p. 139). Afternoon: National Zoological Park (p. 444). 

13th Day. Morning: Georgetown, second visit, Wash- 
ington Headquarters (p. 465), former residences of Jef- 
.fcrson (p. 465), Francis Scott Key (p. 465) and Mrs. E. D. E. 
N. Southworth (p. 466), Georgetown University (p. 467). 
Afternoon : Great Falls of the Potomac (p. 484) . 

14th Day. Morning. Washington Southwest (p. 240). 
Afternoon: Excursion to Glen Echo Park and Cabin John 
Bridge (p. 483). 






A FIVE DAYS' ITINERARY 49 

c. A Five Days' Itinerary 

ist Day. Capitol (p. 50), Pennsylvania Ave. (p. 96), 
White House and Vicinity (p. Ill), Corcoran Art Gallery 
(p. 171), American Red Cross (p. 154), Continental Memorial 
Hall (p. 155) and Pan-American Building (p. 162). 

2d Day. The Mall (p. 240), Grant Memorial (p. 242), 
Botanic Gardens (p. 241), Aquarium (p. 245), Army Medical 
Museum (p. 248), Old National Museum, Smithsonian 
Institution (p. 255), Nczv National Museum (p. 260), 
Agricultural Department (p. 252) and Washington Monu- 
ment (p. 342). 

3d Day. Mount Vernon (p. 487), Alexandria (p. 512), 
and Arlington (p. 5°4)- 

4th Day. Morning: Excursion from Judiciary Sq^ 
through Shopping District (p. 141 ) to Lafayette So. and 
St. John's Church (p. 195)- Afternoon: Residential Sec- 
tion, Sixteenth St. N. to Harvard St.; National Zoological 
Park (p. 444)- 

5th Day. Morning: Franciscan Monastery (p. 4 2 3)> 
Catholic University (p. 416), Soldiers' Home (p. 432), 
Rock Creek Church and Cemetery (p. 436). Afternoon: 
Georgetown (p. 462), Cathedral of St. Peter and St. Paul 
(p. 455). 






WASHINGTON NORTHWEST— 
THE CENTRAL SECTION 

(From the Capitol to the White House) 

I. The National Capitol 
a. History 

**The National Capitol (PI. Ill— F5) is situated, in 
conformity with Major L'Enf ant's original plan exactly 
in the center of Washington, on the verge of the bluff 
which rises abruptly to a height of 89 ft. above the mean 
tidal level of the Potomac River. The building is accurately 
located in accordance with the cardinal points of the compass, 
and fronts towards the east, because the Commissioners of 
the projected Federal city erroneously assumed that the city's 
chief growth would be eastward. 

The Capitol is open to visitors daily, Sundays and holi- 
days excepted, from 9 a. m. to 4.30 p. m. ; also at night 
when the Senate or House or both are in Session, and this is 
denoted by a light burning just ibelow the statue of Freedom. 
The Capitol is reached most directly by the Connecticut 
Ave. trolley line (cars marked "Mount Pleasant"). Also by 
Georgetown-Lincoln Park line; Eleventh St. line (both passing 
through E. First St.) ; and Pennsylvania Ave. line (cars 
marked either "Navy Yard" or "17th and Pennsylvania Ave. 
S. E.") to 1st and B Sts. S. E. All these lines bring the 
visitor near to the eastern or main entrance to the Capitol. 
All the Pennsylvania Ave. cars pass the western entrance to 
the Capitol grounds, behind the Peace Monument. 

History. On March 14th, 1792, the Commissioners 
appointed by Washington advertised for competitive 
plans for the Capitol and for the "President's House," 
to be submitted not later than July 15th following, offering 
in each instance $500.00 and a building lot to the successful 
competitor. The plans of James Hoban, a young Irishman 
who had settled in Charleston, S. C, were promptly accepted 
for the White House (p. 11 1). The Capitol proved to be 
a more troublesome problem. The number of rival plans 
submitted is not recorded ; but no less than 16 competitors, 
professional and amateur, are mentioned by name in docu- 



THE CAPITOL 51 

ments of the period, and nearly as many plans, some of 
them quite futile, have been preserved in the Maryland His- 
torical Society, and are reproduced in Mr. Glenn Brown's 
authoritative History of the Capitol. The only plans show- 
ing promise were by Stephen L. Hallet, said to have been 
a student under the famous architect Nash. Accordingly 
he was requested by the Commissioners to submit new 
designs. 

Meanwhile, although the time limit had expired, Dr. 
William Thornton, a native of the Island of Tortola, West 
Indies, received permission to submit plans. The simple 
dignity of these designs greatly pleased Washington; and 
on March 14th, 1793, the Commissioners notified Hallet that 
Thornton's plans had been accepted, anq\ the award of $500.00 
and a building lot granted him ; but that in consideration of 
Hallet's extra -labor, he should receive an equivalent amount. 

As Dr. Thornton was admittedly an amateur, Hallet was 
further employed to examine the plans and make estimates ; 
and he promptly reported adversely on the three important 
points of practicability, time and expense. Washington re- 
luctantly requested Thornton to revise his plans to meet 
these objections. The erection of the Capitol from Thorn- 
ton's modified plans began in August, 1793, with Hoban as 
supervising architect; but since his time was fully occupied 
with the White House, the Commissioners made the mistake 
of appointing Hallet as his assistant. The latter had not yet 
relinquished his ambition to share in designing the Capitol, 
and not only continued to offer substitute plans and sugges- 
tions, but, in spite of frequent rebukes, deliberately disre- 
garded Thornton's plans in several essential points, in con- 
sequence of which he was dismissed in 1794. It was then 
found necessary to tear down part of the work, namely: 
the foundations of the Rotunda, which Hallet had chosen to 
make square instead of circular. These facts need to be 
emphasized, since Hallet* has popularly received a large share 
of the credit, where he deserved little or none. 

*See, however, monograph Stephen Hallet and his designs for the 
National Capitol 1791-1794 in Journal of the American Institute of 
Architects for July, Aug., Sept. and October, 19 16, by Wells Bennett — 
University of Michigan. 

After Hallet's dismissal he was succeeded by George 
Hadfield, an Englishman recommended by Benjamin West. 
When Hadfield, in his turn, quarreled with the Commission- 
ers and resigned, the work was pushed rapidly under the per- 
sonal direction of Thornton as one of the Commissioners 



52 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

of Federal Buildings, assisted by Hoban as superintendent. 
But before the walls of either Capitol or White House had 
reached the roof -line, the Commissioners, in 1796, found 
themselves obliged to ask Congress for an apprecia- 
tion of money. It was finally through, the aid of the 
state of Maryland that sufficient funds were available for 
pushing the work; and in the summer of 1800 the W. wing 
of the Capitol was ready for occupancy by the Senate. The 
walls of the South Wing had been carried to a height of 
20 ft., and roofed over temporarily for the House. It was 
popularly known as "The Oven," and here the House met 
until 1804, when the roof was removed and the building 
completed by Benjamin H. Latrobe, who had succeeded 
Hoban in 1803. Meanwhile the House sat in the room then 
used for the Library of Congress, on the W. side of the N. 
wing. 

The House Wing was finished in 181 1, and the Hall was 
regarded as a very beautiful structure. The central build- 
ing had not yet been begun, and the two Halls were con- 
nected by a covered wooden passageway. 

On the 24th of August, 1814, the British burned the 
interior of both Wings. Fortunately the outer walls remained 
uninjured. Latrobe was appointed by Congress to super- 
intend the work of reconstruction. This architect has left 
a highly interesting account of the condition in which he 
found the building: "The appearance of the ruins," he says, 
"was perfectly terrifying." He describes the stone columns, 
supporting the halls, as having been so badly eaten away by 
fire that in many of them only a few inches of contact re- 
mained. Many important parts, however, were quite unin- 
jured; among them the entrance to the hall of the House, 
the corn capitals of the Senate vestibule and the vaults of 
the Senate Chamber. Some of the Committee rooms of the 
old House wing were not even soiled. 

Owing to friction with his superiors Latrobe resigned 
in November, 1817. He may be accredited with having made 
the original design for the reconstruction of the South 
Wing or old hall of Representatives, and the old Senate 
Chamber; he also modified the west front of the central 
building and the eastern portico. 

Latrobe was succeeded by Charles Bulfinch in January, 
1818. The latter's only original contributions were the de- 
signs for the western central portico, the earth terraces and 
landscape work. His modifications were designed to correct 
the original mistake made in placing the building too far 



THE CAPITOL 53 

west, so as to overhang the brow of Capitol Hill, exposing 
an unsightly sub-basement story. This he concealed with a 
semi-circular glacis and sloping terraces. On March 24th, the 
foundation of the central building was laid ; and the whole 
edifice completed in 1825, essentially in accordance with 
Thornton's original plans. 

For a quarter-century the Capitol remained unchanged. 
In 1850, however, urgent need of additional space was 
recognized ; and on September 30th an Act was passed author- 
izing extensions to be built, subject to the approval of the 
President. From the designs submitted, Mr. Fillmore se- 
lected those of Thomas U. Walter, who was accordingly 
placed in charge the following June, 1851. The cornerstone 
of the proposed additions, consisting of the present Senate 
and House Wings, was laid by the President on July 4th, 
of that year. An eloquent oration was delivered by Daniel 
Webster. 

By the following January, the foundations of both wings 
were laid and the basement story finished. That same month, 
the western front of the central building was injured by 
fire, and the following summer was rebuilt by Walter from 
new designs. In 1855 the old wooden dome was removed, and 
contracts placed for the casting of the iron-work required 
for the new one. The new Senate Chamber was first occu- 
pied in 1859, and that of the House in 1857. 

The outbreak of the war in 1861 failed to interrupt the 
work upon the dome, the exterior of which was completed 
in 1863, Crawford's bronze statue of Freedom, which sur- 
mounts it, being placed in position on December 2d. 

In 1874 the veteran landscape architect Frederick Law 
Olmsted (1822-1903) was appointed to superintend the im- 
provements of the Capitol grounds. To him are due mainly 
the present grading of the grounds ; the ornamental grotto 
near the N. W. corner ; the balustrades and bronze lanterns ; 
the spacious plaza opposite the east facade, with its two large 
rectangular fountain basins of pink Tennessee granite; and 
lastly the profusion of ornamental trees and shrubs (229 
varieties) gathered from all parts of the world, including, 
in addition to a majority of the separate states, China, Japan, 
Syria, the Himalayas and Siberia. The marble terraces along 
the north, west and south fronts were added during 1882-91. 
They were designed and supervised by Edward Clark. 

b. The Building and Its Approaches 
It is hard to decide which of the two approaches has 
the advantage in regard to one's first impression of the 



» T TW. 



*-»-»-■-' ■ 




THE CAPITOL 55 

Capitol. But since the west approach necessitates the ascent 
of nearly one hundred steps, while the east involves less 
walking and no climbing, the great majority choose the latter. 

Eastern Approach. The East Fagade fronts upon a 
spacious plaza, where once in four years, on the 4th of 
March, many thousands gather to witness the Inaugural 
ceremony, which takes place upon a special temporary plat- 
form erected before the central portico. Opposite, on E. 
side of plaza three driveways run eastward, the outer ones 
curving to N. and S. respectively, while the central one is 
prolonged beyond the Capitol Grounds by East Capitol St. 
To the R., on S. E. cor. of First St. are the granite walls 
and gilded dome of the Library of Congress (p. 369), and 
further to the S. is the glistening white marble House Office 
Building (p. 403). Occupying the same relative position 
on the N. is the Senate Office Building, while beyond and 
still further to the L. are seen in the distance the Columbus 
Monument, the Union Station (p. 358) and the new 
City Post Offi-ce\ (p. 357)- 

Opposite the Capitol and flanking the three driveways are six 
lamp piers, 13 ft. high, consisting of blue-stone base and red sand- 
stone band, surmounted by blue-stone and Passamaquaddy red granite, 
inalternate coures, supporting bronze lamps 12 ft. high (designed by 
Thomas IVisedell, of New York). Behind the lamps, to R and L. of 
central driveway, are two low rectangular fountain basins, also of 
Passamaquaddy granite and containing lofty inner basins of bronze, 
from whose margins the water drips in a thin veil. 

Following the outer curves of the side driveways, and extending 
to N. and S. respectively, are two* continuous stone -eats, consisting of 
a blue-stone plinth and base, Seneca stone back and blue-stone coping. 
Each of these quadrants is divided into eight spaces by stone piers 
surmounted by bronze lamp posts 12 ft. high. 

Western Approach. Facing the western boundary of the 
Capitol grounds are seen the Botanical Gardens (p. 162) » 
bounded on N. and S. respectively by the converging lines of 
Pennsylvania and Maryland Aves. The lines of these Ave- 
nues are continued within the grounds by broad promenades 
overarched with double rows of Oriental Plane trees 
(Platanus orientalis), and leading steadily upward (with 
occasional short flights of steps) to the marble terraces of 
the western entrance (erected 1882-91). 

The visitor approaching from this side will note on L., near N. W. 
cor. of grounds, a picturesque, ivy-covered rest-house of red brick, 
whose walls form a truncated equiangular triangle. The interior con- 
tains seats and a circular stone basin with fountain. Above the seats 
are latticed openings, the one on E. giving a view of an ornamental 
grotto, in which a small stream trickles among the rocks. 

In the grounds W. of the Capitol Building are two circular stone 
towers with openings under ground for the air ducts forming part of 
the ventilating system by which the Senate Chamber and Hall of 
Representatives are supplied with fresh air. 



56 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

From the lower terrace, which extends approximately 
280 ft. N. and S., ascend, on R. and L., two imposing stair- 
ways of 74 steps, broken by landings into the following divi- 
sions : i6-|-i6-j-2i-f-2i. Between these stairways the sustain- 
ing wall of the upper terrace forms a semi-circle, contain- 
ing nine arched niches. In the centre of this semi-circle is a 
fountain, the lower basin of which measures forty feet. The 
octagonal upper basin is monolithic, of white marble, borne 
on eight short columns of red granite and surmounted by a 
tassa of pink marble. Directly in front, in the centre of the 
terrace, stands the impressive seated statue, in bronze, of 
Chief Justice John Marshall (1755-1833), heroic size, by 
IV. W. Story (1819-95). This statue, the gift of members 
of the United States Bar, was erected in 1884 at a cost of 
$40,000. 

On the lofty marble pedestal are two interesting bas- 
reliefs: 1. on South side, "Victory leads young America to 
swear Fidelity at the Altar of the Union" (the closely planted 
shrubbery makes it difficult to read the above inscription). 
The central figures are all female. Note, on L., a submissive 
Indian; and on R. a bas-relief reproduction of the seated 
statue of Justice Marshall. 

2. on North side : "Minerva dictating the Constitution to 
young America." On L., behind America, are the mothers 
and daughters of the country; on R. are the American law- 
makers (among whom again occur the features of Justice 
Marshall). 

Ascending the stairway we reach the second terrace 
forming a broad esplanade separated from the basement of 
the building by a sort of trench or moat, affording light and 
air to the sub-basement. Underneath this terrace are a 
series of apartments now utilized as offices, but which, during 
the early days of the Civil War, were converted into bakeries, 
which turned out daily 16,000 loaves for the use of the 
army. 

From this terrace the visitor may enter directly, through 
central door, the basement floor of the Capitol, from which 
stairs lead to the western door of the Rotunda. It is, 
however, more advisable to follow the terrace, making a 
half circuit of the building, around to the main eastern por- 
tico, thus having an opportunity to study the architectural 
features of the Capitol's exterior. 

The Bronze Doors for Western Central entrance, designed 
by Louis Amateis, are now on exhibition at the New National 
Museum (p. 263). 







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THE CAPITOL 57 

The Capitol building as it stands to-day, including the 
old central portion as originally conceived by Thornton, with 
the modern Dome and Northern and Southern extensions 
designed by Walter, is in the main an adaptation of the 
Corinthian order of architecture, and covers an area of 
153,112 sq. ft., or 652 sq. ft. over y/ 2 acres. The entire length 
is 751 ft. 4 in. The greatest dimension from E. to W. is 
350 ft. The wings, including porticoes and steps, have a 
breadth (E. to W.) of 239 ft., or including porticoes and 
steps 324 ft. Between the original building and each extension 
is a connecting corridor 44 ft. long and 56 ft. deep. 

Materials : The old central building is of Aquia Creek, 
Va. sandstone, painted white ; the twenty-four monolithic 
columns of the eastern Central Portico are of Maryland 
sandstone ; the N. and S. extensions and connecting corridors 
are of Dolomite marble, almost white, from Lee, Mass. 
(1851-65) ; the columns of the extension porticoes are mon- 
oliths of Dolomite marble from Cockeysville, Md. 

The visitor, especially if approaching from the W., should 
I note the fidelity with which the original details of construc- 
tion have been duplicated, course by course, in the N. and 
S. extensions. Both the old central portions and the wings 
consist of a rustic basement, supporting an ordinance of 
Corinthian pilasters, which rise throughout the height of two 
■ stories. Upon these pilasters rest an entablature and frieze, 
j surmounted by a balustrade. From the central portion rises 
j with deceptive lightness and grace the ponderous mass of 
Walter's iron Dome, probably the most universally familiar 
object in all American architecture. It springs from a peri- 
style of 36 fluted Corinthian columns, and rises to a height 
of 287 ft. 5 in. above the base line of the E. front. Its 
height from the roof balustrade is 217 ft. 11 in., and diameter 
at the base is 135 ft. 5 in. It is surmounted by a lantern 50 
ft. in height which sustains the bronze statue of Freedom, 
modeled by Crawford, which measures 19 ft. 6 in. in height, 
I and weighs 12,985 pounds. 

The old wooden dome with its copper sheathing was taken down 
in 1856, and the present structure of cast-iron was completed in 1865. 
The total weight of! iron used in the dome is 8,909,200 pounds. The 
I total weight about the cellar floor including the sustaining walls, is 
computed at 57,292,253 lbs., giving a pressure of only 13,071 lbs. per 
sq. ft. That of St. Peter's, Rome, is 33,330 lbs. per sq. ft.; St. Paul's, 
London, 39,450 lbs.; and St. Genevieve, Paris, 60,000 lbs. 

The Eastern, or M'ain Facade has three stately porticoes, 
supported on Corinthian columns, and surmounted by pedi- 
ments containing allegorical groups. The Mcin Central, or 



58 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

Rotunda Portico, is 160 ft. wide, with 24 columns sustaining 
an 80-ft. pediment, with sculptures representing the Genius of 
America, executed by Luigi Persico, after a design by John 
Quincy Adams (then Secretary of State). 

The central figure, Armed America, rests her shield, bearing the 
letters U. S. A. upon an altar inscribed with the date, July 4, 1776. 
She is listening to Hope, at the same time pointing to Justice who holds 
the Constitution, inscribed with the date of its adoption, Sept. 17, 1787. 

The porticoes of the Wing's have 22 columns each. The 
Pediment of the Senate Portico, executed by Thomas 
Crawford, depicts American Development and the Decadence 
of the Indian Race. Here also America is the central figure, 
bestowing honor upon General Washington. On R. are the 
Elements of Strength on which this country relies : Soldier. 
Merchant, Schoolmaster, Youth and Mechanic, ending with 
Wheat Sheaf and Anchor, symbols of property and stability. 
On L. are the Forerunners of Civilization: Pioneer, Hunter, 
Indian Warrior and Indian Mother and Child mourning be- 
side a grave. Crawford received $17,000 for his models. The 
figures were all chiseled on the Capitol Grounds by skilled 
Italian w ? orkmen, from Lee, Mass., marble, at a cost of 
$26,000. 

The Bronze Doors of the Senate Portico are described 
on p. 75- 

VThe House Wing Pediment. After remaining vacant 
for more than four score years, this pediment was at last 
rilled in 1916 by a group executed by Paul W. Bartlett. In 
the centre is an allegorical presentment of "Peace Protecting 
Genius." Peace, a commanding female figure with 'breast- 
plate and coat of mail almost hidden 'by her mantle, stands 
with left arm resting on buckler which is supported by the 
altar at her side. Her right arm is protectively extended 
over the winged figure of youthful Genius who holds the torch 
of Immortality. The composition is completed by two other 
groups respectively symbolizing the two fundamental powers 
of lalbor and sources of wealth : On E., Agriculture ; on 
W., Industry. 

"The most modest of our farmers and laborers can find in these 
groups the symbol of his own self and of his endeavors. . . . He 
will see that his helpmate, his children, his cattle, and the harvest 
from his fields have been exalted and carved in marble forms. The 
printer, the ironworker, the founder can do the same. . ... The 
toiling factory girl will observe that she has not been forgotten, and 
those who are devoted to the sea can discover a group which will remind 
them of the joys of their vocation. 

"A wave terminates the sculpture at either end of the pediment, 
and is meant to indicate that all this humanity, all its power and 



THE CAPITOL 59 

energy, are comprised between the shores of the two oceans — the 
Atlantic and Pacific,." From Speech by Paul W . Bartlett at Unveiling 
Exercises, Aug. 2, 1916. 

The Bronze Doors of the House Portico are described 
on p. 88. 

Since the Tour of the Capitol here given is planned to 
start from the Rotunda, the visitor should enter through the 
Main Central Portico. On R. and L. of Grand Central 
Stairway are two colossal marble groups. That on S. side 
represents The Discovery of America, by Lmigi Persico, and 
consists of two figures, Columbus and an Indian girl, the 
former clad in armor modeled from a suit preserved in Genoa, 
and believed to have been worn 'by Columbus. The group on N. 
side is The Rescue, by Horatio Gre enough, and depicts a 
deadly conflict between an Indian and a Pioneer. The Gov- 
ernment paid $24,000 apiece for these groups. 

In the center of the Portico are — 

*The Rogers Bronze Doors. These doors, completed in 
1861, were modeled in Rome by Randolph Rogers, in 1858, 
the sculptor receiving $8000; and cast in Munich by F. von 
Muller, at a cost of $17,000. After some controversy regard- 
ing their location, they were first erected in the passageway 
connecting the Old Hall of Representatives (Statuary Hall) 
with the House Wing. They proved, however, a serious ob- 
struction in a corridor which at best was none too wide ; 
and in 1870 the House) voted to have them transferred to their 
present position. The two leaves are each 17 ft. high and 4^ 
ft. wide, and are surmounted by a semi-circular transom 
panel. The whole is enclosed by a richly ornamented casing, 
semi-circular at the top, and projecting about a foot in front 
of the leaves. The key of the casing arch bears a bust of 
Columbus. 

At top and bottom of the two sides of casing are four statuettes 
representing: (S. upper cor.) Asia, with oriental head-gear; (N. upper 
cor.) Africa, with necklace of claws and teeth; (S. lower cor.) Europe, 
with diadem; (N. lower cor.) America, with liberty cap and shield. 

There are nine panels, four on each leaf of the door, and one 
in the transom. Between these panels are ten heads, five on each 
leaf, "representing historians who have written on his (Columbus') 
voyages, from his own time down to the present day, ending with 
Irving and Prescott." The correspondence between Rogers and 
Thomas U. Walter, then architect of the Capitol, sheds no further 
light regarding these heads; but two are evidently women, and two 
others are Indians. 

On R. and L. of the eight door-panels are 16 statuettes in niches, 
repiesenting contemporaries of Columbus, who figured prominently in 
his life. The names are inscribed beneath them: 

A. (L. Margin of S. Door, from bottom upward) : 1. (facing 
1 st Historic Panel) Juan Perez, Prior of the Convent of La Rabida. 



60 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

through whose influence Columbus obtained an audience with Queen 
Isabella; 2. Cortez, Conqueror of Mexico; 3. Don Alonzo de Ojeda, an 
unloyal follower of Columbus; 4. Amerigo Vespucci; B. (R. Margin of 
S. Door, from top downward); 5. Pedro Gonzales de Mendoza, Arch- 
bishop of Toledo; 6. Queen Isabella; 7. Dona Beatriz de Bobadilla 
(there being no extant likeness of the lady, the sculptor modeled her 
features after his wife); 8. Henry VII. of England; C. (L. Margin 
of N. Door, from bottom upward); 9. John II. of Portugal; 10. Charles 
VIII. of France; 11. Ferdinand, King of Spain (it should be noted 
that the doors, when closed, bring the king and queen side by side) ; 
12. Pope Alexander VI.; D. (R. Margin of N. Door): 13. Francisco 
Pizarro, Conqueror of Peru; 14. Balboa, Discoverer of the Pacific; 
15. Bartholomew Columbus, brother of the Discoverer (there being no 
extant portrait, the sculptor reproduced his own features); 16. Martin 
Alonzo Pinzon, Captain of the Pinta, and first to sight the land of 
the New World. 

Panels: a. L. door (from bottom up): 1. Columbus expounding 
his project to the Council of Salamanca; 2. Columbus leaving the 
friendly Convent of La Rabida> to seek an audience with Queen Isa- 
bella; 3. Columbus laying his plan before the King and Queen of 
Spain; 4. Columbus about to sail, bidding farewell to his son; 5. Tran- 
som panel: The landing at the Island of San Salvador. 

b. R. door (from top downward) ; 6. First intercourse between the 
Indians and the Spaniards; 7. The triumphal entry into Barcelona; 
8. Columbus arrested on false charges, and sent back to Spain in 
chains; 9. The death of Columbus at Valladolid. 

Above the bronze dioor is a bas-relief by Antonio 
Capellano consisting of a portrait bust of Washington, with 
two winged female figures, each extending a laurel leaf, and 
symbolizing: 1. (N. side) Fame, with trumpet; 2. (S. side) 
Peace, with palm of Victory; signed A. Capellano fecit 1827. 
To R. and L. of entrance are Persico's two marble statues, 
heroic size, symbolizing War and Peace: (on N.) Mars in 
Roman armor, with shield and spear; (on S.) Ceres, with 
olive branch and fruits. 

c. The Rotunda and Dome 

Passing through the Rogers doorway, we enter at once 
the **Rotunda, an immense circular chamber situated im- 
mediately beneath the Dome, and occupying the exact center 
of the Capitol. It measures aproximately 96 ft. in diameter, 
while the height from the floor to the frescoed canopy is 
180 ft. 3 in. The wall is broken by four doorways, situated 
at the four cardinal points, and divided into a series of eight 
spacious panels by an ordinance of 12 fluted pilasters, 30 ft. 
in height, supporting an entablature and cornice of 14 ft. 
It was the intention of the architect, Mr. Walter (p. 53), 
that the 9 ft. panel encircling the Dome, immediately above 
the cornice, should be occupied by a sculptured frieze in high 
relief, the subject to be the History of America. This plan 
was subsequently discarded in favor of a chiaroscuro fresco 
by Constantino Brnmidi, in imitation of alto-relievo. 



THE CAPITOL 61 

No account of the National Capitol would be complete without 
a brief biographical note on Constantino Brumidi (1805-80), who, for 
a quarter of a century was in charge of the Capitol's mural decora- 
tions. He was born in Rome of a Creek father and Italian mother; 
was for a time Captain of the National Cuards; and during the 
Pontificate of Pius IX was commissioned to restore some of Raphael's 
Logge in the Vatican. As Captain of the Cuard he once refused to 
order his Command to fire upon the people, in consequence of which he 
was arrested and imprisoned without trial for 14 months. There- 
after the Pope counseled Brumidi to leave Italy, doubting his own 
power to protect him from Cardinal Antonelli. In a written statement, 
still extant, Brumidi explains that it was "the French occupation of 
Rome in 1849, for the suppression of Republican Institutions, that de- 
termined him to emmigrate to America where a great Republic was al- 
ready established." Here he became a naturalized citizen, and in 1855 
executed the first of his mural decorations in what was then the Com- 
mittee Room on Agriculture (p. ). Henceforward, for the rest 
of his life, he carried out his idea that, "the solid construction of 
this National building required a superior style of decoration in real 
fresco, like the Palaces of Augustus and Nero, the Baths of Titus 
and Livia." Early in 1880, while engaged on his final work, the His- 
toric Frieze, Brumidi narrowly escaped a tragic accident. He was 
alone on his platform when the bench, on which he sat, was pushed 
too far backward and fell. Brumidi was left clinging to the rungs 
of a ladder until an attendant, who happened to» see the accident from 
an upper balcony, hurried to his rescue. His death shortly afterwards 
is attributed to this shock at his advanced age. 

The *Frieze, as originally planned by Brumidi, was to 
consist of 16 historic panels, of which he lived to finish the 
first seven, leaving at his death the designs for eight others, 
drawn on a reduced scale. Filippo Costaggini (1837-1907), 
who continued the frieze from Brumidi's designs, purposely 
crowded them in order to leave room, not for one panel, but 
two of his own design. The 15 completed panels are as 
follows : 

a. Executed by Brumidi: 1. The Landing of Columbus, 
1492; 2. Cortez entering the Hall of the Montezumas, 1521; 
3. Pizarro's Conquest of Peru, 1533; 4. The Burial of de 
Soto, 1541 ; 5. Pocahontas saving the Life of Captain John 
Smith, 1606; 6. The Landing of the Pilgrims, 1620; 7. Penn's 
Peace Treaty with the Indians, 1682. It was while painting 
this panel that Brumidi met with the accident which hastened 
his death. The exact point where he stopped, — namely : the 
group of three Indians, — may readily be distinguished by the 
spectator, through the pronounced change in the tone of the 
background. 

b. Executed by Costaggini: 8. Scene in Plymouth Col- 
ony, 1620; 9. Oglethorpe and the Indians, 1732; 10. The 
Battle of Lexington, 1775; 11. The Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, 1776; 12. The Surrender of Cornwallis, 1781 ; 13. 
The Death of Tecumseh, 1813 ; 14. General Scott's Entry into 



62 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

the City of Mexico, 1847; 15. The Discovery of Gold in 
California, 1848. 

For his share in the frieze, which occupied him during the years 
1869-80, Brumidi received approximately $25,000. Costaggini's work 
(1880-89), including the enlarged cartoons from Brumidi's designs, 
cost the government $10,084. It is not known what subject, if any, 
Brumidi had in mind for his final panel. The two designs offered by 
Costaggini were: 1. The Junction, May, 1869, of the Union and 
Central Pacific Railroads at Promontory Point, Utah, with Leland 
Stanford driving in the Golden Spikes which completed the iron bond 
between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans; 2. The Opening of the 
World's Fair at Chicago, 1893, with President Cleveland pressing the 
electric button, which set the wheels in motion. These designs were 
the subject of a vigorous debate in the Senate, in the course of which 
strong objection was made to an historical frieze "which omits George 
Washington and Abraham Lincoln and presents Mr. Cleveland, when 
we consider the respective positions of Mr. Lincoln and Mr. Cleveland 
during the Great War of the Rebellion." The work has remained 
at a standstill, and Brumidi's disfiguring platform and ladders have 
been removed. 

Above the Frieze rises a loftly colonnade containing the 
lowest of the inner galleries. Between the columns, and 
completely encircling the gallery, are a series of spacious 
windows, the only means of lighting the 'Rotunda from with- 
out. From this colonnade springs the Dome, which contracts 
to a space of 50 ft., revealing another and lighter colonnade 
supporting the second gallery, just beneath the 65 ft. canopy 
which closes in the Dome at the base of the lantern. This 
canopy is occupied by Brumidi's great fresco : The Apotheosis 
of Washington, which will be described later in connection 
with the Ascent of the Dome (p. 64). 

Aside from Brumidi's frescoes, the only art works in the 
Rotunda are a few statues, some sculptures in high-relief 
and eight ^Historic Paintings (18x12 ft.), four belonging to 
the Early Historical and four to the Revolutionary Period. 

The latter four, the work of Col. John Trumbull (1756-1843) are 
of special interest, because of the number of authentic portraits which 
they contain. The artist, son of Gov. Jonathan Trumbull, of Conn., 
was for a time aide and military secretary to Washington. After the 
war, the young officer conceived the ambition to develop his natural 
artistic gift, "with the hope of thus binding his name to the great 
events of the Revolution, by becoming the graphic historiographer of 
them and of his comrades." He studied art in Europe; and while 
in London, painted John Adams, then Minister to England; and in 
Paris Thomas Jefferson, Minister to France; also, at Jefferson's house, 
the French officers whose portraits he would need for the Yorktown 
picture. Trumbull spent in all thirty years of preparation for these 
four pictures, which, in 1816, he was commissioned by Congress to 
paint. He received $8,000 each for them. The other four artists 
received respectively: Vanderlyn, Chapman and Weir, $t 0,000 each; 
Powell, $12,000. A complete key to the historical characters hanga 
below each picture. 



THE CAPITOL 63 

These paintings and sculptures may be seen in the follow- 
ing order, from R. to L., beginning at the W. of the north 
door: 

1. (Over N. doorway) William Penn making a Treaty 
with Delaware Indians, sandstone panel in high-relief, by N. 
Gevclot; 2. Washington, bronze bust, by David d' Angers; 
3. Washington Resigning his Commission (Annapolis, Dec. 
23d, 1783), painting by Trumbull; 4. Abraham Lincoln, mar- 
ble head, by Gutson Borglum; 5. Surrender of Cornwallis at 
Yorktown, painting, by Trumbull; 6. (above, in panel) Head 
of Sir Walter Raleigh: this and the other three heads to 
R. and L. of side doors, were the work of Causici and 
Capellano, executed in 1827; cost, $9,500; 7. Lincoln, marble 
statue, by Vinnie Ream Hoxie (1847-1914) ; bought by Con- 
gress for $15,000; 8. (over W. doorway) Pocahontas saving 
the Life of Captain John Smith, sandstone panel in high-relief, 
by Antonio Capellano; 9. Ulysses S. Grant, marble statue, by 
Franklin Simmons; 10. Surrender of General Burgoyne at 
Saratoga, Oct. 17, 1777, painting by Trumbull; II. (above) 
Head of Columbus; 12. Alexander Hamilton, marble statue, 
by Horatio Stone; 13. Signing the Declaration of Independ- 
ence, Philadelphia, 1776, painting by Trumbull; 14. (above S. 
door) Conflict between Daniel Boone and the Indians, sandstone 
panel in high-relief, by Enrico Causici; 15. Baptism of 
Pocahontas, painting by John G. Chapman; 16. Col. Edward 
D. Baker, of Oregon (b. 181 1; mortally wounded at Ball's 
Bluff, Oct. 21, 1861), marble statue by Horatio Stone; 17. 
Discovery of the Mississippi, painting by William H. Powell 
(1824-79); 18. (above) Head of La Salle; 19. Washington, 
plaster cast (after marble by Houdon), by William J. 
Hubard; 20. (above E. door) The Landing of the Pilgrims, 
sandstone panel in high-relief, by Enrico Causici; 21. Thomas 
Jefferson, bronze statue, by David d 'Angers; 22. Landing of 
Columbus, painting, by John Vanderlyn (1776-1852) ; 23. 
(above) Head of Cabot; 24. Lafayette, marble bust by David 
d' Angers; 25. The Embarkation of the Pilgrims, painting by 
Robert W. Weir (1803-89). 

Some little publicity has been given to so-called "amusing blunders'" 
in the Rotunda paintings, regarding which the visitor may decide for 
himself, i. In "Washington Resigning his Commission," the two young 
girls with intertwined arms apparently have between them five hands, 
(reminiscent of the man with three hands in the famous frescoes in the 
Spanish Chapel, Florence). It is explained, however, that the fifth hand 
is that of the girls' father, Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 2. In "The 
Baptism of Pocahontas," the/ seated Indian has on one foot six distinct 
toes. Chapman's defenders claim that since he was "a draftsman of 
distinction," this particular Indian must have borne the degenerate- 
stigma of a sixth toe. 3. In "The Landing of Columbus," the latter's vaL 



64 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

iant company bear aloft three flags, each of which is blown in a different 
direction. Champions of the artist remind us that freakish winds some- 
times produce queer results. 

History. The chief historic associations of the Rotunda are in 
connection with the last honors paid to some of the country's greatest 
men. Here Lincoln lay in state April 19-21, 1865. Here Thaddeus 
Stevens lay in state Aug. 13-14, 1868, and was carried hence to 
be buried, at his request, ''in a cemetery where black as well as 
white were admitted." Here Garfield lay in state Sept. 21-23, 1881, 
the funeral sermon being delivered by the Rev. F. D. Poweres of the 
Verm emit Ave. Christian Church (p. 221). Vice-President Logan here 
lay in state Dec. 30th, 1886. The coffin rested upon the same bier 
that had held' Lincoln, Garfield, Chase, Sumner and Stevens. Others 
whose remains have more recently rested on the historic Lincoln Bier 
are: William McKinley, Sept. 17, 1901; Pierre C. L'Enfant, April 28, 
1909; Admiral George Dewey, Jan. 20, 1917; the Unknown Soldier, 
Nov. 9-1 1, 1921. 

The N. door of the Rotunda opens into a small circular 
colonnade, constituting the second story or balcony of a 
small basement rotunda open to the roof, and surmounted 
by a low dome and central skylight. This balcony floor is 
borne upon a series of massive buttresses and in turn upholds 
sixteen Corinthian columns upon which rests the dome. 
Note the capitals of these columns, representing tobacco 
leaves and blossoms (Francisco Iardella, sculptor). In this 
colonnade, the S. E. door leads to public elevator and stair- 
way. At the foot of these stairs, just outside the basement 
entrance, in the arcade, is a *Bronze Tablet, erected in 1895, 
marking the location of the Corner-stone of the original 
Capitol, laid Sept. 18th, 1793, and commemorating the Cen- 
tenary Celebration in 1893. 

The opposite, or S. W., door opens upon a winding stair- 
way by which the *Ascent of the Dome may be made. Open 
free, week-days from 9 a. m. to 3 :45 p. m. ; closed on Sun- 
days. These stairs presently open on a short passage and 
second door, plainly marked "To the Dome." Continuing 
the ascent the visitor reaches, at the 7/th step, a third door 
opening outside upon a narrow platform, following the curve 
of the Rotunda wall. Zig-zag steps rising between the 
Rotunda and the Senate Wing lead to a fourth door, opening 
upon the lowest inner gallery encircling the base of the 
Dome (128 steps from ground floor). This is the best point 
from which to study the Frieze (p. 61). 

The Dome rises from the level of this gallery, and con- 
sists of an inner and outer shell of iron, held together by 
a multitude of bars and bolts. Here the stairs curve steeply 
between the two shells, the steps partly overhanging like 
saw-teeth. At the 184th step, midway up the Dome, the first 
exterior balcony is reached; at the 240th, the upper inner 






THE CAPITOL 65 

balcony, directly beneath the great *Canopy Fresco, Brumidi's 
masterpiece. 

This fresco, covering an area of 4664 ft. and costing the 
government $40,000, consists of a central group, The Apothe- 
osis of Washington, and six, surroundirig symbolic groups. 
It is best studied in detail from this upper gallery. 

In the center is Washington, enthroned upon a rainbow 
and surrounded by brilliant clouds. On his right is the God- 
dess of Liberty; on his left are winged Fame and Victory. 
Half surrounding them are a semi-circle of female figures 
with joined hands, representing the original thirteen" states. 
They are arranged geographically beginning on Washington's 
left: New Hampshire; Massachusetts; Rhode Island; Con- 
necticut; New York; New Jersey; Pennsylvania; Delaware; 
Maryland; Virginia; North Carolina; South Carolina and 
Georgia. The leaves, blossoms and other ornaments worn 
by the maidens represent the staple products of the several 
states. 

The six surrounding groups, from L. to R., beginning 
with the lower group on Washington's left, are as follows : 

1st Group. War: Freedom with drawn sword aided by 
ian eagle, has vanquished Tyranny and Oppression, who are 
fleeing, accompanied by Anger, Revenge and Discord. 

2d Group. Agriculture : Ceres, Goddess of the Harvest, 
jsits in the center holding the Horn of Plenty. America, 
(wearing Liberty Cap, grasps the reins of a pair of fiery 
jhorses hitched to an American reaper. Beside Ceres stands 
Pomona with a basket 'of fruit, while near the reaper kneels 
jFlora gathering flowers. 

3d Group. Mechanics : In the center stands Vulcan sur- 
rounded by cannon-balls, mortars and other mechanical prod- 
ucts ; he leans upon an anvil with his right foot resting on 
ja cannon. 

4th Group. Commerce: Mercury the patron of mer- 
chants seated on a pile of bales and boxes, holds up a bag 
lof gold to the gaze of Robert Morris, the Financier of the 
jRevolution. 

There is a touch of irony in this picture, when one remembers 
that after Morris guided his country safely through its financial diffi- 
culties, he himself died a bankrupt in a debtor's prison. 

5th Group. The Marine : Neptune in Royal state emerges 
from the deep seeking to discover what mighty event is tak- 
ing place. Below him Aphrodite is engaged in laying the 
(Atlantic cable which she has just received from a winged 
cherub. 






66 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

6th Group. The Arts and Sciences : Minerva armed with 
helmet and spear, stands in the center near an electrical ma- 
chine, the principles of which she is explaining to a group 
composed of Benjamin Franklin, Robert Fulton and Prof. 
Morse. 

In his later yeajs Brumidi was charged, chiefly by the Southern 
press, with having caricatured in his frescoi the leaders of the Confed- 
eracy. This he always denied; and probably the likenesses are acci- 
dental. But in the ist group, representing War, the figures to the R. 
of Freedom, with her drawn sword, resemble Jefferson Davis, and 
Alexander H. Stephens, the President and Vice-President of the Con- 
federate States; while the two figures on the L. equally suggest Gen. 
Robert E. Lee and John B. Floyd, Sec. of War under Buchanan. 
The scene might well have been meant to symbolize the stamping out of 
the Rebellion. 

d. The Supreme Court Rooms 

Descending again to the starting point we may continue 
northward to the Supreme Court Lobby. It should be re- 
membered that we are now in the old Senate Wing, the first 
part of the Capitol to be completed (p. 52). The first door 
on the R. opens into the Supreme Court Room (the old 
Senate Chamber). An attendant at the door will admit visitors 
on all proper occasions. 

Supreme Court. This Hall, occupied since i860 by the 
Supreme Court of the United States, was originally the Senate 
Chamber. After its partial destruction by the British in 
1814, it was rebuilt by Latrobe from designs taken from 
ancient Greek theaters, and is admittedly one of the hand- 
somest rooms in the Capitol. It is semi-circular in form 
and its general resemblance, on a smaller scale, to the old 
Hall of Representatives cannot fail to be noticed. Its dimen- 
sions are : 75 ft. long, 45 ft. high and 45 ft. wide in the cen- 
ter. Along the rear of E. wall is a screen of columns and 
pillars of gray-green Potomac marble, supporting an en- 
tablature, above which is the historic Eastern Gallery. 
Pilasters of the same marble break the curve of the western 
wall. The ceiling, rising in a half dome, is ornamented with 
square caissons of stucco. The Hall is lighted by a large 
central sky-light. 

Between the central columns on the E. side, surmounted 
by a hovering eagle, formerly stood the chair of the President 
of the Senate; on the dais below him were the desks of the 
clerks, now replaced by the long "Bench" of the Supreme 
Court. The enclosed semi-circle, formerly occupied by the 
desks of the Senators, now constitutes the -'Bar," reserved 
for the tables of the Attorney General, official reporters, 



THE CAPITOL 67 

stenographers and Council legally admitted to practice in 
United States courts. In the rear are seats for spectators. 
The additional iron galleries formerly above these seats 
have been removed ; and nothing now obstructs the view of 
the series of marble busts here placed, of former Chief 
Justices. These busts from N. to S. are as follows: 

1. Morrison R. Waite, 7th C. J., 1874-1888, by Augustus 
Saint-Gaudcns ; 2. Roger B. Taney, 5th C. J., 1835-64; by 
Saint-Gaudcns ; 3. Oliver Ellsworth, 3d C. J., 1796-99 ; by 
Hezekiah Augur (1791-1858); 4. John Jay, 1st C. J., 1789-95, 
by John F razee; 5. John Rutledge, 26. C. J., 1795, by 
Alexander Gait (1827-63) ; 6. John Marshall, 4th C. J., 1801- 
35, by Hiram Powers; 7. Salmon P. Chase, 6th C. J., 1865- 
* 73, by T. D. Jones; 8. Melville W. Fuller, 8th C. J,, 1888-1910, 
by William Ordway Partridge. 

History. In point of historic interest this chamber is probably 
the most important in the Capitol building. Here Jefferson twice deliv- 
ered his inaugural address and took the Oath of Office, both times in 
the presence of Chief Justice Marshall. Here in Oct., 1803, the Senate 
confirmed the Treaty with Napoleon I, by which the United S'tates 
acquired the vast territory known as the "Louisiana Purchase." Here 
the Senate sat, Dec. 2, 1823, when Monroe sent to Congress his historic 
message formulating the) "Monroe Doctrine." Here in 1830 took place 
the famous debate between Webster of Massachusetts, and Hayne of 
South Carolina, in the course of which Webster gave utterance to his 
famous phrase, "Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and insep- 
arable." It was in this room that Calhoun, Clay and Webster, in 
their old age, made their farewell speeches, and two of the three soon 
afterwards lay here in state, Calhoun's funeral taking place April 2d, 
1850, and that of Clay July 1st 1852. On May 22d, 1856, the old 
Senate was the scene of an assault upon Sumner by Brooks, a Member 
of the House, who struck him over the head with; a cane, inflicting 
,. injuries from which the aged Senator was slow to recover. In Feb., 
1877, the Bench of the Supreme Court was occupied by the Electoral 
Commission which here decided the Hayes-Tilden contested election, 
declaring Hayes President. Among the many cases argued before the 
Supreme Court since its -occupancy of this chamber in i860, that which 
probably aroused the greatest public interest was the Income Tax Case, 
argued in March, 1895, by Richard Olney, then Attorney General, and 
Joseph H. Choate, resulting in a vote of 5 to 4 declaring the statute 
unconstitutional. 

On the opposite side of the Supreme Court Lobby, be- 
hind a screen of monolithic columns of Potomac marble, are 
the Offices of the Clerk of the Supreme Court. These offices 
are not open to the general public; but a request to enter 
them will usually be granted. The inner, or private office 
(entered through N. W. door in main office), contains several 
interesting old portraits of former Clerks of the Court: 

► North Wall: 1. James H. McKenney, by Albert Rosenthal (b. 

1863); 2. Samuel Bayard, Clerk 1791-94, Artist Unknown. 3. John 
Tucker, portrait bv Charles Armor, after Gilbert Stuart; 4. William 
Griffith, by Harold L. MacDonald (b. 1861). 



68 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

East Wall: 5. E. B. Caldwell, by Albert Rosenthal; 6. Plaster 
bust of James M. Wayne (1790-1867), Assoc. Justice S. C. 

South Wall: 7. William T. Carroll, Clerk 1827-62, by Rufus 
Wright; 8. Daniel Wesley Middleton, by Thomas Hicks. 

Following the main corridor N. from the Supreme Court 
Lobby towards the Senate Wing, we pass (1st door on L.) 
the Supreme Court Robing Room. Here the Justices assume 
their voluminous black silk gowns, the only relic in the United 
States of the traditional costume of the English Judiciary. 
On each ' court_ day, just a minute before 12 o'clock, led by 
the Chief Justice, they file across to the Lobby which leads 
to the Bench. At such times the Court Messengers stop 
traffic by stretching crimson cords across the corridor. The 
Robing Room is not open to the general public, and the visitor 
should welcome any chance opportunity to inspect it. In the -. 
Vestibule may be seen, behind glass doors, the heavy silk 
robes of the Justices, each of whom provides his own; also, 
in S._ E. cor., a quaint old mirror dating back to the time of 
Madison. In the Robing Room are several important por- 
traits of former Chief Justices: 

South Wall (R. to L.) : 1. Roger B. Taney (C. J. 1836- 
64), by George P. A. Healy (presented by the Washington 
Bar Association) ; 2. John Jay (C. J. 1789-94), copied from 
Gilbert Stuart (presented by the Justice's grandson, John Jay, 
late Minister to Austria) ; 3. Oliver Ellsworth (C. J. 
1796-99), by Charles L. Elliott (the features were copied 
from a family group by R. Earle, now in Windsor, Conn.) 
4. John Marshall (C. J. 1801-35), by John B. Marten. 

West Wall: 5. Melville W. Fuller (C. J. 1888-1910), 
by Albert Rosenthal. f 

East Wall: (R. to L.) : 6. Morrison R. Waite (C J. 
1874-88), by Cornelia Adele Fassettj above: 7. John Rut- 
ledge (appointed 1795, but never confirmed), by Robert 
Hinckley, from a miniature by John Trumbull; 8. Salmon P. 
Chase (C. J. 1865-73), by William Cogswell (1819-1903). 

North Wall: 9. *John Marshall (C. J. 1801-35), by Rem- 
brandt Peale. This portrait was presented by the Bar of 
New York to Chief Justice Chase, and bequeathed by him 
to the Supreme Court. 

The furniture is of historic interest, many of the chairs 
having come from the old Continental Hall in Philadelphia. 
The Justices not infrequently are dissatisfied with the chairs 
assigned them on the Bench and exchange them for others. » 
Some of the chairs in this room still bear the cards of for- 
mer Justices. 



THE CAPITOL 69 

e. The Senate Wing 

Continuing N. along the main corridor, we next reach 
the North or Senate Wing, entering first the main Senate 
Lobby. Opposite the corridor is the principal doorway to 
the Senate Chamber. Formerly visitors were allowed on the 
floor of the Senate until 11 145 A. M., or fifteen minutes 
before the Houses convene. This privilege, however, was 
stopped about fifteen years ago, and no visitor can enter un- 
less taken in by a Senator. 

The Lobby contains a number of portraits; also marble 
busts of former vice-presidents, supplementing the collection 
in the Senate galleries. They are placed in the following 
order, beginning at the S. E. corner : 

East Wall: 1. John C. Calhoun, portrait, by Henry F. 
1 Darby (b. about 1831) ; 2. Henry Clay, portrait, by Darby. 

North Wall: 3. James S. Sherman, bust, by Bessie Pot- 
ter Vonnoh (1872- ) ; 4. Daniel Webster, portrait, by John 
N eagle (1796-1865) ; 5. Theodore Roosevelt, bust, by James E. 
Fraser (1876- ) ; 6. William B. Allison, portrait, by Wilbur 

A. Reaser; 7. Adlai E. Stevenson, bust, by Franklin Sim- 
mons; 8. Levi P. Morton, bust, by Frank Edzvin Elwell 
(1858- ) ; 9. Abraham Lincoln, portrait, by Freeman Thorp; 
10. Garrett A. Hobart, bust, by Elwell; 11. *George Wash- 
ington, by Gilbert Stuart (purchased 'by Congress in 1876 for 
$1200) ; 12. Charles W. Fairbanks, bust, by Franklin Sim- 
mons. 

West Wall : 13. Thomas Jefferson, portrait, by Thomas 
Sully (1783- 1872) ; 14. Patrick Henry, portrait, by George 

B. Matthczvs (1857- ). 

y South Wall : 15. John Adams, copy by E. F. Andrezvs 

(11835-1915), of portrait by Stuart; 16. John Langdon, por- 
trait, by Hattie E. Burdette; 17. Justin S. Morrill, portrait, 
by Eastman Johnson; 18. Charles Sumner, portrait, by W. 
Ingalls. 

To R. of entrance stands a venerable mahogany clock, 
installed in 1803. Note on the front of case the seventeen 
stars, emblematic of the first seventeen states, the latest of 
which to be admitted was Ohio, in 1802. 

The Senate Gallery is reached by either of the two 
Grand Stairways, at the E. and W. end respectively of the 
Senate Wing. At the foot of the West Stairway stands a 
marble statue of John Hancock, by Horatio Stone (1808-75). 
Opposite, above the stairway landing is a large painting, The 

► Battle of Chapultepec, by James Walker (1819-89). It rep- 
resents the storming of the old castle by the American army, 



7 o RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

under General Scott, September 13th, 1847. It was painted 
originally for the Committee-room of Military Affairs of 
the House, a fact which explains the curve of the upper 
corners. 

Facing the stairs on the next or Gallery floor, hangs a 
full-length portrait of ^Washington, by Charles Wilson 
Peale. The portrait was begun in 1778, when Washington 
was forty-six years old, but was not finished until after the 
battles of Trenton, Princeton and Monmouth. At the latter 
place, Washington suggested that a good background for the 
picture was afforded by the view from the window of the 
framehouse where they then sat. Accordingly Monmouth 
Court-House was added, together with a party of Hessians 
leaving under guard of American troops. Later Old Nassau 
College was also included, at Princeton, where the painting , 
was finished. A replica, now in Versailles, was executed by 
the artist in fulfilment of a commission from Louis XVI 
through Lafayette. 

The Gallery corridors extend around the four sides of 
the Senate Chamber, excepting at the northwest corner, 
which is reserved for the use of members of the Press. 
The doors on the outer sides of the corridors open into 
various committee rooms ; those on the inner sides give 
entrance to the various sections of the Senate Gallery. In a 
niche in N. wall of E. Senate corridor is the marble bust of 
Vice-President Thos. R. Marshall (1913-21), by Moses A. 
Wainer. 

The Senate Chamber is a spacious hall, 113 ft. long 
and 80 - ft. wide, inclusive of the galleries which extend 
around the four sides. The space beneath these galleries is * 
occupied on the north side by the Senate Lobby (p. y2>) \ on the 
other three sides by cloak-rooms for the Senators. The 
floor area is thus diminished to 84 by 51 ft. The height of 
ceiling is 36 ft. The walls are of marble and are paneled 
by pilasters grouped in pairs. The doors, desks and chairs 
are of mahogany. Note especially the high-backed and 
richly carved chair of the President of the Senate, presented 
originally to Vice-President Hobart. The ceiling is flat and 
constructed of iron girders inclosing broad panels of stained 
glass, the designs symbolizing: War, Peace, Union, Progress 
and the various Arts, Sciences and Industries. 

History. In the Senate Chamber every four years, on 
March 4th, the Vice-President-elect takes the oath of office 
which is usually administered by the retiring Vice-President < 
in the presence of the President, the President-elect and 



THE CAPITOL 



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72 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

members of the Senate and the House. This ceremony 
takes place immediately before the inauguration of the 
President. In this chamber are ratified all treaties made by 
the United States with foreign powers. Here, in March, 
1868, began the famous impeachment trial of President John- 
son, culminating, on May 16th, with the President's acquittal. 
It was in the Senate Chamber that the funeral of Chief 
Justice Chase took place, May 12th, 1873 ; and here also the 
funeral ceremonies of Charles Sumner, March 13th, 1874. 

The visitor should note that there are no portraits, paint- 
ings or mural frescoes in the Senate Chamber. This is in 
accordance with a unanimous resolve passed, Feb. 15th, 1884, 
to the effect that "no paintings or portraits be placed upon 
the walls of the Senate Chamber." The set of marble busts 
of former Vice-Presidents, described below, was specifically 
authorized by a resolution passed May 13th, 1886. 

The Gallery of the Senate Chamber completely sur- 
rounds the four sides, and is partitioned off into eight sec- 
tions ; four occupy the middle of their respective sides and 
the other four the corners. *The Ladies' Gallery is in the 
S. corridor; the Men's Gallery occupies two sections at the 
S. W. and N. W. cors. ; the Diplomatic Gallery is in the 
middle of the S. side, directly opposite the Press Gallery, 
which is above and behind the desk of the President of the 
Senate; in the middle of the E. end is the Senator's Gal- 
lery. The remaining two sections are marked "Reserved 
Gallery." While Congress is in Session, access may be had 
during the early morning hours to all these galleries ex- 
cepting that reserved for the Press, the only entrance to 
which is through the private Press rooms. This is the only 
time when the visitor has an opportunity to examine at 
close hand the series of marble busts of the first twenty 
Vice-Presidents of the United States, some of which are of 
admirable workmanship. They do not run in chronological 
order but, starting on the middle of the N. side, have been 
added alternatively R. and L. The following is a list of these 
busts, from L. to R., including date of office, sculptor and 
the respective section of the gallery including each : 

Press Gallery (North Wall, center) : 1. John Adams, 
1789-97, by Daniel Chester French; 2. Thomas Jefferson, 
1 797-1801, by Moses Ezekiel (1844-1917) ; Reserved Gallery: 

3. George Clinton, 1805-13, by Vittorio A. Ciani (1858-1908) ; 

4. Daniel C. Tompkins, 1817-25, by Charles H. Niehaus; 
(East Wall) 5. Martin Van Buren, 1833-37, by U. S. J. 
Dunbar; Senator's Gallery: 6. John Tyler, 1841, by William 



THE CAPITOL 73 

C. McCausIen; 7. Millard Fillmore, 1849-50, by H. J. Elli- 
> cott; Ladies' Gallery: 8. John C. Breckinridge, 1857-61, by 
James P. Voorhces (1855 — ) ; (South Wall) : 9. Andrew 
Johnson, 1865, by William C. McCausIen; 10. William A. 
Wheeler, 1877-81, by Edward Clark Potter; Diplomatic Gal- 
lery: 11. Thomas A. Hendricks, 1885-89; by U. S. J. Dim- 
bar; 12. Chester A. Arthur, 1881, by Augustus Saint-Gau- 
dens; Men's Gallery : 13. Schuyler Colfax, 1869-73, by Frances 
M. Goodwin; 14. Hannibal Hamlin, 1861-05, by Franklin Sim- 
mons; (West Wall) : 15. William R. King, 1853-57, by W. C. 
McCausIen; Reserved Gallery: 16. George M. Dallas, 1845-49, 
by H. J. Ellicott; 17. Richard M. Johnson, 1837-41, by /. P. 
Voorhces; Men's Gallery: 18. John C. Calhoun, 1825-33, by 
f Theodore A. Mills; (North Wall) : 19. Elbridge Gerry, 1813- 
17, by Herbert Adams; 20. Aaron Burr, 1801-05, by Jacques 
Jouvenal (1829-1905). 

In South Corridor, East Wall, are two historical paintings 
by John Blake White, of Charleston, S. C (1781-1850) : 
1 : The Battle of Fort Moultrie, Fought and Won June 25, 
1776 ; 2. Sergeants Jasper and Newton rescuing American 
Prisoners from a Squad of British, near Savannah, Ga. 

South Wall: 1. Portrait of Hon. Henry Latimer, M.D., 
by Clazvson S. Hammitt ; 2. Portrait of Hon. James Latimer, 
by Hammitt (both presented by Mary R. Latimer). 

In the E. Corridor, facing the E. Grand Stairway, hangs 
The Recall of Columbus, by Augustus George Heaton (b. 
1844), painted in 1883, and reproduced on the 50c. postage 
stamp of the Columbian series of 1893. 

North of the stairway is a spacious Lobby, with win- 
dows on E. overlooking the Plaza, and door on W. opening 
into the gallery reserved for Senators' families and friends. 
This lobbv contains a number of interesting portraits and 
busts. From R. to L., beginning on S. wall : 1. Count K. 
K. Pulaski, marble bust, by Henry k Dmochowski (1810-63) ; 

2. Charles Sumner, bust, by Martin Millmore (1844-82); 

3. Garibaldi, bust, by Giuseppe Martegana; E. Wall: 4. 
Zachary Taylor, bust, Artist Unknown; 5. (above) James J. 
Garfield, mosaic portrait, by Antonio Salviati (1816-90), best 
known as having revived the making of Venetian glass at 
Murano, i860) 6. Aysh-ke-bah-ke-ko-shay, "Flat-Mouth," a 
Chippewa Chief, bust, by Francis Vincenti; 7. (above) Abra- 
ham Lincoln, mosaic portrait, by Salviati; 8. Be-sheck-kee, 

f ! Indian marble bust, by Vincenti; N. Wall : 9. Tadeusz 
Kosciuszco, marble bust, by H. D. Saunders (pseudonym of 
Henryk Dmochowski) ; 10. Gen. John A. Dix, portrait by 



74 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

Imogene R. M or ell (d. 1908) ; Gen. Dix is best remembered 
for his famous order, "If anyone attempts to haul down the 
American flag, shoot him on the spot!" 11. *The Florida 
Case before the Electoral Commission, Feb. 5th, 1877, by 
Mrs. Cornelia Adele Fassett (1831-98), painted from life 
sittings in 1877-79 in the U. S. Supreme Court Room, and 
portraying a session of the Commission appointed to decide 
the disputed Hayes-Tilden Presidential Election; 12. Abra- 
ham Lincoln, bust by Mrs. Sarah E. Ames (1817-1901) ; a 
replica is in the State Capitol,. Boston, Mass. 

To the N. of this lobby is a smaller Hall, from which 
a Ladies' Retiring Room, with woman attendant, opens on 
the R. This Hall contains two celebrated paintings by 
Thomas Moran (b. 1837) : E. Wall, The Chasm of the * 
Colorado; W. Wall, The Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone; 
bought by the Government for $10,000 each ; S. Wall, Table 
Rock, Niagara, by F. Regis Gignoux (1816-82) ; Thomas 
Crawford, marble bust, by Tommaso Gagliardi. 

A noted picture, which formerly hung in this room, is 
The First Fight of Ironclads, by William F. Halsall (b. 1841), 
representing the battle between the Monitor and Merrimac. 
It was purchased by the Government in 1877, at a cost of 
$15,000, and formed the only exception to the rule that no 
reminder of the Civil War should be displayed in the Capi- 
tol. This -painting is now (1922) temporarily in storage and 
not on exhibition. 

The visitor may now return to the East Stairs (of Ten- 
nessee marble) ; above the middle landing hangs The Battle ♦ 
of Lake Erie, by William Henry Powell (1824-79) ; this 
picture represents Commodore Oliver B. Perry transferring 
himself and his flag, while under fire, from his disabled 
flagship, the Lawrence, to the Niagara, Sept. 13th, 1813. The 
original and much smaller painting was executed by Powell 
in 1863 for the State Capitol, Ohio; this enlarged replica 
was ordered by Congress, at a cost of $25,000. It is said 
that the faces of the sailors were copied from former well- 
known employees about the Capitol. 

Facing the foot of the staircase is a Marble statue of Ben- 
jamin Franklin, by Fliram Powers (1805-88), the cost of 
which was $10,000. 

North of this staircase, on the main floor, the E. corri- * 
dor leads to a handsome hallway forming the east approach 
to the Senate Chamber. This hall contains sixteen *Fluted 



THE CAPITOL 75 

Columns of Italian marble, supporting a ceiling of the same. 
I The capitals of these columns, in which the conventional 
acanthus leaves are replaced by the tobacco leaf, have been 
cleverly termed the "Americanized Corinthian order of 
Architecture." This hallway leads to the eastern Portico of 
the Senators' Wing. This entrance is usually closed when 
Congress is not in Session. If open, the visitor should avail 
himself of the opportunity of inspecting the *Senate Bronze 
Doors, without the necessity of climbing the outer stair- 
case. 

These doors were designed by Thomas Crawford, who 
also modeled the figures in the pediment above this entrance. 
They constitute the sculptor's last work, for which he re- 

1 ceived $6000. The plaster models, executed in Rome by 
William H. Rinehart, cost $8940, while the casting of the 
doors (weight 14,000 pounds), by James T. Ames at Chico- 
pee, Mass. (1868), cost $50,500. It was the first casting of 
the kind in America. Each valve of this door consists of 
three panels and a medallion. The panels portray events 
taken from the Revolutionary War and the Life of Wash- 

, ington : 

1. Right or North Door: a. Upper panel: Death of 
I General Warren at the Battle of Bunker Hill, 1775 ; b. 

Middle panel : The rebuke of Gen. Charles Lee by General 
Washington at the Battle of Monmouth, N. J., 1778; c. 
; Lower panel : The storming of the redoubt at Yorktown by 
Alexander Hamilton, 1781 ; Below : d. Medallion symboliz- 
ing War : Conflict between a Hessian soldier and a New 
Jersey farmer. 

2. Left or South Door: (from bottom upward): e. 
Medallion symbolizing Peace and Agriculture ; f . Lower 

j panel : Washington passing through an Arch of Flowers, 

Trenton, N. J., on his way to his Inauguration in New 
j York, 1789; g. Middle panel: Washington taking the Oath 
! of Office, administered by Chancellor Livingston ; h. Upper 

panel : Laying the Corner Stone of the Capitol, Sept. 18th, 

1793- 

Above the Portico are two reclining female figures of 

marble in high relief symbolizing (R.) Justice; (L.) History. 

These also were designed by Crazvford and executed in 
I Italy, the sculptor receiving $3000. 

From the Senate Vestibule, N. W. cor., the visitor enters 
I the Public Reception Room, an ornate apartment consisting 



76 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

of two almost square alcoves, both profusely decorated by 
Briimidi. In the northern alcove the ceiling contains four 
panels, each occupied by a symbolic female figure: N., 
Freedom, holding American shield, fasces and the Declara- 
tion of Independence; W., War, with sword and shield and 
starred helmet surmounted by tri-colored plume; S., Agri- 
culture, with fruits of the Harvest; E., Peace, bearing an 
olive branch. 

South Alcove: Note on ceiling, central group of three 
cupids bringing together the three colors of the National 
Mag. In the corners are symbolized four virtues : N. E., 
Prudence, studying the future with the aid of a mirror 
which reflects the past; N. W., 'Fortitude, with drawn 
sword ; S. W., Temperance, holding bridle and bit, emblems 
of restraint; S. E., Justice, holding scales. On the S. wall 
is an historic painting in oils, also by Brumidi, representing 
^Washington consulting with Two Members of his First 
Cabinet (Jefferson, Sec. of State and Hamilton, Sec. of the 
Treasury). 

The Room of the S erg eant-at- Arms adjoins the N. 
alcove on the E. Brumidi's decorations of this room consist 
of : I. A vivid center-piece on the ceiling symbolizing Re- 
construction, consisting of a group of female figures wel- 
coming back the erring sister ; 2. On the four walls, under 
the arches, allegorical designs in chiaroscuro, imitating alto- 
relievo: E., Secession, represented by the breaking of the 
Fasces, while on the opposite sides lie respectively cotton and 
corn, the rival products of the two sections; S., War, with 
Engines of Strife; W., The Fasces once more united, with 
motto E Pluribus Unum and eagle; N., The implements of * 
War are being broken and exchanged for Peace. 

The room S. of the Sergeant-at-Arms, now used by the 
Committee on the District of Columbia, is not usually open 
to the general public; but some obliging attendant will some- 
times unlock the door upon request. This was formerly the 
Senate Post Office, for which Brumidi designed the follow- 
ing appropriate frescoes containing symbolic figures: S., 
History, holding scroll ; E., Geography, with globe ; N., 
Transportation, with steam engine ; W., The Telegraph, 
two figures holding a connecting wire. 

From the Reception Room a door on the W. opens into 
a private corridor, extending along the N. side of the Senate 
Chamber, and opening into three rooms of special interest: ^ 
the Vice-President's Room, the Senate Retiring Room and 
the President's Room. Formerly these rooms could be seen, 



7 8 RIDER'S WASHINGTON ' 

while Congress was in Session, only by card from a Senator ; 
at present (1922) they are open to the public during the 
morning hours. 

Entering this passage we reach (First door on R.) the 
Vice-President's Room. This chamber, in decoration the 
plainest of the Senate series, has numerous historic associa- 
tions. Here on Nov. 22d, 1875, Vice-President Henry S. 
Wilson died; and here also Sept. 22, 1881, in the presence 
of General Grant, Garfield's Cabinet, Senators, Representa- 
tives and justices of the Supreme Court, Chester A. Arthur 
took the oath of office administered by Chief Justice Waite. 

In this room on E. wall hang: 1. Rembrandt Peale's 
*Portrait of Washington which, in 1829, was exhibited and 
much admired in the principal cities of Europe. Purchased 
by the United States in 1832 for $2000; 2. (L.) Henry I 
Wilson, marble bust by Daniel Chester French; 3. Lafayette 
S. Foster (acting Vice-President during Johnson's term), 
marble bust by Charles Calverly (1833-1914). 

The much admired French clock was acquired during 
the term of President Polk; the book-case on the W. side 
dates from the term of President Buchanan. The closet 
in the S. E. cor. contains an antique mirror purchased, ac- 
cording to tradition, by John Adams. 

Immediately adjoining the Vice-President's Room on 
the W. is the Senate Retiring Room, one of the richest and 
most costly apartments in the Capitol. It consists of a cen- 
tral chamber and two vestibules, the former being 38 ft- 
long, 2iy 2 ft. wide and 19^2 ft. high. The floor is of marble 
mosaic; the walls, where not adorned with large mirrors, 
are veneered with variegated Tennessee marble, and the 
panelled marble ceiling is supported by four Corinthian col- 
umns of pure white Italian marble, — thus justifying the 
popular name of the Marble Room. In the eastern vestibule 
is a small bronze bust of Lincoln, by Albert de Grout. 

*The President's Room. This square and compara- 
tively small apartment is one of the show places of the 
Capitol. The walls are adorned with large mirrors, and, 
like the ceiling, are covered with frescoes by Brumidi. In 
this room it has been the custom since the days of Andrew 
Johnson (with the exception of Grover Cleveland), for the 
President to sit during the last day of each Congressional Ses- 
sion for the purpose of signing bills of an urgent nature. 

On the walls, in hexagonal panels, are medallion por- 
traits of Washington's First Cabinet : S. wall, Jefferson, 
Secretary of State and Osgood, Postmaster General; E. 



THE CAPITOL 79 

wall, Henry Knox, Secretary of War, and Alexander Hamil- 
ton, Secretary of the Treasury; W. wall, Edmund Randolph, 
Attorney General. 

On the S. wall, under the arch of the ceiling, is a por- 
trait of Washington (by Brumidi after Rembrandt Peale) 
with a reclining female figure on each side : L., Peace ; R., 
Victory holding shield with inscription, "Boston, Trenton, 
Princeton, Monmouth, Yorktown." 

The ceiling decorations consist of four symbolic groups : 
N., Religion, veiled and holds a Bible; W, Legislature, 
who holds a sword and teaches children the Constitution ; 
S., Liberty, holding a shield and fasces; E., Executive Au- 
thority, holding a sceptre and book of statutes. Between 
these are four corner-pieces, containing fresco portraits : 
S. E., Columbus (Discovery) ; N. W., Americus Vespucius 
(Exploration) ; S. W., Benjamin Franklin (History) ; N. E., 
William Brewster (Religion). 

In the southwest corner is a bronze bust of McKinley, 
by Emma C. Guild. In this room, Dec. 18th, 1876, King 
Kalakaua of the Hawaiian Islands had an audience. An 
announcement of his presence was made in the Senate, a 
recess was promptly taken, and all the Senators were indi- 
vidually presented to the King. 

f. The Ground Floor 

We have now reached the Western Corridor, which leads 
back to the Western Grand Staircase. Here we -may descend, 
if we wish, to the ground floor of the Capitol, a portion of 
the building usually overlooked by tourists, and habitually 
omitted by the official guides. Pictorially, however, it is one 
of the most interesting sections of the whole structure, since 
here through a space of ten years Brumidi, then in his prime, 
exercised his fertile imagination and versatile brush in 
adorning the corridors and many of the Committee rooms, 
with vivid frescoes. His work has suffered from neglect, 
and from too lavish an application of soap and sand (al- 
though luckily the cleaner's zeal usually ceased within easy 
arm-reach). In a few Committee rooms the frescoes have 
been painted out to satisfy the simple taste of certain Sena- 
tors, partial to blank walls. For example : in what was 
once the room of the Committee on Territories (N. corridor, 
first door on L., east of W. corridor) the only surviving 
memorial of what was once a lavishly decorated room is 
the large and richly decorated bronze chandelier embellished 
with buffaloes, Indian heads and various other symbols of 
the far West. 



THE CAPITOL Si 

West Basement Corridor, S. to N. : In lunettes above 
the two entrances to the Interstate Commerce Committee 
Room (formerly Indian Affairs) are frescoes representing: 
i. Columbus and an Indian maiden; 2. Las Casas, mis- 
sionary to the Indians. Opposite (W. side), in lunette above 
door to Committee on Rules, Authority consults the Written 
Law, while Justice holds the Scales. Beyond, above door to 
Committee on Appropriations, lunette showing America sur- 
rounded with cannon and stacked arms. At intervals along 
the walls are medallion portraits, including John Hancock, 
Francis Hopkinson, Robert R. Livingston, John Jay, Roger 
Sherman, Charles Thomson, Robert Morris and Charles Car- 
roll. 

The room of the Committee on Appropriations (origi- 
nally Military Affairs) contains five historic frescoes: W. 
wall, 1. The Boston massacre, 1770; S. wall, 2. The Battle 
of Lexington, 1775; 3. Washington at Valley Forge, 1778; E. 
wall, 4. The Storming of Stony Point by Anthony Wayne, 
1779; N. wall, 5. The Death of General Wooster during the 
British Invasion of Connecticut, 1777. 

The northern end of the west corridor has come to be 
known as the Pompeiian Corridor, because here Brumidi imi- 
tated, not only the designs, but the distinctive coloring of 
Pompeiian frescoes. The visitor should note the undimmed 
brilliance of the deep reds and blues. 

North Corridor, W. to E. The wall medallions in this 
corridor include: Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, 
Richard Montgomery, Joseph Warren, Thomas Mifflin, Silas 
Deane, Horatio Gates, Israel Putnam, Jonathan Trumbull 
and Daniel Webster. On N. side are two lunettes : 1. 
Above entrance to Committee on Patents (originally Terri- 
tories Room) represents: Negotiations for the Louisiana 
Purchase (April 30th, 1803) ; 2. Over last door on L. (origi- 
nally Committee on Foreign Relations) fresco copied from 
West's painting, "Signing the Articles of Peace, 1782," con- 
taining portraits of Richard Oswald, signer for Great Britain ; 
John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, John Jay and Henry Lau- 
rens, for the United States. 

The north corridor is intersected midway by a central 
corridor, at the N. end of which are fresco portraits of 
Kent, Livingston and Story. 

The north corridor opens at E. end into a small pa- 
vilion. Over the door of Committee on Foreign Relations 
(formerly Post Offices and Post Roads) is Benjamin Frank- 
lin, father of the postal system, seated in his laboratory. 



82 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

Above second door is Fulton, inventor of the steamboat; and 
diagonally opposite is John Fitch, a forerunner of Fulton, 
working on a model of a steamboat. 

The above form the more noteworthy details in these frescoed 
passages, in which every wall-space is overlaid with arabesques, tracer- 
ies of vines, foliage and fruit; animals and birds; allegorical figures 
and landscapes. From the northern corridor, private staircases ascend 
to the Senate Lobby. The richly wrought bronze stair-rails, and the 
corresponding ones in the House basement, were modeled by Charles 
Baudin, a French sculptor. Some details, such as the eagles, deer and 
cherubs, were designed by Brumidi. They were cast by Archer, 
Warner, Miskey & Co. at a cost of over $22,000. 

Returning to the central corridor, we may proceed S., 
passing, on L., the public restaurant (p. 7). To the E. of 
the small rotunda (p. 64) is the entrance to the Senate Law 
Library, containing a bas-relief group by Franzoni, and 
a marble bust of Justice Story, by W. W. Story (1819- 

95). 

Continuing S M we enter, directly beneath the great Ro- 
tunda, the so-called Crypt, a circular chamber with a colon- 
nade of forty Doric columns, modeled after the Temple at 
Paestum. These columns are surmounted by groined arches 
supporting the floor above. The exact center of the Capitol 
building is indicated by a star in the pavement. To the east 
is the Suffrage Group presented by American women : A 
rough marble pedestal surmounted by busts of Lucretia Mott, 
Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, the work of 
Adelaide Johnson. The sub-basement, below this crypt, was 
originally planned to contain the tomb of George Washington. 
Since 1865 it has been the receptacle of the bier used to sustain 
the coffin of Abraham Lincoln and other notable Americans 
who have lain in state in the Capitol. 

Immediately S. of the crypt are the offices of the Chief 
Clerk of the House. In the N. E. room of this suite was 
situated the Washington terminus of Morse's first telegraph 
line, connecting Washington with the Railway station on 
Pratt St., Baltimore. Here, on May 24th, 1842, Miss Annie 
G. Ellsworth, daughter of Henry L. Ellsworth, then Com- 
missioner of Patents, sent the first telegraphic message, 
'What hath God wrought!" The strip of paper on which 
the telegraphic characters of this message were printed is 
now in the Athenaeum, Hartford, Conn. 

The basement of the House Wing is traversed by a noble 
hallway, flanked by thirty monolithic Corinthian columns, the 
capitols of which are said to have been modeled from those 
of the Temple of the Winds, at Athens, with this modifica- 



THE CAPITOL 83 

tion, that the upper order of acanthus leaves has been re- 
placed by American tobacco. 

The only Committee room of special interest in the 
House basement is that of the ^Committee on Agriculture, 
S. of the W. public staircase. The frescoes in this room 
(1855) constitute the first work done by Brumidi in the Cap- 
itol. On the ceiling are the Four Seasons : Spring symbol- 
ized by Flora, Summer by Ceres, Autumn by Bacchus, Winter 
by Boreas. On E. wall : Cincinnatus called from the Plough 
to become Dictator of Rome. W. wall : Putnam called from the 
Plough to join the Revolution. S. wall: Above, medallion of 
Washington ; below, Harvest Scene in Olden Times. N. wall : 
Above, medallion of Jefferson; below, Harvest Scene with 
Modern Implements. 

g. The House Wing 

Ascending the western staircase to the main floor of the 
House of Representatives, we reach a series of corridors 
similar to those in the Senate Wing (p. 69), with doors 
on the outer sides opening upon Committee rooms, and 
those on the inner sides giving access to the floor of the 
House. As in the case of the Senate, the floor is now closed 
to visitors, unless accompanied by a member (a description 
O'f the House as seen from the Visitors' Gallery is given 
on p. 85). 

Proceeding S., on W. corridor, we reach, on L., what is 
collectively known as the Speaker's Lobby. It consists of 
a spacious and ornamental parlor, extending along the S. 
side of the House Wing, together with the corridor separ- 
ating it from the House. This corridor contains a collec- 
tion of portraits of former Speakers of the House, as 
follows : 

South Wall (west vestibule), 1. Nathaniel Macon, N. C. 
(1758-1837), Speaker, 7th, 8th, and 9th Congresses, by R. D. 
Gauley; 2. Michael C. Kerr, Ind. (1827-76), Speaker, 44th 
Congress, by Charles A. Gray (1857 ). 

South Wall (Lobby corridor), 3. James G. Blaine, Me. 
(1830-93), Speaker, 41st, 42d and 43d Congresses, by Free- 
man Thorp (1844- ) ; 4. Schuyler Colfax, Ind. (1823-85), 
Speaker, 38th, 39th and 40th Congresses, by Freeman Thorp; 
5. William Pennington (1796-1862), Speaker, 36th Congress, 
by Joseph Lauber (1885 — — ) ; 6. James L. Orr, S. C. (1822- 

72), Speaker 35th Congress, by Esther Edmonds (1888- ); 

7. Linn Boyd, Ky. (1800-59), Speaker 32d and 33d Con- 
gresses, by Stanley Grant Middleton (1852 ) ; 8. Howell 



84 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

Cobb, Ga. (1815-68), Speaker 31st Congress, by Lucy Stanton 

(1875 ); 9- John W. Davis, Ind. (1799-1859), Speaker 

29th Congress, by William D. Murphy (1834) ', 10. John 
Winston Jones, Va. (1791-1848), Speaker 28th Congress, by 

James B. Sword (1839 ); 11. John White, Ky. (1805-45), 

Speaker, 27th Congress, by Gerard Barry ( 1864 ) ; 12. 

Robert M. T. Hunter, Va. (1809-87), Speaker, 26th Con- 
gress, by Richard N. Brooks (1865-1920) ; 13. James K. Polk, 
Tenn. (1795- 1849), Speaker, 24th and 25th Congresses, by 
Rebecca Polk; 14. John -Bell, Tenn. (1797-1869), Speaker, 
24th Congress, first Session, by Willie Betty Newman; 15. 
Andrew Stevenson, Va. (1784-1857), Speaker, 21st, 22d and 
23d Congresses, by Spencer Baird Nichols; 16. Philip P. 
Barbour, Va. (1782-1841), Speaker, 17th Congress, by Kate 
Flournoy Edwards (1877 ). 

South Wall (E. vestibule) : 17. Langdon Gheeves, S. C. 
(1776-1857), Speaker, 13th Congress, by Hal Morrison. 

■North Wall (E. vestibule) : 18. Jonathan Dayton, N. J. 
(1760-1824), Speaker, 4th Congress, by Henry Harrison 
(1844 )• 

North Wall (Lobby corridor) : 19. Henry Clay, Ky. 
(1777-1852), Speaker I2th-i8th Congresses, by Giuseppe 
Fagnani (11819-73); 20. John G. Carlisle, Ky. (1835-1910), 
Speaker, 48th, 49th and 50th Congresses, by Ellen Day Hale 

(1855 ); 21. Robert C. Winthrop, Mass. (1809-94), 

Speaker, 30th Congress, by Daniel Huntington (1816-1906) ; 
22. John W. Taylor, N. Y. (1784-1854), Speaker, 16th (second 
Session) and 17th Congresses, by Caroline L. Ransom (1838- 
1910) ; 23. Thomas B. Reed (1839-1902), Speaker, 54th and 
55th Congresses, by John S. Sargent (1856 — — ) ; 24. Nathan- 
iel P. Banks, Mass. (1816-94), Speaker, 34th Congress, by 

Robert William Vonnoh (1858 ) ; 25. Charles F. Crisp, 

Ga. (1845-96), Speaker 53d Congress, by Robert Hinckley; 
26. Frederick Augustus Muhlenberg, Penn. (1750-1841), 
Speaker 1st and 3d Congresses, by Samuel B. Waugh (1814- 
85) ; 27. Samuel J. Randall, Penn. (1828-90), Speaker 44th 
(second Session), 45th and 46th Congresses, by William A. 
Greaves (1847-1900) ; 28. Galusha A. Grow, Penn. (1823-1907). 
Speaker, 37th Congress, by Greaves; 29. David. Bremner 
Henderson, Iowa (1840-1906), Speaker, 56th and 57th Con- 
gress, by Freeman Thorp; 30. Warren Kiefer, Ohio 

(1836 ), Speaker, 47th Congress, by Charles A. Gray; 

31. Joseph B. Varnum, Mass. (1750-1821), Speaker, 10th 
and nth Congresses, by Charles L. Elliott (1812-68) ; 32. 
Jonathan Trumbull, Conn. (1710-85), Speaker 2d Congress, 



THE CAPITOL 85 

by Henry Ives Thompson (1840-1906) ; 33. Theodore Sedg- 
wick, Mass. (1746-1813), Speaker 6th Congress, by Edgar 
Parker, after Stuart. 

In the adjoining Lobby Parlor, hanging on the N. and S. 
walls respectively, are two large paintings by Albert Bier- 
stadt (1830-1902) : 1. Entrance into Monterey; 2. Discovery 
of the Hudson. (These formerly hung in the Hall of Repre- 
sentatives.) Also on N. wall are the following portraits: 
1. (W. end) Joseph G. Cannon, by William T. Smcdley (1858- 
1920) ; 2. (E. end) Champ Clark, by Boris Gordon. 

Returning to the western staircase (which, like the east- 
ern staircase of this Wing, has steps of white marble, with 
balustrade and wainscoting; of variegated Tennessee marble) 
we pass (facing foot of staircase) a bronze bust of Be-Sheck- 
Kee, a Chippewa Chief, modeled by Joseph Lasalle, from 
original marble by Francis Vincenti. Opposite, on wall 
above landing and occupying the entire width, is the widely 
known mural painting, *"Westward the Course of Empire 
Takes Its Way," by Emanuel Leutse (1816-68). The impor- 
tance of this painting, undeniably fine though it is, was much 
exaggerated in the earry years after its acquirement. As late 
as 1869 one enthusiastic critic asserted, "This painting is. 
the greatest work of art in the possession of the Government^ 
and one of the grandest in the world." 

The scene represents a train of emigrants crossing the Rocky Moun- 
tains. From the summit of the range which they have reached, a glo- 
rious view stretches out to the westward. The title is borrowed from 
Bishop Berkeley. Leutze received $20,000 for this painting. 

Below Leutze's painting is a long, narrow fresco, also 
by Leutze, representing the Golden Gate of San Fran- 
cisco. In the borders (on N. and S. walls) are portraits of 
Daniel Boone, the pioneer of the southwest, and Captain 
William Clark, of the Lewis and Clark Expedition to the 
Columbia, 1803-06. Opposite (second floor) is a portrait 
of Chief Justice John Marshall, copy by Richard Norris 
Brooke (1847 ), from original by W. D. Washington. 

To reach the visitors' galleries we turn left to N. corridorv 
Here the doors on our right open respectively into: 1. Mem- 
bers' Card Gallery; 2. Ladies' Gallery; 3. Gentlemen's Gallery;. 
4. Ladies' Gallery; 5. Members' Family Gallery. The re- 
mainder of the gallery contains reservations for the Dip- 
lomatic Corps and for members of the Press, the latter being 
on the S. side, directly above the Speaker's chair. 

The Hall of the House of Representatives is a rectangular 
chamber, slightly larger than that of the Senate Wing, measur- 



86 



RIDER'S WASHINGTON 




THE CAPITOL 87 

ing: length 139 ft., width 93 ft, height 36 ft. The ceiling is 
of cast iron, the central portion being filled with glass panels, 
forming a large sky-light, and decorated with the coats-of- 
arms of the different states and territories. The designs for 
this ceiling were made by Johannes Adam Oertel (1823-1909). 
The Speaker's desk occupies a raised position against the 
southern wall. To his left sits the Doorkeeper, and to his 
right the Sergeant-at-Arms, whose symbol of authority is the 
Mace, which, when the House is in session, occupies a marble 
pedestal to the Speaker's right. 

The Mace resembles the fasces of ancient Rome, and consists of a 
bundle of black rods bound together with silver bands. It is sur- 
mounted by an eagle resting on a globe, both of silver. The Sergeant- 
at-Arms must carry this Mace whenever executing the commands of 
the Speaker. When the House is in committee of the whole the Mace 
is placed upon the floor. This symbol of authority has been used 
uninterruptedly since its adoption by the House in the First 
Congress. 

To R. and L. of the Speaker's desk are full length por- 
traits : 1. Washington by Vanderlyn, after Stuart; 2. Lafay- 
ette, by Ary Scheffer (1797-1858). The latter was presented 
to Congress by the artist in 1825. At W. end of S. wall is a 
large fresco by Brumidi, depicting an incident at Yorktown, 
"Cornwallis suing for Cessation of Hostilities under Flag of 
Truce." This painting, admittedly one of Brumidi's poorest 
works, is one of the very few which he chose to sign. It was 
the artist's personal gift to Congress. 

Opposite the Speaker's desk, over the main entrance to 
the House, is the famous bronze clock surmounted by fig- 
ures of a Pioneer and an Indian, modeled by William H. 
Rinehart (1825-74). 

From the Visitors' Gallery we continue E. to the East 
Gallery Corridor and East Staircase. Opposite stairs, on W. 
wall, are three portraits : in center, *Henry Clay, by John 
Neagle (dated 1843) ; on L., Gunning Bradford, Jr., by 
Charles Wilson Peale; on R., Charles Carroll of Carrollton, 
by Chester Harding (1792-1866). 

Over stair Landing, east wall, hangs a large painting by 
Frank B. Carpenter (1830-1900), "The Signing of the 
Proclamation of Emancipation," by President Lincoln, Septem- 
ber 22d, 1862. 

The figures, representing President Lincoln and his Cabinet, are all 
portraits. They are grouped as follows, beginning from the left: 1. 
Edwin M. Stanton, Secretary of War;, 2. Salmon P. Chase, Secretary 
of the Treasury; 3. Abraham Lincoln; 4. Gideon Welles, Secretary of 
the Navy; 5. William H. Seward, Secretary of State; 6. Caleb B. 
Smith, S-ecretary of the Interior; 7. Montgomery Blair, Postmaster- 
General; 8. Howard Bates, Attorney-General. 



88 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

In Main Floor Corridor, W. wall, facing stairs, is a mar- 
ble statue of *Thomas Jefferson, by Hiram Powers (cost, 
$10,000). Turning S., we reach the East Vestibule of the 
House Wing, at the entrance to which (east end) are the 
second pair of Crawford Bronze Doors (compare p. 75). 
The designs for these doors, left unfinished at Crawford's 
death in 1857, were completed by William H. Rinehart, who 
also made the plaster models. They were cast by M. H. 
Mossman, of Chicopee, Mass. 

The sculptures comprise six panels and two medallions, 
the subjects being as follows: 

Left Door, Upper Panel: Massacre of Wyoming, July, 1778; Middle 
Panel: Battle of Lexington, April 19, 1775; Lower Panel: Presentation 
of Flags to Gen. William Moultrie for his defence of Sullivan's Island, 
Charleston Harbor, June 28, 1776; Medallion: Death of General Mont- 
gomery, in attack on Quebec, Dec, 31, 1775. 

Right Door, Upper Panel: Declaration of Independence, July 4, 
1776; Middle Panel: Paris Treaty of Peace between the United States 
and Great Britain, Sept. 3, 1783; Lower Panel: Washington's Farewell 
to his Officers in New York, Dec. 4, 1783; Medallion: Benjamin Franklin 
in his Study. 

Returning to North Corridor, we pass at N. E. corner a 
Committee Room which formerly, when devoted to Military 
Affairs, contained a collection of fifteen paintings of famous 
American Fortifications, by Col. Seth Eastman. These paint- 
ings were removed about fifteen years ago to the new Military 
Affairs Committee Room, in the Senate Office Building, 
Room 451 (p. 365). 

The north passage leading from the House Wing to the 
central building contains a branch of the Western Union 
Telegraph Co. Note at N. and S. ends of this passage, on 
sides of entrance arches, four medallion frescoes by Brumidi, 
containing the only examples of the artist's many landscapes 
which even the casual visitor readily identifies; S. end (R.) 
Washington's Tomb; (L.) The Washington Monument; N. 
end (R.) Mount Vernon; (L.) Arlington. 

From here we enter at once Statuary Hall : 

h. Statuary Hall 

This hall, which is still essentially the same as designed 
and reconstructed by Latrobe after the partial destruction 
of the Capitol by the British, was until 1859 the House of 
Representatives. It occupies the site of the earlier House of 
Representatives as first planned by Thornton, which differed 
from Latrobe's design in being an oblong parallelogram. In 
its time it was considered the most artistic room in the Capi- 
tol, and it is said that during the burning of the Capitol, 



THE CAPITOL 89 

one of the British officers remonstrated against the destruction 
of so beautiful a room. The structure as it now stands is 
semi-circular, with a diameter of 96 ft., and with a parallel- 
ogram on the S. side 73 x 35 ft. Its height to the top of the 
entablature is 35 ft. and to the apex of the domed ceiling 
57 ft. Its semi-circular colonnade is supported on 14 mono- 
lithic Corinthian columns of Breccia of Potomac variegated 
marble, with capitals of Italian marble modeled from the 
monument of Lysicrates. Eight other similar columns form 
a screen on the southern side and support a lofty arch adorned 
with an eagle, said to have been sculptured from life, the 
work of an Italian named Valperti, whose subsequent suicide 
was attributed to chagrin at the unfavorable criticism made 
of his only art contribution to the Capitol. The original 
paneled ceiling of the dome and the surmounting cupola, 
adapted from the Pantheon at Rome, was the work of another 
young Italian, Bonani, who died soon after their completion. 
The ceiling, however,was rebuilt in 1901, and none of Bonani's. 
work remains. Beneath the arch, just above the position occu- 
pied hy the Speaker's desk, is a plaster model of Liberty pro- 
claiming Peace, by Enrico Causici. Opposite, above the door 
opening from the Rotunda, stands the historic *Clock, 
emblematic of the Flight of Time, the design of which is 
said to have been drawn by Latrobe. It bears the signature, 
"Carlo Franzoni, 1819." The central figure, symbolizing the 
Genius of History, was modeled from a daughter of Giuseppe 
Franzoni. She stands erect in a winged Chariot of Progress 
which is rolling over a globe encircled by a belt bearing the 
signs of the zodiac. The wheel of the chariot forms the dial 
of the clock. 

This room is rich in historic associations ; it was here 
that President Madison took the oath of office ; it was here 
that Clay, Webster, the younger Adams, Calhoun and Ran- 
dolf and a host of other leading American statesmen first 
won their laurels in fiery and often acrimonious debates ; 
and it was here that ex-President John Quincy Adams, in 
his old age, fell at his desk, stricken with paralysis during 
a session of the House. The spot, in the S. W. portion 
of the room, is marked in the pavement by a small circular 
brass tablet set in the middle of the 12th white marble square, 
counting E. from the statue of Stockton. Adams died two 
days later, Feb. 23d, 1848, in the adjoining room of the 
Clerk of the House. 

The only essential differences in this chamber when it was occu- 
pied by the Representatives are as follows: the Speaker's chair and 



9 o RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

table stood on a rostrum raised four feet from the floor, and back 
of the rostrum were crimson curtains suspended from the marble 
pillars supporting the great arch. The mahogany desks and comfortable 
armchairs of the Representatives were placed in concentric semi-circles, 
the outer row being enclosed by a curtained iron railing (constituting 
the bar of the House), beyond which was the Members' lobby. Above 
this lobby was a visitors' gallery with a seating capacity of about 
500. One division of this gallery was reserved for ladies, and here 
hung the portraits of Washington and Lafayette, which have since 
been transferred to the new Hall of Representatives (p. 87). 

The old Hall of the House was established as Statuary 
Hall by act of Congress, July 2d, 1864, as the result of a 
suggestion by the late Senator Justin S. Morrill, then Repre- 
sentative from Vermont. The act reads : 

"The President is authorized to invite each and all the States 
to provide and furnish statues in marble or bronze, not exceeding 
two in number for each State, of deceased persons who have been 
citizens thereof, and illustrious for their historic renown or from 
distinguished civic or military service, such as each State shall deter- 
mine to be worthy of this national commemoration; and when so 
furnished, the same shall be placed in the old hall of the House of 
Representatives, — which is hereby set apart as a National Statuary Hall." 

It will be noted that by the terms of this act the selection 
of the citizens to be commemorated is a matter for the respec- 
tive states to determine. The first state to respond was 
Rhode Island in 1869, since which time more than half the 
states have contributed. The following lists the collection up 
to 1922: 

(Beginning at W. of entrance and continuing from R. to 
L.) : 1. John Stark (1728-1822), marble statue on gray 
granite pedestal (1894), gift of New Hampshire; Carl H. 
Conrad (1839 — ), sculptor. Cost $4,482.11. 

Stark led a regiment at Bunker Hill. At Bennington, where he 
took command of the New Hampshire Militia, he made tie historic 
speech: "See there, boys; there are the red-coats. Before night 
they are ours, or Molly Stark will be a widow." 

2. E. Kirby .Smith (1824-93), General in Confederate Army: 
bronze statue on gray pedestal, gift of Florida; C. A. Pillars, 
sculptor; 3. Samuel Houston (1703-1863), President of the 
Texas Republic until its annexation by the United States in 
1845: marble statue on pink-brown marble pedestal (1904), gift 
of Texas; Elxzabet Ney (183571907), sculptor. Cost $4,500; 
4. John Winthrop (1588-1649), First Governor of the colony 
of Massachusetts, 1629: marble statue on white marble pedes- 
tal (1875), gift of Massachusetts; Richard S. Greenough 
(1819- ), sculptor. Cost $12,712.75; 5. Oliver P. Morton 
(1823-77), Governor of Indiana, 1861-67: marble statue on 



THE CAPITOL 91 

gray marble pedestal (1899), gift of Indiana; Charles H. 
Niehaus (1855- ), sculptor. Cost $5,000; 6. Lew Wallace 
(1827-1905), General in the United States Army, and author 
of Ben Hnr: marble statue on gray limestone pedestal (1909), 
gift of Indiana; Andrew O'Connor (1874 — ), sculptor. Cos* 
$5,000; 7. Francis Harrison Pierpont (1814-99), Governor of 
West Virginia, 1861 : marble statue on blue-veined marble 
pedestal (1903), gift of West Virginia; Franklin Simmons 
(1839- ), sculptor. Cost $8,000; 8. Henry Mower Rice (1817- 
94), First United States Senator from Minnesota, 1857: 
marble statue on granite pedestal (1909), gift of Minnesota; 
Frederick E. Triebel (1865- ), sculptor; 9. John Edward 
Kenna (1848-93), U. S. Senator: marble statue on dark 
veined gray marble pedestal (1901), gift of West Virginia; 
Alexander Doyle (1857- ), sculptor. Cost $5,000; 10. *Father 
James Marquette (1637-75) : marble statue on pink granite 
pedestal (1895), gift of Wisconsin; Gaetano Trentanove 
(1858 — ), sculptor. Cost $8,000. 

The inscription on the pedestal reads: "Wisconsin's Tribute. James 
Marquette, S. J., who witb Louis Joliet, discovered the Mississippi 
River at Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin, June 17th, 1673." 

11. Philip Kearny (1815-62), Brig.-Gen. in the Civil War, 
who died at the Battle of Chantilly: statue in bronze (1875), 
gift of New Jersey; Henry K. Brown (1814-86), sculptor. 
Cost $8088.20; 12. James Shields (1810-79), a General in 
trfe Civil War : bronze statue on dark gray granite pedestal 
(1893), gift of Illinois; Leonard W. Volk (1828-95), sculptor. 
Cost $9000; 13. Richard Stockton (1730-81) : statue in 
marble on marble pedestal (1886), gift of New Jersey; 
Henry K. Brown (1814-86), sculptor. Cost $7088.20. 

A signer of the Declaration of Independence. Died of hardships 
caused by imprisonment by the British. 

14. George Clinton (1739-1812), First Governor of New 
York. Vice-President two terms with Jefferson and Madi- 
son : bronze statue on brown marble pedestal (1873), gift 
of New York; Henry K. Brown, sculptor. Cost $12,500; 

15. William King (11768-1852), First Governor of Maine: 
marble statue on marble pedestal (1877) ; Franklin Simmons 
(1839- ), sculptor. Cost $4000; 16. Roger Williams (1599- 
1683), Founder of the colony of Rhode Island: marble 
statue on pink granite pedestal (1870), gift of Rhode Island; 
Franklin Simmons, sculptor. Cost $8566 ; 17. Nathanael 
Greene (1742-86), General in the Revolutionarv War: marble 
statue on pink granite pedestal (1869), gift of Rhode Island; 



92 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

Henry K. Brown, sculptor. Cost $8566; 18. Jacob Collamer 
(1792-1865), Postmaster-General under Taylor: marble statue 
on marble pedestal (1879), gift of Vermont; Preston Powers 
(1843- ), sculptor. Cost $6081.25; 19. Jabez Lamar 
Monroe Curry (1825-1903), Statesman and educator; United 
States Minister to Spain, 1885-88: marble statue on marble 
pedestal (1906), gift of Alabama; Dante Sodini (1858 — ), 
sculptor. Cost $4000; 20. *Robert Fulton O1765-1815), 
seated marble figure on variegated brown marble pedestal, 
holding model of steamboat (1881), gift of Pennsylvania; 
Howard Roberts (1843-1900), sculptor. Cost $7500; 21. James 
P. Clarke (1854-1916), U. S. Senator from Arkansas; 
marble statue on marble pedestal, gift of Arkansss; Pompeo 
Coppini, sculptor; 22. Robert E. Lee (1807-70), Con- 
federate General : bronze statue on white marble pedestal 
(1908), gift of Virginia; Edward V. Valentine (1838—), 
sculptor. Cost $10,000; 23. George Washington (1732-99): 
bronze statue on blue-veined marble pedestal (1908), gift of 
Virginia, copy of original marble statue by Jean Antoine 
Houdon, in State Capitol, Richmond, Va. Cost $6000. 

The original was ordered by the Virginia Assembly through 
Thomas Jefferson, then Minister to France. Houdon visited Mt. 
Vernon to prepare the model. Lafayette pronounced this the best 
representation of Washington ever made. The bronze copy was cast 
from a plaster model executed by William James Hubard (1810-62), 
who lost his life through an explosion while making gunpowder for 
the Confederate Government. 

24. Uriah M. Rose : marble statue on marble pedestal, gift 
of Arkansas ; F. W . Ruckstull, sculptor ; 25. William Allen 
(1806-79), Governor of Ohio and Member of Congress: marble 
statue on marble pedestal (1887), gift of Ohio; Charles Henry 
Niehaus (1855- ), sculptor. Cost $9500; 26. John J. 
Ingalls (1833-1900), U. S. Senator, 1873-91: marble statue 
on warm gray marble pedestal (1904), gift of Kansas; Charles 
H. Niehaus, sculptor. Cost $6000; 27. George W. Glick 
(1827-1911), Governor of Kansas, 1883-85; marble on white 
granite pedestal, gift of Kansas ; Charles Henry Niehaus, 
sculptor; 28. James A. Garfield (1831-81) : marble statue on 
white marble pedestal (1885), gift of Ohio; Charles H. 
Niehaus, sculptor. Cost $9500. 

