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With numerous lUustrcUiom, Maps, anU Mtutc, ^ . » 






* • • % • 

r • t • 

••• • • * 



Quite new things will meet us in this cruise, and 
different from those we told of in the former 

Then we had the rapids to shoot, and shallows 
to wade, and Swiss glaciers and German castles 
and French omelettes to discuss. 

Now we have to dash into salt water, to sail 
over inland seas, to grope amid foggy islands, and 
to fish and to cook under lonely, gaunt rocks. 

Which cruise was the better one it is not easy 
to say. Each of them had its log ; and the chips 
from the one are not like the shavings from the 
other— except in this, that they came from a 
pleasant paddle. 


Bob Roy Tawlf 

Eavre de Grace^ 
June 2% 1867. 

i. . 




The New Canoe— Venerable Suit— Packed Verse— The 
Collar— Canis — Norway — A Wateiy Land — The 
Dresine — ^A Thinking — Onwards .... 1 


Too fest — Catastrophe — Refractory Rice — Tracts — A 
Thought or Two— Dark Music — Light Lifantry — 
Bare-legged — Babel — Animal Sum — Rapids of the 
Vrangs 13 


Natives— Which is it? — Zig-zag — ^Water-logged — North- 
west Passage — Dragging — Soft Men — Man in the 
Moon 27 


Lonely Blazes — Stick to the Boat — Gushing — Dame 
Cyclops— Miss Kjerstin— Dazzled — ^Pike and Cream — 
Oarswoman — ^A Little Bill 39 


A Hundred Luncheons — ^Phantom Ship — ^Wake Up— Wait 
for Events— John Bull at School — On the Road — 
Model Wife— Chat in Latin— Manners ... 54 



Barometer falling— Caught in a Squall — Cholera-ward — 
Dog Brandy — Alone in a Lan|;em — ^A Sum in Squeaks 
— Yankee — Cauliflowers 66 


Ladies' Locks— Tailoring — Canoe CImt— Motala Strom — 
London Scottish B.V. — Selling Babies — Canoe v. Gas 
— Blooming Dowager — Braye Beggar — ^The Gun- 
boat — Morning Call 79 


Washing day — Feeding on Tin — Horse Steak— Queer 
College— Ciioosing "Partners— Laborious Wedding — 
That tiresome Wire — Boxen Locks — Murdered Tongue 
— Observation— Solus— Lone Happiness ... 93 


Poke the Fire — ^Flies and Flies— Won't give in — ^Breakers ! 
— Bivouac— Surgeon's Report— Climbing to see — It 
can be done— Best 110 


Pas Seul — Right about Face — Another Revolution — A 

Radical Tory— Boys* Beadle 122 


Stockholm— The « Times " — The Exhibition— Bears— 
Bogies — Snow-shoes — Outriggers — ^Beautiful City — 
Town Life 13S 


Rob Roy in the Press— Inside a Whale— Sergeant N 

— Ongbota — ^Lake Malaren — ^Lake Hjelmare — Solemn 
Speed 148 


Sleeping Awake — Catechism — ^Law and Justice — ^Mobbed 
on the Rail — Good Dog — A Linguist — From Venern 
— Sinking Rock 166 




Bravo !— AVhite Squall— Trolhatta— Urchins— Prisoner- 
Fishing Sailing — The Whirlpools — Spying — Pretty 
Sophy— Thanhs, Gentlemen 1 166 


Paper Money — Scraps — The Volunteers — Swedish National 
Air — Over the Sound — Betsy Jane — Croquet in Den- 
mark — Copenhagen — Tie to the Dane . . . 177 


Big Buttons— Canoe for the Casual — ^Rob Roy Senior — An 
Old Friend — Inquisitive— Sproge Islaad — The Great 
Belt— Lost a head— Down, Down— Lake DuU— Gieen 
Sailors— Polite in Peril .188 


Girls don't matter — Stolen — ^Attack on the Forts — Sonder- 

burg — Libels— Forts of Duppel — Soldiers' Graves . 201 


England abroad— Invaders— Pickled Tongue— Explosion 

— Wrecked — Drift on the Reef— Crying for joy — Saved 209 


Old Rowlock — Foam — Isles ci Denmark — ^Lollipops — Back 

doors 218 


Hamburg Warriors — ^Mechanics* Institution — Popple on 
the Elbe — Trying a Tow — Dutchman, ahoyl — Too 
fast by far— Rude — "Mout" — Sleeping on Apples — 
Curious Voyage — Looking on — Lady Rowersr— Grand- 
mamma — ^Race with a Lady — Tougue-tied • . 224 


The Wizard— Hard Times— Buflfeting— Son of a Sponge — 
Attack by Natives— White Lies — Pyramid Wave — 
Dry— His Mother 240 











Wiih numerous Illugtrations, Maps, anU Music ^ , . 








other good things besides muttoD chops may be 
overdone, and that the best tale may be spoiled 
if it be overtold, yet I ventured out on a second 
cruise, and now we shall have its log. 

The hard-won experience of a former voyage 
was a great advantage to the canoeist ; and we may 
suppose that the reader, too, knows a good deal 
about canoe travelling, if he has read the book 
on this subject.* 

So we are going together, you and I, as old 
hands and old friends, but to new lands and on 
fresh waters, and in a beautiful new boat built 
with every excellence that the "Rob Roy" had, 
and a hundred more. 

This new canoe had been carefully designed in 
the winter, after numerous experiments in other 
boats ; and now that she has come back perfectly 
safe after some thousand miles of travel, we seek 
in vain to find a fault in her build.f 

♦ " A Thousand Miles in the * Rob Roy ' Canoe on Lakes 
and Rivers of Europe." With 20 Illustrations and a Map. 
Fifth edition. 1866. Low and Marston. The notices of 
this book by the press were very kind ; and among the pri- 
vate laudations of the volume, which were no less flattering, 
must be cited with applause the met of an excentric man, 
who was asked if he had read the " Canoe Book," and replied 
with animation, ** Of course ; it's not ?ujd/ so good as * Ecce 
Homo.* " 

t The incessant ch4ges and countermands of her anxious 

PROG. 3 

This canoe then is shorter, narrower, shallower,, 
lighter, and stronger than the old "EobBoy," and 
yet she is built to sail on wider lakes, and to cross 
green seas, and to live in wilder places than were, 
tried before. Therefore, also, we find in her a little 
basket with cooking things, and rice, soup, tea, 
coffee, chocolate, sugar, salt, and a good supply of 
biscuits, so that, with thesia provisions, we can stop 
where there is no house to rest at, and can ^e 
on a lonely islet, lighting a great log fire, which 
will smoke away for an hour or two after we are 
gone, and we can look back upon its cloud-wreaths 
curling for miles behind us. The caboose of the 
**Eob Eoy " has also a spirit furnace ; and the whole 
affair in the basket weighs about 3 lbs., while my 
I'lggag© for three months' touring weighs 9 lbs., 
and is carried in the same black bag which was 
used before, being one foot square in size, by si^ 
inches deep. Moreover, a small packet of " reserve 
stores *' is sent on a fortnight in advance, with more 
eatables and maps and books in it, for body and 
mind sha^n't starve. 

A week's trial of the " Eob Eoy " (the new boat 

designer in search of perfection worried the builders; and 
it is said that, while the new canoe was being made, 
Mr. Searle "suffered much from Rob Roy on the brain." 
A full description of the new canoe will be found in the 

B 2 


is now meant when we use this name)* showed that 
eyery alteration made is an improvement. The 
paddle^ so light as to weigh only 2^ poundf^ is 
supremely handy. The sails fitted admirably (after 
eight sets had been made). The new apron — a 
thing of solemn moment — ^is a grand success. The 
arched deck, ridiculed by many when it was pro- 
posed, is now admitted to be grace itself; and so 
the fishing-rod is slung on its india-rubber band, 
and the canoe is pronounced complete. 

The excellent grey flannel suit that had been 
worn for months, and rubbed and scrubbed and 
drenched and wrung some scores of times last 
year, was mustered for inspection, and as no button 
was absent and no seam was loose, this ancient 
uniformt was ordered again for foreign service, and 

* The old original Rob R07 made several trips in 
England after her '* thousand miles " abroad, and then she 
was lent to my friend Mr. Lawton, who took her on board 
his fine schooner yacht, the "Sappho,'* together with the 
** EoUo" canoe, of similar build, for a cruise along the coast of 
Norway ; and the little twin skiffs paddled and sailed among 
the northern fjords, and at last round the North Cape itself, 
returning to England safe, but battered and travel worn. 
They are restmg now until both the Rob Roys — smother 
and daughter — may be presented at court in France, by the 
request of the Imperial Commissioners, when the Emperor 
visits the Exhibition in July. 

i It will not be a breach of confidence to say that this Norfolk 
jacket was made by Meyer and Mortimer of Conduit Street. 



a fresh straw hat was enrolled. New plans had been 
devised for the luggage bag, but they were all 
inferior to the old one, which thus triumphantly 
again secured its berth aboard, though in a better 
part of the ship — ^that is, ahead of the stretcher — 
and so more conveniently stowed out of the way. 

The hair-brush is the same, and the new comb 
is a bit of the old one. A new drawing book, and 
the No. 2 trousers, and the same little Testament, 
found alongside them now a warmer Sunday coat 
and a wonderful woven vest (to replace the one 
stolen on the Ehine), and which can be worn over 
everything or under all — ^an important capacity 
when you change from hot paddling to cooler sail- 
ing many times in a day. 

Then the shape and weight and size of every 
minute article of the outfit had to be studiously 
arranged ; they must be fitted together like the 
words in hexameter verse; and the time and 
thought spent in this equipment were well repaid 
by a most successful voyage in safety and comfort, 
with the least possible expenditure of muscle and 
trouble by the way. 

And now as to victualling the ship — ^a new 
department. It was great fun to settle about this, 
and a practical lesson as to '' what to eat, drink, 
and avoid." How many inches of portable soup 
may we load on board, and how many ounces of 


rice, squares of chocolate, cups of coffee-essence, 
and spoonsful of tea — all to be brought from 
London, for these things are best had there. 

The medicine-chest is the same as before (a 
match-box holds it all), but quinine was added for 
the aguish lakes. 

Then there were the " ship's stores " in a pill- 
box, and the "tailor's shop" for the crew — one 
spare button, and one threaded needle in a cork, 
guarded by twelve pins. 

Maps— excellent ones — ^were duly chopped up 
into squares for pocket use, and a lens was added, to 
read them by in dusky twilight. Lastly, the foot 
of magnesium wire left over from last year was put 
on board, together with " the collar." Only the 
wading shoes were discarded ; for now we are to 
rock on deeper waves, and a phial of brandy will 
be more useful than canvas slippers, and a life* 
preserver, of cork, nine inches square, wiU serve to 
float the crew a little when the ship goes down 
" all standing." 

Two articles only were failures ; the rope for a 
painter, though chosen with infinite care from the 
"Alpine Club " cords, never would keep soft when 
it was wet; and the captain's new metal-hafted 
knife, ferretted out from a Bond Street shop, at 
fifteen shillings, snapped, blade after blade, in a 
week, until it was replaced by a good, rough, honest- 


looking Swedish knife at five shillings^ which lasted 
to the end. 

We haye not half done yet with the list of 
things ; but you may think the canoe really must 
now be ready to start. No, there is the live stock, 
i.e.y the ship's dog. Chosen for me by the best dog 
man in the world, little " Rob *' was the very best 
dog in the universe. Light, plucky, pleasant, and 
aqueous, not at all pretty, but admirably good. 
The scholar saw him in his proper place as the 
" second person singular of cano f^ and to othera, 
ignorant even of dog Latin, he would say in plain 
English, '* My bark is on the wave." 

He would sit on the deck behind me, and 
in the funniest way used to — well, never mind, 
now — he was stolen just before I started ; and very 
likely he would have been often a pleasure, and 
very often a bore. 

As our steamer from London, on the 2nd of 
August, nears the town of Christiania, which sits 
like a queen on the fjord, in bright colours and 
graceful outlines, the sight ought to be seen by all 
the passengers, but we have some new travellers 
on board, who select just this particular half hour 
for packing up their things in the dim and fusty 
cabin. After all the pretty scenery has been 
passed (and they have come precisely to see 
this), one of them emerges on deck in over- 


powering knickerbockerp, brilliant red stockings, 
and polished pumps. How the natives will stare 
when he lands ! But let us draw a veil over those 
ruby legs, for every traveller must once be young ; 
the best of us have to enter the long lane of tour- 
ing by the green end. 

The quay is reached, and the Bob Eoy is now 
aroused from its two days' sleep in the steamer's 
life-boat during our voyage, and the first crowd of 
gazers on shore follows the canoe to the rail- 

The travellers' friend in Norway is Mr. Bennet, 
who knows everything and helps everybody. He 
fills several posts of duty and honour, has an oflSce 
full of maps and books, and a yard full of carrioles 
and carriages, and a desk full of outlandish bank 
notes for shillings ; and, if you wish to journey safe 
and fast over Norway, and with big fish to the rod, 
and big bags to the gun, it is well to talk first 
with Mr. Bennet. He had aided me there ten 
years ago ; but now it was an utterly new line to be 
catechized upon by the first English traveller mad 
about boats, and so he was fairly nonplussed. 
In short, both this year and last there was no reli- 
able information to be had for a canoe journey, and 
thus there was all the pleasure to be felt in a 
voyage of discovery. 

People in the town were soon interested, how-* 


ever, about the little skiff, in proportion to their 
own intelligence and appreciation of the novelty of 
the enterprise ; and specially the railway engineers, 
who (as well as those on steamers) are ever the 
friends of the paddler. 

Any one can see by the map that Norway and 
Sweden are covered with an entanglement of water 
in rivers, lakes, and pools, netted together all over 
the broad suiface for a thousand miles, and we have 
resolved to push our way through these seas and 
streams somehow or other, right away to Stock- 

After duly considering the pros and cons of five 
different routes, the line I selected required me to 
take the canoe to Kongsvinger, which is north-east 
of Christiania about sixtv miles. The railway to 
this runs alongside the lovely Glommen Eiver, 
which winds and winds and eddies and glides just 
as the Bhine does about Waldshut, and is almost 
as full of water and as pretty. There was a 
natural curiosity in my peeps out of the carriage 
window to see the rapids and whirlpools we might 
possibly have to rush down or spin round in here ; 
but it has been found that a private rehearsal of 
this sort does little good ; for when you are in a 
boat> and on the water, it is' impossible to re- 
member how any place looked from the railway 

♦ See Map 2, p. 130. 



tram, so as to obtain real benefit from the remem- 

But we are to leave the Glommen, and the 
Rob Eoy must go modestly on a far humbler 
water ; so next morning she is placed in a dresine, 
a carriage on the railway moved by cranks and 

treadles for the feet, as a velocipede is worked, 
and to which vehicle there clung as many persons 
as could hold by it, while we rumbled along until 
a halt was made near the shore of a small lake, 
from which the water overflows in winter into the 
Grlommen, and so to the Skaggerak, while its only 
ordinary fall is south-east by a long and wind- 


ing route into the all-absorbing Vener See, and so 
into the Kattegat. 

When the Kob Eoy was carried oyer the rank 
grass, and gently launched on this wild water, and 
the visitors stood alongside pleasantly smiling, and 
the first stroke of the paddle moved new ripples 
on its virgin bosom, then there came into my 
soul a thrill of pleasure. "Once more free, 
alone, exploring — all before me now is unknown 
and untried, but sure to be jolly." If in such a 
time a man is not elated, he cannot, I think, be 
the right man for a canoe. 

The Eob Eoy's engine soon settled down to 
work with a regular swing ; and the even strokes 
of the dark-blue blades were long and strong in 
the new water. Then the mind, placid in solitude, 
turned itself inwards, thinking of the length of the 
journey — the possible perils of the enterprise — 
the unknown difiSculties to be met, the mysterious 
future of incidents to happen, the strange people 
and queer languages, and curious nights and days, 
the falls and deeps, the rapids and shallows, the 
waves and whirlpools, the upsets and groundings, 
the calms and breezes. These and all the other 
countless varied features of a lonely water journey 
in a foreign land were all imagined with an eager, 
intense longing to meet them every one. 

What did happen afterwards on this very day 


might well have turned me back at once ; but now 
it is well that we went on through it all, else I 
should have lost one of the happiest seasons in my 
life, one of the best of my journeys abroad. 



Too fast — Catastrophe — ^Refractory Rice — Tracts — ^A Thought 
or Two — Dark Music — Light Infantry — Bare-legged — 
Babel — ^Animal Sum — Rapids of the Vrangs. 

At the end of the quiet lake, wooded thickly to 
its edge, the map showed a river; but, alas I 
no river was there ; and as I wondered in silence, 
the quiet woods suddenly resounded with the blast 
of a trumpet. In a deep sequestered nook there 
were three companies of men drilling amid the 
trees — ^the very last thing one would expect to meet 
as the first event of a voyage. Every man of 
them caught sight of the Eob Roy, and they 
marched on, indeed, in column, but all had " Eyes 
right," for they were all staring sideways at the 

This military and naval combination was not in 
their " Eed Book ;" so the officer, being a wise man, 
dismissed his array, and down they rushed en 
masse to the water. 


The officer, Captain Yenson, explained to me 
in French, that they were the local Landvehr, 
camping out for six days ; and as the men crowded 
round, each holding his hat in his hand whenever he 
came within a certain radius of his captain's august 
presence, and caressing the little canoe with smiles 
of pleasure, he posted a sentry with fixed bayonet 
to guard the Bob Boy, lying on the green rushes 
in the sun; and he led me off to his hut, so 
prettily garnished with nasturtiums and pictures — 
one of them a print labelled " View of Hackney 
Church," at least a hundred years old. Then, after 
refreshments served, a cart was got, and we started 
for another lake. The soldier leading the horse 
allowed it to go too fast, and in vain I shouted to 
stop. All the others shouted too. Off started 
the spirited nag down hill, and dragging the man 
after him, until the pace quickened into a fiill 
gallop ; and the more we shouted the worse it was, 
for the horse kicked and plunged, and overthrew 
the man, and then darted into a corn-field, and 
headlong rushed down to a gate, where the cart 
was dashed to pieces, the wheels going one way, 
and the horse and shafts and canoe dragged along 
at a racing pace, till at another fence the whole 
was overturned, amid a crash of broken paUngs. 

All this occmTed in about as much time as you 
will take to read the account, but this time was 



enough to let me — ^running at full speed — ^become 
cheerfully resigned to the terrible catastrophe, 
and even to arrive on the scene with a laugh 
(hysteric probably), and the thought, " Well, it is 
sad ; but it is better the poor little boat should be 
entirely smashed rather than have only some 
deadly wounds, and so need to be helped along 
limping for months in a lingering existence of 
leaks and patches." 

I heeded not the broken cart and the runaway 
horse, but rushed to my canoe. I turned her over 
as one would tenderly handle a child thrown from 
a carriage, and what was my wonder to find she 
was perfectly whole — only the flagstaff broken, 
and one or two ribs, and scarcely a scratch on the 
fine varnish, and not one crack in the cedar deck. 
Nay, there was not a bottle smashed in my stores, 
and all this because she had made a somersault on 
the paling just broken, as she landed on it most 
happily on her strong oak stem, which still bears 
a deep mark, but no other injury. 

This adventure was so extraordinary, and the 
escape so marvellous, that we have detailed it at 
length, and do earnestly hope we shall never have 
to recount another of the kind.* 

The officer positively refused to let me pay for 
the ruined cai*t, saying it belonged to the " sub- 
* See Frontispiece. 


sidy," and he was proud to help me. He was in 
earnest^ too, and it was but an augury of many 
like acts of Scandinavian love of the Englishman. 

A new cart took us to Oklangen Lake, deep and 
dark, with matted trees and luxuriant plants over- 
growing its roc;ky sides. After a delightful paddle 
along this I was most glad to find no water in the 
hold — ^not a nail had been started. Let every 
canoeist abide by my advice to have an oak canoe. 

The roar of a waterfall told that the river was 
now available ; so we have fairly begun the 
Vrangs Elv at its very source. A large saw-mill 
was here, but not a man was to be seen : they had 
all gone to middags (dinner) ; so we thought ifc 
would be a good idea to do the same. We dragged 
the Rob Roy to the " smithy," and rigged up our 
fire on the. anvil, fencing it round with bricks to 
keep the draught from the little lamp. Preserved 
soup was soon boiling with a savoury odour, and we 
put lots of rice in, but somehow the grains of rice 
would not get large, as you have them when 
properly cooked, and we soon found they ought to 
be steeped first. However, there was no time for 
a hungry man to wait for Soyer's cuisine, so, large 
or small, the rice was capit«d to eat with my 
wooden spoon and fork (they are united in one, 
see page 81, fig. 3), and with biscuits and mild 
brandy-and-water the bivouac was done. 



The workpeople were astonished on their return 
to find the anvil with a banquet on it ; and when 
all was packed up we launched on the river again, 
which for some miles was like a little Scotch trout 

stream^ with purling ripples and long pools quite 
concealed by thick foliage, tangled ferns, and fallen 
larches, drooping so low as to cause me to stoop 



again and again to pass. Sometimes I had to 
wade, but the fine summer- day sun made this 
pleasant, and it was cool to dabble in the bright 
crystal stream, and chase the water ouzels or gk^p 
at the fish, always, however, in vain. 

In travelling abroad where you cannot speak 
fluently their language, and yet you, pass among 
thousands of men and women who are on life's 
road with yourself, and who would hear a friendly 
word about another life, if you could speak to 
them on this great subject, it is very well that you 
can give them on paper, and in their own tongue 
plainly printed, what is good for them and for you 
to think of every day. 

Because many tracts are weak and badly written, 
and are given imprudently, therefore some people 
decry all tracts. Because papers are given some- 
where unwisely they would have you give no 
papers abroad. It would be quite as logical to 
denounce all talk with the foreigners, because a 
good deal of talk is most vapid. The Norwe- 
gians and Swedes are able to read. More of 
them are so far educated than in the like num- 
ber of any nation of Europe. They eagerly 
accept papers (call them tracts, or not), and they 
do this more readily from Englishmen, and most 
readily when the man who gives them is otherwise 
enlisting their attention by his manner of life or 


travel. No place, therefore, is better suited for 
giving tracts than Scandinavian 

The following story will show, however, that 
good tracts must be rightly carried a3 well as 
prudently given. In a former jourtiey here tbee 
of us brought 3000 tracts and many Testaments 
for distribution. A great bundle of these was 
packed in the same tin case with some pounds 
of hard biscuits, and this was placed on my car- 
riole. The rattling made by this incongruous 
packet attracted my attention when we first set 
off and jolted along; but 1 noticed that the sound 
got more and more dead after some miles on 
the road, until at last it subsided into a deep- 
toned thump as the wheels went over a stone. 

At night we opened the tin box, and found only 
a mass of fine dust like meal. The biscuits were 
pounded into grains, and little bits of paper, with 
one letter perhaps on each, represented the luckless 
tracts that had been packed with them. 

But what remained in other bundles of our\ 
papers and books were given and received with! 
pleasure among thousands. People ran along the \ 
road to beg for a paper, and often it was handed 
to them on the end of a whip. Sometimes these 
were read among crowds of attentive listeners ; at 
other times boats came to us on lakes by moon- 
light or by the Aurora gleams, and entreated they 



might have a " bok," offering us money for a New 

As to the amount of good these tracts may do, 
let those speak (yes, and only those) who have 
carefully given them, and patiently watched the 
results. For my own part, after many years' expe- 
rience in the matter, I am fully convinced of the 
vast benefit done in this way, while fully sensible 
also of the need of prudence and common sense in 
using this means of good. And what means is 
there that does not require attentive regard in 
applying it, and prayer for a blessing on its use ? 

To ridicule the general practice of tract giving 
is too ridiculous. To put it down by banter is 
impossible ; and you are not likely to improve it 
by laughing. Therefore let me say, once for all, 
that on this voyage, as on every other tour, I 
constantly gave tracts ; feding, too, that if the 
people around me were not available for this 
sort of communication, or if I was not ready to 
use it on their behalf, there must be some con- 
straint on their side or on mine, which ought not 
to exist between the sons and daughters of Adam, 
pilgrims in a world together, and with great and 
broad and deep and lofty things in common, that 
ought never to be very di^ant from our thoughts, 
and which one day must be near. Now you have 
had a tract from the " Chaplain of the Canoe." 


Another lake came next, and with it new 
pleasures ; for there is as much difference between 
canoeing on rivers and lakes as there is between 
traversing mountains and plains. On the stream 
you have the current, the waterfall, the rapid, and 
the unfolding panorama, of which only a few hun- 
dred yards are seen at once. The lake, again, has 
its grander distances, its lofty cliffs, its rocks and 
islets, its stately trees, and its lively waves, which 
give quite another spirit to the boat, or if it is calm, 
then the weird picture on the liquid mirror shines 
back the sunlight at evening, and the floating 
clouds piled high in the air above are hugely 
massed again in reflection below. 

But these clouds are not always so romantic and 
so far out of reach. Soon they closed round, and 
very prosaic rain teemed forth and hissed again on 
the surface of the lake. There was no eluding 
this straight downpour, and the crew might have 
mutinied had we gone on much longer in a 
deluge ; so it was determined to stop at the only 
house, and to fish in the evening, if the rain 
should cease. 

I put the Eob Eoy safe under a bank, and 
walked through thick bushes to the humble dwel- 
ling. Only an old woman was inside — all the men 
were away; but we praised the scones she was 
baking, so she brought them in with coffee, but 

22 OLD LADY NO. 1. 

was evidently uncertain whether it might not all 
be a dream to see, for the very first time in her life, 
a grown man dressed in grey flannel, and talking 
what sounded to her like gibberish, yet manifestly 
very weU able to eat like the mortals of her ac- 

Most luckily I managed to find two men on the 
road, and though they were wet and weary, mere 
tramps going on their way, they came with me to 
the boat, hidden under a bramble bush, with all 
the cows staring at it, as they always do here — 
indeed they will run along the bank of a river for 
half a mile with tails in the air, and '^ mooing" as 
fiercely as they can. 

The worthy old dame was persuaded by signs to 
give me a room, and the men went off, after shaking 
hands vigorously, for sixpence each, and I coolly 
pulled the canoe right into this bedroom, if " bed" 
indeed it can be called, which was only straw, 
though the lady gave me a sheepskin — and a great 
population in it — to sleep upon, with my cork seat 
and macintosh for a pillow. Madame also brought 
in at night some grod (porridge) and milk, a 
luxury not to be had in a hotel ; so all four meals 
to-day were breakfasts. One chair was in the 
room, and two square blocks of timber; while 
green bushes with leaves on adorned the walls, 
and were sweet preserves for the mosquito game. 


The worst was she had no light of any kind ; and 
to sit in the dark for hours before bedtime, with no 
one to speak to, and all one's thinking already 
exhausted in the boat, was a pretty start for the 
night However, a light was found at eleven P.M., 
after hours of dark if not gloomy meditation, and 
just at the era when a squalling baby piped up 
for its nocturnal concerto. 

For one so very fond of little children, it is but 
fair to hear them in their bad times, and not only in 
their good times. It would have been easy enough, 
then, to get on with the baby music ; but a long 
and sad experience has made me acquainted with 
the tactics of the other minor visitors which now 
in a regular army marched to the attack from 
their camp in the sheepskin. 

As a general maxim it is best, if there be only 
twgr^p^ three of such intruders, to let them have 
iffieih^, and they will go to sleep after a good 
supper, and then the victim may sleep too. But 
with hundreds and thousands this will not do. Put 
your trousers inside your stockings, tie your hand- 
kerchief over your fece (making a hole for mouth 
and nose), stick your tanas deep in your pockets, 
and if you can get asleep before the enemy finds 
his way into your entrenchment it is well. But if 
one light skirmisher gets in before you are fast 
asleep, be sure the army is not far behind. Tour 



defences are enfiladed, and your flank is turned. 
You may now surrender, for that night is gone. 
People are astir early in these parts. By five 


o'clock the household is on the move, and so am I ; 
no toilet to make, no glass wherein to see. 

Behold how the neighhours have come in relays 


of six at a time. But none brings a basin, 
and so we must trust for a bath in the lake, 
calling to mind how^ in this unkempt manner, 
once before, long ago, in a rough part of Norway, 
three of us went out to bathe, each clad only in a 
Scotch plaid ; and as we stooped by a river and 
each used his tooth-brush, the populace assembled 
to learn and to admire. 

After the exhibition had closed, and boiled eggs 
had been administered to the captain, and a scrub- 
bing to the boat, we gave our hostess two shillingSi 
which she said was far too much, though for three 
meals and a night's unrest surely it was mode- 
rate payment. Gratitude made her insist upon 
carrying the canoe herself to the water; so, 
with her daughter bearing the bow and mamma 
carrying the stern, the procession of three persons 
emerged from her door, and much laughter fol- 

Oh the fresh air of the morning, with a new sun 
and another day, and all so still but the soft 
dip of the blue-bladed oar. Fat and fierce 
dragon-flies hover about me with their big staring 
eyes, and that little spider has fallen on the deck 
as it grazed the reeds just now. He walked all 
round, poor fellow, in vain seeking an escape, and 
dropping down a dozen times into the water, but 
always hauling up when that exit was found 


barred. He paused then, and seemed to ponder, 
and lifted his arm to the air to find if the wind 
would hoist him in a balloon of his own make. 
Think what an addition it would be to our capa- 
cities if we could at all times spin a hundred yards 
of fine rope strong enough to bear 200 lbs. weight ! 
Has not that line of Terence — " Homo sum," &c. 
— the defect of excluding animals from our in- 
terest ? Well, the cabin boy of the canoe became 
so concerned about our spider friend that at length 
we were constrained to pull to land that the pigmy 
spinner might be safe ashore. 

After several lakes were traversed, with thick 
trees all round, and man, beast, and house entirely 
away, we got into full swing upon the river again, 
and for two days it twisted and turned amid rocks, 
green mossy banks, and thickets ; always going fast 
enough to let me fish comfortably, and yet make 
progress all the time. We met only one serious 
rapid, or " force," as it is called, at Enteraden, and 
about fifty people gathered to see us pass over it. 
The caution which arises from experience made 
me somehow less daring about these rapids than in 
last year's voyage, feeling, perhaps, more now than 
ever before how much would be lost if a grand 
tour were to be cut short by smashing the canoe. 



Natives — ^Which is it? — Zig-zag — Water-logged — North- 
west Passage — Dragging— Soft Men — Man in the Moon. 

The most frequent questions of inquiring visitors, 
when they send in their cards for a call on the 
Eob Eoy, are the following : — 

" But how did you manage about the language ?' 
" And how did you find your way 7* 
To the first of these a reply at some length may 
be found in the account of my former tour, where 
the crew of the boat had to converse with people 
of four different languages, besides half-a-dozen 
paiois and pure "bargee." In this northern ex- 
pedition, also, we had to talk with Norwegians, 
Swedes, Danes, and Germans, then with the 
dialects of Slesvig and of Holstein, the Piatt 
tongue of the Elbe, and the whole jumbled into an 
inscrutable insular gabble at Heligoland. 

English, however, carries you a long way in the 


North, and broad Scotch helps you further here, 
and signs do beyond that ; and as a last resort 
you can sketch wants and orders pictorially. It 
is curious, too, how speedily you acquire foreign 
words when you are forced to do it ; and, more- 
over, there is a special faculty of the mind, which 
is marvellously brightened by practice, that of 
" making people understand," and of "making out 
what they say." 

But this matter of language is made easy by 
the very fact of travelling with a canoe, for when 
a human being comes into a village in this novel 
fashion, the curiosity to hear from him is so great 
that the people do all they can to open up com- 
munication. If there be one man there who can 
speak English, French, German, or Latin, be it 
ever so little and bad, he is sure to come forward, 
or to be pushed forward, as an interpreter ; and, as 
the newspapers made everybody acquainted with 
the Eob Eoy's progress, there was always some 
" Dominie Sampson " of the district who came 
to the front in this way. 

Sailors too, it is found, are the most intel- 
ligent class to speak mth, when you and they 
have but few words in common. The words they 
learn of other tongues are just those about the 
things which you want most to speak of. So the 
words they know may be few, but they know the 
useful ones. 


As for the more educated class in these 
southern countries, they are delighted to practise 
their English or French with a stranger; and 
often I found school-boys who were learning 
English so troublesome in their desire to speak 
with me, that patience was drawn upon largely to 
satisfy their eagerness. 

Instances of this will appear ftirther on, and 
amusing examples of the struggles they make 
abroad to pronounce English as we do at home. 
Therefore, let nobody hesitate to canoe it because 
he does not know foreign languages ; but let no 
one rely on these to accomplish his tour. In such 
a voyage, believe me, " gumption " is more useful 
than German, and friendliness than French. 

As for "finding the way," that is entirely 
another matter; for the natives cannot tell you 
what they themselves do not know, that is, the 
route by water even in their own locaJe. In a river 
it is not often difficult to find the way, though 
hard enough sometimes to keep in it safely. You 
have only to hit tlie right branch, and then to go 
on down stream, taking a little care not to go to 
the bottom. 

In this northern tour, among lakes and intricate 
seas, it was not so easy to manage. In these 
places there is either no current to guide you, or 
an unseen one that deceives> and there are count- 


less islands to mislead. You sit so low in the 
boat that one tree-clad rock may hide for em 
hour the very bay you are in search of. The 
sun behind the clouds is no index, and the wind 
changes with every bend of the shores. A com- 
pass, unless the needle is six inches long, only 
puzzles your pate. It gives the general direc- 
tion; but what you want is the right or left 
of a particular islet perhaps only a hundred yards 
long. Still one charm of the canoe trip is this very 
demand upon that instinct — ^for, after all, it is some- 
thing like the faculty of an animal — ^which, being 
developed by months of travel in this manner, 
enables you to say with confidence, " I feel sure that 
the inlet to the village is behind that rock" 

In most of these lakes you cannot inquire your 
way. There is nobody to inquire from. You are 
going where nobody else goes, and so nobody 
knows the way to it, and nobody could make you 
understand it, if he tried. ** The map ought to 
help, then," it may be said. Yes, the map helps 
much in the easy places, but it confuses you in 
the hard ones. 

Say you get among the 1400 islands in the 
Malar Lake ; why, there are not thirty of them 
marked even on the largest map. But you cannot 
tell which of the wooded points and hills around 
are the marked islands. You do not see all round, 

ZIG-ZAG. 81 

or half round any of them, and the end of a large 
island may appear from your boat like the body 
of a small one, or a little one near you will obscure 
two big ones further off. 

The island of Onson in Venem, which looks 
clear enough on the map (at page 62), was so 
like many others not marked on the map, when 
seen in actual existence from the water, that it 
cost me three or four landings and climbings be- 
fore I could make sure on the subject. 

From all this it will be gathered that if there 
are, say, twenty islands in the way, it is fal- 
lacious to measure the distance between any two 
villages by scale on a map, as if you have only 
to paddle that number of miles ; and yet that it is 
happy for you — as it was with me almost every 
day — to have the time, energy, weather, find 
inclination to make a zig-zag progress such as 
that marked on Map 4, and thus to see many 
hidden beauties, while the distance traversed is 
double that of the direct course. So much for 
the general subject ; meantime we are not troubled 
with diflBculties of this sort, for we are only as 
yet in a well-linked chain of water. 

But this chain very soon gets entangled and 
knotty, for logs of timber float around us as we 
near a saw-mill, and at length they block the 
channel completely across. After once or twice 


dragging the boat round, and taking my luggage in 
a second trip, we came one evening to a timber block 
extending fully a mile. No one was in sight, and I 
was nonplussed, but as things always turn up if yon 
have patience, I established my cookery under the 
arch of a bridge, and while at supper a boy came. 
We gave him some coffee, and when he was in 
good humour we offered him a sixpence if he would 
get two men, and this he faithfully did. 

Fiery sun glittered above next day, and drove 
me under the shady trees for miles and miles, at 
the very time when (as I hear now) it was rain 
and cold in Scotland, and in Switzerland sloppy 
and miserable. In both my canoe tours the 
weather has been favourable. Only two wet days 
last year, and in this summer not one day on 
which it was too cold to sit in a single coat, not 
one in which the rain was bad enough to keep the 
Bob Roy in doors. 

But the obstruction of timber logs was a novelty 
which we had never met in the twelve great rivers 
of the former voyage. 

These logs are cut in the forests, and then 
tumbled into the water, to find their way down 
stream. Men with long poles push them into 
the current when they get embayed in crooked 
corners. But in August these men are not allowed 
to ^yalk by the river for this purpose, because the 

WOOD — ^WOOD. 33 

crops are grown up ; and so one or two of the 
logs will get fixed, and then hundreds gradually 
arriving, and thousands more, the whole water is 
covered with a brown-eoloured raft. 

As the rivers are not navigated, this wooden 
surface is left for weeks untouched ; but it is a 
serious matter for a canoe to come to such a floating 
barrier. For the logs are too close to each other 
for any passage, and they are too small and round 
to allow the canoeist to drag his boat over. No- 
thing could be done then but to drag the canoe 
on the grass, and, in order to see hew long my 
traverse might be, I had generally to mount some 
hill for a view. 

Once, in a very lonely spot on the Vrangs, we 
found the timber reached as far as the eye could 
see, so we concealed the boat under a dark tree, 
and then toiled up a hill on a calm, hot day. The 
view was at once charming and alarming. Wood, 
wood, wood, on to the horizon ; the wood on shore 
being green and growing, and every wind of the 
river entirely covered with dead logs, thousands 
and thousands, silent and brown. Nobody in sight, 
and no house; I sat and waited fc* events, but 
nothing would happen, nothing seemed disposed 
to turn up — only birds chirped. 

Lunch and a cigar braced me up to the inevit- 
able task, for we must now drag the Eob Eoy 



through the forest, or we must die and be buried 
there, like the babes in the wood. 

This was a heavy piece of work to contemplate, 
especially as there was no knowing how many 
miles must be traversed on shore before open water 
could be found. But I thought of M'Clintock 
hauling his boats on snow when ice packs blocked 
up the sea channel, and then I took out all the 
luggage, and the mast, sails, paddle, floor-boards, 
&e., &c., and set off with the bundle as a sort of 
pilot load, so as to find the best route for dragging 
the boat afterwards, through the dense trees, 
rough roots, and boggy swamps. 

I was lazy at firsts owing to the heat, but soon a 
vigorous spirit got aroused, and the magnitude of 
the undertaking, its novelty, and the curious plans 
we had to adopt for getting over dykes, hedges, 
brooks, and hillocks, not. to say the exertion 
required for penetrating thickets and copses where 
no man (let alone a boat) had ever roamed, soon 
became deeply interesting, and we worked for 
hours at it, until by double journeys both boat and 
things were all transported to open country once 
more, and we launched the Eob Koy on its 
proper element again, with a glorious evening still 
before us. A deal canoe would have yielded up 
its slender life in a brief half mile of work like 



The final block of the kind, near the village 
of Eastad, compelled me to find two men to 
carry the canoe over the fields to a house, or 

night would have caught me there. The people 
seeing her arrive, were more than ever amazed; 
and, as ihey knew the river was full of wood 

D 2 


for miles, they asked the man in her how he 
could possibly haye come by the Vrangs, and 
then he shook his head in a grave and mystical 

Next day the boat was plit on a long cart, con- 
sisting of one pole and four wheels, and we made 
two men sit on these and hold the Eob Eoy on 
their knees, so that the bumps and thumps of a 
road full of ruts were softened for the canoe by two 
excellent human cushions. This plan answered 
admirably, and was very comfortable, at any rate 
for the beat. 

^ No more wood," they said ; the river was hence- 
forth open, so now came the luxury of the voyage. 
Deep, rapid, winding streams,, with fine rocks, very 
thick trees, leaping trout, great bounding falls^ and 
then for miles along sunny meads, where I cast 
my red'hackle fly just on the fishes' noses, and 
wisely reclined with my feet on deck, while they 
laboriously jumped into the air all on a fine 
summer's evening. 

Query, as a piece of pure casuistry, Is it quite 
honest to deceive — a man ? — No ! But a robber ? 
— ^Doubtful. Well, then, a fish ? The feathers at 
the end of your casting line are — you cannot deny 
it — a gross piece of humbug. 

The wind rose, and we sailed merrily past large 
flat barges full of crude iron. They struggle up 


the Vrangs* a mile or two, but we must now be 
near its end. And see how the rocks teend away 
right and left as we dash out into the deep, dark, 
lonely Hugen Sje, a lake only four or five miles 
long, but with waves of its own that will shake 
my bottles a bit in their basket from Covent 

I had paissed into Sweden, for the boundary was 
near Morast, where the forest is cleft over hill and 
down dale and along the weary flat> with a broad 
belt of cleared timber, and with cairns of stones at 
intervals. This frontier line (just like those in 
Canada) runs north and south for a thousand 

Perhaps it was this long ruled mark on the world 
that suggested to a philosophical dreamer that we 
of Earth might endeavour to speak to the people in 
the moon by planting on the snows of Siberia a 
triangle of trees, and the pons asinorum of Euclid 
done in fir forests, so that any schoolboy in our 
pale satellite could see plainly that we worldlings 
are at least geometers. 

In the little inn we found what was plainly a 
Briton, with dinner done and a large bottle empty. 
" You are English," said he. " Try some of this 

♦ Was the Verangian guard of Northmen at Constanti- 
nople 700 years ago from this river, and did their word kyak 
for a boat become caique in Turkey ? 


ale ; it's really good. Tm a citizen of the world ; 
the earth's my home ; my carpet bag's my fortune. 
They don't know I'm here. Ah I ha! try to shut 
me up, indeed — catch me, first. I proposed the 

telegraph line to Capital speculation, too. 

They sentenced me to prison in France. You're 
to sleep here. It's a double-bedded room, no 
doubt, but I don't like that. Well, you may have 
one bed, as you're English. Don't be alarmed, for 
I speak in my sleep and walk about the room in 
the dark.** 

" Not at all frightened," said I ; " and mind you 
don't grope near me in the dark, for I've an unfor- 
tunate habit of hitting right and left — arms 
rather strong — ^been paddling for a week." Then 
he chuckled, and said, softly, he would teU me of 
a really wonderful phenomenon he had found in 
the room : **^The washing things, &c., are made of 
clear glass." And so they were ! 

