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asper Green Pennington 

From the collection of the 

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o Prelinger 

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v AJibrary 

San Francisco, California 
















by the GENESEE BOOK CLUB of Rochester 

Printed by 

Rochester, New York 


"It is an enchanted city" mused Basil, aloud, as they wan- 
dered on, "and all strange cities are enchanted . . . Rochester is 
for us, who dont know it at all, a city of any time or country, 
moonlight, filled with lovers hovering over piano-fortes, of a 
palatial hotel with pastoral waiters and porters, a city of hand- 
some streets wrapt in beautiful quiet and dreaming of the golden 
age. The only definite association with it in our minds is the 
tragically romantic thought that here Sam Patch met his fate." 

"And who in the world was Sam Patch!" 

"Isabel, your ignorance of all that an American woman should 
he proud of distresses me. Have you really, then, never heard of the 
man who invented the saying, 'Some things can he done as well as 
others,' and proved it by jumping over Niagara Falls twice! 
Spurred on by this belief, he attempted the leap of the Genesee 
Falls. The leap was easy enough, but the coming up again was 
another matter. He jailed in that. It was the one thing that could 
not he done as well as others." 

"Dreadful!" said Isabel, with the cheerfullest satisfaction. 
"But what has all that to do with Rochester!" 

"Now, my dear! You dont mean to say you didnt know that 
the Genesee Falls were at Rochester! Upon my word, I am ashamed. 
Why, we re within ten minutes walk of them now." 

"Then walk to them at once!" cried Isabel, wholly unabashed, 
and in fact unable to see what she had to he ashamed of. ' 'Actually, 
I believe you would have allowed me to leave Rochester without 
telling me the jails were here, if you hadnt happened to think of 
Sam Patch." 




-publications in the American Guide Series, written by 
-members of the Federal Writers' Project of the Works 
Progress Administration. Designed -primarily to give useful em- 
ployment to needy unemployed writers and research workers, this 
project has gradually developed the ambitious objective of present- 
ing to the American people a portrait of America its history, 
folklore, scenery, cultural backgrounds, social and economic trends, 
and racial factors . In one respect, at any rate, this undertaking is 
unique: it represents a far-flung effort at cooperative research and 
writing, drawing upon all the varied abilities of its personnel. 
All the workers contribute according to their talents; the field 
worker collects data in the field, the research worker burrows in 
libraries, the art and literary critics cover material relevant to 
their own specialties, architects describe notable historical build- 
ings and monuments; and the final editing of copy as it flows in 
from all corners of a state is done by the more experienced writers 
in the central offices. The ultimate product, whatever its faults or 
merits, represents a blend of the work of the entire personnel, aided 
by consultants, members of university faculties, specialists, officers 
of learned societies, oldest residents, who have volunteered their 
services everywhere most generously. 

A great many books and brochures are being written for this 
series. As they appear in increasing numbers we hope the American 
public will come to appreciate more fully not only the unusual 
scope of this undertaking, but also the devotion shown by the 
workers, from the humblest field worker to the most accomplished 
editors engaged in the final rewrite. The Federal Writers' Project, 
directed by Henry G. Alsberg, is in the Division of Women's and 
Professional Projects under Ellen S. Woodward, Assistant 




nature of the undertaking of which this book is one 
of the fruits has been adequately described by Mr. Harry 
-"- Hopkins in the foreword. It remains only for the editors 
to ex-press their acknowledgements. 

Grateful acknowledgement is made to Mayor Charles Stanton, 
City Manager Harold W . Baker, and the City Council for sponsor- 
ing the book. The members of the Cooperating Advisory Committee 
have responded generously to every request for information and 
advice. The staffs of the University of Rochester library, the city 
library, the Rochester Historical Society, and the Museum of Arts 
and Sciences have been freely consulted. Special acknowledgement 
is due Dr. Dexter Perkins, city historian, and Dr. Blake 
McKelvey, his associate, for reviewing the historical sections; 
Mr. William G. Kaelber for his critical scrutiny of the architect- 
ural material; Mrs. Gertrude Her die Moore for advice on art and 
museums; Mr. Stewart B. Sabin for reading the section on the 
Eastman School of Music; Mr. Al Sigl for information on radio; 
Mr. Morley Turpin, archivist of the University of Rochester, for 
much specialized material; and the many members of the Rochester 
Pioneers who drew upon their memories to add many vivid touches 
to the dead records of the past. Other unnamed and unnumbered 
citizens of Rochester contributed with their sympathetic and en- 
couraging interest during the preparation of the book. The Federal 
Writers' Project wishes also to thank Sibley, Lindsay <& Curr for 
their courtesies and generosity. 

If this Guide succeeds in presenting to visitors and distant 
friends a true picture of the city of Rochester; if it refreshes the city' s 
memory of its own past and sharpens its consciousness of its present 
life, and thereby perhaps even makes a contribution to its future 
development then the highest hopes of those who labored on this 
book will have been fully realised. 


Mayor of Rochester 


State Board of Regents 
Chamber of Commerce 


Publisher of Gannett Newspapers 


President, Rochester Telephone Corporation 

City Historian 


Director, Rochester Museum of Arts and Sciences 


Director, Rochester Public Libraries 


President, University of Rochester 


Director, Eastman School of Music 

Superintendent of Schools 


Director, Memorial Art Museum 

Former Bishop of the Catholic Diocese 

Bishop of the Episcopal Diocese 

Rabbi of Temple B'rith Kodesh 









Transportation 24 

Accommodations 28 

Recreation 29 

Information for Tourists 34 

Information Bureaus 36 

Calendar of Annual Events 38 



The City 43 

Its People 48 

Life and Livelihood 48 


Origins 51 

The Flour City 54 

The Flower City ......... 58 

Modern Development 62 

Government .......... 70 



Growth of Industry . . . . . ... 103 

Labor 111 



Music ............ 115 

Art . . . . . . .... . . . 122 

Literature . . . . . . . . . . . 127 

Architecture .......... 139 

Education . . .. \ . . . . . . . 147 

Newspapers and Radio . ... . , . 151 

Religion . . . . . . . . . . . 154 

Social Service .156 


Tour 1 (Points of Interest Nos. 1-19) . . 161 

Tour 2 (Points of Interest Nos. 20-41) . . 173 

Tour 3 (Points of Interest Nos. 42-62) . . 189 

Tour 4 (Points of Interest Nos. 63-78) . . 202 


History 214 

River Campus (College for Men) . . . .219 

Prince Street Campus (College for Women) . 223 

Memorial Art Gallery 225 

Eastman School of Music and Eastman Theater 227 

School of Medicine and Dentistry . . . . 233 

Rochester Dental Dispensary . . . . . 235 


The Zoo 236 

Rochester Museum of Arts and Sciences . . 243 

Lamberton Conservatory . . . . . . . 248 


LOCATION ... . ' . ", . . . . * . . 255 

GEOGRAPHY . . . .< . . 255 




FLORA 261 

FAUNA 262 










Rochester, Clarkson, Lewiston, Ni- 
agara Falls, Youngstown,FortNiagara, 
Olcott, Rochester. 

Rochester, North Chili, Churchville, 
Churchville County Park, Bergen, 
Hamlin Beach Park, Hilton, Charlotte, 


Rochester, Churchville, Bergen, Bata- 
via, Indian Falls, Tonawanda Reserva- 
tion, Oakfield, Byron Center, Roch- 


Rochester, Scottsville, Mumford, Cale- 
donia Fish Hatcheries, Riga, Chili, 



Rochester, Caledonia, Perry, Silver 
Lake, Letchworth State Park, Portage- 
ville, Mount Morris, High Banks, 
Geneseo, Avon, Rochester. 


Rochester, East Avon, Scottsburg, 
Dansville, Stony Brook State Park, 
Livonia, Rochester. 

TOUR 7 LITTLE FINGER LAKES . . . . . . 355 

Rochester, Lima, Springwater, Hone- 
oye, Mendon Ponds Park, Rochester. 


Rochester, Henrietta, Rush, Honeoye 
Falls, Bristol Valley, Naples, Middle- 
sex, Canandaigua, Rochester. 


Rochester, Canandaigua, Penn Yan, 
Bluff Point, Hammondsport, Dresden, 
Geneva, Rochester. 


Rochester, Geneva, Watkins Glen, 
Montour Falls, Waterloo, Rochester. 


Rochester, Cayuga State Park, 
Taughannock Falls, Ithaca, Aurora, 
Levanna, Union Springs, Cayuga, 
Savannah, Lyons, Rochester. 



Rochester, Palmyra, Lyons, Sodus 
Point, Pultneyville, Sea Breeze, Roch- 

Rochester, Glen Haven, Bay View, 
Birds and Worms, Point Pleasant, Sea 
Breeze, Inspiration Point, Willow 
Grove Park, Ellison Park, Rochester. 


PARK 413 

Rochester, Webster, Williamson, Sodus, 
Red Creek, Oswego, Fair Haven Beach 
Park, Wolcott, Savannah, Rochester. 



INDEX 449 




EAST AVENUE ELMS .......... 44 



ROCHESTER IN 1853 . . '. . ..... . 60 

SUSAN B. ANTHONY .......... 74 

ORRINGH STONE TAVERN . . . ... . : , . 80 


INDUSTRIAL ROCHESTER . . . .. . . 112 














D. A. R. HOUSE 196 

MERCURY AND THE WINGS . . . . . . . . 198 


CHARLOTTE HIGH SCHOOL . . . ... . . . 210 


BURTON HALL ... . . . . . . . . 222 

CUTLER UNION . . . . 224 

EASTMAN SCHOOL OF Music . . . . . . . . 228 













WILLOW POND, EAST AVENUE . ... . . . 369 





TOUR! 163 

TOUR 2 175 

TOUR 3 - . 191 

TOUR 4 201 





New York Central R. R., Central Ave. between Clinton 
Ave. N. and Joseph Ave. 

Buffalo, Rochester, and Pittsburgh division of the Balti- 
more and Ohio R. R., West Main and Oak Sts. 

Erie R. R., Rochester branch, 35 Court St. 
Pennsylvania R. R., Rochester branch, 357 Main St. W. 
Lehigh Valley R. R., Rochester branch, 99 Court St. 


Rochester Municipal Airport (taxi $1.25 one way, one 
half hour), 5-2 #2. from the Four Corners on State 35 (Scotts- 
ville Road). The hangars cover an area of 27,000 sq. ft. The 
field is flood-lighted and contains 3 runways. Work in 
progress will double size of field and length of runways 
(WPA project). 

American Airlines, Inc. operate 4 planes daily: 2 east- 
bound, 2 westbound. Ticket offices: 68 East Ave.; Lincoln- 
Alliance Bank Building, 183 Main St. E.; Sibley, Lindsay 
& Curr, Main and Clinton Sts. 

Four aviation schools, conducted at the airport, also 
operate sight-seeing planes. Rates: $10 per hour; field flight 
$1.50; city flight $2; lake flight $2.50. 


Western New York Motor Lines (Blue Bus Line), 63 
South Ave. : hourly service to and from Buffalo and inter- 
mediate points. 


Frank Martz Coach Co., Inc., 63 South Ave. : New York- 
Chicago, connections for coast to coast travel. 

Central Greyhound Lines, 72 Franklin St.: Buffalo, 
Syracuse, Albany, Niagara Falls, suburban points. Inter- 
state and transcontinental busses. Busses chartered. 

East Ave. Bus Co., Inc., SE. corner Elm St. and Main 
St. E.: 29 trips daily to Pittsford. 

Rochester Railway Coordinated Bus Lines, Inc.: inter- 
urban busses: Chili Ave. Line, corner Gibbs and Grove Sts., 
out Chili Ave. to Hall's Station and Chili Center; Ridge 
Rd. Line, corner Lewiston and Lake Aves., out Ridge Road 
to Parma Corners and Hilton; Dewey Ave. line to Stone 
Rd. and Britton Rd.; Lee Road and Lyell Ave. line out 
Lyell Ave. and Spencerport Rd. to Scott Rd. Busses char- 

Rochester and Sodus Bay Motor Vehicle Route: Rochester 
and Sodus Bay bus, corner Broad St. and South Ave., 5 
round trips daily to Sodus Bay and intermediate points. 

Rochester Interurban Bus Co., Inc., Broad St. and South 
Ave. : 2 round trips daily to Hornell via Dansville; 21 round 
trips daily to Pittsford, including one round trip to Mendon. 
Busses chartered. 

Town Bus Lines, 72 Franklin St. : 7 trips daily to Penfield ; 
2 trips Sundays and holidays. 


Canadian Car Ferry Co.; dock (reached by Lake Ave. car 
line) on Boxart St., 2 blocks E. of Lake Ave. All-year 
passenger and freight service between Charlotte and Co- 
bourg, Canada. Tickets at dock or at Baltimore & Ohio 
R. R. station, Oak and W. Main Sts.; train service to and 
from dock. Cars transported. Irregular sailings during 



Canada Steamship Lines, Municipal Pier, eastern end of 
Beach Ave., Charlotte. Seasonal steamship service, June 15 
to September 12; one boat daily each way between Rochester 
and Kingston, Ontario, through the Thousand Islands; at 
Prescott, Ontario, connections are made for Montreal and 
St. Lawrence River points, including the Saguenay River. 
In season, daily boats to and from Toronto. Tickets at 
company's office, 68 East Ave. Cars transported. 


Fare: 10 cents; half fare, 5 cents. Tokens, 6 for 50 cents, 
good on city cars and busses within the city. Ten-cent 
round-trip shopper's pass with stop-overs is good 9:30 
11:30 a.m., 2 4 p.m. Weekly passes good on all city 
lines, $1. 

Suburban lines: one-way fare 15 cents. Weekly pass cost- 
ing $1.25 is good from any point in the city on Summerville, 
Sea Breeze, Laurelton, and Titus Ave. suburban lines. 
Fifteen cent round-trip shopper's pass with stop-overs is 
good 9:30 11:30 a.m., 2 4 p.m. 


From Rowlands to west city limits, following line of old 
Erie Canal. Passenger information, 267 State St., Main 
4200; freight office and dispatcher, Rundel Building Sub- 
way Station, Main 983- Fare same as surface lines, with 
additional fare of 5 cents beyond east city line to Rowlands. 
Subway freight lines connect with all railroads entering 
the city, forming inner belt line to serve every industrial 
plant which has railroad connections. Charge for moving 
loaded cars, $6.30 $10. Increase in freight handled during 
1936 was 10.78 percent over preceding year. 



The subway from South Ave. to Brown St. is roofed by 
Broad St., which forms a section of the proposed arterial 
highway to extend to the east side residential district. 


Taxicabs stand at stations, large hotels, and public 
stands throughout the city, and may be ordered by tele- 
phone from any point. A city ordinance fixes taxi rates, 
but because of competition the uniform charge is now less 
than that called for in the ordinance. The prevailing rate 
is 35 cents for the first 2^ miles with diminishing charges 
for additional mileage. Operators are required to post the 
table of rates, and the taximeter must be lighted at night. 
Hand baggage is carried free; arrangements may be made 
for trunks. It is not customary to charge for additional 
passengers. Where delayed stops are to be made, charges 
must be agreed on in advance. In cases of serious disagree- 
ment consult the police department. Taxicabs can be hired 
to points outside the city, the usual rate being 10 cents a 
running mile for return trips; otherwise 20 cents a running 
mile to point of destination. 


Few one-way streets, plainly marked. 

Central traffic district is bounded W. by Ford St.; S. by 
Troup and Court Sts.; E. by Union and Alexander Sts.; N. 
by University Ave., Central Ave., and Allen St. 

Speed limits : 25 m.p.h. in central traffic district; 35 m.p.h. 
on arterial highways outside central district; 30 m.p.h. 
elsewhere in the city; 15 m.p.h. in school zones 8 a.m. 
4.30 p.m.; 10 m.p.h. turning a corner. No right turns on 
red; no left turns during rush hours at marked intersections; 
no reverse turn in central traffic district. Autoists must not 



pass or approach within 7 ft. of a street car which has 
stopped to discharge or take on passengers. 

No parking in downtown section; parking on other 
streets is permitted except at points and for periods indi- 
cated on markers. Ample private parking space available 
in downtown area at rates as low as 10 cents a day. Inside 
parking available in a number of central locations. 


Seven hotels in the downtown district operated on the 
European plan, totalling over 3,600 rooms. 

SAGAMORE HOTEL, 111 East Ave., $3-50 $6. All 
rooms with outside exposure and bath; solarium, coffee 
shoppe, cocktail room. Home of Radio Station WHAM. 
Adjacent parking and garage. 

POWERS HOTEL, 34 Main St., $2.50 $5- Dining room 
with Colonial fireplace, cafeteria, air-cooled tap room with 
Musketeer murals, cocktail room, banquet hall, and ball- 
room accommodating 700 1,000. Ramp garage adjoining. 

HOTEL SENECA, 26 Clinton Ave. S., $3 $7. Air con- 
ditioned tap room, two dining rooms, and ball room ac- 
commodating 800 1,000; Blue Parlor with murals of 
Rochester historical scenes. Adjacent parking with garage. 

HOTEL ROCHESTER, 95 Main St. W., $3 $7. All 
rooms with bath and radio; large dining room and tap 
room, six private dining rooms for assemblies; adjoining 

FORD HOTEL, 67 Chestnut St., $1 $3. Restaurant, 
coffee shoppe, tap room, and private floor for unescorted 
ladies; parking and garage adjacent. 



CADILLAC HOTEL, 45 Chestnut St., $2 $5. All rooms 
with bath. Dining room, tap room, and room for private 
parties or sales meetings: adjacent parking and garage 

HAYWARD HOTEL, 19 Clinton Ave. S., $2.50 $4. Pea- 
cock Room, tap room, and coffee shoppe; garage adjacent. 

A number of apartment houses throughout the city offer 
tourist and resident accommodations. 

Tourist homes and camps surround the city. 


There are no public tourist or auto-trailer camps in 
Monroe County; but on all the main roads, especially near 
Rochester, are private tourist camps which provide for 
trailers. City authorities do not favor camping in the city. 
Parking of trailers on the streets is covered by the same 
regulations as the parking of automobiles. Camping, which 
heretofore has been provided for in some of the parks, has 
been discontinued mainly because of state regulations affect- 
ing sanitation and police supervision. At the present time 
all visitors at county parks are required to leave by 10 p.m. 


Eastman Theatre, Main St. E. and Gibbs St. Operas, con- 
certs, recitals; Metropolitan Opera in April or May; a series 
of plays for children on Saturdays in the winter season. 

Masonic Temple Auditorium, Main and Prince Sts. First- 
class legitimate plays at irregular intervals during the 
theatrical season. 

Community Play House, 820 Clinton Ave. S. Legitimate 
drama by Amateur Dramatic Membership Corporation. 
Season, Sept. May. 




In business district, 4 large first-run houses, 4 second-run, 
and one small theatre specializing in hits of previous years 
and selected European productions. 

Twenty-two neighborhood houses serving the outlying 
districts with re-runs. 


(Set City Tours and Tours out of Rochester.^) 
Cobbs Hill Park, Highland and Monroe Aves. 

Durand-Eastman Park, on Lake Ontario, via Culver Rd. 

Edgerton Park, Dewey Ave., Bloss and Backus Sts. 
Genesee Valley Park, Elmwood Ave. 

Highland Park, between S. Goodman St. and Mt. Hope 

Maplewood Park, Lake Ave. 

Ontario Beach Park, Charlotte, via Lake Ave. 

Seneca Park, St. Paul St. and St. Paul Blvd. (Zoo). 


University of Rochester Athletic Field, River Blvd., 
reached via South Ave. to Mt. Hope Ave. to River Blvd., 
or by Plymouth Ave. bus. Capacity 8,000. College baseball 
games, April 15 June 1, admission 25c and 50c. Football, 
Oct. Dec., 50c $1. 

During the summer, outdoor opera is staged here; admis- 
sion 50c $2. All prices plus tax; tickets at grounds. 

Edgerton Park Stadium, baseball and football; and, par- 
ticularly during Exposition week in September, pageants 
and championship quoit tournaments. The grandstand has 



a seating capacity of 4,000 persons. Parking accommoda- 
tions for 1,000 cars. 


One public 18-hole course in Durand-Eastman Park, two 
in Genesee Valley Park, one in Churchville Park (12 m. W. 
on State 33). Fees: residents, 50c; non-residents, $1. Club 
houses contain lockers, showers, and refectories. Equip- 
ment may be rented. Professional instructors available. 
Parking facilities. 

Many private clubs, admission by introduction or in- 


Forty-eight courts in city parks and playgrounds scat- 
tered about city. Permit necessary, issued by Park Dept., 
City Hall Annex, 34 Court St., 50 cents a year. Players must 
furnish all equipment, including nets. 


Pools in Genesee Valley Park and Seneca Park, open 
daily 10 a.m. 10 p.m. Admission free to 5 p.m., 25c 

In Genesee Valley Park, 2 pools, one for males, one for 
females. In Seneca Park, one pool; 4 days for males, 3 days 
for females, 10 a.m. 5 p.m.; mixed bathing 5 10 p.m. 
Lockers, lifeguards, and instructors. 

Powder Mills Park, (11 m. S. on State 15). One pool, 120 
ft. by 140 ft., depth 7 ft. Open daily 10 a.m. 8 p.m. 2 
days for females, 5 days for males. No lockers. Instructor, 
life guard. 


Rochester Baseball Stadium, Norton St., the home 
grounds of the "Red Wings" of the International League, 

3 1 


is reached via Clinton Ave. N., Joseph Ave., or St. Paul St. 
Accommodates 18,000. Admission: bleachers, 50c, grand- 
stand (unreserved) 75c, grandstand (reserved) $1, boxes 
$1.50; all prices plus tax. Tickets on sale at grounds and at 
3 Clinton Ave. S. Free parking space for 500 cars and rental 
space for 800 cars. 

Professional football games played in stadium Oct. 15 
Dec. 10. Admission 25c $1. Tickets at grounds. 


Local hunting and fishing regulations are subject to state 
laws. Licenses are obtainable at the Court House for either 
hunting or fishing, or for both; combined license for resident 
of state, $2.25; for non-resident, $10.50. Fishing is per- 
mitted in Lake Ontario, its bays, and at certain points on its 
tributaries. Further information from General Conservation 
League, 34 State St. 


National Guard, 108th Infantry, 52-acre military range 
at Float Bridge; a 200-yd. range, suitable for pistol, rifle, 
and machine gun. Members only. 

National Guard, 121st Cavalry, 40-acre military range at 
Mendon Ponds Park, reached via State 31 and 64; a 200-yd. 
range, suitable for pistol, rifle, and machine gun. Members 

Rochester National Defense Cont., Inc., 50-acre semi- 
military range at West Rush, reached via State 2A to Rush, 
West Rush Road to Golah; a 600-yd. range, suitable for 
large and small bore rifle, pistol, and trap shooting. Mem- 
bers only. Grant has been made by WPA for enlarging 


Community Gun Club, East Henrietta, reached via State 
2A; a semi-public regulation range for trap and skeet- 
shooting. Members and guests. 

Rochester Sportsmanship Club, at Scottsville, reached by 
State 35; semi-public regulation range. Members and guests. 


Mendon Ponds Park, Powder Mills Park, and Ellison 
Park (see Tours out of Rochester) contain many miles of marked 
bridle paths. Several riding academies and boarding stables, 
located near these parks, furnish mounts at a standardized 
price of $1 per hour. 

The Genesee Valley Riding Academy, 1900 S. Clinton 
Ave., specializes in teaching children. 

In 1937 local bridle trails were being mapped by the 
County Land and Bridle Association, 303 Wilder Bldg., 
where further information may be obtained. 


The larger city parks (see City Tours') contain many well- 
defined trails suitable for all-season hikes. 

In winter the frozen up-stream course of Black Creek, W. 
from Churchville Park, affords hiking through swamp 
lands practically inaccessible at other seasons. 

An attractive scenic hike follows the course of the Portage 
Trail, famous in Indian history as the carry between the 
Genesee River above the falls and Lake Ontario. This trail 
begins at Genesee Valley Park near Elmwood Ave. bridge, 
crosses the lower part of Mount Hope Cemetery and the 
crest of Pinnacle Ridge, and skirts the grounds of the Hill- 
side Home for Children to the terminus of the Monroe Ave. 



car line. From there the actual line of the trail leads across 
country to Indian Landing, more accessible, however, by 
way of Highland Ave. and Penfield Rd. to Landing Rd., to 
Indian Landing, the "back door" of Ellison Park. 

Strenuous hill-climbing trails lead through Ellison Park 
and over the wooded hills surrounding Irondequoit Bay. 

For more impressive scenic hikes than are to be found in 
the rolling farm lands of Monroe County, the hiker may go 
by car to the head of Canandaigua Lake, take the east shore 
trail and traverse the three-mile valley of Parish Gully, 
which contains many waterfalls. The climb up the 60-ft. 
waterfall at the head of this gully, best taken in June, 
necessitates wading, and challenges the most experienced 

In early June, when azaleas are in bloom, a pleasant 
hiking trail leads from the head of Honeoye Lake through 
Briggs Gully for 3 m. to Bulick's Swamp. To avoid rattle- 
snakes many hikers prefer to visit this swamp in winter. 

Further information from headquarters of Genesee Valley 
Hiking Club, Municipal Museum, Edgerton Park. 



Main St. is the principal dividing street, and in practically 
all instances numbering of streets begins north and south of 
Main St. The dividing street east and west is at the Four 
Corners where Exchange St. enters Main St. from the south, 
and State St. (Lake Ave. being its northerly continuation) 
enters Main St. from the north. Even numbers are upon the 
north and east sides of streets, and odd numbers are upon 
the south and west sides. Street guides may be purchased 
at stores, hotels, etc. 




Rochester's main shopping district is on Main St., from 
the Four Corners at State and Exchange Sts. to Gibbs St., 
the principal department stores being in this area. Clinton 
Ave. N. and S. has grown rapidly in high class stores of 
various types, and there is also a distinctive line of retail 
shops out East Ave. from Main St. to Alexander St., at 
which residential zoning begins. Monroe Ave. is rapidly 
developing as a shopping area. In addition, throughout the 
city are many neighborhood centers, with retail establish- 
ments which afford practically complete retail merchandise 

Rochester is a good place to shop for men's, women's, 
and children's wear, fine footwear, jewelry, books, furni- 
ture, and luggage. 


For a period of 39 years Rochester has enjoyed an average 
of 51% of sunshine. Normally the last killing frost is April 
29, and the first not before October 20. The humidity over 
a period of 14 years averaged 71.3. The average wind ve- 
locity is 9.2 m.p.h. with southwest winds prevailing. 

Records of temperature covering a period of 103 years 
show February to be the coldest month with an average 
temperature of 24.8. No other monthly average falls below 
freezing except December, with 28.6 and January with 
25-2. July, averaging 71, is the warmest month. The 
average annual temperature is 47.4. 

Thus the inhabitant of Rochester may expect per year, on 
the average, 85 all-clear days, 114 partly clear, and 166 
cloudy. He may expect 167 days with .01 inches of rain, 
94 with a trace or more, 27 with thunderstorm, 1 with a 



dense fog, 7 with a maximum temperature of 90, 130 with 
a minimum under 32, and only 4 below zero. 


Air Lines (American): Airport, Scottsville Road, Genesee 
4006. Information and reservations, 68 East Ave. 
Stone 2408. 

Auto Club of Rochester: 127 East Ave., Stone 11. 

Auto Dealers Associations, Inc. : 133 East Ave., Stone 5676. 
Information on sales, service, and repairs. 

Better Business Bureau: 163 Main St. E., Stone 330. Reports 
on all publications, investments, information for 
buyers and sellers. 

Chamber of Commerce: 55 St. Paul St., Main 546. Informa- 
tion: statistical, industrial, hotels, stores, and tourist 

Convention & Publicity Bureau, Inc.: Washington Sq. 
and Clinton Ave. S., Main 1765. 

City Park & Playground Dept: 34 Court St., Main 7155. 
All facts in regard to city parks. 

County Park Dept.: 34 State St., Main 1859. All facts in 
regard to county park laws; camping, hunting, fishing, 
coasting, and skating. 

County Veterans Service Bureau: 34 Court St., Room 325, 
Main 3105. 

Luncheon Clubs: Ad Club, Sagamore Hotel, Stone 2388. 
City Club, Hotel Seneca, Stone 396. Kiwanis, Hotel 
Seneca, Main 4076. Rotary, Powers Hotel, Main 1053. 

Election Board: Court House, 14 B., Main 2629. Informa- 
tion on voting. 

Fire Department: Main 34. 



Hospitals: General: 501 Main St. W., Main 2660. 
Genesee: 224 Alexander St., Monroe 1870. 
Highland: South Ave., and Bellevue Drive, Monroe 

lola Tuberculosis Sanatorium, East Henrietta Road, 
Monroe 3800. 

Municipal: Crittenden Blvd., Monroe 1231. 
Park Ave.: 789 Park Ave., Monroe 430. 
St. Mary's: 909 Main St. W., Genesee 1. 
Strong-Memorial: 260 Crittenden Blvd., Monroe 2000. 

Immigration and Naturalization Office: Federal Building, 
Church St., Main 1963. 

J. Y. M. A. andj. Y. W. A.: University Ave. and Andrews 
St., Stone 630. 

Library: Rundel Memorial Bldg., South Ave. and Court St., 

Main 3787. 

Licenses: Court House, Main St. W., Main 4052. Hunting, 
fishing, dog, and automobile. 

Marriage: City Hall, Main 4900. 

Lake Transportation: Canada S. S. Lines, 68 East Avenue, 
Stone 5680. Lake Car Ferry, 155 Main St. W., Main 

Museum, Municipal: Edgerton Pk., Glenwood 406. 

Nurses, Physicians and Surgeons Directory: 124 Glendale 
Pk., Glenwood 1972. 

Police Dept.: Headquarters, 137 Exchange St., Main 59. 
Post Office: 216 Cumberland St., Main 4792. 

Real Estate Board of Rochester, Inc.: 45 Exchange St., 
Main 5567. 



Steamship Lines, Central Travel Bureau: 19 State St., 
Main 5090. Kalbfleisch Travel Bureau, Lincoln-Al- 
liance Bank Bldg., Stone 878. 

Telegraph and Cable: Postal Telegraph, Stone 1689. West- 
ern Union, Main 5407. 

Weather Bureau: 40 Federal Bldg., Church St., Main 2208. 
Y. M. C. A.: 100 Gibbs St., Stone 2942. 
Y. W. C. A.: 190 Franklin St., Stone 4405. 


January 6 Twelfth Night Celebration. Cobb's Hill Park 
(Monroe car to Highland Ave.). Admission free. 

Easter Week Easter Flower Show. Lamberton Conserva- 
tory, Highland Park (South Ave. car to Reservoir 
Ave.). Admission free. 

April 26 to April 30 Music Festival. Eastman Theatre. 
Admission free. 

Between May 15 and June 15 Apple Blossom Festival. 
Brockport, N. Y. (Falls branch of New York Central 
R. R., or by auto U.S. 104 to Clarkson and then S. to 

Garden Club Exhibition, Convention Hall. 
Lilac Festival. Highland Park (South Ave. car). Ad- 
mission free. 

Early June Chamber of Commerce Rose Show. Chamber 
of Commerce Bldg. 

After Closing of Schools in June Orphans' Annual Picnic. 
Sea Breeze Park (Sea Breeze bus). 



June to September Yacht Races. Summerville (Summer- 
ville car). Admission free. 

Labor Day Week Rochester Exposition and Hobby Show. 
Edgerton Park (Dewey Ave. car). 

October 12 Columbus Day. Convention Hall. Mass Meet- 
ing, free; banquet, nominal fee. 

November Chrysanthemum Show. Lamberton Conserva- 
tory, Highland Park (South Ave. car). Admission free. 

Christmas Week Christmas Flower Show. Lamberton 
Conservatory, Highland Park (South Ave. car). Ad- 
mission free. 






^ MBRACING some 36 square miles of territory, with a 
population (1930) of 328,152, Rochester ranks third 

<^ in size among the cities of New York State. Its geo- 
graphical center lies 8 miles south of Lake Ontario, at the 
Four Corners, the junction of Main with State and Exchange 
Streets, where the village of Rochesterville began to grow 
in the early years of the 19th century. For a hundred years 
the Four Corners, just west of the Genesee River, was the 
heart of the city's commercial life; and the old Third Ward, 
farther west, the "ruffled-shirt district" which grew up 
around the home of Col. Nathaniel Rochester, set the tone 
in social life. But in recent years the city has rapidly moved 
eastward. Today most of the leading stores, the theatrical 
district, and many of the larger hotels are found on the east 
side of the river; and East Avenue has supplanted the Third 
Ward in social prestige. But the Four Corners still marks the 
financial center of the city; and its stately old buildings, 
though they may grate on modern architectural tastes, re- 
tain an air of solid dignity that is lacking in the newer 
district across the river, where old buildings unceremoni- 
ously jostle the new and where the streets are marred by 
the gaps of parking lots. 

Like most other American cities, Rochester has grown, 
not according to a plan, but rather in response to the un- 
regulated expression of individual enterprise; hence the 
helter-skelter street plan, particularly the irregular cross- 
hatching of short streets in the downtown business section. 



East Avenue 

One result is over-concentration of traffic on Main Street, 
today, as originally, the principal thoroughfare. Another re- 
sult is that the aesthetic values which the scattered build- 
ings of architectural note might produce are lost, and the 
structures themselves are easily missed unless pointed out. 



From the central downtown section the city stretches 
out in every direction and crystallizes into neighborhoods, 
each with its own shopping district, its motion picture 
theatre, its school, its bank, its branch library, and its 
churches. Characteristic of every residential section, of 
whatever economic class, is the individually owned home 
with its carefully tended lawn or backyard, a continuing 
expression of the period when the nursery industry pre- 
vailed in Rochester. 

The industries of today are not congregated in any one 
section of the city. They dot its skyline with clean, modern 
structures, usually in a park-like setting of wide, land- 
scaped grounds, which do not breed the slums of factory 
districts such as characterize most industrial towns. 

South and west Rochester has not grown beyond the 
Barge Canal; its present trend is toward the east and toward 
the north, where it extends in two narrow arms to the shore 
of Lake Ontario. 

The New York Central Railroad cuts a gash across the 
city east and west, marked by dingy offices and warehouses. 
The Genesee, called by the Senecas Casconchiagon, river of 
many falls, bisects the city north and south. Through the 
downtown section its banks are lined by the red brick rear 
ends of old mills and factories, a scene from which unbe- 
lievable beauty has been drawn by the brush of the artist. 
Farther north it flows by heavily wooded banks under a 
series of bridges, tumbles over the falls, rushes through the 
gorge which it has cut for itself, and meanders on into 
Lake Ontario. 

The ten busy bridges across the river, from the Elmwood 
Avenue bridge, the newest and most southerly, to the 
Veterans' Memorial bridge, far to the north, afford views 



as varied as the architecture of the bridges themselves. 
From the Elmwood Avenue bridge, the broad sweep of the 
placidly flowing river in the green setting of Genesee Valley 
Park and the towering new buildings on the River Campus 
of the University of Rochester; from the Clarissa Street 
bridge, the harbor and the skyline of Rochester's business 
center; the night view from the Court Street bridge; Main 
Street bridge, with its business blocks on both sides entirely 
hiding the river; the view of the upper falls from the Platt 
Street bridge; the gorge and lower falls from Driving 
Park Avenue bridge; at the Veteran's Memorial bridge, 
the graceful structure of the bridge itself and the majestic 
vistas up and down the river these are a few of the pic- 
tures in the panorama that is Rochester. 

Rochester is a city of homes; in 1937, 43 percent of its 
families owned their homes; in pre-depression days the 
percentage was much larger. Main Street may be typically 
"Main Street," but East Avenue, shaded by over-arching 
elms, its pretentious homes on spreading lawns almost 
hidden by foliage, has been called one of the most beautiful 
residential streets in America. The city has other streets 
of a distinct individuality: Oxford, with its magnolia 
parkway; Clifford Avenue with its blocks of flower-filled 
yards; Ambassador Drive, with its new and stately homes; 
Livingston Park in the old "ruffled-shirt district," with 
its century-old mansions and air of quiet distinction. 

The parks of Rochester, long admired and emulated in 
other cities, also have their individual charms. Highland 
Park has its lilacs, its azaleas, and rhododendrons, and 
hundreds of varieties of conifer trees; the grassy slopes of 
Genesee Valley Park border the waters of the winding 
river; Seneca Park occupies the verge of the Genesee Gorge; 
and Durand-Eastman Park is noteworthy for its beach, its 
hilly terrain, and its rose bowl. 




To-day, as always, the English stock predominates in 
Rochester and largely determines the life and culture of the 
city. Foreign language groups appeared early, and though 
they first came to work with hammer, shovel, and hoe, 
their influence has been wide and deep in culture, in in- 
dustry, and in commerce. From the German love of enter- 
tainment came first toleration and then acceptance of the 
theatre. The Jews lent their genius to the development of 
industry and commerce. The Italians, now out-numbering 
all other foreign groups, fill many important posts in civic 
leadership. The Hollanders cultivated the widespread mar- 
ket garden areas. From these and other racial groups the 
specialized industries of Rochester have recruited most of 
their skilled artisans. 

In point of numbers, counting both foreign and native 
born, the Italians lead with about 55,000 people, the Ger- 
mans come next with about 40,000, then the Canadians 
with 20,000, the English 15,000, the Poles and the Irish 
each over 14,000, the Russians over 10,000. In addition, 
there are small groups from a dozen far corners of the earth. 

While Italians, Poles, and others have for a time tended 
to congregate in certain sections, there has never existed in 
the city for any long period of time a distinct foreign 
quarter. Segregation has been modified by a constant filtra- 
tion into the great body of citizens. With the lessening of 
immigration in recent years, Americanization has progressed 


Rochester has become so well known as the Kodak City 
that the diversity of its industries is often overlooked. 
While the giant Eastman Kodak Company affords the city 
industrial pre-eminence, Rochester has several other man- 


ufacturing plants that have grown with the city and in their 
specialized fields bring it distinction. In the manufacture 
of optical goods the Bausch & Lomb Optical Company 
ranks among world leaders. From the time that William 
Gleason invented the gear-cutting machine in 1865, the 
Gleason Works have led the world in gear-cutting machin- 
ery. The thermometers of the Taylor Instrument Companies 
contribute to the efficiency of industry and science. In the 
field of dental equipment, the Ritter Dental Company has 
no competitor in this country. The products of the Todd 
Company insure the banks, the business, and the govern- 
ments of the world against check manipulators. The 
Pfaudler Company manufactured in 1884 the first glass- 
lined steel receptacles. Yawman & Erbe for half a century 
have increased office efficiency by the invention and manu- 
facture of office equipment. The General Railway Signal 
Company, with its series of improved safety devices, has 
helped American railroads establish records for safe travel. 
The Delco Appliance Corporation manufactures a large 
variety of electrical appliances. 

A complete list of Rochester 'industries would include 
over 1,000 names. More than 250 of them have been in 
Rochester for 50 years or more. In 1930, more than 63,000 
Rochesterians were employed in manufacturing industries; 
and some 22,000 were working in about 6,000 stores and 
other commercial establishments. 

Entering and leaving Rochester daily are 41 passenger 
trains, more than 160 busses, and 4 airplanes. In 1936 there 
were 105,198 inbound and 40,779 outbound freight cars, 
besides a network of automobile truck lines. The port of 
Rochester, at the mouth of the Genesee River, handles 
upwards of 1,000,000 tons of freight and about 70,000 
passengers annually; 90 per cent of the freight consists of 
coal exported to Canada. 



The most revealing fact about the banks of Rochester is 
that during the banking crisis of 1933 there were no failures 
and no loss of depositors' funds. The youngest bank in the 
city has been in operation for more than a quarter of a 
century; the others have records of from 40 to 100 years of 
growth and expansion. The aggregate resources of the six 
commercial and four savings banks exceed $425,000,000. 

By the side of this picture of economic achievement must 
be placed another picture of a neighborly people taking 
pride in their homes, warmly cooperative in social service, 
pioneering in education as well as in industry, devoted to 
their churches, and partaking in an active, discriminating 
cultural life under the stimulus of their institutions in the 
fields of literature, music, the theatre, and the fine arts. 

The people of Rochester have been accused of being overly 
self-complacent. When faced with the charge, they make 
no denial, but justify their self-satisfaction by pointing to 
their city with pride to its solid economic foundations, 
to its industrial preeminence in many fields, to its parks, its 
museums, its churches, its homes, its university, its Eastman 
School of Music, its symphony orchestra, its famous sons 
and daughters, its Genesee River, and the illustrious part 
it has played in the development of state and nation. 



THE beginnings of Rochester go back to the settlement 
of eight villages the sites of which are now included 
within the city limits. Rochesterville itself, from 
which the main line of descent derives, stood upon part of 
the land known in history as the Mill Yard Tract. After 
the Revolutionary War, both New York and Massachu- 
setts laid claim to a large part of what is now western 
New York State. By compromise in 1787, sovereignty over 
the land was awarded to New York and ownership to 
Massachusetts. In 1788 Massachusetts sold some 6,000,000 
acres of land to Oliver Phelps and Nathaniel Gorham, 
on condition that they obtain title from the Indians. 
The Indians ceded them 2,600,000 acres east of the Genesee 
and added 200,000 acres west of the river for a mill yard on 
condition that a mill be erected on this land for their use. 
Phelps and Gorham conveyed a 100-acre tract on the west 
river bank at the falls of the Genesee to Ebenezer 
"Indian" Allen on which he was to build and operate a 
grist mill. The place was known as The Falls. 

When Allen moved into his mill in 1789 he became the 
first white settler on the site of Rochesterville. So sparsely 
settled was the section in that year that when the mill was 
completed, only 14 men attended the raising bee and drank 
the canoe-load of rum provided for the occasion. 

5 1 


Scrantom Cabin 

Within the next decade a number of settlements were 
made in the vicinity: John Lusk at Indian Landing (1789); 
Enos Stone and others from Lenox, Massachusetts, in what 
is now Brighton (1789); William Hincher at the mouth of 
the Genesee, now Charlotte (1792); and a group of four 
New England families, supplemented later by the seven 
Hanford brothers, at Hanford's Landing (known until 
1809 as King's Landing), the site of which is east of Lake 
Avenue and north of Ridge Road. 

Allen's hundred acres were not a favorable location for 
settlement. According to early accounts, it was a dreary 
swamp infested with snakes and mosquitoes, and threatening 
settlers with a malarial type of fever called "Genesee 
fever." In 1792 Allen sold his property and moved to Mount 
Morris. After changing hands several times the 100-acre 
tract was purchased in 1803 by Col. Nathaniel Rochester, 

H I S T K Y 

Col. William Fitzhugh, and Major Charles Carroll, three 
gentlemen from Maryland. Fitzhugh and Carroll settled in 
Livingston County; Colonel Rochester gave his name to 
the present city. 

Settlement was slow. In 1809 when the State Legislature 
authorized the supervisors of Ontario and Genesee counties 
to build a bridge across the Genesee River at the site of the 
present Main Street bridge at a cost of $12,000, the opposi- 
tion protested that no one had any reason to cross the river 
at that point. 

In 1811 Colonel Rochester and his partners surveyed their 
land and offered lots for sale. On July 4, 1812, Hamlet 
Scrantom moved with his family into a house built for 
him on the site of the Powers Building and became the 
first permanent settler on the 100-acre tract. In the same 
year the bridge across the Genesee was opened to traffic 
and drew more families westward. 

The appearance of the settlement was not prepossessing. 
A straggle of muddy lanes, a cluster of cabins and shacks, 
it was derisively called Shantytown. The Indians lingered 
in three or four camps on the outskirts, and forests claimed 
the valley beyond. Rochesterville was, in fact, the smallest 
and least promising among its neighbors. Hanford's Land- 
ing was until 1816 the principal port on the Genesee. 
Castletown, now the southwestern part of Rochester, was 
established in 1804 by James Wads worth, the founder of 
that family in the Genesee country. Frankfort, now Roch- 
ester's second ward, was laid out in 1812 and enjoyed the 
advantage of Francis Brown's mill race; his mill ground 
upward of 200 bushels of wheat every 24 hours. Roches ter- 
ville's greatest rival was Carthage, located on the east 
bank of the river at the lower falls, now part of the seven- 
teenth ward. The settlement was started in 1809 by Caleb 
Lyons but owed its temporary prosperity to Elisha Strong, 
a Yale graduate. The village devoted itself to shipping and 



shipbuilding, and after 1816 Carthage Landing was the 
principal Genesee port. Taverns, stores, and a school were 
opened; a sawmill and a grist mill were constructed. And 
in 1818-19 the great Carthage bridge was built, 718 feet 
long and 30 feet wide, the summit of its arch 196 feet above 
the surface of the water. It was to attract trade and traffic 
to the village and make it the metropolis of the Genesee. 
The bridge stood for 15 months and then buckled and fell. 
In spite of mud and fever, mosquitoes and rattlesnakes, 
the settlement on the 100-acre tract showed signs of growth. 
In 1813 Abelard Reynolds built, on the site of the present 
Reynolds Arcade, a two-story home, which housed the 
first post office. In 1815 Samuel Hildreth started a stage- 
line to Canandaigua, the village began to receive mail three 
times a week, Abelard Reynolds opened his tavern, the 
first religious society was organized, and the first census 
fixed the population at 331. In 1816 the first newspaper, a 
weekly, began publication, and the Buffalo Road was 
opened to Batavia. In 1817 the village was incorporated 
as Rochesterville. 

It was neither the failure of the Carthage bridge nor the 
destructive fires and fevers in the other settlements that gave 
Rochester (the shorter name was legally adopted in 1822) 
the victory in the competition for supremacy on the Gen- 
esee. In September 1819 surveys were made for the Erie 
Canal, and the line ran through Rochester, along the 
present Broad Street. After the construction of the canal 
the development of Rochester was a matter of time, and 
eventually she absorbed all her former rivals. 


In 1823 Rochester held a celebration to mark the opening 
of its section of the Erie Canal and the completion of the 
aqueduct which carried the canal across the Genesee River. 


H IS TO K y 

The new waterway opened a new era for the village. The 
lake commerce declined in importance and all activities 
tended to concentrate along the new east-west flow of 
traffic. Using the large local supply of white oak and pine 
timber, Rochester became a center of canal boat construc- 
tion. (The same industry is now carried on near Rochester, 
on an entirely new plane, by the Dolomite Marine Cor- 
poration.) The first village directory, compiled in 1827, 
listed 9 sawmills with 2 more at Carthage, 8 canal basins, 
2 drydocks, and a set of machinery for raising canal boats 
out of the water for repairs. More than half the stock of the 
transportation companies operating on the canal was owned 
or controlled in Rochester. 

One great contribution of the canal to western New York 
was a drastic reduction in freight rates. Before its day, the 
high cost of transportation had limited the market of the 
Genesee farmer, who let his excess grain rot or turned it 
into whiskey. The canal enabled him to undersell his 
eastern competitors along the Hudson and the Mohawk. 
Genesee land values rose; settlers flocked to settle in the 
valley; more mills sawed lumber and ground flour; addi- 
tional land was cleared and planted to wheat. The soil of 
the Genesee Valley bore rich harvests, and Rochester be- 
came the Flour City. Within the first ten days of its use, the 
canal carried 40,000 barrels of flour from Rochester to 
Albany and New York. In 1827 the village directory listed 
seven flour mills. By 1833 exports from the Genesee had in- 
creased to $807,510 a year. 

In 1832 a railroad three miles long was built to Carthage 
to connect the canal with the head of navigation on the 
river. Though called a railroad, it was really a stage coach 
running on tracks and hauling open cars loaded with stones, 
lumber, potash, pearl ash, and bags of grain. This system of 
transportation of canal and lake boats linked by a "rail- 



road" served Rochester without competition until 1837. 
For the heavy stagecoach travel of the period Rochester was 
either a terminus or a stopover or transfer station for 16 
stage lines, averaging daily as many as 800 travelers who 
patronized its hotels, restaurants, and stores. 

In a sketch first published in 1835, Nathaniel Hawthorne 
described Rochester: 

Its edifices are of dusky brick, and of stone that will not 
be grayer in a hundred years than now; its churches 
are Gothic; it is impossible to look at its worn pave- 
ments and conceive how lately the forest leaves have 
been swept away . . . The whole street, sidewalks and 
centre, was crowded with pedestrians, horsemen, 
stage-coaches, gigs, light wagons, and heavy ox- 
teams, all hurrying, trotting, rattling, and rumbling, 
in a throng that passed continually, but never passed 
away. Here, a country wife was selecting a churn from 
several gaily painted ones on the sunny sidewalk; there, 
a farmer was bartering his produce; and, in two or 
three places, a crowd of people were showering bids on 
a vociferous auctioneer . . . Numerous were the lottery 
offices ... At the ringing of a bell, judges, jurymen, 
lawyers, and clients elbowed each other to the court- 
house . . . The number of public houses benefited from 
the flow of temporary population; some were farmers' 
taverns, cheap, homely, and comfortable; others 
were magnificent hotels, with negro waiters, gentle- 
manly landlords in black broadcloth, and foppish bar- 
keepers in Broadway coats, with chased gold watches 
in their waistcoat pockets . . . The porters were lumber- 
ing up the steps with baggage from the packet boats, 
while waiters plied the brush on dusty travellers, who, 
meanwhile, glanced over the innumerable advertise- 
ments in the daily papers ... I noticed one other idle 



man. He carried a rifle on his shoulder and a powder 
horn across his breast, and appeared to stare about him 
with confused wonder, as if, while he was listening to 
the wind among the forest boughs, the hum and bustle 
of an instantaneous city had surrounded him. 

With economic development came growth and im- 
portance in other fields. The first court of record was held 
in Rochesterville in 1820. In 1821 Monroe County was 
formed, and on September 4 the cornerstone of the first court 
house was laid on the present court house lot, deeded to the 
county by Rochester, Carroll, and Fitzhugh to be used for 
the county court house forever. In 1822 the first sidewalks 
were voted for; in 1824 the first Presbyterian Church was 
erected and the first bank opened its doors for business; in 
1826 the population numbered 7,669; in 1828 was built the 
Reynolds Arcade, later associated with the beginnings 
of many great enterprises; new schools and churches and 
bridges were added. In 1831 Col. Nathaniel Rochester died. 
In 1833 Rochester applied for a city charter. 

The social and cultural tone of early Rochester was set 
by the stern New England character. Though the early 
settlers were predominantly Congregationalists, their first 
church organization was Presbyterian, because they felt 
that the control of a governing presbytery would be more 
effective in promoting piety and morality under frontier 
conditions than the more democratic forms of Congrega- 
tionalism. From the churches grew the first schools, called 
"charity schools," which offered the only education avail- 
able to the great majority of children; what were then 
called "public schools" were public only in the sense that 
they were open to all who could afford to pay the tuition. 
In 1818 the first Sunday school was organized in Rochester- 
ville and was attended alike by Catholic and Protestant 
children. Mechanics Institute, Rochester's oldest educa- 



tional institution, began in 1829 under the name of the 
Rochester Athenaeum. Free public schools were established 
by a charter amendment in 1850. 

Early enterprises in the field of public amusement with- 
ered under the denunciations of the keepers of the public 
morals. The "elegant museum consisting of 34 wax figures 
and two elegant organs, also elegant views," opened in 
the Eagle Tavern in 1821, soon closed under the attacks of 
clergymen and editors. In 1825 the Rochester Museum, 
otherwise known as Bishop's Wax Works, opened on 
Exchange Street, and presented plays until 1852. Within the 
same period another theatre on Buffalo (now West Main) 
Street had a short life. Its first play was The Forty Thieves, 
the handbills stating equivocally that "this piece will be 
more interesting because the audience is familiar with the 
subject." In this theatre was also produced Richard III, the 
first presentation of Shakespeare in Rochester. In 1838 a 
local historian, ignoring Bishop's Wax Works, wrote that 
"theatres and circuses cannot now be found in Rochester." 
Newpapers refused to accept theatrical advertisements. But 
the large German immigration of the 1840's brought a love 
of recreation and amusements that forced its mellowing 
influence upon the city. In 1849 Corinthian Hall, with a 
seating capacity of 1,600, was erected on Exchange Place 
north of the Reynolds Arcade. 


The first railroad out of Rochester, the Tonawanda Rail- 
road to Batavia, opened on April 4, 1837, developed a new 
route of travel untouched by the canal. The first locomotive 
had no cowcatcher, and the engineer signaled his warnings 
with a coach horn. The decorated woodburner, with bulg- 
ing stacks and bright brass trimmings, appeared later. 


H I S T R Y 

Passenger coaches 15 feet long and accommodating 24 
passengers were built in Rochester shops. 

In the development of transportation in New York State, 
railroads came so close on the heels of the canals that, in 
order to protect its investment in waterways, the state im- 
posed restrictions on railroad competition. But as fast as 
the new means of travel proved its efficiency and economy, 
the restrictions were removed. Numerous small companies 
constructed short stretches of road between population 
centers; in 1850 the journey from Rochester to Albany in- 
volved six changes of cars. To meet traffic demands, these 
routes first pooled equipment to make through trains pos- 
sible, and then consolidated into large corporations oper- 
ating trans-state lines. In 1853 the New York Central Rail- 
road was organized and Rochester became an important 
station on this system. 

The story of the settlement and growth of the Middle 
West is not part of the history of Rochester; but as the 
western wheat fields were developed the milling industry 
began to move west and in the end Rochester was unable 
to sustain the competition in that field. The decline of the 
flour industry on the Genesee was not sudden; in fact, pro- 
duction reached its peak in the 1870's, with 31 mills and an 
output of a million barrels of flour annually. But western 
cities gained the ascendancy, and Rochester's last flour 
mill, the Van Vechten Milling Company, closed its doors 
in 1937. 

As flour-milling reached a plateau in its development and 
began to decline, other manufacturing processes made use 
of the city's water-power and transportation facilities: 
machine shops, cotton factories, breweries, boat-yards, 
coach and carriage, boot and shoe, and furniture factories. 
But the successor to milling in economic importance and 
repute was the nursery industry. 



The first seed business was organized by William A. 
Reynolds, son of Abelard Reynolds, in partnership with 
a Mr. Bateman. About 1840 this company was taken over 
by George Ellwanger and Patrick Barry, two former em- 
ployes. Ellwanger & Barry became one of the largest 
nurseries in the world and continued in business until 1918. 
This firm supplied trees for the early orchards of California, 
for the Royal Gardens of Tokyo, for planting in India, 
Australia, and the Dutch East Indies. Highland Park, once 
part of the company's domain, was presented by Ellwanger 
& Barry to the city. The firm founded by James Vick, second 
in prominence, specialized in flowers and seeds; 90 per cent 
of the varieties of cultivated asters in the United States were 
developed by James Vick. 

Other nurseries sprang up; Rochester became the Flower 
City, and assumed leadership in the growing and distribut- 
ing of nursery stock and garden and farm seeds. An import- 
ant contribution to the success of the industry was made 
by German gardeners, who came with the large German 
immigration after 1848, and transplanted their skill to the 
banks of the Genesee. In 1850 about 2,000 acres were de- 
voted to nurseries. The industry reached its height in the 
seventies and eighties; the city was almost completely sur- 
rounded by vegetable, flower, and tree nurseries. 

Aside from its economic importance, the nursery industry 
exerted a definite influence upon the physical development 
of the city. It inspired and encouraged the growth of the 
system of parks, which is today one of the prides of Roch- 
ester. And it helped make Rochester a city of individually 
owned homes. From many of the large nurseries grew affi- 
liated real estate companies that developed suburban home- 
owning districts. The Highland Park section was developed 
by the Ellwanger & Barry Realty Company, the Pinnacle 



section by the Crosman Realty Company, and Browncroft 
by the Brown Brothers Nurseries. 

In the middle decade of the 19th century Rochester was a 
bustling city of more than 40,000 inhabitants, with still 
flourishing flour mills, rapidly growing nurseries, and a 
variety of manufacturing industries. A contemporary his- 
torian wrote that "several of the mercantile blocks, the 
banks, and private residences, are beautiful structures and 
worthy of becoming architectural models." By the out- 
break of the Civil War the seeds for the growth and achieve- 
ment of the second half of the century had been sown. In 
1848 Frederick Douglass began publishing his paper, The 
North Star, Rochester homes became stations on the Under- 
ground Railroad, and abolition became the first of the many 
reform movements that kept the city in a ferment for the 
rest of the century. Susan B. Anthony was already asserting 
the rights of women in industry. In 1850 the University of 
Rochester and the Theological Seminary were incorporated. 
By 1852 the German population was large enough to sup- 
port two German newspapers, the An^etger des Nordens and 
the Beobachter am Genesee. Corinthian Hall was a well- 
known music center. And John Jacob Bausch had begun 
grinding the first American-made lenses. 


Setting aside its industrial growth, which is treated in 
another place, the story of the development of Rochester 
since the Civil War parallels in general that of most other 
fast-growing cities during the same period, a story which 
might be told in a kaleidoscopic moving picture of industry 
emerging from small-scale handicraft to large-scale mass 
production; street-cars discarding horses for electricity; 
horse and buggy traffic first frightened by hybrid horseless 
carriages and then replaced by the improved automobiles; 



cobblestone and brick giving way to cement and composi- 
tion stone as architecture turned from classical styles to 
utilitarianism; streets and sewers laid and extended to new 
boundaries; the functions of government enlarged and ex- 
panded. Charity and social service, once dependent prin- 
cipally upon the sympathy of the individual, was taken 
over by more efficient, if more impersonal, social service 
agencies. Society became less formal and more sophisticated. 
Individualism smoothed into uniformity. 

As Rochester prospered in response to technological ad- 
vances and improved transportation, better means of travel 
were called for within the ever-spreading city limits. The 
first attempts by the Rochester City & Brighton Railroad 
Company to construct a street-car line were bitterly opposed 
by property owners, who, fearing that the line would lower 
land values, obtained injunctions to prevent the laying of 
tracks in front of their property. In building the road, the 
company left gaps in the disputed areas and then had them 
built in during a holiday when the courts were closed to 
petitions. On July 9, 1863, a street-car made the first com- 
plete trip to Mount Hope and return. Already sagging 
under the weight of popular disapproval, the company was 
nearly ruined by the disastrous flood of 1865, which washed 
away tracks, damaged cars, and carried horses over the 
falls. After reorganizing, the company struggled on through 
many vicissitudes with slowly increasing success. 

The second horse-car line began running on South Avenue 
in 1874. In 1882 the Street Railway Company started a line 
of herdics from the Four Corners to the city limits via East 
Avenue. The first electric street-car line, running from the 
city boundary to Charlotte, was opened in 1889. By 1892 
the electrification of the old horse-car lines was completed. 
The law restricting street-cars to "no faster than a walk 
around corners" became a dead letter. In 1891, J. Harry 



Stedman, a Rochesterian, invented the street-car transfer, 
which swept into country-wide use. 

In the 1870's the bicycle craze attacked Rochester in an 
acute form. In 1880 the Rochester Bicycle Club was organ- 
ized. The fad gave rise to the city's first traffic problem, 
since the cyclists suffered many a fall on the ill-paved 
streets. On one occasion 15,000 wheelmen held a mass 
meeting in Genesee Valley Park and demanded better streets. 
Their protest was heeded : a law was passed imposing a tax 
of 25 cents on bicyles, and a network of cinder paths was 
constructed throughout Monroe County for their use. After 
that time increasing attention was given to street paving. 

George B. Selden, inventor of the automobile engine, 
was a patent attorney in Rochester, with an office in the 
old Reynolds Arcade. His first patent, filed in 1879 but not 
granted until 1895, covered a compression gas engine, a 
basic device which gave him a monopolistic control over 
the automobile industry until Henry Ford contested his 
claim in the courts and won the case. 

By 1900 automobiles had begun to appear on the streets of 
the city. They were mongrel vehicles, inheriting from their 
carriage ancestry dashboards and high seats. The noise of 
one coming down the street at the terrific speed of eight 
miles an hour was heard for blocks; pedestrians scurried 
before it; horses reared and plunged, and teamsters swore. 
By 1905 intricate traffic tangles, particularly at the Four 
Corners, had become a daily irritation, and a police traffic 
squad was organized, which smoothed out these difficulties 
and brought a new orderliness to the city's streets. The 
clatter of hoof-beats gradually died away and Rochester, 
moved on rubber tires. In 1914 the first motorized fire engine 
was put into use, and within 13 years every fire company 
in the city was motorized. The first jitney bus appeared on 
the streets in 1915- More autos, more street cars, more 
pedestrians made necessary the installation in 1926 of a 

H I S T R Y 

traffic light system. In a short time the city accustomed 
itself to obeying the signals, and jaywalking went out of 

The latest chapter in transportation was written by the 
airplane. Rochester's first attempts to fly were made in 1910; 
John J. Frisby made the first successful overnight flight the 
next year. In 1926 the first experimental mail flight was 
made from Rochester to Cleveland. Two years later the 
municipal airport was opened; to-day it maintains the 
most active student flying field in the state. Air traffic 
through Rochester for 1936 is indexed by a registration of 
6,800 airplanes. However, while its use grew more rapidly 
than that of the automobile, the airplane has not exerted 
so marked an effect upon the city. 

Before 1887 Rochester had no real parks. Small open 
spaces, city-owned, and known as squares, were scattered 
through the city. Many citizens, realizing the need for 
recreation parks, had urged appropriations for this purpose, 
but the proposal had been rejected by the City Council as 
"a sinful waste of tax money." But when in 1887 Ellwanger 
& Barry, the pioneer nursery firm, presented 20 acres of 
land to the city as the nucleus of Highland Park, the gift 
was accepted and became the first unit in the magnificent 
park system established the following year under the 
supervision of Dr. Edward Mott Moore, Rochester surgeon 
and "father of the park system." One improvement called 
for another. Additional parks suggested better streets lead- 
ing to the parks, and better houses along the streets. Prop- 
erty owners, inspired by visits to the parks, went home and 
improved their own lawns and gardens. 

The Children's Pavilion in Highland Park, another gift 
of Ellwanger & Barry, was dedicated in 1890. Five years 
later the lilac collection of Highland Park was started, and 


has grown to rival the collection at Kew Gardens, London. 
The Lilac Festival is an annual event enjoyed by 40,000 

Near the Elmwood Avenue entrance to Genesee Valley 
Park stands the statue of Dr. Edward Mott Moore, a large 
bronze figure gazing off across the rolling park lands and up 
the Genesee, symbolizing Dr. Moore's interest in the current 
of future years as in vision he built the parks of Rochester. 

Much of the beauty of Rochester's parks is due to the 
Genesee River, which has always been a capricious friend 
of the city. To it Rochester originally owed her very ex- 
istence, but lived in dread of its treachery. Spring floods 
often carried the Genesee over its banks, causing tremendous 
damage. Such a flood threatened the downtown section in 
1904 when an ice jam at the Clarissa Street bridge blocked 
the river. In 1913 the river rose to the highest level it had 
reached since the destructive flood of 1865, with a depth of 
8 feet of water pouring over the Court Street dam. Since the 
last deepening of the river bed and the building of the new 
Court Street dam, a repetition of the dreadful flood of 1865 
is impossible. No longer does Rochester hold her breath 
when "the ice goes out" in the spring; the occasion is 
rather a magnificent spectacle to be ranked among the 
city's annual events. The value of the river-deepening pro- 
ject was proved in 1933, when, on July 7, a storm lasting 
half an hour broke over the city, setting an all-time record 
for the vicinity with a rainfall of 1.98 inches. Although 
damage to the extent of $500,000 was caused, none of this 
loss was occasioned by flooding of the river. 

In social and intellectual history, the latter half of the 
19th century glows with the light of such individuals as 
Susan B. Anthony, Lewis Morgan, Lewis Swift, Dr. Edward 
Mott Moore, and Rochester's adopted son, Frederick 



In the middle years of the century, when it was still cus- 
tomary for women to center their interests in the narrow 
circle of the home, the women of Rochester took an active 
part in a world of wider horizons. How much of this public 
spirit was due to the local influence of Susan B. Anthony 
it would be difficult to say, but it is certain that a large 
part of the credit belongs to her. She fostered among her 
friends and acquaintances an interest in such matters as the 
abolition of slavery (her own home served as a station on 
the Underground Railroad), temperance, education, and 
equal rights in voting, property, and labor. Throughout 
the nation, and particularly in Rochester, she awakened 
women to a sense of responsibility in civic affairs and all 
matters pertaining to public welfare. 

In 1872, under the leadership of Miss Anthony, 14 
women voted the national and congressional tickets, the 
first votes ever cast by women in a national election in the 
United States. Although all were arrested, only Miss 
Anthony was held for trial, and she conducted her own 
defense. She was sentenced to pay a fine of $100, but the 
sentence was ignored by her and the fine was never collected 
by the court. 

In 1874, after many years of activity in the temperance 
movement, the women of Rochester succeeded in closing 
the front doors of saloons on Sundays. This partial achieve- 
ment was the first temperance victory after the forming of 
the Prohibition Party and the Women's Christian Temper- 
ance Union in 1850. The movement made no further prog- 
ress toward its goal until the organization of the Anti- 
Saloon League in 1895- 

A notable achievement by Rochester women was the 
forming in 1881 of the Clara Barton Chapter, the second 
Red Cross chapter organized in the United States. 



In the "New Woman" movement of the end of the 
century, Rochester women led rather than followed. They 
successfully invaded the office, the factory, and the store, 
and woman in industry became a factor to be reckoned with. 
Along with this economic emancipation arose the cult of 
culture. Numerous women's clubs devoted to intellectual 
improvement, such as the Ignorance Club and the Women's 
Ethical Club, were organized. In 1893 the University of 
Rochester, unable longer to turn a deaf ear to the clamor 
of feminine voices, reluctantly opened its doors to its first 
woman student. In the same year the Women's Educational 
and Industrial Union was organized. In 1899 women were 
elected to the school board for the first time and obtained 
a direct voice in the management of schools. 

The active scientific interest which characterized Roch- 
ester in the 19th century was unusual for a city so predom- 
inantly industrial and commercial. One reason for this was 
the presence of Lewis H. Morgan, America's most distin- 
guished anthropologist. As early as 1854 he founded the 
Pundit Club, made up of the distinguished and cultured 
citizens of the city. In 1879 he was elected president of the 
American Association for the Advancement of Science. He 
died in 1881, but his influence lived on and resulted in the 
incorporation in that year of the Rochester Academy of 

Lewis Swift, astronomer, was another Rochesterian. 
From a crudely equipped laboratory on the roof of a cider 
mill he saw in 1862 the first of the several comets he dis- 

The first fish hatcheries in the world, constructed in 1864 
in Caledonia, owed their existence to the discovery by Seth 
Green of Rochester of a method of artificially hatching fish. 



Dr. Edward Mott Moore came to Rochester in 1882 as 
surgeon-in-chief of St. Mary's Hospital. He made many 
contributions to medical science, among which were his 
studies in cardiac diseases and in the treatment of fractures 
and dislocations. But his interests extended from his pro- 
fession into civic affairs, and Rochester best remembers him 
as the father of its parks. 

During the early years of the 20th century industry in 
Rochester moved forward at a normal rate. But the World 
War brought a tremendous boom. All commerce and trade 
reacted to the stimulation. From other cities, from smaller 
towns, from rural districts workers flocked to Rochester 
and taxed its housing facilities to the utmost. Real estate 
values skyrocketed. An era of building, of industrial, com- 
mercial, and financial expansion began and continued 
almost without a let-up until the crash of 1929. Rochester's 
financial and industrial history since that date has for the 
most part paralleled that of other cities of its size a series 
of retrenchments and municipal economies. Industrial im- 
provement showed itself in the latter part of 1935, increased 
slowly in 1936, and in 1937 the city found itself well out of 
the sloughs of depression. 

In 1919 Mayor Hiram H. Edgerton visioned the Roch- 
ester of the future: the main currents of traffic would move 
through a subway and over a street of magnificent width 
built above this subway. Toward this end, after the opening 
of the Barge Canal, he started a movement for the purchase 
of the section of the old Erie Canal bed lying within the 
city limits. Work on the subway was begun in 1922. Broad 
Street, constructed over the subway, was opened for use in 
1923, and in 1927 the first electric cars to run through the 
subway on their own power carried city officials on an 
inspection trip of the new traffic way. While it is true that 
Broad Street and the subway have never fulfilled Mayor 


Edgerton's hopes by becoming the city's chief traffic arteries, 
both have been of great value. 

In 1934 Rochester looked back over her long-traveled 
road and held a centennial celebration in Edgerton Park. 
The guest of honor was Mayor Leach of Rochester, Eng- 
land. For a month thousands gathered to witness a spec- 
tacular pageant, the reenactment of the drama of the city's 
life. In a historic procession they came riling down the years : 
Indians, the first white man, early settlers arriving by ox- 
cart, by stage-coach, by packet boat. Again Sam Patch 
made his famous leap. Again the city cheered when the 
first boat swept through the canal. And again slaves fled 
along the old Underground. After thus reviewing her past, 
Rochester faced about and moved ahead into her second 


The charter of 1817, by which the village of Rochester- 
ville was incorporated, limited the franchise to "free- 
holders and inhabitants qualified to vote for members of 
assembly." In the first election, held in the same year, there 
were elected five trustees, three assessors, three firewardens, 
a treasurer, a tax collector, a constable, and a poundkeeper. 
The first tax levy did not exceed $350. The trustees were 
empowered to make regulations governing public markets, 
alleys, streets, highways, footwalks and sideways, 
slaughter houses, village watch and lighting, and public 
wells and pumps; to restrain dogs and swine, to improve 
common lands, to inspect weights and measures, to see that 
chimneys and fireplaces were kept clean and in repair, to 
regulate taverns, ginshops, and huckster shops within the 
village, to establish fire companies, and in general to do 
"anything whatsoever that may concern the good govern- 
ment of the village." By amendment to this charter, the 
name of the village was legally shortened to Rochester on 



May 1, 1822. The more elaborate charter of 1826, which 
divided the village into five wards, empowered the trustees 
to "pass ordinances for preventing theatres, billiard tables, 
or theatrical or circus performances, the exhibition of wax 
figures, wild animals, mountebanks, fireworks, and all 
other shows exhibited by common showmen." 

In 1834 Rochester was granted its first city charter. Public 
education and public welfare were introduced as city func- 
tions; taxes were imposed for lighting the streets and main- 
taining a night watch, a fire department, and highways. 
Rochester's first mayor was Jonathan Child. 

The subsequent charters up to 1900 were essentially 
recodifications of previous charters made necessary by 
numerous amendments. The charter of 1844 added a depart- 
ment of public health; the charter of 1850 added the office 
of comptroller; the charter of 1861 created a board of water 
commissioners and provided for four to six city physicians; 
the charter of 1880 increased the area of the city to 10,373 

In 1900, under the law passed by the state legislature in 
1898, Rochester was granted a second-class city charter. 
In 1907, with a population exceeding 180,000, it was 
granted a first-class city charter. 

On July 28, 1925, the legislature granted home rule to the 
cities of the state. Rochester was the first to avail itself of 
the new powers. The council-manager form of government 
was submitted to the voters on November 3 of the same 
year and was adopted. Under the new charter the common 
council was reduced from 24 to 9 members elected on a non- 
partisan ticket, and the mayor was released from all tech- 
nical details of city business. In 1932 a number of changes 
were made; the principal one was the abandonment of non- 
partisan elections to the common council. 


The story of Rochester's changing charter revolves 
around a central figure, the mayor, first appointed by the 
council, then, by legislative enactment, elected by the 
people. His position increased in importance until in 1872 
the charter became involved in commissions operating in- 
dependently of the mayor. A revolt in 1900 restored the 
mayor's authority. Now in 1937 the entire administrative 
power is vested in the City Manager, who appoints the 
heads of the four city departments, law, finance, public 
works, and public safety. The mayor is again appointed by 
the council, and the cycle is complete. 




YEARS before the adoption of the 19th amendment, 
Rochester women voted in a national election for 
the first time on record. 

After the 14th and 15th amendments became part of the 
Constitution in 1868, many women believed that these 
measures gave them the right to vote. In 1872 to determine 
the question by a test case, 50 Rochester women under the 
leadership of Susan B. Anthony, head of the early suffrage 
movement, registered. Election inspectors in all but one 
ward refused to accept their votes. In the eighth ward the 
votes of Miss Anthony and 14 companions were accepted. 
Both Miss Anthony and the inspectors were arrested and 
held in $500 bail. When Miss Anthony refused to supply 
the money, bail was provided by her attorney, Judge Henry 
R. Selden. 

The case was tried in the United States District Court in 
Canandaigua. Judge Hunt ordered the jurors to find Miss 
Anthony guilty but dismissed them before they reported a 
verdict. Miss Anthony was fined $100, but refused to pay; 
whereupon the judge declared: "Madam, the court will 
not order you to stand committed until the fine is paid." 
Miss Anthony was free to go, but this leniency of the court 
was really a defeat for the suffrage movement, for Miss 
Anthony was left without grounds for taking the case to a 



Susan B. Anthony 

higher court for an interpretation of the 14th and 15th 

The election inspectors fared likewise. Fined $25 each, 
they were not compelled to pay. 


Not only were the first voting machines used in a Roch- 
ester election, but they were invented and manufactured in 
Rochester. In 1889 Jacob H. Myers, a Rochesterian, filed 



application for a patent on the ancestor of the present 
elaborate device. Myers machines were tried out in the city 
in the elections of 1895, 1896, and 1897. Not proving sat- 
isfactory, they were abandoned. As a consequence Myers 
fell into financial difficulties and his rights were purchased 
by the United States Standard Voting Machine Company, 
a local concern. After acquiring other patents and making 
improvements of its own, the company was able to induce 
the city council to buy new machines and try again. From 
the turn of the century, Rochester has constantly used 
machines in its elections. 

The new company ran into financial bogs in 1908 and, 
failing to get additional capital in Rochester, moved to 
Jamestown. The successor firm, the Automatic Voting 
Machine Company, now operating in Jamestown, is one 
of the largest plants of its kind in the world. 


In 1880, James G. Cutler, a Rochester architect, who later 
became well known as a manufacturer and as mayor, in- 
cluded the first mail chute in his plans for the Elwood 
Building at the corner of Main and State Streets. So success- 
ful was it that he applied for a patent on the device in 1883* 
Rochester postal officials petitioned federal authorities to 
investigate its possibilities; the device was approved by the 
Post Office Department; and a company was formed in 
Rochester to manufacture chutes The Cutler Mail Chute 

Today letters are dropped in Rochester chutes from 
Halifax to Cape Town and from Tokyo to Paris. The chute 
works as well in a skyscraper as in a two-story block. A 
tendency in the early days for the flood of letters to fill the 
small boxes and clog the chute has been overcome by the 
installation of larger boxes. Those in the Empire State 
Building and in Radio City are a full story in height. 




Rochester was just changing over from the slow, lumber- 
ing horse-cars to shiny new electric trolleys in 1891 when 
J. Harry Stedman, a Rochesterian, invented the transfer. 

Before that time if a passenger changed cars he had to pay 
another fare, except of course in passing the home of Joseph 
Medbury in State Street near Andrews. Mr. Medbury had 
obtained an injunction to restrain cars from passing his 
land, and passengers were forced to get out and walk to 
another car waiting on the other side of the property line. 

Before Stedman *s invention some street-car companies 
had already used paper slips for transfers that were good 
"while legible." Stedman's invention soon was adopted 
by more than 400 traction companies using 750 million 
transfers a year. By the time the patent expired in 1909 he 
had printed more than seven billion transfers. Crude affairs 
at first, they were rapidly elaborated with a variety of 
features. The date, consecutive numbers, the name of the 
conductor and of the line were added. Black printing on 
white paper was used for morning, white on black for 
afternoon and evening. Later, faces portraying distinguish- 
ing features adorned the transfers, to permit identification 
of passengers by a snip of the conductor's punch in the 
right place: "clean shaven," "full beard," "with mus- 
tache," "with side-burns," and "with chin whiskers" 
for the men; and for the women, "with bonnet," "with 
hat," "thin," or "plump." The woman presenting a trans- 
fer punched "with chin whiskers" undoubtedly found it 
even more useless than now to argue with the street-car 
conductor. On the other hand, the whiskered man with a 
"smooth shaven" transfer might have some basis for laying 
it to the length of the trip and slowness of the cars. 