The bronze piece at base of pedestal — sword, wreath and palm — 
is symbolical of War, Victory and Peace. 

29. Lewis Cass (1782-1866), Secretary of War and also Sec. 
of State under Van Buren; Minister to France: marble statue 
on brown variegated marble pedestal (1889), gift of Michigan; 



THE CAPITOL 93 

Daniel C. French (1850- ), sculptor. Cost $9848.13; 30. 
Zachariah Chandler (1813-79), U. S. Senator: marble 
statue on brown variegated marble pedestal (1913), gift of 
Michigan; Charles H. Nichaus, sculptor. Cost $0000; 31. 
John C. Calhoun (1782-1850), Sec. of War and Vice-Presi- 
dent: marble statue on marble pedestal (1909), gift of South 
Carolina; Frederic W. Ruckstull (1853- ), sculptor. Cost 
$9000; 32. George L. Shoup (1836-1904), U. S. Senator; Last 
Territorial and First State Gov. of Idaho, 1889-90: marble 
statue on marble pedestal. Seal of Idaho in bronze (1909), 
gift of Idaho; Fredericks E. Triebel, sculptor. Cost $6000; 

33. Ethan Allen (1739-89) : marble statue on blue-veined 
marble pedestal (1875), gift of Vermont; Larkin G. Mead 
(1835-1910), sculptor. Cost $5300; 

Allen was the hero of Ticonderoga. On the night of May ioth, 
x 775> he led his Green Mountain Boys to the surprise of the fortress 
and demanded its surrender "in the name of Jehovah and the Con- 
tinental Congress.'' 

34. John P. G. Muhlenberg (1746-1807) : pure statuary- 
marble on gray-veined marble pedestal (1881), gift of Penn- 
sylvania; Blanche Nevin (1841 — ), sculptor. Cost $7500 ; 

Muhlenberg was an Episcopal clergyman, who received a Colonel's 
commission from Gen. Washington while still preaching in Virginia. 
One Sunday morning, in 1775, he concluded his sermon with the 
following stirring words: "There is a time for all things — a time 
to preach and a time to pray; but there is also a time to fight, and 
that time has now come!" Thereupon he pronounced the benediction, 
and throwing off his gown stood revealed in full military uniform. 
Proceeding to the door of the church he ordered the drums to beat 
for recruits. Nearly 300 members of his congregation enlisted. 

35. Jonathan Trumbull (1710-85) : marble statue on gray- 
black granite pedestal (1872), gift of Connecticut; Chauncey 
B. Ives (18-12- ), sculptor. Cost $7386.95; 

First Gov. of Connecticut, and a close friend of Washington, who 
"relied on him as one of his main pillars of support." And because 
of his skill in providing sinews of war gave him the name of "Brother 
Jonathan," used ever since as a nickname of the United States. 

36. Roger Sherman (1721-93), Member of committee to draft 
the Declaration of Independence, and afterwards a signer; 
marble statue on gray-black granite pedestal (1872), gift of 
Connecticut; Chauncey B. Ives, sculptor. Cost $7386.95; 37. 
Zebulon B. Vance (1830-94), State Governor and U. S. 
Senator, 1879, '84, '90 : bronze statue on gray limestone pedestal 
(1910), gift of North Carolina; Gutson B or glum (1867- ), 
sculptor; 38. Robert R. Livingston (1746-1813) : bronze 



THE CAPITOL 95 

statue on brown pedestal (1874), gift of New York; Erastus 

D. Palmer (1817-1904), sculptor. Cost $13,000; 

He was one of the committee appointed to draft the Declaration 
of Independence; First Chancellor of State; later Minister to France. 
He completed the treaty for the Louisiana Purchase, and is here 
represented as holding that document in his hand. 

39. James Harlan (1820-99), U. S. Senator and Sec. of 
Interior under Lincoln: bronze statue (1909), gift of Iowa; 
Nellie V. Walker (1874- ), sculptor. Cost $5000; 40. Samuel 
Jordan Kirkwood (1813-94), U. S. Senator and Sec. of the 
Interior under Garfield : bronze statue on pink granite pedestal, 
gift of Iowa; Vinnie Ream Hoxie (1847-1914), sculptor; 41. 
Francis P. Blair (1812-73), General in the Civil War: marble 
statue on gray marble pedestal (1899), gift of iMissouri; Alex- 
ander Doyle (1857 — ), sculptor. Cost $6000; 42. Thomas H. 
Benton (1782-11858), U. S. Senator and a distinguished His- 
torian: marble statue on gray marble pedestal (1899), gift of 
Missouri; Alexander Doyle, sculptor. Cost $6000; 43. Frances 

E. Willard (1839-98), founder of the World's Woman's 
Christian Temperance Union, and its President, 1881-98 : 
marble statue on white marble pedestal (1905), gift of Illi- 
nois; Helen Famsworth Mears (1878-1916), sculptor. Cost 
$9000; 44. John Corrie, M.D. (1803-55), Inventor of ice 
machine and mechanical refrigerator : marble statue on lilac 
marble pedestal, gift of Florida ; C. A. Pillars, sculptor ; 45. 
John Hanson (1715-83), President of the Continental Con- 
gress: bronze statue on pink-gray marble pedestal (1902), 
gift of Maryland; Richard E. Brooks (1865-IQ20) , sculptor. 
Cost $12,000; 46. Charles Carroll, of Carrollton, Md. (1737- 
1832), a signer of the Declaration of Independence: bronze 
statue on pink-gray marble pedestal (1901), gift of Mary- 
land; Richard E. Brooks, sculptor. Cost $12,000; 47. Samuel 
Adams (1722-1803) : marble statue on white marble pedestal 
(1873); Anne Whitney (1821-1915), sculptor. Cost $11,712.23; 

Samuel Adams did more than any other one man to bring 
about the Revolution. On March 6th, 1770, the day after the Boston 
massacre, he was spokesman of a committee sent to demand the 
withdrawal of the British troops. His ultimatum addressed to Gov. 
Hutchinson is inscribed on the pedestal: "Night is approaching. An 
immediate answer is expected. Both regiments or none." The troops 
were withdrawn. 

48. Stephen F. Austin (1793-1836), founder of Texas. Es- 
tablished first American colony on site of Austin in 1821 : 
marble statue on red-brown marble pedestal (1904), gift of 
Texas ; Elizabet Ney, sculptor. Cost $4500 ; 

Replicas of this statue and of Houston by the same sculptor are in 
the State Plouse at Austin Texas. 



9 6 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

49. Daniel Webster (1782-1852), Statesman and orator: 
marble statue on gray granite pedestal (1894), gift of New 
Hampshire. (Copy from original by Thomas Ball, in Concord, 
N. H.; Carl H. Conrads (1839- ), sculptor. Cost $4482.11; 

50. Sequoyah (approximate dates, (1770- 1845). Bronze statue 
(1917), gift of Oklahoma; Vinnie Ream Hoxie, sculptor. 

Sequoyah, once a leader of the Cherokee Indians of Georgia, owes 
his fame chiefly to his invention of the Cherokee alphabet, an achieve- 
ment all the more remarkable in that he had never attended school, 
and could neither read nor write the English language. In 1823 he 
moved from Georgia with the other members of the Cherokee tribe, 
and settled in that part of the Indian Territory which has since become 
Oklahoma. In 1828 he visited Washington as a representative of the 
western tribes of Indians, on which occasion his invention was recog- 
nized by Congress, and an appropriation of $500 was made for his 
benefit. 

The room in which John Quincy Adams died, then occu- 
pied by the Speaker of the House, is situated at the N. W. 
cor. of the old House Wing. It is reached through a small 
door at the N. W. cor. of Statuary Hall. The visitor passes 
through a short hallway and ascends four steps to a door 
marked "Enrolling Room." In L. of entrance is a pedestal 
bearing a commemorative inscription, and surmounted by a 
bust of Adams, by /. C. King. 

Having finished the circuit of the Capitol, the visitor 
who has entered by the eastern main entrance should by .all 
means return to the Rotunda and leave by W. exit, descend- 
ing stairs to doorway opening upon the terrace, in order to 
inspect the imposing stairways and the grounds below. Note 
especially the broad walks extending directly in line with 
Pennsylvania and New Jersey Aves. respectively, and over- 
arched from each side by rows of stately Oriental Plane trees. 

II. Pennsylvania Avenue from the Capitol to the 
White House 

^Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington's chief thorough- 
fare, reaches from Rock Creek on the N. W. to the Ana- 
costia River on the S. E., a distance of nearly five miles, with 
an extension of more than a mile beyond the bridge through 
Twining City. There is little, however, to interest the 
stranger W. of the White House or E. of the Capitol; but 
between these points the Avenue, connecting as it does the 
Legislative and executive branches of the Government, is the 
chief artery of the city's life. Here the first important hotels 



PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE 97 

grew up (several of which still cling to the old sites) ; and 
here almost to the close of the 19th century, were located 
the principal shops and places of amusement. 

History. Pennsylvania Ave., occupying the place of honor on 
Major L'Enfant's plan, dates its birthday from April 14th, 1792, when 
orders were given by the Commissioners to the General Overseer of 
Labor to have "a breadth of two perches done in the middle of the 
avenue from the President's Palace to the Capitol." Apparently little 
was accomplished, for in 1796 the Commissioners wrote to David 
Burnes (p. xxvii), through whose land the greater part of the 
avenue ran, warning him that they would not be responsible for 
damages if he continued to plant seed in Pennsylvania Ave. In 1800 
John Cotton Smith, member of Congress from Conn., records that 
Pennsylvania Ave. was at that time "nearly the whole distance a deep 
morass covered with alder bushes, which were cut through during the 
ensuing winter." At this time the avenue was crossed, about on the 
present line of 2d St., by the Tiber Creek, over which it was found 
necessary to construct a stone bridge. Jefferson from the first interested 
himself personally in developing the avenue, and there is little doubt 
that the plan of dividing its broad surface into three parts by four 
rows of Lombardy poplars, originated with him. By 1810 nearly 
$12,000 had been spent on these improvements. Meanwhile, members 
of Congress were gradually shifting their abode from Capitol Hill along 
the line of the avenue, centering around 6th St. The poplars did 
not thrive and gradually were replaced with a variety of other trees 
until, in 183 1, the scheme was abandoned, the middle rows being 
removed and the avenue macadamized. In 1842 Congress authorized 
an appropriation to erect lamp-posts along the avenue, and provide 
lamps and oil; and "the great National Broadway of the metropolis" 
had for seven years the distinction of being the only street in Wash- 
ington lighted at night. In 1848, however, the Washington Gaslight 
Co. was chartered and pipes were laid on the avenue from the Capitol 
to the White House. 

Throughout more than a century Pennsylvania Ave. has witnessed 
a long series of impressive historic events. Down its length, at re- 
current intervals, have passed the inaugural processions of the nation's 
Chief Magistrates; here also have passed the regiments of the U. S. 
Army on their way to the front in war times, and later in the cele- 
bration of peace. Here also have been seen the funeral processions 
of Zachary Taylor, Abraham Lincoln and Garfield, not to mention 
many another distinguished statesman, soldier or naval hero to whom 
the nation has here paid a final tribute. The most recent of these 
impressive occasions were those of the funeral of Admiral George Dewey, 
Jan. 20th, 191 7; the burial of the Unknown Hero, and the dedication 
of the Grant Memorial. 

A walk up the Avenue begins at the northwestern gate of 
the Capitol grounds. Here where 1st St. N. W. curves across 
its rounded boundary, is a circle containing the Naval Monu- 
ment, popularly termed "Peace Monument," facing toward 
the White House. The sculptures for this memorial to the 
"Officers, Seamen and Marines of the U. S. Navy who fell 
in defense of the Union and Liberty of their country, 1861- 
65," were modeled by Franklin Simmons in Rome, from a 
sketch by Admiral David D. Porter; the architectural por- 
tion, designed by Edward Clark, was executed by Bonanni 






98 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

Bros, of Carrara, Italy, brought to America by a ship of war 
and erected 1877. 

Surmounting the pedestal are two bronze figures: America sadly 
enumerating her losses, while History records, "They died that their 
country might live." Below, on the front or western plinth, stands 
Victory flanked by an infant Neptune and Mars; on the opposite, or 
rear side, Peace extends an olive branch. 

The reason why critics find this monument inadequate and dis- 
appointing is explained by its history. Admiral Porter was entrusted 
with $16,000 to have made an ideal group representing Grief and 
History, to be erected on a simple pedestal at Annapolis. Afterwards 
it was decided to place the group in Washington upon the promise of 
Congress to increase the subscription. The sculptures, however, were 
already finished, and the extra $25,000 were expended upon a dispro- 
portionately large pedestal which dwarfs the figures. 

West First St. was for many years disfigured by railway 
tracks, laid and used as a military necessity during the Civil 
War, although without legal warrant. They ran from Long 
Bridge up Maryland Ave. to 1st St., and thence to 
the yards of the old Baltimore and Ohio station at New 
Jersey Ave. and C St. Governor Shepherd (p. xxxiv), finding 
that they interfered with his plans for the city's improvement, 
arbitrarily removed them — one of the many acts which hastened 
his downfall. 

"When it is considered that Mr. John W. Garrett, the President 
of the Road, was as influential in the political and financial world at 
that time as J. Pierpont Morgan at the height of his power, the 
audacity of the act, although in the discharge of a public duty, has 
a phase of moral grandeur." — Tindall's History of Washingtan. 

Proceeding westward from the Peace Monument, we pass , 
on L. the ^Botanical Gardens (p. 241), extending from 
1st to 3d St. Opposite, on N. side, are two blocks of small, 
time-worn dwellings, many of them now cheap rooming 
houses. 

At the N. W. cor. of 26. St. is the site of the first Rail- 
way passenger station (Baltimore and Ohio) in Washington. 
No. 237 Pennsylvania Ave. was formerly a boarding-house 
where Walt Whitman at one time stayed. Adjoining on the 
W., at N. E. cor. of 3d St. is a century-old hostelry, originally 
known as the St. Charles Hotel, but, after many changes^of 
name, is now the New Capitol Hotel, a favorite stopping 
place for Indian Chiefs. 

This quaint old building was erected 181 3-19, the years in which 
the Capitol was restored. The gray marble columns of the mam 
entrance on 3d St., formed part of the debris from the burnt Capitol; as 
was also the cornice over the doorway. Beneath the pavement on the 
VV. front and extending around the corner on B St., may still be 






PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE 99 

seen a series of eleven pens where slaves were kept until sold at the 
block not far away. Among the guests of this hotel are included 
Daniel Webster, Henry Clay, Martin Van Buren, John C. Calhoun and 
Andrew Jackson. The latter is said to have made two of his famous 
speeches from the hotel balcony. 

At the S. W. cor. of 3d St., facing the Gardens, is 
Made's Hotel, an ancient wooden hostelry, founded in 1848 
by a Swiss inn-keeper, whose descendants still conduct it. 
Here, in 1880, died Gen. John A. Sutter, on whose property 
gold was first discovered in California. 

Opposite, on the N. W. cor. of 3d St., stands another hotel 
with an interesting past. It was originally known as Gadsby's 
Hotel, and was the third tavern of that name in Washington 
(see pp. 217 and 516), and here resided, among others, Reverdy 
Johnson of Maryland, W. P. Thompson of Kentucky, Vice- 
President Hannibal Hamlin and Vice-President Henry 
Wilson. It is now known as the Vendome Hotel. 

At the N. W. cor. of John Marshall Place (formerly 
4Y2 St.) stands conspicuously the six-story white structure 
of the Ford Automobile Warehouse. To the traveller approach- 
ing the city from the south, its massive central tower is the 
one landmark which obtrudes itself, between the Capitol and 
the Washington Monument. The one interesting fact about it 
is that, although under no obligation to do so, Mr. Ford sub- 
mitted the plans of this building to the City Art Commission 
and accepted their advice, in order to conform with the general 
scheme of municipal improvement. 

The site of this building was for several years occupied prior to 
1855, by a select boarding-house, conducted by Mrs. Elizabeth Peyton. 
Among her guests were Henry Clay, John C. Calhoun, Henry A. Wise 
and R. Y. Hayne of South Carolina. It was here that Harriet Mar- 
tineau stayed during her visit to the Capital, and she has recorded 
that her pleasantest evenings were those when Clay, Calhoun, Daniel 
Webster, Justice Story and the aged Chief Justice John Marshall would 
"repose themselves by our fireside." Mrs. Peyton was the widow of 
Corson Thompson Peyton, U. S. Consul to Matanzas, Cuba, who died 
there in 1821. From 1855 to her death in 1888 she kept a boarding- 
house at 334 Indiana Ave. 

Across the Avenue, on the S. W. cor. of 4^2 St., stands 
the six-story Colonisation Building, which formed the original 
home of the Georgetown University Law School (1870-73). 

Northward on John Marshall Place the vista is closed 
by the Roman portico of the venerable City Hall (p. 137). 

The Avenue from this point westward to Market Space 
was the first section to be thickly built up. By 1825 these 
two blocks were lined on both sides with shops and boarding- 
houses, in the latter of which a large proportion of the Sena- 



ioo RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

tors and Representatives found lodgings. The ^National 
Hotel (p. 4), N. E. cor. of 6th St., was built in 1827, by the 
Calvert estate. During the years 1840-50 it was kept by 
Coleman, and was a popular house patronized by John Bell 
of Tenn. ; John P. Hale, of New Hampshire, and Sam 
Houston, of Texas. Webster and Clay both resided there for 
a time, and there, on June 29th, 1852, Clay died. His room, 
No. 32 (old numbering), was later occupied for many year? 
by Alexander H. Stephens, It was formerly shown to tourists. 
The interior of the hotel was severely damaged by fire Oct. 2, 
1921. All four corners are now occupied by hotels : N. W. 
cor., Atlantic Hotel (p. 4) ; S. E. cor., St. James Hotel 
(p. 4) ; S. W. cor., Hozuard House (p. 4). 

The Atlantic Hotel stands on the site of Washington's earliest 
book store (1801-07), erected by William Duane, editor of a Jeffer- 
sonian paper, the Philadelphia Aurora, and hence called the "Aurora 
Book Store." 

The Metropolitan Hotel (p. 4), at ;No. 615, is an- 
other historic hostelry. As early as 1802 one William 
Woodward acquired the eastern part of its present site, on 
which he opened Woodward's Centre Tavern. The same 
ground was occupied about 1808 by Davis's Hotel. In 1816 
it became the McKeown Hotel, and in 1820 the Indian Queen, 
under which title it remained for many years Washington's 
leading hotel. It was designated by a large swinging sign 
on which Pocahontas was painted in glaring colors. The 
house was kept by Jesse B'. Brown, "the Prince of Land- 
lords" who, wearing a large white apron, personally presided 
at table, on which decanters of brandy and whiskey were 
served without extra charge. This hotel was, in the early 
years, headquarters for men from the west and southwest. 

Here, in 1841, Chief Justice Cranch of the D. C. Supreme 
Court administered the oath of office to President John Tyler. 
The present structure was erected in 185 1, when the name was 
changed to the Metropolitan. Here in 1852 Kossuth and his 
suite were guests of Congress. Here also Avas the residence 
of Anson Burlinghame, Ambassador of China, to make treaties, 
and of Sun Chia-Ku and Chi-Kang, associated high envoys 
and Ministers of China. 

The name was changed from Brown's to the Metropolitan 
Hotel in 1851. Here, in 1852, the Hungarian patriot, Kossuth, 
and his suite were entertained. 

At 7th St. Pennsylvania Ave. intersects C St. and ^ 
Louisiana Ave. (running N. E. from the Mall to Judiciary 
Square). Here in front of Washington Market, from 7th 



PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE 101 

to 9th Sts., it broadens out into a rectangular plaza, approxi- 
mately 400 ft. broad by 700 ft. long, known as Market 
Space. Until the removal of the shopping centre to F St., 
the N. side of Market Space contained many of the leading 
stores; and here, occupying the greater part of the square 
between 7th, 8th and D Sts., is Kauri's Department Store 
built partly on the site of Woodward & Lothrop's first store 
(p. 148). 

At the E. end of Market Space, in the triangle formed by 
Pennsylvania Ave. and C St., stands a small ornamental drink- 
ing fountain, the gift of Dr. Henry D. Cogswell, of San Fran- 
cisco. Immediately N., at the apex of C St. and Louisiana 
Ave., is a circle containing a Monument to Dr. Benjamin F . 
Stephenson (1823-71), the projector of the Grand Army of 
the Republic (which organization gave the bronze sculptures). 
It consists of a triangular granite pyramid; on the N. W. 
fagade are two high-relief figures in bronze, a soldier and a 
sailor, inscribed 1861-65, and symbolizing Fraternity; below 
is a medallion portrait of Stephenson. S. Side: high-relief 
female figure, Loyalty, with shield and drawn sword ; E. 
Side : Charity, female figure protecting .a child. The monu- 
ment was dedicated 1908. /. Massey Rhind, sculptor. 

The two-story gray limestone building immediately be- 
hind this monument, at the juncture of C St. and Louisiana 
Ave., is the National Bank of Washingon. 

This bank was founded in 1809 under the title Bank of Washington, 
and numbered among its first 12 directors, Daniel Carroll of Dudding- 
ton, George Blagdon, John Davidson, Robert Brent and Joel Barlow. 
The directors met at Long's Hotel, and Daniel Carroll was elected 
president. The first building was on New Jersey Ave., between B 
and C Sts., S. E. The bank was removed, 1829, to the National 
Hotel; and in 1831 to the present site, acquired at a cost of $10,000. 

Seventh St., passing W. of the Stephenson Monument, 
is one of the main thoroughfares northward, with trolleys 
running to Chevy Chase and Rock Creek Bridge, and southward 
to the steamboat wharves. 

In the long triangle W. of 7th St. stands an Equestrian 
Statue of Gen. WinHeld Scott Hancock (1824-86), of bronze, 
heroic size, erected by Congress at a cost of $40,000. Henry 
J. Ellicott, sculptor. 

Washington Market occupies the whole S. side of Mar- 
ket Space, from 7th to 9th St., extending through to B St. 
It was erected by the Washington Market Co. (chartered by 
Congress May 20th, 1870) and opened July 1st, 1872. Adolph 
Cluss, architect. 



102 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

In 1888 and following years the market was rebuilt and its capacity 
nearly doubled, and the 9th St. hall and arcade were added. The 
area now used for market purposes is 2*4 acres; number of stalls in 
main market, 666; total number of spaces, including booths under awn- 
ings, wagon spaces, etc., 1000. The cold storage room is refrigerated 
by 10 miles of two-inch brine pipe. 

The Washington Market occupies the site of the old Center Mar- 
ket, currently known as the Marsh or "Ma'sh" Market because the 
site was_ originally a marsh, where reed-birds were often shot. On 
the S-. side, along the line of the present B St., was the Washington 
Canal, built to connect the Eastern Branch with the Chesa- 
peake and Ohio Canal at its terminus near 17th St. Starting at a 
point near the Navy Yard, the Washington Canal met the Tiber near 
the Mall, a little S. of Pennsylvania Ave., and followed the course 
of that stream to the point where it emptied into the Potomac. The 
canal was a stone-walled ditch from 10 to 15 ft. deep, and Irom 45 
to 150 ft. wide. But in 1853 it had ceased to be regarded as any- 
thing more than a big sewer, serving chietiy as a dumping place for 
the market refuse. Because of this canal, the whole southwestern 
quarter ot the city was currently known as "The Island." 

Ninth Street, crossing Market Space at the W. end, is' 
another north-and-south artery of traffic, with trolleys 
running to Takoma Park, Soldiers' Home, etc. In the 
park space, at S. E. cor. of 9th St. and Pennsylvania Ave., 
stands a bronze Statue of Major General John A. Rawlins, 
Grant's Chief of Staff, and subsequently his Secretary of 
War. It was cast from Confederate cannon captured by 
Grant's armies, and erected in 1874 by friends of Rawlins 
at a cost of $13,000 (/. Bailey, sculptor). 

West, at the corner oif C St. and Louisiana Ave., still 
stands (1922) an old theatre which has probably undergone 
more changes of name than any other playhouse in the city. 
It was opened as the Gymnasium in 1862, and became suc- 
cessively the Washington Varieties, Oxford Hall, and the 
Canterbury. It was then re-organized by a William L. Wall, 
and opened as Wall's Opera House, September 24th, 1866, 
under the management of James R. Ford, whose own theater 
was permanently closed upon the death of Lincoln (p. 145). 
Here Laura Keene, J. M. Wallack, Jr. and Edwin Forrest 
gave their last performances in Washington; and here the 
curtain was rung down on the death scene of Helen Weston, 
who died next day in the Kirkwood House (p. 106). 
The theater was injured by fire in 1871, but quickly rebuilt 
and renamed Ford's Opera House. It has since been, at dif- 
ferent times, the Bijou, the Empire, and Majestic. 

No. 909 Pennsylvania Ave. is the site of the former resi- 
dence of George Wood, author of Peter Schlemihl in America, 
which at one time had a great vogue. 

Number 925 Pennsylvania Ave., now occupied by a 
branch of the Woolworth stores, is the site of another his- 



PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE 103 

toric house of entertainment, first known as Iron Hall. Here 
Stuart Robson made his first ambitious but unsuccessful ap- 
pearance on the stage. Later it became Metzerott Hall, and 
here Parepa sang for the first time in Washington. A series 
of readings were given here during the 6o's, one of the read- 
ers being Mark Twain. Later the Hall became identified 
with the so-called "Shepherd Ring," while in 1877 it served 
as a studio in which Mrs. Fassett's famous picture, "The 
Florida Case before the Electoral Commission" (p. 74), was 
painted. 

At 10th St. Pennsylvania Ave. intersects with D St. In 
the triangle here formed is a bronze Statue of Benjamin 
Franklin, represented in his Court dress as U. S. Minister 
to France. It was modeled by Jacques Jouvenal, after Plass- 
man, and presented to the city, in 1889, by Stilson Hutchins. 

Stilson Hutchins (1838-1912) was a capitalist and newspaper pro- 
prietor, who founded successively the Dubuque Herald, the St. Louis 
Times and (1877) the Washington Post, which he conducted until 1889. 

Behind the Franklin statue, at the N. E. cor. of 10th and 
D Sts. stands the red brick Hutchins Building, formerly the 
home of the Washington Post. In this building the first ex- 
perimental electric lighting plant in this city was established 
and operated in 1881, for the purpose of illuminating the 
Avenue in honor of the reunion of the Grand Army of the 
Cumberland, when the statue of General Thomas was dedi- 
cated (p. 228). The Hutchins Building occupies in part 
the site of the home of Peter Force, a former Mayor of 
Washington (1836-40), and author of American Archives. 

The S. W. cor. of 10th St. and Pennsylvania Ave. is the 
site of a famous old restaurant, kept for many years by one 
Michael Coombs, who made a fortune during the Civil War 
from the patronage of the Union soldiers. The building, 
erected in 1809, of imported English brick, was demolished in 
1893 to make room for a five-story office building. 

North on 10th St. is the historic Ford's Theatre, where 
President Lincoln was shot (p. 145). South on the Mall 
looms up the dome of the New National Museum (p. 260). At 
nth St., S. E. cor., stands Harvey's Restaurant (p. 7), the 
oldest and best known of the fashionable restaurants (exclu- 
sive of hotels). It first achieved fame as "Harvey's Oyster 
House," in Civil War days, and after 64 years is still locally 
known by the old name. 

The oyster house was first established by Thomas M. and George 
W. Harvey in 1858, in an old blacksmith shop opposite Carusi'si Theatre. 
Business grew rapidly, since Harvey's had virtually a monopoly of 



104 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

the oyster business in, Washington, and by 1862 purveyors to the Array 
were ordering from 100 to 500 gallons at a time. Lack of! adequate 
facilities for boiling oysters in such vast bulk led to experiments with 
steam, resulting in the invention of the Steamed Oyster, on which the 
fame of Harvey's has ever since rested. In 1863, by special arrange- 
ment, President Lincoln, accompanied by Mrs. Lincoln, Secretary 
Seward and his wife, viteited the former blacksmith shop, to> partake 
of the new delicacy. 

The present building was acquired in 1866 and opened as a fully 
equipped high-class_ restaurant. General Grant was a familiar figure 
here, and his favorite seat was in the alcove off 1 the second-floor dining- 
room. Others) included in the long; list of famous guests are: Reverdy 
Jiohnson. Stephen A. Douglas, Benjamin F. Butler, "Sunset" Cox, 
James G. Blaine, Roscoe Conkling, and Presidents Garfield, Arthur, 
Roosevelt and Taft. 

Immediately adjoining Harvey's on the E., is the 
Avenue entrance to the New Capitol Theatre (formerly the 
Lyceum), the main body of which occupies an historic site 
at the N. E. cor. of nth and -C Sts. Aside from occasional J 
performances given in Blodgett's Hotel (p. 142), Washington 
had. in its first years, no playhouse. In 1803 a number of citi- 
zens met at Tunnicliff's Tavern (p. 410) and planned for the 
erection of the first theatre in the city, which was built in 1804 
on this site, and known officially as the Washington Theatre, 
and colloquially as "The Theatre." It is interesting to know 
that in spite of many casualties and reconstructions a portion 
of the side and rear walls of the New Capital are the same 
which were erected in 1804. 

After its partial destruction the building was sold in 1822 to the 
elder Carusi, who reconstructed it under the new title of City Assembly 
Rooms. Here Carusi conducted a dancing academy, and in thus same 
hall were held many notable gatherings attended by the best people 
in the District. It was the scene of the inaugural balls of Presidents 
Van Buren (1837), Polk (1845), Taylor (1849), Pierce (1853), and 
Buchanan (1857). In 1857, after the National Theatre had been burned 1 
for the second time (p. 108), Carusi's Saloon (as it was then 
called) was remodeled and resumed the old name of the Washington 
Theatre. Among the notable performances here given was a two- 
weeks engagement, at the time of Lincoln's second inauguration (1865), 
of the Wallack and Davenport Combination, with Rose Etinge and 
Henry Placide. 

Josiah Quincy, who visited Washington in 1826. records that he 
"saw the waltz introduced into society for the first time," at a public 
ball at Carusi's. 

At nth St., where the Avenue intersects D St., stands 
the Post Office Department Building, occupying the entire 
city square bounded by nth, 12th, C and D Sts.. a massive 
structure of Vinalhaven, Maine, granite, on the Romanesque 
order, with a conspicuous tower 315 ft. in height. Cost, in- 
clusive of site, a little over $3,000,000. The building was 
designed in the office of the Supervising Architect of the 
Treasury. 






PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE 105 

This building originally contained the city Post Office as 
well as the offices of the Department. There was also a museum 
connected with the Dead Letter Office, containing a curious 
assortment of unclaimed articles which had gone astray in the 
mail. Upon the completion, however, of the new City Post 
Office (p. 357), at North Capitol and G Sts., the Pennsyl- 
vania Ave. building was given over exclusively to the Depart- 
ment work. It contains now nothing of interest to the general 
sightseer. 

Diagonally opposite, at the N. W. cor. of nth St., is the 
ten-story white marble building (erected 1808) of the Wash- 
ington Evening Star, the leading afternoon daily (p. 44), the 
first number of which appeared in December, 1852. 

The Star, established by Charles W. Dennison, soon passed into the 
control of William D. Wallach, a journalist with a keen instinct for 
news, who introduced new ideas and methods into Washington journal- 
ism, which quickly proved more popular than the stately and flowing 
periods of the old National Intelligencer. The Star soon became the 
most widely read newspaper in Washington ; and this position it has 
maintained to the present time. 

Its present editor, Theodore Noyes, began as a Star reporter in 
1877; became associate editor ten years later, and editor-in-chief in 
1908. Mr. Noyes has identified himself closely with the welfare of 
the city. He is known as the "Father of the Washington Public 
Library;" as having been chiefly instrumental in ridding the city of 
grade crossings and of occupancy of parks by railroads; he helped to 
keep overhead trolleys out of Washington; and, since 1888, has advo- 
cated a constitutional amendment giving the District representation 
in Congress. 

The marble lobby of the main business office, on the 
ground floor, deserves a visit. It contains a series of seven 
mural paintings symbolizing the purpose and scope of the 
modern newspapers. They were executed by Frederick 
Dielman, Director of the Art Schools of Cooper Union, New 
York. 

On the West Wall: 1. (central panel), Diffusion of Intelligence. 
In the centre is Journalism, a seated female figure _ sending forth the 
winged Genius of Enlightenment; on L., kneeling child with hour glass 
and tablet marked "Lux," signifying the periodic issue of the newspaper; 
on R., kneeling youthful figure, with trumpet of Fame and Printing- 
press, surmounted with a Liberty-cap; 2. (on L.), Art, History and 
Literature; (three female figures) in centre stands History recording 
events; seated, on L. and R., are Art holding a Grecian Urn, and 
Literature with manuscript and lyre; 3. (on R.) Instruction, Justice, 
Moderation: (three female figures seated) in centre^ is Instruction 
teaching a boy with Phrygian cap and spear (symbolizing the young 
citizen of a free state); on L.., is Justice with sword and law book; 
on R. is Moderation with fasces and shield. 

North Wall: 4. News Gathering, personified by central female 
figure scanning the horizon; kneeling on either side are children, 



io6 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

L. with telegraph instrument; R. with carrier pigeon; 5. Advertising: 
in the centre is a statue of Mercury, god of commerce; below, in 
front, are a group of children displaying their wares; on L. is Com- 
merce, female figure with winged wheel; on R. is Manufacture, female 
figure showing textiles 

South Wall: 6. Steam and Electricity: on R., winged figure of 
Electricity brandishing a thunderbolt; on L., male figure, personifying 
Steam, turns a wheel, in the background is the aurora borealis; 7. 
Mechanical development of Printing: in centre is female figure sym- 
bolizing the old style of hand type-setting; on R. is a Mergenthaler 
linotype machine; on L., modern rotary press. 

The Star Building houses two of the most important 
business organizations in Washington : 1. The Washington 
Chamber of Commerce, with a membership (1922) of up- 
wards of 500. Its general purposes as defined in its by-laws 
are: "to promote and nurture commercial and manufacturing j 
enterprises . . . and to bring the citizens of the District, 
especially its business men, into . . . closer relationship." 

2. The Washington Board of Trade (organized 1889), 
which, in 1922, had an active membership of upwards of 
1400. Among the civic improvements which this organiza- 
tion has successfully championed are: the completion of the 
sewerage system; the deepening of the river channel: the 
reclamation of the Anacostia flats ; and the furthering of the 
Park Commission Plans for developing and beautifying 
Washington. 

Diagonally opposite, on nth St., is the office of the 
Washington Herald (p. 44). At S. E. cor. of nth and E 
Sts. is the Hotel Harrington, enlarged in 1917 (p. 4). 

Facing the Post Office, at the N. W. cor. of 12th St., stands 
the Raleigh Hotel (p. 3), one of the four or five leading 
hotels of Washington. 

History. Already in the early twenties this site was occupied by 
a hotel known as Appier's. Subsequently, in 1839, a building was 
erected here to house the city Post Office; but this was soon after 
replaced by the Fountain Inn, which in turn made way for a four- 
story structure erected in 1847 by Fuller & Co., and known success- 
ively as Fuller's Hotel, the Irving and the Kirkwood. Here Andrew 
Johnson resided while Vice-President; and the name Kirkwood House 
survived in history chiefly as the place where his assassination was 
attempted by the Lincoln conspirators. Here also Johnson took the 
Oath of Office immediately following Lincoln's death. The property 
was later purchased by Alexander R. Shepherd, who erected here an 
office building which he used many years as his place of business. 
This in turn gave place to the present Raleigh Hotel, erected in 1893. 

On the walls of the hotel Foyer are numerous paintings and 
murals, notably. The Departure of Sir Walter Raleigh, The ^ 
White Cliffs of Dover and a group of English Pastorals by 
C. Y. Turner; also Chelmonski's After the Fair. Among the 






PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE 10? 

paintings in the Bar adjoining the Cafe, is R. L. Johnson's 
Meeting of the Arab Sheiks. In the Rathskeller, known as 
the '"Boar's Head," are decorations by Turner, including quota- 
tions from the Rubaiyat. There is also a Dutch Room with 
decorations by Turner. On the top floor of the Raleigh is 
a spacious ball-room and banquet hall, the color scheme of 
which is white and gold. 

Diagonally opposite the Raleigh, at No. 1202 Pennsyl- 
vania Ave., is the Terminal Station of the Washington- 
Virginia Railway. The cars start from opposite the rear 
entrance on D St. 

Opposite this station, No. 1202 D St., much modernized, 
and now used for business purposes, is the old house occupied 
by John P. Van Ness for 10 years, after his marriage to 
Marcia Burnes. Here in 1807 and again in 181 1 Washington 
Irving was their guest. 

The spacious quadrangle formed by the intersection of 
the Avenue with E St., contains a number of notable buildings. 
On the S. side, extending from 13th to I3>4 Sts., is the six- 
story buff brick Southern Railway Building, the new or eastern 
hall of which was completed in 1917 (Milburn, Heister & Co., 
architects). 

The Southern Railway Building occupies the site of two 
historic hotels. At the E. cor. formerly stood the Prescott 
House, used during the early days of the Civil War as a 
prison for political prisoners. At the W. corner stood the 
Globe Hotel, kept by James Maher as early as 1827, and well 
known as headquarters of Indian Chiefs when they came to 
pay their annual visit to their "White Father." 

The office of the Danish Legation is in the Southern 
Building, Room 434. 

Opposite, across Pennsylvania Ave., on the N. line of E 
St., stands the National Theatre, dating from 1835. Ex- 
ternally it is a stolid, ungainly structure flanked by square, 
squat towers. Architects: for the fagade, A. B. Mullett; for 
the interior, J. B. McElfatrick & Sons. While no longer 
Washington's leading playhouse, the National Theatre has 
an almost unrivalled record in the history of the American 
stage, dating back over eighty years. The present structure 
(1917) is the sixth theatre erected on this site, all of which, 
with one exception, have borne the same name. 

The site was originally chosen by William W. Corcoran, and the 
original trustees included Henry Randall, William L. Brent, Richard 



108 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

Smith and Benjamin Ogle Tayloe. Financial difficulties having arisen 
during construction, Mr. Corcoran supplied the deficit. The first 
National Theatre opened in the fall of 1835, with a play entitled 
"The Man of the World." 

During the ensuing ten years the artists seen here included 

Junius Brutus Booth, J. H. Hackett, Edwin Forrest, Fanny Ellsler 

and Ole Bull. The theatre was burned March 5th, 1845, together 
with several dwellings on 13th St. 

It was rebuilt as the New National Hall in 1850, the work being 
unduly rushed in order to be ready for the reception of Jenny Lind, who 
made her Washington debut in December. A few weeks later it was 
reopened as a circus, when the sudden collapse of one of its hastily 
built walls compelled it to close its doors. 

The third edifice, built 1852, witnessed the Washington debuts of 
Lola Montez and Charlotte Cushman; followed by engagments of the 
Ravel Family, Agnes Robertson and Edwin Booth; also an operatic 
season with Grisi and Mario. 

Burned again in 1856, this theatre was rebuilt and opened in 1862, 
as Grover's Theatre; then remodeled and reopened as The National in 
1864. Here appeared, among others, Lotta, Joseph Jefferson, Ristori, 
J. S. Clarke, Lydia Thompson and Marie Seebach. The theatre was 
burned for the third time in 1873, rebuilt and reopened the following 
year. 

Adjoining the theatre on the W., is the eleven-story white 
marble Munsey Building, a conspicuous feature in a city where 
sky-scrapers are a rarity. In this building are the offices of 
the Finnish Legation. 

In the triangular park at 13th. and E. Sts. stands the 
equestrian statue of Count Casimir Pulaski (1748-79), the 
Polish patriot who joined Washington's army in 1777, was 
commissioned as Brigadier General, distinguished himself and 
Brandywine and Germantown, and was mortally wounded at 
the Battle of Savannaah, Oct. 9, 1789. Monument erected 1910 
at cost of $55,000. Casimir Chodzinski, sculptor. 

The new ^Municipal Building, popularly known as the 
"District Building," occupies an entire city block, with a 
frontage of 243 ft. on D and E Sts., and 193 ft. on 13^ and 
14th Sts. It is a classic structure, mainly on the Corinthian 
order, with its principal facade on E St., facing the Avenue 
across a triangular park space. The basement story of Blue 
Hill (Me.) granite supports a rustic first story above which 
is an ordinance of sixteen Corinthian columns rising through 
three stories, and surmounted by a cornice and attic roof. 
The material of all the upper stories is South Dover (N. Y.) 
marble. An appropriation of $2,500,000 was made, which 
covered the cost both of the land and the building. The 
latter was approximately $1,750,000. Cope & Stewardson, 
of Philadelphia, architects. 



PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE 109 

The external sculptures are by Adolf de Nesti (b. Flor- 
ence, Italy, 1870). They consist of eight symbolic statues, 
heroic size, placed along the upper cornice of the main facade, 
and repeated in whole or in part on the other three sides of 
the building. These statues (from E. to W.) symbolize: 
1. Sculpture, male figure holding mallet and carved tablet 
(the head is a portrait of the sculptor) ; 2. Painting, female 
figure with palette; 3. Architecture, male figure holding Ionic 
capital ; 4. Music, female figure with harp ; 5. Commerce, 
female figure with winged globe, and shield adorned with 
a ship; 6. Engineering, male figure with surveying instru- 
ment; 7. Agriculture, female figure with fruits of the field; 
8. Statesmanship, male figure in Roman toga, with Eagle. 
The sculptures over the main entrance (also by de Nesti) 
consist of the coat-of-arms of the District, surmounted by 
an eagle, and flanked by two half recumbent female figures : 
on L., Justice, with scales ; on R., the Law, with scroll. 

The vestibule is finished in pure white marble, hand- 
somely carved. On R. is a bronze portrait medallion com- 
memorating John W. Ross, Commissioner of District of 
Columbia, 1890-1902 (U. S. J. Dunbar, sculptor). 

In entrance hall, near foot of stairs (L), is a bronze 
portrait bust of Crosby Stuart Noyes (1825-2908), a promi- 
nent citizen and philanthropist. William Couper, sculptor. 

There is comparatively little to interest the stranger 
within the building, with the exception of the fine main lower 
hall and stairway, finished in Georgia marble from the Che- 
rokee and Kenneshaw quarries, and the *Board Room on the 
upper, or Administration floor. The latter, the handsomest 
room in the building, 25 x 52 ft, extends along the N. side, 
and is finished throughout with richly carved and deep-toned 
butternut wood (except part of the upper panels and mould- 
ing, where it became necessary to use a different wood stained 
to match, because the available supply of seasoned butternut 
was insufficient). 

Along the north hallway, and in the adjoining rooms, 
are some interesting portraits of former Mayors of Wash- 
ington and Governors of the District. Those in the hallway, 
from W. to E. are as follows : 1. *Joseph Gales, Jr., Mayor 
1827-30 (Chester Harding, artist) ; 2. Philip Dodridge (Va.), 
Representative 1829-31 ; 3. Senator Samuel L. Southard of 
N. J., 1821-33; 4. Alexander Thompson (Penn.), Representa- 
tive 1824-26; 5. Charles Fenton Mercer (Va.) Representative 



no RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

1817-39; (over stair landing) 6. *William W. Seaton, Mayor 
1840-50. In room 509 portrait of James G. Berret, Mayor 
1858-61 {Robert Hinckley, artist) ; Matthew G. Emery, Mayor 
1870-71. In the ante rooms of the Commissioners' offices are 
other portraits, chiefly pen-drawings and photographs, repre- 
senting an almost complete series of the Mayors and 
Governors. 

In the Plaza in front oif the Municipal Building stands a 
statue of Alexander R. 'Shepherd (1835-1902), former Gover- 
nor of Washington (p. xxxiv). U. S. J. Dunbar, sculptor. 

The New Willard Hotel (p. 3), at the N. W. cor. of 
Pennsylvania Ave. and 14th St., rivals the Shoreham as 
Washington's most fashionable hotel. It is a twelve-story 
'structure in the French Renaissance style, and extends 
through from the avenue, along 14th St., to F St. {Henry G. 
Hardenbergh, architect). Especially famous is the central 
hallway on the main floor, popularly known as "Peacock 
Alley." Here, by day and by night, may be -seen interesting 
groups of distinguished guests of many nationalities. Among 
the various organizations which hold their periodic meetings 
at Willard's, the most widely known is the Gridiron Club, 
which holds two dining sessions annually, at which the 
President of the United States and other dignitaries are 
"not only special guests, but the special marks for unique 
and witty darts ; in fact they constitute the meat, which is 
'roasted' on both sides as it wriggles and broils on the grates 
of the human gridiron." 

The site of the New Willard has been occupied as a hotel for 
approximately a century. In 1818 the first hostelry was opened by one 
John Tennison in the corner house of a row of six two-story-and-attic 
houses, erected by John Tayloe. Associated with him was John 
Strother, who became the sole proprietor, and for six years ran it 
successfully as Strother's Hotel, gradually absorbing the other houses 
in the row. By 1830 the name had been changed to the "City Hotel," 
and during 1840-50 it was conducted by Fuller and Company, and 
known either as "Fuller's City Hotel," or more briefly as "Fuller's." 
Meanwhile, the title remained vested in John Tayloe, by whose will 
it passed, in 1847, to Benjamin Ogle Tayloe. Three years later, when 
the Fuller management ceased, Mr. Tayloe's second wife, who was 
Phoebe Warren of Troy, recommended as the new manager a "dear 
friend" named Henry A. Willard, then running a Hudson River 
steamer. Under this new manager, who brought with him his brothers, 
Joseph and C. C. Willard, the hotel so prospered that in the early 
sixties it was enlarged and extended up to F St. Early in the Civil 
War Willard's caught fire, and came near being destroyed, but was 
saved by Colonel Ellsworth's Zouaves, who happened then to be 
quartered there. Later Willard's was sold at auction and was bought 



THE WHITE HOUSE in 

in by Joseph Willard, who was henceforth sole owner and manager. 
It was after this that C. C. Willard acquired the Ebbitt House (p. 5). 
Among distinguished guests at the older Willard's were Presidents 
Zachary Taylor, Millard Fillmore and James Buchanan. Here also 
Abraham Lincoln stayed prior to his inauguration in 1861. And here 
General Grant received his appointment as Lieut. General. It was 
also while staying at Willard's that Mrs. Julia Ward Howe was 
inspired to write "The Battle Hymn of the Republic." 

West oif Willard's, at No. 411 Pennsylvania Ave. is the 
five-story Occidental Hotel (p. 5), occupying another his- 
toric hotel site. As early as 1822 the "Washington Hotel" 
stood here, known also as "Sandford's Hotel," after its pro- 
prietor, Alexander Sandford. 

On the S. side O'f the avenue between 14th and 15th Sts., 
stand the Washington headquarters of the Grand Army of 
the Republic; Poll's Theatre (p. 24) ; and the Oxford Hotel, 
the latter occupying (at S. E. cor. of 15th St.) the site 
of Mrs. Sutor's boarding house, where Admiral Cockburn 
stopped at the time of his occupation of Washington in 1814. 

Opposite, at N. E. cor. of Pennsylvania Ave. and 14th 
St., facing the Treasury and extending through to F St. is 
the Washington Hotel (PI. II — D5), a ten-story structure 
of buff brick and Indiana Limestone, with ornamental frieze 
at 8th story, consisting of medallion portraits of famous men. 
Carrere & Hastings, architects. On the main floor is a great 
assembly hall containing nearly 6500 sq. ft. of floor space, 
known as the Salon des Nations. 

III. The White House 

**The White House (PI. II— C4), as the residence of 
the Chief Executive is popularly known, is situated in the upper 
portion of the fourteen-acre plot called the Executive 
Grounds, centering approximately at the intersection of the 
axes of 16th and G Sts., with its main fagade overlooking 
Pennsylvania Ave., directly opposite Lafayette Square. In 
style it is an adaptation of Italian Renaissance, built of Acquia 
Creek sandstone, painted white ; and its stately N. and S. 
porticoes are borne upon Ionic columns. The legend, re- 
peated in practically all guide-books, that the architect, James 
Hoban, an Irishman by birth, based his design upon the 
Palace of the Duke of Leinster, in Dublin, has been definitely 
refuted. On the other hand, the building admittedly bears 
a striking resemblance to the vice-regal lodge in Phoenix 
Park, Dublin. Its official name is the "Executive Mansion"; 
the first to break this tradition being President Roosevelt, 



ii2 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

during whose administration all public documents and cor- 
respondence emanating from his office were stamped "White 
House." 

History. James Hoban was one of the numerous competitors who 
submitted plans for the "President's House" in response to the ad- 
vertisement by the Commissioners, on March 14th, 1792, for plans to 
be submitted not later than July 15th following. His designs were 
promptly accepted, and he received the promised award of $500 and a 
building lot. The cornerstone of the White House was laid 
October 13th, 1792, the 300th anniversary of the landing of Colum- 
bus. The progress of the work of erection was slow, the architect 
being hampered by lack of funds. The needed money had to be raised 
either through the sale of lots in the Federal City, or through con- 
tributions from Maryland and Virginia. It was not until April, 
1800, that Congress gave any aid; and then made an appropriation 
of only $15,000 for the purpose of buying furniture. In spite of 
obstacles, however, the work had so far progressed in the fall of 1799 
that General and Mrs. Washington were able, shortly before the 
former's death, to make a tour of inspection through the rooms. Yet, 
when President Adams and his wife came to Washington the following 
year and occupied the White House, they found a disheartening state 
of unpreparedness, which Mrs. Adams graphically described in her 
well-known letter of November 21st, 1S00: "There is not a single 
apartment finished," she wrote, "we have not the least fence, yard or 
other convenience, without, and the great unfinished audience room I 
make a drying-room of, to hang up clothes in. The principal stairs 
are not up, and will not be this winter." 

In spite of delays the White House was the first of the Govern- 
ment Buildings to be completed. Hoban's original plans called for an 
E. and W. terrace, similar to those recently constructed, but on a 
more modest scale. It is uncertain when the first terraces were added, 
but presumably during the administration of Jefferson, since it is 
known that his office occupied the site of the present executive offices. 

The White House was one of the buildings seriously injured by 
fire during the British occupation in 1814. As it was rendered 
uninhabitable, the President and Mrs. Madison were glad to accept the 
hospitable offer of Col. John Tayloe, of his home, the Octagon House 
(p. 209) as a temporary White House. There they resided for a 
year, after which they removed to one of the "Seven Buildings" (p. 215), 
at the cor. of Pennsylvania Ave. and 19th St. 

The task of planning and overseeing the restoration of the White 
House was entrusted to Hoban, the original architect. The extent 
of the damage is indicated in the report made by the Committee on 
Restoration in the following November, which reads in part as follows: 
"The vaulting which supports some of the floors is very little, if at 
all, weakened by the burning, and parts of the walls, arches and 
columns are in a state requiring a small expense to preserve them." 
Yet the cost of repairs eventually amounted to $246,490, or slightly 
more than two-thirds the original cost of the building, namely: 
$333,207.04. 

On January 1st, 1818, the White House was thrown open for the 
general reception of visitors for the first time since its restoration. 
Work on it, however, in the form of various improvements, continued 
for several years. In 1819 Congress appropriated upward of $8000 
for enlargement of "the office west of the President's house." The S. 
portico was added in 1823 at a cost of $18,000; the East Room was 
finished and furnished a few years later out of an appropriation of 
$25,000, and the north portico erected in 1829 at a cost of $25,000. 




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THE WHITE HOUSE 113 

Gas lighting was installed in the White House in 1848; and a 
system of heating and ventilation in 1853. About 1857 the W. terrace 
was built over with green-houses and its existence forgotten until 
unearthed during the wholesale reconstruction in 1902. The E. 
portico was removed some time prior to 1870. 

The White House continued to serve the double purpose of 
offices and residence of the successive presidents down to the fall of 
1902, notwithstanding that the discomfort of its inadequate space was 
steadily augmenting, and plans for a new Executive Mansion were 
seriously discussed. 

There were some who even advocated a change of site, and the 
high ground of Meridian Hill (p. 208), at what was then the terminus 
of 1 6th St., found numerous supporters. But the widespread public 
sentiment in favor of retaining an historic landmark, second in interest 
only to the Capitol itself, led to a determination to endeavor first to 
learn whether it would be possible, without destructive alterations, to 
adapt the old building to the modern needs. Accordingly, in the spring 
of 1902, Messrs. McKim, Mead and White were requested to make an 
exhaustive examination of the White House, and to submit plans and 
estimates for such changes as seemed necessary. In his message 
transmitting to Congress the report of the architects, President Roose- 
velt succinctly defined as follows the spirit in which the proposed recon- 
struction was to be made: 

"The White House is the property of the Nation, and so far as is 
compatible with living therein it shall be kept as it originally was, for' 
the same reason that we keep Mount Vernon as it originally was." 

The report of the architects having been approved, Congress 
appropriated $65,000 for the erection of temporary offices for the 
President, and $475,000 for remodeling and refurnishing the White 
House. 

The contract was let for the work, the stipulation being that 
everything must be done within four months, so that the family could 
again occupy the building and the President the offices. 

Most of the work was done during the summer months while 
President and Mrs. Roosevelt were at Oyster Bay. Upon their return 
in September they were quartered temporarily at No. 22 Jackson Place 
(p- IQ 3)> diagonally opposite the White House. In October the work 
was completed, and the President took possession of the new Executive 
offices, and his family moved into the now commodious quarters of the 
White House. 

The task of the architects had been vastly facilitated by the 
discovery in the Government archives of Hoban's original plans and 
specifications which differed in many respecits from the building he 
subsequently erected. Wherever practicable Messrs. McKim, Mead and 
White endeavored to realize the original architect's conception, with the 
result that the White House, as it stands to-day, is more nearly than 
ever before a fulfillment of Hoban's first intent. 

The alterations accomplished may be briefly summed up as fol- 
lows: the unsightly accumulation of green-houses west of the White 
House was demolished, and the hidden colonnade of the west terrace 
brought to light. The buried foundations of the demolished east 
terrace were located, and both terraces rebuilt on a much more im- 
pressive scale than the. originals, yet in harmony with the spirit revealed 
in Hoban's plans. The new Executive offices erected at the extreme 
end of the W. terrace, afforded ample room for the President's official 
staff, making it possible to transform the space formerly occupied Dy 
them in the S.E. section of the second story of the White House, 
into two additional bed-room suites and bathrooms. The eastern 
terrace was utilized as the main public entrance, including cloak rooms 
with compartments sufficient to meet the needs of 2500 guests. The 



ii4 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

most radical alteration within the house itself was the removal of the 
N. wall of the State dining-room, for the purpose of taking in the 
western end of the central corridor. This necessitated the sacrifice ot 
the^ historic old stairs; but it increased the seating capacity of the 
dining-room by 60 per cent, making it now possible to accommodate 
more than a hundred guests. The greatest transformation of all is one 
which has left no outward mark: i. e., the removal of the entire 
original wooden framework, and a substitution throughout of modern 
steel construction. The result is that the White House stands to-day 
essentially an up-to-date fire-proof building, fully adequate, so far as 
may be foreseen, to meet all requirements for a century to come. 

Formerly, not only were the state reception-rooms open 
to the general public, but occasionally, even so late as in the 
seventies, attendants would permit visitors to see some of 
the private apartments during the temporary absence of the 
President's household. For some time past the East Room 
and the corridors through which it is approached have been 
the only parts of the house visible to the casual stranger 
(open daily, 10 a. im. to 2 p. m.) The historic Red, Blue and 
Green Rooms could, however, be seen by special arrange- 
ment. This also applies to the President's offices, which are 
open to visitors only by appointment. 

The White House Grounds. Originally, the "President's 
Square" comprised about seventy acres, extending south to 
the Mall, and along Pennsylvania Ave. from 15th to 17th St., 
thus including the present sites of the Treasury Building 
(p. 122), and State, War and Navy Building (p. 126). This 
tract, however, was never fenced in as a whole. The present 
grounds, enclosed by a high iron fence, contain only fourteen 
acres. The two main gateways are on Pennsylvania Ave. 
near the N. E. and N. W. corners respectively. They were the 
scene of the suffragette "picketing" of 1917, and the resultant 
rioting. 

The beauty of the President's Grounds is due in the first instance 
to Andrew Jackson Dowling, who introduced the English land- 
scape gardening system into America, and was commissioned by Con- 
gress to lay out these grounds, together with the Mall and Franklin 
and Lafayette Squares. Dowling died before he had made more 
than a beginning; but his plans were diligently carried out by his 
successor. 

The most notable subsequent improvements were made during the 
Grant administration, when the disfiguring iron fences which bordered 
the circular walks of the north grounds were removed, and the lawn 
thrown open to its present spacious proportions. At the same time 
the two executive avenues to E. and W. of the mansion on a line with 
Madison and Jackson PI. were cut through and graded; and the low 
lands at the S. of the park were filled in and planted with trees and 
shrubbery, by the late George H. Brown, "father of the Washington 
parking system." A still more recent change, made during the Wilson 
administration, is the establishment, under the direction of Col. Harts, 
of two picturesque colonial gardens to the E. and W. of the mansion, 
south of the terraces. 



THE WHITE HOUSE 115 

Many of the trees in the grounds are historic. On the E. knoll 
in the south grounds, is an American elm, planted by President John 
Quincy Adams, and believed to be the oldest tree on the grounds. 
Another elm, almost directly in front of the mansion on the N. side 
is one of a pair planted by President Hayes, on the E. and W. curves 
of the driveway respectively. The eastern elm was uprooted by a storm 
in 1913; the young tree which now occupies its place was planted the 
following year by President Wilson. A little further N. on the 
driveway is a fine sweet gum tree, planted in 1892 by President 
Harrison. The scarlet oak on the N. of the walk leading to the 
executive offices was set out by President McKinley in the second year 
of his administration. The fern-leaved beech near the entrance to the 
E. colonnade is one of a pair planted respectively by President and 
Mrs. Roosevelt. The president's tree died; but that of his wife is in 
fine condition. Lastly, several trees were planted by the grand- 
children of President Harrison; the finest is a scarlet oak, which 
towers over the N. E. gateway. It was set out by little Marie McKee. 

The Interior of the White House. The former main 
entrance to the White House, and the North portico, is now 
reserved for the use of the President's family and personal 
friends. The public, when admitted at all, traverse the length 
of the E. terrace and enter the central hallway of the ground 
floor. On N. and S. are two large ante-rooms (for men and 
women respectively), intended for the use of guests at the 
large receptions. Beyond these ante-rooms a broad and easy 
stairway leads to the floor above. 

This stairway is divided through the middle by a brass 
railing. Guests at receptions ascend the western half of the 
stairway to the receiving line in the Blue Room on the floor 
above, continue thence through the East Room to the door 
opening at the head of these stairs and descend the eastern 
half of the stairway to the wrap-rooms below. 

Opposite the stairs on the ground floor is the room 
remodeled by Col. W. W. Harts during the summer of 1916, 
to contain the steadily augmenting collection of White House 
china, glass and other table-service. Eventually all the wall 
space will be lined with cabinets ; but as yet only one cabinet 
has been installed. It is of the Georgian type and is of hard 
pine, painted ivory white. The pediment is inscribed in gold 
letters "China used by the President." The furniture in the 
room is part of the teakwood set acquired during the McKinley 
administration for the East Room. 

The cabinet is divided into five sections, containing 
variously three, four or five shelves each. The relics are 
arranged in the chronological order of the Presidential suc- 
cession. The oldest pieces are in the central section ; the 
rest of the collection being arranged in order toward right 
and left. 



n6 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

On the upper shelf of the central section are several pieces of 
the table silver purchased by the Government from the retiring Russian 
Minister, Baron de Tuyll, including a coffee pot and bread tray, on 
which the 1 Baronial Arms can still be traced. In the centre section 
are also the Washington and Adams relics, including a plate from 
Washington's famous Cincinnati dinner set, presented in 19 16 by Mary 
Custis Lee, daughter of Robert E. Lee. The most interesting of the 
Adams relics are the John Adams goblet and a silhouette of Abigail 
Adams, first Mistress of the White House. 

On the first shelf, at the L. of the Washingtoniana, is a speci- 
men of the well-known Jefferson blue and white Cantonese porcelain, 
presented by a lineal descendant, the late T. Jefferson Coolidge, of 
Boston. Next to it is the Madison china, including reputed specimens 
of Dolly Madison's famous blue and gold set. 

To the L. of the centre section are relics representing the Presi- 
dents from Fillmore to Benjamin Harrison. Among the Jackson relics 
is one of a pair of old Sheffield candelabra, presented to President 
Jackson by Tammany Hall. President Taylor is represented by an 
ornate Mexican spur, a pair of silver candlesticks and the gold head 
of a cane inscribed "To the hero of Buena Vista." The Lincoln 
exhibit occupies a whole shelf, and most of the dishes were selected 
from the White House closets. They include, however, two recent 
donations, a tea cup and an after dinner coffee ciup, which are especially 
prized because they have no duplicates among the White House china. 

The East Entrance Hallway, known also as the "New 
Basement Picture Gallery," contains several interesting por- 
traits : 

1. The second Mrs. Tyler (Julia Gardner), by F. Anelli; 
2. Mrs. Martin Van Buren (Angelica Singleton), wife of 
Major Van Buren, son of the President; 3. Mrs. Rutherford 
B. Hayes, by Daniel Huntington, presented by the Women's 
Christian Temperance Union; 4. Mrs. James K. Polk, pre- 
sented by the Women of Tennessee; 5. Mrs. Benjamin 
Harrison, by Daniel Huntington, presented by the Daughters 
of the American Republic, of which society she was one-time 
president; 6. Mrs. Theodore Roosevelt, by Chartran. 

Here also are four marble busts: 1. Martin Van Buren; 2. John 
Bright; 3. Christopher Columbus; 4. Amerigo Vespucci (the two last 
named are, together with the bust of Washington in the East Room, 
among the earliest art acquisitions of the White House). 

Ascending the stairs the visitor finds himself in the Cen- 
tral Corridor of the main floor, which formerly traversed 
the entire building from E. to W., but now terminates at 
the point where its western extremity was incorporated into 
the State Dining-Room (p. 120). 

In this corridor are the portraits of several of the more 
recent Presidents : 

1. Chester A. Arthur, by Daniel Huntington; 2. Grover 
Cleveland, by Eastman Johnson; 3. Benjamin Harrison, by 
Eastman Johnson; 4. James A. Garfield, by E. F. Andrezvs; 



THE WHITE HOUSE 117 

5. William McKinley, by August Benzigcr (b. 1867) ; 6. 
Theodore Roosevelt, by John S. Sargent; 7. William 
H. Taft, by Zorn. 

The middle room on the S. side is a large oval apart- 
ment, extending beneath the curving southern portico and 
formerly known as the Diplomatic Room. 

The reason why this room never served its intended purpose is 
that, while the White House was originally intended to face the south, 
with main entrance on the present basement level, the northwest growth 
of the city necessitated transferring the entrance to the higher level 
of the Pennsylvania Ave. fagade. 

The western half of the ground floor is now occupied by 
the steward's departments, the storerooms, large and small 
kitchens, heating apparatus and refrigerators. In the lower 
story of the west terrace wing are the laundry and ironing 
rooms, the maids' dining-room and separate quarters for the 
men and women servants. 

The Main Floor is occupied by the state departments, 
with the one exception of the family dining-room, which with 
the adjoining pantry is situated in the N.W. corner, W. of 
main Entrance Hall. South of the Entrance Hall, across the 
corridor, is the elliptical Blue Room, with the Red Room on 
the West adjoining the State Dining Room, and the Green 
Room on the East adjoining the great East Room, which 
occupies the entire width of the East wing. 

Anyone entering the White House by the central northern 
entrance, finds himself in the spacious Vestibule or Reception 
Hall, which is in itself an impressive apartment, measuring 
40x50 ft., and, like all the rooms of the main story, 22 ft. 
from floor to ceiling. The floor and base of wainscot (as in 
the case of the central corridor) are of Joliet stone; the 
walls and ceiling are of plaster, finished in buff and white. 
At (the S. end there was formerly a much admired but 
inappropriate screen of Tiffany glass, dividing the Reception 
Hall from the corridor. This screen has been replaced by 
a row of six columns. Two large tubs of Istrian stone, con- 
taining plants, occupy the spaces between the columns, on 
each side of the central opening. The E. and W. wall spaces 
are occupied in part by two spacious mirrors, extending 
from floor to ceilng. The Hall is lighted by bronze standards 
and a central bronze lantern, directly beneath which the 
President's seal, in yellow bronze, is inlaid in the stone 
flooring. Similarly, between the central columns is inlaid an 
ellipse of forty-five stars surrounding the dates "1702-1902." 



n8 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

Through the central corridor, whether entering through 
the Vestibule or by way of the Ground Floor, the visitor 
proceeds to the East Room, the one apartment thrown open to 
the general public. It is the largest room in the White House, 
measuring 40x60 feet. The walls of this room are covered 
with enameled wood paneling, set into which are twelve bas- 
relief panels, representing themes taken from Aesop's "Fables" 
(executed by Piccirilli Bros.). The window draperies are of 
heavy yellow silk damask. Velvet cushioned seats surround 
the walls, but there are no chairs in this room, and the walls 
are bare of pictures, the portraits of General and Mrs. Wash- 
ington, which formerly hung here, having been transferred 
to the Red Room (p. 120). One notable work of art, how- 
ever, is the famous so-called "gold piano," valued at over 
$20,000. The inside of the lid contains a much admired 
painting of the Muses. 

Standing on cabinets set against the E. wall, are two 
beautiful blue Sevres vases, presented to President McKinley 
by the President of France in commemoration of the laying 
of the Franco-American cable. 

The room is lighted by four bronze candelabra, placed 
respectively in the four corners ; also by three massive crystal 
chandeliers, suspended along the centre of the ceiling. The 
latter date from 1902. The original chandeliers installed in 
President Grant's administration were removed before the re- 
modeling oif the White House, reconstructed and are now 
serving in various Committee Rooms of the Capitol. 

The East Room, which Mrs. Adams once used as a drying-room, was 
originally intended as a State Banquet Hall, and was used as such 
until 1827, since which time it has been the State Reception Room. 
Prior to the restoration of the White House in 1902, it was once again 
used occasionally for large official banquets. 

This room has witnessed many historic scenes, both joyous and 
tragic. Among the brilliant weddings that have here been celebrated 
were those of: Nellie Grant to Algernon Sartoris, May 21st, 1874; 
Alice Roosevelt to Nicholas Longworth, February 17th, 1906; Jessie 
Wloodrow Wilson to Francis B. Sayre, November 25th, 19 13. Among 
the many eminent Americans who have lain in State in this same room 
were: President Zachary Taylor, Col. Ellsworth of the N. Y. Zouaves, 
May 24-27, 1861; Willy Lincoln, March 20th, 1862; President 
Lincoln, April 19th, 1865; President Garfield, "'"Sept. / 20, 1881; 
The wife and daughter of Secretary Tracy, February 5th, 1890; 
President McKinley, 1898; and the first wife of Presidentl Wilson, 
August 7, 1 9 14. 

The Green Room, reached either through doorway at 
SW. cor. of the East Room, or through the central corridor, 
is a much smaller apartment, measuring 30x22 ft. Nearly 
everything in this room is new, including the mantel, the 
furniture, rug and chandelier. The wall coverings and window 



THE WHITE HOUSE 119 

curtains are of green velvet, copied from an old piece of 
Genoese velvet. On the walls of this room are the portraits 
of the following Presidents: 

1. John Quincy Adams, by G. P. A. Hcaly; 2. Andrew 
Jackson, by E. F. Andrews; 3. Martin Van Buren, by Healy; 
4. William Henry Harrison, by Andrews; 5. Franklin 
Pierce, by Hcaly; 6. James Buchanan, by Andrews; 7, 
Abraham Lincoln, Artist unknown; 8. Andrew Johnson, by 
Andrezvs; 9. Rutherford B. Hayes, by Daniel Huntington. 

Through the western door of the Green Room we enter 
the Blue Room, an elliptical apartment measuring 30x40 ft., 
and generally admitted to be the most beautiful room in the 
White House. The wall covering is a heavy corded blue silld 
embroidered at top and bottom with a Grecian fret. The 
curtain hangings are of the same material, embroidered with 
stars, and the curtain poles are surmounted by gilt eagles. 
The furniture is white and gold, upholstered in blue and gold. 
The mantel, dating from the restoration in 1902, is of pure 
white marble, the shelf being supported on bundles of arrows 
carved in marble with bronze tips and feathers. On the 
mantel stands a massive gold clock, said to have been the 
gift of Napoleon I to Lafayette, and presented by the latter 
to George Washington. 

Blind doors are in the walls near the southern end of the room, 
and at receptions the guests coming from the Red Room pass the 
receiving party standing in a single line directly in front of the 
windo.vs. The guests especially invited to share the Blue Room 
with the receiving party, face the President. A silken cord is stretched 
across the room from door to door to insure freedom of passage for 
the guests while being presented. 

The Blue Room was originally the President's dining-room, and 
was known variously as the "Circular Room," "Elliptical Dining-room," 
and later "Oval Reception Room." Under the Madison regime it was 
hung with yellow damask; this gave place successively to old rose, 
green and then for the first time under the Van Buren administra- 
tion, to blue. During Johnson's Presidency it. was changed to red; 
while Grant was President it reverted to blue, which has remained 
its distinctive color ever since, the only variation having occurred 
during the Arthur administration, when the room was redecorated by 
Tiffany, and the pale tint adopted caused it to be temporarily called 
the "Robin's Egg Room." 

This has long been the favorite room for White House "weddings. 
Among them may be mentioned the following: i. Maria Hester Monroe 
(daughter of the President) to Samuel Lawrence Gouverneur, March 
9th, 1820; 2. Mary Hellen (niece of Mrs. John Quincy Adams) to 
John Adams (son of the President), February ioth, 1828; 3. Delia 
Lewis (daughter of an intimate friend of President Jackson) to 
Alphonse Josephe Yver Pageot (Secretary of the French Legation); 
4. Mary Easton (niece of Mrs. Jackson) to Lucius B. Polk (also 
during the Jackson administration); 5. Elizabeth Tyler (third daughter 
of the President) to William Waller, January 31st, 1842; 6. Emily 
Piatt (niece of President Hayes) to Gen. Russell Hastings, June 19th, 



120 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

1878; 7. Frances Folsom to President Grover Cleveland, June 2d, 
1886. (For twenty years, from 1886 to 1906, there were no weddings 
in the White House). 8. Eleanor Randolph Wilson (youngest daugh- 
ter of the President) to William G. McAdoo (Secretary of the Treas- 
ury), May 7th, 1 9 14. 

It was in the Blue Room that a brilliant reception was given to 
the Infanta Eulalie, daughter of the Queen Regent of Spain, May 19th, 
1893. 

The Red Room, situated immediately W. of the Blue 
Room, corresponds in position and dimensions to the Green 
Room (see above). This room is wainscoted in white enamel; 
the wall covering and curtains are of red velvet, and the 
furniture is upholstered in red damask. The room contains a 
richly carved mahogany cabinet, ornamented with gold, in 
which are seven exquisitely dressed male and female Japanese 
dolls, the whole constituting a present to Mrs. Roosevelt 
from the Japanese Legation. On the walls of the room are 
a number of portraits, including the historic full-length por- 
trait of George Washington, which formerly hung in the East 
Room and was long attributed to Gilbert Stuart, but is now 
admitted to be a copy by an obscure English artist. 

The traditional story still told to visitors is that Mrs. Dolly Madi- 
son cut this painting from its frame with a pair of scissors to save it 
from destruction by the British, and carried it with her in her fight 
from the Capital. But according to the testimony of her own letters, 
the painting was entrusted to the care of Mr. Custis, a nephew of 
Washington, who had come post-haste from Arlington to save it. The 
canvas was not cut or otherwise damaged, for a servant broke and 
removed! the outer frame, leaving the picture intact. 

Here also is a portrait of Martha Washington, by E. F. 
Andrews, painted in 1878. Being a modern work, its chief 
interest centers in the fact that the dress is a faithful repro- 
duction of a masquerade costume made in Paris, and worn 
at a Martha Washington Centennial Tea Party, given in 
Philadelphia in 1876. The other portraits in this room are : 

1. John Adams, by G P. A. Healy; 2. Thomas Jefferson, 
by E. F. Andrews; 3. James Madison, Artist unknown; 
4. James Monroe, Artist unknown; 5. Zachary Taylor, by 
Andrews; 6. James K. Polk, by Healy; 7. Ulysses S. Grant, 
by Le Clair. 

The State Dining-room, adjoining the Red Room on 
the W., is now the second largest room in the White House, 
thanks to its enlargement in 1902, whereby, instead of accom- 
modating from 50 to 60 guests, it can now seat a maximum of 
107. The walls are paneled from floor to ceiling in dark 
English oak, richly carved; the chandelier and wall-branches 
are of silver ; around the frieze are placed mounted heads 



THE WHITE HOUSE 121 

of American Game; on the floor is an Indian carpet in solid 
color; the window draperies are in green velvet. In this 
room are two tapestries of 17th century Flemish workmanship, 
the one over the mantel illustrating a scene from Vergil's 
"Eighth Eclogue," and inscribed with the following quotation 
(in Latin) : 

"Nysa is given in marriage to Mopsus! What may not we lovers 
expect? 

Griffins now snail mate with horses, and in the succeeding age the 
timorous does shall come to drink with dogs. 

Begin with me, my flute, Maenalian strains. 

Mopsus, cut fresh nuptial torches; for a wife is on the point of 
being brought home." 

The Family Dining-room, directly N. of the State 
Dining-room, is finished in green. It is reached from the 
second floor by a private staircase. The Main Stairway to 
the second floor leads from the E. wing of the central 
corridor. It is constructed of Joliet stone, and consists of a 
broad flight from the main floor to the landing, where it 
divides into two flights. A double gate of wrought iron, 
which rolls back into pockets in the walls, stands at the foot 
of the staircase. 

The Second Story, known as the "Family Floor," is 
devoted J;o the living rooms of the President's family, guest- 
chambers and the President's private office and library. As 
on the floor below, the Family Floor has a wide corridor, 
running E. and W., connecting two large sitting-rooms, one 
on the E., above the East Room, the other on the W., above 
the State Dining-room. There are seven bed-rooms on this 
floor, each with an adjoining bathroom. The four largest are 
situated respectively in the four corners, and each includes a 
small dressing-room. The N.W. bed-room was President 
Arthur's rooimi, and later the Clevelands' sleeping-iroom. Dur- 
ing the Harrison administration it was converted into a 
nursery for the young McKees. The opposite suite, in the 
S.W. cor., was occupied by Miss Rose Cleveland during part 
of President Cleveland's first term. In this room Mrs. Har- 
rison died ; and here also President Garfield was brought 
after being wounded by the assassin, Guiteau. The bed-room 
immediately E., and directly over the Green Room, was long 
known as the "Prince of Wales' Room." Among the Presi- 
dents who have occupied it are Grant and Benjamin Harrison. 
This is the room which was assigned to Miss Frances Folsom 
on the eve of her marriage to President Cleveland. Subse- 
quently, it was transformed into a nursery for Ruth Cleveland. 



122 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

The next room to the E., an oval apartment, directly over 
the Blue Room, is now the President's Library. Beyond 
the Library, and opposite the main stairway, is the President's 
study and private office, formerly known and used as the 
"Cabinet Room." On the marble mantel is the following 
inscription : 

"This room was first used for meetings of the Cabinet during the 
administration of President Johnson. It continued to be so used until 
the year MCMII. Here the treaty of peace with Spain was signed." 

The entire eastern half of the attic floor is used for stor- 
age purposes. In the western half are the servants' bed-rooms 
and bath-room. 

IV. Other Buildings in the Executive Grounds 
a. The Treasury Building 

**The United States Treasury Building (PI. II— D4) at 
the S. W. cor. of Pennsylvania Ave. and 15th St., is an imposing 
rectangular granite structure, extending 468 ft. N. to S., and 
264 ft. E. to W. ; or inclusive of porticoes and steps 582 x 300 
ft. The order is pure Grecian Ionic, the columns and pilas- 
ters rising through the three stories of the superstructure, 
above which is an attic. Below are two basement stories, the 
lower one being rustic. The building is surmounted by a 
stone balustrade. The original section, now the east wing, 
was designed by Robert Mills; the N., S. and W. extensions 
by Thomas U. Walter. 

The site of the Treasury Building was formerly occu- 
pied by two brick Department buildings, corresponding in 
general design with the old War and Navy Buildings, W. of 
the White House (p. 126). The northernmost, or State 
Department Building was erected in January, 1820, approxi- 
mately where the north wing of the present building now 
stands, while the south wing covers the site of the original 
Treasury Building, contracted for by the Federal City Com- 
missioners, June 23d, 1798, at an estimated cost of $39,511. 
This was one of the buildings destroyed by the British in 
1814. The second Treasury Building, erected on the same 
site, was destroyed by fire in 1833. It was determined that 
the new edifice should be built upon a much more imposing 
scale, and the plans drawn by Robert Mills were accepted. 
By Act of Congress, dated July 4th, 1836, the President was 
directed to cause a site to be selected. It was the intention 
of the Committee in charge to choose a position such that 
the proposed structure would not interfere with an uninter- 



TREASURY BUILDING 123 

rupted view along Pennsylvania Ave., from the Capitol to the 
White House. Through lack of unanimity of opinion, the 
choice was so long delayed that President Jackson, so the 
story goes, becoming impatient one day, thrust his walking- 
stick into the ground at the N. E. cor. of what is now the 
eastern wing, exclaiming, "Here, right here, I want the 
cornerstone laid." This story is corroborated by testimony 
given by the architect in 1836, before a Congressional com- 
mittee to the effect that the precise position of the building 
had been "determined by the positive directions of the late 
President." 

The older portion of the Treasury Building, designed 
by Robert Mills, was commenced in 1836, and finished in 1841, 
at a cost of $660,773. It was T-shaped, consisting of a colon- 
nade facing E., and extending 340 ft. along 15th St., and a 
central wing projecting W. 170 ft. The facing of the outer 
walls and the thirty Ionic columns of the colonnade, were of 
Acquia Creek sandstone. In 1855 it had become evident that 
the Treasury Department had quite outgrown its quarters, 
and Thomas U. Walter was entrusted with the task of plan- 
ning enlargements on an extensive scale. His designs called 
for the erection of a N. and S. wing, extending westward 264 
ft., and connected by a W. wing which, uniting midway with 
the old central wing, formed a parallelogram, enclosing two 
square courts. Work on the extensions was begun in 1855, 
after Congress had passed an appropriation of $300,000. In 
1861 the S. wing was completed. Further progress was de- 
layed during the Civil War, and it was not until 1869 that the 
final touches were put to the entrance portico of the N. wing. 
The edifice, begun by Young, from Walter's designs, was con- 
tinued by Rogers and completed by Mullett, at a cost of 
approximately $6,000,000. 

All of the Treasury extensions, including the huge mono- 
lithic columns and pilasters, are of granite from Dix Island, 
Maine. It was of these monoliths, lying along the street, en- 
cased in wood, during the Civil War, that "Bull Run" Rus- 
sell, correspondent of the London Times, taking a pessimistic 
view of the Capital City's future fate, wrote that they were 
"lying there in their wooden coffins, with their heads as near 
Heaven as they would ever get to be." For nearly two-score 
years the artistic unity of this building remained marred by 
the incongruity of its three granite and one sandstone 
facades ; but at last, in 1907-08, the sandstone facing and drum 
columns of the E. wing were replaced by granite from Mil- 
ford, New Hampshire. 



124 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

The first Inaugural Ball of President Grant was held, in 
1869, in the north front of this building. 

The Treasury Building contains thei offices of the Secretary of the 
Treasury and his Staff, and the following fiscal bureaus and offices: 
Comptroller of the Currency; Treasurer of the United States; Com- 
missioner of Internal Revenue; Director of the Mint and Bureau of the 
Budget. The last named, most recent of all the Bureaus, was created 
by Act approved June 10, 192 1.1 Its chief duties are to prepare for the 
President the annual Budget, and such supplemental estimates as he may 
recommend from time to time to Congress. The Treasury Building 
also contains the office of the supervising Architect, whose duties include 
the construction, alteration and repairs of all public buildings, and 
securing cessions from States of jurisdiction over sites, and payment 
for same. 

Today there is comparatively little to be seen by the 
casual tourist within the Treasury Building. The operation 
of printing all paper money, postage and revenue stamps is 
now conducted at the Bureau of Engraving and Print'ng. 
The famous Silver and Gold Vaults, in which is stored 
the greater portion of the Government's gold and silver 
reserve, situated in the sutHbasement, beneath the N. wing, 
are shown only to visitors personally known to the Treasurer. 
These vaults are protected not only by combination and time- 
locks, but still further by an electrical protection system. It 
is said that upward of $100,000,000 isi stored in one of these 
vaults. 

The main entrance is beneath the N. Portico, facing- 
Pennsylvania Ave. Along the walls of the entrance hall, and 
along the North Corridor, are cases containing numerous in- 
teresting exhibits, all fully labelled. They include: 

Entrance Hall, E. Side: 1. Redeemed! fractional currency, 1862-76 
issues; Old keys to Treasury Vaults and money boxes, before the 
introduction of combination locks; 2. Specimens of redeemed mutilated 
bills; 3. Specimens of Gold and Silver! bars of various sizes 1 and purity. 

West Side: 1. Case containing rolled strips of gold from which 
Double Eagle, Eagle, Half and Quarter Eagle gold planchets are 
punched; also coin-gold ingot for Eagles, weight, 113 oz., 900 fine, value, 
$2102 (cuts 130 planchets); 2, Minor coins and planchets; bars of 
nickel for 5 cent pieces, weight 21 2/10 lbs., value $3.60 (cuts 1200 
planchets) ; Bar of bronze for one cent pieces, weight 23 lbs., value 
$3.45 (cuts 210a planchets). 

North Corridor, South Side (W. to E.): 1. Presidential Medals; 
2. Navy Medals; 3. Army Medals; 4. Original hand-engraved dies for 
coin; specimen of transfer order of $60,000,000 from Denver to N. Y. 
Sub-Treasury; Grant of $200,000 to General Lafayette for services 
during the Revolution. 

On N. side of aisle, near E. end, hangs the *Flag draped 
above box occupied by President Lincoln, in Ford's Theatre. 
April 14, 1865. The rip in lower edge of flag was made by 
Booth's spur where it caught as he leaped from the box after 
shooting the President. 



TREASURY BUILDING 125 

The Cash Room, diagonally opposite the Pennsylvania 
Ave. entrance, is the show room of the Treasury Building, 
and reputed to be one of the costliest in the world. It extends 
upward through two stories, and is best seen from the gallery 
(open daily from 9 A.M. to 2 P.M.; no pass required). 

The lower story has a stylobate base of black Vermont marble, 
with mouldings of Bordiglio (Italian) marble, and panels of Sienna 
marble. Above this base are pilasters of black-veined Italian marble, 
and panels of Bordiglio marble. The upper story is like the lower, 
excepting that some of the panels are of Sarrangolum marble, from 
the Pyrenees. 

As its 1 name implies the Cash Room is a. cashier's office, where the 
Treasury cashes the various warrants drawn upon it, and presented 
here for payment. The daily transactions run into millions. 

North of the Treasury Building in front of main entrance is a 
fountain consisting of an immense granite vase, the tassa of which, 
measuring 12 ft. in diameter, is carved from one solid block of granite. 

In Sherman Plaza, facing the S. front of the Treasury 
building, stands the *Monument to Gen. William Tecumseh 
Sherman (1820-91), designed by Carl Rohl-Smith. It con- 
sists of an equestrian statue in bronze, heroic size, supported 
on a lofty pedestal of Vermont granite, standing on an emi- 
nence and approached from all four sides by a series of stone 
steps. At the four corners of the spacious base stand bronze 
figures of young soldiers in uniforms of the Civil War period, 
representing, respectively, the Cavalry, Infantry, Artillery 
and Engineers. The adornments of the pedestal consist of : 
1. Commemorative inscriptions; 2. Symbolic groups repre- 
senting War and Peace; 3. A series of four bas-relief tablets 
representing leading episodes in Sherman's military career ; 
4. Medallions of the principal officers on Sherman's staff. 
These are placed as follows : 

North side: Bas-relief represents "Sherman's March 
through Georgia" ; below are the following inscriptions from 
his public utterances : 

"On no earthly account will I do any act or think any thought 
hostile to or in defiance of the old government of the United States," 
Alexandria, Louisiana, Jan. 18th, 1861. 

"War's legitimate object is more perfect peace," Washington, 
D. C, Feb. 23d, 1882. 

West side: Symbolic group, "War." "War personifies a 
terrible woman who tramples humanity under foot. She is 
attended by Vultures, illustrating Sherman's famous comment, 
'War is Hell,'" Mrs. Carl Rohl-Smith. Below (to L. and R.) 
four medallion portraits, by Mrs. Theodore A. R. Kitson, of 
Boston: Logan, Blair, Ransom and Dodge; in the middle: 
bas-relief. "Sherman at the camp-fire." 



126 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

"It was singularly impressive," says one biographer, "to see this 
soldierly figure walking there by the flickering camp-fire, while the 
army slept." 

South side: Bas-relief depicting the "Battle of Atlanta"; 
note especially the remarkable perspective; Sherman and his 
staff are watching the progress of an engagement taking place 
two or three miles away and largely obscured by the smoke 
of battle. The names of the principal officers and regiments 
are inscribed along the base of the tablet. 

East side: Symbolic group, "Peace," representing "a 
young girl with flowering branch of a fruit tree; at her feet, 
onone side, the strong succors the weak; on the other side, 
animals are being fed, thus symbolizing the ideal and material 
sides of life," Mrs. Rohl-Smith; below (to L. and R.) : 
medallion portraits of A. G. Smith, Grierson, Howard and 
McPherson. In the center, bas-relief, "Sherman at Mission- 
ary Ridge." 

The_ monument was unveiled in 1903. The cost was borne by 
the Society of the Army of Tennessee, which contributed $11,000, 
and by the United States. An offer was made of $90,000 for com- 
petitive designs, and the competition was won by Carl Rohl-Smith in 
Jan., 1896. According to the terms of the contract the work was to 
be done in four years. The sculptor asked and received a year's 
extension, but died before completing his task, in Copenhagen, Aug. 
20th, 1900. The work was so far advanced that it was decided to 
carry out tbe sculptor's designs. The working models of the Eques- 
trian and three of the soldiers were completed; the four bas-reliefs 
were nearly finished; and designs for War and Peace had been care- 
fully worked out. The completion of the work was accomplished by 
the aid of the following artists: 

The Equestrian) figure was completed by Lauritz Jensen, of Copen- 
hagen; they fourth soldier was modeled by Sigvald Asbjomsen, of 
Chicago; Peace was finished by Stephen Sinding and Carl J. Bonnesen, 
of Copenhagen; and War by Sinding' and Asbjomsen. 

Surrounding the monument and on a level with the Park, 
is a spacious mosaic pavement recording the names of all the 
battles in which Gen. Sherman took part. This was designed 
by Mrs. Rohl-Smith, for which Congress appropriated $8000. 

b. The State, War and Navy Building 

The *State, War and Navy Building (PL II— C4), until 
the recent completion of the new Interior Department Building 
(p. 213), the second largest Government edifice in Wash- 
ington, occupies the S. E. cor. of Pennsylvania Ave. and 17th 
St., directly W. of the White House. It was designed by 
A. B. Mullett, supervising architect of the Treasury, and is a 
conspicuous example of his fondness for Renaissance architec- 



STATE, WAR AND NAVY BUILDING 127 

ture. It is on the Roman Doric order, and consists of a huge 
quadrangular structure, comprising a basement and sub- 
basement of Maine granite, and a four-story superstructure 
of . Virginia granite, surmounted by a mansard roof. 
Dimensions : from N. to S. 567 ft. ; from E. to W., 342 ft. ; 
maximum height, 128 ft. There is a central pavilion with 
stairway and portico, consisting of a two or three-storied col- 
onnade with the columns grouped in pairs on all four fa- 
cades. The E. and W. pavilions comprise six stories, inclusive 
of the mansard. The 'building was begun in 1871, and the S. 
paviLion was finished and occupied by the Department of 
State in 1875. Mr. 'Muillett was succeeded as supervising ar- 
chitect by General E. O. Babcock and Col. T. L. Casey, U. S. 
Engineers. The ibuilding, finally completed in 1893, covers 
4^2 acres, and contains approximately two miles of corri- 
dors. The total cost was $10,405,850. 

This building occupies an historic site. Here, in 1799-1801, was 
erected the first U. S. Department Building for the accommodation of 
the State, War and Navy Departments. In 1802 the Post Office 
Department was temporarily housed in this building. On August 25, 
1814, it was burned during the British occupation. Subsequently, two 
brick buildings were erected on this site, one of them (in 1820) at the 
N. end, fronting on Pennsylvania Ave., and occupied by the War De- 
partment (dimensions 130x60 ft.); the other* (in 1815) directly S., on 
the site of the destroyed building occupied by the N'avy Department 
(dimensions 59x57 ft.). These buildings were demolished in 1879 to 
make way for the new edifice. 

As its name implies, this building formerly held the 
principal offices of the State, War and Navy Departments, 
the first named occupying the southern section of the build- 
ing; the second, the western side; and the third, the eastern 
side. Since the completion, however, of the new Navy Build- 
ing (p. 346) all the offices and bureaus of that Department 
have been removed, with the sole exception of the Navy 
Library. 

Hours. The buifding is open to the public week days, 
holidays excepted, from 9 A. M. to 2 P. M. 

iThe visitor, approaching by the main or Pennsylvania 
Ave. entrance, will note on either side of exterior stairway 
a number of interesting war trophies. They include two 
Bronze Cannon captured at Santiago in 1898, and cast at 
Douay respectively in 1693 and in 1748; an 8-in. Bronze 
Howitzer surrendered at Yorktown, Oct. 19, 1781 ; two small 
Cannon taken in the War with Mexico, and named respectively 
after the Evangelists : "San Mateo" and "San Marco" ; and 
an original 42-pounder Rodman Gun, used in defence of Fort 
Sumter, re-enforced and rifled in Richmond by the Con- 
federates, and later recaptured by the Federal forces. 



128 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

If the visitor upon entering applies at E. end of North 
Corridor, an official guide may be obtained to conduct him 
through such rooms as are open to the public. A guide, how- 
ever, is not necessary ; and many tourists prefer to visit these 
rooms unattended and at their leisure. 

The Offices of the Secretary of State are situated in the 

5. Corridor, on the second floor. The Secretary's private 
office can be visited only by those having official business. 
The Ante-room, however (No. 214), is open to visitors, and 
contains an important collection of ^Portraits of former 
Secretaries of State. 

North Wall (E. to W.) : 1. Elihu Root, Sec. of. State 
1905-09 (Roosevelt's Administration) ; 2. Thomas S. Bayard, 
Sec. of .'State 1885-89 (Cleveland's Admin.) ; 3. John C. 
Calhoun, Sec. of State 1842-46 (Tyler's Admin.) ; Thomas 
Jefferson, Sec. of State 1 793-1801 (Adams' Admin.), by 
C. L. Ransom, after Wilson Peak; 5. T. Frelinghuysen, Sec. 
of State 1884-85 (Arthur's Admin.), by Daniel Huntington; 

6. John W. Foster, Sec. of State 1892-93 (Harrison's 
Admin.), by Henry Floyd; 7. William M. Evarts, Sec. of 
State 1877-81 (Hayes' Admin.) ; 8. Robert 'Smith, Sec. of 
State 1809-11 (Madison's Admin.), by Freeman Thorp; 9. 
Henry Clay, Sec. of State 1825-29 (John Quincy Adams' 
Admin.) ; 10. James G. Blaine, Sec. of State 1881 and 1889-92 
(Garfield's and Harrison's Admin.) ; 11. William R. Day, Sec. 
of State 1898 (McKinley's Admin.), by Albert Sterner; 12. 
James Madison, Sec. of State 1801-09 (Jefferson's Admin.), 
by A. G. Heaton. 

West Wall: (N. to S.) 1. John Hay, Sec. of State 1898- 
1905 (McKinley's and Roosevelt's Admin.) ; 2. William 
Jennings Bryan, Sec. of State 1913-15 (Wilson's Admin.), 
by Irving R. Wiles. 

South Wall: (W. to E.) 1. Martin Van Buren, Sec. of 
State 1829-31 (Jackson's Admin.), by E. E. Andrews; 2. John 
Marshall, Sec. of State 1800 (Adams' Admin.) ; 3. John 
Quincy Adams, Sec. of State 1817-25 (Monroe's Admin.) ; 

4. Edward Everett, Sec. of State 1852-53 (Fillmore's Admin.) ; 

5. William R. Marcy, Sec. of State 1853-57 (Pierce's 
Admin.) ; 6. John M. Clayton, Sec. of 'State 1849-50 (Taylor's 
Admin.) ; 7. Louis McLane, Sec. of State 1853-54 (Pierce's 
Admin.), by Hinckley; 8. Jeremiah Black, Sec. of State 
1860-61 (Buchanan's Admin.) ; 9. John Forsyth, Sec. of 
State 1834-41, (Jackson's and Van Buren's Admin.), by 
Freeman Thorp; 10. William H. Seward, Sec. of State 



STATE, WAR AND NAVY BUILDING 129 

1861-69 (Lincoln's and Johnson's Admin.) ; 11. Hamilton 
Fish, See. of State 1869-77 (Grant's Admin.), by Daniel 
Huntington. 

East Wall: (S. to N.) 1. John Sherman, Sec. of State 
1897-98 (McKinley's Admin.), by C. A. Whipple; 2. Philander 
C. Knox, Sec. of State 1909-13 (Taft's Admin.), by Alphonse 
Jongers. 

The Diplomatic Reception Room, diagonally opposite on 
the south corridor, in which the Secretary receives foreign 
Ministers, also contains a number of portraits : 

East Wall: (S. to N.) 1. Robert Bacon, Sec. of State 
1900 (Roosevelt's A'dmin.), by Sorolla y Bastida; 2. Richard 
Olney, Sec. of State 1895-97 (Cleveland's Admin.), by 
Hubert Vos. 

West Wall: (N. to S.) 1. Daniel Webster, Sec. of State 
1841-43 (Wm. H. Harrison's Admin.), by G. P. A. Healey; 
2. Lord Ashburton, by G. P. A. Healey. 

South Wall : Walter Q. Gresham, Sec. of State. 

The State Library (Room 308), on the third floor, 
south corridor, was formerly regarded as the most interesting 
room in the building since it contained the original Declara- 
tion of Independence, which for greater safety has recently 
been transferred to the custody of the Library of Congress. 
The State Library, however, still possesses a number of 
national heirlooms which merit a visit, including the Sword 
of Washington and the Staff of Franklin. 

The Sword was one of four bequeathed by Washington to his four 
nephews, and was in turn willed by Samuel 'Washington to his son by 
whom it was presented to Congress in 1843. The Staff was bequeathed 
by Franklin to Washington, "my friend and the friend of mankind." 
The will describes it as "my fine crab-tree walking stick, with a gold 
head curiously wrought in the form of the Cap of Liberty. ... It 
was a present to me from that excellent woman, Madame de Forbach, 
the dowager Duchess of Deux-Ponts." 

The Library is open from 9 A. M. to 4 P. M. daily, 
except Sundays and holidays. It is a reference library for 
the use of the Department of State and Diplomatic corps. 
Others, however, may consult books by obtaining permission 
from the Secretary, Assistant Secretaries or Chief of the 
Bureau. The collection, comprising approximately 70,000 
volumes, consists principally of works on international law, 
diplomacy, history, travel, foreign law and biographies of 
statesmen. 

The Offices of the Secretary of War are on the second 
floor, west corridor. The Secretary's Reception Room (No. 



130 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

231) is open to the public, and contains a collection of por- 
traits of former Secretaries of War. 

North Wall: (E. to W.) 1. John M. Scofield, Sec. of 
War 1868-69 (Johnson's Admin.), by H. P. Curtis; 2. Al- 
phonso Taft (father of ex-President Taft), Sec. of War 
1876 (Grant's Admin.), by Daniel Huntington; 3. Stephen B. 
Elkins, Sec. of War 1891-93 (Harrison's Admin.), 4. John 
P. Rawlins, 'Sec. of War 1869 (Grant's Admin.), by Robert 
W. Weir; 5. Jacob M. Dickinson, Sec. of War 1909-11 
(Taft's Admin.). In N. W. cor. stands a marble bust of 
Edwin M. Stanton. 

West Wall: (N. to S.) 1. Henry Stimson, Sec. of War 
1911-13 (Taft's Admin.), by Gari Melchers; 2. Lindley M. 
Garrison, Sec. of War 1913-16 (Wilson's Adimin.), by Emil 
Fuchs. 

South Wall: Major General Horatio Gates (1777). 

East Wall: (S. to N.) 1. Major Gen. Hugh L. Scott, 
Sec. ad-interim, Felb.-March 1916 (Wilson's Admin.) ; 2. 
Alexander Ramsey, Sec. of War 1879-81 (Hayes' Admin.) ; 
3. Gen. William W. Belknap, Sec. of War 1869-76 (Grant's 
Admin.), by Huntington; 4. Newton W. Baker, Sec. of War 
1916-21 (Wilson's Admin.) ; 5. Robert T. Lincoln, Sec. of 
War 1876-77 (Grant's Admin.), by D. Cameron. 

On W. Wall are flags from Fort Sumter ; the one on L. 
was the Garrison Flag that floated over the Fort during the 
bombardment. See bronze tablet. On S. Wall, above man- 
tel is a case containing the flag which wrapped the coffin 
of Abraham Lincoln on the journey from Washington te 
Springfield, 111., April, 1865. The clock on the mantel was 
installed by Jefferson Davis when Secretary of War in 1853. 

The S. door leads through an intermediate room to the 
Secretary of War's private office. (Not open to visitors 
except on 'business). In this office hang the following pic- 
tures : 

North Wall: Elihu Root, Sec. of War 1899-1904, by 
Madrazo ; East Wall: ^General Henry Knox, First Secre- 
tary of War 1789, by Young after Gilbert Stuart; South 
Wall : Edwin M. Stanton, by Henry Ulke. 

In the • intermediate room are the following portraits : 
East Wall : 1. James McHenry, Sec. of War 1796, by 
Daniel Huntington, after Pollock; 2. Alexander J. Dallas, 
Sec. ad-interim 1815, by Ph. Morton; 3. William H. Craw- 
ford, Sec. of War 1815, by Huntington afte. • John Wesley 
Jarvis. North Wall:' 1. "William C. Everett; 2. Russell 



THE OLD RESIDENTIAL SECTION 131 

Alger; 3. Jefferson Davis, 1853-57, by Huntington. West Wall: 
1. George W. Crawford, 1849-50, by Huntington; 2. Gen. 
Peter B. Porter, 1828, by Huntington after Weir. South 
Wall: 1. Luke T. Wright; 2. John C. Calhoun, 1817, by 
Jarvis. 

The Navy Department Library, situated on the fourth 
floor, east corridor, is primarily for the use of the Officers 
of the Navy, and is officially closed to the general public. 
Visitors, however, will usually be admitted to the Reception 
Room, considered the finest apartment in the building. It 
measures 30 x 50 ft., with iron walls inlaid with 32 marble 
panels of Malachite, Sienna and Porphyry, given respectively 
by France, Italy and Spain. The Onyx disks that adorn the 
balcony rail were presented by Mexico, and the inlaid floor 
of Minton tiling by England. All these gifts were made 
during Grant's Administration. Especially notable are the 
four candelabra, consisting of bronze figures weighing 800 
lbs. each, which occupy the four corners, and represent 
respectively: 1. War and Peace; 2. Liberty; 3. Industry and 
Mechanics ; 4. Literature, Arts and Commerce. Outside, 
above entrance door, is a stone brought from Pompeii. 

The resources of the Library are approximately 50,000 vols., ex- 
clusive of public documents which have never been accessioned. The 
collection is chiefly technical and professional, and is classed as one of 
the principal naval libraries of the world. Among its treasures are 
manuscript records of the War of 18 12. 

The room directly beneath the Naval Library, formerly 
the Reception Room of the Secretary of State, is now oc- 
cupied by General Pershing. 

The collection of models of historic battleships, which 
formerly occupied the corridors of the main floor, have been 
removed to the new Navy Building (p. 346). 

In leaving by main N. doorway, the visitor should note on E. Wall 
a Bronze Tablet commemorating "The services and sufferings of the 
243.135 horses and mules employed bv the American Expeditionary 
Forces overseas during the great World War." 

V. The Old Residential Section 

(From C Street to Judiciary Square) 

C Street between 3d St. and John Marshall Place, was, 
until about 1870, the center of one of the most fashionable 
residential sections in Washington. As the center of fashion 
shifted N. and W., this locality remained a quiet back-water, 
scarcely touched by modern growth. Most of the old houses, 
full of historic associations, are still standing. 