Out of his carpet bag rolled sovereigns, shirts, 
shoes, and guide books, all in a muddle ; but I 
gobbled up an omelette, and my sleep was sound 
after a hard day's work. 



Lonely Blazes — Stick to the Boat — Gushing — ^Dame Cyclops 
— ^Miss Kjerstin — Dazzled — Pike and Cream — Oars- 
woman — ^A Little Bill. 

During the last few days we had most of the 
incidents that were met in the former tour — 
shallows to wade in, falls and weirs to lower the 
canoe over, trees to stoop under, rapids to dash 
through, and then the novel times with the logs of 

But from henceforward a change occurred, and 
quite new features marked the voyage. No more 
wading or weirs or logs, and but few rapids and 
falls, for we had entered a chain of lakes more or 
less beautiful, and of all varieties in size, shape, 
and depth, in colour and kind. To view these 
from the top of a hill was at first delightful, but 
on reflecting how far I had to work through that 
maze of water dotted over miles of wooded 
country, and every inch to be gained by the 


paddle blades (for the course was still east and 
ugainst the wind), the question arose, "How will 
the biceps of my arm feel by the time we reach 
that distant thing over there— the lake which, 
like a patch of silver, glitters from far in the sun- 

New experience, too, had to be learned in the 
bivouac line. For it is easier to find a good 
cooking-place in a river than at one end or other 
of a lake ; and it would never do to go edging 
fdong the shores to look for a dining-room, though 
my usual course was each day to go serpentine 
till I tired, and then straight to the roosting-place 
for the night. 

On the other hand, when we get hungry in the 
river, it is enough to begin to " look out," say at 
11 A.H., and a good spot is always found before 
noon— either a tree, or a hay-shed, or a waterfall, 
or a secluded bank — the best, of course, being 
some kind of hut, where water will be soonest 
boiled for soup or chocolate, as the lamp is pro- 
tected from the wind. 

But in choosing a cooking-place on a wide lake 
or the sea-shore, there are several requisites to be 
borne in mind as you paddle along, and with keen, 
empty hunger quickening your choice. 

The place, then, must be shaded from sun, 
sheltered from wind, without flies, but with 


plenty of dry wood for a glorious bonfire, near 
good moorings and calm water, perfectly se- 
questered, and therefore an island is best, >vhere 
your cork life-preserver makes a good dry seat, 
and there are suitable stones for a table and 
kitchen, a soft bank to lie upon, and a pretty view 
to look upon all the time. 

Two hours will be spent here in fixing up, cook- 
ing, and cooling down the viands, eating them, 
and a sweet siesta ; so it is worth while to search 
for a really good place, and when you leave it 
there is even an affectionate regret at the parting. 
The nook has been your kitchen, dining-room, and 
study, and many a look is east back on it as the 
smoke stiU curls up from the logs ; nay, the big 
trees you set a-blazing at first are not yet done 
smouldering as you shove off to leave them. 

Experience had also to be wrought out in the 
matter of weather, for last year's fair day's voyage 
did not teach me what to do in rain. Therefore, 
now in a storm of it, sometimes we drew into shore, 
and went under a tree for shelter — the larch tree 
was found to be far the best for resisting a long and 
heavy down-pour. On two occasions we tried to 
elude the worst by leaving the boat, but both were 
sad failures. In the first we were in a most wild 
lake (without any name), and the edges were bleak 
banks of rushes. A black nimbus climbed the 


sky, and darkness was in its cold breath, which we 
knew was to be followed by a regular drenching. 
The Eob Eoy was pressed with eager speed to 
the inhospitable shore ; and after half-cm-hour's . 
scramble to get on more solid land, and a vain 
effort to obtain the least atom of help in a village, 
there was nothiDg to be done but to re-embark, 
thoroughly discomfited, and thoroughly soaked. 
This was the only occasion when I could not find 
any help ; but recollect they did not see the boat ; 
it was hidden in the rushes, and I ought never to 
have left her so, and sorely we suffered for the 
blunder. The other instance, teaching the same 
lesson, will be related further on. 

It will be understood that the main design of 
this canoe voyage was, in the first place, to go by 
water from Christiania to Stockholm; and already 
we had done the part never accomplished before 
by any boat, and only possible for a canoe. From 
henceforth deep-water lakes and sea fjords would 
more often be my road. All of them were in- 
teresting in beauty, wildness, colour, or contour, 
while none were positively grand. Every day was 
very pleasant, and in most the weather was exactly 
the thing — cool, sunny, and bright, with plenty of 
wind. The change from river to lake was like 
that in riding from a green lane to a wide plain. 
And sometimes, too, this change was a surprise, for 


all the lakes are not marked in the map. Between 
the Vinger Sje and the Hugn Sje there are eight 
separate lakes, but look on the Map No. 2, at 
page 130, and you do not see one. 

For a week the wind had been south-east, that 
is, just in my teeth, but the sailing days were to 
come, on fresh water and salt, and my arms were 
now well braced up to 30 miles a day,* even with 
the wind ahead, but in the finest temperature 
imaginable for muscular exertion and appetizing 

As I rejoiced in this success, and kept pondering 
in silence to find out any imaginable improvement 
to be suggested in the canoe, I began all at once 
to feel there was a sensible current in the lake, 
now narrowed to a river-like creek, and at last 
actually going under a bridge, and thus into the 
long and lovely lake beyond. 

Eocks covered with spruce, larch, and beech, 
and of every shape and curve, with bays, 
promontories, and islands, opened in gradual 
panorama as we passed along; and a gladsome 
buoyancy of spirit in the fine fresh breeze forced 
me to shout and sing aloud and alone, or to 
whistle in bright merriment gaily by the hour. 
Life of any other sort seemed tedious compared 
with this, and travelling in any other way a bore. 
* Equal to 40 miles in known water. 


The houses dotted here and there are red in 
colour, all oi wood, large, and well lighted. Most 
of the men wear caps, as the Bassians do; and 
there are real flowers sometimes in the women's 
hair — a pretty fashion. They all salute the passer 
by, and even some women, who curtsey politely. 
This is all very nice to see, to praise, and to wish 
for; but it would be irksome for a profoundly 
practical people, such as we are, to waste so 
much time on this particular duty, though cer- 
tainly we often omit these proper amenities 
where they ought to be attended to. Swedish 
politeness, if observed in Piccadilly, would require 
every man who has friends to carry a hat in his 
hand. For the sake of his head, indeed, and of 
neuralgia, he might also have another hat in its 
usual place. 

The change from the Norwegian to the Swedish 
language was pretty clearly marked, and though we 
had been twice before in Sweden, it was necessary 
now to acquire the " Svenske " tongue anew, that 
is, of course, the few needful words which six days 
will easily give to any one who keeps his eats open 
and his wits about him. 

The Banke See was my next lake, a long and 
pretty course ; but we must shorten the narration 
of these delightful days, for repetitions, even if 
pleasant in fact, are tedious in telling, and still 



worse to read. Indeed, the time and muscle 
consumed in the actualities of this northern tour 
are so great a draught upon energy, that we may 
be excused from any attempt at making a hand- 
book for canoeists here, and we must be content to 
notice the salient features of some typical events. 

The weather still continued magnificent, with only 
a few heavy showers, and in a fine sunny evening 
we landed at the end of the lake Eanke, and 
walked up to a house where was a very old woman 
with one eye. She was terribly puzzled when I 
invaded her cottage on the clifiT, and urged her to 


come and see the boat But when she had seen 
the skiff she at once took a motherly interest in 
the skipper, and we carried the Bob to a cowhouse, 
where it was hid in the rafters, while I took my 
l^g^6 to a very fine farm-house, and knocked, 
and walked in. 

Mr. Svenson received me rather coldly at first, 
but soon he, too, became interested ; and I find it 
best not to ask immediately for night quarters, 
rather to leave to the host at the proper time to 
give himself the pleasure of offering these. This, 
then, he kindly did, cmd going upstairs we found 
his wife reading a great Bible, and both of them 
were delighted to examine my little canoe Testa- 
ment, one which has been a good deal battered 
about by use in the open air. 

The three comely daughters of the mansion 
vied with each other in attention, and all of us 
went down to inspect the canoe. 

Hitherto they had been coldly hospitable, but 
now a complete change immediately followed. 
" They came, they saw, I conquered." Luggage 
may be brought by a tramp, but a boat — and such 
a boat! — could not but certify the traveller, and 
arouse due enthusiasm. Triumphant progress, 
therefore, of the canoe on the shoulders of Thor- 
sten and Oswald, ploughboys, proud to bear her 
home — grand concert in her honour — ^admission 


firee. So while Miss Kjerstin played the guitar 
and sang the spirited songs of Sweden, I sketched 
the view of the lake from the window, and a like- 
ness of the girl herself, which being done with a 
few complimentary touches pleased her and all the 
servants immensely, and the portrait was duly 
ensconced on the wall. Here, indeed, was a group 
for a painter ; the father demure and satisfied, the 
mother staid and watchful, and the bright young 
girl tinkling the wires of the guitar with a simple 
innocent look, but withal a proud one, not dis- 

A maiden at music always seems to me the 
most nervous of trials. Speaking in public, for a 
man, is nothing to it. He can stare at the 
starers, but a girl has to sing under the close 
scrutiny of others which she may only know 
with averted eyes. I wonder how they ever 
can do it in company without making every note 
a tr. 

Then we had bacon, and pancakes, and pota- 
toes, and rice, and milk, the farmer and his guest 
apart from others, and the wife waiting on both ; 
and I gave madame half a pound of the best rice 
from London, for which she curtsied deeply, and 
shook hands. The son caine in from the fields, a 
fine young fellow, rather Italian in face, and sing- 
ing comic songs and warlike marches until I went 


to my bed-room.* The hostess remained a long 
time with me there examining our canoe kit., and 
at length I resolved to return to the sitting-room 
below, and to give them all a treat with the mag- 
nesium wire. So we burned a piece amid the 
crowd of hinds and damsels, whereat arose a shriek 
of wonder, and before it had subsided, or they 
could see anything at all, after gazing on the 
blinding light, tdieir necromancing guest had es* 
caped to bed. 

Farmer Svenson had sent me up to bed in 
comfort, and his assiduous hospitality began early 
next day with the glass of schnaps, which seems to 
precede every meal, and to follow it also, inter- 
vening, besides, on all sorts of pretexts at other 
times; for instance, if you eat a mouthful of 
salmon, it is a positive rule that you must drink a 
glass of '^ brandivin," and if a friend meets you, 
another glass must be taken to greet bim. 

The Kob Roy was put on a cart, and amid bows 

and smiles (and perhaps one sigh from Miss K ) 

the farmer started his horse for Sulveeka, and 
acted as. driver himseK, partly as a compliment to 

* One of these iiational airs will be found further on 
(page 182). A famous Swedish singer, spoken of with rapture 
as equal to "Jenny Lind," is Christina Neillson. Every 
third woman here is Eerstin, and every fourth man is 


me, and partly to have a thorough good gossip 
with everybody we met by the way, and a sort of 
general lecture to the villagers on the beach of 
the beautiful Elga Lake, on which we now launched 
the little canoe. The waves from a head-wind 
dashed so often over the deck that I resolved at 
last to land at a great saw-mill, observed not far off, 
and get a cork to bung the mast-hole, also some 
bread to stop the manifest gap in the captain's 
own personal hull. At once a crowd of workmen 
rushed around the new visitor, and I was startled by 
a voice, " Goot maw — ^ning, Capiteen.*' This man 
had seen the boat some days before, and as I had 
told the oflScer of the Landvehr I was also a little 
in the same line as himself, the title and rank of 
the paddling Briton were already known at Elga. 
We sent a lad for two pennyworth of bread, but, 
meantime, the master of the works sent a pressing 
invitation to breakfast at his house, while his son, 
a gentlemanly youth, came to urge the request, 
and the big dog Hector said the same. There 
was a doubt as to yielding, till a young lady, 
a sister, smiling and fair, added her entreaty, and 
that, of course, settled the matter. Then we were 
escorted to a fine large wooden chateau, where 
Mr. Ehodin soon established the hungry paddler 
beside a dainty meal of pike and strawberries and 
cream. (N.B. Third breakfast, already, to-day.) 



All the family and the " gouvemante," she speak- 
ing English* perfectly, had a chat about my tonr, 
my boat, and my ideas of Sweden; and when 
at last the time came for a start, the nnmeroos 
workmen lined the wharf as we dashed out, 
thoroughly prepared to face a strong " sou'-easter,'* 
from which, indeed, there was no escape. 

Among the other arrangements of the boat, I 
have a cork seat, nine inches square, which can be 
speedily bound round my waist as a life-buoy when 
a precaution of this kind may be necessary, but it 
had not yet been used in actual earnest. The native 
newspapers in one instance spoke of the canoe as 
" being carried round my waist," and no doubt it is 
to this waist-belt of cork that they referred, with a 
somewhat confused idea of the whole affair. An 
hour's hard pull on this rough water (with the 
pike and cream and strawberries), caused me to 
land and to sound the pumps, and the canoe had 
more water in than ever before or after. There 
were thirteen spongef uls, for it is by this I measured 
the water in the hold. After rounding a point I 
perceived a boat tossing about with rather a help- 
less air, and was surprised to find a woman rowing 
in it all alone ; so we went rapidly to assist her* 
But she was emulous of my speed, and could not 
BO easily be caught, and by no means sought 
either help or sympathy; nay, she excused her- 


self for being beaten in the race because her boat 
was so large. Suddenly the wind dropped, and the 
water calmed as soon, so rapid are tiie changes 
from squalls to calms on these lakes ; and so I 
fished, sailing now with a leading wind to the 
pleasant, busy town of Arvika, where we rested 
the Sunday. 

A few hours' residence in a small place like this 
identifies a traveller, if he has arrived in an odd 
way, as I did. By eleven o*clock evwy boy and girl 
in Arvika* knew the face of the Englishman who 
came sailing in a kayak, and now walked about in a 
straw hat, genially smiling. The town was pretty to 
look at, and dull to live in, and a number of tipsy 
men wandered about in the evening after church 
Let us have a quiet walk through the wood, sweetly 
odorous of pine gum, and musical with insect hums » 
See there the busy ants tracking a broad path over 
grass and ferns, bustling and jostling and struggling 
with tiny muscles, to bring home every one his 
load. Well might the wise man bid us all go to 
the ant to learn. The lesson is not only for the 
sluggard, or rather we are aU sluggards compared 
with what we might be, and ought to be ; but did 
you ever see an idle ant? This community of 
pigmies have a sort of Fleet Street of business in 

* This is the Oscarstadt of Hagelstan*s map. 


52 ANTS. 

their ant-waUos. The rustling of the leaves under 
their bnsy feet is quite audible in the silence 
around. Each little atom (as it seems to be) has 
yet a mind and a will and a plan, in its own 
small way. Every ant seems to run everywhere, 
and to try everything, until he finds some burden 
to take up, and then an hour is not too long to 
carry it right to the end. If he cannot find work 
below, he climbs up a tree. He tumbles three 
feet to the ground, rolls over, gets up and shakes 
himself, not a whit the worse, but at it again 
with vigour. Fancy an Alderman falling from the 
cross of St Paul's in his way to the City, and then 
after all arriving in good time at his office ! 

In this ant-world there is a crowd, but not con- 
fusion. There is activity, but not hurry. They 
are all intent on a future, and provident of the 
present They help one another, and their path 
is homeward, with room for all to walk in it, yet 
it lies in a sure direction. A few minutes spent 
by an ants' nest is generally a good lesson of life, 
yes, and of morals. '^ Learn of her ways, and be 

Night has come now, and as the moon sails out 
on the lake there is soft music under the window, 
and gentle voices of girls singing very pretty 
Swedish hymns ; and then all is soothed into the 
quiet of dark repose, except the prosy old watch- 


man, who intones the hour ihroagh his nose, or 
blows so many bass notes, sounding the clock on 
his horn. 

Here is the hotel bill, merely as a specimen : — 

No. 6. 
11/8. Aftoii,}al . . , . Rd. -91 ore. 

12. KafFe '50 ,» 

Middags, J ol 1^16 „ 

Tobak . . . . . . -50 ^ 

Afton -50 ,» 

13. CaflFe ...... 

Logi 2-50 ,> 

FrukoBt '50 „ 

Rd. 6-57 
Quiteros Arvika, 13 Aug., 1866. T. F. W. 

A rix-doUar is worth about 145. English, and 
contains 100 Ore, so the whole amount is under Ss. 



A Hundred Luncheons — ^Phantom Ship— Wake Up — ^Wait 
for Events— John Bull at School— On the Road— Model 
Wife — Chat in Latin — Manners. 

It was a lovely morning when we left Arvika, 
and with all energy renewed after the Sunday's 
rest. A gauzy haze around the dawn melted away 
into a clear blue sky, and the lovely Elga Lake 
was rippleless. No sounds came from the shores, 
no singing from the woods, and as I quietly 
skimmed along even the ticking of my watch was 
easily heard ; for the hollow cedar boat probably 
acted like the body of a piano or a guitar. 

The light-houses on the lakes and inland 
lagoons are sometimes very small. A mere glass 
box upon a stand, of which you can touch the top, 
is placed on a jutting rock ; and the village lamp- 
lighter comes to put it to rights in the evening, 
while during the day the crew of the Bob Eoy 
land and stretch their legs beside the tower. 

Here there were most inviting islands for 




the bivonack. We could have lunched a hun- 
dred times, and never within sight of the same 
place twice. But in the sole dinner I did take 
a phenomenon appeared which was not at all 
picturesque; for, in preparing my cookery, the 


spirit-lamp exploded, and nearly burned some of 
the crew, but we soon made a good fire of wood, 
and it went on bravely burning, long after " the 
gentlemen had left the dining-room." 

"Steward!" "Yes, Sir." "You may take 
away the things." The spoon is long and narrow, 
so that you can eat an egg with it, and for stirring 



up the coffee or soup or chocolate this weapon is 
useful enough ; but practicall j the fork was never 
in requisition, and that end of the implement may 
be regarded as a fond conceit 

As the scenery was so fine, and the pleasant day 
was all before us, and no halting place had been 
settled for the night, we devoted an hour or two 
to make some experiments as to the speed of the 
boat, and other like matters which a perfect calm 
is favourable for ascertaining. 

It appeared, then, that in paddling well but 
steadily there were 100 double strokes (that is, one 
on each side) made in five minutes ; which, at the 
speed of six miles an hour, would give 200 double 
strokes in a mile. Counting stoppages, rests, and 
hindrances, it will be found that three miles an 
hour is enough in continuous touring, and in still 
water, in fact, a good walking pace ; but then of 
course on a river you gain at the rate of two or 
three miles more by current for long stretches. 
On the whole we may say three miles an hour on 
lakes and four on rivers for easy paddling. The zig- 
zag course of the Bob Boy here is marked in Map 4, 
where you see that the shores of the lake gradually 
approach until we enter the Glava Fjole, its waters 
curling under a delicious breeze &om the north- 
west, and so enabling me for the first time in this 
voyage to set sail — ^a most grateful pleasure. 


As the rocks grew higher and nearer, and the 
sun more hot, so the breeze also increased, until we 
scudded away at a famous pace, while I stretched 
at fall length, with my head leaning back on the 
adjustable backboard (the comfort of one's life in 
a canoe), and my feet spread out on deck, and 
bright clear waves lapping my hands now and 
then, or daringly kissing my cheek. 

The luxury of this rest (without stopping) after 
the hard tugs against the east wind last week, 
will always be remembered by the passengers of 
the canoe. 

To vary the amusement, I bent my course here 
and there, into this bay on the right, and round 
that cape on the left ; now chasing a duck that 
kept diving and diving before me, and again 
running close to some little village, where all the 
folks came out, but saw a boat pass through them 
without its once allowing any face to be seen. 
Their account of the phantom craft that passed 
them I should very much like to hear. 

The work of a long summer's day, even with its 
rests and detours and many stoppages, had brought 
me thirty miles on my route, and as the sun 
drooped, so died away the wind ; but the water 
closing now to the breadth of a river, with a steady 
current, still carried us on through the Bjorno 
Sje, the Lake of the Bears, 

58 WAKE UP. 

Over the waving weeds, fast by the dipping 
bnshes, great rocks above ns, and health and peace 
within, it was all in a mellow light of gloaming, 
such as that picture shows ns, ^ With the Stream." 

I fished the while — as comfortable in my boat 
as you are on your sofa — ^use makes it so. At last 
I was lazy, and so were the fish, for they jumped 
only half way to the fly, and seemed to lollop 
about for play, and did not mean business. We 
were all so pleasant and comfortable — ^the canoe, 
the fisherman, and the fish — ^that by consent it was 
i^eed to " make believe," on all sides, until, I 
do believe, our coxswain nodded in the sultry air, 
and then he fell fast asleep. 

At this time the Eob Eoy was borne on the 
smooth current^ stem-foremost, side-foremost, any 
way ; all discipline was unloosed, and no one was 
on the watch, as we drifted in among the long 
stakes, which were leaning down as they bent 
to the stream, and murmuring at the pressure 
with an audible thrilL Suddenly I was aroused 
by a tremendous tug at my fishing-line. In an 
instant if was "all hands on deck," and a rattling 
of paddles and spars and a clattering of shoes. 
What a huge salmon it must be we are catching. 
It has pulled the whole boat round 1 Haul away 

Ah I my hook had caught a tree I 


Again the kke narrowed between fine cliffs into 
a flowing neck of bright clear water, and the river 
stream bore the canoe gently on until evening, 
when the mirthful lass at the ferry told me I could 
sleep at a house on the knoll above. 

No person is in sight but she as we draw to 
shore, and in the earlier days I should have been 
anxious about how to manage alone. But ex- 
perience proves that a few minutes always brings 
some one within hail, in such places, if any one 
house is visible ; and the infinite variety of ways 
in which apparent difficulties solve themselves by 
a little patience, and keeping " your weather eye 
open," really constitute one of the amusing cha- 
racteristics of the voyage. 

Lazy after long sailing (which stiffens one con- 
siderably, and indisposes for more exertion), we 
waited as the sun went down, and the cool silent 
stream flowed by, and nobody came, and nothing 
happened. There seemed to be a spell over all of 
listless inaction. Then I beckoned to the pretty 
ferry girl, and she rowed over, laughing. " I am 
an Englishman," said I. She told me " Osterman 
could speak English." " Osterman — Osterman !" 
I repeated ; " what can be the meaning of Oster- 
man?" And then to her, " Tell me plainly, miss, 
what is Osterman ? Is it a man fishing for oysters ?" 
She answered, "Osterman is just Osterman ;" and 


very soon he came on the scene himself — a fine 
young fellow ; his name was Osterman, he spoke 
English welly and had 400 hooks with him, and a 
lad to set the night-lines. He objected at first to 
delay his fishing, or to let the boy carry my boat ; 
but persuasion preyailed. If it had not done so it 
would have been a surprise to me, and the first 
time of failure in securing help by good temper 
and kind words. 

We carried the canoe to a private house, and 
she was soon locked up, and the key of the bam in 
my pocket. This mode of establishing the Bob 
Boy in night quarters has merits and disad- 
vantages ; although it is secure it is troublesome, 
for over and over the key has to be produced for 
new comers, who enter humbly, cap in hand, to 
ask for a sight of the " leety bote.'* When I was 
dining a man came up-stairs, and in the shyest 
manner entered into conversation, each of us 
talking quite independently of the other, but pro- 
bably edified, without any distinct allusion to 
each other's arguments. He turned out to be the 
proprietor of the house. How modest, how 
courteous, how gentle was this plain cottier, 
and how few people in Eugland, we could not help 
thinking, would have been so delicately attentive 
if, on coming home at night, they found a stranger 
comfortably eating their best fare. 


Desperate sticklers we may be for Old England 
and everything English; but repeated lessons 
abroad have at length forced me to confess that, 
in comparison with most of these ^^ outlandish 
folks," we English are often very boorish ; and the 
conviction of this may well make us behave 
in foreign lands with the modesty of those who 
feel their countrymen have much to learn. 

The fire in the room here was on a triangular 
hearth, about the height of a chair, and in thq 
middle of the room. It was arched over so as to 
form a chimney, and a sketch of it will be found 
on page 143, (fig. 1). This excellent arrangement 
is one of the best to be seen for comfort and 
convenience, because, while the fire is in fact open, 
it has still a snug chimney comer, and you can 
cook on it or sit by it without having to stoop 
far. The man, so demure and attentive, wore a 
leather apron, and at first we thought he was a 
blacksmith, but it was soon seen that all the 
working men wear these aprons to protect their 
knees and bodies from the wear and tear of im- 
plements, as well as from rain.* The worthy host 
accepted a tract, and at once began reading it 

* Some of the schoolboys have leather kneecaps, and we 
noticed one little fellow with brass ends to his boots, which, 
no doubt, is a good plan for moderating papa's bill at the 


aloud, and half an hour afterwards we could hear 
him still going on, while his head was nodded, or 
thoughtfully shaken, as he seemed to feel the 
sense of the message from En^and in Swedish. 
All this was in the district of Yermland, a region 
little seen hj trayellers, and seen, perhaps, by no 
one as the captain of the canoe saw it Still you 
may see a bit of it on the Map opposite. But the 
fame of it is of quaintness, respectability, prejudice, 
patriotism, and open hospitality. Unawares, we 
had paddled into the Highlands of Sweden. 

Next day we had to charter a little waggon to. 
carry the Bob Roy from this chain of waters to the 
end of an arm of the great Yenern See, a splendid 
lake about 100 miles long, only less than the lakes 
Ladoga and Onega of European waters. We soon 
slung the canoe upon two ropes ; one of them was 
made of pig's hair, which is said to last a long 
time even when used in rain and frost The portage 
was seven or eight miles, and gave me a pleasant 
walk alongside the cart, the man wondering (and 
mumbling his wonder all the time) that the Heir 
would insist upon walking along a road plashy and 
wet ; but stately trees and graceful ferns adorned it^ 
and painter's glimpses through the forest and over 
the lakes. Then came we to Borgivik — ^full of 
smoke and din, with tilt-hammers worked by gush- 
ing water-wheels, and grimy Titansswaying brawny 


arms among the sparks and fire-flakes, as the 
ground quiyered at each blow on the molten 

I drove the cart through a wondering crowd 
right up to the house of the proprietor of the 
works, Mr. Almquist, who received us with great 
courtesy, while his excellent wife appeared in the 
kitchen ruling the pastry and etceteras which are 
so numerous in Swedish cooking. 

] thought at first she was the cook, but when I 
gave her my wet things to be dried in a very matter- 
of-fact way (as one must push a little), she took 
them with so much readier politeness than the 
servant by her side, that I scarcely wondered 
afterwards to find her in the drawing-room playing 
"Weber's PreeioM with a tasteful touch of the 
finger-board not at all spoiled by an hour or two 
at the *' dresser." This is the sort of wife that it 
is happy for a traveller to visit The lady and 
her husband may possibly read these lines — ^as 
many Swedes have promised to do — and let it be 
understood that the thanks of a wandering English- 
man are here conveyed to the courteous and 
hospitable Vermlanders. 

BoK and Bruno, the dogs, soon made friends 
with me ; but none of the fisunily could speak Eng- 
lish or French, so my stock of Swedish being soon 
exhausted, we had to depend on mutual smiles ; 


until the amiable host pointed to a line in a phrase 
booky which said, " You are very welcome ;" and 
I answered by another, ^' I am exceedingly com- 
fortable, and much obliged." 

However, Dr. Somebody came to tea,- and we 
talked Latin with that circumlocutory elegance 
which a very slow remembrance of it involves, 
like pumping water out of a very deep well, with 
very little in the bucket when it comes up, and 
not much at the bottom. 

I had broken my watch-glass, and they had not 
one small enough in the village shop, but we pro- 
cured a large one, fitting about as well as a saucer ; 
and, after some experiments, I discovered that, 
by putting a piece of gauze* over this great glass, 
the watch-dial could be seen perfectly, and yet the 
hands were protected. This may be considered a 
useful invention — ^at any rate it was so for me, 
until next day a man said — ^a stranger, too, ^* Give 
me your watch, and I will return it with a glass 
to-morrow at half-past five." We could not but 
trust the honest Swede, and faithfully the watch 
arrived, with an excellent patent glass upon it, 
which has been thumped and bumped ever since, 
and, indeed, is even cracked, but is still service- 
able. For boating, the watch ought to be carried 
in a small pocket near the collar-bone, where it is 
* Brought for a musquito veil, but no musquito ever came. 


least likely to get smashed, and is most likely to 
be kept dry when you have to jump into the water 
or to swim. 

Everything in this house was substantial, airy, 
clean, punctual, and good. The boys were well 
behaved. The visitors listened with smiles to our 
mangled Latin, the lady beamed with benevolent 
motherly kindness, and all for a strange traveller, 
who had no possible claim upon their time and 
attention but that he was a stranger — ^and had a 

In Norway and Sweden all who are seated 
at dinner rise at the end, and bow to the host, 
and thank him for his hospitadity. As for break- 
fast it is taken as a peripatetic meal — ^the viands 
being attacked from front and rear and flanks, 
as you cut in and snap a bit, and then trudge about 
the room. It is an uncomfortable fashion, and 
more especially so in an inn, where a dozen heavy- 
heeled men, with hoarse voices and champing 
jaws, stump round and round on the wooden floor, 
all talking, eating, and smoking in independent 
circles about the table. 

Tea is sometimes taken at night ; and what do 
you think of the accompaniment of a plate of 
thick pea-soup instead of muffins ? 



Barometer falling — Caught in a Sqnall — Cholera-ward — 
Dog Brandy — Alone in a Lantern — A Sum in Squeaks — 
Yankee — Cauliflowers. 

Eably next day the whole family and the me- 
chanics came with me to the water, and the Eob 
Eoy shoved oflf into a squally sea; for it may 
really be called a sea, this noble lake of Venem. 
All hats were off, and warm adieux wished " happy 
travel" to the little boat, no doubt the smallest 
craft that had ever ventured on this great lake. 
For an hour or two the course was among land- 
locked bays and high hills, with dense wood to 
the water's edge, and we did not feel the strength 
of the breeze there ; but, on facing round the last 
lonely wooded point, the white waves, and angry 
clouds, and thick drizzling rain, show that full 
steam must be put on if we mean to reach Carlstadt 
to-m'ght, and I must reach it, for letters are to be 
there, and my packet of reserve provisions. 


Three grand points I had settled for this tour ; 
to paddle on Venem, on the Baltic, and on the 
Great Belt in Denmark. Here was number one 
feat approaching fulfilment, but a more unpromis- 
ing day could not have opened. Wind, rain, and 
fog, seldom you have the three at once ; but each 
of them now was vigorous in opposing me, and 
any one of them alone would have been reason 
enough to defer the attempt. Therefore I landed 
where I could pander half-an-hour, with a cigar, 
and consult with the boatswain and mate over 
our chart; and the question was solemnly debated, 
" Is it not foolish to go on with thirty miles before 
me in this whistling mist, and on this huge lake ?* 

A black squall then varied the duU grey of the 
horizon, and I had to land for shelter while its 
fury was spent on the rocks above me. Bright 
sun followed, and then came another portentous 
cloud, so I resolved to dine at the very next 
house to be met; but it was a miserable hut^ 
and the poor man in it had no bread. Things 
looked awkward now, with so much delay and 
so long a day's work to be done, so we made for 
another island, hard by the narrow strait of 
Asunda, where was the last house to be met 
for many hours. In this poor fisher's hut we 
found two sailors and a rosy-faced boy, eating fish 
and potatoes with their hands, and a woman sat 

F 2 


by with a very dirty baby, which she covered with 
kisses* I produced my little packet of sugar and 
gave the baby some, and mamma soon got me 
some bread, and I joined in the wooden bowl of 
potatoes, and cooked my coffee by their fire, and 
sketched, and gave her some of the finest rice 
from Fortnum and Mason's, and let off a wax 
match, and gave two to a boy, and, in fact, made 
myself generally agreeable. This was the first 
instance in which we found a mftn who could not 
read ; still he managed to decipher the obverse of 
a coin, and so we departed with thanks to all, but 
without kissing the child. 

Then into the tumbling waves, aha! Eow 
cheery the motion is with a dash and a rush, and 
the sea-bird's scream aloft, and the black rocks 
white with foam around. What other mode of 
travel is so plea^iant as this ? 

The numerous islands were soon so perplexing 
that I had to land, first upon Sande Isle, and 
then on several others, climbing each time some 
lonely peak to see where we ought to go. A small 
compass would have been useless here (and a large 
one I could not afford to carry) for the islands* 
being huddled together are in the way of your 
seeing them, just as you ^'cannot see the forest 
for the trees." 

* On the Malar Lake there are 1400 islands. 

lost! lost! lost! 89 

The thick undergrowth and slippery moss on the 
islands made it tiring work to cUmb them, and, far 
worse, it wet my feet and legs, which are usually 
quite dry in the canoe. The panorama from the 
top, too, was not cheering ; and once when I had 
settled on the course, and observed the wind to steer 
by, and then came down, the wind had actually 
veered eight points in that ten minutes (as was 
stated to be the case by a sea captain, next day), so 
I was utterly puzzled, and in fact started quite in a 
wrong direction, which would have led me forty 
miles to the east. There was nothing for it but 
to climb once more, for it was absolutely neces- 
sary to find out the island of Onson among the 
numerous others in the Katt Fjord ; and yet the 
only point that was unmistakable was the head- 
land at the end of Hammaro, which stood out 
sharp on the far horizon of indigo blue. Sud- 
denly, and to our great joy, a sun ray broke forth 
and showed a white puff from a steamer's funnel, 
so we concluded instantly that must be the direc- 
tion of Carlstadt ; and so it was. 

By careful steering, and after numerous alter- 
ations of my intended course, I happened to 
go right, and the sun at length overcame the 
dark clouds around him, shining bright through 
the fog, and showed me land only seven or eight 


miles away, but dead to windward. This was a 
hard pull, yet when I reached the lighthouse and 
climbed up to it nobody was there; so it was of 
no use to shout 

We therefore started again, and scrambled on 
somehow to the mouth of one of the branches of 
the great Klar Eiver, one of the largest in Sweden ; 
and then in a blazing hot sun that made the 
marshes reek a pestilent air, we stemmed the 
current slowly for an hour, amid thousands and 
thousands of timber logs. 

Carlstadt was burned down last year, and cholera 
had broken out among the poor people housed 
temporarily on the flat shore, so we were urged 
to avoid the place as exceedingly dangerous. 
It was, therefore, with no small pleasure that I 
found a little steamer alongside the quay. For 
variety's sake let us put the dialogue in the sen- 
sation novel style. 

** When do you start," said I. 

** At six to-morrow." 

*' Eastward?" 


" Will you take me ?' 

" Come along, sir !" 

So the Eob Koy was on its deck in a trice, and 
a messenger brought my "reserve prog" and a 


letter from home — sl better feast! Good kind 
Captain Bahlander came forward with " How do 
you do? are you wet?" "Yes, very." "Then 
change instanUy — ^this is no place to get a chill 
in ;" and in a few minutes I had his big greatcoat 
around me and a stiff glass of grog inside, and felt 
all the better for my paddle of twelve hours, and 
forty English miles of watery wandering on 
Venem. The glass vessel he poured this oppor- 
tune brandy from was shaped like a dog, with 
its tail for a handle, and the fiery fluid came 
from its mouth. Many days afterwards we 
had another pull at the tail of the captain's 

Next day, after visiting several ports I decided 
to land on the island of Bromo, where a steamer 
would pass at night, and might take me to the 
West Gotha CanaL The canoe was put in a shed, 
and we had a long walk in a wood, and then in- 
spected the large glass-works on this curious island ; 
and just after we came there the woodwork of 
the old roof, built sixty years ago, caught fire, and 
a great bustle was the result. 

The evening was cold, and it was tedious work to 
wait seven hours for a steamer ; but the man gave 
me the key of the lighthouse, and I rigged up my 
kitchen and made coffee there, and then put on 

* See post, p. 161, with a portrait of the spirited animal. 



two complete suits of clothes to keep me warm, 
and paced the little harbour quay until the stars 
came out. A brilliant meteor shot across the sky, 
and reminded me that in this particular week of 
each year a meteoric epoch comes with shoals of 

shooting stars. Mounting into the lantern of the 
lighthouse, I sat by the camphine lamp both for 


beat and light, reading and sketching and thinking 
through the midnight hours, with a lonely feeling 
and anxious expectancy of a steamer's whistle in 
each gust of wind. 

At length footsteps heard below showed there 
was some other passenger. He soon began to 
whistle as he paced back and forward, stamping 
his feet. To console him, and for company's sake, 
I whistled a second to his tunes; and thus we 
went on until our whole stock of Italian and native 
airs was exhausted by singing and whistling in a 
strange duet, one performer standing on the pier 
and the other seated aloft in the lantern. 

The steamer came, and it was coolly passing us 
by altogether, but my comrade hailed them long 
and loud and often, and they came back grumbling, 
but not sorry to hear there was an English 
passenger, though they shouted out that all the 
cabins were quite full. "Never mind," said I, 
" the deck will do for me." Anything, to be done 
with the lantern, where I was so tired and cramped. 
The deck was piled with three tiers of herring 
barrels — not a very savoury cargo, but I recollect 
a far worse one when I went from Valentia to the 
Balearic Isles with 355 live pigs on deck. For, 
say that each pig squeaks but once in five minutes 
— ^a very moderate allowance surely — and that 
a good squeak lasts sixty seconds at least ; then 

74 ON DECK. 

yon have the continnous squeaking of twelye 
pigs together for twenty-four hours — ^not counting 
the grunts or the general odour. 

It was a curious passage this, from Bromd, as I 
sat close to the funnel, and all was dark, except 
when the furnace doors opened, and their warm 
redness glared on the hot stokers, and* on the 
moying beams and cranks, till the scene was 
quenched again in darkness ; but the rattling still 
went on. One side* of my face was so hot that 
I had to screen it, and the other side was so 
cold in the draught that I had to screen that too. 
Ton will find, however, that if you are in good 
health a night spent thus on deck passes, after all, 
far better than if from illness or anxiety you toss 
about through wakeful hours, even in the most 
comfortable bed. 

There is a dreamy poetry about the sea at 
night, with the illumined heaven above, that seems 
to sway all the stars to and fro among the ropes, 
though it is only the vessel that is rolliug gently. 

Then quiet thoughts of home and home things 
circle in the mind, and the engine keeps on its 
ceaseless music, saying every moment over and 
over what seemed to me like " blong-italong-ee- 

♦ " Sidehead," Americe — and why not? though we Britons 
have only foreheads and blockheads. 


The steering &om the lake into the canal at 
night in a fog, and through so narrow a channel 
that only one foot was to spare on either side, 
surprised and delighted me. But these Swedes 
and Norwegians are all good sailors. I recollect 
meeting our Baltic fleet at Copenhagen when it 
had cruised six months during the Crimean war. 
The French fleet came in, too, and the middies 
and sailors soon hired every possible quadruped at 
aU resembling a horse, and we went scampering 
over the fields for thirty miles with that up- 
roarious enjoyment which sailors have ashore. 
Grood authority then informed me that the French 
ships were as well built and equipped as ours, and 
their gunnery not inferior ; but that it was in a , 
certain kind of weather where the difference was 
seen at once between the nations. When snow, sleet, 
and rain filled the air, and driving fog darkened 
the murky night, and the sea and sky seemed one 
black hazy mass, then the French admiral always 
signalled, " Let the English vessels lead." Buoys, 
beacons, and lighthouses had all been removed by 
the enemy ; but the Orkney, and Shetland, and 
North Sea pilots found their way still. The fleet 
did not lose one ship, though often the three- 
deckers had only a yard of water under their keels 
in drizzly fogs, such was the seamanship of the 
Baltic pilots. 


As at this period of the journey the packet of 
excellent biscuits in my ** reserve luggage" be- 
came less bulky, for they were more consumed, 
there was room left for a few little souyenirs of 
the voyage. Here is a pretty bag we have brought 
back. It is a slip of white birch bark, soft and 
smooth, like satin paper, and bent into an oval 
shape. By a neat handle you can carry it away 
full of fresh raspberries, sparkling with cold dew, 
and bursting with luscious sweetness, aU for the 
sum of one halfpenny. 

Here is a batch of Swedish newspapers, each of 
them describing the Bob Boy ; but we know all 
about her already. 

Here again is a small volume, in Swedish, called 
" The Little American " — ^the first time we have 
observed the ** greatest nation, sir, on the face of 
the earth, sir," propound that their language is 
not " English," however true that may be in cases, 
and however just may be their right to call it 
"American." For this blue-book is a sort of 
school primer, intended to teach the Danes how 
to pronounce the United-Statesian language, and 
perhaps we English may have a lesson, too. 

In one column of each page is the Danish word 
or phrase ; and in another the same English words 
written with Danish letters ; and in the third column 
these are written again in Danish letters, as they 


are to be pronounced ; but we will put English 
letters instead, and the first column may be 

1.) George has been puniBhed Dschaardsch has bin pon- 

by his father. nisch'd bei hihs fadher. 

(2.) Amely's shoes are not Amm'lih's schuhs ahr naott 

clean. klihn. 

(3.) Oh, joy I huzza ! the Oh, dschei ! hoosae ! dhe pless- 

pleasure. jur. 

(4.) Churchyard key. Tschortschjard kih. 

(5.) Geography cheese. Dschioggraeflfi Tschihs. 

(6.) Stay a little. Steh ae littel. 

(7.) Your nightcab and boot- Juhr neichtkoepp and buht- 

jack. dschjaekk. 

(8.) Waiter, the tmder-box. Huehter, dhe tinder-bokks. 

Sweden and America have the largest lucifer- 
match manufactories in the world; so we may 
infer from the last phrase on the list that the 
book is rather ancient ; and the word " Amely" in 
No. 2, and " ae littel" in No. 6, indicate an American 
editor ; while the errors in No. 7 show that he 
was very careless. 

