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iCiJ L/ 







(In the Author's Garden) 







M.A., A.L.S. 









^^' MOTHER, 



1 AM glad to have an opportunity of rectifying 
an omission that occurred in the Preface to 
the First Edition of this book — namely, to 
acknowledge, when writing Chapter XL, the 
great help I received from the valuable paper by 
Mr Glutton Brock in the Royal Horticultural 
Society's Journal^ vol. xxxv., part 2, page 167 
et seq.^ to which I would refer my readers. 

Since the First Edition rock gardening has 
' ecome increasingly popular, and to meet the 
growing demand many new plants have been 
put on the market. Some of them are 
acquisitions, while others, though new to 
horticulture, are of little value. I have 
endeavoured to select those likely to prove 
worthy additions to the already long list of 
plants for the rock garden. 


My best thanks are due to Mr Clarence 
Elliot for the list of plants he has found 
suitable for the moraine, and also for the 
description and cultural directions of the 
novelties he has introduced. 

November 1913. 


A WORD of introduction seems needed to 
explain the purpose of this book. No branch 
of horticulture at the present time occupies 
so much general attention as rock-gardening. 
Yet not a single book deals with the subject of 
the cost, which I have attempted to estimate, 
basing it on my own practical experience. It 
is superfluous to observe that I have not 
aspired to any literary graces, but merely to 
tell simply what I believe to be needed. 

My aim has been to provide a practical 
volume which will enable anyone to make and 
plant a rock garden. When making my own, 
I know what I had to find out for myself, and 
in the following pages my endeavour has been 
to save others the trouble. If I may occasion- 
ally seem to repeat myself, it is because I wish 


to emphasise more clearly the salient points 
of my subject. A rock garden is one of the 
most fascinating of possessions. It is an in- 
exhaustible mine of pleasure ; it entails no 
heavy labour, and is within the most modest 
means. If others derive half the enjoyment 
from their rock gardens that I have from 
mine, they vsrill be abundantly repaid for any 
trouble they may take. Should I be of use 
to any unknown reader, I trust he will not 
hesitate to write to me, as I shall be delighted 
to reply to any questions he may care to put. 

My warmest thanks are due to Mr Frederick 
W. Moore, Curator of the Royal Botanic 
Gardens, Glasnevin, who not only assisted me 
throughout by his kind advice, but also for 
ushering in my book. A preface from an 
acknowledged authority of his renown dig- 
nifies my own modest effort and gives it an 
importance to which it could not otherwise 
aspire. I am also deeply indebted to Mr 
W. Irving, of the Royal Botanical Gardens at 
Kew, for so kindly checking the lists of plants 
at the end of the book. Passed by him, they, 
can be safely commended both to the novice 


and to the more experienced owners of rock 
gardens. Grateful acknowledgments must also 
be made to Mr F. W. Moore and Mrs 
Delves - Broughton, who have so graciously 
given me photographs, and to the Editor of 
the Ladies' Field for kind permission to 
reproduce some of them. 


Bray, Co. Wicklow. 


Literature treating of gardens and of garden- 
ing has been offered in plenty to garden lovers 
in recent years. It may fairly be said that 
much of it had better have been left unwritten, 
as it really has served no useful purpose, and 
has only tended to confuse rather than to assist 
novices, or even those v^ith some experience 
of plants and their requirements. Such stric- 
tures cannot apply to this volume. It is a 
practical work, written by a practical man 
about a subject which he thoroughly under- 
stands, and by one who has experienced all the 
joys and sorrows connected with the cultivation 
of rock plants and alpines. The rock garden 
is no longer a feature to be found only in large 
establishments or in Botanical Gardens. The 
pleasure which is derived from the successful 


cultivation of miniature gems and of dwarf 
alpine plants is now fully recognised, and rock 
gardens have become a popular feature in 
gardening of to-day. In a properly constructed 
rock garden many little plants which refuse 
to grow and live under the ordinary conditions 
of an herbaceous border, and which resent the 
aggressive attentions of their more robust 
neighbours, generally demonstrating their re- 
sentment by dying, can be cultivated and kept 
in health and vigour for many years, protected 
by stones, sheltered from drying winds, and from 
shade or sunshine, dryness or moisture, accord- 
ing to their requirements. They can, owing 
to their raised position, be seen and tended in 
a manner more conducive to the comfort of 
the observer and cultivator than would be 
possible if they were grown on the flat. 

To ensure even moderate success in rock 
gardening two main points are essential : a 
properly constructed rock garden, and a re- 
liable guide to the nature and requirements of 
plants to be grown on it. There existed a 
demand for a sound practical work, giving 
explicit and detailed information on these 


points, and this volume meets it. Mr 
Meredith writes with practical experience. 
His own rock garden, constructed by himself, 
is artistic in conception, covers a considerable 
area, and suits the requirements of a large and 
varied collection of all classes of alpines. In 
it many difHcult subjects, such as Edrianthus 
Pumilio^ Morisia^ Androsace Sarmentose, Carnea, 
Villosa, Saxifraga retusa, aretioides^ ccesia^ 
Diapensoides, Daphne cneorum and Blagayana^ 
flourish and grow into good-sized tufts. 

The details of how this success has been 
achieved are fully explained, concisely but 
clearly, and all necessary information is given. 
F. W. MOORE, M.A., A.L.S. 

Royal Botanic Gardens, 
Glasnevin, Dublin. 





Surroundings — What to avoid — Objections to trees 

Aspect — Contour — Nature of soil — Ciiief 

points to be noted — Typical site ... 3 



The natural — The artificial — Types of the natural 
— The old quarry — The amphitheatre — The 
horseshoe — The valley — The cliff — The rocky 
bank — The rocky knoll — Points to be noted — 
Types of the artificial — The sunken — The 
gravel- pit — Bank and knoll types — The rocky 
bed — The very large rock garden— Advantages 
and disadvantages of the natural — Advantages 
and disadvantages of the artificial . . • 13 



First preparations — Cleaning ground — Exposing and 

preparing the rock — Pockets natural and artificial 32 



What can be done with a level field — Laying out the 
garden — Boldness of design — Preparing banks 


for rockwork — Treatment of natural valley — 
Formation of banks — Example of a " valley " 
garden — Points to be noted in excavations — 
The hollow garden — Gradient of slopes — 
Drainage — Aspect — Bank and knoll types and 
their treatment — Rock bed — Very large rock 
garden — Difficulties connected with this type 
of garden — Points to be noted in artificial rock 
gardens ....... 38 



Kind of rock to use and what to avoid — Principles of 
particular construction — Types of rockwork to 
avoid — The placing of individual rocks — Fissures 
and how to make them — Strata — Principles of 
general construction — Paths — Steps — The 
moraine ....... 64 



Importance of climate — Best type of soil — Supplying 
deficiencies in soil — Necessity of loosening 
ground — Drainage ..... 85 



Position — Natural bog garden — Artificial bog garden 

— The stream ...... 95 



The wild garden — Treatment — List of plants suit- 
able — The water garden — Treatment — List of 
plants suitable . . . . . .108 





Position and types — Building — Beautifying the old 

wall . 117 



Propagation by seed — By division and cuttings — 
Methods of raising from seed — Methods of 
propagation by division — By cuttings — By 
layers . . . . . . • .120 



Climatic difficulties — Contrasting natural and artificial 
conditions — Tendency to loss of characteristic 
grow^th — Methods of overcoming climatic diffi- 
culties — Importance of proper planting — Time 
to plant — Importance of top-dressing in spring 
— Weeding — Garden pests and how to deal 
with them . . . . . . '155 



Points for consideration — Difference between alpines 
and rock plants — Grouping — Examples of same 
— Planting bulbs — Ferns — Caution against 
rampant-growing plants — Importance of pro- 
portion — Planting shrubs . . . .183 




Points affecting the cost — Labour — Clearing scrub — 
Drainage — Estimated cost of rocks, sand, etc. — 
Cost of maicing artificial bog garden — Cost of 
plants ........ 


Alphabetical list of plants suitable for the rock garden 215 

A selection of plants for dry and sunny positions, and 

time of flowering ....... 374 

A selection of plants for full sun or partial sunny 

positions, and time of flowering .... 375 

A selection of plants for positions in deep shade . 376 

A selection of plants for partial shady positions . -377 

A selection of plants for moist positions in sun or 

shade 378 

A selection of plants suitable for trailing over rocks . 378 

List of plants suitable for the moraine . . .380 

A selection of dwarf shrubs, pines, and conifers . 381 

A selection of hardy ferns suitable for rock garden in 

sun or half shade ....... 382 

A selection of hardy ferns for shady position . . 383 

A selection of bulbous plants ..... 383 

Plants for massing ....... 385 

Index 386 


The Iris Valley, in Author's Garden 

(in colours) ...... Frontispiece 

Rock Garden and Stream, Mount Usher 
Valley Type ...... 

„ „ Portion of Author's Garden 

Knoll Type ..... 

Bank Type. (In course of construction) 

„ „ (Site being cleared) 

„ „ (Rocks in place) 

Rocky Bed ..... 

Haberlea rhodopensis 

Valley Type ..... 

The Bank. (Roughly formed before rocks are put 
into place) ..... 

First Line of Rocks Laid 

Second Line of Rocks in Position . 










RocKWORK Advancing up the Hill 
Nearing Completion 
The Complete Rocicwork 
Example of Rockwork 

5J n 

A Well-covered Rock Bank 

Rocky Steps 
Bog Garden in Author's Rock Garden 
Water Garden .... 
Part of Wall Garden, Mount Usher 


Phlox subulata j 

Dianthus alpinus 
Romazoffia sitchensis 
Saxifraga apiculata 
Saxifraga oppositifolia . 

Androsace lanuginosa, in the 

Sempervivum arachnoideum 














Surroundings — What to avoid — Objections to trees — 
Aspect — Contour — Nature of soil — Chief points to 
be noted — Typical site. 

"Where shall I lay it out?" This is the 
first of the many problems to confront one 
who intends to become the happy possessor of 
a rock garden. In some cases this unfortu- 
nately presents but few difficulties — unfortu- 
nately, I say, for then the ground that is avail- 
able, frequently not of the most suitable, is so 
limited that there is little, if any, choice in 
the matter. But others, who have a greater 
variety of positions to select from, will need 
to give the question more careful considera- 
tion. Therefore it would be a mistake to 
lay down any hard and fast rule as to where 
the site should or should not be, for this 


must obviously greatly depend on what choice 
of positions there is. 

A rock garden can be made almost anywhere 
— almost, be it emphasised ; for under certain 
conditions, which I shall point out later on, 
the chances of success would be but small. 

But no matter what the position is, whether 
the spot selected be the most ideal, or the 
most unpromising, it will require considerable 
thought and no little skill to lay out the 
garden to the best advantage. 

The object of this book is to help the reader 
to approach as near as circumstances will 
allow to the ideal rock garden : that earthly 
Paradise, which, alas ! the skill of mortal 
man has not yet achieved, nor ever will, 
I fear. 

Though there is a great difference of opinion 
as to what this lovely spot should be like, at 
the same time there are many points on which 
all agree. Some indeed are absolutely essential 
to the well-being of those alpine gems, which 
one hopes to see grow and thrive as they do 
in their natural home, though too often one 
is doomed to disappointment. Yet be not 


discouraged, for there are many and lovely 
plants which are not in the least difficult to 
cultivate, and w^hich will amply repay the care 
devoted to them. But two conditions they do 
require, light and pure air, which, as with all 
plants, are essential to success, and indeed 
I may add a third, sufficient drainage. One 
has only to remember where most of these 
treasures make their home in order to realise 
how important these factors are. 

Let us for a moment imagine ourselves on 
some mountain slope where the alpines are in 
their natural state ; where the Androsaces and 
Saxifrages carpet the boulder-strewn ground, 
or beautify the weather-beaten rock with their 
dainty loveliness ; where by the tiny stream can 
be seen the lovely Soldanellas and Ranunculus 
and a thousand other plants to delight the 
heart of man. Standing there, gazing around, 
what a picture meets the eye ! The craggy 
height above ; below, the wind-swept pines ; 
and, far as the eye can reach, range upon range 
of mountains with their eternal snow-capped 
peaks glistening in the sunshine. Here is no 
jarring note ; all is peace and quiet. Nowhere 


has the hand of man marred the beauty of the 
landscape. We see Nature as she is. 

With this picture in our minds let us see 
how best to apply the lesson it has taught us. 

First we learn that the rock garden 
should, where possible, be out of sight of all 
stiff surroundings ; out of sight of the formal 
garden, with its trim beds and smooth lawn, 
its close-clipped hedges and rose-clad walls, in 
some quiet and secluded spot merging from 
the shrubbery or wild garden. At the same 
time let it not be so far from the house as to 
prevent us snatching odd moments amongst 
our treasures to see what flower has at last 
bloomed out, or what special plant was raided 
by the slugs last night. 

As variety of outline is one of the keystones 
of success, endeavour to select a spot that will 
afford this with the minimum amount of 

As the spots to choose from are so many 
and varied, perhaps it would be best, first of 
all, to find out what should be avoided and 
what conditions would militate against success. 

The worst and perhaps really the only hope- 


less site is one with large overhanging trees ; 
for the drip from their branches would all 
too soon prove fatal to the plants underneath. 
Although there are some plants that will live 
and even thrive beneath trees, they are not 
sufficiently attractive to cultivate exclusively. 
So to choose such a spot would be but to 
court disaster ; and in addition to the damage 
caused by the drip from the branches, the 
roots of the trees would very soon exhaust the 
soil that had been so carefully prepared for the 
alpine treasures. It would surprise many to 
find to what a distance these roots extend. So, 
above all, let there be no trees overhead, and, 
if possible, none within at least 15 yards — this 
is the minimum, — and then only to the north 
and west. On the other points, south and 
east, they should be still further away — at 
least 30 yards, — and even at that distance, as 
few of them as possible. For if they are closer, 
the air, which all plants so urgently require, 
will be shut out, and part at least of the 
garden will be in constant shade during 
the winter, with fatal results to many of the 
plants. Therefore, when feasible, choose a 


position where there is no chance of trees 
intercepting the low winter sun, for this is 
more valuable when the days are short than 
during the summer months. 

In cases where, owing to unavoidable 
circumstances, the trees on the north and 
west are rather close, provided there is no 
drip on the garden from their branches, much 
may be done to overcome the root trouble. 
A narrow trench sunk rather deeper than the 
roots of the trees descend, and filled with rough 
concrete, will form an effectual barrier. 

Now, having decided that the site must 
not be overshadowed nor shut in by trees, 
the next point to be considered is the aspect. 

This is all-important. The problem is to 
find out at what point sufficient, but not too 
much, sunshine can be obtained with due 
regard to shelter from cold winds. A spot 
should be selected having an aspect as nearly as 
possible south-east ; and if there be a wood or 
a belt of trees some distance off on the north- 
west, so much the better. This aspect will 
give the maximum amount of the winter's sun, 
and, as south-west is theoretically the hottest 


point, the rock garden will not be so liable 
to be burnt up during the summer. 

The next point to be investigated is the 
contour of the land, and on this will depend to 
a great extent the type of rock garden to be 

Sloping ground, undulating if possible, is 
undoubtedly the best, for thus more pleasing 
effects can be obtained, with less labour and 
expense, than can be expected on level ground, 
and the fact that the drainage can be made 
more effective is by no means the least im- 
portant consideration. Hollows should at all 
times be avoided when there are any diffi- 
culties in the way of draining them effectively. 
Nothing is more fatal to alpines, and indeed 
to all plant life, than stagnant moisture, which 
so quickly makes the ground sour. 

The nature of the soil should be also taken 
into account. It is a great mistake to imagine 
that rock plants do not require good soil ; the 
very best fibrous loam, the deeper the better, 
with a light sandy subsoil, is what they delight 
and revel in. Therefore, in the selection of a 
site, avoid as far as possible anything in the 


nature of a heavy clay soil in which it will be 
found difficult if not impossible to grow many 
of the choicer plants, and which will require 
more drainage and be always hard to work, 
whether in very dry or wet weather. A 
stream should be brought through the garden, 
if it can be obtained by fair means or foul. 
The merest trickle will suffice, so long as it is 
constant, but constant it must be, and it will add 
tenfold to the charm of the garden and afford 
unlimited possibilities. 

Having fully described the chief conditions 
favourable and unfavourable in selecting a 
site, I briefly recapitulate them as follows : — 
The garden, when circumstances will permit, 
should be away from and out of sight of any- 
thing formal, approached through the wild 
garden or shrubbery, but still within reasonable 
distance of the house ; the ground should be 
undulating, with good light fibrous loam, facing 
south-east, with, when possible, a stream ; but, 
most important of all, it must be free from 
encroaching or overshadowing trees and have 
plenty of air and sunshine. 

Bearing these points in mind, a typical 

\^To face page lo. 


(From a Photo, by Mrs Delves Broughton.) 


position for this would-be garden of delights 
may be considered. Perhaps at the foot of a 
nicely wooded hill facing south-east, with 
undergrowth around, there may be some open 
spot, the extent of which is not altogether 
important ; by removing some shrubs and 
perhaps a few trees, it can be enlarged, if too 
small, and, on the other hand, if too big, it will 
afford scope for judicious planting. This open 
ground may be in the form of a little valley 
sloping up the hill, or, again, a small prominence 
thrust out from the surrounding and gradually 
rising ground, or undulating with natural hills 
and hollows. Or, perhaps, the site could be a 
miniature gorge with wooded heights on either 
side and a stream flowing through it. These 
are indeed ideal positions from which to select, 
provided always that they afford sufficient air 
and sunshine. 

But with far less promising material — for 
instance, a sloping field, or even a level one 
— much can be done. The former is by far 
the better of the two, for on level ground 
the question of drainage would probably arise 
and cause serious difficulties. 


Sunken ground in the form of a large hollow, 
such as an old sandpit, can be utilised to some 
advantage, as can also an old quarry. These, 
if wooded above, will make charming sites ; 
but here again attention must be given to the 
essential necessity of obtaining sufficient fall for 
the drains. On that point let there be no un- 
certainty, for, if the drains prove defective, but 
a poor return will be made for time and money 

The foregoing are, I think, a few of the most 
usual sites to select, and their description will, 
I hope, suggest to the reader how to make the 
best choice of the ground he has at his disposal. 
What form the garden will eventually take, 
and how it can most advantageously be laid 
out, will in a great measure depend on such 
details as soil, locality, contour of ground, 
money to be expended, etc. All these will be 
dealt with in the following chapters. 



The natural — The artificial — Types of the natural — 
The old quarry — The amphitheatre — The horse- 
shoe — The valley — The clifF — The rocky bank — 
The rocky knoll — Points to be noted — Types of 
the artificial — The sunken — The gravel-pit — Bank 
and knoll types — The rocky bed — The very 
large rock garden — Advantages and disadvantages 
of the natural — Advantages and disadvantages of 
the artificial. 

The different types of rock garden may be 
divided into two sections, which can be called 
the natural and the artificial. 

In the Natural garden the rocks are already 
placed there by Nature, and all that is required 
is to utilise them to the best advantage. 

In the Artificial garden — the name speaks 

for itself — the rocks have to be placed, and in 

some cases even the banks on which to lay 

them have to be formed. 



In the first section, the Natural, there are 
three types — the old quarry, the rocky bank, 
and the rocky knoll. 

The second section is more varied, and in it 
may be included the sunken garden, the old 
gravel-pit, the bank, the knoll, the rocky bed, 
and the very large rock garden. 

The old quarry^ a favourite and very 
charming site for a rock garden, and one that 
has many points to recommend it, is hard to 
deal with owing to the difficulty of adorning 
the large masses of perpendicular rocks, which, 
although capable of giving very striking effects 
with their cataract of flower and foliage, require 
years of growth even under the most favour- 
able conditions. It usually takes one of four 
forms, which may be called the amphitheatre, 
the horseshoe, the cliff, and the valley. 

First let us note the amphitheatre^ a very 
uncommon type. This formation, as the name 
would imply, is a hollow almost or entirely 
surrounded by rocky sides, and will seldom be 
a really suitable site. Most probably it will be 
found very difficult to drain thoroughly, and 
even were this done, there would still be that 

[To face pa^e 14. 



( Vcromca Lavaudiana and Aitbrielia Di- Mules in foreground.) 


want of air which causes plants to damp off, 
especially during the winter. The only occasion 
on which this form of quarry is admissible is 
when it is on a very large scale, at least 25 
yards across, and even then it will generally 
prove but a doubtful success. 

The next and perhaps the commonest form 
is the semicircle or horseshoe^ usually an excava- 
tion into the side of a hill, giving bold rocky 
places for planting. This is an excellent form 
to choose, provided it fulfils certain conditions. 
It should not open towards the north, for then 
it would be exposed to the cold winds and 
the greater part of the rocks would constantly 
be in shade, and although some shady corners 
will be found useful, the majority of plants 
like the sun. In fact, any point but this will 
do, for so long as the entrance is sheltered 
from the north it is a matter of no great 
importance where it may be ; but the south- 
east is preferable, for it gives greater variety 
of position, both for sun- and shade-loving 

The valley or defile form can be made very 
effective. The best way for it to lie is east 


and west, but this is not so important provided 
that its course winds sufficiently. The more 
it winds the better, for it then provides the 
greatest variety of aspects and sheltered and 
shady nooks, the advantage of which will be 
duly appreciated when the time comes for 
planting. It will also be beneficial if the 
bottom of the valley slopes gradually from 
one end to the other, thereby ensuring more 
efficient drainage. A stream down the centre, 
when it can be obtained, greatly enhances the 
charm and considerably enlarges the scope 
for variety in plants that can be cultivated, 
because those preferring moisture can be 
planted on its banks, and those requiring a dry 
soil will find a home on the heights above. 

The cliff type, as the name implies, is of 
abrupt formation, rising from comparatively 
level ground, and is one of the best and most 
effective forms, provided the aspect is suitable. 
South-south-east is the best, but any other 
point will do so long as it does not face towards 
the north, for with a northern aspect the 
garden would get but little sun, certainly not 
the amount all alpines so imperatively require. 


In this type the surroundings should be care- 
fully noted, so that they may be in keeping 
with the proposed rock garden. The ideal 
approach is through some open and undulating 
stony ground, with occasional patches of stunted 
gorse and heather, dotted here and there with 
oak, holly, or birch trees ; then a stretch of 
grassy sward, with occasional rocks, which 
become more numerous as the slope gently 
rises towards the foot of the cliff. Even this 
is a delightful scene ; but picture the face 
of the rock, now bare, clothed with sheets 
of Aubrietias, Rock Roses, Dianthus, and in- 
numerable other equally lovely plants, the 
Silver Saxifrages springing from some almost 
invisible chink or cranny, and nestling close 
to the rock, with their airy blooms waving in 
the breeze, while from some shady nook the 
Ramondias peep forth. This is indeed a de- 
lightful picture, therefore care should be taken 
to see that the frame is worthy of it. 

There are now a few points to be noted 
which apply equally to all the foregoing forms 
of garden made from an old quarry. 

The first and most important is to observe 


the state of the quarried face of the rock. By 
this is meant, whether it is much broken in 
outline or presents a sheer, perpendicular face. 
It should be rough and jagged, so as to give a 
number of ledges — the more numerous they 
are and the greater their variety the better — 
forming steps or terraces, by which easy access 
can be had to all parts. Otherwise it will 
probably be necessary to plant the alpines and 
examine them from the steps of a ladder, which, 
to say the least, is not desirable. But, bad as 
a too smooth surface may be, an overhanging 
rock face is even worse. An odd protruding 
ledge here and there does not so much matter, 
in fact they may prove of service, but even 
they should not be of sufficient size to prevent 
the rain from reaching the plants below. The 
whole tendency of the rock should be to slope 
back from the ground at the foot, for it is 
necessary that rain should have access to every 
part. Though it is wonderful in what ap- 
parently dry and arid spots alpines will thrive, it 
is certain that their roots must find moisture 
somewhere. Few people realise to what an 
extent rocks retain moisture even during a dry 


season, so it is important that the slope should 
be sufficient to catch and store the rain. If it 
is intended to conduct a stream through the 
garden, make sure the outlet will be such as to 
prevent any risk of the garden suffering from 

The next type is the rocky bank. This, 
as its name would imply, is a bank of natural 
rock, and may be the face of a small hill, or 
form part of a large one. 

It is, in fact, rather similar to the quarry 
cliff, already described, except that the rock, 
being as nature left it, will probably have a 
more gradual slope, and therefore possess the 
advantage of being easier to clothe. 

The advice as regards surroundings applies 
equally here. The rock garden should be 
approached through shrubbery or wild garden, 
and situated in some open, though not too ex- 
posed, spot facing south-east, with a back- 
ground of suitable trees, such as oak, holly, or 
birch, or any of the Conifer family. 

■ The rocky knoll is the next and the last of 
the natural types. It may be a small eminence 
of rocky ground standing out by itself, or a 


sort of promontory on the side of a hill, or on 
sloping ground. 

This type is practically identical with the 
last described, except that in this case the whole 
or the greater part of the hill is dealt with, 
whereas in the former only one face of it was. 
The knoll is undoubtedly the better of the two, 
for with it a much greater variety of aspects can 
be obtained, and also more scope for developing 
the different natural undulations of the ground. 
The aspect is, of course, unimportant, for a hill 
standing by itself will be open to all points of 
the compass ; and even if it be part of a larger 
hill, it will be shaded only on one side, which 
will not so greatly matter. With this type, 
also, care should be taken that the surround- 
ings are suitable. 

As this concludes the types of the natural 
rock gardens, a few points in connection with 
them may be mentioned before proceeding to 
the artificial. 

In the first place, large masses of rock have 
to be dealt with as placed by Nature's all- 
powerful hand, and we must therefore adapt 
ourselves to whatever conditions we may find. 

[ To face page 20. 



(In course of construction.) 


Since the chief object is to provide as many- 
spots as possible to plant in, select the type 
of rock that will give the greatest variety of 
pockets, remembering at the same time that 
all pockets, no matter of v^hat size, must be able 
to be drained. The necessity of draining having 
already been emphasised in the first chapter, it 
is superfluous to dwell further on it here. 

The quality of the rock should be carefully 
observed, and if there be any choice in the 
matter, select a soft and porous stone, such as 
sandstone, in preference to hard rock. The 
former has the double advantage of absorbing 
the moisture essential to plants, and minimising 
labour when it comes to making drains. 

Examination of the different types of arti- 
ficial rock gardens reveals that they are, as 
one would naturally expect, more difficult and 
probably more expensive to make, demanding 
more thought and skill to engineer successfully 
than do the natural gardens. On the other 
hand, they possess the great advantage of ex- 
treme adaptability, for they can be made 
almost anywhere, from a level field to the 
side of a mountain. 


The first and perhaps the most usual is that 
type which, for the want of a better name, I 
shall call the sun\en garden. One form of 
this is a sunken path, the centre of a little 
valley. The other is represented by a large 
hollow with banks surrounding level ground, 
rather similar to what was called the horseshoe 
in the quarry type. 

Of these two, the former is the more usual 
and indeed the most attractive ; nor is the reason 
far to seek, for in this type every aspect can 
be obtained by making the paths wind suffi- 
ciently ; this at the same time has the advan- 
tage of providing, in a limited area, more surface 
whereon to plant. This form can be made 
on the level ; but sloping ground is to be pre- 
ferred, for the effect is better, and, what is more, 
or at least equally, important, the drainage can 
thereby be assured. The surroundings, as in 
all other cases, should be as wild and natural 
as possible, though much may be accomplished 
by judicious planting. As the latter, however, 
takes years to become really effective, it is best, 
whenever practicable, to have the surroundings 
provided by natural means. 

\To face page 22. 


(Site being cleared.; 


(Rocks in place.) 


The large hollow is not a form which re- 
commends itself very much, for it is apt to 
look too artificial and also entails considerable 
labour to make. But in cases where there is 
only a very limited extent of ground it is useful, 
for in this form the maximum amount of 
surface available for planting can be obtained. 
It must be on sloping ground, for to dig a 
large hollow in the level will usually result 
in the formation of a small lake. The lower 
side should be open and at least level with the 
surrounding ground, above it if possible. This 
entrance should face either east or south ; the 
north is the least desirable aspect, because 
then so little of the garden would get any sun. 

The gravel-pit is practically identical with 
the foregoing, except that the hollow is already 
made. The lie of the ground here must also be 
such as to ensure the drainage being efficacious, 
and the open side should face any point except 
the north, preferably south or east. 

The bank and \noll types are exactly the 
same as the rocky bank and rocky knoll 
already described, except that in the former 
the natural rock is already there, while in the 


latter cases we have only the soil, and the rock 
will have to be placed. 

Both these types are attractive, but in a 
great measure dependent on the natural contour 
of the ground, which should lend itself to their 
several requirements. The bank form can be 
made in a gently sloping field, but the labour 
entailed would be great. In the case of the 
knoll, so great would it be that I would not 
advise the reader to embark on it, not at least 
on a large scale, for I doubt if the result 
would sufficiently repay him. 

Next we will deal with the rocky bed or 
very small rock garden. This is a most 
delightful and useful way of growing alpines 
for those who can only spare a few square yards, 
or who do not wish to attempt anything 
larger. The surroundings in a garden of this 
kind are not, of course, of such importance 
as in the case of the larger gardens, but all 
the same it is as well to select as sunny and 
open a spot as can be obtained, and removed 
as far as possible from the shade or drip of 
trees. There is no garden, no matter how 
small, that cannot have a rocky bed, tiny 


though it may have to be ; and it is surpris- 
ing with what success some of the most diffi- 
cult alpines can thus be cultivated, creating no 
small amount of envy amongst the possessors 
of larger rock gardens. 

The best and most usual form is a raised 
bed, the outline of which may be as varied as 
fancy dictates. It can also be made on the 
sunken principle, but would then occupy more 
space and not prove as satisfactory in many 
ways, whilst it would also entail more labour 
and greater cost. For all that is aimed at in 
a garden of the rocky bed type is to have some 
spot in which to grow the choicest treasures. 
It is useless to endeavour to imitate larger 
gardens, because the result would be only 
disappointing and would look puny and out of 
keeping. Therefore I most strongly recommend 
those who cannot, owing to circumstances, 
have any of the foregoing types, to try the 
rocky bed, and I feel sure they will never 
regret the experiment. 

We will now go to the other extreme and 
describe the very large rock garden. This 
garden is diametrically opposed to all other 


types hitherto dealt with, in which the alpines 
are grown on the lower banks or slopes, with 
shrubs and trees above ; for in this case the 
shrubs are planted in the valleys and the alpines 
on the heights. Without doubt this is copy- 
ing nature more closely ; but to be effective 
the plan must be on a large scale, and cover 
at least two or three acres, composed of natur- 
ally very broken ground, with hills and hollows 
well defined and as varied as possible. 

The rockwork must correspondingly be of a 
bolder formation and its lines more generous. 
If this is not the case, the result will be but 
a poor and insignificant imitation of Nature's 
handiwork, and consequently be far from 
pleasing. As, however, bold rockwork entails 
larger rocks, with cost and labour increased 
proportionately, I should not advise anybody 
to whom expense is a matter of importance 
to embark on a garden of this type. But 
those who are fortunate enough to be indiffer- 
ent to cost, and who possess suitable ground, 
may well be urged to make this style of garden, 
and I feel sure that they will never have cause 
for regret, provided it is skilfully laid out. 

[ To face page 26. 




The surroundings are, if possible, even more 
important than in any of the foregoing types, 
for here ugly spots cannot be planted out with 
banks of shrubs, and, as the paths and rockwork 
are on the heights, there is every opportunity 
of seeing those walls and hedges which we fain 
would imagine to be miles away. For these 
reasons, therefore, the site should be some 
distance from any of those blots which mar 
the view, and the approach should be through 
some wood, or ground of a similar and un- 
cultivated character. 

A spot such as the following would be 
ideal : a large open stretch of very undulating 
and broken ground at the foot of a wooded 
hill — with perhaps a stream running through 
it into a piece of marshy ground at its lower side 
— which in turn merges into scrub and stunted 
trees, fully exposed to all points except, per- 
haps, the north, where it is sheltered by a belt 
of ancient and majestic pines. This would 
indeed be a spot worthy of the bestowal of every 
care and trouble, in order to develop it to the 
best advantage. The ground for a garden of 
this sort must be very undulating ; by undulat- 


ing I do not mean merely uneven ground, but 
a spot with well-defined hills and hollows — the 
bolder and more marked they are the better. 

This concludes a terse survey of the various 
types of rock gardens, and some consideration 
of the various advantages offered by each may 
assist in deciding which of them shall be 
adopted. As a rule, though, the choice is but 
" Hobson's choice," for the site in most cases 
decides the type that will have to be adopted. 

The advantages of all rock gardens belong- 
ing to the natural section, quarry, rocky bank, 
or knoll, are that the rock is there ready 
placed by nature in masses far larger and 
bolder than could ever artificially be put into 
position, and that, for this reason, more striking 
effects can be obtained, both as regards height 
and boldness of outline. It may also be a very 
cheap garden to make. But this is a very 
uncertain quantity, and is difficult to ascertain 
at first. It may ultimately turn out to be both 
expensive and troublesome, because so much 
depends on the formation and description of 
the rock. One of the disadvantages is that it 
is often very difficult, and, in fact, at times 


almost impossible to get as much soil into the 
pockets as the plants that are to inhabit them 
require. Often, indeed, it is hard to find 
pockets or ledges of any description where 
they are wanted, and although rocks are 
attractive in conjunction with flowers, still 
they are only the means to an end, and that 
end the cultivation of the plants. Effective 
drainage may at times be found difficult 
and expensive to carry out successfully, but 
as this depends enormously on the texture 
of the rock and other circumstances, it would 
be a mistake to lay down any hard and fast 
rules regarding it. 

It is a great fallacy to imagine that alpines, 
because they are dwarf-growing, do not re- 
quire a deep rooting medium, for there is 
no class of plants whose roots penetrate so 
deeply in comparison to their height. In 
addition, as all the rockwork has to be artificial, 
every description of pocket and ledge can be 
made, as varied and numerous as the needs of 
the plants demand, the benefit of which will 
be found when the time comes for putting the. 
alpines into their home. 


The chief disadvantage is purely a matter 
of cost, though this is often a rather important 
point. The labour of digging out the garden 
and, in all probability, of having to cart the rocks 
some distance means expense. Those people 
are fortunate indeed who have the rocks close 
at hand, and only those v^ho have had to 
draw their supplies of stones from a distance 
can fully realise how great a saving it is. 

The merits of the sloping bank and knoll 
types are, that if the ground has the necessary 
conformation, the only labour entailed is to 
clear the surface of scrub and weeds, and to 
place the rocks in position ; therefore, unless 
any unforeseen difficulty should arise, they are 
probably the least costly types to make, but 
at the same time they are not so effisctive as 
are some of the other forms. 

As regards the old sand- or gravel-pit, pretty 
well the same remarks apply to them as the 
foregoing, except that in these cases soil may 
have to be procured in addition to rocks, and 
perhaps, the outline being bolder, better effiscts 
may be obtained. 

The small rocky bed (we can scarcely call 

[To face page 30. 




it a rock garden) has this advantage over all 
the other types, that it can be made in a very 
limited space ; but it does not give scope for 
the effective massing of plants ; its purpose 
is merely to satisfy those who wish to grow 
alpines, but do not desire to embark on any 
large undertaking. 

We now come to the last, namely, the large 
rock garden with its shrub-filled valleys. This 
form, provided that the space is large enough 
and its undulations sufficiently well and boldly 
defined, can be made most effective ; but it is, 
without doubt, the most difficult to lay out 
really well, and the cost, owing to its size, must 
be considerable, for in order to get the proper 
effect it must be made on very generous lines. 
Big, bold masses of rockwork are essential to 
success, and these should so combine with the 
undulations of the ground as to give it that 
natural appearance which should be the 
characteristic feature of all rock gardens. 



First preparations — Cleaning ground — Exposing and pre- 
paring the rock — Pockets natural and artificial. 

This chapter will be devoted to the develop- 
ment of the natural rock garden, the various 
types of vv^hich have been dealt with in the 
previous chapter. 

As may be expected, very similar treatment 
will be required for all types, in order to convert 
them from rocks, either bare or covered with 
rank vegetation, into gardens in which the 
choicest flowers can be grown. The follow- 
ing directions will therefore equally apply to 
all natural rock gardens, irrespective of their 
various forms. 

When the scene of operations has been 

decided on, the first thing to be done is, if 

necessary, to expose the surface of the rocks 



and clean out every nook and cranny, remov- 
ing all weeds or other vegetation growing 
there. This will at times be found no light 
task, for it is surprising how roots, especially 
those of weeds, penetrate into almost invisible 
fissures. It is difficult to oust such a plant as 
a dandelion when it gets its long and fleshy 
tap-root down several inches into some crack 
in solid rock, for it will not be sufficient merely 
to cut off its crown — its severed crown will 
promptly reappear worse than before. 

All overhanging trees should be cut down 
which are likely to cause a drip on to the 
plants below, or which would in any way 
shut out light and air from the garden. It 
is, however, advisable, in the initial stages at 
least, to leave any small stunted trees or shrubs 
springing from fissures in the face of the 
rock, or clinging to its summit, especially 
if these include such kinds as mountain 
ash, oak, holly, or any of the Conifer 
family. They are characteristic of and in 
keeping with mountain plants, and can 
easily be removed later, if it be deemed 




When the work of clearing and exposing 
the rock has been done, the next operation is 
to prepare receptacles for the soil in which 
to grow the plants. These may be obtained 
by opening up and developing natural fissures, 
by making new ones, or by forming pockets 
among the rocks. 

The only means of accomplishing this is 
with the crowbar or cold chisel, assisted at 
times with some explosive, such as dynamite 
or gunpowder ; but this latter method is 
dangerous in every sense. Besides requiring 
very careful manipulation, it is very apt to do 
more harm than good by removing rocks that 
would have been better left, or by impercep- 
tibly loosening others, the first intimation 
of whose unstable condition is finding them 
one morning at the foot of the clifF burying 
some of our choicest plants in their debris. 
It is well to remember, when splitting rocks, 
whether it be for the purpose of making or 
enlarging some crevice, or opening up some 
pocket, to first find out how the " grain " 
of the rock runs, and split the rocks with, not 
across it. For rock, like wood, has a regular 


and defined dip or grain, though perhaps not 
as well marked as the latter. 

As it is obviously impossible that any 
definite rules can be laid down as to how 
such pocket or fissure is to be formed, the 
reader must exercise his own judgment in 
the matter, and utilise the grain of the 
rock to the best advantage. In no case 
should a pocket or a crevice, whether per- 
pendicular or horizontal, be made in an 
overhanging rock face. Of even greater 
importance is the necessity of ensuring that 
the bottom of each pocket can be drained 
thoroughly, even should this entail cutting 
through solid rock. If this, however, be 
found impossible owing to position, or other 
circumstances, in order to prevent water 
lodging, fill up the pocket with rough 
concrete to the point where the draining 
becomes effective. 

When there is a difficulty in getting a 
sufficient number of natural pockets in the 
rock a good deal may be accomplished with 
the assistance of cement, yet it should never 
appear in the completed work, but always 


be most carefully hidden by either plants 
or soil. 

Examples of this kind of work are the 
building of a small terrace of stones along 
the front of some ledge, incapable of holding 
any or a sufficient depth of soil, or the fixing 
of wedge-shaped pieces of stone with their 
thin ends up in some large vertical fissure to 
keep in the soil, which otherwise it would be 
found difficult, if not impossible, to prevent 
being washed out by heavy rain. 

Bare rocky ledges which slope outwards in 
such a way that the rain is thrown off, instead 
of being directed back towards the soil behind, 
can have this fault remedied by raising the 
front with a layer of concrete. 

Steps may also have to be cut to give access 
to the plants. These should never be formal, 
but as uneven as possible, and merely form 
stepping-stones from one ledge to another. 

Where a stream comes over the face of the 
rock, its volume and course should be so con- 
trolled that even in time of flood it can do no 
damage to the plants growing beside it. 

The two chief things to remember in the 


preparation of natural rockwork are first to 
ensure thorough and efficient drainage of every 
pocket, and next to provide space sufficient to 
give that depth of soil all rock plants so 
urgently require. 

Great care should also be taken, when 
putting soil into the pockets and crevices, to 
work it thoroughly into every corner, so that 
there is no possibility of leaving any air space, 
which so often proves fatal to plants. With 
regard to the soil required, full particulars 
will be found in Chapter VI. 



What can be done with a level field — Laying out the garden 
— Boldness of design — Preparing banks for rockwork 
— Treatment of natural valley — Formation of banks — 
Example of a " valley " garden — Points to be noted in 
excavations — The hollow garden — Gradient of slopes 
— Drainage — Aspect — Bank and knoll types and their 
treatment — Rocky bed — Very large rock garden — 
Difficulties connected with this type of garden — Points 
to be noted in artificial rock gardens. 

Even more care and study are required to lay- 
out the artificial rock garden to the best 
advantage than is the case w^ith the natural 
rock garden ; for whereas in the latter the 
position chosen will to a great extent, if not 
altogether, determine the type it has to be, 
this is not so with the artificial garden, or at 
least not to the same extent. Take, for example, 
a narrow field, sloping gradually from one end 

to the other, which all will agree does not 



appear the most promising material on which 
to work. Yet even this can be developed into 
three different types of garden. 

By levelling a piece of ground across the 
face of the slope, and raising the upper part 
with the soil removed, we have the founda- 
tion for the bank type ; again, by sinking 
a path up the slope of the field a little valley 
is obtained ; and, lastly, by excavating into 
the slope the foundation for a garden is made, 
which will in a great measure correspond to 
the horseshoe type. It is therefore quite 
evident that it is necessary to devote con- 
siderable thought and exercise no little skill 
in laying out the ground, if it is to be done in 
the best possible, and at the same time most 
economical manner, and full advantage be taken 
of all its natural formations. 

The fact that the same piece of ground can 
be laid out in several very different ways, all 
equally good, or nearly so, does not simplify 
the task. 

It should also be realised that one cannot 
expect to get quite such bold effects in the 
artificial garden as are found in the natural, and 


the reason of this is not far to seek, for in order 
to obtain them large masses of rocks, weighing 
at least several tons, would have to be put into 
position, a Herculean task involving no little 
cost, and a bigger undertaking than the majority 
of people would care to attempt. But let it 
not be for a moment supposed that these large 
boulders are an absolute necessity, for quite as 
attractive gardens can be made by using com- 
paratively small rocks, so long as these rocks are 
skilfully placed. On the placing of them the 
ultimate result will in a great measure depend. 

As it would be best perhaps to take the 
several types by themselves, the little valley 
shall be dealt with first. 

Having selected a site of ground sloping, if 
possible, for reasons already stated, the first thing 
to be done is roughly to lay out its general lines. 
Place a few stakes in the ground along the pro- 
posed lines and study the effect from various 
points. There are several things to be noted 
when doing this. Let the valley lie as nearly 
east and west as possible, and especially let it lead 
from one definite point to another, and not look 
as if it had come there by chance and with no 

[ To face page 40. 


(Roughly formed before rocks are put into place.) 



object. Study the contour of the ground, and if, 
owing to the surroundings, it appears as though 
a path should come from one special place and 
lead to another, mark these two points and lay 
out the garden between them. The garden 
should neither begin nor end too abruptly ; 
let it commence with a barely perceptible 
hollow, the height of the banks on either side 
of the path gradually increasing ; while in a 
similar manner they should decrease in height 
at the further end, merging by degrees into 
the rising ground beyond. Nothing could 
look more unnatural than to come suddenly 
from comparatively level and probably rockless 
ground upon some bold rockwork which is 
there for apparently no reason, and which ceases 
equally abruptly and inconsequently. The 
same rule applies to all artificial rock gardens ; 
avoid anything sudden in the way of rockwork, 
but lead up to it gradually, with odd rocks 
scattered here and there, increasing in number 
as you approach your garden proper. If this 
be done it will only be copying nature, which 
should always be your guide. 

If the space available for working upon be 


rather limited, and it is desired to obtain the 
utmost possible surface on which to plant, resist 
the temptation to make two small valleys in 
preference to one large one. This is most im- 
portant and one of the most essential points to 
be noted, and I cannot impress it too strongly 
on the reader ; for in laying out a rock garden, 
one of the chief objects is to obtain the boldest 
effects the site will permit of. This cannot be 
achieved if more is attempted than the space 
conveniently allows. If space is available 
and it is desired to have two parallel valleys, 
they should be at least 20 or 30 yards apart, in 
order to allow for planting on the top. The 
path should so wind about that it is impossible 
to see both ends simultaneously from any 
spot. The garden will be far more attractive 
and its size apparently very much increased if 
we see only a small portion of it at a time, and 
if round every corner some fresh attraction can 
be provided. 

Having laid out the general lie of the main 
path, the next procedure is to mark out lines 
on either side about 20 feet from it, following 
its course throughout, which we will call lines 


of section. Then from the ground, between 
the lines of section, the sod must be removed, 
skinning It off as thinly as practicable and 
stacking In a heap In some spot convenient, but 
well out of the way. The next operation Is 
to begin to dig out the valley. But should the 
work be done after the method practised In 
railway and other similar cuttings, the top, 
and most valuable, soil would become buried 

.•'^>/ '•^, ^^ Ground, Lavel ^ ic" '^ ^-"'"'v /' ^ 

-'t. — , i' 

Fig. I. 

beneath the almost useless subsoil. Therefore 
some other method must be adopted. A 
practical way of doing this Is to divide the 
ground between the lines of section into plots 
about 10 yards long ; each of these will then 
measure about 30 feet long by 40 feet wide. 
From the first plot remove the top spit to 
say a depth of 6 inches, putting It In heaps 
(Bi Bj, fig. i) on either side, and about 10 
yards away. Next, dig out the soil down to 
the subsoil, also putting it In heaps (B2 Bg) on 
either side, and about 5 yards from ground 


marked out. Thus a cutting will be obtained 
(A A) about 40 feet wide, and probably from 
12 to 18 inches deep, with all soil of any 
value in heaps (B^ Bg) on either side. But the 
banks must be quite 6 feet high, and at least 
another 3 feet will have to be sunk in order to 
achieve this. In the centre of the excavation 
dig a trench (C) about 3 feet deep and 9 feet 
wide, the bottom of which will be the path, 
and throw the soil back on either side over 
the ground (D) between the heaps (Bg Bg) and 
lines of section. Now cut out the portion 
E E, and throw the soil over what has just been 
removed from C. This will probably raise the 
bank to from 4 to 5 feet above the bottom of 
the path, with its sides sloping towards it. At 
this stage it is well to work out the general 
formation of the banks in the plot being dealt 
with ; by this I mean that where it is ultimately 
intended to have a long and gentle slope, keep 
the subsoil further back and roughly make the 
desired gradient, or if a bold and almost per- 
pendicular bank is required, work accordingly. 
For further particulars with regard to the 
formation see page 47. 


Having done this, the second plot is ap- 
proached. Remove top spit as before, but the 
rest of the soil, down to the subsoil, instead 
of being put into a heap, should be throw^n 
over the two sloping banks of plot i. Then 
proceed to dig out the subsoil as before, again 
making the general formation of the banks as 
the work proceeds. Plot 3 is dealt with in 
a manner similar to plot 2, and so on till the 
last plot, when the soil removed from plot i 
and left in a heap (Bg) must be put over it. 

The result of all this will be a cutting with 
sloping banks on either side about 5 to 6 feet 
high, with the good soil over the subsoil, and 
with heaps of the top and best soil available 
for use later on when the time comes to place 
the rocks in position. 

This method undoubtedly entails consider- 
able labour. The only alternative is to treat 
the whole in a way similar to that adopted for 
plot I, and after having roughly formed the 
banks to throw back the soil removed. This, 
of course, has the advantage of saving the labour 
of carting the soil from the first to the last plot, 
and also it is easier to work out the general 


formation of the banks when all excavations 
are completed ; but, on the other hand, there is 
more labour in throwing the good soil into 
heaps and then putting it back again than in 
placing it directly over that plot which has 
iust been dug out. It is, however, a matter of 
individual taste which method to choose, and 
though perhaps the latter alternative does entail 
a little more work, it is the better of the two, 
on account of its being easier to lay out the 
general scheme when all digging is completed. 

I have described these operations rather fully, 
as I wish them to serve as a basis for the reader 
to work on ; but he will, of course, have to 
modify them according to the circumstances 
of each individual case. 

Where, however, there is a natural valley it 
may only be necessary to make it a little deeper. 
This can easily be done by sinking the centre 
path and throwing the soil up on either side, 
having first removed the sods, or whatever was 
growing on it, for it is essential to have clean 
ground to start with. The chief point to look 
to when excavating is that the subsoil shall be 
in its proper place beneath the upper soil, and 


also that the latter shall be of the greatest 
possible depth. 

It has been already pointed out that the 
course of the valley should wind about consider- 
ably. The slopes forming the banks must also 
vary as much as possible, in order to avoid pre- 
senting a too artificial appearance. In some 
places let the bank recede in a gradual slope, 
whilst in others a more abrupt formation will 
lend a pleasing contrast. Here and there some 
flat patches may skirt the path and be almost 
on the same level with it ; further on they 
may be raised considerably above the path level. 
These are a few suggestions whereby to break 
a stiff and formal outline and give the variety 
which should be aimed at. As I said before, 
it is far more satisfactory, and will probably in 
the end save considerable trouble, if the rough 
formation of the banks is made when cutting 
out the valley and before the rockwork proper 
is commenced. Nothing is more annoying 
than to find, when making a hollow in a certain 
spot, and when it is nearly completed, that the 
subsoil appears, for this entails removing the 
good soil for some distance round the spot and 


sinking the hollow deeper, with every chance of 
leaving it in a form that will retain water — the 
last thing to be desired. For these reasons let 
the rough scheme be worked out in the initial 

It may perhaps assist the reader and be the 
simplest way of showing what is meant by 
these variations in the slope of the banks, if I 
describe one artificial valley that I know. 

This valley is made in a piece of ground 
about 85 yards long by 35 yards broad, with a 
fall of about i foot in 16. Owing to the cir- 
cuitous course the valley takes, its actual length 
is about 105 yards, with a path varying from 
7 feet to 12 feet wide, while the banks on 
either side vary from 5 feet to 9 feet in height. 

Particulars of the formation of the right 
bank may now be given, beginning from the 
lower end of the valley. 

For the first 15 yards or so the slopes are 
very gradual, but increasing in gradient until 
some bold rockwork at A (fig. 2) is reached. 
This is almost perpendicular, and is from 8 to 
9 feet high. Round this the path turns sharply 
to the right, and then follows an almost semi- 

circular course to the left for about 15 yards. 

£§t> Dwarf 5KtuJ)S \t>%^t 
m TaU3WaJ>S 4to85t 
^ -^ Trees , OaK..3'-«h3no. 

Fig. 2. 

After passing the corner at A, the bank gradu- 
ally takes a more gentle slope, receding from 



the line of the path, thereby forming an almost 
level piece of ground at B between the base of 
the bank and the path. This continues to 
about the centre of the semicircle, when at C 
the bank again advances towards the edge of 
the path, at the same time increasing its 
gradient until, by the time the end of the semi- 
circle is reached at D, the slope again reaches 
the line of the path. Here it bears rather 
sharply to the right and continues to wind on 
gently for the next 17 yards, when it takes a 
decided bend to the left at E for about 20 
yards, then once more curves gently to the 
right and gradually dies away towards the 
rising ground beyond. 

Beyond the rather steep part at D, the bank 
by degrees assumes the form of two terraces, 
the lower one about 3 feet above the level 
of the path, and of a very gentle gradient, while 
the upper one is much steeper. This formation 
continues until about the point E, when the 
terraces once more merge into one bank, with 
a gentle gradient, which does not vary very 
much for some distance, when it again becomes 
steeper as it winds round the curve, after 

\^To face page 50. 

^ / ' 

J /X^'' 




^•- ^^J 





which it gradually dies away into the rising 
ground beyond. 

If the reader has been able to follow this 
description, he will see the necessity of working 
out the general scheme of the banks as he 
proceeds with his excavations. 

There are a few things to be observed 
which may help him in deciding where the 
level or where the steeper places should be. 
It is generally found to be more effective if 
the sharper gradients are made on the con- 
vex curves, while on the concave are the level 
spots and more gentle slopes. The advantage 
of this is fairly obvious, for in the former case 
the steep rockwork will stand out boldly and 
naturally form a corner, while in the latter the 
banks form a hollow which lends itself to the 
formation of a level spot at their base. 

If these ideas are carried out, there will be 
no danger of having the same formations 
opposite each other on either side of the path, 
for where the curve is concave on one side it 
follows that it must be convex on the other, 
and vice versa. 

It will give a pleasing variety if in some 


places the valley has the appearance of forming 
a gorge, while in others it may pass between 
two hills ; but even then the steep parts need 
not be exactly opposite, for the high ground 
can be cut diagonally. 

It is only the general outline of the banks 
that is being dealt with at present. In the 
chapter dealing with the placing of rocks in 
position, it will be shown in more detail how 
they should be worked up to give that 
appearance of natural rockwork which is 
to be aimed at. 

There is yet another point to be noted 
before leaving this type of garden, though, 
indeed, it applies generally to all gardens 
which have to be artificially dug out. It is 
this, when excavations have to be made, always 
be careful to get the top soil well away from 
where actual work is being done. You will 
thus ensure there being plenty of room, if, 
as may easily happen, it is found desirable to 
slope the top of the bank further back than 
had originally been intended. If the good 
soil be in the way, extra labour will be entailed 
clearing the required space. 


The next type of garden is what may be 
called the hollow. If it is to be made on the 
face of a hill or rising ground, lay out the site 
in a manner similar to that adopted in the 
case of the valley ; the outline should be as 
varied as possible, and be careful to avoid 
the appearance of its being marked out w^ith 
a compass. Remove sods or whatever may 
be growing on it, then take off top soil to a 
depth of about 6 inches, putting it in heaps 
at a convenient distance from the ground 
marked out. After this has been done, dig 
out the remaining soil to the subsoil, also 
putting it aside. Then continue the excava- 
tions, throwing the subsoil removed on to the 
ground above until the required depth has 
been attained. The banks must not be made 
too steep ; they should have a general slope 
of not more than i foot in 4 feet, because 
the steeper the formation the more numerous 
and the larger are the rocks required. In 
places, of course, the slope may be fairly 
perpendicular ; but even there a gradient of 
2 feet in 5 feet is quite enough, and effects 
as good, if not better, can be obtained than if 


a miniature clifFbe constructed. After having 
dug out the garden in the rough, the good 
soil can be spread over the bank that has 
been made, keeping the first 6 inches for use 
when making the rockv^ork. 

In this case also it is advisable to work out 
the formation of the banks in a general scheme 
before commencing to build in the rocks. 
Make it as varied as possible — a steep place 
here, there a little hollow looking like a tiny 
gorge which might at one time have been a 
watercourse. In another spot let the slope of 
the bank be very gentle, merging into a level 
stretch at its foot. Variety should always be 
aimed at, and the sequence of formations 
should not be repeated. 

When deciding on the depth to which the 
hollow is to be sunk, always look to the 
drainage to see that there will be a good fall 
towards the entrance, in order that the water 
from the surrounding rocks may be carried off. 

This type of garden should always face south, 
or as nearly towards that point as possible. 

If there is a natural hollow to work on, then 
the labour of making the garden is consider- 


ably reduced. All that is required to be done 
is to first clear the ground and then to develop 
it as far as is deemed necessary, treating it 
in much the same way as in the more arti- 
ficial type. For a natural hollow merely 
means that Nature has already done a certain 
amount of the work, and man will have to take 
it up where she left off. 

Now to deal with the Ifank and kno// 
types. These, as may be expected, do not 
require the same amount of work in the 
earlier stages as those types already described, 
for, instead of the general formation having to 
be made, the outline is already there and only 
requires judicious development. If they are 
not sufficiently high, this can be rectified by 
sinking the ground at the base and raising that 
above with the soil dug out, having previously 
cleared the ground of whatever was growing 
on it. Very probably there will be occasional 
and solitary rocks just showing above the sur- 
face. Dig round these to ascertain their size 
and how they can eventually be worked into 
the general scheme of the rockwork. The 
banks in gardens of this type are usually 


higher than in the case of the valley gardens, 
and it will be expedient to make paths over 
them ; it will therefore be advisable that their 
general lie should be planned out, and the 
formation of the banks made in the rough. 

The rocky bed requires comparatively little 
work in the preparatory stage. It usually is 
made on ground that is level or fairly so ; 
therefore make sure that it can be properly 
drained. When the site has been marked out, 
making its outline as varied as possible, dig 
out the soil to a depth of about z\ feet, and 
put in 6 to 9 inches of broken stones, coarse 
first and smaller above, which will facilitate 
drainage. At the same time take care that 
there is a proper outlet for the water to get 
away. The soil can, if necessary, be replaced, 
adding more then to bring it to the required 
height ; for the top should be quite 3 feet 
above the surrounding ground. 

In dealing with the large garden it is 
difficult to give any very definite instructions 
for its treatment, as so much depends on the 
natural formation of the ground. One of the 
more important points is to lay out the garden 


in correct proportions : a most difficult thing 
to achieve. Try to avoid having a number 
of small and abrupt hills with wide valleys 
between, looking like a collection of ant-hills 
dotted over the ground. If the valleys are 
wide, let the hills be large, not necessarily 
high, but covering a good extent of ground. 
Three or four, or even two, are quite enough, 
rising gradually in long and gentle gradients. 
For example, we have two fairly large hills, 
each covering about half an acre or more, with 
a curving valley about 30 feet wide between 
them. As we advance up this valley another 
and rather larger hill appears in front, round 
the foot of which the valley winds towards 
the left, while on the right a miniature pass 
crosses the range. These three hills, with the 
valley and pass, are quite enough to cover a 
couple of acres of ground ; any more would 
look out of proportion and give a fussy effect, 
which should always be avoided. This is 
merely a description of the main scheme, for 
the hills will need to be broken up and varied 
in outline. 

As the rockwork is on the higher ground, 


the paths leading through it will probably 
have to be on almost the same level as the 
plants, or at least more nearly so than in the 
types of gardens hitherto described. There- 
fore, in order to show the plants to advantage, 
and to be in keeping with the surroundings, 
the rocks should be considerably larger and 
the whole scheme worked out on bolder and 
broader lines. Where, for instance, in the 
valley type, the level spots cover a couple of 
square yards or so, three or four times that 
extent would be scarcely sufBcient here. 
Again, when in the former case the bank 
rises 6 feet in a distance of as many yards, 
here it may take 15 or 20 yards, and the 
eventual height from the bottom of the valleys 
to the tops of the hills will be anything from 
10 feet to 30 feet. The inclines should 
always be more gradual than in any of the 
gardens thus far noticed. In fact, to put the 
whole matter concisely, in the former types 
the idea was to copy some small portion of an 
alpine scene, while in this it is to produce, 
though on a very reduced scale, the scene in 
its entirety. 

{To face page 58. 



(Note general dip of stones from right to left. ) 


How difficult it is, only those who have 
tried can fully realise ; but if it is successful, 
a masterpiece of engineering and artistic skill 
will have been achieved. There are few who, 
on account of expense, could attempt a garden 
of this description unless they had ground that 
lends itself naturally to it, when it would 
perhaps only be necessary to make the valley 
or valleys deeper and slightly raise and vary 
the heights and contours of the hills. In this 
case one need clear only the ground that is 
intended to be rockwork, namely, the heights, 
unless indeed the valleys are overgrown with 
trees or scrub, when it should be thoroughly 

As the surface to be planted is so large, and 
as it is always necessary to reach all parts 
easily and without fear of walking on the 
plants, a number of paths will be required. 
Not paths in the generally accepted term — 
nice gravelled walks with stone edges — but 
almost imperceptible ways winding in and 
out amongst the boulders, starting from the 
main valley up a gentle slope for perhaps a 
few yards, then round some large rock and 


on, ever gradually rising, through some tiny 
gorge, then perhaps a rock-strewn valley, 
bending its way round some lesser peaks of the 
main hill, till at last the top is reached. Then 
let this summit, while bold and conspicuous, 
be no mere incongruous mass of piled-up 

The object of a rock garden is to grow 
plants, and the rocks are merely an adjunct, 
though an important one, but still only the 
means to an end. 

So unlimited is the scope for variety in a 
garden of this sort, that space will not admit 
of the enumeration of all its possibilities, so 
much must be left to the reader's discretion. 
Almost every type of garden thus far described 
can be worked into it more or less ; the object 
being to get the greatest variety of aspect and 
formation. To him who is in want of ideas 
there is no better teacher to go to than Nature. 
There is, however, no need to travel all the 
way to Switzerland. Let him but study the 
rocks and hills at home, and on his return 
try to reproduce the formation or scene on a 
smaller scale in his garden. More ideas can 


be obtained in a day's walk in a wild and rocky 
country than in a week's reading, and a few 
studies of natural rock made with a camera 
will prove of untold assistance. The chief 
difficulty is found when one comes to try to 
reproduce and adapt these pictures on the 
reduced scale : such at least has been my 

Those who, undeterred by expense, or the 
magnitude of the undertaking, wish to make 
such a garden, but have only sloping ground out 
of which to form it, will have to dig out the 
valleys and raise the hills. To such I should 
recommend working on lines somewhat similar 
to those laid down for the valley, only, of 
course, on a very much larger scale, the valleys 
wider in proportion to their depth and the 
hills with a more gradual incline. To get the 
soil in its proper place and to avoid burying 
what is wanted on the top and to distribute it 
evenly will be even more difficult than before. 
For while alpines require at least 12 inches of 
good soil as a general rule, the shrubs in the 
valleys require far more, and great ingenuity 
will have to be exercised to provide all this. 


Keep the very best fibrous loam for the alpines, 
because shrubs, though requiring more depth, 
are not so particular as to quality. Even if the 
soil is mixed with a little subsoil, " weathering " 
will soon improve this and do no harm. 

In all artificial rock gardens aim at variety 
of outline, but avoid too sudden transitions 
from one formation to another. Let the 
change be gradual, and always try to make it 
look as if there was a reason for it, for such 
is invariably the case in nature. Try to 
keep the lines of the garden in proper propor- 
tion. It is not an easy thing to do, for in 
ten yards you must reproduce what in nature 
covered ten times that distance ; but as pro- 
portion is the keynote to success, it is worth 
taking considerable trouble to achieve it. 

Do not attempt more than the size of the 
ground will allow. One good wide valley 
looks far better than two narrow ones. There 
should always be the feeling of openness and 
expanse. Also remember that all-important 
point, drainage. Whenever making a hollow 
or forming a level plateau, see that there is 
no chance of water lodging : this is the stage 


at which to do it, and not after the rock- 
work is finished. It is hardly necessary to say 
that the real effect cannot be judged until after 
your rocks have been placed in position ; but 
please remember that the hills and banks are 
not made to grow rocks, but that the rocks 
are placed there to keep up the soil in which 
the plants are to grow. Without the rocks 
the soil on any steep gradient would soon be 
washed down, although there is an angle, called 
" the angle of repose," at which soils of every 
description will remain stationary. But this 
angle is generally of a far more gentle gradient 
than is suitable for a rock garden, therefore it 
will be necessary to adopt the other alternative 
and build the slope up in the form of terraces, 
each of which will, in all probability, have 
a gradient considerably less acute than the 
" angle of repose," and there will, therefore, be 
less chance of the soil being washed down by 
heavy rains. 



Kind of rock to use and what to avoid — Principles of 
particular construction — Types of rockwork to avoid 
— The placing of individual rocks — Fissures and how 
to make them — Strata — Principles of general con- 
struction — Paths — Steps — The moraine. 

Having made the garden in the rough, the 
next step will be to construct the rockwork, 
and the first thing one naturally wants to 
ascertain is the best description of rock for this 
purpose. On this point there is a diversity of 
opinions, but the majority consider that sand- 
stone, which has special properties of retaining 
moisture, is the best all round, though others 
prefer mountain limestone. But almost any kind 
will do provided that it has a sufficient variety of 
forms, the greater the variety the better for our 
purpose. The stone from the nearest quarry 

will, generally, be found most desirable, if for 


yTo face page 64. 




economical reasons only. Quarried stone will 
give more pleasing results, and is easier to build, 
the faces of the stones working in better 
together than is the case with those rounded 
by the action of the weather or water. Some 
people indeed object to the freshly hewn rock 
as looking too new, but the advantage of 
having rocks that will join closely together 
more than makes up for this, and a couple of 
years will give the desired weather-beaten 

It is impossible to build rocks with 
rounded surfaces properly together, for, being 
invariably convex, it follows that on either 
side of the point where they touch there must 
be a gap, which has to be filled up somehow 
or other with small stones. This is seldom 
satisfactory, for frost and rain have a marvellous 
way of working soil through any opening, no 
matter how small. 

The rock for building should consist of 
solid blocks, with as much variety of surface 
as possible, and must have a good base to 
rest upon. The area of the base should be 
about two-thirds of the surface exposed, and 


quite one-third of the rocks should be buried 
in the ground ; some people say even as much 
as half, but this is rather more than is necessary. 

As I have already stated, almost any class of 
rock will do ; but avoid anything in the shape 
of thin slabs or round boulder stones — the 
former because they have an ugly and mono- 
tonous face and are difficult to make steady 
in the ground, the latter on account of the 
difficulties already mentioned in w^orking them 
together satisfactorily ; though a few indeed 
may be half buried on the summit of a mound 
to give the idea of the point of a rock just 
appearing over the surface of the ground. 

Above all things, avoid anything in the 
nature of artificial rock, clinkers, burrs, bricks, 
or the like. The bottom of a drain is the only 
place for such as these. Equally to be shunned 
are old tree stumps or wood in any form, for 
it so quickly rots away and promotes the 
growth of fungus, which is pretty certain to 
kill any plant growing near it. Nothing but 
good rough stones should be used. The size 
will in a great measure depend on the facilities 
for dealing with them, and also on the nature 


and size of the garden ; the larger the rocks, 
the bolder the effects obtained. All sizes can 
be used, weighing from a few pounds to a ton 
or more. A good building material is about 
15 or 20 rocks to a ton. 

Not only do I recommend quarried stone, but 
go so far as to say that it should all come, not 
only from the same quarry, but even from the 
same part of it ; for you will then get both a 
uniform colour and strata, which will to a great 
extent simplify the building and also give the 
ultimate rockwork a more natural appearance. 
It should never look like a collection of geo- 
logical specimens. 

The fundamental principle governing the 
construction of rockwork is to make the 
visible rock appear as if it is merely a part, 
and only a small part, of what is hidden by the 
soil. To carry out this idea, there must be 
uniformity in the arrangement of the strata. 
No rock should look isolated, but part and 
parcel of those adjoining. If this is carried 
out, a very different effect will be obtained from 
that found in those so-called rock gardens, 
now fortunately becoming less common, which 


consist of a mound of earth and a number of 
stones. Long, flat, spiky ones are generally 
chosen, and stuck up on end like so many 
solitary gravestones, without the least connec- 
tion one with the other ; in another, though 
perhaps less objectionable, form, the stones are 
laid flat ; or, in yet another type, a number of 
large and ugly boulders are strewn over the 
ground, apparently for no special purpose, and 
certainly with no sense of cohesion. In none of 
these types are the stones of the least use, either 
for keeping the soil in position, or for showing 
off the alpines planted there. The general result 
is that the owners of these gardens, despairing 
of ever making them " a thing of beauty " or 
" a joy for ever," cover them as best they can 
with Ferns, Sedums, Nasturtiums, or anything 
that can be found to quickly hide their ugli- 
ness. Mr Reginald Farrar, in his book My 
Rock Garden^ so aptly designates these forms 
as the " almond pudding," the " dog's grave," 
and the " devil's lapful." 

But bad as the above types are, they are yet 
a great advance on that form, remains of which 
are still occasionally seen — hideous arches. 


grottos, or bridges, without a spot to hold more 
than a handful of soil. The constructors of 
such atrocities must have thought, if indeed 
they were guilty of thinking at all, that alpines 
lived on air and stones alone. For nothing 
else was provided. It is needless to say no 
self-respecting plant would grow under such 
conditions. The only remaining hope was 
that some friendly ivy would soon cover 
their nakedness. 

These, then, are some of the most usual forms 
to be avoided ; but there are others more or less 
on the same lines, all hideous and unnatural. 
Why they were ever made will always remain 
a mystery. It may be presumed that the 
object in view was to grow alpines in a place 
somewhat akin to that from which they 
originally came. But how was this attempted ? 
A home was prepared for them as diametrically 
the opposite in every way as human ingenuity 
could contrive. The result was a foregone 
conclusion. It is only within comparatively 
recent years that the more natural and reason- 
able method has been adopted, with the result 
that success in place of failure has crowned 


the efforts of those copying Nature more 

Having now pointed out how the rocks 
should not be placed, there is no need to dwell 
further on the subject, and I will proceed to 
show how they may be used to the best 

There are a few rules that should be 
observed in the construction of rockwork. 
In the first place, every rock, big or little, 
should be made quite firm in the ground ; as 
this is often rather loose owing to the bank 
having so recently been made, the bed for each 
rock should be well trampled in order to get as 
solid a foundation as possible and minimise its 
chances of moving. The soil also should be 
rammed in well around it ; for although the 
rocks will get firmer in time as they settle, it 
is better not to rely too much on this. 

Each rock should be sunk for at least one- 
third of its height below the surface ; it should 
be able to bear the weight of a man without 
moving, for it will often be necessary to stand 
on the rocks when working in the garden, and 
if they should move, considerable, if not fatal. 


damage might be done to the plants growing 
over and around them. Another advantage 
also gained by sinking the rocks is that most 
alpines like to get their roots amongst stones. 

To all rock plants moisture is most essential, 
but at the same time it must be accompanied 
by sharp drainage to prevent any w^ater lodging 
at the roots. For this reason the top surface 
of all rocks should slope dow^n towards the 
bank behind, in order that the moisture may 
be directed towards the roots of the plants 
growing there. 

The faces of the rocks should not as a rule 
overhang so as to prevent the rain reaching 
the ground at their foot, for this would prove 
fatal to many kinds of plants. There are 
indeed some, especially those species having 
woolly leaves, that require some shelter over- 
head, for damp lying on their leaves soon kills 
them ; but even these require that their roots 
be kept moist, which can be achieved by sink- 
ing flat stones in such a manner as to catch the 
rain from the rock above and direct it to the 
roots of the plant. 

In the construction of rockwork, more 



especially when negotiating the bolder masses, 
it may often be found necessary to deal with 
spaces, or, to use a more correct term, fissures, 
between two rocks. These are of three kinds, 
oblique, vertical, and horizontal. 

The oblique fissure looks externally very 

Fig. 3. 

much the same as the horizontal, the differ- 
ence being that in the case of the former 
it slopes down towards the back, while the 
latter keeps to the same plane. In both of 
these it is very important to make sure that 
the under rock projects beyond the upper, 
otherwise rain falling on the sloping face 
of the rock above will miss the fissure 


altogether, and whatever is planted in it 
will in all probability soon die ; for if no 
moisture reaches the roots from the front, 
they will have to extend 12 inches or 
more to the back of the rock before they 
obtain any. This is more than most are 
capable of doing, certainly in the juvenile 
stage, in which they must be planted. 

It is necessary to keep the rocks slightly 
apart in order to give room for a good layer of 
soil between them, and this should be done, 
while building the rockwork, by inserting some 
pieces of hard stone. The layer of soil should 
be filled in before the upper rock is put in 
position, so that no air space may be left, 
which it may be found very difficult to avoid 
later on. 

Vertical fissures should, when feasible, be 
made wider at the top than the bottom, for 
then, as the soil settles, its tendency will be to 
compress itself against the sides of the rocks, 
instead of leaving them, as would occur were 
the shape reversed. Where the fissure is 
sufficiently large, wedge-shaped pieces of stone 
should be inserted, and care should be taken 


to place them in such a way that their thin 
ends are uppermost. 

The object of placing the stones in this 
manner is to separate up the fissure in such 
a way that each of the divisions may form an 
integral part of the whole and become com- 

Vertical Fissure. Vertical Fissure. 

Wrong Method of Building. Right Method of Building. 

Fig. 4. 

pressed as the soil sinks under the action of 
the rain and its own weight. 

This indeed is the theory on which a 
vertical fissure is built. It is, however, in 
practice far from easy to carry out with any 
degree of success, for it will generally be found 
that, no matter how carefully it is made, nor 
how tightly the stones are rammed into posi- 


tion, a few winters' frosts and rains will work 
them loose and a quantity of the soil be washed 
out, to the great detriment of whatever is 
growing in it. This applies chiefly to the 
larger fissures, for in the smaller ones the soil 
is less likely to be dislodged. 

