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By H. H. WILSON, M.A., F.R.S., 

Mentiar ^f tke Jloyai A$kMe Soeieir, ^f ike AaiaHc SocieHn </ CmleMMa and Paris, and qf the 

OriaUal Soeleig qf ger w a w y/ Foreign Member of ike NoHonai JmtUute qf France j 

Member itfthe Imperial Aeademiee of Peterebwrgh and Vienna, ondofthe Boifai 

Aeode mke ofMUnAchandBerUm Ph, D. Breelaut M,D. Marburg, 4v., 

and Boden Pri/enor of Sanekrit in the UntoereUif ef (k^fbrd. 

9«»Ui|ti «i9tv t|f Htrtuff tf t|f etict tf B(vctt«f8 tf t|f •at-iiAU ^mK^^v- 




Printed by J. & H. COX & CO., 

iTinters to ttc SDratoTrtU OutHEntU Ooiiimks. 

74 ft 75, Great Queen Street. 


When the liberal patronage of the Court of Direc- 
tors of the East-India Company enabled Dr. Max 
Miiller to undertake bis invaluable edition of the 
Rig-Veday a wish was expressed that its appearance 
should be accompanied or followed, with all convenient 
despatch, by an English translation. As I had long 
contemplated such a work, and had made some pro- 
gress in its execution, even before leaving India, I 
readily undertook to complete my labours and publish 
the translation. 

It might else have been thought scarcely necessary 
to repeat a translatioa of the first AsMaka^ Ogdoad, 
or Eighth book of the Rig- Veda^ as that had been 
already more than once accomplished, partly in English 
by the Rev. Mr. Stevenson and Dr. Roer, and fully 
in Latin by the late Dr. Rosen: a translation in 
French, also, by M. Langlois, extending through four 
AsMaJcaSy or half the Veda^ has been recently pub- 
lished at Paris ; but I was not aware, when I engaged 
to publish an English translation, that such a work 
had been commenced. At the same time, these trans- 
lations do not seem to preclude entirely the usefulness 
of an English version : tlie earliest publication, the 



work of the Rev. Mr. Stevenson, extends only to 
the three first hymns of the third lecture, or section, 
out of the eight, which the first book, or Ashidka^ 
consists of; Dr. Roer's translation is equally limited, 
stopping with two sections, or thirty-two hymns. 
Both translations were printed in India, and are 
procurable, with some difficulty, in this country. 
Dr. Rosen's translation of the first book is complete 
as to the text, but his premature death interrupted 
his annotations. Although executed with profound 
scholarship and scrupulous exactitude, and every 
way deserving of reliance as an authentic representa- 
tive of the original, the Sanskrit is converted into 
Latin with such literal fidelity that the work scarcely 
admits of consecutive perusal, and is most of value as 
a reference ; the translation is, in fact, subordinate 
to an edition of the text which it accompanies on the 
same page, and the work is designed less for general 
readers than for Sanskrit scholars and students of the 
Veda. The principle followed by M. Langlois is the 
converse of that adopted by Dr. Rosen, and he has 
avowedly sought to give to the vague and mysterious 
passages of the original, a clear, simple, and intelligible 
interpretation. In this it may be admitted that he 
has admirably succeeded ; but it may be sometimes 
thought that he has not been sufficiently cautious in 
his rendering of the text, and that he has diverged 
from its phraseology, especially as interpreted by the 
native Scholiast, more widely than is advisable. The 
l*ea1 value of the original lies not so much in its merits 
as a literary composition, as in the illustration which 


it supplies of the most ancient Hindu system of reli- 
gions worship and social organization ; and unless its 
language be preserved as far as may be consistent 
with intelligibility, erroneous impressions of the facts 
and opinions of primitive Hinduism may be produced. 
It is also to be observed, that M. Langlois has made 
his translation from manuscript copies of the Veda 
and its commentary, which, whilst it has greatly en- 
hanced the difficulty and labour of the task, and so 
far adds to the credit of the translator, suggests less 
confidence in the genuineness of the original, as the 
manuscripts are all more or less defective, than if the 
version had been made from a carefully-collated edi- 
tion. The present translation possesses at least the 
advantage over its predecessors of an accurate text, 
and it will be the fault of the translator if he does 
not benefit by it. In converting the original into 
English, it has been his aim to adhere as strictly to 
the original Sanskrit as the necessity of being intelli- 
gible would allow. 

It may be almost superfluous to apprize the reader, 
that the oldest, and nominally the most weighty, 
authorities of the Brahmans for their religion and 
institutions are the VedaSy of which works, four are 
usually enumerated: the Mich, or Rig^Veda; the 
Yajushy or Yajur* Veda ; the Sdman, or Santa- Veda ; 
and the Atharvana, or Atharva-Veda. Many passages 
are to be found in Sanskrit writings, some in the 
Vedas themselves, which limit the number to three,* 


Colcbrooke on the Vedas. — Asiatic Researches, viii. 370. 

b 2 


and there is no doubt that the fourth, or AtJiarva- 
Vedoy although it borrows freely from the Rich^ has 
little in common with the others in its general 
character or in its style ; the language clearly indicates 
a different aiid later era. It may therefore be 
allowably regarded rather as a supplement to three, 
than as one of the four Vedas. 

Of the other three Vedas^ each has its peculiar 
characteristics, although they have mudi in common, 
and they are apparently of different dates, although 
not separated, perhaps, by any very protracted interval* 
The Rig- Veda consists of metrical prayers, or hymns, 
termed SfiktaSy addressed to different divinities, each 
of which is ascribed to a Rishi^ a holy, or inspired 
author. These hymns are put together with little 
attempt at methodical arrangement, although such as 
are dedicated to the same deity sometimes follow in 
a consecutive series. There is not much connection 
in the stanzas of which they are composed, and the 
same hymn is sometimes addressed to different di- 
vinities. There are, in the Veda itself, no directions 
for the use and application of the SuktaSy no notices of 
the occasions on which they are to be employed, or 
of the ceremonies at which they are to be recited : 
these are pointed out by subsequent writers in Sutras, 
or precepts relating to the ritual ; and even for the 
reputed authors of the hymns, and for the deities in 
whose honour they are composed, we are for the most 
part indebted to independent authorities, especially 
to an AnukramaHikd, or index, accompanying each 
Veda. The Yajur-Veda differs from the Rich^ in 


being more particularly a ritual, or a collection of 
liturgical formulse. The prayers or invocations, when 
not borrowed from the Richy are mostly brief and in 
prose, and are applicable to the consecration of the 
utensils and materials of ceremonial worship, as well 
as to the praise and worship of the gods* The Sdma- 
Veda is little else than a recast of the Rich^ being 
made up, with very few exceptions, of the very same 
hymns, broken into parts and arranged anew, for the 
purpose of being chanted on dififerent ceremonial 
occasions. As far, also, as the Atharva-Veda is to be 
considered as a Veda^ it will be found to comprise 
many of the hymns of the Rich.* From the extensive 
manner, then, in which the hymns of the Riff' Veda 
enter into the composition of the other three, we must 
naturally infer its priority to them, and its greater 
importance to the history of the Hindu religion. In 
truth, it is to the Rtg^ Veda that we must have recourse 
principally, if not exclusively, for correct notions of 
the oldest and most genuine forms of the institutions, 
religious or civil, of the Hindus. 

These remarks apply to what are termed the 
SanJiitds of the Vedas, the aggregate assemblage, in 
a single collection, of the prayers, hymns, and liturgic 
formulae of which they are composed. Beside the 
SanhitdSi the designation Veda includes an extensive 
class of compositions, entitled, collectively, BrdhmanOy 

* " By the followere of the Atharvaiia, the J^ichas, or stanzas of 
the ftig-Veda, are nomeroiisly indaded in their own Sanhitd (or col- 
lection)". — Sdytda Aehdrya, Introdaction» Muller's edition, p. 2. 


which all Brahmanical writers term an integral portion 
of the Veda. According to them, the Veda consists 
of two component parts, termed severally Mantra and 
BrdhmaHa;^ the first being the hymns and formulae 
aggregated in the Sanhitd^ the second, a collection of 
rules for the application of the Mantras^ directions for 
the performance of particular rites, citations of the 
hymns, or detached stanzas, to be repeated on such 
occasions, and illustrative remarks or narratives, ex- 
planatory of the origin and object of the rite. Of the 
Brdhma'Aa portions of the Rig-Veda, the most in- 
teresting and important is the Aitareya BrdhmanOy 
in which a number of remarkable legends are detailed, 
highly illustrative of the condition of Brahmanism at 
the time at which it was composed. The Aitarej/a 
Aranyaka^ another Brdhmana of this Veda^ is more 
mystical and speculative than practical or legendary ; 
of a third, the KauMtaki^ little is known. The Brdh- 
mafia of the Yajur Veda, the Sahpatha, partakes more 
of the character of the Aitareya BrdhmaHa ; it is of 
considerable extent, consisting of fourteen books, and 
contains much curious matter. The Brdhmanas of 
the Sdma and Atharva Vedas are few and little known, 
and the supplementary portions of these two Vedas are 
more especially the metaphysical and mystical treatises 

As in the Yajna parihhdshd of Apastamba, quoted by Sdytda, 
" The Dame Veda is that of both the Mantra and the BrdJanuda ;" 
and again, in the Mimdnsd, " The Brdhmana and the Mantra are 
the two parts of the Veda; that part which is not Mantra is 
Brdhmaiia;'* this constitutes the definition of the latter. — Introduce 
tion, p. 4, and p. 22. 


termed Upanishadsy belonging to an entirely different 
state of the Hindu mind from that which the text 
of the F<?(/a« sprang from and encouraged. Connected 
with, and dependent upon, the Vedds^ generally, also 
are the treatises on grammar, astronomy, intonation, 
prosody, ritual, and the meaning of obsolete words, 
called the Veddngas; but these are not portions of the 
Veda itself, but supplementary to it, and, in the form 
in which we have them, are not, perhaps, altogether 
genuine, and, with a few exceptions, are not of much 
importance. Besides these works, there are the 
PrdtUdkhyaSy or treatises on the grammar of the Veda, 
and the Sutras^ or aphorisms, inculcating and de- 
scribing its practices, the whole constituting a body 
of Vaidik literature, the study of which would furnish 
occupation for a long and laborious life. A small 
part only is yet in print. None of the Brdhmanas 
are published ; neither are the SiUras or Pratt" 
sdkkyasJ' The Upanishads have been more fortunate 
in finding editors.^ The texts of the Sanhitds of the 
Veda are in progress, as, besides the present edition of 
the Richy an edition of the Vdjasaneyl portion of the 

Fart of the first KdMa of the Safapatha Brdhnuda has been 
printed by Dr. Weber, concurrently with his edition of the text of 
the Yajur- Veda, and it is his intention to complete it. 

Some of the shorter Upanishads were printed, with translations, 
by Rammohun Roy, and five of those of the Yajush have been pub- 
lished by M. Foley, Berlin, 1844. The VrihaddraAyaka has been 
printed by the Asiatic Society of Calcutta, under the editorship of 
Dr. Roer, in their BibUotheca Jndica, and the Chdndogya Upamshad 
has been begun in the same scries. 


Yajur- Veda has been commenced, by Dr. Weber, at 
Berlin, the publication of which has been also liberally 
aided by the Court of Directors. 

The text of the Sanhitd of the Sdma" Veda^ and a 
translation by the Rev. Mr. Stevenson, were published 
some years since by the Oriental Translation Fund, 
and a more carefully elaborated edition of the same, 
with a translation in German, and a copious glossary 
and index, has been recently published by Professor 
Benfey, of Gottingen. In time, therefore, we shall 
be well supplied with t\ie Mantra portion of the Veda; 
but there is yet but a partial and distant prospect of 
our having the Brdhmana i)rinted, and being thus 
enabled, from adequate materials, to determine how 
far the whole may be legitimately considered as a 
constituent part of the Veda. 

From a careful examination of the Aitareya Brdh- 
mana^ with an excellent commentary by Say ana 
Ach&rya^ it is sufficiently evident that this work, at 
least, is of a totally distinct description from the col- 
lection of the Mantras or the Sanhitd of the Rig- Veda. 
Although, no doubt, of considerable antiquity, it is 
manifestly of a date long subsequent to the original 
Suktas^ or hymns, from the manner in which they are 
quoted, not systematically, or continuously, or com- 
pletely, but separately, unconnectedly, and partially, 
a few phrases only being given, forming the beginning, 
not even of an entire hymn, but of an isolated stanza, 
occurring in any part of the hymn, or in any part of the 
Sanhitd ; consequently proving that the Sanhitd must 
have been com[)iled, and widely circulated, and gene- 


rally studied, before such mutilated citations could be 
recognized or verified by those to whom the Br&hmana 
was presented. It is evident, also, that the great 
body of the Brahmanical ritual must have been 
sanctioned by established practice, before the BrAh- 
mana could have been compiled, as its main object 
is the application of the detached texts of the Sanhitd 
to the performance of the principal ceremonies and 
sacrifices of the Brahmans, enforcing their necessity 
and efficacy by texts and arguments, and illustrating 
their origin and consequences by traditional narratives 
and popular legends, the invention and currency of 
which must have been the vrork of time, of a very 
long interval between the Sanhitd^ in which little or 
nothing of the kind appears, and the Brdhmana^ in 
which such particulars abound. Again, we find in 
the BrdhmaHa the whole system of social organization 
developed, the distinction of caste fully established, 
and the Br&hman^ Kshairiya^ VaUyOj and SUdra re- 
peatedly named by their proper appellations, and 
discriminated by their peculiar offices and relative 
stations, as in the code of Manu. A cursory inspec- 
tion of the Saiapatlia Brdhmanay as far as published, 
and of some of its sections in manuscript, shows it to 
be of a character similar to the Aitareya^ or it may 
be even, perhaps, of a later era ; and we may venture 
to affirm, in opposition to the consentient assertions 
of Brahmanical scholars and critics, that neither of 
these works has the slightest claim to be regarded as 
the counterpart and contemporary of the Sanhitd^ or 
as an integral part of the Veda^ understanding, by 


tbat expression, the primitive record of the religious 
belief and observances, and of the archaic institutions 
of Hindu society. 

Whilst acknowledging, with occasional exceptions, 
the early date of the Brahmanas^ and accepting them 
as valuable illustrations of the application of the 
primitive hymns and texts of the Sanhitiy we must 
look to the latter alone as a safe guide in our inquiries 
into the most ancient condition of the Hindus, and we 
must endeavour to convey a more precise notion of what 
is meant by the designation, as it is exemplified in the 
Veda which has been taken as the text of the follow- 
ing translation, and which, as has been shown, may 
be regarded as the source and model of the other 
works similarly named. 

According to the credible traditions of the Hindus, 
the Suktasy the prayers and hymns, now collected as 
a Sanhitdy had existed in a separate and individual 
form long before they were assembled and arranged 
in the order and connection in which they are now 
met with. In the Mig- Veda^ the number of Suktas 
is something above a thousand, containing rather more 
than ten thousand stanzas : they are arranged in two 
methods ; one divides them amongst eight KhaiiMaa 
(portions) ; or AsMakas (eighths) ; each of which is 
again subdivided into eight Adhy&yaSy or lectures. The 
other plan classes the Stiktas under ten MaftSkdaSy 
or circles, subdivided into rather more than a hundred 
AnuvdkaSy or sub-sections. A further subdivision of the 
suktas into Vargas^ or paragraphs of about five stanzas 
each, is common to both classifications. The hymns 


are of various extent : in one or two instances, a SAkta 
consists of a single stanza ; in some, of a number of 
stanzas ; but tbe average number, as follows from the 
above totals of one thousand hymns and ten thousand 
stanzas, is, of course, about ten. The hymns are 
composed in a great variety of metres^ several of 
which are peculiar to the Vedas^ and the variety and 
richness of which evince an extraordinary cultivation 
of rhythmical contrivance. In general, a hymn is ad- 
dressed to a single deity, but sometimes tt> two» and 
occasionally the verses are distributed among a greater 
number. The divinities are various, but the far larger 
number of the hymns in this first book of the Rich^ and, 
as far as has been yet ascertained, in the other books 
also, are dedicated to Agni and Indra, the deities, or 
personifications, of Fire and the Firmament. Of the 
one hundred and twenty-one hymns contained in the 
first AshhkUy for instance, thirty-seven are addressed 
to Agni alone, or associated with others, and forty-five 
to Indra ; of the rest, twelve are addressed to the 
Maruts, or Winds, the friends and followers of 
Indra, and eleven to the Aswins, the sons of the 
Sun ; four to the personified dawn, four to the ViiSwa- 
DEVAS, or collective deities, and the rest to inferior 
divinities, — an appropriation which unequivocally 
shows the elemental character of the religion. In 
subsequent portions of the Veda, a few hymns oc- 
cur which seem to be of a poetical, or fanciful, 
rather than of a religious tendency, as one, in which 
there is a description of the revival of the frogs on 
the setting in of the rainy season, and another, in 


which a gamester complains of his ill success ; but we 
shall better appreciate the character of such seeming 
exceptions when we come to them. Each Sukta has 
for its reputed author a Rishi^ or inspired teacher, by 
whom, in Brahmanical phraseology, it has been origin- 
ally seen^ that is, to whom it was revealed ; the Vedas 
being, according to later mythological fictions, the un- 
created dictation of BraJimci. For the names of the 
Rishisy except when incidentally mentioned in the 
hymn, we are indebted, as above remarked, to an 
index of the contents of the Veda^ which also specifies 
the metre and the number of stanzas of each hymn, 
and the deity worshipped; it is an old book, and of high 
authority, but inasmuch as it is of later composition than 
the text, it may not always be regarded as of unques- 
tionable correctness. Most of the Rtshis are familiar 
to the legends of the Pur&HaSy as Gotama, Kanwa, 
Bharadwaja^ VasishihOy Viswdmitra, and others. To 
some of these, a number of hymns are attributed ; to 
others of less note, and perhaps only of imaginary ex- 
istence, one or two only are ascribed. The arrange- 
ment of the Suktas by Ashhkas does not seem to 
depend upon any fixed principle : of that by ManAalas^ 
six out of the ten " circles " comprise hymns by the 
same individual, or by members of the same family ; 
thus the hymns of the second ManBala are ascribed to 
Gh^litsamada, the son of Sunahotra, of the family 
of Angiras ; those of the third, to Viswamitra and 
his sons, or kinsmen ; of the fourth, to YAmadeva ; 
of the fifth, to Atri and his sons, who are of rather' 
equivocal nomenclature; of the sixth, to Bharad- 


waja; and of the seventh, to VaSish'^ha and his 
descendants. The Rishis of the first and the three 
last ManSUdas are more miscellaneous ; the hymns of 
the ninth Circle are all addressed to Soma, the Moou- 
plant, or its deified impersonation. This arrangement 
has been considered as the older and more original 
of the two ; the distribution into AsMakas being 
intended for the convenience of instruction, forming, 
through their subdivisions Adht/di/as and Vargas^ 
so many lectures, or lessons, to be learned by the 
scholar. The inference is not improbable, but we 
are scarcely yet qualified to come to any positive con- 
clusion. The more usual division of the manuscripts is 
that into Ashiakas^ and in neither case is the principle 
of classification so unequivocally manifested as to 
suggest reasonable grounds for a departure from the 
established practice. 

The absence of any obvious dependency of the 
Siiktas upon one another is sufficiently indicative of 
their separate and unsystematic origin. That they 
are the compositions of the patriarchal sages to whom 
they are ascribed, is sometimes apparent, from allusions 
which they make to the name of the author or of his 
family ; but these indications are of unfrequent recurs 
rence, and we must trust in general to tradition, as 
preserved by the Anukramanikdy for the accuracy of 
the appropriation. Their being addressed to the same 
divinity is a less equivocal test of community, and they 
probably were composed in many instances by the heads 
of families, or of schools following a similar form of wor* 
ship, and adoring in preference particular deifications. 


Besides the internal evidence afforded by difference 
of style, the hymns not unfrequently avow a difference 
of date ; and we find some ascribed to ancient RishiSy 
while others admit their being of new or newest com- 
position. The great variety of metres employed 
shows also a progressive development of the powers 
of the language, which could have been the effect only 
of long and diligent cultivation. There can be little 
doubt, therefore, that they range through a considerable 
interval, although, as far as respects their general 
purport, they belong to the same condition of belief, 
and to a period during which no change of any im* 
portance took place in the national creed. The same 
divinities are worshipped in a similar strain, and, with 
one or two doubtful exceptions, which are possibly 
interpolations, or which may admit of explanation, 
offer nothing that is contradictory or incongruous. 
This is the more remarkable, as there can be little 
doubt that the hymns were taught originally orally, 
and that the knowledge of them was perpetuated by 
the same mode of tuition. This is sufficiently ap- 
puent from their construction : they abound with 
ellSptical phrases ; with general epithets, of which the 
application is far from obvious until explained ; with 
brief comparisons, which cannot be appreciated with- 
ont such additional details as a living teacher might 
be expected to supply ; and with all those blanks and 
deficiencies which render the written text of the 
Vedas still unintelligible in many passages without 
the assistance of the Scholiast, and which he is alone 
enabled to fill up by the greater or less fidelity with 


which the traditional explanations of the first mvd 
voce interpreters, or, perhaps, of the authors of the 
hymns themselves, have come down to bis time. The 
explanation of a living teacher, or of a commentator, 
must have been indispensable to a right understanding 
of the meaning of the SUktas^ in many passages, from 
the moment of their first communication; and the 
probability is in favour of an oral instructor, as most 
in harmony with the unconnected and unsystematic 
currency of the hymns; with the restricted use of 
writing, even if the art were known in those early 
times (a subject of considerable doubt), and with the 
character of Sanskrit teaching, even in the present 
day, in which the study of books is subordinate to 
the personal and traditional expositions of the teacher, 
handed down to him through an indefinite series of 
preceding instructors. 

At last, however, there arrived a period when the 
antiquity of the hymns, the obscurity of their style, 
the peculiarities of the language, and the number to 
which they had multiplied, with the corresponding 
difficulties of recollecting and teaching them, and pos- 
sibly also the perception that some venerable autho- 
rity, on which their growing claims to superior sanctity 
might be based, was wanting, suggested to the progres- 
sive advancement of the literature of the Brahmans, 
the expediency of rescuing the dispersed and obso- 
lete SUktas from the risk of oblivion, and moulding 
them into some consistent and permanent shape. 
The accomplishment of this object is traditionally 
ascribed to the son of ParaiSara Rishi, Krish]^a 


DwAiPAYANA, thence surnamed Vyasa, the Arrangei\ 
a person of rather questionable chronology and ex- 
istence, who is supposed to have flourished at the 
time of the great war between the rival families of 
KuBU and Pandu, to the latter of which he was 
attached. The account that is usually given of his 
proceedings shows that his especial province was 
that of superintendence, possibly under the patronage 
of the Rdj& Yudhishthira, after his triumph over 
the KuRUSy and that various other learned persons* 
already familiar with the hymns of the respective 
VedaSy were employed to prepare each several Sanhit^^ 
or collection; thus Paila was appointed to collect 
the SUktas of the Rich. Vaisampayana the texts of 
the Yajushj Jaimini the hymns of the S&man^ and 
SuMANTU those of the AiharoaHa* Each of these 
became the teacher of his own collection, and had a 
succession of disciples, by whom the original collection 
was repeatedly subdivided and rearranged, until the 
Sanhitds of the Rig^Veda amounted to sixteen or 
twenty; those of the Yajur-Veda^ distinguished as 
twofold, termed the Black and the White Yajmh^ 
amounted to forty-two, and those of the Sdma- Veda 
to twenty-four. There were also various Sanhitds 
of the Atharva-Vedoj and besides these, there were 
numerous ^Akhdsy or branches, of each Sanhitd, studied 
in as many separate schools." The precise nature of 
these distinctions is not very satisfactorily known at 

^ Colebrooke on the Vedas, — Asiatic Researches, vol. iii. p. 373. 
VishHu PurdAa, book iii. chap. iv. p. 275. 


pr0Bent» as they have almost wholly disappeared, but 
they consisted apparently of varieties of form, not of 
sabstance, containing the same hymns and formulee 
arranged in a different order, according to the concep- 
tions of the teacher respecting their historical succes- 
fiion or liturgical value, or according to differences in 
the mode of their recitation, some being recited 
audibly, some repeated inaudibly, and some being 
chanted or sung. Various readings also seem to have 
been followed by different schools, although not to 
such an extent as materially to affect the identity 
between the original and its descendant. Of the 
Sanhitds of the Rig- VedOj the only one now in use 
is that ascribed to a teacher named Vedamitra, or 
S'akalta, Whether the authorities which profess to 
detail the multiplicity of these compilations be entitled 
to entire confidence, may be matter of question, but 
the traditions are concurrent and consistent, and there 
can be little doubt that there was a time at which the 
collection, and classification, and study of the religious 
poems, which even then bore the stamp of antiquity, 
did form an important and popular branch of the 
literature of the Brahmans, and must have been pur- 
sued, vnth extraordinary diligence, zeal, and ability* 
through a protracted interval, anterior to the rise of 
philosophical speculation, mythological fable, poetical 
legends, and traditional history/ 

^ The foundatioa of the Veddnta philosophy, and the compilation 

of the Itihdsas and Purd^, are also ascribed to Vydsa, It would 

be out of place to enter into any examination of the question here, 



The interest evinced in the coUectioix and preser- 
vation of their ancient hymns and formulae is the more 
remarkable from their having, as far as we can yet 
judge, afforded little countenance to the religious and 
social institutions, idiioh no doubt were fully matured 
at the date of their compilation. It is yet, perhaps, 
scarcely safe to hazard any positive assertion respecting 
the system of religious belief and practice taught in 
the Rig^ Veda^ or the state of society which prevailed 
when its hymns were composed, and it were still more 
indiscreet to risk a negative, and deny its sanctioning 
the leading features of the Brahmanical institutes, 
until we shall have examined it throughout, and 
ascertained beyond dispute that no such sanction is to 
be found in it. In offering any opinion on these 
points, therefore, it must be understood that they are 
derived solely from what is actually before us, — ^the 
First book of the Rig^ Veda^ now translated, — ^and that 
they are subject to confirmation or to contradiction, ac- 
cording to the further evidence that may be produced. 
It is true that we have a somewhat wider field for 
speculation in the other three books, translated by 
M. Langlois, and in detached portions from other 
books, which have been translated and published by 
other Sanskrit scholars, especially by Mr. Colebrooke, 
Professor Bumouf, and Dr. Roth ; the latter, however, 

beyond the remark, that there seems to be little satisfactory evi* 
dence for the tradition, several of the Purd^ being, in fact, as- 
cribed to other persons. The tradition may have originated in the 
impnlse given to the general cultivation of Sanskrit literature by the 
school, or schools, of Vaidik criticism. 


from their partial and isolated state, are necessarily 
imperfect autliorities ; and, of the former, it may be 
observed, that they do not seem to offer anything 
materially at variance with the tenor of the first 
AMaka. It will be sufficient, therefore, for the 
present to confine ourselves to the evidence at liand, 
and deduce from it a few of the most important con- 
clusions to which it appears to lead, regarding the 
religious and mythologicdi belief of the people of 
India, whose sentiments and notions the SUktas 
enunciate, and the circumstances of their social con- 
dition, to which it occasionally, though briefly, 

The worship which the SUMas describe comprehends 
offerings, prayer, and praise; the former are chiefly 
oblations and libations,— -clarified butter poured on 
fire, and the expressed and fermented juice of the 
Soma plants presented in ladles to the deities invoked, 
in what manner, does not exactly appear, although it 
seems to have been sometimes sprinkled on the fire, 
sometimes on the ground, or rather on the Ktiia^ or 
sacred grass, strewed on the floor, and in all cases the 
residue was drunk by the assistants. The ceremony 
takes place in the dwelling of the worshipper, in a 
•chamber appropriated to the purpose and probably to 
the maintenance of a perpetual fire, although the fre- 
quent allusions to the occasional kindling of the sacred 
flame are rather at variance with this practice.* There 

'^ It is said in one place, however, that men preserved fire con* 

sisaUly kindled \n their dwellings (Hymn lxxiii. v. 4, p. 195). 

C 2 


is no mention of any temple, or any reference to a 
public place of worship, and it is clear that the worship 
was entirely domestic. The worshipper, or Yajamdna, 
does not appear to have taken of necessity any part 
personally in the ceremony, and there is a goodly 
array of officiating priests, — ^in some instances seven, 
in some sixteen, — by whom the different ceremonial 
rites are performed, and by whom the Mantras^ or 
prayers or hymns, are recited. That animal victims 
were offered on particular occasions, may be inferred 
from brief and obscure allusions in the hymns of the 
first book,* and it is inferrible from some passages, 
that human sacrifices were not unknown, although 
infrequent, and sometimes typical ; but these are the 
exceptioiis, and the habitual offerings may be regarded 
as consisting of clarified butter and the juice of the 
Soma plant. 

The Stikta almost invariably combines the attributes 
of prayer and praise; the power, the vastness, the 
generosity, the goodness, and even the personal beauty 
of the deity addressed, are described in highly lauda- 
tory strains, and his past bounties or exploits rehearsed 
and glorified; in requital of which commendations, 
and of the libations or oblations which he is solicited 
to accept^ and in approval of the rite in his honour, 
at which his presence is invoked, he is implored to 
bestow blessings on the person who has instituted the 

In the second Ashfaka, we have two hymns on the occasion of 
the ASwamedha, a sacrifice of a horse. (See Translation of M. Lang- 
lois, Lecture III. Hymns v. vi.) 


ceremony, and sometimes, but not so commonly, also 
on the author or reciter of the prayer. The blessings 
prayed for are, for the most part, of a temporal and 
personal description, — wealth, food, life, posterity, 
cattle, cows, and horses ; protection against enemies, 
victory over them, and sometimes their destruction, 
particularly when they are represented as inimical 
to the celebration of religious rites^ or, in other words, 
people not professing the same religious faith.^ There 
are a few indications of a hope of immortality and of 
future happiness, but they are neither frequent nor, 
in general, distinctly announced, although the im- 
mortality of the gods is recognized, and the possibility 
of its attainment by human beings exemplified in the 
case of the demigods termed jRibhus, elevated, for 
their piety, to the rank of divinities. Protection 
against evil spirits {R&kshasds) is also requested, and 
in one or two passages Yama and his office as ruler 
of the dead are obscurely alluded to. There is little 
demand for moral benefactions, although in souie few 
instances hatred of untruth and abhorrence of sin are 
expressed, a hope is uttered that the latter may be 
repented of or expiated, and the gods are in one hymn 
solicited to extricate the worshipper from sin of every 
kind. The main objects of the prayers, however, are 
benefits of a more worldly and physical character : the 
tone in which these are requested indicates a quiet 
confidence in their being granted, as a return for the 
benefits which the gods are supposed to derive from 

* Notea^p. 138. 


the offerings made to them, in gratifying their bodily 
wants, and from the praises which impart to them 
enhanced energy and angmented power ; there is no* 
thing, however, which denotes any particular potency 
in the prayer or hymn, so as to compel the gods to 
comply with the desires of the worshipper ; nothing 
of that enforced necessity, which makes so conspicuous 
and characteristic a figure in the Hindu mythology 
of a later date, by which the performance of austerities 
for a continued period constrains the gods to grant 
the desired boon, although fraught with peril and 
even destruction to themselves. 

The next question is, who are the gods to whom 
the praises and prayers are addressed ? and here we 
find also a striking difference between the mythology 
of the Big- Veda and that of the heroic poems and 
Purdnas. The divinities worshipped are not unknown 
to later systems, but they there perform very subor- 
dinate parts, whilst those deities who are the great 
gods — ^the Dii majores — of the subsequent period, are 
either wholly unnamed in the Veda^ or are noticed in 
an inferior and different capacity. The names of 
S'lVA, of MahAdeva, of DurgA, of KAli, of RAma, of 
Krishna, never occur, as far as we are yet aware': we 
have a Rudba, who, in after-times, is identified with 
Siva, but who, even in the Pur&Has^ is of very doubt- 
ful origin and identification, whilst in the Veda he is 
described as the father of the winds, and is evidently 
a form of either Agni or Indba ; the epithet Kapard- 
DIN, which is applied to him, appears, indeed, to have 
some relation to a characteristic attribute of S iva, — 


the wesaing of his hair in a peculiar braid ; but the 
term has probably in the Veda a different signification 
—one now forgotten, — although it may have suggested 
in after-time the appearance of Siva in such a head* 
dress, as identified with Agni ; for instance, Kapard- 
DIN may intimate his head being surrounded by radi« 
ating flame, or the word may be an interpolation ; at 
any rate, no other epithet applicable to S'iva occurs, 
and there is not the slightest allusion to the form in 
which, for the last ten centuries at least, he seems 
to have been almost exclusively worshipped in India, 
— that of the Linga or PhaUus : neither is there the 
slightest hint of another important feature of later 
Hinduism, the Trimurtti, or Tri-une combination of 
Brahma, Vish&u, and Siva, as typified by the mystical 
syllable Om^ although, according to high authority on 
the religions of antiquity, the Trimurtti was the first 
element in the faith of the Hindus, and the second 
was the Lingam.'' 

The chief deities of the Veda are, as has been 
noticed above, Agni and Indra. The former com* 
prises the element of Fire under three aspects : 1st, as 
it exists on earth, not only as culinary or religious 
fire, but as the heat of digestion and of life, and the 
vivifying principle of vegetation ; 2nd, as it exists in the 
atmosphere, or mid-heaven, in the form of lightning ; 
and, 3rd, as it is manifested in the heavens, as light, 
the sun, the dawn, and the planetary bodies. The Sunt 
it is true, is acknowledged and hymned as a divinity, 

^ Creuzer, Religions de r Antiquity, book i. chap. i. p. 140. 


the soul of all moveable and immoveable beings, and 
his manifestations are already known as Adityas^ in- 
cluding several of the names preserved in the PurA- 
ilas ; as VishAu, Mitba, VabuAa, Abyaman, Fushan, 
Bhaoa, and Twashtri, who are nothing more than 
the Sun diversified, as presiding over each month of 
the solar year. Still, however, the sun does not hold 
that prominent place in the Vaidik liturgy which he 
seems to have done in that of the ancient Persians, 
and he is chiefly venerated as the celestial representa* 
tive of Fire. 

If we advert more particularly to the attributes of 
Agni, we find that confusion in them which might 
be expected from the various characters he fills. 
As the fire of sacrifice, he is the servant of both men 
and gods, conveying the invocations and the ofierings 
of the former to the latter ; he is the Hotri^ or priest, 
who summons the gods to the ceremony; the 
Purohita^ or family priest, who performs the rite 
on behalf of the master of the house. Personified as 
a divinity, he is immortal, enjoying perpetual youth, 
endowed with infinite power and splendour, the 
grantor of victory, of wealth, of cattle, of food, of 
health, of life; he travels in a car drawn by red 
horses ; he is the source and difiuser of light, the 
destroyer and reviver of all things. He is known 
under many and various appellations, and many in- 
ferior deities are considered to be merely his manifest- 
ations. The acts and attributes of other deities are 
not unfrequently ascribed to him (p. 179) ; he may 
assume the form or nature of any other divinity 


(p. 184) who is invoked to a ceremonial rite. He is 
identified with Yama, VaruAa, Mitra ; with the Sun, 
and with the eternal Vedhas (p. 190). A curious 
series of allusions, evidently of a remote antiquity, 
identifies him with Angiras, who, in the Veda^ as 
well as in the PurdiiaSy is a patriarch and JRishiy and 
the founder of a celebrated holy family, to members 
of which many of the hymns of the Veda are at- 
tributed. Angiras is in one place (p. 3) used instead 
of the repetition of the name Agni, and in another 
Agni is expressly called the first and cbiefest 
Angiras (p. 79). The meaning of this myth is 
apparently explained in another passage, in which 
it is said that the Angirasas first made sure of 
Agni, whence subsequent votaries preserved his fires 
and practised his rites (p. 187); which clearly in- 
timates that this priestly family, or school, either 
introduced worship with fire, or extended and or- 
ganized it in the various forms in which it came 
ultimately to be observed. The tenor of the legend, 
as it was afterwards expanded in the BrdhmaHas and 
heroic poems, equally intimates the latter, and refers 
the multiplication, or universality, of the occasions on 
which fire constituted an essential element of the 
worship of the Hindus, to Angiras and his descend- 
ants.'^ Of the attributes of Agni, in general, the 
meaning is sufficiently obvious; those of a physical 
character speak for themselves, and the allegory con- 
veyed by others is either palpable enough, as when 

See the passage of the MdhdbhdnUa, cited in note tf, p. 3. 


Agni is said to be the son of the Wind, or springs 
naturally from Hindu notions, as when he is said to 
be both the father and the son of the gods, nourishing 
them like a father by the oblations he bears to them, 
while the act of offering those oblations is the duty 
of a son. The legend of his hiding in the waters, 
through fear of the enemies of the gods, although 
alluded to in more than one place (pp. 58, 177), is 
not very explicitly narrated, and its more circumstan- 
tial detail is probably the work of the BrdhmaHas ; 
the allusions of the S4kta$ may be a figurative intima- 
tion of the latent heat existing in water, or a mis- 
apprehension of a natural phenomenon which seems 
to have made a great impression in later times, — ^the 
emission of flame from the surface of water either 
in the shape of inflammable air, or as the result of 
submarine Tolcanic action.'^ 

The deification of Indra is more consistent, as he 
has no incongruous functions to discharge: he is a 
personification of the phenomena of the firmament, 
particularly in the capacity of sending down rain* 
This property is metaphorically described as a conflict 
with the clouds, which are reluctant to part with their 
watery stores until assailed and penetrated by the 
thunderbolt of Indra. As in all allegories, the lan- 
guage of fact and fiction is apt to be blended and Qon- 
founded in the description of this encounter, and the 
cloud, personified as a demon named Ahi, or V91TRA, 
is represented as combating Indra with all the attri- 

* See the legend of Aurva, VisMu Purdia, p. 390, note. 


bates of a personal enem j» and as suffering in the battle 
mntilation, wounds, and death. In the yersions of the 
conflict found in later works» and in the heroic poems 
and Pwanas^ the original allegory is lost sight of alto^ 
gether, and V^itra becomes a real personage^ an 
Amroy or king of Asuras^ who wages a doubtful war 
with the king of the gods. This contest with the 
clouds seems to have suggested to the authors of the 
SUktas the martial character of Indea on other occa- 
sions, and he is especially described as the god of 
battles, the giver of victory to his worshippers, the 
destroyer of the enemies of religious rites, and the 
subverter of the cities of the Asuras. A popular myth 
represents him also as the discoverer and rescuer of 
the cows, either of the priests or of the gods, which 
had been stolen by an Asura named FaAi, or Vala. 
Like AoNi, he is the possessor and bestower of riches, 
and the granter of all temporal blessings, when de- 
voutly worshipped, and when propitiated by the Soma 
juice, which seems to be more especially appropriated 
to him, and which has the effect of inspiring him with 
animation and courage. Some of his attributes are 
obviously allegorical references to the locality of the 
firmament, as when he is said to have elevated the sun 
and fixed the constellations in the sky, — ^to be more 
vast than heaven and earth, and to have sundered them 
when originally united (p. 169); of another, which 
refers to him in the guise of a ram, no very satisfao* 
tory explanation is given, although, as remarked by 
M. Neve, the metamorphosis suggests some analogy 
between him and Jupiter Ammon. His taking part 


in the wars of tribes and princes, and insuring the 
triumph of those he befriends, belongs to the poetical 
part of the personification, and arises, no doubt, from 
that character for personal valour derived from his 
metaphorical defeat of V^itra, and the real instru- 
mentality of the electricitj of the atmosphere in the 
descent of fertilizing showers. 

The Sun, S6rya, or SAvrrj^i, occupies a much less 
conspicuous place in Hindu worship than we should 
have anticipated from the visible magnificence of that 
luminary, and his adoration by neighbouring nations. 
We have, in the first book, only three Sttktas addressed 
to him individually, and they convey no very strikingly 
expressive acknowledgment of his supremacy. Like 
AoNi and Indra, he is the giver of temporal blessings 
to his worshippers ; he is the source of light, moving 
with exceeding swiftness between heaven and earth, in 
a chariot drawn by two white-footed horses, or, as it is 
sometimes said, by seven, meaning the seven days of 
the week. He is said to be the healer of leprosy, 
which may have given rise to the more modem legend 
of his having cured Samba, the son of Krish^^a, of that 
disease, if it be not an unauthorized graft upon the 
original stem. He is represented as golden-eyed and 
golden-handed, mere figures of speech, although a 
legend is devised to account for the latter. 

The text of the Veda, in one remarkable passage in 
the first book, recognizes a difference of degree in the 
relative dignity of the gods, and even in their age, enun- 
ciating veneration to the great gods, to the lesser, to the 
young, and to the old (p. 71). Among the lesser gods. 


an important share of adoration is enjoyed by a group 
avowedly subordinate to Indra, involving an obvious 
allegory, — the Maruts, or Winds, who are naturally 
associated with the firmament ; we have, indeed, a god 
of the wind in VJLyu, but little is said of bim, and 
that chiefly in association with Ikdra, with whom he 
is identified by Scholiasts on the Ve<ia ; the Maruts, 
on the contrary, are frequently addressed as the at- 
tendants and allies of Indra, confederated with him in 
the battle with Vj^itra, and aiding and encouraging 
his exertions ; they are called the sons of PibliIni, or the 
earth, and also Rudras, or sons of Rudra ; the mean- 
ing of which affiliations is not very clear, although no 
doubt it is allegorical; they are also associated, on 
some occasions, with Agni, an obvious metaphor, ex- 
pressing the action of wind upon fire. It is also 
intimated that they were originally mortal, and became 
immortal in consequence of worshipping Agni, which 
is also easy of explanation. Their share in the pro- 
duction of rain, and their fierce and impetuous nature, 
are figurative representations of physical phenomena. 
The^ Scholiast endeavours to connect the history of 
their origin with that narrated in the Pur&nas^ but 
without success ; and the latter, absurd as it is, seems 
to have no better foundation than one proposed ety- 
mology of the name, — " Do not {md) weep (rodih\^' 
which is merely fanciful, although it is not much 
worse than other explanations of the name which 
commentators have suggested (p. 225, note a). 

The Aditt/as, or lesser Suns, are especially the sons 
of ADrn, who has, in general, the character of mother 


of the gods, identified in this part ^ the Veda with 
Earth, or even with the Universe, in which ease she 
is evidently allegorical. Little is said of the Aditt/as 
collectively, but some of them are individually ad- 
dressed. There is no separate hymn to Vish]^u, but 
he is mentioned as Tbivikrama, or he who took three 
steps or paces, which Mr. Colebrooke thought might 
have formed the groundwork of the Paurdilik legend 
of the dwarf Avatdr. It may have been suggestive 
of the fiction ; but no allusion to the notion of Avatdrs 
occurs in the Vedoy and there can be little doubt that 
the three steps here referred to are the three periods 
of the sun's course — his rise, culmination, and setting.* 
Mptra is never addressed alone ; he appears amongst 
the Vi^WADEVAS, or gods collectively, or associated 
with Varu^a and Artaman ; he is said by the Scho- 
liast to be a divinity presiding over the day, and, in 
combination with yARU]^A, a dispenser of water. 
YarvAa occupies a rather more conspicuous place in 
the hymns ; he is said to be the divinity presiding 
over the night, and in that capacity, probably, the. 
constellations are called his holy acts, and the moon, 
it is said, moves by his command. The title of king 
or monarch, Itdjd or Samr&t^ is very commonly attached 
to his name: with Mitra, he is called the iord of 
light, and he supports the light on high and makes 
wide the path of the sun : he grants wealth, averts 

It ifi expressly so stated by Durgdchdrya, in his commentary on 
the l^irukta. — See Bumottf, Introduction to the 3rd vol. of the 
Bhdgavata PvrdAa, p. zxii. 


emU and protects cattle ; in all which we have no 
trace of the station assigned to him in later mythology, 
of sovereign of the waters. In one rather obscure 
passage, however, it is said of him that, abiding in the 
ocean, he knows the course of ships, but he is also 
said, in the same stanza, to know the flight of birds 
and the periodical succession of the months. The 
notions entertained of Vabu^a, beyond that of his 
connection with the sun, do not appear to be very 
precise. Abtaman is never named alone, most usually 
vrith MiTBA and VaruAa ; we have a text identifying 
him vdth the sun, and he is said by the Scholiast to 
preside over twilight. P^shan, besides being occa- 
sionally named, has, in the first book, a hymn to him- 
self, the main purport of which is to solicit his pro- 
tection on a journey, particuhirly against robbers : he 
is said to be the divinity, or rather, perhaps, the 
Adifya^ or sun, presiding over the earth. The oon- 
nectien of the personified dawn, or UshaSy or, rather, 
many dawns, or Ushasas, vnth the sun, forms a natural 
pwtion of solar adoration ; several hymns are addressed 
to her, the language of which involves no mystery, 
but is dictated by the obvious properties of the morn- 
ing, not unfrequently picturesquely and poetically de* 

Demigods, who are much more frequently than any 
of the preceding, except the Mabxjts, the objects of 
laudation, are the two ASwins, the sons of the Sun 
according to later mythology, but of whose origin we 
have no such legend in the Veda, as far as we have 
yet gone. They are said, indeed, in one place, to 


have the sea (Sindhu) for their mother ; but this is 
explained to intimate their identity, as affirmed by 
some authorities, with the sun and moon, which rise, 
apparently, out of the ocean ; they are called Dasrasr-*' 
destroyers either of foes or of diseases, for they are the 
physicians of the gods ; they are also called Ndsatyas^ 
— ^in whom there is no untruth. They are represented 
as ever young, handsome, travelling in a three-wheeled 
and triangular car, drawn by asses, and as mixing them- 
selves up with a variety of human transactions, be- 
stowing benefits upon their worshippers, enabling them 
' to foil or overcome their enemies, assisting them in 
their need, and extricating them from difficulty and 
danger. Their business seems to lie more on earth 
than in heaven, and they belongi by their exploits, 
more to heroic than celestial or solar mythology ; 
they are, however, connected in various passages with 
the radiance of the sun, and are said to be precursors 
of the dawn, at which season they ought to be wor- 
shipped with libations of So^na juice. 

The Sabeism of the Hindus, if it may be so termed, 
differs entirely from tbat of the Chaldeans, in omitting 
the worship of the planets; the constellations are 
never named as objects of veneration or worship, and 
although the moon appears to be occasionally in- 
tended under the name Soma^ particularly when spoken 
of as scattering darkness, yet the name and the adora- 
tion are in a much less equivocal manner applied to 
the Soma plant, the acid asclepias, actual or personi- 
fied. The great importance attached to the juice of 
this plant is a singular part of the ancient Hindu 


ritual ; it is sufficiently prominent even in this portion 
of the Rig- Veda, but almost the whole of the Sdma-- 
Veda is devoted to its eulogy, and this is» no dctabt» 
little more than a repetition of the Soma MaH&ala of 
the Rich. The only explanation of which it is suscep- 
tible is the delight^ as well as astonishment, which the 
discovery of the exhilarating, if not inebriating, pro- 
perties of the fermented juice of the plant must have 
excited in simple minds on first becoming acquainted 
with its effects. This however is, of course, wholly 
different from any adoration of the moon or planets as 
celestial luminaries, in which they do not appear to 
have participated with the sun. 

Indra and Savitri thus have their respective satel- 
lites dependent upon and identifiable with their prin- 
cipals. Agni does not seem to have any subordinate 
multiples, except in the rather anomalous deifications 
called ApRis, which, although including certain female 
divinities and insensible objects, such as the doors of 
the sacrificial hall, are considered to be impersona- 
tions of Aoni. BrahmaAaspati also, as fiir as we can 
make out his character from the occasional stanzas 
addressed to him, seems to be identifiable with Aoni, 
with the additional attribute of presiding over prayer ; 
the characteristic properties bf this divinity, however, 
are not very distinctly developed in this portion of 
the Veda. 

Of Rubra, also, the character is equivocal ; but it 
may be doubted if it partakes, in any remarkable 
degree, of that fierceness and wrath which belong to 
the RuDRA of a later date ; he is termed, it is true, the 



slajer of heroes, but so is Indra : the effects of his 
anger upon men and animals are deprecated ; but he 
is also appealed to as wise and bountiful, the author 
of fertility and giver of happiness, and his peculiar 
characteristics are evidently his presiding over medi- 
cinal plants and removal of disease, attributes of a 
beneficent, not of a malignant and irascible deity. 
As above remarked, the Maruts, or winds, are termed 
his sons ; and this relationship would assimilate him to 
Tndra. There is also a class of inferior deities, termed 
RuDRAS, who in one passage are worshippers of Agni, 
and in another are the followers of Indra ; being the 
same as the Maruts. So far, therefore, Rudra might 
be identified with Indra; but we have the name 
applied unequivocally to Agni in a hymn exclusively 
dedicated to that divinity (p. 70). The term denotes, 
according to the Scholiast, the * terrible Agni ;' but 
there is no warrant for this in the text, and we may 
be content, therefore, with the latter, to regard Rudra 
as a form or denomination of fire. 

Of the other divine personifications which occur in 
this first book, the particulars are too few to authorize 
any unexceptionable generalization ; some of them are 
such as every imaginative religion creates— ^personifi- 
cations of earth, ocean, night, and of inanimate things. 
Female divinities make their appearance, but they are 
merely hamed, without anything being related of 
them, and we have, as yet, no sufficient materials on 
which to construct sxvy theory of their attributes and 
character. The only exception is that of IlA, who is 
called the daughter of Manu, and his instructress in 


the performance of sacrifice ; but what is inean£ by 
this requires further elucidation. The ViiSwadevas» 
or universal gods, do not appear in this part of the 
Veda as the particular class which is referred to bj 
Manu and in the Purdnas^ but merely as the aggre- 
gation of the divinities elsewhere separately named, or 
Indra, Agni, Mffba, VarvAa^ and the rest. 

We thus find that most, if not all, the deities to 
whom the hymns of the JRich^ as far as those of the 
first AsMaka^ extend, are resolvable into three, — Aoni, 
or fire ; Indra, or the firmament ; and the Sun ; or, 
indeed, as the sun is only a manifestation of fire, we 
might resolve all the forms into two^ — Agni and Indba. 
We may, however, consent to take the assertion of 
YAskcb^ that there are in the Veda '* three gods : Aoni 
on the earth, VAyu or Indra in the sky, and Surya 
in heaven ; of each of whom there are many appella- 
tions expressive of his greatness, and of the variety of 
his functions." There is nothing, however, confining 
our negation to the present portion of the Rich^ to 
warrant the other assertion of Ydska^ that ^^ all the 
gods are but parts of one atmd^ or soul, subservient to 
the diversification of his praises through the immensity 
and variety of bis attributes/'* The Anukramanikd 
goes further, and affirms that there is but one deity y the 
Crreat Soul {Mohan A tmd)f quoting, however, in support 
of this doctrine, a passage which, in its proper place, 
applies only to the Sun, who is there called (p. 304) 
** the soul of all that moves or is immoveable,*' an ex- 


Nirukta, Daivata Kdida, i. 4, 5. 

d 2 


pression which is probably to be figuratively, not lite- 
rally, apprehended. 

The notion of a soul of the world belongs, no 
doubt, to a period long subsequent to the composition 
of the Suktas. Whether their authors entertained 
any belief in a creator and ruler of the universe, 
certainly does not appear from any passage hitherto 
met with ; but, at the same time, the objects of the 
early worship of the Hindus, — ^fire, the sky, the Soma 
plant, even the sun, — are addressed in language so 
eridently dictated by palpable physical attributes, 
or by the most obvious allegorical personifications, 
that we can scarcely think .they were inspired by 
any deep feeling of veneration or of faith, or that the 
adoration of such mere and manifest elements con- 
templated them in any other light than as types of the 
power of a creator. However extravagant the expres- 
sions, we can scarcely imagine them to have been 
uttered in earnest, particularly as proceeding from men 
of evident talent and observation, endowed with more 
than common intellectual activity and acuteness of 

Leaving the question of the primary religion of the 
Hindus for further investigation, we may now con- 
sider what degree of light this portion of the Veda 
reflects upon their social and political condition. It has 
been a favourite notion with some eminent scholars, 
that the Hindus, at the period of the composition of 
the hymns, were a nomadic and pastoral people. This 
opinion seems to rest solely upon the frequent solicita- 
tions for food, and for horses and cattle, which are 


foond in the hymns, and is unsupported by any 
more positive statements. That the Hindus were 
not Nomads, is evident from the repeated allusions 
to fixed dwellings, and villages, and towns ; and we 
can scarcely suppose them to have been in this respect 
behind their barbarian enemies, the overthrow of 
whose numerous cities is so often spoken of. A pas- 
toral people they might have been, to some extent ; 
but they were also, and, perhaps, in a still greater 
degree, an agricultural people, as is evidenced by 
their supplications for abundant rain and for the 
fertility of the earth, and by the mention of agricul- 
tural products, particularly barley (p. 67). They 
were a manufieusturing people ; for the art of weav- 
ing, the labours of the carpenter, and the fabrication 
of golden and of iron mail, are alluded to ; and, what 
is more remarkable, they were a maritime and mer- 
iMintile people. 

Not only are the SUktas famil|ar with the ocean and 
its phenomena, but we have merchants described as 
pressing earnestly on board ship, for the sake of gain 
(p. 152) ; and we have a naval expedition against a 
foreign island, or continent (dwipa), frustrated by a 
shipwreck (p. 306). They must also have made some 
advance in astronomical computation, as the adoption 
joi an intercalary month, for the purpose of adjusting 
the solar and lunar years to each other, is made 
mention of (p. 65). Civilization must have therefore 
made considerable progress; and the Hindus must 
have spread to the sea-coast, possibly along the 
Sindhu or Indus, into Cutch and Guzerat, before they 


could have engaged in navigation and commerce. 
That they had extended themselves from a more 
northern site, or that they were a northern race, is 
rendered probable from the peculiar expression used, 
on more than one occasion, in soliciting long life, — 
when the worshipper asks for a hundred winters 
{kimas)y a boon not likely to have been desired by the 
natives of a warm climate (p. 176). They appear, also, 
to have been a fair-complexioned people, at least, com- 
paratively, and foreign invaders of India, as it is said 
(p. 259) that Indra divided the fields among his tchite- 
complexioned friends, after destroying the indigenous 
barbarian races, for such there can be little doubt we 
are to understand by the expression Dasyu, which so 
often recurs, and which is often defined to signify 
one who not only does not perform religious rites, 
but attempts to disturb them, and harass their per- 
formers : the latter are the Aryas^ the Arya^ or 
respectable, or Hindu, or Arian race. Dasyu^ in later 
language, signifies a thief, a robber, and Arya^ a 
wealthy or respectable man ; but the two terms are 
constantly used in the text of the Veda as contrasted 
with each other, and as expressions of religious and 
political antagonists, requiring, therefore, no violence 
of conjecture to identify the Dasyus with the in- 
digenous tribes of India, refusing to adopt the cere- 
monial of the AryaSi a more civilized, but intrusive 
race, and availing themselves of every opportunity 
to assail them, to carry off their cattle, disturb their 
rites, and impede their progress ; to little purpose, it 
should seem, as the Aryas commanded the aid of 


Indra, before whose thunderbolt the numerous cities, 
or hamlets, of the Dasyus were swept away. 

We have no particular intimation of the political 
condition of the Hindus, except the specification of a 
number of names of princes, many of which are pecu- 
liar to the Veda^ and ditfer from those of the heroic 
poems and Purdnas : a few are identical, but the 
nomenclature evidently belongs to a period anterior 
to the construction of the dynasties of the Sun and 
Moon, no allusion to which thus far occurs* The 
princes named are sometimes described as in hostility 
with each other, and the condition of the provinces 
of India occupied by the Hindus was no doubt the 
same, which it continued to be until the Mohammedan 
conquest, — ^parcelled out amongst insignificant princi- 
palities, under petty and contending princes. 

Upon a subject of primary importance in the 
history of Hindu society, — the distinctions of caste, — 
the language of the Suktas, of the first AsMaJca at 
least, is by no means explicit. Whenever collectively 
alluded to, mankind are said to be distinguished into 
five sorts, or classes, or, literally, five men, or beings 
{pancha kshUayah). The commentator explains this 
term to denote the four castes. Brahman^ Kshatriya, 
Vaiit/Oy and SiidrOy and the barbarian, or Nishdda; but 
S'ayana^ of course, expresses the received impressions 
of his own age. We do not meet with the denomina- 
tions Kshalriya or Sudra in any text of the first book, 
nor with that of Vaiiya ; for Vis, which does occur, 
is there a synonyme of man in general. Brahman is 
met with, but in what sense is questionable. In the 

xliv iNTEODUcrnoN. 

neuter form Brahma^ it usually implies prayer or ^ 
praise, or sacrificial food, or, in one place, preservation 
(p. 274); in its masculine form Brahmd, it occurs 
as the praiser or reciter of the hymn (p. 204), or as 
the particular priest, so denominated, who presides 
ovOT the ceremonial of a sacrifice (p. 24); and in 
neither case does it necessarily imply a Brahman by 
caste; for that the officiating priests might not be 
Brahmansy appears from the part taken by Wi&wk^ 
MFTRA at the sacrifice of S'cjnahiSepas, who, although, 
according to tradition, by birth a Kshairiya^ exercises 
the functions of the priesthood. There is one phrase 
which is in &your of considering the Brahman as the 
member of a caste, as distinguished from that of the 
military caste (p. 279) : ** If you, Indra and Agni, 
have ever delighted in a Brahman or a R&j&^ then 
come hither;" but even this can scarcely be regarded 
as decisive. A hymn that occurs in a subsequent part 
of the Veda has, however, been translated by Mr. Cole- 
brooke, in which the four castes are specified by 
name, and the usual fable of their origin from Brahmd 
alluded to.* Further research is necessary, therefore, 
before a final sentence can be pronounced. 

From this survey of the contents of the first book 
of the Rig^ Vedoj although some very important ques- 

In the Purusha Siikta, in the eighth Ashfaka, we have this 
verse : " His mouth became a Brahman, his arm was made a 
Kshatriya, his thigh was transformed into a Vaiiya, from his feet 
sprung the Siidra, — Colebrooke on the Religious Ceremonies of the 
Hindus, AskUic Researches^ vol. vii. p. 251. 


tioos remain to be answered, It is indisputabiy evident 
that the hymns it comprises represent a form of reli- 
gious worship, and a state of society, very dissimilar 
to those we meet with in all the other scriptural 
authorities of the Hindus, whether BnihrnaHaSj Upanp- 
shadsy IHhdsas or heroic poems, or PurMas. Various 
notions, and personifications, and perscms, have, no 
doubt, been adopted from the Veda^ and transmitted 
to sul>8equent periods, although not unfrequently with 
important modifications; but the great mass of the 
ritual, all the most popular deities, possibly the princi- 
pal laws and distinctions of society, and the whole body 
of the Heroic and PaurMik dramatis person^y have no 
place, no part, in the SUktas of the Rtg- Veda. That 
the latter preceded the former by a vast interval, is 
therefore a necessary inference, for the immense and 
complicated machinery of the whole literature and 
mythology of the Hindus must have been of gradual 
and slow development; and as many of the genea- 
logical and historical traditions preserved by the RAmi^ 
yaHoy MabibhdratOy the poems, plays, and PurMasf 
are not likely to be mere inventions, but may have 
had their foundations in fact, then the course of 
events, the extension of the Hindus through India,' 
the origin and succession of regal dynasties, and the 
formation of powerful principalities, all unknown to 
the Sanhitdj are equally indicative of the lapse of 
centuries between the composition of the S4kta8 and 
the date of the earliest works that are subsequent 
to the great religious, social, and political changes 
which, in the interval, had taken place. If the hymns 


of the Sanhitd are genuine, — and there is no reason 
why they should not be so ; if there is any shadow of 
truth in the historical portions of the Jidrndyafia and 
Mahdbhdrata^ — ^and there must be some ; a thousand 
years would not be too long an interval for the altered 
conditions which are depictured in the older and in 
the more recent compositions. Considerations de- 
duced from the probable progress of Hindu literature 
are calculated to confirm this view of the distance 
that separates the age of the Veda from that of the 
later writings, and in this manner to lead to an 
approximation to the era of the former. The Suktas 
themselves are confessedly the compositions of various 
periods, as we might conclude from internal evidence, 
and were probably falling into forgetfiilness, before 
they were collected into the Sanhitds. We then have 
a succession of schools engaged in collecting, ar- 
ranging, and remodelling them, after which come 
the BrihmaAaSy citing their contents in a manner 
which proves that their collective compilation had 
become extensively current and was readily recog- 

After the BrdhmaHas^ come the Sutras^ rules 
for the application of the passages cited in the 
BrAhmaHas to religious ceremonies ; the works of 
authors, to all of whom a high antiquity is assigned, 
— Apastamboy K&ty&yana, and others, who quote 
the BrdJimaHas as their authorities. Of the philo- 
sophical Siitr{i89 the Sdnkhya^ which seems to be the 
oldest system, is, perhaps, independent of the Veda, 
but the FUrva and Uttara Mimdmds are declaredly 

iNTBODUcnoN. xlvii 

intended to expound and elucidate the philosophy 
and the practices of the Veda^ and are therefore 
necessarily subsequent to the Sanhitd and BrdhmaHa, 
although attributed to names of ancient celebrity, — 
Jaimini and Vy&sa. These works were possibly con- 
temporary with the liturgical aphorisms, the Ved&nta 
Sutras being also posterior to the Upanishads. Now 
all these writings are older than Manu^ whose cos- 
mogony is evidently a system of eclecticism compiled 
from the Upanishads^ the S&nkhya^ and the Vedanta, 
and many of whose laws, I learn from Dr. Miiller, 
are found in the liturgical Sutras ; yet Manu notices 
no AvatdrSy no Rama, no K^ish^a, and is conse- 
quently admitted to be long anterior to the growth 
of their worship, as set forth in the R&m^aHa and 

There is in Manu a faint intimation that Buddhist- 
teal opinions were beginning to exert an influence 
oyer the minds of men, in the admission that 
the greatest of virtues is abstinence from injury 
to living beings, which would make his laws poste- 
rior to the sixth century B.C. ; but, conjecturing the 
probable dates of the heroic poems to be about the 
third century B.C., we cannot place Manu lower than 
the fifth or sixth at least; beyond which, we have 
the whole body of philosophical and Vaidik literature. 
This wopld carry us, for the age of the Br6hma^ to 
the seventh or eighth, at the least ; and we cannot 
allow less than four or five centuries for the composi- 
tion and currency of the hymns, and the occurrence of 
those important changes, both civil and religious, 

xlviii INTRODUOnON. 

which the Brdhma/la exhibits. This will bring us to 
the same em as that which lias preyionsly been com- 
pated, or about twelve or thirteen centuries B.C. 
Mr. Colebrooke, from astronomical data, would give 
the Saktas a higher antiquity, as he places their ag- 
gregation, or Sanhitdy fourteen centuries B.C., a date 
not far from that which is here suggested.^ All this* 
is, no doubt, to be received with very great reserva- 
tion, for, in dealing with Hindu chronology, we have 
no trustworthy landmarks, no fixed eras, no compara- 
tive history to guide to us. In proposing the above 
dates, therefore, nothing more than conjecture is 
intended, and it may be wide of the truth. We can 
scarcely be far wrong, however, in assigning a very 
remote date to most, if not to all, the Suktas of the 
Rig- Veday and in considering them to be amongst the 
oldest extant records of the ancient world. 

The text which has served for the following trans- 
lation comprises the Suktas of the Rig- Veda and the 
commentary of Sdyaiia Achdrya^ printed by Dr. 
Miiller from a collation of manuscripts, of which he 
has given an account in his Introduction.^ S&yana 
AMrya viras the brother of Madhwoa AchdryOj the 
prime minister of VWa Bukka R&ya^ raja of Vijayawi^ 
gara, in the fourteenth century, a munificent patron of 
Hindu literature. Both the brothers are celebrated 
as scholars, and many important works are attributed 
to them ; not only scholia on the SanMids and Brdh' 

^ Astatic Researches, vii. 288, and viii. 483. 
f^'Veda, Fnhce, p, vii. 

INT1U)DUCTI0N. xlix 

maiias of the Vedas^ but original works on grammar 
and law ; the feet, no doubt, being, that they availed 
themselves of those means which their situation and in- 
fluence secured them, and employed the most learned 
Brahmans they could attract to Vijaj/anagara upon 
the works which bear their name, and to which they 
also contributed their own labour and learning : their 
works were therefore compiled under peculiar ad- 
vantages, and are deservedly held in the highest 

The scholia of SdyaiUk on Ihe text of the Rig" Veda 
comprise three distinct portions; the first interprets 
the original text, or rather translates it into more 
modem Sanskrit, fills up any ellipse, and if any 
legend is briefly alluded to, narrates it in detail; 
the next portion of the commentary is a gramma- 
tical analysis of the text, agreeably to the system 
of PdnirU, whose aphorisms, or SiitraSf are quoted ; 
and the third portion is an explanation of the ac- 
centuation of the several words : these two last 
portions are purely technical, and are untranslate- 
able. The first portion constitutes the basis of the 
English translation ; for although the interpretation of 
Sdf/afta may be occasionally questioned, he undoubt- 
edly had a knowledge of his text iar beyond the 
pretensions of any European scholar, and must have 
been in possession, either through his own learning or 
that of his assistants, of all the interpretations which 
had been perpetuated by traditional teaching from 
the earliest times. 


In addition to these divisions of his commentary, 
Sajfada prefaces each Siikta by a specification of 
its author, or Rishi; of the deity or deities to 
whom it is addressed; of the rhythmical structure 
of the several Rickets, or stanzas; and of the VinU 
yog(h the application of the hymn, or of portions 
of it» to the religious rites at which they are to be 
repeated. I have been unable to make use of this 
latter part of the description, as the ceremonies are 
chiefly indicated by their titles alone, and their pecu- 
liar details are not to be determined without a more 
laborious investigation than the importance or interest 
of the subject appeared to me to demand. 

I have perhaps to offer, if not an excuse, a plea for 
retaining the original denominations of the divisions of 
the Veda; as Sanhitdy MafiAalay Ashhktii Adht/dya^ 
Anuvdka^ Siikta, and Varga^ instead of attempting to 
express them by English equivalents. It appeared to 
me, however, that although the terms Collection, circle, 
book, lecture, chapter, hymn, and section might have 
been taken as substitutes, and in a general sense were 
allowable, yet they in no instance exactly expressed the 
meaning of the originals, and their use might have 
conveyed erroneous impressions. I have considered 
it advisable, therefore, to treat the original terms as 
if they were proper names, and have merely rendered 
them in Roman characters. I do not apprehend that any 
great inconvenience will be experienced from the use 
of these original designations, their conventional pur- 
port being readily remembered : I have also specified 


the metre that is employed in each SUkta^ in order to 
show the variety that prevails. The description of the 
different kinds will be found in Mr. Colebrooke's 
Eissay on Sanskrit and Prakrit Prosody, in the tenth 
volume of the Asiatic Researches. 


UtJidyy 1850. 





SiJkTaL MAft6ALA I. 

The first Siikta or Hymn is addressed to Agni. The JfisM or 
author b Madhvchhandas, the son of ViswImitra. The 
metre is Gdyatrt 

!• I glorify Agni,* the high priest of the sacri- v«rga i. 

^ A great variety of etymologies are devised to explain the 
meaning of the term Agni, the most of which are obviously fan- 
ciful, but the import of which expresses the notions entertained 
of his character and fimctions. On earth he is invoked (rdyate) 
the first (Agra) of the gods ; in heaven he is the leader (AgrarU) 
of the hosts of the gods ; he is the first of the gods (prathamo 
devdtuhn) ; he was the first-bom of the gods (sa vd esho agre 
devatandm ajdyata). In these derivations Agm is compounded 
irregularly out of agra, first, and iU, to lead. It is also derived 
from anga, body, because he offers his own substance in the light- 
ing of the sacrificial fire. The author of a Nirukta or glossary called 
SthtildaMvin, derives it from the root kmt, with the negative pre- 
fixed (akttopitgati), he who does not spare the fuel. Another 
compiler of a glossary, SdktqnUU, derives the word from three 

roots, t, to go, anj, to anoint, and dah, to bum, collectively ; the 



fice,* the divine,* the ministrant,'' who presents the 
oblation (to the gods), and is the possessor of great 

2. May that Agni who is to be celebrated by 
both ancient and modern sages^ conduct the gods 

3. Through Agni the worshipper obtains that 

letters being arbitrarily changed to ag, and m from the root A(, 
being added. See also Ydska's Nirukta, 7« 14. 

Agni is termed the Purohita, the priest who superintends 
family rites, or because he is one of the sacred fires in which 
oblations are first (purai) offered (At7a), 

Deva, which in common use means a god, is ordinarily ex- 
pluned in the passages in which it occurs in the Veda as ' the 
bright, shining, radiant,' being derived from div, to shine ; or it is 
also explained, one who abides in the sky or heaven (dyusthdsut). 
It is here also optionally rendered, liberal, donor, the sense of 
' giving' being ascribed to the same radical. 

fUtwij, a ministering priest, or, according to some, the 
ftUwiJ who is also the Hotri, — ^the term that follows in the text — 
the priest who actually presents the oblation, or who invokes or 
summons the deities to the ceremony, accordingly as the word is 
derived from hu, to sacrifice, or hve, to call. 

The word is ratnadhdtama, lit. holder of jewels ; but ratna 
is explained generally wealth, and figuratively signifies the reward 
of religious rites. 

The terms pdrva and ndtana, former and recent, applied to 
ftishis or sages, are worthy of remark, as intimating the existence 
of earlier teachers and older hymns* The old fishia are said to 
be Bhfigu, Angtros, and others ; perhaps those who are elsewhere 
termed Pr^apatis, — VisMu PurdAa, p. 49. 


aflBaence which increases day by day, which is the 
source of fame and the multiplier of mankind. 
' 4. Agni, the unobstructed sacrifice^ of which thou 
art on every side^ the protector, assuredly reaches 
the gods. 

5. May Aoni, the presenter of oblations, the 
attainer of knowledge,^ he who is true, renowned, ' 
and divine, come hither with the gods. 

6. Whatever good thou mayest, Agni, bestow Vargaii. 
upon the giver (of the oblation), that verily, 
Anoiras, shall revert to thee.^ 

^ Adkawnsm yajnam. The first is usually employed as a sub- 
stantive, meaning also sacrifice ; it is here used as an adjective* 
signifying free from injury or interruption ; that is, by Rdkshagas, 
evil spirits always on the alert to vitiate an act of worship. 

" On every side/' alludes to the fires which at a sacrifice 
should be lighted at the four cardinal p<Hnts, east, west, south, 
and north, termed severally the Ahavanfyu, Mdayatfya, Gdrhapatya, 
and AgtUdhrfya. 

Kavi-kraiu is here explained to signify one by whom either 
knowledge or religious acts (kratu) have been acquired or per- 
formed {krdnta) : the compound is commonly used as a synonyme 
of Agni, 

That is, the wealth bestowed upon the F<y omdmi, the person 
by whom or on whose behalf the sacrifice is performed, will 
enable him to multiply his oblations, by which Agni again will 
benefit. Instead of Agni repeated, we have in the second place 
Anghras as a sjrnoayme, which in Manm and all the PurdHas is 
the name of a fU$ki or PrqjdpaH^ one of the primitive mind-bom 
sons of Brahm& ; and the appellation is used frequently in the 
text of the Vtda in that sense, as the designation of a ^isU, 
the founder of a fiimily or of a school. The commentator quotes 

B 2 


7. We approach thee, Aoni, with reverential 
homage in our thoughts, daily, both morning and 

Ydska for the identity of Angiraa with Angdra, a live coal, and a 
passage from the Aitareya BrdhmaHa is cited, in which it is said, 
" the coals became the Angirasas" (ye angdrdk dsanste angiraso 
abhaoan). The identification of Angiras with Agni in fdnction, 
thongh not in person, is the subject of a legend, told rather con- 
fusedly and obscurely in the Mahdbhdrata Vanaparva (printed 
edition, vol. i. p. 712), by MdrkaMeya to YudhUhihira, in reply 
to his question how it happened formerly that Agni, having gone 
to the forest and his functions having ceased, Angiras became 
Agfd, and conveyed the oblations to the gods. Connected with 
this question he also inquires, how it is that Agni, who is one, 
should become many. MdrkaMeya therefore relates that Agni, 
having engaged in penance, and relinquishing his duties, the 
Muni Angiras took upon him his office, and when he prevailed 
upon Agni to resume it, became his son ; his descendants, the 
Angirasas, are therefore also the descendants of Agni, or so many 
Agnis, or fires. Their enumeration, which follows at some length, 
shows them to be for the most part personifications of light, of 
luminous bodies, of divisions of time, of celestial phenomena, and 
fires adapted to peculiar occasions, as the full and change of the 
moon, or to particular rites, as the Ahoamedha, Rdjasiiya, the Pdka 
yajnas, or sacrifices with food, obsequial and funeral fires, ex- 
piatory fires, and the like. The legend is possibly intended to 
represent the organization of worship with fire, which in the first 
instance was of a primitive and simple character, and its appro- 
priation to various occasions by Angiras and his disciples. The 
Mahdbhdrata is not contented with the first account, but gives a 
second, in which the first Agni is called Saha, and he is said to 
have hidden himself in the ocean to avoid the approach of Niyata, 
the son of Bharata, the fire of the funeral pile. The text says. 