But, after all, this book is not so bad as the 
wretched phrase-book sold in London when you 
ask for the best for learning Danish from, and 
which as usual says all you don't care to say, and 
ends by an elaborate list of jwoverbs, such as, 
*' The tailor makes the man," and " The early bird 
picks up the first worm;" the very last being 


** All's well that ends well," which this book does 

Let those, then, who chide the roTing paddler 
because he wantonly strays where he does not 
know the tongue — and there are some who would 
not have us unmoor the canoe until its school- 
master is a universal linguist — ^let them dub their 
wise heads together, and their learned tongues, 
and give the voyaging world a phrase-book worthy 
of the name. The Eob Eoy does not want it, but 
it would be a good thing to do. 

Some years ago three of us being in Copen- 
hagen, and all hungry, we sat down in a restaurant 
to dine, but the bill of fare was utterly incompre- 
hensible ; so we agreed to order the dish which had 
the longest name. This being selected, the waiter 
was directed to bring one portion for each of us. 
Time went, but nothing came. Other people 
ordered, ate, and left the place, and our hunger 
was keener every moment, until at length the 
white-aproned " kypare " brought in a great tray 
with three huge covered dishes, which were duly 
placed before us — highly expectant of a treat. 
When the covers were removed, lo ! there were 
three dressed caxdijlowers ! 



Ladies' Locks — Tailoring — Canoe Chat — Motala Strom — 
London Scottish R.V. — Selling Babies — Canoe v. Gas — 

Blooming Dowager — Brave Beggaiv-The Gmiboat — 

Morning Call. 

Just as half-past two was "belled" on our little 
steamer, the dawn appeared, linking the new day 
to the past evening, and making one glad to find 
that the great World was not too sleepy to keep 
turning round. 

One after another passengers came up from 
below, each more frowsy-looking than the other, 
and all surprised to find a little canoe added to 
the occupants of the deck. 

The steamer's swell rushed along the canal 
banks, and the tall green reeds bent down in low 
bows, as if to acknowledge the power of man, 
while the waves burst with a splash among the 
bushes, and chased the little sea-sparrows from 
their night haunts, chirping angrily. 

The locks were always opened by women, who 

80 ladies' locks. 

worked £Etinoiisly, though it looked odd enough to 
see young lasses, with great crinolines, perched 
high aloft, and turning the winch handles. I got 
ashore and helped them, partly for exercise^ and 
partly for gallantry. 

As morning went on the country girls eame to 
sell fresh raspberries in pretty baskets of birch 
bark, and butter, and woodcocks. The steamer 
gets its supplies very cheaply by purchasing them 
thus en rov/te and from the growers. One of the 
passengers was an English gentleman long resi- 
dent in Sweden, and he was very kind to me. 
But everybody always treated me with courtesy. 
I never saw a more pleasant set of fellows than 
these Swedes, and they all seem to be sa glad to 
be thanked for their attentions. 

The steamers on the lakes, and rivers, and 
canals of Sweden are very well managed, and are 
comfortable, though their dimensions are neces- 
sarily limited by the size of the locks they have 
to pass through on the canals. The stewardess 
("Mademoiselle" you must recollect to call her) 
is eminently cJvil, and so is her aide — "Lina" 
you may safely call her, for Caroline is as fre- 
quently the name as Mary is with us. A neat 
bill of fere and good things upon it invite you 
to eat and drink much, with very little to pay. 
Sometimes pic-nic parties avail themselves of the 



frequent passing to and fro of these convenient 
tidy little craft, and a dozen ladies and gentlemen 
come aboard the steamer for a breakfast, which 
lasts until the boat stops again, some ten miles 
away, at the next lock. 

My macintosh cape having had various rents 
and grievances in it, the time was opportune to 
make a new garment from a piece of leather 
cloth prudently stored in my reserve luggage. 
An agreeable fellow-passenger helped this bit 
of tailoring, and we first made a pattern from a 

newspaper ; and having improved it to the most 
fashionable shape, the cloth itself was cut out — a 
more serious matter. The new robe fitted ad- 
mirably ; it was sure to do so, for it was only a 
square piece with a hole for the neck, and the 



copyriglit (of figure 2) is not reserved; so any 
dandy may wear it in Pall Mall. But this sternly 
simple garment did excellent service in places 
where there was nobody to quiz it, and at times 
when all observers would gladly have shared its 

Meanwhile our crew really must have a snooze, 
the last forty-eight hours having been rather a 
strain on our energy, and we are pretty sure to 
find tolerable sleeping accommodation in the 
cabin below. So now with a sleepy eye the 
skipper appeals to Mademoiselle for a sofa; and 
soon the starboard watch of the Bob Eoy are 
all piped into their hammocks, while you and the 
people on deck will have a little chat. 

It may be frequently remarked how often 
foreigners speak loudly to you, when you appear 
not to understand their tongue in the usual tone. 
They mistake ignorance for deafness. But at the 
"Borrullup," the marriage-feast described further 
on, there was one very communicative man, who 
always addressed me in a very low whisper, though 
he spoke loudly enough to other people. The 
philosophy of this modification to increase the 
facility of intercourse we could not understand. 

Another thing ; foreigners conversing together 
will sometimes sink their voices into almost a 
whisper, when you may be sure they are talking 


about " you," and it is impossible then not to over- 
hear their words; whereas, if they kept to the 
usual degree of voice (which, by the way, is loud 
and harsh in the North), the whole of the talk 
Vrould pass unnoticed as a universal jargon. 

At one house, where we were received with great 
attention by a pleasant host, whose wife was both 
pleasant and clever, we felt bound to be utterly 
agreeable, and to combine in all possible ways our 
Swedish vocabulary of fifty-three words. Only 
native modesty prevents our telling with what suc- 
cess. Now although the naive ]a,dj was too polite to 
speak in a whisper, there was, late in the evening, 
a rapid sentence uttered by her, which preceded 
only too plainly her husband^s sudden flight up- 
stairs ; and though not one word of it was intelli- 
gible, there could not be a doubt that its meaning 
was much the same as if an observant English- 
woman had disguised a similar remark in idiomatic 
phrase with qiM>8i slang and technical gibberish, as 
follows : — " Your better-half opines, darling, that 
somebody emulates a snooze, his peepers being 
dim; so let's skedaddle betimes." The only tactical 
blunder was that she forgot to prepare for the 
retreat by throwing out a rear-guard, with a preli- 
minary " Don't move at once," just as there is the 
caution " Don't turn round," before you hear the 
" Oh, do look at that person behind you; isn't she 



a positive fright in that green dimity and yellow 
bombazine ]*' 

All the time of this foregoing gossipping inter- 
lude you have indulged in about other people, it 
must be remembered that the captain of the canoe 
is fast asleep in his hammock — ^that's why the pen 
has run on while the paddle was still. 

Meanwhile the West Gota Canal has led us on to 
Lake Viken, which is very pretty, I believe ; for 
my own remembrance of the place is only of a dream 
there, wherein a gigantic paddle was swayed to and 
fro by a monster having one eye, and that was the 
dazzling light of Bromo. But our steamer has 
now glided along into Lake Vettem, so we are 
thoroughly awake, and sober sense resumes her 

This Vetter lake is quite a sea in size, for though 
not so broad as the Venem, it is about eighty miles 
long, as may be seen on Map 2. There are ninety 
tributary streams to swell its clear waters and only 
one exit for all, the Motala Eiver. Eeport says 
that the rise and fall of the water in the lake 
coincides with that at Geneva, and that both are 
unaccountable. Crossing the Vettern, we are at 
pretty Vadstena, where the Mayor called on me 
(on the Eob Eoy, I fancy), saying, "You come 
here when and where to go ?" then again, inquir- 
ingly, " On beesness ?" " Yes," said I ; ** on busi- 


ness, to see your very nice town;" so I took a 
pinch of snuff from his box, and told him that 
kind was called ^ Prince's Mixture." 

A splendid Aurora lit up the sky at night Is 
this not the grandest sight to be seen on earth, 
with a perfect sense of security all the time ? 

Next day I hired a vehicle to drive about 
twelve miles to Kyleberg, where an old friend of 
mine has fixed his home — a Scotchman born in 
Sweden, It was rather venturesome to alight at 
the door without any previous warning ; but in 
Sweden people are as hospitable as the Highland 
chiefs could be in olden days, and Mr. Axel 
Dickson received his sudden guest in the warmest 
manner, speaking with the strong accent of his 
Scottish ancestry, and grasping my hand with the 
powerful clutch of his own ; and what tliat is one 
may conceive when it is mentioned that in our 
London Scottish corps Mr. Dickson was the 
** pivot man" of Na 1 Kilt Company, and was, 
perhaps, the only man in that corps (or any 
other in London, indeed) who could take up two 
Enfield rifles by the muzzles and hold them, one 
in each hand, at full arm's length, with the butts 

Kyleberg is pronounced Chilliberch, with the 
first "ch" as in "children," and the second 
guttural " ch " as in the words Loch Lochy, which 


are unutterable by Cockney lips. Our host's 
fine mansion here is a specimen of >yhat taste and 
skill can do when they direct a good long purse. 
Looking on the original drawings of the old house, 
built in 1736, you see the ugliest of the ugly. In 
its next transformation in 1830 the architect styles 
it a house of '^character," but it was only more 
decidedly ugly than before ; and now, for fifteen 
years, the present proprietor has built outside, and 
improved it within, until you may fancy you have 
come to a first-rate English mansion, with gardens 
and out-buildings, and labourers' cottages, fine tat 
oxen, and pure white-fleeced sheep revelling in 
richest pasture, as you gaze at the Tokem Lake 
and the Omberg Mountain, when the wild-fowl are 
splashing about in the water-reeds, as the evening 
sun cools down to rest. 

There is the Scotch steward — ^Mr. Pennycuik, 
from Cupar and Angus — talking Swedish like a 
native, but he "canna mak up his mind jist yet" 
(fifteen years) as to which of the Svenske damsels 
ought to share his home. There, too, is the sleek 
prize bull " Marksman," who bore away the gold 
medal from all Sweden, and whose babies sell for 
51. each where good calves are in demand. 

Such a place — an oasis in the rougher life around 
— ^was just the spot to spend my qmet Sunday. 
Mr. Dickson reads prayers every morning in 


Swedish ; and on Sundays the neighbours do not 
object to come under his pastoral charge for an 
hour. But he ministers again there in English, 
and Mrs. Dickson reads for us in the evening; 
so that Swedes and Britons all have their share 
of Sunday. 

It was a really pleasant time with this charming 
family, where refinement and kindness are happily 
combined; and I left the place not likely to forget 
my visit to Kyleberg, even after the packet of 
Scotch oat-cake and the pot of marmalade, thought- 
fully given to me at parting, had been finished in 
the luxury of several bivouacs on less favoured spots. 

Eeturning to Vadstena, we found the interest 
about the little Eob Eoy had permeated the place. 
There was a meeting of gentlemen to discuss the 
proposal for lighting their town with gas,* and 
there they asked when the hyah was to start, 
that they might not miss the sight. It was 
answered that her captain only deferred his start 
until the end of the meeting, as a friend of his was 

♦ The use of gas is rapidly spreading in Sweden. English 
coals can be had here as cheaply as in the south of England, 
for they come in vessels that take back wood. Indeed, 
English coal is used on all the steamers and railways, even 
where millions of trees are waiting to be cut down. At 
Helsingborg we noticed a man digging coal out of the bank 
at the side of his house, and at the same time a fleet of 
English colliers was sailing past in the Sound. 


there. In five minutes, then, the gas matter was 
settled. All the twenty-four councillors agreed, 
and lie contract was signed, that the canoe might 
be seen under way. 

Meanwhile the boat had been laid out for a 
thorough OTerhaul and examination, this being the 
first " lawful" day on which she was dry enough 
to do this. The ship's carpenter duly reported 
that, with the exception of four ribs broken on the 
Vinger See, she was perfectly stanch and sound ; 
and so we launched her with confidence on Lake 
Vettem, under a parting cheer from the assembly 
on the pier — a cheer being a novelty in the pro- 
gramme, which was no doubt raised from British 
lungs. The water here was cold and clear and 
deep, and the bright waves played round the httle 
boat, under a soft warm breeze, enlivening enough, 
though not in a favourable direction, until we had 
reached a point where I entered the Motala Eiver, 
and landed for a few minutes' rest, and to set sail 
and run before the wind. 

How many times have we spoken of the intense 
beauty of the depths in a clear lake ? Too often, 
I suspect, even for such a theme, so we must let it 
alone now, and embark again with the lug set and 
the jib. Sparkle on, O waves, and thou breeze 
behind us blow into the open bay, where even 
now my night quarters can be seen afar off. 


This was, indeed^ a pleasant saiL The hotel at 
Motala was very easy to find, and only a few jards 
from the lake ; but the number of people who had 
observed the Rob Roy approaching (always more 
noticeable when its pure white sails are spread) 
gave me a constant stream of visitors, respectful, 
but inquisitive to an unusual degree. 

Next day the canoe was brought to light and 
above ground from the dark cellar, where it 
had been placed— certainly an indignity; but 
then it had double honour when it emerged into 
polite society; and even the venerable landlady 
became fired with the desire to see the start. She 
leant upon my arm, walking to the water — 
a dame of lady-like mien, with that waxen im- 
perishable tint of cheek which hale old age has 
sometimes — and you may defy paint to imitate 
this bloom. 

On the bridge a beggar accosted me, and I 
fairly started with surprise. The thing was so 
new — this was the first and last beggar we met 
in our tour. 

O rich England! rouse up and relieve poor 
ragged Englishmen. The squalid poverty in 
our wealthy land is oppressive; the fat riches in- 
it are oppressive. Thousands of the poor in 
London never see a rich man's smile of sympathy, 
or hear his voice to cheer them. Thousands 


of rich men never see the misery of the poor, 
or hear their cry of hanger. The rich and poor 
among us are too distinct by class and Ibcality. 
They may have liberty to live far apart as west 
from east ; but cannot we urge by love, or must 
we force by law the fulness of the one to help 
the wan emptiness of the other ? 

This highly respectable Svenske beggar, how- 
ever, pleaded in such gentlemanly tones that 
I gave him a great polygon of copper, which 
weighed heavy in my pocket, and would be too 
heavy for the canoe. The coin puzzled the 
man, and it puzzled his firiends when he showed 
it to them, and he and they burst into merry 
laughter, for they thought it was a joke of the 
paddler — a grim joke, indeed, to play on a polite 
mendicant ! 

The Motala Eiver, as it rushes out of Vettem to 
run through a chain of lakes, and by devious ways 
to the Baltic, is seized upon at ouce, that it may 
yield some of its water-power to everybody on the 
banks, and so there is a network of barriers, dams, 
sluices, forces, falls, weirs, and rapids, with a cease- 
less splashing sound, and the rap-ap-ap of busy 
waterwheels, and clang of great hammers, and 
hoarse hissing of swift saws, all mingled with the 
hum and bustle of many men at work, an exceed- 
ingly interesting exhibition of picturesque industry. 


The great ironworks of Motala we had visited 
with much curiosity ten years ago, but they have 
been largely improved and extended since that 
time. The new requirements of modem warfare 
are met by private energy in a great company like 
this at Motala, and there the massive plates ctre 
rolled for the Monitor steamers. Two of these 
were already afloat. The Motala company has 
another branch elsewhere, and a third at Norr- 
koping, where the third Monitor was seen just 
ready for launching, as will be described further 
on. The turret of one of the Monitors, to hold two 
guns, was set up in the yard, and the workmanship 
of the whole was admirable. In such work the 
managers have a rule not to hurry any of the men. 
They prefer that time should be spent, even more 
than what is reasonable, rather than have one 
stroke of the hammer hasty or neglected. When 
the Yankee Mianontomoh came to Stockholm to 
astonish the Swedes, she was received by their far 
better vessels ; for in iron-works, and with a Swedish 
engineer like Ericcson to direct them, Sweden 
ought not to be easily distanced. 

Here also, we saw a Swedish gunboat, very like 
a canoe in shape ; indeed, the Eob Koy was car- 
ried into the building-yard and placed beside its 
enormous fellow of the waters, to the great amuse- 
ment of the workmen and of myself. 



That this likeness between the iron giant and 
the oaken pigmy was no mere fancy will be seen 
by a glance at the drawing ; from which it appears 
that the gunboat slopes down, fore and aft, from 
a higher centre, and is covered on deck, and so 


formed as to go through and under the waves ; 
while most vessels are built to go over them, or, at 
least, to make the attempt. 

Only one gun is on this terrible war ship, and 
as it cannot be "trained" or moved athwartships, 
the whole vessel has to be steered so as to direct 


the gun. The boat is about 100 feet long, so that 
it can cross Sweden through the locks. 
• After showing me all that was to be seen here, 
the gentleman in charge kindly gave me a 
written permission to pass free of expense through 
all the canal locks. But as it is the prerogative of 
the Eob Koy never to go through any locks, but 
always to take a little country walk round about 
them instead, it seemed at first as if this paper 
would be of no use. 

Not so. Passing on our way until the time 
came for the mid-day meal, we pulled up at a 
lock-keeper's house, knocked, and went in. Two 
women were seated there, and a baby. " Can you 
give me milk ?" (The first time I had ever asked 
for such a luxury with my chocolate). No answer. 
" Any bread ?" Still dumb. They gave no 
attention whatever. They had not seen the boat. 
They thought I was a tramp. I then produced 
the paddle, and they were puzzled, nay, appalled. 
Soothing the frightened baby with some sugar, 
and presenting a paper full of pictures to its grand- 
mother, I coolly set up my spirit-stove on their 
table, and commenced the cooking in a most me- 
thodical manner. Their mingled amazement and 
curiosity was highly amusing; but I kept my 
countenance gravely, and then handed them the 
magic paper of orders to the lock-keepers. A great 


change at once began, and all was bnstle ; but 
I got no milk. They looked hard at the paper, 
which inspired all the more awe because they 
could not read a word of it (in writing) until a 
man came in, and then a wonderful jabbering of 
tongues began, and went on all through my dinner ; 
and it may be going on stilL 



Washing day — Feeding on tin — Horse steak — Queer college — 
Choosing partners — Laborious wedding — That tiresome 
wire — Roxen Locks — Murdered tongue — Observation — 
Solus — ^Lone happiness. 

This was washing day on board the ship Eob 
Roy (Wednesday and Saturday were always so) ; 
therefore it was important to have fine drying 

On such an occasion all hands were piped on 
deck by the boatswain at an early hour ; and the 
last pair that came up were told off to " scrub 
ship and wash clothes." All these articles were 
then put out to dry on the boom, where they 
dangled in the sun and the breeze, quite regard- 
less of the public opinion or otherwise of land- 
lubbers ashore. 

It was the duty, of course, of the mate to make 
a correct list of the washing, and to enter the 
same in the log.* 

* These lists were not dissimilar, nor were they volu- 
minous. The following is a copy of the longest ever known : — 
"List of washing— One sock, one pocket-handkerchief 
another sock, the collar." 


When it was necessary to wash the sails of the 
canoe (to maintain her respectable character 
under critical examination), this had to be done 
during her stay in some port, while she was dis- 
mantled for a time, and the crew had shore leave. 

Then the sails were sent to a regular washer- 
woman; and their shape, size, and material 
puEzled her very much, so that she came her- 
self with smiles to return them to the captain, 
washed white as snow, and ironed in squares like 
a table-cloth, with the list pinned on them — 
'^One suit of sails, with tacks, leaches, sheets, 
grommets, and halyards attached." 

A small store of provisions, and a mild effort to 
cook them, were two features added to the voyage, 
after the sharp experience of jejune days last year 
on the Danube, where the only thing in the eating 
line that was always ready was " Hunger Sauce." 

But the head cook of the Eob Eoy was an 
ignoramus in his art His essays were humble 
failures ; and he trusted his guests to enjoy rather 
the circumstances and poetry of the repast, than 
the delicacies thereof. 

It was a rule always to carry food for one 
day's hard eating, or two days of meagre diet. 
Biscuits kept well all the way round, and some 
have survived to this hour. A small bottle of 
brandy was refilled every week from the "reserve 


stores " (sent in advance), until fill the English 
brandy was done, and then foreign brandy had to 
be added to the little remnant of true British 
smack ; just as new planks, and then a new keel, 
are put into an old ship, but it is always felt to be 
the "old ship" still. 

The spirit-stove* for cooking, which had been 
procured in Oxford Street, with all due heralding of 
its perfections, had its failings too, and, moreover, 
had to be sheltered from wind during its use; but 
then there was plenty of wood, in dry days, for an 
open fire ; and the lively crackling of blazing logs 
made it well worth the little trouble of hauling 
them through the dense thickets. 

Our cook's first attempt to make an oatmeal cake 
was certainly most disheartening; some people, 
indeed, cannot eat this excellent Scottish diet, but 
at any rate all cannot make it. He mixed the 
water and oatmeal,* and had a round tin-plate 
heating on the flame, whereon the mixture was 
poured. It steamed, it set, it dried hard; and 
then he removed the plate from the fijre, but alas ! 
the cake would not come off the tin-plate till it 
was torn away with struggles and a knife ; and 
then all the lower part of the brown cake was 
covered with bright tin, and it had to be thrown 

♦ The invention of the " Bob Koy Canoe Cuisine," with a 
Eussian lamp, has supplied at last a proper apparatus. 



away with a sigh, and gone was my only hope of 
breakfast ; for even sea air does not enable you to 
digest sheet metaL 

Practice taught by hunger improved the cumne 
steadily, and in a rough way we soon learned to 
put smoking soup on the table, stirring the bread, 
rice, or biscuits into it with the long wooden 
spoon (figure 3, page 81), which is narrow at the 
end, so as to do for eggs also. Chocolate succeeded 
well, and tea and coffee ; and the crew soon became 
accustomed to eat raw fish when they saw other 
people eating it with gusto; just as in Bussia one 
carves away comfortably at a tough hind leg of 
a horse, but in England we should, on the whole, 
prefer a sirloin of beef. 

Of course it is often, though by no means always, 
feasible to carry from the house you stop at for 
the night a good supply for dinner of bread and 
meat and eggs, and sometimes wine; but the 
addition of something hot, which the stomach 
craves for after hours of exhausting exercise, can- 
not, I think, be withheld for many days without 
impairing that full and hearty vigour without 
which a voyage of this sort must be rather a poor 
sort of tteat.* 

Now we have discussed the viands, and the 

• One of the " Canoe Cartes," just published by the London 
Stereoscopic Company, represents the Bob Koy and her Captain 
ftnd Cook. 


steward of the Eob Eoy packs the boxes and 
parcels and machinery of them carefully into a 
neat little basket, fitting under deck behind my 
back ; and as our subject is done, and our cigar, 
it is time to shove off again into the water, rested, 
fed, and with sentiments to all mankind most 

At the end of the canal there were more locks, 
descending to the Boren Lake, but these the boat ran 
past, merrily gliding down hill on a grassy slope. 
Then we hoisted sail to a fine strong favourable 
breeze, and sped fast away in the most lively fashion, 
visiting all parts of the lake, and loth to allow that 
the end was reached at last. 

Again into a canal, long and rather weary, com- 
pared with the dancing billowets of the lake, but 
clean, deep, wide, and winding, with fish leaping 
and birds singing; in fact, as good as a canal 
could be. 

In the end of a long day it was a wonder we 
had not come to our destination, a place called 
Berg, but not visible from the canal. However, 
we came to a lock, and three boys came to look 
on, and then at least fifty youths, all dressed with 
white neckties ; so we concluded it must be some 
sort of college ; but it was surprising to find that 
not one of the students could speak German, 
French, Italian, or Latin. Though greatly puzzled, 

H 2 


it was needfiil to find night quarters ; so we bore 
the canoe off to a large house in mirthM proces- 
sion. Here we fonnd a considerable hubbnb in 
progress, and a tray laid out with about fifty glasses 
of punch on it. 

It struck me that the rations, or '^ commons," of 
the college were more liberal than their linguistic 
accomplishments; but the punch was excellent, 
and a man dressed in military uniform, who I 
concluded was the drill-master, pressed me to enter 
and be at home. All right. 

Presently there came one who had been sent for 
and could talk French, and then all the mysterious 
riddle was explained. I had come just in time for 
the wedding-supper of the daughter of the wealthy 
landlord, and all these dressed-up collegians 
were only his friends accoutred for the evening 
party ; and as boys (not to say men) usually find 
marriage feasts to be very dull proceedings after 
an hour or two, the delight of these youngsters at 
the interlude of a canoe arrival may be imagined. 

The only place for me to sleep in was an ante- 
room with a sofa in it ; and even this room was 
held as a fortress by the butler for his stock of 
beer and wine, and it was not vacated until one 

As well as a tired paddler could, I joined the 
^^ Borrullup/' as this feast is called^ and a young 


lady was introduced who could speak English, they 
said — ^but not one word could she recollect. In 
preference I gave my arm to one of the brides- 
maids, and led her down to supper, and she seemed 
very well pleased with the "Engleskman" who 
came in a boat, so we had a lively conversation, 
each of us in our own language, quite independently. 
The supper was a most stupid affair, all people 
standing, and with long intervals between hot 
courses of strong food, suitable for the midday 
hours, perhaps, but quite de trop at midnight. 
Several speeches were made, and healths proposed 
by the gentleman in uniform, one of the "best 
men " of the bridegroom — ^for he has a subdivision 
here, to help him to carry his cares. Now and 
then I slipped off to lie down and rest on my sofa, 
amid the bottles, which were numerous and speedily 
emptied, and when the happy pair presented them- 
selves, as is the custom, at the window for the 
inspection of a crowd outside, who had long been 
gazing through the lower panes in silent and rapt 
awe at the splendour of the bridal lace, I thought 
it a good move to exhibit my magnesium-wire 
light, which was just the right thing in the right 
place, for it lit up all the hUl-side, and showed a 
hundred faces, all turned one way, with one look 
of admiring wonder on all, and one hue of ghastly 



It is really amusing to think how many separate 
crowds of people in various countries have been 
illuminated and delighted by the little half yard 
of wire given to me last year on the lake of Zug 

iL ma -jiifiT-TM 

by and English friend I met there. Some inches 
of the pretty metal remain even now to make 
some hundreds gape. 


The crowd gathered early to start the Rob Eoy 
next day upon the beautiful Lake Roxen, of which 
I had to traverse the full length. The canal ap- 
proaches close to the lake, but about seventy feet 
above it, and the usual descent is by eleven locks ; 
but as they are close together, the canoe had 
merely to slide down the grass sloping to the 
verge of the water. A large party of people hap- 
pened then to be coming up the ascent, while 
their steamer would be delayed two hours or more 
in passing the locks ; and a good deal of amusement 
was afforded to them by seeing the swift traverse 
of the Eob Roy over the grass. 

The weather was superb, and I sailed about in the 
lake wasting time rather imprudently, for it was only 
eighteen miles long, if we had kept the proper course. 
Near the end of the day, and as the shores ap- 
proached closer together, the navigation became so 
complicated, and the islands and bays so confused, 
that I went down a wrong channel; therefore all 
the labour of the past had to be done three times 
instead of once, and vainly still I searched for the 
village of Norsholm. But the weather was lovely, 
and only too hot when the wind died down, and 
that soft mild calm of the setting sun, which lasts 
so long here, refreshed my tired limbs. At last I 
found a lady and gentleman in a boat fishing, and 
when I asked where I could sleep that night, the 


man pointed to a bouse. Let me write what was 
said, just to show how few words of Swedish will 
do, and how very badly even these may be spoken 
and yet be enough. '^ Min Hen*, jag ar Engelsk ; 
yar kan jag liga i nat? jag dnskar sofra." That 
is intended to mean, ^' Sir, I am English ; where 
can I sleep to-night ? I want a bed." Speedily he 
asked me to his own house, a pretty villa just by 
the water, and there this kind Mr. Carlman and 
his young wife were my hospitable entertainers. 
He could speak English, and had read of the Bob 
Boy in the papers, and, indeed, he was as pleased 
as I was with our rencontre. 

Mrs. Carlman curtsied deep when I gave her a 
little paper in Swedish, and the " British Work- 
man" was for her husband. A number of copies of 
this excellent periodical are now adorning the walls 
of Swedish inns and private houses ; and I think 
it would be a good plan if the wood-cuts used for 
it could be lent to some one in Sweden, who 
might republish the periodical in the Swedish 

Here, then, we are well housed for the night ; and 
how lucky the paddler has been in coming always 
to friendly hosts, so that, with the exception of the 
first night in Norway, passed in wakeful irritation 
on the bed of straw, we have, in one way or another, 
been comfortably lodged every day. 


The common pleasures of travelling may be 
agreeably varied, when your journey is among a 
people who are strange enough to be worth ob- 
serving in themselves as men and women ; so that 
not only the scenery, but what is done and what is 
said by feUow-beings round enlists attention. 
After much travelling in our own country, we 
at least seem to know all that the people around 
us will say or do; at any rate enough to be 
ennuyer of its study, if a wet day keeps us 
in from the hills and dales of Nature. But 
dropping as a tourist into a remote district 
of Sweden, or on a sea-girt isle of Denmark, you 
have at once a pleasant curiosity to see the 
manners of the new people, and an eager desire to 
find out what they are saying, and yet were it 
all understood or translated, the spell of curiosity 
might be broken, if you found the unknown talk 
was dull. 

Travelling alone is the only way to enjoy this 
simple pleasure of quiet regarding. For if you 
travel with a companion you will speak to him, 
and lose what others are saying ; and if both you 
and your fellow-tourist are silent, the people 
about you perceive at once you are observing them. 
Then they become non-natural. They are now 
actors only, and the charm of the scene is spoiled. 

For observing the manners, and for learning the 

106 SOLUS. 

language, for sketcliing, for writing, for reflect- 
ing, and for reading, as well as for temper and 
freedom, and a special tmnamed sentimental en- 
joyment of the incidents abroad, the traveller 
must travel alone. But as nobody will do this 
because another says he likes to do it, we shaD. not 
hope now to convince or persuade, but we merely 
record what all will certify who have made good 
trial of a solitary tour. 

The enjoyment of lone travel is intensified by 
voyaging in a canoe, for this isolates more com- 
pletely than any other mode. During the work- 
ing hours of the day the want of a companion is 
never felt, because every moment has engagement 
for the mind in searching the way and managing 
the boat ; and if in fishing, too, why, for ihaty it is 
confessed on all hands that to enjoy it thoroughly 
you mu%t be alone. 

Arrived with the canoe at evening, and health- 
fully tired, what is it you want most ? If chatter, 
then there are plenty of visitors ready. But 
what the body now wants most is rest at full 
length on the top of a bed, and the mind, too, 
wants rest in a new attitude of thought. A 
"pleasant and lively companion" would be just 
the thing not to give pleasure then, but a pleasant 
book will. All this we had enjoyed and appreciated 
in many former tours ; but in the present voyage 


there is the still closer isolation of the solitary 

A fire of sticks on the ground out of doors — 
does it not remind us of schoolboy days, when a 
half-holiday looked as long as a week does now? 
As a boy one had uproarious enjoyment in a 
bonfire, and in the roasted potatoes from its white- 
ashed embers. Yet as a man and at home one 
oould scarcely feed thus in a field, unless with a 
nice party of friends, when the aflfair at once 
becomes a pic-nic, and is dependent on far other 
elements for its being tolerably pleasant. But 
Bail you oyer the seas, prosaic man, a thousand 
miles away from home, from friends, , &om all 
men, and all women ; away from houses, horses, 
cows, carts, hedges, bridges, and even from ships. 
Peel off the last circumstance of civilization ; and 
when all this husk is off there will bud forth 
freshly from the untramelled inner mind a new 
and tender flower of rare beauty and enjoyment — 
unless, indeed, yours is a poor suffocated soul — the 
ddigM of being alone. 

Seek out a shady bank, on a thick wooded isle, 
in a rocky nook by the deep clear water, and on a 
summer day ; there it wiU spring up, that quite 
new sentiment — too delicate to be shared by 
another, for it is broken if divided, and it is lost 
like water spilled, and so a mere bubble, per- 


haps, bnt still, if untouched, it is full, complete, and 
beantifuL Enough has now been said to recall 
this feeling, if you have ever known it If you 
have not, my pen, less practised than my paddle, 
is too clumsy to paint the unknown. A feeble 
enjoyment of this new sensation may be slightly 
felt when your only companion is a foreign guide — 
a Swiss in the Alps, a Eabyle in the Atlas, or an 
Indian in the prairie — and then only just in pro- 
portion as he is obtuse, silent, or asleep, and so is 
most like an animal, or, better, like a stone. Even 
then the unseen and ignored companion may 
spoil it all by suddenly becoming present ; he may 
awake, or alas I he may more, or the sound may 
come through the tent of your horse munchiog 
his beans ; and away flies the fiury sentiment, which 
cannot endure even the bleating of a lamb on a 
far-off hill. Your flower will close his petals, and 
your bubble will be burst You are no longer alone. 
The rill of pleasure from this source once set 
flowing in the canoe tour will be an undercurrent 
for weeks, and will trickle through the mind 
sweetly in a stream without form or boundary, or 
will gush up at times with an aroma of thought — 
the dream of a dream, in visions that a Tennyson 
can teU in words, but all can grasp and feeL 
This current will also gather force enough to bear 
the checks of occasional town life and hotels ; but 


it is revelled in most fully as a deep pool of 
pleasure after the solitary, silent bivouack, when 
the prosaic body itself becomes as if absent, ru- 
minating; and the wondrous thing called *'Mind," 
feeling the silence round, creeps forth, at first 
stealthily ; but now, being assured that no one sees 
or hears, and nothing else is near, and that there 
is freedom to unfold in, it slowly rises, erect, 
awake, a majestic form, awful, incomprehensible. 

Then begin the grand gymnastics of this giant 
unbound — ^the &r-reaching stretches into the long 
past, but grasping only emptiness ; the anxious grop- 
ings into the deep below, in vain ; and then the 
nimble plays of fancy round the near and present ; 
and, still unsatisfied, and craving still for what is 
lasting and true, it bounds off into the dim future, 
soon dashing against a wall of hard, cold darkness, 
firm and impenetrable. 

Stay, weary spirit, and at last look up, and listen 
to that solemn voice, " Be still, and know that I 
am God." " Faithful and true ;" " that liveth, and 
was dead ;" ^* the Everlasting Father, the Prince 
of Peace ;" and so you are not alone. 



Poke the Fire — ^Flies and Flies— Won't give in — ^Breakers!— 
Bivouac— Surgeon's report — Climbing to see — It can be 
done — ^Rest 

Dawn — ^time to rise after a good sleep in a 
sant room. Many of these rooms, however, which 
appear so comfortable in summer because they are 
light and airy and large, must be very diBferent fo 
live in when the mercury is low zero in the cold 
winter nights. 

The use of a closed stove in foreign countries, 
instead of an open fire-place, as in England, at once 
reminds the traveller that he is away from home. 

Doubtless the stove is more economical and 
more philosophical, and it will keep all parts of a 
room equally warm ; whereas our wasteful grate 
only heats one side of everything; and you may be 
slowly roasted at one end of the table, while your 
best friend is frozen at the other. 

Yet there are few of us, indeed, who would 
surrender the open coal fire and its glowing hearth 


and soft warm rug, even though we have to gather 
round closely, and must stoop to enjoy its one-sided 

The difference between the modes of heating 
the houses of Englishmen and Swedes is not unlike 
that between their two countries as regards wealth, 
refinement, and education ; for while in England 
we have a thousand very rich and a thousand very 
poor, a thousand highly refined and a thousand 
very brutal, a thousand learned men and a thou- 
sand utterly ignorant, there seems to be in Nor- 
way and Sweden a general moderate competence, a 
suflScient courtesy, and a fair education throughout 
the whole. 

But it is summer still, so we need not sit round 
the fire for a chat. Let us stroll down to the 
water's edge, and rig up the fishing-rod, and seek 
out the best flies from our book, for it looks 
like fisherman's weather. 

And with regard to this sport of fishing, it cer- 
tainly was a grand addition now to the pleasures 
of last year's voyage, though we h«ui scarcely 
prepared suflSciently for its proper enjoyment In 
the lakes fish are caught best with the minnow 
and the trolling-line, being dainty animals that 
like to dine methodically, and to begin by eat- 
ing fish. As for the artificial fly, their ignor- 
ance of its satisfying sweetness is lamentable. 


They regard it as only a kickshaw, or, at most. It 
will do for dessert 

We had not been warned of this, and so had 
brought only flies ; and as trolling-hooks could not 
be procured until the best lakes for using them 
were passed, it was only in the rivers that we had 
profitable sport, for sport it is even to fish without 
catching ; and the man who fishes for the fishes, 
and not for the fishing, is not a true fisherman. 

Also let me say that the fishing-laws are not 
good ones in these parts ; moreover, the people do 
not keep them. Even in some of the most fetmed 
fishing-grounds we found that fish are now very 
scarce, and are more expensive for food than 
butcher's meat. After fishing very carefully over 
one very good-looking lake, I was told at the end 
that not one single fish had ever been heard of there. 
So I think now a really good case has been made 
out in defence of my having only small sport, and 
seldom ; and was there ever a fisherman who had 
not most weighty reasons for a light basket ? 

Still, it was great fan thus fishing ; and even 
when you cannot feel every moment that a ten- 
pounder is just about to rise, there is some satis- 
faction in being able to flog the water. 

So hie away in the beauteous mom, and before 
the sleepy rolling mist has risen from the 
lake. But there was an evident stream here ; and. 



I renewed the old and pleasant sensation expe- 
rienced on the Ehine last year, in shooting right 
ahead through perfectly white fog. The ear 
would have easily told of any serious diflSculty in 
the way, so it was tolerably safe and very amusing. 
When the sun did burst through, we began at 
once with a lucky red hackle, for the river seemed 
good for a fish or two. 


Casting my fly behind a great rock, it was taken 
by a fish, and I saw very soon he was a large one. 
He played in the most puzzling manner for half- 
an-hour— often jumping out of the water, and often 

114 W03Sr*T GIVE IN. 

dragging the boat near rocks and rapids ; but I 
would have sooner jumped into the water than 
lose such a prize. Three times he got under the 
boat, and I feared then for the thin line against the 
iron keel. What with the fish, the paddle, the 
rocks and trees and the current, I once got so 
entangled that my rod slipped out of my hand ; 
but it had no reel 'on, so it floated, and we gave 
chase up the stream, and caught and grasped the 
butt once more — the fish still on. My little 
landing-net was not ready. Indeed, I was not quite 
prepared for so good a take all at once (fishermen 
will understand this state of things) ; so the manner 
of getting him into the boat was the real point of 
puzzle. Twice I had my macintosh apron under 
him, but failed to secure his cold, flat, slippery 
sides, until at the third attempt, when I fairly 
shovelled him into the boat, with a deluge of 
water — a nine-pound grayling, and well worth 
all the time and trouble, as every sportsman will 

It is evident, however, that to fish in a small 
canoe, when you manage the sails, the paddle, and 
the rod with only two hands, and when you have 
to attend to the wind, the current, and your flies, 
is a fuU tax on energy, and needs great attention ; 
and it was well to put on the cork-seat life-pre- 
server when fishing in the deep lakes and sailing 


at the same time, because one might be entangled 
then among the ropes and strings and fishing- 
line, if an upset were to occur. 

The banks of " Motala Strom " equalled all we 
bad heard in their praise; and it was quite a 
pleasure to feel how much was gained by the 
detour I was now making for scenery's sake. For 
at Norsholm the canal leaves Lake Koxen to go 
east to Soderkoping, whereas the Eiver Motala turns 
due north, and will soon bring us into a large lake, 
quite out of the usual beat, and by which we can 
reach Norrkoping. 

Beautiful villas, meadows, gardens, orchards, and 
mills were scattered along shady reaches of quiet 
water or by bubbling pools and steep rocky 
hollows. At length a loud rushing sound roused 
me, as the well-known signal of "breakers ahead." 
This was a waterfall, too deep, high, and furious to 
pass in any boat ; and the men from a sawmill near 
all ran to see the canoe when we stopped to re- 

*^ This is from England," said I; and the master 
answered "Ya." Thereby it was plain he had 
read all about her in his newspaper, else he would 
have replied, *'So — o — o???" as they invariably 
do when they mean our " Indeed ?" 

His men helped me ; and they rejoiced much to 
receive the grayling as a present in return ; for 



the fish was too heavy to carry further, and we 
had still thirty miles to do. 

A little tired with the morning's work, and 
with eleven hours in the boat on the preceding 
day, I now sought a shady cave by the water for a 
good long " dine." 

Here you might see the canoe drawn up in a 
spot which seems perfect for a bivouac, and all 
the boat's stores displayed, with plenty of dry wood 
at hand, and a good dry rock to cook upon. There 
was but one defect in all this arrangement — 
but that was a fatal one — the water was not 

It was at the embauchtire of the river, and only 
half-a-mile from the turbulence of the cascade, and 
not far enough into the lake to allow the troubled 
mud to subside. Although this dirty water was 
soon noticed, we were too lazy to pack up and go 
on a few miles, and to begin again ; therefore, in a 
bad compromise the cook was ordered to make 
chocolate, as if by its luscious flavour we could 
sweeten the green water. 

The palate may be trifled with, but in a voyage 
of this sort the stomach will stand no nonsense. 
Forced to work hard all day, this important de- 
partment insists on good food, or it will "strike." 

Mine struck with aU its powers, combining '^as 
one man;" but the food was forced down amid the 

surgeon's beport. 117 

general discontent of the community, and the 
bivouac was converted into a pitched battle 
between the mind that insisted on feeding and the 
body that refused to be fed with mud-cocoa. 

A victory for the hour by the party of force, just 
as in the body politic, may result only in the 
prostration of all parties afterwards ; and so it was, 
for the beauties of Lake Glan now spread out 
before the eyes in vain ; birds warbled, but the 
ears heeded not, and to all sweet odours the nose 
was disdainfully turned up. Though we sailed, 
fished, paddled, whistled, and sung, there was a 
dull heavy sickness under all the forced mirth. 
The surgeon of the Kob Eoy hereby warns all 
paddlers to beware of doubtful water, when they 
mean to work long in the sun, and their lot is cast 
in a cholera land. 