A number of the rarer alpines, however, so 
dislike moisture lying about their crown that 
they can only be grown successfully in this 
type of fissure ; the chief difficulty is to get 
the plant well established ; but once it is 
established, the roots will help to keep the 
soil in position and the leaves protect it from 
being washed away by the action of the rain. 

The oblique and horizontal fissures are, on 
the other hand, quite easy to make, and prove 
very satisfactory. Of the two the oblique is to 
be preferred, as it ensures utilising all available 

On studying the face of a quarry, it will 
be seen that there is a certain uniform grain 
or strata running through it ; this may vary 
greatly in form, and is very much more marked 
in some kinds of rock than in others. In 
limestone it is very apparent, and in a less 


degree in granite or sandstone. Now this 
grain should, in a great measure, rule the 
construction of the rockwork. When in its 
natural position the strata runs in a certain 
uniformity ; therefore when building the rock- 
work each stone should be so placed that its 
grain coincides with that of those next it. 

Wrong Method. 

Right Method. 
Fig. 5. 

Examine carefully the formation of each 
rock, and, if its strata is vertical, the rock 
adjoining must be the same ; if oblique, it 
should be built into one having a similar 
formation. In this case it is necessary to note 
that its dip should continue in the same plane, 
as otherwise the lines of grain would meet in 
a V shape (fig. 5). If, as is sometimes the 


case, a certain amount of " live " rock exists 
and it is necessary to add to it, the rocks 
added must observe the same " dip " or forma- 
tion as the " live " rock. 

If these rules be carefully follow^ed, little if 
any difficulty should be experienced in building 
the rocks into one another. Each will, how- 
ever, have to be chosen with some care, in 
order that it may correspond both with its 
neighbour and also with the general formation 
that has been laid out ; that is to say, if it is 
required to form a corner, the stone chosen 
should have one of its faces to correspond with 
and be in the same line as the last previously 
placed stone, whilst another face will give the 
direction in which to continue the rockwork. 

Having now dwelt at sufficient length on the 
way in which the individual rocks should be 
treated, the next thing is to show how to 
construct the rockwork in general. 

As was pointed out in a previous chapter, 
the primary object of the rocks is to keep the 
soil in position and prevent it being washed 
down the sides of the garden by heavy rains. 

The most usual and effective and also the 


simplest method of accomplishing this is, with 
the help of the rocks, to make the banks into 
a series of terraces ; at the same time the rock- 
work should follow the same line or dip of the 
strata throughout. 

These terraces should vary in every con- 
ceivable manner : height, width, outline, and 
gradient. This last is important, for if it is too 
steep the moisture will run off too quickly and 
not percolate the soil, and if it is too flat the 
ground is apt to get sodden. A fair gradient, 
such as 6 inches in 2 feet, is about right. It 
will also be necessary during the construction 
to make a number of pockets or compartments 
in order to give a variety of aspects, the 
advantage of which will be fully appreciated 
when the time for planting comes. 

In order to avoid getting the terraces in 
regular planes, let them, in places, merge into 
each other ; perhaps where they join a fresh 
one may be started on yet another level. 

In the long and gentle gradients the terraces 
will naturally be wider and not so deep, very 
different from the formation in the bolder and 
steeper parts, where each rock almost touches 

[To face page 78. 

6 S 


that below it. Keep the largest rocks for the 
boldest and most perpendicular formation. 
Where the banks slope back with a gentle 
gradient there should be no hard and defined 
line of rockwork along the top to give the 
impression of a ridge, but rather they should 
recede gradually, with the rocks becoming fewer 
and more scattered, until eventually the forma- 
tion is lost in the shrubs beyond. On the 
other hand, in the bold and precipitous forma- 
tion, the top of the rockwork may be abrupt 
and well defined, but even in this case the 
effect is more pleasing if the ground beyond 
rise gradually towards the shrubs forming the 

Build up the main rockwork first, keeping 
in view the chief object, which is to maintain 
the soil in position. Afterwards, if there 
appear to be any large extent of ground with- 
out rocks, it will be easy to put in a few here 
and there to break the monotony, or form a 
position for some plant requiring a special 
aspect or treatment. 

Do not fall into the rather popular error of 
imagining that a rock garden must be covered 


with rocks : it is a mistake from every point of 
view. The cost will be greater, for more rocks 
must be used, and the effect be less pleasing. 
The rocks should monopolise the ground in 
only a few places, as is the case in nature, 
and, as a general rule, in the wider terraces 
an odd one appearing here and there is quite 

In the case of the large garden, where the 
shrubs are in the valleys instead of being on the 
heights, the rocks should increase in number 
as you ascend. They should also become 
larger and the construction of the rockwork 
bolder as the summit is approached, for this is 
how it is in nature. 

Once more, let me advise the would-be con- 
structor of rockwork to go to that master- 
builder. Nature, and study some natural rock 
formation ; it will prove of great assistance in 
carrying out the directions I have just given. 

As a parting word of advice, have some 
definite scheme and stick to it. Do not let 
the rockwork meander about in an aimless 
sort of fashion, but endeavour all through to 
carry out some well-defined geological forma- 


tion ; if this is done, the extra trouble it entails 
will be more than repaid. 

Paths are an important and necessary factor 
to be considered. The main paths, such as 
those that go through the centre of the valley or 
across the bank and knoll types, may be from 
7 feet to 12 feet wide, and should be well 
made. A good surface may be obtained by 
laying a foundation of about 4 inches of stones, 
broken fairly small, and covering it with 
about 2 inches of the finest riddlings from a 
stone-crusher. They should be rolled well 
together to make them bind properly. The 
path should have a decided fall from one 
end to the other, in order to ensure effi- 
cient drainage of the banks on either side. 
This is a point that should be carefully 

It is also very advisable to lay flat stones 
throughout the rockwork at convenient dis- 
tances apart, in order to facilitate getting at 
the plants and to avoid treading on them. 

The main paths will require something in 

the way of a rocky edging, if only to prevent 

the soil from being washed over them from 



the banks ; but anything the least formal must, 
of course, be most carefully avoided. 

In order to prevent formality the line of 
rocks should be varied as much as possible. 
In some places, especially where the construc- 
tion of the rockwork is abrupt, they may be 
as much as a couple of feet high, while in other 
places they need not be more than a couple of 
inches above the level of the path. 

Steps are often a necessary adjunct, and, if 
well made, will prove a very attractive feature. 
Here again there must be no formality, nothing 
built up with cement. Large flat stones, the 
more varied in size and shape the better, may 
be just laid on the ground, after it has been 
made level and solid, to form the steps. The 
commoner Sedums, Saxifrages, Campanulas, 
and other dwarf-growing species should be 
planted between each of the steps, so that in a 
short time but little of them is visible. 

In conclusion, when building the rockwork, 
make quite certain that the soil is well packed 
in behind and between each rock, and that there 
is not the least chance of an air space being 
left. Myriads of plants have been lost through 

[ To face page 82 . 


Sedtiins and Campanulas. 


neglecting this apparently unimportant detail. 
It must be done in the building stage, for 
later on it may be found very difficult, if not 
impossible, to do it properly. 

Some of the higher-growing alpines would, 
if planted in anything like good soil, quickly 
succumb to over-feeding. Many of these plants 
are found growing in the moraines deposited by 
the action of the glaciers, the soil of which 
consists chiefly of grit and small stones, with 
just a trace of vegetable loam in it. There 
some of the rarest alpines will be found 
growing in a state of health never arrived at 
in this country. For them a special place will 
have to be prepared, to supply as nearly as 
possible the conditions to which they have 
been accustomed. Choose some bank the 
drainage of which is ensured, facing south, 
about 3 to 4 feet above the level of the 
path, and having a gentle gradient of not 
more than i foot in 16 feet. Remove the 
soil to a depth of about 18 inches or 2 feet, 
and put a layer of about 4 inches of coarse 
stones in the bottom ; then about 2 inches 
of smaller stones. On top of this place a 


layer of fibrous loam or sods, then fill up 
with a mixture of stone chips, sand, loam, 
peat, and leaf soil, in the proportion of four 
parts of chips to one of the other constituents 
in equal proportions. For those plants requir- 
ing lime, chips of limestone should be added. 

The alternative method is to build up 
instead of sinking. This can be done with 
large blocks of stone, filling up the intervening 
space with the required compost. Though 
somewhat more expensive to make, it will 
probably give better results. The one essen- 
tial need of the moraine is drainage of the 
most perfect description ; for this reason let it 
be fairly high and exposed, when it will also 
be less liable to suffer from ground damp. 

Many people might imagine that in such a 
spot as this plants would sufl^er greatly from 
drought during a dry summer, but this is not 
the case, for so well does the stone retain 
moisture that even in a dry season the soil a 
few inches below the surface remains damp. 



Importance of climate — Best type of soil — Supplying de- 
ficiencies in soil — Necessity of loosening ground — 

Climate has more effect on rock plants than 
either soil, aspect, elevation, or any other 
natural factor. This may not sound encourag- 
ing, for, whatever else we may do, we cannot 
control the climate, so all that remains is to 
adapt ourselves to, and make the best of, 
existing conditions. Perhaps it is just as well 
that it is so, for the result would indeed be 
curious were we able to secure the amount of 
sunshine or rain that each desired. Uncertain 
as the climate of the British Isles now is, it 
would then be a hundred times more so. 

Next to the climate, the soil, as might be 

expected, is of the chief importance. But 



with regard to it we can assist or adapt the 
natural soil to meet our needs. 

Leaving for the present those plants which 
require a special receipt for their nutriment, 
as a general rule the majority of alpines 
like a cool, deep, light, and gritty soil, rich 
in humus, such as a good light fibrous loam. 
Anything in the nature of a clay-soil is to be 
avoided, for in winter it is liable to get sodden, 
owing to its being very difficult to drain effec- 
tively, and in summer to bake and crack. It 
would be difficult to get anything better than 
the top 6 inches or so of an old pasture, if 
the soil is of a loamy description. 

Unless the soil is naturally very light and 
gravelly, sand will have to be mixed with it : 
good sharp river sand is the best. Small broken 
stones, such as would pass through a f-inch 
riddle, are beneficial. Alpines like, above all 
things, to get their roots round and between 
stones ; it keeps them cool and damp, as stones 
retain moisture much longer than the soil 
and are not so easily affected by change of 

If the garden is of large extent and the 


soil is not of a gravelly nature, spread sand 
and broken stones over it to the depth of 
about 2 inches. This, w^hen w^ell dug in, 
about 18 inches deep, ought to give a good 
material to work on. Some plants will re- 
quire an even lighter mixture, but it can 
be prepared for them when they are being 

It is a fallacy, and I fear rather a popular 
one, to imagine that alpines do not require 
good soil. This may have arisen from the 
fact that they are often found, and in a thriv- 
ing condition, in places where apparently 
other herbage could not exist. To a great 
extent this is due to the deep-rooting powers 
of the alpines, which enable them to obtain 
moisture and nourishment in places where 
other species of a more shallow-rooted nature 
would soon die. 

But although these alpines require and 
appreciate a good light soil, anything rich and 
heavy is very detrimental, for, if they do not 
damp ofF in wet weather, they will probably 
run to leaf so much that the flowers will be 
but sparse, and, in addition to this, the foliage 


will lose that hard and compact form which 
it should have, and which is the joy and pride 
of those who are successful in the cultivation 
of rock plants. 

If the soil be deficient in humus it may be 
supplied in the form of leaf-mould, but it 
should be old and well decayed. 

Many and various are the opinions about 
lime-hating and lime-loving plants, but on one 
point all are agreed, namely, that some plants, 
such as the peat-lovers, will not live if there is 
any lime in the soil ; this unfortunately cannot 
be eradicated if there naturally, but it is easy 
to supply artificially if required ; it is clear, 
therefore, that a soil free from lime is to be 

Lime can be supplied either in the form of 
old lime-rubbish or well-slaked lime ; but in 
order to be sure that the latter is quite "dead," 
it should be dug into the ground some weeks 
before planting. It is recommended by some 
authorities, such as Mr Robinson, that separate 
portions of the garden should be prepared for 
those plants exclusively requiring lime, or 
peat, or so forth, in preference supplying the 


necessary ingredients to the individual plant. 
This method, while having much to recom- 
mend it, has, I think, the disadvantage of rather 
restricting one as to the position of certain 
plants, irrespective of the suitability of aspect or 
how they will work into the general scheme of 
planting. On the whole it seems a better plan 
to supply each plant, or group of plants, with 
whatever they need at the time they are being 
put in. This, however, is entirely a matter 
of individual taste, so long as each plant gets 
what it specially requires. But it will not do 
to just put the soil each plant likes round its 
roots ; there must be sufficient for them to 
extend through. 

It has been proved by experience that some 
plants, although found in nature growing in 
soils of a special character, will thrive quite 
satisfactorily in ordinary soil ; as an example, 
most of the Ericas, Rhododendrons, or Azaleas, 
which are essentially peat-loving plants, will 
thrive quite satisfactorily in good fibrous loam, 
provided it has no trace of lime. In fact, the 
only exception I know of to the above rule is 
that those plants disliking lime will not, as 


already mentioned, live if there is any present 
in the soil. 

There are some plants indeed, and amongst 
them some of the most difficult alpines to grow, 
that require the very poorest of soil, composed 
chiefly of grit and small stones, and to these 
anything in the nature of high feeding quickly 
proves fatal. 

For these the moraine, as described in the 
previous chapter, is eminently adapted, ensur- 
ing as it does the quick and efficient drainage 
so essential to maintaining them in health. 

Alpines, even those that are found most 
difficult to cultivate in this country, grow freely 
in their native habitat, and it is now becom- 
ing generally recognised that this condition of 
things is due, not so much to the soil as to 
the climate, the altitude, rainfall, temperature, 
length of growing season, duration of snow, 
humidity of the air, etc. 

Although the winter in high altitudes is 
so much longer and far more severe than is 
ever experienced in this country, the alpines 
lie dormant during it, nursing their strength 
and vigour under a thick blanket of snow. 


which keeps them dry and warm and protects 
them from sudden changes of temperature or 
extremes of cold. When the spring comes 
again, melting the snow, they are found ready 
to shoot up and adorn those arid slopes with 
the glory of their bloom. 

How very different are the conditions in 
this country, where the winters are made up 
of sudden changes, one day dry and warm, the 
next bitterly cold, and always the ever-present 
damp, which is more fatal than anything else ! 

Owing to the mild days the plants never 
become really dormant, and are, therefore, far 
more susceptible to cold than they would be if 
they had ceased growing. 

As, however, the climate cannot be altered, 
all that can be done is to protect those plants 
which are most affected by the damp, such as 
the Androsaces and other of the woolly-leaved 
species. This protection can be obtained by 
placing sheets of glass over the plants during 
the winter months, say from November to 
April, which, though unattractive in appear- 
ance, will often save some treasure from 


Many plants are not only affected by damp 
in winter, but also may suffer from drought 
in the summer, and generally it will be those 
kinds which are found fully exposed to the sun 
in their native homes. This may perhaps, to 
a certain extent, be accounted for by the differ- 
ence of altitude, for there is a theory that the 
sun, owing to the air being so much more 
rarefied, does not have the same parching effect 
as at a lower level. The only remedy for this 
is watering, which in a large garden may prove 
rather an arduous task, but is preferable to 
losing the plants. 

It is also advisable in dry weather to keep 
the surface of the ground loose. It is rather a 
popular error to imagine that stirring the soil 
conduces to evaporation ; the result is quite 
the reverse, for by loosening the surface the 
capillary action of the soil is encouraged and 
moisture is drawn up from below. 

A very useful tool for this purpose is the 
" Baby Bucco," a miniature form of that very 
excellent cultivator, " The Bucco," so widely 
advertised in all gardening papers. 

If one comes to analyse it, it will be seen 


how impossible it is to supply the climatic 
needs of a collection of plants gathered from 
all parts of the globe, such as is found in the 
modern rock garden, where such extremes as 
Mesembryanthemums and Androsaces grow 
side by side, the former almost a semi- 
tropical plant, while the latter comes from 
the snowline of the Alps. So it can scarcely 
be a matter of surprise if difficulty is 
experienced in growing them equally well. 
But be the climate what it may, there is one 
thing that must always be seen to, and that is 
drainage, to which I have so frequently referred, 
for damp is more fatal than anything else in 
this country. 

If the subsoil is of a very open and porous 
nature, few drains will be required ; but if, on 
the other hand, it is heavy and retentive, the 
drainage will need to be most thorough. 

In the artificial rock garden, where the 
subsoil during primary operations is exposed, it 
should be left in a slope, so that there may be 
no hollows for the water to lodge in. A few 
inches of broken stones over it will greatly 
assist the drainage. At the foot of the bank it 


is well to make a drain of loose stones which 
can run along at the back of the rocks bound- 
ing the pathway ; this will act as a main drain, 
and other short ones, if thought necessary, can 
be made to lead into it. This main drain 
should be made in the earlier stages and before 
the good soil is filled in. 

Although drainage is so very important, 
it is a mistake to imagine that it cannot be 
overdone, for this is quite possible. 

The object to be attained is to direct all 
moisture to the roots of the plants, and then 
to remove whatever the soil cannot readily 
absorb. If this is done the excess of 
moisture will not lodge in the ground 
and prove fatal to the plants. 



Position — Natural bog garden — Artificial bog garden — 
The stream. 

A BOG garden, on any extensive scale at least, 
should not be amongst the rockwork, but 
should rather adjoin it in such a way that the 
approach to the rock garden may lead through 
it. But marshy patches of, say, from 5 to lo 
square yards in area, here and there through- 
out the garden, will be found an additional 
attraction, and give scope for a wider range 
of plants. 

These spots should have a variety of aspects, 
some in shade and others in the sun, to suit 
the requirements of the different plants ; they 
should not have any formal or well-defined 
outline, but should merge imperceptibly 
from the rockwork. To those who are 



fortunate enough to have a stream through 
their garden the task will be easy, for then 
all that is necessary to do is to remove the 
soil to a depth of about 3 feet, where these 
boggy spots are required, and fill the hollow 
so made with about 6 inches of coarse stones, a 
little charcoal, and a compost made up of about 
equal parts of peat and fibrous loam, with a 
little sand and broken stones added. If there 
is difficulty in procuring peat, leaf-mould will 
do, but peat is to be preferred. The course of 
the stream should then be directed in such 
a way that it flows through the spots so 
prepared ; and in order that the water may 
be evenly distributed, it is well to divide up 
the stream into several smaller channels, thereby 
ensuring the thorough percolation of the soil, 
and the maintenance of constant moisture all 
over these marshy spots. Sink the bog garden 
slightly below the level of the surrounding 
ground, in order that it may catch all the 
surface moisture from the rockwork adjoining. 
As many of these spots as desired can be 
made by directing the course of the stream 
from one to the other. It is, however, a 


troublesome matter when the stream is so 
small that there is not sufficient volume of 
water to supply all the boggy patches with the 
required amount of moisture, or when it is 
liable to dry up in summer ; and still more 
difficult when there is no stream at all to 
work with. In either of these cases it will be 
necessary to prepare these marshy beds in such 
a way that the moisture will be retained. 

To accomplish this it will be necessary to 
make the bottom of the bed fairly water-tight 
with either concrete or yellow clay. Of the 
two, concrete gives better and more permanent 

The directions are fairly simple. Dig out 
a hollow about 2 feet 6 inches deep of the 
required size and shape. 

Over the bottom of it put a layer 4 to 6 
inches thick of concrete, about 6 parts of 
coarse sand to i of cement. At the lower end, 
about ;|-inch above the level of the bottom, 
put a pipe of i-inch or i J-inch bore ; this 
should lead into some drain or other means of 
carrying off the water, in case it at any time be 
thought expedient to run it off from the bog- 


bed. There will have to be a plug or tap at 
the lower end of the pipe, in such a position 
that it can be easily got at, and the end which 
is in the hollow should be covered with per- 
forated zinc to prevent it getting choked. 

Having fixed this pipe, build a wall of 
concrete, or bricks if preferred, round the sides 
of the hollow, about 4 to 6 inches thick, and 
about 10 inches high, making sure that the 
top of this wall is approximately on the same 
level all round. 

On the lower side, and about 8 inches from 
the bottom, fix a pipe of about i|-inch bore. 
This will act as an overflow, and also conduct 
the water to the next marshy spot and keep 
the water in the hollow at a constant level, 
and should have its end covered with per- 
forated zinc. This being in position, put a 
layer of about J-inch thick of pure cement 
all over the bottom and sides to ensure their 
being water-tight. 

It is advisable to put on the cement before 
the concrece has set very hard, say on the 
following day, for it will be found to bind 
together better and not be liable to chip off. 

[ To face page 98. 


It should then be left for several days to 
thoroughly set, when it can be tested by filling 
up with water, which should rise to within 
about 2 inches of the top of the wall and give 
a depth of about 8 inches. If all is found satis- 
factory, empty by means of the bottom pipe. 
Now put in a layer about 6 inches deep of 
fairly large stones, brick-bats, or any coarse 
rubbish, to act as drainage ; over these place 
a layer of sods, with the grass sides next the 
stones. When doing this make sure that the 
end of the overflow pipe is quite clear and that 
the water can easily get to it. Having made 
all secure, now fill in with a compost of peat, 
leaf-mould, fibrous loam, sand, and broken 
stones in the same proportions that were given 
in the beginning of this chapter. 

If these directions have been carried out, you 
will have a small (underground) pond with the 
water kept at a constant level just over the sods 
covering the drainage. The capillary attraction 
of the soil will draw the moisture up and keep 
it constantly damp. If the water to supply 
these marshy beds has to be brought in pipes, 
they should have a tap, so that the flow may 


be regulated. It is scarcely necessary to 
mention that every trace of cement and all pipes 
or taps should be hidden from view by either 
soil, stones, or plants. When circumstances 
will permit, it is advisable to have a constant 
flow of water through these beds ; and although 
this be but a mere dribble, say i o to 15 gallons 
per diem, it will be sufficient to keep the water 
from becoming sour or stagnant. 

If the supply pipe is arranged so that it 
reaches the bottom of the bed, it will ensure 
the water being constantly changed. 

If it is desired to make the bottom of the 
bed of yellow clay, the same directions will 
have to be followed, except that it will be 
necessary to puddle in about 6 inches of 
yellow clay instead of the concrete ; but 
neither so water-tight nor lasting a result may 
be expected. 

If it is wished to make a bog garden on a 
scale larger than that just described, and the 
water supply for it is limited, a concrete basin 
should be made, following the directions already 
given. Owing, however, to the expense and 
the difficulty of getting the levels correct, it is 


not advisable to attempt a bog garden of this 
description of over 150 or 200 square yards 
in area. 

But where there is a stream, provided the 
volume of water is sufficient, there is nothing 
to limit the size of the garden. It will be 
necessary, of course, to spread the water from 
the stream over the bog garden in such a way 
that it can reach all parts ; and as in all proba- 
bility the proposed site is not level, the simplest 
and most efficacious method is to cut small 
channels running from the • stream on either 
side, in the way the farmer irrigates his fields. 
This method has also the advantage that the 
moisture can be regulated at will. Another 
plan, if the channels are considered unsightly, 
is to lay pipes with a number of holes bored 
in them a couple of inches below the surface 
of the ground and connected with the stream. 
The great disadvantage of this method is that 
the pipes are so liable to become choked with 
mud or leaves. 

The surface of the bog garden should not 
be flat ; undulating or, more correctly speaking, 
uneven ground is much to be preferred. This 


will give different degrees of moisture, which 
will be found most useful, for all plants do not 
need the same amount. In the hollows can be 
planted those kinds that require a wet soil, 
while the higher-lying ground can be reserved 
for those preferring a drier position. If desired, 
a pool here and there can be made, and a very 
charming and attractive addition to the garden 
these will be, if judiciously placed. They can 
be made of either concrete or yellow clay. In 
either case it will be necessary to edge these 
patches of water with stones or plants, in order 
to avoid the possibility of any formal outline, 
and, needless to say, all concrete must be carefully 
hidden from view. 

Should the garden be of any considerable 
size, it will not be feasible to fill it up with any 
specially prepared compost, such as was recom- 
mended for the smaller bog beds ; nor indeed is 
it necessary, for the majority of bog plants, and 
certainly the coarser-growing ones, are quite 
happy in any cool, rich, and moist soil ; but in 
places the ground should be prepared for those 
which are more delicate or fastidious in their 
tastes. These spots may be of peat or other 


compost, according to the requirements of the 
future inhabitants. 

As the soil of the bog garden in general 
needs to be richer and heavier and to contain 
more vegetable matter than does that of the rock 
garden proper, some old manure, leaf-mould, 
and peat can be dug into it with advantage, 
after the surface has been thoroughly cleaned. 
The reader should note most particularly the 
necessity of getting the ground perfectly clean, 
for nowhere do weeds grow so rampant or 
increase and multiply with the same extra- 
ordinary rapidity as they do in the bog 
garden. If the ground be not clean and free 
from weeds to start with, the rightful denizens 
will have but a poor chance in the struggle 
for existence, so let no trouble be spared nor 
time grudged in the preparation of the garden, 
for if properly done the extra trouble expended 
will be more than repaid. 

A few stones half buried may be placed in 
the bog garden, more especially on the higher 
and drier spots, for many bog plants like to get 
their roots under and around them, just as do 
their neighbours in the rock garden. 


Whatever paths are required should be 
made of flat stones in the form of stepping 

The bog garden should be made in such a 
position that part of it is exposed to the full 
sun, while part is in shade, to suit the require- 
ments of the different plants. This can be 
done, either by planting the edge with bamboos 
or similar suitable and fairly tall-growing plants, 
or by making part of the garden in the shade 
of some higher-lying ground. 

As has been mentioned earlier in this chapter, 
a bog garden of any size should not appear 
amongst the rockwork, but may adjoin it. A 
very suitable place is at the foot of the rock- 
work in the hollow or bank types. Or, in the 
case of the valley, the approach to the main 
walk may be through the bog garden. 

These are merely suggestions, and individual 
taste and skill will need to be exercised as to 
where the bog garden would look most natural 
and work best into the general scheme of the 
rock garden. 

Another point that must be taken into con- 
sideration before fixing on the site is the water 


supply, which should be brought by the easiest 
and most direct route possible, and care must 
be taken that the overflow can be readily 
disposed of. Fortunate indeed are those people 
who have a stream, no matter how small, run- 
ning through their garden, or are able to 
conduct one to it. My advice is to have one, 
if it is at all feasible, for it is the means of 
adding enormously to the charm of the garden 
and of considerably extending the range of 
plants possible to cultivate. If the rock garden 
is of either the hollow or hill types, the stream 
may be brought down the face of the rock- 
work in a series of little cascades into a pool 
at the foot. The ground on either side should 
slope gently towards its course. 

The banks of the stream, at least so much of 
them as are affected by the water, should be 
made of fairly large rocks to prevent its en- 
croaching or washing them away. These 
rocks, it is scarcely necessary to say, should not 
be placed in the form of a straight wall ; the 
stream should be made to wind about, for it 
will then look so much better. The bottom 
of the stream should be paved with flat stones, 


otherwise the soil will be liable to be washed 
down, especially in time of heavy rains. 

If the rock garden is of the valley type, the 
stream can be brought beside the central path, 
first on one side and then on the other, in order 
to provide places for planting, both in sun and 
also in shade. The stream should wind about 
considerably, and not follow the exact line of 
the path. 

The possibilities of variety are endless, though 
they must depend greatly on the circumstances 
of each case. While a stream is a good servant, 
it is a bad master. If provision is not made, 
great damage may be done by it in time of 
flood. It should be possible, therefore, to 
control the volume of water in some way- 
This can be simply done. Build a wall across 
the stream at the point where it enters the 
garden, and in this wall make a hole of such a 
size that no more than the maximum amount 
of water conducive to the safety of the garden 
can come through at a time. As this hole 
will in all probability not be large enough to 
carry off all the water when the stream is in 
flood, a cutting should be made to take away 


the overflow and prevent the risk of flooding 
the rock garden. The bottom of this control- 
ling hole should be made a foot or more above 
the bed of the stream, in such a way that the 
wall below this hole will act as a dam. The 
advantage of constructing it in this way is that 
the sand and mud washed down by heavy rains 
will be checked at the wall and not carried 
down into the garden. 

This accumulation of sand and mud must be 
cleared out periodically, otherwise the dam will 
cease to be of any benefit. 



The wild garden — Treatment — List of plants suitable — The 
water garden — Treatment — List of plants suitable. 

The wild garden has frequently been re- 
ferred to in previous chapters, so a few words 
upon how best to deal with it may be found 
useful. As may be supposed, there is no mak- 
ing in a garden of this description ; all that is 
needed is to plant with discretion and judg- 
ment. That the secret of obtaining effect is 
to plant in bold masses has already been 
pointed out ; and important as this is in 
the artificial garden, it is many times 
more so in the case of the wild garden. 
Whereas in the former type the available 
space is more or less limited, in the latter 
case the ground is not so curtailed ; therefore, 
in order to be in keeping with the surround- 



ings, the planting should be done on very 
bold lines. 

It is a great mistake to imagine that only 
so-called wild-flowers are suitable for the wild 
garden ; many of those species now found 
in the herbaceous border or enclosed garden 
would not only look better, but also grow 
more luxuriantly when introduced into wilder 
surroundings. Another advantage to be derived 
from a garden of this sort is that one is enabled 
to cultivate in it a number of lovely plants 
which, on account of either their undue vigour 
or encroaching habit, cannot be associated with 
choicer and more delicate species. For these 
the wild garden is the fitting home, in which 
the full value of their beauty can be obtained. 
In short, any species of plant can be used, so 
long as it is strong enough to take care of 
itself without the attention of the gardener. 

Every spot should be planted. The ground 
under trees may be carpeted with the lovely 
Wood Anemones, Trilliums, Cypripediums, 
Cyclamens, Snowdrops, Dielytras, Ferns, and a 
host of others ; while by the margins of streams 
or in damp meadows the Caltha, Trollius, many 


species of Primula, Ranunculus, etc., should 
find a congenial home, and in any grassy spot 
may be planted Narcissus, Daffodils, Crocus, and 
other bulbous plants. The Genistas, Cistus, 
Helianthemums can be used to cover dry and 
stony banks. In short, whether it be under 
trees or in the open glade, on margins of a 
stream or on sunburnt slopes, there is no spot 
that should not be fully planted. 

When the approach to the rock garden is 
through an open glade or fairly exposed bank, 
no more suitable plants can be found than 
those of the Heath family, which should be 
grown in bold masses, and will indeed make 
an ideal setting for a home of alpine treasures. 
The best kinds for this purpose are Erica 
arborea^ Codonoides mediterranean which grow 
from 3 to 8 feet high. The dwarfer kinds 
are Erica carnea, carnea alba, ciliaris^ cinerea, 
tetralix, vagans, vagans alba, vulgaris. 

The large rocks and trees may be covered 
with many kinds of Roses, the numerous 
hybrids of the wichuriana type, the Polyantha 
and Wild Roses, also Clematis, Vitis, Lonicera 
( H oneysuckle) , and such-like. When rearrang- 


ing the herbaceous border in the spring or 
autumn and dividing up the clumps of plants, 
instead of assigning the pieces taken off to 
the rubbish-heap, let them be planted in the 
adjacent woodland, which will shortly and with 
no expense be converted into a garden that 
will vie with, if not excel in beauty its more 
formal prototype. 

The following is a selection of plants 
specially adapted for the wild garden : — 

Achillea Eupatorium. 

A. millefolium rosea. 

A. Ptarmica. 

Aconitums, in variety. 

Anemone apennina. 

A. blanda. 

A. nemorosa. 

A. japonica, in variety. 

A. sylvestris. 

Aquilegias (Columbines). 

Asphodelus luteus. 

Asters, in variety ; any of the taller-growing 

species are excellent. 
Astilbe, in variety. 
Campanula celtidifolia. 


C. persiciflora Moorheimi. 

Cardamine trifolia. 

Crocus, Cypripedium spectabile and calceolus. 

Delphiniums, Daffodils. 

Dictamnus, in variety. 

Dielytra spectabilis. 

Digitalis (Foxglove). 

Doronicum excelsium. 

Dracocephalum virginicum. 

Echinacea purpurea. 

Echinops exaltatus and giganteus. 

Epilobium angustifolium, and other varieties. 

Epimedium, in variety. 

Erodium Manescavi, and other varieties. 

Eryngium giganteum, planum, and other 

Euphorbia polychroma and Lathyrus. 
Geranium, armenium, sanguineum. 
Heleniums, in variety. 
Helianthus : Miss Mellish, giganteus, multi- 

florus, and others. 
Helleborus (Christmas Rose). 
Iris, in variety. 

Lobelia cardinalis. Queen Victoria, and others. 

Montbretia, in variety. 
Myosotis (Forget-me-not) palustris, sylvatica. 


CEnothera Lamarckiana, macrocarpa and 

Papaver orientale, in variety. 
PoeonieSjin variety ; these look very well planted 

in grass. 
Polemonium, in variety. 
Polygonatum (Solomon's Seal). 
Primula cashmiriana, Japonica, in variety ; 

Ranunculus aconitifolius, speciosus. 
Sanguinaria canadensis. 
Saxifraga peltata and megasea. 
Senecio, in variety. 
Spiraeas in variety are excellent subjects for 

shady or damp positions. 
Symphytum caucasicum, Bohemicum. 
Telekia speciosa. 
Trillium grandiflorum. 
Trollius, in variety. 
Veratrum album and luteo-virides. 
Verbascum olympicum (Mullein), and other 


The Water Garden 

Fortunate indeed are those people who 

possess some pond or lake on the margins 



of which they can carry out some water 

These margins should be always left in their 
natural state, provided, of course, the pond has 
not been made artificially, in which case it 
may be necessary to break the outline, for 
anything formal should be carefully guarded 
against. It will be necessary to have access to 
the plants which are grown on the margins, 
and as these latter, in all probability, are soft 
and boggy for some distance from the water- 
line, some sort of path will have to be made. 
Where a firm bottom can be found, this may 
be done by laying down some rough ballast, 
ramming it well in and then placing flat stones 
over it. But where the ground is too soft, 
a good foundation can be obtained by laying 
brushwood tied in bundles or by driving piles 
into the ground. 

It is scarcely necessary to emphasise the 
fact that these paths must be in no way 
formal ; they should meander through rushes, 
sedges, and other plants growing on the 

As before, plant in bold masses to get the 

\^To face page 114. 


best effect. The following are a few of the 
best species for this purpose : — 

Acorus calamus and gramineus variegatus. 
Alisma natans, and plantago ; will grow in 

shallow water. 
Aponogeton distachyon ; will grow in shallow 

Brasenia peltata ; will grow in shallow 

Calla palustris. These Arum Lilies can be 

grown in water 3 to 4 feet deep, but are 

not very hardy. 
Caltha, in variety ; boggy, moist ground or 

shallow water. 
Cyperus longus ; shallow water or boggy 

Gunnera manicata ; grows very large, moist 

Gunnera scabra ; moist ground. 
Heracleum giganteum and mantegazzianeum ; 

for wet margins. 
Hottonia palustris (Water Violet) ; for shallow 

Hydrocharis Morsus-ranas. 
Iris Pseudacorus, sibirica ; laevigata. 
Menyanthes trifoliata (Bog Bean). 
Nymphia (Water Lilies). 


Polygonum amphibium and Sieboldi ; sacha- 

Pontederia cordata. 

Sagittaria japonica, fl. pi., sagittifolia variabilis. 
Thalictrum flavum. 
Bamboos, in variety. 
Zizania latifolia. 


Position and Types — Building — Beautifying the old wall. 

Where shall I make my wall garden ? This 

may appear a difficult problem at first, but 

perhaps the answer may be easy. Make it 

just where it is most needed. Wherever 

there has been levelling for lawn or garden, 

banks will be found of, perhaps, some height. 

These may not have been laid in grass, owing 

to the trouble and expense of keeping them 

constantly mown, and they may be easily 

clothed in a way more attractive than the 

usual carpeting of ivy or periwinkle. This 

is just the place for a wall garden, and if it be 

made here a double purpose will be achieved, 

for the wall will give a support to the bank, 

and in a short time, when covered with masses 



of rock plants, will prove a very attractive 
addition to the landscape. 

But it is not only as a support, or retaining 
wall, as it might more correctly be called, 
that a wall garden can be made ; for by build- 
ing what is known as a dry wall (which is in 
fact a wall without mortar), a very effective 
division can be made in a garden or elsewhere, 
which can soon be turned into a home for rock 
and alpine plants. Nor is it only in walls 
built specially for the purpose of growing this 
type of plant that they can be cultivated. Many 
old walls — the older the better — which are now 
but an eyesore, can with very little care and 
trouble be converted into a veritable garden 
that for many months of the year will be a 
blaze of colour. Unlike most other gardens, 
these, when once properly established, will 
practically look after themselves and require 
but little further attention. 

It will surprise many people that not only 
will they be able to grow a great variety of 
plants in the wall garden, but they will be 
able to cultivate there, with comparative ease, 
some kinds acknowledged to be amongst the 


most difficult to keep in the rock garden 
proper. Nor is the reason difficult to find, 
for in the wall there is the perfect drainage, 
and there is not the same risk of loss 
from excessive damp, which more often than 
anything else proves fatal to alpines in this 
country. The chief and only difficulty con- 
nected with wall gardening is that of establish- 
ing the plants. If planted after the wall is 
finished, they can only be very small and 
therefore young ; for they will have to be 
inserted in the narrow crevices between the 
stones, often no easy task to accomplish, and, 
having to be so young, they are more liable to 
be affected by the vicissitudes of temperature 
than would the older and better-matured 
plants. For these reasons it will be found 
advisable, when at all practicable, to plant as 
the building proceeds. Larger and stronger 
plants can then be used, and their roots can be 
properly spread out and encouraged to pene- 
trate into the cooler mass of soil behind the 
stones forming the wall. This will render 
them far less liable to suffer from drought. 
Although this method of building the retain- 


ing wall is very similar to that used in the 
construction of the division wall, I think it 
would be better to deal with each separately, 
and afterwards I will show what can be done 
to metamorphose the old wall. 

The main principle underlying the construc- 
tion of retaining walls made for the purpose 
of growing rock plants is to place the stones 
in such a way that all available moisture be 
directed back towards their roots. For this 
reason, and also because additional strength 
will be obtained, the walls should not be built 
perpendicular, but should rather slope back 
from the foot at say an angle of 60 degrees. 
Fairly flat stones may be used, and it will 
simplify the building if they be of much the 
same thickness, for then the " courses " will 
work in evenly. These stones should be firmly 
fixed and should all slope down towards the 
back. The lower stone should slightly 
protrude beyond that immediately above it, in 
order to catch the rain falling from it. No 
mortar should be used, but soil only, and not 
very much of that — just a sprinkling between 
each course of from J to ^ inch thick ; if 

{7^0 face page 120. 

^ ^^ -J. !'.■ 

3 m 

^ ^ 
J >» 

5 i 


more soil were used it would be liable to be 
washed out by heavy rain. Pieces of slate 
may be inserted between the stones, and provide 
a little room to plant in, and also to take off 
undue pressure on the plants. As has been 
said earlier in this chapter, it is advisable, when 
possible, to insert the plants as the building 
proceeds, for larger plants can thereby be used 
and their roots properly spread out, and also 
the chances of leaving vacant spaces behind 
them, which is so often the cause of plants 
unaccountably dying, will be reduced to a 

The advantages of planting at this stage can 
only be fully realised by those who have spent 
many and weary hours, both trying to the 
temper and not unfrequently most painful 
and damaging to the skin of the knuckles, 
endeavouring to insert the delicate and 
obstinate roots of alpines into chinks where 
they did not wish to go. 

So, having laid a course of stones, put a 
sprinkling of soil over them ; then the plants, 
spreading the roots out well ; then a little more 
soil, making sure that all the crevices are well 



filled, and on top another course of stones, and 
so on till the desired height is reached. 

Where a dry wall, which is also to act as 
a dividing wall, is required, it must be built 
hollow in the centre, to allow for the soil 
which is needed for the plants. 


Both sides of the wall should slope back 
from the foot at an angle of 80 degrees, and 
there should be at least a foot of soil in the 
centre. A wall of say 6 feet high and 2 feet 
thick at the top would require a base of 4 feet 
6 inches wide, allowing for the stones being 
about 12 inches long (fig. 6). This wall 


should be built in exactly the same way as 
described for the retaining wall, and the stones 
must slope back so as to catch the rain. 

It will be found a good plan if about 
6 inches of stones are laid in the bottom of 
the wall to act as a drain, and this will also 
reduce the chances of heavy rain affecting its 

In this case also it is advisable, when cir- 
cumstances permit, that the planting be done 
simultaneously with the building. The soil 
in the centre should be filled in as the stone- 
work progresses, and should be well rammed 
home and made solid. 

We now come to the old wall' which 
requires beautifying ; and the older it is the 
better, so long as there is no danger of its 
collapsing and thereby burying our treasures 
or ourselves in its ruins. 

The first thing to do is to open up as many 
holes in its face as is consistent with its stability. 
In the bottom of these holes it is a good 
plan to place pieces of slate or flat stones, 
tipped up in front and slightly protruding, say 
about J to 1 inch, in order to catch the rain ; 


these may be, if necessary, made secure by a 
little cement or mortar, which, however, should 
not be visible. Into the holes thus prepared 
a compost made up of finely sifted loam, leaf- 
mould, and a little sand should be packed, every 
care being taken that all nooks and crannies 
are well filled and that no empty spaces are 

The top of the wall will most probably be 
covered with grass and weeds. This should 
all be carefully removed, and then as many 
pockets as possible made, using, as described 
above, pieces of slate or stone to keep the soil 
in position. It is well, when making the 
pockets in the face of the wall, to vary their 
position as much as possible. By this I mean 
avoid having the protruding stones immediately 
one above the other, for the rain will be pre- 
vented from reaching the lower one, a state of 
things that should be carefully avoided. One 
of the chief difficulties to contend with in wall 
gardening is the liability of the plants to suffer 
from drought when young and tender and be- 
fore their roots have had time to work back 
into the cooler regions behind. As the space 


available for planting is generally so small and 
cramped that it is necessary to use very tiny 
plants, which will often be found difficult to 
establish, it is advisable to use seed. There is 
then a better chance of the seedlings establish- 
ing themselves, for they will not at any time 
suffer from disturbance. One method which 
will be found particularly useful when dealing 
with some very tiny crevice is to mix the seed 
and soil into a sort of paste, which can be 
worked into the required spot. 

As the aspect of the wall must unavoidably 
be governed by the circumstances of the case, 
all that can be done is to adapt the plants to 
suit the situation ; if in shade, plant with those 
preferring a shady home, and vice versa. 

A Ust will be found in Part IL giving 
the names of plants best suited either for sun 
or shade. 



Propagation by seed — By division and cuttings — Methods 
of raising from seed — Methods of propagation by 
division — By cuttings — By layers. 

Many alpines when in cultivation enjoy at 
the most but a short life ; in some cases not 
more than five to eight years. Whether it is 
the same in nature is for obvious reasons 
difficult to say, but the fact remains that plants 
will have to be frequently renewed. It is 
therefore advisable to keep a stock at hand to 
meet the deficiencies. 

There are four ways of propagating 
alpines, namely, by seed, division, cuttings, 
and layers. 

Reproduction from seed is in some ways the 

best. It ensures healthy and vigorous plants, 

which, being more acclimatised, are therefore 



more likely to thrive than would be the case 
if propagated by any of the other methods. 
Seed also provides the only means of raising a 
new variety and of improving a freshly im- 
ported strain. But, on the other hand, unless 
artificially fertilised, the results from seeds are 
often disappointing, for, in place of being an 
improvement, they frequently turn out to be 
only very inferior copies of the parent plant. 
This is due to cross-fertilisation, especially 
noticeable in the case of Aubrietias, Aquilegias, 
and many of the Saxifraga family. Neverthe- 
less, many species do come quite true, a great 
deal, of course, depending on v^hether there 
are varieties of the same species grown suffi- 
ciently close for bees to carry their pollen from 
one to the other. Another disadvantage in 
raising plants from seed is that they often take 
two or even three years before they flower ; 
indeed, the seeds of some kinds take as long as 
eighteen months, or even more, to germinate 
at all. During this time the seed-pans need 
to be carefully looked after and kept free from 
weeds and that arch-enemy, Marchantia ; to 
say nothing of the trouble and difficulty of 


judicious watering, neither letting soil get too 
dry nor keeping it too moist. 

Propagation by division or cuttings, when 
possible, is on the whole preferable, for the 
plants are then sure to be true and reach 
maturity much sooner. As this method, how- 
ever, can only apply when one either possesses 
or has access to a plant from which to take 
the pieces or cuttings, and when it is possible 
to pot them up soon after being removed from 
the parent plant, it would not be feasible 
when collecting abroad, in which case try 
to get seeds and raise plants from them. 
There are some kinds, indeed, though not 
many, which will neither admit of division 
nor grow readily from cuttings : for example, 
many of the Aquilegias family ; these can 
therefore only be raised from seed. In grow- 
ing alpines from seed, the secret of success 
lies in procuring fresh seed that will germinate 
readily, and also yield a much larger per- 
centage of plants. In order to ensure its 
being fresh, when possible save the seed your- 
self. Therefore look out carefully for seed, 
especially in the case of the rarer kinds. Often 


the first intimation that is given of fertile 
seed having ripened is the finding of small 
seedlings round the parent plant. It is a great 
mistake to be in a hurry to remove the flower- 
heads as soon as they are withered, and, more- 
over, the seed-pods are in many cases nearly as 
ornamental as the flowers themselves. At the 
same time it is well to exercise discretion, for 
the seedlings from some plants may prove as 
troublesome as any weed. 

Having gathered the ripe seed, sow at once. 
Nature sows her seed as soon as it is ripe ; 
why should we imagine we know better and 
lay it aside for several months ? 

Seeds may be sown in the open or in pots, 
but many species of plants do not ripen their 
seeds till late in the autumn, and these should 
be sown in pots and wintered in a frame or 
cold-house. In any case I should recommend 
this treatment for any of the rarer species. 
The best time to sow in the open is in 
April, but seeds may be put in any time from 
April to August. So, should seeds come to 
hand during the summer months, it is better to 
sow at once rather than to keep them over for 


the following spring, for then a whole season's 
growth is gained. Even if sown as late as 
the beginning of August, the seedling ought 
to be strong enough to take care of itself 
during the winter. Yet it is not advisable to 
sow in the open so late in the season except 
in the case of seed from plants of a hardy 
nature, which germinates quickly. 

The seed-bed, which should not be more 
than 4 feet wide, will require to be carefully 
prepared, in some warm but sheltered position. 
Dig the soil well to a depth of 8 inches, 
making it as friable as possible ; clean the 
ground well, removing all weeds and large 
stones, and, if not naturally light, add plenty 
of sand and leaf-mould. Over this put a 
layer about 4 inches thick of a good light 
compost made up of loam, leaf-mould, sand, 
and refuse from the potting bench. This 
mixture should be all put through a J- 
inch riddle. Now level the surface of the 
bed, which will be ready for the seeds. 
Choose a day for sowing in calm, mild, and 
open weather, when the ground is rather 
dry and in good friable condition. Make 


little drills across the bed about 6 inches 
apart. These should not be made with a 
hoe or similar tool, but get a piece of straight 
stick about i^ inch wide, and, laying it 
on the ground, press it gently down till it 
leaves an even and smooth hollow about an 
inch deep. This will give a good firm bed 
for the seeds. Therein sow the seeds as 
evenly and thinly as possible, and cover 
sparingly with some good light soil put 
through a ^-inch riddle. In many cases 
the merest sprinkling will suffice, for seeds 
should only be covered to a depth about 
equal to their diameter. 

Nothing more need be done except to 
keep down weeds and see that the beds do 
not get too dry ; but watering will have 
to be done very carefully and with a very 
fine rose, otherwise the ground will become 
baked and hard. Watering should be limited 
as much as possible, and, in order to pre- 
vent undue evaporation, the beds should be 
protected from hot sun. It is a good 
plan to put a little cocoanut fibre between 
the drills, which will help to keep the 


ground damp and lessen the chances of its 
getting baked. The seedHngs may be left 
where sown until they are fit to transplant 
to their final habitat. In the stronger- 
growing kinds, if they come up too quickly, 
a little thinning can be done with advantage ; 
but care should be taken not to disturb the 
roots of those that are to remain. 

In this way many of the best rock plants 
may be raised. They have this advantage 
over those sown in pots, that they are less 
liable to suffer from the vicissitudes of 
temperature, nor do they receive any check 
when being pricked out. But do not imagine 
that your bed of seedlings is free from all 
dangers, for sooner or later hungry slugs 
will find them out during their midnight 
forays, and then woe betide them, for untold 
havoc will be wrought before you visit in 
the morning what was the night before the 
pride and joy of your heart. There is one 
thing, however, no slug or snail will cross, 
and that is zinc. So get a sheet of zinc 
and cut it into strips about 3 inches wide, 
and after the seeds are sown put this all 


round the bed, thereby making a rampart 
which, from the slug's point of view at 
least, is impregnable. 

I never sow, nor would I recommend other 
people to risk sowing, the rarest or finest 
seeds in the open air when they come to 
hand at a time unsuitable for sowing out of 
doors, such as the late autumn. But as 
they should be sown at once, it is advisable 
to use pots which can be put in a frame or 

In this treatment there are two great 
difficulties to contend with, namely, the 
growth of Marchantia, and keeping the pots 
at an even degree of moisture. 

With regard to the first, there are several 
ways of preventing its growth. The best and 
surest means is to bake the soil thoroughly 
and use nothing but boiled water. This is 
an absolute preventative, but entails rather 
more trouble than most people would care 

Another way is, to prepare the pots for 
sowing, and then to water them thoroughly 
with boiling water — but it must be boiling 


— and then leave them for a day or more 
before using. This will destroy most of the 
seeds and spores of weeds and kill all worms 
and insects, which is no little advantage. 
For subsequent waterings use nothing but 
boiled water. If neither of these plans is 
adopted, the only course left is to pick off 
every particle of the Marchantia as soon 
as it appears, which is by no means easy 
to do without disturbing the seed or young 
plants, and will entail considerable labour 
if there are a large number of pots to look 

It is most essential to keep the soil at 
the proper degree of moisture, which is not 
at all easy to accomplish, and will require 
constant attention. Nothing proves more 
fatal to seeds than to allow the soil to 
become dust-dry ; while, on the other hand, 
if it is kept too moist, the seeds are very liable 
to rot away. Above all, avoid alternate 
conditions of wet and dry. For, germina- 
tion having once commenced, if the soil is 
subsequently allowed to dry up, the seeds 
will be irrevocably destroyed. 


Watering overhead is all right in the case 
of seeds that germinate fairly quickly, say 
in a month or two ; but not when, as is the 
case with some, it will take twelve or even 
eighteen months before any signs of life are 
visible. Under such circumstances it is very 
difficult to prevent the surface getting hard 
and baked, when the pots will not " take the 
water." So, for all seeds which are slow in 
germinating, I should advise not watering 
from overhead, but supplying the moisture 
from below. This may be done by placing 
the pots in a saucer of water, when the capil- 
lary attraction of the soil will draw it up, 
and if there is plenty of drainage in the pots, 
as there should always be, there is no danger 
of the soil becoming water-logged. Personally, 
I am trying another method, which so far 
seems quite satisfactory, and will, I hope, 
still further reduce the attention required. 
As perhaps my readers may care to try it for 
themselves, I will explain my system. Into 
one of my small two-light frames, 6 feet by 
4 feet, I put a wooden partition down the 
centre from back to front. In one of these 


divisions I fixed a lead trough or tray, com- 
pletely filling the bottom. This tray, which 
is filled with water, is therefore 4 feet by 3 
feet, and about 4 inches deep. An inch pipe 
connected with the tray goes through a hole 
cut in the back of the frame, and protrudes 
about 2^ inches beyond the woodwork. By 
means of this pipe it can be seen at a glance 
what amount of water is in the trough, and, 
through it, more can be added if necessary. 

When I had ascertained that the trough was 
quite level, which can easily be done by filling 
with water, I placed perforated zinc all over 
it, about 2 inches from the bottom. The zinc 
I kept in position by resting it on some flat 
tiles about 2 inches thick. Over this I put 
small stones to a depth of about half an inch, 
and then about 8 inches of granulated peat. If 
this description has been carefully followed, it 
will be seen that about i inch of the peat is in 
water. By this means moisture will be drawn 
up through the whole mass, which will be kept 
constantly damp, and all that will be necessary 
to maintain this condition is occasionally to 
look at the pipe which protrudes outside the 


back of the frame, and, when required, to add 
water to keep it up to the desired level. 

Pots containing seeds should be plunged up 
to the brim in the peat, which will keep 
them sufficiently damp, and also tend to 
preserve them at an even temperature. By 
this device the danger of the pots becoming 
too dry is reduced to a minimum, and as the 
moisture is merely absorbed from the outside, 
there is no chance of their becoming water- 
logged. A few minutes two or three times a 
week is all the attention they will require. 

Much time may be gained, especially in 
the case of the slower germinating seeds, by 
making, in a pit or frame, a very gentle hot- 
bed, and either sinking in the bed the pots 
in which the seeds are sown, or else covering 
it with about 4 inches of fine soil and sowing 
the seeds on that. Personally, I think the 
chief objection to this method is that the seed- 
lings will require to be very carefully treated 
until they are sufficiently hardened off. There 
is also the danger of the hotbed cooling down 
before the seedlings are strong enough to look 
after themselves. I therefore much prefer the 


cold frame, for although its action is slower, 
better and stronger seedlings are thereby 
obtained. Some people also recommend 
soaking the seeds for a short time in warm 
water before sowing. This treatment rather 
tends to hasten germination, as it softens the 
outer covering of the seed, which with some is 
so very hard that it would take, in the ordinary 
course, a long time before it becomes affected 
by the moisture of the soil. 

There is a right and a wrong way of doing 
most things, and, although it may be thought 
difficult to make a mistake in sowing seed, it 
is by no means as simple a process as many 
people imagine. 

With the seeds at hand, choose out the 
requisite number of pots of 5 or 6 inches, 
according to the amount to be sown, a separate 
pot for each kind. Into these put the drainage 
of broken crocks, filling to about a quarter the 
depth of the pot, and over this put a layer of 
moss to prevent the soil getting into and 
choking up the drainage. 

Next prepare the compost, which will of 
course vary according to what is to be sown, 


but for general purposes it may be made up of 
good light fibrous loam, mixed with a fair 
amount of sharp sand and leaf-mould in the 
proportion of about three to one. Put this 
through a ^^-inch riddle, keeping a sharp 
look-out for worms, which should be promptly 
removed. Put the coarse part remaining 
in the sieve over the drainage in the pots, 
filling them half full. Then fill up the re- 
mainder with the fine soil. Now press all 
down firmly, either with a piece of wood or 
the bottom of a pot, which will answer just 
as well, until the surface is about half an inch 
below the edge of the pot and fairly smooth. 
This will leave things ready for sowing. 

Take the seed packet and open carefully, 
either over the pot or a sheet of paper, if the 
seeds are very small, and then sow as evenly 
and thinly as possible. To cover, hold the 
riddle in one hand at an elevation of about 6 
inches over the pot, and on it scatter the soil, 
keeping the riddle gently moving all the time. 
By this method the soil will be spread evenly 
over the surface of the pot. The depth of 
covering is generally supposed to be equal to 


the diameter of the seeds ; but these are often 
so very small, that a better way is just to 
cover till no seeds are visible on the surface. 
In some cases the merest dusting will suffice. 
Over this I find a thin layer of fine silver 
sand very beneficial in keeping the surface 
clean and free from moss, which, even if it 
does grow, can easily be removed without dis- 
turbing the seeds. 

Special mixtures of soil will be required for 
some seeds. For those that like lime, the Saxi- 
frage family, for example, and especially the 
encrusted section, it can be added in the form 
of lime rubbish, and less loam and leaf-mould 
used ; whilst for those that like peat, such as the 
Ramondias, Rhododendron, etc., the compost 
should consist of fibrous loam, peat, and leaf- 
mould, with a little sharp sand. In the case of 
the Androsaces, sandstone broken up quite small 
will be found of service. In short, whatever 
soil the mature plant does best in should be 
used for its seeds. The soil for either potting 
or sowing seeds should not be so dry that it 
will not take water readily, nor yet so wet that 
it is liable to cake or stick to the riddle ; 


it should just be sufficiently damp to work 

Having sown the seeds, label carefully, and 
then cover the pot with a piece of glass to 
prevent undue evaporation. This should not 
be removed till the seedlings are well up. 
Now place in a cold frame, close to the glass, 
and see that each pot is as level as possible. 
The frames should be kept shaded from the 
direct rays of the sun, whilst admitting as much 
light as possible. Try to keep the tempera- 
ture as even as can be. Before the seedlings 
appear, the frame may be kept closed ; but 
when they are up more air will be required, 
or they will be liable to damp off. 

As some seeds take such a very long time to 
germinate, do not be in a hurry to throw them 
away, even should they not appear within 
twelve months. Presuming the seeds are 
sown in March and nothing appears up to 
the autumn, they should be surfaced with a 
light dusting of soil and kept over the winter, 
being watered sparingly during the winter 
months. Except in the case of seeds that 
are known to germinate quickly, I should 


not despair of their coming up, even had 
they been sown eighteen months ; but after 
that they may be thrown away, for the 
chances of success are by then almost nil. 

If there is no frame available, the seeds 
should be sown rather later, say about the 
beginning of April, and the pots plunged in 
sand or cinders in a warm and sheltered corner, 
protected from the hot sun and heavy rains. 
But I strongly recommend a frame when- 
ever possible, for the temperature and 
moisture can then be so much more easily 
regulated and kept even. 

After the seedlings are up and strong enough 
to handle easily, they may be pricked off into 
4-inch pots, or, still better, into shallow boxes 
about 5 inches deep. After pricking out, the 
pots or boxes should be kept protected from 
the sun for a few days until the seedlings have 
recovered from the move. As frost has great 
effect on pots and is very liable to loosen the 
roots of plants in them, some protection will 
be required during the winter months, although 
this may be obviated to a certain extent by 
plunging into a bed of sand or fine cinders. 


The seedlings may remain in these boxes or 
pots till the following spring, by which time 
they should have made good roots and may be 
transferred to their final home, or, if required 
for stock, be potted up into a^-inch thumb-pots, 
which should be plunged in the sand or cinder 
bed. Another method which may be adopted 
in the case of stronger-growing plants is to 
prick out direct from the seed-pot into a bed 
specially prepared with fine soil. Plants so 
treated will also require protection for a few 
days from hot sun. 

If the instructions just given are carefully 
followed there is every reason to expect that the 
result will be a success. But, to give it every 
chance, it is absolutely essential to obtain fresh 
and fertile seed, to provide ample drainage in 
seed-pots, keep them clean and free from all 
weeds and moss, and, above all, to keep the 
moisture even, for nothing proves more fatal 
to germination than alternate conditions of 
moisture and drought. 

Most alpine and rock plants lend themselves 
very readily to propagation by division, espe- 
cially that large and typically alpine family 


the Saxifrages, as do also the Androsaces, 
Primulas, and a host of others too numerous to 

As an example of the method to be adopted, 
let it be assumed it is wished to increase the 
stock of Saxifraga apkulatum. Remove from 
the parent plant some of the shoots next 
the ground, breaking them off as close to the 
main stem as possible. A careful examination 
will disclose tiny rootlets attached to every 
piece so removed, each of which, when potted 
up in suitable soil, will grow readily. In a 
similar way any number of rooted pieces may 
be obtained from the mossy Saxifrages, without 
in the least spoiling the appearance of the 
plant from which they are taken. In deal- 
ing with the rarer kinds of Saxifrages, especially 
those of the encrusted section, such as diapen- 
sioides, Burseriana, Boydii, etc., more care will 
have to be exercised, and it is advisable, before 
removing a portion of the plant, to see if it is 
rooted. With some Saxifrages, such as trifur- 
cata, Whitlaviij roots will be found springing 
from joints along the creeping stem, much in 
the same way as with strawberry runners. In 


the case of S. Cotyledon and its varieties, 
hybrids of S. longifolia, S. Griesbachii, and 
others of a like habit, the rosette from which 
the flower-spike springs dies after flowering, 
but round it will appear a number of offshoots, 
each of which will have developed roots by 
the autumn. They can easily be separated 
from the main stem, and will have formed 
sturdy plants by the following year. 

The Androsaces also are easily increased 
by division. Take a plant of Androsace 
Chumbyi: after flowering, a number of small 
woolly rosettes will appear attached to the 
parent plant by thin wire-like stems. Each 
of these in a month or more will develop 
roots and form a complete plant which can 
easily be separated. Androsace lanuginosa^ and 
its variety Leichtlini, will, on careful examina- 
tion, be found to have made roots on some 
of their trailing stems, and these will readily 
grow when separated from the parent plant 
and potted. 

Few families lend themselves better to 

division than do the Primulas ; in fact, it is 

essential to their successful cultivation that 



they should be taken up and divided annually, 
owing to the way they have of growing out of 
the ground. This is especially applicable to 
the alpine Auriculas. When the plant is lifted, 
break off each crown or shoot, and roots will 
be found attached to each of the pieces, which 
will soon form a good-sized plant. 

Most of the dwarf Campanulas, such as 
pulla^ pulloides, Stansfieldii, G. F. Wilson, etc., 
spread by means of a creeping rootstock, from 
which pieces can easily be detached, each of 
which will readily grow. 

The various Phloxes, and some of the 
Dianthus family, especially suavis and casms, 
will, if closely examined, be found to have 
made roots in places. These rooted bits 
should be separated from the parent plant, 
and then carefully raised with a ball of earth 
if possible. There are, in fact, very few 
alpine or rock plants from which rooted bits 
cannot be obtained, which, when divided 
and carefully potted, appear usually to gain 
increased vigour and strength, instead of 
suffering from the effects of the division. 

The best time to propagate in this manner 


is immediately after flowering, when the fresh 
growth is commencing and the sap is most 
active. Having taken off the rooted pieces in 
the ways just described, make up a compost, 
similar to that in which the parent plant is 
growing, and put each piece in a 2|^-inch 
thumb-pot. It is advisable to put a pinch 
of sharp silver sand round the roots, for it 
encourages growth and lessens the chances 
of their damping off. After planting, keep 
the pots fairly close in a frame, plunged up 
to the rim in sand or fine cinders, and keep 
moderately, but not too moist. They should 
remain in the frame till they are thoroughly 
established, and are forming roots, which will 
be shown by their making growth, and then 
they may be moved to the open and plunged 
in a sand or cinder bed. 

It may be taken as a universal rule, to which 
there is no exception, that all pots containing 
plants should, when in the open, be sunk up 
to the rim in either earth, sand, or cinders. 
The latter two are much to be preferred, for 
in earth the pots are liable to become water- 
logged. The object of sinking the pots is to 


keep the temperature as even as possible, for, 
treated in this manner, they have but the top 
surface exposed to either the frost of winter or 
the hot rays of the sun in summer, and the 
plants in them are therefore much less likely 
to suffer from cold or heat than would be the 
case if the whole surface of the pot were 

It will be found a good plan in many cases 
to put small pieces of sandstone round the 
neck of the plant ; they will keep it secure 
and prevent undue evaporation. 

Propagation by cuttings is an easy method, 
and especially applicable to shrubs and any of 
the hard-wooded plants. The best time to 
take cuttings is between August and November. 
They should be made from well-ripened wood 
of the year's growth, choosing vigorous 
shoots. These should be shortened to about 
3 inches and the lower leaves trimmed off; 
then take a sharp knife and cut through 
immediately below a joint from which the 
roots will eventually spring. The cutting is 
now ready for insertion in pot or bed. 
Another method is to break off the cutting 


with what is known as a " heel." This is, in 
fact, a portion of the main stem. This heel 
should be cut across immediately below where 
it joined the stem. Of the two methods the 
former, namely, without a " heel," is that most 
generally preferred. 

Having prepared the cuttings in either of 
the above ways, the next procedure is to insert 
them in pots or in an open bed. For any of 
the choicer or less hardy kinds, pots are to be 
recommended. Take a 4-inch pot, put in 
drainage to about a quarter of its depth ; 
then fill up as full as possible with a com- 
post made up of about equal parts of good 
fibrous loam and sharp sand. Round the 
edge of the pot, and about 2 inches apart, 
make with a pointed stick small holes about 
I J inch deep, into each of which drop a 
pinch of silver sand. Now put a prepared 
cutting into each of these holes, making sure 
that they reach the bottom. Then place the 
thumb of each hand on either side of the 
cutting and press the soil firmly down : this 
should be done to each cutting in turn. 

The great secret of putting in cuttings is to 


make the soil round each quite firm. It is 
nearly impossible to make it too firm ; while, 
on the other hand, it is very easy to have it 
too loose. 

Place the pots containing the cuttings in a 
frame or cover with a hand-light, and keep 
close, well shaded from the direct sun, until 
the cuttings begin to grow. Watering should 
be done sparingly ; for while the pots should 
on no account be allowed to get too dry, on 
the other hand, excessive moisture might cause 
the cuttings to damp off. Of the two ex- 
tremes it is better to err on the dry side. 

For the hardier plants or shrubs, such as 
the Helianthemums, Cistus, Philadelphus, etc., 
it is preferable to strike them in the open in 
a specially prepared bed, which should be 
situated under a wall in some shady and 
sheltered corner. Some people, indeed, recom- 
mend having it under a wall facing south and 
exposed to the full sun, but personally I prefer 
a western aspect. Having decided on the site, 
remove about 2 inches of the soil, and make 
the hollow so formed as firm and solid as 
possible. On this prepared surface put about 


6 inches of soil, composed of fibrous loam 
and sand in equal parts, which should be put 
through a :J-inch riddle. Consolidate this also 
as much as possible. 

The bed is now ready for the cuttings, which 
should have been prepared as already described, 
and which may be inserted by making a hole 
and dropping in a pinch of silver sand, much 
in the same manner as was done in the pots, 
except that in this case, instead of being 2 inches 
apart, they should be placed quite close to one 
another. As before, make quite sure that the 
end of the cutting reaches the bottom of the 
hole, and above all see that the soil is pressed 
firmly round its stem. After the cuttings are 
inserted give a good watering to settle the 
ground. Little further attention will be needed, 
except to shelter, if necessary, from strong sun 
or to protect from severe frost or snow. By 
the spring it will be found that a large per- 
centage of the cuttings have rooted. 

Aubrietias are frequently found rather diffi- 
cult to strike, owing to their liability to damp 
off. The following treatment should, however, 
be found to yield a good result. Take the 


cuttings in early summer, choosing the young 
growth, and cut to joint, as already described ; 
then insert in the prepared bed, and cover with 
a hand-light, keeping quite close for a couple 
of weeks ; after that let a little air in at night, 
closing again in the daytime. In all probability 
a very large proportion of the cuttings will be 
found to have rooted by the autumn. 

Some of the hard-wooded shrubs are often 
very slow in striking. If at the end of the 
year the bark remains fresh and firm, but still 
there are no signs of growth, remove it from 
the pot. On examination it may in all pro- 
bability be found that although there are no 
roots, a covering will have formed over the 
end of the cutting, which is known as a 
" callus," and from which the roots will 
eventually spring. If this is found to be 
the case, pot it up again with fresh soil, using 
plenty of sharp sand. Very likely in a few 
months' time growth will appear, showing that 
it has made roots. In fact, as long as the 
cutting continues fresh and the bark un- 
shrivelled, there is always the chance of its 
striking. I have had cuttings as long as two 


years before they made any roots, but in the 
end I was successful by adopting this treatment. 
Layering is found a useful way of increasing 
some plants which do not, in this country at 
least, produce seed, or are difficult to strike 
from cuttings; the Rhododendron, Azalea, 
and Daphne species, for example. By layer- 
ing, stronger plants can often be obtained 
than from cuttings. The process of layer- 
ing is quite simple. Choosing a convenient 
branch or shoot near the ground, cut it half 
through near a joint, and then peg firmly to 
the ground, which should at the point of con- 
tact consist of fine loam and sand in equal 
parts ; then cover about 2 inches deep with the 
same compost. If, as is sometimes the case, it 
is found impossible to make the branch touch 
the ground, it may be inserted in a box, raised 
to the required height. The great thing to 
remember is to make the piece that is to be 
layered quite firm, so that it cannot be shaken 
about in the soil. In the following spring, if 
roots have been made (which may be ascertained 
by trying if the layered portion is firm in the 
ground), cut this piece from the parent plant, 


but do not take up for another month, when it 
will be quite safe to move it. Many shrubs and 
plants layer themselves quite freely : all that 
need be done is to place a little fine soil over 
the stem, and on it place a stone to keep it 



Climatic difficulties — Contrasting natural and artificial con- 
ditions — Tendency to loss of characteristic growth — 
Methods of overcoming climatic difficulties — Import- 
ance of proper planting — Time to plant — Importance 
of top-dressing in spring — Weeding — Garden pests 
and bow to deal with them. 

Before discussing the cultivation of rock and 

alpine plants in general, let us for a moment 

study them growing in their native homes. 

We shall then be able to realise and be in a 

better position to cope with the difficulties to 

be contended with when cultivating them in 

the rock garden in this country. 

Long, cold, dry winters followed by hot, dry 

summers of short duration are the conditions 

in which they thrive. From the time of the 

first snows in late autumn until these are melted 

by the summer sun, the plants are covered 



with a thick mantle of snow, which keeps 
them dry and protects them from the severe 
frosts. Then, during their flowering and 
growing season, their roots are kept constantly 
moist by the melting snows, which gives them 
a vigour of constitution which is unaffected 
by the scorching sun of late summer. 

How very different are the conditions at 
home, where, during the winter, there is no 
friendly covering of snow to keep them dry 
and warm. Instead, there is constant damp, 
varied by occasional frosts, which, though not 
nearly so severe as they would experience in 
their mountain homes, have a much more 
harmful effect, owing to their never having 
become properly dormant. Then the flower- 
ing and growing season in March, April, and 
May is, in this country, so often accompanied 
by parching east winds. And this lack of 
moisture at the period when it is so essential 
for them to have abundance of it, to swell the 
flower-buds and to promote growth, has the 
not unnatural result that when the summer 
comes, though they are not subject to any- 
thing like the heat of their native place, they 


have neither the vigour nor constitution to 
withstand it, and will surely pine away, unless 
kept constantly watered. 

From this we learn that the failure to keep 
such choice alpines as Kritrichium nanum^ 
Gentiana bavarica, Androsace glacialis, and many 
others, or to flower with any success such 
plants as Soldanella alpina, Androsace obtusifolia, 
is due not to the severity of our winters, nor 
yet to the heat of our summers, but to the fact 
that, owing to the conditions of our climate, 
the plants never become dormant, and their 
constitution is thereby so weakened that they 
are unable to withstand the comparatively 
temperate heat of our summers. And, in 
addition, though alpines at certain seasons must 
have abundant moisture at their roots, they 
dislike above all things the continual humid 
atmosphere which is one of the character- 
istics of the British Isles. From this one 
may infer that the secret of success and 
the chief thing to aim at is to encourage 
strong and vigorous growth in the spring by 
careful watering until the plants are sufficiently 
established to enable them to withstand a 


great deal of drought during the latter part 
of the year. 

In parts of the Alps, and especially in the 
higher valleys, the ground, with scarcely a rock 
upon it, will be found carpeted with alpine 
flowers, just as daisies and buttercups carpet an 
English meadow. There will be found grow- 
ing side by side Anemone sulphurea, Myosotis 
alpestris, Gentiana acaulis and verna, Silene 
alpestris. Primula farinosa, Androsace Sarmentosa 
and obtusifolia^ Aquilegia alpina, Pinguiculas, 
Ranunculus^ and a host of others, covering 
the bare and rockless ground. Should we, 
however, with this scene in our minds, be 
tempted to try and reproduce the dazzling 
picture at home, we shall only court disaster, 
for it cannot be done, or at least it has never 
been achieved up to the present. With us 
it is found to be impossible to grow Silene 
acaulis and Primula Jarinosa in the same spot, 
nor will the Pinguiculas flourish with the 
Androsaces. And why is this ? The reason 
is not difficult to discover ; it is that the Swiss 
valleys suit all these plants equally well. 
Moreover, there is no need of rock to pro- 


tect them during the winter from moisture 
or from drought in the summer. 

But since, in this country, similar conditions 
cannot be reproduced, it is neither possible to 
have a spot free from drought in summer and 
excess of moisture in winter, nor to persuade 
the plants themselves to retire to rest for at 
least half the year : all that remains is to try 
to learn the peculiar weakness of each and to 
provide to the best of our ability what may 
suit their several needs. 

