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Full text of "Rio Blanco Oil Shale Project. tract C-a"

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2.4.5 Benthos 
2.4.5.1 Objectives 

No change in objectives has occurred since Progress Report 3. See section 

2.4.5.1 of Progress Report 3 for specific objectives. 

2.4.5.2 Methods 

The methods reported in section 2.4.5.2 of Progress Reports 2 and 3 remain 
unchanged, with the exception that the D-frame net was utilized during the 
May - June 1975 sampling of the White River. See section 2.4.5.2 of Progress 
Reports 2 and 3 for specific methods used in benthos sampling and analysis. 

2.4.5.3 Results 

Appendix C-12-1 lists the 118 benthic taxa observed in samples taken during 
April 1975 and Appendix C-13-1 lists the 92 taxa found during the May - June 
sampling. Appendices C-12-2 and C-13-2 present the quantitative benthos data 
from April and May - June 1975. At the headwater stations during both sampling 
periods, the most abundant taxa included Chironomidae, Amphipoda, Mematoda, 
Oligochaeta, Baetidae, Ceratopogonidae, Tipulidae, and Simul i idae. At tract 
stations, Ceratopogonidae. Nematoda, Baetidae, Plecoptera, and Oligochaeta 
were most abundant. In Yellow Creek, Oligochaeta, Ceratopogonidae, Acari , 
Chironomidae, Nematoda, and Simul i idae were present in greatest abundance. 
In the White River the most abundant taxa during both sampling periods be- 
longed to the Chironomidae, Ephemerel 1 idae, Tricorythidae, Oligochaeta, 
Plecoptera, and Simul iidae. 



2.4-19 



2.4.5 - Benthos Data 



2.4-20 



APPENDIX C-ll-1 

DENSITIES OF DRIFT MACRO INVERTEBRATES 
OBSERVED DURING RBOSP AQUATIC BASELINE STUDIES 
APRIL 1975 



2. 4. S. 171 





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APPENDIX C-ll-2 

DENSITIES OF DRIFT MACROINVERTEBRATES 
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MAY - JUNE 1975 



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2.4.5.192 



APPENDIX C-ll-3 

DENSITIES OF DRIFT MACROINVERTEBRATES OBSERVED 
DURING RBOSP AQUATIC BASELINE STUDIES 
JULY - AUGUST 1975 



2.4.5.193 



APPENDIX C-ll-3 

DENSITIES 9F DRIFT MACROINVERTEBRATES OBSERVED DURING 

KBOSP AQUATIC BASELINE STUDIES, JULY - AUGUST 1975 

(Organisms/m^; data obtained from zooplankton collections 

Station 
Replicate 



Nematoda 




400 


Oligochaeta 




20 


Arthropoda 






Insecta 






Coleoptera 






Collembola 






Diptera 






Ceratopogonidae 






Chironomidae 


810 


480 


Simuliidae 


90 


380 


Tipulidae 




20 


Diptera Larvae (misc) 


60 


10 


Ephemeroptera 


230 


60 


Plecoptera 




20 


Trichoptera 




10 



3 
A 

2,000 

550 

20 

570 
20 



30 



20 



Stations 6, 10-12 and 16 were dry at time of sampling. 



2.4.5.194 



APPENDIX C-ll-3 (Continued) 

Station 

Replicate 

4 5 



Nematoda 






Oligochaeta 


90 


110 


Arthropoda 






Insecta 






Coleoptera 






Collembola 


50 




Diptera 






Ceratopogonidae 


10 




Chironomidae 


570 


550 


Simuliidae 


200 


10 


Diptera Larvae (misc) 






Ephemeroptera 


20 


50 


Plecoptera 






Trichoptera 


20 


30 



2.4.5.195 



Nematoda 

Oligochaeta 

Arthropocla 

Insecta 

Coleoptera 
Collembola 
Diptera 

Ceratopogonidae 

Chironomidae 

Simuliidae 

Tipulidae 

Diptera Larvae (misc) 
Ephemeroptera 
Plecoptera 
Trichoptera 



APPENDIX C-ll-3 


(Continued) 

Station 
Replicate 




7 


8 
A 


9 
400 


10 


60 


200 



20 

580 



30 
80 
10 



220 



10 
10 



10 
760 
10 
10 
20 



2.4.5.196 



APPENDIX C-ll-3 



(Continued^ 



Station 
Replicate 



13 
A 



14 



15 



Oligochaeta 


70 


200 


2,230 


Arthropoda 








Insecta 








Coleoptera 


10 






Collembola 






20 


Diptera 








Ceratopogonidae 




10 


20 


Chironomidae 


780 


530 


1,070 


Simuliidae 


10 


40 


10 


Diptera Larvae (misc) 


10 




30 


Ephemeroptera 


10 


30 


20 


Plecoptera 








Trichoptera 


10 


20 





2.4.5.197 



APPENDIX C-ll-3 



Cor 


it'll 


nued) 
1 


Station 
Replicate 






17 

A 




18 
A 






200 




400 






50 




60 



Nematoda 

Oligochaeta 

Arthropoda 

Insecta 

Coleoptera 10 

Collembola 2,600 

Diptera 

Ceratopogonidae 

Chironomidae 50 70 

Simuliidae 

Diptera Larvae (raise) 
Ephemeroptera 
Plecoptera 
Trichoptera 10 



2.4.5.193 



APPENDIX C-ll-3 



Nematoda 

Oligochaeta 

Arthropoda 

Insecta 
Coleoptera 
Collembola 
Diptera 

Ceratopogonidae 

Chironomidae 

Simuliidae 

Diptera Larvae I 
Ephemeroptera 
Hemiptera 

Notonectidae 
Plecoptera 
Trichoptera 



-3 


(Continued) 






Station 
Replicate 




19 
A 


20 
A 

200 
60 


21 
A 



misc) 



120 
60 


30 

120 

40 


50 
60 

40 


10 






10 


20 





2,4.5.199 



Nematoda 

Oligochaeta 

Arthropoda 

Insecta 
Coleoptera 
Collembola 
Diptera 

Ceratopogonidae 

Chironomidae 

Simuliidae 

Diptera Larvae (misc) 
Ephemeroptera 
Hemiptera 

Notonectidae 
Plecoptera 
Trichoptera 



APPENDIX C-ll-3 


(Cont 


inued) 

Station 
Replicate 




22 
A 




23 
A 


24 
A 


200 






600 






30 


20 



140 



80 

10 
10 
10 



10 



no 

20 
10 
10 



20 
20 



2.4.5.200 



APPENDIX C-ll-3 



(Continued' 



Station 
Replicate 



~25 



26 



27 
A 



Nematoda 


1,200 


600 


Oligochaeta 

Arthropoda 

Insecta 


40 


20 






Coleoptera 






Collembola 






Diptera 






Ceratopogonidae 






Chironomidae 


140 


no 


Simuliidae 


10 




Diptera Larvae (misc) 






Ephemeroptera 


40 


50 


Plecoptera 




10 


Trichoptera 




10 



10 



2.4.5.201 



APPENDIX C-ll-3 



Nematoda 



Oligochaeta 



(Continued) 




Station 




Replicate 




28 29 
A A 


30 
A 


800 400 


800 


60 40 





Arthropoda 



Insecta 
Coleoptera 
Collembola 
Diptera 



20 



Ceratopogonidae 

Chironomidae 

Rhagionidae 

Simuliidae 

Diptera Larvae (misc) 
Ephemeroptera 
Plecoptera 
Trichoptera 



20 



10 



10 



30 



10 



10 

130 

10 



50 
10 

40 



2.4.5.202 



APPENDIX C-ll-3 



(Continued' 



Station 
Replicate 



Nematoda 


200 


400 


400 


Oligochaeta 


90 


10 


20 


Arthropoda 








Insecta 








Coleoptera 








Collembola 








Diptera 








Ceratopogonidae 








Chironomidae 


50 


40 


70 


Simuliidae 




10 


10 


Diptera Larvae (misc) 








Ephemeroptera 


10 




10 


Plecoptera 








Trichoptera 


10 




10 



2.4.5.203 



APPENDIX C-ll-3 (Continued) 



Station 
Repl icate 



35 



A A 

Nematoda 600 2,800 

Oligochaeta 20 

Arthropoda 

Insecta 
Coleoptera 
Collembola 
Diptera 

Ceratopogonidae 

Chironomidae 80 10 

Simuliidae 10 

Diptera Larvae (misc) 
Ephemeroptera 10 

Plecoptera 
Trichootera 70 



2.4.5.204 



APPENDIX C-12-1. 

MACROINVERTEBRATE TAXA OBSERVED DURING 

RBOSP AQUATIC BASELINE STUDIES 

APRIL 1975 



2.4.5.205 



APPENDIX C-12-1 

MACROINVERTEBRATE TAXA OBSERVED DURING 
RBOSP AQUATIC BASELINE STUDIES, APRIL 1975 

Platyhelminthes 
Tubellaria 
Tricladia 

Nematoda 

Mollusca 
Gastropoda 

Lymnea Lamarck 
Physa Draparnaud 

Annelida 
Oligochaeta 

Aeolostomatidae 

Enchytraeidae 

Haplotaxidae 

Haplotaxis 
Lumbricul idae 
Naididae 

Nais behingi 

Nais elinguis 

Nais sp. 

Pristina 
Tubificidae 

Ilyodrilus tempi etoni 

Limnodri 1 us claparedeianus 

Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri 

Limnodri 1 us spiral is 

Limnodrilus udekemianus 

Limnodrilus sp. 1 

Tubifex tubifex 
Unidentified Tubificidae sp. 1 
Immature Tubificidae with capilliform chaetae 
Immature Tubificidae without capilliform chaetae 
Rhyacodril inae 
Rhyacodrilinae sp. 
Hirundinea 

Helobdella stagnalis (Linnaeus) 

Arthropoda 
Crustacea 
Ostracoda 
Amphipoda 

Hyallela azteca (Saussure) 
Insecta 
Collembola 
Ephemeroptera 
Baetidae 



2.4.5.206 



APPENDIX C-12-1 (Continued 



Baetis Leach 

Callibaetis Eaton 
Ephemerell idae 

Ephemerella Walsh 
Heptageniidae 

Epeorus Eaton 

Rhithrogena Eaton 
Leptophlebiidae 

Paraleptophlebia 
Tricorythidae 

Tricorythodes Ulmer 
Odonata 
Coenagrionidae 

Enallagma Charpentier 
Gomphidae 
Plecoptera 
Capniidae 

Capnia Pictet 
Isoperlidae 

Isoperla Banks 
Perlodidae 

Isogenoides Klapalek 
Coleoptera 
Dytiscidae 

Deronectes Sharp 

Derovatellus Sharp 

Oerodytes Seidlitz 
Elmidae 

Dubiraphia Sanderson 

Microcylloepus 

Zaitzevia Champion 
Trichoptera 

Brachycentridae 

Brachycentrus pupae Curtis 
Hydropsychidae 

Hydropsyche Pictet 
Hydroptilidae 

Hydroptila Dalman 
Limnephilidae 

Grammotaulius Kolenati 

Hesperophylax Banks 

Limnephilus Leach 
Lepiodoptera 
Pyralidae 
Diptera 
Diptera pupae 

Diptera larvae (unidentified) 
Ceratopodonidae 
Culicidap 



2.4.5.207 



APPENDIX C-12-1 



Chironomidae 
Tanypodinae 

Conchapelopia 

Psectrotanypus 
Podonominae 

Boreochlus 
Diamesinae 
Diamesinae sp. 1 

Diamesa 

Monodiamesa 

Odontomesa 

Pottastia 

Pseudodiamesa 
Orthocladiinae 
Orthocladiinae sp. 2 
Orthocladiinae sp. 3 

Chaetocladius 

Corynoneura 

Cricotopus 

Cricotopus ( Cricotopus ) 

Cricotopus ( Cricotopus ) trifascia 

Cricotopus ( Isocladius ) 

Diplocladius 



Eukieferiella 



Orthocladius 
Paracladius 
Parakiefferiella 
Parametriocnemus 
Paraphaenocl adTUs 
Pseudosmittia 
Smittia 

Thienemanniella 
Chironominae 
Chironomus 
Cryptochironomus 
Harnischfa" 
Microtendipes 
Para chironomus 
Paracladopelma 
Paratendipes 

Phaenopsectra (Phaenopsectra) 
Polypedilium (tripodura grp) 
Pseudochironomus 
Stichtochironomus 
Cladotanytarsus 
Micropsectra 
Rheotanytarsus 
Dolichopodidae 
Hydrophorus Fallen 



2.4.5.200 



Eiripiciidea 

Clinocera Me i gen 

Hemerodromia Meigen 
Muscidae 

Limnophora aqui frons Stein 

Limnophora discreta Stein 
Psychiodidae 

Percoma Walker 

Telmatascopus Eaton 
Rhagionidae 

Atherix variegata Wal ker 
Simuliidae 
Arachnoidea 

Acari 
Stratiomyidae 

Euparyphus Gerstaecker 

Stratiomys Geoffrey 
Tabanidae 

Chrysop s Meigen 

Tabanus Linnaeus 
Tipulidae 

Dicranota Zetterstedt 

Hexatoma Latreille 

Holorusia Loew 

Limnophila Macquart 

Ormosia Rondani 

Pedecia Latreille 
Arachnoidea 
Acari 



2.4.5.209 



APPENDIX C-12-2 

DENSITIES OF BENTHOS (MACROINVERTEBRATES) OBSERVED DURING 

RBOSP AQUATIC BASELINE STUDIES 

APRIL 1975 



2.4.5.210 





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2.4.5.211 



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APPENDIX C-13-1 

MACROINVERTEBRATE TAXA OBSERVED DURING 

RBOSP AQUATIC BASELINE STUDIES 

MAY - JUNE 1975 



2.4. t>. 323 



APPENDIX C-13-1 

MACROINVERTEBRATE TAXA OBSERVED DURING 
RBOSP AQUATIC BASELINE STUDIES, MAY - JUNE 1975 



Nematoda 



Mollusca 
Gastropoda 

Basommatophora 
Physidae 

Physa Draparnaud 
Lymnaeidae 

Lymnaea Lamarck 
Planorbidae 
Gyraulus parvus Charpentier 

Annelida 
Hirudinea 

Rhynchobdellida 
Glossiphoniidae 

Helobdella stagnalis (Linnaeus) 
Oligochaeta 

Enchytraeidae 
Haplotaxidae 

Haplotaxis 
Lumbricul idae 
Naididae 

Chaetogaster diastrophus 

Nais sp. 
Tubificidae 

Ilyodrilus templetoni 

Limnodrilus claparedeianus 

Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri 

Limnodrilus udekemianus 

Limnodrilus sp. 
Rhyacodril inae 
Tufificidae sp. 

Immature Tubificidae with capilliform chaetae 
Immature Tubificidae without capilliform chaetae 

Arthropoda 
Arachnoidea 

Acari 
Crustacea 
Amphipoda 
Talitridae 

Hyallela azteca (Saussure) 
Insecta 
Ephemeroptera 
Heptageniidae 
Epeorus Eaton 
Rhithrogena Eaton 



2.4.5.324 



APPENDIX C-13-1 (Continued; 

Baetidae 

Baetis Leach 
Callibaetis Eaton 
Ephemerell idae 
Ephemerel la Walsh 
Collembola 
Odonata 
Zygoptera 
Coenagrionidae 
Argia Rambur 
Argia sedula (Hagen) 
Amphiagron abbreviatum (Selys) 
Anisoptera 

Gomphidae 
Plecoptera 
Systellognatha 
Perlodidae 

Isoperla Banks 
Coleoptera 
Dytiscidae 
Agabus Leach 
Deronectes Sharp 
Hydaticus Leach 
Hydroporus Clairville 
Rhantus Dejean 
Elmidae 

Dubiraphia Sanderson 
Hydrophil idae 
Trichoptera 

Glossosomatidae 
Hydropsychidae 

Hydropsyche Pictet 
Hydroptil idae 

Hydroptila Dalman 
Lepidoptera 
Pyralidae 
Hemiptera 

Corixidae 
Diptera 
Tipulidae 

Holorusia Loew 
Limnophila Macquart 
Ormosia Rondani 
Pedicia Latirelle 
Tipulidae (unidentified) 
Psychodidae 
Ceratopogonidae 

Culicoides L< tirelie 
Chironcmidae 
Tanypodinae 
Larsia 



2.4.5.325 



APPENDIX C-13-1 (Continued) 

Labrundina 
Pentaneurini 



Thienemannimyia grp. 
Diamesinae 

Diamesa 

Odontomesa 

Pseudodiamesa c.f. pertinax 
Diamesinae sp. 
Orthocladiinae 

Chaetocladius 

Corynoneura 

Cricotopus 

Cricotopus ( Cricotopus ) 

Cricotopu s ( Cricotopus ) bicinctus 

Cricotopus ( Isocladius ) 

Eukiefferiella 

Gymnometriocnemus terrestris grp. 