8. Thee, the radiant, the protector of sacrifices, 
the constant illuminator of truth, increasing in thine 
own dwelling/ 

9. AoNi, be unto us easy of access, as is a father 
to his son ; be ever present with us for our good. 


The ftisM is Madhuchhandas ; the metre Gdyatrx, Of the 
nine stanzas of which the hymn consists, three are addressed 
to VItu, wind, three to Indra and ViTu conjoindj^and three 
to MiTRA and Varu^a. 

1. Vayu, pleasant to behold,^ approach: these Vargaiii. 

through fear/' the commentary says, either through fear of 
being rendered impure by his contact, or being ashamed of his 
relationship, Niyata being his own grandson. The gods coming 
to look for Agni, he designated as his substitute Atharvan, also 
called Angiras, who for a time acted as Agni, until the latter was 
induced to resume his office. The legend is constructed, as the 
commentary shows, out of Vaidik texts, but the details are clumsily 
and contradictorily put together, indicating, perhaps, their almost 
obsolete antiquity at the time of the compilation of the Mahdbhdrata. 

Swe dame, sud damo, the chamber in which fire-worship 
is performed, and in which the fire increases by the oblations 
poured upon it. Damah, for a home or house, is peculiar to the 

Vdyu is invoked in a visible form as the deity presiding over 
the wind; it is doubtful if the expressions which in this and 
similar instances intimate personality, are to be understood as 
indicating actual figures or idols : the personification is probably 
only poetical. 


libations* are prepared for thee, drink of them ; hear 
our invocation. 

2. Vayu, thy praisers praise thee with -holy 
praises,^ having poured out the Soma juice, and 
knowing the (fit) season. 

3. VAyu, thy approving speech'^ comes to the 
giver (of the libation), and to many (others who 
invite thee) to drink of the Soma juice. 

4. Indr^ and VAyu, these libations are poured 
out (for you); come hither with food (for us): 
verily the drops (of the Soma juice) await you 

5. Indra and VAyu, abiding in the sacrificial rite, 
you are aware of these libations : come both (then) 
quickly hither. 

vargaiY. 6. VAyu and Indra, come to the rite of the 

These Somas are libations of the juice of the Soma plant, the 
acid Asdepias or Sarcostema xnminalis, which yields to expressure 
a copious milky juice, of a mild nature and sub-acid taste. — 
Roxburgh, 2, 32. According to Mr. Stevenson, it is not used in 
sacrifices untD it has gone through tiie process of fermentation 
and has become a strong spirituous beverage. — Introduction to 
Translation of the Sdma Veda. This is warranted by numerous 
expressions in the following hymns. It is*' evidentiy the Horn of 
the Parsis, although they affirm that the plant is not to be found 
in India, and procure it from the mountains of Ghilau and Mazen- 
deran, and the neighbourhood of Yezd. 

With Ukthas, also designated Sastras, hymns of praise recited, 
not chanted or sung. 

Vdyu is supposed to say, I will drink the libation. 


sacrificer, for thus, men,* will completion be speedily 
(attained) by the ceremony, 

7. I invoke MrraA,'* of pore vigour, and VaruAa, 
the devourer of foes ; the joint accomplishers of the 
act bestowing water (on the earth)/ 

8. MiTBA and VABui^A, augmenters of water,^ 
dispensers of water, you connect this perfect rite 
with its true (reward). 

9. Sapient Mitba and Vabu&a, prosper our sa- 
crifice and increase our strength : you are bom for 
the benefit of many, you are the refuge of mul- 

^ Ncard, daal of nara, a man : this term is frequently applied to 
divine beings ; it is usually explained by the Scholiast, niifi, leader 
or guide, but it may be doubted if it does not convey the sense of 
male or mortal, alluding to the limited existence of the divinities. 
In this place it is said to be applicable to Vdyu and Indra, because 
they are possessed of manly vigour (poMrusheia admarthfena 

Mitra, in its ordinary sense» is a name of the sun; Varviia, of 
the regent of the waters ; but they are both included among the 
twelve Adityas, and in another place, Mitra is said to be the deity 
presiding over day, Forti^a over night : see note on Hymn xc. 

Dhiyam ghritdcMm sddhanid. The two first words, in the 
senses here explained, dM, an act, and gkritdchim, water-shedding, 
are peculiar to the Veda. As identified with the sun or as 
Adityas, Mitra and VaruAa are said to cause rain indirectly by 
producing evaporation ; the vapours thus raised becoming con- 
densed in the atmosphere descend again in showers. 

RUdvridhau, Rita usually means true or truth, but in the 
Veda it imports also water and sacrifice. 


SiJkta III. 

The ftislu and metre are the same as in the two preceding hymns : 
of twelve stanzas* three are addressed to the AiwiNs, three to 
Indra, three to the ViiiwADEyAs, and three to SaraswatI . 

Vaiga V. 1. ASwiNS,* cherfshers of pious acts, long-armed,^ 

accept with outstretched hands the sacrificial viands. 

2. AiSwiNS, abounding in mighty acts, guides (of 
devotion), endowed with fortitude, listen with un- 
averted minds to our praises. 

3. A^wiNS, destroyers of foes,* exempt from un- 
truth, leaders in the van of heroes,^ come to the 

^ The Ahcins are the two sons of the Son, hegotten during his 
metamorphosis as a horse (ahoa), endowed with perpetual youth 
and beauty, and physicians of the gods ; they are the heroes of 
many legends in the PurtUUta, but of still more in this Veda ; the 
enumeration of their wonderful actions is the especial subject of 
Hymns cxti. and cxni. 

Puruhkujd, which may be also rendered, great eaters. 

Dasrd, destroyers either of foes or of diseases ; the medical 
character of the Afwins is a Vaidik tradition, as in a text quoted by 
Sdyaia ("aSwinau vai devdndm hhUhajctu — iti Srutih*')^ the two 
ASwins verily are the physicians of the gods. — Veda, 

This is the Scholiast's interpretation of a rather curious com- 
pound, Rudra-varttani, Rudra, from the root rdd, implies weep- 
ing ; as say the Taittirfyas, — ^In as much as he wept, thence came 
the property or function of rudra (yad arod(t tad rudrasya rud^ 
ratwam) . This is also the PauraMk etymology. — VUMu Pur, The 
Vdjasaneyis make the verb causal, " they cause to weep," therefore 
they are rudras (yad rodayanti tasmdd rudrdh). From these 
texts SdyaAa renders rudra^ heroes, they who make their 


mixed libations sprinkled on the lopped sacred 

4. Indba, of wonderful splendour, come hither : 
these libations, ever pure, expressed by the fingers 
(of the priests), are desirous of thee. 

5. Indba, apprehended by the understanding and 
appreciated by the wise, approach and accept the 
prayers of the priest as he offers the libation. 

6. Fleet Indba with the tawny coursers, come 
hither to the prayers (of the priest), and in this 
libation accept our (proffered) food. 

7. Universal Gods,^ protectors and supporters of Varga vi. 
men, bestowers (of rewards), come to the libation 

of the worshipper. 

enemies weep. Varttani means a road or way ; or here it is said 
the front of the way, the van ; and the compound means, they 
who are in the van of warriors. 

Vjikta harhkhah. The sacred Aiwa grass [Poa cynotwroides), 
after haying had the roots cat off, is spread on the VedC or altar, 
and upon it the libation of Soma juice, or oblation of clarified 
butter, is poured out. In other places, a tuft of it in a similar 
position is supposed to form a fitting seat for the deity or deities 
invoked to the sacrifice. According to Mr. Stevenson, it is also 
strewn over the floor of the chamber in which the worship is 

The Vtiwadevitt are sometimes vaguely applied to divinities in 
genenQ ; but they also form a class, whose station and character 
are imperfectly noticed, but who are entitled, at most religious 
rites, to share in the solemnity. In this and the two next stanzas, 
forming a Tficha ot triad, to be recited at the worship of the 
Viiwadevas, some of their attributes are particularized, connecting 
them with the elements. 


8. May the swift-moving uniyenBal Gods, the 
shedders of rain, come to the libation, as the solar 
rays come * diligently* to the days. 

9. May the universal Gods, who are exempt from 
decay, omniscient,^ devoid of malice, and bearers (of 
riches), accept the sacrifice. 

10. May Saraswati,^ the purifier, the bestower 
of food, the recompenser of worship with wealth, be 
attracted by our offered viands to our rite. 

11. SaraswatI, the inspirer of those who delight 
in truth, the instructress of the right-minded, has 
accepted our sacrifice. 

12. Sabaswati^ makes manifest by her acts a 
mighty river, and (in her own form) enlightens all 

The original word is uncommon, Ehimdydsah, The Scholiast 
explains it by those who have obtained knowledge miiversally 
(sarvatah prdptaprajndh) ; or it may refer, Sdyaiia states, to a 
legend in which the Vihoadevas addressed the Agni, Sauchika, who 
had gone into the water, saying, j^^', come, tnd ydsih, do not go 
away ; from whence they derived the appellation Ehimdydsah, It 
is more than probable that the origin and import of the term were 
forgotten when SdyaAa wrote. 

S€tra8tDat{ IB here, as ebewhere, the Vdg-devatd, divinity of 
speech} other attributes are alluded to in the text; the three 
stanzas forming a tficha to be repeated at her worship. 

SaraswaiCui here identified with the river so named. 



StJkta I. (IV.) 

The ftishi and metre continue unchanged ; the Hymn is addressed 

to Indba. 

1. Day by day we invoke the doer of good works Vaigavii, 
for our protection, as a good milch-cow for the 
milking (is called by the milker). 

2. Drinker of the Soma juice, come to our (daily) 
rites, and drink of the libation ; the satisfaction of 
(thee who art) the bestower of riches, is verily (the 
cause of) the gift of cattle/ 

3. We recognize thee in the midst of the right- 
minded, who are nearest to thee : come to us ; pass 
us not by to reveal (thyself to others).^ 

4. Go, worshipper, to the wise and uninjured 
Indra, who bestows the best (of blessings) on thy 
friends, and ask him of the (fitness of the) learned 
(priest who recites his praise).® 

5. Let our ministers, earnestly performing his 

That is, if Indra be satisfied, he will augment the worshipper's 
herds. The notion is very ellipticaUy expressed. 

Here again we have elliptical phraseology ; the original is 
md no aiikhydht lit. do not speak beyond us ; the complete sense 
is supplied by the Scholiast. 

^ The injmiction is addressed to the Yt^amdna, who is desired 
to ask if the Hotfi, or invoker whom he employs, is fit for his 
doty. The Hotfi himself is supposed to enjoin this. 


worship, exclaim,* Depart ye revilers from hence 
and etery other place (where he is adored), 
varga VIII. 6. Dostroyor of foes, let our enemies say we are 
prosperous ; let men (congratulate us) ; may we ever 
abide in the felicity (derived from the favour) of 

7. Offer to Indba, the pervader (of every rite of 
libation), the juice that is present (at the three 
ceremonies), the grace of the sacrifice, the exhila- 
rator of mankind, the perfecter of the act, the 
favourite of (that Indba) who gives happiness (to 
the offerer).'* 

8. Having drunk, Satakratd,*' of this {Soma 
juice), thou becamest the slayer of the V^itras ;^ 
thou defendest the warrior in battle. 

* The Scholiast would explain bruvantu^ let them say, by let 
them praise Indra, bat this does not seem to be necessary ; the 
sense is connected with what follows, let them say procul este 

These epithets of the Soma juice would be somewhat unintelli- 
gible without the aid of the Scholiast. The perfecter of the acts, 
karmdii prdpttuvantam, is his rendering of paiayaatam, causing to 
fall, and the last phrase, mandayat'Sakkam, the friend of the de- 
lighter, he explains as in the text. 

Satakratu, a name of Jndra, is explained by SdyaHa, he who 
is connected with a hundred (many) acts, religious rites, boAu 
karmma yukta, either as their performer or their object; or it may 
be rendered endowed with great wisdom ; kratu implying either 
karma, act, or prajnd, knowledge. In the first sense the word may 
be the source of the PauraMk fiction that the dignity of Indra is 
attainable by a hundred Ahoamedhas. 

VfUrdMm, o£ the enemies of whom the Asura, Vfitra, was the 


9. We offer to thee, S'atakratu, the mighty in 
battle, (sacrificial) food for the acquirement, Indra, 
of riches. 

10. Sing unto that Indra who is the protector of 
wealth, the mighty, the accomplisher of good deeds, 
the friend of the offerer of the libation. 

SiJkta II. (V.) 
The deity, Jtishi, and metre are unchanged. 

1. Hasten hither, friends, offering praises ;* sit Varga ix. 
down, and sing repeatedly the praises of Indra. 

2. When the libation is poured forth, respectively 
praise Indra, the discomfiter of many enemies, the 
lord of many blessings. 

3. May he be to us for the attainment of our ob- 
jects; may he be to us for the acquirement of riches; 
may he be to us for the acquisition of knowledge ; 
may he come to us with food. 

4. Sing to that Indra, whose enemies in combats 
await not his coursers harnessed in his car. 

5. These pure Soma juices, mixed with curds, are 

head, according to the Scholiast. We shall hear more of VfUra 

Stoma vdhasat, lit. bearing praises. Rosen translates it 
' sacra* ferenies ; M. Langlois, vaus qui avez un trisor tTkynmes 
{sacris). Sdyaht explains the expression " presenting in this rite 
Trwrit, Panchada^, and others," that is, collections of laudatory 
stanzas in the ftig^veda so denominated. — VtsMu PurdAa, 42. 


poui^d out for the satisfiEu^tion of the drinker of the 
VargaX. 6. Thou, Indsa, performer of good works, hast 

suddenly become of augmented vigour for the sake 
of drinking the libation, and (maintaining) seniority^ 
(among the gods). 

7. Indba, who art the object of praises, may 
these pervading Soma juices enter into thee ; may 
they be propitious for thy (attainment of) superior 

8. The chants (of the Sdmaf have magnified 
thee, S'ATAKRATU, the hymns (of the Rich) have 
magnified thee ; may our praises magnify thee. 

9. May Indra, the unobstructed protector, enjoy 
these manifold (sacrificial) viands, in which all manly 
properties abide. 

10. Indra, who art the object of praises, let not 
men do injury to our persons : thou art mighty, keep 
off violence. 

Jyaishihymn, abstract of Jyeshfka, elder, oldest ; but it may 
also mean best or cbiefest. 

The Scholiast supplies these particulars, the terms of the text 
being simply ^/offufA and ukthdh; the former, he says, are the 
praises of the singers of the Sdma (Sdmagdnam stotrdAi), the latter 
the hymns of the reciters of the Bahvfich {Bahvfichdndm sastrd^ ; 
but of this and other passages where SdydUi inserts the designation 
of other Vedas, — ^the Sdma and the Yqfttsh, — ^it is to be observed 
that the accuracy of his additions involves the prior existence of 
those Vedas, at least to the hymns of the ftich in which they are 
supposed to be alluded to ; a conclutton which there is reason to 
hesitate admitting. 



The ftishi and metre contibaed. The three first stanzas and 
the last are addressed to Indra, the rest to the Maruts, or 

1. The circum-stationed (inhabitants of the three Varga xi. 
worlds)* associate with (Indba), the mighty (Sun), 

the indestructive (fire), the moving (wind), and the 
lights that shine in the skj.^ 

2. Thej (the charioteers) harness to his car his 

The text has only Paritasthushah, those who are standing 
around : the loka iraya varttinah prdAinah, the living heings of 
the three worlds, is the explanation of the Scholiast. 

Of the three first ohjects, the text gives only the ejuthets 
Vradhna, the mighty, to which SdyaHa adds Aditya, the sun, 
Arusha, the non-injnring, to which Fire is supplied, and Charon, 
the moving, an epithet of Wind. The last phrase is complete, — 
rochante rochand dwi. 8dyaAa*s additions are supported hy a 
BrdhmaAa, which explains the epithets as equivalent severaUy to 
Aditya, Agni, and Vdpt (Asau vd, Adityo vradhnah; Agnir vd 
arushah ; Vdyurvd charan) ; we may therefore admit it. The 
identification of Intb'a with the three, implies, the Scholiast says, 
his supremacy, — ^he is paramaiiwarya yukta; but the text says 
they join (yunjanti) ; and it does not appear exactly whom, for 
Indra is not named ; as the following stanzas show, however, 
that the hymn is addressed to Indra, he may be allowed to keep 
his place as essentially one with the sun, fire, wind, and the 


two desirable coursers,* placed on either hand,'* bay- 
coloured, high-spirited, chief-bearing.® 

3. Mortals, you owe your (daily) birth (to such 
an Indra), who with the rays of the morning gives 
sense to the senseless, and to the formless form.^ 

4. Thereafter verilv those who bear names in- 
voked in holy rites (the Maruts)^ having seen the 
rain (about to be engendered), instigated him to 
resume his embryo condition (in the clouds). 

5. Associated with the conveying M aruts, the 
traversers of places difBcult of access, thou, Indra, 
hast discovered the cows hidden in the cave.^ 

The hones of Indra are named Har{, usually considered as 
denoting their colour, green or yellow, or as Rosen has it, flavi. 
In this same verse we have them presently described as So^, 
crimson, bright bay, or chestnut. 

Vipakshasd, harnessed on different sides. Sdya^ says of the 
chariot, we should say of the pole ; but the Hindu ratha may not 
have had a pole. 

Literally, men-bearing, — njrwdhasa. 

Indra is here again identified with the sun, whose morning 
rays may be said to reanimate those who have been dead in sleep 
through the night. There is some difficulty in the construction, 
for Marydh, mortals, is plural, while ajdyathdh is the second person 
singular of the first preterite. SdyaAa is of opinion that the 
want of concord is a Vaidik license, and that the plural substan- 
tive Marydh has been put for the singular Marya, 

The Maruts are not named in the text, but the allusions 
justify the conmientator's specification : the winds drive Indra, or 
the firmament, into an aggregation of clouds, in which the nun 
again collects, as in their womb. 

Allusion is here made to a legend which is frequently ad- 


6. The reciters of praises praise the mighty Vargaxii. 
(troop of Maruts), who are celebrated, and con- 
scious of the power of bestowing wealth, in like 
manner as they (glorify) the counsellor (Indra). 

7. May you be seen, Maruts, accompanied by 
the undaunted Indra;* (both) rejoicing, and of 
equal splendour. 

8. This rite is performed in adoration of the 
powerful Inora, along with the irreproachable, 
heavenward-tending, and amiable bands (of the 

9. Therefore, circumambient (troop of Maruts), 
come hither, whether from the region of the sky 
or from the solar sphere;^ for in this rite (the 
priest) fully recites your praises. 

10. We invoke Indra, whether he come from 

▼erted to, of the Asuras named Pdiis, having stolen the cows of 
the gods, or according to some versions, of the Angirasas, and 
hidden them in a cave, where they were discovered hy Indra with 
the help of the bitch Saramd. A dialogue between her and the 
robbers is given in another place, in which she conciliates them : 
in other passages the cows are represented as forcibly recovered 
by Indra with the help of the Maruts, 

^ Allusion, it is said, is here made to a battle between Indra 
and Vfiira ; the gods who had come to the aid of the former 
were driven away by VfUra's dogs, and Indra, to obtain the supe- 
riority, summoned the Maruts to his assistance. 

The region of the winds is properly the Dyu-loka, the heaven, 
or region above the Awtariksha or sky, or they may come from 
a sphere of light further above, or the solar region, Aditya moA^ 



this earthly region, or from the heaven above, or 
from the vast firmament,* that he may give (us) 

SliKTA IV. (VII.) 
The deity, Rishi, and metre as before. 

Vai^a XIII. 1. The chanters (of the Sdma) extol Indra with 
songs, the reciters of the JRich with prayers, (the 
priests of the Yaj\ish) with texts.^ 

Either the Prithivi loka or the Dyu-loka; the text adds 
Maho-rajtisah, which the Scholiast explains the great Antariksha 
loka, the sphere of the firmament, which is properly the space 
between the earth and heaven, corresponding with Vyoman or 
Akaa, the sky or atmosphere. — Manu, 1,13. 

The Scholiast supplies the specification of the several Vedas. 
The first term, Gdthina, merely means singers, although he ren- 
ders it G{yamdnasdmayukta'Udgdtdrah, " the Udgatrh with Sdmas 
tol)e chanted," an interpretation, bethinks, confirmed by the next 
term (songs), Vrihat for Vfikatd, " with the Vfikat'Sdma/' The 
next phrase, ArkiAa-arkehhih, is more akin to l^ich, " Those of the 
Rig-veda, with stanzas," but it is not necessarily confined to that 
sense ; and as Arka is a synonyme of Mantra, a prayer, the sense 
may be, those who pray or praise Indra with prayers. For the 
Adkwaryus, or priests of the Yajush, we have nothing at all in the 
(0 original ; and the term VdfUh for VdfUbhih, ** with texts or words," 

which occurs apparently without any grammatical connexion, may 
be referred either to the singers or the reciters of the prayers. It 
is applied by the Scholiast to the texts of the Yt^uah, apparently 
only because he had connected the preceding expressions with 
the other two Vedas : as already remarked, any reference to the 
Yajush or Sdma in a verse of the Rich, implies the priority of the 
two former to the latter. 


2. Inbra, the blender of all things, comes verily 
with his steeds that are harnessed at his word: 
Indra, the richly-decorated,* the wielder of the 

3. Indra, to render all things visible, elevated 
the sun in the sky,'* and charged the cloud with 
(abundant) waters. 

4. Invincible Indra, protect us in battles abound- 
ing in spoil, with insuperable defences. 

6. We invoke Indra for great affluence, Indra 
for limited wealth ; (our) ally, and wielder of the 
thunderbolt against (our) enemies. 

6. Shedder of rain, granter of all desires, set open Varga xiv. 
this cloud. Thou art never uncompliant with our 

7. Whatever excellent praises are given to other 
divinities, they are (also the due) of Indra the 
thunderer : I do not know his fitting praise. 

8. The shedder of rain, the mighty lord, the 
always compliant, invests men with his strength, as 
a bull (def(3nds) a herd of kine. 

9. Indra, who alone rules over men, over riches, 

^ So the Scholiast explains the term of the text, HiraHyttya,- 
literally, goldeD, or made of gold. 

The world being enveloped in darkness by Vfiira, Indra, in. 
order to remove it, elevated {drohayat, or as the comment says 
sthdpitavdn, placed) the smi in the DyU'loka, or heaven : the 
latter part of the passage may also be rendered, he (the snn) ani- 
mated die mountain (t. e, the world) with his rays. 

c 2 


and over the five (classes) of the dwellers on 

10. We invoke for you, Indba, who is every- 
where among men : may he be exclusively our own. 


StfKTA I. (VIII.) 
The ddty, JRishi, and metre as before. 

Vargi XV. 1. Indra, bring for our protection riches, most 
abundant, enjoyable, the source of victory, the 
humbler of our foes. 

2. By which we may repel our enemies, whether 
(encountering them) hand to hand,* or on horse- 
back ; ^ ever protected by thee. 

3. Defended by thee, Indra, we possess a pon- 
derous weapon, wherewith we may entirely conquer 
our opponents. 

4. With thee for our ally, Indra, and (aided by) 

The text has, over the five men or classes of men, pancha 
kshitindm ; the latter term is explained etymologically, those who 
are fit for habitations (nivdsdrhdndm) : the phrase is of not un^- 
qnent recurrence, and is usually said to imply the four castes, 
Brdkmdkts, Kshairiyas, Vaiiyas, and Siidras, and Nishddas, bar- 
barians, or those who have no caste, intending possibly the abo- 
riginal races of India, all in a very low stage of civilization, like 
the Gonds, Koles, and Bhih of the present day. 

Literally, by striking with the fist, tnushfi hatyayd. 

C (f 

With a horse;" the Scholiast explains this and the pre- 
ceding to intend infantry and cavalry. 


missile-burliDg heroes, we are able to overcome (our 
foes) arrayed in hosts. 

5. Mighty is Indba, and supreme ; may magni- 
tude ever (belong) to the bearer of the thunderbolt ; 
may his strong (armies) be ever vast as the heavens. 

6. V Whatever men have recourse to Tndra in Vargixvi. 
battle, or for the acquirement of offspring, and the 

wise who are desirous of understanding, (obtain their 

7. The belly of Indra, which quaffs the Soma 
juice abundantly, swells like the ocean, (and is ever) 
moist, like the ample fluids of the palate.*" 

8. Verily the words of Indra to his worshipper 
are true, manifold, cow-conferring, and to be held 
in honour ; (they are) like a branch (loaded with) 
ripe (fruit). 

9. Verily, Indra, thy glories are at all times the 
protectors of every such worshipper as I am. 

10. Verily his chanted and recited praises^ are 
to be desired and repeated to Indra, that he may 
drink the Soma juice. 

The Scholiast expomids the text urvirdpo na kdkudah as ren- 
dered above ; but kdkuda may refer to kakud, the pinnacle of a 
mountain, and the phrase might then be translated, like the 
abundant waters (or torrents) from the mountain-tops. 

The first is the translation of Stoma, which the commentary 
defines, Sdma-sddhyam stotram, praise to be accomplished by the 
Sdma-Veda: the second is the rendering of Uktha, which the 
same authority describes as the ^ik-sddhyam iastram, the unsung 
praise to be accomplished by the ftieh. Sastram is explained by 


Sl^KTA II. (IX.) 

Divinity, Jfiski, and metre the Bame. 

Varga XVII. 1. Come, Indba, and be regaled with all viands 
and libations, and thence, mighty in strength, be 
victorious (over thy foes). 

2. The libation being prepared, present the ex- 
hilarating and efficacious (draught) to the rejoicing 
Indra, the accomplisher of all things. 

3. Indra with the handsome chin,* be pleased 
with these animating praises : do thou, who art to 
be reverenced by all mankind,^ (come) to these 
rites (with the gods). 

Sridhara Swdmi, in the scholia on the Bhdgavata Purdda, to sig- 
nify a sacred hymn not sung ; Sastram apragdamantrastotram ; the 
repetition of which is the office of the Hoiri; Hotuh'karma; while 
Stuii and Stoma imply the sang or chanted hymn, SfrngUam sto- 
tram. M. Bomonf renders Sa9/ra, les prih'es (mentales) qui aoni 
comme le glaive; and in a note in the VisMu PurdAa, I have trans- 
lated the same expression of the Bhdgavata, the nnnttered incan- 
tation (p. 42» n.); hut it may he douhted if this is quite correct; 
the difference between Sastra and Stoma seems to be, that one is 
recited, whether audibly or inaudibly, the other sung. 

Su-sipra; but Sipra means either the lower jaw, or the nose, 
and the compound may equally denote the handsome-nosed. 

The epithet viSwa-charshaHe, is literaDy, '' oh ! thou who art 
all men," or as SdgaAa ezplams it, sarva-mamiahga'puIUa, who 
art joined with all men, which he qualifies as, sarvair yajamdmiih 
pujyah, to be worshipped by all institutors of sacrifices. It may 
be doubted if this be all that is intended ; Rosen renders it, om- 
nium homimm domme; M. Langlois has, maitre souverain. 


4. I have addressed to thee, Indra, the showerer 
(of blessings), the protector (of thy worshippers), 
praises which have reached thee,* and of which thou 
hast approved 

5. Place before us, Indra, precious and multi- 
form riches, for enough and more than enough are- 
assuredly thine. 

6. Opulent Indra, encourage us in this rite for Varga xviii. 
the acquirement of wealth, for we are diligent and 

7. Grant us, Indra, wealth beyond measure or 
calculation, inexhaustible, the source of cattle, of 
food, of all life. 

8. Indra, grant us great renown and wealth ac- 
quired in a thousand ways, and those (articles) of 
food (which are brought from the field) in carts.^ 

9. We invoke, for the preservation of our pro- 
perty, Indra, the lord of wealth, the object of 
sacred verses, the repairer (to the place of sacrifice),'' 
praising him with our praises. 

10. With libations repeatedly effused, the sacri- 

The Scholiast makes this, "reached thee in heaven/' or Swarga, 
It may be questioned if the Veda recognizes Swarga as the heaven 
of Indra. 

The original of this hymn, as of many others, is so concise 
and elliptical, as to be unintelligible without the liberal amplifica- 
tion of the Scholiast. We have in the text simply, " those car- 
having viands," id rathintr-hhah, meaning, Sdyatia says, those 
articles of food which are conveyed in cars, carts, or waggons, from 
the site of their production ; as rice, barley, and other kinds of grain. 

Here, again, we have only ganidram, he who goes, that is, 


ficer glorifies the vast prowess of Indba, the mighty, 
the dweller in (an eternal mansion)/ 

StfKTA in. (X.) 

The divinity and ftishi are the same ; the metre is the common 


VargaXix. 1. The chantors (of the Sdma) hymn thee, S'a- 
takratu ; the reciters of the Richas praise thee, who 
art worthy of praise; the Brdhmanas^ raise thee 
aloft, like a bamboo pole. 

according to the comment, he who is accustomed to go to the 
chamber which is appropriated to sacrifices, ydga-deiegamanasdam. 

The epithet is Nyokas, from ni, explained niyata, fixed, per- 
manent, and okas, dwelling. 

This stanza is nearly similar to the first stanza of the seventh 
hymn (see p. 18), and is similarly expounded by the commentator. 
The first term, GdyairiAa, literally those who employ the Gdyair{ 
metre, is said by SdyaAa to denote the Udgdtfi, the chanter of the 
hymns of the Sdma ; Arkiia is explained as before, the reciters of 
the ^ich, and the same as the Hotri of a sacrifice. The third term, 
BrahmdAah, is explained the Brahmd of a sacrifice, or priest so 
denominated, and the other Brahmans. The objection to the ex- 
planation of the first, as involving the prior recognition of the 
Sdma-veda, has been already noticed. The total disconnection of 
the term BrahnuUiah, the plural of Brahman, from any refer- 
ence to Brahmans, as bearing a share in religious rites, and as 
implying only Betenden, utterers of prayer, as proposed by 
Dr. Roth (Zeitschrifi der Deutschm morgenUtndigchen GeseUschaft, 
Heft 1, s. 66), cannot be admitted without further investigation, 
although it may be possible that the Brahmd of a sacrifice does 
not necessarily involve the notion of a Brahman by caste. Rosen 
renders the word, Brahmani; M. Lang\6iB,pr^ires, The concluding 


2. Indra, the sbowerer (of blessings), knows the 
object (of his worshipper), who has performed many 
acts of worship (with the Soma plant gathered) on 
the ridges of the mountain,^ and (therefore) comes 
with the troop (of Maruts). 

3. Indra, drinker of the Soma^ having put to thy 
long-maned, vigorous, and well-conditioned steeds,'* 
come nigh to hear our praises. 

4. Come, Vasu,*' (to this our rite) ; reply to our 

phrase, tuxi vangam iva udyemire, " they have raised thee hke a 
bamboo/' is rather obscure; the Scholiast says, they have elevated 
Indra, as tamblers raise a bamboo pole, on the summit of which 
they balance themsdves, a not uncommon feat in India; or as vansa 
means also a family, it may be rendered, as ambitious persons 
raise their family to consequence. Roth's proposed rendering, 
die Betenden sck&tteln dkh auf wie num ein Rohr schUttelt, " the 
praying agitate thee up as one shakes a reed," has no warrant, 
except from his theory of the purport of Brahmd, " irresistible 
prayer," as udyam never means to shake, and a bamboo is not a 
reed, nor is it, when substantial, easily shaken. Rosen has, it is 
- true, te anmdinia instar erigunt; but he had no preferable equiva- 
lent for bamboo. M. Langlois has, comme on it^ve la hampe d'un 
drapeau. SdyaAa, no doubt, knew much better than either of 
the European interpreters what the expression intended. 

The original has only, mounting from ridge to ridge, y(U 
adnoh fdmtm druhat, which the Scholiast completes by observing 
that this is said of the Yajamdna, who goes to the mountain to 
gather either the Soma plant for bruising, or fuel for the fire, or 
other articles required for the ceremony. 

Kakshyaprd, lit. filling out their girths. 

Vasu, here used as a synonyme of Indra, is explained as the 
original donor or cause of habitations, firom the radical vas, to 
dwell, niudsa kdraAa hhiUa, 

26 qjchVEDA sanhitA. 

hymnS) answer (to our praises), respond to (our 
prayers) ; be propitious, Indba, to our sacrifice, and 
(bestow upon us abundant) food. 

5. The hymn, the cause of increase, is to be re* 
peated to Indra, the repelier of many foes, that 
S'aesa^ may speak (with kindness) to our sons and 
to our friends. 

6. We have recourse to Indba for his friendship, 
for wealth, for perfect might ; for he, the powerful 
Indra, conferring wealth, is able (to protect us). 

Varga XX. 7. Indra, by thee is food (rendered) everywhere 
abundant, easy of attainment, and assuredly perfect: 
wielder of the thunderbolt, set open the cow-pas- 
tures,^ and provide (ample) wealth. 

8. Heaven and earth are unable to sustain thee 
when destroying thine enemies ; thou mayest com- 
mand the waters of heaven : send us liberally kine. 

9. Oh !. thou whose ears hear all things, listen 
quickly to my invocation ; hold in thy heart my 
praises ; keep near to thee this my hymn, as it were 
(the words of) a friend. 

10. We know thee, liberal rainer (of blessings), 
the hearer of our call in battles; we invoke the 
thousand-fold profitable protection of thee, the 
showerer (of bounties). 


Sakra is a common synonyme of Indra, but is used, if not in 
this, clearly in the next stanza, as an epithet implying ' the power- 
ful/ from Sak, to be able. 

The text is literally rendered: the meaning being that Indra, 
as the sender of rain, should fertilize the fields, and by providing 
abundant pasturage, enable the cattle to yield store of milk. 


11. Come quickly, Indra, son of Kv&jka^^ de- 
lighted drink the libation; prolong the life that 
merits commendation ; make me, who am a Rishi^ 
abundantly endowed (with possessions). 

12. May these our praises be on all occasions 
around thee, deserver of praise ; may they augment 
the power of thee, who art long-lived, and being 
agreeable to thee, may they yield delight (to us). 

StfKTA IV. (XI.) 

The divinity is still Indra, but the ^ishi is now styled Jbtri, the 
wm of Madhuchhandas ; the metre is Anush^bk, 

1. All our praises magnify Tndra, expansive as Varga xxi. 
the ocean,^ the most valiant of warriors who fight 

in chariots, the lord of food, the protector of the 

2. Supported by thy friendship, Indra, cherisher 
of strength, we have no fear, but glorify thee, the 
conqueror, the unconquered. 

3. The ancient liberalities of Indra, his protec- 

In all the PaurdAik genealogies, the son of Ktdika is the sage 
Vihodmitra; and in order to explain its application to Indra, 
Sdyana quotes the legend given in the Index {AnukramaAUid), 
which states that KuHka, the son of IsMrathi, being desirous of a 
son equal to Indra, adopted a life of continence, in requital of 
Tvhich, Indra was bom as the son of Gdth{, the Gddhi of the 

Samudra vyachasam, explained samudra vad vydptavantam, 
spreading or pervading like the ocean ; a vague mode of indicating 
the universal diffusion of Indra as the firmament. 


tionSy will not be wanting to bim who presents to 
the reciters of the hymns, wealth of food and cattle. 

4. Indra was bom the destroyer of cities," ever 
young, ever wise, of unbounded strength, the sus- 
tainer of all pious acts, the wielder of the thunder- 
bolt, the many-praised. 

6. Thou, wielder of the thunderbolt, didst open 
the cave of Vala,^ who had there concealed the 
cattle ; and the gods whom he had oppressed, no 
longer feared when they had obtained thee (for 
their ally). 

6. (Attracted) by thy bounties, I again come. 
Hero, to thee, celebrating (thy liberality) while 
ofiering this libation; the performers of the rite 
approach thee, who art worthy of praise, for they 
have known thy (munificence). 

7. Thou slowest, Indra, by stratagems, the wily 

^ The text has only purdm bhinduh, breaker of cities; the 
Scholiast adds osurdMm, of the Asuras. 

Vahit according to the Scholiast, was an Asura, who stole the 
cows of the gods and hid them in a cave ; Indra surrounded the 
cave with his army, and recovered the cattle. In the legend, as 
cited from the AnakramaMkd, the Panis, formerly noticed as the 
cow-stealers (p. 16, n. f), are said to be the soldiers of Vdla, 
and the actual thieves and concealers of them in the cave. Rosen 
conceives some relation to exist between this legend and that of 
Cactts (quas fabulas aliquo cognationis vinculo inter se cantineri, et 
ex uno eodemque fonte quantumvis remoto, derivatas esse persuaswn 
quidetn est mihi, — Adnotationes, p. xxi.) ; but the story is likely to 
have originated in incidents common to an early and partly pas- 
toral stage of society : we have the Cacus of the Highlands, and 
the Vala of the Veda, in such worthies as Donald Ben Lean. 


S'UShAa :* the wise have known of this thy (great- 
ness) ; bestow upon fhem (abundant) food. 

8. The reciters of sacred hymns praise with all 
their might, Indra, the ruler of the world, whose 
bounties are (computed by) thousands, or even 

anuvAka IV. 

StfKTA I. (XII.) 

The deity addressed is Aoni ; the J^iahi is Mbdhatithi, the son 

of Ka^wa ; the metre Gdyatri, 

1. We select Agni, the messenger of the gods,^ vargaxxii. 
their invoker, the possessor of all riches, the per- 

fecter of this rite. 

2. (The oiferers of oblations) ipvoke with their 
invocations, Agni, Aoni, the lord of men,* the 
bearer of offerings, the beloved of many. 

3. Agni, generated* (by attrition), bring hither 

SusMa is described as an Asura slain by Indra; but this is 
evidently a metaphorical murder. SusMa means dryer up, ex- 
uccator ; bhutdnam sosha^-hetum, the cause of the drying or 
withering of beings, heat or drought ; which Indra, as the rain, 
would put an end to. 

The commentator cites the Taittvriya BrdhmaAa in confirm- 
ation of this function ; Ukmas, the son of Kavi, being the mes- 
senger of the Asuras, Agmr devdndm data dsCd; Ukmdh kdvyo 

VUpati; VU being constantly used for prqfdh, progeny, 
people, men. 

The original has only jajndnah^ ' being bora,' that is, being 


the gods to the clipped sacred grass ; thou art their 
invoker for us, and art to be adored. 

4. As thou dischargest the duty of messenger, 
arouse them desirous of the oblation ; sit down with 
them on the sacred grass. 

5. Resplendent Agni, invoked by oblations of 
clarified butter, consume our adversaries, who are 
defended by evil spirits.* 

6. Agni, the ever young and wise, the guardian 
of the dwelling^ (of the sacrificer), the bearer of 
offerings, whose mouth is (the vehicle) of oblations, 
is kindled by Agni.® 

Varga XXIII. 7. Praise in the sacrifice, Agni, the wise, the 

observer of truth, the radiant, the remover of 

8. Resplendent Agni, be the protector of that 
offerer of oblations who worships thee, the messenger 
of the gods. 

9. Be propitious,* Pdvaka^ to him who, present- 

artificially produced by the friction of two pieces of a particular 
species of wood, that of the Premna spinosa, used for the purpose. 

Rakshasmnah, having or being attended by Rdkshasas, 

Grihapati; but pati is most usually interpreted by Sdydka, 
pdJaka, the cherisher or protector; hence it here characterizes 
Agni as the protector of the house of the Yajamdna. 

That is, the Ahavatdya fire, into which the oblation is poured, 
is lighted by the application of other fire, whether taken from the 
household fire or produced by attrition. 

A name of fire, or a fire ; literally, the purifier. 


ing oblations for the gratification of the gods, ap- 
proaches Agni.* 

10. Agni, the bright, the purifier, bring hither 
the gods to our sacrifice, to our oblations. 

11. Praised with our newest hymn, bestow upon 
us riches and food, the source of progeny, 

12. Agni, shining with pure radiance, and charged 
with all the invocations of the gods, be pleased by 
this our praise. 


The ^isM and the metre are the same, but the H3rinn is addressed 
to a variety of divinities or deified objects, to which the general 
name j^pr{ is applied. The £u*st five stanzas hymn various 
forms of Agni ; the sixth, the doors of the hall of sacrifice ; 
the seventh, morning and night; the eighth, two divine or 
deified priests ; the ninth, the goddesses IlX, SaraswatI , and 
BhIratI ; the tenth, Twashtri ; the eleventh, Vanaspati ; 
and the twelfth, SwXhX. They are all considered as identifi- 
able or connected with Aoni. 

1. Agni, who art Susamiddha,^ invoker, purifier, Vargaxxiv. 
bring hither the gods to the offerers of our oblation, 

and do thou sacrifice. 

2. Wise (Agni), who art TantItnapat,* present 

This verse is to be repeated when the worshipper approaches 
the combined Ahavanfya and Gdrhapatya fires, to ofiTer the oblation. 

The Apris are usually enumerated as twelve, but sometimes, 
omitting one of the names of fire, NardSansa, only eleven. 

Su, well, sam, completely, and iddka, kindled, 'the thoroughly 

TanuM^t, the devourer of clarified butter (tanunapa), or, ac- 
cording to another et3nmology, the consumer of its own substance 

32 9IO-VEDA sANHrrA. 

this day our well-flayoured sacrifice to the gods for 
their food. 

3. I invoke the beloved NabaSansa,* the sweet- 
tongued, the offerer of oblations, to this sacrifice. 

4. Agni, (who art) Tlita,^ bring hither the gods 
in an easy-moving chariot, for thou art the invoker 
instituted by men. 

5. Strew, learned priests, the sacred grass,^ well 
bound together (in bundles), and sprinkled with 
clarified butter, the semblance of ambrosia. 

6. Let the bright doors,^ the augmenters of sacri- 
fice, (hitherto) unentered, be set open, for certainly 
to-day is the sacrifice to be made. 

7. I invoke the lovely night and dawn' to sit 
upon the sacred grass, at this our sacrifice. 

(tanit) or fuel. Napdt occnrs in the Nirghantu as a synonyme of 
tanaya, son or offspring ; bnt in this compound the second member 
is considered to be either ad, who eats, or pd, who preserves ; the 
latter with na prefixed, napdt, who does not preserve, who destroys. 


Nardsansa, him whom men (nard) praise (sansanii), 

b ' 
Ilita, the worshipped ; from (la, to adore, to praise. 

BarhCs is said here to be an appellative also of Agni; the 
double meaning pervades the concluding phrase, wherein (in which 
grass, or in which Agni) is the appearance of ambrosia, amfUa 
darianam ; amrita implying either the clarified butter sprinkled on 
the grass, or the immortal Agni, Amrita samdnasya ghritasya, or 
maraM-rahitasya Barhemdmakasya, Agneh. 

The doors of the chamber in which the oblation is offered, 
said to be personifications of Agni; Agntviseshamdrttayah, 

According to the ordinary import of naktam and ushas; but they, 
according to the Scholiast, denote in this place two forms of fire 
presiding over those seasons, — tat-kdldbhimdnivahnimiirttidumye. 


8. I call the two eloquent divine and sage in- 
vokers* (of the gods), that they may celebrate this 
our sacrifice. 

9. May the three undecaying goddesses, givers of 
delight, Ila, Saraswati, and Maui,^ sit down upon 
the sacred grass. 

10. I invoke the chief and multiform TwASHf ^i ;"" 
may he be solely ours. 

11. Present, divine Vanaspati,* our oblation to 

The construction shows that we have two persons or divini- 
ties here ; the Scholiast says two Agnis ; the Index has daivyau 
hotdrau prachetaseni, two divine invokers {Prachetasas) ; or the latter 
word may mean merely sages, like the kav{ of the text. 

Make IB said to he a synonyme of BhdraH, as appears from an 
analogous passage, where the names occur //<£, SaraswM, BhdraH. 
These are also designated by the Scholiast as personifications of 
Agni, Agnimdrttaydh ; they are also called the three personified 
flames of fire. As goddesses, the first, lid, is the earth, the bride of 
VisMu ; Saraswat{ is, as usual, the goddess of eloquence, and wife 
of Brahmd ; the third, s3aionymous with speech, is called the wife 
of Bharaia, one of the Adiiyas ; but these mythological personifi- 
cations are of k post-Vaidik period. 

Twashfrit in the popular system, is identified with VUwdkarma, 
the artificer of the gods ; and he seems to possess some attributes 
of that nature in the Vedas, being called the fabricator of the 
original sacrificial vase or ladle. A text of the Veda is also quoted, 
which attributes to him the formation of the forms of animals in 
pairs : Twashtd vaipa&dndm mithundndm rupakrid — iti Srut4h, He 
is also one of the twelve Adityas, and here is said to be an Agni : 
Twashffi'ndmakam agmm, 

Vanaspati, lord of the woods; usually, a large tree, here 
said to be an Agni, as if the fuel and the burning of it were 



the gods, and may true knowledge be (the reward) 
of the giver. 

12. Perform the sacrifice conveyed through 
SwJLha^ to Indba, in the house of the worshipper : 
therefore I call the gods hither. 

SiJkta III. (XIV.) 

The ftishi and metre are unchanged, bat the Hymn is addressed to 
AoNi and other divinities who are named, and to the Vi^wadbtas. 

Vaigaxxvi. 1. Come, Agni, to our adoration, and to our 
praises, with all these gods, to drink the Soma juice ; 
and (do thou) offer sacrifice. 

2. The KaHtvas^ invoke thee, sapient Agni, and 
extol thy deeds : come, Aoni, with the gods. 

3. Sacrifice, (Agni), to Indba, Vayu, Vrihaspati, 
MiTRA, Agni, Pi&shan, and Bhaga, the A'dityas, and 
the troop of Maruts.^ 

* Swdhd, as the exclamation used in pouring the oblation on 
the fire, may also be identified with Agni, In the section on the 
various Agms in the Mahdhhdraia, Swdhd is called the daughter of 
Vrihaspati, the son of Angiras. The PurdAas give her a difierent 
origin, and make her the daughter of Daksha and wife of Agni, 

The Ka^was properly denote the descendants or the disciples 
of the f^ishi Kjdwa, but the Scholiast would restrict the term in 
this place to the sense of sages (tnedhdvi$uth), or of officiating 
priests (fittwifas), 

" SacanBce, Agni, to," are supplied by the commentary, for 
the verse contains only the proper names in the objective case : 
most of these have already occurred. Mitra, Ptishan, and Bhaga 
are forms of the Sun, or Aditgas, specified individually, as well as 
the class of Aditgaa, or Suns, in the twelve months of the. year. 
'Why Vfihaspati or Bfihaapati should be inserted, is not ex- 


4. For all of you are poured out these juices, 
satisfying, exhilarating, sweet, falling in drops, or 
gathered in ladles. 

5. The wise priests desirous of the protection (of 
the gods), having spread the sacred grass, present- 
ing oblations, and offering ornaments, praise thee. 

6. Let the coursers who convey thee, glossy- 
backed,^ and harnessed at will, bring the gods to 
drink the Soma juice. 

7. Agni, make those objects of veneration, aug- Varga xxvii. 
mentors of pious acts, (participant of the offering), 
together with their wives ;^ give them, bright- 
tongued, to drink of the Soma juice. 

8. Let those objects of veneration and of praise, 
drink with thy tongue, of the Soma juice, at the 
moment of libation. 

9. Let the wise invoker (of the gods) bring hither 
from the shining (sphere) of the sun,*' all the divini- 
ties awaking with the dawn. 

10. With all the gods, with Indra, Vayu, and 

plained: the etymology of the name is given from Pdnmi, VI. 1, 
157. Vfihaa for Vrihai, great, divine, a ddty ; and pati, master, 
or protector, in his character of spiritoal preceptor of the gods. 

Ghfita prish^hdh, their backs shining with or from ghee or 
clarified hotter; the commentary says, with which the horses are 

PainC'Vatak, having their wives. 

Lit. from l^e shining of the smi {Smyasya rochandi); equiva- 
lent, the Scholiast says, to Swarga lokdt; bat Swarga and the 
Aditya loka are usually regarded as very different. Perhaps the 
reading should be Swar lokat, from the region of heaven. 

D 2 


the glories of Mitra,* drink, Agni, the sweet Soma 

11. Thou, Agni, appointed by man as the invoker 
(of the gods), art present at sacrifices; do thou 
present this our oblation. 

12. Yoke, divine Agni, thy fleet and powerful 
mares, Rohits^ to thy chariot, and by them hither 
bring the gods. 

StJkta IV. (XV.) 

The IjiisM and metre are unchanged ; the deity is Ritu, associated 
in each stanza with some divinity more familiarly known. 

Vargaxxviii. 1. Indra, drink with RiTU the Soma juice ; let 

the satisfying drops enter into thee, and there 

2. Maruts, drink with Rrru from the sacrificial 
vase ; consecrate the rite, for you are bountiful. 

3. Neshtri,*^ with thy spouse, commend our sa- 
crifice to the gods ; drink with Rrru, for thou art 
possessed of riches. 

^ Mitrasya dhdmabhih, with the rays ; or, according to the 
commentator, with various forms of Mitra. 

Tdbhih, with them, in the feminine gender ; and hence the 
Scholiast adds bdaSvdbhih, mares ; they are termed Rohits, which 
may mean red. The Nighantu defines the term as the name of 
the horses of Agni. 

ftitu is, properly, a season, a sixth of the Hindu year, but is 
here personified as a divinity. 

Neshfri is another name of Twasyfi, from his having assumed, 
it is said, upon some occasion, the function of the Nesh/fi, or priest 
so denominated, at a sacrifice. 


4. AoNi, bring the gods hither, arrange them in 
three places,* decorate them ; drink with Rnu. 

5. Drink the Soma juice, Indra, from the pre- 
cious vase of the Brdhmana^ after Rrru, for whom 
thy friendship is uninterrupted. 

6. MiTBA and Vabui^a, propitious to pious acts, 
be present with Ritu at our sacrifice, efficacious 
and undisturbed (by foes). 

7. (The priests) desirous of wealth, holding stones'^ Varga xxix. 
in their hands, praise the divine (Agni) DaAVi]&o- 

DAS,* both in the primary and subsidiary sacrifices.® 

Either at the three daily ceremonies, at da¥ni, midday, and 
sunset, or in the three fires lighted at sacrifices, — ^the Ahavaniifa, 
DdkshiAa, and Gdrhapatya, 

The text is ohscore. BrdhmaMd-rddhasah is, literally, from 
Brahmanical wealth; hut the latter is explained, a costly or 
wealthy vessel, — dhanahhutdt pdtrdt, and the former relating to 
the BrdhmaMchchhtmsi ; BrdhmaAdchchhansi sambaddhdt. The 
BrdhmaAdchchhansi is one of the sixteen priests employed in 
sacrifices, corresponding in the second division of four to the 
Brahmd in the first ; and perhaps his function may he to hold 
some ladle or vase in which the offering is presented, or in which 
the portion not expended is removed, as it is said of him, " the 
relation is the ladle that has the leavings," — tasya aambandkyuck' 
chhisMai chamasah, Rosen renders it, sacro pracepto congrua ex 
patera; M. Langlois, au vase qui contient Voffrande sacr^e. 

Grdva-hastdsah, having stones in their hands, with which to 
hruise the Soma plant. The Grdua^vdn is also one of the sixteen 
priests ; hut it is here used generally. 

Dravi^odas is either an epithet or an appellative of A^, as 
the donor (das) of wealth, or of strength, dravtHa, 

In the adhwara and in the yajfias, the first is said to he the 


8. May Dravii^odas give us riches that may be 
heard of : we ask them for the gods. 

9. DraviAodas desires to drink with the Rrrus 
from the cup of NEsnf ri :" hasten, (priests, to the 
hall of offering) ; present the oblation, and depart. 

10. Since, DraviAodas, we adore thee for the 
fourth time^ along with the Rrrus ; therefore be a 
benefactor unto us. 

11. A 1$ WINS, performers of pious acts, bright with 
sacrificial fires, accepters, with the Ritus, of the 
sacrifice, drink the sweet draught. 

12. Giver of rewards^ (Agni), being identified 
with the household fire, and partaker with Rrru of 
the sacrifice, worship the gods on behalf of their 

SiJkta V. (XVI.) 
The jfishi and metre continued ; the deity is Indba. 

Vai^ XXX. 1. Indra, let thy coursers hither bring thee, 

bestower of desires, to drink the Soma juice ; may 
(the priests), radiant as the sun, (make thee mani- 

primary or essential ceremony, prakritunipa, such as the Aguish' 
foma ; the second, the modified ceremonies, vikriH''ng9eshu ; such 
as the Ukthya, which is elsewhere termed an offering with Soma 
juice, — Soma sansthaydgam, 

^ Or from the cup of the Neshfyt, one of the sixteen officiating 

That is, Dravi^das has been now celebrated in four stanzas. 
The name in the text is SatUya, which is so explained by the 
Scholiast, from iktd, to give. 


2. Let his coursers convey Indra in an easy- 
moying chariot hither, where these grains (of 
parched barley), steeped in clarified butter, are 
strewn (upon the altar). 

3. We invoke Indra at the morning rite, we 
invoke him at the succeeding sacrifice, we invoke 
Indra to drink the Soma juice.^ 

4. Come, Indra, to our libation, with thy long- 
maned steeds; the libation being poured out, we 
invoke thee. 

5. Do thou accept this our praise, and come to 
this our sacrifice, for which the libation is prepared ; 
drink like a thirsty stag.^ 

6. These dripping Soma juices are effiised upon Vai^ xxxi. 
the sacred grass: drink them, Indra, (to recruit 

thy) vigour. 

7. May this our excellent hymn, touching thy 
heart, be grateful to thee, and thence drink the 
effused libation. 

8. Indra, the destroyer of enemies, repairs as- 
suredly to every ceremony where the libation is 
poured out, to drink the Soma juice for (his) ex- 

9. Do thou, Satakratu, accomplish our desire 
with (the gift of) cattle and horses: profoundly 
meditating, we praise thee. 

^ Althoogh not more particularly named, the specification 
implies the morning, midday, and evening worship, 
like the Cfaura, said to be a sort of deer. 



Metre and ftishi aa before; divinities, Indra and Varu^^a 


Varga XXXII. 1. I Seek the protection of the sovereign rulers,' 

Indra and Varuna : may they both favour us ac- 

2. For you are ever ready, guardians of mankind, 
to grant protection on the appeal of a minister such 
as I am. 

3. Satisfy us with wealth, Indra and VaruAa, 
according to our desires : we desire you ever near 

4. The mingled (libations) of our pious rites, the 
mingled (laudations) of our right-minded (priests, 
are prepared); may we be (included) among the 
givers of food.^ 


Samrdjoh, of the two emperors ; but Rdjd is, in general, 
equivocally used, meaning, shining, bright, as well as royal, — so 
that SdyaM explains the term, "possessed of extensive dominion," 
or " shining very brilliantly." Indra may claim the title ofRdJd, 
as chief of the gods, but it seems to be in a more especial manner 
appropriated to Varu^, 

The stanza is rather ellipticaHy and obscurely worded, and 
the sense of the leading term, yuvdku, is not very dear: it usually 
denotes a mixture of curds and ghee. We have in the text, 
yuvdku iachCndm; ynvdku sumat(ndm; the former {iacM^Sm) is 
explained, a mixture of buttermilk, water, and meal, suited for 
acts of religious worship; the latter, the combination of choice ex- 
pressions and praises, which are the suitable phraseology of the 
right-minded or pious {sumatiRdm) ; the final clause is simply, 
may we be of (amongst) the givers of food. 


5. Indra is a giver among the givers of thou- 
sands ; VaruAa is to be praised among those who 
are deserving of laudation. 

6. Through their protection, we enjoy (riches), Vargaxxxiii. 
and heap them up, and still there is abundance. 

7. I invoke you both, Indra and VaruAa, for 
manifold opulence: make us victorious (over our 

8. Indra and Varu^a, quickly bestow happiness 
upon us, for our minds are devoted to you both. 

9. May the earnest praise which I offer to Indra 
and Varu^a reach you both ; that conjoint praise 
which you (accepting) dignify. 

anuvAka V. 


The metre and ftisM as in the preceding. The first five stanzas 
are addressed to Brahma^ aspati, associated in the fourth with 
Indra and Soma, and in the fifth, with them and DAKsnii^l ; 
the three next are addressed to Sadasaspati, and the ninth to 
the same, or to NarX^ansa. 

1. Brahma^ ASPATiy"^ make the offerer of the liba- VaF^aXXXiv. 

«^ ■ 

The Scholiast furnishes as with no account of the station or 
functions of this divinity. The etymology will justify Dr. Roth's 
definition of him as the deity of sacred prayer, or rather, perhaps, 
of the text of the Veda; hut whether he is to he considered as a 
distinct personification, or as a modified form of one of those 
already recog^nized, and especially of Agni, is doubtful. His 
giving wealth, healing disease, and promoting nourishment, are 
properties not peculiar to him ; and his being associated with Indra 
and Soma, whilst it makes him distinct from them, leaves him 


tion illustrious among the gods, like Kakshivat, 
the son of Usu.* 

2. May he who is opulent, the healer of disease, 
the acquirer of riches, the augmenter of nourish- 
ment, the prompt (bestower of rewards), be favour^ 

able to us. 

3. Protect us, BrahmaAaspati, so that no calum- 
nious censure of a malevolent man may reach us. 

4. The liberal man, whom Indra, Brahmanaspati, 
and Soma protect, never perishes. 

Affui as hifi prototype. His being in an especial manner con- 
nected with prayer, appears more fully in a subsequent passage, 
Hynm xi.. Agni is in an especial degree the deity of Ihe Brah$nan, 
and according to some statements, the Rig-veda is supposed to 
proceed firom him ; a notion, however, which, according to MedhtU 
tithi, the commentator on Manu, was suggested by its opening 
with the hymn to Agni, AgnimAle. 

^ This story is to be found in several of the PvrdAas, especially 
the Matsya and Vdyu, as well as in the Mahdbhdrata, vol. i. 
p. 154. KaksMvat was the son of Dtrghatamas, by Usif, a female 
servant of the queen of the Kaiinga Rdjd, whom her husband 
had desired to submit to the embraces of the sage, in order 
that he might beget a son. The queen substituted her bondmaid 
Usij ; the sage, cognisant of the deception, sanctified UsiJ, and 
begot by her a son, named KakaMoat, who through his affiliation 
by KdUnga was a Kshatriya, but as the son of D&ghatanuu was a 
Brahman : he was also a ftishi, as in another passage he says of 
himself, Aham kaah^fdn^l^ishirasm, — I am the IS^Jd KakaMoat. 
The Taittinyas also include him among the holy persons who are 
qualified to conduct sacrifices and compose hymns. In the Makd" 
bhdraia, IHrghatamas disallows the right oi the king, there named 
Bali, to the sons of a Sddra female, and claims them as his ovm. 


5. Do thou, Brahma^aspati, and do you, Soma, 
Indra, and DakshiM,^ protect that man from sin. 

6. I solicit understanding from Sadasaspati,^ the Varga xxxv. 
wonderful, the friend of Indra, the desirable, the 

7. Without whose aid the sacrifice even of the 
wise is not perfected : he pervades the association of 
our thoughts.^ 

8. He rewards the presenter of the oblation ; he 
brings the sacrifice to its conclusion ; (through him) 
our invocation reaches the gods. 

9. I have beheld NaraSansa,^ the most resolute, 
the most renowned, and radiant as the heavens. 


DakshiM is, properly, the present made to the Brahmana at 
the coQcliisioD of any religioas rite, here personified as a female 

Properly, the master or protector {pati) of the assembly 
(Sodas) : it is here a name of Agni. He is the friend or associate 
of Indra, as on this occasion partaking of the same oblations. 

DkMmyogam invaii, which may mean, he pervades the 
association of om* minds," 'or, " the objects of onr pious acts;" as 
DM means either, as usual, buddhi, understanding, or has the 
Vaidik sense of kamuna, act. 

This has already occurred as an appellatiye of Agni, and con- 
firms the application of Sadasaspati and Brahma^aspati to the 
same divinity. According to the Kdithakaa, it means the personified 
yajna, or sacrifice, at which men {nard) praise {Sansanti) the gods; 
according to Sdkapuriii, it is as before (H3nacm ziii. y. 3), Agni, 
he who is to be praised of men. The same explanation is quoted 
from the Brdhmdia : " I beheld (with the eye of the Vedas) that 
divinity Sadasaspati, who is to be praised by men, who is also 
called Nardiansa." 


SiJkta II. (XIX.) 

The metre and fiishi are unchanged ; Aoni and the Mabutb are 

the deities. 

Vargaxxxvi. 1. Earnestly art thou invoked to this perfect rite, 

to drink the Soma jiiice : come, Agni, with the 

2. Nor god nor man has power over a rite (dedi- 
cated) to thee, who art mighty : come, Agni, with 
the Maruts. 

3. Who all are divine* and devoid of malignity, 
and who know (how to cause the descent) of great 
waters '} come, Agni, with the Maruts. 

4. Who are fierce, and send down rain,® and are 
unsurpassed in strength : come, Agni, with the 


Devdsah, explained dyotamdna, shining. By the term ' all/ is 
to be understood the seven troops of the Maruts, as by the text, 
sapta-gand vat marutah. 

Many texts ascribe to the Maruts, or winds, a main agency 
in the fall of rain ; as, " Maruts, you have risen from the ocean ; 
taking the lead, you have sent down rain, — Udirayatha Marutah 
samudrato yiiyam vrishdm varshayathdpuHshiidh* ' Rqfas, the word 
used in the text, means water, or light, or the world. — Nighantu. 

Here the word is Arka, as, according to the V^asansyis, 
Apo vd arkah ; the term is derived from arch, to worship, and is 
explained in two other texts. So archatinacharat tasydrchatah dpo 
ajayanta, — He (Hira^agarbha) proceeded, worshipping, (after 
creating the solid earth), and from him worshipping, l^e waters 
were produced. And again, Archato vai me ham abkdt, — fVom me 
worshipping, water was. Hence the name Arka was given to water 
or rain. 


5. Who are brilliant, of terrific forms, who are 
possessors of great wealth, and are devourers of the 
malevolent : come, Agni, with the Maruts. 

6. Who are divinities abiding: in the radiant Varga 


heaven above the sun :* come, Agni, with the 

7. Who scatter the clouds, and agitate the sea 
(with waves): come, Agni, with the Maruts. 

8. Who spread (through the firmament) along 
with the rays (of the sun), and with their strength 
agitate the ocean :^ come, Agni, with the Maruts. 

9. I pour out the sweet Soma juice for thy 
drinking, (as) of old : come, Agni, with the 


ANUVAKA v. (continued). 
SiJkta III. (XX.) 

Metre and IS^ishi as before; addressed to the deified mortals 

named Ribhus. 

1. This hymn, the bestower of riches, has been Varga i, 

In the heaven (dhi-dyuloke) ; above the sun {ndkasya adki ; 
^dryasya upon). Ndka, here explained son, is more osuallv ex- 
plained sky, or heaven. 

The influence of the winds upon the sea, alluded to in this 
and the preceding verse, indicates more familiarity with the ocean 
than we should have expected, from the traditional inland position 
of the early Hindus, 


addressed by the sages, with their own mouths, 
to the (class of) divinities having birth."^ 

2. They who created mentally for Indea the 
horses that are harnessed at his words, have par- 
taken of the sacrifice performed with holy acts.^ 

^ Devdyajanmane, literally, to the divine or brilliant birth ; but 
the Scholiast explains the latter, jdyamdndya, being bom, or 
having birth, and the former, deva^sanghdya, a class of divinities, 
that is, the ftibhus, of whom it is only said, that they were pious 
men, who, through penance, obtained deification, — manushydh son- 
tastapasd deuatwam prdptdk. Thanks to the learning and industry 
of M. Neve, of the University of Louvain, we are fully acquamted 
with the history and character of the ftibhus, as they appear in 
different portions of the ftig-veda, — Essaisur leMythe des ftibhavas. 
Their origin and actions are also narrated in the N(timar\jar{, 
as well as in the notes of Sdya^, on this and other similar 
passages. The J^ibhus were the three sons of Sudhamoan, a 
descendant (the NitimanjaH says, a son) of Angiras, severally 
named ftibhu, Vibhu, and Vdja, and styled collectively Jfibhus, 
from the name of the elder. Through their assiduous peiformance 
of good works, — stoapas (su-apaa), they obtained divinity, exercised 
superhuman powers, and became entitled to receive praise and 
adoration. They are supposed to dwell in the solar sphere, and 
there is an indistinct identification of them with the rays of the 
sun ; but whether typical, or not, they prove the admission, at an 
early date, of the doctrine that men might become divinities. 

Sam^kir'ytiffnam'd^a ; M. Neve renders it. Us ont ohtenu le 
sacrifice par leuracevvresmMtoirea ; M. Langlois, Us ont mUcmrik 
sacrifice de c4r4mome8 ; Mr. Stevenson, they pervade ovr sacrifice 
by purificatory rites ; Rosen, literally, ceremonOs sacrificium acce^ 
pervnt. That three simple words should admit of this variety of 
rendering, sfaows the vagueness of some of the Vaidik expressioDB. 
The sense seems to be, they have pervaded, appropriated, or 


3: They constructed for the NIsatyas, a univer- 
sallj-moving and easy car, and a cow yielding milk.^ 

4. The RiBHUS, uttering unfailing prayers,^ en- 
dowed with rectitude, and succeeding^ (in all pious 
acts), naade^ their (aged) parents young. 

5. RiBHUS, the exhilarating juices are offered to 

accepted, the sacrifice offered (which last word is understood), with 
the usaal implements and observances (samCbhih ceremoniis) ; as 
Sdyafia, grahachamasddi'sUshpddanarupaih karmabhir, yofnam, 
asmadfyam diata (vydpta vantah), they have pervaded (or accepted) 
om* sacrifice, performed with those acts which are executed by 
the means of tongs, ladles, and other (utensils employed in making 
oblations). The expression may, perhaps, obscurely intimate the 
invention of the implements so used by the Jftibhus, their modifi- 
cation of one of which, at least, is subsequently referred to 
(v. 6), while other expressions imply mechanical skill. 

Takshan, (or atakshan; literally, they chipped or fabricated; so 
in the preceding verse, they carved (tatakshuh) Indra's horses. 
There it is said they did so mentally {manasd) ; but in this verse 
there is no such qualification, and the meaning of the verb 
implies mechanical formation. The ftibhus may have been the 
first to attempt the bodily representation of these appendages of 
Indra and the Ahoins, 

Satya-mantrdh, having or repeating true prayers, t. e. which 
were certain of obtaining the objects prayed for. There is some 
variety in the renderings here also, but it was scarcely necessary, 
as the meaning is clear enough. 

V%8h({, for Vkhiayah; according to the Scholiast, vydpti" 
yuktdh, in which vydpti means, encountering no opposition In all 
acts, through the efficacy of their true or infiallible numtraa. 

Akraia, from hi, to make genen^Ay ; not as before, atakshan, 
to make mechanically. 


you, along with Indra, attended by the M abuts, 
and along with the brilliant Adityas/ 
vaiiga II. 6. The RiBHUS have divided into four the new 

ladle,^ the work of the divine TwASH-fRi. 

7. May they, moved by our praises, give to the 
offerer of the libation many precious things, and 
perfect the thrice seven sacrifices.*' 

According to Ahcaldyana, as quoted by SdyoAa^ the libations 
offered at the third daily, or evening sacrifice, are presented to 
Indra, along with the Adityas, together with ftibhu, Vibhu, and 
Vdfa, with Vrihaspati and the VUwadevas, 

Tkoashfri, in the PaurdAik mythology, is the carpenter or 
artisan of the gods : so SdyaAa says of him, he is a divinity whose 
duty with relation to the gods is carpentry, — devasambandhih tak- 
ahaiavydpdrah. Whether he has Vaidik authority of a more 
decisive description than the allusion of the text, does not appear. 
The same may be said of * his calling the Rihhus the disciples of 
Twashiri, — Twaahhh sUhydh ftibhavah. The act ascribed to them 
in the text, of making one ladle four, has, probably, rather refer- 
ence to some innovation in the objects of Hbation, than to the mere 
multiplication of the wooden spoons used to pour out the Soma 
juice. The NUimanjari says, that Agni, coming to a sacrifice 
which the ftibhtts celebrated, became as one of them, and therefore 
they made the ladle fourfold, that each might have his share. 

Trird sdptdni. The Scholiast considers that trih may be 
applied to precious things, as meaning best, middling, worst, or to 
Sdptdni, seven sacrifices, as classed under three heads. Thus, one 
dass consists of the Agnyddheyam, seven ceremonies in which 
clarified butter is ofilered on fire; one class consists of the Pdka- 
yajnas, in which dressed viands are offered to the ViSwadevas 
and others ; and one comprehends the Agnishfoma dass, in which 
libations of Soma juice are the characteristic offering. 



8. Offerers (of sacrifices), they held* (a mortal 
existence) : by their pious acts they obtained a share 
of sacrifices with the gods. 

SiJkta IV. (XXI.) 

9uhi and metre the same ; the hymn is addressed to Indba and 


1. I invoke hither, Indra and AoNi, to whom Vaigain. 
we desire to present our praise : let them, who are 

both copious drinkers of the Soma juice, (accept the 

2. Praise, men, Indra and Agni, in sacrifices, 
decorate them (with ornaments), and hymn them 
with hymns. 

8. We invoke Indra and Agni, for the benefit of 
our friend (the institutor of the rite), drinkers of 
the Soma juice, to drink the libation. 

4. We invoke the two who are fierce (to their 
foes) to attend the rite, where the libation is pre- 
pared : Indra and Agni, come hither. 

5. May those two, Indra and Agni, who are 

* Adhdrajfonta, they held or enjoyed, is all the text gives; what 
they held is not specified ; the Scholiast sapplies prdndn, vital airs, 
life : his addition is in harmony with other texts. Martdsah santo 
amritatwam dnaauh, — Being mortals, they obtained immortality. 
Thehr partaking of sacrifices is also repeatedly stated : Saudhan" 
wand yi^myam hhdgam dnasa, — By the son of SiMamDon was a 
sacrificial portion acquired, fibhavo vai deveshu ttgrnd Soma" 
p&ham abhyqjayan, — ^The ftibhua won by devotion the drinking of 
Soma among the gods« 



mighty, and guardians of the assembly, render the 
Rdkshdsas innocuous, and may the deyourers (of 
men) be destitute of progeny, 

6. By this unfailing sacrifice, be you rendered 
yigilant, Indra and Agni, in the station which 
affords knowledge (of the consequences of acts), and 
bestow upon us happiness. 

StfKTA V. (XXII.) 

The ^ishi and metre continue ; the hymn consists of twenty-one 
stanzas, which are addressed to a variety of divinities, or four 
to the A^wiNs and four to Savitri ; the next two to Agni ; 
the eleventh, to the goddesses collectively ; the twelfth, to the 
wives of Indra, Varu^a, and Aoni ; the two next to Heaven 
and Earth ; the fifteenth, to Earth alone ; and the last six, to 

Varga lY. 1. Awakou the AswiNS, associated for the morn- 
ing sacrifice : let them both come hither to drink of 
this Soma juice. 

2, We invoke the two AIwins, who are both 
divine, the best of charioteers, riding in an excellent 
car, and attaining heaven. 

3. AiSwiNS, stir up* the sacrifice with your whip 

^ Mimikshatatn, mix intimately the juice of the Soma. It is 
not clear how this is to be done with the whip, allusion to which 
only intimates, it is said, that the Ahoms should come quickly. 
Tm/d, by that, may also mean, with that,— come with that your 
whip ; or kaid, commonly a whip, may mean speech ; in which 
case, madkumat{ BXid stmritdvat^, explained wet, and loud, will 
signify sweet and veracious, — come with such speech, 
and taste the libation. 


that is wet with the foam (of your horses), and 
lashing loudly. 

4. The abode of the offerer of the libation is not 
far from you, AiSwins, going thither in your caf. 

6. 1 invoke Savit?li, the golden-handed,^ to pro- 
tect me: he will appoint the station of the wor- 

6. Glorify Savitri, who is no friend to water,* ▼•»«» V- 
for our protection : we desire to celebrate his 

7. We invoke Savttri, the enlightener of men, 
the dispenser of various home-insuring wealth. 

8. Sit down, friends; Savitri verily is to be 
praised by us, for he is the giver of riches. 

9. Agni, bring hither the loving wives of the 
gods, and TwAsnf ri, to drink the Soma juice. 

^ iS^K;t^rt is, ordinarily, a synonyme of the Sun. Golden-handed, 
suvarHa-hasta, is exfdained either, he who gives gold to the wor- 
shipper, or hy a Vaidik legend : — At a sacrifice performed hy the 
gods, Sttrya undertook the office of ftitwij, hnt placed himself in 
the station of the Brahmd. The Adhwaryu priests, seeing him in 
that position, gave him the oblation termed Prd&Ura, which, as 
soon as received by 8tirya, cnt off the hand that had improperly 
accepted it. The priests who had g^ven the oblation bestowed 
upon Sdrya a hand of gold. The legend is narrated in the Kim* 
i^ak(, it is said ; bat there Siirya loses both his hands. 