In 1849 Bishop & Codding, a local firm specializing in the 
manufacture of plowshares, turned to making the first 
fountain pens on record. The following advertisement 
appeared in a Rochester newspaper almost 90 years ago: 
"This truly great invention renders the pocket gold pen 
perfect and invariably considered as the great desideratum 
fully attained. This pen is particularly useful to travelers 
and all others using pocket ink stands." The quick demise 
of pocket ink stands followed, no doubt giving the Roch- 
ester post office and Rochester banks the further distinction 
of being the first link in a now vast chain of free fountain- 
pen filling stations. 

For men of discrimination and superior honesty, however, 
this surreptitious siphoning of bluing, cornstarch, and 
sand was no more necessary then than now after Milo 
Codding, a brother of the inventor, brewed ' 'The Famous 
Codding Fountain Pen Ink." This, as an early advertise- 
ment described it, was "as pure as rare old wine, flows 
smoothly as oil, and leaves when dry only a fine, smooth 
paste on the paper. 

That the new pen was not all it might have been is indi- 
cated by the fact that Bishop & Codding soon turned to the 
manufacture of boots and shoes. 


A distant ancestor of the present medicated cigarettes 
was one invented in 1877 by D. Wark, a Rochesterian. 
Described as a great "contribution to medical science," 
this cigarette was rolled in paper which had been saturated 
in a solution of nitrate of potash, juniper, tar, and oil of 
turpentine. It was supposed to alleviate the pain of the 
asthma-suffering populace. 



Country cousins, in New York for weekend visits, until 
recently gasped with unabashed awe at a shiny machine 
turning out cigarettes by the dozens of cartons in a Broad- 
way show window. Little did the gaspers know that Oscar 
W. Allison, a Rochester tobacco manufacturer, amazed his 
generation by the invention in 1880 of a machine that would 
produce 150 cigarettes a minute. 

In the same year William S. Kimball formed the Kimball 
Tobacco Company and housed it in a new factory building, 
now the City Hall Annex. This plant boosted its production 
to 140,000,000 cigarettes in 1883, and a few years later was 
purchased and absorbed by the American Tobacco Co. 


In 1843 J. B. Beers, a Rochester dentist, patented his in- 
vention of a gold tooth, "a hollow crown secured by cement 
to a screw inserted in the roots of the broken tooth." Dr. 
Beers, who had an office in Reynolds Arcade, was a firm 
believer in advertising. He proclaimed in the Rochester 
directory : 

"I would respectfully call the attention of the public to 
my specimens of incorruptible teeth, mounted on gold 
plate. Also to my new, improved method of engrafting 
artificial gold teeth upon the natural roots, which 
renders them more permanent and durable than those 
inserted upon the old plan with wooden pivots." 
Before the invention of the gold tooth, the source of 
supply for artificial teeth for the affluent was ivory from 
which the dentist carved a molar to fit. To unfortunate 
victims of frequent canal brawls were offered the cheaper 
calves' teeth "dressed to proportion." One Rochester den- 
tist advertised that he would "put in pivot teeth, selected 
from a bottle of human teeth procured in a Florida war." 
The gold tooth proved a popular substitute and, in addi- 
tion, provided no little personal adornment. 




Ebenezer Allen (1742-1814), the Daniel Boone of the 
Genesee country, was Rochester's first settler. Across the 
stage of history, against the vivid backdrop of his time, 
he struts, tall and handsome, clothed by tradition in the 
pied coat of heroism and scandal. 

His military record as a lieutenant in the British army 
credits him with bravery and rare diplomacy in dealing 
with the Indians. In 1782 he was sent from Fort Niagara to 
Livingston County to investigate Indian activities. For 
more than a year he was a guest of Mary Jemison, "White 
Woman of the Genesee," in her home on Gardeau Flats 
near Mount Morris : with the aid of her friendship and his 
marriage to an Indian woman, he achieved a strong influence 
over the Senecas. From them he obtained title to a tract 
of land near the site of Scottsville, on which in 1786 he 
built a log cabin. 

A pioneer named Nathan Chapman, traveling with his 
family to Niagara, stopped at Allen's cabin. Lucy Chapman, 
a daughter, married Allen, and lived there with him and 
his Indian wife. In 1789 Allen moved to the Falls to build 
a sawmill and gristmill. In return for erecting these mills 
Allen received from Oliver Phelps the 100-acre tract on 
which downtown Rochester now stands. 

In the course of time, Allen added other wives to his 
harem. Tradition says that, in addition to being a multi- 
bigamist, he was a Bluebeard who attempted to dispose of 
one of his wives, Millie McGregory, by hiring two men 
to take her out on the river in a canoe and upset the boat. 
The men carried out his orders, but Millie, refusing to take 
the hint, swam ashore, and lived to inherit a part of Allen's 

Because of his violent temper Allen was called by the 
Indians Genushio, a name which they also gave to the boil- 



ing torrent of the Genesee. He is said to have killed a small 
boy who aroused his rage by taking too long to fetch a 
pail of water from the spring. 

In 1792 Allen sold his mills and returned to Mount 
Morris, but there he began to feel crowded by the dozen 
or so white families with whom he shared the Genesee 
Valley. He needed more elbow room. Always a trail blazer, 
he followed the receding wilderness into the forests of 
Canada, building mills and opening new frontiers for the 
civilization from which he fled. In the end, however, his 
wild spirit appears to have been tamed; in his old age he 
was overtaken, like David and Solomon, by repentance, 
became a deacon in the church, and died in the odor of 

How can one classify a man who, equally at home with 
aristocrat and savage, rode to hounds with Alexander 
Hamilton and was a close friend of George Washington, 
yet chose to marry an Indian squaw? Ebenezer was not nice. 
His matrimonial peccadillos were frowned upon, even in the 
unfastidious frontier days. Moreover, his earlier British 
sympathies, which he claimed to have foresworn, placed 
him in the eyes of his neighbors under the suspicion of 
Toryism. But after discounting as propaganda or as folk- 
lore many of the stories that have come down to us, 
"Indian" Allen still looms large, a figure of romance, a 
man of blood and iron, who cleared the way for settlement 
along the Genesee. 


In 1797 Louis Philippe, afterwards King of France, came 
with his brothers, the Duke of Montpensier and Count 
Beaujolais, to view the Genesee Falls. The young nobleman 
had been exiled from France because of his Jacobean opin- 
ions. Driven by curiosity to see the new world of wilder- 


ness and Indians, he journeyed from Philadelphia under 
the guidance of Thomas Morris, son of Robert Morris, 
financer of the Revolution. From Canandaigua the royal 
party proceeded, probably on foot, toward the Genesee. 
They came along the New Landing Road across the head 
of Irondequoit Bay. Dinner time approached, and the 
hungry travelers eyed with disfavor the few clay-chinked 
log huts along the way; but Mr. Morris reassured them. 

"Wait till we reach Orringh Stone's Tavern. I've sent 
word ahead by an Indian runner, and Mrs. Stone will give 
us a feast." 

In the midst of its well-kept garden surrounded by currant 
bushes and fruit trees, crabapple and wild plum, the tavern 
offered hospitality beneath its sloping roof with scalloped 
rake mouldings. The guests should have been surprised to 
find, deep in the wilderness, so trim and sturdy a house as 
Orringh Stone Tavern. But, unreconciled to frontier stand- 
ards, Louis Philippe was apparently not impressed, for, 
50 years later, when he saw in Paris a large square of plate 
glass ready for shipment to Rochester, New York, the King 
of France exclaimed, "What can they do with that in that 
awful mudhole!" 

Perhaps his opinion of the "mudhole," if expressed im- 
mediately after the feast prepared by Mrs. Stone, would 
have been less derogatory. Full fed on roast pig, wild 
pigeon, turkey, corn-bread, apple and pumpkin pies, the 
royal guests probably rested awhile by the cheery blaze in 
the great nine-and-a-half-foot fireplace. When they con- 
tinued their journey after drinking generous noggins of 
Orringh Stone's applejack and pegs of native whiskey, 
they may have seen a rare and beautiful phenomenon, a 
prismatic rainbow over the Falls. 

Orringh Stone Tavern still stands on East Avenue, oppo- 
site Council Rock. Perhaps the hand of the King of France 



rested on the jamb of its door as he steadied himself after 
the extensive, well-liquefied first royal dinner party. 


There are several contestants for the honor of being the 
first white child born in Rochester. Several authorities 
claim that the first time Rochester's primeval forest echoed 
to the wail of a newborn paleface was when Seneca Allen 
was born. He was the son of Ebenezer Allen and Lucy 
Chapman, the second of Allen's plural wives, and was born 
February 18, 1788. The mills at the Falls were not com- 
pleted until November 1789. Though Allen lived in Scotts- 
ville when he married Lucy Chapman, it is known that he 
resided at the Falls while the mills were being built. So 
Seneca might have been born on the site of Rochester; at 
any rate he was the first white child born in what is now 
Monroe County. 

The second claimant, John P. Fish, was born seven years 
later. His father, Col. Josiah Fish, was engaged by Ebenezer 
Allen in 1796 to take charge of the mills at the Falls. The 
house in which his son was born, situated near the east end 
of Aqueduct Street, was the first building on the original 
site of Rochester to be occupied exclusively as a dwelling. 

Some local historians have named James S. Stone as 
Rochester's first white child, but in later years Mr. Stone 
himself disclaimed the honor, stating that he was born 
May 4, 1810, in Orringh Stone's tavern in the town of 
Brighton while his father, Enos Stone, was building a log 
house on St. Paul Street, into which the family moved two 
weeks later. 

George Evans, another claimant, the son of a retired 
sailor, was launched on life's voyage in 1811 in a cabin 
near the site of St. Mary's Hospital. 

A fifth claimant, Robert C. Schofield, was born April 1, 
1812, in a shack hastily constructed to accommodate work- 



men who were building the first Main Street bridge. Al- 
though Mr. Schofield's tardy entry seems to disqualify him, 
his claim is not without interest, for an old letter written 
by him states: "Col. Rochester offered to give me 50 acres 
of land if my father would name me after him, but as there 
was another boy born some days after, Stark by name, 
whose father wanted his boy treated the same way, my 
father, being rather proud spirited, declined the honor." 
Thus parental pride deprived the infant at once of 50 acres 
of land and of the honor of bearing the name of Rochester's 

Mortimer Reynolds, born in 1814 on the site of Reynolds 
Arcade, was long considered to be the first white child born 
on the Hundred Acre Tract. To William Dennison goes the 
distinction of being the latest born claimant, for he did not 
enter the competition until 1819. 

However clouded may be the title of First Native Roch- 
esterian, it is certain that no wedding occurred in Roch- 
ester until 1815, when Delia Scrantom married Jehiel 


On September 1, 1812, Jehiel Barnard, a young man of 
24 and already a master tailor, arrived in Rochesterville 
on horseback, bringing with him all his worldly posses- 
sions, including a pair of broad, stubby, London-made 
shears, which are now a prized possession of the Rochester 
Historical Society. His first order was a suit for Francis 
Brown, a prosperous settler in Frankfort, whom he charged 
20 shillings for the cutting and sewing. In time he built 
Rochesterville's first tailor shop, a two-story building, 18 
feet by 16 feet, near the present Main Street entrance of the 
Reynolds Arcade. Part of the space in the building he rented 
to Rochester's first shoemaker. In the rear of the building he 


and Hamlet Scrantom constructed an oven and carried on 
the first bakery in the village. In another room of his build- 
ing, use of which he donated, a school was organized in 
1814; eight bachelors paid the cost of educating eight of 
their neighbors' children. At a meeting held in Barnard's 
shop it was decided to build a schoolhouse. Early in the 
life of the village, Sunday services were held in Barnard's 
tailor shop. In 1815, at a public meeting held in the shop, 
the first steps were taken to organize the First Presbyterian 

Jehiel also had his lighter side. In the first village band, 
which was organized in Abelard Reynold's tavern in 1817, 
he played the bassoon. He also had a good voice, and many 
were the singing bees held in his tailor shop. This versatile 
tailor even tried to emulate St. Patrick and undertook to 
rid the village of snakes; he killed six rattlers, and collected 
for himself six shillings as bounty. His usefulness to the 
village was recognized in 1817 by his election as one of the 
five members of the first board of trustees. 

In 1815 Barnard married Delia Scrantom, and added to 
his other accomplishments the honor of being Rochester's 
first bridegroom. His children became useful and respected 
citizens of the later city. When his health gave way in 1837 
under repeated attacks of asthma, he retired to a farm in 
Ogden managed by one of his sons. In 1863 he returned to 
Rochester and lodged with another son on Exchange Street. 
He died on November 7, 1865, after a long, active, and 
useful life. 


In May 1814, a fleet of thirteen British ships commanded 
by General Yeo anchored at the mouth of the Genesee 
River, threatening Charlotte with their cannon. Cut off 
from outside aid by miles of forest, the little village of 



The Old Lighthouse, Charlotte, 1822 

Rochesterville was thrown into wild panic. The situation 
was desperate. There were only 33 able-bodied men to de- 
fend the village. Under the command of General Porter, 
and armed with a heterogeneous collection of muskets, 
scythes, and clubs, these 33 men marched down to Charlotte 
to defy the British navy. 



In the meantime the women of the village had packed 
their household goods in ox-carts and the boys had driven 
the livestock far back into the woods in preparation for 

Lacking numbers, the little "army" resorted to guile 
and subterfuge. Screened by the fringe of trees on shore, 
the settlers marched in and out of the trees before the 
astonished eyes of the British, who were convinced that 
from some source a large army had rallied to the defense of 
Charlotte. Hurriedly the fleet pulled up anchors and sailed 
away. The British lion had turned tail and run before 33 
men. With laughing affection, Rochester cherishes the 
story among its collection of "family jokes." 


On a day in January 1813, the Senecas gathered on the 
site of Livingston Park to hold their last Sacrifice of the 
White Dog. At that time five small Indian encampments 
still lingered on the fringes of the village; two years later 
these camps had disappeared. 

The last Sacrifice of the White Dog, celebrating the re- 
turn of the tribe from a hunting trip, lasted nine days. 
Several braves participated in a mask dance, each wearing 
a hideous and terrifying mask. They visited each wigwam 
in turn, where, by weird incantations with firebrands, the 
evil spirits infesting the wigwams were supposed to be 
driven into the bodies of the dancers, who then by secret 
ceremonies transferred the evil spirits into one member of 
their group. He, in turn, transmitted the spirits to the 
white dogs. Then, as the dogs were cast onto a sacrificial 
pyre and roasted, the Indians believed that their own sins 
had been consumed in the flames. Apparently the evil spirits 
did not inhere in the bodies of the dogs, for these were 
afterward converted into a stew and eaten b the tribe. 



The little village of Carthage, like Carthage of old, once 
knew glory and the hope of future greatness . She visioned 
herself as the center of a vast web of traffic, both by water 
and by land. To this end she spanned the Genesee with a 
wooden bridge of mammoth size. Nowhere in the world 
at that time, not even in the great cities of Europe, existed 
a bridge of such height and length. Its incredible length 
of 718 feet, its arch vaulting to a height of 196 feet, evoked 
the astonishment of all who saw it. It was one of the 
engineering miracles of the age. Little Carthage looked 
with pride upon her achievement. 

The Rochester Telegraph of Feb. 16, 1819, sang the 
praises of the bridge : 

It presents the nearest route from Canandaigua to 
Lewiston; it connects the points of the great Ridge 
Road; it opens to the counties of Genesee and Niagara 
a direct communication with the water privileges at 
the lower falls and the head of navigation in the river, 
and renders the village of Carthage accessible and 
convenient as a thoroughfare from the east, the west 
and the north. 

Carthage's hopes seemed built upon a firm foundation. 
The contractor had guaranteed the bridge to stand for a 
year and a day, and so it did; but three months later, on 
May 22, 1820, the arch, not sufficiently braced to sustain 
its own great weight, buckled in the middle and gave way. 
The great bridge fell! With it fell the hopes of Carthage, 
for, though two other bridges succeeded it, both were 
swept away by floods. This disaster was the beginning of 
the end of Carthage, for with the coming of the Erie Canal 
and the later construction of the railroad, Rochester began 



to take her place as the great city of the Genesee. The 
epitaph of an older Carthage applies equally well to its 
short-lived namesake: 

Great Carthage low in ashes cold doth lie. 
Her ruins poor, the herbs in height can pass. 
So cities fall, so perish kingdoms high, 
Their pride and pomp lie hid in sand and grass. 


In the early 1800's so many wolves infested the Genesee 
Valley that the "wolf at the door" was an ever present 
menace. The towns of Monroe County offered such a large 
bounty (in some cases $5) for the extermination of the 
dangerous pests that by 1830 wolves were believed to be 
extinct in this region. 

In February 1830, great excitement was caused by the 
news that a wolf was at large in Irondequoit, ravaging 
sheep and doing much other damage. Through the village 
of Rochesterville the rumor spread like wildfire that this 
was no ordinary wolf. Each day new stories were told of 
its depredations, its fabulous size, its supernatural cunning. 
It became, in the imagination of the villagers, a veritable 
loup-garou. Mothers cautioned children to stay near the 
house or the wolf would get them. Pedestrians walking 
along the street after dark cast fearful backward glances. 
Old muskets which had not been fired since 1812 were 
cleaned and loaded; doors and windows were barred at 
night. The shadow of the Big Bad Wolf held the village in 
a stage of siege. 

On a winter's day a hunting party of about a hundred 
people gathered and went to Irondequoit to hunt the wolf. 
The hunt lasted for five days, a hilarious occasion long 
remembered, culminating in the killing of the wolf. He was 


brought back to Rochesterville and exhibited. When 
measured, he was found to be five and one-half feet long. 
The skin was stuffed, and for many years the last wolf of 
the Genesee country stood before a hat store opposite the 
Arcade, snarling silently at passersby. The wilderness had 
been conquered and its fiercest menace served tamely as an 
advertising sign. 


In the fall of 1847, John D. Fox, a blacksmith from Roch- 
ester, moved with his family into an old house in Hydes- 
ville, New York. According to local legend the house was 
haunted by the ghost of a murdered peddler. Strange noises, 
knocks, and rappings in the house disturbed the Fox family 
so frequently that the two Fox children, Margaretta and 
Catharine, aged 12 and 9, lost all fear and made a game of 
communicating with the ghost by a code of raps. Neighbors 
came, listened, and went away puzzled and bewildered. In 
Rochester the strange happenings in Hydesville were re- 
garded as fraud. A married daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Fox 
persuaded the family to leave the haunted house and move 
to Rochester. To their consternation the rappings which 
they had hoped to escape continued in their new home. 
A number of prominent Rochesterians investigated the 
phenomenon. Doctors, ministers, and practical business 
men lost their scepticism and became convinced that the 
communications were genuine. A public demonstration in 
Corinthian Hall was sponsored by these citizens and crowds 
gathered expecting to see signs and wonders. They were 
not disappointed. Strange messages were rapped out. But 
the hall was invaded by a disreputable gang that roused 
such a disturbance as to cause a mild riot. Police intervened 
and the meeting broke up in disorder. 

A short time after this the Fox family moved to New 
York City, but not before a great many Rochesterians had 



been converted to the new religion. Spiritualism had ob- 
tained a strong foothold. Spiritualists throughout this 
country and abroad regard March 31, 1848, as the memo- 
rable date upon which communication was first established 
between this world and the next, through the mediumship 
of the Fox sisters. 


In 1844 a strange religious hysteria called Millerism 
stormed like a tempestuous wind over western New York. 
The new religion was originated by William Miller, a 
captain in the War of 1812, who came from Vermont to 
Lowhampton, New York. From mathematical calculations 
based upon biblical dates he evolved a theory that the world 
would end in 1844. As early as 1831 he began to warn the 
public in fiery sermons to prepare for the Day of Judgment. 
On the night of November 13, 1833, occurred a spectacular 
phenomenon of falling stars; the sky for nearly an hour 
appeared to rain fire. Terror and panic swept the whole 
Genesee Valley. Miller's prophecy was remembered with 
foreboding, and even the newspapers began to give con- 
sideration to the possibility that the world was coming 
to an end. 

As the Great Day approached many people made their 
final preparations for the end of the world. Jennie Marsh 
Parker's father, who lived in Rochester, was appointed by 
William Miller as head of the western branch of the move- 
ment. He offered the shelter of his home to Millerites, who 
had recklessly given away their property while they 
awaited the moment when the world would burst into 
flames and the righteous would "all go up together with 
a shout." 

The momentous day of October 24 arrived, and people 
flocked into the city from miles around to hold watch 

9 1 


meetings, at which groups of wild-eyed fanatics, under the 
spell of contagious hysteria, shouted hymns and gabbled 
incoherent prayers. 

Since all were to be caught up to Heaven when the 
trumpet sounded, the Millerites reasoned that their heav- 
enly prospects would be better if they ascended to the hill- 
tops. Therefore Pinnacle Hills was the scene of wild drama 
on that fantastic night of October 24. From the hilltops 
watchers scanned the skies, waiting for the great light 
which was to precede the world conflagration; but the 
hours dragged on and nothing happened. As anti-clamax 
to a night of feverish excitement and expectation, the morn- 
ing of October 25 dawned serene and uneventful, just an- 
other in the sequence of the world's days! The watchers 
came down from the hills in their dew-draggled ascension 
robes and crept furtively back to their homes amid the jeers 
of their more practical neighbors. 

A great part of Miller's converts deserted him, but many 
were still loyal to their leader and formed the various 
branches of the Adventist Church which exist today. 


Ex-sailor, ex-factory worker, professional high diver, 
and, in character, a swaggering braggart, Sam Patch 
possessed no qualifications that foreshadowed national 
fame. One day in 1829, accompanied by his trained bear, 
he wandered into the village to drink and lounge about the 
taverns. He announced that he would jump from the brink 
of the Upper Falls of the Genesee, a feat never before 
attempted. With laughing scepticism several thousand 
people gathered to see him make good his boast. He leaped, 
and to everyone's surprise and the enlargement of his own 
conceit, lived to tell of it. News of his exploit excited the 
town. Followed by a crowd of admirers, he made the 
rounds of the taverns, drinking and boasting. 



"I'll show you again how it's done," he bragged. "Some 
things can be done as well as others." That meaningless 
statement became a catch-phrase of the times. For years it 
was a slang expression, not only locally but nationally. 

In defiance of fate he chose Friday the 13th as the day for 
his second leap. To make the stunt more spectacular, he was 
to leap from a wooden scaffold 25 feet above the 100-foot 
height of the verge of the Falls. The newspapers gave wide 
publicity to the event. Special schooners ran excursions 
from Oswego and from Canadian towns. Hundreds of 
farmers traveled the muddy roads leading to the Falls. More 
than 8,000 people, shivering in the cold of that bleak 
November day, crowded along the river bank to see Sam 
Patch leap. Large bets were placed. Excited speculation 
flew like sparks in the wind. Could he do it? Would he 
drown? The crowd waited. 

Sam Patch staggered forward, managed to climb the 
scaffolding hand over hand. From his lofty platform he 
shouted his boasts: 

"Napoleon was a great general but he couldn't jump the 
Genesee Falls. Wellington was a great soldier, but he 
couldn't jump the Genesee Falls. I can do it and I will." 

A moment he swayed there. The crowd sensed disaster. 
"Stop him. The fool's drunk. He'll kill himself." 

Too late to stop him. He jumped fell, a heart-sickening 
plunge. Breathless suspense held the crowd. They waited 
for the sight of a bobbing head in the current below, but 
the Genesee, defied, revenged itself and held him fast in its 
depths. Sam Patch had made his last leap. 

In horror the crowd fled from the scene. Perhaps in com- 
punction for having encouraged him to take the risk, the 
public glorified Sam Patch. From coast to coast the news- 
papers shouted the news of Sam Patch's fatal leap. 



On St. Patrick's day his broken body was found in a cake 
of ice near the mouth of the river. He rests in a grave at 
Charlotte, indicated only by a metal marker on a tree at 
its head. 


June of 1832 brought tragedy to Rochester in the insignif- 
icant person of a peddler from New York, who sickened 
and died of cholera. Within a few days a terrible epidemic 
raged here, and in the two following months of July and 
August between 400 and 500 persons died out of a popula- 
tion of only 11,000. The doctors, not armed with knowledge 
of antisepsis and germs, were powerless to fight a disease 
the character and treatment of which they did not know. 
They forbade the patients to eat vegetables, and admin- 
istered copious doses of brandy as a remedy; few of the 
victims recovered. So great was the dread of the plague 
that many, believing themselves to be stricken, died of 
little more than fear. 

Few could be found who were willing to risk almost 
certain death by nursing the sick. The name of Col. Ashbel 
W. Riley shines like a star against the dark background of 
those tragic months. He helped nurse as many as possible 
of those who were ill, and, unaided and alone, prepared for 
burial 80 corpses. Only after he had nailed up the coffins 
would the driver of the dead cart venture into the house to 
help carry out the dead. 

The disease struck down its victims so suddenly that a 
person apparently well in the morning might be dead before 
midnight. There was no time to dig separate graves, and 30 
bodies were buried together in a ditch in the Buffalo Road 
cemetery without stick or stone to mark the spot. In recent 
years, while an addition was being built to the Rochester 



General Hospital, which stands on the site of this old 
cemetery, workers excavated forgotten graves, reminders 
of that dark year. 

Out of that misfortune came one good result, the estab- 
lishment of a board of health, so that when in 1833 a 
second cholera epidemic invaded the town preventive 
measures were taken and the death toll was only 34. 


On various occasions the city has suffered heavy damage 
from Genesee River floods. The most disastrous flood 
occurred in 1865. 

On March 16 the city anxiously watched the rising river. 
Water began to seep into cellars along Front Street and by 
noon of the next day a trickle of water, like a treacherous 
snake, was inching its way across the street. Rapidly it 
grew to a thin sheet of water covering the street from curb 
to curb. Soon a torrent of water was flowing along Exchange 
Street, and by the middle of the afternoon merchants 
around the Four Corners began to move their goods; but 
many had delayed too long and found themselves marooned 
in their places of business. 

At the Four Corners the water rose to a height of six feet, 
flowing with a strong current which carried all debris 
before it. Rowboats plying back and forth through down- 
town streets effected many rescues. Two street-cars were 
stranded on the Main Street Bridge. After the passengers 
had been taken off, the cars drifted majestically down- 
stream, one going over the Falls. To add to the terror and 
confusion, the gas plant was submerged and the city was 
in total darkness. In spite of the suddenness of the disaster 
only one casualty occurred. An unidentified man who was 



crossing the Central Railroad Bridge as the bridge was 
washed away was believed to have drowned. The property 
damage caused by this flood exceeded $1,000,000. 


Rochester was at one time a distributing point for young 
sequoia, or California redwood, trees. As late as 1925 seven 
of these giant trees standing at 590 Mount Hope Avenue 
were cut down, having been practically winter-killed by 
the severe winter of 1917. These trees, from 50 to 52 inches 
in circumference and averaging 52 feet in height, were rem- 
nants of the original 4,000 planted by the Ellwanger & 
Barry Nurseries in 1856. At that time they were the largest 
specimens of their kind east of the Rocky Mountains. 

The story is that a "forty-niner" from Rochester, awed 
by the magnificent redwood trees of California, gathered 
a few of the seeds, packed them in a snuff-box, and sent 
them by Pony Express to Rochester. Ellwanger & Barry 
Nurseries planted the seeds under glass and later trans- 
planted the seedlings, thousands of which were shipped to 
England to be sold to the owners of large estates. Many 
went to Boston, and others to France. 


On the llth day of August, 1881, huge crowds gathered 
to see a race run on the old Driving Park track. The horses 
lined up at the starting post. A shot. "'They're off." They 
sped down the track, swept around the curve, headed back 
along the stretch. 

' 'Here they come. ' ' A storm of hoof beats. Cheers. ' 'There 
she goes. She's ahead. She's going to make it. Hurrah, 
hurrah for Maud S!" That day history was made: under 
her flying hoofs Maud S measured off a mile in 2:10>, the 


world's record of the age. For six years that record remained 
unbroken. Maud S was owned at that time by William 
H. Vanderbilt of New York City. When her racing days 
were over he sold her, and the gallant little mare was re- 
tired with honors to the stables of Robert Bonner, pub- 

Rochester now goes to church where once she went to 
the races, for the cars of those attending Grace Methodist 
Church are parked in decorous rows where the horse sheds 
used to stand. 


Where Broad Street bridge spans the Genesee two suc- 
cessive aqueducts have stood; both carried the waters of the 
Erie Canal over the river. The first was built in 1821 by the 
labor of 30 convicts from Auburn Prison. The uneven bed 
of the river at that point caused a succession of cascades or 
small falls, giving to the site of Rochester its first name of 
The Falls. These falls disappeared when the river bed 
was leveled by blasting for construction of the aqueduct. 
The structure, 804 feet long, contained eleven arches and 
was built entirely of cut stone. When in 1840 the old aque- 
duct was demolished to make way for the larger one, many 
of these great blocks of Medina sandstone and limestone 
were used again in the walls of dwelling houses still stand- 
ing, one of them at the corner of East Avenue and Upton 

European engineers came to view this remarkable feat of 
a canal constructed high above a river. Artists sketched its 
chain of arches and carried the pictures back to England 
to be used for designs on English pottery. In the Municipal 
Museum in Edgerton Park are dishes of English make 
stamped with scenes of the aqueduct. 



The completion of the first aqueduct began a new chapter 
in the city's history. Over its arches a constant stream of 
traffic flowed outgoing canal boats loaded with products 
of the Genesee mills, incoming packet boats bringing new 
settlers. Its span was the keystone of Rochester's growth. 


Overlooking the valley of Ellison Park from the west is 
a small tableland above Indian Landing, once the gateway 
to the territory of the Iroquoian Confederacy. For many 
years Indians paddled up the drowsy creek from the bay to 
the Landing, where they disembarked to carry their canoes 
along the Portage Trail to the Genesee River. 

Up from the bay on an August day in 1669 marched La 
Salle and his men, with glint of armor, jingle of swords, 
and trample of heavy boots, seeking Indian guides to take 
them into the Ohio country; but the Indians resented their 
intrusion and the explorers were forced to turn back. 

Eighteen years later battle cries of Denonville's 3,000 
men echoed through the valley as they sacked and destroyed 
the villages of the Senecas. Thirty more years passed over 
the old trail, and then, in 1721, came English soldiery, 
under command of Capt. Peter Schuyler, to build a fort on 
the hill across Irondequoit Creek. For a year its cannon 
threatened the Landing, and then the fort was abandoned. 
Far echoes of the French and Indian War reached the little 
valley as Prideaux and his army passed by on their way to 
attack the Niagara frontier; and later Sir William Johnson 
traveled the trail to attend Indian councils at Niagara. 
During the Revolution, Col. John Butler made his head- 
quarters at the Landing. 


Then, for a few years, quiet prevailed, broken only by 
the passage of Indian hunters, or, at rare intervals, of a 
white man. Each newcomer attracted others, and by 1797 
a small settlement had found foothold at the Landing. 
Eight years later, taking its name from an early settler, 
Tryon stood against its background of wilderness, a bustling 
"city." It possessed a store serving the area of the three 
counties of Livingston, Ontario, Erie, a warehouse, a 
blacksmith shop, a shoe factory, a tavern, and even a 
school. A distillery and a tannery exported their products 
to Canada; and in Tryon's large flour mill the stones, taken 
from "Indian" Allen's abandoned mill at The Falls, 
ground large quantities of flour to be sent to Montreal. 
A flourishing shipyard launched its ships on Irondequoit 
Creek. All this before Roches terville had emerged from 
the Genesee swamplands. 

Then Tryon's sudden glory began to fade. New mills at 
The Falls drew industry that way, and Tryon's sun went 
down. The pounding hammers of its shipbuilders were 
stilled, its mills were idle. Deserted, abandoned, its build- 
ings crumbled to ruin, the last trace of the ghost town 
passed away, save for a lingering hint of its dreams of 
splendor in the melancholy name of "the lost city of Tryon. ' ' 


Rochester's first village green remains, a serene oasis, 
surrounded by the city's busiest streets. In 1817, when 
Rochester was Rochesterville, Washington Square was set 
aside from an 80-acre river tract purchased by Elisha 
Johnson and conveyed by him to the village which, largely 
by his help, was built into a city. The Square lies between 
South and Court Streets and Monroe and Clinton Avenues. 
In its center stands the Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument, 



surmounted by a large bronze statue of Abraham Lincoln. 
An attractive cottage in the southeast corner of the Square 
accommodates the executive office of the Rochester Con- 
vention and Publicity Bureau and serves as an information 
center for tourists; a bleak, dilapidated old house built 
many years ago, it was renovated and moved to its present 
site to be used by the city as a demonstration to home 
owners of the possibilities of home improvements. Con- 
vention Hall faces the Square on the south. Built in 1870 as 
the State Arsenal, it was converted to its present use in 1907. 

Under the elms of Washington Square has been enacted 
much of the drama that makes the city's history. Along its 
paths on an early June day in 1825 crowds hurried toward 
the canal to see the flag-trimmed flotilla escorting Lafayette 
on his visit to the celebration of the opening of the canal. 

Strollers paused in the cool shade of the Square to read 
their first morning paper, the Rochester Daily Advertiser 
bearing the date of October 25, 1826, the only daily then 
published between Albany and the Pacific Coast. 

Anxious passersby, crossing the park in 1833, stopped 
to exchange sad news of neighbors dying of cholera in the 
terrible epidemic of that summer. A year later, through the 
moonlit Square echoed the calls of the two night watchmen 
as they made their rounds of the quiet streets: "One o'clock 
and all's well." And all was, indeed, well with the village, 
for in that year the city of Rochester was born. 

The Square offered a restful haven in 1837, as it did a 
century later, to many a down-and-outer, for then depres- 
sion cast its black shadow over the country. 

At a slow and solemn pace along South Avenue and past 
the Square streamed the traffic on a day in 1841 phaetons, 



"carryalls," landaus, barouches, toward Mount Hope 
Cemetery, to witness the reinterment of the remains of 
Boyd and Parker, brought with impressive ceremony from 
Cuylerville, where in 1779 these two heroes of Sullivan's 
campaign had been massacred. 

On the night of October 24, 1843, the Square witnessed 
what appeared to be a convention of ghosts as groups of 
white-robed figures gathered there the Millerites, mo- 
mentarily expecting the crack of doom to sound over the 

Another funeral procession, this time forming in the 
Square itself, filed along the city's streets in 1850 in honor 
of the dead President Zachary Taylor. Ten years later ex- 
citement centered in the Square as the fiery Negro orator, 
Frederick A. Douglass, aroused indignant thousands with 
his recitals of the evils of slavery. 

Beat of drums, call of bugles, and the rhythm of marching 
feet echoed through the Square in the chaotic period of 
1861-65- For many years following 1871 the Square was 
bright with colorful uniforms, for in that year was built, 
overlooking the park, the State Arsenal (now Convention 

In 1882 with thundering hoofbeats the first horse-drawn 
fire apparatus stormed past. 

In 1890 the branches of the elms in the little park writhed 
and tossed in a wild cyclone which did much damage in the 
city; but two years later they still arched over the newly 
erected Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument, and the crowds 
gathered below to listen to the dedication speech of Presi- 
dent Benjamin Harrison. 



All through the nineties bicycles glittered and wheeled 
over the paths of the Square; and then, with a great puffing 
and huffing and tooting, the first automobiles began to rush 
by at the terrific speed of eight miles an hour. 

To-day, in the Square, pigeons flutter over the grass, and 
old men sit on shady benches dreaming of the past. 




IN the autumn of 1812 Abner Wakelee, shoemaker, came 
to Rochesterville and began making shoes. He perform- 
ed the entire process by hand: measured the foot, cut 
the leather, which had been tanned in a local tannery, sewed 
the uppers all in one piece, and pegged on the soles. The 
product was stiff and clumsy. All men's dress shoes were of 
one square-toed style. Brogans were made for men and 
women. For rough wear men had their choice of boots 
also in one style. Boots and shoes were regularly rubbed 
with bear grease to preserve them and keep them soft and 

By 1827 Rochester had more than 50 craftsmen making 
shoes to order. In that year Oren Sage opened the first shoe 
factory, or, literally, manufactory, for the work was all 
done by hand. He employed 18 shoemakers and produced 
shoes to the value of $18,000 in the first year of operation. 
The workers sat around a circular bench and, while cutting, 
sewing, and pegging, took turns at reading aloud the news 
of the day. The firm continued under various names for over 
75 years; in 1868 it had 650 employes and produced shoes 
in more than 200 styles, with a market value of $1,000,000. 

In the spring of 1831 a young man carrying all his posses- 
sions in a trunk stepped off the canal packet Nina and intro- 
duced himself as Jesse W. Hatch, expert shoemaker. Within 



a few years he established his own factory in competition 
with the Sage firm. Up to 1843 all shoes were cut to fit the 
individual foot; in that year an expert cutter from England 
employed by Hatch introduced a system of cutting uppers 
in uniform sizes, and the shoe industry took the first step 
toward mass production. In the Rochester Business Directory 
of 1849 Hatch announced his "Congress Boots" to sell at 
$4 a pair. These, the first low-priced shoes, were and are, 
for they have changed little in almost 90 years made with 
plain toes and elastic fabrics at the ankles. In 1852 Hatch 
startled the shoe industry by inventing a method of sewing 
the uppers to the sole by machine instead of by hand. Then, 
after numerous experiments, he adapted the Singer sewing- 
machine to the stitching of shoes. In 1853 Rochester was the 
only place in the world where shoes were made with ma- 
chine stitching. Finally, in 1859, a man named Churchill 
perfected a machine which did away with hand-pegging. 

Fearful of losing their jobs as the result of this rapid 
succession of technological changes, shoe-workers for a 
time advertised to warn the public against the inferior qual- 
ity of machine-made shoes. The introduction of the sewing- 
machine attracted women to the industry. Many socially 
prominent Rochester women applied for positions in the 
shoe factories. Susan B. Anthony went about lecturing that 
"a man's clumsy fingers would never be nimble enough to 
master the machine that was invented for women," and to 
prove her contention she entered Hatch's factory as an 
employee. The first female clerk in Rochester was employed 
by Hatch in his shoe store. 

These changes in the manufacture of shoes lowered the 
cost of production, and therefore enlarged the market, by 
standardizing the product and increasing the output. Im- 
proved transportation made its contribution. In 1860 the 
city had seven shoe factories. The demand for military 



boots and shoes during the Civil War stimulated the in- 
dustry, so that by 1865 there were 25 manufacturers; in 
1878 there were 36. In 1898, 64 factories produced shoes for 
a world-wide market. Shortly after the turn of the century, 
labor difficulties, with union recognition as the chief 
issue, caused so much strife that a number of the shoe 
factories closed their doors or moved elsewhere. The 
trouble came to a climax in the bitter shoe strike of 1922, 
which forced most of the factories to remain idle for months. 
Other economic factors doubtless contributed to the de- 
cline, attracting the industry to New England and the 
Midwest. In 1928 there were 32 shoe factories in Rochester. 
In 1931 the industry employed 3,610 workers with a payroll 
of $3,194,110, and produced shoes valued at $11,587,932. 
In 1936 there were 17 factories employing over 3,600 
workers. In recent years the shoe industry in Rochester has 
devoted itself to the manufacture of high-grade footwear 
for women and children for a large domestic and export 
market. Auxiliary industries include the manufacture of 
heels, counters, top lifts, upper leather, lasts, dies, patterns, 
shanks, and machinery. 

The shoe industry followed the nurseries in winning 
national prominence, and was in turn superseded in the 
limelight by the manufacture of clothing. Rochester's first 
tailor was Jehiel Barnard who came to the city in 
1812; the second was Patrick Kearney; in 1826, 48 tailors 
served a population of 7,500. The output was all custom 
work until about 1840. In that year Meyer Greentree opened 
a tailor shop on Front Street. Becoming interested in a 
neighbor, a woman who made boys' trousers at 25 cents a 
pair, he entered into a combined life and business partner- 
ship with her, which became the nucleus of the first Roch- 
ester clothing firm. 

After the Civil War the clothing industry grew by leaps 
and bounds. The arrival of large numbers of immigrants, 



especially German Jews, who were skilled in the needle 
trades, the invention of the sewing machine, and im- 
provements in transportation all encouraged large-scale 
mass production. Here, as in other industries, the first move- 
ment was toward a large number of small establishments : 
in 1867 the city listed 80 shops manufacturing men's clothes 
and selling at wholesale and retail. This was followed by a 
tendency to consolidate, so that while the number of 
establishments decreased, production figures showed a 
continuous and rapid expansion. By 1881 between 5,000 
and 6,000 persons were employed in the clothing industry. 

With the coming of the new century several decisive 
changes determined the structure of the industry as it exists 
to-day. In the first place, the diversification of styles and 
materials and improvements in quality enabled ready-made 
clothing to absorb the market of the custom tailor almost 
entirely. In the second place, the trend toward consolida- 
tion continued, so that to-day the industry is dominated by 
a handful of large companies. In 1933 the total product of 
the men's clothing industry in Rochester was valued at 
$32,000,000, with 7,500 workers earning a total of $11,845,- 

For more than 40 years, the Clothiers' Exchange, an 
organization of manufacturers, has looked after the inter- 
ests of the industry in Rochester, especially in maintaining 
standards of quality and integrity. The field of labor in the 
industry has been led by the Amalgamated Clothing 

The large-scale manufacture of clothing has naturally 
attracted accessory industries. Rochester firms manufacture 
nationally known brands of neckwear, belts, buckles, and 
suspenders, hats, caps, knitwear, and sweaters. The button 
industry deserves special mention because of its size; Roch- 
ester manufactures more vegetable ivory buttons than any 
other city in the world. 



Rochester's food industry goes back to Ebenezer Allen's 
gristmill. To-day, as then, it depends for its raw materials 
largely upon the products of the farms and fruit orchards 
of the surrounding territory. In 1933 its products were 
valued at $35,000,000 and it paid its workers over $4,000,- 
000 in wages. Several of the individual companies, now 
million-dollar concerns, began in private kitchens. A large 
canning company goes back to the day in 1868 when two 
grocer brothers, with their mother's help, concocted a 
ketchup to utilize perishable vegetables. The product of a 
baby food company was first prepared by a father and 
mother for their six-months-old child and then peddled 
from house to house. Now the trade-names of these and 
other food products prepared in Rochester are household 
words. Finally, the preparation of foods attracted large- 
scale manufacturers of food containers. 

Besides these and other general fields of manufacture, 
Rochester is home to a number of outstanding specialized 
industries, some of which dominate in the national, others 
in a world-wide market. In most cases the inventions which 
created the industries were made in Rochester, the industries 
had their small-scale beginnings in Rochester, and grew 
with the growth of Rochester, so that their history is an 
integral part of the city's history. The stories of their 
growth well illustrate the epic of American industrial de- 
velopment since the Civil War. 

The romance of the Eastman Kodak Company, which 
has given Rochester the name "Kodak City," and of the 
Bausch & Lomb Optical Company, are summarized else- 

In 1865 William Gleason began producing a general line 
of machine tools in a small shop employing less than a 
dozen hands. In 1876 he invented the first commercially 
successful machine for cutting bevel gear teeth. Up to that 
time gear teeth had been molded from patterns fashioned 



laboriously by hand; Gleason's machine cut them with 
much greater accuracy and economy. Since that time the 
firm has specialized in gear-cutting machinery. 

The inventive genius of William Gleason was inherited 
by his son James, whose new creations in machines and 
processes have kept the company far in advance of com- 
petition in its line. Its products are fundamental to many 
modern inventions, especially the automobile. It covers 
the entire field of bevel gears : small machines for half-inch 
sewing-machine gears, larger ones for automobile gears, 
and still larger ones for gears on Diesel engines, printing 
presses, canning machines, up to the largest gears some 
of them 20 feet in diameter for wire-drawing mills. During 
the World War the Gleason plant was practically a war 
station, devoting 95 percent of its capacity to the produc- 
tion of gears and gear-cutting machinery for the United 
States and its allies. To-day its products command a wide 
market in America and Europe. 

In 1851 George Taylor and David Kendall, the son of 
John Kendall, first manufacturer of thermometers in the 
United States, began to produce thermometers on the third 
floor of a building which stood at the edge of the old Erie 
Canal. The two partners composed the entire force. After 
a few weeks of manufacturing, they filled a trunk with 
thermometers and started off in a buggy to sell them from 
house to house. As the business developed, they extended 
their territory to New York, Philadelphia, and other large 
cities. By 1855 they were making eight types of thermom- 
eters. In 1890 the firm became the Taylor Brothers Company 
and began to manufacture thermometers for industrial as 
well as for household use. After absorbing a number of 
other firms, it became in 1907 the Taylor Instrument Com- 
panies. The concern manufactures more than 2,000 kinds 
of instruments for measuring heat, humidity, altitude, 
moisture, specific gravity, blood pressure, and heart-beats, 



instruments for determining direction, for predicting 
weather, etc. Its products are of basic importance in the 
household, in industry, in medicine, in weather-forecasting, 
and in aviation. 

Casper Pfaudler, listed in the Rochester Directory for 1884 
as a machinist, invented a vacuum process for fermenting 
beer but was unable to obtain containers that would main- 
tain a suitable vacuum. Financed by James Sargent and 
Charles C. Puffer, he conducted a series of experiments and 
perfected a glass-lined metal container. The Pfaudler Vacu- 
um Fermentation Process Company was organized on 
December 13, 1884, but the commercial manufacture of 
glass-lined steel tanks did not begin until 1887. With the 
brewing industry of the Midwest providing the principal 
market, a factory was erected in Detroit in 1889. In 1903, 
since the railroads had developed facilities for transporting 
the huge tanks to the West, the plant was moved to Roch- 
ester because of the cheaper transportation this city offered 
to foreign markets. The foreign demand led to the opening 
of a branch factory in Germany in 1907- In 1910 the first 
glass-lined milk cars, Pfaudler-made, were operated by the 
Whiting Milk Company over the Boston & Maine Railroad. 
In 1912 Pfaudler perfected the first glass-lined milk truck 
tank. The Pfaudler Company is the largest manufacturer of 
glass-lined steel containers in the world, with five branch 
factories in foreign countries supplementing the main plant 
in Rochester. 

In 1889 Frank Ritter, operating a small furniture factory, 
designed and built the first dental chair made in Rochester. 
Other similar chairs found a ready sale. From time to time 
new inventions by company employes were added to the 
original design, including a raising and lowering device, a 
hydraulic pump, and an overhead, suspension type of dental 
engine which is considered a notable contribution to 
dentistry. Besides its large plant in Rochester, it owns one 



in Philadelphia and two in Germany, employing in all 
more than 2,000 people. In 1915 the daughters of Frank 
Ritter made a $20,000 gift of furnishings and accessories to 
the Rochester Dental Dispensary. 

In 1899, the Todd brothers, Libanus M. and George W., 
invented a mechanical device to protect checks against 
alteration. Their process consisted of forcing inked words 
into the paper under pressure by cutting or "shredding" 
the paper so that the ink became part of the fibre. 
The first model was made by hand by Charles G. Tiefel 
in the woodshed of his home on Gregory Street. The 
first machines were manufactured by a tool and die 
factory. In the first year about 100 Protectographs were 
sold; in 1905 the company started its own manufacturing. 
In 1913 it began the manufacture of a paper impregnated 
with chemicals which destroy the paper when ink eradi- 
cators are applied. Another product is a check-paper so 
treated that if ink-eradicators are applied the word VOID 
appears all over the check. In Spain all passports are printed 
on this paper; in Belgium it is used for printing pawn 
tickets, in Mexico for bull fight tickets, birth certificates, 
narcotic permits, and doctors' prescriptions. The company 
also manufactures electrically powered check-writers and 
mechanical check-signers. Its products are used in more 
than 64 countries. 

The General Railway Signal Company, with its series of 
inventions, each designed to overcome some risk in rail- 
roading, has helped to establish a recent year's record of 
only one death to 60,000,000 passengers and to enable a 
passenger to travel the equivalent of 92,000 times around 
the earth at the equator before incurring the risk of a 
fatality. This company was formed in Rochester in 1904, 
employing 300 men. The workers today number more than 
2,000 employees engaged in the manufacture and installa- 
tion of signaling apparatus. The company supplied more 



than 90 per cent of the signaling apparatus in use in 
Australia prior to 1898. Extensive use of its equipment is to 
be found in Japan, Spain, New Zealand, and Great Britain. 

The Delco Appliance Division of the General Motors 
Corporation manufactures Delco-Light electric light and 
power plants; Delco water pumps, electric fans, vacuum 
cleaners, car radio vibrators, speedometers, and small 
motors; Delco-Heat oil burners, boilers, conditionairs, 
water heaters, and attic ventilators. A major extension of 
the Delco Appliance Division is scheduled for completion 
late in 1937. This consists of a modern single-story, fire- 
proof building in which about 3,000 additional people 
will be employed in the manufacture of automotive elec- 
trical equipment. 

These highly specialized industries owe their continued 
preeminence in their fields to active research laboratories 
which they support and which are continually inventing 
new processes and devices and improving old ones. During 
the depression following 1929, while production was in 
most cases drastically curtailed, these laboratories con- 
tinued their researches and kept these companies in the 
vanguard of industrial progress. 

To complete the account of the distinctive industries of 
Rochester it is necessary to add that the products of its 
factories command national and world-wide markets in the 
fields of office equipment, unbreakable watch crystals, 
mail chutes, and carbon paper. All in all, in 1931 more 
than 1,000 industrial plants turned out products valued at 
$242,000,000; 800 of these employed 45,455 persons and 
paid $52,345,004 in wages. 


The history of labor organization in Rochester goes back 
to as early as 1840, when independent workers in the various 
crafts united for mutual protection and bargaining power 



in an effort to improve working conditions. No complete 
records of these early activities were kept; but in 1927 the 
Central Trades and Labor Council published a history of 
the labor movement in Rochester compiled from all avail- 
able data. 

The early period of industrial expansion witnessed the 
organization of the first unions: the Typographical Union 
in 1853, the Iron Moulders Union in 1859, the Carpenters 
and the Glass Blowers Association in 1884. The gradual 
unionization of crafts continued until the membership of 
the American Federation of Labor in the city reached about 
26,000. In addition to these were the United Shoe Workers 
with a membership of 4,000 and the railroad brotherhoods 
with 1,000. 

A new element in labor organization was brought to 
Rochester by the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of 
America, which organized workers on an industrial rather 
than on a craft basis. It grew until it left but one craft 
union, the United Garment Workers, operating in one 
large clothing factory in Rochester. The real power of the 
Amalgamated came in 1918 when, after the great garment 
strike in New York City which brought the 44-hour week, 
the same working hours were accepted in Rochester without 
interruption of work. 

The history of the Amalgamated in Rochester shows the 
application of collective bargaining and arbitration to in- 
dustrial relations resulting in the elimination of strikes and 
lockouts and the establishment of industrial peace and self- 
government. A number of leading economists have success- 
fully filled the office of arbitrator in the Rochester clothing 
industry and have contributed much to a better understand- 
ing of labor conditions in the city. By 1933 the capital- 
labor relations in the clothing industry were so well ad- 


justed that for an 18-month period not a single grievance 
was brought before the arbitrator. 

In the field of labor problems, besides pointing the way 
in collective bargaining, the Amalgamated has served as a 
laboratory of industrial codification and has expanded the 
fields of labor union activity into cooperative buying, 
banking, housing, and unemployment insurance. 

The history of labor unrest in Rochester is much like that 
of other cities. It is marked by sporadic strikes, with hours 
and wages, the closed shop, and collective bargaining as the 
issues. Most disastrous in its effect on the industrial life of 
the city was the shoe workers' strike in 1922. Up to that 
time Rochester was the third largest shoe manufacturing 
city in the country. The strike failed and left behind bitter 
feeling and conflict. Both factories and workers moved to 
other cities; the union lost in membership; and, while 
other economic factors contributed to the result, the fact is 
that the shoe industry never regained its importance in 

Rochester labor unions are more representative of skilled 
than of unskilled labor, but they have wielded an effective 
bargaining power for the benefit of labor generally. In 1934 
the Rochester directory listed 72 labor organizations, most 
of them skilled craft unions affiliated with the American 
Federation of Labor. Among the stronger labor bodies are 
the printing trades, which have always maintained a high 
wage scale and high standards of working conditions. 

Rochester, however, has always been known as an open 
shop town. Its leading industrial firms have as a rule 
opposed collective bargaining, though there has been no 
discrimination against union men. 




A a result of the establishment of the Eastman School 
of Music and the activities of the Civic Music Asso- 
ciation, Rochester has in recent years acquired wide 
renown as a music center. But the performance and appre- 
ciation of good music has been a tradition in Rochester as 
old as the city itself. 

The band was a popular form of ensemble in the early 
days because it was so well adapted to the limited talents 
of amateur musicians. In 1817 in the village of Rochester- 
ville a village band was organized under the leadership of 
Preston Smith, whose clarinet is now the possession of the 
Rochester Historical Society. Adams's Brass Band was 
organized in 1841. Members of this band later formed other 
units, one of which became the well-known Fifty-Fourth 
Regiment Band. 

Many concerts of secular music were given in the early 
churches of Rochester. In 1825 a church concert by the 
Rochester Band included in its program of 26 numbers the 
DeWitt Clinton Erie Canal March and Hail to the Chief. The 
first church organ was installed in St. Luke's Church in 
1825; the second in St. Paul's Church now the Strand 
Theatre Building soon afterward. 

In 1835, the year after Rochester became a city, the Roch- 
ester Academy of Sacred Music was organized; then came 
the Mechanics' Musical Association. In the Rochester 



City Garden, which was opened on the south side of Main 
Street near the present site of the McCurdy department 
store, fireworks and refreshments were mixed with music. 

After 1830, when Germans began to settle in Rochester in 
large numbers, came the period of the organization of 
German singing societies. In 1847 the Turnverein built the 
Turnhalle, which was in time superseded by Germania 
Hall. The Maennerchor, the longest enduring of all these 
societies, was started in 1854. 

Ole Bull, the Norwegian violinist, first came to Roch- 
ester in 1844; eight years later he returned with Adelina 
Patti, then nine years old. In 1845 Christy's Minstrels in- 
vaded Rochester and began the era of minstrelsy in the city. 
In 1848 Theodore Thomas was brought here, and in later 
years returned many times as America's leading orchestral 
conductor. Anna Bishop, who appeared here in 1851, was 
the first prima donna to visit Rochester. Two weeks later, 
on the evenings of July 22 and 24, Jenny Lind sang in Cor- 
inthian Hall (Old Corinthian, Rochester's most famous 
amusement place in the pre-Civil War period); tickets for 
the second evening were sold at auction to the highest 
bidders; the overflow crowded nearby streets. 

Henry Appy came here for the first time in 1852 as a 
violinist with Madame Emma Bostwick. An enterprising 
choral organization, the Harmonic, gave the city its first 
presentations of the great oratorios, Handel's Messiah, 
Haydn's Creation, and Mendelssohn's Hymn of Praise. The 
Germania, a New York orchestra, attracted to Rochester 
in 1854 by the German societies, gave the city its first con- 
cert by a professional orchestra. The Rochester Musical 
Union, organized in 1855 with John H. Kalbfleisch as its 
leading spirit, held its rehearsals in the old city hall. 

In a building donated by the Rochester Savings Bank 
for use by musical organizations, a chorus, known as 



the Rochester Academy of Music, was formed. Henry 
Appy was called to the city to direct this chorus and to 
assist in the development of orchestral music. In 1865 
John H. Kalbfleisch and William Rebasz formed an or- 
chestra, which they called the Rochester Philharmonic 
Society, with Mr. Appy as conductor. For more than 10 
years this amateur orchestra of about 50 members gave 
concerts in Corinthian Hall. More important, it provided 
early training for Herman and Theodore Dossenbach and 
Ludwig Schenck, the next generation of leaders in Roch- 
ester's musical life. 

Theodore Thomas brought his orchestra for a perform- 
ance here in 1869; and from that time until 1892 he visited 
Rochester every year with few exceptions. Meanwhile all 
the great musical artists of the day included Rochester on 
their tours Christina Nilsson, Annie Louise Cary, Vieux- 
temps, the violinist, Brignoli, the tenor, and Wieniawski, 
the violinist and composer who came with Rubenstein. 

A performance of Pinafore in 1879 led to the formation of 
the local Opera Club, which through a long period of years 
produced all of the important light operas. 

Two choral societies of significance were formed in the 
eighties: the Mendelssohn Vocal Society with Herve D. 
Wilkins, one of Rochester's leading organists, as conductor, 
and the Euterpe Club, a singing society under the direction 
of Henry Greiner, which met in the homes of members. 
These two groups soon began to combine for concert pur- 
poses, and eventually united to form the Tuesday Musicale, 
the acknowledged leader in the development of musical 
interest in Rochester prior to the founding of the Eastman 
School and the organizaton of the Rochester Civic Music 
Association. For 20 years it brought to Rochester individual 
artists, chamber music ensembles, and symphonic orchestras. 

Detail of Grand Corridor Eastman School of Music 


In 1882 the Rochester Oratorio Society was organized 
with Henry Greiner as director. In the same year Rochester 
held its first music festival with 400 voices. Later the Tues- 
day Musicale Chorus became the Rochester Festival Chorus 
under the direction of George Barlow Penny. In recent years 
music festivals have been frequently held. The annual Com- 
munity Music Festivals, begun in 1928, were sponsored by 
the Council for Better Citizenship of the Rochester Chamber 
of Commerce. 

In 1900 the Dossenbach Orchestra, Herman Dossenbach 
conductor, gave its first concert. Renamed the Rochester 
Orchestra, for 15 years it gave the city music of a high 
standard. The Rochester Symphony Orchestra was organ- 
ized in 1901 with Ludwig Schenck as conductor. After 
several years of professional public concerts supplementing 
the work of the Rochester Orchestra, it retired from the 
professional field and gave free public concerts in the high 
schools, in the auditoriums, and in Convention Hall. 

In 1913 Herman Dossenbach, Alf Klingenberg, and Oscar 
Gareissen established the Dossenbach-Klingenberg-Gareis- 
sen Institute, later known as the Institute of Musical Art, 
which George Eastman purchased from Mr. Klingenberg 
to serve as the nucleus for the Eastman School of Music. 
The present era of musical progress in the city of Rochester 
dates from the opening of the Eastman School of Music 
in 1922. 


The Rochester Civic Music Association was formed to 
provide the people of Rochester and vicinity with a varied 
and comprehensive program of community musical enter- 
tainment. It is supported by more than 7,000 contributors 
and at present sponsors nine separate projects, which it lists 
as follows: the Rochester Philharmonic Orchestra, the 
Rochester Civic Orchestra, the Great Artists' Concerts, 



Community Operas, Educational Artists' Concerts, the 
Metropolitan Opera, Children's Plays, Radio Concerts, and 
Community Events. 

The Rochester Philharmonic Orchestra completed its 
fourteenth season in June 1937. During its first eight seasons 
it was conducted by Albert Coates and by Eugene Goosens. 
From 1931 to 1935 distinguished guest conductors were 
invited. In the fall of 1936 Jose Iturbi became permanent 
resident conductor. He conducts about ten of the concerts 
each season. 

Using this orchestra as his chief medium of expression, 
Dr. Howard Hanson, in the American Composer's Concert 
Series which he instituted, has given nearly 50 concerts 
devoted entirely to the works of American composers. No 
project comparable to the American Composer's Series exists 
elsewhere in the country. 

The Rochester Civic Orchestra, under the direction of 
Guy Fraser Harrison, is composed of some 50 players who 
are also members of the Philharmonic. For 30 weeks in each 
year it gives educational concerts for school children, which 
are broadcast by WHAM. On 21 Sunday evenings it gives a 
series of concerts in the Eastman Theater, with a nominal 
admission charge of 25 cents. 

The Great Artists' concerts of the Eastman Theater, 
sponsored by the Civic Music Association, bring to the city 
the finest musical artists of the world. The Association also 
presents grand operas with local choruses supporting guest 
singers in the leading roles, and each spring brings the 
Metropolitan Opera Company to the city for one perform- 
ance on the stage of the Eastman Theater. 


The best known of the Rochester composers is Howard 
Hanson, director of the Eastman School of Music, who 

1 2.0 


has attained first rank with such works as The Lament of 
Beowulf, The Romantic Symphony, Nordic Symphony ', Pan 
and the Priest ', and the recent Drum Taps, inspired by Walt 
Whitman's poem and written for orchestra and chorus with 
a baritone solo. His opera Merry Mount was given its pre- 
miere by the Metropolitan Opera Company in New York . 

In 1932 Herbert Inch was awarded the Prix de Rome by 
the jury of the American Academy in Rome. His two works 
in the orchestral field the Set of Variations for large or- 
chestra and the Suite for small orchestra are characteristic. 
Also worthy of mention among his other works in minor 
form are a string quartette and a piano quintette. Roch- 
ester recipients of the Prix de Rome since 1932 are Hunter 
Johnson, 1933; Kent Kennan, 1936; and Frederick Wolt- 
mann, 1937. 

Edward Royce, leader of the composition department of 
the Eastman School of Music since 1925, has composed two 
symphonic poems, The Fire Bringers and Far Ocean. His best 
known works Two Sets of Piano Pieces and the Variations 
in A Minor are written for the piano. One of his later 
works is Variations for Organ. 

Bernard Rogers is largely known for his orchestral com- 
positions. To the Fallen, first played by the New York Phil- 
harmonic orchestra, and Prelude to Hamlet are symphonic 
poems. Adonais, a symphony; The Raising of Lazarus, for 
chorus and orchestra; The Marriage of Aude, an opera; and 
Exodus, a choral work based on the Old Testament, are all 
well known. Early in 1936 the New York Philharmonic pro- 
duced Mr. Rogers 's Once Upon a Time Suite, which received 
its first public performance two years before in one of Dr. 
Hanson's American Composer's Series concerts. 

Paul White, assistant conductor of the Civic Orchestra 
and one of the faculty of the Eastman School of Music, is 
attracting increasing attention as a composer of merit and 



distinction. His Five Miniatures, for the piano, are often 
included in musical programs in Rochester and other cities. 
Perhaps the best known works of Mr. White are The Voyage 
of the Mayflower, the String Quintette, and Symphony in E 

Burrill Phillips has composed Ballet, Princess and the 
Puppet; Symphony Concert ante; and Selections from McGuffy's 

Gardner Read is known for his characteristic Sketches of a 
City (Chicago, Cincinnati, etc.) and the Four Nocturnes for 
Voice and Orchestra. In the spring of 1937 Mr. Read was 
awarded the prize offered by the New York Philharmonic 
Orchestra for the best symphonic work submitted in a 
country-wide competition. 


The David Hochstein School of Music, 12 Hoeltzer Street, 
was organized in 1920 as a memorial to David Hochstein, 
Rochester's soldier-musician who lost his life in the Meuse- 
Argonne campaign of 1918. Mrs. James Sibley Watson 
purchased the Hochstein property for the purpose of estab- 
lishing a school to further the musical education of children 
at very low cost. 

The school is under the direction of Samuel Belov, former 
conductor of the Eastman School Symphony orchestra and 
a member of the School's faculty. The close connection of 
the David Hochstein School with the Eastman School of 
Music enables exceptional students to carry on their studies 
at the latter institution. 


Paul Hinds is said to have been the city's first resident 
painter, practicing the art of portrait and miniature painting 
about 1820. George Arnold (1825) did ornamental and figure 



painting. In 1840 he painted The Rochester Cadets upon a 
banner which was presented by the ladies of the city to the 
cadets. J. L. D. Mathies and his nephew, the well-known 
William Page of New York, were working in Rochester 
in the late 1820's. Some of their pictures still are appreciated 
by art lovers : Red Jacket , Old Roman in Chains, and Children 
of Israel Crossing the Red Sea. Daniel Steel is remembered for 
his portraits of Horace Gay and General Vincent Mathews. 
Eugene Sintzenich (1840), well known for his landscapes, 
was employed by Abelard Reynolds to make a painting of 
Niagara for the old Reynolds Arcade. 

Grove S. Gilbert was probably the Rochester artist with 
the greatest natural talent. Historians give the date of his 
birth at Clinton, New York, as 1805 and of his appearance 
in Rochester as 1834. After 1834 he had a studio at the 
corner of Main and State Streets, but he painted portraits 
of Rochesterians as early as 1830. He was elected honorary 
member of the National Academy of Design in 1878. It has 
been said of him that if he had been more ambitious and had 
used his great talent to advance his own interests, his 
artistic excellence would have been more widely known. 
Eminent artists came often to study his methods, but his 
technique eluded careful study and he was unable to teach 
it in fact, at times he was unable to apply it himself. 
Gilbert executed many portraits of the Rochester city 
fathers; a number of his works hang on the walls of the 
Council Chambers in the City Hall. He died in 1885- 

George L. Herdle, first director of the Memorial Art 
Gallery and for 22 years president of the Rochester Art Club, 
was an artist of great vision and a sensitive landscape 
painter. In the permanent collection of the gallery he is 
represented by a landscape in oils entitled Autumn. J. 
Guernsey Mitchell, internationally known sculptor, is rep- 
resented in Rochester by his statue of Dr. Martin Brewer 

I2 -3 


Anderson on the Prince Street campus of the University and 
by his Mercury, popularly known as The Flying Mercury, 
atop the City Hall annex, a conspicuous object on the 
Rochester skyline since 1881. It was derived from Giovanni 
da Bologna's figure in the Bargello in Florence. 

Eugene C. Colby, teacher, painter, etcher, and first 
principal of Mechanics Institute, had a marked influence on 
the art of Rochester. Carl W. Peters, landscape painter, 
three times winner of the Hallgarten Prize of the National 
Academy of Design of New York City, executed the murals 
in the Genesee Valley Trust Building and in the Madison 
and Charlotte high schools. Peters has been widely recog- 
nized and his canvasses are found in the leading galleries 
of the country. 

The first gallery of art in Rochester was opened in 1825 by 
J. L. D. Mathies and William Page of New York. In 1843 
an, exhibition of European paintings was opened. A gallery 
of fine arts was established in 1854 under the name of the 
Rochester Gallery of Fine .Arts. In 1860 the Rochester 
Academy of Music and Art was incorporated for the purpose 
of encouraging the study of music, painting, statuary, and 
the other fine arts. In 1870 an art gallery was opened over 
the Rochester Savings Bank. Here were exhibited such 
paintings as Church's Under Niagara and Bierstadt's Light 
and Shadow. Later the Rochester Academy of Art was or- 
ganized in the large hall of the old Free Academy to pro- 
mote an interest in art by conducting exhibitions and 
maintaining a school of design. Under its auspices Hiram 
Sibley exhibited in 1874 a large collection of paintings 
which he had purchased in Italy and hoped to make the 
nucleus of a public art gallery. This venture proving pre- 
mature, Mr. Sibley hung his paintings on the second floor 
of Sibley Hall, the building he had just presented to the 
University for a library. 


The Rochester Art Club was organized in 1877 from a 
sketching club, formed three years earlier, which met in the 
studio of John Z. Wood, and attracted to its membership 
J. Francis Murphy, Henry W. Ranger, and other New York 
artists. The charter members of 1877 were James Hogarth 
Dennis, Harvey Ellis, John Z. Wood, J. Guernsey Mitchell, 
James Somerville, and Horatio Walker. For nearly forty 
years the Rochester Art Club labored earnestly to foster an 
interest in art by holding annual exhibitions of American 
art and agitating for a public art gallery. It now has a 
membership of 225 and conducts bi-monthly exhibits of the 
work of its members and of invited artists and craftsmen in 
its clubhouse at 38 South Washington Street. 

The Powers Art Gallery, which housed the collection of 
Daniel Powers, was opened in 1875 in four rooms. By the 
time the collection was broken up after the death of Mr. 
Powers in 1897, the exhibit had grown to occupy 30 rooms 
in addition to the "grand salon," the "rotunda," and the 
halls of the Powers Building and was considered one 
of the show places of the city. While Mr. Powers had 
started as a collector of copies of Old Masters in European 
museums, he soon developed an expert knowledge of such 
masters as Claude Lorrain, Gustave Courbet, the men of the 
Barbizon School, Delacroix, de Hooch, and Teniers. 

Today the art interest of the city is to a large extent cen- 
tered in the activities of the Memorial Art Gallery, located 
on the Prince Street Campus of the University of Rochester. 

The Mechanics Institute has had an art department since 
1855, housed after 1910 in the Bevier Memorial Building, 
which gives instruction in illustration and advertising art, 
design, interior decoration, and art education. 

The public schools of Rochester give extensive courses in 
many branches of art and handicraft. In addition to classes 

I2 -5 


in drawing and painting, the high schools provide courses in 
leather and metal craft, woodcraft, pottery, photography, 
wrought-iron work, modeling, and commercial art. In the 
elementary schools two 45-minute periods per week are 
devoted to instruction in art. 


The Life and Adventures of James Durand, published in 1820 
by E. Peck & Company, Rochester's first publisher, was 
for nearly a century believed to be the first book published 
in the city; but now bibliophiles award that honor to The 
Whole Duty of Woman, published by the same company in 
1819. Leslie Linkfield, published anonymously in 1826, is 
accepted as the first work of fiction by a Rochester author. 
William Morgan's book, Illustration of Masonry, was first 
printed in Batavia in 1826 and created a furore; the next 
year 12 editions were published in Rochester, some of them 
now very rare. 

The first novel about Rochester, Laurie Todd by John Gait, 
was published in New York in 1830. Nathaniel Hawthorne, 
after visiting the city on a trip to Niagara Falls in 1834, 
wrote a vivid description of Rochester as it appeared in the 
year it was incorporated as a city. In Their Wedding Journey, 
first published in 1871, William Dean Howells devoted a 
chapter entitled "The Enchanted City" to an account of 
the Rochester of that period. 

Through the years the native and adopted sons and 
daughters of Rochester have made contributions in the 
realm of creative literature and in the allied fields of letters 
in history, politics, science, religion, and philosophy. 

Taste for the best in poetry and literature was fostered by 
such works as Asahel C. Kendrick's Poetical Favorites, in 



three volumes, Joseph O'Connor's poems and essays, and 
Rossiter Johnson's Little Classics. 

One writer of the time won popular distinction with one 
poem. In 1862 Joseph Henry Gilmore, professor of rhetoric 
and English literature in the University of Rochester for 
40 years, after preaching a sermon in Philadelphia, wrote 
almost impromptu the well known hymn, He Leadeth Me. 
This was first published in the Watchman and Reflector, 
Boston Baptist newspaper. It was set to music by William 
B. Bradbury and soon became immensely popular in all 
Protestant churches. The poem has been translated into 
many foreign languages. In 1877 was published He Leadeth 
Me and other Religious Poems. Another poet remembered for 
one poem is John Luckey McCreery, born in Sweden, 
Monroe County, N. Y., in 1835- There is No Death was once 
one of the most widely quoted poems in America. On the 
poet's tomb in Washington, D. C, is chiseled the first 
stanza of this poem: 

There is no death! The stars go down 

To rise upon some other shore, 
And bright in heaven's jeweled crown 

They shine for evermore. 

Thomas Thackery Swinburne was known as the "Poet 
Laureate of the Genesee." He wrote ballads of the city and 
of the university that have cast a mantle of romance over 
both, as well as over the Genesee River. In 1932, opposite 
the entrance to the River Campus, a tablet was placed 
upon a huge boulder bearing two stanzas of Swinburne's 
song, The Genesee. 

Creative work is encouraged by the Rochester Poetry 
Society. Its annual publication, The Oracle, presents selected 
poems by its members. Edith Willis Forbes, founder and for 
many years president of the society, has published consid- 



erable verse; her first two volumes are entitled Poems and 
A Cycle of Sonnets. Elizabeth Evelyn Moore has published 
more than a hundred lyrics that have been set to music. 
Three of her poems were included in the Braithwaite An- 
thology in one year: Woman, Prescience, and Epitaph. 
In 1925 she received first prize for the best sonnet in the 
American Poetry Salon's competition. Alice Garland Steel 
(Mrs. T. Austin Ball) contributes verse to various maga- 
zines. Eleanor Slater has issued two volumes of verse, one 
of which, Quest, received the Fairchild Prize. She has also 
written Everybody's Bishop, a biography of Charles Henry 
Brent, once head chaplain of the A. E. F. Christine Hamil- 
ton Watson has written much pleasing verse for American 
publications. Two books of poems, Crumbled Leaves and 
Earth Grace, contain her best work. 

Adelaide Crapsey is pronounced by many critics the most 
distinguished poet of Rochester, but, as in the case of Emily 
Dickinson, her fame did not come until after her death. 
Miss Crapsey was born in New York City in 1878; the fol- 
lowing year she became a resident of Rochester when her 
father became rector of St. Andrew's Episcopal Church. 
She was a graduate of Vassar and taught history and litera- 
ture for a number of years. The double burden of teaching 
and writing taxed her frail health and she passed her last 
year in Saranac Lake where her window overlooked a grave- 
yard; this in grim irony she called "Trudeau's Garden." 
She wrote, "I watch all night and not one ghost comes 
forth to take its freedom of the midnight hour." There is a 
brave sentiment and an eternal note in many of the lines 
she wrote while waiting for the last hour: 

Sun and wind and beat of sea, 
Great Lands stretching endlessly. . . 
Where be bonds to bind the free? 
All the world was made for me! 



She died October 8, 1914, at the age of 35- When her 
volume, Verse, was published in 1915, an eminent critic 
called the book "one of the most instructive books of poetry 
that has ever been published in America. It will be an abid- 
ing shrine where all lovers of poetry may meet its maker's 
brave spirit. ' ' During her last year Miss Crapsey wrote many 
"cinquaines," a verse form which she originated and in 
which she was particularly happy. These five-line stanzas 
owe something to the Japanese "hokku" but are saturated 
with the poet's own fragile loveliness. 

With the publication in 1928 of The Lost Lyrist by Eliza- 
beth Hollister Frost (Mrs. Walter D. Blair), literary Roch- 
ester and the country at large were suddenly aware of a new 
poet of evident sincerity and lyrical charm. Hovering Shadow, 
Closed Gentian, and Revolving June, the last the official poem 
of the Rochester Centennial of 1934, all confirm the promise 
of The Lost Lyrist. 

In the nineteenth century Rochester had several prolific 
writers of fiction which enjoyed popular, if transient, 
appeal. Isabella McDonald Alden, the noted "Pansy" of 
the Victorian period, wrote more than 120 books, which 
were popular among the young people of her generation. 
Born in Rochester in 1841, Mrs. Alden began writing when 
she was eight and continued up to the time of her death at 
the age of 88 at Palo Alto, California, in 1930. The best 
known are The Chautauqua Series, The Ester Road Series, 
and The Life of Christ Series. 

John T. Trowbridge (1827-1916), author of the well 
known Cud jo's Cave, was born in Ogden Township, Monroe 
County. He produced some 40 volumes, which appealed 
mainly to young people but also, largely by reason of his 
attractive style, interested adults. He closed his career with 
the publication of The Poetical Works of John Townsend 



Trowbridge, and an autobiography, M.y Own Story, both 
published in 1903 (see Spencerport). 