Krenosmittia 

Metriocnemus 

Qrthocladius 

Parametriocnemus 

Paraphaenocladius 

Pseudosmittia 

Thienemanniella 



Orthocladiinae sp. 
Chironominae 
Chironomini 
Cryptochironomus 
Microtendipes 
Paratendipes 

Phaenopsectra (phaenopsectra' 
Polypedilum tripodura grp. 
Tanytarsini 
Micropsectra 
Rheotanytarsus 
Dixidae 

Dixa 
Dolichopodidae 

Hydrophorus agalama 
Simuliidae 
Stratiomyidae 

Euparyphus Gerstaecker 
Strati omys Geoffroy 
Rhagionidae 

Atherix variegata Walker 
Empididae 

CI inocera Meigen 
Hemerodromia Meigen 
Anthomyiidae 

Limnophora aeguifrons Stein 
Limnophora discreta Stein 
Limnophora sp. 



APPENDIX C-13-2 

DENSITIES OF BENTHOS (MACROINVERTEBRATES) OBSERVED DURING 
RBOSP AQUATIC BASELINE STUDIES 
MAY - JUNE 1975 



2.4.5.327 



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2.4.5.422 



APPENDIX C-14-1 

MACROINVERTEBRATE TAXA OBSERVED DURING 

RBOSP AQUATIC BASELINE STUDIES 

JULY - AUGUST 1975 



2.5.4.423 



APPENDIX C-14-1 

MACROINVERTEBRATE TAXA OBSERVED DURING 
RBOSP AQUATIC BASELINE STUDIES, JULY - AUGUST 1975 

Cnidaria 
Hydrozoa 
Hydridae 
Hydra 

Nematoda 

Mollusca 
Gastropoda 
Physidae 

Physa 
Lymnaeidae 

Lymnaea Lamarck 
Planorbidae 

Annelida 
Hirudinea 

Rhynchobdellida 
Glossiphoniidae 

Helobdella stagnalis (Linnaeus) 

Oligochaeta 

Arthropoda 
Arachnoidea 

Acari 
Crustacea 
Amphipoda 
Talitridae 
Hyalel la azteca (Saussure) 

Insecta 
Collembola 
Ephemeroptera 
Baetidae 

Baetis Leach 
Callibaetis Eaton 
Heptageniidae 

Rhi throgena Eaton 
Ephemerel 1 idae 

Ephemerel la Walsh 
Tricorythidae 

Tricorythodes Ulmer 
Caenidae 
Caenis 



2.4.5.424 



APPENDIX C- 1 4-1 (Continued) 



Odonata 
Zygoptera 

Coenagrioniciae 
Anisoptera 

Gomphidae 

Hemiptera 
Gerridae 
Gerris 

Coleoptera 

Dytiscidae 

Agabus 

Deronect es Sharp 

Oreodytes Seidlitz 
Hydrophil idae 
Elmidae 

Zaitzevia Champion 

Trichoptera 

Hydropsychidae 
Cheumatopsyche 
Hydrop syche Pictet 

Hydroptil idae 

Hydroptila Dalman 

Limnephilidae 

Leptoceridae 

Brachycentridae 

Lepidoptera 
Pyralidae 

Diptera 

Tipulidae 

Holorusia Loew 

Limnophila 
Ceratopogonidae 
Chironomidae 
Simul iidae 

Si mul ium arcticum 

S. argus Will iston 

S. vittatum Zetterstedt 
Stratiomyidae 

Eupary phus Gerstaecker 
Tabanidae 

Tabanus 
Rhag ion idae 

Atherix variegata Wal ker 



2.4.5.425 



APPENDIX C-14-1 (Continued) 



Empididae 

Muscidae 

Anthomyiidae 

Limnophora aequifrons Stein 



2.4.5.426 



APPENDIX C-14-2 

DENSITIES OF BENTHOS (MACROINYERTEBRATES) OBSERVED 
DURING RBOSP AQUATIC BASELINE STUDIES 
JULY - AUGUST 1975 



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2.4.6 Sediment Chemistry 

2.4.6.1 Objectives 

The objectives of the sediment chemistry studies remain unchanged from 
Progress Report 2. See section 2.4,6.1 of Progress Report 2 for specific 
objectives. 

2.4.6.2 Methods 

With the exception of analysis for arsenic which consists of a digestion 
procedure (EPA. 1973) followed by colorimetric analysis according to APHA 
(1971), no change in methods has occurred since Progress Report 3. See 
section 2.4.5.2 and 2.4.6.2 of Progress Reports 2 and 3, respectively; for 
specific methods used for sediment chemistry studies. 

2.4.6.3 Results 

Appendix C-15-1, C-16-1 and C-16-2 present the results of chemical analysis 
of sediment samples taken during the April and May - June 1975 sampling 
periods. A summary of selected parameters included in the May - June analyses 
for the White River and Yellow Creek are presented below. In general, con- 
centrations of the selected parameters were similar in the two streams during 
the May - June sampling period. 

White Rive r Yellow Creek 

Aluminum (yg/g) 3400 - 10,000 4700 - 10,000 

Arsenic (yg/g) 4-6 5-9 

Lead (yg/g) 4-6 6-9 

Zinc (yg/g) 20 - 58 24-56 



2.4-21 



2.4.6 - Sediment Chemistry Data 



2.4-22 



2.4.6 - Sediment Chemistry 



2.4-19 



APPENDIX C-15-1 

RESULTS OF SEDIMENT CHEMISTRY ANALYSIS 

DURING RBOSP AQUATIC BASELINE STUDIES 

APRIL 1975 



2.4. G. lb 



APPENDIX C-15-1 

RESULTS OF SEDIMENT CHEMISTRY ANALYSIS DURING RBOSP 
AQUATIC BASELINE STUDIES, APRIL 1975 (Results are expressed in ug/g) 1 



Station Parameter 

Replicate As 



1-A 39 

1-B 35 

2-A 17 

2-B 17 

3-A 11 

3-B 10 

4-A 15 

4-B 16 

5-A 4 

5-B 4 

7-A 10 

7-B 11 

8-A 11 

8-B 10 

9-A 13 

9-B 9 

13-A 7 

13-B 7 

14-A 5 

14-B 6 

19-A 5 

19-B 4 

20-A 7 

20-B 7 

21 -A 6 

21 -B 5 

22-A , 5 

22-B 5 

23-A 3 

23-B 3 

24-A 5 

24-B 5 

25-A 11 

25-B 9 



Stations 6, 10-12, and 15-18 were dry at the time of sampling. 



2.4.6.19 



APPENDIX C-15-1 (Continued) 

Station Parame ter 

Repl icate As 



26-A 7 

26-B 6 

27-A 3 

27-B 3 

28-A 6 

28-B 6 

29-A 5 

29-B 5 

30-A 7 

30-B 3 

31 -A 7 

31 -B 3 

32-A 5 

32-B 6 

33-A 8 

33-B 7 

34-A 6 

34-B 6 

35-A 5 

35-B 5 



2.4.6.20 



APPENDIX C- 16-1 

RESULTS OF SEDIMENT CHEMISTRY ANALYSIS DURING 

RBOSP AQUATIC BASELINE STUDIES 

MAY - JUNE 1975 



2.<.6. 21 



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2.4.6.^4 



APPENDIX C-16-2 

RESULTS OF SEDIMENT HERBICIDE ANALYSIS 

RBOSP AQUATIC BASELINE STUDIES 

MAY - JUNE 1975 



2.4.6.25 



APPENDIX C-16-2 

RESULTS OF SEDIMENT HERBICIDE ANALYSIS, RBOSP AQUATIC BASELINE 
STUDIES, MAY - JUNE 1975. (Data are expressed in mg/1.) 1 

__ Parameter 

Station Tordon 22k Si 1 vex 



1-A 

1-B 

2-A 

2-B 

3-A 

3-B 

4-A 

4-B 

5-A 

5-B 

6-A 

6-B 

7-A 

7-B 

8-A 

8-B 

9-A 

9-B 

13-A 

13-B 

14-A 

14-B 

19-A 

19-B 

20-A 

20-B 

21 -A 

21 -B 

22-A 

22-B 

23-A 

23-B 

24-A 

24-B 

25-A 

25-B 



<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 



l Stations 10-12 and 15-18 were dry at the time of sampling. 



APPENDIX C-16-2 (Continued) 



Station 



26-A 
26-B 
27-A 
27-B 
28-A 
28-B 
29-A 
29-B 
30-A 
30-B 
31 -A 
31 -B 
32-A 
32-B 
33-A 
33-B 
34-A 
34-B 
35-A 
35-B 



Parameter 




Tordon 22k 


Si 1 vex 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 


<0.02 



2.4.6.27 



2.4.7 Macrophytes 
2.4.7.1 Objectives 

No change in objectives has occurred since Progress Report 3. See section 

2.4.7.1 of Progress Reprot 3 for specific objectives. 

2.4.7.2 Methods 

No change in methods has occurred since Progress Report 2. See section 

2.4.7.2 of Progress Report 2 for specific methods. 

2.4.7.3 Results 

Aquatic macrophytes were observed at Stations 1, 5, 8, 14, 19, and 20 during 
May - June. Evaluation of the relative abundance of aquatic macrophytes 
followed the system of Jessen and Lound (1962). At Station 1, the density of 
water cress (R orippa nasturtiu m - aquaticum ) was sparse. At Stations' 5, the 
density of water cress was sparse, whereas the densities of Ranunculus 
cymbal aria were moderate. At Station 8, the density of water cress was 
scattered (it occurred along a strip 12 - 18 inches wide extending 
approximately 19 feet along the west bank of the stream). At Station 14, 
Zannichelia vulgaris was present in moderate abundance. At Station 19 
(a pond), Chara kieneri was dense. At Station 20, Zannichelia palustris L. 
was present in scattered abundance. 



2.4-23 



2.4.8 Fish 

2.4.8.1 Objectives 

The objectives of fish studies remain unchanged from Progress Report 2. 

2.4.8.2 Methods 

The high flow and swift current encountered in the White River during 
May - June 1975 sampling necessitated some modification in fish 
sampling procedures. Fishing methods used during May - June sampling 
are outl ined below. 

Station 23 

Electroshocking runs were made downstream through a 100 foot (30.5m) section 
which was not blocked off. Fish were collected with three dip nets. This 
procedure was then repeated for the second replicate. 

Station 25 and 31 
Electroshocking from a boat was attempted at these mid-stream stations. 
These efforts proved unsuccessful as no fish were captured with this 
method. 

Station 27 and 28 
Electroshocking runs were made upstream through a 100 foot (30.5m) using 
three dip nets to collect fish. (The section could not be blocked off prior 
to shocking.) The procedure was repeated for the second replicate. 

Station 29 

Electroshocking runs were made downstream through a 100 foot (30.5m) section 
using three dip nets to collect fish; also electroshocked upstream along a 
40 foot channel adjacent to the stream (neither of these sections could be 
blocked off). The procedure was then repeated for the second replicate. 

Stations 30 and 32 
Electroshocking runs were made downstream through a 100 foot (30.5m) section 
using four dip nets to collect fish. The procedure was then repeated for the 
second replicate. 

Stations 33 and 34 
Electroshocking runs were made downstream through a 100 foot (30.5m) section 
using three dip nets to collect fish. The procedure was then repeated for 
the second replicate. 



Electroshocking runs were made downstream through a 100 (30.5m) section 
from a boat using the probes and two dip nets for the boat. This procedu 
was then repeated for the second replicate. 



2.4-25 



2.4.8.3 Results 

Fish data from the May - June sampling period are presented in Appendices 
C-17-1 through C-17-7. During the May - June sampling approximately 463 
fish representing eight species were captured in the White River and lower 
Yellow Creek. The catch was dominated by rough and forage fishes, with 
only a single game fish (cutthroat trout) observed. The most abundant fish 
were dace, flannelmouth sucker, fathead minnow, and bluehead sucker. The 
high volume and velocity of flow of the White River hampered fishing efforts 
during this sampling period. 



2.4-26 



c 



2.4.8 Fish Data 



2.4-27 



APPENDIX C-17-1 

FISH DATA, WHITE RIVER AND YELLOW CREEK 
RBOSP AQUATIC BASELINE STUDIES 
WAY - JUNE 1975 



2.4.G.49 



APPENDIX C-17-1 

FISH DATA, WHITE RIVER AND YELLOW CREEK 
RBOSP AQUATIC BASELINE STUDIES, MAY - JUNE 1975 

Station 
Date Repl icate Species 



6-27-75 22-1 Carp 

Roundtail chub 



Flannelmouth sucker 



Length 


Weight 


\ 


(mm) 


(gm) 


445 


1,311 


1.48 


273 


169 


0.83 


194 


68.8 


0.94 


178 


50.6 


0.89 


197 


68.3 


0.89 


199 


71.8 


0.91 


191 


66.7 


0.95 


203 


65.6 


0.78 


170 


43.9 


0.89 


126 


17 


0.84 


120 


16 


0.92 


74 


4 


0.98 


71 


4 


1.11 


75 


5 


1.18 


72 


4 


1.07 


81 


5 


0.94 


73 


4 


1.02 


80 


5 


0.97 


71 


4 


1.11 


68 


3 


0.95 


76 


4 


0.91 


69 


3 


0.91 


63 


2 


0.79 


69 


3 


0.91 


69 


3 


0.91 


68 


3 


0.95 


66 


3 


1.04 


59 


2 


0.97 


64 


2 


0.76 


63 


2 


0.79 


52 


1 


0.71 


69 


3 


0.91 


55 


1 


0.60 


49 


1 


0.84 


56 


2 


1.13 


64 


3 


1.14 


67 


3 


0.99 


58 


2 


1.02 


56 


2 


1.13 



2 4.8.50 



APPENDIX C-17-1 (Continued; 



Station 
Date Repl icate Species 



6-27-75 22-1 Flannelmouth sucker 



Bluehead sucker 



Length 


Weight 


K T 


(mm) 


(gm) 


T L 


46 


1 


1.02 


49 


1 


0.84 


64 


3 


1.14 


54 


1 


0.63 


68 


3 


0.95 


55 


2 


1.20 


66 


3 


1.04 


58 


2 


1.02 


64 


2 


0.76 


63 


2 


0.79 


60 


2 


0.92 


62 


2 


0.83 


60 


2 


0.92 


59 


2 


0.97 


65 


3 


1.19 


55 


2 


1.20 


55 


2 


1.20 


54 


1 


0.63 


59 


2 


0.97 


57 


2 


1.07 


59 


2 


0.97 


56 


2 


1.13 


55 


2 


1.20 


46 


1 


1.02 


55 


1 


0.60 


49 


1 


0.84 


56 


2 


1.13 


52 


1 


0.71 


51 


1 


0.75 


63 


2 


0.79 


47 


1 


0.96 


57 


2 


1.07 


55 


2 


1.20 


54 


1 


0.63 


49 


1 


0.84 


100 


11 


1.1 


53 






54 






52 






48 






60 






52 







2.4.8.51 



APPENDIX C-17-1 (Continued) 





Station 






Length 


Weight 


\ 


Date 


Replicate 
22-1 


Species 


(mm) 
59 


(gm) 


6-27-75 


Bluehead sucker 








M 


49 










ii 


63 










ii 


49 










ii 


44 










ii 


47 










■1 


48 










ii 


55 










ii 


53 










n 


50 










ii 


39 










ii 


55 


27.0 = 


Total for 
18 Bluehead 






Fathead minnow 


55 
55 




suckers 






ii 


46 










ii 


47 










n 


59 










ii 


47 










ii 


38 










n 


37 










M 


39 










ii 


58 












i 


42 












• 


39 












i 


42 












i 


49 












i 


34 












i 


40 












i 


40 












i 
i 

■ 
i 
i 
n 

• 


42 
42 
54 
36 
52 
53 
39 
42 
50 










it 


39 












■1 


56 







2.4.8.52 



APPENDIX C-17-1 (Continued) 

Station Length Weight IC. 
Date Replicate Species (mm) (gm) T L 

6-27-75 22-1 Fathead minnow 55 

42 
44 
50 
56 
55 
49 



6-27-75 22-1 Rhinichthys spp. 44 

49 
56 
49 
44 
47 
43 
42 
45 
49 
54 
58 
54 
48 
46 
46 
56 
53 
49 
56 
45 
44 
35 
55 
43 
45 
43 
50 
45 
55 
46 
56 



2.4.8.53 



50.6 = Total for 35 

Fathead minnows 



APPENDIX C-17-1 (Continued) 

Station Length Weight K 
Date Replicate Species (mm) (gm) T l_ 



6-27-75 22-1 Rhinichthys spp. 50 

49 
45 
52 
44 
46 
52 
45 
60 
43 
40 
47 
52 
35 
50 
44 
44 
43 
38 
50 
53 
50 
44 
49 
54 
47 
51 
48 
45 
47 
52 
33 
40 
50 
53 
44 
57 
47 
53 
47 
48 



2.4.8.54 



APPENDIX C-17-1 (Continued 



Station Length Weight fC. 
Date Replicate Species (mm) (gm) 'L 



6-27-75 22-1 Rhinichthys spp. 53 

37 
48 
47 
46 
47 
49 
32 
48 
50 
45 
46 
42 
50 
47 
56 
45 
49 
46 
48 
39 
51 
40 
44 
47 
39 
42 
33 
45 
46 
54 
45 
51 
49 
42 
42 
53 
37 



2.4.8.5b 



APPENDIX C-17-1 (Continued 



Station 
Date Replicate 





Length 


Weight K_ 
(gm) T L 


Species 


(mm) 


Rhinichthys spp. 