Yet another lesson is to be learnt from the 
study of alpines in their own land, where they 
are found growing so close together as to form 
a regular turf, and carpeting the ground so 
thickly that they leave no bare spaces. It is 
that the rock garden at home should show 
nothing but plants, and rocks half hidden by 
them, and, if this is done, the plants will not 
be so liable to suffer from drought. As one 
might expect, there will be some difficulty in 
accomplishing this, especially in the beginning, 
when plants must have room to grow, and 
when they are also most liable to suffer 
from bare spaces and the attendant danger 


of drought. To a certain extent this may be 
guarded against by covering the bare spaces 
with chips of stones, but plants are more beauti- 
ful than stones, therefore endeavour to clothe 
the ground completely. But while it is right 
to aim at the ideal, it will require considerable 
skill to combine the plants in such a way that 
one will not crowd out the other ; we must 
seek to eliminate, as far as possible, that 
struggle for existence which is the pre- 
dominant feature in nature. 

Another point to remember, and one which 
does not help us in the choice of subjects to 
plant together, is that alpines, when brought 
into cultivation, in a great measure lose their 
characteristic growth, and not unfrequently the 
brilliance of their bloom. It will be necessary, 
therefore, to know the habit of the plants 
when growing in an English garden, to enable 
one to combine them together successfully. 
Therefore it should not be taken for granted 
that those which live together harmoniously 
on the Alpine slopes will do the same with us. 

One reason, and probably the correct one, 
why some alpines, when brought into cultiva- 

[To face page i6o. 


tion, lose the characteristic dwarf and stunted 
habit they display in their native homes, is 
that there they have not time to make much 
growth, for within the space of perhaps three 
or four months at the outside they have to 
perform the whole cycle of growth — leaf, 
stem, flower, and fruit — while at the same time 
they are exposed to every wind. 

Nature provides for this by making the 
typical alpine close growing, with short- 
stemmed flowers. But when the growing 
season is extended and plants protected from 
exposure to wind, the flower-stems are apt to 
become taller and the foliage more straggling 
and rank. 

We should aim at combining and massing 
the same species together in our rock gardens 
as far as space will admit, for in nature we 
see them growing in large masses or forming 
a carpet of different kinds interwoven together ; 
and it is unnecessary to have many rocks, only 
a few here and there for the plants to get their 
roots under and around. 

So much for the different conditions in 

which the alpines find themselves when gleaned 



from their mountain homes and brought to 
an Enghsh garden. It is, unfortunately from 
the alpines' point of view, impossible to create 
a climate similar to what they have been 
accustomed to ; we must therefore see how 
best we can make up for the deficiencies by 
artificial means. 

A study of the chief characteristics of 
the Alpine climate will show that, when 
compared with that of the British Isles, the 
chief difference is in the certainty of the 
former and the uncertainty of the latter. 

In the Alps, once the frost and snow come 
in the autumn, they hold all nature in their 
grip until the summer sun dispels them for 
a few short months. 

What a contrast to this country, with its 
wet and cold summers, its parching springs, 
uncertain autumns and winters ! One day 
we are frost- and snow-bound, on the next 
revelling in misplaced summer weather, which 
induces the tortoise-shell butterfly to disport 
itself over the few withered remains of the 
past summer's flowers. 

Since it is out of the question for us to 


attempt to reproduce the conditions necessary 
to induce alpines to become dormant during 
the winter, as they are in their native homes, 
all that can be done is to protect them from 
undue moisture, and, as far as possible, from 
sudden variations of temperature. This is 
best achieved by covering them from about 
November to April with sheets of glass. We 
shall be amply repaid for the temporary dis- 
figurement during these months by the healthy 
appearance of the plants when the glass is 
removed in April. This treatment is especially 
necessary in the case of the Androsaces and 
other woolly-leaved species, which, if left fully 
exposed to the winter's damp, will be very 
liable to disappear. It is, however, often very 
difficult, owing to the adjacent rockwork, to 
fix these panes of glass so as to prevent their 
slipping or being knocked down by wind or 
the midnight cat. If fitted in a regular frame 
with legs, these will be sure to come in 
contact with some rock, when it is a case 
of either removing one of the legs or the 
offisnding obstacle, neither of which is 


To overcome this difficulty the following 
contrivance will be found quite simple and 
easy to make : — From a length of round bar 
iron i-inch diameter, cut pieces 6 to 9 inches 
long. Hammer out the top inch of each 
quite flat, and bore two holes in it ; then 
screw on, at a slight angle, a piece of fairly 
hard wood 2 inches long by i^ inch, pro- 
jecting over the top of the flange about J-inch. 
On the top of this block nail a strip of sheet 
lead about i-| inch wide and 2 inches long, 
which will fold in two to hold the glass, 
much as is done in Simplex lead glazing, an 
illustration of which can be found in almost 
any garden paper. 

To fix the covering, select a piece of strong 
21 oz. glass large enough to completely cover 
the plant. Put the supports into the ground 
wherever possible on one side ; slip the glass 
into the lead clips and place the supports 
on the other side of the glass wherever 
required, and by gently closing the lead clips 
together make all secure. If the glass is too 
high above the plant, the whole can be easily 
pressed down. The glass should always be 


slightly inclined, to throw ofF the rain. By 
using these supports and employing a little 
ingenuity, the glass can be fixed in any spot 
and at any angle without danger of damaging 
the plant. 

So much for the protection of the plants 
from the winter's rain. We shall now see 
how we can best supply the moisture necessary 
during the growing season, which too often 
in this country is the driest and most trying 
time of the year. For this there is but 
one remedy, and that is constant watering. 
This can, to a certain extent, be assisted, or 
rather the moisture may be retained, by plac- 
ing round the plant pieces of stone, which will 
prevent undue evaporation. The spring is the 
crucial time ; for if strong, healthy growth is 
then produced, there will be little need to 
trouble about the drought of the summer. 
Strong plants will be well able to withstand 
any that is likely to be experienced in this 

The beginner must not, however, imagine 
that all alpines or rock plants require this 
amount of attention, or are so exacting, for 


it is only these difficult and tantalising higher 
alpines, such as the Androsaces, Gentians, some 
of the Campanulas, and a few others, that 
demand so much care. But there is, and 
always will be, a certain fascination in trying to 
grow those kinds that others have failed with, 
and with every new treatment tried there is 
always the hope that the secret of success has 
been found. Moreover, so many of these 
perverse plants are so typically Alpine that no 
rock garden worthy to be called by that name 
is complete without them. 

But the numbers of other plants are countless, 
and amongst them are some of the most attrac- 
tive, which will need little attention, but will 
increase and multiply as freely as weeds, 
provided there is good light soil and plenty 
of it, sufficient and ample drainage, as well 
as plenty of light and pure air. 

Some plants, such as varieties of the Andro- 
saces, Campanula lanata^ and others, so dislike 
much damp lying on their leaves and about their 
crowns that they should at all seasons of the 
year be protected from moisture from overhead. 
Therefore plant them under an overhanging 


ledge ; but since in this position they will be 
liable to suffer from drought, thin pieces of 
stone and slate should be inserted in the ground 
round the plant in such a way that they will 
catch the moisture falling from the rock above 
and direct it towards their roots. Others, 
again, are found to do best when planted in the 
perpendicular face of the rockwork — such, for 
example, as Saxifraga longifolia, the Ramondias, 
the Edrianthus ; whilst some, such as Gentiana 
verna, prefer a slight hollow. In short, there 
is no spot in the properly made rock garden 
for which an inhabitant cannot be found, 
whether it be in sun or shade, or partial sun or 
partial shade, whether in a hollow or on the 
level, whether on the perpendicular face or 
gentle slope. 

In Part II. will be found, after the descrip- 
tion of each plant, the position and aspect that 
suit it best and the soil it specially prefers. 

Many plants die owing to their not having 
been properly planted. How often are people 
seen planting in somewhat the following 
fashion : — Scooping out a slight hollow, some- 
times even using their hands ; then, placing the 


plant in it anyhow, with its roots all bunched up, 
and covering it with soil, they press the earth 
down closely round the neck of the plant. 
If the plant is too high out of the ground, 
they try to rectify the error by pressing down 
still harder, and with what result ? The tender 
and delicate roots get broken and bruised, and, 
even if they survive such treatment, take a long 
time to establish themselves and become recon- 
ciled to " pastures new." The proper way 
is, to make the hole rather larger and deeper 
than the plant will require, then to draw 
the soil up into the shape of a mound in 
the centre ; then, very gently disentangling 
the tender roots, place the plant on the top of 
the mound, spreading its roots out all round 
and over its sides, and cover them with soil ; 
press it gently but firmly down on the outside, 
but not close to the neck of the plant, or at 
least only as much as is required to keep it 
firm and unaffected by the wind. If the 
specimen you wish to plant is growing in a 
pot, remove it from it by placing the left 
hand over the surface of the pot, if necessary 
allowing the stem of the plant to come up 


between the fingers ; then, taking the pot 
in the right hand, turn it upside down, and 
strike the rim sharply two or three times 
against some solid object, such as the side of 
a barrow, or corner of a rock ; if this fails 
to dislodge the plant, push a piece of stick 
through the drainage hole at the bottom, and 
press it firmly up. On removing the plant 
from the pot, its roots will often be found to 
have formed a solid mass, completely filling all 
the available space. In this case it would be 
a hopeless task to try to unravel them, and 
would, in fact, do more harm than good ; so 
all that need be done is to pick out the pieces 
of drainage which will be found encased in the 
roots at the bottom ; then squeeze the mass 
gently, and, having shaken out the roots a little 
at the bottom, plant as already described. 

If the plant should be tall-growing or likely 
to catch the wind, stake at once, for before the 
roots have established themselves the plant is 
much more liable to be affected by the wind. 

Never, under any consideration, plant when 
the ground is sodden or in such a wet state 
that the clay sticks to the trowel or fork used ; 


it is far better to leave the plants " heeled in " 
for a week, or even more, than to plant when 
the ground is unsuitable. 

Nor should you plant during hard frost. 
The ideal time is in mild, open weather, but 
not too hot, when the ground is fairly dry 
and in good friable condition. If it is found 
necessary to plant in very dry weather, after 
putting in the plant, and before completely 
fiUing the hole, give it a good soaking with 
water. The hole can be made up to the 
required level as soon as this has drained 

With regard to watering in general, there is 
one golden rule which should never be broken. 
Never water unless it can be done to the extent 
of thoroughly soaking the ground to a depth 
of at least 3 inches. This is applicable equally 
to either the newly planted or the old estab- 
lished plants. The effect of a light sprinkling 
is merely to encourage the roots of the plants 
to come to the surface, which is exactly what 
should be avoided, for they will then be far 
more likely to suffer in hot weather. So if 
the watering cannot be done thoroughly, it is 


much better not to water at all. Watering, 
once commenced, should be continued ; but if 
the garden is properly made and the slopes not 
too steep, little will be required when once the 
plants are established, unless in an exception- 
ally dry summer. 

It is a good practice to put stones, pressing 
them in firmly, close to and round the neck 
of alpine plants. These help to keep the 
roots moist and cool, and prevent the leaves 
lying on the damp ground. 

Top-dress the rock garden in spring to 
counteract the effect of the winter's rain and 
frost. It is a very important and necessary 
operation, and one which is too often neglected. 
Nature herself does it by bringing down with 
the melting snow, soil and grit, which are 
deposited over and around the plants. 

The best compost that we can use for 
this purpose is the refuse from the potting 
bench, mixed with sharp sand and grit, or, 
failing this, fibrous loam, leaf- mould, and 
sand in about equal parts will do well ; the 
addition of a little powdered granite will 
be found beneficial and suit many plants. 


This mixture should be fine and be put 
through a |-inch riddle. 

Every spring we should carefully examine 
our plants, especially such kinds as Androsace 
villosa, Chatncejasme, and Laggeri, many of 
the Potentillas, Saxifrages, Erigerons, Asters, 
Campanulas, T)aphne cneorum and Blagayana, 
Silenes, Dianthus, Anemones, Primulas, Gen- 
tians, etc., and wherever it is found that the 
soil has been washed away from the plants, 
expose their roots and stems, gently open the 
tufts out, and carefully work in the soil and 
grit through them. Small chips of stone 
can with advantage be used to keep straggling 
shoots in position and encourage them to 
layer. It may, and probably will, be a 
troublesome operation, but the result will 
more than repay the time expended, for 
plants so treated will shortly appear to take 
a new lease of life and display that vigour of 
healthy growth that is the pride and joy of 
all gardeners. 

The surface of the whole garden should 
be gone over, and wherever roots or off- 
shoots of plants are exposed they should be 


covered. Frost also tends to loosen plants, 
which, when so found, should be firmly 
pressed home again. In places where rain 
has formed a miniature channel, it should be 
filled up and a stone or two put in to keep 
the soil in position. 

The frost, snow, and rain of winter, besides 
removing the soil from the plants, has often 
the effect of dislodging or loosening the very 
rocks themselves, no matter how carefully 
they have been originally built in. There- 
fore in the spring examine the rockwork 
carefully, and whenever a crack appears in 
the soil behind some rock it is a sure sign 
that it has moved. It should immediately 
be made firm, either by packing the soil 
around it or driving in a wedge-shaped stone 
at its base to get it back into position. When 
this is accomplished, make quite certain that 
no air space is left at the back of the rock, 
even if it should entail removing some of 
the soil to ascertain it. During the summer, 
and more especially in very hot, dry weather, 
the exposed surface of the ground should be 
kept loose and well pulverised, and, when 


doing this, care should be taken not to 
disturb the roots of the plants. 

Weeds must, at all costs, be kept down. 
The secret of success is never to let them 
seed. The only safe and sure way to remove 
the weeds is by the hand. The hoe is a 
dangerous instrument, even in the hands of 
the skilled, and fatal in the hands of others. 
Besides, alpines should be encouraged to 
sow themselves, and the young seedlings 
would most certainly come to a speedy and 
untimely end. When feasible, do the weed- 
ing yourself, unless you are lucky enough to 
command the services of a man, or boy, who 
can distinguish the difference between weeds 
and plants — by no means an easy thing to do 
when they are in the seedling stage — and who 
possesses that rare and divine gift of walking 
over a rock garden without treading on the 
tufts of one's most precious plants. Personally, 
I have not yet met this gifted creature, for 
my experience is that a month's weeds do 
less harm than an hour of the labours of the 
garden boy ; but others, perchance, may be 
more fortunate. 


How very true is that trite old saying, 
" One year's seeding gives five years' weed- 
ing " ! and especially so of the rock garden ; 
not, indeed, that weeds seed more freely 
there than they do in the ordinary border, 
but that the weeds, once established, are so 
much more difficult to dislodge, owing to 
the way they have of getting their roots 
around and behind the rocks, choosing gener- 
ally the largest and hardest to get at. Some- 
times, indeed, the only way to exterminate 
them is to remove the rock itself. This 
should, however, be the last resource. 

Garden pests ! I cannot say whether it 
is more in sorrow or in anger I write these 
words ; a good deal of both perhaps. In 
sorrow at the picture it recalls to my mind 
of tender and choice plants mutilated almost 
beyond recognition by some bird, or in one 
short night by the attention of one voracious 
slug. In wrath certainly at the spoiler of 
these treasures. Gardening is, alas ! one 
long fight against the elements and against 
nature in the shape of birds, beasts, and insects. 
Fishes, so far, have not yet attacked me. 


Perhaps, however, if gardening were all plain 
sailing it would not have the same fascination. 

In hard weather, when snails and slugs are 
not abroad, birds tear to pieces our choicest 
tufts of Saxifrages and Campanulas, seeking 
for insects. It was only yesterday that, going 
round my own garden after a week's frost 
and snow, I found my best plant of Saxifraga 
Apkulata strewn in small pieces over the 
path, and a patch of Arenaria Balearica looking 
as though an army of men had been at it with 

In mild weather the birds very kindly leave 
us more or less alone, except when, in a play- 
ful mood, they amuse themselves by cutting 
ofF and scattering on the ground the open 
flower-buds of our alpines, choosing with an 
almost uncanny certainty those of the shyest- 
blooming varieties. But in case we should 
be congratulating ourselves on the waning 
interest in our garden displayed by the birds 
in mild weather, the slugs and snails will sally 
forth in quest of pastures new and rare ! Is 
it towards such strong-growing plants as the 
Aubrietias, Arabis, or mossy Saxifrages that 

[ To face page \ 76. 




they wend their slimy way ? Not at all. But 
yonder is a plant of Phyteuma comosum just 
showing its purple leaves. What more 
could heart (if it has one, which I doubt) of 
slug desire for a luscious supper ? Or per- 
chance it is a struggling plant of Campanula 
Zoyzii, or Krigeron, or Symphydra pendula^ or ! ! ! 
A volume could be filled with all the or's ! 
How can we cope with such difficulties ? For 
if the birds be destroyed, then there promptly 
will be a plague of insects, and the last state 
will be far worse than the first. So it were 
better to destroy all the insects. But can this 
be done ? The answer is short. Quite im- 
possible. So let the birds live, or some of 
them at least, to keep the balance of nature. 

Dire indeed would be the result if this 
were lost. The one example of the rabbits 
of Australia too easily proves the truth of 

Many mixtures are advertised for destroy- 
ing these pests, but personally I have not found 
any of them very efficacious. Perhaps I did 
not use them properly ; but, be that as it may, 
the result was that neither slugs nor snails 



were destroyed or kept at bay for more than 
a few days at most. The only thing I have 
found really efficacious in warding off their 
attack is a ring of zinc round the plant. It 
is not ornamental, but can be removed as 
soon as the plant has made its growth, when 
the slugs can do but comparatively little 
damage, the crucial time being when growth 
is just commencing. 

These zinc rings are simple to make. Get 
a sheet of zinc and cut into strips about ij 
inch wide, and long enough to go round the 
plant, and fasten the ends together with copper 
wire. The theory is that as zinc and copper 
in contact create a certain amount of electricity, 
the marauding slug gets a shock on touching 
this barrier. Whether this is the case or 
not I cannot say, but the fact remains that 
they will not cross the zinc. When putting 
this ring round a plant, make sure there are 
neither slugs nor snails in the plant or ground 
around it. If any are within the magic circle, 
there they will remain and concentrate all 
their energies on the one unhappy plant, with 
dire results. 


Powdered alum, which is quite harmless 
to plant life, is also a good preventative for 
slugs, and snails most strongly object to any 
astringent, though I doubt if it would kill 
them unless applied in considerable quantities. 
As an experiment I have tried sprinkling 
slugs with a mixture advertised for killing 
them, and the only result I could get was 
that, though they apparently very much dis- 
liked the stuff and at first seemed to be 
dead, after a short time they were able to 
throw off what appeared to be a skin of slime 
and then crawled away none the worse. 
There is, in my opinion, but one way to 
get rid of these pests, and that is by hand- 
picking. The earlier in the year this is done 
the better, before they commence to breed. 
The practice I adopt is to go out as soon as 
it is dark with a lantern (those " ever-ready " 
electric lanterns I find very light and handy), 
and armed with long pointed scissors, such 
as are used for thinning grapes ; and every 
slug or snail, be he large or small, I — well, 
the guillotine was supposed to be an instan- 
taneous and painless death, and I can assure 


my readers that, judging from appearances, 
the scissors are equally speedy in dealing with 
slug or snail. 

By persevering with this treatment, these 
pests, though not completely banished, can 
be kept within reasonable bounds. Wire- 
worms, of which there are several varieties, are 
the larvae of various kinds of beetles, known 
by the popular name of the click, or skip- 
jack. These wire-worms, especially in new 
ground, are a great scourge. They are about 
half an inch long, and somewhat thicker than 
an ordinary knitting-needle, and of an orange 
colour. They obtain their name from the 
toughness of their skin. They can be ham- 
mered into the ground, which treatment, 
unless it be peculiarly hard, appears to have 
but little effect on them. They are most 
destructive, especially to any of the Dianthus 
family, and dearly love the tuberous-rooted 
plants. " Vaporite " is very successful in 
warding off their attacks, and will in fact 
kill them, while it is perfectly harmless 
to even the most delicate plants. It can 
be obtained from almost any seedsman or 


chemist, and full instructions are given with 
each tin. 

A very good and simple way of catching 
wire-worms is to bury a carrot or potato in 
the ground, marking the spot, and after a day 
or so dig it up again. By that time all the 
wire-worms for some distance round will have 
found it out and burrowed into it. 

Earwigs are especially harmful to the 
blooms of carnations, cutting the petals off at 
the base. They can be easily trapped. Being 
night-feeders, they rest during the day, choos- 
ing for preference such a spot as a hollow 
stalk ; so by placing pieces of bean-stalk about 
6 inches long, or any other hollow stalk, 
amongst the flowers of the plant attacked and 
blowing the contents into a tin of boiling 
water every morning, many of these trouble- 
some pests may be destroyed. For cater- 
pillars, aphis, and the like, hand-picking and 
spraying with some of the many mixtures 
advertised for that purpose are the only 

The wood-louse has got a bad name, but 
has done me little or no harm in my garden. 


To catch him, cut a potato in half and hollow 
out each portion, then place on the ground, 
hollowed side down. Examine each day, and 
destroy the wood-lice that will be found hiding 
in these traps by shaking them into boiling 



Points for consideration — Difference between alpines and 
rock plants — Grouping — Examples of same — Planting 
bulbs — Ferns — Caution against rampant - growing 
plants — Importance of proportion — Planting shrubs. 

If the reader has been able to derive sufficient 

help and information from the earlier chapters, 

he will naturally be anxious to know how 

to plant his garden, and the best varieties of 

plants to use, and as the ultimate result will 

largely depend on the selection made and 

whether the plants are judiciously grouped, 

their choice and arrangement should most 

carefully be considered. Otherwise the result 

will be but chaotic and inartistic, no matter 

how skilfully the garden has been engineered. 

How to group plants so as best to show 

off the beauty of the individual, while at the 



same time producing the most telling effect in 
the general scheme, is in my opinion one of, 
if not quite the most difficult branch of rock 
gardening, while it is also the most important. 

It is at times almost impossible to know 
how best to produce the desired effect ; there 
are so many points to be considered before the 
final home for any plant is selected. First 
arises the question of aspect, whether that 
chosen will suit it ; then how it will combine 
in colour, habit, and time of flowering with 
its next-door neighbour. One is sometimes 
almost in despair, for no place seems to answer 
all requirements, and one is almost induced to 
follow the slovenly and lazy gardener's motto 
of " Oh, put it in anywhere." But anywhere 
is nowhere, and there must be some spot that 
will suit it best, and that spot should be found, 
even if it entails a considerable amount of 

1 do not profess to be an artist, nor will I 
attempt to venture into those mystic schemes 
of colour of which one hears so much, but 
sees so little, except in the catalogues of 

[ To fact' pas^e 1 84. 




In rock gardening, and in fact in all kinds 
of gardening, the best results are frequently- 
obtained by the simplest means. The chief 
thing to avoid is a confused mixture of many 
brilliant colours, giving crude contrasts ; at its 
best it has but a patchy appearance, and does 
not give that harmony of colour v^hich it 
should be one's object to obtain. And the 
beauty of the individual plant v^ill suffer no 
loss from a judicious blending for general 
effect ; rather the contrary, for by a good 
combination the individual also w^ill be shown 
at its best. 

Before proceeding to discuss further the 
planting of alpine and rock plants, it w^ould 
perhaps be as w^ell to explain w^hat is meant 
by alpine and what by rock plants, lest 
some confusion should arise, owing to the 
two names being often used synonymously. 
Alpines derive their name from their original 
home — the Alps. Rock plants, which include 
alpines, are those collected from all parts of 
the temperate world, be it mountain or valley, 
which, so long as they are suitable in habit 
and height, are used in the rock garden. 


Henceforth it may be understood for the 
sake of brevity that in " rock plants," alpines 
and all suitable varieties are included. 

Rock plants, looking at them with a view- 
to grouping in the garden, may be divided 
into two classes: (i) those which, on 
account of their freer growth and more 
generous bloom, can be effectively used for 
massing ; and (2) those which are grown 
chiefly on account of their intrinsic beauty, 
but which, owing to their slower and more 
diminutive growth, will not, in this country 
at least, give the same bold dashes of 

In the former class may be included such 
families as the Aubrietias, Rock Roses, Arabis, 
Cerastium, Campanulas, etc. — in fact, most of 
the commoner plants grown in the rock garden. 
In the latter class one has such lovely things 
as Soldanella alpina, the rarer Saxifrages, such 
as S. diapensioides^ ccesia^ Burseriana, Faldonside 
etc., Campanula Zoyzn, Ramera, 'Edrianthus 
serpyllifolius, Phyteuma comosum^ and many 
others too numerous to mention here, all and 
each lovely in themselves, but whose beauty 


would be lost if planted beside, say, a yard- 
square avalanche of Aubrietia. So it is ad- 
visable that these more diminutive treasures 
be grown in a part of the garden reserved for 
them alone, and not mixed with the coarser 
kinds. It is all very well for people to talk 
about carpeting the ground with Androsace 
glacialis^ Eritrichium nanum, or Campanula 
Rainera ; it is so in Switzerland, but it cannot 
be achieved in the British Isles. 

Keep all the choicer Saxifrages together, 
choosing a well-drained spot fully exposed to 
the sun, with soil containing a good propor- 
tion of lime-rubbish, sand, and broken stones. 
I have grown together, and bloomed well, 
S. diapensioides, Faldonside^ ccesia, Ferdinandi^ 
Coburgi^ Boydii^ Burseriana^ and others of the 
choicest kinds, which would have been lost and 
passed unnoticed if scattered throughout other 
parts of the garden. There are numbers of 
other Saxifrages strong-growing and beautiful, 
such as apiculata^ sancta, IVallacei, Rhei, Guil- 
ford^ and Cotyledon, which will make as much 
growth in one season as the previous mentioned 
kinds will in ten. So use these latter in 


large bold masses for covering your rocks and 
level spaces. 

The following general scheme of planting 
might well be adopted : — To fall over the 
rocks bordering the paths, mass Aubrietias of 
all kinds, Arabis^ Hypericum reptans^ Androsace 
lanuginosa and its variety Leichtlini^ Dianthus 
suavis. Thymes, etc. ; while in places where the 
rocks are but little over the level of the path, 
tufts of mossy Saxifrages, Campanulas, etc., may 
be allowed to spread on to the path. Behind 
this, which may be called the edging, plant 
over the rocks the lower-growing kinds and 
creeping varieties, while on the level spots place 
such plants as Silene alpestris. Campanula pulla, 
and Gentians, Dianthus, etc., interspersed here 
and there with plants of a taller - growing 
habit, so as to avoid a too flat appearance. 
Behind these again the bolder-growing plants 
and smaller shrubs or shrubby plants, merging 
gradually into the shrubs which form the 

Always endeavour to plant in bold masses. 
Avoid single specimens dotted here and there. 
If the garden is large, one or even two square 


yards is not too much space to devote to one 
variety ; but this is not always easy to accom- 
plish. It takes so many plants of one kind 
to cover the space desired, especially con- 
sidering how small they usually are when 
received from nurserymen, and the expense 
of a large number is often prohibitive. But 
if only two or three plants can be obtained in 
the beginning, instead of the dozen or more 
required, I would still advise assigning the 
larger space, and in the autumn propagating 
from one of your own plants. It cannot be ex- 
pected that the garden will be properly clothed 
much under four years, unless a very large 
number of plants are purchased to begin with. 
And even when this cannot be done, it is 
still better to adopt the system of massing, 
for massing is the secret of effect. Though 
often the individual flowers of rock plants 
do not possess much intrinsic beauty in them- 
selves, when grown in large quantities they are 
most effective. 

When massing plants, endeavour to vary the 
shape and outline of each group as much as 
possible, for otherwise a formal effect will be 


produced, which is very objectionable. The 
^formation of the ground will help in this, to a 
certain extent at least. 

As an example of what can be obtained by 
this method, imagine a drift of Campanulas 
stretching half way up the face of the bank, 
with a tuft of mossy Saxifrages covering the 
rocks which bound the path, while in another 
place a cascade of Androsace lanuginosa falls 
on to a strip of Silene alpestris growing at 
its foot ; while again a dazzling patch of 
Gentiana acaulis is seen extending right up 
to rocks covered with a snow-white torrent 
of Thymus Serpyilum alba. Many such pictures 
as these could be suggested did space permit. 

Annuals may give a great show of bloom 
for some months during the summer, and are 
usually very easy to grow; but they have the 
great objection that once their bloom is past 
they die away, leaving an ugly blank in the 
garden. With the majority of perennial rock 
plants it is different. They are beautiful even 
when not in bloom, on account of their 
foHage and habit of forming compact tufts, 
which increase year by year, and give that idea 

[To face page 190. 



of permanence so lacking in annuals. For 
these reasons I never use annuals of any kind, 
if I can avoid it, except that dainty little 
yellow Saxifrage, Cymbalaria^ which appeared 
in my garden of its own accord, and goes on 
sowing itself from year to year, but never 

Many varieties of bulbs can be used with 
delightful effect on the slopes of the rock 
garden. They have, however, one objection, 
that they only make a show during the flower- 
ing season, which, alas ! is all too short. Once 
that is over, little else but withered leaves 
remains. To remedy this defect, put your 
bulbs under dwarf- and close-growing plants, 
such as the Thymes, Sedums, mossy Saxifrages, 
etc. In the spring they will push up through 
these carpets, have their flowers, and disappear 
until the following year. 

Ferns can also be used with good effect in 
the shadier and damper parts of the garden. 
Their lovely green foliage will show off and 
accentuate the livelier colouring of the flowers. 

My reiterated emphatic advice with regard 
to the scheme of planting is to mass. Mass 


boldly, covering the rocks and all the surface 
of the ground. The fully matured rock garden 
should have no untenanted spot, nor in summer 
show any bare spaces. Therefore, mass ; 
but it must be left to individual taste and 
circumstances to decide how to obtain the best 
effects from the material at hand. 

With regard to what are the best species to 
plant together, colour and time of flowering 
will have especially to be considered, provided 
always that the aspect suits both species equally 

It is not advisable to devote too large a 
space to plants of the same flowering season, 
for though the result during that period may 
be pleasing, it will be apt to make rather a 
blot on the general effect when their bloom is 
over. So I prefer to mix the plants in such 
a way that from April to September there will 
be no part of the garden quite devoid of bloom, 
though, as might be expected, the garden will 
be much gayer at some times of the year than 
at others. 

Another point to look to, and one often 
rather liable to be forgotten, is that no very 


strong and rapid-growing plant should ever 
be put beside one that is of slow growth and 
delicate habit, or the former will sooner or 
later smother the latter. 

Never plant rubbish. Do not be persuaded 
by your friends "just to fill up your garden 
with anything to make a show the first year." 
This is the greatest mistake, for you may 
afterwards have difficulty in getting rid of 
what you planted merely as a "stop-gap." 

A word of warning may not be out of 
place with regard to very strong and rampant- 
growing plants, especially those that have a 
creeping rootstock, for great discretion will 
have to be exercised in planting them owing 
to the difficulty of removing them when once 
established behind some large rock. Nothing 
in the shape of a rampant grower should be 
planted in the part of the garden reserved for 
the choicer kinds. The wild garden is the 
place for such dangerous characters, for their 
encroaching habits will not so much matter 

I speak from experience. In a weak mo- 
ment, and I must confess in ignorance of its 



habit, I planted in one of the choicer parts of 
my garden a plant of Convolvulus althceoides^ a 
very attractive plant in itself. In two months 
it had made wonderful growth, clothing the 
adjacent rocks with its creeping stems. My 
suspicions having been aroused, I examined the 
ground around, and about 4 feet from the parent 
plant I found a sucker of it just appearing in the 
middle of my best plant of Daphne Blagayana. 
To get there it had to work its way behind 
a rock weighing about a quarter of a ton. 
Further investigations showed that it was 
spreading in all directions, and had reached as 
far as 5 feet from the original plant, which 
was hastily banished to the wild garden. All 
the rockwork had to be taken down in order 
to thoroughly clean the ground. So that two 
days' hard work was the result of a thoughtless 
moment. Let this experience of mine be a 
warning to the reader on no account to plant 
anything, except in the wilder parts, that will 
be likely to take possession of his garden. 

Leaving the rock plants, we will now deal 
with the shrubs, the dwarf-growing kinds, 
which can be mixed with the plants, or form a 


connecting link with those of stronger growth 
which are to make the background of the 

Too much care and attention cannot be 
devoted to the planting of the shrubs, both 
large and small. On their judicious and 
skilful arrangement the success of the garden 
from an artistic point of view will greatly 

The modern rock garden is usually a copy, 
or more often an attempt to copy, some 
mountain scene on a very reduced scale, 
and that it is on a very reduced scale is 
evident from the fact that where in nature 
we find rocky crags or cliffs 30 feet or 
40 feet high, we, in our puny imitations, 
have to be content with rocks measuring as 
many inches. In order, therefore, to carry out 
this idea correctly, we should use trees and 
shrubs proportionate in size to our rocks. 
Amongst the rocks should be planted dwarf 
shrubs, such as Ledum biixifolia^ Azalea amcena^ 
or Cistus jiorentinus ^ and such miniature trees 
as the dainty little Finns syhestris Bewcronensis^ 
or some Retinospera obtusa pygmcea^ pigJ^iy re- 


productions of those gnarled and aged giants 
found on the scene we wish to copy. 

The secret of a faithful reproduction is 
proportion. For example, by planting one 
of these dwarf trees at the foot of some 
rock, or inserting it in some fissure, such 
an added value of dignity and height will 
be imparted that the rock will appear to 
be transformed into a rugged clifF. So 
again, by planting on some height a group 
of Juniper Sabina, the idea is conveyed of a 
wind-swept mountain crag. Time will indeed 
be well spent in working out pictures like this 
and trying where such as these will look best 
and most effective. Place a group here or a 
single specimen there, and study the effect 
from different points before finally planting. 
The results that can be obtained are 
wonderful so long as the sense of proportion 
is preserved. So also with the dwarf shrubs, 
though in a somewhat lesser degree, for they 
are not such faithful copies of their larger 
prototypes. But with the grouping and 
arrangement of these dwarf trees and shrubs, 
the faithful picture ends, for I must confess 

\^To face page 196. 


1 find it difficult to assimilate a pigmy Scotch 
fir of say 8 or 10 inches high with a 4 feet 
specimen bush of Cistus ladaniferus or 
Olearia Hastily though it is undeniable that 
such shrubs are a necessary and attractive 
adjunct to the rock garden. The only way 
1 can find out of the difficulty of combining 
dwarf shrubs and trees with those of larger 
growth, is by planting the latter so far away 
from the pigmy specimens that they form 
merely a background. 

As it is imperative that this background 
should be permanent, evergreen shrubs 
should chiefly be used. But do not for a 
moment think it is desirable to ignore the 
deciduous section, containing, as it does, 
many of the most beautiful of flowering 
shrubs. These should be so placed that the 
full value of their beauty when in flower is 
obtained, while not at other times affiscting 
the permanent scheme. 

This may appear to be somewhat contra- 
dictory advice, but by judiciously mixing the 
ev^ergreen with the deciduous, such an effect 
can be achieved. The advice as regards the 


massing of the plants applies also, In a certain 
degree, to shrubs, for when several of the 
same species are planted together, the effect 
is far more striking than when they are 
grown singly. 

Of shrubs suitable for covering the heights 
and the intermediate space between the rock 
plants and the larger shrubs, I should advise 
a selection from the following : — The family 
of Rhododendron is of chief importance, and 
varieties suitable for our purpose will be 
found in such dwarf-habited kinds as ciliatum, 
hirsutum^ ferrugineum^ Racemosum^ myrtifolium ; 
also Azalea amcena and its varieties ; the 
Menziesias, polifolia, polifolia alba, and 
Bicolor ; and of the Ledums, Palustris and 
latifolium ; while amongst the numerous 
Cistus family such varieties as florentinus^ 
formosus, lusitanicus, and Rosmarinifolius will 
be found most useful. Of the Genistas and 
Cytisus one cannot go far wrong in select- 
ing the following : Cytisus Ardoini^ Kewensis, 
purpureus^ and Purpureas albus^ Genista pro- 
strata^ saggitalis^ and tinctora^ ji. pi. 

Some of these, such as Cytisus Ardoini 


and Kewensis, and Genista prostrata, which 
grow only a few inches high, will creep 
over a rock, covering it with a compact green 
cushion, which in summer will be transformed 
into a sheet of cream or gold. 

It is not, however, a good plan to line all 
the heights with these dwarf shrubs, for that 
would tend to give a monotonous appearance. 
Therefore, vary the effect by planting here 
and there, almost up to the rock plants, a 
group of the stronger-growing brooms, such 
as Cytisus Prcecox and Prcecox alba, Carlieri, 
scoparius, etc. 

Shrubs, deciduous and otherwise, suitable 
for massing in the background, are legion, 
and every year new varieties are being intro- 
duced — some hardy, and others only half 

Therefore, to a certain extent, the selection 
made will depend on the climate. For 
instance, in my garden in County Wicklow, 
I can grow without the least protection 
during the winter such shrubs as Metrosideros 
floribunda, Carpenteria Californica, Cistus 
formosus, Myrtus apiculata, Grevillea rosmarini- 


folia^ and many others which are considered 
only half hardy ; but all people are not so 

Unfortunately, Rhododendrons will not grow 
everywhere, for they belong to that group of 
shrubs which includes so many lovely and rare 
species, namely, the peat-lovers, or, as they 
should more accurately be called, the lime- 
haters. I have a little lime in the soil of 
my garden, and Rhododendrons, though they 
live, will not thrive as I should wish them 
to ; otherwise I would grow them as freely 
as I would advise all others to do, whose 
soil is more suitable. 

In Part II. will be found a list of the 
choicer shrubs, both dwarf and free-growing. 



Points affecting the cost — Labour — Clearing scrub — 
Drainage — Estimated cost of rocks, sand, etc. — Cost 
of making artificial bog garden — Cost of plants. 

When undertaking any work, whether it be 
the laying out of a pleasure-ground, the build- 
ing of a house, or the making of a rock garden, 
the question that first arises is the probable 
cost ; and very rightly so too, for to commence 
an operation of this kind without having any 
idea of the expense incurred, is, to put it 
plainly, the act of a fool. 

With regard to buildings, the estimate 
is, comparatively speaking, simple, for it 
merely resolves itself into a mathematical cal- 
culation, with a well-recognised basis, such as 
the cost of a cubic yard of masonry or a square 
of roofing. These are known and acknowledged 


factors, and, except in very exceptional cases, 
not liable to much variation. 

But very different is the case in landscape 
gardening, for difficulties may arise, such as 
finding unexpected rocks or a very hard stratum 
of subsoil, etc., which could not have been fore- 
seen or guarded against when the work was 
commenced. So any estimate made must be 
more or less approximate, and it is wise to 
leave a good margin. 

In the case of a rock garden much will 
depend on whether it is natural or artificial ; 
if the former, on whether much clearing has 
to be done to expose the rock, and on what 
facilities there are for making and draining 
the necessary pockets. The texture of the 
rock, whether hard or soft, will also affect 
the estimate. In the artificial garden there 
are even more points to consider : if the 
ground has to be cleared from scrub, when it 
will cost less than if there are also trees to 
be removed ; if it is necessary to excavate 
for the site, and, if so, to what extent ; 
also, what the facilities are for getting rocks, 
sand, water, and many other things. 

COST 203 

But in order to form an estimate some data 
will be needed as to labour, quantities of rocks 
required, etc. I therefore propose to give some 
figures which may be found useful, based 
partly on my own experience and partly on 
engineering tables. 

I shall take labour first. But as wages vary 
so much in different parts of the country, 1 
think the most practical way of dealing with 
it is, instead of giving cost, to give particulars 
of the amount of work an ordinary labourer 
might reasonably be expected to accomplish in 
a day, and then, with a little calculation of 
quantity and knowledge of the local rate of 
wages, a very fair estimate of the probable cost 
can be made. 

One man in a day of eight hours should dig 
out and throw up on either side of a cutting 
ten cubic yards of light friable soil. 

If the soil is stiff clay, which entails much 
pick-work, he probably would not be able to 
remove more than half that quantity. If there 
are large boulder stones mixed with the earth, 
it may take even longer. About three cubic 
yards of soft rock, or about half a cubic yard 


of hard rock should be removed in the day's 

Should the soil have to be removed in a 
v^'^heelbarrow to a distance, say, of fifteen to 
thirty yards, two men and two barrows should 
be able to remove ten cubic yards of friable 
loose soil ; if of stiff clay, about five cubic yards. 

This is presuming the run to be fairly level. 
If up a steep incline they will only be able to 
remove about two-thirds of the above amounts. 
The method of work is for one man to dig 
and fill the barrows, while the other wheels. 
If the soil should be hard or difficult to dig, 
three men will be required altogether ; two to 
dig and fill, and one to wheel, for otherwise the 
barrow-man would be idle, waiting till the 
load was dug out and filled. 

When the earth has to be removed some 
distance or the gradient is too steep for barrow- 
work, carting will be necessary. Assuming 
the distance the soil has to be drawn is a 
quarter of a mile, four men with two horses and 
carts should remove about twenty cubic yards 
of loose earth in the day. An extra man would 
be required if the soil is hard. 

COST 205 

Sometimes, while yet too steep for barrow- 
work, it is not possible to work a horse and 
cart, as was the case when I was making my 
garden. The means I adopted of overcoming 
this difficulty was as follows : — I made a small 
tilting truck, holding about a ton, similar to 
that used in quarries, etc., which I ran on 
some light rails, about nine pounds to the 
yard ; these were quite portable and could 
easily be moved about in sections. The 
motive power I used was an old ship's winch, 
and with about thirty yards of a three-inch 
cable I had a most useful little railway, by 
means of which I drew and deposited where 
I wished many hundred tons of soil, up a 
gradient of nearly one in five. The winch 
being geared very low, a small boy could work 
it easily, even with a full load on the truck. 
In place of the winch, horse power could 
be used, but this was not in mv case feasible. 
However, even had I the choice, I would 
prefer the mechanical power. 

Some few su^s^estions as how best to utilise 
labour may be found to be a help. 

Two men will 2:et through more work in 


one day than one man in two days. It is, 
nevertheless, a mistake to have too many men 
working at the same spot, for they are apt to 
get in one another's way. If possible, try to 
arrange your workmen so that one has to keep 
steadily working in order to keep another 
supplied with work ; for example, with two 
men and two barrows, one should be dig- 
ging and filling while the other is wheeling ; 
the first should have the barrow filled by the 
time the second one has returned from deposit- 
ing his load. If the distance is considerable a 
third man and a barrow may be worked into 
the cycle of operations. So also with carting : 
arrange your men and carts so that an empty 
cart is never kept waiting at the scene of 
operations while another one is being filled ; 
but time it so that the empty cart arrives at 
the spot as the full one leaves. It is wonder- 
ful, the amount of time, and consequently 
money, that can be saved by a little arrange- 
ment of this sort. 

It is difficult to make anything of an 
accurate estimate of the cost of clearing land 
from scrub, so much depends on its nature 

COST 207 

and age. But — and I think it may be taken 
as a maximum — one man ought to clear and 
stub one square perch of thick scrub in the 
day. This does not include the removal of 
tree-stumps, which may easily entail a good 
deal of labour and expense. 

Piped drains sunk about three feet deep will, 
in ordinary soil, cost about two-and-sixpence 
per chain of twenty-two yards. 

The cost of materials, such as rocks, broken 
stones, sand, peat, etc., varies so much in 
different localities and depends so much on 
the distance they have to be drawn, that it 
is difficult to give more than a very rough 

Rocks of all sizes and broken stones, 
which have to be carted about two miles, 
I get for three-and-sixpence a load of one ton. 
Sand costs about four shillings per load. Peat, 
which has to be drawn five miles from a 
mountain, costs me five-and-sixpence a load 
of about twelve cwt. The quantity of rock 
required for making a garden largely depends 
on the gradients of the banks in it, and is 
difficult to estimate with any degree of 


accuracy. Judging from personal experience, 
I would say roughly, but it must of necessity 
be a very rough estimate, that, taking one 
part with another, banks varying in gradient 
from four in ten to two in ten would take 
about one ton of rocks to every ten square 
yards. The steeper the formation the more 
and larger the rocks required. Parts with a 
gradient of one in two would demand from two 
to three tons for the same extent of ground. 
The rocks I here refer to are not large masses 
weighing fifteen or sixteen cwt. each, but 
good serviceable stones weighing from one to 
five cwt. apiece, say about ten to fifteen rocks 
to a load of one ton. These figures are based 
on what I used in my own garden. In it 
the actual rockwork, including parts with 
rocks scattered only here and there, covers 
about twelve hundred square yards, and took 
about one hundred and thirty tons of rocks. 
The gradients vary from five and a half in 
eight, in the steepest parts, to two in ten, 
on the gentlest slopes. A good, useful, and 
effective gradient is about three and a half 
in ten. 

COST 209 

The description of rock used will also, in 
a certain measure, affect the calculations, as 
some kinds of stone weigh so much heavier 
than others in comparison to their bulk. A 
solid block of sandstone (quartzite), weigh- 
ing one ton, would contain fourteen and a half 
cubic feet, while the same weight of whinstone 
(basalt) would only contain twelve and a half 
cubic feet. So it is apparent that the bulk 
is very considerably affected by the nature of 
the rock. 

For building a dry wall, estimating the 
stonework at two feet thick, it would require 
about three-quarters of a ton of stones for 
every square yard. I have not touched on 
the question of cost as regards the actual 
building of the rockwork, as this calls 
for considerable artistic skill, and is alto- 
gether outside the sphere of ordinary 
labour. There are many landscape gardeners 
nowadays whose services can be obtained, 
if desired, at fees varying from one guinea 
to four guineas per day, according to skill 
and reputation. 

When it is necessary to dig sand or small 



stones into the soil, it will be useful to have 
an idea of the quantities required. 

One ton of dry sand contains twenty-four 
and a half cubic feet in bulk. So by spread- 
ing a ton one inch thick it will cover thirty- 
two square yards, and a ton of broken stones 
about twenty-five square yards. If either is 
very wet, the bulk will naturally be reduced 
as compared with the weight, and correspond- 
ingly cover less area. 

Those who wish to make an artificial bog- 
bed with concrete, as described in Chapter VII., 
may find the following calculations of service. 
For the foundation, one ton of broken stones, 
laid six inches thick, will cover three square 
yards. For the concrete, use it at a strength 
of six to one. Take one bag of Portland 
cement (weighing two hundred and eleven 
pounds), and mix with eleven cwt. of gravel ; 
this should give about thirteen cwt. of con- 
crete, equal in bulk to about twelve cubic feet. 
By spreading this three inches thick it should 
cover about five and a half square yards. In 
order to make the basin of the bog-bed water- 
tight, a coating of pure cement will have to be 

COST 211 

applied. This should be about half an inch 
thick. One bag of cement at this thickness 
will cover ten square yards. 

The number of plants needed will vary 
considerably, according to their nature and 
habit, some requiring to be planted not more 
than six inches apart, while others may be left 
as much as eighteen inches or two feet ; but 
taking one with another, roughly, about twelve 
plants to the square yard would be a fair 
number to allow. 

The cost of plants varies also not a little ; but, 
excluding the rarer kinds, I should say about 
five shillings a dozen is a fair price to pay. 
This, though only for the commoner kinds, 
would mount up to a large figure for even a 
garden of moderate dimensions, and when the 
cost of rarities is added, the total will often 
frighten one. 

But nobody expects to fully plant their 
garden the first year, so I should recommend, 
if economy is an element to be considered, 
not buying more than half a dozen of one 
sort of the commoner plants, and of the rarer 
kinds only one or perhaps three. As most 


rock plants can easily be increased by propaga- 
tion, the full complement can be made up in 
the course of a couple of years or so, at a 
considerable saving to one's pocket, and with 
greatly added interest and knowledge of the 
habits of the plants. 




Abronia (Nyctaginaceae) 

A SMALL genus of plants of trailing habit, bearing clusters of 
verbena-like flowers. Only the following species are suitable : — 

A. arenaria. — Fully exposed position in light sandy soil. 
Flowers lemon-yellow, borne in dense clusters in July. Fragrant. 
Not very hardy. Increased by seed, the outer skin of which should 
be peeled off before sowing, or by cuttings taken in spring. 

A. Crux Maltae. — Open position in sandy soil. Flowers purplish, 
pink, with a green throat, in shape resembling a Maltese cross. 
Blooms in August. Increased by seed and cuttings same as above. 

A. fragrans. — Same soil and position. Flowers white and 
fragrant, borne in termmal clusters. Blooms during May, flowers 
expanding during the evening. Increased by seed and cuttings. 
Grows 12 to 1 8 inches high, and of a more erect habit. 

A. tnellifera. — Exposed position in sandy soil. Stem decumbent, 
only rising some 4 to 6 inches high. Flowers orange-coloured, 
borne in loose clusters in July. Seed and division. 


Dwarf creeping plants, of which there are about twenty varieties 
in cultivation, but mostly of only secondary value for the rock 
garden, where effect is desired. They are all evergreen and 
quite hardy. 

A. adscendens. — Any aspect. Sandy loam. Creeping habit. 
Rapid grower. Silvery leaves. Purplish-coloured burrs. Easily 

propagated by division. 



A. Buchanani. — Any aspect. Any light sandy soil. Close 
creeping habit. Rapid grower, but at the same time does not 
appear to have the encroaching habit of some of the other varieties. 
Finely divided foliage of bright pea-green colour. Round, reddish 
burrs freely produced, flowering July to August. Division. This 
is one of the best of the family, and on account of its lovely foliage 
and less rampant growth may be used for the choicer parts of the 
rock garden. 

A. inermis. — Any aspect and soil. Creeping habit and rapid 
grower. Bronzy-green foliage. Reddish, rather insignificant burrs. 
Propagated by division. Useful for carpeting the less choicer parts. 

A. microphylla (syn. Novae Zealandiae). — Any aspect. Will 
thrive in almost any soil, but prefers that of a light and sandy 
nature. Creeping habit, forming a dense carpet about \ inch high. 
It is slow-growing as compared with others of the family. The 
inconspicuous small round heads or burrs which are freely produced 
are furnished with bright crimson spines from July to December. 
Pretty finely cut, small, bronzy-green foliage. Easily propagated 
by division. This is quite the best variety of the family, being 
neat of habit, and during the autumn and even into December the 
crimson burrs make quite a feature. It is altogether an indispens- 
able plant for some level spot beneath the eye. 

A. ovalifolia. — Indifferent to either aspect or soil. Grows about 
9 inches high ; of vigorous habit. Purplish-coloured burrs, pro- 
duced from July to September. Bright green fern-like foliage. 
Propagation by division. Too rampant a grower to plant in the 
choicer parts of the garden, but in the wilder will be found useful 
as a carpet under trees. 

A. pulchella. — Any aspect and soil. Creeping habit and very 
vigorous growth. Bronzy-green foliage. Propagation by division. 
Is a useful plant for covering large stones or bare spaces, but owing 
to its growth should be reserved for the wilder parts of the garden. 

A. Dryentea, A. glabra, A. myriophylla, A. Sangiiisorbae. — Are 
all useful for carpeting, but should not be associated with the choicer 
rock plants. 

A. laevigata. — Is a somewhat shrubby species, with glaucous 
green leaves. 

AcANTHOLiMON (Plumbaginaceae), Prickly Thrift 

A delightful and attractive genus of dwarf mountain plants which 
should be grown in every rock garden. The flowers resemble those 
of the Thrift, to which genus they are allied. The plants form 
branching, cushion-like mats of rigid spiny leaves, from which they 
get the name of Prickly Thrift. They all require a sunny and well- 


drained position, and are slow of growth and not easy to propagate. 
The best method is by working plenty of sand and cocoa fibre well 
into the tufts in early autumn, having previously carefully torn some 
of the branches, at a junction, so as to half sever them. After this 
treatment water well to settle the soil. By spring many of the 
growths so treated will be found to have rooted. Cuttings are 
uncertain. The best time to take them is in August and September. 
Tearing them off with a heel^ insert without further preparation in 
very sandy loam. 

The following are the only varieties in cultivation, but none, with 
the exception of A. gliunaceum, are at all common. 

A. acerosum. — Sunny, sheltered corner. Light, well-drained soil. 
Close-tufted habit, forming a cushion of spiny, grey, glaucous leaves. 
Very slow-growing. Rosy-pink flowers on stems 6 inches high in 
July. Propagate as already described. Hardy. A rare and attractive 
species ; the grey, glaucous, spiny leaves rather remind one of the 
foliage of Diatithus caeshis, but, on touching, they will be found to 
be armed with sharp spikes. 

A. androsaccum. — Soil and aspect same as last. A dense tufted 
species. Leaves, grey, glaucous, spiny. Bright pink flowers with a 
shade of purple in them, on sprays 4 inches high. Flowers in July. 
Propagate as described. Hardy. A very good and choice rock 
plant of easy culture ; will spread over the ledge of a rock. Owing 
to the pliant nature of the leaves, the rosettes appear to be less 
spiny than in the case of A. venustum, which it resembles. 

A. armenum. — Hot, sunny aspect and well-drained soil. Spiny 
foliage and pink flowers on sprays nearly 6 inches high. 

A. glumaceuvi. — Sunny aspect and light, well-drained soil. 
Forms spiny cushions of narrow dark-green leaves 6 inches high. 
This is the most vigorous grower of the family. Bright rose- 
coloured flowers, six to eight in a spikelet, with bracts rather like 
a Thrift. Flowers June to August. Propagated by cuttings or 
layers as described. Quite hardy. The best known of the family, 
and should be in every rock garden, where, in any suitable position, 
it will thrive well. 

A. cephalotes. — Well-drained soil in a sunny position. Rosettes 
less compact than most species, and composed of narrow spiny 
leaves. Globose heads of rosy-pink flowers. A rare species, but 
well worth cultivating. 

A. Kotschyi. — Requires same soil and aspect as other kinds. 
Rather broader spiny leaves than most of the others, and about 
4 inches high. White flowers freely produced. 

A. libanoticum. — Dry, well-drained, sunny position. Dense in 
growth and very woody. Pink flowers. 

A. venustum (syn. A. laxifloriim). — A sheltered, sunny aspect. 


Deep, well-drained soil, composed of sandy loam, leaf-mould, and 
brick rubbish. Dark green spiny leaves with an overlying slightly 
grey or glaucous shade. Forms close tufts 6 to 8 inches high. 
It is a slow-growing plant, freely producing bright rose-coloured 
flowers on arching, one-sided spikes during July. The flowers 
are rather longer than those of A. gliwiaceum. Propagation by 
layers and cuttings. This is one of the most attractive and choicest 
of rock plants. It requires firm planting. 

Acanthus (Acanthaceae) 

There is only one variety of this genus suitable for the rock 
garden, namely, A. Perringi (syn. Roseus Caroli and Alexandri). 
Ordinary soil in a sheltered position. Leaves long and lanceolate, 
low-growing habit. Flower-spikes about 12 to 18 inches high, each 
producing twenty-four to thirty blooms of deep pink flowers. Quite 
hardy and vigorous. A useful and attractive new introduction, 
though it has not the brilliancy of some alpines. 

AcHiLLAE (Compositae), Yarrow 

A numerous, though not particularly interesting family of 
Compositae, some of which, owing to their rampant growth, are 
suitable only for the herbaceous border ; but the dwarfer-growing 
kinds come in useful for grouping in the rock garden, and are 
easily grown and increased. Some of the higher alpine kinds are 
liable to become " leggy " in our open winters and will occasionally 
require division and replanting. Most of the Achilleas are good 
subjects for the wall garden. All like a hot, dry position. 

A. ageratifolia (syn. Anthemis Aizoon). — Sunny aspect. Light 
sandy soil. A neat and spreading plant about 5 inches high, of 
moderately rapid growth. The crinkled leaves, which are narrow 
and tongue-shaped, are covered with a white down. White, daisy- 
like flowers are freely produced in June. It is easily cultivated 
and readily increased by division or cuttings, and quite hardy. A 
useful plant on account of its silvery foliage. 

A. aegyptiaca (syn. taygetea). — Requires a well-drained, sunny 
position. Rather a tall-growing, shrubby plant of 12 to 18 inches 
high. Not a very rapid grower. Stems and finely cut fern-like 
leaves of a silvery colour. Handsome heads of pale yellow flowers 
during August. Easily increased by cuttings. This Achillea is 
not very hardy, except in well-drained, sunny, and sheltered spots. 
A useful and attractive, half-shrubby plant for the higher parts of 
the rock garden. 

A. alpina. — Indifferent to either soil or position. Grows 6 to 


12 inches high, with pretty serrated leaves and white flowers in 
September. Propagated by root division, cuttings, or seed. Quite 
hardy. Not of much value for rock garden. 

A. aurea. — Any position. Loamy soil. Grows about 12 inches 
high, with finely cut leaves, tufted habit. Showy, bright yellow 
flowers freely produced during July. Propagated by root division, 
cuttings, or seed. Is a good rock plant, and one of the showiest 
of the family. 

A. Clavennae. — Prefers a sunny position in light loamy soil. A 
somewhat shrubby plant of compact habit, growing 6 to 9 inches 
high. Silvery-white leaves, which colour is due to the short silky 
down with which they are covered. Pure white flowers freely pro- 
duced in May and June. Is propagated by root division and seed, 
and is quite hardy. One of the best of the family for the rock 
garden, if only for the foliage, but the flowers also are a good white, 
which many of the other kinds are not. 

A. Griesbachii. — Sunny position and loamy soil. Grows about 
4 inches high, with glaucous foliage and white flowers. 

A. Huteri {Huter's Yarrow). — Sunny position in any soil. Grows 
about 6 inches high, of spreading habit, with bright green foliage. 
Good, pure white flowers during June and July. Propagated by 
division. Is quite hardy. This species should be divided and 
replanted every two years. 

A. Jaborneggii. — Not particular as to soil or situation. Grows 
about 6 inches high, of spreading habit and moderate growth. 
Distinct silvery foliage. Pure white flowers during the summer. 
Quite hardy, and easily propagated by root division or seeds. 

This Achillea is a hybrid between A. Clavennae and A. moschata. 
It is one of the most worthy of being cultivated, and is really 

A. Herba-rota. — Any aspect and soil. Grows about 6 inches 
high, with white flowers during May and June. Foliage aromatic 

A. tomentosa. — Sunny position in ordinary light soil. Of spread- 
ing, tufted habit, growing about 6 to 9 inches high, of moderately 
rapid growth. Woolly, fern-like, evergreen foliage, with flat corymbs 
of golden-yellow flowers, freely produced from July to October. It 
is quite hardy, and easily propagated by division. A good and 
attractive dwarf plant. 

A. rupestris. — Warm sunny bank, in poor soil. Of compact, 
prostrate habit, only growing 4 inches high, producing white flowers 
from June to September. A free bloomer. Easily cultivated and 
quite hardy. Increased by division. A useful and attractive rock 
plant from Italy. 

A. Vielleresi. — Loamy soil. Any aspect. Grows about 6 inches 


high. Silvery foliage. Pure white flowers during June and July. 
Hardy and easily propagated by root division and seed. A good 
rock plant. 

A. nana, A. nioschata, A. umbellata, etc. — Have silvery foliage 
and white flowers, and are all of dwarf habit, easily cultivated and 
increased. They mostly bloom during the summer months, and 
are useful for carpeting, but call for no special attention. 

Acis (Amarvllidaceae), syn. Leucojum 

A small genus of bulbous plants, all hardy, and related to the 
" Snowflake." 

A. autumnale. — Sheltered position. Fine, very sandy soil. 
Grows about 3 inches high. Narrow green leaves, which disappear 
during the summer. Flowers, which appear in September before 
the leaves, resemble delicate pink snowdrops. This is a very 
uncommon plant, and is a gem for the rock garden, and looks its 
best springing from a mat of delicate-rooted Sedum, such as 

The following are all worthy of a choice spot, and should be 
cultivated in sandy soil : — 

A. grandiflora. — Grows 6 inches high, with large, white, bell- 
shaped flowers in August. 

A. roseus. — Grows 3 inches high, with bright rose-coloured 
flowers in August. 

A. trichophyllum. — Grows 6 inches high. Rather hairy leaves. 
White flowers in January. 

AcTAEA (Ranunculaceae), Banebcrry 

Hardy perennials, chiefly suitable for the wilder garden. In- 
creased by seed and division. 

A. alba. — Partial shade and deep sandy soil. Grows about 18 
inches high. Long, white, feathery flower-spikes, rather like a 
Spiraea, followed by white berries. Flowers in June. 

A. spicata. — Similar, with black poisonous berries. 

A. spicata., van rubra. — Same as above, only with scarlet berries. 


A small genus of hardy plants. Increased by division of root in 

A. grandiflora. — Deep sandy soil, in a sunny position. Dwarf, 
tufted habit, about 9 inches high. Yellow flowers about 3 inches 
across, borne on many-branched stems, in August 


A. scaposa. — Similar, but with silvery leaves and yellow flowers 
on long scapes, in July. 

Adonis (Ranunculaceae) 

Handsome plants of easy cultivation, belonging to the Buttercup 
order. They all dislike disturbance and are slow to increase. 
Planting should be done in autumn. Strong seedlings are prefer- 
able to pieces from old plants. Most varieties produce seed freely, 
which will easily germinate if sown in a moist, shady spot and 
lightly covered. The following are the best perennial varieties : — 

A. amurensis. — Sunny position, sheltered from cold winds, in 
moist, rather heavy loam. Increases very slowly, and grows about 
9 inches high. Beautiful fern-like foliage, which dies down towards 
the end of the summer. The flowers, which are yellow, and about 
2 inches across, are borne on stout leafy stems, and appear as early 
as January. It is quite hardy, and can be increased by seed or 
division. An attractive and valuable plant, as it blooms when there 
is little else in flower. The foliage and colour tint of flower are 
rather variable. 

A. amurensis, Jl. pi. — A double form of the above, and a very 
handsome plant. Large, quite double, golden-yellow flowers, with 
a curious green circle formed of green segments, which rather 
enhances than otherwise the beauty of the flower. 

A. Viekinsaki. — Has feathery leaves and small yellow flowers, 
which bloom in January and February. It requires same treatment 
as above. 

A. pyrenaica. — Sunny position in stony, well-drained, though 
moist, sandy loam. Grows about i foot to i8 inches high. Pale 
green leaves, rather like curled parsley, at the base of the much- 
branched stems. These decrease in size, till round the flower they 
are mere mossy tufts. Rich yellow flowers, 2 to 3 inches across, 
which appear in June. Hardy and increased by seed. If drainage 
is deficient, the crown of the plant is liable to decay. 

A. vernalis. — Sunny position in rather moist, heavy loam. 
Increases slowly and dislikes disturbance. Grows about 9 inches 
to a foot in height. Finely cut leaves. Each stem, which does 
not branch freely, bears a single flower of rich, glistening, golden- 
yellow, about 2 inches across, in March. Quite hardy, propagated 
by seed. A well-known border plant, but one that should be in 
every rock garden. 

A. volgensis, — Requires same soil and treatment as A. vernalis^ 
which it very much resembles as regards its flower. Its foliage is 
quite distinct, being of a bright green, stems much flatter and thinner 
and more branched. 


A. pyrenaica. — It bears rich yellow flowers on all the branches 
of its slender stems in April. 

A. walziana. — This is a hybrid : A. vernalis and A. volgensis. 
It requires same treatment and position as the last named. It bears 
narrow-petalled, yellow flowers in April that expand very fully. 
The stems, which are stiffly erect, and about 12 inches high, are 
clothed with finely cut pale green foliage. 


A charming family of dwarf-growing rock plants, forming rather 
untidy little bushes, with leaves mostly of a glaucous blue colour. 
The flowers are borne in crowded terminal racemes. All the 
species can be cultivated on the warmer slopes of the rock garden, 
and increased by seed or cuttings in the summer. They are all 
deep-rooted, and dislike disturbance or damp soil. 

jE. armenum. — Warm, sunny position, requiring a deep root-run 
of a light, dry, stony nature. It does well in limestone. It is of 
dwarf habit, growing only 3 or 4 inches high, with dense spikes 
of small, purplish-rose-coloured flowers. Dislikes damp, and is 
hable to perish in a wet winter. 

/E. capitatuni. — Same position and soil as the last. Numerous 
thick stems, growing only a few inches high, with somewhat acute 
linear leaves rather scattered. Small and inconspicuous flowers. 
It is chiefly remarkable for its dense heads of boat-shaped seed- 
vessels with entire wings. 

^. cepeaefolium (s)'n. Hutchinsia rotundifolid). — Requires 
a deep, dry root-run in a sunny position. Densely tufted 
stems, rising 3 to 6 inches, with glaucous, green, fleshy leaves | 
to I inch long, those from the root obovate, those on the 
stem sessile. Flowers pale lilac, with a yellow eye, half an inch 
across, in cylindrical, crowded, erect racemes. A pretty and 
attractive plant. 

^. cordatum. — Sunny position ; deep root-run. A shrubby 
little plant, growing 9 inches high, with rather large sulphur-yellow 
flowers in dense heads in August. Propagated by cuttings or seed. 
A good rock plant for a dry bank. 

AL. cordifolinm. — Sunny position and dry, deep root-run 
required. A compact, shrubby little plant, growing only about 6 
inches high. Short, crowded leaves, and rather large, rosy-pink 
flowers in clusters. Blooms in June and July. Hardy in dry 
situation, and propagated by seed or cuttings. A handsome 

^. grandiflortwi. — Demands same position and soil. Forms 
quite a little bush about 12 inches high, with rather long slender 


branches and leaves oblong, linear. Spikes of rosy-purple flowers 
of a good size freely produced in June. Quite hardy, and easily 
propagated by seed or cuttings. One of the best of the genus, and 
should be grown in every garden. 

^. iberideum. — Requires a deep, dry soil on a warm bank. A 
dwarf-growing species with white flowers. A good plant, and a new 
addition to this already large genus. 

JL. persicntn. — Deep soil ; dry, warm position. A prostrate and 
free-growing plant, with rosy-purple flowers in the summer ; a good 

^. rubesccns. — Same soil and position. A showy species with 
large rose-coloured flowers and elliptical seed-vessels. 

/E. speciosum. — Same soil and position. A densely tufted species, 
growing 3 to 4 inches high, with ovate, oblong leaves, and freely 
producing rather large rose-pink flowers during the summer. Seed- 
vessels toothed and tinged with purple. One of the best and 
showiest of the genus. 

A great deal of confusion exists amongst the ^thionemas, and 
it is difficult to get them true to name. Those already described 
are about the best of the genus. The following are, however, in 
cultivation, and all require similar treatment, namely, a deep, dry 
root-run and a sunny position. 

jE. bourgei. — Flowers rose-coloured and of good size. 

Al. chloracfolium. — Leaves slightly papillose and scabrid at the 
edges. Rather large rose-coloured flowers. 

vfi". cordiophylluni. — Stiff", densely leaved stems ; leaves sessile, 
deltoid, cordate, lobes embracing the stems, lower ones opposite. 
Medium-sized rose-coloured flowers. Plant grows 6 to 12 inches 

AL. diastrophis^ ^.pulchelluin. — Both of these are very nearly 
akin ; the difference lies in the former having longer fruiting 
racemes and seed-vessels. Both bear dense heads of small rosy- 
lilac coloured flowers. 

^E. graecum. — Short, numerous stems ; small, rosy - purple 

j£.Jucundum. — Dense, shrubby little plant. Glaucous leaves 
and pink flowers in July. Grows about 12 inches high. 

^. Morica7idia7iiiin. — Short stems and leafy, not of dense 
growth. Leaves opposite, sessile, obtuse, ovate. Large yellow 

/E. tnembranaceuni. — Grows about 6 inches high, with erect 
stems. Small, oblong, linear leaves. 

yE. rofu}idifoHu7n. — This is very like Ai. oppositifolia^ and 
should not be confused with Al. cepeaefoliuin, from which it is quite 


^. sagittatuin. — Stiff, many nerved, oblong leaves ; rather large 
white flowers. 

^. thesiifoliiim. — Grows about i8 inches high, with slender 
twiggy stems and long narrow leaves. Large pink flowers marked 
with purple. 

^. tenue, heterophyllum, and ccespitosum. — Are all densely tufted, 
dwarf-growing species, with pink or white flowers. 

^. thoniasianum. — Dwarf-growing ; glaucous leaves, and rosy- 
pink flowers. 

JE. trinervium. — Dwarf-growing ; leaves hard and three-nerved ; 
large white flowers. 

^. saxatile. — Twiggy branches with rosy-purple flowers, and 
freely produced. 

AjUGA (Labiatae) 

A dwarf, free-growing genus of plants of procumbent habit. 
Though not of first value for the rock garden, they are useful for 
carpeting. Are all of the easiest culture in ordinary soil, and are 
indifferent to position. 

A. genevensis (syn. A. alpina and A. Rugose). — Creeping habit ; 
bright, shiny green leaves. Flowers vary in colour from blue to 
rose and white, in spikes about 4 to 5 inches long. This plant 
should not be associated with the choicer alpines, which it would 
quickly overrun. There is a variety of this plant known as A. 
genevensis Brockbankii which is of dwarfer habit. 

A. genevensis crispa (syn. A. metallica crispd). — The leaves of 
this variety are curly and have a metallic sheen. Spikes of deep 
blue flowers. 

A. reptans. — A native plant useful for carpeting in the wilder 
parts on account of its vigorous growth and dark green purplish 
leaves and blue flowers. There are three varieties : — 

A. reptans alba. — A white form. 

A. reptans atropurpurea. — Dark bronze-purple leaves. 

A. reptans variegata. — Variegated silvery leaves. 

Alchemilla (Rosaceae), Ladies' Mantle 

A genus of but little value except for their foliage. Light sandy 
soil and open situation suits them all. Easily increased by division 
of roots, and seed. 

A. alpina. — Has evergreen silvery leaves, and grows about 6 
inches high. Small greenish flowers in July. Other varieties are : 

A. maxima. — Large leaves, downy underneath ; 12 inches high. 

A. pentaphylla. — Grows 6 inches high ; silvery-white leaves. 


Allium (Liliaceae) 

A genus of bulbous plants with compact heads of flower, and not 
particularly suitable for the rock garden. They all like rich loam 
in any position. They are of easy culture and readily increased 
by offsets. The following are the most suitable : — 

A. acuminatum. — Deep rose. Grows about 9 inches high, and 
flowers in July. 

A. acutangulum (syn. A. angulosum). — Heads of rosy-purple 
flowers in July. About 9 inches hi^h. 

A. caeruleum. — Pale blue flowers in May. Grows about 6 to 9 
inches high. 

A. cyaneutn. — Blue flowers ; dwarf habit. 

A. glaucum. — Purplish blue flowers ; glaucous foliage. Grows 
about 9 inches high. 

A. grandifiormn. — Pendant clusters of reddish-purplish flowers. 
About 9 inches high. 

A. Holparowskearium. — Heads of light rose-coloured flowers of 
a good size. 

A. narcissiflorum (syn. A. pedemontanum). — Pink flowers rather 
like a chinodoxa in shape. Grows about 6 inches high. 

A. triquetrum. — Pretty heads of drooping white flowers. 

Alyssum (Cruciferae), Madwort 

A numerous genus, of which, however, only the best are worthy 
of cultivation in the rock garden. They are all of the easiest 
culture in almost any light soil in a sunny position. Readily 
increased by cuttings of the young shoots. 

A. alpestre. — Sunny position in rather poor soil. Forms compact 
tufts of hoary leaves. Only about 3 inches high, the whole plant 
being covered with minute, shining, star-like hairs. Golden- 
yellow flowers very freely produced from May to July. A pretty 
plant. There is a double variety of this which is rather better in 

A. gemonense. — A dwarf-growing variety about 6 inches high. 
Flowers good, pure pale yellow colour, in corymbs. 

A. Idacum.—K sandy soil in sun. A tiny, prostrate species. The 
small roundish leaves, which grow in pairs down the stem, are of a 
true silvery colour. Yellow flowers in summer. Fairly hardy, and 
can be increased by cuttings or division. One of the gems of the 
genus, and worthy of a choice place in the garden. 

A. moellendorfianum. — Sun and sandy soil. Forms a compact 
plant 6 inches high, with silvery-grey leaves and yellow flowers 



freely produced in June and July. Propagation by division and 
cuttings. After flowering, cut back to prevent the plant getting 
bare and "leggy." 

A. maritimum. — Hot, dry, sandy soiL It is an annual with 
sweet-scented white flowers. It sows itself freely about, and is 
useful for tops of walls, etc. It is a native. 

A. montanum. — Sunny position in sandy soil. Spreads into 
compact tufts about 3 inches high. Glaucous green foliage covered 
with stellate hairs plainly visible. Fragrant yellow flowers, like 
alpine wallflowers, in early summer. Quite hardy, and readily in- 
creased by cuttings or division. It is a very attractive feature when 
grown into a large mass partially falling over some rock. 

A. podolicum. — Sun, and light dry soil. A dainty little species, 
only growing some 3 inches high, with small white flowers freely 
produced. Is quite hardy, but not of any special value. 