Well, enjoyment came again, nevertheless, in 
the evening, as of yore, and, after many a tack 
while the wind lasted, and full many a stroke with 
the paddle, at last we neared the end of the 
lake, where, according to the map, you will see 
that Norrkoping ought to be — and pray be good 
enough to call it Norchipping. 

But this shy town resolutely stayed behind a 
hill, and with my best efforts I could not discover 
the way to it. A man passed in a boat and shouted 
out, and a number of his vowels reached me ; but 


after half-an-hour's threading through weeds and 
islands in the direction he advised, it was only 
too plain that he had been showing how to go to 
Norrkoping by land ; so I had to hark back and 
begin the whole affair again, while the light was 
fading and the Bob Boy was weary. 

Then our boatswain had to go ashore, and to 
mount several islands, one after another, for a 
view ; but the intricacy seemed only more en- 
tangled each time it was scanned, for not one outlet 
could be seen to any of the arms of the lake. 

Much of the diflSculty in finding the way, both 
on Boxen and Glan, was owing to the inaccuracy 
of the map — not the excellent map brought trom 
London (for that did not extend to these two 
lakes), but another, bought at Yadstena, and 
highly recommended as " new, cheap, and good." 
I can only say that it had straight coasts where 
there were twenty bends, and that no island was 
depicted on it unless it was half an inch long. 
Such a map is quite useless for lakes like the two 
we have just been lost upon. 

It is needless to detail all the devices we had to 
practise to extricate the Bob Boy from its laby- 
rinth, and for which it was necessary to ascertain 
the slight but perceptible motion of a current at the 
end of Lake Glan. This, at last, was only done 
by watching those indescribable signs which the 


canoeist learns to know, as an Indian discerns a 
trail where no one else can see it, even if it is 
pointed out. 

But I shall not forget the pleasure of finding at 
length the sought-for outlet, and there was even 
satisfaction (that of "No wonder I could notl") in 
perceiving how very unusual was its form, bent 
round at right angles, hidden from view, and 
looking so very innocent all the time. 

Then came a pleasant current, and all was life 
in my crew, though they had been on the stretch 
again for eleven hours, and there were several 
miles yet to be done. 

It will be understood that no attempt is 
made in our log to record the various separate 
lakes of smaller dimensions we passed through, 
and the still more numerous ponds, like the Serpen- 
tine, though these were often pretty and inter- 
esting, but a mere list of them would not be at 
all so. However, the Motala Strom became now 
again a downright river, and asserted its right to 
run, and resumed its attractive beauty. Villas 
and deep groves and avenues were on the banks, 
high and richly-wooded, while the water was clean 
and deep, until we came to the falls at Norrkoping 
so suddenly that I had to hurry from mid-stream to 
the bank, where a man was fishing with a net. He 
said no man could be had there to carry my boat ; 


and, as this was quite a new answer to the usual 
question, we landed to inspect the place, the man 
following, rather solemn in mood, and a good deal 
taken aback at the sodden intrusion. I found I 
had come ashore in the premises of a prison for 
females, and hence the man's refusal to help the 
proceeding ! 

It is often thus that some apparent incivility 
may be only the result of causes we do not appre- 
ciate until after examination. But I was now in 
a great difficulty. The stream was too strong for 
me to reascend in my tired condition, and the 
question was, shall I be able to cross to the other 
side, on the verge of this great fall, without much 
danger of being carried over ? After spying from 
various quarters, and well considering tiie matter, 
I felt sure it was to be done, provided every stroke 
of the paddle were to be a true one, and made to 
tell ; and then, bracing up my tired muscles, and 
after a short pull at some brandy (only useful for 
very momentary work like this), I shot €tcro6s like 
an arrow ; and soon the Bob Boy reclined at rest in 
the coach-house of a fine hotel at Norrkoping. 

We rested a day here (August 24), for, in spite of 
my determination over and over again not to work 
too hard, I had been far too long in my journeys 
every day for some time past ; and though at the 
time one's spirit and the great excitement and 

BEST. 121 

pleasure of paddling and sailing may enable great 
exertion to be undergone, it is sure to prove too 
much when continued for many days, and especially 
if the hours of sleep are contracted or disturbed, 
and the meals are irregular and often meagre 

Here, then, emerging from the maze of inland 
waters, and now upon the shores of the Baltic Sea» 
it may be allowed to pause a little, and draw 

" 0, land ! thou land of thousand lakes, 

Of song and constancy ; 
Against whose strand life's ocean breaks, 
Where dreams the past, the future wakes : 

Oh, blush not for thy poverty, 

Be hopeful, bold, and free I 

" Thy blossom in the bud that lies 

Shall burst its fetters strong ; 
Lo ! from our tender love shall rise 
Thy light, thy &me, thy hopes, thy joys ; 

And prouder far shall sound, ere long. 

Our Finland's patriot song 1" 

[^From " Vort Landy^ a Scandinavian Song hy Suneherg,'] 



Pas Seul — ^Right about Face — ^Another revolution — A Eadical 
Tory— Boys' Beadle. 

In the passage across Sweden during the last 
three weeks, I had met with no parasol, no 
chimney-pot hat, no ftmeral> no blow given in anger, 
no fight, no quarrel, no carpet, no cripple, no idiot, 
one man running, one soldier, one who could 
not read, one beggar, one blind man, one insane, 
one very handsome man, and how many pretty 
girls I will not tell you. 

Why, we must have been quite out of society 
there ? 

That is a matter of opinion, and the facts are 
before you. 

As for the " one man running," it is exclusive 
of the people who ran to see the Kob Boy ; for in 
fact the Swedes do not exhibit much agility, being 
a sedate comfortable people; and one wonders 
what their manly exercises are. 



However, in the upper part of Vermland, and in 
tlie district of Norway near it, there is a very 
strange physical feat sometimes practised, which 
is also known in many parts of Scotland, and first 
I saw it thus : — One day when two friends were 
walking with me in a sequestered part of Norway, 


we heard a curious sound on the other side of a 
dyke, which was first a great smack, as if some- 
thing had thumped the ground, and then a puflSng 
and blowing of somebody breathing hard and 
quickly. On approaching the place we saw over 
the fence a young man quite alone, who was prac- 


tismg over and over the most inexplicable leap into 
the air that oonld be devised for human body. He 
swang himself up, and then round on his head for a 
pointy when his upper leg described a great circle, 
and came down at last with a resounding whack. 

Inquiry about the gymnastic performance is 
answered by telling me that it is an ancient dance- 
step of that region, and is called in Swedish 
** Giesse Harad Polska,** that is, " Salmon-district 
step ;" perhaps the first dancing-master who taught 
it learned the leap from a salmon. 

Norrkdping reminded me of some of the towns 
on the Danube, where the river is banked up to 
work numerous wheels, and there is a gushing, 
rushing, splashing sound all day and all night, 
with waterfall spray rising slowly in the morning air. 

There is a railway here, and a large hotel, 
business in the streets, and a huge cloth-mill 
peering over the Motala, where it makes its last 
few noisy leaps, tumbling over rocks into the 
Baltic, to be lost in the great sea. 

As we are not professing to describe foreign 
lands and towns and the people in them, but only 
to write the log of a canoe, it will hardly do to 
give an account here of the politics or education 
of Sweden, though both of these are very inter- 
esting; the first, because a wonderful change has 
just been effected in the mode of government— 


a revolution complete but bloodless; and the 
second, because the system of education, for the 
masses at least, appears to be the most successful 
in the world. 

Sweden, until last summer, had four houses in 
its legislature — ^nobles, clerics, burgesses, and land- 
owners. Two of these houses are abolished, the 
nobles surrendering their special privileges as 
hereditary legislators, and the clergy vacating 
their special priestly chamber. Now there are 
two Houses of Parliament only, to which any man 
may be sent, without reference to his trade or 
business, by the votes of electors widely enfran- 

On the Upper and Lower House, then, and on 
the hing, as a third leg of the stool, rests the seat 
of government ; and probably its base will be as 
stable on three legs as on five. 

The first elections under the new system were 
proceeding during my visit, and it was curious to 
observe the coy delicacy with which men handled 
the untried engine of power. 

For example, a friend of mine desired to get into 
the Lower House (as better for action and spirited 
debate), but his neighbours wished to elect him as 
a member of the Upper and more dignified body. 
Now, by the new law, he must not canvass, and 
he must not even issue a proposal as candidate. 


Perhaps, then, by this time he is a Senator against 
his will.* 

Time will work this stiffiiess off, alas ! and no 
doubt, in a few years, there will be " compound 
householders" and Nottingham "lambs," even by 
the green shores of Vettem. 

A banker here, Mr. E , was very kind to me ; 

and gave a sumptuous dinner to the crew of the 
Bob Boy, where we met two other gentlemen who 
could speak English. After this, perhaps, it is 
unfair to teU the political creed of our host — a 
Tory, who wishes to see women sitting (he did 
not actually say, ^peaking) in Parliament. Mr. 
Stuart Mill is, therefore, outbid entirely — ^for I 
suppose he only likes feminine electors; but it 
would, indeed, be worth while being an M.P. one's 
self to see the Chancellor of the Exchequer 
badgered on an amendment by Dr. Emma Blew, 
Memberess for Honiton. 

On a beautiful hill near the town are the new 
state schools. The buildings are large and 
handsome, airy and light, and with gardens round, 
where the children are permitted to work if very 
good at their lessons. The scholars comprise 
many who would be in our Bagged-schools, and 
who do not pay for their education. Every child 
in Sweden above six years old must learn to read 
♦ P.S. — ^Yea ; it has happened even so. 

boys' beadle. 127 

or if not, a poHceman brings him to school ; but 
there is little need of such compulsion, for a person 
employed in each district goes to all refractory- 
parents and persuades them to comply with the 
useful rule.* No child may be employed in a 
factory until he is twelve years old, and has 
learned, at any rate, the minimum of ordinary educa- 
tion. The school-rooms are admirably fumishedN: 
maps and pictures enliven the walls, and a gym-^^ 
nasium and playground vary the scene. At each 
desk sit two pupils, each with a chair adjusted to 
his height, and with excellent arrangements for 
desks and school furniture, being the same as won 
the first prize when Sweden exhibited them at 
our London Exhibition of 1862. There are 
twenty-five women teachers, and only four men. 
The influence of men by command is said to be 
less useful than that of women by their gentleness 
and grace; but aU the teachers are carefully 
selected, ** because the worst materials need the 
best instruments to work upon them." The whole 
plan and scope of the system seems very like that 

* While I write this an important experiment is heing 
tried in London, by the appointment of a properly-qualified 
agent to " look after ** the neglected children of our streets, 
and to send them to their parents, to schools, refuges, or 
reformatories, or to the police offices, according to their several 
conditions. We may hope to hear more of this "Boys' 
Beadle." Verily, he is wanted now. 



in America ; and it is within the power of a small 
town to adopt and to perfect machinery of this 
kindy when a few active men like the Swedish 
banker can be interested enough to manage it 
The fact is, Sweden could not afford to let children 
grow up ignorant and criminal, to prey upon 
the community. After numerous visits to foreign 
schools and large experience of our own, I can- 
not say "No** to the question, "Is it wrong to 
compel every child living in our land to learn, 
when we insist upon it in our own homes ? and 
may we not punish a father who starves his 
child's mind, when we may punish him if he 
starves its body ?' The crew of the Bob Boy, on 
being polled, decided by a casting vote in fetvour 
of compulsory education. 

A little way down the river, we next went to 
visit quite another sort of Monitors — ^those with 
the iron-sides— of which one designed by the 
Swedo-American Ericcson lies here ready to be 
launched. It is a huge, ugly, and impenetrable 
thing, perfectly fitted for its fearful purpose, and 
horribly suggestive of crashing shells and thun- 
dering blows, and the shouts and shrieks of war. 

But let us return to our own peaceful boat, as 
the poet beautifully says : 

" Robur et ass triplex, 
Qui primus ;" 


and the other poet beautifully renders : 

** The Rob Roy, first (of oak) canoed a trip at ease. 
By paddle, sail, and cart, through forest, lake, and seas.*' 

For this page of the log will recount the first trip 
on the Baltic Sea by our little canoe, after three 
weeks spent most pleasantly on the inland ^* Sjes/' 
and lesser lakes, and broad rivers, and purling 
streams of Norway and Sweden. It was natural 
enough for me to wish for a paddle on the veritable 
sea waves, though those on Venern are sometimes 
quite as large, and the surge on Lake Vettem is 
more trying to muscle and pluck, with its sharp 
pointed crests, when a south wind blowa 

To give me a good long day in the open sea, I 
arranged with a steamer to take us along the 
winding estuary of the Broviken, until she had 
to turn south-east on her course, and there to drop 
me in the waves, to paddle and sail north-east for 

Crowds gathered to see the canoe on the deck 
of the " Gotha," and a regular stream of visitors 
came up one stairs and went dovm the other, 
pacing slowly round the little craft, peering into it, 
measuring with tapes and foot-rules, lifting it, 
patting it^ rubbing it, and then always settling on 
the flag; but at that point the marine on duty 
always said "paws off," which the Swedes will 


130 BBACKI8H. 

hereafter understand means ** don't touch." 
They were amused to see me lay in proyisions for 
three days (of course, on very short rations), so 
that if the west wind then blowing should in- 
crease, and by any accident we might be blown oflF 
land, our little shipload would possibly reach the 
Bnssian coast. 

Oddly enough, not two of the visitors agreed as 
to whether the water of the Baltic is too salt to 
drink. Probably it is hi some parts yery much 
Salter than in others, but we airanged this matter 
by saying it would do for salt soup, and I also took 
a bottle of sherry to make sure. The harbour- 
master was on board the steamer — ^an old sailor, 
and constantly cruising about these coasts — so we 
got full directions where to steer for by the 
steamer'is chart, though all efforts to get a proper 
compass' were unsuccessful. 

In the Danube voyage last year, it was found 
that the frequent reference necessary to a map 
made it advisable to cut the large map into small 
squares, so that, when used on service, no unfold- 
ing was required, and only a small part (showing 
about three days' journey) was exposed to the rain, 
wind, and vicissitudes of canoe life, while the 
reference-square was conveniently carried in the 

This arrangement was now matured, so that on 

MAPS. 131 

the last voyage I carried in my breast-pocket a 
piece of cardboard doubled, and showing, when 
opened, one square of map and one square of blank 
paper. Both of these were constantly used — ^the 
one to get information from, and the other to note 
observations on with a pencil. 

One of these mapnsquares is reproduced in exact 
size as Map 4, on the opposite page ; but only some 
of the numerous rivers, lakes, and names upon the 
original map (those nearer the canoe route) are 
printed in the copy. 

It will be observed that the route on this map, 
through part of Yermland, comprises one long 
day's voyage from Arvika to Higsitter, a short 
day's march while carting the boat to Borgivik, 
and a third day's winding pull on Venem round to 
Carlstadt. This is the largest scale of map to be 
procured (costing 248. in London), but still only 
about one island in every five will be found marked 
upon it. 

It may seem strange to a boating man that 
there should be any difficulty in finding the course 
when one has a good map and good weather; but 
it has been already explained that the islands con- 
stitute the chief difficulty, and in most places the 
inhabitants, and especially the sailors, expressed 
great surprise that a canoe could find its way in 
these archipelagoes at all. Ko part of the coast 



of Europe that I have seen, not even the west of 
Scotland, has anything like the multitude of 
islands one finds in Norway and Sweden. 

When we came into the bay the steamer stopped, 
and I shoved the Eob Roy over her side, stepped 
in, and in a few seconds I was paddling away on 
my course, while the Grotha paddled away on hers, 
and she was soon lost to sight behind a cape. Then 
I felt happy and free. 

It was a supremely fine morning, with a light 
wind, which died down to complete glassy calm. 
The silence as I glided under tall cliffs was 
quite impressive, with rugged rocks above, and 
strange sea-birds looking down from them. Only 
now and then there plashed round the headland the 
break of the long-rolling swell, or the shrill cry 
of a gull, or the whiffing of the strong wings of the 
wild goose, sailing aloft in groups of three or five 
in a wedge-shaped company. Another very large 
bird, with long, curved neck, also fiew past some- 
times, and the water had a dark green hue, and 
the weeds in its depths were new, for it was sea 
now, and no longer lake. 

The first bay we crossed was six miles wide, and 
then came another of eight miles ; and, as the breeze 
began to freshen here, we stopped on a rock to 
rest, to lunch, and to set my little lug and tiny 
jib, and then away again the Bob Boy rode on the 

FOO AT SEA. 133 

waves gaily and fast.* For some hours no house 
was to be seen, and no man or beast; but the 
feeling of romantic solitude would have been 
spoiled by these. At length we got among the 
islands, and then little fishing-boats came in sight, 
and a cottage here and there, and a white post 
placed as a mark for ships to guide their course by 
in this labyrinth of rocks, where it must be fearful 
work to sail in a winter's night of storm. 

Suddenly the wind calmed, and turned about 
right in my teeth, and a great thick fog-bank came 
hustling up along the sea yearniQg to infold the 
poor Eob Roy in its clammy and dim cloud, like 
soft cotton-wool. But this happened too late to be 
dangerous, for we were near enough to shore, 
though here it was craggy and bleak. 

At worst, however, it would only have been 
necessary to choose a softish rock for the night, 
and to turn the boat over on it for a roof; and 
serene sleep may be had even by the sounding 
wave. This, of course, was only as a last resort ; 
meanwhile I resolved to lie to for an hour, and 
wait for finer weather ; and meanwhile, too, a glass 
of grog was served all round to the crew, and a 
a double ration to the captain. 

* The gilt design on the cover of this book shows the high 
swell (and little wind) which fortunately met us in the Baltic. 
The angle is much exaggerated. 


The real sea certainly has waves quite different 
from those even of a large fresh-water lake, how- 
ever wide its shores. They are more buoyant, 
without doubt, and they seem to be more dignified. 
If I am to be drowned, let my shroud be salt 

Moving cautiously among the rocky points, 
where the fog was so thick that any speed would 
be dangerous, suddenly a sunbeam split the misty 
curtain, and I saw a man on the top of a very tall 
ladder supported in a leaning position. This was 
a look-out post ; and the moment the man saw me, 
he ran down, shouting as if he was mad, but it 
turned out to be only an old sailor's joy at seeing 
so beautiful a boat Worthy tar! he had been 
all over the world, as well as " at Newcastle, in 
Scotland;" he was now, he said, stationed *^out 
of the world." He soon got another boat, 
and pulled alongside, and then round and round 
me, with loud exclamations of genuine delight — 
"So feen, so feen!" so pretty, so pretty! and 
decidedly the Rob Roy was " mycke bra." This 
old pilot soon put me on the right track ; and I 
pulled up at the little village of 0x16 Sund,* where, 
as may be supposed, every man, woman, and child 
came to see the boat, left for half-an-hour on the 
beach while I reclined on the grass to rest. 
* Pronounced nearly Oaksely Soont. 


This little hamlet is a bathing-place, and the 
young ladies soon arrived in bevies of alarming 
strength. The pilot had it all his own way in a 
lecture about the Kob Eoy; and a carpenter 
measured her every whit, while another wiseacre 
said she was only a large fiddle. 

A steamer was to come past there about mid- 
night, and I resolved to stop until she came, and 
take my boat on board. This was the second time 
we had put the canoe on a steamer at night ; but 
it is an anxious piece of work, especially in rain 
and darkness, and without the steamer coming to 
the shore. For the rain soon began to patter, and 
I had to pass weary hours in a very poor inn, 
away from my boat, and therefore miserable. At 
last^ when the red lantern was run up as a signal 
for the steamer to stop, some of the men said she 
would certainly come to the quay to embark me, 
while others said this particular captain was " not 
good," and would insist on my going out to him. 
And so, in fact, he did; therefore, at the last 
moment I had hurriedly to launch the canoe 
wholly unaided, tumble my luggage in, and paddle 
away in the darkness. When we came near him, 
and the steamer stopped, there were a dozen 
hands reached down, but all too short to get hold 
of mine, and just then a great lumbering boat came 
alongside before I had handed my rope to the 




Steamer, but afier I had given my paddle to them. 
It was a moment of great peril to the canoe ; and 
it was impossible not to recollect with a pang that 
both my coats were on my back (because of the 

cold), and so if upset there would be no dry things 
for to-morrow. 

The Eob Koy roared a loud shout, but the other 


clumsy boat would not hear ; nor could they 
see me at all. One foot more, and we shall be 
plunged under water with a broken bow. 

There was nothing for it but instant decision — ^to 
shove off from the steamer; and there was the 
luckless voyager standing up in a canoe in the 
dark, and on the waves, and without his paddle, 
with his long rope dangling in the water! 

It is easy enough to stand up if your paddle is 
retained as a balancing-pole; but the position 
depicted in the wood-cut was one of no small 
difficulty. Still, it was best to keep standing, 
because gradually the wind bore me to the 
steamer's side again, though I found her side 
far too well polished for me, as my nails vainly 
clung to the cold smooth iron. 

It may be asked why try to catch this steamer 
art all ? It was to save me from passing a Sunday 
away from my reserve luggage, already sent on, 
with books to read, and other comforts. 

The Bob Boy was speedily housed on the 
steamer's deck, and I tried to sleep in a cabin so 
close to the engines that it seemed as if all the 
hammermen at Motala were banging away just 
under my right ear. At length sleep came when 
I ought to have been awake ; and the end of it was 
that I was not aroused until the "flicka," or 
waiting-maid, told me we had arrived in Stock- 
holm. So ended my first paddle on the Baltic. 



Stockholm— The "Times"— The Exhibition— Bears— Bogies 
^Snow-shoes — Outriggers — ^Beautiful city — Town life. 

I OBSEBVED but little alteration in Stockholm 
since my former visit, ten years ago. The pave- 
ment is BtQl bad ; and the windows always will look 
ugly when they place the glass level with the outer 
wall. True, there is good reason for this, because 
the snow settles in winter on any projecting ledge ; 
but nothing gives a house a more cardbox ap- 
pearance than this fashion ; and, on the other hand, 
when the windows are deeply recessed, as, for 
instance, at Taymouth Castle, or Windsor, what 
depth and solidity and strength, and even comfort, 
seem to be expressed by this one character. 

It is said that the name of this fine capital was 
given to it when some homeless wanderers, wish- 
ing to settle somewhere, put their raft into the 
current, and agreed to build a town wherever the 
**8tok," or sticks, should rest, which happened to 


be on one of the beautiful islands now covered 
with houses. 

The Hotel Eydberg is one of the best you can 
enter anywhere, and cheap as well as good. In 
the height of the season, and, moreover, in " Ex- 
hibition time," you have an excellent room for 
about three shillings a-day, with those sofas and 
tables and easy chairs which so many of our 
English hotels will not give their guests, although, 
in 'most cases, these comforts induce good travel* 
lers to come, and to abide. 

Among the people you meet in the SAl there 
are some English, of course, and that party of 
ladies will keep talking loud enough for us all. 
" They do stare so here," says one very bizarre in 
her attire : " I really never did see such people to 
stare at one. Not that I noticed they were staring 
at me, but Clara saw it." (Oh, naughty Clara 1) 

Then you adjourn to the reading-room, and with 
the " Afton blat,'' or evening paper, duly announc- 
ing the arrival of the ship Kob Koy, is the French 
*' Sieele," where we find a Scotchman described 
under another aspect, as follows : — 

It seems (according to this French journal) that 
Scotchmen have different names for things, and 
they call a leg of mutton after it is once cooked 
and served up again, by the name of "poor man" 
(pauvre homme), "and one day lately Lord 

140 THE ** TIMES.'' 

Brightred came to the hotel at Charing Cross, and, 
being very hungry, asked for something substantial 
to eaty and desired the waiter to l»ring him a slice 
of *poor man/ The waiter fainted," — so would 
Lord Brightred, if he has any conscience in his 
cannibal mind, when he reads this story. 

But then there is the grand broadsheet of the 
'' Times " on one of the little marble tables ; and 
certainly it is a great treat to get the "Times" 
when you have been absent {or a month from solid 
news. Here is the unwearied giant toiling away 
even in vacation time ; striking straight blows, but 
above the belt — ^thundering with sheet lightning 
that does not kill, but clears the air. While we 
are idly paddling, he has been searching the close 
workhouse wards, cleansing the foul cholera pools, 
exploding the "pernicious nonsense" of doll-dressed 
parsons, pulling at rich purses for poOT far-off 
parishes, pleading for the maimed, the mad, the 
wrecked, the blind, the widowed, the hard-up, 
even for the horses and bullocks, and for the 
unfortunate bachelor and the timid old maid who 
are shut up to travel together in a box, where 
with smoke or without it, both cannot be happy. 

We must leave the paper half unread, for we 
have to see the great Scandinavian Exhibition, 
opened in Stockholm. This interesting collection 
of arts and manu£eu^tures is not an internatioiial 


one, but solely for the products of Sweden, Norway, 
Denmark, and Finland. The building for it is a 
handsome structure, close to the water and within 
sight of the hotel, so that with an admission at six- 
pence, it is very conveniently situated for strangers 
to visit, though but few came to see it from distant 

Looking at this exposition from a Scandinavian 
point of view, it was of great importance, and will 
be most useful to these northern people; but, 
comparing it with other Exhibitions (as it was 
impossible not to do), there was really very little 
of the new, the admirable, or the marvellous in 
any part of the show. If we traverse the long 
aisles and the light, airy galleries, and the court- 
yards outside, and then feel that nearly all we see 
is second-rate, and an imitation at some distance 
of what is better done in England, France, and 
Germany, we must be reminded (and with satis- 
faction, too) that it is a very creditable imitation, 
and that very many Norsemen and Swedes and 
Fins and Laps now see with pleasure that articles 
can be produced among themselves which they 
had before supposed were only to be had from 
other lands. 

In some features, of course, there was positive 
excellence. Look, for instance, at those maps and 
charts and school-books and literature for the 

142 BEAB& 

blind; so dear, so practical, and so eminently 
cheap. On one map you see Earope coloured as 
to mountains ; on another, as to population ; on 
another, as to fertility ; on another, as to railway 
communication; and a child will readily appre- 
hend each of these pieces of instruction presented 
separately, while even an adult has but a yague 
idea of what he has seen, when it is entangled with 
other matters. Then you have a wire*gauze globe, 
with the stars on it and the earth inside — a most 
simple mode of beginning with astronomy ; and a 
case of little card-boxes, each holding a few leayes 
and twigs of various trees, so that botany may be 
studied even by a Kagged-schooL The iron-works 
of Sweden are justly renowned ; and here we see 
them explained and modelled to advantage. There 
is the great Dannemora mine, which has been 
worked for 300 years — a pit seven acres large 
and 400 feet deep« I w^it down this mine on a 
former occasion, being lowered in a bucket by a 
thin steel rope turned by oxen — ^not a trip to take 
twice, though it occupies only eight minutes in the 
descent ; but there is a rather dubious feeling aU 
the time about the validity of your return ticket 
to terra firma. 

In the Finland and Lapland Annexe are shown 
all sorts of wild sea-birds and bears and wolves and 
furzy quadrupeds. One great bearskin is so arranged 



by stripping the skin off the animal's stomach as 
well as off its back, that it is fifteen feet long — a 
monster this to be hugged by when your second 


barrel has missed fire! A huge trap, just like 
that we use for rats, but about four feet long, 
shows how even Bruin may be snared. A series 
of fearsome pictures are exhibited, rudely drawn 

144 6NOWH3HOES. 

on calico in black and red, and very like the 
grotesqae designs of the old Mexican humorists. 
These are charms used in Finland to frighten away 
the bears ; and very bold must be the bear that is 
not a&aid of these (see fig. 2 in the sketch). 
There is a man's cap, too, made of a hedgehc^'s 
skin^ with a hedgehog's face for a peak ; and this 
you may put on if the wild beast only laughs at 
caricatures. Eeal art is, however, well represented 
in the exhibition of modem Scandinavian pictures, 
among which those by Tidiman rank highest; 
whfle the splendid group of " The Grapplers," by 
Molin, which most of us recollect at the London 
Exhibition of 1862, shows that sculpture has a fit 
successor to Thorvalsden. Then there are the 
Laplanders' dog-sleighs and their snow-shoes, each 
being a strip of wood like the letter f, with a strap 
for the foot in the middle, and the end turned up 
to glide over the frozen hills. Some of these shoes 
are twelve feet in length, and that for the right 
foot is covered at the bottom mth a hairy skin, 
so as to give a hold of the snow in the back stroke 
for propulsion. 

There is the reindeer-sleigh, one trace from the 
deer's breast and between its legs, and one rein 
from its head, which the driver flips from side to 
side as he guides his homed team. 

All sorts of boats are modelled here, and you 


may notice even an " outrigger " rowing-boat, used 
long ago in Finland (fig. 3,. page 143), and called 
** ekstok " — but coolly appropriated as an English 
invention on the Thames. High up there hang 
festoons of gracefully-curved nets, some with fine 
thread and narrow mesh, to catch the herring and 
sprat, others with tough rape coils, to wind round 
the struggling monsters of the deep* Corks are 
used for some, birch bark serves to buoy up 
others ; but the most improved float seems to be 
one of glass, blown in an ellipsoid shape, with a knob 
at each end for attaching it^ but no opening* 
These are of aU sizes, fi?om two inches long* to 
eighteen inches. Every kind of fish-hook the 
most crooked imagination can think of may be 
inspected here, from the whale harpoon to the 
little bright silvered hook for herrings, which 
catches them without bait, for they rush to it 
merely to have a look. 

This Exhibition was an enterprise of the StatOj 
and the carriage of articles to and fro was defrayed 
by public funds. We may feel quite sure that 
such an outlay will be well repaid, though insen- 
sibly, perhaps, in the aroused energies of the 
Northmen to help themselves ; and no doubt it will 
also enable foreign manufacturers to discern what 
things are most wanted here, and what manner of 
work is most valued by their customers. 


The view of Stockholm from the Mose Backe 
heights is really the finest view of any town I have 
ever seen. Water, wood, green fields, white build- 
ings, red roofs, and most picturesque shipping. — Say 
where else you can find these so combined. 
Venice is too flat, Edinburgh wants a riyer, Pesth 
is formal, Moscow is dead, and Stockholm must 
have the palm if my vote is to be given. The 
picture of all in the eye is fresh with lively bustle, 
brilliant colour, and graceful form. 

In a quiet way the people here can very well 
enjoy their leisure, too. The island opposite the 
palace is free to all, even if they do not sip coffee 
under its trees, or step into the little steamer with 
its tinkling bell and miniature green and red 
lamps which will screw them off to the Deer- 
garden in five minutes for a penny. 

In London we have absolutely no place where in 
September the general public, including Mrs. Bull 
and her prude daughters, may sit in decent com- 
fort at nine p.m. under a bushy tree, and with gas 
jets illuminating the fountains and flowers around 
them, all free. When our town life is contrasted 
with that of Paris, it is eosj to account for our 
defects: first, by the climate debarring us from 
evening parties out of doors, and then by our 
admirable domesticity, which makes all good folks 
assemble round the family hearth. But these 


Swedes are as homely as we Britons, and their 
climate is not more genial ; yet one sees even in 
[Finland, stiU further north, a vast amount of 
proper enjoyment of out-door leisure which some- 
how cannot be managed in England at all. 

Stockholm is the place for a good rest, too, and 
this was needed by the crew of the Rob Roy ; for 
with all our resolutions to abstain from too violent 
exercise, we had gradually become accustomed to 
ten hours a day in the canoe, and this is too much. 
It is a strain on nerve and muscle. Last year I 
worked up to that amount only at the end of a 
three months' tour, and then it brought on a reac- 
tion which the strongest frame must expect if over- 
worked. A comfortable hotel, and plenty to see 
and to do while my boat lies resting on the second 
floor, at ease, was a wholesome interlude, but it is 
only a pause, for the sky is fair, and our sails 
must be set again to the breeze. 





Rob Roy in the Press — ^Inside a Whale — Sei^eant N— 
— Ongbotfl — ^Lake Malaren — ^Lake Hjehnare — Solemn 

At Stockbolm tlxere was always a large crowd 
to see the canoe carried from the hotel to the 
water ; and as we sailed among the shipping, or 
paddled up the narrow lanes of water between the 
houses, the crowd ran alongside, or in front, to 
secure good places iu adyance. 

I once took a fancy at Yenice to row a gondola 
alone ; and with very great difficulty a gondolier 
was persuaded to surrender his boat for an hour to 
my care. Very soon this novel mode of rowiQg, 
in which you stand up and look forwards, became 
tolerably pleasant. But when I turned out of the 
Grand Canal to some of the lesser creeks I was at 
once assailed with screams of abuse from the 
windows on each side, and all sorts of missiles 
were hurled at the gondola. There was nothing 


better to be done than to row on and bear this 
unexpected attack, which I found was directed 
against the unhappy tourist who ventures to work 
a gondola without a gondolier. Venice, now risen 
from the dust again, and linked to Italy with 
chains of love and freedom, must deck her gon- 
dolas in bright colours, as of old, and hire them out 
to all members of the Canoe Club, without throw- 
ing cabbages at them from the water-palaces. 

In Stockholm, however, all was welcome, and 
smiles and bows from the fair, and oflf went the 
hats of the men as they shouted from above, 
"Bravo, Englishman! Good voyage to you." 
At one place, after returning from a delightful 
excursion on the sea side of the town, we came to a 
lock, or " sluice," as they term it, but we landed, 
hauled the boat over the wall, and went on again 
steadily as before. This incident was related in 
the newspapers, and copied again and again, even 
into papers three hundred miles away. 

Winding channels, some as narrow as a garden 
walk, led me into the country, among high rocks, 
charming viUas, bathing-houses, and orchards, 
with children playing on the grass, and ladies 
pic-nicing under the trees. This, and only this, 
is the proper way to see Stockholm thoroughly ; 
and we admired it more as we saw more of its 
beauties. But the air of the place, strange to say. 


seems by no means healthy, and while our crew 
was ashore there they had languor all the time. 

Among the curiosities brought out by the Ex* 
hibition was an enormous whale, which was caught 
at Gdteborg, and has been admirably preserved, 
and with the mouth open, down which you enter 
into a neat room, with tables and sofas, and 
mirrors, and gauze curtains — all inside the great 
fish. Near to it was the skeleton, with every bone 
carefully reunited, down even to the rudimental 
joints of the second flappers, which correspond 
with the hind legs of other mammaha. 

Another sight worth a visit was a collection of 
figures dad in various Swedish costumes, and 
grouped characteristically, to show the occupations 
and sports of different districts, all rendered with 
great exactness. The whale and the costume figures 
are now in Paris ; and of course you will see them 

I had already met one of the first Highland 
company of the London Scottish Volunteers, in 
the hospitable lord of Kyleberg. At Stockholm I 
had the new pleasure of meeting a sergeant of my 
own kilted company, resident here, who was very 
glad to aid his captain in seeing the place and the 

Stockholm is the very place for a canoe, or any 
other suitable pleasure-boat ; yet there were few, 


scarcely any, yachts or rowing-boats to be seen on 
the water. Not that these would be needed for 
mere locomotion, because that is admirably pro- 
vided for by other means ; but perhaps, as wealth 
increases, and men who win enough find the 
benefit to health which manly exercise affords, we 
shall hear of more vigorous activity for bone and 
muscle at play than were observed in Sweden 
during my voyage. 

On the other hand, it is to be remarked that 
for the more utilitarian purpose of traffic and 
speedy carriage, the people of Stockholm make far 
better use of their rivers and lakes than we 
Londoners do of the Thames. 

The water rushes past and round everywhere in 
rich profusion, clear and deep, and people go 
almost as much by water as in Venice. The 
privilege of managing the numerous ferries used 
to belong to the women from Dalecarlia, a 
northern province of this long-stretching country. 
Even after steamers were introduced, I had seen 
on my former visit some little ferry-boats worked 
by paddle-wheels turned by these great, strong, 
healthy-looking ladies, with bright red bodices 
on their short waists, and heels very high and 
sharp, exactly in the centre of their shoes (see 
fig. 5, page 143). But now there is a fleet of 
lively little screw-boats — ^the most agile and 



convenient mode of locomotion one can imagine. 
Each of these swift, open, "ongbots,"* low in 


the water, and elegantly shaped, has seats all 
round the edge; and the ladies' crinolines, as 

* "Ong" is the Swedish for "steam;" and this word 
seems quite of a diflferent root from " damp " or " vapeur." 

l.k-K V, MALABEN. 153 

they get in, whisk by the fierce, white glow of the 
little fdmace. The engine is in the middle of the 
passengers, and one lad manages it, while another 
sits luxuriously steering. As these steamers are 
of all sizes, some only as large as a small row- 
boat, their consent movement, and the puff I 
puff 1 of their tiny engines^, creates an animation 
on the water which relieves Stockholm from being 
duU — if, indeed, a place can ever be dull which 
rests upon the graceful eddies of a sunlit sea. 

When it was time at last to leave Stockholm, 
the wind from the west was so strong that I 
grudged the labour of pulling against it on a lake 
already traversed before; and therefore put the 
canoe on a steamer running to Orebro,and stopped 
the Sunday there. This run of eight hours 
through the Malar Lake rather confirmed our 
opinion that, excepting in the direction towards 
Upsala, the Malar is not so picturesque as it is 
supposed to be. It lacks variety, 

A very large school at Orebro attracted my 
attention, where 500 lads are taught, and after a 
course of six years they may enter the University 
at Upsala. They assembled for church on Sunday 
morning, and many of the townspeople also came. 
The pupils marched in for the service two and two, 
the great fellows of twenty walking like the 
youngest children ; and they were seated in long 


rows, with the gradations of age, or, at any rate, 
of stature, very strictly observed. 

After church about a hundred went to bathe, 
and they jumped from high ladders and towers 
into the river, frolicking about for a long time — 
indeed, far longer than is good for health. 

The raUway from this place was the first made 
in Sweden, but it had an inauspicious beginning. 
The notorious John Sadler was chairman of the 
Company, and had won their implicit confidence, 
until he decamped with 360,0002. — ^in fact> all the 
funds of the enterprise. We were also told that 
the first engineers sent here &om England quite 
astonished the people by their style of living in a 
country where their salaries of 5001. a-year were 
in strong contrast to the modest stipends of the 
Swedish engineers, some of whom are not paid 
more than a tenth of that sum. 

We next visited Lake Hjelmare (on September 
1st), another great ** Sje," too broad to see €U3ross, 
and rather dull on the shores; and then had 
a long paddle up the Orebro Eiver, and went by 
rail to Toreboda, the charge for the Kob Key 
being nil. The canoe had already travelled about 
300 miles as a parcel on the railways during this 
tour, and the expense of all this transit did not 
exceed three shillings and sixpence. 

The Swedish railways are very comfortable in 


their aiTangements, and rather composed in their 
mode of action — no night trains, no fuss and 
bustle, even in the day, but a sedate and de- 
liberate steadiness, which is quite a rebuke to our 
desperate haste in England, where half our energy 
is consumed in hurrying to a place, as if our lives 
depended upon doing the journey in so many 
minutes, and then rushing away from it again as 
fiast as possible. 

In Sweden the train stops at least four 
" minuter" at nearly every station ; but it is very 
punctual in its whole traverse, and you find an 
excellent dinner, with twenty minutes to spend 
upon it, about three o'clock in the day. The 
viands are laid out on a central table, and every 
man helps himself, and conveys his chosen dainties 
to some side table, where he can sit down com- 
fortably to enjoy soup, fish, meat, vegetables in 
profusion, pudding and pastry, coffee, thick cream, 
and a half bottle of ale, the whole to be paid for 
by the small sum of eighteen-pence I 



Sleeping Awake — Catechism — Law and Justice — Mobbed on 
the Rail — Good Dog— A Linguist — From Venem — 
Sinking Bock. 

The canoe skipper had set his mind upon another 
pull on Lake Venem ; and they said a steamer 
might pass along the canal to the lake that night, 
BO we determined to wait for this, and meanwhile 
took a long sail in the West GU)tha Canal. Being 
without any luggage in the boat, and so near a dry 
change if the Eob Koy were overset, 1 became quite 
reckless in sailing hither and thither in the very 
strong gale which now commenced and lasted for 
a week. A great heavy sloop passed on the canal, 
towed by two bullocks at one mile an hour. 
Another was hauled along by women, and we 
noticed a female hodman pulling up mortar by a 
long rope to the top of a house. 

Night came, so I had to lie down in my clothes, 
ready for the warning whistle of any passing steamer, 


which would have to be boftrded by the Eob Eoy in 
the dark. 

The hours passed wearily. When I tried to 
keep awake sleep stole upon my eyelids, and 
strange dreams flitted through my mind, ending in 
a start up suddenly for the steamer's whistle, but it 
was only the shrill music of the wind. Then when 
I tried to sleep wakefulness came on perversely, 
and thoughts of home and England coursed 
through my brain in rapid march, but linked 
together only in confusion. 

The night was wintry cold, the wind shook the 
doors, and the rain pelted on the windows gloomily. 
One solitary light in a neighbouring house had 
long been a sort of companion to me as I gazed 
into the dark betimes ; at last this too paled down 
to nothing, and aU was blackness. Even my last 
bit of candle had burned down^ and vain was the 
search for more among many rooms> all with open 
doors and snoring inmates. Just as it seemed 
most lonely and all asleep but me, beautiful 
music came through the wall — ^the chords of a 
piano, softly played, and slow. It was the Post- 
master, who rose up to render on the keys some 
pretty morceau he had been dreaming of in bed. 
The sound of music, and such sweet tones, too, was 
quite a comfort in this solitary hour ; and it was a 
pleasure to find that the performer is well known 



for his excellent taste for hamiQny — ^that source of 
tmiversal enjoyment. 