47 




M 


50 




H 


46 




H 


42 


118.5 = Total for 118 
Rhinichthys 
spp. 


Rhinichthys sp. 


72 


3.9 


Fathead minnow 


65 


4.0 1.45 


Rhinichthys spp. 


58 


1.9 


" 


54 


1.3 


ii 


48 


1.0 


H 


45 


0.8 


ii 


46 


0.9 


Flannelmouth sucker 


71 


3 0.83 


ii 


63 


2 0.79 


M 


47 




M 


52 




ii 


46 


3 = Total for 3 

Flannelmouth sucke 
suckers 


Bluehead sucker 


52 


2 1.42 


Fathead minnow 


47 




H 


35 




H 


40 




H 


45 




*i 


47 




H 


49 




V 


34 


7 = Total for 7 
Fathead 
minnows 


Rhinichthys spp. 


50 




" 


44 




ii 


47 




H 


49 




H 


48 





6-27-75 22-1 



6-27-75 22-2 



6-27-75 22-Qual 



2.4.8. hG 



APPENDIX C-17-1 (Continued) 



Date 



Station 
Repl icate 



Species 



Length 
(mm) 



Weight 
(gm) 



6-27-75 



22-Qual 



Rhinichthys spp. 



44 
44 
48 
51 
56 
50 
54 
52 
53 
44 
49 
44 
45 
43 
52 
53 
48 
51 
50 
56 
46 
51 
51 
40 
40 
43 
50 
51. 
42 
46 
44 
39 
42 
35 
44 
39 
46 
45 
59 
48 



2.4.8. b7 



APPENDIX C-17-1 (Continued) 

Station Length Weight K 
Date Replicate Species (mm) (gm) T L 

6-27-75 22-Qual Rhinichthys spp. 42 

46 
44 
39 
42 
35 
44 
39 
46 
45 
59 
48 
47 
40 

47 45.2 = Total for 49 

Rhinichthys spp 



6-27-75 23-1 Flannelmouth sucker 



Bluehead sucker 
Mottled sculpin 



Rhinichthys spp. 
6-27-75 23-2 Mottled sculpin 
6-24-75 24-1 Flannelmouth sucker 



Bluehead sucker 
Rhinichthys spp. 



6-24-75 24-2 Flannelmouth sucker 

Bluehead sucker 



2.4.3.58 



264 


140 


0.76 


213 


78 


0.80 


170 


42 


0.85 


184 


47 


0.75 


90 


10 


1.37 


92 


11 


1.41 


83 


8 


1.39 


52 


2 




66 


4.2 


1.46 


425 


605 


0.78 


227 


100 


0.85 


171 


43 


0.85 


154 


35 


0.95 


135 


22 


0.89 


218 


80 


0.77 


49 


1.2 




46 


0.9 




457 


725 


0.75 


226 


100 


0.86 


162 


35 


0.82 



APPENDIX C-17-1 (Continued; 





Station 




Length 


Weight 


K T 


Date 


Replicate 


Species 


(mm) 


(gm) 


T L 


6-27-75 


24-2 


Bluehead sucker 


192 


55 


0.77 






ii 


163 


38 


0.87 


6-24-75 


25-1 


No Fish 








6-24-75 


25-2 


No Fish 








6-24-75 


26-1 


Flannelmouth sucker 


184 


65 


1.04 


6-24-75 


26-2 


Flannelmouth sucker 


170 


36 


0.73 






Rhinichthys spp. 


65 


3.5 








H 


54 


1.4 








it 


48 


1.1 




6-26-75 


27-1 


Rhinichthys spp. 








6-26-75 


27-2 


Flannelmouth sucker 
Roundtail chub 
Rhinichthys spp. 








6-26-75 


28-1 


Flannelmouth sucker 


472 


831 


0.79 






" 


422 


611 


0.81 






H 


370 


458 


0.90 






■I 


385 


481 


0.84 






ii 


434 


703 


0.85 






H 


388 


485 


0.83 






H 


354 


360 


0.81 






ii 


395 


586 


0.95 






it 


116 


14.1 


0.90 






Cutthrout trout 


337 


452 


1.18 


6-26-75 


28-1 


Roundtail chub 


152 


31.5 


0.89 






Rhinichthys spp. 


72 


3.8 








M 


51 
55 


1.2 

1.4 




6-26-75 


28-2 


Flannelmouth sucker 


411 


770 


1.1 






" 


267 


154 


0.80 


6-26-75 


29-1 


Flannelmouth sucker 


224 


85 


0.75 






ii 


162 


32 


0.75 






M 


176 


42 


0.77 






ii 


217 


83 


0.81 






ii 


239 


110 


0.80 



2.4.8.59 



APPENDIX C-17-1 (Continued; 



Date 



Station 

Repl icate 



Species 



Length 

(mm) 



Weight 
(gm) 



6-26-75 



29-1 



Flannelmouth sucker 



Bluehead sucker 



Mottled sculpin 



Rhinichthys spp. 



6-26-75 



29-2 



Flannelmouth sucker 
Bluehead sucker 
Mottled sculpin 
Rhinichthys spp. 



214 


73 


0.74 


156 


28 


0.73 


393 


601 


0.99 


364 


407 


0.84 


169 


48.1 


0.99 


148 


32.1 


0.99 


124 


17.1 


0.89 


226 


140 


1.21 


409 


628 


0.91 


145 


26.7 


0.87 


146 


28.0 


0.89 


141 


25.6 


0.91 


111 


11.7 


0.85 


94 


8.4 


1.01 


101 


14 


1.35 


86 


9 


1.41 


77 


7 


1.53 


70 


5 


1.45 


60 


3 


1.38 


69 


3 




50 






50 






47 






46 






46 






44 






46 






54 






43 






47 






49 


12 = Total 


for 11 




11 Rhinichthys 






spp. 


169 


41 




104 


10.9 




78 


6.3 




95 


11.2 




81 


5.4 




63 


3.4 




54 


1.6 





2.4.8.60 



APPENDIX C-17-1 (Continued) 



Date 



Station 

Replicate 



Species 



Length 
(mm) 



Weight 
(gm) 



r r 



6-26-75 



29-2 



Rhinichthys spp. 



51 
52 
49 



3.6 = Total for 3 

Rhinichthys spp. 



6-23-75 



30-1 



Flannelmouth sucker 



429 


669 


423 


769 


390 


510 


82 


6 


74 


4 


67 




61 




59 




50 




52 




51 




46 
51 
50 
54 
45 




44 




48 


18.2 = Total for last 




13 Flannelmouth 




suckers 



6-23-75 


30-2 


6-23-75 


31-1 


6-23-75 


31-2 


6-23-75 


32-1 



Rhinichthys spp. 
No Fish Captured 
No Fish Captured 
Flannelmouth sucker 



98 



11.2 



324 


304 


0.89 


229 


97 


0.80 


198 


60 


0.77 



2.4.8.61 



APPENDIX C-l 7-1 (Continued 



Station Length Weight IC 
Date Replicate Species (mm) (gm) L 



6-23-75 32-1 

6-23-75 32-2 

6-25-75 33-1 

6-25-75 33-2 

6-25-75 34-1 

6-25-75 34-1 



Flannelmouth sucker 


169 


29 




0.60 


Bluehead sucker 


160 


20 




0.48 


Roundtail chub 


231 


86 




0.68 


Flannelmouth sucker 


203 


62 




0.74 


ii 


210 


63 




0.68 


Flannelmouth sucker 


383 


497 




0.88 


n 


133 


21 




0.89 


Rhinichthys spp. 


62 


2. 


3 




" 


54 


1. 


6 






49 


1. 


3 




Flannelmouth sucker 


220 


88 




0.82 


H 


242 


121 




0.85 


M 


216 


86 




0.85 


ii 


175 


50 




0.93 


Mottled sculpin 


88 


11 




1.61 


Rhinichthys spp. 


86 
71 


8 
4 






M 


42 


1 






M 


50 








•i 


57 








ii 


48 4. 


4 = Total 


for last 






3 Rhinichthys 






spp. 







2.4.8.62 



APPENDIX C-17-1 (Continued) 



Station Length 



Date Replicate Species (mm) (gm) L 

6-25-75 34-1 Rhinichthys spp. 47 

42 
44 
41 

47 4.5 



6-25-75 34-2 Rhinichthys spp. 75 

6-25-75 35-1 Flannelmouth sucker 206 

200 

183 

109 

Bluehead sucker 308 

6-25-75 35-2 Flannelmouth sucker 175 49 0.91 



Total 


for 5 




Rhinichthys 




spp. 






5.3 






65 


0. 


74 


58 


0. 


72 


50 


0. 


81 


11 


0. 


,84 


236 


0.80 



2.4.C.C3 



APPENDIX C-17- 2 

LIST OF FISH SPECIES AND NUMBERS CAPTURED 
WHITE RIVER AND LOWER YELLOW CREEK 
RBOSP AQUATIC BASELINE STUDIES, MAY - JUNE 1-975 



2.4.3.64 



APPENDIX C-17-2 

LIST OF FISH SPECIES AND NUMBERS CAPTURED 
WHITE RIVER AND LOWER YELLOW CREEK 
RBOSP AQUATIC BASELINE STUDIES, MAY - JUNE 1975 



Common Name 
Cutthroat trout 
Fathead minnow 
Dace 

Bluehead sucker 
Flannelmouth sucker 
Mottled sculpin 
Roundtail chub 
Carp 



Scientific Name 



Salmo clarki 



Pimephales promelas 
Rhinichthys spp. 
Catostomus discobolus 
Catostomus latipinnis 
Cottus bairdi 
Gila robusta 



Cyprinus carpio 



Number 
Captured 

1 

43 

234 

36 

127 

11 

10 

1 



2.4.8.65 



APPENDIX C-17-3 

SUMMARY OF STOMACH CONTENT ANALYSIS FOR NINE MOTTLED SCUPIN 

RBOSP AQUATIC BASELINE STUDIES 

MAY - JUNE 1975 



2.4.3.66 



APPENDIX C-17-3 



SUMMARY OF STOMACH CONTENT ANALYSIS FOR NINE MOTTLED SCUPIN 

RBOSP AQUATIC BASELINE STUDIES, MAY - JUNE 1975 

% Frequency & of Total 

Food Item of Occurrence 1 Food Item 2 

Baetidae 56 24 

Ephemerella 73 65 

Hyd ropsyche 33 10 

Tricorythodes 11 2 



2.4.8.67 



APPENDIX C-17-4 

SUMMARY OF STOMACH CONTENT ANALYSES FOR 64 FLANNELMOUTH 

SUCKERS RBOSP AQUATIC BASELINE STUDIES 

MAY - JUNE 1975 



2.4.3.63 



APPENDIX C-17-4 

SUMMARY OF STOMACH CONTENT ANALYSES FOR 64 FLANNELMOUTH 
SUCKERS RBOSP AQUATIC BASELINE STUDIES, MAY - JUNE 1975 





% Frequency 


Food Item 


of Occurrence* 


Baetidae 


8 


Baetis 


16 


Ceratopogonidae 


6 


Chironomidae 


53 


Diptera adult 


3 


Diptera pupa 


2 


Ephemerel la 


23 


Ephemeroptera adult 


2 


Hydropsyche 


16 
2 


Hydropsychidae 


Hydroptila 


3 
6 


Isoperla 


Nematoda 


2 


Pyralidae 


2 


Simulidae 


16 


Terrestrial ant 


3 


Terrestrial insect 


2 


Terrestrial seed 


14 


Internal Parasites 


42 


Sand 


9 



1 of Tota l 
Food Item? 

2 

9 

1 
52 

1 

1 
14 

1 

8 
<1 
<1 

1 
<1 
<1 
10 
<1 
<1 

2 



2.4.3.69 



APPENDIX C-17-5 

SUMMARY OF STOMACH CONTENT ANALYSIS FOR 11 BLUEHEAD 
SUCKERS RBOSP AQUATIC BASELINE STUDIES 
MAY - JUNE 1975 



2.4.8.70 



APPENDIX C-17-5 

SUMMARY OF STOMACH CONTENT ANALYSIS FOR 11 BLUEHEAD 
SUCKERS RBOSP AQUATIC BASELINE STUDIES, MAY - JUNE 1975 

% Frequency % of Total 

Food Item of Occurrence' Food Item? 

Baetidae 27 8 

Chironomidae 27 3 

Ephemerel la 9 2 

Hydroptila 9 2 

Pyralidae 9 2 

Simulidae 9 2 

Terrestrial seed 9 2 

Internal Parasites 55 

Sand 36 



4 % Frequency of Occurrence = # stomach containing food items 

total § stomachs examined 

2% of Total Food Items = total # of a food taxa in all stomachs 

total # of all food items 



2.4.8.71 



APPENDIX C-17-6 

SUMMARY OF STOMACH CONTENT ANALYSIS FOR EIGHT ROUNDTAIL CHUBS 

RBOSP AQUATIC BASELINE STUDIES 

MAY - JUNE 1975 



2.4.G.72 



APPENDIX C-17-6 

SUMMARY OF STOMACH CONTENT ANALYSIS FOR EIGHT ROUNDTAIL CHUBS 
RBOSP AQUATIC BASELINE STUDIES, MAY - JUNE 1975 



Food Item 

Acari 

Chironomidae 
Ephemerel la 
Fish (Minnow) 
Hydroptilidae case 
Spirogyra 
Internal parasites 



% Frequency 


% of Total 


of Occurrencyl 


Food I terns 2 


13 


7 


38 


21 


13 


29 


13 


7 


13 


7 


38 


-- 


25 


-- 



2.4.8.73 



APPENDIX C-17-7 

RESULTS OF FOOD HABIT ANALYSES FOR INDIVIDUAL FISH 

RBOSP AQUATIC BASELINE STUDIES 

MAY - JUNE 1975 



2.4.3.74 



APPENDIX C-17-7 

RESULTS OF FOOD HABIT ANALYSES FOR INDIVIDUAL FISH 
RBOSP AQUATIC BASELINE STUDIES, MAY - JUNE 1975 1 





Station 


22 


Date 


6-26-75 




Length 
(mm) 


Weight 




Food Items 


Species 


19 




Flannelmouth sucker 


74.0 


4.0 


Chironomidae 










Insect parts 


Flannelmouth sucker 


71.0 


4.0 


20 
10 


Chironomidae 
Simulidae larva 


Flannelmouth sucker 


75.0 


5.0 


2 


Chironomidae 


Flannelmouth sucker 


72.0 


4.0 


20 
10 


Chironomidae 
Simulidae larva 


Flannelmouth sucker 


81.0 


5.0 


8 
2 


Chironomidae 
Simulidae larva 


Flannelmouth sucker 


73.0 


4.0 


14 
1 


Chironomidae 
Simulidae larva 


Flannelmouth sucker 


71.0 


4.0 


18 
11 


Chironomidae 
Simulidae larva 


Flannelmouth sucker 


76.0 


4.0 


20 


Chironomidae 


Flannelmouth sucker 


68.0 


3.0 


10 
8 


Chironomidae 
Simulidae larva 


Flannelmouth sucker 


69.0 


3.0 


30 


Chironomidae 


Flannelmouth sucker 


120.0 


16.0 


1 


Diptera pupa 


Flannelmouth sucker 


170.0 


43.9 


2 
15 


Baetis 
Chironomidae 


Roundtail chub 


178.0 


50.6 


1 


Chironomidae 
Insect parts 
Spirogyra 



No fish were taken at Stations 25 and 31, no stomachs were taken at 
Stations 33 and 35; and the five specimens taken at Station 27 were 
accidentally destroyed. 
U * Unidentifiable 



2.4.8.75 



APPENDIX C-17-7 (Continued 





Station 


22 (Con 


tinued) 


Date 


6-26-75 




Length 
(mm) 


Weight 
(gm) 






Food Items 


Species 


if 




Roundtail chub 


191.0 


66.7 




1 
4 
1 


Chironomidae 
Ephemerel la 
Fish (minnow) 


Roundtail chub 


199.0 


71.8 




3 


Insect parts 


Roundtail chub 


203.0 


65.6 




1 


Acari 
Spirogyra 



Roundtail chub 



197.0 68.3 



1 Chironomidae 
1 Hydroptilidae case 
Spirogyra 



Roundtail chub 


273.0 


169.9 




U 


Bluehead sucker 


100.0 


11.0 




U 


Flannelmouth sucker 


126.0 


17.0 




u 


Flannelmouth sucker 


80.0 


5.0 




None 




Station 


23 


Date 


6-27-75 


Flannelmouth sucker 


213.0 


78.0 


1 


Ephemerel la 


Flannelmouth sucker 


170.0 


42.0 




U 


Flannelmouth sucker 


264.0 


140.0 




U 


Bluehead sucker 


184.0 


47.0 




U 
Sand 




Station 


24 


Date 


6-24-75 


Flannelmouth sucker 


227.0 


100.0 


10 


Baetis 


Flannelmouth sucker 


425.0 


605.0 


16 
4 

20 
5 
2 
1 


Baetis 

Chironomidae 

Ephemerel la 

Hydropsychidae 

Hydroptila 

Isoperia 



2.4.8.76 



Species 
Flannelmouth sucker 



Flannelmouth sucker 



Bluehead sucker 



APPENDIX C-17-7 (Continued 



Station 24 (Continued) Date 6-24-75 



Lenqth 
(mm) 