132 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

Trinity Church (founded 1829), the third Protestant 
Episcopal Church, occupies the N. E. cor. of C and 3d Sts. 
Its first edifice was on 5th St., between D and E Sts., on the 
site now occupied by the Columbian Building. The present 
church, dating from 1851, is a Gothic structure of brown- 
stone, with two octagonal towers surmounted by spires sug- 
gestive of minarets. In the center of the auditorium the 
ceiling rises in a spacious octagon. This was one of the 
churches used as hospitals during the Civil War. Henry Clay 
and Daniel Webster both attended service at Trinity. 

One block N., on 'the triangle formed by 3d and D Sts. 
and Indiana Ave., stands a bronze statue of Gen. Albert Pike 
(1809-91), a standing figure, heroic size, erected in 1901 by 
the Masonic Fraternity. Below is a seated bronze female 
figure symbolizing Fame and bearing a banner. G. Trenta- 
nove, sculptor. 

'No. 318 Indiana Ave. was the home of Chief Justice 
Taney, and here he died in 1864. No. 324 was the last home 
of Rear- Admiral Robley D. Evans ("Fighting Bob"). It is 
now occupied by his married daughter. 

The large old-fashioned dwelling opposite Trinity Church, 
N. W. cor. of C St., was built in 1849 for David Aiken Hall, 
a distinguished member of the District Bar, and an intimate 
friend of Daniel Webster, with whom he was associated in 
many legal battles. Mr. Hall's first wife was daughter of 
Charles Bulfinch, one of the architects of the Capitol. This 
house is now a Temporary Home for ex-Union Soldiers and 
Sailors, under the Board of Charities. 

The square brown house on S. E. cor. of 3d St., with old- 
fashioned iron trimmings and a pagoda-like roof, is now 
occupied (11922) by the Boys' Club of Washington. It was 
formerly for many years the residence of "Duke" William 
M. Gwin, and in ante-bellum days was regarded as one of the 
show places of Washington. 

William M. Gwin was colleague of Fremont as Senator from Cali- 
fornia. In earlier years he was one of the House members from 
Mississippi, and was recognized as the millionaire representative of the 
South, dictating all moves made in defense of states' rights and 
slavery. He went to Mexico to help Maximilian establish his brief 
Empire, and was rewarded with the empty title of Duke of Sonora. 

On the fourth or S. W. cor. of 3d St. is the Crosby House, 
an unpretentious rooming and boarding house. It was erected 
about 1836 as the private residence of Marshall Gary Selden, 
and was a favorite rendezvous of fashionable society. 

South on 3d St. are several interesting old houses on the 
colonial order of architecture. No. 219, regarded as one of 
the best examples of its type in the city, dates from 1831, and 



THE OLD RESIDENTIAL SECTION 133 

was for some years a popular Congressional boarding-house. 
Franklin Pierce, Jonathan Cilley, James M. Mason and Robert 
C. Winthrop resided here while members of Congress. Diag- 
onally opposite, 1N0. 224, was formerly Mrs. Beveridge's 
famous Indian boarding-house, which harbored such notables 
as Red Cloud, White Feather and Crazy Horse. No. 226 
occupies the site where Millard Fillmore and John C. Calhoun 
once resided. 

Opposite on C St., No. 302, was the house of John W. 
Maun', Mayor of Washington 1852-53, and for many years 
president of the Bank of the Metropolis (now National 
Metropolitan Bank). No. 304 was, from 1839 until his death 
in 1867, the home of Dr. William Jones, whose wife was a 
sister of the late William W. Corcoran. 1 No. 306 was in 1847 
rented from its owner, Dr. Jonas Green, by Robert C. Win- 
throp, Speaker of :he House. The adjoining Arizona Hotel 
occupies in part the former site of 308, owned and occupied 
for a time by Francis Scott Key, author of "The Star- 
Spangled Banner," whose widow sold it in 1843. 

No. 315 was once the home of Henry C. Schoolcraft, the 
well-known writer on Indian themes, and his wife, Mary 
Schoolcraft. 

No. 322 was the home of Henry L. Ellsworth of Indiana, 
first Commissioner of Patents (1836-48), whose daughter in 
1842 dispatched the first telegraph message ever sent (p. 82) ; 
it was occupied by James Campbell while Postmaster Gen- 
eral (1853-57) ; and later was the home of Zenas C. Robbins, 
a prominent patent lawyer and personal friend of Lincoln. 

Robbins was one of five commissioners appointed to organize a 
local Police Force. It is related that Lincoln, upon meeting the newly 
assembled board, explained to the five, naming them one by one, that 
he had appointed them on this, that and the other recommendation, 
concluding with the words, ''and I have appointed Mr. Robbins to 
please myself." 

The second house to the W., No. 326, was the temporary 
home of Gen. John C. Fremont, the "Pathfinder," when a 
struggling young Lieutenant of Engineers ; and it was from 
here in 1841 that he eloped with Jessie, the prettiest daughter 
of his near neighbor, Sen. Thomas H. Benton. Later he lived 
for a time at No. 318. 

The accounts of the family opposition which led to this elope- 
ment are widely contradictory. In his own published memoirs General 
Fremont states that his relations with Mr. Benton were most cordial, 
and that the opposition came mainly from Mrs. Benton, who, while 
always gracious to him, objected first on the ground of the youth 
of her daughter, who was only sixteen; and secondly because she 
dreaded the hardships of an army officer's wife, having delayed her 
own marriage for seven years, until Mr. Benton resigned from service. 



134 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

This house was in 1866 purchased by members of the 
First Presbyterian Church as a parsonage for Dr. Byron 
Sunderland (1819-1902), under whose guidance, during the 
years that it was attended by President Cleveland, that church 
attained its highest eminence. 

Nos. 332-334, now partly modernized and thrown together 
as a printing establishment .(the eastern doorway is evidently 
unchanged), both have interesting associations. The former 
was for thirty years the home of the Rev. William McLain, 
one of the early pasters of the First Presbyterian Church 
(1837-40) who died here in 1873. The other was for many 
years the home of Sen. Thomas H. Benton. 

On Feb. 27th, 1855, the house was totally destroyed by fire. Benton 
lost all the manuscript and notes of the nearly completed second 
volume of his Thirty Years Views, all of which had to be replaced 
from memory. A new house was promptly erected on the same site, 
and here he wrote his Examination of the Dred Scott Case, in which 
he severely criticised Judge Taney; also his Debates in Congress, the 
concluding pages of which were dictated on his death-bed. When 
they were concluded he sent for a few old friends to bid them fare- 
well. Among those who obeyed the summons was President Buchanan. 

Diagonally opposite, on the N. E. cor. of John Marshall 
Place, is a quaint old house with a spacious front yard, 
dating from very early in the 19th century, and built by a 
sea-faring man, a certain Mr. Caldwell of Philadelphia. 
John Quincy Adams is said to have once lived here. 

During 1830-57 it was the home of Gottlieb C. Grammar, president 
for 35 years of the Franklin Fire Insurance Co., and of the Patriotic 
Bank, and vestryman of St. John's and later of Trinity Church. 

Diagonally opposite on the S. W. cor. of C St., stands 
the Metropolitan M. E. Church, a dignified structure of 
brownstone in the early English Gothic order of architecture, 
erected 1854-69, at a cost of $225,000 (not including tower and 
steeple). 

History. The ground occupied by the Metropolitan Church was 
donated in 1854 by the Wesley M. E. Chapel, for the erection of a 
National Methodist Episcopal Church. The plan was approved at a 
meeting of the General Conference and the corner-stone was laid 
that same year; but for want of funds the edifice was not completed 
until March ist, 1869. 

As in many of the older Washington churches, the ground 
floor is occupied by the Church parlor and Sunday School 
rooms. Double stairways lead up from the vestibule to the 
main auditorium on the floor above. Two Presidents, Grant 
and McKinley, and two Vice-Presidents, Logan and Fair- 
banks, attended service here. The Presidential pew is No. 67, 
on the L. of the W. aisle. Behind it, No. 65, is the Logan 
pew. 



THE OLD RESIDENTIAL SECTION 135 

The pulpit and pulpit-rail are of olive-wood made from 
logs brought from Mt. Lebanon and the Mount of Olives. 
In the arch behind the pulpit, is a small black keystone in- 
scribed with Hebraic characters and consisting of a fragment 
from Solomon's Temple. To the R. of pulpit in the S. \V. 
cor., are several memorial tablets : 1. To Vice-President 
John A. Logan ; 2. To the Rev. John P. Newman, D.D., 
Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Churdi, the third pastor 
of the Metropolitan M. E. Church (1826-99) ; 3. To Ulysses 
S. Grant (tablet erected by his friend George W. Childs). 
To the L. is a marble bust of Bishop Newman. 

Bishop Newman was raised to the Bishopric in his third pastoral 
term in this church; and instead of resigning he followed the unusual 
procedure of remaining pastor until the end of his term. 

In the rear of the church are several memorials including: 
1. To Matthew G. Emery (1818-1901) the last Mayor of 
Washington, and President for 32 years of the Trustees of 
the church ; 2. To President McKinley. • 

The cost of erection of this church was met by contribu- 
tions from various Church Conferences throughout the 
country. The names of the Conferences which contributed 
are inscribed upon the name plates of the rear pews. The 
church has a chime of 16 bells. 

At 456 C St., adjoining the church, John A. Dix lived 
while Secretary of the Treasury (1860-61.) No. 458 was the 
residence of Edwin M. Stanton, while practicing law and 
also while Attorney General under Buchanan. He was still 
living here when he defended Daniel Sickles, on trial for the 
murder of Philip Barton Key (p. 188), but moved to H St. 
just W. of 14th when he became Secretary of War. 

Diagonally opposite, W. of the Harper Office Building, 
a modern business house occupies the site of an historic old 
hotel. In 1826 it was known as Davis' Hotel. Later.it became 
a boarding house kept by Miss Ann Hamilton and patronized 
by members of Congress. During the decade 1840-50 many 
confidential consultations were held there regarding slavery 
and the work of preparation for the advent of the Republican 
party. On the eastern lot there was formerly a spring, 
known as the City Spring, and the city Corporation laid 
wooden pipes for carrying the water to running pumps on 
6th and 7th Sts., S. of Pennsylvania Ave. When William 
Woodward, in 1802, erected his Centre Tavern on the site 
now covered by the eastern part of the Metropolitan Hotel 
(p. 4), he also purchased the lot with the spring on C St.; 
and subsequently both the Metropolitan and National Hotels 
depended on this spring for their water supply. It was on 



136 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

this same lot that Washington's first Public Baths were 
opened, in 1813. 

Further west, at the N. W. cor. of 6th and C Sts.,- formerly 
stood the old Crutchct House, where Alexander Stephens, 
Charles Summer, General Scott and Abraham Lincoln used 
to dine. 

On the W. side of John Marshall Place, midway between 
C and D Sts., stands the First Presbyterian Church, a sub- 
stantial brick structure, the corner-stone of which was laid 
April 10th, 1827. Among the distinguished attendants have 
been Presidents Jackson, Polk, Pierce and Cleveland ; Vice- 
President Colfax and General Grant. The Rev. T. DeWitt 
Talmage, the famous Brooklyn preacher, wcs once pastor of 
this church. 

History. The First Presbyterian church was organized in 1789, 
and on June 24th its first pastor, the Rev. John Brackenridge was in- 
stalled. The congregation worshipped first in the carpenter's shop 
of the White House, and later in the Supreme Court, in the basement 
of the Capitol. The history of the early years is somewhat obscure. 
Owing to poor health the pastor was absent much of the time, and the 
congregation gradually dwindled away. It is believed that for a time 
they had a house of worship in the square bounded by F and G, 10th 
and nth Sts. Christian Hines in his quaint "Recollections," dating 
from boyhood, speaks of the "old one-story, round-top, frame meeting- 
house, where (it is said) Rev. Mr. Brackenridge used to preach." 
It is a curious fact that when, in 181 1, the church was revived this 
same Mr. Brackenridge was for a second time called and ordained 
as pastor. In 181 2 the "Little White Church under the Hill," near 
Delaware Ave. and B St. S. W., was dedicated. In 1827 the present 
site was secured and the corner-stone of the present structure laid 
April 10th. In 1868 this church received the first charter granted by 
Congress to any church in the District of Columbia. 

In the lobby of the church is a portrait bust of the Rev. Byron 
Sunderland, the most distinguished of the church's many pastors, 
who closed his long term of service by resigning in 1899, three years 
before his death. 

Opposite the church is the site of the home of Carlo 
Franzoni, one of the first sculptors of the Capitol, who died 
here 1819. The house, the front of which was elaborately 
carved with busts and bas-reliefs, survived for many years, 
but the sculptures were destroyed in enlarging the entrance 
for business purposes. 

North of the church, on W. side, the house adjoining the 
corner was the residence of Rear Admiral Dahlgren for fif- 
teen years prior to his death in 1870. The corner house is the 
old Masonic Hall, the corner-stone of which was laid in 1826. 
It was occupied by the City Post Office for a year after the 
Blodgett Building was burned in 1836 (p. 142). During 1849- 
70 it was the home of Joseph H. Bradley, a prominent lawyer 
of the District. 



THE OLD RESIDENTIAL SECTION 137 

John Marshall Place, formerly 4*4 St., terminates at 
Judiciary Square, a rectangular plot comprising about 14 acres, 
bounded by 4th and 5th, D and G Sts. Its S. side marks the 
meeting place of two short Avenues : Indiana Avenue, run- 
ning S. E. to 1st St., and Louisiana Avenue, running S. W. 
to the Mall at 10th St. Number 458 Louisiana Ave., a few 
doors W. of John Marshall PL, was, for several years prior 
to his death in 1846, the home of James Hoban, architect of 
the White House. 

Further W., midway between 4 l / 2 and 6th Sts., is the site 
of the second oldest theater in Washington. It was first 
.called the Washington Theater, and later the American The- 
ater. It must have dated from the early 20's for it was 
enlarged and improved in 1828. Two inaugural balls are said 
to have been held in this Hall. 

Diagonally opposite, N. E. cor. of Louisiana Ave. and 
6th St., stands the District Police Court, occupying the site 
of the old First Unitarian Church attended by Presidents 
John Quincy Adams and Millard Fillmore. When, in 1878, 
the congregation moved to their second church on 14th St. 
(p. 232) the old edifice was taken over and occupied by the 
Police Court, until it became too small for the latter's needs, 
and the present building was erected. This necessitated the 
demolition of several dwellings, to the E. on the Ave., includ- 
ing the house in which Daniel Webster spent his last years. 

On the S. side of the Square, facing John Marshall Place, 
stands the third oldest of the Government buildings, the 
venerable City Hall (PI. Ill — E4 — No. 23), known in recent 
years as the District Court House. It is the one important work 
designed wholly by George Hadfield, the young English archi- 
tect so enthusiastically recommended by Benjamin West at the 
time when Hallett was discharged from his position as super- 
vising architect of the Capitol. Owing to its severe simplicity, 
the tendency was formerly to underrate the really artistic pro- 
portions of City Hall. But critical judgment now recognizes 
the rare talent that infused so much classic spirit into mere 
brick and plaster. 

The central section, with its Ionic portico, is the oldest 
portion of the structure ; the east wing was finished in 1826 
(the year of Hadfield's death) ; the west wing was not com- 
pleted until 1849. The finished structure has a total frontage 
of 250 ft. and consists of a basement and two stories, with 
an elevation of 47 ft. The recessed center has a width of 
150 ft., while the wings have a frontage of 50 ft. each, and a 
depth of 166 ft. 



138 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

In 1871 the building" was conveyed to the Federal Gov- 
ernment, and has since housed, not only the District Courts, 
but also the offices of the U. S. District Attorney, U. S. 
Marshal, Register of Wills and Recorder of Deeds. The old 
eastern court-room has been the scene of many historic trials, 
including those of Dr. Gardiner and Richard H. White for 
burning the Treasury Building; Julian May for killing a man 
in a duel ; Daniel E. Sickles for the murder of Philip Barton 
Key (p. 188), and Charles Guiteau for the assassination of 
President Garfield. 

TRe building having become through long neglect badly 
out of repair, underwent in 1917 a thorough renovation. This 
necessitated the temporary removal .of the District Court to 
the Emery Building, formerly occupied by the Census Bureau, 
at B and 2d Sts. In the course of repairs the S. facade or 
main front, was somewhat remodeled. 

In front of the Court House stands a marble column, 35 
ft. high, surmounted by a full-length marble statue of Lincoln, 
modeled by Lot Flannery of Washington, said to have been 
a self-taught sculptor, and once a Lieutenant in the U. S. 
Army. The statue was unveiled April 15th, 1868, the third 
anniversary of Lincoln's death. A bill to replace this statue 
with another is now pending in Congress (May, 1922). 

The District Court of Appeals (PI. Ill— E4— No. 100), 
situated immediately N. W. of the old Court House, constitutes 
the first of a projected series of Municipal buildings which will 
flank the two sides of Judiciary Sq. It was erected in 1910 
from plans by Elliott Woods, assisted by W. D. Kneessi and 
August Eccard. 

The architectural style is adapted Georgian ; and it is 
interesting to observe how closely and judiciously the archi- 
tect has followed Hadfield's work. The whole structure 
harmonizes with the old City Hall ; and the stone work of the 
two basements, especially in the window arches, is practically 
identical. The material of the new building is : for base and 
approaches, Woodstock granite ; for upper stories, Bedford 
Blue Indiana limestone. The main entrance is on the N. 
fagade. The main staircase, on the left, leads up to an im- 
pressive foyer, from which corridors, to R. and L., give ad- 
mission to the Judge's' Retiring rooms. The Appellate Court 
Room is in the center, and is windowless, being lighted 
through the ceiling. When the Court is not in Session the 
attendants in charge will gladly admit visitors to the Court 
Room and the Judges' Retiring Rooms. 

Prior to the erection of the Pension Office, several 
Inaugural Balls were held in Judicial Square, in temporary 



THE OLD RESIDENTIAL SECTION 139 

structures built for the occasion : namely, that of William 
Henry Harrison, in 1857; the first Inaugural Ball of Lincoln, 
in 1861 ; and the second of Grant, in 1873. At the outbreak 
of the Civil War, the Lincoln ball-room was still standing 
at the corner of 5th and E Sts. ; and was used as an emer- 
gency hospital for the first wounded soldiers. 

The Pension Office (PI. Ill— E4), erected in 1883, stands 
in the upper portion of the Square, above the line of F St. It is 
a (huge, ungainly structure of red brick, notable chiefly for its 
multitude of windows. It is said to have been adapted from the 
Farnese Palace at Rome. (General M. C. Meiggs, U. S. A., 
architect. See marble memorial tablet on wall of South 
entry.) 

Open to the public weekdays, from 9 a. m. to 2 p. m. 
There is, however, nothing to interest the tourist excepting 
the big central hall. 

The Pension Office contains the offices of the Commissioner of 
Pensions, who supervises the examination and adjudication of all claims 
for service in the army or navy rendered wholly prior to Oct. 6, 1917: 
claims for bounty-land warrants based upon services rendered prior to 
March 3, 1855, and claims under the Act of May 22, 1920, providing 
for the retirement of employes in the classified Civil Service. 

The building forms a parallellogram 400x200 ft., sur- 
rounding a roofed-in Roman cortile. Surmounting the third 
story are four gables forming a cross. Height to cornice, 75 
ft. ; to central ridge of roof, 149 ft. The cost was approxi- 
mately $900,000, and 15,000,000 brick were required in course 
of construction. It is completely fire-proof, — a fact which, 
when repeated to General Sheridan, evoked his historic com- 
ment, "What a pity!" 

The one artistic feature of the building is a spirited three- 
foot terra-cotta bas-relief frieze, extending unbroken around 
all four sides, and portraying successively the various branches 
of the Service : the Marching Infantry, the Cavalry, the Boys 
of the Navy rowing ashore, the Army Supply-wagons, and the 
Wounded being assisted to the rear. (Designed by C. Buberl ; 
executed by the Boston Terra-cotta Company). 

The three-loot squares compri?ing the frieze are cleverly matched, 
so as to permit of various arrangements and repetitions, thus making 
it possible to bring a different branch of the service over each of the 
four central entrances, which are accordingly named respectively: 1. 
North side. Gate of the Invalids; 2. West side, Gate of the Staff; 
3. South side, Gate of the Line; 4. East side, Naval Gate. 

In the pendentives of the doorways are symbolic figures, also in 
terra-cotta: 1. (repeated in E. and W. entrances) War, represented 
(on R.) by Mars, with chariot and horses; Minerva (on L.), fully armed 
and accompanied by the Owl of Wisdom; 2. (repeated in N. and S. en- 
trances) Peace, symbolized by Justice (on R.), with scales; and Truth 
(on L.), with torch; beside her are the discarded masks of Tragedy and 
Comedy. 



140 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

Interior. The vast inner court, 316x116 ft., and rising 120 
ft. to roof, is surrounded by arcaded galleries resting on two 
tiers of imitation marble columns, 152 in number, the lower 
tier being Doric and the upper Ionic. 

The floor of the court is now occupied with tiers of 
drawers, containing the papers of applicants for pensions. 
The cases on file exceed one million. The work has been 
so thoroughly systematized that the entire record of any 
pension case can be furnished within five minutes after inquiry. 

The Pension Building has been the scene of many in- 
augural balls, at which no less than 18,000 people have been 
entertained. The list includes the inaugural balls of President 
Cleveland, 1885 and 1893 ; Harrison, 1889 ; McKinley, 1897 and 
1901 ; Roosevelt, 1905 ; Taft, 1909. 

The Pension Bureau Reference Library is of recent origin. 
established July 18th, 1910, by the authority of the Commis- 
sioner of Pensions. It is a reference library for the use oi 
the employees of the Bureau; but its privileges are extended 
to any one having business with the Bureau. 

The site originally chosen for the Pension Office was on B St., at 
Louisiana ani Ohio Ave.; but this was found to be unsafe, because it 
consisted in part of filled-in ground of what was formerly the Wash- 
ington canal. 

On 5th St, facing the Square, No. 416-18, the Columbian 
Building occupies the former site of Trinity Episcopal Church, 
upon the removal of which in 185 1 to its present site (p. 132), 
the old edifice was taken over by the then newly organized 
Congregational Church. The latter was short-lived, but for 
a brief time in 1854, just after the publication of Uncle Tom's 
Cabin, it was the scene of some stirring revivals and anti- 
slavery demonstrations. 

No. 420, the Law Department of Howard University, 
erected 1892, contains a large auditorium, known as the 
William II. Evarts Hall. 

This side of the Square is ooccupied by many law offices. 
The N. W. cor. of 5th and E Sts. is occupied jointly by the 
Columbian Title Insurance Co. and the Real Estate Title In- 
surance C&. Diagonally opposite, on E St. S. E. cor. of 6th 
St., is the large brick structure of the Law School of George- 
town University. The old-fashioned square brick dwelling 
on the opposite N. W. cor. of 6th St., was formerly the home 
of Justice Salmon P. Chase, also of Senator William Sprague, 
who married Kate Chase, daughter of the Chief Justice. 

Continuing N. on 5th St. we pass, at S. E. cor. of F St., 
the unpretentious drab brick structure of Wesley Chapel 
(M. E.), organized in 1823. The original edifice was destroyed 
by fire, and the present chapel erected about 1856, at a cost 






THE MODERN SHOPPING DISTRICT 141 

of $-16,000. Just N. of Judiciary Square, on the E. side 
of 5th St., between G and H Sts., we may see the short, 
heavy spire of the German R. C. Church of St. Mary, the 
only German church of that denomination in the city, and 
consequently without parochial limitations. The interior is 
rich but somber, with many memorial windows representing 
the Saints of the church, grouped in pairs. The principal 
window in the apse represents the Virgin and Child. Near 
the entrance is a memorial tablet to Matthias Alig (1803-82), 
born in Switzerland, the founder and first rector of this 
church. The present structure, early Gothic, of trap-rock, 
dates from 1890. 

Further N., at 6th and G Sts., stands Adath Israel, the 
oldest Jewish synagogue in the city, founded in the early fifties 
by Mannasses Oppenheimer, from Bavaria, one of the eight 
Jews then in Washington. The present building dates 
from 1873. 

VI. The Modern Shopping District 
a. F Street to the Treasury Building 

F Street was from very early times down to the last 
quarter of the 19th century, a fashionable street, and even 
in the 70's, when President Grant and A. T. Stewart, New 
York's first "Merchant Prince," prophesied that it was des- 
tined to become the fashionable shopping street of the Cap- 
ital, there were few who believed it. Yet to-day from 6th 
St. to the Treasury Building, with the exception of a few 
churches, F St. is wholly given over to business, containing 
many of the leading shops and stores, some of which were 
formerly conspicuous features on Pennsylvania Ave. 

Just S. of F St., at No. 522 6th St., is the Washington 
headquarters" of the Women's Christian Temperance Union. 
No. 614 F St. was formerly the home of Thomas U. Walter, 
one of the architects of the Capitol. No. 622 F St., the 
Pacific Building, contains the rooms of the Columbia His- 
torical Society, an institution organized April 4th, 1894 "for 
the collection, preservation and diffusion of knowledge re- 
specting the history and topography of the District of 
Columbia." 

The Society possesses a valuable specialized library comprising ap- 
proximately 800 volumes, and 4000 magazines and pamphlets. It is 
primarily intended for members, but any other students are welcome. 
Open every Wednesday, 1 1 A. M. to 4 P. M., from November to May 
inclusive; at other times by appointment with the Secretary. 

At the S.E. cor. of 7th and F Sts. is the Shubert-Garrick 
Theatre, one of Washington's high-class playhouses (p. 24). 



142 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

West of 7th St. the north side of F St. is occupied for 
two squares by the Patent Office, and the S. side to 8th St. 
by the General Land Office. 

The United Statees Patent Office (PI. I— Ci), which up 
to 1917 housed the entire Department of the Interior (p. 213), 
occupies two city squares, bounded on N. and S. by F and G 
Sts., and on E. and W. by 7th and 9th Sts. This site was the 
reservation set aside in L'Enf ant's plan for a National Church 
and Mausoleum. The ibuilding is a three-story rectangle, measur- 
ing 453 ft. E. to W., and 321 ft. N. to S., with an interior quad- 
rangle about 265 x 135 ft. The style is consistently Doric, 
imposing by its severe simplicity. There are four massive 
porticoes. The main one, fronting on F St., opposite the termina- 
tion of 8th St., is reached by a lofty series of steps, and con- 
sists of a double row of fluted Doric columns, sixteen in 
number, six feet in diameter, and thirty-two feet high, 
raised in sections and flanked by immense pilasters. It is 
modeled after the portico of the Pantheon at Rome. 

The ground occupied by the S. W. cor. of this building, at E 
and 8th Sts., is the site of the historic Blodgett's Hotel, so named 
from its projector, Samuel Blodgett of Philadelphia, who planned to 
make it a lottery prize to raise money for building a canal. The 
hotel was begun July 4th, 1793, from plans by James Hoban. The 
government gave the freestone for the. basement story. About $35,000 
was expended in putting up the frame and roofing-in. The building, 
however, was not completed as the lottery scheme failed. Although 
known by the various names of "Great Hotel," "Lottery Hotel" and 
"Union Pacific Hotel," it was never used as a hotel. In 1800 a 
Philadelphia theatrical man named Wingall opened it as the United 
States Theatre, and presented the first series, of theatrical entertain- 
ments ever given in Washington. The opening night was August 226.. 
1800, when Venice Preserved and The Spoiled Child were enacted 
before an audience of about 150. For the next ten years the main 
auditorium was used for variotis entertainments, meetings and relig- 
ious services; while the rooms of the unfinished upper stories housed 
the families of foreign artisans employed on the Capitol. In 1810 
Blodgett's was purchased by the Government, and from 18 12 to 1836 
was occupied by the City Post Office and part of the time by the Post 
Office Department and Patent Office. When the British captured 
the city, in 1814, one of the officers ordered a gun to be trained upon 
this building. It was saved by Dr. William Thornton, at that time 
in charge of the Patent Office. It is related that Thornton rode up 
and jumped from his horse in front of the gun, demanding: "Are 
you Englishmen or Goths and Vandals? This is the Patent Office, the 
depository of the inventive genius of America, in which the whole 
civilized world is concerned. Would you destroy it? If so, fire away 
and let the shot pass through my body!" 

Owing to the destruction of the Capitol by the British, when 
Congress was next convened, September 19th, 1814, it occupied Blod- 
gett's for a brief period. See memorial tablet on S. facade of present 
building. 

Another historic sit'e is near the middle of the W. side of the 
Patent Office, on 7th St. Here, before the northern extension 
was built, stood two brick buildings occupied by the Government as 



THE MODERN SHOPPING DISTRICT 143 

the city branch of the Post Office. In the upper story or one of 

these houses was established the first office in the world for receiving 

and dispatching messages by magnetic telegraph. The location is marked 
by a bronze memorial tablet. 

The original section of the present building is the south 
wing with a 270 ft. front on F St., and 70 ft. deep. It was 
erected in 1837-42 to house the Patent Office when it was 
still a Bureau of the Department of State. Robert Mills, 
superintending architect; designs by W. P. Elliott. Mate- 
rial, freestone from Government quarries at Aquia Creek, 
Va. In 1849, when the Department of the Interior was 
created, the first extension, consisting of the east wing, was 
authorized, and was begun by Mills, from designs by Thomas 
U. Walter. Mills was succeeded in 1851 by Edward Clark, 
assistant architect of the Capitol, under whom the east wing 
was completed in 1855, the west wing in 1859, the north 
wing in i860 and the north portico in 1868. The new por- 
tions are all of Maryland marble on the exterior (including 
basement), and of New England granite on the quadrangle. 
The building, as originally completed, contained 191 rooms, 
and cost approximately $2,700,000. Here in 1865 the second 
Lincoln Inaugural Ball was held. 

The Patent Office was organized in 1790, when the first patent was 
taken out by one Samuel Hopkins, July 31st, "for making pot or 
pearl ashes"; and the second by Joseph Stacey Sampson, August 6th, 
"for the manufacture of candles." Before the outbreak of the Civil 
War more than 30,000 patents had been issued; and the war so far 
stimulated inventive genius that by 1870 the number had risen to 
40,000. Today the total number is upward of 900,000 patents; and 
the earnings of the Office are said to have been far in excess of the 
total expenses since its origin, including the cost of buildings. 

The Patent Office possesses an important Scientific 
Library, now approximating 95,000 volumes (including books, 
pamphlets and bound volumes of periodicals). It is strictly 
a reference library, open daily, except Sunday and Holidays, 
from 9 A. M. to 4 :30 P. M. 

The Patent Office Library was practically founded in 1836; but its 
real history dates from 1852, under the direction of W. W. Turner, 
its first regularly appointed Librarian, through whose efforts the 
foreign patent and periodical files were greatly increased, and the 
scope of the Library broadened. In 1869 the Library was able to 
boast that it possessed "a complete set of the reports of the British 
Patent Commissioners — the reports of French Patents are also complete, 
and those of various other countries are being obtained as rapidly as 
possible." The Library is entirely dependent upon Congressional approp- 
riations, which have been gradually increased until at present there 
is an annual allowance of $2,500. 

Prior to the erection of the old National Museum, the 
upper story of the Patent Office, known as the "Model 
Room," contained, in addition to models of patents, a museum 
of miscellaneous exhibits, the nucleus of which was the 



144 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

natural history collection brought home in 1842 by the U. S. 
Naval Exploring Expedition under command of Commodore 
Charles Wilkes. Here also were formerly exhibited many 
of the nation's most valued historical relics, including per- 
sonal effects of George Washington, and the original Declara- 
tion of Independence (now in the Library of Congress). 
The collection was finally transferred to the National 
Museumi (p. 260). 

South of the Patent Office, occupying the block bounded 
on E. and W. by 7th and 8th' Sts., and on N. and S. by JK and 
E Sts., is the Old General Land Office Building (PI. I— 
C2) originally erected for the General and City Post Office. 

History. The southern or E St. portion was commenced 
in 1839, and finished by Robert Mills, architect. Material : 
marble from New York quarries. In 1842 Congress pur- 
chased the north half of the square bounded by F St., and 
in 1855 the extension on that space was completed. T. U. 
Walter, architect; Capt. M. C. Meiggs, U. S. Engineers, super- 
intendent. Material: Maryland marble. 

The completed building is Roman Corinthian in style. It 
measures 204 x 300 ft., and consists of two stories resting on 
a rustic basement. The interior courtyard measures 95 x 194 
ft. The outer facing of the whole building is white marble, 
that of the court is granite. The columns and pilasters, laid 
in sections, extend through three stories, supporting the 
architrave, frieze and cornice. On the 8th St. front is a 
carriage-way entrance, formerly intended for the reception 
and delivery of mail. The carving on the keystone of the 
entrance arch represents Fidelity. The bas-reliefs on the 
spandrils, winged female figures bearing (N. side) a thunder- 
bolt, (S. side) a locomotive, symbolize respectively Electricity 
and Steam. Estimated cost of the entire building, $1,700,000. 

The General Land Office removed in 1917 to the new Interior 
Department Building (p. 213). During the World War Gen. Enoch 
Crowther, head of the National Selective Draft Board, occupied the 
old building; and here, after his return from France General Pershing 
had his headquarters. It is now (1922) occupied by several minor 
Government bureaus including the Federal Farm Loan Bureau; the 
U. S Tariff Commission; the Panama Canal; and the International Joint 
Commission (with jurisdiction ovef the boundaries between the United 
States and Canada). 

At S. W. cor. of F and 8th Sts., was formerly the home 

of George Hadfield, an architect of the Capitol. 

The intersection of 9th and F Sts., at S.W. cor. of the Patent 
Office, is the busiest transfer point in Washington of the city's trolley 
lines. More than half the lines intersect at this point. 

The N. E. and S. E. corners of 9th and F Sts. are to- 
day occupied respectively by the old Masonic Temple, and 






THE MODERN SHOPPING DISTRICT 145 

the nine-story building of the Washington Loan and Trust 

Co., organized 1889. 

On these two corners there still stood as late as 1859 two hotels: 
1. the Model House, on the site of the Masonic Temple; and 2. the 
Herndon House, later called the St. Cloud Hotel, a more pretentious 
hostelry of substantial brick. W. of the Model House in those days 
was an open sewer, and beyond the sewer stood the buildings and 
grounds of old Gonzaga College (p. 362); and on a grade, some distance 
above the street, stood old St. Patrick's church and graveyard. 

South on 10th St., immediately adjoining the new Metro- 
politan Theatre, is the historic structure, once *Ford's The- 
atre (PI. I — B2), in which Abraham Lincoln was assassinated 
on the night of April 14, 1865, while attending a performance 
of "Our American Cousin." John Wilkes Booth, an actor, 
who knew the theatre well, entered the box, shot the President 
through the head, then leaped to the stage and escaped. He 
was overtaken, however, while hiding in a barn near Freder- 
icksburg, Va., and fatally wounded while resisting arrest. 

This building, now closed to the public, occupies the site of one of 
the several edifices of the First Baptist Church. When that organization, 
in 1862, moved into a new building, its former premises were taken 
over by one James R. Ford (d. January 12th, 191 7) and opened on 
March 19th of that year with "The French Spy," by Lucille Western. 
The subsequent performances included engagements by: Maggie 
Mitchell. Edwin Forrest, John McCollough and Laura Keene. 

Opposite Ford's Theatre is the *Honse where Lincoln 
died, No. 516 10th St. It contains at present the Oldroyd 
Lincoln Memorial Museum. 

History. Into this house, the home of one William Petersen, the 
wounded President was carried from the theatre a few minutes after 
10 o'clock, into the room at the rear end of the entrance hallway. 
Throughout the night he lay in this room surrounded by his wife and 
son Robert, his private Secretary, John Hay, Secretaries Stanton. 
Welles and Usher, Atty. -General Speed, Senator Sumner, Dr. Gurley, 
his pastor, and five physicians. The President remained unconscious 
to the end. At 7 A. M. a bulletin was issued: "Symptoms of immediate 
dissolution," and twenty-two minutes later Lincoln died. Secretary 
Stanton broke the solemn silence with the historic words, "Now he be- 
longs to the Ages." It was in an adjoining room that Stanton, during 
the night-long suspense, spent hours dictating orders and preparing an 
official account which is recognized today as the best condensed history 
of the assassination. 

The Oldroyd Collection, which is at present housed here, 
is the result of a patient collection through forty years, by 
Mr.Osborn H. Oldroyd, of miscellaneous L.incolniana, com- 
prising 3000 exhibits, and consequently of widely varied de- 
grees of interest and authenticity. For ten years the col- 
lection was housed in the old Lincoln homestead in Spring- 
field, 111. In the early 8o's (so the visitor is told) friction 
between Mr. Oldroyd and Mr. Robert Lincoln resulted in 
the former's summary dispossession, and the removal of the 
collection to Washington. One or two Congressmen so far 



i 4 6 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

interested themselves that the building was purchased by the 
Government. The collection itself, however, is still owned 
by the Oldroyd family, who occupy the upper stories. 

Museum open every day and evening, "at all hours/' 
Admission 30 cents. 

The exhibits occupy the four rooms on the ground floor, and in- 
clude in addition to the more important relics, which merit special 
mention: A. over 300 newspapers containing Lincoln's speeches and 
war papers, and notices of his death and burial; B. 255 funeral ser- 
mons, addresses and eulogies; C. 253 portraits, including photographs, 
steel engravings, lithographs, etc.; D. 66 pieces of sheet music published 
at the time of his death; E. more than a hundred caricatures of Lin- 
coln's presidential campaigns and administrations. 

In the front parlor, between the windows, is shown what purports 
to be Lincoln's last signature. In this room also is the Family Bible, 
100 years old, from which his mother read to him in childhood. It is 
claimed that the autograph on the cover was written by Lincoln when 
only nine years old. 

Between the front and back parlors is a black locust rail, accom- 
panied by an affidavit attested to by Gov. Oglesby, declaring it to be 
an original rail split by Lincoln in 1830. 

The back parlor is interesting mainly for its pictures 
and other mementoes of the pursuit, capture, trial and execu- 
tion of the Lincoln conspirators. These exhibits include : a 
Ford's Theatre hand-bill of The American Cousin, dated 
April 14th, 1865 ; a reward bill offering $100,000 for the cap- 
ture of Booth, Harold and Surratt ; and 37 portraits of 
Wilkes Booth. 

On the S. wall is a series of pictures showing the route followed 
by Booth in his flight, the houses at which he successively stopped, and 
the burning barn in which he was shot by Boston Corbett. There are 
also four photographs of the execution of four of the conspirators, 
showing: 1. The condemned prisoners on the platform of the gallows 
with their spiritual advisors; 2. The condemned with ropes adjusted; 
3. The springing of the trap; 4. The bodies still hanging after they 
have been pronounced dead. 

The N. door opens into the small hall-room (11x22 ft.) 
in which Lincoln died. The death-bed stood in the N. E. 
cor., behind the hall door. The walls are hung with framed 
prints and engravings representing the group around the 
dying President. Note especially the *Woodcut from Frank 
Leslie's Weekly. 

It is claimed that the wallpaper has not been changed since Lin- 
coln's death; but the pattern differs from that shown in the early pic- 
tures; and this, coupled with the fact that the building was for many 
years a rooming-house, makes this claim doubtful. 

The door at W. end of hall-room opens into a fourth and much 
larger room, containing: A. Furniture from the Lincoln Homestead, 
Springfield, 111. (13 pieces), including the cradle in which the Lincoln 
children were rocked; also the last cook stove used by Mrs. Lincoln in 
the homestead, and the office chair from Lincoln's law office in Spring- 
field (said to be the chair in which he sat while drafting his first 
inaugural address); B. A library of upward of 1000 volumes of Lincoln 
biographies and histories of slavery and the Civil War; C. Portraits 



THE MODERN SHOPPING DISTRICT 147 

and busts of Lincoln, including: i. Portrait from life, by F. B. Car- 
penter (purporting to have been taken approximately at the time of 
the Gettysburg Address, November 19th, 1864); 2. Bust from life, by 
Thomas Jones, 1860-61; 3. Plaster bust, by Leonard W. Volk, Chicago t 
1860. 

In the adjoining house, No. 518 10th St., the Spanish War 
Veterans' Association was established May 17th, 1899. 

North of F St., on E. side of 10th St., stands St. Pat- 
rick's Church (R. C.) (PH. I — Bi), a Norman Gothic struc- 
ture built mainly of trap rock, architecturally one of the most 
impressive church edifices in the city. 

History. On April 10th, 1794, Father Anthony Caffery purchased 
lots No. 5 and 6 in the original plot bounded by 9th and 10th, F and G 
Sts., for which he paid £80 sterling. These lots were deeded to Bishop 
Carroll in 1804. Later the church obtained, by purchase or gift, addi- 
tional lots from No. 7 to 15 inclusive. 

Father Caffery was succeeded by Father William Matthews, the 
first native born American to be raised to the priesthood in the United 
States, and remembered as the "Parochial Patriot of Washington City." 
He was the parochial priest of the whole city; President of Georgetown 
College during a crucial period of its existence (p. 467). He built 
the first frame church, and later replaced it with a brick one, . about 
1808, at the corner of 10th and F Sts., known as Old St. Patrick's. 
He alsoi laid the foundation of Gonzaga College (p. 362), and founded 
in 1 83 1 St. Vincent's Female Orphan Asylum, (under care of the Sisters 
of Charity) which fof years occupied the site of the present Woodward 
& Lothrqp store, and was later removed to the estate of Mrs. Kate 
Chase Sprague, near Eckington (PI. Ill — C5). 

Father Matthews remained* pastor of St. Patrick's for nearly half a 
century (1802-54), and numbered among his parishioners Chief Justice 
Roger B. Taney, Major L'Enfant, James Hoban, architect of the White 
House, and Robert Brent, first May on of Washington. 1 

This first brick church remained until the early seventies, when 
under the zealous administration of the Rev. Jacob Ambrose Walters 
(rector 1854-94) plans were made for a new stone church, the present 
site was chosen, and the corner-stone laid November 3d, 1872. Father 
Walters was followed by the Rev. John Lloyd, during whose rectorship 
the churcih was decorated. The fine line erf parochial buildings occupy- 
ing most of the block on G St. were added during the administration 
of the Rev. Dennis J. Spofford (1901-08). 

Originally the parish of St. Patrick's included the entire city. The 
first subdivision was into eight parishes, namely: 1. St. Patrick's; 2. 
St. Peter's (p. 411); 3. St. Matthew's Op. 234); 4. St. Mary's 
(German) (p. 141); 5. St. Aloysius' (,p. 362); 6. St. Stephen's; 
7. Immaculate Conception; 8, St. Joseph's (p. 365). 

The site of St. Patrick's was originally a part of the Tommy Burnes 
farm; and directly where the church now stands there was, until as 
late as 1810, a highly prized spring of water, known first as the 
Burnes spring, and later as St. Patrick's spring. Here on summer 
evenings the Burnes family used to gather under the great oaks and 
amuse themselves playing games and swinging from the branches. 

The church is open daily until after sunset. Note the 
interesting Norman French gargoyles and the variegated 
marble columns of the central portal. The interior is dig- 
nified but not ornate. There are a number of fine windows 
(mostly memorials), by Meyer and Bros., of Munich. The 
subjects are as follows: 



148 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

Transept and nave: Twelve scenes from the life of 
Christ. North transept (E. to W.) : I. The Annunciation; 
2. Mary's Visit to Elizabeth; Nave, N. side: 3. Adoration of 
the Magi; 4. Presentation in the Temple; 5. Christ in 
Joseph's Carpenter Shop ; 6. Christ in the Temple ; Nave, 
S. side (W. to E.) : 7. Marriage at Cana; 8. "Suffer Little 
Children to Come Unto Me" (Mark x, 14) ; 9. The Lajt 
Supper; 10. "If it be possible let this cup pass from me" 
(Matthew xxvi, 39); South Transept: 11. The Resurrec- 
tion; 12. The Sermon on the Mount. 

The seven windows in the Apse contain scenes from the 
life of St. Patrick, beginning with the Annunciation by Angels 
of his Mission ; and closing with the scene of the Saint's 
death. 

Note especially the altar in Norman Gothic style, harmonizing with 
the architecture of the church, and constructed of American statuary 
marble and, Mexican onyx, inlaid with panels of Carrara marble carved 
in Florence. The largest of these panels represents the Last Supper. 

At the N. W. cor. of the church, on L. of entrance, is a 
recently remodeled Baptistry containing a Pieta {Edward 
Berge, Baltimore, sculptor). On the walls of the baptistry 
is a series of mural paintings by Gabrielle Clements (also 
of Baltimore) : immediately behind the Pieta are depicted 
the Cross and Instruments of Crucifixion ; on R. are Joseph 
of Aramathea and Nicodemus; on L. are St. John and Mary 
Magdalene. 

Woodward & Lothrop, the leading department store of 
Washington, stands on the N. side of F St., partly on the 
former site of St. Vincent's Orphanage, and occupies almost 
the entire square included between 10th and nth and G Sts. 

The N. E. cor. of F and 13th Sts. is the site of the first 
United States Branch Bank, established in 1801. North on 
13th St., No. 613, is the National Metropolitan Bank, organ- 
ized January 13th, 1914. 

West on F St., No. 1331, is the site of the former home 
of Henry R. Schoolcraft the Ethnologist. Here also, at an 
earlier date, lived William Thornton, firist architect of the Capitol. 

The Adams Building, Nos. 1333-35, immediately adjoining 
on the W., takes its name from the historic mansion which 
formerly stood on this site, occupied by John Quincy Adams 
while Secretary of State. 

The Adams house was a three-story structure of red brick, and was 
originally occupied by James Madison, who continued to reside there 
until he became President. Subsequently it was taken over by Madison's 
brother-in-law, Richard Cutts, who lived there until he moved into his 
new residence on H St. and Lafayette Sq., now the Cosmos Club (p. 
188). Adams occupied it during 1821-25. 



THE MODERN SHOPPING DISTRICT 149 

Diagonally opposite, at Nos. 1336-38, is the site of a 
house occupied by Aaron Burr. 

At the S. E. cor. of F and 14th Sts., stands the New 
Ebbitt House, occupying in part the site and perpetuating the 
name of the historic old Ebbitt House, first established as a 
hotel in 1865. 

The history of the older Ebbitt House goes back much farther than 
this. The building consisted of four houses, the oldest of which was 
the one adjoining the corner, built about 1800, by one David Craufurd, 
who acquired the property in 1798. The corner house was erected in 
1836 by one Bushrod Washington Reed, a grocer, who for many years 
occupied the first floor. Prior to 1856 these buildings were known as 
The Frenchman's Hotel. In 1856 the hotel was bought by William E. 
Ebbitt, and was run as a boarding-house by Mr. and Mrs. Ebbitt, after 
whom the present hotel is still called. 

The old Ebbitt House was the home of President William McKinley 
when a member of Congress; and also) of the famous journalist, Ben 
Perley Poore, who died here after a residence of more than twenty 
years. The basement story was for many years occupied by newspaper- 
men, and known as "Newspaper Row." 

Opposite, at S. W. cor. of 14th St., now occupied by the 
northern proportion of the New Willard (p. 3), former- 
ly stood IVillard's Hall, a popular place of entertainment. 
Here was given the first regular course of lectures ever 
offered in Washington, the list of lecturers including: 
George Vanderhoff, E. P. Whipple, and Phineas T. Barnum, 
the famous Showman. 

At 1424 F St. is Lowdermilk's Old Book Store, "veritable temple 
of Americana, venerable and dear to generations of literary browsers" 
(Paul Wilstach). It is believed to occupy approximately the site of 
the home of Secretary McLane when, in 1832, Washington Irving, 
recently returned from Spain, made it his headquarters during a 
three-months' visit to the Capital. 

The S. E. cor. of F and 15th Sts., facing the Treasury 
Building, is occupied by the northern facade of the newly 
erected Washington Hotel (p. ). 

b. The Section Immediately North of F Street 

Starting from 9th St., the eastern end of the section included 
between G and I Sts., is of comparatively little interest. Further west, 
however, it already bids fair to rival F St. in the quality of its shops. 

No. 713 9th St., between G and H Sts., marks the site 
of a former home of Alexander R. Shepherd, Governor of 
the District of Columbia, 1873-74 (p. ). 

On the S. side of H St., between 9th and 10th Sts., is 
the Laboratory Building of the Medical Department of 
Georgetown University. The building occupies the site of 
the original church edifice of the P. E. Church of the Ascen- 
sion, built through the generosity of John P. Van Ness. The 
Van Ness mausoleum, now in Oak Hill Cemetery (p. 437), 
formerly stood in the old churchyard. 



150 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

One block S. on G St., cor. of ioth St., is the site of 
Carroll Hall, where Charles Dickens gave his readings. Two 
blocks W., on the N. side of G St., No. 1205 marks the former 
home of William Douglas O'Connor, author of Harrington 
and The Good Gray Poet. North on 12th St., at No. 812, the 
house is still standing in which George S. Boutwell, Secre- 
tary of the Treasury, and John A. Logan, while Senator 
from Illinois, resided. 

In 1828 Count Charles J. Denmon, the French Minister, invested 
in this square, first acquiring the five lots extending on H St. from 
13th to the center of the square. Subsequently he acquired nearly 
half the square. On lots 3, 4 and 5 were erected three brick resi- 
dences, of which the central one became the official home of the 
French Legation. After 1835 these houses were owned by Commodores 
W. B. Kenyon, Granville S. Cooper and S. S. Gouverneur, and Surgeon 
H. S. Haskell, all of the U. S. N. 

One block S., at the N.E. cor. of G St., is the Colorado 
Building, occupying the original site of the Foundry (M. E.) 
church. 

The P. E. Church of the Epiphany (organized 1842), on 
the N. side of G St., midway between 13th and 14th Sts., 
is externally an unpretentious Gothic structure, the oldest por- 
tion of which dates from 1844. The structure was enlarged 
in 1857, remodeled in 1874 an d again altered in 1890; the 
latter time under the supervision of Edzvard J. Neville-Stent. 
It is now (1922) undergoing extensive repairs. During 
the Civil War this church served for six months as 
a hospital for the wounded. It has numbered among its 
parishioners Jefferson Davis, Edwin M. Stanton, Chief Jus- 
tice Waite, ex-Secretary John Sherman, Lord Ashburton, 
Lord Napier, Sir Edward Thornton, Justice Field and Sec- 
retary Bayard. By an interesting coincidence the Jefferson 
Davis' pew was the one later occupied by Mr. Stanton, then 
Secretary of War. 

The church is open daily and merits a visit. Note espe- 
cially, at N. W. cor., a semi-circular alcove serving as the 
Baptistry, wainscoted with pink Numidian marble. The font 
rests upon a pavement of Roman mosaic quaintly depicting 
a pool with conventionalized fishes. The three bays contain a 
pictorial frieze, by Hemming of London, m three divisions : 
1. The Infant Jesus in Simeon's Arms ; 2. His Baptism in 
the Jordan ; 3. Jesus Blessing little Children. 

Only a few memorial windows are yet in place. The 
most notable is the Epiphany Window in the chancel, by 
Henry Holliday of London, the theme of which is the two- 
fold idea, Christ manifested at once to the Jewish Shepherds 
and to the Wise Men from the Gentile world. 



THE MODERN SHOPPING DISTRICT 151 

The three memorial windows in the nave are: 1. The 
Geisy Window, showing the Savior on the Mount teaching 
His Disciples; 2. The Fisher Window, in two panels: a. The 
Lord as the Good Shepherd ; b. The Lord as the Light of 
the World; 3. (from the Tiffany Studios), a richly colored 
window in two panels, showing the Sea of Galilee and the 
Garden of Gethsemene. 

c. The Section Between F Street and Pennsylvania Avenue 

The triangular district having Judiciary Square for its 
base, and F St. and Pennsylvania Ave. for its two longer 
sides, is still a sort of back-water, in which the currents of 
retail business have made feeble headway. Seventh St., to 
be sure, is fairly well ljned with small shops of the cheaper 
sort; and 9th St. is given over mainly to moving-picture 
houses, foreign restaurants, dairy lunches, shooting galleries, 
and various catch-penny devices. But the rest of the district 
is sordid and shabby, and interesting chiefly for associations 
half a century old. 

South on E. side of 6th St., near the Police (p. 137), 
which occupies the former site of the Unitarian church, was 
the home of Charles Bui finch, one of the early architects of 
the Capitol. 

On the S. side of E St., of 6th St., is the present 
Washington home of the Knights of Columbus. The build- 
ing which they occupy was formerly a Baptist church, and 
was used during the Civil War as a military hospital. Just 
beyond, No. 618, is the house in which John C. Calhoun 
resided while Secretary of War and Vice-President (1817-29). 

On E. side of 7th St., midway between D and E Sts., 
stands the District Odd Fellows Hall. The old building, 
long a local landmark, was demolished in May, 1917. The 
new hall is of Indiana limestone, with a frontage of jy ft. 
(W. S. Plager, architect). 

Directly opposite, No. 427 7th St. occupies the former 
site of the office of the National Era, in which Uncle Tom s 
Cabin was originally published during 1851-52. 

Adjoining the S.E. cor. of 7th and D Sts. formerly 
stood a row of five houses known as Blagden's Rozv, erected 
in 1852 by one Thomas Blagden. Three of these houses 
were occupied respectively by Senator Robert Toombs, of 
Georgia, Chief Justice Taney and Marston of Pennsylvania. 
Diagonally opposite, on N.W. cor. was the office of the 
National Intelligencer. 

The N.E. cor. of 8th and D Sts. is the site of the old 
Franklin Inn, a popular hostelry in the early 30's, kept by 



152 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

one James Kennedy. At the S.W. cor. of 9th and E Sts. is 
the site of a still older hotel, the Centre House Inn, opened 
in 1804. One square N. on 9th St., at N.W. cor. of E St., 
is the site of the residence of Joseph Gales, Jr. (about 1822- 
30), one of the editors of the National Intelligencer. 
Diagonally opposite, at No. 918 E St., was one of the many 
Congressional "messes," where James Buchanan resided be- 
fore he became president. 



WASHINGTON NORTHWEST— 
THE RESIDENTIAL SECTION 

(From the Executive Grounds to Rock Creek) 

I. Seventeenth Street South 

a. Seventeenth Street from Pennsylvania Avenue to 
Potomac Park 

The six short blocks on 17th St., betw. Pennsylvania Ave. 
and B St., offer more separate attractions of keen interest to 
visitors than any other equivalent extent of street or avenue 
in Washington ; for they include the Corcoran Art Gallery, 
the National Headquarters of the American Red Cross, the 
National D. A. R. Building and the Pan-American Union. 

On L. the State, War and Navy Building (p. 126), ex- 
tends southward to New York Ave. Opposite, at N. W. cor. 
of F St., is the Winder Building, erected in 1848 by W. H. 
Winder, and purchased by the Government in 1854. It has 
been used in various capacities by the War Department, and 
at present houses the U. S. Bureau of Efficiency. 

The duties of this Bureau are to establish and maintain the system 
of efficiency ratings of the Executive Departments, and to investigate 
the duplication of work, and the methods of business in the various 
branches of the Government service. 

The opposite cor. of F St. is the site of General Grant's 
headquarters in 1865. West of F St., No. 1724, is the Civil 
Service Commission. 

This Commission, organized March 9, 1883, under an Act "to 
regulate and improve the Civil Service of the: United States," consists 
of three Commissioners, of whom not more than two may be adherents 
of the same political party. Civil Service examinations are held in all 
the principal cities of the country, through approximately 3000 local 
boards. On July 31, 1921, the number of officers and employees in the 
executive Civil Service was 597,482. 

At the S. W. cor. of 17th St. and New York Ave. is the 
Corcoran Art Gallery (see p. 171). Opposite, extending south- 
ward to B St. is the President's Park, or Executive Grounds. 
On the ellipse, occupying the centre of these grounds, are four 
baseball diamonds, used Iby various amateur leagues in the 
District. Near the upper margin of the ellipse, directly 
opposite the S. curve of the White House grounds is the — 

Millet-Butt Memorial Fountain. It consists of a simple 
shaft rising from a basin and bearing the following inscrip- 
tion : "In memory of Francis Davis Millet (1846-1912) and 
Archibald Willingham Butt (1865-1912), this monument has 






i 5 4 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

been erected by their friends with the sanction of Congress." 
Mullet, the well-known artist and author, was a drummer-boy 
in the Civil War. Captain Butt was aide to Presidents 
Roosevelt and Taft. They both lost their lives on the ill- 
fated White Star liner Titanic, lost April 15th, 1912. The 
sculptured figures on E. and W. sides of the central shaft 
symbolize respectively Art and Chivalry, the latter in allusion 
to Captain Butt's conspicuous part in saving "women and 
children first." The architect of the Memorial was Thomas 
Hastings; sculptor, Daniel Chester French. 

b. The American Red Cross Building 
The National Headquarters of the American Red Cross 

(PI. II — C5), on 17th St., betw. D and E Sts., is a 
classic white marble structure of monumental character, the 
main fagade being broken by Corinthian pilasters rising 
through two stories, and supporting a massive cornice, above 
which rises a third or attic story. At each end, and on the 
main eastern front, supporting the entrance portico, are 
colonnades oif stately Corinthian columns. Trowbridge & 
Livingston, architects. 

The idea of raising a memorial to the devoted women of the Civil 
War Sanitary Commission (forerunner of the American Red Cross) was 
first conceived by Major-General Barlow, whose wife died in 1864 from 
typhus contracted while nursing the wounded. It was through the 
efforts of Capt. James A. Scrymser, a comrade-in-arms of Major-Gen. 
Earlow, with the energetic co-operation of Miss Mabel T. Boardman, 
thct the memorial was finally achieved. It was 1 authorized by Act of 
Congress in Oct., 191 3, on condition that it should cost not less than 
$700,000, of which sum $400,000 was to be raised by private contribution. 
The corner-stone was laid in March, 1915, and the dedicatory exercises 
took place in May, 19 17. 

Hours. The ibuilding is open to visitors week days from 
9 a. m. to 8 p. >m. ; Sundays, 11 a. m. to 4 p. m. 

Upon entering the building the visitor notes above landing 

of main stairway a marble tablet (bearing the following 

inscription : 

A Memorial 

Built by the Government of the United States 

and Patriotic Citizens 

To the Women of the North 

And the Women of the South 

Held in Loving Memory 

By a Now United Country 

That their Labors to Mitigate the Suffering of 

The Sick and Wounded in War may be Forever Perpetuated 

This Building is Dedicated to the Service of 

The American Red Cross. 

The three windows in the wall above this tablet are 
surmounted by 'broad ledges containing three symbolic busts : 
Faith, Hope and Charity, executed by Hiram Poivers. On the 



D. A. R. CONTINENTAL HALL 



o;> 



second floor is a spacious Assembly Room, finished in th.* 
Colonial style, the interior furnishings being contributed by 
Mrs. Adolphus Busch, of St. Louis. In the N. wall, opposite 
entrance door, is a three-panel memorial window of favrile 
glass, typifying "The Ministry to the Sick and Wounded 
through Sacrifice.'' Designed by Louis C. Tiffany, after sug- 
gestions by Elihu Root and Miss Mabel Boardman. The cost 
was $10,000, half of which was paid by the Women's Relief 
Corps of the D. A. R., and the other half by the United 
Daughters of the Confederacy. 

Central Panel (joint gift of the two organizations) : A 
scene from the days of the Cruisades, showing an army of 
gallant Knights riding to battle with spears and banners. In 
the foreground is a standard bearer carrying a large white 
flag with the Red Cross emblem. Near him a faithful 
comrade is supporting a wounded warrior who has fallen 
from his horse. 

West Panel (gift of Women of the North) : St. Filomena, 
famed for her powers of healing, stands surrounded by her 
handmaids symbolizing Virtues. She is robed in gray and her 
hands rest upon a shield decorated with the Red Cross. Hope 
follows bearing a banner marked with an anchor, Mercy 
carrying a flagon of wine, Faith bearing a torch, and Charity 
a basket of fruit. 

East Panel (gift of Women; of the South) : The central 
figure is Una, from Spencer's "Faerie Queen," personification 
of fortitude, her apron overflowing with roses, emblematic 
of good deeds. Her three attendants bear respectively a 
Cross, a Lamp of Wisdom and a White Banner on which 
gleams a Golden Heart. 

Opposite the Assembly Hall, in the S. Transcept. hangs 
a painting by Luis Mora, entitled "Thine is the Glory." The 
picture was based upon a composite photograph, by Major 
J. G. Kitchell, U. IS. A., of several hundred Red Cross workers 
in the World War. 

In the basement is a iMuseum, established as a memorial 
to the services of the Red Cross workers in the World War, 
which was opened in Sept., 1919. It contains a series of 
miniature models, including the famous "Tent [City" in Paris; 
the first Emergency Canteen opened for refugees returning 
to the devastated area of France ; a Surgical Dressings' Work- 
room, etc. 

c. D. A. R. Memorial Continental Hall 
♦Memorial Continental Hall (PI. II — C5), the head- 
quarters of the National Society of the Daughters of the 



156 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

American Revolution, is situated at the N. W. cor. of 17th 
and D Sts., midway between the Pan-American Union and 
the American Red Gross Building. It is an imposing structure 
of white Vermont marble, designed on the classic order of 
architecture prevalent in colonial times. Edward P. Casey, 
architect. 

History. The Society of the Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion dates from October nth, 1890, when its original eighteen members 
met in Washington to organize it. At the expiration of the first year 
816 persons, constituting the Charter Members, had been admitted. 
On February 20th, 1896, the Society was incorporated by Act of 
Congress, which required that it should file an annual report with the 
Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, and permitted it to deposit, 
either in that Institution or in the National Museum, its collection of 
historical material. During its first twenty-five years the Society in- 
creased to a membership of more than 114,000, with upward of 
1430 Chapters, exclusive of those in Cuba, Mexico and the Philippines. 

The first practical step toward the erection of the Memorial Con- 
tinental Hall dates from June 4th, 1902, when the building committee 
voted to purchase the present site, formerly occupied by the city resi- 
dence of Captain Thomas Carberry, Mayor of Washington during 
1822-24. In January, 1904, Mr. Casey's plans were accepted, and on 
April 19th of that same year the cornerstone was laid with Masonic 
rites, the gavel used being the historic one used by Washington for 
laying the cornerstone of the Capitol. The work was pushed so 
rapidly that the central portion of the building was sufficiently ad- 
vanced by April, 1905, to allow the fourteenth Continental Congress 
to be held there. The whole building was practically completed by the 
spring of 1907, and the greater part of the interior decorations, furni- 
ture and window hangings were in place by 1910. In 1914 began the 
purchase of additional ground back of the Hall; and the society now 
owns practically the entire block bounded by 17th, 18th, C and D Sts. 
When war was declared this ground was offered to the Government, 
and was used for the offices of the National Council of Defense. 

On Nov. 12, 1 92 1, the first plenary meeting of the Conference on 
the Limitation of Armament, as well as the closing meeting three 
months later, were held in the Memorial Continental Hall. The flag- 
staff penholder made of native wood from 28 states and territories, 
with which Secretary Hughes signed the treaty is preserved in the 
society's museum. 

The Hall is a rectangular structure consisting of a 
basement, two stories and an attic. It has corner pavilions 
and two notable porticoes. The larger one, occupying the 
centre of the main, or eastern fagade, rises through the two 
main stories, is supported by sixteen massive drum columns 
on the Ionic order, and surmounted by a pediment. The 
four columns on the N. and S. sides respectively are grouped 
in pairs, leaving a sufficient central space for a driveway. The 
second, or memorial portico, projects from the S. facade and 
is semi-circular in form. It rests upon a spacious marble 
terrace, to which a stairway ascends. Like the east portico, 
it rises throughout the main superstructure, and is supported 
upon thirteen monolithic, fluted, Ionic columns, which were 
the gift respectively of either the Society Chapters, or the 



D. A. R. CONTINENTAL HALL 157 

Legislatures of the thirteen original states, and stand in the 
order in which these states entered the Union, namely : 
1. Delaware; 2. Pennsylvania; 3. New Jersey; 4. Georgia; 

5. Connecticut; 6. Massachusetts; 7. Maryland; 8. South Car- 
olina; 9. New Hampshire; 10. Virginia; II. New York; 12. 
North Carolina; 13. Rhode Island. 

At the main entrance are three pairs of memorial bronze 
doors, the central pair being in memory of the Society's 
Founders and Charter Members, presented by Mrs. Francis 
Berger Moran, while the N. and S. doors were respectively 
the gifts of the Society's Connecticut and Massachusetts mem- 
bers. These doors admit the visitor directly into : — 

The Entrance Hall. This is a spacious parallelogram 
whose white marble walls are divided into panels by ten 
pairs of Ionic, fluted pilasters. In the centre of the inlaid 
marble floor is sunken the coat-of-arms of Pennsylvania in 
bronze, the Entrance Hall being the gift of the Chapters of 
that state. The sole furnishings and decorations in this cham- 
ber are two benches and four chairs, upholstered in green 
leather, a fine old hall clock and a number of marble busts. 
A few of the latter are on pedestals arranged along the wall, 
and include: 1. Martha Washington; 2. Oliver Ellsworth; 
3. Thomas Jefferson; 4. Benjamin Franklin; 5. Mrs. Mary 
Hammond Washington, the first "real daughter." Ten other 
busts occupy the circular niches in the panels forming the 
frieze. These, with the organizations presenting them, are as 
follows: 1. George Washington (D. A. R., Washington 
State) ; 2. John Hancock (John Hancock Chapter, Mass.) ; 
3. Edward Hand (D. A. R., Kan.) ; 4. Isaac Shelby (D. A. R., 
Ky.) ; 5. James Edward Oglethorpe (D. A. R., Ga.) ; 

6. John Adams (John Adams Chapter, Mass.) ; 7. Ethan 
Allen (D. A. R., Vt.) ; 8. John Stark (D. A. R., N. H.) ; 
9. George Clinton (N. Y. C. Chapter, N. Y\) ; 10. Nathan 
Hale (D. A. R., Conn.). 

On the W. side of the Entrance Hall, facing the main 
entrance, are the doorways opening into the Auditorium, 
which rises throughout the height of the building, and is 
lighted bv a ground-glass ceiling, divided into twenty-five 
panels. The Auditorium contains three large galleries on 
the N., E. and S. sides respectively, and has a seating capac- 
ity of approximately 2000. All the furnishings of the Audi- 
torium, including the platform, boxes and rest-rooms, are the 
several gifts of Chapters and individuals, the complete list 
of which may be found in the Society's Handbook. (For sale 
in the Entrance Hall, price 25 cents.) Note especially the 
large tables, one of which is a facsimile of the historic table 



i 5 8 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

on which the Declaration of Independence was signed; the 
other is of Hawaiian Koa wood, the gift of the Aloha Chap- 
ter, Honolulu. 

On the west wall of the Auditorium, to L. and R. of the 
platform respectively, hang two paintings : i. Martha Wash- 
ington, by Eliphalet F. Andrews; 2. Washington on Dorches- 
ter Heights, by Darius Cobb. 

It is said that the artist received his inspiration from reading a 
letter written by Washington to Lee, describing the heavy sense of 
responsibility which weighed upon him as he stood on those heights 
at daybreak, watching the havoc wrought upon the British fleet by the 
night's storm. This picture was presented as a memorial to Mary A. 
Livermore in fulfillment of her expressed desire that it should be 
given to the Society. 

Hanging from the cornice of the Auditorium are forty- 
eight flags, twelve on each of the four sides, representing the 
several states of the Union and arranged in the order in 
which the states ratified the Constitution, from Delaware, 
1787, to Arizona, 1912. During the week of the annual 
Continental Congress there is also hung, suspended from 
the ceiling, the Betsy Ross flag, consisting of a circle of thirteen 
stars on a field of blue (given by the Flag House Chapter, 
Philadelphia, Pa.). 

In the side walls of the Auditorium are ten pairs of slid- 
ing mahogany doors, all of them memorials, those on the N. 
side opening into the Library; and those on the S. side open- 
ing into the Museum. The main doorways, however, to the 
library and museum open respectively from the N. and S. 
corridors, which branch off R. and L. from the Entrance 
Hall. 

The Library began from a nucleus of 125 volumes, and 
was officially recognized as part of the Society's working 
equipment in 1896, when the office of Librarian General was 
created. The collection now numbers upward of 11,000 
titles, and is strong in American history, with special refer- 
ence to local and family histories. A collection of works on 
Georgia, to be known as the Emily Hcndree Park Memorial, 
was presented by the Georgia Chapters of the Society, to- 
gether with a bronze bas-relief portrait of Mrs. Park, State 
Regent of Georgia, 1899-1902, and Vice-President General, 
1904-07. 

The furnishings of the Library, including the steel stacks, were the 
gift of the Mary Washington Chapter, "the first organized and the 
largest in the District of Columbia." Among objects of special interest 
in the Library are: 1. Portrait of Mary S. Lockwood, one of the 
founders (author of Historic Homes of Washington, and successively 
Historian General, Librarian General and Chaplain General of the 
D. A. R.), painted by Aline E. Solomons, a Washington artist, and 
another former Librarian General; 2. A replica of Houdon's Washing- 



D. A. R. CONTINENTAL HALL 159 

ton, the gift of Miss E. B. Johnston, a former Historian General; 

3. An arm-chair from the former Dolly Madison House, now the 

, Cosmos Club (p. 188) ; 4. Portrait of Thomas McKean, a Signer of the 

Declaration of Independence, together with an old divan from his home. 

The Museum occupying on the South side of the Audi- 
torium a position corresponding to that of the Library on the 
North, and opening upon the Memorial Portico, was given by 
the N. Y. C. Chapter, which also gave most of the furnishings, 
including five exhibition cases, and the window draperies of 
lace and old-rose damask. 

Among the exhibits contained in the Museum are: two tapestries, 
the larger of which, "The Conqueror's Return," dates from the 16th 
century, while the other, portraying the "Last Supper," w r as made in 
1770; a model of the frigate Constitution; a colonial mirror, from near 
Hartford, Connecticut, where it is said to have lain buried for eight 
years at the time of the Revolution; and two quaint rush-bottomed 
f chairs, brought to America in the Mayflower. 

The principal Administrative Offices (with the excep- 
tion of the Treasurer's and [Registrar's offices, which 
are in the rear) are situated on the main front of 
the building, and open respectively on the North and South 
Corridors. The Business Office, the gift of the Missouri 
Chapters, is situated immediately N. of the Entrance Hall. 
On the walls are a portrait of Mrs. John R. Walker, 
first Vice-President General of Missouri ; and a bronze tab- 
let commemorating the famous Pony Express, which origi- 
I nated in St. Joseph, and was appropriately presented by the 
St. Joseph Chapter. The Office of the Historian General 
was the gift of the Ohio Chapters, including the wall-cov- 
i ering of old-gold damask, and the window and door draperies 
of royal-blue velvet. The Office of the Registrar General 
| was the gift of the Iowa Chapters collectively, while the fur- 
j nishings were severally presented by the Rose Standish, Abi- 
1 gail Adams, Council Bluffs and other Chapters. The Office 
J of the Treasurer General, given by the Maryland Chapters, 
contains several interesting pictures, including: 1. portrait 
: of Samuel Chase, a Signer of the Declaration of Indepen- 
dence ; 2. portrait of Mrs. A. L. Knott, founder of the D. A. R. 
J in Maryland ; 3 portrait o<f Thomas Johnson, first Gov- 
ernor of Maryland, by Waldemar F. Dieterich (b. 1876), 
from Johnson Family Group, by Charles Wilson Peale. The 
adjoining Treasurer General's Private Office is the gift of 
Tennessee, and contains a portrait of Andrew Jackson, framed 
in hickory; also a painting representing "The Hermitage and 
Tomb of President Jackson." The Office of the Organiz- 
ing Secretary General, inclusive of all furnishings, was 
' the gift of the Illinois Chapters. Note especially the quaint 
' design of the chairs, with brocaded green hair-cloth seats. 



i6o RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

This room contains a portrait of George Rogers Clark, a 
bronze statuette of Clark, and a candlestand which once be- 
longed to William Penn. The Reception Room was appro- 
priately given by the District of Columbia Chapters. It 
contains a portrait of Miss Mary Desha, a founder of the 
Society, by Aline E. Solomons; a picture of "A Visit of 
Washington to Monticello," and a pen-and-ink drawing of 
"Washington in the Heart of His Country." 

Adjoining the elevator in the South Corridor, is a bronze 
tablet designed by Mrs. Sally James Farnham, of New York, 
and inscribed as follows : 

"This elevator was given in memory of Josiah Bartlett, Signer of 
the Declaration of Independence, and Mary Bartlett, his wife, by one 
of their descendants." 

This tablet also contains a bas-relief reproduction of 
Trumbull's portrait of Josiah Bartlett, and of the latter's 
home in Kingston, N. H. Another bronze tablet in the Cor- 
ridor commemorates the "Heroes of the Independence." 

The South and North Main Staircases are respectively 
the gift of the Chapters of Minnesota, and of the Fort Greene 
Chapter, Brooklyn, N. Y. The latter is a Memorial to Mrs. 
S. V. White, whose tireless efforts on behalf of the Prison- 
ship Martyrs' Monument are commemorated by a tablet bear- 
ing bas-relief presentment of the monument, at the first turn of 
the stairs. 

Second Story. The most important room on this floor is 
the National Board Room, the gift of the Connecticut 
Daughters of the American Revolution and for that reason 
sometimes called the "Connecticut Room." The visitor should 
note especially the spacious mahogany table, around which 
the Board holds its meetings ; the twenty-one carved chairs, 
thirteen of which bear the coats-of-arms of the original thir- 
teen states ; the President General's chair, being a facsimile 
of Washington's chair in Independence Hall, used by him 
during the Constitutional Convention ; the blue satin draperies 
bearing the state arms of Connecticut embroidered in gold; 
the rug especially woven abroad with an oak-leaf border design 
typical of Connecticut's "Charter Oak" ; and lastly the lace 
window curtains, consisting of a star-and-stripe pattern, also 
designed and woven expressly for this room. 

Other rooms on this floor include : i. The President 
General's Reception Room, the gift of Alabama Chapters, 
and containing, among other objects, a portrait of Mrs. J. 
Morgan Smith, former State Regent of Alabama; and a 
carved chair from Belle Mina, residence of Thomas Bibb, 
first Governor of that State. 2. Office of the President 



D. A. R. CONTINENTAL HALL 161 

General, gift of Indiana Chapters, containing portraits of 
Mrs. Donald McLean, President General, 1905-09, and of 
Mrs. Cornelia Cole Fairbanks, who presided over the cere- 
monies attending the laying of the cornerstone of Memorial 
Continental Hall, and also presided over the first Continental 
Congress held therein. 3. Office of the Recording Secre- 
tary General, gift of New York Chapters. Among the 
relics here preserved are a mahogany folding table on which 
George and Martha Washington took supper (its authenticity 
being vouched for by two framed affidavits) ; also a framed 
original autograph poem by Dolly Madison, dated 1848. 4. 
Office of the Corresponding Secretary General, gift of the 
Texas Chapters. 5. Certificate Room, given by the Massa- 
chusetts Chapters. This room contains numerous relics, 
including a chair from the Josiah Quincy Mansion, a table 
which had been in the Warren family for many generations, 
an antique clock, presented by the Boston Tea Party Chapter, 
and a copy of "America" in the author's handwriting. 6. 
Office of the Assistant Historian General (California 
Chapters). On the walls of this room are several interest- 
ing pictures, including the "Mission of Dolores of St. Francis 
Assisi," by Alice B. Crittenden (b. i860) ; "Springtime at San 
Juan Capistrano Mission"; and three framed groups of pic- 
tures (six in each) of California Missions, especially valu- 
able since several of these Missions have ceased to exist; 
also a marble bas-relief panel, "California, and the National 
Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution," by 
Julia Bracken Wendt. Note also the frieze of California pop- 
pies, designed especially for this room. 8. Committee Room 
(New Jersey Chapters). This room is notable chiefly for its 
unique furniture and woodwork, all of which was made from 
the oaken timbers of the British frigate Augusta, sunk during 
the Battle of Red Bank, N. J., October 23d, 1777, where it 
lay for more than a century in the waters of the Delaware 
River, mellowing to its present varied shades of silver-gray. 
On the walls hang portraits of the five Signers of Declaration 
of Independence for New Jersey: 1. Richard Stockton, after 
original by Sully; 2. President Witherspoon, copy of original 
at Princeton University; 3. Abraham Clark; 4. John Hart, 
and 5. Francis Hopkinson, after original in Independence 
Hall, Philadelphia. 

Third Floor. The chief attraction on this floor is the 
Banquet Hall, finished throughout in blue and white, which 
are the National Society's colors. The furniture is of mahog- 
any, upholstered in hair-cloth of a somewhat darker blue. 



162 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

"Each article, dining-tables, side-tables, side-board, chairs, silver, 
china, and even the smallest article in the fire-place, have been the 
tribute of Chapters and individuals throughout the Society, to this 
Memorial Room.'' (The contributing Chapters and individuals number 
together 79.) 

The other rooms on this floor include: I. The Commit- 
tee Room, gift of the Maine Chapters. Interesting details: 

a. Pine-cone pattern rug, green and brown, product of a spe- 
cial industry of Cranberry Island, off the coast of Maine; 

b. Mantel, removed from a Washington house formerly occu- 
pied by Henry Clay ; c. Mahogany pedestal and case, includ- 
ing ceiling electric lamp, from Battleship Maine (sunk in 
Havana Harbor), presented by the Navy Department. 2. 
Room of the Children of the American Revolution. This 
memorial room and its furnishings were presented by the 
C. A. R. It contains a portrait by Tarbell, of Mrs. Daniel 
Lathrop, founder of the C. A. R. 3. Private Dining IRoom, 
gift of the Virginia Chapters. It contains portraits of Francis 
Lightfoot Lee, of Dolly Madison and of Chief Justice John 
Marshall; also a framed miniature of Patrick Henry, and an 
etching of Christ Church, Alexandria. The marble coat-of- 
arms of Virginia was a gift from the sculptor, Moses Ezekiel. 
4. The Kentucky Room, containing interesting colonial furni- 
ture from that state. 5. Delaware Room, given to the State 
of Delaware in memory of Mrs. Caroline Peterson Mahon 
Dennison, by her surviving sisters. The furniture was given 
by the State Chapters. There are also on this floor the West 
Virginia Room, the Editorial Office of the D. A. R. 
Magazine, and the apartment of the Superintendent. 

The new Administration Building now in course of 
erection (1922) is placed some 75 ft. W. of the Hall, and has a 
frontage of no ft. and depth of 100 ft. It is a white lime- 
stone structure of dignified design, harmonizing with that of 
the main building, but properly subordinated to it. 

The new building was planned purely as a business office to serve 
the special working needs of the society. The chief feature of the first 
floor is the central rotunda devoted to membership files and card 
catalogues, and surrounded -by wide corridors leading to the offices of 
the National Officers and Executive Manager and to the working 
departments of the society. The second floor contains offices and living 
quarters of the President General; an Assembly Room, with seating 
capacity of 150; offices of the D. A. R. Magazine; and a large meeeting 
room for the Children of the American Revolution. 

d. The Pan American Union Building 

The home of the *Pan American Union (PI. II — C5) 
occupies a five-acre block situated on the W. side of 17th 
St., facing the Executive Grounds, and extending from B tj 
to C St., N. W. This site was long known as "Van Ness 
Park" (p. 170), and some years ago was acquired by the 



THE PAN AMERICAN UNION 163 

George Washington University (p. 214), whose change of 
plans, however, placed it again upon the market. The pres- 
ent building, begun in 1908 and dedicated April 26th, 1910, 
is a square structure of white, blue-veined Georgia marble, 
measuring about 160 ft. each way. Its architectural order 
is a combination of Renaissance motives in what has aptly 
been termed a Mediterranean blend, combining as it does 
French, Italian and Spanish derivations. The plans chosen 
were the result of an architectural competition in which 75 
designs of high merit were submitted. The successful archi- 
tects were Albert Kelsey and Paul P. Cret, of Philadelphia. 
The total cost of the building and grounds was about $1,100,- 
000, of which $850,000 was given by Andrew Carnegie and 
the balance by the American Republics, including the United 
States. 

This building is open to the public week-days from 9 A. M. 
to 4 P. M. ; from the middle of June to the middle of Septem- 
ber, it closes on Saturdays at 1 P. M. 

History. The Pan American Union is an organization 
voluntarily maintained by the twenty-one American Repub- 
lics, and devoted to the development and conservation of 
commerce, friendly intercourse and good understanding among 
the nations composing it. 

It was the outcome of the first Pan American Confer- 
ence, held in Washington in 1889-90, and presided over by 
James G. Blaine, then Secretary of State. A resolution was 
then passed by the delegates providing for a "Commercial 
Bureau of the American Republics." At the second Pan 
American Conference, held at Mexico City in 1901, the 
name was changed from "Commercial" to "International 
Bureau." At the third Conference, held at Rio de Janeiro 
in 1906, the scope of the organization was still further 
broadened, and at the fourth Conference, at Buenos Aires 
19 10, the preesnt name. Pan American Union, was adopted. 
The Union as now constituted is controlled by a Governing 
Board, composed of the Secretary of State of the United 
States and of the diplomatic representatives at Washington 
of the other American nations, and administered by a Di- 
rector General and Assistant Director chosen by the Boafd. 
Among the Union's many activities may be mentioned: 1. A 
large correspondence, averaging many thousand letters per 
month with diplomatic representatives and other officials of 
foreign countries, with manufacturers, importers, exporters, 
capitalists, investors, etc. ; 2. The publication of a monthly 
bulletin in magazine fonm, in three separate editions : English, 
Spanish and Portuguese, devoted to current information con- 



THE PAN AMERICAN UNION 165 

cerning the American Republics; 3. The publication and distri- 
bution of booklets on each of the Latin-American nations; 4. 
The maintenance of a library, known as the Columbus 
Memorial Library (p. 37), devoted to books relating to the 
American Republics. 

From December 1906 until the new building was com- 
pleted, the Union occupied an old residence on the cor. of 
Lafayette Sq. and Pennsylvania Ave. (p. 184). 

The Present Building. The main fagade, approached by 
broad marble steps, consists of a lofty central portico with 
sloping roof of corrugated tiles, and divided by four Corin- 
thian pilasters into three panels occupied by the three stately 
entrance arches. Flanking the portico are two simple, massive 
pylons, which give to the fagade something of the effect 
produced by the customary two towers of typical Latin- 
American church architecture. Beyond the pylons, on eithei 
side, are extensions designed to contain the working offices, 
library book-stacks and other adjuncts to the main central pur- 
pose of the Union, and therefore properly subordinated in 
their relative proportions. 

The sculptures of the main fagade symbolize the equal 
share of the northern and southern continents in this Union 
of American Republics. On either side of the entrance steps, 
against the pylons, are two sculptured groups : on R., North 
America, by Gutzon B or glum (1867 — ) ; on L., South Amer- 
ica, by Isidore Konti (1862 — ). In each of these groups a 
draped female figure is cherishing a nude boy, just awaken- 
ing to adolescence. Above these groups, on a line with the 
cornice, are two panels in low relief, each expressing an act 
of heroic self-sacrifice : on R., Washington Bidding Farewell 
to his Generals, by Gutzon B or glum; on L., San Martin, hav- 
ing liberated Chili and Peru from the Spanish Yoke, meets 
Bolivar and relinquishes his Leadership, by Konti. 

Above the bas-reliefs, respectively, are two symbolic birds, the Eagle 
of North America and the South American Condor, both by Solon 
Borglum (1868 — ). In the cornice above the portico arches is a panel 
of reddish gray marble inscribed in large Roman letters, "Pan Amer- 
ican Union." At either end of the inscription is a decorative design 
in relief: 1. (on N.), A Caucasian Child; 2. (on S.), An American 
Indian Child, each surrounded by fruits and other symbols of the North 
and the South {Isidore Konti, sculptor). The visitor should also note 
the pilaster caps, also designed by Konti and showing among the Acan- 
thus leaves a female figure, typifying peace, holding olive branches and 
standing upon the western hemisphere. 

The richly wrought bronze grills of the three entrance 
gates deserve detailed examination. They are said to be 
specifically suggested <by the grills in the Cathedral of Sara- 
gossa, Spain, but with free adaptation through the introduction 
of eagles, condors and various Latin-American motives. 



166 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

A detailed study of the ornamentation of this building, both 
within and without, well repays the visitor, who will discover on all 
sides motives derived not only from Spanish colonial architecture, but 
also from Aztec and Mayan aboriginal art. For example: the decorations 
of the parapet of the section flanking the pylons are adopted from the 
foundation of the Salto del Agua, Mexico City; while the design of the 
balustrade above the cornice of the pylons is taken from the Cathedral 
of Chihuahua. 

The entrance doors open directly upon the spacious 
Vestibule, running the full width of the central section and 
rising through to the height of two stories to its barrel- 
arched ceiling. Opposite the entrance arches are three cor- 
responding arches looking out upon the Patio, access to 
which is had through the central arch. At the N. and S. ends 
of the Vestibule respectively, are a pair of columns flanked 
by pilasters, all monoliths, of Grand Antique black marble, 
veined with white, with bronze capitals and bases. Beyond 
these columns, at the S. end, is the reception room, at the 
N. end a retiring room for women. 

The chief single artistic feature of the Vestibule is the 
set of *Four large bas-relief medalions by Konti, placed on 
the E. and W. walls, high up in the spaces between the 
arches, just at the curve of the vaulted ceiling. They are of 
a dull golden bronze ; and each contains a symbolic female 
figure whose form is barely veiled by filmy drapery. They 
represent, respectively: I. "Enlightenment" (holds Roman 
lamp in left hand) ; 2. "Peace" (with clasped hands holding 
olive branch) ; 3. "Law" (right hand upraised in admonish- 
ment, left hand holding scroll) ; 4. "Patriotism" (shield on 
right arm, unfurled flag behind her). 

The marbles of the Vestibule floor deserve attention; the centre, 
of Tennessee marble, is surrounded by a broad inter-lacing border of 
Knoxville marble, outlined by brass, which forms at the foot of each 
grand stairway a loop centered by Formosa marble. 

*The Patio. The most unique spot in this exceptionally 
attractive building is the Patio, or central court. The visitor 
entering here finds himself suddenly in the midst of a trans- 
planted corner of the tropics. On all sides of the four re- 
shaped flower beds there arise giant palms, bread-fruit trees, 
rubber plants and numerous other species of South American 
flora while amid this foliage brilliant red and blue Macaws 
scream discordantly. 

The walls of the patio are of a rough white stucco broken on all 
sides by wide spaces through which a view of the interior may be 
commanded from the Vestibule, the stairways and the Gallery of 
Patriots. Above is a polychrome terra-cotta frieze containing the 
inscribed names of twelve great leaders, three on each wall, and each 
of them flanked by two escutcheons, designed to contain the coats-of- 
arms of the various American Republics. As it happens the latter 



THE PAN AMERICAN UNION 167 

number at present only twenty-one. Accordingly the coat-of-arms 
of Canada has been, somewhat incongruously, included (the excuse 
being found in the inclusion of Champlain among the inscribed names) ; 
while, after considerable debate, the two escutcheons flanking the single 
name of Columbus, were filled respectively with the Scales of Freedom 
and the Broken Chain, symbolic of freedom. Above the frieze a seven- 
foot cornice, tinted in bright colors, surrounds the court. Its design 
is reminiscent of that of the patio in the Municipal Palace at Barcelona. 
The leaders whose names were chosen to be enrolled in the patio 
frieze are as follows. West Wall: San Martin, of La Plata (now 
Argentina); Columbus; Washington. North Wall: Marti, of Cuba; 
Hidalgo; Morazan of Central America. East Wall: Champlain; Boli- 
var, of Venezuela; O'Higgins, of Peru. South Wall: Artigas, ot 
Uruguay, Bonifacio, of Brazil; L'Ouverture, of Haiti. 

In the centre of the Patio is a fountain modeled and 
executed by Gertrude Vanderbxlt Whitney (Mrs. Harry Payne 
Whitney). 

It consists of an octagonal basin, from the centre of which rises 
a pillar supporting two other basins from which the water descends. 
The chief sculptural motives of the fountain are three figures on the 
central pillar symbolizing the past, present and future of America. 
The first, facing the entrance, is an archaic figure of an Aztec warrior; 
the second is a semi-barbarous American Indian such as the first 
European explorers found him; the third is a woman whose attitude _ 
and gesture seem to refuse to reveal the secret of the future. By a 
complicated mechanism the fountain can be beautifully illuminated, 
electrically, at night, the colors and change of water being controlled 
from a key-board in an adjacent room. Another notable feature of 
the patio is the pavement of Enfield tile, composed of small cubes 
with coarse mosaic designs in black, adapted from Mayan and Incan 
originals by J. H. Dulles-Allen. The two chief groups, one of two seated 
figures, the other of three figures, of which the central one/ is< standing, 
are both copied from low-reliefs in the Palace at Palenque. 

W. of the Patio are the lobby and large Reading Room 
(100 ft. by 40 ft.) of the Columbus Memorial Library, the 
offices and stack-rooms of which occupy almost the entire 
portion of both stories on the N. side of the building. The 
library has grown rapidly,- and now contains (1922). approxi- 
mately 50,000 volumes of works relating to the Americas in 
English, Spanish, Portuguese, French and German. 

The library is open free for reference at all times when 
the building itself is open to the public. There are private 
studies for the use of persons engaged in special research work. 

Among the interesting exhibits in the main reading room are: 
a huge central relief map of Latin America, which vividly portrays the 
topography and nature of the land; a case showing the leading 
agricultural products of Central and South America; a case contain- 
ing various different species of valuable woods, including Ebony, 
Royal palm, Black heart wood and Diablo muerto from Central 
America, Log-wood from Guatemala, Mora or Fustic wood from Mexico 
and white Mahogany from Bolivia; and a case containing miscellaneous 
groups of the products of Latin-America, including a collection of 
gold and silver ores and other minerals, of cocoa, Dominican Hemp 
and the Tonca bean from Venezuela, together with an exhibit illus- 
trating the manufacture of Panama hats. 



168 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

The Gallery of Patriots. The visitor may now return to 
the Vestibule and ascend the stairs leading into the foyer on 
the floor above, which, with the adjacent N. corridor, con- 
stitutes the Gallery of Patriots. This collection will eventually 
consist of twenty-one portrait busts in marble, each of which is 
a contribution from one of the twenty-one Republics. The 
pedestals on which they rest are plain square pilasters of dark 
reddish-brown Languedoc marble, which is also used for the 
wall bases and door trims. 

Of the twenty-one busts, sixteen are already in place, the United 
States being temporarily represented by a plaster copy of Houdon's 
Washington, which occupies the central point in the foyer, facing the 
Hall of the Americas. The other busts already in place are as follows, 
beginning with the N. aisle: i. Dessalines (Normil Ulysse Charles, 
sculptor), presented by Haiti; 2. Marti, presented by Cuba; 3. Barrios, 
presented by Guatemala; 4. Unanue, presented by Peru; 5. Sucre, pre- 
sented by Bolivia; 6. Bolivar (Rudolph Evans, sculptor), presented by 
Venezuela; 7. San Martin (Herbert Adams, sculptor), presented by 
Argentine Republic; 8. O'Higgins, presented by Chile; 9 Artigas (/. 
Belloni, sculptor), presented by Uruguay; 10. Jaurez, presented by 
Mexico; 11. Bonifacio' (Charpentier, sculptor), presented by Brazil; 12. 
Herrera (Chester Beach, sculptor), presented by Panama; 13. Mora 
(Juan R. Bonill, sculptor), presented by Costa Rica; 14. Morazan, 
presented by Honduras; 15. Delgardo (Ferraris, scuptor), presented by 
Salvador. 

Opening from the foyer, on the W., is the Hall of the 
Americas, the chief show room of the building. It measures 
100 x 65 ft., and is finished throughout in white, the only 
touches of color being the purple and gold of the furniture 
and the gilded bronze of the chandeliers. The vaulted ceil- 
ing, barrel-arched like the foyer and great Vestibule, is sup- 
ported by twenty-four fluted Corinthian columns. The side 
columns are free and grouped in pairs inclosing side aisles ; 
the end columns are engaged. The five W. windows, cor- 
responding to the five entrances from the foyer, have colored 
borders, consisting of the arms and other symbols of the 
American Republics (Nicola D'Ascenzo, artist). 

At each end of the Hall of the Americas is a smaller 
hall, originally designed respectively for the Governing Board 
Room, and the Committee or Dining Room. The latter 
(reached from the foyer), has been re-christened the Colum- 
bus Room, and contains the nucleus of a collection of Colum- 
bus relics. They consist mainly of early woodcuts and 
engravings, facsimile reproductions of ancient maps and photo- 
graphs of historic spots associated with the great Genoese. 

*The Governing Board Room. This room is closed to 
the public; but visitors may obtain a fairly satisfactory view 
through the entrance on. the E. The color scheme is brown 
and gold, the wall covering being a dull ellow brocade, up to 



TERHACE 




SECOND FLOOR PLAN OF THE NEW BUILDING OF THE 
PAN AMERICAN UNION 



i;o RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

the gilded bronze frieze. The chairs and oval table (20 x 9 ft.), 
are Dominican mahogany. On each chair are carved the name 
and coat-of-arms of one of the Republics. 

The most noteworthy single feature of this room is the Bronze 
Frieze, consisting of four panels illustrating the chief events in the 
early history of the new world'. They were modeled by Sally James 
Farnum (Mrs. Paulding Farnum), of New York, and have a uniform 
height of 2 ft. 9 in. ; the length of the side and end panels being 
respectively 25 ft. and 9 ft. 6 in. 

South Wall. South American panel (L. to R.) : 1. Pizarro's 
ruthless conquest of the peace-loving, sun-worshipping Incas; 2. Simon 
Bolivar, the Liberator of South America, leading his dismounted cav- 
alry across the Andes; 3. San Martin and O'Higgins meeting at the 
Battle of Chacabuco, 181 7. Separating these historic scenes, and 
framed within torsion columns, are two familiar types of South Amer- 
ica: on L., the Llama driver, wrapped in his poncho; on R., the gaucho 
or roving cowboy of the pampas, with his bolas in his hand. West 
Wall. North American panel: Champlain negotiating with the Indian 
chiefs. North Wall. Mexican and Central American panel (L. to R.) : 
1. Cortez and the Aztecs (note especially the invader's native wife, 
Marina, walking beside his war horse and preceded by the sinister figure 
of the Grand Inquisitor; 2. The landing of Columbus; 3. Balboa dis- 
covering the Pacific. Dividing these scenes, and framed by reproduc- 
tions of the famous Stela of Copan, are two symbolic figures: 1. on 
L., Indian figure of Goddess of Plenty, representing Agricultural 
Wealth; 2. on R., Indian toiling in mine, representing Mineral 
Wealth. East Wall. Brazilian panel: Dom Joao, King of Portugal, 
landing at Rio de Janeiro, cpmmemorating the transference, in 1808, 
of the Portuguese seat of government to the New World. 

Behind the main building, at the extreme western limit 
of the attractive formal garden, is the Pan American Annex, 
erected in 1912 (Kelsey and Cret, architects), its dimensions 
and position being in part dictated by the desire to shut from 
sight certain unsightly factory buildings. It is used for extra 
offices, exhibits and storage purposes. 

Its interest to visitors centres in its triple-arched loggia, which 
is said to be the most beautiful attempt of its kind to re-embody in 
modern construction the aboriginal art of Latin-America. Here, in 
both high and low relief, in bright and in dull colors, fragments of 
this early American art taken from Palanque, Copan, Quirigua, Mitla 
and Chichen-Itza have been brought together and faithfully reproduced, 
affording a glimpse of the highly developed civilization which flourished 
in southern America before the coming of Columbus, Cortez and 
Pizarro. The splendor of Chichen-Itza, the Holy city of early Mexican 
civilization, has supplied the greater part of the design. The general 
form of the composition is taken from its famous monastery. The 
huge monster's head in the centre is copied from the Iglesia or 
church, and the two standing figures on either side of the jaws are from 
the Temple of the Jaguars, while the smaller panels, of various forms 
and colors, have been taken from a large number of beautifully sculp- 
tured facades and crumbling temples. 

The large figure facing the pool in front of the Annex is a repro- 
duction of a famous stone carving known as the "Sad Indian" and 
regarded as one of the most precious relics of the Aztec period. 

Within the Pan-American grounds is the site of the historic cot- 
tage of Davy Burnes, one of the four original owners of the land com- 



THE CORCORAN ART GALLERY 171 

prising the city of Washington. This cottage, the oldest house 
in Washington (which survived to the end of the 19th century) was 
once the rendezvous of General Washington, Thomas Jefferson, 
Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr. Here the poet Tom Moore was 
once a guest, and the little room from which he could look out upon 
the Potomac, was always afterward called "Tom Moore's Room." 
Later, when Davy's beautiful daughter, Marcia, married General John 
P. Van Ness, in 1802, the latter built, close by the Burnes' cottage, 
what was then considered "the grandest mansion in the country," 
designed by Latrobe. There is a tradition that the conspirators who 
planned the assassination of President Lincoln originally intended to 
capture him alive and imprison him in the wine-vaults of this house. 
After standing for nearly a century, the old house finally made way for 
the Pan-American Building. The Van Ness stable, however, situated 
in the rear of the house, was renovated and occupied as the residence 
of the Superintendent of the new building. When Mr. Carnegie gave 
$100,000 for beautifying the grounds, and it was decided to erect the 
Pan-American Annex, which occupies the site of the stable, it became 
necessary to move the latter, which may now be seen in the extreme 
N.W r . cor. of the grounds, at 18th and C Sts. 

II. The Corcoran Art Gallery 

**The Corcoran Gallery of Art (PI. II— C5) occupies the 
eastern half of the triangular block bounded by New York 
Ave., 17th and E Sts., with its main fagade and entrance on 
the 17th St. side facing the Executive Grounds (p. 122). 
The present (and second) edifice was completed in 1897, 
and is of the Neo-Grecian order of architecture, the ma- 
terials employed being white Georgia marble, on a basement 
of Milford pink granite {Ernest Flagg, architect). Numer- 
ous windows pierce the wall of the lower story, giving light 
to the galleries of statuary; the second story, however, ot 
the main central section rises in a solid white wall, broken 
only by a series of openwork marble panels near the cornices, 
introduced for ventilating purposes. Just above these panels is 
a narrow frieze bearing in Roman letters the names of certain 
famous painters and sculptors of ancient and modern times. 
Above the cornice, which is richly carved, the glass roof 
slopes up to a cresting of bronze, surmounted at each end 
of the building by a winged griffin. The prevailing severity 
of the design is relieved at the northern or New York Ave. 
end, by the semi-circular extension, containing the offices and 
studios of the Corcoran School of Art (p. 184), an audito- 
rium, and a gallery for occasional special exhibits. The latter 
connects with the main picture galleries on the second floor. 

History. The Corcoran Gallery of Art, originally situated at 
the cor. of 17th St. and Pennsylvania Ave., was the gift of the late 
William Wilson Corcoran to the public, by deed dated May ioth, 
1869. By the terms of this deed the Gallery was "to be used solely 
for the purpose of encouraging American genius in the production 
and preservation of works pertaining to the Fine Arts and kindred 



i 7 2 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

objects," the only condition attached being that it shall be open free 
to visitors on at least two days in the week. 

Mr. Corcoran's purpose to found a public art gallery was not 
accomplished until fifteen years after its inception. The erection of 
the original art gallery was begun in 1859, from designs by James 
Renwick, best known as architect of St. Patrick's Cathedral, New 
York City (see Rider's New York, p. 199). But before its comple- 
tion in 1861 the Civil War had broken out, and the building was 
occupied by the United States' Quartermaster-General's Department, 
which remained there until 1869. On the 10th of May in that year, 
Mr. Corcoran placed the building in the hands of a board of nine 
trustees for the purposes above named. His private collection of pic- 
tures and statuary constituted the nucleus of the exhibits. The museum 
was finally thrown open to the public in 1874. 

As early as 1891 the growth of the art collections and also of 
the Free School of Art which meanwhile had been established, made new 
and more spacious quarters necessary. The present site was acquired 
and a number of prominent architects were invited to submit plans. 
Mr. Flagg's plans having been accepted, the corner-stone of the 
building was laid in 1894, and three years later, on Feb. 22, 1897, 
the gallery was formally opened for a private view. Over three thou- 
sand invitations were issued, the guests including the President and 
Mrs. Cleveland, the members of the Cabinet and their wives, foreign 
Ambassadors and Ministers, and many other distinguished personages. 

