THE LIBRARY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PRESENTED BY PROF. CHARLES A. KOFOID AND MRS. PRUDENCE W. KOFOID THE ROCKS DEER CREEK, H/RFORD COUNTY, M/RYLAND. THEIR LEGENDS AND HISTORY. BY THOMAS TURNER WYSONG, OF " SHIRLEY, NEAR THE KOCKS." TWO ILLUSTRATIONS. BALTIMORE: PRINTED BY A. J. CONLON, No. 23 SOUTH STREET. 1880 Entered, according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1880, BY THOMAS TURNER WYSONG, In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington, D. C. TO MY FRIENDS OF MARYLAND AND OF THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, OF PENNSYLVANIA, AND OF VIRGINIA AS IT WAS TERRITORIALLY AT THE DATE OF MY BIRTH, MAY 20, 1817, THIS BOOK OF Is AFFECTIONATELY INSCRIBED BY THE AUTHOR. M363111 INTRODUCTION. MY residence is about a mile, as the bird flies, from the celebrated Rocks of Deer Creek. I first saw this great natural curiosity in the Spring of 1844. I was then young, and did not dream that my advanced years would be passed almost under its shadows. But He who appoints the bounds of our habitations has so ordered. To-day I occupy the place which I have named, for peculiar reasons, " Shirley, near the Kocks." Since I have lived in this locality I have been ob- servant of much apparent interest in the Rocks, and have read numerous compositions, both in prose and poetry, descriptive of them. These were generally the essays of the young, inspired by the beauties and sub- limities of the scenes around them. Of the objects seen, none have excited more interest than the King and Queen Seats. Who made them ? for what pur- pose were they used ? have been frequent enquiries. These interrogatories suggested the writing of "The Last King and Queen of the Rocks of Deer Creek." Having done so for the instruction and entertainment of the young people especially, it occurred to me that a series of sketches, mingling fact with fancy, might give them pleasure, and, perhaps, be of some profit to them. These I have written, and they are to be found in this small and unpretentious volume. 6 INTRODUCTION. I hope that the character of these compositions will give offence to no one, not even the most conscientious. They are, indeed, the interweaving of fact with fancy, but the facts are more numerous than one would imag- ine who has not studied the locality and its history as I have done. Add to these facts the laws, customs and usages of the original inhabitants of the country, re- ferred to in these stories, and the amount of absolute fiction is not great. My apology for the presence of fic- tion at all is, that it is, as I use it, a mirror a reflection of the truth. Nature responds to imagination, and imagination is the handmaid of Nature. Shakespeare is read by all, not because his characters and scenes are not fictitious, but rather because his imaginings mirror the truths of Nature. That sublimest creation of poetic genius, the Book of Job, the Divine inspiration of which is not doubted, is a sacred drama, the persons of which, though they may not have had existence in fact, are nevertheless real, because they are truthful. Paradise Lost and the Pilgrim's Progress are both creations of fancy, but not therefore pernicious. If strict, literal fact is alone to be tolerated, then all bo'oks embellished with the colors of imagination must be discarded, though imagination be the medium for the conveyance of truth. I am the more solicitous that the facts and truthful fancies of this book shall be read, because of the changes that will be wrought by the improvements now in prog- ress and promised in the vicinity of the Rocks. The iron horse will soon be running along our streams and through our valleys, the srnoke of the locomotive will INTRODUCTION. 7 curl its wreaths about the summits of the Rocks, par- tially hiding them from view. The substitution of the realities of the commercial and business life for the poetries of undisturbed Nature is inevitable. THE AUTHOR. INTRODUCTION TO SECOND EDITION. THE favor with which the first edition of one thou- sand copies of " THE ROCKS OF DEER CREEK ; THEIR LEGENDS AND HISTORY," has been received, encour- ages the issue of a second edition indefinitely large. The sale of so many copies in so brief a space of time shows that the interest is in the Rocks as a natural curiosity of great attraction ; and this fact is a compli- ment to the intelligence and taste of the many who have purchased and read the book. Of the hundreds who were courteously solicited to patronize this home production, scarce a half-dozen lacked courtesy in their refusal to do so, and charity believes that the majority of this insignificant number were prompted by no un- worthy motives. Occasionally there is found in the forests a rare bird, in the waters a rare fish, in the fields a rare beast; why, therefore, should it be thought a strange thing when there is found occasionally among those animals who, as has been scientifically determined, possess the qualities and characteristics of all the infe- rior animals, one to whom the presentation of a book constitutes a grave offence. Some members of the genus homo the microcosm never read a book, not because they have no knowledge of letters, but because all letters are offensive to them. 10 INTRODUCTION TO SECOND EDITION. Care has been taken in making up the present edi- tion to avoid as much as possible the defects and blemishes of the first. Both grammatical and typo- graphical errors exist in the former, and fortunate it will be if none shall be found in the latter. The effort to secure perfection of form will be appreciated, and the failure to do so will be forgiven by all generous readers. This book is larger ; other legends have been added ; the facts and incidents are more numerous. It is large enough. We launch our boat, which, though not 4 ' as goodly and strong and staunch As ever weathered a wintiy sea," will nevertheless, we hope, " sail securely, and safely reach The Fortunate Isles, on whose shining beach The sights we see, and the sounds we hear, Will be those of joy, and not of fear." THE AUTHOR. CONTENTS. PAGE. Title 1 Dedication 3 Introduction 5 Introduction to Second Edition 9 Description of the Rocks 13 Razuka ; a Legend of Rock Ridge Lake . 15 The Last King and Queen of the Rocks of Deer Creek 22 The Last Indian of Deer Creek 28 The Hermit of the Otter Rock 33 The Robber's Den ; or, The Learned Philologist 41 The Enchantress of Hunting Ridge 46 The Aged Trapper, Hunter and Fisherman of the Indian Cupboard 51 The Mine Old Fields ; or, The Gathering of the Witches... , 58 The Falling Branch ; or, The Captured Bride 64 The Eagle 71 The Witch Rabbit 72 The Big Snake..* 73 Whitsuntide 74 The Perilous Feat 75 An Act of Vandalism 76 Canal and Railroad 77 The Original Moonshiner 79 The Monuments of the Giants 81 The Field of Darts 84 The Chrome Pits 86 The Slate Quarries 7 87 The Horse Epidemic and the Guinea- Man's Pony 89 The Church of the Rocks. . . 92 12 CONTENTS. PAGB. Mike' s Rock 94 The Ancient Mill and the Honest Miller 95 The Oldest Inhabitant '. 98 The Youngest Inhabitants 100 The Original Inhabitants 101 The Massacre of the Mingoes 103 Rocks Literature 105 Introduction thereto ,106 Selections therefrom, in Prose and Poetry 107 a. Description of the Rocks in Prose 107 b. Stanzas on King and Queen Seats 107 c. Description of the Rocks in Poetry 108 d. The Fern... 109 e. The Old MiU 112 A Prophecy .116 Mason and Dixon's Line 122 A Literary Curiosity 123 ILLUSTRA TIONS. The Rocks of Deer Creek Front of Title. The Falling Branch Page 64 THE ROCKS OF DEER CREEK. DESCRIPTION OF THE ROCKS. THE Rocks of Deer Creek are in Harford County, Maryland, distant nine miles north-east of Bel Air, the county seat, and seven miles south of the boundary line between Maryland and Pennsylvania. The waters of Deer Creek, forcing their way at an indefinite time past through Rock Ridge, have left on either side an immense pile of massive rocks, three hundred and eighty-five feet in height, which, with the plunging waters of the romantic river which runs at their base and the contiguous scenes, constitute a rare picture of sublimity and beauty. The western rocks are more accessible, and of great- er attraction to visitors. The view from them is less obstructed and more distant, embracing within its range hill and dale, forest and field, river and brook, farm-house and hamlet. On them are the King and Queen Seats. To the verge of their pre- cipice was driven, by a madman, Bold Hector, that noble horse, which was as deserving of a monu- ment as was Bucephalus, the war horse of Alexan- der. At their base the Eagle was killed, and also the last wolf and the last deer. These, with other historical incidents, increase the interest felt in the Rocks, the monuments of mighty and mysterious forces exerted in the unknown past. 2 14 THE ROCKS OF DEER CREEK. Every genuine Harfordonian is enthusiastic in his admiration of the Rocks. They are with him the Great Curiosity ; they belong to him ; he is proud of them. He loves them, because associated with them are memories of happy hours passed with congenial associates on their summits or at their base by the waters of his favorite stream. Their inspirations are sweet to him, and their pres- ence creates sympathies loving and tender. In their presence he has a higher appreciation of Na- ture, and an intenser sympathy with the spirit of poetry which dwells amid such scenes. Here, as beautifully expressed by our own great poet, whose highest, purest inspirations are due to that " sweet spirit which fills the world ;" here, amid everlast- ing hills, mountain and shattered cliff, and green valley, and river and brook, and the silent majesty of deep woods In many a lazy syllable repeating Their old poetic legends to the winds, his thoughts are uplifted from earth. And such also is the interest he feels in the general library of the Rocks, consisting of many volumes of rare in- formations. Will the coming of the Railroad and the devel- opment of the commercial and business life, as has been feared, lessen the attractions of the Rocks? The poetries of Nature will still be there, and the presence of the accidents of artificial life may heighten by contrast the interest, making the poet- ries of Nature more poetical. Happily, the ap- proach by the Railroad, especially from the Smith, will open up a view of the Rocks surpassing in at- THEIR LEGENDS AND HISTORY. 15 tractiveness. Passengers from that direction, in crossing the bridge over the Creek at the head of the dam, will have a view of the upper portion of the Rocks, which by a well known quality of the mind will exaggerate the whole picture. Mightier structures they will seem to be, having their found- ations in greater depths, because their summits tower upward, touching the heavens. The Rocks, their legends and history, the poetries of Nature made more poetical by the contrasts suggested by the thundering train and smoking locomotive, will ever be sources of interest ; and that singular en- thusiasm felt by those whose dwelling-places are not distant from the Great Curiosity will abide. RAZUKA; A LEGEND OP ROCK RIDGE LAKE. THE Rocks of Deer Creek are the great natural curiosity of Harford County, Md. Who first dis- covered them? What was their condition at the time of discovery ? These questions may not be ca- pable of satisfactory answers. A tradition of the distant and uncertain past is that the first white man who visited that locality did not find it as it now is. Instead of the gorge, and the rocks, and the river running at their base, there was an impact 16 THE ROCKS OF DEER CREEK. rock ridge, holding against its gigantic breast the waters of a mighty lake, and throwing from its sum- mit, four hundred feet in height, the waters of Deer Creek. The physical features of the ridge, and the characteristics of the low lands for at least five miles above it, justify the conjecture that the tradition- ary lake and cataract are not myths. In the ab- sence of certain historical information, it may be allowable to accept the tradition as in accordance substantially with the facts. Of the name of the first discoverer we have no available knowledge. If his name is recorded, it may be found in some musty volume of some foreign library. There is a bare possibility that some adventurer, associated with the expedition of the celebrated Captain John Smith, the founder of the colony of Jamestown, Virginia, who in his exploration of the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries, sailed as far as the mouth of the Sus- quehanna river, may have heard, on the arrival of the expedition at that locality, of the wonders of the not distant wilderness scarce a day's journey and that he was the first civilized man who gazed upon those wonderful exhibitions of nature. It may be that to a Jesuit father, who had penetrated the wilderness in the prosecution of his sacred mis- sion, the honor of discovery is due. These holy fathers were the earliest explorers of our Western territories and inland seas and rivers. They were the spiritual guides and counsellors of many of the North American Indians, and in the furtherance of their work rescued many a wonder of nature from the gloom of the primeval forest. But even though these conjectures be inadmissible, and we should be left to the judgment that at the discovery of this THEIR LEGENDS AND HISTORY. 17 continent by Columbus, in 1492, the Rocks and the Ridge were essentially what they are at the present time, such a conviction does not destroy our faith in the existence of the lake and fall at some more dis- tant period in the past. The testimony of the ridge and valleys assures our belief. We naturally regret that the pent-up waters of Deer Creek exerted so soon that resistless energy which clove asunder a mountain and reduced their volume to the compar- atively small stream of to-day. There is beauty in the sinuous Deer Creek, threading its way between abrupt wooded hills and along fertile valleys ; also sublimity in the Rocks and rapids as they now are ; but how much more of grandeur in the mighty lake and the lofty cataract, rivalling the Falls of Mont- morenci or those of the Yosemite Valley. An ancient bard, whose name is unknown, sang of the Rocks of Deer Creek : A bare and isolated rock, On which no tuft of moss has ever grown ; In front a precipice descends far down, Where a rapid river sweeps along. Behind, nature has shaped an opening in the cliff (Which looks with frowning brows upon the scene), To the resemblance of a lovely garden ; There wild flowers bloom, and scent the evening breeze; There birds resort and warble all day long; -TJiere lovers meet and whisper tales of love. I have italicized the last line, and for two reasons ; first, because it is as true of the present as the past ; and second, because it recalls the legend of the Lake and the Rocks, which was learned from the aged and venerable hermit of the Otter Rock. There once lived on the northern borders of the lake, in the wigwam of her father, a noted chieftain 18 THE ROCKS OF DEER CREEK. in his day, an Indian maiden of exceeding beauty and rare fascination. This latter statement may be received with incredulity by those who have not had the opportunity of observing the North Ameri- can Indians in their natural state, removed from the contamination of civilization. The hermit assured me that it is nevertheless true, and I proceed in his own language to describe the attractions of Razuka, the Beauty of the Lake : " Slender, delicate and elastic as a reed swaying in the currents of a gentle breeze, above the ordi- nary height, while all the outlines of her graceful figure displayed the lithe and fragile symmetry of girlish years with the mature development of perfect womanhood. Her brow and face were dark, and the rich blood crimsoned her full pouting lips, and flushed peach-like through the golden hue of her cheeks with as warm a tide as ever burned in the impassioned cheeks of an Anglo-Norman beauty. Her long straight hair was of the deepest black. Her eyes had the long almond orbits and long fringed lashes, which are deemed the rarest charms of Ital- ian beauty, and the large soft pupils of the deepest, clearest hazel swam in a field of nacry bluish lustre, which could be compared to nothing but the finest mother-of-pearl. Her teeth were of perfect white- ness, and her features had a harmony and unison entirely their own, a soft, tranquil, half unconcious majesty of stillness." Such is the very imperfect recollection of the de- scription of the beauty of Razuka, the loveliest of her tribe. Habituated to labor, as all Indian women are, it was but pastime to paddle the light bark canoe, which was her favorite employment. On THEIR LEGENDS AND HISTORY. 19 the lake alone, angling for the fish which abounded in it, she passed many days of her happy life. This life, so free from the anxieties and perplexities of the artificial life of civilized communities, might have been protracted indefinitely but for the pos- session of the personal attractions that entitled her to the name she bore, Razuka, the Beauty of the Lake. Not only the young men of her own tribe, but those of other and distant tribes, were wont to seek her presence at the wigwam of her father, or gathering on the shores of the lake, gaze with fixed look upon the Beauty shooting her frail canoe with the speed of the arrow through the glassy waters. At one time, having passed entirely over the lake to the opposite shore, she was attracted by the beauty of a wild rose, some distance from the bank, and was about making an effort to secure it, when she heard the rumbling of the not distant thunder. Turning her face to the west, she observed a por- tentous storm-cloud gathering on the horizon. Anxious, she turned the prow of the boat home- ward and rowing with energy, reached the middle of the lake, when the storm fell in its fury upon the waters. Standing upon the shore near the wig- wam was a young man of another tribe, who had been smitten by the charms of Eazuka, and solicit- ous for the welfare of her whose life was evidently imperilled, entered hurriedly a canoe lying near by, and pushed out rapidly upon the storm -lashed lake to rescue, if possible, the endangered. Happily he reached her, and taking her into his stronger boat, after almost superhuman exertion, brought her in safety to her home. The rescuer, whose timidity had hitherto deterred him from any marked demon- 20 THE ROCKS OF DEER CREEK, stration of interest in Razuka, now very naturally hoped that the heroic deed he had done would re- commend him to the favorable consideration of the chief, the father of the saved ; and having awakened the sentiment of gratitude in the mind of the daughter, it might eventually lead to the possession of the prize he coveted. Under ordinary circum- stances, such doubtless would have been the case, but unhappily for the cherished hopes of the noble rescuer, Razuka had, unknown to her family, re- ciprocated the affections of another. Chocorea, the son of a M aquas chief, was the favored one. The father of Razuka, ignorant that the interest of his daughter was endangered, and feeling the obliga- tion of gratitude, would have encouraged the aspi- rations of the saviour of his idolized child. He intimated to Razuka that possibly her union with the Swan might promote her happiness, and if so, to himself the alliance would not be objectionable. Desirous to undeceive her father, and unwilling that her rescuer should cherish a hope that could not be realized, she frankly declared that her heart belonged to another to Chocorea, the son of the chief of the Massawomikes, the inveterate foes of her tribe. " Never/' said the chief, her father, "shall the daughter of a Susquehannock wed the son of a Maquas," (the Massawomikes were sometimes so called.) "The Maquas are dogs. These f< had been from time immemorial the undisturbed hunting-grounds of my people, and in this lake they caught at pleasure the white belly and the blue fin, and below the Tails, in the water of our river, the shad, the herring and the eel ; and my THEIR LEGENDS AND HISTORY. 21 people had hoped that they would sit by their fires unmolested, and smoke their pipes in peace while sun and moon endured ; but, alas ! in an evil day the prowling wolves of the frozen lakes and haunted forests, the sneaking Maquas, came, and but for the strength of my arm and the arms of my noble braves, many of whom fell by the arrows of the hated ones, my people would have been swept from the earth, as the north wind sweeps the dry leaves from the woodlands. Murderers the Maquas are robbers, sneaks ! No Maquas shall ever wed the daughter of Nieskan, the Susquehannock, and the life of the insolent shall atone for his presumption." This threat was put into execution. In the twilight of the same evening when these ominous words were uttered, Razuka met Chocorea in the glen (their usual place of meeting), in the rear of her father's wigwam. That interview was hurried and anxious, and resulted in the determin- ation of Razuka to leave the wigwam of her father for the distant home of her hated lover. A meet- ing was appointed for the ensuing evening to de- termine the time and mode of their departure. That interview never took place. On the morning of that day, by the hand of the angered father, Chocorea, the lover of Razuka, was slain, and his body was thrown into the lake. The report of a firearm announced the fearful tidings to Razuka, and life for her had no further charms. Standing, like some grim sentinel, on the south- ern border of the lake, was a gigantic and precipit- ous rock, which threw its shadows upon its waters. To the summit of this eminence Razuka, imme- diately upon the report of the death of Chocorea, 22 THE ROCKS OF DEER CREEK. made her way, and, fastening to her body a stone of heavy weight, secured by a cord made of the bark of the birch tree, threw herself into the dark waters. "On the strand Two sleeping bodies afterward were found, Chocorea and Razuka, joined in death As they had been in life. Their spirits, too, (So the untutored children of the woods Believed) had gone to happier grounds The Red Man's paradise to live and love Forever there." And furthermore, the legend says that at that lone rock, where Kazuka met her fate, is seen at summer eve a great enchantress, "Who will sometimes pour Such glowing tales of love into your ear, That, in a transport, you will spread your arms, And clasp a lovely vision." THE LAST KING AND QUEEN OF THE KOCKS OF DEER CREEK. ON the right bank of Deer Creek, nearly oppo- site the present residence of E. S. Rogers, Esq., wan, two centuries ago, a village of the SusqiK-han- nock Indians. Five miles above, on the same stream, fifty yards from where the mill of James Stansbury, Esq., is located, was another village of THEIR LEGENDS AND HISTORY. 