Weight 

(gm) 



457.0 725.0 



135.0 22.0 



Flannelmouth sucker 


226 


.0 


100.0 


Flannelmouth sucker 


154 


.0 


35.0 


Flannelmouth sucker 


171 


.0 


43.0 


Bluehead sucker 


192 


.0 


55.0 



163.0 38.0 



Food Items 



9 Ephemerel la 

1 Hydropsyche 

1 Simulidae 

1 Hydropsyche 

1 Isoperla 

1 Ephemerella 

1 Seed (Terrestrial 
origin) 

1 Baetis 

1 Ephemerella 

16 Chironomidae 

1 Pyralidae 
5 Simulidae 

2 Baetis 

10 Ephemerella 

1 Hydroptila 



Bluehead sucker 


162.0 


35.0 


2 


Seeds (Terrestrial 
origin) 


Bluehead sucker 


218.0 


80.0 


1 


U 




Station 


26 


Date 


6-26-75 


Flannelmouth sucker 


224.0 


85.0 


1 
3 

1 


Baetidae 
Ephemerella 
Seed (Terrestrial 
origin) 


Flannelmouth sucker 


170.0 


36.0 


1 


Hydropsyche 


Flannelmouth sucker 


184.0 


65.0 


1 


Seed (Terrestrial 
origin) 



2.4.G.77 



APPENDIX C-17 





Station 


28 


--' = 


6-26-75 




Length 
(ram) 

422.0 


Weicht 

(c~ 

611.0 




Food Items 


Species 


- 




Flannelmouth sucker 


1 


r.ydropsychidae 


Flannelmouth sucker 


385.0 


481.0 


2 


E2etidae 

Vegetation (Terres- 
trial origin) 


Flannelmouth sucker 


395.0 


586.0 


1 

1 


Baetidae 
Chironomidae 
EDhemerella 
Seed (Terrestrial 
origin) 


Flannelmouth sucker 


472.0 


831.0 


2 
1 
2 
2 
3 


Saetis 

Ceratopogonidae 

Chironomidae 

Eohemerella 

Kydropsyche 


Flannelmouth sucker 


267.0 


154.0 


12 

1 

2 

1 
1 
2 


Eaetis 

Cnironomidae 
Eohenerel la 
Kydropsyche 

Iscuerla 

Terrestrial insect 
Seed (Terrestrial 
origin) 


Flannelmouth sucker 


116.0 


i;.i 


1 


Chironomidae 


Flannelmouth sucker 


388.0 


485.0 




Saetis 



Flannelmouth sucker 434.0 703,0 

Flannelmouth sucker 411.0 770.0 

Flannelmouth sucker 370.0 458.0 

Flannelmouth sucker 354.0 360.0 

Roundtail chub 152.0 31.5 



1 Cnironomidae 



•J 
Sand 



U 

Sand 



Sand 
U 



2.4.8. 7.J 



APPENDIX C-17-7 (Continued 



Station 29 



Date 2-26-75 



Sp ecies 
Flannelmouth sucker 



Flannelmouth sucker 

Flannelmouth sucker 
Flannelmouth sucker 
Flannelmouth sucker 

Flannelmouth sucker 
Flannelmouth sucker 

Flannelmouth sucker 
Flannelmouth sucker 

Flannelmouth sucker 
Flannelmouth sucker 
Flannelmouth sucker 
Flannelmouth sucker 



Length Weight 
( mm) (gm) 

156.0 28.0 



169.0 41.0 

63.0 2.0 

69.0 3.0 

69.0 3.0 

68.0 3.0 

66.0 3.0 

148.0 32.1 

124.0 17.1 

162.0 32.0 

214.0 73.0 

217.0 83.0 

239.0 110.0 



Food Items 

1 Ceratopogonidae 

1 Chironomidae 

1 E phemerella 

1 Hydropsyc he 

1 Ant 

1 Seed (Terrestrial 
origin) 

1 Ephemerel 1 a 

1 Seed (Terrestrial 
origin) 

15 Chironomidae 

14 Chironomidae 

15 Chironomidae 
1 Nematoda 

3 Chironomidae 

3 Chironomidae 

4 Simulidae 

1 Baetidae 

1 Chironomidae 

1 Ant 

3 Ceratopogonidae 

1 Chironomidae 

1 Seed & grass 

2 Baetidae 

1 Chironomidae 

1 Hydropsyche 

2 Baetis 

1 Chironomidae 

2 Ephemerel la 

1 Chironomidae 
Insect parts 



2.4.8. 79 % 



APPENDIX C-17-7 (Continued 



Station 29 (Continued) Date 6-26-75 





Species 
louth sucker 


Length 

(mm) 


Weight 
(gm) 




Food Items 




II 




Flanneln 


176.0 


42.0 


U 


Flannelmouth sue 


ker 


373.0 


601.0 




u 

Sand 


Flannelmouth sue 


ker 


104.0 


10.1 




Insect parts 


Flannelmouth sue 


ker 


364.0 


407.0 




Vegetation (Terrestrial 

origin) 
U 


Flannelmouth sue 


ker 


169.0 


48.1 




Empty 


Blueheac 


1 sucker 




409.0 


628.0 


1 


Baetidae 


Blueheac 


1 sucker 




266.0 


140.0 




U 


Blueheac 


I sucker 




145.0 


26.7 




Empty 


Mottled 


sculpin 




83.0 


8.0 


2 
2 


Baetidae 
Ephemerel la 


Mottled 


Sculpin 




92.0 


11.0 


4 
2 


Baetidae 
Hydropsyche 


Mottled 


sculpin 




90.0 


10.0 


2 
3 


Baetidae 
Ephemerel la 


Mottled 


sculpin 




60.0 


3.0 


2 


Ephemerella 


Mottled 


sculpin 




70.0 


5.0 


1 


Ephemerel la 


Mottled 


sculpin 




86.0 


9.0 


13 


Ephemerel la 


Mottled 


sculpin 




101.0 


14.0 


3 
3 
1 


Baetidae 
Ephemerel la 
Hydropsyche 



Mottled sculpin 



77.0 



7.0 



2.4.8.80 



APPENDIX C-17-7 (Continued 



Station 30 



Date 6-23-75 



Species 
Flannelmouth sucker 



Flannelmouth sucker 

Flannelmouth sucker 

Flannelmouth sucker 

Flannelmouth sucker 



Bluehead sucker 



Bluehead sucker 



Roundtail chub 



Lenqth Weight 
(mm) (gm) 

390.0 510.0 



429.0 669.0 

423.0 769.0 

203.0 62.0 

229.0 97.0 



Flannelmouth sucker 198.0 60.0 
Flannelmouth sucker 324.0 304.0 

Flannelmouth sucker 169.0 29.0 



160.0 20.0 



210.0 63.0 



231.0 86.0 



Food I tenis 



1 Chironomidae 

3 Diptera adult 
33 Ephemerel la 
27 Hydropsyche 

4 Isoperla 

5 Simulidae 



Diptera adult 
Ephemerel la 
Ephemeroptera 
Hydroptila 
Pyralidae 

Ephemerel la 
Seed (Terrestrial 
origin) 

Chironomidae 

Baetis 

Ceratopogonidae 
Chironomidae 
Hydropsyche 

Chironomidae 

Chironomidae 
Sand 

3 Baetis 



43 Chironomidae 

8 Chironomidae 

Vegetative Material 

(Terrestrial origin 
Sand 

1 Baetis 

2 Chironomidae 



2.4.8.81 



APPENDIX C-17-7 (Continued 



Station 34 Date 6-25-75 

Length Weight Food I terns 

S pecies (rum) (gin) # 

Mottled sculpin 88.0 .11.0 1 Baetidae 

9 Ephemerella 

2 Hydropsyche 

1 Tricorythodes 



2.4.8.32 



2.4.9 Springs and Seepages 

2.4.9.1 Objectives 

No change in objectives has occurred since Progress Report 3. See section 
2.4.9 of Progress Report 3 for specific objectives. 

2.4.9.2 Methods 

No change in methods has occurred since Progress Report 3. See section 
2.4.9 of Progress Report 3 for specific methods. 

2.4.9.3 Results 

Locations of springs and seepages on or near Tract C-a are 

shown on Figure 2.4-2. Additional springs and seepages 

which are not identified on Figure 2.4-2 include: 

o a series of seepages located from 25 fo 200 feet above aquatic sampling 

Station 4 in Water Gulch 
o Maverick Springs at aquatic sampling Station 3 in Corral Gulch 
o a spring located approximately one mile above the confluence of Water and 

Corral Gulches 
o a spring located approximately 100 feet above aquatic sampling Station 9 

in Coral Gulch 
o a spring located approximately one mile above the confluence of Water and 

Corral Gulches 
o a spring at aquatic sampling Station 2 in Spruce Gulch 
o a spring at aquatic sampling Station 1 in Cross Gulch approximately two 

miles above the confluence with Spruce Gulch 
o a spring located approximately 2600 feet above aquatic sampling Station 1 
o a spring located approximately 50 feet above aquatic sampling Station 8 

in Box Elder Gulch 
o a spring located immediately above aquatic sampling Station 8 in Box Elder 

Gulch 
o a spring located approximately 50 feet above aquatic sampling Station 2 in 

Spruch Gulch 
o a spring located approximately 1300 feet west of aquatic sampling Station 

13 on Corral Gulch 
o a seepage in Stake Springs Draw approximately 200 feet above its confluence 

with Corral Gulch 



2.4-28 



I. 

..if 

..I 






r- 






MW I 'IP 



• /, 



u - 



- - •• ■-' t Vkl*.;V*k 






K-^ 



»x 



i i v 












A- 



' : "A, 






Ttf^. 



V'A 



tfi 



itf>: 



4&: 






I ' 






A.' 4' 



/ / 



f>M4< 






a. >.' ! 



iiT" 



tf&'&t 














ENVIRONMENTAL 
STUDIES for THE 

RIO BLANCO OIL SHALE PROJECT 
* TRACT C-a 



SPRING & S EEPA GE LOCATIONS 

& Springs *nd beejwcji-s as of 4/ J5 

Figure 2.4-2 



LIMNETICS, INC. 

Denver, Cob* ado 



2.4-29 



2.4.10 Hydrology 

2.4.10.1 Objectives 

The objective of this segment of the aquatic program is to measure the 
approximate stream velocites at each site at the time of sample collection 
to assist in characterizing the existing aquatic habitat. 

2.4.10.2 Methods 

Stream velocity is measured at each sampling site with Gurley flowmeters or 
an equivalent device. 

2.4.10.3 Results 

The approximate stream velocities during the May - June and July - August 
sampling periods are presented in Appendices C-18-1 and C-18-2. 



2.4-30 



2.4.10 - Hydrology Data 



2.4-31 



APPENDIX C-18-1 

STREAM FLOW 

RBOSP AQUATIC BASELINE STUDIES 

MAY - JUNE 1975 



2.4.10.7 



APPENDIX C-18-1 

STREAM FLOW, RBOSP AQUATIC BASELINE STUDIES, MAY - JUNE 1975 
(Results are expressed in feet per second and, where appropriate 

are given for bank side and point of maximum flow.) 

Flow 

Station (ft/sec) 

s m 

1 1.5 

2 2.5 

3 0.9 

4 1.4 

5 1.4 

6 3.5;2.0 

7 2.5 

8 3.2;1 .8 

9 1.7 

13 1.7 

14 0.0 

19 1.8 

20 1.4 

21 2.3 

22 0.0 

23 2.1;0.2 

24 4.4;3.0 

25 7.5 

26 4.6;3.0 



27 



1.6:1.2 



? 8 3.3;0!8 



5.8;3.1 

5.3 

6.7 

3.9;1.5 

3.5 

3.5 



35 4.0:3.1 



Stations 10-12 and 15-18 were dry at the time of sampling. 



2.4.10. 



APPENDIX C-18-2 

STREAM FLOW 

RBOSP AQUATIC BASELINE STUDIES 

JULY - AUGUST 1975 



2.4.10.9 



APPENDIX C-18-2 

STREAM FLOW, RBOSP AQUATIC BASELINE STUDIES, JULY - AUGUST 1975 

(Results are expressed in feet per second and, where appropriate. 

are given for bank side and point of maximum flow.)' 



Flow 

Station (ft/sec) 

s m 

1 0.4 

2 1.3 

3 1.3 

4 1.5 

5 0.4 

7 1.5 

8 1.7;2.0 

9 2.1 

13 2.0 

14 0.0 

15 0.8 

17 0.4 

18 0.8 

19 1.8 

20 1.4 

21 0.8 

22 0.7 

23 1.0;2.9 

24 2.4;2.2 

25 2.8;2.9 

26 1.9;2.9 

27 0.4;1.2 

28 1 .0,1 .3 

29 2.1;3.1 

30 2.7;3.1 

31 2.4;3.1 

32 1.7,2.9 

33 1.0;2.8 

34 1.0;1.7 

35 1.7;2.9 



Stations 6, 10 - 12, and 16 were dry at the time of sampling 



2.4.10.10 



2.4.11 Miscellaneous Studies 

2.4.11.1 Objectives 

No change in objectives has occurred since Progress Report 3. See section 
2.4.11 of Progress Report 3 for specific objectives. 

2.4.11.2 Methods 

No change in methods has occurred since Progress Report 3. See section 
2.4.11 of Progress Report 3 for parameters included in these studies. The 
frequency of collection of the various parameters included in these inves- 
tigations and the list of parameters are presented in Table 2.4-3. 

2.4.11.3 Results 

Data from the April and May - June sampling periods are included in 
Appendices C-19-1, C-19-2, and C-20-1 . 



2.4-32 



Table 2.4-3. List of Parameters and Sampling Frequency for Water Quality 
Investigations. 



Semi -Monthly 



Semi-Monthly 1 



Element or Compound 



Element or Compound 



Barium 

Boron 

Calcium 

Chromium 

Copper 

Fluoride 

Iron 

Lithium 

Magnesium 

Potassium 

Selenium 

Silicon 

Sodium 

Sulfate 

Zinc 

Ammonia 

Bicarbonate 

Carbonate 

Chloride 

Color 

Dissolved solids 

Kjeldahl nitrogen 

Nitrate 

Nitrite 

Odor 

Oil and Grease 

Turbidity 



Arsenic 

Cadmium 

Lead 

Manganese 

Mercury 

Phosphorus 

Cyanide 

Sulfide 



1 Subject to review 



2.4-33 



Table 2.4-3 (Continued; 



Quarterly 



Organics 




Radioactivity 


Total organic C 
• if < 10mg/l no 

additional 

analysis 




Gross Alpha 1 
> 4 picocuries/1 
analyze for RA 226 


• if > 10mg/l then, 
Dissolved organic 
Suspended organic 
Phenols 
Sulfate 
Nitrogen 


C 
C 


Gross Beta 

• if > 100 picocuries/1 

analyze for Th 230 and 

Natural Uranium 


Chemical oxygen demand 
Fecal col i form 
Pesticides 





Element or Compound 
Complete Element Scan 



2.4-34 



2.4.11 - Miscellaneous Studies Data 



2.4-35 



c 



2.4.11 - Miscellaneous Studies 



2.4-32 



APPENDIX C-19-1 

WATER QUALITY DATA. SPECTROGRAPHS ELEMENT SCAN 
RBOSP AQUATIC BASELINE STUDIES 
APRIL 1975 



2.4.11.5 



APPENDIX C-19-1 

WATER QUALITY DATA. SPECTROGRAPHS ELEMENT SCAN RBOSP AQUATIC 

BASELINE STUDIES, APRIL 1975 (Data are expressed in yg/1 and are based 

upon dissolved sol ids. ) 

Station 
Para meter Replicate 

25 34 



Aluminum (Al ) 
Antimony (Sb) 
Arsenic (As) 
Barium (Ba) 
Beryllium (Be) 
Bismuth (Bi) 
Boron (B) 
Cadmium (Cd) 
Calcium (Ca) 
Chromium (Cr) 
Cobolt (Co) 
Copper (Cu) 
Germanium (Ge) 
Iron (Fe) 
Lead (Pb) 
Magnesium (Mg) 
Manganese (Mn) 
Molybdenum (Mo) 
Nickel (Ni) 
Potassium (K) 
Silica (Si) 
Sodium (Na) 
Strontium (Sr) 
Tellurium (Te) 
Tin (Sn) 
Titanium (Ti) 
Vanadium (V) 
Wolfram (W) 
Zirconium (Zr) 



ND = Not Detected 



0.01 


0.01 


0.02 


0.02 


ND 


ND 


ND 


ND 


ND 


ND 


ND 


ND 


0.017 


0.017 


0.017 


0.017 


ND 


ND 


ND 


ND 


ND 


ND 


ND 


ND 


0.02 


0.02 


0.02 


0.02 


ND 


ND 


ND 


ND 


55.0 


53.6 


53 


54 


ND 


ND 


ND 


ND 


ND 


ND 


ND 


ND 


0.003 


0.003 


0.003 


0.003 


ND 


ND 


ND 


ND 


0.008 


0.013 


0.013 


0.013 


ND 


ND 


ND 


ND 


23 


22.6 


22.6 


22.7 


ND 


ND 


ND 


ND 


ND 


ND 


ND 


ND 


ND 


ND 


ND 


ND 


6.4 


6.2 


6.4 


6.4 


0.05 


0.09 


0.09 


0.09 


192 


186 


185 


187 


2.4 


2.4 


2.4 


3.2 


ND 


ND 


ND 


ND 


ND 


ND 


ND 


ND 


ND 


ND 


ND 


ND 


ND 


ND 


ND 


ND 


ND 


ND 


ND 


ND 


ND 


ND 


ND 


ND 



2.4.11.6 



APPENDIX C-19-2 

WATER QUALITY DATA 

RBOSP AQUATIC BASELINE STUDIES 

APRIL 1975 



2.4.11.7 



APPENDIX C-19-2 

WATER QUALITY DATA. RBOSP AQUATIC BASELINE STUDIES 
APRIL 1975. (Data are expressed in mg/1.) 