The Gallery is open to the public as follows : on Mondays 
from 12 M. to 4.30 P.M.; on other week-days, from 9 A.M. 
to 4.30 P.M.; on Sundays, from 1.30 to 4.30 P.M.; on holidays, 
from 10 A.M. to 2 P.M. (excepting Christmas and July 4th, 
when it is closed). Admission is free on all days, excepting 
Monday, Wednesday and Friday, when a fee of 25c. is charged, 
unless these days chance to fall upon a holiday. 

The following publications are on sale at the desk to L. 
of entrance : "Illustrated Catalogue of the Paintings," 75c. ; 
"Illustrated Catalogue of the Casts, Marbles and Bronzes," 
25c. ; "Handbook of the Paintings and Sculptures" (no illus- 
trations), 25c. Photographs of the principal works of art 
contained in the collection may also be obtained here. On 
R. of entrance is a cloak room where articles may be checked. 
Note on W. wall of alcove a bronze tablet recording the 
history of the Corcoran Gallery. 

Before entering, the visitor should note, on R. and L. 
of steps, two colossal bronze lions, cast from moulds of 
Canova's lions, which guard the tomb of Clement XIII in 
St. Peter's Rome. A few broad, low steps within the en- 
trance bring the visitor at once into the Central Atrium, the 
largest hall in the building, 170 ft. long by 50 ft. wide, the 
ceiling of which is supported by forty fluted monolith columns 
of Indiana limestone. Two large light-wells in the ceiling 
admit a gently diffused ltight from the glass roof of the upper 
story. This atrium together with side galleries Nos. 6, 7 and 8 
(see plan, p. 173), contains the museum's well chosen collection 
of casts from masterpieces of classic and Renaissance sculpture. 




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174 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

Among the more important of these casts may be men- 
tioned : A. From Antique Sculpture : The Frieze of the 
Parthenon, consisting of 194 feet of casts, extending around 
the cornice of the south end of the atrium; the Eastern and 
Western Pediments of the Parthenon ; the Venus of Melos ; 
the Venus de Medici; the Venus of the Capitol; Antinous 
of the Capitol ; the Laocoon group : and the Apollo Belvedere ; 

B. From the Renaissance : A cast of Ghiberti's famous 
Bronze Doors to the Baptistry in Florence; Goujon's Nine 
Nymphs of the Fountain of Innocents; Michelangelo's Sitting 
Statue of Lorenzo de Medici ; Michelangelo's Pieta group, 
in a chapel in St. Peter's, Rome ; and Donatello's Judith 
and Holofernes, in the Loggia dei Lanz'i, Florence. 

Gallery 2 is devoted to the collection of bronzes by 
Antoine-Louis Barye (1796-1875), comprising over one hun- 
dred specimens. It constitutes one of the most complete col- 
lections of Barye's work extant, and was secured for the 
Corcoran Gallery in 1873 directly from the sculptor himself. 
The great majority are animal subjects, and serve admirably 
to show this sculptor's special skill in depicting hunting scenes 
and combats of animals. A few titles, taken almost at random, 
illustrate his uncommon vesatility : Wolf holding a Stag by the 
Throat ; Tiger devouring a Gazelle ; Panther surprising a 
Civet Cat ; Bull dragged to earth by a Bear ; Python crushing 
a Crocodile ; and an African Badger robbing a Nest. 

Galleries 3 and 4 contain a small collection of modern 
marble sculptures. We enter Gallery No. 3 through S. door 
of No. W -The sculptures are as follows, proceeding from 
L to R.: 

Christian Ranch (1777-1857), Alexander Von Humboldt 
(bust, executed for Mr. Corcoran at Von Humboldt's ex- 
press wish) ; John C. King, bust of Commodore Morris, U. S. 
N. ; Henry Kirke Brown (1814-86), Vice-President John 

C. Breckenridge (bust) ; Franklin Simmons, Justice S. 
J. Field ; Horatio Stone, General Baker ; Larkin G. 
Meade (b. 1835), Echo (statuette); Joseph Ceracchi, 
Benjamin Franklin; Hiram Powers (1805-73), William 
J. Stone (bust) ; Preston Powers, Hon. Justin S. Mor- 
rill ; Henry Albert Johnson, Italian Girl: W. O. Partridge, 
Nearing Home; Joel T. Hart (1810-77), Henry Clav (bust); 
Preston Powers, Prof. L. J. R. Agassiz ; /. T. Hart, J. J. 
Crittenden; Sculptor Unknown, Bust of Shakespeare (a copy). 

In centre: U. S. J. Dunbar, Bust of William Wilson Cor- 
coran, 1798-1888. 

Through the S. door we enter Gallery No. 4. Conspicu- 
ous in the center of the room is *The Greek Slave, by Hiram 



THE CORCORAN ART GALLERY 175 

Powers, The other statues are as follows, beginning at en- 
trance door: C. B. Ives, Statue of a Child; Thomas Crawford 
(1813-57), The Peri at the Gates of Paradise; William H. 
Rinehart (1825-74), II Penseroso (bust) ; Hiram Powers, Pro- 
serpine (bust) ; Antonio Canova, Napoleon I. (a replica of 
the head of Canova's colossal statue modeled from the Em- 
peror at Paris in 1805) ; Hiram Powers, Genevra (bust) ; 
Trombctta, The First Step ; William Ordway Partridge, Cres- 
cent and Female Head (loaned) ; P. Guamcrio , The Forced 
Prayer; W. H. Rinehart, Endymion; Alexander GaJt (1827- 
63), Bacchante (bust) ; Sculptor Unknown, The Veiled Nun 
(a copy); E. Caroni, Youth as a Butterfly; W. H. Rinehart, 
Sleeping Children. 

Gallery No. 5, the next room on the W., contains col- 
lection of Modern Bronzes. 

Central Exhibits (E. to W.). Paul Manship, Dancer and 
Gazelles ; Case containing : a. Anne Vaughan Hyatt, Man 
and Horse ; b. Paul Manship, Nude Figure of Woman ; c, d, e, 
and f. Rodin, Portrait of Mme. Rodin ; Sirens ; The Thinker ; 
Music; g. Marnier, Three plaques, representing: Group of 
Miners ; The Globe ; Men at the Forge ; Herman A. MacNeil 
(1866- ), The Sun Vow; Frederic Remington (1861-1909), 
Off the Range. 

North Wall: Bessie P. Vonnoh (1872- ), Enthroned; 
Edivard Kemeys, (1843-1907), Jaguar Lovers; A. Phimister 
Proctor (1862- ), Indian Warrior; The Same, Indian and 
Buffalo Group; E. Kemeys, Howling Coyote. 

South Wall: Henry Kirke Bush-Brown (1857- ), 
Statuette of Cow; Charles Louis Hint on, Atalanta; Emile 
Antoine BourdeHe, Herakles ; Bessie P. Vonnoh, Day Dreams. 

Galleries 6 and 7 contain plaster casts. 

Gallery No. 8, West Wall: (N. to S.) : William Ord- 
way Partridge, Pocahontas ; Houdon, Joel Barlow (plaster 
bust) ; Henry J. Ellicott, George Y. Coffin (bronze bust) ; 
Rinehart , Clytie (cast from marble original in Peabody In- 
stitute, Baltimore) ; Chevalier Trentanove, Mrs. Edwin A. 
Newman (marble bust; loaned); Houdon, Voltaire (cast 
from marble original in vestibule of the Theatre Francais, 
Paris) ; U. S. J. Dunbar, Vice-President Thomas Hendricks 
(plaster bust) ; Bertel Thorwaldsen (1770-1844), Venus (cast 
from original model in Copenhagen) ; Henry K. Bush-Brown. 
Dr. James C. Hall (bronze bust) ; Jerome Connor, Thomas 
Moore (bronze bust) ; Houdon, Bust of John Paul Jones, cast 
from original; Augustus Saint-Gaud ens, Hon. David J. Hill 
(marble bust). 



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3 




THE CORCORAN ART GALLERY 177 

South Wall : Augustus Soint-Gaudens, The Puritan 
(Deacon Samuel Chapin), from the original bronze at Spring- 
field, Mass. ; Franklin Simmons, Portrait of Miss Nettie 
Louvisa White (marble bas-relief) ; William H. Rinehart, 
James C. McGuire (marble bust). 

East Wall: John Gibson (1791-1866), Venus (cast after 
original marble in London) ; William Rimmer, Head of a 
Woman (gray granite); Clark Mills, (1815-83), Bust of 
George Washington (bronze, after Houdon's original plaster 
bust) ; Louis Saint Gaudens (1854-1913), Mural Tablet to 
Prof. Joseph Henry (cast from original marble at Princeton 
University) ; Henry J. Ellicott (1847-1901), Bronze Bust of 
Samuel H. Kauffman, President, Corcoran Gallery, 1894- 
1906; Clark Mills, John C. Calhoun (bronze bust); Canova, 
Venus from the Bath (cast from original marble in Florence). 

North Wall: Houdon, Mask of Washington (plaster 
cast) ; Mrs. L. MacDonald Slecth, Gen. John M. Wilson, 
U. S. A. (marble bust) ; Andreiv O'Connor, Jr., (b. 1874), 
Adam and Eve (marble group) ; The Same, Edward Tuck, Esq. 
(bronze bust) ; Houdon, Head of Washington (plaster cast). 

Central Exhibits (,N. to S.). 1. Paul W. Bartlett (1865-), 
Michelangelo ; /. Q. A. Ward (1830-1910), Indian Hunter (cast, 
from original bronze »in Central Park, N. Y.) ; Charles Raphael 
Peyrc (1872- ), Crusading for the Right (bronze figure). 

This room also contains, on S. and E. walls, a Collection 
of Pastel drawings, by John McLanc Hamilton, 28 in number, 
the gift of Mrs. E. H. Harriman. 

Directly opposite the main entrance, a spacious stairway 
of white marble, with broad, easy steps, is broken midway 
by a landing and turns to R. and L., leading to the second 
story, containing the picture galleries. The rear wall above 
the landing originally contained three windows. It was 
found, however, that the light thus admitted seriously marred 
the artistic effect of the atrium and stairway; in consequence 
the windows were closed by the insertion of three bas-reliefs, 
which in size and shape were found to satisfy the require- 
ments. The central panel is a copy of Orcagna's Death and 
Transition of the Virgin (from the Chapel of Or San Michele, 
Florence). This is flanked by two of the nine Nymphs of 
the Fountain of the Innocents, by Jean Goujon( 1530-872), from 
the original marbles in the Louvre, Paris. To R. and L. of 
windows respectively are two paintings: (R.) The Adora- 
tion of the Shepherds, by Anton Raphael Mengs (1728-79), 
from the collection of Joseph Bonaparte; and (L) Mercy's 
Dream, by Daniel Huntington (1816-1906), the theme of which 
is taken from Bunyan's Pilgrim Progress. The paintings 



178 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

on the side walls of stairway are: North Wall Jean Leon 
Gerome (1824-1904), Caesar Dead; South Wall, Eugene Vail 
(1857- ), Ready About. 

The stairs admit the visitor into the second-story atrium, 
which is of the same dimensions as the one below, the floor 
space being broken by two large rectangular openings (50x30 
ft), for lighting purposes. This atrium is covered by a vast 
skylight, supported by thirty-eight fluted monolith columns, 
which, like those of the lower story, are of Indiana lime 
stone. The Corcoran collection of paintings is contained in 
this atrium and in the eight smaller rooms opening directly 
from it (see plan, p. 173). The pictures in the atrium are 
as follows : 

West Wall, north of staircase: (S. to N.) : Henry Mosler ] 
(1841-1920), Saying Grace; John A. Elder (1833-95), Por- 
trait of Gen. Robert E. Lee; Douglas Volk (1856- ), Ac- 
cused of Witchcraft; Carl L. F. Becker (1820-1900), Pope 
Julius II, with Raphael, Michelangelo, Vittoria Colonna and 
Bramante, viewing the newly exhumed statue of the Apollo 
Belvedere; August Schaeffer (1833- ), Sunset in a Hun- 
garian Forest; John A. Elder, Portrait of Gen. T. J. Jackson; 
/. G. Brown, (1831-1913), The Longshoreman's Noon. 

North Wall: Rembrandt Peale (1778-1860), Bernardin 
de Saint Pierre; G. P. A. Healy, Hon. J. S. Morrill; John - 
Faed (1820-1902), Shakespeare and His Contemporaries; Rem- 
brandt Paele (1778-1860), * Washington before Yorktown 
(contains portraits of Hamilton, Lafayette, Knox, Lincoln and 
Rochambeau ; the heavy frame of this picture was made from 
a walnut tree grown upon the farm of Robert Morris, the 
financier o<f the Revolution) ; Ferdinand Pauzvels (1830-98), 
Justice to Levin Pyn, representing the solemn mass ordered 
by the Emperor Charles V. in atonement for the unjust execu- 
tion of Pyn, First Magistrate of Ghent; Alice C. Barney, 
Bertha; Thomas Sully, Portrait of James Madison. 

East Wall: Henri Paul Motte, The Trojan Horse; Edu- 
ard Hildebrandt (1817-68), Moonrise in Madeira; Charles 
Melville Dewey (.1849- ), The Edge of the Forest; Antonio 
Moretti, Rome from the Forum ; Emanuel Leutze, Cromwell 
and Milton ; Max Weyl, Forest in the Sapphire Country, 
North Carolina; A. Moretti, St. Peter's, Rome; Hugo F. Salm- 
som (1843-94). The Fete of St. John in Dalecarlia, Sweden; 
G. P. A. Healy, Portrait of George Peabody; Louis A. G. 
Loustaunau (1846-98), A Monk Fishing; Charles Loring Elliott 
(1812-68), Portrait of W. W. Corcoran; William L. Pickncll 
(1853-97), En Provence; The Same, The Road to Concar- 



THE CORCORAN ART GALLERY 179 

neau; Thomas Sully, Gen. Andrew Jackson; The Same. 
Ideal Female Head; Emile Van Mar eke (1827-90), The 
Pasture; Edzvin Lord Weeks (1849-1903), Departure for the 
Hunt, India; Louis Neubert (1846-92), An Old Castle in 
Bavaria ; Rembrandt Peale, Portrait of M. Lasteyrie ; William 
Keith, Portrait of Irving M. Scott, builder of the Oregon; 
Albert Bierstadt (1830-1902), The Last of the Buffalo; John 
Vandcrlxn (1776-1852), Portrait of Zachary Taylor; Samuel 
Waldo (1783-1861), Portrait of G. W. Parke Custis ; William 
Louis Sonntag (1822-1900), Classic Italian Landscape, with 
Temple of Venus; Gaston Casimir Saint-Pierre (b. 1833), 
Nedj ma — 'Odalisque. 

South Wall: Oswald Achenbach (1827-1905), Festival of 
Santa Lucia, Naples; Charles Stanley Reinhart (1844-1906), 
Washed Ashore; Gay lord Sangston Truesdell (1850-99), Going 
to Pasture; Alboy Rebouet (1841-75), Night. 

West Wall (concluded) : Albert Bierstadt, Mount Cor- 
coran, Sierra Nevada, Colorado; Thomas P. Rossiter (1818- 
71), Rebecca at the Well; Louis Robbe (1806-87), Landscape 
and Cattle; Jean Francois Portaels (1818-95), The Drought 
in Egypt; /. Campbell Phillips (1873- ), The First Born; 
Seth Eastman (1808-75), Lacrosse Playing among the Sioux; 
Louis Priou (b. 1845), Family of Satyrs. 

In the center of the atrium, facing the stairs, is a large 
marble sculpture, by Vincenzo Vela, representing *The Last 
Days of Napoleon I. The one-time emperor is shown seated, 
his figure bent and wasted with illness and chagrin, his fea- 
tures tragic with the memory of defeat. 

Through the door in the northeast corner we reach 
Gallery B. Beyond, on the north, above the auditorium, is 
Gallery A, a semi-circular hall, used for special exhibits. 

Gallery B, North Wall (E. to W.) : Thomas Cole 
(1801-48), The Return; Harry Chase (1853-89), New York 
Harbor ; Thomas Cole, The Departure ; George Henry 
Boughton (1834-1905), The Heir Presumptive. 

West Wall (N. to S.) : Frederick E. Church (1826-1900). 
Magdalena River, Granada; Frederick Bridgman (1847- ), 
Procession of the Sacred Bull, Apis; Jervis McEntcc (1828- 
90), Eastern Sky at Sunset; Eastman Johnson (1824-1906), 
Girl and Pets; James M. Hart (1828-1901), The Drove at the 
Ford; John Neagle. (1799-1865), Portrait of: Col. Richard M. 
Johnson ; Gilbert Stuart, George Washington ; Benjamin West 
(1738-1820), Cupid and Psyche; Joseph Wright (1756-93). 
Portrait of Benjamin Franklin; Gilbert Stuart, Portrait of 
Chief Justice Shippen ; Benjamin Curtis Porter (1845-1908), 



180 RIDERS WASHINGTON 

Lady and Dog; William Ranney (1813-57), Duck Shooting; 
William T. Richards (1833-1905). On the Coast of New Jersey. 

South Wall: A. B. Durand, Edge of the Forest; J. F. 
Kensett (1818-72), Mount Washington; William S. Mount 
(1807-68), The Long Story; John R. Tilton (1828-88), 
Venetian Fishing Boats; S. R. Gifford (1823-80), The Ruins 
of the Parthenon. 

East Wall : Thomas Doughty, Tintern Abbey ; Richard 
N. Brooke (1847-1920), A Pastoral Visit; John W. Casilear 
(1811-93), Lake George; Clifford Grayson (1859- ), Mid- 
Day Dreams; Worthington Whittredge (1820-1910), Trout 
Brook in the Catskills ; James D. Smillie (1833-1909), Cliffs 
in Normandy; Daniel Huntington, Portrait of Joseph Henry; 
Charles L. Elliott, James C. McGuire; Emanuel Leutze (1816- 
68), The Amazon and Her Children; F. E. Church, ^Niagara 
Falls; Charles L. Elliott, Portrait of A. B. Durand; The 
Same, Portrait of Col. Thomas L. McKenney; /. F. Kensett, 
High Bank, Genesee River ; The Same, An Autumn Afternoon, 
Lake George; Thomas Doughty, Autumn on the Hudson; 
Henry Peters Gray (1819-77), The Judgment of Paris; 
Thomas Doughty, Welsh Scenery; G. H. Boughton, Edict of 
William the Testy ('illustrating a passage from Irving's 
"Knickerbocker History of New York." 

Through the south door we pass into Gallery C: 

North Wall: (E. to W.) : Benoni Irwin (1840-96), 
Portrait of Edmund C. Messer ; Charles A. Piatt (1861- ), 
Cornish Landscape; George Fuller (1822-84), Lor ette; William 
J. Hays (1830-75), Head of Bull-Dog; Charles L. Elliott, 
Portrait of William Cullen Bryant; Bertha E. Perrie, In 
Gloucester Harbor; William M. Paxton (1869- ), The House 
Maid; E. L. Henry (1841-1919), The Old Westover Mansion; 
Thomas Le Clear (1818-82), Portrait of William Page. 

West Wall: Lovell B. Harrison (1854- ), Rose and 
Silver Moonrise; Charles F. Ulrich (1858-1908), Land of 
Promise, Castle Garden; H. Bolton Jones (1848- ), Soring- 
time; Julian Rix (1850-1903), Pompton Plains, N. J. : Robert 
Wylie (1839-77), Fortune Teller of Brittany; William T. 
Richards (1833-1905), On the Coast of New England; Charles 
H. Dazris (1856- ), The Deepening Shadows; Thomas A. 
Harrison (1853- _), Twilight; Frank K. M. Rehn (1818- 
1914), In the Glittering Moonlight; George H. Smillie, 
Autumn on the Massachusetts Coast. 

South Wall: Charles W. Hawthorne (1872- ). A Fisher- 
man's Wife; R. Szvain Gifford (1840-1905), October on 
Massachusetts Coast: Gilbert Stuart, Portrait of Col. Samuel 
Miles; Thomas Eakins (1844-1916), The Pathetic Song; 



THE CORCORAN ART GALLERY 181 

Samuel Isham (1855-1914), Butterflies; Richard N. Brooke, 
Incoming Tide. 

East Wall : Ben Foster, Late Autumn Moonrise ; Leonard 
Ochtman (1854- ), November Morning; George H. Smillie, 
Landscape; George de Forest Brush (1855- ), Mother and 
Child; Henry W. Ranger, Landscape; R. M. S hurtle ff (1838- 
1915), The First Snow; George Inness, Sunset in the Woods; 
James Moscr (1854-1913), In the Cornwall Hills; Edmund 
Clarence Mcsser (1842-1919), January; James J. Shannon, 
(1862- ), Girl in Brown; George H. Bogcrt (1864- ), Sun- 
set; William Gedncy Bunce (1840-1916), Venice, Sunrise; 
A. H. Wyant (1836-92), Landscape. 

The next room to the south is Gallery l> : 

North Wall: (E. to W.) : Horatio Walker (1858- ), 
Ave Maria; Wilton Lockivood (1861-1914), Peonies; Thomas 
W. Deiving (1851- ), Lady with a Mask; William M. Chase, 
The Model; Edward F. Rook (1870- ), Peonies; William 
Sergeant Kendall (1869- ), Narcissa. 

West Wall: Robert Reid (1862- ), The Open Fire ; 
Charles W. H. Woodbury (1864- ), Monadnock; Childe 
Hassam, The New York Window; Robert C. Minor, (1840- 
1904), Eventide; Robert Spencer (1879- ), The Red Boat; 
Gari Melchers, Penelope; Max Weyl (1837-1914), Lovers' Lane; 
Childe Hassam, Northeast Headlands, New England Coast; 
Frank W. Benson, The Open Window; Paul Dougherty, The 
Land and the Sea; John W. Alexander, A Meadow Flower. 

South Wall: Theodore Robinson (1852-96), Girl Sewing; 
Charles Reiffel (1862- ), Railway Yards, Winter Evening; 
Philip L. Hale (1865- ), Portrait, Girl with Muff; Winslow 
Homer, The Hudson River — Logging; Irving R. Wiles, The 
Student ; Helen M. Turner, Girl with a Lantern. 

East Wall: Daniel Garber (1880- ), April Landscape; 
Frank W. Benson (1862- ), My Daughter; William M. 
Chase (1849-1916), An English Cod; Robert Reid (1862- ), 
The Japanese Screen; Winslow Homer, (1836-1910), A Light 
on the Sea; R. A. Blakelock (1847-1919), Colorado Plains; 
Edward W. Red field (1868- ), Sleighing; Daniel Garber, 
South Room, Green Street ; Charles Walter Stetson ( 1858- 
-1911). A Galley is Leaving; John E. Folinsby, Gray Thaw; 
John S. Sargent (1856- ), The Oyster Gatherers of Cancale ; 
Joseph De Camp (1858- ), The Seamstress; JVillard L. 
}Fctcalf (1858- ), May Night; Edmund C. Tarbell 
(1862- ), Josephine and Mercie; Edzvard W. Red field, The 
Delaware River. 

Through the S. door we reach Gallery E, at the S. E. 
cor. of the building : 



i82 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

North Wall: (E. to W.) : Henry Bacon (1839-1912), 
The Nile, Evening; Frederic Clay Bartlett (1873- ), Canton 
Street; John H. Twachtman (1853-1902), Landscape; Robert 
Henri (1865- ), Willie Gee; Edward J. Barclay, Portrait 
of Samuel H. Kaufrman, President Board of Trustees of 
Corcoran Gallery, 1894-1906; Bruce Crane (1857- ), November 
Hillsides; Robert M. Sully (1803-55), Portrait of Chief Justice 
John Marshall; Chauncey F. Ryder (1868- ), Cape Porpoise. 

West Wall: William Keith (1839-1911), By the Creek, 
Sonoma ; Charles Walter Stetson, Library Frieze, XlVth 
Century, Chaucer and Dante; Abbott H. Thayer (1849- ), 
Study Head of a Young Girl; Frank Duveneck, Head of a 
Little Girl; William M. Chase, Portrait of Hon. William A. 
Clark; Ernest Lawson (1873- ), Boat House, Winter, 
Harlem River; Dines C arisen, (1901- ), The Brass Kettle; 
/. Alden Weir (1852-1919), Autumn; Gari M either s (i860- ), 
^Maternity; Max Weyl (1837-1914), Approaching Night; 
Richard E. Miller (1875- ), The Boudoir; Frederick Carl 
Frieseke (1874- ), Peace. 

East Wall: Charles H. Hayden (1856-1901), The Poplars, 
Chatham, Mass.; Ben Foster (1852- ), Sunset, the Litchfield 
Hills; John G. Brown (1831-1913), Allegro and Penseroso; 
Howard Helmick (1845-1907), The Emigrant's Letter; William 
Sartain (1843- ), Street in Dinan, Brittany; Sidney E. 
Dickinson (1890- ), Portrait of the Artist; Horace Bonham, 
Nearing the Issue at the Cockpit; Theodore Robmson (1852- 
96), Valley of the Seine from Giverny Heights. 

Gallery F is reached through the W. door. 

North _ Wall: (E. to W.) ; Randall Davey (1887- ), Old 
Sea Captain ; Thomas Sully, Portrait of the Artist ; Edward 
G. Malbone (1777-1807), "Portrait of the Artist; Hayley 
Lever (1876- ), Dawn; Henry Inman (1801-46), Portrait of 
Henry Clay; Chester Harding (1792-1866), Portrait of John 
Randolph of Roanoke ; Walter Ufer, Strange Things ; Felicie 
Waldo Howell, A New England Street; Charles B. King, 
(1785-1862), Portrait of John C. Calhoun; Frank Duveneck, 
Portrait of Major D. H. Clark; John F. Carlson (1875,- ), 
Woods in Winter; Charles L. Elliott (1812-1868), Portrait of 
Horatio Stone, the Sculptor ; Gilbert Stuart, John Randolph 
of IRoanoke (loaned); Charles Morris Young (1869- ), The 
North Wind. 

West Wall : Mary Cassatt, La Femme au Chien ; John N. 
Twactman (1853-1902), The Waterfall; Albert L. Groll 
(1868- ), No Man's Land, Arizona. 

South Wall: Dwight William Try on (1849- ), The End 
of the Day; George Gardiner Symons (1863- ), Where Long 



THE CORCORAN ART GALLERY 183 

Shadows Lie; Thomas P. Anshulz (1851-1912), A Dutchman; 
Thomas Sully, Portrait of Mrs. Fanny Yates Levy ; John S. 
Sargent, Portrait of Gen. Leonard Wood; Emil Carlsen 
(1853- ), Moonlight on a Calm Sea; Mary Cassatt, Little Girl 

Embroidering; /. Aid en Weir, Portrait of Miss de L ; 

Walter MacEzven (i860- ), Un Ancetre ; Walter Elmer Scho- 
field (1867- ), Cliff Shadows; /. Francis Murphy (1853- ), 
October. 

East Wall: Carl Rungius, Landscape; Robert Lee Mac- 
Cameron (1866-1912), Groupe d'Amis. 

Continue through the W. door to Gallery G, at S. W. 
cor. of building. This room is used for temporary exhibits. 
At present (1922) it contains the collection of "Flag Paint- 
ings," by Child e Hassam. 

The north door leads into Gallery H : 

North Wall: (E. to W.) : Jules Breton (1827- 1906), Brit- 
tany Widow; Leon A. L'hermitte (1844- ), La Famille. 

West Wall: Jules Dupri (1811-89), The Pond of the 
Great Oak; Erskine Nicol (1825-1904), Paddy's Mark; George 
Morland (1763-1804), The Warrener ; C. F. Daubigny (1817- 
78), A Hamlet on the Seine near Vernon; Adolphc Monticelli 
(1824-86), Landscape; Emile Van Marke (1827-90), Landscape 
with Cattle; /. B. C. Corot (1796-1875), The Wood Gatherers; 
Gustave Coarbet (1819-78), Landscape; Jean Charles Cazin 
(1840-1901), Moonlight in Holland; Ferdinand Heilbuth 
(1826-89), On the Pincian Hill, Rome (Cardinal Questioning 
Acolytes) ; N. V. Diaz de la Pena (1808-76), The Approaching 
Storm; Constant Troy on (1810-65), The Drinking Place; 
Blaise Alexandre Dcsgoffe, Souvenirs of the Sixteenth and 
Seventeenth Centuries. 

South Wall: F. H. Kaemmerer (1839-92), Beach at 
Scheveningen ; C. F. Daubigny, Landscape ; Cesare Maccari 
(1840- ), The Fortune Teller; Alphonse M. de Neuville 
(1836-85), Champagny. 

East Wall: Theophile de Bock (1851-1904), The Poudon 
Commons; Ludung Knaus (1829-1910), The Forester at 
Home; Thomas Couture (1815-79), Female Head; Emile 
Breton, Winter Moonrise; Josef Israels (1824-1911), Interior 
of a Cottage; /. /. Henner (1829-1905), Joan of Arc in 
Infancy; Martin Rico (1850-1008), The Banks of the Adige ; 
Adolphc Schreyer (1828-99), The Watering Place; Felix Ziem 
(1821-1911), Constantinople from the Golden Horn. 

Return to the atrium and enter Gallery I through first 
door on left. N. of stairway. 

North Wall: (E. to W.) : Jules Dupre (1811-89), Moon- 
light by the Sea; Jean Louis Gericault (1791-1824), Study of a 
Torso; Jean Georges Vibert (1840-1902), The Schism; Emile- 



184 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

Renouf (1845-94), The Helping Hand; Franz Linder (1738- 
1809), The Butterfly; Johannes H. L. De Haas (1832-80), 
Holland Cattle; Gaetano Chierici (1838- ), Fun and Fright. 

West Wall: Louis Aime Japy (1830-1916), Twilight; 
Ary Scheffer (1797-1858), Portrait of Commodore Charles 
Morris; Oscar Bjorck (i860- ), The Nail Makers; John 
Jackson (1778-1831), A Portrait; B. Peretti, Autumnal Corn 
and Grapes; Luigi Chialiva (1842-1914), A Shower; Hector 
Leroux (1829-1900), *The Vestal Tuccia; Johann Wilhelm 
Preyer (1803-89), Fruit; Luigi Chialiva, Fine Weather; Louis 
Mettling (1847-94), Study Head of a Young Man; Emile 
Breton (1831-1902), Sunset; Sir Philip A. de Laszlo, *Head 
of an Indian Prince; Louis A. Japy, Spring Landscape. 

South Wall: Gustave Loiseau (1865- ), The Inundation; 
Simon Saint-Jean (1808-60), Fruit; Jan Bedys Tom (1813- ), 
Cattle; E. L. G. Isabey (1804-86), The Wedding Festival; 
Samuel F. B. Morse (1791-1872), The Old House of Repre- 
sentatives; Giovanni Battista Piazzetta (1682-1754), Two 
Heads; Pierre Edouard Frere (1819-86), Preparing for 
Church; Pierre E. T. Rousseau (1812-67), Landscape; Luigi 
Loir, Effect of Snow. 

East Wall: Aime Morot (1850- ), *E1 Bravo Toro ; 
Frank Blackwell Mayer (1827-99), Leisure and Labor; 
Georges C. Jeannin, Vase of Flowers ; Richard Bumier 
(1826-84), Cattle on the !Sea Shore, near Scheveningen ; 
Ferdinandus De Brackeleer (1792-1883), The Happy Family; 
Jean Louis de Marne (1754-1829), Interior; Franz Lenbach 
(1836-1904), *Otto, Fuerst von Bismarck; F. De Braekeleer, 
The Unhappy Family; Emile Gustave Couder, Flower Piece; 
Charles Ferdinand Venneman (1803-75). The Village Doc- 
tor; Pierre Charles Comte (1823-95), A Scene at Fontaine- 
bleau: Anatole Vely (1838-82), *The Talking Well. 

The Corcoran School of Art, in the N. end of the Art 
Gallery Building, but with entrance on New York Ave., is 
open annually, from October to May, inclusive. It gives free 
instruction in drawing, painting, composition, anatomy and 
perspective. The only charge is an annual entrance fee of 
$10.00 paid in advance. 

III. Lafayette Square 

Lafayette Square, (PI II— C4) facing the White House 
on the north, is a rectangular park of about seven acres, 
bounded on the S. by Pennsylvania Ave., on the N. by H St., 
and on the E. and W. by Madison and Jackson Places. 
Historically it is the most interesting of the smaller parks, 
having been for nearly a century the center of Washington 
social life, while almost every house surrounding it is rich 



LAFAYETTE SQUARE 185 

in historical associations. Across this square Farragut 
walked with his seconds, on his way to the duel which was 
to end in his death ; on the E. side of the square Sickles 
shot and killed iPhilip Barton Key ; while on the Tuesday 
following Lincoln's assassination, when the body lay in state 
in the East Room, and the public were admitted, the entire 
square was thronged with waiting crowds, even at nightfall, 
when the doors were closed. 

As originally planned, Lafayette Square extended all the way 
from 15th to 17th St. The name is said to have been chosen by Wash- 
ington. No attempt to improve or lay out the grounds was made until 
after the War of 1812, the whole space remaining a neglected common 
destitute of trees, and used as a parade ground for military muster. 
At the W. corner there was an oval race-course, and Pennsylvania 
Ave. betw. 17th and 20th Sts. was the home-stretch. Jefferson was 
the first to interest himself in improving the park, at the same time 
considerably reducing it by cutting off both ends on the lines now 
marked by Madison and Jackson Pis. The first edifice facing the 
Square was St. John's Church (p. 195), erected in 1816, and the 
first private residence the Decatur House (p. 192), dating from 1819. 

Lafayette Square contains five noteworthy monuments. 
At the S. E. corner is the Lafayette Memorial, erected by 
Congress in memory of the services of General Lafayette 
and his compatriots in the years of 1777-83. The figures 
were modeled by two French sculptors, Alexandre Falguiere 
and Antonin Mercie, and the pedestal designed by Paul 
Pujol. Surmounting the pedestal is the standing figure of 
Lafayette in bronze, heroic size, while Ibelow, in front, a 
partly draped figure, symbolizing America, is reaching up her 
sword to him. On the E. and W. sides of the pedestal re- 
spectively stand bronze figures of D'Estaing and De Grasse, 
of the French Navy, and of Rochambeau and Duportail of 
the French Army (note the distinguishing details of the 
anchor and the mortar). 

The plans by Falguiere and Mercie, chosen out of seven submitted 
in competition, in their original form proposed for the four subordinate 
statues of French officers the names of Rochambeau, Custine, Lauzin 
and Lameth. The Commissioners appointed by Congress and consist- 
ing at that time of Secretary Endicott, Architect Clark and Senator 
Everts, were not satisfied with the choice. Accordingly they invoked 
the aid of Robert C. Winthrop, Bancroft the historian, and almost 
every historical society in America, before arriving at the selection 
eventually approved. 

At the JST. E, cor. of the Square stands the monument to 
Tadeusz Kosciuszko (1746-1817), the "Hero of both Hem- 
ispheres," a full length statue lin bronze, heroic size, sur- 
mounting a lofty pedestal of Vermont granite (height 17 ft., 
weight 115 tons), surrounded by four bronze sculptures 
(Antonio Popiel, artist). Th° monument fronts to the N. 
On the pedestal is inscribed the one word*, "Saratoga," the 



186 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

scene of Kosciuszko's chief service in America. Above : in 
bronze, the Western Hemisphere, with an American Eagle 
holding the Stars and Stripes. S. side: "Raclawice" (the 
scene of Kosciuszko's greatest Polish victory, April 4th, 
1794). Above: in bronze, the Eastern Hemisphere with 
Eagle of Freedom strangling Serpent of Despotism. 

"The inscription is the well-known quotation - . "And Freedom 
shrieked as Kosciuszko fell." The statue was' "erected by the Polish 
National Alliance of America, and presented to the United States in 
behalf of the Polish-American Citizens, May nth, 1910." 

E. side : Bronze group. American soldier cutting the 
bonds of the American farmer, freeing him from the foreign 
yoke. W. side : Polish soldier wounded and falling, is pro- 
tected by Polish farmer with scythe. 

At the N. W. cor. of the Square stands the monument 
to Baron von Steuben (1730-94), modeled by Albert Jaegers, 
and unveiled Dec. 7th, 1910. A replica 'presented to the 
former Emperor of Germany, William II, and to the German 
nation was unveiled at Potsdam Sept. 2d, 191 1. 

On the W. Side of the pedestal is a bronze group consisting of 
a seated woman admonishing a kneeling lad and symbolizing "Com- 
memoration." On the E. side a helmeted warrior in classic garb is 
instructing a youth, representing "Military Instruction." On the S. 
side: bronze plaque with medallion portraits of Col. William Worth 
and Maj. Benjamin Walker, aides and friends of von Steuben. 

Baron von Steuben offered his services to Congress in 1778, and 
was appointed instructor general of the Continental Army, with rank 
of Major General. He drilled Washington's defeated army at Valley 
Forge, took active part in the siege of Yorktown, and was a member 
of the Court Martial which tried Major Andre. Congress granted 
him a pension of $2400. 

S. W. cor. : Monument to Rochambeau given by France 
in 1902 (F. Hamar, sculptor). Bronze figure, heroic size, 
facing S. ; below : female figure symbolizing liberty, holding 
sword and banner, with American eagle at her side. N. 
side, inscription : 

"We have been contemporaries and fellow-laborers in the cause 
of liberty, and we have lived togther, as brothers should do, in 
harmonious friendship." Washington to Rochambeau, Feb. 1st, 1784. 

Rochambeau came to America with an army of 6000 French soldiers 
to help Washington, and his co-operation with the forces, of Lafayette 
resulted in the defeat of Cornwallis at Yorktown. When this statue 
was unveiled by President Roosevelt, in 1902, among those present were 
representatives of the families both of Lafayette and Rochambeau. 

In the center of the Square is located the much dis- 
cussed Equestrian Statue of Andrew Jackson, modeled by 
Clark Mills and cast by him at Bladensburg, where he set 
up a furnace for the purpose. It was the first successful 
large bronze casting made in the United States. 

This statue cast from cannon captured by Jackson in his various 
battles, was inaugurated Jan. 8th, 1853, being the 38th anniversary of 
Jackson's victory at New Orleans. 



LAFAYETTE SQUARE 187 

There are two bronze replicas: one in New Orleans, the scene 
of Jackson's achievement; the other in Nashville, Tenn., where his 
ashes repose. 

A popular legend, repeated in practically all the guide books, 
is to the effect that this statue of a rearing horse is so delicately ad- 
justed that it stands poised on hind feet without any pivot or anchor. 
In point of fact it is securely bolted to the foundation as a protection 
against the danger of high winds, a possible earthquake shock or other 
casualties. But the statue does balance; and Mr. Mills used to 
demonstrate this fact with a miniature replica of the horse, which 
balanced perfectly whether mounted or unmounted. 

Almost every house facing on Lafayette Square is his- 
toric. Beginning on the E. side, at Pennsylvania Ave. and 
Madison Place (formerly 15 ^ St.), adjoining the Riggs 
Bank on the E. and the Belasco theatre on the N. is the 
recently erected Treasury Annex, a classic structure of gray 
Indiana limestone, with 8 Ionic columns on the principal or 
Lafayette Park facade. It is connected with the Treasury 
Building by a tunnel under Pennsylvania Ave. The Annex 
contains the Income Tax Unit. The site which it occupies 
is that of the seventh house on the Square, erected 
about 1836 by Dr. Thomas S. Gunnell, a dentist, whom 
President Van Buren appointed City Postmaster. Later 
Postmaster General Samuel D. Hubbard lived here. During 
the Civil War this house was temporarily (1863) headquar- 
ters of the Department of Washington. 

The Belasco Theatre, formerly the Lafayette Square 
Opera House, was designed and supervised by U. H. 
Painter, a civil engineer. A bronze memorial tablet, erected 
by the architect's daughters in 1902, records the fact that the 
building "was erected of steel skeleton construction, stone, 
terra-cotta, mackite and brick, to prove that an opera house 
can be made safe at all times from fire and panic/' The 
theatre was first opened September 30th, 1895. 

The above mentioned tablet also preserves in bronze a basrelief 
presentment of the historic *Rodgers House, which occupied this site 
for the greater part of a century. The land was once owned by Henry 
Clay, who conveyed it to Commander John Rodgers in exchange for 
a jackass which Rodgers had brought from a foreign port. Here 
Rodgers built the third house on the Square, in 1831. After his death 
it became the home of Roger B. Taney while Secretary of the Treasury 
0833) ; then of James K. Paulding, Secretary of the Navy (1838). 
After this it was, for a while, a fashionable boarding house, number- 
ing among its guests John C. Calhoun, while Jackson's Secretary of 
War, and Henry Clay, while Secretary of State. Subsequently, it be- 
came the home of the fashionable and exclusive Washington Club. 
Daniel Sickles and Philip Barton Key were both members; and it was 
about 100 ft. S. of the club house door that Sickles shot and killed 
Key, February 27th, 1859 (p. 193). The house was modernized and 
occupied by William H. Seward, while Secretary of the State under 
Lincoln; and here, on the night of April 14th, 1865, Mr. Seward, then 
critically ill as the result of a runaway accident, was attacked and 



188 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

nearly killed by Lewis Payne, one of the Lincoln conspirators. The 
house was next occupied by General and Mrs. Belknap', tnen for a 
time it was Government headquarters for the Commissary Department. 
Lastly it was purchased by James G. Blaine, who died here. 

No. 21, adjoining the theatre on the N., was erected in 
1828 by Benjamin Ogle Tayloe, second son of Col. John 
Tayloe of the Octagon House (p. 209). He personally 
preferred a country residence ; but after his marriage, in 
1824, to Miss Julia Maria Dickinson, he yielded to his bride's 
desire for a city home. The house, until his death in 1868, 
was one of the chief centres of social life and hospitality in 
Washington. Here, President William Henry Harrison paid 
hisl last visit to any private house. Here, Philip Barton Key, 
a connection of the Tayloes by marriage, was brought to die 
when shot by Sickles. Mr. Tayloe's famous collection of pic- 
tures, ornaments and curios was exhibited for some years 
in the Corcoran Art Gallery, but has recently been claimed by 
the Tayloe heirs and removed to Troy. 

A later occupant of the Tayloe house was Admiral Paulding, a 
son of John Paulding, one of the captors of Major Andre. It was the 
birthplace of Lolly Hammersley, later Dowager Duchess of Marl- 
borough. Vice-President Garrett C. Hobart lived here; and during 
the McKinley administration it was the home of Senator Marcus A. 
Hanna, and was popularly known as the "little White House." The 
Tayloe house is now a part of thei Cosmos Club (see below), and is 
used as a Ladies' Annex. The barn in the rear has been converted 
into an assembly hall for scientific and literary meeetings. 

The Cosmos Club (PI. II— D4), on S. E. cor. of Madi- 
son PI. and H St., is one of the foremost social institutions in 
America, not only because of its exclusiveness, but because 
of its many distinguished members. Many leading authori- 
ties in science, art and literature are included in its member- 
ship of approximately 11,100 (resident members 700; non- 
resident 400). 

This club was organized November 16th, 1878, and according to 
its articles of incorporation: "The particular objects and business of 
this association are the advancement of its members in science, litera- 
ture and art, their mutual improvement by social intercourse, the ac- 
quisition and maintenance of a library, and the collection and care of 
materials and appliances relating to the above subjects." The club's 
by-laws membership is restricted to "men — (a) Who have done 
meritorious work in science, literature or the fine arts; (b) Who, tho 
not occupied in science, literature or the fine arts, are known to be 
cultivated therein; (c) Who* are distinguished in a learned profession 
or in public service." 

The Cosmos Club is the regular meeting place of several important 
scientific societies: 1. The Biological Society of Washington, organized 
December 3d, 1880, "to encourage the study of Biological Sciences, and 
to hold meetings at which papers shall be read and discussed." It has 
a membership of over 300. 2. The Botanical Society, organized Novem- 
ber 23d, iqo 1 ? through the consolidation of the Botanical Seminar 
(1893), and the Washington Botanical Society (1898). Its membership 



LAFAYETTE SQUARE 189 

is about 150. 3. The Chemical Society of Washington, organized 
January 31st, 1884. Present membership about 360. 4. The Washing- 
ton Society of Engineers, organized November 23d, 1905. Present 
membership upward of 400. 

The buildings occupied by the club include the historic 
"Dolly Madison House," the Tayloe house, already described, 
and a modern annex erected between them on the sites of 
two dwellings (demolished 1908), the former homes respect- 
ively of Col. Robert G. Ingersoll and William Window,, Sec- 
retary of the Treasury. 

The Dolly Mkdison House is a structure in the Colonial 
style, dating from 1818. Its builder and first occupant 
was Richard Cutts, brother-in-law of Mrs. Madison, 
whose name is perpetuated historically in the "John Gilpin" 
parody, published after Mrs. Madison's flight from the White 
House at the approach of the British forces in 1814: 

"My sister Cutts and Cutts and T, 
And Cutts' children three, 
Will fill the coach. So you must ride 
On horseback after we." 

Owing to the fact that Mr. Cutts was in debt to Presi- 
dent Madison, the house passed into the latter's hands about 

1835, and constituted part of his estate on his death in June, 

1836. Mrs. Madison was then too poor to occupy it, her 
personal property having been squandered by her son, Payne 
Todd. In March, 1837, Congress appropriated $30,000 for 
the purchase of Madison's diary of the debates and events 
connected with the framing of the Federal Constitution. 
Mrs. Madison was thus enabled to return to the Capital, and 
she resided in this house until her death in July, 1849. Sub- 
sequent tenants include : Attorney General Crittenden, Sena- 
tor William C. Preston and Commodore Wilkes, who, by 
curious coincidence, found himself, in 1861, obliged to take 
his former close neighbor, Slidell, from the British 
steamship Trent. During the Civil War this house was occu- 
pied by Gen. George B. McClellan as headquarters of the 
Army of the Potomac. Note bronze tablet on H St. Fagade. 

Diagonally opposite, on the N. W. cor. of H St. and Ver- 
mont Ave., which here radiates towards the N. E., is the re- 
cently erected Arlington Building, occupying the site of the 
famous old Arlington Hotel, demolished in 1912, to make way 
for a more ambitious hotel structure, an enterprise later aban- 
doned. The main body of the hotel, erected in 1869, occupied 
the northern portion of the plot, replacing three historic dwell- 
ings formerly standing on the Vermont Ave. side. These were 
(N. to S.) : 1. (cor. of I St.) the home of Rez'erdy Johnson, 
one-time Minister to England and Attorney-General under 



i 9 o RIDE] 

Taylor ; 2. home of William D. Marcy, Secretary of State un- 
der Pierce; 3. home of Lewis Cass, one-time Minister to 
France, Secretary of War under Jackson and of State under 
Buchanan. The H St. addition, built in 1890, incorporated 
the former homes of Charles Sumner (on the H St. cor.) 
and of Senator Pomeroy, adjoining it on the W. 

The Arlington was unrivalled among Washington hotels in its 
list of celebrated guests, including Emperor Dom Pedro of Brazil, 
King Kalakaua of the Hawaiian Islands, the Grand Duke Alexis, 
President Diaz of Mexico, Henry Irving and Adelina Patti. Li 
Hung Chang stayed here with his suite of one hundred. During 
the Russian-Japanese war Prince Fushimi of Japan occupied the 
entire H Street annex. Practically all the Presidents stayed at the 
Arlington before their inauguration, from 1870 until McKinley's 
time. This hotel was long the diplomatic headquarters of Latin 
America. Mexico's destiny during the Madero revolution was framed 
here. And it is said that the Peace Conference of American Re- 
publics could not have reached a pact, except for what took place 
in Room 31 during 1907. 

Walter Q. Gresham, Secretary of State, and Henry C. Payne, 
Postmaster-General, both died in the Sumner portion of the annex. 

The Arlington Building is a 'io-story structure of gray 
Indiana limestone, designed on the Corinthian order, and was 
completed in Nov., 1919. It houses the United States Veterans' 
Bureau, created by Act of Congress, approved Aug. 9, 1921, 
which assumed all the powers and duties formerly pertaining 
to the War Risk Insurance Bureau, together with that part 
of the functions and duties of the Federal Board for Voca- 
tional Education conferred by the Vocational Rehabilitation 
Act of June 27, 1918. There is nothing within this building 
to interest sightseers. 

Adjoining the Arlington Building on the W. is a large 
square double mansion, the eighth house erected on the 
Square, often called the *Ashburton House. It was i 
built by Matthew St. Clair Clarke, Clerk of the House 
of Representatives during 1822-34. Clarke lost a fortune of 
$200,000 in speculation, and consequently the pretentious 
$5000 marble portico which he had ordered for his house 
never left the marble yard in Baltimore. Later it was the 
home of Joseph Gales, editor of the National Intelligencer. 
Lord Ashburton resided here when in 1842 he was sent by 
Sir Robert Peel to settle the "Northeastern Boundary" ques- 
tion. It was the home of John Nelson, Attorney-General 
under Tyler in 1843. Later it became the British Legation 
during the regime of Sir Henry Lytton Bulwer (1849-52), 
who brought with him as escretary his nephew, Robert Bul- 
wer, known in literature as "Owen Meredith." The tradi- 
tion is that the latter's most widly read poem. Lucile, was 
written or at least begun in this house. Later tenants were: 
Attorney-General Nelson and Mrs. Margaret Freeman. 



LAFAYETTE SQUARE 191 

Adjoining on the west, N. E. cot. of 16th St., is the his- 
toric St. John's Church (sec Sixteenth Street Section, 
p. 195) ; and opposite, on the N. W. cor., is the residence of 
the late John Hay (p. 199), now occupied by his son-in-law, 
James W. Wadsworth, Jr., Senator from New York. 

No. 1605 H St., west of the Hay House, is the residence 
built about 1885 for Henry Adams, the historian, one of four 
brothers, grandsons of John Quincy Adams. It is now occupied 
by the Brazilian Embassy. 

Two famous old dwellings, the Stockton House and Cor- 
coran House, which formerly occupied the remainder of the 
block westward to Connecticut Ave., were demolished in the 
spring of 1922, to make way for a National Headquarters that 
is being erected by the Chamber of Commerce of the United 
Staites, a body comprising upward of 1200 separate business 
organizations. The designs for the new building have been 
prepared by Cass Gilbert, and the estimated cost is $-2,750,000. 

The Stockton House (No. 1607), a large cream-colored brick edi- 
fice, was the ninth dwelling built upon the Square, and was erected and 
first occupied by Commodore Richard Stockton. It was 1 later purchased 
by Thomasi Ritchie, President Polk's anti-Blair editor, described as 
"the most genteel old fogey that ever wore nankeen trousers and broad- 
brimmed straw hat." Its next tenant was Senator John Slidell from 
Louisiana, who later gained notoriety in the Mason-SHdell episode. 
It was next occupied by Gideon Welles, Secretary of the Navy 
throughout the Lincoln and Johnson administrations; by Daniel Lamont, 
Secretary of War* under Cleveland, and by Russell A. Alger, Secretary 
of War under Harrison. Its last oocupants were the American 
Association of University Women, now at 1634 I St. 

The Corcoran House which formerly adjoined the Stock- 
ton House on the west at the N. E. cor. of H St. and 
Connecticut Ave., was built by the father of one-time Gov- 
ernor Thomas Swann of Maryland. Its early tenants were: 
1. the Russian Minister, Krudener ; 2. Aaron Vale, Van 
Buren's Assistant Secretary of State; 3. Daniel Webster, 
Secretary of State under Harrison and Tyler (1841-43). 

The most important transaction during Webster's tenure of office 
was the Ashburton Treaty, which defined the much disputed north- 
western boundary between the United States and Canada. Lord Ash- 
burton was frequently entertained by Webster who, as part of his 
diplomacy, is said to have "planned a series of dinners that 1 would have 
astonished Lucullus — Maine salmon, Massachusetts cod, Connecticut 
shad, Maryland terrapin and Delaware! canvasbacks, served in a fashion 
that made the noble Peer's mouth water, and his cilaims on the shores 
of Lake Champlain to relax." 

Webster, finding himself, after his resignation, unable to keep up 
so large an establishment, sold it to William W. Corcoran, the millionaire 
banker and founder of the Corcoran Art Gallery (p. 171) and the 
Louise Home Cp. 228). After the outbreak of the Civil War Mr. 
Corcoran's unconcealed sympathies for the South incurred the dis- 
pleasure of the Government, and he found it wise to exile himself 
temporarily in Europe. The Federal authorities were on the point of 
confiscating his home, when they found themselves blocked by the fact 



192 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 



de 



that he had leased the property to the French Minister, the Marquis 
Montholon. After Mr. Corcoran's death, in 1888, the house was 
occupied successively by Senator Calvin S. Brice, Senator Chauncey 
Depew, and William Corcoran Eustis, who was Chairman of the 
Inaugural Committee at President Wilson's first Inauguration. 

No. 1617 H St., a large square red brick house at- the 
N. W. cor. of Connecticut Ave., was the residence of Rear 
Admiral William B. Shubrick, who served with distinction 
on board the Constitution, and was for many years, until 
1874, head of the Light House Board. 

No. 1 62 1 was the home of the late Judge George Bancroft 
Davis, former Secretary of State and Minister to Germany. 

No. 1623, a weather-beaten structure, of which the lower 
story has lately been remodeled into shops, was for many years, 
until his death, the home of George Bancroft, the historian. It 
was here that he completed his History of the United States. 

The *Decatur House, (PI. II — C4) the first private residence 
on Lafayette Square, stands at the S. W. cor. of H. St. and 
Jackson Place (formerly i6y 2 St.), facing the Von Steuben 
Monument. It was designed by Latrobe and built in 1819 for 
Commodore Stephen Decatur, the hero of the war with 
Tripoli. For a single season this house was a brilliant social 
centre, presided over by the Commodore's beautiful and 
accomplished wife, who had once been sought in marriage 
by Jerome Bonaparte. On March 22d, 1820, Decatur died 
here, from wounds received in an encounter with Captain 
(later Commodore) James Barron, on the famous Bladens- 
burg Duelling-ground (p, 414). 

The ill-feeling between the two officers dated back to 1808, when 
Decatur was a member of the court-martial which suspended Barron 
for five years from rank and pay, for his surrender of the Chesa- 
peake to the Leopard. The immediate cause of the duel, however, 
was Decatur's severe criticism of Barron for not returning from 
abroad to do his part in the war of 181 2. Decatur, mortally wounded, 
was carried from the field and died in a few hours. The funeral, 
three days later, was attended by the President and his Cabinet, 
the Supreme Court Judges and almost the whole Congress. 

The house was leased by the widow (1823) to the Rus- 
sia^ Minister, Baron de Tuyll. Later it was occupied suc- 
cessively by three Secretaries of State: Henry Clay (1825- 
29); Martin Van Buren (1829-31), resigning from Jack- 
son's Cabinet to become Minister to England; and Edward 
Livingston (1831-33), brother of Chancellor Livingston, who 
administered the oath of office to Washington. 

_ It was during Van Buren's occupancy that the second-story 
wmdow on the South side was cut through, in order that the Secre- 
tary could watch for signals from the White House. 

Later occupants include the British Minister, Sir Charles Vaughan; 
the French Minister, Baron Hyde de Neuville, whose vivacious wife was 



LAFAYETTE SQUARE 193 

remembered for the amusing error of her habitual greeting, "I am 
charming to see you"; John Gadsby, host of the National Hotel; Joseph 
Gales, who with Seat on owned the National Intelligencer ; Howell Cobb, 
Secretary of the Treasury (1857-8,0); the two brothers, John A. and 
James C. King of New York, father and uncle respectively of Mrs. 
Bancroft-Davis; and Judah P. Benjamin, Senator from Louisiana, and 
subsequently Secretary of Sitate under the Confederacy. During the 
Civil War this house was rented by the Government and used as 
offices. Subsequently it was acquired by General Edward 'Fitzgerald 
Beale, grandson of Commodore Truxton, under whom Decatur, firs,t 
owner of the house, once served as midshipman. Here General Grant, 
after his retirement from the Presidency, stayed many weeks as guest 
of General Beale. 

No. 22 Jackson Place, home of William L. Marcy while 
Secretary of War under Polk; later of Representative New- 
berry (Mich.) ; James G. Blaine, Sr., and Representative 
William L. Scott. It was occupied by President Roosevelt 
in 1902 during the remodeling of the White House, and 
hence was popularly known as the "Temporary White 
House." It is now the home of the Women's City Club (1600 
members). 

No. 20, former home of Charles C. Glover, a banker. No. 18, 
former home of William J. Murtagh who, in i860, founded the National 
Republican, which staunchly supported the candidacy of Lincoln; later 
home of General Frank Steele. No. 16 (on N. side of Alley), former 
home of Major-General J. G. Parke. 

No. 14, the Stockton-Sickles House, was the second 
dwelling erected on the Square. It was originally built prior to 
1820, by Dr. Ezvell, a Naval Surgeon, and was probably the 
birth place of the rebel General Ewell ; subsequently it was 
occupied by three Secretaries of the Navy: 1. Smith Thomp- 
son (until 1823) ; 2. Samuel L. Southard (1823-31) ; 3. 
Levi Woodbury (1831-34). Other tenants were: 1. Senator 
William C. Rives of Virginia, grandfather of Amelie Rives 
Chanler, the novelist ; 2. Dr. Harris of the Navy. It was 
purchased by Stockton, a Purser in the Navy, and on his 
death by Daniel E. Sickles. 

From the upper windows of this house Mr. Sickles' misguided 
young wife used to exchange signals' with her lover, Philip Barton 
Key, at his club-house across the Park (p. 187). The gossip in this 
club presently reached the husband's ears; the wife's confession and 
the murder of Key promptly followed. 

Subsequently Vice-President Schuyler Colfax resided here for many 
years, from the time he was chosen Speaker of the House! in 1863. 

No. 12, former home of Mrs. James Blair, daughter of 
General Jessup. No. 10, former home of Senator Arthur P. 
Gorman. No. 8, residence of Admiral Alden; then for many 
years the home of Major Henry R. Rathbone and his young 
wife (daughter of Senator Ira Harris), both of whom were 
in the box with the Presidential party on the night of Lin- 
coln's assassination. It was Rathbone who grappled with 



194 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

Booth, and received a thrust from the latter's dagger. Other 
tenants have been General N. L. Anderson and Senator 
Dolph. 

No. 6, residence of: i. Mrs. Green, daughter of 
Admiral Dahlgren ; 2. Col. William H. Philip. No. 4, for- 
mer residence of John McLean, editor of the Cincinnati 
Enquirer. No. 2, former residence of Peter Parker, one- 
time Minister to China. From 1906 until 1910 it was the 
temporary home of the Bureau of American Republics. 

Directly W. of the above mentioned house, on Pennsyl- 
vania Ave., are two fine old mansions: the first, No. 165 1, 
a four-story, yellow sandstone building, is the Blair House, 
built in 1810 by Surgeon-General Joseph Lovell. From its 
windows were witnessed the burning of the White House 
by the British, and the flight of Dolly Madison. After Dr. 
Lovell's death the house was bought by Francis P. Blair, 
editor of the Globe, the official organ of the Jackson admin- 
istration, and became a favorite rendezvous of Senator Ben- 
ton, Van Buren, Levi Woodbury, Silas Wright, etc. 

The Blair House was leased to George Bancroft, white 
Acting Secretary of War, and it was while living here that 
Bancroft gave orders for General Zachary Taylor to cross 
the Rio Grande and invade Mexico. Subsequent tenants 
were: John Y. Mason of Virginia, Secretary of the Navy 
under Tyler; and next Senator Thomas Ewing of Ohio. 

Senator Ewing had, in 1829, adopted William T. Sherman, and 
secured him a cadetship at West Point. The Blair House, during 
Ewing's tenacy, was the scene (1850) of the marriage of Sherman and 
Miss Ellen Ewing. The ceremony was attended by President Fillmore 
and his Cabinet, Clay, Webster and other notables. Blair's son, 
Montgomery Blair, Postmaster General under Lincoln, inherited the 
house and occupied it many years. 

The second historic house is No. 1653, the Lee Mansion, a 
three-story brick dwelling with mansard roof, residence of 
the late Rear Admiral Lee. Before the Civil War, General 
Robert E. Lee was a frequent visitor at both the Blair and 
Lee houses, and it is said that in one of them he received 
the offer of the command of the United States Army. 
Andrew Johnson resided here while Vice-President. The 
building is at present a Department of State Annex, occupied 
by the Office of the Foreign Trade Advisers. 

Beyond the Lee Mansion, at the N. E. cor. of Pennsyl- 
vania Ave. and 17th St., stands the original Corcoran Art 
Gallery, a red brick structure on the French Renaissance 
order, with brownstone trim (James Remvick, arch.). The 
eleven exterior niches encircling the building at the second 
story level, were formerly occupied by statues of sculptors 






SIXTEENTH ST. TO PINEY BRANCH BRIDGE 195 

and artists executed by M. Esekiel. The building was com- 
pleted in 1859, but not opened to the public as an Art Gallery 
until 1873, having been taken over during the Civil War for 
the Quartermaster General's Department. Note the initials 
"W. W. C." three times repeated, on the main facade and in 
the pediment a medallion portrait in bronze of William W. 
Corcoran. The building is now occupied ;by the 

Court of Claims of the United States. This Court was 
established by Act of Congress Feb. 24, 1855, and has genera' 
jurisdiction of all claims founded upon the Constitution of 
the United States or any law of Congress (except for pen- 
sions), or upon any contract expressed or implied with the 
United* States Government, or for damages where the plaintiff 
would be entitled to redress in a Court o>f law if the United 
States were suable. By recent enactments the Court of Claims 
has jurisdiction over certain specified claims arising from the 
late World War, and it is estimated that such claims will 
ultimately approximate $2,500,000,000. Famous claims adjudi- 
cated in this Court include such important litigation as that of 
the French Spoilations Claims and the claims arising out of the 
Civil War and the War with Spain. 

Open to the public from 9 A. M. to 4 P. M. The Court 
room contains many portraits of famous American jurists. 
The benches still used are the same that were formerly in the 
original Hall of Representatives, and were once occupied by 
such statesmen as Daniel Webster, Henry Clay, John Randolph 
and John C. Calhoun. 

IV. Sixteenth Street to Piney Branch Bridge 

^Sixteenth Street, formerly called "The Avenue of the 
Presidents," runs northward from Lafayette Square and in- 
cluding its recent extension over Meridian Hill continues in 
a straight line to the District boundary about 6*4 miles. It is 
still one of the principal residential streets and contains many 
foreign legations, leading churches and other semi-public 
buildings. 

At the N. E. cor. of H and 16th Sts. stands the quaint, 
stucco-walled structure of *St. John's Protestant Episcopal 
Church (PI. II — C4), the second oldest church of that denom- 
ination within the former city limits of Washington. It dates 
from 1818, and has many historical associations, its attendants 
including not only the early Presidents, but a long line of cabinet 
ministers, members of Congress, army and navy officers and 
foreign diplomats. A special pew (one of the original large 
box pews, removed in 1842) was set apart "for the use of 
the family of the President for the time be:ng, and not 



196 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

"chargeable with any rent." The Presidents who, during their 
term of office, worshipped here more or less regularly were: 
Madison, Monroe, John Quincy Adams (usually the afternoon 
service, attending in the morning the Unitarian Church, which 
he had helped to found), Jackson, Van Buren, Harrison, 
Tyler, Taylor and Fillmore. After this no other President 
became connected with St. John's until President Arthur, who 
presented the church with a memorial window to his wife, 
whom he had lost the previous year (see below). Among 
other distinguished attendants may be mentioned : Vice-Presi- 
dents Calhoun, Dallas and Morton; Chief-Justices Chase and 
Fuller; Secretaries of State Lewis Cass, William H. Seward, 
and Hamilton Fish, and several foreign ministers, including Lord 
Ashburton, Sir Henry Lytton-Bulwer, and Lord Pauncefote. 

History: The cornerstone of St. John's was laid Sept. 
14, 1815, by the Grand Lodge of Masons of the District. The 
edifice, designed by Benjamin H. Latrobe, one of the archi- 
tects of the Capitol (ip. 52), was completed early in 1816, the 
trustees were appointed on April 14 of that year, and the first 
vestrymen chosen on July 16, nearly all of them prominent 
figures in the local history of the city. They included : 
Thomas H. Gilliss, John Tayloe, James Thompson, John 
Graham, Roger C. Weightman, Peter Hagner, John H. Van 
Ness, and James Blake. 

The church, as first erected, was a simple Greek cross; at 
the intersection of the nave and transepts stood massive 
pillars, from which sprang the cupola and lantern, while a 
graceful circular gallery subtended the north, west and south 
transepts. Four years later, the need of more space compelled 
an enlargement to Latin Cross, and the west transept ex- 
tended almost to the building line on 16th St. Further altera- 
tions were made in 1842; and in the early eighties extensive 
improvements were undertaken, according to designs by 
James Renwick, including the enlargement of the chapel, the 
addition of a chantry and the instalment of 27 stained-glass 
windows. The seating capacity was increased to 780. In 1919 
the church underwent a careful restoration through the gener- 
osity of the late Mrs. John Barton Payne (1857-1919), as a 
memorial to her parents (see tablet at W. end, S. of entrance 
door). 

The above-mentioned series of *Memorial Window's con- 
stitute the church's chief ornamental feature, and were made 
at Chartres,, France, at the famous studios of Mme. Lor'm, 
Veuve. The subjects of these windows are as follows, be- 
ginning at the S. W. cor. of the nave: 



SIXTEENTH ST. TO PINEY BRANCH BRIDGE 197 

Lower Series (S. wall of Nave) : 1. Leonard Gift Win- 
dow ; Upper Medallion : The Entry into Jerusalem, St. John 
xii, 12-15; Lower Medallion: Christ Walking on the Sea, Si. 
John, vi, 16-21 ; 2. Randall Memorial Window ; Upper Me- 
dallion : The Baptism of Christ, St. Matthew iii, 13-17; 
Lower Medallion : Christ with Mary and Martha, St. Luke x, 
38-42; (S. Transept): 3. Carroll Memorial Window; Upper 
Meda'llion: The Ascension, St. Luke xxiv, 50-51; Lower Me- 
dallion. The Adoration of the Shepherds, St. Luke ii, 15-20; 
4. Memorial to Ellen Lewis Herndon Arthur (1837-80), Wife 
of Chester A. Arthur (gift of the President) ; Upper Me- 
dallion : The Women at the Tomb, St. Mark xvi, 1-6; Lower 
Medallion : The Angels of the Resurrection, St. John xv, 
11-12; (Chantry): 5. Memorial to Rear-Admiral Joseph 
Smith, U. S. N. (1790-1877) ; Upper Medallion: St. Peter 
Attempting to Walk on the Water, St. Matthew xiv, 25-32; 
Lower Medallion : The Multitude before the Throne, Revela- 
tions vii, 9, 10; 6. Memorial to Charles Henry Crane, U. S. A. 
(1825-83) ; Upper Medallion: The Good Samaritan, St. Luke, 
x» 30-36; Lower Medallion: The Harpists, Revelations xiv, 
1-2; 7. Memorial to Col. John J. Abert, U. S. A. (1788-1863) ; 
Upper Medallion: The Feast of the Passover, Jesus and His 
Disciples, St. Luke xxii, 7-14; Lower Medallion: The Annun- 
ciation to the Shepherds, St. Luke xi, 8-14; (Above Altar) : 
8. Three-paneled Window, the central panel being the Steele 
Memorial ; The Last Supper ; R. and L. panels are, respec- 
tively, the Lockwood and Wilkes Memorials (Rear-Admiral 
Wilkes, U. S. N.), consisting of ornamental glass with half 
figures of angels; (N. Transept): 9. The Blair Memorial: 
St. John's Window, the Titular window of the church ; Upper 
Medallion : The Galling of St. John, St. Matthew iv, 21-22 ; 
Lower Medallion : St. John's Mission, St. John xxi, 20-23 ; 
10.' Memorial to Col. Joseph C. Audenried, U. S. A. (1837- 
80) ; Upper Medallion : The Marriage of Cana, St. John ii, 
1-11; Lower Medallion: The Good Centurian, St. Matthew 
viii, 5-13; (Nave, N. side): 11. Memorial to Peter Hagner 
(1772-1850), one of the founders of the church; Upper Me- 
dallion : St. John with his Emblems ; Lower Medallion : The 
Angels before the Throne, Revelations v, 11-12; 12. King 
Gift Window ; Upper Medallion : St. John at Island of Pat- 
mos, Revelations v, 6; Lower Medallion: The Crucifixion, 
St. John xix, 25-27. 

Gallery Series: (Nave, S. side): 13. Memorial to Lieut.- 
Gen. Winfield Scott (gift of Hamilton Fish) ; Upper Medallion : 
Pool of Bethesda, St. John v, 2-9 ; Lower Medallion : The 
young Christ among the Doctors, St. Luke, ii, 41-51 ; 14. 



i 9 8 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

Memorial to Maj.-Gen. Buchanan, U. S. A.; Ornamental 
glass with figure of Angel; (S. Transept); 15. Memorial 
to Col. William Turnbull, U. S. A., and his wife ; Ornamental 
glass with figure of Angel; 16. Gift of John Chandler Ban- 
croft Davis; The Healing of the Lame Man at the Beautiful 
Garden of the Temple, Acts iii, 1-9; 17. Churr Gift Window; 
Copy of Raphael's "Madonna della Sedia," in the Pitti Palace, 
Florence: (Apse, S. side); 18. Memorial to Brig.-Gen. Amos 
B. Eaton (1806-77); Lunette: The Transfiguration, St. Mark 
ix, 2-8 ; 19. King Gift ' Window ; Lunette : The Garden of 
Gethsemane, St. Mark xiv, 32-42; (N. wall) ; 20. Memorial to 
Lieut-Gen. Ramsey, U. S. A.; Ornamental glass: (N. Tran- 
sept) ; 21. Memorial to Harrison, Tyler and Taylor (Gift of 
the Vestry) ; Flight into Egypt, St. Matthew ii, 13-15 ; 22. 
Memorial to "The Rt. Rev. William Pinckney, D.D. (1810-83), \ 
Bishop of this Diocese (Maryland), 1879-83)"; Christ in the 
Palace of the High Priest; St. John xviii, 15-18; 23. Mem- 
orial to Madison, Monroe and Van Buren (Gift of 
Vestry) ; The Adoration of the Magi, St. Maithew 
ii, 1, 2 and 11; (Nave, N. wall); 24. Markoe Memorial; 
Copy of Raphael's "Belle Jardiniere'' (Holy Family), in the 
Louvre, Paris; 25. Memorial to William Henry Seward; 
Upper Medallion: The Sower, St. Matthew xiii, 3-9; Lower 
Medallion : The Presentation of the Infant Christ in the 
Temple, St. Luke ii, 22-39. 

Mr. Bancroft Davis, a member of the Committee on Windows, 
when visiting the Lorin works, ordered a complete set of reduced 
copies of the windows, hand-painted in water-color; the descriptive text 
was set up in London, and two copies only were printed, one of which 
was bound with the paintings. This unique volume, the sole existing 
copy, may now be seen in the Print Department of the Congressional 
Library. 

The church contains two marble memorial tablets: 1. 
(on E. wall of N. transept) to Rev. William Hawley (1715- 
1845), "Rector of this church for 28 years." His body is 
interred beneath the chancel; 2. Rev. Smith Pyne, D. D. 
(1803-75), Rector, 1845-64. 

Notable Events: St. John's has been the scene of several weddings 
of international interest, including the wedding of Mary Leiter to 
Lord Curzon (then the Hon. George Curzon, secretary of the British 
Legation) ; of the Hon. Lilian Pauncef ote to her cousin, the Hon. 
Robert Bromley; and of Mary Endicott, daughter of William C. Endi- 
cott, Secretary of War under Cleveland, to Joseph Chamberlain, later 
Premier of England. Here also took place the funerals of Dolly Madi- 
son, of ex-Secretary John Sherman, and of Lord Herschel, ex-Lord 
Chancellor of England. 

One of the most highly prized possessions of St. John's is a . 

$10,000 Communion chalice, of solid gold encrusted with jewels, 
made from the rings, brooches and other jewelry given by Judge 
Bancroft Davis to his wife during his life, and afterwards willed by 
the late Mrs. Davis to the church for this purpose. 



SIXTEENTH ST. TO PINEY BRANCH BRIDGE 199 

The chalice is ten inches high, and studded with sixty-one dia- 
monds, six rubies and a .sapphire. On the facie of the cup is a diamond 
cross, the central stone of which is from Mrs. Davis's engagement 
ring. This chalice is used only on especially solemn occasions, such 
as Easter Sunday. 

Opposite, on the N. W. cor. of H and 16th Sts., is the 
former residence (erected in 1885) of the late John Hay. 
Secretary of State under McKinley and Roosevelt, and 
author of Little Breeches, The Bread Winners, and (in 
collaboration with Mr. Nicolay) an authoritative Life of 
Lincoln. At S. E. cor. of I St. stands the Hotel Lafayette 
(p. 5). The house diagonally opposite, at N. W. cor. of I St., 
was once the residence of Associate Justice Horace Gray. 

On this corner in 1846 lived Commodore Morris, one of the heroes 
of the war with Tripoli, and Commander of the Brandywine, which in 
1825 bore Lafayette back to France. Here William W. Corcoran 
courted the Commodore's daughter, Louise, who, because her father 
objected to a son-in-law "outside the service," consented to an elope- 
ment. The Commodore, discovering her in the act of climbing through 
the side window, very sensibly conducted the young couple into the 
house, sent for a minister and held a midnight wedding. 

No. 903 was formerly (1890) occupied by the Italian 
Legation. No. 916 is the Hotel Gordon (p. 5). No. 930, 
at S. W. cor. of K St., is the former home of Major George 
M. Wheeler, U. S. A., who conducted the surveys west of 
the 100th meridian. Opposite, at S. E. cor. of K St., is the 
home of the widow of General Anderson, hero of Fort 
Sumpter ; it is a conspicuous structure of red brick, on the 
Renaissance order, designed by Richardson. Boston. No. 
1001, on N. E. cor., is the residence of ex-Senator Eugene 
Hale of Maine. No. 1006 was formerly (1906) the Cuban 
Legation. No. 1013 formerly the Brazilian Embassy and later 
the Chilean Embassy is now the residence of Senator Joseph 
S. Frelinghuysen. No. 1017 was until 1916 the Venezuelan 
Legation. 

On the N. E. cor. of L St. is the former home of Senator 
Redfield Proctor of Vermont. No. 1103 was formerly (1894) 
the Portuguese Legation. No. 1125, built by the widow of 
George <M. Pullman, is now (1922) the Russian Embassy. 
No. 1 155, former home of Senator Elihu Root of New York. 

*The National Geographic Society (PI. Ill— D3— 

No. 82) occupies the greater part of the western block between 
L and M Sts. It includes two buildings: 1 (at the S. W. cor. 
of M St.) The Hubbard Memorial Hall, erected in 1902 by the 
heirs of the late Gardiner Greene Hubbard, first President of 
the Society. This building, which the society soon outgrew, 
is now occupied by the Board Rooms and Library ; 2. The new 
Administration Building, immediately adjoining on the S., a 



200 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

white brick structure with limestone trim, on the Italian 
Renaissance order, erected in 1913 at a cost of $125,000 (Arthur 
B. Heaton, architect). 

History. The National Geographic Society was founded in Wash- 
ington, January, 1888, by a small group of explorers and students, 
with the declared purpose "to promote the increase and diffusion of 
geographic knowledge." For the first ten years the membership was 
limited to technical geographers. The organization, however, was 
ambitious to extend its activities in two directions: 1. by arousing 
a widespread interest in geography, both in schools and among the 
general public; 2. by equipping and sending out from time to time 
scientific exploring parties. Lack of funds held these aims in abey- 
ance until in 1899 the suggestion was made and promptly acted on, 
to establish a National Geographic Magazine, to be devoted mainly_ to 
pictures and articles acquired through the society's exploring parties. 
At the same time, conditions of membership in the society were 
radically modified, making eligible practically all persons interested, 
on the sole condition that the candidate shall be nominated by at 
least one member. The remarkable success of the new venture 
has resulted in a membership of over 350,000, and an income of 
$850,000; the magazine has over two million readers; while after 
all the expenses of its costly production are paid, there is still an 
annual surplus of between $50,000 and $60,000 available for exploration 
purposes. 

No. 1201 16th St. is the new home of the National Edu- 
cational Association, a. society dating from 1857, which in its 
early days accomplished the establishment of the Bureau of 
Education in the Interior Department, and is now furthering 
the project of a Federal Department of Education. 

No. 1232 16th St. was the home of the late Eliphalet 
Frazer Andrews, founder of the Corcoran School of Art 
(p. 184) of which he was director 1877-1902. He painted 
several of fjhe portraits in the White House, including those of : 
Martha Washington, Dolly Madison, Jefferson and Garfield. 

Scott Circle, situated at the intersection of Massachu- 
setts and Rhode Island Aves., 16th and N Sts., occupies an 
area of _ about one acre. In the center, facing S., stands the 
Equestrian Statue of Lieut-Gen. Winfield Scott, in bronze, 
heroic size, modeled by H. K. Brown, and cast in Philadel- 
phia from cannon taken in the Mexican campaign. This 
monument was erected in 1874 at a cost of $20,000 for the 
statue, and $25,000 for the pedestal, which consists of five 
huge granite blocks from Cape Ann. 

On the E. side of Scott Circle stands the semi-circular 
^Memorial to Christian S. F. Hahnemann, founder of homeo- 
pathy. It consists of a spacious and lofty exedra, with a 
central niche and canopy containing on a pedestal a 'seated 
bronze statue of Hahnemann. On the base is inscribed the 
Latin maxim embodying the fundamental principle of homeo- 
pathy: Similia similibus curentur ("Likes are cured by likes"). 
To R. and L. are four bronze bas-reliefs depicting Hahnemann 



.SIXTEENTH ST. TO PINEY BRANCH BRIDGE 201 

as: a. The Student; b. The Chemist; c. The Teacher; d. The 
Practicing Physician. The bas-reliefs and statue are by 
C. H. Niehaus. The monument is the gift of The American 
Institute of Homeopathy (1900). 

Opposite, on the W. side of Scott Circle, is a monu- 
ment to Daniel Webster (1782-1852). It consists of a full- 
length figure in bronze, heroic size, surmounting a pedestal 
bearing on E. and W. facades two bronze tablets in high re- 
lief, depicting Webster: 1. Addressing the Senate; and 
inscribed, "Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and in- 
separable" ; 2. Addressing an out-door gathering of his con- 
stituents, and inscribed, "Our country, our whole country, 
and nothing but our country." The bronzes were designed 
by G. Trentanove, and cast by Fratelli Galli, Florence, Italy. 
The monument was the gift (1900) of Stilson Hutchens 
who, like Webster, was a native of New Hampshire. 

At N. E. dor. of 16th Sit. and Rhode Island Ave., No. 1301, 
is a red brick (building reputed to be one of the largest private 
dwellings in Washington. It has had many distinguished oc- 
cupants, including the Chinese Legation, George von L. Meyer, 
Secretary of the Navy under Roosevelt, Hamilton Fish, and 
Francis Burton Harrison, former Governor of the Philippines. 
No. 1325, former residence of Rev. Alexander Mackay-Smith, 
one-time rector of St. John's. No. 1327 is the Colombian 
Legation. No. 1333, S. E. cor. of O :St., residence of Elihu 
Root, while Secretary of State. 

The First Baptist Church occupies the opposite, or S. W. 
cor. of O St. It is a red brick structure on the Italian 
Renaissance order, with an imposing square campanile 140 ft. 
high (erected 1890; W. Bruce Gray, architect). 

The First Baptist Church was organized March 7th, 1802, with 
six members. The first church edifice was erected at the S. W. cot 
of I and 19th Sts. In 1833 the congregation moved to a new building 
on the E. side of 10th St., between E and F Sts., the site of tha 
historic Ford's Theatre (p. 145). 

No. 1401, N. E. cor. of O St., was occupied by Vice- 
President James S. Sherman ; also for a time by Russell A. 
Alger when Secretary of War under McKinley. No. 1412, 
residence of John McElroy, editor and author; served in 
the Civil War; his Andersonville, published 1879, reached 
a sale of 600,000 copies. 

The Administration Building of the Carnegie Institution 
of Washington (PI. II — Di) occupies the S. E. cor. of 16th 
and P Sts. The design of the building is an adaptation of 
the Corinthian order, with an imposing portico consisting of 
a double row of Corinthian columns. The material is Indiana 
limestone (erected 1908). 



202 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

The Carnegie Institution of Washington was founded January 28, 
1902, by Andrew Carnegie with an endowment of ten millions in 5% 
registered bonds, to which ,ithe donor added two mare millions in 1907. 
The purpose of the Institution, as set forth in the Articles of Incorpora- 
tion is: "To encourage, in the broadest and most liberal manner, 
investigation, research and discovery, and the application of knowledge 
to the improvement of mankind." 

The exceptionally broad provisions of these Articles have made 
it possible for the Institution, not only to establish a series of 
permanent departments for investigation along lines that have suc- 
cessively commended themselves, but also to conduct from time to 
time special temporary investigations, and to enroll into the service 
of the Institution a corps of specialists whose work gives promise 
of exceptional value. Ten permanent departments have already been 
organized, and cover the following fields: 1. Botanical Research 
(Tucson, Arizona) ; 2. Economics and Sociology (Worcester, Mass.) ; 
3. Experimental Evolution (Cold Spring Harbor, L. I.) J 4- Geophysical 
Laboratory (Washington D. C, 441); 5. Historical Research (Wash- 
ington, D. C); 6. Marine Laboratory (Dry Tortugas, Fla.); 7. Meridian 
Astronomy (Albany, N. Y. ; 8. Solar Observatory (Pasadena, Cal.); 
9. Terrestrial Magnetism (Washington, D. C.) ; 10. Nutrition 
Laboratory (Boston, Mass.). 

Opposite, at S. W. cor. of P St, are the offices of the 
Alien \Property Custodian. 

No. 1500, N. W. cor. of P St., yellow brick building, 
former home of Senator Joseph B. Foraker of Ohio. No. 
1513, is the Persian Legation. No. 1528, former residence of 
Senator William A. Glark of Montana. 

The Foundry M. E. Church, at the S. W. cor. of Church 
St., is a gray limestone structure in perpendicular Gothic, 
erected in 1903-04 (Appleton P. Clark, of Washington, archi- 
tect). The laying of the corner-stone and attendant services, 
originally planned for an earlier date, were postponed until 
Saturday and Sunday, June 27-28, 1903 (June 28th being 
Wesley's birthday). The church contains three large stained- 
glass windows, by /. & R. Lamb, N. Y. 1. On South, The 
Holy Family; 2. On North, The Angel and Women at the 
Empty Tomb ; 3. On East, over entrance, The Arisen Christ. 

History. The Foundry Church has a unique origin. Henry Foxhall 
(175 8- 1 823), an Englishman, who, for a time had been a partner in 
the Eagle Iron-works (Phila.) of Robert Morris (signer of the 
Declaration of Independence), removed in the early years of the 19th 
century to Georgetown, and there established the only foundry south 
of Philadelphia. At the outbreak of the War of 18 12 he obtained the 
government contract for guns and ammunition, and furnished an 
important part of the cannon used during the war. 

When the news came that the English were marching upon Wash- 
ington, Foxhall naturally feared that because of his nationality his 
foundries would be the special mark of British vengence. Being an 
attendant at the Georgetown M. E. Church (to which all Methodists 
in Washington had to come, having no church of their own), Foxhall 
made a vow that if the British spared his foundry he would erect a 
church of his faith in Washington. As the British approached, burning 
and pillaging, a violent storm broke, accompanied by a cyclonic wind, 
and the British host hurried on to the Capitol, leaving the foundry 
unscathed. 



SIXTEENTH ST. TO PINEY BRANCH BRIDGE 203 

In accordance with his vow Foxhall, that same year, gave a plot 
of land situated on the N. E. cor. of 15th and G Sts., and erected upon 
it a substantial brick edifice, the Foundry Church, professedly named 
for the historic foundry in England where John Wesley held services 
but presumably with Foxhall's own foundry in mind. The church 
was twice rebuilt and enlarged, first in 1848, and again in 1864. The 
latter was demolished in 1902 to give place to the Colorado Building. 
So great had been the rise in value of this site that the purchase price 
more than paid for the present grounds and edifice. Consequently, the 
congregation can still feel that their new church remains the gift of 
Henry Foxhall. 

No. 1633 1 6th St. is occupied by the Ecuador Legation. 

The *Church of the New Jerusalem, at the S. E. cor. of 16th 
and Corcorcan Sts., is a graceful structure of Bedford lime- 
stone, designed on the English perpendicular order, slightly 
modified by French -Gothic influence as seen, for instance, in 
the gargoyles. Among architects it is known as the "Church 
of the Magdalen Tower," because of its resemblance to the 
famous tower over the main entrance to the Magdalen Col- 
lege, in Oxford, England. Note the rose wreath carved in 
the moulding of the Bride's Door, on the Corcorcan St. side. 
Adjoining the church, on the S., is the Sunday School and 
Parish House Building, the fagade of which, being of dressed 
stone, is thrown into prominence by contrast with the rough 
finish of the main edifice. Architect, Prof. H. Langford 
Warren, head of the department of architecture, Harvard 
University; constructing overseer, Paul J. Pels. 

History. It is interesting to remember that the New Church in 
America traces its organization back to Maryland and Virginia. The 
first congregation was formed in Baltimore in 1792, while many prom- 
inent Virginians, including Col. Robert Carter, Dr. John J. Cabell and 
Lord Thomas Fairfax, were instrumental in disseminating the doc- 
trines. George Washington's library included a number of Sweden- 
borg's works. 

The Washington Society of the New Jerusalem, however, was not 
founded until 1846. It has had six pastors including the present in- 
cumbent, the Rev. Paul Sperry. The earlier church edifice, situated 
on Capitol Hill, was destroyed by fire in 1889. The present National 
New Church was begun soon after the installation of the fifth pastor, 
Rev. Frank Sewell, and was dedicated May 3d, 1896. 

The church contains some interesting windows, designed 
to carry out symbolically the whole history of man's fall and 
redemption, from Genesis to the Apocalypse. The series 
begins with the window at the W. end of the nave, above the 
entrance, portraying the Creation; the Works of the Six Days 
being symbolized by globes carried by six angels. Beneath is 
the Angel with the Flaming Sword who has expelled Adam 
and Eve, and is guarding the gate of Paradise. In the upper 
panel is the Lord, represented as a Youth, the Eternal Logos 
or Word, "by whom all things were made that are made." 
From studios of /. & R. Lamb, New York. 



204 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

The nave contains six windows of which the northern 
three will eventually be devoted to Old Testament prophets, 
and the southern three to Old Testament kings. The only 
one yet installed is the David window, made by MacDonald 
of Boston, representing David as a youth playing the harp 
before Saul. 

In the N. transept is the Gospel window, consisting of 
three panels representing (W. to E.) : I. Christ the Good 
Shepherd; 2. Christ the Comforter; 3. Christ the Teacher 
of Little Children. Above and below are some sixteen small 
panels containing scenes depicting the life of Christ, and 
including: the Adoration of the Magi; the Flight into Egypt; 
the boy Christ in the Temple; the Miracle of Loaves and 
Fishes; and the Last Supper, designed b'y Ford & Brooks, 
Boston. 

The S. transept window, to be installed in the autumn of 
1917, will depict the Resurrection and Ascension. In the 
chancel are seven narrow windows, which have been placed 
as memorials of ministers prominent in the history of the 
New Church in America (L. to R.) : the Rev. Messrs. Hay- 
den, Hibbard, Silver, Giles, Fox, De Charmes and John 
Worcester. These windows are emblematic of the seven 
promises of the Spirit to the Angels of the Seven Churches 
(Revelations i, 2-3) ; 1. Ephesus; 2. Smyrna; 3. Pergamos; 4. 
Thyatira ; 5. Sardis ; 6. Philadelphia ; 7. Laodicea. From studio 
)of Ford & Brooks, Boston. 

Around the frieze of the church, bordered with an an- 
cient Gothic decoration, runs the legend (Revelations xxi, 2.) 
"And I, John, saw the Holy City, New Jerusalem, coming down 
from God, out of Heaven, prepared as a bride adorned for 
her husband." 

The Western and Chancel Windows were made from 
designs by Mrs. John H. James, daughter of the late pastor, 
Rev. Frank Sewell. 

No. 1720 1 6th St. was formerly the residence of Associate 
Justice Henry B. Brown. 

The ^Scottish Rite Temple (PI. Ill— D3— No. 76) 
occupying upper half of block on E. side of 16th St., between 
R and S Sts., was erected in 1916, at a cost of approximately 
$2,odo,ooo, by the thirty-third degree Masons, the highest order 
of the great masonic body. This beautiful structure, said to 
be reminiscent of the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus, one of the 
seven Wonders of the Ancient World, was designed by John 
Russell Pope. At a competitive exhibition held in New York 
in February, 1917, by the Architectural League of America, 



SIXTEENTH ST. TO PIN'EY BRANCH BRIDGE 205 

this Temple was decreed to be the finest building erected during 
the previous year, and a gold medal of honor was awarded 
the architect. 

The primary purpose of its erection was to afford a 
meeting place for the National Conventions of the order, 
which occur only once in two years. The building, however, 
is open to the public on week days. A page will be as- 
signed to show visitors through the Temple proper, the 
banquet hall, library and committee rooms. 

The Temple stands on an eminence several feet above 
the street level, and is approached by four successive flights 
of steps, respectively three, five, seven and nine in num- 
ber, — which, like almost all the measurements, decorations 
and inscriptions throughout the building, have symbolic signifi- 
cance. 

The edifice itself consists of an almost perfect square, 
having a frontage of 217^ ft., and a depth of 212 ft. Sur- 
mounting the basement story is a square Greek Temple, sur- 
rounded by a colonnade of Ionic columns thirty-three ft. 
in height, ten of which form the western or main fagade. 
By adding the additional nine on the N. and S. sides, and 
the five (three of them engaged columns) on the rear, we 
have again the mystic number thirty-three. Above the en- 
talblature and cornice, which encircle the colonnade, the Temple 
terminates in a pyramidal roof. On massive plinths, to R. 
and L. of main approach, are two sphinxes (by A. A. We'xn- 
mann) symbolic of Divine Wisdom and Power. The one 
is depicted with open eyes, and the other with eyes closed. 
On the plinths are inscriptions in Egyptian hieroglyphics 
and Phoenician characters. Before the main door, let into 
the pavement, in copper bronze, are two flaming swords, and 
between them the following inscription : 

"THE TEMPLE OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF 
THE THIRTY-THIRD DEGREE AND LAST DEGREE 
OF THE ANCIENT AND ACCEPTED SCOTTISH RITE 
OF FREE-MASONRY FOR THE SOUTHERN JURIS- 
DICTION OF THE UNITED STATES. ERECTED TO 
GOD AND DEDICATED TO THE SERVICE OF 
HUMANITY. SALVE FRATER." 

Carved on the frieze, over the entrance, is the inscrip- 
tion: "Freemasonry builds its Temples in the Hearts of 
Men and among Nations." A plaque on the Great Door 
bears an oblong square containing a triangle, in the center 
of which is inscribed the number 33. 



206 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

The Great Door admits the visitor into the Atrium, or 
entrance hall, occupying the central portion of the main story. 
It is 64 ft. square by 25 ft. high. On the N. and S. sides 
are a series of four fluted columns of polished dark green 
granite. The door on L. opens into the apartments of the 
Sovereign Grand Commander. The door on the R. leads into 
the apartments of the Secretary General. Both of these 
apartments are finished in Russian walnut. 

At the rear of the Atrium a double flight of stairs curves 
upward in the eastern elliptical extension, to the Great 
Chamber in the upper story. This chamber forms a perfect 
cube of 75 ft., measuring to the top of the perpendicular 
sides. It is surmounted by a dome which rises 100 ft. from 
the floor below. The chamber is lighted by three great 
arched windows on the N., W. and S. sides, each divided by 
two columns of green granite, the lower portion of each 
being screened by a tracery of intertwined bronze serpents. 

Extending around the Temple hall is a frieze of black 
marble, bearing the inscription : 

"FROM THE OUTER DARKNESS OF IGNORANCE 
THROUGH THE SHADOW OF OUR EARTHLY LIFE 
WINDS THE BEAUTIFUL PATH OF INITIATION 
UNTO THE DIVINE LIGHT OF THE HOLY ALTAR." 

In the center of the Temple stands the Great Altar, a 
solid block of black marble, veined with white, with four 
horns at the respective corners. Let into the pavement around 
the altar is the inscription : 

"FROM THE LIGHT OF THE DIVINE WORD, 
THE LOGOS, COMES THE WISDOM OF LIFE, THE 
GOAL OF INITIATION." 

Concealed in the dome is a great organ, which can be 
played from the floor of the Main Temple. 

From here we descend to the Library of the Supreme 
Council, 2>2>d. Degree, in the S. W. cor. of main floor, with 
stacks in the eastern ellipses under the stairs. This library, 
now containing over 100,000 volumes and pamphlets, dates 
from a resolution passed by the Supreme Council in 1878, 
appropriating money for the purchase of books. General 
Albert Pike, who was the Grand Commander, 1859-91, gave 
his own collection of over 5,000 volumes ; and thanks to this 
and many other subsequent donations, the library is today 
said to be the richest and most complete collection of the 
literature of Freemasonry contained in any Masonic or other 
librarv in the world. 



SIXTEENTH ST. TO PINEY BRANCH BRIDGE 207 

In the stack-room, ranged along the curve of the inner 
wall, are table cases containing the Albert Pike Memorial 
Collection, including the General's various insignia and 
trophies, manuscripts, gifts, and personal relics of widely 
varied nature. Note especially the last lines written by 
him just before his death, and the pencil with which he wrote 
them. 

A marble staircase at the rear of the entrance hall leads 
to a great Banquet Hall in the basement story, filling the 
entire space beneath the Atrium. On the walls are por- 
traits of former Grand Commanders. On N. and S. art 
spacious committee rooms which, like the banquet hall, are 
richly finished in carved woodwork. 

The present Grand Commander is Charles E. Rosenbaum. 

No. 1813 16th St., residence of Francis E. Leupp, author, 
and journalist (has published The Man Roosevelt, Biography 
of William H. Taft, The Indian and his Problem, etc.).^ 
No. 1821, former residence of General Rufus Saxton, U. S. A. 
No. 1923, residence of Associate Justice Willis Van Deventer 
(formerly occupied by Justice David J. Brewer). 

Sixteenth St. is intersected at U St. by New Hampshire 
Ave. At N. E. cor. of these streets, No. 2001 New Hampshire 
Ave., is the Congressional Club, the leading women's club of 
Washington, organized in May, 1908, and incorporated by 
special act of Congress. It forms the center of social activity 
for the congressional women, those eligible for membership 
being the wives of Senators, Representatives, Justices of the 
Supreme Court and Members of the Cabinet (or a daughter 
or sister, if she presides over the household). The wives, 
respectively, of the President, Vice-President and Speaker of 
the House are honorary members. The land was given by the 
wife of the late Sen. Henderson, of Missouri, and the club 
house erected in 1914, at a cost of $30,000. At the intersection 
with New Hampshire Ave. also stands the Evangelical 
Lutheran Church of the Epiphany. 

No. 2100 16th St., N. W. cor. of V St., residence of 
former Justice Charles Evans Hughes, when nominated for 
the Presidency in 19 16. It is now occupied by John Wingate 
Weeks, Secretary of War. No. 2108, a notable dwelling on the 
Mission order, with spacious grounds, formerly occupied by 
the Argentine Legation. 

No. 2200 Sixteenth St., at the intersection of Florida 
Ave., is the former home of the late Senator John B. Hen- 
derson (who drafted the 13th Amendment abolishing slavery). 
It is popularly known as "Henderson Castle." 



208 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

Sixteenth St. here ascends the grade, known historically 
as Meridian Hill, because the street follows the meridian 
line of the original Ten-mile Square (see Introduction). On 
this slope stood the cabin of the late Joachim Miller, 
"Poet of the Sierras." It was situated a little W. and not, 
as often stated, directly in the line of 16th St., for the latter 
was cut through the hill some twenty years before Miller 
located his cabin there. In recent years the cabin was 
removed to Rock Creek Park (p. 436). 

The recently laid-out Meridian Hill Park, now in course of 
completion, occupies the equivalent of four city squares on 
E. side of 16th St., extending through to 15th St. and north 
from W to Euclid St. The park contains eight entrances, 
the principal one, with grand staircase leading to central 
.terrace, on 16th St., opposite Crescent St. (laid out under 
supervision of Col. William W. Harts, by George Bumham, 
the present architect-in-chief of outdoor Washington). 

Space has been left for a large sun-dial which will mark the line 
of meridian of old Washington. It will consist of a stone exedra 
serving as background for a huge stone globe supported on the 
shoulders of a group of bronze figures, and surrounded by an equatorial 
band of bronze, marking the hours of the day. In the lower section 
of the Park, will also stand a memorial monument, already approved 
by Congress, of President Buchanan, for which purpose $100,000 was 
provided in the will of the late Harriot Lane Johnson. 

Two notable statues have recently been unveiled in this park, that 
of the poet Dante stands on the E. side , of the park, half way down 
the southern slope. It is a colossal bronze figure, a replica of the one 
erected in New York City, and was given by the Italian Societies of 
America. Ettore Ximenes, sculptor; pedestal designed by Whitney 
Warren. On the brow of the terrace, facing S., stands the Equestrian 
Statue of Joan of Arc, the gift of French women in New York City 
to the Women of America. It is an exact copy of the statue by Paul 
Dubois, which still stands, unmarred by the war, in front of the Rheims 
cathedral, and which art critics regard as one of the finest equestrian 
statues of modern times. The copy was executed under direction of 
the French Minister of Education -and Fine Arts. Pedestal designed by 
McKim, Mead & White. 

On the high ground opposite Meridian Park, at No. 1624 
Crescent Place (a short street curving to the S. W.), is the 
home of former Ambassador to France, Henry White. Here 
General Joffre, M. Viviani and other members of the French 
Commission were quartered in May, 1917. 

No. 2400 1 6th St. is a large apartment house; Justice 
Willis Van Deventer, of the Supreme Court, and several 
Senators reside here. It also contains the offices of the 
Panama Legation. No. 2460 is the French Embassy. No. 2600, 
home of former Secretary of the Treasury, Franklin Mac- 
Veagh. No. 2630 is the Cuban Legation. No. 2640 is the 
Polish Legation. It was formerly the home of Mr. Pullman, 
inventor of the Pullman Car. 



NEW YORK AVE, TO THE NAVAL HOSPITAL 209 

At No. 2829 16th St, King Albert and Queen Elizabeth 
of Belgium and their son, the Duke of Brabant, were the guests 
of Breckinridge Long on their visit to Washington in Oct., 
1919. Later it was for a time the Mexican. Legation. 

A few rods further N., where Harvard St. intersects 
Columbia Road, is the nearest point from which to reach the 
eastern entrance to the Zoological Park (p. 444). Here, at 
the junction of 16th and Harvard Sts., is now in course of 
erection the new church edifice of All Souls Unitarian Church, 
successor of the one recently demolished at the S. E. cor. of 
14th and L Sts. 

About one mile N., 16th -St. is carried by *Piney Branch 
Bridge across a deep ravine, through which Piney Branch 
flows S. W., to empty into Rock Creek. The bridge was 
designed by W . J. Douglas, Engineer of Bridges for the Dis- 
trict of Columbia. It is 272 ft. long by 65 ft. wide, and the 
roadway is about 60 ft. above the stream. The finish is twc- 
colored concrete, the main expanse of the spandril walls con- 
sisting of a concrete made of gray stone dust, while the con- 
crete of the trim is of yellow sand. Flanking the approaches 
are two pairs of bronze Tigers, modeled by A. Phimister 
Proctor. 

V. New York Avenue from the White House to 
the Naval Hospital 

Nezv York Avenue, interrupted by the Treasury Building 
and White House grounds, continues S.W. from 17th St., 
midway between E and F Sts. Passing on S.W. cor. the 
Corcoran Art Gallery (p. 171) we reach, on opposite s:de of 
avenue, the recently completed and admirably equipped 
Central Dispensary and Emergency Hospital, a nine-story 
edifice designed by Nathan C. Wyeth. 

Facing the hospital is the new Navy Annex. 

*The Octagon House (PI. II — B-5), one of the most 
charming examples surviving of the 18th century type of 
Colonial town house, stands at the N. E. corner of 
New York Ave. and 18th St. It was designed for Col. John 
Tayloe in 1798, toy William Thornton (p. 51), and was 
finished in 1800. 