Apdm-fu^ might be thought to mean, son of the waters, 
as naipdt is often used in the Veda in that sense ; but the Son is 
rather the parent than the progeny of the waters ; as, Aditydi 
jdyate vrishHh, — ^rain is bom from the son. Napdt is here taken 
in its literal purport, who does not cherish {na-pdlayatf}, bat dries 
them ap by his heat, santdpena ioshakak, 

E 2 

.-;- 4^,-4 rs^^^ -x- ^ i^s^ -m ^ i . i n,m jw. ^ ..i-mlm — i^^^^w^^i^g—M i^^^ ^. 


10. Youthftd Agnt, bring hither for our protec- 
tion the wives (of the gods), HotrA, BharatI, 
VARfrxRi, and DhishaAa,* 
Vaiga VI. 11. May the goddesses, whose wings are unclipt,^ 
the protectresses of mankind, favour us with protec- 
tion, and with entire felicity. 

12. I invoke hither, Indrai^i, VarunA^i, and 
Agnayi, for our welfare, and to drink the Soma 

13. May the great heaven and the earth be 
pleased to blend this sacrifice (with their own dews), 
and fill us with nutriment. 

14. The wise taste, through their pious acts, the 
ghee-resembling waters of these two, (abiding) in 
the permanent region of the Gandharbas.^ 

15. Earth, be thou wide-spreading,* free from 

^ Hotrd is called the wife of Agni, or the personified invoca- 
tion ; Bkdrat{, of Bharata, one of tibe Adityas, It is rather doubt- 
iul if Varutr{he a proper name or an epithet of the following; it 
is explained by varafUyd, who is to be chosen or preferred, who is 
excellent. DhishaM is a Bynonyme of Vdch or Vdg'dev{, the 
goddess of speech. 

Achhinna-pakshdh ; the only explanation given by the Scho- 
liast is, that the wives of the gods being in the form of birds, no 
one had cut their wings. 

° The sphere of the Ckmdharbas, Yakshas, and Apsarasas, is 
the AntaHksha, the atmosphere or firmament between heaven and 
earth, and so far considered as the common or connecting station 
of them both, — Akdse varitamdnayoh dydvdprUhwyoh. 

Syona has sometimes the sense of expanded, sometimes of 
pleasant, agreeable. The stanza is repeated, it is said, at the 
ceremony termed Mahdndimd, at the same tame touching the earth. 


thorns, and our abiding place : give us great happi- 

16. Maj the gods preserve us (from that portion) Varga vii. 
of the earth whence Vish&u, (aided) by the seven 
metres, stepped/ 

17. YjsaAv traversed this (world) : three times 
he planted his foot,^ and the whole (world) was 
collected in the dust of his (footstep). 

VuMm is explained by S6ydia, by Paramehmra, the sopreme 
ruler, or in his annotation on the next verse, to mean, he who 
enters into or who pervades the world, — ViskAur-vUatervd vydS' 
noter-tvd, Vichakramd, 'stepped,' he explains hj vwidht^pdda'- 
hramaAam kfitmodn, — he made the going of various steps. Rosen 
translates it trmi9yn9mi8. Accordmg to the TaUHri^aB, as cited 
by the Scholiast, the gods, with Vtthhi at their head, sabdaed 
the invincible earth, nsing the seven metres of the Veda as thdr 
instmments. Sd^fda conceives the text to allade to the Trwik- 
rama Amitdra,m'whkh. VUMbt traversed the three woiids in three 
steps. The phrase, preserve ns from the earth, impUes, according 
to the commentary, the hinderance of the sin of those inhabiting 
the earth, — bhiiloke vai^amdndndmp^^fanwdra^am; but the passage 
is obscure. 

This looks still more Eke an allusion to the fourth Atfoidr, 
aKhongh no mention is made of king Bali or the dwarf; and 
these may have been subsequent grafts upon the original tradition 
of VisMbt's three paces. Commentators are not agreed upon the 
meaning of the sentence, thrice he planted his step, — iredhd 
nidadhe padam. According to SdHuqnUU, it was on earth, in the 
firmament, in heaven ; according to Awmavdhka, on SmtidrohaAa 
ixt the eastern mountain, on VbMmHtda the meridian sky, and 
GajfoHras the western mountain ; thus identifying VuMm with the 
Sun, and his three paces with the rise, culmination, and setting of 
that luminary. Allusion is made to the three paces of FttMu in 


18. ViSH&u, the preserver,'' theuninjurable, stepped 
three steps, upholding thereby righteous acts. 

19. Behold the deeds of VishAu, through which 
(the worshipper) has accomplished (pious) vows : he 
is the worthy friend of Indba. 

20. The wise ever contemplate that supreme 
station of VishAu,^ as the eye ranges over the sky. 

21. The wise» ever vigilant and diligent in praise, 
amply glorify that which is the supreme station of 

SiJkta VI. (XXIII.) 

The ftishi is Btill MsDHlTiTef , the sod of K&i^wA ; the metre of 
the first eighteen stanzas is Gdyatri, in stanza nineteen UsMiht 
and in the rest Amahtuhh, The hymn consists of twenty«>fonr 
stanzas, of which the first is addressed to VXru, the two next 
to Indra and Vlru, then three to Mitra and Varu^^a, three 
to Indra and the Maruts, three to the ViIwadbvas, three to 
PdsBAN, seven and a half to the waters, and the last verse and 
a half to AoNi. 

TargaViii. 1. Thcso sharp and blessiug-bearing iSoTTZfl juiccs 

the Vdjaaaneyi Sanhitd of the Yqfur- Veda, and the Scholiast there 
explains them to imply the presence of VUMu in the three 
regions of earth, air, and heaven, in the forms, respectively, of- 
Agni, Vdyu, and Sdrya^ fire, wind, and the sun. There can be no 
doabt that the expression was originally allegorical, and that it 
served as the groundwork of the PaurdMk fiction of the Vdmana 
or dwarf avatdra. 

Gopd, sarvasya jagato rakshaka, — the preserver of all the 
world, is the explanation of Sdyaia; thus recognizing VialMs 
principal and.disting^oishing attribute. 

Paramam padam, supreme degree or station. The Scholiast 
says Swarga, but that is very questionable. 


are poured out : come, VJLyu, and drink of them as 

2. We invoke both the divinities abiding in 
heaven, Indra and VAyu, to drink of this Soma 

3. The vrise invoke, for their preservation, Indra 
and Vayu, vrho are swift as thought, have a thou- 
sand eyes,* and are protectors of pious acts. 

4. We invoke Mitra and VaruAa, becoming 
present at the sacrifice, and of pure strength, to 
drink the Soma juice. 

6. I invoke MrrRA and VaruAta, who, with true 
speech, are the encouragers of pioqs acts, and are 
lords of true light.* 

6. May VaruAa be our especial protector ; may varga rx. 
Mitra defend us with all defences; may they 

make us most opulent. 

7. We invoke Indra, attended by the Maruts, 

The attribution of a thooBand eyes to Indra, literally under- 
stood, is a Paurdsiik legend ; it is nowhere said of Vdyu, and 
here is applied to him, it is said, only by the grammatical con- 
struction, SahasrdkshoK being in the dual, to agree with the two sub-' 
stantives Indra and Vdyu; and it is probably stated of Indra, or 
the personified heaven, either to sigpufy its expansiveness, or its 
being studded with constellations, whence it suggested the legend. 
In like manner, Manqfuvd, swift as thought, although equally in 
the dual number, is properly applicable to Vdyu only. 

fUtasyaJyotishaS'paH. Mitra and Varttfia are included among 
the JidUyas, or mcmthly suns, in the Vaidik enumeration of the 
^ht sons of AdUL Srufyamiitre chashfaa putrdso adkerifyv^- 
kramya mitrascha vartdaschetyddikam dmndtam. 


to drink the Soma juice : may he, with his asso- 
ciates, be satisfied. 

8. Divine Mabuts, of whom Indra is the chief, 
and PusHAN* the benefactor, all hear mj invocations. 

9. Liberal donors, along with the mighty and 
associated Indra, destroy V ritra : let not the evil 
one prevail against us. 

10. We invoke all the divine Maruts, who are 
fierce, and have the (many-coloured) earth for their 
mother,* to drink the Soma juice. 

Vaigax. 11. Whenever, leaders (of men), you accept an 

auspicious (offering), then the shout of the Maruts 
spreads with exultation, like (that) of conquerors. 

12. May the Maruts, bom from the brilliant 
lightning,® everywhere preserve us, and make us 

13. Resplendent and (swift) moving PtiSHAN, 
bring from heaven the {Soma) juice, in combination 
with the variegated sacred grass, as (a man brings 
back) an animal that was lost. 

The Maruts are styled Piishardtayah, of whom Pihhtm is the 
donor, or benefiEu^r ; in what way, is not specified. 

PrUmmdtarah ; who have PrUni for their mother. According 
to Sdy<da, Prihii is the many-colonied earth, — ndndvariUiifuktd 
bhdh. In the Nighantu, PriSni is a synonjone of sky, or heaven 
in general. In some texts, as Rosen shows, it occurs as a name 
of the Son. 

Haskdrdd'Vidyutah ; the Scholiast e]q>lains the latter, va- 
riously shining, that is, the AntoHkaha or firmament ; but it does 
not seem necessary to depart from the usual sense of VOj/ut, 


14. The resplendent Pushan has foand the royal 
(Soma juice), although concealed, hidden in a secret 
place,*^ strewed amongst the sacred grass. 

15. Verily he has brought to me successively the 
six^ (seasons), connected with the drops (of the Soma 
juice), as (a husbandman) repeatedly ploughs (the 
earth) for barley. 

16. Mothers* to us, who are desirous of sacri- VargaXi. 
ficing, the kindred (waters) flow by the paths (of 
sacrifice), qualifying the milk (of kine) with sweet- 

17. May those waters which are contiguous to 
the Sun,^ and those with which the Sun is asso- 
ciated, be propitious to our rite. 

18. I invoke the divine waters in which our 
cattle drink: offer oblations to the flowing (streams). 

19. Ambrosia is in the waters ; in the waters are 
medicinal herbs; therefore, divine (priests)," be 
prompt in their praise. 

The phrase is Guhd-hitam, placed in a cave, or in a place 
difficult of access ; or, according to the Scholiast, heaven, — pthd- 
sadriSe durgame dyuhke. 

The text has only shai, six ; the Scholiast supplies vomhi- 
tddk rMn, the seasons, — spring, and the rest. 

Amb{^ah, which may mean either, mothers, or waters, as in 
the Ktm&Uaki Brdhma^, — Apo vd ambayah. 

So in another text, Apah 84rye samdhitdh, the waters ore 
collected in the Sun. 

The term is Devd, gods; but this were incompatible with the 
direction to praise the waters; it is therefore explained, the 
9iiw{f, and other BrdhmaAas; and the interpretation is defended 


20. Soma has declared to me/ '' all medicaments, 
as well as Agni, the benefactor of the universe, are 
in the waters :" the waters contain all healing herbs. 
Vargaxii. 21. Wators, bring to perfection all disease-dis- 
pelling medicaments for (the good of) my body, 
that I may long behold the sun. 

22. Waters, take away whatever sin has been 
(found) in me, whether I have (knowingly) done 
wrong, or have pronounced imprecations (against 
holy men), or (have spoken) untruth. 

23. I have this day entered into the waters : we 
have mingled with their essence :^ AoNi, abiding in 
the waters, approach, and fill me, thus (bathed), with 

24. Agni, confer upon me vigour, progeny, and 
life, so that the gods may know the (sacrifice) of 
this my (employer), and Indba, with the RishiSy 
may know it. 

by a text which calls the Brahmans present divinities, Ete vai 
devdh praiyaksham yad BrdknuMk, — ^These deities, who are per- 
ceptibly (present), are the Brahmans. 

^ To MedhdtitAi, the author of the hymn : the presidency of 
Soma over medicinal plants is generally attributed to him. The 
entrance of Agni into the water is notieed in many places ; bb. 
So dpahprdviiat, in the Taittirfya Brdkmaia: this, however, refers 
to a legend of Agnfs hiding himself through fear : it may allude 
to the subservience of water or liquids to digestion, pronM>ting 
t^e internal or digestive heat, or AgnL 

Rasena samagasmahi ; that is, the Scholiast says, we have 
become associated with the essence of water, Jakudrdki otmgatdk 




This 18 the first of a series of seven hymns constituting this sec- 
tion, attrihated to SunahIbpas, the son of AjfoARTTA : the 
metre is TVishfubh, except in stanzas three, four, and five, in 
which it is Gdyatri, The first verse is addressed to pRAjipATi, 
the second to Aoni, the three next to Savitri, or the last of 
the three to Bhaga ; the rest to Varu^^a. 

1. Of whom, or of which divinity of the immor- VargaXin. 

^ The stor; of SunaMeptu, or, as usually written, S'unahiephas, 
has heen for some time known to Sanskrit students through the 
version of it presented in the RdmtfyaiUi, b. i. ch. 61, Schlegd : 
63, Gorresio. He is there called the son of the JftUhi J^ick^ka, 
and is sold for a hundred cows by his fiither to AmbttHsha, king 
of Ayodhifd, as a victim for a human sacrifice ; on the road, he 
comes to the lake Pushkara, where he sees ViiwdmUra, and 
implores his succour, and learns from him a prayer, by the re- 
petition of which at the stake, Indra is induced to come and set 
him free. It is obvious that this story has been derived from 
the Veda, for VUuxhmira teaches him, according^ to Schlegel's 
textf two Gdihds, according to Gorreaio's, a numira ; but the 
latter also states, that he propitiated Imdra by 9^hai; mantras of 
the Jfig^Veda (J^igbhis^tushtava devendram), vol. i. p. 249. Manu 
also alludes to the story (10, 105), where it is said that ^'^^or^/a 
incurred no guilt by giving up his son to be sacrificed, as it was 
to preserve himself and family from perishing with hunger. 
Kulhthahhatta names the son, ^umMepof, aiid refers for his autho- 
rity to the Bahoficha Brdhnudia. The story is told in full detailin 
the AUareya BrdhmaAa, but the Rdjd is named Hanickandra : he has 
no sons, and worships Vanda, in order to obtain a son, promismg 
to sacrifice to him his first-bom : he has a son in consequence, 
named RohUa ; but when Vanda claims his victim, the king delays 
the sacrifice, nnder various pretexts, from time to time, until RokUa 


tals, sball we invoke the auspicious name 7*^ who 

attains adolescence, when his fiather commonicates to him the fiate 
for which he was destined : Rohita refuses snhmission, and spends 
several years in the forests, away from home : he at last meets 
there with Aj{gartta, a ftiM, in great distress, and persuades 
him to part with his second son, SunaUepas, to be snbstitated for 
Rqkita, as an offering to Varv^ : the bargain is condaded, and 
SmuMepas is about to be sacrificed, when, by the advice of VUwd" 
mitra, one of the officiating priests, he appeals to the gods, and 
is ultimately liberated. The Aitareya Brdbma^ has supplied the 
commentator with the drcumstanoes, which he narrates, as 
illustrative of the series of hymns in this section. Dr. Rosen 
doubts if the hymns bear any reference to the intention of sacri- 
ficing SuMhkpas, but the language of the Brdhma^ is not to be 
mistaken, as AJ^artta not anlj ties his son to the stake, but goes 
to provide himself with a knife, with which to slay him : at the 
same time, it must be admitted that the language of the Sdktas 
is somewhat equivocal, and leaves the intention of an actual 
sacrifice open to question. Hie Bhdgavat follows the Aitareya 
and itfimtr, in terming SumMepas the son of 4f(gartta, and 
names the lU^d also HarUehmubra, In the FwMv PurdUa, he is 
called the son of VUwdmUra, and is termed also Dewtrdta, or 
god-given ; but this relates to subsequent occurrenoes, noticed 
in like manner by the other authorities, in which he becomes the 
adopted son of VUwdmiira, and the eldest of all his sons ; sudi 
of whom as refused to acknowledge his seniority being cursed 
to become the founders of various barbarian and outcaste races. 
VihodmUra^s share in the legend may possibly intimate his 
opposition, and that of some of his disciples, to human sacrifices. 
Supposed to be uttered by Suiuihiepat when bound to the 
Yiipa^ or stake, as the Pumskah'pMht the man-animal (or 
victim), as the Bhdfwat terms him. "Of whom" (Amya) may 
also be rendered, of Brakmd or Prqfdpati, one of whose names in 
tibe Veia is Ka ; m Ko hm vm ndmm Prqfdpoiih. 


will give us to the great Aditt/ that I may again 
behold my father and my mother. 

2. Let us invoke the auspicious name of Agni,^ 
the first divinity of the immortals, that he may give 
us to the great Aditi, and that I may behold again 
my father and my mother. 

3. Ever-protecting Savftri,* we solicit (our) por- 
tion of thee, who art the lord of aflSuence. 

4. That wealth which has been retained in thy 
hands, and is entitled to commendation, as exempt 
from envy or reproach, 

5. We are assiduous in attaining the summit of 
aflSuence, through the protection of thee, who art 
the possessor of wealth. 

6. These birds, that are flying (through the air), Targaxiv. 
have not obtained, VaruAa,* thy bodily strength or 

thy prowess, or (are able to endure thy) wrath; 

* Aditi, aooording to Sdya^, here means ' earth.' 
A passage from the Aitareya BrdhmaHa is dted by the 
Scholiast, stating that Prajdpati said to him (Sunahiepaa), Have 
recourse to Agni, who is the nearest of the gods ;" upon which he 
resorted to Agni, Tarn Pr(^4i^)atinwdchd(iimrva{devdn4hn nedishf- 
haatam evopadhdveti : so Agmrn upaaaadra* 

In this and the two following stanzas, application is made to 
Smfitfi by the advice, it is said, of Agni, not, however, it may be 
remarked, for liberation, bat for riches, a request rather irrecon* 
cilable with the supposed predicament in which Svnahiepas 

Savitfi refers Sunakkpaa, it is said, to Varuiia, It is not very 
obvious why any comparison should be instituted between the 
strength and prowess of Vam^ and of birds. 


neither do these waters that flow unoeasinglj, nor 
(do the gales) of wind, surpass thy speed. 

7. The regal VaeuAa, of pure vigour, (abiding) 
in the baseless (firmament), sustains on high a heap 
of light, the rays (of which) are pointed downwards, 
while their base is above : may they become con- 
centrated in us as the sources of existence.' 

8. The regal Varui^a verily made wide the path 
of the sun,^ (by which) to travel on his daily course; 
a path to traverse in pathless (space) : may he be 
the repeller of every afflicter of the heart. 

9. Thine, king, are a hundred and a thousand 
medicaments : may thy favour, comprehensive and 
profound, be (with us) ; keep afar from us NiRRrri,** 
with unfriendly looks, and liberate us from what- 
ever sin we may have committed. 

The epithet of Rdjd is here, as usoal, applied to Varuiia ; 
and it may be either radiant or regal, but the latter is in general 
the more suitable. The attributes here assigned to Vanda, his 
abiding in the AntaHksha, and his holding a bmidle of rays, 
would rather identify him with the sun, or at least, refer to him 
in his character of an Adxtya, The terms of the original are, 
however, unusual, and we depend for their translation upon the 
Scholiast: obudhne, in the baseless; miSJla rahite, he explains, 
aUaHkshe, in the sky; and for vanasya sHpam, he sapplies 
tefasah, of radiance, and sangham, a heap. 

According to the commentator, the sun's course north and 
south of the equator is here alluded to : he does not explain 
what Varufkt has to do with it. 

According to SdyaHa, NirriH is the deity of sin, Pdpa^devatd, 
Tn the Nighantu, it occurs among the synonymes of earth. 


10. These constellations, placed on high, which 
are visible by night, and go elsewhere bj day, are 
the undisturbed holy acts of Vabuj^a, (and by his 
command) the moon moves resplendent by night.* 

11. Praising thee with (devout) prayer, I implore Varga xv. 
thee for that^ (life) which the institutor of the sacri- 
fice solicits with oblations : Varu&a, undisdainful, 

bestow a thought upon us : m uch-lauded, take not 
away our existence. 

12. This (thy praise) they repeat to me by night 
and by day : this knowledge speaks to my heart : 
may he whom the fettered S'unahsepas has in- 
voked, may the regal VabuAa set us free. 

13. S'unahiSepas, seized and bound to the three- 
footed tree,*' has invoked the son of Aditi : may the 

Here again we have unusnal functions ascribed to Vanda : 
the constellations, ^ikshdk, may he either, it is said, the seven 
Igiahis, Ursa Major, or the constellations generally. They and 
the moon are said to he the pious acts of Varuiia {VaruiUisya 
vratdnt), because they shine by his command. Rosen detaches 
adabhdm vratdni by inserting a verb, — UUesa stmt opera VaryntB ; 
but SdyaAa expressly terms the constellations the acts of Varuiia, 
in the form (or effect) of the appearance, &c. of the asterisnm. 
Vamdasya karmdM tiakshatra-darsaHddi'liipdM, 

The text has only, I ask that; the SchoBast supplies life, 
iaddyus. The addition might be disputed ; but its propriety is 
confirmed by the concluding expression, ind na dyvk pram6sMh, do 
not take away our life. 

Tfishtt dru-padeshtt, Drvh, cpvc, a tree, is here said to mean 
the sacrificial post, a sort of tripod ; its specification is consistent 
with the popular legend. 


regal Varu^^a, wise and irresistible, liberate him ; 
may he let loose his bonds. 

14. VaruAa, we deprecate thy wrath with pros- 
trationS) with sacrifices, with oblations : averter of 
misfortune,"^ wise and illustrious, be present amongst 
us, and mitigate the evils we have committed. 

1 5. Vabu^a, loosen for me the upper, the middle, 
the lower band ;* so, son of Aditi, shall we, through 
faultlessness in thy worship, become freed from 

SiJkta it. (XXV,) 

This hymn is addresBed by S unahiSbpas to Varu^^a : the metre 

is Gdyair{, 

VargaXYi. 1. luasmuch as all people commit errors, so do 
we, divine VaruAa, daily disfigure thy worship by 

2. Make us not the objects of death, through thy 
fatal indignation, through the wrath of thee so dis* 

* The text has, asura, which is interpretedj wmhia^kshepaAa 
Ma, accustomed to cast off what is midesired ; from the root as, 
to throw: it is an unusual sense of the word, but it would scarcely 
be decorous to call Varuiki an asura, 

^ The text has, uttamam-adhamam nuMyamam pdSam uchchk-' 
rathdya, loosen the upper, lower, and middle bond; meaning, 
according to SdyaHa, the ligature fastening the head, the feet, 
and the waist ; the result, however, is not loosening from actual 
bonds, but from those of sin: andgasah sydma, may we be 


3. We soothe thy mind, Varuna, by our praises, 
for our good, as a charioteer his weary steed. 

4. My tranquil (meditations) revert to the desire 
of life,* as birds hover around their nests. 

5. When, for our happiness, shall we bring 
hither Varu&a, eminent in strength, the guide (of 
men), the regarder of many 'l^ 

6. Partake, (Mitra and Varuna), of the common Vargaxvii. 
(oblation), being propitious to the giver and cele- 

brator of this pious rite. 

7. He, who knows the path of the birds flying 
through the air ; he, abiding in the ocean, knows 
(also) the course of ships.° 

8. He, who accepting the rites (dedicated to 
him), knows the twelve months and their produc- 
tions, and that which is supplementarily engen** 

Vasya ishtaye, Tlie first, according to the Scholiast, is 
equivalent to vaaumatah, precious ; that is, j(vatya, life, under- 

Uru-chak8ha»am, is explained, hahtindm draahtdram, the be- 
holder of many. 

Here we have the usual functions of Varuia recognized. 

Vedd ya upqjdyate, who knows what is vpa, additionally or 
subordinately, produced. The expression is obscure, but, in con- 
nection with the preceding, Veda mdso dwdda&a, who knows the 
twelve months, we cannot doubt the correctness of the Scholiast's 
conclusion, that the thirteenth, the supplementary or intercalary 
mcmth of the Hindu luni-scdar year, is alluded to; "that thirteenth 
or additional month which is produced of itself, in connection with 
the year," — ya» trayodaio adhikamdsa upt^dyate samoatsaraaaM^ 



d. He, who knows the path of the vast, the 
graceful, and the excellent wind, and who knows 
those who reside ahove. 

10, He, VaruAa, the accepter of holy rites, the 
doer of good deeds, has sat down amongst the 
(divine) progeny,* to exercise supreme dominion 
(over them). 
Varga XVIII. 11. Through him, the sage beholds all the mar- 
vels that have been or will be wrought. 

12. May that very wise son of Aditi, keep us all 
our days in the right path, and prolong our lives. 

13. Varuna clothes his well-nourished (person), 
wearing golden armour,^ whence the (reflected) rays 
are spread around. 

14. A divine (being), whom enemies dare not to 
offend ; nor the oppressors of mankind, nor the 
iniquitous, (venture to displease). 

15. Who has distributed unlimited food to man- 
kind, and especially to us. 

swtttfom evodpadyate. The passage is important, as indicating the 
concurrent use of the lunar and solar years at this period, and tlie 
method of adjnstmg the one to the other. 

^ Anishsasdda pastydsu ; the commentator explains the latter, 
dah(8ku prqfdsu, divine progeny; Rosen translates it, inter Ao- 
mines ; M. Langlois, au 9ein de nos demeures ; Dr. Roer, among 
his subjects. The sovereignty of VaruHa, sdmrdfyttmt is distinctly 

Vibkrad drdphn hiraffyayam, that is, suvariiamayam kttoacham, 
armour or mail made of gold. This looks as if the person of 
VanUki were represented by an image ; the same may be said of 
the phraseology of v. 18. 


16. Mj thoughts erer turn back to him who is Vars&^ix- 
beheld of mssij, as the kine return to the pastures. 

17. Let us together proclaim that my offering 
has been prepared, and that you, as if the offerer, 
accept the valued (oblation). 

18. I have seen him whose appearance is grate- 
ful to all ; I have beheld his chariot upon earth : 
he has accepted these my praises. 

19. Hear, VaruAa, tl^s my invocation ; make us 
this day happy : I have appealed to thee, hoping for 

20. Thou who art possessed of wisdom, shinest . 
over heaven and earth, and all the world : do thou 
hear and reply (to my prayers), with (promise of) 

21. Loose us from the upper bonds, untie the 
centre and the lower, that we may live.* 


The supposed author or reciter is Sunah^bpas, as before; the 
hymn is addressed to Aoni ; the metre is Gdyatri, 

1. Lord of sustenance, assume thy vestments (of Varga xx. 
light),'* and offer this our sacrifice. 

2. (Propitiated) by brilliant strains, do thou. 

Hie expressions are, for the most part, the same as in the 
concluding verse of the preceding hymn ; hut it ends differently : 
jiuase, to live, — that we may live. 

The text has only vaatrdM, clothes ; meaning, the Scholiast 

says, dehhdiakdni tefdttii, investing radiance. 

F 2 


ever-youthful AoNi, selected by us, become our 
rainistrant priest, (invested) with radiance. 

3. Thou, Agni, art verily as a loving father to a 
son, as a kinsman to a kinsman, as a friend to a 

4. Let VaruAa, Mitra, and Aryaman,* sit down 
upon our sacred grass, as they did at the sacrifice of 

6. Preceding sacrificer,* be pleased with this our 
sacrifice and with our friendship, and listen to these 
thy praises. 

Varga XXI. 6. Whatever we offer in repeated and plentiful 
oblation to any other deity, is assuredly offered to 

7. May the lord of men, the sacrificing priest, 
the gracious, the chosen, be kind to us ; may we, 
possessed of holy fires, be loved of thee. 

8. As the brilliant (priests), possessed of holy 
fires, have taken charge of our oblation, so we, with 
holy fires, pray to thee. 

9. Immortal Agni, may the praises of mankind 
be henceforth mutually (the sources of happiness) 
to both, (to ourselves and to thee). 

10. Agni, son of strength,^ (accept) this sacrifice, 

AryvoMttn is an Aditya^ a form of the monthly sun ; he is said 
also to preside over twilight. 

Maxasihak^ of Mama^ who, the Scholiast says, is the same as 
ManxL^ the Prajt^ati. 

Piirvya HotH, the Hotfi bom before us, according to Sdyaia. 

Sahaso yaho ; Bahsya putra, son of strength ; the epithet is 
not nnfi*equently repeated, and is sometimes applied to Indra 


and this our praise, with all thy fires, and grant us 
(abundant) food. 

SiJkta IV. (XXVII.) 

The ^wAt, divinity, and metre, as before, except in the la«t 
stanza, in which the metre is TriaUubh, and the Vh^wadsyas 
are addressed. 

1. (I proceed) to address thee, the sovereign lord Varga xxii. 
of sacrifices, with praises, (for thou scatterest , our 

foes) like a horse (who brushes off flies with) his 

2. May he, the son of strength, who moves every- 
where fleetly, be propitious to us, and shower down 

3. Do thou, AoNi, who goest everywhere, ever 
protect us, whether near or afar, from men seeking 
to do us injury. 

4. Agni, announce to the gods this our offering, 
and these our newest hymns.^ 

5. Procure for us the food that is in heaven and 
mid-air, and grant us the wealth that is on earth."" 

also ; as applicable to Agni, it is said to aUude to the strength 
required for rubbing tlie sticks together, so as to generate fire. 

The comparison is merely, we praise thee like a horse witli a 
tail ; the particulars are supplied by the Scholiast. 

Navydnsam gdyattwn, most new GVf^a/W verses; showing the 
more recent composition of this Siikta. 

In the supreme, in the middle, and, of the end, are the vague 
expressions of the text ; their local appropriation is derived from 
the commentary. 


Varga XXIII. 6. Thou, Chitrabhanu,' art the distributor of 
riches, as the waves of a river are parted by inter- 
jacent (islets); thou ever pourest (rewards) upon the 
giver (of oblations). 

7. The mortal whom thou, Agni, protectest in 
battle, whom thou incitest to combat, will always 
command (food). 

8. No one will ever be the vanquisher of this thy 
worshipper, subduer of enemies, for notorious is 
Ills prowess. 

9. May he who is worshipped by all men, convey 
us with horses through the battle ; may he, (pro- 
pitiated) by the priests, be the bestower (of boun- 

10. Jarabodha,^ enter into the oblation for the 
completion of the sacrifice that benefits all man- 
kind : the worshipper offers agreeable laudation to 
the terrible (Agni).® 

Vargaxxiv. 11. May the vast, illimitable, smoke-bannered, 

resplendent Agni be pleased with our rite, and 
grant us food. 

12. May Agni, the lord of men, the invoker and 
messenger of the gods, the brilliant-rayed, hear 

A common denominative of Agni, he who has wonderlnl or 
yarious lustre ; the following simile is very elliptically and ob- 
Bcarely ezpreseed, but sach seems to be its purport^ aoccHPding to 
the explanation of the Scholiast. 

He who is awakened (bodha) by praise (jard), 
^ The text has to Rudra (Rudrdya), which the Sdioliast ex- 
plains, to the fierce or cniel Agni; krurdya Agnaye. 


US with our hymns, as a prince'' (listens to the 

13. Veneration to the great gods, veneration to 
the lesser, veneration to the young, veneration to 
the old ;^ we worship (all) the gods as well as we 
are able : may I not omit the praise of the elder 

stjKTA V. (xxvin.) 

S'uNAHiispAs is the ftishi; the metre of the six first stanzas is 
Anushfubh ; of the three last, Gdyatr{, The first four stanzas 
are addressed to Indra, the two next to the domestic mortar, 
the next two to the mortar and pestle, and the ninth is of a 
miscellaneoiis appropriation, either to Hark^chanbra, a Pra-^ 
jdpati, to the AdMshavdia or the effosed lihation, to the Soma 
juice, or to the skin {charma) on which it is poured; 

1. Indra, as the broad-based stone'' is raised to Vargaxxv. 
express the Soma juice, recognize and partake of 

the efiusions of the mortar. 

2. Indra, (in the rite) in which the two platters^ 

Ab a ridi man {Bevdn wd) is the whole of the text ; the 
eommentator suggests all the rest of the comparison. 

Hiese distinctions of older and younger, greater and lesser 
gods, are nowhere further explained. SunahSepaa, it is said, 
worships the VUwadevasg by the advice of Agni. 

The stone, or lather here, perhaps, the stxme pestle, is that 
which is used to bruise the Soma plants, and so express the juice : 
the pestle employed in bruising or threshing grain is usually of 
heavy wood, 

Adhkhavdiyd, two shallow plates orpater^^ for receiving and 
pouring out the Sinna juice. 


for containing the juice, as (broad as a woman's) 
hips, are employed, recognize and partake of the 
efiiisions of the mortar. 

3. Indra, (in the rite) in which the housewife 
repeats egress from and. ingress into (the sacrificial 
chamber),^ recognize and partake of the effiisions of 
the mortar. 

4. When they bind the churning-staff (with a 
cord),^ like reins to restrain (a horse), Indra, re- 
cognize and partake of the effusions of the mortar. 

5. If, indeed, Mortar^ thou art present in 
every house, give forth (in this rite) a lusty sound, 
like the drum of a victorious host. 

Varga XXVI. 6. Lord of the forest,^ as the wind gently blows 
before thee, so do thou, Mortar^ prepare the 
Soma juice for the beverage of Indra. 

* The Scholiast explains the terras of the text, apachyava and 
upachyava, going in and out of the hall (Sdld) ; but it should, 
perhaps, rather be, moving up and down, with reference to the 
action of the pestle. 

In churning, in India, the stick is moved by a rope passed 
round the handle of it, and round a post planted in the ground as 
a pivot ; the ends of the rope being drawn backwards and for* 
wards by the hands of the chumer, gives the stick a rotatory 
motion amidst the milk, and thus produces the separation of its 
component parts. 

The mortar is usually a heavy wooden vessel, found in every 
farmer's cottage ; according to Sdytda, it is the divinities pre- 
siding over the mortar and pestle, not the implements themselves, 
that are addressed. 

Vanaspati, a large tree ; but in this verse put by metonymy 
for the mortar, and in verse 8, for the mortar and pestle. 


7. Implements of sacrifice, bestowers of food, 
loud-sounding, sport like the horses of Indra 
champing the grain. 

8. Do you two forest lords, of pleasing form, 
prepare with agreeable libations our sweet (Soma) 
juices for Indra* 

9. Bring the remains of the Soma juice upon the 
platters, sprinkle it upon the blades of Kusa grass, 
and place the remainder upon the cow-hide.*^ 


S'cNAHi^sPAB contiDaes to be the reciter : the deity is Indra ; 

the metre Ptonkti, 

1. Veracious drinker of the ^bwfl juice, although Vargaxxvii. 

* This verse is addressed, the Scholiast says, to HarUchandra, 
either the ministering priest, or a certain divinity so ntuned ; no 
name occurs in the text. It is not very clear what he is to do : 
apparently, he is to place what remains after the libation has been 
ofiered, contained in patera or platters, upon some vessel, — the 
Scholiast says, upon a cart (Sakafasya upari), and having brought 
it away, cast it upon the Pavitra, which is explained in the com- 
ment on the YqfuT'Veda Sanhitd to mean, two or three blades of 
KuSa grass, serving as a kind of filter, typically, if not effectively, 
through which the juice falls upon a sheet, or into a bag of 
leather^ made of the skin of the cow (goh-ttoacht). According to 
Mr. Stevenson, the Soma juice, after expression, is filtered 
through a strainer made of goat's hair, and is received in a sort, 
of ewer, the droAa kalakt ; here, however, the directions apply to 
the Uchchhishfa, the remainder, or leaving^ ; such being the term 
used in the text. 

b ' 

Sunakiqfas has been directed by the VthDodevas, it is said in 
the BrdhmaiUi, to apply to Indra. 


we be unworthy, do thou, Indba, of boiuidless 
wealth, enrich 'us with thousands of excellent cows 
and horses. 

2. Thy benevolence, handsome^ and mighty lord 
of food, endures for ever: therefore, Indra, of 
boundless wealth, enrich us with thousands of ex- 
cellent cows and horses. 

3. Cast asleep (the two female messengers of 
Yama) ; looking at each other, let them sleep, never 
waking:^ Indra, of boundless wealth, enrich us 
with thousands of excellent cows and horses. 

4. May those who are our enemies, slumber, and 
those, hero, who are our friends, be awake: 
Iij^DRA, of boundless wealtli, enrich us with thou- 
sands of excellent cows and horses. 

5. Indra, destroy this ass, (our adversary), prais- 
ing thee with such discordant speech ;® and do thou, 
Indra, of boundless wealth, enrich us with thou- 
sands of excellent cows and horses. 


Siprin, literally, having either a nose or a lower jaw or chin ; 
that IB, having a handsome prominent nose or chin. 

The text is very elliptical and obscure ; it is literally, "Put to 
sleep the two reciprocally looking; let them sleep, not being 
awakened." That two females are intended, is inferable from 
the epithets being in the dual number and feminine gender ; and 
the Scholiast calls them, upon what authority is not stated, two 
female messengers of Yama : Yama Mtyau. Miikddfiid, he ex- 
plains, mithunatmfd yugata-rupdia pafyata, looking, after the 
manner of twins, at each other, 

Nwantam'papaydmuyd, praising with this speech that is of 
the nature of abuse. Ninddrupayd vdchd, is the addition of the 


6. Let the (adverse) breeze, with crooked course, 
alight afar off on the forest : Indra, of boundless 
wealth, enrich us with thousands of excellent cows 
and horses. 

7- Destroy every one that reviles us ; slay every 
one that does us injury: Indba, of boundless 
wealth, enrich us with thousands of excellent cows 
and horses. 


The hymn is ascribed to Sunah^bpas; of the twenty-two stanzas 
of which it consists, sixteen are addressed to Indra, three to 
the AiSwins^ and three to Ushas or the personified dawn. 
The metre is GdyatH, except in verse 15, where it is TrisMubh, 

1. Let us, who are desirous of food, satisfy this Vargaxxviii. 
your Indra, who is mighty, and of a hundred sacri- 
fices, with drops (of Soma juice), as a well (is filled) 

(with water). 

2. May he who is (the recipient) of a hundred 
pure, and of a thousand distilled (libations), come 
(to the rite), as water to low (places). 

8. All which (libations), being accumulated for 
the gratification of the powerful Indra, is contained 
in his belly, as water in the ocean. 

4. This libation is (prepared) for thee: thou 
approachest it as a pigeon his pregnant (mate), for 
on that account dost thou accept our prayer. 

5. Hero, Indra, lord of affluence, accepter of 

Scholiast, who adds, therefore is he called an ass, as hraying or 
uttering harsh sounds mtolerahle to hear : Yathd gardabhah sro^ 
turn aSakyam paruaham iahdam karoti. 


praise, may genuine prosperity be (the reward of 
him) who offers thee laudation. 
Yarga XXIX. 6. Biso up» S'atakratu, for our defence in thia 

conflict ; we will talk together in other matters. 

7. On every occasion, in every engagement, we 
invoke as friends the most powerful Indba. for our 

8. If he hear our invocation, let him indeed 
come to us with numerous bounties, and with 
(abundant) food. 

9. I invoke the man (Indra), who visits many 
worshippers from his ancient dwelling-place, — thee, 
Indra, whom my father formerly invoked. 

10. We implore thee as our friend, who art 
preferred and invoked by all, (to be favourable) to 
thy worshippers, protector of dwellings. 

Varga XXX. 11. Drinker of the Soma juice, wielder of the 

thunderbolt, friend, (bestow upon) us, thy friends, 
and drinkers of the Soma juice, (abundance of 
cows) with projecting jaws.* 

12. So be it, drinker of tHe Soma juice, wielder 
of the thunderbolt, our friend, that thou wilt do, 
through thy favour, whatever we desire. 

13. So, Indra, rejoicing along with us, we may 
have (abundant food), and cows may be ours, robust, 
and rich in milk, with which we may be happy. 

* The expression in the text is SiprMiuim^ gen. plnr. of the 
feminine S^nitd, having a nose or a jaw; it cannot therefore refer 
to the previous noons in the gen. plor., Somapdbndm and Sakhi-' 
ndm, which are masc. ; and the Scholiast therefore supplies gavdm, 
of cows, and adds samdha, a multitade, or herd. 


14. DhrishAu/ let some such divinity as 
thou art, self-presented, promptly bestow, when 
solicited, (bounties) upon thy praisers, as (they whirl) 
the axle of the wheels (of a car).^ 

15. Such wealth, S'atakratu, as thy praisers 
desire, thou bestowest upon them, as the axle (re- 
volves) with the movements (of the waggon).® 

16. Indka has ever won riches (from his foes), Varga xxxi. 
with his champing, neighing, and snorting (steeds) ; 

he, the abounding in acts, the bountiful, has given 
us as a gift a golden chariot.^ 

The resolute, or firm, or high-spirited, an appdlative of 

Hie verse is, throughout, very elliptical and ohscore, and is 
intelligible only through the liberal additions of the Scholiast. 
The simile is, literally, like the axle of two cars, — aksham na chak» 
ryoh, which the commentator renders, rathasya chakrayoh, of the 
two wheels of a car, and adds prakshipanti, they cast or turn 
over. Hie phrase seems to have puzzled the translators ; Rosen 
has, currum velut dudbus rotis; Stevenson, that blessings may come 
round to them with the same certainty that the wheel revolves round 
the axle; Dr. Roer, as a wheel is brought to a chariot; M. Lang- 
lois, que les autres dkust, non mains que toi, sensibhs d nos louanges, 
soientpour nous comme Vaxe qui soutient et faU toumer les roues 
du char; the meaning intended, is, probably, the hope that bless- 
ings should follow praise as the pivot on which they revolve, as 
the revolutions of the wheels of a car turn upon the axle. 

This repetition of tlie comparison is more obscure than in 
the preceding stanza ; it va like the axle by the acts, — aksham na 
iocAt^AtA. The Scholiast defines ' the acts,' the movements of the 
car or waggon. 

So the Brdhmaia, By Indra pleased, a golden chariot was 

78 ]^Gh-VEDA 8ANHITA. 

17. AiSwmSy come hither, with viands borne on 
many steeds. Dasras^ (let our dwelling) be filled 
with cattle and with gold. 

18. Dasras, your chariot, harnessed for both alike, 
is imperishable ; it travels, Aswins, through the air. 

19. You have one wheel on the top of the solid 
(mountain), while the other revolves in the sky.* 

20. UsHAS,^ who art pleased by praise, what 
mortal enjoyeth thee, immortal? Whom, mighty 
one, dost thou affect ? 

21. Diffusive, many-tinted, brilliant (Ushas), we 
know not (thy limits), whether they be nigh or 

22. Daughter of heaven,'' approach with these 
viands, and perpetuate our wealth.® 

giyen to him, that is, to SwuthSepas; he nevertheless hands him 
over to the Aiwins, 

There is no explanation of this myth in the commentary ; it 
may be connected with the PaurdUUk notion of the single wheel of 
the chariot of the son. — VisMu Purdfia, p. 21 7. 

The dawn ; daughter of the personified heaven» or its deity^ 
Dyudevatdydh duhitri. Rosen translates the name Avrora, but it 
seems preferable to keep the original denomination, as, except in 
regard to time, there is nothing in common between the two. In 
the Vish^ PurdAa, indeed, Ushd, a word of similar deriyation as 
Ushas, is called night, and the dawn is Vyusktd. Several passages 
seem to indicate that Usha, or Ushas, is the time immediately pre- 
ceding daybreak. 

^ We here take leave of SumMepas, and it most be confessed, 
that for the greater part there is, in the hymns ascribed to him, 
little connection with the legend narrated in the RdmdyaAa and 
other nuthorities. 


anuvAka VII. 

SiJkta I. (XXXI.) 

This hymn is addressed to Aoni ; the ^isM is HiraAtasti^pa^ 
the son of Angiras. The eighth, sixteenth, and eighteenth 
stanzas are in the Trishtubh metre, the rest in JagatC 

1. Thou, Agni, wast the first Anoiras Rishi f" a Vargaxxxii. 
divinity, thou wast the auspicious friend of the 

deities. In thy rite the wise, the all-discerning, 
the bright-weaponed Maruts were engendered. 

2. Thou, Agni, the first and chiefest Angiras, 
gracest the worship of the gods ; sapient, manifold,'* 
for the benefit of all the world, intelligent, the 
offspring of two mothers,® and reposing in various 
ways for the use of man. 

3. Agni, pre-eminent over the wind,* become 
manifest to the worshipper, in approbation of his 
worship. Heaven and earth tremble (at thy power); 

According to SdifoAa, he was the first, as being the pro- 
genitor of all ihe Angirasaa ; they being, according to the Brdh- 
nuda, as before quoted, nothing more than the coals or dnders of 
the sacrificial fire. There is no explanation 9f the origin assigned 
in this verse to the Maruta, 

Vibku, according to the Scholiast, means, of many kinds; 
alluding to the dififerent fires of a sacrifice. 

^ Dwimdtd^ either of two mothers, t. e. the two sticks, or llie 
maker of two, t. e, heaven and earth. 

Literally, first in, or on, or over the wind, — frathamo rndtO" 
riswane; alluding, according to the Scholiast, to the text, o^ntr- 
vdyvrdditya, fire, air, sun, in which A^ precedes Vdyu. 


thou hast sustained the burthen in the rite for 
which the priest was appointed ; thou, Vasu, hast 
worshipped the venerable (gods). 

4. Thou, Agni, hast announced heaven to Manu ;* 
thou hast more than requited Pururavas^ doing 
homage to thee. When thou art set free by the 
attrition of thy parents, they bear thee first to the 
east, then to the west (of the altar)."" 

5. Thou, Agni, art the showerer (of desires), the 
augmenter of the prosperity (of thy worshipper) ; 
thou art to be called upon as the ladle is lifted up ; 
upon him who fully understands the invocation and 
makes the oblation,* thou, the provider of sus- 
tenance, first bestowest light, and then upon all 

Vargaxxxiii. 6. Agni, excellently wise, thou directest the man 

who follows improper paths, to acts that are fitted 
to reclaim him ; thou who, in the strife of heroes, 
(grateful to them) as widely-scattered wealth, de- 
stroyest in the combat the mighty by the feeble. 

It is said that Agni explained to Mami that heaven was to be 
gained by picas works. 

The agency of Pur^avaa, the son of Budha, the son of Soma, 
in the generation of fire by attrition, and its employment in the 
form of three sacrificial fires, as told in the PurdAas {Vishhi 
Purdfia, p. 397), may be here alluded to ; but the phrase is only 
Sukrite sukrittarah, doing more good to him who did good. 

The fire is first applied to kindle the Ahavanfya fire, and 
then to the Gdrhapatya, according to the Scholiast. 

He who knows the AhiUi, with the Vashaf kjriH, or utterance 
of the word FosWat the moment of pouring the butter on the fire. 


7. Thou sustainest, Agni, that mortal (who wor- 
ships thee), in the best immortality by daily food : 
thou bestowest on the sage, who is desirous (of 
creatures) of both kinds of birth,^ happiness and 

8. Aqni, who art praised by us for the sake of 
wealth, render illustrious the performer of the rite ; 
may we improve the act by a new offspring (given 
by thee). Preserve us, heaven and earth, along 
with the gods. 

9. Irreproachable Agni, a vigilant god amongst 
the gods, (abiding) in the proximity of (thy) parents,^ 
and bestowing upon us embodied (progeny), awake 
us. Be well disposed to the offerer of the oblation ; 
for thou, auspicious Agni, grantest all riches. 

10. Thou, Agni, art well disposed to us, thou art 
our protector, thou art the giver of life to us ; we 
are thy kinsmen. Uninjurable Agni, hundreds and 
thousands of treasures belong to thee, who art the 
defender of pious acts and attended by good men. 

11. The gods formerly made thee, Agni, the Vai|;«xxxiv. 
living general of the mortal Nahusha :^ they made 

It is not very clear what ia meant ; the expresaion ia, who ia 
very desuroua or longing for both birtha. The Scholiaat aaya, for 
the acquirement of bipeda and qnadrapeda, — dwipaddm ckatush* 
paddm Idbhdya. 

The parenta are here said to be heaven and earth. 

c ^ 

Nakusha was the aon of Ayus, son of Pvniravaa, who was 

elevated to heaven aa an Indra, until precipitated thence for hia 

arrogance. The circumstance alluded to in the text doea not 

appear in the PaurdMk narrative. — ViaMu Purdiia, 413. 



Ila, the instructress of Manu^ when the son of my 
father was bom.'' 

12. Agki, who art worthy to be praised, preserve 
us who are opulent with thy bounties, and also the 
persons (of our sons) : thou art the defender of cattle 
for the son of my son,^ who is ever assiduous in thy 

13. Thou, four-eyed Aom,'' blazest as the pro- 
tector of the worshipper^ who art at hand for the 
(security of the) uninterrupted (rite) ; thou cherish- 

^ This circQinBtance is not related in the PurdAaa, of Hd, the 
daughter of Vawahpata Manu. — VUkHu PurtMa, 349. Frequent 
passages in the Vedas ascribe to lid die first institution of the roles 
of performing sacrifices ; tiius in the text she is termed Sdswid, 
which the Scholiast explains dhannopadeSa karttri, the giver of 
instruction in duty. The Taittirfyai are quoted for the text, 
"iSd, the daughter of Ifontf, was the illustrator of sacrifice" (y£[/- 
ndtnikdSinf) ; and the Vdjasaneyis for the passage : " She, Ild^ said 
to Manu, 'Appoint me to officiate in sacrifices, principal and sup- 
plementary, for by me shalt thou obtain all thy desires/ " — Prayd- 
Jdmtydjdndm tnadhye mdm avakalpeya maydsarvdn aodpsyasi kdmdn. 
M. Burnonf questions if lid ever occurs in the sense of daugh- 
ter of Mami in the Veias, and restricts its meaning to ' earth' or 
to ' speedi.' Tkt passage of tiie text, Ildm akrmwan mamtskasya 
idHnAn, he trandates, les imue ont fait d'lld la pr^oeptrice de 
rhomme, and ooasiden it equivalent to, lea dieux ont fait de la 
parole VinstihUrice de Vhomme, — Introduction to the Bhdgavata 
Purdfia, III. lxxxiv. We are scarcely yet in possession of ma- 
terials to come to a safe conclusion on tins subject. 

We must conohide that dns hymn was composed by the 
anthor in his old age, as he qieaks of his grandson. 

lUnminating the four cardinal points. 


est in thy mind the prejer of thiiid adorer, who 
offers the oblation to thee, the harmless, the l>e- 

14. TboQ, AoNi, desirest (that the wordijpper 
may acquire) that excellent wealth which is i^qtii^ 
site for the many-conimended priest : thou ant 
called the well-intentioDed protector of the wor- 
shipper, who ever needs protectioo. Thou, who art 
all-wise, instructest the disciple, and (definest) the 
points of the horizon/ 

15« Aan, tbou defendei^ the finan who gives 
presents (to the priests) on every side, like well- 
stitdied armour.^ The man vbo keeps choice viands 
in his dwelling, and with them entertains (his 
guests), performs the sacrifice of life/ and is the 
likeness of heaven. 

This is said to allade to a legend, in which the gods, intend- 
ing to offer a sacrifice, were at a loss to determine the cardinal 
points, until the perplexity was removed fay Agni's ascertaining the 

Varma syHtam, sewn armour. The kavacha was, perhaps, a 
quilted jacket, such as is still sometimes worn ; the Scholiast 
says, formed vdth neeAes without leaving a fissure. 

^ The dyveasion is mther aaibiguoos,— ;/<ra-iy4^ y^lf^^^, mMsri* 
fioes a life-SBorifiee. Bioaen readers it, vwam hMtimn mMOtai; 
but in this place it seems rather to denote an offering (food .and 
hospitality) to a Hving bmg, the Nri^yafna, woahip of man, of 
Manu. The expression, however, is not incompatillle widi the 
•practice of kilUng a cow for the food oi -a guest, tbence denomi- 
nsted, as M. Langlois remarks, go^iiut, % cow-skyer. The Soho- 
liast sanctions either sense, explaimng die plHiuBe ^iCutr j4oayqfwa 
sahUam yajnam, a sacrifice with sacrifice of life, or jivmikl^^di^am, 

o 2 


Varga xxxv. 16. AoNi, forgivo US this our negligence, this 

path in which we have gone astray : thou art to be 
sought as the protector and encourager of those 
who offer suitable libations ; thou art the fulfiller 
(of the end of rites), thou makest thyself visible to^ 

17. Pure Agni, who goest about (to receive 
oblations), go in thy presence to the hall of sacri- 
fice, as did Manu, and Anoiras, and Yayati, and 
others of old :^ bring hither the divine personages, 
seat them on the sacred grass, and offer them grate- 
ful (sacrifice). 

18. Agni, do thou thrive through this our prayer, 
which we make according to our ability, according 
to our knowledge : do thou, therefore, lead us to 
opulence, and endow us with right understanding, 
securing (abundant) food. 

SiJkta II. (XXXII.) 

The ftishi and metre are the same ; the hymn ia addressed to Indra. 

Vargaxxxvi. 1. I declare the former valorous deeds of Indra, 

that by which life is to be supported ; he also explains Jioaydfom 
hjjMh, living, priests, who ifyioUe dakshUUfbhih, are worshipped 
by gifts. 

fishikf^, becoming present through desire for the ofiered 
oblation : the epithet is an nnnsoal one. 

In like manner as ancient patriarchs, snch as Mtmu or Jn^ 
gtroB, or former kings, repaired to different places where sacrifices 
were celebrated. Yaydti was one of the sons otNahusha. — Vbh^ 
Purd^, 413. 


which the thunderer has achieved: be clove the 
cloud ; he cast the waters down (to earth) ; he broke 
(a way) for tbe torrents of the mountain.^ 

2. He clove the cloud, seeking refuge on the 
mountain: Twash^^ sharpened his far-whirling 
bolt: the flowing waters quickly hastened to the 
ocean, like cows (hastening) to their calves. 

3. Impetuous as a bull, he quaffed the Soma 
juice ; be drank of the libation at the triple sacri- 
fice.^ Maohavan took his shaft, the thunderbolt, 
and with it struck the first-bom of the clouds. 

4. Inasmuch, Indba, as thou hast divided the 

* In this and mibaeqiient SMob, we have an ample elnddation 
of the original purport of the legend of Indra'a slaying Vfitra, 
converted by the PaitrdtUk writers into a literal contest between 
Indra and an Asura, or chief of the Asitras, from what in the 
Vedas is merely an allegorical narratiye of the prodaction of rain. 
Vjitra, sometimes also named Ahi, is nothing more than the 
acdunalation of vapour condensed, or figuratively, shut up in, or 
obstructed by a doad. Indra, with his thmiderbolt, or atmo- 
spheric or electrical inflnenoe, divides the aggregated mass, and 
vent is given to the rain, which then descends apon the earth, 
and moistens the fields, or passes off in rivers. The language of 
the ftichas is not always sufficiently distinct, and ccmfounds 
metaphorical and literal representation, but it never approximates 
to that unqualified strain of personification, which, beginning 
apparently with the Mahdbhdrata {Vana Parva, ch. 100 ; also in 
other Parvas), became the subject of extravagant amplification by 
the compQers of the PwrdAas. 

At the TnkairuhaM; the three sacrifices termed Jyatish, Gauh, 
and ifyv. No further description of them occurs in the com- 


flrst-born of the clouds,* thou hast destroyed the 
delusions of the deluderS) and then engendering the 
sun, the dawn, the firmament, thou hast not left 
an enemy (to oppose thee).^ 

6. With his vast destroying thunderbolt, Indra 
struck the darkling mutilated VjftrrRA : as the trunks 
of trees are felled by the axe, so lies Ahi® prostrate 
on the earth. 

xxxvii ^* ■""^^^ arrogant Vritra, as if unequalled, defied 

Indra, the mighty hero, the destroyer of many, the 
scatterer of foes ;-^he has not escaped the contact 
of the fate of (Indra's) enemies. The foe of Indra 
has crushed the (banks of the) rivers.^ 

7. Having neither hand nor foot, he defied 

^ The first-formed cload. 


By scattering the doads and dispersing the darkness, Indra 

may he said to he the parent of the son and daylight ; leafing no 
enemy, that is, nothing to ohscnre the atmosphere. 

We have here, and in other verses, both names, Aki and 
Vfitra ; they are both given as synonymes of Megha, a dond, in 
the Niphantu : the former is derived from Aon, to strike, vnth d 
prefixed, arbitrarily shortened to a ; the latter, lit. the enoom* 
passer or conoealer, is from wi, to endose, or vfit, to he, or to 
exist, or from Vfiddk, to inorease ; a choice of etymdogies inti* 
mating a vague use of the term. He is said to be vjfmite, having 
a part, or metaphorically a limb, detadied, thns conflranding things 
with persons, as is still more violently done in a foDowing verse» 
where he is said to have neither hands nor feet. 

The text has only Rujdndh pipUhe, he has gpround the rivers ; 
the commentator supplies, the banks, which he says were broken 
ikrnn by the M of Vfitra, that is, by the iamidatiOQ oooasicficd 
by the descent of the rain. 


Indsa, who struck him with the thunderbolt upon 
his mountainfJike shoulder, like one emasculated 
who pretends to virility; then Vi^itra, mutilated 
of many members, slept. 

8. The waters, that delight the minds (of men), 
flow over him, recumbent on this earth, as a river 
(bursts through) its broken (banks). Ahi has been 
prostrated beneath the feet of the waters, which 
V91TBA, by his might, bad obstructed. 

0. The mother of Y arrRA was bending over her 
son, when Indra struck her nether part with his 
shaft; so the mother was above and the son under- 
neath, and Danu* slept (with her son), like a cow 
with its calf. 

10. The waters carry off* the nameless body of 
Vrftra, tossed into the midst of the never-stopping, 
never-resting currents. The foe of Indra has slept 
a long darkness. 

11. The waters, the wives of .the destroyer,^ xxxviii. 
guarded by Am, stood obstructed, like the cows by 

Panin ; but by slaying VjgirrRA, Indra set open the 
qave that had confined them, 

12. When the single resplendent Vrptra re* 
turned the blow (which had been inflicted), Indra, 
by thy thunderbolt, thou becamest (furious), like a 

* Ddmi is derived from dQ, to cat or destroy, or from Dimft, 
the wife of Kafyapa, and mot)xer of the Od^ftv/u or Titan*. 

Ddsa patnyah ; the fijrat is said to be a oane of VfUru, aa 
the deatroyer of tH thinga, or all holy acta, — he who dd$ayati 


horse's tail.'' Thou bast rescued the kine; thou 
bast won, Hero, the Soma juice ;^ thou hast let loose 
the seven rivers to flow.* 

13. Neither the lightning nor the thunder (dis- 
charged by Vritra), nor the rain which he showered, 
nor the thunderbolt, harmed Indra, when he and 
Ahi contended, and Maghavat triumphed also over 
other (attacks). 

14. When fear* entered, Indra, into thy heart 
when about to slay Ahi, what other destroyer of him 

^ We have had this shmle before ; as a horse lashes his tail to 
get rid of the flies. 

Alluding, it is said, to a legend of Indra* s having drunk a 
libation prepared by TwashCfit after the death of his son, who, 
according to a PmardMk legend, was TriHraa, also killed by Indra, 
and to avenge which, Vjitra was created by Twaah^fi. 

^ According to one PaurdMk legend, the Ganges divided on its 
descent into seven streams, termed the NalM, Pavan{, and 
HlddM, going to t£e east ; the Chakshu, Sitd, and Sindku, to the 
west ; and the BhdgirathC or Ganges proper, to the south. In one 
place in the Mahdbhdrata, the seven rivers are termed VaswaU' 
kasdrd, N(dM, Pavan{, Gangd, Sitd, Sindhu, and Jdmbunad(; in 
another, Gangd, Yamund, Plakshagd, Rathasthd, Saryu, ChmatC, 
and GaniakC, In a text quoted and commented on by Ydska, we 
have ten rivers, named Gangd, Yamund, Saraswatt, Satudri, Pa- 
rwhAC, Asihd, Maruduridhd, Vitastd, Arj<kAfd, and Sushomd; of 
these, the Parush^hi identified with the Irdvai{, the AryMm^ 
the Vipddd, and the Sushomd with the Sindhu.—Nir. 3, 26. The 
origmal enumeration of seven appears to be that which has given 
rise to the specifications of the PwrdAas, 

The Scholiast intimates that this fear was the uncertainty 
whether he should destroy VfUra, or not ; but in the Purdias, 


didst thou look for, that, alarmed, thou didst tra- 
verse ninety and nine streams like a (swift) hawk ? 
15. Then Indra, the wielder of the thunderbolt, 
became the soYereign of all that is moveable or im- 
moveable, of hornless and homed cattle ; and as he 
abides the monarch of men, he comprehended all 
things (within him), as the circumference compre- 
hends the spokes of a wheel. 


ANUVAKA VII. (continued). 
SiJkta III. (XXXin.) 

The ftishi is as before, Hira^tastiJpa. Indra also is the 

divinity ; the metre is JVisUubh. 

1. Come, let us repair to Indra,* (to recover our Vaigai. 
stolen cattle), for he, devoid of malice, exhilarates 
our minds ; thereupon he will bestow upon us 
perfect knowledge of this wealth, (which consists) 
of kine. 

Indra is represented as fearing his enemy's prowess, and hiding 
himself in a lake : something like this is also intimated in other 
passages of the text ; whence the PanrdtUk fiction. The BrdA- 
nuida and the Taittirfya are quoted* as stating that In^bra, after 
killing Vfitra, thinking he had committed a 8in» fled to a great 

^ This is all the text says : the Scholiast adds, " The gods are 
supposed to say this to one another when their cows have been 
carried off." 


2. I fly, like a hawk to its cherished nest» to that 
Indra who is to be invoked by his worshippers in 
battle, glorifying with excellent hymns him who is 
invincible and the giver of wealth. 

3. The commander of the whole host has bound 
his qniver (on his back) : the lord^ drives the cattle 
(to the dwelling) of whom he pleases. Mighty 
Indra, bestowing upon us abundant wealth, take 
not advantage of us like a dealer.^ 

4. Verily, Indra, thou hast slain the wealthy 
barbarian^ with thine adamantine (bolt); thou, 
singly assailing (him), although with auxiliaries (the 
Maruts) at hand.^ Perceiving the impending mani- 
fold destnictiveness of thy bow, they, the Sanakcts^^ 
the neglecters of sacrifice, perished. 

Arya, here explained Swdmin, master, owner, lord, — ^meaning, 

lit. do not be to Q8 a P(Uii, a trafficker ; such being one sense 
ci the tenn ; from Paiia, price, hire. Indra is solicited not to make 
a hard bargain, not to demand too much from his worshippers. 

Vjitra, the Dajsyu, literally a robber, ^ but appar^tly nsed in 
contrast to Arifa, as if intending the undvihzed tribes of India. 
He is caUed wealthy, because, according to the VdjoMneyu, he 
comprehends within him all gods, aU knowledge, all oblatioM,-^ 
VfUrasya antah sorve devdh sarvdicha vU^dh ittrvdM hawM 



So the BrdkmaAa^ Hie MarwU who aoeompanied Indr^ did 
not attadk VrUra, bat they stood ni^ and encooragwl the former, 
saying, " Strike, O Lord ; show thyself a hero." 

^ The fpllowejn of Vjiira are called by this name, the meaning 
pf which is not very aat^iftietODly ex^ained by Sandn'^lufymUi^ 
they who eulogize benefiactors ; they are also called, in tbi^ Mid 


5. The neglecters of sacrifice^ contending with 
the sacrificers, 1kdra» fled with averted faces. 
INDBA9 fierce, nnjietding, lord of steeds, (they dis-^ 
appeared) when thou didst blow the disregarders of 
religion from off the heaven, and earth, and tkj. 

6. (The adherents of V^ftra) enconntered the Varg« ii. 
army of the irreproachable (Indra) ; men of holj 

lives encouraged him.' Scattered before him, con- 
scious (of their inferiority), like the emasculated con- 
tending with men, they fled by precipitous paths. 

7. Thou hast destroyed them, Inora, whether 
weeping or laughing, on the &rthest verge of the 
sky; thou hast consumed the robber, (having 
dragged him) from heaven, and hast received the 
praises of the worshipper, praising thee and offering 

8. Decorated with gold and jewels, they were 
spreading over the circuit of the earth ; but mighty 
as they were, they triumphed not over Indra : 
he dispersed them with the (rising) sun.^ 

the nest yene, Ayqfwdmu, non-8acrificera« in contrast to the Yqf" 
ufdnas or sacrificers; here apparently alto identifying the followers 
of Vfitra with races who had not adopted, or were hostile to, the 
ritual of the Vedas. 

KskUayah navagvdh, men whose practices were commendable; 
or the ' men/ it is said, may he tbe Angtraaas engaged in offering 
libations to Indra for nine months, in order to give him coarage. 

We revert here to the allegory. The followers of Vjritra are 
here said to be the shades of night, which are dispersed by the 
rising of the sun ; according to the Brdhmaiia, " Verily the sun, 
when he rises in the east, drives away the Rdkshasaa," 


9. iNDRAy as thou eojoyest both heaven and 
earth, inyesting the uniyerse with thy magnitude, 
thou hast blown away the robber with the prayers 
which are repeated on behalf of those who do not 
comprehend them/ 

10. When the waters descended not upon the 
ends of the earth, and overspread not that giver of 
affluence with its productions, then Indra, the 
showerer, grasped his bolt, and with its brightness 
milked out the waters from the darkness. 

vaiK«iii. !!• The waters flowed to provide the food of 
Indra, but (VRrrRA) increased in the midst of the 
navigable (rivers) ; then Indra, with his fatal and 
powerful shaft, slew Vj^ftra, whose thoughts were 
ever turned towards him. 

12. Indra set free (the waters) obstructed by 
(VjairrRA), when sleeping in the caverns of the earth, 
and slew the homed dryer up (of the world ).^ Thou, 

^ This passage is rather obscure, owing to the yagae purport 
of the preposition ahhi; amanyanuMn ahhi nuayamdnair brah^ 
mabMh, with prayers to be understood oyer those not understand- 
ing; that is, according to the Scholiast, those Ytyamdnas, or 
institutors of sacrifices, who merely repeat the numtras without 
understanding their meaning, are nevertheless to be protected by. 
or are to reap the benefit of those numtras ; and with numtras or 
prayers of this description Indra is to be animated, or empowered 
to blow away or scatter the followers of Vritra, donds and dark* 
ness. Rosen renders the expression, carmin^us resptcienttbus eo$ 
qui tuonan hymnorum sensmn non perspidunt; M. Langlois has 
{excUi) contre ces micr^ans par no$ chants respectueux, 

Sfinginam iusMam, the first, literally, having horns, the 
Scholiast explains, furnished with weapons like the horns of bulls 


Maghavan, with equal swiftness and strength, didst 
kill with thy thunderbolt the enemy defying thee 
to battle. 

13. The weapon of Indra fell upon his adver- 
saries ; with his sharp and excellent (shaft) he 
destroyed their cities ; he then reached Vritra with 
his thunderbolt^ and (by) slaying him, exhilarated 
his mind. 

14. Thou, Indra, hast protected Kxttsa, grateful 
for his praises: thou hast defended the excellent 
DaSadyii engaged in battle : the dust of thy cour- 
ser^s hoofs ascended to heaven : the son of SwttrA, 
(through thy favour), rose up, to be again upborne 
by men.* 

15. Thou hast protected, Maghavan, the ex- 
cellent son of SwitrA, when combating for his 
lands, and encouraged (by thee) when immersed in 
water ; do thou inflict sharp pains on those of 

and bnfialoes. ^ushfUan, literally drjnng, drying up, is applied to 
Vfitra or the doud, as withholding the moisture necessary for 

Kutsa is said to be a fihhi, founder of a Gotra, a religious 
family or school, and is ebewhere spoken of as the particular 
friend of Indra, or even as bis son ; he is the reputed author of 
several hymns: we have a Purukutsa in the Purd^, but he 
was a Ri^d, the son of Mdndhdtri. — VUh^ PurdAa, 363. Daia 
dyuh is also called a ftiahi; but he appears to have been a warrior : 
no mention of him is found in the Purdiias, The same may be 
said of StDaUreyOj or Switrya, the son of a female termed Stoitrd, 
Switrya is described in the next stanza as having hidden himself 
in a pool of water, through fear of his enemies. 


hostile minds, who have long stood (in enmity) 
against us. 


The fttBhi is the eame ; the hymn i$ addreeeed to the A^wims ; 
the metre is TrisMubA, except in the ninth and twelfth stanzas, 
in which it is JagaiC 

vargaiv. 1. Wise ASwiNB» be present with us thrice to- 
day :* vast is your vehicle, as well as your munifi- 
cence : your union is like that of the shining (day) 
and dewy (night) : (suffer yourselves) to be detained 
by the learned (priests). 

2. Three are the solid (wheels) of your abund- 
ance-bearing chariot, as all (the gods) have known 
(it to be), when attendant on YenA, the beloved of 
SoiftA :^ three are the columns placed (above it) for 
support,^ and in it thrice do you journey by nigbt; 
and thrice by day. 

^ We have a variety of changes rung in this hymn npon the 
number ' three.' In this place, allusion, it is said, is made either 
to the three diurnal sacrifices, at dawn, mid- day, and sunset, or 
to tlie iieusulty of all divinities, of being tripcUhagdh, or going 
equally tlirough the heavens, the firmament, and tlie eartii. 

The A&wins are said to bave fiUed their Ratha, tx ear, witk 
all sorts of good things when they went to the marriage oi Vend 
with Soma, — a legend not fonnd in the Pwrd^, 

So the Scholiast explains SkamVhdsah skahkiidsa drabhe, posts 
standing up from the body of the car, which the riden may k^ 
hold of, if by its rapid or uneven motion they eliould be afraid of 
falling out. 


3. Thrice in one entire day do yon r^&ir the 
&ults (of your worshippers) : thrice to-day sprinkle 
the oblation with sweetness; and thrice, evening 
and morning, AiSwinb, grant us stiength^bestowing 

4. Thrice» ASwiNS, visit our dwelling, and the 
man who is well disposed towards us : thrice repair 
to him who deserves your protection, and instract 
us in threefold knowledge : thrice grant us gratify- 
ing (rewards) ; thrice shower upon us food, as ^Indsa 
pours down) rain. 

6. ASwiNS, thrice bestow upon us riches : thrice 
approach the divine rite : thrice preserve our intel- 
lects : thrice grant us proq>erity, thrice food. The 
daughter of the sun has ascended your three- 
wheeled car. 

6. Thrice grant us, AiSwms, the medicaments of 
heaven, and those of earth, and those of the firma- 
ment : give to my son the prosperity of S'anyu :' 
cherishecs of wholesome (herbs), preserve the well- 
being of the three humours (of the body).^ 

7. A^ms, who are to be thrice worshipped, day Varga v. 
by day, repose on the triple (couch of) sacred grass 

upon the ^rth, (that forms the altar): car-borne 

Sm^ it BBid to be tiie soa of VfHaspai^ broogl^ up by the 

The text baa only tri'dhdiu, the aggreg a te of three kamouis, 
said by the Scholiast, agreeably to medioal wntera, to denote 
wind, bile, and phlegm. 



NAsATYAS^* repair from afar to the threefold (place 
of sacrifice),^ as the vital air to (living) bodies. 

8. Come, Al$wiNS» thrice, with the seven mother- 
streams :° the three rivers are ready;* the triple 
oblation is prepared : rising above the three worlds, 
you defend the sun in the sky, who is established 
for both night and day.® 

9. Where^ NAsatyas, are the three wheels of 
your triangular car?' where the three fastenings 
and props (of the awning) ? When will be the har- 
nessing of the powerful ass,' that you may come to 
the sacrifice ? 

10. Come, NAsATYAS, to the sacrifice : the obla- 
tion is offered ; drink the juice with mouths that 

They in whom there is not (na) untnith (asatya). 

The text has only^ "to the three;" the Scholiast adds 
" altars, severally appropriated to oblations of ghee, to animal 
sacrifices, and to libations of Soma," — Aishiikapdsukasmnnika' 

Gangd and the other rivers are here considered as the parents 
of the water which rolls in their streams. 

Three sorts of jars or pitchers, used to contain and poor oat 
the Soma juice at the three daily sacrifices. 

Inasmuch as the rising and setting of the sun indicate the 
arrival of both day and night. In what way the AMns are of 
service to the luminary, does not appear. 

The apex of the car is in front, the base is the back part, 
forming three angles. Tlie text has only trwrito raihasya, which 
the Scholiast interprets tribkir'aSnbhir'Upetaaya rathasya. 

^ The text has Rdsabha, a synonyme of Garddabha, an ass ; 
according to the Nighaniu, there is a pair of them : rdsabhdvai'^ 
toinoh, two asses are the steeds of the AMns, 


relish the sweet savour. Befbre the dawn, even, 
Savttri sends (to bring you) to the rite, your won- 
derful car* shining with clarified butter. 

11. Come, Nasatyas, with the thrice eleven di- 
vinities:^ come, AiSwiNS, to drink the oblation: 
prolong our lives, effitce our faults, restrain our 
enemies, and be ever with us. 

12. Borne in your car that traverses the three 
worlds, bring to us, AiSwins, present affluence, 
attended by (male) progeny : I call upon you both, 
listening to me, for protection ; be to us for vigour 
in battle. 

SiJkta V. (XXXV.) 


Tlie Jfishi is the same; the first and ninth verses are m the Jagah 
metre^ the rest in the Trishtubh. The divinity of the whole 
hjmn is Savitri, bat in the first verse Aoni, Mitra, Vartj^a, 
and Night are included as subordinate or associated deities. 