23 the same Indians. Two and one-half miles south- east of the Rocks, on the land now in the occupancy of Bennett Grafton, Esq., was a third village. Each of these villages had its own chief, but, for mutual protection and aid, were confederate, ac- knowledging the supremacy of the chief whose location was in the vicinity of the Rocks. This chief bore the not uncommon Indian name of Bald Eagle. The chief of the upper village was Great Bear ; of the lower, Lone Wolf. In the autumn of the year Lone Wolf, accom- panied by several of his braves, visited the Iroquois, then living in the northern part of what is now the State of New York. While there he became en- amoured with an Ojibway maiden, who had been captured by the Iroquois in her infancy ; and adopt- ed by their chief, was brought up in his wigwam as his own daughter. The stay of the visitors was protracted until the snow began to whiten the earth and the ice to cover the waters, and Lone Wolf would fain have tarried until the snow and ice were melted again. In the charms of the Fern-Shaken- by-the-Wind, as she had been named by her captors, he had found an attraction stronger than that he felt for his own people in the South country. But fail- ing in his efforts to win the affections of the Fern, he resorted to diplomac}^, hoping that time, with assiduity of attention, would soften the maiden's heart, and she would ultimately become his wife. The time of his departure having come, he besought the Iroquois chief to allow his adopted daughter and her brother to accompany him to his distant home, promising to return them safely, and laden with valuable presents, when the trees put forth 24 THE ROCKS OF DEER CREER. their leaves again. This request was granted. The Fern and her brother accompanied Lone Wolf to his home. Two moons after their arrival the braves of the three confederate villages were summoned to attend a great council, to be held at the Rocks. At the time appointed Bald Eagle and his wife, as was their custom on such occasions, took their places in the seats on the Rocks known as the King and Queen seats, the braves of the tribe and their confederates sitting upon the ground be- neath or leaning against the interspersed trees. At a short distance beyond the circle of the assembled warriors sat the women and children of the tribes and their Iroquois visitors. The Fern and her brother listened attentively to the speeches of the different orators. Nor were they unobserved, the maiden particularly. She could hot fail to at- tract attention, for to perfection of form and great symmetry of features, was added a dignity of man- ner rarely equaled. Among the braves most attract- ed by the charms of the Fern was The-Bird-that- Flies-High, eldest son of Bald Eagle, and prospec- tive heir to the supreme chieftainship or kingship, as it was sometimes designated. This young brave, taking advantage of a short recess had by the coun- cil, approached the Fern, and offered her as a pres- ent a trinket of exceeding brilliancy and apparently of great value, which she graciously accepted. This was observed by Lone Wolf, who, under the influ- ence of an unconcealed jealousy, rushed to the spot where the maiden and her admirer were standing, and seizing the trinket, violently wrenched it from her hands, and throwing it upon the ground, train- pled it under his feet. Ordinarily such an act THEIR LEGENDS AND HISTORY. 25 would have been promptly resented, but tbe Bird had too much regard for the dignity of the occasion, and too much respect for the character and author- ity of his father, the confederate chief, to notice it by immediate and violent resentment. He quietly withdrew from the presence of the maiden,, enter- taining, however, the purpose to avenge the insult when the fitting opportunity arrived. That oppor- tunity was not long delayed. Ten days after the close of the council, there was a gathering of the tribes at the lower village, to participate in the ceremonial connected with the rite of purification, a rite imperative in the case of every male infant of the tribe at its eighth day. From a grove of stately oaks, one of which may be seen at this present time, one hundred yards east of the spot on which now stands the house of Mr. Grafton, a procession moved toward Deer Creek, in the waters of which the child was immersed by the venerable priest of the lower village. The rite per- formed, the procession returned in the order in which it came. The remaining portion of the day was spent in feasting and dancing, in which the Bird participated with seeming enjoyment and for- getful apparently of his purpose to avenge the in- sult perpetrated by Lone Wolf. True, however, to the instincts of his race, that purpose was still cherished, and only awaited the opportunity of its accomplishment. When about to leave for his vil- lage, he challenged Lone Wolf to a trial of skill with the bow and arrow, to take place at the Rocks early on the morning of the succeeding day, sug- gesting at the same time the Fern as ump re, whose decision would be respected by all. These propo- 3 26 THE ROCKS OF DEER CREEK. sitions were gladly accepted by Lone Wolf, as the trial proposed would afford him an opportunity of displaying his acknowledged skill, and also of en- joying the society of the Fern. On the following day, before the frosts had been melted by the rising sun, the contestants met at the place designated. The contest continued until the shadows fell upon the roots of the trees, when Lone Wolf was declared the victor. The crown of laurel was placed on his brow by the umpire, accompanied by a few words complimentary to the skill of the victor, and seem- ingly expressive of personal interest. The Bird was excited to madness by the seeming preference of the Fern for Lone Wolf, and remembering the insult, suddenly grasped his rival, and rushing with the speed of lightning to the edge of the preci- pice, threw him headlong into the abyss below. As he was falling, a few plaintive notes of the death- song were heard, and the voice of Lone Wolf was hushed forever. The Bird made no effort to escape. Submissive to the immemorial custom and imperative law of his race, he sternly awaited the coming of the avenger, and would certainly have been slain, but for the in- terposition of the Fern. Drawing from the pocket of a belt which she wore the trinket of two jewels that had not been damaged seriously, she offered them to the sister of Lone Wolf, his only surviving relative, as an atonement for the blood of her broth- er. The offering was accepted by her, as also by her tribe. That trinket of two jewels was the Ar and Thar, erroneously supposed to have been lost by the ancestors of the present race of Indians in their migration to this continent from the East. It THEIR LEGENDS AND HISTORY. 2? had been preserved in the family of Bald Eagle, and highly valued, as its possession gave prosper- ity, and conferred princely authority and rule. That the Fern should have parted with such a treasure is understood in the light of the fact that she had cherished an attachment for the Bird, and secretly hoped to become his wife. Three moons subsequently, at the feast of the coming spring, always observed when the first birds made their appearance, there was another gather- ing of the tribes at the Rocks, to witness the cele- bration of the nuptials of the Bird-that-Flies-High and of the Fern-Shaken-by-the-Wind. Following immediately this ceremony was the consummation of a design that Bald Eagle had long entertained. Aged and wearied with the responsibilities and la- bors pertaining to his position as chief ruler of the confederate tribes, he abdicated his authority, and nominated his son as his successor. His choice was ratified by all the tribes. Conducted by the aged priest of the upper tribe to the seats on the Rocks, the Bird-that-Flies-High and the Fern-Shaken-by- the-Wind were formally declared King and Queen of the confederate tribes. They were the last King and Queen of the Rocks of Deer Creek. Ere many moons waxed and waned the pale faces came. Driven from their homes and from the graves of their forefathers, the confederate tribes fled to the land of the setting sun, finding their last hours and their graves among strangers in the distant wilderness. Lone Wolf, whose romantic history and tragic death have been related, was buried on the banks of Deer Creek, about six hundred yards above the 28 THE ROCKS OF DEER CREEK. present residence of Joshua Rutledge, Esq., and often, during the autumnal nights, in the faint light of the waning moon, is seen at that locality a strange apparition. It is thought to he the spirit of the murdered chieftain mingling with the shadows that fall on the rippling waters. THE LAST INDIAN OF DEER CREEK. MINGO PARK is the name of the estate of our well-known and respected fel lo vv -citizen, James Stansbury, Esq. This place is most appropriately named. It is derived from Mingo Hill, an ahrupt eminence immediately opposite the residence of that gentleman, at the base of which luns and ripples the waters of the far-lamed Deer Creek. The hill itself takes its name from Mingo one of the Min- goes whose wigwam was located on the lowlands, an hundred yards or more above the position now occupied by the mill of Mr. Stansbury, and on the left bank of the stream. The Mingoes have become celebrated in Indian history. They originally occupied a large part of the territory now included in the State of New York. They were known by several names. The English called them the Five Nations, because they consti- tuted a confederacy of that number of diMinrt nations, increased to si* by the accession of the THEIR LEGENDS AND HISTORY. 29 Tnscaroras of Carolina. The French called them Iroquois ; the Dutch, Maquas, and the Virginia Indians gave them the name of Massawomikes. At home they were known by the name of Mingoes. At first their habitj had been rather agricultural than warlike, but unhappily for their peace, and the well-being of others of their race, they were attacked by the powerful tribe of the Adirondacks, then occupying the country three hundred miles above Trois-Rivieres in Canada. Necessity drove them to war, and by their prowess and success they earned the proud title of the Romans of the West. Nearly exterminating the Adironacks, and proudly exalting themselves on their overthrow, the Iroquois or Mingoes grew rapidly to be the leading tribe of the North , and fi nally of the whole continent. But, like many of the mighty nations of the earth, they have yielded to a superior force, and there now remains only an handful to recount mournfully the mighty deeds of their valorous fathers. Another race, with its teeming millions, occupies their hunt- ing-grounds arid controls their waters. Their fate is the melancholy recollection of a greatness never to be recovered, and the agonizing anticipation of the utter extinction of their race. The Mingo whose history we record had, as we have seen, his home among the wild, weird scenes of the Upper Deer Creek. His wigwam at first was one of many, for in the locality designated there was a considerable village of his tribe. The coming of the white man drove them from their homes, and they migrated northward and westward, resting for a time in the forests of Pennsylvania and on the plains of Ohio. Mingo alone remained, 3* 30 THE ROCKS OF DEER CREEK. occupying his wigwam, with his wife and children, and finding his support in the waters of Deer Creek and in the wooded hills that bordered it. The rea- son of this seemingly singular procedure is, as will appear, but another illustration of the mysterious nature of man and the power of a sentiment. The Mi n goes of Deer Creek made frequent forays upon the Indians living on the waters of the lower Patapsco, and occasionally extended their incursions into Eastern Maryland and Virginia. In one of their adventures they penetrated the country as far south as the eastern shore of the Chesapeake Bay, opposite the mouth of the Potomac, and attacking suddenly and unexpectedly, surprised and captured a large village, with much booty and some prison- ers. Among the captives was Watumpka, the daughter of Wesaco, in his day the most celebrated chieftain of the Wicomicos. Brought by her cap- tors to the Rocks of Deer Creek, which at the period referred to was the general rendezvous of the Mingo warriors of the vicinity, and from which they con- ducted their warlike expeditions, and to which they returned to make distribution of the common spoils, happily for Watumpka, in the allotment of the prisoners, she fell to the share of Mingo, who had participated in the expedition. This youthful war- rior had seen twenty summers. He had already at that age developed into the noblest type of manhood. Six feet in height, of corresponding weight, straight as the arrow he let go from his bow, of perfect fea- tures, rather Roman than Indian, and of dignified mien, he was the admiration of his tribe. Added to these physical attractions was a mind and heart intellectual, sympathetic arid loving. The artist THEIR LEGENDS AND HISTORY. 31 would have selected him as his ideal, and the female heart chosen him as its possession forever. Of Watumpka it might have heen said, Indian though she was, what the immortal bard said of the gentle Desdemona : "A maiden never bold, Of spirit so still and quiet that her motion Blushed at itself." And of the attractions of her person what Michael Cassio said of the gentle maiden : "Tempests themselves, high seas and howling winds, As having sense of beauty, do omit Their mortal natures, letting safe go by The divine" Watumpka. Mingo saw and was conquered. His captive was the captor. Watumpka submitting resignedly to the fate of the captured expatriation from her home and yielding to the ardent wooing of her lover, consented to become his bride. The celebra- tion of the nuptials was in accordance with the rites of the Mingoes, after which she occupied with her husband his wigwam on the banks of the Upper Deer Creek. There, under the shadows of Mingo Hill, in the quiet and patient performance of the duties of her position as wife and mother, she passed the days of her allotted life. Not indeed without feeling the weight of the shadows that fell upon her heart in the recollection of the happy scenes of childhood and youth, and in the remembrance of the loss of a noble father and the care of a tender mother. These were but occasional experiences. The duties of life and the sense of the affections of him she had chosen generally absorbed her thought. 32 THE ROCKS OF DEER CREEK. How long Mingo remained on Deer Creek after the occupancy of the country by the whites is not known. The ancestors of some of the present res- idents of upper Harford knew him to have been there several years after they had settled in the neighborhood among them Richard Deaver, the great-grandfather of the present George and Rich- ard Deaver, Seniors. That after a time he followed his tribe westward is conjectured ; but if so, not until after the death of Watumpka, his captured bride. By the side of the river, under the shadows of the trees, was laid in deepest grief what was mortal of Watumpka, the child of Wesaco the Wi- comico, and the wife of Mingo the Massawomike. And it is not difficult, we think, for the occupants of .Mingo Park, as they sit by the blazing fire in the winter nights, to imagine that they hear the voice of Mingo, who long since joined Watumpka in the land of spirits, mingling with the voices of the winds without. It is the voice of the shade of the yet living and loving Mingo, which seeks to com- mune with the shade of the still living and loving Watumpka. Honnis, a venerable chief of the Wyandots, said to an acquaintance of the writer of this narrative, that the warriors of his nation were called upon to put each one grain of corn into a wooden tray that would hold more than half a bushel, and that before all had done so the tray was full and running over. The Mingoes were a more numerous and pow- erful nation, covering a great tract of country, esti- mated to have been twelve hundred miles in length and seven hundred miles in breadth. Along the Busquehanna and its tributaries, among the forests Til KIR LEGENDS AND HISTORY. 33 of Deer Creek and in its valleys, were once many of these people. There remained for a while after their departure a single representative of this once mighty nation. He lingered because his captive wife, the beautiful and loving Watumpka, was alien to his people. They had killed her father, Wesaco, the honored chief of the Wicomicos, and made her a captive in a strange land and among a strange people. Obedient to a mysterious quality of the human mind, she became the wife of a Mingo, par- ticipating in his toils and sharing in his sympathies. Him alone she loved, and for him and the children she bore to him she lived to the Mingoes alien forever, a sentiment that led her to end her life and find her grave among the pale faces, also the inexorable foes of her race. THE HERMIT OF THE OTTER ROCK. YEARS ago I will not say how many there lived in the Valley of Virginia a family of English origin. They had emigrated to America, not to better their worldly condition, but to relieve themselves, if possible, of the shadow of a great trouble which had fallen upon them at their former home. The head of the household was of noble birth the blood of the ran in his veins. Unhappily his temper was irascible, and he lacked ability to control its 34 THE ROCKS OF DEER CREEK. violence. In a controversy with a fellow-nobleman he yielded to its exactions, and struck a blow that almost instantly proved fatal to his antagonist. Conscious of the insufficiency of the provocation that led to the fatal result, and properly fearing the majesty of that equal justice which is a distinguish- ing characteristic of English law, he fled his country, and under an assumed name came to America, and found, as he thought, a refuge of safety in the prov- ince of New Jersey. Having brought with him abundant means, he purchased an estate in the vicin- ity of what is now , and made preparation for the reception of his family. The large reward that had been offered for his arrest stimulated inquiry, and it was learned that he had fled to America. Detectives were put upon his track, and they were likely to accomplish the arrest of the object of their search. Information of these facts coming to the knowledge of the criminal and fugitive, he suddenly and secretly left the locality in which he had been living, and by concealed travel eventually reached the forests of Virginia. Purchasing from Lord Fairfax, then proprietor of the northern neck of Virginia, a tract of land consisting of two thou- sand acres, a few miles east of the present site of , he again prepared for the reception of his wife and children. Here he was secure, and was in a brief time rejoined by his family. At that dis- tant period of the past there were not, as now, large towns, substantially built, and attractive villages, with communities in town and country possessing all the refinements of highly cultured society. There was not a hamlet ; only an occasional cabin, connected by paths or the blazings of the trees, and THEIR LEGENDS AND HISTORY. 