Col. Tayloe was reputed to be the richest Virginipn of his time. 
His estate at Mt. Airy was the largest in the Old Dominion, and his 
500 slaves included artisans of every class. Among his distinguished 
friends was Washington, whose advice induced him to abandon his 
intention of settling in. Philadelphia, and to build instead in the new 
Capital. Washington took a keen interest in the Octagon House, and 
frequently visited the site during its erection, but died before it was 
completed. From 1800 until the death of Col. Tayloe, in 1828, the 
Octagon House was famous for its hospitality. Among its distinguished 



NEW YORK AVE. TO THE NAVAL HOSPITAL 211 

guests were Presidents Jefferson, Madison, Monroe and John Ouincy 
Adams; also Decatur, Porter, Clay, Calhoun, Randolph and Lafayette. 

After the destruction of the White House during the British occu- 
pation of 1814, President and Mrs. Madison occupied the Octagon 
House for the greater part of a year, at the invitation of Col. Tayloe, 
who was one of the many leading Washingtonians that promptly offered 
their homes for a temporary Executive Mansion. During the Civil 
War the house was confiscated and used as a hospital for wounded 
soldiers. Subsequently it became a Seminary for Young Ladies. Within 
recent years it has been occupied and carefully restored by the Amer- 
ican Institute of Architects, which is contemplating the erection of 
an extension in the rear, to accommodate the Society's business offices, 
and leave the whole of the original building free for exhibition 
purposes. 

The American Institute of Architects was founded February 23d, 
1857, for the avowed purpose of the advancement of architecture, a 
profession then scantily appreciated by the American public. The 
Civil War interrupted the meetings of the Society until 1864; and 
from that date until 1889 the progress of the Institute was slow. 
Nevertheless, in that period it founded 11 chapters, formed the 
nucleus of a library and established a schedule of fees for archi- 
tectural services. In 1889 the Institute consolidated with a younger 
organization, the Western Association of Architects, founded in 1884 
by a group of energetic young men of the Middle West, which 
rapidly acquired a large membership. Since then the growth of the 
Institute has been rapid, and the total membership has risen from 
338 to more than 1000. In 1898 the Institute first leased the Octagon, 
and opened it on the occasion of the convention held that year, at 
which a new Constitution and By-laws were adopted. In 1902 the 
Institute^ .purchased the Octagon House, through the initiative of Charles 
F. McKim, then President. 

Since 1900 the Institute has to its credit numerous important 
achievements. It initiated the movement for systematic improvement 
of American cities; secured the appointment of a Commission to 
report on the development of Washington City; prevented the 
remodeling of the White House and extension of the Capitol on lines 
which would have destroyed their beauty; and preserved the Mall 
by demonstrating that an improper location of the Agricultural 
Building would destroy the future artistic development of the city. 
It also aided in the establishment of the American Academy in 
Rome; and has initiated a movement to establish a post-graduate 
school of the Fine Arts in Washington. It gave in 1907 its first 
Gold Medal for distinguished achievement in architecture to Sir 
Aston Webb, the noted English architect, thus establishing a prece- 
dent of honoring those who have distinguished themselves in tnat art. 

The main fagade of the Octagon House stands diag- 
onally facing the street corner, with a large central cir- 
cular tower and two extensive wings running back respec- 
tively along New York Ave. and 18th St. The material 
is red brick with trimmings of Aquia Creek sandstone. The 
interior arrangement is quite simple, the main floor con- 
sisting of a large circular vestibule, 20 ft. in diameter, open- 
ing upon a central hallway with curving stairs and a well 
open to the roof ; and on right and left respectively of this 
hallway the drawing-room and dining-room, each measur- 
ing 20 x 30 ft. The upper floors follow substantially the same 
arrangements, excepting that there are more subdivisions. 



212 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

The circular vestibule is at present used as an exhibi- 
tion gallery of portraits of former presidents of the Insti- 
tute and other distinguished architects. Opposite the en- 
trance, at east of rear door, is a bronze memorial tablet 
inscribed: "1857-1807. The American Institute of Archi- 
tects on the fiftieth Anniversary of its Foundation places 
this Tablet in honor of its Founders and of those who 
joined with them to frame its Constitution and By-Laws." 
Then follows a list of the founders, which among others, 
includes the names of Richard Upjohn, Leopold Eidlitz, 
Thomas U. Walter, James Renwick and Richard Morris Hunt. 

Above the tablet hangs the original plaster model of the Society's 
gold medal, designed in 1907 by A. A. Weinman. To R. and L. of 
rear door are alcoves occupied by two small quaintly shaped stoves, 
said to date back to Col. Tayloe's occupancy. The portraits, from R. 
to L., beginning on W. of north door, are as follows: 1. Richard 
Upjohn, President of the Institute 1857-78, by A. Milo Upjohn; 2. 
Richard Morris Hunt (bas-relief medallion); 3. William S. Eames, 
President 1904-05, by Muller; 4. George B. Post, by A. E. Foringer; 
after E. H. Blashfield; 5. Walter Cook, President 1912-13; 6. G. Benja- 
min Henry Latrobe (1764-1820); 7. George B. Post (bas-relief medal- 
lion). 

The visitor should note, as an example of the careful workman- 
ship of this house, that all the work of this circular vestibule coin- 
cides with the circumference of the tower, the doors, window sash 
and glass all being made on the circle. 

The central hall, even larger than the vestibule, has 
beneath the first landing of the curving stairs, which as- 
cend on the east, a north door opening on the old garden 
enclosed by quaint brick walls. The original drawing-room, 
now used by the Institute for board-meetings and recep- 
tions, is entered from the hall, on the E. It was here, in 
front of the mantel at the N. E. end of the room, that Mrs. 
Dolly Madison used to stand while receiving her guests ; 
and the most brilliant series of receptions during her whole 
reign as Mistress of the White House were those of the so- 
called "Peace Year," 1814-15, which were held in this draw- 
ing-room. 

The original dining-room, on the opposite side of the 
hall, is at present occupied by the Archaeological Institute 
of America. Here the general work of the Archaeological 
Institute is carried on, its records kept, and the plans and 
photographs of its Schools, sites of excavations, etc., are 
exhibited. 

The Archaeological Institute of America, founded in 1879 and 
incorporated in 1906, now includes 50 affiliated societies, 40 in the 
United States and 10 in Canada, with a total membership of over 
3100. Besides its many other activities, it publishes the American 
Journal of Archaeology. 

The circular room on the second floor, directly above 
the entrance vestibule, now the office of the Secretary of 



NEW YORK AVE. TO THE ,NAVAL HOSPITAL 213 

the Institute of Architects, was once the private study of 
President Madison; and here on February 18th, 1815, the 
President signed the Treaty of Ghent, which ended the war 
of 1812. 

The rooms above the old dining-room are now occu- 
pied by offices of the American Academy in Rome and the 
American Federation of Arts, an organization dating from 
1909 and already comprising upward of 200 Chapters. The 
other rooms on this floor are occupied by various offices 
of the Institute. 

Opposite the Octagon House, at S.E. cor. of New York 
Ave. and 18th St., is the site where, more than a century ago, 
Dr. William Thornton had a city garden. 

West of the Octagon House is the new ^Department of 
the Interior Building (PI. II — B4), occupying the entire block 
bounded by E and F, 18th and 19th Sts. The structure is 
approximately 400 ft. long by 392 ft. wide, is E-shaped, and is 
six stories high on the (principal or F St. facade (the limit of 
height under D. C regulations for residential sections), but is 
increased to seven stories in the rear (E St.) by dropping grade. 
On the E St. front, midway between the wings, are entrance 
driveways leading down to the two great courts, the pave- 
ment of which is at basement level. Accordingly the court 
elevations show eight stories. The building contains 500,000 
sq. ft. of office space, divided into 737 rooms, with accom- 
modations for upward of 1700 employees. 

The Secretary of the Interior's duties include supervision of the 
General Land Office. Reclamation Service, Geological Survey, Bureau 
of Mines, Office of Indian Affairs, Patent Office, Bureau of Pensions, 
Bureau of Education. National Park Service and certain hospitals and 
other institutions within the District. He also exercises certain powers 
and duties in relation to Alaska and Hawaii; and is authorized to 
adjust and pay claims against the U. S. Fuel Administration and also 
claims filed under the War Minerals Relief Act. 

The Bureaus of Pensions and of Education occupy the 
Pension iBdiilding (p. 139) and the Patent Office also has 
its own home (p. 142). The remaining divisions are all 
housed in the new Interior Building, as follows : 

1. The Geological Survey occupies almost the entire F St. front, 
together with the central wing, pressroom wing and half of each of 
the two-story southern links. Its activities include the making of a 
geologic map of the United States, an annual collection of statistics of 
mineral (production, and investigations relating to surface and "underground 
waters. z. The General Land Office occupies the entire west wing, 
excepting the top floor. 3. The Reclamation Service occupies the top 
Toor of the west wing. Its duties comprise the survey, construction and 
operation of irrigation works in the arid states. 4. The Bureau of 
Mines has the lower stories of the east wdng, and half of the easterly 
southern link. 5. The Bureau of Indian Affairs occupies the third and 
fourth floors of the north wing. 



2i 4 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

The offices of the Secretary of the Interior take up the 
remaining two upper floors of the north wing. The Public 
Office is notable for its artistic finish, being wainscotted from 
floor to ceiling in ipaneled English oak, with a molded ribbed 
plaster ceiling, recessed windows, and simple Tudor mantel, 
with paneled oak overmantel. The library and auditorium 
(the latter having a seating capacity of 300) are separate 
buildings projected into the courts, and accessible from the 
public corridor on the first. In the south part of the east 
court is the press-room, containing the great color presses 
of the map-making division of the Geological Survey. 

Opposite the Interior Building, at the N.W. cor. of 18th 
and F St., is a dwelling occupied successively by Chief Justice 
John Marshall, Richard Wallach, Mayor of Washington dur- 
ing 1861-68, and Chief Justice Melville W. Fuller. 

One block further N. on 18th St., at S.E. cor. of G St., 
are the building and tennis-courts of the Young Men's 
Christian Association (PI. II — C4). 

The library in this building is no longer the private property of the 
Association, but constitutes one of the branches of the Washington 
Public Library (p. 226), and is open to the public. The tennis-courts 
on the corner lot occupy the site of an historic residence, a large brick 
building erected and occupied by Edward Everett when Secretary of 
State under Fillmore. Subsequently it was successively occupied by 
Jefferson Davis while Secretary of War under Pierce, and Jacob 
Thompson, Secretary of the Interior under Buchanan. During the 
Civil War it was used as Quartermaster's Department of the Army 
in charge of General Tucker. Next it became the home of Henry A. 
Wise, U. S. N.-, son-in-law of. Everett; and lastly was rented by the 
Medical Department of the Navy. 

Another old landmark, recently demolished, was the Wirt mansion, 
which stood a few rods E. of the Everett house. It w&s first occupied 
by Tobias Lear, Washington's private Secretary. Later it became the 
home of the eminent jurist William Wirt, who lived here twelve years 
while Attorney-General under Monroe and the younger Adams. 

West on G St., No. 1914, is a venerable dwelling built 
about 1802 by Commodore Truxton, and later occupied by 
Lewis Cass. In recent years it became the home of Major- 
General A. W. Greely, best known for his Arctic exploration. 

No. 2024 G St. was the home of Daniel ,S. Lamont. 

Opposite, occupying most of the block from 20th to 21st 
St., is George Washington University, one of the oldest and 
best equipped schools of higher learning at the Capital. It 
includes a preparatory school, departments of under 
graduate and postgraduate academic studies, the Corcoran 
Scientific School, and Schools of Law, Medicine and 
Dentistry. It is also affiliated with the College of 
Veterinary Medicine, and the National College of Pharmacy. 
The names of many prominent members of the Smithsonian 
Institution and Geological Survey, as well as officers distin- 



PENNSYLVANIA AVE. TO ROCK CREEK 215 

guished in the technical branches of the Army and Navy are 
found upon its list of professors and lecturers. 

The University dates from 1821, when it was established by Act 
of Congress as a theological school, under the title of Columbian College 
of the District of Columbia. In 1873 the name was changed to Co- 
lumbian University, and in 1904 the present name was adopted. 

The University possesses a small but valuable library (approxi- 
mately 40,000 volumes, exclusive of the law and medical libraries). 
Its special features are the classsical library of Prof. Curt Wachsmuth of 
the University of Leipzig, the library of Germanic philology belonging 
to the late Prof. Richard Heinzel of the University of Vienna, and the 
"Mount Vernon Alcove" of international law and political science, 
established by Mr. Andrew Carnegie. 

One square S., at No. 2017 F St., is the house in which 
James Monroe was living when elected President. This 
house was also, for a time, the home of the famous meteorol- 
ogist, Cleveland Abbe (p. 237). 

Three squares W., on the W. side of E St., between 23d 
and 25th Sts., are the grounds and building formerly occu- 
pied by the U. S. Naval Observatory (p. 442), and now the 
Naval Museum of Hygiene. Here is exhibited a collection 
of appliances used in the Navy for the protection and preserva- 
tion of human life. In the same grounds are the Naval Hospital, 
the Naval Medical School and the Pay Officers' School. 

In the grounds is a monument to Dr. Benjamin Rush 
(1745-1813), a distinguished physician of his day, who ren- 
dered valiant service during the yellow fever epidemic in 
Philadelphia. He was one of the Signers of the Declaration 
of Independence. The monument was erected in 1904 by the 
American Medical Association. 

VI. Pennsylvania Avenue from the White House 
to Rock Creek 

This section of Pennsylvania Ave. is historically interest- 
ing as sharing with the immediate vicinity of the Capitol the 
distinction of having been one of the earliest residential 
centres. Here were erected the historic "Six Buildings" and 
"Seven Buildings," in which scores of members of Congress 
were glad to find an abiding place. Here also, a little later, 
was the Franklin House, one of the most celebrated of early 
Washington hotels. Today there is comparatively little to 
interest the stranger, and most points of interest may be 
expeditiously seen from the trolley car during the trip to 
Georgetown (p. 10). 

The Mills Building, at S. W. cor. of Pennsylvania Ave., 
and 17th st., was named from its owner, Gen. Anson Mills, 
retired. Until the completion of the new Department of 
Labor Building in 1917, it rortained most of the offices of 
that Department, including those of the Secretary of Immi- 



2i6 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

gration, Information, Naturalization, Labor Statistics and the 
Children's Bureau. 

Opposite, at the N. W. cor. of 17th St., is the site of the 
headquarters of General Mansfield during the Civil War. 
Passes were issued here to cross the Long Bridge and through 
the Federal lines. 

During the last quarter of the 19th century a number of 
Central and South American States had their Legations in ths 
block between 17th and 18th Sts., but the old houses which 
they occupied have all been replaced by modern structures. 

No. 1732 Pennsylvania Ave. is the site of the house ii 
which General Winfield Scott resided. 

At N. E. cor. of 18th St. is the Hotel Powhatan, a ten- 
story structure of buff brick, recently enlarged (p. 5). 
Milburn Heister & Co., architects. Directly opposite, on the 
S. E. cor. of 18th St., is the newly erected building of the 
Interstate Commerce Commission, an eleven-story structure of 
buff brick and limestone, on the order of the modern loft building. 

This Commission constitutes a Bureau empowered, under the Aot 
of February 4, 1887, to examine into the management of the business ot 
all Common Carriers. All interstate traffic is under its jurisdiction. It 
was formerly located in the Sun Building, 131 7 F St. 

The new Commerce Building (PI. Ill — E3 — No. 39), an 
eleven-story structure of ibuff brick, stands at the N. E. cor. 
of Pennsylvania Ave. and 19th St. It contains the offices of the 
following Bureaus ; 1. Foreign and Domestic Commerce ; 2. 
Lighthouses ; 3. (Navigation ; 4. Steamboat Inspection. 

Here also is the Labor Statistics Library, Room 201-209 (U. S. 
Department of Labor), founded in 1885, and now containing approxi- 
mately 28,000 volumes and pamphlets. Open 9 A. M. to 4 P. M. daily, 
except Sundays and Holidays. Reference library open to all students 
and investigators of social problems. 

Opposite, across a triangular square at the 'S. E. cor. of 
19th and H Sts., stands the Volunteer Engine House, still 
bearing the inscription ''Union Engine Instituted 1815." It 
is now occupied jointly by the surviving members of the 
original Volunteer Association and by the Association of 
Oldest Inhabitants. 

The Association of Oldest Inhabitants was organized December 7, 
1865, and has numbered among its Presidents, Benjamin Ogle Tayloe, 
W. A. Bradley, Dr. J. B. Blake and Theodore W. Noyes, editor of 
the Star. 

The declared object of the Association is "to cement and strengthen 
the interest and associations arising out of a common residence for a 
long period in the same locality, to keep alive) the remembrances of the 
past, and the social and paternal communion of the present and the 
future." 

Requirements: local residence of 35 years, and age of 50 years and 
upward. Since the Veteran Volunteer Fireman's Association must in- 
evitably be extinguished through death, this building, assigned by Act 



PENNSYLVANIA AVE. TO ROCK CREEK 217 

of Congress, is destined to become the exclusive possession of the 
"Oldest Inhabitants." 

The Association possesses a museum which contains among other 
historic relics the surveyor's chain, used in laying out the streets and 
avenues of Washington. 

At N. W. cor. of Pennsylvania Ave. and 19th St., Nos. 
1901-1913, still stand the historic "Seven Buildings," com- 
pleted about 1800. The corner house was the State Depart- 
ment when John Marshall was Secretary. James Madison 
occupied it as the Executive Mansion, 1815-17, during the 
restoration of the White House (p. 112), and after his tem- 
porary stay in the Octagon House (p. 212). Elbridge Gerry 
and Martin Van Buren occupied it when vice-presidents, and 
Robert J. Walker when Secretary of the Treasury. Here also 
Gen. George B. MoClellan had his headquarters in 1861. 

In this rowt also lived General Trureau de Garambonville, Minister 
of France, in 1804, and Gen. John Armstrong, George W. Campbell, 
James K. Paulding and Benjamin W. Crowninshield, Cabinet officers. 
In 1 816 No. 1905 became) the residence of Jose Correa da Serra. first 
Portuguese Minister to the United States. In 1864 it was occupied by 
Chevalier Josephi Bertinatti, Minister Resident of Italy. 

The N. W. cor. of 21st and I Sts. is historic. Here, 
about 1800, one William O'Neale opened a public house, 
which became a favorite stopping place for Congressmen 
from Tennessee ; among others, Senator Williams and Repre- 
sentatives Claiborne, Hogg, Marr and Rhea. Here General 
Eaton, from 181 1 onward, and later General Jackson, made 
their home. Here also Vice-President Clinton died April 
1 2th, 1 81 2. 

This hotel was called at first O'Neale's Hotel, and later -the 
Franklin House. Aboyt 1823 John Gadsby, who had been»a successful 
landlord in Alexandria (p. 516) and Baltimore, bought out the hotel 
and clonducted it until 1828, when he lea?ed the National (p. 100). 

The chief historic interest connected with O'Neale's Hotel centert 
in the proprietor's daughter, Margaret, popularly known as Peggy 
O'Neale. In 1816, while still a mere girl, she married John B. Timber- 
lake, a purser in the U. S. Navy. He died in 1824. She married for 
the second time, 1829, General Eaton, Secretary of War under Jack- 
son. This marriage precipitated a social war in Washington. Accusa- 
tions against the lady's good name were made openly, both in Cabinet 
circles and in the New York Ave. Presbyterian Church, which she 
attended. The ladies of the Cabinet refused to recognize her. Presi- 
dent Jackson instituted an investigation and championed her cause, to 
the extent of sending home a favorite niece then acting as mistress 
of the White House, who was obdurate in her refusal to receive Mrs. 
Eaton. The President thought that he saw a way out of the dilemma 
by appointing General Eaton Minister to France; but this the General 
declined, refusing to retreat under fire. Incidentally, the New York 
Ave. Presbyterian Church was split in two, and between resignations on 
both sides the minister found himself preaching to an almost empty 
house. 

Subsequently General Eaton was appointed Minister to Spain; and 
here, for a few years, Peggy O'Neale probably enjoyed the happiest 
period of her life. After her husband's death she received, in her 



218 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

later years, in some measure the social recognition that had earlier 
been denied her. Her crowning folly was her third marriage. An 
Italian, Antonio Buchignani, who claimed to be a Count, and who 
established a dancing school in Washington, not only won her elderly 
affections, but cajoled her into transferring to him the bulk of her 
property. Thereupon he eloped with his bride's married granddaughter, 
one Emily Randolph. Peggy O'Neale rose to the situation, and through 
legal channels accomplished her own divorce and that of her grand- 
daughter, and compelled the marriage of the latter with her errant hus- 
band. She lived on in Washington until her 8oth year, and died at 
the Lochiel House, 512 9th St., November 8th, 1879. She was buried 
beside her second husband, General Eaton, m Oak Hill Cemetery (p. 479). 

The Franklin hotel was later converted into dwelling 
houses and known, first as Gadsby's Row, and later as Mc- 
Blair's Row, and descendants of 'the Gadsby-McBlair family 
continued to occupy these houses down to 1906. 

Nos. 2107-21 17 Pennsylvania Ave. constitute the row for- 
merly known as the "Six Buildings." In 1800, No. 2107 was 
the first Navy Office, and here Samuel Houston, Governor 
of Tennessee, U. S. Senator and first President of Texas, 
had his residence. Other distinguished occupants of these 
buildings include: Gen. James Wilkinson, General-in-Chief of 
the Army, 1796; John Francis Mercer, first president of the 
C. and O. Canal Co., and James Madison when Secretary 
of State. 

Opposite, No. 2106, is the house in which William B. 
Magruder, sixteenth Mayor of Washington (1856-57) lived 
and died. 

Pennsylvania Ave. intersects New Hampshire Ave. at 
Washington Circle, the crossing point of 23d and K Sts. In 
the centre of this Gircle stands an Equestrian statue of Wash- 
ington, upon a pedestal of white marble blocks. 

This statue, modeled by Clark Mills, was unveiled February 22, 
1880. It is intended to represent Washington as nearly as possible as 
he appeared at the Battle of Princeton. The face was modeled from the 
head done by Houdon; the uniform was copied from one actually worn 
by Washington; and the trappings of the horse were taken from those 
represented by Trumbull, who was one of Washington's Aides. 

On the S. E. side of Washington Circle, W. of New Hampshire Ave., 
is St. Ann's Infant Asylum. The eastern section of this building is an 
old private residence dating back to the early 20's. It was originally 
build by a Captain Kuhn of the Marine Corps. Later it was occupied 
as the Legation by Fox, the British Minister, and nephew of Charles 
Fox, the famous statesman. 

At 25th and L Sts. is the Columbia Hospital for Women (Nathan 
C. Wyeth, architect). Opposite, at S. E. cor. of Pennsylvania Ave. 
and 25th St. is St. Stephen's Catholic Church, organized in 1865. The 
building is of red pressed brick, on the Byzantine order of architecture. 

The United States Weather Bureau is situated on the S. 
side) of M St. between 24th and 25th Sts., directly in the rear 
of the Columbia Hospital for Women. It is a branch of the 
Department of Agriculture, and its chief activities fall under 
five heads: 1. Weather Forecasts and Warnings; 2. River 



OTHER RESIDENTIAL STREETS 219 

and Flood Forecastings ; 3. Climatological Work ; 4. Agricul- 
tural Meteorology; 5. Vessel Reporting. 

History. Early attempts to interest Congress in the establishment 
of a National Weather Bureau met with little response. On September 
1st, 1869, Dr. Cleveland Abbe inaugurated daily weather forecasts for 
the Cincinnati Chamber of Commerce; and the success of this ex- 
periment resulted in an Act of Congress, dated February 9th, 1870, 
authorizing and requiring the Secretary of War "to provide for taking 
meteorological observations at the military stations in the 

United States, and for giving notice on the northern lakes and on the 
sea coast ... of the approach and force of storms." 

The appropriation bill for 1872 extended the scope of the Weather 
Bureau by providing "for expenses of storm signals announcing the 
probable approach and force of storms throughout the United States, 
for the benefit of Commerce and Agriculture." 

By an Act dated October 1st, 1890, the meteorological work of the 
Signal Office was transferred to the Department of Agriculture, and 
under this Act the present Weather Bureau was created. 

To the general public the Weather Bureau is best known 
through its daily forecasts and weather maps. These fore- 
casts are based upon simultaneous observations of local 
weather conditions taken daily at 8 A. M. and 8 P. M. 
(75th meridian time), at approximately 200 stations scat- 
tered throughout the United States and West Indies, and sup- 
plemented by daily reports from various other points in the 
northern hemisphere. 

Within two hours after the morning observations have been 
taken, forecasts are telegraphed to 1600 distributing points, from which 
they are further disseminated by telegraph, telephone, wireless telegraphy 
and mail. The enormous number of individuals reached by this system 
is illustrated by the fact that the forecasts are delivered daily by mail 
to approximately 90,000 addresses, and by telephone to upward of 
5,500,000 subscribers. 

The Weather Bureau Library (which has remained sep- 
arate from the other Bureau libraries of the Agricultural De- 
partment) includes today upward of 34,000 volumes, includ- 
ing pamphlets. In meteorology and climatology it is be- 
lieved to be stronger than any other library in the world. 

Regulations. Open daily, except Sundays and Holidays, from 9 
A. M. to 4 P. M. It is a reference library, intended primarily for the 
officials and staff of the Bureau, but outsiders engaged in scientific 
investigations are welcome to use it. 

VII. Other Residential Avenues and Streets 
a. Vermont Avenue 

Vermont Avenue runs N. N. E. from Lafayette Square 
and H St. to Florida Ave., a distance of about one and one- 
third miles, and is interrupted by McPherson Square and 
Thomas and Iozva Circles. 

On W. side from H to I Sts. is the Arlington Building, 
now housing the Veterans' Bureau (p. 190). 



220 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

Between I and K Sts. is McPherson Sq., containing- a 
bronze equestrian statue, heroic size, of Maj.-Gen. James B. 
McPherson (1828-64). James T. Robisso, sculptor. 

The figure, 14 ft. in height, represents the General as surveying 
a battlefield. On one panel is inscribed the single word "Atlanta," the 
scene of McPherson's death. The statue, made from Confederate cannon 
captured in Georgia, was erected by the Society of the Grand Army 
of the Tennessee, at a cost of $48,000. Unveiled 1876. 

Facing the square, at N. W. cor. of I St., is the home of 
the University Club, a handsome six-story structure of buff 
brick and limestone, designed by George Oakley Totten. 
Note the terra-cotta medallions on E. and S. fagades, con- 
taining the seals of the principal Universities. 

The University Club, composed, as its name implies, of the gradu- 
ates of American Colleges and Universities, has a present membership 
of over 1450, of which 925 are resident members. Its declared objects 
are "educational, literary, musical and scientific, for the promotion of 
the Arts and for mutual improvement." The smaller entrance door, at 
west end of the I -St. fagade, gives admission to the Club Annex, con- 
taining parlor and restaurant, where the wives and daughters of mem- 
bers may entertain their friends. 

Directly across McPherson Park, at N. E. cor. of 15th 
and I Sts., is the Hotel Bellevue (p. 5). 

At the N. E. cor. of Vermont Ave. and K St. is the 
8-story building now occupied by the Department of Justice. 
Portraits of former Attorneys General offer the only attrac- 
tion to sightseers. Open to visitors week days, from 9 a. m. 
to -2 p. m. 

In the block N. of K St. are several historic homes. No. 
1014 is the former residence of Joseph G. Cannon when 
Speaker of the House. No. 1016 was once the Hayti Lega- 
tion. No. 1022 was the home of James Wilson, for sixteen 
years Secretary of Agriculture. Opposite, on E. side, is the 
Arlington, a recently opened Apartment Hotel. 

No. 1 120 is The Burlington, one of the largest Apart- 
ment Houses on the Avenue. Adjoining, on the N., No. 1122, 
is the former home of Supreme Court Justice William B. 
Woods (1824-87). Prior to 1880 it was for a time the Jap- 
anese Legation. No. 1124 was formerly the home of Senator 
William B. Allison. 

At Thomas Circle, 14th and M Sts., Vermont and Massa- 
chusetts Aves. intersect (p. 228). On ;S. side of Circle, at an 
angle formed by 14th St. and Vermont Ave., is the Portland 
(p. 5), a residential hotel. Here at various times have 
lived Secretary of the Navy Charles J. Bonaparte, Secretary 
of the Navy John D. Long, Senator Albert J. Beveridge and 
Secretary of Agriculture J. Sterling Morton, the originator 
of "Arbor Day." It was the first apartment building in 
Washington (erected 1880). 



OTHER RESIDENTIAL STREETS 221 

In the N. triangle formed by Massachusetts and Vermont 
Aves., and directly in front of the Lutheran Memorial 
Church, stands the *Martin Luther Statue of bronze, heroic 
size, erected by the Lutheran Church of America at a cost 
of $10,000. This justly admired statue was cast in Ger- 
many from the same molds as Rietschel's center-piece of the 
memorial at Worms. 

The Lutheran Memorial Church is a pleasing structure 
in ornate Gothic, the cornerstone of which was laid in 1870. 
The spacious auditorium is almost elliptical in shape, and 
contains some interesting memorial windows. The best of 
these, in memory of the Rev. Henry N. Pohlmann, D.D., 
"For 53 years a faithful minister of Christ," contains the full- 
length figure of Luther, "The liberator of modern thought." 
Other windows contain medallion portraits : W. side, John 
Knox; Calvin; Ulric Zwingli ; John Wesley; E. side, Gus- 
tavus Adolphus ; John Huss ; John Wicklif ; Philip Mel- 
ancthon. 

East on N St., No. 1310, is now (1922) the office of the 
Japanese Embassy. 

One block N. on Vermont Ave., W. side, just above N 
St., is the Vermont Avenue Christian Church, a commodious 
Gothic structure of red brick, popularly known as the Gar- 
field Memorial Church, and constituting in the District of 
Columbia the Mother church of the Christian or Campbellite 
Faith. 

During the many years that Garfield served in Congress, 
he worshiped in a little frame chapel which stood on the 
site of the present church. W T hen he was elected President, 
the Society determined to erect a new church which should 
be the leading one of this Faith in the country. The old 
pew occupied by Garfield while President has been marked 
with a tablet, and stands in the N. W. cor. of the present 
church, adjoining the door leading into the Sunday School. 
Above this door is an admirable bronze tablet by U. S. J. 
Dunbar, portraying the Rev. Frederick D. Power, the pastor 
of the church in Garfield's time. In the Church Parlor may 
be seen a photograph of the original chapel, and the Sexton 
will point out the window through which the assassin 
Guiteau had planned to fire his fatal shot, only a week or 
two before the actual murder ; he happened to choose one of 
the very few Sundays when Garfield was absent from service. 

At Iowa Circle, 13th and P Sts., Vermont and Rhode 
Island Aves. intersect. In the centre of this Circle is the 
equestrian bronze monument, heroic size, to Gen. John A. 
Logan. It was erected at a cost of $65,000, of which $15,000 



222 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

was given by the Society of the Army of Tennessee, and the 
balance by Congress. (Franklin Simmons, sculptor.) 

The statue surmounts a massive and highly ornamental bronze 
pedestal, resting on a base of pink granite. At the N. and S. ends of 
the pedestal are two bronze female figures, symbolizing respectively 
America in War and in Peace. On the sides of the pedestal are two 
large groups in relief representing: (W. side) General Logan presiding 
at a Council of War; (E. side) Vice-President Logan taking Oath of 
Office. 

North of Iowa Circle, No. 1503 Vermont Ave., was the 
home of Norman J. Column, the first Secretary of Agriculture. 

North of this point the Avenue is occupied largely by 
negroes, and offers nothing of interest to the tourist. 

b. Connecticut Avenue 

Connecticut Avenue, running N. N. W. from Lafayette 
Square, measures, inclusive of its new extension to Chevy 
Chase Circle at the District Line, approximately five miles. 
The lower section has been spoiled for residential purposes 
by the encroachment of retail business, and the squares 
immediately. N. of K St. constitute Washington's principal 
"Automobile Row." North from Dupont Circle, however, the 
Avenue passes through the heart of the newer residential 
section, where may be seen many of the finest dwellings 
and apartment houses in the city. 

The N. E. cor. of Connecticut Ave. and H .St. is occu- 
pied by the site of the old Corcoran Mansion, lately acquired 
by the National Chamber of Commerce (p. 191). Immediately 
adjoining on N., No. 815 (S. E. cor. of I St.), is the 
Rochambcau, one of the largest of Washington's apartment 
houses. Here, from time to time, have been housed a number 
of the South American Legations. 

At the intersection of the Avenue with 17th St., between 
I and K Sts., is Farragut Square, containing a colossal 
bronze statue of Admiral Daxid Glasgow Farragut, modeled 
by Mrs. Vinnie Ream Hoxie, and cast at thq Washington 
Navy Yard, from metal taken from Farragut's flag-ship, the 
Hartford. The standing figure, ten feet in height and sur- 
mounting a twenty-foot granite pedestal, represents Farragut 
in naval uniform with a telescope, watching the enemy's 
movements. It was, unveiled in 1881. 

No. 1015 Connecticut Ave. has been successively the 
home of the Legations of Belgium, Austria-Hungary, Italy 
and Costa Rica. 

At L St. and Connecticut Ave. (E. side) is Stoneleigh 
Court, another of the most important apartment houses, 
which, from time to time, has housed a number of foreign 



OTHER RESIDENTIAL STREETS 223 

Legations, including (1922) Portugal and Nicaragua; here 
also was the home of James Wilson, late Secretary of Agri- 
culture. 

At the N. E. cor. of Connecticut Ave. and De Salles St. 
is the Grafton Hotel (p. 5). 

At the S. E. cor. of M St. and Connecticut Ave. is The 
Connecticut, an apartment house in which Justice Joseph 
McKenna, of the U. S. Supreme Court, resides. 

Connecticut Ave. intersects 18th St., between M and N 
Sts., forming two small triangular parks. In the S. triangle 
is a monument to the poet Henry W. Longfellow, consisting 
of a seated bronze figure, heroic size, clad in Academic gown, 
and surmounting a pedestal of polished pink granite. It was 
the gift of the Longfellow National Memorial Association, 
and was unveiled in 1909. William Couper, sculptor. 

In the N. triangle is a statue of John Witherspoon 
(1722-94), a Scottish-American Presbyterian minister, and 
once President of Princeton University. He was the only 
clergyman among the Signers of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence. The statue was presented in 1909 by the Wither- 
spoon Memorial Association. William Couper, sculptor. 

On the north side of the pedestal is the following quotation from 
Witherspoon's utterances: 

"For my own part, of property I have some, of reputation more. 
That reputation is staked, that property is pledged on the issue of this 
contest; and although these gray hairs must soon descend into the 
sepulchre, I would infinitely rather that they descend thither by the 
hand of the executioner than desert at this crisis the sacred cause of 
my country." 

The Presbyterian Church of the Covenant, at the S. E. 
cor. of N and 18th Sts., directly faces the Witherspoon 
monument. Owing to a lack of any Presbyterian church con- 
veniently adjacent to the newer residential section, this church 
was organized by a group of prominent men including Matthew 
Gait, William Walter Phelps and James G. Blaine. 

The church edifice was approaching completion in 1889, when one 
night the tall white tower crumbled to the earth, destroying a large part 
of the body of the church, and postponing the completion for many 
months. 

Two of the windows in this church are memorials given by Mrs. 
Reed, sister of the late Admiral Dahlgren. They represent: 1. The 
Annunciation; 2. The Adoration of Magdalen. 

President Benjamin Harrison attended service in this church. 

The British Embassy (No. 1300) stands directly W. of 
the Church of the Covenant, at the N. W. cor. of Connecticut 
Ave. and N St., running back to 19th St. The visitor cannot 
fail to recognize over the entrance doorway the familiar 
British crest, in bronze, of the Lion and the Unicorn. Here, 



224 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

during his term of office, resided the Hon. James Bryce, 
author of "The American Commonwealth." 

This was the first of the foreign Embassies and Legations to build 
and own a permanent residence in Washington. It dates from the late 
70's. The German Embassy, No. 1423-37 Massachusetts Ave., was the 
next to follow suit. 

No. 1331 Connecticut Ave. is the home of Alexande^ 
Graham Bell, the inventor of the telephone. His father, 
Dr. Alexander Melville Bell, founder of the Volta Bureau 
(p- 475) » died in this house. No. 1339 is now (1922) the 
Legation of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. 

At intersection of Connecticut Ave. with P and 18th Sts., 
Massachusetts and New Hampshire Aves. is Dupont Circle, 
named after Admiral Samuel Francis Dupont (1803-1865). In 
centre is a Memorial Fountain (Daniel Chester French, sculp- 
tor; Henry Bacon, arch.), replacing former statue of the 
Admiral (by Launt Thompson) , now in Delaware. 

At the intersection of Connecticut Ave. and California 
St., in a small triangular park, stands, a monument to Gen. 
George B. McClellan (1826-88), the joint gift of Congress 
and the Society of the Army of the Potomac, dedicated 1907. 
Frederick MacMonnies, sculptor. 

Directly W. of thei McClellan monument stands The Highlands, an 
apartment house, designed by Arthur B. Heaton, which has housed, 
among others, the Guatemala and Panama Legations. 

At No. 1800 Connecticut Ave., cor. of S St., is now 
(7922) the Netherlands Legation; and a little t^ond, at No. 
1838, is the Greek Legation. 

West of Connecticut Ave., near the cor. of S St. and 
Phelps Place, is the site of the historic estate of Kalorama, 
once the home of the poet and diplomat, Joel Barlow. Count 
Rumford and Robert Fulton were both visitors here. 

In! a barn baak of the house Fulton is said to have madq his first 
steamboat in 1806, local joiners and blacksmiths doing the work. The 
boat was launched in the mill-pond of Rock Creek (to which the estate 
then extended) and the experiment was pronounced a success a year 
before the launching of the Clermont on the Hudson. 

Kalorama (t. e., "Beautiful View") . was a forty-acre tract lying 
between what is now Connecticut Ave. and Rock Creek, and forming 
part of the old Holmead estate. The historic mansion, standing ap- 
proximately on the site of the William A. Mearn's house, was erected 
about 1750, and its foundation walls, built, according to tradition, of 
English brick, were so thick and substantial that they gave promise 
of lasting for centuries. In 1794 this Holmead Mansion, including 
the forty-acre tract, was bought by one Gustavus Scott, of Maryland, 
and shortly afterwards passed into the possession of William Augustine 
Washington, who remodeled the house and added a spacious east wing, 
containing drawing-rooms and a banquet hall. He had intended to 
make it a permanent home, but succumbed to the temptation of a 
$14,000 offer made by Joel Barlow, to whom he conveyed the property 
in 1807. Once again the Mansion was extensively remodeled under 



OTHER RESIDENTIAL STREETS 2*5 

the joint advice of Latrobe and Robert Fulton, the inventor, who was 
a close personal friend of Barlow. The grounds were laid rjuti anew, 
and there were erected a pretty Greek lodge, designed by Latrobe after 
an Ionian Temple, and a summer-house, designed by Fulton, which 
stood on the brow of the hill, at the present intersection of 24th and 
U Sts. The family mausoleum (where Commodore Decatur found a 
temporary resting place) was situated in a grove at what is now the 
intersection of Florida and Massachusetts Aves. 

When Barlow was appointed Minister to France, in 181 1, the 
house was leased to the French Minister Serurier. Barlow never re- 
turned home. lie died in 1812 while following the fortunes of 
Napoleon, and was buried in Zarnivica, Poland. Although almost 
forgotten now, Barlow in his time was recognized as America's greatest 
poet, and his Coiumbiad, dedicated to Fulton, was regarded as a great 
National epic. 

Kalorama was occupied by Barlow's widow until her death in 
18 1 8, after which it became the property of her brother-in-law, George 
Bonford, who for thirty years worthily supported its traditions as a 
centre of hospitality and fashionable life. After many vicissitudes the 
Mansion was demolished in 1889, and the estate cut up into city 
blocks. Today nothing remains as a landmark excepting the two 
names, Kalorama Road and Decatur St., marking approximately the 
northern and southern limits of Kalorama. 

Adjacent on S St., No. 2040, is now (1922) the Czecho- 
slowkian Legation. r. 

Four blocks N. of S St., Connecticut Ave. intersects 
I Wyoming Ave. East on Wyoming Ave., No. 185 1, was the 
residence of Josephus Daniels while Secretary of the Navy. 
North from here Connecticut Ave. curves slightly west- 
ward, between a series of apartment houses, to the eastern 
bank of Rock Creek. The Connecticut Ave. bridge, com- 
I pleted in 1906, was designed by George S. Morrison, under 
supervision of Edward P. Casey, consulting architect. At 
each end of the bridge are a pair of Lions, moulded in con- 
crete, which critics have described as "presumably modeled 
from an extremely old lion, dragged from his cage in a 
dying condition." The sculptor has wisely refrained from 
attaching his signature. The rather fine series of bronze 
standards which support the electric lamps, at the approach 
and throughout the bridge, were designed by the /. L. Mott 
Co., Nezv York. 

(For Connecticut Ave. Extended see p. 440) 

c. Massachusetts Avenue 

^Massachusetts Avenue starts opposite the District Alms 
House at 19th and D .Sts. S. E.. and runs in a northwesterly 
direction parallel to and about half a mile N. of Pennsylvania 
Ave., to 23d and R Sts. N. W., from which point its extension 
>j runs due N. W. to the District boundary. Its course is inter- 
rupted by Lincoln Sq. (p. 366), Stanton Sq. (p. 366), the 
Union Station Plaza (p. 358), Mt. Vernon Sq. (p.. 226), Thomas 



226 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

Circle (p. 220) Scott Circle (p. 200) and Dupont Circle 
(p. 224). Total length about eight miles. 

Until recently Massachusetts Ave., between 9th St. and 
Rock Creek, had for a quarter of a century been a leading 
residential street, especially favored by the foreign Diplomatic 
Corps. The steady trend of fashionable life northward has 
already materially changed the aspect of the Avenue, and 
there are a notable number of vacant houses.^ The German 
Embassy still remains here in lonesome isolation. 

Although its prestige is already waning, Massachusetts Ave. is one 
of the comparatively modern streets. It is interesting to read the im- 
pressions of the English novelist, Anthony Trollope, recorded as late 
as 1862: 

"Massachusetts Ave. runs the whole length of the city, and is 
inserted in the maps as a full-grown street about four miles in length. 
Go there, and you will find yourself not only ou* of town away among 
the fields, but you will find yourself beyond the fields in an uncultivated, 
unchained wilderness. Tucking your trousers up to your knees, you 
will wade through the bogs; you will lose yourself among rude hillocks; 
you will be out of reach of humanity." 

There is little of interest on the Avenue between North 
Capitol and 9th Sts. Between 'North Capitol and 1st Sts., 
on N. side is the Hotel Harris (p. 4). Where the Avenue 
intersects H and 3d Sts., and again at I and 6th Sts., are 
two small triangular parks. 

The Public Library of the District of Columbia (PI. 
Ill — E-IV — No. 73) occupies the cenlter of .Mlt. Vernon 
Square, at the intersection of Massachusetts and New York 
Aves. The white marble building, on the classic order, was 
the gift of the late Andrew Carnegie, and was constructed 
under the supervision of Bernard R. Green, superintendent of 
construction for the Library of Congress. 

History. The establishment of the Public Library was largely 
due to the efforts of Theodore W. Noyes, editor of the Evening Star, 
who; has been president of the Library's board of trustees ever since its 
establishment. The library was created by the Act of June 3, 1896; 
and a nucleus of 12,4121 volumfes was provided by the Washington City 
Free Library, a voluntary institution supported by private contributions, 
which turned over its collection when an appropriation for opening the 
new library was made in 1898. The central library building, formally 
dedicated Jan. 7, 1903, cost $375,000. Mr. Carnegie also offered $350,000 
(or more if needed) for branch library buildings, the first of which, 
the Takoma Park Branch, was accepted by permission of Congress, and 
opened Nov., 191 1; the second, the Southeastern Branch, costing $67,000, 
will be ready late in 1922; located 7th St. & Penn. Ave. S» E. 

Owing to the lack of a full system of branches, the Public Library 
utilizes more than 150 other agencies for the distribution of books, 
including various deposit stations in social settlements; in the central 
Y. M. C. A. building; the District Building; seven public high-school 
libraries; 85 graded schools, etc. It circulates more than 1,000,000 
volumes annually. The library is supported almost wholly from Con- 
gressional appropriations. It hasj had but two chief librarians: Weston 
Flint, until 1904, and since then George F. Bowerman. 



OTHER RESIDENTIAL STREETS 227 

Resources. Approximately 250,000 volumes; also a large collection 
of newspaper and magazine cuttings, comprising very useful material, 
especially that relating to the history of Washington; about 60,000 
unmounted pictures and 135 maps relating to) the District of Columbia. 

A portrait of Theodore W. Noyes, president of the Board of 
trustees, has recently been hung in the main delivery room. Richaru' 
S. Meriman, artist. 

At the N. W. cor. of Massachusetts Ave. and 9th St., 
diagonally facing the Sq., stands the new home of the 
American Federation of Labor (founded 1881). It is a 
seven-story structure of limestone, terra-cotta and buff brick, 
resting upon a granite foundation. (Milburn, Heister & Co., 
architects.) The cornerstone bears the inscription, "This edi- 
fice erected for service in the cause of Labor — Justice — 
^Freedom — Humanity, 1915-1916." On the 9th St. facade is 
the Seal of the Society in terra-cotta, showing the globe 
with two hands clasped across the sea, with the motto, 
Labor omnia vincit. The President of this organization is 
Samuel Gompers. 

The American Federation of Labor, now 36 years old, has in its 
affiliations 86 National and International Trade Unions, which have in 
turn upward of 30,000 local branches, with a membership of approxi- 
mately 1,882,500; also 489 Federal local Unions with 23,763 members. 

Of course the so-called Labor Movement in the United States goes 
far back of 1881. Some of the Unions are quite old^ as, for instance, 
the International Typographical Union of Washington, D. C, which 
dates from 1852. Some of the local Trade Unions which make up the 
National organizations affiliated with the Federation, date back more 
than a century. For example, the Washington (D. C.) Printer's Union 
was organized in 1815. 

Opposite the Federation building, at the angle between 
Massachusetts Ave. and K. St., stands the National Methodist 
Episcopal Church South, erected at a cost of approximately 
$250,000. 

The Church of the Ascension, at the N. W. cor. of 
Massachusetts Ave. and 12th St., dates from 1874. It is on 
the order of early English decorated Gothic, of gray lime- 
stone, with brownstone trim. 

History. The church was organized in 1844, in a small school- 
house at the corner of 9th and H Sts. The first church edifice was 
erected on H St., between 9th and 10th Sts., on grounds now occupied 
by the Medical Department of Georgetown University, and was due 
chiefly to the generosity of Mrs. John Van Ness (Marcia Burnes). 
The first rector was Dr. Pinckney (subsequently P. E. Bishop of Mary- 
land, and nephew of the famous Maryland lawyer, William Pinckney). 
He was a life-long friend of William W. Corcoran, who was a member 
of the Vestry, and who subsequently erected the monument in memory 
of Dr. Pinckney in Oak Hill Cemetery (p. 479). During the War of 
the Rebellion, Dr. Pinckney, being a Southern sympathizer, gave 
offence to the Government by refusing to pray for northern victory. 
Consequently he found himself one Sunday debarred from entering his 
church by a guard standing with fixed bayonets. Dr. Pinckney subse- 
quently pleaded that his refusal to offer such prayers was based upon a 



2i8 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

church law prohihiting any addition to or subtraction from the prescribed 
service of the church; and in this he was sustained by the House of 
Bishops. 

No. 131 1, former home of Mr. E. Francis Riggs, banker (for many 
years partner of W. W. Corcoran). No. 13 12, Academy of the Holy 
Cross No 1 3 14, former home of Mr Justice Morris of the District 
Supreme Court No. 13 18, former home of J. Stanley-Brown, Secretary 
to President Garfield, and his wife, Mollie Garfield. No. 1326, former 
residence of Robert T. Lincoln, Secretary, of War under Arthur. 

In Thomas Circle, situated at the intersection of Massa- 
chusetts and Vermont Aves. and 14th St., is a notable equestrian 
bronze *statue, heroic size, of Maj. -General George H. 
Thomas (horn 1816), by /. Q. A. Ward. The statue was 
erected in 1879 by the Society of the Army of the Cumber- 
land, at a cost of $40,000. It is supported by a pedestal of 
Virginia granite 16 ft. high, which was the gift of Congress, 
and cost $25,000. 

No. 1406 Massachusetts Ave. is the present Venezuelan 
Legation. 

No. 1407 Massachusetts Ave. was the residence of the late Rt. Rev. 
Henry Y. Satterlee, the first Protestant Episcopal Bishop of Washington. 
No. 1413, former residence of Thomas F. Bayard, Secretary of State, 
and first Ambassador to Great Britain. Senators William B. Allison 
and Shelby M. Cullum also once resided here. No. 1421, former resi- 
dence of S H. Kaufman, proprietor of the Evening Star. No. 141 5, 
former residence of Samuel F. Miller, Justice of the Supreme Court 
during 1862-90. Nos. 1423-37, the German Embassy. No. 1445, former 
residence of the late Spencer F. Baird, Secretary of the Smithsonian 
Institution. No. 1500, now occupied by ex- Vice-President Levi P. 
Morton, was former residence of Elihu Root while Secretary of State. 
No. 1515, former residence of George Shiras, Justice of the Supreme 
Court during 1892-1903. 

The Louise Home occupies the block on the S. side of the Avenue, 
between 15th and 16th Sts. It was founded by William W. Corcoran 
as a Home for aged gentlewomen who have met with reverses, and was 
named in memory of his wife (Louise Morris) and his daughter Louise, 
who married Hon. George Custis of Louisiana. 

_ The Louise Home, consisting of three stories and a mansard, was 
designed by G. E. Lind, of Baltimore. It contains a portrait of Mrs. 
Ogle Tayloe, by Daniel Huntington. 

At Scott Circle (p. 200) Massachusetts Ave. intersects Rhode 
Island Ave., N and 16th Sts. 

No. 1601 Massachusetts Ave. was the home of the late William 
Windham when Secretary of the Treasury. No. 1603, former home of 
the late Stilson Hutchins, for many years proprietor of the Washington 
Post. No. 162 1, former home of Ainsworth R. Spofford, for thirty-three 
years Librarian of the Congressional Library. No. 1631 is nofwi (1922) 
the Legation of the Dominican Republic. 

Southwest < corner; of 17th St., light stone building, is the old home 
of Beriah Wilkins, editor and proprietor of the Washington Post. 
Opposite No. 1 70 1, residence of Redfield Proctor when Secretary of 
War; later the home of Bishop Hearst. Na. 1707 is, now (1922) the 
Bolivian Legation. No. i7o"8, first Washington home of Thomas' Nelson 
Page (1894-97). No. 1709, former home of William Gibbs McAdoo, 
Secretary of the Treasury. No. 1714, formerly occupied (about 1886) 
by the Legation of Sweden and Norway. No. 1715, the present Greek 
Legation. No. 1730, former Spanish Legation (about 1890). No. 1735, 
home of William Crozier, Brig-General and Chief of Ordnance. 



OTHER RESIDENTIAL STREETS 221) 

The Force Public School, Nos. 1738-44, a red brick struc- 
ture on the S. side of the Ave., is one of the most notable 
primary schools in Washington because of the many sons of 
famous men who have attended it. The list includes : James 
Garfield, grandson of President Garfield ; Theodore, Archibald 
and Quentin Roosevelt, sons of President Roosevelt; and 
Charles Taft, son of ex-President (now Chief Justice) Taft. 
In the school yard is a memorial tree planted for Quentin 
Roosevelt, who died in the Air Service in France during the 
World War. 

No. 1765, for twenty-five years the Washington home of Senator 
Henry Cabot Lodge. No. 1770, the later home (from 1890 onward) of 
Mrs. Frances Hodgson Burnett. No. 1780, now occupied (19 22 ) by 
the Belgian Embassy. 

Northeast corner of 18th St.: here for several years was the 
Spanish Legation, down to the outbreak of the War in 1898. Diagonally 
opposite, No. 1800 Massachusetts Ave., is the former home of the late 
Chief Justice Melville W. Fuller. It was subsequently occupied by 
Senator Charles W. Fairbanks; and in 19 10 was the Argentine Legation. 

At 19th and P Sts., where Massachusetts, Connecticut 
and New Hampshire Aves, intersect, is Dupont Circle (p. 224 ) . 

No. 1 91 5 Massachusetts Ave. is the former residence of Senatoi 
William A. Clark of Montana. No. 2010, residence of Grace Denio 
Litchfield, the novelist. No. 201 1, until 19 16 the Belgian Legation. 
No. 2013, former residence of the late Charles M. Ffoulke, whose col- 
lection of tapestries was ranked as one of the finest private collections 
in the world. No. 2019 is the residence of Supreme Court Justice 
Mahlon Pitney. 

Southeast corner of 21st St., one of Washington's finest private 
residences, built by the late Thomas F. Walsh, and said to have cost 
$3,000,000. No. 21 11, former home of ex-Senator Edmonds of Vermont. 
It was occupied from 1895 onward by Mrs. U. S. Grant and her 
daughter, Mrs. Algernon Sartoris (Nellie Grant). No. 21 18, residence 
of Larz Anderson, former Minister to Japan. No. 221 1, residence of 
Mrs. Sheridan, widow of General Philip Sheridan. 

At 23d and R Sts. the Avenue reaches Sheridan Circle. 
Here stands the equestrian statue of General Philip Sheridan, 
by Gutzon Borglum, erected by Congress in 1909, at a cost 
of $60,0000. 

One square W. on Q St. we reach the new *Roek Creek 
i Bridge (1916), designed jointly by Glenn Brown and his son 
Bedford Brown. It is a curved structure, somewhat on the 
fashion of a Roman Aqueduct, but is built exclusively rf 
American materials and ornamented with American symbols. 
The corbels start with Indian heads, modeled after the life- 
mask of "Kicking Bear," now in the 'National Museum. Each 
end of the bridge is flanked by a pair of American Bison 
(A. Phimister Proctor, sculptor). 

(For Massachusetts Avenue Extended see p. 442). 



2 3 o RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

d. The Numbered Streets East of Sixteenth Street 

Fifteenth Street north from Pennsylvania Avenue. 
The three blocks on 15th St., from the point where Penn- 
sylvania Ave. is interrupted by trie Executive Grounds, to 
its resumption where New York Ave. diverges to the N. E., 
are occupied on L. by the Treasury Building (p. 122). Oppo- 
site, from Pennsylvania Ave. to F St., is the new Wash- 
ington Hotel (p. 3). At No. 613 15th St. is the National 
Metropolitan Bank, a white marble building on the classic 
order, designed by B. Stanley Simmons. This, the second 
oldest banking institution in Washington, was organized in 
1814 as the Bank of the Metropolis. Its first President was 
John )P. Van GNTessi (p. 170). 

At the S. E. cor. of 15th and G Sts., on the site of the 
old Riggs House, stands the Riggs Office Building, an eight- 
story structure, with a frontage of 116 and 178 ft. respec 
tively, designed by /. H. de Sib our. It contains Keith's 
Theatre (p. 25), the auditorium of which rises to the sixth 
floor level. 

The upper floor and roof are occupied by the National 
Press Club, which, from an original membership of fifty men 
organized in 1908, now has upward of a thousand members, 
including some of the most prominent men in the country, 
such as: the President of the United States, several Cabinet 
members and the Governors of two states, who prior to hold- 
ing office had joined the club as writers, reporters or pub- 
lishers. 

At the N. E. cor. of 15th St. and New York Ave. is the 
National Savings and Trust Company, the oldest Savings 
Bank in the city. Opposite, at the N. W. cor. of 15th St. 
and Pennsylvania Ave., the American Surety and Trust 
Company occupies the site of the old Bank of the United 
States. 

The intersection of 15th and H Sts. is marked by some of 
the finest office buildings in Washington. At the S. E. cor. 
stands the Woodward Building. At the S. W. cor. is the 
Union Trust Company {Wood, Bonn and Deming, archi- 
tects). At the N. E. cor. is the Southern Building. 

The N. W. cor. is occupied by the Hotel Shoreham 
(p. 3), one of Washington's leading ihotels, occupying the 
site of a historic dwelling, originally built for Samuel Har- 
rison Smith of the National Intelligencer, and afterwards 
owned by Representative Samuel Hopper and temporarily 
occupied by Gen. George B. McClellan when he was restored 
to the Command of the Army of the Potomac by Lincoln in 
1862. 



OTHER RESIDENTIAL STREETS 231 

No. 817 15th St. was once the home of Gen. William 
T. Sherman. No. 821 was the home of James G. Blaine, 
during the Hayes administration. 

Between I and K Sts., 15th St. passes McPherson Square, 
crossing Vermont Ave.; for historic houses at intersection 
with I and K Sts. respectively, see p. 220. 

On the W. side of 15th St., between L and M Sts., stands 
St. Augustine's Church, the largest R. C. colored church in 
the United States, founded in 1863. The present building, 
dedicated in 1874, contains some interesting windows. Oppo- 
site, at No. 1 147, is the Episcopal Eye, Ear and Throat 
Hospital. 

Grace Reformed Church, at the N. E. cor. of 15th and 
I Q Sts., was organized in 1877, and was attended by Theodore 
Roosevelt throughout the years of his official life in Wash- 
ington. The present structure, erected in 1901, is of gray 
limestone, on the Gothic order. Above the main doorway 
are carved the shields of Zurich and Geneva. The church 
contains some excellent windows, best seen by afternoon 

• light. The Roosevelt pew is No. 5, on the N. side of the 
( central aisle. 

There is nothing of interest to the casual visitor N. of 

* this point. 

Fourteenth Street north from Pennsylvania Avenue. 
/ On W. side, from Pennsylvania Ave. to F St., is the New 
Willard Hotel (p. 3). Opposite, at S. E. cor. of F St., is 
the Ebbitt House (p. 3). Just above G St., 14th St. inter- 
sects New York Ave. East on H St., No. 1333, is the George 
Washington Hospital. 

One block E., at the angle where New York Ave. inter- 
sects H St., stands the New York Avenue Presbyterian 
Church, a sombre structure of red brick with brownstone 
trim. The main entrance, facing E. toward the apex of 
the triangle, is adorned with a Roman-Corinthian portico 
and pediment, and is reached by incongruous curving iron 
stairways. 

This church has been attended by many Presidents, including John 

1 CJuincy Adams, Andrew Jackson, W. H. Harrison, Millard Fillmore, 

Franklin Pierce, James Buchanan, Abraham Lincoln, Andrew Johnson, 

Benjamin Harrison (before his Presidency) ; also Associate Justice 

Harlan. 

At the opposite apex to the E., at 13th St. and New 
York Ave., stands the Masonic Temple, a gray limestone 
I structure, designed by Wood, Donn and Deming. It con- 
tains a large auditorium used at present mainly for 
ii.oving pictures; also the rooms of the Grand Lodge Library 



232 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

and the George Washington University Law Library. 
On the N. side of H St , facing the New York Avenue 
Presbyterian Church, at No. 1335' H St., stands the George 
Washington Hospital. No. 1325 is the site of the former 
home of the widow of Alexander Hamilton, first Secretary 
of the Treasury. 

North on 14th St. we reach, at I St. (on E.), Franklin 
Park, occupying the entire square bounded by I and K, 
14th and 15th Sts., and comprising approximately four acres. 
Midway, on the 14th St. side, stands a bronze statue, heroic 
size, of John Barry, Commodore U. S. N. (1745-1803). It 
surmounts a lofty white granite base, in front of which, also 
of white granite, is a female figure representing Freedom, as 
indicated by the symbolic eagle and Liberty cap (erected 1914. 
John J. Boyle, sculptor). 

It is a matter of history that when the Indian tribes of this 
vicinity met in Counqil on the peninsula formed by the Eastern 
Branch and the Potomac River, many a war-dance was celebrated in 
the present Franklin Park. In the early years of the history of 
Washington it became a truck garden, connected with the Van Ness 
estate (p. 170). At the outbreak of the Civil War it was the site of 
the encampment of the 12th New York Volunteers, commanded by 
Gen. Daniel Butterfield. 

Diagonally opposite the Park, at the N. E. cor. of 14th 
and K Sts., is the remodelled New Hamilton Hotel (p. 5) 
and at N. E. cor. the Franklin Square Hotel (p. 5). 

One block N., at the S. E. cor. of L. St., formerly stood 
the All Souls' Unitarian Church. The new church edifice is 
now in course of erection at 16th and Harvard Sts. (p. 203). 

History. The First Unitarian Church dates from 1820, 
when a small congregation met in a room over some public 
baths on C St., between 4^ and 6th Sts., to listen to the 
sermons of a certain Robert Little. In Nov., 1821 the church 
was organized, its founders including John Quincy Adams, 
John C. Calhoun, the two Joseph Gales, Sr. and Jr. and 
William Winston Seaton (the last two named being propri- 
etor and editor of the National Intelligencer, Washington's 
pioneer newspaper), and Charles Bulfinch, the architect. 
The first church edifice, designed by Bulfinch and dedicated 
in 1822, stood on the N. E. cor. of 6th and D Sts., where 
it served its purpose for 55 years. During this time it 
numbered among its pastors the Rev. Edward Everett Hale 
(Oct., 1844 to March, 1845) ; the Rev. Moncure Daniel Con- 
way (1855-56) ; and the Rev. Samuel Longfellow, brother 
of the poet. The Rev. William Henry Channing was pastor 
during the Civil War, and was the first clergyman in Wash- 
ington to offer his church for use as a war hospital. The 



OTHER RESIDENTIAL STREETS 233 

offer was accepted, and in return the congregation was given 
the use of the Senate Chamber for Sunday services. 

The old church bell, said to be the first in the city, and 
later transferred to the present edifice, was cast in a foundry 
established by Paul Revere, near Boston. Dr. Shippen, one 
of the later pastors, says : 

"Down to 1861 this bell was rung for public purposes. I 
am informed that it tolled a requiem for John Brown on the 
day of his death. Thenceforward it was., denounced by some 
as an abolition bell, and in the exciting times of 1861 its use 
by the city authorities was discontinued/' 

This earliest church was attended by two Presidents, John 
Qui^cy Adams and Millard Fillmore. The second struc- 
ture, dedicated as All Souls', in place of the earlier name of 
First Unitarian, was attended for many years by President 
Taft, who before his election occupied a rear seat near the 
N. W. cor. The Presidential pew was No. 27, 3d pew on L. 
of South aisle (the Sexton explaining that this change of pews 
was necessary, "to keep the congregation from turning their 
heads to look at the President"). 

At M St., 14th St. is interrupted by Thomas Circle, where 
Massachusetts and Vermont Ave. intersect. In the centre of 
the Circle stands a monument* to Gen. George H. Thomas 
(1816-70). This statue, in bronze, of heroic size (19 ft.), 
and considered one of the finest equestrian statues in this 
country, was erected with great ceremony in 1879, by the 
Society of the Army of the Cumberland (/. Q. A. Ward, 
sculptor). The total cost was $65,000, to which the fore- 
named Society contributed $40,000. The balance, furnished 
by Congress, paid for the cost of the pedestal, including the 
bronze ornamental lamps, and insignia of the Army of the 
Cumberland. 

General Thomas was a West Point graduate, who had fought in 
the Seminole and Mexican Wars, and had been an instructor at West 
Point. From Major of Volunteer Cavalry he rose to Major-General in 
the regular army, and is remembered as the "Rock of Chickamauga," 
and hero of Nashville. 

At the N. apex of 14th St. and Vermont Ave. stands the 
statue of Martin Luther (p. 221). 

At 14th and N Sts. is the Lutheran Eye, Ear and Throat 
Infirmary. Just N., at No. 1321, is the Northern Dispensary 
and Emergency Hospital. 

At 14th and S Sts. is the Washington City Orphan 
Asylum. _ Here during 1866-67 the State Department was 
temporarily housed, and here, in 1867, the purchase of Alaska 
was arranged. 



234 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

Beyond this point there is nothing of interest to the 
casual visitor. 

e. The Numbered Streets West of Sixteenth Street 

Seventeenth Street north from Pennsylvania Ave- 
nue. Passing the old Corcoran Art Gallery (p. 194), we 
reach, at H St., S. W. cor., the five-story club-house of the 
Metropolitan Club, the wealthiest and most fashionable of 
the social clubs in Washington. According to the constitu- 
tion it was organized "for literary, mutual improvement and 
social purposes." Diagonally opposite, at the N. E. cor. of 
17th and H Sts., is the Richmond Hotel (p. 4.), where Sen- 
ator George F. Hoar formerly lived. Between I and K Sts. 
17th St. passes Farragut Square, crossing Connecticut Ave. 
(p. 222) ; for historic houses at intersection with I and K Sts., 
see pp. 235 and 237. 

North of this point there is little to interest the tourist. 
At the S. E. cor. of P St. stands the Plymouth Congrega- 
tional Church. Just E., No. 1620 P St., is the house in which 
Prof. Simon Newcomb, America's greatest astronomer, lived 
and died. 

East of 1 8th St. on Rhode Island Ave. is St. Matthew's, 
one of Washington's leading R. C. churches. At the :S. W. 
cor. of N St. is the former residence of Justice Stanley 
Matthews (served 1881-89). East on N St., No. 1775, was 
the residence of Elihu Root, while Secretary of War, and 
later the home of Senator Chauncey M. Depew. No. 1734 
N St. was formerly the Uruguay Legation. 

West on N St., No. 1810, is the house in which Theodore 
Roosevelt resided while Assistant Secretary of the Navy. 
Just beyond, No. 1820 'N St., formerly housed the Swedish 
Legation. 

No. 1323 18th St. is the residence of Robert Lansing, 
former Secretary of State. The house at the N. E. cor. of 
P St. was once the home of former Secretary of the Treasury, 
Daniel Manning. Opposite, at N. W. cor. of P St., is the 
home of Miss Mabel Thorp Boardman, of world-wide distinc- 
tion for her services in behalf of the Red Cross Society. East 
on P St., No. 1763, was the home of Mollie Elliott Sewell, 
the novelist. 

Midway between P and Q Sts., at S. E. cor. of 18th and 
Church Sts., is the attractive little P. E. church of St. 
Thomas. It contains a number of fine memorial windows : 

Over Altar, "In the beginning God created the heavens and the 
earth," Genesis 1, 1 (13 panels). Nave, S. side: 1. St. Hilda; 2. St. 
Aidan (memorial window to Maj. E. K. Webster, U.S.A., 1852-1911); 
3. St. Augustine; 4. Queen Bertha; §, St. Colomba; 6. St. Patrick; 



OTHER RESIDENTIAL STREETS 230 

7. St. Aiban; 8. Joseph of Arimathea. Nave, N. side; i. Venerable 
Bede; 2. St. Swithin; 3. Stephen Langton; 4. William Laud; 7- Queen 
Anne; 8. Bishop Seabury. In vestibule, N. window: "Many shall come 
from the East, (three panels). S. window: "Thomas said, 'My Lord 
and my God.'" St. John xx, 28 (three panels). 

On the E. wall of the N. transept is a memorial tablet to Archibald 
Grade, commemorating his rescue from the steamship Titanic, April 
15th, 1912, and also the fact that, shortly before his death the following 
December, he "proclaimed in this church that his rescue was due to 
the power of prayer." 

At the N. E. cor. of 18th and Q Sts. is the house in which 
John Lee Carroll, former Governor of Maryland, lived and 
died. 

Midway between Q and R Sts., on Corcoran St., No. 
1806, is the Argentine Embassy (1922). 

East on 18th St., at No. 1759, is the home of Thomas 
Nelson Page, formerly occupied by the Italian Embassy. No. 
1742 R St. is the residence of Brig.-Gen. Ernest A. Garlington, 
who commanded the Greely Relief Expedition in 1885. 

Half a mile further N., at the intersection of 18th and 
Columbia Road, is the site of the ill-fated Knickerbocker 
Theatre, which during a severe blizzard in Jan., 1922, suddenly 
collapsed upon the audience during progress of a performance, 
killing approximately 100 persons. A new theatre is now 
(May, 1922) in course of erection. 

Nineteenth Street North of Pennsylvania Avenue. 
No. 1215 19th Ct., between M and N Sts., is the house in 
which Theodore Roosevelt resided while Civil Service Com- 
missioner. No. 2001 19th St., at N. E. cor. of U St., is the 
Chinese Legation (1922). The edifice was designed by 
B. Stanley Simmons. 

On the north-and-south streets W. of 19th St. there is 
little of interest to the stranger. 

f. I Street 

The only lettered streets in the residential section which 
offer sufficient attractions to the visitor to require separate 
sections are I and K Sts. Whatever points of interest are 
to be found in the other lettered streets to the north will be 
found in the chapters devoted to the nearest adjacent ave- 
nues or numbered streets. 

Aside from the squares E. of 3d St. (see North Capitol 
St. Section, p. 356), there is nothing- to interest the visitor 
until we reach the N.E. cor. of I and 13th Sts., where the 
Garfield Apartment House, facing Franklin Sq. (p. 237), 
occupies the site of the home of James A. Garfield while a 
member of Congress. 

No. 1415 I St. is the former home of Chief Justice Morrison R. 
Waite (18 1 6-88). At the N. E. cor. of I and 15th Sts. is the Bellevue 



236 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

Hotel (p. 5)- No. 1535, a red-brick dwelling with mansard roof, was 
the residence of James G. Berret, Mayor of Washington during the 
Civil War. 

I St. now crosses 16th St. (p. 199). No. 1614 I St. was 
formerly the Ecuador Legation. No. 1617 is the former 
residence of the late George W. Riggs, for many years 
partner of W. W. Corcoran. It is now occupied by his 
daughters. No. 163 1, now included in the site of the Army 
and Navy Club, was the home of Benjamin F. Tracey while 
Secretary of the Navy, and the scene of the tragic fire in 
which Mrs. Tracey lost her life. 

No. 1634 I iSt. is now occupied by the American Associa- 
tion of University Women, which was recently obliged to 
vacate its first Washington home, the Stockton House, when 
the latter property was acquired by the Chamber of Commerce 
of the United States (p. 222). 

The American Association of University Women was formed in 
Boston in 1882 for the purpose of opening educational opportunities to 
women. Today it represents eighty colleges and universities and its 
membership numbers many thousands. The purchase of a national head- 
quarters was authorized at the biennial convention in St. Louis in 19 19. 
The money for alterations and furnishings of the club house was 
raised by gifts and loans from college women throughout the country. 
$15,000 for the furnishings was pledged by the alumnae of six of the 
larger colleges, while those of Wellesley College gave the furnishings 
of the large lounge on the ground floor. The reception room was fur- 
nished by the daughters of former Secretary Lamont in the name of 
Elmira College, and to the memory of their mother, who occupied the 
house for many years. All of the furnishings and memorials were 
removed from the Stockton House and will occupy corresponding posi- 
tions in the Association's! new home. 

No. 1708 I St. was, in the early 8o's, the residence of Postmaster- 
General Timothy O. Howe. No. 1710, former residence of Mrs. Stanley 
Matthews. No. 171 1, former residence of Paymaster-General Watmough, 
U. S. N. No. 1720, residence of Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wen- 
dell Holmes. No. 1728, once the home of Charles Goodyear, in- 
ventor of vulcanized rubber. 

The Freiinghuysen House, a dignified old mansion with 
Corinthian columns, was successively the home of four Cab- 
inet officers : Theodore Freiinghuysen, and William M. 
Evarts, while respectively Secretary of State; William C. 
Whitney, as Secretary of the Navy; and John Wanamaker, 
as Postmaster-General. Subsequently it was acquired by S. 
S. Howland, son-in-law of August Belmont. No. 1736 was 
the last residence of Jefferson Davis in Washington. 

No. 1801 I St., at N. W. cor. of 18th St., was built by 
Marshall Brown, father-in-law of Richard Wallach, Mayor 
of Washington. Here was held the first International Amer- 
ican Conference, at which the Pan-American Union was es- 
tablished. The United States delegates included James D. 
Blaine and Andrew 1 Carnegie. 



OTHER RESIDENTIAL STREETS 237 

Nos. 1809-13 are occupied by the Friends' Meeting House 
and School. No. 1826 was the residence of the late Rear 
Admiral Schley. No. 1828 was formerly (about 1878) the 
Austro-Hungarian Legation. No. 1829 was for about ten 
years (until 1902) the Russian! Emibassy. 

At 20th St., Pennsylvania Ave. intersects I St. obliquely, 
dividing the broad open rectangle thus formed into two tri- 
angular parks. On the N. side of this rectangle stands No. 
2005 I St., former home of General T. B. Rucker, U.S.A., 
father of General Sherman's widow. No. 2013, residence of 
Admiral Selfridge. No. 2015, residence of General Robert 
Macfeely, U.S.A. No. 2017, now the home of the new Arts 
Club, of which the sculptor H. K. Bush-Brown is president. 
The ibuilding was occupied for a short time by President 
Madison after he left the Octagon House (p. 209), and 
later by Monroe while Madison's Secretary of State. 

Opposite, across the park, at No. 2018 I St., is the house of Prof. 
Cleveland Abbe (b. 1838), who in 1869 inaugurated daily weather 
forecasts, and became widely known as "Old Probs." 

g. K Street from 11th Street to Rock Creek 
K St., W. of nth St., has many interesting associations 
and contains the former homes of more distinguished people 
than any other one of the lettered streets. 

No. 1 1 01, at N. W. cor. of nth and K Sts., is the Strwthmore 
Arms, former home of Mrs. Mary J. Lockwood, author of "Historic 
Houses in Washington." No. 1141, former home of John M. Wilson, 
once Superintendent of Public) Grounds and Buildings and Chief of 
Engineers, U.S.A. A,t the S. W. cor. of 12th St. is the parsonage of the 
New York Avenue Presbyterian Church (p. 231). Opposite, at No. 
1203 K St., was the home of Commander A. S. Wadsworth. Here his 
nephew, Henry W. Longfellow, stayed when visiting Washington in 
1839. No. 121 1 was successively the home of the French and the 
Belgian Legations. 

K St. here passes Franklin Park (on S.). The large red 
brick dwelling at the N. W. cor. of K and 13th Sts. was the 
Mexican Legation at the close of the Civil War; subse- 
quently it was occupied by the Netherlands Legation, and 
was, for a time, the home of Senator Roscoe Conkling. No. 
1303, immediately adjoining it, was the home of Supreme 
Court Justice Noah H. Swain (1804-84). No. 1307 is the 
house used for the meetings of the Joint High Commission, 
which framed the Treaty of Washington, settling the 
Alabama Claims ; and here the treaty was signed May 8th, 
1 87 1. No. 131 1 is the house built by Ben Holiday, who 
operated a Pony Express across the continent before the 
Union Pacific Railway was built. Later it was successively 
the home of J. W. Noble, Secretary of the Interior, and of 
Justice Howell E. Jackson. 



238 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

The S. E. cor. of 13th and K Sts. is occupied by the 
Franklin School. 

No. 1321, a large gray limestone house with elaborately 
carved Facade, was built by Secretary of State John Sher- 
man, who lived and died here. No. 1323, once the residence 
of Edward M. Stanton, Secretary of War, who died here. 
No. 1403, one of the former homes of Senator Arthur P. 
Gorman. No. 1426, former residence of John G. Carlyle 
(Ky.), Speaker of the House, U. S. Senator and Secretary 
of the Treasury. No. 1428, former home of Admiral 
Worden, Commander of the Monitor during her fight with 
the Merrimac. No. 1432, former home of Supreme Court 
Justice Samuel Blatchford (1820-93). 

No. 1537 K St., a granite and yellow brick structure, 
was the home of Philander C. Knox while successively 
Attorney-General and Secretary of State. (For Anderson 
and Everts houses, at intersection with 16th St. see p. 199.) 

No. 1 601 K St. was the last home of Admiral George 
Dewey, who died here. No. 1603 K St. was the home of 
William H. Taft while Secretary of War, and here he 
received the news of his nomination for the Presidency. No. 
1609 was the former home of Senator Wetmore of Rhode 
Island ; also of one-time Postmaster General Wilson S. Bissell. 
No. 1612 was the residence of Robert Bacon while Assistant 
Secretary of State. No. 1623, formerly the home of Secretary 
of the Interior Hoke Smith, and later occupied by the Rev. 
Randolph Harrison McKim, when Rector of Epiphany Church. 
No. 1626, former home of Senator Stephen B. Elkins 
of Virginia. 

No. 1627 K St. is the residence of Col. Jerome Bona- 
parte, great-grandnephew of Napoleon. It is a conspicuous 
edifice in French 16th century Gothic {Gray and Pope, 
architects). No. 1632, on S. E. cor. of 17th St., was the home 
of the late Vinnie Ream Hoxie, wife of Lieut. R. L. Hoxie, 
U.S.A. 

Mrs. Hoxie (1847-1914) was one of the best known women sculptors 
in America. She studied under Bonnat in Paris, and under Majoli in 
Rome. While abroad she modeled Cardinal Antonelli and Liszt. Ex- 
amples of her work in Washington include the Lincoln statue in the 

Rotunda of the Capitol, Governor Kirkwood and Sequoyah, a Cherokee 
Chief (p. 96), both in Statuary Hall; Farragut, in Farragut Square 
(p. 222) and her own monument in Arlington Cemetery (p. 511). 

K St. now passes the northern end of Farragut Square 
(p. 222). Facing the Square, at the N. W. cor. of 17th St., 
is the house occupied by Charles W. Fairbanks when Vice- 
President. No. 1703, once the Chilean Legation, is now the 



OTHER RESIDENTIAL STREETS 239 

home of Charles Carroll Glover, a distinguished Washington 
financier, and President of the Riggs National Bank. 
No. 1705, site of former home of Don Cameron (about 
l &79) ; then successively Chinese and Russian Legations. It 
was erected and occupied by Alexander R. Shepherd after he 
was Governor. 

No. 1730 K St. was the earlier Washington home of Dr. 
Swan M. and Mrs. Frances Hodgson Burnett. "Little Lord 
Fauntleroy" was written here. 

Five squares W., at 2203 K St., is the home of Dr. 
Charles Greeley Abbot, Director, since 1907, of the Smith- 
sonian Astrophysical Observatory. 

One square further W., at Washington Circle, K St. and 
Pennsylvania intersect. Beyond, at Nos. 2506 and 2508, and 
still further W. at No. 2618-20 there still stand some ancient 
looking brick dwellings in fair preservation, although dating 
from 1798. They were built by Robert Peter, one of the 
Original Proprietors of Washington City, who married Martha 
Washington's granddaughter, Martha Parke Custis. When 
built they stood upon what was then the highway from 
Georgetown to the Capital City. George Washington was 
a frequent visitor at No. 2618-20 when it was occupied by the 
Peters ; and a bronze tablet beside the entrance records that 
he passed the night there on the occasion of his last visit to 
the Capital. 



2 4 o RIDER'S WASHINGTON 



WASHINGTON SOUTHWEST AND 
THE MALL 

I. The Mall from the Botanic Gardens to 
Fourteenth Street 

*The Mall (PI. Ill— E4), one of the main arteries of the 
city's park system, extends westward from the Capitol Grounds 
i J /2 miles, connecting with the Executive Grounds on the N. and 
with Potomac Park on the W. It comprises (from E. to W.) : 
1. The Botanical Gardens; 2. the Public Gardens; 3. Armory 
Square ; 4. the Smithsonian Grounds ; 5. the Agricultural 
Grounds; 6. the Monument Grounds. The first two of these 
divisions are triangular in shape; but W. of 6th St. the 
Mall has a uniform width of approximately a quarter-mile, 
extending from B St. North to B St. South. 

The E. end of the Mall abuts on First St., directly op- 
posite the western stairway and portico of the Capitol, and 
extends from the circle at the foot of Pennsylvania Ave., 
containing the Peace Monument (p. 97), to that at foot 
of Maryland Ave., occupied by the James A. Garfield Me- 
morial. This monument, the gift of the Society of the 
Army of the Potomac, was designed by /. Q. A. Ward, and 
consists of a standing portrait statue in bronze, heroic size, 
surmounting a lofty triangular pedestal, at the three cor- 
ners of which are three seated male figures, symbolizing 
The Student, The Warrior and The Statesman, — the three 
successive phases of Garfield's career. Erected in 1887 at 
a cost of $65,000, one-half of which was contributed by 
Congress to pay for the pedestal and symbolic figures. 

Radical changesi in the Mall are among the chief factors in the 
elaborate plans for beautifying Washington, as formulated by the Art 
Commission, and submitted to Congress in 1901. The leading features 
of these changes, which involved a protracted battle with one Con- 
gressional committee after another were: first, the complete removal 
of the Botanic Gardens, and restoration of the wide, open square 
contemplated in L'Enf ant's original plan; Fecondly, the substitution of 
a new main axis for the Mall, in place of the preselnt axis, for the 
purpose of rectifying the mistake or oversight of the builders of the 
Washington Monument in placing that Memorial more than 100 ft. 
southeast of the true line. This latter change was accomplished by 
drawing a new line from the Dome of the Capitol through the Wash- 
ington Monument, and prolonging it to the Potomac, to serve also as 
the axis for the Lincoln Memorial that was part of the Art Commission's 
plan. It was proposed also that all the central trees and shrubbery 



THE MALL 241 

should be cleared away, leaving a smooth carpet of greensward 300 ft. 
wide, with two lines of stately elms planted in columns of four, one 
column on each side, thus bringing the Monument into the vista of the 
Capitol, a mile and a half away. The new axis is now 1 an accomplished 
fact, and the three great Memorials to Washington, Lincoln and Grant 
conform to it. The Botanic Gardens, however, stubbornly hold their 
ground, and bid fair to delay for somej time to come the full realization 
of the Art Commission's plans. 

a. The Botanic Gardens 

The Botanic Gardens (PI. I — D3). These Gardens, oc- 
cupying the truncated triangle lying between Pennsylvania and 
New Jersey Aves., 1st and 3rd Sts., contain the Grant Memorial 
Monument, the Bartholdi Fountain, a number of fine old His- 
toric Trees, and a system of Conservatories housing rare plants 
from all parts of the world. The gardens are open to the 
public daily from sunrise to sunset ; conservatories open from 
8 a.m. to 4:30 p.m.; on Sunday only the main conservatory is 
open. 

History. The Botanic Gardens were established by the 
Columbian Institute for the Promotion of Arts and Sciences, 
incorporated by Act of Congress April 20th, 1818. The pres- 
ent site was granted by Congress in 1820 and there is a tradi- 
tion that George Washington contemplated the establishment 
of gardens in this locality. Up to 1836 no improvements had 
been made. The tract was a stagnant and malarial swamp, and 
Congress was prevailed upon to make an appropriation of 
$5000 for improvements, including pipes to convey the surplus 
water from the Capitol, and the purchase of a fountain to be 
designed by Hiram Pozvers. 

The real beginning, however, of the Botanic Gardens 
dates from the Wilkes Exploring Expedition of 1838-42. In 
the Naval Appropriation Act of May 14th, 1836, the Presi- 
dent was authorized to send out a surveying apd exploring 
expedition to the Pacific and South Seas. This expedition 
consisted of six Government ships, under Lieut. Charles 
Wilkes, U. S. N. They sailed August 18th, 1838. The staff 
included a botanist, W. D. Breckenridge, who brought back 
a large collection of specimens, including seeds and cuttings. 
This formed the nucleus of the Botanical collection. The 
present site, however, was not occupied until 1850, and the 
main conservatory building, a structure 30 ft. long, with a 
central dome 60 ft high, was not erected until 1867. 

The Gardens in their present location are a serious obstacle 

to the comprehensive scheme for beautifying Washington 

(P- 354). an d the present available space is wholly inadequate 

for the development of a National Botanic Garden on the 



242 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

same liberal lines as the Rock Creek Zoological Park. Yet, 
although their removal to some suburban tract has been stead- 
ily urged for more than 20 years, public indifference and active 
opposition have united to keep them where they are. As 
recently as Feb., 1922, a plan was announced for incorporating 
them as a part of the comprehensive scheme for beautifying 
Washington, through the acquisition of a broad strip of land 
south of the present gardens, all the way to the river. 

"Among scientists the Botanic Garden has no particular standing" 
for it has long been regarded as a joke, and quite unwoithy of the 
Government of the United States. Being under control of the Con- 
gressional Joint Committee on the Library, it is practically an inde- 
pendent institution wihout guidance, direction or responsibility." — 
Charles Moore. "Daniel H. Burnham." 

b. The Grant Memorial Monument 

The *Grant Memorial Monument (PI. I— D4), unveiled 
April 27, 1922, the centenary of Grant's birth, is situated at the 
end of the Botanical Gardens, with its center on the line of 
the newly established axis of the Mall, and a few feet S. of 
the old axis. This monument was authorized in February, 
1001, when Congress appropriated $250,000. In August, 1902, 
the contract was awarded for $240,000 to Edward Pearce 
Casey, architect, and Henry Merwin Shrady, sculptor, and 
constituted the largest Government contract thus far awarded 
for any single piece of monumental sculpture. There followed 
a protracted discussion regarding choice of location, the White 
House grounds and the Union Station Plaza being both 
strongly urged. Finally the present site, representing the 
choice of the Art Commission, and individually indorsed by 
Augustus Saint-Gaudens, Charles F. McKim, Daniel Chester 
French and other prominent artists, was decided upon. Work 
upon the foundation was begun _ October 7, 1907, but was 
stopped two days later by an injunction intended to prevent 
the necessary removal of three historic trees, including _ the 
Crittenden Peace Qak. There followed protracted hearings 
before the Joint Library Committee, which had the matter in 
charge. The opposition was headed by the venerable Dr. 
William R. Smith, for 55 years Superintendent of the Botanic 
Gardens. No decision was reached until Secretary Taft ap- 
peared before the Committee and emphatically stated that this 
site had been selected for the Grant Memorial, because it was 
an essential part of the Park Commission's comprehensive 
plans for improvement. The outcome was that the Crittenden 
and Beck trees were moved, and the work on the Memorial 
went forward. 






THE MALL 243 

In the course of these hearings the interesting fact was revealed 
that a large • proportion of the trees contained in it are historic^, having 
been planted 'by famous men, both Americans and foreigners. It was 
found necessary, however, to conceal the identity of these tree® from 
the public, as the only practical means of saving them from vandalism. 

The marble superstructure of the Memorial, 262 ft. long 
by 69 ft. in width, consists of a terraced platform surmounted 
by three pedestals, the central and loftiest of which supports 
an equestrian figure of Grant colossal heroic size. At the 
four corners of this pedestal are recumbent lions. The N. 
and S. pedestals support respectively spirited bronze groups 
representing Cavalry and Artillery. The third branch of 
the service, Infantry, will be represented in two bas-relief 
panels that are yet to be placed on the N. and S. sides of the 
main pedestal. These groups face inward, and picture a mad 
rush toward the center, across the wide stretch of white marble 
that separates them from the mounted figure of Grant. 

The General is portrayed wearing the familiar slouch hat 
and army cloak of his Civil War campaigns. His pose is that 
of a reviewing officer, and his characteristic serenity is empha- 
sized by the fiery spirit of the huge stallion he bestrides. This 
Memorial is said to be exceeded in height, among equestrian 
statues, only by that of Victor Emmanuel in Rome. Some idea 
of the size and proportions of the Memorial as a whole is con- 
veyed by the statement that the Cavalry group alone weighs 
15 tons. Special Artillery and Cavalry drills were given at 
West Point and other posts to aid the sculptor in the develop- 
ment of his design. Mr. Shrady spent upward of 15 years 
upon these sculptures. He died in New York April 13, 1922, 
just two weeks before the dedication of the Monument. 

At the ceremony of the unveiling, among those present 
were the Princess Cantacuzene, granddaughter of General 
Grant, and her little daughter Ida, who unveiled the statue. 
The principal speaker, Vice President Coolidge, characterized 
Grant as having "lived the great realities of life," adding that 
"as Lincoln could put truth into words, so Grant could put 
truth into action." 

"Few of the people who now gaze through the iron fence can 
realize the transformation planned when the Memorial to General Grant 
was located in the grounds of the Botanic Gardens ... Of the 
brains and heart's blood that have gone into this work,, the future will 
tell. Today it stands in the) alien company of an overpowering cast-iron 
fountain and towering greenhouses. Some day high wall and iron 
fence, fountain and greenhouses will be cast aside like a cocoon, and 
then will appear the great squarei designed by L'Enfant as the head of 
the Mall, with the Grant Memorial as its chief ornament." — Charles 
Moore. 



244 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

Midway in the gardens, and N. of the main conserva- 
tory, stands the Bartholdi Fountain, designed by Anguste Bar- 
tholdi, the French sculptor, who also designed the Statue of 
Liberty in New York Harbor. This fountain was one of the 
attractions at the Centennial Exposition of 1876, and cost 
$6000. 

The Historic Trees in the Gardens are not labelled, but can most 
of them, be easily identified. The Crittenden Oak, of the mossy overcup 
variety, stands close to the E. gate, and was planted by John J. 
Crittenden to mark the spot of a debate between several statesmen, 
in which he made a fine but unavailing 1 effort for peace between the 
North and South. A few feet S. of this oak stands the Beck-Washington 
Elm, a scion of the elm planted by Washington at the west front of 
the Capitol. The parent tree died from injury to its roots when the 
present marble terrace was constructed. One of the* most interesting 
trees is an Oriental Plane standing at the west end of the Gardens, 
the seed of which came from the Vale of Cashmere and was planted 
by Thaddeus Stevens. This and one other Plane Tree planted in 
Lincoln Square from the same consignment of seeds, are the parents of 
all the Oriental Plane trees in Washington. Near this parent Plane 
stand the following trees: a British Oak, planted by Mr. Bayard of 
Delaware, while American Ambassador to England, a cut-leaved Oriental 
Sycamore, planted by Senator Daniel Voorhies; and an American Oak, 
planted by President Hayes. Near the E. end of the conservatory is 
Jefferson Davis's Tree, a Monterey Cypress, aj species discovered in the 
mountains of the trans-Mississippi country by government explorers 
when seeking a practical trans-continental route. At. 'the S. front of the 
main conservatory are two tall Cypress trees of the Bald variety, 
planted respectively by John W. Forney, a journalist, and Edwin Forrest, 
the actor. Nearby is a Chinese Oak, raised from seed growing at the 
grave of Confucius. It was a gift from the garden of Charles A. Dana, 
and was planted by Representative Cummings of New York. On the S. 
walk of the Gardens are two Cedars of Lebanon, planted respectively by 
Senator Hoar and Senator Everts. Near the S. front of the Extra- 
Tropical greenhouse is the* Albert Pike Acacia, a tree of Masonry; and 
near it is another Acacia raised from a sprig of the Acacia wreath placed 
by Masons on the bier of Garfield. 

Beyond the Botanic Gardens is a second and smaller 
triangle, the Public Gardens, with apex on 3d St. and base 
on 6th St, its other two sides being bounded by Maine and 
Missouri Aves. It is divided by 4^4 St. into two sections 
known officially as East and West Seaton \Park, both of which 
were added by Act of Congress, 1917, to the area of the 
Botanical Gardens. 

Facing the Public Gardens, No. 467 Missouri Ave., was 
the residence of John Tyler before he became President. 

Armory Square, a narrow parallelogram lying between 
6th and 7th Sts., contains at its N. E. cor. the site of the 
former Baltimore and Ohio R.R. Station, where President 'Gar- 
field was shot by Charles Guiteau, July 2d, 1881. This cor- 
ner is at present used for tennis-grounds. It has, however, 
been donated by the Government for the proposed George 



THE MALL 245 

Washington Memorial, for which more than $300,000 have 
already been raised. 

The proposed Memorial is to be a four-story structure on the 
Grecian order of architecture. On the ground floor there is to be a 
large auditorium, with a seating capacity of 7,000; also seven con- 
vention halls seating from 500 to 2,500. Behind the Auditorium 
balcony will be a banquet hall accommodating 700 diners. 

The second and third floors will contain upward of 100 rooms, of 
which each State in the Union will have one, for display purposes. 
Various patriotic organizations, such as the Colonial Dames, are paying 
for certain rooms, which will be their property in perpetuity. The 
price asked for these rooms is $25.00 per square foot. 

The fourth floor will contain a memorial to the Signers of the 
Declaration of Independence; also a Washington Museum, in charge 
of the George Washington Memorial Association. 

A large drawing of the design for the building, approved by the 
National Fine Arts Committee" was temporarily placed on exhibition in the 
basement of the New National Museum in April, 19 17. The main 
facade has a colonnade of sixteen Ionic columns, above which is 
inscribed, "Let us raise a standard to which the wise and honest 
can repair. The event is in the hands of God." The cost, including 
endowment fund for maintenance, is to be $2,500,000. Tracy and 
Swartwout, architects. 

Much of the area both of the Public Gardens and of 
Armory Square, is still disfigured by the ungainly bulk of 
temporary Government buildings hastily erected during the 
War, and still housing certain branches of the Executive 
Departments, such as the Bureau of Census (Building D) and 
the U. S. Employees' Compensation Commission (Building 
F). 

c. The Bureau of Fisheries 

*The Bureau of Fisheries (PI. I — C4), containing a small 
but interesting Aquarium, is in the Mall, at 6th and B Sts., 
S. W., in the so-called Armory building, a rectangular three- 
story brick structure, erected in 1855 as an Armory for the 
District iMilitia. When, at the close of the Civil War, the 
regiments were mustered out, the building was no longer 
needed for its orignal purposes. It was used for a time 
(until the completion of the old National Museum, p. 322) as 
a storehouse for the exhibits acquired by the Smithsonian 
Institution from the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia. 
Aquarium open daily, excepting Sundays and holidays, 
A. M. to 4:30 P. M. 

History. The Bureau of Fisheries was instituted in 1871 
by an Act of Congress, creating the office of Commissioner 
of Fish and Fisheries, to be filled by a civil officer of the 
Government properly qualified, who was to serve without 
compensation. The first Commissioner was Prof. Spencer 



246 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

F. Baird subsequently Secretary of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, who served until his death in 1887. The growth of the 
Bureau had then become so rapid that the office of Commis- 
sioner was divorced from other governmental work with an 
independent salary. The organization remained directly re- 
sponsible to Congress until 1903, when it was made a bureau 
in the new Department of Commerce. In addition to the 
propagation of useful food fishes and their distribution, the 
investigation of American fishing grounds and compilation of 
statistics, the duties of the Bureau now include the administra- 
tion of the salmon fisheries of Alaska, the fur-sealed herd on 
the IPrtbilof Isands, and the protection of sponges off the 
coast of Florida. 

Scope of work. As originally constituted the Bureau was an insti- 
tution, "for investigating the condition of fisheries in respect to their 
alleged depletion, the causes which may have led to their impoverish- 
ment, and the means by which they might be conseived and their 
productiveness increased. ' It was at once seen that the remedy was 
through the agency of fish culture, and an appropriation to this end 
was promptly obtained from Congrests. 

The work began experimentally in 1872 when a few salmon and 
shad were hatched and planted. By 1880 eight specimens of fish were 
being distributed on an extensive scale, and experiments with other 
species were being conducted. The work has now grown to' enormous 
proportions. During the fiscal year 1921 the Bureau handled some 
fifty specimens of fish, the fresh-water mussel and lobster. The official 
summary of distribution during this year shows (including eggs, fry, 
"fingerlings," yearlings and adults) a total number of 4,962,489,405. Of 
the separate species, the following figures are fairly representative of 
the choicer and the rarer types: Whitefish, 420,450,000; Haddock, 
460,820,000; Chinook Salmon, 39,560,765; Brook Trout, 12,058,845; 
Rainbow Trout, 6,839,565; Large-mouth Black Bass, 1,846,955. 

These enormous distributions are made entirely free of cost, ex- 
cept cartage from point of delivery. Any individual or association may 
send in applications on blanks provided by the Bureau. The endorse- 
ment of a Senator or Representative is required. The Bureau has now 
36 stations and 94 sub-stations, located in 34 states and in Alaska. It 
has its special delivery cars and system of messengers, the distribution 
of a single year involving over 600,000 miles of travel. 

The main entrance is on the N. or Mall side, opening 
upon the Central exhibition room. On L. are incubation 
tnoughs, containing: 1. Specimens of eggs or fry of trout, 
salmon, etc., varying with the season of the year (each spe- 
cies having its own date of incubation) ; 2. In centre : Large 
tank formerly containing a pair of Fur-Seals (male and 
female), the only Fur-Seals ever reared in captivity. It is 
now occupied by a miscellaneous collection of species, includ- 
ing Catfish and Carp. 

One of the mast important functions of the Bureau of Fisheries is 
its entire administrative control of the Pribilof Islands, including the 
native inhabitants and the Fur-Seal herds which resort to the Islands 
during breeding season. This involves also the enforcement of the 



THE MALL 247 

laws relating to the fisheries and taking of fur-bearing animals in Alaska. 
The annual value of the Alaskan fishery products is approximately 
$20,000,000, more than two and one-half times the original purchase 
cost of Alaska. 

South of the large tank are exhibition cases containing: 
Collection illustrating results of the Bureau's experiments in 
artificial propagation and growth of sponges of commercial 
value; An adjacent collection (for purposes of comparison) 
of foreign sponges, illustrating the commercial varie- 
ties derived from the Mediterranean and Caribbean Sea, 
the Gulf of Mexico and Bahama Islands ; Exhibition of 
Fresh-water mussels ; Fresh-water pearls ; and pearl shell 
suitable for buttons, with examples of pearl buttons in various 
stages of development ; On S. Wall : Bronze memorial Tablet 
to Spencer Fullerton Baird (1823-87). This tablet contains, 
besides the low-relief portrait, the following tribute: 

"Founder and Organizer of the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries; Commis- 
sioner of Fisheries 1871-87. He devoted his life to the! public service, 
and through the application of science to fish culture and the fisheries, 
gave his country world-wide distinction. His co-workers and followers 
in this field dedicate this tablet on the anniversary of the establishment 
of the fishery service February 9, 19 16." 

The central door on W. opens directly upon a T-shaped 
extension, lined with a series of twenty-eight wall tanks con- 
taining approximately 25 species of fish. These exhibits are 
arranged as follows (from R. to L.), beginning on the N. 
side : 

Main Aisle (E. to W.): 1. Bream; 2. Roach; 3. Sucker; 
4. Channel Catfish; 5. Yellow Catfish; 6. Little Sunfish. 

Transverse Aisle, East Wall (S. to N.): 1. Gar Pike; 2. Small- 
mouth Black Bass; 3. (N. Wall) Carp; 4. (W. Wall) Crappie; 5. Pearl 
Roach; 6. Gold Fish; 7. Large-mouth Black Bass; 8. Yellow Perch; 
9. Rock Bass; 10. Small-mouth Black Bass; 11. (S. Wall) Bowfin; 
12. (E. Wall) Albino Brook Trout; 13-14. Rainbow Trout; 15. Brook 
Trout. 

Main Aisle, South Side: 1. Gold Fish; 2, Black Bass; 3. Common 
Sunfisih; 4. Pike Perch; 5. Yellow Perch; 6. Gold Fish. 

In Commissioner's room and hallway on second floor are portraits 
of former Commissioners: 1. Spencer F. Baird, 1871-77; 2. G. B. 
Goode, 1887-89; 3. Marshall McDonald, 1888-95; 4- John J. Brice, 
1896-98; 5. George M. Bowers, 1898. 

The library, on third floor, is open to the ■public for refer- 
ence. It contains approximately 30,000 volumes, and is strong 
on ichthyology, fish culture, commercial fisheries and ocean- 
ography. 

d. The Army Medical Museum 

The Smithsonian Grounds (PI. V — B4), forming an al- 
most perfect square, extend from 7th to 12th :Sts., and con- 
tain the buildings of six important artistic and scientific insti- 



248 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

tuitions: i. The Army Medical Museum; 2. the Old National 
Museum ; 3. the New National Museum ; 4 the Smithsonian 
Institution ; 5. the Astrophysical Observatory ; 6. the Freer Art 
Museum, now in course of construction. 

Directly W. of the Bureau of Fisheries, at the N. W. 
cor. of 7th and B Sts. S. W., stands the Army Medical 
Museum Building (PI. I — C4), a plain red brick structure 
consisting of basement and three stories, with a frontage of 
232 ft. and three wings extending back 136 ft. (erected 1886- 
88; Oluss and Schulze, architects). 

The Museum was founded and a large and important 
part of its medical and surgical exhibits were collected during 
the Civil War. For approximately twenty years it was housed 
in the historic Ford's Theatre, on 10th St. (p. 145), from 
which it was removed to its present quarters in 1887. The 
collection is said to be the richest in the world in specimens 
illustrating the results of gun-shot wounds, and in the surgical 
instruments which such wounds necessitate. 