The Station-masters on the railways are usually 
retired captains of steamboats — ^men acenstoxned 
to deal with foreigners^ and to be prompt and 
punctual in their times. The guards in the trains 
are selected from the former stage-coachmen ; so 
that all parties are provided for by the railway, 
which at first seems to displace them fix>m em- 

Among the numerous visitors to the canoe was 
a tall, clever, gentlemanly man, who was eagerly 
curious as to the boat and its journeys. When he 
saw a tract he laughed outright, and tried to 
induce the other spectators to join in his ridicule 
of this mode of presenting religious truth, as likely 
'^ to make it vulgar." But laughter is quenched 
by a solemn tone ; and in French, Swedish, and 
my own native tongue, he was soon brought into 
a more serious mood. He could not answer the 
questions, " When is religion * out of place 7 It 
it is inconsistent with what a man is doing, which 
ought to give way — ^the man's actions or the reli- 
gion? What place do tfou give religion; and, 
during last week, how often has it had any place 
whatever in your conduct or your thoughts?" 

For, indeed, it does seem, on reflection, that 
eternity, spirit^ and the other life ought to have the 


mam field of thought in every breast ; and it is for 
this world, sense, and time to justify their -plskCeSy as in- 
terlopers on the grander themes. Eeligion is not to 
be " dragged in" indeed, but is it to be " dragged out " 
from its rightful place — ^the throne of the heart? 

This being the very first instance in which levity 
had been shown while I had given about 1000 
tracts to rich and poor in this and my former 
journey, it is a pleasure to mention that it ended 
well ; for the gentleman seemed ashamed, and not 
only received the little paper, but asked me to 
write my name upon it, and he wrote his own 
name underneath. 

On another occasion an Englishwoman asked 
permission to state her case, saying her father 
had died, and had left her some money by will ; 
but not one penny had she received, and she had 
applied to the Swedish Courts in vain, " for they 
would not attend to you unless you had money.'* 
She wished me to speak to her English relations 
to help her, if I " ever happened to meet any of 
them;" but I at once promised to inquire into 
the matter on my return, and not to wait until 
some unlikely chance might bring me in contact 
with the good lady's relatives.* 

♦ We much regret to be compelled to remark that the 
"bandage round the eyes of " Justice," when holding the scales 
in Sweden, is said, on good authority, to admit some rays of 
golden light. 



The gale, which was of UBUsaal yiolence, and 
had been telegraphed from Paris as likely to visit 
the Baltic, probably detained the steamers, for 
none came past, so we went on by rail to Goteborg, 
and determined to go by steamer from thence to 
Lake Venem, to accomplish the resolve as to one 
more paddle on its broad bosom. 

The canoe was as much mobbed in the train as 
in the water by visitors. At every station there 
was a crowd about the parcel van to see it ; and 
often a whole train was emptied of passengers^ who 
flocked from their carriages to look at the travelled 
kyak. But in England^ too, these boats are no- 
velties ; and what think you was the name they 
were scheduled under, when two canoes came to a 
Midland station, and the head office was asked how 
they should be charged? Answer by telegram, 
*' Charge them as invalid chairs — double the 
price of perambulators." Shade of the paddle end, 
what an indignity I 

The same Captain Dahlander, whom we had 
met at Carlstadt, had his steamer for this trip ; and 
here was again his faithful, well-remembered, 
curious old bottle, shaped like a dog, with its glass 
legs, and the tail for a handle, from whose mouth 
he had poured a " nip " of brandy, just in time to 
save me from a chiU, and probably from cholera, 
when embarking, wet and weary, on board his tidy 
craft some weeks before. 



It was a long day of driving rain, but when we 
reached Venersborg, on the lake, this captain and 
another, and an Englishman and myself, had 
supper on shore, and then a curious cpnversation, in 

which Captain S showed his marvellous power 

of language by speaking even in the same sentence 


Swedish, French, English, Spanish, Portuguese, 
Italian, Kussian, and even Irish with the purest 
Skibbereen brogue. This talented gentleman 
interested me very much ; and a few days afterwards 
he mentioned that when he had used an oath in 
our conversation the rebuke of his British par- 



senger went to his heart '^like a knife ;" that he 
had next day told his mate of the incident, and 
was 80 much ashamed of the oath that he mnch 
wished to see me again to apologize. So now when 
we happily met once more there was room for 
nseM talk ; since, however engaging other things 
may be, there is one great topic of nniversal 
interest and of eternal import — the death and 
resurrection of Christ and His atonement for sin. 
It was very curious to find a man of deep meta- 
physical turn and reflectiye mind labouring in 
such a sphere, and still more interesting to observe 
(what we are so prone to forget) that a kind re- 
proof is not without effect^ even if at the time it 
may seem to fall unheeded. He gladly accepted a 
copy of the " Loss of the Kent East Indiaman," 
with this inscription, "From the Captain of the 
Eob Eoy to the Captain of the Eos." In return 
he gave me his portrait. 

The great Lake Venem is 143 feet above the 
sea, and it has more than thirty rivers pouring 
volumes of water into it, but only one stream 
issues from the lake to the sea; and so great must 
be the evaporation from the hundreds of square 
miles of this inland sea, that this outlet seems to 
be less in volume than several of the great rivers 
which flow into the lake. Still, as the deep and 
angry flood of overflow tumbles down a precipice 


^«nder the railway bridge 100 feet wide, one sees 
that the great Venem has a good deal of water to 
spare. After inspecting a tabular record of the fall 
and rise of the water in this lake since 1819, 
varying some 16 feet in the extremes, there 
seemed to be no rule or law discernible as to the 
relation between the amount of rain falling and 
the ftdness of the water. Probably the other 
elements that affect this are the wet and dry 
winds, and the atmospheric conditions which de- 
termine the amount of evaporation. 

The Gota Eiver rushes out of Venem with a 
series of mad bounds and vigorous plunges, noisily. 
The eddies and regurgitations caused by this violent 
exercise produce some eccentric phenomena, one of 
which I drove to see, ia a pretty wooded glen. 
"This is called the "minute tide," in which a swelling 
•of the water once every minute fills up and empties 
again a quiet pool a little withdriawn from the 
river's course. No explanation, it seems, has been 
given of this periodic wave ; but of course there 
is some regular recurrence of causes which con- 
spire to fill up the pool and then subside, the rise 
appearing to be about a foot in depth. 

Not long after this, when we had paddled into a 
sequestered bay on this same Goto Eiver, a very 
eurious incident occurred. 

I had debarked upon a rock islet only a few feet 

. m2 



long; and the canoe was lying alongside, as nsnal, 
while we rearranged the outfit, provisions, saSiSy 
and fishing-tackle. 

A strong current gurgled in deep eddies just 
outside, and a wave now and then playfully lapped 
my feet One or two of these waves, having come 
up higher than usual, I noticed with surprise that 
the water was evidently rising, and indeed it had 
nearly covered the little rock, and was floating the 

Immediately the thought occurred that this 
was another event like the "minute tide," near 
Venersborg, described above ; and we expected to 
see it soon subside, with no worse consequence than 
wet feet for our crew. But no, the water rose 
still, and the isle was covered, and — oh, horrible 
certainty ! — at last it was plain beyond doubt that 
the island itself was slowly sinking. The surprise, 
fear, and strangeness all commingled in this 
event it is quite impossible to describe. That 
a solid rock should steadily go down and leave 
me in deep water was a thing unthoaght of, and 
which no one could be prepared for. 

The worst was the gradual sinking — ^had it 
been immediate, of course I should have only had 
to wsim to the canoe ; but the mysterious uncer- 
tainty made me lose that decision which danger is 
always met with by a sort of instinct when you 


are used to it, and if you have previously contem- 
plated it as at all possible. 

Thus, instead of instant action to get away, I 
kept dancing and turning on the rock — ^now well 
out of sight and below water — ^until at length, with 
a strange momentary panic, I stepped on the 
arched deck of the canoe, and positively managed, 
by some extraordinary balancing manoeuvre, to 
walk along this into the boat from her bows — a feat 
not to be performed in pold blood, even if you 
started from the solid ground. 

Thoroughly wet, and panting with the intense 
excitement, and laughing, too, at the extreme odd- 
ness of the whole aflfair, the captain was some 
time- before he could restore order among the 
ship's company, and things settled down to their 
regular way. 

Meanwhile the current had borne us from the 
place, so it was not properly investigated ; but the 
inquiring canoeist who seeks the spot is directed to 
the second bay round the east comer, past the 
fisherman's hut. Probably the explanation of the 
occurrence is that a huge rock detached from the 
shore had rolled into deep water, and happened to 
be poised on its end, until my weight gradually 
inclined it outwards, when it toppled over slowly 
into the darker, deeper depths below. 




Bravo ! — White Squall — Trolhatta — Urchins — Pris<mer — 
Fishing Sailing — The Whirlpools — Spying — Pretty- 
Sophy — ^Thanks, Gentlemen I 

The gale and the rain still continaed on Lak& 
Venem ; but we lanncLed the Eob Eoy on the 
waves amid the plaudits of the spectators and their 
best wishes for my voyage. The wind was south- 
westy right in my teeth, and I had a hard puU to 
breast it ; but then the current of water was with 
me, and when this expanded into Lake Yassbotten 
the voyage became exceedingly interesting. It 
was here that in the murky distance I noticed a 
steamer coming, and steered straight for her,, 
to show to all on board how well the canoe behaved 
in heavy surf. Just as we neared each other a 
loud cheer came from behind me. This was from 
the crowded decks of another steamer, which had 
overtaken me unperceived because of the deafening 
sound of the wind ; and a& now all the passengers 



and crews of both steamers cheered and waved 
handkerchiefe, crying, "Bravo, Eob Eoy!" it 
must be owned that the little boat felt a thrill of 

honest pride in its heart (of oak), and dashed the 
white spray from its yellow breast with an exuber- 
ance of buoyant energy. As for the captain of 
the canoe, he, of course, was quite impassive under 


all these compliments ; for there are certain feel- 
ings, such as pride or yanity or insinceiityy whicli 
we weak mortals are supposed never to feel, or, at | 
any rate, nobody must ever acknowledge that he 
is affected by them. 

Soon after this a dense black cloud came loom- 
ing up, and at first so very slowly that it looked 
all the more unpleasantly mysterious as to what | 
would be the result of our meeting ; then a lull ' 
came, and it was plain now we were to have one 
of those terrible white squalls which cover the 
water with foam whisked from the crest of every 
wave, and borne along on the blast in a level 
shower of spray, which instantly blinds your eyes 
just at the time when the most careful steering is 
required. To avoid this, I paddled swiftly to land, 
and pulled up the boat on a low, bleak, lonely 
islet, where only a cow seemed to live, and a very 
amazed cow it was. But still there was a sort of 
shed even here ; and in dire necessity it appeared 
just possible to find shelter there during the worst 
of the hurricane. 

But» alas ! this was a very bad move indeed, for 
the hut was full of water, and ankle deep in mud ; 
and as I clung to the bare wooden planks outside — 
for it was impossible to get in — ^I was in constant 
fear that the wind would carry my canoe bodily 
away ; for so strong are these blasts that even in 


the yard of the hotel they had turned my boat 
over, and compelled me actually to hold the 
canoe down upon the ground with my hands. 
It was this proof of the power of the wind that 
made me land to avoid this one squall — ^the only 
one the Eob Eoy ever ** shirked" — and now we were 
in a far worse plight on shore, being quite wet, and 
covered with mud, with my spare shoes left in the 
reserve luggage to be light for the rapids. But 
better wet than overset, for had we faced the 
storm at this time on the water, the wind might 
have lifted both me and my canoe fairly oflf the 

The squall passed as quickly as it came, and 
out burst the genial sun as we floated into the 
Carl's Graf Canal, and then on the rapid current 
pleasantly down to Trolhatta, where a good hotel 
and good dinner and dry clothes soon rubbed away 
all remembrance of the hard times endured — sea- 
sons of exciting interest which arouse the pluck 
and nerve the muscle of the canoeist, and are the 
very charms of such a journey as this. 

The well-known Trolhatta Falls are certainly 
worth seeing, as the strong river breaks its great 
smooth body upon the stronger rocks, and writhes 
about, dashing up high foam, roaring its loudest 
and hissing in defiance as its torrent forces a 
passage to the sea. The navigation of the river 



is oondacted lound these cataracts by locks, in a 
canal loweriog you about 120 feet in two hours of 
tedious work. The passage is curiously cut 
through the solid rock, and winding here and there,, 
so that it would seem impossible for a steamer 
ever to get through, but a dozen of them wiU pass 
in a day, and not one will eyen graze the sides, so- 
marvellous is the skill of the Swedish sailors — by 
far the best for this work that I have ever seen. 

Of course it amused them immensely to see the 
canoe avoid the whole proceeding by my pulling 
her out on the grass, and running down at a good 
trot, while the Eob Koy glided smoothly over th& 
green turf, pulled by my hand. A number of boys 
followed me at a running pace on this occasion ; 
one of them, who helped at a lock, I gave a penny 
to, and he actually followed for some miles, and 
caught me at another lock, where another penny 
made him supremely happy. Another urchin 
who was carrying one end of the boat happened to- 
slip, and let her bounce on the ground. He ran 
away at once, afraid and quite ashamed, but a host 
of ready successors rushed forward to claim the 
vacant post They were all much astonished when 
I gave the first boy twice as much as the new aide, 
for, poor fellow, he could not help his slip, and he- 
had coma twice as fitr as the other. It is not easy 
to forget the pleased look of gratitude be gave me- 


for thus lemstating him ia his position, and for 
silencing the gibes of his rivals. 

We have heard these little fellows talking for 
hours about the canoe. ^ J have seen it/' says 
one; **Seen it," says another, mth contempt 
"Why, the Englishman gave me his sponge to 
hold;" and then this privileged character becomes 
at once the centre of information to all the rest. 
On one occasion a little lad and a man carried the 
boat through a town ; and after it was set down for 
a moment or so to rest, the man took his place at 
the front end of the boat, but the boy entreated 
for his old place, and began to cry, until I found 
that he wished to be in the front as before — ^the 
proud leader of the usual long procession that ac- 
companies the crew on shore. 

To cite one more out of many amusing instances 
of juvenile curiosity. After the canoe had been 
safely locked up in an out-house, and hours had 
passed away, there were stiU two boys seen at the 
door, struggling to look through the chinks, one of 
them lying flat on the ground for that purpose. It 
seems that a third boy had secreted himself inside 
the house, to get a better view of the boat ; but he 
now found he was imprisoned there, and a long 
confabulation of whispers had been carried on with 
his playmates outside — the point being still 
unsettled as to whether he ought to beg for release^ 


and bear the punishment of discovery, or remain a 
prisoner all night 

The weather cleared np as we slowly descended 
the beaatifhl Gota, fishing both with the rod and 
fly and with a long line and trolling hook, sailing 

all the time; but I do not advise the young paddler 
to have two lines out at once when he sails down 
a deep and rapid stream. It is a bit of aquatic 
management which taxes all the attention of one 
who knows his boat perfectly welL 

When we came to the upper rapids, which, in a 
rash moment, we had promised to pass in the boat, 
there was a crowd ready to see the expected 


overset ; but, after landing for a deUberate survey, I 
made up my mind that it could well be done. The 
waves were of the usual character, and there was 
nothing to fear from these, formidable as they 
might appear. But there were two unaccountable 
whirlpools of great size, about fifty feet broad, and 
depressed more than a foot in the centre. I had 
found some whirlpools of this kind upon the Ehine 
last year ; and happily the opportunity had been 
used to practise crossing them until I thoroughly 
mastered the proper method. 

It will be understood that if a boat is loose in a 
whirlpool, the effect upon it is simply to ^ turn 
it rapidly round ; and, if the boat is not going 
at speedy there is nothing more than a little giddi- 
ness in the sensation. But if you are going at 
full speed down a rapid, and suddenly enter a 
whirlpool, the water does in reality take hold 
of the bottom of the boat at one end and forcibly 
drag it to one side, while the general motion 
being onward, the result will infallibly be an 
upset, unless you act wisely. The proper thing 
to do is to stop the "way" on the boat as 
much as possible, and to lean inwards (not out- 
wards, as there is always the desire to do), just 
as the acrobat in a circus leans towards the centre 
more and more, the faster the horse he is riding 
gallops round the ring. The only diflSculty in 

174 8PTIKG. 

this case was to discern on which side of the boat 
the outer sweep of the whirl would first catch her^ 
for the course towards this spot was by no means 
straight, but had to be regulated by the large 
waves crossing it at the foot of the rapid. We 
spent about half-an-hour in a yery careful examin- 
ation of all the bearings of this place, though the 
people were very impatient, and, indeed, some got 
tired, and went away. 

There is also a certain am6unt of hasty desire to 
** have done with it " in the mind of a canoeisf^ 
when a place of this kind has to be passed ; and 
it is just on such an occasion that deliberate 
examination is desirable, so this impatience must 
not be yielded to, or dire may be the result. Pro- 
bably some neglect of such precautions caused the 
various upsets which younger members of the 
Canoe Club had to put up with in more homely 
places during last summer ; and I cannot but sug- 
gest that careful examination beforehand is quite 
as necessary as bold execution when once the 
actual passage is begun ; while the happy success 
of the two Bob Koy voyages — ^in which she never 
turned back, and was never turned over — was, no 
doubt, affected by luck when it was thought to be 
effected by pluck. 

Thus' the two whirlpools on the Gota were 
easily passed, and the spectators cheered, as they 


would have done, most likely, had^ she been 
turned upside down, or for any other adventure. 

Bain coming on, I selected a pretty nook in a 
sort of little dock formed naturally under very 
thick trees ; and there I ate my last dinner on the 
rivers of Sweden, and thought pleasantly upon a 
tour never to be forgotten by me for its interest 
and ceaseless variety. Soon a little steamer 
passed, and I dashed out to her, and pulled my 
canoe on her deck. There was a Swedish girl on 
board, who was reading an English book, and 
with a dictionary to make out the hard words, so I 
employed the time in giving her a lesson, gratis, 
and then drew her portrait ; and (to be candid) 
I wrote under it the words "Pretty Sophy." 

A dead stop, and we run on deck for the reason^ 
It is only because here they must unload some of 
our cargo of wool. The Bob Koy has to be put 
on another steamer, still smaller ; and lo ! there 
is our amusing linguist, Captain S , her com- 

The engine of this steamer, however, soon broke 
down, and after an examination I found it was the 
air-pump cylinder which had snapped in two. The 
engineer was a helpless sort of being, but he took 
advice from the Englishman, for they think, some- 
how, that all Britons are mechanics ; and so having 
wrapped a cloth round the wheezing pump, we 

176 THANKS, gentlemen! 

hobbled on till Goteborg was reached again at 

Next day I made a tonr of the pretty town in 
the canoe, trayeraing its canals and carrying the 
boat oyer obstacles in the streets, until the crowd 
ronning after the Bob Boy got breathless in the 

Before leaying Sweden, it seemed to be a good 
and proper thing to write a letter to the news- 
papers, thanlring the numerous persons, both rich 
and poor, whose hospitality we had enjoyed ; and 
it may be predicted with certainty that if any 
other member of our Canoe Club brings his 
boat here, he will haye a most kind reception. 
There cannot be a better wish for him than that he 
may enjoy as thoroughly as I haye done this 
charming unique journey on the lakes and riyers 
of Norway and Sweden. 



Paper Money — Scraps — The Volunteers — Swedish National 
Air — Over the Sound — ^Betsy Jane-^Croquet in Den- 
mark — Copenhagen — Tie to the Dane. 

How is it that Britons cannot keep grave as 
foreigners do, wlien a man speaks to them in a 
ridiculous travesty of their language ? 

Times and times I must have spoken thus to 
them ; but they never laughed, nor even twitched 
their lips to keep from laughing at me. Yet, often 
I had diflSculty to restrain at least a smile when a 
man would enter, hat in hand, as a deputation 
from visitors outside (the regulation being that 
at least five must assemble before we could open 
the canoe exhibition, and lecture for a new 
audience), " Excuse, sir, we wish boten for see." 
On one occasion a strange-looking character 
opened my bedroom door, and putting in his head, 
he uttered the word *'Shavvy?" To which I 
replied "No shavvy." He was the Court barber; 




bat be knew not tbat razors were cut dead by the 

Then, again, there was the money of Sweden — 
the amusing little bank notes, of which a bundle 
do not come to ten shillings. All sorts of banks | 
rise, flourish, and pour forth a paper stream, and | 
yet nobody examines any one of the notes. None 
of the banks break — ^that is good, in sooth ; but | 
forgery must be easy and profitable, and, indeed, 
it is very prevalent, according to the Crime 

Under this head we may observe that the 
capital punishment applied in Sweden is beheading 
by the sword ; and that when evidence is brought 
forward short of the direct testimony of two witr 
nesses, the accused is not executed, unless he con- 
fesses his guilt, but he may be kept in prison for 
life. We were informed that in such eases 
prisoners nearly always do confess, preferring 
death with a relieved conscience to perpetual 
confinement. Trials are conducted before three 
judges, and an appeal lies to three others; but 
these six are, in feu^t, a permanent jury, and there 
is no other. 

The post office in Scandinavia does not appear 
to be well managed at all. Frequently, and 
during each of my tours, my letters were lost. 
The electric telegraph we used only once and then 

SCRAPS. 179 

a message went forty-four miles in seven hours — 
rather a mild trotting pace.* 

No ruins — ^this is a defect painfully felt in 
travelling here, just as it is in America. Tou 
pine for a roofless abbey or a battered castle ; 
and the woods lack character without a moated 
grange. Often on the lakes there seemed to be a 
proud old tower reared against the sky on some 
distant headland; but when we paddled to it 
there was no warder keep^ and the thing was only 

These, you see, are scraps from the stray chips 
from our log, which must be gathered up before 
leaving Sweden ; and it shows we have come to 
the end. Heigho ! — or Hoity Toity ! — ^whichever 
of these words is the right thing to say ; not that 
either of them is ever spoken. 

One more dinner ashore, and so what soup shall 
we order ? Any you please, except that particular 
hard-named one which came once when we ex- 
pected a nice hot basin of something, and there 
was brought in, with all gravity, a plate of cold 
clear soup with a lump of ice floating in it. 

♦ The grand news of the telegraph-cable being laid between 
England and America reached me on a wild lake in Sweden, 
News of the laying of the former cable had reached me in 
a wild forest of New Brunswick. 

May peace throb through the wire instantly and for ever I 

N 2 


This is worse than mulled claret sent np in a 
butter-boaty as we had once in Italy, and with a 
tea-cap for the soup-ladle. 

And with our hot soup let us have a glass of 
white port wine, t .e^ the wine of its true colour, not 
the logwood-port, cooked and painted for Jehn Bull. 
The steamer Svea is a most popular boat run- 
ning from Goteburg to Copenhagen, so she is 
crammed with passengers, including the crew of 
the Bob Boy and their boat. After a pleasant 
passage the steamer is paddling through the 
Sound, with Denmark on the right hand and 
Sweden on the left; and the captain yields to 
my request to lower the canoe there and then 
into the sea, to the great surprise and amazement 
of all on board. 

Away goes the Svea ; and the engineer of the 
Bob Boy receives the command "Ahead easy," 
while the natives of Helsingborg in Sweden line 
the shore, amazed to see a canoe approaching them 
from outside. She was soon housed in the little 
inn, where she will rest the Sunday, while her 
crew will go to church in the old brick Minster, 
not built by Pugin. 

And it is on Sunday that, when evening falls, 
there come the volunteers with their flags and 
bands ; for there has been some rifle-shooting, and 
the prizemen at least are content* 


Volunteering has made great progress in Sweden, 
where the " skarpsjuters " march about and fire 
for prizes as we do in England. There are 
40,000 of them, and they are clothed in a dark- 
blue unifonn, with a neat cap, and black ac- 
coutrements. They pay for their arms and 
•uniform, and have from the Government only 
a small subsidy for prizes and expenses. Their 
exercise being always on Sundays, I had no oppor- 
tunity of being present at their driU; but the 
newspapers continually refer to them, and it is 
evident that the force is popular, and deserves the 
interest with which it is regarded. 

These volunteers are never tired of playing one 
particular air, which I had heard also sung by 
Miss Kjerstin with her tinkling guitar ; and so it 
is printed on the next page from memory, but we 
think pretty exact. This national air, called the 
*^ Bjomeborgames Marsch," is a Finland quick 
step — (played in the Hall of the Dancing bear ?) 
It will be further mentioned in the Appendix, 
and also the volunteers. 



fe^^fc;caTg | C£rrcmri 



f > m m m -> 


U I u 




' Helsingborg is, no doubt, a very old town, for 
surely the entrance to the Baltic must always have 
been an important place for ships, and also for 
men ; and now that Bussia claims the Sound as an 
appanage in the dowry of the Princess Dagmar, 
this ancient strait is more than ever interesting. 
This is the day we are to cross over it from 
Sweden to Denmark. It sounds grand as a feat 
to do, but the passage is at most only three or 
four miles ; and in a gloriously fine morning the 
-canoe was carried down to the water, and my 
paddle plashed in the new ripples, eager for the 
start as a horse paws for a gallop. 

Sun and a fresh breeze, but not too much of 
•either. A long and regular rolling swell seemed 
to tell that the sea would only calm down in a 
dignified way after its rage for a week. Ocean was 
at last in good-humour ; but, nevertheless, he was 
not to be trifled with, so we skimmed over his face 
daintily, lest the sleeping sea might be awaked. 
Soon the old grey towers of the Kronberg, on the 
Danish side, showed clearer and looked almost 
lively under the morning rays, while the spray 
spurted 'up somewhat lazily against its sea-worn 
walls, now hoary with the splashes of many 

Ships in a long procession moved towards the 
Baltic, with the sun on their sails, but there was 

184 BETST jAins. 

no flapping of canvas, nor sense of hnny or pres- 
sure ; neither weary, dead calm nor sudden blasts, 
but a gentle, graceful bowing of majestic forms, 
and the canoe itself seemed to relish the fine, long 
swelL Who that has loved his boat well but does 
not impersonate her ? Reason as I will, there are 
moments when I think that the Rob Roy is 

The sight was too fine to hurry past it, and as 
we had run across so quickly we dawdled now by 
the shore ; and I paddled out to a bark with British 
colours flying, and her pretty white sails scarcely 
fiill. " It may be some romantic ship," thought 
we, " and bound on some heroic cruise ;" but when 
we came alongside, it was only the Betsy Jane, 
from Hartlepool, with a cargo of coals for 
Cronstadt. The pure sea water was so clear, and 
the sun shone down into it so far, that I could see 
well under her great firm keel, and there was a 
sheen of yellow light from the copper of her big 
round waist far below and wondrously supported 
on this transparent water, making me feel, too, 
what great depths were beneath me, and how very 
thin a plank was between. 

One great advantage of touring in these 
temperate parts is this : that the sun is looked on 
as a friend. When he gleams over the sea in the 
morning, it is pleasant to feel he will be hotter 



every hour till noon ; whereas, in the sunny south, 
you learn only to fear the great blazing orb, and 
every hour of his shining brings it nearer to the 
time when you have to leave him to rule alone, 
and the fierce glory drives you into the shade until 
evening. Idlers we had left on the pier in Sweden, 
and we passed idlers more on the Danish pier, who 
had, of course, seen the little boat gliding over the 
waves, and welcomed her arrival eagerly. Here 
they mistook me (as in other places) for the 
adventurous Yankee, "Eed, White, and Blue," 
though my voyage is not of that fashion — artificial 
hazard without pleasure, and in a purposely diffi- 
cult and tedious way — ^two lives sure to go if either 
man gets iU. 

If any one can devise a better method for going 
over land and water than the canoe, we will gladly 
adopt it. 

The Eob Eoy was next carried into the town, 
and the grave officers of the custom-house were 
laughed out of countenance as usual when the 
boat was paraded for formal examination at their 
street door, so we took her right up to the pretty 
house of the British consul, whose brother had 
visited this place with me in 1855. It was very 
pleasant to be welcomed in a new country, and 
at a well-covered breakfast-table, and then to 
luxuriate amongst the currant-bushes, and play 


croqnet with the yonng. ladies, while the boat 
reposed in the coach-house, where visitors soon 
came to see her admirable shape. In an album 
here my kind friends had preserved a little sketch 
I had made, eleven years before, of a pretty boy 
standing, hoop in hand, beside the tomb of Hamlet 
The boy in petticoats is now a bold Grnardsman ; 
and Hamlet, we know, was not from Seland, bnt 
from Jutland, his name being Amlet (madman). 
Then the Cockney says it right, after all. " 

The croquet had gone on until Eob Roy 
became a "rover," so she was next embarked 
on a steamer, and when well on its course, I 
lowered the canoe into the sea, and spent the 
rest of the day coasting along the pretty shores of 
fieland, until countless villas, pleasure-boats, and 
bathing-boxes announced that Copenhagen was 
being neared. Stately ships sailed alongside me 
in gallant array, while carriages and pedestrians 
were on the road quite near. It was hke a lively, 
bustling street, with the ships for carriages, and 
the land traffic on the pavement. 

The Rob Roy, carried through Copenhagen, of 
course attracted a great crowd, and 1 the head 
waiter (being a man of sense) conducted her 
upstairs, where the great ball-room was allotted 
for a boat-house, and there the canoe rested gently 
on an ottoman. We had seen the great sights of 


t^his very interesting city long ago— and is it not 
often a great reKef to be able to say this ? — but our 
interest in Denmark had been much increased 
by perusing a book called "Denmark and her 
Missions," by Mrs. Ellis, which recites the remark- 
able activity in early times of the Christian people 
of this fine old Protestant country, Denmark has 
done much for English Christians when our own 
blind policy prevented Englishmen from giving to 
India the Book which has been blessed to us — ^the 
Eoly Bible.* These times have, happily, changed, 
but our debt of gratitude still stands to Denmark ; 
and now we are imited .to the sturdy Danes by 
the tender tie of a Koyal alliance. 

God bless the Danish Princess — our English 
-Queen to be ! 

♦ Some infonnation on this subject from the work here cited 
•will be fomid in the Appendix. 



Big Buttons—Canoe for the Casual — ^Rob Roy Senior — An 
Old Friend — Inquisitive — Sproge Island — The Great 
Belt — Lost a Head— Down, Down — Lake Dull — Green 
Sailors — Polite in Peril. 

Thbee Eussian frigates in the harbour attracted 
much attention. On board one was the youthful 
Grand Duke, who is a sailor prince ; . and one of 
his preceptors — an Englishman — ^was at the hotel 
The big guns of the Eusky ironclad were booming 
out a salute for the Emperor's name-day, ajxA the 
carriages of the King of Denmark, with servants 
in red liveries, were bearing guests to the royal 
dinner for the occasion. 

But I went to the prosaic business of buying an 
oilskin coat — one of those bright yellow garments 
you see on regular sailors in a regular storm. That 
which I chose had double thickness in the back 
and epaulets on the shoulders, and most appalling 
black buttons down the front — all for the trifling 
sum of 6s. ei. It will be understood, we hope, 



why this event is narrated in our log. So im- 
portant an addition to the stores of the Eob Koy 
cannot be passed over in silence, as if one were on 
a mere common tour, where the traveller does not 
carry his own goods over sea and land, and where 
another garment added to his luggage is a very 
trifling afiFair. 

In approaching the harbour of Copenhagen we 
had descried a man in a canoe (as it appeared) 
with a long double paddle ; and, of course, a rival 
in the art could not be passed without examination. 
Next day I went and had an hour's exercise in this 
strange craft, which was for hire at the bathing- 


place, with several othenu It is a double canoe, 
with a common chair fixed upon the two hulls, so 
that you seem to sit upon the water, and then, 
with a very long paddle — the handle hopelessly 
heavy, and the blades uselessly small — ^you can 
move about in a mysterious but unsatisfactory way 
upon the quiet waters of the sea. We have noticed 
these articles frequently on the Continent, and it 
is rather strange that we have so very few of them 
in England. 

The landlord of the comfortable hotel, quite a 
gentleman in manners, and warmly attached to 
England, invited me to supper in his apartments, 
underneath the great building, where the fame of 
the boat brought visitors to see it and the sketches, 
and it was arranged to take a photograph of the 
Eob Eoy next morning. Meantime, while we 
lounge and gossip, a young lady comes in for her 
nocturnal practice on the piano, and has hali^n- 
hour '^at scales" with commendable exactness. 
The cricket club began their season to-day, but 
they are young hands as yet. 

Having walked and talked, paddled and sailed, 
eaten and read and written and sketched as usual, 
I must now go up to prison — ^I mean to bed. 
Yes, I will have one fling at those detestable 
Continental beds, and be done with it Horrid 
cribs, boxes made for people five feet high ; you 


cannot have a stretch in one of them. Each night 
I begin with a vigorous push, and the end boards 
of the structure creak again, trying to make sixty- 
six inches into six feet six. Laugh not at this 
grievance as a small one ; only he knows its plague 
who has paddled all day, and wants at length to 
lie. Ye Swedes and Danes who read this page, 
liave mercy, I beseech you, on tall Englishmen ! 

The Eussian sailors perambulated the town, 
clad in blue jackets and white cloth caps. One of 
them made a great noise as he was captured 
by the guard, and taken away drunk to his ship, 
where n(j doubt, poor fellow, he would have a hard 
penalty in that rigorous service.* 

The canoe was now put into a cart, and trotted 
off to the railway which crosses Seland, and here 
a young German came up, and said he had been 
with Mr. Lawton in his yacht Sappho on the coast 
of Norway, and had seen the old original Eob Eoy, 
lent by me to that gentleman for his trip to the 
North Cape, also that paddle-wheels had been 
tried upon the other canoe, the Eollo, but they 
were found to fail (for the five hundred and fifty- 

♦At the Piraeus, in Grreece, we once went out to the 
Eussian fleet in a little sailing-boat, and then observed in the 
men-of-war's boats the coxswain lash the men who were 
rowing with a very long coach-whip. Probably he did not 
know that an Englishman was looking on. 


fifth time). It was truly agreeable to hear of the 
good health of the brave old boat; and she is now 
turned out into a paddock for the rest of her life, 
though I must say the new Bob Eoy is an im- 
mense improvement on her predecessor. 

At the refireshment-station a man is making a 
horrid row, and disturbs all the passengers. The 
face and voice of the rioter are familiar. Yes, it 
is my English room-companion of the Norway inn, 
who, it may be remembered, walks and talks in 
his sleep, and persists that he is not mad. Pity 
that an Englishman should deport himself so 
stupidly in the company of railway-pt^engers 
from ail countries I 

But let us flee back to our carriage, where also 
there is a German from Valparaiso, a pleasant 
fellow-voyager. He says that the Chincha Islands, 
from whence comes guano for the farming 
world, may last, as a supply, for ten or twelve 
years. The first cargo of this valuable manure 
was imported by a Frenchman. People then 
thought he was demented, and they refused to 
charter a ship for such a purpose. But millions 
are now made out of the trade, and most of this 
by an English house. At the other side of the 
island of Seland, the Bob Boy was marched into 
the " Hotel Store Belt," to the utter amazement of 
the waiters ; and yet they soon gave her a room to 


herseK, for I have now got bolder in my requests 
on this point, finding it a very convenient arrange- 
ment to take my cedar companion upstairs at 

The plan looked successful here also, especially 
as the porter gave me the key of the room. But 
next day I found they had retained another key, 
and scores of people had been admitted to the 
nautical exhibition, and had deranged the fittings 
of the boat, vainly striving to put them back as 
they were before, and to escape the detection sure 
to follow when the sailor's knot I always tie round 
the paddle has been at all disturbed. 

It is to be remarked that the Swedish, and even 
more the Danes, are far worse in their obstinate 
inquisitiveness about this boat than the Germans 
were last summer. It had now become a positive 
diflSculty to keep the canoe still one single hour, 
its proper rest was seriously disturbed, except in 
my own bedroom ; but the whole transaction, let 
us acknowledge, is out of the usual line ; and when 
I am dusting the canoe on two chairs, with its 
varnished cedar deck resting on my knee, in a 
room upstairs, it is difficult to believe that, in five 
minutes, this slender airy little thing will be 
lowered into the waves, and will buoyantly dash 
over the sea, carrying me where many of the 
roughest sea boats would not be safe for a moment. 




The wind had again risen so high, and it was so 
completely unfayonrabley that we could only look 
at the island of Sprog^, six miles away there, 
among the white-tipped billows, dead to windward, 
and thus quite beyond my power to visit then; 
but it was the only occasion on which I had to 
forego an intended excursion. This little rock Ues 
half-way across the Great Belt ; and when the sea 
is frozen here in winter, people are sometimes 
detained a week before the ice is strong enough 
to bear, or has cleared away to let the water 
be used for sailing. The passengers, howeyer, 
cross in ice boats, made with three keels and Hat 
bottoms, so as to slide on the ice, or iioat in the 

The waves in the harbour of Korsor were high, 
as the west wind blew against the stream rushing 
from an inland salt lake; and a dismasted vessel in 
the offing, and the treble-reefed sails of the few 
inside, showed there was a stiff gale blowing. 
However, I launched the K6b Eoy fearlessly, and 
had a charming time of it (quite wet, of course, 
with spray), bounding over the rollers and dashing 
through tihe white water, while the whole popula- 
tion assembled on the pier, and aU the hotel, 
railway, and steamboat people, longing to see how 
the bar would be crossed by the little " kayak," as 
they call it — ^the Greenland name, and whi<di, oddly 


enough, is very like that of ^ caique," the name of 
the Turkish boats on the Bosphorus* 

The strong current ran one way, and the strong 
breeze blew the other ; so that the canoe, being 
about. equally affected by these forces, could in 
fact easily be propelled in any direction, and its 
manoeuyres probably looked wonderfiil to those 
who were not aware of this fortunate compensation 
of forces. 

But their plaudits gradually urged me to more 
daring trials ; and at last, having got out further 
than usual, and among the waves sharpened by 
the wind and tide opposing, I lost my head once 
and for a moment — and for the only time in this 
or the former tour. So the manner of it shall be 

When waves are long enough to allow the boat 
to descend the face of one, and then to rise on the 
back of another without being caught in the 
trough between them, then it is really of no 
consequence how high they may be, for the canoe 
will ride over each wave like a cork. Now it will 
be found that, unless you are going fast through 
the water, about twenty feet between the wave 

* The "Verangian Guard" mentioned in history as a 
Swedish contingent in Constantinople 500 years ago may 
have come from the Vrangs River, and have given the name 
kyak to the Turks. 



crests will just allow of this regular mounting 
and descent; but a less distance requires special 

On this occasion I had got into a position where 
it was not expedient to turn the boat round, and 
so we were therefore returning stem foremost — 
which practice enables one to do quite safely — 
casting a glance over the shoulder at each stroke, 
to see the nature of flie next wave which has to 
be encountered. 

The Eob Eoy was progressing gallantly thus, 
going with the wind and against the tide. In 
such cases your motion is always faster just at the 
summit of a wave, where the wind is strongest ; 
and as the great splash comes at that moment, 
you cannot see more than one wave at a time, so 
as to profit by the glance, especially if you are 
paddling backwards. On arriving at the top of 
one of these billows, I suddenly saw that the next 
one was quite thin (the light shone through it), 
and the top was curled over* 

The proper method of ** taking" this {accord- 
ing to the excellent instructions of the Life-boat 
Institution pamphlet) is to rush at it, so that you 
may have " way" on, and the wave may not drive 
the lower end of your boat under water, and then 
turn her over on this as a point. 

But, forgetting at the moment that I was at 



this time going stem foremost, which, of course, 
reversed every operation, I gave a powerful stroke 
precisely in the wrong direction, that is to say, 

"TUJfi ¥Al&ii STUOKK. 

forwards, and thus both my own arm and the high- 
topped crest drove the bows of the canoe deep into 
the base of the wave before me. 


As the cedai* deck disappeared foot by foot (but 
all in an instant of time), it flashed upon me that 
I had made a fetal error ; the likely consequences 
were too well known. My nerves shrank up as 
when a schoolboy expects tl^e cane on his hand ; 
and the man at the helm fairly lost his presence 
of mind. Down came the great curved crest full 
on my back, and deluged me with water, which 
easily rushed in round my waist, for the apron is 
not so secured in the rear as to stand an attack 
from that quarter. 

A good ducking was endured, and a good lesson 
was learned, "Never go stem foremost agsdnst 
short seas ;" and for the benefit of brother paddlers 
this incident is related at length, while other 
readers will please to excuse the long story, and to 
congratulate the Eob Eoy on escaping great danger 
by the buoyancy derived from its high-arched deck. 

As it was impossible to reach Sprog^, wa had to 
turn from the Great Belt into a large expanse of 
salt water behind Korsor, like an inland lake, 
which we determined to explore. It is, I do 
believe, the very dullest lake ever seen. Flat, 
straight, and bleak sides, with few trees, and 
scarcely an island. But then the water was clear, 
and it was very amusing to watch the crabs and 
fish below. One crab when disturbed actually ran 
off with its little baby under its arm. 


Directing my course to the only house, I stole 
up to it through reeds and shallows unperceived, 
and began to sing a doleful air under its windows, 
quite close to the door, for there is no tide here, 
and so they build within a foot of the water. 

Amazement filled the habitation at once. The 
first boy who came out screamed loudly to the 
inmates ; and, like a wise boy, he kept steadily 
looking at me all the time he roared. In general 
they run away to call their friends, and then on 
their return the sight has vanished, though I often 
delay in such cases, that the poor fellows may not 
be disappointed. 

In the distance we noticed a sailing-boat labour- 
ing very much, and evidently directed by very 
indifierent seamen ; so we bore down to her just as 
she managed to take in sail, and not a moment 
too soon, before one of those terrible squalls which 
sweep over sea and land here with great and 
sudden violence. One man in the boat had a 
black frock-coat on and a black "chimney-pot" 
hat ; and this convinced me that the craft needed 
help, for no one accustomed to boating would keep 
on such head-gear in a sailing-boat when it blows 
hard. We found the two adventurers had come 
out purposely to see the "kayak," and they had 
been blown away to leeward until they were hope- 
lessly out of reach of home. The ballast in the 


boat was partly of loose bricks — about tbe most 
dangerous things one could carry, as they roU and 
tumble over in a lurch, and would always faU to 
the wrong side, just where they are not wanted, 

The other navigator was a young lad, who was 
labouring with all his might at an oar, but still 
was so polite that he did not forget to take off his 
hat to salute me even under these desperate 
conditions. However, with a little assistance and 
advice, we soon got things to rights ; and one must 
hope that the two inquisitive sightseers will not 
go to sea again in this plight — at least until 
another kayak visits the neighbourhood. 