PARAMETER 


f 


STATION 
REPLICATE 






25 




34 




A B 


A B 


Lindane 
Malathion 
Parathion 
Toxaphene 


<0.0001 <0.0001 
<0.0005 <0.0005 
<0.0001 <0.0001 
<0.002 <0.002 


<0.0001 <0.0001 
<0.0005 <0.0005 
<0.0001 <0.0001 
<0.002 <0.002 



2.4.11 



APPENDIX C-20-1 

WATER QUALITY DATA 

RBOSP AQUATIC BASELINE STUDIES 

MAY - JUNE 1975 



2.4.11.9 



APPENDIX C-20-1 

WATER QUALITY DATA. RBOSP AQUATIC BASELINE STUDIES 
MAY-JUNE 1975. (Data are expressed in mg/1 unless otherwise noted.) 









STATION 






PARAMETER 






REPLICATE 










25 




3' 


[ 




A 


< 


B 


A 


B 


Arsenic (As), Diss 


< 0.03 


0.03 


< 0.03 


< 0.03 


Barium (Ba), Diss 


< 0.1 


< 


0.1 


< 0.1 


< 0.1 


Boron (B) Diss 


< 0.5 


< 


0.5 


< 0.5 


< 0.5 


Cadmium (Cd), Diss 


< 0.01 


< 


0.01 


< 0.01 


< 0.01 


Chromium (Cr) Total Diss 


< 0.03 


< 


0.03 


< 0.03 


< 0.03 


Copper (Cu), Diss 


< 0.02 


< 


0.02 


< 0.02 


< 0.02 


Cyanide (CN) Total 


< 0.001 


< 


0.001 


< 0.001 


< 0.001 


Fluoride (F), Diss 


0.07 




0.07 


0.06 


0.06 


Iron (Fe), Total Diss 


0.03 




0.06 


0.05 


0.05 


Lead (Pb) Diss 


< 0.05 


< 


0.05 


< 0.05 


< 0.05 


Lithium (Li) Diss 


< 0.02 


< 


0.02 


< 0.02 


< 0.02 


Manganese (Mn), Diss 


< 0.02 


< 


0.02 


< 0.02 


< 0.02 


Mercury (Hg), Diss (ug/1 ) 


0.8 




0.6 


0.8 


0.6 


Phosphorus (P) , Total Diss 


0.02 




0.02 


0.02 


0.03 


Selenium (Se) . Diss 


< 0.01 


< 


0.01 


< 0.01 


< 0.01 


Solvent extract (Oil ) 


0.025 


< 


0.006 


< 0.006 


0.037 


Sulfate (S), Diss 


16 




16 


15 


16 


Sulfide (S), Diss 


< 0.02 


< 


0.02 


< 0.02 


< 0.02 


Zinc (Zn), Diss 


< 0.02 


< 


0.02 


< 0.02 


< 0.02 



Diss = Dissolved 



2.4.11.10 



Literature Cited 

Environmental Protection Agency. 1973. Sludge - sediment analysis. U.S. 
Environmental Protection Agency. Region IV, Surveillance & Analysis 
Branch. 

Everhart, W. H. and B. E. May. 1973. Effects of chemical variations in 
acquatic environments. Vol 1: biota and chemistry of Piceance Creek. 
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Monitoring. 
Washington, D.C. 117pp. 

American Public Health Association (APHA). 1971. Standard methods for 
examination of water and waste-water. 13th ed. APHA, New York. 874 pp. 

Jessen, R. and R. Lound. 1962. An evaluation of a survey technique for 
submerged aquatic plants. Game investigational report No. 6. 
Minnesota Dept. of Conservation. Division of Game and Fish. 10 pp. 

USGS. 1971. Water resources data for Colorado. Part I. Surface water 

records. U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Department of the Interior. 409 pp 

USGS. 1972. Water resources data for Colorado. Part I. Surface water 

records. U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Department of the Interior. 392 pp, 

USGS. 1973. Water resources data for Colorado. Part I. Surface water 

records. U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Department of the Interior. 391 pp, 



2.4-36 



OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRAMS 
PROGRESS REPORT - 4 



Prepared for: 
The Rio Blanco Oil Shale Project 






Submitted by: 



Limnetics, Inc. , Environmental Consultants 
9025 E. Kenyon Avenue 
Denver, Colorado 
80237 



October 1975 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

List of Tables i 

List of Figures ii 

2.5 Other Environmental Programs 2.5-1 

1. Soils survey and productivity assessment studies.. 2.5-1 

2. Archaeological survey 2.5-5 

3. Revegetation 2.5-26 

5. Trace metals 2.5-36 



r 



LIST OF TABLES 



Table 2.5.2-1 Field site number, site location and initial 

material culture analysis located June through 
September 1975 on Tract C-a, RBOSP 2.5-15 

Table 2.5.2-2 Field site number, site location and initial 
material culture analysis for archaeological 
sites located June through September 1975 in 
the 1-mile perimeter of Tract C-a, RBOSP 2.5-16 

Table 2.5.2-3 Field site number, site location and initial 
material culture analysis for archaeological 
sites located June through September 1975 on 
84 Mesa, RBOSP 2.5-18 

Table 2.5.2-4 Field site number, site location and initial 
material culture analysis for archaeological 
sites located June through September 1975 
off-tract outside Tract C-a periphery and 
84 Mesa 2 . 5-20 

Table 2.5.3-1 Plant species suitability and recommended 
sowing rates kb/ha, lbs/acre of viable seed 
for species utilized in revegetation experi- 
ments on oil shale Tract C-a, Rio Blanco 
County, Colorado 2.5-31 

Table 2.5.3-2 Plant response parameters measured in 

initial revegetation studies on oil shale 

Tract C-a, Rio Blanco County, Colorado, 

1976-1978 2.5-34 



* 



2.5 Other Environmental Programs 

2.5.1 Soils survey and productivity assessment studies 

2.5.1.1 Objectives 

The soil studies are designed to fulfill the requirements 
of the oil shale lease, provide data necessary in the 
determination of ecosystem relationships and provide 
information required during revegetation studies. 

The objectives of the soil survey are to describe and map 
soil types. Soil types, depths of the various layers 
of soil, strike and dip of the soil, slopes, vegetation 
cover and erodibility are described. 

Consult Progress Report 2, Section 2.5.1.1 for additional 
objectives of the soils program. 

2.5.1.2 Methods 

Methods employed in the soil studies are described in 
Section 2.5.1.2 of Progress Report 2. 

2.5.1.3 Results 

Preliminary soil surveying and mapping has been carried 
out by the Soil Conservation Service (SCS). A preliminary 
soils map has been prepared by the SCS and is currently 
undergoing further revisions. A general description of 
the twelve soil types encountered during surveying and 
mapping by the SCS are discussed below. 

The aridic haploboroll, loamy-skeletal, mixed, unnamed 
series consists of moderately deep, well -drained soils 
that formed in colluvium on foothill sideslopes. These 
soils have slopes of 12 to 50 percent. Mean annual precipita- 
tion is about 46 cm (18 inches), and the mean annual temperature 
is about 5 to 6 C (42 F). The typical pedon is channery loam, 
. •' 12 to 60 percent slopes, SWfc NW% Section 10, TIN, R99W. 

The Forelle series consists of deep, well-drained soils 
that formed in calcareous aeolian sediments. Forelle 
soils are on uplands and terrace slopes and have slopes of 
3 to 15 percent. Mean annual precipitation is about 35 to 
46 cm (14 to 18 inches), and mean annual air temperature is 
about 5 to 5 C (42 F). Forelle soils are similar to the 
Piceance and Yamac soils. Piceance soils have a lithic 
Contact less than 100 cm (40 inches). Yamac soils do not 
have an argil lie horizon. Typical pedon of Forelle loam, 
3 to 25 percent slopes, about 0.5 km (0.3 mile) east anq 1 
0.3 km (0.2 mile) south of the northwest corner of Section 
30, TIN, R93W. 



2.5-1 



The Glendive series consists of deep, well-drained soils 
formed in alluvial materials. Glendive soils are in valley 
positions and have slopes of 2 to 9 percent. Mean annual 
precipitation is about 35 cm (14 inches), and mean annual air 
temperature is about 6 C {43 F). Glendive soils are near the 
Hagga, Havre and Hanly soils. Hagga soils are poorly drained; 
Hanly soils have a sandy control section; and Havre soils are 
finer textured than the Glendive soils. Typical pedon of 
Glendive fine sandy loam, 2 to 9 percent slopes, about 90 m 
(100 yards) south of the Ryan Gulch Road and 15 m (50 feet) 
east of the fence in the NE^ of HEh Section 12, T2S, R98W. 

The Hagga series consists of deep, very poorly-drained soils 
that formed in alluvium derived mainly from calcarious 
sandstones and shales. Hagga soils are on valley bottoms 
and have slopes of to 5 percent. The mean annual 
precipitation is about 40 cm (16 inches), and the mean annual 
temperature is about 7 C (45 F). Hagga soils are similar to 
the Buford and Havre soils. Buford soils have dark surfaces 
and have very gravelly substrata. Havre soils are well 
drained to moderately well drained, lacking mottles above a 
depth of 100 cm (approximately 40 inches). Typical pedon of 
Hagga loam, to 5 percent slopes, 45 m (150 feet) south and 
49 m (160 feet) west of northwest corner of Section 5, T3S, 
R96W 53 m (175 feet) southwest of Stuart Gulch gaging station). 

The Hanly series consists of deep, somewhat excessively 
drained soils that have formed in detrital alluvium of 
calcareous sandstone and shale origin. Hanly soils are on 
alluvial fans and in narrow valleys with slope gradients 
of 2 to 9 percent. Mean annual precipitation is about 
15 cm (6 inches), and the mean annual air temperature is^, 
about 7 C (45 F). Hanly soils are similar to the Glendive 
soils with which they are closely associated. Glendive soils 
differ in being mainly sandy loam at 25 to 100 cm (approximately 
10 to 40 inch) depths. Typical pedon of Hanly gravelly loamy 
fine sand, 2 to 9 percent slopes, 2.4 km (1.5 miles) up Ryan 
Gulch, 60 m (200 feet) north of road, in the SEh of SE^ 
Section 31, T1S, R98W. 

The Havre series consists of deep, well-drained soils that 
formed in calcareous mixed alluvium. Havre soils are on 
floodplains and low terraces and have slopes of to 8 
percent. Mean annual precipitation is about 40 cm (1G inches), 
and the mean annual air temperature is about 6 to 7 C (44 F). 
Havre soils are similar to Uffens, Glending, Youngston, Hagga, 
Hanly and Glendive. Uffens soils are natric and saline in 
reaction. Glending and Youngston occur in a warmer temperature 
zone. Glending, Hanly and Glendive have sandier control 
sections. Hagga soils are poorly drained. Typical pedon of 
Havre loam, to 8 percent slopes, 0.6 km (0.4 mile) sou£h, 
60 m (200 feet) east of the NW corner of Section 32, TIN, R94W. 



2.5-2 



The lithic haploboroll, loamy-skeletal, mixed, unnamed series 
consists of shallow, well-drained soils that formed in sand- 
stone residuum on upland slopes and ridge tops. These soils 
have slopes of 5 to 50 percent. Mean annual precipitation 
is about 46 cm (18 inches), and the mean annual air temperature 
is about 5 to 6 C (42 F). The typical pedon is very channery 
loam, 5 to 50 percent slopes, NE^ NWfc Section 22, TIN, R99W. 

The Piceance series consists of moderately deep, well-drained 
soils that formed in residuum from sandstone and modified 
with aeolian material. Piceance soils are on upland slopes 
and ridges and have slopes of 5 to 15 percent. Mean annual 
precipitation is about 35 to 46 cm (14 to 18 inches), and the 
mean annual air temperature is about 6C (43 F). Piceance soils 
are similar to Forelle, Yamac and Kinnear. Forelle, Yamac 
and Kinnear soils are deep and do not have bedrock above 100 cm 
(approximately 40 inches). Kinnear soils occur in a warmer 
temperature zone. Typical pedon of Piceance fine sandy loam, 5 
to 25 percent, NE?s of NE*a Section 33, T2S, R99W. 

The Redcreek series consists of shallow, well-drained soils 
that formed in sandy material weathered from underlying 
calcareous sandstone. Redcreek soils are on mountain 
sideslopes and ridges and have slopes of 5 to 30 percent. 
Mean annual precipitation is about 40 cm (16 inches), and the 
mean annual air temperature is about 6 to 7 C (44 F). Redcreek 
soils are similar to the Rentsac soils. Rentsac soils are 
skeletal and are on fractured sandstone, while Redcreek soils 
are non-skeletal and are on massive sandstone. Typical pedon 
of Redcreek sandy loam, 5 to 30 percent slopes, about 275 m 
(900 feet) N of SVAs corner, Section 18, Township 3 South, 
R96W. 

The Rentsac series consists of shallow, well-drained soils 
formed in residuum from sandstone. Rentsac soils are on 
foothills (upland entrenched terrace) and have slopes which 
are 5 to 50 percent. Mean annual precipitation is 40 cm 
(approximately 16 inches), and the mean annual air temperature 
is about 6 to 7 C (44 F). Rentsac soils are similar to the 
Redcreek soils. Redcreek soil is non-skeletal, while Rentsac 
is skeletal. Typical pedon of Rentsac very channery sandy 
loam, 5 to 50 percent slopes, under chained pinyon- juniper area, 
NE*a Sw^, Section 27, Township 1 North, R98W. 

Rock outcrop-Torriorthents, 12 to 90 percent slopes (RT) occurs 
mainly on southerly aspects in the Piceance Basin on strongly 
sloping to extremely steep terrace breaks of the many drainage- 
ways of this area. Rock outcrop occurs as horizontal sandstone 
cliffs or dike-like outcrops and as platy siltstone outcrops 
1n 50 to 65 percent of the mapping unit. The remainder of the 
mapping unit is comprised of Torriorthents, most of which are 
very shallow and shallow, and a small percentage of moderately 



2.5-3 



deep and deep Torriorthents in the colluvial and alluvial 
material. The vegetation is characterisitcally very sparse - 
few scattered pinyons, junipers and shrubs. These soils have 
a severe limitation for sanitary facilities and local roads 
due to shallowness of the soil. These soils are a poor source 
of material for roadfill and topsoil due to thin layer, small 
stones and problems of area reclamation. 

The Yamac series consists of deep, well -drained soils that 
formed in alluvium and aeolian materials. Yamac soils are 
on rolling uplands and ridges and have slopes of 5 to 15 
percent. Mean annual precipitation is about 36 cm (14 inches), 
and mean annual air temperature is about 6 to 7 C (44 F). 
Yamac soils are similar to the Forelle and Piceance soils. 
Forelle soils have an argillic horizon not found in the Yamac. 
Piceance soils overlie bedrock at 50 to 100 cm (approximately 
20 to 40 inch) depths. Typical pedon of Yamac loam, 5 to 15 
percent slopes, SW^ of Section 2, T2S, R99W. 

The SCS is processing soils for trace element and mechanical 
analysis. 

The selection of a soils contractor is currently being made 
and the initiation of the program will be started immediately 
upon contract award. This program will include collection and 
analysis of soil samples associated with major vegetation 
types. Trace metal concentrations will be determined and soil/ 
plant relationships will be interpreted. 



2.5-4 



2.5.2 Archaeological survey 
2.5.2.1 Objectives 



The archaeological survey was designed to locate archaeological 
or historical material on Tract C-a, a mile-wide perimeter 
around the tract and 84 Mesa. The survey was then extended 
downstream on several drainages, particularly Yellow Creek, to 
obtain more information on off-tract sites. 

The survey was designed to obtain information on the extent 
of occupation, cultural affiliations, time depth represented 
and native exploitation of the region. Material found during 
this study was compared with that described from other areas, 
particularly the Douglas Creek drainage. 

Comparison of artifacts found on Tract C-a was also made with 
collections held by local individuals, many of whom have been 
collecting artifacts from the area for many years. The pro- 
cedure prevented inadvertent omission of scarce or commonly 
sought after items such as projectile points (arrowheads). 

The past existence of trade relationships between local 
inhabitants and those from areas outside the basin was 
explored. Evidence that trade had been conducted was revealed 
by the presence of pottery that had not been locally made and 
the presence of imported toolstone. These artifacts suggested 
a widespread contact with areas outside the Piceance Basin. 



2.5.2.2 Methods 



Two types of ground surface surveys were employed during the 
investigations. No excavations were done. Both surveys 
involved systematic walk-overs of the area and collection of 
artifacts. The following data were recorded for each located 
collection: field number and distinctive features of the site 
(such as terrain or structures). Each find was labeled and 
kept separate from others. 