In addition to administrative offices, laboratories, etc., 
the building contains the Museum and Medical Library, both 
comprised within a Bureau of the War Department, under 
the direct control of the Surgeon General. They are 
open free to the public daily, except Sundays and holidays, 
from 9 A. M. to 4.30 P. M. Unlike most anatomical museums, 
no notices are posted restricting admission on the ground of 
sex or age. The museum is located on the second floor, at 
the E. end of main hall, and rises through two stories of the 
entire east wing, with a gallery encircling all four sides. The 
collection is naturally of primary interest to physicians and 
surgeons; but it merits more than a cursory inspection by 
any other visitor sufficiently stoic to face its gruesome details. 
The collection comprises a vast array of human bones, skulls, 
etc., showing every imaginable form of fracture and muti- 
lation; human tissues (skin, muscles and internal organs) 
both healthy and diseased, in jars of preserving fluid; and 
minutely accurate reproductions in colored wax, life size, 
showing the process of healing wounds, the spread of skin- 
diseases and the successive stages of malignant growths. 

The exhibits are all fully labeled. The S. end cases 
contain an extensive collection of microscopes and other ap- 
paratus used in modern bacteriological research. The up- 
right cases along both E. and W. walls are devoted mainly 
to tumors and other local diseases of the internal organs; 
fibrous tumors; cancers and abscesses of the liver; tumors 
and cancers of the peritoneum; intestinal diseases and in- 



THE MALL 249 

juries; appendicitis; diseases of the mouth and oesophagus, 
etc. The last few cases on the S. E., while no less patho- 
logical, offer the relief of diversity, containing: 1. Animal 
parasites and diseases (Tape-worm, Hook-worm, Trichina, 
Botfly, etc.); 2. Vegetable parasites and diseases; 3. Mon- 
strosities (both human specimens and lower animals). The 
central cases contain exhibits illustrating pathological effects 
upon the human tissues (skin, heart, liver, lungs, etc.) 
wrought by the more deadly contagious diseases, including: 
Typhoid, Tuberculosis, Yellow Fever, Beri-beri, Small-pox, 
Epidemic Cholera, Leprosy, Bubonic Plague, Glanders, Pneu- 
monia, Diphtheria and Cerebro-spinal Meningitis. 

The collection of *Surgical Instruments is contained in 
a series of table cases in front of E. and W. windows. They 
are arranged historically, beginning with reproductions of 
ancient Roman instruments found in Pompeii, and coming 
down to the American Army Surgeon's kit of the Civil War 
period, the Spanish-American War and the present day. 

Surmounting the central cases are portrait busts of great 
anatomists of the past including Galen, Linnaeus, Cuvier, 
Agassiz and Oliver Wendell Holmes. 

The gallery exhibits, reached by stairs at S. W. cor., 
consist chiefly of bones showing gunshot fractures; also dis- 
locations and abnormalities. The first case on W. wall, 
opposite stairs, should not be missed, for it contains a few 
historic relics possessing a grim interest. They include : 
^'Vertebrae from the neck of Wilkes Booth, showing bullet 
wound made by Boston Corbett ; Hair from around the 
wound on Lincoln's head ; Skull and Spleen of Charles 
Guiteau, assassin of Garfield; Armbones of Gen. Daniel F. 
Sickles ; plaster cast of Brain of Laura Bridgman, the famous 
deaf-mute ; plaster cast of Armbone of David Livingstone, the 
African explorer, showing fracture caused by bite of lion ; 
Skull preserved for pathological reasons, but happening by 
coincidence to be that of a ''funny old woman who was an 
upper domestic'' in a hotel where Dickens stayed at Sandusky, 
Ohio (see American Notes). 

The special *Hookworm Disease Exhibit, arranged by 
the International Health Commission, Rockefeller Founda- 
tion, is in a small room reached through middle door of west 
gallery. The exhibit includes : 1. a series of cases showing 
the life cycle of the hookworm, by means of models magnified 
from 42 to 600 times ; wax models of hands and feet, showing 
the characteristic inflammation or "Grounditch," caused by the 
entering embryos ; life-size models of boys in advanced stages 



250 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

of the disease; 2. reduced models of a typical southern log 
cabin and surroundings, showing, first, the slovenly and in- 
sanitary conditions that foster the hook-worm; secondly, the 
transformation wrought by sanitation ; 3. charts, maps, photo- 
graphs and statistics, showing the percentage of victims in 
the infected areas. The exhibit is a model of its kind in 
clearness and convincing force. 

The Army Medical Library is at the opposite end of the 
of the building, in the west wing. It is a reference library; 
but books are lent to the medical profession. Resources about 
190,000 volumes and about twice as many pamphlets. 

This library was begun by Surg. Gen. Lovell prior to 1836, and 
for many years consisted of a small collection kept solely for the use 
of the Surgeon General's office, amounting at the time of the Civil 
War to barely 400 volumes. In, the fall of 1865 Dr. John Shaw Bill- 
ings became librarian, and under his administration began a remarkable 
growth which has resulted irr making this the leading medical library 
of the world. 

The only objects of interest to the casual visitor are some 
exhibits of rare and curious old medical works in table cases; 
and portraits, chiefly of former Surgeon Generals, on the 
walls. The latter include: West Wall (R. to L.) : 1, Benja- 
min Fordyce Barker (1818-91) ; 2. Samuel G. Morton (1799- 
1851) ; 3. John Hunter (1728-93), a physiological writer on 
surgery, copy after Joshua Reynolds; Philip Byng Physick 
(1768-1837), by Rembrandt Peale.. South Wall: 1. John S. 
Billings (in charge of library 1865-95), "presented by 250 
physicians of America and Great Britain"; 2. James Tilton, 
Surg. Gen., 1813-15; 3. Joseph Lovell, Surg. Gen. 1818-36. 
East Wall : 1. Thomas Larson, Surg. Gen. 1836-61 ; 2. Clement 
A. Finley, Surg. Gen. 1861-62; 3. Joseph K. Bangs, Surg. Gen. 
1864-82; 4. R. M. O'Reilly, Surg. Gen. 1901-09; 5. Charles H. 
Crane, Surg. Gen., 1882-83. North Wall : \. M. F. X. Bchat, 
1771-1802; 2. Robert Fletcher, M.R.GS., Eng., Principal Assist- 
ant Librarian, (1876-1912) ; 3. Thomas G. Mower, 1790-1853. 

In the Smithsonian grounds, N. W. from the Medical 
Museum, stands a bronze statue of Prof. Samuel D. Gross, 
M.D. (1805-84), modeled by Alexander Sterling Colder 
(1870- ), and cast in Paris by Jaboeuf & Bazout. It was 
erected in 1897 by the American Surgical Association, and 
the Alumni Association of the Jefferson Medical College. 
The inscription reads : "American Physicians erected this 
statue to commemorate the great deeds of a man who made 
such an impression upon American surgery that it has 
served to dignify American medicine.'* 



THE MALL 251 

Midway between the Army Medical Museum and the 
Old Museum, officially known as the Arts and Industries 
Building of the National Museum (cor. 9th and B Sts. S.W.) 
stands a memorial to Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre (1789- 
1851), inventor of the Daguerreotype process. It consists of 
a huge sphere of polished dark gray granite, surmounting a 
massive square pedestal. Resting against the sphere, at N.W. 
cor., is a bronze medallion portrait of Daguerre. A par- 
tially draped female figure of bronze, life-size, half kneel- 
ing, is draping both medallion and sphere with a bronze 
garland. Jonathan Scott Hartley, sculptor. 

The Arts and Industries Building is described on p. 322. 

Immediately adjoining the Old Museum on the W., is 
the original building of the Smithsonian Institution (PI. I — 
B4), out of which have grown the National Museum, the 
National Art Gallery, and various other activities, all of 
which, except the Smithsonian itself, are supported by appro- 
priations by Congress. For description isee p. 255. 

South of the Smithsonian Institution is a group of 
frame buildings constituting the Astrophysical Observatory. 
This observatory investigates the radiation of the sun,, and 
its relation to the temperature of the earth. It has ob- 
servation stations on Mt. Wilson, Cal., Mt. Harqua Hala, 
Ariz, and Mt. Montezuma, Chile. In this same group is a 
small metal building facing on B St., S. W., and now serving 
as — 

The Aircraft Building of the National Museum. It con- 
tains a collection of aircraft and accessories illustrating the 
progress of aeronautics during the World War. Open to the 
public week days from 9 A. M. to 4.30 P. M. 

Immediately W. of the Astrophysical Observatory, at 
the S. W. cor. of the Smithsonian grounds (cor. 12th and 
B Sts. SwW.) is the new Freer Museum, which will be opened 
to the public as soon as the collection, recently installed, has 
been completely catalogued and arranged. For description 
see p. 339- 

Directly opposite the Smithsonian Building on the N. side 
of the Mall is the recently erected "New Museum," officially 
known as the Natural History Building of the National 
Museum (for description see p. 260). About 100 ft. S. E. of 
the Museum building stands a Marble Urn. erected as "A 
Memorial to Andrew Jackson Downing (1815-52) a Landscape 
Gardener who laid out the parks between the Capitol and 
the Potomac, the White House Park and Lafayette Park." 



252 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

This memorial was erected in accordance with a resolution passed 
at Philadelphia in September, 1852, by the American Pomological 
Society, of which Mr. Downing was one of the founders. 

e. The Agricultural Department Buildings 

The Agricultural Grounds (PI. I — A3), occupy the sec- 
tion of the Mall lying between 12th and 14th Sts., comprising 
about 40 acres. The main Administration Building and princi- 
pal laboratories of the Department of Agriculture are situated 
on the southern side, while the Green-houses, Plant Quaran- 
tine, etc., are on the north side. 

History. Although the Department of Agriculture dates only 
from 1862 as an independent department, it traces its origin back 
to Washington and Franklin. The former, in his last message to 
Congress, advocated the organization of a Government branch to 
care for the interests of farmers; while Franklin, when Agent of 
Pennsylvania in England, sent home silk-worm eggs and mulberry 
cuttings, thus setting a precedent since followed by U. S. Consuls all 
over the world, through whose efforts new and valuable species of 
plants, fruits and domestic animals have been successfully introduced. 

The official history of the department dates from 1839, when 
Congress made a first appropriation of $1000.00 for the purpose of 
distributing seed, investigating agricultural conditions and collecting 
statistics. At the same time an Agricultural Bureau was created as 
a division of the Patent Office, then a branch of the Department of 
State. In 1848, when the Department _ of the Interior was created, 
the Patent Office was transferred to its jurisdiction, including the 
Agricultural branch. The latter remained under the direct super- 
vision of the Commission of Patents until 1862, and its chief activities 
were still the distribution of seeds and publication of agricultural 
information. Its establishment as an independent department dates 
from the appointment of the first Commissioner of Agriculture, the 
Hon. Isaac Newton (1862-67), to whom the present department 
grounds on the Mall were assigned for an experimental farm. They 
could not, however, be used for this purpose until the close of the 
Civil War, being needed by the Army for a cattle-yard. Under the 
second Commissioner, Gen. Horace Capron (1867-71), important prog- 
ress was made: a system of exchanges of seeds and plants was 
established with many foreign governments; the Administration Build- 
ing was completed; and the activities of the department extended to 
include five divisions: Chemistry, Garden and Grounds, Entomology, 
Statistics and Botany. 

In 1889, largely through the influence of the Farmers' Congress, 
the department was raised to first rank, the office of Commissioner 
abolished and a new Cabinet officer, Secretary of Agriculture, created 
in his stead. Since then the growth and broadening scope of the 
department have been phenomenal. To-day it includes the following 
Bureaus: 1. Office of Farm Management and Farm Economics; 2. 
Weather Bureau; 3, Bureau of Animal Industries; 4. Bureau of Plant 
Industry; 5. Bureau of Forestry; 6. Bureau of Chemistry; 7. Bureau of 
Soils; 8.. Bureau of Entomology; 9. Bureau of Biological Survey; 10. 
Division of Publications; 11. Bureau of Accounts and Disbursements; 
12. States 1 Relations Service; 13. Bureau of Public Roads; 14. Bureau 
of Markets and Crop Estimates; 15. Packers and Stockyards Administra- 
tion; 16. Administration of Grain Future Trading Act; 17. Insecticide 
and Fungicide Board; 18. Federal Horticultural Board; 19. Fixed Nitro- 
gen Research Laboratory. 



THE MALL 253 

The Administration Building, a plain rectangular red- 
brick structure three stories and mansard roof, erected 1867, 
formerly contained a museum, comprising collections of 
plants, insects, etc. These have been transferred to the 
National Museum; and the only collections now in the Ag- 
ricultural buildings are for laboratory purposes and other 
work of the department and are not open to the public. The 
office of the Secretary of Agriculture is on the ground 
floor, N.W. cor. It contains portraits of former Secre- 
taries of the department: 1. (E. wall) James Wilson, Sec. 
1897-1913, by William M. Chase; 2. (W. wall) J. Sterling 
Morton, Sec. 1893-97, by Freeman Thorp; 3. (in ante-room) 
Jeremiah Rusk, Sec. 1889-93 ; 4. Norman J. Colman, last Com- 
missioner and first Secretary, 1885-89. (Another portrait of 
Secretary Wilson, by Freeman Thorp, said to be a better like- 
ness than the Chase portrait, hangs in the Chief Clerk's office 
diagonally opposite). 

Immediately behind the Administration Building is a 
small, square structure now occupied by the Bureau of En- 
tomology. The New Agricultural Building, when completed, 
will occupy the greater part of the S. side of the Agricul- 
tural Grounds ; the plans call for a large central building 
surmounted by a dome, and connected with two subordinate 
buildings extending E. and W., with a total frontage of 750 
ft. Rankin, Kellogg & Crane, architects. This proposed 
building was a pet project of Secretary Wilson who, find- 
ing that he could not obtain from Congress a sufficient 
appropriation for so large a structure, proceeded with the 
money granted to erect the two wings, hoping to add the 
main central building later. These two wings, dating from 
1907, are L-shaped structures on the Greek order, the base- 
ment being of Medford granite, the superstructure of Ver- 
mont marble, and red tiles for the roof. The main fagades, 
facing N., have at each end a pavilion with six Ionic col- 
umns, three in front and three on the side. The pavilions 
are surmounted by pediments containing sculptured groups 
consisting, in each case, of a pair of nude seated figures, 
supporting between them a shield adorned with appropriate 
emblems of one of the agricultural products, with the name 
inscribed above. Adolph A. Weinman, sculptor. 

The subjects of the four pediments are from E. to W., as follows: 
1. Fruit; 2. Flowers; 3. Cereals; 4. Forests. When first erected the 
shields bore the names in Latin: "Fructus," "Flores," "Cereales,"' 
"Forestes." One day a visitor called Secretary Wilson's attention to 
the fact that Forestes was not classic Latin, and suggested that it 
should be corrected; whereupon the Secretary decided that there was 
no good reason for Latin inscriptions on an American Government 
building, and had them replaced with the English equivalents. 



254 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

These buildings contain nothing of interest to the tour- 
ist, being devoted almost wholly to laboratories. 

The Library of the Department of Agriculture is in the 
new yellow brick building facing the iMall, on B St. S. W., 
near 14th St., east wing, ground floor. The library is in- 
tended primarily for use in the work of the Department, 
but is free to the public for reference. Open 9 A.M. to 4 
P.M. daily, except Sundays and Holidays; Saturdays dur- 
ing summer months, 9 A.M. to 1 P.M. 

The Library dates from the establishment of the Department of 
Agriculture in 1862.. Its present resources are upward of 
140,000 volumes and pamphlets. Its collections are strong in all 
branches of agriculture, also in forestry, botany, applied chemistry, 
pharmacy, foods, zoology, especially economic entomology, hunting 
and game preservation. Connected with the main library are twelve 
Bureau libraries which, with the exception of the Weather Bureau 
Library, are administered as branches of the Department library and 
there catalogued and charged. It is claimed that this collection 
constitutes the most extensive agricultural library in the world. 

The Administration Building faces a large square, formal 
garden, occupying the center of the grounds, with a terrace, on 
the N. side, descending to a driveway directly on line with 13th 
St., and flanked by exceptionally fine rows of Gingko trees. 
This avenue brings the visitor to the Green-houses. Those 
on the W. side are open to the public from 9 a. m. to 4.30 p. m. 
Most visitors will naturally enter the gate opposite the path- 
way on S. side of the Green-houses, but will find that the 
doors to many of the houses are locked. Just outside the 
grounds, on B St., is an entrance to the main corridor of 
the building, from which all of the Green-houses can be 
readily visited. In the first, or easternmost, house is still pre- 
served the parent stem of the Bahia, or Navel Orange, in 
America. In recent years this tree nearly died in the process 
of transplanting, and three-quarters of its girth is now over- 
laid with a plastering of rubber. The attendant, however, 
will point out how the new bark is slowly covering the injured 
portion. 

The Green-houses on the E. side of the driveway, ex- 
tending to the 12th St. corner, are closed to the public. They 
are occupied by the Plant Quarantine Division of the Bureau 
of Plant Industry. 

The main activities of this Bureau date from the opening of the 
20th century, and have been exerted mainly in the introduction and 
popularization of new varieties of foreign cereals, fruits, vegetables, 
plants and trees. It was presently discovered that along with the 
beneficial "Plant Immigrants" there were being introduced a number 
of destructive foreign insects and plant diseases. In fact, the most 
serious menaces in recent years to American agricultural interests have 
entered this country from abroad, including the Cotton-boll Weevil, 
the Citrus Canker and the Pink Boll Fly. 



THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 255 

Consequently a most important field for this bureau's activities is 
its quarantine work. All importations of foreign plants, seeds, roots 
and cuttings are subject to inspection, small consignments at port 
of entry, larger ones (upon due notice) by local inspectors at the 
point of consignment. All specimens found diseased or doubtful or 
imported from infected zones are sent to the Washington green-houses 
for study, and if necessary for treatment, and not released until it is 
established that they arei free from any diseases or parasite harmful 
to their species or to kindred native families and genera. 

Specialists are occasionally permitted to inspect the methods here 
employed. But to the casual visitor the Quarantine Department is as 
rigidly closed as a Small-pox hospital. 

II. The Smithsonian Institution — The Smithsonian 

Building 

*The Smithsonian Institution, constituting to-day one 
of the most important scientific centers of the world, origi- 
nated in the curious whim of an Englishman who had never 
even visited the United States. James Smithson was the 
natural son of Sir Hugh Smithson, first Duke of Northum- 
berland. He was graduated from Oxford in 1786, and subse- 
quently devoted himself to scientific studies, specializing in 
chemistry. He seems, however, to have had no settled home, 
alternating between lodgings in London and lengthy sojourns 
in Paris, Berlin, Florence and Genoa, in which last-named 
city he died, June 27, 1829. Thanks to the generosity of the 
Duke, his father, and his own simple habits, he left a fortune 
of approximately half a million dollars, which he willed to 
his nephew for life ; and in the event of the latter dying with- 
out issue, then the whole of the property was left "to the 
United States of America, to found at Washington, under the 
name of the Smithsonian Institution, an establishment for the 
increase and diffusion of knowledge among men/' The 
present fame of the Institution goes far to justify the 
prophesy made by its founder, that his name should "live in 
the memory of man when the titles of the Northumberlands 
and the (Percys are extinct and forgotten." 

Smithson's nephew died without heirs in 1835. Consequently the 
property reverted to the United States, and in September, 1838, after 
a suit in Chancery, the bequest was paid into the Federal treasury. 
Its disposition was for several years before Congress; and it was not 
until August, 1846, that the Smithsonian Institution was founded and 
an act passed directing the formation of: 1. A library; 2. A museum 
for the reception of collections belonging to the government; 3. A 
gallery of art. It left to a Board of Regents the power of adopting 
such other parts of an organization as they should deem best suited 
to promote the object of the bequest. Under the terms of the act there 
was set aside, especially reserved for the purpose, the S. W. quarter 
of the square of land inthe Mall extending from 7th to 12th Sts., and 
now known as Smithsonian* Institution Park (p. 247). 



256 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

The Board of Regents subsequently decided upon the following 
general plan upon which the operations of the Institution are con- 
ducted: 

"To Increase Knowledge. It is proposed: i. To stimulate men 
of talent to make original researches, by offering suitable rewards 
for memoirs containing new truths; and, 2. To appropriate annually 
a portion of the income for particular researches, under the direction 
of suitable persons. 

"To Diffuse Knozvledge. It is proposed: 1. To publish a series 
of periodical reports on the progress of the different branches of knowl- 
edge; and, 2. To publish, occasionally, separate treatises on subjects 
of general interest." 

The Institution is unique in representing the only instance up to 
that time in which a trust of this nature had been accepted by the Ameri- 
can government. Its controlling body consists of the President of the 
United States, the Vice-President, the Chief Justice, and the members 
of the Cabinet, ex-officio. There is also a Board of Regents, consisting ot 
the Viqe-President and Chief Justice of the United States, three Sena- 
tors, three Members of the House of Rpresentatives and six other 
eminent persons nominated by a joint resolution of the Senate and the 
House of Representatives. The Board elects one of its number as 
Chancellor. It alsol elects a Secretary, who is the executive officer of 
the Institution, and the Director of its activities. The duties of this 
Board are to administer the foundation fund of the Institution and to 
make annual reports of the same- to Congress. The publications of the 
Institution are in threei principal issues: 1. "Contributions to Knowl- 
edge"; 2. "Miscellaneous Collections"; 3. "Annual Reports." 

The Smithsonian Building. This, the oldest of the group 
of buildings in the Smithsonian Institution Park, is a pic- 
turesque structure in the later Norman or Lombard style of 
Architecture in vogue during the last half of the twelfth 
century, and representing the latest variety of the rounded 
style immediately preceding the advent of Gothic. The ma- 
terial is a lilac-gray freestone from quarries near the mouth 
of Seneca Creek, a tributary of the Potomac, twenty-three 
miles N. of Washington. This stone has the advantage of 
being soft when first quarried and hardening upon exposure 
to the weather. The plans were drawn by James Renwick, 
Jr., subsequently architect of St. Patrick's Cathedral, New 
York City. The cornerstone of the Institution was laid in 
May, 1847, with Masonic ceremonies, in the presence of 
President Polk and a large throng of spectators. The build- 
ing was completed in 1855. 

Renwick's design as originally carried out consisted of a main 
central building, two stories high, and two lateral wings each con- 
sisting of a single story, and connecting with the main building; by 
intervening ranges, each of the latter having a cloister with an 
open stone screen on the northern front. The only important changes 
that have since been made are the reconstruction of the eastern 
wing and range (raised to four and three stories respectively), the 
closing m of the western cloister (for laboratory purposes), and 
complete fire-proofing of the whole building. The necessity of this last 
mentioned improvement was painfully taught by the disastrous fire of 



THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 257 

1865, which destroyed the upper part of the main huilding and with 
it the official, scientific and miscellaneous correspondence, the record 
books and manuscripts in the Secretary's office, Stanley's gallery of 
Indian portraits and the personal effects of James Smithson. 

The dimensions of the building as it now stands are as follows: 
extreme length 447 ft.; main central structure 205 ft. long by 57 
ft. wide and 58 ft. high to top of corbel course. In the centre of 
the facade of the main building are two towers, the higher rising 
to a height of 145 ft. In the middle of the S. front is a single massive 
tower 37 ft. square and 91 ft. high. From the N. E. cor. of the 
main building rises a double campanile tower 17 ft. square and 117 ft. 
to the top of the finial; while at the S. W. cor. is a lofty octagonal 
tower containing a spiral stairway. These main towers, together with 
four smaller ones, were thej cause of one sarcastic; critic's simile of 
"a collection of church steeples which had gotten lost and were 
consulting as to the best means of getting home to their respective 
churches." 

The eastern wing, now devoted to the offices of administration, 
was for many years the home of Prof. Joseiph Henry, the Institution's 
first Secretary. Here also Secretary Langley pursued his investigations 
in aerodynamics, resulting in the invention of the flying machine. 

The only rooms in the Smithsonian building now accessible 
to the public are the main central gallery, the S. pavilion and 
the western range and wing. The visitor enters through the 
man doorway in the middle of the northern side. To the L. of 
the vestibule, in an alcove closed by a grating, is the Mortuary 
Chapel of James Smithson. It contains a marble sarco- 
phagus surmounted by an urn, marking the last resting-place 
of the Institution's founder. His grave was formerly in the 
English cemetery near Genoa, Italy, but in 1906 his remains 
were brought to this oountry and placed beneath the orginal 
monument bought from Genoa. 

On the wall immediately S. of the alcove is a bronze 
memorial tablet to Samuel Pierpont Langley (1824-1906), 
Secretary of the Institution — 1887-1906. Between the vesti- 
bule and main gallery, in the narrow hallway from which 
stairs ascend to R. and L., are two wall cases containing 
Personal Relics of James Smithson. These include several 
autograph pages ; a couple of published monographs by 
Smithson on scientific topics ; a miniature of Smithson by 
Johns, painted in 1816; miniature of Col. Henry Lewis Dick- 
inson, a half-brother of Smithson ; Smithson's matriculation 
register of Oxford University, dated 1782, in whch he has 
signed himself Jacobus Ludovicus Macie (the name first 
adopted by Smithson from his mother, Elizabeth Macie; a 
photograph of Smithson's former grave, Genoa, Italy; two 
commissions from King George III to Col. Dickinson ; and 
most interesting of all, Smithson's last will and testament in 
his own handwriting, in which the bequest for the founding 



258 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

of the Smithsonian Institution may still be read; the word 
"Washington" in the upper line of the right-hand page ii 
especially distinct. 

The Exhibition of Graphic Arts, forming part of the 
National Museum collections, now occupies the greater part 
of the galleries open to the public. It comprises exhibits on 
the development of writing, illustrating, printing and the 
reproductive arts. Since special stress is laid upon the 
material side of art, the cocllection includes not only manu- 
scripts, drawings and prints, but papers, canvasses, pencils, 
brushes, colors, inks, types, tools and machinery. It is gen- 
erally conceded to be the largest exhibit of its kind in the 
world. 

Main Central Gallery, East Section. (N. side, W. to 
E.) : Case I. The History of Writing, including specimens 
of pietographs (earliest known form of writing), photographs 
of tablets giving account of the Deluge, papyrus manuscripts, 
copy of the Rosetta Stone ; Case 2. Samples of early printing, 
including first Chinese newspaper, Horn Books, etc. ; Case 
3. Original drawings in various mediums, crayon, miniature 
painting, etc.; Case 4. Wash-drawings, black-and-white, pen- 
and-ink, water colors, including early Chinese water color; 
also bladders of paints used before the invention of modern 
lead tubes; (!S. side, E. to W.) : Case 5. Manufacture of 
printing inks, from the flaxseed to the finished product — each 
exhibit fully labelled ; Case 6. Processes of making hand- 
made paper and of water-marking; Case 7. Reproduction of 
a 16th century type foundry and two books completed entirely 
by ithe work of the donor, Dard Hunter, who made the 
punches, cast the type and printed it on his own hand-made 
paper; also other examples of modern printing; Case 8. 
Exhibit of modern type compared with 16th century type; 
also models of first movable metal type ever made (Corea, 
1403), from originals in the American Museum of Natural 
History, N. Y. 

Main Central Gallery. West Section. Seven cases 
devoted to history of wood engraving, showing: 1. How box- 
wood blocks are made, and the tools with which the work is 
done; 2. Modern method of making a wood block (hard 
maple y for color work; 3. Exhibit of old color prints, 1600- 
18 12, ranging from two to twelve printings ; 4. Wood blocks 
by Timothy Cole, and one original block by Alexander Ander- 
son, the first American engraver who made wood engravings 
extensively. A central case, at W. end, contains an Industrial 
Group, showing the Japanese method of cutting wood blocks 



THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 259 

and printing wood cuts, from the uncut block to the finished 
print in 25 colors. 

West End Cases. Six cases illustrating the History of 
Engraving, beginning with an early specimen dating from 
1448. 

The W. door of the main hall leads into the — 

Press Room. This hall contains, besides exhibits of 
lithography and etching, several old printing presses, including 
the Bradford Press (1693), said to be the first printing press 
used in New York City; the first printing press to use the 
toggle joint (1819), invented by Wells; also an early linotype 
(1885). Continuing W., we next enter — 

The Chapel, a large hall at extreme W. of the building, 
containing reproductive processes based upon photography, 
and a few substitute processes. The exhibits include : First 
recorded success in photogravure, by Nicephore Niepce 
(1826) ; Screen for making photogravures, invented by Gen. 
von Egloffstein (1865), and screens used today in rotary 
intaglio ; early specimens of Karl Klic's photogravure process 
(1894) ', exhibits showing Ives method of makng half-tones 
(1881) ; set of 13 Levy half-tone screens, from 50 to 400 lines 
to the inch : Collotype process for printing from gelatine films. 
Other exhibits include the Ben Day rapid shading mediums, 
nature printing, wax engraving and electrotyping, both wax 
and lead' processes, and McKee processes of putting the over- 
lay in the plate itself. 

At the northern end of the Chapel is now housed Horatio 
Greenough's much discussed Statue of Washington. This statue repre- 
sents Washington clad in a Roman toga and seated in. a Curule chair, 
with one arm raised in a gesture of warning and advice. This statue 
was ordered by Congress in 1832 to commemorate the centennial of 
Washington's birth. The sculptor spent no less than eight years upon 
it and received the sum of $20,000 in payment. The statue formerly 
faced the main entrance to the Capitol; it was found, however, that 
exposure to the weather was seriously affecting the Carrara marble 
from which it was carved. 

Smithsonian Bureaus. There are seven branches under the 
charge of the Smithsonian Institution, the expenses of which 
are sustained by annual-governmental appropriation. These 
are: 

1. The United States National Museum, the depository of 
the national collections. It is especially rich in the natural 
history of America, including : zoology, paleontology and 
ethnology (see Natural History Building, p. 260), and has 
extensive series relating to American history and the arts and 
industries (see Old Museum p. 322). Under "History" are 
included the World War Collection which has been accumu- 



260 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

lated with co-operation of the War and Navy Departments, 
and already comprised some 35,ooo objects (see p. 266). 

2. The National Gallery of Art including the Freer Gallery 
(see p. 271 and p. 339). 

3. The International Exchange Service : the agency of the 
United States Government for exchange of scientific, literary 
and governmental publications with foreign governments and 
institutions, receiving and dspatchinig about 600,000 pounds of 
printed matter annually. 

4. The Bureau of American Ethnology, engaged in the 
collection and publication of knowledge relating to American 
Indians, and the natives of Hawaii. 

5. The Astrophysical Observatory, engaged in investigat- 
ing solar radiation and related phenomena. 

6. The National Zoological Park (p. 444). 

7. The International Catalogue of Scientific Literature. 
This organization consists of a Central Bureau in London, and 
33 regional bureaus in the principal countries of the world. 
That for the United States is administered by the Smithsonian 
Institution. 

III. The Smithsonian Institution— The Natural 
History Building 

(The "New'' National Museum) 

The Natural History Building of the United States 
National Museum, popularly known as the "New Mus- 
eum," (PI. I — B3) situated on the N. side of the Mall 
directly opposite the buildings of the Smithsonian Institution, 
and with its main entrance almost in line with 10th St., is 
a rectangular granite structure four stories in height, and 
covering an area of about four acres. It is on the modern 
classic order of architecture, with a distinct French influence 
shown in the mansard roof and dormer windows. The mate- 
rial of the exterior walls consists of three varieties of granite: 
the ground story being of pink or a warm gray Milford (Mass.) 
granite; the two main stories of white granite from Bethel 
(Vt.) and the attic story of a nearly white granite from 
M,t. Airy (N. C). Homblower & Marshall, Architects. 

a. General Description 

There are two entrances : one from the Mall, on S. side, 
opening into the first or main floor ; the other, on the N. side, 
opening from B St. into the ground story floor. 

Hours: The Museum is open to the public, free, week-days, 9 A. M. 
to 4.30 P. M.; Sundays, 1.30 to 4.30 P. M. 




t- £ 



262 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

A broad approach of granite steps, broken by an inter- 
mediate platform, leads up to a Roman-Corinthian portico 
at the .south main entrance, supported by eight columns, the 
capitals of which are patterned after those of the Temple of 
Jupiter Staior, at Rome. This portico opens into a large 
pavilion and rotunda, from which three wings diverge to the 
N., E. and W., respectively. Each wing consists of a central 
sky-lighted hall, side aisles and an end pavilion. Two L-shaped 
ranges, extending N. from the S. W. and S. E. pavilions, con- 
nect with the pavilion of the N. wing, and complete the en- 
closure of two spacious inner courts (128 ft. sq. each). The 
outer dimensions of a building are: length of S. front, 
561 ft; N. front, 499 ft; E. and W. sides, 313 ft. 

The Rotunda deserves more than a passing word. In 
form it is an irregular octagon, rising through three stories 
and culminating in a noble dome formed of Gustavino tiles. 
It is supported on four massive piers, so placed as to form 
the alternate shorter sides of the octagon. The screens be- 
tween the piers are practically identical in composition in each 
of the three tiers, consisting of four unfluted monolithic 
columns of breccia staszina marble, the only difference being 
that in the first-story tier they are of the order of mutulary 
Doric, while the second and third tiers are Roman Ionic. The 
widest diameter of the Rotunda is 83 ft. 5J/2 in. The inside 
diameter of the dome at base is 71 ft. 

The visitor should also note the floors of the Rotunda and gal- 
leries. The former is of roseal Tennessee marble, with borders 
of green serpentine and Cipollino. The gallery floors are of pink Ten- 
nessee marble, with borders of Sienna marble. The wall bases, plinths 
fof door trim, etc., are of the samei material as the floorings. 

Lavatories for Men and for Women are situated in the North 
Wing of the ground story, the former on the west side, the latter on 
the east. 

A catalogue of the collections of the National Gallery of Art is 
now in press. A special illustrated catalogue of the Ralph Cross 
Johnson Collection of, Paintings is on sale) in the room containing these 
works. There are no other official catalogues on sale of any of the 
collections in this Museum. Monographs of certain portions of the 
exhibits have been from time to time prepared by the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution and may be found among its publications. 

The museum contains four passenger elevators, two in the main 
pavilion at E. of entrance; the other two W. of N. entrance. 

Division of space. The total available floor space of the 
museum is 468,118 sq. ft. At present more than half this 
space is open to the public, the exhibits occupying all of the 
first and second stories, with the exception of one range, as 
well as the north wing and pavilion and northwest range of 
the ground story. The collections of Natural History, Anthropol- 
ogy, Biology, etc., which legitimately belong in this building, 



THE NEW NATIONAL MUSEUM 263 

are at present seriously crowded because of the necessity of 
making room for two* other collections : I. The National 
Gallery of Art (p. 271) and II: The World War His- 
torical Collection (p. 266), both of which will eventually 
be housed in buildings of their own. At present the War 
Exhibits occupy the main floor Rotunda and the north wing 
and northwest range of the ground story. The 'National Gallery 
of Art is housed mainly in the Central Hall of the N. wing 
and the 'N. pavilion, together with the entrance pavilion of 
the ground story. There are no Natural History exhibits in the 
ground story. The first story (apart from the rooms occupied 
by the National Gallery of Art), is divided almost 
equally between the exhibits of Anthropology, Biology and 
Geology. The aisles and pavilion of the N. wing, together with 
the northern sections of both ranges, are occupied by the 
Ethnological collection; the western wing and adjacent section 
of the western range are occupied by the collections of Mam- 
mals and Birds ; the eastern wing contains the collections of 
Paleontology; and the adjoining section of the eastern wing 
is devoted to Physical and Chemical Geology. Second story : 
the W. wing and W. range are occupied mainly by collections 
of Reptiles, Fishes. Invertebrates and Osteological and various 
special exhibits ; the N. wing and eastern range contains 
Anthropological exhibits, illustrative of American and old- 
world Archaeology ; the eastern wing is devoted to Geology 
(minerals and gems, also building and useful stones). 

b. The Vestibule and North Pavilion 

The visitor approaching the museum from the N. will 
find it most convenient to enter through the northern or B St. 
doorway, which opens directly into the ground story. In the 
vestibule, on L. of entrance, is a bronze panel in high relief, 
representing An Incident of the Mexican War, by Isidore 
Konti (1862- ). 

The army sent from Santa Fe to oocupy California was met and 
defeated by the Mexicans at San Pasquale. The American forces 
were driven upon a butte in the desert on which there was no water, 
and there surrounded by Mexicans. Edward F. Beale and Kit Carson, 
both famous explorers of the West, volunteered to slip through the 
Mexican lines and obtain reinforcements from Stetson's fleet at San 
Diego. The artist has represented them at the moment when they 
discover the fleet. 

Opposite, at R. end of the vestibule are the *Bronze 
Doors for the W. entrance of the United States Capitol, 
designed and modeled in 1910 by Professor Louis Amateis', 



264 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

of Washington. They consist of a transom and two doors 
with an ornamental frame, all of bronze. The dimensions 
of the doors are 7 ft. 8j4 in. wide, and 9 ft. 6 in. high; 
the height, including transom and frame, is 13 ft. 10 in. 

The transom represents "The Apotheosis of America"; America is 
represented seated in a chariot drawn by lions (typical of strength), 
and led by a child (signifying the superiority of the intellect over brute 
force). Beside the chariot are figures representing Education, Archi- 
tecture, Literature, Painting, Music, Sculpture. Mining, Commerce and 
Industry. At R. and L. of transom are statuettes representing respec- 
tively, Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin. At the four corners 
of this panel are medallion portraits of George Peabody, Ralph Waldo 
Emerson, Horace Mann and Johns Hopkins. 

The eight panels of the doors (from upper left-hand panel down- 
ward) represent: 1. Jurisprudence; 2. Science; 3. Fine Arts; 4. Min- 
ing; 5- (upper right-hand panel), Agriculture; 6. Iron and Electricity; 
7. Engineering; 8. Naval Architecture and Commerce. Each panel is 
flanked by statuettes and medallions of men famous in these several 
lines of achievement. 

I. Jurisprudence. This panel represents the Supreme Court of the 
United States, with Chief Justice John Marshall presiding. Stat- 
uettes: (R.) James Madison; (L.) Daniel Webster. Medallions: 
Patrick Henry, Chief Justice Roger B. Taney and Rufus Choate. 

II. Science. A group of world's greatest scientists, from Hippar- 
chus, the Egyptian astronomer, to Charles Darwin. Statuettes: (R.) 
Joseph Henry, physicist; (L.) Oliver Wolcott Gibbs, chemist. Medal- 
lions: James D. Dana, geologist; Simon Newcomb, astronomer; Alex- 
ander Graham Bell, inventor of the telephone; and Samuel F. B. 
Morse, inventor of the telegraph. 

III. Fine Arts. This is represented by a group including Homer, 
Virgil, Dante, Shakespeare, Goethe, Hugo, Palestrina, Beethoven and 
Rossini. Statuettes: Edgar Allan Poe and William Thornton, architect 
of the original Capitol. Medallions: (R.) H. K. Brown and (L.) 
Gilbert Stuart. 

IV. Mining. This represents a scene in a mine. Statuettes: (R.) 
Alexander Holley, metallurgist; (L.) James W. Marshall, discoverer of 
gold in California. Medallions: (R. to L.) Abram S. Hewitt, states- 
man; Clarence King, geologist; E. B. Case, engineer. 

V. Agriculture. A harvest scene. Statuettes: (R.) James Wilson, 
agriculturist; (L.) Samuel G. Morton, ethnologist. Medallions: (R. 
to L.) Benjamin Bussey, agricultural chemist; Justin S. Morrill, United 
States Senator; J. P., Norton, agricultural chemist. 

VI. Iron and Electricity. Scene showing group of iron and 
electric workers. Statuettes: (R.) H. A. Rowland, physicist; (L.) 
Peter Cooper, philanthropist. Medallions: (R.) Thomas A. Edison, 
inventor; (L.) Matthias W. Baldwin, founder of locomotive works. 

'VII. Engineering. A scene with workers laying railroad tracks. 
In the background is a long bridge. Statuettes: (R.) Thomas L. 
Casey, engineer; (L.) James B. Eads, builder of the St. Louis Bridge. 
Medallions: (R.) Stevens, founder of Stevens Institute; (L.) Wash- 
ington L. Roebling, builder of the Brooklyn Bridge. 

VIII. Naval Architecture and Commerce. A Figure typifying 
Architecture is showing to Commerce, Industry and Agriculture, on a 
globe held by a youth, the places where they can dispose of their wares. 
A sailor wearing a liberty cap symbolizes the "open door" policy. Stat- 
uettes: (R.) John Ericsson, inventor of the Monitor; (L.) Robert 
Fulton, inventor of the steamboat. Medallions: (upper R.) Elias Howe, 



THE NEW NATIONAL MUSEUM 265 

inventor of the sewing machine; (upper L.) Eli Whitney, inventor of 
the cotton gin; (helow, R. to L.) John Lenthall, naval constructor; 
Cyrus W. Field, layer of first Atlantic cable; John C. Fremont, 
the "Pathfinder." 

These doors are temporarily deposited here, awaiting the contem- 
plated remodeling of the West front of the Capitol. 

From the vestibule, we enter directly the spacious Lobby, 
finished in white marble and containing the following sculp- 
tures and paintings : 

(W. to E.) I. Frederick J. Waugh, The Knight of the 
Ho<ly Grail (painting) ; 2. Derwcnt Wood, William Pitt, Earl 
of Chatham (Marble statue presented in 1915, by American 
women living in the United Kingdom, as a memorial of the 
hundred years peace between England and America) ; 

3. Preston Poivers, Bust of Justin Smith Morrill (marble) ; 

4. Bronze Image of "The Buddha of Five Wisdoms," Toku- 
gawa Period. 

According to Japanese inscription on back of Buddha, the image 
was made by Saburo-biyoye Katsutane, and offered to the Temple of 
Joshozan Soan, in Yamada, Seishui in 1648. 

5. Attributed to Harriet Hosmer, Esmeralda (marble) ; 
6. Henry Kitson, Victor Emanuel III (bronze bust) ; 7. Vhv- 
nie Ream Hox A ie, Sappho (marble) ; 8. Joseph Mosier, II 
Penseroso (marble) ; 9. Henry H. Kitson, James Bryce, 
Ambassador to United States, 1907-13 (bronze bust) ; 10. 
Elisabet Ncy, Mrs. Siddons as Lady Macbeth (marble) ; 
n. Edward Moran, First recognition of the American Flag 
by a Foreign Government (painting) ; 12. Ferdinand Pettrich, 
Statue of George Washington (plaster model) ; 13. Edward 
Kemeys, Panther and Cubs (bronze) ; 14. Model of Columns 
(actual size) from iPortal of Maya Temple in the prehistoric 
City of Chichen Itza, Yucatan; 15. Edward Kemeys, The 
Still Hunt (bronze) ; 16. Edward Moran, Burning of the 
Frigate Philadelphia (painting) ; 17. Andrew O'Connor, 
Model of proposed monument to Commodore John Barry, 
"Father of the United States Navy"; 18. Edward Moran, 
Midnight Mass on the Mississippi (painting) ; 19. The 
Same. The Brig Armstrong Engaging a British Fleet; 20. 
Branko Dechkovitch, The Victory of Liberty (gift of the 
sculptor) ; 21. Ferdinand Pettrich, Death of Tecumseh 
(marble). 

The Northeast Range, entered by door on L., contains 
Administrative Offices and the small but important Library 
of the National Museum, containing the collection of works 
relating to the field covered by the Museum exhibits. Open 
to the public for reference only, week days, 9 A. M. to 
4:30 P. M. 



266 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

c. The World War Historical Collection 

Northwest Range: World War Historical Collection. 
While this is a temporary installment, it may remain several 
years, as no definite plans for an adequate building have yet 
been made. The exhibits comprise mainly uniforms and equip- 
ment, guns and ammunition and original paintings for war- 
time posters. Through the W. door of the Lobby we enter 
the— 

Northwest Range, North Aisle. The center of this aisle 
is occupied by 15 large cases, beginning with E. Wall Case : 

I. Belgian Uniforms; 2. War Decorations: British, French, 
Belgian, German, Austrian, Bulgarian and Turkish; 3. Uni- 
forms : British, Japanese and United States ; 4. Rifles, bay- 
onets, etc., French and German ; 5. German Uniforms, includ- 
ing one actually worn by Chancellor Bethmann-Hollweg; 6. 
German Field equipment, including knapsacks, field maps, etc. ; 
also New Zealand insignia; 7. German army uniforms, Cor- 
poral, private, etc. ; Austrian uniforms, Prince, General, Major, 
Captain ; 8. German food containers ; 9. Austrian uniforms 
continued ; Turkish uniforms ; 10. German epaulettes, etc. ; 

II. Italian uniforms; 12. German swords and Ibayonets, also 
helmets and caps used in Turkish service; 13. Italian army 
uniforms continued; 14. German weapons continued; pistols, 
bayonets and swords; 15. (W. Wall Case), Italian uniforms 
continued, including the uniform of General Diaz. 

West Aisle, Central Cases (N. to S.) : 1. (N. Wall Case), 
German shells and shell baskets ; 2. German shells continued : 
1916 pattern field gun shells ; 75 mm. light minenwerf er smoke 
shells, etc. ; 3. German gas alarms ; 4. French trace shells, 
incendiary shells, gas shells, etc.; 5. French flame projectors; 
German smoke producers ; 6. British respirators, P. H. hel- 
mets, etc., French 'masks ; 7. Italian smoke candles, Austrian 
incendiary bombs ; 8. Italian, German and Austrian masks ; 
9. British Livens projector, etc. 10. British electric detona- 
tor; German projectors; 11. British mortars; 12. Hand gre- 
nades, position lights, rifles, etc. ; 13. Rangefinders ; 14-16. 
Browning machine gun and other types of machine guns ; 
17. Incendiary bombs; H. C. B. bomb Mark III, etc. 18. 
Artillery and cavalry sabres ; 19. French Chauchat automatic 
rifle; 20. (S. Wall Case), Army spades and shovels, Amer- 
ican and English. Extending beside Cases 15-19 is: The 
Propelling Machinery from ex-German Submarine U. B. 148. 
In returning to entrance the visitor may now inspect the right- 
hand Wall Cases: 



THE WORLD WAR COLLECTION 267 

E. Wall Cases (S. to N.) : 1. Italian mustard gas suit 
and mittens ; 2-3. French mustard gas suits, warning signs, 
etc. ; 4. Diagram showing formation of gas clouds ; 5-7. Horse 
mask, K. T. mask, A. T. mask, etc., showing method of 
manufacture. 

N. Aisle, S. Wall (W. to E.) : 1. British, Canadian, 
Piper Gordon Highlander uniforms and equipment ; also wom- 
en's war uniforms and equipment; 2. New Zealand, Punjabis, 
Russian Expeditionary force of British army uniforms and 
equipment ; 3. Air service, Canadian Highlanders. Welsh 
Fusilliers, Australian, uniforms and equipment; also copy of 
uniform worn by Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig; 4. French 
Colonial, African Chasseurs, Tirailleurs, Indo-Chinese uni- 
forms and equipment ; 5. French cavalry, artillery, Algerian 
Tirailleurs, Chasseur a Pied, Spahis (African), Army nurse, 
uniforms and equipment ; 6. French uniforms continued, includ- 
ing uniformi as worn by Marechal Foch. 

Collection of Original Paintings for Liberty Loan Post- 
ers (given by the artists). S. Wall, beginning at entrance 
door (E. to W.) : I. Francis C. Jones, Home Again; 2. 
Ossip Perelma, Portrait of Marshal Joff re ; 3. George Elmer 
Browne, The Sinking of Unarmed Fishermen off the Coast of 
Cape Cod. 4. Philip R. Goodzvin, Charge on the Hinden- 
burg Line of the 105th Inf. 27th Division ; 5. Clifford Ulp. 
Gen. Allenby in Palestine ; 6. Ossip Perelma, Portrait of Gen. 
Collardet; 7. John C. Todahl, The iRescue; 8. H. C. Murphy, 
Jr., The 27th Division Breaking the Hindenburg Line; 9. Wm. 
de la Montagne Cary, The Warrior's Return; 19. Fred. Dana 
Marsh, Over the Rhine to Victory; II. Louis P. Berncker, 
The Wall Between; 12. John F. Parker, Retreat of the 
Serbian Army; 13. Charles Hopkinson, The Sinking of the 
Hospital Ship ; 14. James Knox, First Attack of the Tanks ; 
15. /. D. Whiting, Army Transport ; 16. Howard Giles, Boys 
of the 165th Infantry Breaking Through; 17. Eva Brook 
Donly, Arrival at Baltimore of U-Boat Deutschland; 18. 
Reynolds Beat, Sinking of the U. S. S. Jones; 19. Edzvard 
H. Potthast, The Argonne ; 20. Harry L. Hoffman, The 
Argonne ; 21. Fred J. Hoertz, Cargo Carriers; 22. Frank 
Tenney Johnson, Camel Supply Train Resting ; 23. Sidney E. 
Dickinson, The First Raid on the Americans, Nov. 3, 1917 ; 
24. Parker Nezvton, Victory Fleet in the North River ; 25. 
James Weiland, Signing of the Armistice. 

W. Aisle, N. Wall (W. to E.) : Thornton Oakley, The 
Cannon Maker ; 2. H. Bolton Jones, The Finger of the Hun ; 
3. O. Perelma, Operation on a Hero of the War; 4. H. Bol- 



268 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

ion Jones, Wheat for the Allies ; 5, F. C. Stahr, "Go-to- 
Hell" Whittlesey and the Lost Battalion; N. Aisle, W. Wall; 
C. Carl Rengius, Bringing up the Guns; 7. Matilda Browne, 
Belgian Refugees ; 8. W. C. Rice, The Night Raiders, E. Wall ; 
9. Nathan Dolinsky, The Battalion of Death; 10. Howard 
Russell Butler, Crime by Moonlight; 11. John C. Johansen, 
Gas and High Explosives. N. Wall ; 12. Ossip L. Linde, 
Louvain; 13. E. L. Blum ens chein, Portrait of Charles A. 
Lembke, 91st Division; 14. Willard D. Paddock, "They 
Shall Not Pass"' (bas-relief). 

Returning through the Lobby, the visitor now proceeds 
through south central door to — 

Central Gallery. World War Collection continued; Cen- 
tral Exhibits (N. to S.). 1. Gen. Electric 38-inch barrel 
type searchlight; 2. Gen. Electric Model No. 2 60-inch open 
type Searchlight; 3. Model of standard type Trench and Cave 
Shelter Chamber "Dugout" ; 4. Engineer pack train equip- 
ment, consisting o>f four pairs of boxes ; 5. Light gas railway 
locomotive, used by Expeditionary Force in France ; 6. Mod- 
els of Ponton wagons, Ponton bridges, etc. ; 7. Company car-" 
penter chests ; 8. Limber and Caisson wagon, Brill type ; har- 
ness, Artillery type. 

W. Side Exhibits OS. to N.) : 1. Model of camouflaged 
gun position ; 2. Parabolic listening device ; 3. American 
sound-ranging set; 4. American flash-ranging set; 5. Gen. 
Electric 60-inch barrel type Searchlight; 6. Photographic 
and drafting equipment. 

E. Side Exhibits (N. to S.) : 1. Field dental equipment; 
portable dental chair ; 2. Medical equipment ; 3. Portable dis- 
inf ector or delousing machine ; 4. Liberty kitchen ; 5. Red 
Cross ambulance. 

Collection of Liberty Loan l i a'mtings, continued. N. Wall, 
W. of Entrance Door : 1. Hugo Rosenfield, The Effect of 
the Long Range Gun, Paris ; 2. Felecie Waldo Howell, Re- 
turn of the 27th Division, Marching up Fifth Avenue; 3. Or- 
lando Rouland, Portrait; 4. Eben F. Comins, Jujst Home 
From Over There ; 5. Emily Nichols Hatch, Washington's 
Birthday: The 77th Division Parades on Fifth Avenue. 

West Wall (iN. to S.) : 1. Laura A. Fry, Her Dream; 
2. Colin Campbell Cooper, Forward (The Crusaders) ; 3. 
E. L. Blumenschein, The Long Range Gun in Paris; 4. 
Charles Hopkinson, The Sinking of the Lusitania; 5. Charles 
S. Chapman, Allies; 6. {Paul King, Major-Gen, Hugh L. 
Scott; 7. Henry Salem Hub bell, Capt. Walter B. Flannery; 
8. Capt. H. Ledyard Toivle, Capt. Eddie Rickenbacker ; 9. 



THE WORLD WAR COLLECTION 269 

/. Mortimer Lichtenauer, Brig. Gen. Palmer E. Pierce; 10. 
Blendon R. Campbell, Brig. Gem. Cornelius Vanderbilt; 
II. William Woodward, Col. Allison Owen; 12. Martha 
Wheeler Baxter, Portrait; 13. Helen Watson Phelps, Dr. 
Henry Van Dyke; 14. Martha Walter, Brig. Gen. Charles 
L. de Bevoise; 15. Kenneth Frazier, Signing of the Armistice. 

On W. Row of Columns (S. to N.) : 1. George Varian, 
The Crumbling of the San Mihiel Salient; 2. John O. 
Todahl, Prey of the U-Boat ; 3. Douglas E. Parshall, British 
Infantry at Arras Cathedral; 4. George N. Richards, The 
Accolade; 5. Arthur E. Bechcr, Sergeant Brown Captures 
His Huns ; 6. Richard V. Schluter, The Leviathan Return- 
ing With the 27th Division. 

East Row of Columns (N. to S.) : 1. James G. Tyler, 
Torpedoed; 2. C. A. Aiken, Battle of Dogger Bank; 3. 
O. H. Von Gottschalk, Fair Game for the Hun; 4. Richard 
V. Schluter, Standing By to the Rescue; 5, Clara Weaver 
Parrish, Deportations of the Belgians ; 6. /. W. Weaver, 
Naval Guns in Action; 7. John I. H. Dozvnes, German 
Cruiser Emden Destroyed by Australian Cruiser Sidney; 
8. Truman E. Fassett, Naval Guns in Action on French Soil. 

East Wall (S. to N.). 1. Carroll T. Berry, Battle of 
Siechprey ; 2. Clifford Carleton, The 77th Division Leaves 
New York; 3. Richard V. Schluter, Victims of the Sub- 
marine; 4. Howard Russell Butler, Eagle and Shark; 5. 
Andrew T. Schwartz, The First American Shell ; 6. Charles 
F. Rosen, The Marines Attack; 7. John O. Todahl, A Clean 
Hit; 8. E. N. Vanderpoel, Ypres After the War; 9. F. K. 
Detwiller, Ships and More Ships ; 10. Harry C. Edzvards, 
Edith Cavell Next; 11. Allyn Cox, Across the Piave ; 12. 
Oss'ip Pcrelma, Portrait ; 13. The Same, Rear Adm. R. P. 
Rogers; 14. Arthur M. Hazard, "Not by Might." 

North Wall (E. to W.) : 1. John F. Barker, Zero Hour; 

2. Eben Cumins, Colored Hero ; 3. The Same, Wounded 

Soldier; 4. Edwin A. Blash field, 'The Spirit of the Past will 

Carry the Future to Victory" ; 5. Theodore Oakley, Inistconck. 

. Doors in West Wall give admission to — 

Rooms, 44, 45, 46 and 47, containing Paintings and Draw- 
ings made by the Official Military artists of the American 
Expeditionary Forces in France during the War with Ger- 
many. The following eight artists are represented : William 
James Aylward, W. J. Duncan, Harvey Dunn, George 
'Harding, W. J. Morgan, Ernest C. Peixotto, J. Andre Smith 
and Harry Townsend. The collection comprises 497 pictures. 
Room 47 also contains a ^Collection of 82 Drawings in pencil, 



270 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

pen, charcoal, chalk, crayon and water color, executed and 
signed by Eminent Contemporary French Artists, and pre- 
sented to the people of the United States by the citizens of 
the French Republic as a token of their appreciation of the 
sympathetic efforts of American citizens toward relieving 
the distress occasioned by the European War. This notable 
collection was received in July, 1915. 

Doors in East Wall of Central Gallery lead into — 

Rooms 37, 38, 39 and 40, containing respectively : X-ray 
equipment; types of folding beds^ invalid chairs, etc.; physio- 
theraphy; and U. S. Army equipment in Post and Base 
Hospitals. 

Facing the S. end of the Central Hall and directly under 
the Rotunda, is a spacious Auditorium with a seating capacity 
of 565 (one of the side doors is usually open through which 
the visitor may obtain a glimpse of the interior.) From the 
corridor, fronting on the Auditorium, stairs ascend R. and L. 
to the main or First floor, where doors open directly upon a 
circular corridor surrounding — 

The Rotunda: Occupied temporarily by the Naval 
Exhibits of the World War Collection. These comprise various 
types of torpedoes; models of torpedo boats, eagle boats, mine 
sweepers, etc. ; hydrophones used to locate submarines ; a 
paravane, a British device to protect vessels from moored 
mines; "Y" gun, or depth charge projector; and a primer that 
fired the last shot against the Germans from one of the U. S. 
Naval Railway Batteries. Note especially the *Model of 
Belleau Woods', from a survey by the Topographical Detach- 
ment, U. S. Marine Corps. 

The Circular Corridor surrounding the Rotunda contains 
the following paintings and sculptures, beginning at N. door- 
way (R. to L.) : 1. Augustus St. Gaudens, Bronze Bust of 
Lincoln, from statue in Lincoln Park, Chicago ; 2. Herbert- 
Adams, Bronze statue of Joseph Henry; 3. Portrait of Henry 
Clay; 4. Portrait of William W. Corcoran; 5. Rear Adm. 
Andrew Hull Foote, U. S. N. (plaster cast) ; 6. Rear Adm. 
Charles Henry Davis, U. S. N. (plaster cast) ; 7. Paul W. 
BartleU, Equestrian statue of Lafayette (plaster cast of the 
bronze statue erected in 1900, in the Court o>f Honor of the 
Louvre, Paris, by the school children of the United States) ; 
8. John F. Weir, Statue of Benjamin Silliman (original plas- 
ter model for bronze statue at Yale University) ; 9. John J. 
Boyle, Chippewa family (bronze group) ; 10. Dana Pond, 
Portrait of Admiral W. S. Benson, U. S. A.; n. Artist Un- 
known, Portrait of Andrew Jackson; 12. Anne Whitney, 



THE NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART 271 

Bronze statue; 13. Plaster statue, life size, of Baron Kam- 
onno-Kami Naosuke, pioneer diplomat of Japan; 14. Plaster 
statue, Francis Scott Key Memorial; 15. /. Connor, statue of 
Robert Emmet. 

d. The National Gallery of Art 

North Wing: Central Hall: *National Gallery of Art. 
The main portion of this art collection is housed temporarily 
in this Hall ; and is shown to surprisingly good advantage 
in view of the fact that the lighting facilities were not pri- 
marily designed for art exhibits. 

History. The National Gallery of Art, the legal depository 
of all objects of art belonging to the Nation, had its inception 
in the Act of Congress approved Aug. 10, 1846, establishing 
the Smithsonian Institution and directing that, in addition to 
a Natural History Museum, provision should also be made for 
"a chemical laboratory, a library, a gallery of art, etc." In 
planning the Smithsonian building the Board of Regents set 
aside two galleries 60 ft. in length, and soon afterwards in- 
creased the small nucleus of portraits, busts and miscellaneous 
paintings, by the successive purchases of the Marsh collection 
of prints, Catlin's "Indian Gallery," and the temporary deposit 
of the J. M. Stanley collection of Indian paintings. Serious 
discouragement resulted from the disastrous fire which, in 
1865, burned out the second story of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, destroying a large portion of the art collection, including 
the Stanley paintings. The surviving works were removed 
the paintings and statuary to the Corcoran Gallery, and the 
engravings to the Library of Congress. Many years later the 
majority of these were returned to the Smithsonian. Little 
of importance, however, occurred until 1903, when the Harriet 
Lane Johnston collection of paintings and other art work was 
bequeathed to the Corcoran Art Gallery, subject to the condi- 
tion that should a National Gallery be established in Washing- 
ton they should become the property of that Gallery. Since 
it was evident that Mrs. Johnston had been unaware of the 
existence of the collection in the Smithsonian Institution^ a 
friendly suit was started to decide whether this collection 
was within the meaning and intent of the law a National 
Gallery of Art. The Supreme Court of the District of Col- 
umbia decreed that it was, and in 1906 awarded the Johnston 
collection to the Institution. The National Gallery of Art 
thereupon assumed its present title, but continued to be ad- 
ministered in connection with the National Museum until July 
1, 1920, when, by Act of Congress, its connection with the 



V2. RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

Museum was severed, and it became the seventh administrative 
branch under the Institution. 

The permanent collection now includes the following im- 
portant units : 

I. The Harriet Lane Johnston Collection, comprising 31 
pieces, paintings, marbles and miscellaneous objects. 

II. The William T. Evans Collection. Mr. Evans, a 
citizen of Montclair, N. J., in 1907 announced Lis intention 
of donating $6 representative paintings of American artists. 
Subsequently he gradually increased the number, with the 
result that now (1922) the Evans Collection includes 151 
paintings, representing 106 contemporary American artists, 
besides many wood-engravings. 

III. The Charles L. Freer Collection, presented in 1906, 
and now May, 1922, being arranged in a new gallery (p. ), 
situated S. W. of the old Smithsonian Building, and soon to 
be opened to the public. 

IV. Contemporary French Drawings. In July, 1915, the 
National Gallery received from France a collection of draw- 
ings by 82 contemporary French artists, all of which are 
autographed. 

V. The Ralph Cross Johnson Collection, received in 
1919, and consisting of 24 paintings by old Masters, Dutch, 
Flemish, Italian and English. 

VI. The (Rev. Alfred Duane Pell Collection of porcelains, 
potteries and antique furniture. 

Entrance Alcove (E. to W.) : Ignacio Zuloaga, Rosita ; 
Gabrini, Grand Canal, Venice; /. William Fosdick, Adoration 
of St. Joan of Arc (Fire etching) ; Elihu Vedder, The Cup of 
Death; Elliott Damger field, The Child of Mary; William 
Baxter Closson, The Angel ; Hugo Ballin, The Sybilla Europa 
prophesies the Massacre of the Innocents; Jose de Ribera, Job 
and his Comforters. 

Through central N. door we enter — 

Room A. North . Wall (E. to W.). Stanley Grant 
Middleton, (1852- ), Portrait of Hon. Andrew D. White; 
Lucian N. Powell (1846- ), Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone 
River; Carroll Be ckwith (1852-1917), The Blacksmith; George 
da Madura Piexotto, Portrait of Julius Bien, Sr. ; Sydney 
Laurence, "The Top of the Continent," Mt. McKinley, Alaska ; 
Arvid F. Nyholm (1866- ). Capt. John Ericsson. 

West Wall : Thomas Moran, Grand Canyon of the Yel- 
lowstone. 

South Wall: /. Van Lerius (1823-76), Death Preferred; 
Frederick E. Church (1826-1900), Aurora Borealis ; Henry 



THE NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART 273 

Ulke (1821-1910), Portrait of Joseph Henry; Thomas Lcclear, 
Gen. U. S. Grant ; Edzvard Moran, The Ocean, the Highway 
of all Nations; Alexander H. Wyant (1836-92), The Flume- 
Opalescent River, Adirondacks. 

East Wall: Thomas Buchanan Read (1822-72), Portrait 
of Thomas Buchanan Read; Gilbert Stuart, George Washing- 
ton (lent by Supreme Court of District of Columbia) ; W. H. 
Fisk (1797- 1873), Portrait of George Catlin. 

The N. door leads into — 

Room B. North Wall (E. to W.), George Innness (1825- 
94), Elf Ground; William Sartain (1843- ), Algerian Water 
Carrier; Nicolaas Berchem (1620-83), Landscape with Cattle; 
William Morris Hunt (1824-79), The Spouting Whale. 

West Wall: William Jurian Kaula (1871 — ), Evening; 
John W. Beatty (1851- ), Plymouth Hills; Henry Ward 
Ranger (1858-1916), Entrance to the Harbor; W. S. Conrow, 
Portrait of Dr. W. H. Dall; Charles Melville Dewey 
(1849- ), The Close of Day; Guy C. Wiggins (1883- ), 
Gloucester Harbor; John Francis Murphy (1853-1921), The 
Path to the Village; G. P. A. Healy (1808-94), Portrait of 
William C. Preston; Arthur Turnbull Hill, After a Storm, 
Amagansett ; Chauncey Foster Ryder ( 1868- ) , Landscape. 

South Wall: Salvatti Aly, The Adieu; Jean Gustave 
Jacquet, Female Head; Eastman Johnson (1824-1906), Portrait 
of Mrs. Cross ; Eisman Semenowski, Head of Young Woman. 

East Wall: Worthington Whitteredge (1820-1910), Noon 
in the Orchard ; Eugene Verboeckhovcn, Sheep ; Mrs. M. 
Leslie Buslv-Brown, Portrait of Miss Ellen Day Hale ; Childe 
Hassam (1859- ), The Georgian Chair; Frederick B. Williams 
(1872- ), Conway Hills; Homer D. Martin, The Iron Mine, 
Port Henry, N. Y. ; Harriet Blackstone, Soldat de Crimee; 
/. Alden Weir (1852-1919), A Gentlewoman; Osinan Hamdy 
Bey (1842-1910), Tomb of "Mahomet the Gentleman," at 
Broussa ; Hillner, Alpine Landscape. 

Room C. (William T. Evans Collection). North Wall: 
Henry Golden Dearth (1864- ), Church at Montreuil; Wyatt 
Eaton (1849-96), ^Portrait of William T. Evans; Thomas 
Wilmcr Dezving (1851- ), Summer. 

West Wall : Edward Lord Weeks, Hindoo Merchants ; 
Carlcton Wiggins (1848- ), Evening After a Shower; 
Theodore^ Robinson (1852-96), La Vachere ; H. Hobart 
Nichols (1869- ), Moonrise at Ogunquit ; E. Irving Couse 
(1866- )', Elk-Foot^ Pueblo Tribe; Robert F. Blum, (1857- 
1903), Canal in Venice, San Travaso Quarter; W. Granville 



274 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

Smith (1870- ), Grey Day; /. Foxcroft Cole (1837-92), 
Late Afternoon near Providence; Frank De Haven (1856- ), 
Castle Creek Canyon, South Dakota. 

South Wall: Will H. Low (1853- ), ^Christmas Morn; 
Otto Walter Beck (1864- ), "Suffer the Little Children to 
come unto Me" (three panels); George Fuller (1822-84), 
Portrait of Henry B. Fuller; Charles Frederick Naegele 
(1857), Mother Love; George Fuller, Ideal Head; Otto 
Walter Beck, Christ before Pilate. 

East Wall: Inting R. Wiles (1861- ), Russian Tea: 
Homer D. Martin (1836-97), Evening on the Seine; William 
E. Norton (1848-1916), Night Attack on the General Arm- 
strong off Pico, Azores ; Irving R. Wiles, *The Brown 
Kimono ; Sanford R. Gifford, The Villa Malta ; George Inness, 
♦September Afternoon; Frederick S. Church, *The Black 
Orchid; Homer D. Martin, Lower Ausable Pond; Charles 
Warren Eaton, (1857- ), Gathering Mists; John La Farge 
(1835-1910), * Visit of Nicodemus to Christ. 

In the centre of the room : Bronze Bust of William T. 
Evans (1904), by /. S. Hartley (1845-1912). 

Room D (William T. Evans Collection, continued) : 
North Wall: (E. to W.) : Elizabeth Nourse (i860- ), Fisher 
Girl of Picardy; Anders Zorn (1860-1920), Portrait of a 
Lady; John W. Alexander, June. 

West Wall: /. H. Twachtman (1853-1902), The End 
of Winter ; William E. Norton, Mussel Gatherers ; /. Francis 
Murphy (1853-1921), Indian Summer; Alexander H. Wyant, 
Spring ; Leon Dabo ( 1868) , Evening on the Hudson ; William 
M. Chase ( 1849- ) , Shinnecock Hills ; Carleton Wiggins, 
The Pastue Lot; George Glenn Newell (1870- ), Mists of 
the Morning; Charlotte B. Coman (1833- ), Early Summer; 
Frank A. Bicknell (1866- ), October Morning; Alfred C. 
Howland (1838-1909), Friendly Neighbors: R. Swain Gifford, 
On the Lagoon, Venice; /. Alden Weir, Upland Pasture. 

South Wall : Childe Hassam, Sunrise, Navesink High- 
lands ; Lillian M. Genth, Adagio ; Frederick M. Waugh, 
♦After a North-Easter ; Charles Melville Dewey (1849- )> 
The Harvest Moon ; Lillian M. Genth, Depth of the Woods. 

East Wall : Bruce Crane, Afternoon ; Guy C. Wiggins, 
Columbus 'Circle, Winter; /. H. Twachtman, Fishing Boats 
at Gloucester; Ben Foster (18521- ), Birch-Clad Hills; 
William Langson Lathrop, The Three Trees ; Emit Carlsen, 
The South Strand; /. H. Twachtman, Round Hill Road; 
The Same, The Torrent; Leonard Ochtman, Morning Haze; 
Frederick S. Church, Circe. 



THE NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART 275 

Centre Case: Selections from Recent Bequest of Mrs. 
Mary Huston Eddy, including Isabey, Marie Antoinette ; The 
Same, Duchess of Devonshire; Nodirt {After Le Brun), 
Mme. Le Brun and Child ; Artist Unknown, Taj Mahal ; 
Artist Unknown, Sultana of Shah Jehan. 

Returning through Room B, we reach, through N. door — 

Room E. North Wall (E. to W.) : Albert Pike Lewis, 
October Breezes; George de Forest Brush (1855- ), The 
Moose Chase; Louis Paul Dessar (1867- ), The Watering 
Place; Frederick Ballard Williams (1872- ), A Glade by the 
Sea; Ralph A. Blakelock, Sunset, Navarro Ridge; Paul 
Dougherty (1877- ), Sun and Storm. 

West Wall: Henry W. Ranger, The Cornfield; Douglas 
Folk, *The !Boy With the Arrow ; Henry W. Ranger, Groton 
Long Point Dunes ; George Inness, Sundov/n ; Henry W. 
Ranger, ^Bradbury's 'Mill Pond No. 2; Clara Tagart Mac- 
Chesney, A Good Story; Henry W. Ranger, Connecticut 
Woods. 

South Wall : George Inness, Niagara ; William Henry 
Howe (1846- ), Monarch of the Farm; George H. Bogert 
(1864- ), Sea and Rain; Charles H. Davis (1856- ), Sum- 
mer; Albert L. Groll (1866- ), Laguna — New Mexico; 
Charles Paul Gruppe (i860- ), The Meadow Brook. 

East Wall: William S. Robinson (1861- ), Monhegan 
Headlands; Alphonse Jongers (1872- ), ^Portrait of William 
T. Evans; Edward Gay (1837- ), The Hillside; George 
Elmer Browne (1871- ), The Wain Team; James Henry 
Moser (1854-1913), Evening Glow, Mt. Mclntire ; Orlando 
Rouland (1871- ), Portrait of J. J. Shannon; Winslow 
Homer, *High Cliff, Coast of Maine. 

The N. door opens into — 

Room F. North Wall (E. to W.) : Attributed to 
Raphael, Madonna and Child ; Narcisse Diaz de la Pena 
(1809-74), Landscape; Walter Shirlaw, Study of Head — 
Madam Capri. 

West Wall : Herman Safteven, Landscape ; Harrington 
Fitzgerald (1847- ), The Wreck; Wyatt Eaton, Ariadne; 
George Henry Story (1835- ), Portrait of Abraham Lin- 
coln; Adriene Moreau (1843-1906), Crossing the Ferry; 
Henry Siddons Mowbray (1858- ), Idle Hours; Artist Un- 
known, George Washington ; Walter Shirlazv, Water Lilies ; 
Eugene Louis Gabriel Isabey, The Gathering Storm. 

South Wall: Louis Paul Dessar (1867- ), Return to the 
Fold; Frank Duveneck (1848- ), Portrait of Walter Shir- 
law; Frank B. Mayer, Independence; /. Aid en Weir, Port- 
rait of Wyatt Eaton. 



276 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

East Wall: F. C. Church, Mountain Scene; Roswell M. 
Shurtleff (1838-1915), The Mysterious Woods; William 
Edgar Marshall (1837-96), Portrait of Henry W. Long- 
fellow; A. G. Powers, Portrait of Franklin Pierce; Max 
Bohm (1868- ), The Happy Mother; George W. Maynard, 
Dr. Edward Maynard ; George P. A. Hcaly, Portrait of John 
Tyler; /. Diday (1854- • ), Mountain Scene; William H. 
Holmes, The Wanderlusters. 

The E door leads into — 

Room G. {Ralph Cross Johnson Collection). North Wall 
(E. to W.) : John Constable (1776-1837), Dedham. Vale- 
Summer Morning; Francesco Guardi (1712-93), Viuw in 
Rome, with the Church of Ara Coeli; Titian, Portrait of a 
Cardinal; 'Francesco Guardi, Ruins and Figures. 

West Wall: Sir Thomas Lawrence (1769-1830), Portrait 
of Airs. Towry; William Hogarth (1697-1764), Portrait of 
Mrs. Price; Giacomo Francia (1486-1557), The Mystic Mar- 
riage of St. Catherine of Alexandria; Nicholaes Maes (1632- 
93), A iBurgomaster ; Govaert Flinck, (1615-60), Madonna 
and Child; Sir Henry Raeburn (1756-1823), Portrait of 
Archibald Skirving, Esq.; George Romney (1734-1802), 
Portrait of Sir Sampson Wright. 

South Wall: Sit Joshua Reynolds (1.723-92), Portrait 
of Viscount Hill; /. M. W. Turner (1775-1851), Edinburgh: 
A /Painting of Sunlight and Air; Richard Wilson (1714-82), 
Summer Afternoon About 4 P. M. ; Lorenzo Lotto (1480- 
I 554), A Venetian Senator; Sebastiano Mainardi (d. 1513), 
Madonna and Child; Sir Joshua Reynolds, The Duchess of 
Ancaster; David Cox, Outskirts of a Wood. 

East Wall : Thomas Gainsborough, A Family at the 
Cottage Door; Rembrandt, Portrait of a Man Wearing a 
Large Hat ; Peter Paul Rubens, The Holy Family, with St. 
Elizabeth ; Richard Wilson, Grand Italian Landscape : Sun- 
set Glow; Bernard Van Orley (1493-1542), The Virgin and 
Child; Sir Thomas Lawrence, Portrait of Lord Abercorn; 
Thomas Gainsborough, Lord Mulgrave in Naval Uniform. 

Returning across Room F to W. door, we reach — 

Room H : Harriet Lane Johnston Collection. North Wall : 
(E. to W.) : Rembrandt Peale, George Washington (loaned) ; 
Charles W. Peale, George Washington (loaned) ; Thomas 
Rossiter, The Prince of Wales (Edward VII) at Washing- 
ton's Tomb; George Frederick Watts, Love and Life; Rev. 
J. A. Ocrtel, The Walk to Gethsemene ; Artist Unknown 
{after Corrcggio), Madonna and Child; Francis Pourbus the 
Younger (1569-1622), Portrait of Josepha Boegart. 



THE NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART 277 

West Wall : Oiho Van Veen, Nativity ; Sir William 
Beechey (1753-1839), Portrait of Miss Murray; Sir Thomas 
Lawrence (1769-1830), *Lady Essex as Juliet; Titian (copy), 
Portrait of Artist's Daughter; Sir Joshua Reynolds, * Portrait 
of Mrs. Hamimiond ; Bernardino Luini (1460-1535), *A 
Madonna and Child ; Walter Shirlaw, The Inn, Germany ; Joh)i 
Hoppner (1758-1810), *Mrs, Abington ; Cornelis-Janson Van 
Cenlen (1594-1666), Portrait of Mme. Tulp ; G. Maczolini 
(about 1560), Portrait of Beatrice Cenci; Gorge Romney 
(1734-1802), * Portrait of Miss Kirkpatrick. 

South Wall : Walter Shirlaw, Roses ; Artist Unknown, 
Salome with Head of John the Prophet; G. P. A. Healy, 
M. F. P. G. Guizot ; Dubois Fenelon Hasbrouck (i860- ), 
Autumn Landscape; Raphael (original or replica), Holy 
Family. 

East Wall : William T. Smedley, One Day in June ; Ben- 
jamin West, Portrait of the Artist; Robert David Gauley 
(1875- ) , The Fur Muff ; John Constable, The Valley Farm ; 
Sir John Watson Gordon (1798-1864), The Prince of Wales 
(Edward VII) ; Ediuin Lord Weeks, Street Scene in the East; 
Frederic Remington, Fired On; Harper Pennington (1854- 
1920), Portrait of James Buchanan Johnston; Attributed to 
Sir Godfrey Kneller, Portrait. 

Case in the center of the room : Bible on which Mr. 
Buchanan took oath of office as President, March 4, 1857; 
First message sent over the Atlantic Cable, by Queen Victoria 
to President Buchanan, August 16, 1858; Miniature of James 
Buchanan, by /. Henry Brown; Photograph of Queen Vic- 
toria with autograph signature, 1898. 

This room also contains the following pieces of statuary: 
Henry Rinehart, Henry Elliot Johnston (Marble bust) ; The 
Same, Mrs. Harriet Lane Johnston (Marble bust) ; The Same, 
Henry E. Johnston, Jr. (Two years old), as Cupid (Full- 
length Marble) ; The Same, James Buchanan (Marble bust). 

Returning through Room F, we reach, by N. door — 

Room I. West Wall (N. to S.) : Alexander H. Wyant, 
Autumn at Arkville; John W. Alexander, A Toiler; Edivin 
Willard Deming (i860- ), The Mourning Brave; William 
Henry Howe (1846- ), My Day At Home; Edivardo 
Zamagois, Refectory. 

South Wall: Orlando Rouland. Portrait of John Muir; 
G. P. A. Healy. Portrait of Vinnie Ream; R. E. W. Earl, 
Andrew Jackson. 

East Wall: Max Weyl (1837-1914), Klingle Ford; Ed- 
zvard W. Redfield, The Island; Attributed to Hobbcma, The 



278 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

Old 'Mill ; Rubens, The Infant Jesus and St. John ; Frederick 
Waugh, Southwesterly Gale, St. Ives. 

The E. door leads into — 

Room J. {William T. Evans Collection continued) , iNorth 
Wall (E. to W.) : Henry Oliver Walker, Portrait of Mrs. 
Evans and Son; Hugo Ballin, The Lesson; Louis Loeb, The 
Siren. 

West Wall : Louise (Hoivland King) Cox, May Flowers ; 
Henry Oliver Walker, Musa Regina; Edgar Melville Ward, 
The Blockmaker; Kenyon Cox, Plenty. 

South Wall : Winslow Homer, The Visit of the Mistress ; 
Robert Weir, The Mirror; Henry Oliver Walker, *Eros et 
Musa; Theodore Robinson, Old Church at Giverny; Charles 
Courtney Curran (1861- ), The Perfume of Roses. 

East Wall: William Sergeant Kendall, An Interlude; 
Henry B. Fuller, Illusions ; William Baxter Palmer Closson 
(1848- ), Nymph and Water Babies at Play. 

In Center: Bien Aimee, A Bacchante (marble). Re- 
turning across Room I, we enter, through W. door — 

Room K. North Wall (E. to W.) : Albertinelli {copy), 
Salutation; Frank Duveneck (1848-1914), Water Carriers, 
Venice; Copy of Del Sarto, Holy Family. 

West Wall : Sir William Beechey, Mrs. Hawkins and 
Family ; Guido Reni, St. Michael ; George Frederick Watts, 
Lady and Two Children. 

• South Wall : Painting on Cloth in Vegetal Colors, St. 
Anthony and the Lions (loaned). 

East Wall: Richard Wilson (1713-82), Rome and the 
Campagna; Perug'ino, Madonna and Child; E. Keyser, Gath- 
ering Flowers. 

In Center : William H. Rinehart, The Sleeping Children 
(marble group). 

North Pavilion : National Gallery of Art continued. 
South Wall (W. to E.) : 1. Augustus St. Gaudens, Bronze 
statue of Abraham Lincoln (reduced copy of original in 
Lincoln Park, Chicago) ; 2. Harriet Hosmer, Puck (marble) ; 
3. Case containing Sevres porcelains, 16 specimens ; 4. William 
F. Halsall, The Song of the )Sea (painting) ; 5. William 
Couper, Tennyson's "Princess" (marble) ; 6. M. Herbert, 
Roman Soldier Legionary (plaster) ; 7. Daikoku, Japanese 
God of Wealth, seated on bale of rice, symbol of agriculture 
(bronze) ; 8. Louis Potter, The Fire Dance (bronze) ; q. Latent 
Thompson, Napoleon (bronze, heroic size) ; 10. P. F. Con- 
nelly, Cordelia (marble) ; 11. Case containing American Art 



THE NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART 279 

Pottery; 12. Paolo Veronese, Untitled painting; 13. Horatio 
Greenough, Samuel F. B. Morse (marble bust). 

North Wall (E. to W.) : 1. Daniel Chester French, Hon. 
John Sherman (marble bust) ; 2. Case containing porcelains, 
old and new Europe; 3. Case containing Chinese and Japanese 
blue and white porcelains ; 4. Case containing Chinese and 
Japanese Pottery, large and small bowls, vases, etc.; 5. Case 
containing Capi di Monte porcelains (Naples, Italy), figurines, 
vases, bowls, also bronze figures, etc.; 6. Moses W. Dykaar, 
Hon. Champ Clark (marble bust) ; 7. Royal porcelain vase, 
Berlin. 

North Pavilion, North Alcove. The Rev. Alfred Duane 
Pell Collection of Porcelains, Potteries and Antique Furni- 
ture (the porcelain exhibits enumerated in the preceding 
paragraph also belong to this collection). 

North Wall beginning L. of entrance door (W. to E.) : 
1. Vitrine, France, 18th cent., containing Meissen ware ; 2. 
Florentine Cabinet with Ivory inlay, containing English por- 
celain : Worcester, Crown Derby, Doulton, Spode, etc. ; 3. 
French Commode, copy of original in Chantilly Museum, sur- 
mounted by three large Sevres vases ; 4. Case containing 
(above) French banquet set (bronze), by Thomiere, 18th 
cent., special artizan to Napoleon I; (below) Collection of 
silverware, English and German, including tankards and other 
large pieces in fine preservation ; 5. Florentine secretary-cabinet 
with ivory inlay. 19th cent. ; 6. Sevres cabinet of bronze and 
porcelain, period of Napoleon I ; 7-8 Walnut bedstead and 
bureau, style of Henry II, made for Centennial Exposition of 
1876, by Potter & Stymus, New York; 9. Bronze clock, after 
Jean Goujon. 

North Wall (E. to W.) : 1. Porcelain and glassware 
from various European countries ; 2. Porcelains : Vienna, 
Carlsbad, Meissen, Berlin, Russia. 

W r est Wall : 1. Walnut cabinet, France or Flanders, 19th 
cent., containing Part of Service from Chateau Tuilleries 
under Napoleon III (bought by Dr. Pell's uncle at public sale 
in 1871) ; (above) Par of bronze candelabra, France; Sevres 
vase, mottled blue and green porcelain. 

South Wall (W. to E.) : Moses W. Dykaar, bust of Maj. 
Gen. George O. Squier, U.S.A.; 2. Vitrine, France, 18th cent., 
containing vases, cups, etc ; 3. Piano, tulip wood and bronze, 
France, 1849 ; 4. Florentine cabinet with ivory inlay, containing 
porcelains : plates, vases, cups, etc. Note especially Meissen 
plate, "The Lute Player," after Eglon Vander Meer; 5 
Vitrine, France, 18th cent., containing: Meissen and Berlin 
figures, Copenhagen and Rostrand (Sweden) porcelains. 



280 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

Center Exhibits (W. to E.) : i. Desk of elegant design, 
19th cent., copy of original in Louvre ; 2-4. Cases containing 
pre-historic ceramics from Casas Grandes, Chihuahua, Mexico 
(loaned by the Archaeological Society of Washington). 

e. East Wing — Collections on Paleontology 

Main Floor — Continued: East Wing. This wing is de- 
voted to Palaeontology; the sky-lighted East Hall contains 
the large spectacular exhibits of Fossil Reptiles and a few 
Fossil Fishes; the Southeastern Pavilion contains the Fossil 
Birds and Mammals; the South Aisle is devoted to Fossil 
Invertebrates, and an Historic Exhibit of the Geologic Strata 
of North America; and the North Aisle contains Fossil 
Plants, Petrified Woods, etc. 

Central Hall. Upon entering this room from the Ro- 
tunda, the visitor cannot fail to notice, directly facing him on 
the second story of the East wall, a large mural painting 
(on canvas, 25 xn ft), *Diana of the Tides, by John Elliot 
(p. ). It depicts the goddess standing erect in her chariot, 
rainbow-tinted sea-shell, drawn by four horses, typifying the 
flowing of the tides. 

The principal exhibits are arranged down the center of 
the hall: 1. (L.) Case containing Skull of a Two-horned 
Dinosaur, Diceratops hatcheri Lull, the only known species 
of Ceratopsia without a horn on the nose; 2. (R.) Case con- 
taining Skull of a Three-horned Dinosaur, Trieeratops cal'i- 
tomis Marsh. Both of these specimens are from Upper 
Cretaceous, Converse County, Wyoming; 3. Mounted skeleton 
of *Basilosaurus cetoides Owen, a sea-living mammal 
-of the Eocene period, between three and four million years 
ago. This exhibit, obtained from deposits in the vicinity of 
Cocoa, Alabama, is made up of the best preserved portions 
*of two_ partial skeletons. Length, 55 ft.; 4. (R.) Giant Deer, 
Alee giganteus (Blumenbacch), from Pleistocene clays under- 
lying peat deposits, Ireland; 5. (R.) American Mastodon, 
Mammut Americamim Kerr, from peat deposits, Church, 
Michigan.; 6. (L.) Mastodon, a .second specimen from Pleis- 
tocene swamp deposit, Pulaski ^ County, Ind. ; 7. Cast of a 
Dinotherium giganteum, an extinct quadruped related to the 
mammoth and elephant; from Eppelsheim, Rhine Valley; 8. 
Small case containing skeleton of Epigaulus, an extinct rodent ; 
9. *Horned Dinosaur, Trieeratops prorsus Marsh, from 
Lance formation, "Ceratops Beds," Converse County, Wyoming. 

A reconstructed skeleton, from bones of several specimens; com- 
pare miniature restoration, modeled by Charles R. Knight; alto, on 



PALEONTOLOGY COLLECTION 281 

opposite S. wall, large painting showing Dinosaur in natural habitat of 
swamps and pools, by Charles R. Knight, Charles Livingston Bull and 
Walter King Stone. 

10. Life-size Restoration of an Armored Dinosaur, Stego- 
saurus stenops Marsh, modelled conjecturally from bones 
in the Museum; II. Skeleton of an Armored Dinosaur, made 
up of the bones of several individuals of about the same size 
and proportions, all from the same quarry; 12. *Skeleton of 
an Armored Dinosaur, exhibited lying in the position in which 
it was found, in the sandstone of the Morrison Beds, of the 
Jurassic period, near Canyon City, Col. ; it is said to be the 
most perfect specimen yet found. 

Wall Exhibits. The visitor may now make the circuit 
of the wall exhibits, from R. to L., beginning at the N. E. 
cor. These exhibits are displayed partly in four series of 
table-cases of five sections each, extending from the four 
corners of the hall along the N. and S. walls, and partly in 
vertical frames and cases in the central and upper wall spaces. 

Northeast Cases: Notable exhibits: Sets of Spines from tail of 
Stegosaur. Skull of Crocodile-like) reptile, Rutiodon carolinensis Em- 
monsi. Skull of fossil Crocodile, Thoracosaurus neocesariensis. Portions 
of skeletons of various carnivorous reptiles: teeth, claws, forefoot, etc. 
Extinct Batrachian, Actinodon frossardi Gaudry, from Lower Permian 
(cast). Fossil Batrachians, Carboniferous; Footprints made by Am- 
phibians. Skeleton of extinct Reptile, Diadectcs phaseolinus Cope, Per- 
mian, from Red River Oil Fields, Comanche Co., Okla. Above on wall. 
Paddle of Marine Reptile, Pliosaurus brachydirss Owen; Reptile tracks 
and Rain Drop Impressions; Extinct Marine Reptile, Ichthyosaurus 
quadrisissus (Erass) , Lower Jurassic, Wurtemburg, Germany; Ichthyo- 
saurus interrmedius Conybeare, Lower Jurassic, Lyme/ Regis, England; 
Two skeletons of flying Reptiles Rhaniphorhychus gemmingi Meyer, 
both from Lithographic Quarries, Upper Jurassic, near Eichstadt, 
Germany. In central wall space: (ist large ca'se) Ceratosaurus nasicornis 
(Marsh), an extinct flesh-eating reptile, from sandstones of the Morrison 
Beds, Jurassic, near Canyon City, Colo.; this specimen, partly embedded 
in rock, measures 17 ft. 4 in. to tip of tail; (2nd large case) Giant Spined 
Reptile, Dimetrodon gigas Cope, Permian formation, Baylor Co., Texas; 
Above on wall: Two exhibits of Fossil F'ish, Gyrodus circulariss 
(Agassis) ; Jurassic, Bavaria (the two together form an unusually 
complete skeleton, showing scales; it was divided in two by the cleavage 
of the stone containing it). 

Northwest cases: Notable exhibits: Fossil remains of Mastodon and 
Mammoth; teeth, portions of skull, etc. Tusks of Northern Mammoth, 
Elephas pri)nigenius. Specimens from carcass of a Mammoth found 
frozen in a cliff along the/ Beresovka River, in N., E. Siberia, in 1901; 
hair, fat, blood and stomach contents. Collection of skulls and front 
and hind feet, showing the evolution of the Horse, from the primitive 
Eohippus, Lower Eocene through the Mesohippus Merychippus and 
Hipparion, to the modern horse. Above, on the wall space, are three 
extinct fishes, including a Fossil Monk Fish, Squatina alifera; also 
Tusks from Mammoth from banks of Yukon River, Alaska. Measure- 
ment 8 ft. 8 in. 

Southwestern cases: (W. to E.) 1. Skeleton of fossil Porpoise, 
Delphinodon dividum. Fossil Sharks' Teeth (note especially the huge 
teeth of the Carcharodon megalodon) (Agassis), Eocene period 



282 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

from near Charleston, S. C; from the evidence of the teeth it is calcu- 
lated that this species attained a maximum length of 75 ft. Fossil 
Fishes: Oldest known species from the Ordovician beds of Colorado. 
On wall above: specimens of fossil fishes, from Green River shales — 
1. Lepisosteus simplex Leidy; 2. Lepisostus atrox; also Portheus bolossns 
Cope. 

During the Cretaceous period, the region now included by Texas, 
New Mexico, the Great Plains States and Canada was an inland sea, 
inhabited by huge fish, such as the Portheus, by large swimming 
reptiles, the Mosasaurs, by the Toothed Diving Bird, the Hesperornis, 
while Pterodactyls soared above it. All these species are represented 
in the adjacent exhibits. 

*In Central Wall Space: *Duck-billed Reptile, Trachodon annectens 
Marsh, Upper Cretaceous, Wyoming. This monster measures 26 ft. 
4 in. in length, and stands 8 ft. high at the hips (compare adjacent 
restoration, a painting by Charles R. Knight) ; Glass case) containing the 
skeleton of a Marine Reptile, Brachanhenias lucasi Williston, the 
shortest-necked Plesiosaur yet discovered; it is exhibited as found in 
the Benton limestone, Ottowa County, Kansas, the rock being cut away 
only sufficiently to expose the underside of jaws, skull, backbone and 
ribs. Case containing Fossil Eocene Fishes from Green River Basin 
of Wyoming. 

These exhibits are from shale deposits of the Eocene (Tertiary) 
age, formed some 3,000,000 to 4,000,000 years ago. Even in that early 
day fishes had become so far specialized as to be very modern in 
appearance. Several living families are represented by these fossil 
forms, most of "the present species being confined entirely to tropic or 
sub-tropic zones. The specimens here exhibited are all freteh water 
forms. 

Southeast Cases: Extinct Sauru^ae, or Reptile-like Birds with 
toothed jaws, biconcave vertebrae, free metacarpals ending in claws, 
and long tail with feathers arranged in pairs. Case contains casts of 
Hesperornis regalis; Moa feathers; plaster cast of Archaeopteryx (ear- 
liest known bird); egg of Aepyomis; Skull of giant bird, Phororachos 
longissimus, from Miocene of Patagonia. Mosasaurs, long, slender 
Reptiles from Upper Cretaceous Period, measuring from 6 to 40 ft. 
in length. 4 and 5. Fossil Turtles. The 20 specimens' in Case 5, are 
all of the fossil land turtle, Stylemys nebrascensis Leidy, showing 
growth from young to mature individual. Above, on wall: Skull of 
Tylosaurus proriger; alsoi Wing-bones of a Flying Reptile, Pteranodon 
ingens Marsh, from Niobrara Chalk Beds (the expanse of wing in this 
specimen is estimated! at 22 ft.). Adjacent is a restoration of an allied 
species, Petranodon Jongiceps Marsh, a gift of the Peabody Museum, 
Yale University, which owns the original. 

Southeast Pavilion: Fossil Mammals, Birds and Reptiles. 
The following are the principal exhibits in this room : Central 
Cases, from S. to N. : i. Great Cave Bear, Ursus Spelaeus 
Blumenbach, Pleistocene, near Ariege, France; 2. Two- 
horned Rhinoceros, Dicerathereum cooki Peterson, Miocene, 
Agate Springs, Nebr. ; 3. Skeleton of the smallest known 
Dinosaur, Brachyceratops Montanensis Gilmore, from northern 
Montana ; 4. Short-footed extinct Rhinoceros, Teleoceras 
fossiger, Late Tertiary, Phillips County, Kansas; 5. 
^Extinct Reptile, Camptosaurus browni Gilmore, from 
Jurassic, Albany County, Wyoming (a typical species of 
Ornithopod, or Bird-footed Dinosaur; in the same case 



PALEONTOLOGY COLLECTION 283 

is a smaller allied species, C. nanus Marsh ; 6. Extinct 
Bird, Emeus crassus Owen, from Quaternary deposits. 
South Island, N. Z.; 7. Giant Moa, Dinornis maximus; 8. 
*Extinct Toothed Bird, Hesperomis regalis Marsh, from 
Niobrara Chalk Beds, Kansas (this is one of the rarest 
American fossils, and the specimen here shown is one of 
the very few sufficiently complete to be exhibited in an articu- 
lated condition) ; 9. Extinct Reptile, Thescelosaurus neglectus 
Gilmore, Upper Cretaceous, Converse County, Wyoming; 
Extinct Mammal, Brontotherium hatcheri, from western 
Nebraska ; Case containing extinct Wolverine and Peccary, 
f roim near Cumberland, Md. ; also extinct Wolf, from near 
Los Angeles, Calif. ; Case containing skulls and bones of ex- 
tinct Horses, Musk-oxen, and notably, Entelodonts, an extinct 
group of Ungulates, having no living representatives, but re- 
motely related to the Pigs and Peccaries ; extinct Armadillo- 
like animal, Schistopleurum typus Nodrot, whose remains are 
found in the Argentine ; Saber-tooth Cat, an unusually com- 
plete specimen, from the "Big Bad Lands" of S. Dakota; 
Case containing skulls of extinct Sea-Cow, Camel and various 
species of Rhinoceros ; Right hand leg of Brontosaurus, 10 ft. 
in height, from Jurassic, Colo. ; Hind legs and pelvis of 
Allosaurus fragilis, from Jurassic, Colo. Wall case, northeast 
corner, containing: Skulls, tones and models of large horned 
Dinosaur, Triceratops, and of the Duck-billed Dinosaur, 
Trachodon. On wall above : Skeleton of long swimming 
reptile, Tylosaurus proriger Cope. This specimen is 25 ft. 
in length. Wall case at southeast corner contains : Fine 
series of skulls of the large plains-living mammals, the 
Titanotheres. More than 20 species are represented. 

South Aisle: The north, central and south series of ex- 
hibits in this room are each scientifically grouped in an 
ascending scale from west to east, and are most profitably 
visited in that order. 

The visitor may now proceed to the South Aisle, devoted 
mainly to Fossil Invertebrates. 

1. North Wall: *North American Historical Geology 
Exhibit. This series, occupying the entire length of the wall, 
consists of : a. a long, narrow wall map, or chart, showing 
a cross-section of the geologic strata of the North American 
Continent, from the Pacific to the Atlantic, the line followed 
being a broken one, shifting to N. or S., according to the 
location of the best known areas ; b. table cases of paleontologic 
exhibits, arranged chronologically, to show the characteristic 
fossils and rocks belonging to each successive geologic period ; 



284 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

c. a series of North American maps, one for each geologic 
period. This collection well repays a prolonged visit. 

Central Exhibits (W. to E.) : 1. Specimen of an ancient 
Sea Beach, Cambrian (Potsdam) Sandstone, from Port Henry, 
N. Y. 2. (Specimen of sandstone with rill marks, Lingula 
cuneata Conrad; Silurian (Medina sandstone) Lockport, N.Y. ; 
Fossiliferous sandstone, from Knoxville, N. Y. ; Fossiliferous 
shale, Lower Cambrian ; Fossiliferous marble, Carboniferous, 
from Durham Co., England. 3. Specimen of alternating cal- 
careous and sandy shale, Ordovician ; Quartz Conglomerate, 
Silurian. 4. Specimen of Edgewise Conglomerate, Ordovician 
period ; Limestone Conglomerate, Mesozoic. 5. Case contain- 
ing stalactites and stalagmites from caves near Harrington 
Sound, Bermuda; reef-forming corals, including Brain Coral, 
Diplodia cerebriformis; Sea Ginger, Millepora alcicornis; Star 
Coral, Oculina diffusa. 6. Table Case containing specimens of 
large fossil Crinoid, or -Sea Lily, Scyphocrinus elegans Zenker, 
Lower Devonian. 7. Fossil Crinoids continued. 8. Fossil 
Shells, Sea Weeds, etc. 9. Table Case containing Vermes or 
Worms : one of the rarest types of fossils, because these ani- 
mals have scarcey any hard portions to fossilize. 10. Gigantic 
Cretaceous Clam, from William's Creek, N. W. of Pueblo, 
Coil. 11. Many-armed Mesozoic Crinoid, Pentacrinus subang- 
ularis Miller, Mesozoic, from Lyme Regis, England. 12. Un- 
usually perfect specimen of Isotelus brachycephalus, found 
near Dayton, Ohio. 13. Limestone Slab, showing stratigraphic 
unconformity (Middle Ordovician) from Elkins, Ky. ; 
Columnar Calcareous Alga, Proterozoic, from near White 
Sulphur Springs, Montana. 14. "Specimen of Crinoidal Lime- 
stone, Williamson Co., Tenn. ; Section of ancient Conifer Tree 
(Callixylon) , changed to silica in fossilization. 15. *Cre- 
taceous Sea Bottom, exhibiting a colony of the largest known 
species of Crinoid, Uintacrinns socialis (Grinnell), a species 
which owes its name to having been first discovered in the 
Uinta Mountains, Utah. 16. Fossiliferous Sandstone, Tertiary 
— Eocene, ■ from Acquia Cliffs, Potomac River, Va. ; Tracks 
of marine animals on surface of Potsdam sandstone. 17. 
Fossil Shrimps (Peneus speciosus and Aegir tipularis, Jurassic, 
from lithographic limestone. 

West Wall (N. to S.) : 1. Rocks of New Hampshire, 
column showing proportional thickness of stratified forma- 
tions ; 2. Fossil Sea Lily, Pentacrinus subangularis Miller, 
Lower Jurassic, Wurtemburg; 3. Uinta Crinoid, slab 6 ft. 
square, showing over 100 specimens of Uintacrinns socialis 
Grinnell: 4.. Slab of shale, representing bottom life of Lower 
Carboniferous sea-floor (from Crawfordsville, Ind.). 



PALEONTOLOGY COLLECTION 285 

South Wall W. to E.) : Case 1. Containing* Middle Cam- 
brian Fauna, found in dark silicious shale, from the Canadian 
Rockies, 3280 ft. above Field, British Columbia. Note espe- 
cially the large trilobite, Neolenus serratus (Rominger) ; the 
Lace Crab, Marclla superba (Walcott) ; Ptcropocis, or wing- 
footed shells, Hyolithes carinatus (Matthew) ; and the Sidney 
Crab, Sidncyia incxpcctans (Walcott). 

Previous to the discovery of this splendid fauna, fossils showing 
the structure of their soft, fleshy parts have been exceedingly rare; 
in these specimens the most delicate structures, showing all the internal 
anatomy, have been preserved. Among the more interesting specimens 
are the following: the Gephyrean Worm, Ottoia prohfica (IValcoit) 
(specimens of fossil worms are rarely found and those here exhib- 
ited are among the most perfectly preserved fossil forms); the Holo- 
thurian, or fossil Sea Cucumber, Eldonia ludwigi {Walcott), showing 
the coiled alimentary canal; also Scene! la conica {Matthew), a small, 
conical Gastropod shell, allied to the modern limpet. 