35 with rare exceptions, the few, isolated inhabitants were as rude and uncultivated as their surround- ings. An exception was the family of noble lineage. The oldest child of that family was a son, and at the time of which we write was a young man twenty- four years of age, of cultivated mind, and of much personal attraction. In heart he was as his mother, a woman of gentle nature and sweetness of disposi- tion. And from her he inherited a love of solitude. Though she was the wife of a nobleman of large wealth, and constrained by her position when at home to mingle much in society, it was always with- out pleasure, and gladly intermitted. This predis- position to solitude was intensified by the occurrence which led to the removal of the family to America. In its wilds at that day, where solitude reigned almost supreme, Walter realized the fullest gratification of the inherited and now cultivated predisposition. He communed with nature and with his own spirit, saddened by the remembrance of a great misfortune. Calamities come not singly. To that family of stricken ones death came in the character of a mys- terious plague, and all save Walter fell victims to its relentless power. The solitude that he had coveted and enjoyed, now intensified, became insup- portable, and he sought relief from its oppressions. Having heard from a trapper of the wild of north- eastern Maryland, with its wondrous lake abound- ing in fish, of the cataract falling from the summit of a rocky ridge four hundred feet in height, and of the rapid river, in the waters of which the otter and the beaver abounded, and of the forests in which roamed the elk, the bear and the deer, he resolved 36 THE ROCKS OF DEER CREEK. to muke it his home, where, undisturbed by human associations, he might commune alone with nature and the denizens of forest and river ; and forgetting, if such were possible, that crime of a parent which had smitten his heart with an inexpressible anguish, wait patiently and submissively for that event which comes to all. Early on the morning of May he bade adieu to the forests of Virginia, and, after a fatiguing journey of some days, reached his desti- nation. He had not been deceived by the represen- tations of the trapper. He found lake and cataract, waters abounding in fish and forests in game. About one-half mile east of the Kocks of Deer Creek is a massive rock projecting from a precipitous hill into the water. The rock is cavernous, arid was a home of otters ; hence its name, the li Otter Kock." On the hill, one hundred yards above the rock, in a thick growth of laurel, the hermit erected a rude hut of fallen logs. The cabin was well concealed from view by the thicket of undergrowth, and having to and from it a narrow, circuitous path, ho deemed himself secure from intrusion. The once " petted child of fortune " took up his abode in this solitary place of the wilderness, trusting in his skill in the use of gun and trap and hook to supply him with the material necessary to sustain his physical life, and hoping to escape the recollections of the great wrong that had poisoned so soon the springs of his earthly felicity. Solitude, to be advantageous, must be for a season only. Communing with ones self cannot long be protracted. Too long apart from his fellows, man will conjure up a thousand beings to con verso with his thoughts ; he will give sentiment and even Ian- THEIR LEGENDS AND HISTORY. 37 gunge to inanimate objects. The wild man will people the solitudes of the wilderness with society, and the untutored man in his solitary watchings and walkings among hills and valleys has his fears aroused by traditions of places haunted by spirits and ghouls. Where human associations break not the monotony of speechless existence, there it al- ways is "Fast in the wilderness and dream of spirits." So it became with the hermit. Now he lived in an ideal world. Educated from his youth to be- lieve in spiritual existences, he peopled the solitudes with real though invisible beings, and often in his dreams, as also in his waking reveries, communed with them. The Puckwudjimmenees those fairy beings whom the Algonquins thought planted the acorns from which the forests of oaks grow not infrequently to his vision " came fleeting by In the pale autumnal ray." In the vicinity of his retreat was a gentle spring of cool, limpid water, which he imagined was haunted by those mysterious little people. There is., perhaps, some apology for the superstition, for an ancient legend tells " How that old fountain was peopled erst by fairies ; That the spirit of their spells And flowery rites yet on its margin tarries, And that upon the summer eve, in the silent air still lingers The wild, sweet music of a band of fay-like singers." Such solitude could not be sustained, and the hermit turned to the living instincts around him 4 S8 THE ROCKS OF DEER CREEK. for relief. In so doing he found pleasure. He found in his communings with the occupants of forest and lake, grove and river, rare and exquisite enjoyments, joys denied him by the presence of civil- ized life, and not found in the dreamy existence he had been living. The birds entertained him with rarest songs of sweetest melodies, and to his ear the howl of the wolf and the cry of the panther were music. So also the scream of the eagle and the hissing of the serpent. With all the habitants of woods and waters he cultivated intimate relations. He recognized them as friends, and deported him- self towards them as such. His friendship was reciprocated, and on their part was confiding. Had he been seen in his wanderings through the wood- lands, or in his solitary walkings by the river's side, strange phenomena would have been witnessed. The birds accompanied him, flitting after him from tree to tree, or bush to bush, reluctant, seemingly, to be absent from one whom they manifestly esteemed and loved. The fish recognized his voice, and upon his appearance on the banks of the streams would gather to his presence. They fed from lii.s hand as trustingly as the child feeds from the hands of a loving mother. The raccoon, the opossum, the wildcat and the timid deer were'equally confiding. An Adam in his Eden, he ruled the beasts of the field, the birds of the air, and the fishes of the waters. If his physical necessities required the of- fering of the confiding, that sacrifice was made with the utmost tenderness and consideration. The hermit was not always indifferent to human associations. Rarely, indeed, did he Irave his seclu- sion to mingle with men. At distant intervals the THEIR LEGENDS AND HISTORY. 39 hermitage was visited by persons prompted by curi- osity, if by no otber motive. These rare occasions were enjoyed by him, and to his visitors were of great interest. His facility of communication was great, and at the times referred to his conversations were intensive in their character, the logical reaction from the life of seclusion he had led. Age came to the hermit, and with it thoughts of other days and sweeter joys. Present to his vision often was the image of his mother, and in the slum- bers of the night he would dream that he heard her, as in the days of his childhood, breathing blessings upon him. He awoke to find it but an illusive dream. Sickness came, and with it fever, picturing images of terror. The vigils of the night brought with them the sense of loneliness, and the mornings gave no relief. Alone in the wilderness, without the sympathy of his kind, and by infirmity denied the happiness he had derived from association with the instincts around him, he passed the days of his closing life. He was then heard to say he was thinking of his mother ' ' Thy gentle hand seems lightly still caressing The flaxen hair so loved, so prized by thee, And as in days gone by, I hear thy blessing Breathed, oh! so earnestly." The end came. The solitary watcher by the couch of the departing was a lone star. Looking upward, he- gazed long and intently upon it, and interpreted the beautiful phenomenon as prophetic of joys beyond it, where He abides who dwells in the light inaccessible. His last earthly vision was the fading image of his mother. 40 THE ROCKS OP DEER CREEK. "Even thine image now, The image of the lovely form, that shone, The starlight of my childhood, seems to fade From memory's vision. 'Tis as some pale tint Upon the twilight wave, a broken glimpse Of something beautiful and dearly loved In far gone years, a dim and tender dream, That, like a faint bow, on a darkened sky, Lies on my clouded brain." Times change, and men and things change with them. The lake and cataract no longer exist. Under the shadows of the Rocks human habitations are built. The waters of Deer Creek are utilized in the production of the necessities and conveniences of civilized and, in a certain sense, artificial life. The rude hut of the hermit has long since dis- appeared, and the progress of the age threatens greater innovations. But a very brief space of time ago men of singular mien were seen among the hills and along the valleys of Deer Creek, with peculiar instruments in their hands, measuring the surface of the earth as they passed. Unknowingly they stood on the very spot on which rested the Her- mit of the Otter Rock, and had they not been so in- tent on pursuing their curious vocation, they might have heard the voice of a mysterious though invisi- ble stranger bidding them, " Begone ! " For have not these men reported that these hills and valleys shall soon reverberate with the loud whistlings of the " locomotive " and the thunderings of the " train?" And such will be the substitution for the poetries of nature in the solitudes of the wilder- ness. THEIR LEGENDS AND HISTORY. 41 THE ROBBER'S DEN ; OR, THE LEARNED PHILOLOGIST. A SHORT distance above the Otter Rock, on the opposite bank of Deer Creek, and in view of the Rocks, is a large cavernous rock, that was, as tradi- tion informs us, in the. far past the retreat of an unhappy man, whose hands, like those of Ishmael, the brother of Isaac, the son of Abraham, were against every man, and every man's hand against him. The entrance to the cave is now partially closed by portions of its roof, which have fallen. Directly opposite, and near to the water, was a nar- row path, used at first by the Indiana in their jour- ney ings to and from the Rocks of Deer Creek and the waters of the Chesapeake Bay and Patapsco River, afterwards by the original white settlers in their travel from one neighborhood to another. The occupant of the cavern had been reared in affluence and amidst elevating and refining associ- ations. Born in Germany, he received his early education in a gymnasium, an institution answering to an American college. Afterwards he became a student of the University of Heidelberg, one of the largest educational institutions of a land which has ever been distinguished for its ripe scholars and learned philosophers. Immediately after the com- pletion of his scholastic studies, he entered the ser- vice of the government as an attache 7 of an Ambas- sador to the English Court. Of great acuteness of intellect, well skilled in international law and the art of diplomacy, and ever prompt and faithful in 4* 42 THE ROCKS OF DEER CREEK. the discharge of the duties of his position, he won the confidence of his superiors, and was recom- mended to preferment. Unhappily, at that period of English history, the Court was corrupt; from the monarch down to the humhlest servant of the State, profligacy of manners generally prevailed. Truth, honor, integrity, virtue, were words that had no meaning, for the sentiments, principles and actions of which they are the representatives had no existence. Influenced by such examples, his moral force was weakened and his sense of right obscured. The tempter came to him in the guise of a gilded bait the love of money that not for its own sake, but for the ability it would give him to gratify his depraved appetites and propensities. The German government has always been characterized by a commendable frugality, not parsimoniousness, but a generous economy. Hence, the salary and per- quisites of the attache 7 sufficed to maintain the dig- nity of his position, but were not enough for its abuse. The Embassy, having failed on several occasions to receive remittances of money that had been made in the usual manner, employed the ser- vices of English detectives, who, after several fail- ures, succeeded in fixing the crime of the abstraction of the funds on the subordinate. The young man, receiving timely information that suspicion had fallen on him, immediately, in the habit of an English laborer, went on board a Dutch vessel then lying in the Thames, which in a few hours thereafter hoisted sail for America. Ar- rived at new New York, he deemed it unsafe to re- main, and having heard of the wilds of Soutlmn Pennsylvania, journeyed thitherward. And alter THEIR LEGENDS AND HISTORY. 43 a fatiguing travel of many days, through forests and swamps, and crossing broad rivers, he reached a locality one-half mile east of the present site of Fawn Grove, York county. He built a rude hut of bark, a few yards above the spring, ou the farm now in the occupancy of Thomas II. Wright, Esq., and there tarried for a time, subsisting on the game the forest afforded and the trout caught in the waters of Wild Cat Branch. His stay would probably have been protracted, but ascertaining a few months after his coming that several families of English sup- posed to have been members of the Society of Friends had migrated to his vicinity, he hurriedly left, and directing his steps southward, found himself in a few hours amidst the rugged hills and dense forests in the vicinity of the Rocks of Deer Creek, and believing that here, if anywhere, he would be safe from the pursuit of justice, he chose as the place of his refuge the rock now known as the Robber's Den. Better thoughts came to the unfortunate, and he resolved to expiate, by penitence and reformation, if such could be, the sin that had made him an outcast and a fugitive in the wilds of America. There was, indeed, no church in the wilderness, at the altars of which he could bow, no clergyman to instruct and comfort, but He against whom he had most sinned, who is not confined to temples built with hands, was there in that " void waste," to witness his tears and hear his cries. Alas ! there needed only the presence of the tempter and the occasion of tempt- ation where are they not? to call forth again the vicious elements of character that had not been destroyed, only suppressed. At that time Mason and Dixon were running and marking the boundary 44 THE ROCKS OF DEER CREEK. line between the provinces of Maryland and Penn- sylvania, and their party had in the progress of their work reached a point near where the road from Fawn Grove to Fellowship Methodist Episcopal Church crosses Wild Cat Branch. At a spring near by, now on the farm of J. L. Glenn, Esq., they had encamped for a few days to await supplies of provisions from Philadelphia, by way of Joppa, then a seaport town in the province of Maryland. From what is now Forest Hill, there ran northward toward the camp of the surveyors the Indian trail of which I have written, along which the packed mules must pttss. On the morning of what promised to be a bright autumnal day, the robber was awakened from his somewhat protracted slumbers by the cries of the muleteers then approaching. Hastily seizing his gun, he made rapidly for the summit of Rock Ridge, one mile southwest of the Rocks, and secreting himself, awaited the coming of the train. In less than an hour it reached that point of the path, and being in range with his rifle, he fired, killing the leading mule. This so alarmed the drivers that they hastily abandoned the mules, and ran in the direction of their camp. Hiding the spoils in a se- cure place, the robber left the locality of his Den for a time, to avoid the search that he feared would be made for him. In a few weeks he returned to the cave. In the Den the once accomplished gentleman and honored scholar and diplonmte, but now degraded and dishonored man, passed several years of his life, issuing therefrom, as necessity constrained him, to prey upon the unsuspecting and often unarmed THEIR LEGENDS AND HISTORY. 45 travelers. His many deeds of cruel daring are re- corded in the " Book of the Chronicles of the Rocks of Deer Creek," but, sadly for our knowledge, these chronicles are written in a language to which we have no adequate key. There has come down to us the interpretation of a few words of the now obso- lete language, which gives us some faint idea of the difficulty of translation by the most skilled philolo- gists, if a translation is possible at all. The words are : NummatQhakodtautamoQnkanunnannash our lusts ; Kummogkodonattootirnmooetjongannunnon- ash our questions ; and Noowomantainmoonkauu- naunash our loves. Whether this was the lan- guage of the Susquehannocks, who originally occu- pied the country in the vicinity of the Rocks, or of the Lenopes, who possessed the country eastward and northward, or of the Mingoes, who at one period dominated both of these nations, we have not been advised. It may be an admixture of the three, as it is known that the intermingling of tribes did modify dialects. Nor do we know whether the learned may or may not find in the words resem- blance to the family of Semetic languages the He- brew, Chaldee, Arabic, Punic, Aramean, Syriac, Ethiopic, Hymyaritic. If such could be shown to be the case, then we might hope for the ultimate translation into English of the " Book of the Chron- icles of the Rocks of Deer Creek." Such a result would also establish the theory of the eastern ori- gin of the Indians of North America. The coming of new settlers made the habitation of the robber and philologist untenantable. He could not expose himself to the certainty of detection. Furthermore, just at that time a paper was found 46 THE ROCKS OF DEER CREEK. by him in the path opposite the Den ; its contents were as follows: " By the King, a proclamation for the more effectual reducing and suppressing of pirates and privateers in America, as well on the sea as on the land in great numbers, committing fre- quent robberies and piracies, which hath occasioned a great prejudice and obstruction to trade and com- merce, and given a great scandal and disturbance to our government in those parts." London Gazette. Whither he went, we do not know ; and the only remembrance of the unhappy man is the " Book of the Chronicles of the Rocks of Deer Creek." Who can translate it? THE ENCHANTRESS OF HUNTING RIDGE. RUNNING parallel with Rock Ridge, one and a-half miles north-northwest of the Rocks of Deer Creek, is Hunting Ridge, and, like the first, is high, rugged, and in places precipitous. Both ridges are covered with trees, generally of large growth, and between them is a narrow valley. The whole scene is of the wildest character, and, singularly, to the inhabitants generally of the county of Harford, is almost as much unknown as are the Highlands of Scotland or the mountains of Switzerland. In the narrow valley, at a time far beyond the memory of living man, tjiere dwelt, as th-e ancient legend tells TIIEIR LEGENDS AND HISTORY. 47 us, in a rude hut, built of unhewn logs and cov- ered with clapboards, a family consisting of three persons an aged man, apparently of fourscore years, intellectual in his appearance and courtly in his manners; a venerable woman, intelligent and dignified of mien ; their daughter, a young lady possessing much beauty, affable, and of rare intel- lectual and social accomplishments. Whence they came none knew, and why they should have left a refined and cultivated community to take up their residence in so isolated and forbidding a locality was a mystery to all. After a time the abode was untenanted, and no one knew whither the former occupants had gone. A few years ago a gentleman visited La Grange, the country-seat of E. S. Rogers, Esq., and hearing the legend, was prompted by curiosity, and the interest he felt in the shadowy past, to visit the unknown scenes. About the mid- dle of the afternoon of a summer day he left the residence of his hospitable friend at La Grange, and walked to the locality of whose physical attractions and mythical story he had heard. The experiences of his visit I will give in his own language, as nearly as my memory will permit me : " Entranced by the grandeur of the hills and the picturesque loveliness of the vale, I lingered until the twilight of the evening came. Warned by the lateness of the hour, I was about to retrace my steps toward La Grange, when I observed, a short distance from me, a rude hut of logs, which gave signs of occupation. Associating this scene with the legend of the mysterious family, I felt an uncontrollable impulse to visit the rude habitation and its inmates. As I approached the dwelling I 48 THE ROCKS OF DEER CREEK. heard a female voice of exquisite melodiousness, accompanied by a harp, singing " When summer flowers are weaving Their perfume wreaths in air, And the zephyr wings receiving The love gifts gently bear ; Then memory's spirit stealing, Lifts up the veil she wears, In all their light revealing The loved of other years. " When summer stars are shining In the deep, blue midnight sky, And their brilliant rays entwining, Weave coronals on high ; When the fountain's waves are singing In tones night only hears, Then sweet thoughts waken, bringing The loved of other years. " The flowers around me glowing, The midnight stars' pure gleams, The fountain's ceaseless flowing, Recalls life's fondest dreams, Where all be bright in heaven, And tranquil are the spheres, To thee sweet thoughts are given, The loved of other years. " The interest I had felt was now intensified, and immediately upon the cessation of the voice and harp I rapped at the door. It was heard and an- swered by a gentle voice, bidding me, ' Come in.' I entered, and finding but a single occupant, a young lady, made as though I would leave the room, when a kind but emphatic, ' Be seated,' constrained me to remain. The young lady in whose presence I was possessed great personal at- tractions. Her features were regular, he form elas- tic and graceful, showing that no common blood THEIR LEGENDS AND HISTORY,. 