Mary Jane Holmes (1825-1907) was born in Brookfield, 
Mass. Brockport, Monroe County, was for many years her 
home and here nearly all of her many books were written. 
She was a teacher at 13, and published her first article at 15- 
Her bent for telling stories of her own invention was early 
recognized by her young friends. Her first book to attract 
nation-wide attention was Tempest and Sunshine. Others of 
her books which have been enjoyed by millions of the 
present older generation are English Orphans, Lena Rivers, 
Gretchen and Marguerite, Darkness and Daylight, Cameron 
Pride, Edna Browning, Edith Lyle, and The Homestead on the 

Frank G. Patchin (1861-1925), born in Wayland, N. Y., 
was a graduate of the Albany Law School, and had a long 
journalistic career in Rochester as editor-in-chief of the 
Post-Express and later as night editor of the Democrat and 
Chronicle. During this active period he also produced over 
200 books, most of them written for boys and girls. They 
were adventure books written usually in long series: The 
Pony Rider Boys, 18 volumes; The Circus Boys, 6 volumes; 
The Boys of Steel, 12 volumes; The Meadow Brook Girls, 
6 volumes; Grace Harland Overland, 12 volumes; Little 
Boy Heroes of France; Little Daughters of France; and 
posthumously, Uncle Jim's Bible stories, 3 volumes. 

Paul Horgan, born in Buffalo August 1, 1903, lived in 
Rochester from 1923 to 1926, the period of his brilliant work 
with the Rochester Opera Company in connection with the 
Eastman School of Music. He was projected into the liter- 
ary limelight when he received the Harper's Prize in 1933 
for his Fault of Angels. The book satirizes the meretricious 
pursuit of the arts in a provincial city. There is some reason 
to suspect that the object of the satire is Rochester society. 



Other novels by Morgan are Men of Arms (1931), No Quarter 
Given (1935), Main Line West (1936), The Return of the Weed 
(1936). Mr. Horgan also contributes articles and fiction 
to magazines. 

Marjorie Rawlings, born in 1896, spent her youth in 
Washington, D. C. In 1918 she was graduated from the 
University of Wisconsin. For the next ten years she was a 
journalist in Rochester and elsewhere. The publication of 
Jacob's Ladder won her instant recognition as a writer. Her 
story, Gal Young Un, won first prize in the O. Henry Mem- 
orial Prize awards in 1933. Her later novels, South Moon 
Under and Golden Apples increased her prestige. Her husband, 
Charles Rawlings, formerly on the staff of the Rochester 
Herald and later of the Times Union, is a well-known story 
writer; his The Inferior Jib, a yachting story, portrays situa- 
tions that closely parallel those in a recent Canada Cup 
Race between Rochester's Conewago and Toronto's Invader II. 

Carl Lamson Carmer, one-time member of the faculty of 
the University of Rochester, has achieved a national reputa- 
tion for his engaging descriptions of folk life. He was born 
in Cortland, N. Y., October 16, 1893, was graduated from 
Hamilton College in 1914, and received the M.A. degree 
from Harvard in 1915. He left Rochester to become associate 
professor and later professor of English at the University 
of Alabama. From 1924 to 1927 he issued Some University 
of Alabama Poets; in 1927 he was a columnist for the New 
Orleans Morning Tribune; the next year he became assistant 
editor of Vanity Fair; and from 1929 to 1933 he was editor 
of the Theatre Arts Monthly. 

He is not widely known as a poet, but during his residence 
in Rochester he served as first president of the Rochester 
Poetry Society and up to 1930 had published two volumes 
of verse, French-town and Deep South. In the latter, a narra- 


tive in verse, he gives evidence of a sense of dramatic values, 
but shows a lack of mastery of the lazy tunes of the folk 

In 1934 his Stars Fell on Alabama, in which he portrays 
the local folk life, won him national recognition. This was 
followed in 1936 by Listen for a Lonesome Drum, in which he 
endeavors to do for New York State what the earlier book 
did for Alabama. Both books are interesting reading and 
reveal the author as an imaginative reporter of country 
and people. The style is pleasantly colloquial. Listen for a 
Lonesome Drum, a series of sketches, lacks both the unity 
and comprehensiveness of the earlier volume. 

As a journalist, author, and pageant producer, Edward 
Hungerford has been closely identified with the life of 
Rochester. He began his journalistic career in 1896 on the 
staff of the Rochester Herald. Since 1928 he has been assist- 
ant vice-president of the New York Central Lines. Mr. 
Hungerford is author as well as producer of The Fair of the 
Iron Horse, Wings of a Century, and Paths of Progress, the last 
being the pageant which he staged as part of the Rochester 
Centennial in 1934. His latest book, Pathway of Empire, is 
a travel book of substantial merit devoted to New York 
State, picturing the march of the state's progress, and tell- 
ing something of the legends of its early days. He is par- 
ticularly happy in his account of Rochester and its environs, 
alluding frequently to its old landmarks and the half- 
forgotten stories of its past. 

Henry W. Clune, columnist and portrayer of American 
everyday life, is the author of two volumes entitled Seen 
and Hard. His recent novel, The Good Die Poor, published 
in 1937 in both America and Great Britain, is a swift- 
moving story of newspaper life and municipal politics. The 
motion picture rights were purchased by a Hollywood 


Lincoln J. Carter, creator of hundreds of melodramas that 
once thrilled the hearts of the country, was born in Roch- 
ester on April 14, 1865, the day that Lincoln was assassin- 
ated. Among his thrillers were The Fast Mail and The 
Heart of Chicago. Old timers will recall the faraway sound 
of the locomotive, the dim speck of light that grew ever 
more bright, the increasing roar of the oncoming train, 
the blinding flash of the headlight as the breaks screamed 
and the "fast mail" arrived on the stage. 

Three Rochester playwrights of today are frequently in 
the limelight: Philip Barry, George S. Brooks, and George 
F. Abbott. Barry is perhaps the best known. Born in Roch- 
ester, he was educated at Yale and Harvard, at the latter 
university receiving early discipline in Baker's "47 Work- 
shop." The Harvard prize play in 1922 was Barry's You 
and I, which established his reputation when it was pro- 
duced in New York. It was followed by The Youngest, In a 
Garden, White Wings, Paris Bound, Holiday, Hotel Universe, 
and Tomorrow and Tomorrow. His plays have been produced 
outside New York City more frequently than those of any 
other American with the exception of Eugene O'Neill. 

George Abbott has been an actor and director as well as 
a playwright. He was graduated from the University of 
Rochester, and, like Barry, was trained in Baker's "47 
Workshop" at Harvard. His The Man in the Manhole was 
produced by the Harvard Dramatic Club. His plays were 
almost all written in collaboration with another play- 
wright: The Terror with Maxwell Anderson, The Fall Guy 
with James Gleason, Broadway with Philip Dunning, and 
Coquette with Ann Bridges. His most recent successes were 
Three Men on a Horse and Room Service. 

George S. Brooks was graduated from the University of 
Rochester and continued his education at the University 
of Poitiers, France. He is co-author of Spread Eagle with 


Walter Lister, of Celebrity with Willard Keefe, and of The 
Whip Hand with Marjorie Case. His No Cause for Complaint 
was awarded first prize in the national social work play 

In history and politics five Rochester writers have made 
important contributions. For his work as a journalist and 
for his orations and articles on slavery, Frederick Douglass 
is entitled to a place in the literary history of the city of 
his adoption. He made his home in Rochester during one of 
the most active periods of his life. He is buried in Mount 
Hope Cemetery. In Rochester he published The North Star, 
an anti-slavery journal, its title suggestive of an old anti- 
slavery song of ante-bellum days in which a fugitive slave 
sings the refrain : 

I kept my eye on the bright north star 
and thought of liberty. 

Besides his orations and addresses, Douglass published an 
autobiography, a voluminous work, interesting and his- 
torically valuable. The Douglass Monument near the New 
York Central Station is said to be the first monument 
erected in the United States to one of the African race 
{see City Tour i). 

Rossiter Johnson (1840-1931), born in Rochester, edu- 
cated at the University of Rochester, and later the recipient 
of a number of honorary degrees from other institutions, 
had a long journalistic career. From 1864 to 1868 he was 
associate editor of the Rochester Democrat, and from 1869 
to 1872 of the Concord (N. H. ) Statesman. He then became 
successively associate editor of the Cyclopedia of American 
Biography, editor of the Authorised History of the Columbian 
Exposition, and editor-in-chief of the Universal Cyclopedia. 
In 1875 he originated and became editor of The Little Classics, 
which eventually became widely popular. Later he was 



associated with Charles A. Dana in the publication of Fifty 
Perfect Poems. In 1898 he was appointed president of the 
People's University Extension Society; in January 1931, on 
the day before his ninety-first birthday, he presided over a 
meeting of that society. He was a founder and first president 
of the Society of the Genesee. His best known books were 
on historical subjects, but he also wrote verse and literary 
essays. His Phaeton Rogers (1881) is a story of boy life in 

David Jayne Hill (1850-1932), educator, diplomatist, and 
author, was president of the University of Rochester from 
1889 to 1896. He was graduated from the University of 
Lewisburg (later Bucknell University) in 1874; there he 
taught Latin, Greek, and rhetoric, and in 1879 became 
president of the university, in which capacity he served 
until his Rochester days. 

His public career began in 1898 when President McKinley 
appointed him Assistant Secretary of State. While in Wash- 
ington he was also professor of European Diplomacy in 
the School of Comparative Jurisprudence and Diplomacy. 
In 1903 he became Minister to Switzerland and two years 
later was transferred to Holland. In 1907 he was a delegate 
to the Second Peace Conference at the Hague, and from 1908 
to 1911 was Ambassador to Germany. Later he became a 
member of the Permanent Administrative Council of the 
Hague Tribunal. 

His published works lectures, magazine articles, and 
books cover a wide field of interest. His early books, from 
1877 to 1893, reflected in the main his work as an educator 
and consisted of texts on rhetoric, logic, psychology, and 
philosophy. These were interspersed in 1897 by lives of 
Washington Irving and William Cullen Bryant, in 1885 by 
Principles and Fallacies of Socialism, and in 1888 by The Social 
Influence of Christianity. 


His later works are concerned almost exclusively with 
problems of government and the history of diplomacy. His 
magnum opus is The History of Diplomacy in the International 
Development of Europe, three volumes of which he completed. 
Though now outdated, it remains conspicuous for its com- 

In all his later work Hill expressed a deep sense of the 
value of law and an equally strong belief in the necessity of 
its progressive development to meet human needs. His style 
reveals an exceptional ability to assemble and organize 
material and to give it concise and forceful expression. 

Dexter Perkins, city historian and head of the department 
of history and government in the University of Rochester, 
is author of The M.onroe Doctrine, in 3 volumes, a fresh and 
broad treatment of the subject, embracing both the Amer- 
ican view and the European reactions to the historic 
American policy. He also contributes to learned journals. 

Arthur Caswell Parker, director of the Rochester Museum 
of Arts and Sciences, is an authority on the ethnology, 
anthropology, and archaeology of New York State. Born 
on an Indian reservation, he has been honored with many 
medals and orders, one of which was given him as the most 
eminent man of Indian descent in America. His chief works 
are Myths and Folk Tales of the Senecas, Indian How Book, 
Rumbling Wings, Gustango Gold, Code of Handsome Lake, The 
Last Grand Sachem, Constitution of the Five Nations, and 
Archaeological History of New York State. 

The most distinguished of Rochester's early writers was 
Lewis Henry Morgan, the "father of American anthropol- 
ogy." He was born near Aurora, N. Y., in 1818, graduated 
from Union College in 1840, and resided in Rochester from 
1851 until his death in 1881. His League of the Iroquois, pub- 
lished in 1851, is still the standard work on the Iroquois 


Nation. Among his other well-known books are The Amer- 
ican Beaver, Ancient Society, Systems of Consanguinity and 
Affinity of the Human Family. 

Eminent both as an author and as an architect, Claude F. 
Bragdon is the author of a number of books both technical 
and popular. His studies in the theory of the fourth dimen- 
sion have attracted much attention. Representative are A 
Primer of Higher Space, Four Dimensional Vistas, Oracle, The 
New Image, and The Eternal Poles. 

Herman LeRoy Fairchild, professor emeritus of geology 
in the university, is the author of more than 250 mono- 
graphs and articles on geology. His Geologic Story of the 
Genesee Valley and Western New York is authoritative for the 
region which it covers. 

Under the pen-name of N. Hudson Moore, Mrs. Samuel 
P. Moore wrote books on antiques which have become 
almost as well known abroad as in the United States. In 
1901 was published her Old China Book, now a standard 
reference work. Her later books deal with old furniture, 
lace, old clocks, Delftware, wedgewood, and old glass 
the last considered one of the best on the subject. She also 
wrote books for children, notably Deeds of Daring Done 
by Girls and Flower Fables and Fancies. 

Augustus H. Strong, D.D., born in Rochester in 1836 and 
for many years president of the Theological Seminary, pub- 
lished in 1886 his Systematic Theology, once recognized as the 
classic exposition of the fundamentalist view. In 1888 he 
published Philosophy and Religion and in 1897 The Great Poets 
and Their Theology. 

Walter Rauschenbusch was born in Rochester, graduated 
from the university and seminary, and served as professor 
in the latter from 1897 until his death in 1918. He was one 
of the most influential figures in the United States in the 


development of what has come to be called the "social 
gospel," his writings in this field attracting international 
attention. In 1907 the publication of Christianity and the 
Social Crisis made him a national figure. 

One of Rochester's most distinguished women, Helen 
Barrett Montgomery, a graduate of Wellesley, was a ver- 
satile and prolific lecturer and writer. Most of her books, 
some eight or more, like Island World of the Pacific, published 
in 1906, deal with missionary life and interests. Her out- 
standing work, however, was the translation of the entire 
New Testament from the Greek. 

Conrad H. Moehlman, professor of church history at the 
Colgate-Rochester Divinity School, has published a dozen 
scholarly books, including The Story of Christianity, The 
Catholic-Protestant Mind, and The Christian-Jewish Tragedy . 


In general, the architectural eras of Rochester have par- 
alleled those of other cities in New York State. The first 
frame dwellings which replaced the log cabins were noth- 
ing more than serviceable shelters from the weather, a mere 
matter of four corner posts joined at top and bottom by 
joists, to which plank walls were fastened with wooden 
pins or hand-forged spikes, and a gabled slab roof. The first 
chimneys were precarious affairs made of sticks chinked 
with clay. 

Throughout the Genesee Valley still stand many cobble- 
stone houses, as sturdy as when they were built in the first 
years of the nineteenth century. While a few cobblestone 
houses are found in northern Vermont and in eastern New 
York State, in no other part of the country are they so 
numerous as in western New York. There were two reasons: 
the plentiful supply of cobblestones, and the fact that 
through this region traveled a company of Scotch masons 


skilled in building this type of house. It was their custom 
to have several houses under construction at once, as the 
mortar in each tier of stones had to dry and set before the 
next tier could be laid. Cobblestones in unlimited quanti- 
ties, waterworn to a smooth roundness, were to be found 
in the ancient lake bed which formed the valley. The stones 
were graded by means of plank sieves pierced with holes 
of varying sizes. Frequently they were laid in simple pat- 
terns, a row of large cobbles alternating with a row of 
smaller size, or in the popular "herringbone" pattern, in 
which the ovoid stones were slanted in opposite directions 
in alternate rows. These cobblestone houses were the first 
concerted attempt in this region to combine utility and 
beauty in building, and may therefore be classed as the 
Genesee country's earliest and most original style in 

Not until about 1820 did conventional architecture have 
its real beginning in Rochester. Before that,very few houses 
besides the cobblestones were built in the valley with a 
thought to design as well as service. Among those still 
standing in Rochester and vicinity are the Orringh Stone 
tavern, at 2370 East Avenue, immediately across the line in 
Brighton, which was built in 1790, and the Oliver Culver 
house, 70 East Boulevard, built in 1805- 

Beginning about 1820 and for a few years thereafter, the 
Georgian Colonial and post-Colonial eras, so far as Roch- 
ester was concerned, overlapped and gradually merged into 
the Greek Revival, which remained in vogue generally 
throughout the country until about 1850. One of the finest 
examples of Rochester's post-Colonial houses, erected dur- 
ing the first quarter of the nineteenth century, is the Norris 
house at 55 Winton Road S. Its well balanced proportions 
and harmonious lines show something of the influence 
brought here by architects of the Hudson River Valley. It is a 



corner-entrance house. On either side of the door are leaded 
side-lights and fluted pilasters supporting a full entabla- 
ture carved in geometric floral design. 

For the awakening of Rochester's interest in architecture 
local historians give special credit to the work of two men : 
Capt. Daniel Loomis, a builder, who came to Rochester in 
1820, and his son, Isaac Loomis, who in 1828 opened an 
office as Rochester's first architect. Together they designed 
and built many of the finest houses in the Third Ward, at 
that time the city's most aristocratic residential section. 
Largely under the influence of the Loomises, many Roch- 
ester houses built between 1820 and 1840 reflected the sim- 
plicity of the Greek Revival style. Doubtless, too, echoes 
of the Greek Revolution of 1822 found tangible form in the 
Classic architecture of that period. 

Excellent examples of surviving houses built in the Greek 
Revival style are the Whittlesey house on Troup Street, the 
D. A. R. house on Livingston Park, and the Jonathan 
Child house (1837) on Washington Street. Of these, probably 
the last is the best. Its side doorway is set under a portico 
supported by four fluted columns of Ionic design. 

In the early 1840's, the center of social Rochester began 
to swing from Livingston Park to East Avenue. Though 
the Greek Revival was then in its last decade, many of the 
impressive homes on East Avenue were built in that style. 
Of those which still lend an air of dignity to East Avenue 
is the Pitkin house, now the home of Mrs. Gilman Perkins, 
at 474 East Avenue. Built in 1840, it was originally Greek 
Revival. While the third story, added in 1906, varies some- 
what from the original style, the whole is in complete 

The Silas O. Smith home, at the corner of Sibley Place and 
East Avenue, now the home of Mrs. Ernest R. Willard, was 



D. A. R. Building 

built in 1841, of red brick. It is an example of the Classic 
Revival style. A columned entrance porch, surmounted by 
a second story balcony, shelters the wide doorway with its 
double doors. The house is not open to the public, but its 
interior design merits description. From the front vestibule 
a hall 18 feet wide leads through the house to a rear sun 
porch. From this hall, through a stairwell reaching to the 



roof cupola, rises a circular stairway with newel post and 
balustrade of mahogany. Massive double doors open from 
the hall into high-ceilinged rooms finished in old ivory. 
A brass-hooded fireplace, hearthed and manteled with 
marble, balances each ground floor room by centering the 
wall opposite the door. The end walls of each room are 
broken by three narrow pilasters supporting on their 
acanthus capitals the ornamental plaster cornice. Candela- 
bra hang from central floral designs in the ceiling. The 
interior of the house has remained unaltered through a 

The Greek Revival left traces of beauty which still linger 
along many of the city's older streets. In the early and 
middle 19th century, the Gothic Revival appeared. One of 
the first houses of that design, built in 1824, stands un- 
changed at the northwest corner of Spring and Washington 
Streets. Upon existing churches the Gothic Revival has 
left a clearer imprint than has any other style. Oldest 
among these is St. Luke's (1820) on South Fitzhugh Street. 
Architecturally it has been classified as Gothic and as 
Gothic-Colonial. Mr. Walter H. Cassebeer, Rochester archi- 
tect, asserts that in its coursing and sandstone quoined 
corners St. Luke's Church bears traces of the Georgian 
Colonial influence. The Gothic tower of St. Paul's Church 
rises above East Avenue at Vick Park B. St. Patrick's Cathe- 
dral, at the corner of Platt Street and Plymouth Avenue, 
and the Unitarian Church on Temple Street were also 
built in the Gothic Revival style. This latter is a particu- 
larly beautiful and well planned structure, designed by 
Richard A. Upjohn, the architect of Trinity Church in New 
York City. 

Almost contemporary with the Gothic Revival came a 
revival of the Queen Anne style. Many of the old houses in 


this style may be found throughout the city, identified by 
their^square cupolas centering wide-eaved roofs. 

Rochester has the usual neo-classic buildings of the 
1895-1900 period and representatives of the Beaux Arts 
style of 1900-1910, as well as other buildings showing 
the influence of such nationally known architects as McKim, 
Mead and White; Carrere and Hastings; Cram, Goodhue 
and Ferguson, and other American master architects who 
practiced in New York City and Boston and whose better 
known and more successful examples set the vogue for 
contemporary architecture. 

Rochester itself has long been known for its able 
architects : Gordon and Kaelber, architects of the buildings 
on the River Campus, one of the finest college groups in 
America; Claude F. Bragdon, architect of the Chamber of 
Commerce Building and the New York Central railroad 
station; the late J. Foster Warner, the late James G. Cutler, 
G. Storrs Barrows, Walter H. Cassebeer, and others. 

Each succeeding style and type of building has added its 
characteristics to the architectural composite which is pre- 
sent-day Rochester. Further architectural details will be 
found in the descriptions of points of interest in the city. 

Conservative Rochester has taken less kindly to the in- 
novations of modernism in architecture than have larger 
cities like New York, Chicago, Detroit, and Buffalo. The 
Genesee Valley Trust Bldg. (see City Tour $), erected 1929, 
is one of Rochester's architectural ventures in the modern- 
istic. At the northwest corner of Exchange and Broad 
Streets, where ran the old towpath of the Erie Canal, the 
building lifts its mass of granite and limestone. Severely 
straight and modern lines continue to a height of 12 
stories, then converge in a tower 42 feet high, decorated 
with mullions and grilles. At the apex of this tower mod- 
ernism reaches skyward its startling "wings of progress/' 


Entrance to the Chap in House, no South Fit^hugh Street SM ff 

At night floodlights concealed behind the tower grilles shed 
a soft glow upon these massive metal wings, giving an 
effect of light and airy grace, as of gigantic moth wings 
poised against the skyline. Startled, somewhat mystified, 
practical Rochester asks herself, "But what are they for?' 9 



She has an uneasy feeling in the presence of beauty which 
cannot be made to serve some utilitarian purpose. Still she 
has a secret pride in the possession of those strange wings 
of progress lifting their pinions toward tomorrow's dawn. 


Public education in Rochester began in 1812 when Huldah 
Strong started her little private school in Enos Stone's barn. 
The next year, on a lot on the west side of Fitzhugh Street, 
the first schoolhouse was erected, a one-story wooden 
structure 18 by 24 feet. In 1814 another school was organ- 
ized over Jehiel Barnard's tailor shop on Main Street. When 
Rochester became a city in 1834, there were six district 
schools and a number of private schools. The first super- 
intendent of schools was Isaac F. Mack, appointed in 1841; 
he had 16 schools under his direction, with more than 
4,000 children attending. 

In 1849 New York State provided for free schools in the 
entire state, and in 1850 a special school law for Rochester 
was passed by the state legislature; each city ward was set 
up as a school district, and all the schools were made free 
to everyone between the ages of 5 and 16 years. 

In 1853 an evening school was established under Supt. 
R. D. Jones, with more than 400 attendants. In his report 
Mr. Jones said that he believed the evening school had 
withdrawn many young people from temptations to evil. 

A private high school was founded near Chestnut Street 
in 1827; nine years later, when Dr. Chester Dewey was 
principal, there were 560 students. This building burned 
in 1852; but by that time popular demand for a free public 
high school had been established. In 1857 the Rochester 
Central High School was opened in a part of the remodeled 



No. 1 School on Fitzhugh Street This building proving 
inadequate, in 1873 the lot adjoining it was purchased and 
the Rochester Free Academy built at 13 South Fitzhugh 
Street. It was opened for school purposes in 1874. The 
building is now the headquarters of the Rochester Board of 
Education and houses the offices of the Superintendent of 

Rochester has originated, experimented with, and de- 
veloped many educational theories now nationally ac- 
cepted and practiced. Rochester was the first city in the 
United States to organize a department of full-time visiting 
teachers under a director professionally on an equality with 
the director of any other department in the school system. 

The Washington Junior High School, the first in the city, 
was opened in 1915. In Rochester many of the fundamental 
theories and courses of the junior high school plan of edu- 
cation were first established and developed. Educators came 
to Rochester to study the working out of the "6-3-3 plan" 
(6 years in elementary school, 3 in junior high, and 3 in 
senior high). In recent years in most of the Rochester 
schools this plan has largely been superseded by the "7-5 
plan" (7 years in the grade school and 5 in the junior- 
senior high school). 

Vocational training was begun with classes in sewing in 
1901 and in cooking in 1909. Advanced vocational training 
beyond the eighth grade was for a time offered to girls in 
the Madison Park Vocational School but is now an elective 
in secondary schools. The first vocational school for boys 
began in 1908 in what later became Edison Technical High 
School, which lays claim to being the earliest school of its 
kind in the state. 

In music the schools of Rochester have kept pace with the 
spread of general interest. They were the first to organize 



class instruction in all orchestra and band instruments. The 
Rochester inter-high school band, orchestra, and choir 
were among the first school ensembles in the United States. 
As early as 1910 Rochester began to give individual voice 
training in the classroom. It was the first city in the state 
to teach sight reading in music without syllables. Orchestra 
concerts over the radio for all public school children were 
inaugurated in 1924. Rochester was the first eastern city to 
award school credit for private study of music and to pro- 
vide the free use of instruments to students. 

Partly as the result of the interest of the Eastman Kodak 
Company in the field, Rochester has been the scene of suc- 
cessful experiments in visual education. In 1937 the city 
school system ranked fifth in the size of its film libraries. 

The first open-air school was started in New York City in 
1908; Rochester followed one year later with the Edward 
Mott Moore School, adjacent to Cobb's Hill Park, which 
has achieved a notable reputation in health work. The 
Monroe County Sanatorium School, opened in 1912, was 
the first of its kind in the state. It is now carried on at lola 
Sanatorium. Special classes for subnormal children were 
established in Rochester in 1906, anticipating the state law 
by 12 years; all the elementary subjects are taught and the 
needs and abilities of each pupil are studied. Ungraded 
classes for problem children were organized for boys and 
girls as early as 1916. In 1920 classes for exceptionally gifted 
children were formed in the elementary schools. 

Lip-reading classes and classes for the partially deaf 
were organized in 1916, and sight-saving classes for children 
with weak eyes two years later. Classes for crippled children, 
later to be enlarged into a school, were begun in 1920: 
a year earlier a hospital class was formed at the General 



In 1915 Rochester began its pioneer work in school sav- 
ings. Arrangements were made with a Rochester bank to 
encourage deposits by children through their schools. The 
plan, named the Barrows School Savings System after 
Mr. Howard Barrows, member of the Board of Education 
who initiated it, became an immense success, and the idea 
spread all over the land. By the end of 1935 the children of 
Rochester and vicinity had deposited more than $2,000,000. 
With the passing of the depression, the amount has grown 
larger every week. 

The Rochester School of the Air over stations WHEC and 
WHAM was established under the jurisdiction of the Board 
of Education, with profit to large numbers of people who 
have not had much formal education. 

In its public school system Rochester has 44 elementary 
schools, 12 high schools, 9 special schools, and one open- 
air school. In addition, nine teachers are employed in 
hospitals and sanitariums. 

Catholic education in Rochester goes back more than a 
century. As early as 1831, when the second St. Patrick's 
Church edifice was erected, a room was set apart in the base- 
ment for school purposes. 

The first school was opened in 1835 in the home of Dr. 
Hugh Bradley on St. Paul Street. Since then the 
Catholic school system has continuously expanded until 
today it includes 35 grade schools, 4 high schools, a prepara- 
tory and a theological seminary, a college for men, and a 
college for women. Aquinas Institute and St. Andrew's 
Seminary provide regular high school work for boys, in- 
cluding a four-year course in religion; the latter adds the 
first two years of college work, preparing most of its 
students for the priesthood. College education for men is 
offered by a branch of Niagara University, which trains 



for a business career or for the teaching of commercial 
high school subjects. The extension department admits 
women as well as men. 

Regular high school work for girls is offered in Nazareth 
Academy, Our Lady of Mercy High School, and Sacred 
Heart Academy. A college curriculum is offered by Nazareth 
College and by the extension department of Niagara Uni- 
versity. Seminary training is provided by the St. Andrew's 
Preparatory Seminary and St. Bernard's Theological 


After the suspension of publication of the Rochester Evening 
Journal and Post-Express in the summer of 1937, Rochester 
readers were served by only two English daily papers of 
large circulation, both now belonging to the Gannett chain. 
The Democrat and Chronicle is published in the morning and 
on Sundays, and the Times-Union comes out on weekday 
noons and evenings. The circulation of these two papers 
is well over 150,000. 

The Democrat and Chronicle traces its origin back to the 
Rochester Balance, established in 1828 by D. D. Stephenson. 
In 1834, the year that Rochester became a city, the paper 
was merged with the National Republican, which had been 
started as a weekly by Sydney Smith in 1831. Alvah Strong 
and Erastus Shepard of Palmyra continued the merged 
papers under the name, Monroe Democrat. Under a succession 
of ownerships it continued under this name until 1857, 
when it was united with the Daily and Weekly American. 
On December 1, 1870, the Rochester Printing Company 
was organized and purchased the Democrat and the Rochester 
Chronicle, issuing the new daily under the name Democrat 


and Chronicle. This is the name that has survived to the 
present day. 

The Rochester Herald first appeared on August 5, 1879, 
and for a period of 46 years it was the rival morning paper. 
In 1926 it was purchased by the Democrat and Chronicle and 
lost its name and its distinct individuality. In 1928 control 
passed to Frank E. Gannett, editor and owner of the Times- 
Union and of a chain of papers in other cities. 

The Times-Union also is the result of many combinations 
and mergers of other papers. The Telegraph was founded in 
1818 by Everard Peck & Company. Later Thurlow Weed, 
whose name was to go down in history as one of the earliest 
political bosses, became the editor. In 1825 he bought the 
paper and ran it in association with Robert W. Martin. 
In 1827 he sold out his interest to Martin, who made it a 
daily and a year later merged it with the Advertiser. The 
Advertiser was the first daily paper established west of the 
Hudson River. The first issue appeared on October 25, 1826, 
under the editorship of Henry O'Reilly, remembered today 
as the author of Rochester's first authentic history, Sketches 
of Rochester (1838). 

The Daily Union was launched in 1852 as a result of an 
old schism in the ranks of the Democratic party. In 1857 
it was combined with the Advertiser to form the Union and 
Advertiser. A paper started as the result of a painters' strike 
in 1887 eventually became the Evening Times. On February 
26, 1918, the old Union and Advertiser was purchased by Mr. 
Gannett, who merged it with the Evening Times and called 
the new paper the Times-Union and Advertiser; later the word 
Advertiser was dropped, and the paper received the name by 
which it is now known. 

The Rochester Post-Express traced its descent from the 
Evening Express founded in 1859. It had a long and honorable 



career, and its memory is still fresh in the minds of many 
Roches terians. It rather prided itself upon being the "qual- 
ity" newspaper of Rochester, making little effort to keep 
up with the modern trends in American journalism. It pub- 
lished its final edition on July 16, 1923, having been pur- 
chased by William Randolph Hearst, who had begun pub- 
lishing the Rochester Journal the year before. In the summer 
of 1937, however, this paper discontinued publication, 
leaving the evening field to the Times-Union. 

In Rochester are also published four foreign language 
papers, a Catholic weekly, and several journals serving 
business and occupational groups. 


Radio audiences of Rochester are served by three local 
broadcasting stations. WHEC, under the ownership of 
Frank E. Gannett, was the first station in Rochester and 
the twenty-sixth in the United States. The first program 
was broadcast from WHEC, then identifying itself under 
the signature of WHQ, on March 1, 1922. Its story, how- 
ever, goes back to 1908 when Lawrence G. Hickson, then a 
student of Mechanics Institute, began tinkering with an 
amateur wireless telegraph. Mr. Hickson's wireless equip- 
ment was later dismantled by the Government as a war 
measure, but when peace was declared he resumed his 
activities, setting up this time a wireless telephone set 
over which he broadcast phonograph records three times 
a week. Mr. Gannett, foreseeing the future of the radio, 
joined Mr. Hickson and obtained a government license. 

WHAM, organized in 1927, is a 50,000-watt station, 
owned and operated by the Stromberg Carlson Co., manu- 
facturers of radio equipment. 

Recently WSAY was licensed for daytime broadcasting 
to serve an advertising field somewhat neglected by the 


other stations, the obligations of which are first to carry 
the programs of the CBS and NBC chains and then to serve 
local advertisers to the extent that their time is not claimed 
by their networks. WSAY is a member of the New York 
State Broadcasting system, a chain of six stations linking 
Buffalo, Rochester, Auburn, Utica, Albany, and New York 
City. Its policy is first to serve the local advertiser with 
local programs and to extend its facilities to national ad- 
vertisers only if its time be unclaimed by local sponsors. 


Early Rochester took religion seriously. The founders of 
the city were nearly all churchmen the Rochesters, Scran- 
toms, Wards, Reynolds, Mathews, Goulds, Chapins. Three 
distinct influences may be said to have determined the early 
religious life of the community the Puritan, the Southern 
Cavalier, and the Quaker. The Southerners came first but 
in a few years were outnumbered by the New Englanders. 
The Quakers were in Monroe County a number of years 
before Rochester was founded; in 1828 there were 592 of 
this sect in the county, one half of whom lived in Roch- 

The latest data give Rochester 208 churches or church 
organizations, or about one church to every 1,500 inhabi- 
tants. The membership is divided among 57 sects, eight of 
which might be termed undenominational. According to 
the United States religious census of 1926, there were in the 
city at that time 178,340 church members: 92,079 (61,863, 
13 or more years of age) Roman Catholic; 22,500 Jewish; and 
63,761, (13 or more years of age) Protestant. The Protestant 
churches, however, claim a constituency of abut 180,000, 
and the Roman Catholic 130,000. 

Six groups account for the larger part of the Protestant 
membership, all but about 11,000 church members belong- 
ing to the Presbyterian, Methodist, Lutheran, Episcopal, 


Baptist, and Evangelical Synod denominations. Of 94 
Protestant churches studied between 1920 and 1930, 81 
percent had increased their membership. 

Rochester has a "downtown" church situation which 
is unusual. In other cities of the same class, decentraliza- 
tion of churches has been accomplished to a large extent, 
but in Rochester nearly all of the early church organizations 
are still to be found in the center of the city, some housed 
in their century-old buildings as, for example, old St. 
Luke's and some with very recently constructed edifices. 
A recent count revealed that one-third of the Protestant 
membership of the city was enrolled in churches located 
in the business district. 

The first Christian church to conduct services in the 
Genesee country was the Roman Catholic. The Jesuit and 
Sulpitian Fathers and Franciscan Friars penetrated this 
region as did the early French explorers, traders, and soldiers. 
Catholic services were held in Rochester when it was only a 
village, and St. Patrick's Church was built in 1823. The 
city has (1937) 43 Catholic parishes with 130 priests. St. 
Mary's Hospital, the first and for some years the only 
hospital in Rochester, has been maintained continuously 
for 80 years. Other Catholic institutions include orphan 
asylums for younger children, St. Ann's Home for the Aged, 
two neighborhood social service centers, and the Columbus 
Civic Center. 

The history of Judaism in Rochester is a history of re- 
ligious and charitable service. There are at the present time 
17 Jewish synagogues with spiritual leaders of eminence 
and initiative. 

Rochester has been the birthplace or the focal point of a 
number of new religious sects. At Cumorah Hill, not far 
from Rochester, Joseph Smith received his asserted visita- 
tion from the angel Moroni and established a new religion 


which has more than a million members, and the first Book 
of Mormon was printed nearby. There are two Mormon 
churches in Rochester. 

Spiritualism likewise may be said to have had its incep- 
tion here. In Hydesville, just to the east, the Fox sisters 
first heard the mysterious rappings. Afterwards they came 
to Rochester, where most of their later spiritual manifesta- 
tions were experienced. Rochester has a number of Spiritual- 
ist churches, including the first, or Mother Church, on 
Plymouth Avenue. 

The Megiddo Mission and Community Settlement is 
located on Thurston Road within the city. This organiza- 
tion came to Rochester in 1904 under the leadership of the 
late L. T. Nichols; the Megiddos, a Hebrew word meaning 
"true soldiers of the Lord," had at that time some 80 mem- 
bers. At the present time the organization has about 200 
communicants. They have been a thrifty folk and are an 
asset to the city. 


In 1937 the Rochester Council of Social Agencies listed 71 
member agencies. This in itself is an indication of the inter- 
est that Rochester maintains in the health and happiness of 
its citizens. In the fall of 1936 a report was issued of an ex- 
haustive study of the cost and volume of social work in 
Rochester, made cooperatively by the research department 
of the Council of Social Agencies, the Rochester Bureau of 
Municipal Research, and the department of sociology of 
the University of Rochester; anyone interested in the details 
of Rochester's social work can consult this thorough 

Perhaps no better gauge of the scope of social welfare 
work in this city and the interest of its citizens in social 
agencies could be given than the accomplishments of the 


Community Chest. As in many other cities, the Community 
Chest apportions to the deserving agencies the contributions 
of citizens for philanthropic purposes. Records of these con- 
tributions in Rochester are available for a period of 18 
years. By March 31, 1936, the people of the city had paid 
into the coffers of the Community Chest the sum of $25,- 
196,137.16. The number contributing to this fund has in 
some years been in excess of 100,000 persons. 

In 1924 the social welfare income was $4,762,914; in 1931, 
$9,567,083; and in 1935, $17,243,535- It may be unnecessary 
to state that the sharp increase, made necessary by the 
recent depression, was to a large extent derived from state 
and federal grants. 

The social agencies of Rochester may be grouped accord- 
ing to their work and purposes into six divisions: child 
care, family welfare, health, character building, coordina- 
tion, and animal protection, with the number of agencies 
in each division varying widely. For purposes of reference, 
and to indicate better perhaps than in any other way the 
scope of social work in Rochester, there follows an alpha- 
betical list of the member agencies of the Rochester Council 
of Social Agencies as of 1937: 

American Red Cross, Rochester Chapter, 307 Plymouth 

Avenue North 

Association for the Blind of Rochester, 439 Monroe Avenue 
Baden Street Settlement, 152 Baden Street 
Baptist Home of Monroe County, Fairport, N. Y. 
Board of Education, 13 South Fitzhugh Street 
Boy Scouts of America, Rochester Council, Cutler Building 
Bureau of Parks, 34 Court Street 
Charles House, 445 Jay Street 
Children's Aid Society, Washington Jr. High School, 

Clifford Avenue 
Children's Court, Court House, Main Street West 


Child Study Department, S.P.C.C. 156 Plymouth Avenue 


Children's Service Bureau, 31 Gibbs Street 
Church Home, Episcopal, 509 Mt. Hope Avenue 
Civic Committee on Unemployment, City Hall Annex 
Columbus Youth Association, 50 Chestnut Street 
Convalescent Hospital for Children, 425 Beach Avenue 
Department of Public Welfare, Convention Hall Annex, 

Clinton Avenue South 
Family Welfare Society, 31 Gibbs Street 
G. A. R. Relief Committee, 34 Court Street 
Genesee Hospital, 224 Alexander Street 
Genesee Institute, 347 North Union Street 
Girl Scouts, Rochester Council, 76 North Water Street 
Highland Hospital, 3 Bellevue Drive 
Hillside Home for Children, 1161 Monroe Avenue 
Humane Society, 263 Central Avenue 
Industrial Workshops, 292 Alexander Street 
Jewish Children's Home, 27 Gorham Street 
Jewish Children's Orphan Asylum of Western New York, 

156 Plymouth Avenue North 
Jewish Home for the Aged, 1162 St. Paul Street 
Jewish Welfare Council, 144 Baden Street 
Jewish Young Men's Association, University Ave. and 

Andrews St. 

Legal Aid Society, 21 S. Fitzhugh Street 
Lewis Street Center, 57 Lewis Street 
Milk in Schools Committee, 13 South Fitzhugh Street 
Monroe County Board of Child Welfare, 1460 South Avenue 
Medical Society of the County of Monroe, 277 Alexander 

Monroe County Court, Adult Probation, Court House, 

Main Street West 

Needlework Guild, 1011 University Avenue 
Park Avenue Hospital, 789 Park Avenue 


People's Rescue Mission, 134 Front Street 
Public Health Nursing Association, 130 Spring Street 
Rochester Catholic Charities, 39 State Street 
Rochester Children's Nursery, 133 Exchange Street 
Rochester Community Home for Girls, 293 Troup Street 
Rochester Dental Dispensary, 800 Main Street East 
Rochester Female Charitable Society, 13 Vienna Street 
Rochester Friendly Home, Brighton Station, East Avenue 
Rochester General Hospital, 501 Main Street West 
Rochester Girls' Service League and Big Sister Council, 

411 Temple Building 

Rochester State Hospital, 1600 South Avenue 
St. Anne's Home for the Aged, 1971 Lake Avenue 
St. Elizabeth Guild House, 1 Field Street 
St. John's Home for the Aged, 1262 South Avenue 
St. Joseph's Orphan Asylum, 305 Andrews Street 
St. Mary's Boys' Home, 851 Main Street West 
St. Mary's Hospital, 909 Main Street West 
St. Patrick's Girls' Home, 160 Clifton Street 
Salvation Army, 64 North Street 
Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children, 156 

Plymouth Avenue North 

State of New York, Division of Parole, 65 Broad Street 
State of New York, Education Dept. Rehabilitation Div. 

65 Broad Street 

Strong Memorial Hospital, Crittenden Boulevard 
Toy Depot of Rochester, 3528 Elmwood Avenue 
Travelers Aid Society, New York Central Station, Central 


Tuberculosis and Health Association, 277 Alexander Street 
Vacation Home, 9 Arnold Park 
Volunteer Motor Service, 277 Alexander Street 
Women's Educational and Industrial Union, 86 North Street 
World War Relief Committee, 34 Court Street 
Young Men's Christian Association, 100 Gibbs Street 
Young Women's Christian Association, 190 Franklin Street 



TOUR N0.4 




I ? 


THE points of interest in Rochester are arranged 
under four tours: Tour 1 (Points of Interest Nos. 1- 
19), a motor trip through the northeast section, in- 
cluding a trip through the Bausch & Lomb plant (afternoons 
only); Tour 2 (Points of Interest Nos. 20-41), a motor trip 
through the southeast section; Tour 3 (Points of Interest 
Nos. 42-62), a foot-tour through the downtown section; 
and Tour 4 (Points of Interest Nos. 63-78), a motor trip to 
Charlotte, including a two-hour tour of the Eastman Kodak 
Plant. Three points of interest especially for children are 
added. The University of Rochester and the Eastman School 
of Music are treated separately. All tours begin at the 
Four Corners. The tour maps are provided to aid the tour- 
ist in following tour directions and identifying points of 
interest, as well as to enable him to reach individual 
points of interest without reference to prepared tours. 

TOUR 1 19 m. 
N. from E. Main St. on St. Paul St. 

corner St. Paul and Mortimer Sts. of modified Italian 
Renaissance architecture, the exterior of Tennessee marble, 
was erected in 1916 with funds donated by George 
Eastman. It was enlarged in 1927 by a four-story 
addition erected at Mortimer and Water Streets. The 



original structure was designed by Claude F. Bragdon, the 
addition by Gordon and Kaelber. One of the largest build- 
ings in the country devoted to Chamber of Commerce activi- 
ties, it includes a large lounge room, a library room, offices, 
several committee rooms, and a banquet hall with a seating 
capacity of 1,200. The headquarters of the Boy Scouts, the 
Girl Scouts, the Community Chest, and the Rochester Home 
Bureau are in the building. 

Organized in 1887, incorporated in 1888, the Chamber of 
Commerce has a membership (1937) in excess of 3,500, 
functioning through 35 committees, bureaus, and councils. 
Harper Sibley, president of the United States Chamber of 
Commerce in 1936, was president of the Rochester Chamber 
of Commerce in 1917. 

R. from Sf. Paul St. on Andrews St. 

2. J. Y. M. A. and J. Y. W. A. (R), corner Andrews 
St. and University Ave., an eight-story structure of struc- 
tural steel and reinforced concrete completed in 1936, is of 
modified Georgian Colonial style. It has women's and men's 
gymnasiums, a swimming pool, a library, game rooms, and 
a cafeteria, with four upper floors devoted to dormitories 
for men. At the rear is a two-story auditorium seating 1,100. 

Tour No. i Map Index 

1. Chamber of Commerce Building 10. Driving Park Ave. Bridge 

2. J. Y. M. A. and]. Y. W. A. n. Red Wing Stadium 

3. Rochester Post Office 12. Veterans' Memorial Bridge 

4. N. Y. Central R. R. Station 13. Seneca Park 

/. Frederick Douglass Monument 14. Summerville-Rochester Yacht Club 

6. Platt St. Bridge //. Durand Eastman Park 

7. Bausch Memorial Bridge 16. Sea Breeze 

8. Lomb Memorial 17. Masonic Temple 

9. Bausch & Lomb Optical Company 18. Rochester Dental Dispensary 

19. Anderson Park 



Re t race Andrews St.; R. around franklin 7 ark; L. on Cum- 
berland St. 

3. ROCHESTER POST OFFICE (R) occupies the 
entire block between Ormond St. and Hyde Park. Con- 
structed in 1934 at a cost of $1,700,000, the building is in 
design a modern adaptation of Italian Renaissance architec- 
ture, built of Ohio buff limestone. The two curved entrances 
at the southeast and southwest corners are adorned with 
columns of pink Tennessee marble with simplified Corinth- 
ian capitals. The walls and floor of the main lobby, which 
extends the full length of the building, are of varicolored 
marble with woodwork of American walnut. A large mail- 
ing room in the basement is connected by a tunnel with the 
New York Central station on Central Avenue. A recently 
constructed garage at the rear houses all post office trucks. 

R. from Cumberland St. on Hyde Park; L. on Central Ave. 

(R), on Central Ave. between Joseph and N. Clinton Aves., 
largest Rochester station, serves all east- and west-bound 
traffic over the New York Central lines. Constructed of 
smoke-brown tapestry brick and brownstone, the building 
was designed by Claude F. Bragdon, Rochester arch- 
itect and writer. It is freely designed in the neo-classic 
style. The four-story end pavilions are traditional in design, 
but the connecting unit, with its three wide circular arches 
lighting the main waiting room of the station proper, is 
somewhat of a departure from the classic precedent. Of the 
waiting room an authority has written that although cer- 
tain details are based upon Roman prototypes, the beauty 
of design of this room is achieved by simplicity of line and 
proportion and by the able treatment of non-stylistic orna- 
ment. From the waiting room a subway leads to 15 pass- 
enger and freight tracks. 



Central Ave. and St. Paul St., unveiled in 1899, was dedi- 
cated by Theodore Roosevelt, then Governor of New York 
State. The statue, of bronze on a granite pedestal, designed 
by Sidney W. Edwards, is inscribed with quotations from 
speeches of Mr. Douglass. 

Frederick Douglass (1807-1895) was born a slave in 
Easton, Md. Having run away from his master in 1838, he 
took up residence in New Bedford, Mass. In 1841 he began 
to lecture against slavery and became famous as an orator. 
In 1848 he published a newspaper, The North Star, in Roch- 
ester. At the outbreak of the Civil War he urged the em- 
ployment of colored troops and helped organize them. He 
was an active agent of the Underground Railroad and his 
home, still standing on Alexander Street, was a refuge and 
way-station for runaway slaves seeking safety and freedom 
in Canada. During the administration of Benjamin Harri- 
son, Mr. Douglass was appointed Minister to Haiti. After 
his death in 1895 his body was interred in Mount Hope 
Cemetery in Rochester. 

R. from Central Ave. on St. Paul St. 

6. PLATT STREET BRIDGE (L), at St. Paul and 
Platt Sts., a steel arch bridge constructed in 1891, is 857 
feet long, its roadway 114 feet above the river. From a point 
near this bridge Sam Patch made his fatal exhibition leap 
into the river in 1829. 

Bausch Sts., is of steel cantilever construction with a span 
of 945 feet and a height of 105 feet above the river's flow. 
At the water's edge on both sides of the gorge are the mas- 
sive storage tanks of the Rochester Gas & Electric Company, 
the glass plants of Bausch & Lomb, and numerous small 
factories and warehouses which climb the cliffs. Here one 
may feel the pulse of Rochester's industrial life. 


Bronze tablets at both approaches honor John Jacob 
Bausch, (1830-1926), founder of Bausch & Lomb Optical 
Company. Born in Germany, Mr. Bausch followed in the 
footsteps of an older brother apprenticed to the optical 
trade, worked in Germany and Switzerland, and in 1848 
came to America. He passed his first winter in Buffalo, 
where he served as a cook's helper and at the wood- turning 
trade. Coming to Rochester in 1849, he made a futile effort 
to establish an optical store. After a few years at wood- 
working, in 1853 he again opened an optical store, selling 
imported spectacles and telescopes. Dissatisfied with the 
lenses he was importing from Europe, he constructed a lens- 
grinding machine with which he ground the first American- 
made lenses. He was soon joined by his friend Henry Lomb, 
who purchased a half interest in the business for $60. Sup- 
plementing his business by mending windowpanes, Mr. 
Bausch kept his business venture intact, with Mr. Lomb's 
help, until 1863, when he began to manufacture spectacle 
frames from hard rubber. This innovation, coupled with 
the superiority of his lenses, was responsible for the early 
growth of the Bausch & Lomb Company. 

8. LOMB MEMORIAL (R), on plaza facing Bausch 
St., is a black granite shaft, 48 feet high on a base of pearl- 
pink marble, floodlighted at night. The monument, erected 
by the Bausch and Lomb families in May 1930, was designed 
by Walter Cassebeer and Lewis Brew, associated architects, 
and is dedicated to Capt. Henry Lomb (1825-1908). Born 
in Germany, Lomb emigrated to America in 1849 and 
worked as a carpenter. In 1853 he became the partner of 
Mr. Bausch. To supplement the meager income from their 
business, Mr. Lomb turned peddler, selling spectacles, and 
on one occasion, a consignment of deer meat from Canada 
at two cents a pound. In 1861 he joined the Union Army, 
and for the duration of the war sent a portion of his soldier's 
pay to his partner. When, as a captain, he returned home in 

1 66 


1864, he found the business firmly established and prosper- 
ing. In 1885 Mr. Lomb founded Mechanics Institute, with 
more than 600 students present at the first session. In 1903 
he donated the initial funds for instruments and appliances 
for the Rochester Dental Clinic, first of a world-wide chain. 
He continued his philanthropies and business activities 
until his death in 1908. 

635 St. Paul St. (open weekdays; guides -provided for three- 
hour tour of plant, afternoons only}, is the largest plant of its 
kind in America, with 16 separate buildings containing 
more than 1,000,000 square feet of floor space. The com- 
pany has more than 3,500 employees and manufactures 
upwards of 700 products. From 15 to 20 million lenses of 
all kinds are produced yearly. 

The products of the company fall into two main divisions, 
ophthalmic and instrument. The first includes spectacle 
lenses and frames and instruments for testing and treating 
eyes. The second division includes telescopes, microscopes, 
periscopes, binoculars, photographic lenses, army and navy 
optical instruments, and scientific instruments. The glass 
plant, where all the company's optical and spectacle glass 
is made, contains the furnaces, ovens, melting pots, and 
casting equipment. The lens plant is housed in a six-story 
building, three stories of which are devoted to batteries of 
lens-grinding and polishing machines. The stock room 
contains at all times more than a million pairs of lenses. 
Another six-story building is devoted to manufacturing 
spectacle frames, mountings, and cases. 

The instrument plant is a five-story building where many 
highly technical departments and research laboratories 
combine in manufacturing scientific instruments. The com- 
pany maintains its own foundry, with one iron cupel and 
several brass and aluminum furnaces. The planetarium, 
located on the roof of one of the buildings, commands nearly 


all of the horizon; the 14-foot refracting telescope may be 
used by visitors. The keynote of the company is preci- 
sion, and visitors may see instruments and machinery 
capable of measuring to 2-1,000,000 of an inch, as well as 
many indications of the company's ability to "bend light 
to do the work of man." 

Paul and Driving Park Ave., 212 feet above the river bed, 
is the highest of Rochester's bridges. It was built in 1890 
by L. L. Buck, C. E. From the bridge may be seen, to the 
south, the lower falls of the Genesee, the last of a series of 
four falls with a total drop of 225 feet within the city 
limits; to the north, Maplewood Park extending along 
the west bank of the river, and in the distance the graceful 
arches of the Veterans' Memorial Bridge. 

R. from St. Paul St. on Norton St. 

11. RED WING STADIUM (L), Norton St. and Clinton 
Ave. N. (admission // cents $1.65; ladies free on Ladies 1 Day, 
except for payment of amusement tax), is the home of the Roch- 
ester Red Wings Baseball Club of the International League. 
Constructed in 1928 of structural steel and reinforced con- 
crete, the stadium has a seating capacity of 18,000 and is 
equipped with floodlights for night games. There are two 
parking lots, one free, with space for 500 cars. The Red 
Wings' schedule includes 154 games, approximately half of 
which are played on the home field. The stadium is the 
scene of outdoor boxing and wrestling shows during the 
summer months, with an occasional evening of opera and 
semi-professional and amateur football in season. 

Retrace Norton St.; R. from Norton St. on St. Paul St. 

Paul St. and Ridge Rd., completed in 1931 at a cost of 
$2,500,000, is the longest of the city's bridges, with a span 
of 981 feet. It is a concrete arch type, dressed with granite 



masonry, and has been widely praised for its classic architec- 
tural beauty. Gehron and Ross, New York City, were the 
architects and Thomas McKibbon was the engineer. Shortly 
after the bridge was completed, the 190-foot drop from the 
parapet to the river inspired a gruesome "suicide lottery." 
Many tickets were sold, with the sex, age, and time of the 
first suicide to determine the winner. The lottery was soon 
stopped by legal procedure. 

13. SENECA PARK (L), entrance corner Ridge Rd. and 
St. Paul Blvd., embraces 245 acres extending to the banks 
of the Genesee River gorge. A public swimming pool near 
the park entrance is open both day and evening during the 
summer months (jpool and locker 2$ cents). North of the 
swimming pool is the city zoo. One of the park's two picnic 
areas, equipped with tables, benches, shelters, and fireplaces, 
is near the zoo. Winding paved roads lead through wooded 
sections of the park to another picnic area, a small lake, and 
several tennis courts, baseball diamonds, and other athletic 
fields. An excellent view of the river gorge is obtainable from 
various lookout points on the road above the precipitous 
river bank. There are no camping facilities in the park. 

Continue on St. Paul St., which becomes St. Paul Blvd. 

14. SUMMER VILLE, just outside city limits at end of 
St. Paul Blvd. and at the mouth of the Genesee River, is, 
with its sandy bathing beach and shady groves, a popular 
summer resort. A United States Coast Guard Station is 
located here, with complete equipment, including a new 
126-foot Coast Guard cutter, several smaller craft, a boat 
house, and a signal station. The crew of the life guard 
division is housed in a modern 10-room house at the mouth 
of the river. Adjacent to the Coast Guard Station is the 
Rochester branch of the New York State Naval Militia, 
the first station to be placed in operation on the Great 
Lakes. A former Coast Guard boat, the Eagle, is maintained 



as a training ship. The Rochester Yacht Club has its basin 
and clubhouse at Summerville. The Canada Cup race and 
the International Star Class Regatta have been run on a 
course off Summerville. Directly across the river are the 
Port of Rochester and Ontario Beach Park, Rochester's most 
popular summer resort. 

Retrace St. Paul Blvd. and St. Paul St.; L. from St. Paul St. 
on Lake Shore Blvd. 

15. DURAND-EASTMAN PARK, with its entrance 1 m. 
from St. Paul Blvd., extends for more than a mile along 
the shore of Lake Ontario. Its 506 acres were donated to the 
city in 1907 by Dr. Henry Durand and George Eastman. 
Four small lakes within the park are stocked with fish; 
fishing tackle and boats are available. The park has eight 
picnic areas equipped with tables, benches, shelters, and 
fireplaces; a zoo; and an 18-hole golf course (greens fees 50 
cents for residents, $i for non-residents^). The sandy bathing 
beach is floodlighted for night bathing; the bath house is 
equipped with 1,750 lockers and showers. The park contains 
395 varieties of native and foreign trees, shrubs, and plants. 

L. from E. park entrance on Culver Rd. 

16. SEA BREEZE, end of Culver Rd., is a summer colony 
on the shore of Lake Ontario at the mouth of Irondequoit 
Bay, with a sandy bathing beach and amusement con- 
cessions and booths. (See Tour if). 

Retrace Culver Rd. 7 m. through residential section; R. on E. 
Main St. 

17. MASONIC TEMPLE (L), corner E. Main and 
Prince Sts., dedicated in 1930, is the city's largest fraternal 
structure. The architecture of the pressed brick and lime- 
stone building is a modern adaptation of the Gothic style. 
The architects were Osgood and Osgood, Grand Rapids, 
Mich., with Carl Ade as associate. The structure consists of 


two units. The lodge room building has a spacious ball- 
room and banquet hall in the basement. The main floor is 
devoted to offices and lounge rooms with huge fireplaces. 
The upper floors contain several lodge rooms individually 
designed in the Georgian Colonial, Classical, and Gothic 
styles. The auditorium has a seating capacity of 2,600, and 
is the only theater for legitimate drama in Rochester. The 
stage, completely equipped, is 100 feet long and 60 feet deep. 
The orchestra pit, which can accommodate 80 musicians, 
contains a four-manual organ, which can be lowered. The 
decorative features of the auditorium include solid walnut 
wainscoting, a huge central chandelier, and shaded lighting 
fixtures skillfully designed not to detract attention from 
the stage. 


Main St., is the first of several dispensaries founded by 
the philanthropy of George Eastman. It is now associated 
with the University of Rochester. (See University of Rochester) . 

19. ANDERSON PARK (L), Main St. E. and University 
Ave., was named in honor of Martin Brewer Anderson 
(1815-1890). Born in Brunswick, Me., Dr. Anderson attend- 
ed Waterville (now Colby) College, Waterville, Me., con- 
tinued his education at the Newton Theological Institu- 
tion, and from 1843 to 1850 held a professorship at Water- 
ville College. In 1850 he became editor and part owner of 
the New York Recorder and remained with that paper until 
1853, when he became the first president of the University 
of Rochester. Dr. Anderson died in 1890 and was interred 
in Mount Hope Cemetery, where a monument was erected 
to his memory. 

A MONUMENT honoring Friederich Schiller, German poet, 
designed by Carl A. Herber and erected by the Rochester 
German societies, stands in the park. 



TOUR 2 9 m. 

E. from Four Corners on Main St.; R. from Main St.; E. on 
East Ave. 

89 East Ave., is a modern ten-story office building which 
houses the administrative offices of the Rochester Gas & 
Electric Company. It is in the Italian Renaissance style, 
designed by Gordon and Kaelber, with McKim, Mead and 
White as associates. 

21. ROCHESTER CLUB (L), corner East Ave. and Swan 
St., organized in 1860, is the oldest social club in Rochester. 
The building, recently remodeled by James Tyler, Roch- 
ester architect, contains a large ballroom, a dining room 
well known for its cuisine, and numerous club rooms. 

R. from East Ave. on Broadway. 

22. UNIVERSITY CLUB, 26 Broadway, restricts its 
membership to men who have attended a college of recog- 
nized standing. The building, completed in 1929, Leon 
Stern, architect, is in the Georgian Colonial style. It con- 
tains many murals of Rochester scenes. 

Retrace Broadway; R. on East Ave. 

23. HIRAM SIBLEY BUILDING (R), corner East Ave. 
and Alexander St., was erected in 1925 by Hiram Sibley 
in memory of his father, Hiram Sibley Sr., founder and 
first president of the Western Union Telegraph Company. 
The design of the building, taken from the Wren wing 
of Hampton Court, England, is English Georgian. It is 
built of Harvard brick with limestone trim on a base of 
Chelmsford granite. The architects were Coolidge, Shep- 
ley, Bulfinch and Abbott of Boston and Gordon and Kaelber 


of Rochester. The main floor is devoted to exclusive shops 
fronting on East Avenue and Alexander Street. The three 
upper floors are devoted to offices. 

24. GENESEE VALLEY CLUB, 421 East Ave., built 
in 1840, was formerly the Oilman Perkins Home, one of 
the early residential show places on East Avenue. Of 
Georgian Colonial design, the building is set well back in 
a spacious plot landscaped with a variety of shrubs and 
magnolia trees. A recent addition provides a gymnasium 
and swimming pool. The club was organized in 1885- 

N. W. corner East Ave. and Prince St., built in 1916, is de- 
signed in the neo-classic style, with wide steps leading to a 
curved main entrance through a portico with Corinthian 
columns copied after those of the Temple of Lysicrates, 
Athens. The interior is in the form of a large circular 
auditorium with an ornamental dome. 

26. SILAS O. SMITH HOUSE, 485 East Ave., was built 
in 1841 by Silas O. Smith, pioneer miller and merchant, 
in the Greek Revival style. The three-story structure is 
built of red brick. Stately classic columns grace the portico 

Tour No. 2 Map Index 

20. Rochester Gas & Electric Bldg. 

21. The Rochester Club 

22. The University Club 
2j. Hiram Sibley Building 

24. Genesee Valley Club 

25. First Church of Christ, Scientist 

26. The Silas 0. Smith House 

27. Eastman House 

28. St. Paul's Episcopal Church 

29. Oliver Culver House 
)o. Armory Building 

3I . Lake Riley (Cobbs Hill Park) 

32. Hillside Home for Children 
)). Cobbs Hill Reservoir 
34. Colgate-Rochester Divinity School 
)j. Highland Park 

36. Mt. Hope Cemetery 

37. Strong Memorial & Municipal 


$8. Genesee Valley Park 
)9. Men's College, University of 


40. Clarissa St. Bridge 

41. Rundel Memorial Building 

m y o uj 

m o o u 


of the building, which supports a balcony. The original 
doorway, with silver knob and old pull-chains, has been 

27. EASTMAN HOUSE, 900 East Ave., was built in 
1906 by George Eastman. It served as his residence until 
his death in 1932; then by the terms of his will it became 
the property of the University of Rochester to be used 
as the official residence of the president of the university. 
The three-story mansion, containing 49 rooms, is built 
of brick with stone trim. The style is Georgian Colonial. 
At the front entrance are four tall columns supporting 
the gable roof of the large front portico. The extensive 
grounds contain over four acres, with 900 feet frontage on 
East Avenue. At the rear of the house, and extending to 
University Avenue, the grounds are landscaped with sunken 
and formal gardens, lawn areas, terraces, and a small lily 

and Vick Park B., is of English Gothic architecture, with 
a graceful clock tower rising high above the surrounding 
copper beech trees. The church was built in 1897 as the 
home of one of Rochester's earliest congregations, organized 
in 1827. 

L. from East Ave. on East Blvd. 

29. OLIVER CULVER HOUSE, 70 East Blvd., was built 
in 1805 on what is now the northeast corner of East Avenue 
and Culver Road by Oliver Culver, pioneer settler and 
miller. In 1906 the house was moved to its present location. 
The building is a fine example of post-Colonial architecture; 
the doorway is considered one of the finest of its type 
in New York State. A large room, extending across the 
front of the house on the second floor and flanked by large 
fireplaces, had a specially constructed spring floor to fit 


Oliver Culver House, East Boulevard 

it for use as a ballroom. The house was noted for the 
hospitality it extended to the westward-bound pioneers 
of a century ago. 

Retrace East Blvd. to East Ave.; R on East Ave. to Culver 
Rd.; L. on Culver Rd. 

30. ARMORY BUILDING, 145 Culver Road, head- 
quarters of Troop F. 121st Cavalry, National Guard, is built 
of red brick with Medina sandstone trim. Three stories in 
height, the building embodies many of the fortress-like 
features typical of older armories and copied from medieval 
castles. A large drill hall in the building is the scene of the 
annual Spring Horse Show in April. In the rear is an out- 
door drill ground, also used as a polo field. 

31. LAKE RILEY (L), opposite the Armory, named in 
honor of a former Park Commissioner, is an artificial lake 
5> acres in area. During the winter months it is used for 
skating and in the summer for boating and canoeing. Min- 



iature yacht races, sponsored by the Board of Education and 
playground directors, are held here annually. A building 
near the shore is equipped with lounge room, fireplace, 
and refectory; nearby is a picnic area with tables, benches, 
and a fireplace. 

L. from Culver JRJ. on Monroe Ave. 

Ave., occupies 38 acres on Pinnacle Hill. The 17 buildings 
are constructed of red brick with white trim. Eight are 
children's cottages, each accommodating 18 orphans, 
boys or girls, between the ages of 6 and 18, under the 
supervision of a house mother or father. The remaining 
buildings house a dispensary, a dining hall, a recreation 
hall, and offices. The grounds include athletic fields, flower 
gardens, and garden plots taken care of by the children. 

L. from Monroe Ave. on Highland Ave.; L. through gates to 
Cobbs Hill. 

33. COBBS HILL RESERVOIR, largest reservoir within 
the city limits, has a capacity of 144 million gallons. Water 
is aerated through a large central fountain, which sends a 
column of 21 jets 75 feet into the air, a spectacle visible for 
miles. During the summer the fountain is often flood-lighted 
with shifting colors. The reservoir is circled by pine trees 
and lights, evenly spaced. Because of the symmetry of the 
lights Cobbs Hill has been called "Rochester's birthday 

The hill, with an elevation of 636 feet, affords an excellent 
view of the city. A lookout tower, accommodating 80 
people and equipped with a telescope, is located near the 
reservoir. From it may be seen the downtown skyline 
flanked by the Pinnacle Hills and the University of Roch- 


ester on the south, Lake Ontario on the north, and a resi- 
dential section in the foreground. 

One-way road circles reservoir, returning to Highland Ave.; R. 
on Highland Ave. 

(R), Highland Ave. and S. Goodman St., is approached on 
a winding road leading through landscaped slopes to the 
crest of a hill, on which stands the administration building, 
the president's house, and the chapel, a well-built group of 
brick buildings designed in the English Gothic style. The 
architect was James Gamble Rogers of New York City. 

The square tower of the administration building, with its 
spires and pinnacles suggestive of English cathedral towers, 
is visible for miles. Two additional dormitories, in the 
English Tudor residential style, stand at the base of the hill. 

The main building was dedicated in 1931, marking the 
merger of the Colgate Theological Seminary, Hamilton, 
N. Y., with the Rochester Theological Seminary, formerly 
located at East Avenue and Alexander Street. The seminary 
at Colgate was opened in 1820. The Rochester school was 
incorporated and opened at the same time as the University 
of Rochester. The two seminaries were merged for the sake 
of economy and efficiency. Negotiations are under way 
(1937) for the Presbyterian Theological Seminary at Auburn 
to join the Colgate-Rochester group. 

35. HIGHLAND PARK (R), directly opposite the Divin- 
ity School, acquired in 1888 by gift and purchase, contains 
107 acres of rolling land, which forms part of the ridge 
known as the Pinnacle Hills. One of the city's reservoirs is 
located in the park. There is one picnic area, equipped with 
tables, fireplaces, and benches. A lily pond, used as a skating 
rink during the winter months, is flanked by four tennis 



courts and a baseball diamond. Five greenhouses and a 
conservatory display flowers throughout the year, with 
special displays at Easter and Christmas. The park contains 
more than 400 species of trees, shrubs, and perennials, in- 
cluding a grove with 370 varieties of evergreens. Several 
rhododendron and azalea beds are afire with color in season. 

The nationally known Lilac Festival held in May during 
the week of bloom, with its display of 350 varieties of lilacs, 
includes entertainment, concerts, and floats. The display is 
floodlighted at night. 

L. from Highland Ave. on Mt. Hope Ave. 

36. MOUNT HOPE CEMETERY, 791 Mt. Hope Ave., 
extending over 250 acres, is the largest cemetery in the 
city. Many hills and deep hollows give variety and beauty 
to the landscape. A small artificial pond, approached by 
a flight of stone steps, is surrounded by wooded areas. 
A chapel with a seating capacity of 280 is located near the 
main entrance on Mt. Hope Avenue. Many well known 
Rochesterians are buried in the cemetery, including Susan 
B. Anthony, Col. Nathaniel Rochester, and Abelard 

Susan B. Anthony (1820-1906) won a place in American 
history as a pioneer advocate of equal rights for women in 
politics, industry, and education. Born and educated in 
New England, she taught school in New England and in 
New York State until 1849. In that year she gave her first 
lecture on temperance. She continued lecturing on anti- 
slavery, women's rights, and temperance until 1865, and 
from that year until 1900 continuously campaigned for 
women's suffrage. She contributed much time and money 
toward the establishment of the Women's College of the 
University of Rochester. Her activities in this cause are 


commemorated in Anthony Memorial Hall on the campus 
at University Avenue, (see University of Rochester). 

Col. Nathaniel Rochester (1752-1831), is called the 
founder of Rochester. He came to the Genesee country in 
1800 from his home in Maryland. With his partners, Major 
Charles Carroll and Col. William Fitzhugh, he purchased 
the hundred acre tract that is now downtown Rochester. 
In 1811 he surveyed the tract and sold lots, often advancing 
the money necessary to build mills and dwellings. He served 
as a member of the legislatures of three states, Maryland, 
North Carolina, and New York. He was twice appointed 
postmaster of Hagerstown, Md., was sheriff of Washington 
County, Md., for three years, and served one term as judge 
of the Washington County Court. After moving to the 
Genesee country, Colonel Rochester served as presidential 
elector, first county clerk of Monroe County, and member 
of the state assembly. His last public service was the organi- 
zation of the first Bank of Rochester, of which he became 
first president. 

Abelard Reynolds (1785-1878) born in Dutchess County, 
New York, left his birthplace at an early age to try farming 
in Massachusetts. In 1812 he came to Rochester and in 1813 
erected the first two-story dwelling on the site of the present 
city, where he carried on the two businesses of saddler and 
innkeeper. In the year of his arrival he was appointed the 
city's first postmaster. He prospered, and in 1828 built the 
first Reynolds Arcade, at that time the largest building 
west of Albany. He was one of the founders of the Roch- 
ester Athenaeum, the city's first public library. 

R. from Mt. Hope Ave. on Elmwood Ave. 


(L), (see University of Rochester). 



38. GENESEE VALLEY PARK (L), main entrance at 
Elmwood Ave. and River Blvd., largest city park, com- 
prises 636 acres, with the Barge Canal, Red Creek, and the 
Genesee River converging near its center. A public boat- 
house on the west bank of the river rents boats and canoes, 
and offers a sight-seeing trip on the river by power launch 
(Jare 10 cents). The park contains five tennis courts, seven 
baseball diamonds, football and soccer fields, a cricket 
field, a polo field, running tracks, and two 18-hole golf 
courses (greens fees: 50 cents for city residents, $ifor non-residents.) 
The clubhouse is half a mile from the main entrance. There 
are five picnic areas, equipped with tables, benches, fire- 
places, and shelters, and refectories located nearby. Two 
swimming pools are on the west side of the park. Three 
softball diamonds near the swimming pools, flooded during 
winter months, provide a large skating rink. Winding 
paved roads, hiking trails, and bridle paths lead through 
wooded sections containing over 600 varieties of native 
and foreign trees. 

Near the entrance to the park, a bronze statue on a gran- 
ite base honors Dr. Edward Mott Moore (1814-1902), called 
the "father of Rochester's parks." Dr. Moore began practis- 
ing medicine in Rochester in 1840. Regained prominence 
as a lecturer and occupied the chair of surgery in several 
eastern colleges. He served as professor of surgery at the 
University of Buffalo, 1852-1882. Upon his return to Roch- 
ester in 1882, he became a trustee of the Reynolds Library 
and president of the board of trustees of the university. He 
was one of the founders of the American Surgical Association 
and served as president of the American Medical Associa- 
tion in 1890. His interest in the development of public parks 
led to his appointment as first president of the Board of Park 
Commissioners in 1888. 

R. from Elmwood Ave. on River Blvd. 







(R), (see University of Rochester). 

40. CLARISSA ST. BRIDGE (L) is one of the series of 12 
bridges spanning the Genesee River within the city limits. 
Constructed in 1918, it is a triple steel arched bridge with 
four cast stone pylons, each consisting of four rusticated 
Roman Doric columns. The architects were Gordon and 

The view from the bridge to the north is a panorama of 
the downtown skyline. In the foreground is the Barge 
Canal harbor and terminal building. 

River Blvd., N. of Clarissa St. Bridge, runs into Mt. Hope 
Ave., L. on South Ave. 

Ave. and Court St., houses the Reynolds Reference Library 
and the Rochester Public Library. Completed in 1936, it is 
constructed of limestone and designed in a modern inter- 
pretation of the Italian Renaissance style. 

The building is constructed literally on stilts over a four- 
track subway and a river raceway. A series of 13 spilling 
arches, symbolizing Rochester's early leadership in the mill- 
ing industry, form part of the base of the building on the 
west and carry the waters of the raceway to the Genesee 
River. With broad plazas at either end, the building oc- 
cupies part of a site which is being considered (1937) as a 
future civic center. 

Funds for the completion of the building were bequeathed 
by Morton W. Rundel (1838-1911), who, born in Alexander, 
N. Y., conducted an art store in Rochester for several years 
and fostered local exhibitions of water colors and oil paint- 
ings. Prospering by shrewd investments, Mr. Rundel for 
many years cherished the idea of an art gallery for Roch- 


ester. In his will he left the city $400,000 for a building to 
be used as an art gallery and library. During years of litiga- 
tion the bequest increased to $1,000,000, and was finally 
made available in 1934. 

The Reynolds Reference Library was chartered in 1884 by 
Mortimer F. Reynolds (1814-1892), one of the claimants to 
the title of first white child born within the village limits 
of Rochester. He named the library in memory of his father, 
Abelard Reynolds and housed it in the Reynolds Arcade. 
In 1896 the library was moved to the Reynolds home on 
Spring Street. Upon the completion of the Rundel Mem- 
orial building, the Reynolds Reference Library, then con- 
taining 90,000 volumes, was consolidated with the Roch- 
ester Public Library and given a prominent position on 
the main floor of the building. 

TOUR 3 1 m. 

W . from Four Corners on W. Main St. 

42. POWERS BUILDING (R), cor. W. Main and State 
Sts., stands on the site of the first dwelling erected on the 
"hundred-acre tract" that later became Rochesterville. 
It is built of Ohio sandstone, with cast iron decorations. 
When it was constructed in 1870, the building was the 
city's first fireproof office structure and contained the 
first elevators west of New York City. Designed by Andrew 
Jackson Warner, architecturally it is a sad reminder of 
the post-Civil War period, the "dark ages" of American 
architecture, with its horizontal belt courses, many dormer 
windows, and fantastic series of Mansard roofs. For many 
years it housed the Powers Art Gallery founded by Daniel 
W. Powers (1818-1897), who amassed a fortune in the 
banking and brokerage business in Rochester and con- 



structed the Powers Building and the adjacent Powers 
Hotel, both landmarks of the city. 

W. Main and Fitzhugh Sts., was built in 1896, the third 
courthouse on this site. Constructed of New Hampshire 
granite, the four-story building is designed in the Italian 
Renaissance style. The architect was J. Foster Warner, 
son of A. J. Warner. Four granite Roman Doric columns 
flank the main entrance, from which a wide marble stairway 
leads up to an enclosed courtyard. 

The first courthouse, built in 1824, is represented in the 
present building by a large ball on the flagpole. A wooden, 
hand-carved statue of Justice from the second courthouse, 
built in 1850, occupies a niche on the fourth floor level 
overlooking the main entrance. The millstones from Indian 
Allen's grist mill, commemorating the founding of Roch- 
ester's first industry, are embedded in the west wall of the 
third floor. 

L. from W. Mam on Fitzhugh St. 

44. BOARD OF EDUCATION BLDG., 13 S. Fitzhugh 
St., was erected in 1874 as Rochester's first public high 

Tour No. 3 M.ap Index 

42. Powers Building j). Whittlesey House 

4). Monroe County Court House $4. Plymouth Ave. Spiritualist Church 

44. Board of Education Building 55. Fox Sisters Home 

45. St. Luke's Episcopal Church 56. First Presbyterian Church 

46. City Hall j6-a Bicknell Houses 

47. Mechanics Institute /7- Times-Union Building 

48. Jonathan Child House 58. Statue of Mercury 

49. Bevier Memorial Hall 39. Broad St. Bridge- Aqueduct-Main 
jo. Livingston Park St. Bridge 

51. Livingston Park Seminary 60. Gene see Valley Trust Building 

52. D. A. R. House 61. Reynolds Arcade 

62. Marker Indian Allen s Mills 



school. It was the only public high school in the city 
until 1902. On this site, donated to the city by Col. 
Nathaniel Rochester in 1814, was built in the same year the 
first school in Rochester. 