A. pyrenaicum. — Sun, and sandy soil. A diminutive species 
growing only 3 to 4 inches high, with grey downy leaves and 
white fragrant flowers. Quite worthy of a place. 

A. saxatile. — Sun, in any light soil. Spreading habit and fairly 
rapid growth. About 9 to 12 inches high. Covered from March 
to May with a profusion of golden-yellow flowers. Rather 
dislikes heavy, moist, rich soils, where it is liable to perish 
in the winter, otherwise of easiest culture. Readily increased 
by cuttings. An old favourite, and should have a place in every 

A. saxatile, Jl. pl.—K double variety of above. Blooms quite 
as profusely, and is altogether rather an improvement. 

A. saxatile citrinutji. — A variety with pale, sulphur-coloured 
flowers, which are very pretty. Another indispensable plant. 

Old plants of the last three-named varieties should be cut 
back after flowering to prevent their getting bare and leggy. 

A. saxatile, " Tom Thumb." — A very pretty, diminutive form of 
saxatile, forming compact little cushions some 3 inches high. Also 
a plant for a choice spot. 

A. serpyllifolium. — Fully exposed position in sandy soil. Forms 
small bushy plants about 3 to 4 inches high, which become as 
compact as moss. Grey-green leaves, and yellow flowers freely 
produced. A dainty and attractive little plant. 

A. spinosuin (syn. Koniga spinosa). — Light soil and exposed 
position. Plants form a pretty little silvery bush. Leaves covered 
with minute stellate hairs. Flowers insignificant and not pretty. 
This plant merits a place in some not over-choice part on account 
of its distinctive appearance. Easily increased from cuttings. 
There is also a very pretty form, A. s. rosem, with small rosy 
blossoms, A more attractive plant. 


Amphicome (Bignoniaceae) 

Very pretty evergreen Himalayan plants, rather like a Pents- 
temon. They unfortunately are only half hardy, but are well worth 
trying in favoured localities, giving them a position sheltered from 
cold winds and where they can be protected from severe frosts. 
Increased by cuttings struck in gentle heat. 

A. arguta. — Requires sheltered position in sandy loam and leaf- 
soil. Dwarf-growing, shrubby plant about 12 to 18 inches high. 
Neat pinnate foliage. Drooping, rosy-purple flowers at the axils, 
and also in terminal racemes. Blooms in August. 

A. Emodi. — Dwarfer-growing than the last, being only from 9 
to 12 inches high. Rose and orange-coloured bell-shaped flowers 
borne in axillary racemes in August. A ver)- handsome plant 

Anagallis (Primulaceae), Pimpernel 

Pretty dwarf plants, mostly annual, but so dainty that they may 
be used where bare spots occur in bog or rock garden. 

A. Mon^lli (syn. A. Linifolid). — An Italian species with large 
deep blue flowers shaded rose. 

A. tcnella.—Qnx native bog Pimpernel. Creeping habit. Small 
round leaves on slender stems, among which appear the tiny pink 
flowers. A pretty and dainty little annual for the bog garden. 

Andromeda (Ericaceae) 

A genus of dwarf shrubs nearly allied to the Heath family. There 
is only one true species of Andromeda known ; the others generally 
known as Andromedas really belong to the families of Cassandra, 
Cassiope, and Pieris. 

They are interesting plants, but not easy to grow, doing best 
in moist sandy peat in cool, but not shady spots, and should be 
associated with the dwarfer-growing plants. 

A. angustifolia (syn. Cassandra angustzfolia).— A. pretty, small 
evergreen shrub growing about 2 feet high, producing sprays 
of white flowers in terminal racemes in April. Propagated by 

A. calyculata (syn Cassandra calyculata). — Snow-white flowers 
in April. Ver^- similar to the last. 

A. Fastigiata (syn. Cassiope Fastigiata\ — Cool position, fully 
exposed to sun and air in deep, moist, peaty soil weU-drained. A 
beautiful heath-like shrub growing about 12 inches high. The 
leaves, which overlap along the stems, have a thin, silvery, chaffy 


margin, and a deep and broad keel by which it may be distinguished 
from A. tetragona^ which it otherwise much resembles. White, 
waxy, bell-shaped flowers borne at the end of each branch. A 
beautiful little shrub, and worthy of some care, though difficult to 
cultivate. It should have stones placed round the neck of the plant 
and should be pegged down when first planted. 

A. floribmida (syn. Pieris Jloribiindd). — Requires the same 
position and soil as the last. A beautiful, compact evergreen shrub 
growing about 3 feet high, and producing white, waxy, bell-shaped 
flowers very freely. It is of easy culture. 

A. hypnoides (syn. Cassiope hypnoides). — Requires a position, 
fully exposed to the sun and air, in moist, very gritty, sandy, well- 
drained, peaty soil. A tiny, spreading, moss-like shrub, only grow- 
ing I to 4 inches high, with small wiry branches densely clothed 
with minute bright green leaves. Small, white, waxy, drooping 
flowers borne on reddish stems in June. It is one of the most 
beautiful and most difficult to grow of alpine plants, and is seldom 
seen in a robust state. The chief difficulty is procuring healthy 
plants to start with. It is advisable to carefully peg down the main 
branches, and place stones round neck of plant to prevent evapora- 
tion. Drought is fatal to its successful cultivation. 

A. japonica (syn. Pieris japonica). — Open, though sheltered 
position, in good, moist, peaty soil. A graceful evergreen shrub 
growing some 3 feet high. It is of slow growth. Flowers white, 
borne in long pendulous clusters in May. Quite hardy. A choice 
shrub for the rock garden. 

A. polifoliurn (Wild Rosemary). — The only true species of 
Andromeda, and a native of Great Britain. It requires an open 
position in moist, peaty soil, in which it forms a compact little shrub 
about 12 inches high, with beautiful, very dark glossy green leaves, 
glaucous beneath. Drooping, bell-shaped flowers of a lovely 
delicate pale pink shade, produced in May. Easy of culture and 
quite hardy, and can be propagated by layers or seed. One of the 
choicest shrubs for the garden. There are several varieties, which 
differ principally in colour of flowers. 

A. tetragona (syn. Cassiope tetragona). — Half-shady position in 
very moist, well-drained sandy peat. Of compact habit, seldom 
more than 8 inches high. Deep green foliage. The whole plant has 
the appearance of a miniature Cypress. Beautiful drooping, white, 
waxy, bell-shaped flowers rather like Lily-of-the-valley, produced 
singly. Blooms in April. Quite hardy, and one of the most 
delightful and choicest of peat-loving shrubs. Easily increased 
by division. It may be distinguished from A. Fastigiata, 
which it much resembles, by the absence of the chaffy margin 
of leaf. 


Androsace (Primulaceae) 

The choicest and most typical plants of the highest mountain 
ranges. All are beautiful and gems for the rock garden. Whilst 
some are of easy cultivation, others are amongst the most difficult 
of alpines to grow. They all require a deep root-run in well-drained, 
gritty soil. Some varieties will grow on the level, while others need 
to be planted in vertical fissures of the rock, where they cannot 
suffer from damp lying about them, which quickly proves fatal, 
though at the same time they require moisture at their roots. 

It is advisable to cover those kinds that have hairy leaves with a 
sheet of glass during the winter to protect the foliage from exces- 
sive moisture. A clear pure air, free from dust, is essential ; they are 
almost sure to perish in a smoky atmosphere. 

A. alpina. — Vertical fissure shaded from the sun and protected 
from damp overhead, though it requires moisture at its roots, which 
must also have free escape. Requires gritty, fibrous loam mixed 
with pieces of sandstone, and at least 15 inches deep. Forms dense 
cushions about 3 inches high, with pink flowers in June. A lovely 
plant, but difficult to grow. 

A. arachnoidea. — Can be grown on the level in fine, sandy, gritty 
loam. Grows about 3 inches high, forming little rosettes which 
in the early part of the year are not covered with the white silky 
hairs that appear later. Flowers white, with a distinct red eye, 
towards the end of May. Fairly easily cultivated. 

A, briganiiaca. — Requires sloping ground, half-shady position, 
and sandy soil. Dwarf-growing, with deep green foliage, free from 
the characteristic fine down. White flowers. This species does 
not require so much protection from the rain as do some of the 

A. carnea. — Can be planted on a level, exposed spot in a mixture 
of peat and sandy loam at least a foot deep. A distinctive plant, 
growing about 3 inches high. The small pointed leaves, instead 
of forming rosettes, as most of the other kinds do, make a dense 
spiny cushion rather like Saxifraga Juniperifolia. The flowers 
rose-coloured, with a yellow eye, are freely produced in May. It 
is not difficult to cultivate, and can be raised from seed. It is one 
of the best of this attractive genus. A. eximia is a larger form. 

A. Chamaejasme (syn. A. villosa Chamaejasme). — Plant in a 
position fully exposed to the sun, in light sandy loam mixed with 
pieces of sandstone. The surface of the ground should also be 
covered with pieces of stone. The foliage forms rather large rosettes 
of fringed leaves a few inches high. Flowers white at first, with a 
yellow eye, changing to crimson. Blooms in June, and fairly freely. 


Not difficult to grow, A lovely little plant which no rock garden 
is complete without. 

A. Cha7pentieri. — Forms a dense cushion with bright red flowers. 
Will do on a level in deep, gritty loam. 

A. ciliata. — Requires sunny fissure in deep, gritty, sandy loam. 
Densely packed leaves, glabrous on the surface and downy on the 
margins. Carmine-red flowers in June. 

A. cylindtica. — Requires a sunny fissure and deep root-run in 
gritty loam. Stems rise about half an inch, with leaves which form 
columns on the stems. Tufted habit. It has pure white solitary 
flowers in April and May. This is, by some, thought to be a 
variety of A. ciliata. 

A.foliosa. — Requires an open situation on the level in full sun. 
Does best in good, deep, heavy limestone soil, with pieces of stone 
added. Grows about 6 to 8 inches high, with rather large, 
coarse, hairy leaves. It is free-growing, and will form a plant a 
foot across in one year. Rather large umbels of rosy-lilac flowers. 
A good plant, though much coarser than the type. 

A. glacialis. — Requires fully exposed, open, sunny position in 
wet, very gritty soil, composed almost entirely of granite chips. 
Forms spreading tufts, the leaves of which are completely hidden 
in summer by the mass of the most lovely, pure, soft, rose-pink 
flowers. A gem amongst gems, and as difficult to grow as it is 
lovely, being one of those plants that have so far baffled nearly all 
attempts to cultivate. It comes from the high moraines, and is 
found growing there in wet debris. 

A. helvetica. — Requires partial exposure to the sun in a well- 
drained spot tightly wedged between stones, which will guard it 
from excessive moisture, whilst allowing the roots to work into the 
gritty soil behind. It forms dense little masses of tiny ciliated 
leaves in diminutive rosettes and grows fairly quickly. The white 
flower, with a yellowish eye, is almost twice as large as the rosette 
from which it rises. Blooms in July, and very freely. Hardy, but 
requires careful cultivation, and is but short-lived. It is essentially 
a limestone plant. A lovely little gem. Propagated by seeds. 

A. imbricata (syn. A. argentea). — Sunny situation in light, well- 
drained loam ; requires granite. Forms dense tufts of white, silvery 
rosettes. The flowers are stemless and rest so thickly on the 
rosettes as to overlap each other. Propagated by seeds and division. 

A. lactea. — Should have an eastern or western aspect, in gritty 
loam. Vigorous habit. Numerous white flowers, with a yellow 
throat, borne in umbels in June. Forms compact rosettes. Of 
easy culture. 

A. Laggeri. — Light, gritty soil in partially shaded situation. 
Tiny rosettes of sharp pointed leaves. Bright pink flowers, with a 


lighter eye, freely produced in April. Of fairly easy culture, and 
increased by seed or division. 

A. lanugiiiosa. — Half-shady position in good loam. Forms 
trailing, many branched stems, with leaves nearly an inch long, and 
covered with white silky hairs. Of fairly rapid growth in a position 
it likes. Delicate, rose-coloured flowers, with a yellow eye, borne 
in umbels, and freely produced from May to October. Hardy and 
easily propagated by seeds or layers. It is advisable, when possible, 
to protect from rain during the winter. A most attractive plant, 
which should be so placed that its trailing stems can fall down over 
some rock. 

A. I. Leichtlini (syn. A. Oculata). — Plant to fall over the edge of 
a rock in a half-shady position. Prefers a light, limestone soil. 
Foliage not so downy, and flowers larger and of a paler colour 
than the last, of which it is a variety. Quite hardy, and of easy 
culture in light soils. 

A.priinuloides. — Likes a sheltered, half-shady situation, protected 
from moisture overhead, in gritty soil. Forms rosettes of bright 
green leaves and produces rosy-lilac flowers. A rare species, but 
no better than many of those better known. 

A. pubescens. — Sunny crevice in deep, sandy, gritty peat. 
Densely packed, ratner hoary leaves, with large, solitary white 
flowers scarcely rising above the plant. Flowering freely in July, 
it is of easy culture, and is a very attractive little plant. 

A. pyrenaica. — Requires fissures in rocks in deep, sandy, and 
peaty loam. It can also be grown on the level in similar soil and 
protected from drought by half-buried stones. Forms a compact 
mass of tiny grey, downy rosettes. The flowers are white, with a 
yellow eye, and rise about i to j of an inch over the plant. It is 
closely allied to A. helvetica and A. imbricata, and is not of 
particularly easy cultivation. 

A. sarmentosa. — Prefers an open, sunny situation in deep, well- 
drained, sandy loam mixed with limestone. Forms dense rosettes 
of silvery foliage, from which spring runners bearing rosettes at 
their extremities, which, if pegged down and covered with sandy 
soil, will root quickly. Flowers, which are freely produced, are 
rose-coloured, with a white eye, and borne in trusses, rather resem- 
bling the Verbena. Blooms in May. Of easy culture. It is very 
advisable to protect during the winter with a sheet of glass. The 
surface of the ground under the rosettes should be covered with 
finely broken sandstone to keep them dry. 

A. s. Chunibyi. — It requires the same treatment as A. sarmentosa^ 
which it much resembles, except that it is a stronger-growing plant 
and the flower is deeper in colour and borne on shorter stems. 
It is quite one of the best species of this attractive genus, and 


should be grown in every rock garden. It also is the better of pro- 
tection during the winter. It is a hybrid, A. sarmentosa x villosa. 

A. spinulifera. — Tufts of spatulate leaves from which spring 
upright stems 3 to 8 inches high, bearing heads of rose-coloured 
flowers with yellow centres. A new introduction from China 
requiring treatment similar to A. sarmentosa. 

A. villosa. — Plant in fine, sandy loam on level, in sunny position. 
Dwarf-growing ; leaves covered with silky hairs, mostly on the under- 
side. Pale rose-coloured flowers, yellowish eye, in umbels about 3 
inches high, freely produced. Easily cultivated ; a dainty little plant. 

A. vitaliana (syn. Douglasia vitaliana). — Partially shaded situa- 
tion in moderately damp, light, sandy, calcareous soil. Has little 
narrow leaves about an inch high. Yellow flowers of a good size and 
colour. Forms a good tuft in right position, but is a shy bloomer. 

A. wulfeniana. — Should be planted on the level in light, sandy 
soil. Very compact foliage and deep rose-coloured flowers barely 
rising above the leaves. A good plant, and not very difficult to 
grow. Other varieties are — 

A. coronopifolia (syn. A. lactifiora). — Biennial ; white flowers. 

A. Hausmanni. — Like A. ciliaia, with red flowers. 

A. obtusifolia. — White, with yellow eye. Pretty. 

A. sempervivoides. — Small rosettes and umbels of rosy-purple 
flowers in May. 

Anemone (Ranunculaceae), Wind Flower 

These, though more strictly meadow rather than rock plants, are 
of such beauty and variety that they should, the best of them at 
least, be grown in every rock garden. They are all of the easiest 
culture in any good, deep, warm, rather rich loam in some open, 
though partially shaded spot. To ensure success, in preference to 
old plants, get seedlings or good young plants to start with ; or, 
failing these, seed, which should be sown as soon as procured, 
for they make great woody rootstocks, which are nearly impossible 
to move without damaging them. All the following are deciduous, 
and are a selection of the best and most suitable kinds for the 
rock garden. 

A. alpina (syn. Pulsatilla alpina). — Good loam. Open, rather 
damp position. Fern-like foliage, sometimes clothed with long 
silky hairs, growing from 6 inches to a foot in height. Of fairly 
vigorous habit. Big, starry flowers, white inside and pale blue 
outside, in May. Increased by seed or division. A dainty and 
lovely plant. 

A. al. sulphurea.—Pi. yellow form of the above, rather larger, and 
also very lovely, and requiring similar treatment. 

A. angulosa (syn. A. Hepatica). — In any open spot in good loam. 


A large form of the common Hepatica, with sky-blue flowers about 
2\ inches across, blooming in February. It is of free growth, and 
is more suitable for margins of walks through woods than the rock 
garden. Varieties of the above are— 

A. an. alba. — A white form. 

A. an. lilacina, — Large lilac flowers. 

A. an. major. — A large variety of A. angulosa. 

A. an. rosea. — A pink form, rather scarce. 

A. baldensis. — A rocky crevice in peaty loam in partial shade. 
Grows about 6 inches high. Flowers white inside and pale pink 
outside. A dainty little plant, and one of the best of the family. 
Easy of cultivation, and readily grown from seed. 

A. blanda. — Good loam in sunny spot. Grows about 6 inches 
high. Spreads slowly. Deep sapphire-blue flowers. Is quite 
hardy, of the easiest culture, and quite one of the best of the alpine 
Anemones. There are two varieties : — 

A. b. alba. — A pretty white form. 

A. b. scythinica. — Large white flowers, pale blue on the outside. 

A.fulgens. — Partially shaded position in good, rather moist, rich 
loam ; likes burnt earth. Hard, deeply lobed leaves, about 6 to 8 
inches high. Flowers of a most vivid scarlet, in April. Hardy 
and easily grown from seed. Words can scarcely describe the 
appearance of a large mass of these plants when in bloom and the 
sun shining on them : the effect produced is quite dazzling. With 
me, at least, I find they are rather uncertain. Good young plants 
are essential to success. There are many varieties of shade, and 
some double, but the type is the best. 

A. Halleri. — Sunny position in deep, well-drained, rich soil. 
Deep lilac-coloured flowers of good size, produced singly on erect, 
slender stems about 9 inches high, in April. This is the finest and 
perhaps the rarest of the Pasque-flowers. 

A. Hepatica. — Half-shady position in good loam and leaf-mould. 
The well-known Hepatica of gardens, growing about 6 inches high, 
and making neat little plants. Pale blue flowers, rising just over 
the leaf, in February. Of the easiest culture, but dislikes disturb- 
ance, and is beloved of slugs. There are many varieties. 

A. H. alba. — White form ; less robust. 

A. H. pi.— DonhlQ. 

A. H. coerulea. — Pale blue. 

A~ H. coerulea, fi. pl.—Do^yble. ; rather darker shade, 

A.H.'' Royal Blue."— Deep shade. 

A. H. rubra. — Bright red. Poor grower. 

A. H. rubra., fl. pi. — Double ; rather darker shade. 

A. narcissiflora. — Any position in good, deep loam. Soft, 
velvety leaves, much lobed. White flowers tinged with pink on the 


outside, and borne in umbels on stems about i8 inches high in June. 
Propagated by seed. A very beautiful and rather neglected Anemone 
of the easiest culture. It should be found in every garden. 

A. nemorosa. — Half-shady position in leaf-soil. Grows about 
6 inches high. Flowers generally white. The well-known native 
Wood Anemone, of which there are several good varieties. 

A. n. coerulea. — Very nearly, if not identical with A. n. 

A. n. robinsoniana. — Any position in loam ; leaf-mould with a 
little sand added. Soft, pale blue flowers about 6 inches high. 
Quite hardy, and easily grown, and increased by division. A most 
lovely and dainty form of the Wood Anemone, and should be freely 
used everywhere. There are several varieties, giving different shades 
of blue, purple, and rose, and are equally attractive. 

A. palviata. — Level, sunny position, in deep, cool peat or peaty 
loam. It has leathery lobed leaves rather like a Cyclamen. Erect 
stems, bearing glossy, golden-yellow flowers in May and June. Of 
fairly vigorous growth, and quite easily cultivated. A handsome 
plant, readily increased by seed or division. There are two varieties, 
albida and alba. 

A. patens. — Another Pasque-flower very like A. Pulsatilla, only 
a little larger, but not of as good a colour. 

A. pratensis. — Sunny position in loam. Leaves finely cut, and 
pendulous flowers of a deep purple. Differs from the following in 
having rather smaller flowers. 

A. Pulsatilla (Pasque-flower). — Plant in various aspects to secure 
a longer bloom. Does best in a light, dry loam. In heavy soil it 
is rather inclined to run too much to foliage. Likes chalk. Pretty 
finely cut foliage and violet-blue flowers, hairy on the outside. 
Golden-yellow stamens. Blooms April and May. Quite hardy, 
and of easiest culture. A lovely and quite indispensable plant, and 
one of the best of the Anemones. There are four varieties. 

A. P. alba. — A rather dirty white form. 

A. P. lilacina. — Pale lilac. 

A. P. rubra. — Rosy-brown form. Golden stamens. Much 
smaller than the type. 

A. p. Mrs Van-der-Elst. — Shell pink and very beautiful. 

A. rivularis. — A wet, cool spot in the bog garden suits this 
Anemone best. Grows about 2 feet high. Leaves villous. Rather 
small white flowers, with deep purple anthers. Very easily cultivated. 
Is a most choice and lovely plant for the bog garden. Is readily 
grown from seed. 

A. vernalis. — Deep, cool, rather moist peaty loam in a half-shady 
position. The dwarfest-growing of the Pasque-flowers, forming 
compact tufts, from which rise on shaggy stems large goblet-shaped 


flowers, pure white within, and covered with golden-brown hairs 
without. Is not of particularly easy culture ; seedlings are best to 
start with. These, unfortunately, vary a good deal, as some of the 
flowers are of rather a greenish-white ; but if the true white form 
be obtained, no more exquisite plant can be grown in the rock 

The above are the best of the Anemones for the rock garden. 
Others, though also very lovely, are better suited for naturalising 
in the woods. The following are the best for this purpose : — 

A. apennina. — Clear, pale blue flowers. 

A. coronaria. — Various shades of colours. 

A. nemorosa, and its varieties. 

A sylvestris. — Pretty white flowers. 

Anomatheca {see Lapeyrousia) 

Antennaria (Compositae), Cat's-ear 

Are of only very secondary value for the rock garden. They 
are all dwarf and neat-growing plants with silvery leaves, and are 
of the easiest culture, indifferent either to soil or aspect. Their 
chief merit lies in the colour of their foliage, and are useful for 
carpeting bare spots. 

A. alpina (syn. Gnaphalium alpina). — White, downy foliage. 

A. dioica (syn. Gnaphaliutn dioicum). — Silvery leaves and pink 

A. tomentosa. — Only grows about i inch high. Silvery foliage. 

Anthemis (Compositae), Chamomile 

Of those in cultivation few are worthy of a place in the rock 
garden. All of easy culture in any position or soil. Propagated 
by division. 

A. Aizoon (see Achillea agefatifoHa). 

A. Biebersteiniana. — The pinnately divided leaves are covered 
with a white, silky down. Large, yellow, composite flowers, about 
12 inches high. Rather a showy species. 

A. macedom'ca.—SY)rea.d\ng tufts of silvery-grey leaves about 
6 inches high, and large, solitary white flowers in July. A pretty 

A. monlana. — Silvery-grey tufts of finely cut leaves and white 
flowers, freely produced from May to August. Only grows 6 inches 

These represent about the best of the genus. 


Anthericum (Liliaceae) 

These, though scarcely suitable for a rock garden, should, on 
account of their beauty, be given a place amongst the more vigorous 
plants or shrubs. They all do well in rich, moist, sandy loam and 
partial shade. 

A. Hookeri (syn. Bulbinella Hookeri). — Peaty bog suits this 
variety best. Bright yellow flowers growing 18 to 24 inches tall. 
Blooms in June. A showy plant. 

A. Liliago (St. Bernard's Lily). — Pure white flowers in spikes, in 
August. Grows about 12 to 18 inches high. Free- flowering. 

A. Liliastriwi (syn. Paradisia IJliastrum, St Bruno's Lily). — 
Cool soil and half shade. Spikes of white, lily-like flowers in early 
summer. About 2 feet high, A very pretty plant, and one that 
slugs appreciate. 

There are varieties of this, A. L. major and A. L. giganteum ; 
both showy plants. 

Anthyllis (Leguminosae), Kidney Vetch 

Dwarf-growing plants of the Pea- flower order. Pretty and 
attractive rock plants. 

A. montana. — Dry, sunny aspect in loam. Compact-growing, 
with white, downy, pinnate leaves about 6 inches high. Rose- 
coloured or purplish flowers in dense heads in July. Quite hardy, 
and propagated by division or seeds. One of the best little rock 

A. m. atroncbens. — Is a variety of the above, with deep, red- 
coloured flowers. 

A. Vubieraria. — Dwarf-growing, with yellow flowers, useful for 
dry banks. There are red and white varieties. 

Antirrhinum (Scrophulariaceae), Snapdragon 

There are a few of this genus of Snapdragon which are suitable 
for the rock garden. They all require a warm, dry spot. 

A. Asarina. — Hot, dry position in light, poor soil. Creeping 
habit and of rapid growth. Clammy, woolly, rounded leaves. 
Creamy-white flowers June to September. A free bloomer. A use- 
ful and pretty plant for old walls, or growing over a rock. It dislikes 
excessive moisture, and, being rather brittle, should be sheltered 
from the wind. 

A. glutinosum. — Also requires a hot, dry position. Of trailing 
habit, with downy leaves and quantities of pale, primrose-coloured 
flowers all the summer. A charming plant for a dry spot, and also 
rather brittle. 


A. sempervirens. — Of more bushy habit. It has whitish flowers 
and requires same treatment as Asarina. 

Aphyllanthes (Liliaceae) 

A. jnonspeliensis. — Requires a sunny position in almost pure 
sand. Rush-like leaves about 9 inches high, and clear blue flowers. 
A pretty plant. 

Aquilegia (Ranunculaceae), Columbine 

The genus of Columbines includes some of the fairest and 
daintiest flowers that can be grown in the rock garden, some of 
which, unfortunately, are not particularly easy to cultivate. They 
all like deep, moist, rich loam, thoroughly drained, in a sunny 
position. They come readily from seed, but interbreed so freely 
that it is difficult to obtain them true. 

A. alpina. — Requires a sheltered but not shady spot in deep loam 
and leaf-mould soil with quick drainage. Bears lovely, big, soft 
clear blue flowers on dainty stems about 18 inches high. Is of easy 
culture. One of the most beautiful plants for the rock garden. 
This, as with most others of the family, is not easy to get " true." 
Propagation by seeds. There is also a white variety. 

A. canadensis. — Looks its best planted amongst rocks in loamy 
soil. Sharply notched leaves and bright scarlet and yellow flowers, 
with long spurs, borne on stems about 12 inches high. Blooms in 
June. Easily raised from seed. Nana is a dwarf form, and also 
very lovely. 

A. coerulea. — Sheltered spot in cool, deep loam well drained. Its 
exquisite, long-spurred, pale blue flowers, with creamy- white centres, 
are borne on slender stems 9 to 12 inches high, and is in flower 
from May to September. The plant is, unfortunately, little more 
than a biennial, and should be treated as such, for even if it lives 
over the second year, it rarely does well. It comes freely from 
seeds, which should be sown as soon as ripe. It is impossible to 
bestow too much praise on this glorious little plant, which is about 
the loveliest of a lovely genus. 

A.flabellata. — Cool, ordinary soil. Pale green leaves, and waxy- 
white, tinted violet-rose flowers. Dwarf of habit and blooms 

A. glandulosa. — Requires a position in partial shade, in deep, 
moist soil composed of loam, peat, and sand. Dwarf- growing, with 
large, handsome blue flowers, with a white centre, borne on slender 
stems 9 to 12 inches high in May and June. Another gem, but, 


unfortunately, is rather apt to go off unexpectedly. It greatly 
dislikes disturbance, so it is advisable to grow from seed. 

The above are the most suitable kinds for the rock garden, others 
being of rather too tall a habit, but should, when possible, be 
naturalised in woods or planted amongst shrubs. The following 
are the best kinds for that purpose : — 

A. californica. — Thriving in a half-shady position in deep, moist 
loam. Deep orange, with slender, bright orange spurs. Liable to 
perish after flowering, so seed should be saved. Seedlings usually 
come "true." 

A. chrysantha. — Half-shady situation in almost any soil. Grows 
as high as 4 feet. Golden-yellow, long-spurred variety. 

A. Stuartii. — Moist loam, half shade. Large blue and white 
flowers in May. Grows about 2 feet high. A fine plant. 

There are also many hybrids, most of which are pretty. 

Arabis (Cruciferae), Rock Cress 

This genus contains some useful varieties, but none can be 
called choice plants. All are of easy culture and will grow in 
almost any aspect or soil. 

A. albida. — Any soil or aspect. Trailing plant, covered in early 
spring with a profusion of snow-white flowers. This well-known 
plant needs no further description ; there is no rockery or rock 
garden from which it is absent. 

A. albida, Jl. pi. — A double variety of the above and an improve- 
ment. Flowers last longer, though coming in a little later. There 
is also a variegated form of this. 

A. androsacea. — Warm position in gritty soil. Tufts of silvery 
leaves. Flowers white. An attractive and rare species, and well 
worth growing. 

A. aubrietoides. — Of compact habit, only growing about 3 inches 
high. Pale pink flowers in May. Quite a pretty plant. It should 
be grown in rather a dry position, as it is apt to go off in a damp 

A. Billardieri rosea. — Likes a dry soil in sun. It is a compact 
grower, with small pink flowers in April. 

A. Sturii. — Any position or soil. Compact grower, with little, 
hard, dark green leaves and pretty, pure white flowers. A garden 
hybrid, and perhaps the choicest of the family. 

The following varieties are of little value except in a botanical 
collection : — 

A. procurrens. — Dwarf habit and small whitish flowers. Rather 

A. Ferdinandi Coburgi. — Very dwarf-growing, with white flowers. 


A. purpurascens. — Grows about 6 inches high, with pale purple 
flowers in May. 

Arctostaphylos (Ericaceae) 

Very pretty, trailing, mostly evergreen shrubs, for moist, peaty soil. 

A. alpina (Black Bearberry).— Moist, peaty loam in half shade. 
A deciduous shrub with small-toothed leaves, white or flesh-coloured 
flowers in terminal racemes, and bluish-black berries. A rare 
native plant. 

A. californica. — Peaty loam and half shade. Evergreen shrub 
of vigorous growth and trailing habit, with spatulate, leathery leaves 
and white flowers in July and August. A useful plant for covering 

A. Uva-ursi (Bearberry). — Almost any soil, but prefers that of a 
peaty nature. Half shade. Dwarf, prostrate-growing shrub, with 
dark leathery leaves and pretty rose-coloured flowers clustered at 
extremities of the branches. Blooms in July and August, followed 
by scarlet berries. One of the best of trailing shrubs, evergreen, 
and of easiest culture in almost any soil. Propagated by layers. 

Arenaria (Caryophyllaceae), Sandwort 

A family giving us several very pretty species. Most are of 
easy culture and increased by division in early spring or July and 

A. balearica. — The only thing this plant needs is a cool and 
shady spot ; it is indifferent as to soil. A quick-growing, diminutive 
little plant coating the surface of rock with an emerald-green 
mantle not a quarter of an inch high, from which in summer 
spring countless upright, tiny, star-shaped white flowers borne on 
thread-like stems about an inch long. The daintiest little plant 
imaginable, which in a moist climate becomes a veritable weed. 
But, frail as it looks, do not allow it to encroach on other diminutive 
treasures, for it will smother them to death. 

A. caespitosa (syn. A. verna caespitosa). — A neat little plant 
growing about 4 inches high, with very leafy stems. White flowers 
during the early summer. 

A. gothica. — Very poor, stony soil in sun. A trailing plant with 
dark green glossy leaves and pure white flowers. A lovely little 
plant, which is apt to perish in any soil but the poorest and stoniest. 

A. Huteri. — Requires very sandy, light soil and sun. Only grows 
about 3 to 4 inches high, with large white blossoms. Top dress 
with sand and leaf-mould. A delightful little plant. 

A. laricifolia. — Likes a high ledge in sandy loam. Dwarf- 


spreading plant about 4 inches high, with very narrow leaves 
arranged in clusters and pretty bell-shaped white flowers. Increased 
by division. A charming little plant. 

A. montana. — Light sandy loam in partial shade. A fairly quick- 
growing plant of trailing habit. Narrow dark green leaves and a 
profusion of large pure white flowers in early summer. Seed and 
division. One of the most attractive flowers of early summer, and 
should be grown so as to fall over the face of a rock. 

A. m. grattdifiora. — Very similar to the above. Flowers larger. 
Flowers in June. 

A. purpurascens. — Ordinary soil in sun. Prostrate habit. Densely 
tufted, narrow, pointed, glossy leaves, with pale purplish, star-shaped 
flowers in May. A free bloomer. Propagated by division or 
seed. A very pretty little plant. 

A. verna. — Light sandy soil in sun. Grows in neat, prostrate tufts 
of emerald-green leaves, awl-shaped, with numerous small, starry 
white flowers in April. Also an attractive little plant, readily pro- 
pagated by seed. 

A. multicaules. — Like A. balearica, but larger flowers and more 
ovate leaves. 

A. tetraquetra. — White flowers and prostrate habit. A pretty 
little plant. 

Other varieties grown, but of more botanical than garden interest. 

Arethusa Bulbosa 

Shady position in very wet soil, composed ot spongy peat and 
sphagnum moss. Hardy American orchid with solitary rose-purple 
flowers, sweet-scented and very lovely. A very difficult plant to 

Armeria (Plumbaginaceae), Thrift 

Well-known plants of easy culture and much beauty. 

A. caespitosa. — Well - drained crevice in rocks in sun. The 
dwarfest of the genus, only growing i to 2 inches high. Forms tufts 
of grassy foliage. Pale pink flowers in June. Very pretty. 

A. cephalotes (syns. A. latifolia and A. forniosa). — Sandy loam 
in sun. Grass-like leaves about 8 inches high in dense tufts, from 
which spring tall stems 15 to 20 inches high, each bearing round, 
dense heads of closely packed flowers of a bright rose colour. 
Quite easy of cultivation, and readily increased by division or seed. 
Colour liable to variation when grown from seed. There is a white 
form, alba, also a handsome plant. 

A. maritinia (syn. A. vulgaris). — The well-known Sea Pink of 
Great Britain, growing in very sandy soil. There are several 


varieties : — A white form, alba ; a pink form, rosea ; and laucheana, 
a bright rosy-pink. 

A. setacea. — Sunny position in vertical crevice. Narrow, acute 
leaves in dense rosettes. Distinct. Grows 3 inches high, and rosy- 
pink flowers from April to June. 

Other varieties are advertised in catalogues, but all are very 
similar to A. maritima^ only with flowers of different shades of pink, 

Arnebia echioides, The Prophet Flower 

Partial shade in rich, well-drained loam. A compact-growing and 
well-known plant, with its primrose-yellow flowers, which open with 
five black spots on the corolla, gradually fading away. The spikes 
of flower are about 15 inches high and continually produced. A 
very charming plant, and well worthy of a spot in the rock garden. 
Propagated by cuttings in the autumn. 

Arnica (Compositae) 

Hardy, dwarf perennials allied to the Groundsel. Increased by 
seed or division in spring. 

A. montana. — Deep, peaty soil. A pretty plant, growing about 
12 inches high. Tufted habit, with large heads of composite flowers 
of a rich golden-orange colour. 

A. Fallens. — A sulphur-coloured form. 

A. Chainissonis. — Rather smaller in habit and flowers ; neither so 
brilliant in colour nor as large as montana. Also requires deep, 
peaty soil. 

Aronicum glaciale (syn. Doronicum glaciale) 

Requires rather heavy loam and half shade. Grows about 6 to 
8 inches high, with big broad leaves, and large, clear, yellow flowers 
about 2 to 3 inches across, borne on short leafy stems. The flowers 
are rather like the Doronicums in appearance. 

Artemisia (Compositae), Southernwood, Wormwood 

Dwarf-growing, half-shrubby perennial plants with silvery-grey 
leaves, but only of secondary value for the rock garden. The 
following are a selection : — 

A. Baiimgartenii. — Sun, in ordinary sandy loam. Silvery foliage 
growing about 6 inches high. 

A. brachyphylla splendens. — Sun and loam. Silvery leaves, and 
of creeping habit. A nice little plant. 

A. sericea. — Suitable for a hot spot. Silky white leaves, and 
of dwarf habit. 



AsARUM (Aristolochiaceae) 

A family of plants more curious than pretty, and of no great value. 
They are all dwarf-growing and form mats of cyclamen-like leaves 
and brownish flowers. Their chief beauty lies in their foliage. They 
are useful for a cool, damp, shady corner and easily propagated by 
division in spring. The following are the best-known varieties : — 

A. europaettm, canadense, and Sieboldii. — This latter has varie- 
gated and marbled leaves. 

ASPERULA (Rubiaceae), WoodrufF 

Pretty little plants of easy culture in any soil or position. Pro- 
pagated by division of the roots in spring or early summer. 

A. «7/(2/a.— Ordinary soil in sun. Compact-growing, with myriads 
of little white flowers. 

A. hirta. — In sunny position, in light gritty soil. Forms compact 
tufts with small white flowers changing to pink. Grows about 
3 inches high. 

A. nitida (syn. A. Gussonii). — Sa-wdiy soil. Compact dwarf- 
grower, only about 4 inches high, and very pale pink flowers. 

A. odorata. — Light soil. Neat-growing, with small, fragrant 

A. siiberosa (syn. A. Athod). — Likes a dry, sunny spot. Has 
rather downy foliage about 4 inches high, and small, pink, trumpet- 
shaped flowers. A very pretty little plant, which dislikes damp. 

Aster (Compositae), Michaelmas Daisy 

A very large genus, including many lovely plants, but mostly of 
too tall a growing habit to be suitable for the rock garden. There 
are a few, however, which should be included in every collection. 
They are all hardy and quite easily cultivated, and propagated by 
division in spring or autumn. 

A. alpinus. — Ordinary loam in half shade. Forms sturdy tufts 
about 6 inches high of rather downy leaves. The daisy-shaped 
flowers, which are about 2 inches across, are of pale blue, with a 
golden-coloured eye. It is a fairly rapid grower, and easily increased 
by division. A good plant, to which slugs and mice are much 
devoted. This may be taken as the type, for there are many forms, 
giving a variety of colours. 

A. al. albus. — A white form. 

A. al. altro-violaceus. — Deep violet in colour, 

A. al. ruber. — Deep red flowers. 

A. al. roseus. — Pink flowers. 


A. al. speciosus.—Kdi\!ci&x deeper-coloured than the type. 

A. al. superbus. — A good, deep, violet-blue form. 

A. al. himalaicus.—'Dtt.^ blue. One of the best. 

A. al. subcoerulea. — Flowers 2 inches across ; of a most lovely 
shade of blue. A choice form. 

A. acris. — Likes sun and loam. Grows about 2 feet high, and 
is in late summer smothered with a cloud of small, soft, purple 
flowers. Of easiest culture and readily divides. A lovely and 
dainty plant, which should be freely grown in bold masses. 

A. " Pattersoni." — Dwarf-growing, rather similar to alpinus., with 
pale blue flowers. 

Astragalus (Leguminosae), Milk Vetch 

A numerous genus of the Vetch tribe, of which there are few 
suitable species. Increased by division or seed. The latter is the 
best method. 

A. alpinus. —Oxdima.ry soil in sun. Prostrate habit. Flowers 
bluish-purple, in summer. A good plant. 

A. hypoglottis (syn. A. danicus). — Likes sunny aspect in cal- 
careous, well-drained soil. Trailing habit, with heads of blue 
flowers in July and August. Very easily grown, and a useful plant 
There is also a white-flowered form of this, which is pretty. 

A. monspessulanus. — Sunny aspect in rich, moist, calcareous 
soil. Trailing habit. Only some 4 inches high. A vigorous grower. 
Should be planted to fall over the face of a rock. Flowers pale rosy- 
lilac, with bars of white on upper petals ; the unopened buds a deep 
crimson. A useful plant, of easy culture. There is also a white 
form, albus, of this. 

A. onobrychioides. — A handsome, strong-growing variety, with 
purple-crimson flowers in profusion in capitate spikes. A good 
plant for the rougher parts of the garden. 

A. piirpiireus. — Prostrate-growing plant, rather hairy. Bright 
purple flowers in June. 

A. pannosus.— Ordinary soil. Tufts of woolly, pinnate leaves 
about 9 inches high. Flowers rose-coloured, in compact, globose 
heads. Blooms in July. 


An indispensable genus of trailing plants, so well known that a 
description is unnecessary. They are all most accommodating, 
thriving in any soil, and quite indifferent to aspect. Readily grown 
from seed, cuttings, or division. They are practically all of the 
same type, though varying much in colour of flower. The following 
are the best varieties, and mostly garden hybrids : — 


" Bridesmaidr — Large flowers, rosy pink. A good variety. 

" Craven Gem."— Good purple. 

" Br Mules." — Best habit of growth of any Aubrietia, being very 
compact. Deep violet-purple flowers. Better grown in shade, as 
in sun the flowers fade. 

" J^ire King" — Of rather straggling habit. Flowers crimson, with 
a trace of magenta, so will require care in grouping, but is all the 
same a very desirable plant. 

Lloyd Edzvards. — About the best purple aubrietia yet raised. 

A. Moerheimi. — Flowers pale rose, rather like, but not so large 
as, " Bridesmaid^ 

Prickard's Ai. — Deep violet-coloured flowers of large size, but of 
rather loose growth. 

A. Wallacei. — Deep violet-blue flowers, blooming both m spring 
and autumn. 

There are also two with variegated foliage — A. argentea, silvery 
white ; A. aurea, gold variegation ; both tidy, compact growers, 
and quite pretty. 

A. tauricola. — A distinct deciduous species, which forms compact 
tufts and has deep blue flowers. 

Auricula {see Primula) 

Azalea (Ericaceae) 

A very large genus of lovely shrubs, many of which are evergreen. 
They are typically mountain bushes, growing only to a moderate 
height and very free-flowering, and are most eminently suitable for 
planting in the rock garden. They also have the advantage of 
being easier to grow than the Rhododendrons, to which family 
they are very closely allied. Although supposed to grow only in 
peat, they will be found to thrive and flower well in ordinary loam, 
provided it is fairly free from lime, which, like all other peat-lovers, 
they detest. There are a vast number of named kinds, all of which 
are lovely and most suitable for planting amongst rocks. But as 
space will not permit me to enumerate them all, I shall only give 
a few of the more distinctive types. 

A. amoena. — Peat or ordinary loam ; any aspect. Forms a 
compact little evergreen bush about 12 to 18 inches high. Small 
dark green leaves and rosy-crimson flowers. Blooms in May in the 
greatest profusion. A delightful little shrub, which should be freely 
planted in masses. 

A.procumbens (syn. Loiseleuria procumbens). — Deep, sandy peat 
in half shade. A small, trailing shrub with wiry branches, not 
growing more than from 2 to 3 inches high, and forming a compact 


mass. Bears small, pink, bell-shaped flowers in spring. Very 
difficult to grow, and rarely seen in health in the garden. Good 
young plants with perfect roots to start with are essential. A little 
gem, and worthy of some trouble to grow. 

A. rosaejiora. — Peaty soil. A compact-growing little bush 
rather similar to A. ainoena, with salmon-rose-coloured flowers in 
spring. Quite hardy, of easy culture, and very attractive. 

A. serpyllifoUa. — Peaty soil and half shade. Of compact growth, 
with narrow leaves and a profusion of small pink flowers. 

A. s. latifolia. — A stronger-growing form of the above. Other 
lovely kinds, but of taller habit, are — 

A, calendidacea. — Orange flowers. 

A. nudiflora, of which there are endless hybrids. 

A. mollis. — Shades of orange and orange-red. 

A. viscosa. — Fragrant white flowers. 

A. Vaseyi. — Lovely delicate pink flowers. 

Bellis (Compositae), Daisy 

Few forms of the Daisy are worth growing in the rock garden. 
The following are a selection : — 

B. perennis. — Numerous named and unnamed double varieties. 
Great favourites with some people. 

B. rotundiflora coertilea. — Requires sheltered, sunny position 
and protection in a severe winter. White, daisy flowers tinged with 
lavender. A charming little plant. 

Bellium (Compositae) 

A genus closely allied to the common Daisy ; neither very 
beautiful nor very hardy. They all require a warm, sunny spot and 
sandy loam. 

B. bellidioides. — Very dwarf habit, with small, white, solitary 

B. crassifolium. — Flowers whitish-yellow, rather downy. Blooms 
in June. 

B. mintitutn. — Very small, like a miniature Daisy. Pale white 
and yellow flowers from June to September. 

Berberis (Berberideae), Barberry 

A handsome genus of shrubs, of which there are a few kinds 
suitable for the rock garden. They are all of easy cultivation. 

B. buxifolia nana. — Evergreen dwarf species, growing only 
12 inches high. Small yellow flowers in abundance. 


B. Darwinii nana. — A dwarf form of the well-known evergreen 
species. Orange-coloured flowers. 

B. stenophylla Irwinii. — A delightful little shrub. 

B. Thunbergi minor. — A miniature of Thunbergi, and well worthy 
of a place. 

B. empetrifolia. — Likes rather peaty soil. Grows 18 inches to 2 
feet, with bright orange-coloured flowers. Most charming and useful. 

Bletia hyacinthina 

A hardy orchid. Requires peaty soil in a half-shady spot. 
Flower-stems about 12 inches high, bearing deep, rosy-purple 
flowers. A pretty plant for drier parts of the bog garden. 


Dark-green hairy leaves. Lovely pale blue flowers on hairy 
branching stems freely produced throughout the summer. Loam in 
open position. Quite hardy. 

This is a plant that deserves to be more freely used, as the flowers 
are an exquisite shade of blue ; but, being somewhat coarse in habit, 
it should not be planted in the choicer parts of the rock garden. 

Brachycome (Compositae) 

A genus of beautiful little half-hardy plants, closely resembling 
the daisy. 

B. Sinclairii. — Requires a sunny aspect, where it can get ample 
moisture. Grows in a compost of loam, leaf-mould mixed with 
small stones. A very dwarf-habited plant, only about 2 inches 
high, spreading moderately. Leaves deep bronzy-green, and rather 
downy, arranged in tufts. Small, white, daisy-like flowers all the 
summer. A delightful wee plant. 

B. iberidifolia. — The Swan River Daisy, though an annual, may 
be used to temporarily fill bare spaces. 

Bruckenthalia spiculifolia 

Half-shady position in dry, peaty loam. A dwarf-growing plant of 
the Heath family, only some 9 inches high, with pale purple flowers 
in July. 

Bryanthus (Ericaceae) 

A genus of small trailing shrubs of Heath family. 

B. ernpetriformzs (see Menziesa e7npetrifo7~inis). 

B. erectus. — Small alpine shrub, said to be a hybrid {Kalmia 
glauca X Rhododendron Chamaecistus). — ^A half-shady position in 
sandy peat. A neat evergreen shrub, about 8 to 10 inches high. 


with pale green leaves and large red campanulate flowers. A 
delightful little shrub of fairly easy culture. 

B. glanduliformis. — Sandy peat. A very dwarf shrub, only some 
3 to 4 inches high, with bright magenta-red flowers, rather like a 
pentstemon in shape, and about i^ inches long. 

Buxus (Euphorbiaceae), Box 

Dwarf-growing forms of the common Box may be used for giving 
evergreen effects. Quite hardy. 

Calamintha (Labiatae) 

A small genus of hardy plants of easy culture in ordinary soil. 
Readily increased by seed, or division of the roots in spring. 

C.alpina. — Sandy loam. Only grows some 4 inches high. Freely 
branched, tufted habit, with purplish flowers in whorls in June. 

C. grandiflora. — Rather larger form. 

C. glabella. — Tubular, lilac-coloured flowers, sweet-scented. Suit- 
able for growing with the very dwarfest plants. 

Calandrinia umbellata 

Requires a very hot and dry position in poor sandy loam. Neat 
little shrubby plant growing about 6 inches high. Narrow, rather 
hairy leaves, and dazzling magenta-crimson flowers freely produced. 
Hardy only in dry soils. Very easily raised from seed. The flowers 
will only open in full sun, and for brilliancy are equalled by few ; but 
having a shade of magenta in their colouring, care should be taken 
as to what plant it is associated with. It very much dislikes dis- 
turbance, and young plants are the best. It is a succulent plant, 
and the hottest, driest spot is the best place for it. It should be 
treated as biennial. 

Other varieties, C. grandiflora, C. Memiesii, and C. niiida, 
have purple-rose-coloured flowers, and should be treated as half- 
hardy annuals. 

Calceolaria (Scrophulariaceae) 

There are three varieties of this genus well worth growing ; 
they are quite different from the well-known and, I think, ugly green- 
house kinds. 

C. plantaginea. — Raised parts of the bog garden and peaty 
loam. Rosettes of plantain-like leaves, pubescent. Bright yellow 
flowers borne on stems about 12 inches high from June to August. 
A good plant. 


C. polyrhiza. — Moist peat and loam in half shade. Dwarf-grow- 
ing, with spikes of incurved and spotted canary-yellow flowers in 
July, borne in profusion. Quite hardy, and a good plant. 

C. violacea. — Sheltered position in sandy loam. A shrubby 
plant, growing i8 inches to 2 feet, with pale blue flowers, spotted 
violet. Is hardy only in favourable localities. Easily increased by 
division. A lovely plant, and well worth giving protection to during 
the winter. 

Callirhoe (Malvaceae), Poppy Mallow 

Dwarf plants of the Mallow tribe. 

C. involucrata. — Hot, dry position in very light sandy loam. 
Grows about 6 inches high, with trailing stems, cut leaves, and 
crimson-magenta-purple flowers, rather like a Mallow. Blooms 
in June. Easily raised from seed. Colour of the flowers is 
brilliant, but merging on the magenta shade, so care should be 
taken with what flowers they are associated. 

Caltha (Ranunculaceae), Marsh Marigold 

Lovely and showy plants for the waterside. The single form, 
though lovely, is so common that it is hardly worth while giving 
it a place, but there are some very good double forms which should 
be grown. All are of easy culture. 

C. bijlora. — Compact grower, with white flowers. 

C. monstrosa,fl. pi. — A fine double form. 

C. palustris, fl. pi. — A double form of the common Marsh 

C. polypetula. — Large leaves and yellow flowers. 

C. polysepala. — Enormous leaves and flowers, said to have been 
obtained from the Vatican. 

C. purpurascens. — Rather distinct species, with purplish stems 
and the outside of bright orange-coloured flowers of a purplish 

C. parnassi folia. — Yellow flowers in April and May. 

Campanula (Campanulaceae), Bell-flowers 

A large genus varying greatly in habit, height, and colour. 
Many are too coarse and tall-growing for the rock garden, but 
amongst the dwarfer-habited kinds will be found some of the 
choicest plants for the garden. They mostly like a sunny aspect 
and sandy loam, and are all very partial to limestone, except 
Allionii, pulla, and pulloides, which all three dislike extremely, 
there are so many varieties and hybrids, some scarcely dis- 


tinguishable from one another, that it would be impossible to give 
anything like a complete list ; but the following kinds are the 
best and most distinct forms, dwarf of habit, and well suited for 
the rock garden. Unless otherwise stated, it may be understood 
that sandy loam and sun are what they require. 

C. Abietina. — Close green mats of leaves, 2 inches high. Lovely 
open, star-shaped, purple flowers in May, on slender, erect stems 
about 6 inches high. Increased by division, which it requires 
occasionally. One of the best kinds. 

C. Allionii (syn. C. alpestris and C. nana). — Small stone chips, 
with a dash of peaty soil, in sun, are the needs of this plant, which 
hates lime. Long, narrow, hairy leaves and blue, bell-shaped flowers 
on slender stems about 6 inches high. Blooms in July. One of 
the loveliest and most difficult Campanulas. Requires abundant 
moisture during growing season. 

C. alpina. — Rather long leaves covered with a greyish down. Of 
erect habit, growing from 6 to 10 inches high. Spikes of fine dark 
blue flowers, pendulous, tubular-shaped, about i inch long. Blooms 
in July. Division or seeds. 

C. barbata. — Compact tufts of shaggy leaves. Lovely pen- 
dulous, pale blue, bell-shaped flowers nearly i inch long, all 
fringed at the mouth. These are borne four or five on a spike, 
in May. Unfortunately not always perennial. Dislikes excessive 
damp in winter, so should be planted in a dryish spot. 

C. b. alba is a lovely form ; requiring same treatment. 

C. caespitosa. — A dwarf, spreading little plant. Tufted habit, 
4 to 6 inches high. Round glossy leaves and a cloud of pale blue 
flowers in summer. Too strong a grower for association with 
choice plants ; but for planting between steps and clothing odd 
corners there is no better or more lovely little flower. Readily 
increased by division. There is a white form, which is difficult to 
distinguish from pusilla alba. 

C. carnica. — Rather of the type of the native Harebell. Flowers 
long, narrow, and tubular, and lilac -purple in colour. Quite hardy 
and a good grower. 

C. carpatica. — Erect, deep blue flowers, funnel-shaped, growing 
in loose panicles about 9 to 18 inches high, according to the rich- 
ness of the soil, and very freely produced during the summer. 
Stems leafy and branched. This is the type, but there are an 
endless number of hybrids and varieties ; of the latter the best 
and most distinct are — 

C. car. alba. — A pure white form, very lovely. 

C. car. pallida. — Palest of blue flowers. 

C. car. riverslea. — A good and very free-blooming and vigorous 
variety, with deep blue flowers. 


C. car. pelviformis. — A more distinct variety, and one of the best. 
Grows as high as i8 inches, and bears a profusion of large, rather 
flat, saucer-shaped flowers of a pleasing shade of pale blue. Not 
quite as robust as some of the other kinds. Slugs, therefore, are 
rather devoted to it. 

C. car. " White Star." — Large, saucer-shaped flowers, nearly 2\ 
inches across, white, with just a trace of blue in them, which, if 
anything, rather enhances their beauty. 

C. cenisia. — Deep, very gritty, sandy soil. Spreads vigorously 
underground, and above makes compact rosettes of light green 
leaves. Grows only about 3 inches high, with funnel-shaped, solitary 
blue flowers. Division. 

C. collina. — Likes a hot, stony bank. Greyish, downy leaves of 
medium growth. Pendulous, long, funnel-shaped flowers of the 
most beautiful violet colour, rivalling C.pulla in intensity. A lovely 
and uncommon plant of the easiest culture. Quite one of the gems 
of the genus. 

C. Elatitines. — Of trailing habit, with hairy leaves and blue 
starry flowers, rather flat-shaped. Dislikes damp, and should be 
planted in a crevice or moraine in full sun. Slugs are very devoted 
to this species. 

C. elatinoides. — Very similar to the above, but of taller habit. 

C. excisa. — Open position in gritty peat and loam. A rapid- 
growing little plant of spreading habit. Thin, erect stems, 3 to 6 
inches high, and drooping, bell-shaped flowers of pale violet. It 
derives its name from having a small round hole at the base of 
every lobe. A charming little plant. Does not like lime. Increased 
by division. 

C. fragilis. — Requires well-drained, sandy loam, as it dislikes 
excessive moisture. Prostrate, trailing habit, barely 5 inches high. 
Rather large, pale, clear lilac-blue, bell-shaped flowers, with a white 
centre, borne on half-prostrate stems. The stems of this plant are 
very brittle, from which it derives its name. A very pretty little 

Other Campanulas very nearly allied to and requiring much the 
same treatment as Jragilis are Barrelieri, Balchiniana., rupestris, 
and Tenorii. These are all so much alike that to the ordinary 
gardener, at least, it is very hard to distinguish them apart. 

C. garganica. — Prostrate, compact habit, and free-growing. 
Toothed, heart-shaped leaves. Plant covered in summer with a 
profusion of bluish starry flowers, with a white centre, rising about 
3 inches. One of the best and easiest-growing Campanulas. Should 
be planted in crevices in vertical parts of the rock garden to show it 
at its best. Easily increased by division or seed. Alba is a white 
and lovely form. 


C. g. hirsuta. — This is a very hairy form of the above, and of 
rather coarser growth. A gem amongst the Campanulas. Hirsuta 
alba is a white, rare, and very beautiful form. 

C. grandiflora (syn. Platycodon). — Good, well-drained loam in 
partial shade. " The balloon Campanula," so named from the shape 
of its large inflated blossoms just before they fully open ; when fully 
expanded, they are about 3 inches across, of a deep, rather slaty- 
blue, borne on stalks about 15 inches high. There is a white form, 
alba. Also a dwarfer-growing variety, Mariesii., which also has 
a white form. All these balloon Campanulas have fleshy root- 
stocks, very liable to decay in undrained situations. They all 
come readily from seed, and vary much in shades of white and 

C. " G. F. IVilson." — A hybrid, C. carpatica xpulla. Very free 
grower, spreading underground rapidly. Quite dwarf habit. 
Deep blue, semi-pendulous, bell-shaped flowers, with a lighter 
centre. A charming plant, of the easiest culture. Increased by 

C. glomerata. — Sun, in ordinary soil. Grows 12 to 18 inches 
high. Flowers bluish-violet-coloured, borne in terminal heads. 
There are many varieties of this species. 

C. g. acaulis.— \s a dwarf form of C. glomerata, which bears its 
flowers on stems a foot or so high ; but in this case the deep violet 
clusters of flowers nestle close to the downy foliage, which slugs 
much appreciate. 

C. g. daharica (syn. speciosd). — This plant is true to the type, 
bearing on stems about 9 inches high flowers of the most brilliant 
blue. It is a striking plant, very easily grown, and readily 
increased by division. 

C. haylodgensis. — This is a hybrid htivi&tn pusilla and carpatica. 
Yellowish-green leaves and pale blue, open, bell-shaped flowers 
in summer and autumn. It is of easy culture and a useful 

C. hederacea (syn. wahlenbergid). — Requires a moist, boggy 
spot, or by the edge of a stream. A fragile, creeping plant, with 
delicate leaves on thread-like stems, and small, pale bluish- 
purple flowers. A pretty little plant for a wet spot, and a 

C. Hendersoni. — Forms a pyramid 10 inches high, of large saucer- 
shaped, showy purple flowers. A handsome plant, but rather 
inclined to go off". Probably a variety of carpatica. 

C. hostii. — Very nearly allied to C. rotundiflora, but is somewhat 
stronger inhabit, growing about 12 inches high, and has flowers of 
a deeper shade of purple. 

C. isophylla. — Sunny position in well-drained, sandy loam. Of 


trailing habit, free-growing. Roundish, toothed leaves. Lovely 
pale blue, salver-shaped flowers, with a lighter centre. It flowers 
in July and August. A well-known plant, generally grown in the 
house, and a familiar object in cottage windows, with sheets of 
blossom from some hanging basket. In the rock garden there can 
be no more beautiful sight than a good plant of it, when in full 
bloom, falling over the face of some sunny rock. It is not very 
hardy, and dislikes excessive damp, so will need a little care in any 
but very favoured localities. C. isophylla alba is a white, and, if 
possible, more attractive form. 

C. lanata (syn. velutina). — Requires the hottest, driest, sunniest 
crevice to be found. Large woolly leaves. Flower-spikes short, 
with large, hairy, bell-shaped flowers. Primrose-coloured, and 
tinged with pink. A lovely and attractive plant, but not easy to 
keep, as it is very liable to damp off. It should be planted in a 
vertical fissure and protected from moisture overhead. Flowers in 
July. Grows readily from seed. 

C. macrorrhiza. — Likes a vertical fissure in full sun and cal- 
careous soil. It has a thick, woody root-stock and numerous light, 
drooping stems, with clusters of fine blue flowers during the winter. 
A perfectly hardy and easily grown species, and one that should be 
more frequently used, not only on account of its hardiness, but also 
because of its blooming in winter. 

C. Mayli. — Warm, sunny position in light gritty loam. Roundish 
hirsute leaves. Lovely pale blue salver-shaped flowers. This 
species is of the isophylla type, and should be protected in 
winter from damp. A very beautiful and well-known basket 

C. mollis. — Forms a spreading carpet of glossy leaves about 6 to 
8 inches high. Flowers dark blue, and freely borne in May and 
June. Quite hardy, and a useful plant. 

C. muralis. — Smooth, dark green leaves, forming a carpet some 
6 inches thick, with deep blue, bell-shaped flowers. Of the hardiest 
constitution, and one of the best dwarf-growing Campanulas. Some 
authorities claim this species as being synonymous with Porten- 
schlagiana^ while others say the latter is a more robust and distinct 
form. There is also in catalogues Portenschlagia7ia Bavarica, 
which claims to have larger flowers. But there is a form of C. 
viiiralis of rather taller habit, with larger and deeper-coloured 
flowers, and if anything more floriferous. 

C. pulla. — Open, level, sunny spot in peaty soil. Spreads under- 
ground fairly rapidly, sending up shoots of bright green leaves, and 
on hairy stems about 3 inches longasolitary, pendulous, bell-shaped 
flower of the deepest violet-blue in July and August. Of easy 
culture so long as there is no lime in the soil. It is said to 


die off during the winter, so it is advisable to keep a stock of it 
in pots to replace casualities. One of the gems of the genus, and 

C. pulloides. — A chance hybrid, probably between carpatica and 
pulla. The same parentage as " G. F. Wilson^' which its flowers 
resemble in shape and size, but they have the deep purple oi pulla. 
It is of the same habit, but taller and stronger-growing than pulla. 
Blooms very freely in July and August. A glorious Campanula, 
than which there is none better grown, and very few, if any, as 
good. Readily increased by division. There is a variety of it 
named Kewensis., which claims to be larger and of a'more gorgeous 
violet-purple, and altogether a superior plant. I have not seen it 
myself, but if it answers the description it must indeed be some- 
thing to rave about. 

C. punctata. — Ordinary soil in partial shade. Grows about 12 
inches high and has long, drooping, white, bell-shaped flowers 
spotted with dark red. Not long-lived, but easily raised from seed. 
Quite a handsome plant. 

C. pusilla. — Very like C. caespitosa, but of rather dwarfer habit. 
Pendulous, pale blue, bell-shaped flowers. Leaves glossy, toothed, 
and heart-shaped. Blooms in June and July. There is a white 
form, alba, a.nd pallida, a variety with even paler blue flowers. All 
three are of easy culture and very pretty plants. Increased by 

C. p. ^'■Miss Willmott." — A recent introduction bearing larger and 
paler blooms than the type, and in greater profusion. Well worth 

C. raddeana. — A beautiful new species from the Caucasus. 
Leaves deep green. Stems about 6 to 8 inches high, from which 
spring numerous semi-pendent cup-shaped flowers of a rich purple. 
Ordinary light soil in sun or half-shade. Grows and spreads 
rapidly. Quite one of the best. 

C. Raineri. — Needs a sunny chink in strong, gritty loam. Rare, 
dwarf-growing species, with large, erect, dark blue, funnel-shaped 
flowers. Easily grown, and a very good plant for a dry spot. 
Slugs are very fond of it. 

C. rhomboidalis. — Nearly allied to C. rotundifolia. It has deep 
blue flowers, and grows 10 to 12 inches high. Ordinary light soil 
in sun. Increased by seed or division. 

C. rotundifolia. — The common native Harebell, but, though 
common, is well worthy of a spot in the less choice parts. There 
is a white form, alba, which is a good thing, and C, r. soldanelli 
flora plena, which is particularly attractive. 

C. r. alpina. — Deep blue colour, and is very fine. 

C. rupestris. — Very gritty, well-drained soil in full sun. Dwarf 


habit. Greyish silvery leaves and large pale blue flowers, a very 
attractive plant. Increased by seed and division. 

C. sarmatica. — Ordinary soil in any position. Grows about lo 
inches high. With pale blue flowers. Somewhat similar to 
C. barbata. 

C. Stansfieldi, — Likes rather a shady or half-shady spot in well- 
drained loam. Forms compact little plants with hairy, yellow- 
tinted foliage, and clear blue, bell-shaped flowers. Quite hardy, and 
easily grown. It dies down during the winter. Readily increased 
by division. Quite in the front rank of dwarf Campanulas. 

C. Steveni nana. — Ordinary light soil in sun or half-shade. Very 
similar in habit to C. Abietina. Forms a carpet of narrow, glossy 
leaves, from which rise large pale blue flowers on slender 6-inch 
stems. A recent introduction from the Caucasusana. One of the 
best and most attractive of the genus. 

C. S. alba is also a good white form, rare and very beautiful. 

C. tridentata. — Of tufted habit, with large purple flowers. 
Requires light, very gritty soil in full sun. A really attractive plant, 
which should be more often grown. 

C. Tommasiniana. — Rather a bushy-growing little plant, about 
8 inches high, with spikes of pale blue, pendulous, tubular 
flowers. A particularly good species, of which slugs are very 

C. turbinata. — Dwarf-growing plant, with greyish-green leaves 
and solitary, salver-shaped flowers i^^ inches across, of a deep blue 
colour, borne on erect stems about 6 inches high. Quite hardy, 
and easily grown. A good plant. Also known as C. carpatica 

C. t. Isabel. — Is a good variety, with large rich blue flowers. 

C. Waldsteiniana.- — A neat little plant, growing about 6 inches 
high. Flowers star-shaped and bright blue, with a white eye, 
borne on wiry stems clothed with narrow leaves. One of the 
easiest to grow and best of Campanulas. 

C. Zoysii. — Forms dense little tufts, about 3 inches high, of tiny 
ovate leaves. Flowers drooping, bright blue, tubular, and curiously 
contracted at the mouth. Blooms in June, and very freely. Quite 
easy to grow in a sunny chink in gritty loam. A most delightful 
little plant, but beware of slugs and snails, for they will come any 
distance to feast off Campanula Zoysii. 

Camphorosma monspeliaca (Chenopodiaceae) 

A curious and little-known half-shrubby plant, like a silvery 
grey cedar. Should be planted so that its branches can hang over 
a rock. Ordinary soil in any position. 


Cardamine, syn. Dentaria (Cruciferae), Ladies' Smock 

Vigorous-growing plants for a half-shady position in damp loam 
and leaf-mould. They are more useful than choice plants for 
associating with the coarser-growing kinds in the bog garden. 
The following are the best varieties : — 

C. bulbifera. — Fern-like foliage and pale purple flowers in loose 
spikes. Flowering in spring and growing i to 2 feet high. 

C. digiiata. — Grows only about 12 inches high. Rich purple 
flowers in flat racemes. Blooms m April. 

C. enneaphylla. — Creamy-white flowers in clusters in April and 
June. Grows about 12 inches high. 

C. trifolia. — -Forms a neat mass of dark green leaves about 
3 inches high, of rather creeping habit, from which rise spikes about 
6 inches long of large, pure white flowers. This variety is about 
the choicest of the genus. 

Carlina acaulis 

An everlasting. Requires full exposure to the sun in the 
poorest of soil, otherwise it loses its brilliant appearance and grows 
coarse. Thorny rosettes of leaves, on each of which lie silvery- 
white, thistle-like flowers. Propagated by seed. 

Cassandra {see Andromeda) 
Cassiope {see Andromeda) 

Castilleja acuminata 

Peaty soil. Spikes of labiate yellow flowers ; with the envelop- 
ing bract are a most brilliant vermilion. Quite hardy, but difficult 
to cultivate. Grows 18 inches to 2 feet high. 

Cathcartia villosa 

Requires a sheltered nook in light, rich soil. Of the Poppy tribe, 
and nearly related to the Meconopsis. Grows about 12 inches 
high, with silky, vine-shaped leaves, and large yellow flowers with 
brown anthers. Hardy, but only a biennial. Increased by seed, 
which is freely produced. 

Cerastium (Caryophyllaceae), Mouse-ear Chickweed 

Tufted plants of spreading habit and silvery leaves. Useful, but 
by no means choice rock plants. All grow freely in hot, dry 
positions in ordinary soil. 


C. alpinum. — Dwarf-tufted plant, about 2 to 4 inches high. 
Leaves ovate, lanceolate, densely covered with whitish down. 
Large white flowers in early summer. Does not like excessive 
moisture on its foliage, otherwise quite hardy. Increased by 
division or cuttings inserted after flowering. 

C. Biebersteinii. — Silvery-white leaves, ovate, lanceolate, and small 
white flowers in early summer. Grows 6 inches high. 

C. grandiflorutn. — Very soon forms large tufts of hoary, narrow 
leaves. Bears large pure white flowers in the greatest profusion in 
the summer. Grows anywhere, and freely increased by cuttings or 
by division. A well-known and showy plant for the rougher parts 
of the rock garden, but too rampant in growth to put near anything 

C. tomentosum. — A form similar \.o grandiflorum, but with smaller 
flowers and more compact habit. 

The above are the only varieties of Cerastium worth growing 
except in botanical collections, to which might be added glaciate, 
a large and handsome variety, and repens, useful dwarf carpeter. 

Chamaebatia foliolosa (Rosaceae) 

A little-known, dwarf, evergreen, shrubby plant of the Rose family. 
Pretty fern-like leaves and bramble-like flowers | inch across. 
Quite hardy, and worth a spot in the less choicer parts of the rock 
garden in light loam. 

Chamaelirium carolinianum (Liliaceae) 

Raised parts of the bog garden. A pretty plant with wand-like 
spikes of white flowers. 

Chamaemelum caucasicum (syn. Matricaria) 

Dry position. Trailing habit, with fern-like leaves and white 
flowers. Nearly allied to the Camomile family, and not of much 

Cheiranthus (CRUCiFERyE), Wallflower 

Wallflowers are very useful for the wall garden. Besides the 
well-known bedding varieties, there are a few of a rather distinct 
habit. All are of the easiest culture. 

C. alpinus. — In old walls and dry banks. Forms neat little tufts 
of dark green foliage, covered during the summer with a profusion 
of small sulphur-coloured leaves. A very pretty little plant, of the 
easiest culture, and well worth a spot in the rock garden. 


C. C/m'n. —The old-fashioned flower, with its shades of yellow, 
orange, and purplish-red, both double and single. In ordinary 
garden soil these grow rank and coarse, but on the tops of walls 
they form stout, dwarf little bushes, covered with flower during the 

C. mutabilis.—OXdi. walls and dry banks. A shrubby plant, grow- 
ing 2 to 3 feet high. Orange-purple-coloured flowers and buds deep 
red. Quite hardy, and of easy culture. A pretty and distinct little 
plant. Increased by division. Other varieties : Allionii, hybrid 
gnrowing 12 inches high ; flowers deep orange. Marshalii, another 
hybrid with orange-coloured flowers. 

Chimaphila (Ericaceae) 

Low-growing evergreen shrubs of the Heath order, from North 

C. maculata (syn. Pyrola maciilata). — Sandy, peaty soil in shady, 
but not wet position. Grows only 3 to 6 inches high. Small, 
glossy, leathery leaves, upper side variegated with white, under 
surface red. White pendulous flowers in June. Rather difficult 
to grow. Increased by division. 

C. iimbcllata (syn. Pyrola umbcllata). — Same soil and position. 
Reddish-coloured flowers, rather larger than the last, and leaves 
unvariegated. Both increased by careful division. 

Chiogenes hispidula (syn. Gaultheria serpylli folia), 
Creeping Snowberry 

Wet, peaty soil in a shady, cool spot. A creeping evergreen 
plant like a small Cranberry. Small white flowers and round white 
berries. A plant for the bog garden. 

Chrysanthemum (Compositae) 

The section of this genus, better known as Marguerites, though 
as a rule more suitable for the herbaceous border, gives a few 
varieties of dwarfer habit which would look well in the rock 

C. alpinuni (syn. C. Leucanthemuvi). — Likes poor, gravelly soil. 
Grows only about 4 to 6 inches high, with small, deeply cut, hoary 
leaves and pure white flowers, with a golden eye, a miniature of 
the common one-eyed daisy. Blooms in summer. 

C. arcticum. — Grows about g inches high. Rosy-white flowers from 
May to July. A pretty little plant, 



C. hybridutn coronopifolium. — Dwarf habit. Finely cut leaves. 
Numerous white, daisy-like flowers. 

C. Tchihatchewii. — Dry, stony banks. Rapid-growing dwarf 
carpeter, with evergreen, fern-like foliage. Small, whitish, daisy 
flowers with yellowish-coloured eyes. A very useful plant. Will 
quickly clothe the most arid and hopeless-looking spots, where 
nothing else would grow. 


A plant of the Compositae order, of neat branching habit, growing 
6 inches high in loamy soil. Has yellow flowers, freely produced 
during the whole summer. Will grow under trees. A useful, if 
not brilliant, little plant. 