49 flowed through her veins. An irrepressible desire seized me to know by what strange mutation of for- tune one so gifted should have been impelled to bury herself and all her hopes in this desolate wil- derness. I was about to enter into conversation, with the view of eliciting information that might give me a clue to the history of the mysterious be- ing, when I felt myself under the influence of a strange spell. In a few moments I was in a pro- found slumber. How long I slept I did not know, and when I awoke the scene was wholly changed. I was in a princely mansion. In the room a soli- tary light was gleaming. The windows were draped with heavy silken curtains. A whisper of leaves and the murmur of a fountain were heard coming from without. Delicate flowers, arranged in vases, were shedding their perfume through the room, and the silver lam)) shed a soft arid radiant light on every object. The only occupant of the room besides myself was a young lady of medium height, pale of complexion, standing, statue-like, in the middle of the room, with a harp in her hand. 8 he sang : " Deep hidden in the bosom lies A talisman of magic power, An heirloom borrowed from the skies, For man in his first sinless hour, Inwoven in his secret heart By some kind, pitying angel's hand, Eve, Eden saw him sad depart A wandering exile through the land. This, when all other gifts took wing, When of each heavenly gift bereft, He stood a doomed, deserted thing, From the great moral wreck was left Was left to light the lurid gloom 5 50 THE ROCKS OF DEER CREEK. That gathered o'er in his fall, To burst, to brighten, and to bloom O'er mined Eden, Ere, Earth all, Awakening joys that ne'er were his In all their matchless pride and power, Until all other hopes of bliss Fled from him. In that angry hour, When Heaven resumed the gifts it gaye, And drove him forth in his despair To look upon his future grave, The self-same hand was ready there As when it plucked the fruit for him. She touched the gem his bosom bore, And though till now its light was dim, A glory like the Cherubim It from that magic moment wore. And ever, r mid the wrong and wrath Of life, there beaineth far above The darkness dwelling on his path, The glory gleam of woman's love. " Again the scene changed. I was in the depths of a dark forest. It was midday, but the light of the sun scarce reached me at the spot where I was standing the overhanging branches of the heavy- foliaged trees were almost impenetrable to its rays. Of the time when I left the princely mansion and its accomplished inmate I had no recollection, nor how I reached the interior of the forest. I saw no road, not even a path, by which I could have entered it. My situation perplexed me ; indeed, alarmed me. For the first time in my life I saw myself surrounded by a network of curious circumstances I cuuld not comprehend. My intellect failed me in the perception of my real condition ; so also in the apprehension of the means by which I might be relieved from what seemed to me a hopeless impris- onment in the unknown wilderness. The anxieties THEIR LEGENDS AND HISTORY. 51 of my situation awoke me. I was in the library of my friend at La Grange. Looking at the clock upon the mantel, I found that I had been asleep half an hour. I had been under the influence of a great Enchantress." THE AGED TRAPPER, HUNTER AND FISH- ERMAN OF THE INDIAN CUPBOARD. THK Indian Cupboard is a well-known locality one and a-half miles below the Rocks of Deer Creek and one-fourth mile below the ancient mill now owned by heirs of the late J. Bond Preston, Esq. The Cupboard is a cavern entering a bold and pro- jecting rock whose base is washed by the waters of Deer Creek. Within a few yards of this rock is the home of Alexius, the noted trapper, hunter and fisherman. When Alexius first saw the light of day is not known by the writer of this narrative, nor is it important to the interest of the story that it should be known. I am aware that ordinarily such ignorance might be interpreted as evidence of want of interest in the subject of the story, and perhaps as a lack of appreciation of his deeds. Such a judgment would do essential injustice to the hero, and such he was in the truest and most sig- nificant sense of that term. If his deeds do not 52 THE ROCKS OF DEER CREEK. rival those of the celebrated Baron Munchausen in the quality of exaggeration, or those of the Arabian Nights in romantic significance, they are such as to rank him with the celebrities of the time, and to entitle him to a place on the historic page. The place where the infantile cries of Alexius were first heard is among the wild, weird scenes of Upper Deer Creek, in the vicinity of the Rocks so celebrated in .story and in song. The great-grandparents of Alexius were from the Island of Madagascar, in the Indian Ocean. Their migration to the Ameri- can Continent was a forced one. The negroes of Zululand, South Africa, known as daring and aggressive warriors, and unscrupulous as to the means by which they secured their ends, under pretense of a friendly visit, entered Madagascar with hostile purpose, and attacking their unsuspect- ing and unprepared army, defeated them, taking many prisoners. These they sold to Portuguese traders, who, in turn, transferred them to English dealers in men. Among these were the ancestors of the subject of my story. They were put on board ship, and, after a somewhat tempestuous voyage of ten months, were landed at Joppa, then a seaport town in the province of Maryland. Hap- pily for them and their descendants, they were purchased upon their arrival in America by a hu- mane and benevolent gentleman then residing in the vicinity of Scott's old fields, now Bel Air, the county-seat of Harford. Before proceeding further in the relation of my story, I will state, by way of parenthesis, that the ' people of Madagascar are not negroes. They arc copper-colored, have straight black hair, and lack THEIR LEGENDS AND HISTORY. 53 those prominent facial features which belong to the African race proper. They were sometimes en- slaved, because it was practicable to do so, and profitable because their better looks made their possession more desirable. Enslaved, they inter- married with the inferior race, and hence but few, if any, remain of unmixed Island blood. It is due to the character of slaveholders gener- ally of that early period in the history of our Conti- nent, to say that they were not deficient in those qualities that were needed to the discharge of the duties of their relations as masters. Their ser- vants such they were called were well fed, well clothed, and their tasks, unlike those of Egyptian bondmen, were not heavy. To them was imparted a measure of education, and their attendance upon religious service was encouraged. In their early years they were allowed the utmost latitude of lib- erty. Basking in the sun, rolling in the sand, wad- ing in the water, and an occasional siesta, consti- tuted chiefly their summer employment ; the winter, in the ashes by the blazing hickory fire, the occa- sional episode, snow-balling or sliding on the ice. The only fear of the youthful negro was of his irate mamma, whose habit of persistent beatings has often suggested the inquiry, " Is the African woman des- titute of sympathy ? ' ' Many a negro child has been shielded from the cruel treatment of its mother by the authority of a sympathetic master or mistress. Instincts are hereditary, and though they may be modified by time and circumstances, often survive in their original character, with more or less dis- tinctness, for many generations. The woman in Africa who will barter her child for gain, in America 54 THE ROCKS OF DEER CREEK. may inflict cruel chastisements. Alexius was for- tunate in the possession of his Madagascan mother, she having all that solicitude for her offspring, and exercising that maternal care which insured their comfort ; and having in his mistress a lady of great benevolence of character and kindness of heart, his youthful life was happy. Alexius developed at a very early age those tastes and qualities which have made him so celebrated in the annals of Deer Creek as a most skillful and successful trapper, hunter and fisherman. Retiring in his nature, he loved the solitudes of the forest, and found in communion with its occupants the gratification denied by the common pursuits of life. And it was thus in his association with birds and fishes. At that period the forests of Deer Creek abounded in game, and its waters in fish. In the woods were raccoons, opossums, ground-hogs, wild- cats, and smaller game; in the streams fall-fish, perch, eels, trout and turtle. The favorite game of our hunter was the ground-hog, or wood-chuck, as naturalists call it ; and many are the wonderful and marvelous stories told of his adventures with this animal. Like a skillful hunter as he was, his first effort was to secure their confidence. He fre- quented their burrows and made their acquaintance. He had the peculiar faculty of making himself understood by them. This animal is not alone in its susceptibility to education. The flea has been trained to know the voice of its master, and to be obedient to his commands. Unhappily fur the con- liding chuck, the motive of the seemingly friendly hunter was sinister ; he smiled only to betray, and the confidence of the simple chuck was his destruc- THEIR LEGENDS AND HISTORY. 55 tion. 'Possum-hunting was an exciting pastime. In the woods of Rock Ridge and contiguous hills he passed much time in this, to him, pleasing pursuit. His hahit was to leave his retreat about nightfall, taking with him his two trusty dogs, Bell and Trav- eler. Once on a trail, they followed it unerringly to the hiding-places of the game, which were usu- ally in the thick boughs of some lofty tree, or in the rocky caves with which the ridges abound. The coon treed, the hunter ascended the tree with almost the agility of the squirrel, and, ascertaining the position of the game, proceeded to dislodge it. This he did either by a violent shaking of the limb, or by pushing the animal from his perch with a long and heavy pole. The coon on the ground was immediately secured by the dogs. More than once the hunter narrowly escaped the loss of his life in these perilous adventures, and he bears to this day on his hand the mark of the bite of an enraged coon struggling for his liber- ty. Want of space forbids the enumeration of the many thrilling adventures connected with his pursuit of game in the forests. In the water he was equally successful. Eels of enormous length and size were trophies of the fisherman's skill, as also turtles of great bulk and wonderful strength. Notwithstanding the asseveration of the fisherman, whose veracity it is not our province to question, it is hard to believe that " Big Turtle " supported the weight of a man of one hundred and sixty pounds, and carried him on his back the distance of a half-mile. The theory of Darwin the survival of the fittest would lead us to look for animals of larger size at the present than in the past, and there 56 THE ROCKS OF DEER CREEK. is the remotest possibility that this trophy of our fisherman's skill was one the last survivor possi- bly of a family that had, by a fortuitous and for- tunate concurrence of circumstances, been preserved from the power of all trappers, hunters and fisher- men, from Nimrod down to the last of his class on Deer Creek. Our hunter was characterized by an even courage that made him equal to emergencies generally. He was never known to exhibit fear in contest with bird or beast or fish. It was different as to a gigantic snake, a habitue of the hill opposite the old mill above the Cupboard. This snake tl was twenty ieet long and thick as a man's body. " It is conjectured that it was of foreign origin, or was of the Hairs- spring species that in very late times so excited the people of that section of Baltimore county, Md. But whatever may be the opinion of the present genera- tion as to these accounts of the size of the fauna of the past, it is true that our hero was remarkably successful in his favorite vocations. And now, in his old age, he is envied by the younger generation of hunters, trappers and fishermen. He may be seen occasionally bearing homeward, as a trophy of his skill, a fat " chuck," and often in the early spring or summer morning drawing from the waters of Deer Creek the largest fall-fish or the longest eel. The " coon " and the " 'possum " are now secure in their retreats, for age has incapacitated him for those exertions necessary to their successful pursuit. A new day has dawned. An intensive civiliza- tion, eager for great achievements, has decreed that the hills and dales of Upper Deer Creek shall no longer rest in the; % comparative solitudes. The THEIR LEGENDS AND HISTORY. 57 tramroad and the steam engine, with their enormous capacity of transportation, are about to substitute the common modes of travel and trade. The change will bring an increased population, and insure the erection of factories and mills. The theatres of the solitary wanderings and walkings and skillful achievements of our hunter, trapper and fisherman will re-echo with the whirr of the wheel and the sound of the hammer. A new generation, with its real and artificial wants, will take the place of the old, content in its enjoyment of the common modes of life. The Indian Cupboard, no longer tenantable, has been abandoned. A common country road has marred its beauties, and soon the mighty and mysterious dynamite will reduce its proportions still more. Reluctant to leave a spot endeared to him by so many recollections of the past, the subject of our narrative is building of stone and wood, un- der the shadow of the Copper Rock, a habitation conformable to the style of modern times, where, as a partial compensation for the great loss he has sus- tained, the exclusion of the employments and pleas- ures of the past, he will view the mysterious stranger as it passes by, laden with the productions of the earth and the fruits of human skill. The story I have told is not of one reared in afflu- ence, a child of fortune, but of a poor man, who has illustrated the dignity of manhood in the faithful discharge of the duties of life as he understood them. And there are those who have owed to him the preservation of their lives from a watery grave in the sometimes excessively swollen and turbulent waters of Deer Creek ; and many more for assist- 58 THE ROCKS OP DEER CREEK. ances and courtesies that ought not to be forgotten. To that class of the community who worship only the great we have no apology to offer for this re- membrance of the humble. We find in such recol- lection an illustration of the well-known adage, " Act well your part ; there all the honor lies." THE MINE OLD FIELDS ; OR, THE GATH- ERING OF THE WITCHES. Two miles east portheast of the Rocks are the Mine Old Fields. This locality, though the Ara- bia Petrea of this section of Harford County, is not without a certain degree of interest, and may be catalogued with the many curious and attractive natural objects of the neighborhood of the Rocks. It is an elevated plateau of considerable area, abound- ing in iron ore, chrome and other minerals. Much of the rock is soapstone of a superior quality. From this stone the Susquehannocks and other In- dians of the vicinity made their culinary vessels. Occasionally there is found a pot or other relic which is treasured as a souvenir of the distant past. These Fields, as they are called, have never produced wheat, or corn, or other cereals, but did for a time yield an abundant harvest of iron ore, which, being smelted, was manufactured into various articles that the necessities of civilized life demand, and they THEIR LEGENDS AND HISTORY. 59 will, doubtless, upon the completion of the Bail- road, yield again their valuable treasures. A tradition exists that on this territory was found, many years ago, a rich mine of lead ; that it was known to the first Mr. Rigdon, settled near by on land now in the occupancy of some of his decend- ants. He was, in his day, a great hunter, and ob- tained there, it is said, all the lead he used. There is a similar tradition that in the immediate vicinity of the Hocks there is a gold mine, known to the Sus- quehannocks, the original inhabitants, the knowl- edge of which was communicated by them to some white man who visited the locality at an early day. The contractor who made his way by powder, and crowbar and pick through the formidable rock, in the hill immediately beyond the creek, above the mill, found in the rock a substance bearing so strong a resemblance to gold that he conveyed a Urge specimen to the shanty. There it was for a time to be examined by the curious. But like the discover- ers of gold at the settlement of Jamestown, Vir- ginia, expectants were doomed to disappointment. The Mine Old Fields do have iron and chrome, and perhaps lead. Like other portions of this far-famed section of Harford, the Mine Old Fields have a mythical his- tory. The story of the gathering there by moon- light of the witches to practice their mysterious rites, has come down to us of the present generation. We shall relate it substantially as it was told to an aged citizen by that venerable hermit, whose roman- tic and touching history is written in this book. That the story may be properly appreciated, it will be necessary to preface it by some preliminary statements. 60 THE ROCKS OF DEER CREEK. Many persons believe not only in the power of the devil to assume a corporeal form, hut also in his capacity of acting injuriously upon mankind through the instrumentality of others. Baxter, the author of the "Saint's Rest," shared this opinion with many of the wisest and best of England in an age of culture and refinement. The same credulous tone of mind existed in New England in its early history. It is true that at that period belief in witchcraft -ind other diabolical agencies were popu- lar delusions which were rapidly disappearing from the world, but such men as Cotton Mather and the intelligent inhabitants of Palem were always ready to sustain their belief in such superstitions both from holy writ and philosophy. It was an excess of the imagination, affecting not only the stupid and the dull, but also the highest wrought minds. The early residents of our vicinage were a simple and enthusiastic people, primitive in their manners, and were doubtless affected by the sentiments of their more pretentious fellow citizens northeast of them. The Puritan, then as now, despite the pre- judice and repugnancy felt toward him, singularly impressed his views and opinions upon others. In the existence of witches and other malevolent beings a*id their power of harm, many of our ancestors had the most implicit faith. They saw spirits and witches ; to them devils appeared ; strange sights were seen, strange sounds were heard. The Jack o' the Lantern was recognized as a personality whose every purpose was evil, and whose following certainly brought perplexity, and even peril of life. The Fay, though extremely diminutive in size, was greatly feared, not so much on account of its physi- THEIR LEGENDS AND HISTORY. 61 cal ability to do harm as of a supposed moral power of evil. The potent words were spell, charm, witch- craft. Why witches practice incantation on moonlight nights may possibly be explained on philosophical principles. There is no peculiarity, that we are aware of, in the visual organs of a witch. The singu- lar construction of the eye of an owl or an Albinos adapts their sight to moonlight. The retinas of witches are suited to the light of day. 'Tis not that ; 'tis this, perhaps. The moon is idiosyncratic ; psychologically, she is peculiar, and by the well- known law of sympathy impresses her own nature upon the nature of man. It must be so, or else the word lunacy would not have found a place in our lexicography. Other reasons why the witches were wont to assemble in the Mine Old Fields on moon- light nights are apparent. They had light. Be- sides, the fears of the people, heightened by moon- light, were a defence to them as strong as the walls of a fortified city. The witches were there, and there they practiced their dark rites. Around the blazing fire and the boiling caldron they, with joined hands, walked during the hours of moonlight " black spirits arid white, red spirits and gray," singing : "Mingle, mingle, mingle, You that mingle may," and invoking the spirits of power, ceased their orgies only when there came to them the gifts of power, in the exercise of which they satanically de- lighted. The demonstration of the fact that they who gathered in the Mine Old Fields by moonlight were witches, was that people in the vicinity became 6 62 THE ROCKS OF DEER CREEK. sick in all sorts of ways, falling into strange fits, crawling under beds and into cupboards, barking like dogs, inewing like cats, bleating like sheep, and lowing like cattle. The doctors were sent for, and they declared that their patients were bewitched. All were superstitious. All believed in diabolical agency. Terror and consternation were in every heart. Living at that day on Deer Creek, one mile east of the Mine Old FieMs, in an humble dwelling, was an aged woman, whose only misfortune if such it were was that she was poor and infirm. The other occupants of the hut were an aged Indian woman, one of the very few who remained after her people had migrated westward, and a young man of the class of the "innocents," as the Swiss mountain- eers benevolently name such unfortunates as are not endowed at birth with the sana mens. Albert, as he was always tenderly called by his aged moth- er, willingly labored to provide sustenance for the household, and the Indian woman, Maggy, having been taught the art of weaving, contributed also by her industry and skill to the support of the family. Of the aged matron of the lowly household it might have been said, " She that is a widow indeed, and desolate, trusting in God, and continueth in suppli- cation night and day ;" and of her assistant, " She hath done what she could." An Eden it was. But the cruelties of suspicion were soon to be felt by the hitherto unsuspecting and confiding household. Trouble came from an unexpected source. Father G., a prominent man of the neighbor- hood, in conversation had said, " Tliere have been wizards and witches in all times," and that pious THEIR LEGENDS AND HISTORY. 