45. ST. LUKE'S EPISCOPAL CHURCH, 17 S. Fitzhugh 
St., built in 1824 of stone, is Rochester's oldest church 
edifice. The architecture is Gothic, but traces of the 
Georgian Colonial style are evident. The three doorways 
are surmounted by high arched windows of stained glass. 
Embedded in one of the interior walls is a stone bearing 
the seal of the Bishop of Rochester, England, dated 1115- 
1124, which was presented to St. Luke's by the Cathe- 
dral Church of Rochester, England. 

46. CITY HALL (L), cor. Fitzhugh and Broad Sts., 
a five-story structure built in 1875 of Lockport gray sand- 
stone with Medina stone trim, houses the main offices of 
the city administration. The style is a variation of Victorian 
Gothic; the architect was Andrew Jackson Warner. 

The common council chamber, on the third floor, has oil 
portraits of former mayors on its walls. A 3- ton bell, for 
many years used as a fire alarm, hangs in the lofty bell 

R. from Fit^hugh St. on Broad St. 

47. MECHANICS INSTITUTE (L), Broad St. and Ply- 
mouth Ave., a two-story structure, occupies the entire block 
between Broad and Spring Sts. The school was financed in 
1885 by Capt. Henry Lomb "for the purpose of providing 
technical training for the youth of Rochester." The fact 
that the school is not a standardized institution gives it the 
flexibility necessary to meet changing conditions. It oper- 
ates both day and evening classes, with some 500 day 
students and more than 1,500 evening students. 



Jonathan Child House, South Washington Street 

L. from Broad St. on Washington St. 

48. JONATHAN CHILD HOUSE, 37 S. Washington 
St., sitting high on a terrace, is an outstanding example 
of the Greek-Revival style of architecture. Constructed 
of brick, the building is distinguished by its five lofty 


Corinthian columns supporting the roof of the large front 
portico. Constructed in 1837 as a residence by Jonathan 
Child, first mayor of Rochester, the structure now houses 
the Fourth Church of Christ, Scientist. 

49. BEVIER MEMORIAL HALL (L), Washington and 
Spring Sts. (visitors welcome, weekdays #-/), erected in 1910 on 
the site of the home of Col. Nathaniel Rochester with funds 
donated by Mrs. Susan Bevier of New York City, houses 
the School of Art of the Mechanics Institute. The architect 
was Claude F. Bragdon; the design is in his personal style 
of that time, the colors of the brick and terra cotta suggest- 
ing the Oriental. 

During the school year, monthly art exhibitions are held 
in the room containing the Bevier art collection, which 
includes illustrations for instruction in oil and water paint- 
ing, etchings, pottery etc. All are works of contemporary 
artists and craftsmen. 

R. from Washington St. on Spring St.; L. on Livingston Park. 

50. LIVINGSTON PARK, named in honor of James K. 
Livingston, pioneer Rochester miller, was until the turn of 
the century the center of social activity in Rochester. The 
terraced lawns, guarded by iron grill gates and adorned by 
iron animal figures, were the scene of many early Rochester 
social events. Formerly a part of the "ruffled shirt" dis- 
trict, the street retains the air of exclusiveness to which for 
nearly a century it laid claim. 

Park, of Greek classic design, built in 1825 as a residence, 
was converted in 1860 into a family school for girls and 
conducted as such for many years. Columns mark the en- 
trances at the front and side doors. The interior trim is of 
carved mahogany, with columns of black walnut. Over- 



looking the park from a high terrace, the Seminary is a 
reminder of the architectural splendor of early Rochester 

52. D. A. R. HOUSE, 11 Livingston Park, built about 
1840, houses the Irondequoit Chapter of the D. A. R. The 
design is Georgian Colonial. The rock wall which borders 
the house on the Troup Street side is studded with wrought- 
iron staples that served as hitching posts when the house 
was a center of social activities. 

L. from Livingston Park on Troup St. 

53. WHITTLESEY HOUSE, cor. Troup and Fitzhugh 
Sts., is a brick building of Greek Revival design erected 
in 1836. A high columned portico extends across the Troup 
Street side, although the main entrance is located on 
Fitzhugh Street. The interior of the house has mahogany 
trim, high ceilinged rooms, and a wing stairway, all typical 
of the architecture that predominated in early Rochester 
homes. This house has recently been purchased by a cor- 
poration and will be preserved as a historical shrine. 

Retrace Troup St.; on Plymouth Ave. 

NE. cor. Plymouth Ave. and Troup St., is recognized as 
the mother church of modern Spiritualism. The brick 
building, constructed in 1853 in the Victorian style, was 
originally a Congregational church. In the churchyard a 
marble monument, erected in 1927, commemorates the ad- 
vent of Spiritualism in the home of the Fox sisters in Hydes- 
ville, N. Y., in 1848, (see Rochester Anecdotes). 

55. FOX SISTERS' HOME (L), NW. cor. Plymouth Ave. 
and Troup St., is one of the cradles of Spiritualism. It is 
a simple Colonial house of brick construction. The two- 
story portico has Greek Doric columns. 



After their first contact with the spirit world at Hydes- 
ville, the Fox sisters moved with their family to this house 
in 1848. Meeting with skepticism, they conducted seances 
in their home; and from that small beginning the faith 
spread throughout the world. The house served as one of 
the Rochester stations of the Underground Railroad. 

Plymouth Ave. and Spring St., was erected in 1870 shortly 
after the original church, on the site of the present city 
hall, was burned. The building is the home of the oldest 
church organization in Rochester. Constructed of domestic 
gray limestone, it is Victorian Gothic in style. At the 
rear of the church, concealed under a cement slab, is the 
spring that supplied drinking water for the first residents 
of Rochester. 

R. from Plymouth Ave. on Spring St. 

56.-a BICKNELL HOUSES 63 and 67 Spring St., are 
the oldest houses in Rochester on the west side of the 
Genesee River. Number 67, built in 1821, of frame construc- 
tion, has been considerably altered through the years. Num- 
ber 63 retains most of its original lines. A high front porch 
flush with the sidewalk leads to the original doorway 
ornamented with leaded-glass side lights and fan transom 

L. from Spring St. on Exchange St. 

57. TIMES UNION BLDG. stands on the SW. cor. of 
Exchange and Broad Sts. This intersection was named 
Times Square by the City Council upon the completion 
of the building in 1928. In this four-story modern structure 
are printed all editions of the Rochester Times-Union and 
the Rochester Democrat and Chronicle. 

R. from Exchange St. on Broad St. 


58. STATUE OF MERCURY (R) was placed in position 
in 1881 on top of the high chimney of the Kimball Tobacco 
Factory, pioneer developers and manufacturers of machine- 
made cigarettes. The building is now the City Hall annex. 
The 28-foot statue, made of copper plates riveted together, 
towers 182 feet above the Genesee River, a symbol of the 
speed and development of industry and commerce in the 

59. BROAD STREET BRIDGE serves as a roof for what 
was once the Erie Canal aqueduct, which, built in 1842, 
carried the canal across the Genesee River and was con- 
sidered a wonder of engineering accomplishment, (see 
Rochester Anecdotes). Now the aqueduct carries the four- 
track subway over the river. 

From the bridge may be seen to the south the Court Street 
bridge with its seven stone arches, patterned after ancient 
Roman bridges. On the north the Main Street bridge spans 
the river, with numerous commercial structures built on its 
stone piers. It has long been popular with etchers and artists 
because of its resemblance to the Ponte Vecchio in Florence. 

Retrace Broad St.; R. on Exchange St. 

and Exchange Sts., erected in 1929, of modern design, is 
built of granite and limestone. The architects were 
Voorhees, Gmelin and Walker of New York City. It is sur- 
mounted by four huge aluminum wings, 42 feet in height 
and weighing 12,000 Ibs. each. Floodlighted at night, these 
wings add a distinctive touch to Rochester's night skyline. 

R. from Exchange St. on Mam St. 

61. REYNOLDS ARCADE, 10-20 Main St. E., is a 
modern 10-story limestone office building designed by 
Gordon and Kaelber. Completed in 1932, it stands on the 



site of the original Reynolds Arcade, which, erected in 1828 
by Abelard Reynolds was closely associated with the 
history of Rochester. Within its walls were housed the 
city's first police court, first post office, and first practising 
physician and lawyer. The foundations of many fortunes 
were laid in the old Arcade: it was the birthplace of the 
Western Union Telegraph Company and the Bausch & 
Lomb Optical Company; George Eastman obtained his 
first job in an office in the Arcade; and George Selden 
worked out his plans for the first successful automobile 
motor in his office in the building. The original Reynolds 
Arcade, repeatedly modernized during its century of exist- 
ence, was torn down in 1931 to make way for the present 

R. from Mam St. on Graves St. 

62. SITE OF INDIAN ALLEN'S MILL, 3-5 Graves St., 
is identified by bronze placques embedded in the wall. 
Coming to the Genesee Country in 1789, Indian Allen 
was given the hundred-acre tract (jee Rochester Anecdotes} 
that is now downtown Rochester with the provision that he 
erect a sawmill and a gristmill on the banks of the Genesee 
River. Allen built the mills, and after working them until 
1792 sold his interest both in the mills and in the land. 
After various transfers of title, the property was purchased 
by Rochester, Carroll, .and Fitzhugh in 1803 and became 
the site of Rochesterville. 

Tour No. 4 Map Index 

63. St. Patrick's Cathedral 71. St. Bernard's Seminary 

64. Camera Works 72. Holy Sepulchre Cemetery 
6j. Kodak Tower 7). Riverside Cemetery 

66. Maplewood Branch Y. M. C. A. 74. Charlotte High School 

67. Maplewood Park 75. Old Charlotte Lighthouse 

68. Kodak Park 76. Port of Rochester 

69. Eastman Memorial 77. Ontario Beach Park 

70. St. Ann's Home 78. Edgerton Park-Rochester Museum of Arts & Sciences 



TOUR 4 14 m. 
N. on State St.; L. on Platt St. 

63. ST. PATRICK'S CATHEDRAL (R), Platt St. and 
Plymouth Ave., built of Medina brownstone with Niagara 
limestone trim in the Victorian Gothic style, is modelled 
after the original St. Patrick's Cathedral in New York 
City. It stands on the site of the first Catholic church in 
Rochester, a wooden structure built in 1823. This early 
church was replaced in 1852 by a stone building. When 
plans for a cathedral were prepared in 1864, the present site 
was chosen because it marked the cradle of Catholicism in 
western New York. The structure was completed in 1868, 
shortly after the creation of the Rochester Diocese. A shrine 
to St. Anthony within the Cathedral was recently dedi- 
cated. The Cathedral property was purchased in August 
1937 by the Eastman Kodak Company, and the buildings 
will be razed. 

Retrace Platt St.; L. from Platt St. on State St. 

COMPANY (L), State and Platt Sts. (open to public), is 
a series of six- and seven-story brick buildings devoted to 
the manufacture of photographic and developing equip- 
ment. The plant employs 3,000. Its products include Kodaks, 
Brownies, Cine-Kodaks, Kodascopes, tripods, enlargers, 
and a variety of other equipment for photography and home 
movies. Two hundred automatic screw machines have a 
normal weekly output of 2,500,000 parts, and 250 power 
presses stamp out other metal parts. The buildings include 
metal-plating and bellows-making departments and several 
laboratories for testing materials and finished cameras. 

65. KODAK TOWER (L) State and Kodak Sts., com- 
pleted in 1913, is of modified French Renaissance architec- 



ture. It is constructed of steel skeleton with exterior facing 
of terra cotta. Widely known as the "nerve center of pho- 
tography," the 19-story building houses the administrative 
offices of the Eastman Kodak Company's organization of 
33,000 employees, 13 plants, and world-wide distribut- 
ing units. The aluminum tower, built in 1931 and rising 
106 feet above the 19th floor, is illuminated at night, pro- 
viding a landmark visible for 50 miles. A huge neon sign, 
spelling KODAK, is located above the 19th floor level on 
the south side of the building. 

R. from Lake Am. on Driving Park Ave. 

66. MAPLEWOOD BRANCH of the Y. M. C. A. (R), 

a two-story structure of brick, contains several game and 
club rooms, a gymnasium, bowling alleys, and a swimming 
pool. The large plot of ground encloses a running track, a 
basketball court, and several tennis courts. 

L. from Driving Park Ave. on Maplewood Ave. 

67. MAPLEWOOD PARK, comprising 145 acres border- 
ing on the west bank of the Genesee River, extends from 
Driving Park Ave. along both sides of Maplewood Ave. 
to Ridge Rd. near the Veterans' Memorial Bridge. A small 
artificial lake is used as a skating rink in winter. Near the 
entrance to the park is a rose garden displaying a large 
variety of blooms in season. There are two picnic areas 
equipped with fireplaces, tables, and benches, and two 
playgrounds and seven tennis courts. Band concerts are 
given near the main entrance at Driving Park Avenue at 
advertised intervals. 

L. from Maplewood Ave. on Ridge Rd.; R. on Lake Ave. 

68. KODAK PARK (L), Ridge Rd. and Lake Ave., ex- 
tends for several blocks along each street (parking space for 
cars at main entrance on Lake Ave., where admission to the plant 



is obtained and guides are furnished for the two-hour tour). Kodak 
Park is one of the three Rochester plants of the Eastman 
Kodak Company, world's largest manufacturer of photo- 
graphic materials. This plant, employing 10,000, contains 
83 major buildings spread over an area of 400 acres. Produc- 
tion at Kodak Park is confined to photographic films, 
plates, paper, and chemicals. The plant resembles a modern 
compact city, with six miles of paved streets and fifteen 
miles of railroad tracks. 

Near the main entrance on Lake Avenue a six-story build- 
ing houses the research laboratory, the experiments of 
which have produced home "movies," Kodachrome natural 
color film, and film that records pictures at a distance of 
hundreds of miles. More than 3,000 organic chemicals are 
stocked. Near the laboratory stands the first building 
erected in the park, now housing part of the world's largest 
refrigerating plant, with a daily production equivalent to 
12,000 tons of ice. This plant furnishes temperature control, 
which is of vital importance in film manufacture. Another 
building close by is built over a 5,000,000 gallon reservoir 
through which flows one-third of the water used daily. 

On another street is a large building with solid masonry 
walls, within which a battery of machines, operating in 
dim light, coats film base with an emulsion sensitive to 
light and visual images. White light, the enemy of film, is 
carefully excluded from many buildings; an eerie glow of 
subdued orange, red, and green, lights the departments 
where film and sensitized paper pass through various stages 
of manufacture. 

In another building, pure bar-silver is converted into 
photographic materials. (The plant's weekly requirements 
of 5 tons of silver is surpassed only by the needs of the 
United States mint.) Here the silver is dissolved in nitric 



acid, and in its fluid state siphoned into troughs that carry 
it to an evaporating room. After evaporation of water and 
distillation, the concentration cools, and silver-nitrate 
crystallizes. Silver-nitrate, by its sensitivity to light, makes 
photography possible. The fact was known for centuries, 
but the progress of photography was slow until the develop- 
ment by the Eastman Company of a flexible, transparent 
film base. The film base is composed of cotton, treated with 
nitric and sulphuric acids, resulting in nitrocotton, which 
is then dissolved. This compound is treated in a mixture of 
solvents to remove acids, and a fluid with the consistency of 
honey is obtained. In several large buildings, batteries of 
machines three-stories high, running night and day for 
months at a time, roll this honey-like fluid into wide strips 
of transparent film. The normal weekly requirement of 
cotton in this department exceeds 300 bales. 

In another group of buildings more than 250 types of 
photographic paper are manufactured under conditions 
similar to those prevailing in the manufacture of film. 
Employees and machines, almost invisible in the dusk, 
guide the sensitized paper through a series of manufacturing 
and cutting processes. 

The machinery requirements of the Kodak Park plant are 
unique, and much of the demand is met by machine and 
metal shops within the park. A large printing shop and a 
paper-box factory supply printed literature and hundreds 
of varieties of cartons. 

Towering over the buildings are the tallest twin chimneys 
in the world, carrying away chemical fumes and smoke. 
Maintenance departments, a hospital, cafeterias, a small 
theater, a firehouse, garages for fleets of electric trucks, a 
locomotive roundhouse, and an athletic field create the 
impression of a city within a city. 


69. EASTMAN MEMORIAL (L) stands at the Lake 
Ave. entrance to Kodak Park. Erected within the shadow 
of the immense manufacturing plant built by Mr. Eastman, 
the monument is reached by three broad flights of steps 
leading down sloping banks to a large circular plaza 
paved with Georgian rose marble. In the center of the 
plaza is a circular pedestal. A bronze urn, containing Mr. 
Eastman's ashes, occupies a niche in the pedestal, which is 
surmounted by a cylindrical block of pink Georgia marble 
8 feet high, on which are carved two figures in bas-relief. 
The figure on the west side is that of a man heating a retort 
over a flame, representing physical science; the one on the 
east side is that of a woman holding aloft a torch, symbol- 
izing aspiration. The inscription bears the words: "For 
George Eastman 1854-1932." 

George Eastman was born in Waterville, N. Y. With his 
parents, he moved to Rochester in 1860, where his father 
had founded the Eastman Commercial College, first business 
school in America. In 1868, after his father's death, Eastman 
obtained his first job. While working as an office clerk for 
$4 a week, he displayed an interest in photography and 
spent much of his time and savings in an effort to simplify 
the making of pictures. Experiments conducted in his 
mother's kitchen resulted in 1879 in the invention of a 
machine for mechanically coating the dry plate. In 1880 he 
began the manufacture of dry plates in a third floor loft on 
State Street, meanwhile keeping his job as a bank clerk. 
The success of his product enabled him to open a small 
factory in 1882 on the site of the Eastman Kodak office 
building. After his development of flexible film in 1889, 
the invention by Edison of the moving picture machine 
occasioned a large demand for Eastman film, a demand that 
has grown from 21,000 feet a year in 1895 to 200,000 miles 
a year at the present time. In 1888, Mr. Eastman brought out 
the first Kodak, a simple, portable box camera utilizing 

2L0 7 


rolled paper film. The Kodak brought photography for the 
first time within the reach of amateurs. Other important 
developments in the industry were introduced by Mr. 

Recognized as one of America's leading industrialists, 
Mr. Eastman was also an outstanding philanthropist, 
donating $72,000,000 to various institutions throughout 
the world. His Rochester philanthropies include the East- 
man School of Music and the Eastman Theater, the Roch- 
ester Dental Dispensary, and the Chamber of Commerce 
building. He gave large sums to the University of Roch- 
ester, and at his death left his East Avenue residence as a 
home for the university president. The success of the Roch- 
ester Dental Dispensary led to his establishing similar insti- 
tutions in Rome, Brussels, Stockholm, Paris, and Berlin. 
Mr. Eastman received many honors during his life. He 
died in 1932, leaving the message, "My work is done; 
why wait?" 

70. ST. ANN'S HOME FOR THE AGED, 1971 Lake 
Ave., a large brick building of modern design, with three 
wings and a laundry building, provides a home for aged and 
infirm Catholic and non-Catholic men and women. Part of 
the 40 acres of ground is used for garden plots. 

2260 Lake Ave., consists of a series of three-story buildings 
of red sandstone in the Gothic style. The main building, 
housing a chapel, classrooms, and living rooms, is flanked 
by the Building of Philosophy and the Theology Building, 
providing students' rooms, professors' living quarters, class- 
rooms, a library, and an auditorium. The grounds are 

The site was purchased in 1887 by the Right Rev. Bernard 
McQuaid, the first Bishop of the Rochester Diocese. As a 



result of his personal efforts and the contributions of the 
priests of the diocese, the first building was completed 
in 1893. A statue of Bishop McQuaid is a feature of the 
landscaped garden extending along Lake Avenue. 

Avenue, is Rochester's largest Catholic cemetery, con- 
taining 300 acres and extending for several blocks north 
on Lake Avenue. Near the entrance is a chapel and gate 
house in Saxon design, recognized as the finest example of 
this style of architecture in New York State. Stained glass 
windows from Bavaria and ceiling and wall treatments in 
gold leaf enhance the beauty of the chapel. Near the en- 
trance is a large burial plot reserved for priests and nuns 
of the Rochester diocese. Scattered through the cemetery 
are plots reserved for Civil, Spanish, and World War vet- 
erans. A large greenhouse within the cemetery fills the 
floral needs of visitors. 

Many Rochesterians prominent in religious and civic 
endeavors are interred in the cemetery, including Bishop 
McQuaid and Mother Hieronymo. 

The Right Rev. Bernard McQuaid (1823-1908), born in 
New York City, was placed in a Rochester orphanage in 
1827. Ordained to the priesthood in 1848, he was sent to a 
small parish in New Jersey, where he established the first 
Catholic school in that state. In 1868 he was chosen first 
Bishop of the Rochester Diocese. He was a constant cham- 
pion of religious teaching in the schools, and cherished an 
ambition to establish a theological seminary in Rochester. 
This ambition was fulfilled in 1893 when the first building 
of St. Bernard's Seminary was completed on a site which 
he had bought. 

Mother Hieronymo (Veronica O'Brien) (1819-1898), born 
in Maryland, entered the Order of the Sisters of Charity in 
Maryland in 1841. Her first mission was in Pittsburgh in 



1843- After some time devoted to caring for fever victims 
in Buffalo, she was chosen in 1857 to take charge of St. 
Mary's Hospital, then under construction. During the Civil 
War Mother Hieronymo became widely known for her de- 
votion in the care of convalescent soldiers. As a result of 
her efforts, the present building of St. Mary's Hospital was 
completed in 1865- In 1871 she was transferred to Nazareth 
Academy, and in 1873 established a Home of Industry for 
girls. She celebrated her golden jubilee as a nun in 1891, and 
continued her work for charity until her death. 

73. RIVERSIDE CEMETERY, 2650 Lake Ave., com- 
prises 120 acres of land sloping gently to the Genesee River 
bank. The grounds are landscaped with a variety of trees, 
shrubs, and hedges. Mounding of graves is prohibited, and 
low stone markers are used on all graves. Only one monu- 
ment is permitted on each burial plot. 

74. CHARLOTTE HIGH SCHOOL, 4115 Lake Ave., 
officially opened in 1933, is one of the newest of the city's 
junior-senior high schools. Of modern design, with an im- 
pressive tower, the school is built of spotted buff face brick 
with limestone trim, and is fireproof. In the rear of the 
school are a large greenhouse and an athletic field. 

in 1822 of sandstone and brick. Octagonal, ivy-covered, 
it stands on the site of the first house built in the lake 
area between the Genesee and Niagara Rivers. Situated on 
a high bluff approximately 2,000 feet from the mouth of the 
Genesee, it guided early navigators into the river. In accord- 
ance with an act of the state legislature in 1829, several 
hundred acres of land on both banks of the river were cleared 
of timber in order to provide an unobstructed view of the 
lighthouse from Lake Ontario. The increased efficiency of 
the lighthouse, and subsequent deepening of the river 



channel, gave Rochester an advantageous position as a lake 
port among the frontier lake settlements. With the develop- 
ment of the present harbor and the erection of a new light- 
house, the old lighthouse fell into disuse. An observation 
platform near the top, which is reached by an iron spiral 
stairway, provides a wide view of Lake Ontario and the 
surrounding country. 

76. PORT OF ROCHESTER (R) comprises a dock wall 
extending 1,200 feet along the west bank of the Genesee 
River and a large passenger and freight building adjoin- 
ing the dock. As the result of a harbor study in 1932, the 
city deepened the river channel and widened the turning 
basin to 600 feet, providing for the entrance of ocean-going 
steamers. The harbor accommodates regular lake traffic, 
freight steamers operating between the Atlantic coast and 
Great Lakes ports, and ocean-going steamers from European 
ports. Passenger boats of the Canada Steamship Line ply 
regularly between Rochester and Toronto, with special 
excursion trips during the summer months. 

77. ONTARIO BEACH PARK, at the end of Lake Ave. 
in Charlotte, containing 33 acres, has a frontage of 2,000 
feet of sandy bathing beach on Lake Ontario. There are six 
picnic areas equipped with fireplaces, shelters, tables, and 
benches. Two large paved areas at either end of Lake Ave- 
nue provide free parking space for cars. A merry-go-round, 
bandstand, dance pavilion, and two children's playgrounds 
are located at the east end of the park. At the west end, 
bordering the beach, is a public bath house built of red 
brick in an adaptation of the Georgian style. It is equipped 
with 6,500 lockers and showers. Facilities are provided for 
checking valuables and the rental of bathing suits, beach 
chairs, and umbrellas. 

Retrace Lake Ave. 6 m. to Phelfs Ave.; R. on Phelps Ave. to 
Backus St. 



has its main entrance on Backus St. at the end of Phelps 
Ave. Directly opposite the entrance a peristyle with stone 
columns adjoins a bandstand where concerts are given in 
summer. In this park is held the annual Rochester Exposi- 
tion, which opens on Labor Day and lasts one week. A large 
paddock, surrounded by a grandstand seating 4,000, is the 
scene of livestock judging and evening displays of fireworks. 
A group of exposition buildings provides space for shows 
and exhibitions. In the fall the field is used for football 
games; and in the winter the buildings are used for track 
meets, basketball games, and other athletic contests. The 
park has three baseball and three softball diamonds, two 
soccer fields, one tennis court, and one children's play- 

near the entrance of the park (admission free; summer hours: 
daily except Sun. 9-5; Sat. 9-12; winter hours: daily, 9-5; 
Sun. 2-/.), was established in 1911 by Mayor Hiram 
Edgerton in a building formerly used for a School of 
Correction. It is a four-story brick structure with the 
crenelated roof line of a feudal keep. The director of the 
museum is Dr. Arthur C. Parker. The Indian exhibit on the 
third floor contains many rare artifacts discovered by Dr. 
Parker and the assistant archaeologist, William A. Ritchie. 
Other exhibits pertain to local flora, fauna, geology, and 
history. By means of an extension service carried on in city 
and rural schools, the museum has become an important 
factor in education. It is also the sponsor and headquarters 
for Rochester's many hobby clubs, including the Burroughs- 
Audubon Nature Club, the Philatelic and Numismatic 
associations, the Aquarium and Microscope societies, the 
Camera Club, and others. 




N the north side of Main Street West, just east of 
Clarissa Street, stands an old four-story brick 
structure once known as the United States Hotel. 

This building was the first home of the University of 



On May 8, 1846, a number of Presbyterians of the city 
obtained from the state legislature a provisional charter for 
an institution to be known as the University of Rochester; 
but they failed to raise the required endowment, and the 
charter lapsed three years from its date. 

At about the same time, members of the Baptist denom- 
ination were planning to build a university in Rochester 
that would be not exclusively Baptist, as was Madison 
(now Colgate) University, but yet under Baptist control. 
On January 31, 1850, the Regents of the University of the 
State of New York granted another provisional charter for 
a Rochester university. Two years were allowed for com- 
pletion of the plan, which provided for a self-perpetuating 
board of 24 trustees. On May 11, 1850, at an educational 
convention of Baptists, a committee of nine presented a 
report on "a plan for a new university together with a plan 
for a separate institution of theology." The approval of 



both plans marked the beginning of the University of Roch- 
ester and of what is now the Colgate-Rochester Divinity 

Most of the arrangements for the opening of the new 
university were made by John N. Wilder, assisted by a few 
other Roches terians. It was decided to lease the United 
States Hotel for three years at a rental of $800 per year. 
This hotel, built by Martin Clapp in 1826, had never paid, 
and had housed at different times a manual training school, 
two successive girls' schools, and the terminus of the Ton- 
awanda Railroad. The trustees remodeled the building, pro- 
viding for a chapel, rooms for two literary societies, a 
library and reading room and a recitation room on the first 
floor, recitation and lecture rooms on the second floor, and 
some 65 or 70 lodging rooms for students on the third and 
fourth floors and in the wing. 

Two four-year courses of study were provided, one lead- 
ing to the degree of Bachelor of Arts and the other to the 
degree of Bachelor of Science. The establishment of a 
scientific course in which the study of the ancient languages 
was omitted a radical step for the time manifested the 
liberal purpose of the founders. In the same spirit they gave 
a conspicuous place on the curriculum to the natural 
sciences to chemistry at a time when it had not been ac- 
cepted as a subject at Harvard; to geology only three years 
after Agassiz had begun his teaching: and a full-time pro- 
fessor was alloted to this subject out of a faculty of five. 
Finally, electives were allowed in the senior year. 

On September 16, 1850, the board passed a resolution 
"that the institution be opened the first Monday in Novem- 
ber next for the reception of students and the organization 
of classes." They also elected the following professors at a 
salary of $1,200 each: A. C. Kendrick, A.M., professor of 
history and belles lettres; Chester Dewey, D.D., professor of 


natural sciences; and Samuel Green, A.M., professor of 
mathematics and philosophy. Professor Green found him- 
self unable to serve, and E. Peshine Smith was engaged to 
serve as acting professor of mathematics and natural 

At a meeting in the First Baptist Church on September 
17, 1850, the Hon. Ira Harris was appointed to serve as 
chancellor of the university until a president should be 
elected. Two professors of the theological seminary were 
authorized to give part time instruction in the new uni- 
versity: Thomas J. Conant, D.D., professor of Hebrew lan- 
guage and literature, and John S. Maginnis, D.D., acting 
professor of intellectual and moral philosophy. 

The formal exercises marking the opening of the univer- 
sity were held Tuesday afternoon, November 5, in the 
chapel. Housed in an abandoned hotel building, with five 
faculty members and 60 enrolled students, the University 
of Rochester entered upon its career. 

The university has had but four presidents. The admin- 
istration of Dr. Martin Brewer Anderson, 1853-1888, was 
the period of the establishment of tradition by a group of 
pioneering teachers: Otis Hall Robinson in mathematics; 
Albert H. Mixer in the modern languages; Joseph E. Gil- 
more in English literature; William C. Morey, first in Latin 
and then in history and political economy; Samuel A. Latti- 
more in chemistry, and Henry Fairfield Burton in Latin. 
David Jayne Hill, the second president, resigned in 1896, 
and in 1898 became Assistant Secretary of State. Dr. Burton 
served as acting president until the election of Dr. Rush 
Rhees. Under President Rhees came a period of rapid ex- 
pansion, due largely to the munificent gifts of George 
Eastman and others. In 1935 Alan Valentine was inducted 
into office as the fourth president. 


After the first decade the institution outgrew its cramped 
quarters in the old hotel, and the first building was erected 
upon what is now the Prince Street Campus, the first land 
of which was a gift by Azariah Boody. Other buildings 
were constructed, but during the first 50 years development 
was slow; "The Collegiate Department of the University 
of Rochester," as it was called by the founders, remained 
the only unit of the university. 

In 1900 Dr. Rush Rhees was inaugurated as president; in 
the same year, largely as the result of a movement headed 
by Susan B. Anthony, women were admitted to the univer- 
sity upon the same conditions as men; in 1904 George 
Eastman made his first gift to the university $60,000 for a 
biological and physical laboratory. In 1909 education for 
women received financial support from a bequest by Lewis 
H. Morgan. In 1914 the university realized its policy of 
separate classes for men and women except in advanced 
elective courses; Catharine Strong Hall and Anthony Mem- 
orial Hall were erected as a college for women on land 
donated by Mrs. Aristine Pixley Munn. 

In 1912 the Memorial Art Gallery was given to the 
university by Mrs. James Sibley Watson in memory of her 
son; in 1919 title to the Eastman School of Music and the 
Eastman Theatre was vested by Mr. Eastman in the univer- 
sity; in 1926 the School of Medicine and Dentistry was 
opened; in 1930 the new River Campus, or Men's College, 
was dedicated, and the old campus became the College 
for Women. 

The College for Women is an integral part of the College 
of Arts and Sciences of the University of Rochester. Its classes 
are conducted by the same professors who teach on the 
River Campus; and in many cases men and women take the 
same course together. By this arrangement the university 



seems to have retained the desirable and eliminated the 
objectionable features of both coeducational and separate 
men's and women's colleges. 

The greater university of to-day, ranking fifth in the 
country in amount of endowment, was made possible by 
George Eastman, the total of his benefactions and bequests 
exceeding $35,000,000. 


The new River Campus, Elmwood Avenue and River 
Boulevard, which houses the College for Men, comprises 
87 acres of rolling land on a high bluff at a great bend in 
the Genesee just north of the Elmwood Avenue Bridge. It 
is reached by the Plymouth Avenue bus and the Genesee 
Street car line. This campus was dedicated with academic 
ceremonies on October 10-12, 1930. 

The main buildings, grouped about the quadrangle and 
the plaza, are excellently designed in the Greek Revival 
tradition with classic columns, entablatures, pediments, 
ornament, lettering, and other stone details. The architects 
were Gordon and Kaelber. 

The Rush Rhees Library (open to public: during academic 
year, weekdays 8 a.m. -9: 50 p.m.; Sun. 2-6 p.m.; in summer 
weekdays, 2-6 p.mJ), named for Dr. Rush Rhees, president 
of the University, 1900-35, dominates the campus by its 
axial position and the circular tower, rising 186 feet, which, 
in its exterior graduated tiers of columns and its crowning 
lantern, is more Roman than Greek. In the tower is the 
Hopeman Memorial Chime of 17 bells. Illumination of the 
tower at night makes it a conspicuous feature of the skyline. 

The interior is of monumental design. The foyer is of 
Indiana limestone with a floor of marble mosaic. Heavy 



stone columns mark the entrance to the grand stairway. 
The lintels of the doors are ornamented. 

The library contains (1937) about 175,000 books, but 
provision has been made for 2,000,000 volumes. The interior 
of the tower will be filled with book stacks that will be 
the highest in America. 

The "browsing" room on the first floor was designed to 
encourage recreational reading. It has bookshelves recessed 
in oak-paneled walls, a large fireplace, and a stained glass 
window. The main library rooms are on the second floor. 

Morey Hall, on the north side of the quadrangle, is named 
for William Carey Morey, a member of the faculty for 48 
years. It is three stories high in front and five in the rear. 
It houses a number of the academic departments and several 
administrative offices. Its oak-paneled entrance lobby serves 
the students as a lounging place. 

Lattimore Hall, on the same side of the quadrangle, 
named in memory of Samuel Allen Lattimore, for 42 years 
professor of chemistry, houses the department of chemistry. 
The interior is finished in a glazed fire-proof and acid-proof 
tile of light tan. 

The Bausch-Lomb Memorial, on the south side of the 
quadrangle, so named in recognition of a gift made by the 
families of the Bausch & Lomb Optical Company, is the 
home of the physics department and of the Institute of 
Applied Optics, which trains technicians and research 
workers in the field of industrial optics and prepares stu- 
dents to qualify as registered optometrists under the New 
York State law. 

Dewey Hall, the companion building on the S. side, 
named for Chester Dewey, the university's first professor of 
chemistry and natural philosophy, houses the departments 



of biology and geology. The rear and the south wing are 
occupied by the Museum of Natural History (open free 
weekdays 8:30-5"), which also has quarters on the Women's 
Campus. The geology, zoology, and botany departments 
are particularly rich. On the first floor are the study collec- 
tions and the herbarium of the Rochester Academy of 
Sciences. On the second floor is the geological collection, 
the nucleus of which was gathered by Henry A. Ward, 
who established Ward's Natural Science Museum and 
supplied the specimens for many of the large museums of 
America. Presented to the university in 1927, the collec- 
tion still continues as a source of supply for college and 
school museums. 

The Engineering Bldg. S. of the main quadrangle, provides 
facilities for the work in chemical and mechanical engineer- 
ing. The scope of the works in hydraulics has been extended 
recently by the courtesy of the Rochester Gas & Electric 
Company, which made available a former hydro-electric 
station in the lower gorge of the Genesee River for use as 
a laboratory. 

Strong Auditorium, on the north side of the plaza, serves 
as assembly hall and auditorium, in which lectures, enter- 
tainments, and student functions are held. Burton Hall, on 
the west, named for Henry Fairfield Burton, professor of 
Latin, 1877-1918, and acting president, 1898-1900, is a 
student dormitory. The quarters of the Faculty Club occupy 
two-thirds of the main floor. Crosby Hall, east of Burton, 
named for George Nelson Crosby, who bequeathed a large 
part of his estate to the university, is also a dormitory. 

Todd Union, named for George W. Todd, general chair- 
man of the Greater University financial campaign of 1924, 
serves as undergraduate clubhouse. The grill at the west 
end of the basement, paneled in pine, with a beam ceiling 



and plank floor, suggests an early Colonial taproom. The 
main dining hall is large, with high ceiling, oak wainscot- 
ing of antique red, two huge fireplaces, and solid Jacobean 


The College for Women occupies the old or Prince Street 
campus. The 27 acres, with the vine-covered buildings 
shaded by elms, form a park in the midst of a residential 
district. The weathered Anderson Hall, occupying the cen- 
tral position on the campus, was constructed in 1861 and 
named for Dr. Martin Brewer Anderson, first president of 
the university; for a long time it was the only building on 
the campus. Completely remodeled, it houses several aca- 
demic departments and serves as principal classroom build- 
ing. Directly in front of Anderson Hall is a bronze statue of 
Dr. Anderson erected in 1904. The sculptor was Guernsey 

Sibley Hall, directly west of Anderson Hall, the second 
university building to be erected, serves as the library of 
the College for Women. It was given to the university in 
1874 by Hiram Sibley. By a recent gift of Hiram W. Sibley, 
son of the original donor, the building has been modernized. 
A large bust of the first donor stands in the center of the 

The Eastman Laboratories Building, left from Sibley 
Hall, donated by George Eastman in the days when he first 
became interested in the university, is occupied by the de- 
partments of physics and biology. 

The Reynolds Memorial Laboratory, directly east of 
Anderson Hall, completed in 1886 and enlarged and re- 
equipped in 1915, is the home of the department of chem- 



Cutler Union. Social and Recreational Center, 
Prince Street Cam-pus, University of Rochester 

The Carnegie Laboratory Building, R. from the Rey- 
nolds Memorial Laboratory was provided by Andrew 
Carnegie for the department of mechanical engineering; 
with the removal of this department to the River Campus, 
the building was remodeled to serve the departments of 
geology and psychology. 

Cutler Union, R. of the University Ave. entrance, named 
for James and Katherine Cutler, whose benefactions made 
it possible, was formally opened on June 10, 1933- Its tall, 
graceful, well-designed English Gothic tower dominates 
the entire campus. 

The^entire building, monumental and imposing, of Eng- 
lish Collegiate Gothic architecture, is constructed of shot- 



sawn limestone. The solidity of the structure as a whole is 
relieved by the delicate tracery and ornamentation of the 
lofty tower with its tall window openings and slender 

The building is approximately 165 feet long and 145 feet 
wide; the tower rises to a height of 135 feet. The structure 
was planned to balance the Memorial Art Gallery. It was 
designed by Gordon and Kaelber. 

The large assembly room on the main floor, called Cutler 
Hall, two stories high, with beamed ceiling, paneled walls, 
and decorative detail, is used for major college functions. 
The lounge, of the English "great hall" type, is paneled 
in pine, with stained glass Gothic windows reaching al- 
most to the ceiling. The murals are the work of Ezra A. 
Winter, who also painted those in the Eastman Theatre and 
the Rush Rhees Library. 

Catharine Strong Hall, on the SW. cor. of University 
Ave. and Prince St., was given by Henry A. Strong in 
memory of his mother. Before the removal of the men's 
college to the new campus, it was the main building of the 
College for Women; now it houses the department of edu- 
cation, the offices of the extension division, and the summer 

Anthony Memorial Hall, adjacent to Catharine Strong 
Hall, named for Susan B. Anthony, serves as the women's 


The Memorial Art Gallery, 490 University Ave. (open to 
public, free, daily 10-5; Sun. and Mon. /.^o-/), presented 
through the university to the people of Rochester by Mrs. 
James Sibley Watson in memory of her son James G. Averell, 
was opened in October 1913 and enlarged in 1926. The archi- 



tects of the original building were Foster, Gade and Graham 
of -New York City; the addition was designed by McKim, 
Mead and White. The structure is of Italian Renaissance 
architecture, built of Indiana limestone. The Palladian 
loggia forming the main entrance is similar to that of the 
Morgan Library in New York City. The bronze door is 
elaborately designed. The bas-relief panels in the entrance 
facade symbolize Architecture, Painting, Sculpture, and 

On the main floor are a foyer and eight galleries assembled 
around a stone-paved fountain court. In the galleries are 
exhibited collections of the late Romanesque, Gothic, and 
Renaissance periods, including a notable group of 15th, 
16th, and 17th century tapestries. 

The lower floor contains an art library with 5,000 volumes 
for public use, an auditorium, a lecture room, service and 
storage space, and studios and classrooms for the extensive 
educational work which is carried on for the public, mem- 
bers of the Gallery, and the students of the university. Here 
are held the 30 weekly classes in painting, drawing, model- 
ing, and the history of art which are offered free of charge 
to school children and special membership groups. The 
Gallery is widely known for its creative-expression methods 
of art education. 

The permanent collections of the Gallery include paint- 
ings by old and modern masters, departments of Egyptian, 
Classical, Chinese, Medieval, and Renaissance art, including 
painting, sculpture, and such important fields of allied arts 
as furniture, ceramics, stained glass, tapestry, and prints 
of the historic periods. Among the most notable possessions 
is a pair of stained glass quatrefoil medallions, dated about 
1270, from La Sainte Chapelle, the Gothic chapel which 
St. Louis built in Paris to house his treasures from the 
Crusades; a Gothic tapestry, The Judgment of the Emperor 



Otko, of about 1500, from the original furnishings of Knole 
House when it was the palace of the Archbishops of Canter- 
bury, before Queen Elizabeth presented it to the Earl of 
Sackville; and an early 14th-century Madonna in stone, 
which came out of Rheims Cathedral. 

These collections are augmented by a series of ten monthly 
exhibitions each year which bring to Rochester works of 
art of many countries and centuries and furnish the illus- 
trative material for an active educational program. Lectures, 
gallery talks, and loan collections of lantern slides, mounted 
prints, and exhibition cases illustrating various period arts 
and art processes, serve thousands of school children and 
study groups annually. Each year the Gallery holds an ex- 
hibition of the works of the artists and craftsmen of Roch- 
ester and vicinity, selected by a jury of three out-of-town 
artists and teachers of art. Twenty-four such events have 
been held under the auspices of the Gallery, continuing the 
31 previously sponsored by the Rochester Art Club. 



The Eastman School of Music and the Eastman Theater 
are in one building occupying the larger part of the block 
on Gibbs St. bet. Main St. E. and East Ave. Completed in 
1922, the structure was designed by Gordon and Kaelber, 
with McKim, Mead and White as associates. 

The exterior of the structure is of modified Italian Renais- 
sance design. The two lower stories are of rusticated stone- 
work, with an elaborate metal marquee extending the 
whole length of the building above the first floor. The third 
and fourth stories, of light gray Indiana limestone, are 



adorned with three-quarter engaged Ionic columns set on 
the curve of the building over the main entrance to the 
theater. The design is repeated in a series of pilasters alter- 
nating with pedimented and square-headed windows. An 
entablature, an attic story, and acroteria crown the entire 
building. The attic story over the colonnade is in the form 
of a paneled parapet. 

The Theater, with main entrance at the cor. of Main 
St. E. and Gibbs St. is the largest unit in the building. 
Kilbourn Hall, with entrance on Gibbs St. is at the opposite 
end of the building. Between the two, a central corridor, 
187 feet long, forms the entrance to the School of Music. 
At the Kilbourn Hall end, the grand staircase leads to 
the second floor corridor, so large that it serves as ball- 
room for large school functions. On the wall panels are 
hung works of art borrowed from the Memorial Art Gallery 
and changed from time to time. The rest of the building is 
devoted to classrooms, practice rooms, recital halls, and 


In 1918 George Eastman acquired the property and the 
corporate rights of the Institute of Musical Art. The next 
year he purchased the site of the present building and pro- 
vided funds for construction and endowment. Later con- 
tributions increased his investment in the project to about 
$8,000,000. In his will he bequeathed an additional $2,400,- 
000 to the School. 

Title to the Theater as well as to the School of Music is 
vested in the University of Rochester. The faculty of the 
School of Music is separate from the faculty of the College 
of Arts and Sciences, but there is a close co-operation be- 
tween the two schools, and tuition paid to one entitles the 



student to take approved courses in the other. The director 
of the School of Music is Dr. Howard Hanson, well-known 

Besides its space in the main building, the School of 
Music occupies a ten-story annex across Swan Street, con- 
nected with the main building by overhead runways, which 
provides 120 additional practice rooms, classrooms, and a 
gymnasium. The equipment includes about 200 pianos and 
18 organs and electrical recording apparatus which makes 
available for repeated study recordings of individual and 
group performances. 

The Sibley Musical Library (jopen to -public}, presented to 
the University by Hiram W. Sibley, contains about 35,000 
volumes and a large number of musical scores and manu- 
scripts. A new building to house the library, under con- 
struction (1937) on Swan St. just E. of the main building, 
will be the first in the country devoted exclusively to a 
musical library. 

The Eastman School Symphony Orchestra and the East- 
man School Chorus, made up of students, give public per- 
formances in the Eastman Theater and broadcast regularly 
over the radio. The opera department offers a schedule of 
entertainments each year. 

In the department of theory and composition, the school 
has a dozen eminent instructors headed by Dr. Howard 
Hanson. From 1932 to 1937 four of the six Prix de Rome 
awards of the American Academy in Rome were given to 
students of the composition department of the Eastman 
School. In 1937 one of its students was awarded the New 
York Philharmonic prize for the best symphonic composi- 
tion in a country-wide competition. 

The members of the student body of the Eastman School 
come from all over the world. In one year 45 percent of the 



new students came from 77 different musical institutions. 
The school offers both degree and certificate courses and 
courses leading to advanced degrees. The tuition fee is $300 
a year, with additional fees for the use of pianos, organs, 
and practice rooms. After a student has applied for admis- 
sion to the school and has been accepted, he undergoes a 
placement test in theory and an audition. 

Kilbourn Hall, a memorial to Mr. Eastman's mother, 
Maria Kilbourn Eastman, is the assembly room of the 
school. The design of this audience chamber is in the Italian 
Renaissance style, embellished with colored ornamentation. 
The decorations were painted by Ezra Winter and the 
sculpture work done by Paul Jannewein. The side walls are 
paneled in wood to a height of 21 feet, above which the 
smooth stone is hung with old tapestries. The ceiling is blue 
and gold in grille designs with heavy beams delicately orna- 
mented and colored. It has been called a "perfectly planned 
concert hall." The seating arrangement is somewhat un- 
usual in that while the seats rise in tiers like those of a 
Greek theater, the rows are straight instead of semi- 
circular. The hall is equipped with facilities for motion 
pictures and has a four-manual organ. In it are held student 
and faculty recitals and chamber music concerts. 


The Eastman Theater occupies the whole Main St. end 
of the main building, with entrances on Main and Gibbs 
Sts. An adjacent five-story building, directly connected 
with the stage, provides shops for the construction of 
scenery. The auditorium seats 3,380 people. 

In the interior, a sweeping mezzanine balcony over the 
rear of the orchestra floor takes the place of boxes and is 
usually occupied by permanent subscribers. Above the 

2-3 1 


mezzanine rises the grand balcony with its hundreds of 
seats. The acoustics of the theater are excellent. 

The side wall spaces, unusually large because of the elim- 
ination of boxes, are finished in Caen stone and decorated 
in the Italian Renaissance style. High above the rusticated 
walls are the murals of Ezra Winter and Barry Faulkner. 
Mr. Faulkner's murals represent the four symphonic move- 
ments: the andante by St. Cecilia at the organ; the allegro 
by a hunting scene; the pastoral by a youth playing the 
pipes to a girl partly hidden by a canopy, with a young 
girl dancing nearby; the gay scherzo by dramatic music 
two figures in the masks of Comedy and Tragedy. The four 
panels by Mr. Winter depict four types of musical composi- 
tion, festival, lyric, martial, and sylvan. 

Hanging from the dome, weighing tons but light and 
fragile in appearance, is a single crystal chandelier with 
267 globes made by Viennese glass-blowers. From a central 
control these can be made to suffuse the entire auditorium 
with a brilliant light or to glow with a soft radiance. 

Outside the auditorium, in the foyer, the lounging rooms 
and parlors, the grand promenade, in nooks and corners, 
have been placed paintings and works of art; at a turn in 
the grand stairway is a panel by Maxfield Parrish; in other 
corners are fine pieces of period furniture, rare Japanese 
tapestry, and a fountain. 


The School of Medicine and Dentistry occupies a 60-acre 
tract bet. Elmwood Ave. and Crittenden Blvd. adjoining 
the River Campus. The main building houses both the 
medical school and the Strong Memorial Hospital, to 
facilitate close contact. The building, with many wings and 
pavilions, is about 400 feet square, six stories high, con- 



structed of red brick, its massive bulk visible from almost 
any point in the southern section of the city. Connected 
with it is the Municipal Hospital, built by the city in co- 
operation with the school, staffed by the same physicians 
and nurses that serve the School of Medicine and the Strong 
Memorial Hospital. 

The two hospitals provide the School of Medicine with 
clinical facilities of more than 500 beds and out-patient 
departments and clinics that give medical and surgical 
treatment to more than 100,000 people annually. The school 
is also active in medical and surgical research. Its dean, 
Dr. George H. Whipple, was awarded the Nobel Prize in 
medicine for his research into the causes and cure of perni- 
cious anemia. 

The School of Medicine was opened in 1926. The initial 
gifts included $5,000,000 from the General Education Board, 
$4,000,000 from Mr. Eastman, and $1,000,000 from the 
daughters of the late Henry A. Strong for a teaching hos- 
pital as a memorial to their father and mother. The Roch- 
ester Dental Dispensary, with building and endowment 
valued at $2,500,000, was affiliated with the new institu- 
tion. Other funds and endowments were donated in the last 
ten years. 


The School of Nursing is conducted in connection with 
the School of Medicine. It offers a five-year course, including 
three years of college work with preliminary instruction in 
the theory and practice of nursing and two years of clinical 
work, class instruction, and supervised practice of nursing. 
Graduates are awarded the degree of Bachelor of Science 
and a Diploma in Nursing. 



Helen Wood Hall, the nurses' dormitory, is on Crittenden 
Boulevard, directly across from the School of Nursing. 


The Rochester Dental Dispensary, 800 Main St. is now 
affiliated with the University of Rochester as its School 
of Dentistry. For completion of its 4-year course the School 
awards the degree of D.D.S. Its school for dental hygiene, 
instituted in 1916, trains women for service in oral hygiene 
in schools, hospitals, and industries. 

The first dental clinic in the United States was opened in 
1901 by the Rochester Dental Society with funds provided 
by Capt. Henry Lomb. After Lomb's death in 1908, Mr. 
Eastman became interested in the clinic's activities and 
made his first donation. By the time of his death his sub- 
scriptions totalled more than $3,000,000. He established 
similar dispensaries in several European countries. 




Location: Seneca Park 

Transportation: St. Paul St. car line 

Hours: 10 to 6, weekdays; 10 to 8, Sundays 

As one enters the zoo grounds the first thing to catch 
A\ the eye is the outdoor cage of the polar bear. Here 
^ -^-he leads a secluded bachelor existence, seemingly 
content and free from care, as he swims expertly and 
tirelessly about his pool, now on his back, now diving 
under water for unbelievable minutes. He has received so 
much attention that, like a spoiled child, he enjoys "show- 
ing off. ' ' Probably he would be lonely for lack of an audi- 
ence if he were returned to his native polar sea. 

The first apartment inside the north entrance of the Zoo 
Building is the living room of Sally II, the young elephant. 
She sways rhythmically from side to side as if keeping time 
to a music which we cannot hear. Occasionally she rouses 
from mysterious meditations to extend a pleading trunk for 
peanuts. When a child teases her by offering a peanut and 
then withdrawing it, Sally rebukes this example of bad 
manners by blowing through her trunk. Over the entrance 
of her pen is a sign: "Sally II. Presented to the children of 
Rochester, N. Y., by the Rochester Times-Union May 1, 



1932." Her predecessor, Sally I, also presented by the Times- 
Union, died several years ago, and many a Rochester child, 
now grown beyond childhood, remembers her. Sally II is 
a young lady of 11 summers, but she will not attain her full 
growth until she has reached the age of 25. 

Across the aisle from Sally II is the great tank where the 
three sea lions swim around and around in a fury of energy 
as if trying to make a new speed record. Apparently they 
waste no time mourning for the two comrades who recently 
departed this life, killed by a generous public which per- 
sisted in feeding them choice tidbits of burnt matches, 
cigarette stubs, and peanut hulls, in spite of numerous 
placards: "Please do not feed the animals." 

The Guinea baboons with their intellectual, tufted eye- 
brows have the look of thoughtful college professors. 
Mother Nature has ornamented the face of the Mandrill 
baboon with the blue tattoo markings of an Indian medi- 

The Rhesus monkeys are mild little fawn-colored crea- 
tures with black cat-faces. Perhaps it was from watching 
the solemnity with which these monkeys dart about the 
cage and pull each other's tails that some of our popular 
screen comedians evolved the idea of contrasting comedy 
with a melancholy expression. 

The sooty Mangebey monkey from Africa is a bored old 
gentleman with Dundreary whiskers, who looks as if he 
were worrying about his income tax. Even when he hangs 
from the cross-bars by his long tail he still wears a grave 
expression of dignity. 

The little gibbons in the next cage have no tails. Their 
most amusing antic is wrestling. The bout consists in a 
tangle of spidery arms and legs in which no holds are barred. 



It is catch-as-catch-can until the one who is getting the 
worst of the tussle suddenly springs away out of reach and 
leaps to the swinging bars where he performs a bit of skill- 
ful and intricate trapeze work. These little black and brown 
gibbons have furry, pansy-blossom masks for faces. 

The clowns of the zoo are two chimpanzees from far-off 
Congo; before their cage an amused crowd of visitors 
gathers to laugh at the ridiculous antics of these parodies 
of humanity. If Mr. and Mrs. Chimp are homesick for their 
native African home they seem to bear it philosophically. 
The Old Man has a subtle sense of humor. He waits until 
an audience has collected, large enough to make his 
efforts worth while, meantime ignoring the encouraging 
whistling and gesturing of those strange human animals 
outside his cage. Then, when everyone decides to walk 
away he suddenly springs to the side of the cage and drums 
with his feet against the steel paneling to announce that 
the great one-man act is about to begin. The crowd rushes 
back, and he comes to the front of his "stage" and goes into 
his dance, brandishing his long hairy arms and stamping 
his feet in a fantastic impromptu sort of jig. His droll little 
eyes watch the crowd, evidently enjoying their laughter, 
but during the whole performance he is as grave as a judge. 
Those strange human animals who stand outside his cage 
dressed in queer hats and incomprehensible clothes are his 
chief entertainment. When he has succeeded in making them 
laugh he watches them with a curiosity as frank as their 
own, and finally dismisses them by retiring to the back of 
his cage where he droops, bored, waiting for a new audi- 
ence. Possibly he and his little family debate as to whether 
chimpanzees care to claim the human race as relatives. 

The South American jaguar looks so like a gigantic, 
gentle house cat that one has the feeling of having wandered 



into the land of Gargantua, but an ominous sign over its 
cage warns visitors to "Keep outside the railing." 

Looking at the Bengal tiger, one understands the poem 
beginning "Tiger, tiger, burning bright." Its hide is 
nature's most skillful camouflage. Black traceries on a 
yellow background simulate the shadows of tree branches 
on the yellow Bengal sands. The tiger carries his hideout 
with him, rendering him nearly invisible in his natural 

The spotted Indian leopard has the most startlingly vivid 
coloration of any of the ' 'cats. ' ' No doubt many of the zoo's 
lady visitors envy him his beautiful fur coat. 

The coyote is a wolf with an inferiority complex. He is 
as timid as the red fox, without the fox's beautiful brush. 
On moonlight nights he comes out of his shelter, sits on his 
haunches, and howls to the moon of his homesickness for 
the western prairies. 

Tired strap-hangers on street-cars might well envy the 
Australian kangaroo. His immense tail is a prop, a spring- 
board, and a fifth leg, enabling him, in the Australian bush, 
to cover the ground in prodigious leaps. Propped on his tail 
he folds his insignificant little forelegs meekly and surveys 
the crowd with his mild, sheepish face. But his mildness 
is deceptive; one kick of those powerful hind legs would 
kill a man. 

The water birds have a luxurious outdoor cage which ex- 
tends across the entire southern end of the Zoo Building. 
Here they stage many impromptu little comedies. The grave 
and ancient pelican looks most benignant, but he has a 
malicious disposition, pursuing the smaller waterfowl to 
snatch a morsel of food from their bills. The ducks, especi- 
ally, fear him, and whenever the old tyrant approaches they 



meekly drop whatever morsel they have in their bills and 
waddle hastily away. 

The blue cranes fancy themselves as dancers, and when 
the sun is warm upon their pool they spread their wings 
and execute strange awkward whirls and toe-dances. 

The parrots are the hoodlums of this bird theatre. From 
their perches in the gallery they emit raucous hoots and cat- 
calls. They are dressed in all the colors of the rainbow, 
vivid scarlets, blues, and yellows. 

But for splendor of apparel the peacock outdoes them all. 
He is a vain Beau Brummel, and has a right to be, for no 
words can describe the magnificence of his plumage. He 
wears a tufted top-knot of iridescent blue to match his 
splendid collar, and trails his coronation robes about the 
cage. In the moulting season his legs are entirely nude, and 
he finds himself in the embarrassing predicament of a king 
who has donned his royal robes and forgotten his trousers. 

The mourning doves are pessimists. Whenever there is a 
lull in the pandemonium of bird-calls, squawks, and 
whistles, their melancholy, resigned complainings are 

There is nothing regal in the appearance of the golden 
eagle. His smoke-colored feathers droop forlornly, and he 
sits on the floor of his cage, disconsolate, grieving for the 
wide domain of sky which he has lost. He can scarcely, by 
frantic flappings of those great pinions, lift himself from the 
floor to the perch in the old tree stub in his cage, because 
the sand-sprinkled floor provides too slippery a take-off. 

On an outdoor stage enclosed with steel netting at the 
north end of the building, four shows are given daily. Well 
in advance of the beginning of each show, (10:00, 1 :00, 3 :00, 
and 4:15), the benches are filled with an enthusiastic audi- 



encc. Three seals, Beauty, Patsy and Red, are star performers 
in the first three shows. They come flopping joyously onto 
the stage, eager to go through their act. Each successful 
stunt is rewarded with a morsel of raw fish. The seals, their 
hides glistening in the sun like black satin, delight their 
child audience by many astonishing feats. Red expertly 
balances a surf ball on his nose while he does a "triple 
roll" and climbs up and down a step ladder. Patsy plays a 
solo of one note on a horn, while Beauty, at the trainer's 
command, "sings." Pointing his mustached snout skyward 
he voices a long-drawn, doleful note like a. sheep's ba-a-a, 
accompanying his song by the operatic gesture of beating 
his chest with his flipper. 

Four o'clock is dinner time in the zoo, and by their in- 
creased restlessness as the time approaches, the birds and 
beasts show that their appetites are accurate timekeepers. 
There is an eager air of expectation about the crowds of 
visitors, too, for feeding time is one of the highlights of 
the show. 

The waterfowl scramble and fight over their raw meat, 
fish, and scraps of bread. The monkeys make a tremendous 
chatter over their feast of sliced apples and bananas, pea- 
nuts, and chopped lettuce. And the "cats" snatch vora- 
ciously at raw meat, keeping up a continual threatening 
growl while they eat. 

Meanwhile Old Man Chimpanzee is having a tantrum. 
He kicks the steel paneling of his cage, creating a thunder- 
ous racket that almost drowns Sally's hungry trumpeting. 

At 4:15 the outdoor benches are again filled with children, 
eagerly awaiting the zoo's most popular event, the Chimp's 
Banquet. For the one-act play the trainer sets the stage with 
a small table and chair, and the children's favorite actor, 
Tuffy, the chimpanzee, is brought in. He is dressed in a 


sailor suit, a mischievous little Jack tar. The children sit 
perfectly still, rapt in ecstatic enjoyment of this fairy tale 
come true this play of enchantment performed by an 
animal who acts like a human being and apparently under- 
stands whatever is said to him. 

Tuffy is a delightfully friendly little fellow. Through the 
steel netting he thrusts a black paw to shake the hands of 
his small admirers, his face split in a white-toothed grin. 
An actor with a stage personality! He is reluctant to leave 
all this flattering attention, but his appetite is stronger than 
his vanity, and at last he is persuaded to sit at the table. 
The feast begins. Soup is served, Tuffy is given a spoon, and 
with a daintiness that is a lesson in table etiquette he 
silently spoons his soup. He touches his mouth with his 
napkin, the soup dish is removed, and the second course is 
served. This consists of sliced bananas, and is eaten with 
a fork. 

The show goes on. Cocoa is served in a glass. Over the 
top of his tumbler the chimp rolls his eyes at the children. 
He would enjoy playing with them, but the trainer's eye 
is on him. He drinks his cocoa, tipping the tumbler for the 
last delicious drop. 

At a command from the trainer the Old Man carefully 
stacks the tumblers and wipes the tabletop with a damp 
cloth. The meal is over and dignity relaxes. The Old Man 
makes an affectionate grab at the attendant's arm, an invi- 
tation for a bit of play. The attendant tickles him, and then 
occurs the most startling feature of the whole show. The 
chimpanzee laughs! His laugh is silent, but the thrown- 
back head, the widely opened lips, and the display of a 
mouthful of teeth are as expressive of joy as is any human 
laughter. Man has always asserted as one of the proofs of 
his superiority that he is the only animal who laughs; yet 
here is an animal that laughs too. 


It is evident that the chimpanzee enjoys the show as 
thoroughly as does the audience, and the way he clings to 
his chair when the trainer attempts to lead him away re- 
minds one of a reluctant child at bedtime. 

From time to time it is planned to add new features to 
these outdoor shows which have made of the zoo one of the 
city's most attractive places for children to visit. 


Location: Corner of Bloss and Backus Sts. 
Transportation: Dewey Ave. car line. 
Hours: Weekdays, 9-5. 
Saturdays, 9-12. 

The best time for children to visit the museum is on Sat- 
urday forenoons between 10 and 11, for then is enacted the 
Treasure Chest program, a little playlet showing the cos- 
tumes, customs, and folk dances of some foreign country. 
Usually refreshments are served, each member of the child 
audience being given a sample of food typical of the country 
being represented. 

First floor: Hall of History and Period Rooms 

A museum is an enchanted place. It holds within its walls 
the things that history tells about. When a person enters 
the Hall of History he leaves this twentieth century and 
finds himself back in the days when the Indians lived in the 
woods where Rochester now stands, nearly a century and 
a half ago. 

The Pioneer Kitchen has a strange past. It was once a 
part of the old Steele Tavern built between 1790 and 1800 
near East Bloomfield. When the tavern was destroyed the 
kitchen was taken apart, moved to the museum, and rebuilt 



as it is today. The small window panes of flawed, greenish 
glass were made many years before plate glass was invented. 
No one had stoves when that fireplace was built. 

It is interesting to see how cooking was done in those 
days. In the large kettle swinging on the crane was cooked 
venison, bear's meat, or other wild game. Johnnycakes made 
from corn meal ground in Ebenezer Allen's mill were baked 
in the oven built into the side of the fireplace. 

The little wooden mortar standing on the kitchen table 
was used for grinding sugar bought in large cone-shaped 

When a traveler, tired from riding on horseback over 
miles of forest trails, stopped at the tavern overnight, he 
sat before the fireplace in that home-made, splint-bottomed 
chair. He lighted his pipe with a paper spill taken from the 
glass spill-jar on the mantel, for matches were not invented 
until 1834. 

At bedtime the tavern keeper filled with embers the long- 
handled bed warmer standing at the right of the fireplace, 
lighted a candle from one of the brass candlesticks on the 
mantel, and escorted the traveler to his room. Then he re- 
turned to the kitchen to wind the grandfather clock, bank 
the fire with ashes, and bar the doors against a possible 
Indian attack. 

The Country Store is of a somewhat later period than the 
Pioneer Kitchen. Here are displayed commodities in use 
when Rochester was Rochesterville. Most of the articles 
shown could not be bought today in any store: splint bas- 
kets made by the Indians and traded for gunpowder or cali- 
co; children's hand-made, copper-toed boots; chests of tea- 
dust from China; a carpet bag, a type of hand luggage once 
so popular in the northern states that northerners traveling 



below the Mason-Dixon line after the Civil War were 
known as "carpet baggers." That twist of fibre like a knot 
of coarse gray hair is flax ready for weaving. 

In the Weaving Room stands a flax wheel for spinning 
flax thread to be woven into linen, and a larger wheel for 
spinning woolen yarn. The wax figure seated before a loom 
represents a woman weaving rag carpeting. 

In the Costume Exhibit large glass cases display the 
ruffled dresses, pantalettes, and bustles in fashion when 
Lafayette visited Rochester in 1825. In another case bonnets 
bloom like flowers in an old-fashioned garden. A quiet little 
Quaker sunbonnet of gray taffeta is awed by a haughty 
velvet hat trimmed with ostrich tips, fashioned by a Paris 

Along the shelf of another case marches a procession of 
little pasteboard people. Leading the march is Mary 
Jemison, the "White Woman of the Genesee," who, stolen 
by the Indians when a child, spent her life among them; 
Ebenezer "Indian" Allen, Rochester's first white settler and 
the builder of the first mills; Hamlet Scran torn, another 
pioneer settler; Nathaniel Rochester, for whom the city 
was named; and many others. 

The models of Allen's mills are so realistic that one ex- 
pects to see the water wheel begin to turn and the tall figure 
of Indian Allen himself appear in the doorway. There is the 
little cabin of Hamlet Scrantom, built where the Powers 
Block now stands. It is so complete in every detail, from the 
coonskins hanging on the log walls to the ax in the chop- 
ping block, that it would not be surprising to see smoke 
curling from the chimney. 

The exhibit of early farming tools tells the story of the 
pioneer farmer. Cowbell and branding iron speak of the days 
when there were no fences and cattle were allowed to roam 



through the woods. The flail was the pioneer's first thresh- 
ing machine. The bee box served as a means of finding 
honey. Sugar was expensive, and lucky was the man who 
found a bee tree with its store of wild honey. Taking the 
little box under his arm the hunter set forth to "line" a 
a bee tree. He captured a honey-laden wild bee, imprisoned 
it in the box, and after following the line of its flight for 
some distance, released it. Straight as a bullet it flew on 
toward the bee tree. Another bee, another and another, 
each following the same airway, led the hunter on until 
he reached their airport, a hollow tree trunk sometimes 
filled with the harvests of many summers. 

That home-made straw-woven beehive was baited with a 
piece of honeycomb to lure a wild swarm to take up resi- 
dence in it. 

It is noteworthy that most of the tools and utensils of 
early days were hand-made, proving that the pioneer was 
a man skilled in many trades. 

Second floor: Pioneer Arts and Culture; Nature Hall; Extension 

"Man Surveys His Past" is the title of a case which con- 
tains, in little, the story of man's evolution. Wax figures 
show, first, a crouching form only a little more human than 
the ape, a little swifter of foot, a little more skillful of hand, 
and, like the ape, without the power of speech; then, the 
Dawn Man, who has learned to speak, knows the use of 
fire, and makes crude tools; next, the Neanderthal Man, a 
little higher in the scale, having a religion and a social and 
family organization, but still living in caves; lastly, the 
Cro-Magnon Man, who has developed a crude art and 
reached the highest development of prehistoric humanity. 

There are exhibits of minerals of startling beauty, which 
have a mysterious quality not yet understood by scientists. 



Under a violet light certain dull gray stones glow with a 
dazzling splendor of color, as if lighted from within. 

A meteorite as large as a pumpkin arouses awe at the 
thought of the deafening thunder of its fall as it blazed, 
hurtling through the space between the worlds. 

Rocks bearing strange grooves and scratches are relics of 
the centuries when glaciers covered Monroe Country to a 
depth at least a mile higher than the Pinnacle Hills. 

In Nature Hall^ glass cases hold the very spirit of summer 
throughout the year. The wild flowers of Monroe County 
are marvelously imitated in wax in their natural surround- 
ings of moss and leafmold. Here "grow" the closed gentian, 
trillium, hepatica, meadow lilies, violets, all made with 
such skill that even the bees and butterflies might accept 
them as genuine. The weird blossoms of the Indian pipe or 
"corpse plant" are like ghost flowers. Snug in his canopied 
shelter hides jolly Jack-in-the-pulpit. And surely the fairies 
themselves would be deceived by the waxen mushrooms 
and hide under their tents. Like evil gnomes the poisonous 
toadstools lurk among the good mushrooms, looking so 
innocent and mushroom-like that only an expert can tell 
them apart. 

In the Hall of Birds four huge cases portray the bird life 
of the four seasons. One has the feeling that at some sudden 
instant, surprised in the midst of its busy activities, the 
bird world was caught and held under a magic spell. Birds 
poise in mid-air, in motionless flight, and only sharp eyes 
can solve the seeming miracle. Wires, so fine as to be almost 
invisible, explain the mystery. In the near future these 
"nature pictures" will be brought to life. The cases will be 
electrified, and the birds will burst into song. 

Nowhere else can a child enter so closely into the world 
of birds and see them in all their daily business of living, 



unless he might make himself invisible by the old fairy 
recipe of putting fern seed in his shoes. 

Third floor: Archeology and Indian Life. 

How thrilling it would be if, while walking in the 
woods, one suddenly found, in a secret valley undiscovered 
by white men, an Indian village. Hiding behind the trees, 
one could creep closer with breathless interest, to see how 
Indians really live. 

Such a village may be found on the third floor of the 
museum. It is small, as if seen from a hilltop above, and 
peopled by tiny Indians, who are busy and apparently un- 
aware that the palefaces have arrived. Several braves are 
building a wigwam. Another is making arrowheads, and a 
squaw is pounding corn in a stone mortar. 

A closer view of Indian life is shown in the two lodges, 
real lodges, in which, years ago, real Indians lived. A 
buffalo skin curtains the sleeping-bunks built against the 
wall. Deerskins serve as rugs. An Indian woman (made of 
wax), clothed in a beaded dress of buckskin, kneels before 
the fireplace; and an Indian brave, tired, perhaps, from a 
day of hunting, rests on a bench. The firelight gives such an 
air of coziness to the place that one imagines it might be 
pleasant, for a time at least, to live in a wigwam. 


Location: Highland Park. 
Transportation: South Ave. car line. 
Hours: Daily, 10-5- 

A large variety of flower and foliage plants is on display 
at the Lamberton Conservatory throughout the year : poin- 
settias in Christmas season, Easter lilies in the early spring, 
and chrysanthemums at Thanksgiving. 


In the parching heat of the cactus room grow the weird, 
nightmarish plants which thrive in deserts. The Old Man 
cactus, or Aaron's Beard, a gray-whiskered patriarch, holds 
the center of the room, lurking ill-naturedly behind his 
thorns. Along the ground writhes the "snake cactus," one 
of the few varieties of this species of plants that have a 
showy blossom. Its lovely red and yellow flowers, however, 
can be seen only at night. 

The prickly pear is a coquette, attracting attention by its 
brightly tinted fruit, but repelling too friendly advances 
with stinging thorns. The fruit, which is scarcely worth 
such thorny protection, being mild and rather tasteless, is 
not the only virtue of this cactus. The myriads of tiny red 
insects which infest its leaves are gathered by the natives 
of Mexico to be made into red cochineal dye. The cochineal 
industry of Mexico has become of less importance since the 
discovery of coal tar dyes. 

The cochineal cactus is a plant of slow growth, producing 
at the end of each frond only one pad or leaf yearly. All 
cacti bloom, but the flowers of most varieties are incon- 
spicuous. The water cactus has saved the lives of many 
travelers who, wandering lost in the deserts of Lower Cal- 
ifornia and dying of thirst, have found this vegetable water 
tank and quenched their thirst with the water which its 
pulp stores in large quantities. The spineless cactus is also 
kind to man. Improved by the wizardry of Luther Burbank, 
it forms a valuable cattle fodder in the arid wastelands of 
the West. 

Among the agaves is that strange variety known as the 
century plant. Legend says it blooms but once in a century, 
but this is not strictly true, some plants producing blossoms 
at the age of 30 years. As soon as the rare flower fades, the 
plant withers and dies, while a new generation of plants 
sprouts from its root. The century plant is cultivated on 



the plateau of Mexico. From its fermented juice the natives 
make a liquor called pulque, and, by distillation, a still more 
deadly intoxicant called mescal. The sisal hemp of Florida 
and Central America is a variety of century plant, from the 
fibres of which binding twine and cordage are made. Many 
varieties of agaves have beautiful foliage patterned with 
markings of various shades. Some, mottled in an uncom- 
fortable resemblance to snakes, are interesting examples of 
nature's protective camouflage. 

The warlike Yucca, bristling with dagger leaves from 
which it receives its other name of Spanish Bayonet, is a 
sheep in wolf's clothing, for in reality it is a member of the 
meek lily family. Its ancestry is revealed in huge clusters of 
beautiful lily-shaped flowers. 

The Crown of Thorns is another desert plant, a native of 
the Holy Land. These red blossoms are not true flowers, 
but flowery bracts or leaves of crimson which surround the 
small and scarcely noticeable flower. In this respect the 
Crown of Thorns resembles its relative, the poinsettia, the 
flamboyant "flowers" of which are really colored foliage 
surrounding the true flower. The euphorbia maculata, a dis- 
tant cousin of the poinsettia, in spite of its dignified name, 
leads a wild life in this climate. 

From the dry desert atmosphere of the cactus room one 
enters the moist jungle climate of the tropical room. Here 
grow the ferns, dainty maidenhairs native to our northern 
woods, gigantic jungle ferns, and many interesting varieties 
of mosses. A magnifying glass reveals in these mosses un- 
suspected beauties. Through the lens, as Alice through the 
looking glass, one may enter a strange dreamland of en- 
chanted forests. Silver-gray lichens, the robbers of the 
vegetable kingdom, spread their tents upon the kindly bark 
of trees from which they steal their living. The fronds of 
the staghorn fern branch in the form of deer's antlers; on 



their undersides, as in the case of all ferns, the seeds cling 
like specks of brown dust. It has been said that children 
wearing fern seeds in their shoes become invisible and are 
able to see fairies, but scientists have never been able to 
prove this ! 

These are only a few of the many interesting plants at the 
conservatory. Richard Horsey, park foreman, whose office 
is in the herbarium back of the conservatory, is most courte- 
ous in giving information to interested visitors. 

The Lamberton Conservatory was built in 1911 as a mem- 
orial to A. B. Lamberton, former park commissioner and 
president of the Park Board. 

Almost directly across from the conservatory a footpath 
leads down into the Poets' Garden, where in shady seclusion 
grow those flowers of which the poets have sung: primroses, 
daffodils, columbine, violets, anemones, jonquils, trilliums, 
and many others. A birdbath invites the birds, and stone 
benches offer hospitality to tired sightseers. Inscribed on 
these benches are various quotations from Shakespeare. 
Particularly appropriate to this bird-haunted spot is 

Under the greenwood tree 
Who loves to lie with me, 
And tune his merrie note 
Unto the sweet bird's throat. 





THE County of Monroe, formed in 1821 from Genesee 
and Ontario Counties, was named for James Monroe, 
fifth president of the United States. Its northern 
boundary, about 32 miles between the 7722' and 78 W. 
meridians, is formed by the shore of Lake Ontario, most 
easterly of the Great Lakes. 