And then, after four hours of healthful exercise, 
returning to the " Great Belt Hotel," how much 
you relish a cup of coffee ! that good coffee which 
you get on the Continent almost everywhere, 
because they roast it fresh every day, and grind it 
not, and put plenty in the pot ; and which you 
seldom can get in England, because we insist on 
buying it roasted and ground, and, therefore, as it 
were, dead. 



Girls don't matter — Stolen — Attack on the Forts — Sonder- 
burg— Libels— Forts of Diippel — Soldiers' Graves. 

Next morning we embarked in the Diana, a fine 
steamer, which makes a cruise among the islands ; 
and here the Scotch engineer, with his " steeple " 
engines from '' Mr. MacNab's in Glasgy," was glad 
to welcome a compatriot, and to receive a ** Bri- 
tish Workman " for his daughters. The scenery 
on this voyage was very pretty, but never grand. 
Fine rocks, luxuriant foliage, sparkling sea, and 
comfortable houses — all in endless variety of com- 
bination and outline, and with a brisk gale to 
heighten the interest, while the fine vessel pitched 
and rolled delightfully. Crossing from Seland to 
Funen or Fyen (pronounced almost Fuin), our 
course was then round the southern end, and up a 
long strait to Svendborg. This picturesque town 
captivated my attention; but when we thought of 

202 oiBLs don't mattbb, 

** how can we get away again if we stop here to-day " 
— ^perhaps it may be for three days — ^the idea of 
stopping at all had to be given up. Long warps 
had to be led round the bulwarks of the steamer 
to turn her round in the narrow inlet ; and this 
operation was not an easy one, even with four 
stout hawsers, for the west wind now had a strong 
hold upon us. A youth who could speak French 
told me I was the only passenger for Sonderburg 
except two peasant girls, and it was doubtful 
whether — the sea being so high — we could venture 
to touch there, and it would make three hours' 
delay. I was sorry for this, because we had de- 
sired to go there to see the battle-field of the 
Slesvig campaign ; but when my friend said, " As 
for the girls it is no matter," we saw he meant 
only his own convenience, and to me it seemed 
right to think of the poor women, too, for whom it 
might be very important not to be carried away. 
Then they said the Prussians would not let me 
land without a passport, &c., &c. ; but all this made 
one more anxious for the adventure. There were 
several Slesvigers and Holsteiners on board the 
Diana, and they had a very lively conversation in 
their peculiar lingo, as the island of Als came nearer 
in sight. They looked on the fine bold cliffs, the 
waving trees and the deep green grass and 
thriving homesteads of their own land, occupied 

STOLEN, 203 

by the Prussians, as you would look at your gold 
watch in a thief's hand — a watch that had been 
yours for years and years. For there was the Uuppel 
windmill, and the forts all round, sloping wedges, 
like disjointed pieces of railway embankments, and 
covered with grass. Sentries were thickly posted 
on every height, and lounged near their sentry- 
boxes, striped black and white — the Prussian 
colours — and with their needle-guns nearly hori- 
zontal on their shoulders. In 1864 this bay was 
the battle scene, and the big guns sent their balls 
across it, three miles, over the water. Only the 
day before we arrived the Prussian fleet had 
visited the place, and now it was empty, except 
that some herring-boats scudded homewards, with 
their square high stems pierced with little 
windows, exactly as one sees in pictures of a 
hundred years ago. Turning now into a narrow 
channel, we come to Sonderburg ; but our steamer 
rolls deeply in the waves, and must not venture to 
the pier, so there is nothing for it but to drop the 
canoe into the sea, and go ashore in her — the offer 
of going in a boat with the canoe towed behind 
being respectfully declined by the Eob Eoy with 
as much courtesy as her sense of the indignity 
would allow. 

A canoe, and such a mode of landing, were, no 
doubt, quite novel at this place, and the beach 


was soon thronged with visitors, all holding their 
head-gear on in the high wind, and with their coat- 
tails flapping in the breeze. 

However, I did not mean to come ashore for 
several hours yet, but only to land my black bag, 
and then to take a cruise for the rest of the after- 
noon, and to debark quietly when the excitement 
had subsided. But the watchful guards were far 
too sharp for that. 

All the soldiers oflf duty, and with their white 
canvas jackets and neat round peakless caps, at 
once rushed down to the canoe ; and the authorities 
solemnly proclaimed that the Captain of the 
strange craft ** must go to the Prussian Custom- 
house," to pay for the Eob Roy. ^^ Nonsense," I 
said, " I am going to paddle up the bay." " Well, 
but you must bring the boat to the Douane." 
" Very good ; after my cruise." •' No, at once ; 
now." " Please tell them I travelled in Prussia 
and never paid anything." At last the Inspector, 
seeing I was English, and that my Monitor was 
not ironclad, allowed me to go in peace, and the 
population rejoiced, for they followed along the 
shore while I led the way in the water. So we had 
a fine day's exercise and a thorough exploration 
of the neighbourhood after all. 

Sonderburg is a very pretty place, far too 
lovely for a bloody battle field, and battered 


houses and trees scarred with shot, and mangled 
corpses on the ground. The Prussian garrison 
of 1600 men fill that large square building 
by the water's edge, and sentries are all round 
us, while every hill has its forts, and newly- 
patched houses show where the cannon told on 
the hapless town. The town is a thriving one, 
and the people seem very merry under their in- 
vasion; indeed, there is more of whistling and 
singing here than we have remarked for the last 
two months. 

The little " Als Sund " inn was close to the water, 
and, therefore, good for me, though it had natur- 
ally the usual features. First, the box bed, with 
sloping pillow and footboard, far too short; but we 
have settled an account elsewhere with this Scan- 
dinavian couch, so let it be. Then there is the 
saucer of a basin, and teacup of a water-jug, and 
handkerchief of a towel, and the blind that won't 
pull down or stop up, and the pepper-box that 
won't pepper, and the door that won't lock, and 
the bell that won't ring, and, finally, the maid- 
servant that won't go away out of your room — nay, 
bolts in to see you at any hour — all hours, night 
or day — and without the slightest attempt at a 
knock beforehand. Pooh! these arejthe trifles of 
travel ; and it is really too bad even to allude to 
them when so many days of glorious pleasure 

206 LIBELS. 

have been enjoyed with zest by the crew of the 
Bob Roy, 

But we mention these things now because they 
are, in fact, more troublesome than any of the 
peculiar inconveniences appertaining to this 
special mode of touring in a canoe. 

For instance, somebody has lightly said that, 
*' it may be doubtful how far one could enjoy a 
voyage with one's legs cramped in a boat, and 
water trickling down both sleeves." To this we 
reply that it is very little doubtful that a walking 
tour would not be enjoyed if you had your feet 
cramped in your shoes— only, knowing this, you 
get shoes to fit your feet, and so they are not 
cramped. Why, the canoe must be made to fit the 
paddler, too, and then there is no cramping at alL 

As for the water in your sleeve, it is far better 
there than down the nape of your neck or about 
your knees, which we must all put up with in a 
pedestrian tour. The man who shrinks from 
water, indeed, had better not go to sea ; and the 
man who sneezes at dust should keep off the dry 

For myself, I like water even at my elbows ; and 
a dash of the salt spray from a glittering wave is 
not the worst thing you can have in your face. 
Pardon this logic of enthusiasm — for it is a skipper 
defending his craft. 



It was very interesting indeed to walk round 
the fortifications, which extend for miles about 
the town, and are all kept in apple-pie order, with 
smooth green grassy slopes, and sentry-boxes, 
near which you see the dapper Prussian sentry 
pacing about on a ploughed field, and near him 

the milkmaid stoops beside the unreluctant cow, 
and the miller goes aloft to furl the sails for the 

In my lonely walk through the pleasant fields 
there were often seen those little wooden crosses set 
up by some hedge to show where a soldier fell, and 



on the top of this hill is the cemetery of the battle, 
where Danes and Prussians are buried side by 

Here is a Prussian graye — a stone obelisk with 
a railing round it» and immortelles hanging in the 
wind, while the inscription reads : — " Hier ruhen 
25 tapfere Preussen," and near it one of the 
Danish tombs — a huge stone block with only one 
side polished, and not so likely to be carried off 
for a doorstep, or to face the corner of a bastion, 
as a squared edge stone would be. There are no 
wreaths about it, but in golden letters, which glitter 
in the sun, it tells us, " Hier ruhen 209 tapfere 
Danen. Sie fielen am 18 April, 1864." In many 
other places were those signs of battle-days 
which last so long in an unmistakable green 
colour of the grass ; and I recollect having noticed 
this very distinctly on the field of Culloden in 
1845, just one hundred years after the bloody 
battle there. 

The soldiers aU look intelligent, healthy, strong, 
and active young fellows, much like the .materiel 
of our best volunteer corps ; but their artillery and 
mortar practice, at least when we were present, 
appeared to be slovenly and bad. 



England abroad — Invaders — Pickled Tongue — Explosion — 
Wrecked — Drift on the Reef— Crying for joy — Saved. 

At night some people, carousing late in the inn, 
were very noisy in the room next to mine, and 
only separated by a thin partition ; so, when at 
eleven o'clock they had sung a most lugubrious 
song over and over, and worse each time, I gave 
two loud thumps on the door. Instant silence, and 
then a jabber of consultation as to who and what 
was tiiis. Finally they concluded it was ** the 
Englishman with the kyak ;" and then, though the 
most inveterate of them still hummed a little, as a 
sort of assertion of their rights, the heart of the 
harmony was dried up, and it soon withered away 
into quiet. Certainly it must be highly uncom- 
plimentary to hear a great knock on the door in 
the finest part of your best song. Kemonstrance 
by words could be answered, but the decision of a 



loud smack on resounding wood, though not an 
articulate message, is without appeal, and admits 
of no argument. Sorry as I am to limit any one's 
pleasure for my own comfort, it must be confessed 
that the Eob Eoy would go very slow and very 
short journeys if her sailing-master had not plenty 
of rest as well as plenty of work. 

At a book-shop we had found Harrison Ains- 
worth's "James 11.," and we read it with very 
great pleasure. The strange sensation of reading 
a thoroughly English book in a foreign land cannot 
be described, but it is very powerful. Just as one 
gets fully engaged about Whitehall Palace and 
the Earl of Sunderland and the trial of the six 
bishops and Westminster ELall, and when the mind 
and body are in the frame as if one were in the 
very heart of London — out brays the trumpet of 
the Prussian garrison, and the roll of the drum 
rattles the " tattoo " in quite a foreign accent, 
and all one's ideas are shaken and disjointed for a 
moment, till the mind separates the two facts that 
one is reading of old England, but in the island 
of Als. Something of the same kind I had felt 
in the desert of the Atlas, where one day I kept 
on reading " Adam Bede " in a cave so long that 
the Kabyle guide fell fast asleep, and the sun 
had gone down too far for us to proceed to our 
halt-place for the night. 

imrADBBS. 211 

On Sunday the soldiers went early to church, 
and they came back, not in military order, but in 
groups as they pleased ; but there was a quietness 
and manly courtesy about these men which was 
very attractive, and we could not help admiring 
their whole appearance, though, of course, in this 
country they are looked on as invaders, and 
England is not praised for allowing the deeds that 
were done. I do not know the very right in this 
business ; but on the whole, as a general conclu- 
sion, we may be glad that a power is being con- 
solidated which can defy the Pope (who had quite 
enchained Austria), and which would be a counter- 
poise to France if at anytime, by some ruler there 
less wise than the present Emperor, things may 
be attempted which had better not be done. 

As a tourist, and coming from a land where 
foreign occupation of our homes is even un- 
imaginable — and, with our volunteers to avert it, 
we may say quite impossible — there is extreme 
interest felt in watching the behaviour of the 
invaders and that of the subjugated people. 

How must it be to see every day the graves of 
the men who fought on our side, and were beaten — 
so fresh, too — and of brothers and fathers. Surely 
the mourner's tear must sometimes have been 
dried on his cheek, by the burning heat of revenge, 
and with clenched teeth. 

p 2 


Next morning I was quite unresolved what to 
do, and in such cases it is best to go out and 
lounge about a little, to see if anything wiU '^ turn 
up." In this state of things an English-speaking 
captain came, and after he had seen my boat (it is 
good policy always to interest them first) I asked 
him to help me to get a cart to take the canoe 
four miles overland to another arm of the sea. He 
said he had a cart in his ship ; so we went to see 
the vehicle, but it turned out to be a " chart '^ We 
ought to have used the word " waggon." 

If a foreigner talks wholly in one tongue, either 
foreign or English, it is much easier to understand 
him than if he mixes the words of both ; for in 
this latter case you are perplexed as to which 
language you must refer a particular word to. 
Thus, on another occasion, I was completely 
puzzled when a waiter inquired if I would have 
" fleisch eller am ?" and I kept repeating the 
word, " Am 1 am !" searching the small lexicon in 
my mind as to what that could be. After all, it 
was only our own British " ham " he meant. 

But here comes a little steamer to the quay. 
*' Where is your steamer going T " Flensborg." 
" Will you take me and my boat ?" " Yes, we 
will wait five minutes for you." In half that time 
my plan was changed and my bill paid, and the 
boat being hoisted on the steamer, we put to sea. 


This little Apenrade was the smallest sea- 
steamer I ever saw, with an engine of 12 horse- 
power, and after we had gone well out into the 
swell she pitched most vigorously. There hap- 
pened to be two other ship captains on board, one 
of them an old hand from California, and both 
could speak English. Then there were also the 
captftin of the Eob Eoy, and a lady and two 
children, and a few nondescript " bodies." While 
I was congratulating myself on the lucky chance 
of getting a lift to my next destination, suddenly a 
loud explosion took place, bang ! bang ! and then 
a crash and the smashing of glass and hissing of 
gteam and shrieks from the lady, and then utter 
silence — ^the engine had stopped. At the alarm, 
the engineer rushed to the engine ; but the stoker, 
a coward, ran to the bows, to drop into the water. 
We found the cylinder was blown to pieces, and, 
of course, the steam-engine was now useless. 
Here, then, were we, miles from land, and in a 
stormy sea, with heavy weather to windward, 
without masts, sails, oars, or even a boat — indeed, 
they had not even bread on board. The captain 
took it all in a careless way, as befitted one who 
could put to sea thus unprovided ; and he laughed 
in a vacant manner, rather undecided what to do. 
However, we soon made him stir his wits. We 
hoisted a flagstaff for a mast, and made a great 

'214 WRECKED. 

lug-sail out of the black tarpaulin from the 
luggage, with a boat-hook for a yard. This was 
done to bring the steamer round before the wind, 
for she was now lying like a log in the trough of 
every swell, and we wished to get her into the 
track of other vessels, whence help might come 
before the Apenrade drifted to the rocks on our 
lee. The oldest captain was told oflF to hold the 
halyard of our jetr-black sail, and he had to lean for- 
ward with every swell, so as to ease the crazy mast, 
in a very comical manner. Soon the weak little 
stick broke, but not entirely, and I helped, by 
using another pole as an oar, and rowing with all 
my might, to get the little steamer round. Then 
I advised that we should hoist a signal of distress, 
and all stand up on the bows, and open our coats 
to act as a sail. This was done, and at length we 
slowly veered round, and began to run for shore 
before the wind. 

The chief danger was, first, that if night came on 
before we were seen, there was no food, except 
three bottles of ale, for about fifteen persons, and 
no boat to get it by but the canoe ; and, second, 
that we were drifting on to a reef of rocks, where 
the iron sides of our wretched little steamer would 
be stove in by one blow, and we should then sink 
at once, for she had no compartments. The water 
was too deep to anchor in, and so we did for 



the best in making for more shallow water in 

The lady it was sad to see — ^poor thing, how she 
did cry ! Only one other person besides the stoker 

behaved badly, a sailor passenger, who kept 
grumbling at the accident, and croaking about his 
own personal inconveniences, when life was in 
danger, and a woman and children under our 


charge ! He kept mombling in this style as he 
walked from one end of the deck to the other — 
about three paces did it. On behalf of all of us I 
gave him such a hearty set-down in good sound 
English that he was ashamed of himsel£ Of 
course we scanned the horizon on all sides to see 
some friendly saU, and at length a steamer was 
observed, not that we could see her hull, but only a 
dense cloud of smoke, which also entirely obscured 
us from being noticed on board of her, as she was 
dead to windward. But when they observed our 
flag with the end knotted (the distress signal), we 
gladly saw them bearing down straight to our 
help. Now the lady began to cry for joy, and her 
two children, who had been very grave, but 
behaved well, cried in sympathy. We were at this 
time within 200 yards of the shoal, the varning 
buoy upon it being close under our lee ; and the 
doubt was whether the steamer could reach us 
before we got on the rocks. The oldest sea cap- 
tain and myself held one opinion as to how we 
should use our tarpaulin sail, and the two other 
captains held the reverse, but our plan was adopted. 
I should mention that before we saw the 
steamer they wished me to launch the canoe, first 
to get ashore myself, and then to get help for the 
rest. But I said that would be useless, for the 
first danger was in the reef of rocks, and if we 


SAVED. 217 

were to strike on them the canoe might be of use 
to us all, and especially to the lady and children ; 
whereas if I now left the ship in her it would be 
some hours before I could get any help, and they 
agreed to this view. The steamer Vidar seemed, 
however, to come to us with astonishing slowness, 
though she was under sail ; and it turned out that 
she also was partially disabled. Our captain then 
took down our distress signal ; but as this seemed 
to be a device for saving the paltry sum due to 
any other vessel that might put off to our relief, I 
ventured (after consulting the old "salt") to hoist 
it again. Stinginess is without excuse when 
applied to those who come to save life. Soon the 
Vidar was within hail, and her captain saw how 
near we were to. the reef, and he, of course, did 
not wish to come nearer to it than he could help ; 
but his friendly hand hove a rope on board, and 
in a few moments more we were bounding over 
the waves, towed back to Spnderburg on the 14th 
of September, 



Old Rowlock — Foam — aisles of Denmark — Lollipops — Back 

The shore was thronged again with gazers, many 
of whom had seen ns start in the morning ; and 
the Prussian soldiers laughed good-humouredly 
to find the Eob Roy once more borne to land. As 
the weather now cleared up, and the evening was 
before me, I determined not to lose it; so, after 
a good dinner, the Rob Roy started off along the 
channel which leads to Augustenburg, where we 
had some hours of pleasant sailing, and landed in 
several places. 

In a curious book lately published, " Denmark in 
the Iron Age," it is mentioned that in a creek lead- 
ing up from this channel of Als Sund is the village 
of Nydam, where a very curious relic was found 
embedded in the peat — a boat, seventy-seven feet 
long and ten feet broad, with rowlocks for twenty- 


eight oars. These rowlocks were of the shape 
sketched at page 143, fig. 4 ; and it was very interest- 
ing to observe, in the collection of modern boats at 
the Exhibition in Stockholm, this form of rowlock 
precisely ia stiU used in some of the yawls on the 
Scandinavian coasts. The ancient boat was very 
ancient, indeed, having been built, rowed, stranded, 
and buried ages ago. The brave old planks seem 
to have been sewn together with bark or ropes. 
Now it is set up again, and preserved in the 
Museum at Flensburg; but the feature that 
attracts me specially is the form of rowlock, though 
our canoe has no rowlocks at all. 

At one of the quiet spots where we landed to 
look about, a sailor came who could speak English 
a little, and, looking at the boat's name on her 
bows, he said, ** Ah, that Kobe Roey, I had laese of 
him" (I have read of her). It was very strange 
to find the fame of the canoe extended to 
so obscure a harbour on a distant island in 

The time was one of great enjoyment. In the 
shallows, where the wind was most gusty, and 
an upset would be of no moment, I put on sail, and 
the sharp canoe skimmed along, or leaned over 
with the pressure of the breeze — ever fitful, and 
roaring through the forest on the bank — but the 
boat would not turn over. Such trials as these 

220 FOAM. 

are of great service when they can be thoroughly 
and safely made, as they give you confidence in 
your boat, which, in time of sudden and unwished- 
for danger, is of principal importance, for it pre- 
vents you fix)m being flurried. In one part of the 
channel very long weeds covered the surface, and 
gently resisting, smoothly yielded to my polished 
planks as the strong breeze urged the Eob Eoy 
through them. But I confiess to being rather sus- 
picious of weeds, either to sail or to swim in. 
There is an uncertain and mysterious imagining 
as to what sort of unknown danger they contain 
or conceal ; in fact, they are " uncanny," and it is 
very much the same with that white frothy foam 
which sometimes is six inches deep under a great 
waterfall. It hides the rocks, and you feel it is 
an unknown element, not watery enough to float 
on, but watery enough to drown. 

In Sicily there is a vast plain of boiling mud, 
brown, hot, shining as it steams in the sun, and 
really this reeking, soft, uncomely slime looks 
far more terrible than Etna itself. The poet 
seized this idea well, who filled the infernal regions 
with waves of seething mud. 

Let us paddle away from weeds and froth and 
mud, and go back to the pretty town again, with the 
setting sun glittering on its windows, and warming 
the red-tiled roofs of its neat little houses^ each 


with a garden and summer-bower close to the edge 
of the sea. 

Punctual and steady now comes a good strong 
English screw-steamer^ the Vigilant, and by aU 
means let us start again with confidence. She 
carried the canoe for nothing — ^thanks, good 
captain, may you soon be made an admiral ! 

For yachting the isles of Denmark are better 
than the Mediterranean. '^Sailing among the 
Greek islands" is far nicer to read of than to 
do, as I know by experience — ^such bad anchorage, 
bad water, shifty winds, and long stupid calms, 
Greek pirates, quarantine, &c., &c. But up here 
in the fresh air of the north you are among free 
people and a sailor population, with good harbours 
and islands lively and lovely — up with the sail 
cheerily. Through mazes of them we come to 
Flensborg, which is high up a beautiful creek in 
the mainland — if, indeed, we can call any part of 
Denmark mainland — ^for the Eider cuts it right 

Now, little Eob Eoy, we have safely arrived, 
and you are to be mounted again on the top 
of a railway-carriage, which is the most secure 
of all modes of transit. A lady got iato the same 
compartment with me, and four little boys, 
Germans, with blue caps and red bands, and 
chubby cheeks, all the caps and cheeks being of the 


same pattern, only of different sizes. They togged 
away at lollipops for some miles, and generally 
imparted some to me — ^not all into my mouth — 
until friends at a station handed in four penny 
trumpets, and thenceforth the carriage was like a 
small slice of Greenwich Fair. The mamma soon 
saw that I liked children, and the other gentle^ 
man in the carriage (who turned out to be the 
President of Schleswig) was equally sensible, so 
she became very animated, being divided between 
motherly pride at the spirit and mischief of her 
small army and the desire to keep them within 
tolerable bounds. "Speak you English?" said 
their little sister, "and French?" and when I 
said " Yes," she answered, " Speak moi" So we 
came to Altona, a suburb of Hamburg; and next 
day I launched on the great, dull, white-coloured 
Elbe, and paddled along the lines of tall ships, 
huge steamers, bright-coloured smacks, and boats 
of every rig and hue and nation in this fine, rich 

But I had a mind to penetrate fiirther and 
deeper ; and unless you have gone up the narrow 
water-lanes of Hamburg, you have not well seen 
this strange old town. Lofty houses are on each 
side, built fantastically of rotten wood on rotten 
piles, resting in rotten mud, and without any 
approach along the edge of the water, and every 


probability of falling down. Thus for miles you 
penetrate into a third-rate Venice, with the crazy 
windows and dirty walls of the Jews' quarter 
marked by signs in Hebrew, and market-boats 
teeming with round cabbages blocking up the way. 
It would take many pages to describe the curious 
adventures of the Kob Koy in this intra mural 
journey ; but respect for the worthy Hamburgers 
requires me to suppress any account of how their 
dwellings looked from this novel point of view. 

At every bridge there was a crowd to see the 
canoe, and then they ran round again to the next 
for another glimpse. Whenever I landed the 
people pressed so much that it was best at once 
to embark again. Yet this I will say, in all that 
long day's windings in the very worst parts of 
this great town, where to boyish minds it must 
have been most tempting * to have a shie ' at the 
canoe, not one missile was cast at the boat. Last 
year only once did the mischievous natives of a 
town cast stones, and that was at night, and in 
Holland. But after coming to England, I had 
not been a few hours upon the Thames before a 
lad in a barge threw a huge piece of coal at the 
Kob Eoy. Truly Punch has depicted our manners, 
when he makes a lad tell his fether — " There's a 
strange man a coming," and the father politely 
replies, " 'Eave arf a brick at 'im." 



Hamburg Warriors — Mechanics' Institution — ^Popple on the 
Elbe— Trying a Tow— Dutchman, ahoy !— Too fast by- 
far — Rude — " Mout " — Sleeping on Apples — Curious 
Voyage— Looking on — ^Lady Rowers — Grandmamma — 
Race with a Lady — Tongue-tied* 

The new part of Hamburg, rebuilt by the Eng- 
lish after a great fire, has a handsome square 
round a central lake, on which are boats without 
number, and of every size, from a twelye-oar down 
to neat punts for teaching boys to row, and tiny 
steamers, and others with paddle-wheels turned 
by hand, for those special lunatics who attempt 
this thoroughly bad means of locomotion.* 

A great crowd attracted my attention, and I 
found a street and bridges decorated, and staff- 

♦ For many years Spain has claimed the merit of having 
made the first steamboat ; and it was said to be described in 
1543 in a letter written by the inventor, Blasco de Garay. 
Having had occasion to inspect this letter officially, in the 
archives at Simancas, I can state that it does not mention 
steam at all, but describes a boat with paddle-wheels tumed 
by two hundred men. 


officers galloping about, until an infirm brass 
band walked forward at the head of the army of 
Hamburg, who are coming back to-day from the 
war; and see how the inhabitants are now welcom- 
ing them 1 Thousands line the streets, and throw 
garlands and roses to the trudging braves. Every 
man has a bouquet round his shako, a bunch of 
green in his gun-muzzle, a whole bush of it in his 
knapsack, and a girdle of all bright nosegays round 
his waist ; and in the ranks, wildly mixed up with 
the soldiers, are their brothers and mothers, arm 
in arm. See that brown-faced young burgher, 
bronzed by the campaign, holding his needle- 
gun in one hand, while his other is round 
the neck of his -fair — well, let us say cousin. 
Where has he come from, the honest-looking 
hero ? What ensanguined plain are those laurels 
gathered in, and where are the one-armed or the 
limping wounded, and the dented shields of the 
dead ? What, in fact, have these troops done to 
be feted and cheered and beflowered in this way ? 
They had no fighting — but they were ready. 
Let us be glad they had not to fight ; and I dare- 
I say not one of them is sorry. It seems that 
I Hamburg and Frankfort each had forty-eight 
hours given by Prussia to choose their side. 

(Frankfort chose the wrong side, and it has been 
swallowed alive by the greedy Bismarck ; whereas 



mechanics' institution. 

Hamburg chose the Prussian side, and it is remitted 
for the preseut, to fatten on for some other occa- 

The little canoe went up the creeks, and 
met boats full of mechanics going to dinner 
from their work. They sit in two rows on the 

sides of a great heavy barge, and each man has a 
short paddle, so that perhaps twenty are paddling, 
while another double row sits between them, 
inactive, the appearance of the whole being exactly 
like those great Indian canoes of the Pacific which 
are pictured in every book of missions or foreign 
traveL These men were immensely amused when 


the Kob Eoy paddled up alongside, and claimed a 
sort of brotherhood closer than that of a boat with 
oars, in which you look one way and row the other. 
I had intended to go to Berlin to see the entry 
— ^a really triumphant one — of the soldiers who 
won the brilliant victories of July and August ; 
but, on thinking over the project, after all, it 
would only be a pageant, and we had come for 
a paddle, therefore I turned again to the Elbe, 
and started down this wide river for a three 
days' cruise. One bank is prettily wooded, and 
has a succession of neat houses, pleasure-boats, 
and gardens — the Eiehmond and Putney of the 
wealthy merchants here. After that both banks 
are more alike, though the north side is usually 
higher ; and the islands of mud, rushes, and weeds, 
with winding, unctuous channels and high green 
embankments, spread out the river over miles of 
surface, while the south wind now raises a heavy 
sea on its grey-coloured surface. The canoe was 
soon careering on the powerful tide over the 
joyous waves, and carried by the stream with a 
whizzing noise through islets of stiff rushes, or 
cutting across mud-banks, where no other boats 
could go. The wind was high, and waves toppled 
often over my sides — not at all dangerous, but 
still somewhat troublesome, because each separate 
wave has to be dealt with, and though, after 



months of experience there is an instinct created 
in the body which enables yon to paddle on with- 
out looking at the water; yet in broken water 
there is a disadvantage when a long distance has 
to be accomplished, for it is evident that your boat 
travels further in going from one point to another, 
up and down and round so many little liquid hills, 
than on a smooth, level lake. 

It was charming to toss about while the great 
ships passed, and the fleet of fisher-boats bowing to 
the breeze. Each of them, had a look at me com- 
ing closer, and a nod and a smile and a cheer 
came from many. My dinner (providently brought 
from the hotel) was taken under an island, where I 
found a poor woman gathering mussels ; and when 
I gave the empty wine-bottle into her withered 
hand she blessed me ever so long. Soon the 
wind freshened, and I laid hold of a boat towing 
after a brig, but my rope slipped, and the brig was 
going too fast to be caught again. Eesolved, how- 
ever, to have a ** tow " (just because I had missed 
getting it — so perverse is free nature), we signalled 
to a Dutch cutter to luflf up, and the Bob Eoy 
was speedily made fast to the square stem of the 
" Neptun." The worthy skipper had his two sons 
on board, and was carefully teaching the boys how. 
to sail the tub they were to inherit ; and he pointed 
out all the beacons and currents as we skurried 


along. It was a very strange mode of travelling 
this, surely, to sit steering a canoe on the wide, 
grey, cold river, while it was pulled at a rapid 
pace in the two wake waves astern of this great 
smeick, with the windows of its stem staring at 
me, and the captain's wife sitting aloft, her profile 
very Dutch from my point of view. 

The wind freshened rapidly, and it was no easy 
matter to keep the Kob Boy straight when the sea 
got high. The Dutch boys grinned at me through 
the little ports ; and other vessels as they passed 
were all duly informed by my good skipper of the 
odd fish he had caught. 

Excellent man, he was truly proud of his post, 
and his whole soul wrapt in one desire, that his 
clumsy barge might beat one still more clumsy, 
now sailing neck and neck with him, about a mile 
to the north. I quite entered into his feeling 
about this race, and admired his courtesy in stop- 
ping at my request, when so much glory might be 
hazarded by the time lost in the act, and he 
had the additional labour of towing me along. 

But when the generous captain had fairly beaten 
the other Mynheer von Dunk, and when he had 
received an approving smile from me, with a nod 
over my shoulder at the beaten rival, the wind had 
really become so fresh that my being dragged along 
was far more dangerous than dignified ; in fact the 


whole arrangement gave incessant work in steering, 
for one yard of a swerve would have instantly en- 
gulfed me ; and it would he a wretched end for the 
Bob Roy to founder behind a Dutchman, while the 
dripping captain would wail on the waves. So we 
determined at the next lull between the squalls to 
cast oflf and be free ; and I sung out to the skipper 
to receive a bottle I pitched to him of the finest 
essence of coffee from Fortnum and Mason's, 
which would make him at least twenty cups. 
My directions about the proper use of this being 
given out in very bad Dutch, and in a roar- 
ing breeze, were, no doubt, so intelligible that the 
man probably drank off the whole bottle at a 
draught — and who can tell with what result ? 

At all events, now we are free. In a waste of 
waves, the river as broad as the Thames at Sheer- 
ness, and evening coming on, and thirty miles 
accomplished, and low, flat banks far off, almost 
unseen — ^what grand and wild and unshackled 
feelings came into Rob Roy's mind. But after 
an hour or two there arose the unmistakable 
and indescribable sensation that the tide was 
changing, and the low mudbanks might soon 
prevent me from getting in anywhere ; so we deter- 
mined to run for the nearest estuary, and chance 
it, as so many times we had done before. 

At the head of the inlet we saw a few housetops 

BUDE. 231 

over the lofty embankment, and masts of some 
sloops ; and on landing there was a coast-guards- 
man, who insisted on knowing what we had on 

The fellow was gruff, and actually unbuttoned 
my bag of clothes ; and I told him indignantly that 
this mode of examination was illegal (they are 
bound to let the owner open the luggage), and then 
he wished to peer into my sponge-bag, containing 
my meagre toilette, one small brush, two inches 
broken off a comb, a tooth-brush, and a Testament. 
He was determined, and so was I ; and I resisted 
forcibly, and told him I would shove off and go 
adrift into the night, if he insisted on making a 
fool of himself. Poor wretch ! he probably had 
caught a stranger for the first tin^e in bis long and 
dull service, so his eagerness was excusable ; and 
next day we made it up, and were good friends 
when I had sketched his portrait, so as to be 
highly complimentary, and, therefore, only rather 
ugly. We mounted the bank, and the bystanders 
seemed awed by the traveller's air — ^partly of cool 
dignity — ^partly of general madness ; so they made 
no resistance, but carried the boat into a room full 
of apples, then fetched twelve chairs in, and a bed 
was made on them — ^the only one for some weeks 
that was really long enough to stretch in, and 
where there was no fear of narrow sheets, for, of 

232 "MOUT." 

course, I slept in my clothes. People soon came 
in from the houses, far and near, and the room was 
fall of the population of Billenberg ; and my tra- 
veller's tale was told, and the jpictures shown, and 
the magnesium light — ^all the old, old scene, so 
very interesting to see, though dull, perhaps, to 
read of; for there were new features in it every 
time. Here, for instance, came a fine boy of 
twelve, back from school. His delight at being 
shown the canoe was truly amusing. He had a 
"boating mind," and revelled in the new sight. 
His proud mother produced an English reading- 
book from his knapsack (even the girls wear knap- 
sacks for their school-books), and I gave him an 
hour's lesson in English gratis, amid profound 
silence from the group of sailors, farmers' servants, 
and hinds. When he read the word " mouth " as 
** mout," and I had fairly hammered the diflScult 
•** th " into his quick young brain, he jumped up 
and cried in Piatt dialect to his mother, " I knew 
it was so ; I was sure my teacher of English at 
school doesn't know how to speak it right. Here 
this Herr says * mouth,' and my teacher tells me 
to say *mout."' 

The whole affair reminded me of a time when I 
was sailing by myself, years ago, on the embouchure 
of the Thames, and my little boat was caught on a 
sandbank, where I had to pass six hours alone in my 


ship — ^not eleven feet long — on a hot day, waiting 
for the tide, and with only a book of logarithms 
to amuse myself with (it was for carrying my chart 
in); and thus being delayed had to put in for the 
night at a solitary house, where there was no one 
but the captain of a coal-brig. Still, by keeping 
him upon the subject of coal and colliers, we had 
a very interesting chat — ^a tune on one string, 
indeed, but perfectly played. 

Off to my chair-bed, and now the apples had 
been decently collected into one corner, so I was 
able to pick out the most juicy ones ; and, as no 
pretence of water-basin or such luxuries had been 
placed in the room, and I was thirsty, it would 
not be fair to inquire how many, or how many 
dozen, apples I munched while my log was noted 
up, and a few sketches added to a very curious 
collection, filling two volumes already in this 

Good health and hard exercise make days and 
nights like this quite enjoyable. To me they 
are infinitely more so than the tedious round of 
Swiss hotels, with only the place changed, but not 
the people. 

Next morning I launched again, and with vigour 
and a good cup of coffee on board, we paddled on 
to Gluckstadt, a large village in Holstein, one of 
the quaintest and most old-fashioned you can see. 


Boyal progress to the hotel — we need not tell 
this again. Then for a long walk on the great 
sea-wall, to gaze on this splendidly rich country, 
full of good comfortable houses, teeming gardens, 
deek oxen, winding canals, and fine old trees. 
Little wonder that such a prize has been fought 
for with sword and pen for now four hundred years. 
Five hundred Prussians were coming here next 

We walked on to the mouth of the Biver Stoer, 
which (according to Chauchard's map) rises within 
a mile or two of the east side of Holstein, quite 
close to Kiel, and curiously enough runs the whole 
whole way across the country, some sixty nules, 
before it can satisfy its whim as to finding a proper 

The people and the place seemed to be so inter- 
esting that I resolved to make a canoe voyage into 
this strange country ; but this was by no m.eans 
so easy a matter as might be supposed, for the 
navigation is intricate, and the language unutter- 
able ; but then the Bob Boy is not to be stopped 
by difficulties ; and when it was given out in the 
town that "the Englishman " was to sail up the 
Bhyn Biver, and get on the net of canals which go 
forty miles iuto this flat land, every one was astir; 

* A lake marked near tliis in old maps seems to be no 
longer existing. 


and, moreover, the Hamburg papers had told 
them what the canoe was, and where she had 
been to. 

The crowd to see the start was exceedingly 

strange to behold, for now-a-day§ I have such Bang 

froid on these occasions that all my attention can 

be given to looking and listening — the perfection 

of mind for really enjoying a tour. 

We still had some illustrated periodicals left in 
the sea-chest of our purser. These were given 
carefuUy to such of our visitors as could read 
German or Danish; and in all cases they were 
received with much gratitude. A gentleman at 
the hotel said the host had gone to Hamburg 
to attend a Freemasons' meeting ; and he asserted 
that Freemasons did not believe in the Ascension 
of our Lord. This led to a very useful conversa- 
tion about the central fact of the world's history — 
the cardinal point of revelation, which is, of course, 
the Eesurrection of Jesus Christ. I had read 
with deep interest Mr. Westcott's book — "The 
Gospel of the Eesurrection;" and here in this 
far-off village was an excellent opportunity for 
using some of the deep and truthful thoughts in 
that book, which were received and discussed with 
much mind and heart by my friend, a clever 

The river led through a perfect series of markets 


gardens, full of the most magnificent fruits and 
vegetables, and with every foot of ground tilled 
to the water's edge, and pear-trees drooping over 
the canoe; capital sweet pears they were. Then 
we came, after some miles, to a village, where 
the school-children rushed out en masse upon 
the rustic bridge, screaming joyously, and every 
house was emptied. Next came the fishers' boats, 
and then the vegetable-boats, with women row- 
ing them, and then the Rob Eoy emerged from 
trees and gardens among the verdant pastures, 
with tall reeds and pink clover brushing my 
blue paddle-blades, and wondering cows starii^g, 
but not convinced. The evening sun reddened 
this glorious landscape, and the ripple of the long 
deep pools flapped against the oaken sides of my 
little boat, which seemed to smile at small waves 
like these, after the rough tossing of yesterday. 
You see what endless and pleasant variety there is 
in a tour of this sort. 

In a lonely place we came to an enclosure with 
seven great bulls in it. On seeing the boat they 
ran to me, snorted, bellowed, danced about. I 
splashed their faces, and rushed at them through 
the reeds, till the beasts were furious, and charged 
into the water ; but I could always keep my boat 
a foot or so from their horns, and splash their great 
broad brows. Then they retreated and ran over 


the field, with tails in the air, and ploughing up 
the soft ground with their horns ; and at last they 
fell to boidng each other with their heads. 

In one Tillage I noticed a man among the crowd 
who at once ran away, evidently to bring some 
one to see ; and he presently returned, carrying 
upon his back no less a person than his grand- 

mother. Her position was by no means a com- 
fortable one, for he held her by her two wrists 
over his shoulders ; and his fine young face was 
ruddy with delight that he had brought her in 
time to see. With due respect to hoary heads, I 
approached the lady and made a deep salaam; and 


she stared at me over her grandson's shoulder, 
evidently not at all satisfied about the arrange- 
ment of things in general. 

The country has several great dykes, with roads 
on their tops, just as in Holland ; and the size, 
neatness, and solidity of the houses very much 
astonished and pleased me. 

The Bob Eoy meandered for hours up one canal 
after another into the most out-of-the-way places, 
where never foreigner was seen. Sometimes I 
went into tunnels — ^but of course without any 
notion of where they might lead to ; and so there 
suddenly appeared in some lonely but busy farm- 
yard an Englishman in a canoe, grey as to his 
dress, and beaming with smiles. 

In another part of the river we overtook a great 
fat market-woman rowing a heavy boat up a very 
narrow channel, and with a heap of empty baskets 
on it, which served the good dame well for a sail. 
Instantly I made chase ; but the lady did not yield 
to let the canoe pass, so we had a chat, rowing 
alongside, until we became capital friends, though 
not one word that was said had the very least 
meaning to the person addressed. I was reminded 
on this occasion of the strictures in a review of 
my book of last year's voyage. All the notices of 
the press were kind to the book as a new tale of 
new journeying; but one paper gave a sharp 


retuke to the man who dared to travel where the 
language was one he did not know. Only think 
what a linguist this critic must become before 
he attempts a voyage such as we have described I 
First he must learn Norwegian, then Swedish, 
then back to Danish, then Sleswig patois, next 
German, then Piatt (on the Elbe), and then at 
least four dialects of Holstein. While he tarries 
at home ten years, till he can talk all these like 
a dragoman, the Kob Eoy will have merrily 
paddled over Europe, with its own tongue and 
temper ; for be assured that in tours like this we 
want "gumption" more than German, and forti- 
tude more than French. 



The Wizard — Haid Times — Buffeting — Son of a Sponge- 
Attack by Natives — White Lies — Pyramid Wave — 
Dry — His Mother. 

Sketches axe a language universal ; so these, at 
least, were always available for my evening's enter- 
tainment of the wondering people I had,to sit with 
sometimes, and yet could not speak to. The 
gravest seniors relaxed into smiles at a lively pic- 
ture, and, as for the boys and girls, their delight 
was boundless. Oh, the fresh, merry ring of a 
young throat laughing. Heavily-aflBicted adult 
he is, and tame and dry and withered his heart's 
sympathy, who does not enjoy it 

On several occasions much additional amuse- 
ment was given to the natives by a man on board 
the Rob Eoy, who showed some conjuring tricks — 
all of a simple kind as regards apparatus^ but 
difficult to perform, until you know how. 