In rough or broken ground, areas that could have been occupied 
such as benches adjacent to drainages, areas near springs or 
streams and upland areas that might have been used for hunting 
or gathering camps were intensively searched. Areas that have 
produced artifacts in the past were also carefully searched. 

In relatively featureless terrain such as 84 Mesa and the 
alluvial valley floors, team members were spaced a short 
distance and the area was systematically traversed with 
team members searching for artifacts. 

When artifacts were found, the team then concentrated on that 
area and collected as much material as could be located. The 



2.5-5 



search was continued until no more artifacts or chips were 
found. 

After early surveys had progressed sufficiently, information 
gathered in the field was processed. Types of artifacts 
obtained and the locations of sites were itemized and mapped, 
and the emerging pattern of site locations was used to direct 
the investigation into areas in which the probability of 
finding additional sites was greatest. This technique prompted 
surveying down into the more productive lower drainages rather 
than moving up the drainages toward the less productive Cathedral 
Bluffs. While the high uplands were probably utilized to some 
extent, the majority of camp locations were on lower ground. 

Material recovered in the field was processed in the base 
station laboratory. Artifacts were washed, labeled with field 
numbers, identified and recorded. Both site locations and 
non-productive areas were plotted at the end of each field day. 

The initial survey followed the priority system delineated in 
Figure 2.5.2-1. After this area had been cleared for the 
presence or absence of sites, the survey was expanded to the 
areas shown in Figures 2.5.2-2,3 and 4. 

In addition to surveys and collections on site, several private 
collections and museums in Meeker and Dinosaur National 
Monument were inspected to provide additional background on 
the archaeological history of the area. A number of caves and 
overhangs which offered protection and were probable wintering 
areas for people who utilized the Piceance Basin are found in 
the Douglas Creek area. One of the most distinctive features 
of shelters in the Douglas Creek drainage is the amount of rock 
art. It includes pictographs painted on the walls and petroglyphs 
which are not painted but are pecked into the rock face. These 
include depictions of humans, various animals and designs. A 
similar area with three caves north of Rangely was also inspected. 



2.5.2.3 Results 



A total of 196 locations produced material that was transported 
into the area, or modified, by man. These ranged from a single 
flake of tool stone to concentrations of tools, broken or 
discarded pieces and wastage associated with the manufacture of 
tools. The material used for chipped tools included chalcedony, 
jasper, petrified wood, obsidian and quartzite. These materials 
are fine grained and were worked by flaking. During tool produc- 
tion, small chips were often discarded if they were too small 
to serve as secondary tools. This wastage is usually a good 
indication that an area was once occupied. The color and texture 
of small tools or flakes found in the study area were quite 
different from the local shales and sandstones. Since the local 
stone cannot be worked to produce functional small tools, it is 
likely that tool stone was imported by the inhabitants. There 



2.5-6 



f.-.^ 



}k\^nM^: 




4 

A' 













WmM 



a \&\ 



pi 






h^M^m'^&- 






lillig 



m>g3&j£sf& 






& 



; ^ 













ENVIRONMENTAL 
STUDIES for THE 

RIO BLANCO OIL SHALE PROJECT 



L 



TRACT C-a 



f% LIMNET9CS, INC. 

^^ Denver. Colorado 



B indicates priority for performance and 
reporting requirements 

^| 84 Mesa spent shale disposal site 

one mile perimeter of Tract 

COMPLETED AS OF JUNK 30. 1975 



Figure 2.5.2-1 










/<^fc>',,tf 



■\\* ->,--■■ - f >- 






FS=?F 



- 5 ^S^^Mv^;/ 






v \ » ' 



*m 












■mmm 



M. 



I~JJ 



>\'M 



V-. 



w~^t 






mm 






%.■ 



a»if 



•JSsftSrJ 




as art ; t).« I 



m 



'MM. 



m 



m 

2L 



iUi 






Figure 2.5.2-2 Expanded Archaeological Survey Area. 



Dots represent areas surveyed. 




Figure 2.5.2-3 Expanded Archaeological Survey. 
Dots represent areas surveyed. 



c 




Figure 2.5.2-4 Expanded Survey Area. 

Dots represent areas surveyed. 



was some use of local stone for larger tools such as choppers 
and grinding stones. Suitable toolstone supplies are present 
in the main White River drainage, west into Utah, and in 
southwestern Wyoming. No quarry sources for toolstone were 
found during the survey. 

Tools used for grinding various vegetal products were also 
found in the area. The lower element of these tools, the 
grinding slab, was usually an oval or irregular slab of local 
sandstone characterized by a depression that had been formed 
through long use. The handstone, or moveable element, was 
fashioned from a thin, oval stream cobble. These were of a 
size that could conveniently be held in one hand. Evidence 
from this historic period indicates that these tools were 
used to grind various types of seeds, to hull pinyon nuts, 
and even in some instances to grind dried meat. Cooking 
techniques during this period included preparation of liquid 
or mush foods. Another use of these tools was to grind 
pigments that could have been used for body painting, decora- 
tion of portable objects or painting of pictographs. 

The sites that were found in the survey are classed as open 
sites. Open sites are located in areas in which there is no 
physical protection other than variations in the terrain. Few 
caves or overhangs were found, and those investigated did not 
appear to have been occupied. Camping in the open, which 
would suggest good weather, was common. Open sites, however, 
usually yield few artifacts because organic decay, insect or 
bacterial action and oxidation quickly destroy all but the 
most durable artifacts. Those found are lithic or stone 
artifacts. The samples collected during the survey consisted 
almost entirely of items made from stone. In prehistoric times, 
tools were often made of many other materials such as wood, 
bone, antler, horn and plant products that produced fibers or 
other- useful elements. No artifacts made from these perishable 
materials were found. Linworked bone is scattered through the 
area, but this is probably a result of hunting activity and 
winter kills. 

A few pieces of broken pottery were found that may have been 
imported from the Mesa Verde region or from the west, in Utah, 
and the northwest, in Dinosaur National Monument. 

Several classes of artifacts were collected, including pro- 
jectile points. These are good diagnostic artifacts, as their 
shapes and chipping design are regionally and temporally 
distinctive. Most points in the collection exhibit additional 
modification for attaching to a weapon shaft, including 
notching or definite base design to hold the sinew used to tie 
the point on. Broken points (probably discarded at camp sites 
and replaced with whole new points) are also part of the 
collection. Careful workmanship and chipping on all edges and 
both sides of the point are common to the tools in the collection 
Good grade (glassy) toolstone was used. 



2.5-11 



Two types of projectiles were found (Figure 2.5.2-5). The 
larger projectiles are classified as dart points used for 
attachment to a short, spear-like shaft. These weapons were 
usually thrown from a spear thrower, a weapon approximately 
2 inches wide and 18 inches long. The other type of projectile 
points are much smaller and are classified as arrow points. 
These would indicate use of the bow and arrow. Use of the 
bow succeeded use of the spear thrower, although there may have 
been an overlap in their use. 

Knives are defined as processing tools that were chipped on 
both sides to produce a wedge-shaped cutting edge. These were 
probably primarily used for cutting meat, working hides and 
for cutting other materials. Two types of knives were made. 
One was a finished tool with distinct shapes and dimensions. 
These were fabricated by chipping both the edges and the faces. 
The other type of knife was merely a flake which was used 
until it dulled, then discarded. These flakes have extremely 
sharp edges, much more so than a chipped knife, but the edges 
are extremely fragile and not very durable. Although knives 
could have been used to scrape objects, the wear partem is 
similar to that produced on steel knives. Drawings of knives 
found orr Tract C-a are shown in Figure 2.5.2-5 and 6. 

Scrapers were used to remove unwanted material from hides and 
other materials. The edge of a scraper differs from that of 
a knife in that it was chipped away from the edge, giving it an 
angular surface. Finished scrapers have one flat side and a 
rounded or convex upper surface. Chips or flakes were sometimes 
used as scrapers for a particular task and then discarded. Most 
of the scrapers found in the survey (Figure 2.5.2-6) were too 
small to have been attached to a handle and were probably held 
in the fingers. Flakes, while indicative of occupation, are 
usually not good diagnostic artifacts unless they were used 
secondarily as tools such as knives or scrapers. Unfortunately, 
they do not aid in temporal or cultural identification, but 
their abundance and distribution are good indicators of the 
amount of occupation at a given site. 

Metates (grinding slabs) and manos (handstones) were used for 
grinding food to a meal or powder. Drills and punches are 
similar tools to ones in our culture, except that they were 
made of stone. Cores are the remnants of toolstone from which 
flakes have been removed. They are not usually tools in them- 
selves. Hammerstones are more or less spherical pieces of 
tough stone that were used to fabricate or process other 
materials. Hammerstones were used to shape manos and metates. 
Choppers are large chipped-edge tools that were used to chop or 
part various materials. They could have been used in butchering 
coarse fabrication, or working any non-stone material. 

The initial list of tool types and site locations is shown in 
Tables 2.5.2-1 through 2.5.2-4 for Tract C-a, the 1-mile 
perimeter, 84 Mesa and off-tract sites. 



2.5-12 








Figure 2.5.2-5 Projectile points and a knife from Tract 

C-a, RBOSP. Upper right Archaic projectile point 
remainder Fremont Lower right, knife. 



2.5-13 







Figure 2.5.2-6 Knives and scrapers from Tract C-a RBOSP 
Upper row knives, lower row scrapers. 



2.5-14 



Table 2.5.2-1 Field site number, site location and initial material 
culture analysis located June through September 1975 
on Tract C-a, RBOSP. 



i- 






















01 






















■i 






















3 


Q. 




















Z 


_C 






c 
o 








01 


to 




■o 


CO 


<D 








4-> 


a; 


Q. 


a> 


s- 




c 


o> 




+-> 




c 


M- 


<T3 


^ 


a> 


0> 


5 


c 




o 




•f— 


•c— 


S- 


(O 


si 




O 


to 




a; 




o 


c 


a 




4-> 


Li- 


t— 


QC 




C/O 




Q_ 


^ 


u-> 


u_ 


o 


4. 


T2S, 


R99W 


S3 , 


m\ 






If* 




3 


Metate 


5- 


'TIS, 


R99W 


S34, 


sw^ 


NE 1 ^ 




If 








6 


T1S, 


R99W 


S33, 


se?* 


m\ 


If 


If 








7 


: T2S, 


R99W 


S4 , 


mk 


NE^ 




If 


2 


12 




8 


T1S, 


R99W 


S34, 


Mh 


SW% 










Punch 


9 


T1S, 


R99W 


S33, 


m\ 


SWi 








3 




14 


T2S, 


R99W 


S4 , 


NE?a 


SEV 






1 






15" 


T1S, 


R99W 


S34, 


SE% 


SW 1 * 








7 


Tool fragment 


16 


T1S, 


R99W 


S34, 


SW^ 


SUk 






1 


2 




29 " 


-T2S, 


R99W 


S4 , 


NE^ 


SE^ 










Tool fragment 


33 : 


T1S, 


R99W 


S33, 


SEU 


SW 1 * 






If 






34. 


T1S, 


R99W 


S33, 


SW% 


NE% 






If 






37 


T2S, 


R99W 


S10, 


Wh 


SUk 


If 










38 


T2S, 


R99W 


S9 , 


NWfc 


SW% 








1 




39 


T2S, 


R99W 


S10, 


SW 1 * 


SW*$ 








2 




40 


T2S, 


R99W 


S10, 


NW 1 * 


NE 1 * 


1 






1 




41 


T2S, 


R99W 


S3 , 


SEV 


SE*a 


1 


2f 


6 


2 


Drill 


42 


T2S, 


R99W 


S3 , 


SW^ 


SEJs 










Metate 


43, 


T2S, 


R99W 


S9 , 


NE 1 ^ 


■ NW*s 










Mano fragment 






















2 tool fragments 


45 


T1S, 


R99W 


S33, 


NEJj 


SE% 


1 
If 






12 




51 


T2S, 


R99W 


S10, 


SE J 4 


SE?3 








1 




54: 


T2S, 


R99W 


S3 , 


m\ 


SW^ 








3 


Core 



* Identifiable fragmentary tool 



2.5-15 



Table 2.5.2-2 Field site number, site location and initial material 
culture analysis for archaeological sites located June 
through September 1975 in the 1-mile perimeter of Tract 
C-a, RBOSP. 



0> 

E 






















3 
Z 


Q. 

JZ 






c 
o 










Crt 




■o 


t/i 


OJ 








4-> 


<u 


Q- 


a> 


S- 




c 


en 




-J3 




c 


*4- 


<o 


^dL 


a; 


<D 


2 


c 




u 




•f— 


•r— 


s- 


ts 


.c 




o 


«3 




a> 




o 


C 


u 




.»-> 


iZ ' 


. _h- 


CC 




U~i 




D. 


i^ 


IS) 


u_ 


o 


10 


'TIS, 


R99W 


S29, 


Mk 


SW% 








1 




11 


T1S, 


R99W 


S29, 


SW 1 * 


SW% 






1 


1 




12 


' T1S, 


R99W 


S29, 


SW 1 * 


SEh 






1 


4 




13 


T1S, 


R99W 


S29, 


NW^ 


SW% 




If* 




1 


Drill 


20 


T2S, 


R99W 


S14, 


mh 


NW% 


2 


4f 


1 


51 




21 


T2S, 


R99W 


S15, 


SUh 


NE% 




1 




13 




25 


T1S, 


R99W 


S27, 


SW?4 


SE^ 




2f 


1 


6 




28 


. T2S, 


R99W 


Sll, 


sw% 


S^ih 








1 




30 


T2S, 


R99W 


S17, 


SE 1 ^ 


SE?* 


If 




2 


20 




32 - 


• T1S, 


R99W 


S27, 


NE^ 


SVik 






If 


16 




35. 


T2S, 


R99W 


Sll, 


SVfti 


NE*s 








2 




36 


T2S, 


R99W 


Sll, 


Hlh 


SEs 


If 




3f 


20 


Hammerstone frag- 
ment 


44 


T2S, 


R99W 


S17, 


SUh 


NW% 


1 






1 




47 


T1S, 


R99W 


S35, 


NE% 


mh 




If 




22 




50 


T2S, 


R99W 


S16, 


NE^ 


NE% 








2 




52 


T2S, 


R99W 


S15, 


SW% 


NEh 




1 




5 




53 


T2S, 


R99W 


S6 , 


SW% 


UEh 








1 


Tool stone 


55'- 


T2S, 


R99W 


S15-, 


SW% 


NBs 


2f 






5 


Mano fragment 


56 


T2S, 


R99W 


S6 , 


SW* 


SE** 


1 
If 


3f 






Mano, fossils 


64 


T2S, 


R99W 


S14, 


mh 


SEh 


2f 


3f 








65- 


T2S, 


R99W 


S14, 


mh 


mh 


1 
2f 




If 


110 


Hammerstone 
Mano fragment 


66- 


T2S, 


R99W 


S14, 


Hlh 


m% 


2f 






35 




67 


T2S, 


R99W 


Sll, 


SW?i 


SEh 








11 




70 


T2S, 


R99W 


Sll, 


SWh 


SUh 










Tool stone 


71 


T2S, 


R99W 


Sll, 


m\ 


NWU 








9 




72 


T2S, 


R99W 


S2 , 


WVi 


SWJa 






1 






81 


T2S, 


R99W 


S2 , 


WEh 


HEh 


1 










• - 












2f 






2 


Chopper 


82 


T1S, 


R99W 


S35, 


SW% 


SW*s 








2 


Mano fragment 


83 


•T1S, 


R99W 


S35, 


SUk 


SW?4 










Mano 


84 


T1S, 


R99W 


S35, 


HEk 


SE% 


2f 




2f 


24 


3 Mano fragments 


v 




















Hammerstone 



2.5-16 



Table 2.5.2-2 (Continued) 



J- 












-Q 












E 












3 


Q. 










Z 


jz 






c 
o 




T3 


</> 


<v 




•f— 




r— 


c 


ZJ> 




-4-> 




0) 


2 


c 




O 






o 


fO 




<1> 




u. 


1— 


Od 




t/1 




94 ' 


'TIS, 


R99W 


S29, 


NW% 


SW% 


95 


'tis, 


R99W 


S28, 


SWJj 


NE% 


97 


T1S, 


R99W 


S30, 


NE*a 


NWJ* 


103 


T1S, 


R99W 


S30, 


SE% 


SE>* 


104 


T1S, 


R99W 


S31, 


SE^ 


NW% 



4f 2 

If 13 
If 2 

Tool stone 
3 

1 



* .Identifiable fragmentary tool 



2.5-17 



Table 2.5.2-3 Field site number, site location and initial material 
culture analysis for archaeological sites located June 
through September 1975 on 84 Mesa, RBOSP. 



-i 






















3 


Q. 




















Z 


-C 






c 
o 








cu 


to 




■o 


U) 


<D 




• r— 




+j 


0) 


Q. 


O) 


i~ 


i— 


c 


cn 




4-> 




c 


4- 


05 


J*. 


<u 


O) 


2 


c 




U 




•r- 


•1— 


S_ 


fO 


-C 




o 


<T3 




CO 




O 


C 


O 




4-> 


u. 