The 663 square miles of the county support a population 
of 423,881, about 22 > percent of which lives outside the 
city of Rochester. In Monroe's north-center, Rochester 
straddles the Genesee River, taming it to her will, and 
holds in her grasp the radiating lines of transportation 
railroads, bus lines, and macadamized roads. 

Occupying the central part of the Lake Ontario plain, the 
land rises from the lake towards the south a maximum of 
784 feet in almost imperceptible grades. Deposits of sand 
and clay, remnants of glacial debris, form rounded hills of 
low relief throughout the county. This relatively flat topo- 
graphy, in contrast with the rolling terrain farther south, 
diverted railroads and canals through Monroe County. 
This fact, coupled with the shipping facilities afforded by 
the lake, has made Rochester a key commercial city and has 



given it a prosperity which is reflected throughout the 

Lake Ontario modifies the extremes of temperature of 
Monroe. The water absorbs heat during the day and radi- 
ates it at night, and in much the same way heat absorbed 
in the summer is liberated rather late in the fall. The well- 
drained glacial deposits provide fertile soil. The combina- 
tion has made the county one of the more important fruit- 
growing sections of the state. 

Irondequoit Valley, in the north-central part of the 
county, extends from a point 1 mile west of the Genesee 
River eastward 5 miles to Irondequoit Bay. With an area 
of 17 square miles, it covers the 3 ^-mile-wide strip between 
the Ridge Road and Lake Ontario. Stream trenching in this 
region has produced striking valleys and ridges, such as 
those found in Durand-Eastman Park in Rochester. Prior 
to the ice age, this valley was the channel of the Genesee 
River. Its rock bottom is about 500 feet beneath the water 
surface. The present Rochester canyon became the course 
of the river when a blockade of glacial debris in the Rush- 
Mendon section forced the post-glacial Genesee from the 
Irondequoit Valley into its present path through Rochester. 

The effects of standing glacial waters are still visible in 
the famous Ridge Road, which runs through the northern 
part of the county. This road follows the shore line of the 
last of a series of temporary glacial lakes known as Lake 

The Genesee River, cutting through the center of the city 
of Rochester, is the outstanding physical and scenic feature 
of the county. It has excavated in Silurian strata a trench 
which rivals the gorge below Niagara Falls. 



The Gorge of the Genesee above the Highbanks 

The Pinnacle Range is a glacial frontal moraine of sand 
and gravel in the southeastern corner of Rochester. Its 
western extremity overlooks the clay-covered bottom of 
the former glacial Lake Dana. So unconsolidated are these 



glacial deposits that many of the buildings constructed 
over them rest on pile foundations. 


The rocks beneath the county are a series of Silurian lime- 
stone, shale, and sandstone, which were laid as sediments 
on ocean bottoms many millions of years ago. Compacted 
under their own weight and the weight of now-gone over- 
lying and younger sediments, these deposits became solid 
rock. The strata, in orderly vertical succession, are inclined 
slightly to the south. Thus the younger and relatively later 
beds are found away from the lake. 

After the formation of these rocks and a great thickness 
of younger ones deposited above them, an uplift occurred. 
Exposed to the weathering and erosion of the atmosphere 
and running water, the younger strata were washed away. 
After long-continued erosion, the major and basic features 
of the country's topography were evolved. 

The ice age or Pleistocene Period, a comparatively recent 
geological epoch, covered this section with a great thick- 
ness of ice. Frozen into the ice, pushed ahead of the ice, and 
carried by waters running out of the ice where it had melted, 
were large amounts of rocky debris sand, gravel, clay, 
cobblestones. This debris was dumped when the ice sheet 
finally melted away and became superimposed on the bed- 
rock topography as low hills and ridges. The cobblestones 
were used by the pioneers to build their homes. 

The present course of the Genesee River, Irondequoit 
Bay, which occupies the pre-glacial river valley, and Lake 
Ontario have all evolved since the northward recession of 
the ice sheet. 




Not only do the position and mineral composition of a 
rock stratum tell stories of geologic evolution and history, 
but its layers also contain clues in the form of petrified re- 
mains of ancient life. More than 200 species of fossilized 
marine animals have been found in the Rochester shale 
alone. The Guelph dolomite (magnesium calcium carbon- 
ate rock named for Guelph, Canada) has a large fossil fauna, 
the outstanding element of which is a primitive sea urchin. 
The Medina sandstone is known for the worm burrows 
which it exhibits. The Bertie waterlime (natural cement 
rock) is noted for its exceptionally well-preserved speci- 
mens of graptolites and eurypterids (extinct cousin of the 
modern lobster and scorpion). 

Strata which bear fossils and are older than the Silurian 
Period lie deeply buried in Monroe County; younger rocks, 
which once covered this section, have been removed by 
later erosion; hence only fossils of Silurian age are found 
in great numbers. On the southern fringe of the county, 
where the Finger Lakes hills begin, the strata of the next 
younger geologic period, the Devonian, crop out and con- 
tinue as the surface formations into Pennsylvania. 

After the ice age, land animals rather than marine species 
died and left their remains for man to find. Chief among 
these are the mammoths and mastodons, extinct relatives of 
the modern African and Asiatic elephants. The bones of a 
peccary, which looked much like the modern razorback 
hog, were discovered at Pittsford. Mammoth and mastodon 
remains, found at Pittsford, in Rochester, and along the 
banks of Irondequoit Creek, were preserved in swamp de- 
posits of the ice age, indicating that the huge, lumbering 
beasts had been unable to extricate themselves. 




The once extensive forests of Monroe have dwindled to 
farm wood lots scattered throughout the country. Carefully 
conserved by the farmers and harvested for fuel and timber, 
they form an impressive resource. 

The soil of the county will produce all flowers adaptable 
to the climate. Most of the native wild flowers can be found 
in Mendon Ponds County Park, where an ancient peat bed 
has been converted into a botanical garden. In the marsh- 
lands bordering Deep Pond, wild iris wave their blue flags. 
Here also lurk the ferocious insect eaters, the pitcher plant, 
the Venus' flytrap, the sundew, and the bladderwort. The 
nun-like blind gentian grows in seclusion, its perpetually 
closed buds refusing to look upon the world. In May dog- 
wood stars the woods with white blossoms and in winter 
spreads a banquet table for the birds who relish its white 

Many kinds of orchids grow wild, particularly in Bergen 
Swamp; 23 varieties are extremely rare. The woods are 
haunted by the Indian pipe, a ghostly plant hidden away 
under dead leaves. A few of the native wild flowers bear 
sinister names, such as snake-root and blood-root. The 
devil's paint brush, cursed by farmers because it renders 
acres of their farm lands useless, daubs the hillsides with 
its orange-colored bloom to please the eyes of those who do 
not realize its economic menace. Another weed thrives in 
spite of being afflicted with the horrendous name of helle- 
bore. Other plants, more happily named, are the lady 
slippers, maidenhair fern, Dutchmen's breeches, and Jack- 

The pioneer women, wise in herb lore, searched the woods 
and clearings for the medicinal plants which still grow in 
the Genesee country. In preparation for the long winter 



siege, they suspended from the cabin rafters bunches of 
boneset, elecampagne, gold seal, burdock, bladderwort, 
wintergreen, elder flowers, thoroughwort, blackberry roots, 
sheep sorrel, bark of moosewood, slippery elm, and many 
others then regarded as cure-alls. They supplemented their 
food supply with many edible plants "green sass" which 
still flourish but in this prosperous age are little used: dan- 
delions, cowslips, milkweed sprouts, sheep sorrel, plantain. 
Butternuts, hickory nuts, and sweet acorns were hoarded 
to serve as delicacies on winter evenings. Caraway seeds 
were prized for seasoning; oak galls, hickory bark, and 
green butternut hulls were saved to make dye. Mushrooms, 
strawberries, raspberries, huckleberries, and blueberries 
added variety to the summer diet then as they do now. 


In the days of the first settlers in Monroe County, bears, 
wolves, wildcats, deer, and poisonous snakes were common 
native animals. Certain game birds, notably the wild 
turkey, were hunted for food. The predatory animals were 
slaughtered and most of the venomous snakes were exter- 
minated under the stimulus of bounties. The small harmless 
animals which have continued to inhabit the county were 
forced to move from forests to wood lots; but those which 
preferred the swamps are still found there. The mink, musk- 
rat, weasel, fox, raccoon, and skunk are still valued for their 
furs. The bigger animals are all gone, but, partly to take 
their places, alien game birds have been introduced, have 
taken hold, and are hunted annually during the legal 
season. The place of the wild turkey has been taken by the 
introduced pheasant, a native of the Orient. Probably sev- 
eral other bird species, once prevalent in the county, have 
become locally extinct. Most of the songbirds have adapted 
themselves to the growth of Rochester and the dwindling 
of the woods and must now rejoice that sanctuaries are be- 



ing created for them. The Audubon Nature Club has record- 
ed more than 250 different species of birds seen in Monroe 
County by its members. 

Although the county is not famed for its fishing, some of 
its streams abound with trout put out by local hatcheries. 
There is hardly a little pond without its sunfish; hardly a 
stretch of slow water without its sucker. Out in Lake 
Ontario big fish abound, but the sturgeon of the last century 
are about gone. 


Monroe County has few commercially profitable miner- 
als. Among these are dolomite, gypsum, sand, gravel, and 
crushed stone. Of these, dolomite is the most important. 
A stratum of this road-surfacing rock, approximately 3,000 
feet wide, runs through the townships of Gates, Penfield, 
and Wheatland. Gypsum (calcium sulphate) lies in pocket 
deposits throughout the dolomite strata. Before commer- 
cial fertilizers were obtainable, ground gypsum was used 
to sweeten the virgin soil, making possible the bumper 
crops of Genesee wheat which for many years made Roch- 
ester a milling center. 

Other latent mineral resources of the county not now 
found practicable for extensive commercial development 
include hundreds of peat beds, most of which are too small 
to warrant operation; small veins of iron ore, one of the 
largest being a vein a foot thick in the bank of the Genesee 
in Maplewood Park; salt springs in Irondequoit, Greece, 
and Hamlin, from some of which the pioneers obtained salt; 
pockets of natural gas which, when drilled, revealed small 
amounts; Medina sandstone along Irondequoit Creek and in 
the Genesee River gorge, quarrying of which is now aban- 
doned because of the inferior quality of the product; 
Niagara limestone in the northeastern and western parts of 


Rochester; and numerous beds of clay from which bricks 
of superior quality were burned in local kilns and used in 
the construction of many of the city's older residences. 
These mineral resources played an important part in the 
early development of local industry. 


The 5,084 farms of the county, 80 percent of which are 
owner-operated, total 337,092 acres, with a value of $37,- 
616,194. The Federal farm census of 1934 reported total crop 
failures on only 7,450 acres. 

The lake-tempered climate, the good seasonal distribu- 
tion of rainfall, the relative fertility of soil, and the prepon- 
derance of tillable lands favor a diversity of crops, of which 
fruits are the most important. In 1929 the county produced 
1,245,009 bushels of apples and 116,291 bushels of peaches, 
an output which cannot be duplicated until new orchards 
have replaced those destroyed during the severe winter of 
1933. Crops of cherries, pears, and plums, though smaller 
in volume, are also of economic importance. 

Increased wheat raising, necessitated by devastation of 
the fruit orchards, now places Monroe first among the 
counties of the state in the production of wheat. Potatoes, 
Monroe's second most valuable tillage crop, yield, in an 
average season, more than \^4 million bushels. In 1929 
cabbages valued at $448,079 and tomatoes valued at 
$352,029 were produced in the county. 

Because of their proximity to Rochester markets and 
railroad transportation, the rich muck lands of the county 
are devoted to truck gardening, which forms a profitable 
industry in the towns of Greece and Gates and in the area 
immediately north of Rochester. There are 75 acres of green- 
houses throughout the county, most of them in the close 



vicinity of Rochester. The nurseries, another valuable 
branch of Monroe's agriculture, ship stock and seeds to all 
parts of the world. 


The Monroe County Regional Planning Board does much 
to foster the conservation of natural resources. The major 
objective has been the reduction of soil erosion, and, al- 
though the board lacks powers of enforcement, the farmers 
and "landed gentry" have been quick to carry out its 
recommendations . 

The board has made a survey of the watershed of Ironde- 
quoit Creek to ascertain the degree of erosion and to devise 
means for its prevention. The published report indicates 
where trees and other vegetation should be planted. Carry- 
ing out the recommendation of the board, the State Con- 
servation Commission will upon application, furnish to 
farmers trees to be planted by the farmers themselves. In 
the Irondequoit watershed, 340,000 trees had been planted 
by October 1, 1936, and 800,000 more ordered for planting. 
Nursery stock for this form of reforestation is also grown 
from seed in the county parks. 

Since 1930 the Monroe County Farm Bureau has con- 
ducted woodlot demonstrations under an extension course 
of the Forestry Department of the New York State College 
of Agriculture at Cornell University. The bureau has made 
soil tests throughout the county to determine where alfalfa 
might profitably be planted and recommends the planting 
of clover where the soil is insufficiently rich in lime to grow 

These efforts of the Regional Planning Board and the Farm 
Bureau, with the cooperation of farmers, have in the last 10 
years lessened soil erosion. 


Wildlife conservation is effected to some extent by the 
state game laws. 

Bird sancturaries have been established in the Monroe 
County parks, in which birds are protected and fed. Mi- 
gratory birds are given special attention, and year-around 
residents are guarded from winter starvation. 

The most important work in the conservation of wildlife 
is carried on at Mendon Ponds County Park. The breeding 
of waterfowl, quail, and pheasant is the principal activity. 
Two 10-acre fields, enclosed by a 6-foot dog-proof and par- 
tially vermin-proof fence, are supplied with a modern in- 
cubator house, a feed storehouse, and seven brooder houses, 
all with electrical equipment. Sixty-five large moveable 
holding pens are provided for adult birds. A total of 184 
quail were raised to maturity in 1935 and about 100 of them 
were liberated. A new woodland breeding area, enclosed 
by a 4-foot wire fence, was completed in 1935; aquatic food 
plants were introduced in the ponds; and the breeding of 
black and mallard ducks was begun. 

The Planning Board is sponsoring (1937) a study of stream 
pollution and preventive methods to save fish. Meanwhile, 
the state annually stocks county streams with thousands of 
bass, bullheads, perch, pickerel, and trout. The state fish 
hatchery at Powder Mills Park supplies the fingerlings. 


Before the advent of the white man, Monroe County was 
the stamping ground of the Seneca Indians. By far the most 
powerful tribe of the League of the Iroquois, the Senecas, 
from their stronghold in the Genesee Valley, controlled the 
important routes to the west and were known as "Keepers 
of the Western Door." 



Before the Senecas came to guard the fords of the Genesee, 
Algonkian Indians, as far back as archeologists can trace, 
pursued a peaceful community life in small villages with 
few fortifications or stockades. The remains of a few forts 
along the Ridge Road do more to establish the antiquity 
of their occupation than to give them a war record. One of 
their most important village sites is today occupied by the 
River Campus of the University of Rochester. Another was 
in Maplewood Park, and still another near Augustine and 
Albemarle Streets. Artifacts from these sites are included 
among the exhibits at the Rochester Museum of Arts and 
Sciences: pottery, grooved axes, large spear heads, arrow- 
heads, implements of copper, and objects of polished slate 
predominantly the tools of peace. The aggressive Iroquois, 
according to modern archeologists, nomaded their way 
east from Puget Sound, established themselves in the upper 
valley of the Ohio, and spread into New York State, exter- 
minating or absorbing the Algonkian peoples. Triangular 
arrowheads weapons of warfare take their place among 
the artifacts found in the hilltop strongholds that began to 
dot the hitherto unfortified vantage points of the Algon- 
kins. Better pottery and better pipes give indications of a 
more highly developed domestic life to be more aggressively 

The body of Indian lore and Indian history in Monroe 
County has to do, therefore, with the Iroquois. Religious 
liberty and freedom of worship were fundamentals in their 
thought; they never waged war over matters of religion nor 
sought to compel people to believe the things that they 
themselves believed. Their own animistic religion pervaded 
everything they did and almost completely regulated their 
habits. Like the Greeks, they had many gods; and, although 
it may be true that they did not have a principal god until 
the Jesuits taught them the idea of a supreme deity, yet their 
gods ranked variously in importance. 


The chief of all their gods was Tehachwenjaiwahkonk 
(Earth-Holder), who ruled the realm of the sky, living in a 
white lodge under the branches of a celestial tree. His wife 
was lagenchi (Great Mother), whose curiosity as to what lay 
beneath the roots of the celestial tree induced her to cause 
it to be uprooted. This aroused the anger of her husband, 
who pushed her through the hole in the sky made by the 
uprooting of the tree. Plunging downward through space, 
lagenchi was caught and held by the interlaced wings of 
the water birds. A great turtle arose from the sea, holding 
on his shell a bit of earth deposited there by a muskrat 
which had brought it from the bottom of the ocean; and 
here the Great Mother rested. The turtle grew rapidly and 
the earth grew with it, forming a large island. The woman 
from the skies brought life with her and gave birth to a 
daughter, who soon grew up and began to help her mother, 
but spent a part of each day exploring the island. One day 
she met a lover and was "married to him while swinging 
on a vine." She gave birth to two boys, one of whom caused 
her death. The elder boy became known as the Light One, 
or Good Mind, and the younger was called the Dark One, 
or Evil Mind. 

Good Mind dutifully watched over his mother's grave, 
and kept it well watered. Eventually from the soil in which 
she was buried sprang the maize, or Indian corn, providing 
in its kernels milk for the nourishment of her children. 
From her body sprang the bean plant, and from her toes 
the edible tuber. After a time Good Mind set out to seek 
his father and finally found him on a mountain top. As a 
test of identification he was obliged to overcome flames, 
whirlwinds, and great falling rocks. At length the "shining 
being" in the mountain (the sun) was satisfied, answering, 
"I am your father." 

When Good Mind returned from his quest he brought 
back with him all manner of plants, birds, fishes, and 



animals, which escaped from their confining pouches at an 
auspicious time, becoming the progenitors of all the living 
things on the earth. Later Good Mind and Evil Mind had a 
quarrel in which Evil Mind tried to slay his brother, but 
failed and was banished to the underworld, where all evil 
creatures associate with him. Good Mind created human 
beings from reflections of himself which he saw in a pool 
of water. Then he became invisible and returned to the sky- 
world, accompanied by his grandmother, the sky-woman, 
over a celestial path formed by a ray of light. 

Whirlwind and Thunderer were other well-known gods, 
and there were the gods of death, the gods of dreams, and 
the gods of many of the other natural forces. These, how- 
ever, were spirits who were to be propitiated and honored 
but who had no creative power, except a kind of magical 
power to transform things. Chief among the nature spirits 
was the Sun; the Moon governed the night, the Spirits of 
Sustenance made the food plants grow, Zephyr brought 
health, and Morning Star heralded the day. In opposition 
to the beneficent beings who inhabited the forest, the hills, 
and the air, there was an equal number of malignant beings 
with terrible powers for evil. In the sky lived Cloud Land 
Eagle, with a dew pool resting between his shoulders, from 
which he gave drink to the thirsty plants when the rain did 
not fall; but under the water lived Horned Snake, whose 
evil seems to have taken the form of appearing as a human 
being and luring unsuspecting maidens to his submarine 
caverns. Horned Snake loved human wives, but Thunderer 
hated the whole tribe of Horned Snakes and fought with 
them on sight. 

In the folklore of the Senecas, fairies, pygmies, and other 
creatures friendly to man abound. Some of these lived in the 
forest and rocky glens, while others dwelt under the water. 
In the mountains lived great giants, called Stone Coats be- 



cause they could never be slain by spear or arrow. Their 
favorite pastime was to hunt down men and women and 
little children in order to eat them raw. In the course of 
time all these fearful giants were chased into a cave near 
Onondaga, where Thunderer shook immense rocks down 
upon them, exterminating all except one lone survivor who 
imparted his wisdom to a scared boy seeking refuge in the 
cave. In accordance with instructions he organized the 
False Face Company. In one of its secret ceremonies this 
mysterious organization uses a great mask covered with 
pebbles, with a flint arrowpoint embedded in its forehead. 

A belief in ghosts was universal among the Iroquois. 
These were assumed to be earth-bound spirits who lingered 
either to finish some earthly affair or to work harm because 
they came from malicious souls. Since names were thought 
to be bands of attachment, or cords binding the person in 
some mysterious manner, it was deemed improper to men- 
tion the name of one dead for fear of calling the soul back 
from its abode of pleasure to mundane scenes of fear and 
conflict. And so it came about that when a departed one 
was mentioned, a descriptive name was given, such as He- 
who-lived-on-the-mountain-and-sang-much-to-the-stars, or She- 
who-wore-the-red-feather-in-her-hair. Every individual tried to 
develop some personal trait in order that he might have an 
implied name as well as a real one. Because a stranger 
might conjure the name and work injury to its owner, the 
real name of a red man was never revealed. 

The Iroquois believed that Good and Evil were in a state 
of constant warfare but eventually Good would triumph 
and Evil perish. Evil spirits were the reflection of evil and 
had much the same power as the beneficent ones, but their 
power was deemed to be ephemeral. All living things are 
reflections of the Creator, but since reflection is not material 
substance, all living matter can be transformed or trans- 



planted into other forms. Thus a man who had acquired 
magic could transform himself into a bear, a deer, or other 
lower animal form. 

No one doubted that there was a land of happy souls and 
that the good would never perish. In the eternal land the 
Creator shuts the eyes of the newcomers and takes their 
soul-bodies to pieces, afterward putting them together 
again, piece by piece, casting out all evil and disease and 
leaving a regenerated and completely good soul. 

Upon such beliefs the Seneca built "his faith in the 
brotherhood of all life, his hope for the future, and his 
eternal salvation." He was taught that if his practices were 
sometimes cruel and inhuman, it was because the Indian, 
like the white man, belonged to the "inhuman human 
race," and because he was obliged to propitiate the demons 
of war, who demand suffering and bloodshed. 


Etienne Brule, a French scout traveling in 1615, through 
the region that is now western New York, was the first 
European to see the Genesee River. In the years following, 
the Jesuits established four mission posts in the vicinity of 
what is now Rochester: La Conception at Totiakton, a 
Seneca village on the present site of Rochester Junction; 
St. Jean at Gandachisagon, south of Totiakton; St. Jacques 
on Boughton Hill near Victor; and St. Michael 2> miles 
south of Boughton Hill. The eight Jesuit missionaries who 
are known to have taught and preached in the vicinity dur- 
ing the second half of the 17th century, exerted an enduring 
influence upon the Indians, accustoming them in some mea- 
sure to the ways of the white man and paving the way for 
white settlement. 

The other form of French penetration had as its aim the 
control of the Seneca lands as a doorway to the lucrative fur 



trade of the interior. Preeminent among the French soldiers 
and explorers who led expeditions through western New 
York was Rene Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, the "first 
promoter of the Great West." Born of a wealthy Rouen 
family in 1643, in his youth he became a Jesuit novice, but, 
unable to bear the restraints of a monastic life, he left the 
order at the age of 23- In later years he became a fiery op- 
ponent of the Jesuits in Canada, principally because they 
disapproved of his traffic in brandy with the Indians. His 
career as an explorer came to an end with his murder near 
the mouth of the Mississippi in 1687. 

On August 10, 1669, La Salle entered Irondequoit Bay 
with nine canoes and 34 men, including two priests, De 
Gasson and Galinee; the latter's journal is the source of 
our knowledge of the expedition, the purpose of which was 
to secure information about the Ohio Trail to the beaver 
country. The Indians were excessively polite. La Salle and 
his companions were subjected to an eight-day round of 
entertainment: they were dined and feted; they were shown 
the tribal games and dances; they were even treated to the 
sight of the burning of a prisoner. But at the same time it 
was made plain that the Indians, well aware of their 
strategic position, would not permit the French to open up 
a thoroughfare through their territory. After the remains 
of the executed prisoner were consumed in a cannibal feast 
by brandy-crazed Indians, La Salle grew apprehensive and 
withdrew his men in small parties to take up residence in 
the lesser villages at some distance from Totiakton. His 
expedition failed of its purpose. 

The work of the Jesuit missionaries was undone by other 
hands. In 1687 Jacques Rene de Brisay, Marquis de Denon- 
ville, Governor of New France, (Canada) undertook a 
military penetration of the Genesee country with a force 
of about 3,000 Frenchmen and Indian confederates. The 



Senecas were warned by the Governor of New York and by 
friendly Indians. The French landed on a sandy ridge near 
the present town of Sea Breeze. After repelling the first 
Indian attack, they advanced south and destroyed several 
Indian villages. But the Seneca warriors were continually 
at their heels, and in the end the French were forced to re- 
treat to the shore of Lake Ontario and return to Canada. 
The Indians never forgot this punitive expedition, any 
more than they forgot the invasions of Champlain. It turned 
them permanently against the French and thereby con- 
tributed to the final English victory in the struggle for the 
western empire. 

The Senecas endeavored to remain neutral as long as pos- 
sible, refusing to countenance permanent settlement by 
either French or English. In the early Colonial wars, when 
the French had the upper hand, they leaned toward the 
French; but in 1759, after the English had won a string of 
decisive victories, they became allies of the English, binding 
themselves by treaty with Sir William Johnson in 1764. 

Respecting the obligations undertaken in this treaty, the 
Senecas remained faithful to the British cause in the Revolu- 
tion. During the early years of the war the "vale of the 
Senecas" served as a retreat for bands of Indians and Tories 
who sallied forth in devastating sorties and raids upon the 
rebelling colonists. In 1779 the United Colonies sent the 
Clinton-Sullivan expedition into the Indian territory, which 
so thoroughly destroyed villages and fields that the Seneca 
Nation never recovered from the blow. The Indians re- 
treated to Fort Niagara where, in the severe winter that 
followed, with little clothing and less food, hundreds died 
from disease and starvation. 

In the treaty of peace signed in 1783, the British made no 
mention of their Indian allies but left them to the tender 



mercies of the new Nation. George Washington became, in 
a sense, the father of the now subjected Indian race. He 
treated them so leniently and wisely that in his theology 
the Indian places near the gate of the red man's heaven a 
superb residence for George Washington, where they be- 
lieve he exists in solitary splendor, the sole white man in 
the land fashioned by the Great Spirit for all good and 
brave Indians. 

The remnants of the once mighty tribes, who in the course 
of years filtered back to their homeland, sold their holdings 
or deeded them away. Phelps of Phelps & Gorham, while 
negotiating a treaty, asked the Senecas to give him a lot on 
which he could erect a mill to grind corn for the Indians. 
They agreed, whereupon Phelps selected a section compris- 
ing 200,000 acres although one acre could have sufficed. As 
their lands were occupied by the whites, the Indians were 
restricted to reservations; the last one near Monroe County 
was the Canawaugus Reservation south of the present 
village of Scottsville. 

To-day most of the Senecas are concentrated on three 
reservations: the Allegany, where the Cornplanter branch 
lives; the Tonawanda, between Rochester and Buffalo; and 
the Cattaraugas, south of Buffalo. But all of the Senecas 
are not on the reservations. Many distinguished descendants 
of Indian blood live in the towns and cities of western New 
York and elsewhere. In the closing months of 1935 an or- 
ganization of people of Indian blood was formed in Roch- 
ester, in which the sponsors hope to gather together all the 
descendants of the "Men of Men" who once dwelt in the 
valley of the Genesee. 


After numerous petitions to the legislature covering a 
period of five years, the county of Monroe, comprising 14 
towns taken from the counties of Ontario and Genesee, be- 



came a political subdivision of the state on February 23, 
1821. Rochester was designated as the county seat and im- 
mediately plans were made for the erection of a courthouse. 
On March 7, 1821, James Seymour was appointed sheriff of 
the newly created county by Governor De Witt Clinton. 
At that time it was stipulated that all prisoners of record 
were to be confined in the Ontario County jail at Canandai- 
gua until suitable facilities for the care of prisoners were 
erected in Rochester. 

The first meeting of the board of supervisors was held on 
May 2, 1821, at which time the site of the courthouse was 
selected, the land donated by Rochester, Carroll, and Fitz- 
hugh. In 1821 Col. Nathaniel Rochester was elected to the 
Assembly of New York, and the representation of Monroe 
County was recognized as an ordained function of the state 

The government of Monroe County followed the general 
trend of other New York State counties until the enactment 
of the Buckley Law, which became effective May 16, 1935- 
Under this law optional forms of county government were 
provided. In a referendum on November 5, 1935, the voters 
of Monroe County chose the county manager form, which 
became effective January 1, 1936. 

Under this form of county government, the board of 
supervisors is the policy-determining body and is vested 
with all the powers of the county. The county manager is 
appointed by the board of supervisors as the administrative 
head of the county government; he has supervision over all 
its departments except as the law otherwise provides, and 
devotes his full time to his duties. He is accountable to the 
board of supervisors for collection of taxes and other reve- 
nues of the county; for the custody and accounting of all 
public funds; for the care of the poor and other charitable, 



correctional, and public welfare activities; and for any or 
all matters of property and business in connection with the 
administration of school districts and other governmental 
units within the county, which shall be delegated to him 
with the approval of the board of supervisors. In general, 
he handles the entire administrative details of the county 
government according to the law and under the direction 
of the board of supervisors. 


Nearly all of the county buildings are in the city. The 
court house is described as one of the points of interest in 
Rochester. The jail, 180 Exchange St.; the penitentiary, 
corner Highland and South Aves., condemned by state 
authorities and to be replaced by a modern building; and 
the morgue, 70 Clarissa St., are (fortunately) not of gen- 
eral interest. The old county home buildings, 1400 and 1460 
South Ave., are occupied (1937) by the Division of Old Age 
Assistance of the State Department of Social Welfare and 
The National Youth Administration. 

The lola Tuberculosis Sanatorium, East Henrietta Rd., 
represents a total investment of nearly $2,500,000. The name 
lola is taken from the Indian for "never discouraged." 

When the first patient was treated on October 1, 1910, the 
institution consisted of a barn and a tent. In 1911 the ad- 
ministration building and three of the brick pavilions were 
built; in 1915 the infirmary; in 1927 the children's home and 
nurses' home. The later buildings are Georgian Colonial 
in style. 

Demands on the institution have for many years taxed its 
capacity of 400. In 1929 the county free tuberculosis dis- 
pensary was transferred to the sanatorium; an average of 
8,000 examinations are made yearly. When the sanatorium 



was opened, the death rate in Monroe County from tuber- 
culosis was 160 per 100,000; the rate for 1936 was 38.9 per 

The new Monroe County Home and Hospital, occupying 
57 acres bounded by the Barge Canal, Henrietta Road, and 
Westfall Road, was opened on October 24, 1933- The main 
building, of salmon colored tapestry brick with white trim, 
is designed in the Italian Lombardy style. Because of its 
monumental appearance it is called ironically the Monroe 
County Castle. The hospital wing is six and the home wing 
four stories high. The architect was Sigmund Firestone, 
Rochester, with Dr. S. S. Goldwater of New York City as 
consultant architect. 

The building is practically soundproof. The hospital con- 
tains no private rooms except in the contagious disease 
wards. Most of the inmates of the home live in dormitories 
with solarium attached, and have the use of recreation 
rooms and a large assembly room. The grounds are land- 
scaped with trees and shrubs. 


The Monroe County Traveling Library was established 
in 1923 through the efforts of Fred W. Hill, a 'Monroe 
County district superintendent of schools, who has been 
called the father of the traveling library in New York 
State. It is maintained from appropriations granted by the 
county board of supervisors and is housed in a large covered 

The interior of this truck is lined with bookshelves and 
equipped as a complete little library into which people may 
go and make their choice for reading. The library has per- 



Monroe County Traveling Library 

manent quarters for housing all its books and doing neces- 
sary detail work in a county building at 1460 South Avenue. 
The truck makes regular trips each Monday, Wednesday, 
and Friday, covering all the main highways through the 
rural sections of the county, stopping at post offices, schools, 
and houses, where groups of people come to draw and return 
books. During 1935 approximately 72,000 books were lent 
by this library. 

The trained librarians in charge procure important new 
books for adults and children as soon as they are published; 
make available the desired classic, standard, and recent 
publications; and furnish authoritative books on the many 
phases of rural life and work, giving to the residents facili- 
ties for obtaining good literature equal to those enjoyed in 
the towns and cities. 

The library is administered by a board of trustees repre- 
senting the various sections of the county, with Mr. Hill, a 



member of the board, in charge of the active supervision 
of the library. 


Besides the city of Rochester, Monroe County contains 
19 townships, descriptions of which follow in alphabetical 
order. Towns on tour itineraries are not described in the 
following summaries. 


Originally the town of Brighton was known as Boyle, 
afterwards as Smallwood. Its present name was taken from 
the English watering place in Sussex. 

One of the towns which has given most of its territory to 
the fast-growing city of Rochester, Brighton had in 1930 
a population of 9,033, in 1937 an estimated population of 
10,000. It lies along the complete southern boundary of 
Rochester from the Genesee eastward to Pittsford township 
with a spur extending north several miles along Rochester's 
eastern border, covering in all an area of 14.3 square miles. 
It has no incorporated villages. Its residents occupy either 
farms or home sites convenient to business activities in 

Brighton Town Hall is at 1795 Monroe Avenue. The 
town has 4 fire companies, a new high school, and 5 district 
schools. The initial tax rate is $10.10 per thousand dollars 
assessment. The school tax ranges from $4 to $8 per thou- 
sand. Brighton takes its water supply from the Rochester 
and Lake Ontario Water Company and its gas and elec- 
tricity from the Rochester Gas and Electric Corporation. 

The scene of church activities before Rochester had a 
church, Brighton still has one Roman Catholic and two 
Protestant churches. Without industries or factories, its 
business life is confined to small stores, groceries, and mar- 



kets. The one chemical firm furnishes supplies to high 
school chemistry and other science departments. 

Brighton contains many sites of historic interest. The 
half of Ellison Park within its boundaries includes the site 
of the "city" of Tryon, founded in 1797 and abandoned in 
1818, in commemoration of which a marker has been placed 
at the entrance to the park. 

At the corner of Landing Road and Blossom Road, an- 
other marker records that the meadows north of this point 
form the site of Indian Landing where began the Ohio 
Trail from Canada to the Mississippi Valley. 

At 1496 Clover Road stands the Babcock home, built in 
1829. Sections of this huge house show clearly periodic 
additions begun by the first owner and continued down to 
the present. A secret chamber, accessible only through a 
trapdoor in the pantry floor, has been identified as a place 
of concealment for fugitive slaves on their long flight to 
freedom in Canada. A one-time owner, Isaac Moore, and 
his wife, Amy, nee Bloss, were abolitionists associated with 
Frederick Douglass. 

The barn which stands in the rear of this house is re- 
membered as the first structure reared in Monroe County 
without the usual gratuity of liquor to those who helped 
in its raising. 

2. CHILI (chi'-ll) 

Chili lies southwest of Rochester along the banks of the 
Genesee. Extending westward from the river, it forms, so 
far as its other three boundaries are concerned, a perfect 
square enclosing the settlements of Chili, North Chili (see 
Tour 2), Chili Center, Buckbees Corners, and Clifton. It has 
no incorporated villages. The origin of the name is not 
established, though the Republic of Chile in South America, 
has been suggested. 



The general surface of Chili is made up of gravel knolls. 
A strong soil of clay loam mixed with sand produces the chief 
agricultural products of the region cereal crops. Although 
the township was not formed until 1822, when Chili was 
set off from Riga, a settlement reported made in 1792 gives 
Chili one of the earliest beginnings in Monroe County. 


Clifton, the oldest settlement, was once the most im- 
portant. Gristmills, sawmills, distilleries, and a plaster 
mill for ground rock gave employment to many people. The 
invasion of railroads to the north drew activity away from 
Clifton and left it a tiny settlement at the end of the road 
dreaming of its past. 


The slant of Clarkson's eastern boundary destroys the 
symmetry of its rectangular outline. It lies west of Roch- 
ester, with two tiers of townships intervening. Ridge Road 
passes through it close to the southern boundary. 

Clarkson was named for Gen. Matthew Clarkson, a large 
landowner in pioneer days. The three settlements of the 
township (there are no incorporated villages) are Clarkson 
(see Tour /), Garland, and Redmond Corners, named in order 
of their size. 

A gentle northward slope toward the lake affords good 
drainage for the sandy loam soil, which produces large 
quantities of various fruits and truck garden products. 


Gates, lying in the very center of Monroe County, is the 
southwestern gateway of Rochester. Neither of the town- 
ship's two settlements, Gates Center and Coldwater is an 
incorporated village. 



Gates was formed as a town in 1802 under the name of 
Northampton, but changed its name to Gates in 1812 in 
honor of Gen. Horatio Gates, to whom General Burgoyne 
surrendered at Saratoga in 1777. 

A thriving suburban district in recent years has grown up 
in the section of the township which borders Rochester, 
increasing the population to a total (1936) of 3,634. The 
remainder of Gates is a fertile agricultural section with a 
rich soil of sandy loam and clay and favored with moist 
and temperate breezes from nearby Lake Ontario. The town- 
ship's interest in agriculture has resulted in the formation 
of one of the largest Granges in Monroe County. The only 
industry in Gates other than agriculture are the stone 
quarries of the Dolomite Company. 


A wide frontage on Lake Ontario and the encroachments 
of Rochester's growth have given Greece an irregular north 
and east boundary line. Within its borders are contained 
the four settlements of Barnard, Greece, North Greece, 
and Manitou, none incorporated villages. Barnard, the 
largest, has a population (1936) of 1,000. The New York 
State Railway runs a bus line westward along Ridge Road 
through the township to Hilton, and the Ontario Branch 
of the New York Central runs east and west through the 
center of the township. 

Greece was named as an expression of sympathy with the 
Greeks in their revolution of 1821, the year when the town 
of Greece was formed. 

From Ridge Road, which crosses the southern part of 
Greece, the land has a slight northerly slope, draining into 
the lake; but its general level surface and the sand and clay 
soil provide evidence that the area was once part of the 
lake bed. 



Greece is a strictly agricultural township, containing no 
industrial plants. An active Grange with its headquarters 
in the village of Greece, serves the interests of the farmers. 

The Ridgemont Golf Club, 2717 Ridge Road West, has 
an 18-hole golf course open to non-members (greens fee, 
$2). The clubhouse was built a century ago. 

The parish house of the Mother of Sorrows Church at 
the corner of Latta Road and Mount Read Boulevard was 
originally a church. Built in 1829 by Irish laborers who 
worked on the Erie Canal, it was the first rural Roman 
Catholic church in Western New York. The Indians who 
frequently attended its services gave it the friendly name of 
"The Little Church in the Woods." In the graveyard near- 
by are the graves of the town's earliest settlers, the oldest 
gravestone bearing the date 1803. 


Hamlin Township occupies the northwest corner of 
Monroe County, its entire length fronting on Lake Ontario. 
It includes the settlements of Hamlin, Hamlin Center, 
Troutberg, Walker, Morton, and Kendall Mills. The two 
latter trespass slightly into the neighboring coun-ty of 
Orleans, but they pay their taxes in Hamlin. There are 
no incorporated villages. 

Organized on October 11, 1852, under the name of Union, 
the town adopted its present name on February 22, 1861, 
in honor of Hannibal Hamlin, Vice-President of the United 
States during President Lincoln's first administration, 

Hamlin contains extensive orchard lands, and large crops 
of wheat are produced on its clay and heavy loam soil. A 
deep-lying stratum of salt extends under a large area in the 
northern section, deposited by the receding prehistoric sea. 
Wells forming the rural water supply are, therefore, neces- 



sarily too shallow to be dependable in seasons of unusual 


Henrietta (4,500 pop.) lies along the east bank of the 
Genesee River and is separated from the southern tip of 
Rochester only by the narrow township of Brighton. With- 
in its diamond-shaped boundaries are enclosed the settle- 
ments of Henrietta and West Henrietta, neither of which 
is incorporated. The level landscape, typical of the greater 
part of Monroe County, is slightly broken by small hills. 

The township was named for the Countess of Bath, 
daughter of Sir William Pulteney, an Englishman who with 
two associates purchased from Robert Morris a large part 
of the original Phelps-Gorham Purchase. 

8. IRONDEQUOIT (I-rSn'-de-quoit) 

The township of Irondequoit (18,004 pop.) contains 
within its irregular outline a greater variety of scenery than 
does any other of the towns of Monroe County. Its exten- 
sive lake frontage is broken by Durand-Eastman Park, 
which belongs to the city of Rochester. Irondequoit Bay 
gives the town its eastern boundary and its name, an Indian 
word variously translated as "where the waters gasp and 
die," "opening into the lake," and "a bay." Fringing 
the bay on its western shore are the small resorts of New- 
port, Bay View, Glen Haven, Point Pleasant, and Birds 
and Worms. Along the lake front are Sea Breeze, Rock 
Beach, White City, and Summerville. The Irondequoit 
town line extends west to St. Paul Street, Rochester, follow- 
ing within a stone's throw the eastern bank of the Genesee 
to the lake. 

The gullies and ridges along Irondequoit Bay are of inter- 
est to geologists because they show unusually clear evi- 
dences of their glacial origin. The only natural resource of 



Irondequoit is a rich soil, and farming is its principal in- 
dustry. The township obtains its water supply from Lake 

As early as 1687 this territory was claimed by the French, 
who built a strong fort at the mouth of the bay, of which 
no trace remains. 


The township of Mendon occupies the southeast corner 
of Monroe County and includes Mendon, Mendon Center, 
and the incorporated village of Honeoye Falls. A gentle 
rise of low hills capped with upland farms and woodlands 
forms the pleasant landscape. The township is said to have 
been named by settlers who came from Mendon, Massa- 


Mendon Center was once a small Quaker settlement. 
Gruadually the colony dwindled away, the little Friends' 
meeting house long ago disappeared, and the only trace of 
the Quaker origin of the present settlement is its cemetery, 
a short distance out on the Quaker Hill Road. This cemetery 
is typical of Quaker taste a placid square of green sheltered 
on all sides by tall trees, in which prim headstones, small 
and of almost uniform size, stand in orderly rows. Not a 
single stone bears an epitaph, and only here and there is 
one marked by some faint ornamentation. 

10. OGDEN 

The township of Ogden lies west of Rochester, separated 
from that city by one tier of townships. Being enclosed by 
surveyed lines and not by natural boundaries, its four 
straight lines form an almost perfect square. In the early 
years of its existence its outlines were subjected to many 
changes. A descendant of one of the first settlers states that 
the four children of his pioneer ancestor, though born in 


the same house, were born each in a different town New- 
fane, Fairfield, Parma, and Ogden. 

Ogden contains the incorporated village of Spencerport 
and the settlements of Adams Basin, Ogden, and Ogden 
Center. The township lies in a rich fruit and farming 
country with semi-wooded sections. Numerous small streams 
carry the drainage to the north and east. 

Ogden was named for William Ogden, one of the first 
proprietors of the town of Parma, from which Ogden was 
formed in 1817- The land originally belonged to that por- 
tion of the Phelps-Gorham Purchase known as the Mill 
Yard Tract. (See below.} 


Spencerport (1,249 pop.) is a pleasant village situated at 
the junction of State 31 and 259, one mile south of Ridge 
Road. In 1832, when the village was incorporated, it was a 
thriving canal town; but since the middle of the nineteenth 
century the railroads have taken much of the canal's traffic, 
and Spencerport has lost her importance as a canal port, 
though the canal still flows through the edge of the town, 
its slow current carrying with it an air of drowsy serenity. 
At intervals New York Central trains puff through the 
village, bringing a momentary stir to the little town. Its 
sole industries are two factories manufacturing ice cream 
and vinegar. Five churches, or one to each 250 inhabitants, 
keep Spencerport in the straight and narrow way, and the 
Spencerport Star informs the world of village doings. 

Spencerport was built upon the Mill Yard Tract, prob- 
ably the largest mill yard the world has ever seen. Inno- 
cently the friendly Indians promised to Phelps and Gorham 
a gift of land sufficient for a sawmill yard. The yard turned 
out to be a tract of land twelve miles wide and twenty- 
eight miles long. 



The village has an old library, founded in 1815 at Ogden 
Center under the name of the Farmers' Library Company. 
In the 1870's, still retaining its original name, it was moved 
to Spencerport. At one time in its Spencerport history the 
library was destroyed by fire and only those books which 
were out on loan at the time were saved; but through all 
the vicissitudes of years, removal, and fire, the original 
library organization has persisted. One of its most cherished 
possessions is an autographed copy of the autobiography of 
John T. Trowbridge, presented to the library by the author 
in grateful remembrance of the days when as a boy he 
borrowed its books. 

John T. Trowbridge was born in 1827 in a log house built 
by his father about a mile southeast of the village. A few 
months later the Trowbridge family moved to a nearby 
house where they lived until John was in his early twenties. 
He was the author of more than fifty books, including 
Cud jo' s Cave and Neighbor Jackwood, the latter having had 
the largest sale among American books before the publica- 
tion of Uncle Tom's Cabin. Trowbridge died February 12, 
1916, at the age of 89. The house where he once lived still 
stands on the north side of the road, a two-story farmhouse 
painted white with green blinds. Back of the house is the 
old apple orchard planted by his father. In his autobiog- 
raphy, Trowbridge refers to the swamp across the road, a 
place of enchantment in his childhood, and to the happy 
days when, in summer, he went swimming in the canal, 
or, in winter, skated on its ice. The canal, in those years 
the chief source of livelihood for Spencerport, brought a 
harvest of nickels and dimes to the pockets of John Trow- 
bridge and his playmates, its passenger boats providing a 
market for apples and nuts. 

Against its historic background of busy canal days, 
Spencerport is today a suburban village, with 20 percent 
of its residents commuting to Rochester. 


11. PARMA 

The boundaries of the township of Parma converge 
toward a narrow lake front. It lies west of Rochester, sep- 
arated from it by the township of Greece. Included within 
Parma are the incorporated village of Hilton and the settle- 
ments of Parma Corners and Parma Center. For no known 
reason Parma probably derives its name from the province 
and city of Parma, Italy. 

The sand and clay soil, interspersed with areas of rich 
muck land, produces an excellent quality of apples, which 
are widely exported. 

Through Parma, in the middle of the 19th century, passed 
the "underground railroad." Several houses which served 
as stations still stand in the township. One such house, 
built of cobblestones in 1 825, stands at the end of Latta Road . 
Another station was the old store at Parma Center, built 
in 1840, in the cellar of which runaway slaves were fre- 
quently hidden. In the past 100 years of its existence this 
store has never been closed for a single day. 


Penfield borders Brighton on the southeast. It is named 
for Daniel Penfield, who bought the land in 1810. Ironde- 
quoit Bay, extending down into the northwest corner, 
Ellison Park in the southwest corner, and hills and dense 
forest lands scattered throughout the 38 square miles of the 
township, make up a diversified landscape. Penfield, East 
Penfield, and Penfield Center, none of them incorporated, 
are included in the township. 

The Penfield quarries of the Dolomite Products Corpora- 
tion and the Redman Sand and Stone Quarry Company sup- 
ply much of the material used by Rochester for street and 
road improvements. 




The hamlet of Penfield (700 pop.) lies in a valley at the 
foot of a steep and winding concrete road leading from 
Rochester. It is not only the center of a farming community 
but also a rural home for many whose business interests are 
in Rochester. 


Perinton squares the southern end of the tier of town- 
ships along the eastern border of Monroe County. It con- 
tains the two incorporated villages of East Rochester and 
Fairport and the settlement of Egypt. The topography is 
of uneven character; the soil is mainly a sandy loam with 
patches of muck land; the inhabitants of the rural sec- 
tions are engaged chiefly in general farming and the 
raising of fruit. 

The township was named for its first permanent settler, 
Glover Perrin, who arrived in 1789 and whose name is 
prominent in the early history of the Genesee Valley 

Johnny Appleseed, the eccentric wanderer whose name is 
surrounded with a halo of folklore and who is best remem- 
bered for the orchards he planted in Pennsylvania, Ohio, 
and some of the other Midwestern States, traveled through 
Perinton and sowed appleseeds wherever the farmers would 
permit, in return for board and lodging. Some of the trees 
planted by him bore the first pippin and Baldwin apples 
produced in western New York. The first orchard was set 
out on the Ellsworth farm at the crossing of Turk Hill and 
Ayrault Roads, south of Fairport. Some of the trees of the 
original orchard and stone walls built by slaves about 1810 
are still standing. Remains of skeletons found in the old 
orchard are said to mark the site of a slave cemetery. 



The greater part of this village lies in the Township of 


Fairport (4,604 pop.) is on State 33B. It is served by the 
New York Central and West Shore Railroads and the Barge 
Canal. The growth of the village began about 1822, with 
the construction of the Erie Canal. The first frame house, 
built in 1812, on the site of the present Green Lantern Inn, 
was later moved to the east end of Church Street, where it 
still stands. 

Fairport's unique industrial plant is the Douglas Pectin 
Corporation (not open to visitors), the only concern in the 
United States processing pectin for household use. Its prod- 
ucts, Certo and Sure Jell, are derived from apple pomace, 
the waste from cider mills. 

Hart & Vick's gardens and George B. Hart's nursery with 
its 12 greenhouses, specializing in roses and gardenias, are 
open to tourists. 


The boundary lines of Pittsford form a parallelogram ex- 
tending southeast from Ellison Park and the city of Roch- 
ester. Pittsford was named by early settlers who came from 
Pittsford, Vermont. It is served by the Greyhound Bus 
Lines and the New York Central Railroad. Within its 24 
square miles it includes the larger part of the village of East 
Rochester, the village of Pittsford and Mendon Ponds Park. 
The township contains many small hills ranging in eleva- 
tion from 300 to 475 feet above sea level. Two- thirds of 
the land has an exceptionally productive soil. Other 
natural resources are lumber, sand, and limestone. 




East Rochester (6,627 pop.) is the only commercial vil- 
lage in Monroe County. Although not adjoining Roch- 
ester, it lies close to the city on the southeast, and a large 
portion of its population commutes. The village was origin- 
ally called Despatch because of the Merchants Despatch 
Transportation Corp., which has its vast home plant and 
switch yards here. Among other large industrial concerns 
in East Rochester are the Aeolian American Piano Corpora- 
tion, the Lawless Brothers Paper Mills, the Ontario Tool 
Company, the Crosman Seed Company, and the Mack Tool 
Company. The village is served by the New York Central 
Railroad and the Greyhound Bus Lines. 

The village contains two small parks, Edmund Lyon 
Park and Eyer Park, and two golf courses, limited in their 
use to members only. 

15. RIGA (Rl'-ga) 

The sharp angle of Riga's southwest corner forms a part 
of Monroe's irregular western boundary. The township 
contains the communities of Churchville and Riga Center. 
The sandy loam soil is conducive to profitable farming, 
which forms the chief industry of the township. An active 
Grange, with its headquarters in Churchville, promotes 
the interest of the farmers throughout the section. Trans- 
portation facilities are furnished by the West Shore Line of 
the New York Central Railroad and the Greyhound Bus 

Riga is supposed to have been named for Riga, Russia. 
16. RUSH 

The township of Rush lies in the Honeoye Creek Valley, 
an area of fertile fields where crop failures are almost un- 
known. It includes the settlements of Rush, West Rush, 
and Five Points. 



The region is rich in Indian lore, and many artifacts, 
some antedating the Iroquoian occupancy, have been ex- 
cavated. The drumlins of this area were cultivated by the 
Indians centuries before the coming of the white man. 

Authorities differ as to the origin of the name. The popu- 
lar belief is that it was named for Dr. Benjamin Rush, one 
of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. One 
authority states that the name comes from large patches of 
rushes growing on the flats and uplands ("rush bottoms") 
along the river and Honeoye Creek. 

The Markham-Puffer dairy farm, three miles south of 
West Rush on the Avon Road (visitors welcome daily except 
Sundays and holidays; guides -provided), is widely known for 
its pedigreed dairy cattle. The estate was acquired in 1789 
by Col. William Markham, first settler in this section, who 
built his frontier home the following year. Some of the elms 
he planted still stand. In 1922 a reproduction of the original 
home was constructed on the exact site. This pioneer cabin 
is complete to the last detail and contains many of Colonel 
Markham 's home-made furnishings. 


Now serving merely as a shipping point for the surround- 
ing farms, West Rush was noted many years ago for its 
hand-made boots and saddles. The building housing the 
post office was erected more than 100 years ago. 


On the map of Monroe County the township of Sweden 
lies halfway down the western boundary, the two town- 
ships of Hamlin and Clarkson separating it from the lake 
shore. The incorporated village of Brockport and the 
settlements of Sweden Center and West Sweden are in this 



Sweden is believed to have been named for the country 
of Sweden, although, having been settled by New Eng- 
landers, it is possible that some of its first settlers came 
from Sweden, Maine, and gave this name to their new 
home. A central elevation sloping in all directions provides 
drainage for the sandy loam soil. Within its area of almost 
38 square miles Sweden has a population of approximately 
4,600 people. Many hard-surfaced roads facilitate the mar- 
keting of farm products in Rochester. 


Webster township lies in the extreme northeastern corner 
of Monroe County, bordered on the north by Lake Ontario 
and on the west by Irondequoit Bay. It includes the village 
of Webster and the settlement of Forest Lawn. Webster 
was named in honor of Daniel Webster, who visited this 
section in 1851. 

Although the township was not formed until 1840, it was 
first settled in 1812, most of the early settlers coming from 
New England. Situated on the Ridge Road, along which 
ran the Oswego-Rochester stagecoach lines, the settlement 
grew rapidly for a time. In the middle of the 19th century a 
large number of Germans and Dutch came to Webster. Be- 
cause of the aptitude of these people for intensive farming, 
the fertility of the soil, and the proximity to Rochester 
markets, truck farming has become one of the principal 
industries of the township. This, in turn, has led to the 
growth of the local Grange to a membership of 986, one of 
the largest in the United States. This organization has not 
only given an impetus to local agriculture but serves also as 
an active factor in the social life of Webster. 


Wheatland borders the west bank of the Genesee, and 
Monroe County's jagged southwestern outline forms the 



township's boundary on the west and south. Within its 
limits are the villages of Scottsville, Mumford, Garbutt, 
and Wheatland Center; the first named is incorporated. 

The river flats of eastern Wheatland, clear of trees, at- 
tracted early settlers, who later discovered that under the 
rich soil lay strata of dolomite and deposits of gypsum. The 
gypsum, ground into plaster, provided a valuable fertilizer 
to enrich the soil, and Wheatland became known for its 
bumper crops of wheat, from which the township took 
its name. 

A spring-fed creek, called by the Indians O-at-ka (the 
opening), drains eastern Wheatland and flows into the 










A LL tours out of Rochester begin and end at the Four 
/_\ Corners Main and State Streets. Tours are divided 
^ " into sections for the tourist's convenience. At the 
beginning of each section it is necessary to set the spee- 
dometer at 0.0 m. Side trips leaving the main route, 
usually for only a few miles, are printed in smaller type and 
indented. The mileage on the side trips is computed from 
the point of leaving the main route, which point is con- 
sidered 0.0 m. Upon returning to the main route, it is 
necessary to set the speedometer back to the main-route 
mileage given for that point in the text. 

While every effort has been exerted to make the mileage 
and dates accurate, the building of new roads and individual 
differences in drivers will produce variations. (The accom- 
panying outline map will help identify tour routes.) 
Authorities differ on exact dates of original settlements; 
and the tales told by oldest inhabitants, while picturesque, 
are not always entirely dependable. 


Rochester, Lewiston, Niagara Falls, Youngstown, Fort 
Niagara, Rochester. U. S. 104, State 18, (Canadian roads), 
State 18E, 18. Rochester Rochester, 209 m. 



Concrete highways throughout. A branch of the New York 
Central R. R. runs between Rochester and Niagara Falls. 
Busses cover the route to Niagara Falls and from Niagara 
Falls to Fort Niagara. 

All accommodations at Niagara Falls and the other towns 
on the Niagara River; limited accommodations along the 
route both eastward and westward. 

Between Rochester and Lewiston the route follows the 
historic Ridge Road, also called the Honeymoon Trail be- 
cause it leads directly to Niagara Falls, the Mecca of newly- 
weds. The road, a former Indian trail, runs along the crest 
of a ridge which once formed the shore line of ancient Lake 
Iroquois, the predecessor of Lake Ontario, and passes 
through the fertile fruit belt of northern New York. Before 
Rochester and the towns of this region were settled, it was 
a main highway of travel from east to west; and before the 
building of the Erie Canal, most of the western emigrants 
trekked over this route. The many cobblestone houses are 
distinctive of this region. 


North from Four Corners on State Street, which be- 
comes Lake Avenue, to Ridge Road. (U. S. 104); L. on 
Ridge Road. 

KODAK PARK, 3-1 m. (R), corner Lake Ave. and Ridge 
Rd., is one of the principal units of the Eastman Kodak Co. 
{Rochester Points of Interest No. 64). 

GREECE, 6.9 m. (431 alt., 350 pop.), is the principal 
village of the town of Greece, suburban to Rochester. 


The village marks the junction with Long Pond Road 
(R), macadam. 

Right on Long Pond Road are LONG POND, 6 /., well known 
for its fishing, and GRAND VIEW BEACH, 6.5 m., a bathing 
beach on the Lake Ontario shore. 

At 10.2 m. is intersection with State 261. 

Right on State 261, a concrete road, is MANITOU BEACH, 8 m., 
with hotel, bathing, boating and fishing. 

PARMA CORNERS, 12.2 m. (378 alt., 300 pop.), at the 
junction with State 259, is an attractive hamlet in the heart 
of the fruit belt. A number of tanneries once operated in 
Parma, but economic conditions caused their abandonment. 

Cobblestone houses are frequent along this part of the 
route. At Trimmer Road, 14.8 m. is a COBBLESTONE 
SCHOOL HOUSE (R), over 100 years old and still in use. 

Site of the OLD HOUSTON TAVERN, 16.3 m. (L), is 
indicated by a marker. The tavern, built soon after 1825 
for Isaac Houston, the sole proprietor for many years, was 
a popular stopping place in stagecoach days. 

CLARKSON, 19.5 m. (428 alt., 230 pop.), settled in 1804, 
soon became an important point on the road to the Niagara 
Frontier because of its stage stop where the horses were 
changed and weary travelers given a chance to refresh them- 
selves with food and drink. At one time several mills and 
distilleries stood on the road near Clarkson. In the War of 
1812 it was a rendezvous for troops and a depot for military 

At 19.5 m. (R), close to the highway, is the SELDEN 
HOMESTEAD. From 1830 to 1859 this was the home of 
Judge Henry Rogers Selden, lieutenant governor of the 
state, 1856-58. His son, George Baldwin Selden (1846-1922) 
recognized as the inventor of the automobile engine, was 
born in this house. 



At the northern edge of the village stands the HOUSE OF 
SIMEON B. JEWETT, political leader, jurist, and United 
States marshal under President Buchanan. Erected in 1825, 
the gray brick house is distinguished by its post-Colonial 
doorway. A tradition exists that the abductors of William 
Morgan, who had threatened to reveal Masonic secrets, 
stopped in this house with the captive on their way to 
Niagara in 1826. 

At 21.8 m. is junction (R) with State 272 (Redman 
Road.), macadam. 

Right on State 272 is TROUTBERG, 9 m., another resort on the 
S. shore of Lake Ontario, the scene of the annual outings of many 
Rochester organizations. 

MURRAY, 26.5 /#. (568 alt., 100 pop.), lies in the region 
once claimed for the State of Connecticut. In 1809 Epaphias 
Mattison settled near Sandy Creek. The first school was 
started in 1814, the first store opened in 1815, and the first 
gristmill built in 1817. The inscription on the SANDY 
CREEK MONUMENT (R) gives some of the highlights 
of the history of the region. In the town are the graves 
of Asa Clark, the courier who carried to Washington the 
news of the attack on Throgs Neck, and Robinson Smith, 
one of General Washington's lifeguards. In the primitive 
log cabin that Mattison built, the site of which is indi- 
cated by a marker, Gov. DeWitt Clinton spent the night 
of his eventful trip on horseback through western New 
York in 1810. 

THE TRANSIT LINE, 30.4 ., marked by a boulder 
monument, was once the boundary between the lands 
claimed for Connecticut and the holdings of the Holland 
Land Company as established in 1798. An arrow points W. 
to the Holland Purchase territory and E. to the Connecticut 



CHILDS, 34.5 m. (566 alt., 75 pop.), has three of the 
COBBLESTONE HOUSES (R) distinctive of this region. 
The CHURCH, also of cobblestones, was erected by the 
First Universalist Society in 1834. 

GAINES, 35.8 m. (426 alt., 130 pop.), organized as a town 
in 1816, was named for Gen. E. P. Gaines of the United 
States Army. The first settler came in 1809; the first dam 
and sawmill were erected on Otter Creek near the Ridge in 
1812. This village was once the largest and busiest in the 
county, but railroad and canal carried trade to the south. 

RIDGEWAY, 45-5 m. (420 alt., 125 pop.), settled in 1812, 
was so named because of its location on the Ridge. Salt 
made from the brine of salt springs a short distance to the 
south was an important article of local trade until the Erie 
Canal made Onondaga salt available. 

At the junction with State 78, 62.7 m.,U. S. 104 turns R. 

MOLYNEUX CORNERS, 70.9 w., derived its name from 
Molyneux Tavern, established here in 1809. A tradition 
exists that during the War of 1812, settlers from this region 
surprised a force of British and Indians nearby, killed some 
and forced the surrender of the others, and took the pris- 
oners to Batavia. 

LEWISTON, 82.3 m. (309 alt., 1,013 pop.), is the site of 
the original trading post established by Chabert Joncaire, 
French, "master of the portage." Portage trails ran from 
the village to Fort Little Niagara, later known as Fort 
Schlosser, above the Falls. It was the headquarters for East 
-West shipping until completion of the Erie Canal in 1825. 
The building of the Welland Canal, which brought about 
interlake shipping, also helped divert business away from 



It was here, perhaps 35,000 or more years ago, as esti- 
mated by geologists, that the falls of the Niagara River 
first stood; through the years churning waters have worn 
away the rock for a distance of 7 m. to form the picturesque 
Niagara gorge. 

At 82.3 m- is junction with State 18; the route turns L. 
on State 18. 

NIAGARA UNIVERSITY, 85 m. (L), founded in 1856 as 
Our Lady of Angels Seminary, is one of the best known 
Roman Catholic colleges in the East; it has an average 
enrollment of over 1,000. Women are admitted only for 
graduate work. This institution maintains a center in Roch- 
ester where extramural courses are given, mainly in finance 
and accounting. The tall, gray, rough stone buildings of 
the university loom up in gaunt relief against the eastern 

At 85-4 m. the route enters the city of NIAGARA FALLS 
(560 alt., 75,460 pop.) and follows the Niagara gorge on 
the United States and Canadian sides. 

The rock strata which are exposed along the Niagara 
gorge form a classic geologic exposure for North America. 
The lowermost Silurian shales, conspicuously brick-red in 
color, technically known as the Queenston formation, form 
the bottom of the gorge near Lewiston and are capped by 
the white Whirlpool sandstone. Typical red Medina shales 
and sandstones overlie the Whirlpool formation and are 
topped by the thin white Thorold quartzite. Still higher 
in the section are, in order of superposition, the Clinton 
shale and limestone, the Rochester shale, and the Lockport 
dolomite. The durability of the last-named formation causes 
the waterfall. 

In finding its course at the close of the Ice Age, the 
Niagara River plunged over the truncated edge of the Lock- 



BY vNr* V^^iVN^ 

The American Falls, from Goat Island 

port dolomite into Lake Ontario. At the foot of the fall, 
the swirling water eroded the soft shales from under the 
massive dolomite. From time to time blocks of the dolomite 
thus undermined broke off and caused a recession of the edge 
of the waterfall. This action is still going on; it is estimated 
that the fall has moved southward from the southern shore 
of Lake Ontario to its present position at the rate of about 
1 foot per year. As the fall receded, it formed the gorge. 
When the fall reaches Lake Erie it will disappear. Steps are 
being proposed (1937) to preserve the fall where it now is. 

DEVIL'S HOLE STATE PARK, S5A m. 9 has been de- 
veloped recently to encompass the area adjoining the 
Niagara gorge and the cavern gouged in the soft layers of 
rock at the water level of the river. 



The state has constructed picnic sites and lookout spots 
which offer views of the lower rapids and of the gorge up 
the river toward the Whirlpool and down toward Queens- 
ton Heights. 

One Indian legend has it that the cavern was the home 
of the Evil Spirit. According to another legend, the French 
explorer, La Salle, entered the cavern in 1679 and heard a 
mysterious Indian voice prophesy his death years later upon 
the Mississippi. On Sept. 14, 1763, a large force of British 
soldiers and a wagon train of supplies were ambushed at 
this spot by about 500 Seneca Indians. A large number of 
the British were massacred, and most of the others were 
driven over the precipice into the gorge. 

WHIRLPOOL STATE PARK, 86.9 ., one of five state 
parks on the river, overlooks the Whirlpool and the rapids. 

About a mile below the Falls the river gradually narrows 
into a gorge only 400 feet wide, through which the entire 
drainage of the Great Lakes watershed plunges, creating 
a natural phenomenon of unparalleled impressiveness. 
Charles Dudley Warner wrote, "When it (the Niagara 
River) reaches the Whirlpool it is like a hungry animal re- 
turning and licking the shores for the prey it has missed." 

The Whirlpool has its gruesome side, for it is here that 
the mighty Niagara usually gives up its dead. One old 
riverman alone has recovered more than 150 bodies from 
the swirling waters. 

owned all the land on the United States side of the Whirl- 
pool, stands not 5 minutes walk from the brink of the gorge. 
In recent years it has sold some of its land to the state for 
park purposes. 

At 87.6 m. the route turns L. on Whirlpool Street. 



Niagara Gorge, Looking into the Whirl-pool 

At 88 m. sire the STEEL ARCH BRIDGE (R) of the 
Michigan Central Railway, replacing the cantilever bridge 
of a few years ago, and the NIAGARA RAILWAY ARCH 
BRIDGE (R). (The latter offers one of the most impressive 
views of the gorge and the upper rapids.) 

At 89.4 m. the route turns R. on Main St. 

(R) (visitors welcome in summer months; guides jurmsbecF) , con- 
tains some of the world's largest hydroelectric generators, 
which convert the force of Niagara into electric power. 

Passing the STEEL ARCH BRIDGE, which will be 
crossed later, the route continues to PROSPECT PARK, 
90.6 m. t maintained by the State of New York on the Ameri- 
can side of the Falls. The route follows the park drives along 
the river. 


HENNEPIN VIEW, 90.4 m., marks the approximate spot 
where Father Hennepin stood when he first saw the Falls 
in 1678. The view of the Falls unfolded here is probably the 
most familiar to the world, as it has been the one most 
photographed and reproduced. 

PROSPECT POINT, 90.6 m., lies at the very edge of the 
American Falls, so close that one can almost touch the 
water as it seems to hesitate for a moment on the brink 
before taking the plunge over the dizzy cliff. One can also 
look down a precipice of 165 feet and see the sparkling 
waters dashed into spray upon the rocks below. 

MAID OF THE MIST, the name given to the boats that 
navigate the Niagara River almost to the very foot of the 
Horseshoe Falls (50 cents a trip) can be reached by means of 
elevators operated only a few steps from Prospect Point. 
Near the boat landing is an extraordinary view of the 
American Falls from below; in fact, one can walk close 
enough to the plunging water to become soaked with the 
spray and mist while one's ears ring with the roar of 

At 90.8 m. the route crosses the bridge to Goat Island. 

GOAT ISLAND, 91 m., is lodged in the Niagara River, 
splitting the Falls into the Canadian, or Horseshoe, and the 
American Falls. The bridge from the United States shore is 
the last and most beautiful of a succession of bridges, the 
first of which was built in 1835. 

Goat Island was named after the goat that was the sole 
survivor of the severe winter of 1779; all the other goats 
placed there by John Stedman froze to death. Before that it 
was known as Iris Island on account of the iridescent rain- 
bow hues that hover over the spot when the sun shines on 
the white mist rising from the falling waters. 



LUNA ISLAND, 91.3 *., the island of the moon, derived 
its name from the delicate colors of the lunar bows arching 
over Luna Falls. One of the most impressive views of the 
Falls is that from Luna Island out across the American Falls 
with the indistinct tracery of the Steel Arch Bridge span- 
ning the gorge in the misty background. In the winter the 
ice formations and the myriad patterns formed by the frozen 
spray transform the island into a white fairyland. 

THE CAVE OF THE WINDS, 91.4 m. (fz a trip), offers 
an exciting experience. Two elevators conduct tourists to 
the foot of the falls, from which a series of footways and 
bridges leads through a succession of remarkable views. 
The climax is the walk behind Luna Falls through a passage 
the Cave of the Winds filled with the wild howling of a 
thousand cross-currents of air. 

TERRAPIN POINT, 91.5 m., is an excellent vantage 
ground from which to view the Horseshoe Falls. On Terra- 
pin Rocks, which are reached by a walk guarded by hand- 
rails, the spectator stands far out from the shore on the 
brink of the Falls with the river plunging over the precipice 
behind him. Just ahead he looks out over the cataract 
directly into the deep cleft that forms the apex of Horse- 
shoe Falls, the point where the largest part of the vast 
accumulation of water concentrates in an exhibition of 
limitless power. 

From THREE SISTER ISLANDS, 92 m., is the best view 
of the upper rapids. The islands, named for the three 
daughters of Gen. Parkhurst Whitney, an early hotel 
proprietor, are reached by a series of picturesque bridges, 
and form one of the most pleasant stopping places at the 

Between Goat Island and the First Sister Island is HER- 
MIT'S CASCADE, named for Francis Abbott, son of an 



English Quaker family, who lived on Goat Island most of 
the time for 2 years, 1929-1931, bathing at this spot each 
day. He was drowned in 1931, leaving many strange and 
conflicting stories regarding his somewhat eccentric char- 
acter and the abrupt ending of his life. 

From beyond the upper end of Goat Island, 92.2 /., is a 
splendid view of the upper river and the beginning of the 
rapids. The route continues along the eastern shore of the 
island in full view of the rapids above the American Falls. 

Recrossing the bridge to the mainland, the route turns 
R. on Riverside Drive, 92.7 *#., which follows the bank of 
the river. This street merges into Buffalo Ave., which the 
route then follows. 

The HOME OF SHREDDED WHEAT 93-4 m. (L), is on 
Buffalo Ave. between Fourth and Sixth Sts. (ofen to visitors 
weekdays p-/; free guide-conducted tours). 

The CARBORUNDUM COMPANY, 94.1 m. (R), produc- 
ing all kinds of abrasives and abrasive machinery, is one 
of the great manufactories in the city of Niagara Falls. This 
plant was enlarged during the World War when it became 
necessary for America to make many materials formerly 
imported from Europe. 

The route retraces Buffalo Ave. to Falls St.; R. on Falls 

The MUSEUM, 95-8 m. (R) (admission 25 cents, daily ;-/), 
directly opposite Prospect Park on Riverway, is a store- 
house of historical relics and unusual objects. It is one of 
the oldest museums in America. 

Just beyond the Museum the route turns L. through 
Prospect Park. 



FALLS VIEW BRIDGE, 96 m. (tolls: 25 cents for car and 
driver, 5 cents for each additional -passenger), often called the 
Steel Arch Bridge, offers an unobstructed view of the Ameri- 
can Falls, Luna Falls, the face of the cliff forming the front 
of Goat Island, and the Canadian Falls. 

The route crosses the bridge to Canada. Simple customs 
formalities are necessary on the Canadian side. At the 
Canadian end of the bridge the route turns L. 

QUEEN VICTORIA PARK, 96.2 m., maintained by the 
Canadian Government, offers some of the most striking 
views of the Falls, especially of the Horseshoe Falls. In this 
park the huge batteries of lights, aggregating one billion 
four hundred million candlepower, are directed upon the 
Falls in the spectacular night illumination. 

TABLE ROCK, 97 m. (L), was once a popular vantage 
ground from which to view Horseshoe Falls. In 1848 a 
great section of Table Rock fell, and under subsequent blast- 
ings to insure safety this limestone ledge has almost dis- 
appeared; but it remains an outstanding scenic vantage 
point. Close by is the scenic tunnel (Jee, r.) through which 
one can pass directly behind the Horseshoe Falls. 

98 m. (L), (visitors welcome) is opposite the rapids. Here are 
the giant generators supplying hundreds of thousands of 
horsepower of electrical energy to the industries and homes 
of Canada. An elevator takes the visitor deep into the earth, 
where turbines utilize the vast power of the Niagara River. 

DUFFERIN ISLANDS lie in an elbow of the river at the 
crest of the upper rapids and at the southern extremity of 
Queen Victoria Park. The natural beauty of the setting has 
been preserved by the Niagara Parks Commission. 



From this point the route retraces through Queen Victoria 
Park past the Horseshoe Falls and the Falls View Bridge, 
continuing along the newly built boulevard at the top of 
the gorge on the Canadian side. 

At 101.2 m. the route passes under the entrances of the 
two railway bridges which cross the gorge, and arrives 
again at the Whirlpool, 102.2 m., where an entirely new 
view is afforded. 

At this point the SPANISH AERO RAILWAY operates 
passenger cars (fee, 50 cents) on an aerial cable railway 
across the Whirlpool from shore to shore on the Canadian 
side of the river. Dangling in a car suspended by cables, 
the passenger looks down into the swirling waters of the 

NIAGARA GLEN, 104.2 m., at the edge of the river be- 
low the Whirlpool, is a spot of unusual beauty. Giant pot- 
holes and other grotesque reminders of the recession of 
Niagara ages ago are visible on every side. The rare plant 
life makes the glen especially interesting to naturalists and 
nature students. 

At 105-9 m. is the northernmost PLANT of the Hydro- 
Electric Power Commission of Canada, which houses 
more generators which convert the energy of Niagara into 
power and light. 

BROCK'S MONUMENT, 107 m. (L), stands high on the 
crest of Queenston Heights, a memorial to the last battle- 
ground of Gen. Isaac Brock, who died on this battlefield 
in the War of 1812. A smaller monument marks his grave 
part way down the slope. A stairway leads to the top of 
the monument overlooking the lower river. 

At 107-7 m. the route turns R. 

3 11 


LEWISTON SUSPENSION BRIDGE, 108 m., is the only 
remaining example of the suspension-bridge type of con- 
struction spanning the Niagara River. It connects Lewiston 
and Queenston at the head of navigation on the river. In 
the summer large lake steamers depart from these cities to 
various ports on Lake Ontario and points on the St. Law- 
rence River. 

The route crosses the bridge and again enters United 
States territory, and turns L. on State 18E. At the border, 
it is necessary to observe simple customs formalities. 

Passing through Lewiston, 109 m., the highway runs 
northward to the lake. 

YOUNGSTOWN, 115 m. (280 alt., 639 pop.), lying close 
to the mouth of the Niagara River, is largely dependent 
commercially on its fleet of fishing boats which supply the 
Buffalo market with lake fish. 

OLD FORT NIAGARA, 116.7 m. (of en to visitors: summer, 
g-g; rest of year, 9-5; admission 25 cents; guide service; free park- 
ing), is a restoration of the 10 buildings, the outer and inner 
works, and the parade grounds comprising the 1678-1815 
fortifications. The original plans, recently discovered in 
France, were carefully followed in the restoration. Since 
1924 about $600,000 have been spent on this work by the 
United States Government, and the Old Fort Niagara 
Association, Inc. Perhaps the most interesting restoration 
is the French castle built in 1725 in the guise of a provincial 
manor house in order to deceive the Indians as to its real 
purpose. The rock walls are 4 feet thick with huge stone 
arches constructed to absorb the lateral sway that might 
be caused by the firing of cannon from the top deck. The 
oven, where cannon balls were heated red-hot to fire the 
enemy's ships, stands near the river wall north of the castle. 