1. I invoke Agni first, for protection : I invoke varg» vi. 
for protection, MrrBA and Varu^a : I invoke Nighty 

who brings rest to the world : I invoke the divine 
SAvrrRi for my preservation. 

2. Revolving through the darkened firmament, 

* Im]dying that the AMns are to be worshipped widi this 
hymn at dawn. 

This is authority for the usual PaurdMk enumeration of 
thirty-three deities, avowedly resting on Vaidik texts. The 
list is there made up of the eight Vaaus, eleven Rudras, twelve 
Adityas, Prajdpati, and VashMdra (VUhiu PwiUia, p. 123 and 
note) ; but the Scholiast intimates a different dassification, or the 
threefold repetition of eleven divinities, agreeably to the text : " Ye 
eleven deities who are in heaven/' — Ye divdso dwyekddaia stka, 



arousing mortal and immortal, the divine Savitri 
travels in bis golden chariot, beholding the (several) 

3. The divine Savitri travels by an upward and by 
a downward path :^ deserving adoration, he journeys 
with two white horses: he comes hither from a 
distance, removing all sins. 

4. The many-rayed adorable Savitri, having 
power (to disperse) darkness from the world, has 
mounted his nigh-standing chariot, decorated with 
many kinds of golden ornaments, and furnished 
vnth golden yokes. 

5. His white-footed coursers,^ harnessed to his 
car vnth a golden yoke, have manifested light to 
mankind. Men and all the regions are ever in the 
presence of the divine Savitrl 

6. Three are the spheres; two are in the 
proximity of Savitri, one leads men to the dwell- 
ing of Yaha.° The immortal (luminaries)^ depend 

' ■ r ' ■" \ ri m . . - - ^ ^ 

That la, ascending from sunrise to the meridian, and then 

The hones of Senntri are here termed Sydoa, which properly 
signifies the brown ; bat in verse two they have been caUed 
* white ;' the present must be therefore a proper name, udess the 
h3nnner contradicts himself. 

The spheres or lokoi which lie in the immediate path of the 
snn are said to be heaven and earth ; the intermediate hha. An* 
toHksha, or firmament, is described as the road to the realm of 
Yama^ die ruler of the dead, by which the pretdh, or ghosts, 
travel. Why this should not be considered equally the course of 
the sun, im not very obvious. 

The text has only Amritd, the immortals ; the Scholiast sup- 


apon Savitri as a car upon the pin of the axle ; 
let him who knows (the greatness of Savitri) 
declare it. 

7. SupaiHoy^ (the solar ray), deep-quivering, life-* Varga vii. 
bestowing, well-directed, has illuminated the three 
regions. Where now is Sueta? who knows to 

what sphere his rays have extended ?^ 

8. He has lighted up the eight points of the 
horizon, the three regions of living beings, the seven 
rivers : may the golden-eyed Savttri come hither, 
bestowing upon the offerer of the oblation desirable 

9. The gold-handed, all-beholding Savitri travels 
between the two regions of heaven and earth, dis- 
pels diseases, approaches the sun,^ and overspreads 
the sky with gloom, alternating radiance. 

10. May the golden-handed, life-bestowing, well- 
guiding, exhilarating, and affluent Savitri, be pre- 
sent (at the sacrifice) ; for the deity, if worshipped 

plies the moon and constellations* or, in another acceptation, the 
rains ; Amritd having for one meaning, water. 

* SuparAa, the well-winged, is in the Nighantu a synonyme of 
raiwii, a ray : one of its epithets, asura, is here explained life- 
giving ; from am, vital breath, and rd, who gives. 

This is supposed to be said of the son before dawn, while he 
16 absent. 

^ Stiryam abhweti. The Scholiast endeavours to explain this by ' 

observing, that although Savitfi and Sdrya are the same as regards 

their divinity, yet they are two different forms, and therefore one 

may go to the other ; yadyeva tayor ekadevatdiwam tathdpi mdrtU- 

bhedena ganifigaiUtsvya'bhdvah. 

H 2 


in the evening, is at hand, driving away Rdkshasas 
and Ydtudhdnas. 

11. Thy paths, Savttri, are prepared of old, are 
free from dust, and well placed in the firmament ; 
(coming) by those paths easy to be traversed, pre- 
serve us to-day. Deity, speak to us. 


SiJkta I. (XXXVI.) 

The Riahiia KaAwa, son of Ghora; the deity is Agni. The 
metre of the odd Terses is Bfihati, haying twelve syllables in the 
third Pdda or quarter of the stanza ; the metre of the even 
verses is termed S'atobfihat(, having the first and third Pddag 

VtiigaViii. 1. We implore with sacred hymns the mighty 
Agni, v^hom other (Rishis) also praise, for the 
benefit of you, who are many people, worshipping 
the gods. 

2. Men have recourse to Agni, the augmenter 
of vigour : offering oblations, we worship thee : do 
thou, liberal giver of food, be well disposed to us 
here this day, and be our protector. 

3. We select thee, Agni, the messenger and in* 
voker of the gods, who art endowed with all know- 
ledge. The flames of thee, who art mighty and 
eternal, spread around thy rays, touch the heavens. 

4. The deities VaeuAa, Mitra, and Abyaman* 

Aryaman ]& here explained, he who measures or estimates 
properly the Aryas, Arydn mimde. 


kindle thee, (their) ancient messenger. The man 
who has offered thee (oblations), obtains through 
thee, AoNi, universal wealth. 

5. Thou, Agni, art the giver of delight, the in- 
voker and messenger of the gods,^ the domestic 
guardian of mankind : the good and durable ac- 
tions which the gods perform are all aggregated 
in thee. 

6. Youthful and auspicious AoNi, whatever obla- varga ix. 
tion may be presented to thee, do thou, well dis- 
posed towards us, either now or at any other time, 

convey it to the powerful gods. 

7. In this manner the devout adore thee, who 
art such (as described), bright with thine own 
radiance. Men, with (seven)^ ministrant priests, 

Rosen has, maUms hommum, which agrees better with the 
order of the text, duto vUdm an; hut Sdyaia connects vUdm 
with what in the original precedes, grihapati, lord of the dwelling, 
and explains dtita, by devaddta. 

The Scholiast supplies ** the seven." According to another 
text, s<q>ta hotrdh prdcMr vashdt'htrvanH, the seven principal 
priests pour oat the oblation. According to Mr. Stevenson, the 
seven priests or assistants at the Soma Ydga are, — 1. The institow 
tor, or Yqjamdna ; 2. The Hotri, who repeats the hymns of the 
JIfich; 3. The Udgdtri, who chants the Sdma; 4. The Potfi, 
who prepares the materials for the oblation; 5. The Neshtfi, 
who poors it on the fire ; 6. The Brdhmd, who superintends the 
whole ; and 7. Tlie Raksha^, who guards the door. This enu- 
meration omits one of the principal performers, the Adhwaryu, 
who recites the formuke of the Yajush, and who should probably 
take the place of the Yqjamdna. The others, except the last, are 
also included among the sixteen (see p. 37, n.). 


kindle Agni (with oblations), victorious over their 

8. The destroying (deities along with thee) have 
slain Vritra: they have made earth and heaven 
and the firmament the spacious dwelling-place (of 
living creatures) : may Aoni, possessed of wealth, 
when invoked, be a benefactor to Ka&wa, like a 
horse that neighs in a conflict for cattle.' 

9. Take your seat, Agni, on the sacred grass, for 
thou art mighty ; shine forth, for thou art devoted 
to the gods : adorable and excellent Agni, emit the 
moving and graceful smoke. 

10. Bearer of oblations, (thou art he) whom the 
gods detained for the sake of Manu ; whom, giver 
of wealth, Kai^wa, the host of pious guests,^ has 
detained ; whom Indsa detained, and whom (now) 
some other worshipper has detained. 

vaigax. 11. The rays of that Agni, whom KaAwa made 

more brilliant than the sun, pre-eminently shine : 
him do these our hymns, him do we, extol. 

12. Agni, giver of food, complete our treasures, 
for the friendship of the gods is obtainable through 
thee. Thou art lord over famous viands : make us 
happy, for thou art great. 

Krandad'Ohoa gaviMisku, Uke a hone making a noise in 
wishes for cattle. The Scholiast adds, sanffrdmeshu, in battles, 
having for their object the wish to win cattle, — govishayeckhdyuk^ 
iesku. The relation of the simile to jgni is somewhat obscure. 

MedhydiUM, attended by venerable (tnedkya) guests (atithf), 
is here an epithet of Katkoa, whose son has been before introdaced 
as Medhatithi, the IS^isM of the tweUidi and fdlowing Sdktas. 


13. Stand up erect for our protection, like the 
divine Sayitri : erect, thou art the giver of food, 
for which we invoke thee with unguents, and priests 
(offering oblations)/ 

14. Erect, preserve us by knowledge from sin : 
consume every malignant spirit: raise us aloft, 
that we may pass (through the world) ; and that we 
may live, convey our wealth (of oblations) to the 

15. Youthful and most resplendent Aoni, pro- 
tect us against evil spirits, and from the malevolent 
(man), who gives no gifts : protect us from noxious 
(animals), and from those who seek to kill us. 

16. Agni, with the burning rays, destroy entirely Vargaxi. 
our foes, who make no gifts, as (potters' ware) with 

a club :^ let not one who is inimical to us, nor the 
man who attacks us with sharp weapons, prevail 
against us. 

17. Agni is solicited for power-conferring (afflu- 
ence) ; he has granted prosperity to Ka^wa, he has 
protected our friends, as well as the (sage who was) 
the host of the holy, and (every other) worshipper 
(who has had recourse to him) for riches. 

18. We invoke from afar, along with Agni, Tubt 


Agm, as ereot» va here aaid to be identified with the Y^, or 
post, to which the victims at a sacrifice of animals are boond ; 
and, according to Agwakfyami, this and the next verse are to be 
recited on such occasions at the time of setting up the post. 

The text has ovlygkand, with a dab ; the Scholiast adds, the 
pottery, bkMdtU. 


VASA, Yadu, and Ugbadeva : let Agni, the arrester 
of the robber, bring hither Navavastwa, Bbihad- 
RATHA, and TuEvixi.' 

19. Manu detained thee, Agni, (to give) light to 
the various races of mankind. Born for the sake of 
sacrifice, and satiated with oblations, thou, whom 
men reverence, hast blazed for KAi^WA. 

20. The flames of Agni are luminous, powerful, 
fearful, and not to be trusted. Ever assuredly and 
entirely consume the mighty spirits of evil and all 
our other adversaries. 


The Rishi is Ka^wa ; the hymn is addressed to the Maruts ; 

the metre is Gdyatti. 

Varga XII. 1. Celebrate, KaAwas,^ the aggregate strength of 
the Maruts, sportive, without horses,** but shining 
in their car. 

^ Nothing more is said of the persons named in this verse than 
that they were Rdfarshis, royal sages. TurvaSa may be another 
reading of Turvasu, who» with Yadu, was a son of Yaydii^ of the 
lunar race. We have several princes in the Purddas of the name 
of Vrihadratha, but the others are exclusively Vaidik, 

K<dwa8 may mean either the members of the Goira, the 
family or school of Ktdwa, or simply sages or priests. 

^ The phrase is AnarvdiUim, which the Scholiast explains, 
bhrdipvya rahitam, literally, without a brother's son, which would 
be a very unintelligible epithet. Arwm is, in its usual acceptation, 
a horse ; and bemg without horses would not be ini^plicable to 
the Mantis, whose chariot is drawn by deer. Bkrdirhya has for 
one sense that of enemy; whence Rosen renders the expression of 


2. Who, borne by spotted deer, were bom self- 
radiant, with weapons, war-cries,* and decorations. 

3. I hear the cracking of the whips in their 
hands, wonderfully inspiring (courage) in the fight. 

4. Address the god-given prayer^ to those who are 
your strength, the destroyers of foes, the powerful, 
possessed of brilliant reputation. 

5. Praise the sportive and resistless might of the 
Mabuts, who were bom amongst kine,® and whose 
strength has been nourished by (the enjoyment of) 
the milk.^ 

6. Whicli is chief leader among you, agita- VargaXiii. 

the text, ho9tuan imnumem , and M. Langloifl, mattaquabie; bat it 
la donbtfol if arvan can admit of snch an interpretation. 

VdSibhih, with Bounds or speeches ; t. e„ according to the 
Scholiast, with cries terrifying the enemy's army ; vds{ is a syno* 
nyme of vdch, speech, voice, in the Nighaniu. 

Devattam'brakma, the praise or prayer which recommends 
the oblation, obtained from the favour or instruction of the gods. 
° The text has goshu-ntdrutam, the tribe of Maruts among the 
cows ; another text is cited, which says the Maruts were bom 
of milk for Prihd, — Priiniyai vaipayaso marutah. 

The passage is brief and obscare,^am&^ raaasya vdvfidhe, 
which is explained, their vigour, derived from or of the milk, 
was increased (either) in enjoyment or in the belly, — gokshxrard' 
pasya sambandhi tat tefo Jambhe sukhe udare vd vriddkam abhdi. 
Rosen renders it, in utero lactis vires augeniur; M. Langlois has, 
qui r^ent au milieu des vaches (celestes) et ouvreauec force {leurs) 
tnamelles pour en /aire cvuler le Udt. Tlie cows he considers the 
donds, and the milk the rain ; but it is the kurdhas, the tefas, the 
vigour or strength of the Maruts, which has been augmented in or 
by, not exerted upon, the rasa or milk. 


tors of heaven and eartb, who shake all around like 
the top (of a tree) ? 

7. The householder, in dread of your fierce and 
violent approach, has planted' a firm (buttress) ; for 
the many-ridged mountain is shattered (before you). 

8. At whose impetuous approach, earth trembles 
like an enfeebled monarch through dread (of his 

9. Stable is their birthplace, (the sky), yet the 
birds (are able) to issue from (the sphere of) their 
parent ; for your strength is everywhere (divided) 
between two (regions, or heaven and earth). 

10. They are the generators of speech : they 
spread out the waters in their courses : they urge 
the lowing (cattle) to enter (the water) up to their 
knees (to drink). 

Vargaxiv. 11. They drivo before them in their course, the 
long, vast, uninjurable, rain-retaining cloud. 

12. Maruts, as you have vigour, invigorate man- 
kind ; give animation to the clouds. 

13. Wherever the Maeuts pass, theyfiU the way 
with clamour : every one hears their (noise). 

14. Come quickly, with your swifk (vehicles) : 
the offerings of the Ka^was are prepared; be 
pleased with them. 

15. The offering is prepared for your gratifica- 

* The text has only mdnuaho dadhre^ the man has planted ; the 
Scholiast explams the former, gfihaswdmC, the master of the hoiue» 
and adds to the latter, grihaddShydrtkm dfiSham stambkam, a 
strong post to give stahility to the dwelling. 


tion : we are your (worshippers), that we may live 
all our life. 

siJma ni. (xxxvni.) 

Hie ftishi, deities, and metre continue the same. 

1. Maruts, who are fond of praise, and for whom Varga xv. 
the sacred grass is trimmed, when will you take us 

by both hands as a father does his son ? 

2. Where indeed are you (at present)? when will 
your arrival take place ? Pass from the heaven, not 
from the earth. Where do they who worship you 
cry (to you) like cattle ? 

3. Where, Maruts, are your new treasures? 
where your valuable (riches) ? where all your aus- 
picious (gifts) ?* 

4. That you, sons of Pri^ni,'* may become mor- 
tals, and your panegyrist become immortal. 

6. Never may your worshipper be indiflferent to 
you, as a deer (is never indifferent) to pasture, so 
that he may not tread the path of Yama. 

6. Let not the most powerful and indestructible Varga xvi. 
NiRRiTi** destroy us ; let him perish with our (evil) 


7. In truth the brilliant and vigorous Maruts, 

The expressions of the text, smnnd, suvitd, and soMuigd, are 
said to imply, severally, offspring and cattle, jewels and gold, and 
horses, elephants, and the like. 

Pri&ni mdtarah, as we have had before (p. 56, n.) ; bat PrihU 
is here explained by the Scholiast by Dhemt, a milch-cow. 

He is here called a divinity of the Rdkskata race (see p. 62, n.). 


cherished by Rudra,* send down rain without wind 
upon the desert. 

8. The lightning roars like a parent cow that 
bellows for its calf, and hence the rain is set free by 
the Maruts. 

9. They spread darkness over the day by a water- 
bearing cloud, and thence inundate the earth* 

10. At the roaring of the Maruts, every dwelling 
of earth (shakes), and men also tremble. 

Vargaxvii. H* Maruts, with stroug hauds, come along the 
beautifully-embanked rivers with unobstructed pro- 

12. May the felloes of your wheels be firm ; may 
your cars and their steeds be steady, and your 
fingers well skilled (to hold the reins). 

13. Declare in our presence, (priests), with voice 
attuned to praise BrahhaAaspati,^ Agni, and the 
beautiful Mitra. 

14. Utter the verse that is in your mouths, spread 
it out like a cloud spreading rain : chant the mea- 
sured hymn. 

15. Glorify the host of Maruts, brilliant, de- 
serving of praise, entitled to adoration : may they 
be exalted by this our worship. 

Rudriydsdk ; Rudrasya imd, those who are of or belonging to 
Rudra; explained RudreHa pdlitdh, cherished or protected by 
Rudra ; for the explanation of which, reference is made to the 
Akhydnaa tales or traditions. There is no connection between 
Rudra and the Maruts in the PurdiUu. 

The lord of the matUra or prayer, or of the sacrificial food. 


SiJkta IV. (XXXIX.) 

The ^isM and deities are the same ; the metre is Vrihati in the 

odd veraes, Satovfihati in the even. 

!• When, Maeuts, who make (all things) tremble, Varga xviii. 
you direct your awful (vigour) downwards from 
afar, as light (descends from heaven), by whose wor- 
ship, by whose praise (are you attracted) ? to what 
(place of sacrifice), to whom, indeed, do you repair ? 

2. Strong be your weapons for driving away 
(your) foes, firm in resisting them : yours be the 
strength that merits praise, not (the strength) of a 
treacherous mortal. 

3. Directing Maruts, when you demolish what 
is stable, when you scatter what is ponderous, then 
you make your way through the forest (trees) of 
earth and the defiles of the mountains. 

4. Destroyers of foes, no adversary of yours is 
known above the heavens, nor (is any) upon earth : 
may your collective strength be quickly exerted, 
sons of RuDRA,' to humble (your enemies). 

5. They make the mountains tremble, they drive 
apart the forest-trees. Go, divine Maruts, whither 
you will, with all your progeny, like those intoxi- 

6. You have harnessed the spotted deer to your Varga xix. 
chariot ; the red deer yoked between them, (aids to) 

* Rudrdsah ; Rudra-putrdh, sons of Rvdra, figuratively, per- 
haps, as having been protected by him, as intimated in the pre- 
ceding hymn. 


drag the car:^ the firmament listens for your 
coming, and men are alarmed. 

7. RuDRAS, we tave recourse to your assistance 
for the sake of our progeny : come quickly to the 
timid KaAwa, as you formerly came, for our pro- 

8. Should any adversary, instigated by you, or by 
man, assail us, withhold from him food and strength 
and your assistance. 

9. Prachetasas,^ who are to be unreservedly 
worshipped, uphold (the sacrificer) Ka&WA : come to 
us, Maruts, with undivided protective afisistances, 
as the lightnings (bring) the rain. 

10. Bounteous givers, you enjoy unimpaired 
vigour: shakers (of the earth), you possess undi- 
minished strength : Maruts, let loose your anger, 
like an arrow, upon the wrathful enemy of the 

The spotted deer, PrishaH, are always specified as the steeda 
of the Maruts. We then have in the text, prashtir-vdhati rohita; 
praahtih is said to he a sort of yoke, in the middle of three horses 
or other animals, harnessed in a car ; hut the word stands alone, 
without any grammatical concord, and it does not appear what is 
to he done with the yoke. RokUa^ the Scholiast says, is another 
kind of deer, the red deer, who, vahati, hears or drags the car, 
ratham m^aU, The sense may he something like that which is 
given in the translation, hut the construction of the original is 

ohscnre, and i^parently rude and ungrammatical. 

Or the appellatiye may he an epithet only implying those 
possessed of superior (pro) intellect (ch^aa). 


SiJkta v. (XL.) 

The ddty is BrahmaAabpati ; the ^h$ is still KaAwa ; the 

metre the same as in the preceding. 

1. Rise Dp, Brahma^aspati :^ devoted to the Vargaxx. 
gods, we solicit thee. Bounteous Maruts, be nigh 

at hand : Indra, be a partaker of the libation. 

2. Man celebrates thee, son of strength,^ for the 
wealth abandoned (by the foe). Maruts, may he 
who praises you obtain wealth, yielding excellent 
steeds and eminent vigour. 

8. May Brahbca^aspatt approach us: may the 
goddess, speaker of truth,^ approach us : may the 
gods (drive away) every adversary, and, present, 
conduct us to the sacrifice which is beneficial to 
man, and (abounds) with respectably-presented 

4. He who presents to the ministrant (priest) 

In a farmer passage* Br a hw mAoipati appeared as a farm of 
I (p. 41» n.) ; in this hymn he is associated intii the Maruts, 

although Indra is also separately named. 

SdKasaspiang* Similar epithets, as SekoBO yeka and 8ihmk 
Boktuak, have been applied to A^ (Hymn xxvi. ▼. 20, and 
zxvii. y. 2) ; the Scholiast* however, interprets the componnd, 
in this place* the great or abmidant protector of strength, — 
balasya hakigpdlaka, such being one of the meanings of jwfrs 
given in the JVtra^a .* putrak pwru irdyaU ; where, however, that 
meaning is only the etymological explanatbn of pMtra, a son. — 
Nprukia, 2, 11. 

Deif{ nmrih, the goddess of speech, Vdk devatd^ in the form 
of lover of truth ; pnyaaaiyariipd, a form of Sara8wat{, 


wealth fit to be accepted, enjoys inexhaustible 
abundance : for him we worship Ila,* attended by 
brave warriors, inflicting much injury, receiving 

5. Verily BeahmaAaspati proclaims the sacred 
prayer, in which the divinities, Indra, VaruAa, 
MriBA, and Abyaman, have made their abode.^ 
Vargaxxi. 6. Let US rocite, gods, that felicitous and fault- 
less prayer at sacrifices : if you, leaders, desire (to 
hear) this prayer, then will all that is to be spoken 
reach unto you. 

7. Who, (except BrahmaiS^aspati), may approach 
the man who is devoted to the gods, by whom the 

* Manoh piUH, the daughter of Manu and institatiiz of sacri- 
fices (see p. 22, n.). Looking upon BrahmBdaspali as the pre- 
siding divinity of prayer or sacrifice* allnsion to lid were not 
whoUy out of place : why she should he sw&d, if that he rightly 
explained 8obhanair'V&ttir'bhafdir»ytiktd, accompanied hy excellent 
heroes, does not appear. 

Hub and the next verse are directed to he recited at the 
AgmsUoma ceremony, in connection wilh prayers addressed to 
Indra and the Mantis. Fh)fessor Roth dtes it in proof of his 
theory, that BrakmaiiaspaH is in an especial manner the divinity 
of prayer, which is not incompatible with his being identical with 
either A^ or Indra, in the same capacity. He recites, it is said, 
aload (praoadati) the prayer (wum^ra), which ought to be so re- 
dted (uktkya) by the mouth, according to the Scholiast, of the 
Hotri; in whidi mantra^ Indra and the rest abide, or are mysti- 
cally present ; or, as explained in the commentary on the next 
stanza, it is the mmtra or prayer that generates or brings them to 
the presence of the worshipper, — ImdrdduMorvadewUdpratipddakam 


clipped sacred grass is spread : the giver of the 
oblation has proceeded with the priests (to the hall 
of sacrifice), for he has a dwelling (abounding) in- 
ternally with precious things. 

8. Let Brahha^aspati concentrate his strength : 
associated with the regal (divinities), he slajs (the 
foe): in the time of danger he maintains his station : 
armed with the thunderbolt,* there is no encourager 
nor discourager of him in a great battle or a small. 



The fishi is Ka^^a : the three first and the three last stanzas 
are addressed to Varu^^a, Mitra, and Artaman ; the middle 
three to the Adittas : the metre is GdyatH, 

1. The man whom the wise Varuna, Mitra, and VargaXxiL 
Aryaman protect quickly subdues (his foes). 

2. He whom they heap (with riches), as if (col- 
lected) by his own arms; the man whom they 
defend from the malignant ; every such man, safe 
from injury, prospers. 

3. The kings (VaruAa, &c.) first destroy their 
strongholds, and then the foes of those (who wor- 
ship them), and put aside their evil deeds. 

* This attribute would identify him with Indra, in which 

character he appears throaghout this hymn. 

In fact, the hymn may be considered as wholly addressed to 

the Adityas, for the three deities separately named are in one of 

their characters Adityas also; that is, they were the sons of Aditi, 

the wife of KaSyapa, and are representatives of the san in as many 

months of the year. 



4. ApiTYAS, to you repairing to the sacrifice, the 
path is easy and ft*ee from thorns: no unworthy 
oblation is here prepared for you. 

5. Adfiyas, guides, may the sacrifice which you 
come to by a straight path, be to you for your 

Varga xxiii. 6. That mortal (whom you &your), exempt from 

harm, obtains all valuable wealth, and offspring like 

7. How, my friends, shall we recite praise (wor- 
thy) of the great glory of Mitba, VaruAa, and 
Aryaman ? 

8. I do not denounce to you him who assails or 
reviles the man devoted to the gods ; I rather pro- 
pitiate you with offered wealth. 

9. For he (the worshipper) loves not, but fears 
to speak evil (of any one), as a gamester fears (his 
adversary) holding the four* (dice), until they are 

The text has only, chaturaschid dadanuinddvithfyad-d^mdhiitoh, 
he may fear from one holding four mitil the fall. The meaning is 
supplied hy the Scholiast, with the assistance of Ydska, chatura 
akshdn dhdrayatah kitavdt, from a gambler holding four dice; 
Sdydia says, four cotrrt shells, — kapardakdh ; that is, where two 
men are playing together, the one who has not the throw of the 
dice or the shells is in anxious apprehension lest it should be 
against him. 


SiJkta VII. (XLII.) 
Itishi and metre as before ; the deity is Fijshan. 

1. PusHAN, convey us over the road, remove the Vargaxxiv 
wicked (obstructer of the way). Son of the cloud, 

deity, go before us. 

2. If a wicked (adversary), Pushan, a robber, or 
one who delights in evil, points out to us (the way 
we ought not to go), do thou drive him from the 

3. Drive him far away, apart from the road, the 
hinderer of our journey, a thief, a deceiver. 

PiUhan is usually a synonyme of the son ; that is, he is one 
of the twelve Adityas. He is described by the Scholiast as the 
presiding deity of the earth, — prithivyabhrnM devah ; he is also 
the cherisher of the world ; from pUsk, to nourish. According to 
the tenoor of the hymn, he is the deity presiding especially over 
roads or joumeyings. His being called the son of the cloud, is 
not incompatible with his character of earth personified as a male, 
as, according to other texts of the Veda, the earth was bom of the 
water, — adbhyah prUfM; and agam, earth was the essence of the 
water; tad yad apdm sdra d$it tat samahanyata 8dprithiv{(d)havat, — 
that which was the essence of the waters, that was aggregated, 
and it became earth. Pdshd occurs also as a feminine noun, in 
which case it appears to be synonymous with PritkM, the earth, 
as m the text : PikhddJncamk pdtu, which is explained, fyam 
pdskd, may this Pdshd protect the roads ; where the gender is 
denoted by the feminine pronoun (yam: and in another text, 
tyam vai pdaheyam hCdam sarvam pushyati, — ^this is verily Piishd, 
for she cherishes this whole worid. Throughout the h3nnn, how- 
ever, Pdshan is masculine. 

1 2 


4. Trample with your feet upon the mischievous 
(body) of that evil-minded pilferer of both (what is 
present and what is absent), whoever he be. 

5. Sagacious and handsome Pushan, we solicit of 
tbee that protection wherewith thou hast encou- 
raged the patriarchs. 

Vargaxxv. 6. Tberoforo do thou, who art possessed of all 
prosperity, and well equipped with golden weapons, 
bestow upon us riches that may be liberally dis- 

7. Lead us past our opponents; conduct us by 
an easy path ; know, Pitshan, how to protect us 
on this (journey).* 

8. Lead us where there is abundant fodder ; let 
there be no extreme heat by the way ; Pushan, 
know how to protect us on this (journey). 

9. Be favourable to us, fill us (with abundance), 
give us (all good things), sharpen us (with vigour), 
fill our bellies ; Pushan, know how to protect us 
on this (journey). 

10. We do not censure Pushan, but praise him 
with hymns ; we solicit the good-looking (Pushan) 
for riches. 

In this and the two next venes, we have an example of what 
is not unfrequent, the repetition of a phrase as a sort of burden 
or refrain : the expression is» PiUhan iha kratum vidah, — Pushan, 
know here, the act or business ; that is, on this occasion or jonmeyp 
know how to fulfil your function of giving us protection. Rosen 
renders it, Pushan htc sacrifidum animadverte ; kratu meaning an 
act of sacrifice, as well as act or action in general. 



The Rhhi is the Barae ; the deity ia Rudra ;" the third stanza is 
addressed to Mitra and Varu^a also, and the last three 
yerses to Soma ; the metre of the last verse is AmtaMubh, of 
the rest, CfdyatH. 

1. When may we repeat a most grateful hymn vargaxxvi. 
to the wise, the most bountiful and mighty Rudra, 

who is (cherished) in our hearts? 

2. By which earth may (be induced to) grant the 
gifts of Rudra* to our cattle, our people, our comts, 
and our progeny. 

3. By which Mitra, and VaruAa, and Rudra, 
and all the gods, being gratified, may show us 

4. We ask the felicity of S anyu,* from Rudra, 

According to the Scholiast, Rudra means, he who makes to 
weep, who causes all to weep at the end of time ; thus identi- 
fying him with the destroying principle, or Siva; hot there is 
nothing in the hymn to bear out such an identification ; on the 
contrary, he appears as a beneficent deity, presiding especially oyer 
medicinal plants. 

Aditi is here said to mean the earth, who, it is wished, may 
so act (karat), that RuJriya may be obtained. The meaning of 
Rudrfya, according to the Scholiast, is, Rudra sambandM bhesha- 
jam, — ^medicament in relation to or presided oyer by Rudra, con- 
formably to the text, yd te Rudra Sivd tandh, Sivd vUwd ha, bheshdf^ 
Hod, Rudrasya hheshqj^, — whateyer are thy auspidous forms, O 
Rudra, they are aU auspicious ; auspicious are medicaments, the 
medicaments of Rudra, 

Sanyu is said to be the son of Vfihaspatif nothing more is 
related of him. 

118 9IO-VEDA SANHrri. 


the encourager of hymnSy the protector of sa- 
crifices, possessed of medicaments that confer 

5. Who is so brilliant as S'anyu, who gratifies 
like gold, the best of the gods, the provider of 
habitations ? 
Varga XXVI J. 6. Who bestowB easily-obtained happiness on our 

steeds, onr rams, onr ewes, our men, our women, 
and our cows ? 

7. Soma, grant us prosperity more than (sufficient 
for) a hundred men, and much strength-engendering 

8. Let not the adversaries of Soma, let not our 
enemies, harm us : cherish us, Indra, with (abun- 
dant) food. 

9. Soma, who art immortal, and abidest in an 
excellent dwelling, have regard for thy subjects, 
when at their head in the hall of sacrifice thou 
observest them (engaged in) decorating thee.^ 

ANUvAka IX. 

SiJkta I. (XUV.) 

Praska^wa, the son of Ka^wa, is the J^ishi; Agni is the deity, 

^ JdUkkabh/Mh^om, he who has medicaments confierriiig de- 
light ; from jo, one boni» and Idsha, happiness ; an mwroal word 
except in a oompoand form, as MUdsha, which is of emrrent use ; 
or it may mean, ^ruog from water (/o^), all yegetSibles depend* 
ing upon water for their growth. 

Apparently there is some confusion of objects in this place. 
Soma, the moon, being confounded with Soma, libation. 


but the two first yeraes are addressed also to the AiSwinb and 
to UsHAs (the dawn) ; the metre is Brihati in the odd verses^ 
Satohfihati in the eren. 

1. AoNi, who art immortal, and cognisant of all Vaigaxxviii. 
begotten things, bring from the dawn to the donor 

(of the oblation), wealth of many sorts, with an 
excellent habitation : bring hither to-^ay the gods 
awaking with the morning. 

2. For thou, Aoni, art the accepted messenger 
of the gods, the bearer of oblations, the vehicle of 
sacrifices :* associated with Ushas and the AiSwiNS, 
bestow upon us abundant and invigorating food. 

3. We select to-daj Agni, the messenger, the 
giver of dwellings, the beloved of manj, the smoke- 
bannered, the light-shedding, the protector of the 
worship of the worshipper at the break of day. 

4. I praise Aoni at the break of day, the best 
and youngest (of the gods), the guest (of man), the 
universally-invoked, who is friendly to the man that 
offers (oblations), who knows all that are bom, that 
he may go (to bring) the other divinities. 

6. Aoni, immortal sustainer of the universe, 
bearer of oblations, deserving of adoration, I will 
praise thee, who art exempt from death, the pre- 
server, the sacrificer. 

^ RaikAvdkumr6ndm. Rosen render* ratMh, amrigm, hot Sd- 
yaAa explains it, ratha-sthtmfya, in the place of a chariot ; con- 
firmed hj other testa; as, e»ka hi deva^ratiah, he {A{^ is verily 
the chariot of the gods, and, rtUAa ba vd e$ia hhiitebbyo devehhpo 
havyam vahati, truly he is the chariot that bears the oblation to 
the spirits and the gods. 


Vaiiga XXIX. 6. Juvenile Agni, whose flames delight, who art 
universally invoked, and art praised (by us) on 
behalf of the worshipper, understand (our wishes), 
and, granting Praskanwa to live a lengthened life, 
do honour to the divine man.* 

7. All people kindle thee, Agni, the sacrificer, 
the omniscient ; do thou, Aoni, who art invoked by 
many, quickly bring hither the sapient deities. 

8. Object of holy rites,^ (bring hither) on the 
dawn following the night, Savitri, Ushas, the 
AswiNsi Bhaga,*' and Agni : the Kanwas pouring 
out libations, kindle the wafter of the burnt offer- 

9. Thou, Aoni, art the protector of the sacrifices 
of the people, and the messenger (of the gods); 
bring hither to-day the gods awaking at dawn, and 
contemplating the sun, to drink the Soma juice. 

10. Resplendent Aoni, visible to all, thou hast 
blazed after many preceding dawns, thou art the 
protector (of people) in villages, thou art the asso- 
ciate of man placed on the east (of the altar).^ 

varga XXX. H. Wo placo thee, Agni, as Manu placed thee, 
who art the implement of sacrifice, the invoker, the 
ministering priest, very wise, the destroyer (of foes), 
immortal, the messenger (of the godd). 

Namasyd dawyttm janam ; that is, the Jftiski of the hymn, 

Swadhwara ; from su, good, and adhwara, sacrifice ; equivalent. 

according to the Scholiast, to the Ahavan^a fire. 
Bhaga is one of the Adityas, 
PurohUa, which may also mean, the domestic priest. 



12. When, cherisher of friends, thou art present 
as the Purohita at a sacrifice, and dischargest the 
mission to the gods, then thy flames roar like the 
resounding billo^vs of the ocean. 

13. Agni, with sharp ears, hear me : let Mitra 
and Aryahan, and (other) early-stirring deities, 
with all the accompanying oblation-bearing gods, 
sit down at the sacrifice upon the sacred grass. 

14. Let the munificent Maruts, who have 
tongues of fire, and are encouragers of sacrifice, 
hear our praise : let the rite-fulfilling VaruAa, 
with the ASwiNs, and with Ushas, drink the Soma 

StJkta II. (XLV.) 

The deity and fiishi are the same, except in the last stanza and 
the half of the preceding, which indade any deified being ; the 
metre is Anushiubh, 

1. Agni, do thou, in this our rite, worship the Vargaxxxi. 
Vasus, the RuDRAS, the Adityas^ or any other 

(living) being sprung from Manu, sacrificing well 
and sprinkling water.* 

2. Verily the discriminating gods are givers of 
rewards to the offerer (of oblations) : lord of red 
coursers, propitiated by our praises, bring hither the 
three and thirty divinities.^ 

Janam ; Manujdiam, a man bom of Manu, Jana, according 
to the Scholiast, here signifies a divine being in connection with 
the divinities enumerated, another man, devoid rupam, of a divine 
nature or form. 

We have had these alluded to on a former occasion (p. 97, n.) ; 


3. Agni, accomplisber of solemn acts, cognisant 
of all who are bom, hear the inrocation of Pras- 
KA^WA, as thou hast heard those of P&iyamedha, 
of Atri, of ViBUPA, of Angibas,* 

4. The performers of great ceremonies, the offer- 
ers of acceptable sacrifices, have invoked for (their 
protection), Agni, shining amidst the solepinities, 
with pure resplendence. 

5. Invoked by oblations, giver of rewards, listen 
to these praises with which the sons of Kai^wa 
invoke thee for protection. 

Varga XXXII. 6. Agni, grautcr of abundant sustenance, who 

art beloved of many, the sous of men invoke thee^ 
radiant-haired, to bear the oblation (to the gods). 

7. The wise have placed thee, Agni, in (their) 
sacrifices as the invoker, the ministrant priest, the 

but, according to the Aitareya Brdbmaiia, 2, 18» there are two 
classes of thirty-three divinities each, the one consisting of those 
formerly specified, who are termed also Somapds, or drinkers of 
the Soma juice, and the other of eleven Praydjcis (the same with 
the Apr(8, p. 31), eleven Anuydjas, and eleven Upaydjas, who 
are to be propitiated by oblations of clarified butter, not by liba- 
tions of Soma. They are evidentiy little else than personifications 
of sacrifices. 

* The commentator, on the authority of the Ntrvkta, 3, 17, 
calls these all J^tsMs. Atri and Angira» are always enumerated 
among the Prt^dpoHs; Priyamedhas may be the same as iVs- 
yavrata, the son of Sw4i^ambhuva Manu; and we have a Viri^ 
among the early descendants of Vaivaiwata Mamt, who, as the 
father of lid, is the Manu of the Veda.— Vishnu PurdAa, pp. 53 
and 359. 


donor of vast wealth, the quick-hearing, the fiur- 

8. The wise (priests), with effosed libations of 
Soma juice, have summoned thee, yast and brilliant 
AoNi, to partake of the (sacrificial food), as thej 
hold the oblation on the part of the individual who 
presents it. 

9. Strength-generated,"" giver of rewards, provider 
of dwellings, place here to-day upon the sacred 
grass the morning-moving deities, or (other) deified 
being, to drink the Soma juice.^ 

10. Worship with coi\joint invocations, Aoni, 
the present deified being : bounteous divinities, this 
is the Soma juice ; drink it, for it was yesterday 

SiJkta III. (XLVI.) 
The JSiisld as before ; the deities are the Ai^wins ; the metre is 

1. The beloved UsHAS, until now unseen, scatters Vargocxxiii 

Produced by friction, which requires strength to perform 

In this and the next stanza, we have again an allusion to 
some divine or deified person, daSvyam janam, or to some other 
divinity, without particularizing him ; it may be intended for Ka 
or Prajdpaii, who with Agni, here actually addressed, would 
make up the thirty- three divinities, with the Vaaui, Rudrat^ and 

TirO'ahm/am is said to be the appellatiou of the Soma juice 
so prepared ; from tirasp oblique or indirect* and abnyam, dhimal ; 
that juice which is expressed on the preceding day and offered on 
the succeeding. 


darkness from the sky : A^wins, I greatly i)raise 

2. Who are divine, of pleasing appearance, chil- 
dren of the sea,* willing dispensers of wealth, and 
grantors of dwellings, (in recompense of) pious 

3. Since your chariot proceeds, (drawn) by your 
steeds, above the glorious heavens, your praises are 
proclaimed (by us). 

4. (A^wiNs); guides; the sun, (the evaporator) of 
the waters, the nourisher, the protector and be- 
holder of the (solemn) rite, nourishes (the gods) 
with our oblation. 

5. Nasatyas, accepting our praises, partake of 
the exhilarating Soma juice, the animator of your 

Vargaxxxiv. 6. AswiNs, grant us that invigorating food which 

may satisfy us, having dispelled the gloom (of 

7. Come as a ship, to bear us over an ocean of 
praises : harness, AiSwins, your car. 

8. Your vessel, vaster than the sky, stops on the 
seashore : your chariot (waits on the land) : the 

SindkU'fndtdrau. The sun and moon, as the Scholiast states, 
are said to be bom of the sea, — samudra-jau; and in the opinion 
of some, the Ahoins are the same as the sun and moon, and con- 
sequently are sea-bom. 

The origmal has only, ** disperse the darkness," — tamastirah ; 
the Scholiast explains the darkness to signify that of poyerty,-— 


drops (of the Soma juice) are expressed for your 

9. KaAwas, (ask this of the AiSwins) : (How) do 
the rays (of the sun proceed) from the sky ? (How) 
does the dawn (rise) in the region of the waters ? 
Where do you desire to manifest your own persons ?* 

10. There was light to irradiate the dawn : the 
sun (rose) like gold : the fire shone with darkened 

11. A fit path was made for the sun to go Varga xxxv. 
beyond the boundary (of night) ; the radiance of 

the luminary became visible. 

12. The worshipper acknowledges whatever boon 
he receives from the Aswins, satiate with the en- 
joyment of the Soma juice. 

13. Causers of felicity, co-dwellers with your 
worshipper, as with Manu, come hither to drink of 
the Soma juice, and (accept) our praise. 

14. May XJshas follow the lustre of your ap- 
proach, circumambient A^wins, and may you be 
pleased with the oblations offered by night* 

15. AiSwiNS, may you both drink (the libation). 

The whole of this stanza is very elliptical and obscure, and 
largely indebted to the Scholiast ; literally, it would run, " Rays 
from the sky, Ktdwas, cause of dwelling in the place of the 
rivers ; where do yon wish to place own form ?" Sdya^a fiUs this 
up by supposing that the Kdiwas are directed to inquire of the 
ASwms the particulars specified in the translation. Without some 
such addition, however conjectural it may be, it were impossible 
to extract any meaning out of such a passage. 


and bestow upon us happiness, through your irre- 
proachable protection. 


ANUVAKA IX. (continued). 


The jSwAt 18 PRASKAi^WA ; the deities are the AiiwiNs ; the metre 
of the odd verses Brihati, of the even, SatohjikaH, 

Vargai. 1. A^wiNS, oucouragers of sacrifice, this most 

sweet Soma juice is prepared for you ; drink it of 
yesterday's expressing, and grant riches to the 

2. Come, AiSwins, with your three-columned 
triangular car :* the KaAwas repeat your praise at 
the sacrifice ; graciously hear their invocation. 

3. A^wiNS, encouragers of sacrifice, drink this 
most sweet Soma juice ; approach to-day the giver 
of the offering, you who are of pleading aspects, and 
bearers of wealth. 

4. Omniscient ASwins, stationed on the thrice- 
heaped sacred grass, sprinkle the sacrifice with the 

TH'bemdhureHa'trivritd'fxUhena, with a car with three posts, 
and triangular, is the explanation we have had before. The Scho- 
liast here proposes a somewhat different interpretation, and Would 
render the terms ; having three undulating fisMtening^ of timber, 
and passing unobstmctedly through tiie three worlds. 


sweet juice : the illustrious Kanwas, with effused 
libations, invoke you. 

5. With such desired aids as you protected 
Ka^wa with, do you, cherishers of pious acts, 
preserve us: encouragers of sacrifice, drink the 
Soma juice. 

6. Good-looking AfiwiNS, as you brought in your Varga ii. 
car, bearers of wealth, abundance to Sudas,* so 

bring to us the riches that many covet, whether 
from the firmament or the sky beyond. 

7. NAsATYAS, whether you abide far off or close 
at hand, come to us in your well-constructed car, 
with the rays of the sun. 

8. Let your coursers, the grace of the sacrifice, 
bring you to be present at our rite : guides (of 
men), bestowing food upon the pious and liberal 
donor (of the offering), sit down on the sacred grass. 

9. Come, NAsatyas, with your sun-clad chariot,'' 
in which you have ever conveyed wealth to the 
donor (of the offering), to drink of the sweet Soma 

10. We invoke with chanted and recited hymns, 
the very affluent AiSwiNS, to be present for our 
protection. Have you not ever drunk the Soma 
juice in the favoured dwelling of the KaAwas ? 


Sudds is called a Rdjd^ the son of Pijavana, We have two 
princes of the name of Suddsa, in the PwrdiUu, one in the solar 
line {VishiiM Purdia, 380), the other in the Innar. the son of 
Dwoddta (ibid. 454). 

LHeraUy, sun-skinned, — sdrya twaehd; that is, either sor- 
ronnded or invested hy the sun, or like him in brightness. 



Tbe ftishi is the same, but the hymn is addressed to Ushas, the 
personified dawn, or Aurora : the metre is the same as in the 

varga rii. 1. UsHAS, daughter of heaven, dawn upon us 
with riches : diffuser of light, dawn upon us with 
abundant food: bountiful goddess, dawn upon us 
with wealth (of cattle). 

2. Abounding with horses, abounding with klne, 
bestowers of every sort of wealth,* (the divinities of 
morning) are possessed of much that is necessary 
for the habitations (of men) : Ushas, speak to me 
kind words : send us the affluence of the wealthy. 

3. The divine Ushas has dwelt (in heaven of 
old) : may she dawn to-day, the excitress of chariots 
which are harnessed at her coming, as those who 
are desirous of wealth (send ships) to sea.* 

4. Ushas, at thy comings wise men turn their 
minds to benefactions; of these men, the most 
wise KaAwa proclaims the fame. 

These three epithets are all in the feminine plural, without a 
substantive : aswdvat{h, gonuU(h^ viswasuvidah ; the Scholiast sup- 
plies, therefore, ushodevatdh, the divinities of dawn, as if there 
were many ; Rosen supplies, hora nuUutina, 

The text is, samudre na iravasyavah, like those desirous of 
wealth for sea ; the commentary supplies " send ships." In the 
beginning of the stanza we have only Uvdsa Ushas, which the 
Scholiast explains, purd nwdsam akarot, she has made a dwelling 
formerly, i.e. prabhdtam hitavaU, she produced the dawn. 


6. UsHAS^ nourishing (all)» comes daily like a 
matron, the directress (of household duties), con- 
ducting all transient (creatures) to decay: (at her 
coming) each biped stirs, and she wakes up the 

6. She animates the diligent^ aad sends clients Vaiga iv. 
(to their patrons) ;* and, shedder of dews, knows 

not delay ; bestower of food, at thy rising the soar- 
ing birds- no longer suspend (their flight). 

7. This auspicious XJshas has harnessed (her 
Tehicles) from afar, above the rising of the sun; 
and she comes gloriously upon man with a hundred 

8. All living beings adore her, that she may be 
visible : bringer of good, she lights up the world : 
the affluent daughter of heaven drives away the 
malevolent, and disperses the absorbers'^ (of mois- 

9. Shine around, Ushas, with cheering lustre, 
bringing us every day much happiness, and scatter- 
ing darkness. 

10. Inasmuch, bringer of good, as thou dawnest. 


Arthinah visjyati^ she lets loose askers, solicitors, for they, 
says SifyttHa, haying risen at early morning, go to the hooses of 
those who are their respective bene&ctors, — te (ydchakdh) ushah* 
kdle gaamtthdya swakfya'ddtfigfihe gachchhantu 

Perhaps, with many rays of light, is what is intended hy the 
many chariots of the dawn. 

Sridhah; 808hayitr(n; the driers up ; possibly, the doads are 

intended, as taking up the dews of night, but no explanation of 

the application of the term is given. 



the breath and life of all (creatures) rest in thee : 
diffuser of light, come to us with thy spacious car : 
possessor of wondrous wealth, hear our invocation. 
vargaV. 11. UsHAS, accopt the (sacrificial) food which of 

many kinds exists among the human race, and 
thereby bring to the ceremony the pious, who, 
offering oblations, praise thee. 

12. UsHAS, bring from the firmament all the 
gods, to drink the Soma juice, and do thou thyself 
bestow upon us excellent and invigorating food, 
along with cattle and horses. 

13. May that Ushas whose bright auspicious 
rays are visible all around, grant us desirable, agree- 
able, and easily-attainable riches. 

14. Adorable Ushas, whom the ancient sages 
invoked for protection and for food, do thou, 
(radiant) with pure light, (pleased) by our offerings, 
accept our praises. 

15. Ushas, since thou hast to-day set open the 
two gates of heaven with light,'^ grant us a spacious 
and secure habitation: bestow upon us, goddess, 
cattle and food. 

16. Adorable Ushas, associate us with much and 
multiform wealth, and with abundant cattle, with 
all foe-confounding fame, and, giver of sustenance, 
with food. 

The east and west points of the horizon. 


SiJkta VL (XLIX.) 
The ftishi and deity are the same ; the metre is Anushtubh, 

1. UsHASy come by auspicious ways from above Varga vi. 
the bright (region of the) firmament ; let the purple 

(kine)* bring thee to the dwelling of the offerer of 
the Soma juice. 

2. UsHAs, in the ample and beautiful chariot in 
which thou ridest, come to-day, daughter of heaven, 
to the pious offerer of the oblation. 

3. White-complexioned Ushas, upon thy coming, 
bipeds and quadrupeds (are in motion), and the 
winged birds flock around from the boundaries of 
the sky. 

4. Thou, Ushas, dispersing the darkness, illu- 
minest the shining universe with thy rays ; such as 
thou art, the Ka&was, desirous of wealth, praise 
thee with their hymns. 

SiJkta VII. (L.) 

PRASKAi^A ia ttill the ftishi ; the deity is S{}rta, the ann. The 
first nine stanzas axe in the Gdyatri metre, the last four in the 

1. His coursers bear on high the divine all- VargaVii. 
knowing Sun, that he may be seen by all (the 


2. (At the approach) of the all-illuminating Sun, 

* So the Nighmtu,—AruHiyo gdva vskasdm, pnrple cows, the 

vehicles of the morning. 

K 2 


the constellations" depart with the night, like 

3. His illuminating rays behold men in succession, 
like blazing fires. 

4. Thou, SuRYA, outstrippest all in speed;* thou 
art visible to all ; thou art the source of light ;® thou 
shinest throughout the entire firmament. 

' NdkshatrdM, the stars in general, or the lunar asterisms, 
which, according to different texts, are considered to be the abodes 
of the gods, or the visible forms of pions persons after death ; as, 
devagrihd vai nakshatrdiii, the constellations are verily the dwell- 
ings of the gods ; and again, yo vd iha yqfate annum lokam nak^ 
shate, either, he who performs worship here, obtains the next 
world, or, sukritdm vd etdni jyotduhi yan nakshatrdAi, those con- 
stellations are the luminaries of those who practise reUgioas acts, 
that is, according to SdyaHa, those who by attending to religious 
duties in this world attain Swarga, are beheld in the form of con- 
stellations, — 1^ hke karmdmuhfhdya ye swargam prdpnuv(mt{ te 
nakshatrarupeiia drisyante, 

Sdyaia says, that, according to the Smfiti, the sun moves 
2,202 yqfanas in half a twinkle of the eye. 

Jyotiahkritfgjmnghght to all things, even to the moon and the 
planets, by night ; for they, it is said, are of a watery substance, 
from which the rays of tlie sun are reflected, in like manner 
as the rays of the sun, falling upon a mirror placed in the door- 
way of a chamber, are reflected into the interior, and g^ve it 
light. SdyaAa also explains the whole passage metaphysically, 
identifying the sun with the supreme spirit, who enables all 
beings to pass over the ocean of existence, who is beheld by all 
desirous of final emancipation, who is the author of true or 


spiritual light, and who renders everything lununous through the 
light of the mind. 


5. Thou risest in the presence of the Maruts,* 
thou risest in the presence of mankind, and so as 
to be seen in the presence of the whole (region) of 

6. With that light with which thou, the purifier Varga viii. 
and defender from evil, lookest upon this creature- 
bearing world,2 — 

7. Thou traversest the vast ethereal space, mea- 
suring days and nights» and contemplating all that 
have birth. 

8. Divine and light-diffusing Surya, thy seven 
coursers^ bear thee, bright-haired, in thy car. 

9. The Sun has yoked the seven mares'' that 
safely draw his chariot, and comes with them self- 

10. Beholding the up-springing light above the 
darkness, we approach the divine Sun among the 
gods, the excellent light.* 

^ The text has, pratyai devdndm vUah, before the men or 
people of the gods ; that is, the Maruts, who in another Vrndik 
text are so designated : Maruto vai devdndm vikih. 

Sapta haritah ; which may also mean the seven rays. The 
seven horses are the da3r8 of the week ; the seven rays may ex- 
press the same. They can scarcely be referred to the prismatic 
rays, although tlie numerical coincidence is cnrioos. 

^ Sapta kuidhyvvah ; akca striyah, mares. They are also called 
naptyah, because with them the car does not fell : ydhMr napataii 
rathah, — they were more docile than those of Phaeton's fiather. 

Here again we may have an allusion to a spiritual sun. The 
darkness, it is said, implies sin, and the approach to the sun 
intimates reunion with supreme spirit ; as in other texts, Aganma 


11. Radiant with beneToIent light, rising to-daj 
and mounting into the highest heaven, do thou, O 
Sun, remove the sickness of my heart, and the 
yellowness (of my body).* 

12. Let us transfer the yellowness (of my body) 
to the parrots, to the starlings, or to the Haritdld' 

13. This ADrrYA has risen with all (his) might. 

jyotiruttamam, we go to the best light ; that is, we become identi- 
fied with spiritual light, — sdyujyam gachchdmah ; and again, he (the 
worshipper) becomes identical with that which he worships, — tarn 
yathd yathopdsate tad eva bhavaii, 

^ Hrid^roga may also mean heart-bom or indigestion ; hari" 
mdnam, greenness or yellowness, is external change of the colour 
of the skin in jaundice or bilious affections. This verse and the 
two following constitute a tricha or triplet, the repetition of 
which, with due formalities, is considered to be curative of disease. 
Surya, thus hymned by Praskahoa, cured him« it is said, of a 
cutaneous malady or leprosy under which he was labouring ; 
accordingly SoMuika terms the couplets a mumtra, dedicated to the 
sun, removing sin, healing disease, an antidote to poison, and the 
means of obtaining present happiness and final liberation. The 
espedal worship of the sun in India at the time of the first incur* 
sions of the Mohammedans, attributed to that luminarjr's having 
cured Sdmba, the son of Krishiia, of leprosy, is fully related by 
M. Reinaud in his interesting M^oire svr Plnde, and was then» 
no doubt, of ancient date, originating with the primitive notions 
of the attributes of Surya here adverted to. The hymn is 
throu^out of an archaic character. 

So the Scholiast interprets the Haridrava of the text, Hariidla 
drunui; hut there is no tree so called. Haritdla most usually 
means yellow orpiment ; Haridrava, a yellow vegetable powder. 


destroying my adversary, for I am unable to resist 
my enemy.* 

anuvAka X. 

SlJKTA I. (LI.) 

The ftishi is Sayta, the son of Angiras ; the hymn is addressed 
to Indra; the two last verses are in the TrishMh metre, the 
rest in the JagaH. 

1. Animate with praises that ram," (Indra), who Varga ix. 
is adored by many, who is gratified by hymns, and 

is an ocean of wealth ; whose good deeds spread 
abroad for the benefit of mankind, like the rays of 
light: worship the powerful and wise Indra, for 
the enjoyment of prosperity. 

2. The protecting and fostering Ribhus^ hastened 
to the presence of Indra, of graceful motion, and 
irradiating the firmament,*" imbued with vigour, 

* The enemy here intended is sickness or disease. 

Angiras, it is said, having performed worship to obtain a 
son who should resemble Indra, the deity became his son, under 
the name of Sauya. 

Tyam mesham; referring to a legend, in which it is narrated 
that Indra came in the form of a ram to a sacrifice solemnized by 
Medhdtithi, and dnmk the Soma juice ; or, mesha may be ren- 
dered, victor over foes. 

Hie ftibhus are said here to mean the Maruts, by whom 
Indra was aided and encouraged, when all the gods had deserted 
him ; as in the texts, " All the gods who were thy friends have 
fled ; may there be friendship between the Marvts and thee ;" 
and again, " The Maruts did not abandon him." 

Indra, as Sakra, is one of the twelve AdUyas, or suns. 


the humiliator of his enemies, the perfonner of a 
hundred pious acts; and by them, encouraging 
words were uttered.* 

3. Thou hast opened the cloud^ for the Angi- 
RASAS, thou hast shown the way to Atri, who vexes 
his adversaries by a hundred doors ;^ thou hast 
granted wealth, with food, to Vimada :^ thou art 
wielding thy thunderbolt in defence of a worshipper 
engaged in battle. 

4. Thou hast opened the receptacle of the 
waters; thou hast detained in the mountain the 
treasure of tlie malignant ;^ when thou hadst slain 
V]BLiTRA, the destroyer,' thou madest the sun visible 
in the sky. 

They exclaimed* Strike ; Bhagavan, be valiant/' — Prahara 
Bhagavo v^yaswa. 

The term is gotra, explained either a doud, or a herd of 
cattle. Gotrdbhid, as a name of Indra, implies, in ordinary lan- 
guage, mountain-breaker; that is, with the thunderbolt; as 
applied to cattle, it alludes, it is said, to the recovery of the cows 
stolen by PaiU: in either case, the act was performed in consequence 
of the prayers, or for the benefit of the descendants of Angiras. 

By a number of means or contrivances, — yaniras* 

Vimada is called in the commentary a Maharshi, 
^ Parvate ddmtmad vasu ; in the mountain, implies the dwelling 
of Indra ; ddmumat is variously explained, as one doing an injury, 
hostile or malignant, an enemy; or, one descended from Damf, a 
DdnavOy an Asura ; or it may be an epithet of vasu, wetdth, fit for 
liberahty ; from ddwi, givmg. 

Vfitra, who is AM; explained hanfyi, the slayer. From a 
text cited from the Yt^ttr Veda, AM appears to be the personifi- 
cation of all the benefits derivable from sacrifice, knowledge. 


5. Thou, Indra, by thy devices, hast humbled 
the deceivers who presented oblations to their own 
mouths:* propitious to men, thou hast destroyed 
the cities of Pipru, and hast well defended RuiS* 
WAN in robber-destroying (contests).^ 

6. Thou hast defended Kutsa in fatal fights with Vaiga x. 
S'usH]&A ; thou hast destroyed S ahbara in defence 

of Atithigwa; thou hast trodden with thy foot 
upon the great Arbuda : from remote times wast 
thou bom for the destruction of oppressors.^ 

7. In thee, Indra, is all vigour fully concen- 
trated ; thy vdll delights to drink the Soma juice ; 
it is known by us that the thunderbolt is deposited 
in thy hands : cut off all prowess from the foe. 

8. Discriminate between the Aryas and they 

£une, food, and prosperity : Bo yai sarvam etai samabhavat tasmdd 
AhiriH, — ^Inasmuch aa he was the same as all that, therefore he 
was called AM. 

^ According to the KmiSitakis, the Aswras, contemning Apii, 
offered oblations to themsdves ; and the Vdjjasaneyia relate that, 
when there was a rivalry between the gods and Asuras, the latter 
arrogantly said, " Let us not offer sacrifice to any one," and there- 
upon made the oblations to their own mouths. 

Pipru is called an Asura; fijiSwan a worshipper whom they 
oppressed ; dasifu-hatyeshu, in battles killing the Daspa, robbers 
or barbarians. 

SushMa, Sambara, and Arbuda are designated as Aswas; 
Kutsa we have had before, as the name of a ftishi; AtUhigwa is 
said to mean the hospitable, and to be also termed Dwoddsa ; bat 
it does not appear whether he is the same as the Dwoddsa of the 


who are Dast/us :* restraining those who perform no 
religious rites, compel them to submit to the per* 
former of sacrifices : be thou, who art powerful, the 
encourager of the sacrificer: I am desirous of 
celebrating all thy deeds in ceremonies that give 
thee satisfaction. 

9. Indra abides, humbling the neglecters of holy 
acts in favour of those who observe them; and 
punishing those who turn away from his worship in 
favour of those who are present (with their praise) ; 
Vamra, while praising him, whether old or ado- 
lescent, and spreading through heaven, carried off 
the accumulated (materials of the sacrifice).^ 

10. If UsANAS should sharpen thy vigour by his 
own, then would thy might terrify by its intensity 
both heaven and earth. Friend of man, let the 
will-hamessed steeds, with the velocity of the wind, 
convey thee^ replete (with vigour), to (partake of the 
sacrificial) food. 

The Aryas, as appears from this and the next verse, and as 
stated by the Scholiast, are those who practise religions rites, 
while the Dasyua are those who do not observe religions ceremo- 
nies, and are inimical to those who do ; being probably the nn- 
ciyilized tribes of India, yet nnsubdned by the followers of the 
Vedas, the Aryas, the respectable or civilized race. 

The text is here obscnre, — Vamra v\faghdna aandihah ; Vamra 
destroyed the coQections. The Scholiast says, that a ftishi, 
named Vanira, took advantage of Indra* 8 absence from a sacrifice, 
to carry away the accamnlated heap of offerings, the marrow or 
essence of the earth : Yad valndkavapdsamhhdro bhavati dtjifam 
eva pritkwydh. 


11. When Indra is delighted with acceptable Vargaxi. 
hymnsy he ascends (his car)» drawn by more and 

more obliquely-curveting 'coursers ; fierce, he ex- 
tract43 the waters from the passing (cloud) in a 
torrent, and has overwhelmed the extensive cities 
of S ushAa. 

12. Thou mountest thy chariot willingly, Indra, 
for the sake of drinking the libations : such as thou 
delightest in have been prepared (at the sacrifice of) 
S'artata ;^ be pleased with them, as thou art grati- 
fied by the eifiised Soma juices (at the sacrifices) of 
others, so dost thou obtain imperishable fame in 

13. Thou hast given, Indra, the youthful Vri- 
chayA^ to the aged Kaeshiyat, praising thee and 
ofTering libations: thou, S'atakratu, wast Mena, 
the daughter of VRisHAi^ASWA :° all these thy deeds 
are to be recited at thy worship. 

a ' 

Sdrydta was a Rdfarshi, according to the Scholiast, of the 
race ofBkrigu. The Aitareya BrdkmdUi calls him a prince of the 
race of Manu : the term b a patronymic, implying son or de- 
scendant of ^arydti, who was the fourth son of the Manu Vai- 
vaswata : the ftishi Chyavana married his daughter, and a solemn 
sacrifice was held on the occasion, at which Indra and the 
Ahfins were present. Ckyavana appropriated to himself the share 
of the ohlation intended for the Aiwins, at which Indra was very 
angry, and to appease him, a fresh offering was prepared. The 
Scholiast quotes this story from the KaiMaki. It is detailed 
m the Bhdgavata and Padma Ptardiias. 

Vrichayd, it is said, was given to Kakshwai at the Rdjasuya 
ceremony ; no notice of her occurs elsewhere. 

The Brdhnuuia is cited for a strange story of Indra* s having 


14. Indra lias been had recourse to, that he 
may assist the pious ii^ their distress. Praise by 
the Pajras,* is (as stable) as the post of a doorway. 
Indra, the giver of riches, who is possessed of 
horses, cattle, chariots, and wealth,^ is present. 

15. This adoration is offered to the shedder of 
rain, the self-resplendent, the possessor of true 
vigour, the mighty: may we be aided, Indra, in 
this conflict, by many heroes, and abide in a pros- 
perous (habitation, bestowed) by thee. 

SiJkta II. (LIL) 

The ftisM and divinity are the same ; the metre of the 13th and 
15th verses is Trishfubh, of the rest JagaH. 

Vai^xii. 1* Worship well that ram® who makes heaven 
known, whom a hundred worshippers at once are 
assiduous in praising. I implore Indra with many 
prayers to ascend the car, which hastens like a fleet 
courser to the sacrifice for my protection. 

2. When Indra, who delights in the sacrificial 
food, had slain the stream-obstructing Vi^tra, and 
was pouring down the waters, he stood firm amid 
the torrents like a mountain, and, endowed with a 

himself become Mend, the daughter of VrishaHaiwa, and having 
afterwards fallen in love with her. The Mend of the Purdiias is 
one of the daughters of the Pitris by Swadhd, and the wife of 
Himdoat, the king of the mountains. 

* The Pqjras are said to be the same as the Angirasaa. 

Or it may be rendered, who is desirous of possessing, ex- 
pecting such ^fts from the institutor of the ceremony. 

See p. 135, n. c. 


thousand means of protecting (his votaries), in- 
creased in yigoun 

3. He who is victorious over his enemies, who is 
spread through the dewy (firmament), the root of 
happiness, who is exhilarated by the Soma juice, 
him I invoke, the most bountiful Indra, along 
with learned priests, with a mind disposed to pious 
adoration, for he is the bestower of abundant food. 

4. That Indra whom in heaven the libations 
sprinkled on the sacred grass replenish, as the 
kindred rivers hastening to it fill the ocean : that 
Indra whom the Maruts, the driers up of moisture, 
who are unobstructed, and of undistorted forms, 
attended as auxiliaries at the death of Vritra. 

5. His allies, exhilarated (by libations), preceded 
him, warring against the withholder of the rain, as 
rivers rush down declivities. Indra, animated by 
the sacrificial food, broke through the defences of 
Vala as did Trita through the coverings (of the 

The text has only, paridhCr iva tritah ; and tritah may mean 
triple or threefold; making the phrase, " as through triple cover- 
ings/' or defences ; whence Rosen has, custodes vehUi a tribus 
partibus constUutos ; M. Langlois is more correct, in considering 
Tritah as a proper name ; but it may be doubted if he has authority 
for rendering it by Soma, — o» libation qui porte U nom de Trita; 
or for the additional drcnmstances he narrates. The legend told 
by the Scholiast and confirmed by other passages of the text, as 
well as by the version of the story found in the N(tinua\far{, is 
wholly different. Ekata, Dwita, and Trita were three men pro- 
duced in water by Agni, for the purpose of removing or rubbing 


VargaXiii. 6. When, Indra, thou hadst smitten with thy 
thunderbolt the cheek of the wide-extended V^it&a, 

off the reliqaes of an oblation of clarified batter, the proper func- 
tion of the sacred grass, to the three blades of which placed on 
the altar, the legend may owe its origin ; bat this does not appear 
from the narrative. The Scholiast, following the Taittirfyas, 
says that Agni threw the cinders of the bomt-offeringsinto water, 
whence successively arose Ekata,Dwita,9nd Trita, who, it elsewhere 
appears, were therefore called jfptyag, or sons of water (Sdkta C V. 
V. 9). THta having on a sabseqaent occasion gone to draw water 
from a well, fell into it, and the Aauras heaped coverings over the 
mouth of it, to prevent his getting out ; but he broke through 
them with ease. It is to this exploit that Indra's breaking through 
the defences of the Asura, Vala, is compared. The story is some- 
what difilerently related in the N(tmanjar{, Three brothers, it is 
said, Ekata, Dwita, and lyita, were travelling in a desert, and 
being distressed by thirst, came to a well, from which the youngest, 
TVita, drew water and gave it to his brothers ; in requital, they 
threw him into the well, in order to appropriate his property, and 
having covered the top with a cart-wheel, left him in the well ; in 
this extremity, he prayed to all the gods to extricate him, and by 
their fieivour he made his escape. Paridhi, the term of the text, 
means a circumference, a circular covering or lid. Mr. Colebrooke 
has briefly, but with his usual accuracy, cited this story in his 
account of the J^ig-veda (As. Researches, viii. p. 388). Dr. Roth 
conceives Trita to be the same as TVaitana, a name that occurs in a 
text of the fUg, and, converting the latter into a deification, he 
imagines him to be the original of Thraetona, the Zend form of 
Feridun, one of the heroes of the Shdk-ndma, and of ancient Persian 
tradition. — Zeitschrift der D. MorgenUtndischen Gesettsckafi, vol. ii. 
p. 216. Professor Lassen seems disposed to adopt this identifi- 
cation. — Indisehe AUerthumskunde, Additions, The identity of 
Trita and Draitana, however, remains to be established, and the 
very stanza quoted by Dr. Roth as authority for the latter name. 


\7ho, haying obstructed the waters, reposed in the 
region aboye the firmament, thy fame spread afar, 
thy prowess was renowned. 

7. The hymns, Indra, that glorify thee, attain 
unto thee, as riyulets (flow into) a lake. Twashtri 
has augmented thy appropriate yigour; he has 
sharpened thy bolt with overpowering might. 

8. Indra, performer of holy acts, desirous of 
going to man, thou with thy steeds hast slain 
Vritra, (hast set free) the waters, hast taken in thy 
hands thy thunderbolt of iron, and hast made the 
sun yisible in the sky. 

is explained in the NUmanjaiH in a very different sense from that 
which he has given. It is said» that the slaves of D&ghatamas, 
when he was old and blind, became insubordinate and attempted 
to destroy him, first by throwing him into the fire, whence he was 
saved by the Ahnns, then into water, whence he was extricated 
by the same divinities ; upon which Draitana, one of the slaves, 
womided him on the head, breast, and arms, and then inflicted 
like injmies on himself, of which he perished. After these events, 
the sage recited in praise of the Atwins the hymn in which the 
verse occurs : — Na md garmmadyo mdtritamd dd»d yadCm suaamub^ 
dkam abddkuh siro yad aaya T^aitano vitakshat sway am dd»a uro 
anadvapi gdha, — " Let not the maternal waters swallow me, since 
the slaves assailed this decrepit old man ; in like manner as the 
slave TVaUana wounded his head, so has he struck it of himself, 
and likewise his breast and shoulders." If this interpretation be 
correct, there can be little relation between Trita and TraUana, 
and between the latter and Feridun. The former term has, how« 
ever, found admission as a numeral, and apparently also as a proper 
name, into the Zend books. See M. Bumoufs "Etudes sur les 
Testes Zends," Journal Asiatique, April, 1845 ; see also the word 
Trita, in the Glossary of Benfey's edition of the Sdma Veda. 


9. Through fear (of Vritra, they, the wor- 
shippers), recited the suitable hTinn of the B^nhat 
{Sdma)y^ self-illuminatiug, strength-bestowing, and 
ascending to heaven ; on which his allies, (the 
Mabuts), combating for men, (guardians) of heaven, 
and vivifiers of mankind, animated Indba (to 
destroy him). 

10. The strong heaven was rent asunder with 
fear at the clamour of that Ahi, when thou, Indra, 
wast inspirited by (drinking) the efiused (Soma 
juice), and thy thunderbolt in its vigour struck off 
the head of VRrrBA, the obstructor of heaven and 

Vargaxiv. 11. Although, Indra, the earth were of tenfold 
(its extent), and men multiplied every day, yet, 
Maghavan, thy prowess would be equally re- 
nowned ; the exploits achieved by thy might would 
be spread abroad with the heavens. 

12. Firm-minded Indra, abiding (secure) in thy 
strength beyond the limit of the wide-expanded 
firmament, thou hast framed the earth for our pre- 
servation ; thou hast been the type of vigour ; thou 
hast encompassed the firmament and the sky as fisir 
as to the heavens. 

13. Thou art the type of the extended earth ;* 

^ The text has only BrMo/; the Scholiast adds £f<6iMr. Anallosioii 
to the Sdma, in a verse of the J^ik, would indicate the priority of 
the former, at least as respects this hymn. 

Pratimdnam bhuvah, the counter-measare of the earth ; that 
is, according to the Scholiast, of similar magnitude and like in- 
conoeivahle power. 


thou art the lord of the vast god-frequented {Swar- 
ga) :• verily with thy bulk thou fillest all the firma- 
ment ; of a truth, there is none other such as thou. 

14. Thou, Indra, of whom heaven and earth 
have not attained the amplitude ; of whom the 
waters of heaven have not reached the limit; of 
whom, when warring with excited animation against 
the withholder of the rains, (his adversaries have not 
equalled the prowess) ; thou alone hast made every- 
thing else, (than thyself), dependent (upon thee). 

15. The Maruts worshipped thee in this (en- 
counter) ; all the gods in this engagement imitated 
thee in exultation, when thou hadst struck the face 
of y^FTRA with thy angular and fetal (bolt).^ 

StfKTA III. (Lin.) 

The ^ishi and diyinity are the same ; the metre of the lOth and 
11th stanzas is TrUMuhh; of the rest, JagtUL 

1. We ever offer fitting praise to the mighty Varg« xv. 
Indra, in the dwelling of the worshipper, by which 

he (the deity) has quickly acquired riches, as (a 
thief) hastily carries (off the property) of the sleep- 
ing. Praise ill expressed is not valued among the 

2. Thou, Indra, art the giver of horses, of cattle, 

l^hwav^aaifa brihataA pati, lord or protector of the great 
(region), in which are the pleasant (fiskwa) gods (vM), 

The text has only hhrishldnuUd hadhena, — ^with the killer (or 
weapon) that has angles. According to the Aitareya Brdhnuda, 
the Vt^ra, or thonderholt of Indra, has eight angles, or perhaps 
blades ; ashdairir vai vqfra. 



of barley, the master and protector of wealth, the 
foremost in liberality, (the being) of many days; 
thou disappointest not desires (addressed to thee) ; 
thou art a friend to our friends : such an Indra we 

3. Wise and resplendent Indra, the achieyer of 
great deeds, the riches that are spread around are 
known to be thine : having collected them, victor 
(over thy enemies), bring them to us: disappoint 
not the expectation of the worshipper who trusts in 

4. Propitiated by these offerings, by these liba- 
tions, dispel poverty with cattle and horses ; may 
we, subduing our adversary, and relieved from 
enemies by Indra, (pleased) by our libations, enjoy 
together abundant food. 