1— 


en 




U~> 




ca- 


i»i 


I/O 


Li_ 


O 


3 


T1S, 


R99W 


S36, 


im 


Site 


lf* 


If 




5 




i7 


'TIS, 


R98W 


S18, 


SE^a 


Site 




If 


3f 


6 




18 


.T1S, 


R98W 


S18, 


SE% 


Site 


1 
2f 


If 


If 


67 




21 


T1S, 


R99W 


S25, 


SE?a 


H£h 


1 


If 




3 


Mano, Metate 


22 


T1S, 


R98W 


S18, 


SEH 


Site 








9 




23 


T1S, 


R98W 


S30, 


NW* 


NE 1 * 


3 


1 




















8f 


2f 




215 


Hammerstone, 
drill , 3 choppers 


24" 


'TIS, 


R99W 


S25, 


Nlte 


SE 1 * 


If 






147 


3 Mano fragments 


26 - 


T1S, 


R98W 


S20, 


Nlte 


SUh 


1 


2f 


2f 


1 
1 




27 T 


T1S, 


R98W 


S30, 


S£h 


NE? 4 


2f 






54 


Potsherds, scrapers, 
knives, blades 


31 


'TIS, 


R98W 


S30, 


SRs 


Nlte 


2 






1 




46 


T1S, 


R98W 


S8 , 


SW^ 


SW* 


If 






20 


1 historic knife, 
hammerstone, 5 
Mano fragments, 
chopper, drill 


48. 


T1S, 


R98W 


S19, 


Site 


mh 


1 






2 




49 " 


T1S, 


R98W 


S19", 


Nlte 


SE% 


If 






3 




57 


T1S, 


R98W 


S19, 


NE% 


SE^ 








74 




58 


T1S, 


R98W 


S20, 


SWJ4 


Nlte 








3 


1 potsherd 


59 


.T1S, 


R98W 


S20, 


SEh 


Nlte 










Mano fragment 


60' 


T1S, 


R98W 


S19, 


NEU 


SEh 










Mano fragment 


61 


T1S, 


R98W 


S19, 


NE»s 


SE 1 * 










Mano 


62" 


T1S, 


R98W 


S19, 


SE* 


SE?a 






If 


2 




63 


T1S, 


R98W 


S20, 


NE 1 ^ 


Nlte 








2 




68 


T1S, 


R98W 


S8 , 


Site 


SE ! 4 






If 


12 




69 


T1S, 


R98W 


S17, 


NE J 4 


NW 1 ^ 








1 




73 


T1S, 


R98W 


S18, 


HEh 


SEk 


If 






1 


Anvil , Mano 


74 


T1S, 


R98W 


S18, 


HEh 


sv* 










2 Mano fragments 


75 * 


T1S, 


R98W 


S18, 


HEh 


SEk 








3 




76 


T1S, 


R98W 


S17, 


mh 


Slte 






If 






77 


•T1S, 


R98W 


S18, 


NE 1 ,; 


SE*s 










Tool stone 


80 


T1S, 


R99W 


S13, 


Site 


SE?a 


If 


2f 


1 


30 


Mano fragment 


85 •' 


r T1S, 


R99W 


S13, 


Site 


SEi 4 




2f 


5f 


96 




86 


T1S, 


R99W 


S13, 


NE?4 


SE?4 


If 


3f 


1 
2f 


72 


Hammerstone frag- 
ment, 2 Mano fragments 



2.5-18 



Table 2.5.2-3 (Continued) 



<u 

.a 






















E 

=3 


Q. 






c 
o 








<D 


</i 




T3 


M 


ai 




•r- 




+j 


a> 


a. 


a) 


j- 




C 


en 




+J 




c 


«+- 


(T3 


.*: 


a> 


0) 


5 


c 




O 




•r- 


•i— 


S_ 


A3 


.c 




o 


<TJ 




OJ 




o 


c 


u 




■M 


U_ 


I— 


CC 




go 




a. 


:*£ 


oo 


U. 


O 


87 


T1S, 


R98W 


S30, 


\m 


NE x a 


If 






37 




88 


T1S, 


R98W 


S30, 


NVRg 


HUh 


If 




2 




Mano 


90 


T1S, 


R99W 


S36, 


NE^ 


swv 


4f 


If 


1 
If 


20 


Ma no 


91 "■' 


T1S, 


R99W 


Sll, 


SW% 


SE? 4 








1 




92 


T1S, 


R98W 


S8 , 


SW% 


SE 1 ^ 






1 
If* 


1 




93 


T1S, 


R98W 


S7 . 


m\ 


SVRs 










Mano fragment 


165 


T1S, 


R99W 


S14, 


SE^ 


SEh 




If 




1 




106. 


T1S, 


R98W 


S29, 


SWk 


NW% 








1 




107 


T1S, 


R99W 


S36, 


Slh 






2f 




14 




108 


T1S, 


R99W 


S14, 


SE% 


S£h 








4 




109 


T1S, 


R99W 


S36, 


ne% 


NE% 


2 


2f 




84 


Mano 


110 


T1S, 


R99W 


S25, 


NE% 


SE* 4 






1 






111 


T1S, 


R98W 


S30, 


S£k 


SUh 


If 


2f 


4 


102 


Drill fragment, 
Mano fragments, 
tool stone 


112 


T1S, 


R98W 


S30, 


SW% 


SE% 








2 


Tool stone 


113 


T1S, 


R98W 


S30, 


SWJs 


SVh 


If 


1 




7 




U4 


T1S, 


R98W 


S30, 


SBs 


SEh 








6 




115 


T1S, 


R98W 


S30, 


SE^ 


SDz 






1 


19 


Drill fragment 


116 


T1S, 


R98W 


S20, 


SUh 


NE?4 


2 


If 




13 


Tool stone 


117 


T1S, 


R98W 


S29, 


NE*S 


NW% 




2f 




11 


Mano fragment 


118 


T1S, 


R98W 


S7 , 


NE 1 * 


NE^ 


If 


2f 


If 


25 


2 Mano fragments 


119 


T1S, 


R99W 


S13, 


SW 1 -* 


NEli 








12 


2 Mano fragments 


120 


T1S, 


R99W 


Sll, 


SE^i 


NE% 








2 




121 


T1S, 


R99W 


S2 , 


Slffis 


SE^ 










Mano fragment 


122 


T1S, 


R99W 


S12, 


HEh 


HWi 






If 


6 




123 


T1S, 


R99W 


Sll, 


SWi 


HEh 




If 


1 
If 


21 


Core, 2 Mano frag- 
ments, tool stone 


124 


T1S, 


R99W 


S15, 


HWh 


NW 1 ^ 


1 






72 




125 


T1S, 


R98W 


S19, 


S\ik 


SEh 






1 






12& 


T1S, 


R99W 


S15, 


SE?a 


HEh 








1 




127 


T1S, 


R99W 


Sll, 


SVlh 


SVlh 


1 






2 




128 


■ T1S, 


R99W 


S15, 


mk 


WEk 






2f 


14 


3 Mano fragments, 
1 hammerstone 


*~ 























Identifiable fragmentary tool 

2.5-19 



Table 2.5.2-4 Field site number, site location and initial material 
culture analysis for archaeological sites located June 
through September 1975 off-tract outside Tract C-a 
periphery and 84 Mesa. 



E 






















3 








c 
o 








0) 


V) 




-o 


{/) 


8) 




•r- 




■•-> 


<u 


Q. 


0} 


S- 




c 


o> 




-M 




c 


M- 


<o 


j*. 


01 


0) 


3 


c 




O 




•r- 


•r- 


S_ 


(O 


JZ 




o 


m 




01 




o 


C 


u 




+-> 


iZ • 


1— 


cc 




i/> 




Q. 


^ 


t/i 


u_ 


o 


19 


T25, 


R99W 


S13, 


SWi 


HVih 


2f* 


1 
If 


If 


18 


Mano, hammerstone 


78 " 


T1S, 


R98W 


S21, 


HVh 


HVih 


If 




If 


5 


Mano fragment 


79 


T1S, 


R98W 


S16, 


SE% 


SVih 




If 








89 


T2S, 


R100W 


S13, 


SEh 


HEh 




If 








96 


T1S, 


R98W 


S9 , 


SE*a 


SWk 










Mano fragment 


98- 


T1S, 


R98W 


S5 , 


SE?a 


SE% 








1 


Mano 


99 . 


T1S, 


R98W 


S9 , 


HVh 


nvth 










Mano fragment 


100 


T1S, 


R99W 


S21, 


SE^ 


SVih 








5 


Mano fragment 


101 


T1S, 


R99W 


S21, 


NW% 


SE% 


1 










102 


T1S, 


R99W 


S21, 


nvh 






If 








129 


T1S, 


R98W 


S32, 


NW% 


NE% 


4f 


If 


If 


92 




130 


T1S, 


R98W 


S9 , 


NE% 


SE% 










2 Mano fragments 


131 


T1S, 


R98W 


S9 , 


SE?4 


SEk 










1 Mano fragment 


132 


T1S, 


R98W 


S9 , 


SE^ 


SE% 




If 




14 




133 


T1S, 


R98W 


S10, 


SVih 


SVih 










Mano fragment 


134 


T1S, 


R98W 


S9 , 


SE^ 


svih 








5 




135 


T1S, 


R98W 


S21, 


NE^ 


svih 






1 






136 


T1S, 


R98W 


S22, 


mh 


HVih 






1 






137 


T1S, 


R98W 


S32, 


HEk 


mh 


If 








Mano fragment 


138 


T1S, 


R98W 


S31, 


SW?4 


SVih 


If 






2 


Mano fragment 


139 


T1S, 


R98W 


S10, 


SVih 


SE^ 




If 




51 




140 


T1S, 


R99W 


S9 , 


nvth 


HEh 


2f 


4f 


2 

If 


95 


Drill , 5 tool frag- 
ments, Mano, 4 Mano 
fragments, tool stone 


141 


T1S, 


R99W 


S9 , 


mh 


HEh 


If 


If 


1 


7 


2 Mano fragments 


142 


T1S, 


R99W 


S10, 


mk 


HVih 






1 




3 potsherds, core, 
hammerstone, Mano, 
10 Mano fragments 


144- 


T1S, 


R99W 


S10, 


HEh 


HVih 


2f 




2f 


28 


Mano fragment 


145 


T1S, 


R99W 


S10, 


mh 


SVh 


If 


If 


3f 


15 




147 


•T1S, 


R98W 


S10, 


SUi 


HEh 




If 


1 
4f 


23 




148~ 


T1S, 


R98W 


Sll, 


HVth 


HWs 


3f 


2f 


3f 


52 




149 


T2S, 


R98W 


S4 , 


SVih 


svih 






1 


3 


1 potsherd 



2.5-20 



Table 2.5.2-4 (Continued) 

























E 

3 


a. 




















Z 


JC 






c 
o 








CD 


en 




•o 


(/) 


a> 








■*-> 


<D 


Q. 


ai 


j- 




c 


o 




•4-> 




C 


4- 


<TJ 


J>£ 


(U 


'a! 


2 


c 




O 




•r— 


•i— 


S- 


<T3 


-C 


•t— 


o 


T3 




a; 




O 


C 


a 




4-> 


u. 


1— 


OC 




<S) 




a. 


*£ 


oo 


u. 


o 


150 


-T1S, 


R98W 


S32, 


HEh 


SE% 






2f 


4 




.151 


T1S, 


R98W 


S33, 


SW% 


SE J 4 




3f 


1 


4 


Mano fragment 


152 


T1S, 


R98W 


Sll, 


NW-'s 


SE% 


1 


If 


1 


12 


Mano, hammerstone, 
1 hammerstone frag- 
ment 


153 


T1S, 


R98W 


Sll, 


H£h 


NE 1 * 


If 


4f 


7 


118 


Mano fragment 


154 


T1S, 


R98W 


S2 , 


S)fih 


SW% 


1 
2f* 


If 


1 

2f 


8 


Mano 


155 


T1S, 


R98W 


S2 , 


SW*j 


SUk 








5 




156. 


T1S, 


R98W 


S2 , 


SWi 


SUk 








4 




157 


T1S, 


R98W 


S2 , 


UEh 


SUk 








21 




158' 


T1S, 


R98W 


Sll, 


NW 1 * 


HWi 








5 




159 


T1S, 


R98W 


Sll, 


NW% 


mh 






4 


9 


Hammerstone, 3 Mano 
fragments 


160 


T1S, 


R98W 


S16, 


HEh 


UEk 


If 


4f 


4f 


42 


1 potsherd, 1 Mano, 
3 Mano fragments 


161 


T1S, 


R98W 


S16, 


SVih 


NE% 




If 




4 




162 


T1S, 


R98W 


S34, 


NW** 












Mano fragment 


163 


: T1S, 


R98W 


S33, 


NE% 


HEh 








4 


Mano fragment 


1§4 


T1S, 


R99W 


S8 , 


NE^ 


HEh 


2f 


4f 




10 


Hammerstone, 6 Mano 
fragments 


165 


T1S, 


R98W 


S16, 


SEh 


SBs 


2f 


If 




5 


Core 


166 


T1S, 


R98W 


si , 


SW\ 


nuk 




1 


1 


9 


Mano, Mano fragment 


167 


T1S, 


R98W 


S35, 


SVlh 


SW*4 


2f 


If 




2 


2 cores, Mano frag- 
ment 


168 


T2S, 


R98W 


S2 , 


SEh 


SEk 








3 




169 


T1S, 


R97W 


S19, 


SWU 


SWz 








2 


Mano fragment 


170 


T1S, 


R97W 


S18, 


SE?a 


NWii 








1 




171 


T1S, 


R98W 


S29, 


UEk 


NE?3 








3 




172 


T1S, 


R98W 


S28, 


m% 


NW% 








3 




173 


T2S, 


K98W 


S6 , 


H\h 


mk 






3 


5 




174 


T1S, 


R98W 


S31, 


NW^ 


NE% 




If 


2f 


10 


Mano, Mano fragment 


175 


T1S, 


R98W 


S31, 


NW% 


NE?a 




If 


2f 


10 


Mano, Mano fragment 
5 tool fragments 


176 


T1S, 


R98W 


S31, 


NE% 


NE^ 






1 


7 


Mano, tool fragment 
core 


1775 


T1S, 


R98W 


S32, 


NW% 


NWJj 










Structures 



2.5-21 



Table 2.5.2-4 (Continued) 



s- 

-O 

E 






















3 


CL 




















Z 


-C 






c 
o 








01 


«/> 




■o 


1/1 


01 








+■> 


<u 


Q. 


CD 


i- 


r— 


c 


en 




•M 




C 


*«- 


(C 


.*! 


0) 


01 


3 


c 




U 




•r— 


•r— 


s- 


(TJ 


_c 




o 


(O 




<D 




O 


C 


o 




-•-> 


uZ 


h- 


OtL 




I/O 




a. 


2x£ 


IS) 


u. 


o 


178 


T2S, 


R98W 


S6 , 


NE 1 ^ 


NBs 


If 




1 






179 


T1S, 


R98W 


S32, 


SW^s 




If 






3 


Tool fragment 


180 


T1S, 


R98W 


S31, 


SE?a 




If 






2 


Tool fragment 


181 


T1S, 


R98W 


S32, 


VAh 


NE% 




If 




11 


Tool fragment 


182' 


T1S, 


R98W 


S31, 


SE 1 * 


SE% 








38 


Tool fragment 


183 


T2S, 


R99W 


S14, 


NEij 


SW 1 ^ 










Tool fragment 


184 


T2S, 


R99W 


S23, 


NE^s 


SW% 








1 


Tool fragment 


185 


T2S, 


R98W 


S19, 


Mh 


SW* 4 






1 


1 


Tool fragment 


166 


T1S, 


R98W 


SI , 


SW 1 * 


NE% 


Zf* 


If 


3f 


36 


Hammerstone, Mano 
fragment, 4 tool 
fragments 


187 


T1S, 


R98W 


S36, 


SE^ 










1 


Hammerstone, Mano 


188 


TIN, 


R98W 


S25, 


NE^ 




If 




1 


10 


Mano, Mano fragment 
5 tool fragments 


189 


T2S, 


R98W 


S3 , 


NW»s 




If 


If 


1 


45 


2 tool fragments 


190 


T2S, 


R98W 


S4 , 


SE*s 


NE% 




If 


5 


41 


3 Mano fragments, 
3 tool fragments 


191 


T2S, 


R98W 


S4 , 


NW% 


NE% 


1 
If 






8 


Mano, 2 Mano frag- 


p . 




















ments, 2 tool frag- 
ments 


192 


TIN, 


R98W 


S23, 


mh 


NWij 






1 


1 




193 


TIN, 


R98W 


S23, 


m\ 


NW!* 


If 




1 


14 


Tool fragment, Mano 
fragment 


1*4' 


TIN, 


R98W 


S13, 


\h 




3f 




2 


3 


3 tool fragments, 
2 hammerstone frag- 
ments, 3 tool 
fragments 


195 


T1S, 


R98W 


S34, 


NE% 


SE 1 ^ 


1 










196 


TIN, 


R98W 


S31, 


NWJj 


NE^ 




1 
If 


2f 


10 


Mano, Mano fragment 


• - 




















3 tool fragments 



* Identifiable fragmentary tool 



2.5-22 



Sites yielding a concentration of tool wastage and artifacts 
were called lithic scatters. These represent some permanence 
of occupany, at least long enough to produce, lose or discard 
the materials found. These areas may have been used inten- 
sively during a short period of time or may represent a camp 
that was repeatedly used over a period of years. No sites 
appeared to have been year-round camps, but merely gathering 
places for utilization of a particular resource. The aboriginal 
occupation of Tract C-a and the surrounding Piceance Basin was 
probably seasonal. The Basin was probably not used during the 
winter and spring because of inclement weather in the winter and 
poor hunting possibilities in the spring. The combination of 
hunting tools, meat and skin processing tools, and tools used 
for the preparation of vegetal materials would suggest that the 
area was occupied from summer through fall. Scarcity of food 
probably precludes the presence of large groups of people. The 
types of tools would suggest two patterns of exploitation that 
can be interlocked in terms of rime. In the late summer and 
fall, hunting and gathering could have been practiced 
simultaneously. Hunting was probably performed by men, and 
gathering by women and children except during highly successful 
seasons when processing of game and gathering may have been 
shared. The area was primarily used as a source of game and 
vegetal products. Good harvests of pinyon nuts probably drew 
people into the area in some instances. The term "Piceance" 
locally translated from the Ute as "land of tall grass" may 
indicate some utilization of grasses, although most meadow 
species are not commonly used for food. Agriculture was probably 
not practiced in the Basin, although it may have been in lowland 
areas to the north and east along the major drainages. 