Case 2. Fossiliferous Rocks: Marble, Limestone, Calcareous Tufa, 
Coquina, etc.; Case 3. Fossil Protozoa: Foraminifera; Radiolaria; Fossil 
Sponges or Porifera; Fossil Corals; Case 4. \Fbssil Corals continued: 
Chain coral, Honeycomb croal, Sunflower coral, Compound coral ( Middle 
Devonian) cut and polished to show radial internal structure. Case 5. 
Slab showing nearly 79 specimens of crinoid Iocrinnus subcrassus; 
Middle Cambrian Siliceous Shale, with specimens of Holothurian, Eldonia 
ludwigi; Slab with 60 specimens of Glyptocrinus dyeri Meek ; Grap- 
tolites: Black carbonaceous bodies, branched or unbranched to the 
Medusae and Corals; they are found in great abundance in Paleozoic 
rocks, and are of world-wide distribution; Fossil Medusae or Jelly Fish. 
Cases 6-8. Fossil Crinoids continued. Case 9. Fossil Sea-Urchins; note 
especially Melon-like Sea-Urchin, Melonites maltiporus. Case 10. Fossil 
Asteroidea or Starfish; Blastoidea, an extinct group of Echinoderms 
(Palaeozoic) ; Cystidea, extinct sac-like Echinoderms (Ordoviciian and 
Silurian); Case 11. Brachiopods and rock specimens of different ages 
composed largely of their remains; Fossil Cephalopoa, the most highly 
organized of all mollusks. Note especially the Straight Cephalopods 
(Middle Orovician) : Endoceras proteiforme Hall; also Orthoceras 
chinense, embedded in limestone, cut and polished to show internal 
structure. In this form these slabs are known to the Chinese as Pagoda 
Stones, from the popular belief that the figure is formed in the earth 
wherever the tower of a pagoda casts its shadow on the ground. 

Case 11-12. Ammonites, an extinct group of Cephalopods, closely 
related to the living Pearly Nautilus. Specimen of largest known 
American Ammonite, the Pachydiscsus, which must originally have 
measured 4 ft. in diameter. 

Case 14. Pelecypoda: clams, oysters, scallops and mussels; Gas- 
tropoda: snails, periwinkles and aonch-shells. 

Case) 15. Giant swimming crab (Tertiary), from Gatun Formation, 
Panama Canal Zone (the ancestor of. the present edible crab of the 
Pacific Coast); Fossil barnacles; Case 16. Fossil Hexapoda or Insects: 
The oldest known air-breathing land animals, and also the rarest of 
fossils are two groups of Paleozoic Insects, the Blattoidea or Cock- 
roaches, and the Plectoptera or May-flies; Note also fossil grasshopper, 
dragonfly and water-skipper, Jurassic from lithographic limestone, 
Eich?tadt, Bavaria; also fossil Coleoptera, Isoptera (white ants) and 
Lepidoptera, from Quatenary deposits, Zanzibar, Africa; Cases 16 
(E. side), 17 and 18: The I. H. Harris Collection of Cincinnati fossils: 
arranged to show the animalsi and plants that lived in the Mississippian 



286 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

Sea in the region of Cincinnati, O., towards the close of the Lower 
Silurian period. The entire collection was bequeathed to the Museum 
in 1897, and contains upward of 17,000 specimens; Case 19. Slab of 
fossiliferous bluish limestone, Richmond Group, near Oxford, O.; 
composed almost entirely of Brachiopod shells; Case 20. Fossiliferous 
stratified rock with coral reef ; rocks exposed by stream cutting, which 
outcrop along Chenoweth Creek, near Louisville Ky. 

North Aisle: Fossil Plants, Petrified Woods, etc. The 
fossil plants are represented by a large variety, including the 
notable Lacoe Collection of Carboniferous forms, comprising 
over 100,000 specimens. The collection has recently been rear- 
ranged and fully labeled, and. even the casual visitor who is not 
a specialist must be impressed by the giant exhibits at the W. 
end of aisle and the brilliant colorings of the petrified woods 
from the so-called "Petrified Forests" of Arizona. The follow- 
ing features, however, should be especially noted: 

(W. to E.) Base) of trunk and roots of Lepidodendron, a gigantic 
carboniferous tree, ancestor of present-day Ground Pine or Club-Moss 
(from Pennsylvania coal-mine) ; Sections of fossil tree-trunks in which 
the original organic matter has been wholly replaced by silica in the 
form of chalcedony, jasper and opal; sandstone cast and mold of Club- 
Moss trunk, the inner surface of the 1 mold being covered by the large 
rhomboidal figures of leaf -cushions, characteristic of the Lepidodendron; 
Complete brain-like calcarious Algae, from Wellington limestone; Cycad 
trunk with small leaf scars; Fronds of various species of extinct ferns 
from Pennsylvania coal beds; Clay with leaves of fossil fig and magnolia, 
Eocene period; Classified collection illustrating North American fossil 
plants; Petrified remainsi of a low form of coral life, pressed into* true 
coralline reefs; Group (of silicified fossil logs; Dark impressions of the 
Ulodendron, giant fossil trees which contributed much material in the 
formation of coal; Fossil oaks, the original wooden material replaced 
by opal; Polished cross-sections of tree trunks changed toi opal, but still 
showing the original woody structure; Fossil palm tree, preserved in 
fine'-grained shaile, showing the apex of the trunk, with a crown of 
six leaves. 

Main Floor continued: Eastern Range: Mineralogy: 

East wall-cases (S. to N.): 1. Specimens of rock 
showing various forms of faulting and of faulting cleavage; 
2. (on platform) : fine large specimens of folded Jaspery 
hematite; 3. (pilatform) : Specimens of potholes in Basalt; 
4. Blocks of limestone showing glacial action; 5. a. (S. side) : 
Specimens illustrating glaciers and glacial phenomena; b. (N. 
side) : Specimens of volcanic dust; specimens of deep-sea 
deposits ; exhibits illustrating the decompositon of rocks and 
the origin of sediments; 6. Relief Map of the United States, 
showing the theoretical restoration of the Ancient Ice Sheet 
at the statge of the Glacial period, following the maim silt 
epoch. 7. Collection of Imitative Forms, assumed by in- 
organtic matter so closely resembling organic matter as to 
be misleading. 8. Fine specimen of Glacial Pothole. 9. 
Concretionary Granite, 2 specimens. 00. a. (S. side) ; Ex- 



PALEONTOLOGY COLLECTION 287 

hibits showing the processes of rock weathering and soil 
formation; b. (N. side): Exhibit of vein formations in 
marble, dolomite, quartz, slate, etc. II. (on platform) : Sand- 
stone concretions from near the mouth of Cannon Ball River, 
North Dakota; 12 — 17. Collection illustrating the process of 
concretionary structures ; Relief maps, photographs, trans- 
parencies and specimens illustrating the physical features of 
the Yellowstone National Park; 18. Stereogram of the Henry 
Mountains, Utah; 19. (on platform): Exhibit of Columnar 
Basalt from quarry near Asbach, Rhenish Prussia. 20. 
Map showing distribution of known meteoric falls in the 
United States. 21. Collection illustrating volcanoes and vol- 
canic phenomena. Note especially "Pele's Hair," from Kilauea 
crater, Hawaiian Islands, formed by the action of the wind 
in catching up the jets of boiling lava and stringing the mate- 
rial into long greenish brown fibres, in which form it cools too 
quickly to permit of crystallization. 22. (table case) : Con- 
tains specimens of North Carolina flexible sandstone ; also 
exhibits illustrating the eruption, Jan. 10th, 1914, of the long 
inactive volcano of Sakurajami, Japan; 23. Siliceous and 
calcareous deposits from extinct hot springs in S. W. 
Wyoming; 24. a. (S. side) : Collection of Gypsum incrusta- 
tions, Selenite crystals and other cave formations, chiefly 
from the Mammoth Cave, Ky. ; stalagmite marble, travertine 
and calcareous tufa; b. (N. side) : Limestone caverns and 
associated phenomena ; stalactites and stalacmites ; exhibits 
illustrating cave life; the cave bat, blind cray fish, cave sala- 
mander and cave beetle; 25. Pictures and model of section of 
Marengo Cave, Indiana; 26-27. Stalactites continued; This case % 
contains the most picturesque and popularly interesting part 
of this group. 

Central Exhibits ON. to S.) : These consist chiefly of the 
Museum's meteorite collection, containing altogether several 
hundred small specimens ; also, on W. side of the Range, casts 
of some of the largest known meteorites. Case 1. Portraits 
of the principal geologists and paleontogists of former U. S. 
Geological Surveys. 2. Collection of portraits of early Amer- 
ican Geologists and their works. 3. Meteoric iron. 4. Meteoric 
stony iron found in Christan Co., Ky. 5. Meteoric iron con- 
tinned. 6. Meteorites : a. from Canyon Diablo, Ariz. ; b. from 
Tucson, Ariz, (known as the "Signet") ; c. from Casas 
Grandes, Chihuahua, Mex. 7. Case of meteorites arranged to 
show classification and other features. 8. Kugel Gabbro 
(Potatoe rock), from about 70 mi. S. E. of Christiania, 
Norway. 10-13. Meteorites continued. 



288 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

West Wall (S. to N.) : These cases contain a Systematic 
Collection of Rocks, classified according to the prevailing 
system also the following special exhibits : Relef map of 
Eureka District, .'Nevada ; Typical Rocksi of the Gem Region : 
Collection illustrating the occurrence of Tourmaline and other 
gems in the Pegmatites of southern California; Cast of 
Boculirito Meteorite; from State of Sinaloa, Mex. Cast of 
The Ahnighito meteorite (''The Tent"), measuring 6 ft. by 
7 ft. 6 in., by ii ft. 2 in. The orginal brought by Peary 
from Melville Bay, Greenland, in 1896-7, is in The American 
Museum of Natural History, N. Y. Geological relief map of 
Washington and Vicnity; Geological relief maps of Leadviille, 
Col. 

f. Exhibits of Ethnology 

**The American Indian Exhibits, constituting by far the 
most important part of the Museum's Ethnological collec- 
tions, are displayed in the North Wing (in the aisles sur- 
rounding the National Picture Gallery), and in the North- 
west range, the different tribes being arranged mainly as 
follows : Indians of Alaska, British Columbia, Greenland, 
etc., in the South Aisle; Indians of the Plains and Rockies, 
in the West aisle ; Pueblo Indians and other tribes of the iSouth- 
west, Mexico and Central South America, in the Northwest 
Range. 

To the visitor entering from the Rotunda, the most con- 
spicuous objects in the South gallery, are the collection of 
Totem Poles, and Inside House Posts made by the Haida 
Indians of the village of Tanu, Queen Charlotte Island. 

Totem Pole is the popular name for carved poles set) up by Indians 
of the Northwest Coast of N'orth America. Among the Haida or Queen 
Charlotte Island Indians, where they attained their highest perfection, 
there were two varieties: one set up in -front of the house midway 
between the eaves, and bearing the crests or emblems of the owner's clan 
and that of his wife's; secondly, the inside house posts, set up within 
the house, which support the house beam. 

The pair of House Posts immediately to R. and L. of entrance 
are, of especial interest. Each consists of a thick plank , of :giant cedar 
wood (Thua plicata), carved and painted on the front with a decorative 
symbolic design representing an imaginary sea-monster called, "Tsemos," 
which is thought to move erratically like a drifting tree whose roots 
are laden with stones. Notice also a 38 ft. Totetm pole at extreme 
S. E. cor., on which the animal carvings (beginning below) are: the 
Killer-whale, Chief, Sea-monster, Chief's hat, Eagle and human figure 
with two toads. The Killer-whale is the ownejr's crest and the eagle 
and toadsi are the crest of his wife ; also a 42 ft. Totem pole at extreme 
S. W. cor., the carved figures on which are: a Beaver, Whale, Deep-sea 
Grizzly Bear, Cormorant) and Eagle. 



ETHNOLOGY EXHIBITS 289 

The visitor will find it convenient to proceed to the R. 
and begin with the few cases of Indian exhibits that, for 
lack of space, have been crowded into the S. end of the E. 
aisle (which is otherwise devoted to the Asiatic collections). 
The central exhibits both here and in all the galleries devoted 
to ethnology, consist largely of representative *Family Groups, 
admirably life-like, and scientifically accurate to the minutest 
detail. The wall exhibits are cases containing collections illus- 
trative of the life and culture of the different tribes, costumes, 
household utensils, weapons, pottery, basketry, textiles, etc. 
The numbers used in the following list are intended merely 
as a guide to the relative position of each exhibit: the cases 
themselves bear no numbers, but are abundantly supplied 
with descriptive placards. 

East Aisle, Central Exhibits : 1. Smith Sound Eskimo, 
called the "Arctic Highlanders," the most northern people in 
the known world; the group represents a family as it might 
appear moving across the ice-fields. (Designed by W. H. 
Holmes, and modeled by H. J. Ellicott) ; 2. Dwelling Group 
of the Western Eskimo, Western Alaska, consisting of dome- 
shaped houses made of earth, piled over a cob work of timbers; 
3. Dwelling Group of Central Eskimos, consisting of a winter 
house and. outbuildings, and another in course of construction ; 
Model of dwelling of Kinugmut Eskimo of Alaska ; 4. Family 
Group of Western Eskimo, illustrating usual summer occupa- 
tions and amusements. 

East and South Wall Cases (N. to S., beginning opposite 
4th Family Group) : Case 1. Carvings in slate made by Haida 
Indians. The material is fine grained and easily worked. 
The figures represent the mythological characters and stories 
that are shown on Haida Totem Poles. Collection also includes 
slate pipes, dishes and plaques, stone mortars, pestles and 
shallow dishes for grinding paint; Case 2. Tribes of South 
Alaska and British Columbia : masks, helmets and headdresses ; 
Haida Chief's crest with plume ; Bear's head dance mask ; Bird 
ceremonial headdress (Tlinkit) ; Seal clubs; ancient Thunder- 
bird club; Slave killer (Haida) ; Case 3- Alaskan Indians 
continued. Carving, inlaying and metal work. Rattles and 
wooden pipes ; carved charms, ear pendants and medicine sticks 
of shell, horn and bone; stone Totemic charms; Case 4. (N. 
Wall) War costumes and weapons of the Aleuts, Tlinkit, 
Haida and Chilkat; plate, slat, rod and skin armour; helmets, 
greaves, clubs, bows quivers, etc.; Case 5. Basketry of N. W. 
Coast Indians: Decorated baskets for various ornamental and 
useful purposes: Haida ceremonial hat, with mythological 
devices representing Totemic animals. 



2Q0 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

West Wall Cases (N. to S., beginning opposite 4th Central 
Case) : 1. Tribes of the North Pacific Coast : costumes, tex- 
tiles and wood carving; 2. Indian decorative art. collection 
of decorated wooden masks, painted rug, carved wooden 
figures; 3. Chests of cedar wood, carved and painted with 
Totemic designs. 

The visitor now passes again through entrance vestibule, 
continuing inspection of cases on S. Wall: 1. (E. of door- 
way) : Alaskan Basketry continued : Baby shoes, mats, baskets 
and bags, made from Carex which flourishes abundantly in S. 
Alaska; 2. (W. of doorway): Costumed figures of Eskimo 
men and women from Kotzebue Sound, Point Barrow and 
Labrador. 

West Aisle: Central Exhibits (S. to N.) : Family Groups: 
1. Chilkat household, consisting of wood worker, carving a 
ceremonial mask ; woman weaving a Totemic blanket ; girl 
serving man in ceremonial costume, etc. Designed by W. H. 
Holmes; 2. Collection of carved wooden vessels ; 3. Textile 
work of Tribes of Columbia River Region (Salish) ; male 
figure wearing woven blanket ; 4. Table Case showing develop- 
ment of slashing weapons with short hilts : weapons for cut- 
ting and thrusting; also hand weapons for stabbing and pierc- 
ing; 5. Family Group of Loucheux, type of the Yukon- 
Mackenzie Province; 6. Iroquois Village Group, Northern 
New York, representing a stockaded village oT Ihe Iroquois 
Confederac3^ during the Aboriginal Period. Modeled by /. B. 
Millner; 7. Dwelling Group of Seminole Indians, Florida. In 
center is house where cooking is done; 8. Navaho Indians 

9. Dwelling Group of the Papago Indians, Sonora, Mex. ; 

10. Dwelling Group of Sioux Indians ; 11. Dwelling Group 
of the Chippewa Indians, Lake Superior Region; Models of 
houses of birch bark, mats and rushes; 12. Family Group: 
Navaho Indian blanket makers ; one woman spinning and the 
other weaving; 13. Table Case: Development of the spindle 
and shuttle; 14. Table Case: Development of the lamp, from 
the crudest stone lamp to the electric bulb ; 15. Family Group : 
Zuni women (New Mex.) making pottery; 16. Table 
Case : Showing development of the adze and the hammer ; 
17. Table Case: Showing development of the Fish-hook and 
Harpoon Barb ; 18. Family Group of the Sioux Indians, type 
of the Aborigines of the Great Plains region ; 19. Table 
Case : Development of the drill, the scraper, the jack-knife 
and the saw ; 20. ^Historic Group ; Captain John Smith trading 
with the Powhatan Indians. Designed by W. H. Holmes; 21. 
Table Case: Showing development of knife, fork, spoon, cup 
and tobacco pipe; 22. Family Group of Cocopa Indians of far 



ETHNOLOGY EXHIBITS 291 

Southwest, intended as type of this region: Group includes 
woman milling corn in wooden mortar, young man teaching 
boy the use of bow and arrow, returning hunter asking for 
water, and woman winnowing grass-seed. 

West Wall Cases (N. to S.) : 1. Burial frame of a Cheyenne 
child; 2. Model of Sioux woman and child; 3. Sioux Indian warrior, 
wearing war shirt with bead work, cu|| fringe and scalp trophies, plume 
of eagle feather and necklace of bear's claws. The face is that of 
Kicking Bear, a Sioux Medicine Man, who was prominent with Sitting 
Bull in the Ghost Dance craze of 1890. The costume was secured from 
hinii and a cast taken of his face when he visited Washington in 1902. 
4. George] Catlin Collection: Relics of Catlin's Explorations among the 
Indians, 1830-71; 5. Examples of work in quills and Moose-hair, on 
moccasins, shirts, leggins, belts, pouches, fringes, necklaces, etc.; 
6. Indians of the Northern Plains continued, chiefly Sioux: Woman's 
painted robe, beaded cradle, sun-dance robe (Blackfeet); Sitting Bull's 
flintlock; Chief Gall's quiver; Beaded shirt, feather headdress; scalp 
of Nez Perce; 7. Charms, trophies and examples of objects connected 
with native religion, which were used principally by western tribes; 
8. Osage Indians, Okla.; Sacred bundles used in ceremonies; 9-10. Plains 
and Rocky Mountains Tribes; Beaded tobaqco pouches; pipes, flutes, 
whistles and drums; Ston-head war clubs; bone war clubs with spikes; 
ceremonial shields and shield-covers, quivers, bows, arrows and toma- 
hawks; 11. James Mooney Collection: Earthenware vessels of Cherokee 
(N. C.) Indians; Seneca (N. Y.) Indians: Flutes, bark-rattles, etc.; 
Iroquois (N. Y.) Indians; silver brooch, beadwork pouches, etc.; 

12. Tribes of the Northern Woodlands; Collection ofl Rev. Peter Jones, 
a half-blood Ojibwa Indian, who became a Christian missionary.'" This 
collection includes a beaded bandolier and headdress worn by Indian 
delegate to the Court of George XV and Queen Victoria; an ancient 
knob-club, scalping knife, medicine-bone, wampum, etc. In same case 
are birch bark vessels and other implements of the Ojibwa sugar industry. 

13. Tools of the Eskimo; 14. Eskimo work-boxes, tool-boxes, boxes 
for lance-heads, snuff, trinkets, etc.; 15. Lamps of the Eskimo; from 
Labrador and Greenland on E. to Alaska and Aleutian Islands; 

16. Dwelling Groups of Digger Indians (type of /Calif ornian Province); 

17. Alaskan Collection lent by Mrs. W . H. Emory; 18. Western Eskimo. 
Wooden dishes, pails, dippers, ladles a n d spoons, cut from solid wood ; 
19. (S. Wall) Eskimo continued : Harpoons and bird tridents, fish 
spears, throwing sticks and sinew-backed bows. 

East Wall Cases (S. to N. This is a continuous case, 
divided only by the structural columns along the E, wall. 
The numbers refer to alcoves between columns) : 

1. Tribes of Alaska: Costumes of Tinkit and Haida Tribes; 
2. Eskimo of S. E. Alaska: Garments, including, a waterproof dress, 
weapons, paddle, icie-skimmers, lamps, boxes, snow-shoes, and a com- 
plete skin canoe or kayak: also model of house showing method of 
construction: 3. Greenland Eskimo; Costumes of ornamented sealskin, 
robes of eiderdown, full-size dog-sled, spears and small models of 
native boats; also exhibit of the Labrador Indians, including fur cos- 
tume, painted-skin dress, snow-shoes, toboggan sleds and model of 
house; 4. Tribes of Northern Canada. Tanned-skin clothing, dishes, 
household utensils, bows, nets and snow-shoes; Indians of the Eastern 
and\ Southern States; Baskets, household utensils, masks; also figure of 
Seminole man wearing a Chief's costume of today: 5. Chipewa Indians: 
Floor-mats, beaded tobacco bags, household and agricultural implements; 
6. Sioux Indians: beaded clothing, robes, dried foods, baskets, sticks 



2Q2 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

and stones used in clmnkey game, stick and balls used in, shinny game, 
woman's elk-tooth dress, papoose cradle, stone mallets, war bonnets, 
bows and spears; 7. Kiowa Indians. Costumes, medicine staffs, sclalp- 
lock dress ornament, saddles, shields, lances, beaded cradles and reed 
beds; 8. Arapaho and Cheyenne Indians: Robes, rawhide cases, lance?^ 
shields, all ornamented with paint, feathers, beads and elk teeth; also 
buffalo* skulls and horns, war bonnets and war clubs; 9. Tribes of the 
Rocky Mountains; Utes and other Shoshones: Costumes of an early 
day, collected by Major J. W. Powell and others. 

The visitor now turns W. (opposite elevators) into — 
Northwest Range, North Section. Indians of the South- 
western United States, Central and South America : 

Central Exhibition Cases CE-. to W.), These exhibits 
consist mainly of Family Groups alternating with Table 
Cases showing historical development of implements, 
weapons and arts and crafts. 1. (E. Wall Case) Basketry 
of the Fraser-Columbia region; 2. Table Case; Development 
of the Torch and Candle ; 3. Family group of Hupa Indians 
from northern California ; 4. Table Case : Development of 
Fire Making and Illumination from primitive method of fric- 
tion to the electric light ; 5. Family group of eight Pueblo 
Indians, ithe Zuni of New Mexico : Man 'bringing home his 
crop of vegetables and fruit ; woman weaving a belt on her 
hand -loom; young girl carrying a jar of water on her head; 
man drilling Turquoise for beads, etc. ; 6. Table Case. De- 
velopment of European Ax and Aboriginal American Ax ; 7. 
Family group of Hopi Indians from northeastern Arizona ; 
8. Table Case: History of Weaving, including the spindle, 
shuttle and loom; 9. *The Snake Dance: an episode in a Hopi 
Dance for Rain, designed by W. H. Holmes, and modeled by 
U. S. J. Dunbar. 10. Table Case: Development of Tools and 

These Indians celebrate in the month of August, at intervals of 
in black, brown, red and yellow. Mohave, Cocopa and Yuma, Tribes; 
pose being to beseech the gods for rain for their crops. The culmi- 
nation is an open air ceremony in which live snakes are carried, and 
the most striking episode in this dance is presented in this group, which 
shows a trio of Snake priests, respectively the "Carrier " tie "Sus- 
tainer" and the "Collector," a line of priests of the Antelope Society 
who act as chorus, and a maid and matron whose office it is, along 
with others, to scatter sacred meal on the participants as a sacrifice to 
the gods. 

Appliances used in Metal Working; 11. The Arrow Makers: 
Group illustrating the manufacture of stone implements by 
the American aborigines ; modeled by U. S. J. Dunbar; 12. Table 
Case: Reduction in Metal Working; also Methods of Manu- 
facture, including hammering, casting, overlaying, etc.; 13. 
Kiowa Group: Indian children at play, showing child 
life of Plains Indians as illustrated by the wheel and dart 
game, whip and tops, and mimic warfare; 14. Table Case: 



ETHNOLOGY EXHIBITS 293 

Toggle harpoons, sinkers, fish-hooks and lines ; 15. Family 
group of Tehuelche Indians (Patagonian region) breaking 
camp; 17. Family group of four Maya-Quiche Indians (type 
of the Central American region) ; group designed by W. H. 
Holmes, modeled iby U. S. J. Dunbar; woman grinding corn 
on a stone; man carrying corn in a net-bag over his shoulder, 
etc.; 18. Feather work, basketry and bead work of Indians 
of British Guiana. 19. (to R.) Model of Mission Church, 
Zuni Puelblo, New Mexico; Estufa or "Kiva" (Ceremonial 
room), Jamez Pueblo, New Mexico; 20. Model of the Hopi 
Pueblo, N. E., Arizona. The mesa in which it is situated 
is about 500 ft., above the level of the plain, and totally des- 
titute of vegetation. 'Modeled by Victor and Cosmos Min- 
deleff; 21. (N. to S.) a. Dwelling Group of the 
Tehuelche Indians, type of the Patagonian Region, b. Dwell- 
ing Group of the Goajiros Indians, type of the Orinoco 
Region. 22. Ancient Sun-Shrine, crescentic mass of weather- 
worn sandstone. From sandy mesa in Arizona ; Cases 23-25 
are the southernmost row in the N. W. Pavilion. From E. 
to W. they contain : 23. Industries of Pima Indians, Ariz. : 
Loom with cloth in process, doll in cradle, woven belt, hair 
ornaments and shields ; Pima, Papago and Maricopa Tribes : 
Bows and arrows, carrying baskets and saddles. 24. Tribes 
of South America: Textiles, robes,, skirts, girdles, hammocks 
and bags, made from skin, bark, cotton and other vegetable 
fibre. 25. Tribes of Peru, Central Brazil, Guiana and Argen- 
tina: Bows and arrows. 

The visitor may now return to E. end and inspect the 
exhibits on the northern side. 

Wall Cases, North Wall (E. to W.) : i. Mohave Indian Chief. 
Yuman stock, from hot desert region of Southwest Arizona. Modeled 
by Theodore Mills; 2. Hupa Indians of the Valley of Trinity River, 
Cal.: Baskets, carved elkhorn spoons, stone knives, pestles, baking 
dishes, etc.; 3. Costumes, ornaments, ceremonial head-d'resses, etc., of 
the Hupa, lamath, McCloud, Porno and Tulare Indians of California; 
4. Tribes of New Mexico and Arizona. In N. E. Arizona are the 
Hopi Indians, the westernmost of the Pueblo Indians. They pre- 
serve more fully than other Pueblo tribes the ancient arts and customs. 
This case contains .pottery, matting, spindles, bows and arrows, stone 
implements, etc.; 5. Seri Indian Hunter, modeled by U. S. J. Dunbar: 
also Birdskin Blanket of Seri Indians, made from! the California Brown 
Pelican, Pelkanus Californicus ; and a child's garment of Cormorant 
skins, Phalaerocorax pencillatus. 

The Seri Indians occupy Tiburon Island, the Gulf of California. 
They wear skirts of pelican skins, and are noted for their large stature, 
slender limbs, and great breadth and depth of chest. 

6. New Mexico and Arizona continued: Zuni Pueblo Indians: Cere- 
monial Dolls, madq by a Zuni in imitation of the men, who personified 
the gods in sacred ceremonies; they are used by the mothers in teaching 
their children the symbolism of the gods; (same cases) Masks of the 



294 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

Zuhi Kok-ko Society, worn by members of the Sacred Dance Fraternity 
when personating the ancestral god's; 7. Ceremonial objects of the 
Zunis: Feather wands, sword-swallower's wands, sacred bundles, rattles, 
and sacred games used in various ceremonies; 8. New Mexico and 
Arizona continued: Zuni Pueblo Indians, living in Western New Mexico 
on one of the head streams of the Little Colorado River: Case contains 
pottery, basketry, gourd vessels, spindles, etc.; 9. *Relics from Pueblo 
Indian Missions of New Mexico, antedating those of California : Holy 
Water Font, carved and painted wooden figures, paintings on skins 
and on wood, crosses, and sconces; also paintings on dressed bualo skins. 
These paintings are a combination of Christian and pagan art, due to 
•the crude ideas of the< Indians who designed them. Done by Indian 
converts, under direction of the Mission Fathers; 10. Tribes of Southern 
Arizona, the) Pima, Papago and Maricopa Indians, Lower Gila and Salt 
Rivers (these tribes have now coalesced and are now practically uniform 
in culture): Pottery, basketry, brushes, clubs, drums, flutes, etc.; 

11. Woman of Chiapas, Southern Mexico, modeled by 'U. S. J. Dunbar; 

12. Tribes of California, Kawia and Dieguenos Indians, inhabiting the 
mission area of S. Cal. : Specimens of pottery, basketry, gourd vessels, 
etc.; 13. Mexican tribes: Yaki, Tarahumare, Cora, and other tribes: 
woven pouches, etq. ; 14. Mexican Tribes continued: Lacquered bowls, 
machetes, water jars and other articles illustrative of arts derived from 
aboriginal sources, but which cannot now be traced to any particular 
tribe; 15. West Indian Islands (Haiti, Porto Rico, San Domingo and 
Cuba): Baskets, igourds, guitars, etc.; also Indian 'tribes of Central 
America (Panama, Casta Rica and Guatemala) : Garments of Kekchi 
women; mask and dance costume of Talamanca Indians; 16. Talamanca 
and Guatuso Indians of Costa Rica Inland Forests, and now on the 
verge of extinction; Bows, arrows, pottery, necklaces of jaguar teeth. 
Note the crudity of the art; 17. Upper Amazon 'River: a. Peru, various 
tribes 3 Textiles, ornaments, musical instruments; also 1 Ancient Peruvian 
Mummy; b. Bolivia: various tribes: Blankets and slings of vicuna wool; 
niodels of reed boats, c. Brazil, various robes; Bark cloth, wood carv- 
ing; 18. Tribes of British Guiana (Carib and Arawak) : Fine basketry 
and well-developed pottery; 19. a. Argentine, various tribes; Textiles, 
ornaments, pies and ear-plugs; b. Paraguay: Feather cinctures, plumes, 
shell and bear ornaments, knit hammocks and bags. 

West Wall (Same Series continued) : 20. Tribes of the Amazon, the 
Bororo, and other groups: Specimens brought home in 1852 by Herndon 
and Gibbon, including bows, clubs, spears and arrows; also two dried 
heady of Xivaro Indians (skull removed and head shrivelled to one- 
third natural size); 21. Patagonian tribes. Painted robes of horehide, 
skins and robes (of Guanaco, boots, spurs, bolas, etc.; 22. Paraguay: 
Gran Chaco Indians (tribes similar in culture to the Plains Indians of 
North America) : Arrows, bows, clubs, feather headdresses, costumes, 
etc.; 23. Xivaro Chief, modeled by Theodore A. Mills. Note especially 
the resplendent costume ornamented with the vivid plumage of South 
American birds; 24. Tribes of Fuegia, the Alikulof and other groups: 
Bows, spears, fish-nets of sinew- harpoon-heads, etc. 

South Wall. A colonnade here forms an aisle on the 
S. side, which is divided by transverse cases into a series 
of alcoves, partly screened from view by the outer row of 
cases facing the central Family Groups. 

(E. to W.) Alcove 1: Basketry of Middle and South America; the 
checker and twilled work from British Guiana and ancient Peru; 
basketry of California tribes, including thei Maidu, Panamint, Washo, 
Tulare and Mission Indians; Tahltan tribe, British Columbia; necklaces, 
bracelets, belts, beaded bags and fans; leather-working tools, paints 



ETHNOLOGY EXHIBITS 295 

and dyes; Apache Man and Squaw; twined and coiled basketry of Porno 
Indians. Tribes of I'uget Sound Region: mats, robes, skirts, carrying 
bands, baskets, clubs, tools and digging sticks. 

Alcove 2^ Ella F. Hubby Collection of California Indian Baskets, 
received in 1921, andi including specimens by the Luisefios, Channel, 
Mission, Coahuilla, Piute, Muna, Maidu, Mono and others. L'aoiric 
Coast Tribes: Bows, arrows and quivers from various tribes of Oregon 
and California. Costume and adornment of California Tribes. Tribes 
of Eastern States: Basketry of the Iroquois, Cherokee, Chocktaw and 
Cheetimacha Indians. 

Alcove 3: Tribes, of the Pueblo Region: (Arizona and New Mex- 
ico) : Every-day tools and utensils of the Hopi and Zuni. Leather 
shields decorated in Pueblo symbolic art; war hats, spears, bows and 
arrows of Zuni and Upper Rio Grande Pueblos; boomerang-like clubs 
of the Hopi; bows for war, hunting and ceremony. Basketry of the 
Apache, Pima, Papago, Seri. Pueblo music and games; flutes and 
rattles; rums made from hollow logs; tops, shuttlecock, and cup-and- 
ball-and-sticks. Dwelling Group of Pawnee Indian. 

Alcove 4: Pueblo Tribes continued. Costumes of cotton and wool, 
moccasins, belts and blankets. Navaho, New Mexico and Arizona 
weaving; Blankets, belts and looms. Basketry of various Pacific Coast 
tribes. Ceremonial dolls of the Hopi Indians, carved from the root of 
the cottonwood tree. Hopi and Zuni ceremonial headdresses of carved 
and painted wood; masks of leather, cloth and basketry; ceremonial 
shields, etc. Metal work of the Navaho Indians. 

Alcove 5: Zuni decorated pottery: The ware is made by coiling 
ropes of clay and pressing them together; the surface is covered with a 
wash of white clay, and designs in iron ore colors arel painted on, and 
the ware fired in a primitive kiln. All the designs are symbolic. Hopi 
weaving and embroidery: Ceremonial sash; man's sacred sash; man's 
sacred kilt; ceremonial blanket; Bride's blanket (pure white); looms 
for weaving belts, sashes and blankets; spindle with yarn, weft combs, 
weaving sticks, etc. Hopi pottery: The middle row shows Naftipeo's 
revival of ancient forms and designs; examples of ancient Hopi vases 
from ruined Pueblos. Dwelling Group of Jarnamadi Indians (West 
Brazil). Dwelling Group of Navaho. 

Alcove 6: Acoma and Sia Pueblos. N. M. : Acoma decorated pottery 
in black, brown, red and yellow. Mohave, Cocopa and Yuma Tribes; 
Yuma ceremoniail headdresses; willow work, war club,, cradle frame, 
pottery bowls, basketry, etc. Model of Altar of Little Fire Fraternity, 
Zuni Indians, New Mexico: Ancient Shrine of Awatobi, Maki Reservation 
discovered by Don Pedro de Tabor in 1540. In 1700 warriors from other 
Hopi pueblos, believing that the Awatobis had become sorcerers on 
account of their cordial reception of the padres of the Franciscan 
Mission, pillaged this pueblo and massacred the inhabitants. This shrine 
was found in the middle of the river where the warriors were congre- 
gated on the fatal night. The Apache, Arizona: Weapons of war, 
costumes, leather work and basketry. Collections of offerings at various 
Indian Shrines. Decorated pottery from Rio Grande Pueblo. Dwelling 
Group of the Carib Indians, British Guiana. 

Alcove 7: Rio Grand Pueblo pottery: A black, burnished type, 
made chiefly at Santa Clara Pueblo. Navaho Blankets: also saddle blan- 
kets, dress, pueblo sash, and models of looms. Pueblo of Taos, N. M. 
(one of the Rio Grande group of Pueblos), modeled by W. H. Jackson. 
Collection from Mexico (made by Harry S. Bryan) : Crucifixes, bead 
work, embroidery, etc. Model of a oki ^.ltar. 

Alcove 8: Tribes of Panama: Costumes, basketry, tools, toys, masks, 
etc. Tribes of Mexico: Objects used in manufacture of Pulque, Mescal 
and Palm-wine by Mexican Indians; also specimens of plants from 
which these drinks are made; specimens of cord making and weaving. 



2 g6 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

Model of the Pueblo of Oraibi ("Place on the Rock"), the largest 
of the Hopi Pueblos, 99 miles N. E. of Flagstaff, Arizona. Modeled 
by Victor and Cosmos Mindeleff. .Life forms in pottery (of Pueblo 
Region), figurines of birds, including owls, ducks, etc. On S. wall, and 
continuing W. to end of wall, is a portion of the W. E. Safford Collec- 
tion of Indian portraits, mainly from Peruvian Tribes: Cashivo Girl, 
Napo Indian, Fuegian Man, etc. 

North Wing: East Aisle. Ethnology, continued: Europe 
Asia and Africa. 

Central Cases (S. to N.), beginning opposite the second 
window N. of Eskimo, Group' (p. 291) : 1. Model of the Wat 
Chang or "Great Monastery Pagoda," the finest edifice of 
Bangkok, Siam, gift of Marquis Visuddha, Siamese Minister to 
England; 2. Parsee ceremonial objects, including fire urn, used 
to hold sacred fire, religious costume, suit of Parsee school 
girl; also model of Parsee Tower of Silence or Dakhma; 
3. Chinese porcelains and furniture collected on the Perry Ex- 
pedition of 1853. 4. Table case containing Shinto charms; 
5. The minor arts of India, metal work, wood work, lacquer, 
etc.: Examples of furniture, hangings, jewelry, domestic 
utensils and figurines. 6. The George Keenan Collection (loaned) 
of Central Asian and other Weapons, consisting of scimitars, 
broad-swords, daggers, pistols, guns, etc., of gold, silver, steel 
and ivory, also duelling pistols, guns and swords of artistic 
and historic interest, including African weapons secured 
during the Stanley Expedition. 7. and 8. Cases containing 
lacquer boxes, bottles and other objects of Chinese art; 9. Col- 
lection of equipments of war of the Japanese Feudal period. 
Collected by Theodore Roosevelt, Albert Beveredge, Horace 
Capron and others. It includes specimens of spears, saddles, 
helmets, stirrups and two life-size figures in armor; 10. Pujah 
set, or ceremonial vessels used in Hindu family worship ; 11. 
Dwelling Group of the Aino, the aboriginal inhabitants of 
Yezo, Japan; 12. Objects of Buddhist religious art, including 
bronze seated statues of Buddha, etc. Case containing exam- 
ples of Chinese art in porcelain, ivory, jade, pewter, etc. ; 13. 
Social life and arts of the Siamese Empire, including objects 
conneced with the Palace of the King and Royal Family; also 
weapons and theatrical masks ,and models of Siamese boats ; 
14. Group of six Japanese warriors representing a Japanese 
General receiving tidings of a disaster from an escaped prisoner. 
The armor, spears, etc., are the kind used 400 years ago. Made 
and costumed in Japan; 15. Ancient costume of Japan; two 
life-sized figures, man and woman, showing the beautiful 
fabrics of ancien ttmes ; 16, Japanese lady and maid-servant 
costumed in style formery in vogue; 17. Objects of Hebrew 



ETHNOLOGY EXHIBITS 297 

religious worship : prayer shawls ; old English Sabbath lamp 
made for ten wicks, with oil dipper beneath. 

East Aisle, continued. West Wall Cases (N. to S.) : i. European 
Kwlk Art: Costumes, jewelry, pottery, etc., from Rumania, Bulgaria, 
Greece, Servia, Spain, Sweden, Finland and Iceland; 2. Ghadames girl 
(Hamitic Family), life-size figure of 12-year old girl, Berber race; 3. 
Peoples of North Africa: Moorish Art. Specimens of weaving, 
em broidery and metal work employed in rugs, hangings, saddles and 
costumes. The saddles were presented by Theodore Roosevelt and 
Talcott Williams; 4. Siam. Articles presented by the King of Siam in 
1876, including Sarongs or men's waist dress, baskets, matting, drums, 
lacquer and brass work; 5. Peoples of the Chinese Empire: Articles 
illustrating the social life of Tibetans and Mongols; also 7 life-size figures 
of Mongol and Tibetan men, modeled by Theodore A. Mills; 6. 
Chinese Empire, continued : Chinese Imperial robes, made at the royal 
looms at Mukden and .woven by members of the Imperial family; 7. 
Peoples of the Japanese Empire: The Koreans. Dress worn by men, 
women and children, hats, belts, screens, cabinets, cooking utensils of 
soapstone; also life-size figure representing Korean gentleman in street 
costume. 8-9. Japanese Empire, continued. Robes of silk worn at 
Court ceremonies; Buddhist shrine; lacquer boxes, buckets, candlesticks 
and other domestic utensils; two life-size figures in. native costumes; 
10. The Ainos of Yezo: Specimens of their chief industries, weaving 
and wood-carving. The remaining exhibits S. of this point have already 
been described under "Indians of the North Pacific Coast'' (p. 290). 

East Wall Cases (S. to N.) : beginning beyond second window, next 
to Eskimo exhibit (p. 291). The collections in these cases illustrate 
mainly the principal Religions of Asia and Europe: 1. Buddhism: 
Collection of images of Buddha and various articles connected with 
Buddhist ceremonials. 2. Statue of Teak wood, lacquered (6 ft. 5 in. in 
height); 3. 6*. -S\ Howland Collection of Buddhist Art. Buddha Sitting 
in Meditation (bronze) ; Buddhai passing into Nirvana (Alabaster gilded 
and encrusted with precious stones) ; Chinese Gods of War and ot 
Peace (gilded wood) ; Buddhist Shrine, representing Buddha seated on 
a lotus and surrounded by 14 other figures representing gods, saints and 
temporal guards; 4. Shintoism, the national and official religion ot 
Japan; Shinto Shrines of various kinds; Mikoshii or portable Shrine; 
household shrines; Shrine of Inari or Fox Goddess; temple masks, straw 
chaplets, etc.: Brahmanism: Images of Brahma, Vishnu, Siva. Lakshmi, 
Devi, etc.; the ten Incarnations of Vishnu; 5. Mohammedanism : Arabic 
manuscript of the Koran in Mack, red and gold on vellum; prayer rug, 
wooden model of a mosque; mosque tablets from Constantinople. 6. 
Costume of Dancing Dervish and of Persian Priest. 7. Tuscany: 
Costume of the Misericordia, a charitable secret order in Florence. 
8. The Eastern or Greek Church: Ecclesiastical vestment of Russian 
priest; Pastoral staff of Greek Catholic Bishoo; Russian Icons; Armenian 
natriarch's staff, from Constantinople. 9. Costumes of Greek Catholic 
Monk and Armenian priest; also habits of Dominican,; Benedictine and 
Ccpuchin monks. 10. The Roman Catholic Church; priests' vestments; 
Catholic Altar from Roman Church at Hildesheim; Chalice, Paten, etc. 
11-15. Judaism: Five-armed candlestick; Hanukah lamp used at Feast 
of the Dedication; Veil of the Holy Ark; Misrah or panel of embroidered 
silk with figures of Abraham and Isaac. 

North East Range: Ethnology, continued: 

Central Cases (W. to E.) : I. (W./Wall Case) Tribes 
of the Philippines; Head-gear from various localities, made 
from straw, tortoise shell, fur and embroidery ; 2. Family 




55 > 



3 O 



S a 



ETHNOLOGY EXHIBITS 299 

Group of the Samoan Islands. Six figures represent: 
•bark cloth with crude stenciling, etc.; 3. Family Group of 
Dyaks Borneo, on porch of communal house ; 4. Family Group 
of Filipinos. The group represents the several processes con- 
nected with the making of coth, the ginning of cotton, spin- 
ning with primitive wheel, and the weaving of the cloth ; 5. 
Philippine Islands: Moro mental work, hetel boxes, lime cups, 
trays, bowls and other appliances connected with the use of 
the narcotc betel; 6. Family Group of the Bontac Igorets 
(Phillipine Islands), five figures all engaged in domestic occu- 
pations; 7. Family Group of the Negritos (Philippine Islands), 
showing their primitive method of making fire, pounding rice 
and cooking; 8. British East Africa; The Chagga : vessels of 
wood, iron implements, beaded leather aprons, ornaments of 
brass, horn and ivory; 9. Tribes of British and Portuguese 
South African; Zulu and Kaffirs: wooden drums, pottery, 
pipes, battle axes, ornaments ; 10. Congo Free State ; the 
Kassai and other tribes basketry, knives, paddles, pipes, etc. ; 
11. Congo Free State, continued: drums, masks, figurnes, 
carved ivory, ceremona knives and axes ; 12. Zulu-Kaffir 
Group, showing section of house : woman cooking mush, 
another ladling out beer, another carrying water, and man 
playng the marimba. 

South Wall : As in the case of the Northwest Range, 
the S. side has an aisle divided from the main hall by a 
row of columns, and the cases containing exhibits are 
arranged in groups forming a series of alcoves. 

Alcove 1: Tribes of the Pacific: War spears, daggers, shark- 
teeth swords, armour of knotted cocoanut fibre; Tribes of British India: 
Nicobar Islanders: baskets, cocoanut vessels, wooden carvings, bowls, 
dishes, etc.; Tribes ,of Africa: The Sudanese; examples of the finest 
leather work found among uncivilized peoples' — pouches, knife cases, etc.; 
The Abyssinians: amulets, bracelets, baskets, shields, weapons, etc.; 
Andaman Islanders: spears, bows and arrows, necklaces, bracelets, nets, 
baskets and belts; Tribes of Papua: War spears, showing extraordinary 
ingenuity in manufacture; Model of Papuan man, by Theodore Mills; 
Model of Bulu man, by Henry J. Ellicott. Alcove 2: Tribes of the 
Pacific, continued: War clubs of Samoa, Tonga and Fiji, made chiefly 
of Polynesian iron wood; Tribes of Liberia, W. Africa: The Mandingoes; 
examples of the excellent textile work. Model of Wolof man (W. 
Sundan); Social and domestic arts of the Congo Tribes; The Pacific 
Islanders: The Tapa Makers Art; tapa board and) log, grooved mallet 
and marking pens; also specimens erf tapa cloth; Arts of New Guinea 
Tribes, including carved wooden utensils and ornaments, baskets with the 
intricate "mad weave," canoe prow ornaments, etc.; Model of Wachaga 
man (German E. Africa), Alcove 3. Tribes of Polynesia and Melanesia: 
Costumes, tools and utensils; fans and personal ornaments, mostly from 
Fiji Islands; Costumes, Jewelry and decorative art, chiefly from New 
Guinea; also wood carving from the Solomon Islands; The Wood Carvers' 



300 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

Art, including ceremonial adzes, clubs, paddles and stilts decorated in 
the style of tapa cloth. Social life of the Hawaiians; Note especially 
paraphernalia of the Hula dance; Stone money of Yap. Alcove 4. 
The Engano Islands: Girdles and bead skirts, baskets and hats; The 
W. L. Abbott Collection from Southern Malaysia: Household Gods, 
shrine images and other religious objects; Samoan plaited mat robes; 
textiles of New Zealanders; Tribes of the Eastern Pacific: War and 
ceremonial clubs; Social and domestic arts of the Nias Islanders; Mis- 
cellaneous collection of utensils) and ornaments from Solomon, Marshall 
and Caroline Islands. Alcove 5. The Dyaks of Borneo: Costumes, 
kilts, sarongs and girdles; household utensils, wedding mat; Dyak 
musical instruments: Dr. W. L. Abbott Collection: Hawaiian feather 
work: Feather cape made of rare bird feathers (vivid reds and yellows) 
woven with hemp background; Lais, or feather hair ornament; also 
ceremonial feather staff; Arts of the Easter Islands. Headdresses of 
feathers, staffs paddles and stone implements; Dyak spears, blowguns 
and shields; Dyak basketry; Native Arts and Industries of Southeast 
Africa; sandals, war horns, swords, carved ivory, etc. Alcove 6. 
Tribes of the Philippines: Offensive and defensive weapons of 
Mindanao; General F. D. Grant: Collection from Samar Island 
(Philippines) : Cutting weapons of various types, arrows for war and 
hunting palmwood. bows, scourges for punishing prisoners; Tribes of 
East Indies: Weapons of the Nias, Engano, Pagi and Simalur Islands; 
note especially Shelter shields from Engano Islands; Philippine textiles 
from various localities: Igorot blankets; Moro print; Palm spathe texture; 
Bnri palm cloth; also Arts of the Bagobo Tribe of Southern Mindanao: 
Beaded hemp jacket, woman's beaded belt; bolo with beaded sheath; 
spears and ornaments; Basketry of Luzon, Mindanao, and other Phil- 
ippine Islands; Dwelling Group, showing Zulu village. Alcove 7. 
Philippines, continued: Pottery of the Tagals and other groups ot 
Luzon; Land and water transportation; models of sleds and carts, 
canoes, freight and passenger boats; Tools and utensils of New Guinea; 
also Dwelling Group of the Dyaks; Village Group of the Early 
Hawaiians; Basketry of the African Tribes: note the fine checker weaving 
confined to Madagascar, where it was introduced by Malay colonists 
at an early period; Basketry of Oceanic Peoples: Dwelling Group of 
Samoans (Polynesians) of the highest type) ; houses of elaborate frame- 
work tied together with cocoa fibre and thatched with palm leaves. 

North Wall Cases (W. to E.) : Model of Dyak man, 
by Theodore Mills; 2. Moros of Mindanao , a Mohammedan 
tribes, excelling in brass and iron work, weaving and house 
building. Case contains armor hairnets, shields, swords, lamps 
and bowls ; also inlaid Kris, Datto's mantle, Datto's Buyo set, 
etc.; 3. Social Life of the Igorot (living in the mountains of 
Luzon and in grade of culture half-way between the Negrito 
and civilized tribes) : Case contains model of Igorot house 
and granery; domestic utensils, baskets for carrying ore, 
and storing food ; fire-pistol for lighting fire, weapons and 
shields, traps and nooses for game. 4. Dyaks of Borneo: 
Drums, grinding dishes, cocoanut shredders, rice sieve, water 
gourds, quivers for blowgun darts, betel boxes {W. L. Abbott 
Collecton). 5. Maiori Man (New Zealand), modeled by 
Henry J. Ellicott. 6. The Fijians, noted for skill in work- 
ing wood : Case contains carved dishes, forks, spatulas, etc. ; 



ETHNOLOGY EXHIBITS 301 

also pottery of various shapes, glazed with resin. 7. Arts 
of the Samoans: Fine mats, fans, and baskets; tapa cloth 
with fish designs, tapa skirt, cocoa cups and Kava ibowls. 
The Samoans are skilled in making mats, baskets and fans 
from the pandanus and palm-leaf; their mats are of exquisite 
fineness, trimmed with red parrot feathers, and are valued 
as heirlooms; baskets woven in checker designs of black and 
natural colors. The exhibits include a Kava bowl presented 
to President Cleveland by Malietoa, King of Samoa. 8. The 
Hazvaiians: Excellent examples of stonework, including poi 
pounders, adze blades, net weights, lamps, divination stones, 
etc.; 9. Arts of the Fijians: {Collection of Wilkes Exploring 
Expedtion of 1838-42). 10. The Papuans: Characteristic 
material culture rich in objects pertaining to a low-grade of 
social life, spears, shields and daggers of bone and of obsidian, 
bone spatulas, nose-flutes, baskets and fetiches. 11. Models 
of a Somali Man (/E. Africa) and a Bambara an (Sudanese), 
from the Trocadero Museum, Paris, modeled by M. Herbert. 
12. Tribes of Oceania: Specimens typical of the Oceanic cul- 
ture, in which the knowledge of iron Is lacking. Tribes of 
Australia (among the most primitive of mankind) : Spear 
throwers, boomerangs, clubs, stone axes, ornamented fur 
robes, message stick, pair of shoes believed to render the 
wearer invisible; also Austrian Man modeled by Theodore A. 
Mills. 14. Africa. Collection of George W. Ellis, Jr.: In- 
cludes baskets, musical instruments, beaded aprons, wooden 
spoons, leather work, words and scabbards (from Vai, Gala, 
Mandingo, etc., in Liberia). 

The Herbert Ward African Collection, the gift of the 
sculptor's widow, Mrs. Sarita Sanford Ward, now occupies 
the Northeast corner of the main floor of the Museum, which 
has been railed off from the rest of the Northeast Range, 
forming a separate pavilion. It comprises some 2600 objects 
of native industry, illustrative of the Ethnology of primitive 
Africa, together with the bronze statues representing Herbert 
Ward's life work as a sculptor. The collection was installed 
under the personall supervision of Mrs. Ward, and opened to 
the public March 1, 1922. 

Herbert Ward was born in England in 1863. At the age of 15 he 
set out on travels which took him through many unexplored lands. At 
21 he began his work in Africa. While in the Congo, im the employ 
of the Belgian Government, he rendered important aid to Stanley in 
his explorations. iFor more than 5 years. Mr. Ward lived among the 
natives of Central Africa, during which time he conceived the idea of 
preserving an epitome of the primitive native life as an index to the 
primitive life of all men. The records which he made on the spot were 
the basis of his subsequent famous sculptures. Mr. Ward's desire 



302 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

that his collections should be given to the Smithsonian was due partly 
to the fact that the founder of the Institution was also an Englishman 
and a wanderer like himself, but more especially because he realized 
that the largest body of the negro race that has attained civilization was 
here in America. 

The Ethnological Collection is arranged partly in a 
series of cases extending around three sides of the pavilion, 
and partly in huge groups upon the walls above the cases, in 
which countless strange and fantastic knives, spears and javelins 
form vast metallic sunbursts. The cases, beginning at the 
N. Wall and proceeding from W. to E., contain the following 
exhibits : 

I. Instruments of music, notably great war horns, worked 
from elephants' tusks, reduced by scraping to the thickness 
of a gourd ; drums of wood, xylophones with gourd resona- 
tors, and having from 12 to 15 tongues, rattles, bells of wood 
and of iron, and rude harps. 2. Works in iron, clay and 
other substances; a variety of ivory objects ranging from 
fetches to ornaments, bracelets and carved pipes. 3. Natural 
History Collection : An articulated skeleton of a gorilla, skulls 
of monkeys ; teeth, horns and tusks of various mammals. 
4. Native fetiches and wood carvings ; stools, head-rests and 
domestic utensils. Above on wall gigantic head of a bull 
elephant. 5. Knives and other small weapons ; poisoned 
arrows of the African Dwarf Tribes. 6. Costumes and 
adornments : textiles native to the Congo, the tie-and-dye 
fabrics and tufted fabrics ; primitive loom for raffia cloth ; 
basketry and neck ornaments. 7. Swords and large cutting 
weapons : the variation from the primitive leaf form of blades 
indicates the talent of the smiths who forged with rude imple- 
ments. 

The ^Collection of Bronzes. The more important 
sculptures occupy the central space of the pavilion. The 
visitor approaching from W. notes first, on L., The Fugitives 
(a mother, baby and small child fleeing from slave hunters). 
On R. The Charm Doctor (representing a sorcerer perform- 
ing an incantation). Further R. is *A' Congo Artist (this 
figure tracing a picture on the sand typifies the rude beginning 
of art). In center of pavilion is *The Chief of the Tribe 
(symbolic of the weight of primitive government). Near 
E. Wall, from L. to R., are : The Idol Maker (native carving 
a wooden fetish); Defiance; The Fire Maker; *Distress 
(Mr. Ward's last work and in the opinion of critics his great- 
est) ; The Forest Lovers (exhibited in Paris under title "Les 
Bantus," the Bantu stock having furnished most of the slaves 
brought to America). Behind The Charm Doctor is The 



ZOOLOGICAL EXHIBITS 303 

Wood Carrier (modeled from a Senegal girl). Along the 
wall between the cases are some smaller sculptures : Head 
of Gorilla (only attempt at animal sculpture); Congo Boy; 
Sleeping Africa; Fragment (headless, armless female 
figure) ; Head of Bakongo Girl; Head of Aruimi Man (type 
of Congo cannibal), Mr. Ward's first work; Crouching 
Woman. At N. W. cor. of pavilion is a portrait bust of 
Herbert Ward, by Sir William Goscombe John. 

g. Zoological Exhibits 

Main Floor — Continued: West Wing and Range: Zo- 
ology. Mammals and Birds. 

Central Hall, Mammals of North America: The spec- 
cial features of this collection are some admirable Habitat 
Groups, and unusually complete exhibits of species and sub- 
species of certain families, especially among the smaller 
fur-bearing mammals of commercial value. The central cases 
(the larger single, the smaller in pairs) are, from E. to W., 
as follows: 2. (R.) Sea Otter, Latax lutris {Linn.) ; 3. (L.) 
Mink, Marten, Weasel, Ferret, Fisher, etc., 20 species; 4. Paci- 
fic Walrus, Odobenus divcrgens (IlUg.) ; 5. North American 
Eared Seals, or Sea-bears (Fam. Otariidae) : Alaskan Fur 
Seal, Callotaria alascanus (Jordan and Clark) ; California 
Sea-tlion, Zalophus calif ornianus (Lesson) ; *Stellar's Sea- 
lion. Eumetopias stelleri (Lesson): 6. *Habitat Group: 
American Bison, collected and mounted by William T. Horna- 
day in 1886-87. Note typical alkaline water-hole of Great 
Northern Range; also vegetation including the low Buffalo 
Grass, Bonteloua; Broom Sage, Andropogon, and Prickly 
Pear, Opuntia; 7. *Habitat Group : Wapiti or "Elk," Cervus 
canadensis (Erxleben), Snow scene: the specimens are from 
the Yellowstone National Park; 8. *Haibitat Group. Eastern 
Moose, Alces americanus (Jardine) ; Cases 9. (R.) and 10. 
(L.) Fam. Scmridac, Squirrels and Chipmunks (55 varieties) ; 
Cases 11. (R-) and 12 (L.), Fam. Leporidae, or Hares and 
Fam. Ochotonidae, or Pikas (22 species) ; 13. (R) Pocket 
Gophers, Kangaroo Rats, Prairie Dogs, Woodchuck, etc. (32 
specie's) ; 14. (L.) Fam. Muridae, 'Rlats, Mice, Lemmings, Musk- 
rats, etc. (35 species) ; 15. (R-) Fam. Hystricidae or Porcu- 
pines ; Fam. Castoridae or Beavers ; Fam. Aplodontiidae or Se- 
tvcllels; 16. (L.) Fam. Talpidae or Moles (7 species) ; Fam. 
Sorieid'ae or Shrews (9 species) ; Fam. Vespertilionidae or Bats 
(9 species); 17. South American Mammals: Vicunya, Lama 
vicugna (Molina) ; Savanna Deer, Odocoileus gymnotis 



304 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

(Weigmanri) ; also 14 species of S. Amer. Monkeys and 
2 Sloths. 

Wall Cases. A tour of these may now conveniently 
be made, beginning on the north wall, W. end, and proceed- 
ing eastward: 1. Mammals of the Nearctic Region: Musk- 
ox, Ovibos moschatus (Zimmermann) ; Alaskan White Sheep, 
Ovis dalli (Nelson) ; White-lipped peccary, Tayassu pecari 
(Fischer) t etc.; 2. Habitat Group: Prong-horn. Anii- 
locapra umericana (Ord), seven specimens; 3. Habitat 
Group : Texan (Nine-handed Armadillo, Dasypus novemcinc- 
tas (Linn.); 4. Habitat Group: Rocky Mountain Sheep or 
Bighorn, Ovis canadensis (Sham); 5. Habitat Group; 
American Badger, Taxidea taxus (Schreber) ; 6. Habitat 
Group : Musk-ox, Ovibos moschatus (Zimmermann) ; 7. *North 
American iSeals and Manatees : a. Florida Manatee, Triche- 
chus latirostris (Harlan); b. Harp Seal. Phoca groenlandica 
(Erxleben) ; c. Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina (Linn.) ; d. Rib- 
bon Seal, Phoca fasciata (Zimmermann) ; e. Ringed Seal, 
Phoca hispida (Schreber) f. Bearded Seal, Erignathus bar- 
batus (Erxleben) ; g. Caribbean >Seal, Monachus tropicalis 
(Gray) ; h. California Elephant Seal, Mirounga angustirostris 
(Gill); i. Hooded Seal, Cystophora cristata (Erxleben). 

Wall Cases continued. East Wall: 1. North American 
Cats, Skunks, Raccoon and their Allies : 2. North America 
Wild Dogs, Foxes and Wolves. 

South Wall: 1. Habitat Group: iPrairie Wolf, Coyote; 
male, female and young, designed by William T. Hornaday; 
2. North American Bears : a. Polar Bear, Thalarctos 
maritmus (Phipps) ; b. Kodiak Bear, Ursus middendorfi 
(Merr'iam) ; c. Grizzly Bear, Ursus horribilis (Ord) ; 
d. Barren Ground Bear, Ursus richardsoni (Swains on) ; Black 
Bear, U. americanus (Pallas) ; *Glacier Bear, U. emmonsi 
(Dall), a rare species; 3. Habitat Group: Barren Ground 
Caribou, Rangifer granti (Allen) ; 4. Habitat Group : 
Prairie Dogs, designed by William T. Hornaday; 5. Habi- 
tat Group : Rocky Mountain Goat, Oreamnos americanus 
(Blainville), collected and presented by George Bird Grinnell; 
6. Habitat Group : Virginia Opossum, Didelphis virginiana 
(Kerr), designed by William T. Hornaday; 7. Habitat 
Group : Newfoundland Caribou, Rangifer terraenovae 
(Bangs) ; 8. Mammals of the Nearctic Region : a. Moun- 
tain Caribou, Rangifer montanus (Set on Thompson) ; b- 
Alaskan Moose, Alces gigas (Miller) ; c. Sonoran Deer, 
Odocoileus cones! (Cones and Yarrow) ; d. Olympic Elk, Cer- 
vus roosevelti (Merriam). 



ZOOLOGICAL EXHIBITS 305 

West Wall: Central and South American Mammals: 
1. Fam. Felidae: Mexican Jaguar, Felis hemandesii (Gray) ; 
Mitis Cat, Felis mitis (CuiAer) ; Ocelot, F. pardalis (Gray); 
Paraguay Jaguar, F. paraguensis (Hollister) ; Puma, F. con- 
color (Linn.) ; Jaguarondi, F. jaguarondi (Fischer) ; Wea- 
sels, Otters, Kinkajous, etc.; 2. S. Amer. Mammals continued: 
Capybara, Hydrochaerus (Erxleben) ; Coypti, Myocastor coy- 
pus (Molina); Venezuela Rice-rat, Oryzomys flamcans 
(Thomas); Giant Armadillo, Priodontes gigas. (Cuvier). 

West Wing, continued: North Aisle, Chiefly European 
Mammals and Birds: 1. *Habitat Group, Polar Bears, col- 
lected in Barents Sea, by party on board the S. S. Frithjof, 
Second Relief Ship to the Ziegler Polar Expedition; 2. 
Kashmir iStag, Cervus cashmerianus (Falconer) ; European 
Red Deer, Cervus elaphus (Linn.) ; Norway Elk, Alces alces 
(Linn.) ; Musk Deer, Moschus moschijerus (Linn.) ; Roe 
Deer, Capreolus capreolm (Linn.) ; Pere David Deer, 
Elaphurus damdianus (Milne-Edwards), from China, but 
extinct in wild state; Fallow Deer, Dama dama (Linn.); 
3. European Bison, Bison bonasus (Linn.) ; Chamois, Dorcas 
Gazelle, etc. ; Takin,, Budorcas taxicolor (Hodgson) ; 
Japanese Serow, Nemorrhaedus crispus (Temminck) ; Thar. 
Alpine Ibex, etc. ; 4. Pamir Sheep, Kamschatka Sheep, Great 
Thibetan Sheep or Argali, European Mouflon or Wild 'Sheep, 
Markhor, African Sheep, Aru, Urial or Sha and Chinese Wild 
Boar. 

The cases W. of this point contain birds, which had best 
be taken in later, in connection with the W. Range. Re- 
turning E. to starting point, we pass on S. Wall three cases : 
Case 1. European Badger, Japanese Badger, Japanese Otter, 
Kashmir Fox, Genet, Mongoose, etc. ; Case 2. Weasels, Mar- 
tens, Moles, Shrews, Polecats, Hedgehogs and 'Syrian Coney ; 
Case 3. Various kinds of European Dormice, Squirrels, Red 
Marmot, Jerboa, Rabbits, Hares, Lemmings, Hamsters and 
Voles. Note especially the exhibit of rats which carry the 
Bubonic Plague. 

The visitor may now cross through the Central Hall to 
the E~. end of the South Aisle, containing chiefly South Asiatic 
Mammals: 1. *Habitat Group : Orang-utan, Pongo pygmaeus 
(Hoppins) ; represents a fight between two old males and con- 
sequent alarm of females and young; mounted by William T. 
Hornaday ; 2. Habitat Group : Proboscis Monkey, Nasalis 
la>-vatus (Wurmb), mounted by C. F. Adams: 3. Habitat 
Group: Gibbon, Hylobatcs leuciscus (Mutter and Schlcgel), 
mounted by C. E. Adams; 4. Collection of Asiatic Monkeys, 



306 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

14 species; Indian Tapir, Long-nosed Boar, Babirussa, Black 
Buck, etc. ; 5. Zebu, Bos indicus (Linn.) ; Yak, Poephagus grun- 
niens (Linn.) ; 6. Sambar, Rusa unicolor (Kerr), largest deer 
in India; Bornean Barking Deer, Axis Deer, Indian Muntjac, 
etc.; Asiatic Carnivora : Tiger, Marbled Cat, Leopard, Bintu- 
^rong, Banded Civet, etc.; 7. Dugong, Halicore dugong (Erx- 
Uben)., gift of Linnean Society of New South Wales; also 
Panda, AUwrus fulgens (F. Cuvier) ; badgers, bats, shrews, 
etc.; Australian Mammals; Kangaroos, 12 species, ranging from 
•the Great Gray Kangaroo, Macropus giganteus to the Common 
Rat Kangaroo, Potorous tridactylus ; 8. South [Pacific, Australia 
^and Nezv Guinea; Diingo Dog, Flying Phalanger, Common 
Wombat, Sea Elephant, etc.; African Mammals: Wild Hog of 
Africa; Gorilla and other African Apes; African Monkeys, 14 
species; 10. African Monkeys continued; 15 species; Hysenas 
and Jackals; 11. Carnivora of Africa; Lion, Leopard, Chetah, 
'etc. ; African Antelopes. 

North Wall Cases: (W. to E.) 1. Mammals of the 
'Oriental Region: Monkeys, 5 exhibits; 2. Squirrels, 6 
exhibits; 3. Bats, Flying Squirrels, Porcupines, Crateromys, 
Rats and Mice, 21 exhibits; 4, Mammals of Australia 
Kind Tasmania; Common Echidna, Tachyglossus aculeatus 
(Shaw) ; Duckbill, Ornithorhynchus anat\y\us (Shaw) ; Tas- 
manian Marsupial Wolf, Thylacynus cynocephalus (Harris) ; 
Dasyures, Anteaters, Tasmanian Devil, Sarcophilus ursinus 
(Harris) ; 5. Ethiopmn Region Temminck's Pangolin, Manis 
temminckii (Smuts), Aard Vark, Orycteropus capensis 
(Gmelin), etc.; 6. Ethiopian Region continued: Numerous 
species of Mouse, Dormouse, Squirrel, Cape Jumping Hare, 
etc.; 7. Ethiopian Region concluded: Shrew, Ichneumon, 
Mongoose, Ratel, Falanaka, etc. 

Southwest Pavilion: Zoology continued: Mammals 
•of Africa. This collection includes important exhibits se- 
cured by the Smithsonian African Expedition under Col. 
Theodore Roosevelt. 

Case 1. (S. W. cor., opposite S. Aisle) : *Habitat Group, 
three adult lions and two cubs, drinking from water-hole 
dug by Zebras (Roosevelt Expedition, British West Africa) ; 
mounted by George B. Turner; Case 2. African Antelopes 
(partly Roosevelt Expedition, partly gift of Dr. W. L. Ab- 
bott and others). Bush Duiker, CefiMophus grimmia (Shaw) ; 
Maxwell's Duiker, Cephalophus. m&xwelli (H. Smith) ; Bla©^ 
crowned antelope C. nigrifro^ {Gray); Sassaby, DamftH.^us 



ZOOLOGICAL EXHIBITS 307 

lunaius (Burchell) ; Topi, DamaUscus jimcla (Matschie) ; 
Wildebeest, Connochaetes gnu (Zimm.) ; Brindled Gnu, Conno- 
chaetes taurina (Burchell) ; Bontebok, D. pygargus (Pallas) ; 
Coke's Hartebeest, Alcclaphus cokci (Giinther) ; Case 3. 
Equine Antelope, Hippotragus cq it in us (Gcoffroy) ; Sable An- 
telope, Hippotragus niger (Harris) ; Case 4. (West Wall) 
Habitat Group : Horsetailed Monkey, Colobus caudatus 
(Thomas), group of five collected by Dr. W. L. Abbott in juni- 
per forests at base of Mt. Kilimanjaro; Case 5. (Central Ex- 
hibit) Habitat Group: Coke's Hartebeest (Roosevelt Expedi- 
tion) ; mounted by James L. Clark; Case 6. ^Habitat Group: 
Square-lipped Rhinoceros, Ccratothcrium simum cottoni (Ly- 
dekker) ; also Rhinoceros bird, Buphagus erythrorhynchus, the 
inseparable companion of the rhinoceros (Roosevelt Exped.) ; 
mounted by James L. Clark; Case 7. (East Wall) Antelopes: 
Defassa Waterbuck, Kobtis dcifassa nzoiae (Matschie) ; Water-' 
buck, Kobus cllipsiprymmis (Ogilby) ; Masailand Klipspring- 
er, Oreotragus oreotragus schilling si (Neumann) ; Nile Lech- 
wi, Onotragus megaceros (Fitzinger) ; Kirk's Pigmy Antelope, 
Madoqua kirkii (Giinther) ; Cape Oribi, Ourebia ourebi 
(Zimm.) ; Case 8. (E. Wall continued) Antelopes: Gerenuk, 
LJthocranius wallefi (Brooke), Thompson's Gazelle, Gaaclla 
thorn psoni (Giinther); Grant's Gazelle, Gazella granti. 
(Brooke) ; , Pallah Antelope, Acpyceros melampus (Lichtcn- 
stein) ; Pencil-eared Gemsbok, Oryx eallotis (Thomas) ; 
Case 9. (Center Exhibit) *Hahdtat Group: East African 
Buffalo, Synceros caffer radcliffei (Thomas) , accompanied 
by the Cow-'heron, Bubulcus lucidus, that feeds upon 
grasshoppers, etc., aroused by the passing oi the 
Buffalo (Roolsevelt Expedition) ; mounted by G. B. Turner; 
Case 10. Two-Horned Rhinoceros, Rhinoceros bicomis 
(Linn.) ; West African Buffalo ; African Elephant, "Mungo," 
gift of Adam Forepaugh ; Case 11. Burchell's Zebra, Equus 
burchelli (Gray) ; Case 12. ('Central Case Exhibit) Habitat 
Group: Three Grevy's Zebras, Equus grevyi (Oustaiet) and 
two East African Beisa, Oryx annectens (Hollister) ; Case 
13. (W. Wall) Equine Antelope, Hippotragus equinus (Geof- 
froy) ; Case 14. (N. Wall) Uganda Giraffe, Giraffa camci- 
opardalis rotJischildi (Lydekker) ; *Okapi, Okapia johnstoni 
(Sclater), a rare animal related to the Giraffe and known to 
naturalists only since 1900; Reticulated Giraffe, Giraffa reticu- 
lata (de Winton) ; Case 15. Habitat Group: Ostriches and. 
young, Roosevelt Expedition. 



308 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

West Wing: North Aisle concluded: The western half 
of this aisle is occupied by part ot the collection of Birds : 
but since it is crowded, badly lighted, and consists mainly 
of the least complete and least interesting portion of this 
sub-division, little time need be spent here. There are two 
cases to a row, each case double-sided : 

Row i. Birds of Africa : conspicuous are the Kaffir 
Great-tailed Whydah, iBlue-bellied Roller and Senegal King- 
fisher; Row 2. Many species of South African Plantain- 
eaters and Hornbills ; Row 3. African Eagles and Vultures ; 
Guinea Fowl, 5 species; (E. side) (Saddle-billed Stork, 
Ephippiorhynchus senegalensis {Shaw) ; Marabou Stork, 
Leptoptilos crumeniferus {Lesson) ; Kavirondo Crane, Balea- 
rica gibbericeps {Reichenow) ; Rosy Pelican, Pelecanus 
roseus {Gmelin), all of these from Roosevelt Expedition; 
Rowis 4 and 5. Birds of Asia, Philippine Islands, Malacca, 
etc. ; Row 6. Asiatic Eagles, including the Monkey-eat- 
ing Eagle, Pitihecophaga jefferyi {Grant) ; Jungle-fowl, in- 
cluding the Red Jungle-fowl, Gallus gallus {Linn), ancestor 
of the domestic species; Javan Jungle-fowl, Gallus varius 
{Shazv) ; Gray Jungle-fowl, Gallus sonnerati {Temminck), 
etc.; also (E. side) Pheasants, Peacocks, Adjutant Bird, Bit- 
terns, etc.; Rows 7-iQ. Birds of Europe. The eastern 
cases, containing mammals, have already been visited (p. 305). 

On the S. Wall (E. to W.) are three small Habitat 
Groups: 1. Argus Pheasant, Argusianus argus {Linn.); 
2. Rhinoceros Hornbill, Buceros rhinoceros {Linn.), show- 
ing curious nest; 3. ^Whale -headed Stork, Balaeniceps rex 
(Roosevelt Expedition). 

Western Range: Birds continued: The collections here 
exhibited include the Birds of Australia and the South Pacific, 
and the Birds of North and South America. The cases in 
this range along the W. wall are placed transversely, or at 
right angles with the wall; those on the E. side are grouped 
so as to form alcoves, often with a small central case in the 
alcove. Since the birds are grouped according to habitat, 
from S. to N., the visitor will find it more convenient to 
zigzag back and forth between the transverse cases and the 
alcoves, thus covering both sides of the range simultane- 
ously. 

Entering from S. W. Pavillion, we find on L., a small 
Habitat Group, the *Kea or Mountain Parrot, Nestor nota- 
bilis {Gould). 

This bird, a native of New Zealand is naturally vegetarian in diet; 
about 1870, however, when sheepraising was extensively introduced, 



ZOOLOGICAL EXHIBITS 309 

many sheep were found dead, with gaping wounds torn in their backs 
and sides. The source of destruction was traced to these parrots, which 
had acquired an unnatural appetite for sheep fat. This group shows two 
birds at their abnormal feast. 

2d Habitat Group, *Lyre Bird, Menura superba 
{Latham): 1st Transverse Case: Birds of Paradise: 
*Empress Augusta Victoria's Bird of Paradise ; *Greater 
Bird of Paradise; Meyer's Promerops ; Grand Prome- 
rops, etc. ; 2d T. Case ; Paroquets, Lorikeets, Cocka- 
toos, Kingfishers, and other birds of Australia, New 
Guinea, Tasmania, Celebes, etc. ; In central aisle are 
two small cases : a. Australian Birds concluded : Fly- 
catchers, Robin-chats, Fantails, and other small varieties ; b. 
South American Birds : vivid hued Caciques, Orioles, Trou- 
pials, etc. ; 3rd, 4th and 5th T. Cases : South America con- 
tinued: Toucan, 26 species; Aracari, 12 species; Costa Rican 
Quetzal ; Resplendent Trogon ; Chachalaca, Curassow, etc. ; Op- 
posite, 1st Alcove; Cassowary, Ibis, Wandering Albatross, 
Herons, Ducks, etc. ; Parrots, 70 species ; Hawks, 43 species ; 
3d Central Aisle Case : South American Grackles and 
Orioles ; Habitat Group, *Hoatzin, Opisthocomus hoazin 
(Miitler) ; 2d Alcove : Sun-grebes, Penguins, Rheas, etc. ; here 
also begins the Collection of **North American Birds, the 
most extensive, best arranged, and most fully labeled of the 
Museum's ornithological exhibits : This alcove contains many 
song-birds : Buntings, Cardinals ; Tanagers, Orioles, Black- 
birds, Bobolinks, etc. ; 6th T. Case : Finches, 108 exhibits ; 
Sparrows, 108 exhibits ; Swallows, Wax-wings, Wrens, Mock- 
ing-birds, Thrushes, Dippers, Larks, Wag-tails, etc., 172 ex- 
hibits; 3d Alcove: Warblers, iShrikes, etc., continued: 161 
exhibits ; Habitat Group : Carolina Parakeet, Conuropsis 
carolinensis (Linn.); Auks, Puffins, Guillemots, Auklets, etc. ; 
**Great Auk and Auk's Egg, Plautus xmpennis, (Linn,). 

This bird has for many years been extinct and specimens 
of either bird or egg constitute one of the great rarities of 
collections. There are only three known specimens in Amer- 
ica : a. at Vassar College, Poughkeepsie ; b. at the Academy of 
Natural Sciences, Philadelphia ; c. the present specimen, in 
the U. S. National Museum. 

7th T. Case : Flycatchers, Phoebes, Chickadees, Magpies, 
Ravens. Jays; Owls, 56 exhibits. 8th T. Case: Woodpeckers, 
Sapsuckers, Kingfishers, Swifts. Humming-birds. Whiopoor- 
wills, Goatsuckers, Cuckoos, Flickers. 9th T. Case: Hawks, 
Kites, Falcons, 66 specimens ; Eagles, Vultures, etc., 32 speci- 
mens. Opposite, 4th Alcove : Ptarmigans, Sage Grouse, Bob- 



310 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

whites, Quail; Habitat Groups; Q. Ruffed « Grouse ; 2. Dusky 
Grouse. 5th Alcove : Plovers, Lapwings, Oyster-catchers, 
Sandpipers, Snipe, Curlews, and other wading birds ; Grouse, 
Wild Turkeys, Frairiehens, etc. 10th T. Case : Doves, 
Pigeons, Cranes, Coots, etc. At W. end, wall case containing 
♦Habitat Group, "An Interrupted Meal." 

This group, mounted by Frederic A. Lucas, received a 
diploma of honor from the Society of American Taxidermists, 
in Boston. It shows a Red-tailed Hawk, Buteo borealis, at- 
tacked by a Goshawk, Accipiter atricapillus, while eating a 
Ruffed Grouse. 

nth T. Case: Terns and Gulls, 75 exhibits. Adjoining 
E. end. : * Habitat Group. Passenger Pigeons, Ectopistes 
migratorius Linn. 

In Audubon's time, this species of bird, now extinct, ex- 
isted in thousands of millions. They were wantonly killed in 
prodigious quantities, for food or for sport, but also for feed- 
ing hogs. The last surviving specimen died in captivity in the 
Cincinnati Zoological Garden, Sept. 1, 1914. 

1 2th T. . Case : Herons, Egrets, Bitterns, 36 specimens. 
13th T. Case : Geese, Brants, Spoonbills, Ibises, Eider Ducks, 
Swans, Mergansers, etc. At E. End. Habitat Group, American 
Flamingo. Phocnicopterus ruber (Linn.) . 14th T. Case : Loon, 
Grebe, Petrel, Fulmar, Albatross. Opposite, 6th Alcove : Teal, 
Widgeon, Wood Duck, Mallard, Booby, Anhinga or Snake 
Bird, Cormorant, Man-o'-war Bird, Pelican. 

h. Miscellaneous Collections 

Second Floor. Rotunda Gallery. Here is placed (1922) 
the Hugo Worch Collection of Pianos. It comprises 112 ex- 
hibits, including specimens from Europe, Austria, Italy, 
America, etc. Note especially the Italian Harpsichord, 1532. 
The Upright Piano made by C. F. L. Albrecht, Phila., 1820 
(one of the first Uprights made in that city) ; Upright Piano 
made by Andrew Stein, Vienna, 1788 (the oldest and rarest 
Upright in this country) ; Upright Piano made by John Os- 
borne, Boston, 1817 (the most primitive American Upright 
of which there is any trace) ; Piano made by John Sellers, 
Phila., about 1775 (one of the first pianos made in America). 

Second Floor. East Wing. South Aisle: Minerology 
continued: 



MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 311 

Central Cases : Nos. 1 to 7 contain the *Isaac Lea Col- 
lection of Gems and Precious Stones. 

The nucleus of this collection was assembled by Dr. Isaac Lea, 
the well-known naturalist of Philadelphia. In 1894 it was willed 
to The National Museum by his daughter, Mrs. Frances Lea Chamber- 
lain. Her husband, Dr. L. T. Chamberlain, who was Honorary Asso- 
ciate in Mineralogy until 1913, added a large number of specimens, 
and in his will left a sum of money the income of which is to be 
applied to the preservation and increase of the collection. 

Case 1. Specimens of Corundum, Rubies, Topazes, Sap- 
phires, etc. ; Case 2. Aquamarines, Beryls, Emeralds, Zircons, 
Py ropes, Tourmalines, etc.; Case 3. Moonstone, Amazonstone, 
Lapis Lazuli, Rhodonite, Obsidian, Malachite, Amber, etc. ; 
Case 4. Amethyst, Citrine Quartz, Rose Quartz, Smoky 
Quartz, etc. ; Case 5. Rock Crystal, Opalescent Quartz, Aven- 
turine Quartz, Chrysophrase, Cat's eye, Tiger-eye, Jasper, 
Bloodstone, etc. ; Case 6. Agate and Moss-Agate, Onyx and 
Cameos of Onyx, Carnelian, Sardonyx, Chalcedony, etc. ; 
Case 7. Jade, Opal, Baroche and other Pearls, Shell Cameos, 
Turquoises, Variscite, Coral, etc. 

The two succeeding cases contain : Case 8. Many varie- 
ties of Gem Opal, imbedded in rocks ; Case 9. Gold nug- 
gets, wire gold, leaf gold, crystallized gold, placer gold, native 
silver, etc. 

North Wall Cases : This exhibit consists of 14 double 
cases, containing a Systematic Collection of minerals 
arranged in series according to Dana's "System of Mineral- 
ogy," 6th ed., 1892. The classification follows: 1. The Chem- 
ical Composition. 2. The Crystallography Relationships. The 
specimens in the several cases are fully labeled and explained. 

West End Wall : Systematic Collection, continued. Sup- 
plemental cases : Exhibits of , minerals showing Physical 
Properties, namely, a. Color; b. Lustre; c. Hardness; d. 
Crystalization ; e. Structure, f . Radioactivity. 

South Wall Cases : 1. Exhibit illustrating Native Ele- 
ments. Only 17 of the chemical elements, so far identified, 
are found in appreciable quantities in the native or free state. 
2. Calcite an Aragonite. 3. Table Case : Exhibit of imitation 
and artificial gems ; the former being ingenious substitutes, 
while the latter are chemical reproductions of the 
natural stones. 4. Quartz and its variations (the most abun- 
dant and most widely distributed of all minerals). 5. Table 
Case : Gem minerals, a. in natural rough form ; b. Gems 
in the cut and finished form. 6. Disbrow Collection of New 
Jersey Zeolites and Associated Minerals. Gift of William 
S. Disbrow, Newark, N. J. 7. Table Case: Miscellaneous 



312 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

collection of specimens recently described in the Museum 
Publications. 8. Containing mainiy carved specimens of Rock 
Crystal, Agate, Serpentine, etc. 9. Varieties of Silica occurring 
in the natural state. 10. Table Case: Shepard Collection of 
Minerals, containing many new mineral species discovered and 
tontaining complete series of all known radioactive minerals 
and radium ores, both American and foreign, together with 
photograph autographed card of Madame Curie. 

Charles . Upham Shepard (1804-86) was one of the earliest of 
American mineralogists. His collection, part of which is contained 
in this case, includes over three hundred gems, and is exhibited through 
the courtesy of his son, Dr. C. U. Shepard of Summerville, N. C. 

11. Varieties of Carbonite of Lime occurring in nature. 
12. Table-case : Shepard Collection continued. 13. Miscel- 
laneous exhibit of minerals, comprising specimens too large 
to be included in the Systematic Collection on N. Wall. 
14. Table-case: Minerals of Lake Superior Region, Mich. 
This locality 'has become famous for the beauty of its min- 
erals, especially for its copper and iron ores. 15. Miscellaneous 
exhibits continued from case 13. 16. Recent accessions (1916- 
£7) not yet classified. 17. ^Malachite and Azurite. Note the 
vivid colorings. 

South East Pavilion. This hall is devoted to exhibits of : 
I. The metal-bearing minerals ; II. The non-metallic minerals. 
The former are shown in cases along the S. E. and N. walls, 
beginning with the first case E. of No. 17 in South aisle: 

I. Radium ores and Radio-active minerals : Carnotite, Tor- 
bernite, Uraninite, Gummite, etc. 2. Copper Ores. East 
Wall : 3. Gold Ores. 4 and 5. Silver Ores. 6. Lead Ores. 7. 
Zinc Ores. 8. Copper Ores. 9. Copper Ores concluded; Ores 
of Antimony and minor metals, including Arsenic, Bismuth, 
Cadmium and Platinum. 10. Mercury and Aluminnuim ores; 

II. Nickel ores. 12. Tungsten, Vanadium and minor -metals 
used in steel making (Titanium, Molybdenum, etc.). 13, 
14, 15, 16. Iron Ores. 

West Wall (N. to S.) : Non-metallic Minerals. 1. Natural 
Salts, Rare Earths and Minor Minerals. 2. Nitrates, Borates 
and Sulphates. 3. Haloid Salts ; Halites, Fluorites and Cryo- 
lites. 4. Micas, Steatites and Soapstones. 5. Asbestos, Crude 
and Manufactured. 6. The Diamond. This exhibit illus- 
trates the geological conditions of the famous diamond fields 
constituting the De Beers Consolidated Mines, Ltd., Kim- 
berly, S. A. 

East Wing, North Aisle: The exhibits herein contained, 
oomprising thirty-three wall cases and many other specimens 



MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 313 

attached to the walls, and exhibited in the central corridor, 
consist exclusively of building and ornamental stones, marble 
granite onyx, etc. By far the greater part of the collection 
has been donated by the leading quarries of America, and 
consists chiefly of cubes, showing the grain and quality of 
the stone both polished and in the rough. 

East Range and North Range, East Section: North 
American Antiquities. This collection extends uninter- 
ruptedly through these two ranges and inner side aisles, and 
may be most conveniently visited by following one line of 
cases at a time, throughout the entire length of both ranges. 

East Range, East Wall: (S. to IN.): 1. Model of 
Penasco Blanco, an ancient ruined Pueblo of New Mexico. 
2. Ancient pottery from the Rio San Francisco, New Mexico. 
3-4. Antiquities of New Mexico: Arrow points, pottery, bone 
whistles, bone awls, etc. 5. Antiquities from pre-historic 
ruins in southern Arizona : mats, baskets, bags, knives, 
sandals, etc. 6. Ancient pottery from the Jemez Plateau, 
N. M. 7. Fabrics, sandals, basketry, etc., from Socorro 
Co., N. M. 8. Aboriginal stone implements from New 
Mexico. 9. Basketry, woven cloth, sandals, hafted axes, 
etc., from Cliff Dwelings of Colorado. 10. Mauls, 
axes, pestles and ancient pottery from S. W. Colorado. 

11. Grooved stone axes of many types from many localities. 

12. Antiquities oi western Utah, including wooden agricul- 
tural implements, pottery, pestles, arrow heads, bone awls, 
etc. 13. Antiquities from Wyoming. 14. Implements, weap- 
ons, etc., from Idaho, Washington, Montana, California and 
Oregon. 15. Synoptic Series of Abraiding implements used 
by Indians from Maine to California ; also Synoptic Series 
of Plummit stones. 16. Arrow-heads, stone implements and 
potter}'- from Texas, Iowa, Arkansas and Indiana. 17. Rejectage 
of blade-making, from Mill Creek Chert Quaries, Illinois. 
18. Arrow-heads, implements, pottery, etc., found in mounds 
in Illinois. 19. Synoptic Series of Notched axes. 

North Wall (E. toW.) : 1. * Aboriginal Iron-Mining Group, 
working underground in an ore-body of hematite. 2. Synoptic 
Series of hematite implements, also samples of ore and of yel- 
low and red oxides and white Kaolin, dug out by pre-historic 
tribes in Missouri. 3. Antiquities of Missouri. 4. Rejectage of 
manufacture, Flint Ridge Quarries, Ohio. 5. Ohio continued. 
Arrow-heads, spearpoints, hammer-stones, pipes, knives, etc. 
6. Antiquities from Madisonville cemetery, Ohio. 7. The 
D. H. Harris Collection of Archaeological objects from Ohio 
and Missouri. 8. Contents of a Spring Shrine, Afton, Okla. 



314 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

0. Antiquities from West Virginia and Tennessee. 10. Reject- 
age of blade-making, from Peoria Chert Quarries, n. Mound 
Collection, mainly from Monroe and Loudan Cos., Term. 
12. Picks, sledges and sheets from' aboriginal mica mines, 
N. C, 13. Antiquities of Kentucky, including grooved axes, 
celts, pestles, spear-heads, drill-points, etc. ; also ancient pot- 
tery from Arkansas. 14. Novaculite Quarries of Arkansas : 
refuse oif manufacture and implements used in the work of 
making leaf-shaped blades. 15. Antiquities of Arkansas, 
including earthenware, arrow-heads, hammer-stones, etc. 16. 
Synoptic Series of cache blades. 17. Ancient earthenware of 
the Eastern States. 18. Synoptic Series of tobacco pipes. 

North Range, Central Cases (W. to E.) : 1. (W. Wall 
Case) Aboriginal sculpture O'f the United States, including 
casts. 2 and 3. Synoptic Series of Tobacco Pipes (most 
varied in design of any -aboriginal stone work) : 4. Synoptic 
Series of pierced tablets and gorgets — a numerous and widely 
•distributed class of pre-historic relics, which are usually 
regarded as personal ornaments. 5. Ceremonial objects 
(temporary instalment). 6. Synoptic Series of Boat-shaped 
Amulets ; also Bird-shaped Amulets ; found in burial mounds 
and graves in the Ohio Valley and around the Great Lakes ; 
also Series of "Bannerstones," resembling double-bladed adzes 
and pierced to receive a haft; use unknown; 7. Masterpieces 
of flint chipping: long blades, arrow-heads, etc. 8. Synoptic 
Series of pigment plates (stone plates or palettes used by 
Mound Builders 'for grinding pigments) ; also Synoptic Series 
of gaming discs used by eastern U. S. tribes. 9. Chipped 
flint blades. 10. Synoptic Series o>f cache blades. 

(East Range, Central Exhibits) N. to S. : 1. "The Stone 
Implement 'Maker," model of figure chipping a bowlder with 
a stone hammer. 2. Chipped flint discs peculiar to Ohio, Mis- 
sissippi, Tennessee and Cumberland River valleys. 3. Syn- 
optic Series of cup stones., eastern U. S. 4. Synoptic Series 
of Agricultural Implements, chiefly from middle Mississippi 
valley. 5. Tennessee and Missouri : blades, celts, also 
abraiding stone used to sharpen stone implements. 6. Syn- 
optic Series of Celts, eastern U. S. 7- Pseudo-Artifacts : 
This series contains natural forms of rock variously produced, 
resembling or suggesting works of art, but bearing no actual 
trace of human handiwork. 8. Synoptic Series of Adz Blades, 
eastern U. S. 9. Copper ornaments from mounds ; also rub- 
bing stones and implements. 10. Agricultural Implements 
continued. 11. Bone awls and other relics from mounds near 
Naples, 111., models of mounds ; also series of grooved and 



MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 315 

ungrooved adzes from Alaska, Washington, Oregon and Cali- 
fornia. 12. Synoptic Series of the Grooved Ax, eastern U. S. 
13. Ancient textiles from caves in Morgan Co.. Tenn., also 
wooden carvings from Unga Island, Alaska. 14. Synoptic 
Series oif Hammer-stones, eastern U. S. 15. Stone imple- 
ments from various Pueblo towns and ruined sites. 16. Stone 
implements from arid region of Colorado, Arizona, etc. 
17. Specimens of ancient pottery of the Pueblo region. 

East Wing continued: West Wall Cases. (Here, as on 
the Main Floor, the side aisle is divided at each pillar into 
alcoves, each alcove containing 6 or more cases. While the 
abundance of these exhibits delights the specialist, there is 
so much repetition that the average visitor will care only 
for a few of the more striking objects here, noted, The num- 
bers refer to the alcoves and not to the separate cases. 
1. Antiquities of Arizona : note especially *Model of Cliff 
Dwelling, "Mummy Cave Ruin," so named from mummy of 
an infant found there ; situated in Canyon del Muerto, North- 
east Arizona; modeled by Cosmo Mindclcff ; Model of Com- 
pound A, Casa Grande Ruins, Pinal Co., Ariz. ; also Antiqui- 
ties of Little Colorado River region, chiefly from collection 
of Dr. J. Walter Fczvkes. 2. Arizona continued : Pottery 
and implements from cliff dwellings ; Comprehensive model 
of Casa Grande Ruins, (Compounds A, B, C and D), dis- 
covered by the Jesuit father, Eusebio Francisco^ Kino in 1694. 
3. Arizona continued: Note especially large assortment of 
religious objects from Bear Creek Cave, Graham Co., sug- 
gesting that this was a spot of peculiar sacredness. 4. Antiqui- 
ties of the Southwest, chiefly from California. 5. Antiquities 
of Pacific States : not especially *Aboriginal Soapstone Quarry 
Group, showing man with stone pick cutting out a roundish 
mass of soapstone, while woman with rude chisel roughs out 
a globular pot. 6. Pacific Coast continued : Note wood 
carvings from iburial cave, Delaroff Harbor, Alaska. 
7. Southeast Alaska: Tools and household implements of 
bone, stone, slate, etc. Note at corner of North Range large 
Stone Image, from Easter Island (in S. Pacific Ocean, 2000 
mi. from any other inhabited land). 

North Range: South Wall Cases (E. to W.) : Alcove 1. 
Antiquities from Obsidian (volcanic class) Mines of Mexico: 
♦Antiquities of West Indies; A. Stone Collars: B. Tri- 
pointed Idols : C. Maskettes of Stone ; D. Pentaloid Celts ; 
Alcove 2. West Indies continued : Celts and chisels ; Antiqui- 
ties of Porto Rico, pottery and beadwork; Alcove 3. Santo 
Domingo: terra,-<cotta ; vessels plates for grinding cassava; 



316 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

Miscellaneous collection from caves and prehistoric village 
sites in Aleutian Islands ; Alcove 4. Relics of Hunter tribes 
of Kansas ; Antiquities of O'hio and of Hawaii ; Alcove 5. 
Antiquities of Texas ; Colonial Relics of European manufac- 
ture, found in Indian graves ; Alcove 6. Collection illustrat- 
ing the manufacture of Hatchet -blades ; Collection of Archae- 
ological Relics of the District of Columbia ; Alcove 7. Antiqui- 
ties of Costa Rica and California. 

North Hall, East Aisle: American Archaeology con- 
tinued; Antiquities of Mexico, Central and South America. 
A large part of this collection necessarily consists of casts 
and models, reproducing famous ruins and prehistoric art 
treasures which have not been permitted to leave their native 
countries. The plaster casts are mostly from sculptures pre- 
served in the National Museum at Mexico City. The models 
of temples and other ancient buildings, on a scale of 1/24 
original size, were all made under the! direction of W. H, 
Holmes, by De Lancey Gill, architect, H. W. Hendley and W. 
H. Gill, sculptors. 

Central Exhibits (N. to S.) : 1. Commemorative Stone 
of Tizoc (plaster cast), a huge disc with calendar marks 
and other sculptures, sometimes called the "Sacrificial Stone" 
(dug up in the principal plaza of Mexico City) ; 2. Reduced 
model of the "The Castle," in ancient city of Chichen-Itza, 
Yucatan. This is the best preserved of the several pyramid 
temples of that city. The pyramid is 190 ft. sq. at base, 60 
ft. sq. at summit and 80 ft. high. The temple measures 
44x48 ft.; 3. Chac-Mool, reclining human figure, heroic size, 
found at Chichen-Itza (the name signifies "Tiger," and was 
given because the figure was found near the Temple of Tigers) ; 

4. Colossal figure of Aztec deity from ancient City of Mexico. 

The complicated carvings of this huge sculpture apparently repre- 
sent a standing human figure, but the human elements are dominated 
by those of serpents and monsters. The opposite fronts are supposed 
to symbolize respectively Teoyaomiqui, Goddess of Death, and Huitzilo- 
pochtli, Goddess of War, the whole being symbolic of the hideous 
religious beliefs of the Aztecs, involving ruthless human sacrifices. The 
visitor should compare this exhibit with the much finer specimen of 
Maya art, No. 9, below. 

5. Model of ruined temple of Xoehicalco ("Hill of Flowers"), 
situated 40 miles S. of Mexico City. 6. Model of "The Palace" 
at Mitla, Mexico; 7. *Colossal figure of a Maya Deity (plaster 
cast), from ruined city of Quirigua, Guatemala; 8. Reduced 
model of "The House of the Governor," one of the chief 
surviving structures in the ruined city of Uxmal, Yucatan. 

9-16. Case Exhibits: 9. Antiques of Mexico: from 
Nahvartl, Valley of Mexico, Terra-cotta stamps and moulds, 



MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 317 

spindle-whorls images, etc. ; 10. Central and South America ; 
Carved amulets, beads, pendants, etc., of jade and other semi- 
precious stones. 11. Antiquities of Patagonia: Stone imple- 
ments, flints, scrapers, arrow-points, etc., mainly from Rio 
Negro District; also earthenware effigy vessels from Manizales, 
Colombia; (C. A. Pope Collection.) 12. Antiquities of Chile: 
^Primitive mining implements found in the Restauradora 
Mine in 1809. 

The most important feature of this find was the desiccated body of 
a prehistoric miner, who apparently had been accidentally caught and 
crushed by a cave-m of earth and stone. This body, curiously pre- 
served from decay because impregnated with copper salts, is now ex- 
hibited in the American Museum of Natural History, N. Y. C. (see 
Rider's New York City, p. 296). 

(b.) Antiquities of Ecuador and Bolivia: Note espe- 
cially *Ancient silver image from ruins on island in Lake 
Titicaca, Bolivia; (c.) Antiquities of Venezuela; 13. An- 
tiquitities of Peru : pottery, vessels, stone implements and 
utensils, bronze and copper articles, breastpins, beads, etc. ; 
14. Peru continued. *Mummy of a child from grave near 
Ancon, Peru ; Another child mummy ; aprons, belts, ponchos, 
etc. 

This case also contains textiles, pottery and copper implements from 
pre-Columbian Haucas (or mounds) and cemeteries in the Valley of 
Chicama. 

15. *Feathered Ponchos or Indian capes. Two speci- 
mens consisting of feathers sewed upon woven fabric, and 
forming elaborate patterns in vivid colors. These are ranked 
among the finest specimens of (their kind. Gift of Dr. A. 
Hrdlicka. 

At South end of Aisle : 1. Temple doorway in Chichen- 
Itza, Yucatan; 2. Portion of Interior Wall and sloping ceiling 
of a ceremonial chamber in the principal temple of the tennis 
court or gymnasium in what is known as the "Temple of 
the Jaguars" (so-called because of the line of Jaguars form- 
ing a frieze around the exterior). 

East wall (S. to N.) : 1. Section of a column from Chichen-Itza 
(cast) ; 2. Model of the Temple of the Cross, Palenque, State of 
Chiapas, Southern Mexico; 3. Antiquities of Argentina; 4. Costa Rican 
Antiquities; 5. Antiquities of Brazil; 6. Rica, idols, etc.; 7. *Antiquities 
of Nicaragua: pottery with curious decorations of snakes, frogs and 
lizards; 8. Costa Rica continued; 9. Ancient Mexican sculptures (plaster 
facsimilies) : Aztec deities including: Serpent Deity, Goddess of Fertility, 
Goddess of Water, etc.; 10. Costa Rica continued; 11. *Habitat group, 
showing two Indian stone-cutters employed respectively in dressing a 
scrare block, and ornamenting one side with sculptures; 12. Costa 
Rica continued; 13. Mexican sculptures continued : coiled teatherede 
serpent, stone yokes, etc.; 14. Costa Rica: stone idols continued; 15-1?-. 
Antiquities of Mexico continued : Note especially figure of Centeotl, 
Goddess of Maize. 



318 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

North End Case: Prehistoric musical instruments, including 
specimens from Mexico, Central and South America, pottery rattles, 
whistling bottles and vases (from graves), flageolets and pan-pipes (of 
stone, reed, bone and pottery). 