. 5. Indra, may we become possessed of riches, 
and of food ; and with energies agreeable to many, 
and shining around, may we prosper through thy 
divine favour, the source of prowess, of cattle, and 
of horses. 
Vargaxvi. 6. Those who were thy allies, (the Maruts), 
brought thee joy : protector of the pious, those li- 
bations and oblations (that were offered thee on 
slaying Vritra), yielded thee delight, when thou, 

unimpeded by foes, didst destroy the ten thousand 


obstacles* opposed to him who praised thee and 
offered thee oblations. 

^ DaSa sahasrdM vfiirdM ; the last iB iaterpreted by AvarakaM, 
covers, concealments, obstructions. 


7. Humiliator (of adversaries), thou goest from 
battle to battle, and destroyest by thy might city 
after city : with thy foe-prostrating associate, (the 
thunderbolt), thou, Indra, didst slay afar off the 
deceiver named Namuchi," 

8. Thou hast slain Karanja and ParI^aya with 
thy bright gleaming spear, in the cause of Ati- 
THIGWA : unaided, thou didst demolish the hundred 
cities of Vangrida, when besieged by Rijiswan.'' 

9. Thou, renowned Indra, overthrewest by thy 
not-to-be-overtaken chariot-wheel, the twenty kings 
of men, who had come against SuiSrayas, unaided, 
and their sixty thousand and ninety and nine 

10. Thou, Indra, hast preserved SuiSravas by 
thy succour, T^rvayaj^a by thy assistance: thou 
hast made Kutsa, Atithiqwa, and Ayu*^ subject to 
the mighty though youthful SuiSravas. 

11. Protected by the gods, we remain, Indra, at 
the close of the sacrifice, thy most fortunate friends: 

Namuchi is termed an Asttra ; he appears in the PurdAas as a 
Ddnaoa, or descendant of Dcmu. 

The first two are the names of Asuras ; AtUhigwa we have 
had before; Fbt^fula is called an ^^vra, andj^t/tmooii a R^jd; 
we have no farther particulars, nor do they appear in the Pk- 

Here again we derive no aid from the Bhdshya, The legend 
is not PaurdMk, and though we have a SuSravas among the Pra^ 
jdpatis in the Vdyu PurdAa, he does not appear as a lung. 

Ayu9, the son of Purdraoas, may be intended ; but the name 

'here is Ayu, without the final sibUant. 

L 2 


we praise thee, as enjoying through thee excellent 
offspring, and a long and prosperous life. 

StJkta IV. (LIV.) 

The deity and J^ishi are the same ; the metre of the 6th, 8th, 
9th, and 1 1th stanzas is Trishfubh : of the other seven, JagatL 

vargaxvii. 1. Urge US not, Maghavan, to this iniquity, to 
these iniquitous conflicts, for the limit of thy 
strength is not to be surpassed ; thou hast shouted, 
and hast made the waters of the rivers roar ; how 
(is it possible) that the earth should not be filled 
with terror? 

2. Offer adoration to the wise and powerful 
S'akra ; glorifying the listening Indra, praise him 
who purifies both heaven and earth by his irre- 
sistible might, vrho is the sender of showers, and by 
his bounty gratifies our desires. 

3. Offer exhilarating praises to the great and 
illustrious Indra, of whom, undaunted, the steady 
mind is concentrated in its own firmness, for he 
who is of great renown, the giver of rain, the 
repeller of enemies, who is obeyed by his steeds, 
the showerer (of bounties), is hastening hither. 

4. Thou hast shaken the summit of the spacious 
heaven ; thou hast slain S'ambara by thy resolute 
self; thou hast hurled with exulting and determined 
mind the sharp and bright-rayed thunderbolt against 
assembled Amras. 


5. Since thou, loud-shouting, hast poured the 
rain upon the brow of the breathing (wind), and 


(on the head) of the maturing and absorbing (sun), 
who shall prevent thee from doing to-day (as thou 
wilt), endowed with an unaltered aud resolute mind ? 

6. Thou hast protected Narya, Turvasa, Yadit, Varga xviii. 
and TuRviTi, of the race of Vayya ;* thou hast 
protected their chariots and horses^ in the unavoid- 
able engagement ; thou hast demolished the ninety- 
nine cities (of S ambara).^ 

7. That eminent person, the cherisher of the 
pious, (the institutor of the ceremony), promotes 
his own prosperity, who, while offering oblations to 
Indra, pronounces his praise ; or who, along with 
the offerings he presents, recites hymns (in honour 
of him) ; for him the bounteous Indra causes the 
clouds to rain from heaven. 

8. Unequalled is his might ; unequalled is his 
wisdom; may these drinkers of the Soma juice 
become equal to him by the pious act, for they, 
Indra, who present to thee oblations, augment thy 
vast strength and thy manly vigour. . 

9. These copious Soma juices, expressed with 
stones and contained in ladles, are prepared for 

Of these names, Turvasa may be the Tkirvasu of the Purdtias, 
one of the sons of Ym/M, as another, Yadu, is named. Narya 
and Turv^ti are unknown ; the latter appears hereafter as a ftishi. 
See Siikta LXI. v. 1 1 . 

Ratham ; etasam ; the latter is a synonjrme of Aiwa, in the 
Nighantu, but both words may also be regarded as the names of 
two Ji^ishis. 

The commentary supplies this appellation. 




thee ; they are the beverage of Indra : quaff them ; 
satiate thine appetite with them ; and then fix thy 
mind on the wealth that is to be given (to us). 

10. The darkness obstructed the current of the 
waters ; the cloud was within the belly of Vritra ; 
but Indra precipitated all the waters which the 
obstructor had concealed, in succession, down to the 
hollows (of the earth), 

11. Bestow upon us, Indra, increasing reputa- 
tion ; (bestow upon us) great, augmenting, and foe- 
subduing strength ; preserve us in affluence ; cherish 
those who are wise ; and supply us with wealth from 
which proceed excellent progeny and food. 

StJkta V. (LV.) 
Deity and ftishi as before ; the metre, Jagati, 

VargaXix. 1. The amplitude of Indra was vaster than the 
(space of) heaven : earth was not comparable to 
him in bulk ; formidable and most mighty, he has 
been ever the afflicter (of the enemies of) those 
men (who worship him) ; he whets his thunderbolt 
for sharpness, as a bull (his horns). 

2. The firmament-abiding Indra grasps the wide- 
spread waters with his comprehensive faculties," as 
the ocean (receives the rivers) : he rushes (im- 
petuous) as a bull, to drink of the Soma juice ; he, 
the warrior, ever covets praise for his prowess. 

GribMdii var^nabhis, — ^he grasps with his powers of com* 
prehending or collecting, samvarafUdh; or it may be» by his 
Tastness, urutwrnh-vd. 


3. Thou, Indra, hast not (struck) the cloud for 
(thine own) enjoyment ; thou rulest over those who 
are possessed of great wealth : that divinity is known 
by us to surpass all others in strength ; the haughty 
(Indra) takes precedence of all gods, on account of 
his exploits. 

4. He verily is glorified by adoring (sages) in the 
forest; he proclaims his beautiful vigour amongst 
men ; he is the grantor of their wishes (to those who 
solicit , him) ; he is the enconrager of those who 
desire to worship (him), when the wealthy offerer 
of oblations, enjoying his protection, recites his 

5. Indra, the warrior, engages in many great 
conflicts for (the good of) man, with overwhelming 
prowess; when he hurls his fatal shaft, every 
one immediately has faith in the resplendent 

6. Ambitious of renown, destroying the well-built Varga xx. 
dwellings of the Asuras^ expanding l^ce the earth, 

and setting the (heavenly) luminaries free from 
concealment,* he, the performer of good deeds, 
enables the waters to flow for the benefit of his 

7. Drinker of the Soma juice, may thy mind in- 
cline to grant our desires ; hearer of praises, let thy 
coursers be present (at our sacrifice) ; thy charioteers 
are skilful in restraining (thy steeds) ; nor, Indra, 

The 8UU and the constellatioDs were obscured by the same 
cloud which detained the aggregated waters. 


can crafty (enemies) bearing arms prevail against 

8. Thou holdest in thy hands unexhausted 
wealth ; thou, renowned (Indea), hast irresistible 
strength in thy body ; thy limbs are invested with 
(glorious) exploits, as wells* (are surrounded by 
those who come for water) ; in thy members, Indra, 
are many exploits. 

StfKTA VI. (LVI.) 

Deity» ftishi, and metre, as in the preceding. 

Vargaxxi. 1. VoKicious (Indra) has risou up (as ardently) 
as a horse (approaches) a mare, to partake of the 
copious libations (contained) in the (sacrificial) 
ladles ; having stayed his well-horsed, golden, and 
splendid chariot, he plies himself, capable of heroic 
(actions, with the beverage). 

2. His adorers, bearing oblations, are thronging 
round (him), as (merchants) covetous of gain crowd 
the ocean (in vessels) on a voyage : ascend quickly, 
with a hymn to the powerful Indra, the protector 
of the solemn sacrifice, as women (climb) a moun- 

3. He is quick in action, and mighty ; his fault- 
less and destructive prowess shines in manly (con- 
flict) like the peak of a mountain (afar), with which, 

Like wellB, is the whole of the simile, in the usual elliptical 
style of the text ; the amplification is from the commentary. 

The Scholiast here also ekes out the scantiness of the text, — 
as women climh a hill to gather flowers. 


clothed in iron (armour),'' he, the suppressor of the 
malignant, when exhilarated (by the Soma juice), 
cast the wily S'ush^a into prison and into bonds. 

4. Divine strength waits, like the sun upon the 
dawn, upon that Indra who is made more powerful 
for protection by thee, (his worshipper), who with 
resolute vigour resists the gloom, and inflicts severe 
castigatiom upon his enemies, making them cry 
aloud (with pain). 

5. When thou, destroying Indra, didst distribute 
the (previously) hidden life-sustaining, undecaying 
waters through the different quarters of the heaven, 
then, animated (by the Soma juice), thou didst en- 
gage in battle, and with exulting (prowess) slowest 
Vmtra, and didst send down an ocean of waters. 

6. Thou, mighty Indra, sendest down from 
heaven, by thy power, upon the realms of earth, the 
( world )-8ustaining rain : exhilarated (by the Soma 
juice), thou hasc expelled the waters (from the 
clouds), and hast crushed Vritra by a solid rock.^ 

Deity, l^ishi, and metre nnchanged. 

1. I ofler especial praise to the most bountiful, Vangaxxii. 

jfyasah, consisting of iron ; that is, according to the Scholiast^ 
whose body is defended by armour of iron, showing the use of 
coats of mail at this period, and intimating also, a representation 
of the person of Indra as an image or idol. 

Samayd pdshyd; the latter may be either, with a stone or a 
spear ; but the adjective soma, whole, entire, seems to require the 


the excellent, the opulent, the verily powerful and 
stately Indra, whose irresisiible impetuosity is like 
(the rush) of waters down a precipice, and by whom 
widely-diffused wealth is laid open (to his wor- 
shippers) to sustain (their) strength, 

2. All the world, Indra, was intent upon thy 
worship; the oblations of the sacrificer (flowed) 
like water (falling) to a depth ; for the fatal golden 
thunderbolt of Indra, when hurling it (against the 
foe), did not sleep upon the mountain.* 

3. Beautiful Ushas, now present the oblation in 
this rite to the formidable, praise-deserving Indra, 
whose all-sustaining, celebrated, and characteristic 
radiance has impelled him hither and thither, (in 
quest) of (sacrificial) food, as (a charioteer drives) 
his horses (in various directions). 

4. Much-lauded and most opulent Indra, we are 
they, who, relying (on thy favour), approach thee ; 
accepter of praise, no other than thou receives our 
commendations; do thou be pleased (with our 
address), as the earth (cherishes) her creatures. 

5. Great is thy prowess, Indra : we are thine : 
satisfy, Maghavan, the desires of this thy wor- 
shipper; the vast heaven has acknowledged thy 
might; this earth has been bowed down through 
thy vigour. 

6. Thou, thunderer, hast shattered with thy bolt 
the broad and massive cloud into fragments, and 

'^ Or against the aide of Vfitra ; that is, it did not stop until 
it had performed its office. 


hast sent down the waters that were confined in it, to 
flow (at will) : verily thou alone possessest all power. 

anuvAka XL 


The deity is Aoni ; the fUski, Nodha8» the son of Giotama ; the 
metre of the first five veraes is JagaH, of the last four Triskfvbh, 

1. The strength-generated, immortal Agni quick- Varga xxiii. 
ly issaes forth, when he is the invoker of the gods, 

and the messenger (of the worshipper) : (then pro- 
ceeding) by suitable paths, he has made the firma- 
ment, and worships (the deities) in the sacrifice 
with oblations.* 

2. Undecaying Agni, combining his food^ (with 
his flame), and devouring it quickly, ascends the 
dry wood ; the blaze of the consuming (element) 
spreads like a (fleet) courser, and roars like a roar- 
ing (cloud) in the height of heaven. 

8. The immortal and resplendent Agni, the 
bearer of oblations, honoured^ by the Rudrcts and 
the Vams^ the invoker of the gods, who presides 

* The finnament existed, bat in darkness, until fire, identified 
with light, rendered it visible, so that Agni may be said to have 
made or created it, — vimame, or n^rmam^. 

The text has 'adma,' food, or what may be eaten ; bat the 
Scholiast explains it, triiia gtdmddikam, straw and twigs ; in con- 
trast to atasa, which presently occurs, and which he explains by 
kdshfha, wood or timber. 

The term is purohitah, explained puraskritah, which may also 
imply, placed in front of, preceding. 


over oblations, and is the distributor of riches, 
praised bj his worshippers, and admired like a 
chariot amongst mankind, accepts the oblations that 
are successively presented. 

4. Excited by the wind, and roaring loudly, 
Agni penetrates easily with his flames and diffiisive 
(intensity) among the timber: when, undecaying 
and fiercely-blazing AG^fI, thou rushest rapidly 
like a bull amongst the forest trees, thy path is 

5. The flame-weaponed and breeze-excited Agni, 
assailing the unexhaled moisture (of the trees), with 
all his strength, in a volume of fire, rushes trium- 
phant (against all things) in the forest, like a bull, 
and all, whether stationary or moveable, are afraid 
of him as he flies along. 

Vaiiga XXIV. 6. The Bhrigus amongst men, for the sake of a 

divine birth,*^ cherished thee like a precious treasure, 
Agni, who sacrificest for men, who art the invoker 
(of the gods), the (welcome) guest at sacrifices, and 
who art to be valued like an afiectionate friend. 

7. I worship with oblations that Agni whom the 
seven invoking priests invite as the invoker of the 
gods; who is most worthy of worship at sacrifices, and 
who is the donor of all riches : I solicit of him wealth. 

8. Son of strength, favourably-shining Agni, 
grant to thy worshippers on this occasion uninter- 
rupted felicity : offspring of food, preserve him who 
praises thee from sin with guards of iron. 

Divydya janmane, for the sake of being bom as gods. 


9. Variously-shining Agni, be a shelter to him 
who praises thee ; be prosperity, Maghavan,* to the 
wealthy (offerers of oblations) ; protect, Agni, thy 
worshipper from sin : may Agni, who is rich with 
righteous acts, come (to us) quickly in the morning. 

StJkta II. (LIX.) 

The fishi is Nodhas, the deity Agni, in the form of Vai^wJC« 

NABA ; the metre is Trishfubh. 

1. Whatever other fires there may be, they are Vargaxxv. 
but ramifications, Agni, of thee ; but they all re- 
joice, being immortal, in thee : thou, Vai^wInara, 

art the navel of men, and supportest them like a 
deep-planted column.*' 

2. Agni, the head of heaven, the navel of earth, 
became the ruler over both earth and heaven : all 
the gods engendered thee, VaiiSwanara, in the form 
of light, for the venerable sage.* 

This is a very miasaal appellative of Affni, and is a common 
synonyme of Indra, although, in its proper sense of a possessor of 
riches, it may be applied to either. 

* VaUwdnara ; from v%6wa, all, and nara, a man ; a fire com- 
mon to all mankind ; or, as here indicated, the fire or natural heat 
of the stomach, which is a principal element of digestion. 

That is, as a piUar or post fixed firmly in the ground sup- 
ports the main beam or roof of a house. 

This is the first verse of a Tjicha to be recited at a ceremony 
observed on the day of the equinox. Agni is^said to be the head 
of heaven, as the principal element, and the navel of earth, as its 
main source of support. The term Arydya may apply either to 


3. Treasures were deposited in the Agni, VaiS- 
wAnara, like the permanent rays (of light) in the 
sun : thou art the sovereign of all the treasures that 
exist in the mountains, in the herbs, in the waters, 
or amongst men. 

4. Heaven and earth expanded as it were for 
their son.* The experienced sacrificer recites, like a 
bard,^ many ancient and copious praises addressed 
to the graceful-moving, truly-vigorous, and all- 
guiding VaiiSwInara. 

5. Vai^wAnara, who knowest all that are bom, 
thy magnitude has exceeded that of the spacious 
heaven : thou art the monarch of Manu-descended 
men ; thou hast regained for the gods in battle, the 
wealth (carried off by the AsurasJ^ 

6. I extol the greatness of that showerer of rain 
whom men celebrate as the slayer of Vj^ra : the 
Agni, Vai^wAnara, slew the stealer (of the waters), 
and sent them down (upon earth), and clove the 
(obstructing) cloud.^ 

Manu as the institutor of the first sacrifice, or to the YqjamdMi» 
the institator of the present rite. 

The Scholiast supports this afiSOUAtion hy citing another text ; 
bat that does not apply particularly to any form of Agni, bat to 
himself: Uhhd pitard mahayan qfdyata affmr dydvd pritMoi, — 
Both parents, heayen and earth, expanding, Agni was bom. 

The text has ttuxmuhya only, like a man ; that is, aoeordmg 
to the Scholiast, a hanH, a panegyrist, or bard, who recites the 
praises of a prince or great man, for largess. 
^ This clause is from the Scholiast. 

We have Vaikodnara here evidently identified with Tndra, an 


7. Vai^wAnara by his magnitude is all men,* 
and is to be worshipped as the diffiiser of manifold 
light in offerings of nutritious viands :^ Agni, the 

identification not inconsistent with Vaidik theogony, which re- 
solves all the divinities into three, — Fire, Air, and the Sun, 
and those three again into one, or the Sun (Nirukta, 7, 4) ; 
hut the Scholiast says we are to understand Vmh>dnara, in 
this verse, as the Agni of the firmament, the Koufyv/a, the light- 
ning or electric fire. The firmament, or middle region, is properly 
that of Vdyu, the wind, or of Indra; the inferior region, or earth, 
is the proper sphere of Agni, and that of the upper region, or 
heaven, of the Sun. The Scholiast cites a passage from the 
Nirukta, 7, 21, in which it is discussed who Vaiiwdnara is, and 
two opinions are compared, one which places him in the middle 
region, and identifies him with Indra or Vdyu, or hoth, in which 
character he sends ram, an office that the terrestrial Agni cannot 
discharge ; and another which identifies him with Sdrya, or the 
sun in the upper sphere. Both are, however, considered by the 
Scholiast to be untenable, chiefly from the etymologies of the 
name, which make VaUwdnara an Agni, the fire, as above stated, 
of the middle region, or lightning ; from which, when fallen to 
earth, the terrestrial fire is bom, and from which also the rain is 
indirectly generated, the bumt-ofiering ascending to the sun; and 
it is in consequence, frx>m the sun that rain descends ; VaiSwdnara 
is therefore an Agni, According to PaurdHik astronomy, VaU" 
wdnara is the central path of the sun ; in mythology, he occurs as 
one of the Ddnavas, The cloud b termed in the text Sambara, 
who is elsewhere called an Asura. 

Vihoakrishii, literally rendered, all men *, the Scholiast says, 
of whom all men are same nature, — swabhUdh. 

Bharadwdjeaht ; in sacrifices which present food in the shape 
of nutritious (pushtikara) oblations of clarified butter (havis) ; or 
it may mean, who is to be worshipped by the ftishis termed Bha- 
radwdjas, or of the Goira, or race of Bharadwdja, 


speaker of truth, praises with maDy commendations 

PUBUNITHA, the son of S ATAVANI.* 


The ftUhi is the same ; the deity is Aoni ; the metre Trishfubh. 

Vargaxxvi. 1. Matari^wan brought as a friend to Bhrigu,* 

the celebrated Vahnt, the illuminator of sacrifices, 
the careful protector (of his votaries), the swift- 
moving messenger (of the gods), the of&pring of 
two parents,* (to be to him), as it were, a precious 


2. Both (gods and men)* are the worshippers of 

These are Vaidik names ; Safavam is so called as the offerer 
of a hundred, t. e, namerous, sacrifices ; his son has the patro- 
nymic Sdtavaneya, 

The wind brought Agni to the sage Bhrigu, as a friend (rdtt) ; 
some translate it, a son, as in the text, rdtim bhrigdndm, — the son 
of the Bhfigus, The more modem Sanscrit confirms the first 
sense, as, although it has lost the original simple term, it preserves 
it in the compound ardti, an enemy, one not (a) a ficiend (rd^t), an 

^ As before ; either of heaven and earth, or of the two pieces 
of wood. 

The text has only t^haydsah, the both, which the Scholiast 
explains either gods and men, or the ministering priests and th^ 
employer the Yajamdna, The same authority would repeat the 
phrase, gods and men, as the sense of the text, U^jo ye cka 
martdh, explaining the first by kdmayamdna devdh, — those who 
are to be wished for, the gods ; he also proposes as an alternative 
for ui\fah, medhdvinah, wise, or the priests, and for mortals, the 


this ruler ; those who are to be desired (the gods), 
and those who are mortal, bearing oblations; for 
this Tenerable invoker (of the gods), the lord of 
men, and distribator (of desired benefits), was placed 
bj the officiating priests (upon the altar), before the 
sun was in the skj.* 

3. May our newest celebration^ come before that 
Agni, who is sweet-tongued, and is to be engen- 
dered in the heart \^ whom men, the descendants of 
Manu, sacrificing and presenting oblations to him, 
beget in the time of battle.' 

4. Agni, the desirable, the purifying, the giver 
of dwellings^ the excellent, the invoker (of the 
gods), has been placed (upon the altar) among men : 
may he be inimical (to our foes), the protector of 
(our) dwellings, and the guardian of the treasures in 
(this) mansion. 

6. We, bom of the race of Gotama, praise thee, 
Agni, with acceptable (hymns), as the lord of riches : 
rubbing thee, the bearer of oblations, (as a rider 
rubs down) a horse:* may he who has acquired 

* The priesU ocmdiict the Yqfamdna to the place where the fire 
has been prepared before the break of day by the Adhwaryu. 

Namfas( 8ukirttih ; as if the hymn were of very recent com- 

^ Agni, it is said, is engendered of air; hut that air is the vital 
air, or hreath, and Agni therefore is said to be produced in the 
heart, or in the interior of the homan body. 

In order to make bumt-ofierings to secure success. 

* The text has only rubbing, or rather sweeping, thee as a 

horse ; that is, according to the Scholiast, brushing the place of 




wealth by sacred rites, come hither quickly in the 

SiJkta IV. (LXI.) 

The deity is Indra ; the ftishi and metre are the same as in the 


Varga XXVII. 1. I ofTor adoration to that powerful, rapid, 

mighty, praise-meriting, and unobstructed Indra; 
adoration that is acceptable, and oblations that are 
grateful, as food (to a hungry man). 

2. I offer (oblations, acceptable as) food (to the 
hungry), to that Indra : I raise (to him) exclama- 
tions that may be of eflScacy in discomfiting (my 
foes) : others (also) worship Indra, the ancient lord, 
in heart, in mind, and in understanding. 

8. I offer with my mouth a loud exclamation, 
with powerful and pure words of praise, to exalt 
him who is the type (of all), the giver (of good 
things), the great, the wise. 

4. I prepare praises for him, as a carpenter con- 
structs a car, (that the driver) may thence (obtain) 
food ;* praises well deserved, to him who is entitled 

the fire for the burnt-offering, the altar perhaps, in like manner 
as persons about to mount a horse rub with their hands the part 
where they are to sit ; one inference from which is, that the early 
Hindus had no saddles. 

^ Ratham na tasMeva tatMindya ; Sina, according the Nintkta, 
is a synanyme of food (Nirukta, 5, 5) ; tat implies the owner of 
|he car, for his food. 


to commendatioDy and excellent oblations to the 
^ise Indra. 

5. To propitiate that Indra for the sake of food, 
I combine praise with utterance,* as (a man har- 
nesses) a horse (to a car), in order to celebrate the 
heroic, muniflcent^ and food-conferring Indra, the 
destroyer of the cities (of the A suras). 

6. For that Indra, verily Twashtri sharpened Vwrgmxxviii. 
the well-acting, sure-aimed thunderbolt for the 

battle, with which fatal (weapon) the foe-subduing 
and mighty sovereign severed the limbs of V ^itra. 
7* Quickly quaffing the libations, and devouring 
the grateful viands (presented) at the three (daily) 
sacrifices which are dedicated to the creator (of the 
world),^ he, the pervader of the universe,^ stole the 
ripe (treasures of the Asuras) : the vanquisher (of 
his foes), the hurler of the thunderbolt, encounter- 
ing, pierced the cloud.^ 

Arkamjnhvd; the latter is defined* the iiiBtmment of mvoca- 
tion, the organ of speech; the former means, as usual, hymn or 
praise in metre. 

He may he ao termed, as everything in the world proceeds 
from rain. 

^ The term of the text is Vish^, applied to Indra as the per- 
yader of all the wodd, 'Mu rv agyajagato vydpakah, 

Vardha, one of the synonymes of Megha, * dood,' in the 

Nigkaniu ; or it may mean sacrifice, from vara, a hoon, and oka, 

a day. In reference to this puiport» a different explanation of the 

text is giyen, whidi is somewhat ohscnre : FifMi, it is wd« 

means the personified sacrifice (ytffna), in whidi character he stole 

or attracted the aocnmnlated wealth of the AnaroM; after whidi 

M 2 


8. To that.lNDRA the women, the wives of the 
gods,^ addressed their hymns, on the destruction of 
Ahi ; he encompasses the extensive heaven and 
earth ; they two do not surpass thy vastness. 

9. His magnitude verily exceeds that of the 
heaven, and earth, and sky ; Indra, self-irradiating 
in his dwelling, equal to every exploit, engaged 
with no unworthy foe, and skilled in conflict, calls 
to battle.* 

10. Indra, by his vigour, cut to pieces with his 
thunderbolt Vritra, the absorber (of moisture), 
and set free the preserving waters, like cows (re- 
covered from thieves) ; and, consentient (to the 
wishes) of the giver of the oblation, (grants him) 

he remained concealed behind seven difficult passes, or the da3r8 
of initiatory preparation for the rite. Indra having crossed the 
seven defiles, or gone through the seven days of initiation, 
pierced or penetrated to, or accomplished, the sacrifice. This ex- 
planation is supported by a citation from the Taittir{ya, which is 
still more obscure: This Vardha, the stealer of what is beautiful, (?) 
cherishes beyond the seven hills the wealth of the Asuras; he 
(Indra) 9 having tajcen up the tufts of the sacred grass, and pierced 
the seven hiUs, slew him. — Vardhoyam vdmamoshah saptdmdm 
gMlidm parastdd vittam wdyam aaurd^dm vtbhartii; sa darhha-^ 
pU^iilam uddhfitya, sapta gtr^ hkUtwd, tarn ahannU{, 

^ The wives of the gods are the personified Cfayatr<, and other 
metres of the Vedas ; according to the Scholiast, the term gndk, 
preceding devti^nCh, usually means females, or women, whose 
nature, the Scholiast says, is locomotive, — ^amanaswabkdvdh. 

The Schdiast says, he calls the douds to battle, for by the 
mutual collision of the clouds rain is engendered. 


11. Through his power the rivers sport, since he vw^xxix. 
has opened (a waj for them) by his thunderbolt ; 
establishing his supremacy and granting a (recom* 

pense) to the giver (of the oblation), he, the swift- 
moving, provided a resting-place for TuRvfxi.* 

12. Indra, who art the quick-moving ' and 
strength^ndowed lord (of all), hurl thy thunderbolt 
against this Vj^riRA and sever his joints, as (butchers 
cut up) a cow,^ that the rains may issue from him, 
and the waters flow (over the earth). 

13. Proclaim, with new hymns, the former ex- 
ploits of that quick-moving Indra, when wielding 
his weapons in battle, he encounters and destroys 
his enemies. 

14. Through fear of him, the stable mountains 
(are still), and through dread of his appearance, 
heaven and earth tremble: may Nodhas, praising 
repeatedly the preserving power of that beloved 
Indra, be speedily (blessed) with vigour. 

15. To him has that praise been offered which 
he, sole (victor over his foes), and lord of manifold 

The oame of a fishi, who, the Scholiast adds, had been 
immened in water : ItUb^ brought him to dry land. 

The text has, "ent in pieces thehoibsof Fft^ra, as of a cow" 
(gor na) ; the commentator supplies the rest, " as worldly men, 
the carrers of flesh, divide here and there the limbs of animals/' 
The expression is remarkable, although it may not be quite clear 
what is meant by the term used by SdyaAa, vikattdrah, cutters up, 
or carvers : perhaps the word should be vikretdrah, venders of meat, 
butchers : at any rate it proves that no horror was attached to the 
notion of a joint of beef in ancient days among the Hindus. 


wealth, prefers (to receive) from those (who praise 
him). Indra has defended the pioas sacrificer 
Etasa, when contending with Sueya, the son 6f 


16. Indba, harnesser of steeds, the descendants 
of GoTAMA have offered to thee prayers of efficacy 
to secure thy presence : bestow upon them every 
sort of affluence ; may he who has acquired wealth 
by pious acts, come hither quickly in the morning. 


ANUVAKA XI. (continued). 
SiJkta V. (LXII.) 

The fiiahi is Nodh as, and deitj Indra, as in the last ; the metre* 


vargai. 1. We meditate, like Angibas, an acceptable 

address to that powerful and praise-deserving 
Indra, who is. to be adored by his worshippers (with 
prayers) of efficacy, to bring him to the ceremony : 
let us repeat a prayer to the celebrated leader of 

* The legend relates that a king named Swaiwa, or the lord of 
good (m) horses (asiMi), beug desiroas of a son, worshipped 
Surya, who himself was bom as the son of the king ; at a sab- 
sequent period, in some dispute between him and the fUiki Etmm, 
Indra took part with the latter. 


2. Do you, priests, offer to the vast and most 
powerful Indra, earnest veneration, a chant fit to 
be sung aloud;* for through him our forefathers, 
the Angirasas^ worshipping him, and knowing the 
footmarks, recovered (the stolen) cattle. 

3. When the search was set on foot by Indra 
and the Angirasas^ SaramA secured food for her 
young ;^ then Brihaspati^ slew the devourer and 
rescued the kine, and the gods, with the cattle, pro- 
claimed their joy aloud. 

4. Powerful Indra, who art to be gratified with a 
laudatory and well-accented hymn by the seven priests, 
whether engaged for nine months, or for ten ;^ and, 

* The expreesion is dnguahfom Sdma, a Sdma fit to be recited 
aload, — dghosh^Q'yo^am ; such as the lUUhmUama^ and other 
prayers, which are usually considered portions of the Sdma Veda; 
bat the commentator understands Sdma in this place to mean, 
singing or chantii^ of the fiickas: — Rikeku yad gdmmt tasya 


When Imdra desired the bitch Saramd to go in search of the 
stolen cattle, she consented to do so <Hily on condition that the 
milk of the cows should be given to her yoong ones, which Indra 

^ Brihaspati is here used as a synonyme of /fu&*a, the pro- 
tector or master (pati) of the great ones (brihatdm), the gods. 

Sdya^ identifies the priests (pipras) with the AngtraaoB, 
who, he says, are of two orders ; those who conduct sacrifices for 
nine months, and those who conduct them for ten. He cites the 
Ntrakta for the confirmation of this (zi. 19) ; but the meaning of 
Ydska*i interpretation of the word Navagwd is doubtful, as Nava-- 
gait may mean, ' that one whose course or condition is new,' better 
than ' for nine.' Another explanation which he suggests, — Nava^ 


desirous of (safe) protection, thou hast terrified by 
thy voice the divisible fructifying cloud.* 

5* Destroyer of foes, praised by the Angirastis, 
thou hast scattered the darkness with the dawn, 
and with the rays of the sun : thou hast made 
straight the elevations of the earth; thou hast 
strengthened the foundations of the ethereal region, 
vargaii. 6. The docds of that graceful Indra are most 

admirable : his exploits are most glorious, in that 
he has replenished the four rivers^ of sweet water^ 
spread over the surface of the earth. 

7. He who is not to be attained by violence,'^ but 
(is easily propitiated) by those who praise him with 

n&agati, — ib stfll less intelligible* ioxNao€m^ nsnally means fresh 
butter. Hie seven priests are said to be Medhdtkhi and other 
^his of the race of Angiras, 

^ Adrim phdligam vclam ; the last is here explained, doud ; the 
first, that which is to be divided by the thunderbolt ; and the 
second, that which yields fruit, or causes grain to grow by its 
rain ; or the three words may be considered as substantives, Adri 
implying, as usual, a mountain ; phaHga, a doud, and vala, an 
Asura; all of whom were terrified by Indra* s voice or thunder. 

No spedfication of these four is given beyond their being the 
Ganges and others. 

^ The term Aydsya has perplexed the Scholiast : it may be 
derived from Ydsa, effort, that which is not attainable by effort ; 
that is, according to one interpretation, not to be overcome in 
battle ; whence Rosen has rendered it by ittvictus. It is contrasted 
apparently with what follows, and which requires the insertion of 
Susddhyat—^ewsSly to be reached, or influenced by praises, and the 
like. Other etymologies are suggested, but they are still less 


sacred bymns, parted twofold the eternal and 
united (spheres of heaven and earth) ; the graceful 
Indra cherished the heaven and earth, like the sun 
in the august and most excellent skj. 

8. (Night and dawn), of various complexion, re- 
peatedly bom, but ever youthful, have traversed in 
their revolutions alternately, from a remote period, 
earth and heaven ; night with her dark, davm with 
her luminous, limbs. 

9. The son of strength, assiduous in good works, 
diligent in pious acts, retains his ancient friendship 
(for his votary). Thou, (Indra), providest within 
the yet immature cows, whether black or red, the 
mature and glossy milk. 

10. From a remote time the contiguous, un- 
shifting, and unwearied fingers practise with (all) 
their energies many thousand acts of devotion (to« 
wards Indra) ;* and like the wives (of the gods), the 
protecting sisters^ worship him who is without 

* This seems to intimate that the fingers were employed in the 
performance of what is at present termed mudrd, certain inter- 
twinings and gesticnlationB accompanying prayer ; the commen- 
tary understands it as merely their employment in acts of wor- 
ship or homage. That the practice is not altogether modem 
appears from the paintings of the 4pmta caves, several of the 
persons of which are evidently performing the finger gesticnlatioDS. 
Patidh swasdrah may mean only the protecting or pro- 
pitiatory and moving epithets of avanCh, fingers ; Jamtyo na is the 
expression for 'like wives ;' t. e., says SdyaHa, devdmdmr'-oi the 


Vargaiii. H. Beautiful Indra, who art to be praised with 
holy hymns, the pious who are desirous of holy 
rites, those who are anxious for riches, and those 
who are wise, repair to thee with veneration : 
powerful Indra, their minds adhere to thee, as 
affectionate wives to a loving husband. 

12. Beautifal Indra, the riches that have long 
since been held in thy hands have suffered neither 
loss nor diminution. Thou, Indra, art illustrious, 
addicted to good works, and resolute: enrich us, 
thou who art diligent in action, by thy acts. 

13. Mighty Indra, Nodhas, the son of Gotama, 
has composed for us this new hymn, (addressed) to 
thee, who hast been for ever, who hamessest thy 
coursers (to thy car), and art the sure guide (of all). 
May he who has acquired wealth by pious acts, 
come hither quickly in the morning. 

^ishi, deity, and metre as before. 

Varga IV. 1. Indra, thou art the mighty one, who, be- 
coming manifest in (the hour of) alarm, didst sus- 
tain by thy energies heaven and earth;* then, 
through fear of tbee, all creatures, and the moun- 

^ The term explained by the Scholiast, bakdh, by forces* or 
strength, is in the text, iusMaih, ' the driers np/ that is, it is 
said, of enemies. Of the drciunstance alladed to, we have no 
other ezf^anation than that Indra became manifest, and sustained 
earth and heaven whm they were filled with fear of an Antra. 
Perhaps Vritra is intended ; but the passage is obscure. 


tains, and all other vast and solid things, trembled, 
like the (tremulous) rays of the sun. 

2. When, Indra, thou hamessest thy variously- 
moving horses, thy praiser places thy thunderbolt 
in thy hands, wherewith, accomplisher of undesired 
acts,* thou assailest thine enemies, and, glorified by 
many, destroyest their numerous cities. 

3. Thou, Indra, the best of all beings, the 
assailer and hurailiator (of thy foes), the chief of 
the RiBHUS,^ the friend of man, the subduer of 
enemies, didst aid the young and illustrious Kutsa,* 
and slowest S'ush&a,^ in the deadly and close-fought 

4. Thou . verily didst animate him to (acquire) 
such (renown) as that which, sender of rain and 
wielder of the thunderbolt, thou (didst acquire) 
when thou slowest Vritra, and when, munificent 
Hero, who easily conquerest (thy foes), thou didst 
put to flight the Dasyus^ in battle. 

Aviharyatakratu ; Rosen has desiderataa res faciens, bat the 
Scholiast has aprepsita karman ; that is, he does actions unde- 
sired by his foes. 

So the Scholiast explains ^ibhukshd, — ^Mndm adhipati; or 

it may mean, he who abides in the fibhus, — teshu kfitanwdsa ; but 
he understands IS^ibku here to mean a wise man, a sage {medhdvin), 
^ These names have occurred before in .the same relation 
(see p. 137). 

• The Dasyus are described as the enemies of Kutsa, — Kutsa- 
syopakshayatdrah. Agreeably to the apparent sense of Dasyu, bar- 
barian, or one not Hindu, Kutsa would be a prince who bore an 
active part in the subjugation of the original tribes of India. 



5. Do thou, Indea, who art unwilling to harm 
any resolute (mortal),' set open all the quarters (of 
the horizon) to the horses of us who praise thee, 
(when we are exposed) to the aversion (of our ene- 
mies); and, wielder of the thunderbolt, demolish 
our foes, as with a club. 

6. Men invoke thee, such as thou art, in the 
thick-thronged and wealth-bestowing conflict. May 
this thy succour, powerful Indra, ever be granted 
in war, worthy to be enjoyed (by warriors) in 

7- Indra, wielder of the thunderbolt, warring on 
behalf of Purukutsa,^ thou didst overturn the seven 
cities ; thou didst cut off for SudAs the wealth of 
Anhas, as if (it had been a tuft) of sacred grass» 
and didst give it to him, king, ever satiating thee 
(with oblations). 

8. Increase, divine Indra, for us throughout the 
earth, abundant food, (that it may be as plentiful) 
as water, by which, Hero, thou bestowest upon us 
(existence), as thou causest water to flow on every 

9. Praises have been offered to thee, Indra, by 

Even although hostile to him ; that is, Indra is in himself 
indifferent to those who are opposed to him, and if he undertakes 
their destruction, it is not on his own hehalf, hut in defence of his 
friends and worshippers, as in the case of Kutsa, alluded to in 
the preceding stanza. 

Purukutsa is called a ^isM, Sudds a king (see p. 127), and An^ 
has an Asura ; hut no further information is given in the comment. 


the sons of Gotama : (they have been) uttered with 
reverence (to thee), borne (hither) by thy steeds : 
grant us various sorts of food. May he vrho has 
acquired wealth by pious acts, come hither quickly 
in the morning. 


The fishi is the same ; the deities are the Maruts collectivelj ; 
the metre is JagaH, except b the last verse, in which it is 

1. Offer, NoDHAS, earnest praise to the company Vaigavi, 
of the MartitSf the senders of rain and ripeners of 

fruit, deserving of adoration. Composed, and with 
folded hands, I utter the praises conceived in my 
mind, which are efficacious in sacred rites, (and 
flow readily) as the waters. 

2. They were bom handsome and vigorous from 
the sky, the sons of Rudra,^ the conquerors of their 
foes, pure from sin, and purifying (all), radiant as 
suns, powerful as evil spirits,^ diffiisers of rain*drops, 
and of fearful forms. 

* Rudrasya marydh; literally, the mortals or men of Rudra; bat 
the Scholiast observes, the Maruts are immortal, and the term 
mnst therefore imply sons, agreeably to another text, d te Pitar 
marutdm svmnam etu, — may he obtain thy favonr, father of the 
Maruts; or as in stanza 12, where the Maruts are called, cok 
lectively, Rudrasya Sunuh, — ^the son of Rudra. 

SatwdM na; Satwdnah is explained, Paramekoarasya^hhdia 
ga^, — ^the troops of demons attendant on Paramsiufara or Siva. 


3. Youthful RuDRAS, and undecaying, destruc- 
tive of those who do not worship (the gods), of un- 
obstructed progress, and immovable as mountains, 
they are desirous of granting (the wishes of the 
worshipper), and by their strength agitate all sub- 
stances, whether of heaven or of earth. 

4. They decorate their persons with various or- 
naments ; they have placed, for elegance, brilliant 
(garlands) on their breasts ; lances are borne upon 
their shoulders, and with them and their own 
strength have they been bocn, leaders, from the 

5. Enriching their worshipper, agitating the 
clouds^ devourers of foes, they create the winds 
and lightnings by their power : the circumambient 
and agitating Maruts milk heavenly udders, and 
sprinkle the earth with the water. 

Varga VII. 6. The muuificeut Maruts scatter the nutritious 
waters, as priests at sacrifices the clarified butter : 
as grooms lead forth a horse, they bring forth for 
its rain the fleet-moving cloud, and milk it, thun- 
dering, and unexhausted. 

7. Vast, possessed of knowledge, bright-shining, 
like mountains in stability, and quick in motion, 
you, like elephants, break down the forests when 
you put vigour into your ruddy (mares). 

8. The most wise Maruts roar like lions ; the all- 
knowing are graceful as the spotted deer, destroy- 
ing (their foes), delighting (their worshippers); of 
deadly strength in their anger, they come with 



their antelopes,^ and their arms, (to defend the 
sacrificer) against intermption. 

9. MarutSt who are distinguished in troops, who 
are benevolent to men, who are heroes, and whose 
strength is deadly in your anger, you make heaven 
and earth resound (at your coming); your (glory) 
sits in the seat-furnished chariots^ conspicuous as (a 
beautiful) form, or as the lovely lightning. 

10. The MarutSf who are all-knowing, co- 
dwellers with wealth, combined with strength, 
loud-sounding, repellers of foes, of infinite prowess, 
whose weapon (of offence) is Indra, and who are 
leaders (of men), hold in their hands the shaft. 

11. Augmenters of rain, they drive with golden VargaViii. 
wheels the clouds asunder, as elephants^ (in a herd 

break down the trees in their way) : they are 
honoured with sacrifices, visitants of the hall of 
offering, spontaneous assailers (of their foes), sub- 
verters of what are stable, immovable themselves, 
and wearers of shining weapons. 

12. We invoke vrith praise the foe-destroying, 
all-purifying, water-shedding, all-surveying band 
of MartUsy the offspring of Rudra: (priests) to 

^ Pri8hat<hhi8, with the spotted deer, which are the Vdhanas, or 
steeds of the ManUs, 

Apathyo na ; literally, " liVe that which is produced or occurs 
on the road/' leaving a wide range for explanation. Sdyaria 
therefore proposes another meaning; *' like a chariot which drives 
over and crushes sticks and straws on the way." 


176 RIO-VEDA sanhitJL. 

obtain prosperity, have recourse to the dust- 
raising and powerful band of Maruts, receiving 
libations from sacred vessels,* and showering down 

13. The man whom, MarutSt you defend with 
your protection, quickly surpasses all men in 
strength ; with his horses he acquires food, and 
with his men, riches: he performs the required 
worship, and he prospers. 

14. MarutSf grant to your wealthy (worshippers 
a son),^ eminent for good works, invincible in battle, 
illustrious, the annihilator (of his adversaries), the 
seizor of wealth, the deserver of praise, and all- 
discerning ; may we cherish such a son and such a 
grandson for a hundred winters. 

15. Grant us, Maruts^ durable riches, attended 
by posterity, and mortifying to our enemies: 
(riches) reckoned by hundreds and thousands, and 
ever increasing; may they who have acquired 
wealth by pious acts, come hither quickly in the 

ft^hi^Uan, which Rosen renders hostea vmcentem, and 
M. Langlois, victorieuse; but the commentary offers no sach 
signification. The MamU, it is said, are worshipped at the third 
»or evening ceremonial, according to the text, J^^ham dbhUhtA' 
vHoUi, — " they (the priests) poor the Soma juice into the vessel/' 
Jfif&ham, in its ordinary sense, is a frying-pan ; but here it may 
mean any sacrificial vessel. 

Putra, son, is supplied by the comment; the concluding 
phrases authorize the addition. 


anuvAka XII. 

StJkta I. (LXV.) 
The deity is Aoni ; the fishi, ParX^ara, son of S akti, the son 


of VAiiisHf HA ; the metre is termed Dwipada-Virdt. 

1. The firm and placid divinities followed thee, Varga ix. 
A6NI9 by thy footmarks, when hiding in the hollow 

(of the waters),^ like a thief (who has stolen) an 
animal ; thee, claiming oblations, and bearing them 
to the gods : all the deities who are entitled to 
worship, sit down near to thee. 

2. The gods followed the traces of the fugitive ; 
the search spread everywhere, and earth became 
like heaven ; the waters swelled (to conceal him), 
who was much enlarged by praise, and was mani- 
fested as it were in the womb in the waters, the 
source of sacrificial food.^ 

3. Agni is grateful as nourishment, vast as the 
earth, productive (of vegetable food), as a mountain. 

Each stanza is divided into half» and each two Padas are 
considered as forming a complete stanza ; hence this hymn and 
the five following are said to be DaSdrcha, or to have ten stanzas 
each, whilst in fact they have only five. 

Guhd chatantam ; the first term, usually ' a cave/ is said to 
apply either to the depth of the waters, or to the hollow of the 
Ahoattha tree, in both of which Agni hid himself for a season. 

A fish revealed to the gods where Agni had hidden, as, 
according to the Taittvn^aa, "he, concealing himself, entered 
into the waters ; the gods wished for a messenger to him ; a fish 
discovered him," — Sa nUdyata, so apah prdvUatt tarn devdhprau 
sham aichchhan ; tarn nuUsyah prdhraoit, 



delightful as water ; he is like a horse urged to a 
charge in battle, and like flowing waters ;" who can 
arrest him ? 

4. He is the kind kinsman of the waters, like a 
brother to his sisters ; he consumes the forest as a 
Rdjd (destroys) his enemies ; when excited by the 
wind, he traverses the woods, and shears the hairs 
of the earth.^ 

5. He breathes amidst the waters like a sitting 
swan; awakened at the dawn, he restores by his 
operations consciousness to men; he is a creator, 
like Somaf born from the waters, (where he 
lurked) like an animal with coiled-up limbs, he 
became enlarged, and his light (spread) afar. 

^ The epithets are in the text attached to the objects of com- 
parison, although equally applicable to Agni ; thus he is pushtir- 
na raiiwd, — ^like grateful nourishment; kshitima prithfc{, — like 
the vast earth ; &c. Several of the comparisons admit of various 
interpretations ; as the first may signify the increase of desired 
fruits or rewards, as the consequence of sacrifices with fire ; in no 
case does it import ihejrugvm maturitas of Rosen. 

The fruit, flowers, grasses, shrubs, and the like, termed in the 
text ramd prithivydh. 

Soma na vedhdh ; in hke manner as Soma creates or causes 
useful plants to grow, so Agni creates or extracts from them their 
nutritive faculty. The Agni here alluded to is the fire of diges- 
tion, the heat of the stomach : Agnir annddo annapatUcha, — Agni 
IB the eater and sovereign of food ; and in the Vdjasaneyi Yajusk 
we have, etdoad vd idam annam anndda^ha Sonui eva amuan Agnir 
annddah, — ^inasmuch as there is food and feeder, so Soma is the 
food, and the feeder is Agni. 


Deity, ^ishi, and metre the same. 

1. AoNi, who is like wondrous wealth, like the Varga x 
allnsurveying Sun, -like vital breath, like a well- 
conducted son, like a rider-bearing steed, like a 
milk-yielding cow, who is pure and radiant, con- 
sumes the forests. 

2. Like a secure mansion, he protects property ; 
he (nourishes people) like barley; he is the con- 
queror of (hostile) men : he is like a Rishi, the 
praiser (of the gods), eminent amongst (devout) 
persons: as a spirited horse (goes to battle), he 
repairs delighted to the hall of sacrifice : may he 
bestow upon us food. 

3. Agni, of unattainable brightness, is like a 
vigilant sacrificer ;^ he is an ornament to all (in the 
sacrificial chamber), like a woman in a dwelling; 
when he shines with wonderful lustre, he is like the 
white (sun), or like a golden chariot amongst men, 
resplendent in battle. 

4. He terrifies (his adversaries) like an army 
sent (against an enemy), or like the bright- 
pointed shaft of an archer. Agni, as Yama, is 
all that is bom ; as Yama, all that will be born :^ 

As the performer of a sacrifice takes care that nothing 
vitiates the rite, so Agni defends it from interr option by Rdkshasas, 

Yamo hajdto, yamojanitwam, lb the phraseology of the text, 

and is somewhat obscare ; according to the Scholiast, Yama here 

has its etymological purport only; he who gives the desired object 

N 2 


he is the lover of maidens,'' the husband of 

5. Let us approach that blazing Agni with 
animal and vegetable offerings,^ as cows hasten to 
their stalls. He has tossed about his flames (in 
every direction), like running streams of water; 
the rays commingle (with the radiance) visible in 
the sky. 

to the worshippers, — yachchhati daddti-kdmdn stotribhyah, in which 
sense it is a synonyme of Agid, — yam Agnir uchyate ; or it may be 
applied to him as one of the t¥dns (yama), from the simnltaneons 
birth of Indra and Agni, according to Ydska, Jdta is said to 
imply all existing beings ; Jamiwa, those that will exist : both are 
identical with Agni as Yttma, from the dependence of all existence, 
past, present, or fdtore, upon worship with fire. 

Because they cease to be maidens when the ofFenng to fire, 
the essential part of the nuptial ceremony, is completed. 

The wife bearing a chief part in oblations to fire ; or a legend 
is alluded to, of Soma, having obtained, it does not appear how, a 
maiden, gave her to the Gandharba, Viswavasu ; he transferred 
her to Agni, who gave her to a mortal husband, and bestowed 
upon her wealth and offspring. The whole of this stanza is 
similarly commented upon in the Nvrukta, 10, 21 . 

So the commentator explains the terms chardthd and vasatyd, 
invocations prompted by minds purified by offerings of moveable 
things, that is, animals ; or of immoveable things, as rice, and the 
like : tat prabhavaih kridayddibhih sddkydhutih; or, pa&u prabhava 


SiJkta III. (LXVII.; 
The same deity, ftishi, and metre contiQued. 

1. Bom in the woods, the friend of man, Agni Vargaxi 
protects his worshipper, as a Rdjd favours an able 

man ; kind as a defender, prosperous as a performer 
of (good) works, may he, the invoker of the gods, 
the bearer of oblations,^ be propitious. 

2. Holding in his hand all (sacrificial) wealth, 
and hiding in the hollows (of the waters), he filled 
the gods with alarm; the leaders, (the gods), the 
upholders of acts, then recognize Agni when they 
have recited the prayers conceived in the heart. 

3. Like the unborn (sun) he sustains the earth 
and the firmament, and props up the heaven vnth 
true prayers ;^ Aqni, in whom is all sustenance, 
cherish the places that are grateful to animals; 
repair (to the spots) where there is no pasturage.^ 

^ Havyavdh, here used generally, is, properly, the bearer of 
oblations to the gods ; the Veda recognizing besides the usual 
fires, three Agms: Haoyavdk or Havyaodhana, that which conveys 
offerings to the gods ; Kavyavdh, which conveys them to the Pitria 
or Manes; and Saharakshas, that which receives those offered 
to the Rdkshasas, 

According to the TaittiHifas, the gods, alarmed at the 
obliquity of the region of the sun, and fearing that it might fall, 
propped it up with the metres of the Veda, an act here attributed 
to Agni. 

Guhd guham gdh ; Rosen has, de specu in specum procedas ; 
but Guhd here means, apparently, any arid or rugged tract imfit 


4. He who knows Agni hidden in the hollows ; 
he who approaches him as the maintainor of truth ; 
those who, performing worship, repeat his praises, 
to them assuredly he promises affluence. 

5. The wise, (first) honouring Agni, as they do a 
dwelling,' worship him who implants their (peculiar) 
virtues in herbs, as progeny in their parents, and 
who, the source of knowledge and of all sustenance, 
(abides) in the domicile of the waters. 

The Rishi, &c. unchanged. 

Vai^xii. 1. The bearer (of the oblations), (Agni), mixing 
them (with other ingredients), ascends to heaven, 
and clothes all things, moveable and immoveable,^ 
and the nights themselves, (with light), radiant 
amongst the gods, and in himself alone compre- 
hending the virtues of all these (substances).^ 
2. When, divine Agni, thou art born living 

for pasture, or as the commentary says, sanchardyogyam sthdnam, 
— " a place unfit for grazing/' and which Agni may, therefcure, 
scorch up with impunity. 

In building a house, worship is first ofi^ered to the edifioe, 
and it is then put to use. So Agni is to be first adored, and then 
employed in any sacrificial rites. 

That is, the world, made up of moveable and immoveable 

Or it may be rendered, "he alone surpasses the glories 
(mahiitDd) of all these gods;" as Rosen has it, excelUt deus, deorum 


from the dry wood, (by attrition), then all (thy 
worshippers) perform the sacred ceremony, and 
obtain verily true divinity by praising thee, who art 
immortal, with hymns that reach thee. 

3. Praises are addressed to him who has repaired 
(to the solemnity); oblations (are offered) to him 
who has gone (to the sacrifice) ; in him is all sus- 
tenance, (and to him) have all (devout persons) 
performed (the customary) rites. Do thou, Agni, 
knowing (the thoughts of the worshipper), grant 
riches to him who presents to thee oblations, or 
who wishes (to be able to present them). 

4. Thou hast abided with the descendants of 
Manu^ as the invoker (of the gods); thou art 
indeed the lord of their possessions; they have 
desired (of thee) procreative vigour in their bodies, 
and, associated with their own excellent offipring, 
they contemplate (all things) undisturbed. 

5. Hastening to obey the commands of Aoni, 
like sons (obedient to the orders) of a father, they 
celebrate his worship ; abounding in food, Agni sets 
open before them treasures that are the doors of 
sacrifice, and he who delights in the sacrificial 
chamber has studded the sky with constellations. 


The same as the preceding. 

1. White-shining (Agni), like the (sun), the ex- VargaXiii. 
tinguisher of the dawn, is the illuminator (of all). 

With mankind. 


and fills united (heaven and earth with light), 
like the lustre of the radiant (sun). Thou, as soon 
as manifested, hast pervaded all the veorld with 
devout acts, being (both) the father and son of the 

2. The wise, the humble, and discriminating 
Agni, is the giver of flavour to food, as the udder 
of cows (gives sweetness to the milk) ; invited (to 
the ceremony), he sits in the sacrificial chamber, 
difiusing happiness like a benevolent man, amongst 

3. He diffuses happiness in a dwelling like a son 
(newly.) bom ; he overcomes (opposing) men like an 
animated charger ; whatever (divine) beings I may 
along with other men invoke (to the ceremony), 
thou, Agni, assumest all (their) celestial natures.^ 

4. Never may (malignant spirits) interrupt those 
rites in which thou hast given the (hope of) reward 
to the persons (who celebrate them), for should 
(such spirits) disturb thy worship, then, assisted by 

Devdndm piid ptUrdh son. The passage is also explained, the 
protector, either of the gods or of the priests {jritwijdm)^ and their 
messenger, that is, at their command, like a son ; hut the expres- 
sions are, prohahly, to he used in their literal sense, with a 
metaphorical application. Agni, as the bearer of ohlations, may 
be said to give paternal support to the gods, whilst he is their 
son as the presenter to them of sacrificial offerings. 

Tad devatdnipo bhavaii, — ^he becomes of the form or nature 
of that deity ; as in the text, Twam Agni Varuiio jdyase hpam 
Miiro bhavasi, 8(C., — Thou art bom as Varu^, thou becomest 


followers like thyself,^ thou puttest the intruders to 

5. May Aqni, who is possessed of manifold light, 
like the extinguisher of the dawn,^ the grantor of 
dwellings, and of cognizable form, consider (the 
desires of) this, (his worshipper) ; (his rays), spon- 
taneously bearing the oblation, open the doors (of 
the sacrificial chamber), and all spread through the 
visible heaven. 


ftishi, &c. as before. 

1. We solicit abundant (food). Agni, who is to Vargaxiv. 
be approached by meditation, and shines with pure 

light, pervades all holy rites, knowing well the acts 
that are addressed to the deities, and (those which 
regulate) the birth of the human race. 

2. (They ofTer oblations) on the mountain, or in 
the mansion, to that Agni, who is within the waters, 
within woods,° and within all moveable and immove- 
able things, immortal, and performing pious acts, 
like a benevolent (prince) among his people. 

Samdnair nribMh, — ^with equal leaders, or men ; that is, with 
the Mantis, 

This phrase is here, as well as in the first verse, usho na 
jdrah; the latter being explained by Jardyitri, — ^the causer of 
decay. The sun obliterates the dawn by his superior radiance. 

He is the garhha, the embryo, the internal germ of heat 
and life, in the waters, &c., all which depend for existence upon 
natural or artificial warmth. 


3. Agni, the lord of night,* grants riches to (the 
worshipper) who adores him with sacred hymns. 
Agni, who art omniscient, and knowest the origin 
of gods and men, protect all these (beings dwelling) 
upon earth. 

4. Agni, whom many variously-tinted (mornings) 
and nights increase, whom, invested with truth, all 
moveable and immoveable things augment, has 
been propitiated, and is kindly seated at the holy 
rite, as the invoker (of the gods), and rendering all 
(pious) acts (productive) of reward. 

5. Agni, confer excellence upon our valued 
cattle, and may all men bring us acceptable tribute; 
offering in many places sacrifices to thee, men re- 
ceive riches from thee, as (sons) from an aged 

6. (May Agni), who is like one who succeeds (in 
his undertakings), and acquires (what he wishes 
for), who is like a warrior casting a dart, and re- 
sembles a fearful adversary, who is brilliant in 
combats, (be to us a friend). 

Kahapd-vat, — ^having or possessing the night, as then espe- 
cially bright and illuminating ; as the text, dgniifi vai rdtrik, — 
night is characterized by Agni : so also in one of the mantras of 
the Agnyddheya ceremony, we have, Agnir-jyotih, Jyottragnih' 
swdhd ( Vdjasaneyi Sanhifa, p. 64) ; or the term may be rendered 
also, capable of destroying (the Rdkshasas), 



The deity and Jfishi are the same, bat the metre is Trkktubh. 

1. The contiguous fingers, loving the affectionate Varga xv. 
Agni, as wives love their own husbands, please him 

(with offered oblations), and honour him, who is 
entitled to honour, (with gesticulations), as the rays 
of light (are assiduous in the service) of the dawn, 
which is (at first) dark, (then) glimmering, and 
(finally) radiant. 

2. Our forefathers, the Angirasas^ by their 
praises (of Agni), terrified the strong and daring 
devourer, (PaAi), by the sound ; they made for us 
a path to the vast heaven, and obtained accessible 
day, the ensign of day,* (Aditya), and the cows 
(that had been stolen). 

3. They secured him, (Agni, in the sacrificial 
chamber), they made his worship the source of 
wealth ;** whence opulent votaries preserve his fires 
and practise his rites. Free from all (other) desire, 
assiduous in his adoration, and sustaining gods 
and men by th^ir offerings, they come into his 

Ketu, the indicator, or causer of day being known ; that is, 
according to the Scholiast, Aditya, the sun. 

Arydh, explained dhanasya swdminah; it does not appear 
why Rosen renders it matrons. 

This and the preceding stanza are corroborative of the share 
borne by the Angirasas in the organization, if not in the ori- 
gination, of the worship of Fire. 


4. When the diffiiwve vital air* excites Agni, 
he becomes bright and manifest^ in every mansion, 
and the institutor of the rite, imitating Bhrigu^ 
prevails on him to perform the function of messen- 
ger, as a prince who has become a friend sends an 
ambassador to his more powerful (conqueror)/ 

5. When (the worshipper) offers an oblation to 
his great and illustrious protector, the grasping 
{Rakshas)j recognizing thee, Agni, retires, but 
Agni, the archer, sends after him a blazing arrow 
from his dreadful bow, and the god bestows light 
upon his own daughter, (the dawn). 

Vargaxvi. 6. When (the worshipper) kindles thee in his 

^ Mdtari&wan is a common name of Vdyu, or wind ; bat it b 
here said to mean, the principal vital air (mtiAAya-prcf^), divided 
{vibhrita) into the five airs so denominated, as in a dialogue 
between them, dted by the Scholiast: "To them said the 
ArisMa breath, ' Be not astonished, for I, having made myself 
five- fold, and having arrested the arrow, sustain (life).' " 

Jenya, from ja$ui, to be bom ; or it may be derived from Ji, 
to conquer, and be rendered ' victorious ;' as, according to the 
, TaiihiHtfas, " the gods and Asuras were once engaged in combat : 
the former, being alarmed, entered into fire, therefore they call 
Agni all the gods, who having made him their shield, overcame 
the Asuras." So in the Aitareya BrdhmaAa, " the gods having 
awoke Agni and placed him before them at the morning sacrifice, 
repulsed, with him in their van, the Asuras and Rdkshasas at the 
morning rite." 


This expresses a notion still current amongst the nations of 
the "Eaat, that the mission of an envoy to a foreign prince is an 
acknowledgment of the latter's superiority. 


own dwelling, and presents an oblation to thee, 
daily desiring it, do thou, Agni, augmented in two 
ways, (as middling and as best), increase his means 
of sustenance : may he whom thou sendest with his 
car to battle, return with wealth. 

7. All (sacrificial) viands concentrate in Agni, as 
the seven great rivers flow into the ocean :* our 
food is not partaken of by our kinsmen,^ therefore 
do thou, who knowest (all things), make our de- 
sires known to the gods. 

8. May that (digestive) faculty (of Agni) which 
regards food, be imparted to the devout and illus- 
trious protector of priests, as the source of virile 
vigour ;° and may Agni be bom as (his) robust, 
irreproachable, youthful, and intelligent son, and 
instigate him (to acts of worship). 

9. The Sun, who traverses alone the path of 
heaven with the speed of thought, is at once lord of 
all treasures : the two kings, Mitra and Varuina, 
with bounteous hands, are the guardians of the 
precious ambrosia of our cattle. 

10. Dissolve not, Agni, our ancestral friendship, 
for thou art cognizant of the past as well as of the 
present ; in like manner as light (speeds over) the 



See Dote c, p. 88. 

That is, we have not any to spare for others. 


That is, the vigour derived from the digestive Agni; or, 
ret(i8 may be rendered, 'water;' when tiie passage will mean, "may 
fire and water, or heat and moistare, be spread through the earth 
for the generation of com." 


sky, SO decay impairs (my body) : think of me before 
that source of destruction (prevails).* 

ftisM, &c. as before. 

Vargaxvii. 1. Agni, holding in his hands many good things 
for men, appropriates the prayers addressed to the 
eternal creator.'* Agni is the lord of riches, quickly 
bestowing (on those who praise him) all golden 

2. All the immortals, and the unbewildered 
{Maruts)y wishing for him who was (dear) to us as a 
son, and was everywhere around, discovered him 
not ; oppressed with fatigue, wandering on foot, and 
cognizant of his acts, they stopped at the last 
beautiful (liiding)-place of Agni. 

3. Inasmuch, Agni, as the pure (Maincts) wor- 
shipped thee, (equally) pure, with clarified butter 
for three years, therefore they acquired names 
worthy (Jfco be repeated) at sacrifices, and, being 
regenerated, obtained celestial bodies.*' 

Which is taDtamount to asking Agni to grant immortality, — 
Amritatwam prayachchheti ydvat, 

Swdtrndbhirnvkham karoti, — ^he makes them present or ap- 
plicahle to himself: the creator is named Vedhas, usuaUy a name 
of Brakmd, and is here associated with Sdiwata, the eternal : this 
looks as if a first cause were recognized, distinct from Agni and 
the elemental deities, although, in a fig^urative sense, they are 
identified with it. 

The text has only Suchaydh, the pure ;* the Scholiast sup- 


4. Those who are to be worshipped, (the gods), 
inquiring between the expansive heaven and earth 
(for Agni), recited (hymns) dedicated to Rudra :* 
the troop of mortal** {Maruts)^ with (Indra), the 
sharer of half the oblation,'' knowing where Agni 
was hiding, found him in his excellent retreat. 

6. The gods, discovering thee, sat down, and 
with their wives paid reverential adoration to thee 

plies Maruts, for whom, it is said, seven platters are placed at the 
Agni'Chayana ceremony, and they are severally invoked by the 
appellations, / drU, AnyddriS, TddjriS, PratidfiS, Mitah, SanUtah, 
and others. In conseqaence of this participation with Agni of 
sacrificial offerings, they exchanged their perishable for immortal 
bodies, and obtained heaven. The Maruts are, therefore, like the 
ftibkus, deified mortals. 

^ The allosion to AgnVs hiding himself, occurring previously, 
also in verse 2, has already been explained in p. 4, note ; but we 
have here some further curious identifications, from which it 
appears that Rudra is Agni ; the hymns of the gods are addressed 
to Agni, and are therefore termed Rudriyd, for Rudra is Agni. 
Rudra-agnik : the legend which ia cited in explanation, from the 
Taittirfya branch of the Yajusk, relates, that during a battle 
between the gods and Asuras, Agni carried off the wealth which 
the former had concealed ; detecting the theft, the gods pursued 
the thief, and forcibly recovered their treasure; Agni wept 
(arod^t) at the loss, and was thence called Rudra. 

The text has only martta, ' the mortal ;' the Scholiast sup- 
l^ies Marudga^, 

^ Here also we have only the epithet nemadhita, ' the half- 
sharer,' from nema, a half ; to which, according to the TaUthrfya 
school, Indra is entitled at all sacrifices ; the other half goes to 
all the gods, — sarve devdh eko arddhah, Indra eka evdparo arddhah. 


Upon their knees.* Secure on beholding their 
friend, of being protected, thy friends, the gods, 
abandoned the rest of their bodies in sacrifice.^ 
varga XVIII. 6. (Dovout men), competent to offer sacrifices, 

have known the thrice seven mystic rites comprised 
in thee,*^ and with them, worshipped thee : do thou, 
therefore, with like affection, protect their cattle, 
and all that (belongs to them), moveable or sta- 

7. Agni, who art cognizant of all things to be 
known, ever provide for the subsistence of men, 
grief-alleviating (food) ; so shalt thou be the diligent 
bearer of oblations, and messenger of the gods, 
knowing the paths between (earth and heaven), hy 
which they travel. 

8. The seven pure rivers that flow from heaven 
(are directed, Agni, by thee : by thee the priests), 

^ AbMJnu ; or it may be applied to Agni kneeling before them. 

So the text, Devdh yajnam atanwata, " The gods verily con- 
stitated the sacrifice ;" but the expression is still obscure, and 
refers to some legend, probably, which has not been preserved. 

GrihydnC paddUnx), — secret or mysterious steps by which 
heaven is to be obtained ; meaning the ceremonies of the Vedas. 
These are arranged in three classes, each consisting of seven, or 
the Pdka yqfnas, those in which food of some kind is ofiered, as 
in the Atqnisana, Homa, Vaihoadeva, SfC. ; the Havir^yt^nas, those 
in which clarified butter is presented, as at the Agmfddheya, 
Daria, Pumamdsa, and others ; and the Soma-yqfnas, the prin- 
cipal part of which is the libation of the Soma juice, as the 
Agnishfoma, AtyagnisMoma, SfC. All these are comprised in 
Agni, because they cannot be celebrated without fire. 


skilled in sacrifices, knew the doors of the (cave 
where) the treasure, (their cattle), were concealed : 
for thee SaramJL discovered the abundant milk of 
the kine with which man, the progeny of Manu, 
still is nourished/ 

9. Thou hast been fed, (Agni, with oblations), 
ever since the Adityas, devising a road to immor- 
tality, instituted all (the sacred rites) that secured 
them from falling,^ and mother earth, ADirt, strove 


These cbrcamstaiices are stated in the text absolutely, with* 

out any reference to the inatrament, or agent. The Scholiast 

aapplies "Agni, by thee, &c. ; ** but the completion of the ellipse 

is consistent with prevailing notions ; the son, nonrished by bamt« 

offerings, is enabled to send down the rain which supplies the 

rivers ; the Angirasas recovered their cattle when carried off by 

Vala through the knowledge obtained by holy sacrifices; and 

Indra sent Saramd on the search, when propitiated by oblations 

with fire. Hence, Agm may be considered as the prime mover 

in the incidents, 

It may be doubted if either of the former translators has given a 
correct version of this passage : Rosen has. Dm cunctas luce destU 
tutas per nodes stant ; M. Langlois has, Qtft s*4[h)ent assurant la 
marchede{ra8tre)voyageur. The text has, ye vUwd stDtqxttydni, in- 
terpreted by Sdytda, sobhandni t^ana-hetu-bhutdM, — ^those which 
were the prosperous causes of not fiilling ; that is to say, certain 
sacred acts, which secured to the Adityas their station in heaven ; 
or, that immortality, the way to which they had made or devised. 
This interpretation b based upon a TaUtiriya text : " The Adityas, 
desirojis of heaven {su'varga, or swarga), said, 'Let us go down 
to the earth ;' they beheld there that (Shaf-trinSadrdtra) rite of 
thirty-six nights; they secured it, and sacrificed with it." It is 

to this, .and a similar rite of fourteen nights, connected with the 



with her magnitude to uphold (the world), along 
with her mighty sons. 

10. (The offerers of oblations) have placed in 
this (Agni) the graceful honours (of the ceremony), 
and the two portions of clarified butter that are 
the two eyes* (of the sacrifice) ; then the immortals 
come from heaven, and thy bright flames, Agni, 
spread in all directions like rushing rivers, and the 
gods perceive it (and rejoice). 

SiJkta IX. (LXXIIL) 
The ftisM, deity, and metre are the same. 

Vargaxix. 1. Agni, like patrimonial wealth, is the giver of 
food ; he is a director, like the instructions of one 
learned in scripture; he rests in the sacrificial 
chamber like a welcome guest, and like an officia- 
ting priest, he brings prosperity on the house of the 

AyoMs, or 'comings' of the Adityas, that allusion is made. 
Some reference to solar revolutions may be intended, although it 
is not obvious what can be meant, as no such movement is 
effected by thirty-six nights or days, and the Scholiast terms 
them KarmdHh ' acts or ceremonies.' Ataatha is also explained, 
they made or instituted : Atasthuh swapatydni means, according 
to him, chaiurdaia-rdtra shaUtrinsadrdtrddUydndm t^anddUd kar- 
mdM kritavantah, — they made the rites or acts which wiere the 
Ay anas and others oiih^Adityaa, (and which were for) thirty-^x 
or fourteen nights. 

An expression found also in another text ; or there are, as it 
were, two eyes of a sacrifice, which are the two portions of the 
clarified butter. 


2. He who is like the divine Sun, who knows the 
tnith (of things), preserves by his actions (his vo- 
taries), in all encounters; like nature,^ he is un^ 
changeable, and, like soul,^ is the source of happi- 
ness : he is ever to be cherished. 

3. He who, like the divine (Sun), is the supporter 
of the universe, abides on earth like a prince, (snr* 
rounded bj) faithful friends ; in his presence, men 
sit down like sons in the dwelling of a parent, and 
(in purity he resembles) an irreproachable and 
beloved wife. 