63 and learned man, Cotton Mather, says, ".That if all the spectral appearances and molestations of evil angels, and tricks of necromancy, and bodily appa- ritions of Satan and his imps, could he collected and counted, that are daily and nightly going on, all righteous and goodly men's hair would stand on ends with horror." " In these parts," con- tinued Father G., "are infernal doings," and pointing significantly toward the cabin which the unsuspecting were abiding in peace, ominously said, " Satan may now abide there." That was sufficient to create in all minds a suspicion that very soon ripened into a conviction, that the aged and decrepit occupant of the cottage, as, perhaps, also her faith- ful assistant, dealt with familiar spirits, and that much, if not all, the strange evils which afflicted the community were to be attributed to their ma- chinations. On the morning of the following day the former habitation of the widow was but a pile of smoking ashes. The people said, "The wretches who made a compact with Satan, and inflicted the evils we suffer, have perished. Give God the glory." From the Mine Old Fields the witches have de- parted. Their unhallowed rites have ceased ; the innocent are at rest. And Father G. has, we hope, expiated his great wrong in the light of a knowl- edge free from cruel suspicion. 64 THE ROCKS OF DEER CREEK. THE FALLING BRANCH ; OR, THE CAP- TURED BRIDE. EMPTYING into Deer Creek, three miles above the Rocks, is Falling Branch. It is so called from the fact that a mile or more above its mouth its waters fall from a rock twenty-five or thirty feet in height, forming a miniature Niagara, which, with the picturesque and romantic surroundings, constitute a most pleasing attraction. To some this curiosity is more attractive than the Rocks, nature not dis- playing herself in such bold and massive forms, but exceeding in picturesque beauty. It is a wild scene, primitive almost as when the wild man speared the speckled trout that abounded in its waters, or shot the swift deer that frequented the adjacent forests. Here the attention of the visitor is also curiously drawn to a series of stone steps that lead from the base of the rock over which the waters fall to its summit. These steps were seemingly cut by the hand of man. If so, by whom and by what instru- ments? The Susquehannocks, who dwelt by the locality when discovered by the white man, were men of large size and of much strength, but could physical strength so handle the stone axe or hatchet as to make the achievement possible? If human ingenuity and labor constructed the steps, it may have been done by that previous race whose instru- ments of labor were of copper or iron, or by the present race, to whom invention has supplied such instruments in their more perfect forms. Within fifteen or twenty yards of the falls and THEIR LEGENDS AND HISTORY. 65 directly opposite them are the remains of a mill and a dwelling-house, the former abode of the miller. Why the immediate contiguity of those build- ings to the ialls? Was the builder and occupier a man of romantic turn of mind? Appreciating the scene, and charmed by the music of the falling waters, were these the motives that prompted him to fix his residence in this wild spot? It would be pleasant to think so, but sadly for our imaginings, the suspicion of utility and economy is suggested. His nearness to the falls obviated the necessity of building a dam of perishable material, or the digging of a race, or the construction of a trunk more than a few feet in length. Wise, worldly wise, was Isaac Jones in his day and generation. But for aught we know, in the heart of that plain man who patiently watched the hopper in the years long gone, when northern Harford was a comparative wilderness, and the progenitors of the pretentious race of the pres- ent were a plain folk without ambition to be great, there may have been the highest and the subtliest appreciation of nature in her sublime and beautiful moods, and a susceptibility to art that brought to him the knowledge of that mysterious law a law operative in the realms of spirit and matter equally, which harmonizes the creations of the made with the works of the Maker. The artist-born builds not a high house in a diminutive and contracted valley, nor a low one on a high hill overlooking an extended plain. These are but few of the many fitnesses of things perceived by the man whom God has created great in his appreciation of the harmonies of nature. Almost a demonstration of the possession of this quality is the row of Lombardy poplars, now in 66 THE ROCKS OF DEER CREEK. decay, that were planted in front of the dwelling, which, with the native forest trees and rocks and cataract and rapid river, constituted a scene of sur- passing attractiveness. The Falling Branch owes its chief attraction to the story of the Captured Bride, which, though confessedly legendary and mythical, is not without a certain degree of interest, especially to persons of much romantic susceptibility. Arlotto was the only daughter of a gentleman of fortune, whose home was in the vicinity of Hull, England. The attrac- tions of her person and the fascination of her man- ners, added to a superior mental and moral culture, brought to her presence many admirers. Among them was an officer of the English Army. Young, handsome, accomplished, brave, the scion of a noble family, in all respects worthy of her whose qual- ities of mind and heart had so strongly attracted him, his suit was encouraged, and after a proper interval of time, they were wedded. The church, or rather cathedral, in which the nuptials were celebrated, was ^ "A dim and mighty Minster of old times! A temple shadowy with remembrance Of the majestic past." Everything about it told of a race 41 that nobly, fearlessly, In their heart's worship poured forth a wealth of love." There, under its fretted roof, and in the midst of its wrought coronals of ivy, and vine, and leaves, and sculptured rose '*the teriderest image of mortal- ity" the light which streamed through arch and TI1EIR LEGENDS AND HISTORY. 67 aisle in harmony with all ; that dim, religious light, which is a reminder of the past of the dim, the shadowy, the heroic past there, in the select assemhly of the high-born, they pledged each to other their troth, and were by the aged and vener- able priest pronounced man and wife. Retiring from the church, they were followed by the aged minister and his assistants, singing a recessional hymn, accompanied by the organ, the flood of its harmony bearing up on its high waves their voices attuned to the praise of God. Such was the mar- riage scene. The past is always suggestive of the future. The memories of the past, like dim processions of a dream, are associated with visions of the future, though indistinct as dreams that ic sink in twilight depths away." Arlotto passed from the altar happy, indeed, in the sense of the love of her now adored husband, but not without thoughts tinged with sadness. Apprehension of coming sorrows was the shadow that fell upon her pathway so soon. " Coming events " sorrowful and pleasant alike " cast their shadows before." A few days after the marriage the young officer was ordered to rejoin his regiment, then at Portsmouth, about to embark for America. This summons was the interpretation, in part, of the mysterious revelations that mingled with her present joys fears of future evils. "Even so the dark and bright will kiss; The sunniest things throw brightest shade, And there is even a happiness That makes the heart afraid." The New World was at this period a theatre for 68 THE ROCKS OF DEER CREEK. the struggles of giants. France and England were contending for the mastery, and the stake was a continent, with all its possibilities of wealth and power. So desperate was the conflict, and of such magnitude was the issue, that each party was obliged to avail itself of all its resources. To the place of battle, so full of peril to the participants, the youthful officer would have gone alone. He was unwilling that his bride should be subjected to the privations incident to warfare, and to the perils always attending it, greater in this case because of the character of the foe. The savages were gener- ally the allies of the French. Yielding to her en- treaties, he consented that she should accompany him. Arriving in America, the regiment to which the officer belonged was detached to form a part of the army then being raised by the governors of Massa- chusetts and Connecticut, and designed to operate against the French and Indians, who in large force were threatening the borders of their respective prov- inces. In a battle fought soon after his entrance upon the campaign, the young officer was wounded, and left upon the field as dead. Arlotto, imme- diately upon the cessation of the conflict, made her way to the ensanguined field, and after a patient and anxious search found her yet living husband. The dying sufficiently recovered to recognize her whose presence was the only earthly solace left to him. A few words, with difficulty uttered, were expressive of the tenderness and strength of his affection. Arlotto hoped. How delusive that hope 1 "A moment more and she Knew the fullness of her woe at last ! THEIR LEGENDS AND HISTORY. 69 One shriek the forests heard and mute she lay And cold; yet clasping still the precious clay To her scarce heaving breast." Awaking from what was less than death and more than sleep, Arlotto became conscious of the presence of a dusky form bending with seeming sympathy over her prostrate body. It was an aged Indian warrior, who, taking her tenderly by the hand, bade her arise, and by further signs indicated his desire that she should follow him. Toward the setting sun they journeyed slowly for some days ; then south-eastward until they reached the imme- diate vicinity of the Falling Branch. There was the home of her captor, a lone cabin in the woods, within hearing of the plunging waters of the cata- ract. The Indian woman in whose care she was placed, seemingly won by "a form so desolately fair/' or touched by the remembrance of some deep sorrow, manifested an unwonted interest in the cap- tive, and cared for her with all the tenderness and solicitude of a mother. The aged warrior and his wife had seen a daughter go to the land of spirits, ' ' And ever from that time her fading mien And voice, like winds of summer, soft and low, Had haunted their dim years." And fancying that they saw in their captive a re- semblance to their only child, whose early death had thrown upon their pathway heavy shadows, their hearts, " with all their wealth of love," were touched by the sorrows of her to whom was left only the memories of the past. In the forest was no temple erected by human hands dedicated to the Sufferer of Calvary. It was a void waste, in which 70 THE ROCKS OF DEER CREEK. the sound of the church-going bell was not heard ; nor priest nor altar was there. Yet in the silent majesty of the deep woods, and in the presence of the silver brook which pours from its full laver the white cascade, was more than the spirit of poetry which dwells amid such scenes. The spirit of the Holy One was there, and valley and brook, and cas- cade and deep woods and everlasting hills, and the green trees, were a grand minster at the altars of which the devout could worship and the sorrowing find relief. To this temple and to these altars in the green wood, by the side of babbling streams, in the sunlight and the stars' bright gleams, the sufferer went, and thither she led her captors, and there she taught them to listen to the voice of Him whose presence is the glory of all temples and of all altars. The harp-string too strongly tensioned breaks. Worn with grief and hopeless of relief, Arlotto wasted, and when autumn's last sigh was heard, and the winter's blast, in the first days of spring ; when " sound and odors with the breezes play whispering of spring-time/' bore to her couch life's farewell sweetness, then she was passing away to that solemnly beautiful sleep, that deep stillness which falls on the silent face of the dead. Arlotto's life work was ended ; its great purposes accomplished. In the depths of the forest, within hearing of the murmuring waters of the Falling Branch, in God's acre she sleeps, and by her side her foster father and mother. In God's acre they rest, and "Into its furrows shall we all be cast, In the sure faith that we shall rise again At the great harvest, when the archangel's blast Shall winnow, like a fan, the chaff and grain. THEIR LEGENDS AND HISTORY. 71 "Then shall the good stand in immortal bloom, ' In the fair gardens of that second birth ; And each bright blossom mingle its perfume With that of flowers which never bloomed on earth." THE EAGLE. "He clasps the crags with hooked hands; Close to the sun in lonely lands, Ringed with the azure world he stands, The wrinkled sea beneath him crawls; He watches from his mountain walls, And like a thunderbolt he falls." Some yards above the Saloon at the Kocks and under the hill, there lived in a small cabin a man by the name of Cully, the father of Arch Cully, so well known in his day by the residents of Rock Ridge and its vicinity. At that early period the Rocks and their surroundings were in almost their original wildness, unaffected by the arts and appli- ances of civilized life. The axe of the woodman might have been heard now and then, but no house other than the cabin had been erected, and no forge or furnace to mar the scene. It was wash-day to the aged matron of the hut, and while engaged in the necessary vocation, she heard the crtes of the chickens and the excited bark- ings of the dog without. An eagle, whose nest, with young, was on the summit of the opposite 72 THE ROCKS OF DEER CREEK. Rock, had swooped down from her eyrie, and seized with its talons one of the chickens. The little dog, true to its instincts, hastened to the rescue, and chicken, and dog, and eagle were soon engaged in earnest contest. The eagle was likely to succeed in her purpose, when the old lady, grasping her beetle, ran to the rescue, and striking the eagle a deadly blow, carried it in triumph to the cottage. The eagles, like the original human inhabitants, pressed by the presence of civilized man, have sought their eyries on more distant and secluded heights. Occasionally one may be seen hovering about the summits of the Rocks, as if curious to observe the past homes of its progenitors. THE WITCH RABBIT. AMONG the hills in the vicinity of the Rocks was many years ago a remarkable rabbit. Tradit on tells us that it was of the size of a Jack Rabbit, that well-known habitant of the West, though not of the same species. The hunters of those early times sought by trap and snare to secure it, but without success. Many a charge from musket and shot-gun and rifle was directed toward it fruitlessly. The opinion of our simple fathers was, that the body of tfmt rabbit was the habitation of a witch, and in solemn conference they resolved that it could TIIEER LEGENDS AND HISTORY. 73 be slain by a silver bullet only. The scarcity of the precious metal prevented the making of the problem- atical experiment, and hence the possessed animal was left to wander at will. For many years it has not been seen. The witch may have taken another habitation, or assumed another form. The en- lightenment of the community has thrown doubt upon the story, once so implicitly believed. People now-a-days suspect much of the past to be mythical, as it doubtless is, but subjecting everything to a mathematical test, they may forget, as my credulous friend suggests, that there are more things in heaven and earth than are dreamed of in their philosophy. Candor compels us to say that in our philosophy there are no witches save those bewitching ones whose manners captivate the susceptible youths of the stronger sex. THE BIG SNAKE. THE existence of a species of snakes of large size in the neighborhood of the Rocks has been reported for many years. Mr. William Jeffrey, an aged citizen of Bel Air, informed us that the track of a snake "broad as a cart wheel" was pointed out to him by his father seventy years ago ; that thirty, and again fifty, years thereafter, the serpent itself was seen. The Ancient Trapper avers that in his 7 74 THE ROCKS OF DEER CREEK. youth he learned from a reliahle source of a snake of extraordinary size, whose home was in the hill opposite the Ancient Mill. By the incredulous, the story was considered doubtful, or supposed to be an exaggeration, but very recently several persons whose truthfulness is not questioned, have declared that they saw the monstrous reptile. The visitor to the Rocks need have no fear, as the animal is most likely to shun the presence of man. And it is probable that the blasting of rocks in the making of the Railroad will induce his majesty to seek another domain in which to enjoy his hitherto acknowledged supremacy over the beasts that crawl* WHITSUNTIDE. FOR many years the Rocks were a resort at Whit- suntide. The best people of the country patronized the festival. It was a favorable time for making acquaintance and cementing friendships. And I suppose that then, as now, on festal days, Cupid was present, armed cap-a-pie, and that his arrows failed not of many a worthy mark. An estimable lady, who died a few years ago, living to be nearly one hundred years of age, was wont to speak with great interest of her visit to the Rocks of Deer Creek at Whitsuntide, when she was a little girl. Her memory of the delicate and refined attentions THEIR LEGENDS AND HISTORY. 75 of Colonel John Streett, a prominent gentleman of Harford county, in those early days, was very dis- tinct, and she failed not to speak of them enthusias- tically The Rocks in later years became at this season a scene of dissipation and rowdyism, and the patron- age of the more respectable classes was discontinued. In the procession of years, another change has come. Now, at all seasons, the Rocks are a point of attrac- tion to all classes. The pic-nic, harvest homes, political gatherings, railroad meetings, have substi- tuted Whitsuntide ; and upon the completion of the Baltimore and Delta Railroad, the Rocks must, from the attractions of scenery and the salubrity of the air, become the resort of persons from all sections of the county and more distant points. THE PERILOUS FEAT. To SAY fool-hardy, would be an appropriate ad- dition to qualify the act. A well-known resident of the neighborhood of the Rocks illustrated the truth of the old adage, " When wine is in wit is out," by forcing his horse to the very verge of the precipice, with seeming intention of throwing him- self and his noble animal into the fearful abyss below. The sober horse, with more discretion than his drunken master, seeing the peril, turned at the 76 THE ROCKS OF DEER CREEK. moment of immediate danger, and thus saved him- self and rider from certain death. This unhappy man afterward, in an attempt to force his horse across Deer Creek when swollen, was drowned. The particular point on the Creek where he entered the water is said to have been about the head of the dam of Preston's Mills. Thus died igno- miniously a man who, but for indulgence in the use of an unnecessary beverage, might have lived for many years, a comfort to his family and an orna- ment to society. The horse, Bold Hector, as he was not inappropriately named, survived his unfortunate master several years. AN ACT OF VANDALISM. ON the summit of the western Rocks was an im- mense boulder, weighing many tons, poised on a fixed rock so slightly and delicately that a strong man could move it at will, and yet it was so related to the rock upon which it rested, that it required the force of four men, aided by levers, to throw it from its position. These persons, without apprecia- tion of nature, and of mere wantonness, or con- ceiving the purpose of giving immortality to their names, threw this object of great interest from its position to the rocks below, where it now lies with- out hope of its ever being replaced in its original THEIR LEGENDS AND HISTORY. 