Chrysopsis villosa (Compositae) 

Ordinary soil in any aspect. Dwarf-growing plant with downy 
leaves and golden-yellow flowers from July to September. Of easy 
culture, and increased by division in spring. 

CiSTUS (Cistineae), Rock Rose 

This genus may be included amongst the most beautiful of our 
flowering shrubs. They all love hot, dry, sandy banks ; some 
varieties are not hardy in a cold, wet climate. The flowers, though 
lasting but one day, are borne in such profusion that a constant 
succession is kept up for a considerable time during the summer. 
The dwarfer kinds can be used amongst the rockwork, while the 
taller-growing varieties may be associated with other shrubs. All 
grow readily from cuttings and seeds. 

C. albidus. — Compact-growing bush, 2 to 4 feet high. Leaves 
and young shoots covered with a white pubescens. Large purplish- 
rose-coloured flowers with yellow at the base. 

C. algarvenses (syn. Helianthemum ocyjnoides). — Neat shrub, 
growing about 2 feet high, with narrow grey-green leaves. Rather 
small, bright yellow flowers, with a crimson-purple spot at base of 
each petal. Increased by division. Requires shelter from strong 
winds, as its branches are rather brittle. A lovely little shrub, and 
quite one of the best of the family. Other names of this variable 
plant are Helianthemum algarvense, candidimi, and rugosum. 

C. Bourgaeanus. — Gi-ows about 12 inches high, with prostrate 
branches and narrow dark green leaves like Rosemary. Flowers 
white, about i inch across. 

C. Clusii (syn. C. rosmarinifolius). — Leaves and flowers the same 


as the last, but of more erect habit, growing about 2 feet high. Not 
very hardy. 

C. Corbarieftsis {Salvifolius x populifoUus). —Forms a compact 
bush about 2 feet high. Leaves glutinous ; margins fringed. 
White flowers about i^ inches across, with a yellowish centre, in 
June and July. 

C. crispiis. — Grows about 2 feet high, with large flowers of 2 to 3 
inches across, of rosy crimson, flowering from June to November. 
One of the best. 

C. cyprius.— Grows up to 5 feet high. Dark green leaves, smooth 
above and hoary beneath, which in winter assume a glaucous tint. 
Flowers borne in clusters, white, with a dark base and petals, and 
4 inches across. Flowers in July. A very good shrub, often sent 
out as the Gum Cistus. 

C. fiorenthius {monspelicnsis x salvifolius). — Grows from 12 to 
18 inches high. Compact habit. Dark green leaves and large white 
flowers, with base of petals yellow, borne in the summer in the 
greatest profusion. Quite one of the best of the dwarf kinds. 

C. formosus (syn. HcUanthemurn formosus). — Rather a loose 
habit. Grows up to 3 feet high. Small hoary leaves and yellow 
flowers, with a dark purplish-brown blotch at the base of each 
petal. Very pretty, but liable to succumb in a hard winter. As it 
strikes easily from cuttings, a stock should be kept to replace 

C. glaucus. — Grows about 2 feet high. Dull green glabrous 
leaves, downy underneath. Large white flowers with a yellow 
blotch. Pretty. 

C. hirsutus. — Leaves downy on both sides. Flowers white, with 
yellow base. Rather smaller than the last, which it otherwise 
resembles. Grows up to 2 feet high. 

C. ladaniferus (Gum Cistus). — Grows about 3 feet high. Dark 
glossy leaves, white and woolly underneath. Large white flowers, 
4 to 5 inches across. Blooms in June to August. A well-known 
and handsome shrub, not very hardy everywhere. 

C. /., var. maculatus. — Flowers white, with a maroon blotch at 
base of petal. Otherwise the same as above, of which it is a 

C. laurifolius. — Flowers white, with a yellowish mark at the base 
of each petal, but otherwise similar to the above, except that it is 
very hardy, standing any amount of cold and wet. Grows readily 
from seed or cuttings. Blooms in June. 

C. lusitanicus. — Grows about 18 inches high, of rather prostrate 
habit. Dark green, slightly viscous leaves, and large white flowers, 
each petal having a yellow base, with a dark green maroon blotch 
above it. A lovely little shrub, and quite one of the best. 


C. purpureiis. — Growing about 2 feet high, with large reddish- 
purple flowers, with a dark purple spot at base of petal, in the 
summer. Leaves rather hairy. Not common. 

C. rosmaritiifolius (see C. Clusii). 

C. salvifolius. — Slender habit, growing some 2 feet high, with 
sage-like leaves and white flowers ; very hairy. The above are 
the most distinctive kinds, but others are also well worth growing. 

C. Gauntlettii. — Crimson flowers. 

C. obtusifolius. — -White flowers, yellow eye. 

C. monspelienses. — Flowers white. 

C. recognitus. — Dwarf-growing. White, crimson-spotted flowers. 

Claytonia (Portulaceae) 

Rather uninteresting little plants for damp spots in loam and leaf- 
mould. Some varieties are only biennials. Rather fleshy, obovate 
leaves in compact tufts about 3 inches high, and loose racemes of 
small flowers, rose-coloured, with deeper veins. The following are 
the best varieties : — C. Asarifolia, C. siberica, and C. virginica. 

Clematis (Ranunculaceae) 

The following varieties can be used to clothe large masses ot 
rock or waste banks. 

Many species are known under the name of Atragene. 

C. alpina. — With large violet-blue flowers. 

C. tangitica. — Yellow flowers and fluffy seed-pods. 

C. Viticella. — Large blue, purple, or rose-coloured flowers. 

C. Doiiglasi. — Non-climbing variety, only growing about i foot 
high. Flowers deep purple inside, lilac outside. Leaves hairy. 

Cochlearica alpina (Cruciferae) 

A native. Forms neat rosettes of glossy, heart-shaped leaves. 
Dwarf- growing. White flowers. Of no great value. Should be 
planted in poor soil to prevent its growing coarse. 

CoDONOPSis (Campanulaceae) 

A genus of plants of the bell-flower order, growing from i to 2 
feet high. They should be planted high up on the rock garden, so 
that the curiously veined markings inside the pendulous bells can 
be seen. All are of easy culture in a warm corner. 

C. Biilleyi. — Of trailing habit, large lavender-blue flowers. Of 
recent introduction, and should become popular. 

C. ovaia. — The best known. Pendulous, pale blue flowers with 


white and yellow markings inside the bells. Partially erect stems 
6 to 12 inches long. Not very hardy. 

C. rotundifolia. — Large yellowish-coloured flowers with dark 
purple veining. Climbing habit and an annual. 

Other varieties : — 

C. ussimensis. — Blue flowers of more climbing habit, and distinct. 

C. Clematidea. — White flowers tinged with blue. Grows 2 to 3 
feet high. 

CoLCHicuM (Liliaceae), Meadow Saffron 

Very closely allied to the Crocus family. They are, however^ 
rather larger than the true Crocus. They should be grown in light 
sandy loam, enriched with manure, in rather a moist spot. As the 
flowers come before the leaves, they look better when appearing 
through a carpet of Sedums, which also protect their bloom from 
being splashed with the earth. Being mostly autumn flowers, they 
give a bit of colour to the rock garden at a time when it is much 
needed. They also look well planted in masses on grassy slopes. 
There are a great many varieties, but the following is a good 
selection : — 

C. alpinum. — Deep rosy lilac. 

C. autumnale. — Bright purple. There are several varieties : — 
Roseus, rosy lilac ; St7'iatiicrn, rosy lilac, striped white ; alburn^ 
pure white ; atj-opurpurcuni, deep purple ; and others. 

C. crociflorii7n. — Flowers white, striped purple. Spring flowering. 

C. libanoticuin. — Rosy-white flowers in February. 

C.Parkisoni. — Purple flowers netted with white; blooms in October. 

C. SibtJiorpii. — As large as C. spcciosum, but richer in colour, 
and of a more compact form, netted with crimson lines. 

C. spcciosuvi. — Large, rosy-purple flowers, nearly a foot high. 
Blooms in October. 

C. s. album. — A magnificent, pure white form with golden anthers. 
As large as the type. Quite the pick of the family. 

C. s. atrorubens. — A very much deeper and richer-coloured variety 
of the type. 


Shade, in vertical fissures in deep, moist, peaty, and gritty loam. 
Forms flat tufts of thick, wrinkled leaves, from which rise pale 
purple and white flowers on wiry stems about 5 inches high. Of 
doubtful hardihood, at least it is a difficult plant to keep. It is 
very closely allied to the Ramondias, and should receive similar 



The well-known Lily-of- the- valley, and a universal favourite. 
Although of suitable habit, is better confined to the beds in the 
kitchen garden than in the rock garden proper, but can be made 
use of for planting amongst low shrubs or in half-shady spots in the 

Convolvulus (Convolvulaceae), Bindweed 

Climbing plants of graceful habit. Many of them, however, far 
too vigorous to be allowed into the rock garden. The more 
moderate growers will be found useful for draping rocks or covering 
banks. They are mostly indifferent to soil, but prefer it light, and 
in sun. The following are the better kinds, easily increased by 
division of roots or seed : — 

C. althaeoides. — Dry banks. A non-climbing variety, with large 
pale red or blue flowers, variable both in leaves and colour. In- 
creased by seed or division. Hardy and deciduous. 

C. arvensis. — White or rose-coloured flowers, wide, trumpet- 
shaped, very pretty, but an awful weed. This variety should only 
be planted in the wildest part of the wild garden, where it can run 
riot without doing any harm. 

C. Cantabricus. — Grows about 12 inches high. Pink flowers in 
clusters during August. Hardy and deciduous. 

C. Cneorum. — Warm, sunny bank, sheltered. A very distinct 
shrubby kind, growing about 18 inches to 2 feet. Leaves covered 
with silvery tormentum, and white, shaded pink, flowers. A beautiful 
plant, and should be freely grown when possible, but it is not very 
hardy in cold climates. Easily struck from cuttings. 

C. lineatus. — Dry, warm position in sandy soil. Very dwarf- 
growing, only about 6 inches high. Tufts of small, silvery, pointed 
leaves, amongst which appear pale reddish-purple-coloured flowers 
an inch across, in June. A choice deciduous plant for covering arid 
slopes in the rock garden. 

C. juattrttanicus. — Requires warm, sunny position in sandy loam. 
A trailer, though not of rampant growth, with lovely, clear, pale 
azure-blue flowers, with a white throat and yellow anthers. A lovely 
plant, but not of renowned hardihood. Increased by seeds or 

C. soldanclla. — The native Bindweed of our seashores. Pale 
pink flowers on trailing stems. Very sandy soil will suit it wefl. 

CoRis monspeliensis (Primulaceae) 

Dry, sunny spot in well-drained, light, sandy, and peaty soil. 
Branching and dwarf habit, growing about 6 inches high. Small 


purple flowers with yellow anthers, 6-inch spikes. Hardy only in 
warm and sheltered position. Doubtful perennial. Increased by 
seed, sown as soon as ripe in a cold frame. 

CoRNUS (Cornaceae), Dogwood 

Genus of hardy shrubs, but only two are suitable for rock garden. 
Readily increased by cuttings or suckers. 

C. canadensis (Dwarf Cornel). — Deep, sandy, peaty soil in half 
shade. Very dwarf-growing, with whorled, ovate leaves, dark green 
turning red in winter. Flowers greenish-white and insignificant. 

C. suecica. — Similar position and soil as last. Flowers dark 
purple, in terminal umbels, produced in June. Red berries. Grows 
about 6 inches high. 

CoRONiLLA (Leguminosae), Crown Vetch 

Plants and shrubs of the Peaflower order, some of which are 
worth growing. The Coronillas are all deep-rooted. 

C. iberica (syn. cappadocicd). — Sunny position in light sandy loam. 
Neat, prostrate habit, with foliage not rising more than 3 or 4 inches 
from the ground. Bright golden-yellow flowers, freely produced 
during the summer. Fairly rapid grower. Hardy in dry position. 
A most attractive plant, which should be freely grown. Division. 

C. 7Jiinima. — Warm, sunny position in deep, light soil. Very 
dwarf and prostrate-growing, and bright yellow flowers in June and 
July. Is of easy culture, and well worth a place in some hot corner. 
Increased by division or cuttings. 

C. montana. — Light soil in full sun. Trailing habit. Bright 
golden-yellow flowers in the greatest profusion in June and July. 
This species deserves to be more widely cultivated. 

C. varia. — The well-known Coronilla of railway banks, with its 
rosy-yellow flowers, which, however, vary considerably. It may 
be found useful for covering some sun-baked waste corner of the 
rock garden where little else will grow. 

Cortusa Matthioli (Primulaceae), Bear's-ear Sanicle 

Nearly allied to the Primulas. It requires moist, sandy peat 
and loam in half shade and sheltered from the wind. Large 
rather hairy leaves about 6 inches high. Pendulous, deep purplish- 
crimson flowers, with a white ring at base, are borne in umbels on 
stems about 8 inches high. Increased by seed or division. A very 
pretty plant for the bog garden. 

C. grandiJJora. — Is a larger form and of more vigorous habit. 

C. Ptibens. — Has flowers of a magenta-purple colour. A dwarfer- 
growing plant than C. Matthioli. 


CoRYDALis (Papaveraceae), Fumitory 

Nearly all the Fumitories are pretty and attractive, and increased 
by division after flowering ; they are a large family, of which only 
a selection of the best is here given. 

C. bracteata. — In ordinary soil. Sulphur-yellow flowers and 
rather thin foliage. Very easy of culture. 

C. cheilianthifolius. — Ordinary soil, rather light. Very pretty 
fern-like foliage, and clear Naples yellow flowers. Grows about 12 
inches high. Is of the easiest culture, seeding itself about. A new 
species, and one of the best. 

C. nobilis. — Likes light, rich soil. Grows about 18 inches high. 
Fern-like foliage and stout leafy stems with large heads of rich 
yellow flowers. A handsome plant, easy to grow, but slow to 
increase. Propagated by division and seeds. 

C. thalictrifolia. — Requires a sheltered position in light soil. 
Tufted and spreading habit. Distinctive foliage, which in autumn 
assumes a reddish hue. Grows only about 10 inches high. Large 
pale yellow flowers borne in racemes. A handsome and new 
introduction, flowering from spring to autumn. Less hardy than 
some of the other kinds. 

C. Wilsoni. — Sunny position in ordinary soil. Handsome, divided 
glaucous leaves and yellow flowers. Grows about 8 inches high. 
Quite hardy. A recent introduction from China, and likely to prove 
an addition. 

Other species : — 

C. capnoides. — Creamy-white flowers, very pretty. 

C. lutea. — The common yellow Fumitory. 

C. ochroleuca. — Pale yellow flowers. 

C. exitna. — Bright rose-coloured flowers. 

C.formosa. — Bright rose. 

CoTONEASTER (Roseaceae), Rock Spray 

A very large genus of trees and shrubs ; but a few of the dwarf- 
growing kinds are charming for covering rocks and banks. The 
following are the most suitable for that purpose : — 

C. adpressa. — Ordinary soil. A very compact, close, and fast- 
growing prostrate shrub. Rosy-pink flowers, followed by red 
berries. Deciduous. A new Chinese species, very attractive, and 
a valuable addition. 

C. congesta nummularia. — Close, prostrate habit. 

C. horizontalis. — Branches grow fan-shaped, and lie close to a 
wall or face of a rock. The small, dark green, ovate leaves take a 
brilliant orange-red tone in the autumn, with vermilion-coloured 
berries. A fairly fast grower. A charming and valuable shrub. 


C. kumifusa. — Long trailing shoots and dark green leaves. 
Useful for covering rocks. 

C. microphylla. — Handsome evergreen species of trailing habit, 
but too strong and rapid a grower for any but the rougher parts of 
the rock garden, where it should make a pretty picture with its 
sheets of white flowers in summer and crimson-red berries in winter, 
which show up so well against its dark green foliage. 

Crocus (Iridaceae) 

These well-known little bulbous plants look well in masses in the 
wild garden, or in groups in the less choice parts of the rock garden. 
There are a great number of varieties, a selection of which can be 
made from any bulb catalogue. 

Cyananthus Lobatus (Campanulaceae) 

Sunny position in sandy soil mixed with peat and leaf-mould. 
Trailing habit, and small dark green foliage. Flowers deep purplish- 
blue, with a whitish centre. Deciduous plant, flowering in late 
autumn. Requires moisture during growing season. A very pretty 
and distinct plant, and well worth growing. 

C. incanus. — Dry, sunny position in well-drained, peaty loam. 
Flowers not as large as C. Lobatus, but of a most beautiful shade 
of blue, with a tuft of white hairs at the throat of the corolla. A 
most exquisitely lovely and rare plant, and not easy to cultivate. 

Cyclamen (Primulaceae), Sowbread 

Besides the greenhouse varieties, there are a large number which 
are quite hardy, and may be used with good effect in the garden. 
They do best when planted beneath low bushes, which gives them 
shelter. They require half shade in loam and leaf-mould and 
perfect drainage to ensure success. The corms should be planted 
just below the surface of the ground, and should not be allowed to 
become exposed. A light top dressing of leaf-mould when at rest 
is advisable. Amongst many others the following are well-known 
varieties ; — 

C. Cotim. — Crimson flowers. 

C. hedercrfolhim. —Crimson flowers and prettily marked leaves. 

C. vernum. — Various colours. 

Cydonia Japonica Simoni 

A dwarf and creeping form of Pyriis Japonica, with blood-red 
flowers in early spring. A handsome and useful shrubby plant, 


C. Pygmaea. — Compact habit and brick-red flowers. Also a 
charming little shrub for the rock garden. 

Cypripedium (Orchidaceae), Lady's Slipper 

Most interesting and beautiful hardy orchids. 

C. acaule (syn. C. humile). — Deep, moist loam, peat, and sand, in 
half-shady position. Large rose-coloured flowers blotched with 
purple. Very pretty, but not easy to grow. 

C. Calceolus. — Half-shady position in fibrous loam ; likes hmestone. 
Flowers, reddish-brown sepals and petals ; lip yellow. A very 
pretty native plant. 

C. macranthon. — Good fibrous loam and limestone. Rich purple 
flowers about 12 inches high. A very handsome species. 

C. pmviflorum. — Full shade in very moist peat, loam, and sand. 
Flowers rather small. Sepals and petals brown and purple ; lip 
yellow, spotted red. One of the best. 

C. pubescens (syn. C. hirsutuni). — Rather heavy loam and lime- 
stone, well drained, in half shade. Sepals and petals yellow, 
streaked brown ; lip yellow ; stems and leaves pubescent. 

C. spectabile. — Half shade in moist, loamy peat and sand. 
Flowers large, white-pink, tinted with crimson -veined lips. The 
handsomest and freest blooming of the family. A good mass of 
these hardy orchids is indeed a gorgeous sight. 

All the Cypripediums need a well-drained position, though at the 
same time requiring moisture. They like to get their roots into 
decaying leaves, so choose a well-drained, low-lying spot in half 

Cytisus (Leguminosae), Broom 

A genus of very graceful and extraordinarily floriferous shrubs. 
Some of tall-growing habit, while others are quite prostrate ; but 
they are all suitable for the rock garden, and can be used in 
different parts ; they are typically rock shrubs. They are all of 
the easiest culture, and mostly indifferent to soil, and many kinds 
come readily from seed. The brooms are so closely allied to the 
Genistas that much confusion arises. 

C. albns (White Spanish Broom). — Growing 4 or 5 feet in a few 
years. White flowers borne in long racemes in the greatest 
profusion. A grand shrub for bold masses. Cut back after 

C. a. durus. — A prostrate, weeping variety of more moderate 

C. Ardoini. — Forms a low trailing mass 4 to 6 inches high. 


covered in April and May with deep yellow flowers. A lovely plant 
for growing over a rock. 

C. Carlieri. — Forms compact bush about 3 feet high. Erect 
spikes pale yellow flowers from July to October. One of the 
choicest Brooms. 

C. Kewensis. — A hybrid raised at Kew. Prostrate, trailing habit. 
Creamy-white flowers in May in the utmost profusion. One of the 
most beautiful of dwarf Brooms. 

C.praecox. — Grows about 5 feet high, but slowly. Another lovely 
Broom. Covered in May with pale primrose-coloured flowers, it is 
indeed a beautiful sight. Cuttings strike freely. There is a white 
form equally good. 

C. schipkaensis. — Dwarf habit. Quantities of creamy-white 
flowers. A good plant. 

C. scoparius. — The common yellow Broom has many lovely 
varieties : andreatta, pallidas^ Firefly, all lovely and completely 
smothering the bushes with the profusion of their flowers. There 
are many other varieties, but the above selection includes the best 
and dwarfer-growing kinds. 

Dalibarda (syn. Rubus) repens (Rosaceae) 

Deep peaty soil in shade. Tufted, creeping plant, about 2 inches 
high. White shaded rose-coloured flowers in June. Slow growing. 
Hardy. Division. 

Daphne (Thymelaceae) 

Shrubs of the highest value, some tall-growing, while others are 
quite dwarf. Beautiful and fragrant flowers. Not easy to keep 
in health. 

D. alpina. — Loam and sand, shaded from mid-day sun. Low- 
branching shrub, seldom growing over 2 feet high. Fragrant 
yellowish-white flowers, borne in clusters on the sides of the 
branches from April to June ; red berries in the autumn. This 
species does not dislike lime as much as some of the others do. 

D. blagayana. — Peat and loam, cool, well-drained soil, in a rather 
shaded position. Prostrate habit and straggling growth. Leaves 
form rosettes at end of branches and encircle the dense clusters of 
creamy-white, most deliciously fragrant flowers. Blooms in April 
and May. Evergreen. Not very hardy, and, except in favoured 
localities, should have protection during the winter. Stones should 
be placed on all the prostrate branches to encourage them to layer, 
for, like all other Daphnes, it is liable to go off" without any apparent 


reason. A most lovely plant, and worth considerable trouble to 

D. Cneorum. — Peaty and sandy soils. Spreading habit, growing 
only lo to 12 inches high. Rosettes of small leaves and clusters of 
rosy-red flowers in the summer, and also very fragrant. Hardy. 
Propagated by layers. This delightful evergreen shrub should also 
have stones placed on its prostrate growths. Difficult to keep in 
health, suddenly dying off without any apparent cause, but a gem 
amongst dwarf, shrubby plants. There is also a white form, alba, 
which is very lovely. 

D.fioniana. — Loam and hajf-shady aspect. Compact evergreen 
shrub 2 to 3 feet high. Dark glossy leaves and rosy-coloured, sweet- 
scented flowers. Hardy, and not difficult to grow. 

D. Genkwa. — Peaty loam and half shade. A small deciduous 
shrub of straggling growth. Greyish-coloured leaves and violet- 
coloured flowers in clusters before the leaves come. A rare plant, 
not hardy in cold districts. 

D. Mezereum. — Light, warm soils. Erect habit, growing some 
3 to 4 feet in height. Deciduous. Rosy-coloured, sweet-scented 
flowers in early spring before the leaves appear. A fairly common 
shrub in gardens. There is a white form which is prettier. 

D. rupestris. — Peat and stones and silver sand in half-shady posi- 
tion. Compact, very slow-growing little shrub. Waxy-pink flowers 
in profusion. Hardy. One of the very choicest miniature shrubs. 

Other varieties of Daphne, but of no special note, are — 

D. Hoiittcana. — Grows 3 feet high. Small, dark purple flowers.- 
Quite hardy. 

D. striata. — Trailing habit. Sweet-scented, rosy-purple flowers 
in clusters. Quite hardy, and a useful and attractive shrub. 

Darlingtonia Californica (Sarraceniaceae) 

The Californian pitcher plant. Requires a wet bog in fibrous 
peat and sphagnum moss in sun. Pitchers rise as high as 2 feet. 
Not very hardy. Should be sheltered from cold winds. 

Delphinium (Ranunculaceae), Larkspur 

A genus of tall-growing, herbaceous plants, of which there are few 
kinds suitable for the rock garden. 

D. grandiflora. — In ordinary soil. Grows about 18 inches high, 
with very large, brilliant blue flowers. Easily raised from seed, 
which produce a variety of shades of blue. There is also a white 
form. They are very attractive plants, and should be used in 

D. nudicaule. — Dry, sunny position, and well drained. Beautiful 


orange -scarlet flowers, growing about i8 inches high. Not easy to 
grow, except in a fairly dry chmate. Seed germinates freely. 

D. tatsienense. — Light sandy loam in full sun. Grows about 12 
to 18 inches. Numerous bright blue flowers on branching stems 
A most attractive plant of recent introduction. 

Dentaria {see Cardamine) 

DiANTHUs (Caryophyllaceae), Pink 

A large genus of neat-habited plants essentially suited for the rock 
garden. With few exceptions they are quite easy to grow. They 
mostly like sunny, open positions in hght soil, with a little lime 
rubbish added. The wire- worm is a great enemy of this genus, and 
should be guarded against. 

D. alpinus. — Open position in rather moist, light soil, but will 
not stand baking by the sun, so a half-shaded spot suits it best. It 
requires plenty of moisture during the growing season. Forms neat, 
compact tufts of dark glossy leaves. Large, handsome, carmine- 
rose-coloured flowers spotted with crimson, about 3 inches high, in 
June. Very floriferous. Easily raised from seed. A lovely little 
plant, and one of the best of the genus, but a little uncertain, going 
off" suddenly without any apparent cause. 

D. al. alba. — A white form of the above, but not as pretty as the 
original, the coloar being rather a dirty white. Also a very free 

D. al. grandiflorus. — Is a new form of the type, claiming to have 
larger and deeper-coloured flowers and to be of more robust 

D. Atkinsoni.—lAghX. sandy soil. This is a hybrid, and about 
the most brilliant-coloured of the genus. Spikes of flowers of the 
richest crimson imaginable, and so very floriferous that it generally 
blooms itself to death, putting all its vigour into the flower-spikes 
and making no "grass." It is advisable, therefore, to keep a stock 
plant, cutting off" all bloom-spikes, or to group several plants together 
in the garden, only allowing some of them to flower in the same 

D. arenarius. — Requires a very dry, sandy, and sunny position. 
A compact little plant, with numerous white, deeply fringed flowers, 
with a carmine blotch at the base of petals. Blooms in May and 

D. arvenensis. — Delights in a sunny chink amongst rock, in 
sandy loam. Compact little cushions of glaucous leaves and rose- 
coloured flowers. A diminutive form of D. caesius, and very 


D. caesius. — Old walls or sunny fissures in limy, sandy, poor soil. 
Compact tufts of glaucous leaves and clouds of rosy-pink flowers, on 
stems about 6 inches long. Blooms in the summer. The native 
Cheddar pink, growing freely from seed, which should be sown on old 
walls and amongst rocks. One of the prettiest and easiest grown. 

D. callizonus. — Rather cool, very well -drained, sandy loam, 
amongst stone and rocks. Dwarf-growing, with broad, greyish 
leaves, and of rather spreading habit. Large, brilliant pink flowers, 
with a dark belt of crimson at base, about 4 inches high. A most 
lovely and difficult plant to grow, going off in that unaccountable 
manner so characteristic of many of the alpine pinks. Easily raised 
from seed when it can be obtained ; but it ripens it but sparingly. 
Keep well watered during growing season. 

D. cal. alpinus. — Is a hybrid of the above with alpinus^ and is of 
more robust constitution. 

D. criientus. — Light gritty, sandy loam, in sun. Foliage rather 
sparse. Deep crimson flowers in crowded heads on stems about 
12 inches high. Very easily grown and raised from seed. 

Z>. deltoides. — Will grow almost anywhere in light sandy soil. 
Forms spreading mats, about 2 inches high, of smooth, blunt leaves. 
Flowers very numerous, on branching stems about 8 inches high, 
either rosy-pink or white, with a crimson base and petals. Comes 
very freely from seed. Easily grown, and apparently not affected 
by the wire-worm. Flowers nearly all the summer. Young plants 
are best, as when old they are apt to get ragged in growth. Very 
pretty and useful species. Superbus is a bright ruby-red variety 
and very pretty. 

D. Fischeri. — Half-shady position in rather moist, gritty loam. 
Light, rose-coloured, solitary flowers, 3 to 4 inches high, freely pro- 
duced in the summer. 

D. Freynii. — Peaty, gritty loam, without lime, in a cool, well- 
drained corner. Glaucous foliage and large rosy-purple flowers, 
Dwarf of habit, and difficult to grow. 

D.fragfans. — Light sandy loam, in sun. Fragrant white flowers, 
deeply fringed. Pretty and compact-growing. 

D. glacialis. — Crevices of rockwork in half-shady corner. It re- 
quires cool, peaty, and leaf-mould soil mixed with granite chips. It 
very much dislikes lime. Forms compact tufts of narrow leaves, 
and during the summer numerous pink flowers rather smaller than 
D. alpinus. A pretty and attractive little plant, very difficult to 
cultivate. Requires plenty of moisture during the growing season. 

D. g. gelidus. — Of much the same habit, and requires similar 
treatment as D. glacialis. Pure pink flowers, white spotted at the 

D. Knappii. — Light sandy soil and lime rubbish. In position not 


fully exposed to the sun. Heads of sulphur-coloured flowers on 
prostrate stems, about 12 inches long. Distinct on account of the 
colour of its flowers, but is a ragged and weak-growing plant of but 
secondary beauty and little value. Grows freely from seed. 

D. vionspessulanus. — Sandy loam in sun. Pink fringed flowers 
on slender stems about 12 inches long, rather similar to D. supcrbus. 
A pretty and useful plant. Varieties of above are albus and 

D. neglectiis. — Light sandy loam and lime rubbish, m sun. 
Compact tufts of grass-like, wiry, glaucous leaves about 2 inches 
high, from which rise on slender stems, about 3 inches long, numerous 
bright rosy-pink flowers, having the undersides buff-coloured. 
Blooms from June to September. Comes very readily from seed, 
though by this means the colour of the blooms is apt to vary 
somewhat as to shade. D. neglectiis is the gem of the genus. 
Lovely and dainty in appearance, and of the easiest culture, it 
should be freely grown, and can be associated with the choicest 

D. petraeus. — Dry, sunny position in sandy, limy loam. Compact, 
hard tufts of narrow, sharp-pointed leaves, i to 2 inches high. Rosy- 
white, solitary flowers. Hardy, and of easy culture. 

D. plumariiis. — Sandy soil on sloping bank. The original from 
which many of the garden pinks were raised. It has pink and 
fragrant flowers, is easily grown, and is useful for massing in the 
less choice parts. 

D. Robinsonii. — Sandy loam, in sun. An attractive hybrid, bear- 
ing, on 12-inch stems, large double salmon -pink flowers of a most 
delicate shade. A most persistent bloomer, being in flower for 
about nine months of the year. Of easy culture, and quite hardy. 

D. sylvestris.— Open, sunny position in dry, stony, and sandy loam. 
Flat tufts of rather sparse leaves, and on stems 6 to 8 inches long 
two or three rosy-pink flowers. A lovely species, but having the 
same characteristic of some of the alpine pinks of dying off without 

D. suavis. — Sandy loam, in any situation. Should be planted to 
fall over the face of a rock. Forms rapidly spreading, compact 
mats of stiff, grass-like leaves, from which spring countless small 
white, rather flat-shaped flowers, borne singly on slender stems, and 
about 6 inches long. Quite hardy, and easily increased by rooted 
layers. Quite one of the best, although not as brilliant as some. Its 
delightful habit of growth would give it a place in the front rank. 

These comprise about the best and most distinctive varieties of 
Dianthus, for although there are many others, they have more a 
botanical than garden value. New hybrids are constantly being 
advertised in catalogues, some of which are acquisitions. There 


are also numerous garden hybrids, pinks rather stronger-growing 
than most of the above, but in the larger rock gardens should be 
used in big masses. The following are some good kinds : — " Her 
Majesty,^' large white ; " Mrs Shnkins^' well known, fragrant 
white pink; '^Nellie'"; '■'■ Edtnond Afatthewii" crimson, with a 
darker crimson blotch, very handsome ; " Princess May," apricot 
pink ; and many others. 


A rare little evergreen shrub of very dwarf habit. Requires 
damp, peaty, and gritty soil in open position. It grows in dense, 
rounded tufts, with narrow leaves, i to 2 inches high. Cup-shaped, 
solitary flowers, pearly-white, with yellow stamens, in the summer. 
Hardy, but not easy to cultivate. Easily raised from seed. 


The only representative of the genus. Ordinary soil in any 
position. Grows about 4 to 6 inches high. Flowers salmon 
pink, freely produced. Spreads freely underground. It is in 
flower practically the whole year. It is reputed to be only half- 
hardy, but I have never found it suffer in the least, although it 
has been exposed to very hard frosts. Increased readily by 
division. A most attractive and uncommon plant. 

Dicentra (syn. Dielytra) (Papaveraceae) 

A genus of graceful-growing plants, useful for wilder part of the 
rock garden. The following are a selection of the best kinds : — 

D. canadensis. — Grows about 6 inches high. Flowers white, in 
May. Leaves glaucous. 

D. eximia. — Shady position, rich, sandy soil. Pretty, fern-like 
foliage. Grows 12 to 18 inches high. Reddish-purple flowers, 
borne in long drooping racemes. 

D.formosa. — Dwarfer-growing form of the above, with lighter- 
coloured flowers. Requires same treatment and position. 

D. speciabilis. — A well-known plant, with its pink heart-shaped 
blooms, which give it the popular name of " the bleeding heart." 

DiPHYLLEiA CYMOSA (Berberidaceae), Umbrella Leaf 

A dwarf plant, growing about 9 inches high, of the Barberry 
family. It likes very moist peat and is suitable for edges of streams 
or in the bog garden. Large, umbrella-like leaves, arranged in 
pairs, and loose clusters of white flowers, in June, succeeded by 
dark blue berries. 


DoDECATHEON (Primulaceae), American Cowslip 

Attractive and distinct plants, very closely allied to the Primulas. 
They are all of easy culture in cool, half-shady, and rather moist, 
sandy, and leafy soil. They all have clusters of flowers like 
Cyclamens, borne on the top of upright stems. 

D. Hendersoni. — Clusters of Cyclamen-like, rich, deep, crimson 
flowers, on stems about 12 inches high. 

D. integrifolia. — Moist, peaty loam and stone chips in half 
shade in the bog garden. Tufts of small, rather oval, and entire 
leaves. Clusters of rosy-crimson flowers, on stems 4 to 6 inches 
high, in early summer. This is the best of the genus and the most 
difficult to cultivate. Easily raised from seed, which it ripens freely, 

D. Jeffreyi.—}r{.a.s larger and thicker leaves than the type, and 
of a darker green. Flowers rich, dark rose colour, borne on 
stems 18 inches to 2 feet high. The largest of the genus, and a 
good plant for a sheltered spot in the bog garden, where its big 
leaves will not be torn by the wind. 

D. Meadia (Shooti,ng Star). — Varies a good deal in the colour ot 
its flowers, in shades varying from lilac to purplish-rose. Quite 
hardy, and of easy culture and readily grown from seed. This 
well-known plant should find a place in every bog garden. 

DoNDiA Epipactus (syn. Hacquetia) 
A dwarf-growing plant about 4 inches high, very distinctive on 
acaount of the bright yellow involucre which, surrounds its rather 
insignificant greenish-yellow flowers. It is quite hardy, and easily 
grown in stiff" loam, and is one of our earliest plants to flower. 

DouGLASiA laevigata (Primulaceae) 
Gritty loam in open position. Closely allied to the Androsaces. 
Of dwarf and tufted habit, bearing bright carmine flowers. One of 
the gems for the rock garden. 

Draba (Cruciferae), Whitlow Grass 
A genus of minute plants, with white or yellow flowers, requiring 
sandy soil in full sun, and should be associated with the dwarfest- 
growing plants. 

D. aizoides. — Sandy soil on a sunny bank. Forms dense little 
tufts about 3 inches high. Slow to increase. Flowers freely 
produced, and of a bright yellow colour, in March. Increased by 
division and seed. 

D. At'zoon.— Sun, in sandy soil. Forms compact rosettes of dark 
green, stiff little leaves, with small, bright yellow flowers, on 3-inch 
stems. A pretty and very early-flowering little plant, of easy 
culture, and readily raised from seed, which it ripens freely. 



D. alpina. — Well-drained chinks in the rock garden, in light soil, 
and sun. Grows about 2 inches high. Dark green leaves and 
bright golden flowers, A delicate and difficult plant to grow. 
The attacks of slugs should be guarded against. Nearly allied to 
this is D. aurea, with taller-growing flowers, and less compact 

D. ciliata. — Has white, diminutive flowers. Growth only about 
2 inches high. 

D. cinerea (syn. D. borealis). — Good white flowers, and 
dark green leaves, of free-growing habit. Seeds and division. 

D. cuspidata. — Very small tufts of dark green ciliated leaves, and 
yellow flowers, in March. Increased by seed. 

D. grandijlora. — The largest-growing of the genus, with white 

D. imbricata. — Forms dense green carpet from which rise tiny 
yellow blossoms on threadlike stems 3 inches high. Flowers in 
spring. Very dainty. 

Other varieties, all of very diminutive growth, are — D. brunicefolia, 
ciliaris, Kotschyi^ Olympica, and rtgida, all bearing yellow 
flowers. Those with white flowers are — D. bryoides, Mawii^ 
nivalis, and salamoni. 

Dracocephalum (Labiatae), Dragon's Head 

This genus, though generally considered herbaceous plants, give 
a few varieties suitable for the rock garden. They can all be 
increased by seed or division. 

D. grandiflorum (syn. D. altaicense.) — Requires very well- 
drained, sandy loam. Of rather compact, shrubby habit, growing 
only about 8 to 12 inches high. Narrow, greyish leaves, and 
handsome blue flowers, in early summer, in whorled spikes not 
very easy to grow in any but a dry climate. Young plants should 
be protected from the attacks of slugs. Increased by division. 

D. Ruyschiana. — Light sandy soil, well drained, on elevated 
spots. Spreading, rather prostrate habit, of fairly rapid growth. 
Rosy-purple flowers, freely produced in late summer. Increased 
by seed or division. Japonica is a deeper and better-coloured 
form of this, and altogether a finer plant. 

Other suitable varieties, all requiring the same conditions as to 
soil and position, are — 

D. austriacum. — Large blue flowers, in whorled spikes. 

D. botroides. — Purple flowers in June. 

D. speciosum. — Grows about 18 inches high, with pink and blue 
flowers, in July. 


Drosera (Droseraceae), Sundew 

Interesting little sundews for the bog garden, growing them in 
wet sphagnum moss. Besides our native kinds, D. intermedia^ 
D. longifolia, and D. obovaie, we should try the North American 
sundew, D. filiformis, with its rose-purple-coloured flowers, and 
glandular, hairy leaves. It is quite hardy, but difficult to cultivate 
even in wet sphagnum moss. 

Dryas (Rosaceae) 

A small genus of woody, spreading plants of much beauty and 

D. octopetala (syn. D. integrifolid). — Mountain Avens. Sunny 
slopes, peaty loam, well drained, yet rather moist. Likes limestone. 
Of close, prostrate, creeping habit, free-growing, and forming a carpet 
of dark green leaves, which in winter turn brown, looking as if the 
plant had died. Large creamy-white flowers, with yellow stamens 
like the Burnet rose. Profusion of blooms in summer, followed by 
fluffy-headed seed-vessels, like those of the " traveller's joy " clematis. 
A native, and quite hardy, and of easy culture. Increased by layers 
and seed. One of the gems for the rock garden, which should be 
freely grown, not alone on account of its flowers, but also for the 
fluffy seed-vessels. 

The variety minor is dwarfer and more dense in growth ; also a 

D. Drummondii. — Requires same treatment as above, which it 
exactly resembles, except that it has pale yellow flowers, which, 
however, have the reputation of not opening. 

D. lanata. — Poor stony soil on sunny slopes. Small silvery 
leaves. Creamy-white flowers, smaller and in greater profusion 
than D. octopetala^ of which it may be regarded as practically a 
miniature form. A really good plant. 

D. tenella is a rare species from Labrador, rather similar to 

Edrianthus {see Wahlenbergia) 

Empetrum Nigrium (Empetraceae), Crowberry 

Dwarf evergreen shrub, growing about 12 inches high. Like a 
heath, it has black berries. Rubrum has red berries. Both of 
easiest culture in damp, peaty soil, and may be used with the 
dwarfer shrubs. Evergreen. 


Epigaea repens (Ericaceae) 

A small, trailing evergreen shrub. Requires shelter from cold 
winds in a shady position, in peaty, fibrous loam and sand. Very 
pretty, fragrant, rose-coloured flowers in terminal racemes in early 
spring. Difficult to grow. Grows wild in parts of North America 
in sandy, rocky soil, under the shade of pines. 

Epilobium (Onagraceae) "Willow Herb" 

Few of this genus are suitable, being generally of too coarse and 
rank a growth. Increased by seed and division. 

E. Dodonaei (syn. E. Fleischeri). — Sandy, gritty soil. Of rather 
shrubby habit, with rosy-red flowers in July. Pretty and useful. 

E. nuimmdarifolium. — Of creeping habit and very rapid growth. 
Pale pink flowers. As it spreads rapidly, it should be given plenty 
of room. 

E. obcordatiim. — Also of creeping habit and rapid growth. 
Cherry-pink flowers. Looks well planted to fall over a stone. 
Requires a moist, well-drained spot. 

Epimedium (Berberidaceae), Barrenwort 

A genus of perennial plants, with pretty foliage, and suitable for 
associating with the dwarfer shrubs. They all grow about 12 inches 
high, with pretty, though not striking flowers, which are half hidden 
by the foliage. They should be grouped together in peaty soil in 
shade, in which position they should thrive well and give a pleasing 
effect. The following are a good selection : — 

E. alpinum. — Flowers crimson and yellow. 

E. coccineum. — Red flowers ; foliage turns red in autumn. 

E. niveiim. — White. 

E. roseiim. — Rose-coloured. 

E. rubrutn. — Dark red. 

E. sulphurium. — Yellow. 

Epipactis Palustris (Orchidaceae) 

A hardy orchid, with handsome, slightly drooping flowers, 
whitish, tinged crimson. Spreads fairly rapidly underground. 
Thrives in any moist, peaty soil. A good plant for the bog 
garden. Blooms in July. 

Eranthis Hyemalis (Ranunculaceae), Winter Aconite 

This well-known "harbinger of spring" needs no description. 
Patches of it, if planted in odd corners, will brighten our rock 
garden with its yellow blossoms in January 


Erica (Ericaceae), Heath 

A large genus of well-known shrubs, some growing into almost 
trees, while others are prostrate, shrubby plants. They all require 
peaty soil and hate lime in any form. The following are the 
dwarfer kinds suitable for the rock garden : — 

E. ca7-nea. — Prostrate-growing, delightful little plant, gladdening 
our hearts with its rosy-pink flowers in January. A well-known 
plant, which should be freely grown. There is a white form, 
E. c. alba, equally attractive, blooming at the same time. It also 
goes by the name of E. herbacea. 

E. cinerea. — Rather taller-growing than the last. Flowers vary 
considerably in shades of white and pink. Amongst its varieties 
are alba^ bicolor, coccinea, purpurea, and rosea. 

E. lusitanica (syn. E. codonodes). — A lovely shrub, often growing 
4 feet high. White flowers tipped with pink, borne in wreaths 
during the winter. Perfectly hardy, and a precious shrub, and 
quite one of the prettiest and best. 

E. mediterranea. — A lovely, peat-loving shrub, growing 3 to 5 
feet high, flowering in spring, 

E. Tetralix. — The well-known bell-heather, growing in moist, 
boggy places on our moors. It will also do in ordinary garden soil. 

E. vulgaris (syn. Calluna vulgaris). — The well-known common 
"Ling," and, being quite indifferent to soil, may be used for the 
wilder parts of the rock garden. There are many varieties, some 
of which are of little value. The best are E. v. alba,pilosa, Alportii 
rubra and rosea, serlei, hypnoides,pygmea, tenella, and tomentosa. 

E.dabaecia (syn. Memiesiapolifolia). — A lovely shrub, growing 18 
inches to 2 feet high, and found wild in the west of Ireland. It does 
best in a partially shaded position in peaty loam. Bears during the 
summer and autumn a profusion of large drooping bells, borne in 
racemes of a crimson-purple colour. There are few more beautiful 
shrubs grown. There are several varieties : alba, a white one, even 
prettier than the type. A deeper-coloured form, atropurpurea ; and 
one with purple and white flowers, called bicolor. 

E. Veitchii is a cross between E. lusitanica and arborea, and is 
well worth growing and quite hardy. 

Erigeron (Compositae) 

A genus of plants with large daisy-like flowers, resembling the 
Michaelmas daisies. Only the dwarfer kinds are suitable for 
growing in the rock garden. The following are a selection, all of 
which are of easy culture in a half-shady position in good loam. 

E. alpinus. — Like an inferior Aster alpinus. Pale blue flowers. 


But the vSiX\€ty,grandiJlorufn, is good, with large, deep blue, daisy- 
like flowers. 

E. aurantiacus. — Large orange-coloured flowers. Floriferous and 

E. Coulteri. — Large white flowers, with golden centres. Blooms 
late into the autumn. A handsome plant. 

E. glaucics. — Smooth glaucous leaves. Large deep lavender- 
coloured flowers, from July to October. 

E. leiomerus. — Small tufted species. Narrow grey-green leaves, 
and lovely pale violet-blue flowers. Quite one of the best of the 
genus and quite hardy and easily grown. 

E. mucronatus (syn. Vittadenia triloba). — Prostrate and much- 
branched habit, bearing a profusion of white, small, daisy-like 
flowers the whole summer. A very charming plant, of rapid 
growth. Easily raised from seed. Quite indifferent to soil or 
aspect. Not very hardy. 

E. Roylei. — Dwarf tufted habit. Bluish-purple flowers, with a 
yellow centre. Very pretty. 

E. trifidus. — Small blue flowers. Dwarf habit, only growing 3 to 
4 inches high. Rather a distinct plant. 

Of the taller-growing kinds, the following are all good : — 
E. glabellus, lilac flowers ; E. salsuginosus, pale lilac flowers ; 
and E. speciosus splende7ts, with deep lilac-coloured flowers. 

Erinus alpinus (Scrophulariaceae) 

A pretty little plant, admirable for growing in old walls and in 
any odd chink, or for crevices between steps. Forms very dwarf 
tufts of downy, toothed leaves. Rosy-purple flowers in racemes the 
whole summer. There is a white form, and also a very hairy 
form, htrsuta. 

Eriogonum umbellatum (Polygonaceae) 

Small shrubby plant. Requires a sunny position in sandy loam. 
Forms a dense, spreading tuft, with numerous yellow flowers in 
umbels, borne on stems 4 to 8 inches high. Quite hardy, and 
blooms profusely during the autumn. Seed or division. 


Eriogynia Pectinata 

A distinct plant, nearly allied to the Spiraeas. It is an evergreen 
of trailing, tufted habit, spreading by means of slender stolons. 
Bright green, ferny foliage. White flowers in terminal spikes. 
Likes a shady corner in good sandy loam. A pretty little plant. 

Eritrichium nanum (Boraginaceae) 

An alpine gem, which so far has defeated all efforts to cultivate 
with any degree of success. Its needs, though few, are difficult to 
supply. No moisture during the winter, while during the spring 
and summer it requires moisture at its roots, but none on its leaves. 
This, though it may sound simple, is not so easy to supply. The 
following method may be tried. Plant in a mixture of coarse 
sand, grit, and granite dust, and a little fibrous peat, under some 
overhanging rock fully exposed to the sun. Round the neck of the 
plant sink pieces of slate in such a way that the moisture from the 
overhanging ledge is directed towards the roots of the plant, and 
also place stones on the surface of the ground to keep its leaves 
dry. It makes tufts of tiny little woolly leaves, from which in 
spring rise, in the greatest profusion, diminutive flowers of the most 
dazzling azure-blue, with a yellow eye. A gem indeed, and worth 
any amount of trouble to obtain success. 

Erodium (Geraniaceae), Heron's Bill 

Dwarf-growing plants of the Geranium order, requiring warm, 
dry, sunny spots. All very lovely, and worth growing in the 
choicer parts of the garden. 

E. guttatum. — Pretty silvery, fern-like foliage, forming a neat 
tuft, with pure white flowers veined with purple, borne on slender, 
branching stems. A dainty and attractive plant, but not very 

E. macradenum. — Dwarf - growing. Violet-pink flowers with 
deep purple markings, borne on stems about 4 inches high, in June 
and July. 

E. cheilanthifolium. — Fern-like leaves, with dark veining on its 
white petals. 

E. cTirysanihum. — Has sulphur-coloured flower§. 


E. corsicum. — Dwarf habit. Soft round leaves. Flower pink. 
Gritty soil in dry position. 

E. olympicum. — Of rather bushy habit. Silvery foliage. Loose 
heads of delicate pink flowers. Very lovely. 

E. pelargonifolium. — Sunny position in light gritty soil. Of 
rather prostrate habit. Flowers white, marked with purplish-red. 
This species rather resembles the greenhouse Pelargoniums both as 
to flower and leaf Rather a tender plant, liable to die off in the 
winter, and possibly for this reason is not as much used as it 
deserves to be. 

E. petraeum. — Warm and dry chinks. Grows about 5 inches high, 
with smoothish, pinnate leaves, and purple flowers in June. 

E. Reichardi (syn. E. chamaedryoides), — Very dwarf-growing, 
making flat tufts of little heart-shaped leaves, and solitary white 
flowers, very faintly veined with pink. Likes moist, sandy soil. A 
wee, dainty plant. 

E. supracanum. — This plant has hoary leaves and bright pink 
flowers. Very lovely. 

Erysimum (Cruci ferae). Hedge Mustard 

Very similar, but not so good as Wallflowers. The best of the 
genus are — 

E. comatum. — Narrow, silvery foliage and yellow flowers. 

E. linifolium. — Lilac flowers. Very profuse bloomer, and free 
grower. About the best of the genus. 

E. pulchellum (syn. E. rupestre). — Blooms profusely in spring and 
autumn, and has bright golden-yellow flowers. 

E. rhaeticum. — Densely tufted, covered with clear yellow flowers 
in early summer. They all like dry and sunny positions in well- 
drained, gritty soil. Increased by seed. 

Erpetion reni forme (syn. Viola hederacea) 

A small and delicate little plant, only half hardy, covering the 
ground with a mass of small leaves, and has slender, creeping 
stems. Blue and white flowers, very pretty, and only about 2 inches 
high. It likes a shady position in good sandy loam. Except in a 
warm climate, it will require to be lifted in the autumn and taken 
into a cold house. 


Erythraea (Gentianaceae) 

A genus of pretty, dwarf-growing plants with pink flowers. They 
like a partial shady position. Increased by seed. The two best are — 

E. diffusa. — A rapid grower, with pink blossoms in summer in 
great profusion. 

E. Muhlenbergi. — Grows about 8 inches high, with a profusion 
of flowers, about 3^^ inches across, of a deep pink colour, with a 
greenish-white star in the centre. Blooms in the spring. 

Erythronium (Liliaceae) 

The "Dog's-tooth" Violet, a well-known genus of bulbous plants 
of the easiest culture, and may be planted in odd nooks in the rock 
garden. A selection can be made from any bulb catalogue. 

Fragaria monophylla (Rosaceae), Alpine Strawberry 

This form of the wild strawberry, with its large white flowers, is 
a pretty plant for the rock garden, to cover some waste bank. 

F. indica. — Is a pretty trailer, flowering later, and has golden- 
yellow flowers and red, insipid fruit. 

Fritillaria (Liliaceae), Fritillary 

These distinct and graceful bulbous plants, though not strictly 
rock plants, can be grouped with good effect in shady comers, in 
rioh, well-drained soil. There are a great number of species, of 
which a selection should be made. 

Fuchsia (Onagraceae) 

A genus of shrubs which are hardy only in a warm climate or 
near the sea. There are many lovely varieties, but, being so 
delicate, cannot be generally used. 

F . procmnbens. — Sunny position in light sandy soil. A trailing 
species, with erect, yellowish-green flowers and large purple berries. 
Only half hardy. 

F. pumila. — A dainty, dwarf, erect-growing shrub, bearing a 
profusion of crimson flowers in the summer. Needs protection in 
the winter. 

Galax aphylla (Diapensiaceae) 

An evergreen perennial plant with a creeping rootstock. It should 
be planted in moist, sandy, peaty loam, in partial shade. The round, 
shiny leaves, on slender stalks, in autumn and winter, assume a 


brilliant crimson colour if planted in a position exposed to the 
sun. In June appears a wand-like spike of small white flowers 
about 12 inches high. Hardy, and easily grown in the raised parts 
of the bog garden. Increased by division. A very pretty subject. 

Gaultheria (Ericaceae) 

A large genus of low-growing, evergreen shrubs for the peat bed. 
The following are the most suitable : — 

G. p7'ocumbens (Creeping Wintergreen). — Moist peat or loam, in 
half shade. A pretty, very dwarf-growing evergreen shrub. Pro- 
cumbent habit, forming dense masses, about 6 inches high, of shining 
leaves, and in June small, pendulous, white flowers, succeeded by red 
berries. Quite hardy, and increased by division. An attractive 
little shrub for a moist spot. 

G. nutnniularioides. — Moist peat and sand, in half shade. A 
small, evergreen, creeping shrub, about 4 inches high, with wiry 
stems. White, Lily-of-the-valley-like flowers, tinged pink, in 
summer, succeeded by scarlet fruit. 

G. tricophylla. — Moist, peaty, and stony soil, in half shade. Com- 
pact grower, forming tufts of box-like dark green leaves margined 
with minute hairs. Pinky-white, small, bell-shaped flowers, in 
summer, followed by large, indigo-blue berries. Quite hardy, and 
propagated by division. A very pretty little creeping shrub. It is 
a good plan to plant it in a slight saucer-shaped hollow amongst 
stones. The berries are most attractive, 

G. Shallon. — A coarse-growing, evergreen shrub, with dark green 
leaves, so not particular as to soil. Useful for planting under trees 
in the wilder parts, but too rampant a grower for the choicer parts. 
White flowers and purple berries. 

Gazania (Compositae) 

A genus of very handsome plants, which unfortunately are not 
quite hardy, but can easily be propagated by cuttings, made from 
the side shoots near base of plant. These should be taken in July 
or August, never in the spring, and inserted in sandy loam in a 
close frame. 

They all require a position in full sun, in light sandy loam and 

G. bracteata (syn, G. nived). — Leaves 5 to 8 inches long, grown 
in the form of a rosette. Flowers 2 inches across, white, with a 
yellow disk, 

G. b. gra?idiJlora. — A hybrid, G. bracteata x G. splendens. 

G. montana. — Prostrate habit. Flowers pale yellow, 


G.pygtnaea. — Dwarf habit. Flowers small, white, with a purplish 

G. Pavonia. — Grows about i8 inches high. Leaves hairy. 
Flowers yellow, with a brown spot at base, with a green tinge. 
Blooms in July. A handsome plant. 

G. rigetis. — Grows about 12 inches high. Leaves spatulate and 
hairy. Flowers of a brilliant golden colour, in June. 

G. splendens. — Trailing habit. Leaves a silky white beneath. 
Flowers brilliant orange colour, with a black and white spot at the 
base of each ray-floret. Blooms July to October. 

G. uniflora. — Decumbent habit, shrubby growth. Leaves downy 
beneath. Flowers yellow. Blooms July and August. 

There are also several hybrids of garden origin, some with 
variegated leaves. 

Genista (Leguminosae) 

A genus of shrubs very nearly allied to the Cytisus \ in fact it is 
not easy to distinguish one from the other. They all grow easily 
in any dry, sandy loam, and are very useful and attractive. They 
are a numerous genus, and the following is a selection of the dwarfer 
and most suitable kinds. The tall-growing varieties can be used 
with good effect for massing with other shrubs. 

G. anglica. — A dwarf-growing, native shrub, seldom reaching 

2 feet in height. The yellow flowers in leafy racemes appear in 
June and July. 

G. anxsaiitita. — Very similar to the native G. tinctora. Its yellow 
flowers appear in late summer. 

G. germanica. — Grows about 18 inches to 2 feet, with arching 
branches and yellow flowers produced in summer and autumn. 
A useful shrub. Very pretty. 

G. hispanica (Spanish Gorse). — A most useful, very compact, 
dwarf, evergreen shrub, only growing some 12 to 18 inches high, 
with a profusion of yellow flowers the whole summer. 

G. pilosa. — A dense, prostrate-growing shrub for dry, gravelly 
soils, and yellow flowers very freely borne in May and June. 

G. pro strata. — A creeping shrub, scarcely more than 2 inches 
high. Yellow flowers very freely produced during the early summer. 
A very useful and attractive evergreen shrub for growing over stones 
or banks. One of the best. 

G. radiata. — Evergreen, much-branched spiny shrub, growing 

3 to 4 feet high, and a wealth of yellow flowers during the summer. 
Hardy, and one of the best and most useful of the genus. 

G. sagittalis. — A creeping shrub about 6 inches high. Very 
distinct, with peculiar winged stems and a profusion of rich yellow 
flowers. A shrub more peculiar than attractive. 


G. tinctoria,fl. pi. — A compact, dwarf -growing, deciduous shrub, 
about 12 inches high, of spreading habit and fairly rapid growth. 
Profusion of yellow flowers in the summer. Very useful and attractive. 
There is a single form, but the double is the better of the two. 

Gentiana (Gentianaceae), Gentian 

A very numerous genus of mountain plants, amongst which are 
some gems for the rock garden. I shall deal only with the 
perennial, for although there are many annual and biennial kinds, 
their beauty is of too fleeting a nature to be suitable for our 
purpose. The perennial kinds are, unfortunately, all somewhat 
unreliable in cultivation, growing like weeds in some places, while 
in others, under apparently similar conditions, unaccountably 
pining away in a short time. They all exceedingly dislike dis- 
turbance, and drought at certain times of the year is fatal 
to them. 

G. acaulis (" Gentianella ")• — South-east or south-westerly aspect, 
on slight slope. Loam, plentifully mixed with limestone and gravel, 
and well drained, though not so as to render the soil ver)' dry. It 
forms a dense carpet of compact tufts of glossy green leaves, from 
which rise large tubular, deep blue flowers, in the spring and 
summer. Quite hardy, and increased by division. This plant is 
the well-known " Gentianella," than which no more lovely plant 
can be found in the rock garden. It is, however, very uncertain in 
cultivation, for while in some places it will grow and flower freely 
without the least trouble, in others no amount of care will make it 
thrive. One thing specially to observe is to plant it deep and as 
firmly as possible : to this particular attention should be paid. 
With me, a gravel walk is what it revels in. It is also a good plan 
to put chips of stones over the surface of the ground, which helps 
to retain the necessary moisture, and amongst which its shoots like 
to ramble. If the weather be very dry during the spring and 
summer, it should be watered freely. It is difficult to lay down 
any rules for its cultivation, for what appears to suit it in one garden 
will not do so in another ; but if the above directions are carried 
out, there is every reason to expect success. There is also a white 
form, which is not so pretty as the type. 

Very nearly akin to G. acaulis, and which may almost be taken as 
varieties of it, are alpina, which is rather smaller. Angustifolia, 
deep blue throat and spotted with green. Clusii, very similar to 
alpifia, has lanceolate leaves and ver>' dark blue flowers. Coelcsiina, 
sky-blue, with interior of throat white. Kochiana, elliptic-shaped 
leaves and flowers spotted with black. All like a limestone soil, 
except the last-named, which requires a soil free of it. 


G. altiaca. — Ordinary soil. Open position. Head of blue flowers. 
Prostrate habit. A new species from Altai Mountains. Easily 
increased by seed. 

G. angulosa. — In form very similar to G. verna, though more 
robust and having rather taller-growing flowers. A very persistent 

G. asclepiadea (Willow Gentian). — Rather moist loam. Sheltered 
position in partial shade. A tall-growing, deciduous species, 
reaching 3 feet. Numerous large deep blue flowers on willow-like 
spikes. Quite hardy, and easily cultivated. This is rather more of 
a herbaceous than a rock garden plant. There is a very handsome 
white form. 

G. bavarica. — Requires sunny position in sandy peat, very wet, 
though thoroughly drained. Such a spot as the banks of a tiny 
stream should suit it. Forms close, dense tufts, with very small, box- 
like leaves of a yellowish-green. Deep sapphire-blue flowers, rather 
larger than G. verna, borne in profusion. It is a very difficult 
plant to grow, but a gem withal. 

G. brachyphylla. — Likes limestone soil in sun. Tufted, compact 
habit, with flowers slightly paler in shade than G. verna. Fairly 
easy to grow. 

G. ciliata. — Sunny, well-drained position in fibrous loam mixed 
with broken limestone. Grows about 12 to 18 inches high, with 
large, solitary flowers deeply fringed, and of a fine azure-blue colour. 
Requires to be kept rather dry during the winter. It is not an 
easy plant to cultivate. 

G. decicmbens. — Should have a sunny position in rather moist, 
gritty loam. Prostrate stems with numerous flowers of a fine blue 
colour, borne in terminal spikes. Blooms in July and August. 
It is of comparatively easy culture and quite hardy. There is also 
a white form of good colour. 

G. Favrata. — Sun in moist, stony peat and loam. Forms compact 
tufts, and has large deep blue flowers. It is a natural hybrid 
between bavarica and verna., and is of fairly easy culture. 

G. freyniana. — Sandy loam in half shade. The clusters of 
briUiant blue flowers are freely borne in July. Rather an uncommon 
species, but very lovely, and not specially difficult to grow. 

G. Kurroo. — Sunny position ; sandy peat and leaf-soil mixed 
with pieces of stone. Rosettes of smooth leaves about 4 inches 
high. Branching stems, with flowers of brilliant azure-blue, in July 
and August Fairly easy to cultivate. 

G. ornata. — Cool gritty loam or moraine. Forms a fairly compact 
carpet of dark green leaves. Flowers a lovely shade of pale blue 
inside, the outside of the corolla tube a rich chocolate purple striped 
with ivory yellow. A recent introduction from the Himalayas. A 


glorious plant, which does not appear difficult to grow and should 
prove a valuable acquisition. 

G. Pneumonanthe. — Moist, peaty loam, in sun. Grows about 
6 inches high, of a fine blue colour. A native, and of easy culture. 
It is well worth a spot in the rock garden. 

G. Przewalskii. — Moist loam and peat. Sun. Forms loose tufts 
of long, narrow leaves. Prostrate stems and deep blue flowers in 
clusters. Not very free-flowering. Easy to cultivate and readily 
raised from seed. A delightful plant, which should be freely grown. 
It blooms in July. 

G. pyrenaica. — Full sun, in moist peat and loam. Procumbent 
habit. Forms tufts of narrow, sharp-pointed leaves. Dark violet, 
almost stalkless flowers. It is a difficult species to grow, but one 
of the best. 

G. sepiemfida. — Requires full sun, in moist, sandy peat and loam. 
Bears flowers in clusters on stems about 9 inches high. Blue and 
white inside, and brown outside. Of fairly easy culture in a cool, 
moist position. A very lovely plant, flowering in August. 

G. verna. — Requires sun, in moist, peaty loam and limestone 
chips. Forms compact tufts about ij inches high, from which 
spring flowers about 3 inches high, of the most dazzling azure-blue. 
Seed and division. A lovely little gem, and one of the choicest 
rock plants, but, though a native, is not easy to keep when grown in 
the garden. Good tufts of it, to start with, are essential, and copious 
waterings during the spring and early summer. It likes very 
fibrous loam, so a good plan is to half bury a sod of turf, grass side 
down, and plant the Gentian in it. Firm planting is also very 
important ; after the winter's frost it is well to go round and press 
the plants firmly home. Protecting the plants with glass during 
the winter has proved effective in promoting growth and flowers. 
It is so lovely that no trouble should be spared to endeavour to 
grow it, trying it in different positions. South-east is a good 

This completes the selection of the dwarf choicer varieties of 
Gentians. There are many others also of low-growing habit, but 
they are either very nearly akin to G. acaulis or G. verna, without 
having their brilliancy of flower, so are scarcely worth growing, 
except in a botanical collection. Of the taller and coarser-growing 
varieties, most of which, though easy of culture, are only suitable 
for the rougher parts, the following are the most showy of this 
description : — G. Andrewsti, Burseri, lutea, saponatia, all require 
moist loam and bear blue flowers, with the exception of lufea, which 
has yellow blossoms, and is the strongest-growing of the genus, 
reaching 3 feet in height. 


Geranium (Geraniaceae), Crane's Bill 

A genus of showy perennials, but too strong-growing for the rock 
garden, with the exception of the following. They are all of easy 
culture in sandy, well-drained loam, and are not particular as to 
aspect, provided they get a fair amount of sun. Propagated by 
seed and division. 

G. argenteitm. — Grows about 6 inches high, with silvery-grey 
leaves and large, pale rose-coloured flowers. A charming, compact- 
growing plant, flowering in June ; it should have a place amongst 
the choicest plants. 

G. cinereum. — A dwarf, compact-growing plant, with silvery 
leaves and pink flowers veined with red. Quite a vigorous grower, 
easily increased by seed or division. A very good plant for a choice 
spot in the sun. 

G. Endressi. — A useful plant, growing 9 to 12 inches high, with 
rose-pink flowers freely produced during the summer. 

G. Traversii. — Of prostrate habit, forming, by means of trailing 
stems, a dense carpet of grey hairy foliage from which rise large 
rose-pink flowers on slender stems ; these are very freely produced 
during the summer. A recent and valuable introduction from the 
New Zealand Alps, and one that should be found in all rock 

G. sanguineum. — A close-growing plant, about 18 inches high, 
of vigorous habit. Deep crimson-purple flowers, about i^ inches 
across. A handsome and striking plant. The white form, alba, is 
even more lovely. Both of these are of such strong growth that 
they should not be associated with the more diminutive plants, but 
are so lovely and of such easy cultivation that a place should be 
found for them where they can have room to spread and form large 
bold masses. 

G. s. lancastriense. — Grows about 4 inches high, and has 
pink flowers veined with red. It is a valuable and attractive 
little plant of spreading, though not encroaching, habit, compact 
in form and of easy culture. It is a rare British native found 
on the coast of Lancashire. Readily increased by seed or 

G. sessilifloricm. — Forms compact little tufts, with whitish flowers 
almost hidden by the foliage. More curious than pretty. Seed and 

G. subcaiilescens. — Grows about 9 inches high, with large, rosy- 
crimson flowers, and a dark eye. Pretty. 


G. tuberosum. — Large, rosy-purple flowers. Grows about 9 inches 

G. wallichianum. — Grows about 6 inches high, of compact habit, 
with large violet-blue flowers freely produced during the summer. 
An attractive species of easy culture. 

For massing in woods, or growing in the wilder parts of the rock 
garden, the following will be found suitable : — 

G. armenum. — Purplish-rose-coloured flowers of a large size. 
Free-flowering and of vigorous habit. 

G. grandiflorum. — Grows about 12 inches high with large rose- 
purple-coloured flowers. An attractive and showy plant. 

G. viacrorhiziim. — Large crimson flowers freely produced. 
Grows 9 to 12 inches high, a vigorous and effective plant. 

G. sylvaticum. — A vigorous-growing species with pink flowers 
freely produced during the summer. 

G. s. alba. — A white form of the above, and equally vigorous in 
habit, free- flowering and attractive. 

G. ibericum (syn. G. platypetalum). — A very handsome plant, with 
large blue flowers, and of vigorous habit. 

Gerbera Jamsonii (Compositeae), Transvaal Daisy 

Sandy loam and peat. Hot, dry, and sunny aspect. Large 
/eathery leaves in a rosette. Tall, daisy-like flowers, 3 inches 
across, of a most brilliant orange-scarlet colour. Scarcely hardy, 
and, even in the most favoured climate, will in this country need 
protection in winter. It requires to be kept dry during the winter. 
Raised from seed, when fertile seed can be obtained. A great 
number of lovely hybrids, between this plant and G. viridifolia, 
have been raised, which are rather more robust. 

Geum (Rosaceae) 

Though a fairly numerous genus, only a few are suitable for the 
rock garden. They all like good sandy loam, in sun. Propagated 
by seed or division, 

G. Heldreichii. — Forms a compact tuft, with brilliant orange-red 
flowers, on stems about 12 inches high. 

G. montanum. — Forms very compact rosettes, growing close to the 
ground, and of a spreading habit. Large bright yellow -coloured 
flowers, borne singly on stems about 5 inches high, and succeeded 


by feathery seed-vessels. A very pretty plant for the rock garden, 
and of easiest culture. Increased by seed or division. There are 
two varieties, auraniiacum, with rather deeper- coloured flowers, and 
^randiflorum (syn. Maximufn), which has larger flowers ; both are 
good plants and should be grown. 

G. reptans. — Requires rather a dry position, in full sun. Forms 
compact tufts of greyish-green leaves, which are velvety and 
rather deeply cut. Flowers are large and of a beautiful pale yellow 
colour. The plant spreads rather quickly by means of slender 
runners, which often extend as far as 8 or lo inches. Is rather a 
shy bloomer, and it would be well to grow it in poor and very stony 
ground. Quite the best of the genus. Division. 

G. rivale. — Forms spreading tufts, increasing fairly rapidly. 
Flowers rather a reddish colour, borne on stems about 9 inches 
long. Increases very readily from seed. In bloom the whole 

Globularia (Selaginaceae) 

Creeping plants for dry, sunny positions in moist, light, sandy loam. 
Not of very great value for rock garden. Increased by seed and 

G. cordifolia. — Forms a dense carpet, only about 3 inches 
high, with round, terminal clusters of blue flowers in early summer. 
Of easy culture, and readily increased by seed or division. 

G. nana. — Only grows about i inch high, forming a dense carpet 
with compact heads of light blue flowers from May to August. Is 
a pretty plant for growing over stones. Easily increased by seed 
or division. 

Other varieties are G. bellidifolia, nudicaulis, and trichosantha, 
all of which are much the same and carry heads of bluish-white 
flowers in early summer. 

Gnaphalium {see Leontopodium and Antennaria) 


A pretty little hardy orchid for a moist, peaty spot in shade. Its 
flowers are white but insignificant, but its attraction lies in its leaves, 
which lie close to the ground and are veined with silver. It likes 
pieces of sandstone in the soil for its roots to cling around. 


Very prostrate, creeping plant for covering some moist corner ; 
it spreads rapidly. Pretty leaves, not rising more than a couple of 
inches from the ground. Dentata is an even smaller form. 



Gypsophila (Caryophyllaceae), Chalk Plant 

The dwarf-growing species of this genus are indispensable rock 
plants, of the easiest culture. Although chalk-loving, they do quite 
well in ordinary, well-drained soil in full sun. 

G. cerastoides. — Only grows about 3 inches high, and of spreading 
habit. It is a fairly rapid grower, forming a good tuft in a couple of 
years. In very sandy soil. Flowers are white, with violet streaks, 
and are freely produced during the summer. A first-class plant, 
and easily increased by division or seeds. 

G. prostrata. — A rapid-growing, trailing plant, forming mats of 
glaucous, succulent-looking foliage, and myriads of small white 
flowers. Of easiest culture, and readily increased by layers or seeds. 
A delightful plant for growing over a rock or bank. Rosea is a 
variety, having pink flowers equally floriferous. 

G. repens. — Of creeping habit. Leaves glabrous. Flowers white 
or rose-coloured. Shy bloomer. G. repens Monstrosa is a variety, 
larger in all its parts and rather coarse-growing. 

G. Sundermanni. — Has glaucous foliage and pink flowers. 

Habenaria (Orchidaceae) 

A genus of hardy orchids charming for the bog garden. They 
all require a moist soil composed of equal parts of sand, peat, and 
leaf- mould, in partial shade. In order to protect the roots from the 
sun, mulch the plants with mown grass. The following are the 
best kinds to grow : — 

H. blepharoglottis. — Beautifully fringed white flowers in June 
and July. 

H. ciliaris. — Golden-yellow flowers, with a fringed lip, borne in 
spikes about 12 inches high, in July. 

H. fimbriata. — Beautifully fringed lilac-purple flowers, borne in 
long spikes. 

H. psycodes. — Fragrant rosy-crimson flowers, borne in spikes 
9 inches long. Very pretty. 

Haberlea rhodopensis (Gesneraceae) 

A shade-loving plant, forming rosettes of leaves very like 
Ramondea pyrenaica,ixom which spring slender stalks about 4 inches 
long, each bearing three to four flowers exactly like a Streptocarpus, 
of a bluish-lilac colour, with a yellow throat. It requires to be 
grown in fibrous peat, and should be planted in vertical fissures in 
a northern aspect, where the sun never reaches. It can also be 
planted on the level, but in such a way that rain cannot lie in the 


rosettes, which would be hkely to cause them to damp off. There 
is a white form, virginalzs, even more lovely than the type. Both 
increased by seed and careful division. 