West Wall (N., to S.) Cases i and 2. Mexican antiquities. 
Between these cases is a facsimile of the great Calendar Stone. 1 1 ft. 
2 in. in diameter, found on the site of the present Cathedral of Mexico, 
formerly occupied by the Aztec Teocalli Temple, destroyed by the 
Spanish conquerors. Beyond, occupying the greater part of the western 
wall, are two long cases of five divisions each, containing antiquities of: 
a. Mexico- (States of Chihuahua, Jalisco, Oaxaca, etc); b. Guatemala; 
c. Honduras; d. Nicaragua; e. Costa Rica; f" Panama; g. Peru; h. 
Argentina. Note especially the elaborate and grotesque Oaxaca idols and 
Nicaragua painted pottery. Affixed to the wall are numerous plaster casts 
of sculptured panels, etc. The most noteworthy is a dark red panel at 
S. E. cor., being an altatf panel from the ancient Maya Temple of the 
Sun, at Tikal, Guatemala. 

North Hall. Western Aisle: Antiquities of Europe, Asia 
and Africa. South End: Plaster casts of classic sculptures : 
1. The Laocoon (original in Vatican) ; 2. Hermes (from the 
Island of Andros) ; 3. The Fates (E. Pediment of the Parthe- 
non) ; 4. Model of the Parthenon. 

East Wall Cases; (S. to N.) : 1. Mediterranean An- 
tiques, casts of iGreek and Roman sculptures; 2. Italian 
potteries: vases, jugs and bowls; 3 and 4. Antiquities of West- 
ern Asia: (Hebrew, Syrian, etc.) : The Bible in Latin, Greek, 
Turkish, Korean, etc.; also copy of "The Life and Morals 
of Jesus of Nazareth," compiled by Thomas Jefferson in 
1804, together with the two copies of the English New 
Testament from which Jefferson took his clipping; musical 
instruments mentioned in the Bible; costumes of Palestine 
and Syria ; ornaments and utensils ; coins mentioned in the 
Bible (Hebrew, Persian, Greek and Roman) ; Precious stones 
mentioned in the Bible; 5. Assyrian and Babylonian Antiq- 
uities : Plaster casts of bas-reliefs, etc. ; 6. Antiquities of 
Egypt: sculptures, natural products, Egyptian textile art; 
modern Egyptian bricks; agricultural products, cotton, sugar- 
cane and wheat; Egyptian sculptures (casts), funeral cone 
and fragments of mummied animals ; 7. Egypt continued. 
Mortuary relics, mummy cloth, etc. 

West Aisle continued: Central cases (N. to S.) : Case 1. 
Greek, Roman and Etruscan Pottery; Case 2. Collection of 
Roman Bronzes and Glass-ware, lent by Thomas Nelson 
Page ; Case 3- Greek and Roman Pottery and Bronzes con- 
tinued; Case 4-. Egyptian Antiquities, necklaces and figurines; 
Mummied cat; Case 5. Roman and Etruscan terra cotta 
figurines (lent by Mrs. E. A. H. Magruder) ; Case 6. Ancient 
coins : Greek, Roman, Syrian and Armenian Case 7. Roman and 
Etruscan fish-hooks, surgical and dental instruments, awls, 



MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 319 

bodkins, needles, razors and bronze household articles ; Case 8. 
Germany, Stone Age : Flake knives ; roughly chipped celts ; 
partly polished celts ; flint daggers ; ax hammers, etc. Case 9. 
Miscellaneous bronzes: celts, daggers and sickles from Hun- 
gary, Italy, Germany, Switzerland (Lake Dwellers), Sweden 
and England ; Case 10. East Africa, Somaliland : Implements 
of flint and quartz collected and presented by Sir H. W. Seton- 
Karr; Case II. Antiquities of Ancient Troy: Collection of 
pre-historic objects found at Hissarlik, the site of ancient 
Troy, by Dr. Henry Schliemann during the years of 1870-82. 
Presented by Mrs. Schliemann. Also collection of Armenian 
antiquities from the ancient necropolis of Monci-yeri, ne'ir 
Allahverdi in the Caucasus ; Case 12. A. Africa, Stone Age : 
Stone implements and fragments of pottery, collected mainly 
from Kitchen-middens and caves of Cape Colony; B. Egypt 
and Palestine Stone Age : Antiquities from Wady El-Shiekh 
and from tomb of Osiris at Abydos ; ,Case 13. Model of a 
Swiss Lake Dwelling settlement; Cases 14-15. Stone Age in 
Japan, Korea, Australia and Tasmania ; Case 16. Antiquities 
of Asia; India, Indo-China and Cmbodia; collection of chipped 
implements found by A. C. Carlyle, of the Archaeological Sur- 
vey, in the caves and rock shelters of the Vindhya Hills, Cen- 
tra India; collection of objects from Kitchen-middens on the 
shores of Lake Ton-le-Sap, by Prof. L. H. James. 

West Wall Cases (S. to N.) : 1. Stone Age implements 
from Denmark, Sweden and Norway. 2. Antiquities found in 
Danish Kitchen-middens. 3-4. Antiquities from the Lake- 
Dwelling period in Switzerland (Neolithic Age). 5. Stone 
Age in Belgium : Bones, animal skulls, celts, axes, flint 
knives and other relics. 6. Mesvinuan and Strepijan Arti- 
facts : Nodules and flakes of flint or brown chert, adapted 
to the purpose of hammering, cutting, etc. 7. Dolmen 
deposits in France, Neolithic period. 8. Art works of the 
Stone Age : Casts of sculptured and engraved horns. 9. France 
continued: Fragments of implements from caverns illustrat- 
ing the arts of the Paleolithic period. 10. Stone Age in 
England: Flakes, gun-flints, etc. made at Brandon, Suffolk. 
11. Arrowheads, chisels^ knives, flakes, celts and scrapers 
from England and Ireland, Neolithic Period. 12. Ancient 
Coins, Roman, Persian, Macedonian, etc. 13. England con- 
tinued: flint implements and other relics of the Paleolithic 
period, including a number of Eoliths, believed to be the 
earliest known attempts of man at tool-making. 14. Coins, 
pottery and other antiquities from Egypt and Italy. 15. Pre- 
historic Antiquities from the Terremare settlements in Italy: 



320 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

arrowhead flint implements, etc. 16. Roman and Etruscan 
Antiquities. 17. Turkestan : collection of potteries and tiles 
dating from the 12th and 13th centuries. 18. Potteries from 
Greece and Italy, including much Italian Black-ware and 
Arretine pottery. 

North Central Pavilion: Antiquities of Egypt, Assyria 
and Palestine (Unless otherwise stated these exhibits are 
plaster reproductions) : 

South Wall (W. to ,E.) : 1. Statue of the God Hadad, 
with inscription in old Aramaean. Erected in North Syria by 
Panammu II (see exhibit 9 below) ; 2. Stele of Sargon II, 
King of Assyria 709-05 B. C. (father of Sennacherib). The 
original Stele was found in 1845 on the Island of Cypress ; 

3. Human-headed, winged bull, found on site of Ninevah in 
1846, by Sir Austin H. Layard (original in British museum) ; 

4. Lid of sarcophagus of Sebaski, an Egyptian priest of about 
700 B. C, Rosetta Stone; 5. Babylonian code of Hammurabi. 
The original was found 1901-02 in the ancient city of Susa (the 
Shushan of the Bible). The compiler of these laws is identified 
with Amraphel, mentioned in Genesis (Gen. XIV, 9), a con- 
temporary of Abraham. Consequently, this code is 1000 years 
older than ithe Hebrew Pentatuch; 6. Human-headed, winged 
lion from Ninevah, Layard Expedition (see above exhibit 3.) : 

7. Horus, Egyptian god, personification of the Morning Sun; 

8. Hopi, Egyptian god of the Nile; 9. Torso of Panammu II, 
found at Senjirli. Asia Minor (a King who held sway in the 
country of the Hittites in the 8th centnry B. C.). The in- 
scription consists of 23 lines in old Aramaean, constituting one 
of the oldest existing specimens of that language. 

East Wall Case: Mortuary Customs of Ancient Egypt 
(coffins and mortuary boxes). 

Central Exhibits (E. to W.) : 1. Egyptian Mummy of 
Luexor, 1886, gift of Hon. S. S. Cox, then U. S. Minister to 
Turkey. 2. Relief map of Palestine ; 3. Cast of ancient Siloam, 
recording the opening of the Pool of Siloam by King Heze- 
kiah; 4. Reproduction of a Greek Inscription from the Temple 
of Jerusalem; 5. Cast of Obelisk of Shalmanesor II, King 
of Assyria; 6. Moabite Stone (original in Louvre) ; 7. Roman 
Mosaic, Lion attacking a Wild Ass. 

This exhibit is practically the only remnant of an elaborate mosaic 
flooring in the Temple of Astarte, Carthage. It was rescued by Sir 
Richard Wood, the British Consul General to Tunis, exhibited at the 
Philadelphia Centennial Exposition, and presented by him to the Smith- 
sonian Institution. 

8. Cast of Statue of Queen Amenerdas (about 720 B. C.) ; 

9. Cast of Statue of Chepeen, third King of 4th Dynasty, 



MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 321 

3666 B. C. ; 10. Medeba Mosaic Map (colored drawing of 
Palestine, from floor in old church in Medeba, in what was 
formerly Moab). 11-12. Two cases holding Egyptian antiq- 
uities : Book of the Dead, papyri, Greco-Egyptian portrait, 
etc. ; 13. Wall case, containing coffins and canopus jars. 

Central Exhibits continued: East Range (N. to S.) : 
I. and Dolphins : Central exhibits : 1. Life-size Model of 
Sulphurbottom Whale. Balcenoptera musculus (Linn.) from 
Newfoundland coast length, 78 ft.; 2. Gray Whale, Rhachi- 
anectes glaucus {Cope) reduced model; 3. Skeleton of com- 
mon Finback Whale, Balaenoptera physalus (Linn.) ; 4. Skel- 
eton of Little Piked Whale, B. acuto-ro strata (Lacepede) ; 
5. Humpback Whale, M emptor a nodosa (skeleton and one- 
half model, split lengthwise) ; 6. Skeleton of Sulphurbottom 
Whale; (total length, 75 ft; skull, 19 ft. 6 in.); 6. Skull 
of Killer Whale, Orcinus orva (Linn.) ; 7. Skull of Baird's 
Whale, Berardius Berardi; 8. Skull of Humpback Whale, 
Megoptera longimana ; 9. North Atlantic Right Whale, 
Balaena •glacialis (Bonnaterre). 

North Wall (E. to W.) : Case 1. Models of Whales 
and Porpoises, 10 species ; Case 2. Skeletons of Whales and 
Porpoises, nine species ; Case 3- Skeletons, continued : four 
species. 

This aisle also contains at present (1922) a number of 
additional exhibits temporarily transferred from the North- 
west range. These include : I. Fauna of the District of 
Columbia (note especially the collection of Washington 
Birds, in 14 cases) ; II. iGeneral Entomological Collection 
(along iS. side of aisle; note especially the tropical Lepi- 
doptera. Butterflies of India, Borneo, Siam, Java, Philippines 
and iSouth America) ; III. *The J. P. Imings Collection 
^f Butterflies and Moths, consisting of about 2500 named 
species, presented in 1921 by the heirs of Dr. Iddings. 

Southwest Pavilion: Zoology continued; Reptiles and 
Fishes. Most of these exhibits are skilful and accurate 
models of originals. Note, however, among central cases, 
a collection of *Tropical Fish in tanks of preserving fluid ; 
all the original vivid coloring has been retained. Note 
especially the following: Rock Beauty, Holocanthus tricolor 
(scarlet yellow and black) ; "Pa Kui Kui," Tenthis achilles 
Shaiv, Hawa'i (black, scarlet and blue) ; "Kihi-kmi," Zanclus 
canescens Linn (white, black and blue) ; Portuguese Butter- 
fly, Cliaetodon striatus Linn (pale blue and lemon). 

Southwest Pavilion, North End, and North Aisle of West 
Wing: Comparative Anatomy. The greater part of this 



322 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

exhibit consists of a systematic collection of the skeletons of 
Mammals, Birds, Reptiles and Fishes. 

The Western Section of the North Range is temporarily 
closed to the public. 

IV. The Smithsonian Institution — The Arts and 
Industries Building 

(The "Old" National Museum) 

West of the Army Medical Museum, between 9th and 
10th Sts., stands the rectangular and somewhat ungainly 
structure constituting the Arts and Industries Building of 
the National Museum, popularly known as the "Old Na- 
tional Museum." 

The Museum is open daily, except Sunday, from 9 a. m. 
to 4.30 p. m. There is a small luncheon room situated at the 
extreme end of the E. wing : good and economical. Lavatories 
in S. E. corner of Museum. 

History. The National Museum traces its origin to a society organ- 
ized in Washington in 1840 under the title of the "National Institute," 
the object of which included the administration of the Smithsonian be- 
quest, and the bringing together of collections of Natural History, 
Ethnology and kindred subjects, for the purpose of forming a general 
museum. Congress granted temporary quarters in the Patent Office; 
and here for some years was housed the nucleus of the collection, con- 
sisting of miscellaneous "Curiosities" acquired: 1. By gift of 
Foreign Powers to the United States; 2. Sent home by American 
Consuls resident abroad; 3. Presented by Naval Officers. These col- 
lections were subsequently transferred to the building of the Smith- 
sonian Institution, under whose auspices the establishment of a Na- 
tional Museum had been authorized by act of Congress in 1846 
(P- 255) ; and as year by year the bulk of the collection augmented, 
the Institution found itself seriously cramped for space. In 1876 came 
the Centennial Exhibition at Philadelphia, from which so large a col- 
lection of valuable articles was acquired by gift to the United States 
through the Smithsonian Institution, that they had to be stored in the 
so-called Armory Building, now occupied by the Fish Commission 
(P. 245). 

Prof. Joseph Henry in a letter dated Oct. 8th, 1877, brought 
to the attention of Pres. Hayes the urgent necessity of a new structure 
to house these additional and valuable -exhibits. Accordingly the Presi- 
dent in his message recommended that an adequate appropriation should 
be made for the establishment and maintenance of a National Museum. 

When the matter was taken up by Congress, it was found that a 
Museum building worthy to rank among the permanent structures of 
the National Capital could not be erected under a million dollars; 
but that a fairly spacious exhibition building, fairly fireproof and large 
enough to house the growing collections for some years to come, might 
be erected for a quarter of that sum. Accordingly $250,000 was appro- 
priated for the purpose. 

This first Museum building, completed in 1881, was an 
attempt so far as the funds would allow, to achieve a sort 
of modernized Romanesque style of architecture, in order 



OLD NATIONAL MUSEUM 



323 



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ittrf COMPARATIVE ANATOMY 



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MAIN ENTRANCE. 



324 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

to harmonize with the Norman style of the original Smith- 
sonian building, — no easy task when confined to brick, iron 
and~ slate as materials (Class and Schulze, architects). 

The resultant structure is a square building of a single 
story in height, covering in all about an acre and a half of 
ground. It consists of four large naves and central rotunda 
forming a Greek cross, with ranges and covered courts filling 
the corners. 

The central rotunda is octagonal below with a diameter 
of 65 ft., surmounted by a sixteen sided polygon, and cov- 
ered by a slate roof rising to a central lantern, with a total 
height of 108 ft. 

The main entrance is on the Mall, in the center of the 
N. facade. It consists of a talil, arched framework of Ohio 
sandstone surmounted by a pediment with sculptured group 
representing, "Columbia as Protectress of Science and In- 
dustry" (C. Buberl, N. Y., sculptor). 

The first use to which the then newly finished building was put 
was for the Inaugural Reception of President Garfield, March 4th, 1881. 

There is no general official guide-book to the collections in this 
building. A special catalog of the Historical Costumes Exhibit (p. 331) 
is on sale at the curio stand in the Rotunda, price 50c. 

Main Floor, North Wing: United States History. These 
exhibits are contained in wall-cases and in four rows of 
center-cases, two rows on each side of the main aisle. The 
following description starts with the W. center row, from 
N. to S., returning by the W. side row, then crossing to the 
E. center row, returning by E. side row and leaving the cir- 
cuit of the wall-cases for the last. 

The visitor should note above the main entrance, a large allegorical 
mosaic, designed by Bracquecond, and made by Haviland and Com- 
pany, Limoges, France. It consists of 900 tiles of Limoges Faience, 
and depicts, "The Genius of Man dominating and utilizing Fire and 
Water. In the right hand the figure holds a casting in bronze. In 
the left a beautiful vase. The service of these elements in trans- 
portation and in turning the wheels of industry is shown by a loco- 
motive and group of factories." The mosaic measures 15 ft. 4 in. b> 
11 ft. 5 in. It was displayed in Philadelphia at the Centennial Ex- 
hibition in 1876, and presented to the United States by the makers. 

West Central Aisle: Case 1. Abraham Lincoln: Con- 
tents include plaster face-mask of Lincoln made in April, 
i860, and bronze casting from it; also plaster molds of Lin- 
coln's hands with bronze castings ; both by Leonard W . Volk. 
Case 2. Ulysses S. Grant: a. (upper section). ^Collection 
of ancient Japanese gold coins presented to Gen. Grant in 
1880, by the Japanese Government, in return for a thorough- 
bred horse given to the Emperor; also numerous gold 
medals; *Ivory-handled silver trowel, used by Pres. Grant 



OLD NATIONAL MUSEUM 325 

in laying the cornerstone of the American Museum of Nat- 
ural History, N. Y., June 4th, 1874; b. (lower section) 
Elephant's tusks, gift of the King of Siam. Case 3. Grant 
Collection continued: a. Gold and silver caskets presented 
to Gen. Grant by various cities of Great Britain and Ireland, 
with enclosed "Certificates of Freedom" (the certificates are 
now displayed in N. W. Range) ; porcelains presented to 
Grant in China, 1879; b. Bound copies of Addresses of 
Welcome and other speeches in honor of Gen. Grant. Case 
4. William Tecumseh Sherman: a. Uniforms, Shako and 
epaulets worn by Sherman in 1842 and 1869; service swords; 
medals and badges ; b. Commissions to the various military 
ranks held by Sherman (exhibit disadvantageous^ placed) ; 
Case 5. Judson Kilpatrick: a. Silver service presented by 
the Veterans' Association of Connecticut, to Major-General 
Kilpatrick in recognition of his services during the Civil 
War ; b. leather saddle, etc. ; Case 6. Myers-Mason Collec- 
tion : Family Heirlooms, consisting of historical costumes, 
ornaments of personal wear and articles of the toilet used 
by the family during the years 1812-1900. Case 7. Samuel 
F. B. Morse: Portrait of Morse by Edward L. Morse; ex- 
hibits showing the early development of the telegraph. Case 8, 
Joseph Henry: a. Specimens of electric apparatus; a copy 
of portrait of Prof. Henry embodied in bronze tablet, de- 
signed by Augustus Saint-Gaudens for the Chapel at Prince- 
ton University; b. Pictures illustrating Prof. Henry's dis- 
coveries and inventions. Case 9. Cyrus W. Field: a. Specimens 
of telegraph cables laid across the Atlantic, 1,858, 1865 and 1866 ; 
also model of grapnel used in raising cables ; Field's walking 
stick made fromi wood of the Great Eastern, broken up in 
1890; Portrait of Field, by Daniel Huntington; b. Pennant 
(32 ft. long) used on the Great Eastern and other steamers 
while engaged in laying cables across the Atlantic, 1857-66. 
Case 10. W infield Scott Schley: a. Gold medals incrusted 
with diamonds and enamel; Masonic apron of lambskin and 
blue silk; naval service uniform and cap; canes and swords 
presented to Schley; b. Section of steel armor plate from 
U. S. Brooklyn, damaged by shell in battle of Santiago, July 
3d. 1898; canes, swords, etc. Case 11. David Glasgow Far- 
ragut: Service uniform and cap; two pairs of epaulets; 
jewelled sword ; water-color of the Farragut coat-of-arms : 
photographs of Farragut's ships, the U. S. S. Franklin, etc. 

West side Row (S. to N.) : Case i.Rear Admiral Andrew 
H. Footc, U. S. N.: Naval uniform, epaulets and shoulder 
straps ; spurs, steel bayonet and Mexican dirk ; Miscellaneous 



326 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

articles found in the snow, belonging to Lieut. Commander 
De Long and his men on the Polar Expedition of 1881. Case 
2. iSchley Exhibits continued: a. Silver service made of 'Spanish 
coins recovered from the Cristobal Colon, sunk in the battle 
off Santiago de Cuba, July 3d, 1898, etc. ; b. medals and silver 
loving-cups. Case 3. Cyrus W. Field: Terrestrial globe used 
by Field and his associates in selecting the first cable route ; 
specimens of cables. Case 4. *The Appomattox Chair, upon 
which it is said Gen. Grant sat when he wrote and signed the 
articles of capitulation of the Confederate army, at Appomat- 
tox Court House, Virginia, April 9th, 1865 ; also *Chair in the 
McLean house at Appomattox Court House, Virginia, April 
9th, 1865, and used by Gen. Robert E. Lee when writing the 
note accepting the terms proposed by Gen. Grant for the sur- 
render of the army of Northern Virginia. Case 5. Miscel- 
laneous collection of Civil War period, including: gold medal 
presented to Col. E. E. Ellsworth at the Marshall House, 
Alexandria, Va., May 24, 1861 ; also scarf pin he was wearing 
when killed ; uniform worn by Lieut. Charles R. Carville, 
including sword, scaibbard and epaulets. Case 6. Judson Kil- 
patrick: Gilded bust of Major-General Kilpatrick, U. S. 
Volunteers, and Minister to Chile, 1865-68; glassware, china, 
etc. ; also uniforms worn by him. Case 7. George Brinton 
McClellan: Uniform, chapeau, gauntlets, silver spurs, gold 
and jewelled sword presented by the city of Philadelphia, 
other swords carried by McClellan ; dress saddle cloth, 
revolvers, belts, etc. Case 8. Frederick D. Grant: a Uniform, 
service swords, shoulder straps and sashes worn by Major- 
General Grant, lb. Saddle owned by Major-General Grant, and 
used on his horse at his funeral ; high military boots, etc. 
Cases 10 and 11. Ulysses S. Grant: a. Cloisonne vases pre- 
sented at Tientsin, China, June, 1879, by Viceroy Li-Hung- 
Chang; Uniform coat of the rank of Lieut-General; swords, 
canes, etc. b. Japanese embroidered picture, presented by the 
citizens of Japan. Gifts presented to Gen. and Mrs. Grant 
during their trip around the world, including a lacquered 
cabinet, a gift from the Empress of Japan, and said to be 
1000 years old ; b. Saddle used Iby Gen. Grant in all the battles 
from Feb., 1862, to April, 1865; Case 11. Marble bust of 
William H. Sewurd, by Giovanni Maria Benzoni. Case 12. 
Cast from Death-Mask of President ^ McKinley by E. L. A. 
Pausch, N. Y., Sept., 1901. The original mask was destroyed 
after this cast was made. 

East Central Row (N. 'to S.) : Case 1. Awards of 
Honor and Merit: *Glass epergne decorated with silver and 



OLD NATIONAL MUSEUM 327 

gilt design, given as grand prize of the International Exhibi- 
tion, Berlin, 1880, presented to Spencer A. Baird, United 
States Commissiioner of Fish and Fisheries; *Replica of 
vase presented to William Cullen Bryant on his 80th birth- 
day (designed by James H. Whitehouse) ; miscellaneous 
medals, etc.; Case 2. Discovery of the North Pole: (medals 
and other tributes to Robert Edwin Peary) ; *Peary Arctic 
Club Medal of Honor, being the first and only award of 
this medal (the five metallic points of the star are from 
Ahnighito meteorite brought from Cape York by Peary in 
1897) ; Peace Flag, presented to Peary by the Daughters of 
the Revolution and displayed by him at the North Pole, 
April 6th, 1909 ; also numerous medals, loving-cups, etc., in- 
cluding the Cullum gold medal of the American Geographi- 
cal Society (first impression and first award) ; Cases 3 and 4. 
Colonial Period : Loan collection of the National Society of 
Colonial Dames ; Case 5. Loan collection of the National Society 
of the Daughters of the Revolution ; Case 6. Miscellaneous 
exhibits, including silver tea service owned by Laura Wol- 
cott, daughter of Oliver Wolcott, signer of the Declaration of 
Independence; Case 7. Winfield Scott Hancock: Swords, regi- 
mentals, walking sticks ; Case 8. Naval Relics : Uniforms, 
swords, etc., belonging to Admiral David H. Porter, Rear 
Adm. John W. Philip, etc. ; fatigue cap and coat of Captain 
Charles B. Gridley, Commanding officer of the flag-ship 
Olympia, battle of Manila Bay, May 1st, 1898; Case 9. 
Miscellaneous collection : Relics, epaulets, swords, uniforms, 
etc., of various army and navy officers. Case 10. Relics of 
Prof. Samuel P. Langley ; Case 11. Awards and Honors 
bestowed upon Prof. Simon Newcomlb in recognition of his 
services in Astronomy (note especially the badge of the French 
Legion of Honor, with rank of Com'mandenr) ; Newcomb's 
uniform as Professor of Mathematics to the U. S. Navy 
(with rank of Rear- Admiral). 

East Row (Si. to N.) : Case 1. Capron Family: Sword 
and spurs of Capt. Allyn Capron ; shoulder knots, cavalry 
helmet, etc. Case 2. Confederate Relics : Uniforms and 
swords, bronze bust of Col. John S. Mosby, by Edzvard V. 
Valentine. Case 3. Miscellaneous Relics of Gen. Thomas 
Swords, U. S. A v , during Civil War period and earlier. 
Case 4. Miscellaneous collection including swords of Maj. 
Gen. Alexander MdComb, Commander in Chief, U. S. A., 
1828-41. Case 5- Printing press used by Benjamin Franklin 
when a journeyman printer in London, 1725-26; Case 6. 
Period of the War with Spain : *Steering wheel from Bat- 



328 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

tleship Maine; blue and white plates and saucers, wine glasses 
and other relics recovered from Maine; Spanish chair from 
Morro Castle, Havana. Case 7. Loan collection of the 
Daughters of the American Revolution; Case 8. Memorials 
of the Bradford Family. Case 9. Loan collection of the 
Colonial Dames of America, including silver urn made by 
Paul Revere, Case 10. Swords and scabbards of Gen. George 
W. Morgan during War with Mexico. Case 11. China tea 
set owned by Col. Philip Marsteller, a pall bearer at Wash- 
ington's funeral ; two statuette groups purchased in Paris by 
Gouverneur Morris. 

Wall Exhibits, beginning on E. Wall from N. to S. : 
Case 1. Mahogany secretary owned by Brig. Gen. Rufus 
Putnam. Case 2. Bronze inkstand with candlestick, snuffer 
and blotting sand, owned by Harvard University during presi- 
dency of Josiah Quincy, Edward Everett, Jared Sparks, James 
Walker, Cornelius Felton, Thomas Hill and Charles W. 
Elliot. Case 3. Furniture and portraits of early 19th cen- 
tury: mahogany chest presented to George Washington by his 
brother Lawrence ; child's dressing table presented by Gen. 
Lafayette to Martha Custis, granddaughter of Mrs. Washing- 
ton ; leather-backed chair and drawing room screen owned 
by Washington in New York and Philadelphia, and later 
at Mt. Vernon. Case 4. Arm-chair owned by Gen. Lafayette 
and used by him on the day of his death, May 20, 1834 ; walk- 
ing stick presented by Jefferson to Dr. Joseph Priestley, dis- 
coverer of oxygen; scimitar presented to Jefferson by the 
Sultan of Morocco. Marble-top table "owned by Jefferson 
at Monticello. Case 5. Early American chairs ; side-table 
owned by Alexander Hamilton; chairs owned by Maj. Gen. 
Philip Schuyler ; arm-chair owned by Commodore Joshua 
Barney, Continental Navy. Case 6. Rosewood chairs owned 
by Chief Justice John Marshall ; mahogany chair owned by 
James Madison ; rocking-chair owned bv Henry Clay. 

South Wall Cases : 1. Model of Mayflower. 2. American 
flag made in Scotland by five Scotch girls and used at fun- 
erals of American soldiers lost on transport Tuscania. 3. Jasper 
vase presented to Simon Newcomb by Alexander III of 
Russia. 4. (W. oif door) George W. Custer relics, including 
a buckskin coat worn by Custer in campaign against the 
Sioux ; 5. War with Spain : The stern ornament of the 
Colon; 6. Ancient pieces of masonry from the Wall of 
Servius Tullius, presented to the United States in 1912 to 
replace a similar block sent in 1865, after the assassination 
of Pres. Lincoln and lost in transit. It bears a memorial 
inscription in Latin, 



OLD NATIONAL MUSEUM 329 

West Wall Cases: 1. Case containing early 19th century 
furniture, chairs, sofas, andirons, etc. ; also two portraits 
by Charles Wilson Peale (dated 1792) of Brig.-Gen. John 
Cropper (Virginia) and Mrs. Catherine B. Cropper; 2. *The 
Star-Spangled Banner, being the Garrison flag of Ft. Mc- 
Henry, Baltimore, during the bombardment of the Fort 
by the British, Sept. 13-14, 1814. Francis Scott Key, detained 
with the British fleet, had eagerly watched for this flag, and 
when he saw it still waving on the morning of the 14th, he 
was inspired to write, "The Star-Spangled Banner" ; 3. Mexi- 
can onyx side-board presented to Grant by the citizens of 
Pueblo, Mexico ; 4. Chippewa Family Group, heroic size, 
being the original plaster model by John J. Boyle, of a bronze 
group now in Chicago. 

Rotunda. Here were formerly exhibited a number of the 
larger trophies, gifts of Foreign Powers, etc. These, ho ■■ 
have temporarily made way for cannon, mortars, etc., belong- 
ing to the World War collection. In the center, dominating 
all other exhibits, is the colossal plaster statue, * Liberty (19^2 
ft. high), made in Rome by Thomas Crawford, and used 
by Clark Mills in 1868, for casting the Ibronze statue now 
surmounting the Dome of the Capitol. In doorway lead- 
ing from North Wing are two Colossal Faience Vases from 
Limoges, France, made to commemorate the Declaration of 
Independence, and exhibited at Philadelphia, 1876 ; presented 
by the manufacturers, Haviland and Co., to the United 
States Government. Height 7 ft. 8^2 in., greatest circum- 
ference 11 ft. 4 in. Value of pair, $17,500. 

The average visjtor, especially if limited in time, will probably visit 
next the spacious W., S-. and E. Wings, opening directly from the 
Rotunda,, leaving the Ranges and Pavilions until later. A more practical 
procedure, however, is to return at once to the Northern .Range, West 
Section, finish the American Historic exhibits and continue the circuit 
of the Ranges from R. to L., taking in the Wings as> they are succes- 
sively reached. This accordingly is the method here pursued. 

North Range, East Section: United States History con- 
tinued: The most important exhibits in this room are the 
personal possessions, household furniture, etc., formerly at 
Mt. Vernon, known as the **"Lewis Collection of Wash- 
ington Relics," purchased by the United States Government 
in 1878 from the heirs of Mrs. Laurence Lewis (Eleanor 
Parke Custis). They are contained in first cases south of 
main aisle (E. to W.) : 1. Miscellaneous Washington relics, 
including Bronze bust of Washington, copied from Houdon's 
life-cast in 1785 ; *Miniatures of George and Martha Wash- 
ington, painted on wood by Trumbull (1792-94) ; 2. Candle- 



330 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 



sticks and talbleware owned by Washington; 3. Miscellaneous 
relics, including an English ke}^ed Zither, presented by Wash- 
ington to Nellie Custis; 4. Washington's writing case used 
during the War of the Revolution; his camp mess-chest with 
utensils, his treasure chest, etc. : In lower compartment : Tent 
poles and tents used in the Revolutionary War; 5. Mirror, 
tables and chairs owned by Washington at Mt. Vernon ; 
6. China, glassware and other objects owned by Washington 
while President. 7. Swords, canteens, powder-horns, etc., 
from the Revolution. & Swords, uniforms and other relics 
of the U. S. Navy in the early 19th century. 9. Silver cen- 
terpiece loaned by the Aztec Club of 1867. 

Second South Row (W. to E.) : 1. Silverware, silhou- 
ettes and pergonal ornaments of the early 19th century. 2. Gus- 
iavus Vasa Fox Collection of works illustrating Russian life 
and history. Mr. Fox was sent to Russia in 1866, as special 
Minister to congratulate the Emperor on his escape from 
assassination. 3. The Gansevoort Collection of swords, uni- 
forms, portraits, etc., from the Revolutionary and Civil Wars. 
4. Swords, pistols, silverware, etc., period of the War of 
1812. 5. Lewis Collection continued : Chairs owned by Wash- 
ington at Mt. Vernon, including easy chair used by him in 
his bedroom shortly before death. 6. Mirror presented by 
Washington to his wife in 1795; panel from the Washington 
coach, etc. 7. Military Collection of Maj. Gen. John R. 
Brooke, including presentation and service swords, uniform 
and insignia. 8. Swords and other relics of Gen. Henry 
W. Lawton. 9. Swords and other relics of Jose Antonio 
Paez ; sword carried by Simon Bolivar. 10. Medals and 
decorations presented to George F. Barker, the physicist. 

Third South Row : Cases 1-4. Old English Blue china 
plates, etc., decorated with early views of New York City: 
The Battery; Old Park Theater; the Great Fire; Plates with 
scenes from Uncle Tom's Cabin; China forming part of 
dinner services used during the administrations of Madison, 
Monroe, Lincoln, Grant and Hayes, etc. 5. Mrs. F. W. 
Dickens Collection of china and porcelain, English and 
American ware, copper lustre, Wedgwood, Staffordshire, etc. 
6. Oild china continued. 7. Dinner service of Lowestoft, a 
ware generally used in American homes as the best china 
on special occasions (1 775-1825). 

West Wall: The Wall Cases contain: (S. to N.) : 1-3. 
Official costumes of William L. Dayton and of Major John 
Biglow as American Ministers to the Court of Napoleon III ; 
also of iSidney Mason (1829) when American Consul at Porto 






OLD NATIONAL MUSEUM 331 

Rico. 4. Collection of National American Suffrage Asso- 
ciation: Portraits of Dr. Anna Howard Shaw, and Mrs. Carrie 
Chapman Catt; certified copy of joint resolution of Congress 
extending right of suffrage to women. 

North Wall Cases (W. to E.) : 1. Woman's Suffrage 
Collection continued : Relics of Susan B. Anthony. 2-8. 
Exhibit of swords, partly the Alfred S. Hopkins Collection, 
and in part lent by War Department. East Wall : Swords 
lent by War Department continued. 

North Aisle Cases (W. to E.) : 1. Mahogany table owned 
by Susan B. Anthony when writing the "Declaration of Sen- 
timents" for women in 1848 ; also inkstand, purse, gold watch, 
etc. Cases 2-13. Badges and insignia of officers and enlisted 
men in U. S. Army, U. S. Navy and U. S. Marine Corps ; 
U. S. Army decorations and certificates ; U. S. War Medals 
awarded 'by individual states in recognition of services during 
War with Spain and in World War; also *French Bronze 
Memorials commemorating World War events : Burning of 
Rheims Cathedral, Defense of Verdun, Victory of the 
Tanks, etc. 

On the wall above are several historic portraits, including 
Gustavus Vasa, King of Sweden, 1523-60, by Adelaide 
Lcnhuscn; Gen. Jose Antonio Paez, First President of Vene- 
zuela, by John J. Peoli ; Jdhn Custis and Frances Parks 
Custis ; Rear- Admiral George W. Melville, by Sigismond de 
Ivanowskl. 

West Range, North Section: * American Historical Cos- 
tumes : This collection is due to the efforts of Mrs. Julian- 
James, with the co-operation of Mrs. Stephen B. Elkins, Mrs. 
John Hay, Mrs. Harriet Lane Johnston, Mrs. Rose Gouverneur 
Hoes and a number of other ladies. The most interesting 
feature is a series of life-size models clad in dresses worn 
by former mistresses of the White House. The. heads and 
faces of these lay figures were modeled in plaster by H. W . 
Hendley, of the National Museum, the same face being used 
for all the figures, and differing only in the arrangement of 
the hair. All the cases and exhibits are fully numbered and 
accompanied by explanatory placards. 

Case 1. Salmon pink silk dress, hand-painted, worn by 
Mrs. Washington ; chair, tray, decanter and glass from Mt. 
Vernon ; 2. Plum-colored crepe dress worn by Mrs. John 
Adams ; 3. Yellow satin brocade dress representing dress 
worn by Mrs. Dolly Madison ; Blue silk dress worn by Mrs. 
Samuel L. Gouverneur, youngest daughter of President 



33* RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

Monroe, and the first bride of the White House; 4. White 
net dress worn by Mrs. John Quincy Adams ; also old gold 
satin brocade dress worn by Mrs. Andrew Jackson Donald- 
son; 5. Blue velvet dress worn by Mrs. Sarah Angelica 
Van Buren, wife of the President's eldest son; 6. Gray 
plush dress worn by Mrs. Jane Irwin Findlay, mistress 
of the White House under William Henry Harrison ; White 
gauze dress, vividly embroidered, worn by Mrs. Tyler when 
presented at the Court of Louis Phillippe; 7. Blue brocade 
satin dress worn by Mrs. James K. Polk ; Green silk grena- 
dine worn by Miss Betty Taylor, the President's daughter ; 
8. Lavender silk dress worn by Mrs. Fillmore ; Black tulle 
dress worn by Mrs. Franklin Pierce; 9. White moire antique 
silk dress worn, on the occasion of her marriage, by Mrs. 
Harriet Lane Johnston; (Un-numbered Case) Dress worn 
by wife of President Lincoln. 10. White silver brocade dress 
worn by Mrs. Ulysses S. Grant. 11. Dresses worn by Mrs. 
Rutherford B. Hayes and Mrs. James A. Garfield. 12. Silk 
brocade dress, pale green with American Beauty roses, worn 
by Mrs. Grover 'Cleveland ; also dress worn by Mrs. Mary 
Arthur McElroy, sister of President Arthur. 13. Plum-col- 
ored brocade worn by Mrs. Benjamin Harrison; also cream- 
white satin dress worn by Mrs. McKinley; 14. Dress worn 
by Mrs. Theodore Roosevelt ; also white chiffon dress, em- 
broidered in the Philippine Islands, and worn by Mrs. William 
H. Taft. This, like several of the other dresses, was worn 
at the Inaugural Ball. 15. Dresses worn by the first and 
second wives of ex-President Woodrow Wilson. 

In the bewildering profusion of other exhibits, the visitor 
should not fail to note the following: Case 21, No. 6. Irish 
Valenciennes lace collar, made by the novelist, Maria Edge- 
worth ; No. 9. Point d'Argentine lace from a collar once 
belonging to the Empress Eugenie ; Case 34, No. 2. Wedding 
dress of Mrs. Julia Ward Howe ; Case 47. Breeches and 
riding boots, waistcoat and linen shirt worn by Thomas 
Jefferson ; Case 48. Uniform worn by General Washington 
when he resigned his commission as Commander-in-Chief of 
the Continental Army; Case 56. Two costumes worn by Char- 
lotte Cushman in Henry VIII. 

Northwest Pavilion: This room, entered from the West 
Range, contains three special collections : 1. Musical Instru- 
ments of the world, arranged in the four series of wall cases ; 
2. Numismatics, arranged in table-cases ; 3. Philately, a general 
collection of postage stamps now valued at, approximately, 
$250,000; and especially strong in United States stamps. It 



OLD NATIONAL MUSEUM 333 

has recently been augmented by the valuable private collection 
of the late David W. Cromwell, of New York. 

The stamp collection is in charge of Mr. J. B. Leavy, 
whose office is in the Historical Department's room, in the 
West Range. 

This room also contains the Robert Heivett Collection 
of Medallic Lincolniana ; and the Thomas Kelly Boggs Col- 
lection of decorations, medals and badges. 

Above the wall cases are arranged a miscellaneous series 
of bronze busts, 48 in number, including Scientists, Judges, 
Presidents, and State Governors. 

West Wing: This wing, formerly devoted to Ethnology, 
is at present in a transition state, and still contains at W. 
end a few Chinese exhibits ; while at E. end considerable 
space has been usurped by an overflow from the Rotunda 
of the World War collection. 

The chief Technoilogical exhibits include: (N. Wall) 

1. Model showing occurrence and mining of Tin ; 2. Model 
showing the mining of deep gold placers in frozen ground, 
near Fairbanks, Alaska. 3. Exhibits showing the various 
methods oif mining gold. 

Central Exhibits. 1. Model of Charcoal Blast Furnace. 

2. Specimens of copper ore, showing typical examples of 
native copper. 3. Large model of Iron Mine, showing ex- 
posed sections of earth's strata. 

South Wall: 1. Model of Copper Mine of Utah Copper 
Co., Bingham Canyon, Utah (a mountain of copper ore % mi. 
high, which in ten years has produced enough copper to 
stretch a telegraph wlire 500 times around the earth). 
2. Model of Salt Creek Oil Fields, showing both surface and 
underground conditions. 

West Range, South Section : Mineral Technology, con- 
tinued: The 'Story of White Lead, showing the world's 
supply by countries, and some of its industrial uses : Zinc, 
its oxides and industrial uses ; Manufacture of Glass ; Exhibit 
of Natural Ingredients for making Glass; Examples of the 
first successful production of optical glass in Amer'ca ; 
Model of Regenerative Glass Melting Furnace (Macbeth- 
Evans Glass Co., Pittslburgh) ; Exhibits of Natural and Arti- 
ficial Abrasives. 

Southwest Pavilion: Exhibits of Coal, Coke, etc.; ♦Min- 
iature Colliery and Coke Plant : Platform exhibit 30 x 44 ft, 
gift of the Consolidation Coal Co., Fairmont, W. Va. This is 



334 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

an exact reproduction of the company's property, including 
mines, railway tracks and yard, coke furnace, etc. The ma- 
chinery operates for three minutes every quarter hour. 

South Range, West Section: Mineral Technology, con- 
tinued. West Wall (N. to S.) : i. Mica, its occurrence and 
trade values. 2 and 3. Asbestos, its occurrence and uses. 
South Wall : 1. American. Clay Products ; ornamental pottery 
showing technique of clay working. 2. Model of Sulphur 
Mine, showing the Frasch Method. 3. Soda Manufacturing 
Plant, representing the source and extraction o>f raw materi- 
als, salt, limestone and ammonia, and their treatment in manu- 
facturing caustic soda, soda ash and baking soda. 4. Natural 
Gas production transmission, service and conservation. East 
Wall: 1. Petrol eum Technology: Model showing occurrence 
extraction, transportation and refining of crude oil. 

2. American Dyes. 3. Technology of Asphalt: Specimens 
showing physical properties of natural asphalt and their appli- 
cation in use. North Wall: 1. Asphalt continued. 2. Limes, 
'Concretes and Plasters. 

Central Exhibits (W. to E.) : 1. (R.) Model showing 
occurrence and mining of Salt, and preparation for commer- 
cial use. Gift of Worcester Salt Co. Machinery operates 
every 15 minutes. 2. (L.) Model showing Portland cement 
manufacturing in Lehigh District of East Pennsylvania; con- 
structed in co-operation with Atlas Portland Cement Co. 

3. (R.) Model of Lime Manufacturing Plant, 1/48 natural 
size. Gift of the Charles Warner Co., Wilmington, Del. 

4. (L.) Model, 1-48 actual size, showing method of mining 
gypsum and its treatment preparatory to manufacturng it 
into piaster : Constructed in co-operation with the U. S. 
Gypsum Co. 5. (R.) *Model of Trinidad Pitch Lake, gift 
of the Barber Asphalt Pavinig Co.; 6. (L.) Idealized Indus- 
trial 'Site, illustrating the close relation among chemical indus- 
tries. The intermediate plant forms the connecting link 
between the products of sulphur, coal, air, salt, etc., and 
medicines, flavors, perfumes, dyes, war-gasses and explosives. 

South Wing: Flail of Textiles. A. Cotton: Central 
Aisle, W. side (first four cases) : a. Manufacture of cotton 
thread ; West Wall cases : b. Cotton ginning ; c. Cotton spin- 
ning; d. Cotton wash fabrics; e. Cotton flannels; f. Hand- 
block painted chintz ; ^Shakespeare Cretonne, the design con- 
taining 69 English flowers mentioned in Shakespeare's plays 
and poems ; g. Roll printed cotton draperies. 

B. Wool Textiles : Central Aisle, W. side (5th case et 
seq.) ; a. The crude wool; h. Carding and spinning; c. Manu- 



OLD NATIONAL MUSEUM 335 

facture of worsted yarn ; d. Woolen dress goods ; cashmere, 
batiste, voile, challie, etc. ; e. Dress Goods, continued: prunella, 
serge, taffeta, ratine; f. Shetland, chevioit, zibeline, chinchilla, 
g. United States Flag made of Panama cloth, h. Steps in 
production of carded woolen fabrics ; i. Specimens of carded 
woolen fabrics; j. Spray printing; Fabrics decorated with 
the airbrush ; k. Fabrics decorated by roller printing ; 1. 
Tying and dyeing; m. Wax-resist dyeing; Batik work. 

C. Silk Textiles : Central Aisle, E. side cases : a. Life 
history of the silk worm; b. Sericulture as practiced in Japan; 
c. Raw silk; d. Spun silk, showing the manufacture of thread 
from waste silk; e. Cartridge cloth (i. e. spun-silk fabrics 
used for bags to hold charge of smokeless powder for large 
guns); f. Piece-dyed silk stuffs; g. Dress and lining satins; 
h. Skein-dyed silks, Scotch plaids ; i. Warp printing (the 
pattern is printed on the warp threads, before weaving) ; 
j. and following cases : Taffeta silks, novelty silks, necktie 
silks, veilings, etc. 

D. East Wall cases (temporary installation, 1922) ; Col- 
lection of looms and household implements for spinning, reel- 
ing and winding; carding machines, etc. 

South Range, Eastern Section: Textiles, continued. Cen- 
tral Cases : silk pile fabrics for wraps, trimmings and uphol- 
stery ; textile fur fabrics ; crepe-finish cotton cloth ; drapery 
and upholstery fabrics ; cotton pile fabrics ; crepe dress goods 
(all cotton, cotton and silk, all wool). These exhibits are 
mainly presented by American manufacturers, whose names 
are on the cases. 

Wall Cases : Japanese silk fabrics ; moire silks, etc. ; note 
especially case at S. E. cor. : *Handicraft work of the Blind ; 
also E. Wall Case : *Chinese embroideries, including brocaded 
robe made for the Emperor Hsin Fung, and taken from the 
Yuen-Ming-Yuen, when that Palace was destroyed by fire in 
i860, by order of the English and French allies. 

Southeast Pavilion : Wood Technology : The S. and E. 
Walls are devoted to specimens of industrial woods in form 
of polished slabs and planks. Around the balcony railing are 
a series of pictures in color showing : A. Scenes in Govern- 
ment Forest Reservations ; B. Typical stages in Lumbering ; 
C. Forest Industries. 

The Central Exhibits include: 1. Large model, 16x16 
ft., showing how the National Forests are administered and 
used ; the model shows bridges, forest . homestead, grazing 
cattle, hydro'-electric power development, summer resorts, etc. 



336 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

2. Model showing Turpentine Orcharding and manufacture 
of gum spirits (Southern Yelilow Pine region). 3-7. Cases 
showing progressive steps in the manufacture of the golf 
driver, electric sadiron handle, cedar cigar box, baseball bat, 
tennis racquet, bowling ball and tenpin. 8. Large model show- 
ing a typical lumber treating process. 9* Large section of 
heavy oak beam taken from roof of Westminster Hall during 
recent repairs. 

The roof was built under the orders of Richard II in 1399, and the 
oak timbers used (allowing for age of tree) must be at least 1000 years 
old. The section, presented to the Museum by the British Government 
exemplifies the durability of British oak, and the beauty of the old 
craftsman's work. 

East Range, South Section : Contains exhibits illustrat- 
ing the development of scientific and industrial instruments : 
Sextants and compasses ; calculating machines ; telescopes and 
microscopes ; galvanometers ; standards of weights and 
measures ; typewriting machines ; telegraph and telephone 
instruments ; gramophones ; clocks, watches, etc. 

East Wing: Exhibits showing the Evolution of the Rail- 
way Track; development of the bicycle; early specimens of 
the gasoline automobile, etc. 

The Central Exhibits include : Cylinder of the Horn- 
blower engine, the first engine on the western continent, im- 
ported from England in 1753; the "Stourbridge Lion," built 
in 1828 for the D. & H. Canal Co. It was the first locomo- 
tive in the western hemisphere to run upon a railway built 
for traffic. A placard records that on Aug. 18th, 1829, it 
was first run on a section of the Delaware and Hudson Canal 
Company's road "with good speed, around a curve and across 
the bridge and up the railroad for about a mile and a half." 
Diagonally opposite stands another locomotive, the John Bull, 
built in 183 1 by John Stevenson, Newcastle-on-Tyne. It is 
the oldest complete locomotive now existing in America. 

Northeast Pavilion: This Hall, reached from E. Wing, 
is devoted chiefly to a collection of armor and arms; rifles, 
revolvers, muskets, etc. 

East Range, North Section: History of Water Trans- 
portation : "Water craft of the world, from the raft to the 
full-rigo-ed ship." Above the S. entrance door are four 
bronze busts of pioneers among American shipbuilders : a. 
John Stevens, builder of the first twin-screwed steamboat; 
b. John Ericsson, inventor of the Monitor; c. Robert Fulton, 
builder of the Clermont; d. Charles H. Haswell, First Engi- 
neer-in-Chief, U. S. N. 



OLD NATIONAL MUSEUM 337 

The visitor's eye is first caught by the important collection 
of Indian Canoes suspended from the ceiling and walls, 
including a *Giant Dugout War Canoe, Vancouver Islands 
(1876); a three-seat skin boat or Bidarka, Aleutian Islands 
(1885) ; and a two-seated Bidarka from Unalaska (1889). 

In the Central Cases (W. side) are models of various 
steamships and sailing vessels, including (W. side) steamship 
Philadelphia (1889); Full-rigged Merchant Ship; model of 
Viking Ship; (E. side) Cutter Yacht, English type (1884) ; 
Hendrik Hudson's Half Moon; Columbus' Santa Maria, 
Susan Constant, of the Jamestown Colony; steamship Savan- 
nah (1819), the first steamship to cross the Atlantic (Savan- 
nah to Liverpool, May 22d-June 20th) ; steamship R. F. 
Stockton (1839), first vessel with screw propeller and iron 
hull to cross the Atlantic (machinery designed by Ericsson) ; 
models of the Monitor and of the Mcrrimac, etc. 

Wall Cases : These contain a bewildering collection of 
models of ancient and modern water craft of both hemi- 
spheres. To the American the most interesting part of the 
display is in the Western Wall Cases (acquired chiefly 
through the U. S. Fish Commission). It consists of repro- 
ductions, many of them of painstaking accuracy, of American 
sailing vessels, fish schooners, lobster trawlers, etc. (over 75 
specimens), showing the history of the American sailing 
vessel ; while in most cases the name of the particular boat 
from which the model was made and some details of her 
histor- are given. 

North Range, East Section: This hall is occupied mainly 
by collections of hand-made laces and "Arts of the Thread" 
(26 cases) ; brocades and various embroideries, fancy work- 
bags, etc. (in wall cases) ; fans (four table-cases) ; also a loan 
exhibit of Limoges enamels (table-cases in S. W. cor.). A 
recent installment is a selection of rare Oriental rugs, from 
the collection of "A Connoisseur of Washington." 

Gallery Floor: The Galleries in this Museum encircle 
the four Pavilions and the W., S. and E. Wings, and are so 
connected that they may all be seen consecutively without 
descending to the ground floor, provided the visitor begins 
with either the N. E. or N. W. Pavilion. The stairways are 
reached from the Rotunda at the corners of the E. and W. 
Wings. 

Northwest Pavilion Gallery: The History and evolution 
of Photography: 1. First permanent heliograph by "asphalt 
process," made by Joseph N. Niepce, 1824; 2. The Daguerre- 
otype, invented by N. J. M. Daguerre, 1839; 3. Calotype, in- 



338 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

vented by Henry Fox Talbot (considered one of the most 
important steps in photography, as it includes the photographic 
negative) ; 4. The Stereoscope and Stereoscopic photographs. 
Note *Stereoscopic portraits of Maj.-Gens. W. T. Sherman, 
James B. McPherson, Franz Siegel, N. P. Banks, A. E. Burn- 
side, etc.; 5. Ambrotype; 6. The plain Silver Print (Crystal- 
otype) ; 7. The Albumen Silver Print (wet collodion nega- 
tive) ; 8. Carbon Printing; 9. Platinotype, invented 1873; 10. 
Development of the Photographic camera. This collection 
comprises a series of some 250 pieces of apparatus dating 
from the introduction of Frederick Scott Archer's Collodion 
wet-plate process, 1852, and includes most of the important 
improvements up to -the present time; 11. Motion Pictures, 
represented 'by a large number of prints and some apparatus 
used by Muybridge, the pioneer in motion picture art : also 
a series of Jenkins early motion picture models ; 12. Collec- 
tion of pictorial photographic specimens by H. P. Robinson, 
Frederick Hollyer, etc.; 13. Printing by development; rep- 
resenting various "gas-light papers"; 14. Photography in 
Astronomical work; 15. X-Ray Photography; 16. The 
Photomicrograph. 

West Wing Gallery: Collections illustrative of the 
Rites and Development of the Great Historic Religions : 
Judaism, Buddhism, Brahmanism, Shintoism and the Rus- 
sian and Roman Catholic Churches. 

Southwest Pavilion Gallery: Industrial Arts: Feathers 
and f eather-work ; sealing wax and glues; brushes and bris- 
tles ; leather and leather-work, including gloves and shoes ; 
feather-bone and whale-bone ; carved horn, including moun- 
tain sheep and rhinoceros horn; tortoise shell; mother-of- 
pearl work, including buttons ; carved teeth and tusks, includ- 
ing alligator, walrus and mammoth ivory. 

South Wing Gallery: Industrial Arts continued: Exhi- 
bition illustrating the manufacture of felt hats; exhibition of 
various textile materials and fabrics, including raffia, palm 
fibre, pineapple fibre and banana fibre; collection of straw 
and other braids; exhibition of Japanese textiles, cotton cord 
and rope; more textiles, including bark-cloth, crude bast, 
jute, and several cases of hemp, including Japanese, Span^h, 
Italian and native Kentucky species. 



THE FREER GALLERY 339 

Northeast Pavilion Gallery: Ceramics: Aboriginal Pot- 
tery, Native tribes of North America ; Spanish-American and 
Portuguese-American Wares ; Pottery and porcelain of the 
United States; English pottery and porcelain, including 
Wedgewood ; French pottery and porcelain, including Sevres ; 
Holland Old Blue and Polychrome, Delft and Amstel; Span- 
ish and Hispano-muresque pottery ; *African ceramic work 
(Moorish); Siamese brass repousse and enamel; Korean 
mortuary pottery and ceremonial vessels from graves (nth 
Century A. D. and earlier) ; Japanese pottery and porcelain, 
bronzes and lacquer ware; Silver and gilt work from the 
Philippine Islands. 

V. The Smithsonian Institution — The Freer Gallery 

The "Freer Gallery of Art (PL I— B-4), at the S. W. 
cor. of the Smithsonian Grounds, is, together with the collec- 
tion which it houses, the gift of Charles L. Freer of Detroit, 
Mich., who during his lifetime generously erected the Gallery 
at a cost of $1,200,000, and left by will an endowment of some 
$2,000,000, the income of which provides a fund for purchases 
of works by American and Oriental artists. Mr. Freer died 
Sept. 25, 1919, and the entire Freer Collection was received in 
November of the following year. Since it was found that 
visitors seriously interrupted the task of unpacking and dis- 
tributing the exhibits, the Freer Building has been closed 
to visitors during the work of installation. 

The Freer Building, designed by Charles A. Piatt, is 
a rectangular structure of gray Milford (Mass.) granite, on 
the Italian Renaissance order, measuring 228 ft. in length by 
185 ft. in depth, and consisting of a high basement surmounted 
by a single main story, divided into 19 exhibition halls of 
various dimensions, surrounding a central open court approxi- 
mately 60 ft. square, exclusive of surrounding loggias. This 
court is of Tennessee marble. The basement contains in ad- 
dition to the Administrative Offices, an Auditorium, a series 
of study rooms and ample storage space for such portions of 
the collection as will not be placed on public view. Through- 
out the main story, on which the works of art will be 
exhibited, the floors', of both galleries and corridors are 
entirely of marble and tarazzo. The Curator is Mr. J. E. 
Lodge, of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. 

History. In Dec. 1904 Mr. Freer offered to bequeath or make 
present conveyance of his collection, either to the United States Gov- 
ernment or to the Smithsonian, under certain specified conditions. The 
story goes that Prsident Roosevelt, learning indirectly of this generous 



340 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

offer, insisted upon having it looked into, and thus saved to the Nation 
a unique collection which seemed then on the point of being lost. 

The conditions under which Mr. Freer's offer was finally accepted 
by the Board of Regents, Jan. 24, 1906, were in part as follows: 
That the collections and building should always bear the donor's 
name "in some modest and appropriate form"; that no addition or 
deduction should' be made after the donor's death, and nothing else 
ever be exhibited with these collections or in the same building, and 
no charge ever made for admission; that the building its.elf should be 
arranged with special regard for the convenience of students, and a 
suitable space provided, in which the famous Peacock Room, made by 
Whistler for the shipbuilder Leyland, should be re-erected complete; 
that the collection should remain' in Mr. Freer's possession during life, 
and subsequently in possession of his executors until completion of the 
building. Mr. Freer afterwards modified some of these conditions, 
and decided upon an. early erection of the building and transfer of the 
collection to Washington. War conditions, however, delayed the work, 
and he died before seeing his project fully realized. 

The principal entrance to the Freer Gallery is through a 
loggia and vestibule opening upon a large square hall. 
On R. and L. of entrance, are coat rooms. The corridor 
which divides this hall from the inner open-air court leads 
on R. to four rooms devoted to paintings ,by American artists 
three being assigned respectively to works by Thomas W. 
Dewing, Divight W. Try on and Abbott H. Thayer, while the 
fourth contains a miscellaneous collection. The galleries on 
the further side of the building, five in number, are devoted 
wholly to the works of Whistler, the one at the extreme left 
corner containing the famous Peacock Room. All the re- 
maining galleries on the exhibition floor are devoted to works 
of Oriental Art, the Chinese, Persian and Lydian exhibits 
being assigned to the rooms on the L. side, and the Japanese 
on the R. side of the central court. 

Each of the exhibition galleries has its own separate 
skylight, and all these rooms have purposely been made 
small in order that the light shall fall upon the walls at a 
proper angle. Equally careful attention has been given to 
regulation of temperature. The Freer collection contains many 
Oriental objects which might suffer injury from too dry an 
atmosphere. Accordingly, devices have been installed to 
furnish the requisite moisture whenever the air becomes too 
dry. 

Since it is impossible, at the present stage of installation 
(1922), to give even approximately a summary of the con- 
tents of the separate rooms, the following general statement 
of the scope of the Freer Collection is here given for informa- 
tion of visitors, in the event of the unforeseen early opening 
of the Museum. 



THE FREER GALLERY 341 

American Paintings, Drawings, etc. Thomas Wilmcr Dewing (1851- ): 
1. Portrait of a Young Girl; 2. The Piano; 3. The Blue Dress; 
4. After Sunset; 5. The Carnation; 6. Early Portrait of the Artist's 
Daughter; 7. Before Sunrise: 8. Portrait in Bhie; 9. Study of a Woman 
Seated; 10. Gir] with Lute; 11. Mandolin: 12. La Comedienne; 13. The 
Mirror; 14. Yellow Tulips; 15. Lady Playing the Violoncello; 16. The 
Garland; 17. In White; 18. The Lute; 19. The Four Sylvan Sounds 
(painted on wooden screens); 20-22. Portraits, including one of -the 
artist; also 9 pastels and 3 silver points. Childe Hassam (1859- ), 
The Chinese Merchants; Winslow Homer (1836- 19 10), Early Evening; 
also 3 water colors - Gari Melchers (i860- ), Portrait of President 
Roosevelt; John S. Sargent (1856- ): 1. Landscape with Goats; 2. The 
Weavers; Joseph Lindon Smith (1863- ): 1. Priestess from Ankor-Wat, 
Cambodia; 2. Seated Buddha, from monument of Boro-Boedor, Java; 
Abbott II. Thayer (1849-1921): 1. Head; 2. The Virgin; 3. Diana; 4. 
Sketch of Cornish Head'ands; 5. Capri; 6. Monadnock in Winter; 7. 
Monadnock No. 2; 8. Winged Figure; 9-1 1. Three Portraits, including 
artist's Fun and eldest daughter; Dvright IV. Tryon (1849- ) : I. A 
Lighted Village - 2. Moonlight; 3. The Rising Moon — Autumn; 4. Sea — 
Sunset; 5. Twilight — Early Spring; 6. Springtime; 7. Daybreak — May; 
8. Sunrise — April; 9. New England Hills; 10. Twilight — May; 11. 
Evening Star; 12. Morning; 13. Sea — Night; 14. Sea — Morning; 15. 
Springtime; 16. Summer; 17. Autumn; 18. Winter; 19. Dawn; 20. The 
Sea — Evening; 21. April Morning; 22. October; 23. Autumn Day; 

24. Night; 25. Autumn Morning; 26. Twilight — Autumn; 27. Evening — 
September; 28. Twilight — November; 29. Autumn Evening; 30. Morning 
Mist; also 2 water colors and 16 pastels.: John Henry Twachtman 
(1853-1902): 1. Drying Sails; 2. The Hidden Pool. 

The chief feature, however, of the American Art Collec- 
tion is comprised in the 1200 examples of the work of James 
McNeill Whistler (1834- 1903), including oils, water colors, 
etchings and lithographs. The following is a list of the oil 
paintings, with a brief summary of the other works. 

Oil Paintings. 1. Portrait Sketch of Mr. Whistler; 2. Portrait of 
Major Whistler; 3. Portrait of F. R. Leyland; 4. Rose and Silver — La 
Princesse du Pays de la Porcelaine; 5. Jeune Ferame Dite L'Americaine 
— Arrangement in Black and White No. 1; 6. Nocturne: Southampton; 
7. Nocturne: Blue and Silver — Bognor; 8. Nocturne: Blue and Silver — - 
Batter-ea Beach; 9. Nocturne: Blue and Silver — Chelsea Embankment; 
10. Symphony in Gray — 'Early Morning, Thames; 11. Nocturne: Opal 
and Silver; 12. The Thames in Ice; 13. Blue and Silver — Trouville; 14. 
Variations in Pink and Gray — Chelsea; 15. Variations in Flesh Color 
and Green — The Balcony; 16. Harmon v in Purple and Gold, No. 2 — 
The Golden Screen; 17. The Little Blue'and Gold Girl; 18. Venus Rising 
from the Sea; 19. Venus; 20. Symphony in Green and Violet; 21. The 
White Symphony — Three Girls; 22. Symphony in White and Red; 23. 
Variations in Blue and Green; 24. Symphony in Blue and Pink; 

25. Rose and Gold — The Little Lady Sophie of Soho; 26. The 
Little Red Glove (unfinished); 2~. Rose and Brown — La Cigale; 
28. An Orange Note 1 — 'Sweetshop; 29. A Note in Blue and 
(pal — 'The Sun Cloud; 30. Vert et Or — Le Raconteur; 31. Petite 
Mephiste; 32. Green and Gold — The Great Sea; 33. The Little 
Nurse; 34. The Angry Sea; 35. The Summer Sea; 36. Blue and Silver — 
Boat Entering Pourville; 37. Gray and Gold — High Tide at Pourville; 
38. The Butcher Shop; 39. The Gray House; 40. Purple and Gold — 
Phryne, the Superb, Builder of Temples; 41. Chelsea Shops: 42. Blue 
and Gray — Unloading; 43. The Sea and Sand; 44. Harmony in Brown 
and Gold— Old Chelsea Church; 45. Blue and Green— The Coal Shaft; 



342 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

46. The White House; 47. Wortley — Note in Green; 48. Low Tide; 49. A 
N'ote in Red; 50. A Portrait; 51. Devonshire Landscape; 52. Little 
Green Cap; 53. Yellow and Blue; 54. Purple and Blue; 55. Trafalgar 
Square — Chelsea; 56. Portrait of Stevie Manuel; 57. Nocturne: Blue 
and Gold — 'Valparaiso! ; 58. The Little Faustina (unfinished) ; 59. Gray 
and Silver — The Life Boat; 60. Gold and Orange — The Neighbors; 61. 
The Little Red Note; 62. The Sad Sea — Dieppe; 63. The Music Room. 

Water Colors, Pastels, Drawings, etc. The Whistler Collection 
includes, in addition to the Oil Paintings, 47 Water Colors; 40 Pastels; 
117 Drawings and Sketches; three Wood Engravings; 683 Etchings 
which include several impressions of some of the plates; 194 Lithographs; 
38 Original Copper Plates; and *The Peacock Room, Whistler's famous 
creation for the London residence df thej latd F. R. Leyland, including 
complete woodwork and all decorations. 

The Oriental Collections, comprising the second and far 
larger portions of the exhibits, embraces a dozen different 
divisions of Eastern Arts and Crafts : 

Babylonian: Bronze metal work, one exhibit; Byzantine: Crystal, 1; 
manuscripts, 29; gold metal work, 8; paintings, etc.j 10: Cambodian: 
ivory, 6; bronzes, 4; Chinese: furniture, 22; glass, 14; jade, etc., 503; 
lacquer, 17; bronze and othef metal work, 725; paintings, 1255; pottery, 
481; sculpture, 196; textiles, 183; Cypriote: 2 exhibits; Egyptian: glass, 
1 39 1 ; pottery, 254; sculpture. 40; Greek: 3 exhibits; Japanese: lacquer, 
29; metal work, 47; paintings, 804; pottery, 821; sculptures, 63 textiles, 
79; Corean: metal work, 197; pottery, 229; sculptures, 14; East Indian: 
metal work, 22; paintings, 139; pottery, 317; Palmyran: 1 sculpture; 
Tibetan: 13 paintings. 

VI. The Washington Monument 

The **JVashington Monument (PL II — D-6), stands in the 
center of a gently sloping mound, a little S. E. of the point 
where the central axes of the Executive Grounds and the Mall 
would intersect at right angles. The surrounding area, com- 
prising about 41 acres, is known officially as Washington Park. 

History. At the close of the Revolutionary War, in 1783, 
an Equestrian Statue of Washington was authorized by the 
Continental Congress, and the American Minister to France 
was directed to order it. The plan, however, was held in 
abeyance through lack of funds. Nevertheless, the present 
site of the Monument was designated for the statue on 
L'Enfant's plan of the city, and approved by Washington 
himself. On Dec. 24th, 1799, within the week following 
Washington's funeral, Congress passed a resolution to the 
effect, "That a marble monument be erected by the United 
States at the City of Washington, and that the family of 
General Washington be requested to permit his body to be 
deposited under it." In 1800 the House of Representatives 
appropriated $100,000, and again in 1 801, $200,000, for the 
purpose of "creating a Mausoleum," but both bills were de- 
feated through Senate amendments and other technicalities. 



THE WASHINGTON MONUMENT 343 

In 1816 the scheme of removing Washington's remains to 
the Capitol was revived, but when Mr. Bushrod Washington, 
then the owner of Mt. Vernon, was approached by the com- 
mittee in charge he emphatically refused: and when the 
proposition was renewed in 1832, to Mr. John Augustine 
Washington, he was equally definite in his refusal 1 . 

The scheme of a National Tomb having been disposed of, 
an organization was formed in 1833, entitled "The Washing- 
ton National Monument Society." Chief Justice John Mar- 
shall was the society's president, and George Watterston, 
the prime mover in its formation, was Secretary. Mrs. James 
Madison, Mrs. John Quincy Adams and Mrs. Alexander Ham- 
ilton were among those appointed to receive contributions. 

The plans accepted were by Robert Mills, for over twenty 
years architect to the Government. They included a grand 
colonnade or Pantheon, 250 ft. in diameter and 100 ft. high; 
above the portico was to be a colossal statue of Washington, 
30 ft. high, in a chariot drawn by six horses and driven by 
Victory. The interior or Rotunda was to be ornamented 
with statues of the Signers of the Declaration of Independence 
set in niches ; and upon the wall above the niches the prin- 
ciple battles of the Revolution were to be represented in bas- 
relief. From the center of the whole structure was to arise 
a marble shaft 600 ft. in height. With the exception of this 
shaft, all the features of Mills' plans were subsequently 
abandoned. 

The corner-stone of the monument was laid July 4th, 1848, 
with Masonic ceremonies, in the presence of the President 
and Vice-President of the United States, and both Houses 
of Congress. The Grand Master wore the apron and used 
the trowel with which Washington laid the corner-stone of 
the Capitol (pp. 518 and 519). The stone weighed 12 tons, and 
contained a large zinc-lin,ed cavity in which were placed about 
100 articles, including books, portraits, maps, newspapers, 
coins, medals, Masonic records and the architect's design for 
the monument. The address was delivered by Robert C. 
Winthrop, then Speaker of the House. 

In 1854 the shaft had reached the height of 150 ft. An 
addition of four feet exhausted the Society's funds. Congress 
was appealed to for appropriations ; but owing to political 
complications the monument remained at a standstill until 1878. 

When the plan to complete the monument was definitely 
revived, a committee, appointed to investigate the foundations, 
reported that they were of insufficient spread and depth to 
sustain the weight of the completed shaft, but expressed their 



344 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

belief that it was feasible to strengthen them without disturb- 
ing the superstructure. 

The task of reinforcing the foundation and completing 
the monument was entrusted to Gen. Thomas L. Casey, Chief 
of Engineers, U. S. A. The work of excavating beneath 
the monument was begun Jan. p8th, 1879, and the new foun- 
dation finished May 29th, 1880, at a cost of $94,474. The 
building of the monument was then resumed largely through 
appropriations by Congress. The capstone of the pyramid 
was placed in position Dec. 6th, 1884, and the finished monu- 
ment was dedicated Feb. 21st, 1885, on which occasion the 
oration was delivered by the venerable Robert C. Winthrop, 
who had delivered the address at the laying of the corner- 
stone 2>7 years earlier. The total cost was $1,187,710.31, of 
which only about $300,000 was raised by individual subscrip- 
tions. 

Description. The Monument is a shaft, the proportions 
of which follow the ratio dimensions of ancient Egyptian 
obelisks. The taper of the shaft is J4 in. to the foot; the 
base is 55 sq. ft. ; the height, measured from above the door- 
sill, is 555 ft. s l A in. The walls are 15 ft. thick at the base 
and taper to 18 in. at the 500-foot elevation, where the 
pyramidal top begins. It is estimated that the total number 
of stones used in building the monument is approximately 
23,000; that "the weight of the whole monument is slightly 
over 8i,oda tons, and the mean pressure on the base is 5 tons 
to the square foot. 

The materials used in building the monument are : for 
the enlarged foundation, solid blue rock forming a square 
1265^2 ft, with a depth of 38 ft., and an area of approxi- 
mately 16,000 sq. ft. ; for the outer facing of the walls, pure 
white marble from Baltimore Co., Maryland ; the inside of 
the walls in the older section (first 10 ft. above base) is of 
blue granite, not laid in courses. Above this point the in- 
terior backing consists of regular courses of New England 
granite, corresponding with the courses of marble on the 
outside. The pyramidon forming the last 55 ft. of the monu- 
ment is built wholly of marble. The topmost stone of the 
pyramidon, weighing 3300 pounds, is approximately 4^2 ft. 
high, with a 3-foot base tapering to 5 in. in diameter at the 
top, where the aluminum cap fits on. This aluminum cap, 
chosen because it will not tarnish, is 9 in. in height and 
weighs 100 ounces. 

The monument is open from 8:30 A. M. to 4:50 P. M. 
The elevator (free) starts at 9 a. m., ascending every half 



THE WASHINGTON MONUMENT 345 

hour ; last trip 4 P. M. It has a maximum capacity of 35 
passengers, but the rules allow only 30. The official time 
of ascent to the 500-foot level is 5 minutes. Usually it takes 
slightly longer. The elevator waits 15 minutes. 

The ascent may also be made by stairs (898), built be- 
tween the walls and the elevator shaft, and broken at 10 ft. 
intervals by platforms situated alternately on E. and W. 
The interior of the shaft below the pyramidon is windowless ; 
but it is well lighted by electricity, enabling the visitor to 
study the inscriptions on the various *Memorial Stones built 
into the walls. These stones, 177 in number, have come 
from most diverse sources ; including 40 states and 16 cities ; 
various foreign governments; 15 lodges of Free Masons; 13 
of Odd Fellows; 7 of Sons of Temperance; and numerous 
other organizations, some of them long since forgotten. 
These stones begin at the 1st landing (30 ft.) and end at the 
31st (330 ft.), or somewhat more than halfway to the top. 
Few visitors care to take this climb; but many, after as- 
cending by elevator, prefer to walk down. Accordingly, the 
following abbreviated list of the more interesting stones is 
given in inverse or descending order. 

31st Landing (330 ft.) : Marble block inscribed "Top of 
Statue on Capitol"; 26th Landing (280 ft.): Bas-relief bust 
of Shakespeare, with inscription "All that live must die," a 
"tribute of respect from the Ladies and Gentlemen of the 
Dramatic Profession of America" ; From the citizens of Alex- 
andria, Va., "The descendants of the friends and neighbors 
of Washington" ; 25th Landing : Stone from Alexandrian 
Library, Egypt ; 22d Landing : Braddock's Field ; Battle 
Ground, Long Island; Wales (note W r elsh inscription); 21st 
Landing : Kentucky ; Tennessee ; 20th Landing : Chinese and 
Japanese Memorial Stones, with inscriptions; Minnesota; 
Montana ; Nebraska ; Nevada ; Oregon ; Wyoming ; also 
"Cherokee Nation, 1850" ; 10th Landing : Michigan ; Kansas ; 
18th Landing: West Virginia; City of Richmond, Va. ; 
17th Landing: Switzerland; Greece; Siam ; Brazil; Turkey; 
16th Landing: Pennsylvania; City of Philadelphia; 15th 
Landing : Vermont ; Boston ; Bunker Hill Battle Ground ; 
14th Landing: New York; 12th Landing: Otter's Summit, 
Virginia's highest peak; nth Landing: City of New York; 
10th Landing: California; 9th Landing: Iowa; 8th Land- 
ing : Rhode Island ; North Carolina ; Wisconsin ; 7th Land- 
ing: Mississippi; Missouri; Ohio; 6th Landing: Maryland; 
Virginia; "The city of Washington to its founder"; 5th 
Landing: Connecticut; Massachusetts; New Jersey; 4th 



346 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

Landing: New Hampshire; South Carolina; 3d Landing: 
Georgia ; Illinois ; Indiana ; 2d Landing : Alabama ; Louis- 
iana; 1st Landing: Delaware; Maine; Stone presented by 
George Watterston, Sec. of The Washington National Manu- 
ment Society. 

Under the) new plans of the Park Commission for improvement of 
the Mall, not only has the main E. and W. axis been shifted southward 
(p. 240) so as to pass through the center of the Washington Monument, 
but plans have also been made for radical changes in the surrounding 
grounds of Washington Park, converting the present mound into a 
level plane. "This plane, as extensive' as the Piazza in front of St. 
Peter's at Rome, will be flanked' by elms carried on terraces. Broad 
marble steps on the western side lead down to a formal garden, enclosed 
by wooded terraces; and from this garden the( broad opening leads to a 
long level, tree-bordered, as at Versailles." — Charles Moore, "Daniel 
H. Bumham." 

A complete Guide to the Monument, including the me- 
morial stones and translations of the foreign inscriptions, is 
on sale at the summit, price 25c. 

Navy and Munitions Buildings (PI. II — B-6), these two 
buildings, demanded by the imperative need of increased space 
for the vast activities of the World War, are situated in the 
grounds of Potomac Park, fronting on the S. side of B St., 
and extending approximately from 17th to 21st St. The two 
buildings are similar in design and construction, being three- 
story concrete-covered frame buildings of the so-called "ten- 
year" type; both consist of a "head house" extending along the 
street front, with a series of wings projecting southward into 
the Park. The dimensions of the Navy Department building 
are: Head house, 860 ft. long, with 9 wings, 60 ft. wide by 
500 ft. deep ; while the Munitions Building of the War 
Department is slightly smaller : Head house, 784 ft. long, 
with only 8 wings of same dimensions as the other building. 
The two structures are united by a covered bridge, spanning 
19th St. 

Taken together these buildings exceed in volume and floor space 
any other office building in the world. The total floor area is estimated 
at more than 40 acres, or approximately 1,800,000 sq. ft. A complete 
circuit of the exterior walls, including all the wings, is about 4 miles. 
Both buildings were erected under a single contract at a speed of con- 
struction that established a new record. The contract was let Feb. 25, 
19 18; the buildings were completed and occupied the first week of the 
following Oct. Cost of Navy Building, $3,292,145; Munitions Building, 
$2,926,351. 

The Navy Department Building now houses the offices 
of the Secretary of the Navy, and, with few exceptions, all 
the important Bureaus of the Department, the whole organiza- 
tion having moved down bodjiy from the old State, War and 



THE WASHINGTON MONUMENT 347 

Navy Building (p. 126), where nothing of this Department now 
remains excepting the Naval Library. The new building also 
contains the offices of the United States Shipping Board, the 
Emergency Fleet Corporation and the National Advisory Com- 
miittee for Aeronautics. 

The building contains a collection of models of famous 
war ships, and portraits of former Secretaries of the Navy, 
arranged in the central portion o<f main hallway, on second 
and third floors. Open to the public week days, from 9 A. M. 
to 2 P. M. 

The main entrance faces 18th St. The portraits of 
Secretaries begin above first landing of W. stairway : 

West Wall, above stairs (S. to N.) : Benjamin F. Tracy. 
Sec. of Navy, 1889-93, by C. Whipple; William A. Graham, 
Sec. of Navy, 1850-52; George E. Badger, Sec. of Navv\ 
1841. 

Second Floor, Main Hallway, South Wall (W. to E.) : 
Isaac Toucey, Sec. of Navy, 1857-61 ; James C. Dobbin, Sec. 
of Navy, 1853-57; Adolph E. Borie, Sec. of Navy, March- 
June 1869; John Branch, Sec. of Navy, 1829-31; George 
Cabot, First Secretary of the Navy, appointed May 3, 1798; 
John P. Kennedy, Sec. of Navy, 1852-53 ; Robert Smith, 
Sec. of Navy, 1801-5 ; Richard W. Thompson, Sec. of Navv, 
1877-80; William H. Hunt, Sec. of Navy, 1881-82, by E. F. 
Andrews; Levi Woodbury, Sec. of Navy, 1831-34. 

East Wall (above ascending stairs) : John Y.- Mason, 
Sec. of Navy, 1844-45 and 1846-49; Jaul Morton, Sec. of 
Navy, 1904-05; (above descending stairs): George Bancroft, 
Sec. of Navy, 1845-46; Hilary Herbert, Sec. of Navy, 1893- 
97- 

North Wall (E. to W.) : Josephus Daniels, Sec. of Navy, 
1913-21, by R. S. Meryman; Charles A. Bonaparte, Sec. of 
Navy, 1905-6; Bronze bust of Christopher Columbus, taken 
from Spanish Cruiser Cristobal Colon, sunk July 3, 1898, in 
naval engagement off Santiago de Cuba. The attached bronze 
taJblet is made of metal from wreck of Spanish Cruiser Maria 
Teresa. On the same wall is the tattered remnant of flag 
from submarine F-4, sunk March 25, 1915, at Honolulu, and 
raised the following August. On table cases in this Hall are 
seven models of battleships, including the old Kearsarge, the 
South Carolina, the Virginia, the Connecticut and the San 
Diego. 



348 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

In the Third Floor Hallway are 8 more models of 
battleships. 

The adjoining Army Munitions Building contains noth- 
ing of interest to the sightseeing visitor. 

Within the Washington Monument grounds is situated 
the recently established National Sylvan Theatre, an outdoor 
theatre free to the public, and representing the first venture 
of the United States Government into the theatrical field. 
It is due largely to the persistent efforts of Mrs. Christine 
Hemmick of Washington, and was planned and built by Col. 
William W. Harts, out of funds appropriated by Congress 
for the improvement of public buildings and grounds in 
Washington. The theatre, which is scarcely more than a 
grassy platform nestling in a hollow on the S. side of the 
Monument, was opened on June 2d, 1917, with elaborate 
ceremonies, and with a pageant written by Mrs. Hemmick, 
and called "The Drama Triumphant." Among the many 
distinguished performers who volunteered their services 
were : iMme. Louise Homer, John Mason, Otis Skinner, 
James K. Hackett, Viola Allen, Ethel Barrymore, Robert 
Mantell and the Russian dancer, Andres Pavley. 

VII. From the Monument Grounds to the Army- 
War College 

South of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, the great 
mapority of visitors know practically nothing of Washington 
Southwest, with the exception of Potomac Park (see below, 
P- 35 2 )> and the steamship wharves along Washington 
Channel. Yet historically the whole peninsula long known 
as Greenleaf's Point is quite interesting, for it was the 
district which Robert Morris, Thomas Law and their associates 
believed to be the center of future growth; and here were 
erected many of the first blocks of dwellings in the new 
Federal City. 

Southeast of the Monument Grounds, at the S. W. cor. of 
14th and B Sitjs. S. W., is the rectangular brick structure 
which, until 1.914, housed the Bureau of Engraving and 
Printing. It is now the Auditors' Building, and contains the 
offices of the Genera] Supply Committee. 

This Committee, created by Act of June 17, 1910, is composed of 
officers, one from each Executive Department. Its duties are to make 
an annual schedule of supplies for each Department and other Govern- 
ment establishments in Washington, to standardize such supplies and 
solicit bids for them. 



TO THE ARMY WAR COLLEGE 349 

The new *Bureau of Engraving and Printing (PI. Ill — 
F-3 — >No. 12), erected in 1911-14 from plans drawn by W. B. 
Olmstead in the office of the Architect of the Treasury, and 
reputed to be the largest engraving plant in the world, is 
situated on the W. side of 14th St., betw. C and D Sts. It 
consists of a basement, four stories and an attic ; the ground- 
plan is a capital "E," but with four wings instead of three. 
Dimensions: Length of "head-house," 505^ ft.; width, includ- 
ing depth of wings, 295 ^ ft. The main fagade, comprising a 
iSeries of massive stone columns, harmonizes with the classic 
and monumental style prevailing in the other Government 
buildings ; the wings, however, are constructed on modern 
factory lines, and a full 60 per cent of the wall space is 
given to windows. The total floor area is approximately 
476,700 sq. ft. Cost oif building, including ground, $2,869,000. 

This Bureau is a branch of the Treasury Department, and designs, 
engraves and prints all the moneys and securities of the Government 
including: Notes, bonds, certificates, national-bank notes, and Federal 
reserve notes; all Government stamps, including: Postage, internal 
revenue, thrift, war savings and customs stamps; besides various other 
documents such as: Treasury warrants, passports and patent and pension 
certificates. 

Hours. Open to visitors week days, from 9 a. m. to 
11 a. m., and from 1 p. m. to 2:30 p. m. The public is 
not allowed upon the main floor of any of the factory rooms; 
but there are specially constructed mezzanine galleries 
throughout the (building, aggregating 1800 ft. in length, 
through which visitors are taken in parties by an official guide, 
who explains the various processes witnessed. 

The actual work of engraving plates is not shown. But 
all the other processes, from the printing of bank notes on 
a special silk-fibred paper, to the counting, numbering and 
collection into packages of 100 notes each by machinery, may 
alii be witnessed. In another division may be seen the print- 
ing of the familiar postage stamps in daily use, regarding 
which the guide gives plentiful statistics. It is interesting 
to remember that the various issues of Liberty Bonds, includ- 
ing the Victory Loan, were printed in this building. 

Three blocks S., on G St., at No. 926, Alexander R. 
Shepherd, the Governor identified with the period of Wash- 
ington's most extensive improvements^ was born Jan. 31, 1835. 
One block S. on 9th St. brings us to Water St., where we 
pass (at foot of 7th St.) the docks of the Mt. Vernon and 
Marshall Hall Steamboat Co., the Norfolk and Baltimore 
Lines and the Alexandria Ferry. One block E. now brings 
us to 6th St., on which, betw. M and N Sts., is still standing 



350 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

No. 1252, temporarily the home of Thomas Law, who invested 
his fortune in Washington lots, and upon his marriage to 
Elizabeth Parke Custis, granddaughter of Mrs. Washington, 
in 1795, lived here during the completion of his mansion on 
New Jersey Ave. 

Southeast from the Law house, on Four-and-a-half St., 
Nos. 1313-21, is still standing the first range or row built 
in the Federal City, 1793, popularly known as "Wheat Row." 
It was erected by a syndicate consisting of Robert Morris, 
"Financier of the American Revolution," John Nicholson, 
Comptroller General of Pennsylvania and James Greenleaf, 
cue-time American Consul at Amsterdam. This syndicate, 
and Mr. Law and Daniel Carroll of Duddington, built prac- 
tically all the dwellings which were in readiness when the 
seat of Government was transferred to Washington in 1800. 

James Greenleaf, son of the William Greenleaf who read the 
Declaration of Independence from the balcony of the Boston State- 
house, July 18, 1776, came to Washington in 1792, formed a syndicate 
with Robert Morris and' one Cranch, and obtained' control at an aggre- 
gate price of $700,000 of 6000 out of the 10,000 available public lots, 
and 2500 of the second 10,000 allotted to the original proprietors of 
land comprised within the District. As a result of this wholesale specu- 
lation Morris died in a debtor's prison; Branch in secluded poverty, and 
Greenleaf, although eventually released, never wholly succeeded in 
straightening out the tangles of bis indebtedness. 

One Mock S. of 'Wheat Row," on P. St., is the entrance 
to the grounds of the Army War College. 

The Washington Barracks (PI. Ill — G-4), containing the 
Army War College and the Army Engineering School, are 
situated at the extreme southern end of the city, on what 
was formerly known as Greenleaf's Point, at the mouth of the 
Anacostia River. They command a fine view of Washington, 
Georgetown, Alexandria and the Potomac River. The grounds 
form a long narrow quadrangle measuring 3576 ft. from N. to 
S., with an average width of 900 ft., and are bounded on 
the W. by Washington Channel, and on the E. by James's 
Creek Canal. 

History. These grounds were from 1861 to 1881 occupied by the 
Washington Arsenal, constituting one of the principal Arsenals of 
construction in the United States. Its numerous workshops were 
equipped with what were in those days regarded as the most advanced 
type of machinery for manufacturing ordnance stores and equipments. 
There was a Model-Office containing a collection of models of the 
various weapons rsed in this country and in Europe. In front of the 
old Arsenal square were exhibited many trophies captured in battle. 

The chief historic interest, however, of this locality centers in 
the fact that the old Penitentiary was situated here, being used for 
several years, until its removal in 1869, as a storehouse for ordnance 
material. It was in this building that those charged with complicity in 
the murder of President Lincoln were tried and sentenced; and in the 



TO THE ARMY WAR COLLEGE 351 

adjoining yard, at that time enclosed with a high brick wall, Mrs. 
Surratt, Atzeroth, Harold and Payne were hanged, July 9th, 1865. 
The body of John Wilkes Booth was originally buried within the 
Penitentiary; one of the ground floor cells was selected, the ammuni- 
tion removed and a rude grave dug. Here the body lay until its 
removal, many years later, to the family lot near Baltimore. 

The entrance is at the northern end, on F St. On enter- 
ing, the visitor passes between two lines of two-story brick 
buildings, those, on the left containing the offices of the 
Quartermaster, Commissary and Gymnasium. In the rear of 
these buildings, on both sides, are the Mess halls. The cen- 
tral avenue leads directly S. to the spacious parade grounds, 
at the N. end of which, on R. and L., are the Barracks. On 
the W. side of the parade is a row of fifteen spacious houses, 
all substantially alike in colonial style, of red brick with 
porticoes supported by six white pillars, constituting the 
Officers' quarters. The 8th or central house is that of the 
Commanding Officer ; the 7th and 9th are occupied by Field 
Officers. On the opposite or E. side of the parade are ten 
simpler dwellings occupied by the non-Commissioned Officers. 
The large central building is the Engineer School, an insti- 
tution under the supervision and control of the Chief of 
Engineers, U. S. Army. 

History. In 1865, after the close of the Civil War, the battalion 
of engineers was transferred to Willets Point, N. Y. Harbor, and there, 
the following year, an engineer school was established under the 
name of the Engineer School of Application. This school remained 
at Willets Point until October, 1901, when it was transferred to 
Washington Barracks. The object of this school is to give the junior 
officers of the Corps of Engineers a post-graduate course in civil, 
military and electrical and mechanical engineering; to make researches 
in such branches of science as relate to the duties of the Corps, and 
to disseminate the information obtained. 

The Engineer School possesses a library of about 50,000 volumes, 
devoted to technology and military art and science. 

The old Penitentiary was demolished many years ago 
but a few old buildings included in the original group still 
survive forlornly about two-thirds of the way to the S. end 
of the present grounds. At the extreme southern end, facing 
northward, is the Army War College, the corner-stone of 
which was laid with Masonic rites February 21st, 1903. 
Charles F. McKim, architect. 

The Army War College (formerly called General Staff College), 
is one of the general service schools of the Army, and constitutes the 
highest unit in the military educational system. Its object is to train 
selected officers for duty in the War Department General Staff and 
for high command in accordance with the doctrine and methods ap- 
proved by the War Department. 

War Department Library. In 191 7 the library was transferred 
to the Army War College. With the exception of the State Depart- 
ment Library, it is the oldest Government Library in the country, 
having been founded during the occupation of Philadelphia as a 



352 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

temporary National Capital. Its first Washington home was a three- 
story brick building on the site of No. 2148-50 Pennsylvania Ave. 
For more than half a century it was housed in the old "Northwest 
Building," where the State, War and Navy Building now stands. 
During the laist three years of the Civil War 1 the Library was closed, 
its principal room being occupied by the War Department Telegraph 
Division, where Lincoln spent much time awaiting news from the 
front. In 1894 military supervision replaced civilian administration, and 
under Brig. Gen. A. W. Greely modern methods were installed, and 
the whole collection intensified along military lines. Incidentally, 
the priceless collection of Civil War negatives and photographs (in- 
cluding the famous Brady set, which cost the Government $25,000) 
was rescued from imminent destruction and properly classified. 

Resources. The Library possesses upward of 100,000 volumes and 
pamphlets. It is rich in United States documents, having a complete 
'file of original Journals of the Senate and House of Representatives, 
and a practically complete set of Congressional documents and reports 
from the beginning of the Fifteenth Congress; also sets of the Journals 
of the Continental Congress, Proceedings of the Constitutional Con- 
vention, American Archives, Annals of Congress. Congressional Records, 
etc. 

Near the N.W. cor. of the War College formerly stood 
a .bronze statue, heroic size, of Frederick the Great, presented 
to America by the Emperor William II of Germany. It had 
no inscription beyond the name "Friedrich der Grosse," with 
dates, and signature, "T. Uphues, sculptor." In response to 
public sentiment it was removed soon after the entrance of 
America into the World War. 

Potomac Park (PI. Ill — 1F-3), Washington's most avail- 
able playground, is a crescent-shaped body of land, extending 
along the S. W. water front, from B St. N. W. to about a 
thousand feet S. of the War College Grounds. It measures 
approximately 2^ mi. in length, and H mi. average width 
(about 1000 acres, an area slightlv larger than that of Central 
Park, New York City). It consists largely of land reclaimed 
from the Potomac River by dredging, and is divided into 
East and West sections by a large Tidal Reservoir; while 
the East section is separated from the city water front by 
Washington Channel. 

On the bank of the Tidal Basin 1800 Japanese flowering cherry 
trees, the gift of the Mayor of Tokio, were planted in 19 12. An 
Imperial variety of this tree, previously grown only in the Garden 
of the Emperor, was planted that same year by Mrs. Taft. The entire 
park is surrounded by a Speedway of approximately 6 mi. There are 
Golf Courses (p. 28) in both sections of the park, laid out by 
William J. Travers, former golf champion of the United States; also 
a Polo Field W. of the Tidal Basin. Just S. of the Naval Hospital, 
where 25th St. merges into the Speedway, is the site of a large bowlder, 
known as the Key of Keys, where, according to tradition, Sraddock 
landed at the beginning of his expedition to Fort Duquesne in 1755. 

The John Paul Jones Memorial is situated in Potomac 
Park at the foot of the 17th St. driveway. It consists of a 



THE LINCOLN MEMORIAL 353 

marble rectangular pylon of classic design, 15 ft. in height, 
occupying the center of an ornamental fountain and serving 
as a background for a colossal bronze statue of John Paul 
Jones. On the rear facade of the pylon is a large bronze 
bas-relief panel depicting the Commodore in the act of rais- 
ing the American flag on the historic ship, the Bonhomme 
Richard. The statue is 10 ft. in height; the right hand is 
clenched, while the left grasps a sword. For this statue 
Congress appropriated $50,000. C. H. Niehaus, sculptor ; 
Carrere & Hastings, architects. 

Inscriptions. North fagade: "1747-92, 'First to compel a foreign 
Man-of-War to strike colors to the Stars and Stripes.' " South 
fagade: respectively above and below bas-relief panel: 

1. "Surrender? I have not yet begun to fight!" 

2. "In life he honored the flag. In death the flag shall honor 
him." 

John Paul Jones (1747-92), born in Scotland, was, at the age of 
twelve, apprenticed to a shipmaster; at seventeen he had risen to second 
mate; and at twenty-one to sea Captain. His real name was John 
Paul; the "Jones" he assumed after he came to America. In the 
American Revolution he was First Lieutenant at the age of twenty- 
eight; and Captain at twenty-nine. Later, at the age of forty-one, he 
was Rear Admiral in the service of Russia. He died in Paris at the 
age of forty-five and was buried in the St. Louis cemetery for foreign 
Protestants. His remains were brought to America in 1905, and 
reinterred within the grounds of the Naval Academy at Annapolis. 

VIII. The Lincoln Memorial 

**The Lincoln Memorial, erected by the United States 
according to the Act of Congress, approved Feb. 9, 191 1, 
and dedicated with impressive ceremonies May 303, 1922, is 
situated in the western section of Potomac Park, half a 
mile W. of the Washington Monument, on the new main axis 
of the Mall (p. 240) approximately at its intersection with 
the axis of 22d St. W. It is a stately rectangular structure of 
white marble, on the classic order, and stands upon a series 
of terraces which rise 45 ft. above the surrounding grade 
of Potomac Park. The first terrace is circular, 1,0100 ft. in 
diameter, and on its outer edge stand four concentric rows 
of trees, leaving a central plateau 755 ft. in diameter, sup- 
porting a rectangular stone terrace-wall 14 ft. high and 256 
ft. long by 186 ft. wide. Upon this second terrace rise three 
large marble terraces, like a giant stairway, the top level form- 
ing a platform 204 x 134 ft. On this rectangular base rest 
a series of 13 plinths or steps, typifying the original 13 
States ; and crowning these is the Memorial Hall itself. 
attaining a total height of 144 ft. above the park level. 



354 RIDER'S WASHINGTON 

History. The choice of the present site for the Lincoln Memorial 
dates back to 1901 when the Art Commisison's plans for beautifying 
Washington were submitted to the Senate District Committee, and by 
that Committee reported to Congrgess. These plans were professedly 
and actually a reinstatement of the L'Enfant plan of 1792, so enlarged 
as to bring into the arrangement Potomac Park, thus extending the 
main axis for approximately a mile to its meeting with the Potomac, 
and providing for a great Rond Pont, to be surmounted "by a Doric 
structure commemorating the one man in our national history who is 
worthy to stand with Washington." The first practical step toward 
the accomplishment of this plan was when the late Senator Shelby M. 
Cullom introduced in a Senate a bill providing for the erection of the 
Memorial at a cost of $2,000,000. The Commission of Fine Arts re- 
affirmed its choice of site, together with the landscape features of the 
1 90 1 plan, and recommended that Henry Bacon be chosen as architect. 
Recently Mr. Charles Moore recorded in his biography of Daniel H. 
Burnham : 

"The design by Mr. Bacon was adopted by the Lincoln Memorial 
Commission and has been carried out in the most thorough manner. 
. . . The landscape features as planned by the Senate Park Commis- 
sioner in 1 90 1 are being carried out in detail. The only disturbance 
to the plan has been caused by erecting within the area devoted to the 
Memorial a series of factory-like buildings for war purposes — buildings 
which must be removed before the Lincoln Memorial can take its 
rightful place among the monumental structures of all time." 

At the dedication ceremony, on Decoration Day, 1922, the only 
speakers were President Harding, Chief Justice Taft, Edwin Markham 
and Dr. Robert R. Moton, Principal of Tuskogee Institute. In pre- 
senting the Memorial to the President for the American people, Chief 
Justice Taft defined it as: 

'"A shrine at which all can worship, an altar upon which the 
supreme sacrifice was made for liberty; a sacred religious refuge in 
which those who love country and love God can find inspiration and 
repose." 

The Memorial building, constructed throughout of white 
Colorado marble, rests upon a base 188 ft. long, by 118 ft. 
wide, the outer edge of which supports a Doric colonnade of 
36 columns, typifying the states constituting the Union at the 
time of Lincoln's death. This surrounds the wall of the 
Memorial Hall, which rises through and above it; and at the 
top of the wall is a decoration, supported at intervals by 
eagles, and consisting of 48 memorial festoons emblematic 
of the 48 states of to-day. The names of the states and their 
dates of entry are inscribed along the cornice. The Doric 
columns are not monoliths, but composed of 11 drums, each 
of the drums at the base weighing 22 tons. Some idea of 
the huge proportions of the Memorial as a whole can be 
gained from the statement that it is slightly larger than 
either of the Capitol wings. 

The interior hall is a chamber 60 ft. wide by 135 ft. 
long, and its walls and floor are of colored marbles. It is 
lighted partly by the great front opening, and partly through 
translucent panels of marble. The ceiling, 60 ft. high, is 



THE LINCOLN MEMORIAL 355 

supported by massive bronze beams. Screens of Ionic columns 
divide the interior into one central hall 70 x 60 ft., and two side 
halls 37 x 57 ft. 

In the central hall, facing the entrance, which opens 
eastward towards the Capitol, is the colossal seated statue 
representing — 

Lincoln Triumphant, by Daniel Chester French. It took 
the sculptor four years to produce it, and is probably the 
largest statue ever carved. It measures 19 ft. from the 
pedestal to the top of the head, and 30 ft. from the floor level. 
The head itself measures 3 ft. from chin to top, and the great 
arm chair in which Lincoln is seated, is i2 l / 2 ft. high. The 
whole statue weighs, without the pedestal, 150 tons, and com- 
posed of several sections, since it was manifestly impossible to 
quarry a single block of marble large enough for the entire 
work. The piece from which one leg was cut weighed between 
20 and 25 tons. The head measures 5 ft. from chin to top. 
The material is Georgia marble, and the cutting was done by 
Piccirilli Bros. 

Over the head of Lincoln is the following inscription : 

IN THIS TEMPLE 

AS IN THE HEARTS OF THE PEOPLE 

FOR WHOM HE SAVED THE UNION 

THE MEMORY OF 

ABRAHAM LINCOLN 

IS ENSHRINED FOREVER 

In the side halls, on N. and S. walls respectively, are huge 
bronze tablets upon which Lincoln's two great speeches, the 
Gettysburg Address and the Second Inaugural Address are 
inscribed in full. Filling the wall space beside and above 
these tablets, are two symbolic mural paintings of majestic 
probations, by Jules Guerin, who devoted three years to their 
production. Each of these mural decorations is on a canvas 
measuring 60 ft. long by 12 ft. wide ; weight 600 pounds ; cost 
of canvas $400. The principal figures are 8 l A ft. high. These 
murals commemorate the two great services accomplished by 
Lincoln : namely, I. Emancipation ; II. Reunion. The 
decoration on the south wall, above the Gettysburg Address, 
typifies the abolition of slavery, showing Angel of Truth giv- 
ing freedom to the slaves as the shackles of bondage fall from 
arms and feet. The subordinate groups represent Civilization 
and Progress. On the northern wall, above the Second 
Inaugural Address, the Angel of Peace is uniting the hands 
of the North and the South. The subordinate groups here 
represent progress in the Arts and Sciences. 



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WASHINGTON NORTHEAST 

I. North C