77 location. I have understood that the then proprie- tor of the Rocks offered a reward for the discovery of the perpetrators of the ignoble deed, 'but that it was not effectual in securing that end. This may have been fortunate. Otherwise the names of the guilty parties might have been coupled in history with the destroyers of Rome and the burners of the Alexandrian Library. CANAL AND RAILROAD. WHEN the Tide- Water Canal was completed, our citizens agitated the subject of slack-water naviga- tion from a point five miles above La Grange to the mouth of Deer Creek, the accomplishment of which would have made a direct and cheap outlet for our trade to Baltimore and Philadelphia. The idea was born of a felt necessity, but could not have been made practical. Such a project would not have paid. And it has been well for the health of the country bordering Deer Creek that it was impossible of realization. Canals and fevers are synonymous terms. Instead of slack-water, locks and dams, with in- creased disease, we shall have a Railroad, and more direct communication with Baltimore, our chief commercial city. Under the direction of a most energetic President and an enterprising Board of 7* 78 THE ROCKS OF DEER CREEK. Directors, sustained by citizens along the line, who are awake to its advantages, it is being pushed with commendable vigor, and will, we cannot doubt, be completed in good time. To our immediate Rocks of Deer Creek neigh- borhood the effect of the road will be very signifi- cant. Our rocks and minerals will be marketable, and the attractions of our scenery will draw many curious visitors. And it is to be hoped that the possessors of the soil will awake from their more than Rip Van Winkle sleep. It is strange that they have slept so long, seeing that around them there are so many examples worthy of imitation. The enterprise, thrift and judgment of the many success- ful farmers above, and the no less competent tillers of the soil below, should stimulate us to an exertion that may make this comparative wilderness blossom as the rose. The Railroad, completed, will ensure the development of all our interests. Our fields will yield abundant harvests, the waters of Deer Creek will be utilized in the operation of mills, and fac- tories, and furnaces. Our lofty summits will be crowned with the residences of their proprietors, or occupied as the retreats of the wealthy inhabitants of the city. THEIR LEGENDS AND HISTORY. THE ORIGINAL MOONSHINER. SOUTHEAST of the Rocks three-fourths of a mile, through a ravine hidden by wooded hills, runs a small stream, having its sources in several springs a short distance above, which gives evidence of oc- cupation and use. Remains of a dam still exist, as also traces of a ditch, leading to what has the ap- pearance of the foundation of a building. For what purpose was the dam built, the ditch dug, and the building erected? The oldest inhabitants cannot answer these interrogatories, and have no tradition in relation thereto. We are therefore left to conjec- ture the purpose for which they were made. It may have been the location of the distillery of some moonshiner one of the progenitors of the gentle- men of West Virginia, Tennessee, North Carolina, and elsewhere, who are engaged in illicit distilla- tion, to the great detriment of the revenues of the United States of America. If so, he could not have selected a place more favorable to his vocation. Since writing the above I have had conversations with James Wann, Esq., and with David Tucker, Sr., an aged citizen, from whom I have learned some facts that may throw doubt on the moonshine theory. They informed me that in the earlier days of Harford the tub-mill was in use, requiring but little water ; that the turning of chair-stuff by wa- ter, of which little volume was required, was com- mon ; as also the distillation of brandies from fruits, requiring comparatively little water. The waters of my brook may have been used for one of these purposes. A remark made by our venerable citi- 80 THE ROCKS OF DEER CREEK. zen, Mr. Tucker, throws doubt upon all these spec- ulations. He said that it is not rare to find in the forests of this portion of Harford traces of ditches, sometimes of considerable length, leading to low- lands, and suggested that they might have been used for purposes of irrigation. If so, by whom? Not one of the oldest inhabitants has any knowledge of such use, and none know by whom they were ex- cavated ; nor is there tradition bearing upon the subject. Can it be that the people who preceded the Indians in the occupancy of this country, and who have left traces of a superior civilization the mound-builders or some other race were the diggers of these ditches, and used them, as sug- gested, for irrigating uses? Or might they not have been rude aqueducts conveying water to their villages or fortified camps, or, at a later period, to the palisaded villages of the Susquehannocks, against whom the Six Nations waged war for many years ? It is known that the Tohocks, a tribe once residing at the head of the Chesapeake, did thus for- tify themselves against the fierce Mingoes. How soon the past becomes mythical and legendary, and how greatly it is to be regretted that there has not been left more than mere conjecture of so much which, if known, would greatly interest us of the present 1 " Thus are the tracks of nations blotted out, Faint impress leaving, like the passing bird, Save when the mould, erst trod by them, is stirred By other races giving to the light Borne yellow, crumbling bone, or instrument of fight." TIIEIll LEGENDS AND HISTORY. 81 THE MONUMENTS OF THE GIANTS. WHEN the French first settled Canada, they heard marvelous stories of a race of giants who were said to inhabit the country at the mouth of the Susque- hanna and westward of that river. How much foundation of fact there was for these reports we do not know, hut in after ^years the Susquehan- nocks were known as men of large size and of great strength. Six feet or more in height, and of corre- sponding weight, was the representation given of them by the first white explorers of their country. The knowledge of the Indians who first communi- cated to the French the stories of the size and strength of the Susquehannocks might have been traditionary arid descriptive of a race who had been gigantic in stature and of herculean strength, but who, from some unexplained and unexplainable causes, had in the progress of time degenerated to the proportions of ordinary mortals. Students of ethnology know that such degenerations have occurred. There are some slightly presumptive proofs that the traditionary stories of the physical proportions of the original dwellers by the Rocks of .Deer Creek are not without some slight basis of truth. The King and Queen Seats are the sitting places of giants, arid they, presumptively, were occupied at a time past indefinitely distant by the rulers of the country. Indian Jupiters and Junos, honored not less, perhaps, than the gods and god- desses of Roman and Grecian mythology, may have received there the homage of their subjects. The gods have come down to us, said the superstitious 82 THE ROCKS OF DEER CREEK. Ephesians, when Paul and Barnabas wrought miracles in their city. The gods are with us, would have been the natural exclamation of the super- stitious Indians assembled in council on the summits of the Rocks in the presence of their rulers. We may not in this argument overlook the attractions but little noticed by intelligent seekers of curious objects which we have appropriately named, as we think, the Monuments of the Giants. On the sum- mit of Rock Ridge, northeast of the Rocks, are several huge pillars of stone many feet in height. The curious observer that looks at them from the valley below in the dawn of the morning or twilight of the evening can scarce resist the conviction that they may have been erected by a race of giants in honor of their monarchs and to perpetuate their glory ; and that here may have been deposited their remains, a use to which some, if not all, of the great mounds in the valleys of the Ohio and Mississippi were appropriated. The geologist who shall visit these attractions may smile at that simplicity which attributes to the might of man that which may be only a proof and illustration of the power of nature, which, in the indefinite past, threw upon the sum- mit of Rock Ridge these collossal piles. But what- ever was the agency by which the result was effected, there they are those monuments "That look like frowning Titans in the dim And doubtful light," to be numbered with the many curious and attract- ive natural objects seen in the vicinity of the Rocks of Deer Creek. The view from the Monuments is commanding THEIR LEGENDS AND HISTORY. 83 and extensive. In the distance northward is seen the Susquehanna River, and beyond it the hills of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania; southward, the Chesapeake Bay and the Eastern Shore of Maryland the bay dotted here and there with white sails, moving gracefully, like swans, upon the bosom of the scarcely ruffled waters. On every side are reaches of fields and forests, in the midst of which are towns and villages, hamlets and farm-houses, constituting rare pictures of Arcadian beauty ; the interest heightened by the lowing of the herds which feed upon the contiguous meadows, and by the sounds of distant church bells, reminding the devout of the hour of prayer, or summoning them to the worship of the sanctuary on the early Sab- bath morning. The observer of these entrancing views is, however, conscious of that illusion which is always associated with such scenes ; " every valley is an Eden, and every heart therein is at peace." The repose is the possession of unthinking nature ; the hearts of the reasoning inhabitants are the abodes of strife, for in them is found envy, and pride, and ambition, and hate, "Every prospect pleases, And only man is vile." 84 THE ROCKS OF DEER CREEK. THE FIELD OF DARTS. ONE-HALF mile southeast of Rock Ridge, and two and one-halt' miles northeast of the Rocks and bor- dering on the Mine Old Fields, is a valley in which have been found numerous Indian arrow-heads or darts. The stone of which they were made is unlike any that exists in that locality. Either the material of which these points were manufactured was brought there for that purpose, or it was the place of a great battle or battles fought by contending savage forces. Possibly, those confederated nations, Oneidas, Cay- ugas, Senecas, Mohawks, Onandagoes and Tuscaro- ras fought at that spot the Delawares and Susque- hannocks, also confederated tribes, and that that contest was decisive of that long-continued struggle which reduced the latter nations to the condition of women, which they were contemptuously called after their subjection. No conjecture is at fault in con- sidering that eventful past in which almost every foot of territory occupied by them was the place of battle between opposing Northmen and Southmen, and no excess of imagination can paint in too vivid colors the horrors of the struggle. To the South- men the coming of the Northmen was as- the coming of Gog and Magog. All resistance was vain. Loups and Susquehannocks were as helpless in the grasp of their foes, as effete Romans in the hands of Goths and Vandals. History is ever repeating itself. Three centuries later the territory south, and bordering on the former, was the theatre of a contest between civil- ized people almost unparalleled, in its violence, in THEIR LEGENDS AND HISTORY. 85 the history of warfare, resulting as in the past in the triumph of the warriors of the northern lakes and rivers, but as also in the past, without loss of honor to the conquered. The weaker was overborne by the stronger. Once more, if the prophet is indeed a seer, the mighty tribes of the distant North will move down upon the strong ones of the South. Kuss and American in the valley of the Mississippi con- tending for the mastery, the former finding that valley the place of graves. So shall close the con- flict of the world, and the earth shall keep jubilee a thousand years. The voice of Gitche Manito, the mighty, will yet be potent to subdue man's stubborn nature, and to allay his thirst for human blood. Happy would it be for mankind if his counsels were now heeded : "O, my children! my poor children! Listen to the words of wisdom, Listen to the words of warning From the lips of the Great Spirit, From the Master of life, who made you 1 "I am weary of your quarrels, Weary of your wars and bloodshed, Weary of your prayers for vengeance, Of your wranglings and disunion, All your strength is in your union, All your danger is in discord ; Therefore be at peace henceforward, And as brothers live together." 86 THE ROCKS OF DEER CREEK. THE CHROME PITS. SOUTHWEST of the Rocks, from one to three miles distant, are extensive deposits of chrome. They have been worked for many years, chiefly by the Messrs. Tyson, of Baltimore, enterprising mer- chants of that city. The working has often been intermitted for considerable spaces of time, but when the Baltimore and Delta Railroad shall have been completed, this industry will doubtless be con- tinuous, and also enlarged, and thus add materially to the wealth of this section of the county of Har- ford. In addition to chrome, there are in the neigh- borhood valuable deposits of iron ore, magnesia, black lead, flint, asbestos and natural paint. The development of all these sources of material pros- perity is but a question of time and of cheap trans- portation to market. The rock of Rock Ridge, which is fire-proof and particularly adapted for fur- nace hearths, may of itself become a considerable source of income. As an item of history interest- ing to all, it may be noted that the fire-proof char- acter of these rocks was first discovered by Dr. Thomas Johnson, of the United States Army, and brother of the late Mrs. Eliza A. Preston, of Deer Creek. THEIR LEGENDS AND HISTORY. 8*7 THE SLATE QUARRIES. THE Slate Quarries of Harford County, Mary- land, and York County, Pennsylvania, are distant about eight miles northeast of the Rocks. They are a source of prosperity to the section of country in which they are situated, and promise, upon the completion of the Baltimore and Delta and York and Peach Bottom Railroads, to develop its wealth indefinitely. The slate is of superior quality, and held in high estimation wherever used. The quar- ries employ many men and afford subsistence to many families. The Welsh alone, who are chiefly employed, constitute a population of six or seven hundred. The village of Bangor, upon the sum- mit of the Ridge, is composed principally of this nationality. It has several stores and other places of business. There are two churches, Welsh Con- gregational and Calvinistic Methodist. One of these has a settled pastor, the Rev. Mr. Hughes, and in both the Welsh language is exclusively used in religious services. These churches have given a desirable moral tone to the community, though, like all other Christian communities, the good find in the natural antagonism of the human heart a constant incentive to holy work. The village of Delta, at the foot of the Ridge, is composed chiefly of a native population. It has many places of busi- ness, but no church. In the immediate vicinity of the two villages are Slate Ridge, Slateville and Mt. Nebo churches, the first under the pastoral care of the Rev. Joseph D. Smith, a gentleman loved by his congregation, and held in high esteem by the 88 . THE ROCKS OF DEER CREEK. people generally, irrespective of creed or profession ; the second by the Rev. Mr. Davenport, a gentleman of deserved popularity among all classes ; the last is under the charge of the Eev. Mr. Litsiuger, of the Methodist Protestant Church, a Christian min- ister of enlarged and liberal views, whose praise is in all the churches. The representative business men at the Quarries of the Welsh population are Faulk Jones, William E. Williams, John Humphreys and Hugh C. Rob- erts, Esqrs., John Parry & Co., Richard Reese & Co., Win. C. Robertson & Co., John W. Jones & Co., Richard Hughes & Co., Robert L. Jones & Co., and Humphrey Lloyd, Esq. These gentlemen came to America in their youth, and by industry and skill have accumulated property ; and occupying prominent and influential positions in the commu- nity, have given proof that industry and integrity are roads to success. The first Welsh worker in the Quarries was a Mr. Davis ; the first successful worker a Mr. Parry. The latter leased from Major Williamson thirty or thirty-five years ago, acquired a fortune, traveled into foreign countries, and died at Jerusalem. His family is now living in Bangor, Wales, on the inter- est of the money made at Bangor, United States of America. He is represented to have been a man of great integrity, a proof of which is, that after his return to Wales he called together his creditors, and paid the whole amount of his indebtedness to them, with interest. The Quarries constitute a part of the group of interesting objects that render the locality of the Rocks of Deer Creek one of great attraction, and THEIR LEGENDS AND HISTORY. 89 the visitor to the Rocks will do well to visit them. The Quarries have a promising future. Delta's magnificent distances will be of the past, and Ban- gor's sombre residences will be substituted by more pretentious edifices. The whole ridge will be alive with busy and enterprising workers, bringing from the bowels of the earth the material that shall shield its purchasers from sun, and rain, and snow, and make fortunes for the sellers. THE HORSE EPIDEMIC AND THE GUINEA- MAN'S PONY. MORE than one hundred years ago, during the lifetime of Benjamin Rigdon, grandfather of the late George W. S. Rigdon,, an epidemic among horses, very destructive in its character, prevailed throughout all this section of country. Tradition tells us that the Durhams, ancestors of the present families of that name, who were wealthy, owning large tracts of land and many horses, lost two hun- dred of them by the scourge ; that the only horse that escaped the plague was a pony owned by an aged Guinea-man belonging to the first Mr. Rigdon. This old negro lived in a small cabin on the top of Rock Ridge, a short distance above the present resi- dence of Richard Mayes, Esq., and not distant from the Rocks of Deer Creek. Whether the preservation 8* 90 THE ROCKS OF DEER CREEK. of the life of the pony was owing to the healthful- ness of the spot, or its isolated position, is not known ; most likely to the latter, as the disease was, doubtless, contagious. Though not another repre- sentative of the equine race was left, the fortunate pony ate sprightlily of the slight herbage that grew on the open places of Rock Ridge summit, or of the corn grown by his thrifty master on the plain below. Looking down on the vast reaches of country on either side of the noted ridge, which towers in mountain height above the valleys, if he could not say, with Alexander Selkirk (Robinson Crusoe), on the island of Juan Fernandez, "I am monarch of all I survey, My right there is none to dispute," he could say, "I am the sole owner of a horse in all these broad domains ;" and the proud pony, joining his master in the refrain, could utter, "No pent-up Utica contracts our powers, The whole boundless continent is ours." Theirs it was not as against superior man, who rules the beasts of the field, but as against the beasts themselves, every one of which, save the pony, had succumbed to the power of the fell destroyer. The invulnerable pony was alone in all his glory. The value of such a pony could not be estimated. The Guinea-man was a character. We write only of his religion. In that he was Fetish. He bore constantly about his person afeitico, the Por- tuguese name for an amulet a talisman. To this gru yrus, the name of the charm in his native lan- guage, he attached much importance, as it shielded THEIR LEGENDS AND HISTORY. 91 his family and all living things belonging to it- dog or cat or pony from disease, and made all safe from the machinations of their enemies. We are not to infer from his possession of the feitico, and the power he ascribed to it, that he had no idea of a Supreme Spirit, a King of Heaven, or that he did not worship Him. Worship of the Highest is uni- versal. So thought Pope : "Father of all in every age, In every clime adored, By saint, by savage, and by sage, Jehovah, Jove, or Lord." The Guinea-man could not but recognize Him who " Warms in the sun, refreshes in the breeze, Glows in the stars, blossoms in the trees, Lives through all life, extends through all extent, Spreads undivided, operates unspent." Fetishism is not a primitive religion. It is a cor- ruption of religion, and even enlightened Christians may well be fearful of foe feitico, for the tendency to idolatry is universal. Solomon built altars for Chemosh and Moloch. The possession of the feitico by the G-uinea-man of Rock Ridge rendered him very obnoxious to his fellow-servants. They were afraid of him. " He possesses a charm," said they ; " he can kill us if he will. He is a wizard, a con- jurer ; his old woman is a witch ; they deal with spirits." No one of them would have touched that mountain, for to touch it was death, they thought. If they could have taken his life by poison, the usual mode of their race, they would not have done so ; for does not the power of the feitico survive after its possessor has gone hence, and may not his spirit 92 THE ROCKS OF DEER CREEK. come in the silent hours of the night to avenge his wrongs ? This apprehension was his castle. A cabin without wall, or moat, or drawbridge, was stronger than a feudal castle. It was defended by superstition. That pony should have been skinned at its death, his cuticle stuffed and preserved, and labeled, " The sole survivor." THE CHURCH OF THE ROCKS. "A CITY set on a hill " cannot be hid, nor can a church in such a position. This is eminently true of the house of worship now in the occupancy of the religious denomination known as the Evangelical Association. Situated on the summit of a lofty emi- nence directly opposite the Rocks, having them in full view, and overlooking the romantic and pic- turesque valley of La Grange, it looks upon a scene of alternate and mingled beauty and grandeur not often seen. This view has a peculiar psychological effect upon the intelligent and appreciative be- holder. It intuitively demonstrates (I hope my language is philosophical) the former existence of a Rock Ridge Lake. That mighty basin, scooped out of the mighty hills which surround it, and the violent breaks of the Ridge, where the waters of Deer Creek rush through it, are physical proofs of THEIR LEGENDS AND HISTORY. 93 its past existence, that, like axioms in mathematics, are self-evident. Years previous to the building of the church, re- ligious services were held on the summit of the Kocks. Prompted hy curiosity, if hy no worthier motive, there gathered once on that high eminence a congregation of men, women and children to hear the preacher of righteousness, who, we may well conjecture, was, with -his audience, inspired by the scenes around them. In the selection of this spot for the exercise of his vocation, he but imitated the example of One greater than himself. "And see- ing the multitudes, He went up into a mountain, and when He was set, His disciples came unto Him ; and He opened His mouth and taught them." More than a century previously there was a gath- ering of the chiefs of the Indians whose habitations were not distant from the Rocks, to listen to a ser- mon by a Swedish minister. The lessons were those which are now given to such as sit under the min- istry of the Word. The clergyman spoke to them of the principal historical facts of Christianity such as the fall of Adam by eating an apple, the coming of Christ to repair the evil, His labors, suf- ferings and miracles. When he had finished, one of the chiefs, thanking him for the discourse, re- lated one of the mythical traditions of his people, which he deemed to be of like credibility, and equally binding upon the faith of all, and thus proved the inefficacy of the lessons taught him by the Christian teacher. Now, the lessons taught in the Church of the Rocks are doubtless believed, and, we would fain hope, practiced. 