Three major memorials have been erected at Fort Niagara 
and recently dedicated with appropriate ceremonies; one 
to Fort Conti (1679), one to Fort Denonville (1687), and one 
to the Rush-Bagot Treaty of 1817, which provided that the 
whole United States-Canadian border remain unfortified. 
For 120 years the 3,000 miles marking the boundary be- 
tween the two nations has remained without modern forts 
and without military patrols or guards. From three tall 
flagpoles standing in the large central enclosure float in 
friendliness the flags of France, Great Britain, and the 
United States, the three nations which have fought over 
and occupied the fortification. 

A UNITED STATES ARMY POST is immediately out- 
side the old fort. Cars may be driven around the post past 
the barracks. 

The route retraces to Youngstown and at 117.2 m. turns 
L. on State 18. 

91. 8 m. 

For mile after mile State 18 borders the shore of Lake 
Ontario. Through Niagara, Orleans, and Monroe Counties, 
the route traverses an important fruit-growing section. 

OLCOTT, 19.8 m. (280 alt., 300 pop.), is a farming center 
and resort town with a beach and casino on the lake. The 
village was settled by John Brewer and William Chambers, 
who came from Canada in 1807. Between 1870 and 1877 the 
United States Government expended $200,000 in the con- 
struction of two piers extending 800 feet into the lake, one 
on either side of the mouth of Eighteen Mile Creek, form- 
ing an excellent harbor, with a lighthouse at the end of the 
western pier. 


KUCKVILLE, 43.9 m. (334 alt., 150 pop.), was originally 
a dam in the small stream with a mill which utilized its 
power for turning wood. It was named for Rev. George 
Kuck, born in London, England, Dec. 23, 1791, who served 
as a lieutenant in the Canadian militia during the War 
of 1812. 

CARLTON, 48 m. (293 alt., 150 pop.), an attractive vil- 
lage shaded by old trees and almost entirely surrounded by 
Old Orchard Creek, raises apples and grapes. It was settled 
in 1803 by James Walworth, who rowed his family from 
Canada across Lake Ontario in an open boat, and who is 
said to have built the first house on the southern shore of 
the lake between Fort Niagara and Braddock Bay. 

In Carl ton is intersection with State 98. 

Left on State 98 is POINT BREEZE, 3 m. (271 alt., summer popu- 
lation), a summer resort on Lake Ontario at the mouth of Old 
Orchard Creek. It provides facilities for bathing, boating, and 

KENDALL, 61.5 . (346 alt., 263 pop.), was named for 
Amos Kendall, Postmaster General in 1837, when the town 
was formed. The first settlers came from Vermont in 1812, 
and about 1820 formed a public library association, with 
an initial list of 75 books. The evaporation of salt was a 
source of income until the building of the Erie Canal gave 
access to a more abundant supply. 

HAMLIN, 65-4 m. (291 alt., 500 pop.) (see Tour 2, Section 

For the route from Hamlin to Rochester, 91.8 m., (see 
Tour 2, Section c). 




Rochester, Churchville County Park, Bergen, Hamlin Beach 
Park, Hilton, Charlotte, Rochester. State 33, 63, 360, 18, 
county roads. Rochester Rochester, 10m. 

All paved roads, mostly concrete; open to traffic all year. 
New York Central R. R. and bus lines to Churchville. 
Streetcar Charlotte to Rochester. 

The route circles the northwestern part of Monroe 
County, passing through a farming and fruit-growing sec- 
tion with frequent wooded tracts. 


West from Rochester Four Corners on Main St., which 
becomes West Ave.; R. on Buffalo Rd. (State 33) to the 
city line at the BARGE CANAL, 3.2 m. 

affiliated with the Dolomite Marine Corporation, was or- 
ganized in 1920; it mines and processes the mineral dolo- 
mite, used extensively in the construction of roads. In the 
season 1935-36 the company furnished stone for 90 miles 
of state and town road construction. The stratum of dolo- 
mite, 3,000 feet wide, runs under the town of Gates and out- 
crops at Penfield, 10 m. E. where a second plant is situated. 
These two plants now produce 600,000 tons of stone a year. 



GATES CENTER, 4.2 m. (564 alt., 75 pop.), named for 
Gen. Horatio Gates of Revolutionary War fame, has one 
of the largest Granges in the state. The section is purely 
agricultural, with no industries, and is the rural home of 
many persons employed in Rochester. 

The seed farm of the Harris Seed Company, 7.4 /#., main- 
tains an elaborate ROADSIDE STORE which offers a 
variety of nursery products and seeds for sale in season. 

NORTH CHILI, 10.6 m. (582 alt., 350 pop.), marks the 
junction with State 259. 

CHESBROUGH SEMINARY (R), at the entrance to the 
village, a Free Methodist coeducational boarding school 
with an attendance of over 150, includes junior college and 
high school departments, the latter accredited by the New 
York State Board of Regents. 

The seminary, which celebrated its 70th anniversary in 
1936, was originally established in an old tavern at the 
corner of Union Street and Buffalo Road. In order to elimin- 
ate the tavern's detrimental influence on the community, 
Bishop Benjamin Titus Roberts, founder of the Methodist 
Church in Albion, purchased the property and founded the 
school, first called Chili Seminary. In 1890 the present name 
was adopted in honor of A. M. Chesbrough, a benefactor. 

The seminary is partly self-supporting and partly sup- 
ported by a number of Free Methodist conferences of the 
eastern states. Many students pay for one-third of their 
tuition by work on the dairy farm of 200 acres, in the 
laundry, in the printing department, in the dining room, 
and in the office and library. 

CHURCHVILLE, 14.8 m. (616 alt., 740 pop.), is a village 
of wide streets and spacious lawns, with no large industries 
to disturb its peace. Rochester Cooperage Company employs 


intermittently about 60 men. The old cobblestone school- 
house, which served the village in its early days, is now 
superseded by the two new schools nearby. 

In the small park, conspicuous in the center of the village, 
temperance advocate and founder of the W. C. T. U., who 
was born in Churchville Sept. 28, 1839, and died Feb. 17, 
1898. Part of her original home forms the rear of the build- 
ing at 24 S. Main St. 

At the traffic light a right turn on N. Main St. leads to CHURCH- 
VILLE COUNTY PARK, .5 m., which covers 532 acres (reserva- 
tions for privileges must be made at the park office at the north entrance 
on Kendall Road^). There are picnic areas throughout the grove, 
cabins for day use (no overnight camping), swimming, boating, 
fishing, (certain restrictions), baseball diamonds hardball and 
soft, a football field, a skating rink, tennis and horseshoe courts, 
and an 18-hole golf course (greens fee: jo cents for county residents, // 
cents for non-residents^). 

The route continues west on State 33- At 17.6 m. the route 
follows the R. fork of the highway over a concrete town 
road into Bergen, 18.1 m. 

63, 360. 19.8 m. 

Through this section of the route the highway passes 
northward across the Ridge and its ancient trail, now an 
important east-west roadway, and through the fruit belt 
of western New York. 

BERGEN, 0.0 m. (575 alt., 724 pop.), is on the main line 
of the New York Central R. R. The pioneer of the village 
was Samuel Lincoln, who came in the spring of 1801. Fur- 
ther settlement was retarded by rising land prices but after 
1804 more settlers came. The first Congregational church, 
which was organized in December 1807, held its first meet- 



ings in a log barn. Samuel Butler established the first tavern 
in 1809, and in 1812 Bergen was set off as a separate town. 

Residents tell a story about Solomon and Levi Leach, 
brothers, who were among the early settlers. They traded 
wives, Levi giving Solomon 5 gallons of whiskey "to 
boot." Quite dissatisfied with his bargain after 2 weeks, 
Solomon gave Levi a horse to trade back. 

From Bergen the Swamp Road leads NW to the border of BERGEN 
SWAMP, 1 m., which extends westerly from a point near State 63 
a distance of over 15 m., with a maximum width of slightly over 
1 m. This swamp is rich in flora which attract students of botany 
from far and near. There is small danger of depredation for the 
swamp is said to be policed by rattlesnakes. Blacksnakes are also 
abundant and deer are seen from time to time. There is but one 
road across the swamp, so that visitors are obliged to depend on 
what are little better than animal trails. Some efforts have been 
exerted to make of this swamp a state conservation area, but as yet 
nothing definite has been accomplished. Considerable cedar is 
found and cedar posts are taken out annually in quantity. A marl 
deposit has been located, and effort has been made to organize a 
company to exploit it; but nothing has been done because the 
original owners of practically all the land in this vicinity, when 
giving deeds to purchasers and settlers, specifically reserved the 
rights to all minerals, ores, oils, salt or salt springs. Gypsum is 
also known to be present in large amounts. 

BROCKPORT, 8.9 m. (539 alt., 3,511 pop.), is the com- 
mercial center for the farming country within a radius of 
about 6 miles. Named for its founder, Kiel Brockway, it 
became an incorporated village on April 6, 1829. 

The main street divides the village into two sections un- 
connected by cross streets. The explanation given by local 
tradition is that, because of an ancient grudge between 
them, each of the two influential citizens who were largely 
responsible for the building of the village, planned his half 
without consulting the other. 


From 1844 to 1847 a factory in Brockport manufactured 
McCormick reapers. From 1870 to 1882 the Johnston Har- 
vester Co., now the Massey Harris Co. of Batavia, had its 
plant here. 

The chief industrial plant to-day is the Quaker Maid 
Canning Co., a subsidiary of the Atlantic and Pacific Tea 
Co. which buys much of the vegetables and fruits produced 
in this section. Transportation facilities are provided by 
the Greyhound Bus Lines and the Falls Branch of the New 
York Central R. R. The Barge Canal also runs through 
the town. 

The village has seven churches and an active Grange. The 
1866, is housed in a brick structure erected in 1855 and later 
rebuilt in its present form of a central building with two 
wings 3 stories high. This institution is similar to other 
New York State normal schools, offering a 3 year course, 
including a training class based on the individual cadet 
system. Entrance requirements demand an average high 
school standing of 12 percent or above. 

Brockport has many attractive old homes built in the 
early half of the 19th century. The HOME of MARY JANE 
HOLMES, novelist, still stands, although it bears little 
resemblance to its original form; during her occupancy it 
was the scene of wide hospitality. 

CLARKSON, 10.5 m. (427 alt., 230 pop.), is at the inter- 
section with U. S. 104 {see Tour 1, Section a). 

15.6 m. (291 alt., 500 pop.), are served by the same schools 
and stores. Because of an interesting incident in its early 
history, the latter settlement is divided into two distinct 
sections a short distance apart. A branch of the New York 
Central R. R., the only transportation facility, crosses its 



northern part. When the railroad was being surveyed, a 
faction opposing it persuaded the settlers that its construc- 
tion would be detrimental to the development of the town. 
The railroad therefore purchased land for a right-of-way 
north of the settlement and eventually drew to itself the 
larger portion of the population. 

Near the railroad is Hamlin's principal industry, the 
canning plant of the Duffy-Mott Company, affording a 
local market for about 175,000 bushels of apples annually, 
which, together with other fruits, are made into jams, 
jellies, and preserves. 

At 15.7 m. the route follows the left fork on State 360; 
continues straight at next intersection; at 18.9 m. turns L. 
on Moscow Road to the W. entrance of Hamlin Beach 

HAMLIN BEACH PARK, 19.8 m. (R), is one of the 
largest county parks of Monroe. It has an area of 600 acres 
and includes a mile and a quarter of lake frontage with an 
excellent bathing beach. Extensive road building and other 
improvements are in progress, carried on by the Civilian 
Conservation Corps, which maintains a camp near the 
park. This project includes the construction of a concrete 
sea wall and promenade along the entire lake front, six 
long stone and concrete jetties to hold sand for bathing 
beaches, 3 miles of macadam and 2 miles of hard-surfaced 
roads, 2 miles of concrete parkway, a sewage disposal plant, 
a water system for the entire park, the excavation of 35 
acres of land for a yacht basin, and complete landscaping. 

STATE 63, 18; COUNTY ROADS. 32 m. 

On the return trip to Rochester the route retraces to 
Hamlin Center, 5 m., where it turns L. on State 18, which 
passes through a rich fruit country. 



HILTON, 11.8 m. (284 alt., 923 pop.), is at the junction 
of State 18 and 259. Two cold storage plants and a canning 
factory are the most important industries. This section of 
Monroe County has specialized in the raising of apples since 
1812, when the first commercial apple orchard was planted. 
Today in this orchard 5-year experiments are being con- 
ducted with electrically charged lamps to capture fruit flies 
and moths that injure crops. 

In Hilton State 18, joined by State 259, turns R. 

PARMA CENTER, 13.8 m. (270 alt., 100 pop.), has a 
two-story BRICK BUILDING (R) which once served as the 
Methodist Church. The first sermon was preached to the 
congregation in 1804 and the first class was organized in 
1811. The present church building was erected in 1830. 

At Parma Center the route turns L., still following State 
18 which, E. of 16.2 m. y is known as Latta Road. 

Beyond NORTH GREECE, 20.8 ., the route turns L. on 
Greenleaf Road at 22.4 #z., and continues northward 
toward the lake shore. 

LAKE SHORE COUNTRY CLUB, 23.2 m., (R) has an 
18-hole golf course (open to public; greens fee: weekday morn- 
ings jo cents; $i for afternoons or entire day; Saturday 'j-, Sundays, 
and holidays: $i for 18 holes*). 

At 23.3 m. (L) is the PUMPING PLANT of the Rochester 
and Lake Ontario Water Co., which supplies Charlotte 
and the northern section of Rochester. 

At 23.4 m. the route turns R. on Beach Ave. and crosses 
the Rochester city line. 

At 24.4 #z., R. on Lake Ave. to the Four Corners. 




Rochester, Churchville, Bergen, Batavia, Indian Falls, Ton- 
awanda Reservation, Oakfield, Byron Center, Rochester. 
State 33, 5, 77, 19, 262, town road, State 237. Rochester- 
Rochester, 96 m. 

Highways concrete and macadam, open throughout the 
year. New York Central R. R. parallels the route to Batavia. 
Bus lines to Indian Falls. Hotel accommodations and tourist 
homes at frequent intervals. 

The route passes through fertile farm lands rich in pioneer 
landmarks. Starting in the Phelps and Gorham territory, 
the highway passes through the land once claimed by 
Connecticut and through the Holland Purchase tract. 


STATE 33, 5, 77. 31 m. 

BERGEN, 0.0 m. 

At 12.7 m. State 33 joins State 5, one of the principal 
east west arterial highways of New York State. 



B ATA VI A, 14 m. (895 alt., 16,375 pop.), the largest city 
between Rochester and Buffalo, is an important industrial 
center. The business section lies along the main street. 

On E. Main St. are the RICHMOND MANSION, now 
a home for children, and the CAREY HOMESTEAD, pre- 
sented by the Carey heirs to the city, both excellent ex- 
amples of Colonial architecture. 

Just W. of the business district is the HOLLAND LAND 
OFFICE MUSEUM (L), 131 W. Main St. (o$en to visitors 
in summer), erected in 1804. The building was dedicated in 
1894 to the memory of Robert Morris, financier of the 
Revolutionary War, who owned large tracts of land in 
western New York and in 1798 sold 3,500,000 acres to the 
Holland Land Co. The aim of the Holland Purchase Society, 
which occupies the building, is to gather all historical 
materials and relics that have any relation to the Holland 
Land Purchase. 

On the FAIR GROUNDS, W. of the city, the annual 
Genesee County Fair is held every fall. 

At 26.5 m. is junction with State 77. The route turns R. 
on State 77. 

INDIAN FALLS, 28 m., was the site of an important ren- 
dezvous of the Iroquois. The falls are formed by the Tona- 
wanda River, which here descends over a rocky ledge into a 
beautiful gorge. 

On the L. bank of the river at the falls is GILMORE 
PARK (visitors welcome, free), with picnic sites. 

BASOM, 30.8 m. (723 alt., 90 pop.), named for Samuel 
Basom, an early settler, marks the main entrance to the 
Tonawanda Indian Reservation. 

The route turns L. into the Reservation. 



of three set apart by the Government for the Seneca Indians, 
"Keepers of the Western Door" of the great League of the 
Iroquois. About 600 Indians live on its 7,500 acres. The 
drive around the principal points of interest on the reserva- 
tion is about 12 miles long. 

Although many of the Indians are modern in dress and 
thought and have to a large extent adopted the mode of 
life of the white man, yet in this rather wild and aboriginal 
setting can be observed many of the primitive manners and 
traditional customs of this once warlike tribe who called 
themselves the "Men of Men." Individual Indians can be 
induced to recount the old legends of their race, to point 
out some of the aboriginal trails, now nearly obliterated, 
or to tell how the sylvan recesses of the reservation have 
attracted deer and other wild animals from distant points. 

About half the Indians on this reservation have adopted 
some form of the Christian religion, but the other half still 
adhere to the teachings of Handsome Lake, the great re- 
organizer and preserver of the ancient Iroquoian religion. 
All the children of school age are transported by bus to the 
public schools in Akron. A large amount of craft work is 
carried on under the direction of Dr. Arthur C. Parker, 
director of the Rochester Museum of Arts and Sciences, 
himself of Indian blood. The Indians turn out metal work in 
sterling silver, copper, and brass; beadwork embroidered 
upon buckskin clothing; various models to be placed upon 
exhibition in the museum; copies of ancient weapons, such 
as war clubs and tomahawks; ladles, mortars and pestles, 
troughs, and bowls in wood; reproductions of the tradi- 
tional headdress and war bonnet in silver filigree sur- 
mounted by scarlet covering and eagle feathers; basketry of 
all kinds; corn-husk moccasins; and the hideous masks used 
in the ceremonial rites of the tribes. 



Until late in 1936 the Indians used the former reservation 
schoolhouse for a community building and library, and had 
accumulated some 5,000 volumes. After this building was 
destroyed by fire, the construction of a new community 
house was undertaken by the WPA. The cornerstone was 
laid on May 10, 1937, by Lester W. Herzog, State Admin- 
istrator of the Works Progress Administration, using an 
etched silver trowel with carved walnut handle designed 
and made by the Indians on the reservation. Later Mr. 
Herzog was adopted into the Senecas in an elaborate public 
ceremony. Among the Indians who took part in the cere- 
monies were Chief William Jones, president of the Seneca 
Nation; Chief Aaron Poodry, clerk of the Nation; Chief 
Nick Bailey and his Indian band; and Jesse J. Cornplanter, 
descendant of the renowned Chief Cornplanter. The new 
log-cabin structure, to be opened in October 1937, will in- 
clude a gymnasium, a library, a medical clinic, an arts and 
crafts studio, a museum, clubrooms, and an assembly room. 
A decorative stage curtain for the auditorium will depict 
the history of the Seneca tribe. 

In the northern part of the reservation is the Long House, 
in which the pow-wows, dances, and traditional cere- 
monies of the Indians are still held. The vicinity of the Long 
House is the most densely populated part of the reservation. 

In the western part of the reservation stands the former 
home of Eli Parker (1828-1895), secretary to General Grant. 
He was a sachem of the Wolf clan with the Seneca title of 
Do-ne-ho-ga-wa . 

BERGEN. STATE 77, 19, 262, TOWN ROAD, STATE 237, 
262. 27 m. 

From the Tonawanda Indian Reservation the route re- 
traces to Basom, 0.2 m.; L. on State 77; at 0.4 m. R. on 
State 19. 



OAKFIELD, 6.8 m. (780 alt., 1,919 pop.), was first settled 
in the spring of 1801. A little later Gideon Dunham con- 
structed the first tavern, and the place was known as Dun- 
ham's Grove. In 1811 sawmills and gristmills were built. 
For a time the town was known as Caryville. In 1837 the 
name was changed to Plain Brook, but soon after was given 
its present name. 

West of the village is one of the finest gypsum deposits 
in the state. As early as 1842 gypsum was commercially 
mined, but it was not until after the completion of the 
West Shore R. R. in 1884 that extensive development of the 
gypsum beds began. The United States Gypsum Co. built 
the two largest plants. The Niagara Gypsum Co. began 
business in 1906, and the Oakfield Gypsum Products Co. 
and the Phoenix Gypsum Co. in 1920. 

At Oakfield the route turns L. on State 262. 

ELBA, 12 m. (741 alt., 429 pop.), was settled first by 
John Young, who came from Virginia on horseback, arriv- 
ing July 11, 1803. The first gristmill was built in 1810, and 
the first tavern in 1815. The village was then known as 
Pine Hill, but when the postoffice was established it was 
given the name Elba. 

At the traffic light in Elba the route turns R. on a ma- 
cadam town road. At 18.6 m. the route turns R. on State 237. 

BYRON CENTER, 20 m. (588 alt., 200 pop.), named for 
the English poet, Lord Byron, was first settled in 1807; 2 
or 3 years later there were both a sawmill and a gristmill. 
The first cheese factory in Genesee County was erected near 
Byron in 1867 and carried on a successful business for many 
years, shipping a large part of its product to England. 


At Byron Center the route turns L. on State 262, which 
it follows to Bergen, 27 m. 


In this section the tour retraces the route of Section A, 
{see Tour 2, Section a). 




Rochester, Scottsville, Caledonia, Riga, Chili, Rochester. 
State 35, 253, 36, 33A. Rochester Rochester, 40 m. 

Roads concrete or macadam, open throughout the year. 
Baltimore & Ohio and Pennsylvania R. Rs. Rochester to 
Caledonia. Bus service Rochester to Caledonia, Chili to 

This route traverses an agricultural section of Monroe 
County in which wheat has been raised since 1787 and is 
now the most important crop. A few apple orchards dot the 
hilly landscape, and near the city large tracts are devoted 
to truck farming. 

253, 36. 20 m. 

For some distance this section borders the Genesee River, 
following an old Indian trail. 

West from Four Corners on Main St.; L. on Plymouth 
Ave.; R. on Elmwood Ave.; L. on State 35 (Scottsville 

BARGE CANAL, 3 m. (city line.) 

MUNICIPAL AIRPORT, 3-3 m. (taxi fare from Rochester, 
/.2/), is recognized by the U. S. Department of Commerce. 
It is a regular landing field for the planes of the American 


Airways. All the runways are hard-surfaced; the largest is 
4,300 ft. long. There is hangar space for 40 planes. The field 
is floodlighted for night flying. Planes may be chartered for 
short or long private flights, and there is a "fly-it-yourself" 

At 8.3 m. the road cuts over DUMPLING HILL, said to 
be a corruption of Doubling Hill, so named because early 
settlers hauling their grain to the mills in Rochester found 
it necessary to double their teams in order to get up the hill. 
In slippery weather autos encounter like difficulties. An- 
other tradition is that a woman living on the hill served 
apple dumplings to the fishermen who, in naming the hill, 
sought to immortalize her cooking. 

This section of the Genesee River has long been recog- 
nized as good fishing. Bait can be purchased along the road 
throughout the fishing season, and boats can be rented for 
a small fee. 

Many Indian relics have been found nearby. When the 
present road was cut through Dumpling Hill the skeletons 
of five Indians, sitting upright, were uncovered. 

At 12 m. is the junction (R) with Marsh Rd. 

Right on this road is an ANIMAL CEMETERY, 0.3 m., containing 
carefully kept graves and stone markers indicating the affection 
of many owners for their pets. 

At 12.1 m. State 35 joins State 253- The route turns R. on 
State 253. 

SCOTTSVILLE, 12.3 m. (563 alt., 936 pop.), was settled 
in 1786, 3 years before the first settlement in Rochester, 
when Ebenezer "Indian" Allen, Genesee Valley's Daniel 
Boone, bought the flats along Oatka Creek and the Genesee 
River within the village boundary. On a knoll on Oatka's 
northern bank he erected his log cabin; and here, with his 


Indian wife and his white wife, he lived until 1789, when 
he sold his farm to Peter Sheffer and went to the Falls, 
later Rochesterville, to build his mills there. A hillock in 
the middle of a field back of Eugene Brown's house, at the 
edge of Scottsville on the road to West Henrietta, marks 
the exact site of Allen's log cabin. The timbers of the 
Sheffer house have been built into the Brown residence. 

Several of the houses erected by the early settlers are still 
standing in Scottsville. At the corner of Main and Roch- 
ester Sts. is a HOUSE built in 1814 by Abraham Hanford. 
His grandson, Rear Admiral Franklin Hanford, was born 
3 m. from Scottsville Road, and moved to the village 
with his parents as a small child. As a youth he entered the 
Navy, later served in the Civil War, and was commander 
of the Alert. Upon his retirement he was made a rear ad- 
miral, and returned to Scottsville, where he resided until 
his death. 

The interior doors of the John Keyes residence are "witch 
doors," with the panels designed in the form of a cross to 
keep off evil spirits unleashed by witches. 

GARBUTT, 15 m. (597 alt., 300 pop.), is a hamlet so 
small that it would scarcely be noticed in passing were it 
not for the large buildings of the Empire Gypsum Company 
plant standing at the L. of the road. 

The STONE STORE (R) of Frank Garbutt, built in 1822 
and still in use, once served as the trading center for many 
miles of surrounding territory. On an iron safe in the store 
can be seen holes and scars left long ago by yeggs in an 
unsuccessful attempt to blow off the door. "The safe wasn't 
even locked," chuckles the proprietor. 

Across the road from the store, back of the schoolhouse, 
stands the weather-blackened frame BREAK-OF-DAY 
HOUSE, uninteresting in appearance but noteworthy as 



having been the first store in Garbutt and the original home 
of the Garbutt family, for whom the settlement was named. 
To all the surrounding neighborhood it is known as the 
Break-of-Day House, for from its place high on the bank 
of Oatka Creek its windows reflect the first rays of the 
rising sun. 

A ruined STONE MILL stands beyond this house near 
the creek. Its walls, floors, and ceilings are supported by 
foot-square beams more than 40 ft. long, hand-hewn, and 
held in place by wooden pegs and hand-forged spikes. In 
1812, when this mill was built, it was used for grinding 
flour, and three holes in the floor show where the millstones 
rested; but the stones were removed long ago when the 
building was converted into a plaster mill. Part of the huge 
oven of a brick kiln, built against one end of the mill, still 

From the rear doorway of the mill one can look across 
Oatka Creek to where, on the opposite bank, stone arches 
open into the tunnel of the dolomite mine. Its workings 
extend 3 m. underground. High-tension overhead wires 
carry small cars to bring the dolomite from the mine, to 
be transported over a spur track bridging the creek a short 
distance above. Because of possible danger to the public 
the mine is not open to sightseers. 

WHEATLAND (CENTER), 16.8 m. (606 alt., 50 pop.), 
contains the plant of the Ebsary Co., employing over 150 
men and manufacturing gypsum products, including wall- 
board, plaster, and blocks. 

At 19 m., at the junction on State 253 and 36, stands a 
BOULDER (L) with an inscription to the effect that at 
this point Scottish pioneers built in 1803 the first school- 
house W. of the Genesee River, and that in 1805 the Cale- 
donian Presbyterian Kirk, oldest extant church W. of the 
river, was formed here. 



The route turns L. on State 36. 

MUMFORD, 19.2 m. (618 alt., 450 pop.), was first settled 
in 1804. Its sole industry is the Mumford Paper Mills Co., 
employing 40 people. 

The little PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, built in the 
Gothic style, is known as "the church of petrified wood." 
In reality it is constructed of undressed blocks of marl 
taken from a nearby swamp, but the stones have in some 
places a fibrous appearance, like asbestos, giving rise to the 
local belief that they are petrified wood. When first built 
in 1863 the church was white, but age and weather have 
stained its walls to a gray that is almost black. Wherever 
the white surface of the rock is exposed, it sparkles and 
glitters in the sunlight. 

(open to the public; -picnicking and overnight camping), estab- 
lished by Seth Green in 1864 and purchased by the State in 
1870, contains 19 acres. Ownership of an additional 1}4 
acres in the rear of the Caledonia High School, which con- 
tain the main springs, enables the state to control the valu- 
able water rights of Spring Brook. This stream, which 
flows through the main hatchery, has a minimum flow of 
5,000 gallons a minute with a temperature that varies less 
than 10 degrees throughout the year, making it ideal for 
the propagation of trout. Wall-eyed pike eggs, or spawn, 
are shipped in, hatched, and then immediately distributed. 
This hatchery has its own trout breeders, so that it handles 
the entire propagation of the trout from breeding to final 
distribution. When the trout are 3 inches long they are 
shipped out as ordered by the State Fisheries office in 
Albany. In 1936 the hatchery produced 13,000,000 trout- 
brook, rainbow, brown, and lake. Attendants are at hand 
to give information, and study-groups of school children 
are welcome. 



ESTER. STATE 36, 33A. 19.9 m. 

The route passes through a hilly countryside of farms, 
occasionally marked by neglected and abandoned farm 

Leaving the hatchery at Caledonia, the route retraces 
through Mumford to junction of State 36 and 253, 0.6 m., 
and continues N. on State 36. 

RIGA (Rl'-ga), 7.3 m. (640 alt., 20 pop.), is also known 
as Riga Center. Before the coming of the railroad this was 
a stop-over point for stagecoaches. 

The OLD TAVERN, the first frame house and post office 
in the town of Riga, built in 1808, is still standing. The 
present occupant welcomes visitors and shows with pride 
the old double fire-place flanked with bake ovens, the hand- 
hewn beams showing the marks of the crude adze, the wide 
board floors, and the antique furniture which crowds the 
low-ceilinged rooms. Mine host is a "dowser" and will 
allow his guests to experiment with a branching peach 
twig which, held reverently in the hands, will twist 
around and point down to hidden springs of living water. 

Across the road from the Old Tavern is another OLD 
HOUSE (not open to -public), built to serve as a tavern but 
now used as a residence. In it the Riga Academy, once a 
flourishing school for boarding and day pupils, was organ- 
ized in 1846. 

At Riga the route turns R. (E) on State 33 A. 

At 18.9 m. the route turns L. on Chili Ave. At the Barge 
Canal, 19-9 /#., is the Rochester city line. 




Rochester, Caledonia, Perry, Silver Lake, Letchworth Park, 
Mount Morris, High Banks, Geneseo, Avon, Rochester. 
State 35, 253, 36, US 20, State 245, 19A, 39, 63, 36, US 20, 
State 20D, 5, 2. Rochester Rochester, 112 m. 

Highways mostly concrete, open throughout the year. 

Pennsylvania R. R., Rochester to Letchworth Park; Erie 
R. R. crosses the Genesee Gorge on the high bridge at the 

This tour penetrates to the heart of the Genesee country, 
the land of the Algonkins and of the Six Nations of the 
Iroquois, and the culminating point of Gen. John Sullivan's 
campaign of 1779. 

253, 36. 21 m. (see Tour 4, section a). 

5, 245, 19A. 35 m. 

CALEDONIA, m. (669 alt., 1,487 pop.), was settled by 
Scotsmen who first came to the region in 1803- 



The MASONIC TEMPLE, which also contains the post 
office, built in 1830 of red brick, was used as an inn in the 
stagecoach days. 

The PUBLIC LIBRARY is housed in a chiseled stone 
building erected in 1826 by Major Gad Blakesley which 
served at various times as post office, bank, and apothecary 

A stone marker near the Caledonia High School fixes the 
site of the old elm COUNCIL TREE of the Senecas. 

The route continues S. on State 36. 

YORK, 7.8 m. (726 alt., 150 pop.), in spite of its English 
name, was settled by Scottish Covenanters, many of whose 
descendants are residents of the village. An annual custom 
of the town is the meeting of the clans. 


central corner of the village, still in use, once numbered 
among its pupils Chester A. Arthur, 21st President of the 
United States, whose father held a pastorate in York from 
1837 to 1840. The land on which the building stands was 
presented to the town for school purposes by a settler named 
Maclntyre, with the stipulation that a yearly rental of 1 
cent be paid; if the rent were to fall in arrears the land 
would revert to the Maclntyre family. 

GREIGSVILLE, 10.8 m. (924 alt., 45 pop.), is a farming 
community center with a large central school. 

From Greigsville a macadam road leads (L) to RETSOF, 1.5 m. 
(700 alt., 300 pop.). Here are the SALT MINE and plant of the 
International Salt Company. The company asserts that the mine 
is the largest of its kind in the country. The name is the reversed 
spelling of the name of the first president of the salt company, 

LEICESTER, 15 m. (661 alt., 285 pop.), is distinctive on 
account of the large green in the center of the village about 



which the houses are built in the New England manner. 
Facing the green is a small church with Doric columns and 
a Gothic tower. 

At Leicester the route turns R. on US 20. 

At PINE TAVERN, 17-3 m., the route turns L. on State 

PERRY, 22 m. (1407 alt., 4,231 pop.), was settled in 1807, 
and 4 years later a sawmill and gristmill were built. It bore 
a succession of names Slabtown, Shakesburg, Columbia, 
Nineveh, and finally Perry, the last in honor of Commodore 
Oliver H. Perry, the hero of the Battle of Lake Erie. 

At 22.7 m. is junction (R) with a poor macadam road. 

Right on this road is SILVER LAKE, 0.5 m. (1,356 alt., 50 pop.), 
about 4 m. long, lying at an unusually high elevation for lakes 
in the eastern part of the United States. Several miles of road 
wind in and out among the summer cottages which surround the 
lake. Conclaves of religious organizations hold their sessions on the 
assembly grounds here each summer. The lake offers boating and 

CASTILE, 28.5 m. (1,431 alt., 900 pop.), can be seen from 
a distance with a white church spire thrusting its point 
above the shielding trees. This village is the home of the 
CASTILE SANATORIUM, founded in 1849, with build- 
ings on both sides of the street. 

At 29.5 m. is junction with State 19A. The route turns 
L. on State 19A. 


"Parking: Free, except in supervised areas, where fee is 25 cents. 

Picnic Grounds: Near Upper Falls and at Tea Table Rock; tables, 
fireplaces, shelters, comfort stations, drinking fountains. 

Camming: Near Lower Falls, cabins ($1.59 and $2. per day) with 
tables and beds, outdoor fireplaces and fuel. Permits for overnight 



camping from park superintendent at entrance. Food can be ob- 
tained from nearby farmers and villages. 
Hotel Accommodations: Glen Iris Inn. 

Letchworth Park, containing 6,477 acres, is well known 
for the gorge which the Genesee River has cut here, plung- 
ing over three cascades with a total drop of 248 ft. : the 
Upper Falls, 71 ft.; the Middle Falls, 107 ft.; the Lower 
Falls and rapids, 70 ft. Near the entrance to the park is 
posted a large-scale map which indicates all the points of 
interest on the tour through the park. 

Upon the withdrawal of the glacier at the end of the Ice 
Age, the land, relieved of its great burden, rose, and rivers 
became more active agents of erosion. At this point the 
Genesee River gouged out a gorge in strata of Devonian 
shales and sandstones. The falls are due to thicker beds of 
sandstone that resist the rapid erosion to which the lower 
shales and thin sandstone beds underneath give way. Deep- 
ening of the gorge, which is still going on, will cease only 
when its bottom is cut down to the water level of Lake 

The GENESEE VALLEY MUSEUM, near the Upper 
Falls (open free 8-12 and 1-5 May 26 Oct. jf), contains a 
notable collection of Indian relics. In 1933 a collection of 
early pioneers articles and implements was brought here 
from the Log Cabin Museum at Silver Lake. 

GLEN IRIS, once the home of Dr. William P. Letch- 
worth, who donated the park to the state and for whom 
it is named, is now a hotel. 

Near Glen Iris stands a LOG CABIN that once served as 
the council house of the Seneca Indians. This cabin of square 
logs, like hewn railroad ties, is one of the oldest buildings 
of its kind in the state. It was first erected at Canadea, 18 m. 
S. of the park. After the sale of their lands in this region, the 



Indians abandoned the council house, and it became the 
residence of numerous early settlers. In 1871 the building 
was moved to its present site. 

In front of the council house stands the STATUE OF 
MARY JEMISON, the White Woman of the Genesee, or 
Dehewamus, as she was called by the Indians. The inscrip- 
tions upon the monument tell something of the life and 
history of this strange character who has become legendary 
in the Genesee country. Mary was born on the ocean be- 
tween Ireland and Philadelphia in 1742, the daughter of 
Thomas Jemison and Jane Irwin. In 1755 she was captured 
by the Indians at Marsh Creek, Pa., was carried down the 
Ohio River, and adopted into an Indian family in 1759. 
Later she removed to the Genesee country and was natural- 
ized in 1817. She came to Portage Falls in 1831, and died 
on Sept. 19, 1833, at the age of 91, having survived two 
Indian husbands and five of her eight children. She was 
buried in the Buffalo Creek Reservation, but reinterred in 
Letchworth Park with appropriate ceremonies on March 7, 

From the height of her statue Mary Jemison looks out 
toward another CABIN nearby, which originally stood on 
Gardeau Flats by the Genesee River, and which she built 
about the year 1800 for her second daughter, Nancy Jemison, 
the wife of John Green. 

A short distance down the river from the council house 
is INSPIRATION POINT, which offers one of the most 
inspiring scenic views in the eastern United States. The 
Middle Falls, to the S., show to the best advantage from 
here; beyond, the mist rises from the Upper Falls, with the 
tracery of the steel bridge of the Erie R. R. high above. To 
the N. the gorge extends for a distance of about 10 m. with 
vivid coloring and remarkable formations which change 
in appearance as the sun lights up portions with brilliant 



light or throws other parts into deep shadow. The gray 
walls of the canyon have been sculptured by the wind and 
weather into Grecian flutings and flying buttresses that sug- 
gest medieval cathedrals. Far below lies the green ribbon 
of the Genesee. 

At the LOWER FALLS, still farther down the river the 
most impressive sight is that of the river plunging between 
rocky walls which constrict it to one-twentieth of its 
average width. 

The park also has an arboretum containing over 400,000 
trees of 55 marked varieties. This tree garden, started in 
1912, is now the home of countless birds and animals, in- 
cluding many wild deer. 

PORTAGEVILLE, 34.3 m. (1,134 alt., 460 pop.), is the 
largest town near Letchworth Park. Portage, at the top of 
the gorge above Portageville, takes its name from the 
carrying place around the falls. 


63, 36, US 20. 26 m. 

At Portageville the route turns L. on State 39, which 
climbs the steep hill out of the Genesee gorge and at the 
crest turns R. What was once a narrow trail is now a broad 
highway, and the primitive wilderness is replaced by pros- 
perous farms with modern buildings. 

NUNDA, 5-7 m. (1,336 alt., 1,085 pop.), was first settled 
in 1806, but the village was not laid out until 1824. The 
name is a contraction of the Indian name for the place 
O-non-da-oh (where many hills come together). Nunda (pro- 
nounced Nun-day'), like many other communities of the 
Genesee country, flourished during the lumbering period 
of the early 19th century. By 1835, 18 sawmills were active 
in the vicinity of the village, along with flour mills, tan- 

34 1 


neries, furnaces, hat factories, a woolen mill, and a steam 
engine manufactory. Today the Foote Manufacturing Co., 
makers of concrete mixers, is the largest industry. The 
highly ornamented, square Gothic towers of the village are 

Helen Hunt Jackson (H. H.), author of Ramona, was a 
native of Nunda, as was also Helen Barrett Montgomery, 
who translated the New Testament from the Greek text into 
modern English. 

In Nunda the route turns L. on State 63. 

MOUNT MORRIS, 16.8 m. (595 alt., 3,238 pop.), was 
named for Robert Morris, financier of the American Revolu- 
tion, who bought from Ebenezer Allen the land on which 
the village stands. The first name of the town was Allen 
Hill, but this was changed to Richmond Hill by Col. John 
Trumbull of Washington's staff, who painted the Signing 
of the Declaration of Independence. He planted an orchard here 
with a view to making this his permanent home, but he 
changed his plans. 

On Murray Hill in the town is the new MOUNT MORRIS 
1936. Its situation high above the main part of the town 
makes it a conspicuous object in the landscape for miles 

A large packing company employing about 800 people is 
the principal manufacturing plant, but there are other 
smaller industries employing large numbers of people. 
Mount Morris has a large population of Italian origin who 
take an active part in the civic life of the village. 

Beyond the business section the route turns L. on State 36. 

At 17.8 m. the road crosses the Genesee River on a long 
single-span bridge. 



At 18.1 m. is junction with a dirt road. 

Immediately left on this dirt road is WHITE WOMAN'S SPRING, 
from which Mary Jemison drew water for her cabin home, and 
near which the ruins of one of her houses are still visible. 
About 0.5 m. up the dirt road, a short distance L. is SQUAKEE 
HILL. By the terms of the Big Tree Treaty, signed near Geneseo in 
1797, the Seneca Indians were given 2,000 acres on Squakee Hill 
on which to build their village. The hill became famous on ac- 
count of the Indian festivals held on it every year; council meet- 
ings were also held here periodically for a long time. About 500 ft. 
N. of the Squakee Hill Inn is the site of the council house in which 
the pow-wows were held. Here on the morning of the Seneca New 
Year was held the Sacrifice of the White Dog. 
The HIGH BANKS, 1.5 m., can best be viewed from Lookout 
Point. It is a tribute to the conservatism of the native population 
that they are content with the name of High Banks, for many 
visitors have remarked upon the similarity of the formation to 
the Grand Canyon; it might be called a Grand Canyon in minia- 
ture. In 1793 the Marquis de Talleyrand stood on the brink of this 
gorge, and after gazing at the sight for more than an hour he 
said, "It is the fairest landscape the human eye ever looked upon." 

State 36 continues to Leicester, 21 m. y which was passed 
on the way to Letchworth State Park. In Leicester the 
route turns R. on US 20. 

CUYLERVILLE, 22.2 m. (621 alt., 300 pop.), lies close to 
the scene where Boyd and Parker were tortured to death 
during the Clinton-Sullivan campaign. 

The BOYD-PARKER MEMORIAL, 22.9 m. (R), was 
erected in memory of the two young patriots who were 
tortured after being captured by their Indian enemies, dying 
here Sept. 14, 1779. The TORTURE TREE, an old elm, still 
stands near the monument. This spot is also the SITE of 
GENESEE CASTLE or Little Beard's Town. The Indian 
name was De-o-nun-da-ga-a (where-tke-hill-is-near). This 
town marked the western limit of the Sullivan expedition. 



GENESEO, 26 m. (600 alt., 2,261 pop.), stands on the 
site of a Seneca Indian village, which in 1750 consisted of 
about 50 large huts, the inhabitants of which were known 
to the Jesuits as the Senecas of the Chenussio, (beautiful 
valley). In the village is the SITE of the LOG HOUSE 
which accommodated the commissioners who negotiated 
the Big Tree Treaty between the United States of America 
and the Iroquois in 1797- 

In 1788-89 Lemuel B. Jennings crossed the wide stretch 
of country between the Connecticut and Genesee Rivers, and 
ended his journey on the flats west of the present town. He 
was the first settler of Geneseo. In 1789 the famous inter- 
preter, Capt. Horatio Jones, settled in the town and built 
a log house on the bank of the river. General Washington 
appointed him agent and interpreter at the Council and 
Treaty of Big Tree. 

The two pioneers who were to have the most lasting 
effect upon the surrounding country were the brothers, 
James and William Wadsworth, who journeyed from Dur- 
ham, Conn., to Geneseo in 1790. They bought an immense 
estate at a cost of about 8 cents an acre, and they and their 
descendants became leaders in the development of Living- 
ston County. 

This Genesee country is one of the few places in the 
United States where the colorful fox hunt approaches the 
splendor of the sport in England. In the hunt-club kennels 
on the northern edge of the town are kept about 100 im- 
ported and home-bred Welsh and English fox hounds. 
Thoroughbred hunting horses are bred locally. The hunting 
season opens in early autumn and continues as long as the 
weather permits, sometimes through December. 

Bank St. and Wadsworth Ave., was established in 1867 as 
the Wadsworth Normal and Training School, but its name 



was changed to the present one by the legislature in 1871. 
The main building, of red brick, with a frontage of 300 ft. 
and a depth of 350 ft., is of Victorian architecture. The 
school offers the regular three-year teachers' training course. 


5, 2. 30 m. 

Beyond Geneseo the route continues N. on State 20D 
through country that once formed part of the Wadsworth 
domain and now is the scene of many of the fox hunts. Some 
of the finest farmland in the Genesee Valley lies along the 

AVON, 9.2 m. (600 alt., 2,403 pop.), is situated at the 
site of the first bridge across the Genesee River, on the line 
of the greatest east-west traffic up to the time the Erie 
Canal was built. Avon was once called Avon Springs be- 
cause of its sulphur-magnesium mineral springs south of the 
town. The Indians occupying this area used the waters for 
medicinal purposes. 

In pre-Civil War days Avon Springs was an important 
watering place. At the springs were Knickerbocker Hall 
and Congress Hall, both with bathhouses. Busses were run 
between these hotels and the large United States Hotel in 
the village at Genesee and West Main Sts., where many of 
the elite of the day lodged and whence, accompanied by 
servants, they were taken to the springs by coach. The 
Avon Springs Sanatorium was established in 1872 on what 
is now Wadsworth Ave. and was later moved to the build- 
ing now known as the Avon Inn at E. Main and Temple 
Sts. Avon long ago lost its popularity as a resort, but the 
springs are still there; and a movement is on foot to have 
them developed by the state. 



White Horse Tavern, at East Avon 

Today the village has a large canning plant with a capac- 
ity of 4,000 tons, which processes locally grown peas, corn, 
tomatoes, and other products. 

At the village circle the route turns R. on State 5- 


EAST AVON, 11.2w. (821 alt., 200 pop.), is a picturesque 
crossroads. The WHITE HORSE TAVERN (L) is a con- 
spicuous landmark. It was built about 1800 by John Pearson 
of brick made from clay found on the banks of the Genesee 
at Avon. A white wooden horse stood on the lawn until 
practical jokers recently made off with its head. Now a 
horse sculptured in stone snorts in silence. 

Just beyond the tavern is the old cemetery in which the 
old creekstone tablet bearing the date of 1812. 

In East Avon the route turns L. on State 2. 
At 17-5 m- is intersection with State 251. 

Left on State 251 is the STATE AGRICULTURAL AND IN- 
DUSTRIAL SCHOOL, 2.5 m. (L), which was transferred in 1934 
from its high-walled prison-like barracks in Rochester to its 
present site. A colonnaded administration building looks down 
over a tract of 1,432 acres and 30 cottages, or colonies, each housing 
about 25 boys under 16 years of age who have been guilty of mis- 
demeanors and have been committed by one of the juvenile courts 
in the state. The spirit of the institution is correctional and edu- 
cational rather than penal. No prison walls, bars, or chains re- 
strain or confine the boys. Twenty farm colonies and nine in- 
dustrial colonies afford activity and training; and ample oppor- 
tunities are provided for recreation, education, and the develop- 
ment of initiative. Corporal punishment is forbidden, but strict 
obedience is required. For serious infringement of rules a boy is 
transferred to the "punishment colony" and required to perform 
the more difficult and disagreeable tasks. Special care is taken of 
the boys' health; systematic religious training is given by leaders 
in the faith of the home family; every effort is made to restore the 
lads to useful, normal citizenship. It is a self-contained village, 
so efficiently organized that, instead of being an expense, the in- 
stitution makes a substantial annual return to the state treasury. 

WEST HENRIETTA, 20.8 m. (601 alt., 250 pop.), was 
well known early in the 19th century for the manufacture 
of carriages and wagons. The old CARRIAGE FACTORY 



still stands (L), identified by its cobblestone walls, but has 
been converted by modern progress into an automobile 
repair shop. The original forges, work benches and ma- 
chines, and the bellows used to fan the fires a hundred years 
ago, can still be seen. 

Just N. of West Henrietta, State 2 descends METHODIST 
HILL, on which early automobiles were tested for their 
hill-climbing abilities. It is said to have received its name 
on account of the services which Calvin Brainard (brother 
of Ezra Brainard, who built Carthage Bridge) conducted 
in his barn in the rear of the century-old cobblestone house 
at the hill top. 

From this hill the city of Rochester is visible in a distant 
panorama. The buildings of the Strong-Memorial Hospital 
and the University of Rochester (L) are half hidden among 
the trees, their towers, like those of baronial castles, sil- 
houetted against the sky. Although they are in reality 
several miles apart, perspective telescopes the Eastman 
Kodak tower, the wings of the Genesee Valley Trust Co., 
and the four-pointed Gothic tower of the Colgate-Roch- 
ester Divinity School. 

State 2 leads to the Rochester city line and the Four 
Corners, 30 m. 




Rochester, East Avon, Scottsburg, Dansville, Stony Brook 
State Park, Livonia, Rochester. State 2, County Highway, 
State 256, 255, 36, 2. Rochester Rochester, 95 m. 

Erie R. R., Rochester Branch, Conesus to Rochester; bus 
service Rochester to Dansville. Concrete roads, open 
throughout the year. Limited accommodations in villages; 
hotels in Dansville. 

The broad highway traverses a rich farming country. From 
spring to fall the air is heavy with the odors of the country- 
side: freshly plowed loam, sweet clover, new-mown hay, 
and ripening fruits. 

East from Four Corners on Main St.; R. on South Ave.; 
R. on Mt. Hope Ave. (State 2) to the city line at the Barge 
Canal, 3 m. 

Just beyond the Barge Canal Bridge (L) is the HOME OF 
THOMAS WARRANT, Rochester's first coppersmith, who 
came from England in 1818. Forbidden by the English laws 
of that time to transport the tools of his trade from England, 
he smuggled them aboard a ship bound for Canada, and 
from there sailed across Lake Ontario to Rochesterville. 
The house, erected about 1830 on the site of a log cabin 
built in 1819, is a two-story frame structure painted white 
with green blinds. It is constructed in the Queen Anne 



style, wide-caved and topped with a square tower. It is 
now occupied by the fifth generation of the original owner's 

At 7 m. begins the long ascent of METHODIST HILL. 
{see Tour 5, Section /). 

WEST HENRIETTA, 8 m. (601 alt., 250 pop.), (see Tour 
5, Section/). 

EAST AVON, 18.1 m. (821 alt., 200 pop.), (see Tour 5, 
Section c). 

At 22 m. the route leaves State 2 and turns R. on the un- 
numbered Long Point Road, crosses the outlet of Concsus 
Lake at Lily Pond, swings upward to the crossing of U. S. 
20 at 23 m., and continues on State 256, which skirts the W. 
shore of the long, river-like Conesus Lake. 

Cottages, screened by wide-branching trees, line the lake 
on the L.; to the R., trees and farmhouses dot the hilly rise 
in deeper retirement from the lake shore. The scene changes 
little in the 8 m. drive along the lake. 

At 27.1 m. is LONG POINT (L), a county park, the gift 
of the Wadsworth family, with bathhouses and public 
facilities. An old COBBLESTONE HOUSE, at the S. end 
of the park, dates from early pioneer days. 

A marker at the intersection at 31 m. indicates the route 
of the Sullivan expedition against the Indians of western 
New York in 1779. 

At 34.4 m. (L) is the UNION CEMETERY with tablets 
of creek stone bearing dates as early as 1801. It includes the 
graves of Revolutionary soldiers and soldiers of the War of 
1812; among the former is the grave of Capt. Daniel Shays, 
1747-1825, leader of Shays' Rebellion, who fled Massa- 
chusetts and settled in Sparta. 

SCOTTSBURG, 35-2 m. (924 alt., 150 pop.), was first 
called Collartown, in honor of two pioneer settlers, Jesse 



and Jacob Collar, who settled one-half mile N. of the 
present village. Later it was renamed Scottsburg, probably 
for William Scott, who about 1816 built a woolen mill near 
the head of Conesus Lake. The village contains a notice- 
able array of old-fashioned flower gardens. 

At the southern edge of Scottsburg, State 256 climbs a 
winding hill, joins State 255, and leads into SPARTA, 
38.8 m. y founded in 1792, and now containing only a house 
or two, a church, a school, and a town hall. 

At 41.7 m. is the Dansville station of the Lackawanna 
R. R., high above the village of Dansville. A bad grade 
crossing crests the hill, where the route turns L. on Health 
St. and descends to the town. 

Halfway down, at 42.2 m. y is the entrance (L) to the 
HOTEL, which stands on the site of the Jackson Sanatorium, 
founded in 1858 by Dr. Caleb Arthur Jackson. 

At the foot of the hill the route turns R. on William St. 
and L. on Main St. to the downtown section of Dansville. 

DANSVILLE, 43 m. (725 alt., 5,200 pop.). 

Railroad Stations: Delaware, Lackawanna & Western R. R., Health 

St.; Dansville & Mount Morris R. R., Milton St. 

Bus Station: Central Greyhound Lines, Dansville Hotel. 

Airport: Municipal airport, 1 m. N. of village on Cumminsville 

Rd.; taxi fare 25 cents. 

Taxis: 25 cents upward, according to number of passengers and 


Accommodations: Three hotels; tourist homes. 

Information Service: Dansville Hotel, Main St. 

Theaters and Motion Picture Houses: Opera House, Exchange St. 

Three motion picture houses. 

Swimming: Conesus Lake, 11 m. N. of village. 

Golf: Dansville Country Club, State 26, 18 holes, greens fee, $1. 

Annual Events: Firemen's Carnival, last week of July; Spring 

Flower Show, 2nd week in May; spring and fall hikes from New 

York City to Bernarr MacFadden health resort. 

35 1 


Dansville, one of the gateways to the Genesee country, 
lies in a valley flanked by hills. One of the earliest settlers, 
Daniel Faulkner, came to the valley from Pennsylvania in 
1795 and built the FIRST SAWMILL. The settlement was 
named for him. Col. Nathaniel Rochester had his home 
here before the founding of Rochesterville. 

While visiting Dansville on a lecture tour in 1876, Clara 
Barton (1821-1912) was attracted by the water cure at the 
Dansville Sanatorium and purchased an adjacent house for 
a country home. In 1881 she organized in Dansville the first 
Red Cross unit in the United States, known as the Clara 
Barton Chapter. The second unit was formed in Rochester 
soon thereafter. 

Dansville is supported by industries with an annual out- 
put of over $6,000,000 and a payroll of approximately 
$1,500,000. Chief products are heating equipment, shoes, 
paper, nursery stock, and books. 

The route turns R. on Exchange St. (State 36). 

STONY BROOK STATE PARK, 46 .., covers 560 acres 
of rough, rocky country through which Stony Brook Creek 
has cut a deep gorge. Sheer walls of rock outcrops, thick 
with hardy trees, rise on each side of the canyon. Two 
waterfalls add picturesqueness. A footpath, frequently 
crossing the stream from ledge to ledge, leads along the 
entire length of the canyon. 

In origin and geologic history, Stony Brook ravine is 
similar to all the Finger Lakes glens. In falling to the bot- 
tom of a glacial valley, the brook has carved a gorge 
through soft Devonian shales and sandstones. Tougher 
beds of sandstone, less susceptible to erosive forces, tend 
to be preserved and form the crests of waterfalls. 

As a result of destructive storms, the canyon was closed 
to visitors in 1937 because of danger from falling rocks and 



Stony Brook Park The Upper Falls 

trees, and no swimming or camping was allowed in the 

A work relief project, employing 139 men, began in 
1937 a program of reconstruction to include athletic 
fields, parking areas, a swimming pool and bathhouses, 



cabins, and picnic areas with fireplaces and tables. The 
creek channel is to be rendered safe from the present menace 
of falling trees and rock; and a dam is to be built at the head 
of the canyon to form a 1^4 acre lake for swimming and 
boating. The projected improvements cover an estimated 
period of 4 years; parts will be opened to the public as the 
work is completed. 

The return to Rochester is by way of State 36 to Dans- 
ville, thence on State 255 to the junction with State 256, 
56.6 m. Here the tour keeps R. and continues on State 255. 

At 57 m. far ahead is a view (L) of Conesus Lake, blue in 
the encircling hills. 

At 61.5 in- State 2 swings up from the SE. and merges 
with State 255- 

CONESUS, 61.7 m. (400 pop.). An Indian trail leads 
from the village through an old Indian encampment to the 
head of Conesus Lake. 

At the business center of LIVONIA, 68.5 /-, the route 
turns L. on State 2, and follows a long, winding hill. 

LAKEVILLE, 72.5 m. (825 alt., 400 pop.), is a commercial 
resort town supplying the needs of cottage owners and resi- 
dents along the shore of Conesus Lake. The cottage com- 
munity more than doubles the population during the 

At the business center of LAKEVILLE State 2 turns 
sharply R., joins US 20, and passes the junction with the 
Conesus Lake Road at Lily Pond. From this point the re- 
turn to Rochester through East Avon retraces the route 
taken on the way out. 

Rochester city line, 92 m.; Four Corners, 95 m. 

TOUR 7. 


Rochester, Lima, Springwater, Honeoye, Mendon Ponds 
Park, Rochester. State 2A, County Roads, State 254, 64, 
5, 65, 31. Rochester Rochester, 94.4 m. 

Lehigh Valley R. R. to Lima and Hemlock; Erie R. R. to 
Springwater. Rochester Dansville bus lines. Roads mostly 
concrete and macadam, with some gravel and dirt roads near 
Canadice and Honeoye Lakes, open throughout the year. 

From Rochester to Lima the route traverses a generally 
level countryside, with small hills varying the landscape. 
Beyond Lima, in the Little Finger Lakes region, the high- 
way gradually ascends to altitudes up to 1,600 ft. Here the 
landscape is notched with deep valleys bounded by steep 
slopes. Many of the hillsides are heavily wooded, with 
occasional terraced farms dotting the cleared spaces. The 
Little Finger Lakes group comprises Honeoye, (H6n-e'- 
oye), Hemlock, Canadice, and Conesus Lakes. 

(jee Tour 8, Section a). 


At DANN'S CORNERS, 4.4 m. (L) is the WEST SEN- 
ECA MONUMENT to the Seneca villages and Christian 
missionaries, 1668-1710. 



LIMA, 7.4 m. (849 alt., 897 pop.), derives its name from 
Old Lyme, Conn., from which the pioneer settlers came in 
1789. Before that it was the SITE OF SGA-HIS-GA-AAH 
(it-was-a-long-creelC), a Seneca village. William and Daniel 
Warner came to Lima in 1795 and became prominent and 
influential. The Warner family in Lima became very numer- 
ous. According to local tradition, in the early days strangers 
were told "If you pass a man on the street and don't know 
his name, just call him Warner; you are sure to hit it 
every time." 

In 1830 the Genesee Conference of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church established in Lima the GENESEE WES- 
LEY AN SEMINARY, which at one time was one of the 
most influential educational institutions in western New 
York. The school is still being conducted. 

South of Lima the country becomes more hilly and less 
populous. At 25-7 m-, where the well-graded highway 
reaches an altitude of 1,370 ft., there is a striking view of 
Hemlock Lake (R) filling a deep valley with densely 
wooded slopes for 6 miles. Hemlock Lake is the chief source 
of Rochester's water supply. 

HEMLOCK, 15.2 m. (902 alt., 317 pop.), is a farming 
village at the foot of Hemlock Lake. The village is the 
scene of the annual Hemlock Fair. A road leads from the 
center of the village southward to a small park with picnic 
grounds on the lake front. 

SPRINGWATER, 26.4 m. (970 alt., 600 pop.), is a trading 
center for the surrounding countryside. In 1866 it was the 
scene of a riot when squatters settled on the Springwater 
Flats. Action taken by the landowners brought about their 
forced removal. This led to reprisals in the form of slaugh- 
tered stock, burned buildings, and finally to a pitched battle 
in which the squatters were defeated. 



In Springwater is junction with State 2. 

State 2 leads R. up a steep hill with sharp curves. At 4.6 m. the 
valley to the right is the site of the ghost settlement of CALA- 
BOGUE. The name is believed to be derived from the word Gala- 
bogus, defined as "moonshine whiskey." The place was settled 
by squatters who were attracted by the building of the Erie R. R. 
in 1853- They continued to live in the valley unshackled by moral 
or religious influences until compulsory education and other social 
reforms led to their gradual absorption by other communities. A 
few dilapidated shacks are all that remain to indicate the exist- 
ence of the settlement. The road leads to Conesus Lake (see Tour <0- 

24.1 m. 

The route retraces from Springwater on State 2A to junc- 
tion with county macadam road at .8 m. and turns R. on 
county road. At 2.1 m. the route turns L., and at 2.7 m. 
passes over a deep ravine. 

At 4.1 m. is a panoramic view (L) of CANADICE LAKE, 
a potential source of water supply for the city of Rochester, 
which owns the waterfront except for about half a mile 
of private cottage sites. 

At 8.4 m. the route turns R. The abandoned structure at 
the turn (R) was an inn during Civil War days. 

CANADICE, 8.9 m. (1,569 alt., 100 pop.), one of the 
oldest settlements in Ontario County, has no business sec- 
tion. The village is on the former stagecoach road that led 
from Dansville to Canandaigua. 

At Canadice the route turns L. on a county macadam road, 
at 9 m. y R. on a dirt road. From the latter point, HONEOYE 
LAKE is visible directly ahead. The road descends sharply 
to the lake front: motorists are warned by roadside signs 
to place their cars in second gear in making the descent. 



Honeoye Lake is a popular summer resort, with more 
than 400 cottages along its shores. At the lake front, the 
tour turns L. on a county macadam road and follows the 

HONEOYE, 13.1 m. (844 alt., 700 pop.), is the trading 
center for the surrounding farms and, in season, for the lake 
residents. In the center of the village, The SULLIVAN 
MONUMENT commemorates the Sullivan expedition 
(1779) and the erection of Fort Cummings at the foot of 
Honeoye Lake. 

One block L. of the monument stands the PITTS HOUSE, 
built in 1821 by Gideon Pitts, son of Capt. Peter Pitts. The 
house was the birthplace of the Pitts daughter who became 
the white wife of Frederick Douglass, Negro journalist 
and anti-slavery lecturer. 

At the monument the route turns R. on State 254. 

A marker at 13-9 m. indicates the SITE OF PETER 
PITTS' HOME. Capt. Peter Pitts was the first settler in the 
township of Richmond. 

At 20.3 m. is junction with State 64; the route turns L. 
on State 64. 

At 24.1 m. is junction with State 5; the route turns L. on 
State 5. 

65- HONEOYE FALLS 12.6 m. (see Tour 8, Section a.} 

65,31. 19.5 m. 

North of Honeoye Falls State 65 passes through a hilly 
farming region. 



MENDON PONDS PARK, 5.4 m. (R), containing 1,581 
acres, is the largest of Monroe County parks. Much of it is 
devoted to a wild life sanctuary and a game propagation 
area for the benefit of sportsmen and nature lovers. Large 
areas of marshes, open water, and hills provide food and 
nesting sites for quail, pheasants, partridge, and several 
species of wild ducks and geese. Mud Pond is maintained 
as a game preserve; Hundred Acre Pond, adjoining two 
picnic areas, provides facilities for boating, bathing, and 
fishing. The wooded picnic areas are equipped with fire- 
places, shelters, tables and benches (no overnight camping). 
A bridle path traverses the park. The Rochester Council 
of the Boy Scouts of America holds its annual camporee at 
Mendon Ponds Park. 

Leaving the park by the N. entrance at 9.8 m. , the route 
continues on State 65 to Monroe Ave. (State 31). A left 
turn- on Monroe Ave. leads through the township of 
Brighton and into downtown Rochester, 19-5 m. 




Rochester, Bristol Valley, Naples, Middlesex, Canandaigua, 
Victor, Rochester. State 2A, 251, County Road, State 2A, 
65, 5, 64, 21, 39, 364, County Road, State 21A, 5, 332, 15- 
Rochester Rochester, 109 m. 

New York Central R. R., Canandaigua to Rochester," bus 
line Canandaigua to Rochester. Tourist houses at frequent 
intervals, with hotel accommodations in the larger towns. 
Roads mostly concrete or macadam and open throughout 
the year, with the exception of road on eastern shore of 
Lake Canandaigua, which might be bad in the middle of 
the winter. 

The route passes a varied terrain; first the rolling farm 
lands of the Genesee Valley, then the Bristol Hills, the 
vine-clad hills in the heart of the grape country, changing 
vistas of the southern Canandaigua Lake region, and finally 
the placid farm and industrial sections E. of Rochester. 

STATE 2A, 251, COUNTY ROAD, STATE 2A, 65, 5. 32 m. 

East from Four Corners on Main St. to South Ave. R. 
on South Ave. (State 2A) to the Barge Canal. 3.4 m. 


MAPLEWOOD CEMETERY, 6.5 m. (L), at the junction 
with the East Henrietta Road, one of the older county 
burying grounds, is now weed-grown and neglected. The 
oldest stone bears the date 1811. 

HENRIETTA, 7.2 m. y (535 alt., 1,800 pop.), was named 
for Lady Henrietta Laura, Countess of Bath, daughter of 
Sir William Pulteney, who owned vast tracts of land in the 
Genesee country in 1800. The history of Henrietta is older 
than that of Rochester. The town still retains two historic 
buildings, a church more than a century old, and the 
MONROE COUNTY ACADEMY, built in 1826, in its day 
a pretentious educational institution. One of its earliest 
graduates was Antoinette Brown Blackwell, first ordained 
woman minister in the United States. The building is now 
used as a high school. 

RUSH RESERVOIR, 10 m. (R), is one of the storage 
places of Rochester's water supply. From the green em- 
bankments of this miniature lake there is a panoramic view 
of all of the surrounding country. At the custodian's home 
arc served the codfish dinners for which Rush has been 
famous for half a century. 

RUSH, 12 m. (541 alt., 300 pop.), was settled in 1804 by 
a Baptist colony. 

At Rush is junction with State 251; the route turns L. on 
State 251. 

At 14.6 m. is junction with an unnumbered county road; 
the route turns R. on this road. 

ROCHESTER JUNCTION, 14.9 ., is a station on the 
main line of the Lehigh Valley R. R. 

At 15.3 m., up a slight hill, is the SITE OF TOTIAKTON 
(L), one of the largest villages of the Seneca Nation. In 
1687 it was burned by Denonville, Governor of New France 


(Canada), in his almost successful attempt to destroy the 

The route continues straight S. to the junction with State 
2A at 16.3 m., and turns L. on State 2A. 

At 17.2 m. is junction with a concrete highway (not 
numbered); the route turns L. on this road. 

HONEOYE FALLS, 18.8 m. (821 alt., 1,187 pop.), takes 
its name from the falls in Honeoye (Ind. t a finger lying, 
descriptive of the curve of the creek) Creek, which provides 
water power for the industries of the village. 

Conspicuous in the center of the village, an iron figure of 
a man, life-size and painted in brilliant colors, adorns the 
tower of the village hall and firehouse. The IRON MAN of 
Honeoye Falls is famous throughout this part of the state, 
and his "birthday" is a jolly occasion among the village 
firemen. Stirring events and amusing stories have centered 
on the Iron Man, a mascot many times kidnapped by rival 
companies; for the past 45 years he has remained in his 
present location undisturbed. 

At 18.9 m. the route turns R. on State 65- 

WEST BLOOMFIELD, 23.8 m. (834 alt., 350 pop.), is one 
of the four Bloomfields, West, East, North, and South. The 
cobblestone insurance office (L) housed the OFFICE OF 
established in 1841. Col. Nathaniel Rochester lived on a 
farm here before settling in the city which today bears his 

In West Bloomfield is junction with State 5 (US 20); 
the route turns L. on State 5. 

ROADSIDE CRAFTSMEN, 28.9 m., is housed in a re- 
constructed Baptist church built in 1833. Some of the hand- 
hewn beams in the ceilings are 48 ft. long, joined together 



with wooden pegs. At the sides of the divided staircase 
leading to the second floor are niches in which are kept the 
minute book of the old church, the communion set, and the 
antique collection box. In the building, the processes of 
woodworking, pottery manufacture, and hand weaving can 
be followed. 

A short distance E., an immense boulder (L) bears a 
large bronze tablet with an inscription summarizing the 
HISTORY OF THE HIGHWAY. Once it was one of the 
main Indian trails from E. to W. Nearby, in 1789, John 
Adams and his sons built the first dwelling W. of Canan- 
daigua. Gares Rose surveyed the road in 1793. Two years 
later bridges had been built and the road made passable for a 
yoke of oxen; the first stage passed over it Sept. 30, 1799. In 
1805, by special act of legislature, the road was turned over 
to the Ontario and Genesee Turnpike Co., and toll was col- 
lected up to 1857. Until 1911 it was maintained by the pay- 
master system; on that date it was taken over by the State of 
New York, which recently reconstructed the 16-ft. ma- 
cadam pavement into a 30-ft. concrete pavement. 

Junction with State 64, 32 m. 

STATE 64, 21. 20.5 m. 

The route turns R. from State 5 on State 64. The undulat- 
ing surface of the land merges into low hills, and the road 
begins to ascend. From the crest of the ridge forming the 
western wall of Lake Canandaigua is a view of miles of 
wooded hills and valleys, but the lake itself is still hidden 
from sight in the gigantic bowl in which it lies. This whole 
region of the Bristol Hills is rich in folklore, some of 
which is told by Carl Carmer in Listen for a Lonesome Drum. 



At 5.2 m. a dirt road lead R. to BURNING SPRING where the 
Indians demonstrated the burning water to La Salle. 1 m. 

BRISTOL CENTER, 5-3 m. (931 alt., 60 pop.), has its 
scattered houses threaded along the highway. On a steep 
hillside beside a little church is BRISTOL CENTER CEME- 
TERY. One of the epitaphs reads: 

Ye that have passion for a tear 
Give nature vent and drop it here. 

Another reverses the admonition: 

Stop my dear friends, forbear your tears 
and view this stone awhile 
Consider that you mortal are 
And time doth swiftly roll. 

BRISTOL SPRINGS, 12.8 m. (1,210 alt., 150 pop.), re- 
ceived its name probably on account of its proximity to the 
Burning Springs, which have figured in the legends of the 
Bristol Hills. According to tradition, out of the springs 
flames once shot into the air high as the tree tops. Today 
bubbles in a little stream mark the spot where a lighted 
match will start a blaze hot enough to broil a chop. The 
skeptical may perform the experiment. Another spring in a 
small cave a mile up the glen burns constantly, licking the 
lips of the cave with a darting fiery tongue. There are magic 
wells with the power to magnetize a knife blade. Drilling 
a thousand feet down has failed to discover an explanation. 

At 13-5 m. State 64 joins State 21. 

South of Bristol Springs the route turns around a sharp 
hairpin curve, beyond which the first view of the lake 
appears, 14-3 m. 

On a calm day CANANDAIGUA LAKE is a mirror re- 
flecting sky and wooded hills, but capricious wind currents 
frequently whip it into a turmoil of whitecaps. Canandaigua 
Lake, 16 m. long, 1> m. wide, and 262 ft. deep, lies 686 ft. 
above tidewater. 



For a long distance GANNETT HILL (R), is visible, 
towering to a height of 2,256 ft., the highest elevation in 
the Finger Lakes country. 

At 18.6 m., is a balm of Gilead tree which measures 28 ft. 
in girth and reaches 125 ft. skyward. In 1789 it had a spread 
of 104 ft. 

NAPLES, 20.5 m. (818 alt., 1,070 pop.), was described by 
William Jennings Bryan as a "spread of poetry written by 
the Great Author of the Universe." It lies in the very heart 
of the grape country, surrounded by steep hills terraced 
with vineyards, which shield it from storms but shorten 
its hours of daylight. 

COUNTY ROAD, STATE 21A, 5. 28.7 m. 

In Naples is junction with State 39; the route turns R. 
on State 39. 

MIDDLESEX, 9.7 m. (735 alt., 300 pop.), is shadowed by 
BARE HILL (1,540 alt.), the traditional birthplace of the 
Seneca Nation. One legend recounts that during a Seneca 
council held on the hill, an enormous serpent appeared 
which was invulnerable to the Indians' arrows, until, ad- 
vised by the Great Spirit, one chief dipped an arrow point 
into the juice of a secret flower and with it slew the serpent. 
In its death agonies the great snake rolled down the hill, 
destroying all vegetation in its way, and disappeared in 
Canandaigua's waters. Since then, the legend maintains, 
Bare Hill has remained bare. A modern addition to the 
legend states that one nearby farmer, defying superstition, 
applied fertilizer to the soil on the exact spot where the 
serpent was killed, a patch of ground about 14 ft. in diam- 
eter, but to this day not even a blade of grass grows there. 



Peculiar round stones, believed by the Indians to be skulls 
of the serpent's victims, adorn many a cottage lawn. 

In Middlesex is junction with State 364; the route turns 
L. on State 364. 

At 12.5 m. is junction with a county road called Vine 
Valley Road; the route turns L. on this road. 

At the intersection is the LITTLE RED SCHOOLHOUSE, 
brought to the attention of the nation by the National 
Geographic Magazine (Nov., 1933) as typical of the species 
of pioneer school. 

At 15 *#., from the highest point reached by this high- 
way is a splendid view of the valley below, a barricade of 
hills in the W., and in the foreground the blue splendor of 
Canandaigua Lake. To the L. looms SOUTH MOUNTAIN, 
known to the Indians as Genundawa (sunnyside.} 

The road descends and at 16 m. a (R) turn leads on an 
unnumbered dirt road, which becomes a paved road merging 
into State 21A, and borders the lake shore all the way 
to Canandaigua. 

At 26.6 m. is junction with State 5 (US 20); the route 
turns L. on State 5- 

CANANDAIGUA, 28.7 m. (737 alt., 7,541 pop.), (see 
Tour 9, Section #.) 

332, 15. 28.5 m. 

From Canandaigua the route continues N. on State 332. 
At 7 m. is junction with State 15; the route turns. L. on 
State 15. 



VICTOR, 10 w., is a quiet village sheltered by low hills. 
In the distance can be seen BOUGHTON HILL (L), the 
site of one of the largest villages of the Seneca Indians. 

At 12.3 m. (L) is junction with a gravel road. 

Left on this road stands radio station WHAM, .2 m. (L), (open to 
visitors at all times^). This station was built in 1927 by the Strom- 
berg-Carlson Telephone Manufacturing Co. Phillips Hill, on which 
the station stands, because of its elevation of 150 ft. above the 
surrounding country and the swamp at the foot of the hill, forms 
an excellent site for the broadcasting transmitter. The one-story 
fireproof building is 38 ft. by 56 ft. and contains a transmitting 
room, a generator room, and living quarters for the station 
operators. An antenna mast, 2.5 ft. square at the base, towers 450 
ft. above the summit of the hill. The tower, visible for many 
miles, is lighted with a beacon at night. The huge radio tubes of 
the station are kept at even temperature by an elaborate water- 
cooling system. 

At 14-3 m. is junction with Powder Mills Park road. 

Left on this road is POWDER MILLS PARK, .5 m., consisting of 
576 acres acquired from the Rand estate by Monroe County. 
About 1 m. from the entrance are the BREEDING PONDS main- 
tained by the United States Bureau of Fisheries. From these ponds 
the road leads to the ruins of the RAND POWDER MILLS. 
The millrace, pieces of the machinery, several of the founda- 
tion piers, and the water wheel which supplied the power for the 
mills historic relics of the Civil War era all are standing in posi- 
tion. The bull yard, where the drivers fed and watered their animals, 
is now a picnic ground. 

A well-kept macadam road turns L. a short distance from the 
park entrance, circles the hills, and arrives at the SITE OF THE 
OLD GRISTMILLS. On this road the 4-H Club has erected a 
summer camp overlooking a small stream that flows through this 
section of the park. A swimming pool has been built for use of 
the public. This park is of especial interest to botanists for its 
many rare specimens of wild flowers, including the boot's shield 
fern, ebony spleen wort, and an orchid called the lily-leaved tway 



PITTSFORD, 20.6 m. (500 alt., 1,460 pop.), with the 
silent canal flowing by, is essentially a residential town, 
many of its inhabitants commuting to Rochester. 

The OLD HEIDELBERG INN was established in 1807 
as a hostelry under the name of the Pittsford Inn. Here 
stagecoaches stopped on their way to the small cluster of 
cabins which was then the settlement of Rochesterville. In 
1824 the Marquis de Lafayette was entertained here, and 
two years later the inn sheltered Morgan and his captors 
on their journey to Fort Niagara. Before the Civil War this 
historic hotel served as headquarters and transfer station 
for the Underground Railroad. 