Lifting a man seated on a chair with one hand ; 
passing a loaf through a straw hat without touch- 
ing it; raising a stick with the open palm of 
the hand flat above it; creeping into a wine 
bottle, or threading a string through a pair of 
scissors ; all these were novelties, and were fully 

Another favourite puzzle was sometimes left to 
a whole community to solve; or the passengers 
on a steamer's deck were set to unravel it ; and 
perhaps the problem may here be proposed also, 
with the assistance of the sketch on page 81, 
figure 2. There is no " catch " or deception in it, 
but all is fair and honour bright ; and when you 
have found it out you can do it at once, and will 
never forget the way, and always be proud of this 

Take a strong needle, and place it in a pocket- 
handkerchief, so that P is the point, E the eye, 
and the parts P A and B E are on one side of the 
handkerchief, while the part A B (the dotted line) 
is on the other side. Then put a thread through 
the eye E, and under A P, and knot it at K, so 
forming a loop, which must not, however, be long 
enough to be slipped over the point P, even when 
drawn tightly. 

You are now required to extricate the needle 
and thread from the handkerchief without breaking 



the needle or the thread or the knot, or pricking 
your fingers or losing your temper. 

All these jokes and riddles are well enough on 
shore or in fair weather, but now we have a 
practical puzzle of a far different kind. 

A thick drizzling rain, wind whistling, and 
muddy waves tossing on the Elbe were before me ; 
and we must paddle through them from Gluckstadt, 
or we could not catch the steamer to Heligoland, 
and save our plans from being quite disjointed. 

Two or three times I was inclined to give up 
the project. The steamer would come, they said, 
along the other side of the river some time between 
ten and eleven o'clock ; and I must start from this 
side, some miles distant, before nine o'clock, so as 
to pull over the bank in the middle, where an 
angry sea was rolling, with the tide one way, and 
the wind opposing it. But once having resolved 
to go, we called for the last time at the telegraph- 
office, to see if any answer had come to the tele- 
gram of the preceding day, which had asked the 
captain if he would stop his steamer in the sea for 
the canoe — for unless he would stop, aU the labour 
and the two hours' wetting would be in vain. No 
answer had come (though prepaid) ; and the boat- 
men all said this steamer would not stop for 
passengers in such weather. I then engaged a 
pilot-boat, which would sail further up the river, 

BUPFETnro. 243 

and hail the steamer some way above me, to point 
out the Eob Eoy in the waves; and while the 
crowd wondered at it all, I pushed -out from the 
little harbour into the great, white, rolling Elbe. 

Buffeting and boxing the waves, the Eob Roy 
behaved nobly; and the pilots scudding alongside 
with two reefs in their sail, could not cease their 
wonder at the little thing's steadiness. " Didn't 
I take that big breaker well?" "First-rate," 
they shouted ; and then came the rollers on the 
bank, the white-crested hillocks that puzzle one so 
much, because, when rain is driving into your face, 
and a great splash of foam comes slap in your 
eyes, just at that very instant you ought to be 
most distinct in your policy, and keenly alive to 
every wave. An hour of hard work, in which my 
right arm had to bear the brunt of it, and slightly 
" gave," or felt strained, and then we glided into 
quiet water, where we could wait until the smoke 
of the approaching steamer might appear on the 
leaden-coloured horizon ; but then I must prepare 
for another dash into the broken waves. 

So we ran the canoe into a mass of tall reeds, to 
see if she had got any water. There were only 
three " spongefuls." Then the sponge became A 
subject of interest; it was my fourth sponge, 
and the smallest, for three had been stolen. 
Ostlers at inns cannot resist a sponge, just as men 



at a club are lax in their morality about umbrellas. 
And while we pondered on the metaphysics of 
kleptomania and sponges, and the pleasant theory 
that a sponge, instead of an oyster, might have 
been my great-great-great-grandfather, by the 
Darwin line, twenty-four times removed, the swell 
rose and fell sleepily among the tall reeds, which 
only rustled ; else there was blank silence. Very 
soon I heard a sharp conversation between the 
pilots and a number of men on the bank, who 
could not now see me among the reeds, but who 
had crowded down to the spot. Suddenly the 
pilot called out, " Come away, sir ! Come away, 
sir, instantly I The men are going to catch 
you !" These natives had watched us riding over 
the waves, and could not make out what all this 
meant ; but the pilots had told them I was a 
wild Chinaman escaped from a ship, and that they 
were in chase of me. Away went the duped 
natives, and presently brought clubs, sticks, and a 
great hatchet. They were a clumsy and ignorant 
set ; but I thought it was all meant for fun, so up 
rose the captain of the Eob Roy, his head only 
over the reed tops, and his face grimacing, and 
paddle whirled aloft, just as an escaped Chinaman 
would doubtless do, with wild shrieks as an accom-- 
paniment. The natives became frantic ; but there 
was only mud there — no stones to be had. Then 



the pilots, to humour the joke, sailed after me, and 
splashed with their oars and lowered their sail and 
shouted aloud ; while the canoe darted here and 

there on the water, wildly, but always eluded 
their grasp, and sought refuge again in the reeds. 
How different must have been the two stories of 
the same facts related that night on one side and 


the other of the Elhe, by the pilots and the 
anned natiyes of the reedy island — like the chat 
at a Cabinet council after a debate on the estimates, 
compared with the talk of the deluded minority 
discussing their defeat. Say, clever casuist, when 
may we deceive our neighbour ? In jest, perhaps 
—but then these natives, at least, were in solid 
earnest ; for they vigorously persevered for half- 
an-hour, even in the rain. " We must not deceive 
when it is for our own interest T but the exercise 
was of great benefit to me, for I might else have 
been chilled. 

As the smoke of the steamer gradually neared 
us, I fouad it was a fine, large, three-masted vessel, 
once the Britannia, which used to sail to 
America, but now called the Heligoland ; and 
when it was seen that she had her sails set, I felt 
sure she would not stop to take up a passenger, 
and spend time and trouble about his boat. But 
the pilots hailed, and the captain had read of the - 
canoe, and the Rob Eoy I placed right before his 
nose, and so all the passengers ran forward to see 
the little skiff, as it rose now and then from the 
trough of a wave. 

It was a time of suspense, when the great black 
hull came looming on, and the foam at its bows 
and paddles showed its speed. All at once, the 
paddles, so white with foam, became red; they had 


Stopped. How I did shout " Hurrah !" " Thanks, 
captain, thanks." 

Then before me, in this hotch-potch jumble of 
waves and mist and rain, there rose up two great 
pointed crests, where the steamer's swell crossed 
the waves of the Elbe, and these must both be 

A long wave you can calculate upon, and you 
soon come to know how to lean over in passing it, 
however obliquely. But when a wave is of the 
pyramid shape, and you must cross its very point, 
with a current bearing you sideways, it is utterly 
impossible to predict whether you will be on the 
steep slope of the right or left, and whether you 
will not be on the one side going up, and the other 
in the descent. The difficulty of dealing in- 
stantaneously with such a doubtful matter must 
be obvious. 

Mrs. or Miss Eeader, were you ever poised on 
the cold shining edge-point of a three- sided wave ? 
If so, you need no more explanation. 

As the little canoe came rapidly to the first of 
these waves, it was so much higher and sharper 
than usual that I felt — " Here is the Kob Eoy's 
grave. If in the upset now certain I let go my 
boat and hold by my paddle (the proper course in 
other cases) the steamer people will save only me 
and let the canoe drift away, for why should they 

248 DRY. 

stop for her? Therefore I must loosen my hold 
on the paddle and cling to the boat, however diffi- 
cult, for then they will rescue us both. But 
how?"-— and, looking up (this the last thought 
vivid on my brain), " by that boat hanging on 
the davits, I see it is ready." All this was as a 
flash of instant thought, and then a thud of angry 
muddy water struck my cheek and knocked off 
my straw hat (luckily secured by a cord), and then 
down, down, down we swooped, and again a blow, a 
twist, and a squeeze, .and both waves were past, and 
I could hear the end of the word "bravo-o-o!" 
as the mate shouted loud from the steamer above. 

Right swiftly leaped I by the side of the vessel, 
and a last spiteful wave followed me running up 
the steps, and embraced me with one cold grasp 
about the loins — a drench to say "good-bye." 
The Eob Roy is safe aboard, and I dive into the 
steamer's cabin, stiU trembling with a certain thrill 
of excitement, of hard work done — a feat accom- 
plished — ^three days saved — dry clothes putting 
on, and all the time repeating over and over, **I 
never will again board a steamer in a gale." 

Presently my cabin-door opened, and a raw, 
vulgar lad looked in, holding his hand to shake 
mine, and claiming acquaintance as a Scotchman, 
though his dialect was so excessively broad that 
we took him for a German. This boy of nineteen 


has come straight from the island of Lewis, in the 
Hebrides, to Heligoland, to take charge of the 
fishery. "Where do you come from?" said I. 
" I'm frae Logiemurchie." " And what places have 
you ever seen?'* *' Weel, I hae been at Stomo-' 
way, an' Aberdeen, an' Dundee, and — and Aber- 
deen." " And for whom are you going to work ? " 
"For Mr. BeU. D'ye ken Mr. Bell?— No ken 
Mister Bell of London? Hoot, I thought ye'd 
ken him. He's a maun wi' white hair." 

There was an opportunity of having a very use- 
ful and uncommonly plain-said conversation with 
this young fellow, sent so far and so soon as a 
green Caledonian among the rough and dissipated 
people of the North Sea harbom*s. He took it 
well what was spoken. 

1£ a man has a mother, and he is away from 
her, and a stranger speaks of her, it must be a 
right down hard heart that does not take it well 
and softly. 



Heligoland — ^The Incongruous — Can't get out — L&w in a 
Nutshell — Red Tape — Island of Dune — ^jEnvy — ^Bonnd 
the Island — Sharks— Memo — On the Weser — Hanover — 
Tourist's Glances. 

Here before us is the little ruddy island of 
Heligoland, with just enough soil to plant the 
brave old English flag upon, a miniature colony of 
the all-wide British Empire ; and a very curious, 
interesting place, by no means easy to describe ; 
but we may try. Take one of those flat richly-red 
tiles, which has bright green moss on its level 
surface, and chop off an odd three-cornered piece an 
inch broad and two inches long, and put it on a 
blue slate, which will be the sea ; the bit of tile 
itself answers to the grassy level top and sharp 
vertical sides of red rock, and along the shorter 
side and at its foot you have a cluster of houses, 
white, blue, grey, of every colour and shape, 
huddled picturesquely close together. 

We land from huge boats, being carried on men's 


Jbocks through the last rolling wave ; and suddenly 
we are on English soil, but with scarce one English 
sight or sound beside us. The swarthy sailors are 
gabbling a perfectly new language without a 
grammar, not written, but still their own. Their 
fathers had the same when they victualled fleets in 
the days of Van Tromp, and harried many a hapless 
crew in wintry nights lost in the wide, wide sea. 
All these people together are but 2,300 souls ; then 
other thousands, nearly all Germans, come here 
to bathe, crowding every morning to cross to Dune 
Island, with its pearly strand and emerald waves. 
Then they will take a puff and a cafe in the 
pavilion, and a walk on the plank promenade, and 
a climb up the one stair that leads with two hun- 
dred steps to the Upper Town, where, from the 
neat, clean balcony of a logis perched on the rock, 
you can look over far-off water, and see the broad 
golden band unrolled upon it from the full moon 
as it rises slowly. 

British soil; but where is the Briton? Why, 
there is scarcely one Englishman in the place 
except the Governor; and His Excellency is a 
right good one to make up for this scarcity. 
He was very kind to me, being at once a canoe 
man and a Guardsman; and as the Eob Bov 
voyage of last year was on his table, he needed no 
introduction from the paddling visitor. 


During the three days we spent here the sensa- 
tion of ** incongruity " was most powerful. A 
charming island quite neglected. An English 
land full only of foreigners. A rock with wooden 
houses. A poor town with rich visitors. A 
splendid beach without a pier. The airiest of nests 
with drains so foul. Crowds of thinking Germans, 
but only one book-shop. Planks for pavement 
where no tree grows. One church, one school, a 
good brass band, and a beautiful glee chorus. 
What a neat, little, pretty, open, confined, old- 
fashioned, interesting, neglected place to be sure ! 
A huge fortune might readily be made by invest- 
ing capital here. This little ruby in the green 
sea could be set off with gold as a gem. 

Heligoland, not so large as Hyde Park, is about 
fifty miles from the mouth of the Elbe, and sixty 
from Bremerhaven on the Weser. Some assert^ 
others deny, that the rocks are rapidly corroding, 
or, at any rate, disappearing. Certainly the slips 
or falls of rocks in many places seem very- 
recent; and the water is coloured ruddy for a 
long distance round the island. Also, on a map 
of Chauchard's, published . in 1800, we may 
observe that the contour of the island "called 
Heylegeland " is given (see page 143, fig. 6), and 
this is very different from our drawing on page 259, 
which shows its present shape. Moreover, this 

can't get out. 253 

map of sixty years ago does not indicate the sandy 
island of Dyne, or Dune (pronounced nearly 
Deeny), which is due east of the other. 

The water in Heligoland is derived from large 
tanks, which collect the rain from the roofs of the 
houses^ The name, signifying Holy Island, is 
said to be derived from the fact that the Saxon 
goddess Phoseta was worshipped there. 

The inhabitants seem very fond of the little 
place ; but I confess that there were two feelings 
always present in my mind during my brief visit 
— ^the sensation of " Falling over the edge," and of 
^ Can't get out," — ^boih of which one recognises as 
the well-known staples of nightmare horrors. 

Should you mean to stop here for the winter, 
make up your mind to get letters by a sailing- 
boat a few times in the month, and salt meat and 
salt fish — ^that which is dried before your eyes, 
flapping about on strings in the rope-walk Eegent 
Street, and in all the other streets ; or you may 
rise early in the morning, and put up your net to 
catch one of the woodcocks that fly over the town. 
Many curious birds, not seen anywhere else so 
easily, stop to rest at Heligoland, which is thus 
an excellent station for the ornithologist. 

The new Constitution, dating from 1864, has 
some features worth noticing, as the form of 
Colonial government most lately sanctioned by 


Britain, and for a possession so compact and so 
minute. These may be gathered from the ordin- 
ances enacted in the island, and approved by 
Parliament at home. The Government is con- 
ducted by a Governor, who is also Commander-in- 
Chief (of any future army and navy), and by a 
'* Legislative Council " of twelve appointed by the 
Crown, and of twelve elected by the colonists 
(with a small property-qualification for franchise), 
who together form the "Combined CourV and 
from whom the Governor selects five as an 
" Executive Council." The Crown may disallow 
laws enacted by the Combined Court, and enact 
others, which, if involving taxation, must be rati- 
fied by the Court The Governor appoints judges, 
ofiScers, and ministers, and may remit fines and 
extend pardons. He may also suspend any mem- 
ber of the Legislative CounciL There are three 
stipendiary magistrates and a Court of Session 
appointed by the Governor as an Appeal Court and 
to try civil cases (with a jury if it is demanded). 
Three-fourths of the jury in civil cases, and all of 
them in criminal cases, must agree to a verdict. 

The proceedings at elections are conducted by 
four " Quartermasters " for the " two grand dis- 
tricts '* of the island. These are pilot officers, and 
form " an amicable Court as regards wrecking and 
pilot cases." Strict rules provide for the duties 

BED TAPE, 255 

and rewards of boats saying vessels in distress, 
and prohibit the bargaining for salvage in such 
cases on the hard terms often exacted in old times. 
The clergyman appoints a churchwarden, and 
another is chosen from the Legislative Council. 
These two manage "the poor house" and send 
round "the monthly voluntary poor book," and 
inspect the repairs of the church and the school 
buildings. Every child between the age of six 
and fourteen must go to school, being compelled 
by the police, and may be fined Is. Qd. for a day's 
absence. The school is managed by a " Directing 
Committee," including the clergyman and mem- 
bers of the Combined Court. Parents who are 
impudent to teachers may be fined 15«. " For 
the purpose of heating the school-rooms, each 
child, according to the old-established custom, 
shall bring daily one piece of turf, not cut in 
halves or quarters, but according as it is sold on 
the island." " Should the cold become so exces- 
sive that more firing is required, or that coals 
become necessary, application shall be made by the 
teacher, through the superintending clergyman, to 
the Directing Committee, who will act according 
to their judgment, and report in their accounts to 
the Finance Committee of the Combined Court." 
The routine for fetching a scuttle of coals being 
thus particular, it may well be supposed that the 


regulations for each hour of instruction of the 
four classes in the school are very distinct For 
the older children five hours a week are devoted 
to religious teaching, and two to English ; while 
the other classes have also their time apportioned. 
Taxation ^' shall be arranged according to the per- 
sonal means of each inhabitant of the colony/' by 
the Combined Court. 

There are few duties on imports — about two- 
pence a bottle for spirits, and three-hal^nce for 
wine. The oyster fishery is conducted by the 
Government, as the inhabitants neglected this 
profitable work ; and the regulations for this enter- 
prise occupy the paragraphs of the last Ordinance 
we need allude to, and so ends our legal study to- 

In the cool grey mom we float off early to the 
sandy isle of Dune, with its swelling waves of 
purest green and beach of sparkling white. 
Whole families go in great boats for a long day's 
stay, the mothers and nurses to knit and gossip, 
while the children bathe and dig, or sail their toy 
boats, catch crabs^ roll in the soft sand, squall, 
fight, or dine under the verandah of the caf<§, as 
children ought to do. Heligoland lives by Dune. 
If the sand were to be washed away the houses 
on the red rock opposite would be aU "to let" 

A great hubbub was raised about this patch of 

ENVY. 257 

sand last year, by some one asserting that rabbits 
had been imported here, and that these would 
burrow the heart out of poor Dune, and the waves 
would then sweep away its mangled remains. I 
started in search of these rabbits, being deter- 
mined to eye out at least one of the rapacious 
creatures ; but not one was to be found anywhere. 

In one of the boats full of children I observed a 
toy rocking-horse ; and it seems that no horse or 
beast of burden has ever been on the island ; where, 
also, the milk for your breakfast is that of the little 
sheep tethered on the ch'ffs, and fed by old women 
in red gowns and huge bonnets. 

To move at all in Heligoland you must either 
walk up and down stairs — the stairs by which 
alone the upper surface of the rock can be reached 
— or you must go in a boat. This supposes, of 
course, that you have already promenaded along 
the main street, which is a ^' rope-walk," with a 
man engagingly spinning a yarn beside you, and 
moving backwards with a great bunch of tow round 
his waist. But let us, therefore, embark. 

The boatmen regarded me with jealousy and a 
tinge of contempt. At first they felt sure this 
Kob Eoy cockle-shell was a mere English toy, and 
that it might float in the sun, but would be 
swamped at once by a wavelet in the breeze. 
Very soon they found she was faster than their 


own^ big, clumsy boats ; and when we got out 
in the full-drawn swell, and the canoe bounded 
over the water, and round and round their labour- 
ing boats joyously, their notions were changed, and 
wonder filled them, instead of ridicule. Though 
the sand island of Dune may have few rabbit- 
pies made on it, this bathing-place is one of the 
prettiest little hijotix ever was seen, and we 
enjoyed a half-hour there very much. 

Next day we determined to paddle round the 
main island; and the Governor and his wife, 
*' Excellenza," as I heard her called, came in their 
boat> manned by a fine crew, rigged out in true 
British-sailor uniform, and so we set off in a lovely 
calm. The cliffs were studded with visitors 
perched aloft to see ; and they slowly followed us 
high up while we skimmed over the long and 
gentle swells below. The canoe could, of course, 
run about here as it pleased her, and she dipped 
into Httle bays, or shot through arches in the 
rock, or peeped into darksome caves where the 
water gurgled far in, and then rushed out again, 
afraid^of the blackness. 

This was indeed a holiday trip for the Eob Eoy ; 
moving with a quiet and almost processional pace, 
and new things every moment to be seen. How 
about the fell principle of " nationalities," and 
the Pole-Magyar-Czech-Celt doctrine, that "the 



peoples " ought to govern themselves ? In plainer 
words — is it right for England to rule Heligoland ? 
Is it better, juster,and more humane for us to keep as 
Governor there an Englishman, thoroughly anxious 
to maintain rights, liberty, and order, or to east 
the little isle adrift, like an open boat at sea, 

without a week's provisions, and where sharks and 
Bismarcks do abound? The islanders here are 
not at all Germans ; yet they must know that if 
they were cast off by England, they would be 
snapped up in a month by Prussia, and their 
green grass would be soon cut into glacis, and forts 
would replace the hotels. Let them beware of the 

s 2 


260 MEMO. 

fate of the Ionian Islands, who exchanged happy 
freedom under the broad fiegis of Britannia for a 
dull servitude under the brigand rule of Greece. 

Gambling is allowed in this island, and to hear 
this startled me ; but it was explained that there 
is an " enormous national debt " of 7000?., and 
as England, which receives nothing from the 
island, objected to pay this, and so to stop the rouge 
et noir (a main source of revenue), there was 
nothing for it but to allow the people to gamble on 
for eight weeks every year until 1871, when it is 
believed that the debt will be liquidated. 

Steaming off into the green sea in a steamer 
with " twin-screws," the red cliffs of the island 
became blue in the distance, and then other isles 
appeared. They are part of the chain of banks 
that girds the coast all round the north of Holland 
and the Zuider Zee. One of these is Nordemey — 
a name to be inflected with a sturdy drop on the 
last syllable; and this is another bathing-place, 
quite a fashionable resort, if one may judge from 
the frequent advertisements about it. A new 
submarine telegraph-cable has just been laid from 
this island to Lowestoft ; and a good deal is to be 
seen and learned at this part of the world from 
these out-of-the-way places one has not evenhetird 
the names of yet in England. [Mental resolve 
on board the Bob Boy — " A run about this part 


of the world would be an excellent trip for another 

My fellow-passengers were a judge from Lubeck, 
with his two daughters, all speaking English well, 
and an Austrian nobleman, who had a long talk 
with me in French about education and lodging- 
houses and priests and timber and religion ; and 
now we are arrived at Bremerhaven, where the Bob 
Eoy enters a third-rate inn, with a courteous host 
who would place the canoe in the bowling-green ; 
but as we found the tide was still running up the 
river, my boat was launched, and her well-washed 
sails unfurled on the broad, sedate Weser, and hie 
away ! we are off again for one more cruise as of 
yore. This was a long and delightful trip, but 
with little to see that can be put on paper. In- 
deed, a very great deal of the enjoyment of this 
voyage is of that peculiar kind which though felt 
very strongly sounds weak to tell. 

How seldom it is that in ordinary travelling we 
can say with truth, " I wish this hour to be many 
hours just so — ^this day to be a week as it is now." 
The test of satisfaction is that you are not sated 
when it is done ; and certainly in this most in- 
teresting cruise I have over and over again wished 
the present " now " to be much prolonged. 

The hotel was called the " Hanover," for the dot 
of land it is built on was part of that kingdom ; 


but now, of course, it is " Bismarcked '^ into the 
Fatherland. We felt it to be curious to visit these 
little bits of various territories in one afternoon's 
paddle, especially as in a very few weeks more 
they were all to be incorporated in Prussia ; for no 
one can expect that Bremen, or indeed Hamburg, 
can long keep out of the vortex of Germanism, 
which has sucked in all the minor duchies, and 
even so large a morsel as Hanover, and which is^ 
making only two gulps at Saxony. 

What will be the effect of all these changes on 
the religious state and education of Germany? 
Perhaps while things are thus in transition it may 
be interesting to consider some particulars, which 
I obtain from a pamphlet just published anony- 
mously, but understood to be written by a well- 
known traveller. It is called "The Church of 
Eome under Protestant Governments ;" and 
some of the most important conclusions arrived 
at by the writer, after a personal investigation 
last year in Prussia, we have given in the 

A mere traveller's views about the deeper poli- 
tics, civil and ecclesiasticed, of a foreign people, 
are very likely to be erroneous. Even in our own 
land, the great questions of Keform, of Free 
Church, and of Popery, require the study for 
years of a resident in. England, Scotland, and 

toubist's glances. 263 

Ireland^ while India cannot be comprehended 
without the loss of your liver. 

But one thing does strongly arrest us in looking 
at Prussia — ^how quiet are the religious sections. 

It is, however, the calm of stagnation. There 
is 'little ferment, for the yeast is dead. The 
believers do not believe even enough to tremble. 
Is anybody in downright earnest about religion, or 
is the Apostle's injunction turned upside down, 
as if it were " First peaceable, then pure ?" 

This may be a pleasant, but certainly it is a 
dangerous state. Christ did not come to settle us 
in this way. Better far, with all its turmoil and 
discord, is the restlessness of England awake, and 
the ship of truth tossing in the waves and storms 
from all sides — Irish Papists and rebels, Oxford 
Apists and rituals, the priests and the ribbonmen 
of the church and the chapel. 

The wind is high, but the ship will not sink, 
for there is One who is Highest walking on the 



River Geste— Eoast Beef— Horrid !— Salt Beef. 

But the log of the Bob Boy must float along 
the water, and not become fixed on the platform 
either of polities or religion ; so we are embarked 
again in the canoe for a trip up the Eiver Geste, 
where the usual reception awaited her ; and the 
pleasure of the Hanoverians was all the same as 
if their kingdom had not just been blotted out 
Nine-tenths of the common people, indeed, seem 
to care very little as to who rules them. But we 
may well pity the poor blind King of Hanover, 
who has built the splendid docks at Bremerhaven, 
and now sees them quietly annexed by Prussia, 
and six men-of-war lying there, all with the Berlin 
flag. " Sees " them, I say, for he says he " sees " 
always ; and, with the smallest-minded vanity, he 
insists upon being treated in private as if he were 
not stone-blind. 

At length, as we loll on the waves where the 


Geste falls into the Weser, there sails down 
towards ns the Falke steamer, in which we are 
going to England. 

All the passengers seem to know the Eob Eoy 
well. It has filled paragraphs in their papers until 
they have been pestered by it, and they (and 
perhaps you) have voted it to be a bore. Still, the 
ladies on board the steamer, and the ladies on 
shore who come to see them off, are charmed with 
the canoe, and they cluster around it and pat its 
travelled sides. " How interesting ! To see, indeed, 
the real Eob Eoy canoe ! Who would have thought 
it ?" Ay, who indeed ! 

Hoist her up, good Captain, and you, Mr. Mate, 
give a tender, helping hand. Now she id carefully 
stowed aboard, keel uppermost, and the lowing of 
290 great fat bullocks soon announces what sort of 
fellow-passengers we have to carry. Poor things, 
they are packed together in three tiers, one over 
the other. 

Oh, the roast beef of old England! The sad 
twinges borne by that " undercut " before we eat 
the sirloin in London — ^the Slesvig thumps to 
drive it to a pen on the Weser, the German 
whacks to force it up a gangway on board, the 
haulings and shoves, the wrenchings of horns and 
screwing of tails to pack it in the hold of the 
steamer, the hot thirsty days and cold hungry 


nights of the passage, the filth, the odour, the 
feverish bellowing, and the low dying ^moan at 
each lurch of the sea — ^who can sum up these for 
one bullock's miseries? and there are thousands 
every day. Who dare tell them, or ought to teU 
them, unless these cruelties can be stopped and 
these sufferings put an end to? But they can 
and they will be relieved, for good and wise men 
have taken this subject in hand. 

Our captain, and indeed the crew ^and the 
drovers, did not appear to be heartless in the 
matter. It is the system and plan of shipping 
cattle at all which must be amended. To put 
suffering, dying bullocks in the same steamer 
with passengers is utterly a mistake. The vessel 
cannot be used for both purposes without being 
unfit for either, since the two are quite incom* 

If a poor bullock becomes at all sea«sick, he 
speedily dies. If he is even weaker than his 
imhappy companions, and lies down after two 
days and nights of balancing on sloppy, slippery 
boards, he is trampled under the others' hoofe, and 
squeezed by their huge bodies, and suffocated by 
the pressure and foulness. 

Through the livelong night, while we Christians 
on board are sleeping in our berths, these horrid 
scenes are enacted, and no one to see them. 



Morning comes, and the dead must be taken 
from the living. A great boom is rigged up, and 
as we lean over the rail to look on there is a 

chain let down, and the steam-winch winds and 
winds it tight and straining with some strong 
weight below, far, far down, in the lowest of the 


three tiers of ** filet de boeuf," where no light 
enters, and whence a Stygian reeking comes. 

Slowly there comes up first the black, fix)wning, 
murdered head and horns, and dull blue eyes and 
ghastly grinning face of a poor dead buUock, then 
his pendent legs and his huge long carcasa 

To see the owner's mark on his back they scrape 
away the slush and grime, then he is swung over 
the sea, and a stroke of the axe cuts the rope 
round his horns.' Down with a splash &lls the 
yast heavy carcase ; and 201. worth of meat floats 
on a wave or two, then it is engulfed. Another 
and another, and twenty-two are thus hauled up 
and cast into the sea, and this, too, on the first 
day of a very calm passage. What must it be in 
a storm ? Oh, the roast beef of old England ! 



The Cornwall — Running over a Steamer — ^Gushing — Queen 
Elizabeth — The Last Peril — Driven Mad — Road;, to 
Death — Touching Sight, 

The passage home was "as remarkable for calm 
as my voyage from England had been for rolling 
sea and breezy wind ; and now, after two nights 
at sea, we sight the shores of Essex, and fleets of 
full-sailed ships converging show us the mouth of 
the mighty, wealth-bearing Thames. Here are five 
young sailor-lads on our deck who are coming 
back to their homes after a three years' cruise. 
They soon get fond of the crew of the Bob Eoy ; 
and it is a good time to say words of warning, of 
kindness, of encouragement, of home, of mothers, 
of Bibles, of life and of death, of heaven and of 
Christ. It is our last opportunity during this 
summer journey, and it is not thrown away. 

Thames Haven is about ten miles below 
Gravesend, and when the steamer stops here the 


Eob Eoy, impatient as to waiting until all the 
live oxen are put ashore, sKdes over into the water 
and up with the iiag. Hurrah ! we are paddling 
again. Never was there a finer day for a canoe 
than the 29th of September ; and, on the rising 
tide, among a whole crowd of ships, the little 
oaken argonaut cheerily flits by. A Swedish 
barque passes, and I take hold of her for a chat. 
Nay, she belongs to Mr. Dickson, of Sweden, 
and has come straight from Stockholm, so the 
canoe is at once recognized on board as an old 
friend. Paddling along then to Purfleet, where I 
had been well pleased last year (resting my first 
Sunday in the old Eob Eoy), I came ashore, and 
the people ran out to meet me from the hotel ; and 
the boys in the Eeformatory school-ship Cornwall 
" manned " the bulwarks, and all gave a ringing 
cheer, for the captain of the canoe had paid them 
also a visit twelve months ago. 

A good lunch was on board the Eob Eoy in a 
few minutes, and she sped on and on, till, at a 
distance, I saw the funnel and masts of a great 
steamer, the Foyle,* which had been sunk by a 
collision in the river, and we made straight for 
her midships ; and though the men in boats around 

* This steamer was still there when I passed the place in 
June, 1867, sailing off to France in my new yacht, the Yawl 
Eob Roy. 



shouted to warn, and ordered to go back, the Kob 
Roy actually paddled right over her deck, with a 
powerful stream rushing and hissing through the 
rigging, and many tangled ropes all hanging 
about, exulting at last that she had certainly run 
over a steamer, though no steamer ever had run 
over her. 

For a thousand miles and more she has carried 
me safely ; and three hundred of this when sailing. 
Twenty-five steamers have borne us both for an- 
other good thousand miles on lake and sea and 
river, and for five hundred miles we have gone by 
rail. Yet here is the boat as stanch and straight, 


and almost as neat and polished as in hot Jnly ; 
and the crew, though bronzed and bearded, are 
all perfectly well. Only two months, and only 
45/. have been expended on this most delightful 
trip ; and yet how many new incidents, thoughts, 
words, and deeds, have been graven in memory 
during that little time. I wonder myself at the 
complete success of the voyage ; and I most thank- 
fully acknowledged the continued blessings and 
goodness from on High that have followed it all 

The log of my first canoe cruise may have ap- 
peared rather too enthusiastic in its expression of 
the delights of the paddle, but this would be excused 
because it was a first trip, and in a new way. 

But matter-of-fact people will perhaps resent 
a second sentimental log, and expect that in a 
second voyage, just as on a second wedding-day, 
the " gushing" time is done. 

Not so ; for this northern cruise was even more 
enjoyable than the other, since I was more at ease 
in it, and had more confidence and comfort, and a 
better boat and more wind and more resources 
and more novelty of people and of scene. 

Perhaps, also, more danger ; and now about this 
danger of canoeing let us say a word. 

In the first place, in the canoe you endanger 
only yourself; no boatmen, no sailor-boy, no 


mountain-guides or porters, no climbing comrade, 
no Arab slave, no horse or mule, or ass even, 
except yourself. The lonely canoeist has the 
minimum of responsibility, while he has the 
maximum of capacity for enjoyment. To have 
another life in charge is a serious drawback on 

In olden days, when the Lord Chancellor rode 
in state, and the Queen was behind him on a 
pillion, it must have doubled his anxiety and 
halved his enjoyment — even of a steady amble 
through the City — to think that if his palfrey shied 
Elizabeth might break her neck. To steer a sail- 
ing-boat when a lady is in it is a misery to me, 
not a pleasure. As for the captain of a Cunarder 
with three hundred souls on board, I wonder ever 
that he can laugh and talk and sleep with so many 
lives in keeping. 

Some people think, however, that to risk even 
one's own life in a canoe is wrong; but surely 
this depends on fiow much risk. 

Every manly exercise has risk, with gun or 
rifle, horse or cricket-ball, running, climbing, 
skating, rowing, driving, boxing, fencing, wrestling, 
nay, even in fishing, and in the very walk of a 
" constitutional," you have risk of life and limb. 

Nor is it only abroad and in desert places that 
exercise has most risk, though it may have most 



lomance, and may sounds when told, as most full 
of danger. In the home life of England, and in 
common days and places, we meet risk that must 
be encountered, but must not be narrated, just 
because it is common. 

And yet we must now do this very thing, being 
forced to tell truly the last dangerous venture of 
our cruise, though it happened in England ; for 
it is the law of all logs that no page may be 
omitted from their history. 

Before reaching home to place the little Eob Koy 
on the writing-table where she now reclines, with 
sails all set and flag triumphant, but at rest, I had 
to cross one more stream, not broad but strong,^ 
and it was now most strong and dangerous. 

Though its course was long, there was only one 
bridge over it, and this was old and steep, and, in 
fact, inaccessible, serving only to contract the 
channel, and to confuse its current in eddies and 
back-lashes round the piers of the arch. Here 
another powerful stream entered the first, and 
numerous smaller rivulets poured in on various 
sides ; one of them running in an ancient course 
hard by an old palace of King Hal. It was dark 
when we came to the verge of the current. It was 
raining too, and the channel was swollen — how 
deep I could not say, but much deeper than usual. 
First we examined the conformation of the banks. 


and this was very curious. On each side was a 
narrow stratum of smooth stone, and above this 
rose, high on the right and left, steep, beetling 
cliffs of indurated clay, red and yellow and black, 
with vitrifactions at intervals, and here and there 
some wood. 

The current flowed apace, and heaved up with 
violent surges, bearing along great logs of timber, 
piles of wicker work, carts and furniture, probably 
from distant villages, even small haystacks, and 
horses and dogs and other live animals. Some- 
times, in such floods a whole herd of bullocks 
have been hurried past, noisily lowing in the dark, 
gusty night ; but even now, when we came to it, 
the sounds and cries were most appalling of men 
and even women, carried by in crowds, some of 
them clinging desperately to the great piles of 
wood that seemed in the dusk like houses, with 
windows and doors looming high in the din and 

I cried aloud to one of these, which was covered 
to the roof with human beings ; but the only 
answer to my hail was a wild shriek to shudder 
at— " Bankcity-bank !" he cried — the despairing 
wail of some poor hapless one, made maniac 
by his peril; and yet, to show how reckless 
men are, even in danger, there were two youths 
perched high on the crazy drifting roof, who 

T 2 


quietly smoked their pipes while the great machine 
rolled from side to side, as if it^would dash against 
the iron light-houses on the edge of the stream, or 
the cliffs of clay beyond. 

For safety's sake men were stationed on the 
flat ledges by the channel below, as a sort of Coast- 
guard, clad in blue, and wearing black helmets. 
They could readily tell us where was the best 
ford, but they could not aid us more. 

There was no ferry-boat by which to cross this 
dreadful current ; as for my canoe, it would have 
been madness to paddle here. How I wished to 
be safe in her again on the deepest part of 
Venern ! Then I thought of getting a horse ; but 
this was impossible. Yet cross the stream I must, 
and the only way left was to ford it on foot. 

Experience gained in the other stormy days of 
the tour here came to my aid ; and I looked about 
for some friendly island whereon to rest for a 
moment, even in mid stream, but none was near. 
Indeed, where these islands do occur (rarely 
enough in the 580 miles of the current's course) 
they are often crowded by people, trembling and 
frightened, who can move neither back nor for- 
ward from fear — and well may they be afraid, for 
the impetuous torrent maims or slays outright 
200 people every year. 

By my side, then, I observed a band of little 


chUdren, timidly clasping each others' tiny, cold, 
wet hands, and gazing on the fearful scene. 
One of these babes carried in her arms a still 
smaller babelet, also a jug of beer, a weekly 
newspaper, a pat of butter, and a red herring — 
a touching sight to see, while the rain poured 
ruthlessly, and the shouting of men and jingling 
of bells and splashing of water mingled with the 
roar of the dark, fast stream. 

Clutching my log for a life-buoy, and nerved 

for a desperate effort, I dashed in with a shout. 

* # * ♦ ♦ 

Aha ! we have safely crossed the Strand ; and here 
is the dark old bridge of 



(A.) Canoe Chat. 

(B.) Canoe Cltjb. 

(C.) Desobiption op the Eob Eoy. 

(D.) Danish Missions. 

(E.) Prussian Chubohbs and Schools. 

(F.) Swedish Soldiers. 

(Gr.) Scandinavian Song. 



(A.)--Cakoe Chat. 

(a) Eemaeks on the management of a canoe, espe- 
cially in currents, have been given at length in the 
Appendix of my former book ; and it need only be said 
here that another year's experience confirms what has 
there been stated. 

(6) Experiments as to the use of leeboards for 
improving the sailing qualities of a canoe have con- 
vinced me that a light leeboard of sheet-iron or of 
deal will be a useful addition to the gear, but a centre 
board and macintosb bags of water, self-filling, are 
suggested in the other book for a canoe meant rather 
for sailing than for paddling. 

(c) For a long day's work, light shoes are very 
desirable in the canoe. The benefit of them in allow- 
ing full play to the feet is most remarkable. Of course, 
another pair of thick-soled shoes are absolutely neces- 
sary for rough work on shore. 

(d) Wheels for transporting the canoe on land have 
been used with approval during some short voyages in 
England and on the Bhine. The wheels are about 
one foot in diameter, and with their fittings weigh 


from 6 lb. to 9 lb. But for a long voyage, where so 
great an addition to the cargo is a very serious matter, 
I should not think of carrying wheels. During my 
two long trips the want of wheels was really felt only 
for one mile, and to carry 8 lb. weight for 1999 
miles in order to use them for one, is not economical. 
On shore you should husband your strength by obtain- 
ing men to help ; and in foreign lands you generally 
have one man in each town as a guide to the hotel. 
The safest place, too, for your boat in a crowded, 
narrow street is upon men's shoulders, and not among 
the legs of a dozen young urchins, and the wheels of 
carts. On the portages of the Vrangs Elv or the 
Danube, wheels would have been utterly useless, and 
only so many more pounds' weight to carry through 
the thick forests or over the rocks. 

Using wheels in another way, a canoeist on the 
Thames puts his canoe on his trap, and drives up the 
river, when he sends the carriage back, apd paddles 
down stream in his boat. "When he stops on the 
bank for refreshments, his dog remains in the boat to 
keep guard. 

(e) A mast jointed near the depk, and with a sprit- 
sail, is [used by another member of the Club, and he 
finds it convenient. I prefer a mast fixed without a 
stay, and to trice up the furled sail out of the way of 
wet, when it is necessary to take in sail only for a 
short time. "Wet sails are a trouble at night when 
you arrive tired at a foreign inn. But for home use 
the hinged plan may be worth trying. 


(f) Another of our C. C. members has had a canoe 
built to hold two persons sitting face to face, who are 
to paddle alternately ; a double hood may be raised so 
as when joined to form a sort of cabin, like that of a 
gondola. A steam engine has also been tried in this 
canoe, and there are several double canoes in the 
club. If a mast were placed in the centre and an out- 
rigger (as in the South Sea Island " flying proas "), a 
large canoe might be very amusing, where it is used on 
a sheet of water large enough to tack in with the same 
side always to windward, and a very large light sail 
and long boom to shift round each time. 

(<g) Instead of a sheet-apron a wooden hatch suit- 
ably fitted has been used with good effect. It slides 
forward when you wish to get out. The chief advan- 
tage seems to be that you can thereby leave an 
interstice round your body enough to permit a circu- 
lation of air below, for the waterproof apron is found 
sometimes to become moist from the confined air, 
and thd body of the canoeist is unduly heated so as to 
cause irritation of the skin. 

This last inconvenience is the only one I have expe- 
rienced in the use of a.canoe, and it is a very trifling one. 

The " Pall Mall Gazette," however, states that the 
Canoe Club " unites the maximum of danger and dis- 
comfort with the minimum of utility." "What is our 
friend so angry about ? Has he been upset in a canoe, 
or does he fear a collision in Pall Mall with a paddler ? 
Let him join our Club, and recover his good-humour. 
He shall have the ''maximum of comfort, and the 


minimum of danger" in our special canoe for easy- 
chair exercise, depicted at page 189. 