94 THE ROCKS OF DEER CREEK. MIKE'S ROCK. \ A FEW miles northeast of the Rocks of Deer Creek, and on Rock Ridge, is a large rock known by the name of the title of this article. By the side of it is a large tree, the branches of which over- hang it. An unfortunate, wearied with the per- plexities of life, perhaps its agonies, closed here that life, if not precisely in the manner expressed in the following lines of an atheist, found among his papers after his death, yet in one of the modes common to the sad who lack fortitude : "An hour more; Sixty minutes, and the light Of this, we mis-call life, goes out forever. Forever? Aye; beyond the grave is found No life, save that great primal force, which here Displays itself alike in growth of weed Or human soul. Why longer live and suffer, When Vie finger upon this slender Bar of steel will end, with one sharp flash, TJie hurry and the heart-ache? "Death's messenger, From out this glittering tube, I call, to bid Me sleep ; and in that sleep I dread no dreams, And no to-morrow. Salve, rex terrorumf Moriturus te saluto" A rash act, which was followed by a surprise. Death terminates this, not that ; and that is eter- nal. THEIR LEGENDS AND HISTORY. 95 THE ANCIENT MILL AND THE HONEST MILLER. HALF-WAY between the Indian Cupboard, the re- treat of Alexius, the noted fisherman and trapper, and the Otter Bock, above which was the habita- tion of Walter the Hermit, is an ancient mill. The first mill was of logs, and owned by an English- man named Sankey. He was probably a York- shireman, as tradition informs us that the boys of that day amused themselves with his, to them, sin- gular brogue. The mill, in the course of time, passed to Underwood, Harry, Morton, and J. Bond Preston, in the order named. This mill has fur- nished for many years bread for man and " stuff" for beast. One possessed of good descriptive powers and of a poetical genius might make the mill and its picturesque surroundings furnish material for an article that would not discount the reputation of Scribner or Harper, or any other leading magazine. Such description is not sought. Attention is direct- ed to it rather because it is one of the ancient land- marks or watermarks of its neighborhood, and is a connecting link between the distant past and the immediate present. It derives also some notoriety from the snake story of the ancient trapper, a snake rivaling the sea serpent that has been so often seen on our Atlantic coast from New England to Key West the habitation of which was on the wooded hill opposite it. In this ancient mill was once upon a time, as tradition tells us, an honest miller. To me, all millers are honest ; but unhappily for the reputa- 9b TI1E ROCKS OF DEER CREEK. tion of the craft, suspicious people, or people who, like the Heathen Chinee, as Bret Harte tells us, themselves familiar with the ways that are dark, are sometimes oblivious of the saying : "Who steals my purse steals trash, But he who filches from me my good name Takes that which does not himself enrich, And makes me poor indeed." The honest miller was Thomas Wright, remem- bered by the few ancient people who have survived him. The story of the mysterious pig is both a proof and illustration of the integrity of the miller. Once on a time he left Sam's Creek, Carroll county, Md., early on the morning of a summer day, for the mill on Deer Creek. He had walked but a short distance when he heard the squealing of a di- minutive pig that was following in his tracks. To escape the animal that was intent upon accompany- ing him on his journey, he left the road, walking through fields and forests. But in vain. The pig was equal to the emergency, its instincts pointing out the way of the miller unerringly. The integ- rity of the miller consisted in this, that he made every possible exertion to escape from that pig, showing that if there has ever been in this Chris- tian country a miller who fattened his pigs on other people's corn, he was not that miller. The sad thing about the story of the pig is, that the honest miller, being of superstitious turn of mind, interpreted its singular following as an omen of his death. His death did occur a short time there- after. The wheels of the ancient mill yet turn not the wheels used when the honest miller was occupant, THEIR LEGENDS AND HISTORY. 97 but turbine wheels. The old mill is doomed. The coining narrow-gauge, insuring facility of transit to and from our large commercial city, will make it a potent reason why men of capital should utilize the great and continuous water-power for manufactories on a larger scale. The unceasing flow of the waters of Deer Creek symbolizes the onward flow of humanity uninter- rupted by successive generations. Humanity lives and the waters flow on, and such may be for a bil- lion of years to come. But within the hearing of the music of no onflowing stream will there be, if my informant has uttered truth, a more honest miller than Thomas Wright. (f An honest man is the noblest work of God." "At the window, looking upon a crystal stream, There sat a little lady, indulging in a dream, A dream of fairy visions conies up before her eyes, As she gazes now intently upon the azure skies. " A soft breeze fans the valley, the sun rests on the hill, The water murmurs sweetly as it rushes past ' the mill ; ' The earth seems glad of springtime, unfolding every hour From Nature's store, the tender bud that holds the fragrant flower. "The lady sits a-dreaming, with head buried in her hand, And visions come a- trooping from off a fairy-land, And in her dreamy fancies there is a potent spell That acts like charm of music, the smiling lips now tell. "The heart cons o'er its treasures glowing in rosy light, The spirit basks in beaut}'- like stars that gem the night, And thus the little lady dreamed happy hours away, So happy in her musings she fain would have them stay." The little lady whose musings form a proper se- quel to the story of the ancient mill and its 9 98 THE ROCKS OF DEER CREEK. occupant, cherishes now, and it will ever be so, the highest admiration and esteem for the honest miller. THE OLDEST INHABITANT. THE oldest inhabitant now living in the vicinity of the Rocks of Deer Creek is Mrs. Rebecca Smith. She was born within three-fourths of a mile of her present residence. Here, within sight of the Rocks, she has lived to be almost a centenarian, being now in the ninety-sixth year of her age, surviving all who commenced with her the journey of life. Of a cheerful disposition and vigorous constitution, she has borne the burdens of life with comparative ease ; and in a serene old age, comforted by loving hearts, she is awaiting resignedly the final summons. Retaining unimpaired her mental faculties, which were always strong, she is able to entertain the cu- rious of a later generation with most interesting descriptions of the habits, customs and manners of her early cotemporaries, distinctly recollecting arid graphically relating innumerable incidents of the far past. In her youth this portion of the country was comparatively a wilderness. Without attract- ive and comfortable residences, as now ; no conven- ient and well supervised roads, paths usually ; no churches, preaching in private houses ; the school- house a rude cabin of logs, without any floor but THEIR LEGENDS AND HISTORY. 99 nature's, the chimney built of sticks, unplaned seats, without backs. Carriages there were none, the ordinary mode of travel being on horseback. The whole progress for ninety-six years, from the rude past to the present more advanced civilization, lias been witnessed by her. But whatever contrasts she makes between the past and the present, they are without invidiousness. All along she has ac- cepted the conditions of life, and the circumstances attending it, as they were more or less favorable, without murmur or complaint, recognizing the fact that the Most High appoints the bounds of our hab- itations, and that all things promote the happiness of the submissive. It was her great felicity to be united in marriage, at a comparatively early age, with a gentleman of superior intellectual and social qualities, a conscien- tious Christian, a faithful friend, and a considerate and loving husband and father. The name of Amos Smith is to this day in this community a synonym of all that is excellent in character it is as precious ointment poured forth. The memories of his unob- trusive acts of kindness are treasured, and his ex- ample valued as a rich legacy to those who have followed him. The venerable matron, the oldest inhabitant of the neighborhood of the Rocks of Deer Creek, now leaning upon her staff, and bending toward that house of the earth that is the decreed abode of all, suggests, in the remarkable vigor of her physical being, and in the sprightliness of her intellectual life, lessons of wisdom that the young everywhere may with profit learn. An active life and a cheer- ful mind were the great treasures she possessed 100 THE ROCKS OF DEER CREEK. more valuable than gold or silver, or the jewels that blaze in the coronets of queens. THE YOUNGEST INHABITANTS. THE youngest inhabitant in the neighborhood of the Rocks is William Cecil Gladden, infant son of our well-known fellow-citizen, William Gladden, Esq. Of the immediate vicinity of the Rocks, the youngest inhabitants are Bessie and Jessie, twin daughters of Joseph Wetherill, Esq., proprietor of the store at that place. Born under the very shadows of the Rocks, and by the side of Deer Creek, in view of the plunging waters of its romantic fall all that remains of the once majestic cataract of Rock Ridge Lake they are passing their con- fiding and unsuspecting life happy in the present and without care for the future. These children and William Cecil Gladden are cousins. May life be to the three all that fond parents and loving friends can wish. To each we dedicate the prayer of the gifted Willis : "Light to thy paths, bright creature! I would charm Thy being if I could, that it should be Ever as now thou dreainest, and flow on, Thus innocent and beautiful, to heaven." THEIR LEGENDS AND HISTORY. 101 THE ORIGINAL. INHABITANTS. THE original inhabitants were the Susquehan- nock Indians. Their territory extended from the Susquehanna River westward as far as the Allegany Mountains. This nation had a close alliance with the Len Lenapes or Delawares, who occupied the country from the head of the Chesapeake Bay to the Kittatinny Mountains northward, and as far east- ward as the Connecticut River. This confederacy carried on a long war with the Indians who lived to the north of them, between the Kittatinny Mount- ains and Lake Ontario, who called themselves Min- goes, and were called by the English the Five Nations. At the time of the settlement of James- town, Virginia, this war was raging with great fury. In one of Captain Smith's excursions up the Chesapeake, at the mouth of the Susquehanna, in 1608, he met with five or six canoes full of warriors who were coming to attack their enemies in the rear. Having made peace with the Adirondacks, through the intercession of the French, who were then settling Canada, they turned their arms against the Lenapi and their confederates, and subduing them, reduced them to almost the condition of slaves. Peace was granted them on condition that they should put themselves under the protection of the Mingoes, confine themselves to raising corn, hunting for the subsistence of their families, and no longer have the power of making war. This is what the Indians call making them women. In this condition the Lenapes and their confederates were when the settlement of Pennsylvania was 102 THE ROCKS OF DEER CREEK. begun. What is said by Stitb of tbe language and dress of the Susquehannocks, may deserve to be here inserted: " Their language and attire were very suitable to their stature and appearance ; for their language sounded deep and solemn, and hollow, like a voice in a vault. Their attire was the skins of bears and wolves, so cut that the man's head went through the neck, and the ears of the bear were fastened on his shoulders, while the nose and teeth hung dangling upon his breast. Behind was another bear's face split, with a paw hanging at the nose. And their sleeves coming down to their elbows, were the necks of bears, with their arms going through the mouth and paws hanging to the nose. One of them had the head of a wolf hanging to a chain for a jewel, and his tobacco pipe was three-quarters of a yard long, carved with a bird, a deer and other devices at the great end. His arrows were three-quarters of a yard long, headed with splinters of a white, crystal-like stone in the form of a heart, an inch broad and an inch and a half long. These he carried at his back in a wolf's skin for a quiver, with his bow in one hand and a club in the other." Such was the appearance of the first inhabitants of Deer Creek and the Rocks. The Mingoes came, saw, conquered, and, occupying the country as masters, ruled for a time. They, in turn, were overborne by a superior race, and we have only the recollections of the deeds of the bold warriors. THEIR LEGENDS AND HISTORY. 103 THE MASSACRE OF THE MINGOES. THE Mingoes of Deer Creek, as a body, left this locality in the year 1752. A few of them remained until, as is plausibly conjectured, the winter of 1763, and left immediately after the extermination of their kindred who had been living on Conestogoe Creek, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. These Indians were the remains of a tribe long settled at that place, and thence called Conestogoes. Upon the arrival of the English in Pennsylvania this tribe sent mes- sengers to welcome them, with presents of venison, corn and skins, and the whole tribe entered into a treaty of friendship with the first proprietary, Wil- liam Penn a treaty which was to last as long as the sun should shine, or the waters run in the rivers. This treaty was often renewed the chain brightened, as the Conestogoes expressed it from time to time. This tribe was ultimately reduced to twenty per- sons seven men, five women and eight children, when by one of the most cowardly and dastardly acts on record in all the protracted and bloody con- tests with the Indians, this handful of peaceable people were murdered in cold blood by fifty-seven Conestogoe gentlemen (.?). On Wednesday, the 14th day of December, 1763, these cavaliers, mounted on good horses, and armed with fire-locks, hangers and hatchets, entered Conestogoe Manor, and sur- rounding the defenceless village, fired upon, stabbed and hatcheted to death three men, two women and a boy. Shehaes, an old man who assisted at the second treaty held with them by Penn in 1701, was among the slain. All were scalped, and their huts 104 THE ROCKS OF DEER CREEK. burned. The remaining Mingoes, absent at the time of the massacre they were out among their white neighbors selling baskets, brooms and bowls were taken into protection by the humane magis- trates of Lancaster, and secured from harm, as they thought, in the work-house of that town. Fifty of the chivalry, whose names are worthy to be inscribed on the temple of cfo'shonor as high up as the sum- mits of the Rocks of Deer Creek, suddenly appeared before that town on the 27th of December, invested the work-house, and by gradual approaches, doubt- less, assaulted, captured and put to death all that were left of the Mingoes men, women and chil- dren, fourteen in all. The remains of the mur- dered victims were dragged into the street and ex- posed to view. The fifty patriots of the Simon Girty stamp then mounted their horses, huzzaed in triumph, and rode off, congratulating themselves on their victory. "Ah! where are the soldiers that fought here of yore, The sod is upon them, they'll struggle no more, The hatchet is fallen, the red man is low ; But near him reposes the arm of the foe. "The bugle is silent; the war whoop is dead; There is a murmur of waters and woods in their stead, And the raven and owl chant a symphony drear From the dark waving pines o'er the combatants' bier. "Sleep, soldiers of merit! sleep gallants of yore! The hatchet is fallen, the struggle is o'er, While the fir-tree is green and the wind rolls a wave, The tear-drop shall brighten the turf of the brave?" The Mingoes of Deer Creek, hearing of the mas- sacre of their people, and fearing that their lives would not be secure even among the humane white THKIR LEGENDS AND HISTORY. 105 inhabitants of their neighborhood, left to join their people in the West or South. Their fears were groundless. We have never heard that gentlemen of Maryland ever deported themselves toward de- fenceless women and innocent children as those Bayard-like representatives of the men of England who wore the red rose. The Mingoes occasionally visited their former homes, but that for a few years only. In 1764, a year after their removal, a party visited a locality in the neighborhood of New Park, York County, Pennsylvania, ten miles distant from the Rocks. There was a wigwam still standing at that date on the farm now owned by Duncan Brown, Esq., then possessed by his paternal grandfather. They were seen walking around it, and seemingly viewing it with a curious interest. To Deer Creek and the Rocks a final adieu came. The descendants of the former occupants know of these localities only as the homes of their ancestors the places where the bear, the wolf and the beaver were many, and where the eagle built her nest upon the High Rocks, beneath which their chiefs sat by their council fires. ROCKS LITERATURE. I AM not perfectly satisfied with the designation I have given to the communications in prose and poetry which I have selected for this place in this 106 THE ROCKS OF DEER CREEK. book. Rocks Literature is not poetical ; and the title is justified only by the fact that these contri- butions have been inspired by the sublimities and beauties of that wonder of nature, the Rocks of Deer Creek, with their romantic contiguities and surroundings. Could I have said " The Curiosties of Literature," the name giVen by Disraeli the elder to that confessedly most curious collection of literary gems which bears that title, I should as- suredly be content, assuming, of course, that my collection would bear some proper relation in their literary qualities to that unique gathering of rare intellectualities. No other title could I use, because the literature I collect bears relation to but one thing the Rocks of Deer Creek and their surround- ings. And I am shut up to the necessity of using the material I have, material not created by my- self, save one short essay, but by others, and for the quality of which I am in no degree responsible. I am not to be understood, however, as disparag- ing the efforts of the writers in prose and in poetry whose contributions I shall insert in this book. I have no doubt that many of the readers of them will derive both pleasure and profit in their pe- rusal. I make these contributions a part of this volume, because they are a part of the history, so to speak, of the Rocks, and because they show that the Rocks are potent in inspiration. The literature of the Rocks is abundant suffi- cient, perhaps, to make a volume respectable in size. It is in accordance with my plan to limit my collection to a few selections. The first was written some years ago by a girl of tender years, and was, perhaps, her first effort in such writing. THEIR LEGENDS AND HISTORY. 107 THE ROCKS OF DEER CREEK. . " Nature, in her delineations, ever delights in giving variety to the beauty and magnificence of her creations. Mountain, hill, valley and plain have each their enchantments, but the Rocks of Deer Creek, situated in the upper section of Har- ford County, present to the lover of natural scenery a combination of attractions that nature, in her mu- nificence, seldom deigns to lavish on her fair do- mains. The Rocks are several hundred feet in height, extending to a point that projects in solemn grandeur over huge masses of rock that lie scat- tered at their base." Having described the beauty of the adjacent landscape, she continues : " But the Rocks, apart from the lovely landscape that spreads around us, are ever the scene that must enchant the gaze, and infuse into the heart of nature's votary a mingled feeling of admiration and awe." She con- cludes : " The image of the scene is impressed upon the soul, and in the secret chamber of our being often will we view over again the Rocks of Deer Creek." The next selection is a poem, written by a young lady of Long Island, New York. We give only the stanzas which describe the " King and Queen Seats:" "In ages past, so runs a legend old, These rocks were the wild home of warriors bold ; Here they in council met, and warfare planned, Talked o'er the mighty secrets of their dusky band; I fancy how the echoes have rung out, The noisy clamor of their war-cry shout. Long years have passed away, the red man's tread 108 THE ROCKS OF DEER CREEK. No longer echoes there ; the wild, fierce tribe is dead, And nought remains but memories alone, And two rough seats hewn from the solid stone. "These were the lofty thrones of King and Queen, Spread now with moss and trailing vines of green ; We rested in their depths, and pictured rare Visions of Indian beauties, wild yet fair ; All still and silent now, only the breeze Comes whispering soft sweet stories through the trees, And echoes only waken to the words Of untold beauty in the songs of birds, Those clearest, bell-like tones that float and ring, Pronounce the mocking bird the woodland king." The following was written by a lady, a native of, and now resident in, Harford : Rocks of Deer Creek, I, a pilgrim, Wander up thy mountain side, And beneath thy lofty summits Watch the sparkling waters glide. Here upon this pile of ages, Where the Red Man's flight was stayed, I, in contemplation solemn, View the mighty work displayed. Think of Him who, out of chaos, Called this great mysterious world, With its mountains, vales and waters, Like a picture fair unfurl' d. Piled this mighty, rocky structure, Like some castle, grim and gray, Sublime mysterious wrote upon it, A monument without decay. List! methinks I hear "the voices Of the hills" that round me lie, For one grand and solemn anthem Seemeth filling earth and sky. And self is lost forgotten e'en As I list the soft refrain; Surely God, the builder of you, Reigns upon this height supreme. THEIR LEGENDS AND HISTORY. 