Habranthus pratensis (Amaryllideae) 

A bulbous plant of much beauty and brilliancy. The flowers, 
which are of the brightest scarlet, and feathered at the throat with 
yellow, are borne on upright stems about 12 inches high. It is 
easily grown in loam, leaf-mould, and sand, and is readily increased 
by division. The va.r\eiy fulgens is the best form, and is a very 
choice plant. 

Hedysarum (Leguminosae) 

A very numerous genus of plants belonging to the Vetch family, 
some of which are good for the rock garden. They are quite easily 
grown in sandy loam, in open, sunny spots. Increased by seed. 

H. multijugum. — A shrubby plant, growing about 2 feet, of 
graceful habit, and having long panicles of crimson-purple flowers. 
Propagated by seed or division. 

H. neglectum. — Very pretty flowers of a brilliant rosy-purple 
colour. Blooms in June, and grows about 12 inches high. 

H. obscunmi. — A creeping plant, growing from 9 to 12 inches 
high, with brilliant purplish-crimson flowers in long spikes, in August. 
It has silky leaves, and is a good rock plant, of free growth. Seed 
and division. 

Helianthemum (Cistaceae), Sun Rose 

A genus of shrubby plants, mostly dwarf-growing, and of the 
greatest beauty and value for the rock garden. They are of the 
easiest culture, all they require being a light, rather poor soil, fully 
exposed to the sun. They all strike readily from cuttings. There 
are an endless number of hybrids, both single and double, giving all 
shades of yellow, pink, and crimson, any of which are well worth 
growing. The blossoms, though only lasting the day, are borne in 
such profusion that the flowering season lasts a long time. They 
all require to be cut hard back after flowering, which induces them 
to grow more compact ; for if this were not done, they would become 
rather leggy and straggling. They all grow rapidly. Not including 
the various named hybrids, the following are the most distinctive 
kinds : — 

H. canmn. — A native plant only growing about 3 inches high, with 
small pale yellow flowers. 

H. Tuberaria (syn. H. globulariaefoliutn). — Quite a distinct plant, 
not having woody branches, but from the root sending up hairy, 


plantain-like leaves. On stents about 9 inches high, yellow flowers, 
about 2 inches across, are borne ; these droop when in the bud. It 
blooms during the summer, and likes a warm aspect in good light 
loam. Increased by seed or division. 

Helichrysum (Compositae), Everlastings 

Hardy perennial plants requiring a hot, sunny position in loam. 

H. arenarium. — Has grey, downy leaves. Flowers bright yellow, 
borne on stems 4 to 8 inches high, which are furnished with narrow, 
hoary leaves. Blooms in July. 

H. bellidioides. — Gritty soil in sunny position. Prostrate habit 
with small ovate silvery leaves. Pure white daisy-like flowers with 
a yellowish eye. A dainty little plant from New Zealand and an 
acquisition for the rock garden. 

H. microphyllum. — A small bushy plant, with narrow, silvery- 
coloured leaves and yellow flowers, in the summer. 

Helleborus (Ranunculaceae) 
The well-known Christmas Rose and its varieties are so essentially 
border plants, that I do not think it necessary to do more than 
allude to them. In rock gardens of some size they can advan- 
tageously be used. 

Helonias bullata 
A marsh plant, requiring moist, fibrous, peaty soil, in a shady 
position. Rosettes of long, narrow leaves, and oval-shaped spikes 
of small, rose-coloured flowers. A pretty, though not showy plant. 

Hepatica (^see Anemone) 

Hernia glabra (Illecebraceae) 
Carpeting plant of dense creeping habit, pretty deep green foliage, 
and inconspicuous flowers. It will grow in any soil. Of no value 
except for carpeting purposes. Aurea is a golden-leaved variety. 

Hesperochiron pumilus (Hydrophyllaceae) 
A very dwarf-growing plant, for a well-drained position, in light 
loam. Forms a tuft of slender-stalked leaves. Flowers bell-shaped, 
white, with a purple tinge, and half an inch across. 

H. californicus. — Has white flowers with dark stripes, and 
requires similar treatment. 

Heuchera (Saxifragaceae), Alum Root 
Of the Heucheras, though described in such glowing colours 
in all catalogues, the best is H. sanguinea splendens, which is 


a handsome plant, with its graceful sprays of coral-red flowers. 
They all are easily cultivated in any ordinary, well-drained soil. 
They require to be divided and replanted every few years, as they 
grow out of the ground. 

HiERACiUM (Compositae), Hawkwecd 

A very large genus, very few of which are suitable, being mostly 
of too coarse and rank-growing a habit. They are all of the easiest 
culture in any soil. Propagated by division in spring. 

H. rubra. — Dwarf-growing and spreading habit, very vigorous, 
forming a carpet, only about i inch high, of dark green leaves. 
The flowers, which are borne in great profusion on stems about 3 
inches high, are of a brilliant, deep orange-red colour. It is in 
bloom all the summer. A very pretty plant, but too strong-growing 
to associate with the choicer rock plants. Increased by division. 

H. villosum. — Forms good tufts, about 6 inches high. Flowers 
bright yellow, on stems about 12 inches long. The leaves and stems 
are clothed with long, white, silky down, which gives it a very 
attractive appearance. A good plant. Grows very freely from seed. 

Other kinds are : H. aurantiacum., which is similar to rubra, but 
flowers orange-yellow. Good for the wild garden, but too rampant 
in growth for the choicer parts. 

H. gytnnocephalum. — Yellow flowers and silvery foliage. Grows 
about 9 inches high. 

H. lanatum. — Yellow flowers and evergreen, downy, leaves. 

HipPOCREPis coMOSA (Leguminosae), Horseshoc Vetch 

A prostrate-growing native plant, of trailing habit. Light, chalky 
soil in sun. Small pinnate leaves, and deep yellow flowers in 
clusters. A pretty and useful little plant for draping the face of a 
rock. Hardy, and of easiest culture. 


Forms dense tufts of thick, crinkly leaves, from which rise spikes 
of purplish-blue flowers in July and August. Not of easy culture. 
Not a plant of much value or interest. Increased by seed and 

HousTONiA (Rubiaceae) 

Delicate and dainty-growing little plants, which are difficult to 
succeed with, but they are worth some trouble. They like a soil 
composed of peat, sand, leaf-mould, and fibrous loam, in an open. 


but well-drained ledge. Require plenty of moisture during summer, 
but in winter should be kept dry, by placing a piece of glass over 
them. Propagated by careful division in the autumn, or by seed. 

H. caerulea {Bluets). — Forms dense cushions of bright green 
leaves about half an inch high, which from May to July is thickly 
studded over with lovely little pale sky-blue flowers, on thread-like 
stems about 2 inches high. A most dainty little gem, and should 
find a place among the choicest rock plants. 

H. c. pallida has paler blue flowers, and alba., white. Both lovely. 

H. purpurea. — Has purple flowers. 

H. serpyllifolia. — Is even of dwarfer habit, and has white flowers. 


A dainty, neat-growing little plant, forming dense little cushions 
of dark green leaves about 3 inches high, which in summer are 
covered with small pure white flowers in clusters. Grows readily 
in any sandy soil, is of vigorous habit, and can easily be raised from 
seed. In fact the trouble is to prevent it seeding itself over the rock 
garden. A very charming little plant. 

H. rotundifolia (see ALthionevia cepeaefoliu7ti). 

Hypericum (Hypericaceae), St John's Wort 

A large genus of shrubs, some quite tall-growing, while others are 
little more than trailing plants. They are all of easy culture in 
ordinary, light sandy loam, in an open position. Of the dwarf- 
growing kinds. 

H. Coris. — Makes little tufty bushes about 9 inches high, with 
small, blue-grey foliage, and numerous golden-yellow flowers. A 
very pretty and amenable little plant, and one of the best of the 
genus. Evergreen. 

H. empctrifolium. — A half-hardy, evergreen, shrubby plant, grow- 
ing 6 to 12 inches high. Numerous small, golden-coloured flowers 
in the summer. 

H. fragilzs. — A prostrate-growing evergreen plant, forming very 
compact tufts, about 8 to 10 inches high, of slender branches, clothed 
the whole length with small, bright green, ovate leaves. Large, 
golden-yellow flowers borne in the greatest profusion the whole 
summer. Of easy culture and quick growth, in any warm, well- 
drained position, and readily increased by division. A very gem 
for the rock garden ; the best of the family. 

H. Kotschyaiium. — Gritty loam in sun. A dwarf trailing species. 
Flowers buff-coloured. Very pretty. 

H. repens. — A dwarf, trailing plant, with small, heath-like foliage. 


Flowers, borne in terminal racemes, are of a bright golden-yellow. 
It is a pretty plant, but not nearly so good as H. reptans, with which 
it must not be confused. 

H. reptans. — Forms a close mat, some 2 inches high, of long, 
trailing stems. Small leaves and large golden-yellow flowers in the 
greatest profusion from July to October. A very quick grower. 
There is no better plant for covering a rock. Second only to 
H. fragilis in value and beauty, and by some, in fact, considered 

The above represent the best trailing kinds. The following are 
the choicest of the shrubby type : — H. cegyptiacuni, balearicmn, 
olympicum, Hookerianum, and tnoscrianum. 

Iberidella rotundifolia (Cruciferae) 
A charming little plant, found at very high altitudes in the Alps. 
It requires light shingly loam, well drained, and makes dense mats 
only about 3 inches high. The glaucous, olive-green leaves are 
thick and leathery. The flowers are bright rosy-lilac, and sweet- 
scented. They are borne in some profusion from April to June. A 
very delightful little plant, of easy culture, and coming freely from 
seed. It should be grown among the choicest rock plants, and 
should find a place in every garden. 

Iberis (Cruciferae), Candytuft 

A genus of evergreen, dwarf-growing plants, of the easiest culture 
in any light loamy soil, in an open situation. With one or two 
exceptions, they are all quite hardy. Propagated by seeds, division, 
or cuttings. 

/. correaefolia. — Grows about 12 inches high, making quite a 
shrubby little plant. Compact, flat heads of large, pure white 
flowers. It blooms rather later than the other kinds, not coming into 
flower until about the beginning of June. Of free and vigorous 
growth, and easily increased by seed or cuttings. It is one of the 

/. gibraltarica. — A somewhat straggling-growing plant of some 
12 inches high, with larger flowers and leaves than the other kinds. 
The flowers, which are very freely produced, are borne in close 
heads and of a rosy-lilac colour. It blooms about May. Not very 
hardy, and, except in a favoured climate, should be protected during 
the winter. Easily propagated by cuttings. A most attractive 
plant, which is well worth taking some trouble about. 

/. petfaea. — Of very dwarf and prostrate habit, and a great pro- 
fusion of white flowers. Very pretty species, of fairly easy culture 
in good loam. It is given by some as a variety of /. Tenoreana. 



/. sempervirens. — A dwarf-growing and well-known little ever- 
green, shrubby plant. It bears a profusion of white, sweet-scented 
flowers in April and May. Readily increased by cuttings and seeds. 
It is hardy and of easy culture. Varieties of this plant, which are 
rather better, are : " Little Gem" more compact and dwarfer in 
habit, with smaller flowers. " Snowflake" an improved form of 
sempetvirens. More compact growth, and larger flowers of a purer 
white. The best white of the family, blooming in April and May. 

/. stylosa (syn. Noccaea stylosa). — A very dwarf-growing plant, 
with pale lilac flowers, sweet-scented. Blooms in spring. 

Incarvillea (Bignoniaceae) 

A genus of plants of rather recent introduction, of which only a 
few kinds are at present in cultivation. 

/. Delavayi. — Requires a very deep root-run in good loamy soil, 
plentifully mixed with sand and leaf- mould. It likes a half- shady 
position. Handsome leathery leaves about 12 inches long. Flowers 
trumpet-shaped, and of a rosy-purple colour, borne in racemes on 
stout stalks from i to 3 feet high. Quite easy to grow, provided the 
crowns are kept fairly dry during the winter. It is a herbaceous 
rather than a rock plant, and can easily be raised from seed. 

1. grandiflora. — This is of dwarfer habit, with smaller leaves and 
rather larger and better-coloured flowers. It requires the same 
treatment and position as the last named. It comes equally freely 
from seed. 

/. Olgae. — Tall-growing, reaching about 3 feet. Pinnate leaves. 
Rose-pink, trumpet-shaped flowers. Not a very hardy kind, nor a 
very free bloomer. 

/. variabilis. — Slender stems and loose panicles of rose-coloured 
flowers. Also of doubtful hardiness, and a shy bloomer. 

Inula (Compositae) 

A genus of plants chiefly suitable for the herbaceous border, but 
a few kinds can be used for the rock garden. These should be 
associated with the more robust-growing plants. They are all of 
easy culture in ordinary loam. They have large, composite flowers, 
and are easily increased by seed or division. 

/. acaulis. — Dwarf foliage, and large yellow flowers on stems 
about 6 inches high. 

/. ensifolia. — Is of compact habit, and has yellow flowers, one or 
more, on erect stems 9 inches high. 

/. montana. — An early flowering species, growing about 9 inches 


loNOPSiDiUM ACAULE (Cruciferae), Violet Cress 

This, though only an annual, may be included, being such a dainty 
little plant, which, when once established, sows itself, and causes no 
further trouble. It likes rather a damp spot, and only grows from 
I to 2 inches high, with small, pale violet-coloured flowers, borne in 
endless profusion the whole summer. It often comes into flower a 
couple of months after being sown. One of the very few annuals 
admissible into the rock garden. 

Iris (Iridaceae) 

A very large genus of plants, wonderfully varied, both in habit 
and flower. They are mostly too coarse-growing for the rock 
garden, but a few of the dwarfer kinds are suitable. The following 
are some of the best : — 

/. arenaria. — Sandy soil in sun. Grows 3 to 4 inches high. 
Flowers bright yellow, striped purplish-brown. Blooms iij 

/. cristata. — Light sandy, stony soil on a level spot, in sun. Of 
dwarf habit, spreading freely by means of rhizomes. Flowers a lovely 
blue, and of a large size. A beautiful plant, of which the slugs are 
mordinately fond. There is also a white form, alba, which is very 

/. gracipiles. — Requires a partial shady position in fibrous loam, 
well drained, and plentifully mixed with leaf-mould. A dwarf- 
growing and very lovely little plant, with clear blue flowers shaded 
with lilac. It is quite hardy and not difficult to grow. 

/. lacustris. — This is a miniature form of /. cristata, with flowers 
pale blue and gold. It requires similar treatment. A charming 
and dainty plant. 

/. verna. — Requires sandy peat and shady position. Only grows 
about 4 inches high. Flowers a rich violet-blue, and sweet- 

Other species suitable for growing in the rock garden, in light 
soil and sunny position, are — /. alata, I. aphylla, I. Chamaeiris and 
its varieties, /. piimila and its varieties. 


A graceful and dwarf-growing little plant for a half-shady position 
in light, rather poor soil. It has greyish-green leaves rather like a 
maiden-hair fern, and panicles of small white flowers. It is quite 
hardy, and easily propagated by seed or division. 


Jankaea Heldreichi (Gesneriaceae) 

A plant very nearly allied to the Ramondias, but most difficult to 
grow. It requires a northern aspect, in such a position that no 
moisture can fall on its leaves, while at the same time it likes a 
moderate amount at its roots. The best way to achieve this is to 
plant in a miniature cavern, so arranged that no drip can fall on it, 
though soaking the ground around. It requires sandy peat. It 
forms flat rosettes of thick leaves, coated with white silvery down. 
Lovely, pale violet-blue flowers, and shaped rather like a Soldanella. 
One of the gems for the rock garden. 

Jasione (Campanulaceae), Sheep's Scabious 

A genus of plants bearing flowers resembling a scabious. They 
are not of much interest for the rock garden. 

J. numilis. — Requires a dry, well-drained position in sandy loam. 
Of spreading, tufted habit, growing about 6 inches high. Flowers 
small and of a bright blue colour, borne in July and August. It is 
not very hardy and needs protection from damp and cold during 
the winter. Propagated by seed sown in the autumn. 

J.Jankea. — Requires light sandy soil in sunny position. Forms 
rosettes of a deep green colour, from which rise stems about 9 inches 
high, bearing heads of deep blue flowers in July. Increased by 

J. perennis. — Sunny position in light loam. Bears dense heads 
of bright blue flowers in July. Of taller habit than either of the 
preceding. Often over 12 inches in height. Increased by seed 
sown in autvmin. 

Jeffersonia diphylla (Berberidaceae) 

A plant for a shady spot in the raised parts of the bog garden, in 
sandy peat. Leaves large and two-lobed. Flowers white, with 
yellow stamens, and about an inch across, freely produced in April. 
Increased by division during the winter, or by seeds sown as soon 
as ripe. 

Kalmia (Ericaceae), American Laurel 

Evergreen shrubs, and among the most beautiful grown. They 
are of the greatest value for the rock garden. They all require a 
peaty soil. 

K. angustifolia. — Rather damp, peaty soil. It grows about 18 
inches high, and of graceful habit. Clusters of rosy-pink flowers 


towards the end of May. Quite hardy, and easily grown. There 
are several varieties, bearing flowers of different shades of 

K. glauca. — Moist, peaty soil. Of dwarf habit, growing i to 2 
feet high, with smooth leaves, silvery below, and purplish-pink 
flowers. A good rock garden shrub. 

K. hzrsuta. ~yioist, peaty soil. Leaves rather hairy. Of dwarf 
habit, growing i foot high, and not very hardy. 

K. latifolia. — Moist, peaty soil. The largest-growing of the 
family, reaching a height of 8 to 10 feet. Leaves are broad. Waxy 
pink flowers in clusters. A very handsome shrub of slow growth, 
having several varieties, the best being maxima^ which has larger 
and deeper-coloured flowers. Myrtifolia is a dwarf-growing variety 
with flowers as large as the type. A lovely little shrub. They can 
all be propagated by cuttings or layers. 

Lapeyrousia {see Anomatheca) 

Lathraea Clandestina (Orobanchaceae) 

A very curious httle parasitic plant, living on the roots of willow, 
poplar, and beech trees, provided they are in boggy ground. Only 
the flowers, which are of a lilac-purple colour, appear over the ground, 
the stems and small white leaves remaining underground. 

Lathrus (Leguminosae), Pea 

In large rock gardens some of the rarer species of the everlasting 
pea will be useful, for in no way are they more effective than when 
falling over the face of a large rock. Some of the following kinds 
are suitable for this purpose : — 

L. cyaneus (syn. Platystylis cyaneus). — Likes a light soil in a 
sunny position. Grows about 9 inches high. Blue flowers in 
April and May. Hardy, and of easy culture. This is an upright, 
not trailing species, 

L. latifoliiis. — Indifferent to soil or position. A vigorous -growing 
and trailing species, with rosy-coloured flowers. There are also 
white varieties which are good. 

L. hirsutus (syn. Orobus hirsutus). — Quite hardy in any soil or 
position. Of trailing habit. Bears a profusion of purple flowers 
the whole summer. An attractive plant. 

L. rotiindifoliiis. — Of easiest culture in any soil or position. It 
is of trailing habit. Flowers very numerous, and of a bright rose- 
pink colour. Useful for draping a rock. 


L. Sibthorpi (syn. L. undulatus). — Light soil in sunny position. 
Trailing habit, but not so vigorous as some of the other kinds. 
Purplish-red flowers, borne in spikes. It blooms in May. 

L. magellanicus. — Ordinary soil. Trailing habit. Leaves and 
stem covered with a bluish bloom. Lovely sky-blue flowers in 
bunches, freely produced during the summer. A beautiful, 
though not very hardy, almost evergreen plant. Grows readily 
from seed. 

L. variegatus. — Ordinary soil. A compact plant, growing about 
1 foot high. Bears rather small flowers ; upper petal rose-coloured 
and veined with purplish-crimson, and points of the wings blue. 
A pretty plant, quite hardy, and easily grown. Propagated by seed 
or division. 

L. varius (syn. Orobiis varius). — Ordinary soil. Of erect and 
graceful growth, about i foot high. Flowers white and very pale 
rose-coloured, borne in loose spikes. Blooms in early summer. 
Quite hardy, and of easy culture. 

L. vernus. — Ordinary soil. Erect growth, about 12 inches high. 
Flowers purple and blue, very freely produced in April. A charm- 
ing, spring-flowering plant, and of easiest culture and quite hardy. 
Readily increased by division or seed. 

Ledum (Ericaceae), Labrador Tea 

Dwarf-growing shrubs for moist, peaty, and sandy soil, well 
drained. Propagated by layers. When transplanting any of the 
Ledums, care should be taken that the ball of earth around the roots 
remains intact. 

L. buxifolium (syn. Leiophyllum buxifolium\ Sand Myrtle. — 
Moist, peaty soil in partial shade. Very dwarf-growing, with tiny, 
box-like foliage, and numerous heads of small pink-and-white 
flowers in the summer. A pretty little shrub for a choice spot. 

L. latifoliuni. — Peaty loam. Grows 2 to 3 feet high. Of compact 
habit, with small, dull-green leaves, brown beneath. Numerous 
clusters of small white flowers in April and May. Quite hardy, and 
a useful, if not striking, shrub. 

L. Lyoni. — Is of very dwarf habit, with numerous clusters of rosy- 
pink flowers. Likes a peaty soil. A pretty shrub. 

Leontice altaica (Berberidaceae) 

Ordinary soil in an open position. Grows 3 to 6 inches high. 
Flowers yellow, in terminal racemes. Forms tuberous rhizomes, 
and may be increased by offsets or seeds. Not very hardy, or of 
any special merit. 


Leontopodium alpinum (Compositae) 
The well-known " Edelweiss " needs no description. It should 
be planted on an exposed position in the rock garden, in full sun, 
and in very poor, gritty soil, with plenty of lime rubbish added. If 
grown in rich soil, its flowers become greenish, and it is liable to 
die from over-feeding. An old wall is a good spot for it. There 
are several varieties : L. maximufn, a larger form, and L. Lin- 
dauicum, flowering in late summer. 

Leucanthemum alpinum {see Chrysanthmeum alpinum) 
Leucojum {see Acis) 

Leucothoe (Ericaceae) 

Pretty evergreen shrubs, liking a peat or leaf-mould soil. Pro- 
pagated by seeds or layers. 

L. acuminata (syn. Andromeda acuminata). — Grows about 2 
feet high. Long, pointed leaves on arching stems, which in summer 
are wreathed with small, bell-shaped, white flowers. A very choice 
shrub, easy of culture, and quite hardy. 

L. axillaris, L. Catesbaei, and L. racemosa, all known under the 
generic name of Andromeda, are very similar to the above. 

L. Davisiae. — Forms a neat evergreen bush, 2 to 3 feet high, 
Small leaves on slender stems, on the ends of which dense clusters 
of small white flowers are produced in May. A very choice and 
attractive little shrub, and though not as hardy as some of the 
other kinds, it should be cultivated. 

Lewisia (Portulacaceae) 

Pretty plants, allied to the Mesembryanthemums. 

L. cotyledon. — Full sun in light well-drained gritty soil or 
moraine. Large delicate pink flowers. A beautiful species. 

L. Hoivellii. — Same soil and position as above. Rosettes of 
crinkled leaves from which rise panicles of large pale salmon- 
coloured flowers. A very beautiful and attractive species. 

L. rediviva. — Wants a sunny, dry, and very well-drained spot 
in gritty loam. Forms rosettes of rather long leaves on a woody 
stalk. The flowers are large, about 3 inches across, rose-coloured 
on the outer edge, shading to nearly white at the centre. They are 
borne in the summer in such profusion as nearly to hide the plant. 
A delicate plant, disliking much moisture in the winter, so it is 
advisable to protect it with a sheet of glass during that time. 

L. Tweedyi. — Lovely salmon-pink flowers. Is even more 
beautiful and also more delicate. The least excess of damp seems to 


prove fatal, so, unless in an exceptionally favoured climate, it should 
be kept as a house plant. Soil and treatment same as the last. 


A genus nearly allied to the Irises. 

L. fonnosa.—l^i^t peaty soil, well drained. It forms tufts of 
grass-like leaves, and bears on spikes about i8 inches long, large, 
pure white flowers. A beautiful plant, and the best of the genus. 
It is easy to grow and hardy. 

L. ixioides^ white flowers with yellow stamens, and L. Magellanica, 
white flowers. These are both very similar to L.formosa, only with 
much smaller flowers, and require the same soil and treatment. 

LiLiUM (Liliaceae) 

Some of the Lilies are amongst the choicest plants for the bog 
garden, while the smaller ones can be grown in damp spots in the 
rock garden. A selection should therefore be made from some 
catalogue. Those for the bog garden like cool, moist, well-drained 
slopes in very rich soil, in partial shade. The following are a 
few of the Ijest : — L. auratum, Platyphyllujn, Martagon and 
varieties alba and dalmaticufn, monadelphum, Krameri, longi- 
floruni and varieties, and giganteum. These fairly represent the 
various types, and are mostly of easy culture, but all Lilies are some- 
what uncertain. 

LiNARiA (Scrophulariaceae), Toadflax 

Of this genus only a few should be grown in the rock garden. 
The following are a selection of the most suitable : — 

L. alpina. — Any soil or position. A dwarf, spreading plant of 
rather dense habit. Bluish-violet-coloured flowers with orange 
throat, in the greatest profusion. It is, strictly speaking, only a 
biennial, but it sows itself about so freely that it does not matter. 
It should only be planted on a spot in which it can be allowed to 
run wild, and not smother out choicer plants. 

L. antirrhinifolia (syn. Cavanillesii). — Any aspect in light soil. 
Is of neat spreading habit, only growing about 6 inches high, and 
is not so rampant a grower as some of the other kinds. Bright 
purple flowers throughout the summer. Most easily cultivated and 
raised from seed. A good plant, though an annual. 

L. compacta. — Tiny little, creeping species, with minute, mauve 
flowers. Dainty little plant for clothing steps, etc. 

L. pallida (syn. Cymbalaria maxima). — Attractive foliage, and 
large flowers of a pale violet colour, with a white throat. A most 


rampant grower, spreading under stones, etc., by means of under- 
ground stems. It should only be planted in the wilder parts, 
where it can do no harm. A decidedly pretty flower. 


A trailing evergreen plant. It requires a shady position in moist, 
sandy peat. It forms long, rather straggling stems, on which are 
borne graceful, pale pink flowers in the summer. A pretty plant, 
which looks well falling over the face of some rock, 

L. canadensis. — Is a larger form of the above ; more brilliant in 
colour and stronger in growth. It is not particular as to aspect or 
soil, but thrives everywhere. It is altogether a more desirable 

LiNUM (Linaceae), Flax 

A genus of lovely and graceful plants, which should be freely 
massed in the rock garden. 

L. alpinmn. — Light sandy loam and peat, in any open position. 
Of quite dwarf habit, growing only 3 to 6 inches high, with large, 
dark blue flowers in summer. A very dainty and choice plant. 

L. arboreum. — Requires a warm, sheltered position in light sandy 
loam. Forms a small, shrubby bush. Large flowers of a clear 
yellow colour. Not hardy, and needs some protection. 

L. campanulatum. — Requires an open position in sandy loam. 
Grows about 12 inches high. Flowers yellow, freely produced in 
summer. A very desirable plant. 

L. flaviim, — Dry, sandy loam in sun. A shrubby evergreen 
plant, growing about 18 inches high, with bright yellow flowers in 
branched heads in the greatest profusion. Fairly hardy, and very 
easily raised from seed. A most attractive and useful plant. 

L. monogynian. — Likes a sunny position in sandy loam. Grows 
about 18 inches high, of slender habit. Large, pure white flowers 
in summer. Hardy, except in cold districts, where it is said to 
need some protection. Grows freely from seed. A very beautiful 
plant, which should be boldly massed. 

L. narbonense. — Sunny aspect in good, light soil. A very 
graceful plant, growing from 15 to 20 inches high, and during the 
whole summer a profusion of light blue flowers, veined with violet- 
blue. Quite hardy, and of easy culture. Makes a lovely and strik- 
ing picture when planted in a bold mass. Increased by seed or 

L. peren7ie. — Ordinary soil, in a sunny aspect. Grows 12 to 18 
inches high, in dense tufts, and bears a profusion of clear cobalt-blue 
flowers during the summer. Also a beautiful plant, readily increased 


by seed or division, and of easiest culture. Quite hardy. There is 
also a white form which is good. L. Leonii, L. sibiricum^ and L, 
provinciale are considered forms oi perenne. 

L. salsoloides. — Likes a sunny aspect in well-drained, sandy soil. 
A dwarf, half-shrubby species, growing about 12 inches high, with 
rather heath-like foliage. Large, pure white flowers, with a purple 
centre, freely produced in June and July. Quite hardy, and of 
easy culture, and readily raised from seeds. A very choice 

L. viscosiim. — Well-drained, sunny position in sandy loam. A 
dwarf, half-shrubby plant, growing about 12 inches high, with rather 
hairy stems. Large, pale purple-coloured flowers, veined with a 
deeper shade, are borne during the summer. Of easy culture, and 
can be readily propagated by division or seed. A handsome, showy 
species for the rock garden. 


A plant of the Verbena order, growing 6 to 12 inches high. It 
bears, during the summer, heads of pretty white or pink flowers 
It is useful for covering waste spaces, and will grow in any ordinary 
soil. Half hardy. 

LiTHOsPERMUM (Boraginaceae), Gromwell 

A genus of dwarf, half-shrubby plants of the greatest beauty and 
value for the rock garden. Some of them, unfortunately, are not 
quite hardy. Propagated by seed, cuttings, or division. 

L. canescens. — Requires a dry, sunny position in sandy and gritty 
loam, mixed with a very little lime rubbish. It forms a compact 
little bushy plant about 12 inches high, with greyish, hoary foliage. 
The flowers, which are of a good size, are orange-coloured, and borne 
in clusters from April to June. A hardy, deciduous plant, and very 

L. Gasifont.— Likes a sunny position between rocks, in sandy peat 
and loam, mixed with grit. Grows about 9 inches high, and bears, 
during the summer, lovely azure-blue flowers, with a white eye, in 
terminal clusters. Fairly hardy, but rather difiicult to cultivate. 
When planting, care should be taken not to disturb or break any of 
its roots ; if grown in a pot, do not break the ball of earth, but plant 
intact. One of the choicest of the whole family. They are lucky 
indeed with whom it will thrive. 

L. graminifolium. — Likes a sunny position in sandy loam. 
Forms rather a compact tuft, about 9 inches high, with rather 
long and narrow foliage. The flowers, which are small, and of 


a deep blue colour, are borne in drooping tenninal clusters. 
Hardy, and of comparatively easy culture. It requires top 
dressing occasionally. A very choice species, flowering from June 
to August. 

L. hirtum. — A sunny, dry position in gritty loam. Rather similar 
to L. canescens, but of dvi^arfer habit. Clusters of orange-yellow 
flowers from May to September. It is difficult to keep in any but 
a dryish climate. 

L. petraeum (syn. Moltkea petraea). — Very sandy peat and loam 
in a sunny position. It grows from 9 to 18 inches high, forming 
compact little bushes, with clusters of lovely deep blue flowers, very 
freely produced during the summer. Fairly easy to cultivate, and 
one of the choicest of the family. Easily raised from seed or 

L. prostratum. — A warm, sunny aspect in sandy peat and loam. 
It has a great aversion to lime. A prostrate-growing, half-shrubby 
plant ; evergreen. Beautiful deep blue flowers nearly the whole 
year. Quite hardy, but rather uncertain, in places growing most 
freely, while in others it barely exists. It should be planted so that 
its prostrate stems can fall down the face of a rock or bank. A 
lovely and indispensable plant, of the greatest value for the rock 
garden. It can be increased by cuttings. There is a new variety, 
known as " Heavenly blue," which is lighter in colour and very 
choice, but in no way superior to the type. 

L. purpureo-coeriileum. — Likes a little lime in the soil. Grows in 
sun or shade. Of rather rampant habit, sending out runners which 
ought to be removed, as otherwise it will not bloom. The flowers 
open red, soon change to a deep blue. Of very easy growth, but 
should not be allowed in the choicer parts of the rock garden. It 
is a native plant. 

L. rosmarinifoUum. — Likes a sunny position in a rather moist 
soil of peat, loam, and grit. A compact-growing plant, rather 
similar to grajninifolium, but with longer and narrower leaves. 
Deep blue flowers very early in the year ; it is sometimes in full 
bloom by the end of January. A very good plant, but not very 
hardy, and needs protection during hard frost. 

Lobelia (Campanulaceae) 

Some varieties of the Lobelia look very fine grown in masses in a 
large bog garden. In any but fairly mild climates, they require a 
little protection from hard frosts, and though requiring a great deal 
of moisture during the spring and summer, in the winter months 
they should be kept fairly dry. 

Z. cardinalis and L. fulgens^ and the numerous hybrids raised 



from these species, are the best kinds to grow. They give many 
shades of colour, from the most dazzhng vermihon to almost salmon- 


LoNiCERA (Caprifoliaceae), Honeysuckle 

The various species of Honeysuckle will be found useful for 
clothing large rocks or banks, and when grown in this manner will 
look far better than in their usual position, stiffly trained against 
some wall. 

LuPiNUS (Leguminosae), Lupine 

A genus of shrubs of rapid growth and very floriferous. They 
will grow in any soil. 

L. arboreus. — Of very rapid growth in any good soil ; it will reach 
a height of 4 to 5 feet in a few years. It should be sheltered from 
the wind. Flowers yellow and very fragrant, abundantly produced. 
Easily raised from seed. " Snow Queen " is a lovely white form. 
There are also numerous hybrids. 

L. decumbens. — Has pale lilac flowers borne in spikes, and silky 

Lychnis (Caryophyllaceae), Rose Campion 

A genus of showy plants, of which a few kinds are suitable for the 
rock garden. 

L. alpina. — Should be grown in rather moist, sandy loam. Grows 
only a few inches high, and has rose-coloured flowers in compact 
heads. Of quite easy culture, and readily propagated by seeds. 

L. Lagascae (syn. Petrocoptis pyrenaica). — Likes a sunny position 
in sandy loam, and looks best planted in a fissure. Of slightly 
spreading habit, though neat and compact. Leaves rather glaucous. 
Bears a profusion of bright rose-coloured flowers, with white centres, 
and blooms in early summer. Not difficult to grow, and quite one 
of the best of the genus. Propagated by seed. 

L. pyrenaica. — Sunny position in light soil. Grows 3 to 4 inches 
high. Flowers pale pink, borne in forked clusters during the 

L. Viscaria. — Any light soil. Forms compact tufts, about 4 inches 
high, of long narrow leaves. Heads of rosy-red flowers, on stems 
about 10 to 12 inches long. The variety of this, named spiendens, 
is more worthy of culture, being of a brighter colour. There is also 
a white and a double variety, both of which are good plants. All 
are of the easiest culture, and readily propagated by seed or division. 


Lysimachia Nummularia, Creeping Jenny 

A native plant of creeping habit and very rapid growth. It likes 
a shady position in moist soil. Bright yellow flowers in the greatest 
profusion all along its trailing stems. Too rampant a grower for 
any but the wilder parts. There is a golden-leaved variety, aitrea, 
which is well worth cultivating, and is not nearly so encroaching. 

L. henryi. — Trailing habit. Flowers old gold. A good recent 
introduction from China. 

The other varieties of Lysimachia are too coarse-growing. 

Macrotomia echioides {see Arnebia echioides) 

Magnolia (Magnoliaceae) 

Of this genus there is only one kind which is suitable for growing 
in the rock garden : this is M. stellata. It likes a sheltered position 
in good loam. It is a deciduous shrub, growing 3 to 4 feet high, 
covered in March, before the leaves appear, with waxy white, star- 
shaped flowers, about 4 inches across. It is quite hardy, but 
requires to be well established before flowering. 

Maianthemum bifolium (syn. Convallaria bifolia) 

It is very like, and closely allied to, the Lily-of-the-valley. It 
prefers rather a damp, shady spot. The flowers are small, and not 
fragrant. It is of quite easy cultivation. 

Malvastrum (Malvaceae), False Mallow 

Prostrate, growing plants, with flowers very like the Mallows. 
They all require a warm, well-drained position, in light sandy loam, 
and are not very hardy. 

M. Mimroana (syn. Sphaeralcea Munroana). — Flowers reddish- 
pink, tinged with brown, in June. 

M. coccinium. — Scarlet-coloured flowers. Six inches high. 

M. lateritium. — Has flowers of a brick-red colour. Prostrate 
habit. A handsome plant. 

Margyricarpus setosus (Rosaceae), Pearl Fruit 

A pretty evergreen, creeping plant, which in winter is covered 
with white berries, which look well against the dark green foliage. 
It likes an open position in peat and loam. 


Mazus Pumilio (Scrophulariaceae) 
A very dwarf-growing plant, spreading underground very rapidly. 
Likes a warm, dry position in partial shade, and should be planted 
in sandy loam. It quickly forms dense tufts, scarcely an inch high. 
Flowers are a pale violet colour, with a white centre, which barely 
rise above the leaves. Hardy, and easily increased by division. 

M. rugosus. — Light soil in any position. Trailing habit, spreading 
rapidly. Violet labiate flowers with orange spots. 

Meconopsis (Papaveraceae) 

These glorious poppies, of comparatively recent introduction, 
some of them at least, grow to a considerable height, but, being 
truly mountain plants, should find a home in the rock garden. 
Being little more than biennials, should be raised annually from 
seed. The seedlings, which require great care in handling, should be 
grown in pots during the first winter, and planted out the following 
spring. They all require a partially shady position, in a moist, 
very deep, rich, and gritty soil of peat, loam, and sand, with very 
quick drainage. 

M. aculeata. — Grows from i8 inches to 2 feet. The leaves are 
cordate and covered with brownish hairs. Flowers, borne in a 
pyramid shape, are of a beautiful violet-blue colour. A singularly 
handsome and striking plant. 

M. cambrica. — Our native Welsh Poppy, the only representative 
we have of the family, is of the easiest culture m any dry spot, and 
is of such vigorous habit, that it should not be allowed into the 
choicer parts of the garden. It has handsome, fern-like foliage, 
and bright yellow flowers. The double form is rather a better 
plant, and not so rampant a grower. The gem of the species, 
however, is M. c. aurantiaca, fi. pL, a double form, with beautiful 
orange-yellow flowers. 

M. integi-ifolia. — Grows 2 to 3 feet high. Woolly leaves and pale 
primrose-coloured flowers. Lovely. 

M. nepalensis. — Grows 3 to 5 feet high. Soft, yellow-green 
leaves, and flowers of a lovely pale yellow colour. 

M. punicea. — Grows 2 to 3 feet high. Bears drooping, 
crimson flowers. Distinct. 

M. simplicifolia. — Only grows about 9 to 12 inches high, and bears 
clear blue flowers. 

M. Wallichii. — Grows 4 to 5 feet high. Divided leaves, covered 
with silky hairs. Lovely blue flowers, with yellow stamens. A 
glorious plant. 

These poppies do not always come true to seed, varying con- 
siderably in shade, which is all the more unfortunate, as seed is the 
only means of propagating them. 


Megasea {see Saxifraga) 

Melittis Melissophyllum (Labiatae), Bastard Balm 

A plant of the Salvia order, growing about i8 inches high. 
Leaves ovate and slightly hairy. Flowers rather pretty, of a creamy- 
white colour, and spotted purplish-rose. A useful plant for growing 
amongst the shrubs adjoining the rock garden. Increased by seed 
or division. 

Mentha Requieni (Labiatae), Mint 

A pretty little creeping plant, with tiny, pale purple flowers. 
Smells strongly of peppermint. 

Menyanthes trifoliata (Gentianaceae), Buckbean 

An aquatic plant with pale pink flowers. A pretty plant, which 
can also be grown on the edges of ponds or streams. 

Menziesia (Ericaceae) 

Dwarf and compact-growing shrubs, for moist peat. 

M. caerulea (syn. Phyllodoce taxifolia). — Grows only 4 to 6 
inches high, with pinkish-lilac flowers. It blooms in autumn. 

M. einpetrifolia (syn. Bryanthus empetriformis). — A tiny shrub 
of neat habit, thriving in moist, sandy peat. Heath-like foliage. 
Flowers borne in clusters, bell-shaped, and of a rosy-purple colour. 
A very choice and pretty little shrub. 

M. ferruginea. — Has brown flowers, and only grows about 
6 inches high. 

M.f. globularia. — Grows 2 to 5 feet high, and has pink flowers 
in May. 

M.polifolia (see Erica polif olid), 

Merendera Bulbocodium (Liliaceae) 

A pretty bulbous plant bearing erect flowers of pale rosy-purple, 
blooming in the autumn. Increased by seed or division. 

Mertensia (Boraginaceae) 

Very beautiful plants of the Borage order, of graceful habit. 
M. alpina (syn. M. lanceolata). — Requires a cool spot, in moist, 
peaty soil. Grows from 6 to 10 inches high, with bluish-green 


leaves. On each stem is borne one to three terminal droop- 
ing clusters of pale blue flowers, in spring. A rare and beautiful 

M. dahiirica (syn. Pubnoftaria dahurica.) — It should be planted 
in a mixture of peat and loam, and in a sheltered nook, to save its 
leaves from being broken by the wind. It grows from 8 to 12 
inches high. The bright azure-blue flowers are borne in panicles 
on erect, branching stems. It blooms in June. Quite hardy, and 
of easy culture. It is a choice plant for the rock garden, and 
propagated by seed and division. 

M. echioides. — Requires peat and leaf-mould soil, in a cool spot. 
Grows about 12 inches high. The flowers, which are produced in 
spring and autumn, are of a lovely rich blue colour. 

M. elongata. — Cool, peaty loam. Grows about 9 inches high. 
Narrow, blue-grey leaves. Buds rosy-red, opening to pale blue. It 
blooms in the spring. It is not difficult to grow, and can be raised 
easily from seed. About the best of this lovely genus. 

M. lanceolata {see M. alpind). 

M. maritima. — Requires a light, very sandy soil of good depth. 
It forms long trailing stems, and has bluish, glaucous leaves. 
Flowers are of a lovely turquoise-blue colour. Quite easy to grow. 
Slugs have a great love for this plant. It blooms in the summer. 
It can be increased by seed or division. 

M. oblongifolia. — Cool spot, in peat and leaf-soil. Grows only 
3 to 4 inches high. Fleshy, dark green leaves, and clustered heads 
of pale blue flowers. 

M. ■primuloides. — Cool, light, peaty loam. Heads of lovely 
flowers, changing from ruby to a deep blue colour as they open. It 
grows from 6 to 9 inches high. It is of easy culture, and a very 
choice and lovely plant. 

M. p. var. Chitralensis has larger flowers and deeper colouring. 

M. sibirica. — Light loam, in a cool spot. Grows 12 to 18 inches 
high. Small, bell-shaped flowers, in loose, drooping terminal 
clusters. They vary in colour from the rosy-pink of the half-opened 
bud to the purple-blue of the fully expanded flower. It is in bloom 
from May to June. Of easy culture, and may be increased by 
division. There is also a white form. 

M. virginica. — Likes rather a moist soil of rich, light loam. It 
should be planted in some sheltered spot where the wind cannot 
affect its lovely glaucous leaves. The trumpet-shaped flowers, 
nearly an inch long, and of a lovely purple-blue colour, are disposed 
in drooping terminal clusters from stems 12 to 18 inches high. It 
is of easiest culture in any but stiff or dry soils, and can be 
increased by division. A most lovely and attractive plant, bloom- 
ing in April. 


Mesembryanthemum (Ficoideae) 

A genus of succulent plants, some of which are fairly hardy 
in a very dry, sandy position in a favourable climate. They are 
mostly of a trailing habit, and of very rapid growth. The flowers, 
which only open in the sun, are extraordinarily brilliant and of every 
colour and shade. Anybody enjoying a warm, dry climate should 
certainly try a selection of them. They strike with the greatest 
ease from cuttings inserted in pure sand. 


A large genus, of which the following are the only suitable kinds. 
Easily grown in ordinary soil in an open position, and are useful 
for planting in chinks. Increased by cuttings. 

M. croatica. — Grows 3 to 6 inches high. Flowers pale rose- 
violet. Summer. 

M. graeca. — A pubescent shrubby plant, growing g inches high, 
with pink flowers, in June. 

Other species are M. Juliana, with pink flowers, and M. rupestris, 
with white or purple flowers. 

MiMULus (Scrophulariaceae), Monkey Flower 

A numerous genus, of which a few of the named varieties may be 
planted in the bog garden, and will give a good patch of colour 
during the summer. M. Brilliant and M. Model are the two best 
for this purpose. 

M. radicans. — A tiny, creeping plant, with brownish, rather hairy 
leaves lying close to the ground. Small white flowers, with a violet- 
coloured blotch. It requires to be planted in a very damp spot. 
Quite hardy, and of easiest culture in any moist, boggy position. 
An interesting and charming little plant. Propagated by division. 

M.primiiloides. — Is also a minute, creeping species, for a wet spot, 
and has pretty yellow flowers. Easily propagated by division. 

Mitchella repens (Rubiaceae), Partridge Berry 

A charming little evergreen, trailing plant, for a damp spot in 
shade, and planted in light peaty loam and sand. It has roundish, 
shiny leaves, and white flowers tinged with purple, followed by red 
berries in the autumn. 


Hardy perennials of no special merit. 

M. diphylla. — Likes a partially shaded position in light peaty 


soil. Serrated leaves in tufts, growing about 6 inches high. 
Slender racemes of white-fringed flowers from April to June. 

M. pentandra. — For a shady spot in peaty soil. Forms a good 
tuft of palmate leaves, and spikes of yellowish flowers on slender 
stems. Sows itself about freely. 

MoDioLA GERANioiDES (Malvaceae), syn. Malvastrium 


A trailing plant, growing 4 to 6 inches high, with rosy-purple 
flowers, with a dark line in the centre, borne singly on slender 
stalks. Quite hardy, and of easy culture in light, well-drained soil 
Increased by division. 

Moehringia Muscosa (Caryophyllaceae) 

A dwarf evergreen plant for a damp spot in fine sandy loam. 
It grows 2 to 3 inches high, with prostrate stems clothed with very 
narrow leaves. Small white, solitary flowers, produced in May and 
June. Increased by seed or division. 


Moneses grandiflora (syn. Pyrola uniflora) 

Hardy perennial plant for a half-shady position in moist, spongy 
peat and sandy loam. Forms flat rosettes of leaves about 6 inches 
high. Solitary pink or white flowers about | of an inch across. A 
very difficult plant to cultivate. 

MoRisiA hypogaea (Cruciferae) 

One of the most charming little rock plants. It likes a very well- 
drained, sandy soil in an open position. I find it does best in a 
fairly cool spot not baked by the sun. It forms flat little tufts of 
glossy leaves, and the flowers, which bloom in April, are of a bright 
clear yellow and about i inch across, borne singly on very short 
stalks. Quite hardy, and a little gem for association with the 
choicest rock plants. Increased by seed and careful division. 

Muehlenbeckia nana (Polygon ace ae) 

A dwarf evergreen shrub of trailing habit, forming a carpet only 
a few inches high. Sunny position in well-drained, sandy soil. The 
leaves are small and of a dark green colour, and borne on slender, 
wiry stems. Other varieties, suitable only for clothing very large 


rocks or for growing amongst shrubs, are M. cotnplexa and adpressa^ 
both of which bear rather inconspicuous white flowers. 

MuscARi (Liliaceae), Grape Hyacinth 

Little bulbous plants commonly known by name of Grape Hyacinth. 
Only one or two species are really distinct. They are early flower- 
ing, and valuable on that account. They like a sunny spot, and 
increase fairly rapidly. 

M. conicum. — "Heavenly blue" is the best coloured, having deep 
blue flowers very freely produced. 

M. -moschatum. — Rather ugly flowers of a greenish-yellow colour, 
but most deliciously fragrant, and well worth growing on that 
account alone. 

M. szovitsianum. — Has large and pretty spikes of a pale blue 

Myosotis (Boraginaceae) 

The " Forget-me-nots " give us some lovely and valuable plants 
for a moist or shady spot. So long as the ground is damp they do 
not require shade, in fact they bloom better in the open. 

M. alpestris (syn. M. rupicola). — Likes a half-shady position 
between pieces of sandstone, in a light, well-drained, though rather 
moist soil ; is apt to perish in the winter in excessive moisture. It 
forms close tufts of dark green, rather hairy leaves, and grows only 
about 2 inches high. The flowers are of a beautiful blue colour, 
with a yellow eye, which are borne in the greatest profusion during 
the early summer. Though hardy, it is not easy to keep in health. 
Easily raised, and comes true from seed. There are considerable 
differences of opinion as to whether rupicola is merely a variety 
of alpestris, or a distinct species. I have taken them as being 
synonymous, as from a gardener's point of view they are so 
similar in appearance, and, requiring the same treatment, there 
is no advantage in separating them. There are several named 
varieties of M. alpestris, the raisers of which claim them to be 
superior to the type. 

M. azorica. — Likes a sheltered, half-shady position in deep, moist, 
sandy loam. It forms spreading tufts. It has rich purple-blue 
flowers, borne on arching stems about 6 to 9 inches long. It is not 
very hardy, but can be easily raised from seed, which should be sown 
in the autumn, and seedlings kept in frames during the winter and 
planted out in May. A very choice and lovely plant. 

M. dissitijiora. — Likes moist loam in sun and partial shade. It 
is very similar to M. sylvatica in appearance, but blooms earlier in 


the year, its flowers appearing in January or February. Easily in- 
creased by division, and of easy culture. A good plant on account 
of its early flowering proclivities. 

M. palustris. — Grows freely in any wet spot, but so freely does 
it grow, that it should only be planted where it can have plenty of 
room to spread without damaging other and choicer plants. 
" The Czar " is a good free-flowering variety of this. 

M. sylvatica. — Is of easy culture in almost any soil or position, 
so long as it does not suffer from drought. It should be treated as 
a biennial and a stock raised annually from seed. A very pretty 
plant for massing in waste spots. 

M. Reichstcineri. — A tiny creeping species, which will grow in 
any fairly damp soil. It makes a little matted carpet of smooth, 
bright green leaves, and in early summer spikes of small turquoise- 
blue flowers are borne on stems, rising barely 2 inches from the 
ground. Increased by division. A little top-dressing of sandy leaf- 
soil should occasionally be applied. A most delightful and choice 
little plant, and one of the best for making a carpet for bulbous 
plants. It is a variety of M. caespitosa, which is almost identical 
with M. palustris. 

Narcissus (Amaryllideae) 

Well-known, spring-flowering bulbous plants, of which there are 
so many new and lovely varieties that it is impossible to keep pace 
with all the later hybrids, unless one were a specialist in that branch. 
Many, however, of the commoner kinds should be planted in and 
about the rock garden, to give colour to it in early spring. In no 
position do they look better than in grass or coming through a 
carpet of some creeping rock plant. 

Narthecium ossifragum (IjILiaceae), Bog Asphodel 

A native plant for the bog or marsh garden. Somewhat like an 
Iris in growth, with spikes of yellow flowers. Pretty plant of easy 
culture in any wet spot. 

Nepeta Mussini (Labiatae), Catmint 

A very old garden plant. It forms a dense, prostrate tuft about 
lo inches high, with greyish, fragrant leaves, and a great profusion 
of lavender-blue flowers during the summer. It is a rapid grower 
in any light soil in full sun. A most valuable and attractive plant 
both on account of its foliage and flowers, and should be freely 
used. It can readily be struck from cuttings. 


Nertera depressa (Rubiaceae) 
A very diminutive, creeping plant for a moist spot. It forms a 
close, compact mat of bright green leaves about 2 inches high. 
The flowers are inconspicuous, but the bright orange-red berries 
which appear in autumn are most attractive. It is not very hardy, 
and should be protected from snow. Increased by division. 

Nierembergia (Solanaceae) 

An attractive genus of perennial plants. 

N. Frutescens. — A most dainty and attractive plant, like a Linum 
both in foliage and flower. It likes a rather dry and sheltered 
position in sandy loam. It forms a half-shrubby plant, about 12 
to 18 inches high. The flax-like flowers are blue, shading to white 
at the edges, and are most lovely. This most attractive plant is 
unfortunately not very hardy, except in a mild climate. Propagated 
by seed and cuttings. 

N. gracilis. — Light sandy soil in sun. Grows 6 to 12 inches 
high. Flowers white, streaked with purple, centre yellow. Blooms 
in the summer, and very freely. Attractive, but not very hardy. 

N. Rivularis. — Sunny position in light gritty soil. Dwarf and 
creeping plant, spreading rapidly by means of underground stems. 
The ovate leaves rise about 3 inches. The cup-shaped flowers are 
creamy-white, and rise just above the foliage. A shy bloomer, though 
of free growth and quite hardy. Easily increased by division. 

OENOTHERA (Onagraceae), Evening Primrose 

Of this large genus the only species suitable for the rock garden 
are : 

CE. Arendsii. — Light gritty loam on a sunny bank. Of trailing 
habit. Lovely delicate shell-pink flowers, July to October. Free- 
growing and very beautiful. It is a hybrid {speciosa x rosea). 

CE. caespiiosa {syn. CE. eximia and marginatd). — Requires a light 
loamy soil. Not particular as to aspect. It is of trailing habit, and 
grows about 9 inches high. Large white flowers, changing to pale 
rose colour, and sweet-scented. A handsome plant, of easy culture, 
and increased by cuttings or division. It is night-flowering. 

CE. eximia (see CE. caespiiosa). 

CE. fruticosa Yoiingii. — Ordinary, well-drained soil. Grows 
about 18 inches high, and bears a profusion of bright yellow flowers 
during the summer. A very good species, also night-flowering. 

CE. Fraseri. — Well-drained, light soil. Grows about 12 inches 
high. Bright yellow flowers in great profusion, from July to 
October. Of easy culture. This plant is a variety of CE. glauca, 

CE. marginata (see CE. caespiiosa). 


CE. missouriensis latifolia (syn. CE. Macrocarpd). — Likes a light, 
well-drained soil. It grows about 8 inches high, and is of trailing 
habit. Clear yellow flowers, 4 to 5 inches across, borne in such 
profusion as to hide the plant. It blooms from June to September. 
It is night-flowering, and one of the best of the genus. Increased 
by cuttings made in April, or by careful division. 

CE. rosea. — Grows 12 inches high. Flowers pink, in July. Not 
very hardy. 

CE. speciosa. — Requires well-drained loam. Forms a neat, almost 
shrubby plant, 12 to 18 inches high, with quantities of large white 
flowers, which come out during the day. A lovely plant, and of 
fairly easy culture, but it does not stand a wet winter well. In- 
creased by division or cuttings. 

CE. taraxacifolia (syn. CE. acaulis). — Does best in a deep, cool, 
rather rich soil. Grows about 6 to 9 inches high, and is of trailing 
habit and free growth. Leaves rather greyish and deeply cut. 
Flowers large white, changing to pale rose as they become older. 
It is fairly hardy, but is liable to perish in a wet winter or cold soils. 
Easily raised from seed. Quite one of the best of the genus, and a 
most desirable plant ; also has the advantage of blooming in the 
daytime, though at its best at night. 

Omphalodes (Boraginaceae) 

A genus of hardy and attractive plants. 

O. Lucilia. — A rare and rather capricious plant, requiring 
thoroughly drained and very gritty soil ; in fact the compost should 
be made up of about equal parts of loam, grit, and small stone 
chips : a little powdered slate is said to be a help. It likes an open, 
sunny position, and grows 6 to 9 inches high. The leaves are 
glaucous, grey, and very pretty. Flowers are pale sky-blue, and 
borne in racemes. It blooms in the summer. A plant, lovely as 
it is rare. 

O. nitida. — Light soil in open position. Leaves glabrous above 
and downy beneath. Flowers white, borne in long racemes. Fairly 
rapid grower, spreading by means of strawberry-like runners. A 
very pretty plant. 

O. verna. — Likes a damp soil in half shade. Grows about 4 
inches high, and is of spreading and vigorous habit. Flowers deep 
blue, with a white throat, blooming in early spring. A charming 
old plant for a shady nook. Is easily increased by division. 

Ononis (Leguminosae) 
The " Rest Harrows " are useful and pretty plants for dry, poor 
soils, though not of very great interest. They all can be increased 
by seed or cuttings. 


O. arvensis. — A dwarf-growing plant, forming dense, spreading 
tufts about 6 inches high. Masses of pink flowers in June. Quite 
a useful plant, and of the easiest culture. 

O. fruticosa. — Is a dwarf, shrubby species, growing about 12 
inches high. Flowers purple, and borne in racemes during the 

O. Natrix. — Also a somewhat shrubby plant, growing about 18 
inches high, with yellow flowers veined with red. 

0. rotundifolia. — A half-shrubby plant, growing 12 to 18 inches 
high. Flowers rose-coloured, upper standard veined crimson. A 
useful and handsome plant for the rougher parts of the rock garden. 

Onosma (Boraginaceae), Golden Drop 

A genus of plants, some of much beauty. They all require deep, 
well-drained, sandy soil in full sun, in such a position that no wet 
can lie about and rot them. They do well planted between rocks, 
round which they can get their roots and keep them cool and moist. 
As some kinds are of but little beauty or value, the following is a 
selection of the best : — 

O. albo-roseum. — Forms a compact tuft about 6 inches high, with 
hairy, rather silvery leaves. Flowers white, changing to pale rose, 
borne in racemes during June and July. There is also a form 
called alba, in which the flowers remain white. Both are very 
pretty, and can be propagated by cuttings in the summer. 

O. Bourgaei. — Grows about 6 inches high, forming compact tufts 
of silvery-white leaves, and bearing deep yellow flowers in June and 

O. tauriciim (syn. O. echioides). — Forms compact tufts of rather 
hairy leaves, about 6 to 8 inches high, with clear yellow, fragrant 
flowers, borne in drooping clusters on stems about 14 inches high. 
Can be increased by cuttings. A handsome plant for a dry ledge. 

O. Thojnpsoni. — Forms a tuft of rather hairy leaves. Flowers 
red, borne in a dense head on an upright stem about 14 inches 

Ophrys (Orchideae) 

Small terrestrial orchids, mostly too delicate and difificult to grow 
to be of much value for the rock garden. There are, however, a 
few native species which may be tried. 

O. apifera (Bee Orchis). — Requires a dry, warm soil of loam and 
broken limestone, and should have the surface of the ground, in 
which it grows, covered with cocoa fibre and sand about i inch 
thick to keep it moist. The leaves are glaucous and lie close to the 
ground. Flowers, borne on stems about 12 inches high, are velvety 
brown, with yellow markings. 


Other varieties worth growing and requiring similar treatment 
are : O. muscifera (Fly Orchis), O. aranifera (Spider Orchis), 
O. Arachnites, O. bombilifera (Humble Bee Orchis), and O. Trolli. 

Opuntia (Cactaceae) 

Plants of the Cacti order, some of which are hardy in the warmer 
districts, and many are very beautiful when in flower. They all 
require a very hot, dry situation in light soil, with plenty of lime 
rubbish mixed with it. They should be kept dry during the winter. 
As these can scarcely be considered typically rock plants, but are 
more generally associated with tropical vegetation, it would be 
better to group, in a spot reserved for them, when the needed pro- 
tection during the winter could be more easily given. Most 
nurserymen keep them, and a selection can be obtained. 

Orchis (Orchideae) 

Many of the terrestrial Orchids are very beautiful for the bog and 
rock garden. Orchids, even our own native species, are generally 
considered difficult to cultivate. This, however, is due not so much 
to the nature of the plant, as to the time of planting. They should 
never be moved when in flower or making growth, which so fre- 
quently is just the time when they are transplanted, with the result 
that they die, and thereby get a bad reputation. August and 
September are the best months for planting them. The following 
selection will give some of the hardiest and best species : — 

O.foliosa. — Rich, rather d^mp, heavy loam in a sheltered nook. 
Dense spikes of rosy- purple spotted flowers, rising about i8 inches 
from the ground. A very handsome species, flowering in May. 

O. latifolia (Marsh Orchis). — Damp, rather rich, boggy soil, in 
partial shade. Purple or red flowers in long, dense spikes, coming 
into bloom about June. There are several good varieties of this — 

O. I. incarfiata. — Flesh-coloured. 

O. I. sesquipedalis. — Violet-purple colour, in very long spikes. 

O. laxijiora. — Moist loam and peat in partial shade. Loose 
spikes of rich purplish-red flowers in May. Handsome. 

O. jnaculata. — The well-known " Spotted Orchis " will be found 
an excellent plant for the bog garden. The variety superba is very 

O. papilionacea (Butterfly Orchis). — Heavy loam and limestone. 
Flowers reddish-purple. 

Other varieties that can be grown are — 

O. militaris and O. purpurea^ in limestone and heavy loam. 

O. mascula, O. pyraniidalis, O. sambucina, and O. spectabilis, 


in rich, rather heavy, moist loam and peat, with sand added, in 
a partially shady position. 
All Orchids require a considerable depth of soil. 

Origanum (Labiatae) 

A genus of shrubby plants of not much value. The following are 
a selection of the best : — 

O. dictaimius. — A sub-shrubby plant for a dry, sunny position in 
light loam. Grows about 12 inches high. It has mottled, downy 
foliage, and its heads of small pink flowers are borne from June to 
August in great profusion. It is rather a tender plant, and will need 
some protection in a severe winter. 

O. pulchrum. — Sunny position in sandy loam. Sub-shrubby 
plant, with silvery leaves, and rosy-purple flowers in August. A 
good rock plant. 

O. Sipyleutn. — A shrubby plant of procumbent habit. Flowers 

Othonna (Compositae) 

A large genus of glabrous plants only half hardy. The following 
are the only species suitable : — 

O. cheirifolia (syn. Othonnopsis cheirifolid). — Dry, sunny position. 
A vigorous, trailing plant, growing 12 inches high, with greyish, 
glaucous leaves. The flowers are bright golden-yellow, and are 
produced during early summer. A useful evergreen plant, which 
can be easily propagated from cuttings. 

O. crassifolia. — Light sandy loam in full sun. A creeping plant 
of rapid growth, with curious, succulent leaves, like a Sedum, of a 
bright green colour. Numerous yellow, daisy-like flowers are borne 
during the summer. A pretty and useful plant. Not hardy, but 
can so easily be propagated by cuttings that it is quite worth 
while wintering a few plants in a cold-house. 

Ourisia coccinea (Scophulariaceae). 

A lovely plant, but of rather uncertain habit in cultivation. The 
two conditions it requires are half shade and moisture ; given these, 
it in all probability will thrive. Rather heavy loam seems to suit it 
best. That, at least, is my experience, but others recommend deep, 
gritty peat. It is of creeping habit, forming tufts of crinkled leaves 
about 4 inches high, from which rise stems about 8 inches high, on 
which bright crimson flowers are borne in racemes during the 
summer. It is quite hardy, and may be increased by division. 

O. 7nacrophylla. — Quite a new introduction from New Zealand, 
and not yet in general cultivation. It fonns tufts of handsome leaves 


and white flowers in whorls, and rising about 12 inches over the 
foliage. If it proves hardy, as it appears to be, it should be an 
acquisition for the rock garden. 

OxALis (Geraniaceae) 

A large genus of dwarf-growing plants, few are hardy except our 
own native species. The following are of proved hardiness : — 

O. Acetosella. — The native Wood Sorrel, which, however, grows 
so freely in woods that it is scarcely worth devoting a place to it in 
the rock garden. 

O. Adenophylla. — Requires cool, sandy loam in partial shade. 
The foliage and habit resemble O. en7ieaphylla^ but the flowers are 
a lovely, very pale pink, with a blue line down the centre of each 
petal. A most lovely plant, but as yet very rare in cultivation ; it 
is, if possible, prettier than its prototype, O. enneaphylla. 

O. enneaphyUa. — Likes a cool, moist, light sandy loam free from 
lime. It grows more freely in shade, but flowers better if exposed 
to a certain amount of sunshine. It forms a compact tuft of very 
pretty, glaucous, grey, crinkled leaves. It has a curious scaly 
bulbous root. The flowers, which are rather like a Convolvulus, are 
pearly-white, with a purple stain at the base of each petal, and 
nestle amongst the leaves. It blooms in June and July, and is quite 
hardy, and not difficult to grow. There are few more fascinating or 
dainty plants for the rock garden. There is a very lovely variety, 
rosea, which was collected by Mr C. Elliot in the Falkland Isles. 

O . floribu7ida. — Any soil in partial shade. Forms a compact tuft 
of pretty leaves growing about 6 inches high, and produces during 
the whole summer a succession of pretty rose-coloured flowers. It 
is of the easiest culture, and of rapid growth. There is also a 
pretty white form equally free-flowering. 


A genus of dwarf-growing plants of the Vetch order. They all 
require a sunny, warm position in well-drained, light sandy loam. 

O. baicalensis. — About 4 inches high, flowers blue in July. 

O, campestris. — Grows about 6 inches high. Has rather downy 
foliage. It has erect spikes of yellowish flowers in the summer. 
Increased by seed or division. Not a very striking plant. 

O. pyrenaica.--h. dwarf, very prostrate species. The leaves are 
clothed with a silky down, and only rise a few inches from the 
ground. Purplish-lilac flowers, borne in rather dense heads. It is 
of fairly easy culture, and can be increased by seed or division. 
Blooms in July. 


O. montaiia. — Dwarf-growing, with silky foliage and blue flowers 
in the summer. Seed and division. 

O. Lainbertii. — Silky foliage, and rosy-carmine flowers, in August. 
A rare and beautiful species. 

O. Yunnanensis. — Of dwarf tufted habit, with pale blue flowers, 
rather like a trefoil. 

Pachysandra procumbens (Euphorbiaceae) 

Dwarf-growing evergreen plant for a shady spot, with small 
spikes of white flowers in March. 

P. terminalis. — A hardy evergreen plant, with dark green, 
leathery leaves and inconspicuous flowers. There is also a 
variegated variety. Both like half shade. 

Papaver (Papaveraceae), Poppy 

Only two species of the Poppy family are suitable for the rock 
garden. Both are of the easiest culture. 

P. alpina (syn. P. pyrenaicum). — Sunny position in light loam. 
Very dwarf-growing, forming compact tufts of pretty, finely cut, 
bluish-grey leaves. The flowers, which rise about 6 to 8 inches 
over the foliage, are of various colours, there being white, yellow, 
and scarlet in cultivation. It is difficult to transplant, so it is 
advisable to raise from seed on the spot assigned to it. A very 
dainty and attractive plant. The \dir\&t.y,_fiaviflorum, has orange- 
coloured flowers, and is rather hairy. 

P. nudicaule. — The Iceland Poppy is almost too wild a grower 
for the rock garden, but is so showy and pretty that a place should 
be found for it in the rougher parts. The original type had yellow 
flowers, but every shade of orange, yellow, and red are in cultiva- 
tion, besides a white form. It is practically only a biennial. 


The lovely "St Bruno's Lily" should find a place in the rock 
garden in some shady nook, or planted amongst the shrubs 
adjoining. It is of the easiest culture, in any ordinary soil in 
partial shade. Its pure white flowers, about 2 inches long, are 
borne two to five on each stem, which rises about i8 inches from 
the ground. There is a larger form, major, with longer stems and 
bigger flowers. 

Parnassia (Saxifragaceae) 

Plants for a wet spot in the bog garden. 

P. caroliniana. — Requires a wet, marshy spot. The stem grows 
from i8 inches to 2 feet high, and has large white flowers, i to \\ 
inches across, and large leathery leaves. 



p. fimbriata. — Grows freely in any rich, damp soil. Flowers 
white, and of a good size, with a fringe of white hairs at the base of 
each petal. Flower-stems rise about 12 to 18 inches from the 
ground. A handsome plant, of easy culture. 

P. fialusins. — The native " Grass of Parnassus," which grows 
freely in damp soil. The white flowers, veined greenish, are borne 
on stems about 6 to 9 inches high. Easily raised from seed, which 
should be sown, as soon as gathered, in moist spots assigned to the 

Parochetus communis (Leguminosae), Shamrock Pea 

A lovely creeping plant for a damp, sheltered spot. Its clover- 
like leaves rise only some 3 inches from the ground. The flowers, 
which are pea-shaped, are of a most beautiful azure-blue, and 
freely borne during the summer. It is rather inclined to go off 
in extra cold or damp winters. It is a most vigorous grower, 
quickly covering large spaces, so should not be planted near 
anything choice. It is a very lovely plant, and should certainly be 
grown when space will admit. 

Paronychia serphyllifolia (Illecebraceae) 

Small, creeping plant of dense, tufty growth, of little value except 
to clothe some bare, dry bank. 

Parrya Menziesii (Cruciferae) 

A plant nearly allied to the Aubrietias, growing only about 6 inches 
high, with spikes of soft, rose-coloured flowers. 

Paschkenia Schilloides 

A bulbous plant for an open situation in light sandy soil. Grows 
4 to 8 inches high. Flowers white, striped and tinged with blue, 
and borne in racemes, on stems about 6 to 8 inches high. Hardy. 
Increased by division. A very charming little spring-flowering 

Pelargonium Endlicherianum (Geraniaceae) 

Requires a sheltered, sunny nook in gritty loam. It grows about 
6 inches high, with deep, rose-coloured flowers, borne on stems 
about 18 inches high. Hardy in most places. An interesting and 
handsome plant. 

Penstemon (Scrophulariaceae) 

A genus of beautiful plants, many of which, however, are too large 
and coarse-growing for the rock garden. The following will be 


found suitable and hardy. They all require a warm spot in light, 
free loam, and can easily be propagated by seed or cuttings. 

P. azureus. — Is of branching habit, bearing numerous violet-blue 
flowers in whorls during the summer. This plant is quite hardy. 
P.Jeffreya7ms is a variety of this, with larger flowers. 

P. caeruleus. — Grows about 9 inches high. Has glaucous, grey 
foliage, and lovely, pale turquoise-blue flowers. It is not very 
hardy. It comes freely from seed, but, unfortunately, frequently 
not true, the same batch of seedlings giving many shades of colour, 
and only a very small percentage of which will be the desired tint. 

P. Davidsoni. — Gritty, well-drained soil in a warm position or 
moraine. Forms a tiny shrub of rather prostrate habit. Small 
glaucous, leathery leaves. Flowers large and brilliant ruby-red. 
A really lovely plant. 

P. glaber. — Rather dwarf, prostrate habit, with dense heads of 
a fine shade of blue, tinged with rose. Very variable from seed. 

P. glaucus. — Forms a compact plant about 9 inches high, with 
bluish-grey foliage and dense heads of large, purplish-blue flowers 
in July. Rather a distinct plant. 

P. heterophyllus. — Grows from 12 to 18 inches, forming a graceful, 
sub-shrubby plant. Flowers pale, violet-blue, with throat of azure- 
blue. A lovely plant, and hardy, except in a severe winter. It, like 
many others of the genus, varies considerably from seed. 

P. liumilis. — Requires a sunny spot in gritty loam and leaf-mould. 
Forms a compact tuft 8 inches high. Large flowers of a reddish- 
purple colour in May and June. It should be watered freely. 

P . procerus. — Is of creeping habit, forming neat tufts, from which 
rise 6- to 12-inch stems, bearing dense spikes of amethyst-blue 
flowers. One of the best of the family and the earliest to bloom. 
Can be raised easily from seed. 

P. Scouleri.—K plant of half-shrubby habit, growing about 12 
inches high. Flowers a pretty shade of pale purplish-blue, borne 
in terminal racemes. A good plant, of easy culture. Propagation 
by seed or cuttings in spring and struck in a little bottom heat. 

Pernettya mucronata (Ericaceae) 
Dwarf-growing, evergreen shrub, growing freely in peaty loam, 
or even in heavy soil with leaf-mould added. Flowers small and 
pinky-white, followed in the autumn by small purple-black berries. 
A very useful shrub for the higher slopes of the rock garden. Quite 
hardy, and will grow readily under trees. Increased by division. 

Petrocallis pyrenaica (syn. Draba pyrenaica) 
A very dwarf-growing little plant for a warm spot in fine, sandy, 
fibrous loam soil. Pieces of limestone should be buried in the soil 


for it to get its roots about. It forms dense green tufts, about 3 
inches high, from which rise its fragrant, pale lilac-coloured flowers, 
scarcely half an inch over the foliage. A very dainty little plant 
for a choice spot, needing careful culture, though quite hardy. A 
yearly top dressing of lime rubbish is beneficial. 

Philesia buxifolia (Liliaceae) 

A lovely dwarf, evergreen shrub. It requires a half-sunny aspect, 
sheltered from the north, in rather damp, fibrous, sandy peat. The 
lovely flowers, which are like a Lapageria, are of a carmine-red 
colour. Not hardy except in the southern counties, and is not easy 
to cultivate. It may take a year or more before becoming estab- 
lished, or, at least, making any growth. Shoots should be pegged 
down to encourage them to layer. A most exquisite gem, and worth 
endless trouble to obtain success. 