4. Such as thou art, Agni, men preserve thee 
constantly kindled in their dwellings, in secure , 
places, and offer upon thee abundant (sacrificial) 
food: do thou, in whom is all existence, be the 
bearer of riches (for our advantage). • 

6. May thy opulent worshippers, AoNi, obtain 
(abundant) food ; may the learned (who praise thee) 
and offer thee (oblations), acquire long life ; may we 
gain in battles booty from our foes, presenting their 
portion to the gods for (the acquisition of) renovm; 

6. The cows, loving (Aoni, who has come to the Varga xx. 
hall of sacrifice), sharing his splendour, have brought 

Anutti, the term of the text, is explained Rdpa or Swardpa, — 
peculiar form or natare ; as this is essentially the same in all the 
modifications of earth, or any other element, so Agni is one and 
the same in aU the sacrifices performed with fire. 

As soul is the seat and source of all happiness, so Agfd* as 
the chief agent of 8«u;rifice, is the main cause of felicity hoth here 
and hereafter. 

o 2 

196 leilO-VEDA SANHITA. 

with full udders (their milk) to be drunk. The 
rivers, soliciting his good will, have flowed from a 
distance in the vicinity of the mountain* 

7. (The gods), who are entitled to worship, so* 
liciting thy good will, have intrusted to thee, re-> 
splendent AjQNI, the (sacrificial) food, and, (for the 
due observance of sacred rites), they have made the 
night and morning of different colours, or black 
and purple. 

8. May we, mortals, whom thou hast directed (to 
the performance of sacrifices) for the sake of riches, 
become opulent : filling heaven and earth, and the 
firmament (with thy radiance), thou protectest the 
'whole world like a (sheltering) shade.^ 

9. Defended, Agni, by thee, may we destroy the 
horses (of our enemies) by (our) horses, their men 
by (our) men, their sons by (our) sons, and may our 
sons, learned, and inheritors of ancestral wealth, 
live for a hundred winters. 

10. May these our praises, sapient Agni, be 
gratefol to thee, both in mind and heart ; may we 
be competent to detain, thy well-supporting wealth, 
offering upon thee their share of the (sacrificial) 
food to the gods. 

* As imything affording shade keeps off the heat of the Sim, so 
J^ guards the world against afiiiction. 




The ddty is Aoni ; the fUsM Gotam a, boq of RAHiJoAi^A ; the 

metre GdyotH^ 

1. Hastening to the sacrifice, let us repeat a Vargaxxi. 
prayer to Aoni, who hears us from a&r. 

2. Who, existing of old, has preserved wealth for 
the sacrificer, when malevolent men are assembled 

3. Let men praise Aoni as soon as generated, the 
slayer of V^itra,* and the winner of booty in many 
a battle. 

4. (The sacrificer), in whose house thou art the 
messenger of the gods, whose offering thou convey- 
est for their food, and whose sacrifice thou ren- 
derest acceptable—- 

5. Him,. Anoibas, son of strength, men call for- 
tunate in his sacrifice, his deity, his oblations. 

6. Bring hither, radiant Aoni, the gods, to (re- varga xxiL 
ceive) our praise and our oblations for their food. 

7. Whenever thou goest, Aoni, on a mission of 
the gods, the neighing of the horses of thy (swift-) 
moving chariot, however audible, is not heard. 

8. He who was formerly subject to a superior^ 

having been protected, Aoni, by thee, now stands 

in thy presence as an offerer (of oblations) without 

bashfulness, and supplied with food. 


Vrttra may be here understood, an enemy in general ; or» 
Agni may be identified with Indra, 


9. Verily, divine Agni, thou art desirous of 
bestowing upon the offerer (of oblations) to the 
gods, ample (wealth), brilliant, and giving vigour. 

SiJkta II. (LXXV.) 
ftisM, deity, and metre as before. 

Vargaxxiii. 1. Attend to our most earnest address, pro- 
pitiatory of the gods, accepting our oblations in 
thy mouth. 

2. And then, most wise Aoni, chief of the An- 
GiRASAS, may we address (to thee) an acceptable 
and gratifying prayer. 

3. Who, Agni, amongst men is thy kinsman? 
who is worthy to offer thee sacrifice ? who, indeed, 
art thou, and where dost thou abide ? 

4. Worship for us, Mitra and VaruAa; wor- 
ship for us, all the gods ; (celebrate) a great sacri- 
fice ; be present in thine own dwelling. 

SiJkta III. (LXXVI.) 
ftishi and deity as before ; the metre is JHshfubh. 

Vargaxxiv. 1. What approximation of the mind, Agni, to 
thee, can be accomplished for our good ; what can 
a hundred encomiums (effect); who, by sacrifices, 
has obtained thy might ; with what intent may we 
offer thee (oblations) ?* 

' That is, it is not possible to offer sacrifice, praise, or prayer 
that shall be worthy of Agni, 


2. Come, Agni, hither; invoker (of the gods), 
sit down;* be our preceder; for thou art irresistible: 
may the aH-expansive heaven and earth defend 
thee, that thou mayest worship the gods to their 
great satisfaction. 

3. Utterly consume all the RdkshasaSy Agni, and 
be the protector of our sacrifices against interrup- 
tion. Bring hither the guardian of the Soma juice, 
(Indra),^ with his steeds, that we may show hos- 
pitality to the giver of good. 

4. I invoke (thee), who art the conveyer (of 
oblations), with thy flames, with a hymn productive 
of progeny (to the worshipper) ; sit down here with 
the gods, and do thou, who art deserving of wor- 
ship, discharge the office of Hotri^ or of Potri^ and 
awaken us, thou who art the depositary and gene- 
rator of riches. 

5. As at the sacrifice of the holy Manu, thou, a 
sage amongst sages, didst worship the gods with 
oblations, so also, Agni, veracious invoker of the 
gods, do thou to-day (present the oblations), with an 
exhilarating ladle. 

Si5kta IV. (LXXVII.) 
l^tisM, &c. as before. 

1. What (oblations) may we offer to Agni? vargaxxv. 


In the chamber where borDt-ofierings are presented. 

Somapatit which is a rather onusaal appellative of Indra, 
The latter name is not in the text, but the deity is indicated by 
Haribhifdm, his two steeds. 


Turhat praise is addressed to the Inminoiis (Aqni) 
that is agreeable to the gods? that Aoni who is 
immortal and observant of truth, who is the 
invoker of the gods, the performer of sacrifices, and 
who, (present) amongst men, conveys oblations to 
the deities. 

2. Bring hither, with praises, him who is most 
constant in sacrifices, observant of truth, and the 
invoker (of the gods), for Agni, when he repairs to 
the gods on the part of man, knows those (who 
are to be worshipped), and worships them with 

3. For he is the performer of rites, he is the 
destroyer and reviver (of all things),^ and, like a 
friend, he is the donor of unattained wealth; all 
men reverencing the gods, and approaching the 
well-looking Agni, repeat his name first in holy 

4. May Aqni, who is the chief director of sacri* 
fices, and the destroyer of enemies, accept our 
praise and worship veith oblations, and may those 
who are affluent with great wealth, who are en* 
dowed with strength, and by whom the sacrificial 
food has been prepared, be desirous to offer adora- 

^ The ezpresnon of the text is numasd, 'with the mind;' but 
the Scholiast reads namaad, ' with reverence/ asserting that the 
letters ft and m are transposed. 

The words are marya and sddku ; the commentator explains 
the firsts the killer or extirpator of all, and the latter, the pro* 


5. Thus has Agni, the celebrator of sacrifices, 
and by whom all things are known, been hymned 
by the pious descendants of Gotaha ; to them has 
he given the bright Soma juice to drink, along with 
the sacrificial food, and, gratified by our devotion, 
he obtains nutriment (for himself). 

The IS^Ia and ddty are the same ; the metre is Gdyatn. 

1. Knower and beholder of all that exists, Vargaxxvi. 
Got AM A* celebrates thee, Agni, with praise: we 

praise thee repeatedly with commendatory (hymns).^ 

2. To thee, that (Agni) whom Gotama, desirous 
of riches, worships with praise, we offer adoration 
with commendatory (hymns). 

3. We invoke thee, such as thou art, the giver 
of abundant food, in like manner as did Angiras : 
we praise thee repeatedly with commendatory 

4. We praise thee repeatedly vidth commenda- 
tory (hymns), who art the destroyer of Vriiba, and 
who puttest the Da§yus to flight. 

5. The descendants of RahugaAa have recited 
sweet speeches to Agni : we praise him repeatedly 
with commendatory (hymns). 

The word is Gotamdh, m the plural, whence Rosen renders it 
Gotamida ; the Scholiast limits it to the sense of the singiilar, 
asserting that the plural is used honorifically only. 

Mantras is supplied by the commentator ; the text has only 
dyumnaih, 'with bright/ or those manifesting Agni'a worth. 



The fishi is the same, Gotama; the hymn consists of four 
Tfichas, or triads ; the deity of the first is the Agni of the 
middle region, the ethereal or electric fire or lightning ; the 
deity of the other triads is Agni in his general character ; the 
metre of the first of them is TrishAibh, of the second, UshHk, 
and of the last two, Gdyatri. 

vargaxxYii. 1. The golden-li aired AoNi is the agitator of the 

clouds when the rain is poured forth, and, moving 
with the swiftness of the wind, shines with a bright 
radiance. The mornings know not (of the show- 
ers),* like honest* (people), who, provided with 
food, are intent upon their own labours. 

2. Thy falling (rays), accompanied by the moving 
{Mands\ strike against (the cloud) ; the black 
shedder of rain has roared ; when this is done, (the 
shower) comes with delightful and smiling (drops), 
the rain descends, the clouds thunder. 

3. When this, (the lightning, Agni), nourishes 
the world with the milk of the rain, and conducts 
it by the most direct ways'' to (the enjoyment of) 

% — __— — ^— ^— — .^-^-— ^— — — .— __^ 

^ Agnit in his manifestation of lightning, takes part in the pro- 
duction of rain by piercing the clouds ; the dawn is not con- 
cerned in the operation ; but this is said, not to depreciate the 
excellence of Ushas, but to enhance that of Agni, 

Satydh, true, sincere ; there is no substantive ; but Ptagdh, 
people, or progeny, is supplied by the commentary \ Rosen subati- 
ttttes nndieres, satydh being feminine, but so also is Pnyd. 

Or uses ; as drinking, washing, bathing, and the like. 


water, then Mitka, Aryaman, VaruAa, and the 
circumambient (troop of MaaruU) pierce through 
the (investing) membrane into the womb of the 

4. AoNi, 6on of strength, lord of food and of 
cattle, give us abundant sustenance, thou who 
knowest all that exists. 

5. He, the blazing AoNi, who is wise, and the 
granter of dwellings, is to be praised by our hymns : 
Oh ! thou whose mouth (glows) with many (flames),^ 
shine (propitiously, so) that food-providing wealth 
may be ours, 

6. Shining Agni, drive off (all disturbers of the 
rite), either by thyself or (thy servants), whether by 
day or by night; sharp-visaged Agni, destroy the 
Rdkshasas entirely. 

7. AoNi, who in all rites art to be praised, guard vargaxxvni. 
us vnth thy protection, (propitiated) by the recita- 
tion of the metrical hymn.^ 

8. Grant us, Agni, riches that dispel poverty, 
that are desirable (to all), and cannot be taken 
(from us) in all encounters (with our foes). 

9. Grant us, Agni, for our livelihood, wealth. 

Purv(Mka; from puru, many, and an^, face or mouth; 
flames are mideratood, agreeably to a common name of Agni, 
Jwdld-jihva, flame-tongued. Rosen has evidently read the mukha 
of the commentary, sukha, and explains pvrvaMka, nmUis gaudiis 

GdjfiUra ,- either a poi^tion of the Sd$na so termed, or the 
Gdyatn metre, according to the Scholiast. 


with gound nnderstanding, conferring happiness, 
and sustaining (us) through life. 

10. GoTAMA, desirous of wealth, offers to the 
sharp-flaming Agni pure prayers and praises. 

11. May he, Aoni, who annoys us, whether nigh 
or afar, perish ; and do thou be to us (propitious) 
for our advancement. 

12. The thousand -eyed,* all-beholding Agni, 
drives away the HaJcshasas^ and, (praised by us) 
with holy hymns, he, the (invoker of the gods), 
celebrates their praise. 

SiJkta VII. (LXXX.) 

The 9i8hi is Gotama, as before, but the deity is Indba ; the 

metre is Panktu 

Vargaxxix. 1. Mighty wielder of the thunderbolt, when the 

priest^ had thus exalted thee (by praise), and the 
exhilarating Soma juice (had been drunk), thou 
didst expel, by thy vigour, A hi from the earth, 
manifesting thine own sovereignty.® 

2. That exceedingly exhilarating Sovm juice» 

The literal rendering of the epithet of the text, Sahasrdkshat 
which identifies Jgm with Indra ; but SdyaAa interprets it, having' 
countless flames, — asoMkhydtqfwdlah, 

The Brahmd, which the Scholiast interprets Brdkmaiia. 
^ The borthen of this and of all the other stanzas of this hymn 
is arckatmaim moar^iyam; the first term nsnally implies wor* 
shipping, honooring, bat the commentator gives as its equivalent, 
prakatayan : swasya swdmUwam prakafayan, — ^making 
own mastership or supremacy. 


which was brought by the hawk^ (from heaven), 
when poured forth, has exhilarated thee, so that in 
thy vigour, thunderer, thou hast struck Vi^rrRA 
from the sky, manifesting thine own sovereignty. 

31 Hasten, assail, subdue; thy thunderbolt can- 
not fail; thy vigour, Indba, destroys men; slay 
Vrttra* win the waters, manifteting thine own 

4. Thou hast struck Vi^itba from off the earth 
and from heaven ; (now) let loose the wind-bound, 
life-sustaining rain, manifesting thine own sove- 

6. Indignant Indba, encountering him, has struck 


with his bolt the jaw of the trembling VRrrBA, 
setting the waters free to flow, and manifesting his 
o^ sovereignty. 

6. Indra has struck him on the temple with his Vai]ga xxx. 
hundred-edged thunderbolt, and, exulting, wishes 

to provide means of sustenance for his friends, 
manifesting his own sovereignty. 

7. Cloud-borne Indra, wielder of the thunder- 
bolt, verily thy prowess is undisputed, since thou, 
with (superior) craft, hast slain that deceptive deer,^ 
manifesting thine own sovereignty. 

8. Thy thunderbolts were scattered widely over 

* SyendbhfUa, as Rosen tranalates it, accipitri delatus; the 
Scholiast says it was hronght from heaven by the Gdyatrx, having 
the wings of a hawk. 

Hie commentary says VfUra had assumed the form of a 
deer, but nothing farther relating to this incident occurs. 


ninety-and-nine rivers;* great is thy prowess; 
strength is deposited in thy anns, manifesting thine 
own sovereignty. 

9. A thousand^ mortals worshipped him together; 
twenty^ have hymned (his praise) ; a hundred (sages) 
repeatedly glorify him ; so, Indra, is the oblation 
lifted up, manifesting thine own sovereignty. 

10. Indra overcame by his strength the strength 
of Vrftra: great is his manhood, wherewith, having 
slain Yritra, he let loose the waters, manifesting 
his own sovereignty. 

Vargaxxxi. 11. This heaven and earth trembled, thunderer, 
at thy wrath, when, attended by the Maruls, thou 
slowest Vritra by thy prowess, manifesting thine 
own sovereignty. 

12. Vrftra deterred not Indra by his trembling 
or his clamour; the many-edged iron thunderbolt 
fell upon him : (Indra) manifesting his own sove- 

13. When thou, (Indra), didst encounter with 
thy bolt Vritra, and the thunderbolt (which he 
hurled), then, Indra, the strength of thee deter- 
mined to slay Ahi was displayed in the heavens, 
manifesting thine own sovereignty. 

14. At thy shout, wielder of the thunderbolt, all 

* Pat for any indefinite number. 
The sixteen priests employed at a sacrifice, the Yajamdna 
and his wife, and two functionaries entitled the Sadasya and 
Samiiji^ directors, probably, of the ceremonies of the assembly, 
not of the worship. 


things, moveable or immoveable, trembled ; even 
TwASHT^ shook with fear, Indra, at thy wrath, 
manifesting thine own sovereignty. 

15. We know not of a certainty the all-pervading 
Indra : who (does know him, abiding) afar off* in 
his strength ? for in him have the gods concentrated 
riches, and worship, and power, manifesting his 
own sovereignty. 

16. In like manner as of old, so in whatever act 
of worship Atharvan, or father Manu, or Dadh- 
YANCH^ engaged, their oblations and their hymns 
were all congregated in that Indra, manifesting 
his own sovereignty. 


ANUVAkA XIII. (continned). 

StjKTA Vin. (LXXXL) 

The fUsM, deity, and metre as before. 

1. Indra, the slayer of Vritra, has been aug- Varga i, 
mented in strength and satisfaction by (the adora- 

The ezpreaeioii is very elliptical ; ko-vtryd-parah, being» 
literally, who — ^with vigour — afer: the Scholiast completes the 
sentence, as in the text. 

Mamt8h»pitd, Manu, being the progenitor of all mankind. 
Dadkyanch, or DadhkM, is a well-known IS^hi, the son of AthoT' 
van, of whom mention subsequently more than once reonrs. 


tion of) men :^ we inyoke him in great conflicts as 
lyell as in little ; may be defend us in battles. 

2. For tboQ, hero, Indra, art a host ; thou art 
the giver of much booty ; thou art the exalter of 
the humble ; thou bestowest (riches) on the wor- 
shipper who offers thee oblations, for abundant is 
thy wealth. 

3. When battles arise, wealth devolves on the 
victor; yoke thy horses, humblers of the pride 
(of the foe), that thou mayest destroy one and 
enrich another :^ place us, Indra, in affluence. 

4. Mighty through sacrifice, formidable (to foes), 
partaking of the sacrificial food, Indra has aug- 
mented his strength ; pleasing in appearance, 
having a handsome chin, and possessing (bright) 
coursers, he grasps the iron thunderbolt in his con- 
tiguous hands for (our) prosperity. 

6. He has filled the space of earth and the fir- 

The Scholiaflt explains this, — "a deity acquiring vigour by 
praise increases ;" that is, becomes more powerful and mighty. 
The notion is dear enough, but although 'increases' is the 
literal rendering of varddhaie, it expresses its purport but in- 

We have a legend in illustration of this passage : Gotama, 
the son of RakdgaAa, was the PwrohUa of the Kttru and SriMjaya 
princes, and, in an engagement with other kings, propitiated 
Indra by this hymn, who, in consequence, gave the victory to the 
former. Rosen puts the phrase interrogatively, QMemnam ocdswrw 
es, quemnam apulentue dabisF but the Scholiaat explains kam, 
whom, by kamchit, any one, some one; that is, JjM&ti gives the 
victory to whomsoever he is pleased with. 


mament (with his glory) ; he has fixed the con- 
stellations in the skj : no one has been ever born, 
nor will be born, Indra, like to thee : thou hast 
sustained the universe. 

6. May Indra, the protector, who returns to the Varga ii. 
giver (of oblations) the food that is fit for mortals, 
bestow (such food) on us: distribute thy wealth, 

which is abundant, so that I may obtain (a portion) 
of thy riches. 

7. The upright performer of (pious) acts is the 
donor of herds of cattle to us, when receiving 
frequent enjoyment (from our libations) : take up, 
Indra, with both hands, many hundred (sorts) 
of treasure; sharpen (our intellects), bring us 

8. Enjoy along wifli us, hero, the suffused li- 
bation for (the increase of our) strength and wealth : 
we know thee (to be) the possessor of vast riches, 
and address to thee our desires ; be, therefore, our 

9. These, thy creatures, Indra, cherish (the ob- 
lation) that may be partaken of by all ; thou, lord 
of all, knowest what are the riches of those men 
who make no offerings : bring their wealth to us. 

SiJkta IX. (LXXXII.) 

The deity and ftishi are the same ; the metre is Pankti, except 
in the last stanza, where it is JagaH. 

1. Approach, Maghavan, and listen to our Vargaiii, 
praises ; be not different (from what thou hast 



hitherto been);' since thou hast inspired us with true 
speech, thou art solicited with it ; therefore, quickly 
yoke thy horses. 

2. (Thy worshippers) have eaten the food which 
thou hadst given, and have rejoiced, and have 
trembled through their precious (bodies); self- 
illuminated sages have glorified thee with commend- 
able thoughts ; therefore, Indra, quickly yoke thy 

3. We praise thee, Maghavan, who lookest be- 
nignly (upon all) ; thus praised by us, repair (in thy 
car), filled with treasure, to those who desire thy 
presence : Indra, quickly yoke thy horses. 

4. May he ascend that chariot which rains 
(blessings), and grants cattle, and which provides 
the vessel filled with the mixture of ^oma juice and 
grain :^ quickly, Indra, yoke thy horses. 

5. Performer of many (holy) acts, let thy steeds 
be harnessed on the right and on the left, and when 
exhilarated by the (sacrificial) food, repair in thy 

The text is merely md tUathd iva, — (be) not, as it were, noo* 
such ; that is, according to Sdyana, be not the contrary of that 
propitious divinity which thou hast always been to us ; the rest 
of the stanza is equally obscure : " Since thou makest us possessed 
of true speech {sunrttdvatak), therefore thou art asked {dt arihc' 
ydsa it) arthayase eva ;" that is, to accept our praises. In this hyinD> 
also, we have a burthen repeated at the dose of each stanza. 

Patram hariyojanam, a plate or patera filled with hariyO' 
janam ; the appellation of a mixture of fried barley, or other gndoi 
and Soma jtiice. 


chariot to thy beloved wife : quioklj, Indba, yoke 
thy horses. 

6. I harness thy loDg^maned steeds with (sacred) 
prayers : depart ; take the reins in your hands : the 
effused and exciting juices have exhilarated thee» 
wielder of the thunderbolt ; thus filled with nutri- 
ment, rejoice with thy spouse. 

SiJkta X. (LXXXIII.) 
fiishi and deity as before ; the metre is Jagati, 

1. The man who is well protected, Indba, by thy Varga iv. 
cares, (and dwells) in a mansion where there are 

horses, is the first who goes to (that where there 
are) cows ; enrich him with abundant riches, as the 
unconscious rivers^ flow in all directions to the 

2. In like manner, as the bright waters flow to 
the sacrificial ladle, so they (the gods) look down 
(upon it) ; as the diffusive light (descends to earth), 
the gods convey it, desirous of being presented to 
them by progressive (movements to the altar), and 
are impatient to enjoy it, filled with the oblation, as 
bridegrooms (long for their brides).^ 

Vichetasah dpah ; the epithet is explained by the Scholiast, 
'the sources of excellent knowledge/ — vUishfaJndnahetubhdtdh ; 
and Rosen renders it, accordingly, sapientiam conferenies ; but it 
seems preferable to understand the prefix in in its sense of priva- 
tion, for it is not very intelligible how the waters should confer, 
or even possess, intelligence. 

In this stanza, as usual in the more elaborate metres, we 


212 igilG-VEDA 8ANHITA. 

3. Thou hast associated, Indra, words of sacred 
praise with both (the grain and butter of oblation), 
placed together in ladles, and jointly presented to 
thee, so that (the sacrificer), undisturbed, remains 
(engaged) in thy worship, and is prosperous; for to 
the sacrificer pouring out oblations (to thee), auspi* 
cious power is granted. 

4. The Angirasas first prepared (for Indea) the 
sacrificial food, and then, with kindled fire, (wor- 
shipped him) with a most holy rite : they, the in- 
stitutors (of the ceremony), acquired all the wealth 
of Pa^i, comprising horses, and cows, and (other) 

5. Atharvan first by sacrifices discovered the 
path (of the stolen cattle) : then the bright sun, the 
cherisher of pious acts, was born.* Atharvan re- 
encounter stndned collocations and elliptical and obscare allasions, 
imperfectly transformed into something intelligible by the addi- 
tions of the Scholiast ; thus, avdh pafyanti, * they look down/ is 
rendered special by adding devdh, 'the gods/ who look down, it 
is said, npon the sacrificial ladle, hotriyam, well pleased to behold 
it filled with the intended libation. The text, again, has only "^ 
diffused light ; " the comment adds, " descends on earth/' Itt the 
next phrase we have, " the gods lead that which is pleased by 
the libation, and wishes for them, either by progressive move- 
ments, or in an eastern direction (prdchair), as bridegrooins 
delight/' What is so led, and whither ? The ladle, chamiua, 
the altar, ved{, as well as the bride or maiden, ktmayakd, are 
filled up by the comment. The same character of brevity and 
obscurity pervades the entire hymn. 

* A jam; but it may mean, as the Scholiast says, "the sun 


gained the cattle ; Kavya (UiSanas) was associated 
with him.* Let us worship the immortal (Indba), 
who was bom to restrain (the Asuras)} 

6. Whether the holy grass be cut (for the rite) 
that brings down blessings,"^ whether the priest 
repeats the (sacred) verse in the brilliant (sacrifice), 
whether the stone (that expresses the Soma juice) 
sound like the priest who repeats the hymn, on all 
these occasions Indra rejoices. 

SiJkta XI. (LXXXIV.) 

The deity and the ftuhi are the same, but the metre is diversified. 
The first six stanzas are in the AmtshMh measure, the three 
next in UshMh, the three next in PankU, the three next in 
Gdyatr{, and the next three in the Trishhibh ; the nineteenth 
Terse is in the Brihati, and the twentieth in the Sato-brihati 

1. The Soma juice has been expressed, Indra, VargaV. 

appeared, in order to light the way to the cave where the cows 
were hidden," 

^ With Indra, according to the comment, which also identifies 
Kdvya with USanas/znd the latter with Bhrigu; Kdvydh Kaveh 
putra XJsand Bhjiguh, meaning, however, perhaps, only that 
USanas was of the family of Bhrigu. — VisMu PurdAa, 82, n. 

The text has only yamasya jdtam; the comment explains the 
former, aaurdndm niyamandrtham, 

Swdpatydya; resolving this into Su and dpatya, Rosen renders 
it, egregiam prolem conferentis causa, and M. Langlois has, le 
chef de famUle, jdloux d'obtenir une heureuse po8tint4. Sdyaiia 
understands it dififerently, and explains it by Sobhandpatana 
hetubMtdya, — ^for the sake of the descent, or coming down, of 
what 18 good. 


for thee : potent humbler (of thy foes), approach ; 
may vigour fill thee (bj the potation), as the sun 
fills the firmament with his rays. 

2. May his horses bear Indra, who is of irresist- 
ible prowess, to the praises and sacrifices of sages 
and of men. 

3. Slayer of V^litra, ascend thy chariot, for thy 
horses have been yoked by prayer ; may the stone 
(that bruises the Soma) attract, by its sound, thy 
mind towards us. 

4. Drink, Indba, this excellent, immortal, exhila- 
rating libation, the drops of which pellucid (beverage) 
flow towards thee in the chamber of sacrifice. 

6. Oflfer worship quickly to Indra ; recite hymns 
(in his praise); let the efiused drops exhilarate him ; 
pay adoration to his superior strength. 

VargaVi. g. When, Indra, thou hamessest thy horses, 
there is no one a better charioteer than thou ; no 
one is equal to thee in strength ; no one, although 
well-horsed, has overtaken thee. 

7. He who alone bestows wealth upon the man 
who ofiers him oblations, is the undisputed sovereign, 
Indra : — ^ho ! " 

8. When will he trample with his foot upon the 
man who offers no oblations, as if upon a ooiled-up 

This vene and the two following end with the uncomiected 
term Anga, which the Scholiast interprets 'qnicC ;' hat it is more 
usaally an interjection of calling ; so Roeen hBBOhe/U. Laagloia, 
Oh viens ! 


snake ;• when will Indba listen to our , praises ? — 

9. Indra grants formidable strength to him who 
worships him, having libations prepared : — ^ho ! 

10. The white cows drink of the sweet Soma 
jaice thus poured fortb» and, associated with the 
bountiful Indra, for the sake of beauty, rejoice : 
abiding (in their stalls), they are expectant of his 

11. Desirous of his contact, those brindled cows vargaViL 
dilute the Soma juice with their milk : the milch 

kine that are loved of Indra direct his destructive 
thunderbolt against his foes, abiding (in their stalls), 
expectant of his sovereignty. 

12. These intelligent kine reverence his prowess 
with the adoration (of their milk) ; they celebrate 
his many exploits as an example to later (adver- 
saries) ; abiding (in their stalls), expectant of his 

^ The text has kshumpa, explained; ahichchhairaka ; properiy, 
a thorny plant, but apparently intended by the Scholiast for a 
snake coiled up, or one sleeping in a ring, which is therefore killed 
without difficulty : nudStddkdreHa iaydnam haachid-andydsenM 
hanti, Rosen prefers the usual sense, pedejruticem vdut conteret. 
This, which constitutes the burthen of the triad, is rather 
obscure; the text is, vasv&anu swardjyam, literally* dwelling 
after, or according to, his own dominion. Sdyaia does not make 
it more intelligible : "Those cows/' he says, "who, by giving 
milk, are the means of providing habitation (nivdsakdri^yah), re- 
main looking to the kingdom of him, or Indra" so Rosen has> 
domicilium procurantes, qua ipsius dominium respicientes adstant. 


13. Indra, with the bones of Dadhyanch, slew 
ninety times nine Vritras^ 

14. Wishing for the horse's head hidden in the 
mountains, he found it at S^aryandvat. 

15. The (solar rays) found on this occasion the 

Dadhyanch, also named DadhCcha and DadkCchi, is a well- 
known sage in PaurdMk legend, of whom, it is said, that his 
bones formed the thunderbolt of Indra. The story seems to have 
varied from the original Vaidik fiction, as we shall have subsequent 
occasion to notice (Sukta cxvi.). In this place, the story told 
by the Scholiast also somewhat differs. He relates, that while 
Dadhyanch, the son of Atharvan, lived, the Asuras were intimi- 
dated and tranquillized by his appearance, but when he had gone 
to Swarga, they overspread the whole earth. Indra, inquiring^ 
what had become of him, and whether nothing of him had been 
left behind, was told that the horse's head with which he had at one 
time taught the Madhuvidyd to the Ahnns, was somewhere in exist- 
ence, but no one knew where. Search was made for it, and it 
was found in the lake SaryaMvat, on the skirts of Kurukshetra ; 
and with the bones of the skuU Indra slew the Asuras, or, as 
otherwise explained* foiled the nine times ninety, or eight hun- 
dred and ten, stratagems or devices of the Asuras or Vritras. 
The Scholiast accounts for the number, by saying, that, in the 
beginning, the Asurimdyd, or demoniac illusion, was practised in 
the three worlds, for three periods in each, — ^past, present, and 
future, whence it was ninefold ; each being exerted with three 
iakiis, or energies, made the number twenty-seven ; each of these 
again bemg modified by the three guhis, they become eighty-one, 
and the scene of their display extending to each of the ten regions 
of space, the total reaches the nine times ninety of the text« or 
eight hundred and ten. This seems to be pure invention, without 
any rational or allegorical meaning. 


light of TwASHT^i verily concealed in the mansion 
of the moving moon.* 

16. Who yokes to-day to the pole of the car (of vargaviii. 
Indra) his vigorous and radiant steeds, whose 
fury is unbearable, in whose mouths are arrows, 
who trample on the hearts (of enemies), who give 
happiness (to friends). (The sacrificer) who praises 
their (performance of their) duties obtains (long) 

The text has only " they found ; " the Scholiast, following 
YaSka {Nir, 4, 25)» sapplies Aditya rdsmayah, the rays of the sun. 
TuHxshiji is here used for the sun, being one of the Adityas ; 
or, according to the Scholiast, for Indra, to whom the hymn is 
addressed, and who is also one of the Adityas, The purport of 
the stanza is apparently the obscure expression of an astronomical 
fact, known to the authors of the Vedas, that the moon shone 
only through reflecting the hght of the sun ; so it is said« " the 
rays of the sun are reflected back in the bright watery orb of the 
moon ; " and again, " the solar radiance, concealed by the night« 
enters into the moon, and thus dispels darkness by night as well 
as by day." According to the Nirukta, 2, 6, it is one ray of the 
sun (that named Stuhunma) which lights up the moon, and it is 
with respect to that, that its light is derived from the sun. The 
Purdiias have adopted the doctrine of the Vedas. — VisMu 
Purdia, 36. 

Another interpretation may be assigned to this verse, which 
turns upon rendering Kah by Prajdpati, instead of who, and gd 
by words of the Veda, instead of horses ; making, " Prajdpati 
combines to-day with the burthen of the sacrifice the sacred 
words that are eflPective, brilliant, essential, emitted from the 
mouth, animating the heart, and productive of happiness : the 
worshipper who fulfils the object of such prayers, obtains life." 


17. Who goes forth, (through dread of foes, when 
Indra is at hand); who is harmed (by his enemies) ; 
who is terrified ; who is aware that Indba is pre- 
sent, who that he is nigh ?* What need is there that 
any one should importune Indba for his son, his 
elephant, his property, his person, or his people ? 

18. Who praises the (sacrificial) fire, (lighted for 
Indba), ox worships him with the oblation of clari- 
fied butter, presented in the ladle, according to the 
constant seasons?^ To whom do the gods quickly 
bring (the wealth) that has been called for ? What 
sacrificer, engaged in ofiering oblations and favoured 
by the gods, thoroughly knows Indba ? 

19. Powerful Indba, be present and be favourable 
to the mortal (who adores thee) : there is uo other 
giver of felicity, Maghavan, than thou; hence, 
Indba, I recite thy praise. 

20. Grantor of dwellings, let not thy treasury, 
let not thy benefits," ever be detrimental to us. 
Friend of mankind, bring to us, who are acquainted 
with prayers, all sorts of riches. 

That is, we know it very well, and are therefore secure in his 
presence at this ceremony ; or Kah may again be explained by 
Prqfdpati, with the sense of the stanza modified accordingly. 

J^ittthhir dhruvehhih ; in which fUu may have its ordinary 
sense of ' season;' or the passage may mean, presented by the 
divinities called J^itua, who preside over sacrifices/ as in the text, 
^itavo vtti proffd^dh, — the ^itu8 are the chief sacrifices; t.e. 
Praydjadevatdh, — ^the deities presiding over them. 

I? ' 

Utayah, benefits, assistances ; but it may be read, dh^tn^ak, 
shaliers, agitators ; t. e, the Maruts, or winds. 


SiJkta I. (LXXXV.) 

Tlie deities are the Mabuts, the ftisM, Gotaka : the metre of 
the fifth and twelfth verses is TrisMubh, of the rest. Jagai{. 

1. The Maruts who are going forth decorate Varga ix, 
themseWes like females : thej are gliders (through 

the air), the sons of Rudra, and the doers of 
good works, by which they promote the welfare of 
earth and heayen: heroes, who grind (the solid 
rocks), they delight in sacrifices. 

2. They, inaugurated by the gods,* have attained 
majesty ; the sons of Rudra have established their 
dwelling above tlie sky : glorifying him (Indra) 
who merits to be glorified, they have inspired him 
with vigour: the sons of Prisni have acquired 

3. When the sons of earth* embellish themselves 
with ornaments, they shine resplendent in their 
persons with (brilliant) decorations ; they keep 
aloof every adversary: the waters follow their 

4. They who are worthily worshipped shine with 

Ushitdsak, wetted, sprinkled with holy water by the gods, — 

Here they are called Gomdtarah, having for their mother the 
cow ; that is, the earth under that type, equivalent to Prihii in 
the preceding stanza. 

That is, rain follows the wind. 


various weapons : incapable of being overthrown, 
they are the overthrowers (of mountains) : Maruts, 
swift as thought, intrusted with the duty of sending 
rain, yoke the spotted deer to your cars. 

5. When, Mabuts, urging on the cloud, for the 
sake of (providing) food, you have yoked the deer 
to your chariots, the drops fall from the radiant* 
(sun), and moisten the earth, like a hide, with 

6. Let your quick-paced, smooth-gliding coursers 
bear you (hither) ; and, moving swiftly, come with 
your hands (filled with good things) : sit^ Maruts, 
upon the broad seat of sacred grass, and regale 
yourselves vdth the sweet sacrificial food. 

VargaX. 7. Confiding in their own strength, they have 

increased in (power); they have attained heaven 
by their greatness, and have made (for themselves) 
a spacious abode: may they, for whom VishAo 
defends (the sacrifice) that bestows all desires and 
confers delight, come (quickly), like birds, and sit 
down upon the pleasant and sacred grass. 

8. Like heroes, like combatants, like men 
anxious for food, the swift-moving (Maruts) have 
engaged in battles: all beings fear the Maruts, 
who are the leaders (of the rain), and awful of 
aspect, like princes. 

9. Indra wields the well-made, golden, many- 

' Arusha is the term of the text, — ' the radiant/ which may 
apply either to the sun or to the Jgni of lightning, either being 
in like manner the aource of rain. 


bladed thunderbolt, which the skilful Twashtri* 
has framed for him, that he may achieve great 
exploits in war. He has slain Vritra and sent 
forth an ocean of water. 

10. By their power, they bore the well aloft, and 
clove asunder the mountain that obstructed their 
path : the munificent Maruts, blowing upon their 
pipe,* have conferred, when exhilarated by the 
Soma juicBf desirable (gifts upon the sacrificer). 

11. They brought the crooked well to the place 
(where the Muni was), and sprinkled the water 
upon the thirsty Gotama:® the variously-radiant 
(Maruts) come to his succour, gratifying the desire 
of the sage with life-sustaining (waters). 

12. Whatever blessings (are diffused) through 
the three worlds, and are in your gift, do you 
bestow upon the donor (of the oblation), who ad-* 
dresses you with praise ; bestow them, also, Maruts, 
upon us, and grant us, bestowers of all good, riches, 
..hence springs prosperity, 

TuHuhtri here reverts to his asnal office of artLsan of the 

• « 


Dhamanto vdnam. The Scholiast explains vdAam to be a 

late, a vi^ with a hundred strings, — a sort of iColian harp, 
perhaps; dhamania, 'blowing/ would better apply to a pipe, a 
wind instmment. 

In this and the next stanza, allusion is made to a legend 
in which it is related that the ftiahi Gotama, being thirsty, 
prayed to the Maruts for relief, who thereupon brought a well 
from a distance to his hermitage. This exploit is subsequently 
(St'ikta cxvi.) related of the Ahoins. 


SiJkta n. (LXXXVI.) 
ftishi and deities the same ; the metre is Gdjfatr{. 

vai^xi. 1. The man in whose mansion, resplendent 
Mabuts, descending from the sky, jou drink (the 
libation), is provided with most able protectors. 

2. Maruts, bearers of oblations, hear the invo- 
cation of the praises of the worshipper with or 
(without) sacrifices.* 

3. And may he for whom ministrant priests have 
sharpened* the sapient (troop of the Maruts), walk 
among pastures crowded with cattle. 

4. The libation is poured out for the hero (band) 
at the sacrifice, on the appointed days, and the 
hyum is repeated, and their joy (is excited). 

5. May the Maruts, victorious over all men, 
hear (the praises) of this (their worshipper), and 
may (abundant) food be obtained by him who praises 

VargaXii. 6. Enjoying the protection of you who behold 
all things, we have offered you, Maruts, (oblations) 
for many years. 

7. Maruts, who are to be especially worshipped, 
may the man whose offering you accept be ever 

8. Possessors of true vigour, be cognizant of the 

^ The expression is yajnair-vd, 'with sacrifices or;' the 
'withoat' is supplied by the Scholiast. 

AUdsBhata, have sharpened, t. e. have excited or animaled* 
by their ofTenngs. 


wishes of him who praises you, and toils in your 
service, desirous of (your favour). 

0. Possessors of true vigour, you have displayed 
your might, with the lustre (of which) you have 
destroyed the Rdkshasas. 

10. Dissipate the concealing darkness ; drive 
away every devouring (foe) ; show us the light we 
long for. 

fishi and deities as before ; metre, Jagatu 

1. Annihilators (of adversaries), endowed with vargaxiii. 
great strength, loud-shouting, unbending, insepara- 
ble* partakers of the evening oblation,* constantly 
worshipped, and leaders (of the clouds), (the 
Maruts), by their personaP decorations, are con- 
spicuous (in the sky), like certain rays of the sun. 

■^*^^-— ^-^— ^— ^-^^-^— — ^-^^^^^-^— -- ' — — -■ - 

Always associated in troops. 

Tlie term is J^iJishiAah, which is not very clearly explained ; 
ftij{sha, in ordinary use, means a frying-pan, bat here the 
Scholiast seems to consider it as a synonyme of Soma, the 
Marut9 bemg thus named because they are entitled, at the third 
daily ceremonial, or the evening worship, to a share of the 
effusion of the ]S^ij<8ha, — ftijAhasya abhishtwdt; or the term may 
signify, he adds, *' the acquirers or receirers of the juices," — 
Prdrfayitdrah rasdndm ; from ry, to acquire : Rosen has» lance 
sacrificiis culH ; M. Langlois, anas de nos sacrifices. 

Stfibhih, covering, or clothing ; from stfi, to cover ; an 
epithet of OHJihMk, ornaments; swasar&asydchehhddakair dbha^ 
raiaih, — ^with ornaments covering their own personAb As the 
word is separated from the substantive, however, by the inter- 


2. When, Maruts, flying like birds along a 
certain path (of the sky), you collect the moving 
passing (clouds) in the nearest portions (of the 
finnament), then, coming into collision with your 
cars, they pour forth (the waters) ; therefore, do 
you shower upon your worshipper the honey-coloured 

3. When they assemble (the clouds) for the good 
work, earth trembles at their impetuous movements, 
like a wife (whose husband is away) : sportive, 
capricious, armed with bright weapons, and agitating 
(the solid rocks), they manifest their inherent 

4. The troop of Maruts is self-moving, deer- 
borne, ever young, lords of this (earth), and invested 
with vigour : you, who are sincere liberators from 
debt,^ irreproachable, and shedders of rain, are the 
protectors of this our rite. 

5. We declare by our birth from our ancient sire, 
that the tongue (of praise) accompanies the mani- 
festing (invocation of the Maruts) at the libations 

vening simile, " like some rays " (kechid turd wa), it has been 
miderstood in a different sense by former tranalators: thus, 
Rosen has, Omameniia dignoscuntur, rati lucis radii veht q» 
stellis effwukmtur; and M. Langloia» Les Mantis briUent wva 
leura parures, comme les images sous les feax des itaUes ; bat 
stfibhih cannot have any relation to stars, 

Madkuvariam, having the colour of honey; or, according 
to the commentator, being equally pm^ or pellucid {swQck' 

By making their worshippers wealthy. 


of the Soma ; for, inasmuch as tbej stood by, en- 
couraging Indra in the conflict^ they have acquired 
names that are to be recited at sacrifices. 

6. Combining with the solar rays, they have 
willingly poured down (rain) for the welfare (of 
mankind), and, hymned by the priests, have been 
pleased partakers of the (sacrificial food) ; addressed 
with praises, moving swiftly, and exempt from fear, 
they have become possessed of a station agreeable 
and suitable to the Mabuts. 


JfUhi and deity as before ; the metre of the first and last stanzas 
Prastara-pakkH, of the intermediate fom-, JagaH. 

1. Come, M ABUTS,' v^ith your brilliant light- Vaigaxrv. 
moving, well-weaponed, steed-hamessed chariots; 

doers of good deeds, descend like birds, (and bring 
us) abundant food. 

2. To what gtorifieir (of the gods) do they repair 

* The Scholiast here proposes varioas etymologies of the 
name Mwrut, some of which are borrowed from Ydska, Nir, 
11, 13. They somUt (rwanti, from m), having attained mid- 
heaven (mitttm) ; or. They sound without measure (amitttm) ; 
or. They shine (from ruck) in the clouds made (mitam) by them- 
selves; or. They hasten (dravantt) in the sky. All the minor 
divinities that people the mid air are said in the Vedas to be 
styled Maruts, as in the text, "All females whose station is the 
middle heaven, the all-pervading masculine Vdyu, and all the 
troops (of demigods), are Maruts." Sdyaia also cites the 
PaurdMk tradition of the birth of the forty-nine Maruts, in seven 
troops, as the sons of Kahfopa {Vishht Purdda, 152). 



with their ruddy, tawny, car-bearing horses for his 
advantage ? bright as burnished (gold), and armed 
with the thunderbolt, they fiirrow the earth with 
their chariot-wheels. 

3. Mabutb, the threatening (weapons) are upon 
your persons, (able to_ win) dominion : (to you) they 
raise lofty sacrifices, like (tall) trees: well-bom 
Mahuts, for you do wealthy worshippers enrich 
the stone (that grinds the Soma plant). 

4. Fortunate days have befallen you, (sons of 
Gotama), when thirsty, and have given lustre to 
the rite for which water was essential; the sons 
of GrOTAHA, (ofiering) oblations with sacred hymns, 
have raised alofib the well (provided) for their 

5. This hymn is known to be the same as that 
which GoTAMA recited, Mabuts, in your (praise), 
when he beheld you seated in your chariots with 
golden wheels, armed with iron weapons, harrying 
hither and thither, and destroying your mightiest 

6. This is that praise, Mabuts» which, suited 
(to your m^ts), glorifies every one of you. The 
speech of the priest has now glorified you, without 
difficulty, with sacred verses, since (you have placed) 
food in our hands. 

* See note c, p. 221. 



Tbe ftiaM, aa before, Gotama ; bat the hymn is addreased to tiie 
Vi^wADEYAfl. The aaetre of the firat five atanzaa and of the 
aeventh is JMgai{, of the aizth, Virdistkdaa, and of the last 
three, TrishAtbh. 

1. May auspicious works, unmolested, uoim- Var^a xv. 
peded, and subversiye (of foes), come to us from 

every quarter; may the gode^ turning not away 
from U8» but granting us protection day by day, be 
ever with us for our advancement. 

2. May the benevolent favour of the gods (be 
ours) ; may the bounty of the gods, ever approving 
of the upright, light upon us : may we obtain the 
friendship of the gods, and may the gods extend 
our days to longevity. 

8. We invoke them with an ancient text,* 
Bhaoa, MrrRA, Aditi, Daksha, As^idh, Abyahan, 
VabuAa, Soma, the Aswins; and may the gracious 
Sabaswati grant us happiness.^ 

^ Pmvayd midd ; moid is a synonyiiie of vdch, speech, or a 
text ; hece aaid to be a text of the Veda. 

Moat of these, here inckded amongst the VUwodevae, hare 
ocenned before ; bat tbe Scholiast here also ezpUns their 
functions : — Bhaga and MUra are Adityas, and the latter is 
especiaUy the lord of day, as, by the text, maitrsm vd alutr^ — the 
day is dependent on MUra, Aditi is the mother of the gods ; 
Daksha is called a Prqfdpati, able to make the world ; or, he is 
the creator (Hirdfyagarbha), difiised among breathing or livmg 
ereatores as breath or life ; as by the te^t, PrdUo vai Dakiha,-^ 
Daksha verily is breath. Asfidh, from eridh, to dry iq» ; nn- 

Q 2 

228 RIGhVEDA SANHiri. 

4. May the wind waft to us the grateful medi- 
cament;* may mother earth, may father heaTen, 
(convey) it (to us) ;^ may the stones that express 
the Soma juice, and are productive of pleasure, 
(bring) it (to us) : AiSwins, who are to be meditated 
upon, hear (our application). 

5. We invoke that lord of living beings, that 
protector of things immoveable, Indra, who is to 
be propitiated by pious rites, for our protection: 
as P^sHAN has ever been our defender for the 
increase of our riches, so may he (continue) the 
unmolested guardian of our welfare. 

drying, unchanging ; that is, the class of Maruts^ Aryamm is 
the Sim, as by the text, Aaau vd dditya aryamd, — ^he, the son, is 
Aryaman. Varu^ is named from t^^', to surronnd^ encompassing 
the wicked with his bonds ; he is also the lord of night, as by 
the text, VdruAC rdtri, — ^the night is dependent on Fam^. Sosia 
is twofold ; the plant so called on earth, and the moon, as a 
divinity in heaven. The Aiwina are so termed either from 
having horses (aiwaoanUau), or from pervading all things, the 
one with moisture, the other with light, according to Ydska, who 
bIso states the question ; Who were they ? which is thus answered; 
according to some, they are heaven and earth ; to others, day and 
night; according to others, the sun and moon; and, according 
to the traditionists (Aitihdsika), they were two virtuous princes.-— 
Nhnkta 12, 1. 

^ Bheshajam; that medicament which the Akoms, as the 
physicians of the gods, are qualified to bestow. No other specifi- 
cation is given. 

Earth is so termed, as producing all things necessary for 
life, and heaven as sendmg rain, and therefwe indirectly nooriah- 
ing all things. 


6. May Indha, who listens to much praise^ guard Vaifa xvi. 
our welfare; may Pushan» who knows all things, 

guard our welfare; may Taekshya,* with unble- 
mished weapons, guard our welfare. 

7. May the Maruts, whose coursers are spotted 
deer, who are the sons of PjulSni, gracefully-moving, 
frequenters of sacrifices, (seated) on the tongue of 
AoNi,^ regarders (of aH), and radiant as the sun, 
may all the gods come hither for our preservation. 

8. Let us hear, gods, with our ears, what is good ; 
objects of sacrifice, let us see with our eyes what is 
good; let us, engaged in your praises, enjoy, with firm 
limb and (sound) bodies, the term of life granted 
by the gods.* 

Tdrkskya ia a patronymic, implying son of Triksha, and, 
according to the Scholiast, GaruSa. He is termed in the text 
Arishianemi, — he who has unharmed or irresistible (afishtd) 
weapons ifiem£) ; or the latter may imply, as usual, the circum- 
ference of a wheel, — ^whose chariot- wheel is unimpeded; but 
Afishfanem occurs in the Vdyu PurdAa, as the name of a 
PrtydpaH, so that the passage might mean Afishfanemi, the son 
of Tfiksha, which, according to some authorities, is a name of 
the patriarch Kaiyapa: the same make Tdrkshifa a synonyme 
of Aru^t the personified dawn. It is doubtful if we have any 
reference to the vehicle of Vish^, GaruSa, 

This may be predicated of all the deities, as they receive 
oblations through the mouth of A§fnu 

Devahitam; whence it may be rendered, as the Scholiast 
proposes, in the singular, understanding by Deva, PrajdpatU 
either a patriarch or Brdhmd, The commentator says the 
limit of human life is 116 or 120 years« but the next stanza 
specifies a century. 


9. Since a hundred years were appointed (for 
the life of man), interpose not^ gods, in the midst 
of our passing existence, hj inflicting infirmity on 
our bodies, so that oar sons become our sires.* 

10. Aditi^ is heayen ; Anrn is the firmament ; 
Aditi is mother, father, and son ; Anm is all the 
gods ; Aditi is the five classes of men ;"" ADrri is 
generation and birth.* 

StfKTA VI. (XC.) 

The fishi is the same, the deitieB are varioiiBf the metre Gdyairi. 

Vargtxvii. 1. May Vabu&a and the wise Mitba lead us, 
by straight paths, (to our desires) and Artaman,* 
rejoicing with the gods. 

lliat is, let OS not become ao feeble and infirm aa to be» as 
it were, infents, and to require* the paternal care of onr own Bona. 

Aditi, literally meaning the independent or the indivinble, 
may here aignify either the earth, or the mother of the gods, 
according to the Scholiast. According to Ydsha, the hymn declarea 
the might ot Aditi, — aditervibhdtimdchashfe (Nir. 4, 23) ; or« as 
Sdyaiia, "Aditi is hymned as the same with the miivenBe/' 

As before noticed, the five orders of men are said to be the 
four castes and the outcastes. It is also interpreted five dasaea 
of beings, or Gods, Men, Gandharbas (indnding Apaarasas), 
Serpents, and Pitris; or, as it occurs in the Nirukta, S, 8, 
Gandharbas, Pitris, Gods, Asuras, and Rdkshasas. 

Jdtam is the actual birth of beings, JanUwam, the fieunilty of 
being bom, generation. Rosen renders the terms, nahm and 

Aryaman ia said to be the 'sun in his function of separating 
day from night. 


2. For they are the distributors of wealth (over 
the world) ; and, neyer heedless^ discharge their 
functions every day. 

3. May they, who are immortal, bestow upon us 
mortals, happiness, annihilating our foes. 

4. May the adorable Indba, the Maruts, Pu- 
SHAN, and Bhaoa, so direct our paths, (that they 
may lead) to the attainment of good gifts. 

5. PusHAN, VishAu,* Maruts, make our rites 
restorative of our cattle ; make us prosperous. 

6. The winds* bring sweet (rewards) to the Vargaxviii. 
sacrificer ; the rivers bring sweet (waters) : may the 

herbs yield sweetness to us. 

7. May night and mom be sweet; may the 
region of the earth be full of sweetness ; may the 
protecting heaven be sweet to us. 

8. May Vanaspati be possessed of sweetness 
towards us ; may the sun be imbued with sweetness ; 
may the cattle be sweet to us. 

9. May Mitra be propitious to us ; may VaruAa^ 
may Abyaican, be propitious to us ; may Inora and 
Bi^iHASPATi be propitious to us; may the wide- 
stepping VisH&u be propitious to us. 

VisMu is said to mean the pervader, or penrading deity. 

The tenn of the text is Evaydvan, which is explained by the 
Scholiast, the troop of Maruts, from their going with horses 


SiJkta VIL (XCI.) 

The fisM is still GoTAMiL, the deity is Soma ; from the fifth to 
the sixteenth stanza the metre is GdyatH; the seventeenth, 
UsMih, the rest, Trishfubh. 

VargaXix. 1. Thou, SoMA, art thoroughly apprehended by 
our understanding ; , thou leadest us along a straight 
path : by thy guidance, Indra, our righteous fatbeis 
obtained wealth amongst the gods. 

2- Thou, Soma, art the doer of good by holy 
acts; thou art powerful by thine energies, and 
knowest all things; thou art the showerer (of 
benefits) by thy bounties, and (art great) by thy 
greatness ; thou, the guide of men, hast been well 
nourished by sacrificial ofierings. 

3. Thy acts are (like those) of the royal VakuAa:* 

Rd;^o te Varuikuya. The Scholiast would seem to argue 
that Varuiia here means that which is enclosed in a cloth, or the 
Soma plant that has heen purchased for a sacrifice, — Ydgdrtham 
dkritah krdo vastreAavfitah Somo VartUiah, chiefly hecause Soma 
is the king of the Brahmans ; as hy the text of the Veda, Samo 
asmdkam BrdhmaMndm Rdjd, — Soma is the king of us Brahmans; 
and Samardjdno Brdhmaiah, — ^the Brahmans have Soma for 
king. But in that sense the moon, not the plant, is usually mider- 
stood by Soma, and there does not appear any reason for nnder* 
standing the term VaruHa in any other than its usual acceptation. 
The title of Rdjd we have already seen is not unfreqaently 
assigned to him, although, as the following stanzas show, it was 
equally given to Soma, 


thy glory, Soma, is great and profound ; thou fort 
the purifier (of all), like the beloved Mitra ; thou 
art the augmenter of all, Hke Abyahan. 

4. Endowed with all the glories (that are dis- 
played) by thee in heayen, on earth, in the moun- ^ 
tains, in the plants, in the waters, do thou, illus* 
trious* Soma, well-disposed towards us, and devoid 

of anger, accept our oblations. 

5. Thou, Soma, art the pratector, the sovereign 
of the pious,^ or even the slayer of V^litea ; thou 
art holy sacrifice.^ 

6. Thou, Soma, fond of praise, the lord of plants, varga xx. 
art life to us : if thou wilt, we shall not die. 

7. Thou bestowest. Soma, upon him who worships 
thee, whether old or young, wealth, that he may 
enjoy, and live. 

8. Defend us, royal Soma, from every one seeking 
to harm us : the friend of one like thee can never 

9. Soma, be our protector with those assistances 
which are sources of happiness to the donor (of 

10. Accepting this our sacrifice, and this our 

Or royal (iZ4fm) Soma. 

Salpatis iioamRdjduta. 5a^ may be explained, also, according 
to the Scholiaat* by Brahman, making the sentence, "the protector, 
or lord {Patt), or the king {Rdjd), of the Brahmans." 

Soma may be considered as identifiable with sacrifice, from 
the essential part it performs in it {fadrvpo bkavati sddh^iUvdd 


praise, approach, Soma, axid be to ns as the aug- 
menter of our rite. 
Targaxxi. 11. Acquainted with hymns, we elevate thee 
with praises : do thou, who art benignant, approach. 

12. Be unto us. Soma, the bestower of wealth, 
the remover of disease, the cognizant of riches, the 
augmenter of nutriment, an excellent friend. 

13. Soma, dwell happy in our hearts, like cattle 
in fresh pastures, like^men in their own abodes. 

14. The experienced sage commends the mortal 
who., through affection, divine Soma, praises thee. 

15. Protect us. Soma, from calumny^ preserve 
us from sin; pleased with our service, be our 

vargaxxii. 16. lucreaso. Soma: may vigour come to thee 
from every side : be diligent in the supply of food 
(to us). 

17* Exulting Soma, increase with all twining 
plants ; be to us a friend : well supplied with food, 
we may prosper. 

18. May the milky juices flow around thee ; may 
sacrificial offerings and vigour be concentrated iu 
the destroyer of foes ; and, being fully nourished, 
do thou provide. Soma, excellent viands in heaven 
for our immortality. 

19. Whichever of thy glories (men) worship 
with oblations, may our sacrifice be invested with 
them all : come to our mansions. Soma, who art 
the bestower of wealth, the transporter (over 
difficulties); attended by vajliant heroes, Uie non- 
destroyer of pf ogeny. 


20. To him who presents (offerings), Soma gives 
a milch-cow, a swifb horse, aad a son who is able 
in affairs, skilful in domestic concerns, assiduous in 
worship, eminent in society, and who is an honour 
to bis lather. 

21. We rejoice, Soma, contemplating thee, in« Vugaxxiii. 
vincible in battle, triumphant amongst bosti^ the 

grantor of heaven, the giver of rain, the preserver 
of strength, bom amidst sacrifices, occupying a 
brilliant dwelling, renowned and victorious* 

22. Thou, Soma, hast generated all these herbs, 
the water, and the kine ; thou hast spread out the 
spacious firmament; thou hast scattered darkness 
with light. 

23. Divine and potent Soma, bestow upon us, 
with thy brilliant mind, a portion of wealth : may 
no (adversary) annoy thee ; thou art supreme over 
the valour of (any) two (mutual) opponents : 'defend 
us (from our enemies) in battle.* 

stfKTA vni, (xcn.) 

The H^ishi is Gotaua, the deity is U8ha9 (the dawn), except in 
the last triad, .which is addressed to the Ahoms. The metre 
of the first four verses is Jagat{, of the last six, Vsht^ of the 
rest, TriahMh. 

\. These divinities of the morning^ have spread Vugaxxiv. 

There is evidently great confusion in this hymn hetween 
Soma, the moon, and Soma, the add Asclepias. Few passages 
indicate the former distinctly, except, perhaps, verse 313, whi«^ 
alludes to the function of scattering darkness by hght. 

We have the term Ushdsah in the plural, intending, according 


light (oTer the world); they make manifest the 
light in the eastern portion of the firmament, 
brightening all things, like warriors burnishing 
their weapons ; the radiant and progressing mothers* 
(of the earth), they travel daily (on their course). 

2. Their purple rays have readily shot upwards ; 
they have yoked the easily-yoked and ruddy kine 
(to their car); the deities of the dawn have re- 
stored, as of yore, the consciousness (of sentient 
creatures), and, bright-rayed, have attended upon 
the glorious sun. 

3. The female leaders (of the morning) illu- 
minate^ with their inherent radiance the remotest 
parts (of the heaven), with a sinmltaneous effort, 
like warriors^ (with their shining arms in the van 
of battle), bringing every kind of food to the per- 
former of good works, to the bountiful, and to the 
worshipper who presents libations. 

4. UsHAS cuts off the accumulated (glooms), as 

to the commentator, the divinitiea that preside over the momin^ ; 
but, according to Ydshit the plural ia naed honorifically only, for 
the amgular personification. — Nirukta, 12, 7. 

Or mdtri may mean simply maker, author; authors of light, — 
bhdso nirmdtryah, — Nirukta, 12, 7. 

Archanti ; literally, worship ; that is, the heavens ; but the 
term is used for spreading over, or extending. 

^ The text has only " like warriors ;" the Scholiast explains the 
comparison, — "as they spread with bright arms along the front of 
the array, so the rays of the dawn spread along the sky before 
the coming of the sun." 


a barber (cuts off the hair) ;* she bares her bosom 
as a cow yields her udd^r (to the milker) ; and, as 
cattle hasten to their pastures, she speeds to the 
east, and, shedding light upon all the world, dissi- 
pates the darkness^ 

5. Her brilliant light is first seen towards (the 
east) ; it spreads and disperses the thick darkness : 
she anoints her beauty as the priests anoint the 
sacrificial food in sacrifices : the daughter of the 
sky^ awaits the glorious sun. 

6. We have crossed over the boundary ' of dark- Vorgaxxv. 
ness. UsHAS restores the consciousness (of living 

beings) ; bright-shining, she smiles, like a flatterer, 
to obtain favour, and, lovely in all her radiance, 
she has swallowed, for our delight, the darkness. 

7. The brilliant daughter of the sky, the exciter 
of pleasant voices,^ is praised by the descendants 
of GoTAMA. UsHAS, grant us food associated with 
progeny and dependants, and distinguished by horses 
and cattle. 

8. May I obtain, Ushas, that ample wealth 
which confers fame, posterity, troops of slaves, and 

* Nfitur iva, 'like a barber/ is the phrase of the text; or 
Nfituh xuay mean a dancing-girl, when the translation will he, 
'* Ushas displays graces, like a dancing-girl" (peSdnsi vapate); 
the former meaning either darkness or elegance, the latter, either 
to cat off, or to possess. There is no point of similitude expressed 
in Rosen's version, Tenebras diasipat Aurora, veluti saltatrLt, 
Duhitd divah, the daughter of heaven, or the sky, 
VTiih the appearance of dawn, the cries of Tarioos animals 
and birds* and the voices of men, are again heard. 

238 9io*yEDA SANHrrl. 

is chara^tefued by horses; which thoOt who 
aboundest in riches, and art the giver of food, 
displayestr (when gratified) by hymns and holy 

9. The divine (Ushas), having lighted np the 
whole world, opreads, expanding wiUi her radiance, 
towards the west, aronsing ali living creatures to 
their labours ; she hears the speech of all endowed 
with thonght. 

10. The divine and ancient Ushas, bom again 
and again, and bright with unchanging hues, wastes 
away the life of a mortal, Uke the wife of a hunter 
catting up and dividing the birds/ 

Vargaxxvi. 11. She has been seen illuminating the boun- 
daries of the sky, and driving into disappearance 
the spontaneously-retiring (night) ;^ wearing away 
the ages of the human race, she shines with light 
like the bride of the sun.^ 

12. The affluent and adorable Ushas has sent 
her rays abroad, as (a cowherd drives) the cattle (to 
pasture), and spreads expansive, like flowing water ; 

* Like a SumghnC; literally, the wife of a dog*ldller» but 
explained VyddhasM, aa in the text. 

Swa$dram is the only term in die text» eiqdained, Swt^fom 
BoraMn, — going of her own accord ; the Scholiast adds nighty 
otherwise, we might have uiderstood it in its usual sense of 
'sister ;' making night the sister of morning. 

Jdrasya yoihd, Jdru. meaning the causer of the decay, or 
disappearance, of night, is explained by, Sitry^. the ««a. 


she is beheld associated with the rays of the sun, 
unimpeding sacred ceremonies/ 

13. UsHAS» possessor of food, bring us that 
TariouB wealth by which we may sustain sons and 

14« Luminous TTshas, possessor of cows and 
horses, true of speech, dawn here to-day upon this 
(ceremony), that is to bring us wealth. 

15. Possessor of food, Ushas, yoke, indeed, to« 
day your purple steeds, and bring to us all good 

16. AlSwiNS, destroyers of foes, turn with iaYOur^ Varga xxvit. 
able intentions your chariot towards our abode, which 
contains cattle and gold. 

17. AlSwiNS, who have sent adorable light from 
heaven^ to man, bring us strength. 

18. May the steeds awakened at dawn bring 
hither, to drink the Soma juice, the diyine ASwins, 
who are the givers of happiness, the destroyers of 
foes^ seated in a golden chariot 

' ' " ' ' — ■■■ J —..—. .. ■, I.., 

AmmaH daimfdni vratdni, not mjiiring« that is, fjetvonring, 
diyine rites or ofierings to the gods, which are to be performed 
by daylight, or after dawn ; as by the text, na rdtrau na sdyam 
asti devayd ajwMam, — sacrifice is not acceptable to the gods at 
night, or in the evening. 

As before observed, the A&wtM are sometimes identified with 
the sun and moon. 


siJkta IX. (xcra.) 

The Jfishi is Gotamu, the deities are Agni and Soma; the 
metre of the three first stanzas is AmttkMh; of three» 
beginning with the ninths Gdyatr{; of the eighth^ JagaUoir 
Trisktubh, and of the rest, Triskfubh. 

Vargtxxviii. 1. Agni and Soma, showerers (of desires), favour- 
ably hear this mj invocation, graciously accept my 
hymns, and bestow felicity on the donor (of the 

2. Agni and Soma, grant to him who addresses 
this prayer to you both, store of cattle with sound 
strength and good horses. 

3. Agni and Soma, may he who offers you the 
oblation of clarified butter, enjoy sound strength, 
with progeny, through all his life. 

4. Agni and Soma, that prowess of yours, by 
which you have carried off the cows that were the 
food of Pa^i, is (well) known to us ; you have slain 
the ofispring of Brisaya,* and you have acquired 
the one luminary (the sun^), for the benefit of the 

Bfisayasya sesha ; the latter is a synonyme of apatya^ off- 
spring. — Nirukta, 3, 2. Bfisaya is said to be a synonyme of 
Twasl^ji, here styled an Asura. The offispring of T\oa$hAri ib 
Vritra ; and the agency of Apni and Soma in his death is ex- 
plained by identifying them with the two vital airs, PrdAa and 
Apdna, the separation of which from Vritra was the approximate 
caase of his deaths 

By the destmction of Vfitra, the enveloping cload« or 
gathered darkness, the son was enabled to appear in the sky. 


5. You two, Agni and Soma, acting together, 
have snstained these constellations in the sky ; you 
have liberated the rivers that had been defiled from 
the notorious imputation.^ 

6. AoNi and Soma, the wind brought one of you 
from heayen, a hawk carried off the other by force 
from the summit of the mountain ;^ growing yafit 
by praise, you have made the world wide for (the 
performance of) sacrifice. 

7. Agni and Soma, partake of the proffered vargaxxix. 
oblation ; be gracious to us ; showerers (of desires), 

be pleased ; prosperous and diligent protectors, be 
propitious, and grant to the sacrificer health and 
exemption from ill. 

8. Agni and Soma, protect his sacrifice and 
defend him from ill, who, with a mind devoted to 

* The imputation* or charge, of Brahmaoicide, was incurred 
hj Indra, it is said, in killing Vfitra, who was a Brahman, bat 
which goilt he transferred to rivers, women, and trees. This looks 
rather like a PaurdUUk legend. One of a more Vaidik character 
is also given ; the rivers were defiled by the dead body of 
Vjritra, which had fallen into them ; their waters were conse- 
quently unfit to bear any part in sacred rites until they were 
purified by Agni and Soma, that is, by oblations to fire> and liba- 
tions of Soma juice. 

The legend relates that V(fyu brought Agni from heaven at the 
desire of Bhrigu, when performing a sacrifice ; Soma was brought 
from Swarga, on the top of Mount Meru, by GdyatH, in the 
shape of a hawk ; these are clearly all^;orical allusions to tho 
early u^ of fire ^d the Soma plaat in religious ceremonies* 


242 RIO-VEDA aANHirA. 

the gods, worships you with clarified butter and 
oblations : grant to the man engaged (in deYOtion) 
extreme felicity^ 

9. AoNi and Soma, endowed with the like wealth, 
and invoked by a common invocation, share our 
praises, for you have (ever) been the chief of the 

XO. Aqni and Soma, give ample (reconlpense) 
to him who presents to you both this clarified 

11. Agni and Soma, be pleased with these our 
oblations, and come to us together. 

12, Agni and Soma, cherish our horses, and may 
our cows, affording (milk that yields butter for) 
oblations, be well nourished; give to us, who are 
affluent, strength (to perform) religious rites, and 
make our sacrifice productive of wealth. 

anuvAka XV. 

StjKTA I. (XCIV.) 

The ftishi is Kutsa, the son of Angiras; the deity is Aqni, 
associated in three parts of the eighth stanza with the gods 
in general, and in the half of the last with different divinities. 
The metre of the two last stanzas is TM^hfuhh, of the rest, 

Vuiga XXX. 1. To him who is worthy of praise, and all-* 

The term is simply Devatrd, explained deveshu praiasUdk. 
Another text is quoted, which states that A^i and Soma are 
they who are the two kings of the gods {Rdjdnau vd eiam devd^ 
ndm yad agmshotnau,) 


knowing, we construct, with our minds, this hymn, 
as (a workman makes) a car : happy is our under* 
standing when engaged in his adoration : let us not 
suffer injury, Agni, through thy friendship.* 

2« He, for whom thou sacrifieest, accomplishes 
(his objects), abides free from aggression, and en- 
joys (wealth, the source of) strength ; he prospers, 
and poTerty neyer approaches him : let us not suffer 
injury, Agni, through thy friendship. 

8. May we be able to kindle thee : perfect the 
rite, for through thee the gods partake of the 
offered oblations: bring hither the Adityas,^ for 
we love them: let us not suffer injury, Agni, 
through thy friendship. 

4. We bring fuel, we offer oblations, reminding 
thee of the successive seasons (of worship) ; do 
thou thoroughly complete the rite, in order to 
prolong our lives : let us not suffer injury, Agni, 
through thy friendship. 

5. His genial (flames), the preservers of man- 
kind, spread around, and both bipeds and quadru- 
peds are enlivened by his rays ; shining with various 
lustre, and illuminating (the world by night), thou 
art superior to the dawn : let us not, Agni, suffer 
injury through thy friendship. 

' This last daQse is the burden of all the stanzas except the 

condnding two : Sakhye md riahdmd vayam tax>a, — ^May we not 

be ioinred in or by thy frienddup; that is* according to the 

Schdiast, Do thoa preserve ns. 

Hie sons of Aditi, that is, all the gods. 

R 2 


Yargaxxxi. 6. Thou art the sacrificing or the invoking priest, 
thou art the principal (presenter of the offering), 
the director (of the ceremonies), their performer, 
or by birth the family priest;* thus conversant 
with all the priestly functions, thou performest 
perfectly the rite: let us not, Aoni, suffer injury 
through thy friendship. 

7/ Thou art of graceful form, and alike on every 
side, and, although remote, shinest as if nigh : thou 
seest, divine Aoni, beyond the darkness of night : 
let us not, Agni, suffer injury through thy friendship. 

8. Gods,^ let the chariot of the offerer of the 
libation be foremost ; ° let our denunciations over- 
whelm the wicked : understand and fulfil my words : 
let us not suffer injury, Agni, through thy friendship. 

9. Overcome with your fatal (weapons) the 
wicked and the impious, all who are enemies, 

^ Agni is here identified with the chief of the sizteea' priests 
engaged at solemn sacrifices. He is the 'Adhweayu, nsnally 
called the reciter of the Yqfush, here defined hy the Scholiast 
as the presenter of the ofiTerings ; he is the Hotri, or invoking 
priest ; he is the Prasdatri, or the MaUrdvaru^, whose duty it 
is to direct the other priests what to do and when to perform 
their fonctions; he is the Potri, or priest so termed, and the 
&mily or hereditary PurohUa ; or PurohUa may be the same as 
the Brahmd of a ceremony, being to men what Bfihaspati is to 
the gods. 

Devd, All the gods are here considered to be bnt portioiis 
or members of Agm» 

^ Pdrva, before; the Scholiast explains this by tmMym^ 
principal ; otherwise, it might be thought that we had here aa 
allusion to chariot-races. 


whether distant or near, and then proyide an easy 
(path) for the sacrificer who praises thee : let us 
not, Agni, suffer injury through thy friendship. 

10. When thou hast yoked the bright red horses, 
swift as the wind, to thy car, thy roar is like that 
of a bull, and thou enwrappest the forest trees with 
a banner of smoke : let us not, AoNi, suffer injury 
through thy friendship. 

11. At thy roaring, even the birds are terrified: Vargaxxxii. 
when thy flames, consuming the grass, have spread 

in all directions, (the wood) is easy of access to 
thee and to thy chariots : let us not, Agni, suffer 
injury through thy friendship. 

12. May this, (thy adorer), enjoy the support of 
MiTBA and of VaeuAa: wonderful is the fury of 
the Maruts : (dwellers in the region) below (the 
heavens),* encourage us. and may their minds again 
(be gracious) to us : let us not suffer injury, Agnt^ 
through thy friendship. 

13. Thou, brilliant (Agni), art the especial friend 
of the gods ; thou, who art graceful in the sacrifice, 
art the confirmer of all riches : may we be present 
in thy most spacious chamber of sacrifice : let us 
not, Agni, suffer injury through thy friendship. 

14. Pleasant is it to thee when thou art lighted 
in thine own abode, and, propitiated by libations, 
art praised (by the priests) : then, much delighted, 
thou givest rewards and riches to the worshipper : 
let us not, Agni, suffer injury through thy friendship. 

Below Swarga loka, or in the AniaHkaha, or firmament. 