109 Misty clouds are upward rising, Like pure incense, to the sky, Peace-offerings from the waters On this rock-bound mountain high. Surely in this solemn grandeur, On this temple most sublime, More ancient than the pyramids Of old, in eastern clime, Man must see and feel a power, Great beyond our mortal ken; Rocks of Deer Creek, veil'd in mystery, You must ever more remain. MARY WARNER Ross. Sandy Hook, 1879. That which follows are the meditations of one who discovers, in the vicinity of the Rocks, a sin- gular fern. He is evidently in a philosophical mood, and has been disturbed, it may be, by the rash speculations of some modern scientists so- called. A REMARKABLE FERN. Strolling one day of the past autumn along Deer Creek, in the vicinity of the Rocks, I was attracted by a species of fern with which I was not familiar. Upon examining it minutely, I found, to my sur- prise, and I must confess to my gratification, written upon the stem and each leaf of the fern the word Biogenesis : life from life, and from nothing but life. And recollecting that Sir William Thomp- son, President of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, in an address to the Soci- ety, incidentally refers to the theory of Biogenesis and its opposite theory, Abiogenesis (spontaneous 10 110 THE ROCKS OF DEER CHEEK. generation), I sought that address, and found the following statement therein : " I am ready to adopt as an article of scientific faith, true through all space and through all time, that life proceeds from life, and from nothing hut life." I am not aware that Sir William had ever seen a specimen of the singular Deer Creek fern, or ever heard of it ; but one cannot fail to note the agreement between the teaching of the fern and that of the distinguished President of the British Asso- ciation. Anxious to know what that other distin- guished member of the same Association, Professor Huxley, might have to say upon Biogenesis and its antagonistic theory, Abiogenesis, I turned to an in- augural address delivered by him to the British Association, in which Professor Huxley concedes that " the evidence, direct and indirect, in favor of Biogenesis : life from life, and from nothing but life, for all known forms of life, must be admitted to be of great weight/' This utterance of the great inductive philosopher gave me great pleasure, as it seems to confirm the suspicion that possibly the Creator of all things wrote upon my fern the word Biogenesis: life from life, and from nothing but life. My satisfaction with this declaration of the philosopher would have been complete, had he not to this just admission, as I thought it to be, added : u But though I cannot express this conviction of mine too strongly, I must carefully guard myself against the supposition that 1 intend to suggest that no such thing as Abiogenesis (spontaneous gener- ation) has ever taken place in the past, or will take place in the future. If it were given me to look beyond the abyss of geologically recorded lime to TIIKIK LEGENDS AND HISTORY. Ill the still more remote period when the eartli was passing through physical and chemical conditions, which it can no inure sec again than a man can re- call his infancy, / should expect to be a witness of the evolution of living protoplasm from unliving matter." I was now in a quandary. When doctors disagree, who shall decide? And what estimate can I have of the veracity of my fern? Singularly, the phil- osopher whose just quoted utterance had tended to overthrow my cherished theory of life, and brand as false the teaching of the fern, comes to my relief. The philosopher does not account for life without a metaphysical cause. Hear him : " I, individually, am no materialist, but, on the contrary, believe materialism to involve grave philosophical error/' His materialism is only a trick of logic ; his faith is that all life has a transcendental, metaphysical cause. He vindicates the truthfulness of my fern.* The question is, where did my fern get its life? Who wrote upon its stem and leaves Biogenesis? My fern was sustained by inorganic substances. From such substances it extracted the nutriment of its life by a chemistry peculiar to itself. But whence its life? It cannot be that life is a phenomenon ? evolved from the forces of unliving matter. Science does not say so. Matter is a basis of life ; in it life manifests itself, and nothing more. Life, like matter in which it dwells, was created, not evolved from unliving forces. The life of my fern came fro m abroad . Its cause was the only cause , ultimat e , spontaneous will. The Author of all life gave it life, and wrote upon its leaves Biogenesis. My fern is perishing. Is this not singular? Strange that the living forces which built it up 112 THE ROCKS OF DEER CREEK. should now, that its vitality is gone, tear down the structure which they, with so much pains, con- structed. The vital principle in my fern did for a time hold in abeyance the physical forces, but this having departed, its enemies triumph. My fern is returning to unliving dust. Whether it, Phoenix- like, will arise from its ashes, I do not know. And if its unliving dust should become the basis of other life, whether it will be the life of another fern, I do not know. Of this I am confident, if it shall be the basis of another life, upon that creation, be it rose or magnolia or fern, will be written Biogenesis : life from life, and from nothing but life. If any of my curious friends would see a specimen of the Deer Creek fern, they can do so by searching the hills between Preston's Mill and the Rocks of Deer Creek. THE OLD MILL. Opposite Mingo Hill, on the waters of Deer Creek, a few miles above the Rocks, is a quaint old mill. Of this ancient mill a poetess writes : 4 'Softly dim twilight lingers O'er the picturesque mill, Night, with her purple fingers, Is draping each noble hill With the shadows she loves to muster, And waft in the twilight down, Faintly outlined with the lustre "Which streams from his starry crown. Beautiful shadows that fall so still And nestle down on the silent mill. "Silent, for now the Heart of the mill's at rest, And only the breezes arc sobbing O'er the water's breast; THEIR LEGENDS AND HISTORY. 113 Its ripples' musical splashing Seem crowning a dreamy song, As o'er the high dam dashing, They hurry so swiftly along. Laughing waters that scorn to feel The ponderous weight of the old mill wheel. " We sit in the night's dark splendor And list to the whippoorwill, Breathing in accents tender Its moan o'er the night-wrapped mill, And watch how the shadows linger O'er the tree-topped hill on high, Till each waving branch seems a finger Writing against the sky. And the spirit of night has awakened The fairies that surely dwell, In the quiet depths of the woodland In some fair little hidden dell; For the fire-flies twinkle their lights afar Till each fairy lamp seems a tiny star. " Brightly the summer dawning Gleams o'er the quiet mill, And scattered far by the morning The shadows lift from the hill; And the sunbeam's golden splendor Pours o'er the dewy earth, While the birdlings' voices tender Thrill with sweetest mirth. A morning concert given us free Echoing sweet the softest melody. "How lightly the water dances, How sparkles its crystal breast, As each arrow of sunlight glances . In quivering, gay unrest, And the dewy morning breathing Tenderly touching now, Silvery hair enwreathiug An aged though cheerful brow. For many years that are gone and dead, The mill has echoed his gentle tread. 10* 114 THE ROCKS OF DEER CREEK. "And long may it echo the paces Of the feet that are walking toward The golden gates of the city Leading to home and God. Respected friend, I will carry Sweet memories as I roam Of the picturesque mill in the valley, And the sweetly embowered home. With sad regrets my song will fill, And a fond farewell to the dear old mill." "JAMAICA, LONG ISLAND.'' WHAT immediately follows are the prophetic dec- larations of the resident of "Shirley, near the Hocks," who may be indebted, in a measure, to the scenes amid which he dwells for the strength of his patriotic inspirations and impulses. The High- lands of Scotland, the mountains of Wales and Switzerland, have ever been inhabited by peoples of patriotic sentiments and practically devoted to lib- erty. The dwellers by the Kocks are not an excep- tion. The Eagle, which is the symbol of their country's majesty, soars above the summits of their mountains. They watch its lofty flights with pride, and aspire to equal eminence in their sentiments and aspirations. The lowlands are generally the places of wealth, and luxury, and enervation, with which the sentiments of personal independence and individual liberty do not usually co-exist. The prophecy is a portion of a Centennial Ad- Til KIR LEGENDS AND HISTORY. 115 dress, delivered by the author, July 4th, 1876, in Ward's Woods, not distant from, and in view of, the Rocks, and is a legacy to the young men who shall be living in 1976 ; bequeathed to them with the hope that they will cherish an ardent love of country, and maintain the principles of their fathers. 116 THE ROCKS OF DEER CREEK. A PROPHECY. THE retrospect we have made very naturally sug- gests the prospect. What shall the future of our country be? Who shall forecast its destiny ? Have we, by the marvelous rapidity of our growth in the hundred years past, exhausted our energies, and brought upon ourselves premature old age, premon- itory of speedy deatli ? Or, are we as Hercules in his cradle, possessed of a vitality and force and fer- tility of resources that shall be manifested in achieve- ments that will surpass all that has been seen in the past of our history, and surprised the world with their greatness. We are in the infancy of our greatness, the beginning of a progress such as has not hitherto been seen, and of which the most sanguine could not possibly have dreamed. Man- kind is standing on the very threshold of a new life, on a boundary line, about to launch out into an unknown future. The past is gone, the old land- marks are swept away, and fresh armies of thoughts, opinions and knowledge are breaking in upon the world. The jungle has been cleared, space has been almost annihilated, and the. human mind, free from embarrassments that have inter- rupted its progress, is entering upon a series of es- says and conflicts that shall ultimate in achieve- ments far surpassing those of the past, and that Khali carry humanity upward to higher planes rap- idly and majestically. It may be centuries before tin- new life shall be matured. In the very "lisp- THEIR LEGENDS AND HISTORY. 117 ing infancy " of the new life humanity may be, but the child is born, and there shall follow the vigor of manhood and the ripeness of age. A sagacious thinker and observer has said : " A mighty impulse has come over the world lately. A time of looking forward rather than back has set in. Great inven- tions of all kinds are altering the face of the earth, making the conditions of life different, and raising the hopes and fears of men. Great discoveries are bringing with them all the eager wildness, all the enthusiasm for good or evil, that such unsettle- ments must always bring. The vast ocean of knowledge has found its Columbuses, and hearts beat high with the daily hope of fresh wonders be- ing unveiled by new voyagers." Where, we ask, has this impulse been felt stronger than on this continent and with us ? Where so much of change, of adventure, of achievement? Where in all the earth so much of enthusiasm, of earnest purpose, of determination to do all that lies within the range of possibility ? There are barriers that no human invention can overcome ; conditions beyond the range of mortal power. But within those great bar- riers which God has fixed to human progress, an almost infinite advance is certain. There are men of folly, as was Canute the Great, when he sat by the sea-shore, and said to the advancing waters, " So far shalt thou come, and no farther," who in the impotency of their reason may prescribe bounds to human progress, but that progress, as did the oncoming waves, will mock their folly and weak- ness. This continent, this nation, shall participate in this general onward movement, and in a degree exceeding all. The genius of the American people, 118 THE ROCKS OF DEER CREEK. their inquisitiveness, their steadiness of purpose, their inflexibility of will, their inventive qualities, their love of change, their ambition to excel, all point to a destiny of unparalleled grandeur. Our lofty mountains, our wide extended plains, our ma- jestic rivers, are symbolic of the might and majesty of our coining greatness. Here, upon the shores of the Atlantic, on the banks of the Mississippi and the Missouri, and by the side of the Pacific, in mountain place and valley, shall be a teeming multitude of men building up in their strength a material, in- tellectual, social, spiritual empire, before which all other empires shall pale as the glow-wortn v pales in the presence of the sun. It will be the onward movement of thought, and feeling, and faith, and work, widening and deepening, and increasing in strength, until mighty in its volume and resistless in its force, it shall bear upon its bosom, as the flood bears the oak, all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge. This is my thought it may be the dream of an enthusiast. In one hundred years the population of the United States of America may exceed that of China ; the area of territory, if extended, may embrace the whole of North America, and our progress in all other respects be commensurate. Then it will be that those then living will look back upon the epoch of the first Centennial as we, who celebrate it to-day, look back upon its beginning as a day of very small things, and, as we do, congratulate themselves and the country on the progress made, differing from us in this, that their felicitations will be greater pro- portionate to their increased prosperity. The reali- zation of this hope will depend essentially upon THEIR LKGHNDS AND 1IIST011Y. 1 1 ( J one thing that we remain at peace among our- selves. This unity of the nation is the pledge of its perpetuity, and the assurance of its high destiny. Not, indeed, that unity which is enforced by strength of will and power of bayonet, but unity .of senti- ment and affection, that unity of mind and heart which has its most striking illustrations and exem- plifications in the virtuous household, each member of which, recognizing the significancy of the rela- tion, performs its obligations. The hope is that Christianity, in its onward inarch, will so leaven society with its restraining and conserving influ- ences, that human passions will not simply be held in check, but will be consecrated to virtuous pur- poses, the human heart responding always and un- erringly to truth, and the life to noble aim. Our fathers sought to erect the superstructure of American government upon a substantial basi^s, in- tending that in th#5 ark of national safety their de- scendants should be secure when the tempests gath- ered. The fabric of government which they erected was no temporary expedient," to serve the wants of a day ; it was built, as the pyramids were built, to resist the wear of ages, and serve the necessities of generations. Washington, and Adams, and Jef- ferson, and Madison, and Monroe, and all the illus- trious host of worthies who laid the foundations of American nationality, were men not only of wis- dom, but of conscience also, having in view, not the mere gratification of personal ambition and the ag- grandizement of self,' but the welfare of the whole people and of generations of people. To establish this government our ancestors toiled, and sacri- ficed, and poured out their blood, not anticipating 120 THE ROCKS OF DEER CREEK. that Catalines would ever be found among their descendants, who would conspire against the liber- ties of the people, but hoping and believing that they to whom had been bequeathed the precious legacy of- American freedom, would cherish it as vestal virgins and priests of Inca cherished their sacred fires. The gift has so far been generally appreciated, and the men of this generation are bearing upon their shoulders the ark which contains the sacred things placed therein by the fathers of the republic. They cherish it as the ark of the Lord was cherished in the house of Obed Edom. It is not within the power of man to foretell the time when this nation, having performed its allot- ted part in the great drama of the world's life, shall follow the peoples that have preceded it, and pass in mournful procession to the graves of dead nationalities. The race that forms this nation has, as we have seen, been distinguished above all other races for its vitality and force, resisting thus far that strong tendency to decay that characterized the nations that preceded it. It may follow in the footsteps of the nations that have gone before ; but if true to itself, if it fulfills the destiny which the Divine hand has marked out for it, then when its cycle shall have been completed and the record made up, future races will look back upon its period as the brightest in human history. And that re- cord, the brightest spot in human history, may be the roll of a thousand years. Yea, if the period of the existence of the great nations of antiquity was ten centuries, ten times ten centuries may be the cycle of American history, the time when its record shall be made up. The senti- THEIR LEGENDS AND HISTORY. 121 inent of patriotism existing in such intense force in the bosom of every true American would place no limit to his country's life. To-day, moved thereto by the enthusiasm kindled by our recollections of the past and our faith in the greatness of our coun- try's future, we all with one accord exclaim, Our country ; may she live forever ! My fellow-citizens, we congratulate ourselves that we have lived to celebrate the Centennials In honoring this day we do justice to the memory of our fathers who bequeathed to us our heritage to their intelligence, their virtue, their bravery, their fortitude, their spirit of self-sacrifice. They have gone to their graves, and the worthiest monuments that we can erect to perpetuate their memories are the appreciation of their virtues and the imitation of their examples. Fellow-citizens, we shall not live to celebrate another Centennial. Ere the coming century of our national existence shall have closed we will have passed away been gathered to our fathers ; but we shall leave a heritage worthy to be preserved by our posterity, and by them transmitted to the genera- tions following. 1 1 1-- THE ROCKS OF DBKR CREEK. MASON AND DIXON'S LINE. A FEW miles north of the Rocks of Deer Creek, in latitude 39 degrees, 43 minutes, 26^ seconds, is the boundary between the States of Pennsylvania and Maryland. This line was begun in December^ 1763, and concluded in the end of the year 1767. Its whole length is 244 miles, not all of which was laid out by the scientific gentlemen after whom it is called. They were prevented by fears of hostile Indians from proceeding further than Sideling Hill, a distance of 116 miles from the place of beginning. At the termination of every fifth mile is planted a large stone, having on one side the coat of arms of William Penn, and on the other or southern side, the Escutcheon of Lord Baltimore, the proprietaries respectively of the provinces of Maryland and Penn- sylvania. Every mile is a smaller stone with the letter P on one side and M on the other. All these stones were brought from England. This line was fixed after eighty years of constant discussion, and thus was lost to Maryland much fertile territory. It was not surveyed in the ordinary mode, but estab- lished by mathematical and astronomical calcula- tion. A survey was had in 1844, and the original line was found to be substantially correct. THEIR LEGENDS AND HISTORY. 123 A LITP:RARY CURIOSITY. IN the year 1661, the Rev. John Eliot, " the Apostle to the Indians," translated the Virginian Bihle into the language of the New England In- dians. The following specimen exhibits the Lord's Prayer (Matt, vi : 9-13) : 9. Yowutche yeu nuppenantarnook: Nooshun kesukqut quttianatamunach knowesuonk. 10. Peaumooutch kukketassootamdonk, kutten- autamoouk nennach ohkeit neane kesukqut. 11. Nummeetsuonqash asekesukokish assamaii- uean yeuyea kesuked. 12. Kah ahquontamaiinean nummatchseonqash, neane niatcheneukgueagig nutahquontamounna- nog. 13. Ahque sagkompagunaiinnean en qutchhua- onganit, webepohquohwussinean wutch matchitut. Newutche kutahtaun ketassootarnoonk, kah raenuh- kesuonk, kali sohsumoorik micheme. Amen.