The HARGOUS HOUSE, 52 S. Main St., was occupied 
during the Civil War by the Hargous family. Mrs. Hargous, 
a Southerner, insisted upon displaying the Confederate flag 
from her housetop, much to the indignation of the villagers, 
who sent a committee to tear down the flag. The family 
was forced to swear allegiance to the United States, and 
Mrs. Hargous was warned that if the Confederate flag 
appeared again on her premises the house would be burned. 
Pittsford tradition asserts that before the Hargous family 
resided there, the old house was a station on the Under- 
ground. Fugitive slaves are said to have been hidden in 
the immense brick-walled cellar, which is partitioned into 
five rooms. But this tradition has been contradicted and 
cannot be verified. 

BRIGHTON, 23.1 m. (460 alt., 900 pop.), lies at the 
eastern entrance to Rochester, with part of its territory 
already incorporated within the city itself. It contains a 
number of modern real estate developments. In point of 
time it antedates Rochester a number of years. When the 
earliest mill and cabins of Rochester sprang up at the falls 
of the Genesee, all visitors and newcomers passed through 
the flourishing town of Brighton. 



An East Avenue Garden. Willow Pond 

^ The ORRINGH STONE TAVERN, East Ave. opposite 
Council Rock Ave., built in 1790, was the first tavern be- 
tween Canandaigua and the Genesee. The rear portion is 
the older; the exterior has been altered. It has entertained 
many notables in its day: Joseph Brant, Aaron Burr and 
his daughter, Theodosia, Lafayette, and Louis Philippe 
(see Rochester Anecdotes). 

The route ends at the Four Corners, 28.5 m. 




Rochester, Canandaigua, Bluff Point, Geneva, Victor, 
Rochester. State 15, 64, 5, 21A, County Road, State 53, 364, 
54, 54A, 54, 14, 5, 332, 15- Rochester Rochester, 182 m. 

New York Central and Pennsylvania R. R's. parallel parts 
of this route. Interstate and interurban bus lines traverse 
the highways. The roads are mostly concrete, passable at 
all seasons. 

The route passes through the vineyards of the Finger 
Lakes section. 

64, 5 (US 20). 31.3 m. 

East from Four Corners, Rochester, on Main St.; R. on 
Clinton Ave.; L. on Monroe Ave. (State 15-) 

On the Brighton-Pittsford town line, 4.8 m., stands the 
old SPRING HOUSE (R), built in 1822, used in its early 
days as a health resort and recreation center. Erected before 
stoves came into common usage, the house has five large 
chimneys and ten fireplaces. Several of the sulphur springs 
which gave the house its name and made it a health center 
have been rediscovered, and one, at the left gate, has been 
left open. Town lines were favorite sites for hotels and 



taverns in the days of local option, since the location en- 
abled the owner to move the bar from one town to another 
within the same building. 

State 15 between Rochester and Pittsford follows the 
warpath traveled by the Senecas, the Jesuits, La Salle, and 
in 1687, by the Marquis de Denonville, Governor of New 
France, in his profitless raid of the Seneca villages. The 
trail followed by Denonville began near the entrance of 
Irondequoit Bay, paralleled the east shore to the head of 
the Bay, followed up Irondequoit Creek and through the 
forest for several miles, thence along Monroe Avenue, 
leaving the course of State 15 about 6 miles east of Roch- 
ester, to reach Rochester Junction, where stood the Seneca 
village of Totiakton. 

PITTSFORD, 6.9 m. (474 alt., 1,460 pop.) (sw Tour 8, 
Section cT). 

At Pittsford is junction with State 64; the route turns R. 
(S) on State 64. 

MENDON, 13-8 m. (527 alt., 350 pop.), a crossroads 
village, contains several well-built cobblestone houses. The 
principal cost of these durable houses was labor; the water- 
worn stones were found in the prehistoric lake bed. They 
were graded for size by means of a plank sieve bored with 
holes of varying sizes. In some instances the stones are laid 
in patterns: alternate rows of large and small stones, or 
ovoid, laid in a herringbone design. 

Beyond the center of the town, on what is known as the 
lonia-Mendon Road, stands the cobblestone MENDON 
ACADEMY, 13-9 m. (R), in good repair and still doing 
duty as a schoolhouse for school district No. 2. 

The early HOME OF BRIGHAM YOUNG, 15-5 m., at 
the corner of Cheese Factory Road, is a sturdy white house. 


In 1824, at the age of 23, Young married Miriam Works of 
Aurelius, N. Y., and in 1829 came with his wife to Mendon 
to live. In 1830 he saw a copy of the Book of Mormon and 
in 1832 he and his wife became members of the Mormon 
Church. In the same year she died of tuberculosis. Brigham 
Young and his two daughters lived with neighbors in 
Mendon for a short time, and then both families moved to 
Kirkland, Ohio, where Young preached in a Mormon 
colony. After the death of Joseph Smith in 1844, Brigham 
Young became head of the Mormon Church. 

From the house a dirt road leads L. to the site of BRIGHAM 
YOUNG'S CHAIR FACTORY, .25 m. The few chairs of his manu- 
facture that still exist have been purchased by the Mormons to be 
cherished as relics. 

At 15.9 m. is junction (L) with a dirt road. 

Left on this road is an isolated cemetery, .2; m. which con- 

At 16.1 m. in the distance (L) is BOUGHTON HILL, a 
historic landmark on which once stood the Indian village 
of Gandagaro, destroyed by Denonville in his march against 
the Seneca nation in 1687. 

At 22.5 m. is junction with State 5 (US 20); the route 
turns L. on State 5. 


(US 20), 21A, COUNTY ROAD, STATE 53, 364. 24 m. 

In this section the route traverses the rugged landscape 
of the Finger Lakes region. 

CANANDAIGUA, m. (783 alt., 7,541 pop.), derives its 
name from the Indian for chosen spot, still appropriate for 
its setting at the foot of Canandaigua Lake. Canandaigua 


was first settled in 1788, and for many years was the prin- 
cipal trading center of western New York. 

The PIONEER CEMETERY (R) is just inside the city 
line. Here, written in epitaphs, are the first chapters in the 
city's history. The tombstone of Caleb Walker declares him 
to be the "first white man to die in Canandaigua, 1790." 
The cemetery contains the graves of Oliver Phelps and 
Nathaniel Gorham, the two land emperors who laid the 
foundation for the settlement of western New York. Oliver 
Phelps 's life history is concisely summarized in the in- 
scription on his box-shaped tomb. In 1788, after the Revolu- 
tionary War, in which he took active part, Phelps, together 
with Gorham, purchased the presumptive rights of Massa- 
chusetts to the Genesee Country and extinguished the 
Indian title, thereby opening for settlement the western 
part of New York State. Close by are the old-fashioned table 
tombstones marking the graves of his wife and son. 

The old CANANDAIGUA ACADEMY, the first academy 
on the Phelps and Gorham Tract, was founded in 1795, and 
stood on the site of the present Canandaigua Academy on 
N. Main St. 

of Forthill Ave., (not open to casual visitors), cares chiefly 
for shell-shocked veterans. The building, constructed in 
1930 at a cost of over $1,700,000, is located on a landscaped 
estate of several hundred acres. 

The route leaves Canandaigua on State 5- 

At 2.1 m. is junction (R) with State 21 A; the route turns 
R. on State 21A. 

At 5-8 m. is junction (L) with a good macadam county 
road, which at Rushville merges into State 53, the begin- 



ning of the Marcus Whitman Highway; the route turns R. 
on this road. 

Marcus Whitman (1803-1847) saved the Northwest, in- 
cluding the present states of Oregon, Washington, Idaho, 
and Montana, for the United States. Educated in Massa- 
chusetts, he practiced medicine in Rushville. In 1836, with 
his bride he set out to serve as missionary to the Indians in 
the Northwest. From Council Bluffs, Iowa, they completed 
the 7 months' journey in a wagon, the first to make wheel- 
tracks over the Rocky Mountains. 

When Whitman learned that Congress was considering 
ceding American rights to the Northwest to Great Britain 
in return for fishing rights off Newfoundland, he made the 
long, hazardous journey to Washington and convinced 
Congress and the President of the potential wealth of the 
Oregon country. To a skeptical Congressman who argued 
that the land would never be of much value because no 
wagon track could ever be made across the Rockies, he was 
able to reply, "There already is one. I made it." In 1846 
Great Britain surrendered her claims to the Northwest. 
Whitman returned to Oregon, and there he and his wife 
were massacred by Indians on Nov. 20, 1847. 

RUSHVILLE, 10.4 m. (852 alt., 452 pop.), is important 
chiefly as having been the home of Marcus Whitman. A 
marker at the roadside (R) indicates his one-time residence. 

At 14.4 m. the Marcus Whitman Highway bears L. and 
joins State 364. 

At 20.4 m., from the top of a steep hill, Seneca Lake is 
visible, glimmering in the distance ahead, but from this 
point Keuka Lake is entirely hidden from view by an inter- 
vening hill. Below in the valley lies the village of Penn 
Yan, 24 m. 



Keuka Lake. A Typical Finger Lake's View Scb 'S 

54. 36 m. 

KEUKA LAKE is Y-shaped and is said to resemble Lake 
Lucerne in Switzerland. Its waters are divided by a twelve 



mile promontory, 812 ft. high. The lake is 21 miles long 
and 183 ft. deep. 

PENN YAN, m. (736 alt., 5,329 pop.), at the northern 
tip of the eastern arm of Keuka Lake, has a long frontage 
on the lake and is surrounded on its landward side by hills. 
The core of the town is Main Street, an aisle roofed by mag- 
nificent elms. The village is a thriving industrial town, the 
outlet of Lake Keuka furnishing water power for the manu- 
facture of paper, clothing, furniture, etc. The BURKITT 
MILLS (open to the public by permission) are the largest manu- 
facturers of buckwheat products in the world. 

The route leaves Penn Yan on State 54. 

WATER SERVICE PLANT, \.\rn, (L) (open to the public by 
permission), makes available to Penn Yan unusually low 
rates for electricity and water, and besides, frequently 
makes a gift to each citizen of receipted bills for a month's 

For 7 miles S. of Penn Yan the route is bordered by the 
lake shore (L) and hillsides planted to vineyards (R). 

AT 4.8 m. (L), facing the lake, stands KEUKA COLLEGE, 
an educational institution for women. It includes in its 
curriculum preparation for the major professions and 
teacher training, and confers the B.A. and B.S. degrees. 
The buildings are constructed of red brick. In the SYLVAN 
THEATER, SE. of the main group of buildings, outdoor 
plays are given by the students. 

At BLUFF POINT SETTLEMENT, 5-8 m. (920 alt., 
130 pop.), the route turns L. on Bluff Point Road, which 
at 8.3 m. forks (R) at the school house and makes a gradual 
ascent to the apex of the long point of land dividing the 
two branches of the lake. From the highest point Keuka 



can be seen lying in a dish of low hills, beyond the rim of 
which fold upon fold of blue hills roll away in all directions 
into seven counties. 

The road makes a swift descent to where, about a third 
of the way down the slope, the GARRETT MEMORIAL 
CHAPEL, 12.8 m. (L) (ofen to the public), stands on a narrow 
shelf of land high above the lake. Called "The Little Chapel 
on the Mount," well known as an architectural gem, it 
was erected by Mr. and Mrs. Paul Garrett in memory of 
their son. The building, designed by Mortimer H. Freehof 
of New York City is in the Gothic style with flying but- 
tresses and a general effect of lightness and grace. It is con- 
structed of Pennsylvania seam-faced granite, varied in 
coloring. Each detail of decoration and design is symbolic: 
the first floor or crypt of the building represents childhood, 
the stained glass windows illustrating nursery rhymes and 
favorite poems; the upper floor or chapel proper represents 
the ideals of youth, the windows picturing Scriptural 
scenes. The exterior is decorated with carved designs of 
birds, oak leaves, myrtle, and pine cones, a reflection of its 
forest surroundings. The Angel of Eternal Life is carved 
above the entrance. Surmounting the whole is a weather- 
vane, "The Ship of Adventure," gallantly unfurling its 
sails to the lake winds. 

Retrace to Bluff Point Settlement, 19.8 m. The route 
turns L. on State 54. 

At 23-9 m. in a field (L) 5 rods from the road, is a boulder 
this spot once stood a cabin in which Red Jacket is said to 
have spent his boyhood. He was a Seneca chief, born near 
Seneca Lake in 1752. His Indian name was Sagoyowatha: he 
was called Red Jacket because during the Revolutionary 
War he wore the redcoat of the English soldiery as a symbol 



of his sympathy with the British. In the War of 1812, how- 
ever, he gave valuable service to the United States. He died 
in 1830. 


54A. 22 m. 

The concrete road follows the shore of Lake Keuka 
closely all the way, affording attractive views of the lake 
and its vineyards and tree-clad hills. 

HAMMONDSPORT, m. (740 alt., 1,063 pop.), fringing 
the southern point of Keuka Lake, lies in the narrow neck 
of a valley with hills rising abruptly from the very edge of 
the town. The vineyards climbing the hills make Ham- 
mondsport a center of wine production. The LARGEST 
WINE CELLAR in New York State, excavated from natural 
rock, is in Hammondsport (visitors welcome; free samples). 
It is a huge tunnel leading back through the solid rock 
of the hill. Its cool damp depths make an ideal storage 
place for aging wine. 

Hammondsport was the home of the pioneer aviator and 
inventor, Glenn H. Curtiss, when he conducted his early 
experiments and developed his flying boat. The SITE OF 
by the new high school building. 

From]the[!high school 'anjmmarked road leads (R) to PLEASANT 
VALLEY, 1 m., where a roadside sign marks "The Cradle of 
Aviation," the field over which on July 4, 1908, Curtiss piloted the 
"June Bug" in the first kilometer flight ever made. 

On State 54A, at 1 m., an unobstructed shore line reveals a 
view of the entire length of the lake. Along the landward 
side^of the shore road, frequent glens, carved by erosion in 
the shale rock, lead back between the hills. Many of the 



larger glens conceal mineral springs, fern-lined grottos, 
and shady pools. 

At 9.4 m. (L) Bluff Point and the Memorial Chapel stand 
out conspicuously in the middle distance across the lake. 

At 18.2 m. Keuka College appears just across the end of 
the lake. 

At 22 m. the route re-enters Penn Yan. 

20.5 m. 

This section of the route follows a historic road from 
Keuka Lake to the shores of Seneca Lake. 

Out of Penn Yan the route continues NE. on State 54. 

DRESDEN, 6.9 m. (516 alt., 278 pop.), has one claim to 
fame. In the center of the village, surrounded by a tangle 
of bridal wreath and lilac bushes, stands the INGERSOLL 
HOUSE (L) (open to public), in which Robert G. Ingersoll was 
born on Aug. 11, 1833- It contains two stories, with a story- 
and-a-half wing. The furniture used by the Ingersoll family 
is still in the house. Robert G. Ingersoll was a prominent 
lawyer, a politician, and a skeptical writer and lecturer on 
religious topics. He wrote The Gods, Ghosts, Some Mistakes of 
Moses, and various other works. He died in 1899. 

At 7 m. the route turns R. on State 14. 

At 11.7 m. a marker, one of a series, indicates the line of 
march followed by Generals Sullivan and Clinton in 1779 
on their expedition against the Indians. This expedition, 
sent out by Washington to punish the Six Nations for their 
massacres in the Mohawk, Hudson, and Susquehanna val- 
leys, broke the power of the Iroquois and opened western 
New York to white settlement. 



GENEVA, 20.5 m. (462 alt., 16,053 pop.), (see Tour 10, 
Section c.) 

(US 20). 18 m. 

The route from Geneva to Canandaigua passes through a 
characteristic New York State rural section. 

In Geneva the route turns L. (W) on State 5- 

FLINT, 7.4 m. (820 alt., 97 pop.), is the center of a famous 
cabbage-growing section, as evidenced by the aroma of 
several sauerkraut factories in the vicinity. 

At 14.6 m. a high point offers a view of the city of Can- 
andaigua (W) and Canandaigua Lake (SW). 

ROSELAND PARK, 16 m. (L), is a summer resort on the 
lake. During the summer months a carnival atmosphere is 
created by a Ferris wheel, a ship, a merry-go-round, a dance 
hall, and other forms of amusement. 

CANANDAIGUA, 18 m. (see Tour 8, Section J). 

15. 28.5 m. (see Tour 8, Section ). 


TOUR 10 


Rochester, Geneva, Watkins Glen, Montour Falls, Water- 
loo, Rochester. State 15, 332, 5, 14, 414, 15A, 5, 15- 
Rochester Rochester, 181.8 m. 

The New York Central R. R. parallels the highway from 
Geneva to Watkins Glen; the Lehigh Valley follows the 
eastern side of Seneca Lake from Watkins Glen to the 
northern end of the lake. Bus lines Rochester to Geneva 
and Geneva to Watkins Glen. Roads paved throughout, 
nearly all concrete; open throughout the year. 

The feature of this route is the scenery winding streams, 
lakes, glens, and waterfalls of the Seneca Lake district. 

332, 28.5 m. (see Tour 8, Section <). 


(US 20). 18 m. (see Tour 9, Section /). 

38.5 m. 

Between Geneva and Watkins Glen the route follows the 
W. shore of Seneca Lake, the hills rising to a height of 
2,000 ft. and the scene constantly changing. 


GENEVA, 0.0 m. (462 alt., 16,053 pop.). 

Railroad Stations: N. Y. Central, 279 Exchange St.; Lehigh Valley, 

Sherrill St. 

Bus Lines: Greyhound Lines, Geneva-Lyons, Geneva-Bath; Gen- 

eva-Watkins Glen Coach Line; Martz Lines; Castle and Exchange 


Airport: Geneva Aerial Service Corp., 2 m. W. on State 5- 

Taxis: 25 cents within city limits. 

Tourist Information Service: Chamber of Commerce, 473 Exchange 

St.; Geneva Auto Club, Main and Seneca Sts. 

Accommodations: Three hotels, 500 rooms; many tourist homes. 

Tennis Court: Brook St. between Castle and Lyceum Sts. 

Golf: Geneva Country Club and Lakeside Country Club, Lake Rd. 

Swimming: Municipal Bathing Beach east side of lake. 

Annual Events: Speed Boat Regatta, Seneca Lake, first week in July; 

Flower Shows (chrysanthemum display), sponsored by State 

Experimental Station, about Nov. 1. 

The first dwelling on the present site of Geneva was a log 
cabin built in 1787 and inhabited by a man named Jennings. 
Afterwards enlarged to become the FIRST TAVERN IN 
GENEVA, it stood a little S. of what is now the junction of 
Washington and Exchange Sts. on what was then an Indian 
trail leading southward to Kashong. Within a year several 
log houses were built along this street or trail. 

PULTENEY PARK, the original village green, was laid 
out by Capt. Williamson in 1796 just above the cluster of 
houses and the tavern built on the shore. Around the green 
were the business houses of the village, the post office, and 
the original land office of the Pulteney Estate. 

By 1805 Geneva had grown to 68 houses and 325 in- 
habitants and in 1806 was incorporated as a village. Con- 
spicuous in its early days for its large number of retired 
clergymen and spinsters, it was called "the saint's retreat 
and the old maid's paradise." 


The present PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, Main St., is 
the third to occupy the site, the first having been erected in 
1797. The bell is from the original building. The adjoining 
parish house stands on the site of the GENEVA ACAD- 
EMY, which began in a small building in 1796, was char- 
tered by the Board of Regents in 1813, and was taken over 
by Geneva College in 1821. 

On Main St., just beyond Pulteney St., is HOB ART 
COLLEGE (R), founded in 1822 by Bishop Henry Hobart 
of the Protestant Episcopal Church in order to increase the 
teaching functions of the church in the new territory of 
western New York. A gift for construction purposes was 
made by Trinity Church, New York City. GENEVA HALL, 
the original building, now used as a dormitory, is a severe 
three-story structure of cut stone. Other buildings on the 
shaded campus are English Renaissance, Victorian Gothic, 
and Georgian. 

Adjoining the college's 40-acre tract on the west, is the 
24-acre tract of the WILLIAM SMITH COLLEGE FOR 
WOMEN, founded in 1906 by a bequest of William Smith, 
a resident of the city. Both colleges have the same faculty. 
There is a combined student body of 500. 

The LAFAYETTE INN stands on the NW. corner of the 
intersection of State 5 and the Old Preemption Road; in this 
building Lafayette stayed when he visited Geneva in 1825, 
and on the grounds, in a building known as the Elmwood 
Priory, originally designed as a boys' school, is the coach 
in which General Lafayette rode from Canandaigua to 

The LAFAYETTE TREE (L) is an unusually large balm 
of Gilead. The legend is that Lafayette, resting on his cane 
at the spot, left the cane imbedded in the soil, and from 
this sprang the stately tree of today. 



The OLD PREEMPTION ROAD is built along the orig- 
inal line surveyed in 1788 from the 82nd milestone along the 
Pennsylvania-New York boundary line north to Lake 
Ontario. By the Hartford agreement rights to the land W. 
of this line belonged to Massachusetts. Criticism of the 
accuracy of the original survey led to a new survey which 
placed the new Preemption Line farther E. and produced the 
historic "Gore" which was added to the Massachusetts 
lands and consequently to the Phelps and Gorham Purchase. 
The new line ran almost directly down the middle of Seneca 
Lake, so that Geneva lay entirely in the "Gore," its E. 
and W. city limits almost coinciding with the lines of the 
two surveys. 

1. Left on the Old Preemption Road at the W. city limits is the site 
of the log STOCKADE, 1.3 m., built by order of Sir William 
Johnson in 1756 to defend the district against the French and to re- 
tain the allegiance of the Senecas during the French and Indian 

Just across the Lehigh Valley R. R. is an Indian BURIAL MOUND 
(L), which marked the center of the Seneca village of KANA- 
DESAGA. In it is buried GRAHTA, the Old King, or Old 
Smoke, as he was disrespectfully called by the early settlers, the 
most famous Seneca sachem of his day. His name in the Seneca 
dialect meant he carries the smoke; he had the sole responsibility of 
carrying the brand by which the council fires of the Senecas were 
lighted. Although probably present at the Cherry Valley mas- 
sacre, he opposed the participation of the Senecas in the Revolu- 
tionary War. He was the chief sachem probably from about 1760 
until his death about 1779. For years, just as the leaves were be- 
ginning to fall, a band of Indians came regularly to this mound 
to meditate silently for hours. 

Two hundred feet (R) at 1.4 m., is the large stone SULLIVAN- 
which is a vivid historical description of the nearby locality. 
Kanadesaga, the chief village of the Senecas from about 1750 on, 
was destroyed by Sullivan's army on Sept. 7th, 1779. Col. John 
Butler's buildings at the mouth of Castle Creek, used by British 
troops during 1779, were burned the same day. 



At PREEMPTION, 1.5 m., the intersection of Castle Road with 
Old Preemption Road, the road turns R. to the NEW YORK 
(visitors welcome), established by the state in 1882 and operated in 
connection with Cornell University in Ithaca. The station carries 
on research in fruit and vegetable culture, entomology, dairying, 
agricultural bacteriology, chemistry, and other fields. The staff 
consists of a director and about fifty scientific investigators, to- 
gether with the necessary clerical and labor force. 
2. Right, at the Lafayette Inn on the Old Preemption Road is White 
Springs Farm, .8 m., the site of GANECHSTAGE, the old, well- 
organized main village of the Senecas. By the time of Sullivan's 
campaign the village had disappeared, the population evidently 
having removed to Kanadesaga. As late as 1842 several of the 
village mounds were leveled and wagon loads of bones and relics 
removed and scattered by people of the neighborhood, proving 
that the bitterness of the Indian wars lasted in the East long 
after the fighting had ceased. 

The WHITE SPRINGS crop out along a mile or more on the brow 
of the hill. They determined the location of the Indian village 
and provided Geneva's first water supply. 

Out of Geneva the route follows State 14 south along the 
western shore of Seneca Lake. 

SENECA LAKE, 6 m., the largest and deepest of the 
Finger Lakes, is 36 m. long with a maximum width of 3^ 
m. and a maximum depth of 632 ft. The surface is 444 ft. 
above sea level. It has been known to freeze over only 
twice. It has a long boating history: first came the birch 
canoe, then the bateaux of the fur traders; the sloop of 
Louis Philippe of France sailed the lake in 1797; as late as 
the Civil War period a number of steamers made regular 
trips; thereafter the traffic gradually declined as the result 
of railroad competition. 

KASHONG, 8.1 /., is a summer colony on the lake shore, 
mostly patronized by Genevans. Out of season the place is 
practically deserted. 



DRESDEN, 15 m. (526 alt., 276 pop.), is the birthplace 
of Robert G. Ingersoll (see Tour 9, Section e). 

CAMP PIONEER, 19.6 m. (L), is a large Boy Scout camp 
on the shore of the lake. To this camp, for 8 weeks every 
summer, come hundreds of boys from Rochester and the 
Finger Lakes district. When in operation, the camp con- 
tains five separate village units, each with an Indian name. 

At 30 m. the highway crosses Big Stream, which flows 
through GLENORA GLEN and plunges to a lower level 

ROCK STREAM CREEK, 30.4 ., is spanned by one of 
the long bridges characteristic of the Finger Lakes region. 
The view of the gorge is impressive. 

At 38 m. the route passes the head of Seneca Lake and 
enters the village of Watkins Glen. 

WATKINS GLEN VILLAGE, 38.2 m. (477 alt., 2,955 
pop.), settled in 1788, was early called Salubria, probably 
because of its therapeutic mineral springs. In the village is 
one of the richest salt mines in the United States. Along 
the lake shore there are large camping grounds with all 
facilities. From the main street the glen extends its great 
chasm into the mountain between torn and jagged cliffs. 

WATKINS GLEN STATE PARK, 38.5 ., 547 acres, opens 
directly from the main street of the village, with a sudden 
change from a busy, modern business community to the cool 
and moist recesses of the glen. The visitor enters the glen 
through a huge door in front of which the flow of the 
greensward forms a natural amphitheater. Within is a world 
of cascades and waterfalls, of strange grottos and towering 
walls of stratified rock. The trail through the gorge crosses 
the tumbling stream again and again on bridges constructed 
to blend with the natural beauty of the scene; one bridge 



is swung across the chasm 165 ft. above the swirling water. 
The trip through the gorge and back, a total distance of 
about 4m., can be made either up on foot and down the rim 
road by bus (Jare 50 cents*) or up by bus and down on foot 
through the glen, or both ways by foot. 

Prior to the Ice Age, the drainage of the Finger Lakes 
region was well established in N.-S. streams. The thick, 
southward-moving ice gouged out the valleys of these 
streams, ever deepening them and steepening their sides. 
Dams of glacial debris backed up the water and formed the 
Finger Lakes. New post-glacial tributaries, which com- 
menced to flow on the rejuvenated landscape, plunging to 
the lake levels, cut gorges and gullies in the soft and thinly- 
bedded Devonian shales. Where the rocks were thick and 
durable, falls and cascades were formed. 

The flood of July 1935, which devastated southern New 
York, swept through this gorge, destroyed the trails, and 
even changed the contours of the natural formation. Every- 
thing has been reconstructed in harmony with the natural 

Right from Watkins Glen, State 14 leads to MONTOUR FALLS, 
2.5 m. (447 alt., 1,489 pop.), a center from which radiate seven 
glens with a score of waterfalls. The most noteworthy is Che- 
quagua (Ind., tumbling waters) Falls, close to the main street of 
the village and seemingly falling right into it; these falls are 
156 ft. high, almost as high as the American Falls of Niagara. 
Louis Philippe, later King of France, during his sojourn in this 
country, probably in 1797, made a sketch of these falls which is 
said to be hanging in the Tuileries. 

Montour Falls was once the site of Catherine's Town named for 
Queen Catherine Montour, famous in Indian legend and tradition. 
Sullivan's army destroyed the Indian village on the site in 1779, 
after which the modern town was established by white settlers. 



414, 15A, 5, 15. 47.6 m. 

From Watkins Glen the route follows State 414, called 
the Sullivan Trail, around the head of Seneca Lake. 

HECTOR FALLS, 3-3 m. (R), is the site of the first woolen 
mills in Schuyler County, built in 1801, and of the Samuel 
A. Seely warehouse, from which in 1833 a large lake vessel 
departed with a cargo of wheat for New York via the newly 
constructed Erie Canal. 

HECTOR, 9 m. (860 alt., 60 pop.), is a small hamlet 
built upon a campsite of the Sullivan expedition. The First 
Presbyterian Church, 9.3 02., was organized in 1809, and the 
present edifice built in 1816. 

At 12 m. is the SITE OF CON-DAW-HAW, an Indian 
village that, in common with almost all the Indian villages 
in this region, was destroyed by Sullivan's army, the date 
here being Sept. 4, 1779. 

LODI, 18 m. (1,005 alt., 322 pop.), is a trading center 
for the rich agricultural region lying between Seneca and 
Cayuga Lakes. 

Left from Lodi a macadam road leads to SILVER THREAD FALLS. 
A car can be driven to a point near the station of the Lehigh 
Valley R. R. Walk across the railroad and follow it a few steps S. 
to the bridge which carries the railroad across the chasm just above 
the falls. A footbridge or walk beside the track provides a vantage 
point from which to view the canyon and the falls from above. 
This cleft in the stratified rock forming the eastern shore of the 
lake is one of the most impressive of the many natural forma- 
tions on the shores of Seneca Lake. By walking down the slope 
about 60 ft. from the railroad, one reaches the brink of the canyon 
and can look down into the depths of the gorge. Silver Thread 
Falls forms a pillar of water 160 ft. high. When the stream is 
swollen, the large volume of the falling water adds to the im- 



At Ovid, 23.3 m. the route turns L. on State 15A and 
follows the eastern lake shore. 

At 42.4 m. is junction with State 5 (US 20); the route 
turns R. on State 5- 

THE SCYTHE TREE, 44.8 m. (L), is a large balm of 
Gilead. At the time of the Civil War it was a mere sapling. 
A young man, son of the owner of the farm, was aroused 
by President Lincoln's call for volunteers. One morning he 
came in from the field, placed his scythe in the tree, said, 
"Let it stand there until I come back," and enlisted. He 
died in the war and the scythe was never removed. The 
snathe decayed, the tree grew rapidly, and the blade be- 
came embedded in the heart of the trunk. Today only about 
6 inches of the point protrudes outside the bark. 

WATERLOO, 47.6 m. (438 alt., 4,047 pop.), stands on 
the banks of the Seneca River on the site of the Indian vil- 
lage of Skoiyase. In the HISTORICAL SOCIETY BUILD- 
ING, Church and William Sts. (open free Sat. ^-/), a collec- 
tion of Indian relics is on display. At Main and Chapel Sts. 
stands an immense ELM TREE, nearly 20 ft. in circumfer- 
ence and believed to be more than 350 years old. The story 
has been handed down locally that the Indians planted this 
tree as a guidepost to mark their ancient trail. 

332. STATE 15. 27.7 m. 

Out of Waterloo the route follows State 15. At 1.7 m. 
the road turns sharply L. 

FIVE CORNERS, 7.2 ., is the junction of five old roads 
that has long been a reckoning point for distances to many 
places in the vicinity. Today it is the junction point of 
State 14 and 15 and County 291. 



PHELPS, 11.6 m. (542 alt., 1,397 pop.), boasts a large 
sauerkraut factory. Cabbages are a staple crop on most of the 
farms in the locality. Much of the stone and sand used in 
the construction of the highways throughout the Finger 
Lakes region comes from the vicinity of Phelps. The New 
York Central, the Pennsylvania, and the Lehigh Valley 
R. Rs. converge at Phelps. 

CLIFTON SPRINGS, 15-8 m. (560 alt., 1,819 pop.), is a 
town that grew up around its famous mineral springs. Its 
sanitarium, including hospital and clinic, has completed 
over 85 years of service in 1937 and is one of the best known 
institutions of its kind in the eastern states. With more than 
20 physicians specializing in all branches of medicine and 
surgery, and some 200 nurses, it is operated on a non-profit 
basis. It has 75 acres of private parks, and its springs are 
available to the public without cost. It adds a transient 
population of about 500 to the census population of the 

MANCHESTER, 21.3 m. (590 alt., 1,429 pop.), is 
largely a railroad town, depending upon the freight yards 
and car repair shops of the Lehigh Valley R. R. 

At 27-7 m. is the junction with State 332. 

ESTER. STATE 15. 21.5 m. (See Tour 8, Section J). 


TOUR 11 


Rochester, Canandaigua, Geneva, Seneca Falls, Ithaca, 
Aurora, Clyde, Lyons. State 15, 332, 5, 515, 16, County 
Road, State 89, 34, 34B, 90, County Roads, State 5, 414, 31. 
Rochester Rochester, 209 m. 

New York Central R. R. from Rochester to Geneva; Lehigh 
Valley R. R., Geneva to Ithaca. Bus lines to Canandaigua, 
Geneva, and Ithaca. Roads paved, open throughout the year. 
All accommodations in larger towns; tourist accommoda- 
tions in villages. 

This route circles Cayuga Lake, passing through Ithaca 
and several of the Finger Lakes state parks. 

332. 26.4 m. (see Tour 8, Section (T). 

(US 20). 18 m. (see Tour 9, Section f). 

(US 20). 10.1 m. 

The route leaves Geneva on State 5 (U S 20), traveling E., 
skirting the shore of Seneca Lake, the largest of the Finger 
Lakes, (see Tour 10, Section c). 

39 1 


THE SCYTHE TREE, 4.5 m. (see Tour 10, Section <f). 

WATERLOO, 7 m. (438 alt., 4,047 pop.), (see Tour 10, 
Section tT). 

East of Waterloo the route leaves behind the land of the 
Senecas and enters the land of the Cayugas. 

SENECA FALLS, 10.1 m. (465 alt., 6,443 pop.), owes its 
growth to the power latent in the Seneca River, which later 
became the Seneca division of the Barge Canal. Nearly 
12,000 horsepower is developed here today, although the 
50-ft. waterfalls are replaced by canal locks. 

CADY ST ANTON who, with her co-worker, Susan B. 
Anthony of Rochester, did much to secure for women the 
right of suffrage; and of Amelia Bloomer, who attempted 
to revolutionize the manner of women's dress. The first 
Women's Rights convention was held in the village in 1848. 

15, COUNTY ROAD, STATE 89. 45-5 m. 

From Seneca Falls the route goes directly S. on State 414, 
the Reservation Road, the dividing line between the terri- 
tory of the Seneca and Cayuga Nations. 

At 1.1 m. is junction (L) with the Old Genesee Stage 
Route, an unnumbered macadam road. The Cayuga Lake 
bridge once was the connecting link on the pioneer route 
which crossed the lake at this point. 

On this road is the POTTER INN FARM, 1.9 m. (R) the home of 
NATHANIEL J. POTTER, an early innkeeper and blacksmith, 
and of his son, Henry S. Potter, first president of the Western 
Union Telegraph Co. 

CAYUGA STATE PARK, 4.3 m., on the W. shore of Cayuga Lake, 
covers 135 acres of land, with picnic grounds, baseball diamonds, 



bowling greens, and tennis courts, sand bathing beach, bath- 
houses, and dining and dancing pavilions. 

The MONUMENT TO RED JACKET, 6.6 m., was erected in 1891 
by the Waterloo Library and Historical Society. Red Jacket, 
called by the Indians, Sogoyawatha, he-keeps-them-awake, was a 
member of the Wolf Clan of the Senecas and a famous orator of 
the Iroquois. He was chiefly responsible for bringing about more 
cordial relations between the United States Government and the 
Iroquois Nation after the Revolution. For his accomplishments he 
was awarded a medal by Congress. He died in Buffalo in 1830. 

At ROMULUS, 11.8 m. (719 alt., 190 pop.), is junction 
with State 15; the route turns L. on State 15- 

At OVID, 17.4 m. (971 alt., 537 pop.), State 15 turns L. 

INTERLAKEN, 24.7 m. (856 alt., 660 pop.), lies on the 
high land between Cayuga and Seneca Lakes, surrounded 
by the fertile fields of the district. 

As the highway tops a height of land at 26.4 w., CAYUGA 
LAKE is visible (L). It is 40 m. long, 2 m. wide, 435 ft. deep, 
and 381 ft. above sea level. On its shores are the sites of 13 
Indian villages, from the soil of which have been dug pre- 
historic skeletons and artifacts of the Algonkians. 

TRUMANSBURG, 31.4 m. (1,000 alt., 1,077 pop.), 
named for the pioneer who founded the town, is a center for 
a large and fertile farming region. In the center of the town 
is an ancient CANNON set upon a base inscribed with 
Trumansburg's part in all the nation's wars. The Trumans- 
burg Fair is an annual event in the fall. 

In the village, at 32.1 m., the route turns L. on a macadam 
road which leads to TAUGHANNOCK FALLS STATE 
PARK, 34.2 m. y 384 acres embracing the gorge cut by Tau- 
ghannock Creek and the falls, 215 ft. high, the highest 
straight falls E. of the Rockies. 



Taughannock Falls is the highest waterfall formed in the 
Finger Lakes region after the Ice Age. A new post-glacial 
stream fell abruptly to the level of new Cayuga Lake, which 
was formed by the damming of a pre-glacial river valley by 
glacial debris. A hard cap of flat-lying Devonian sandstone 
preserves the height of the crest of the waterfall, but lower 
soft shales of like age were easily eroded away to form the 
ravine below the falls. The large amount of disintegrated 
rock eroded to cut the canyon has formed a delta, the flat 
promontory in Cayuga Lake below the gorge, now used as 
a recreational area. 

The park facilities include bathing beach, bathhouse, 
shelter pavilion, baseball diamond, bowling green, chil- 
dren's playground, parking areas, and camping and picnic 

The place is rich in Indian lore, summarized by markers 
along the gorge: it was the site in turn of an aboriginal 
Algonkian village, of the village of the Taughannocks, a 
Delaware tribe conquered by the Iroquois, and of a group 
formed by a Seneca-Cayuga union. The sites of the cabins of 
the first white settlers are also indicated. 

South of Taughannock State Park the route follows State 
89 along the shore of Cayuga Lake. 

ITHACA, 45-5 m. (400 alt., 20,708 pop.), called by its 
admirers "the city beautiful," is known as an educational 
center. Just N. of the business section of the city, along the 
W. shore of Lake Cayuga, is the scene of Grace Miller 
White's book, Tess of the Storm Country. Three creeks, Fall, 
Cascadilla, and Six Mile, have cut deep gorges through the 
city. Stewart Park, the largest city park, lies on the shore 
of Cayuga Lake. Ren wick Wild wood, preserved as a bird 
sanctuary, shelters more than 300 species of birds. 



CORNELL UNIVERSITY was founded in 1865 by Ezra 
Cornell. Each year it attracts about 7,500 students. The 
campus, covering 2,400 acres, has been called one of the 
most beautiful college campuses in America. Besides its 
endowed schools, the university includes three state-sup- 
ported colleges: the New York State College of Agriculture, 
the New York State College of Veterinary Medicine, and 
the State College of Home Economics. 

ITHACA COLLEGE, with its main buildings grouped 
around De Witt Park, is a school of music, drama, and 
physical education. 

Right from Ithaca, on State 13, is BUTTERMILK FALLS STATE 
PARK, 2.2 m., with an area of 510 acres, 164 of which were donated 
by Mr. and Mrs. Robert H. Treman of Ithaca in 1924. Within a 
distance of 1 m., Buttermilk Creek falls more than 500 ft. in a 
series of 10 cascades. Pinnacle Rock rises a sheer 50 ft. in the center 
of the stream. The trails offer views of Cornell University and 
Cayuga Lake. The park contains a swimming pool. 
At 4.6 m. is junction (R) with State 327. Right on State 327 is 
ENFIELD GLEN STATE PARK, 7.8 m. t comprising 831 acres, 385 
of which were donated by Mr. and Mrs. Treman. Along the course 
of Enfield Creek within the park are 12 waterfalls; LUCIFER 
FALLS is 115 ft. high. The park contains a swimming pool and 

90, COUNTY WADS, STATE 5, 414. 56 m. 

The route leaves Ithaca on State 34, following the E. 
shore of Cayuga Lake. 

INDIAN SPRING, 1.5 m. (L), is on the lowlands occupied 
by the Tedarighoones, Indians from the far South who 
were captured and adopted by the Cayugas. 

VILLAGE in which lived Long Jim, an Indian chief who, 



according to a tradition of his tribe, was responsible for 
the murder of Jane McCrea, 1777. 

AtlAm. is junction (L) with State 34B; the route turns 
L. on State 34B. 

At 9.1 m. are the hamlets of LUDLOWVILLE to the R. 
of the highway, and MYERS to the L. 

SALT CO. The place was named for Andrew Myers, who 
settled on the site in 1791. Col. William Butler's detach- 
ment of Sullivan's army encamped on the heights above 
the town on Sept. 24, 1779. 

At 9-3 m. State 34B crosses a gorge on a high bridge. At 
this point is the SITE OF A CAYUGA VILLAGE destroyed 
by Col.- Butler's men. 

KING FERRY, 19.4 m. (394 alt., 250 pop.), was named 
for John King, a pioneer, who operated a ferry across the 
lake in connection with a hotel he maintained on the shore. 
The town lies on the heights above the lake about halfway 
between Auburn and Ithaca. 

At King Ferry is junction (L) with State 90; the route 
turns L. on State 90. 

At 25.8 m. the view of the lake (L) is unsurpassed on this 

At 26.6 m. is junction with a macadam road. 

Right on this road is MOONSHINE FALLS, 0.5 m., about 40 ft. 
high, in the gorge of Paines Creek. At the falls is the site of early 
saw, grist, and woolen mills built in 1810. 

AURORA, 27.7 m. (394 alt., 389 pop.), settled in 1789, 
is the oldest village on Cayuga Lake. It was the first county 
seat of Onondaga County. Early court was held in PATRICK 



TAVERN, erected in 1793, in which the Cayuga Medical 
Society was organized in 1806. The first courthouse was 
built in 1804. The site of the first Masonic lodge room is 
marked: "Scipio Lodge Masonic Charter 1797 Building 
erected 1806 Used by the Craft until 1819." 

To-day's grade and high school was formerly CAYUGA 
LAKE ACADEMY, founded in 1799 and chartered by the 
State Board of Regents in 1801. The first building was 
erected in 1803, the present structure in 1835- 

GLEN PARK, the home of Henry Wells, who founded 
the American Express Company in 1850, the Wells-Far go 
Company in 1852, and Wells College in 1868, is in the 

WELLS COLLEGE has an unusually beautiful campus 
of about 300 acres sloping up from the lake shore. It is a 
women's college offering the regular arts courses. 

At 28.1 m. is the SITE OF THE FIRST HOUSE built 
in this region. It was constructed by Capt. Roswell Frank- 
lin, an officer in the Clinton-Sullivan campaign, who 
settled here in 1789. 

At 28.3 m. is the SITE OF CHONODOTE, (Peacbtovm), 
a Cayuga village that, with its orchard of 1,500 peach 
trees, was destroyed during the Sullivan campaign of 1779. 

At 28.5 m. (L) stands what is said to be the only RED- 
WOOD TREE E. of the Rocky Mountains. This giant 
sequoia was planted in 1821 by Peter Smith. 

At LEV ANNA, 30 m. (396 alt., 59 pop.), is junction (R) 
with a macadam road. 

Right on this road is the SHERMAN FARM, 0.8 m., an important 
anthropological site, probably of an ancient Algonkian village, 
leased by Harry Follet. Excavations begun in 1929 and continued 
in 1932 uncovered effigies of a bear, a panther, a "thunder bird," 



and other animals, all made of firestones, and all facing a stone 
altar the stones of which were entwined by hickory roots. Con- 
tinued excavations reveal new finds daily. 

On the farm is an outdoor MUSEUM OF THE AMERICAN 
INDIAN. Some of the exhibits have been restored; others have 
been left in their original state after excavation. 

A white monument, 32 m. (R), marks the SITE OF THE 
New York, a lodge erected by Jesuits in 1656. The inscrip- 
tion is of sufficient historical interest to warrant quoting: 
This Valley Was the Site of the Principal Indian Village. 
To the Brave French Jesuit Missionaries whose Heroism 
Was Almost Without Parallel, Joseph Chaumonot and 
Rene Menard who as Guests of Chief Saonchiogwa Built 
Here in 1656 the First Home of Christian Worship in 
Western New York; Stephen de Carheil who for Nine 
Years, ministered here and His Co-laborer Peter Raffeix. 

Close by is the SITE OF CAYUGA CASTLE, Goi-o- 
bouen, the principal Cayuga village, destroyed by Sullivan 
on Sept. 23, 1779. 

UNION SPRINGS, 34 m. (394 alt., 794 pop.), is well 
known for its fishing and duck hunting. Offshore lies Fron- 
tenac Island. 

erected in 1839-1840 by George Nouland. Before that the 
site was occupied successively by two woolen mills. 

At 35-3 m, the route takes the L. fork of the road to 

A marker at 39.2 m. (L) indicates the SITE OF PIONEER 
HOUSE, home of Col. John Harris, first settler of Cayuga, 
who built a log cabin here in 1788 and established Harris's 
ferry across Cayuga Lake. 



CAYUGA, 40 m. (388 alt., 344 pop.), was Cayuga 
County's first county seat. The village was the eastern 
terminus of the once renowned "longest bridge in the 
world," over a mile long, crossing the foot of Cayuga 
Lake. It was built in 1799 and, though once demolished by 
ice, served the great flow of traffic east and west until 1857. 
One of Cayuga County's early jails stood under the E. end 
of the bridge. 

The Cayuga district is one of the best fishing and hunting 
grounds in the state. 

From Cayuga the route turns first R. and then L. on a 
gravel road which leads to a junction with State 5 (US 
20) at 42.2 m. The route turns L. on State 5- 

At 44.4 m. is junction (L) with a gravel road. 

Left on this road is a boulder monument, 1.1 m., placed on the SITE 
OF THICHERO, a village of the Cayuga Nation, located at the 
point where the great Iroquois trail (and later the northern 
branch of the Seneca turnpike) crossed the Seneca River. A Jesuit 
mission, St. Stephen, was established here in the 17th century. 

At 45.9 m. the route crosses the FATHER RENE 
MENARD MEMORIAL BRIDGE, erected in honor of 
that renowned Jesuit missionary who worked among the 
Indians in the 17th century. 

At 46.3 m. is junction (R) with State 414; the route turns 
R. on State 414, which runs along the border of the Monte- 
zuma Marsh. 

At 53 m. is junction with State 31; the route turns L. on 
State 31 at Savannah, 56 m, 


SAVANNAH (398 alt., 600 pop.), lies on an island 
formed by the Seneca River and the Canandaigua Outlet, 
the inlet to Black Rock, and Crusoe Lake and Creek. The 
muck farms, covering an area of about 12 m. by 2 m. culti- 



vated by some 500 owners, form an immense truck garden 
well known for the quality of its vegetables. 

CLYDE, 6.2 m. (403 alt., 2,374 pop.), has a mineral 
spring in the public park in the center of the town; the 
water is free. 

Originally Clyde was called "The Blockhouse," and later 
Lauraville. The blockhouse was used as a trading post by 
the French as early as 1754. Later it was used by the Tories 
as a smuggling station, and, acquiring an unsavory reputa- 
tion, was destroyed in a Government raid. The name Laura- 
ville was in honor of Laura, the daughter of Sir William 
Pulteney. The name Clyde was given the town by its Scot- 
tish settlers in memory of the river in the homeland. 

The organ in the Episcopal Church is said to be one of 
the oldest organs in the United States. It was sent to an 
Episcopal church in Geneva by Trinity Church of New 
York, which had received it from England during the reign 
of Queen Anne. 

LYONS, 13.8 m. (437 alt., 3,956 pop.), is one of the 
larger towns along State 31. The first settlers came to the 
site by boats on the Clyde River, calling the village which 
they founded the Forks. About 1795 Charles Williamson, 
impressed by the resemblance of the river to that of Lyons, 
France, renamed the settlement Lyons. The golden gleam 
of the courthouse dome rising above the stately elms of the 
park, the shimmer of the sun upon the river and the quaint 
charm of the old houses impart something of an old- 
world atmosphere to the town. The building of the Erie 
Canal and the coming of the railway in 1853 assured the 
prosperity of the town. As the county seat of Wayne 
County, Lyons is the commercial and political center of 
this section of the state. 

Tour 12, Section a). 


TOUR 12 


Rochester, Palmyra, Lyons, Sodus Point, Pultneyville, Sea 
Breeze, Rochester. State 31, 14, 18. Rochester Rochester 

New York Central R. R. and bus line, Rochester to Lyons. 
Tourist houses at frequent intervals and hotel accommoda- 
tions in larger towns. Roads are hard-surfaced, open 
throughout the year. 

The route passes through a section of apple and peach 
orchards, nurseries, and rose gardens. 


This section follows an important E. W. travel artery, 
once the route of Indian trails, then of turnpikes, then the 
path of the Erie Canal, and finally of the four-track New 
York Central R. R. and the Barge Canal. 

East from Four Corners on Main St. to East Ave.; R. on 
East Ave. (State 31) to the city line, 3.5 m. 

State 31 (East Ave. as far as Pittsford) swings R. at 
5-7 m. 

PITTSFORD, 7.6 m. (475 alt., 1,460 pop.) (see Tour 8, 
Sect ion <T). 



At the Four Corners in Pittsford the route turns L. at the 
traffic lights and crosses the Barge Canal, 7.8 m. 

EGYPT, 13.4 m. (498 alt., 108 pop.), is said to have been 
so named on account of the early planting of many corn 
fields, associating the locality with the biblical story of 
Joseph in Egypt and the 7 years of plenty. An orphan of 
the canal, it is now supported by farming and its lone in- 
dustry, the Egypt Canning Co. Egypt appears in the news 
columns annually in connection with the motorcycle hill- 
climbing contest held nearby. 

On State 31, at 13.9 m., is junction (R) with a macadam 

Right, on this road is junction (R) with a gravel road, 1.1 m., 
which leads (R) to KECH'S FARM 1. 6m., the scene of the annual 
motorcycle hill-climbing contest (admission 25 cents') sponsored by 
the Kodak City Motorcycle Club, Inc., under rules set by the 
American Motorcycle Association. The date is usually in June, 
but may be as late as September. The contest is held on the Peak, 
a cone-shaped hill with an altitude of 420 ft. from base to top. 

At 18.1 m. is junction (R) with a macadam road. 

Right, on this road is a QUAKER MEETING HOUSE, 2.8 m., the 
oldest W. of Utica. The present building was erected in 1876 to re- 
place one built in 1804. It is surrounded on three sides by an old 
Quaker cemetery. 

Just a few rods beyond the church, the road turns R. and at 3.2 m. 
again turns R. into Farmington. 

FARMINGTON, 3.2 ., was settled by Quakers in 1793- One of 
the first sales of land out of the tract known as the Phelps and 
Gorham Purchase was made here. 

The IRIS FARM, 3.3 m. (L), owned by A. B. Katkamier, contains 
over 2,000,000 irises of 1,000 varieties, many of which were devel- 
oped here. A rock garden in front of Mr. Katkamier's home has 
furnished geologists a diversity of rock specimens. The rocks, 
which have all been gathered from nearby land, are believed to 
have been left in the underwash of the glacier. Geologists have 



identified specimens of Barre granite from Vermont, garnet strati- 
fied rock from Labrador, Adirondack sandstone, and black and 
white mica from the far North. There is even a specimen of coral 

MACEDON, 18.4 m. (485 alt., 566 pop.), is a small com- 
munity that set out to become a city, but lapsed into peace- 
ful living, supported by the rich fruit and farming region 
which surrounds it. 

At 22.4 m., just inside the corporate limits of Palmyra, 
is junction (R) with a dirt road. 

R. on this road is the JOSEPH SMITH FARM, 1.8 m., purchased 
a score of years ago by the Mormon Church and now a shrine for 
Mormon pilgrims. The farm contains 152 acres, including the 
Sacred Grove, in which Smith is reputed to have seen his vision. 
In the house are preserved many relics of the Smith family, in- 
cluding a rare copy of the Book of Mormon published in 1830. In 
the upper room Joseph Smith claimed to have had a vision of the 
Angel Moroni, who showed him a hill with stones protruding 
from the ground, Cumorah Hill (see below) , where he excavated 
the golden plates on which were engraved the words of the sacred 
book of the Mormons. Under the hearthstones in one of the 
lower-floor rooms the golden plates are supposed to have been 
hidden at one time. 

At 2.7 m. the side route turns L. on a macadam road and at 3-5 m. R. 
on State 21. 

CUMORAH HILL, 4.7 m., is the site of the supposed revelation 
of the Book of Mormon to Joseph Smith. 

The MORMON MONUMENT, rising to a height of 40 ft. above 
the summit of the hill, was dedicated in 1935. At night floodlights 
center on the figure of the Angel Moroni atop the monument. 
Each of the four sides bears a bronze plate: the one on the W. is 
inscribed "Joseph Receives the Plates"; on the S., "The Three 
Witnesses"; on the E. "The Eight Witnesses"; the N. bears this 

Exhortation of Moroni. And When Ye Shall Receive These 
Things, I would Exhort you That Ye Would Ask God the 
Eternal Father in the Name of Christ if These Things Are 



Not True And if Ye Shall Ask With a Sincere Heart, with 
Real Intent, Having Faith in Christ, He Will Manifest the 
Truth of It Unto You by the Power of the Holy Ghost. 

Moroni 10.4. 

Retrace to State 31: R. on State 31. 

PALMYRA, 22.7 m. (500 alt., 2,592 pop.), grew up 
around the settlement started by John Swift, who estab- 
lished a wool-carding machine and ashery in 1791, laid out 
Main St. in 1792, and built a boat landing at the mouth of 
Red Creek in 1796. The village was incorporated on March 
29, 1827- Many of the early settlers in Palmyra and vicinity 
were Quakers, whose descendants still live in the locality. 
The leading industry is the manufacture of steam packing. 

At the four corners, otherwise known as the Corner of 
the Four Churches (Presbyterian, Methodist, Baptist, and 
Episcopal), is a tablet identifying the Presbyterian Church 
as the oldest in the town. 

Rear Admiral William Thomas Sampson (1840-1902), 
commander of the American Fleet in the Battle of Santiago, 
was born in Palmyra. 

East of Palmyra State 31 parallels the New York State 
Barge Canal. 

PORT GIBSON, 27.7 m. (480 alt., 350 pop.), owes its 
origin to the Erie Canal, and had a much larger population 
during the period of greatest activity on that waterway. 

NEWARK, 30.8 m, (456 alt., 7,647 pop.), is the largest 
town between Rochester and Syracuse. The chief industries 
are canning and the manufacture of enamel ware. 

In the ROSE GARDENS of the Jackson Perkins Co., 305 
Madison St. (open to visitors; apply at office), new varieties 
of roses are developed and propagated and flowers are im- 
ported from all corners of the earth. 



Left from the four corners in Newark, on State 88 (N.) to junc- 
tion with a macadam road at 1.2 m.; L. on this road and L. on 
another macadam road at 1.4 m. to HYDESVILLE, 2 m. The place 
has only a garage and a house to mark its existence; but in a weed- 
grown lot by the side of the road stands a marker (R) indicating 
the BIRTHPLACE OF SPIRITUALISM. On this site stood the 
cottage home of the Fox Sisters, through whose mediumship com- 
munication with the spirit world is said to have been established 
on March 31, 1848. 

At 32.2 m. a macadam road leads R. to the NEWARK 
admitted only by special -permission), a conspicuous landmark 
looming high on the hill. This institution cares for nearly 
2,000 inmates and employs 340 nurses, doctors, and attend- 

East of Newark, State 31 runs along the bank of the 
Barge Canal. 

LYONS, 37 m. (437 alt., 3,956 pop.) (see Tour 11, Section ft. 

This section of the route runs straight N. through un- 
dulating orchard lands towards Lake Ontario, the highway 
constantly dipping and rising, producing the effect of a 
mild ride on a roller coaster. 

North from Lyons on State 14. 

ALTON, 12 m. (420 alt., 200 pop.), was in pioneer days a 
division point on the stage route from Buffalo to Water- 
town. At the Hotel Alton, still serving the public, stages 
stopped for fresh horses, while passengers rested and ate. 
Old residents tell of flocks of turkeys and droves of sheep 
driven from here to California in the gold rush days, across 
treeless prairies and through mountain passes. It is claimed 
that the sheep were included in the party to provide a roost 
for the turkeys at night. 



ALASA FARMS, 13-8 m. (R) (open to visitors by special per- 
mission), comprise an estate of more than 1,600 acres which 
once belonged to the Shakers; it is now devoted to stock 
raising. Its manor house on high ground overlooks the 
lower waters of Sodus Bay. 

At 15.4 m, Sodus Bay appears (R), with the coal docks of 
the Pennsylvania R. R. extending out into the water like a 
huge trussed bridge half completed. 

SODUS POINT, 16.5 m. (280 alt., 525 pop.), is a well- 
known summer resort situated on a point of land extending 
deep into Sodus Bay. There are numerous cottages, summer 
hotels, and amusement concessions. Boating, fishing, din- 
ing, and dancing are provided at varying prices. 

At 16.7 m. (L), two markers 100 ft. apart tell of a battle 
between the American and British forces on June 19, 1813, 
and of the burning of the town by the British. The road 
ends, 17.5 tfz., at the water's edge. 

40 m. 

This section of the route, closely following the Lake 
Ontario shore, passes through another fruit-growing 

PULTNEYVILLE, 12.5 m. (274 alt., 257 pop.), came into 
being in 1807 when a Captain Troop built a frame house on 
the present site of the Rolling homestead. Its early activi- 
ties were divided between gristmilling and lake shipping. 
Today a monument "In Memory of the Lake Captains of 
Pultneyville" stands overlooking the lake where the boats 
landed at two long, finger-like docks, now crumbling with 
age and disuse. A bronze plaque imbedded in the monument 
gives a list of 27 lake captains, headed by Samuel Troop 
and interspersed with the names of his descendants. 



A hotbed of abolitionism, Pultneyville's position on the 
lake early made it a strategic point on the Underground 
Railroad; and in the fragmentary accounts of this furtive 
artery of traffic are the names of many of its lake captains. 

CRESCENT BEACH, 13 m. (R), with entrance at the 
highway, is privately owned, but its bathhouses and other 
facilities are open to the public (^parking 25 cents.") 

NINE MILE POINT, 25.2 m. (R), is a summer resort with 
hotel, cottages, rocky beach, baseball diamond, and other 
amusements for summer vacationists. 

At 26.3 m. WEBSTER COUNTY PARK (R), nearing com- 
pletion in 1937, has 60 acres lying on both sides of the road 
and a lake frontage of 1,500 ft. It provides picnic shelters, 
fireplaces, comfort stations, parking stations, and three 
bathhouses with a capacity of 50 each. 

FOREST LAWN, 29.2 m., is a section of exclusive summer 
estates. The road winds up and down through thickly 
wooded knolls. Cottages stand back from the road screened 
from view by thick greenery. Duck ponds, fountains, water 
wheels, and miniature windmills appear between the breaks 
in the trees. 

At 30.5 m. the route proceeds over a causeway between 
Irondequoit Bay (L) and Lake Ontario (R); the New York 
Central tracks parallel the highway. 

The route via State 18 and Culver Road from Sea Breeze 
to ROCHESTER is covered under Rochester Points of 
Interest, (see Tour 1.) 


TOUR 13 


Rochester, Glen Haven, Bay View, Newport, Birds and 
Worms, Point Pleasant, Sea Breeze, Inspiration Point, 
Willow Grove Park, Ellison Park. County Roads and State 
18. Rochester Rochester, 32 m. 

Mostly improved roads, except some of gravel leading to 
resorts close to the bay. 

The route passes through a series of summer resorts along 
the bay. 

East from the Four Corners on Main St. to Culver Road; 
L. on Culver Road; R. on Norton St. ; L. on Bay View Road. 

GLEN HAVEN, 6.7 m., is situated near the head of 
Irondequoit Bay. Once one of the popular amusement re- 
sorts in the Rochester area, it now is devoted to summer 
cottages, boating docks, and picnic grounds. 

BAY VIEW, 6.9 m-, occupies a commanding situation 
close to the waters of the bay. It has several summer hotels. 
Each summer a motorboat regatta is held on the waters of 
the bay. Boats for rowing and fishing can be rented (jo cents 
per day and up.*) 

At 7.9 m. the route turns R. on Newport Road. 


NEWPORT, 8.5 m-t is another summer resort with one 
of the most pretentious hotels on the bay. It is especially 
noted for its political and fraternal celebrations. 

Retrace Newport Road to Ridge Road; R. on Ridge Road 
to Culver Road; at 10.9 m, R. on Seneca Road. 

BIRDS AND WORMS, 11.9 ., is said to take its name 
from a hunting and fishing club which was established here 
about 100 years ago. Seth Green, the eminent naturalist 
who discovered the modern method of propagating fish, is 
known to have been a member of the club. 

N. on Seneca Road to Peart Ave.; R. on Peart Ave. to 
Point Pleasant village, 12.7 m.\ R. on Point Pleasant Road. 

POINT PLEASANT, 13.2 ., is one of the most popular 
resorts on the W. side of the bay, with a large colony of 
summer cottages. Usually in the last week of June, the 
volunteer firemen of Point Pleasant sponsor an annual water 
carnival. A hydroplane is available for trips over the waters 
of Lake Ontario and Irondequoit Bay. 

W. on Point Pleasant Road to Culver Road; R. on Culver 

SEA BREEZE, 14.6 m. (265 alt., 1,000 pop.), Rochester's 
popular amusement resort, open from Memorial Day to 
Labor Day, is a miniature Coney Island, presenting many 
of the popular types of entertainment that have made the 
Long Island amusement resort famous. Many Rochester 
organizations, business establishments, and fraternal orders 
hold their annual outings here. Boating, fishing, swimming, 
and all manner of summer sports are found here, and 
abundantly patronized. A small passenger boat plying be- 
tween Sea Breeze and Charlotte leaves the dock on varying 



It was here that Denonville landed in 1687 to begin 
his punitive expedition against the Iroquois and embarked 
again after his failure to destroy the power of the Indians. 
Here later was built Fort des Sables, a part of the French 
plan to capture the rich fur trade of the region and add a 
link to the chain of empire they were forging in America. 

In Sea Breeze, Culver Road becomes State 18 which 
crosses the outlet of Irondequoit Bay at 14.6 m. At 15-1 m. 
R. on Bay Road; at 18 m. R. on Vogt Road. 

INSPIRATION POINT, 19.9 m. (automobiles, 2; cents, 
pedestrians 10 cents; picnic facilities}, high above the waters of 
Irondequoit Bay, is a vantage point for a panoramic view. 
Far to the S. rise green hills forming a background for the 
water of the bay. North, the long bay narrows to its outlet 
and merges with Lake Ontario, which stretches away to 
the hazy horizon and the shores of Canada. 

WILLOW GROVE PARK, 23 m., is a privately owned 
amusement park open to the public (reasonable charges for 
various amusements). There is scarcely any form of American 
game for which provision is not made: bowling, miniature 
golf, archery, tennis, baseball, boating, outdoor swimming, 
and modern "games of skill." 

At 26.2 m. the route crosses U. S. 104 and follows State 
35 (Creek Road.) 

ELLISON PARK, 27 m. 9 oldest of the Monroe County 
parks and the one nearest to Rochester, has an area of 387 
acres. An additional 13 acres were acquired to carry out a 
plan for the development of historic INDIAN LANDING 
and the ' 'LOST CITY OF TRYON. ' ' The park contains two 
baseball diamonds, seven softball diamonds, a football field, 
tennis and horseshoe courts, a polo field, a skating rink, a 
ski slide, a toboggan slide, bridle trails, hiking trails, and 



picnic groves equipped with stone fireplaces, tables, and 
running water. Boating and canoeing are permitted, and 
fishing under certain restrictions. In secluded places in the 
park are cabins (nominal fee) equipped with cooking stoves 
and large fireplaces and provided with electricity and 
running water. No overnight camping is permitted; the 
park closes at 10 P.M. 

Within the park, between two rustic bridges over Ironde- 
quoit Creek, stands a boulder monument marking the 
SITE OF INDIAN LANDING. The history of Indian 
Landing may be divided into four periods: 

First, the Indian era. The five Iroquois Nations, especi- 
ally the Seneca tribe, used the site as their southern port 
on Lake Ontario. All the Indian trails in this territory led 
to the Landing, which was the beginning of the Ohio Trail 
from Canada to the Mississippi Valley. A Seneca village 
and a permanent Long House stood on the spot. 

Second, the French era. In 1669, Sieur de la Salle touched 
at the Indian Landing and met representatives of the Seneca 
Nation. Later Denonville used the landing as the base for 
his invasion of the Seneca -country, this still further em- 
bittering the Indians against the French. 

Third, the British era. In 1764 General Bradstreet, with 
Sir William Johnson second in command, stopped at the 
Landing on his expedition against Fort Niagara. After the 
fall of Niagara, the British established a fort and trading 
post near the Landing site. 

Fourth, the American era. After the Revolution the Land- 
ing was expected by many to become the site of a future 
city. The Canadian fur trade was centered here; a shipyard 
was built; and in 1797 Judge Try on staked out what was 
known as the city of Tryon, the site of which was lost for 



In another section of the park, near Blossom Road, is a 
monument marking LANDING ROAD, the portage which 
ran from this site W. to the mouth of Red Creek in Genesee 
Valley Park, skirting the southern base of the Pinnacle 
and Mt. Hope. 

West from Ellison Park on Blossom Road. 

28 m. (L), stands a granite monument, surmounted by a 
stone copy of the wooden cross of the early French mission- 
aries. According to the inscription, the monument com- 
WORSHIP in the Rochester area a small cabin of bark 
built near the site in June 1671, by the Franciscan -Recollect 
missionaries, Louis Hennepin, Gabriel de la Ribourde, and 
Zenobe Membre. It also names other missionaries and ex- 
plorers, all of whom either visited or resided for a time 
in this region. 

The route follows Blossom Road to University Ave.; R. 
on University Ave.; L. on Main St. to Four Corners, 32 m. 


TOUR 14. 


Rochester, Webster, Williamson, Sodus, Red Creek, 
Oswego, Fair Haven Park, Wolcott, Savannah, Rochester. 
U S 104, State 104A, 414, 31. Rochester Rochester, 161.3 m. 

New York Central R. R., Rochester to Oswego and Savan- 
nah to Rochester. Good hotel accommodations in most 
towns and tourist homes all along the route. Highways 
nearly all concrete and open throughout the year. 

This route crosses the head of Irondequoit Bay and swings 
northward until it reaches Ridge Road East, which follows 
the ancient shore line of prehistoric Lake Iroquois. The 
section along the eastern lake shore is a continuation of 
the great fruit belt S. of the lake. As the route bears north- 
ward, the best of the fruit country is left behind, and dairy 
farms are seen more frequently. 


East from the Four Corners on East Main St. to Culver 
Road; L. on Culver Road, R. on Empire Blvd., which 
becomes US 104. 

FLOAT BRIDGE, 4.8 m.,zt the head of Irondequoit Bay, 
is a misnomer for the modern concrete bridge, but its pre- 


decessor, the original Old Float Bridge, was a wooden struc- 
ture which floated on the waters of the bay. 

WEST WEBSTER, 7-9 m. (425 alt., 300 pop.), is just 
skirted by US 104. The village is one of the suburban 
villages lying in the Rochester area, with fine schools and 
pleasant churches. 

Truck gardening is one of the principal occupations of 
this region. 

WEBSTER, 10.9 m. (408 alt., 1,552 pop.), extends along 
Ridge Road for more than half a mile. Its industries include 
one of the largest basket manufactories in New York State, 
a canning company, a cold storage company, and a casket 
factory. Several evaporators process fruit from local or- 
chards. B. T. Babbitt, who later became well known as a 
manufacturer of soaps, once taught school in Webster. The 
village is on the Rome, Watertown & Ogdensburg branch 
of the New York Central, which ships a large tonnage 
from this point. 

FRUITLAND, 15-7 m. (451 alt., 51 pop.), receives its 
name from the fact that it lies in the rich fruit belt of New 
York. On the outskirts of the town is one of the largest 
mink farms in the state. 

ONTARIO CENTER, 17.3 m. (441 alt., 275 pop.), like 
its neighbor, Fruitland, is noted particularly for its fruit. 

ONTARIO, 18.6 m. (447 alt., 450 pop.), also is noted for 

Left from Ontario on the Town Road is FURNACEVILLE, 2 m., 
which for 50 years smelted daily ten tons of iron mined there and 
employed 100 men in the industry. Now it comprises little more 
than a school and a general store. 

The BIG ELM, 22.4m. (R), is an octagonal house by the 



WILLIAMSON, 23.7 m. (454 alt., 1,000 pop.), has many 
claims to importance in the world of agriculture and com- 
merce: one-nineteenth of all the celery and one-tenth of all 
the carrots produced in the United States are shipped from 
Williamson; the fertile muck lands surrounding the town 
produce one-third of Wayne County's lettuce. To store this 
output the township of Williamson provides 3,059,000 cu. 
ft. of cold storage space. 

The town was named for Captain Williamson, Scottish 
officer in the British Army, who suffered imprisonment in 
Boston at the close of the Revolution. As administrator 
of the vast Pulteney Estate, a sweep of territory comprising 
1,000,000 acres of land, he gave a .vivid coloring to the 
history of this section of the state. He was a builder of 
towns, a maker of roads, a resident landlord of a great 
land empire. 

A short distance S. of the village on the Marion Road 
stands the MILHAN HOUSE, once used as a station on 
the Underground Railroad. From the Milhan house the 
escaping slaves were smuggled to the docks at Pultney- 
ville and secreted in a large woodpile used for firing the 
boats commanded by Captain Troop. From this practice 
the expression "a nigger in the woodpile" is said to have 

SODUS, 30.4 m. (457 alt., 1,444 pop.), dates back to 1795, 
when its first settlers, a family named MofFat, built their 
home. The EPISCOPAL CHURCH, in which services are 
still held, was erected in 1826. The main part of SODUS 
INN was built in 1812; at that time it was one and one-half 
stories high. The settlement was originally called East 
Ridge, because it is at the eastern extremity of the ridge 
marking the ancient shore line of Lake Iroquois. 


The villagers retain many memories of the past which 
have taken on the character of legends. Along the main 
street of the town, where now the cars of tourists pass, one 
of the pioneer women rode to church each Sunday in a hollow 
log drawn by a team of horses. Much whiskey was smuggled 
across the lake from Canada and hidden in the swamps near 
the shore, to be brought down Salmon Creek and retailed 
in the settlement for 13 cents a gallon. The timbers of the 
COBBLESTONE HOUSE standing across the street from 
Sodus Inn were shaped from allegedly stolen lumber. 

Nearly 80 years ago Sodus made a strange industrial ven- 
ture, an attempt to raise silkworms. A large building was 
erected on Maple Hill to house the worms; mulberry trees 
were planted for food; and the industry started on a large 
basis. But severe weather winter-killed the mulberry trees 
and Sodus 's hope of becoming a silk manufacturing center 
died with the silkworms. 

The HOUSE OF DR. GAYLORD, on the SE. corner of 
Main St. and Neward Rd., was an Underground Railroad 

WALLINGTON, 33-3 m. (409 alt., 150 pop.), owes its 
existence to the New York Central and Pennsylvania R. 
Rs. and received its name from an old cobblestone tavern, 
the WALLING HOUSE, built in 1824, which stands at the 
Pennsylvania R. R. crossing. The village was once an im- 
portant transfer point for coal from the Pennsylvania mines. 

ALTON, 35.8 m. (401 alt., 200 pop.), (see Tour 12, Sec- 
tion fr). 

RESORT, 37.9 m. (273 alt., 50 pop.), once called Port 
Glasgow, lies near the head of Sodus Bay on the east shore. 
This is one of the three places in the country (the other two 
are in Ohio and Florida) in which lotus flowers bloom. Once 



in danger of extermination by the depredations of irre- 
sponsible persons, these rare plants are now protected by 
the State and are rapidly increasing in numbers. They are 
in full view of the highway, but are often mistaken for 
water lilies. How they came to be here is not certain, since 
the stories of their origin are based on traditions and 
legends. Perhaps the most authentic of these stories gives 
the Indians credit for their presence. 

AT 38.7 m. is junction (L) with a macadam road. 

Left on this road are LAKE BLUFF and CHIMNEY BLUFF, 5 .5 m. , 
the highest points on Lake Ontario. They are popular summer 
resorts, rimmed with cottages perched high above the blue waters 
of the lake. Lake Bluff provides a magnificent view of Sodus Bay. 

WOLCOTT, 43-3 m. (398 alt., 1,260 pop.), derived its 
name from Oliver Wolcott, Governor of Connecticut, from 
which state many of the first settlers came. The first house 
in the town, built by Jonathan Melvin in 1812, is still stand- 
ing, in good condition and occupied, on Smith St. just off 
Lake Ave. 

The town is bordered on the east by Wolcott Creek, 
bridged at the entrance to the village, at which point the 
creek descends by means of a high waterfall into a ravine, 
furnishing power for the mill built there in 1814 and still 
standing today. 

WOLCOTT HOTEL, built nearly a century ago, was a 
station on the old post road from Fort Stanwix to the 
Niagara Frontier. Until the building of the Erie Canal, all 
transportation to and from Wolcott was by way of Sloop 
Landing, on the E. shore of Great Sodus Bay. 

North of Wolcott village and along Big Red Creek are 
several beds of iron ore which in past years have been 
worked with considerable profit. 

4 1 ? 


RED CREEK, 49.5 m. (355 alt., 560 pop.), is the smallest 
town in New York that has a landing field. The field, 
located 0.5 in- back of Red Creek Cemetery, is privately 
owned. At its dedication 10,000 people were present. 

The town takes its name from the large creek flowing 
through it, but up to 1836 it was called Jacksonville, in 
honor of Gen. Andrew Jackson. The first log house was 
built in 1811, but the settlement was not incorporated as a 
village until 1852. A boulder on the grounds of the new 
high school marks the site of Red Creek Union Academy, 
built in 1839, later the Red Creek Union Seminary. 

HANNIBAL, 59.4 m. (354 alt., 410 pop.), is a village on 
the New York Central R. R., and the center of a prosperous 
farming community. The first settlement was made in 
1802; in 1806 it was organized as a town by the legislature. 
The first log building, erected in 1808 near the site of an 
old Indian camp, was kept as a hotel by Henry Jennings. 
Before the coming of the railroad Hannibal was a stage- 
coach station; here the horses were changed on the routes 
between Oswego and Auburn and Oswego and Rochester. 
The town lent a sympathetic hand toward the escape of 
slaves to Canada via the Underground Railroad. 

The old BREWSTER HOME, two doors N. of the post 
office, was a station on the Underground Railroad. 

Two large elms near the eastern boundary of the village 
(L) still bear upon their trunks the faint scars of a hatchet, 
accounted for in a marker: "Blazed trees over 100 years old, 
which marked trail from Oswego to Auburn when road 
was only a track through the forest." 

OSWEGO, 71.4 m. (300 alt., 22,652 pop.). 

Railroad Stations: Delaware, Lackawanna & Western and New 
York Central R. R's., W. Utica near 1st St.; New York, Ontario 
& Western, cor. 3rd and Bridge Sts. 



Bus Stations: Empire State R. R. Co., Inc. (Oswego Div.), 212 W. 

1st St. & 117 E. 1st St. 

Street Busses: Fare 10 cents. 

Taxis: 25 cents up, zone system. 

Accommodations: First class hotels and tourist homes. 

Motion Picture Houses: One first-run house; several neighborhood 


Athletic Field: Otis Field, W. Bridge St. at Turnpike. 

Swimming: Oswego Beach, Lake Ontario. 

Tennis: Several courts in city parks. 

Annual Events: U. S. Army Maneuvers at Fort Ontario during July 

and August. 