15. (Fortunate is the woFBhipper) to whom, 
(assidnous) in all pious works, 'thou, possessor of 
riches, indivisible Agni, grantest exemption from 
sin, whom thou associatest with auspicious strength, 
may he be (enriched) by thee with wealth that 
comprehends progeny. 

16. Do thou, divine Agni, who knowest what is 
good fortune, on this occasion prolong our existence^ 
and may Mftba, Vabu^a, Aorri, — ^ocean, earth, 
and heaven, preserve it to us.^ 


ANUVAKA XV. (contiDued). 

SrfKTA II. (XCV.) 

Hie deity is Agni, having the attributes of the dawn, or the 
AoNi entitled to a share of the morning oblation, or the pore 
or simple Aoni. The ^wAt is Kutsa, the metre, TrishMh, 

varga I. 1. Two periods, of different complexions,'* revolve 

This verse terminates the following hymns, with one ez.> 
oeption, as far as the hundred and first Sttkta. MUrm^ VcnAti, 
and AdUi have been before noticed. By Smdhti, is to be under* 
stood the divinity presiding over, or identified with, flowing 
water; and it may mean either the sea, or flowing streama 
collectively, or the river Indus. PfithM and Dyu are the per- 
sonified earth and heaven. These are requested to hommr, 
meaning to preserve or perpetuate, whatever blessing has been 
asked for (fait mdmakemtam) ; from maha, to venerate or worahip ; 
tad, that, refers here to jfyus, or life. 

Virtlpe, of various nature, or, here, complexions ; black and 


for their own purposes, and each in succession 
seyerally nourishes a son ; in one, Haei is the re- 
ceiver of oblations, in the other, the brilliant Agni 
is beheld. 

2. The Tigilant and youthful Ten begets through 
the wind, this embryo Agni,*^ inherent (in all be- 

white« or night and day. Day is said to be the mother of fire, 
which is then, as it were, in an embryo state, and is not fully 
manifested or bom until it is dark : so the sun is in the womb 
of night, and is bom, or shines, in the morning ; Hart, or the 
sun, being manifested in the morning, is then to be worshipped ; 
Agni, shining at night, is to be worshipped in the evening, — 
tasmd agnaye sdyam huyate SUtyaya prdtar, which is rather at 
yariance with the preliminary statement, that the Agni of the 
hymn is the one entitled to a share of the morning oblation 
(Ushan havirbhdgyo agmrasti sa devoid) ; therefore, it is said, 
the Agni is that endowed with the properties of dawn ; or it 
may be the simple, discrete Agni (aushoiogtUknniishfo Agni, 
tuddho Agnir vd). We must therefore consider Agni to be 
treated as identical with Hari, or' the sun, as well as referred to 
in his own personification. 

^ This stanza is somewhat difibrently interpreted. The Ten 
are said by the Scholiast to be, in one acceptation, the ten regions 
of space, which generate the electrical fire, or lightning, as an 
enibryo in the clouds, through the agency of the winds; as 
in the text, ''wind is the cause of fire, fire of wind" (Agner 
M vdgt^ kdraHam, vdyor agnih). The term in the text for 
wind, or its agency, is twasMuh, which is here said to mean 
'brilliant,' — ^from "the brilliant central proximity of wind" 
{d^tdmnadhyamdd vdgoh sakdidi), Rosen connects ttoashhh 
with garbkam, and renders them /ulminaioris parentem. He also 
foUows the explanation of the Ten, which applies it to the ten 


ings),^ sharp-visaged, universally renowned, shiniDg 
among men ; him they conduct (to every dwelling). 

3. Tbej contemplate three places of his birth; 
one in the ocean, one in the heaven, one in the 
firmament; and, dividing the seasons of the year 
for the benefit of earthly creatures, he formed, in 
regular succession, the eastern quarter*^ 

4. Which of you discerns the hidden" Agni? 
a son, he begets his mothers by oblations;^ the 
germ of many (waters), he issues from the ocean ;^ 
mighty and wise, the recipient of oblations. 

fingers, wHo generate Agni through the act of attrition as an 
embryo in the sticks. Sdytda gives both interpretations. 

Vibhfitram, deposited in all creatores; that is, in the 
capacity of the digestive fiacnlty, which is referred to the action 
of natural heat. 

As sabmarine fire, Agni is bom in the ocean ; as fhe son, 
in heaven ; and as lightning, in the firmament. In his character 
of the sun, he may be said to be the distributor of time and 
space ; regulating the seasons, and indicating the points of the 

Latent heat ; the natural heat extant in the waters, in the 
woods, and in all fixed and moveable things, although not per- 
ceptible to sense. 

Agni, in the form of lightmng, may be considered as the 
son of the waters collected in the clouds, and those waters he 
is said to generate by the oblations which he conveys ; as in the 
Smriti, it is said, — "Oblations ofi«red in fire ascend to the sun ; 
rain is produced from the sun, com from rain, and thence spring 

Agni is thought to rise in the morning in the ahape of the 
sun from out of the ocean, — vpasthdt {smnudrdt) mrgachehkM. 


5. Appearing amongst them (the waters), the 
bright-shining (Agni) increases, rising above the 
flanks of the waving waters,^ spreading his own 
renown: both (heaven and earth) are alarmed, as 
the radiant AoNi is born, and, approaching the 
lion,^ they pay him honour. 

6. Both the anspicious ones® (day and night) Vargaii. 
wait npon him like two female attendants, as 
lowing kine (follow their calves) by the paths (that 

they have gone); he has been the lord of might 
among the mighty, whom (the priests) on the right 
(of the altar) anoint. 

7. Like the sun, he stretches forth his arms, and 
the formidable AoNi, decorating both heaven and 
earth (with brightness), labours (in his duties) ; he 
draws up from everything the essential (moisture),* 
and clothes (the earth) with new vestments (de- 
rived) from his maternal (rains). 

8. Associated in the firmament with the moving 
waters, he assumes an excellent and lustrous form, 
and the wise sustainer (of all things) sweeps over 

* Above, on the aide, or tip, of the crooked waters,— ;/t^jfM6K6fi 
ii^dm upasthe. AgM here is the lightning, which appears on the 
skirts of the unevenly-disposed, or undulating rain flailing from 
the cloods. 

Sinha, the Scholiast considers as applicable to Agm, to 

imply his ability to suffer or be overcome, — saJuma hkan, abhi' 
bhav(mai{lam : there does not seem to be any objection to the 
metaphorical use of the literal meaning of the word, — ^"a lion/ 

Both, may also intimate heaven and earth, or the two pieces 
of wood rubbed together to produce flame. 


the source^ (of the rains with his radiance), whence 
a concentration of light is spread abroad bj tbe 
sportive deity. 

9. The vast and victorious radiance of tiiee, the 
mighty one, pervades the firmament: Agni, who 
hast been kindled by us, preserve us with all thy 
undiminished and protecting glories. 

10. He causes the waters to flow in a torrent 
through the sky, and with those pure waves he in- 
undates the earth ; he gathers all (articles of) food 
in the stomach, and for that purpose sojourns in 
the new-sprung parents* (of the grain). 

11. AoNi, who art the purifier, growing with 
the fuel we have supplied, blaze for the sake of 
(securing) food to us, who are possessed of wealth ; 
and may Mitra, VaruAa, Aditi, — ocean, earth, 
and heaven, preserve it to us. 


The ftishi and metre are as before; the deity is Agni, but 
either in his general character, or as Draviiodd, 

Vargaiii. 1. Engendered by force, Agni verily appro- 
priates, as soon as born, the offerings of the sages : 

* Budhna is the term in this and in the next verse for the 
antariksha, or firmament, as the root, or source of the ndns. 

The text has merely navaau pnudshu, — ^in the new parents, or 
mothers ; that is, in the OshadkU, the annuals, or the oerealia, 
which ripen after the rains, and hear food, bdng impregnated 
hy the terrestrial Agni, 


the waters and voice make him their friend/ and the 
gods retain him as the giver of (sacrificial) wealth.^ 

2. (Propitiated) by the primitive laudatory hymn 
of Ayu, he created the progeny of the Manus,* 
and pervades, with his all-investing splendour, the 
heavens and the firmament : the gods retain Agni 
as the giver of (sacrificial) wealth. 

3. Approaching him, let all men adore Agni, 
the chiefs (of the gods), the accomplisher of sacri- 
fices, who is gratified by oblations and propitiated 
by praises, — ^the o&pring of food, the sustainer of 
(all men), the giver of continual gifts : the gods 
retain Agmi as the giver of (sacrificial) wealth. 

4. May Agni, the dweller in the firmament^ ike 
noarisher with abundant benefits, the bestower of 
Swarga^ the protector of mankind, the progenitor of 
heaven and earth, instruct my sons in the right 
way : the gods retain Agni as the giver of (sacri- 
ficial) wealth. 

The A^ alluded to is the ethereal or electric fire, ootnbmed 
at its prodactioD with rain and with sound. 

As the conveyer of oUations, the term is Draoiiodd^ ih» 
giver of wealth ; hut the wealth is that of sacrifice, or abundance 
of clarified batter. 

Ayu is said by the Scholiast to be another name of Manu : 
what is intended by the progeny of the Manus is not very obvions, 
bat it appears to intend simply mankind; the Scholiast says, 
being hymned by Mami, he created all the ofispring of Mmiu 
(Mammd atutah son mdnao(h sarvdh prqfdh ajana^at). 

The term is /Tro/Aoma,— the first, which the commentator 
interprets by mukhya, chief. 

252 siiG-y£DA SANHrrA. 

5. The night and the daj^ mutually efl&cing each 
other's complexion, give nourishment, combined 
together, to one infisint,^ who, radiant, shines between 
earth and heaven: the gods retain Agni as the 
' giver of sacrificial wealth. 
Varga IV. 6. The sourco of opulence, the bestower of riches, 
the director of the sacrifice, the accomplisher of the 
desires (of the man) who has recourse to him ; him, 
the gods, preserving their immortalitj, retain as the 
giver of (sacrificial) wealth. 

7. The gods retain Aqni as the giver of (sacri- 
ficial) wealth, who now is, and heretofore has been» 
the abode of riches, the receptacle of all that has 
been, and all that will be, bom, and the preserver 
of all (that) exists, (as well as of all) that are coming 
into existence. 

8. May Dravi^^odA grant us (a portion) of move- 
able wealth ; may Dravi^oda grant us (a portion) 
of that which is stationary ; may Dbavi^odA give 
us food attended by progeny ; may DraviAodA be- 
stow upon us long life. 

9. Thus, AoNi, who art the purifier, growlag 
with the fuel (we have supplied), blaze for the sake 
of securing food to us, who are possessed of wealth, 
and may Mitra, VaruAa, Aditi,— ocean, earth, 
heaven, preserve it to us. 

Agni, whom they nourish with the ohlations offered during^ 
their continaance. 


StJma IV. (xcvn.) 

The Jltishi is the same, the deity Aoni, as pore fire, or that of 
which purity ia the attribute ; the metre is GdyaH. 

1. May our sin, Agni, be repented of;* manifest VaipiV. 
riches to ns ; may our sin be repented of. 

2. We worship thee for pleasant fields, for good 
roads, and for riches : may our sin be repented of. 

8. (In like manner as among these thy worship- 
pers Kutsa) is the pre-eminent panegyrist, so are 
our encomiasts (of thee) the most distinguished: 
may our sin be repented of. 

4. Inasmuch as thy worshippers (are blesssed with 
descendants), so may we, (by repeating thy praise), 
obtain posterity : ^ may our sin be repented of. 

5. Since the yictorious flames of Aoni penetrate 
universally, may our sin be repented of. 

^ Agham apa nah ioihudat; from inch, to sorrow, in the inten- 
aitive form, and the Vcddik imperatiTe, or lit, with t^a prefixed, 
although locaUy detached.^ The commentator proposes two 
interpretations : "Let our sin pass away from us, and light upon 
our adversaries;" or, "Let our sm, affected by grief, perish." 
Rosen renders it> nostrum eripietur scebts. 

PrqjdyemoM vayam; from /on, to be bom, — ^May we be bom 
snccessiTely in the persons of our posterity. Rosen has, vincamna 
tuo ausiiio ; but this is evidently an oversight, from confounding 
the radical with jujaye, conquering. M. Langlois follows his 
rendering, with some additions, — Agni, si ces chefs de famUie, 
si nous^rnhmes, nous nous aoanqons avec respect, pmsshns turns 
obtenxr la vtctaire* 


6. Thou, whose countenaDce is turned to all sides, 
art our defender : may our sin be repented of. 

7. 'Do thou, whose countenance is turned to all 
sides, send off our adversaries, as if in a ship, (to 
the opposite shore) : may our sin be repented of. 

8. Do thou convey us in a ship across the sea, 
for our welfare : may our sin be repented of. 

StJKTA V. (XCVm.) 

ftfAt as before ; the deity is either Vau^w^nara, or the pure 
{Suddha) Agni ; the metre is 'Mshfuhh. 

VatgaVi. 1. May we continue in the favour of VaiiSwa- 
NARA,^ for verily he is the august sovereign of all 
beings : as soon as generated from this (wood), he 
surveys the universe; he accompanies the rising 

2. AONI, who is present^ in the sky, and present 
upon earth, and who, present, has pervaded all 
herbs : may the Agni VaiSwAnaea, who is present 

VaihDdnara implies either he who rales over all (t;^imi) men 
(flora), or who condacts them (nara) to another region ; either 
to heaven through oblations, or possibly to future life throagh 
tiie funeral fire. 

Either as the combined heat with solar radiance, ar> it » 
said, that, at the rising of the sun, in proportion as the solar rays 
descend to earth, so the rays of the terrestriid fire ascend, and 
mix with them. 

Vrishfd, explained by »anSprUhfa, in contact with, or nikHa, 
placed* or present hi the sky, — Agm is in contact with, or present, 
hi the sun ; on eaith, in sacred and domestic fire, and in herbs, 
or annuals, as the cause of their coming to maturity. 


in vigour, guard us night and day against our 

3. YAi^wJlNAnA, may this (thy adoration be 
attended) by real (fruit); may precious treasures 
wait upon us,*" and may Mitra, VabuAa, Aditi»«— 
ocean, earth, and heaven, preserve them to us. 


The ftishi is KaItapa, the son of MAufcHi, and the hymn, 
consisting of a single stanza, in the Trishfubh metre, is addressed 
to Agni as JItaybdas. 

1. We offer oblations of Soma toJATAVEDAs; Vai^gavii. 
may he consume the wealth of those who feel 
enmity against us; may he transport us over all 
difficulties : may Agni convey us, as in a boat over a 
river, across all wickedness. 

SiJkta VII. (C.) 

The deity is Indba, the ftishis are the VXrshXoiras, or five sons of 
VrishIgib, a Rdfd, who were Rdjarshis, or regal sages, seve- 
rally named in the seventeenth stanza. Hie metre is IViskhbh, 

1. May he who is the showerer of desires, who VaipiViii. 

Rosen has, /ac mm opulentos ; but the maghdvdndh of the text 
cannot be the aocnsatiye plural* which would be either Maghth 
vatah, or Maghonah : it is the adjectiTe of the word immediately 
preceding, rdydh, riches, here said to mean wealth in family, or 
sons, grandsons, &c. 

There is nothing remarkable in this Sftta, except its brsvity, 
conskqtitkg of a single stanca.* 

f We have no mention tsi Vrishdglr and his sons in the 

256 RichVEDA sanhitA. 

is co-dweller with (all) energies, the supreme ruler 
over the vast heaven and earth, the sender of water, 
and to he invoked in battles; may Indra, asso- 
ciated with the Mabuts, be our protection. 

2. May he whose course, like that of the sun, 
is not to be overtaken, who in every battle is the 
slayer of his foes, the witherer (of opponents), who, 
with his swift-moving friends (the winds), is the 
most bountiful (of givers) ; may Indba, associated 
with the Maruts, be our protection. 

3. May he, whose rays, powerful and unnattain- 
able, issue forth like those of the sun, milking (the 
clouds) ; he who is victorious over his adversaries, 
triumphant by his manly energies ; may Indra, 
associated with the Maruts, be our protection. 

4. He is the swiftest among the swift,^ most 
bountifid amongst the bountiful, a friend vnth 
friends, venerable among those who claim venera- 
tion, and pre-eminent among those deserving of 
praise : may Indra, associated with the Maruts, be 
our protection* 

5. Mighty with the Rudras, as if with his sons, 
victorious in battle over his enemies, and sending 
down vnth his co-dwellers (the waters which are 
productive of) food: Indra, associated with the 
Maruts, be our protection. 

Angirobhirmgiragta$M, — the most Angina of Anghrasos^ 
which might be thought to refer to the JS^ibMs so named ; but 
tfie commeatator deiivea it from anga, to go« and explains Jimgi^ 
raaah hyyatUdrah, goers; those who go swiftly. 


6. May he» the represser of (hostile) wrath, the Vai^ga ix. 
author of war, the protector of the good, the in- 
voked of manj, share with our people on this day 

the (light of the) sun :^ may Indba, associated with 
the M ABUTS, be our protection. 

7. Him, his allies, the Mabuts, animate in battle ; 
him, men regard as the preserver of their property ; 
be alone presides over every act of worship : may 
Indba, associated with the Mabuts, be our protec- 

8. To him, a leader (tx> victory), his worshippers 
apply in contests of strength for protection and for 
wealth, as he grants them the light (of conquest) 
in the bewildering darkness (of battle) : ^ may 
Indba, associated with the Mabuts, be our pro- 

9. With his left hand he restrains the malignant, 
with his right he receives the (sacrificial) offerings ; 
he is the giver of riches, (when propitiated) by one 
who celebrates his praise : may Indba, associated 
with the Mabuts, be our protection. 

10. He, along with his attendants, is a bene- 

The Vdrshagtroi are Bopposed to address this prayer to 
Intb^, that they might have daylight, m which to attack &eir 
enemies, and to recover the cattle that had heen carried away 
by ihem; or, tiiat the light may he withheld from their op- 

The expression jyotUh, light, and chU'tamasi, in the dark- 
ness of thoQght, may also he applied more literally, and express 
the hope that Indra will give the light of knowledge to darkness 

of uiderstanding. 


258 i^iGhVEDA sanhttI. 

factor ; he is quickly recognized by all men to-day* 
through his chariots; by his manly ener^es he is 
victor over unruly (adversaries) : may Indra, asso- 
ciated with the Maruts, be our protection. 
VaiigaX. 11. Invoked by many, he goes to battle with his 

kinsmen, or with (followers) not of his kindred; 
he secures the (triumph) of those who trust in him^ 
and of their sons and grandsons : may Indra, asso- 
ciated with the Maruts, be our protection* 

12. He is the wielder of the thunderbolt, the 
slayer of robbers, fearful and fierce, knowing many 
things, much eulogized, and mighty, and, like the 
Soma juice, inspiring the five classes of beings with 
vigour: may Indra, associated with the Maruts, 
be our protection. 

13. His thunderbolt draws cries (from his ene- 
mies), he is the sender of good waters, brilliant as 
(the luminary) of heaven, the thunderer, the pro- 
moter of beneficent acts, upon him do donations 
and riches attend : may Indra, associated with the 
Maruts, be our protection. 

14. May he, of whom the excellent measure (of 
all things), through strength,* eternally and every- 
where cherishes heaven and earthy propitiated by 
our acts, convey us beyond (evil): may Indba, 
associated with the Maruts, be our protection. 

15. Nor gods, nor men, nor waters, have reached 

SmHttd-'mdnam, the distribator of all things, through his 
power ; or it may mean that he is the prototype of everything 
endued with yigoar. 


the liinit of the strength of that beneficent (divi- 
nitj)/ for he sarpasses both earth and heaven by 
his foe-consuming (might) : may Indba, associated 
with the Mabuts, be our protection. 

16. The red and black coursers, long-limbed, Vargaxi. 
well-caparisoned, and celestial, and harnessed, well- 
pleased, to the yoke of the chariot in which the 
showerer of benefits is conveyed, for the enrichment 

of RiJBASwA,and is recognized amongst human hosts.^ 

17. Ikdba, showerer (of benefits), the VAbshA- 
GIRAS, RubAiSwa and his companions, Ambabisha^ 
Sahadeya, BhatamJIna, and SubJLdhas, address 
to thee this propitiatory praise. 

18. Indba, who is invoked by many, attended 
by the moving (Mabcts), having attacked the 
Ikisyus and the S'imyttSf^ slew them with his 
thunderbolt ; the tfaunderer then divided the fields 
with his white-complexioned friends,^ and rescued 
the sun and set free the water. 

* The text hns, na yasya devd devoid; the latter ib flaid to 
be put for devasya, a Vaidik license* and is explained, '^ endowed 
with the prc^ierties of giving, &o." (ddndd^ gu^'yuktatya). 

NdlmtMtkn tnkshu : nahtuha is explained by ' man ;' whence 
the derivative wiU mean, manly, or human ; vii also imports, 
* man ;' whence Rosen renders the jdlirase, inier humanas gentes. 
The Scholiast interprets vUtthn by aendUkshoMsu pnydsu, — 
people designated as an army. 

The commentary explains these, enemies' and Rdkshasaa, 

but they more probably designate races not yet sabjected by 

the Vaidik Hmdns, or Arians. 

^ Sakhibhik hpiimy^kih. These, according to the Scholiast, 

S 2 

260 l^IG-VEDA sanhitA. 

19. May Indra be daily our vindicator, and may 
we, with undiverted course, enjoy (abundant) food ; 
and may MmtA, VaruAa, Aditi,— ocean, earth, 
and heaven, preserve it to us. 


The ftiahi is Kutsa, the son of Angiras ; the deily, Indbla ; the 
metre of the first seven stanzas is JagaK, of the last four, 

Vargaxii. 1. Offer adoration with oblations to him who 
is delighted (with praise), who, with RuiS wan, de- 
stroyed the pregnant wives of KrishAa:' desirous 
of protection, we invoke, to become our friend, 
him, who is the showerer (of benefits), who holds 
the thunderbolt in his right hand, attended by the 

2. We invoke to be our friend, Indra, who is 
attended by the Maruts ; he who, with increasing 
wrath, slew the mutilated Vi^litra, and S'ambara, 

are the winds, or Maruts; bat why they should have a share of 
the enemy's country {htriSMm hhdniim), seems doubtfbl. Alia- 
sion is more probably intended to earthly ftiends or worshipperB 
of Indra, who were white (Switnya) in comparison with ^e 
darker tribes of the conqnered country. 

^ ftiJUwan is said to be a king, the friend of Indra ; KrUMm 
to be an Asura, who was slain, together with his wives* that 
none of his posterity might survive. Kfishia, the bladt, may 
be another name for Vfitra, the black cloud ; or we may have 
here another allusion to the dark-complexioned aborigines. 


and the unrighteous Pipbu/ and who extirpated the 
unabsorbable S'ush^a.^ 

3. We invoke to become our friend, Indba» who 
is attended by the Mabuts; whose great power 
(pervades) heaven and earth, in whose sendee 
Vabu^a and Subya are steadfast, and whose com* 
mand the rivers obey. 

4. Who is the lord over all horses and cattle, who 
is independent, who, propitiated by praise, is con- 
stant in every act, and who is the slayer of the 
obstinate abstainer from libations: we invoke to 
become our friend, Indba, attended by the Mabuts. 

5. Who is the lord of all moving and breathing 
creatures, who first recovered the (stolen) kine for 
the Brahmany^ and who slew the humbled Dast/us : 
we invoke to become our friend, Indba, attended 
by the Mabuts. 

6. Who is to be invoked by the brave and by 
the timid, by the vanquished and by victors, and 
whom all beings place before them (in their rites) : 

^ Sambara and Pipru are both termed Asuras; the latter is 
alBO styled avraiam, — ^not performing, or oppoeang vraiaa, or 
religioiiB litee. 

Ahuham SuaMam, the dryer np; who is without being 
dried up, who cannot be absorbed. 

^ Brakma4a, that is, for Angtras or the Angtrasas, who, 
according to the Scholiast, were of the Brahmanical caste. 
Sereral passages concur in stating the cows to have been stolen 
from the Angirasas, and Angiras cannot be identified with 
Brdhmd; the term used, therefore, very probably denotes a 
Brahman ; so Rosen has, Brahmani tribmt vaccas. 

262 9I0-VEDA 8ANHITA. 

we invoke to become our friend, Indba, attended 
bj the Mabuts. 
Yarga XIII. 7* The radiont Indra proceeds (along the firma- 
ment) with the manifestation of the Rudbas:* 
through the Rudras, speech spreads with more 
expansive celerity, and praise glorifies the renowned 
Indra : him, attended by the Makuts, we invoke 
to become onr friend. 

8. Attended by the winds, giver of true wealth, 
whether thou mayest be pleased (to dwell) in a 
stately mansion or in a lowly dwelling, come to oar 
sacrifice : desirous of thy presence, we offer thee 

9. Desirous of thee, Indba, who art possesBed 
of excellent strength, we pour forth to thee liba- 
tions : desirous of thee, who art obtained by prayer, 
we offer thee oblations; therefore, do thou, who 
art possessed of horses, sit down with pleasure upon 
the sacred grass, attended by the MAHirns, at this 

* I^idra IB here said to be radiant through identity with the 
son, and the BMiras to be the eame as tiie MmnU9 in their 
character of vital airs, or PrdM; as it is said in another text, 

When ahining* he riscif having taken the vital airs of aU 
creatures" {sarveshdm hhUdndm frdtnAk dddyodeii); henoe, also* 
the subservience of the Rudrtu to tiie ezpansion ci v<Hce, or 
speech. Another implication of the etymological sense dtJUiir^ 
is here given by Sdytda, deriving it, as elsewhere, from the 
cansal of rui, to weep. When the vital aurs depart from the 
body, they canse the kindred of the deceased to weep ; heace 
they are called BMdrui. 

Fnusrr ASHf aka — seventh adhyaya. 263 

10. Rejoice^ Indra, with the steeds who are of 
thy nature ; open thy jaws, set wide thy throat (to 
drink the Soma juice) ; let thy horses bring thee, 
who hast a handsome chin, (hither), and, benignant 
towards us, be pleased by our oblations. 

11. Protected by that destroyer (of foes), who 
is united in praise with the Makuts, we may re- 
ceive sustenance from Indra; and may Mitra, 
VARuif A, Anrn,— ocean, earth, and heaven, preserve 
it to us. 

St^XTA DC. (CII.) 

The IS^U and ddty as in the last; the metre of the first 
stanzas is JagoH^ of the last, TriahMh. 

1. I address to thee, who art mighty, this ex- vargaxiv. 
eellent hymn, because thy understanding has been 
gratified by my praise : the gods have successively 
delighted that victorious Indra with the power (of 
praise), for the sake of prosperity and wealth. 

2. The seven rivers display his glory; heaven, 
and earth, and sky display his visible form : the sun 
and moon, Indra, perform their revolutions, that 
we may see^ and have faith in what we see. 

8. Maghavan, despatch thy chariot to bring us 
wealth ; that victorious car, which, Indra, who art 
much praised by us in time of war, we rejoice to 
behold in battle : do thou, Maghavan, grant happi- 
ness to those who are devoted to thee. 

4. May we, having thee for our ally, overcome 
our adversaries in every encounter ; defend our 


portion ; render riches easily attained by us ; en- 
feeble, Maohavan, the vigour of our enemies. 

5. Many are the men who call upon thee for thy 
protection : mount thy car to bring wealth to us, 
for thy mind, Indra, is composed, and resolved on 
Varga XV. 6. Thy anus are the winners of cattle, thy wis- 
dom is unbounded, thou art most excellent, the 
grantor of a hundred aids in every rite : the author 
of war, Indba is uncontrolled ; the type of strength; 
wherefore men, who are desirous of wealth, invoke 
him in various ways. 

7. The food, Maghavan, (which is to be given 
by thee) to men, may be more than sufficient for 
a hundred, or for more, even, than a thousand: 
great praise has glorified thee, who art without 
limits whereupon thou destroyest thy enemies. 

8. Strong as a twice-twisted rope, thou art the 
type of strength ; protector of men, that art more 
than able to sustain the three spheres, the three 
luminaries,* and all this world of beings, Inpsa, 
who hast from birth ever been without a rival. 

9. We invoke thee, Indra, the first among the 
gods; thou hast been the victor in battles: may 
Indra put foremost in the battle this our chariot, 
which is efficient, impetuous, and the uprooter (of 
all impediments).^ 

* The three fires ; or the san in heaven, lightning in mid-ab, 
and fire, sacred or domestic, on earth. 

Or the epithets may be applied to ptitra, a son, understood, 


10. Tbou conquerest, and withholdest not the 
booty : in trifling or in serious conflicts, we sharpen 
thee, fierce Maghayan, for our defence ; do thou, 
therefore, inspirit us in our defiances. 

11. May Indba daily be our vindicator, and may 
we, with undiverted course, enjoy abundant food ; 
and may Mftra, Vabu^a, Anrn,— ocean, earth, 
and heaven, preserve it to us. 


The ftisM and deity aa before ; the metre, TrisUubh. 

1. The sages have formerly been possessed of Vargaxvi. 
this thy supreme power, Indra, as if it were present 

with them/ one light of whom shines upon the 
earth, the other in heaven, and both are in com- 
bination with each other,^ as banner (mingles with 
banner) in battle. 

2. He upholds, and has spread out, the earth; 
having struck (the clouds), he has extricated the 

— may Inira give ua (a wm), an offerer of praiaea, aU-wiae, and 
the aobdaer of foea ; and (give na) alao a chariot foremoet in 

* The term is pardchtds, which is rather equivocal. Rosen 
renders the phrase, — Contra ^orum itumicos directo robore tuo ; 
but it rather means the contrary, — ^inverse, averted (pardch^uan, 
parddmukham) ; bat the other sense, proposed by the Scholiast, 
seems preferable, — abhinaMam eva, as if present. 

The son and fire are equally, it is said, the lustre of Indra. 
In the day, fire is combined {sampfichifate) with the sun; in 
the night, the sun is combined with fire. 


waters ; he has slain Ahi, he has pieroed RAum^A, 
he has destroyed, by his prowess, the mutilated 

3. Armed with the thunderbolt, and confident 
in his strength, he has gone on destroying the 
cities of the Dastus. Thunderer, acknowledging 
(the praises of thy worshipper), cast, for his sake, 
thy shaft against the Dasyt^ and augment the 
strength and glory of the Arya^ 

4. Maghavan, possessing a name® that is to be 
glorified, offers to him who celebrates it these (re- 
volving) ages of man :^ the thunderer, the scatterer 
(of his foes), sallying forth to destroy the Dasyw^ 
has obtained a name (renowned for victorions) 

AM and Vfitra have on former oocaaonB been considered aa 
Bynonymes ; here they are distincty bat mean, most probablji 
only differenUy-formed dondB. RauhiAa, termed an Asura, is, in 

aU likelihood, something of the same sort, — a pnrple, or red, dead. 

h — 

We have here the Dasyu and jfryu placed in oppositioD; 
the one as the worshipper, the other as the enemy of the 
worshipper. Ddsih, as the adjectiYe to Purah, dties, is ex* 
plained, of, or bdonging to, the DasyuB. The mention of dtia 
indicates a people not wholly barbaroos, although the term may 
designate villages or hamlets. 

^ Ndma vibhrat. The Schdiast mterprets ndma, strength, 
"that which is tiie bender or prostrator of fees;*' from noma, to 
bow down ; bat it does not seem necessaiy to adopt any other tiian 
the osoal sense. 

Mdmuhemd ys$r(6it,— these mortal yugat ; the Kfiia, TVeta, 
SfC according to the Sdioliast, whidi Indra soccessiydy evdves, 
in the character of the sun. 

FntsT ASHf AKA — SEysNTH adhtJLya. 267 

5. Behold this, the vast and extenfiiTe (might of 
Indra) ; have confidence in his process ; he has 
recoyered the cattle, he has recoyeied the horses, 
the plants, the waters, the woods. 

6. We offer the Soma libation to him who is the Varga xvii. 
performer of many exploits, the best (of the gods), the 
showerer (of benefits), the possessor of true strength, 

the hero who, holding respect for wealth, takes it 
from him who performs no sacrifice, like a foot-pad 
(from a traveller), and proceeds (to give it) to the 

7. Thou didst perform, Indba, a glorious deed, 
when thou didst awaken the sleeping Am with thy 
thunderbolt; th^i the wives (of the gods), the 
Mabuts, and all the gods, imitated thy exultation. 

8. Inasmuch, Indba, as thou hast slain S'usni^Ay 
PiPBU, KuYAVA, and V^itba, and destroyed the 
cities of S'ahbaba, therefore may Mitba, Vabu^a,. 
Ai>rn,— ocean, earth, and heaven, grant us that 
(which we desire). 

SiJkta XI. (CIV.) 
The 9^U, deity, and metre, as before. 

1. The altar has been raised, Indba, for thy VaigaXViiL 
seat; hasten to sit upon it, as a neighing horse 
(hastens to his stable); slackening the reins, and 
letting thy coursers free, who, at the season of 
sacrifice,* bear thee night and day. 

We httre only for the season of sacrifice, prapitwe, for 
prdpte, literaDy, 'arrived/ synonymous in the Nirukta, S, 20, 


2. These persons have come to Ikdba (to solicit) 
his protection ; may he quickly direct them on the 
i/eaj ; may the gods repress the wrath of the de- 
stroyer, and bring to our solemnity the obviator of 

3. (The Asura)," knowing the wealth of others, 
carries it off of himself; present in the water, he 
carries off, of himself, the foam ; the two wives of 
KuYAVA bathe with the water: may they be 
drowned in the depths of the JS^iphd river. 

4. The abiding-place of the vagrant^ (Kuyava) 
was concealed (in the midst) of the water : the hero 
increases with the waters formerly (carried off), 
and is renowned (throughout the world) : the AnjaH 
KtdiH and Vira-piUnV rivers, pleasing him witih 
their substance, sustain him with their waters. 

5. Since the track that leads to the dwelling of 
the Dasyu^ has been seen by us, as a cow knows the 
way to her stall, therefore do thou, Maghavan^ 
(defend us) from his repeated violence ; do not thon 
cast us away as a libertine throws away wealth. 

with adverbs signifying pzx)zimit7, — ^near, nigh, at hand. The 
Scholiast supplies, ydgakdle prdpte, — the time of sacrifioe being^ 

^ Presently named Kuyava; his exploits are obscurely alladed 
to, and the river S^hd is not dsewhere found. 

Ay a is said by the Scholiast to be an appellatiye of Kayaoa; 
from aya, to go,— one going about to do mischief to others. 

Neither of these is found in the PaurdMk lists. 

Of Kuyaoa, according to the commentary ; intendiog* pos- 
sibly, by him, one of the chiefs of the barbarians. 


6. Excite in ns, Indba, yeneration for the sun, ^•'ns^ ^i^- 
for the waters, and for those who are worthy of the 

praise of living heings, as exempt from sin : injure 
not our offspring while yet in the womh, for our 
trust is in thy mighty power. 

7. Hence, Indra, T meditate on thee; on this 
(thy power) has our trust heen placed : showerer 
(of benefits), direct us to great wealth ; consign us 
not, thou who art invoked by many, to a destitute 
dwelling ; give, Indra, food and . drink to the 

8. Harm us not, Indra, abandon us not ; deprive 
us not of the enjoyments that are dear to us ; in- 
jure not, affluent S'akra, our unborn ofispring; 
harm not those who are capable (only of crawling) 
on their knees. 

9. Come into our presence; they have called 
thee, fond of the Soma juice ; it is prepared ; drink 
of it for thine exhilaration : vast of limb, distend 
thy stomach, and, when invoked, hear us, as a father 
(listens to the words of his sons). 

StfKTA XII. (CV.) 

The hymn is addressed to the VUwadevas, byTRiTA, or by 
KuTSA, on his behalf; the metre is Pankti, except in the 
eighth verse, where it is Mahdbrihat{ Yavamadhyd. 

1. The graceful-moving moon* speeds along the Vargaxx. 

Chandramdh suparMi; the latter the Scholiast explains^ 
•MumO'paiana, the well, or elegantly, going; or it may mean, 

270 VO-VEDA sanhitJL 

middle region in the skj : bright golden rajB, (my 
eyes) behold not jonr abiding-place/ Heaven and 
earth, be conscious of this (mj affliction).^ 

2. Those who seek for wealth, obtain it : a wife 
enjoys (the presence of) her husband, and from 
their union progeny is engendered. Heaven land 
earth, be conscious of this (my affliction). 

8. Never, gods, may this (my ancestry), abiding 
above in heaven, be excluded (from it);^ never 
may we be in want (of a son), the cause of joy (to 
his progenitors), entitled to libations of the SofM 
juice. Heaven and earth, be conscious of this (my 

connected with the ray of the sun called tuparia, the oombiDa- 
tion with which gives the moon its light. 

* This refers to the sappoeed position of Trka at the bottom 
eg the weU, which, being coyered oyer, shats out from him all 
visible objects. (See the story of Triia, Hymn lii. note a, p. 141.) 
The text has only, " Heaven and earth, know of this of me " 
(vittttm me asya rodasC) ; that is, according to SdyaAa, either, 
** Be aware of this my affliction," or, " Attend to this my faynm/' 
By fiulnre of posterity, snch as Trita antidpates for himsdf ; 
as by a text quoted : "By a son a man oonqaers the worids: 
there is no world (loka) for one who has no son/* It may be 
observed of this reference, that although the Sdidiast cites the 
Veda, Ui imteh, the passage occurs in the AUareya Brdhauiitu 
It may possibly be found in the text of a hymn, bat it is abo 
possible that SdyaHa includes the BrdhmaAa under the deaignatioD 
8nUt; in which case we must receive his citations generally wilh 
reserve, for the BrdhmakL is not the SruU as qiplicable to the 
original V€AMk text, although it is so regarded by all the native 
interpreters of the Vedag. (See Introduction.) 


4. I implore the first (of the gods),* the object of 
sacrifice, that he will become mj messenger, and 
narrate (mj condition to the other deities). Where, 
Agni, is thy former benevolence, what new being 
now possesses it ? Heaven and earth, be conscious 
of this (my affliction). 

5. Gods, who are present in three worlds, who 
abide in the light of the sun, where now is your 
truth, where your untruth, where the ancient in- 
vocation (that I have addressed) to you ? Heaven 
and earth, be conscious of (my affliction). 

6. Where, deities, is your observance of the Vargaxxi. 
truth^ where the (benignant) regard of Vabu^a, 

where is the path of the mighty Abtaman,^ (so 
that) we may overcome the malevolent ? Heaven 
and earth, be conscious of this (my affliction). 

7. I am he, Gods, who formerly recited (your 
praise) when the libation was poured out, yet 
sorrows assail me, like a wolf (that falls upon) a 
thirsty deer. Heaven and earth, be conscious of 
this (my affliction). 

8. The ribs (of the well close) round me, like 
the rival wives (of one husband); cares consume 
me, S'atakratu, although thy worshipper, as a rat 

According to the Aitareya Brdhma^t agmr-vai devdndm 
ovAmoA; which the Schdiast explains, the jfint-prodaoed of all the 
gods ; as hj another text, a^mr'mMiam prathamo devaidndm, — 
Agm is the moath, the first of the deities. 

Vanii9 is here explained to mean, the obstructor of evil, as 
what is nndesired {oMuUamvdrtM) ; Arywrnatif the restrainer of 
enenues (urUdM miyanid). 

272 i;lig-v£DA sanhitJI. 

(gnawB a weaver's) threads.* Heaven and earth, 
be conscious of this (mj affliction). 

9. Those which are the seven rays (of the sun), 
in them is mj navel expanded ;^ Trita, the son of 
the' waters,^ knows that (it is so), and he praises 
them for his extrication (from the well). Heaven 
and earth, be conscious of this (my affliction). 

10. May the five shedders (of benefits),^ who 

Which, according to the Scholiast, have heen steeped m rice- 
water, to render them more tenacious, and which are therefore 
palatable to rats ; or it may be rendered, "Aa a rat gnaws, or 
licks, its tail, having just dipped it in oil or grease.'' The fractice 
of thickening tiireads with starch we have noticed by 3fov» 
where the law requires that the doth retomed shall be heavier 
than the thread given, on this account (viii. 397). 

It is not very dear what is intended by the term ndbhi. 
Rosen renders it, domidle : Hi qui septem soUa radU nmi, tMUr iUoi 
meitm domcUium coUocatum est; but it is not so ezplamed in 
the commentary, and the ordinary sense of ndbhi is 'navd,' in 
which the Scholiast seems to understand it; identifying the 
sdar rays with the seven vital airs abiding in the ruling spirit 
{teshii gihyaraamiahu adhydtmam sapta^dtktrvpena variamdMeM)\ 
alluding, perhaps, though obscurdy, to the mystic practice fA 
contemplating the umbilicd region as the seat of the aool. 

Afhfa; explained, Apdmpuira, son of the waters; but it 
may be doubted if it can properly bear such an interpretatioD, 
for, as admitted by the Schdiast, such a patronymic from Apn 
would be propeily Jfpya, and the insertion of the t ia an anomaly. 

Hiey are said to be Indra, Vanda, Agtd, Arymmam, and 
Saifitfi; or, according to other texts, fire. Wind, the Son, the 
Moon, and the Lightning ; for these, according to Sdiydymia, are 
all luminous in their respective spheres ; or fire upon earth» wind 


abide in the centre of the expanded heavens, havinjg^ 
together conveyed my prayers quickly to the gods, 
(speedily) return. Heaven and earth, be conscious 
of this (my affliction). 

11. The rays of the sun abide in the surrounding VwgmXxir. 
centre of heaven ; they drive back the wolf crossing 

the great waters from the path.* Heaven and earth* 
be conscious of this (my affliction). 

12. That new praiseworthy and commended 
(vigour)^ is seated in you, ye Gods, (by which) the 
rivers urge on the waters, and the sun diffuses his 
constant (light). Heaven and earth, be conscious of 
this (ipy affliction). 

13. Worthy of praise, Agni, is that thy relation* 
ship (with the gods) ; do thou, who art most wise, 
seated at our (solemnity), worship (the gods), as (at 
the sacrifice of) Manu. 

in the firmament, the sun in heaven, the moon in the planetary 
region, and lightning in the douds. The Taittirfyas sabstitate 
for lightning, the Nakshatraa, or asterisms, shining in the 

Alluding, it is said, to a story of a wdf who was about ta 
swim across a river to devour Trita, but was deterred by the 
brightness of the solar rays« According to Ydika, as quoted by 
Sdyaila, he interprets Vfika, the moon, and Apah the firmament, 
and renders the passage, " The rays of the sun prevent the moon 
from appearing, or being visible, in the firmament." 

Bala, strength, is said by the comentator to be understood ; 

of which ukihifam, praiseworthy, is an epithet. Rosen takes 

ukthfom for the substantive, in its not unusual sense of 'hymn,' 

and translates the text, nova hose cantilena dicata est vohie, Dii. 


274 RIQ-VEDA sanhitJI. 

14. Maj that wise aud liberal Aoni, a sage 
amongst the gods, seated at our rite, as at the sacri- 
fice of Manu, be the invoker of the deities, and 
offer them oblations. Heaven and earth, be con- 
scions of this (my affliction). 

15. Varu^a performs the rite of preservation;* 
we desire him as the guide of our way; (to him, 
the repeater of praise) addresses praise with his 
(whole) heart ; may he who is entitled to laudation 
become our true (support). Heaven and earth, be 
conscious of this (my affliction). 

Varga XXIII. 16. The sun, who is avowedly made the path in 

heaven,^ is not to be disregarded, Gods, by you ;• 
but you, mortals, regard him not. Heaven and 
earth, be conscious of this (my affliction). 

17. Tbita, fallen into the well, invokes the Gods 
for succour ; B^ihaspati, who liberates many from 
sin, heard (the supplication). Heaven and earth, 
be conscious of this (my affliction). 

18. Once, a tawny wolf beheld me faring on my 

* Brakma kfiAoH VaruHa. The first is here ezplaiaed ro^- 
9Aa(Ua^akarma, the act which Ib of the nature of preaerving. 

AtoH yah panthd ddUyo 4iv% pravdehyam kjitah. One mean- 
tng of panthd is giyen as an epithet of AatyOt the son, as 
mUatagdud, the ever-gdng ; bat the more usoal aenae is a road, 
a path, and this interpretation ia borne oat by texts which 
repreaent the son as the road to heaven ; as, Siirya-dwdreHa vfr0- 
Jdh praydniit — ^Uiose who are free frt>m soil go by the gste ^ 
the son. 

, ^ For the gods depend for existence indirectly upon the son, 
who regolates the seasons at which sacrifices are offered. 


way, and, having seen me, rushed upon me, (rearing), 
as a carpenter,* whose back aches (with stooping, 
stands erect from his work). 

19. By this recitation may we, becoming pos- 
sessed of Indba, and strong with multiplied progeny, 
overcome our foes in battle ; and may Mitra, Va- 
ruAa, Aorn,— ocean, earth, and heaven, be gracious 
to us in this (request). 


StfKTA I. (CVI.) 

The ftisM is Kutsa, or it may be Trita ; the hymn is addressed 
to all the gods ; the metre is JagaH, except in the last verse, in 
which it is TrUhMh. 

1. We invoke, for our preservation, Indra, Mitra, ^"«* xxrv. 
Varu^^a, Agni, the might of the Maruts, and 

Adhi ; may they, who are bountiful and bestowers 
of dwellings, extricate us from all sin, as a chariot 
from a defile. 

2. Sons of Aditi, come vnth all (your hosts) to 
battle ; be to us the cause of happiness in combats, 

* The meaning of the comparison is not very dear, and is 
only rendered intelligihle hy the additions of the commentary. 
The wolf, like the carpenter, was urddhdbhimukha (standing 
in presence erect). The passage admits of a totally different 
rendering, by interpreting vfika, the moon, and uniting mdsakrii, 
AM imee, into mdM^krit, month-maker. He, the moon, it is 
Mud, having contemplated the constellations going along the 
path of the sky, became united with one of them ; paying, there- 
fore, no attention to 2Vt^« in the well. 

T 2 


and may they, who are bountiful and bestowers of 
dwellings, extricate us from all sin, as a chariot 
from a defile. 

3. May the Pixels,' who are easily to be praised, 
protect us ; and may the two divinities, heaven and 
fiarth, the promoters of sacrifices, and of whom the 
gods are the progeny, protect us; and may they, 
who are bountiful and the givers of dwellings, ex- 
tricate us from sin, as a chariot from a defile. 

4. Exciting him who is the praised of men and 
the giver of food, (to be present) at this rite, we 
solicit (also) with our praises him who is the puri- 
fier and destroyer of heroes ;^ may they, who are 
bountiful and the givers of food, extricate us from 
sin, as a chariot from a defile. 

5. Brihaspati, always confer happiness upon us ; 
we solicit that faculty of both (alleviating pain and 
obviating peril) implanted in thee by Manu :^ may 
they, who are bountiful and the givers of dwell- 
ings, extricate us from all sins, as a chariot from a 

6. KuTSA,^ the Rishi, thrown into a well, has 

* The Agmshwdttas and others. — See Mam, iii. 195. 
In the first clause^ it is said Agni is alladed to ; in the 
second, Pdshan is named; but the term is explained hj the 
Scholiast, poskakam devam, — nutrientem deum, 

^ Sam yor yat te Manurhiiam, — The good, or blessing of 
those two (things, or properties) which ¥ras placed in them hj 
Mamt. The two are explained in the commentary as in the 
translated text. 


Kuisa here identifies himself apparently with TVita, 


invoked to his Buccour, Indra, the slayer of ene- 
mies, the encourager of good works:* maj thej, 
who are bountiful and the givers of dwellings, ex* 
tricate us from all sin, as a chariot from a defile. 

7. May the goddess ADm, with the gods, pro- 
tect us, and maj the radiant guardian, (the sun), 
be vigilant for our protection ; and may they, who 
are bountiful and the givers of dwellings, extricate 
us from all sin, as a chariot from a defile. 

SiJkta II. (CVII.) 

The Jfishi is Kutsa ; the deities, all the gods ; the metre, 


1. May our sacrifice give satisfaction to the gods : Varga xxv. 
Adftyas, be gracious, and may your good intentions 

be directed towards us, so as to be an abundant 
source of affluence to the poor. 

2. May the gods, who are to be lauded by the 
hymns of the Angirasas, come hither for our protec- 
tion; may Indra with his treasures, the Mabuts 
with the vital airs, and Aditi with the Adityas^ 
(come and) give us felicity. 

3. May Indra, may VaruAa, may Agni, may 
Aryaman, may Savit?!, bestow upon us that food 
(which we solicit) ; and may Mitra, VaruAa, ADirl, 
—ocean, earth, and heaven, preserve it (to us). 

SacM'patif which might be rendered, the husband of 
SachC;* but the more nsoal sense of SacM in the Veda is karma^ 
act, or rite ; and it is so rendered in this place by the commen« 

278 «IG-y£DA BANHITA. 

sdKTA m. (cvui.) 

The fiiki is itfll Kutsa, who addresses Imdra and Aoni; the 

metre U TriskMh. 

Varga XXVI. 1. Indra and Aoni, sitting together in your car, 
—that wonderful car which illuminates all beings, 
approach, and drink of the effused Soma juice. 

2. Vast as is the whole universe in expanse, and 
profound in depth, such, Indba and Agni, may this 
Soma be for your beverage, sufficient for your de- 

8. You have made your associated names re- 
nowned, since, slayers of V^ltira, you have been 
allied (for his death); the showerers of benefits, 
Indba and Aoni, are the two seated together (on 
the altar) ; receive (your portion) of the libation. 

4. The fires being kindled, the two (priests stand 
by),^ sprinkling the clarified butter from the ladles, 
which they raise, and spreading the sacred grass 
(upon the altar) ; therefore, Indba and Aoni, come 
before us for our gratification, (attracted) by stimu- 
lating Soma juices sprinkled all around. 

5. Whatever heroic exploits you have achieved, 
whatever forms (you have created), whatever bene- 
fits (you have poured down), whatever ancient and 
fortunate friendships (you have contracted, come 
with them all), and drink of the efiused Soma 

* We have merely in the text the epithets in the dual number; 
the commentator supplies the Adhnowryu and his assistant priest. 


6. Come and witness the sincere feith with Vwgaxxvii, 
which, selecting you two, I first promised (you the 
libation) ; drink of the effused libation, for the Soma 

juice is prepared by the priests. 

7. I^ adorable Indra and Aoni, you have ever 
been delighted (with libations) in your own dwell- 
ing, in that of a Brahman, or in that of a prince,* 
then, showerers of benefits, come hither from 
wherever you may be, and drink of the effused li- 

8. If, Indra and Aoni, you are amongst men 
who are inoffensive, malevolent^ or tyrannical, or 
those who live (to fulfil the duties of life), or those 
who receive the fruits (of good deeds),^ then, 

Yad hrakmM rdjani vd. The first is explained, a Brahman 
who ifl a different institator of a sacrifice {Brdhma^ anyasmin 
yqjamdne) ; the second* by kshatriye, a man of the second, or 
military caste. 

The terms thus rendered, in conformity to the explanations 
of the Scholiast, would seem rather to be intended for proper 
names, the names of tribes or families well known in the PurdiUxs, 
bebg severally, Yadiu, Unarvaiaa, Druhyus, Amu, and Ptirua, 
descendants of the five sons of Yaydti, similarly named. {Mahdbh* 
1, 138.) Here, however, Yadu is explained by oMnsaka, non- 
bjmioQs; Turwiia, by hinadka, injnrioos ; Druhyu, by upadrave" 
chchhu, tyrannical ; Anu, by prdAair ytikta, having breath, or life, 
wherewith to acquire knowledge and perform religious acts; 
and Pttrii, by kdmaih pdrayitauya, to be filled full of the objects 
of desire. The meanings may be supported by the etymology 
of the words, but the interpretation seems to be a needless 

280 KI6-VEDA SANHirA. 

sbowerers of benefits, come hither from wherever 
you may be, aud driuk of the effused libation. 
' 9. Whether, Indra and AoNi, you are in the 
lower, the central, or the upper region of the world, 
showerers of benefits, come hither from wherever 
you may be, and drink of the effused libation. 

10. Whether, Indra and Aoni, you are in the 
upper, central, or lower region of the world, come, 
showerers of benefits, hither from wherever you 
may be, and drink of the effused libation. 

11. Whether, Indba and Aoni, you are in heaven 
or upon earth, in the mountains, in the herbs, or in 
the waters, showerers of benefits, come hither from 
wherever you may be, and drink of the effiised 

12. Although, Indra and Aoni, in the midst of 
the sky, on the rising of the sun, you may be ex- 
hilarated by your own splendour, yet, showerers 
of benefits, come hither from wherever you may be, 
and drink of the effused libation. 

13. Thus, Indra and Aoni, drinking deep of the 
libation, grant to us all (kinds of) wealth ; and may 
MriRA, VaruAa, and ADiTi,-*-70cean, earth, and 
heaven, preserve it to us. 

StfKTA IV. (CIX.) 
^ki, deities, and metre, as in the last. 

Vafgaxxviu. 1. Indra and Aoni, desirous of wealth, I con- 
sider you, in my mind, as kinsmen and relations; 


the clear understandliig you have given me, (is 
given) bj no one else, and, (so gifted), I have com? 
posed this hjmn to you, intimating mj wish for 

2. I have heard, Indra and AoNi, that jou are 
more munificent givers than an unworthy bride-^ 
groom,^ or the brother of a bride ;^ therefore, as 

Vydmdtfi, The prefix vi indicates, according to the Scholiast, 
a son-in-law {jdmdtri) who is not possessed of the qualifications 
reqmred by the Vedas, and who is therefore obliged to conciliate 
his father-in-law by liberal gifts ; which is, in fitct, paying for, 
or baying, his wife ; as in the interpretation of this stanza by 
Ydska, it is said (Nirukta, 6, 9), that the v\fdmdtri is the 
" asusatmi^ta," the nnfiilfilled, or unaccomplished, bridegroom, 
which implies, according to some, that he is the hosband of a 
purchased bride (Mtdpati), This recognition in the Vetb, of 
the act of receiving money from the bridegroom, is at variance 
with the general tenor of the law of marriage as laid down by 
Manu, which condemns the acceptance of anything by the father 
of a maiden, beyond a complimentary present, and censures the 
receipt of money, as equivalent to a sale : " Let no father who 
knows the law receive a gratuity, however small, for giving his 
daughter in marriage, since the man who, through avarice, takes 
a gratuity for that purpose is a seller of his offspring." {Laws of 
Manu, III. 61.) And again : "A bribe, whether large or small, 
is an actual sale of the daughter, although a bull and cow might 
be given at a marriage of saintly persons or fiskis/* {Ibid, 53.) 
We have here, therefore, an indication of a different condition 
of the laws of marriage. 

The Sydla, the brother of the maiden, who makes her gifts 
through affection. Tbe word is derived by Ydaka from sya, a 
winnowing-basket, and Id, for Jd;d, fried grains, which are scat* 
tered at the marriage ceremony by the bride's brother. 


I ofier jon a libation, I address you, Indra and 
AoNi, with a new hymn. 

3. Neyer may we cut off the long line (of pos- 
terity) ; thus soliciting and asking for descendants 
endowed with the vigour of their progenitors, the 
(worshippers), begetting children, praise Ini>ra and 
AoNT for their happiness, and they two, destroyers 
of foes, are nigh (to hear this adoration). 

4. The sacred prayer,' desiring your presence, 
offers to you both, Indra and Agni, for your ex- 
hilaration, the Soma libation: do you two, who 
have horses, handsome arms, and graceful hands 
come quickly and mix (the libation) with sweetness 
in the waters* 

5. I have heard, (when you were present) at the 
division of the treasure (among the worshippers), 
that you two, Indra and Aoni, were most vigorous 
in the destruction of V^itra: beholders of all 
things, seated at this sacrifice upon the sacred grass, 
be exhilarated, (by drinking of the effused libation). 

Vargmxxix. 6. Attending to the summons at the time of 

battle, you surpass all men (in magnitude): yoa 
are vaster than the earth, than the sky, than the 
rivers, than the mountains ; you exceed all other 
existent things. 

7. Bring wealth, thunderers, and give it to us ; 
protect us, Indra and Aoni, by your deeds ; may 
those rays of the sun,'* by which our forefathers 

Dev( dhiahaid, diirme speech ; mantrarupd, in the form of 

By the rays of the sun, in this place, it b 6aid> are intended 


have attained together^ a heavenly region, shine 
also upon us. 

8. Indra and AoNi» wielders of the thunderbolt, 
overtumers of cities, grant us wealth, defend us in 
battles; and maj Mitba, YABui^A, Aditi,— -ocean, 
earth, and heaven, be propitious to this (our 

SrfKTA v.. (CX.) 

This hymn is addressed to the Ribhus ; the ftishi is Kutsa ; the 
fifth and ninth stanzas are in the Tris^ubh, the rest in the 
Jagat{ metre. 

1. Ribhus, the rite formerly celebrated by me Vazga xxx. 
is again repeated, and the melodious hymn is recited 

in your praise ; in this ceremony, the Soma juice is 
sufficient for all the gods ; drink of it to your ut- 
most content when offered on the fire. 

2. When, Ribhus, you who were amongst my an- 
cestors, yet immature (in wisdom), but desirous of 
enjoying (the Soma libations), retired to the forest 


to perform (penance), then, sons of Sudhanwan,'^ 

the radiance of Jndra and Agm, as identical with the snn ; hy 
praising the latter, therefore, Jndra and Agtd are praised also. 

^ Siqniwam is explained, sahaprd^ttQnfmn sikdnam, a place 
to be obtained together ; that is, according to the commentator, 
the world of Brahma, to which the pious proceed by the path of 
light, &c. (archirddimdrgeia Brahmahkam updsakd gachchhantt), 

Sudhanwan, the father of the f^kus, was a descendant of 
Angiraf; so is Kutsa; therefore they are related} although, as Kutsa 
is the son of Angiras, it seems not very consistent to call them 


through the plenitude of jour completed (deyotioiis), 
you came to the (sacrificial) hall of the worshipper 

3. Then Sayit^ bestowed upon jou immortality, 
when you came to him, who is not to be concealedy^ 
and represented (your desire) to partake of the 
libations ; and that ladle for the sacrificial viands 
which the Asura^ had formed single, you made 

4. Associated with the priests, and quickly per- 
forming the holy rites, they, being yet mortals, 
acquired immortality, and the sons of Sudhanwan, 
the RiBHUS, brilliant as the sun, became connected 
with the ceremopies (appropriated to the different 
seasons) of the year. 

5. Lauded by the bystanders, the Ribhus, with 
a sharp weapon, meted out the single sacrificial 
ladle, like a field (measured by a rod), soliciting 
the best (libations), and desiring (to participate of) 
sacrificial food amongst the gods. 

vaiKmXXXi. 6. To the leaders (of the sacrifice),"^ dwelling in 

his kinsmen of a former period (prdnchah, or ptSrva^kdUiui). Rosen 

calls them sapientes ; bat this is an evident inadvertence, as the 

epithet is apdkd^ unripe ; aparipakwajndndh, immatcire in wisdom* 

* In the preceding verse, Savitfi, derived from sd, to offer 

oblations, might mean merely the presenter of o bl ati on s ; but 

here we have evidently the son alluded to. 

' Tumshtfi,' as in a former passage. — See p. 48, n. b, 

^ Nfihhyah; ytynasya netribhyah ; as in the text, ^hhaoo hi 

yajnasya netdrah, — " The Ribhas are the leaders of the sacrifice ;'* 

on which account thej obtained immortality ; or the term may 


the finnament, we present, as with a ladle, the ap* 
pointed clarified butter, and praise with knowledge 
those RiBHUS, who, having equalled the velocity of 
the protector (of the universe, the sun),* ascended 
to the region of heaven, through (the offerings) of 
(sacrificial) food. 

7. The most excellent Ribhu is in strength our 
defender ; Ribhu, through gifts of food and of 
wealth, is our asylum ; may he bestow them upon 
us, Gods, through your protection ; may we, upon 
a favourable occasion, overcome the hosts of those 
who offer no libations. 

8. RiBHUS, you covered the cow with a hide, and 
reunited the mother with the calf:* sons of Sudh- 
ANWAN, leaders (of sacrifice), through your good 
works you rendered your aged parents young.' 

9. Indra, associated with the Ribhus, supply us, 
in the distribution of viands, with food,^ and consent 
to bestow upon us wonderful riches; and may 

be connected with mUarihhasya, which precedes in the text, and 
may mean, as Rosen has it, to the chiefs of the finnament (aeris 

A te3ct of the Veda identifies the ftibhMs with the solar rays 
{AdityaranMttfo apt f^ibhava uchymUe). The JfibhMs are, indeed, 
said to be the rays of the sun. 

A story is related, that a JfUsH, whose cow had died, leavmg 
a calf, prayed to the Jfibkus for assistance, on which, they formed 
a living cow, and covered it with the skin of the dead one, from 
which the calf imagined it to be its own mother. 
^ See p. 47. 
Vdjebkhr no vdjasdtau aviSSki may be also rendered, "protect 
ns in battle with your horses." 

286 ijLia-VEDA sanhttA. 

MiTBA, VaruAa, Adtti, — ocean, earth, and heaven, 
preserre them for ns. 

SiJkta VI. (CXI.) 

The ^isM and deities are the same ; the metre of the fifth verse 


Vargm XXXII. 1. The RiBHUS, possossed of skill in their work, 

constructed (for the AiSwiNs) a well-built car ; they 
framed the vigorous horses bearing Indra ; they 
gave youthful existence to their parents ; they gave 
to the calf its accompanying mother.* 

2. Prepare fully for our sacrifice resplendent* 
sacrificial food, and, for our rite and for our strength, 
8uch nutriment as may be the cause of excellent 
progeny, so that we may live (surrounded) by 
vigorous descendants; such w^th do you confer 
upon us for our benefit. 

8. RiBHus, conductors (of sacrifice), bestow ample 
sustenance upon us, upon our chariots, upon our 
horses ; let every one daily acknowledge our vic- 
torious wealth, and may we triumph in battle over 
our foes, whether strangers or kinsmen. 

4. I invoke the mighty^ Indra for protection. 

See the preceding hymn ; also Hymn zx. p. 45. 

JfibhunuU ; explained^ having indch light ; for according to 
the Nirukta etymology, ftibku means much light, fitx>m mru, 
much, and bhd, to shine. 

JS^ibkukshdiam Indram might be, Indra, who is ftihhiktkim, 
of which fUbkukshidam is the accusative. In the following expres* 
sions, J^ibkiin and v^'drn, plural accuaatiyes, we are to understand^ 


and the Ribhus, Yajas, and Mabuts to drink the 
Soma juice; also both Mitba, Yabu^a, and the 
AiSwiNS, and maj they direct us to opulence, to 
holy rites, and to victory. 

5. May Ribhu supply us with wealth for war ; 
may Yaja, victorious in battle, protect us, and may 
MiTRA, VaeuAa, Aprn,— ocean, earth, and heaven, 
be propitious to this our prayer. 

SiJkta VII. (CXII.) * 

The ft,i8ld is Kutsa ; the first qaarter-stanza is addressed to 
the Earth and Sky, the second to Aoni, the rest of the hymn 
to the AiwiNs. The metre of the twenty-fourth and twenty- 
fifth stanzas is Trkhtuhh, of the rest^ JagaH. 

1. I praise Heaven and Earth for preliminary Vargaxxxiii, 
meditation, (prior to the coming of the AiSwins); 

I praise the hot and bright-shining AoNi upon their 
approach, (as preparatory) to their worship: with 
those appliances with which you sound the conch 
shell in battle for your share (in the booty), with 
those aids,' AiSwins, come willingly hither. 

2. Earnest and exclusive adorers stand, Aswins, 
round your car, (to benefit) by your bounty, as 
(disciples listen) to the words (of a teacher) for 

according to the commentator, the three sons of Sudhtawan, — 
t^hhu, Vibhu, and Vdja. 

UtibMh, instr. plor. of lUi, help, aid, assistance, protection. 
It is rather an awkward term to render into English with the 
sense of plmnlity, although not witiiont precedent. 

288 Ria-VEDA sanhitA. 

instmctioD : with those aids with which jou defend 
the pious who are engaged in acts of worship, come, 
AiSwiNSy willingly hither. 

3. Bj the vigour infused from celestial nectar, 
you are able, leaders (of sacrifice), to rule over those 
beings (who people the three worlds) : with those 
aids by which you gave (milk) to the barren cow/ 
come, AiSwiNS, willingly hither. 

4. With those aids by which the circumambient 
(wind), endowed with the vigour of his son,* the 
measurer of the two worlds (of heaven and earth),* 
and swiftest of the swift, beautifies (all things), and 
by which (Kakshivat) became learned in the three 
kinds of sacrifice ;^ with them come, AiSwiNS, will- 
ingly hither. 

AlladiDg, according to the commentary, to the cow of a 
fiUhi, named 8ayu, to which, although barren, the AMms, at 
his entreaty, gave abundance of milk. 

Agni is said to be the son of V<fyu ; as by the text, Vdyor- 
Agnih, either as generated, in the character of digestive warmth, 
by the vital airs, or as having been excited into flame by the 
wind at the time of creation. 

Dwirndtfi may be applied to the wind, in conjonction with 
Agni, as the respective occupants of the earth and the firmament, 
the former being the region of Agni, the latter of Vdpi ; or it 
may be rendered, as in former instances, the son of two mothers, 
or the two sticks used for attrition, and thence be applicable to 

Or Tfimtmiu, acquainted with the pdka-ytijnas^ or ofierings 
of food ; the hmnr yqfnas, or oblations of darified batter, and the 
Soma yqjntu, or libations of Soma juice. In this sense, lytsupiAi 


5. With those aids by which you raised up from 
the water, Rebha, who had been cast bound (into 
a well), and also Yakdana (similarly circumstanced), 
to behold the sky; by which you protected KaAwa, 
when longing to see the light ;* with them, ASwiNS, 
come willingly hither. 

6. With those aids by which you rescued An- Vargaxxxiv. 
TAEA,^ (when cast into) a deep (pool), and about to 

be destroyed ; by which, inflicting no distress, you 
preserved Bhujyu," and by which you relieved 
Karkandhu and Vayya;* with them,' AiSwins, come 
willingly hither. 

is synonymoas, apparently, with KaksMvat, whose name is sap- 
plied by the Scholiast. 

Rebha and Vandana are said to have been ftishis who were 
cast into wells by the Asuras, According to the NUUmanjaH, 
they brought this upon themselyes, by maintaining a friendly 
intercourse with the Asttraa. Kdiwa is said also to have been 
thrown by them into darkness. In these, and similar instances 
subsequently noticed* we may possibly have allusions to the 
dangers undergone by some of the first teachers of Hinduism 
among the people whom they sought to civilize. 

Antaka is called a Rdfarshi, whom the Asuras threw into a 
pond or a well. 

^ Of Bhujyu, the son of the Rdjd Tugra, we shall hear 
again rather more in detail; the tradition is remarkable. 
Bhttjyu had embarked on a maritime expedition against the 
enemies of his father, but encountered a storm, in which his 
vessel was lost ; he was saved, and brought back to his father 
by the intervention of the A&wins, 

These are sud to be Asuras whom the A&wins extricated 

from misfortunes; but for the latter, see p. 149. 



7. With those aids by which you enriched 
SucHANTi,* and gave him a handsome habitatioo, 
and rendered the scorching heat pleasurable to 
Atri,^ and by which you preserved PiirfNiGU and 
PuBUKUTSA ;^ with them, AiSwiNS^ come willingly 

8. Showerers (of benefits), with those aids by 
which you enabled (the lame) ParAvbu (to walk), 
the blind (RubaiSwa) to see, and (the cripple) S'fiO^A 
to go,^ and by which you set free the quail' when 
seized (by a wolf) ; with those aids, AiSwiNS, come 
willingly hither. 

9. With those aids by which you caused the 
sweet stream to flow, by which you, who are ex- 
empt from decay, gratified VAiSiSHf ha, and by which 

* No aoooont is given of this penon. 
Atri, the patriarch, was thrown, it is said, by ^tAsww 
into a cave with a hundred doom, at all of which fires of chaff 
were kindled : they were extinguished with cold vrater by the 
Aiwint; or, according to Ydska, Atri is here a name of Afpn* 
the eater {atti) of clarified butter, but whose appetite, or in- 
tensity, being checked by the heat of the son in the hot weathefi 
was renovated by the redn sent down by the Aknms^ 

^ We have no particulars of these, except that Priimgu is ao 
named firom his poesessmg brindled cows {prUnayo gdvo yasff^)* 
Pwrdor^ is called a ^hi; so are ftifrdiwa and SroHa. The 
first is named without any epithet in the text; instead of the 
second (see p. 259), we have PrdtMa, the totally Uind, and 
Sroiia is not called a cripple, but is said to have been made to 
walk. The Scholiast supplies the details. 

Varttikd, the commentary calls a bird like a spairow ; the 
ordinary sense is 'quail.' 


you protected Kutsa, S'butarya, and Nabya;* 
with them, ASwiNS, come willingly hither. 

10. With those aids by which you enabled the 
opulent YiiSpalA, when she was unable to move, to 
go to the battle rich in a thousand spoils, and by 
which you protected the devout VaIa, the son of 
AiSwA ;^ with them, AS wins, come willingly hither. 

11. With those aids by which, beauteous donors, v»^8» xxxr, 
the cloud (was made to) shed its sweet (water), for 

the sake of the merchant DibghaiS&avas, the son 
of UiSij, and by which you protected the devout 
KakshIvat;® with them, AiSwins, come willingly 

12. With those aids by which you filled the (dry) 
river-bed with water, by which you drove the 
chariot, without horses, to victory, and by which 
TriiSoka^ recovered his (stolen) cattle ; with them, 
AiSwiNS, come willingly hither. 

VaHiUha is wdl known* bat in what manner he was 
assisted by the Aiwma does not appear; of the three others 
named in the text, it is only said that they were ftiskis. 

Hie story of Vi^KJd is subsequently more fully alluded to ; 
she was the wife of Kkela, the son of Agasiya, Vaia and Aiwa 
are caOed fishis, 

^ Dirgha6ravu8 was the son of DirgJuUama$, and therefore a 
fliMJd ; but, in a time of famine, he followed trade, to obtain a 
livelihood, hence he is termed a VaMk, a merchant ; as the son 
of U^f, he should be the same as Kakskvmt (see p. 42, n. a), but 
the text treats them, apparently, as distinct. 

ThrUoka is called a ftishi, the son of Kahoa, Tlieseholy 
persons were much exposed, apparently, to catde-stealmg. 

u 2 


13. With* those aids by which you encompSwsed 
the sun, when afar off, (to extricate him from 
eclipse); by which you defended MandhAtri in 
(the discharge of) his sovereign functions,* and by 
which you protected the sage BharadwJLja ; * with 
them, AiSwiNS, come willingly hither. 

14. With those aids by which you defended the 
mighty and hospitable DivodAsa, (when, having 
undertaken) the death of S'ambara, he hid himself 
in the water, (through fear of the Asuras)\^ by 
which you protected Trasadastu in war;* with 
them. As WINS, come willingly hither. 

15. With those aids by which you preserved 
Vamba, praised by all around him, when drinking 
(the dews of the earth) ; by which you protected 
Kali when he had taken a wife, and Prithi, when 

* Mdndhdtri is called a fOsU, bat a Rdgarshi, a royal sage, is 
intended, as Mdndhdtri is a celebrated prince of the solar dynastf 
(Vish^ Pur. 363) ; his regal character is also evident from bis 
office (kshttitra-patyeshu) ; the deriyative of kshetrapati, the lord, 
either of fields or of the earth. 

Here we have also a name well known in PaurdfUk tradition. 
iyishAu Purd^, 449, and n. 15.) He is termed in the text, Ttpra, 
usually intending a Brahman, but here explained medhdx>m, wise. 

Dwoddsa is a king well known in the Pmtn&Uk traditions 
(Vishiiu PurdHa, 407), but no notice there occurs of his war with 
the Asura, Sambara, whom we have elsewhere seen destroyed by 
Indra (p. 148), in defence, it is also said (p. 137), of this prince, 
or, as he is there named, Atithigtoa, the cherisher of goests 
{atithi), which is here employed as an epithet. 

The son of Purukutsa, according to the Scholiast, concorriog. 
in this respect, with the Vish^ Purd^, p. 371. 



he bad lost his horse ;' with them^ ASwins, come 
willingly hither. 

16. With those aids, leaders (of sacrifices), which Vargaxxxvi. 
you afforded to S'ayu, to Atei, and formerly to 

Manu, anxious (to show them) the way (to escape 
from evil) ; with those by which you shot arrows 
(upon the foes) of Sy^maeaImi ;^ with them, Ai- 
WINS, willingly come hither. 

17. With those aids by which PA-fHARVAN* shone 
with strength of form in battle, like a blazing fire 
piled up (with fuel) ; by which you defended S'ar- 
yata in war; with them, AiSwins, come willingly 

Vamra is called a fiishi, the son of Vikhanas ; the text calls 
him Vipipdnam, drinking much and Tarioasly, which the Scholiast 
explains, drinking, especially earthly moistare, or dew, pdrihl- 
vam rasam. (See p. 138.) Of Kali no more is said than that he 
was a Jfiishi, nor of Pfithi than that he was a Rdfatshi. 