Phlox (Polemoniaceae) 

The taller-growing species of this very large genus are suitable 
for the border only. But there are many dwarf and creeping kinds 
which are amongst the most valuable and easiest cultivated plants 
we have for the rock garden. Any ordinary light soil will suit them, 
and they are not particular as to aspect, but bloom and grow better 
in sun. They can be easily increased by cuttings taken in July ; 
and inserted in sandy soil and placed in a frame shaded from full 
sun, they root quickly, and should be flowering plants by the follow- 
ing year. Another way is by layers, pegging down some of the 
prostrate stems in sandy soil : they will soon make roots at that 

P. anioena. — Of spreading habit, with rosy-coloured flowers in early 
summer. Very hardy, and of easiest culture. 

P. Carolifia (syn. P. ovata). — Of procumbent habit, with clusters of 
large rosy flowers, on stems about 12 inches high. 

P.divaricata. — Grows about 12 inches high, with flat heads of large, 
pale lavender-coloured flowers. Very pretty, but not of the prostrate 
habit of the creeping Phloxes. There are several varieties of this 
plant, all excellent. They are — 

P. d. a/<5a.— White. 

P. d. canadetisis. — Rather a darker shade of colour from the type, 
and of looser growth. 

P. d. Laphami (Perry's var.). — Finer form of P. d. canadensis. 

P. d. Douglasii. — Pale lavender-coloured flowers, with an orange 

P. pilosa. — Grows about 12 to 14 inches high, and has flat heads 
of large purple flowers. The true plant is very rare. 


P. procumhens. — Of creeping habit, and brownish foliage. 
Panicles of purple flowers in June from its prostrate growth. 

P. reptans. — Creeping habit and rapid growth, covering the 
ground and rocks with its soft green foliage, about an inch high. 
The purplish-rose-coloured flowers are borne in clusters on stems 
4 to 6 inches high. Easily increased by division. 

P. Stellaria. — Forms a fairly compact tuft of narrow leaves, with 
spikes of bluish-white, star-like flowers. Quite distinct. 

P. subulata. — Of dwarf, prostrate habit, forming a compact ever- 
green mass, about 6 inches high. The leaves are awl-shaped and 
very numerous. The flowers are rose-coloured, with a dark eye, so 
freely produced as to hide the plant. It is of rapid growth, and very 
hardy ; the only thing it dislikes is excessive drought. This is the 
type of the indispensable creeping, mossy Phlox, of which endless 
varieties are in cultivation, and are amongst the most valuable 
plants there are for the rock garden, and should be freely grown 
either to cover a bank or to clothe the face of a rock. They are all 
lovely, and of the easiest culture. A selection should be made from 
some catalogue. Mr T. Smith of Newry has a remarkably fine 
collection, and many of the most beautiful hybrids are of his 

Physaria Didymocarpa (Cruciferae) 

Hot, dry position in very sandy loam. Curious large, succulent, 
glaucous leaves, growing about 6 inches high, and yellow flowers. 
A recent introduction. 

Phyteuma (Campanulaceae) 

Pretty plants for the rock garden, of the Bell-flower order. 

P. comosum. — Requires a warm, sunny chink in well-drained, very 
calcareous, sandy soil. It should have plenty of root room, and 
should be so placed that water cannot lie about and rot its crown. 
The leaves are dark green, and only grow about 2 inches high. 
The flowers are deep purple and of a curious shape, and are borne 
in flattish heads on very short stems. It is quite hardy, though 
having the reputation of being difficult to grow ; but with plenty of 
lime rubbish and good drainage there should be no trouble. Slugs 
are particularly fond of this plant, and if not guarded against will soon 
destroy it. One of the gems for a choice spot in the rock garden. 

P. paiiciflorum. — Light sandy, calcareous soil in sun. Forms a 
compact little tuft of narrow leaves, and has heads of deep blue 
flowers. Difficult to cultivate, but very attractive. 

P. heniisphaericunt and P. ofbiculare are very similar to the last- 
named, but not quite so choice, though both are good rock plants 
for a limestone soil. 


p. Sieberi. — Requires a sunny aspect in moist, peaty, and loamy 
soil, with sand added. Forms a compact tuft, with dark blue flower 
heads on stems about 5 inches high. Blooms in May and June, and 
can be increased by division. 

P. humilis. — Dry, sheltered position in sandy loam. Dark blue 
flowers on stems 6 inches high, in June. It should be kept dry 
during the winter, but requires plenty of moisture during the 
summer. It blooms in June. 

P. Scheuchzeri. — Sandy soil in open position. Forms a nice tuft 
of rather long narrow leaves and round heads of deep-blue flowers, 
on stems about 8 to 12 inches high. Easily raised from seed. 

PiERis {see Andromeda) 

PiNGUicuLA (Lentibulariaceae), Buttcrwort 

Interesting little plants for wet, boggy spots. 

P. alpina. — Needs moist peat and gravelly soil, and forms flat 
rosettes of fleshy leaves. Flowers white, with yellow markings on 
the tip. Roots firmly by means of woody fibres, and in this is very 
different to P. grandifiora. 

P. grandifiora, — Requires moist peat. Forms rosettes of light 
green, fleshy leaves lying close to the ground, from which rise, on 
stems about 3 inches high, the deep blue flowers like a violet. It 
is not easy to cultivate, though a native. This is owing to the roots 
being very few and only on the surface. Probably the best way 
would be by sowing seed on the spot assigned to it. P. vulgaris 
is a commoner and smaller form. 

P. vallisneriae folia. — Requires a dripping fissure in limestone 
rock, with ample drainage. Large, pale yellowish-green leaves. 
Large, pale lilac flowers, with white centres. Rather a distinct 

Platycodon {see Campanula grandiflora) 

Plumbago Larpentae (Plum bagin ace ae), syn. 
Ceratostigma Plumbaginoides 

A deciduous plant, with rather woody stems, of a semi -prostrate 
habit, growing about 12 inches high. It will grow in any soil, but 
in a light sandy soil it blooms better. The flowers, which are 
borne in trusses, are of a fine deep blue. It is a valuable plant 
on account of its late flowers, which last till the November frosts 
destroy them. Quite hardy, and grows rapidly. Easily increased 
by division. 


PoLEMONiuM (Polemoniaceae), Jacob's Ladder 

Only the dwarfer species of this genus are suitable for the rock 

P. confertum.—^Q.<:\y\\rts a warm position in well-drained, deep, 
loamy soil. It has slender and deeply cut leaves, and clusters of 
clear blue flowers, borne on stems about 6 inches high. Of easy 
culture, but dislikes disturbance. Can be raised from seed. 
mellitufn is a white form. 

P. humile. — Requires a dry, light soil. Forms tufts of pale green 
leaves and bears numerous pale blue flowers on stems a few inches 
high. Blooms in June. Hardy in a well-drained position, but a 
damp subsoil will prove fatal. Propagated by seed or division. 

P. reptans. — Is of creeping habit, and has loose panicles of slaty- 
blue flowers, borne 6 or 8 inches high. Propagated by division or 
seed. Slugs are very partial to this plant. 

PoLYGALA (Polygalaceae), Milkwort 

Interesting little plants, and some most suitable for the rock 

P. Chamaebuxus. — Likes a half-shady position in sandy peat and 
loam, well drained. It is evergreen, and forms compact tufts. 
Flowers cream-coloured, and borne in profusion. The variety 
picrpurea is better, having purple flowers with a yellow centre. Of 
easy culture, and increased by division. Both are most attractive 

P. Rhodoptera and P. Vayredae are of the same type, with 
crimson flowers. They are both of recent introduction. 

P. calcarea. — Very similar to the common Milkwort of our hills, 
and is also a native. It will grow easily in calcareous soil, and is 
a pretty little plant. 

PoLYGONATUM (Liliaceae), Solomon's Seal 

Attractive plants for growing amongst shrubs or on the higher 
parts of the rock garden, where their graceful arching stems will 
show to advantage. All are of easy culture in any light, well- 
drained soil in partial shade, and are readily increased by division. 
They are all deciduous. 

P. difiorum.— Grows i to 3 feet high, with arching stems, and 
small greenish-white flowers in pairs. 

P. japonicum. — Grows about 2 feet high, and has white flowers 
tinged with purple. 

P. latifolium. — Bright green leaves on arching stems 2 to 3 feet 


high. Flowers white and of a good size. The variety commutatum 
grows as high as 7 feet, and is glabrous throughout. 

P. multiflorum. — The common "Solomon's Seal." Grows 2 to 4 
feet high, with bright, glaucous green leaves and white flowers. 

P. officinale. — Only grows about 12 to 18 inches high, and is 
otherwise similar to the last-named. 

P. oppositifolium. — Requires rather a sheltered spot. It has 
arching stems 2 to 3 feet high, with bright, glossy green leaves. 
Flowers white, marked with reddish lines and dots, and borne in 
bunches, followed by red berries in the autumn. 

P. punctatum. — Angular, arching stems about 2 feet high. Hard, 
leathery leaves, and white flowers with lilac dots. A handsome 

P. roseum. — Arching stems 2 to 3 feet high. Leaves in whorls, 
and flowers rose-coloured, borne in pairs at the axils of the leaves. 
Very pretty species. 

Polygonum (Polygonaceae) 

A very large genus, of which a few are suitable for planting in the 
rock garden, and even those, with a couple of exceptions, not of the 
highest value. They can all be propagated by division. 

P. affine. — Likes a moist, though well-drained position in loam. 
It grows from 6 to 8 inches high, and has spikes of rosy flowers in 
the autumn. It is a very pretty plant. 

P. Brunonis. — Similar to the above, with pale rose-coloured flowers, 
borne in dense spikes, 12 to 18 inches high. 

P .sphaerostachyum. — Dwarf-growing, with spikes of deep crimson 
flowers. Very handsome, and one of the best. 

P. vaccini folium. — Of neat, trailing habit and rapid growth. 
Spikes of bright rose-coloured flowers in the summer and autumn. 
A good plant for covering rocks or banks, and is not particular as 
to aspect or soil. The best of the genus. 

P. viviparum. — Very dwarf habit, with spikes of creamy-white 
flowers. Quite a pretty little plant, and not so encroaching as 
many of the genus are. 


Of this large genus there are only a few that should find a place 
in the rock garden, but amongst these few are some of the best plants 
we have. Propagated by seed, cuttings, or division. 

P. ambigua. — Well-drained, open position in sandy soil. Dwarf 
and creeping habit, only about 3 inches high, forming a compact 
mass. Large, clear yellow flowers. Of moderate, though not 


rampant growth. Increased by division. A very pretty and 
charming plant, of the easiest cuUure, and quite hardy. 

P. alba. — Sunny position in ordinary hght soil. Of a dwarf habit> 
only a few inches high. Leaves green, and smooth above, but 
covered beneath with a white, silky down. Flowers white, with 
an orange ring at base of petals. Blooms in June. Is of the easiest 
culture, and not a rampant grower. A good plant. 

P. argentca. — Ordinary soil. Creeping and dwarf habit, growing 
only about 6 inches high. Foliage covered with a silvery down. 
Flowers yellow. Of easy culture, and useful as a variety, though 
not otherwise possessing any special charm. 

P. aurea. — Sunny position in light soil. Very dwarf habit, only 
about 2 inches high. Leaves palmate, and fringed with silvery 
hairs. Large yellow flowers, orange spotted at base. Blooms from 
May to July. Is of easy culture, and increased by seed or division. 

P. calabra. — Sandy soil in sun. Prostrate habit ; undersides of 
leaves silvery. Lemon-yellow flowers, produced during the summer. 
Is of easy culture and worthy of a place. 

P. davurica. — Light sandy soil in sun. A dwarf-growing, 
compact little bush, about g inches high, of almost prostrate 
habit. Dark green, glossy leaves, and white flowers. Of easy 
culture. An attractive plant that should be more generally grown. 
It is generally considered a form oi P.fruticosa. 

P. eriocarpa. — Ordinary soil in open position. Grows about 
6 inches high. Large soft yellow flowers with an orange blotch 
on each petal. Hardy and good grower and well worth a place. 

P. fruticosa. — Light sandy soil and sunny aspect. Forms a 
neat bush, about 2 feet high. Clusters of pretty yellow flowers, 
freely produced during the summer. A very desirable and useful 
shrub for massing, and of easy culture. Increased by cuttings. 

P.f. huniilis. — Is a quite dwarf form of the above, with yellow 
flowers from spring to autumn. 

P. Friedrichseni. — Ordinary soil, open aspect. A shrub of erect 
habit, growing about 3 to 4 feet high, and covered during the 
summer with large, sulphur-coloured flowers. Charming, of quite 
easy culture, and hardy. A hybrid, P . fruticosa x davurica. 

P. nitida. — Dry, light, poor, sandy soil in a sunny position. 
Only grows about 2 to 3 inches high. Leaves covered with a silvery 
down. Flowers delicate rose-coloured, from June to September. 
Of easy culture, but a shy bloomer, except in poor, light soils. 
A plant for a choice place. Readily increased by division. 

P. nivalis. — Ordinary light soil in an open position. Grows 3 
to 6 inches high. Leaves densely covered with a silky down. 
Flowers white. Blooms in July. 

P. nivea. — Light soil and open position. Very dwarf habit. 


Leaves grey above, and snow-white beneath. Yellow flowers in 
the summer. 

P. Tonguei. — Ordinary soil in sunny position. Of trailing habit, 
growing about 2 inches high. Flowers coppery-orange, with a 
crimson centre. Not a very free bloomer. This plant should be 
grown so that its branches can hang over some rock or stone. 
It is of the easiest culture, and one of the best of the genus. 

P. "verna. — Any aspect in ordinary soil. Forms dwarf tufts, 
which in summer are covered with bright yellow flowers, about 
I inch across. Quite easy to grow, pretty, and well worth a place. 
Very closely allied to this plant is P. alpestris, which is somewhat 
coarser in growth, and is also a good plant. 

Pratia angulata (Campanulaceae), syn. Lobelia 


A pretty, creeping plant, indifferent to soil or aspect. It forms 
a dense carpet, about 3 inches high, covered, in late summer, with 
white flowers like a Lobelia, and followed by dark blue berries. 
Of easy culture, and readily increased by division. 

P. begonifolia. — Likes rather a sheltered, sunny position in 
damp, peaty loam. Rather similar to the above, but has larger 
and rounder leaves, which are downy. White flowers and purple 
berries. Suitable for the drier parts of the bog garden. 

Primula (Primulaceae) 

This very large genus of well-known plants, of which there are 
over two hundred species in cultivation, have botanically been 
divided into twenty-one sections ; but, for our purpose, it will be 
sufficient to separate them into three groups. The first, the rock- 
loving kinds, such as P. auncula and P. 7narginaia, which 
should be grown wedged between stones, or in rocky crevices. 
Next, the bog and moisture-loving plants, of which P. japonica 
and P. sikkimensis are well-known types ; and lastly, those that 
can be grown in any moist, shady border, which include such 
species as P. casJuneriana and P. capifata. 

As might be expected in a genus containing so many species of 
such diversity of habit and requirements, it is not possible to deal 
with their cultural requirements as a whole, but directions will be 
given with each as they appear in alphabetical order. The kinds 
described in the following pages only contain about a quarter of the 
known species, and are a selection of the most suitable and of easiest 
culture, it being obviously impossible in a work of this kind to 
give anything approaching an exhaustive list, nor would it indeed 


be advisable. Primulas hybridise so easily that new varieties are 
constantly being put on the market, many of which have but a 
botanical interest. A selection, which will be found on p. 334, has 
therefore been made of the best and most distinct kinds not included 
in the above list. In this country at least, Primulas, though 
theoretically perennials, are but short-lived ; it will therefore be 
necessary, in order to keep up the stock, to raise plants from seed, 
which should be sown as soon as ripe ; for, if kept over the winter 
many kinds may take a year, or even longer, to germinate, if they 
do so at all. 

P. algida. — Bog-loving ; in peat and loam, in half shade. Obtuse 
leaves, finely toothed. Rich violet-purple flowers. Rather rare and 
difficult to keep. Increased by seed, when it can be obtained. 
Nearly allied to P.farinosa. 

P. Allionii. — Requires gritty loam and plenty of moisture at its 
roots. Plant in vertical position, or under ledge of rock, so that no 
moisture can lie on its leaves, which are very susceptible to damp. 
Of compact habit, forming cushion-like tufts of rather hairy leaves. 
Flowers rosy-purple, with a pale centre, on short stems. A very 
choice plant, but of difficult culture. Increased by seed or division. 

P. atnoena (syn. P. cortusoides Sieboldi). — A half-shady and 
sheltered position in rich, rather moist loam. Forms tufts of 
rather rugose leaves, with umbels of violet-coloured flowers on stems 
about 6 to 7 inches high, in April. Of vigorous growth, increased by 
seed or division. 

P. auricula. — The Auriculas may roughly be divided into two 
groups. The one self-coloured, with leaves and other parts 
smooth and not powdery. The other has flowers and stems 
thickly coated with a white, powdery matter. Of the first group, 
those known as alpine Auriculas are the hardiest and most suitable 
for the rock garden. The second group are mainly florists' varieties, 
and are more delicate. They have again been divided into difi"erent 
sections, according to the colour of the edge of the flower ; but I do 
not propose to deal with these subtleties, and shall take only the 
alpine section. The other kinds can of course be grown, and a 
selection should be made of the most distinct and hardiest varieties. 
The P. auricula, the parent of all these numerous varieties, is by no 
means common. It is a limestone plant, and should be grown 
wedged in between rocks in a vertical position, in partial shade. A 
good, rather stiff, loamy soil suits it well. It has glaucous, rather 
fleshy leaves, and yellow, sweet-scented flowers, borne in dense 
umbels on stems 4 to 5 inches high. 

The variety P. a. ciliata (syn. P. Balbisii) has its leaves edged 
with granular hairs, and its yellow flowers are scentless, and not 


p. a. margt7tafa, another variety, has a white margin to its 
leaves, and yellow flowers. It is very liable to be confused with 
P. jnargznafa, a very distinct plant. 

P. Balbisii (see P. auricula, var. ciliatd). 

P. Beesiana. — Similar in requirements and habit to/". Bulleyana. 
Flowers rich velvety purple with a yellow eye, borne in whorls, 
i^ to 2 feet high. Handsome, free-flowering, and quite hardy. 

P. Bulleyana. — Rich, moist loam in half shade. Leaves like the 
common Primrose. Flowers orange-yellow, shaded on the outside 
with apricot. Borne in whorls, and rising 9 to 12 inches high. A 
very handsome new Chinese introduction, and said to be quite 

P. calycina (see P. glaucescens). 

P. capitata. — Cool, shady position in good soil of peat, loam, 
leaf-mould, and sand. The flowers, which are of a deep violet-blue, 
thickly coated with a white powder on outer and lower parts, are 
borne in dense globular heads on stems 6 to 9 inches high. It 
blooms in the autumn. It is hardy, but reputed only a biennial, 
though Mr Farrer says he had a clump for seven years, growing on 
a well-drained slope, in light soil, which treatment I am trying, but 
have not had time to fully test its efficacy, though, so far, all is well. 
It can easily be raised from seed, and is one of the gems of the 

P. capitellata. — Shady position in very moist peat and sandy 
loam. Forms a compact plant, with rather thick leaves and close 
heads of purplish or deep red flowers, borne about 9 inches high. 
Hardy and vigorous. A very attractive and uncommon plant. 

P. carniolica (syn. P. Freyeri and P. jellejikiana). — Requires a 
half-shady spot in gritty loam. It should be grown wedged in 
between rocks, in a sloping position. Forms rosettes of smooth 
green leaves. Flowers bluish-purple, with a white centre. Blooms 
in July, and of vigorous growth. Increased by division and seed. 

P. cashnieriana (see P. denticulatd). 

P. ciliatian (syn. P. auricula ciliatd). 

P. clusiana. — Half-shady position in calcareous and gritty loam. 
Leaves dark green, margined with white. Large handsome violet- 
carmine flowers, which bloom in April. Vigorous habit, and 
one of the most beautiful of the genus. It much resembles 
P. glaucescens (which is often sold for it), whose petals are not 
divided as they are in P. clusiana. 

P. Cockburniana. — Half-shady position in moist, rich loam and 
leaf-mould. Forms rosettes of primrose-like leaves. Erect stems 
rise about 8 to 12 inches, and bear in whorls brilliant orange- 
scarlet flowers. A unique shade in the genus. Quite hardy, but 
unfortunately only a biennial ; but it can readily be raised from 


seed, which germinates quickly if sown as soon as ripe. A recent 
introduction, and a most beautiful and valuable addition. 

P. cortusoides. — Requires a sheltered, shady position in rich, 
sandy loam and leaf mould. Leaves soft and wrinkled, and spring- 
ing from creeping stems 2 to 4 inches long. The flowers deep rose- 
coloured, borne in clusters on stems 6 to 8 inches high. Blooms in 
spring, and foliage dies down early. Of very easy culture, and 
increased by seed or division. Hardy. 

P. c. Sieboldi. — The Japanese variety of this is synonymous with 
P. amoena, which see. 

P. dejiexa. — Shady position in moist, sandy loam and leaf-mould. 
Its leaves, which are hairy on both sides, form a rosette. Flowers 
rose-purple, in a dense head, which are individually deflexed. It is 
a biennial, and will require same treatment as P. Cockburniana. 

P. denticulata. — Rich, moist soil in a shady position. Large 
leaves in rosettes, and globular heads of deep lilac-coloured flowers, 
on stems about 12 inches high. Blooms in the spring. Quite hardy, 
and is a very vigorous grower. Easily raised from seed or division. 
A handsome and valuable plant. 

P. d., var. cashmeriana. — Differs from the last in having the 
undersides of its leaves thickly coated with a yellow powder, and 
having rather lighter-coloured flowers. It is also a charming and 
useful plant, of robust habit and easy culture. P. pulcherrinia 
and P. Henryi are also varieties of P. denticulata^ but neither so 
good as the above. 

P. deoruni. — A bog plant, requiring a very wet position in rich 
loam and leaf-mould. Leaves long and lanceolate. Rich rosy- 
purple flowers in large umbels, and very freely produced. Division 
and seed. A rare and lovely plant. 

P. erosa (syn. P. Fortunei). — Requires an open, sheltered position 
in light, sandy loam and leaf-mould. Flat heads of light lavender- 
coloured flowers, with yellow eyes. It is very similar to P. denti- 
culata^ but may be distinguished from it by its smooth and regularly 
toothed leaves, which are sometimes quite powdery. Seed and 

P.farinosa. — A bog plant for a shady position in rich, moist loam, 
or it can be planted in a moist crevice between rocks. The leaves, 
which form a rosette, are covered with a silvery-white powder, as is 
the rest of the plant. Dense umbels of lilac-coloured flowers, with 
a yellow centre, borne on stems 8 inches high, are freely produced 
in May and June. Of easy culture, and can be increased by seed 
or division. A very lovely plant, P. farinosa, var. Scotia, has 
deeper-coloured flowers, and is of dwarfer habit. 

P. Forresti. — Shady position in moist, sandy loam. The flowers, 
which are of a rich golden-yellow, shading to deep orange, are borne 


in umbels, the individual flower slightly deflexed. Flower-stem 
erect, and about 9 inches high. Both leaves and flowers are 
fragrant. Quite a new introduction from China, and very hand- 
some. It has been proved to be hardy, and of easy culture. 

P. Fortunei. — Open position in gritty loam and leaf soil. Rosy 
lilac flowers, very like P. frondosa. Stems richly powdered with 
white farina. A very attractive species, but not very hardy. It 
requires copious moisture at all times. 

P. Fosteri. — Half shade in sandy loam. Dwarf habit, forming 
compact tufts with large carmine-coloured flowers. Vigorous and 
free-blooming, this hybrid between P. viscosa and P. minima is 
one of the best kinds we have. 

P. frondosa. — Likes a half-shady position in moist, sandy peat 
and loam. Similar to P.farinosa, except that its leaves are larger. 
It is of vigorous habit and easy culture. Readily increased by 

P. glaucescens (syn. P. calycina). — Likes a half-shady position in 
calcareous loam, and does well planted in fissures of rocks. Forms 
a tuft of bluish-grey, hard leaves. Loose umbels of carmine-lilac 
flowers in March and April. A good plant, of easy culture. 

P. glutinosa. — Requires partial shade in moist, peaty soil mixed 
with sphagnum. Leaves long and narrow. Flowers purple, borne 
on stems 4 to 5 inches long. A difficult plant to cultivate. A 
native of granite soils. 

P. grandis. — Partial shade in moist, loamy soil. Foliage large 
and handsome. Small yellow flowers, of drooping habit, and 
produced in umbels on stems about 12 inches high. Quite hardy 
and vigorous. Flowers freely produced in the spring. Increased 
by seed or division. 

P. hirsuta. — Should be grown between rocks or stones in sandy 
peat or loam plentifully mixed with stones. It forms rosettes of 
coarse, downy leaves, serrated at the edge. Flowers purplish- 
crimson, borne on stalks about 4 inches long. It is a granite- 
loving plant, and not difficult to grow. This plant is rather variable 
in colour, and of the several forms the best is that known as P. 
nivalis, which has lovely pure white flowers, and is of easiest 
culture, and increased by division. Other plants known as P. 
ciliata, and its varieties coccinea and purpurea, are forms of this 
plant, both of which are well worth growing. 

P. integrifolia. — Half-shady position in sandy loam and pieces 
of limestone. Forms diminutive, dense, crowded tufts of smooth 
shiny leaves lying close to the ground. Flowers rose-coloured, 
and borne on very short stems rising scarcely above the leaves. 
Rather a shy bloomer in cultivation, and not an easy plant to 


p. involiicrata. — Likes a shady position in very moist, sandy 
loam. Fragrant flowers, creamy white, with a yellow centre, and 
borne in umbels on stems 6 inches high. This plant is practically 
only a biennial, and so should be raised annually from seed, which, 
if good, germinates quickly. 

P. jap07iica. — -Though not very particular as regards soil or 
aspect, so long as there is a sufficient amount of moisture, it is finer 
and more effective when grown in half shade in rich, moist loam. 
The flowers vary considerably in colour, from white to deep 
crimson, and are borne in whorls on stems from i to 2 feet in 
height. It is of easiest culture, and bold masses of it planted by 
the side of a stream are very effective. Easily raised from seed, 
which sows itself freely. 

P. kitaibeliana. — Moist soil in partial shade. Downy leaves and 
rose-coloured flowers. It is a variety of P. spectabilis. 

P. latifolia (syn. P.graveolens). — Likes an open position in sandy 
peat and loam. Will do well planted between rocks. It requires 
plenty of moisture during the growing season and perfect drainage. 
Soft, greyish leaves. Rather broad and large heads of violet- 
coloured flowers in some profusion during the early summer. A 
handsome plant, of easy culture. Readily increased by division or 

P. Litto7iiana. — Partial shade in rich, moist loam. Leaves of 
rather upright habit. The calyx in which the flower-bud is 
enveloped is bright red. The flower itself varies in colour from rich 
dark purple to pale lilac. These are borne on stems from 12 to 1 8 
inches high, in pyramidal heads shaped more like an orchid. The 
effect of the purple flowers and the red calyx is very striking and 
beautiful. This is quite a new introduction from China. It is 
reputed quite hardy, and not difficult to cultivate, and should prove 
a great acquisition. 

P. longijlora. — Likes a half-shady position in very moist, sandy 
loam. Leaves and all its parts covered with a white, mealy powder. 
Umbels of lilac-coloured flowers, having tubes i inch or more in 
length. A handsome and distinct species, and of easy culture, and 
increased by seeds. 

P. luteola. — Rich, moist loam in partial shade, though this latter 
is not essential. Forms compact tufts of bright green leaves. 
Umbels of soft yellow flowers, borne on stems about 6 to 9 inches 
high. Vigorous, and of easy culture, and should be freely grown, 
and is one of the best. Increased by division. 

P. marginata. — Open situation amongst stones in gritty loam, 
plentifully mixed with lime rubbish. Forms branching stems, each 
bearing a rosette of smooth, greyish, powdery leaves, with a silvery 
edge. Small heads of pale lilac flowers in April and May. One of 


the best and easiest to cultivate. It is liable to grow leggy, and 
when this happens it should be taken up and divided. 

P. megasaefolia. — Requires a very sheltered position in sandy 
loam and leaf-mould. Large, round, leathery leaves and rosy- 
purple or pale lilac-coloured flowers in umbels, on stems about 12 
inches high. It flowers in winter, so will need shelter. It is quite 
hardy, and is easily increased by division. 

P. minima. — Sun or partial shade in a well-drained, sandy soil, 
with abundant moisture at its roots. Dwarf-growing, and forming 
tufts of coarsely toothed, prostrate leaves. Flowers rose-coloured, 
and borne singly or in pairs on short stalks. Not very easy to grow, 
but is well worth taking trouble about. It may be increased by 

P. muscarioides. — Shady position in rich loam. A very distinctive 
species ; the flower spikes of rich purple remind one more of a 
Grape Hyacinth than a Primula. It is very dwarf in habit. A 
miniature gem and quite hardy. 

P. nivalis (see P. hirsuia). 

P. obconica. — Sheltered and sunny position in loam and leaf- 
mould. Umbels of pale lilac flowers freely produced. This 
species, generally considered a greenhouse plant, will, in favourable 
climates, grow out of doors, and should find a spot in the rock 

P. Parryi. — Partial shade in moist, well-drained, spongy loam, 
leaf-mould, and peat. Leaves erect, and large umbels of very 
brilliant crimson-purple flowers. It is difficult to grow, and will 
not thrive everywhere ; but as it is one of the handsomest of 
the genus, it is worth taking some trouble about. Readily raised 
from seed. 

P. Palinuri. — North aspect, planted between pieces of sandstone 
in light loam and leaf-mould. Like an Auricula, but leaves larger 
and a brighter green. Yellow flowers, rather small. A rather 
curious and rare species. 

P. pedemo7itana. — Half shade in fissure of rocks in light soil. 
Forms large rosettes, and bears bright crimson-purple flowers. 
Very nearly allied to P. viscosa. 

P. Poissoni. — Rich, moist, loamy soil in partial shade. Rather 
similar to P. japonica, except that its leaves are glaucous. Whorls 
of lilac-purple-coloured flowers. Easily raised from seed, which 
should be done annually, for, like others of this family, it is rather 
liable to die after flowering. It is a handsome plant. 

P. pulchelloides. — Rich, deep, moist loam. Rather similar in 
appearance and habit to P. sikkimensis. Flowers pale lilac flushed 
with rose. The whole plant richly coated with yellow farina. A 
very handsome plant and quite hardy. 


p. pulverulenta. — Rich, moist loam in sun or partial shade. 
Very similar in foliage and habit to P. japonica, except that it has 
brighter-coloured flowers, and the stems and calyces are coated 
with a white powder. A very handsome plant, and very effective 
grown in masses. Easily increased by seed or division. 

P. Reidii. — A most lovely plant, but very difficult to grow in this 
country. Of dwarf habit, it forms rosettes of leaves covered with 
silky hairs, and bears a few large and lovely ivory-white, drooping 
flowers. It is best to grow this plant in a frame in light soil. Seed 
germinates readily. 

P. rosea. — Likes a shady position in rich, very moist loam and 
leaf-mould. It forms good-sized tufts, from which spring stems 
about 6 inches high, each bearing umbels of lovely rose-coloured 
flowers, which bloom in early spring. One of the easiest to cultivate 
and most beautiful of our Primulas. It can easily be increased by 
seed or division. There is a form known as P. rosea grandiflora 
which has larger and brighter-coloured flowers and is equally robust. 

P. scotica. — Is a sturdy, dwarf form of P. farinosa, with larger 
purple flowers, and requires similar treatment. 

P. secundiflora. — Requires a damp position, though ample 
drainage is essential. It appears to do best on a raised mound, 
where the roots can descend into moisture below. Habit much the 
same as P. sikktmensis. Flowers a rich purple, very freely produced 
and sweet-scented. One of the many recent introductions from 
China, and well worth growing. 

P. sikktmensis. — Rich, deep, very moist soil in shady position. 
It forms nice tufts, which die down completely in the winter. The 
lovely, drooping flowers are bell-shaped and sweetly scented, and 
are borne in umbels on the top of tall, slender stems, which some- 
times are nearly 3 feet high. It blooms in May and continues in 
flower for a long time. It is one of the easiest to cultivate, and quite 
one of the loveliest. It can readily be raised from seed or division. 

P. spectabilis. — Likes loamy, calcareous soil, and should be 
planted in well-drained fissures of rocks. It has bright green 
viscous leaves margined with white. Flowers large, and of a violet- 
carmine colour. It is rather difficult to grow successfully. It is 
very nearly allied to P. glaucescens. 

P. Stuartii. — Shady position in rich, moist, sandy loam. Very 
large leaves, green on top and powdery underneath. Bright 
golden-yellow flowers are borne in umbels. There is also a 
variety, purpurea., with rich purple-coloured flowers. Both are 
very difficult to maintain in health, and seedlings are very liable 
to damp off". They are very lovely, and considered by some 
varieties of P. sikkimensis, but unfortunately do not possess its 



p. suffruticosa. — A shrub-like species, and very distinct. It likes 
a warm, sheltered spot in light stony soil. Leaves narrow and 
spatulate. Flowers rosy-purple, and borne on stems 4 to 5 inches 
high. It blooms in May. It is rather tender, and in most places 
requires some protection during the winter. Can be readily 
increased by cuttings. 

P. tyrolensis.- — Open position in loamy soil. This species is very 
similar to P. Allio?iii, but leaves are of a brighter shade of green, 
there are fewer flowers borne on each umbel, and it is not so 
impatient of exposure to sun and rain. 

P. Veitchii. — Good, loamy soil in sheltered position. In foliage 
and habit rather like P. cortusoides. Rose-coloured flowers, 
with an orange ring at the throat. It is quite hardy and vigor- 
ous. It dies down completely during the winter. Increased by 

P. viscosa. — Light, gritty, sandy, peaty loam in any aspect, 
wedged between rocks or stones. Rosy-purple flowers, with a 
white eye, blooming in summer. It is of the easiest culture, 
so long as the soil is free from lime, which it dislikes. Readily 
increased by seed or division. The flowers vary considerably 
in colour. 

P. winteri. — Good, loamy soil in shady position. Forms tufts of 
broad, leathery leaves. Flowers delicate soft lilac with fringed 
petals. Whole plant heavily powdered. A new introduction from 
the Himalayas. 

P. wulfeniana. — Half-shady position between stones in well- 
drained, calcareous soil. Forms tufts of rather shiny leaves. 
Flowers deep purple, and borne in loose heads. Blooms in April. 
Of the easiest culture, and quite hardy. It is an excellent rock 
plant. Increased by division. The following are some hybrids : — 

P. assimilis {superhirsuta x integnjolia). — Large downy leaves 
and purple flowers. 

P. bijlora {glutinosa x mimma). — Flowers lilac mauve. 

P. Facchinii {minima x spectabilis). — A strong-growing form of 

P. Heerii {integrifolia x viscosa). — Free habit and crimson 

P. kewensis {Jloribunda x verticilata). — Yellow flowers in whorls. 
Hardy only in southern counties. 

P. Sturii {minima x villosa). — Rose-lilac flowers. 

P. unique {Cockburniana x pulverulentd). — One of the most 
beautiful hybrids. Striking cinnabar-red flowers. Quite hardy, and 
a good perennial. 

P. Venzoi, a hybrid {wulfeniana x tyrolensis). — Flowers rosy- 
purple, freely produced. Hardy and free flowering. 


Prunella (Labiatae), Self-Heal 

A genus of plants suitable for the rougher parts of rock garden. 

P . grandifiora. — Fairly light rather damp soil in partial shade. 
Of compact habit, growing about 6 to 12 inches high. Flower 
violet-purple, produced in August. Fairly hardy. Readily 
increased by division, but has not any special merit for the rock 

P. laciniata. — Same habit as above, requiring similar treatment. 
Flowers white, freely produced in summer. 

P. Webbiana. —Oi dwarf and compact habit, growing about 9 
inches high. Reddish-crimson flowers with darkish-coloured 
bracts. The best of the genus. 

Prunus (Rosaceae) 

A genus of hardy trees and shrubs, of which few are at all suitable 
for the rock garden. 

P. prostrata. — Ordinary soil in open situation. Of semi-prostrate 
habit. Profusion of rose-coloured flowers in spring. Hardy, 
deciduous shrub, and increased by cuttings. 

P. pumila (syn. Cerasus adcpressa). — Open position in ordinary 
light soil. Prostrate habit. White flowers, borne in umbels during 
May. Very pretty, and quite hardy and easily cultivated. 


A genus of plants more suitable for borders, though a few varieties 
may find a place in the less choice parts of the rock gardens. Pro- 
pagated by seed or division. 

P. arvenense. — Ordinary soil in open position. Compact habit, 
growing about 6 inches high. Flowers purple, borne in early 
summer. Quite hardy. Increased by division. 

P. angusiifo Ha.— ?r^X.iy blue flowers. There is also a variety 
alba, with white flowers. Both quite hardy. 

P. a. azurea. — Azure-blue flowers of a brilliant shade. 

P. rubra. — Beautiful clear rose-coloured flowers freely produced. 
The most attractive of the genus. Also quite hardy and of easy 


A genus of herbaceous plants, mostly too coarse-growing for the 
rock garden ; but the following are of dwarf habit. They are of 
easy culture in ordinary soil and open position. Propagated by 
division or seed. 


p. argenteum. — Shrubby habit, growing only a few inches high. 
Silvery foliage. Flowers yellow. 

P. densum. — Dwarf, shrubby plant, with silvery, fern-like foliage. 
Flowers dull yellow. 

P. Hausknechi. — Silvery foliage and yellow flowers. Would grow 
in the wall garden. 

Pyrola (Ericaceae), Wintergreen 

A genus of dwarf evergreen, hardy plants of much beauty, but 
some rather difficult to cultivate. 

P. elliptica. — Half-shady position in moist, sandy, and peaty soil. 
Grows about 6 inches. White campanulate flowers in racemes 
during June and July. Increased by division. Pretty, and not 
specially difficult to cultivate. 

P. incarnata. — Half shade in moist, sandy vegetable soil. 
Rosettes of roundish leaves. Grows about 6 to 8 inches high. 
Flowers rosy-red colour. Hardy, but difficult to grow with any 
success. It is very attractive, and about the prettiest of the genus. 
Propagated by division. 

P. rotundifolia. — Half shade in moist, peaty, and sandy soil. 
White fragrant flowers, borne in drooping racemes on erect stems 
about 6 to 12 inches high. Leaves roundish, forming rosettes. 
Blooms in the summer. Increased by division. Not at all difficult 
to grow, and a very charming little plant. 

P. unijiora (see Moneses uniflora). 

Pyrus (Rosaceae) 

This large genus gives some very beautiful and suitable species. 

P. Maulei (syn. Cydonia Maulei). — Ordinary soil and open posi- 
tion. Dwarf habit. Flowers bright red, followed by golden-yellow 
fruit. A very beautiful spring-flowering shrub. 

P.prostrata (syn. Cy donia prostrata). — Ordinary soil; open situa- 
tion. Prostrate habit. Rich crimson-coloured flowers in spring. 
Also a very lovely shrub, of easy culture. 

Pyxidanthera barbulata (syn. Diapensia barbulata) 

A very dwarf little evergreen shrub, only growing about 2 inches 
high. Requires a sunny position in nearly pure sand, with a very 
little vegetable loam mixed with it. The solitary white or rose- 
coloured flowers are stalkless, and borne on the branches in pro- 
fusion during early summer. A very lovely little plant. Hardy, but 
not easy to cultivate. Increased by division. 


Ramondia (Gesneriaceae) 

A small genus of attractive plants, of easy culture in a shady 
spot, in light, well-drained, damp, peaty soil. They are excellent 
for planting in vertical fissures, as they like such positions, where 
no moisture can lie on their large, flat rosettes of leaves. They 
will quickly shrivel and die if exposed for long to the direct rays of 
the sun, so an aspect either north or east should suit them. They 
are all lovely, of easy culture, and quite hardy. Propagated by 
seed, or by one of the leaves. These should be broken off close 
to the plant, and the footstalk inserted in moist, sandy peat, and 
kept close. 

R. pyrenaica. — Forms large, flat rosettes of dark green, crinkly, 
rather hairy leaves. Flowers violet-purple colour, with an orange 
eye, borne on stems about 4 inches high. Blooms in June. 

R. p. alba is a pure white form, even more lovely than the type. 

R. p. rosea is a rose-coloured form, also extremely beautiful. 

Between these two last there are a variety of intermediate shades. 

R. Serbica. — Has rather brighter-coloured leaves, and the flowers 
are a very pleasing shade of mauve. It requires similar cultivation 
to the last. 

R. S., var. Nathaliae. — Is a variety of the last, with rather deeper- 
coloured flowers. 

R. Heldreichii^sG&Jankea Heldreichii). 


A very large genus, giving many lovely plants, of which the 
following are a selection of the most suitable : — 

R. acoiiitifoliiis. — Half-shady position in rich, moist loam. A 
much-branched plant, growing 8 to 12 inches high, bearing a pro- 
fusion of small pure white flowers in May and June. Propagated 
by division. Quite hardy, and a very pretty and excellent plant 
for the bog garden. 

R. alpestris. — Sunny position in moist, gritty loam. Forms 
compact tufts about 4 inches high. Leaves three-lobed, and of a 
dark glossy green colour. Flowers pure white, with a yellow eye, 
borne two or three on each stem. Flowers very freely produced 
during the whole summer. Quite hardy, and of easy culture. 
Propagated by seed or division. 

R. amplexicaulis. — Cool, light loam, in open position. Leaves 
glaucous, and stem-clasping. Flowers pure white, with a yellow 
centre, and very freely produced. Grows 7 to 10 inches high. 
Blooms in April and May. A very lovely plant, of easy cultivation, 
and should be freely grown. Propagated by seed and division. 


R. anemonoides. — Cool, moist position, in light loam. Leaves 
glaucous green, and divided. Large white, pink-tinted flowers, on 
stems 4 to 6 inches high, in April and May. Hardy, and easily 
cultivated. A very charming little plant. Increased by seed or 

R. biilbosus fl. pi. — This is a double variety of the common 

R. bulbosus F. M. Burton. — Is a pale, sulphur- coloured variety of 
the common Buttercup. 

R. crenatus. — Gxiity soil in open position. Very similar to 
R. alpeshis in habit and appearance. 

R. glacialis. — Open position in very gritty, rather heavy, moist 
loam. Forms good tufts 6 to 8 inches high. Of spreading habit. 
Leaves palmate, dark green, and usually smooth, but some are 
downy. Flowers white or reddish, suffused with purple, with a 
hairy calyx, borne in profusion from June to August. It is of 
easy culture, and readily increased by division. This species is 
found growing at a higher elevation than any other European plant. 

R. graniineiis. — Open position in cool, light loam. Grows 6 to 
12 inches high. Grass-like, bluey-green leaves. Flowers yellow, 
borne three or four on each erect stem. Blooms in May and June, 
and very floriferous. Of easy culture, and a very charming plant 
of moderate growth. Division or seed. 

R. Lyallii. — Peaty soil in open position. Very large, peltate, 
glossy leaves. Pure white, waxy flowers, 3 to 4 inches across. 
Grows 2 to 3 feet high. A very difficult plant to cultivate, and as 
handsome as difficult. 

R. montanus. — Open position in light, sandy loam. Dwarf and 
compact-growing, and of spreading habit. Flowers yellow, and 
freely produced from May to July. Of easy culture and vigorous 
growth. Increased by seed and division. 

R. nyssanus. — A large edition of the common Buttercup, with 
citron-yellow flowers in May. A free-growing species. 

R. parnassifolius. — Open position in light, calcareous soil. 
Leaves dark brownish-green, rather heart-shaped. Flowers pure 
white, one to a dozen borne on each many-branched stem, about 5 
inches high. A most lovely and attractive plant, of easy culture. 
Propagated by division or seed. 

R. pyrenaeus. — Rather moist, open position in light loam. Grass- 
like leaves, 6 to 10 inches high. Flowers white, produced from 
June to August. Of easy culture, and a very attractive plant, 
especially when grown in fairly large masses. Very similar to this 
is R. plantagineus^ in fact by some considered only a variety. 

R. rutaefoliiis. — Open situation in sandy loam. Leaves pinnate 
and glaucous, and of a bluey-grey colour. Flowers white, with an 


orange centre, which are borne in some profusion from May to 
July. Of easy culture, and increased by division or seed. 

/v. Seguie^i. — Almost similar to R. glacilis. 

R. Thora.—O'pe.n position in gritty loam. Leaves smooth, 
growing about 6 inches high. Flowers yellow, and borne in some 
profusion in May. Of easy culture. The tuberous root is said to 
be poisonous. 

Rhexia virginica (Melastomaceae) 

A half-shrubby plant for the bog garden in deep, moist, sandy 
peat. Forms a compact little bush 6 to 12 inches high. Flowers 
rosy-purple, on square stems, borne during the summer. Hardy, 
but rather difficult to cultivate. Division. Other species of this 
genus are not sufficiently hardy. 

Rhododendron (Ericaceae) 

Of this large genus of beautiful evergreen shrubs I shall only 
deal with those of dwarf habit suitable for using amongst the larger- 
growing rock plants ; but for massing on heights to form a back- 
ground there are no better shrubs, and few as good. 

R. ciliatiini. — Peaty soil in sheltered position. Hairy leaves, 
and flowers reddish-pink, and of good size. Compact and dwarf 
habit, only growing about 2 feet high. A very good shrub. 

R. ferriigineian (Alpine Rose). — Has scarlet-coloured flowers. 

R. hirsiitmn. — Red flowers. 

R. myrtifolium. — Pink flowers. 

R. ovatum. — Rosy-purple, spotted darker purple. 

R. parvifiorum. — Sulphur-coloured flowers, 

R. racemosum. — Pale pink flowers. 

The above are a few of the dwarfer species, but there are others 
equally good. They all like a sheltered and cool position in a 
fibrous, peaty soil devoid of lime, except R. hirsuium, which will 
grow in a limestone soil, 

Rhodora canadensis (Ericaceae) 

A deciduous shrub nearly allied to the Rhododendron. Likes 
a moist, peaty soil. Leaves oblong, and downy beneath. Rosy- 
purple flowers in clusters before the leaves. Grows 2 to 4 feet 

Rhodothamnus chamaecistus (Ericaceae) 

A shrub also nearly allied to the Rhododendron genus. Peaty 
soil in limestone fissures of rocks. Dwarf habit, only growing 


about 6 inches high. Leaves cihated, small, and fleshy. Flowers 
purplish-pink, solitary, at end of branches. A difficult plant to 
cultivate, but very pretty. 


Requires shady position in a rich loam and peaty soil. Large, 
erect, palmate leaves, five-sected, of a bronzy-green colour, growing 
from 2 to 4 feet high. The flowers yellowish, borne in spikes, are 
inconspicuous. Propagated by division of its stoloniferous root- 
stock. A good plant for bog garden. Deciduous. 

Romanzoffia sitchensis (Hydrophyllaceae) 

Gritty soil in sun. Grows only 4 inches high, and has white 
flowers in May. Is very like some of the Rockfoils. 

Romneya Coulteri (Papaveraceae) 

This shrubby perennial is better known as the Californian Tree 
Poppy. Likes open, though sheltered position, in rich, sandy loam. 
Grows 4 to 6 feet high. Glaucous leaves. Flowers pure white, 
with yellow stamens. The petals are most beautifully crinkled like 
tissue paper. It is not reputed very hardy, but will stand a good 
deal of frost. Increased by division, but it should be carefully done, 
as it rather resents disturbance. One of the most beautiful half- 
shrubby plants that can be found for associating with the taller- 
growing shrubs in the rock garden. 

Rosa (Rosaceae) 

Description of the Rose, the fairest of flowers, is unnecessary. 
Besides the following dwarf-growing varieties, many of the new 
IVichuriana hybrids, such as " Dorothy Perkins" " Crimson 
Rambler" '■''Lady Gay" etc., will, if space permit, look lovely grow- 
ing over some large rock or bank, while for the wild garden such 
species as aciculatis^polyajitha, gd. Ji.^ rugosa hybrids, etc., would 
look lovely falling over some craggy height. Of the dwarf kinds the 
following are the best : — 

R. alpina. — Flowers single, pink or red colour. Grows about 
2 feet high. 

R. al. pyrenaica. — Is a variety, but quite distinct. Of dwarfer 
habit, and stems spiny. Flowers rosy-red. 

R. nitida. — Is also very charming, only growing 12 to 18 inches 
high, with rosy-crimson flowers. 


Also the native Burnet Roses give every shade from creamy-white 
to bright rose, and should find a home in some sunny spot. 

Rosmarinus prostrata 

A prostrate form of the well-known shrub. It only grows about 
6 to 8 inches high. It likes a dry, sunny, sheltered position. A 
most charming little shrub for growing over some rock. It is of 
vigorous habit, but not hardy everywhere, or, at least, is likely to 
suffer in severe frost. 

RuBus (Rosaceae), Bramble 

Of this large genus there are a few species suitable : — 

R. arcticus. — Peaty soil in a sheltered nook. Grows only about 
6 inches high. Flowers bright carmine-pink. Hardy, and a very 
charming little plant. 

R. Chamaemorus (Cloudberry). — Likes rather a damp soil. Of 
erect habit, but only growing some 4 to 8 inches high. Large 
white flowers in July. Hardy, and very pretty. 

R. pedatus. — Sheltered position in peaty soil. Of rather trailing 
habit. Leaves palmate. Flowers white and large. A charming 

R. fruticosa Caesiiis (Dewberry). — Damp, peaty soil. Prostrate 
habit. Flowers white. 

Ruscus (Liliaceae) 

Half-shrubby plants, useful for shady places in or near the rock 
garden. They are not particular about soil, but prefer that of rather 
a free and leafy nature. Propagated by division of the roots. 

R. actileatus (Butcher's Broom). — Insignificant flowers. Berries 
bright red. 

R. Hypophyllum. — Flowers insignificant. Berries red. 

R. racemosHs (Alexandrian Laurel). — A pretty foliage plant with 
dark, glossy green leaves. 

Salix (Salicineae), Willow 

There are some dwarf species of the Willows which are pretty, 
and might find a place in the rock garden in the less choicer parts. 
All are of the easiest culture. The best for this purpose are S. 
lanata, S. reticulata^ and S. herbacea. 

vSanguinaria canadensis (Papaveraceae), Blood Root 

Likes a shady position in rather moist, peaty soil. Leaves large 
and greyish, springing from the prostrate rootstock, and about 6 


inches high. Handsome white flowers, borne singly on stems about 
8 inches high. Propagated by division, and of fairly easy culture. 
It derives its name from the red juice that is in the leaves and 

Santolina (Compositae), Lavender Cotton 

A genus of shrubs which mostly have yellow flowers and silvery 
foliage. They grow about 2 feet high, and are of easy culture. 
Propagated by cuttings. They are useful for parts of the rock 
garden, but should not be associated with any of the choicer plants. 
The following are suitable: — S. Chamaecyparissiis, S. c. incana, 
S. c. Squarrosa, S. c. totncntosa, and 6'. rosmantiifolia. 

Saponaria (Caryophylleae), Soapwort 

A genus of plants nearly allied to the Pinks. Easily propagated 
by division or seed. 

5. Boissieri, — Sunny position in light sandy loam. Of vigorous 
and spreading habit. Flowers bright pink. Of easy culture. 

S. caespitosa. — Sunny position in light sandy soil. Forms rosettes 
3 to 6 inches high of glabrous leaves. Flowers rose-coloured, on 
short stalks, in July. Hardy, and a pretty little plant. 

S. lutea. — Sunny aspect in sandy soil. Compact habit, and only 
grows from 3 to 6 inches high. Leaves narrow. Yellow flowers 
with a woolly calyx. Not very hardy. 

S. ocymoides. — Sunny position in deep loamy soil. Prostrate, 
trailing habit. Flowers rose-coloured and very numerous, and 
produced from May to August. Of very easy culture, and quite 
hardy. Should be planted so that its trailing stems can fall over a 
rock. A very pretty and valuable species. There is a variety, 
splendidissima, even better than the type. 

S. wienmanniana. — Loam in sunny position. Bears pink flowers. 

Sarracenia (Sarraceniaceae), Pitcher Plant 

A few species of this orchid are fairly hardy in favoured localities 
and may be grown in the bog garden in moist peat and sphagnum, 
in a sheltered position. The following are the best species to try : 
— S. Drummondi, S.purpicrea., and S.Jiava. 

Saxifraga (Saxifragaceae) 

This very large genus of dwarf-growing plants is of the greatest 
possible value for the rock garden. There are over three hundred 
species, so it is not surprising that considerable confusion exists as 


to classification and names. They have botanically been divided 
into fifteen sections, but for our purpose it will be simpler to arrange 
them in groups, more or less according to their cultural needs. The 
species, for convenience sake, will he arranged alphabetically, and 
after each will be found the number of the group to which it belongs. 
If it needs any special treatment, this will be given ; otherwise it 
may be understood that it will require the same cultivation as was 
given for the group. The Saxifrages are all readily increased by 
division or seed. It may generally be taken that any species 
showing silvery encrusted markings on their leaves require a lime- 
stone soil, or lime in some form. 

Group I. The Mossy 

These make compact, mossy tufts, and are of the easiest culture. 
They are about the most valuable species for the rock garden, not 
only on account of the wealth of their bloom in summer, but also 
because of their evergreen foliage, which is beautiful even in the 
depth of winter. These species do best in well-drained, gritty soil, 
in an open, sunny position. Some, however, of the red-flowered 
kinds, such as S. " Guildford Seedling" keep their colour better if 
planted in partial shade. Examples of this group are S. muscoides, 
S. trifurcata^ and S. Wallacei. 

Group II. The Encrusted or Silver Saxifrages 

These form flat rosettes of stiff, leathery leaves, more or less 
encrusted with a silvery deposit, chiefly on the edges. From the 
centres of these rosettes rise tall, loose spikes of flower. These 
species require a sunny position, and look best when planted in 
some crevice or chink of a rock, where they can have a deep root- 
run in well-drained, gritty loam, plentifully mixed with lime rubbish. 
They are mostly of easy culture. Examples of this group are 
S. Aizoon and its varieties, S. longifolia^ and S. Cotyledon. 

Group III. The Cushion 

These are so called because they make dense, hard little cushions, 
somewhat variable in appearance, being in some cases formed of 
erect, spiny leaves, while in others of small flat rosettes. They 
include some of the most difficult of the genus to cultivate. As a 
general rule they require an open, sunny position, yet one not too 
sunburnt, in well-drained, light gritty loam, plentifully mixed with 
lime rubbish. Stone chips in the soil and around the plants will be 
found beneficial. Examples of this group are S. burseriana and 
its varieties, S. diapensioides, and S. apiculata. 


Group IV. The Creeping 

S. oppositifolia and its varieties are typical of this group, which 
contains but few species. They require a sunny position in well- 
drained, gritty loam. 

Group V. Umbrosa '■''London Ptide'''' 

The species included in this group are mostly of easy culture, and 
not particular as to position, doing equally well in sun or partial 
shade. All they require is good, well-drained, gritty soil. S. Geum 
and S. umbrosa are typical. 

Group VI. Megasea 

These plants are of quite a distinct type, and do not form the 
compact cushions or tufts so typical of the other species. They 
have large fleshy leaves, sometimes as much as 15 inches across, 
which often in winter and early spring take a fine dark crimson 
colour. The flowers are borne in bold spikes. They will do well 
in partial shade, and are not very particular as to soil ; any good 
gritty loam seems to suit them. They are useful for associating 
with the stronger-growing plants. S. cordifolia is an example of 
the type. 

Other species not included in any of the above groups will be 
dealt with as they occur in the alphabetical list. Provided the soil 
is light and well drained, but little difficulty should be experienced 
in growing any of the Saxifrages. 

S. aegilops {Group /., Alossy). — Rather blunt-looking leaves and 
numerous pink flowers in June and July. Grows about 6 inches high. 

S. afghanica (see 5. Stracheyi). 

S. aizoides {Group II.,, Enc7-usted). — Though belonging to this 
group, it is very different to the type, having rather succulent-looking 
leaves with no trace of silver on them. It has yellow flowers, 
dotted with yellow, and blooms in June and July. It is a native, 
and is found growing in wet bogs, so will be found useful for a 
moist spot in the bog garden. 

S. Aizoon {Group II., Encrusted). — This species is one of the 
most typical of the group. It has yellowish-white flowers, borne in 
panicles on erect stems about 6 inches high, in June. A very 
variable species, and some doubt exists as to what the true plant is. 
The following are the best varieties : — 

5. A. balcana. — Flowers large, white spotted pink. 

S. A. flavescens. — Flowers pale yellow. Distinct, and good 
variety, and free-blooming. 

S. A. lutea. — Flowers yellow ; also a good plant. 



S. A. minor. — A small form with speckled flowers. 

S. A. paradoxa. — Flowers yellowish-green, not very attractive ; 
but foliage is very pretty. Rosettes of narrow blue-grey leaves 
heavily margined with silver, and is worth a place for the foliage 

S. A. rosea. — Flowers clear, pure pink, and unspotted, and quite 
one of the best. 

S. A. rosidaris. — Flowers white, spotted crimson. Strong and 
vigorous-growing, forming large rosettes, curving slightly inwards. 

S. A. stiirtniana. — Rosettes not quite as large as the last, and 
quite flat, otherwise similar. There are other varieties of S. Atzoon, 
but they are only of botanical interest. 

.5. Allioni {Group /., Mossy). — A very dwarf-growing mossy, with 
white flowers. 

S. ambigua {Group III.., C«j/«'<?«)--~Spikes of pale flesh-coloured 
flowers. A pretty and rather rare plant. 

S. Andrewsii [Group V., Umbrosd). — Supposed to be a hybrid 
between 6". Geum and S. Aizoon. White, pink-spotted flowers in 
loose panicles. The leaves are long and narrow, and more of the 
encrusted type, while the flowers are typical of the " Londoft Pride " 
species. A very good plant, and of easiest culture. 

S. apiculata {Group III., Cushion). — Forms dense tufts of bright 
green spiny leaves. Flowers pale primrose-yellow, in panicles 
about 4 to 6 inches high. Blooms in March, and is one of the 
best and freest-flowering species, of very easy culture. There is a 
white form of this, of recent introduction, which is quite as robust, 
and a great acquisition. 

S. a. Maylii. — Is a late-flowering form. 

S. aquatica {Group /., Mossy). — Rather coarse, fleshy-looking 
foliage. Requires a very moist position in sandy peat and loam. 
Large white flowers in rather dense heads. A difficult plant to 
obtain true to name. 

5. aretioides {Group III., Cushion). — Forms dense, hard, tiny 
rosettes of ligulate, silvery-grey, spiny leaves. Flowers golden- 
yellow, on short, few-flowered stems. A rare plant, and rather 
difficult to cultivate. There is a very lovely form, with pale 
primrose-coloured flowers, named S. piimulina, and even more 
difficult to grow. 

S. aspera {Group IV., Creeping). — Rather large flowers, yellowish- 
white, in very loose panicles. Blooms in May and June. Rather 
a distinct, but not a very attractive species. 

.S". bijlora {Group IV., Creeping). — Likes very gritty, well-drained 
soil. Rather loose habit, and its leaves are not so closely packed 
as in the native S. oppositifolia, to which it is nearly allied. The 
flowers large, and of a pale pink to deep red colour, and are borne 


two to three on a stem, and not singly, as in others of the type. 
It is not of particularly easy culture, but a handsome plant. 

S. bryoides. — Is a glabrous form of above, distinct and stronger. 

S. Boryi {Group III,, Cushion). — Forms a very compact little 
tuft of very small rosettes. It has white flowers very hke S. Boydii 
alba. A rare plant, but not difficult to grow. 

S. Boydii {Group III., Cushion). — A hybrid, S. aretioides and 
burseriana. Forms dense, spiny tufts of greyish-coloured leaves. 
Large yellow flowers. A very slow-growing species, and not easy 
to cultivate. 6*. B. alba is a white form. Very handsome and 
vigorous, quite one of the best, and of very easy culture. 

S. bronchialis {Group IV., Creeping).— Creamy-white flowers in 
panicles, and spiny leaves. 

6'. Bucklandi {Group V., Ufnbrosa).— Rather like a small version 
of S. Geum, and of easy culture, and quite pretty. 

S. burseriana {Group III, Cushion). — Forms dense little 
cushions of grey spiny leaves. Flowers large and solitary. Buds 
and stems ruby- red. Blooms in March. One of the most beautiful 
of the genus. Though not difficult to cultivate, it is liable to " go 
off." An annual top-dressing of grit and loam, worked into the 
crown of the plant, will be found beneficial. Rather a shy bloomer. 
There are several forms of this. 

S. brunoniana. — Allied to S. sarmentosa. Flowers yellow. 
Hardy. A recent introduction which should prove popular. 

S. b. elegans. — Compact. Somewhat smaller than the type. 
White flowers flushed with lilac. Easy to grow, and a gem. 

S. b. Gloria. — Of free habit, and has enormous pure white flowers, 
sometimes \\ inches across, on stems 4 to 5 inches high. A glorious 
plant, the gem of this species, if not of the group. 

6". b. jnajor. — Has larger flowers, and more freely produced than 
the type, and is of more vigorous habit. It is also a very desirable 

.S". b. speciosa. — Is freer-flowering, and of more generous habit 
than the type. The flowers are borne on very short stems. 

S. caesia {Group III, Cushion). — Forms very minute rosettes, 
each leaf spotted with silvery dots. Large milk-white flowers, one 
or two on each slender stem. A rare plant, and difficult to get 
true to name. S. crustata is sometimes sold for this plant. 

S. caespitosa {Group /., Mossy). — A pretty, free-growing species, 
with numerous white flowers. 

S. c. purpurea is a red variety of the above. 

S. Camposii, syn. S. Wallacei {Group /., Mossy). — Very free and 
vigorous habit. Large white flowers, borne in the greatest pro- 
fusion in May. The best of the Avhite-flowered mossy Saxifrages. 

S. cartilaginea {Group II., Encrusted). — Drooping panicles of 


white flowers in early summer, with rosettes of silvery-grey leaves. 
One of the best of this group. Very similar to it are S. catalaunica, 
S. carinthzaca, and S. carniolica, which latter is the most distinct. 

S. ceratophylla (see 6". trifurcata). 

S. Churchilli {Group II., Encrusted). — Forms fine rosettes of 
acutely pointed grey leaves, and panicles of white flowers. 

S. " Cherry Trees''' {Group III, Cushion). — A hybrid, 5. aretoides 
X burscriana, the same parentage as ^. Boydii has, but is more 
robust. The flowers are a pale lemon-yellow, large, and very hand- 
some. A most desirable plant. 

S. ciliata {Group VI., Meoasea). — The fleshy leaves are slightly 
hairy. Flowers white. It is an early-flowering species, and should 
have a sheltered position. 

S. cochlearis {Group II., Encrusted). — Forms rosettes of blue- 
grey, silvery spatulate leaves. Slender panicles of white flowers, in 
June. A good plant. There are two recognised varieties : a 
larger form, major, and a smaller, minor. 

S. cordifolia {Group VI., Megased). — Has roundish, heart-shaped, 
rather fleshy leaves on rather serrated stalks. Heads of large, 
clear rose-coloured flowers. Blooms from March to May, and grows 
about 12 inches high. There are several varieties. 

S. c. purpurea. — Has rich crimson flowers and handsome foliage. 

Of the garden hybrids, '•'■Brilliant'''' has rosy-purple foliage and 
richly coloured foliage ; " Coralie''^ has rich rose-coloured flowers 
and red stems ; " Giant" has bright rose-coloured flowers and large 
bronzy leaves ; " Progress " has rosy-purple flowers. 

S. Cotyledon {Group II., Encrusted). — Bears erect stems i to 2 
feet high, much-branched, and pyramidal in form and many-flowered. 
The flowers are white and free from dots. A very handsome and 
indispensable species, typical of the encrusted group. There are 
several forms, but the differences are very slight. 

S. C. icelandica. — Flowering spike about 3 feet high. Blooms in 

^\ C. pyramidalis. — Has somewhat larger flowers, dotted with 
crimson, and slightly narrower leaves. 

S. C. gracilis and mitior. — Are rather smaller forms. 

S. C. Nepalensis. — Has red stems. 

S. C. niontavoniensis. — Is of dwarfer habit. A handsome plant, 
and is reported to dislike lime. This species is considered by some 
to be distinct, and not a variety of S. Cotyledon. 

S. crassifolia {Group VI., Megased). — Large, fleshy leaves. 
Flowers red, borne in thyrsoid panicles on stems about 12 inches 
high. Handsome. There is a white form, alba, and a dwarfer, 
nana. Also a variegated form, aureo-marginata, with a gold edge 
to the leaves. 


S. C. cristata (see S. crustatd). 

S. crustata [Group II., Encrusted). — Compact silvery rosettes 
from which rise erect panicles of white flowers. 6*. crustata and 
S. peciinata are so nearly allied as to be almost indistinguishable. 

6\ cuneifolia {Group V., Umbrosa). — Like a small version of 
" London Pride" with a yellow mark at the base of each white petal. 
S. apennina is a variety of this species. 

5. Cymbalaria. — A very pretty little annual, with bright green, 
rather fleshy-looking leaves and citron-yellow flowers. Attractive, 
but only an annual. It sows itself freely, but never encroaches. 

S. decipiens {Group I., Mossy). — Very similar to 5. hypnoides, but 
the foliage is rather hairy. There is a very fine form of quite 
recent introduction, named S. decipiens hybrida grandipiora, with 
foliage larger than the type, and of a brilliant pink colour. Other 
forms are S. hirta, S. Sternbergii, and a red form, 6'. atropurpurea. 

S. diapensioides {Group III.., Cushiofi). — Forms very hard, dense 
tufts of very small, tight rosettes, of a blue-grey colour, picked out 
with silver. Flowers large and white, three to four in terminal heads 
on short stems, about 3 inches high. Blooms in March and April. 
This species likes plenty of lime. One of the very best and most 
beautiful of Saxifrages, and not difficult to cultivate. 

S. diversifolia. — Very similar to S. Hirculus, and likes a moist 
spot. Flowers yellow, obscurely spotted, borne in branched, flat 
heads. Of moderately easy culture, but a rare species. 

6\ "Z?r Ramsey" {Group II., Encrusted). — Is a hybrid, S. 
macnabianaxS. lantoscana superba. — It has pure white flowers, 
with a few red spots, and is handsome. 

S. Elizabethae {Group III., Cushion). — Forms dense tufts of dark 
green spiny leaves. Flowers large canary-yellow, three or four to 
each head. Of the easiest culture, and one of the best of the genus. 

S. Engleri {Group II., Encrusted). — A hybrid, S. Aizoon x S. 
cuneifolia. Narrow, dark green leaves, changing to golden-yellow 
in the winter. Margins slightly crustaceous. Flowers white and 
small. Rather a shy bloomer. 

6". exarata {Group /., Mossy). — Leaves wedge-shaped, sessile, and 
three-lobed. Flowers white, four to six in a panicle. Grows about 
6 inches high, and blooms in June and July. 

^. Faldonside {Group III, Cushion). — A hybrid of S. Boydii. 
Compact tufts of blue-grey, spiny leaves. Flowers round and very 
large and of a lovely yellow colour. A most exquisite plant, though 
reputed not very robust. It blooms in March, but not very freely. 

S. Ferdinandi Coburgi {Group III, Cushioti). — Forms a close 
tuft of spiny, blue-grey leaves, and heads of small, deep yellow 
flowers. A new species, pretty, easy to cultivate in limestone chips. 
It blooms in March, and only grows a couple of inches high. 


6". Fergiisoni {Group /., Mossy). — Practically a variety of S. Rhei. 
A good red " mossy," and about the earliest of that group to flower. 
Blooms in March. 

S. florulenta {Group II., £ncrusUd).— Requires a shady posi- 
tion in a well-drained crevice in vegetable soil. Forms large 
rosettes, 5 to 7 mches across, of dark green spiny leaves, without 
a trace of the silver encrustation. Flowers pale lilac, in thrysoid 
panicles. A very slow-growing species, taking several years to 
mature the rosettes, from which the flower-spike rises. After 
flowering the plant dies. A very difficult plant to grow. 

S. Fortunei. — Likes a partial shady position in gritty, well- 
drained loam. Leaves reniform, cordate, dark green, and glossy. 
White flowers in erect, many-flowered panicles. Blooms in October. 
A pretty and useful plant on account of its late-flowering character. 
S. Frcderici-Augusti {Group III.., Cushion). — Forms bluish, 
rounded rosettes. Flowers small and pink, with purple-red calyces 
borne in spicate heads ; the whole flower-spike covered with a dense 
purplish-rose-coloured fur. A rare plant, rather like S. Griesbachi. 
S. Geum {Group V., Umbrosa). — A species very near to S. umbrosa, 
and a native, growing freely in Killarney. 
6". G. cochlcaiis. — Is a dwarf variety. 

6". g7-anulata. — Rather a distinct deciduous species, forming little 
bulbs. Of vigorous growth, and spreading fairly quickly. It likes a 
partially shaded position in gritty soil. Leaves reniform. Flowers 
large and pure white, borne in heads on branching stems about I2 
inches high. A pretty and easily grown plant. There is also a 
double form which is very attractive. 

S. Griesbachi {Group III, Cushion). — Forms compact rosettes, 
glaucous blue leaves, with a silvery margin, from which rise in 
February spikes of inconspicuous flowers, with crimson bracts. 
The rosette from which the spike rises dies after flowering, but side 
rosettes are formed. A distinctive plant, rather like S. Fredetici- 
Augusti. It is not difficult to cultivate. 

5. guthe?iana {Group V., Umbrosa). — Very nearly allied to S. 
Geum, and has heads of white flowers. The variety S. g. vatiegata 
has soft pink flowers, with a broad stripe of yellow on its glaucous 

S. Hirculus. — Requires a damp position in peaty soil. It is of 
stoloniferous habit, with dark green leaves. Very beautiful, large, 
bright yellow flowers in July. It is not an easy plant to grow, and 
a shy bloomer. There is a form, S. H. major, which is finer, more 
vigorous, and blooms more freely. 

^S". Hostii {Group II., Encrusted^. — Rosettes of narrow, dark grey- 
green leaves, and numerous spikes of white flowers, spotted purple. 
There are two varieties, S, H. altissima and S, H. elatior, both good. 



S. hypnoides (Group /., Mossy). — The common native Saxifrage, 
with white flowers, known as Dovedale Moss, and of the easiest 
culture. It is typical of this group. There is a more compact form, 
S. h. densa, and a variegated form, S. h. variegata, and another 
variety known as .S". Whitlavii. 

S. juniperina {Group III., Cushion). — Forms compact tufts of 
dark green, spiny leaves. Yellow flowers, rather like S. sancta., but 
produced rather earlier. A vigorous plant, but a very shy bloomer. 

S. Kestonii (see S. Sardica). 

S. kolenatiana {Group II., Encrusted). — Rather like 6". Aizoon, 
but with pink flowers. A very attractive species, nearly allied to 
S. cartilaginea. There is a larger form, fnajor. 

S. Kotschyi {Group III., Cushion). — Forms bluish-green, densely 
tufted rosettes, with bright yellow flowers. A pretty and good plant. 

S. la grave ana {Group II., Encrusted). — A very compact species 
of S. Aizoon, for a hot crevice. This species appears in catalogues 
under the name 6". La Gave Dauphne. 

S. latina {Group IV., Creeping). — Very similar to S. oppositifolia. 
Flowers the same, but the creeping stems are more erect. A new 
introduction. Early flowering and very desirable. 

S. Leichtlini {Group VI., Megasea). — Grows about I2 inches 
high. Leaves large and crimson-coloured. Flowers rose-coloured. 
A good species on account of its handsome foliage. 

S. lilacina {Group III., Cushion). — Makes tufts of very small, 
hard, dense rosettes. Large, rich lilac-blue, solitary flowers on stems 
about I inch high. It likes a partially shaded position. Of easy 
culture and vigorous habit, this new species is likely to prove a 
great acquisition to this large genus. 

S. lingulata {Group II., Encrusted). — Makes rather heaped-up 
tufts of blue-grey leaves, of unequal length. White flowers, in large, 
very branching panicles. A very variable species. A most attrac- 
tive and very beautiful plant, somewhat like a small S. Cotyledon. 

S. I. lantoscana. — A beautiful variety of S. lingulata, with heads 
of white flowers in arching panicles. There is even a better form, 
S. I. I. superba. 

S. longifolia {Group II., Encrusted). — The finest of all the silver 
Saxifrages, making enormous rosettes, several inches across, of 
blue-grey leaves edged with silver. White flowers in large, dense, 
pyramidal panicles. The true S. Longifolia may be known by its 
never making side rosettes. It takes a couple of years to come to 
maturity, and when it flowers the plant dies, but produces seed 
very freely. Flowers in June and July. 