During the Colonial period of American history Oswego 
was a strategic commercial and military outpost. In the 
national period its history may be said to begin with the 
surrender of Fort Ontario by the British on July 14, 1796. 
Two Indian traders, John Love and Ziba Phillips, settled 
near the mouth of the river at about the time the British 
left. In 1796 Neil McMullin, a merchant of Kingston, N. 
Y., had the frame of a small house constructed in Kingston, 
and, with his family, brought it over the route so often 
traversed by soldiers and fur traders by way of the Mo- 
hawk River, Wood Creek, Oneida Lake, and the Oswego 
River. The house was erected on the west side of the river 
where Seneca St. now is. This was the first frame house 
and the McMullins the first family after military occupa- 
tion ceased. 

In 1799 the customs collection district of Oswego was 
formed by Congress, embracing all the shore and waters of 
the St. Lawrence and Lake Ontario from the 45th parallel 
to the Genesee River. The President was authorized to 
appoint a collector; with the appointment delayed, the 
whole frontier was left unguarded and "free trade" pre- 
vailed for a long time. 



Peter Sharpe and William Vaughan came about 1798 or 
1799 and soon became owners of a small schooner of about 
50 tons. A year later Archibald Fairfield purchased two 
schooners, with which he engaged in commerce between 
Niagara and Oswego. The village rapidly became a lake 
port. Settlers came in large numbers, new buildings were 
erected, and more lake boats built. The quick growth be- 
came a matter of astonishment to visitors. One stranger is 
said to have inquired, "How do all you people make a 
living here?" And a well-known local character is said to 
have answered, "Well, sir, in summer we live by skinning 
strangers, in winter by skinning each other." 

The east side of the river was surveyed in 1814 and 100 lots 
laid out. The War of 1812 hampered commerce; but after 
peace was declared with the British in 1815, business in- 
creased. In 1821 a lighthouse was erected by the Govern- 
ment; in 1822 the first bridge, where Bridge St. now is, was 
constructed to unite villages on the E. and W. sides of the 
river, which had already merged politically in 1818. 

The routing of the Erie Canal across the state to Buffalo 
destroyed Oswego 's hope of becoming the largest port on 
the Great Lakes. But the opening of the Welland Canal 
brought a great upswing in business and a general period 
of boom marked by the construction of hydraulic canals, 
gristmills, cotton factories, machine shops, tobacco facto- 
ries, tanneries, and iron works. The first railroad, the Syra- 
cuse & Oswego, was completed in October 1848. In the same 
year the Kingsford Starch Factory was erected. Kingsford 
succeeded in his experiments to make a starch from Indian 
corn and started an industry which became one of the 
largest of its kind in the country. 

The great fire of July 5, 1853, destroyed all the mills and 
elevators on the east side of the river. Most of these, how- 
ever, were soon rebuilt, so that in 1854 17 mills and 10 



elevators were operating in Oswego. In that year the village 
was the home port for 69 lake vessels. 

The abrogation of the reciprocity treaty with Canada in 
1866 was a check to the prosperity of the city, and the 
panic of 1873 was another blow; the gradual moving of the 
flour-milling industry to the West was another adverse 
factor with which Oswego has had to contend. 

FORT ONTARIO embodies much of the historical inter- 
est of Oswego. The first fort, on the west bank of the Oswego 
River, was built in 1727. Fort Ontario itself, about a mile 
from the west bank of the river, was begun in 1754 and fin- 
ished probably in the spring of 1756, at the outbreak of the 
French and Indian War. In August of that year the fort 
surrendered to the French and the buildings were burned. 
But the French deserted the place, and by 1759 the new 
Fort Ontario was built close to the site of the old. With 
some additions it remained until the present fort was built 
in 1839. Since that time the buildings have been modern- 
ized, and the fort is now a regular garrison of the United 
States Army. 

Right from Oswego on First St., which becomes State 48, paral- 
leling the Oswego canal and the river, is BATTLE ISLAND 
STATE PARK, 7-5 m. Battle Island was the scene of a battle in 
1756 between the British under Captain Bradstreet and a detach- 
ment of French and Indians under Captain de Villiers, with the 
Americans finally victorious. Monuments and markers at the 
park give an account of the engagement. 

104A, 414. 39.1 m. 

West from Oswego on US 104. 

SOUTHWEST OSWEGO, 5-5 m. (351 alt., 50 pop.), lies 
at the intersection of US 104 and State 104 A. The route 
turns R. on State 104A. 



lies on the southern shore of Lake Ontario and the eastern 
shore of Little Sodus Bay, contains 660 acres overlooking 
the waters of the lake, with picnic grounds, bathing beach, 
and bathhouses. The workers of a large Civilian Conserva- 
tion Corps camp in the park are building additional im- 
provements. There is ample provision for over-night 

At RED CREEK, 21.4 m., State 104A rejoins US 104; 
the route turns R. on US 104 to WOLCOTT, 27.2 m. 

At Wolcott the route turns L. on State 414, which runs 
directly S. 

At SAVANNAH, 39.1 m. t the route turns R. on State 31. 

(see Tour 11, Section/). 

(see Tour 12, Section a). 


1612 Champlain published first maps of Great Lakes and 
Genesee River. 

1669 La Salle disembarked at Indian Landing, now in 
Ellison Park. 

1687 The Marquis de Denonville destroyed four Indian 
towns in the Iroquois country. 

1716 Fort de Sables erected by the French at Sea Breeze on 
Irondequoit Bay. 

1761 Views of Upper and Lower Genesee Falls published in 

1779 Sullivan campaign against Iroquois broke war 
strength of the league. 

1788 Massachusetts sold New York State lands west of 
Seneca Lake to Oliver Phelps and Nathaniel Gorham. 
Phelps and Gorham secured from Indians Mill Lot 
Grant, 200,000 acres west of Genesee River as a site 
for a mill. 

Phelps and Gorham gave Indian Allen 100-acre tract 
for mill site. 

1790 Orringh Stone settled in East Ave.; house still 

1792 William Hincher built first cabin between Genesee 
River and Fort Niagara. 

1794 Town of Northfield organized; comprised present 
towns of Pittsford, Penfield, Henrietta, Brighton, 
Perinton, Irondequoit, and Webster. 
First school in Pittsford. 



1796 King's Landing, later called Hanfords Landing, 

1797 Louis Philippe with two brothers visited the Genesee 

First crop of grain harvested. 

First schooner, the Jemima, built on Genesee River. 

1800 Col. Nathaniel Rochester, Col. William Fitzhugh, 
and Maj. Charles Carroll visited the Genesee country. 

1 801 Trading center at mouth of Genesee named Charlotte . 

1803 Rochester, Fitzhugh, and Caroll purchased 100-acre 
tract for $1,750. 

1804 Castle Town established by Col. Isaac Castle at the 

1805 First Genesee flood. 

Charlotte established by Congress as a port of entry. 

1809 New York State Legislature passed an act for con- 
struction of bridge across the Genesee at the Falls. 

1810 State began wooden bridge over Genesee at what is 
now Main St. 

DeWitt Clinton made first visit to site of Rochester. 
Bounty on rattlesnakes increased. 

1811 First lots sold on 100-acre tract. 

1812 First dwelling on 100-acre tract built for Hamlet 
Scrantom on present site of Powers Building. 
Main Street bridge completed. 

Village of Frankfort laid out at Main Falls. 

1813 Sacrifice of White Dog celebrated for last time by 

Indians, in what is now Livingston Park. 
First public conveyance, ox team and wagon between 
Rochesterville and Indian Landing, operated semi- 

First school taught by Huldah Strong. 
Abelard Reynolds built frame house on site of present 



1814 Commodore Yeo of British Navy repulsed at Char- 
lotte by strategy. 

First schoolhouse built on site of present Board of 
Education Building. 

1815 First Presbyterian Church organized, first religious 
society in Rochester. 

First village census taken; 331 pop. 
First wedding solemnized. 

1816 First newspaper established, Weekly Gazette. 
Village of Carthage founded at Lower Falls. 
Cotton mill began operation: 1,392 spindles. 

1817 Village of Rochesterville incorporated. 

First steamboat, the Ontario, touched at Port of 


First Fourth of July celebration held. 

First volunteer fire company formed. 

1818 Nathaniel Rochester and family settled permanently 
in Rochester. 

First Sunday School organized. 

Exports from Port of Rochester, $380,000. 

1819 Carthage Bridge finished: called highest wooden 
single-arch bridge in the world. 

Erie Canal route through city surveyed. 

1820 Carthage bridge collapsed. 

First U. S. census taken; 1,502 pop. 
St. Luke's Episcopal Church built. 

1821 Monroe County created from Genesee and Ontario 

Cornerstone of first courthouse laid. 

Erie Canal aqueduct commenced, employing convict 

labor from Auburn prison. 

1822 Name of Rochesterville changed to Rochester. 
Lighthouse erected at Charlotte; still standing. 
Third village census taken: 2,700 pop. 

1823 Aqueduct completed. 

First fair held in Monroe County. 

St. Patrick's Church built on site of present Cathedral. 



1824 Thurlow Weed became editor of Rochester Telegraph. 
Bank of Rochester incorporated. 

First Presbyterian Church erected. 

1825 Erie Canal formally opened. 
General Lafayette visited Rochester. 

First church organ installed in St. Luke's Church. 

1826 Rochester Daily Advertiser established as first daily 
west of Albany. 

William Morgan abducted. 
First public library opened. 

1827 First Rochester village directory issued. 
First high school established. 

1828 Reynolds Arcade built. 

First temperance meeting held. 

1829 Sam Patch made fatal leap over Falls of the Genesee. 
Joseph Smith found golden plates at Cumorah Hill. 

1830 Last wolf in Monroe County killed. 

Second Federal census of village taken; 9,207 pop. 

1831 Col. Nathaniel Rochester died, May 31. 

1832 Cholera epidemic broke out, Ashbel Riley buried 80 
victims unaided. 

Rochester Board of Health established. 

1833 Daily Democrat founded. 

Second cholera epidemic occurred. 

First successful reaping machine invented by Obed 


Rise of Millerism. 

1834 Rochester incorporated as a city. 

Jonathan Child elected first mayor by common 


City's night watch increased to two men. 

Steamboat Genesee built and operated on Genesee 

River from Rapids to Geneseo. 

1835 First city census taken; 14,404 pop. 

First Rochester Water Works Company incorporated. 



1836 First balloon ascension. 

Mount Hope Cemetery established. 

1837 Financial crash; first relief work offered unemployed 
grading Buffalo St. (now Main St. W.). 

1838 Rochester Orphan Asylum incorporated. 
Rochester Antislavery Society formed. 

1839 First antislavery convention held. 

1840 First theater opened in city. 

Plate-glass windows introduced in Rochester by 
Abelard Reynolds. 

Third Federal census taken; 20,191 pop. 
Ellwanger nursery founded. 

1841 Remains of Boyd and Parker brought from Cuyler- 
ville to Mount Hope Cemetery. 

First free school established. 
Board of Education organized. 

1842 Second Erie Canal aqueduct completed. 

Pistol duel fought on Pinnacle Hills; no casualties. 

1843 Masonry revived. 

Berith Kodesh Temple founded. 
John Quincy Adams visited city. 

1844 First telegraph office opened. 

Second city charter granted by legislature. 
Millerites awaited the end of the world. 

1845 First Jewish child born in city. 
Third state census taken; 26,965 pop. 

1846 First Universalist Church Society organized. 
Newspaper telegraph service begun. 

1848 Fox sisters heard mysterious rappings in Hydeville 
haunted house first seed of Spiritualism. 
Frederick Douglass published the North Star. 
Women's rights convention held. 

Spiritualism brought to Rochester by Fox sisters. 

1849 First gas lamps installed. 

Jesse W. Hatch employed first female clerk, in his 

shoe store. 

Cholera epidemic in city resulted in 160 deaths. 


1850 University of Rochester and Theological Seminary 

Third city charter passed by legislature. 
Free public schools established by charter amend- 

First wholesale clothing manufacturing company 
Federal census taken; 36,403 pop. 

1851 Daniel Webster spoke on the Constitution and the 
Preservation of the Union. 

Jenny Lind sang at Corinthian Hall. 

Second courthouse finished. 

Rochester Free Academy (high school) established. 

1852 Adelina Patti (age eight) appeared with Ole Bull, 
singing as a child prodigy. 

Ralph Waldo Emerson spoke on Wealth; and The 

Anglo Saxon Race. 

Cholera epidemic resulted in 420 deaths. 

1853 University of Rochester given eight acres on Prince 
St. by Azariah Boody. 

New York Central & Hudson R. R. formed by con- 

First chief of police appointed. 
Bausch & Lomb Optical Company established. 

1854 Pundit Club organized at residence of Lewis H. 

Horace Greeley spoke on Reform and Reformers. 

1855 Susan B. Anthony spoke at women's rights conven- 

1856 Carthage suspension bridge completed. 

1857 St. Mary's Hospital opened; first patient, Sept. 15. 
William Lloyd Garrison and Susan B. Anthony spoke 
at abolition meeting in Corinthian Hall. 

1858 Disastrous fire at local celebration of laying of first 
Atlantic cable. 

William H. Seward spoke at Corinthian Hall and 
originated the phrase, "the irrepressible conflict." 
Protective Fire Company formed. 


1859 First liberty pole raised at corner of Franklin St. and 
Main St. E. 

James A. Vick, nurseryman, originated selling seeds 

by mail. 

DeLeve crossed Genesee Falls on a tight-rope. 

1860 First electric system for fire alarm installed. 

New York, Albany & Rochester Telegraph Company 
consolidated with Western Union, with offices in 

Rochester Historical Society organized. 
Rochester Club organized, first social club in Roch- 

Eight slaves passed through Rochester by Under- 
ground Railroad. 
Federal census; 48,204 pop. 

1861 Abraham Lincoln passed through city on way to in- 

War declared! 

First regiment left Rochester for front under Col. 

Isaac F. Quinby. 

First steam fire engines introduced in Rochester. 

Anderson Hall dedicated, first building on U. of R. 


Fourth city charter passed by legislature. 

1862 Lewis Swift discovered his first comet from observa- 
tory on roof of Duffy's cidermill. 

Rochester Free Academy incorporated. 
Paid fire department organized. 
First street car company organized. 

1863 Conscription started August 5. 

Central Library established by consolidation of 17 

school libraries. 

Patti and Gottschalk concert given, Corinthian Hall. 

First street car operated, July 9. 

Funeral held for Col. Patrick H. O'Rorke, killed at 


1864 Rochester City Hospital opened. 

Wounded soldiers by hundreds cared for at City and 
St. Mary's hospitals. 



Seth Green bought land in Caledonia for fish hatch- 

Free mail delivery instituted, one carrier each side of 

1865 Great flood of the Genesee occurred. 

Abraham Lincoln funeral train passed through Roch- 

Western Union stock crashed, $230 a share to $68. 
Newspapers opposed mail boxes on lampposts. 
Daniel Powers began construction of Powers Block. 
Police force organized; first police uniforms issued. 
General Custer and General Grant spoke from Con- 
gress Hall balcony. 

1866 Blind Tom at Corinthian Hall. 

First G. A. R. post in New York State organized. 
Queen Emma of Sandwich Islands (Hawaii) passed 
through, gave interview. 

1867 Parks made available to public on Sundays. 
Seth Green perfected artificial fish hatching. 
Indians held ceremonial dances in Maplewood Park. 
Opera: The Black Crook. 

1868 Charles Dickens visited Rochester. 
First Memorial Day exercises held. 

Roman Catholic Diocese of Rochester created; Rev. 
Bernard J. McQuaid appointed bishop. 

1869 Street car turntable built at Four Corners. 
St. Patrick's Cathedral opened. 

1870 Powers Block completed. 

The Democrat and the Chronicle consolidated to form 
the Democrat & Chronicle. 
Federal census 62,386. 

1871 First Sunday paper published, the News Letter. 
Rochester Germans celebrated close of Franco- 
Prussian War. 

1872 Smallpox and meningitis epidemics broke out. 
Susan B. Anthony and 13 other women arrested for 
voting in National election. 

Citizens' Gas Company incorporated. 



English sparrows liberated in parks by George Bing; 
citizens raised subscriptions to reimburse him. 
Waterworks commission established. 

1873 Cornerstone of new city hall laid. 
Rochester Driving Park organized. 
Free Academy built. 

1874 Holley waterworks system introduced for fire 
protection; first stream of water used at Stewart 
Block fire, January 8. 

First train operated over Rochester & State Line 
R. R. (Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburgh). 
City mourned death of President Fillmore. 

1875 New city hall opened January 5; cost $337,000. 
First fast mail, New York to Chicago, passed 
through city. 

Local Y. M. C. A. organized. 

Bible reading in public schools discontinued. 

1876 School for the deaf opened at 70 St. Paul St. 
Centennial celebration. 

New port of entry received first shipment of goods 

from abroad. 

Municipal court organized. 

Hemlock Lake water supplied by new waterworks 


1877 Rochester Yacht Club held regatta on Lake Ontario. 
Run on Rochester Savings Bank stopped by display 
of $1,000,000 in greenbacks. 

Telephone line completed from Rochester to Hem- 
lock Lake (28 m.), the longest then in use in the 

Sibley Hall, U. of R., completed (gift of Hiram 

1878 Passenger elevator built on high river bank at Glen 

Firemen's Monument dedicated at Mount Hope 

1879 Elwood Block built^at Main and State Sts. 

Bell Telephone Co. began business in Rochester. 


Rochester telephone exchange installed. 
First Sunday edition of Democrat & Chronicle pub- 
Rochester Morning Herald established. 

1880 First photographic dry plates in America made by 
George Eastman. 

Local Y. M. C. A. incorporated. 

Rockefeller Hall, Theological Seminary, dedicated. 

Federal census, 89,366. 

1881 Revised version of New Testament first sold in Roch- 
ester; 1,500 copies sold first day; Dr. Asahel Kendrick 
of Theological Seminary one of revisers. 

Maud S. broke world trotting record at Driving 

Park; mile in 2:10^. 

Memorial funeral held for President Garfield. 

Clara Barton Chapter II, second Red Cross chapter 

in U. S., organized. 

First commercial electric lights installed in Powers 

Art Gallery. 

1882 Ground broken for elevated tracks of New York 
Central R. R. 

First meeting of Fortnightly Club held. 
Street Railway Co. started line of herdics (busses) 
from Four Corners to city line via East Ave. 
Fire company first provided with horse-drawn ap- 

1883 New York Central R. R. station at St. Paul St. 

Warner Observatory built. 
Powers Hotel completed. 

Prof. Swift discovered new comet in Warner Ob- 

1884 City celebrated 50th anniversary of incorporation as 
a city; Gov. Grover Cleveland guest of honor. 
Reynolds Library organized. 

First mounted police organized. 

First photographic films made by Eastman Company. 



1885 Genesee Valley Club incorporated. 
Mechanics Institute organized. 
Charlotte Boulevard tollgate abandoned. 
Salvation Army opened barracks. 
Eastman Kodak invented. 

Rochester Baseball Company incorporated. 

1886 Rochester Yacht Club organized. 
Mrs. Abelard Reynolds died, aged 102. 

1887 Chamber of Commerce organized. 
Homeopathic Hospital incorporated. 

Ellwanger & Barry donated land for Highland Park. 
Rochester Electric Railway Co. incorporated. 

1888 Park system established, Dr. Edward Mott Moore, 

First Kodak put on market. 

Fire swept Lantern Works, many lives lost. 

Lyceum Theater opened. 

Telephone subscribers organized strike. 

Chamber of Commerce incorporated. 

1889 Cornerstone laid for Y. M. C. A. building at Court 
St. and South Ave. 

First electric street car opened, city line to Charlotte. 
Old liberty pole blown down. 
Hahnemann Hospital incorporated. 
Women's Ethical Club organized. 

1890 First electric street car operated on city streets. 
Children's Pavilion in Highland Park opened to 

Cyclone caused heavy damage in Rochester. 
Federal census, 133,696. 

1891 Street railway transfers first used; invented by Harry 

Empire State Express made first run through city. 
Cornerstone of St. Bernard's Seminary laid. 

1892 Riverside Cemetery established. 
Rochester Bar Association incorporated. 
Voting machine invented by Jacob H. Myer. 
First branch post office opened. 



President Harrison present for unveiling of Soldiers 

and Sailors Monument. 

City paralyzed by blizzard, March 11. 

1893 First woman student admitted to U. of R. 
Woman's Educational and Industrial Union organ- 

St. Bernard's Seminary dedicated. 

1 894 Homeopathic Hospital (now the Genesee) removed to 
Alexander St. 

Chamber of Commerce collected $11,872.49 for un- 

New Mechanics Institute opened. 
Cornerstone of third courthouse laid. 
Second Hemlock Lake conduit finished. 
Individual communion cups first used in Rochester. 

1895 First moving-picture machine exhibited in city. 
Common council purchased voting machine. 
David Jayne Hill resigned as president of U. of R. 
School board banned dancing at high school func- 

1896 First moving picture shown publicly, Nov. 2. 
First municipal skating rink opened. 
Voting machine used for first time. 
William Jennings Bryan spoke on Free Silver. 

1897 Health Bureau opened first milk station for babies. 
Bicycle Show held in Fitzhugh Hall. 

Sunday baseball games forbidden in the city. 

1898 Rochester Public Health Association formed. 
Queen Liliuokalani of the Sandwich Islands (Hawaii) 
visited the city. 

Diamond jubilee of St. Patrick's parish celebrated. 

1899 Frederick Douglass monument dedicated. 
Women elected to school board for first time. 
Rochester Academy of Medicine organized. 

1900 Dr. Rush Rhees inaugurated as president of U. of R. 
William Jennings Bryan, Chauncey M. Depew, and 
Theodore Roosevelt visited Rochester. 

Federal census, 162,608. 



1901 Free dental dispensary inaugurated by Rochester 
. Dental Society. 

Orphan Asylum fire caused death of 31 children. 
George B. Selden's patents on compression gas engine 
for automobiles confirmed. 
Manual training introduced in public schools. 

1902 First playground established, at Brown's Square. 
Smallpox epidemic, 1,000 cases, caused 100 deaths. 
Dr. George Goler performed heroic service in fighting 
the scourge. 

East High School built on Alexander St. 

1903 Dr. Adolph Lorenz visited city and performed 
"bloodless" operations. 

Rochester Automobile Club incorporated. 
Masonic Temple dedicated. 

1904 George Eastman gave first gift to U. of R., $60,000 
for biological and physical laboratory. 

Great fire on Main Street destroyed two blocks of 
stores, including that of Sibley, Lindsay and Curr 
in the Granite Building. 

Rochester Gas & Electric Company and Rochester 
Railway & Light Company consolidated. 

1905 U. of R. received $100,000 from Andrew Carnegie on 
condition that the college raise an equal amount. 
Statue of Martin B. Anderson, first president, pre- 
sented to U. of R. 

Rochester granted a first-class city charter. 
Police department traffic squad organized. 

1906 Genesee Valley Club house built corner East Ave. 
and Gibbs St. 

Susan B. Anthony died. 

Rev. Dr. A. S. Crapsey tried for heresy. 

Mercury at 71 degrees on January 21 broke 35-year 


1907 New York Central bought property cheaply on 
Clinton Ave. N. for new station. 

First electric cars operated on Rochester branch of 

Erie R. R. 

St. Mary's Hospital observed 50th anniversary. 



1908 Monument to Schiller unveiled in Anderson Park. 
Miss Frances A. Baker gave 120 acres for addition to 
Genesee Valley Park. 

Durand-Eastman Park opened. 

Additional acres given Cobb's Hill Park by George 


1909 Fire destroyed Berith Kodesh Temple. 
Rochester baseball team won pennant in Eastern 

Bishop Bernard J. McQuaid died. 

1910 Official city flag first displayed. 
Local Boy Scouts organized. 

First attempt at flying in Rochester made by ama- 

Buffalo Bill, former resident, made last appearance 
in Rochester. 

Theodore Roosevelt addressed mass meeting in Con- 
vention Hall. 
Federal census 218,149. 

1911 Sunday ball-playing in the parks officially sanctioned. 
John J. Frisbie made his first successful airplane flight 
over the city. 

First board of trustees of public library named by 

1912 Memorial Art Gallery given to U. of R. by Mrs. 
James Sibley Watson in memory of her son. 
Automotive fire apparatus installed. 

First horse show held at Industrial Exposition. 
$1,000,000 endowment fund for U. of R. raised by 
popular subscription. 

Land on Prince St. & University Ave. donated by 
Dr. John P. Mann for Women's College. 

1913 City purchased property at Canadice Lake to aug- 
ment water supply. 

River in highest flood since 1865- 
Common council approved ordinance for control of 
the Genesee by building retaining walls and deepen- 
ing the river bed. 

Rochester Zoological Society obtained land in Dur- 
and-Eastman Park for deer and buffalo. 



Decision in favor of the city in Morton Rundel will 

case assured construction of Rundel Memorial 


Nelly McElroy appointed first policewoman. 

1914 Friendly Home purchased twenty acres at East Ave. 
and Landing Road. 

New Station of New York Central R. R. at N. 
Clinton and Central Aves. opened. 
Earthquake shock frightened many citizens. 

1915 Bureau of Municipal Research established. 
Cornerstone of Central Y. M. C. A. laid, Gibbs 

George Eastman's gift of building for Chamber of 
Commerce announced. 
Rochester Dental Dispensary established. 
Charlotte village became twenty-third ward. 

1916 Cornerstone of Chamber of Commerce Building, St. 
Paul St., laid. 

New Jewish Orphan Asylum opened on Genesee St. 
President Woodrow Wilson addressed crowds at 
railroad station. 

1917 War declared with Germany, April; Rochester units 
mobilized for war service. 

Dorsey Home for dependent negro children incor- 

1918 Union Advertiser and Rochester Times consolidated. 
Rochester section of new Barge Canal opened. 
Food Administration rationed meat, sugar, etc. 
Epidemic of influenza caused many deaths. 
False and real armistice celebrated. 

1919 King Albert, Queen Elizabeth, and Crown Prince 
Leopold of Belgium passed through city. 
Cardinal Mercier of Belgium addressed large audience. 
Gift of Eastman School of Music to U. of R. an- 

City planned purchase of Erie Canal bed for subway. 
Bronze tablet placed on Council Rock in East Ave. 
opposite the old Orringh Stone house. 



1920 Erie Canal feeder ceded to city for boulevard. 
DeValera visited mother and spoke in Convention 

Genesee Valley Club purchased Oilman H. Perkins 

home on East Ave. 

Street car fare raised to seven cents. 

Federal census 295,750. 

1921 Massachusetts claimed right to Ontario Beach. 

1922 U. S. Supreme Court sustained rights of Rochester to 
Ontario Beach. 

Rochester Female Charitable Society celebrated cen- 

Name of Exposition Park changed to Edgerton Park. 
Stop-and-go traffic signals given trial. 

1923 Post Ex-press sold to William Randolph Hearst. 

U. of R. filed application to build medical, surgical, 
and dental school and hospital. 
Berith Kodesh Temple celebrated 75th anniversary. 
Chapter of Society of Colonial Wars organized. 

1924 Broad Street over the subway formally opened. 
Community Players organized. 

Nazareth College for Women opened. 
Oak Hill Country Club deeded land to U. of R. for 
River Campus. 

Tablet placed to mark site of Col. Nathaniel Roch- 
ester's house at Spring and South Washington Sts. 

1925 Cluett-Peabody Building (with statue of Mercury) 
loaned by George Eastman for City Hall Annex. 
Tablet dedicated to mark old liberty pole. 

City manager charter plan submitted to common 


Sunday sports, with admission charged, legalized. 

1926 Strong Memorial Hospital opened. 

Democrat & Chronicle and Rochester Herald merged. 
Homeopathic Hospital changed name to Genesee 

First experimental air-mail flight attempted, Roch- 
ester to Cleveland. 



New Municipal Hospital opened. 

U. of R. School of Medicine and Dentistry opened. 

Traffic light system installed. 

1927 Ellison Park dedicated; first Monroe County Park. 
Statue to Dr. Edward Mott Moore dedicated in 
Genesee Valley Park. 

Knights of Columbus building dedicated. 
Stephen B. Story elected first city manager. 
Spiritualist memorial monument dedicated. 

1928 Municipal aviation field named Rochester Airport. 
Final judicial settlement of estate of Morton W. 
Rundel made; $850,000 accrued to city. 
Cornerstone for new Masonic Temple on Main St. E. 

Old Corinthian Hall closed. 

1929 New site of Colgate-Rochester Divinity School dedi- 

Metropolitan Opera Company appeared at Eastman 

Mechanics Institute, founded as the Rochester Athen- 
aeum, celebrated its centennial. 
Rochester Boy Scouts at world jamboree in England 
comprised largest troop from cities in U. S. 
Rochester declared to be the safest city in U. S. on 
basis of record of fewest accidents, and awarded 
national motor banner. 

Monroe County Park Commission announced pur- 
chase of old Rand Powder Mill site for county park. 

1930 River Campus of Men's College of U. of R. dedicated 
October 9. 

Kodak office addition made it tallest building in the 


U. S. census gave Monroe County 423,881 pop., 

Rochester, 328,132. 

Ward's Natural Science Museum destroyed by fire. 

1931 Bausch Memorial Bridge and Veterans' Memorial 
Bridge formally opened. 

Teletype apparatus for weather forecasts installed 
at airport. 



Rochester Episcopal Diocese founded. 

Police radio station WPDR used for first time, June 8. 

Last car operated on the Rochester & Syracuse R. R. 

and a bus line opened, June 28. 

The Rochester Savings Bank began its second century. 

1932 Gannett Newspapers Inc. acquired controlling inter- 
est in radio station WHEC. 

Colgate-Rochester Divinity School dedicated new 
campus buildings. 

The Right Rev. David Lincoln Ferris instituted first 
bishop of the new Episcopal Diocese of Rochester. 
St. Mary's, Rochester's oldest hospital, began cele- 
bration of its diamond jubilee. 

Worst tornado in city's history, on July 1, killed two; 
scores injured, and property damage totaled hun- 
dreds of thousands of dollars. 

Lomb Memorial unveiled; F. Trubee Davidson, 
Assistant Secretary of War, spoke. 

1933 Radio Station WHAM dedicated its new high- 
power transmitting equipment. 

New Rundel Memorial Building site selected. 
Federal Public Works Administration pledged grant 
of $1,490,000 for erection of new John Marshall 
High School. 
New Reynolds Arcade built. 

1934 Feb. 9 recorded as coldest day injRochester; tempera- 
ture 22 degrees below zero. 

Rochester's Centennial Celebration held. 
New post office opened April 2. 
Capacity house attended Metropolitan Opera Com- 
pany's performance of Howard Hanson's Merry Mount 
in Eastman Theater. 
Lyceum Theater demolished. 

1935 Alan Chester Valentine named fourth president of 
U. ofR. 

Cornerstone of Rundel Memorial Building laid. 

Record rainstorm caused great damage. 

Twenty-fifth anniversary of Rochester Exposition 


New Elmwood Ave. bridge dedicated and opened. 



1936 Strong Memorial Hospital observed 10th anniver- 
sary, Jan. 10. 

Wood panel, Last Supper, by Alois Lang, placed in 
new chapel of Colgate-Rochester Divinity School. 
Moseley-Motley flour mills closed after 73 years. 
Rundel Library opened. 
Rose show held by Rochester Rose Society. 
Open-air opera series started, June 20. 
Trial of Idaho, mongrel pup, for murder attracted 
national attention. 

Samuel Southgate Memorial Chapel, Colgate-Roch- 
ester Divinity School dedicated. 
$35,000 refracting telescope (Peltier Comet) for 
Bausch and Lomb Building completed in August. 
President Franklin D. Roosevelt visited city. 
Bodies removed from St. Patrick's Cemetery. 
Dolomite II, motorship, blocked Barge Canal for 15 

Bank deposits increased in Rochester in 1936 more 
than $12,000,000 over 1935. 

1937 International Convention of Scientific Photography 

Whittlesey House donated to City as historical 

St. Patrick's Cathedral property acquired by Eastman 
Kodak Company. 

Two hundred and fiftieth anniversary of Denonville 
expedition observed. 

Rochester Exposition and Monroe County Fair com- 

Publication of Rochester Journal and Post Express 




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Ritchie, William A. Algonkin Sequence in New York, Rochester, 1932. 

Ritchie, William A. Some Algonkin and Iroquois Camp Sites Around Rochester, 
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Bragdon, George Chandler. Notable Men of Rochester and Vicinity, Rochester, 



Centennial Celebration of 1934, Rochester, 1934. 

Clarke, J. S. Biographical Record of the City of Rochester, Chicago, 1902. 

Kelsey, John. Lives and Reminiscences of the Pioneers of Rochester and Western 

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Peck, W. F. Semi-Centennial History of Rochester, Syracuse, 1884. 
Wile, Isaac. The Jews of Rochester, Rochester, 1912. 


Angevine, Edward. Mount Hope Cemetery Guide and Handbook, Rochester, 


Bureau of Municipal Research. Memorandum on Model Charter, Rochester, 


Weller, W. Earle. Outline of Rochester's Charter, Rochester, 1925. 
Weller, W. Earle. Rochester's Charter, Its History, Rochester, 1933. 


Ward, Ferdinand De Wilton. Ecclesiastical History of Rochester, 1812-1891, 
Rochester, 1892. 


Homer, Thomas J. Juvenile Court Laws of the United States, New York, 1910. 

Rochester and Surrounding Towns Dau's Blue Book, 1901-1922. 

Rochester Blue Book with Suburban Cities, 1923-1935, Springfield Gardens, N. Y. 

Rochester and Monroe County Business Directory. Rochester, issued annually. 


Board of Education. Adult Education in the Public Schools, Rochester, 1922. 
Board of Education, Cost of Public School Education, Rochester, 1923. 
Board of Education. Functioning of the Public School Program, Rochester, 1927. 
Board of Education. Our Schools and Their Future, Rochester, 1925. 
Board of Education. Scope of Adult Education Program in Rochester, Rochester, 


Board of Education. The Continuation School, Rochester, 1922. 
Board of Education. The Senior High School, Rochester, 1922. 
Board of Education. Your Child in Your School Special Schools and Special 

Classes, Rochester, 1922. 

Ellis, Mabel Brown. The Visiting Teacher in Rochester, New York City, 1925. 
Gibbons, Alice W. Tests in the Social Studies in Senior High Schools in Rochester, 

Iowa City, 1920. 



Rochester Theological Seminary. The Record: Rauschenbusch Number, Novem- 
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Bartholomew, Harland. A Civic Center for Rochester, St. Louis, 1920. 
Bartholomew, Harland. A Major Street Plan for Rochester, St. Louis, 1929. 
Bureau of Municipal Research. Report on Construction of Local Improvements 

in Rochester, Rochester, 1918. 

Howe, Henry L. Rochester A City of Progress, Rochester, 1934. 
Rochester. City Planning: Rochester's Next Important Task, 1926. 
Rochester. The Public Parks of the City of Rochester, 1888-1904, Rochester, 1915- 


Fairchild, Herman Le Roy. Geologic Story of the Genesee Valley and Western 

New York, Rochester, 1928. 
Fairchild, Herman Le Roy. Glacial Waters in Central New York, New York 

State Museum Bulletin 127, Albany, 1909. 
Fairchild, Herman Le Roy. The Pinnacle Hills, Proceedings Rochester 

Academy of Science, Vol. 6, pp. 141-194, Nov. 1923. 
Fairchild, Herman Le Roy. The Rochester Canyon and the Genesee River Base 

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Nov. 1919. 
Goldring, Winifred. Handbook of Paleontology for Beginners and Amateurs, 

Part 2: The Formations. New York State Museum Handbook 10. Illus- 
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Grabau, A. W. Geology and Paleontology of Niagara Falls and Vicinity. New 

York State Museum Bulletin 45- Illustrated, Albany, 1901. 
Hartnagel, C. A. Geologic Map of the Rochester and Ontario Beach Quadrangles. 

New York State Museum Bulletin 114. Albany, 1907. 
Kindle, E. M. and F. B. Taylor. Niagara Folio, New York. Geologic Atlas 

of the U. S., No. 190. Illustrated. Washington, 1913. 
Miller, W. J. The Geological History of New York State. New York State 

Museum Bulletin 255- Illustrated. Albany, 1924. 
Newland, D. H. The Gypsum Resources and Gypsum Industry of New York. 

New York State Museum Bulletin 283. Illustrated. Albany, 1929. 


Monroe County Regional Planning Board. Survey and Plans for Port Develop- 
ment, 1932. 




Memorial Art Gallery, A Century of Rochester Interiors Centennial Exhibi- 
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Allen, John Gamaliel. History of Rochester in Verse. Rochester, 1927. 
Bingeman, Melissa E. Pictures of Rochester in Verse. Rochester, 1930. 
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Rochester Historical Society, Vols. I-XIV, 1922-36. 
Hooker, Elon Huntington. Historical Souvenir of the Valley of The Genesee, 

Rochester, 1933- 

Johnson, Rossiter. The Grandest Playground in the World, Rochester, 1918. 
Logan, M. Frances. Stories of Rochester, Rochester, 1914. 
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O'Reilly, Henry. Sketches of Rochester, Rochester, 1838. 
Paine Drug Company. Pioneer Days of Rochester. Illustrated. Rochester, 1925. 
Parker, Arthur C. Centennial Almanac, 1834-1934. Rochester, 1934. 
Parker, Jenny Marsh. Rochester: A Story Historical, Rochester, 1884. 
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in Rochester, 1934. 
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Strong, Augustus Hopkins. Reminiscenses of Early Rochester. Rochester, 1916. 
Swinburne, Thomas Thackery. Rochester in Song and Verse, Rochester, 1924. 


Finch, Charles Edgar. Rochester Plan of Immigrant Education, Albany, 1916. 
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Rochester, 1915. 
Italian Directory, Rochester, 1931. 




Bartholomew, Harland. Railroad and Water-Borne Transportation Facilities 

of Rochester, St. Louis, 1930. 
Chamber of Commerce. Civic and Industrial Survey of Rochester, Rochester, 

Chamber of Commerce. Rochester, the City of Varied Industries (with directory 

of manufacturers) 1915- 
Eastman Kodak Company. Rochester, the City Photographic, Rochester, 1909. 

Baker, Harold W. Report on Survey of Rochester Public Markets, Rochester, 1927. 


Cowell, Henry. American Composers in American Music. Stanford University 

Press, 1933- 

Eastman School of Music Bulletin, 1922-1937. 
Ewen, David. Composers of Today. New York, 1934. 
Institute of Musical Art, Rochester, 1918. 
Wyndham, Henry Saxe. Who's Who in Music, London, 1915- 


Council of Social Agencies, Bureau of Municipal Research and Department 
of Sociology, University of Rochester. Cost and Volume of Social Work 
in Rochester. Rochester, 1930. 

New York Council of Social Agencies, Rochester, 1932. 

Rochester Community Chest, Record of // years to 1955. Rochester, 1933- 

Rochester friendly Home (founded 1849) Rochester, 1933- 

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Slater, John Rothwell. Rochester at Seventy-Five. Rochester, 1925. 
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Rochester, 1930. 
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University of Rochester Catalog, 1850-1936. 



Abbott, George F., 134 

Abolitionists, 62, 67, 280, 407 

Academy of Music & Art, 124 

Academy of Sacred Music, 115 

Adams Basin, 286 

Adams' Brass Band, 115 

Adventist Church, 92 

Advertiser, 152 

Airport, 24, 65, 328 

Alasa Farms, 406 

Alden, Isabella McDonald, 130 
Algonkian Indians, 267, 393 

Allen, Ebenezer, 51 

52, 79, 83, 245, 329 
Allen "Indian" (see Ebenezer) 
Allen's Mills, 51, 190, 200 

Allen, Seneca, 83 

Allison, Oscar W., 78 

Alton 405, 416 

Amalgamated Cloth. Workers, 106 
Amer. Composers Concert Ser., 120 
American Federation of Labor, 113 
Anderson, Martin B., 124, 216, 223 
Anderson Park, 172 

Anecdotes of Rochester, 73 

Animal Cemetery, 329 

Anthony Memorial Hall, 184 

217, 225 

Anthony, Susan B., 62 

67, 73, 104, 183, 225, 392 
Anti-Saloon League, 67 

Apple Blossom Festival, 38 

Appleseed Johnny, 289 

Appy, Henry, 116 

Aqueducts, 54, 97, 199 

Aquinas Institute, 150 

Area of Rochester, 43 

Armory, 178 

Arnold, George, 122 

Art Club, 123, 125 

Arthur, Chester A., 335 

Artifacts, 267 

292, 329, 385, 393, 397 

Athenaeum, 58, 184 

Athletic Fields, 30 

Aurora, 396 

Automobiles, 62, 64 

Auto Trailer Camps, 29 

Averell, James G., 225 

Aviation, 65, 378 

Aviation schools, 24, 65 

Avon, 345 

Babbitt, B. T., 414 
Babcock house (Brighton), 280 

Baker, Frances A., 436 

Ball, Mrs. T. Austin, 129 

Bank of Rochester, 184 

Banks, 50 

Bare Hill, 365 

Barge Canal, 45, 69 

Barnard, 282 

Barnard, Jehiel, 84, 147 

Barrows, G. Storrs, 145 

Barrows, Howard, 150 
Barrows School Saving Plan, 150 

Barry, Philip, 134 

Barton, Clara, 352 

Baseball, 31 

Basom, 323 

Batavia, 323 

Battle Island State Park, 421 

Battle of Charlotte, 85 

Bausch, John Jacob, 62, 166 
Bausch-Lomb Memorial Bldg., 220 

Bausch Memorial Bridge, 165 
Bausch & Lomb Optical Co., 49 

107, 165, 167, 200, 220 

Bay View, 408 

Beers, J. B., 78 

Belov, Samuel, 122 

Bergen, 317 

Bergen Swamp, 318 

Bevier Memorial Bldg., 125, 194 

Bevier, Mrs. Susan, 194 

Bicknell Houses, 197 

Bicycle Club, 64 



Big Tree Treaty, 
Bird Sanctuaries, 
Bishop and Codding, 
Bishop, Anna, 
Bishop's Wax Works, 



Blackwell, Antoinette Brown, 361 
Bloomer, Amelia, 392 

Bluff Point, 376 

Board of Education, 148, 190 

Board of Health, 95 

Boat Building, 55 

Boody, Azariah, 217 

Boughton Hill, 271, 367, 372 

Boy Scouts, 162, 359, 386 

Boyd and Parker, 101, 343 

Bradbury, William B., 128 

Bradley, Dr. Hugh, 150 

Bradstreet, General, 411 

Bragdon, Claude F., 138 

145, 162, 164, 194 

Brant, Joseph, 369 

Brew, Lewis, 166 

Bridle trails and paths, 33 

Briggs Gully, 34 

Brighton, 52, 277, 368 

Brisay, Jacques-Rene de, 272 

Bristol Center, 364 

Hills, 363 

Springs, 364 

Valley, 360 

Broad Street, 69 

Broad Street bridge, 199 

Brockport, 131, 292, 318 

State Normal, 319 

Brock's Monument, 310 

Brooks, George S., 134 

Brown Bros. Nurseries, 62 

Brown, Francis, 53, 84 

Brule, Etienne, 271 

Buckbees Corners, 280 

Buffalo Road, 54 

Buffalo Road cemetery, 94 

Bureau of Municipal Research, 156 
Burton Hall, 221 

Burton, Henry Fairfield, 216, 221 
Busses, 24 

Butler, Col. John, 98 

Buttermilk Falls State Park, 395 
Byron Center, 326 

Cadillac Hotel, 29 

Caledonia, 334 

Caledonia State Fish Hatchery, 68 
328, 332 

Calendar of Annual Events, 38 

Camera Works, 202 

Camp Pioneer, 386 

Canadians in Rochester, 48 

Canandaigua, 275, 360, 366, 372 
Academy, 373 

Lake, ' 364 

Canadice Lake, 357 

Canoeing, 178 

Carborundum Co., 309 

Carheil, Stephen de, 398 

Carlton, 314 

Carmer, Carl, 132, 363 

Carnegie Laboratory Building, 224 
Carroll, Major Charles, 53, 184, 275 
Carter, Lincoln J., 134 

Carthage, 53, 88 

bridge, 54, 88 

Railroad, 55 

Casconchiagon, 45 

Cassebeer, Walter H., 143, 145, 166 
Castile, 336 

Castletown, 53 

Catharine Strong Hall, 217, 225 
Catherine's Town, 387 

Cave of the Winds, 308 

Cavelier, Rene Robert, 272 

Cayuga, 399 

Castle, 398 

Indian village, 395 

Lake, 391, 393, 397 

State Park, 392 

Centennial Century of Progress, 70 
Central Trades & Labor Council, 113 
Chamber of Commerce, 36, 119, 161 
Chapman, Lucy, 79, 83 

Charlotte, 52, 85, 94 

Charlotte High School, 211 

Charlotte lighthouse, 211 

Charters of Rochester, 70 

Chaumonot, Joseph, 398 

Chenusssio, 344 

Chesbrough Seminary, 316 

Child house, 141, 193, 194 

Child, Jonathan, 71,194 

Children's Pavilion, 65 

Children's Plays, 120 

Childs, 302 

Chili, 280 

Chili Center, 280 



Chimney Bluff, 417 

Cholera, 94, 100 

Christy's Minstrels, 116 

Chrysanthemum Show, 39 

Churchville, 291, 315, 316 

Church ville County Park, 31, 317 
Cigarette Machine, 77 

City Hall, 192 

City Hall Annex, 199 

City Manager, 72 

Civic Music Association, 115 

117, 119 

Civic Orchestra, 119, 120 

Clapp, Martin, 215 

Clara Barton Chapter, Red Cross, 

67, 352 

Clarissa Street bridge, 47, 187 

Clark, Asa, 301 

Clarkson, 281, 299, 319 

Clifton, 281 

Clifton Springs, 390 

Climate, 35, 257 

Clinton, 123 

Clinton, Gov. De Witt, 301 

Clinton-Sullivan (see Sullivan 


Clothiers' Exchange, 106 

Clothing industry, 106 

Clune, Henry W., 133 

Clyde, 400 

Coates, Albert, 120 

Cobblestone houses, 139 

288, 299, 302, 335, 350, 371, 416 
Cobbs Hill Park, 30 

Cobbs Hill Reservoir, 179 

Codding, Milo, 77 

Colby, Eugene C, 124 

Coldwater, 281 

Colgate-Rochester Divinity School, 

139, 181 

Community Chest, 157, 162 

Community Gun Club, 33 

Community Music Festivals, 119 
Community Operas, 120 

Community Play House, 29 

Conant, Thomas J., 216 

Conesus Lake, 350 

Conesus, 354 

Connecticut Gore, 301 

Conservation (Game) 265, 359 
Convention & Publicity Bureau, 100 
Corinthian Hall, 58, 91, 116 

Cornell University, 395 

Cortland, 132 

Council of Social Agencies, 156 
Council Rock, 82 

County Board of Supervisors, 275 
County Buildings, 276 

County Government, 57, 274 

County Manager, 275 

Court House 57, 190, 275 

Court St. bridge, 47, 199 

Crapsey, Adelaide, 129 

Crescent Beach, 407 

Crosby Hall, 221 

Crosman Seed Co., 291 

Cultural life, 57, 115 

Culver house, 140, 176 

Culver, Oliver, 176 

Cumorah Hill, 155, 403 

Curtiss, GlenH., 378 

Cutler, James G., 75, 145, 224 

Cutler Mail Chute Co., 75 

Cutler Union, 224, 225 

Cuylerville, 101, 343 

Cyclones, 101 

Daily Advertiser, 100 

Daily Union, 152 

Dansville, 352 

D. A. R. House, 141, 195 

De Casson (Jesuit Missionary), 272 
Delco Appliance Corp., 49, 111 
Democrat, 135 

Democrat & Chronicle, 151, 197 

Dennis, James Hogarth, 125 

Dennison, William, 84 

Denonville, Marquis De 98 

272, 361, 371, 372, 410, 411 
Dental Clinic, 167 

Dental Dispensary, 110 

172, 208, 234, 235 
Despatch (original name of East 

Rochester), 291 

De Veaux Military Academy, 305 
Devil's Hole State Park, 304 

Dewey, Dr. Chester, 147, 215, 220 
Dewey Hall, 220 

Diocese of Rochester, 202, 208, 209 
Dolomite, 263 

282, 288, 294, 304, 315 
Dolomite Marine Corp., 55, 315 
Dossenbach, Herman, 117, 119 

Dossenbach, Theodore, 117 

Douglas Pectin Corp., 290 

45 1 


Douglass, Frederick, 62 

135, 165, 280, 358 

Dresden, 379, 386 

Driving Park Ave. Bridge, 47, 169 
Driving Park race track, 96 

DufTerin Islands, 310 

Dumpling Hill, 329 

Durand, Dr. Henry, 171 

Durand-Eastman Park, 30 

31, 47, 171, 284 

Eagle Tavern, 58 

East Avon, 347, 350 

East Penfield, 288 

East Rochester, 290, 291 

Easter Flower Show, 38 

Eastman, George, 119 

161, 171, 176, 200, 207, 216, 219, 
223, 229 

Eastman House, 176 

Eastman Kodak Co., 107, 202 

Eastman, Maria Kilbourn, 231 

Eastman Memorial, 207 

Eastman School of Music, 115 

119, 131, 149, 217, 227, 229, 230 
Eastman School Symphony 

Orchestra, 230 

Eastman Theatre, 29, 217, 227, 231 
Ebsary Company, 331 

Economic development, 50, 103 
Edgerton, Mayor Hiram, 69 

Edgerton Park, 30, 213 

Edison Technical High School, 148 
Egypt, 289, 402 

Elba, 326 

Ellis, Harvey, 125 

Ellison Park, 33, 98, 280, 410 

Ellwanger & Barry Nurseries, 61 

Elmwood Avenue bridge, 45 

Elwood Block, 75 

Enfield Glen State Park, 395 

Engineering Bldg., (U. of R.) 221 
English in Rochester, 48 

Erie Canal, 54, 69, 88, 97, 100 

Erie R. R. (see Railroads) 
Euterpe Club, 117 

Evans, George, 83 

Evening Express, 152 

Evening Journal & Post Express, 151 
Evening Times, 152 

Exports, 49, 55 

Exposition, 39 

Fairchild, Dr. Herman Leroy, 138 
Fair Haven Beach State Park, 413 


Fairport, 290 

Falls View Bridge, 310 

Farm Bureau, 265 

Farmington, 402 

Faulkner, Barry, 233 

Faulkner, Daniel, 352 

Fauna, 262, 359, 367 

First Church of Christ, Scientist, 


First Federal votes cast by women, 


Fish hatcheries, 68, 328, 332, 367 
Fish, John P., 83 

Fish, Col. Josiah, 83 

Fishing, 32 

Fitzhugh, Col. William, 53 

83, 184, 275 

Five Corners, 389 

Five Points, 291 

Flint, 380 

Float Bridge, 413 

Floods, 63, 66, 95 

Flora, 261, 367 

Flour City, 54, 55 

Flower City, 58, 61 

Food industry, 107 

Football, 32 

Forbes, Edith Willis, 128 

Ford Hotel, 28 

Forest Lawn, 293, 407 

Fort de Sables, 410 

Fort Niagara, 297, 312 

Fort Ontario, 421 

Fountain pen, invented in Roch- 
ester, 77 
Four Corners, 43 
Fourth Church of Christ, Scientist, 


Fox hunts of Genesee Valley, 344 
Fox, John D., 90 

Fox Sisters, 90, 156, 195 

Frankfort, 53 

Free Academy, 124 

Frisbie, John J. , 65 

Frost, Elizabeth Hollister, 130 

Fruitland, 414 

Furnaceville, 414 

Gaines, 302 

Galinee, Father Rene de, 272 

4S 2 - 


Gallery of Fine Arts, 
Gait, John, 
Gannett, Frank E., 
Gannett Hill, 
Gardeau Flats, 
Garden clubs, 
Gareissen, Oscar, 



294, 330 
79, 339 

Garrett Memorial Chapel, 377 

Gas & Electric Co., 165 

173, 221, 279 

Gates, 281 

Gates Center, 316 

Gates, Horatio, 316 

General Hospital, 95 

General Railway Signal Co., 49, 110 
Genesee Castle, 343 

Genesee fever (see malaria) 
Genesee Valley Club, 174 

Genesee Valley Museum, 337 

Genesee Valley Park, 30, 31, 47, 185 
Genesee Valley Trust Bldg., 145, 199 
Genesee Wesleyan Seminary, 356 
Geneseo, 344 

State Normal School, 344 

Geneva, 380, 382 

Geneva Academy, 383 

Genundawa, 366 

Genushio, 79 

Geography of Monroe Co., 251 
Geology, 259, 337, 352, 387, 394 
Germania Hall, 116 

Germans in Rochester, 48 

58, 61, 116 

Gilbert, Grove S., 123 

Gilmore, Joseph E., 128, 216 

Gilmore Park (Indian Falls), 323 
Girl Scouts, 162 

Glaciers, 259 

Glass Blowers Association, 113 
Gleason Works, 49, 108 

Glen Haven, 408 

Glen Iris Inn, 337 

Glenora Falls, 386 

Glen Park, 397 

Goat Island, 307 

Goler, Dr. George W., 435 

Golf, 31, 283 

Goossens, Eugene, 120 

Gordon & Kaelber, 145 

162, 173, 187, 199, 219, 225, 227 

Gorham, Nathaniel, 373 

Government, 70 

Grand View Beach, 299 

Granges, 282, 283, 291, 293, 316 

Greece, 282, 298 

Green, Samuel, 216 

Green, Seth, 68, 409 

Green tree, Meyer, 105 

Greigsville, 335 

Greiner, Henry 117, 119 

Growth of Industry, 45, 103 

Gypsum, 263, 294, 326, 330, 331 

Hamlin, 283, 314 

Hamlin Beach Park, 316, 320 

Hamlin Center, 283, 319 

Hamlin Station, 319 

Hammondsport, 370, 378 

Hanford, Abraham, 330 

Hanford, Rear Admiral, 330 

Hanford 's Landing, 52, 53 

Hannibal, 418 

Hanson, Dr. Howard, 120, 230 

Hargous house, 368 

Harris, Ira, 216 

Harris Seed Co., 316 

Harrison, Guy Fraser, 120 

Hart & Vick Nurseries, 290 

Hatch, Jessie W., 103 

Hawthorne, Nathaniel, 56, 127 

Hay ward Hotel, 29 

Hector, 388 

Hector Falls, 388 

Hemlock Lake, 356 

Hemlock, 356 

Hennepin, Father, 307, 412 

Hennepin View, 307 

Henrietta, 284 

Herald, 152 

Herdle, George L., 123 

Hermit's Cascade, 308 

Herzog, Lester W., 325 

Hickson, Lawrence G., 153 

Hieronymo, Mother, 209 
Highbanks of the Genesee, 334 
Highland Park, 30, 47, 61, 65, 181 

Hiking trails, 33 

Hildreth, Samuel, 54 

Hill, David Jayne, 136, 216 

Hill, Fred W., 277 
Hillside Home for Children, 179 



Hilton, 288, 321 

Hincher, William, 52 

Hinds, Paul, 122 

Hiram Sibley Building, 173 

Historical Society, 13 

Hobart College, 383 

Hobby Clubs, 213 

Hobby Show, 39 

Hochstein, David, 122 

Holland Land Co., 301, 323 

Hollanders of Rochester, 48 

Holmes, Mary Jane, 131,319 

Holy Sepulchre Cemetery, 209 

Home Bureau, 162 

Honeoye, 358 

Honeoye Falls, 285, 362 

Honeoye Lake, 358 

Honeymoon Trail, 298 

Hopeman Memorial Chimes, 219 
Hopkins, Harry L., 9, 13 

Horgan, Paul, 131 

Horsey, Richard, 251 

Hospitals, List of, 37 

Hotel Rochester, 28 

Hotel Seneca, 28 

Houston Tavern, 299 

Howells, William Dean, 11, 127 
Hundred Acre Tract, 52, 53, 189 
Hungerford, Edward, 133 

Hunting, 32, 344 

Hydesville, 90, 156, 195, 405 

Hydro-Electric Power Plant, 310 
Ignorance Club, 68 

Immigration, 37, 58 

Inch, Herbert, 121 

Indians, 87, 98, 266, 361, 367 

Indian Falls, 322, 323 

Indian folklore, 267, 365 

Indian Landing 34 

52, 98, 280, 410, 411 
Indian Spring, 395 

Indian trails about Rochester 363 
Industry, 49, 103, 106 

Ingersoll, Robert G., 379, 386 

Inspiration Point (Irondequoit), 

Inspiration Point (Letchworth 

Park), 339 

Institute of Applied Optics, 220 
Institute of Musical Art, 119, 229 
Interlaken, 393 

lola Sanatorium, 276 

Iris Farm, 

Irish in Rochester, 




Iron ore, 
Iroquois League, 
Italians in Rochester, 

Ithaca College, 
Iturbi, Jose, 
Jackson, Helen Hunt, 
Jannewein, Paul, 
Jemison, Mary, 
Jesuit Missionaries, 

344, 355, 371 , 
Jewett, Simeon B., 
Jews of Rochester, 
Jitney busses, 
Johnson, Elisha, 
Johnson, Hunter, 
Johnson, Rossiter, 
Johnson, Sir William, 
Jones, Reuben D., 
J. Y. M. A., 
J. Y. W. A., 
Kearney, Patrick, 
Kech's Farm, 

Kendrick, Asahel C., 
Kennan, Kent, 
Keuka College, 
Keuka Lake, 
Kilbourn Hall, 
Kimball Tobacco Co., 
King Ferry, 
King's Landing (see Hanford 

Klingenberg Alf., 
Kodak Park, 
La Conception (Jesuit Mission), 

Lafayette, Marquis de, 

Lake Bluff, 
Lake Dana, 



98, 137, 266 

391, 394 

79, 245, 339 

398, 399, 412 

48, 106 

128, 135 
98, 273, 411 

283, 314 
127, 215 

370, 375 
229, 231 
78, 199 




368, 369, 383 



Lake Ontario Water Co., 279 

Lake Riley, 178 

Lake Shore Country Club, 321 

Lakeville, 354 

Lamberton Conservatory, 248, 251 
La Salle, Sieur de, 98, 272, 305, 371 
Last wolf hunt, 89 

Lattimore Hall, 220 

League of the Iroquois, (see Iro- 

quois League) 

Leicester, 335 

Letchworth, Dr. Wm. P., 337 

Letchworth Park, 334, 336 

Levanna, 397 

Lewis ton, 302 

Lewiston Suspension Bridge, 312 
Lighthouse, Charlotte, 211 

Lilacs at Highland Park, 38 

65, 66, 183 

Lima, 356 

Lind, Jenny, 116 

Little Beard's Town, 343 

Little Finger Lakes, 355 

Livingston, James K., 194 

Livingston Park, 47, 87, 141, 194 
Livingston Park Seminary, 194 
Location of Monroe County, 255 
Lodi, 388 

Lomb, Capt. Henry, 192, 235 

Long Pond, 299 

Loomis, Daniel, 141 

Loomis, Isaac, 141 

Lost City of Tryon, 98 

Lotus Flowers (Sodus Bay), 416 
Luna Island, 308 

Lusk, John, 52 

Lyons, 400, 405 

Macfadden Physical Culture School 

(Dansville), 351 

McCreery, John Luckey, 128 

McQuaid, Bishop Bernard J., 208 


Macedon, 403 

Maennerchor, 116 

Maginnis, John S., 216 

Magnolias of Oxford St., 47 

Maid of the Mist, 307 

Mail chute, 75 

Main Street bridge, 47, 53, 199 
Malaria, 52 

Mammoths, 260 

Manchester, 390 

Manitou, 282 

Manitou Beach, 299 

Maplewood Park, 30, 169, 203 

Marcus Whitman Highway, 374 
Markham-Puffer Dairy Farm, 292 
Martin, Robert W., 152 

Masonic Temple, 29, 171 

Massachusetts claim, 51, 384 

Mathias,J. L. D., 123,124 

Maud S., 96 

Mechanics Institute, 57 

125, 153, 167, 192, 194 
Medina Sandstone, 263 

Megiddo Mission, 156 

Membre, Father Zenobe, 412 

Memorial Art Gallery, 123 

125, 217, 225 

Menard, Father Rene, 398, 399 
Menard Memorial Bridge, 399 

Mendelssohn Vocal Society, 117 
Mendon, 285, 371 

Mendon Ponds Park, 32 

33, 261, 266, 290, 359 
Merchants Despatch Trans. Corp., 


Mercury, Statue of, 124, 199 

Merry Mount, 121 

Methodist Hill, 348 

Metropolitan Opera, 120 

Middlesex, 365 

Mill Yard Tract, 51, 286 

Millerism, 91 

Milling in Rochester, 59 

Minerals, 263 

Mineral Springs, 345, 370, 390 

Missionaries and Soldiers, 271 

Mitchell, J. Guernsey, 123, 125, 223 
Mixer, Albert H., ' 216 

Moehlman, Conrad Henry, 139 
Molyneux Corners, 302 

Monroe County, 57, 253, 255 

Court House, 190 

County Home & Hospital, 277 
Sanatorium School, 149 

Traveling Library, 277 

Monroe Democrat, 151 

Montgomery, Helen Barrett, 139 
Montour, Catherine, 387 

Montour Falls, 387 

Moonshine Falls, 396 

Moore, Amy Bloss, 280 



Moore, Dr. Edward Mott, 65 

66, 69, 185 

Moore, Elizabeth Evelyn, 129 

Moore, Mrs. Gertrude Herdle, 13 
Moore, Isaac, 280 

Moore, N. Hudson, 138 

Morey Hall, 220 

Morey, Wm. Carey, 216, 220 

Morgan, Lewis Henry, 68, 137, 217 
Morgan, William, 127, 301, 368 
Mormon Hill, 401 

Mormonism, 155, 372, 403 

Moroni, 155, 403 

Morris, Thomas, 82 

Morton, 283 

Mother of Sorrows Church (Greece) , 


Mount Hope Cemetery, 63 

101, 135, 183 

Mount Morris, 341 

Tuberculosis Hospital, 342 

Mumford, 294 

Municipal Airport (see airport) 
Municipal Hospital, 184, 234 

Munn, Mrs. Aristine Pixley, 217 
Murphy, J. Francis, 125 

Murray, 301 

Museum of Arts and Sciences, 13 
137, 213, 243, 346 

Museum of Natural History (U. of 
R), 221 

Music, 115, 149 

Music Festival, 38 

Myers, Jacob H., 74 

Naples, 365 

National Republican, 151 

Nazareth Academy, 151, 211 

Nazareth College for Women, 151 
Newark, 404 

State School, 405 

New England settlers, 57 

Newport, 409 

Newspapers and radio, 54, 151 

New York Central R. R., 59, 164 
New York State Agricultural Ex- 
periment Station, 385 
New York State Naval Militia, 170 
Niagara Falls, 297, 303 
Niagara Falls Power Co., 306 
Niagara Glen, 311 
Niagara University, 303 
Night watch, 71, 100 

Nine Mile Point, 

Norris house, 

North Chili, 

North Greece, 

North Star, 


Nursery industry, 


Oatka Creek, 

O'Brien, Veronica, 

O'Connor, Joseph, 

Octagonal houses, 



Old aqueduct, 



280, 316 

62, 135, 165 


294, 329 



130, 285 


Old Heidelberg Inn, 368 

Old Preemption Road, 384 

Old Tavern (Riga), 333 

Ontario, 414 

Ontario & Genesee Turnpike Co., 


Ontario Beach Park, 30, 171, 212 
Ontario Center, 414 

Open Air Schools, 149 

Opera Club, 117 

O'Reilly, Henry, 152 

Oratorio Society, 119 

Orringh Stone Tavern, 82 

83, 140, 369 

Orphan Asylums, 183 

Oswego, ' 413, 418 

Our Lady of Mercy High School, 

151, 412 

Ovid, 393 

Page, William, 124 

Palmyra, 404 

Parish Gully, 34 

Parker, Dr. Arthur Caswell, 137 
213, 324 

Parker, Jennie Marsh, 91 

Parking regulations, 28 

Park System, 30, 47, 65 

Parma, 286, 288 

Parma Center, 288, 321 

Parma Corners, 288, 299 

Patch, Sam, 11, 92 

Patchin, Frank G., 131 

Patti, Adelina, 116 

Pearson, John, 347 

Peat beds, 263 

Penfield, 288 

Peck, Everard, 127, 152 



Penny, Geo. Barlow, 119 

Penn Yan, 376 

People of Rochester, 48, 50 


Perkins, Dr. Dexter, 13, 137 

Perrin, Glover, 289 

Perry, 336 

Peters, Carl E., 124 

4 ' Petrified Wood "Church , 332 
PfaudlerCo., 49,109 

Phelps, 390 

Phelps and Gotham Purchase, 51 
274, 284, 286, 384, 402 
Phelps, Oliver, 79, 274, 373 

Philharmonic Orchestra, 119 

Philippe, Louis, 81, 369, 385, 387 
Philips, Burrill, 122 

Photography, 205 

Pinnacle Hills, 92, 258 

Pioneer Cemetery (Canandaigua), 


Pioneer Kitchen, 243 

Pitkin house, 141 

Pittsford, 290, 368 

Platt St. bridge, 47, 165 

Pleasant Valley, 378 

Poet's Garden, 251 

Point Pleasant, 409 

Points of interest for children, 236 
Poles in Rochester, 48 

Police, 64 

Population, 43 

Port Gibson, 404 

Port of Entry, 171 

Port of Rochester, 212 

Portage Trail, 33, 98, 412 

Portageville, 341 

Porter, General, 86 

Post Office, 54, 164 

Potter, Henry S., 392 

Potter, Nathaniel J., 392 

Powder Mills Park, 31, 33, 367 
Powers Art Gallery, 125, 189 

Powers Building, 53, 125, 189, 190 
Powers, Daniel, 125, 189 

Powers Hotel, 28, 190 

Prideaux, Gen. John, 98 

Prince St. campus, 217, 223 

Prohibition Party, 67 

Prospect Point, 307 

Pulteney, Sir Wm., 284 

Pulteney Estate, 382, 415 

Pultneyville, 406 

Quakers, 285, 402, 404 

Queen Victoria Park, 310 

Racial elements of Rochester, 48 
Radio 153 

Radio Concerts, 120 

Raffeix, Father Pierre, 398 

Railroads, 24, 58 

Rattlesnakes, 54, 85 

Ranger, Henry W. 125 

Rauschenbusch Rev. Walter, 138 
Rawlings, Charles, 132 

Rawlings, Marjorie, 132 

Read, Gardner, 122 

Rebasz, William, 117 

Red Creek, 418 

Red Cross, 67, 352 

Red Jacket, 377,393 

Red Wing Stadium, 31, 169 

Redmond Corners, 281 

Redwood trees, 96, 397 

Regional Planning Board, 265 

Rene Menard Memorial Bridge, 399 
Reservation Road, 392 

Resort, 416 

Reynolds, Abelard, 54 

123, 184, 189, 200 

Reynolds Arcade, 54 

57, 184, 189, 199, 200 
Reynolds Library, 185, 187, 189 
Reynolds Memorial Laboratory, 

223, 224 

Reynolds, Mortimer, 84, 189 

Rhees, Dr. Rush, 216, 219 

Ribourde, Father Gabriel de la, 412 
Ridge Road, 88, 298 

Ridgeway, 302 

Riding academies, 33 

Rifle Ranges, 32 

Riga, 281, 291, 333 

Riley, Col. Ashbel W., 94 

Ritchie, William A., 213 

Ritter Dental Co., 49, 109 

River Camtms, 217, 219 

Riverside Cemetery, 211 

Roadside Craftsmen, 362 

Roberts, Bishop Benjamin Titus, 


Rochester Academy of Music and 

Art, 124 

Rochester Academy of Science, 68 




Rochester anecdotes, 73 

Rochester Art Club, 125, 227 

Rochester Athenaeum, 58 

"Rochester Birthday Cake," 179 
Rochester Club, 173 

Rochester Composers, 120 

Rochester Diocese, 202, 208 

Rochester Hotel, 28 

Rochester Junction, 361 

Rochester Museum, 58 

Rochester Musical Union, 116 

Rochester, Col. Nathaniel, 43 

52, 57, 84, 192, 275, 362 
Rochester Opera Co., 131 

Rochester Orchestra, 119 

Rochester Poetry Society, 132 

Rochester Savings Banks, 116, 124 
Rochester Symphony Orchestra, 119 
Rochester Telegraph, 152 

"Rochester's First Native Citizen," 


Rochesterville, 43, 51, 54, 70, 86 
Rock Stream Creek, 386 

Rogers, Bernard, 121 

Romulus, 393 

Rose Show, 38 

Roseland Park, 380 

Ruffled Shirt District, 43, 47, 194 
Rundel Library, 187 

Rush, Dr. Benjamin, 291 

Rush, 291, 361 

Rush Reservoir, 361 

Rush Rhees Library, 219 

Rushville, 374 

Russians in Rochester, 48 

Sacred Heart Academy, 151 

Sacrifice of the White Dog, 87 

Sagamore Hotel, 28 

Sage, Oren, 103 

St. Andrew's Seminary, 150 

St. Ann's Home for the Aged, 208 
St. Anthony's Shrine, 202 

St. Bernard's Seminary, 151 

208, 209 

St. Jacques Mission, 271 

St. Jean Mission, 271 

St. Luke's Church, 115 

143, 155, 192 

St. Mary's Hospital, 69, 211 

St. Patrick's Cathedral, 202 

St. Patrick's Church, 150 

St. Paul's Church, 115, 176 

Salt, 263, 283 

Sampson, Admiral Wm. T., 404 
Sandy Creek Monument, 301 

Sargent, James, 109 

Savannah, 399 

Schenck, Ludwig, 117, 119 

Schofield, Robert C., 83 

School of the Air, 150 

School of Medicine and Dentistry, 

217, 233 

School of Nursing, 234 

Schuyler, Capt. Peter, 98 

Scottsburg, 350 

Scottsville, 294, 329 

Scrantom, Delia, 84 

Scrantom, Hamlet, 53, 85, 245 

Scythe Tree, 389 

Sea Breeze, 171, 273, 409 

Selden, George B., 64, 200, 299 
Selden, Henry R., 73, 299 

Seneca Falls, 391 

Seneca Hotel, 28 

Seneca Lake, 381, 385 

Seneca Park, 30, 47, 170 

Settlements of Rochester, 53 

Shakers, 406 

Shay, Capt. Daniel, 350 

Sheffer, Peter, 330 

Shopping district, 35 

Sibley Hall, 124, 223 

Sibley, Harper, 162 

Sibley, Hiram, 124, 173, 223, 230 
Sibley Musical Library, 230 

Sidewalks, 57 

Silver Thread Falls, 388 

Sintzenich, Eugene, 123 

Slater, Eleanor, 129 

Slave cemetery, 289 

Smith, Erasmus Peshine, 216 

Smith, Joseph, 155, 372, 403 

Smith, Preston, 115 

Smith, Silas O., house, 141, 174 
Social agencies, 157 

Social service, 156 

Society of the Genesee, 136 

Sodus, 415 

Sodus Bay, 401 

Sodus Point, 406 

Soil, 261 

Soldiers & Sailors Monument, 99 
South Mountain, 366 

Somerville, James, 125 

45 8 


Spanish Aero Railway, 311 

Sparta, 351 

Spencerport, 286 

Spiritualism, 91, 156, 195 

Spring House (Brighton), 370 

Spring Mills, 398 

Springwater, 356 

Stage lines, 54, 56 

Stan ton, Elizabeth Cady, 392 

State Agricultural & Industrial 

School, 347 

Steamships, 25 

Stedman, J. Harry, 64, 76 

Steel Arch Bridge (Niagara), 306 
Steel, Daniel, 123 

Steele Tavern, 243 

Stone, Enos, 52, 83 

Stone, James S., 83 

Stone, Orringh, 82, 140 

Stony Brook State Park, 349, 352 
Stromberg-Carlson Telephone 

Manufacturing Co., 153, 367 
Strong Auditorium, 221 

Strong, Alvah, 151 

Strong, Augustus H., 138 

Strong, Elisha, 53 

Strong, Henry A., 225, 234 

Strong, Huldah, 147 

Strong Memorial Hosp., 184, 233 
Subway, 26, 199 

Sullivan campaign, 273, 334 

343, 358, 384, 387, 388, 397, 398 
Summerville, 170 

Sweden, 128, 292 

Swift, Lewis, 68 

Swimming pools, 31 

Swinburne, Thomas Thackery, 128 
Synagogues, 155 

Table Rock, 310 

Taughannock Falls State Park, 393 
Taxes, 70, 275 

Taylor Instrument Companies, 49 


Terrapin Point, 308 

Theaters, 29, 58 

Thomas, Theodore, 116 

Three Sisters Islands, 308 

Tiefel, Charles G., 110 

Times Square, 197 

Times-Union 151, 197, 236 

Todd Company, 49, 110 

Todd Union, 221 

Tonawanda Indian Reservation, 274 
322, 324 

Tonawanda Railroad, 58, 215 

Torture Tree, 343 

Totiakton, 271, 361, 371 

Traffic, 44, 64, 69 

Traffic regulations, 27 

Transfers, origin of, 64, 76 

Transit Line, 301 

Transportation 24, 49, 58, 59, 63 
Troop, Capt. Samuel, 406, 415 

Troutberg, 283, 301 

Trowbridge, John T., 130, 287 

Trumansburg, 393 

Tryon, 98, 280, 410 

Tuesday Musicale, 119 

Turnverein, 116 

Twelfth Night Celebration, 38 

Tyler, James, 173 

Typographical Union, 113 

Underground Railroad, 62 

67, 165, 288, 407, 415, 416, 418 
Union & Advertiser, 152 

Union Springs, 398 

Unions, industrial, 106, 113 

United States Hotel, 214, 215 

U S Coast Guard, 170 

U S Standard Voting Mach. Co., 75 
U S Veterans' Hospital, 373 

University Club, 173 

University of Rochester, 62 

68, 136, 176, 214, 217 
Valentine, Alan Chester, 216 

Veterans' Memorial bridge, 45, 169 
Vick, James, 61 

Victor, 367 

Voting, 67, 73 

Voting Machine, 74 

Wadsworth, James, 53, 344 

Wadsworth, William, 344 

Walker, 283 

Walker, Caleb, 373 

Walker, Horatio, 125 

Ward's Natural Science Museum, 


Wark, D., 77 

Warner, Andrew J., 189,190,192 
Warner, Daniel, 356 

Warner, J. Foster, 145, 190 

Warner, William, 356 

Warrant, Thomas, 349 

Washington Jr. High School, 148 



Washington Square, 



Watkins Glen State Park, 

Watson, Christine Hamilton, 

Watson, Mrs. James Sibley, 


Webster County Park, 

Weed, Thurlow, 

Wells College, 

West Bloomfield, 

West Henrietta, 

West Rush, 

West Sweden, 

West Webster, 

Western Union Telegraph Co., 173 



Wheatland Center, 


Whipple, Dr. George H., 

Whirlpool State Park, 

White Horse Tavern, 

White, Paul, 

"White Woman of the Genesee" 

(see Mary Jemison) 
Whitman, Marcus, 




Whittlesey house, 141. 



Wilkins, Herve D., 



Willard, Frances E., 



William Smith College, 


>n, 129 




Williamson, Capt. Charles, 


217, 225 



293, 414 

Willow Point Park, 



Winter, Ezra A., 225, 






Woltmann, Frederick, 



Women's Campus, 


347, 350 

Woman Suffrage, 



Women's Christian Temperance 





Women's Educational & Industrial 

3o., 173 



200, 392 

Women's Ethical Club, 


153, 367 

World War, 


294, 331 


Yacht races, 39, 


J- J J 


Yawman & Erbe, 



Yeo, Captain James L., 






Y. M. C. A., 



Young, Brigham, 








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