The second and third names have occarred before, the first is 
called a ^hi : the text has only, " You wished them to go " {gdtum 
tshathuh) ; the Scholiast adds, "oat of evil or danger." Manu is 
here called a RdjarsM, whom the Asunns extricated from want, 
by teaching him the art of sowing the seeds of barley and other 
grains. Sytimarahu is styled a ftishi. 

Paiharvan is merely called a Rdjarshi. Sarydia is probably 
intended for Sarydti, the fourth son of Vaivahtrnta Mamt (Vkh^ 
PurdAa, pp. 354, 358), and the same prince is no doubt meant 
in a former passage (see p. 139) by Sarydia, which may be an 
epithet of yajna, sacrifice, understood, — ^the sacrifice of Sarydii, 
rather than a patronymic, although there rendered as a proper 
jiame, upon the authority of SdyaAa, Of the race of Bhfigu, 
applies also to Chyavana, not to Sarydti. 

294 ^IChVEDA sanhitA. 

18. Angiras, (praise the AiSwins) : A6win8> vith 
those aids by which, with (gratified) minds, you 
delight (in praise), and thence preceded the gods 
to the cayem, to recover the stolen cattle;' by 
which yon sustained the heroic Manu with food; 
with them, AfiwiNS, come willingly hither. 

19. With those aids by which you gave a wife to 
ViMADA,^ by which you recovered the ruddy kine, 
by which you conferred excellent wealth upon Su- 
DA8 ;* with them, ASwins, come willingly hither. 

20. With those aids by which you are bestowers 
of happiness upon the donor (of oblations), by which 
you have protected Bhujtu and Adhbigu, and by 
which you have granted delighting and nourishing 
(food) to RriAsfuBH;' with them, AfiwiNS, come 
willingly hither. 

^ We have here attribated to the Aiunns a nmOar feat as diat 
usually ascribed to Indra. 

Bj making him aware, according to the commentary, of the 
grain hidden in the earth, or teaching him, in fact, agricultore. 

' The Aiwint were the means, it is said, of obtainiDg the 
daughter of Puntmitra as a wife for the fUaki Vimada. 

The name of a king, the son oiP^avana (p. 127) ; both names 
are unknown in the PurdHas, although we have more than oae 
Suidsa; but they are sprung from other princes. {VuMm /V. 
pp. 330 — 455.) A prince named Pinyovoiia, or son aiPvfWMM* 
is noticed by Mamt, 8, 110. 

Bhujyu has been named before (p. 289, n. e). Adkrupi it 
called a sacrificer, or immolator, along with Chdpa, of the gods; 
as by the text,— ^iAr^ Ck^ cha devdndm immidm* 
ftUasMh is called a f^M. 


21. With those aids by which you defended xxxvli 
KbiSanu in battle,^ with which you succoured the 

horse of the young Pueukutsa^ in speed, and by 
which you deliver the pleasant honey to the bees ; 
with them, AiSwins, come willingly hither. 

22. With those aids by which you succoured the 
worohipper contending in war for cattle, by which 
you assist him in the acquisition of houses and 
wealth, by which you preserve his chariots and 
horses ; with them, ASwins^ come willingly hither. 

23. With those aids by which you, who are wor- 
shipped in many rites,® protected Kutsa, the son of 
Abjuna, as well as Tubviti, Dhabhiti, Dhwasanti, 
and PuBUSHANTi ;^ with them, ASwins, come will- 
ingly hither. 

24. ASwiNS, sanctify our words with works; 
showerers (of benefits), subduers of foes, (invigorate) 

* Kri&uiu is enumerated by the TbtV/trtyo^ amongst a class 
called Somapdlas, venders or providers, apparently, of the Soma 
plants ; as by the text, Hasta-Suhasta-Kfiadnavah, te vah Soma- 
krmfoMh. The term occurs also amongst the ^nonymes of 

Pumkutsap in the Pwdias, is the son of Mdndhdtfi and 
husband of Narmadd, the river {VisMu Pur, p. 371) : the text has 
only "of the young ;" the comment supplies PwrvhUsa, 

^ ^atokratUt the usual epithet of Indra; he to whom many 
rites are addressed, or by whom many acts are performed, is 
here applied to the Ahnm. 

Kutsa and Turv^i have occurred before, although the affili- 
ation of the former is new ; of the other names, no account i&^ 
given, except that Purwhanii is that of a fUshi. 


our understanding (for the Bacred study) ; we in- 
voke you both, in the last watch of the night,' for 
our preservation ; be to us for increase in the pro- 
vision of food. 

25. Cherish us, ASwins, always, by night or day, 
with undiminished blessings; and may Mitba, 
Vakuna, Aditi, — ocean, earth, and heaven, be 
favourable to this our (prayer). 


ANUVAKA XVI. (continued). 
SiJkta VIII. (CXIII.) 

The hymn is addressed to Usbas (the down), and in the seooDd 
half of the three first stanzas also to Night, The fiski is Kutsa. 
the metre Trishfubh, 

Vargai. 1. This most excellent luminary of all luminaries 

has arrived : the wonderful and diffusive manifester 
(of all things) has been bom; in like manner as 
night is the offspring of the sun, so she becomes 
the birth-place of the dawn.^ 

Adyuiye, in the absence of light ; that is, in the last watch 
of the night, or that preceding the dawn, at which time, accord- 
ing to A&waldyana, as quoted by Sdyaia, the Ahoins are especially 
to be worshipped. 

That is, when the san sets, the night comes on, or it is 
generated by the setting of the sun, and may figuratively be 
termed bis ofTspring ; and, in like manner, as the precursor, night 
may be termed the parent, or womb, of the dawn. 


2. The whiteHshiuing dawn, the parent of the 
sun,* has arrived ; dark night has sought her own 
abode: both allied to the same (sun), immortal, 
succeeding to each other, and mutually efikcing each 
other's complexion, they traverse the heavens. 

3. The path of the sisters is unending; they 
travel it alternately, guided by the radiant (sun)-; 
combined in purpose, though of different forms, 
night and dawn, giving birth (to all things), obstruct 
not each other, neither do they stand still. 

4. Brilliant guide of the speakers of truth,^ the 
many-tinted dawn, is recognized by us; she has 
opened our doors; having illuminated the world, 
she has made our riches manifest. Ushas gives 
back all the regions (that had been swallowed up 
by night). 

5. The opulent (dawn) arouses to exertion the 
man bowed down in sleep, — one man to enjoy- 
ments, another to devotion, another to (the acquire- 
ment of) wealth ; she has enabled those who were 
almost sightless to see distinctly. The expansive 
Ushas has given back all the regions. 

6. The dawn rouses one man to acquire wealth, Varga ii. 
another to earn food, another to achieve greatness, 
another to sacrifices, another to his own (pursuits), 
another to activity, and lights all men to their va- 

A like conceit to that of the preceding verse, — the dawn 
precedes, and therefore fignratively hears, or is the parent of, the 

Upon the appearance of the dawn, the animals and hirds 
utter their true, or naturai, cries. 


nous means of maintaining life. Ushas has given 
back all the regions. 

7. The daughter of heaven, young, white-robed, 
the mistress of all earthly treasure, is beheld dissi- 
pating the darkness. Auspicious Ushas, shine 
upon us to-day in this (hall of sacrifice). 

8. Following the path of the mornings that have 
passed, and first of the endless^ mornings that are 
to come, Ushas, the disperser of darkness, arouses 
living beings, and awakens every one (that lay) as 

9. Ushas, inasmuch as thou hast caused the 
sacred fire to be kindled,* inasmuch as thou hast 
lighted the world with the light of the sun, inasmuch 
as thou hast wakened men to perform sacrifice^ 
thou hast done good service to the gods. 

10. For how long a period is it that the dawns 
have risen? for how long a period will they rise? 
still desirous to bring us light, Ushas pursues the 
functions of those that have gone before, and, 
shining brightly, proceeds with the others (that are 
to follow). 

Varga III. H- Those mortals who beheld the pristine Ushas 
davming have passed away ; to us she is now visible, 
and they approach who may behold her in after- 

12. The beings hostile (to acts of devotion) now 
withdraw,^ for she is the protectress of sacred rites, 

* Fi]%8 for bumt>ofiermg8 being properly lighted 1^ 
Rdkskaaoi, and othermalignant epirito, TWiidi with the dawn. 


who is manifested for their performance; she is 
the giver of happiness, the awakener of pleasant 
voices, the enjoyer of felicity, and provider of food 
for the gods : most excellent Ushas, dawn to-day 
on this (sacrificial hall). 

13. The divine Ushas dawned continually in 
former times ; the source of wealth, she still rises 
on this (world); so will she give light hereafter, 
through future days, for, exempt from decay or 
death, she goes on in her splendour. 

14. The divine Ushas lights up with her beams 
the quarters of the heavens; she has thrown off 
her gloomy form, and, awaking (those who sleep), 
comes in her car, drawn by purple steeds. 

15. Bringing with her life-sustaining blessings, 
and giving consciousness (to the unconscious), she 
imparts (to the world) her wonderful radiance. The 
similitude of the numerous dawns that have gone 
by, the firot of the brilliant (dawns that are to come), 
Ushas has to-day appeared. 

16. Arise; inspiring life revives; darkness has Targ>^iv. 
departed; light approaches. Ushas has opened 

the road for the sun to travel : let us repair to 
where they distribute food. 

17. The offerer of praise, the reciter of praise, 
celebrating the brilliant Ushasas, repeats the well- 
connected words (of the Veda). Possessor of afflu- 
ence, dawn to-day upon him who praiseth thee; 
bestow upon us food, whence progeny may be ob- 

18. May he who has offered the libati<»i obtain. 


upOD the conclusion of his praises, (enunciated), 
like the wind, (with speed), (the iavour of) those 
UsHASAS who are givers of horses, and of cattle, 
and of progeny, and who shed light upon the mortal 
presenting to them (offerings). 

19. Mother of the gods," rival of Aditi, illumin- 
ator of the sacrifice, mighty Ushas, shine forth; 
approving of our prayer, dawn upon us. Do thou, 
who art cherished by all, make us eminent among 
the people. 

20. Whatever valuable wealth the Ushasas con- 
vey, is beneficial to the sacrificer and to the praiser. 
May MrrRA, VaeuAa, Aditi, — ocean, earth, and 
heaven, be favourable to this our prayer. 


The dcdty is Rudra, the ftishi Kutsa ; the tenth and eleventh 
verses are in the Trishfubh metre, the rest in the JagaiC 

VargaV. 1. We offcr these praises to the mighty Rudra,^ 

The gods are awakened at dawn by the worship they then 
receive, and hence the dawn may be said figuratively to be their 
parent (Mdtd devdndm), and in that character she is the enemy, 
or rival, of Aditi, who is their mother. 

We have a repetition here of the usual etymologies of Rmira, 
with some additions : He causes all to weep (rodayatt) at the end 
of the world ; or rut may signify ' pain,' — the pain of living, 
which he drives away (drdvayatt) ; or rut may mean 'word,' or 
' text/ or-the upanishads of the Vedas, by which he is approached, 
or propitiated {druyate) ; or rut may mean ' holy or divine speech/ 
<x 'wisdom,' which he confers {rdtt) upon his worshippers ; co* 


with the braided hair," the destroyer of heroes,^ in 
order that health may be enjoyed by bipeds and' 
quadrupeds, and that all beings in this village may 
be (well) nourished and exempt from disease. 

2. Be gracious to us, Rudra ; grant us happiness, 
for we worship the destroyer of heroes with obla- 
tions; and, by thy directions, Rudra, may we 
obtain that freedom from disease and exemption 
from dangers which our progenitor, Manu, bestowed 
upon us, (having obtained them from the gods). 

3. Rudra, showerer (of benefits), may we obtain, 
through our worship of the gods, the favour of thee, 
who art the destroyer of heroes : come to our pos- 
terity, purposing to promote their happiness, while 
we, having our sons in safety, offer thee oblations. 

4. We invoke for our preservation the illustrious 

rut may mean 'darkness/ that which invests or ohstmcts {ruAaddhi) 
all things, and which he dissipates (vriMtt) ; or again, it is said, 
that while the gods were enjgaged in hattle with the Asuras, 
Rudra, identified with Agni, came and stole their treasure; 
after conquering the enemy, the gods searched for the stolen 
wealth, and recovered it from the thief, who wept (arudat), and 
Affni was thence called Rudra. 

* Kapardine, from Kaparda, of which one meaning is, the^ofcf, 
or hraided hair, of Swa, whence the Scholiast gives, as its equi- 
valent, Jaiildya, This looks very like a recognition of ^iva in 
the person of Rudra ; it is not easy to suggest any other inter- 
pretation, unless the term he an interpolation. 

Kshayadvirdya, in whom heroes (vird) perish (vhudyanti) ; or 
it may mean, of whom the imperial (kshayaniah prdptaxswarydk) 
heroes (that is, the Maruts) are the sons. The epithet is repeated 
in the following verses. 


RuDRA, the accomplisher of sacrifices,* the tortaoas»^ 
the wise ; may he remove far from us his celestial 
wrath, for we earnestly solicit his favour. 

5. We invoke from heaven, with reverence, him 
who has excellent food,^ who is radiant, and has 
braided hair, who is brilliant, and is to be ascertained 
(by sacred study), holding in his hands excellent 
medicaments: may he grant us health, defensive 
armour, and a (secure) dwelling. 
VargaVi. 6. This praise, the sweetest of the sweet, and 
cause of increase (to the reciter), is addressed to 
RuDBA, the father of the M abuts :^ immortal 

Yqfna sadham, i.e. sddhayitdram, he who makes the sacrifice 
well-desired, or perfect (swis^am, or su ishfam). 

Vmiku, he who goes crookedly ; what is meant by this is not 

^ The phrase is Vtvdka, literally, a boar, and one who has a 
hard body, like a boar's, may be intended ; bat the Scholiast 
prefers considering it as an abbreviation of vardhdra, from vans, 
good, and dkdra, food. 

The paternity of JRtfira, with respect to the ManUs, is thus 
accounted for by the Scholiast : "After their birth from Diti, under 
the circumstances told in the Purdi^ {VkMu Punf^, p. 152), 
they were beheld in deep affliction by Swa and PdrvaHwA they 
were passing sportivdy along; the latter said to the fcnncr, 
'If you love me, transform these lumps of flesh into boys/ 
MaheSa accordingly made them boys of like form, like age, and 
similarly accoutred, and gave them to Pdrvat(, as her sons, 
whence they are called the sons of Ritdra/' The N^mku^ar{ 
adds other legends ; one, that Pdrvat{, hearing the lamentations 
of DiH, entreated Sfwa to give the shapeless births, forms, telling 
them not to weep (md rodCk) : another, that he actoaUy begot 


Rubra, grant os food safficient for mortals, and be- 
stow happiness on me, my son, and my grandson. 

7. Injure not, Rud&a, those amongst us who are 
old or young, who are capable of begetting, or who 
are begotten, nor a father, nor a mother, nor afflict 
our precious persons. 

8. Harm us not, Rudra, in our sons or grandsons, 
or other male descendants, nor in our cattle, nor in 
our horses ; inflamed with anger, kill not our valiant 
men, for we, presenting clarified butter, perpetually 
invoke thee. 

9. I restore to thee the praises (derived from 
thee), as a shepherd (returns his sheep to their 
owner); father of the Maruts, bestow happiness 
upon me ; thy auspicious benignity is the cause of 
successive delight, therefore we especially solicit 
thy protection. 

10. Destroyer of heroes, may thy cow-killing 
or man-slaying (weapon) be far away, and let the 
felicity granted by thee be ours ; &vour us ; speak, 
brilliant hero, in our behalf, and grant us, thou who 
art mighty over the two (realms of heaven and 
earth), prosperity. 

11. Desirous of protection, we have said, reve* 
rence be to him ; may Rudra, with the Maruts, 

tbem» in the fonn of a boll, an Pfitkivf, the earth, as a cow. 
These stories are evidently fictions of a much later era than that 
of the Vedoi, being borrowed, if not fabricated, from the Tantras, 
and may be set adde, without hesitation, as utterly failing to 
explain the meaning of those passages in the Vedaa which call 
the Maruts the sons of Rudra. 


bear our inyocation ; and may MmiA, VaruAa, 
Aditi, — ocean, earth, and heaven, be fevourable to 
this (our) prayer. 


KuT8A is the ftishi; the deity is SdRTA, the metre Trishfubh. 

Vargavii. 1. The wonderful host of rays has risen; the 
eye of Mffba, VaruAa, and Agni ;• the sun, the 
soul of all that moves or is immoveable,^ has filled 
(with his glory) the heaven, the earth, and the 

2. The sun follows the divine and brilliant Ushas, 
as a man (follows a young and elegant) woman ; at 
which season, pious men perform (the ceremonies 
established for) ages,^ worshipping the auspicious 
(sun), for the sake of good (reward). 

Or Chakshus may mean 'the enlightener/ Mitral VarwUi^ 
and Agni are said to be typical of the world, or of the seasons, 
perhaps, over which they preside. 

Atmdjagatdh, the sool of the world ; from his pervading and 
animating all thmgs ; or Jagatah may be rendered, ' of what is 
moveable ;' it is followed by tasthushah, — of that which is fixed. 
The sun is the canse of all effects, whether moveable or im- 
moveable (sa hi sarvasya sthdvarajangamdlnuxkasya hdryaxxtrgasya 

Yugdni, which may also be rendered, yokes for ploughs ;' for, 
at this season (dawn), men seeking to propitiate the gods by 
the profit which agriculture yield?, equip their ploughs, or engage 
in the labours of the field. 


3. The auspicious, swift horses of the sun, well- 
limbed, road-traversing, who merit to be pleased 
with praise, reyerenced by us, have ascended to the 
summit of the sky, and quickly circumambulate 
earth and hefiven. 

4. Such is the divinity, such is the majesty of 
the sun, that when he has set, he has withdrawn 
(into himself) the diffused (light which had been shed) 
upon the unfinished task;^ when he has unyoked 
his coursers from his car, then night extends the 
veiling darkness over all. 

5. The sun, in the sight of Mitra and Varuj^a,^ 
displays his form (of brightness) in the middle of 
the heavens, and his rays^ extend,, on one hand, his 
infinite and brilliant power, or, on the other, (by 
their departure), bring on the blackness of night. 

6. This day, Gods, with the rising of the sun, 
deliver us from heinous sin ; and may Mitba, Va- 
ruAa, ADrri,— ocean, earth» and heaven, be favour- 
able to this our prayer. 

Madhydkartor-vitatamp spread in the middle of the affair; 
that 18, the cultiTator, or artisan, desists firom his lahoar, 
although unfinished, upon the setting of the sun. 

Miira and VarvAa are used, according to the commentary, 
by metonymy, for the world. 

^ Hwritah, which may mean also his horses. 

806 9IO-YEDA sanhitA. 



SiJkta I. (CXVI.) 

The deities arethe AIwins ; the fishi is KAKSHfyAT ; the metre 

is TrUMubh. 

YargaViii. 1» lu like manner as a worshipper strews the 
aacred grass for the Nasatya^, so dp I urge o^ 
their laudations, as the wind drives on the clouds : 
they, who gave a bride to the youthful Vimada,* 
and bore her awaj in their ear, outstripping the 
rival host. 

2. Nasatyas, borne by strong $ind rapid (steeds), 
and (urged) by the encouragements of the gods, 
the ass^ of you, thus instigated, overcame a thousand 
(enemies) in conflict, in the war grfiteful to Yama. 

a. TuGEA,^ verily, A^wiNS, sent (his son) Bhujyu 

— -^ — ___,^ — 

^ See p. 294. The story told by the Scholiast is, that Vamub, 
having won his bride at a Sufoyambara, or ehoice of a husband 
by a princess, was stopped on his way home by his ansuocesBfoi 
competitors, when the Ahohu came to hb soccom*, and pboed 
the bride in their chariot, repulsed the assaHants* and carried 
the damsel to the residence of the prince. 

^ An ass (rdsabha) given, by Frajdpati. The chariot of the 
AMna is drawn by two asses {rdsabhdooMnohy — Nighmtut^ !« 
14 ; or it may mean, ^ one going swiftly,'* and the rest of the 
passage, "obtained precedence for the Ahrina over other gods in 
the oblation, through his mastering the stanzas dedared hf 

^ See p. 289. Tugra, it is said, was a great friend of the Akoms 
being much annoyed by enemies residing in a different island. 


to sea, as a dying man parts with his riches ; but 
jou broaght him back in vessels of your own, float- 
ing over the ocean, and keeping out the waters. 

4. Three nights and three days, Nasatyas, have 
you conveyed Bhujyu in three rapid, revolving 
cars, having a hundred wheels, and drawn by six 
horses,* along the dry bed of the ocean to the shore 
of the sea. 

5. This exploit you achieved, AiSwins, in the 
ocean, where there is nothing to give support, 
nothing to rest upon, nothing to cling to, that you 
brought Bhujyu, sailing in a hundred-oared ship,^ 
to his father^s house. 

6- AiSwTNB, the white horse you gave to Pedu, vargaix. 
whose horses were indestructible, was ever to him 
success; that, your precious gift, is always to be 
celebrated ; the horse of Pedu, the scatterer (of 
enemies), is always to be invoked.^ 

he sent lus son Bhifjfu against them, with an army on board ahip; 
after sailing some distance, the Teasel foondered in a gale ; Bhujyu 
applied to the AMms, who broaght him and his troops back in 
their own ships, in three days' time, as appears from this and the 
two following stanzas. 

^ This is a rather nninteJligible aooomit of a sea voyage, 
although the words of the text do not admit of any other ren- 

Sfaidantrdm ndoam, a aiiip with a hmidred, that is, with many, 
oars. This stanza is consistent with the first of the triad. 

^ Pedu, it is said, was a certain RdjarsM, who worshipped the 
Aiwms; they therefore gave him a white horse, through the 
possession of which he was always Tietorioiia over his enemies. 

X 2 


7. Yon gave, leaders (of sacrifice), to KakshIvat, 
of the race of Pajra,' various knoveledge; you 
filled from the hoof of your vigorous steed, as if 
from a cask, a hundred jars of wine.^ 

8. You quenched with cold (water) the blazing 
flames (that encompassed Atbi), and supplied him 
with food-supported strength ; you extricated him, 
AiSwiNS, from the dark (cavern) into which he had 
been thrown headlong, and restored him to every 
kind of welfare/ 

9. NAsATYAS, you raised up the well, and made 
the base, which had been turned upwards, the 
curved mouth, so that the water issued for the 
beverage of the thirsty Gotama, the oflferer,* 

10. NAsATYAS, you stripped off from the aged 
Chyavana his entire skin, as if it had been a coat 
of mail ;" you reversed, Dasbas, the life of the sage 

PqjtoB is another name for Anprasas, in which race Kak* 
sk^at was bom. 

No account of the occasion of this miracle is given. 
^ See p. 290. 

This has been elsewhere related of the ManUs (p. 221). The 
manner in which the well was presented to (xotama is somewhat 
obscardy described. 

^ The restoration of the ascetic Chuawma to youth and beaoty 
is related in several PurdHas; following, probably, the Maid* 
bhdrata, Vana Parva, vol. i. p. 577: he is there called the soo of 
Bhfigu, and was engaged in penance near the Narmadd river 
ontil the white ants constructed their nests round his body, and 
left only his eyes visible. Suktmyd, the daughter of King SfarydHj 
havmg come to the place, and seeing two bright spots in what 


who was without kindred, and constituted him the 
husband of many maidens. 

11. NAsATYAS, leaders, glorious was that exploit Vai^^.x, 
of yours, one to be celebrated, to be adored, to be 
desired by us^ when, becoming aware (of the circum- 
stance), you extricated Yandana, (hidden), like a 
concealed treasure, from the (well) that was visible 

(to travellers).' 

12. I proclaim, leaders (of sacrifice), for the sake 
of acquiring wealth, that inimitable deed which 
you performed, as the thunder (announces) rain, 
when, provided by you with the head of a horse, 

seemed to be an ant-hill, pierced them with a stick ; the sage 
visited the offence apon Sarydti and his attendants, and was 
appeased' only by the promise of the king to g^ve him his 
daughter in maniage. Snbseqoently, the Ahtnns coming to his 
hermitage, compasrionated Sukanyifs union with so old and ogly 
a husband as Ckyainma, and» having made trial of her fidelity, 
bestowed on the sage a similar condition of youth and beanty to 
their own. This story does not seem to be the same, however, 
as that of the text, in which no allosion occurs to Sukanyd, and 
the transformation of Chyawma precedes his matrimonial con* 
nection. He is termed jahita in the text ; properly, abandoned; 
that is, according to the Scholiast, by sons, and others (putrd^ 
dibMh pariiyakta) ; but it may denote, perhaps, merdy his 
solitary condition as an ascetic. In return for their friendly office, 
Ckyavana compeUed Indra to assent to the Aiwhu receiving at 
sacrifices a share of the Sovna libation, which is not noticed in the 

* See p. 2S9 ; for " well,'' we have only dartatdi in the text, — 
that which was to be seen by thirsty travellers, according to the 


Dadhyangh, the son of Athabvan,^ taught jou the 
mystic science. 

13. The intelligent (Vadheimati)^ invoked you, 
Nasatyas, who are the accomplishers (of desires) 
and the protectors of many, with a sacred hymn ; 
her prayer was heard, Uke (the instructions of) a 
teacher, and you, ASwinb, gave to the wife of an 
impotent hushand, Hira&yahasta, her son. 

14. NAsATYAS, leaders, you liberated the quail 
from the mouth of the dog^ that had seized her, 

* We have here rather obscure alliisions to a legend which was 
probably afterwards modified by the Purd^, in which the name 
also occurs as Dadfdcha (see also p. 216). In the Mahdbhdrmia, 
Vana Parv€, vol. i. p. 654. it is merely related, that the goda» 
being oppressed by the Kdlakeya Asitroa, solicited from the sage 
Dadktcka his bones, which he gave than, and firom which 
TwQskifi fabricated the thunderbolt with which Iitdra slew VrUn 
and routed the Aswag. The legend of the text difiers from 
this : ludra, having taught the sdences called Ptavaij^ tnAfd 
and Madkmndyd to Dadhyaneh^ threatened that he would eat off 
his head if ever he taught them to any one eUe ; tiie Aimmi 
prevailed upon him» nevertheless, to teach them the prohibited 
knowledge, and, to evade Indra's threat, took off the head of the 
sage, replacing it by that of a horse ; ludra, a|qprized of DtM- 
yoMck's breach of iioith, struck off his equine head with the 
thunderbolt ; on which the Ahrins restored to him his own. The 
Pnwargya vidyd is sud to imply certain verses of the lUk^ Y^wr, 
and Sdma Vedu, and the Madhu-vidsfd the Brdhwudku 

VadkrimaU was the wife of a certain B^anJd, who was 
impotent. Hie Akomg, pn^itiated by her prayers, gpivehera 

Vfika, more usually a wolf, but here said to be synonjfmooa 


and you, who are benefadtdrs of many, have granted 
to the sage who praises yon, to behold (true wis- 

15. The foot of (ViSpalA, the wife of) Khela, 
Was cnt ofl^ like the wing of a bird, in an engage- 
ment by night ; immediately you gave her an iron 
leg, that she might walk, the hidden treasure (of 
the enemy being the object of the conflict)/ 

16. When his father caused RubAIwa,^ ad he Vvs«xi. 
was giving to a she-wolf ° a hundred sheep cut up 

in pieces, to become blind, you, Dasras, physicians 
(of the gods), gave him eyes, (that had been) unable 
to find their way, with which he might see. 

17. The daughter of the sun^ ascended your car, 

nHh moftfi» a dog ; it is daewhere temidd bj tb6 commentary 
4raitifu twan, a fareat, or irild dog. Ydska interprets it figare- 
threty. and renders Vfiha by jfditya, the Bim» from whose gnept- 
or overpowering radiance, iSbt AMn» are end to have rescued 
fbe ^trnvL, npoKi her appeal to them. 

* See p. 291.' The story is here more folly detailed in the 
text; it is only added in the notes, that Kkda was a king, of 
whom Aga$iya was the PttroMt^, and it waiS through lus prayers 
that the AMns gave VUpM an iron leg. 

^ f^dhffa was one of &e sons of VHihagir (see p. 269) ; 
his blindness has been previooflly alhided to (p. 290), but here we 
have the story in detail. 

The Vrikt was one oi the asses of the AMm in disguise, 
to test his charitable disporition ; but, as he exacted the sheep 
from the people, his lather was angry, and caused him to lose 
his eyesight, which the Ahtnns restored to him. 

Stirya, it is rektted, was desirous of giving his daughter 
Siiryd to Soma, but all the gods deebed her as a wife ; they 


(like a runner) to a goal : when ybu won (the race) 
with your swift horse, all the gods looked on with 
(anxious) hearts, and 70U, NAsatyas, were associated 
with glory. 

18. When, AiSwins, being invited, you went to 
his dwelling, (to give due rewards) to Divodasa, 
offering oblations, then your helping chariot conveyed 
(food and) treasure, and the bull and the j>orpoise 
were yoked together.* 

19. Nasatyas, bearing strength and wealth with 
posterity and vigour-sustaining food, you came, vdth 
one intention, to the family of Jahnu,^ (provided) 
with (sacrificial) viands, and possessing a third portion 
of the daily (offerings). 

20. Undecaying NAsatyas, you bore away by 
night, in your foe-overwhelming car, Jahusha,"^ sur^ 
rounded on every side by (enemies), through prae* 
-ticable roads, and went to (inaccessible) mountains. 

agreed that he who ahoold first reach the aun, as a goal, ahonld 
wed the damsel. The Ahnna were victorious, and Stkyd, weD 
pleased by their success, rushed immediately into thdr chariot. 

* The Vrishahha and the Sin&wndra, The commentator calls 
the latter grdha, which is properly an alligator; but the Sfiiimdn^ 
as it is usually read, is everywhere else considered to be a name of 
the Gangetic porpoise : they were yoked to the car of the Aiwuu» 
the comment says, to display their power. 

Jalmdxi, not Jdfmav(; it is here considered as an adjective 
to prc^d, progeny {Jahnor prqfdm) . Jahmi is called a MakanM s 
he is a prince of the lunar dynasty in the Furdiku. (Fiskdu 
Pttrdia, p. 398.) 

^ The name of a certain king ; we have nothing relatiBg to 
him, beyond what is stated in the text. 


21. Yon preserved VaSa, AiSwins, (that he might V"«»xii. 
obtain) in a single day a thonsand acceptable gifts ;* 
showerers (of benefits), associated with Indba, you 
destroyed the malignant enemies of P^rrHufisAYAS.^ 

22. Yon raised the water from the bottom to the 
top of the well, for the drinking of S'asa, the son 
of RiCHirKA,' and by yonr powers, NAsatyas, you 
filled, for the sake of the weary S ayu,^ the barren 
cow (with milk). 

23. Nasatyas, by your acts you restored to YiiS- 
WAKA, the son of K^ish&a, soliciting your protec- 
tion, adoring you, and a lover of rectitude, his soi^ 
Yi8hAap6,* (welcome) to his sight as an animal 
that had been lost. 

24. AiSwiNS, you raised up, like Swia in a ladle, 
Rebha,' who for ten nights and nine days had laii| 
(in a well), bound with tight bonds, wounded, im- 
mersed, and suffering distress from the water. 

25. Thus, AiSwiNS, have I declared your exploits; 
may I become the master (of this place), having 
abundant cattle and a numerous progeny, and re- 

Fofc* a |2if^» it 18 said, reodved daily preaeots to the number 
of one thouaand. (See p. 29 1 .) 

We haye a PriihMinwas amongat the PamrdUk prinoea, but 
nothing particular ia recorded of him. (VisMn PurSUi, p. 420.) 

Of Sara, called Architka, or the aon of Jftichitkat nothing ia- 

oee p. 293* 
'^ We have no particuiara of Kfishia, VUwaka, and VtMdjf^^ 
except their being fU$kis. 
' See p. 289. 

314 ]Ri<'^v]n>A ftAKBirA. 

tainiDg iny sight, and enjoying a long life : may I 
enter into old age, as (a master enters) his house. 

StfKTA n, (CXVIL) 
Dc&iet> Jfkki, and metre bb before. 

Taiga XIII. I. AswiNB, fof jotir gAttifiMtion by the pleosimt 
Soma juice, your ancient worshipper adores you : 
the offering Is poured Upon the sacred grass, the 
hymn is ready (for repetition); come, NAsattas, 
trith food and with vigour. 

2. With that car, AlSwiNS, Which, rapid as 
thought, drawn by good horses, appeal before men, 
and with which you repair to the dwelling of the 
tirtuous, como, leaders of (aadrifices), to otir abode. 

3. You liberated, leaders (of rites), the sage 
Atbi,^ who was Tenerated by the five classes of 
men, from the wicked prison, together With his 
troop (of children), destroying his enemiesi ted 
baffling, showereis (of benefits), thef deiricecf of the 
malignant DasyM. 

4. Leaders (of sacrifice), skdWerercr (of bdnefite), 
you restored Rebha,^ cast by unassailable (enemies) 
into the water, and wounded, like a (sick) horse, by 
your (healing) skill : your ancient exploits do not 
fitde (from recollection). 

5. You extricated, Dasras, the sage Vandana,^ 
CtMt into a well, like a handsome and splendid oma- 

* See p. 290. ^ See p. 289. "" See p. 289. 


meitt designed for embellishment, and (lying)* 
AlwnrSy like one sleeping on the lap of the earthy 
or like the sun disappearing in darkness. 

6. That (exploit) of yonrs, leaders (of sacrifice), TaigftXiT. 
is to be celebrated, NAsattas, bj KaejeItat, of 

the race of Pajra, when yon filled for the (expect*- 
ant) man a hundred vases of sweet (liquors) from 
the hoof of your fleet horse.* 

7. You restored, leaders (of sacrifices), VisHArApifr 
(his lost son) to YiiSwaka, the son of K^isk^a, 
when he praised you;^ you bestowed, AIwinb, a 
husband upon GhoshA, growing old and tarrying in 
her father's dwelling.* 

8. You gave, ASwiNS, a lovely bride to S'yAva i^ 
you gave sight to Ka&wa,* unable to see his way ; 
showerers (of benefits), the deed is to be glorified 
by whidi yon gave hearing to the son of N^SB- 


9. AiwiKs, who assume many forms, you gkve 
to Pedu'^ a swift horse, the bringer of a thousaad 

* See p. 808. ^ See p. 313. 

^ GkoeM^9nB Ibe danghlcr of JKiiltMMi^ / die was a kper» and 
therefore unfit to be aanied ; bat, whea advnoed in yeaitir Atf 
prayed to the Aiwim, who healed her leprosy and festored bei; 
to youth and beauty* so that she obtained a husband. 

Sydua, a f^iahi, had the black leprosy, but was cured of it by 
Hie AMn»p and conseqvently married. 

' The UindBess of £itt(«a is not adverted to in any ol his hyi^ 
hitherto met with. 

The sonof .MntAiMfeisuaBamed; ke is termed a-^ilt^ 

^ See p. 307. 


(treararefi), poweifal, irresistible, the destroyer of 
foes» the. object of praise, the bearer (over dan- 

10. Liberal givers, these your exploits are to be 
celebrated, and the resounding prayer propitiates 
you while abiding in heaven and earth ; when the 
descendants of Pajra invite you, AfiwiNB, come 
with food, and grant strength to the sage (who 
worships you). ' 
VaiSA XV. . 11. AS WINS, glorified by the praises of the son 
(of the jar),^ and giving food, nourishers (of men), 
to the sage (Bharadwaja), exalted by AoAfimrA 
with prayer, you restored NAsattas, ViSpalA.* 

12. Whither were you going, sons of heaven, 
showerers (of benefits), when, on your way to the 
dwelling of Kavya,® (to receive his) adoration, you 
raised up (Rebha),^ AiSwins, on the tenth day, like 
a buried vessel full of gold ? 

13. You rendered, by your power, AiSwins, the 
aged Chyavana again young:* the daughter of 
the sun, NAsatyas, invested your chariot with 

' 14. Dissipators of affliction, as you were praised 
with former praises by Tuoba, so were you agaiii 
adored (by him), when you brought Bhujya safe 

* We have only "boii" (nam); the Scholiast adds, Kumbkdi 
prasdta, that is, Agastya; so, again, the text gives ooly v^prc%a, 
which the commentary amplifies by Bharadmdjifya f^kage. 

See p. 311. ^ Usadaa, the son of JKom. 

* See p. 313. * See p. 139. ' See p. 312. 


from the tossing ocean vnth swift sbips* and rapid 

15. The son of Tugra, brought back by you/ 
ASwms, (to bis father), glorified you when he had 
crossed the ocean in safety, and you bore hini» 
showerers (of benefits), with your welUhamessed car, 
swift as thought, to safety. 

16. The quail glorified you, AiSwins, when you ^ug^ xti. 
saved her from the mouth of the wolf ;^ you carried 

off (JAhusha) to the top of the mountain in yolir ' 

triumphant chariot ;^ and slew the son of ViSwanch 
with a poisoned (arrow).^ 

17. You restored eyes to RubAswa, who, on 
presenting a hundred sheep to the she-wol^ had 
been condemned to darkness by his indignant father, 
and gave light to the blind, wherewith to behold all 

18. (Desiring) that the enjoyment (arising from 
the perfection) of the senses (should be restored to 
the blind), the she-wolf invoked you, (saying), ^AiS- 
WINS, showerers (of benefits), leaders (of sacrifices), 
Rubaswa, (lavish) as a youthful gallant, (has given 
me) a hundred and one sheep, cutting tbem into 

^ See p. 289. For swift, we have t^A«A» to wluch the Scholiast 
adds, fuuAkih, ships. 
*" See p. 290. "" See p. 312. 

VUwdi^h is caUed an Asuru; the text says, "whose sod 

you killed with poison ;" the oonprneatator explains this to imply 
a poisoned arrow. 
^ Seep. 311. 

318 vio^vsDA MKHrri. 

19. A6wnm, yonr powerfiil proteetion u the 
source of happiness ; worthy of laudation, you have 
made whole the maimed ; therefore, has the intel- 
ligent (GhochJL)^ called upon you: showerers (of 
benefits), oome hither with your succours. 

20. Dabsas, you filled the milkless, barren, and 
emaciated cow of S'ayu with milk ;^ you brought^ 
by your powen^ the daughter of Pubumrea, 'as a 
wife, to YiMAPA."^ 

Yarga XYii. 21. A^wiNS^ causoig the barley to be sown (in 
the fields that had been prapared) by the plough ; 
milking (the clouds) for the sake of M Ami; destroy-- 
ing the Da^ with the thunderbolt ; you have be* 
stowed brilliant light upon the Arya.^ 

22. You replaced, AIwins, with the head of a 
horae, (the head c^ Dadhtanch, the son of Athab- 
VAN, and, true to his promise, he revealed to you 
tlie mystie knowledge which he had learned from 
TwASBT^i, and which was as a ligature of the waist 
to you.* 
28. Sapient AiSwms, I evw solicit yonr firvoor ; 

^ 8ei p« S15. ^ See p. 293. 

^ See p. 294. It is only said of Pwumitra, that he was a 
certBiA I24k^. 

jtffdifaf die SchoHast espkais this, viituhe, to the 8age» 
that 18, to, or upon. Maim ; but the preyions oeenreoee of Dtufm 
i^pean to warrant the naderatanding of Atya as its contrast, and 
to treat it as a netional a|ipeUatm. It may also be obaerred, 
tint the text haa Mmmuka, whidi the Sdiolisrt says ia here a 
aynonyme of Manu, bnt which more Qsnally deaignaitea mm* 

ISoaahtfi ia here considered, synonymous witb Iidtu; the 


proteet tU mj religious ^ntHMt Md gmot^ NAwlt- 
YAfl» almndant and exeellent wealth, together inth 

24. Liberal AiiwiNS, leadera (of saerifiees), yoo 
gave to Vadhbucati her son RoidtYAWiStAt boan* 
teoQg AiSwnffl, you restored to life the triply-muti* 
lated S'yJLva.^ 

25. Theses your ancient ei^ploits^ ASwzm^ wr 
fbre&thers have celebrated, and we offer adoration 
to yon, showerers (of benefits), r^>eating yonr 
praiseSf accompanied fay oar dependants* 

stfKTA m. (cxvin.) 

The deities, ffae 9*^» and metre, as before. 

1. May your elegant and rieh car, swift as a YargaxviiL 
hawk, come, ASwins, to our presence^ for it is as 

quick as the mind of man, surmounted^ showerers 
(of bene^ts), by three columns^ and rapid as the 

2. Come to us with your tri-columnar, triangular^ 
three-wheeled/' and well-constructed car ; replenish 
Qur cows (with milk), give spirit to our horses, and 
augment, AiSwins, our posterity. 

knowledge was kahkyam vdm, — a girdle to yoa both ; strengtli- 
eniDg them to perform religious rites. 

^ See p. 3)0. 
He was evk iato three pieces by the Jjntrog, it is said. whid» 
were reiaitod into om 1^ the Aiwm. 

"" See p. 94. 

320 ^G-VBDA sakhitA* 

' 3< Dasras^ (haying come)' with your quick* 
tnovidg, well-constructed car, hear this hymn, (re- 
cited by one) who reveres you : do not the ancient 
isagies say that you are most prompt, AlSwiNS, (to 
avert) poverty from the worshipper ? 
* 4. May your quick-moving, prancing' steeds, 
rapid as hawks^ yoked to your car, bear you, AS- 
wiNs, (hither), who, quick as (falling) water, like 
vultures flying through the air, convey you, NAsat- 
TAS^ to the sacrifice. 

6. Leaders (of sacrifice), the youthful daughter 
of SuBYA ascended, delighted, this your car ; ^ may 
your strong-bodied, prancing, fleets and shining 
horses, bring you near us. 

v«r|A XIX. 6. By your deeds, Dasbas, you raised up Van- 
DANA, and, showerers (of benefits), Rebha; yoa 
bore the son of Tuoba over the sea, and made 
Chyavana young. 

7. You (gave relief) to the imprisoned Atri, 
(quenching the) scorching heat, and fed him with 
grateful food ; solicitous of worthy praise, you gave 
sight to KaAwa, blinded (by darkness). 

8. You filled his cow with milk, A^wins, for the 
ancient Sayu, when imploring (your aid); yoa li- 
berated the quail from danger ; you gave a leg to 

* In thiflf and most of the foUowing vencB, we have aDumoiis 
fo the same persons and incidents as have been previously noiioed, 
in most instances, repeatedly, bat m general, in this hymn, more 


9. You gave to Pedu» AiSwins, the white and 
foe-trampling steed which jou had received from 
IndrA) loud-neighing (in battle), defying enemies, 
high-spirited, the acquirer of a thousand treasures, 
vigorous, and firm in body. 

10. Earnestly we call you, leaders (of the sacri-* 
fice), such (as you have been described), and who 
are well bom, to our succour, soliciting, A^wiNS, 
wealth ; contented with our laudations, come to us 
with your wealthy car, to bring us felicity. 

11. Come to us, auspicious Nasatyas, with the 
fresh velocity of a hawk : bearing an oblation, I 
invoke you, AiSwiks, at the rising of the ever con- 
stant dawn. 

SiJkta IV. (CXIX.) 
fiishi and deities the same ; the metre is Jagat^. 

1. Desiring food, I invoke, ( AfiwiNs), to support varga xx. 
my life, your wonderful car, swift as thought, drawn 

by fleet horses, worthy of veneration, many-ban- 
nered, bringing rain, containing wealth, abundantly 
yielding delight, and conferring riches. 

2. Upon its moving, our minds have been raised 
on high in praise ; our hymns reach (the AiSwins). 
I sweeten the oblation : the assistants come nijgh : 
U'rjani,* (the daughter of the sun), has ascended, 
AiSwiNS, your car. 

3. When devout and unnumbered (men), victo- 

See p. 31 1» where she is Darned Suryd, 



nous in battle, mutually contending for wealth, 
come together, your car, AiSwiNS, is perceived on 
its downward course, in which you bear excellent 
(treasure) to the worshipper. 

4. You brought back to his ancestors Bhujtu, 
who, borne by his own steeds, had perished, (but 
that you rescued him) with your self-harnessed 
horses, and went, showerers (of benefits), to his 
distant dwelling ; and great was the succour which 
it is known you rendered to DivonAsA. 

5. AlSwiNS, your admirable (horses) bore the car 
which you had harnessed, (first) to the goal, for the 
sake of honour, and the damsel, who was tiie 
prize, came, through affection, to you, and acknow- 
ledged your (husbandship), saying, " You are (my) 

Vargaxxi. 6. You preserved Rebha from the violence 
around him ; you quenched with snow, for Atri 
the scorching heat ; you generated milk in the cow 
of S'ayu ; and (by you) was Vandana endowed vrith 
prolonged life. 

7. Skilful Dasbas, you restored Vandana, when 
debilitated by old age, as a (wheelwright repairs a 
worn-out) car ; (moved) by his praises, you brought 
forth the sage* (Vamabeva) from the womb : may 
your (glorious) deeds be (displayed) for him who in 
this place ofiers yon worship. 

^ The text doea not name him ; the ScholiaBt caDs him Vdmm- 
deva, hut nothing farther is said of him than that he invoked the 
aid of the Aiwins, whilst yet in his mother's womh. 



8. You repaired to him who, afflicted by the 
abandonment of his own lather, praised you from 
afar:* hence your prompt and wonderful succours 
have been wished to be at hand (by all). 

9. That honey-seeking bee also murmured your 
prarae ; the son of USu invokes you to the exhila- 
ration of the Soma juice : you conciliated the mind 
of Dadhyanch, so that, provided with the head of 
a horse, he taught you (the mystic science). 

10. AilwiNS, you gave to Yedc the white (horse) 
desired by many, the breaker through of combatants, 
shining, unconquerable by foes in battle, fit for 
every work ; like Ikdra, the conqueror of men. 

SiJkta V. (CXX.) 

The deities and ^isM are the same. Of the thirteen stanzas of 
the hymn, the first ten are in as many different metres ; the 
three last are in the GdyaH measure. 

1. What praise may propitiate you. As wins? Vargaxxii. 
who may give satis&ction to you both ? how may 

any ignorant (man) pay fitting homage ? 

2. Thus may an ignorant man inquire the means 
of worshipping the all-wise, for every (one) other 
(than the AIwins) is unknowing ; they, the uncon- 
quered, quickly (show favour) to the man (who 
worships them). 

^ This refers, it is said, to the story of Bhujyu, whom his 

father, Tugra, had abaadoBed, or rather, perhapa, was enable to 


Y 2 

324 ^GkVEDA sanhitA. 

3* We invoke you, who know all things; may 
yon, who are Omniscient^ declare to ns tonlay the 
praise that is acceptable : desirous of your presence, 
I reverence you, oflfering (oblations). 

4, I invite not the gods immature (in wisdom),* 
but you, Dasras; drink of the wonderful and 
strength-giving bumt-oflfering, and make us vigor- 

6. (Poweriul is) the hymn that was repeated by 

the son of GhoshV and by Bh9,iou, and with 
which hymn the Anoibasas adore you : may the 
sage (KakshIvat), desirous (of food), obtain it 
Vargft XXIII. 6. Hear the song of the stumbling (blind man),^ 
for verily, AfiwiNS, I glorify you, recovering my 
eyes (through you), who are protectors of good 

7. You have been givers of great riches; you 
have again caused them to disappear ; do you, who 
are donors of dwellings, become our preservers; 
protect us from the felonious robber. 

8. Deliver us not, A^wins, to our enemies ; never 
may our cows, who nourish us with their udders, 
stray from our houses, separated from their calves. 

9. Those who adore you obtain (wealth) for the 
support of their friends : direct us to opulence, 

* Pdkyd, to be ripened ; not yet mature in wisdom (pakimya- 

^ Who is called by the Scholiast, Swha^. 
"^ (tijrdiwa, (Seep. 317). 


bestowing food ; direct us to food, associated with 

10. I have obtained, without horses, the car of 
the food-bestowing AswiNS, and expect (to gain) bj 
it much (wealth). 

11. This (is he who has obtained thee), wealth- 
bearing (car): augment (my prosperity); may the 
delightful car bear the Sotna beverage of men (to 
the AlSwiNs). 

12. Now am I disdainful of sleep, and of the 
rich man who benefits not others, for both (the 
morning sleep and the selfish rich man) quickly 

anuvAka XVIII. 

SiJkta I. XCXXI.) 

Hie deities are Indra, or the ViIwadbtas ; the IS^ishi is 
KAKSHfvAT, the metre Trnhhibh, 

1. When will Indra, the protector of men and Varga xxiv, 
grantor of riches, listen to the praises thus (recited) 

of the Angirasas, who are devoted to the gods? 
When he perceives the ministers of the master of 
the mansion, and is to be the object of worship in 
the sacrifice, he greatly exults. 

2, He verily upholds the heaven: he, the bril- 
liant, the leader of the (stolen) herd, pours forth the 
flowing (water), for the sake of food : the mighty 
Indra manifests himself after his own daughter,'' 

* Indra is here identified with the son. 


(the dawn) ; be made the female of the horse un- 
naturally the mother of the cow/ 

3. May he» illuminating the purple (dawn), listen 
to the invocation (addressed to him) of old^ daily 
bestowing wealth upon the race of Angibas : he 
has sharpened his fiatal shaft ; he has supported the 
heaven for the good of men, of quadrupeds, and 

4. In the exhilaration of this Soma juice, you 
have restored the celebrated herd of cattle, hidden 
(in the cave), for the sake of sacrilSce, (to the An- 
oiRASAs) : when, Indra, the threefold orest^ engages 
in combat, he opens the doors of the tyrannical 
descendants of Manu ;*" — 

5. When your parents, (heaven and earth), the 
protectors (of the world), brought the nutritious 
and invigorating 6blation to thee, who art quick in 
act, and when they offered thee the pure and pre- 
cious milk of the milch-cow.^ 

varga XXV. 6. Now is Indba manifested ; may he, the over- 
comer (of his foea), grant us happiness, he, who 

Indra, in sport, is said to have made a mare bring forth a 

Elevated as a triple crest in the three worlds. 
^ PaM, the stealer of the cattle. 

That is, the clarified batter of the oblations, from which the 
natriment of all things proceeds, for the oblation ascends to the 
sun, by whom rain is engendered, from which springs com, the 
support of living beings ; when this has been done, Indra opens 
the doors of the cave, and rescues the cattle, as described in the 
preceding verse, with which this is connected. 


shines brightly, like the son of this dawn : may the 
excellent Soma^ being sprinkled upon the place of 
sacrifice with a ladle, (exhilarate us), by whom, 
presenting the oblations we had prepared, it was 

7. When the bright-edged hatchet* is ready for 
its work, the directing priest is able to have the 
victim bound in the sacrifice:^ when, Indra, you 
shine upon the days that are appropriated to sacred 
rites,* then (success att.end8) upon the man who 
goes with his cart (for fuel), the driver (of cattle), 
or the active (shepherd).*^ 

8. Send hither thy horses, the quaffers of the ex- 

* Vanadhith the inatrument that is to be applied to the forest, 
to cut down the trees. 

Pari rodJumd goh. The phrase is rather elliptical, and there 
is no verb ; the Scholiast interprets it, pah rodhandya yiipe 
myojandya, pari samartho bhavati,—the priest, the adhwaryu, is 
competent for the attachment of the animal to the stake ; or the 
whole passage may be difierently rendered, wmadMH being in- 
terpreted 'a collectioD of water' (vana), that is, a body of clouds 
(meghanuOd) ; when this is ready fw its office of raining, then 
Jndra, bdng in the firmament, is able to remove any impediment 
to the shower, goh being also rendered 'water,' or 'rain/ 

ludra being the same with the ann. 

The phnaedogy is here very elliptical and obscure, the whole 
bemg mereLy omrviiepaMtie twrdya; being literally, "to the car- 
man, to the cattle-driver, to the quick," without any verb ; the 
Scholiast therefore supplies the connection, abkmatamriihfet.—YaB 
wish may succeed, and amidifies. or translates, mmrviie. carman, 
as he who goes to fetch fuel from the wood, in his cart ;" 

828 9I0-VBDA sanhitA. 

hilaratiDg libation ; overoome, warrior, the adveraaiy 
plundering us of our treasure ; when they exprees 
with stones, for the increase (of thj strength), the 
delightful, exhilarating, invigorating (juice), to be 
overtaken by thee, who art swifter than the wind. 

9. Thou didst hurl thy iron bolt upon the quick- 
nM>ving (Asura)^ the swift destroyer of foes, that 
was brought (to you) by Ribhu from heaven ;^ when 
thou, who art worshipped by many, striking Susnif a, 
for the sake of Kutsa, didst encompass him with 
numberless fatal (weapons).^ 

10. When the sun (had emerged) -from the 
struggle with darkness, thou didst break, wielder 
of the thunderbolt, the cloud that had been his 
annoyance, and didst sunder the well-fastened 
covering in which S'ush:^a had enveloped him. 

Tarfaxxvi. H- Then the vast, powerful, and immoveable 
earth and heaven animated thee, Indra, to glorious 
deeds, and thou didst hurl down into the waters, 
with thy mighty thunderbolt, the everywhere- 
spreading and destroying VKnRA. 

paiwishe, the driver of cattle» and turdya, the active, or quick, 
gopdia, or shepherd. 

^ Divo dn&am ftibkwd. The Scholiast considers the latter to 
be the same as Twashtrd, by Twashtri. No doubt Twashtri is 
most nsoally considered to be the fistbricator of Indra's thonder- 
bolt ; bat we have had it before stated that the thunderbolt was 
bronght to Jftdra by fibku (p. 285). 

This is most probably allegorical^ if it have any meaning at 
all ; SusMa is drought/ and this Indra removes, for the benefit 
of his worshippers, by many drops of rain. 


12. Indba, friend of man, mount the horses 
whom you cherish, who are fleet as the wind, are 
easily yoked, and who^ bear (their burden) well; 
you have sharpened the foe-destroying thunderbolt, 
the slayer of V^iu, which inspiring (weapon) 
USanas, the son of Kavi, gave you/ 

13. Stop, SuRA,^ your yellow horses, for this 
EtaSa,® Indra, drags the wheel: haying driven 
those who offer no sacrifices to the opposite bank 
of the ninety rivers,^ you compel them (to do) what 
is to be done. 

14. Indra, bearer of the thunderbolt, preserve 
us from this (poverty), that is so difficult to be 
destroyed, and from misfortune in war ; grant us 
riches, conspicuous for chariots, remarkable for 
horses, for the sake of food, of fame, and of truth. 

15. Famous for affluence, Indra, never may thy 
favour be withdrawn from us ; may food ever sustain 
us; opulent Maghavan, make us possessors of 
cattle, and may we, most assiduous in thy adoration, 
be happy, together (with our families). 

^ This IB an unuBoal attribution to Uianas, and rather incom- 
patible with the statement of its having been the gift of Jfibku, 

Stira, that is« Jndra as the son. 

EtaSa is said to be the name of one of the horses of the son. 
The word occurs in the Aitareya Brdhnuihi as that of a ^At. 

Ndrngdrndan^ of navigable rivers, or of such as must be crossed 
by a boat. 



AdhtAta I. AnuvAka I. 






I. (I.) 




IJ. (11.) 

VLyv, Indra and Viru, 

MiTRA andVARvi^A, 

The same. 


III. (III.) 

A^wiNS, Indra, VilwABRYAS, 



The same. 

AnuvAka II. 


I. (IV.) 


The same. 


II. (V.) 

The same. 

The same. 


III. (VI.) 


The same. 


IV. (VII.) 


Anuvaka IIL 

The same. 


I. (vni.) 

The same. 

The same. 


II. (IX.) 

The same. 

The same. 


HI. (X.) 

The same. 

The same. 


IV. (XL) 

The same, 





Anuvaka IV. 






I. (XII.) 




U. (XIII.) 


The same. 


m. (XIV.) 


The same. 


IV. (XV.) 

RlTU, &c.. 

The same. 


V. (XVI.) 


The same. 


VI. (XVII.) 

Indra» VARUi^A, 

AnuvAka v. 

The same. 


I. (XVTIT.) 


The same. 


II. (XIX.) 

Agni, Maruts, 

The same. 


adhyAya ii. • 


III. (XX.) 


The same. 


IV. (XXI.) 

Indra, Aoni, 

The same. 


V. (XXII.) 

AliWINB, &c.. 

The same. 



VIyu, &c., 

AnuvAka VI. 

The same. 


I. (xxrv.) 

PrajIpati, Aoni, &c., 



II. (XXV.) 


The same. 




The same. 



Aoni, ViIwadbyas, 

Hie same. 



Indra, &c.. 

The same. 


VI. (XXIX.) 


The same. 


VII. (XXX.) 

Indra, &C.9 

The same. 

79. I. (XXXI.) 
84. II. (XXXII.) 

AnuvAka VII, 



The same. 



89. III. (XXXIII.) 
94. IV. (XXXIV.) 
97. V. (XXXV.) 

100, I. (XXXVI.) 

104. II. (XXXVII.) 

107. III. (XXXVIII.) 

109. IV. (XXXIX.) 

111. V. (XL.) 

118. VI. (XLI.) 

115. VII. (XLII.) 

117. VIII. (XLIII.) 

118. I. (XLIV.) 
121. II. (XLV.) 
123. III. (XLVI.) 



AnuvAka VIII. 

The same. 
Hie Bame, 





AnuvAka IX. 


The tame, 



The same. 
The same. 

The same. 
The same. 
Hie same. 
The same. 

The same. 
The same. 

The same. 

The same. 
The same. 

126. IV. (XLVII.) 

128. V. (XLVIII.) 

131. VI. (XLIX.) 
131. VII. (L.) 

186. I. (U.) 

140. II, (LII.) 
146, III. (UII.) 


The same, 

The same, 


AnuvAka X. 

The same. 
Hie same. 

The aame. 
The same. 
The same. 

The same. 
The same. 








IV. (LIV.) 




V. (LV.) 


The same. 


VI. (LVI.) 

The same. 

The same. 



The same, 

AnuvAka XI. 

The same. 


I. (LVlii.) 




II. (LIX.) 

The same. 

The same. 


III. (LX.) 

The same. 

The same. 


IV. (LXl.) 


The same. 

adhyAya V. 


V. (LXIl.) 

The same. 

Hie same. 


VI. (TiXTTT.) 

The same. 

The same. 



AnuvAka XII. 

The same. 


I. (LXV.) 




II. (LXVI.) 

The same. 

The same. 



The same. 

The same. 



The same. 

The same. 


V. (LXIX.) 

The same. 

The same. 


VI. (LXX.) 

The same. 

The same. 


VII. (T.XXT.) 

The same. 

Hie same. 


Vm. (TAX II.) 

The same. 

The same. 



The same, 

AnuvAka XIII. 

The same. 


I. (TiXXIV.) 




11. (TiXXV.) 

The same. 

Hie same. 


in. (\:xxwi,) 

The same, 

Hie same. 



The same. 

Hie ssme. 



Page. SMa. 

201. V. (LXXVIII.) 

202. VI. (LXXIX.) 
204. VIL (LXXX.) 

207. VIII. (LXXXI.) 
209. IX. (LXXXII.) 
211. X. (LXXXIII.) 
213. XI. (LXXXIV.) 

219. I. (LXXXV.) 

222. II. (LXXXVI.) 

223. ni. (LXXXVII.) 
225. IV. (LXXXVIII.) 
227. V. (LXXXIX.) 
230. VI. (XC.) 
232. VII. (XCI.) 
235. VIII. (XCII.) 
240. IX. (XCni.) 





The same. 

The same. 


The same. 



The same. 

The same. 

The same. 

The same. 

The same. 

The same. 

The same. 

The same. 

jvAka XIV. 


The siUne. 

The same. 

The same. 

The same. 

The same. 

The same. 

The same. 


The same. 

VAEUi^A, &C., 

Hie same. 


The same. 


The same. 

Agni, Soma, 

The same. 

242. I. (XCIV.) 

AnuvAka XV.' 





II. (XCV.) 

The same, 

The same. 



The same. 

The same. 



The same. 

The same. 



The same. 

The same* 


VI. (XCIX.) 

The same. 



Vil. (C.) 










VIII. (CI.) 




IX. (CII.) 


The same. 


X. (CIII.) 

The same. 

The same. 


XI. (CIV.) 

Tlie same, 

The same. 


XII. (CV.) 


Anuvaka XVI. 

The same. 


I. (CVI.) 


The same. 


II. (CVII.) 

The Bame, 

The same. 


ni. (cviii.) 

Indba, Aoni, 

Tlie same. 


IV. (CIX.) 

The same. 

The same. 


V. (CX.) 


The same. 


VI. (CXI.) 

The same. 

The same. 



Eaeth, Skt, Aoni, AiSwiNS, 

The same. 





The same. 


IX. (CXIV.) 


The same. 


X. (CXV.) 


AnuvAka XVII. 


The same. 


I. (CXVI.) 





The same. 

The same. 



The same. 

Tlie same. 


IV. (CXIX.) 

The same. 

The same. 


V. (CXX.) 

The same. 

The same. 

AnuvAka XVIII. 




I. (CXXI.) 


The same. 


Adhrigu, 294 

Adiii, 61, 117.193,227, 

Aditya, 187 
ir(li'ty(w,34, 97, 113,121, 


AdityanuMala, 17 

Agastya, 316 

Agn4y{, 52 

Afffii, 1, 29, 31, 34, 44, 
118. 120, 155, 157, 
177, 179, 181, 182. 
183, 185, 187, 190, 
194, 197. 198. 199, 
201, 202, 242. 246, 
250, 253, 271, 278, 
280, 287, 314 

Agtd and Soma, 240 
Agmshfama, 112 
Aki, 86, 144, 266 
Aj<garita, 59 
Ambarisha, 59, 259 
Angiras, 3, 79, 84, 122 

Angirasas, 4. 137, 187, 

212, 325 
Anhas, 172 
Anjas<, 268 

Antaka, 289 

AntoHksha, 98 

Anus, 279 

Anuydjas, 122 

Apah, 57 

Apr(8, 31, 122 

Aptya, 272 

Arbuda, 137 

^m^onani; 229 

Aryuna, 295 

Aryaman, 68, 100, 112, 
113. 121.127 

iTrycur, 137, 266. 318 

Aaridh, 227 

Asses of the Ahoins, 96. 

Asuras, 152 

^ite^a. 291 

A&wins, 8, 38, 50. 78, 94. 
118, 120, 123, 126, 
227, 239. 287, 306, 
319. 321. 323 

Atharvan, 5. 207. 212 

Atithigwa, 137. 147. 292 

Atri, 122. 136. 290. 293. 
308, 314, 320, 322 

Ayu, 147,251 


Ayus, 147 

Barhish, 9, 32 

jB%a, 34, 120, 227, 231 

Bharadwdja, 292 

BhdraH, 52 

Bhayamdna, 259 

BAri^, 160, 213 

Bhrigus, 156 

B%yv, 289, 294, 306. 
316. 322 

Brahmdia, 24. 37, 261. 

Brahmaiiiaspati, 41 . Ill 

Bfihadratha, 104 

£rtA<Mpa/t, 167.231.274 

jBn'Aa/. 144 

BfUaya, 240 

C%a, 294 

Chkrabhdnu, 70 

Ckyavana, 139, 308,316, 

C/<w«e« o/ 6ftii^«. 20, 230 

Cow5. 17. 165 

Cows of Ushas, 131 



DadhCcha, 216 

DadldcM, 216 

Dadhyanch, 207, 216, 
309, 318, 323 

Daksha, 227 

DakshiM, 43 

Ddnu, 87 

Dasadyu, 93 

Dasras, 78 

2)iuyt(ff, 138, 171, 259, 
266, 318 

DhaMi, 295 

DMshaM, 52 

DAruribltf, 77 

Dhwasanti, 295 

D&ffhairavas, 291 

D^ghatamas, 42, 143, 29 1 

Divoddsa, 292, 322 

DraviAodd, 37, 250 

Druhyus, 279 

Z>t0c&*a, 32 

2>t(^a, 141 

Dyuloka, 17 

J^arM, 228, 287 
Ehmdydsa, 10 
J^ila^a, 141 
J^/o^a, 149, 166. 329 

Gandharba, 52 
(?Aora, 100 
CAos^, 315, 318 
Goddesses, 51, 164 
Gopa, 54 

Go^oma, 197, 201, 221, 
226, 308 

Hart, 16, 247 

Haridrava, 134 

HarUchandra, 59, 73 

i7ar»r, 16 

Haritdla, 134 

Havyavdh, 181 

Heaven, 228 

Himavat, 140 

HiraAyahasta, 310, 319 

Hira^asMpa, 79 

Horses of Indra, 16 

Horses of the Sun, 98, 

^o/r4, 52 
^oH 199 

7/^,32,82, 112 

//ira, 32 

/ite^a, 6, 9, 11, 13, 15, 
20. 22, 24, 27, 38, 40, 
49,55, 71,73.75.84. 
150, 166, 170, 191, 
204, 207, 209, 211, 
213, 255. 260, 263. 
265, 267, 278, 280, 


Jahndv{, 312 
Jahm, 312 
Jdhusha, 312, 317 
Jardhodha, 70 
Jdtavedas, 255 

JamuUoe, 134 
Jetri, 27 

Kah, 59, 217 

jK^oibA/va/, 42, 139, 291, 
315, 325 

KaU, 292 

Kdiwa, 29, 100, 104. 
113,289,315, 320 

KaHwas, 34, 104, 125 

Kt^arddm, 301 

Karanja, 147 

Karkandhu, 289 

Ka&yapa, 255 

IToitfMa^, 137 

KauSika, 27 

Xovt, 29 

lir%a, 213, 316 

/jTot^atMiA, 181 

lirAe/a, 291, 311 

iTri^dmi, 295 

ITrwAjla, 260, 313, 315 

KulUC, 268 

ITtirttf , 208 

KuHka, 27 

Kutsa,9S, 137,147, 171. 
242, 246, 269. 291. 
295, 300. 304 

Kuyava, 267, 268 

Madhuckckhandas,!, 5, 8. 
11. 13. 15,18.20.22, 

Maghavan, 85. 148, 157. 
209. 263 

MaM, 33 



MdndhdiH, 292 

Matm. 68, 80, 82, 120, 
121, 125, 199, 207, 
273, 294, 326 

MtxHcM, 255 

Marut8» 16, 34, 44, 55, 
104, 121. 173, 190, 
219, 221, 223, 225 

Marutwat, 256 

Mdtariswat, 160, 188 

Mdtris, 57 

MedhdtitM, 29, 54 

MedkyatUM, 102 

Mend, 139 

MUra, 7, 34, 55, 65, 97, 
100, 112, 113, 117, 
120, 189, 227, 230 

Mortar, 72 

Nahtsha, 81 
Nakshatras, 132 
Nakta, 32 
Namuchi, 147 

Nardiania, 32, 43 
Narya, 149, 291 

Ndsatyas, 47, d^, 124, 

Navavartwa, 104 

Neshtri, 36 
JVi^, 97 
iVitfrW, 62, 107 
NoiOaff, 155, 157 
Njishada, 315 

Ocean, 246 

Pq^tf, 308. 316 
Purww, 140- 
Pancha hsMtayah, 20 
Pa/K, 2, 87, 212, 240 
Pa^, 17 
PardSara, 177 
Paravrij, 290 
Pamaya, 147 
Patharvan, 293 
Pdvaka, 30 

Pinltr, 301,315,321,322 
Ptf^fe, 72 
Pijavana, 127, 294 
P^, 137, 261 
PtVrw, 140, 276 

Po^r». 199 
Prachetasas, 110 

Prajdpati, 59, 97 

Praska^wa, 118, 126 

Praydjas, 122 

Pnwte. 17,37, 101, 167 

PrwAi^r, 110, 206 

Pr«ftit, 56, 107, 219 

Pfihugu, 290 

Prihmdtardh, 56, 107 

PrtVW, 292 

Prt^Aim, 1 7, 303 

PrUhkUoka, 18 

Pfithuiravaa, 313 

Priyamedha, 122 

Purukutsa, 172, 290, 295 

Purvms/ra, 318 

Piirtmi'ir^, 160 

Ptfrvrovew, 80 

PKrttfAan/t, 295 

Pt^M, 115 


QiMii/, 310 

Rahuyana, 197 

22aib^a9, 100 

22am (Indra), 135, 140 

iZ(l9a6Ac», 96 

RauMHa, 266 

22tf6A(i, 289, 313, 314, 
320, 322 

fibhi, 285 

fiibhua, 115, 135, 283, 

J^ibhukshin, 286 

$tcA, 14, 18, 24 

J^ichitka, 313 

^tyi^At^, 223 

J^ijiswan, 137, 147 

$t>>(ilM^, 259, 290, 311, 

fitastubh, 294 

$tVtf, 36 

$»^, 218 

Rivers, 88, 89, 168, 189 

Rohita, 60 

Rohitas, 36 

liittiro, 108, 117, 191, 
219, 300 

Rudras, 8, 97, 121, 155 

Rudrdsah, 109 



SacMpati, 277 
Sadasaspati, 43 
Sahadeva, 259 
Saharakshas, 181 
Sahaaasputra, 111 
Sakra, 26, 135 
S'akH, 177 

S(6na, 14, 18, 24, 144, 

Sdmba, 134 

Sambara, 137, 148, 260, 

Sanakas, 90 

i8<:bfya, 38 

Sanyu, 95, 117 

Sara, 313 

Saramd, 17, 167, 193 

SanuwaU, 10, 33, 227 

Saryd^iavat, 216 

Sdrydta, 139 

Sarydta, 293 

SarydtC, 139 

Sos/ra, 21 

Satakratu, 12, 39, 76, 

Satavani, 160 

Satwdna, 173 

iSoKcAiSta, 10 

Sow/n, 51, 61, 97, 120 

Savya, 135 

Sasm, 293, 318, 320, 322 

iSmya;, 259 

StVui&tt, 246, 287 

iStiuiAtcfiia/arav, 124 

S^A(f, 268 

iSoma, 6, 9, 12, 13, 21, 
35, 38, 42, 55, 118, 
180, 227, 232 

Samapds, 122 

Somapdlas, 295 

8omapati, 199 

Srinjt^as, 208 

Sro^, 290 

Srutarya, 291 

S^oma, 14, 21 

Suchanti, 290 

5t«cto, 127, 172, 294 

Sudhanwan, 283 

iSftfAofffi; 321 

Sukanyd, 308 

Sunahsepas, 59 

Svpcamd, 98 

5tfrd(2ikw, 259 

Stira, 329 

flfi^rya, 51, 131, 166, 

Sdryd, 311 

Susamidha, 31 

fifttjrA^,29, 137,153, 171, 

Sus^a, 22 
Sv&ravas, 147 
StmidAi, 140 
S'waitra, 93 
Swarga, 23 
SwaSra, 166 
iStc^tVr^, 93 
iSydva, 98, 315, 319 
Syumarahni, 293 

romtiM^, 31 

Tdrkshya, 229 

JVot^ona, 142 

Tnuadasyu, 292 

THib^, 229 

TH^Votf, 88 

TVt^ibi, 291 

THra, 141, 269 

TVnn^oma, 53 

r«^a, 306, 317, 320 

Turvdaa, 104, 149 

2\<rc;(f9a9, 279 

TViToy^fna, 147 

TlffTi'rt*, 104, 149, 165, 

Tioashtri, 33, 48, 51, 85, 
143, 217, 221 

Ugradeva, 104 

Ukttha, 6, 14, 21 

Upaydjaa, 122 

UrjdH(, 32] 


17«^, 32, 78, 119, 123, 
128. 131, 154, 231, 

Ushasaa, 128, 231, 299 
Uiy, 42, 291 

Fod^i-MMtfi; 310, 319 
Vai&wdMra, 157, 254 
Vdaa, 287 
Fi^'a*, 287 
Fafo, 28, 141 
Fiffuui^a, 322 



Vanra, 138* 292 
Vmuupati, 33* 231 

Vandana, 289, 309, 314* 
320* 322 

VangHSa, 147 
Vardha, 163 
Vdrahdgiras, 255 

VanMa, 7* 40* 55* 61* 
117* 189*227*230 


VaHltri, 52 

Vaia, 291* 313 

Vashatkara, 97 

Fom* 25 

Vasw, 97* 121* 155 

Vdyu, 5* 34* 55 

Va^a, 149* 289 

Vend, 94 

F>»Aii* 287 

Fmmm28* 136* 294* 306 

V6rapaM, 268 

VMpa, 122 

VisMdpu. 313* 315 

Fiffiblii* 53* 163* 231 

Fupo/^* 291* 311. 316* 

VUmadevas, 9* 34* 227* 
269, 275* 277* 325 

VUwaka, 313, 315 
VUmdmitra, 1* 59 
Vihodnch, 317 
Viawawisu, 180 
Vricht^d, 139 

Vrihadratha, 104 

Vfihaspaii, 34 

Vrishagir, 255 

VrisIMaiwa, 139 

Fri^ra* 85, 86, 136, 142, 
153. 197* 205, 206 

FoeAc, 104, 149 
Foi&j, 279 
r({;'MU, 192 
rq;i»A, 18 
Yama, 179 
FoifuuJt^, 74 
Yamaloka, 98 
FifhMfi&djMtf* 100 
Foyd/t* 34 

Priated by J. ft H. COX (BBSTHisft), 
9r(Btrt8 tf t^e J^onouTSblc fi«sMn)U tftaipaKy. 

7 A ft 75, Great Queen Street.