(h) The records of the Canoe Club during its first 
year of existence contain many logs of voyages and 
many amusing adventures, as well as some three 
or four upsets and " canoe catastrophes/' but only a 
single life lost — that of a dog. 

One member bumps a bridge on the Severn, and ia 
left clinging to it, while his boat departs bottom 
upwards. Another goes over a weir sideways, and 
then he is upset, while his canoe is broken to pieces. 
A third strikes on a '* lasher," and is capsized twice in 
two days. Another has thirty upsets, of which twenty 
are " intentional," for practice ; while another, coming 
in on a rough sea, is seized by a crowd of compas- 
sionate fish- wives, watching for him on shore, who carry 
the man and his boat in their brawny arms, rescuing 
him as though he had protested — '* I will be drowned ; 
nobody shall save me." 

And here it may be mentioned that ladies, too, have 
taken to the paddle, and they seem to enjoy the plea- 
sures of the canoe. It certainly is much easier for a 
lady to paddle than to pull two sculls in a rowing- 
boat ; for there are no " crabs " to be caught in the 
canoe, and the fair canoeiste can always see where she 
is going, while she leans gracefully back on a cushion, 
and there is ample room in the **well" for the 
moderately profuse crinoline now in vogue. 

N.B. — Ladies are eligible as honorary members of 
the Canoe Club ; and it is to be remembered that two 


<5anoes paddling in company can keep much nearer 
together than two boats with oars. 

Youngsters can learn sooner to paddle than to row. 
The canoes on the Serpentine were at first dreaded 
by the mothers of the boys who entered them, but 
soon the anxious mammas found the conoe was a great 
deal safer than a boat, a fact of which there cannot 
be any doubt. 

(*') In the early days of volunteering we had all to 
stand fire from the street boys, when they asked every 
one in grey uniform, ''"Who shot the dog?" The 
paddler is assailed in like manner with a vigorous 
shout from bridge and barge of ** Paddle your own 

The earliest claimant I can find for the use of these 
words in verse is Mr. George Wortabot, a Syrian 
gentleman, whose MS. bears date 1860. Those of us 
who have obeyed the injunction contained in that 
doggrel line will endorse the opinion of the paddler 
in Nottingham, who writes — " I have all the pleasure 
of a yacht without the expense." 

(/) Looking forward a little to the future, we may 
suppose that canoeing will receive another impulse 
from the races which took place at Ditton and Erith 
this summer, when canoes started in a field and dashed 
over land and water, and a canoe-chase to end in a 
fiwim will make a new splash in the river regatta. 

It is expected too, that at least thirty English and 
French canoes will assemble in Paris in July to pro- 
mote an international paddle. The Bob Boy hopes 


to be there, and otbers of our number who have 
added long or short blue lines to our ** Canoe Club 
Chart," telling of rivers ** done," and lakes crossed, and 
seas safely battled with in various lands. 

On this occasion the C. C. C/s flag will be hoisted 
on a new sailing-boat, conceived in design on quiet 
Swedish lakes, and managed by him alone. It has good 
room below,when in port, to sit upright under cover, to 
sleep in, and to cook, while a small dingy enables 
the skipper to come ashore and to buy food and get 
exercise and see his friends.* 

So, if you observe on the Seine or the Zuyder Zee 
a most beautiful crafb, with the white triangular 
burgee of the Canoe Club at her main, pray don't 
scruple to give her a hail ; and you will be all the 
more welcome if you come in a canoe. 

''' * The lonely voyager corrected these lines at Havre, on 
board his little yawl, after a charming trip from London. 



This Club was formed in July, 1866, and before June, 1867, 
one hundred members had been elected. The first canoe 
regatta was held in April, when a straight race and a chase 
over land and water took place at Hampton Court, and these 
were very successful and amusing, A race for members' 
sailing canoes took place in June, at Erith. The Cambridge 
University Branch of the club, of which Mr. J. B. Hopwood 
is Captain, includes about twenty members. 

Very many trips and voyages were made during the year 
by members of the Club, and several of them entered to race 
in canoes at the British Eegatta in Paris. 

Some of the members are well-known University oars; 
others are Alpine climbers ; others have seen much of life as 
travellers in strange lands ; and others, again, are yachting 
men; while there are also not a few ladies on the list. It 
would be difficult to find an instance in which so many 
diverse tastes and occupations have been united so speedily 
in a Club as that which has adopted the paddle for its 


Commodore. — ^H.R.H. The Prince op Wales. 

Captain, — J. Maogregob, Esq., 1, Mitre Buildings, Temple. 

Mate. — James Inwards, Esq., Canoe Cottage, Queen's-road, 


Purser. — Lieutenant-Colonel Wright, Stapleford Hall, 


Cooh.-^Y. F. Tuckett, Esq., Frencbay, Bristol. 


Objects. — ^To improve canoes, promote canoeing, and unite 

Means. — (1). Arranging and recording canoe voyages. 

(2.) Holding Meetings annually for business and bivouac^ 
for paddling and sailing, and for racing and chasing in canoes 
over land'and water. 

Members. — Any gentleman who owns or has owned a 
canoe, or who hires one by the yeJar, may be elected by a 
unanimous vote of the Conmiittee, or may be proposed by 
the Committee at a Meeting of members, and elected by 
ballot (one black ball in five to exclude). Entrance IL, 
Annual Subscription 10s., payable on the anniversaries of each 
member's^election. No prize can be taken unless the winner 
has paid his subscription. Each candidate should state 
whether he can swim. 

HoNOBABY Membebs. — Ladies and gentlemen 'approved by 
the Committee. Annual Subscription IZ., members' wives, 
sisters, or daughters' Annual Subscription 10s. 

Each member agrees to withdraw from the Club, if re- 
quested so to do by three-fourths of the members present at a 
Meeting, where the subject has been discussed after special 

Committee. — The Committee shall consist of the oflBcers 
and four members, to be elected annually at the Autumn 
Meeting. The Committee may fill up vacancies in its 
number, and the members of it are eligible for re-election. 

Meetings. — There shall be a Spring Meeting and an 
Autumn' Meeting yearly, at times and places to be fixed by 
the Committee. Members may be elected at either of the 
Meetings. A Special Meeting may be called by the Com- 
mittee, and shall be called by them if a requisition is made 
by twelve members for a special purpose. 


At the Spring Meeting the Mate shall present a statement 
of proposed voyages and races. At the Autumn Meeting 
the Mate shall present the Annual Report, the Log of 
Voyages, &c., and a Finance Statement. 

Canoes. — Each canoe shall be entered in the Club-book in 
a name approved by the Committee. 

Each member on election is required to send to the Mate 
the name and a minute description of his canoe, and a carte 
portrait of himself, for insertion in the Club-book. The 
Committee have power to declare the election of a member 
void, if, within one month of his election, or three months 
from each anniversary of it, he fails to comply with the rules 
as to his canoe and subscription. 

Logs. — Each member is requested to forward from time to 
time to the Mate a record of his voyages, travels, or races, 
with any other particulars likely to be of use to the Club. 

Club Cipher. — The burgee, ribbon, and ciphered-paper 
of the Club, to be used only by members, shall be according 
to the patterns determined at the Autumn Meeting, and kept 
by the Committee. The Club uniform is not to be worn on 

Races. — The races and Club matches are to be under the 
management of the Committee. 

The follovnng are a few of the names of canoes as the list 
commences : — Rainbow, Recruit, Reanee, Rough it. Rosebud, 
Mocassin, Echo; La Sarcelle, Rubber; Ramrod, Black-eyed 
Susan, Resolute, Rake, Quex, Kernel, Roach, Muffin, 
Hermit, Rapparee; Otter, Waterwitch; Rambler, Rush, 
Rothion, &c., &c. 

Several members have more than one canoe each. Three 
have tandem canoes. The New Rollo is a steam canoe. 
One canoe is made of paper, another of indiarubber, and a 
third of tin. 




Thb Commodore Cutter, 36 tons Dagmar. 

The Captain Yawl, 3i tons Rob Roy. 

Thb Mate Yawl, 6 tons Blue Bell. 

Bishop, G Cutter, 13 tons Mocassin. 

Cotton, H Paddle-wheel Galley .. ..Powella. 

Do. Sailing Boat Christina* 

Do. Sailing Boat I*^iggy« 

De Bathe, Colonel .. ..Centre Board, 2 tons .. ..Dabchick. 
Duck, G. N Cutter, 30 tons Ellida. 

Do. Cutter, 7 tons Chlora. 

Lawton, W. F Schooner, 105 tons Sappho. 

Do. Centre Board Lady Ida. 

Louch, J Cutter, 13 tons Argonaut. 

Do Cutter, 6 tons Dagmar. 

Milton, Viscount Steamer 

Mountchablbs, Earl ..Centre Board, 2 tons Una. 

You»G, Lambton Lugger, 2 tons Luflfra. 


f^ob Roy I. 


Amoito the many wlio are building canoes, there may 
be some persons wha have undue expectations as to 
what such boats can do. Now, the three kinds of 
canoes, for racing, for sailing, and for travelling, are 
quite distinct in their forms and capabilities. 

A long, narrow, light racing-canoe, vnth a long- 
spooned paddle, will attain great speed. 

A sailing-canoe with flat bearing, and some keel, 
will sail admirably. 

The " travelling-canoe " has to sail, to paddle, and 
to bear portage and rough handling. 

The endeavour to combine these three qualities in 
suitable proportions, without sacrificing more of any of 
them than can be well dispensed with, has led to the 
building of the canoe now to be described; and the 
new Bob Eoy has been a great success. 

The old Eob Koy canoe (of 1866), which made a 
voyage through France, Germany, &c., was specially 
built for the purpose ; and it is described in the book 
which gives an account of that journey. A more 
detailed description was given in the Transactions of 
the Institute of Naval Architects^ but the numerous 



improvements suggested during this voyage, and in 
careful experiments afterwards, were embodied in the 
new canoe, Eob Eoy, which is now to be described, 
BO that this novel, inexpensive, and healthful mode of 
travelling may be facilitated. 

The Eob Eoy was designed to sail steadily, to paddle 
easily, to float lightly, to turn readily, and to bear 
rough usage on stones and banks, and in carts, rail- 
ways, and steamers ; to be durable and dry, as well as 
comfortable and safe. To secure these objects every 
plank and timber was carefully considered beforehand, 
as to its size, shape, and material, and the result has 
been most successful. 

In the efforts to obtain a suitable canoe for this 
purpose ready made, it was soon found that boat- 
builders might be proficient at the cabinet-makers' 
work of their calling, without any knowledge of the 
principles required for a new design, especially when 
sailing, paddling, and carrying had to be provided for 
at once; and the requirements for each were not 
understood, except by those who had personally ob- 
served them, and had known how to work the paddle 
as well as the saw and the plane. 

A canoe ought to fit a man like a coat ; and to secure 
this the measure of the man should be taken for his 
canoe. The first regulating standard is the length of 
the man's feet, which will determine the height of the 
canoe from keel to deck ; next, the length of his leg, 
which governs the size of the " well ;" and then the 
weight of the crew and luggage, which regulates the 


displacement to be provided for. The following descrip- 
tion is for a canoe to be used by a man 6 feet liigh, 12 
stone weight, and with boots 1 foot long in the sole. 

The Eob Eoj is built of the best oak, except the 
top streak of mahogany, and the deck of fine cedar. 
The weight, without fittings, is 60 lb., and with all 
complete 71 lb. Lightness is not of so much conse- 
quence in this case as good lines, for a light boat if 
crank, will tire the canoeist far more in a week's cruise 
than would a heavier but stiff craft, which does not 
strain his body at every moment to keep her poised 
under the alternate strokes of the paddle or the sudden 
pressure of a squall on the sail. 

The lithograph on the opposite page represents, on a 
scale of a quarter of an inch to the foot, ^g, 1, a section, 
with masts and sails; fig. 2, a bird's-eye view of the deck. 
The woodcuts at pages 293 and 297 represent, on 
a scale of an inch to the foot, figs. 3 and 4, cross sec- 
tions at the beam and at the stretcher ; figs. 9, 10, 
and 11, the backboard and the apron ; the rest of the 
drawings show particular portions more minutely. 
The principal dimensions are : — Length over all, A S, 
14 feet ; from stem to beam, B, 7 feet 6 inches ; beam, 
outside (6 inches abaft midships), 26 inches ; depth 
from top of deck at C, fore end of the well, to upper 
surface of keel, 11 inches; keel, depth outside, 1 inch, 
with an iron band along its whole length, f inch wide ; 
camber, 1 inch ; depth at gunwale, 8i inches. The 
upper streak is of mahogany, and quite vertical at the 
beam, where its depth is 3 inches. The garboard 



Btreaks, and the next on eacb side are strong, while 
the next two on each side are light, as it is found that 
they are less exposed than the others, particnlarlj in 
a canoe where all these lower streaks are of oak. The 
stem and stern posts project over deck, so that the 
canoe, if turned over, will rest on these points, and on 
the upper edge of the combing, round the well, -f inch 
deep, projecting i inch, of steamed oak, curved at the 
comers, and adding, by its angular position, very much 
to the strength of the deck about the welL The well 
is 32 inches from C to D, and 20 inches from E to F, 
BO placed that D M is 2 feet, and thus the beam of 
the boat being afb of the midships the weight of the 
luggage G, and of the masts and sails stowed forward, 
brings the boat to nearly an even keel. The additional 
basket of cooking things at I (fig. 2) brings her a 
little by the stem. For a boat without luggage the 
beam should be 1 foot abaft midships to secure an 
even keel. 

The deck is supported on four carlines forward and 
three aft, the latter portion being thus more strength- 
ened, because, in some cases, it is required to support 
the weight of the canoeist sitting on the deck with his 
legs in the water. Each carline has a piece cut out of 
its end (see fig. 6), so that the water inside may nm 
along to the beam when the canoe is canted to sponge 
it out. The after end of the carline at C is bevelled 
off (fig. 5 in section), so as not to catch the shins of 
your legs. AU the carlines are narrow and deep, to 
economize strength, and the deck is screwed to them 





nc. 5 


with brass screws, so that it might be removed for 
internal repairs. A flat piece is inserted under the 
deck at the mast hole H, which is also furnished with 
a flanged brass ring. The deck is so arched as to 
enable the feet to rest comfortably on the broad 
stretcher J (fig. 4), the centre of which is cut down 
in a curve, in order that the mast and sails, rolled 
together, may rest there when there is no luggage, 
and be kept under the deck, but above any wet on the 
floor. When there is luggage (as in this voyage) 
I usually put the mast and sails under the afber deck. 
The cedar deck round the well at E E is firmly secured 
by knee-pieces, and the boat may thus be lifted up 
hy any part J and may be sat upon tii anypontion without 
injury. The luggage for three months, weighing 9^ lb., 
is carried in a black leather-cloth bag, 1 foot by 1 foot 
by 6 inches deep (G, figs. 1 and 2). 

A water-tight compartment may be made by an 
after bulkhead, with a lid to open, so as to allow the 
air to circulate when on shore. 

The floor-boards, about 2 feet long, rest on the 
timbers until, at the part below C (fig. 2), they end at 
P P (fig. 7), in notched grooves, which fit into short 
oak pieces M N, i inch thick, sloping forwards on 
each side of the keel 0. Their ends rest on the gar- 
board streaks, and so lower the heels nearly 1 inch 
below the level of the floor-board on the top of the 
timbers. The canoeist sits on the floor-boards. I prefer 
this to any cushion or mat whatever ; but of course 
these can be used, but they should be firmly fixed, 


especially in rough water. The canoeist's knees touch 
the combing and the apron boards, whQe his heels 
touch the keel. Thus the dotted lines in fig. 1, from 
the stretcher to the deck, show how the shin-bones 
are supported in comfort, enabling the paddler to sit 
for hours together without straining. But comfort is 
additionally secured by my new kind of backboard, 
shown in figs. 8 and 9, in section and elevation. This 
consists of two strips of oak, 18 inches long, 2^ inches 
wide, and united by a cross piece at Y, and another at 
X, the latter being grooved (fig. 8), so as to rest on the 
top of the combing, and to oscillate with the movement 
of the canoeist's back, which is thus supported on both 
sides along the muscles, while the spine is untouched 
between the strips. The dotted line TJ (&g. 8) is a 
strong cord passed round all (through a hole in the 
deck or two eyes), and this serves to keep the backboard 
in general upright, while it is free to vibrate, or, when 
on shore, to be closed down flat on deck or to be 
removed entirely in a moment by unloosing the cord. 
The use of this backboard is a leading feature of the 
canoe, and adds very much indeed to the canoeist's 
comfort, and, therefore, to his efficiency. The length 
and vtridth of the oaken strips, and the width of the 
interval between them, ought to be carefully adjusted 
to the size and '* build " of the canoeist, just as a saddle 
ought to fit a horse, and its rider too. 

The paddle is 7 feet long, flat-bladed, with a breadth 
of 5 inches in each palm, which is copper banded, and 
made of the best spruce fir, the weight being little 



over 2 lb. The spoon-sliaped blade is better for speedy 
MSkd a longer paddle is suitable for a racing-boat, but 
fdr a travelling canoe, where long paddling, occasional 
sailing, and frequent ** sho xpg," require the instrument 
to combine lightness, straight edge, handiness, and 
strength, it is found that a short paddle is best for 
the varied work of a protracted voyage. Leather cups 
have been usually employed on the wrists of the 
paddle to catch the dripping water, but round india- 
rubber rings look much better and answer every 
purpose, if placed just above the points where the 
paddle dips into the water in an ordinary stroke. 
These rings may be had for twopence, and can be 
slipped on over the broad blade,* If necessary, two 
are used on each side, and they bear rough usage 
well, while if they strike the cedar deck no injury is 
done to it. 

After numerous experiments, the following very 
simple plan has been devised for a waterproof apron, 
and its application at once removes one of the chief 
objections to canoes in rough water, as heretofore con- 
structed. It is necessary to have a covering for the 
well which shall effectually exclude the water, and yet 
be so attached as not to hamper the canoeist in case of 
an upset, or when he desires to get out of the boat in 

• The paddle of an Esquimaux kayak lately examined, was 
6 feet 11 inches long and 5i inches broad in the palm, and 
the ends had the corners rounded off. The Esquimaux use a 
piece of fish-skin wound spirally along the paddle, in place of 
the rings ahove mentioned. 




a more legitimate manner. These desiderata are 
completely secured by the new apron, which is not 
permanently attached in any manner to the boat, but 
is formed as follows : — a piece of light wood, of the 
form in fig. 10, 2 feet long and 8 inches deep at the 
deepest part, is placed along each side of the deck 
vertically, so as just to rest against the outside of each 
knee of the canoeist, and then a piece of macintosh 
cloth (drab colour is best) is tightly nailed along and 
over these, so as to form an apron, supported at each 
side on Z (fig. 11), and sloping from the highest part 
forwards down to the deck in front of the combing, 
over which its edge projects 1 inch, and then lies flat. 
The other or after end is so cut and formed as to fit 
the body neatly, and the ends may be tucked in behind, 
or, when the waves are very rough, they should be 
secured outside the back board by a string with a knot. 
When this apron is so applied, and the knees are in 
position, their pressure keeps the whole apron steady, 
and the splash of small waves is not enough to move 
it. But for rough water I place a string across the end 
and round two screw nails on the deck ; or an india- 
rubber cord may be run through the hemmed end, and 
catch on a beading at the fore-part of the combing. 

A button-hole at the highest point of the apron, near 
the waistcoat, allows it to be supported there; but 
the whole affair will at once separate from the boat in 
an overset or sudden leap out, and can be lifted off and 
folded up in two seconds. When you have to get out 
on shore, or when sailing, it is usually best to stow 


the apron away, so that the legs may be turned into 
any desired position of ease. The apron I used in 
this tour has answered perfectly, but it is to be re- 
collected that it has been perfectly fitted by myself to 
me and the boat. Several others, roughly made for 
other canoes, have, as might be expected, failed to give 
satisfaction. The fitting of this apron, and the neat 
and strong rigging required for a good canoe, are 
main points, the importance of which I must once 
more insist upon. Sad to say, after much worry in 
the matter, I have not found any one boatbuilder or 
other tradesman who executes these matters at all 
passably, nor out of the seventy canoes lately made, 
where the Bob Roys were built, have I found even a 
single one properly finished in its appurtenances. 

One important advantage of a canoe is the capacity 
for sailing without altering the canoeist's seat ; and we 
shall now describe the mast and sails found by ex- 
perience to be most convenient after three masts had 
been broken, and eight sets of sails had more or less 
failed. The mast is If inches thick (tapering), and 

5 feet 6 inches long, of which the part above deck is 
4 feet 9 inches. The lug-sail K (fig. 1), has a yard 
and a boom, each 4 feet 9 inches long, so that when 
furled the end of the boom and mast come together. 
The fore-leach is 2 feet long, and the after-leach 6 feet 

6 inches, giving an area of about 15 square feet. The 
yard and boom are of bamboo, and the yard passes 
into a broad hem on the sail head, while the halyard is 
rove aloft through a small boxwood block f inches 


long, and with a brass slieaye, and through another (a 
brass blind pulley) well fastened on the side of the 
mast near the deck, so that the sail can be lowered and 
hoisted readily. The lower joint of a fishing-rod, 4 feet 
9 inches long, is a spare boom. The tack end of the 
boom is made fast to the mast by a flat piece of leather^ 
lashed to the upper surface of the boom and to the mast, 
and so as to be free to swing in every direction ; after 
many other plans had Mled this was quite successful, 
and lasted through the whole voyage* No hole is made 
in the mast, and no nail or screw driven into it, for these 
are causes of weakness. Two cord loops, about 6 inches 
apart, near the mast-head, support the flagstaff, of 
bamboo-cane 2 feet long, and with a silk flag 7 inches 
by 9 inches. When the mast is not used this flagstaff 
is detached and placed in the mast-hole, which it fits 
by a button 2 inches wide, permanently fixed on the 
staff, the lower end of which rests in the mast-step* 
The halyard and sheet should be of woven cord, which 
does not untwist, and is soft to handle in the wet. The 
sheet when not in hand may be belayed round a cleat on 
deck on either side of the apron, where it is highest, and 
thus these cleats are protected from the paddle. 

Eor the sake of convenience the mast is stepped so 
far forward as to allow the boom to swing past the 
canoeist's breast when the sail is jibed or brought over. 
This also allows the luggage-bag to be between the 
stretcher and the mast. Thus the mast-hole H is at 
8 feet 6 inches' distance from the stem. The mast-step 
is a simple wedge-like piece of oak (see S, fig. 14), 


made fast to the keel, and abutting on the garboard 
streak on each side, with a square^ hole in it for the 
foot of the mast. It may be thought that the mast is 
thus stepped too far forward, but the importance of 
having the sail free to swing, without lying against 
the canoeist's body, or getting entangled with his 
paddle, which is used in steering, is so great, that 
some sacrifice must be made to secure this point. 
However, it is found that the boat sails very well on a 
wind with this sail, if the breeze is strong ; and in 
light breezes it is only expedient to sail with the wind 
well aft, when the jib can also be used. A canoe must 
have a strong, light, flexible painter, suitable for con- 
stant use, because a great deal has to be done by its 
means in tovring on dull water, guiding the boat while 
wading down shallows or beside falls, lowering into 
locks, hauling her over hedges, walls, locks, banks, and 
even houses; and raising or lowering her (with 
luggage in) to and from steamboats. The "Alpine 
Club " rope, used in the new Eob Roy, was found 
to be hard and "kinky" when wet, and the softer 
rope used in the old Rob Roy was far better. This can 
DOW be had at the Model Dockyard in Fleet-street. 
The painter should not be longer than twice the length 
of the boat. Each end is whipped with wax-end, 
which sort of fine twine is also invaluable for all the 
other fastenings, as it never slips. The painter passes 
through a hole in the stem, and another in the stem- 
post, and'is drawn tight to lie on deck in the lines AY 
and SY, fig. 2 ; the slack of about four feet is belayed 


round the windward cleat and coiled outside, so that 
it may be seized instantly when you go ashore, or have 
to jump out to sa^e a smash or an overset in a danger- 
ous place. This mode of fixing and belaying the 
painter I adopted after numerous trials of other plans, 
and it is found to be far the best. 

The jib is a triangle of 3 feet hoist and 3 feet foot, 
the fore-leach fast by a loop, passing tmder the 
painter and oyer the stem ; the head is fixed by a loop 
over the mast-head, and under the flagstaff button. 
Thus the jib can be struck while the canoeist remains 
in the boat, by pushing off these two loops with his 
paddle. To set the jib, it is best to land. This is 
much more generally convenient than to have jib- 
tackle on the mast. The sails are of calico, without 
any seam. This lasts quite well enough, dries speedily, 
and sets well, too, provided that care is taken to have 
it out with the selvage along the after-leach, and not 
along any of the other sides. Inattention to this last 
direction simply ruins sails ; and it cannot be too often 
repeated that the success of the two voyages of the 
Bob Eoys could not be expected if great care had not 
been devoted to all these details. The new Eob Itoy 
may, of course, be improved upon ; but I have not one 
suggestion to make except as to the cooking-apparatus, 
which, in this case, used for the first time, was open to 
many alterations.* But while it is desirable that 

* Since this was written, after much experimenting, I 
have devised the Bob Boy Cuisine, and it is sold by Hepburn, 
of Chancery-lane. I used this in my voyage to France in 
June, and it answered capitally. 


canoeists should experiment in all directions, it is hoped 
that young sailors will trj first, at least, the plans here 
explained, and which have stood the severe tests under 
which perfect success and continual enjoyment were 

The Eob Eoys were built at Messrs. Searle's, of 
Lamb6th, where some seventy others have been lately 
constructed. Mr. Sinunons, of Putney, and Mr. 
"Wheeler, of Eichmond, have also built some according 
to the same design, while a large number of canoes 
have left the stocks in various parts of the country. A 
good travelling canoe, costing 15Z., ought to last a long 
time, for it is not racked and pulled in pieces at every 
^ stroke, as a rowing boat is. The sails, apron, luggage- 
bag, and outfit, can be had at Messrs. Silver's, of 
Bishopsgate ; the flag and blocks at the Model Dock- 
yard, Pleet Street, where the Handy Book is pub- 
lished ; and the boom and yard and woven cord at 
Farlow's, in the Strand. As a parting word, however, 
in these details, I cannot say that they are supplied to 
order with proper exactness anywhere. 

(D.) — Danish Missions. 

The following particulars are taken chiefly from 
" Denmark and her Missions," the book already re- 
ferred to in the text : — 

Christianity was introduced into Denmark in the 
ninth century. Harold was the first king who openly 


professed it. Manj English names come &om Den- 
mark. All our cinque ports have names of Scandi- 
navian origin ; and the name of Havelock is enshrined 
in a strange old stoiy of the twelfth century. The 
incident ahout Canute and the tide reminds us that^ 
there being no ebb and flow in the Baltic, the courtiers 
would naturally have thehr attention drawn to the 
rising tide in England. 

In the royal library at Copenhagen I saw the old 
MS. of part of the Old Testament in Danish, written 
in the fourteenth century, on goat skins dyed red. 
In 1515 Peterson, and in 1524, Mikkelsen gave a com- 
plete Danish translation of the whole Bible, which 
appeared two years before Tyndale's English New ^ 
Testament in our awn country ; but it was not pub- 
lished as a whole until 1556, under Christian HI. 
In the seventeenth century, Erederick IV., a great 
Danish monarch, made fresh efforts to circulate the 
Bible in his territory. He used to read several chapters 
every day, and his influence extended for many years 
in this important matter. 

Viborg was the first Protestant town. In 1688 
each church had a "Kirke Gubber," or "church 
pusher," whose duty it was to wake up sleepers ; while 
an hour-glisiss placed on the pulpit told the preacher he 
must not speak too long. 

Numerous family ties have united the royal families 
of England and Denmark from the time when Gorme, 
a Danish king, 1000 years ago, married Thyra^ daughter 
of Ethelred, king of England. 


The Scotchmen Henderson and Patterson, in 1805 
commenced a Bible Society in Denmark. The grand- 
son of George II, of England became its president, 
and used to preach from selected texts. Various 
persons of distinction aided these efforts in more 
modern times ; and now there is a regular agency for 
Bible distribution, and for the circulation of tracts 
among all classes of the people. 

But it is especially in the foreign missionary field 
that the early, active, and successful exertions of the 
Danes deserve to be recorded. They were, in many 
cases, the pioneers of the church, and laboured out a 
way for the Gospel through endless obstacles, and in 
dark and weary days, when man did little to help and 
much to hinder. A few of their splendid achievements 
in this grand battle of the Cross may be briefly 
noticed, even while we pause in our journey to gaze 
back into past centuries. 

With respect, then, first, to the mission work in 
India ; we may pass over the labours of Xavier, as 
their true character has been exposed on examination ; 
and, like other Popish conversions, nearly all the 
alleged instances of it seem to have been merely ex- 
ternal changes of form, and not internal conversion of 
heart ; and the Jesuits themselves allow that their 
mission efforts at that time ended in failure. 

Frederick IV. of Denmark aided Ziegenbalch and 
Plutscho to go as missionaries, in 1 705, to Tranquebar, 
and their work was helped by the Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, which 


had been set on foot four vears preyiously ; and b j 
the Christian Ejiowledge Society, established two 
years before that* The King began a missionarj 
college at Copenhagen. War forced the missionaries 
to go to Calcutta, where they soon began to preach, 
and were protected by Lord diye ; but the East India 
Company resolutely strove to debar all Christians 
from work of this sort ; and it was only by claiming 
protection under the Danish flag that English 
Christians were allowed to proclaim the Gt)spel in a 
British possession. The first English missionary to 
India was the Bev. A. Clarke, in 1789. In 1814 
Tranquebar was sold to England by the Danes, and 
the mission property was then transferred to a Saxon 

At Tanjore, a native prince introduced the Gospel 
in 1722 ; and then came the great Swartz, who, with 
the aid of Colonel Wood, the conqueror of Hyder Ali, 
erected a church and school at Trichinopoli. He 
obtained great influence over the heathen princes, and 
died after long service, and after he had given much 
money to the missionary cause. One missionary, Dr. 
Eottler, laboured for sixty years. William Carey, a 
cobbler, determined to become a missionary to the 
Hindoos ; and, being refused a passage in the East India 
Company's ships, he appealed to a Dane, who took him 
out willingly, with his family, to Serampore, a Danish 
colony, where the mission was firmly established ; and 
Carey died in old age, after building a college on the 
Hooghly for 450 missionary students, which was 


endowed and protected by the King of Denmark, 
and was specially provided for when Serampore was 
transferred to England in 1846. Marshman, Judson, 
and Henry Martyn were aided in their work from 
hence ; and an unsuccessful effort waa made to estab- 
lish a station in Bhootan, where so much trouble has 
been caused within the last few years to British in- 

Sixty years ago, Taylor was sent by the Church 
Missionary Society to Bombay, under Danish protec- 
tion; the East India Company being still bitterly 
hostile to the truth. 

Turning now to Greenland, we find that in 
A.D. 1023 it became tributary to Norway ; but for a 
long time the place was forgotten, until Frederick IV., 
instigated by Hans Egede, established a mission station 
there, after repeated failures, shipwrecks, and famines, 
in 1721 ; and the work being continued by Stach and 
Count Zinzendorf, the Moravians took up the mission, 
and zealously laboured for years with most wonderful 
perseverance, and amid dangers and difficulties quite 

In the West Indies, also, the Danes were moved to 
preach Christ to the wretched slaves in their settle- 
ments ; and Dober began, in 1732, at the island of 
St. Thomas, amid dreadful privations and discourage- 
ments; but the persecution by the Governor was 
mitigated through the intervention of the good Count 
Zinzendorf; and, in twenty years, Christian teachers 
were even sought for by many of the planters. 


F. Martin preached in St. Jan, and others at 
St. Croce ; until from these Danish islands the Gospel 
was first sounded forth to the people of Jamaica, 
Antigua, St. Kitts, Barbadoes, and Tobago. The 
Church of the United Brethren has 314 missionaries 
in foreign lands, with 80,000 people under their charge, 
and 200 schools — their heathen congregations being 
about four times as great as their own number at 

(E.) — Chttbches aitd Schools nr Pbitssia. 

(Notes chiefly extracted from " The Church of Borne 
under Protestant Governments," published 1866.) 

The Calvinists and Lutherans, composing the two 
great divisions of German Protestants, were united 
into one body in 1817, by the exertions of King 
Frederick William, under the name of the Evangelical 
Church, and of this the King is the outward head, as 
"Summus Episcopus." He governs by means of a 
council, appointed by himself, and responsible to him 
alone. Tliis supreme council consists of both clerical 
and lay members; and under it there is to each 
province a board, also named by the King, and con- 
taining mixed lay and ecclesiastical elements, called a 
•* Consistorium," whose duties are the general over- 
looking and management of the Church affairs of the 
province. The members of these consistoriums, as well 
as of the supreme council, are all salaried by the State. 


The control over the clergy in Prussia, similar to 
what would be exercised in our Church by the bishop 
of the diocese, is given to superintendents-general, of 
whom there are nine, or one to each province, and 
under each of whom are several superintendents. 
Only one Lutheran bishop still survives in Prussia, 
and it is not intended to appoint a successor to him. 
The power of appointing to benefices is not, however, 
a privilege belonging to the superintendents-general, 
being in some cases vested in the King, in others, in 
private individuals, inheriting the right from their 
ancestors, who became possessed of it from having 
endowed the church, or from some other reason, and 
in more, as generally in towns, in the municipal 
authorities. And also very frequently the choice of 
the minister belongs to the congregation itself. In 
all cases, however, the candidate must be confirmed in 
his appointment by the cousistorium of the province. 
This last-named method is generally the case in the 
Bhine provinces and in Westphalia, in the former of 
which, in particular, the Protestants have considerably 
increased in numbers. 

By the census in 1861, there were, out of the 
18,491,220, the total population of Prussia, 11,113,696 
Protestants, 6,824,719 Roman Catholics, 16,170 so- 
called German Catholics, or members of free congrega- 
tions, 13,708 Mennonites, 1196 professing the Greek 
faith, 253,457 Jews. " Other religions " are put down 
at two ; but what creed this couple of independent 
thinkers professed is not stated. The number of 



Protestant churches was, by the same census, 5387 
parish, and 2977 so-called filial, or dependent churches ; 
total, 8364. The number of Boman Catholic churches 
was 4060 parish, and 1439 filial ; total, 5499. The 
Bumber of free or German Catholic churches was 
33 ; of Mennonite, 30 ; of Greek, 5 ; and of Jewish 
synagogues there were 1008 — an amount seemingly 
out of all proportion to their numbers. Of clergymen, 
there were 6329 ordained Protestant, and 189 cate- 
chists, total, 6469 ; of Eoman Catholic, 3874 parish 
priests, and 2600 curates and chaplains, total, 6474. 
This gives a total of 1721 souls to each Protestant 
clergyman's care, and 1054 to each Boman Catholic. 

Government aid, to the amount of 61,364?., is 
given towards the support of the Protestant church. 
Of this 42,431/. 5«. is expended in salaries to clergy- 
men, in building and repairing churches, and in 
assisting to increase the stipends of poor clergymen, 
when the income from their parishes is insuflBcient to 
maintain them. The remainder goes to defray the 
salaries of the superintendents, and the different mem- 
bers of the various boards, together with the costs of 
the establishments connected with the government of 
the church. The sum which each Prussian Protestant 
clergyman, taking all ranks together, and including 
all expenses of church government, costs the State, is 
thus 91. 98. Of course this is charging to the individual 
salaries of the clergy the cost of the whole Church 
Establishment; but th«^ajority of the pastors receive 
no aid whatever from the^povernment — it is only in 



very poor communities that aid is given from the 
public purse. 

The average income of a Protestant pastor is 105Z., 
their salaries being often less in the country and more 
in the towns. The total sum which the spiritual care 
of each Protestant costs the country at large is a 
fraction under 15d, 

The Concordat with the Pope, which forms the 
connection between the Eoman Catholic Church and 
the State in Prussia, was concluded in the year 1821. 
By it, when a see becomes vacant, the dean and 
chapter of the cathedral send in a list of names selected 
by them, out of which the King strikes any which 
may be displeasing to him, and the chapter proceed to 
another election until their choice falls on a candidate 
who is approved of by the Sovereign, and who must 
then, if no canonical reason exist to the contrary, be 
confirmed by the Pope. 

The Central Government contributes to the support 
of the Eoman Catholic Church 119,314Z. Of this sum 
63,038Z. are allotted towards maintaining the arch-» 
bishoprics and bishoprics, together with the institutions 
belonging to them ; 58,745Z. to salaries and supplies 
in aid of clergy and churches; 7333Z. for finishing 
the cathedral of Cologne, &c. This gives ISl. 9«. as 
the sum each Bomish ecclesiastic costs the State. 

The average income of Koman Catholic priests is 
82Z. 10s., receiving, as a rule, less than that sum in 
the country and more in the towns. About 22|(2., 
or say 23d, is the total cost to the country of the 
spiritual care of each Boman Catholic soul. 


Again, with respect to scbools, by the census of 
1861 there were in Prussia 25,156 public elementary 
schools, and 813 private schools, 25,969 in all. The 
public schools were attended by 2,773,413 children of 
both sexes ; the private schools by 48,342, making a 
total of children attending elementary scbools of 
2,821,755. The population of Prussia being then 
18,491,220, this would give one elementary school to 
712 inhabitants, and a proportion of about 110 children 
to each elementary school. In addition there were also 
443 so-called little children's schools, attended by 
80,745 children. This, of course, refers exclusively to 
the elementary or lowest schools, and does not include 
the middle, upper, and real, or commercial and 
scientific, which were attended by 274,791 scholars, 
both male and female. In all the schools, both public 
and private, and upper as well as elementary, in 
Prussia, in the year 1861, there were 3,096,546 pupils. . 
In the same year there were 36,314 teachers (33,063 
male, and 3251 female) for the public and private 
elementary schools, or 1 teacher to 77 pupils ; and 
9913 teachers for the middle, upper, and real schools, 
or 1 teacher to 27 scholars ; making a total of 46,227 
teachers to 3,096,546 pupils, or 1 teacher to 66 pupils, 
and 1 to 400 of the population. The students at the 
different Universities are excluded &om the above. 


(F.)— Swedish Soldiees. 

The following are extracts from the letter of a musical 
martial Swede : — " The march you mention (see page 
181) is one that every Swede loves, as it was played 
by the bands of the Swedish regiments in many a 
dreadful battle during the unhappy, though glorious 
war of 1808 and 1809 in Finland — where, in some 
thirty to forty degrees below zero, the Swedes, half 
naked and starved, had to fight the Eussians as one to 
ten. That soldiery fought like brave men, but the 
Government did not back the army, and that was the 
reason why, when the news came back to Sweden, we 
quietly deposed our King Gustavus Adolphus IV. * * 
" The Swedish volunteers number about 40,000, but 
are not exactly on the same footing as the English 
volunteers, as we get no rifles here from the Govern- 
ment, nor any capital grant ; the only thing we get 
here is a kind of adjutant, called '^ commanding 
officer," who is generally an officer of the line at the 
same time. They shoot very well indeed, but, like the 
Belgians, never at greater distances than 200 to 250 
yardsi The officers have not officers' names, as in 
England, but are called chief of company, chief of 
sub-division, &c. 



** The militia (Bevaringen) is compulsory so far, that 
every man from the age of twenty-one to the age of forty 
is bound to go into the ranks to defend his own country ; 
but he can never be taken out of the country. Every 
man is drilled a fortnight in the spring, at the age of 
twenty-one and twenty-two — ^thus a month altogether 
— at the camp of the regiment of line of the district, 
a^d by their officers. All men from twenty-one to 
twenty-five are called out first in case of war — and 
they are some ldO,000 to 150,000. They are armed and 
clad by Gbvemment during their two years' drills and 
in case of war, when they are put in to complete the 
regiments, so as not to have new troops by themselves. 

** I suppose you know how our army is arranged. 
We have only some 5000 men —guards, marines, en- 
gineers, Ac. — ^and some 3000 artillery, who get their 
pay in money ; the remainder are portioned out over 
the country thus : —In every county, or rather (Ian) 
lord-lieutenancy, there is a regiment; and peasants 
and landowners have to grant a house and a certain 
piece of land to the soldiers (the landowner, of course, 
being saved other taxes and oncra instead), which 
piece of land the soldier uses for himself; the land- 
owner being bound, in case of war, and during the 
annual camps, to take care of his harvest, <fec Then 
each regiment meets at a camp every year for about 
three weeks' drill, 

*^ The officers of the cavalry and line are paid in the 
same manner ; they have a certain sum of money, and 
then a house and piece of land, according to their 


rank, given (and the house kept in condition) by the 

" Fop all that the Swedish soldier — who gets a 
pension when he gets old in the service — is very well 
drilled indeed — much better than the !French army ; 
and, as the officers always must live within their regi- 
ment, they are known and beloved by their men, who 
would willingly go into fire and death for them. There 
is not an instance in history of a Swedish regiment 
having left their officers. This arrangement was made 
by Charles the Eleventh in the latter half of the seven- 
teenth century — somewhere about 1680, 1 believe. 


" Stockholm, Nov., 1 866." 



Bjornebobgabnes March. 

TranOaied hy M. A. G. 

OnUiDBEN of a race which bled 

On Narva's heath, on Poland's sand, 

On Leipsic's plains, on Lutzen's height; 

Still Finland in unoonqnered strength can shed 

Her foeman's blood in crimsoned fields of fight ! 

Glorious of deed ! Our fathers proudly call ; 
Our swords are sharp, our blood pours free, — 
Then forward bravely I battle, one and all. 
To keep the path of world-old Liberty! 

Blest standard! raise thy faded colours high — 
With combats worn, with ancient glories grey — 
On! on! and float above triumphantly — 
One remnant still of thee will guide our way I 

Hence ! hence, rest and peace be gone ! 

A storm is nigh, — it flashes fire. 

And cannons roar in thund'ring ire — 

In serried ranks press closely on; 

Our sires' brave spirits on brave sons look down. 







This book is under no oirenmst«noes to be 
taken from the Building