Hunting was a primary concern, but the killing and butchering 
of deer or elk leaves very little evidence. Once the meat has 
been stripped from the bones, or the animal butchered, the 
meat utilized and the bones discarded, the evidence disappears 
through natural processes. Soil formation and the covering of 
the bones by alluvial action did not seem to occur. No kill 
sites were found. 

Field analysis indicates there were at least four periods of 
occupation of the area: an Archaic period followed by the 
Fremont culture, then Ute and finally Anglo. 

The Archaic or Desert Culture was initially defined in Utah. 
Similar material has been found in the high valleys and drainages 
on the Western Slope of Colorado. Similar tools have been found 
in southern Wyoming and along the Front Range of Colorado. The 
time depth in Utah can be extended back at least 10,000 years. 

The social unit seems to have been a family of two or perhaps 
three generations including husbands and wives and dependent 
children. Seasonal opportunities dictated the movement of the 



2.5-23 



•re- 



group and any resource that produced edible food was exploited. 
A considerable knowledge of natural history, seasonal patterns 
of game movements and ripening times of various plants was 
needed. Material culture was geared to frequent changes in 
location. Flexible containers of hide or basketry were used 
instead of ceramics. Other types of equipment were practical 
and portable. Clothing was minimal and housing only constructed 
when a subsistence item was plentiful enough to support the 
group in one place for a period of time. Caves or overhangs 
were used when they occurred. Exploitation patterns indicate 
that, in addition to game and plants, fish, insects, waterfowl, 
rodents and reptiles were eaten. Artifacts from this sample 
that can be identified with the Archaic are primarily projectile 
points. Dating of this occupation could extend back several 
thousand years, but this inference cannot be positively confirmed 
from surface material. 

The Fremont Culture, originally defined from Utah and north- 
western Colorado, continues the Archaic pattern of subsistence. 
Agriculture and pottery were diffused into the area from the 
Southwest. Prior to A.D. 400, there was considerable influence 
from the Four Corners region. Five subdivisions of that pattern 
have been identified in Utah and two border the northwestern 
portion of Colorado. One, the Uinta area, is located in north- 
eastern Utah and the San Rafael, the other, is in eastern 
central Utah. The time span for these periods is from approxi- 
mately A.D. 450 to 1400. These groups revealed less puebloan 
contact. 

Most artifact material shows a continuation from the Archaic. 
Projectile points decreased in size and differed in outline, but 
most tools were not altered. Ornaments and pottery were added 
and leather footgear and clothing become more common. Clay 
figurines of men and women have been found in several areas, 
but not in the Tract C-a area. While agriculture expanded the 
economic base, hunting and gathering were still most important. 
Social patterning did not differ significantly from that of the 
Archaic. 

The Meeker region is noted for the Ute massacre at Meeker's 
trading post. The time and extent of the Ute occupation is less 
well known. The Ute may well be a continuation out of Fremont, 
with the addition of the horse and items of European manufacture. 
Several sites were found which had Wickiups or the conical frames 
for small houses. The shape is tipi-like, with the use of smaller 
brush and juniper bark as the covering. Some are still standing 
and show the interlocked main frame elements. Unfortunately, 
artifacts at these sites were very scarce and do not aid in 
dating the structures. At one site, a butcher knife was found; 
however, this could have been lost by Anglos. 



2.5-24 



Recent historic material is largely that left by deer hunters, 
Several early ranches, houses and a school are near the study 
area. There is a historic horse trap on 84 Mesa that has not 
been in use for some time. The majority of Anglo occupation 
is in the Ryan Gulch and Yellow Creek areas. 



2.5-25 



2.5.3 Revegetation 
2.5.3.1 Objectives 



The extraction and processing of oil shale rock from Tract 
C-a will result in the creation of processed oil shale disposal 
piles. As an integral part of the rehabilitation plans for 
lands affected by oil shale processing, these disposal piles 
are to be reclaimed in such a way as to be compatible with the 
existing landscape and the biota which inhabit it. Revegeta- 
tion methods should be available at the onset of shale 
processing to assure that this compatibility is realized. 
The overall goal of a revegetation plan for Tract C-a disposal 
piles is to develop self-sustaining plant (and animal) 
communities in equilibrium with local climate and substrate 
conditions, and not wholly unlike the existing vegetation. 
Although considerable research has been done on methods of 
revegetating semi-arid lands and processed oil shale, it is 
not specific enough to meet the objectives set forth above for 
revegetation of Tract C-a disposal piles. Thus, a series of 
long-term experiments to fill existing data voids are to be 
conducted. The initial revegetation program is designed to 
run from Fall 1975 through Winter 1978. It will involve the 
application of a number of treatments, such as mulching types", 
fertilizer -schedules, and a species combination to a number of 
artificially created substrates in field test plots designed 
to simulate, to some extent, processed shale disposal piles. 
Based on the results of these studies, additional experiments 
will be determined in conjunction with the Area Oil Shale 
Supervisor. 

The characteristics of processed oil shale disposal piles, as 
envisioned at this time, are pertinent to the revegetation 
program. The design elements of these disposal piles are being 
developed jointly bfef engineers and ecologists' in an attempt 
to create substrate^ which are conducive to successful revege- 
tation. Tract C-a revegetation experiments are discussed in 
light of the planned disposal pile characteristics and in light 
of existing knowledge about revegetation of the area and sub- 
strates incorporating processed oil shale. 



2.5.3.2 Methods 



a. Design of Disposal Piles - As a basis for designing 
initial revegetation experiments, it was necessary to 
consider the characteristics of processed oil shale 
piles to be revegetated and the kinds of information 
available on revegetation techniques for semi-arid lands 
and spent oil shale substrates in particular. 

Preliminary designs call for a typical disposal pile to 
have the following strata, from top to bottom: 



2.5-26 



10 to 15 cm (4 to 6 inches) cf topsoil ^ 

15 to 30 cm (6 to 12 inches) of topsoil 

30 to 60 cm (-^6 inches) of crushed rock 

60 to 100 cm (~2 to 3 feet) of large "overburden" 

boulders 
150 cm (~5 feet) of 95% compacted processed oil 

shale 
to several hundred meters (0 to several hundred 

feet) of 80% compacted processed oil shale 
150 cm (~>5 feet) of 95% compacted processed oil 

shale 
(The above values represent minimum depths for each 
strata. ) 

Slopes will be recontoured to blend with the natural 
landscape, with slopes of not more than 33% (3:1) where 
revegetation is planned. Catchment basins will be 
constructed to collect excess runoff. Topsoil substrate 
and crushed rock will probably be obtained from the same 
location as the disposal piles. 

The configuration and internal characteristics of disposal 
piles as described above should provide an adequate rooting 
medium to support plant cover comparable to pre-mining 
conditions. Topsoils will assure reasonable levels of 
organic matter and nutrients and provide a residual seed 
and rhizome source while subsoils should retain moisture 
for utilization during periods when evaporation normally 
exceeds precipitation. The overburden and/or quarried rock 
layers are designed to: 1) reduce mass movement of soils, 
2) break capillary migration of dissolved salts from the 
processed oil shale up into the active rooting zone where 
excess salts could inhibit plant growth, and 3) inhibit 
contact of roots with spent oil shale where toxic elements 
may be incorporated into plant tissues and subsequently 
ingested by herbivores. 

Although the precise location of disposal piles resulting 
from Tract C-a mining has not been determined, preliminary 
plans suggest that they will be situated in the 84 Mesa 
area (T1S, R99W, Section 23 and 24), to the northeast of 
the tract. Soils on the proposed off site disposal area are 
similar to those found on the revegetation site (SCS, 1975). 
The vegetation is predominantly sagebrush and pinyon-juniper. 

b. Selection of Species - A mixture of species which will 
provide a greater stability and a greater diversity of food 
and cover for local fauna will be used. 

c. Location of Test Sites - Location of preferred and alternate 
test sites are presented in Figure 2.5.3-1. All sites are 



2.5-27 




/; 






^gS^fe 



LEGEND 

■■ TRACT OUTLINE 

H " 1975 REYEGETATIOH TEST PLOTS 



2.5-28 



GULF • STANDARD (INDIANA] 

RIO BLANCO OIL SHALE PROJECT 

TRACT C-a 

RIO BLANCO COUNTY, COLORADO 

3000 
1 I 1 I 



situated on side slopes, between elevations of 216C and 
2200 m (7100 and 7200 feet) adjacent tc Wolf Ridge Road 
in the southeast corner .of the tract (T1S, R99N, Section 
10). 

The first year experiments will utilize two sites on 
opposing slopes at comparable elevations and steepness 
to test for the effect of aspect on revegetation success. 
Trials in the two subsequent years will utilize a single 
site on the slope having the more extreme drought condi- 
tions of the two original sites tested. 

Plot Layout - Sixteen treatments will be applied to a 
10 by 10 m (3.28 by 3.28 feet) plot and replicated three 
times at each site. Each plot will be surrounded by a 
3-m (9.84 feet) buffer zone. Treatments will be allocated 
randomly in each of three complete blocks located adjacent 
to each other. The total dimensions of a site sample, area 
will be 55 by 165 m (180.4 by 541.2 feet) or 9,075 m 2 
(0.91 ha/2.24 acre). 

Within each 10 by 10 m treatment plot a minimum of three 
1 by .5 m (3.28 by 1.64 feet) subplots will be randomly 
established and marked permanently for subsequent data 
collection. 

Test sites will be fenced with four-strand barbed wire to 
discourage large grazers, primarily wild horses and cows. 
Raptor perches will be constructed along the periphery of 
test sites to discourage concentration of small grazers. 

Seedbed Preparation - Native vegetation will be scraped 
from the two experimental plot sites prior to substrate 
mixing and transported to adjacent areas for brush piling. 
Topsoil [about the upper 15 cm (6 inches) of the soil] 
and remaining subsoil will be stockpiled separately. The 
underlying bedrock, consisting of fractured calcareous 
sandstone, will be removed for a minimum thickness of 46 cm 
(18 inches), broken up and spread back over the area to 
simulate overburden. Subsoil and topsoil will then be 
replaced and graded for sowing. Final grade will approach 
3:1. 

As part of the site preparation process, an appropriate 
perimeter will be disturbed around each site, thus bringing 
the total area of disturbance per site to 1.7 ha (4.3 acrea) 
Materials (topsoil, subsoil, overburden) which are to be 
stockpiled temporarily (10 days maximum) will be located in 
the disturbed perimeter. 



2.5-29 



f. Sowing Methods - All seed will be drilled into the ground 
prior to mulching using a conventional grassland drill 
equipped with a single seed box and agitator. Drilling is 
preferred to broadcast seeding because less seed is required 
and greater moisture surrounds the seed during the critical 
stages of germination. Drilling will result in a spacing 
of 13 to 13 cm H 5 to 7 inches) between planting rows. 

g. Species and Sowing Rates - A composite mixture of grasses, 
forbs and woody plants (Table 2.5.3-1) will be sown in 
preference to pure species stands. This mixture will 
consist of both introduced and native species. The intro- 
duced species, especially the wheatgrasses, are quite 
aggressive and are thus suited to rapid establishment and 
stabilization of the substrate. In contrast, the less 
aggressive native species are generally more successful 

in later stages of plant community development. The 
suitability of each species as wildlife food and cover, 
as soil stabilizers and as resistors of drought is 
presented in Table 2.5.3-1. 

For purposes of the 1975 test, approximately 18 kg/ha 
(16 lbs/acre) of seed will be sown, with grasses and 
non-grasses (forbs and woody plants) in equal 9 kg 
(8.1 pound) proportions (Table 2.5.3-1). 

h. Treatments - For the 1975 test, a total of 16 treatments 
will be applied using all possible combinations of the 
following variables: 

Mulch Type and Application (applied to cover 
approximately 70% of the soil surface) 

1. No mulch 

2. Hydromulch with wood fiber 

3. Straw mulch followed by crimping 

4. Straw mulch with netting 

Fertilizer Application (10-5-5 applied at a rate of 
180 kg/ha (160 lbs/acre) 

1. No fertilizer 

2. Fertilizer at time of sowing (fall) 

3. Fertilizer at beginning of first full growing 
season 

4. Fertilizer at time of sowing and at beginning of 
first full growing season 

1. Plant Response Parameters - The following plant response 
parameters will be measured for each treatment: 



2.5-30 



o 

O) t- 

•— or 



O 4-> 

u 

s- J- 
Ol- 
^ CO 
Vt I— 

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(O r- 
JZ •«- 

-^ o 

C7> 

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o 



s. cu 

E 

C J- 

5 cl 

O X 

10 CD 



OJ 


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i 


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CO 




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a> 




u 


CO 




a 


> 




&. 


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"O 






c 


c 




m 


•»- 




>»T3 




4J 


a> 




T- 


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r~ 


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W" 




(O 


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J- 


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■(-> 


o 


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o 


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CO 


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>> 


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to 


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o 


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ro 




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a. 


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CO 












to 












C\J 






co 







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O 


r»» a> 


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en ■»-> 


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i-« «o 


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or 


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2.5-31 





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2.5-32 



1. Number of emerged seedlings per plot, 

2. Number of surviving seedlings per plot, 

3. Above-ground biomass, 

4. Percent cover, and 

5. Vigor 

Table 2.5.3-2 gives the season of measurement for each 
parameter and the taxa involved. Photographs will be 
taken from fixed points in at least one replicate of 
each treatment at the times of data collection. A 
qualitative measure of alien species success will be 
obtained from in-situ counts of germination in buffer 
areas and from germination rates in soil samples collected 
from buffer areas and placed in the greenhouse. 

Statistical Analysis - For the dependent variables of 
number of emerged seedlings, number of surviving seedlings 
and biomass at a particular site and in a particular year, 
the following analysis of variance is given: 









Degrees 


of Freedom 


Block 






2 




Treatment 






15 




Mulch 








3 


Fertilizer 








3 


Mulch x Fertilizer 








9 


Error A 






30 




Species 






22 




Treatment x Species 






330 




Species x Mulch 








66 


Species x Fertilizer 








66 


Species x Fertilizer x 


Mu' 


!ch 




198 


Error B 






704 




Total 






1103 





k. Environmental Data - Soils and climatic data will be 
collected periodically during the study period in order 
to attempt to establish more closely the causal links 
between plant response to varying treatments and the soil 
and climatic factors eliciting these responses. Soil 
moisture will be measured using standard gravimetric 
techniques from soil samples collected at 15 cm intervals 
throughout the soil column. Soil moisture determinations 
will be made periodically on three samples at each site 
during the growing season. 

Soil samples will be collected at each site and pH, 
exchangeable sodium percentage, available nitrogen, phos- 
phorus, and potassium, electrical conductivity, percent 
organic matter and concentrations of zinc and molybdenum 
will be determined with standard laboratory techniques. 



2.5-33 





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2.5-34 



Two samples will be collected at each site during each 
growing season at 15 cm (6 inch) intervals. 

Revegetation Trials in Years 2 and 3 - Revegetation 
experiments inititated in Year 2 (Fall 1976) and Year 3 
(Fall 1977) will essentially duplicate those initiated 
in Year 1, except that a layer of Parahoe processed oil 
shale approximately 15 cm (6 inches) in thickness will 
be placed over the bedrock and below the simulated over- 
burden. Comparison with Year 1 experiments should provide 
some insights into the effect of processed oil shale in 
revegetative success, particularly with regard to the 
influence of salt and heavy metals. 

Trials 2 and 3 will be conducted on one site (as opposed to 
two in Trial 1) and will be monitored for a minimum of 
3 years as is the case with Trial 1. 

Additional experiments will be determined in conjunction 
with the Area Oil Shale Supervisor. They will depend in 
large on results obtained during the initial revegetation 
program and on the availability of actual processed oil 
shale. 



2.5-35 



2.5.5 Trace metals 



Soils from two pits sampled by the Soil Conservation Service 
are currently being analyzed for trace metals. Results are 
not yet available. 



2.5-36