S. niacnabiana {Group II., Encrusted). — Forms large, rounded 
rosettes of narrow, rather erect leaves. Flowers creamy-white, 
lightly spotted. It is a vigorous and rapid grower, and a very 


beautiful and desirable plant. It is a hybrid, S. Cotyledon and S. 
Hostii. The true plant is not easy to obtain. 

5'. marginata {Group HI., Cushion). — Forms small, dense 
rosettes of oblong leaves, with the margins dotted with lime encrusta- 
tions. White flowers, borne in rather compact heads. 

S. maiueana {Group /., Mossy). — Very similar to S. Cafnposu, 
but of more compact habit. It requires a hot, sunny position. It is 
a good plant, but not as fine as its prototype. 

S. media {Group III., Cushion). — Rather similar to S. 
Griesbachi, but the flowers are borne in racemes instead of spikes ; 
the small flowers are enclosed in purplish calyces. Of vigorous 
habit and easy cultivation. 

S. tninima {Group II., Encrusted). — A small and attractive 
silver Saxifrage of the Aizoon type. 

S. tnontavonicnsis (see S. Cotyledon). 

S. muscoides {Group /., Mossy). — The type of the red-fiowered 
mossy Saxifrages, from which endless varieties have been raised. 
They are amongst the most desirable species of Saxifrage. As the 
colour of the flowers quickly fades in sun, a partially shaded position 
is best. The following are some of the best varieties : — 

.S". ni. '''■ Bakeri." — Dwarf habit and red flowers. 

S. m. atropurpurea. — Bright rose-coloured flowers, deeper than 
the type. 

S. m. '"'■ Bickham^s Glory T — Similar to Guildford Seedling, but 
rather earlier flowering. 

S. ni. Clibrani. — Bright crimson flowers, very handsome. 

S. in. 6^/<?rza.— Similar to S. decipens hybrida, gd. fl. Vigorous 
habit, with very fine, large crimson flowers. Quite new, and likely 
to prove a great acquisition. 

S. m. Guildford Seedling. — Deep crimson flowers. One of the 

S. ni. " Miss Willmot.^'' — Very fine creamy-white flowers. 

S. in. Rhei. — Fine rose-coloured flowers. Of larger habit than 
the type. 

S. in. R. superba. — A deeper-coloured and larger form of the above. 

S. in. " R. IV. Hosier." — Deep crimson flowers, changing to plum 
colour. A very handsome and fine variety. 

S. in. sanguinca superba.— \try handsome new crimson variety, 
quite one of the best. 

S. nepalensis (see S. Cotyledon). 

S. odontophylla {Group VI., Megasea). — Has handsome, rather 
heart-shaped leaves, and panicles of pink flowers. 

5". oppositifolia {Group IV., Creeping).— V try small, dark green, 
opposite leaves on trailing stems. Flowers very large and of a 
purplish-crimson colour, and borne in the greatest profusion in the 


beginning of March. If planted in anything of rich soil, it will be 
liable to run to leaf too much and not flower well. It is a very 
handsome plant, of which there are several forms, which, except in 
name, differ but slightly. They are coccinea, splendens, major, 
W. A. Clark, and latina, which has more compact-shaped flowers 
of a rosy-purple colour. There is also a white form which has 
flowers smaller than the type. 

S. Patdinae {Group III., Cuskiott). — Rather similar to S. Boydii, 
but far more vigorous, and has larger flowers, of a lovely pure 
lemon-yellow, freely borne. One of the gems of the genus. 

S. pectinata (see 5". cricstatd). 

S.peltata {Group VI., Megasea). — To see this handsome Saxifrage 
at its best, it should be planted in rich, very moist soil, such as the 
edge of a stream. It has large fleshy leaves, sometimes 15 to i8 
inches across, and heads of pale pink flowers on stems 2 to 3 feet 
high. A very fine plant for a marshy spot. 

S. '"'■Primrose Bee'" {Group III., Cushion).— This hybrid, raised 
by Bees, Limited, may be described as a soft, primrose-coloured 
form of P. marginata. 

S. primuloides {Group V., Umbrosa). — Forms dark green 
rosettes, and loose racemes of bright carmine-rose-coloured flowers. 
Very pretty, and of easiest culture. 

S. purpurascens {Group VI., Megasea). — Large, handsome, 
glabrous, obovate leaves. Flowers purple, in June. 

S. pyramidalis (see Cotyledon). 

S. retusa {Group IV., Creeping). — Like a very small, smooth- 
leaved S. oppositifolia. It has lovely ruby-red flowers, in May. A 
shy bloomer, and of slow growth. A very attractive plant. 

S. rivularis. — Requires a very moist position. It has large white 
flowers, one or two on each stalk. Stems decumbent and rooting. 
A native. An attractive plant for a wet spot. 

S. rocheliana {Group III., Cushion). — Forms a compact tuft of 
small rosettes of leaves, white at the edges, with distinct impressed 
dots. Rather flat heads of white flowers in April. A very good 
plant, and of easy culture, and blooms freely. 

S. rotundifolia {Group VI., Megasea). — Rich soil in a half-shady 
position. Large, roundish, fleshy leaves. Flowers white, spotted 
with pink, in May and June. A deciduous plant for the bog garden. 

S. rudolphiana {Group IV., Creeping). — Very like S. retusa, but 
of more compact habit. It is a rare species and difficult to cultivate. 

S. Salomo7ii {Group III., Ctishion). — Makes tufts of spiny grey 
leaves. Pure white flowers, one to three on each stem. Blooms in 
early spring. It is a garden hybrid, S. burseriana x S. rocheliana, 
and is of much beauty and value, and of easy culture. 

3". sarmentosa (" Mother of Thousands '■'). — This species, though 


only considered half hardy, can in favoured climates be grown out of 
doors, provided it is planted in a sheltered position, in full sun, 
fairly protected from the winter rains. It spreads by means of 
creeping runners. It has hairy, heart-shaped leaves, which are red 
beneath. Flowers white, the two inner petals having a yellow spot, 
and the central one scarlet spots at the base. Of easy cultivation. 

5. sancta {Group III., Cushion). — Forms large, dense cushions 
of bright green spiny leaves. Small yellow flowers, borne in rather 
dense heads, on stems about 2 inches long. Blooms in early 
spring. One of the best known Saxifrages, and very like S. 
Juniperina. It is of the easiest culture, but is not a profuse flowerer. 

S. scardica {Group III., Cushion). — Rather pointed, silvery-grey 
leaves in hard rosettes. Flowers white, and borne four to six in 
flattish heads, on stems about 2 inches high. Blooms in March. Not 
difficult to cultivate, and fairly vigorous. A very desirable plant, but 
difficult to get true. S. Kestonii is very nearly allied, but blooms 
somewhat earlier. 

S. serratifolia {Group V., Umbrosa). — Very similar to 6". Geum, 
but with long and very serrated leaves. 

S. speciosa {Group II., Encrusted). — A hybrid of S. longifolia. 
It forms very compact tufts of handsome dark green silvery leaves. 
Flowers white, and borne in rather dense heads on short stems. 
A pretty and attractive plant. 

S. splendens. — Is also another hybrid, ^S". longifolia x Cotyledon. 
It has handsome rosettes of silver-margined leaves, but the flowers 
are of rather an ugly shade, of a greenish-white colour. 

S. squarrosa {Group III, Cushion). — Rather similar to S. caesia. 
It forms tiny tufts of rosettes of stiff" little green leaves very minutely 
marked with silvery dots. Flowers pure white, and larger than 
S. caesia, and borne two to three on slender stems. Blooms in 

S. Stracheyi {Group VI., Megasca). — Only grows about 6 inches 
high, with pretty bluish-pink-coloured flowers. There is also a 
pretty white variety. 

S. stellaris. — A small-habited native species, for a very wet spot 
in peat, sand, and sphagnum moss. Its flowers are white, spotted 
crimson, and borne in feathery heads like a small " London Pride." 

S. Stribnryi {Group III., Cushion). — Very similar to S. Frederici- 
Augusti, but flowers borne in a flat head instead of a loose spike, 
A vigorous and attractive plant of quite recent introduction. 

S. taygetea {Group VI., Umbrosa). — Very similar to .S". rotundi- 
folia, of which it was at one time considered only a variety. 

S. thessalica {Group III., Cushion). — Forms flat rosettes of 
narrow, pale blue-grey leaves, rather thorny in appearance. Flowers 
and bracts deep crimson, and spike red. A very distinct plant, 


more like S. Frederici-Augusti than any other, but there is some 
confusion about it. It is a rare species. Of vigorous habit. 

S. tombeaftensis {Group IIl.^ Cusliion). — Very like S. diapen- 
sioides, but not as good. Its rosettes are rather more spiny, and 
leaves devoid of silver markings. Flowers white. 

S. trifiircata {Group /., Mossy). — Has rather distinctive foliage, 
its leaves being rather like stags' horns. It is of vigorous growth, 
and quickly makes large tufts. The panicles of flowers, which 
are white and of a good size, are borne on slender stems about 
6 inches high, and in such profusion as to hide the plant. Of the 
easiest culture, and quite one of the best of the mossy Saxifrages. 
S. ceratophylla is a variety of this species. 

S. triternata {Group II., E?icrusted). — Of the Aizoon type, form- 
ing small rosettes, and bearing heads of lovely rose-pink flowers. 

S. ufnbrosa, '"''London Pride.^' — This well-known Saxifrage needs 
no description. It is quite indifferent to position, growing well 
under trees, and making a fine show in summer, with its airy spikes 
of white flowers dotted with crimson. 

S. valdensis {Group II., Encrusted). — So very closely allied to 
S. cochlearis that it may be considered but a small variety of it. 
A very attractive plant, of easy culture, and will do in a position not 
fully exposed to the sun. 

S. Vandellii {Group III, Cushion). — Forms very hard, dense tufts 
of spiny grey leaves, quite devoid of any trace of silvery markings. 
The flowers are pure white, and borne several on a head on stems 
3 to 4 inches high. It is doubtful if this species likes lime. 

S. Wallacei (see S. Camposii). 

S. Wulfeniana {Group IV., Creeping). — Very akin to, if not a 
variety of, S. retusa. 

S. Zimmeteri. — A hybrid between S. Aizoon and 5. cuncifolia. 
Small rosettes of dark glossy green leaves, and white flowers in 
loose clusters. 

The above fairly represent the best species. 

ScABiosA (Dipsaceae), Scabious 

A genus of the Compositae order, of little value for the rock 
garden, being mostly too coarse-growing. The following are the 
best species : — 

S. alpifta (see Cephalaria alpina). 

S. caucasica. — Grows about I2 inches high, and has flower-heads 
of a pale blue colour. Blooms from June to August. It is of the 
easiest culture in any soil. 

S. pterocephala. — Forms mounds, 4 to 6 inches high, of grey-green 
foliage. Flowers pale purple, freely produced. A very pretty 
species, of easy culture in any light soil. 


^. Webbiana. — Rather hoary foliage, and creamy-white heads of 
flowers in July. Grows about 6 inches high. Division and seed. 


Half-sunny position in well-drained, rather moist peat, loam, and 
sand. Forms rosettes of leathery-looking leaves, very similar to 
Galax aphylla. The flowers are bell-shaped, fringed, and of a deep 
rose colour in the centre, shading to white ; they are pendulous, 
and borne in heads of six to eight. Blooms in April. A species 
from Japan, but of difficult cultivation, and as yet a rare plant. It 
is very nearly allied to the Shortias. 

SciLLA (Liliaceae), Squill Bluebell 

A genus of pretty bulbous plants, early-flowering, and suitable 
for growing through dwarf rock plants. They are of easy culture 
in ordinary light soil. They should be planted in the autumn. 
They die down after flowering. Increased by division. The 
following is a selection of the most suitable : — 

S. amocna. — Leaves about 9 inches long. Flowers rich indigo- 
blue, with conspicuous yellow ovaries. Blooms in March. 

S. bifolia. — Dark blue flowers, freely produced as early as 
February. And its varieties. 

5. italica. — Small pale blue flowers, in spreading racemes. 
Flowers in May. Should have a sheltered spot. Not quite so 
hardy as some of the other species. 

S. sibirica. — Deep blue flowers, very freely produced. A 
vigorous plant of much beauty, blooming in April. A well-known 
plant. Amongst other species is alba^ very attractive. A selection 
should be made from some bulb list. 

Scutellaria (Labiatae), Skull Cap 

Of this numerous genus, the following are suitable species for 
the rock garden. They are all of easy culture, in ordinary soil in 
a sunny position. They are readily increased by cuttings or 

S. alpina. — Of procumbent and spreading habit, growing 9 to 
12 inches high. Flowers purple, with the lower lip yellow. Very 
freely produced in August. A pretty plant, vigorous, but not too 

S. macrantha. — Procumbent habit. Grows 12 to 18 inches high. 
Flowers purplish-blue, and very freely produced in August. A 
useful plant for associating with the bolder-growing species. 


5. z'ndica.—Frocumhent habit. Blue flowers, very freely pro- 
duced. Dwarf-growing and pretty. 

Sedum (Crassulaceae), Stonecrop 

Dwarf, spreading, succulent-looking plants, often confused with 
Saxifrages, though bearing no resemblance to them. They are all 
of the easiest culture, some species, in fact, becoming almost a 
weed. They are useful for covering waste spots, and are typical 
rock plants, but must be kept within bounds. They are all very 
readily increased by division. The following are some of the best 
kinds : — 

S. acre. — The common British species, which will grow anywhere, 
and in summer looks pretty, covered with its bright yellow flowers. 
There are several varieties of it : S. a. aurea and vat iegatum. 

S. anglicum. — A native species, very like the last, but bearing 
rosy-coloured flowers in June. Very floriferous. 

S. brevifoliutn. — The leaves are covered with a silvery-rose 
powder. Flowers pinky-white. Not very hardy, so requires rather 
a sheltered position. Very pretty. 

S. dasyphyllum. — Very similar to the last, and is in summer a 
sheet of soft, pink-coloured flowers. One of the best. Not supposed 
to be very hardy, though with me it grows like a weed, in any 
position, and receives no attention. 

S. Eiversii. — Of somewhat trailing habit, with glaucous leaves, 
evergreen. Flowers pink or pale violet. A very good species, and 
quite hardy. Its variety, turkestanzcum, has rose-coloured flowers, 
and is even better. 

5. kamtschaticuni. — Rather distinct, of more erect habit, with 
broader leaves than most of the type. Flowers a deep orange 
colour. Quite hardy, and of easy culture. It is quite one of the 
handsomest of the genus. There is a variety which has very pretty 
leaves, variegated, with orange-coloured markings. 

.S". primiiloides. — A distinct and attractive new species from 
China. White flowers rather like Lily-of-the-valley. 

S. pulchellum. — Of trailing, dwarf habit. Flowers bright red or 
purplish, arranged in branching cymes. A very handsome ever- 
green species. Quite hardy. 

S. roseum (syn. 5. Rhodiold). — A taller-growing species, with erect 
stems 8 to I2 inches high. Reddish-purple flowers in flat terminal 
heads. Handsome. 

S. spathulifolium. — Is of creeping habit. Makes rather dense 
rosettes of fleshy, glaucous leaves ; terminal, many-branch heads 
of bright yellow flowers in profusion in July. One of the best. 

S. spectabile. — This well-known species grows about i8 inches 


high, with large, fleshy, yellowish-green leaves, and flat, terminal 
heads of rosy-pink flowers in August and September. There is also 
a white form. 

S. spurium. — Trailing species, with flat heads of handsome pink 
or white flowers. There is an even better form, atrosanguinemn, 
which has deep rosy-red flowers. Both are very free-flowering and 

S. testaceum. — Has rather waxy-looking white flowers, borne in 
flattish heads. One of the best. 

The above are a few of the best and most distinctive. 

Sempervivum (Crassulaceae), House Leek 

A genus belonging to the same order as the last. There are over 
a hundred species, but many of them are either unsuitable or not 
hardy. All of the easiest culture in any hot spot and in light soil. 
They are most useful for walls, growing readily in any odd crevice. 
They are readily increased by division of the offshoots. 

S. arachnoideum (Cobweb House Leek). — A most distinctive 
species, the top of the rosettes being covered with innumerable fine 
threads, stretching from point to point, looking exactly like a spider's 
web, from which it gets its popular name of " Cobweb House Leek." 
Spikes of handsome rose-coloured flowers appear in the summer. 
It is a most charming and attractive plant, and should be grown in 
large patches in some dry and hot spot. 

S. a. Laggeri. — Is a larger form of the above. 

S. ciliatum. — The margins of the leaves are fringed with trans- 
parent, hair-like bodies. Flowers, in close, flat heads, are a good 
yellow colour. A hot and dry spot. 

S. doellianum, — Rosettes rather hairy, with tips connected by 
a few cobwebby threads. Flat heads of bright red flowers, in dense 
panicles 4 to 6 inches high. 

S. rubicimdum. — The leaves are bright orange, tipped with 
green ; very distinct. 

S. trista. — Red-brown rosettes and bright red flowers. Pretty. 

Other varieties are : 6*. ajvernense^ S. Tectorum, S. calcareum^ 
S. globzferum, S.piliferum, and many others. 

Senecio (Compositae), Grounsel, Ragweed 

A large genus of over one thousand species, but only a few are 
suitable, being mostly too coarse-growing. They are all of easy 
culture in any loamy soil, and readily increased by seed, division, or 
cuttings. The following are a selection of the best : — 

S. auiantiacus (syn. Cineraria aurantiacus). — -Sunny, sheltered 



position in light sandy soil. Handsome silvery foliage, and flat 
heads of orange-coloured flowers. A handsome plant, and not of 
too vigorous a habit, and worthy of a choice spot. 

5. clivormn. — A large-growing, handsome plant for the bog or 
wild garden, in deep, rich soil. It grows as high as 6 feet, but 
does not spread too much. The flowers are large and of a deep 
orange colour, and borne in many-flowered heads. 

S. Doronicum. — Has blue-grey leaves, white beneath. Flowers 
deep orange-coloured, and produced in May. A handsome plant. 

5. incanus. — Bright silvery-coloured leaves and large, flat heads 
of yellow flowers. Dwarf-habited plant, only growing from 3 to 
6 inches high. Pretty. 

S. japonicus (syn. Ligularia japonicd). — Leaves round and 
deeply incised. Heads of yellow flowers on stems 3 feet high. A 
good plant for the bog. 

S. pulcher. — Glaucous, blue-grey leaves. Flowers purple, with 
a yellow disc, borne on branched stems about 18 inches high. A 
handsome plant, blooming in the late autumn. 

Shortia (Diapensiaceae) 

Very attractive plants for a moist, peaty spot. 

S. galacifolia. — Partially shaded position in some cool, rather 
damp spot, in peat, loam, and leaf-mould, with sand added. The 
best sort of leaf- mould to use is that got in oak plantations. The 
soil must be free from lime. Of compact habit, making a low 
mound of leathery leaves, which assume a brilliant tint in autumn. 
The flowers are ivory-white and crimped at the edges, anthers 
lemon -coloured, buds and stems ruby-red. The flowers are solitary 
and bloom in April. Of fairly easy cultivation, and quite hardy. 
A most lovely plant, and worthy of no little attention. 

S. u7iiflo7-a. — The cultivation and position the same as for 
S. galacifolia. It forms a nearly prostrate tuft of leathery leaves 
of a crimson colour. The flowers, borne on 3-inch stems, are 
rather similar in form to S. galacifolia, but somewhat larger, and 
of a pink tinge. Not easy to cultivate, it being difficult to establish. 
An exquisite plant. 

SiLENE (Caryophyllaceae), Catchfly 

A genus giving some very attractive plants for the rock garden, 
and mostly of fairly easy culture. 

S. acaulis (Cushion Pink). — Open, sunny position in light, gritty, 
sandy soil. It forms very compact little mats, about i inch high, 
of small, rather spiny little leaves Bright rosy-pink flowers in 


summer. Easy to cultivate, but rather a shy bloomer. It is an 
attractive and indispensable plant. There are several varieties : 
" Bernarti" which has flowers much larger than the type and 
more freely borne ; _/?. />/., a double form ; and alba, a white. 

S. alpestns. — A position in full sun, but where its roots can get 
into cool, rather moist soil. It is of dwarf, compact habit, growing 
only 4 to 6 inches high. Lovely little pure white flowers, delicately 
notched at the edges. It blooms freely in the summer. It is of 
easy culture and quite hardy. A most lovely and altogether indis- 
pensable plant. Increased by seed or division. 

S. californica. — Sunny position in light gritty soil. Of rather 
prostrate habit. Deeply cut brilliant orange-scarlet flowers. 

S. Elizabethae. — An open, sunny position in very well-drained, 
sandy soil. Rather narrow leaves, slightly viscid. Flowers like a 
diminutive Clarkia, and of a bright rosy colour, which are quite 
freely produced in July. Increased by seed or division. 

S. Hookeri. — Sunny position in light gritty loam. Large salmon- 
pink flowers. 

S. maritima (Sea Campion). — A native plant growing in shingle 
on the seashore. It forms trailing mats of glaucous foliage, and 
solitary white flowers with purple, inflated calyces. Blooms in June. 
Useful for draping over some rock. It is of easiest culture, but 
of not very great attraction. There is a double form rather better 
than the type, and worthy of a place in the less choice parts. 

S.pumilo. — Light gritty soil in a sunny position. Very dwarf- 
growing, making dense little tufts of shining green leaves about 
\\ inches high. Bright rose-coloured flowers in the summer. A 
pretty plant, rather uncertain in cultivation. 

S.pusilla. — Light sandy soil in sun. Forms close tufts of bright 
green foliage. White starry flowers in spring. 

S. Schafta. — Any position in light sandy soil. Forms neat tufts 
4 to 6 inches high. Flowers purplish-rose, in the greatest profusion 
from July to September. Of the easiest culture, and quite a useful 
plant on account of its late flowering, though the colour of the 
flowers is not of a particularly pleasing shade. Readily increased 
by seed or division. 

S. virginica (Fire Pink). — Sunny position in light loam. Grows 
from I to 2 feet high, and of rather straggling habit. Flowers large, 
nearly 2 inches across, and of a brilliant scarlet colour. A very 
handsoiTie plant for association with the taller-growing plants. 
Readily increased by seed or division. 

Skimmia (Rutaceae) 
Dwarf-growing evergreen shrubs, of which 5". japonica and 
S. Fortiinei are the most suitable. 




Charming little true alpine plants, found on the snowline. There 
are several species in cultivation. They have rather a bad reputa- 
tion as to culture, but are not really difficult if a few points are 
observed. They like moisture in summer, but require to be kept 
dry during the winter. A partially shady position, or, in a dry 
climate, the edge of the bog garden, suits them. The soil should be 
composed of peat, leaf-mould, loam, and a little sand. Stones should 
be placed about the plant to prevent evaporation, and during dry 
weather, occasional copious waterings. A pane of glass should be 
placed over the plants in October till the flowering season, which 
is very beneficial in producing flowers. They can be increased by 
seed or division. 

S. alpitta. — Roundish leathery leaves, and beautiful fimbriated, 
pendulous, bell-shaped flowers, of a lovely shade of blue. These are 
borne two to four on each stem, which rises about 3 inches high. 
Blooms in April. This is quite one of the best of the genus. 
There are several varieties, but differing little from the type. ^. al. 
alba is a white form. S. al. pyrolaejolia is a good form of S. alpina. 

S. mini?na. — Dwarfer form, with solitary flowers of a lovely 
suffused lilac colour, and the interior striped with purple, which 
are borne on 2-inch stems. A lovely little plant. 

S. tnontana. — Leaves almost round. Two to four purple, deeply 
cut, and pendulous flowers are borne on each stem, about 4 inches 
high. A very lovely plant, blooming in April. 

6". pusilla. — Flowers blue, with margins notched. One or two 
flowers borne on each stem, 2 to 3 inches high. There is also a 
white form of this. It is an easy plant to cultivate, and very attrac- 
tive. There is some confusion as to the name of this species. 
There are also several hybrids, but not in general cultivation. 

Sphaeralcea Munroanum {see Malvastrum Munroanum 

Spigelia Marilandica (Loganiaceae) 

Deep, moist, sandy peat in partial shade. Of erect habit, with 
acute sessile leaves. Flowers \\ inches long, red outside, and 
yellow within, and borne six to twelve in a terminal spike on stems 
about 12 to 15 inches high. A very desirable plant for the bog 
garden, and not of difficult culture. 

Spiraea (Rosaceae) 

A large genus of handsome shrubs, of which a few of the dwarfer 
kinds are very suitable for associating with other shrubs in the rock 
garden. The following are a selection, blooming in summer : — 


S. Bicmalda. — Has heads of pink flowers. 

S. bullata. — A dwarf shrub, only growing 12 to 18 inches high, 
with deep pink flowers. 

S. decuinbc7ts. — A dwarf, traihng shrub, with flat terminal heads of 
white flowers. One of the best. 

S. caespitosa. — Grows only 6 inches high, and produces white 
flowers in dense heads. 

S.pectinata. — Of trailing habit. Flowers creamy-white, in woolly 
racemes. Grows about 6 inches high, and is very pretty. 

For the bog garden the following will be found very desirable : — 

S. Aruncus. — With creamy-white plumes from 4 to 6 feet high. 

S. astilboides. — Like S. Aruncus, but only growing about 2 feet 

S. gigantea (syn. S. camtschatica). — Large, flat heads of white, 
sweetly scented flowers, on stems from 4 to 10 feet high. 

S.pahnata. — Plumes of soft, bright rose-coloured flowers. Grows 
about 2 to 3 feet high. Blooms from June to August. 

S. venusta (syn. S. lobata). — Feathery heads of rosy-pink flowers, 
growing from 3 to 8 feet high, and blooming in August. 

Statice (Plumbaginaceae), Sea Lavender 

Pretty and useful plants for a sunny position in sandy soil. They 
are all of easy culture. The dwarfer and best kinds are : — 

S. bellidifolia (syn. S. cuspid). — Lavender-coloured flowers on 
branching stems. Blooms from August to September. 

S. tartarica. — Tufted habit and glabrous leaves. Grows about 
12 inches high. Flowers ruby-red, in many-branched heads. 
Blooms in June and July. 

S. t. angustifolia (syn. S. incana). — Has narrow leaves, and 
grows about the same height. 

Other species suitable for the rock garden are — S. tninuia, 
S. exitnia, S. sinuata. 

Sternbergia (Amaryllidaceae), Winter Daffodil 

A genus of bulbous plants of value because of their flowering in 
autumn. They require a sunny position in light sandy soil. 

S. colchicijiora. — Flowers erect and nearly i| inches long, and of 
a pale sulphur yellow. Very fragrant. 

S. fischeriana. — Similar to S. lutea, but flowering in the spring. 

S. lutea. — Has leaves about 12 inches long and J inch broad. 
Flowers yellow. 

S. macrantha. — Bright yellow flowers. Leaves blunt and rather 


Stylophorum diphyllum (Papaveraceae) 

Greyish foliage and large yellow flowers. Blooms in June. Is 
of easy culture, and grows about 12 to 1 8 inches high. 

Symphyandra (Campanulaceae) 

A small genus belonging to the Campanula order. They require 
well-drained, rich, sandy loam and leaf-mould. 

S. pendula. — Is of trailing, pendulous habit. Flowers large and 
funnel-shaped, and of a transparent creamy-white. Blooms in 
August. Hardy, and of easy culture. A very choice plant for a 
shady position to hang over some rock. Slugs are very fond of it. 
Division or seed. 

vS". Wanneri. — Of erect habit, growing about 12 inches high. 
Blue funnel-shaped flowers, freely produced, on branching racemes. 
Blooms in the summer. Of easy culture, and likes a half-shady 

Tanakaea radicans 

Likes a north aspect in peaty soil. It has rosettes of leathery, 
lanceolate leaves. Flowers white and small, in feathery spikes, 
rather like a Spiraea. Blooms in early spring. A recent introduc- 
tion from Japan. 

Teucrium (Labiatae), Germander 

Few species of this genus are worth growing. They are all of 
easy culture in any light soil. Increased by seed or division. 

T. Chamaedrys. — A good wall plant. Rosy-purple flowers in 

T. Marum (Cat Thyme). — Rosy-lilac flowers in pairs at axils of 
upper leaves. 

T. pyrenaicum. — Purple and white flowers in whorls. Prostrate 
habit, growing only about 4 inches high. Quite a pretty little 
plant for an odd corner, and the best of the genus. 

T. Poliiim. — Silvery foliage. Flowers white, yellowish, or purple, 
in whorls. 

Thalictrum (RANUNCtTLACEAE) Mcadow Rue 

Of this genus the following are the most suitable for the rock 
garden. They can be increased by seed or division. 

71 alpiniim. — Cool, peaty corner. Grows 8 to 10 inches high. 
Flowers purplish, in drooping racemes. 

T. anenionoides. — Light, well-drained soil in a sheltered comer. 
Grows 6 inches high. Foliage like a maiden-hair fern. Flowers 


white, nearly an inch across, like an Anemone. Hardy, and of fairly 
easy culture. A very choice plant for a cool, moist corner. There 
is a doul)le form with flowers smaller than the type. 

T. aquilegifolium. — A very good plant for the bog garden. 
Handsome, fern-like foliage. Flowers white, and borne in corym- 
bose panicles on stems about 3 feet high. Blooms from May 
to July. 

T. minus. — Any soil and in any position. Very pretty, finely cut 
leaves. Loose panicles of yellowish flowers. A native, and of 
the easiest culture. There are a number of varieties. 

T. tuberosum. — Deep, peaty soil. Fern-like foliage, and cream- 
coloured flowers in profusion in June. Quite hardy, and of easy 
culture. A pretty plant. 

Thymus (Labiatae), Thyme 

Of this genus there are some very attractive species, mostly of 
creeping habit. They are all of easy culture in any light, well- 
drained soil. Propagated by seed or division. 

T. azoricus. — A small shrubby plant, with purple flowers in July. 
Grows about 6 inches high. 

T. Serpyllum (" Wild Thyme "). — The native species, making a 
dense carpet of its fragrant, small, dark green leaves, and covered 
in summer with rosy-crimson flowers. From this plant several 
garden hybrids have been raised, which are pretty and very choice 
for the rock garden, to carpet a bank or fall over a stone. 

T. S. alba. — Is a lovely, pure white form. 

T. S. atropicrpureiis. — Dark purple flowers in the greatest pro- 
fusion. A most attractive plant. 

T. S. lanuginosus. — A woolly-leaved form, with rosy-purple 

Other forms are T. S. coccineus ; and T. S. r otundif alius .^ which 
has rounded leaves and is more floriferous than the type. 


Attractive plants for shady position. 

T. cordifolia ("Foam Flower"). — Forms a compact tuft, from 
which are sent out numercus runners which root easily. Leaves 
rather like a Heuchera. These turn a pretty russet-red in the 
autumn. Long heads of starry white flowers in the spring. Of 
easy culture, and a very delightful plant, growing about 6 to 8 inches 
high. It does better if occasionally divided. 

T. uftifoliate.—U\ke a large edition of T. cordifolia^ but emitting 
no runners. Long heads of creamy-white flowers on stems about 2 


feet high, and very freely produced. Of easy culture in good, deep, 
rich soil. A rare and very handsome plant. 

Trientalis europea 

Half-shady position in peaty soil. Slender, erect stems, bearing 
whorls of leaves and starry, white, pink-tipped flowers. Is not 
difficult to cultivate if good, well- rooted plants are obtained. It is 
a native plant, found growing in woody and mossy places. Increased 
by division. Quite a good plant. 

Trifolium alpinum. Clover 

Of trailing habit, with large rosy-crimson flowers in June. A 
handsome plant, and the only one worth cultivating out of this large 

Trillium (Liliaceae), Wood Lily 

Very pretty deciduous plants for a shady position. They thrive 
in deep, rich loam and leaf-mould soil, so long as it is devoid of 
lime. They can be propagated by careful division of the roots or 
by seed. 

T. grandiflorum. — On stems from i to 2 feet high. The three 
large leaves are borne surmounted by the big, lovely, white, three- 
petalled flowers. A very beautiful plant, and of easy culture. 

T. erythroca7-pu7n (" Painted Wood Lily"). — A very lovely plant. 
The pure white flowers, like a small T. grandiflorum, have purple 
streaks at the base of each segment. Rather difficult to grow, and 
a shy bloomer. 

Other species worth growing are the rose-coloured form of T. 
grandiflorum, T. sessile, T. californicum, and T. nivale. 

Trollius (Ranunculaceae), Globe Flower 

Very handsome plants for a moist position in deep, rich soil. 
Easily propagated by division or seed. They mostly grow about 
2 to 3 feet high, and are amongst the best and finest plants for the 
bog garden, and are all of easy culture. 

T. acaulis. — A dwarf species, only growing some 6 to 8 inches 
high. Golden-yellow-coloured flowers, with brown outside. Very 
desirable for a damp spot in the rock garden. 

T. europaeus. — The common Globe Flower, which is the parent of 
all the lovely garden varieties. It grows about 18 inches to 2 feet 
high. Flowers pale yellow. 


Amongst the best garden kinds are—" Citron Queen," " Golden 
Globe ■■ " Orange Globe:;' '' Ptince of Orange^' " T. Smithy' '' Gold- 
smilh,' all giving shades from citron-yellow to deep orange. 

Tropaeolum (Geraniaceae) 

Climbing and trailing plants of great beauty, 

T. polyphyllum. — Sunny position in light loam. A distinct 
deciduous plant. It has long trailing stems, with densely crowded 
glaucous leaves, and is of vigorous habit The flowers are like 
Nasturtiums, and of a bright orange-yellow colour, and very freely 
produced. A very handsome plant for a sunny bank, or to fall 
over a large rock. 

T. speciosum (Flame Nasturtium).— A climbing deciduous plant. 
It requires to be planted on the north side of some rock or tree, 
and requires good, deep, moist soil, freely mixed with leaf-mould 
and sand. The flowers are a most briUiant vermilion colour. A 
lovely subject for trailing over some bold rock or bank, or through 
some daric-foliaged tree, such as Holly, which contrasts well with 
its brilliant flowers. It is not difficult to cultivate, but dislikes dis- 
turbance and takes some time to establish itself. Increased by 
seed or division. 

T. tuberosa. — Sunny position in warm loam. Of trailing habit, 
with large leaves and red and yellow flowers. Is not hardy except 
in a dry climate. 

TuLiPA (Liliaceae), Tulip 

A showy genus of bulbous plants, mostly early flowering. The 
choicer kinds can find a spot in the rock garden. There are a 
great many species, and a selection should be made from some 
bulb list. 

Tunica Saxifraga 

A pretty little plant of the Pink order for a sunny position in light 
soil. It has wir>', branching stems and narrow leaves. In the 
summer it is covered with a profusion of small pink flowers. A 
very attractive plant, but sows itself about so much that it becomes 
rather a nuisance. There is, however, a double form which is an 
improvement on the type. 

Vaccixium Vitis-Idaea, Red Whortle-berry 

This native mountain plant has evergreen box-like foliage and 
clusters of pretty pale rose-coloured flowers, followed by red acrid 




berries. It grows about 9 inches high, and is an attractive little 
plant for a peaty corner. There are a great number of American 
species, but either too coarse-growing or not of sufficient value for 
the rock garden. 

Veronica (Scrophulariaceae) 

A very large genus, very variable in habit. While some are 
creeping, others form good-sized shrubs. The following are a selec- 
tion of the best and hardiest : — 

V. Autumn Glory. — A shrubby garden hybrid of much beauty 
and value. Foliage very dark green and handsome. Spikes of 
deep violet-blue flowers, freely produced in the autumn. A species 
of much value and beauty, of easy culture, and propagated readily 
from cuttings. 

V. Bidwillii. — A sub-shrubby plant of prostrate habit. Dark 
green foliage and starry white or pink flowers in great profusion 
during the whole summer. Any cool, open spot suits it well. 
One of the prettiest and best. 

V. cancscetis. — A very minute, creeping species, with tiny, whitish, 
hairy leaves, and comparatively large pale blue flowers. A most 
dainty little plant for a choice spot on a level with the eye. Any 
light soil suits it well. 

V. Chamaedrys (Germander Speedwell).— The well-known native 
species. Has heart-shaped, hairy leaves, and bright blue flowers in 
the greatest profusion. Creeping habit. 

V. chathatnica. — A prostrate shrubby species, making long, 
rambhng growths and box -like leaves, and spikes of purple 
flowers. A very choice plant, and should be grown in a sheltered 
spot, to hang over the face of some rock. 

V. cupressoides.—h. shrubby species, growing 2 to 3 feet high. 
The foliage is attractive, being like a cypress. Violet-coloured 
flowers. Comes from New Zealand, and is fairly hardy in this 

V. Hulkeana. — A shrubby species. Bright green, rather leathery 
leaves. Flowers a very beautiful shade of pale lilac, freely pro- 
duced in May and June. Rather straggling habit, and growing 2 
to 3 feet high, but needs support. It looks very well in a semi- 
decumbent position on some bank. One of the most lovely of all 
the Veronicas, but not very hardy, and should be planted in a 
sheltered and sunny position in good sandy loam. Easily 
propagated by cuttings. 

V. Lavaudiana. — Sheltered position in sandy loam and leaf-mould. 
Stems decumbent, branches erect. Compact habit, growing about 
9 to 12 inches high. Leaves dark green, margined with dark 
brownish-crimson. Flowers white, and buds red, borne in spreading 



heads. The effect of the red unopened buds and white flowers is 
most beautiful. This species is rare, and one of the most beautiful 
of the Veronicas. It is unfortunately supposed not to be hardy, 
but with me it has stood 18 degrees of frost without the least pro- 
tection. The flowers appear in May in the utmost profusion. It 
can also be propagated from cuttings. 

V. pyrolaejormis. — Spreading habit ; foliage light green. Small 
arching spikes of pale lilac similar in shade to V. Hulkeana. This 
dainty little " Speed-well " is well worth growing. 

V. Teucrium prostrata. — A trailing species, with bright blue 
flowers in racemes, in the utmost profusion. A variable species. 

Other good varieties of the dwarf and trailing type are V. incana, 
V. saxatilis and its varieties, V. Teucrium and its varieties, '"'' Royal 
Blue," " Irehane:' 

Of the shrubby species V. Lilactna, V. loganoides, V. Lyallii, V. 
Balfoufiana, V. Gauntleiti, V. La Scdmsante, V. Redruth, and 
V. salicifolia are among the best of the newer kinds. 

Vesicaria (Cruciferae) 

A genus of bushy plants of the easiest culture in any light loam. 
They are not of much value for the rock garden. 

V. gracca. — Grows 9 to 18 inches high. Flowers yellow. 

V. utrkulata. — Gvo-vfs about 12 inches high, with yellow 
flowers, very like a Wallflower. 

ViciA (Leguminosae) 

Pretty perennial species of the Vetch tribe. They are all of the 
easiest culture in any soil, and can be propagated by seed. 

V. argentea. — Prostrate habit. Silvery-coloured leaves. Large 
whitish flowers veined and spotted purple. Useful trailer on 
account of its foliage. 

V. Cracca.—Tra.\l'mg habit and purple flowers. A pretty plant 
for a wild corner. 

V. sylvatica. — Beautiful white and blue flowers in June and July. 
Of trailing habit, and useful for growing over some rock. 

ViNCA (Apocynaceae), Periwinkle 

These well-known trailing plants may be useful for clothing some 
bare bank under trees, where little else would grow. 

V. herbacea. — Is a deciduous species, with deep blue flowers, and 
not nearly as rampant in habit as the type, and may be used for 
covering some rocks in the choicer parts. 



Viola (Violaceae), Pansy Violet 

This genus has given us some of the most beautiful flowers that 
deck the hedgerows at home, or the alpine slopes abroad. The 
garden Pansy is but a hybrid Viola, and the well-known garden 
Viola, so near akin to the Pansy, is but a cross between the 
Pansy and other Violas. Of this large genus the following is a 
selection : — 

V. biflo7'a (Two-flowered Yellow Violet). — Half-shady position in 
moist loam. Flowers yellow, and generally two borne on each 
stalk. Increased by division. Flowers in May and June. 

V. calcai'ata (Spurred Violet). — Half-shady position in loam. 
Flowers purple or white, borne in great profusion. A variable 
species. Propagated by seed and division. 

V. cornuta (Horned Pansy).— Half-shady position in moist loam. 
Pale blue or mauve- coloured flowers. Seed, cuttings, or division. 

V. gracilis. — Of the Wild Pansy type. Open position in light 
soil. Deep purple flowers in great abundance in spring. A very 
pretty species. 

V. hirta. — Of the Violet type. Forms compact tufts, with blue, 
white, or reddish-purple flowers. Grows anywhere, even on hot, 
dry banks. 

V. odorata (Sweet Violet). — Same as above, except that the 
flowers are sweet - scented. The parent of the well - known 
garden Violets. 

V. pedata. — Of the Violet type. Half shade in good, well-drained 
light soil. Dwarf and compact habit. Leaves deeply divided. 
Flowers bright blue, but very variable. One of the most beautiful, 
and, at the same time, hardest to cultivate of the genus. Pro- 
pagated by seed and division. 

V. tiicolor (Heart's-ease). — This is the species from which all the 
garden Pansies are supposed to have descended. Some of the 
choicer varieties may be included in the rock garden. 

Besides the species just described, the following are worthy of 
cultivation : — V. cenisia, V. canadensis, V. lutea, V. pinnata, V. 
heterophylla, V. sorora, V. striata. 


Wahlenbergia (Campanulaceae) 

A very attractive genus of essentially Alpine plants, which are 
closely allied to the Harebells. They are all hardy and free- 
flowering, requiring full exposure to the sun in light gritty soil ; 



they do best when planted in a position slightly raised from the 
surrounding ground, so as to ensure perfect drainage. Propagation 
is best by seed, as they do not readily divide. 

IV. Dalmatica. — Tufted habit with narrow leaves. Deep violet- 
blue flowers in July and August. A very pretty plant. 

W. gentianoides. — Well-drained soil in open position. Pale blue 
flowers on stems 6 to 8 inches high. Well worth growing and 
quite hardy. 

W. gracilis. — Narrow hairy leaves. Stems square and branched. 
Blue terminal flowers in May and August. This is a variable 
species of which the best known are, Capillaris, Littoralis, 
and Strieta. 

W. graminifolia. — Forms close tufts of long grass-like leaves. 
Large purple flowers in bunches. Quite easy to grow and readily 
raised from seed. 

W. hederacea (see Campanula hederacea). 

W. pumilio. — Forms dwarf compact tufts of narrow leaves of a 
bluish-grey-green tint. Large lilac-blue, bell-shaped flowers in May 
and June. 

W. pumiliorutn. — Very similar to the last, but of a somewhat 
more straggling habit. A good hardy plant. 

W. saxicola. — Of quite a distinct habit. Requires a sunny 
position in light loam, in which it spreads freely, throwing up 
tufts of narrow leaves. Flowers white veined with purple, 
borne on slender stems 3 inches high. Blooms during the 
whole summer. A beautiful and attractive plant and well worth 

W. serpyllifolia. — Forms tufts of small narrow leaves. Flowers 
purple. An attractive plant, doing well on rocky ledges. One of 
the best of the genus. The variety major has larger flowers, and, 
if possible, more brilliant than the type. 

W. tenuifolia. — Dwarf and compact in habit. Heads of small 
deep purple flowers on stems 3 to 4 inches high. 

W. vincaeflora. — Grows about 12 inches high, forming loose 
tufts of narrow wiry leaves. Lavender-blue flowers, freely 

Waldsteinia (Rosaceae) 

Pretty plants nearly allied to the Strawberry. 

W. fragarioides. — Trailing habit, with bright red stems 
and large bright yellow flowers. Of easiest culture in ordinary 



IV. trifolia.—l^ trailing species of vigorous habit and bright 
yellow flowers. A pretty evergreen plant for covering any bare 
spot. Is indifferent to position or soil. 


Dwarf evergreen plant for a half-shady position in deep, rather rich 
soil. Purplish-blue spikes of flowers. Not difficult to cultivate. 
A very pretty and attractive plant. Increased by seed or division. 

Xerophyllum asphodeloides 

A tuberous-rooted plant, forming tufts of grassy leaves and spikes 
of white flowers. A nice plant for a moist, peaty spot. 

Zauschneria californica 

A deciduous shrubby plant. Requires a warm position in very 
sandy soil. Grows about i8 inches high. Small, rather hairy 
leaves, and bright vermilion flowers in the autumn. A pretty and 
hardy plant, but requires shelter, as the branches are very brittle and 
easily broken by the wind. The varieties Mexicana and Splendens 
are very similar to the type. 

Zenobia {see Andromeda) 



Calandrinia . 




Geranium . 


Gypsophila . 


Hieracium . 





Early summer. 








Origanum . 

Rosmarinus . 







Early summer. 



Alyssum . 


Anthemis . 


Arenaria . 




Cerastium . 





Dianthus . 


Dry as 


Gentiana . 



Early summer. 

Spring and summer. 


Most species, spring and early 

Early summer. 

Spring and early summer. 

These like rather more shade. 
Most species, springand summer. 
Early summer. 
Summer and autumn. 
Early summer. 


Some species, early summer. 

Most Gentians prefer shade. 











Noccaea . 



Phyteuma . 


Potentilla . 



Saponaria . 

Saxifraga . 

Scabiosa . 





Veronica . 




Early summer. 

Spring to autumn. 
Early summer. 
Summer and autumn. 
Early summer. 

Spring and summer. 

Summer and autumn. 

Some species, spring and summer. 

Spring to autumn. 
Most species, spring and summer- 

Summer and autumn. 

Summer and autumn. 
Spring to autumn. 
Summer and autumn. 
Early summer. 


(Most of these will also do in partial shade.) 

Arenaria balearica . . Summer. 

Epigaea repens . . . Spring. 

Ferns ..... Many species. 

Haberlearhodopensisandvirginalis. Early summer. 

Houstonia .... Summer. 
Jankaea Heldreichii . . . „ 

Mitchella repens 
Ourisia coccinea 


Early summer 


Some species, spring and 

All species, early summer. 




Acaena . 

. Summer. 


Early spring. 


. Summer. 




. Some species, spring and summer 


. Spring and summer. 


5) J> 

Asperula . 

. Spring. 


. Spring and summer. 


. Some species, early summer. 

Celmisia . 

. Summer. 

Coronilla . 

. Early summer. 


. Autumn. 


. Summer. 

Daphne . 

. Spring and summer. 


. Spring. 

Erigeron . 

. Early summer. 

Erodium . 



. Early spring. 


. Summer. 


. Some species, summer. 


. Summer and autumn. 



Morisia . 

. Early spring. 


. Summer and autumn. 


. Early spring. 


. Summer and autumn. 


. Summer. 



Primula . 

. Most species, spring and summer. 


. A few species, spring and summer. 


. Early spring. 

Spiraea . 

. Some species require moisture 



. Autumn. 


. Summer. 

Tiarella . 

. Spring. 

Tricyrtis . 

. Autumn. 

Trillium . 

. Spring. 


. Summer. 




Caltha . 
Cortusa . 
Gentiana . 
Gunnera . 

Mimulus . 
Myosotis . 
Orchids . 
Ourisia . 
Primula . 
Shortia . 
Spiraea . 
Trollius . 




Early summer. 

Some species, summer. 

Early summer. 



Some species, spring and summer. 


Some species, summer. 

Spring and summer. 

j> >» 


Spring and summer. 
Some species, spring and summer. 
, Summer. 
Some species, spring and summer. 
Spring and summer. 

Some species, spring and autumn. 

Many species, spring to autumn. 
Spring and summer. 



y^ithionema, most species. 

Alyssum, most species. 

Androsace lanuginosa, A. I. Leichtlini. 

Antirrhinum : A. asarina, A. glutinosum, and A. sempervirens. 

Arabis, all species except A. androsace. 

Arenaria, most species, especially A. montana. 

Aubrietia, all species. 

Callirhoe involucrata. 

Calystegia, all species. 


Campanulas : C. Elatines, C, garganica and varieties, C. isophylla, 

C. muralis, C. portenschlagiana. 
Cerastium, most species. 

Cistus florentinus and some other species. 

Clematis, all species except C. recta. 

Convolvulus, all species. 

Coronilla iberica. 

Cotoneaster adspressa, C. humifusa, C. microphylla. 

Cydonia japonica and varieties. 

Cytisus ardoini, C. decumbens, C. Kewensis. 

Daphne cneorum. 

Dianthus caesius, D. deltoides, D. deltoides alba, D. fimbriatus, 

D. plumarius and hybrids, D. suavis. 
Dryas octopetala. 

Epilobium obcordatum. 

Erica carnea and varieties. 

Genista prostrata. 

Gypsophila prostrata, G. repens and varieties. 

Helianthemum, all varieties. 

Hippocrepis comosa. 

Hypericum fragile, H. repens, and H. reptans. 

Iberis, all varieties. 

Lippia nodiflora. 

Lithospermum prostratum, L. purpureo-coeruleum. 

Lysimachia Nummularia and L. N. var. aurea. 

Mesembryanthemum Muchlenbeckia and all species. 

Nepeta Mussini. 

CEnothera, most varieties. 

Othonnopsis (syn. Othonna) cheirifolia and O. crassifolia. 

Parochetus communis. 

Phlox procumbens, P. reptans, P. Stellaria and varieties, P. subulata 

and varieties. 
Polygonum vaccinifolium. 
Ribes prostrata. 

Rose, all of the Wichuriana type. 
Rubus, many species. 

Salix herbacea, S. repens, S. sericea pendula. 
Saponaria ocymoides and varieties. 
Saxifraga, the mossy type. 
Sedum spurium. 
Silene alpestris, S. Schafta. 
Sphaeralcea Munroana. 
Syhiphyandra pendula. 
Thymus Serpyllum and varieties, 
Tropaeolum polyphyllum. 



Tunica Saxifraga. 

Veronica Chathamica, V. repens, V. Teucrium, and other varieties. 

Vinca, all species. 

Waldsteina fragarioides and W. trifoiia. 


Achillea rupestris. 
Androsace carnea. 

„ ciliata. 

„ villosa. 
Armeria caespitosa. 
Asperula hirta. 
Campanula Allionii. 

„ carnica. 

„ waldsteiniana. 
Dianthus Freynii. 

„ neglectus. 
Douglasia vitaliana. 
Erodium corsicum. 
„ guttatum. 
Geranium cinerium. 
Hypericum Coris. 
Inula acaulis. 
CEnothera caespitosa. 
Omphalodes Luciliae. 
Penstemon Davidsoni. 
Potentilla nitida. 


Saxifraga Boryi. 

„ alba, 
burseriana and varie- 


oppositifolia and varie- 
Sedums in variety. 
Sempervivums in variety. 
Silene acaulis. 

„ „ Bernarti. 
„ Elizabethae. 
„ Hooker i. 
Wahlenbergias in variety. 



Abies (syn. Picea) excelsa Clanbrasiliana, 4 feet, A. e. pygmea, 

A. e. Remonti, A. e. procumbens, A. e. parviformis, A. e. pumila 

and pumila glauca. 
Amydalus Nana, 2 feet. 
Andromeda polifolia, i foot. 

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi and varieties, Californica and Nevadensis. 
Azalea amoena and varieties (see p. 244), A. procumbens (syn. 

Loiseleuria procumbens). 
Berberis Darwinii nana, I foot, B. Stenophylla Irwinii, B, Thun- 

bergii minor. 
Betula, var. crenata nana. 
Cassiope (syn. Andromeda) fastigata, C. hypnoides, and C. tetra- 

gona (see p. 228). 
Cassinia Fulvida, 3 feet (syn. Diplopappus chrysophylla). 
Cedrus Comte de Dijon. 
Cistus (see p. 258). 
Cotoneaster (see p. 264). 
Cryptomeria japonica nana. 
Cupressus Lawsoniana nana, and minima glauca. 
Cydonia (syn. Pyrus) japonica Simonii, prostrate habit. 
Cytisus (see p. 266). 
Daphne (see p. 267). 
Erica (see p. 277). 
Euonymus Kewensis, E. nana. 
Fuchsia (see p. 281). 
Gaultheria (see p. 282). 
Genista (see p. 283). 
Helianthemum (see p. 291). 
Hypericum calycinum, i foot ; H. coris, i foot ; H. empetrifolium, 

I foot. For other varieties see p. 294. 
Juniperus communis aurea, l to 2 feet ; J. Hibernica compressa, 

J. prostrata, J. recurva densa, J. Sabina tamariscifolia. Pros- 
trate habit. 
Kalmia (see p. 298). 
Ledum (see p. 300). 
Ligustrum Delavayanum, 2 feet. 
Lonicera depressa and L. rupicola. 
Menziesia (see p. 309). 
Pernettya (see p. 323). 



Philadelphus candelabra, P. Manteau-d'Hermine. 

Pinus sylvestris Beuvronensis, P. s. globosa, and P. s. g. viridis, 

P. s. pygmaea. 
Polygala (see p. 327). 

Potentilla fruticosa, P. Friedrichseni and other varieties. 
Prunas prostrata (syn. Amydalus incana). 

Pyrus Cydonia japonica pygmaea, P. jap. Simonii, P. jap. Sargenti. 
Retinospora (syn. Chamaecyparis) obtusa nana, R. o. aurea, and 

R. o. pygmaea, R. pisifera nana, R. Sanderi. 
Rhododendron (see p. 343). 
Ribes prostrata. 
Rosa (see p. 344). 
Rosmarinus prostrata. 

Rubus nutans, i to 2 feet ; R. pedatus (see p. 345). 
SaUx ambigua, i to 3 feet ; S. herbacea, S. repens, S. retusa, 

S. r. serpyllifolia (see p. 345). 
Senecio Grayii, 2 feet. 
Skimmia japonica, 2 feet. 
Spiraea arguta multiflora, S. bullata, S. decumbens, S. Hacquetii, 

S. japonica rubra, S. tomentosa, S. trilobata. 
Teucrium latifolium. 
Thuya nana aurea, T. plicata nana, T. umbraculifera, T. minima 

glauca, T. occidentalis, " Little Gem," T. recurva nana. 
Thuyopsis nana. 
Ulex nana. 

Vaccinium (see p. 369). 
Veronica (see p. 370). 


AUosorus crispus (Parsley Fern). 

Aspidium (syn. Polystichum) acrostichoides, A. aculeatum, A. angu- 

Asplenium fontanum, A. adiantum-nigrum, A. viride, A. angusti- 

folium, A. Ruta-muraria, A. Trichomanes, A. Ceterach. 
Athyrium felix-foemina and varieties. 
Cystopteris alpina, C. fragilis, C. montana. 
Nephrodium (syn. Lastrea) Cristatum, Felix-max and varieties 

N. marginales, N. rigidium, N. recurva, N. spinulosum. All 

the Nephrodiums like half shade. 


Onoclea (syn. Struthiopteris) germanica (Ostrich Fern). 

Osmunda Claytoniana, O. gracilis, O. Regalis and var. cristata. 

The last two like moist, peaty soil. 
Polypodium Cambricum, P. Dryopteris (Oak Fern), P. Phegopteris 

(Beech Fern), P. vulgare and varieties. 
Woodwardia aspera, W. japonica. 


Adiantum Capillus Veneris, A. pedatum. 

Aspidium aculeatum, A. cristatum, A. munitum. 

Asplenium marinum, A. adiantum nigrum, A. Trichomanes, A. 

Botrychium Lunaria. 
Hymenophyllum tunbridgense. 
Nephrodium (syn. Lastrea) marginale, N. aemulum, N. recurva, 

N. noveboracense. 
Woodsia ilvensis, W. oregana, W. obtusa, W. polystichoides. 
Woodwardia aspera, W. virginica, W. japonica. 

All the above like a moist soil. 


Allium (see p. 225). 

Anomatheca cruenta ; sunny position in sandy loam ; rosy-crimson 
flowers, August to October ; seed. 

Anthericum (see p. 236). 

Brodiaea gracilis ; deep yellow flowers. B. uniflora. 

Calochortus Benthami ; 6 to 8 inches ; rich yellow flowers in July 
and August. C. caeruleus ; grows 3 to 6 inches high ; lilac- 
coloured flowers in July. C. lilacinus ; grows 6 inches high ; 
large purple flowers. C. Maweanus ; grows 6 inches high ; 
purplish-white flowers in June and July. C. pulchellus ; grows 
ID to 12 inches high ; bright yellow flowers in the summer. 
Other species are also well worth growing. They all like a 
sunny position in light sandy soil. 

Chionodoxa Luciliae ; grows about 6 inches high ; flowers deep 
blue, shading to white in the centre ; blooms in early spring ; 
very pretty. There are several varieties which are also good. 

Colchicum (see p. 261). 


Chionodoxa Luciliae ; grows about 6 inches high ; flowers deep 
blue, shading to white in the centre ; blooms in early spring ; 
very pretty. There are several varieties which are also good. 

Colchicum (see p. 261). 

Crocus (see p. 265). 

Erythronium (see p. 281). 

Fritillaria armena ; dull purple flowers in spring. F. aurea ; bright 
yellow flowers ; grows 6 to 8 inches high. F. coccinea ; scarlet- 
coloured flowers. F. Meleagris (Common Fritillar\') ; colours 
\'arious. F. pallidiflora ; grows i foot high ; flowers yellow. 
F. pudica ; dark yellow flowers in May ; grows 6 inches high. 
F. tulipifolia ; purple-coloured flowers. And other varieties. 

Galanthus (Snowdrops). 

Habranthus (see p. 291). 

Iris (see p. 297). 

Lapeyrousia anceps ; grows 9 inches high ; bluish-purple flowers in 
September. L. corymbosa ; grows 6 inches high ; blue flowers 
in May. 

Leucojum (see p. 220). 

Lilium (see p. 302). 

Muscari (see p. 313). 

Narcissus (see p. 314). 

Orchids (see p. 318). 

Puschkinia scilloides ("Striped Squill"); grows 6 inches high; 
flowers white, striped blue ; blooms in spring. 

Scilla (Squill), various species. 

Stembergia (see p. 365). 

Trillium (see p. 368). T. aurea ; flowers yellow, in April. 

Triteleia (syn. Brodiaea) uniflora ; pale blue-coloured flowers in 
April and May. 

Tulipa (see p. 369). 

Zephyranthes rosea ; flowers pink, in May. Z. versicolor ; grows 
about 12 inches high ; rose-coloured flowers in the winter. 




Besides the plants which can usually be grouped together because 
they belong to the same family, the following are particularly 
useful for massing on account of the positions they like, their colours, 
and time of flowering : — 

(Silene alpestris. 
Campanula pulla. 
„ puUoides. 

{Arabis albida. 
Aubrietia, in variety. 
Alyssum saxatile. 

/ Campanula turbinata. 
\ Armeria cephalotes. 

{Lithospermum prostratum. 
Saxifraga, encrusted species. 

{Dianthus neglectus. 
Hutchinsia alpina. 
Noccea alpina. 

{Ourisia coccinea. 
Tiarella cordifolia. 

/Androsace Chumbyi. 

\ Saxifrages, encrusted species. 

/ Nepeta Mussini. 

\ Cerastium tomentosum. 

{Shortia galaxifolia. 
Galax aphylla. 

f Omphalodes verna. 
\ Ourisia coccinea. 

/ Veronica repens. 

\ Thymus serpyllum alba. 

/ Cortusa Matthiolo. 
\ Primula luteola. 

f Primula sikkimensis. 
\ Anemone rivularis. 

{Gentiana acaulis. 
Lychnis Viscaria alba. 

{Hieracium villosum. 
Campanula turbinata Isabel. 

f .(Ethionema, gd. H. 
\ Campanula muralis. 

/ Dryas octopetala. 

\ Thymus serpyllum coccinea. 

{Ramondia, in variety. 
Haberlea rhodopensis. 
Ferns in variety. 

/ Caltha palustris. 
\ Primula rosea. 

/ Wahlenbergia serpyllifolia. 
\ Saxifrages, encrusted species. 

{Hypericum fragilis. 
Campanula portenschlagiana. 

/ Gypsophila prostrata. 
\ Genista prostrata. 

! Saxifraga umbrosa. 
Anthericum Liliastrum. 

{Cheiranthus alpinus. 
Erysimum ochroleucum. 
Lithospermum prostratum. 

{Tunica saxifraga. 
Dianthus deltoides. 
Mossy Saxifrages. 



Alpine plants and their habitat, 

5>90, i55» 158. 
cultivation of, 155 et seq. 
essentials to success, 5, 61. 
list of, suitable for rock 

gardens, 215 ^/ seq. 
loss of characteristic 

growth, 160. 
propagation of, 126 et seq. 
protection of, 163. 
protection from climatic 

conditions, 91. 
raising from seed, 126 et seq. 
soil for, 61, Zb et seq. 
watering, 165, 170. 
Alpines and rock plants, differ- 
ence between, 185. 
difficulty of rearing various 
kinds of, 157. 
Alum, powdered, as an insecti- 
cide, 179. 
Amphitheatre form of rock 

garden, the, 14. 
Androsaces, division of, 145. 
protection from climatic 

changes, 91. 
soil for, 140. 

suitable for rock gardens, list 
of, 229-232. 
Annuals, objections to, 190. 
Antirrhinum {of. Snapdragon). 
Aphis, destroying, 181. 
Arabis, useful varieties of, 238- 

Artificial bog garden, 9, 97. 
making, 210. 
plants and cost, 211. 
the water supply for, 104. 

Artificial fertilisation, 127. 
rock gardens, 21 et seq. 

advantages and disadvan- 
tages, 29. 
a typical example of a valley 

garden, 48. 
bank and knoll types, 23, 

30, 55- 
banks and rockwork for, 

bold effects desired, 42. 
difficulties of large, 59. 
preparing banks for rock- 
work, 42. 
the bank type, 39. 
the gravel pit, 23, 30. 
the hollow garden, 53. 
the horseshoe type, 39. 
the large hollow, 23. 
the rocky bed, 24, 30, 56. 
the " sunken garden " type, 

the valley type, 39 et seq. 
the very large rock garden, 

useful hints concerning, 61- 

what can be done with a 

level field, 38. 
Aster {of. Michaelmas Daisy). 
Aubrietias, treatment of, 151. 
Auricula {cf. Primula). 
Azaleas, layering, 153. 
in the rock garden, suitable 

shrubs, 244-245, 

" Baby Bucco," the, 92. 
Beds for cuttings, 1 50. 




Bell-flowers, list of, suitable for 
rock gardens, 248-253, 325. 

Birds and the garden, 175-177. 

Bog gardens, 95 et seq. 
artificial, making, 210. 

Boiling water as an insecticide, 

Bulbous plants for rock gardens, 

a selection of, 383-384. 
Bulbs in the rock garden, 191. 

Campanula {cf. Bell-flowers). 

Campanulas, division of, 146. 
list of, suitable for rock gar- 
dens, 248-253. 

Candytuft, 295-296. 

Caterpillars, 181. 

Cistus, the, how to strike, 150. 

Cliff type of rock garden, the, 16. 
surroundings and approach, 

Climate, importance of, on rock 

plants, 85. 
Climatic difficulties, methods of 

overcoming, 163 et seq. 
plants and, 156. 
Cold frames, 141. 
Columbines, 237-238. 
Compost for top - dressing, a 

good, 171. 
Conifers, a selection of, suited 

for rock gardens, 381- 

Convolvulus, 262. 
Convolvulus althcEoides, au- 
thor's experience of, 194. 
Cowslip, American, 273. 
Creeping Jenny, the, 307. 
Cultivation of plants, 155 ^/ seq. 
Cuttings, best time to take, 148. 
planting, 149. 

Damp, its effect on plants, 91, 

92,93, 119, 150. 
Daphnes, layering, 153. 
Dianthus {cf. Pinks). 
Drainage, 5, 9, 12, 29, 35, 37, 54, 

62, 71,93,94,207. 
Dry wall, building of a, 209. 

Earwigs, 181. 

Evening Primrose, the, 315. 

Everlasting flowers, 292. 
peas, 299-300. 

Farrar, Mr Reginald, on rock 

gardens, 68. 
Ferns, hardy (sun or half shade), 
a selection of, 382-383. 
hardy, for shady positions, 383. 
in the rock garden, 191. 
Fertilisation, artificial, 127. 

cross, 127. 
Fissures, 21, 34,64, 78, 124. 
and how to make them, 72 
et seq. 
Flax, 303-304. 
Flower-pots, preparation of, for 

sowing seeds, 133. 
Forget-me-not, the, 313-314. 
Fumitories, a selection of, 264. 

Garden pests — 

Aphis, 181. 

Birds, 176. 

Caterpillars, 181, 

Earwigs, 181. 

Slugs, 177, 179. 

Snails, 177, 179. 

Wire-worms, 180. 

Wood-lice, 181. 
Gardening tool, a useful, 92. 
Gentians, perennial, 284-286. 
Globe Flower, 368. 

Heath family, the, suitable posi- 
tion for, 1 10. 

H eaths, suitable for rock gardens, 

Helianthemums, how to strike, 

Hollow gardens, aspect of, 54. 

Honeysuckle, hints regarding, 

Horseshoe form of rock gardens, 
the, 15. 

Hotbeds, 137. 

Insecticide, boiling water as an, 

Insecticides, 177, 179, 180. 
Iris, a selection of, suitable for 

rock gardens, 297. 



Jacob's Ladder, 327. 

Larkspurs, 268-269. 

Laurels, 298-299. 

Layering plants, process of, 153. 

Leaf-mould, 88. 

Lilies, a few of the best for rock 

gardens, 302, 321. 
Lime, how to supply, 88. 
Lime-hating plants, 88, 89, 2Cxd. 
Lime-loving plants, 140. 
Lithospermum, valuable, 304- 

Loam. 62, 86, 89. 
Lobelias, 305-306, 330. 
Lupines, the, and their habits, 


Mad wort, 225-226. 
Marchantia, the arch-enemy of 

seeds, 127, 133, 134. 
Mertensia, the, list of, 309-310. 
Michaelmas Daisy, the, 242. 
Mimulus (Monkey Flower), 311. 
Moraine, list of plants suitable 

for, 3S0. 
Moraines, natural and artificial, 

83, 84, 90. 
"Mother of Thousands," 356- 

Myosotis {cf. Forget-me-not). 

Narcissus, 314. 
Natural bog garden, a, 96. 
rock gardens, 13 ^/ seq. 

advantages and disadvant- 
ages. 28. 

development of, 32. 

exposingand preparing rock 
for, 32. 

pockets, natural and arti- 
ficial, 21, 34 etseq., 78, 124. 

the cliff type, 16. 

the old quarry, 14. 

the rocky bank, 19. 

the rocky knoll, 19. 

weeding and cleaning 
ground, 33. 

Papaver {cf. Poppy). 

Pea, the everlasting, 299-300. 

Peat-loving plants, 89, 140, 200. 

Perennials, advantages of, 190. 
Philadelphus. how to strike, 1 50. 
Phloxes, propagation of, 146. 

varieties of, 324-325. 
Pimpernel, 227. 
Pines, a selection of, suitable for 

rock gardens, 381-382. 
Pinks suitable for rock gardens, 

Planting, improper, 167. 
the correct way, 168. 
the ideal time for, 170. 
when inadvisable, 169, 170. 
Plants and climatic difficulties, 
cultivation of, 155 et seq. 
for dry and sunny positions, a 

selection of, 374-375. 
for full sun or partial sunny 
positions, a selection of, 
for moist positions in sun or 

shade, 378. 
for partial shady positions, 


for positions in deep shade, a 
selection of, 376. 

for rock gardens, alphabetical 
list of, 215-374. 

for the moraine, list of, 380. 

for trailing over rocks, a selec- 
tion of, 378-380. 

layering, 153. 

necessity of examining, 172. 

rampant-growing : a warning, 

suitable for massing, 385. 
Pockets, natural and artificial, 
21, 2,A etseq., 72, 78, 124. 
Polygonums, 328. 
Poppies suitable for rock gar- 
dens, 308, 321. 
Prickly Thrift, the, 216-218. 
Primulaceae, 364. 

suitable varieties for rock gar- 
dens, 229-232, 330-33^8. 
Primulas, division of, 145. 
Propagation by division or cut- 
tings, 128, 143 et seq. 
of plants by seed, 126-143. 
sinking the pots containing 
plants, 147. 



Quarry gardens, noteworthy 
points concerning, 17-19. 

Ramondias, soil for, 140. 
Ranunculaceae, the, 221-122, 
232-235, 237, 268-269, 

Rhododendrons, diflSculty of cul- 
ture, 200. 
dwarf varieties of, 343. 
layering, 153. 
soil for, 140. 
Rock Cress {cf. Arabis). 
Rock gardens, alphabetical list 
of plants suitable for, 2 1 5 
et seq. 
artificial, 21 et seq. 
aspects of, 8, 15^/ seq. 
bulbous plants suitable for, 

contour of the land, 9. 
cost of making, 201 et seq. 
drainage of, 5, 9, 12, 29, 37, 

54, 62, 71, 93, 94, 207. 
ferns suitable for, 382-383. 
large, 25, 31, 565 an ideal 

spot for, 27. 
natural, 1 3 et seq. 
nature of soil for, 9. 
planting, 183 ^'/Ji?^. 
plants for massing, list of, 


quality of rock, 21. 

scheme of planting, 188 et 

sites for, 3-12, 14 et seq. 

small, 24, 30. 

suitable plants for, 186 et 
seq., 21^ et seq. 

the importance of propor- 
tion, 196. 

typical sites for, 10-12. 
plants and alpines, differ- 
ence between, 185. 

best type of soil for, 86. 

importance of climate on, 

soil and, 85 et seq. 
roses, 258-260. 
Rocks and sand, approximate 
cost of, 207. 

Rockwork, an artificial moraine, 

construction of, 67. 
different kinds of, 64-67. 
fissures between, 72. 
method of construction, 6, 70, 


paths, 81. 

plants for, 82. 

steps, formation of, 82. 

terraces, 78. 

types to be avoided, 66-67, 69. 
Rocky bed, the, 24, 30, 56. 
Roses, 344. 

St John's Wort, dwarf-growing 

varieties, 294-295. 
Sandwort, 239-240. 
Saxifrages, 140, 167. 
how to increase, 144, 145. 
list of, suitable for rock gar- 
dens, 321, 346 et seq. 
soil for, 187. 
Scrub, clearing, 206. 
Sea Lavender, 365. 
Seed, propagating alpine plants 

from, 126 et seq. 
Seed-bed, the, preparation of, 

Seedlings, pricking out, 142. 
Seeds, correct way of sowing, 
disadvantages of raising alpine 

plants from, 127. 
fertile, 129. 

germination of, 137, 141. 
sowing, 129, 139. 
sowing in pots, 133. 
watering, 131, 135. 
Shrubs, hard-wooded, striking, 
suitable for rock gardens, 195 
f/j-^4?., 382-383. 
Sites for rock gardens, 3-12, 14 

et seq. 
Slugs, alum as a preventative 
for, 179. 
zinc as a protection from, 132, 
Snails, alum as a preventative 
for, 179. 



Snails, zinc as a protection from, 

132, 178. 
Snapdragon, a few varieties 
suited for the rock gar- 
den, 236-237. 
Soapwort, 346. 

Soil, adaptation of natural, 86 
et seq. 
and alpine plants, 61, 83. 
drainage of, 5, 9, 12, 29, yj^ 

54,62, 71,93, 94. 
for rock gardens, 9, 61, 83. 
for rock plants, 86. 
for Saxifrages, 187. 
leaf-mould, 88. 
lime and, 88. 
loamy, 62, 86, 89. 
poor and stony, necessary for 

some alpine plants, 90. 
stirring the, 92. 
suitable for various plants, 
Solomon's Seal, 327-328. 
Stonecrop, 360. 
Strata or grain of rockwork, the, 

" Sunken garden " type of arti- 
ficial rock gardens, the, 

Thrift, 240. 
Toadflax, 302-303. 
Top - dressing a rock garden, 

Trailing plants, a list of, 378- 

Trees, overhanging, 7, 33. 

Valley type of rock garden, the, 


" Vaporite," a successful insecti- 
cide, 180. 

Veronica, 370-371. 

Vetches for rock gardens, 236, 
243, 263, 293. 

Violas, a selection of, for rock 
gardens, 372. 

Wall garden, the, 1 1 7. 

plants suitable for, 378. 
Wallflowers, 256-257. 
Water garden, the, 1 13. 
plants for, 1 15- 116. 
Watering, a golden rule concern- 
ing, 170. 
seeds, 135. 
Weeds and weeding, 33, 103, 

174, 175- 
Wild garden, the, 108. 

plants for, 109-113. 
Wind Flower, 232-235. 
Wire- worms, 180, 181. 
Wood-lice, 181. 

Yarrow, varieties of, 218-220. 

Zinc, utility of, against snails 
and slugs, 132, 178. 


■■lis ^